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The conceptions of nature in the poetry of William Wordsworth and Matthew Arnold Cole, Desmond William 1948

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Cccf Oh  THE CONCEPTIONS" QF MATURE 1M THE POETRY  OF  VSflLLtA«V- ^ORDSflORTH.AteP t&ATTHEP? A R MOLD-  BY  DESMOND W I L L I A M COLE  A THESIS SUBMITTED IM PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR'.TMB. DEGREE OF MASTER OF A R T S IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER  5 348.  A  ^Jf  AB8E»A03f Of ^ S 3 I 3  this ©asay compareE %?d@«®2th*a end Arnold's conceptions of nature sad suggeete reasons tor the differences found. Both poets mre Keenly sensitive to the loveliness of the external uorld, sad found la no ture a coetMnft ond heeling pes©* for th® troubled mind of man. Both derived f-oneuouo ©ajoyaent from the beauties of nature, sad found in nature permanence, peace» QB<S t r a n q u i l l i t y . Hie funderaentel difference In their doctrineB of nature te la their conceptions of abstract satmro.  lo >?©rde*?orth,  nature rcee e bsnevolent force which actively pGrtieipsted in tlx© moral end © p i n t u s l growth of ma. of joy and eptimiem.  H © woo a doetrine  fo Arnold* nature ©os a fs?©at and i n -  different force tfhich man must transcend.  Hie wo© & doctrine  of steiclea end peseloiosi. fhe differenceo ere laeialy dus to the progress In science and thour^t from the mld*ei$iteenth. to the raid-nineteenth century. Ttjrdsaorth inherited tho oi^fcteontb century belief in e benevolent end all^po&orful 2eity»rafeosaaifosted Sis flpeda o c o in natures,  Sy e fspnttteels of this pftiloeo^hj?, the  negfuaptlons of octree l o t tool At psychology  t  end hi© ot?a ex-  perience, fee egploinoa t!*e aos?el end npirituol growth of aaa. iVord ©worth beliovsd thot through loves of nature, mn oos led to lev© of hia felloe? mon end of ©ed. Uo believed that  nature participated i n man* I D moral growths through tn© senees* ralth tiie e l d o f mm  eupro-Rcncuoua wowor - a *superseded  soul*, nn e u x i l i p r l i g h t , will eh he believed to be the i a f  ceinotion.  9  Through £5emi-myatleel end visionary esperiencer,  h® become convinced o f the unity between the coul o f sian and the eoul o f nature.  This met the source o f h i d joy i n nature.  M o l d tool* f o r gran tod &eny o f the asrumntlons o f nineteenth century science regarding nature.  Through these* and  h i s own search f o r t r u t h , he l o o t f a i t h i n e benevolent force i n the universe,,  He mm  do evidence o f hertaony o r  t e l o o l o g i o a l purpose i n nature.  HQ found i n nature only an  e d i f y i n g example of t r a n q u i l l i t y , oteadfaotness, end stoicism, fti© control tenet of h i n doctrine m e aan over nature  s  of the superiority o f  through h i s reason esd conscience*  On a broader b o o l o , the change l a attitude to nature between CordDworth one Arnold 1© due to the changed conception of i»6n 0 piece i n the Chain o f Being. t  In the Eighteenth cen-  tury, sen held the eoct importont eerthly ploco i n nature*@ Chain o f  felng,  i n the nineteenth century, he l o s t thet place.  Th© Induetriel Revolution erected e m a t e r i a l i s t uorld i n Qhioh only the f i t t e s t survived economically. o l o g i s t s reduced mn  B i o l o g i s t s end zo-  to the l e v e l of e l l other creatures* Be  l o s t h i s favoured place i n the Chain o f OsinflU- end f o r him nature l o s t s l l order end ptirnoelveneoe. o f neturo m& l o g i e o l end coasnon.  A poacimlstlc view  he, who i n h i s youth, A d a l l y wanderer among woods and f i e l d s With l i v i n g U&ture hath been Intimate, . . . doth receive In measure only dealt out to himself, Knowledge and increase of enduring Joy From the great Nature that exists In works of mighty Poets. The Prelude, V, 586-595.  TABLE OF CONTENTS I.  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.  Eighteenth century attitude to nature,  2.  The Great Chain of Being. a. . The Chain, the p r i n c i p l e of plenitude, and philosophical optimism. b. Reaction against idea of s t a t i c creation.  3.  Change i n Attitude to Nature. a. Loss of f a i t h . b. Skepticism and despair.  I I . THE COIJCEPTIGB OF MATURE III WORDSWORTH . 1.  19  Wordsworth's early l i f e . a n d growth.  2,  Wordsworth end the French Revolution.  3.  Return to nature.  k.  Nature as a moral force.  5.  Love of nature to love of man.  6.  nature as a source of s p i r i t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n .  I I I . THE CONCEPTION OF NATURE Hi ARBQLD 1.  Arnold's s e n s i t i v i t y to nature.  2.  Desire f o r sense of unity x*ith nature.  3.  Cosmos as a moral example to man.  41  Arnold unable to accept Wordsworth's premises of benevolent nature. 5.  Superiority of man over nature.  6.  Hope f o r Ban. 55  IV, CONCLUSIONS V. BIBLIOGRAPHY  \  *  1. H i s t o r i c a l Background. s  2 . Williajn Wordsworth. 3 . Matthew Arnold.  59  D i s t i n c t l y opposing vieor. o f nature underly the poetry of William $orflaworta end Bfotthew Arnold.  Arnold recognised  t;ordGrjorth* c pre-e&inenee among the many Snellen poets o f nature, and found i n hiss poetry comfort end coneolation and 3oy, though, l i k e urv, he wee unable to accept ^ordssorth'© aa&tftsptione about nature.  Arnold*e orm conception o f nature  i a ffiore i n t e l l e c t u a l l y acceptable to us, though i t locks the SordGworthioB  and optimism.  I t 1 B the purpose o f t h i s  paper to enunciate and compare the conceptions} o f nature i n the tfse poet© end t e suggeet probable reeaone f o r t h e i r d i f ferences. fc'erdefcorth'e poetry was, asong other things, the culmination o f the eighteenth century c u l t o f nature.  One scholar,  a f t e r a thorough study o f the nature poetry between fope and v.'ordswotfch, hu© found that  ;.•••);'.  The love o f nature mae mote® i n the hearts o f men. Their eyes mm open t o he# beauty. f a e i r ears drank i n her harmonies. Their a p i r i t e were ccnO C I O U D of her higher g i f t s . Before ^ordasorth fsort o f h i e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c thought» on nature had received f a i r l y e x p l i c i t statement. 1  ffordswotfth^s conception o f nature ©aa baaed on the eighteenth century philosophy which he inherited  and modified*  At the time of h i e b i r t h i n 1770 the univerpe was recorded as the divine srerk o f a great and beaeveient creator, flswton had 1 Syra Beynoids, tiature i n Bnfdlah poetry Between ?op@ and %ordsi§orth,B.3$5 C. de Haae. inTfrettire end the Country i n ^ l i e h Beetrv of the F i r at Half o f the Klahteenth Century, end"S.r'••> ffeane. i n 4sY?ectl; o F ^ l ^ h t e e n t h Century Weture Poetry in general support S3Eir"Hefamo^^ t  dstftOBStrated at the clo e of the previous century the! the cosmic spheres end the universe i t s e l f fere controlled end directed by 0 universal end fixed %m of gravitation* The more sen pondered Hevaton's le#e* the more they became impressed with the intricate yet perfect order of the universe* It seemed to them that this greet end wonderful mechanism* with i t s infinite ©umber of interdependent pert©, ma set in operation and kept in order by some oanipotont Oreat A r t i f i c e r . The fullaesa and diversity of the creation m& the manifeststiou of l i e s t a l l eiid poster.  Stature was the elesr end suf-  ficient evidence of the Creator,. and war? i t s e l f divinity*  I t proceeded from divinity  Many poets end morelista bocom©  nature Seists sad leeked "through $etur© up to Heturs'e Qod. ' 1  Wherever they Rooked they feund proof© at their preconceived notions of the Master Crsfttrasn.  Themeon is his Hyggi on the  Masons preiees the "foree dlvine%  &h$ftesbury invoked c a ture as follows*.  0 tolghty He ture t wim subetittite of Providence'. Isipowerea creatress! Or thou impoteeriag Deity, Supreme Creator£ Thee I invoke end thee alone adore.  ft 8  Henry Brooke believed that, The The Th' ®t* ABA  One grows sundry by creative power„ eternal*e found i a each revolving hour} Immanoe appears in essry poiat of apace unchangeable* ia nature*^ verting foce, Eeity is ©very atom shriaed.®  i kinee g©~30* • Oher@c-ter.iet lea... ttol* II» p#38* 3 8 a a to jjftiysrgel Jseuty. tines as Quoted in. E. Berabaust, Selections from the I-re-BoOTantic Movement.E0880 1  M a i l e r aeatlzoeiits were also e&preeaed by Dyer, Young, A&e&aide, £ope, and others of t M a period.  To n i l , the creation wee l t -  a e l f the baeia for f a i t h , ana proof of the l i t e r a l truth of the story of Genesis.  The Creator could be intellectually apprehen-  ded by a l l who observed the world about them. Newton*s> laws of gravitation were regarded a s laws of nature*  new evidence ishlca he brought forward of unity  end order in the universe re-awakened iatereet in the old conception of the creation aa a chain of being.  The Great Chain  of Being was now given new interpretation end new significance. The refurbished chain MOB composed of an infinite number of beings, extending from the loweet forme of existence et the bottom to the EUper-natural being® at the top, with an infinite number of intervening gradettone.  A corollary of this theory  waa what Bpofees&r tovejoy hoa called the 'principle of pleni1 tude* , i . e . , the belief that the Creator manifested hir; goodness, through the fulineas and diversity of the creation.  Hie  goednea»i It #ae maintained, impelled Him to create an infinite number end variety of being-; end i t was better for the Creator to give l i f e , even i f for only a short tirae, than to withhold It.  "Goodness" meant a fullness end diversity of finite being.  If a being merely exirted, i t wee g&od*  By thia principle even  the existence of animal*: 'red in tooth end claw* could be accounted f o r .  Thua a place wee found in the Chain of Being for  every conceivable form of creation$ and the existence of every form waa justified by the principle of plenitude. 1 h» 0 * Irovejoy, The (treat Chain of Being * p . S S .  -4Vast chain o f being', which from God began, Natures ethereal, human, angel, iaan, Beszt, b i r d , f l e h , insect, what so eye eon see, 5?o glaa* can reach; from i n f i n i t e to thee, From the© to nothing. 1  That which appeared to be o r to produce e v i l o r pain appeared a© only because f i n i t e men was unable properly to comprehend the i n f i n i t e plan.  That which he did not understand,  he was t© accept ar pert of the greet plan which reruired auch eleatente to complete i t s design*.  $hefteabury,  one o f the most  I n f l u e n t i a l philo.^ophero o f the time, speaks f o r such a f a i t h Dhoble t o declare the ure o r service o f a l l things i n t h i s univerra, ne era yet ae.-ured o f the perfection o f a l l , and o f the j u s t i c e of that; economy to which a l l things ere subservient, and i n rerpact o f which things eeemlneiy deforced are amiable; dlearder becomes regular, corruption wholesome, and poitom;... prove healing and b e n e f i c i a l . ^ These philosopher® and poet? followed t h e i r abstract theories o f a divine and benevolent Providence  to the l o g i c a l con-  c l u s i o n , ea espreeeed by H>pe, A l l discord, harmony not understood; A i l p a r t i a l e v i l , universal good ? And, r p i t a o f pride, i n e r r i n g reason*£ s p i t e , One t r u t h i s c l e a r , miATtmB IS, IS jRXQBT.  9  S o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l implications followed n a t u r a l l y . The harmony and order so apparent i n the physic©! world provided esassple and instruction f o r the s o c i a l v;orld.  The laws  of church and state wars the s o c i a l counterpart o f nature *R divine example* .1  :ince 'whatever i r , i? r i g h t , i t waa man's  Pope, Essay on f'<nn. I , £37-41.  2  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Vol. I I , p* 122*  3  Basag on $£aa. I , £91-4.  1  t  duty to *follow nature.*  -5Happiness was open to a l l wno l i v e d  according to nature, and l b l i v e according t o nature* i?»... to co-op«rate with the general d i s p o s i t i o n and tendency of the present ay a teas, o f t h i n g s . 1  It wae generally accepted that "the present system o f things* waa, l i k e the universe, d i v i n e l y ordered* and therefore complete end. impossible o f improvement; i . e . i t wao, to use the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c phrase of t h i s age of optimists, *the best of a l l possible worlds." Irian, of course, had a place i n the C h a m o f Being - above the animal a and s l i g h t l y below the angels.  III?, possession  o f the f a c u l t y of reason distinguished him from the animals below him and e n t i t l e d him to t h e i r service, Par aa creation's ample range extends, Th® scale of sensual, mental powers ascender* Mark horn I t mount;, to man's imperial race, Without t h i a just gradation could they be Subjected the&e to thoae, or a l l to thee? The powers of e l l subdued by thee alone, not thy reeron a l l these powers i n one?  g  Though there were opinions, to the contrary, i t was generally taken f o r granted that mmi waa "eminently rained above the vest creation*'*  8  1  Samuel Johneon, Raeaelaa. Chapter XXII.  S  Pope, Eaeay on Han. I, 807-10, 2S9-32.  .3  Akenalde. Pleacuree o f Imagination, I S l - g .  The doctrine o f tho static and immutable Chain of Being waa, however, i n many respects a goepel o f hopelessness* I f the universe» <>ad by implication* the aviating s o c i a l order, were perfect, end the imperfections In nature a necessary part o f the universe, there seemed l i t t l e hope f o r improvement or advancenent.  Feny thinker© reacted against and r e -  jected auch an interpretation o f the Divine Flan.  I f God  was eternal and all-powerful, they thought, H i * power and goodness suet be manifested i n creation through e l l time, and such continuous c r e a t i v i t y 1 ould be possible only i n a dynamic universe*  The insatiably creative God could beat  reveal Hie omnipotence and omnipresence through continuous creation.  I t was concluded that Se wo© ever at @ork creating  new forms i n the i n f i n i t e chain; and that every addition t o the chain raided the statue o f those already i n i t , Hot content, Sy one exertion o f creative power His goodness to r e v e a l ; through every age, Through every moment up the track of time Hie p^rent-hana with ever-new increase Of happiness end virtue has adorned The vast harmonious frame:...... Forever leads the generations on To higher scenes of being; while jnipplled From day to day with h i e enlivening breath, I n f e r i o r orders i n auocesalon r i s e To f i l l the void below. 1  Thus the world changed from one o f being to one of becoming; and «lth the change coins hope of progress f o r man i n the universe.  '  '  ^ince the f u l l n e s s of the creation wee i t s greatest good, aome thought that nusn could bast, imitate God br a s s i s t i n g l a 1 Akenaide. F l e a a u r c F ^ Ig»glnation. ELY 3^7-866•  -7-  the creation through th? creative faculty which God had him*  That is, he could increase the rum of things  aosse thing of fciw own Creator In f u l f i l l i n g  easing  to the creation, and thue aaaiat the th® Divine Plan} and i n doing eo  could perhaps better hie own  d i d not l i v e i n  the freedom, love, and v i r t u e intended bv God. c  This* however  to be the f a u l t of Clod nor of nature*, but  of the i n s t i t u t i o n s which man-had devised for hisuelf. who  mn  position on earth.  Zt had long been obvious to many that man  waa not considered  gives  had not been corrupted  hr. bad education,  Hen  fair,© r e l i g i o n ,  and f a u l t y Dociai i n s t i t u t i o n s * eeeaed to l i v e i n a natural state of freedom and f e l i c i t y epproachinn the b l i - ; o f Bden. The explorations and discoveries made by Captain Cook and other voyagere reawakened intareat i n the l i f e of savages and natives of distent lands.  I t waa  believed by many that  these eavagesr i n t h e i r primitive society l i v e d i n the natural state of hamony intended by &od  f o r man.  and h i ; l i f e of unrestricted freedom waa that o f • c i v i l i z e d * man  The  'ftohle lavage'  contreated with  and bis* 3yete» of sovermaent.  <?oua-  eeau and other eenti&entallntc wove a halo of purity and innocence around the savage and simple r u r a l f o l k , natural  1  lysstua of l i f e wan  obviously that intended  Many beeain® convinced that man  for  man.  could progress towards per-  fection by abolishing the e v i l f l of hip own atltutionn.  Their  governing i n -  Mature then changed from a regulating p r i n c i p l e  and became 8»;lnly a l i b e r a t i n n p r i n c i p l e .  Ideas regarding  •natural• and * Inalienable  1  Bights o f Mon, In pert Inspired  both the American and the French R e v o l u t i o n s b o t h of ^ i c h were interpreted by many aa movements towards a State of Nature. In England the French Revolution with i t s motto of ''liberty, e q u a l i t y , fraternity** seemed to herald a new golden age of peace and happiness f o r a l l ; The Revolution waa therefore a notable encouragement to a l l who believed i n change and the power, of human endeavour. 1  To the p o l i t i c i a n JTox the f a l l of the Be©tills was "the greatest  event .... that ever happened i n the world, and ho^ much  the b e e t l " ^  and to the young poet Wordsworth*  Sot favoured spots alone, but the whole earth, The beauty wore o f promise.... Not i n Utopia...Butin....the world Of a l l of u s . 3  Thus i n :?ordsworth T time i t was thought that the laws of f  nature could be applied to the p o l i t i c s o f man to euro s o c i a l i l l s - that the way to human perfection was through the laws of nature.  I t was thought that Providence was working through  n a t u r e ^ constant and uniform laws f o r the wall^belng o f the whole universe and f o r the welfare of man i n p a r t i c u l a r . 1 JhV page 29,  Brown, The French Revolution i n S n a i l sh B i story,  8 Hemorials o f goat, ed. Russell, I I , 361, quoted Ibid, page 38. 3 The. Prelude. XI, 117-18j 140-3. Quotations from ^ords* worth are from the Oxford Edition of jordsworth'e P o e t i c a l Torkf ,ed. T. Kutehim oa. The l e t t e r P . w i l l hereafter be used as an abbreviation f o r The Prelude, uotationa from tho early text (1605-6} o f She Prelude are from the 1l.de yelincourt edI S ^ B o i ^ h f r W S W S ^ ******  -9Th©jse assumptions of order end pur poms In the universe underlay  ferdeworth'a conception of nature.  An optimistic view of  nature was common and acceptable. By Arnold's time the lows of nature were regarded as i n i m i c a l to the i n t e r e s t s o f man, and a force against which he had to s t r i v e i n order to r i s e above h i s brute creation. From a p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e , nature had becom* a sanction f o r economic competition.  This change i n Inter-  pretation o f the laws o f nature waa due i n part t o the f a i l ure of the French Revolution, but mainly to the material Buoceea of the I n d u s t r i a l devolution. Progress i n acience and invention footered the I n d u s t r i a l Devolution, which i n turn brought a change i n the mode o f l i f e for  the majority of the people, and a corresponding change  in thought to f i t the new mode of l i f e . With the progress of the revolution, men's attitudes to nature underwent a gradual change, ro that by the Mid-?ictorian  period even the i n j u s t i c e s of the Iowa of economiea tr/ere  attributed to nature.  leople no longer ignored or excused  the apparent imperfections i n nature*  I t waa aeeerted that  "no good or lovely thing e x i s t s i n thia world without I t a correspondent darkness.  ni  Hewraan'ii f a i t h i n God was baaed on  a voice speaking i n h i e conscience end h i e heart, because he could see no evidence of the Creator i n the l i v i n g world*  8  1 Buskin, Modern F o i n t e r s . Bfc.IV, pt«Y,ehJUX« quoted i n B.T.Houth, Snglend Under V i c t o r i a . p . 4 3 . 8  Apologia pro V i t a -Xie. Chap.V.,quoted I b i d . , p . l .  -10*  Many others who f a i l e d to see the Creator reflected l a the world were, however, unable to even f i n d H i a i n their hearts and eonsciences as SSewash d i d .  -  The l o s s o f f a i t h i n God, and consequently in. a benevolent Deity working i n and behind nature* was one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the attitude toward nature between the time of Wordsworth and Arnold,  The reasons f o r t h i s l o s s of f a i t h  and the changed attitude to nature, l i e i n the major changes in l i f e and thought i n the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century . 1&© f i r s t breakdown i n f a i t h came pith the f a i l u r e of the French Revolution to achieve what had been hoped of i t . Hopes f o r a natural Idea were shattered by the b r u t a l i t y of the Heiga o f Terror and the oggreeeion and m i l i t a r y d i c t a t o r ship of Napoleon.  These excesses demonstrated  that i t was  not s u f f i c i e n t f o r man merely to •follow nature*» because apparently some control o f the *natural* impulses was a l s o needed. England emerged from the Napoleonic wars elated end v i c t o r i o u s ; but the shouts o f v i c t o r y were soon replaced by murmurs of discontent. Ae i n most wars» the aftermath was in many respects worse than the actual c o n f l i c t .  Thousands  of soldier© were released to seek work, when there was no work to be found,  $ony farmers, deprived of t h e i r l i v e l i -  hood by the Esielojure hot a, swelled the ranks o f the unemployed.  The c l a t t e r of new machinery f o r the manufacture of  t e x t i l a c and other goods drowned out the whirr of the. cottage  spinning wheelo, end the apinnerii) were, robbed of t h e i r source of income* M  incree&e in population end a eerie® of bed harvests  caused more poverty ana misery.  In the period of the *Hungry  Forties* r e l i e f f o r the destitute end unemployed could be obtained only i n workhouses, or ' B o a t i l i e s ' as they were popularly called*  Punch o f the period, i n a cartoon e»tltled The t  Poor Man's f r i e n d , " deplete Beath standing by the bedaide o f a poor man ©ho claapa h i e hende i n supplication to the cedaveroua f i g u r e *  1  Apparently f o r snome,, death had replaced  nature aa the friend of man. The thousands who flocked into the new factory towns seeking work were crowded into h a s t i l y b u i l t houeee near the f a c t o r i e s , with l i t t l e or no provision f o r t h e i r welfare* The conditiona under which they l i v e d mey be aummed up i n the phrase of Gorlylo es "tho Universal Stygian quegmire o f Ibpitish Induetrial U f e . "  5  Though reform® did come about, the system which was recponeible f o r conditions requiring reform remained on the whole umchenged.  The new Middle flleae entrepreneur did not  wlah to i n t e r f e r e with the lawn; o f economics, but preferred to exerciae h i s humahlterlanlism i n contributing to c h a r i t i e s f o r the r e l i e f of the poor, who ee a  OIQSO  a neeessoiry part of the economic system.  were considered He took refuge  1  0. I*. Gravea, ffr. launch'a History of Bngland, %>l*I p^?*  8  l a t t e r Sav Pamphlets* p. 84*  9  —12— behind the various theories that attempted to account f o r and explain conditions i n the pew i n d u s t r i a l world.  The most  important of thaee thoorier are embodied i n the works o f . Mem  3ml th, Jeremy lien th am, John Stuart M i l l , &avid Bieardo,  and Thomea Malthua. Ifelthu; examined "tho constant tendency i n a l l animated l i f e to increase beyond the nourlcftnent prepared f o r i t , " ? 3  with p a r t i c u l a r reference to men.  He held that population  tended to mereec:® f a s t e r than food supply, and that  epidemics,  disagree, ware, and famine were therefore nature! end necessary checks on population growth.  Any improvement i n working  c l a s s conditions would tend to encourage marriage, and b ing en increase i n population*  The food produced would then  have to be divided among more people; more laborers would be competing for food and work; and food would go up i n p r i c e and wages would drop..  This constant tendency to over-popu-  l a t i o n kept a large number of the people i n a constant state o f d i s t r e s s , and prevented any permanent melioration o f t h e i r condition,  nature could provide f o r only a c e r t a i n number ©f  her creatures, and any increase beyond t h i s number meant misery and hardship,  ^althus* description of the p r i n c i p l e of  population could scarcely be reconciled with the idee of a benevolent Seit? behind  1  nature.  An Bs&as on the P r i n c i p l e of Population. Vol, I , p.3  -is- '  Mel thus' theory was supplemented by Hicerdo'c *iroa law* of wages * which was baaed on the p r i n c i p l e s o f supply and demand.  Hlcardo put forward the theory: that because o f the  inexorable laws of supply and demand, wages were governed by the r a t i o o f the supply o f workers to the demand f o r them. With t h i a went the b e l i e f that only a certain f i s e d proportion of t h e nation'o money could be available for wages, and that the t o t a l number o f workers had t o share this sum.  The coat  of a laborer waa the amount needed to keep him a l i v e and able to work.  I f the eect went above this subsistence l e v e l , more  workere would swell the ranks of labor, and again reduce a l l to the loweat l e v e l . The influence of these doctrines, many of which were r e garded as 'natural' law©, must be considered In the l i g h t i n which they were interpreted by those who found them u s e f u l to protect or J u s t i f y t h e i r own p r i v i l e g e d position, Helther &althue nor Bicard© r e a l l y taught the dogmatic despair which wee generally received aa the lesson o f t h e i r philosophies...their ldeaj5, when adopted by other minde, hardened Into © r i g i d and inexorable theory from which both of them would have shrunk** The theories of Smith, Sestham, and M i l l m i l i t a t e d against government interference i n the economic sphere. I t was assumed that man was by nature s e l f i s h and would work beet f o r hie own welfare, and that i f every i n d i v i d u a l worked f o r hie Own end® he $ould also be working f o r the good of the community, which was but a c o l l e c t i o n o f self-motivated Individp 3oi * *** S  S a i s  ®o * 8  e n f i  Barbara Hesmond, The Tbwh_ Laborer.  -14uals> ©o 3Pope had said e a r l i e r , Thus God and nature linked the general frame And bade.self-love and s o c i a l be the same,* Any attempt to i n t e r f e r e with the pursuits of the individijel was regarded ea interference i n the welfare of the community. The good o f society, i t was thought, depended on f r e e comp e t i t i o n ; and the moat successful individuals were the beet citiaenn.  This free enterprise system was regarded as the I f one f e l l toy  natural course of man's economic a c t i v i t y .  the wayside he had only himself to blame„ because he was obviously. l e s s energetic than hie fellow^men, end therefore must suffer the natural consequences o f hie weaknese. I f nature was allowed to take i.t» course, the u n f i t would be weeded out,  The aignty law o f self-preservation was becoming  a new law o f nature and society.  For the majority there was  no escaping the lawc o f supply and demand. considered to be inevitable and natural*  These lews were  The Times, eom-  menting on a promise of the French government to provide work f o r the people, aayr-, To f u l f i l l such promisee i o not only beyond the poserof any government, but absolutely contrary to the laws of nature itself***® Again, The Times, surveying the Saat End o f London i n the throes o f on economic depression, comments, There i s no one to blame f o r this;_ifc Is the r e s u l t of Ha ture *a simplest lawei*" 9  1  Fope„ An Essay on Man. 1X1. 317-18,  2 Jisreh l e t , 1848, p.5, Quoted in H, F, X@wry» l e t t e r a o f 1st thaw Arnold. 4ppendis IV., p. I Q « , Jtaerlhy ^ !&§? * 1  U e n  * ^  u o t e 4  b  ?  Arnold i n Gia.itwue,,,,,-^^  -15The only hope f o r success against these laws, I t was  thought,  lay i n hard work end perseverance on the part o f the.individMm now had to struggle against nature.  ual.  In the Puritan piety o f the times, riches became viitue and poverty, v i c e .  God fevered thoae who  *got on* i n the  world, so that material prosperity and s p i r i t u a l salvation went hand in hand.  I t waa this m a t e r i a l i s t i c interpretation  of l i f e that C a r l y l e so b i t t e r l y attacked, Hudson, the railway king, i f popular election be the r u l e , aeema to me by f a r the moat authentic king extent i n t h i a « o r l d L . . 3 h a t the deeire of every hoert wee, Hudson had or seemed to have produced; Scrip out of f&ieh p r o f i t could be made. 1  Man wee concerned now only with h i s materiel welfare in the struggle against nature.  The benevolent and divine nature  which had once given him s p i r i t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n no longer existed f o r him.  I f there was a Deity, he was not to be  found i n the tendencies o f society. . Biology and zoology also contributed to the d i e i l l u e l o n ment  D  flhile  economics, and r e l i g i o n , and b i t t e r experience  i n combination were demonstrating that only the f i t t e s t numbers of society prospered or deserved to prosper, s i m i l a r evidences of struggle were being noted i n phyaical nature. L y e l l i n h i s P r i n c i p l e s of geolo&v. 1633, end Chambers i n vwatUcea of Creation. 1844, detected;an evolutionary and metamorphic process i n nature.  Their findings prepared the  way f o r Barwln'a Origin of Spec tea. 1889,' which, with i t s 1  ^'Hudson*© Statue*, L a t t e r fcay Pamphlets, p. 235.  -16mase of evidence, removed practically a l l doubt about the growth aiid development of the physical universe.  Darwin  found that a l l forms of natural l i f e survived by adapting themselves and overcoming their environments, a procesa in which only the fitteat survived.  It la significant that Bar-  win's interpretation of hie data wee influenced by Maithus  1  Population: In October, 1333 • • . X happened to read for asausement 'llalthuB on Population', and . . . It at once struck me that under these conditions [struggle for existence^] favorable variations aeuld tend to be preaerved> and unfavorable ones to be destroyed.* Darwin's theory, with i t s revelation of indifference, waate„ and even cruelty in the animate world was incompatible with the idea of a Benevolent Deity.  Ho benevolent God  could be found in the fickleneae end cruelty of nature. Sven the traditional eouree of faith, the Bible, waa . questioned.  Historians examined the gospels with the cold  logic of scientific reeearch, ee they would any other bistort eel writ Inge, and began to wonder, when they were written, and by whom, end why. fae Bible? wee rut m the witness bos and under cross examination contradicted i t s e l f again and again.  8  faose attack® on the record.of revealed religion deprived many of their leat rouree of faith. —,—. — • 1 •' The l i f e and Letters of Charles fterwla. Vol,I,p,83. •.  S t>* @. aomervoll, Ifee ffictorlan $m. Historical Association Pamphlet, Ro. 107, p. 19.  - 17The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution, Darwin, and the Bible c r i t i c s destroyed the basis of f a i t h f o r many, and l e f t them only skepticism, agnosticism, and s p i r i t u a l despair*  This cry of  despair from the nineteenth Century Wasteland may be heard i n In Memoriaa. written while Tennyson, l i k e his contemperaries* was desperately searching f o r **the l a r g e r hope**  I t could  c e r t a i n l y no longer be found In nature. Are God and Nature then at s t r i f e That Nature lends such e v i l dreams? So c a r e f u l of the type she seems. So careless of the single l i f e \ That I, considering everywhere Her secret meaning i n her deeds, And* f i n d i n g that of f i f t y seeds She often brings but one to bear, I f a l t e r where I f i r m l y trod,And, f a l l i n g with my weight of cares Upon the great world* s a l t a r - s t a i r s That slope thro* darkness up to God, I atretch lame hands of f a i t h , and grope, And gather dust and chaff* and c e i l To what I f e e l i s Lord of a l l , And f a i n t l y trust the larger hope. , .... And he, s h a l l he, Man, her l a s t work,, ... Who trusted God was love indeed And love Creation's f i n a l lew-Tho* Nature, red i n tooth and claw With ravine, shriek*d against h i s c r e e d — ... Be blown about the desert dust, Or seal'd within the iron h i l l s ? ! At approximately the same time, John Stuart M i l l wrote of nature as follows:  1 J.V, 5-20, LVIj 9-20,  -18-  Nature Impales map, breaks them as i f on the wheel, ...bursa them to death, ... starves them with hunger, freeze a them with cold *.» A l l t h i s , Nature does with the most tmpercilioua disregard both o f mercy and of j u s t i c e , ... no human being ever comes into the world but another human being tc l i t e r a l l y stretched on the rack f o r hour-i o r days, not i n frequently i s s u i n g i n death ... M l which people are accustomed to deprecate as 'disorder* and i t s consequences, i n precisely a counterpart of Nature's ways. Anarchy and the Beige of Terror are overmatched i n i n j u s t i c e , r u i n , and death, by a h u r r i cane and a pestilence*1  1 Nature (composed 1880-8) uotud i n H. V * Routh, iSncland Under V i c t o r i a p p 3 9 - 4 0 .  Chapter I I THE CONCEPTION OF NATUBE! IN THE FOBTBY OF WILLIAM WOBDSWORTH . William Wordsworth, horn i n 1770, spent a joyous and comparatively uneventful boyhood "compass*d round by mountain solitudes'  1  i n the lakes D i s t r i c t o f England.  The Derwent,  "the f a i r e s t of a l l r i v e r s " , flowed through the" back yard of his home, and made "ceaseless music that composed [his) thoughts."! His  school days (1778-1787} were spent at Hawkshead  school,, which he remembered more f o r the free and natural l i f e than f o r the instruction given there.  He was more in-*  tereated i n h i s physical recreation than i n h i s studies. Here he dwelt among simple folk, and roamed the woods and h i l l s at w i l l .  He derived pure sensuous pleasure from h i s  contacts with nature at this time, when he,bounded o'er the mountains, by the sides . Of the deep r i v e r s , and the lonely streams, Wherever nature l e d . 2  In h i s days of maturity he p a r t i c u l a r l y remembered some of h i s more e x c i t i n g boyhood experiences i n this nature background, such as skating on the lake, trapping woodcocks by moonlight, and even S$® -11 £ game, f a  D  r  o  m  other boys*, snares -  «... end when the deed was done I heard among the s o l i t a r y h i l l s Low breathing© coming a f t e r me..... 1  P. I, 277.  2  Tintern Abbey..66-70.  3  P. I, 321-3..  -20Ke r e c a l l s hie fear one evening when he stole a boat and went rowing on the lake.  Suddenly a huge.black mountain peek up-  reared i t s head, and l i k e a l i v i n g thing seemed to stride a f t e r him, u n t i l "with trembling o a r s * h e returned the boat.  31  At  another time he hung above the raven's nest.by knots of §r/g.ss when."with what strange utterance* the wind blew through h i e ear.*2  The rapture of b i s boyhood experiences, when nature was • secondary to h i s own pursuits, l a recaptured by the poet i n h i s reminiscences of I t ; I wheeled about /. • Proud a*i& exulting l i k e ah u n t r i e d horvge ; ife hissed along the polished lee i n games...3 nature provided no p a r t i c u l a r joys of her own; ved as background for sports and games.  she merely ser-  However, as the l i g h t -  hearted boy went skating, trapping woodcocks, hunting b i r d s ' eggs, and boating, the surroundings i n which he enjoyed these sports impressed themselves on h i s memory, and by association with such e x c i t i n g experiences, came i n tiae to be loved f o r themselves.  As he grev; older and h i s boyish energies sub-  sided, he found that he loved nature f o r herself.. the  He loved  sun and the mountains, the headlong torrents, the lowly  p l a i n s , end t h e i r flowers and unassuming brooks, the s a i l i n g clouds, the warm f i e l d s , and the sheltering woods.  1  £• X> 3 5 7 - ^ 0 .  3  £.  430-^,.  Xn t h i s  time of "aching Joys" and "dlszy raptures" nature f ,  became  a l i i n a l l " , and, he found a new delight i n beauty for i t s  own sake* . . . . drinking i n a pure Organic pleasure from the silver wreaths, Of curling mist, or from the level plain Of waters coloured by impending clouds. .....gathering as i t seemed, Through every hair-breadth of that f i e l d of light , » New pleasure like a bee among the flowers. 1  At this time a l l hie thoughts were "steeped i n feeling, and 41  he felt  41  the sentiment of Being spread o'er a l l . "  He now  found joy i n communion with nature, and a l l that he beheld "respired with inward meaning,f  2  From Hawkshead he went to Cambridge, where he Was i n general % n idler among academic bowers."  Bis vacations from  university were noteworthy events i n hie l i f e .  In his f i r s t  summer vacation he returned to Hawkshead and to nature. The experiences of this summer renewed end deepened the influences of nature on his growing imagination.  One event i n p a r t i -  cular he held significant to his future development.  As he  was returning home at sunrise from a night of "dancing, gaiety, and mirth% on a morning as ''glorious as e'er I had beheld , the sight of the sea, the shining mountains*, and the 4  dew-sparkling meadows, coupled with the melody of the b i r d s , struck into his soul with never-forgotten force.  1  £ . 1 , 563-66, 578-80,  2  £,II, 3 9 9 and I I I , 1 3 2  -22% heart was f u l l : X made ft© vows, out vows were then made f o r mi ... that I should be ... A dedicated, s p i r i t . On X walked , In thankful blessedness, which yet survives. In the nest summer vacation (1789) he v i s i t e d h i s s i s t e r at Penrith, Now, a f t e r separation desolate Hester*d to me. Sere he and h i s s i s t e r , and her f r i e n d Sary Hutchinson, who© he was l a t e r to marry, rambled over the paths and f i e l d s and through the woods and over crags and mountain-sidea, enjoying the beauties of nature "and youth's golden gleam. ' 4  2  In t h i s  summer he completed and dedicated to Dorothy a descriptive poem (An Evening ifalk) which he had sketched out during h i e f i r s t vacation.  The poem shows a s e n s i t i v i t y to nature, which  however, i s spoiled i n the expression.  The poem .is  i n rhymed  couplets i n the eighteenth century t r a d i t i o n , with e l l i t s worst e v i l s of Conventional 'poetical* style and d i c t i o n . The B a s t i l l e i n P a r i s had f a l l e n i n July, and when Wordsworth returned to Cambridge -"he found the University t h r i l l e d by the f i r s t act of the French Revolution. »3  During that year  the events i n Francs were closely followed by a l l of Europe, Europe at that time was t h r i l l e d with joy France standing on the top of golden.hours, And human nature seeming born again.  1  P. IV, 323-38.  2  £. VI« 200-236.  3  t. Legouls, ?he E s r l v k l f e o f Wordsworth, p. £. VI, 339-^i.  107.  At  the end of th© tern, i . e . i n the summer vacation of 1790.  Wordsworth and h i s friend. Robert Jones determined to make a walking tour of the Continent, p a r t i c u l a r l y to v i s i t the Alps. Wordsworth had some misgivings about s l i g h t i n g h i s studies to do t h i s , and about the 'censures and: ill-omening* of h i s guardians But nature then was sovereign i n my mind, And mighty forms, s e i s i n g a youthful fancy. Had given a charter to i r r e g u l a r hopes, So doubt the youthful t r a v e l l e r s were somewhat t h r i l l e d a t the  prospect of v i s i t i n g France while such e x c i t i n g events  were taking place, but Wordsworth's i n t e r e s t was i n the V countryside through which they t r a v e l l e d , rather than i n the people.  Though he p a r t i c i p a t e d i n th© celebrations of the  French people, tee d i d not yet understand the f u l l implications of the revolution, and eo remained an outsiders A s t r i p l i n g , scarcely of the household then Of s o c i a l l i f e , X looked upon these things As from a distance.., the e v e r ^ i i v l n g universe, Turn where I might, was opening out i t s g l o r i e s . And the independent s p i r i t o f pure youth Celled forth, at every season, new delights  «  Spread round ray steps l i k e sunshine o'er green f i e l d s .  4  A f t e r graduation, from Cambridge, he went to London, but even there, "amid those overflowing streets," the s p i r i t of nature was s t i l l upon him, and he found "composure and ennobling harmony* i n the great c i t y where he spent the winter months, 3  1  £ . V I , 333-35.  2  V I , 76^78.  3 P. VII, 765-770. 0ee also h i s Sonnets Composed Upon Westminster Bridge.  :  -24He passed moat o f the following summer enjoying the natural beauty o f Walee^ with; h i s f r i e n d Robert Jones. S i s formal education wee now completed, tout he had not yet any d e f i n i t e occupation or vocation.  Restless and unoccupied,  he returned t o France with the professed Intention o f l e a r n ing  French to q u a l i f y himself aa a tutor, or, more l i k e l y ,  aa Mr. Legoule suggests, @uch was the excuse beneath which he concealed the twof o l d desire o f continuing h i s roving l i f e and r e v i s i t i n g the country which had already charmed him by i t s cheer* f u l gaiety, and wes. beginning t o i n s p i r e him with i t s revolutionary s e a l . 1  In France he associated with a group o f o f f i c e r s , one o f whom became h i s p a r t i c u l a r friend.  Wordsworth and Captain  Michel Heatipuy, a p a t r i o t t o the revolutionary cause, were, for a time, inseparable companions.  They held frequent and  lengthy discourses .... about the end Of c i v i l government, and i t s wisest forms. ......'we added dearest themesKan and h i s noble nature, as i t i s The g i f t which God has placed within h i s power, ...... saw In rudest men, ' S e l f - s a c r i f i c e the firmest, generous love, ibid continence o f mind, and sense o f r i g h t . Uppermost i n the midst of f i e r c e s t s t r i f e . * F i n a l l y , under the influence of t h i s man, he saw the Revolution as the promise of a new world o f freedom, peace, and Justice f o r a l l mankind.  He ardently embraced the cause,  1  The Early L i f e o f Wordsworth, p. 192.  2  P. IX, 322-89,  '  •  -25-  and had he not been "dragged by a chain of harsh necessity" baek to England, he might have given up h i s l i f e f o r humanity. ' 3  Nature had now surrendered to humanity f i r s t place  i n h i s heart and mind. His  new love and f a i t h underwent severe t r i a l s a f t e r he  returned to England.  The f i r s t shock came early i n 1793*  when England declared war on Prance.  t t was a b i t t e r blow,,  but h i s hopes and f a i t h i n the f i n a l goal overcame h i s patriotism, and he continued to cheer th© triumphs of the revolutionaries, even when t h e i r v i c t o r i e s were a t th© expense of English l i v e s .  Than the Belgn of Terror broke  f o r t h with a l l i t s excesses, and "the goaded land waxed  mad."  It was a time o f deepest g r i e f and despair f o r those, Whose souls were sick with pain of what would be Hereafter brought i n charge against mankind.^ Even through t h i s night of doubt and sorrow he excused the course of events, and clung to h i e hopes,  H e  remained stead-  fast to the cause u n t i l the French l o s t sight of e l l which they had struggled f o r and "changed a war of self-defence for one of conquest"3 - an outrage which Wordsworth made no attempt to defend.  He could no longer condone the course o f  events, but f o r a time clung desperately to h i s f a i t h i n the abstract idea or theory of the revolution.  Under the i n -  fluence of 6edwinlsn theories, he attempted to explain the  1 P. 5C, 152-5**; 229-30.  2  X, 3<?5-6.  3 £... XI, 20^-7,  -26-  ravolution i n terms of reason.  Like Godwin and other r a t i o n -  a l i s t s , he set up the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l e c t as the sole guide for a c t i o n .  He found, however, that though the i n t e l l e c t  could r a t i o n a l i z e the turn of events, i t could not make them morally acceptable  f o r him.  He c a l l e d h i s theories to ac-  count, and questioned the premises on which they were based, tested end re-tested then, and found them wanting.  In t h i s  moral c r i s i s he ...... tolled, Intent To anatomise the .frame of s o c i a l l i f e ; Y/ea the whole body of society Searched to i t s heart ... c a l l i n g the mind, Suspiciously to e s t a b l i s h i n p l a i n day Her t i t l e s and her honours... t i l l demanding formal laroof And seeking i t i n everything, X l o s t A l l f e e l i n g o f conviction and, i n f i n e , Sick, wearied out with c o n t r a r i e t i e s , Yielded up moral questions i n despair. This was the c r i s i s o f that strong disease, This the soul's l a s t and lowest ebb; 1 drooped Deeming our blessed reason o f l e a s t use f  where wanted most...'..,  1  This was the turning point In h i s doctrine.  Disillusion-  ed, depressed, and bewildered, he turned temporarily from the unstable world of mon and h i s amoral p o l i t i c a l theories to the abstract world o f mathematics,, where the disturbances from human w i l l and power could not reach him - perhaps immutable and eternal truths could be found only i n the 2  abstract world. At t h i s c r i t i c a l Juncture, h i s s i s t e r intervened and gave him new l i f e and hone. 1  P. XX, 279-309,  '2  *XV 3 2 1 - 3 * ;  Under the t r i p l e influence o f  -27hsr  and.Coleridge and nature, hie despondency was overcome  and h i s mind restored.  In the quiet of the Quantock h i l l s  he found peace and r e l i e f and comfort, and time to r e f l e c t f a r from ^the weariness* the fever, and the f r e t . "  Here he  re-established contact with h i s former s e l f ("ray true self' ) 1  and returned To those sweet counsels between head and heart Whence grew .... genuine knowledge.! He how r e a l i s e d that i n exalting the reason as a sole judge of action, he- had f a i l e d to recognize the feelings and higher Instincts of mankind.  Through h i s disillusionment i n the  French Revolution he found the true value of human i n s t i n c t s , passions, sympathies, and i n t u i t i o n .  He r e c a l l e d and noted  anew that the shepherds and dalesmen owed t h e i r serenity and n o b i l i t y of character to something much deeper and more r e l i a b l e than mere i n t e l l e c t .  2  He rediscovered the beauties of nature and found them more refreshing and salutary than ever, In contrast with the world of c o l d and. dispassionate reason, from which he had just been rescued.  He r e c a l l e d h i a youthful ecstecies and  joys i n nature, and h i s early experiences of s p i r i t u a l rapture when he had transcended thought and " f e l t a presence" and "a sense sublime," when, the earth And common face of nature spake to me Hememberable things.,...... 3 1 ,E* «X» 353-^ 2 f . I l l , 165-75. 3. £,. X, 586-88.  -28-  These early f e e l i n g s about nature were only now, i n the r e f i n i n g l i g h t of experience and the calm o f contemplation, beginning to take on s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The chastened s p i r i t be-  gan at l a s t "to see i n t o the l i g h t o f things."  He found an  inner Identity o f h i s own soul and the soul of nature.  He  now perceived a s p i r i t u a l u n i t y between man and nature; the 1  something* that " r o l l s through a l l things* was also working  i n the mind of man.  Be linked the past end present, and now  r e a l i z e d that h i s hapoy boyhood and youth had been the true l i f e f o r him.  S i s period o f despair had been the period o f  reliance on reason, when he had out o f f h i e heart *Pros a l l the sources of her former s t r e n g t h . He thus found that h i s source o f Joy was i n nature.  ttl  He once  again f e l t himself a part of nature, interfused with her by an immutable and permanent Presence worlds").  ("the soul of a l l the  Under t h i s now-recognized "never f a i l i n g p r i n -  c i p l e of Joy•, h i s l i f e took on new meaning.  H i s poetic  a c t i v i t y burst f o r t h i n t o f u l l flood with h i s great hymn of thanksgiving to nature, written near Tlntern Abbey. This i n t u i t i o n of the unity o f a l l l i f e i n and through nature lends the poetry o f Wordsworth i t s unique q u a l i t y . I t was the foundation o f h i s optimism and intense Joy i n nature, and o f h i s doctrine of nature as a p p l i e d to the moral and s p i r i t u a l growth of man.  I t promoted him to write On M  Man, on nature, and on Human L i f e " to show t h e i r Inter* 1  P. XII, 79-80.  -29r e l a t i o n and interdependence.  He endeavoured t o show how  nature, through developing the s p i r i t u a l and moral leads to man*s love o f God and of h i s fellow  life,  men.  To r a t i o n a l i z e h i s b e l i e f lit the beneficence of nature, Wordsworth drew on the assumptions of a s s o c l a t l o n i s t psychology as expounded by David Hartley.  3,  Hartley maintained  that pur ideas and moral character are not Innate but are b u i l t up through the association o f contiguous or successive sensations with one another.  According to Hartley, the  primary sensations are transmuted into •purer* forms of thought, f i r s t into ideas of a simple sort, and then Into more complex ones. Our passions or a f f e c t i o n s can be no more than, aggregates of simple ideas united by association. , For they are excited by objects, and by the i n cidents of l i f e . 2  How these pleasures and pains (pf v i r t u e and vice]! by o f t e n recurring i n various combinations, and by being variously transferred upon each other, from the great a f f i n i t y between the several v i r t u e s and t h e i r rewards, with each other; also between the several v i c e s , and t h e i r punishment, with each other; w i l l at l a s t beget i n us a general, mixed, pleasing idea and consciousness, when we r e f l e c t . upon our own virtuous a f f e c t i o n s or actions; a sense of g u i l t , and an anxiety when we r e f l e c t on the contrary; and a l s o r a i s e i n us love and esteem of v i r t u e , and hatred of vice i n others.3 Wordsworth subscribed i n large part to these theories of seneation, but d i d not attempt to explain everything i n such 1 Observations on Man. His Frame. Hie Duty, and His Expectations, 1791. 2  Ibid. Vol. 1 , p.365,  3  Ibid. Vol. I, p . & 9 5 - 6  s  -30terms.  Indeed, as w i l l be shown below, the e s s e n t i a l part o f  h i s philosophy  I s based oh concepts e n t i r e l y outside the sphere  of sensational psychology. He believed that there was some well-intentioned "overseeing power", a "dark Inscrutable workmanship" working through nature to mould h i s character.  I f t h i s were so, i t  gave moral significance to h i s above-mentioned boyhood experiences i n nature: How strange that a l l The t e r r o r s , pains, and early miseries,...interfused Within my mind, should e'er have borne a part.... i n making up The calm existence that i s mine when %; Am worthy o f myself J Praise to the end? Thanks to the means which Nature deigned to egroldy; Whether her f e a r l e s s v i e i t i n g a , or those That came with soft alarm, ... or she say use Severer interventions, ministry More palpable, as best might s u i t her aim.*  ' /  Bis explanation here o f the process or means of moral growth i s s i m i l a r to Hartley's theory o f moral i n s t r u c t i o n through pleasure and pain.  In applying Hartley's theory to nature,  Wordsworth believed that the fear o r Joy associated with c e r t a i n experiences i n nature impressed the natural objects or scene, associated with that experience on the memory, where i t could be c a l l e d f o r t h to stimulate the imagination, which i n turn softened the a f f e c t i o n s .  He believed that even when the  joy i t s e l f was gone, The scenes which were & witness of that joy Remained... Depicted on the b r a i n .... and thus By the impressive d i s c i p l i n e o f fear, By pleasure and repeated happiness, , end by force 1  P.I. i*t4-56. See also Three years she (arret;.... my i t a l i c a .  -31Of obscure feelings reoresentative Of things forgotten, these same scenes so bright, 0o beautiful, so majestic In themselves, Though yet the day was distent, did become Habitually dear, and'all their forms And changeful colours by invisible links were fastened to the  affections.  1  wbrdsworth asserted that natural objects i n themselves played a large part i n building up the moral being - specif i c a l l y , i n enlarging the sympathies and affections.  He  speaks, for example, of.his return one evening across a shadowy lake after an ail-day excursion with a number of companions.  One of the party, "the minstrel of the troopV was  taken ashore near his home, and the future poet and his companions rowed off gently, listening to his friend playing the. flute, oh,-then* the calm. And dead s t i l l water lay upon my; mind . . . . and the sky Never before so beautiful, sank down Into my heart, and held me l i k e a dreamJ*  '  Recalling such scenes, and other experienceB in nature, lie says*  •  '  Thus dally were my sympathies enlarged Refined or strengthened, . . . . the senses trained To nice observance and the mind to thought.3 The strengthening and refining of the affections and sympathies by natural objects and events further enhanced the value of those natural objects in the youth's mind and heart, and prompted him to closer observation and greater love of nature. 1 £ . X, 599-612, My italics^. 2  P. I I , 170*17*.  3  Pv 11, A 181~3, .S3 variant, p. SO de Selinoourt.  -32Wordsworth believed that love of nature l e d to love o f man.  He t e l l e us that i n boyhood he f i r s t loved man — not  f o r man's own  sake, but f o r the surroundings i n which he  first  beheld him ("his presence i n h i s own domain"). Shepherds, dwellers i n the V a l l e y s , men Ehom I already loved; - not v e r i l y For t h e i r own sakes, but f o r the fields, and h i l l s ; vJhere was t h e i r occupation and ebofie.l Elsewhere, he speaks of the shepherds en the h i l l s , f i e d by the deep radiance of the s e t t i n g sun."  2  "glori-  Hence he  owed to nature h i s early love and reverence f o r the human form and. human nature. Later, i n h i s period of passionate devotion to nature, the love of nature l e d him on to l o v e of man through the fancy and imagination..  Nature and her objects provided the  stimulus f o r the fancy("this new power").  The elder-tree,  the yew, a foxglove, a wet rock, were e l l subjects with which his  fancy played, and Engrafted f a r fetched shapes on f e e l i n g bred By pure imagination:.,, and with her ready p u p i l turned I n s t i n c t i v e l y to human passions.3  The yew tree had i t s ghost, the, foxglove was transformed by the fancy i n t o a dejected mother surrounded by her thoughtless children, and the wet rock shining i n the sun became & burnished s i l v e r shield suspended over a knight's tomb. 1 Michael. 23-26, 2  £ . VIII, 256-59.  3  P,  VIII, 422-5.,  Thus  -33nature l e d him on to think of man and human passion. outwardly and inwardly contemplated natures, crown* though bom  Man  became f o r him " O f a l l  of dust."*  After the storms and stresses of the French Revolution, ' he was l e d back to the love of man again, l a r g e l y through the ministry of nature*  The peace and harmony he found i n nature  composed h i s mind, and provided an example of enduring things. By t h i s display of oermanence and order, as compared to the "mean and vulgar works of man," nature trained the mind to meekness and humility, u n t i l i t sought In man, and i n the frame o f s o c i a l l i f e , what e'er there i s desirable and good Of kindred permanence. 2  He was thus tutored to look with f e e l i n g s o f f r a t e r n a l love upon the quiet and unassuming objects end workings o f nature. Thus moderated, thus composed, 1 found Once more i n rash an object of delight Of pure imagination, and of love,-3 This poet's conception of the ministry of nature to mail through boyhood, youth, and maturity can best be summed up i n the d e s c r i p t i o n and discourse o f The Wanderer, who, as a boy, roamed alone among the grand and enduring objects o f nature, subject to boyish fears and awe i n solitude, but s e n s i t i v e to nature's power to kindle or r e s t r a i n h i e fancy and imagination and h i s actions. 1  P. V l l l , *7e-8&\  2  P, XIXI, 35-37,  3  XII!; 1-50..  He, many an evening, to h i a distant home Xn solitude returning, saw the h i l l s Grow l a r g e r i n the darkness; a l l alone Beheld the stars come out above h i s head, And t r a v e l l e d through the wood, with no one near To whom he might confess, the things he saw. So the foundations of h i s mind were l a i d Xn such communion, not from t e r r o r free, While yet a c h i l d , and long before h i s time, Had he i>ereeived the presence and the power Of greatness; and deep feelings had impressed So v i v i d l y great objects that they l a y Upon h i a mind l i k e substances, whose presence Perplexed the bodily sense. He had received A precious g i f t ; f o r , as he grew i n years, With these impressions would he s t i l l compare A l l h i s remembrances, thoughts, shapes, and forms; And, being s t i l l u n s a t i s f i e d with aught Of dimmer character, he thence attained An active power to fasten Images upon h i s brain;... 8uch,«as" the Boy.. •> Xn youth, he " f e l t the sentiment of Being spread o'er a l l " and found " b l i s s i n e f f a b l e  0  i n h i s communions with nature,  and h i s moments of insight into the ultimate. ... f o r the growing Youth what soul was h i s , when, from the naked top Of some bold headland, he beheld the sun Rise up, and bathe the world i n l i g h t ! . . . F a r and wide the clouds were touched, And i n t h e i r s i l e n t feces could be read Unutterable love. Sound needed none, Nor any voice of Joy; h i s s p i r i t drank The spectacle; sensation, soul, and form. A l l melted, into him; they swallowed up His animal being; In them d i d he l i v e , And by them d i d he l i v e ; they were h i e l i f e . In such access o f mind, i n such high hour Of v i s i t a t i o n from.the l i v i n g Sod, Thought was not, i n enjoyment i t e x p i r e d . 2  Maturity was a time of peace and meditative cheerfulness, when he contemplated the inner workings of nature, her laws and her r e l a t i o n to man, """"  1 2  and turned to her as an "unerring rule and  The Excursion. X. 126-97. The Excursion. I, 197-213,  -35-  measure of ennobling p r i n c i p l e , e t e r n a l and unchanged.*  1  For, the Man-* who, i n t h i s s p i r i t communes with the Forms ©f nature, who with understanding heart Both knows and loves such objects as excite Ho morbid passions, no disquietude, Ho vengeance, and no hatred — needs must f e e l The Joy of that pure p r i n c i p l e of love So deeply, that, u n s a t i s f i e d with aught Less pure and exquisite, he cannot choose But seek f o r objects of a kindred love In fellow-natures and a kindred joy. Accordingly he by degrees perceives His f e e l i n g s of aversion softened down; A holy tenderness pervade h i e frame, ..... a l l h i s thoughts now flowing, he looks round And seeks f o r good; and finds the good he seeks. 2  Supplementary to Wordsworth's b e l i e f i n nature as a moral force«as h i s conception of nature as a source of s p i r i t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n to man.  C r i t i c s have tended to explain t h i s as-  pect o f h i s nature worship by the theory of sensation and association or to c l a s s i f y i t as transcendentalism.  His doc-  t r i n e , however, was not e n t i r e l y transcendental or a s s o c l a t lonal, but contained elements of both of these theories. Wordsworth inherited r a t i o n a l i s t and sensationalist  Philosophy and psychology from the eighteenth century.  The  assoelatleftists believed that a l l knowledge o r i g i n a t e d i n sense, without which the mind was a blank.  They believed that  ideas were simply sensations compounded, and that the higher sentiments were b u i l t up through association of pleasure and pain with c e r t a i n experiences.  Through t h i s theory Words-  1 E. de Selincourt edh, The Prelude.o. 593, I I , * l - 5 5 "rough draft manuscript which i s an 'overflow' from Hutting. The Excursion. IV, 1308-2%  81  2  -36worth explained, as described above, the part played by nature i n b u i l d i n g character.  He believed that the inward f a c -  u l t i e s must f i r s t be aroused by "the speaking face of earth and heaven", that the beauteous forms of nature  themselves  or a r e c o l l e c t i o n of them i n association with some memorable incident (such as he r e f e r s to as "spots of time"-*-), prompted sense impressions which were " f e l t i n the blood and f e l t along the heart.'' He found i n sense the s t a r t i n g point f o r h i s s p i r i t u a l progress from natural to divine. "quickening impulse" of sense impressions, he  By the was  made more prompt To hold f i t converse with the s p i r i t u a l world.  2  The senses were to him the mortals of entry to the s p i r i t u a l world. Though these sense impressions stimulated mental a c t i v i t y , they were not f o r Wordsworth s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves, or i n association with pleasure or pain, to account f o r h i s mystical awareness or i n t u i t i o n of some source of knowledge "beyond the mind of man,"  He had e a r l y experienced "impulses of a  deeper b i r t h " , and "swellings of the s p i r i t " , and had "received convictions" of a suprasensuoua force or power In the universe.  and supraration&l  His was  © mind sustained By recognitions o f transcendent ?>ower...3  2  xil, 208-335. P. XIV., 106-8.  3  £ .  x  p  XIV.,  74-5,  -37* He usually experienced this transcendent power i n scenes of solitude end silence in the out-of-doors..  He recalls going  out In the early dawn, and sitting alone in a spot overlooking the vale, when he felt "marvellous things" as a "holy Calm*' overspread his soul and the outer senses were utterly forgotten..  On such occasions he "felt a nreeence";  a sense sublime Of something . . . Whose dwelling Is . . . the l i v i n g a i r , And the blue sky, and In the mind of man: A motion and a s p i r i t that impels A l l thinking things, a l l objects of a l l thought, And r o l l s through a l l things..1  Hie intuitions of this transcendent power came to his mind through some faculty above the "toiling reason", a faculty that selected, integrated, and fused disparate sensations, which singly would have had no spiritual significance. This faculty, "creative sensibility" or "auxillar l i g h t » was for Wordsworth the imagination. This spiritual love acts not nor Can exist without imagination*2 Intercourse with the "active universe  0  soon imparts to the  infant this "poetic s p i r i t , » which doth l i k e an agent of the one great mind Create, creator and receiver both/ Working but in alliance with the works, which i t beholds. 3  1  Tlntern Abbey. 93-102  2  £ . XIV,, 188-189,  3 £> %XV«6>-<e»  i t a l i c a.  -38Through t h i s power the mind of man was °a thousand times more b e a u t i f u l than the earth on which i t dwells »  n  I t was f o r him  a transcendental force which gave unity to a l l l i f e and, bound man to God,.  I t transformed the sense impressions, and as i t  had, i t s e l f , transcendental roots, added to them a l i g h t and gleam not i n the objects themselves: An a u x i l l a r l i g h t Came from roy mind, which on the s e t t i n g aim Bestowed new splendour; The sense impressions heightened by t h i s a u x i l l a r l i g h t passed into the purer mind, where, fused with other elements of f e e l i n g and of thought, they induced a. supersensuous. i n sight, which saw into the l i f e of things: ..... that blessed mood, In which the heavy and the weary weight Of a l l t h i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e world, Ia lightened;- that serene and blessed mood, In which the a f f e c t i o n s gently lead us o n , — U n t i l , the breath .of t h i s corporeal frame And even the motion of our human blood Almost suspended, we are l a i d asleep Xn body, and become a l i v i n g soul: While with an eye made quiet by the power Of harmony, end the deep power of joy, We see into the l i f e of t h i n g s * 2  At such moments the soul "put o f f her v e i l  1 1  and penetrated  into the eternal order, and the poet, sensing the oneness of himself with the universe, needed no r a t i o n a l explanation of the relationship of nature, God and  man:.  the mighty unity . In which we behold, and f e e l , and are....3  X £v. I I , 3^8-71, a  Tintern Abbey. 37-39,,  3  P., A XXII, 254-55,,  • " r  '  "  -39* Whether or not one regards Wordsworth as a mystic depends on the d e f i n i t i o n of the term.  Granger defines mysticism as  ... that attitude o f mind which divines and moves toward the s p i r i t u a l i n the common things of l i f e . * . , * and Miss Spurgeon defines a mystic as follows: The true mystic then, i n the f u l l sense o f the term, i s one who knows there i s unity under'diversity at the centre of a l l existence, and he knows i tfeythe most perfect of a l l tests f o r the person concerned; because Under either of these d e f i n i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t t e r , Wordsworth can c e r t a i n l y be considered a mystic.  He i s not.  however, a mystic i n the Eastern sense* despising and r e j e c t i n g the, material world i n s t r i v i n g f o r absorption into Eternity, or seeking mystical a n n i h i l a t i o n and l o s s o f i d entity.  He seeks rather a v i t a l union with nature and the  Eternal, to l i v e a greater l i f e here and now, through recogn i t i o n o f the s p i r i t u a l i n the common things of l i f e . Wordsworth found h i s deepest and most abiding Joy In the s p i r i t u a l experiences described above. his  The r e a l source of  Joy and optimism l a y i n h i s recognition, not of the  beauties o f external nature, but o f the l i f e i n nature, the l i f e which he f e l t and i n which he shared.  To him, **the  highest b l i s s that can be known * was f o r minds that "hold Com1  munion with the i n v i s i b l e w o r l d .  W.  0;  He remembered h i s ex-  1 Granger, The Soul of a C h r i s t i a n , p. *1, quoted In H. Inge, "Studies of English M y s t i c s , p. 13. 0  2 C P . E, Spurgeon, Mysticism In English Literature, p. 11.  neriences of insight into nature as oeriods of "consummate happiness," and r e c a l l e d them, with thanks And gratitude, and perfect j o y of h e a r t ,  1  In the consciousness o f the unity of a l l men in.one l i f f c i d l f f u s e d through them and i n the unity o f them with nature through the same all-pervading power, the soul,, he said, reaches i t s highest state of b l i s s , Rejoices as i n her highest joy... • And passing through a l l nature r e s t s with Ood.^  1  £. IV, 13*-5.  2  £. A V I I I , 833-5  Chapter I I I THE CONCEPTIOH OF BATURE IM THE POETRY OF MATTHEW ARNOLD Matthew Arnold, eon of the famous Master of Rugby, was bora at Laleh&m, Surrey, In 18?2. childhood and early boyhood. to Fox How,  L i t t l e l a known of h i s  In I833 the Arnold family moved  l e s s than a mile front Wordsworth's home, and ac-  cording to Mr., Chambers, We have an early record of a tea-party given by Dora Wordsworth... with Wordsworth himself stretched i n the grass, and Mrs. Wordsworth reading to some of.the eiders some of h i s manuscript poetry. 1  Apparently Matthew was early acquainted with the great poet, whose work he l a t e r loved and admired. At fourteen, he was sent to school at Winchester, end a f t e r spending a year there, i n I837 entered Rugby where he spent f i v e years under the supervision of h i s father.  Dr.  Arnold Is well known f o r h i s s t e m moral teaching and d i s c i p l i n e , and f o r h i s r e v i t a l i s i n g of the c l a s s i c s and ancient history.  His mtpils l e f t Rugby with a thorough acquaintance  with the c l a s s i c s , a strong moral sense, and an ardent s o c i a l passion. This rigorous Rugby method i a i n s t r i k i n g contrast with the Hawkshead system, which allowed i t s boys so much freedom i n work and play: A race of r e a l children, not too wise, Too learned, or too good,., y i e l d i n g not In happiness to the happiest upon e a r t h ,  2  1  E, K, Chambers, Matthew Arnold; A Study. p,4v  2  P. V, 411-20.:  -*2In 18*0 Arnold won the school p r i z e f o r poetry with h i s »Alarie at Rome.*  18*1,  He won a scholarship to B a l l i o l i n  and graduated i n 1844*.  He then taught at Rugby u n t i l h i s  e l e c t i o n to a fellowship at O r i e l i n  18*5.  His f i r s t volume of poems, The Strayed Reveller and Other Poems, was published i n 1849.  His s i s t e r wrote of them:  It i s the moral strength, or, at any rate, the moral consciousness which struck and surprised me so much In the poems. 1  Matthew had apparently hitherto hidden h i s seriousness and moral consciousness, beneath h i s s u p e r f i c i a l banter, good humour, and gaiety. In I837 he was appointed secretary to Lord Lansdowne, and moved to London.  He was appointed Inspector of Schools  i n 1851, a post which he held f o r t h i r t y - f i v e years. Matthew Arnold was one of the f i r s t admirers and c r i t i c s of Wordsworth to note the "Joy whose grounds are true" pervading h i s poetry..  Xn f a c t , he attributed much of the great-  ness of Wordsworth's poetry to t h i s Joy. Wordsworth's poetry i s great because of the extraordinary power with which Wordsworth f e e l s the Joy offered to us i n nature..... The source of Joy from which he thus draws i s the truest and moat u n f a i l i n g source of joy accessible to man..-.. Nature herself seems... to take ths pen out of h i s hand, and to write f o r him with her own bare, sheer, penetrating power,? One would expect such a tribute to be made only by a man  who  1 A Writer'a Recollectlone, p, 45, quoted In H.F.Lowry, The Letters of Matthew Arnold to Arthur Hugh Plough. p * 2 6 . 2  Essay3 In C r i t i c i s m . Second Series, pp^ 108-9,  112  -*3-  also f e l t that Joy i n nature.  However, there i s c e r t a i n l y very  l i t t l e f e e l i n g o f Joy i n Arnold's poetry.  The p r e v a i l i n g mood  of h i s poetry i s rather one of longing, regret, or melancholy, and at the beat an austere and r a r i f i e d s t o i c a l pleasure.  This  does not suggest that Arnold was insensitive to nature. I n deed, he was a true Englishman i n h i s deep appreciation o f the beauties of nature.  He observed nature c l o s e l y and ac-  curately, and what he says of h i s descriptions i n Thvrais i s a p p l i c a b l e to a l l h i s nature poetry: "The images are a l l from actual observation.."  1  In many of h i s l e t t e r s to h i s mother,  he described the beauties o f various places he v i s i t e d i n h i s inspection tours.  His descriptions i n Thyrsia and The Scho-  l a r gypsy have made him the r>oet of the Cummer countryside, as Wordsworth i s o f the Lakes D i s t r i c t . When garden-walks, and a l l the f l o o r , With bloesoms, red and white, o f f a l l e n May, And chestnut-flowers are strewn— So have I heard the-cuckoo's p a r t i n g cry, From the wet f i e l d , through the vext garden trees, Gome with the v o l l e y i n g r a i n and tossing breeze. 2  He wrote a l s o o f the gleaming "pale, dew-drench*d, half-shut roses", the "burnished sycamores", "gold-dusted snapdragon", and of sweet-William "with i t s homely cottage smell," He noticed "the fragrant lawn with i t s cool trees," end the white anemones that "starr'd the c o o l t u r f " , the "blue, haze- . cradled mountains", the "Jasmine muffled l a t t i c e s " , and the "darting swallowa" and "bright-eyed s q u i r r e l s . " 1  0 , W, E, H u s 8 e l l , Letters o f Matthew Arnold. Vol,I,p,325.  2  Thyrale, l i n e s 54-59.  -44Arnold was as sensitive to "the nighty world of eye  and  ear" as h i s great Master.. His pleasures i n nature were mainly derived frost sensuous aesthetic perception of external nature. The quiet, peaceful countryside brought him peace and quiet and sensuous delight.. At such times nature became the "calm soul of a l l things19 to which he could retreat from "men's impious uproar" and f i n d a peace of thine Han d i d not make, and cannot mar.f There are a f f i n i t i e s with Wordsworth i n t h i s contrasting of the quiet of nature with the disquietude of man.  Words-  worth praised the mountains and the sounding cataracts f o r keeping him from " l i t t l e enmities and low d e s i r e s " ; end 2  Arnold looked to the sun, moon, and stars, "too great f o r haste, too high f o r rivalry.."3  For Wordsworth, "the morning  shines, nor heedeth man's perverseness '; and f o r Arnold, Hi{  the same vainly-throbbing heart was there, and the same bright calm rnoon.''^ This, conception of nature i s of course more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Arnold than of Wordsworth.. Arnold wished on h i s "bed of death  0  to escape the minis-  t r a t i o n s of doctor and p r i e s t and to see once more. Bathed i n the sacred dews of morn The wide a e r i a l landscape spread-The world which was ere X was born, The world which l a s t s when X am dead.  1  Kenalttgton gardens. 37-40.  3  £... I X , 431,.  3 4 5  Quiet Work. 8. P. X X X , 3 I - 2 , A Summer Night.  24-5,  v  There l e t me 0 0 2 © , t i l l I become Is soul t&th what "I .gee* on wedt To f e e l the univeroe js^ home; To have before ay mind-**,.  •  -  The pure e t e r n a l course of l i f e , Hot human combetings with death. Thue f e e l i n g , gazing, l e t me grow Cempoe'd, refre&h'fii ennobled, ole®r;, ,-* In  t h i n wiph f o r peace end quiet there was also a Seep desire  for  permanence end o yearning f o r $ »®nee o f oaeneee with the  universe.  Throughout h i e l i f e Arnold sought gome p r i n c i p l e  of  permanence on which he could r e l y , some base fro© which  to  combat, This ©treage di&eeee of modem l i f e « . tfith i t s sick harry, i t s divided »i»o*  He FQW i n nature the permanence and peace that he deelred. To him, as to Wordsworth, she Hold® up before the mind i s t o x i c s t o 3lth present objects, end the busy dance Of things that pao© seat, a temperate shew Of object© thet endure. 5  In the  t h i s e t e h i l i t y end permanence, Arnold thought, ley  superiority af listuro over ison*  Mature outlasted the  poet end h i e themes, outlasted man, end outloeted death. Arnold found t h i s permanene© e d i f y i n g i n contract vith the tronisltorineee of men.  3hlle the "complaining millions'* of oen  l i v e d i n "labour and pain,* noturo looked on "mild and Inscrut4  ably eaim, * Arnold turned to nature f o r her exemplary and e&ifyw  '  1 8  A UishT¥3-W;"41-80.  [  ^Sto Scholar Qyasv, 803-4.  3  P.•XIII,  4  The Youth o f Mature &nd The Youth o f Bteiu  ~ '"'""''" n  -lining  aspects.  The cosmos c a r r i e d out i t s operations above the  adhere of man, and  and could provide him with an example of peace  tranquillity: One lesson, nature, l e t me learn of t h e e — One lesson that i n every wind i s blown, ... Of t o i l unaever'd from T r a n q u i l l i t y . . . $ h i l e on earth a thousand discords r i n g S t i l l do thy sleepless ministers move on, Their glorious tasks i n silence perfecting... Labourers that s h a l l not f a i l , when man i s gone.  By contrast with man who ing  1  t o i l e d "with aching hands and b l e e d -  feet", nature performed her work e f f o r t l e s s l y and  un-  queationingly, ?nd i n so doing achieved a calm and d i g n i t y lacking i n  man.  Unaffrlghted by the silence round them, tJn&istracted by the eights they see These demand not that the things without them Y i e l d them love, amusement, sympathy. 2  Arnold also suggested that nature had once s t r i v e n l i k e  man  and had s i m i l a r l y f e l t "that severe, that earnest a i r " , but had f i n a l l y achieved peace and t r a n q u i l l i t y ; and he implies that perhaps man  too may  f i n d the law of h i s being. 3  Arnold  merely suggested this without explanation or developmentJ  He  could carry the thought no further. Though Arnold emotionally desired to i d e n t i f y hims e l f with nature and assign himself & place i n the permanent cosmic processes, he was  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y unable to do so.  His  Empedocles, i n Emoedoclea on Etna, was able to do so only i n death. 1 2 3  Quiet Work. 8elf-Dependence. 17-20. Morality, l a s t stanza.  -47-  Arnold's enjoyment of nature was, on the whole, a mature centemulative pleasure.  In him there wag nose o f Words-  worth e e c s t a t i c delight i n nature f o r her own eaks. 1  We cannot  Imagine Arnold abandoning himself t o nature's "aching Joys" and "dizzy raptures", nor can we olcture him, even as a c h i l d , sporting "naked i n the thunder, shower'., as Wordsworth d i d . 1  Indeed, nature does not seem to have held much appeal f o r Arnold as a c h i l d : In many people, perhaps with the majority of educated persons, the love of nature i s n e a r l y imperceptible a t ten y|&rs o l d , but strongly operative at t h i r t y . 1  In maturity, Arnold lacked Wordsworth's enthusiasm f o r nature because he lacked h i s imaginative insight i n t o nature.  Arnold's reasoned deductions about nature carry none  of the warmth of Wordsworth's emotional convictions. Arnold turned to nature f o r moral example, and Wordsworth turned to her f o r moral help.  Wordsworth believed that nature a c t i v e l y  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the moral growth of man through childhood, youth, and maturity.  Bature, for him, was not the cold  "uncaring and undelighted" stars o f Arnold's Empedocles, nor the solemn h i l l s and lonely sky performing t h e i r t&sks i n s t o i c resignation, but a warm and glowing universe that enlarged- and strengthened the sympathies and a f f e c t i o n s and stimulated the imagination.  1  Esaava i n C r i t i c i s m . Second Series* p., 107.  Arnold's rare visionary momenta brought him l i t t l e  comfort  compared to the joy which Wordsworth derived from s i m i l a r experiences.  Arnold saw through nature  That general l i f e , which does not cease, Whose secret i s not joy, but peace. 1  To Wordsworth i t was nature's p r i v i l e g e Through a l l the years o f t h i s our l i f e , to lead From joy to j o y . . . * 2  Wordaworth had f a i t h that every flower enjoyed the a i r i t breathed, whereas Arnold observed that the solemn h i l l s and lonely sky seamed to bear rather than r e j o i c e . Though Arnold found great consolation i n Wordsworth's expressions o f h i s f a i t h , he could not accent t h e i r premises. He implied that Wordsworth's optimism was possible only to one who could avert h i s eyes from "half o f human fate"3 or out by "the cloud o f mortal destiny."** We must admit that there i s a c e r t a i n amount o f j u s t i c e i n Arnold's c r i t i c i s m .  Wordsworth  inherited the 'Divine Providence' philosophy of the eighteenth century and found no reason to question i t seriously.  In the  seclusion of the lakes and mountains, he could ignore many o f the darker aspects o f human existence.  Disregard of e v i l ,  however, was not the sole basis f o r Wordsworth's optimism and f a i t h i n nature.  He saw nature as a u n i f i e d whole, with  each element transfused and modified by h i s conception of the 1  Resignation. 191-2.  2 3  Tint em Abbey. 12^-5. Stanzas i n Memory of the Author of "Obermann". 53,  4  Memorial Verses. 70*  -incomplete plan.  He thought that there was,  ... a s p i r i t and a pulse o f good, A l i f e and soul, to every mode o f being Inseparably l i n k e d . 1  He apprehended, as d i d many eighteenth century optimists, the good i n the whole rather than merely the e v i l i n the parts. He saw that sometimes pain and wrong were conditions cont r i b u t i n g to the happiness o f the whole; f o r example., the poverty of the Cumberland Beggar disposed the v i l l a g e r s to virtue and true goodness.  I t was nature's law that no created  things "should exist divorced from good."  Wordsworth had found  joy  and happiness the only true l i f e f o r himself.  In h i s per-  iod  of bondage to the i n t e l l e c t , he had been shut o f f from h i s  highest moods and c l e a r e s t moments of insight and rapture, and suffered despair and lethargy o f soul.  He had re-estab-  l i s h e d contact with h i s true s e l f only through h i s f e e l i n g s , i n contact with nature —  the sources of h i s former joy.  Dea-  p a i r had shut o f f the avenue to t r u t h ; joy had re-opened i t . He consciously strove to obtain joy from everything he perceived*  Indeed, he considered i t part o f the poet's a r t and  duty to provide joy f o r man: The poet writes under one r e s t r i c t i o n only, namely, the necessity of g i v i n g immediate pleasure to a human being....,2  1  The Old Cumberland Beggar. 77-79.  2 "Preface t o L y r i c a l Ballade", P o e t i c a l Works, ed. Hutchinson, p. 938.  i  -SoArnold d i d not have Wordsworth's f a i t h nor h i s p h i l o s o phic optimism.  He d i d not experience Wordsworth's mystic i n -  t u i t i o n s of the unity of a l l l i f e i n and through nature* pnd he d i d not apprehend the Inscrutable workmanship that reconciles Discordant elements.... 1  ^Rigorous teachers* had early purged M s  f a i t h and shown him  "the high white s t a r of T r u t h " , l . e . truth acceptable to the 2  intellect.  He could see no proof of harmony or purposlveness  i n nature, and was  left,  Wandering between two worlds, one dead The other powerless to be born. 3 In h i s duties as Inspector of Schools, he saw a i l the s o c i a l etflls of a m a t e r i a l i s t society fostered by the Indust r i a l Hevolution.  He dwelt with the P h i l i s t i n e s i n t h e i r tents,  and had too strong a sense of moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to shut h i s eyes to the world In which he dwelt.  He took f o r granted the  p r e v a i l i n g s c i e n t i f i c attitude towards nature, and f o r him  she  was c e r t a i n l y not benevolent and good, but merely Indifferent and uncaring.  In her very indifference l a y her inherent  cruelty. nature with equal mind, . 3ees a l l her sons at play, Bees man control the wind, The.wind sweep man away: Allows the proudly-priding and the founder *d  berk..*  1 2  £.1, 3*2-3* ~ ' ^ Stan&as from the Qrsnd Chartreuse. 67-69,  3  Ibid.  "  85-6.  4 Empedocles on Etna.257-61. Other expressions of t h i s constantly recurring theme may be found i n Resignation. Consol a t i o n and A Summer Wight.  -51Arhold was unable to decide whether the world waa & creation from the "mind of One all-pure*, or whether i t was but "a w i l d unfathered mess" with no divine o r i g i n *  He posed the problem,  1  and was prepared f o r either a l t e r n a t i v e , but gave no answer. His uncertain stand was indeed a lon$ step from that of the eighteenth century Deists and of Wordsworth* For Wordsworth, love of nature l e d to love and esteem o f ©an; but f o r Arnold, "nature and man never can be fast f r i e n d s . " One of the central tenets of Arnold's doctrine of nature was  the  superiority of man over nature; Know, man hath a l l which nature hath, but more. And i n that more l i e s a l l h i s hopes of good.3 Hature was c r u e l , f i c k l e , unthinking, and i n d i f f e r e n t , but  man  could transcend nature through the 'more that made him unique 1  i n the universe, i . e . h i s Reason and Conscience.,  Arnold be-  l i e v e d that th® p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the human s p i r i t could be r e a l i z e d only through culture.  He believed that through c u l -  ture man could f u l f i l l the law of h i s being and could transcend nature.  Han's task then was to d i r e c t h i s energies to  s o c i a l culture,  nature's ministers again provided man with  an example, Xn t h e i r own tasks a l l t h e i r powers pouring Theae a t t a i n the mighty l i f e you see..**" 1  Xn Utrurooue Paratua.  2  Xn Harmony with fl&ture. 13,  3  Ibid.  4  Self-Deaendence. 27-28.  5-6.  2  -52Arnold thought that t h i a culture could be beet acquired through a knowledge of t h e best that has been said and thought i n the w  world,* Th© study of l e t t e r s i s the study o f the operation of human force, of human freedom and a c t i v i t y ; the study o f nature i s the study of the operation o f human l i m i t a t i o n s and p a s s i v i t y . The Contemplation of human force and a c t i v i t y tends to heighten our force and a c t i v i t y ; the contemplation of human l i m i t s and p a s s i v i t y tends rather to cheek i t . l He said elsewhere that the a r t , and poetry, and eloquence of men who l i v e d long ago had the power of "refreshing and delighting  41  us, and that they have also a " f o r t i f y i n g , and  elevating, and quickening, and suggestive mower."  2  worth found a l l these powers i n nature.  Words-  Wordsworth's t r i b u t e  to the Greeks was to the "unenlightened swains o f pagan Greece,» who. In r u r a l solitude, through the working of the Imagination created myths out of t h e i r own experiences  —  myths which could serve as moral guides, "outward ministers of inward conscience."3  Arnold's greatest praise was f o r the  most enlightened greeks. The inner consolation which Arnold found i n men o f the past, Wordsworth found i n nature.  "In these bad days" Arnold's  mind waa propped by Socrates, "the clearest soul'a o f men", and Wordsworth i n h i s 1  Schools and U n i v e r s i t i e s on the Continent. London,1368, quoted i n P. A. Dudley, "Matthew Arnold and Science", PHLA, 57.. Har. 19*2, p. 290,  0.260,  2 "Literature and Science, Arnold. Introduction and Rotes by E. K. Chambers, p. 178, tt  3  The Excursion. IV, 77*-8*6,  -53iron time Of doubts, disputes, d i s t r a c t i o n s , f e a r s  1  retained h i s "more than Roman confidence" i n humanity through the ministry of nature: .,.. the g i f t i s yours Ye winds and sounding cataractsi ' t i s yours, Ye mountains.' thine, 0 Nature.* 2  Arnold would have man imitate nature only i n f u l f i l l i n g h i s destiny as nature f u l f i l l e d hers. example, and even some i n s p i r a t i o n ,  Nature provided the we begin to get some  r e l i e f from Arnold's almost overwhelming pessimism, as he finds a source of hope and optimism.  Se looks now t o the  calm, untroubled heavens, as A world above man's head, to l e t him see Row boundless might h i s soul's horizon he, How vest, yet of what c l e a r transparency. How high a l o t to f i l l Is l e f t t o each man  still.3  The very s t r i v i n g to transcend nature would r a i s e him above "the brutes who l i v e without a plan."  There was no force .  outside man to which he could turn f o r a i d , To i t s own impulse every creature s t i r s , Live by thy l i g h t , and Earth w i l l l i v e by hers.  14,  Man had "no t i t l e from the Gods to welfare and repose"; he had only the possible Socrates i n every man and the c o l l e c t i v e beat s e l f of a nation on which he could r e l y , 1  Memorial Ver sea. ^3-W>.  2  £ . 1 1 , WK>-7.  3  A Summer Right. 80-92.  k  Religious I s o l a t i o n . 13-14.  Man then, during h i s  ~B4-  GO.journ 013 earth had t h i s hope, plus the eon se l e t lots e f external nature* limited as i t was.  seal!  Io i t eo a thing To have ess joy* d the sun, To have l i v e d l i g h t i n the ©pri;a&.,,9  %  hm he reached the end. o f M s journey, home doon the M v s r of finse, mm might even s e s u i r Q , through the example set by nature, pgeee o f mind and soul, and perhaps catch, Kurmure end seat*to e f th© i n f i n i t e eeo.  1  anwedfliciee on Utmo»''§eV-vC-.  S  The Future. © 7 .  g  Chapter XV .  ITorfieoorth and Arnold wore both poets of the countryside, who preferred the consoling l o v e l i n e s s o f rural nature to the disturbing drobnessof torn l i f e .  They were both keenly sen-  s i t i v e to the external beauties of the physical world; end both described these beoutiea simply and accurately.  They both  turned to nature f o r solitude, peace, end t r a n q u i l l i t y , end for  i t s soothing end healing powers away from a work-a-day  world. But i n t h e i r abstract conceptions of nature the two men d i f f e r e d fundamentally,  Although both men  conceived o f  nature as the great example of permanence, peace, end stabi l i t y , they d i d not hold i d e n t i c a l opinions ©bout nature's regard f o r man or man's, proper regard f o r nature.  Words-  worth's was a doctrine of joy and optimism, end Arnold'© one of  atolciem and pessimism.  Bach poet's conception of nature  was consistent with h i s own times, end the reasons f o r the difference i n t h e i r doctrines of nature are found i n the progress of science and thought from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth century* ^ordewerth?© conception o f nature was consistent with his rt  all  whole phllorophy of l i f e .  To Wordsworth, nature was  i a a l l " , flne part of Wordsworth's love of nature was  due to the freedom of hie early l i f e , when aa a boy he roamed and played in and around the b e a u t i f u l lakes end mountains of the Lekea d i s t r i c t .  Another part sprang from the eighteenth  century philosophy of the benevolence of nature and the good-  -56nees and power of the Ueity. In h i e ortnodox C h r i s t i a n home, Uordeworth hod been taught t o love eisd reverence Obd ee the all-powerful Deity,  The fee l i n g s end impulses which he early  experienced i n h i e own soul were eventually equated with t h i s all-powerful God. He conceived o f God as the l i f e i n thing®, the l i f e i n and behind nature - e Deity both lmmeneht and transcendent,  By a aynthe&ia of person©! experience end  eighteenth century philosophy and r e l i g i o n , Ebrdsworth developed h i s e t h i c a l doctrine o f benevolence * Sic  optimiem end joy tsero baaed on thia conviction o f  benevolence and as>od i n the world, and on h i a i n t u i t i o n o f the oneneea of man and nature.  The French devolution des-  troyed h i s f a i t h i n pure Heasion, ond renewed and strengthened hie  f a i t h i n nature.  Through this experience, be recognized  that nature, the o r i g i n a l source'Of h i e happiner©, wee the true source of Truth and <Toy f o r man.  He believed that  through nature man could be led t o love hie fellow men end to  love, worship, and obey ©od. In t*ordsworth a tim, i t mo thought tbat the laws o f f  nature could be applied to the p o l i t i c s o f man to cure s o c i a l ilia.  Nature was* then the lodestar to human perfection and  hoppiaeor.  At such e tliae an optimistic view of nature was  common and acceptable. By Arnold*a time appeal was* mode to the lows o f nature to j u s t i f y economic depression and human misery.  There oae a  loss o f f a i t h i n God, and i a a benevolent Pelty working i n and behind nature.  Nature, i n ceasing', to be divine, ceaeed  -57to be Interested In human welfare, and there was no longer the sense o f a common s p i r i t binding man and nature., The laws o f economies, science, and experience had exposed nature as i n d i f f e r e n t , c r u e l , ana f i c k l e .  The law of the phy*  s i c a l world, as of the economic, was the law o f survival o f the f i t t e s t . Arnold d i d not unquestioningly accent a l l the contemporary interpretations of nature, p a r t i c u l a r l y the assumptions of the economists and o f those who regarded economic theories as 'natural* laws.  He d i d , however, take f o r granted nat-  ure's c r u e l t y and blindness.  He found nothing i n h i s obser-  vations or experience t o make him think otherwise.  Indeed  h i s own pursuit o f truth had destroyed h i s f a i t h i n a benevolent Deity behind nature.,  He regarded nature as a great  i n d i f f e r e n t force, s i l e n t l y and t r a n q u i l l y f u l f i l l i n g the inexorable laws of i t s being, apart from man.  In carrying  out i t s task, nature provided man with an example o f steadfastness, t r a n q u i l l i t y and resignation, but also demonstrated to man that h i s survival depended on h i s own e f f o r t s . Arnold believed that i n a l e v e l l e d and mechanical universe, man could become superior only through h i s own e f f o r t s , only by s t r i v i n g to transcend h i s brute creation, i . e . by s t r i v i n g to transcend nature,.  I f man were t o survive, he must sur-  vive oh the higher l e v e l to which he was capable o f r i s i n g , the l e v e l t o which man In the past had risen,. could be attained through culture.  This l e v e l  •  ~9B*  Arnold*e pessimistic view of nature seems to be tb® poly tenable ©its f o r a man  aneke to b i s times i n tho m a t e r i a l i s t i c  world.created by science and tne I n d u s t r i a l Devolution, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a mail «it» Arnold's strong ©oral conscience. Between the time of ^ordsi^orth and Arnold, man l o s t h i s place i n nature and In the Chain of Being.  He v&o had been  the chosen creature and colleague of nature had n©e> become her unregarded servant,  There ssas apparently no longer rea-  son or order i n nature,  $hen man  ceased to be the mala l i n k  in the Chain o f Using, i t collapsed, leaving only a d i e * ordered heap of uniformly smell l i n k a . i n the tangled ma$£•  t&m m@  loot to sight  Bature had l o s t her order and t e l e o l -  ogies! purpose and had becoae an overwhelming and i r r a t i o n a l external force uhlchtmn must s t r i v e to overcome• nature ees replaced by f a i t h i n man,  F a i t h in  and there ©aa nothing  l e f t in nature but her physical aSornmente - mountaine and lekee, gras©, trees, end f l o w r e .  fhes® continued to give  |oy and congelation in an otherwise drab universe, but they cere no longer evidence of e divine and benevolent i n and behind nature.  iblng  -59B  X.  1  8  L.I  O . f t S A  p  n  HISTORICAL MCKOBQUHD  Sernbsum, E., ed., Oelecttong from the Pre-Romantic Movement. 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Appleton-Oentury Company, Inc., 193^* Darwin, C , The L i f e and Letters of Charles Parwln. ed*, Prone 10 Darwin, London, John Jlurrsy, 1887* 9eane, C. V., Aspect« of Eighteenth Century fetura Pqetry. Oxford, B a s i l Qlsckwell, 1935. Powden, E., The French devolution find English L i t e r a t u r e . London, Kegen Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd., 1911* F c i r c h i l d , ff. II., The 13ohle gava&e. Hew York, Columbia University Preso, 1928. Graves, C. L., nr. Punch'n History of Modern England. London, C a s s e l l and Company Ltd., 1921. de Haas, C. E., Oature and the Country i n Emyllah Poetry of the F i r s t Half of the Eighteenth Cantury. Amsterdam, H. J . P a r i s , 1 9 2 8 . •  -6oHammond, J . L., and Hammond, Barbara, The Town Labourer^ London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1920. Hartley, D.., Observations on Man. Hie Frame. His Duty and His Expectations. (1791) Londoh Reprinted f o r J . Johnson, 1791. f  r  Inge,, W. R. The Victorian Age. Cambridge, University Press, 1922. LoveJoy, A. 0., The Oreat Chain of Being. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press," 1936. Hal thus-, T. R., An Essay on the P r i n c i p l e of Population. . F i f t h E d i t i o n , London, John Murrey, 1617. Reynolds, Myra, Nature In English Poetry Between Pone and Wordsworth. Chicago. University o f Chicago Press 1909. f  Routh, H. V., England Under V i c t o r i a . London, Hethuen and Go.., Ltd., 1930. Routh, H. V,,- Towards the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, University Press, 1937. S c h i l l i n g , Bernard N., Human Dignity and the Oreat V i c t o r i a n s . Hew York, Columbia University Press, 19*7. Somervell, D. C , The V i c t o r i a n Aae. London, *0>. Bell, and Sons, 1937, H i s t o r i c a l Association Pamphlet, No, 107... Somervell, D. C , English Thought i n the Nineteenth Century. London, Methusn and Co., Ltd., 1929, . Stevenson, L i o n e l , Darwin Among the Poets. Chicago, Univers i t y o f Chicago Press, 1932. Tinker, C. B., nature's Blmole Plan. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1922. Trevelyan, 0, M . , B r i t i s h ^ H i s t o r y i n the Nineteenth Century and A f t e r (1782-1919). London. Longmans. Green and Co., Second E d i t i o n , 1937, Wagner, B v 0., ed., S o c i a l Reformers: Adam Smith to John Dewey. Hew York, The MacMlllan Company, 19^3* Whitehead, A. H., Science and the Modern World. Hew York, The MacMlllan Go., 1925. Willey, B a s i l , The Eighteenth Century Background. London, Chatto and Windus, 19&0.  -61Wlngfield-Stratford, E., The V i c t o r i a n Tragedy. London 8. Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1931.  r  Young, 0. M., V i c t o r i a n England. London, Humphrey Milford,  1936.  II.  WILLIAM WORDSWORTH  Bibliography Bateson, F. W., ed., The Cambridge Bibliography of English Xiterature.. Cambridge, University Press, 19^0, Vol.. 3 , pp. 165-172. Works The Poetical. Works of William Wordsworth, ed.., Hutchinson, T.,, (1850), Oxford University Press, 19*2. The Prelude., ed, from the manuscripts by E. de Sellncourt, Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1926. Poems of Wordsworth. Chosen and ed. Matthew Arnold, London, MacMlllan. and Co., Ltd., 1897. Critical  .  Arnold, Matthew. Essays and Studies. Second Series (1888), London, MacMlllan and Col, Ltd., 19*1, Beatty, Arthur, William Wordsworth; His Doctrine and Art i n t h e i r H i s t o r i c a l Relation, second ed,., Madison, Univers i t y of Wisconsin Studies i n Language and Literature,  Ho. 2*>.-1929.  Bradley, A. C , Oxford Lectures on Poetry, London, MacMlllan and Co., Ltd., 193*. Burra, P., Wordsworth. London, Duckworth, 1936, Cooper, Lane, A Concordance t o the Poems of William Wordsworth. London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1911, Oarrod, W.. H.., Wordsworth. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1923, Oingerich, 8. F., Essays i n the Romantic Poets. Hew York, The MacMlllan Company, 1929.  -62Harper, ft. H., Wllilam Wordsworth His L i f e . works, and Influence . 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D., ed., Bibliographies o f Studies i n V i c t o r i a n Literature..1932-19***, Urbana, University o f I l l i n o i s . Press, 19**5. works The Poems o f Matthew Arnold, 18*0*1867, London, Oxford . University Press, 1937. The Poems o f Matthew Arnold. 18*0-1866. (Everyman edn.), London, J . M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., 1912. Poetry and Prose, with an Introduction and Notes by E. K. Chambers, Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1939. Culture and Anarchy and Friendship's Garland. New York, The MacMlllan Company, 1899. Essays In C r i t i c i s m . Second Series (1888), London, MacMlllan and Co., Ltd., 19*1. Critical Chambers, E. JC., Matthew Arnold. A Study. Oxford, At the Clarendon Press^ 19*7. Harvey, C.H., Matthew Arnold: A C r i t i c of the V i c t o r i a n Period. London, James Clarke and Co., Ltd., 1931. " Lowry, H. F., The Letters o f Matthew Arnold to Arthur Hugh Plough. London and New York, Oxford University Press, Humphrey Milford, 1932. Lucas, F. L., Ten Victorian Poets. Cambridge, University Press, 19*0. Russell, G. W. E., Matthew.Arnold. New York, Charles S c r i b ner's Sons, 19o5>  -64Rusoell, 0. U. E., Letters of Matthew Arnold. 1848-1888. c o l l e c t e d and arranged by O.' V, E . Rugsell, London, IfecMlllan and Go., 1895. Oells, XrlSj E., Matthew Arnold and France. Cambridge, University Press, 1935. Tinker, C. B. ana Lowry, H. F,, The Poetry of Matthew Arnold London, Oxford University Press, 1940;  f  T r i l l i n g , . L i o n e l , Matthew Arnold. Hew York, W* W< Sbrton and Co., 1930. Walker^ Hugh, The Literature of the Victorian Sra. Cambridge, University Press, 1940. Periodicals Bradfleld, Thomas, " E t h i c a l Tendency of Ifet^jheiKArnold's Poety,* Westminster Review. Vol. 142 xJuiy/Beceraber,1894),  PP.  650-06T  v_y  Bush, D., "The Varied Hues of Pessimism,* ftalhousle Review. Vol* 9 (October, 1929), pp. 271-281. Dudleyj F. A., "Matthew Arnold and Science," Publications of the tfo&era Language Association of America. V o l . 57, (Kerch, 1942), pp. 275-294. E l l i o t t , 0. R., "The Amoldlan L y r i c Melancholy," Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. Vol. 38, (December, 1923), pp. 929-932. ^ Sedgewlck, G, G., "tfordswofcth, Arnold, and Profesoor Lane Cooper," Dalhousle Review^ Vol. 10 ( A p r i l , 1930), pp. 57-66.  


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