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Alexandra Neighbourhood House : a survey of the origins and development of a Vancouver institution in… Helm, Elmer Joseph 1952

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ALEXANDRA NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE A survey o f the o r i g i n s and development o f a Vancouver i n s t i t u t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to i t s l o c a l environment.  t>y  Elmer Joseph Helm  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work  1952 The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  ABSTRACT  This thesis i s concerned with the function of Alexandra House and the r o l e i t has played i n the neighbourhood. S p e c i a l attention has been devoted to the period from 1938, when the agency became a neighbourhood house, to A p r i l 1952. In the h i s t o r i c a l sketch emphasis i s placed on programme, s t a f f , and administration of the agency. The s o c i a l and physical t r a n s i t i o n s within the neighbourhood are also considered, i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r influence on the r o l e of Alexandra House. The material f o r the study was gained from annual and monthly reports, minutes of s t a f f and Board of D i r e c t o r s ' meetings, interviews with agency personnel, surveys made of the area, and other material secured through the co-operation of the agency and the Community Chest. The function of the agency and i t s services was analyzed on the basis of a series of c r i t e r i a of neighbourhood-house operation. Comparison of the early non-professional s t a f f with the present professional s t a f f was possible, by analyzing the programmes of the two d i f f e r e n t periods. The t h e s i s shows that s o c i a l and economic changes within an area influence the attitudes and the needs of the people; an i n s t i t u t i o n must change appropriately i n order to meet the needs of the residents. The study also reveals the necessity of professional s t a f f to perfonu a q u a l i t a t i v e job. However, not only should a neighbourhood house programme evolve from the needs of the community, but the people within the community should assume more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r activities. A q u a l i t y programme has evolved slowly with the aid of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained workers. Good leadership emphasizes q u a l i t y rather than quantity; but i t also i l l u s t r a t e s that co-operation between a l l personnel i s required f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y , and that volunteers and students are able to contribute to the programme more e f f e c t i v e l y with proper supervision from professional s t a f f . Looking at the future, the study reveals the need f o r a re-statement of t h i s ninction, as the changes within the neighbourhood bring changes i n the neighbours, and some d r a s t i c redevelopment p o s s i b i l i t i e s loom f o r the d i s t r i c t .  TABLE of CONTENTS  Background of Neighbourhood Houses A h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h of the settlement movement; e a r l y B r i t i s h beginnings and spread to the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. The b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y of neighbourhood houses and the major areas of s e r v i c e . The  Community  Served.  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i s t r i c t served by Alexandra House i n c l u d i n g b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , type of homes, s c h o o l s , churches, and p l a y ground space. The t r a n s i t i o n a l changes i n the d i s t r i c t : I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , proposed G r a n v i l l e Bridge and the a r t e r i a l roads which cut up the a r e a , are p o r t r a y e d . Depression and War  Years.  A h i s t o r i c a l sketch of the e a r l y h i s t o r y of Alexandra House. The b e g i n n i n g of the Neighbourhood House i n 1938 and up t o 1 9 4 5 » Composition of membership, s t a f f and p r o gramme. Leadership problems. Post War  Years.  A n a l y s i s of programme and s t a f f from 1945 u n t i l 1948. P r o f e s s i o n a l Group Work t r a i n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Community Chest Survey of the programme and s t a f f of the House. A n a l y s i s of recommendations made. Looking to the F u t u r e . The s e r v i c e s of the House from 1948 to 1952. Neighbourhood s e r v e d . D i v e r s i t y of s e r v i c e s to d i f f e r e n t age groups. Quality programmes and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . Respons i b i l i t y of community p e o p l e . F u t u r e r o l e of the House. Conclusions«  TABLE of CONTENTS Page  APPENDICES 1.  Bibliography (a) Background References . (b) Sources f o r t h i s study  78 79  CHARTS, MAPS and TABLES (a)  Charts D i s t r i b u t i o n of Membership . . . . O r g a n i z a t i o n of Alexandra Community Activities  Chart 1 Chart 2  (b)  1  A e r i a l Photograph of Neighbour-  Map  2  G r a n v i l l e Bridge Project  Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4  »  a  e  e  •  •  •  •  •  18 24  Tables Membership of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, 1948 54 Membership of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, 1948 - 1952 61 S p e c i f i c Groups of A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House, 1948 - 1952 . . . . 66 I n d i v i d u a l S e r v i c e s to Members of Alexandra Neighbourhood House,  1948 - 1952  Table 5  39  Maps  Map  (c).  16  67  Students and v o l u n t e e r s a t A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House, 1948 - 1952 . 72  CHAPTER  I  BACKGROUND of NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSES The terms "settlement houses" and "neighbourhood houses" a r e o f t e n c o n f u s i n g t o the r e a d e r when used i n t e r c h a n g e ably.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the word " s e t t l e m e n t " o r i g i n a t e d i n England  when Samuel A. B a r n e t t used t h i s word t o d e s c r i b e a group o f people who " s e t t l e d " i n a w o r k i n g - c l a s s neighbourhood, i n o r d e r t h a t they might b e t t e r understand the p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s and h e l p t o improve them.  The term "neighbourhood house" became  popular i n America as a term d e n o t i n g an a c t i v i t y c e n t r e which d i d not emphasize  the p h i l o s o p h y of the e a r l i e r  settlements.  Today many o t h e r terms a r e used, such as "community houses", " a s s o c i a t i o n " , "commons", " h a l l s " ,  "inns", e t c . , but regardless  of these v a r i a t i o n s , i n a l l s e t t l e m e n t s today, the neighbourhood i s accepted as the base of o p e r a t i o n s .  1  I t i s approximately seventy y e a r s s i n c e the Settlement Movement f i r s t began i n England, y e t many people s t i l l the r e a l p l a c e and purpose of a neighbourhood house.  do n o t know This i s only  n a t u r a l , because the a c t i v i t i e s a r e so v a r i e d and o f t e n appear so u n r e l a t e d t h a t a person i s o f t e n impressed by whatever he sees f i r s t or what i s most p o p u l a r among the members.  Thus a n e i g h -  bourhood house i s o f t e n viewed as a club house, a s c h o o l , a r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e , o r as a c h a r i t a b l e agency.  The main f a c t t o  be remembered i s that the neighbourhood house i s not merely a  1. Soule, F r e d e r i c k , "Settlements and Neighbourhood Houses", S o c i a l Work Year Book, New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1947, pp. 463-68.  - 2 p l a c e f o r a c t i v i t y , but a p l a c e f o r n e i g h b o u r l y r e l a t i o n s .  Mary  Simkhovitch e x p l a i n s i n an i l l u s t r a t i v e manner t h a t the s e t t l e ment i s a f a m i l y l i v i n g i t s l i f e w i t h i t s neighbours, and refers similar  to t h i s a r t i f i c i a l  she  f a m i l y as a "group" of people w i t h  ideas©  "The k e r n e l of the settlement i s the group itself. What the group does/depends on the needs of the neighbourhood and whether they can b e s t be met by t h i s group or by other means". T h i s q u o t a t i o n n a t u r a l l y l e a d s t o the statement that s e t t l e m e n t s are  l i v i n g s o c i a l organisms.  because  Human needs are always  of the continuous environmental changes.  changing  The needs of  the people are becoming more apparent i n the community and i z e d agencies are b e i n g developed t o meet these needs.  special-  Therefore  the f u n c t i o n o f a s e t t l e m e n t house should always be f l e x i b l e . i s remarkable how  s e t t l e m e n t s have been prominent  It  examples of  s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s without a s t e r e o t y p e d method, p h i l o s o p h y or programme.  One  of the reasons f o r t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y  i s t h a t settle>-  ments guide and m o t i v a t e , r a t h e r than impose a ready-made programme* of s e r v i c e s on the  neighbourhood.  Community l i f e today i s complex, and the purposes  of  s o c i a l agencies need to be d o v e t a i l e d w i t h other i n s t i t u t i o n s  to  form a community p l a n f o r a l l such s e r v i c e s .  This co-ordinated  and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n to serve the t o t a l community means t h a t settlement houses as w e l l as other agencies must shape t h e i r p r o grammes to f i t the needs of the whole.  Thus, i t i s up t o the  1. S i m k h o v i t c h , Mary, "The Settlement and R e l i g i o n " , Readings on the Development of S o c i a l Work, ed. Pacey. Lorene, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1950, p. 137•  - 3 s t a f f and board of each agency to r e a l i z e what s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s they may  best p r o v i d e .  T h i s does not mean t h a t the t r a d i t i o n s  and c o n t r i b u t i o n s made i n the p a s t must be severed, but I t does mean t h a t the s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be expanded.  In order to under-  stand these t r a d i t i o n s , i t Is necessary to g a i n a t o t a l p i c t u r e of the Settlement Movement from i t s embryonic stage to the p r e sent  day,  British  Beginnings The  Settlement Movement had i t s o r i g i n i n the work of  some of the foremost century.  I t was  reformers  i n England  d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h  e a r l y i n the l a s t ceritury t h a t g i f t e d men  and  women attempted to a l l e v i a t e some of the m i s e r i e s so predominant among the working c l a s s .  The  economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s  f o l l o w i n g the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n were such t h a t "the r i c h were growing r i c h e r and the poor were growing p o o r e r " , so t h a t the between the groups was During  gap  becoming wider and more d i s t a n t .  t h i s p e r i o d , Thomas Chambers, a m i n i s t e r i n  S c o t l a n d , attempted to o r g a n i z e a model m i l l town.  Despite  f a c t t h a t h i s views of i n d u s t r i a l problems were l i m i t e d , r e a l i z e d the value of n e i g h b o u r l y r e l a t i o n s .  Thus i t was  i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t o the i n t e l l i g e n t reformers  the  he becoming  t h a t emphasis  should be p l a c e d on the community background of the working c l a s s e s , Martineau,  Ruskin,  t h i s day who  C a r l y l e and Dickens  brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of the upper c l a s s e s the  s e r i o u s n e s s of the hardship and trial  were i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t e r s of  expansion.  s u f f e r i n g produced by the i n d u s -  I n the sphere o f p h i l o s o p h y , Thomas H . Green stands . foremost  i n the teachings  of c o n s t r u c t i v e  T.He  citizenship.  Green has been r e f e r r e d to as the s p i r i t u a l f o r e f a t h e r of ments because,  through h i s  teachings,  Settle-  he aroused the z e a l of many  young and ardent reformers o f the day.  One of h i s  students,  A r n o l d Toynbee, i n t r o d u c e d a new movement i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s ; p e n e t r a t i o n of the crowded c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n , by the p h i l a n t h r o p i c people  of the upper c l a s s ,  A r n o l d Toynbee d i d not l i v e to see  Toynbee H a l l ,  memorial t o A r n o l d Toynbee and h i s work.  of these crowded  the f i r s t  ment, as he d i e d a t the e a r l y age of t h i r t y - o n e . a t i o n of the f i r s t S e t t l e m e n t ,  educated  i n o r d e r that they might  b e t t e r understand and teach the i l l i t e r a t e people slum a r e a s .  i n 1884,  was a f i t t i n g  John R. Green and Samuel residence  of E a s t London i n order to share a t  hand, i n the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s  of the working c l a s s e s *  first  Canon B a r -  n e t t , i n answer t o a request f o r advice from a group of students i n t e r e s t e d  Settle-  But the f o u n d -  A . B a r n e t t were the men who f i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d the i d e a of i n the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n  a  Oxford  i n h e l p i n g the p o o r , a d v i s e d t h a t a house be  obtained i n a w o r k i n g - c l a s s neighbourhood.  For this  Toynbee H a l l was founded by the U n i v e r s i t y Settlement  purpose, Association,  which was a committee a c t i n g f o r Cambridge and Oxford U n i v e r s i t i e s . Canon B a r n e t t became the f i r s t warden of Toynbee H a l l , not only because i t was h i s o r i g i n a l s u g g e s t i o n ,  but a l s o because  of h i s humanitarian i d e a l s and h i s knowledge of the needs of working c l a s s e s .  the  Without such a f a i t h i n men, the grim s u r r o u n d -  ings and almost hopeless c o n d i t i o n s would have appeared i n v u l n e r able.  From t h i s f i r s t  Settlement,  the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down by  Barnett and h i s a s s o c i a t e s have spread to d i s t a n t  communities and  - 5 have been a p p l i e d i n d i f f e r e n t  fields*  " N e i g h b o u r l i n e s s and s e r v i c e " was the movement.  I t was  the b a s i c s p i r i t  r e c o g n i z e d a t once by t h o u g h t f u l men  a s i d e from meeting the d i r e c t needs of the working c l a s s ,  of  that, the  Settlement Movement gave hope t h a t f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s between separated c l a s s e s might come about. was  T h i s , plus t h e ' f a c t that i t  a p o p u l a r i d e a , l e d t o the establishment and spread  out the world of t h i s movement. of the Settlement its function,  through-  Even d u r i n g t h i s embryonic  Movement there was  stage  n o t h i n g s t e r e o t y p e d about  V i o l e t C a r r u t h e r s a p t l y p o r t r a y s the v a r y i n g f u n c -  t i o n s of settlements w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t countries* i n the f o l l o w i n g words, "These l o o s e l y c o n s t i t u t e d b o d i e s , f e d e r a t e d s p i r i t u a l l y as they are by c e r t a i n broad i d e a l s , r e p r e s e n t an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of s o c i a l theory and practice. Some are based on r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , others are w h o l l y undenominational. One S e t t l e ment c o n c e n t r a t e s on c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e branches of work, another ranges over a wide f i e l d of g e n e r a l social activity. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of c l u b s p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n the programme. Some d e a l p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h boys, others w i t h g i r l s , others again w i t h a d u l t s . Some present the s p e c t a c l e of a c h a i n o f c l u b s s t r e t c h i n g from the c r a d l e to the grave, w i t h a baby c l i n i c a t one end and a c l u b f o r p a t r i a r c h a l mothers at the o t h e r . S o c i a l r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g of students i s a s i d e to which the l a r g e r Settlements devote much time. Indeed, the l i m i t s s e t to the a c t i v i t i e s of any g i v e n S e t t l e ments are only those of i t s f i n a n c e s and the c a p a c i t i e s of i t s r e s i d e n t s . A Settlement worth I t s s a l t becomes the c e n t r e f o r e n t e r p r i s e s of many k i n d s . The r e s i d e n t s l i v e i n the d i s t r i c t as f r i e n d s and neighbours s h a r i n g a common l i f e of work arid e f f o r t with the i n h a b i t a n t s " . 1  1.  I b i d . , pp. 148  -  149,  - 6 Spread to North  America  The s o c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l problems engendered  by the  i n d u s t r i a l expansion i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s were s i m i l a r i n many e s s e n t i a l r e s p e c t s t o the problems of i n d u s t r i a l England.  The  impetus  to the Settlement Movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , as i n  England,  came p a r t l y out o f the r e l i g i o u s problem of a p p l y i n g  the g o s p e l of C h r i s t i a n i t y to the demands of t h i s new  life.  The  c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m a l s o p l a c e d more emphasis on the f a c t o r s surrounding the e v o l u t i o n of modern England. i n f l u e n c e was  Still  t h a t the ideas of p r o t e c t i o n and  another  laissez-faire  were b e i n g r e p l a c e d by a more modern approach to economic f a c t s . There were a l s o famous American w r i t e r s such as Emerson, W h i t t i e r ai d L o w e l l who  expounded the p r i n c i p l e s of human r i g h t s and the  e v i l s of s l a v e r y .  A l l these f o r c e s h e l p e d to s e t the stage f o r  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In  1883-1884 some students a t Smith C o l l e g e , s t i r r e d  by the w r i t i n g s of C a r l y l e , Ruskin and T o l s t o y , proposed  "an  i n t e r n a t i o n a l order o f women" to d e d i c a t e t h e i r l i v e s t o work among the poor.  Although t h i s order never f u n c t i o n e d , i t i s s i g -  n i f i c a n t t h a t the impulse, which l e d to the f o u n d i n g of the  first  settlement i n America^, found i t s o r i g i n a l s t i r r i n g s i n the women's colleges© Many u n i v e r s i t y students went to Toynbee H a l l t o study t h a t experiment, and i n 1886 ment was York. his  the f i r s t American  university  e s t a b l i s h e d by Stanton C o i l i n lower E a s t S i d e o f  D u r i n g the summer and f a l l  of 1886,  Stanton C o i l  settleNew  devoted  time to the c u l t i v a t i o n of n e i g h b o u r l y acquaintances and b e f o r e  - 7 the w i n t e r o f 1887, f i v e c l u b s were meeting r e g u l a r l y and a f e d e r a t i o n of the young people's club had been o r g a n i z e d . of t h i s experiment the "Neighbourhood G u i l d " was b o r n .  Out  I n 1891  the name was changed t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y Settlement and a r e p o r t was i s s u e d which p o r t r a y s The  some of i t s e a r l y problems and aims*  r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t the s o c i e t y r e q u i r e d men to r e s i d e i n the  Neighbourhood House, who c o u l d g i v e a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i r time and  s e r v i c e s t o t h i s cause.  I t a l s o s t a t e d t h a t donations would  be a p p r e c i a t e d from people who thought t h a t t h i s  enterprise  would b r i n g the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of people i n t o c l o s e r r e l a t i o n . Although t h e methods o f Toynbee H a l l were i m i t a t e d , the U n i v e r s i t y Settlement l a i d g r e a t e r s t r e s s on entertainment f o r b o t h c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . Two y e a r s a f t e r the establishment  of the Neighbour-  hood G u i l d , the C o l l e g e Settlement was e s t a b l i s h e d on R i v i n g t o n S t r e e t , New York, w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l purpose of d e v o t i n g time t o h e l p i n g g i r l s and women.  their  Jane E . Robins and Jean P i n e ,  the two women d i r e c t o r s , saw t h e f a l l a c y of meeting the needs o f o n l y a segment of the community, and consequently made i t i n t o a Neighbourhood House. At about the same time, Jane Addams, unable t o cont i n u e h e r s t u d i e s i n medicine because o f f a i l i n g h e a l t h , began her  search f o r a method and means o f approach t o the s o c i a l  i n e q u a l i t i e s prevalent establishment  a t that time.  T h i s s e a r c h l e d t o the  of one o f the most famous s o c i a l settlements i n  American, H u l l House, on H a l s t e d  Street.  Close acquaintance  with"  the poor l e d h e r t o understand some of t h e h a r d s h i p s s u f f e r e d by  - 8  destitute  -  men, women and c h i l d r e n .  The numerous problems  encount-  ered and overcome by Jane Addams and her f r i e n d , E l l e n Gates  Starr,  are found i n h e r w r i t i n g s  Hull  on the development  and p r o g r e s s of  House. Two years a f t e r  H u l l House was opened, a t h i r d  ment came i n t o b e i n g i n New Y o r k . Initiative  Everett  settle-  P. Wheeler took the  i n the f o u n d i n g of E a s t Side House, mhich was on the  r i v e r f r o n t i n a neighbourhood of I r i s h , German and S c a n d i n a v i a n peopleo  I t can be seen that i n such a neighbourhood there would  be many problems concerning r a c i a l customs and p r a c t i c e s  that  were not encountered,  Settle-  to the same e x t e n t , i n the B r i t i s h  ments. The next s e t t l e m e n t ,  Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y  ment, was e s t a b l i s h e d by Charles Z u e b l i n i n the l a r g e s t community i n A m e r i c a ; because  of t h i s f a c t i t  mental s t a t i o n f o r s o c i a l work among S l a v i c By 1900  the Settlement  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . settlement  Polish  served as an e x p e r i -  peoples.  Movement had become During the f i r s t  h i s t o r y i n America, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s  Settle-  well  ten years  to note  were the r e s u l t o f the e f f o r t s  of  that  of one or two  i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e r e was no a f f i l i a t i o n between a g e n c i e s .  These  e a r l y founders had f a i t h and courage i n spreading g o o d w i l l and s h a r i n g the misery of the poor i n order to b r i n g about  neighbourly  relationships. Thus i t  can be seen how the Settlement  i n a few American c i t i e s State. majority  Movement  and has now spread i n t o almost  West of Chicago there are fewer  settlement  of these have been founded by d i f f e r e n t  began  every  houses and the  religious  groups,  which i s not t r u e of those i n E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s .  There  appears to be a g e n e r a l o p i n i o n that a s e t t l e m e n t , founded by a r e l i g i o u s group i n a o n e - f a i t h neighbourhood, may  gain strength  by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n of the group i t /serves.  On the other hand, i n areas where r a c e s and  religions  are mixed, as i s t r u e i n most a r e a s , a settlement working w i t h o n l y a c e r t a i n p a r t of the community w i l l a c t as a s e p a r a t i n g r a t h e r than a u n i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e .  There a r e , of course, houses  which have been founded by r e l i g i o u s groups but are as  completely  n o n - 3 e c t a r i a n i n t h e i r work as are the s e c u l a r h o u s e s . A c c o r d i n g to E l i z a b e t h Handasyde, the American S e t t l e ment i s h e l d i n h i g h e r esteem, b o t h by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n , than i s t h e average B r i t i s h a c c r e d i t s t h i s mainly equipped  houses o f the e a s t , and  i s a l s o p a r t l y due  House.She  to the fame of many of the l a r g e , w e l l to the g e n e r a l h i g h q u a l i t y of  s t a f f found i n even the s m a l l e r houses. it  the  I t i s p o i n t e d out t h a t  to the h i g h degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n a t t a i n e d  by the movement. "The Settlement Movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s cons i s t s of the combined a c t i v i t i e s of two hundred and f i v e settlement and neighbourhood houses, t e n c i t y f e d e r a t i o n s of these a g e n c i e s , and the N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Settlements. Sixty-one a d d i t i o n a l neighbourhood houses m a i n t a i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n through i n d i v i d u a l membership, and across the country are many other c e n t r e s which have f e l t the impetus of the movement. "2A t the b e g i n n i n g of the t w e n t i e t h century, the  Settle-  ment Movement, which had spread to Canada, became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d 1. Handasyde, E., C i t y or Community, London, The N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l S e r v i c e , 1949, p. 21. 2. Soule, F r e d e r i c k , "Settlements and Neighbourhood Houses'^ S o c i a l Work Year Book, New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1947. p. 463.  -10i n O n t a r i o and Quebec.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e Settlement  Houses  e s t a b l i s h e d i n E a s t e r n Canada have r e l i g i o u s o r i g i n s w h i l e the two agencies  i n Western Canada, namely, Alexandra  Neighbourhood  House and Gordon Neighbourhood House a r e s e c u l a r i n o r i g i n . These two Houses, b o t h i n Vancouver, a r e the o n l y two s e t t l e ments i n Canada west o f O n t a r i o .  The d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g t h e  western agencies from the e a s t e r n agencies, p l u s t h e i r ence i n o r i g i n , a r e two reasons  differ-  f o r the l a c k of c l o s e t i e s and  a f f i l i a t i o n between t h e west and the e a s t .  Therefore,  Alexandra  and'Gordon Neighbourhood Houses have l o o k e d southward*for d i r e c t i o n and s t i m u l u s .  Both o f these houses a r e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e  N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Settlements,  which enables  them t o keep  i n c o n t a c t w i t h the l a t e s t advances made i n the settlement  houses  throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . B a s i c Philosophy The b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y other s o c i a l agencies this  o f Settlement Work of settlement work i s common t o  and t o the m o t i v a t i o n of al 1 workers i n  field. 1.  "A s i n c e r e b e l i e f i n the sacredness and worth of t h e i n d i v i d u a l and d e d i c a t i o n t o the t a s k o f h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to grow, t o r e a l i z e t h e i r h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and to be happy i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to other i n d i v i d u a l s and t o t h e community."  2.  "A c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the f a m i l y i s the s o c i a l u n i t which i s most important i n t h e growth and development of e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h a t f a m i l y l i f e should be s t r o n g and wholesome."  3*  "A b e l i e f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s have the r i g h t t o determine t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s , b u t may need to be h e l p e d to e x e r c i s e t h a t r i g h t and t o r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . Such h e l p must be given without v i o l a t i n g the r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and the  - 11 s e l f - r e s p e c t of i n d i v i d u a l s , and by encouraging a maximum degree o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l s , " 1 Although the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y  o f the settlement i s  common t o other groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , we must r e a l i z e t h a t the purpose d i f f e r s i n t h a t i t develops i n t h e people, w i t h i n the area i t s e r v e s , a deep f e e l i n g o f n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s . bourhood s p i r i t  This  neigh-  c o n s i s t s o f p r i d e and l o y a l t y to the community,  a f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n d i t i o n s o f the neighbourhood, and an awareness t h a t t h e neighbourhood i s a p a r t o f the wider community, which i d e a l l y i s world-wide. In the e a r l y h i s t r o y o f the Settlement reformers  Movement, t h e  f e l t t h a t a House should be p l a c e d I n the midst o f t h e  most degraded and hopeless  c l a s s e s , b u t today,'there  t i o n t h a t a l l the problems o f the poorer uency and crime,  i sa realiza-  c l a s s e s , such as d e l i n q -  the needs o f the i n d i g e n t and poor and the needs  of people who a r e r e g u l a r l y employed, should be f a c e d .  Grace  Coyle c a t e g o r i z e s the f u n c t i o n of neighbourhood houses i n t o f o u r 2 major areas* Education-recreation a c t i v i t i e s probably  occupy the  l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f agency f u n d s and time o f p e r s o n n e l .  For this  reason, t h e community o f t e n views the neighbourhood house as a p l a c e f o r c l u b s , a t h l e t i c s , dancing, ties.  camping and s i m i l a r  activi-  T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l work i s usuaUly i n f o r m a l  and the groups a r e formed by v o l u n t a r y a t t e n d a n c e . through these  s e r v i c e s that the settlement  Thus, i t i s  can c r e a t e new c i t y  1. "The C l e v e l a n d Settlement Study", C l e v e l a n d , Welfare F e d e r a t i o n of C l e v e l a n d , 1946, p . 8. . 2. Coyle, Grace, Group Experience and Democratic Values, New York, The Woman's P r e s s , 1947, p . 121.  - 12 neighbourhoods which i s the main o b j e c t i v e .  P u b l i c support i n  t h i s area i s not s t r o n g enough, though it,may appear to be a publicjresponsibility.  Where p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r  e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n , the neighbourhood house can experiment and develop new programmes and methods which can be executed i n the  more f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e of a p r i v a t e  agency.  The second sphere of s e r v i c e i s to the neighbours on an I n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  There are t h r e e main types of c o n t a c t s w i t h  i n d i v i d u a l s , f i r s t l y , t h e .casual, f r i e n d l y acquaintance w i t h people i n the a r e a and t h e agency; secondly, c o n t a c t s through home v i s i t s ; and t h i r d l y , c o n t a c t s a r i s i n g out of a need or problem© Whatever the manner of c o n t a c t , the i n d i v i d u a l must be h e l p e d t o r e c o g n i z e h i s needs or problems and the House s t a f f ,  facilities  and programmes should be used to meet h i s needs i n whole or p a r t whenever p o s s i b l e .  C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h other agencies i s n e c e s s a r y  i n the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s to meet the needs o f -the members. Another f u n c t i o n of a neighbourhood house i s to h e l p a neighbourhood t o develop c o n s t r u c t i v e and e f f e c t i v e  organizations.  This can be done by h e l p i n g to o r g a n i z e programmes, by f u r n i s h i n g f a c i l i t i e s , by t r a i n i n g and p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p and by a s s i s t i n g l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o b e t t e r meet the needs of the community. T h i s encouragement  and a s s i s t a n c e i n the growth of a neighbourhood  i s a .service which the neighbourhood house i s e s p e c i a l l y to  qualified  provide. Through s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l a c t i o n , t h e p r i v a t e  agency can f u n c t i o n f r e e l y toward t h e betterment of community conditions.  Even c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t i o n a l problems can be a t t a c k e d  I  - 13 through c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n .  P u b l i c a g e n c i e s , because they are  government b o d i e s , cannot a g i t a t e f o r change o r s i d e w i t h t h e people a g a i n s t l e g i s l a t i o n but neighbourhood houses have the unique advantage t o do t h i s i n a democratic manner.  The n e i g h -  bourhood house may  social  take the i n i t i a t i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g  a c t i o n or may work w i t h groups a l r e a d y i n , e x i s t a n c e f o r the same purpose.  The neighbourhood house s h o u l d p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n  about s o c i a l i s s u e s and how  to take a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n to remedy  these unhealthy c o n d i t i o n s . Through these f o u r s e r v i c e s , namely, e d u c a t i o n r e c r e a t i o n , neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s and s o c i a l a c t i o n , the neighbourhood house can meet the needs of a community..  The c r e a t i o n of f r i e n d l y , p a r t i c i p a t i n g neighbours i s  the u n d e r l y i n g purpose which s h o u l d permeate  and guide every p r o -  gramme and a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a neighbourhood house. Grace Coyle's c r i t e r i a are a good y a r d s t i c k w i t h which the f u n c t i o n of a neighbourhood house might be measured.  With an  understanding of these f u n c t i o n s , a t t e n t i o n can be f o c u s e d on a l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n , Alexandra Neighbourhood House.  These  criteria  might be a p p l i e d l o c a l l y because a number of q u e s t i o n s may be asked about Alexandra House. House formed?  How  was  Why  i t formed?  What i s the f u n c t i o n of t h e House? professional staff?  How  t r i b u t e t o the AgBncy?  was Alexandra Neighbourhood  Is the neighbourhood changing? Why  do they r e q u i r e  trained  does the student t r a i n i n g programme conIn what k i n d of a community s h o u l d a  neighbourhood house be b u i l t ? i n such a community?  well  Is A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House  What w i l l the G r a n v i l l e B r i d g e p r o j e c t  do  -  14  to Alexandra Neighbourhood House?  -  Does the f u n c t i o n of Alexandra  Neighbourhood House have t o change? Because of some d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s e r v i c e and because of the Agency's changing c o n s t i t u e n c y  (to be c l a r i f i e d i n Chapter  two) the present study has been undertaken.  - 15 CHAPTER .THE  II  COMMUNITY SERVED  The a r e a g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as t h a t served by  Alex-  andra Neighbourhood House, i s bounded by F a l s e Creek to the n o r t h , S i x t e e n t h Avenue t o the south, Oak Road to' the west.  S t r e e t to the east and Alma  The more e f f e c t i v e a r e a , shown by Chart I, i s  bounded by F a l s e Creek to" the n o r t h , N i n t h Avenue to the  south,  G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t to the east and Arbutus S t r e e t t o the west. N i n t h Avenue, G r a n v i l l e and Arbutus S t r e e t s are main a r t e r i a l roads c u t t i n g through boundaries.  the neighbourhood which tend to form n a t u r a l  W i t h i n t h i s a r e a , s i x t y - t w o per cent of the p r e s e n t  membership i s found.  Because of these n a t u r a l boundaries  and  the  h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of membership, t h i s s m a l l area i s c o n s i d e r e d the e f f e c t i v e neighbourhood. the s t a t e d boundaries, found.  Outside of t h i s d i s t r i c t but w i t h i n  l e s s t h a n one q u a r t e r of the membership i s  Only f i f t e e n p e r cent of the membership r e s i d e o u t s i d e of  the extended boundaries.  Because of t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of member-  s h i p w i t h i n these narrower l i m i t s , i t i s reasonable t o f o c u s this  on  area. The  a e r i a l photograph of t h i s neighbourhood shows the  p o s i t i o n of Alexandra  House and the n a t u r a l boundaries  formed by the a r t e r i a l r o a d s .  The p o s i t i o n of the House i s such  t h a t no fewer than f o u r main a r t e r i a l roads c u t through i a t e area which i t s e r v e s .  Two  which a r e  the immed-  b l o c k s east o f the House i s Gran-  v i l l e S t r e e t , pne of the main s t r e e t s of Vancouver, where the t r a f f i c i s heavy a l l day.  Two  b l o c k s south of the House i s the  Chart 1  DISTRIBUTION of MEMBERSHIP  -  ALEXANDRA NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE (1951)  - 17 busy thoroughfare  of N i n t h Avenue, lfihich. i s now  the b e t t e r o f f i c e areas of Vancouver. i s the main thoroughfare  becoming one  Three b l o c k s t o the  of  south  of F o u r t h Avenue which i s e n c l o s e d  by  commercial b u i l d i n g s . While on the west, not one b l o c k from the House, i s t h e main a r t e r i a l road, B u r r a r d S t r e e t , where there i s a c o n t i n u a l f l o w of t r a f f i c going to and f r o m the C i t y Centre v i a Burrard Bridge.  These a r t e r i a l roads p r e s e n t a h a z a r d f o r c h i l -  dren to c r o s s , and  j u s t over t h r e e per cent of the membership i s  found e a s t o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t .  (See Chart I)  o t h e r reasons f o r the small percentage  There may  be  of membership from t h i s  area but G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t has d e f i n i t e l y become a boundary to east.  Perhaps F o u r t h Avenue and B u r r a r d S t r e e t a r e the two  show the l e a s t i n f l u e n c e i n becoming d e f i n i t e boundaries,  the  which  although  the area n o r t h o f F o u r t h Avenue i s not b e i n g served p r o p e r l y . Broadway i s becoming a d e f i n i t e boundary which i s probably  accentu-  ated by the modern commercial b u i l d i n g s which l i n e the s t r e e t form a more n a t u r a l s e p a r a t i o n from the southern  area.  The newly-completed K i t s i l a n o Community Centre Tenth Avenue, w i t h a l a r g e a d j o i n i n g playground,  on  i s situated i n  a s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n f o r s e r v i n g t h i s southern a r e a . it  and  At p r e s e n t  i s not s e r v i n g the s u r r o u n d i n g community as w e l l as i t might,  but i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on c i t y - w i d e c l u b s and p r o f e s s i o n a l teams can pay f o r t h e i r use of the b u i l d i n g .  who  F o r t h i s reason, t h e r e i s  some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n about the p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n of the Community Centre.  Once K i t s i l a n o Community Centre f o c u s e s i t s a t t e n t i o n on  the surrounding d i s t r i c t , people from t h i s area,' who  at present  go t o Alexandra House, w i l l most l i k e l y a t t e n d the Community  Centre.  -  18  -  / W / - T H B AREA SURROUNDING ALEXANDRA NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE  Source:  Photographic Surveys, Sea I s l a n d , Vancouver  B C  -  There i s only one  19  -  s c h o o l i n the  namely, the Henry Hudson S c h o o l ; the  The  the S a i n t Augus-  at Seventh Avenue and  tus S t r e e t , .are s i t u a t e d on the border of t h i s a r e a . schools  p r o v i d e the  the  L o r d Tennyson  Cypress S t r e e t , and  t i n e School, a Roman C a t h o l i c s c h o o l  area,  school i s located i n  northwest s e c t i o n of the neighbourhood. School, at Tenth Avenue and  "effective"  Arbu-  These  only playground space, although K i t s i l a n o  Beach i s nearby, and  i s , of course, a v a l u a b l e  play  area.  W i t h i n the Alexandra House " d i s t r i c t " are found f o l l o w i n g churches:  the  S a i n t Augustine, Roman C a t h o l i c Church on  Seventh Avenue; R u s s i a n Orthodox Church on S i x t h Avenue; F i r s t B a p t i s t Sunday School on Second Avenue; the Sikh Temple on Avenue; the F i r s t U n i t e d  S p i r i t u a l i s t Church on Pine S t r e e t ;  the Jehovah's Witnesses H a l l on Pine S t r e e t ,  The  latter  churches can h a r d l y be r e f e r r e d to as neighbourhood because o n l y a few  of t h e i r members r e s i d e i n the  s e r v i c e s which are h e l d w i t h i n the Holy T r i n i t y A n g l i c a n  organizations  district.  at Tenth Avenue and  Avenue and  Burrard  S t r e e t ; Crosby U n i t e d  S a i n t Mark A n g l i c a n  S t r e e t , are a l l l o c a t e d w i t h i n the the House,  Pine S t r e e t ;  at Second  at T h i r d Avenue  a t T h i r d Avenue and  churches i s not found w i t h i n the neighbourhood but west.  and  Larch  extended boundaries served by  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note t h a t the l e a d e r s h i p  areas f a r t h e r south and  Fair-  Pine S t r e e t ; Canadian Memorial  L a r c h S t r e e t ; S a i n t Stephen U n i t e d  L a r c h S t r e e t and  religious  sphere of i n f l u e n c e of Alexandra  view B a p t i s t a t S i x t e e n t h Avenue and a t S i x t e e n t h Avenue and  and  two  Some of the people of the neighbourhood a t t e n d  House,  Third  of these  comes from  - 20 A d e s c r i p t i o n of the a r e a served by the House r e c o r d e d i n the 1940  Annual Report  of Alexandra  was  House.  "The neighbourhood i n which our House i s s i t u a t e d i s the o l d p a r t o f K i t s i l a n o , a h e a v i l y populated d i s t r i c t composed c h i e f l y of r a t h e r o l d and, i n many cases, n e g l e c t e d wooden houses; a few f a c t o r i e s ; some s m a l l shopping areas and f o u r main a r t e r i e s p a s s i n g through i t — G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , B u r r a r d S t r e e t , F o u r t h and N i n t h Avenues, The area i s populated c h i e f l y by E n g l i s h , Canadian, Scotch and I r i s h f a m i l i e s . There are a few Americans, Scandinavians, F r e n c h , Jewish, Russian and A u s t r i a n f a m i l i e s i n the d i s t r i c t , and one s m a l l area made up l a r g e l y of E a s t I n d i a n and Japanese families. Many of the houses i n t h i s d i s t r i c t which were r e c e n t l y b u i l t f o r one-family use a r e now housing seve r a l f a m i l i e s and are s e r i o u s l y overcrowded. In many i n s t a n c e s , f a m i l i e s a r e l i v i n g i n one or two rooms without adequate cooking and s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s . In the s e c t i o n between F o u r t h Avenue and Cornwall S t r e e t and from Vine t o G r a n v i l l e and east o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t and between Seventh Avenue and the w a t e r f r o n t , i s one of the worst slum areas i n the c i t y . Many of these houses are i n h a b i t e d by Japanese and poor whites. Here a l s o i s the Hindu a r e a , but i t seems t h a t the Hindus are g r a d u a l l y v a c a t i n g t h i s d i s t r i c t and moving to o t h e r p a r t s of the c i t y . This s e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i o u s s o c i a l problem. Although i t has been a decided p h y s i c a l improvement to the d i s t r i c t , the presence o f the Armouries and b a r r a c k s i s c r e a t i n g new problems."* The appearance of the neighbourhood today i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s to the above d e s c r i p t i o n , except  that  the Japanese people were removed'from t h i s a r e a two years  later,  the housing has  d e t e r i o r a t e d more or l e s s c o n t i n u o u s l y over  p a s t twelve y e a r s , and  i n d u s t r y and c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n i s g r a d u a l l y  e n g u l f i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l area nearest t o G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t .  1.  1940  the  Annual Report  of Alexandra  Neighbourhood House.  T r a n s i t i o n s w i t h i n the neighbourhood,, Between B u r r a r d and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s , N i n t h Avenue and F a l s e Creek, s m a l l commercial e n t e r p r i s e s a r e r a p i d l y f i l t e r i n g Into the r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s .  This d i s t r i c t  i s noted f o r  I t s r a p i d l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g housing and t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e , i f any, attempt a t r e p a i r o r upkeep. one  Walking through t h i s  area,  i s immediately s t r u c k by the many houses which appear u n f i t  for habitation.  Buildings with  sagging  r o o f s and f o u n d a t i o n s ,  wherein numerous people l i v e , a r e not a r a r i t y . One s i g h t , which perhaps t y p i f i e s c l e a r l y , i s an o l d church on the corner Avenue.  t h i s area a l l t o o  of Pine S t r e e t and T h i r d  I f one went p a s t t h i s church on a Sunday, he would n o t  see c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s p a s s i n g t r a r y , a strange  through i t s doors; on the con-  s i l e n c e would g r e e t him.  Y e t , i f he passed by !•  t h i s b u i l d i n g on a week-day, he would be s u r p r i s e d by the strange sounds coming from w i t h i n .  He w o u l d be s u r p r i s e d - and perhaps  smile s a d l y - when he r e a l i z e d t h a t i t had now become a f u r n i t u r e factory.  T h i s i s o n l y one example of what i s t a k i n g p l a c e .  This  i s the h e a r t of the t r a n s i t i o n area, y e t w i t h i n the above d i s t r i c t , according  t o a survey made i n 1951* s t i l l r e s i d e  thirty-  seven p e r cent of the membership of A l e x a n d r a House* The b u l k of t h i s a r e a , from G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t t o Burr a r d S t r e e t , from S i x t h Avenue n o r t h t o F a l s e Creek, has been zoned f o r i n d u s t r y .  No b u i l d i n g can be e r e c t e d u n l e s s b u i l t o f  masonry m a t e r i a l , which means t h a t there w i l l probably new homes e r e c t e d a t a l l .  not be any  The r e s i d u a l homes w i t h i n t h i s  have p r a c t i c a l l y no v a l u e , but the s i t e s have value  area  - at least  - 22 potentially, f o rindustries.  T h e r e f o r e , no money i s spent on the  b u i l d i n g s by the owners or l a n d l o r d s , because any improvement o r r e p a i r does not i n c r e a s e the value o f the p r o p e r t y .  The owners  of these houses "hang on" hoping f o r a h i g h p r i c e and, as t h e b u i l d i n g d e t e r i o r a t e s , the r e n t which can be o b t a i n e d f o r l i v i n g . q u a r t e r s decreases p e r u n i t .  The amount "sweated" out of a con-r  v e r t e d b u i l d i n g may be c o n s i d e r a b l e .  N a t u r a l l y , t h i s a r e a , which  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e c l i n i n g housing,  i n d u s t r y , and cheap r e n t s  a t t r a c t s people who are i n low-income groups and cannot a f f o r d b e t t e r housing  accommodation.  West of B u r r a r d S t r e e t i s a l s o a t r a n s i t i o n a l a r e a . This a r e a was, a t one time, one of the b e t t e r r e s i d e n t i a l t r i c t s of Vancouver.  dis-  Over t h e y e a r s , t h e r e has been a g r a d u a l  change and those homes w i t h a view of K i t s i l a n o Beach have been r e p l a c e d by apartment b u i l d i n g s .  South o f t h e apartments, homes  are b e i n g converted t o m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . The p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e of t h i s area has changed oyer the y e a r s ; one way o f i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s i s by examining the i n s t i t u t i o n s found h e r e .  There are no p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l c l u b s and  the membership of the churches  has changed.  F o r i n s t a n c e , a t one  time the S a i n t Mark A n g l i c a n Church was an o u t s t a n d i n g  institution  w i t h hundreds of p a r i s h i o n e r s ; a t p r e s e n t , one-half of the b u i l d i n g i s a Workman's Compensation O f f i c e .  The S a i n t Stephen's  U n i t e d Church, f o r t y years ago, had an a c t i v e membership o f a t Mr. Charles B a i l e y , one o f the t e a c h e r s i n K i t s i l a n o High S c h o o l , who has done c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , made a study of t h i s area, and much of t h i s m a t e r i a l was o b t a i n e d from him. Acknowledgment i s hereby tendered to him f o r p e r m i s s i o n to use h i s d a t a .  - 23 l e a s t f i v e hundred, w i t h seven hundred and f i f t y c h i l d r e n a t t e n d ing  Sunday S c h o o l ,  T h i s y e a r , the two  United churches  Stephen and Crosby have combined to form one  of S a i n t  parish.  These changes are s i g n i f i c a n t because they show t h a t not only are the number of p a r i s h i o n e r s d e c r e a s i n g , but the people remaining are i n a lower income group and cannot churches.  support  these  T h i s western p a r t of the neighbourhood appears  f o l l o w i n g a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o the a r e a immediately  to be  surrounding  the House, where a church on Second Avenue has become the H o l l y wood F u r n i t u r e F a c t o r y , a church on F i r s t Avenue was the Boultbee Maintenance Shop, and the Methodist Avenue has become a p r i n t i n g The new  r e p l a c e d by  Church on S i x t h  shop.  G r a n v i l l e Bridge p r o j e c t , which i s a l r e a d y  under c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i l l have a great d e a l o f i n f l u e n c e on the f u t u r e of Alexandra House,  The plans l a i d f o r the new  i n d i c a t e that i t w i l l extend over much of the area now by the i n s t i t u t i o n . approximately  (See Map  2)  The c l o v e r - l e a f roads  one b l o c k on each s i d e of the b r i d g e and  bridge serviced cover one  " r u n - o f f " from the b r i d g e s t a r t s at E i g h t h Avenue and F i r S t r e e t which i s one b l o c k from the House.  Another " r u n - o f f " w i l l  start  at F o u r t h Avenue and Pine S t r e e t and w i l l be b u i l t between T h i r d and F o u r t h Avenues, which w i l l  cut up t h i s b l o c k .  Pine S t r e e t  w i l l most l i k e l y become a main thoroughfare f o r t r u c k s and vehicles. of  other  T h i s w i l l mean t h a t the House, which i s on the c o r n e r  Pine S t r e e t , w i l l be l o c a t e d i n a poor p o s i t i o n , as i t w i l l  dangerous f o r c h i l d r e n who  s t r a y from the playground a r e a .  The  G r a n v i l l e Bridge p r o j e c t w i l l have a d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e on  this  be  -  area, as i t w i l l  25  —  " s e a l o f f " housing and cut up the d i s t r i c t  that community f e e l i n g and dependence i s d i s c o u r a g e d .  so  Approx-  i m a t e l y e i g h t e e n c i t y b l o c k s w i l l be d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the  ,  southern extremity of the b r i d g e and i t i s only n a t u r a l t h a t numerous other b l o c k s w i l l be i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d .  The  result-  ant d e t e r i o r a t i o n w i l l produce a m u l t i t u d e of s o c i a l problems. The membership of Alexandra House had been q u i t e s t a b l e d u r i n g the e a r l y p e r i o d of the development of the House, but d u r i n g the l a s t two years t h e t u r n o v e r i n membership has been quite high.  The neighbourhood i s becoming more and more a t r a n s -  i t i o n a l a r e a where people l i v e f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time and move t o another p a r t of the c i t y . 1951  t o the s p r i n g of 1 9 5 2 ,  then  Since j u s t b e f o r e Christmas  t h i r t y - o n e c h i l d r e n have l e f t  of  the  p l a y s c h o o l i n Alexandra House through moving t o o t h e r p a r t s of the C i t y .  With a t o t a l enrolment  of f o r t y - f i v e p l a y s c h o o l c h i l -  dren, t h i s means a changeover of approximately s i x t y - n i n e per cent due t o moving.  Of the f i v e hundred and e i g h t e e n f a m i l i e s  r e g i s t e r e d a t the House, t h r e e hundred and f o u r are new  regis-  t r a t i o n s and o n l y two hundred and f o u r t e e n are renewals. though there are no s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e t e l l i n g why form such a s m a l l percentage  Even  the  renewals  of the t o t a l membership, i t does  i n d i c a t e the t r a n s i e n t nature of the community. A door-to-door by f i v e students t a k i n g one  survey was  of the courses i n community  i z a t i o n at the School of S o c i a l Work. attempt  to determine  toward the House,  made i n the f a l l  T h i s survey was  of  1951*  organan  the a t t i t u d e s of the neighbourhood people  Three hundred and e i g h t y - s e v e n homes were  - 26 v i s i t e d i n the a r e a from F i r S t r e e t t o Arbutus S t r e e t and from E i g h t h Avenue to F i f t h Avenue.  I t was found t h a t , of t h e people  canvassed, only twelve p e r cent were a c t i v e members of Alexandra House, seven p e r cent a t t e n d e d o c c a s i o n a l l y , andinine p e r cent d i d not even know about t h e House.  Only two p e r cent expressed hos-  t i l i t y toward the Agency and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f these l i v e d i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of t h e House.  Approximately t w e n t y - f i v e  p e r cent d i s p l a y e d no i n t e r e s t i n the programme and many o t h e r s d i s p l a y e d o n l y a s l i g h t i n t e r e s t In t h e House© The o b s e r v a t i o n s o f f o u r o f these s t u d e n t s who had made the survey a r e i n t e r e s t i n g .  One student s t a t e d t h a t t h e  most s u r p r i s i n g i m p r e s s i o n she r e c e i v e d was the number of people who d i d not know the f u n c t i o n of t h e House.  One p e r s o n  thought  i t was a s c h o o l , another thought I t was an orphanage, vh i l e many others thought i t was o n l y f o r young p e o p l e .  The people  vassed showed a g e n e r a l l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the Agency.  canAnother  student was impressed by the number of " f o r e i g n - s p e a k i n g " p e o p l e , who had a d i f f i c u l t  time understanding what she was t a l k i n g  about.  She found some i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e g e n e r a l i d e a of the f u n c t i o n of the House, but they, themselves, d i d not appear t o o i n t e r e s t e d i n b e l o n g i n g t o the Agency.  The t h i r d student's o u t s t a n d i n g impres-  s i o n was the g e n e r a l l a c k of i n t e r e s t and apathy people.  shown by t h e  I n a l l the v i s i t s , no one was I n t e r e s t e d enough to ask  him I n s i d e .  The f o u r t h student who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the survey  found t h a t many people thought t h e House was a p l a c e f o r c h i l dren.  He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t most of the younger g i r l s were encour-  aged to go t o t h e House, b u t that the o l d e r ones were d i s c o u r a g e d  . - 27 because the parents thought i t was "too rough". Although t h i s survey was made on a rough sampling b a s i s , which makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s , the h i g h percentage o f l a c k of i n t e r e s t d i s p l a y e d i s noteworthy, l a r g e number not knowing about the House i s a l s o  and t h e  significant*  T h i s g e n e r a l d i s i n t e r e s t and apathy of t h e people may be q u i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of such a r e a s .  I t has been shown by s o c i o l o g i s t s  t h a t I n a d e t e r i o r a t i n g o r d e c l i n i n g community, t h e r e i s a t e n d ency f o r the people o f t h e community t o l o s e i n t e r e s t i n n e i g h bourhood  functions.  T h i s t r e n d may be w e l l e x e m p l i f i e d by t h i s  district. Two examples may be c i t e d to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s f e r e n t a t t i t u d e of the neighbourhood.  indif-  One i s that the e r e c t i o n  of t h e new G r a n v i l l e B r i d g e has not caused any apparent a n x i e t y w i t h i n the Immediate d i s t r i c t , although people l i v i n g even f a r t h e r west in t h e K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t a r e becoming concerned.  Similarly  t h e r e were no p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a new p o l i c e s t a t i o n be b u i l t a t S i x t h Avenue and Hemlock S t r e e t ; a l t h o u g h when two other s i t e s i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f the C i t y were suggested f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g i t immediately aroused the people i n those a r e a s .  I t was noted i n the f i r s t  chapter t h a t one of the  major f u n c t i o n s of a neighbourhood house i s s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n and social action.  The q u e s t i o n now a r i s e s whether the House can  assume such a r o l e i n t h i s neighbourhood where i n e r t i a and apathy are so predominant. I t was noted e a r l i e r t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e b a s i c  philos-  ophy of a neighbourhood house i s common t o s e v e r a l other organi z a t i o n s , the purpose d i f f e r s i n that i t develops, i n the people  - 28 of  the d i s t r i c t i t s e r v e s , a deep f e e l i n g of n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s .  T h i s neighbourhood s p i r i t should c o n s i s t o f p r i d e i n . and l o y a l t y to  the community and a f e e l i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c o n d i -  tions existing there.  Since a neighbourhood house i s v i t a l l y  i n f l u e n c e d by the d i s t r i c t s t a n d i n g of the surrounding can be a n a l y s e d  a  i n which i t i s s i t u a t e d , a good underarea i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e the s e r v i c e s  I t I s c l e a r t h a t Alexandra  House i s s i t u a t e d i n  an area where many changes have occurred i n the p a s t and a r e going on.  A g a i n s t t h i s background, both the embryonic stages of  the Neighbourhood House and the more r e c e n t ones s h o u l d be analyzed.  still  - 29 CHAPTER  III  DEPRESSION arid WAR A  "Children's  YEARS  Home", f o r c h i l d r e n without parents or  whose parents were p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n , was ner  e s t a b l i s h e d on the  of Homer and Dunsmuir S t r e e t s i n 1892,  by a small i n t e r e s t e d  group of the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union. board was  appointed, c o n s i s t i n g of two  churches, along w i t h one  A provisional  representatives  of  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the C i t y , and  from the M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  cor-  one  The number of c h i l d r e n  i n c r e a s e d , which n e c e s s i t a t e d a move to a l a r g e r home on Hornby Street.  T h i s home was  occupied  u n t i l December, 1894-.  At  this  time, the D i r e c t o r s of the Alexandra H o s p i t a l f o r Women and dren donated t h e i r b u i l d i n g and  equipment, at 1726  West Seventh  Avenue, t o the cause, on the s o l e c o n d i t i o n t h a t the assume i t s p r e s e n t  name.  Between 1894  and  1930,  c h i l d r e n i n c a r e of the Alexandra C h i l d r e n ' s around seventy.  Chil-  institution  the number of  Home would average  By 1933* the number of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e  decreased  to o n l y t h i r t y - s e v e n . The  changing concepts o f c h i l d c a r e and the  on f a m i l y w e l f a r e  s e r v i c e s i n the t h i r t i e s had  on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l care throughout Canada and  emphasis  a d i r e c t bearing the U n i t e d  States.  By t h i s time the p u b l i c r e l i e f a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o r e a l i z e d that i t was  not  only more economical but  t a i n the f a m i l y u n i t . r e l i e f grants  s o c i a l l y more d e s i r a b l e to main-  Consequently, a more adequate b a s i s f o r  assured the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l home.  Another f a c t o r which was  important was i  the b e g i n n i n g of the  swing  - 30 In 1933» Miss Char-  away from orphanages to f o s t e r home care* l o t t e Whitton's advice was p o s i t i o n of Alexandra c i e s and  sought and  she r e p o r t e d  C h i l d r e n ' s Home was  that  the  common to many agen-  communities i n E a s t e r n Canada and the U n i t e d States© In the meantime, the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y asked I f  Alexandra  House c o u l d be used as a r e c e i v i n g home f o r t h e i r  dren, u n t i l they had  chil-  the o p p o r t u n i t y to develop t h e i r programme  of s u b s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g  homes.  T h e r e f o r e , from 1933  u n t i l 1938»  the Home r e c e i v e d boys and g i r l s from the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , mostly as s h o r t - t i m e  placements.  The  average number of C h i l d r e n ' s  A i d S o c i e t y c h i l d r e n b e i n g cared f o r was i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n was  f i f t e e n , while t h e i r  own  r a p i d l y decreasing.  In 1937* the D i r e c t o r s of Alexandra  C h i l d r e n ' s Home  wrote to the C h i l d r e n ' s Committee of the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agenc i e s of Vancouver f o r a d v i c e .  They thought t h a t the c h i l d r e n  might be t r a n s f e r r e d from Alexandra  House to a c o t t a g e home under  the care of a matron; i f t h i s p l a n was,  c a r r i e d out, the D i r e c t o r s  thought the b u i l d i n g might be converted  i n t o a community c e n t r e .  :  The  Committee approved the p r o p o s a l s , but recommended t h a t  from a l l community groups should be  obtained.  The  support  churches,  s c h o o l s , the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, as w e l l as a t i v e s from among the r e s i d e n t s themselves were to be  representconsulted  b e f o r e making any p u b l i c announcement. I t was  apparent t h a t the P o s t e r Home Movement f o r c e d  the D i r e c t o r s to abandon the orphanage, and the dilemma became - what to do w i t h the b u i l d i n g ?  The  now  s e r i o u s unemployment  Much of the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the House has been o b t a i n e d from the 1940 Annual Report of Alexandra Neighbourhood House,  - 31  -  s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g at t h a t time l e d the d i r e c t o r s to focus a t t e n t i o n on the development of a programme of r e l i e f . one  of the reasons why  of r e s e a r c h  t h a t was  focused  The  amount  extremely l i m i t e d .  any  A person  to the l a c k of  thought of c o n t a c t w i t h  p e o p l e , or p u b l i c i t y i n the community was bourhood House d i d not  due  the  on the s o c i a l agencies I n t e r e s t e d i n  the Neighbourhood House, and  it  was  c a r r i e d out i n the community to determine  h i r e d to do t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h but  time, a t t e n t i o n was  This  i t became a neighbourhood house.  need f o r a neighbourhood house was was  their  evolve  abandoned.  the  The  Neigh-  through a community movement, but  became a r e a l i t y because the D i r e c t o r s had  a b u i l d i n g , which  they d e s i r e d t o devote to some u s e f u l purpose. On September 1 s t , 1938, considerable  Mr. W.  A. Morrison,  who  had  experience i n community a geneies, such as P l a t Bush  Boy's Club and  the New  York Community Centre, was  Superintendent of Alexandra Neighbourhood House.  engaged as The  House  o f f i c i a U y opened i t s doors t o the community on October 1 s t ,  1938.  Development of Programme Alexandra House opened i t s doors to the community w i t h the areas.  idea t h a t s e r v i c e s would be rendered In three major The  categories  s e r v i c e " , and i n c l u d e and  of s e r v i c e were "community s e r v i c e " , " f a m i l y  "group work a c t i v i t y " .  Community s e r v i c e was  emphasize s o c i a l a c t i o n towards the  to  improvement of  the neighbourhood by attempting to g a i n more p l a y space, b e t t e r housing and b e t t e r t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s .  F a m i l y s e r v i c e was  There i s a l a c k of m a t e r i a l as to the community and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s performed d u r i n g the f i r s t decade.  to  -  32  -  Include home v i s i t s ; t o a s s i s t people  to o b t a i n employment, to  h e l p them g a i n a s s i s t a n c e i f r e q u i r e d and to r e f e r them to s p e c i a l i z e d agencies who  c o u l d h e l p w i t h t h e i r problems.  These  c a t e g o r i e s would a l s o Include t h e development of n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s and community s p i r i t .  The  t h i r d category, which was  as group work a c t i v i t y , was  r e f e r r e d to  c o n s i d e r e d the most important  and  i n c l u d e d c l u b groups, p l a y s c h o o l , e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l , and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , mass a c t i v i t i e s , and s p e c i a l  social  events.  In the f i r s t year, 2,354 were r e g i s t e r e d members, of which 1,342  were r e g i s t e r e d with the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange.  Such a h i g h percentage agencies,  of membership, b e i n g known to  different  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of membership had  or f a m i l y problems.  One  of the main reasons why  financial  so many people  were r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange was  t h a t the  House opened i t s doors a y e a r p r e v i o u s to the d e c l a r a t i o n of World War  I I , at which time unemployment was  a s e r i o u s problem.  During the war y e a r s , the number of home v i s i t s i n c r e a s e d because of the p r e v a l e n c e of c h i l d problems.  Home v i s i t s were made each  year w i t h a view to secure the c o o p e r a t i o n of the parents c h i l d r e n who  attended the Agency.  have been maintained  of  Close c o o p e r a t i o n appears t o  w i t h other agencies and the f a m i l i e s .  Refer-  r a l s were made to those agencies which c o u l d p r o v i d e more s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , such as case work and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d , day work and permanent employment was f o r d i f f e r e n t members of the f a m i l y . some p r e v e n t i v e s o c i a l work was a t t a i n a neighbourly  spirit.  During  obtained  Thus, i t can be seen t h a t  performed i n t h e i r attempts to  -  33  -  The group work a c t i v i t i e s occupied the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of agency funds and  time of p e r s o n n e l .  h i s p r e v i o u s experience, had  The D i r e c t o r , because of  a good understanding  of the fundamen-  t a l s of group work and he attempted t o b u i l d a programme around the expressed  i n t e r e s t s of the members and not superimpose a p r o -  gramme upon them. as t o age,  New  members were p l a c e d i n c l u b s most s u i t a b l e  i n t e r e s t s and needs.  The  D i r e c t o r attempted to b u i l d  a f l e x i b l e programme i n order t h a t i t might be r e a d i l y to meet changing i n t e r e s t s and  adjusted  needs.  The programme a c t i v i t i e s were soon developed s i x main c a t e g o r i e s , namely, group c l u b s , e d u c a t i o n  activities,  s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , miscellaneous and o u t s i d e groups. i n g s and sex.  under  activities  Group c l u b s were formed a c c o r d i n g to age  F o r example, i n 1 9 3 9 ,  t h e r e were f i v e  group-  clubs of  j u n i o r boys ( s i x t o . e l e v e n years of age), f o u r c l u b s of j u n i o r g i r l s , n i n e clubs of i n t e r m e d i a t e boys (twelve to s i x t e e n y e a r s of age), and i n the a d u l t department, t h e r e were two women's c l u b s and one men's c l u b .  The  e d u c a t i o n a l or v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i -  t i e s i n c l u d e d k i n d e r g a r t e n , weaving, q u i l t i n g ,  rugmaking, sewing,  p a i n t i n g , drawing, l e a t h e r work, woodwork, and cooking. laneous  Miscel-  a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d such s e r v i c e s as games room,  a r c h e r y and house c o u n c i l s .  library,  Outside groups were e i t h e r groups  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the House or were independent groups, who had  the use of the f a c i l i t i e s .  F o r example i n 1 9 3 9 ,  the S e l f - H e l p Groups (ten c r a f t groups, one Rec  Groups (seven groups),  Rangers, K i t s i l a n o Red  t h e r e were  drama group),  Lions Club, Lady L i o n s Club,  Cross and  merely  Pro  Sea  seven independent c l u b groups.  - 34 Alexandra Neighbourhood House c o n s i s t e d of two b u i l d ings.  The main b u i l d i n g , was a. l a r g e rambling p l a c e , which con-  t a i n e d f i f t e e n rooms of v a r y i n g s i z e s . was the entrance h a l l *  On the main f l o o r  there  a . l a r g e s o c i a l room, a room used f o r a  gymnasium, boy's c l u b room, cheek room, o f f i c e , r e c e p t i o n room, K i n d e r g a r t e n and a k i t c h e n .  On the second f l o o r there/was the  a u d i t o r i u m w i t h stage, g i r l ' s c l u b room, d r e s s i n g rooms, wash rooms, Superintendent's room, Superintendent's  apartment, women's c l u b room, men's c l u b offic.e» l i b r a r y and t h r e e c r a f t rooms, one  of which was q u i t e l a r g e and o c c a s i o n a l l y used f o r meetings. other b u i l d i n g was f o r m e r l y a s m a l l schoolhouse.  The  I t was turned  i n t o a woodworking shop and became a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t of the K i t s i lano L i o n s  Club.  Staff..and..Membership  ...c  The Superintendent,  had a good understanding  of the  f u n c t i o n of a neighbourhood house, but he l a c k e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , which meant t h a t he c o u l d not g i v e the l e a d e r s h i p to group that developed  i n the Agency.  I n 1939» the permanent s t a f f  s i s t e d of the superintendent, a s s i s t a n t superintendent, and a non-paid  kindergarten teacher.  caretaker  During t h i s year, f o u r  s o c i a l work students were a s s i g n e d t o t h e Agency f o r t h e i r work.  con-  field  There were a l s o over one hundred v o l u n t e e r s c o n t r i b u t i n g  t h e i r -services t o the v a r i o u s groups.  With such a s m a l l s t a f f ,  i t was impossible t o g i v e t h e proper s u p e r v i s i o n and c o - o r d i n a t e the numerous programmes t h a t were d e v e l o p i n g .  The l a c k of l e a d e r  ship was p o r t r a y e d i n the f l u c t u a t i n g membership.  - 35 A men's club formed d u r i n g t h i s year and c o n s i s t e d mainly o f unemployed persons.  The membership reached t h i r t y and  a committee from t h i s group met p e r i o d i c a l l y w i t h a committee o f the K i t s i l a n o Chamber .of Commerce.  A Women's group, c a l l e d "The  S e l f - H e l p Group", were having d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g t o the Agency, as they f e l t adults.  I t was a p l a c e f o r c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than f o r  Prom the beginning, the younger people were g i v e n t h e  g r e a t e r share of f a c i l i t i e s ,  space and time, which made t h e a d u l t  groups f e e l n e g l e c t e d . The a s s i s t a n t - s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was not appointed u n t i l April,  1939, a t which time, w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f v o l u n t e e r s , he  took on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of f o u r groups, i n o r d e r t o h e l p s e t a standard and t o demonstrate  proper group methods.  T h i s person,  a n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t h l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e , d i d not appear t o s e t a very good standard, but he was not r e p l a c e d u n t i l two years later. The young a d u l t group  ( s i x t e e n t o twenty-three  had a poor q u a l i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p amongst themselves, not want a d u l t s u p e r v i s i o n .  years)  and they d i d  T h i s p o r t r a y s the need f o r q u a l i f i e d  l e a d e r s h i p which was not a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t  time.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of membership was i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n ; f i f t y p e r cent boys and g i r l s under s i x t e e n y e a r s , t w e n t y - f i v e p e r cent young people and t w e n t y - f i v e p e r cent a d u l t s . Two house c o u n c i l s were formed; of  a s e n i o r house c o u n c i l ,  consisting  a d u l t s and young people, and a j u n i o r house c o u n c i l f o r the  younger groups.  This, i n i t s e l f ,  was a d e s i r a b l e step which  enabled the groups, through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the c o u n c i l s , to suggest b e t t e r ways and methods of improving and c o - o r d i n a t i n g  - 36 programme. In 1 9 4 0 , three hundred.  the average d a i l y attendance was  approximately  A c t i v e monthly membership ranged between f i f t e e n  hundred and e i g h t e e n hundred.  There were one hundred and  d i f f e r e n t groups or a c t i v i t i e s meeting weekly or d a i l y . the impressive f i g u r e of one  hundred and  twelve Despite  twelve d i f f e r e n t  groups  or a c t i v i t i e s , many groups were at l o o s e ends because of the l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p .  Most of these  groups were l e d by v o l u n t e e r s , many  of whom d i d not a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y . due  to a continuous  There was  a l a c k of  consistency  change of l e a d e r s h i p , which u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of groups. The  J u n i o r League and Normal School p r o v i d e d the Agency  w i t h most of the v o l u n t e e r s , without impossible  to c a r r y on programme.  money f o r a g i r l s worker, who  was  which i t would have been  The  J u n i o r League a l s o p r o v i d e d  s o r e l y needed t o p r o v i d e a more  adequate g i r l ' s programme, as the attendance of the g i r l s f a l l e n o f f because of the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n programme.  had  Some of  v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s h i p appeared to come from the community and week's t r a i n i n g programme d u r i n g the E a s t e r H o l i d a y s was f o r the o l d e r boys. Superintendent,  T h i s experiment, which was  apparently was  successful.  i t was  discontinued.  I t enables  l e a d e r s h i p from the  the neighbours t o assume more and more  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own  activities.  The f o l l o w ! ng year was except t h a t there was  but  Such a t r a i n i n g programme i s  a good method of encouraging and developing community.  the  recommended t h a t  a s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g programme be o r g a n i z e d the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , f o r some reason  a  provided  s u p e r v i s e d by  I t was  the  q u i t e s i m i l a r i n most r e s p e c t s  a change i n s t a f f .  The  J u n i o r League p r o -  I  - 37  -  v i d e d the s a l a r y f o r a s o c i a l worker f o r a year and a l s o p r o v i d e d the s a l a r y f o r a p l a y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r f o r the summer months* The boys' worker was s a t i s f a c t o r y work. and a g i r l s '  d i s m i s s e d because he was A new  boys' worker was  s u p e r v i s o r was  i n c a p a b l e of doing  a p p o i n t e d i n September  a t t a i n e d a t the same time.  Leadership Problems The y e a r 1942 marked the opening of Gordon Neighbourhood House, a t the c o r n e r of Nelson and J e r v i s S t r e e t s . marked the c l o s i n g o f Alexandra a d m i n i s t e r e d under Alexandra the Superintendent  It also  C h i l d r e n ' s Home, which was  Community A c t i v i t i e s . ^ "  Mr.  also  Morrison,  of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, assumed the  r o l e of e x e c u t i v e - d i r e c t o r of both Alexandra and Gordon Houses. The appointment of one  e x e c u t i v e - d i r e c t o r t o be i n charge  of both  neighbourhood houses r e v e a l s the l a c k of autonomy or home r u l e of the i n d i v i d u a l houses.  T h i s meant t h a t the E x e c u t i v e Committee  maintained c o n t r o l over the o p e r a t i o n and management of Alexandra House, but t h e House Committee should have had the power over  these  1. Alexandra Neighbourhood House i s one of t h r e e agencies which make up the Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s . The others are Gordon Neighbourhood House and Alexandra F r e s h A i r Camp. The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l (Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s ) makes al 1 necessary c a p i t a l expenditures and owns a l l p h y s i c a l a s s e t s . The major p o r t i o n of the budget i s o b t a i n e d from the Community Chest and C o u n c i l . The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l c o n s i s t s of not l e s s than t h i r t y s i x members and not more than s i x t y . Alexandra ^ouse Committee i s one o f the s t a n d i n g committees and i s v i r t u a l l y a . Board o f D i r e c t o r s f o r the House. T h i s Committee has c o n t r o l over the a f f a i r s , o p e r a t i o n s and management of Alexandra House. Any matter a f f e c t i n g p o l i c y or c a p i t a l funds and expenditures must be r e f e r r e d t o the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l .  -  areas i n order opportunity  38  -  that the people of the community might have the  to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own  activities*.  To ensure t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the House Committee s h o u l d s i s t mainly of people who  con-  r e s i d e i n the neighbourhood.  Alexandra House by t h i s time had a membership of hundred and  twenty-nine k i n d e r g a r t e n  one  c h i l d r e n , e i g h t hundred  and f i f t y - t h r e e j u n i o r s , s i x hundred and  twenty-two intermed-  i a t e s , f o u r hundred and  seventy-two s e n i o r s and nine hundred  and f o r t y - f i v e a d u l t s .  There were s i x c l u b s f o r boys, n i n e  c l u b s f o r g i r l s and was  seven c l u b s f o r a d u l t s .  The boys' work  c u r t a i l e d because of the l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p .  of men,  caused by  enlistment  i n the s e r v i c e s , was  The  shortage  one  of  the  main reasons f o r the l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s was  the f i r s t year t h a t members were r e q u i r e d  produce t h e i r membership cards before House.  The  members had  they c o u l d enter  to  the  no f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward the  House and they r e s i s t e d t h i s new i n g had been developed by  policy.  I f a sense of b e l o n g -  the l e a d e r s , there  would not have been  the same degree o f r e s i s t a n c e to paying token membership f e e s . Not  enough a t t e n t i o n was  the c l u b s and  there was  agency programme. q u a l i t y o f work was The  devoted to programme development i n a l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n  of o v e r - a l l  At t h i s time the s t a f f began to r e a l i z e  more important t h a n the number p a r t i c i p a t i n g .  g i r l s ' worker, e s p e c i a l l y , r e a l i z e d that numbers had  s t r e s s e d r a t h e r t h a n q u a l i t y , but  been  she d i d not have the time nor  the support o f permanent p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f to i n s t i t u t e change.  that  any  Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s (Executive C o u n c i l )  Finance  Property Alexandra F r e s h Air Camp  Alexandra Neighbourhood House  Gordon Neighbourhood House  Standing Programme Temporary  Property  Committees Finance  Personnel  Committee  VJ4 IX)  Second Avenue  Transient  1  Community Groups  Junior Boys  Junior Girls  Teen-agers  T  Adults  HOUSE COUNCIL which i n c l u d e s Two Board Members Two S t a f f Members  Chart 2  STRUCTURE OF ALEXANDRA  COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES  Playschool  - 40 In 1942,  a s e n i o r boys c l u b , which had been  t h r e e years p r e v i o u s l y , withdrew from the House* t h a t the v o l u n t e e r direction  worker, who  organized  I t was  stated  was l e a d i n g the c l u b , r e s e n t e d .  from the s t a f f and had r e s i g n e d .  The boys had a c l o s e  t i e w i t h t h i s worker and when he r e s i g n e d the boys l e f t the House.  I t was s t a t e d t h a t there was some doubt about the wisdom  of the l e a d e r ' s Ideas as t o boys' c l u b work.  The  volunteer  l e a d e r a p p a r e n t l y wanted more to say on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the House.  He thought h i s club should have been c o n s u l t e d  on  such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems as t o the use of the s i d e e n t r a i c e f o r boys, hours f o r l e a v i n g the house and the use of rooms. T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s two major p o i n t s worthy of mention.  F i r s t i t p o r t r a y s the dangers i n v o l v e d i n having  vol-  unteer l e a d e r s i n charge of f r i e n d s h i p groups without adequate supervision.  I f the l e a d e r had been s u p e r v i s e d ,  been n o t i c e d t h a t he might become e m o t i o n a l l y group and would not be able t o do an e f f e c t i v e  i t would have  i n v o l v e d w i t h the job.  This  unteer s h o u l d have r e c e i v e d h e l p to serve the group more  voleffec-  t i v e l y ; or been p l a c e d i n another area where he may have been more capable.  Thus, not only was the v o l u n t e e r harmed, but the  members were deprived  of a meeting p l a c e and the o p p o r t u n i t y  develop through a good group  to  experience.  The second p o i n t , which t h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s , i s the l a c k of good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  I f there was a House  where t h i s group c o u l d send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s with t h e i r and suggestions, arisen.  Council ideas  the s i t u a t i o n would most l i k e l y never have  The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would have been given an  opportunity  - 41 to request the use of the s i d e door and t o d i s c u s s the reasons why  the House c l o s e d a t a c e r t a i n hour.  I t may  have a l s o  meant that they c o u l d have r e c e i v e d the space which they r e q u i r e d . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o u l d have a t l e a s t r e p o r t e d back t o the group  the r e s u l t s of t h e i r q u e r i e s .  With such a s i t u a t i o n  aris-  i n g , i t a l s o shows a l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between groups.  It  might a l s o r e v e a l the l a c k of f o r m u l a t e d p o l i c y on the p a r t of the Board because  of t h e i r concern over s m a l l d e t a i l s .  Up to t h i s time the Board of D i r e c t o r s had not been able t o v i s u a l i z e i t s r o l e as one concerned w i t h the broader a s p e c t s of p o l i c y , budget  and o v e r - a l l agency programme.  The  "Board" c a r r i e d over the same f o c u s on minute d e t a i l s of operat i o n as when i t was  d i r e c t i n g an orphanage.  F o r instance, i n  1939 the d i r e c t o r submitted a request to the board f o r numerous small a r t i c l e s ,  such as boxing g l o v e s , k i n d e r g a r t e n t a b l e s ,  two  b l a c k b o a r d s , two quarts of enamel p a i n t and one s t a p l i n g machine.  A s i m i l a r example, taken from the b o a r d minutes  f o l l o w i n g y e a r , was  of the  a request from the d i r e c t o r f o r the  Board's  p e r m i s s i o n t o purchase s u p p l i e s amounting t o e i g h t e e n d o l l a r s f o r the camera c l u b .  On another o c c a s i o n the r o l l e r of the  t y p e w r i t e r used i n the o f f i c e had t o be r e p l a c e d , an i t e m which c o s t s approximately f i v e d o l l a r s .  A r e p o r t on t h i s was  presented  to the Board i n g r e a t d e t a i l , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the r o l l e r d e t e r i o r a t e d owing t o the a c i d on the s t e n c i l s . a p p r o v a l was  obtained.  d e s c r i b e d , appear  The  had  Board's  Numerous examples, s i m i l a r to those  throughout  these e a r l y years and i t was  not  u n t i l 1945 t h a t the Board began t o f o c u s on p o l i c y , i n s u r a n c e , budget and  salaries.  - 42 By 1943 there were only twenty c l u b groups i n t h e House.  I t i s not .'only i n t e r e s t i n g , but a i s o s i g n i f i c a n t , t o  note t h a t i n 1939 there were t h i r t y - o n e c l u b groups and each s u c c e s s i v e year t h e r e was a decrease i n number of groups. These club groups correspond t o f r i e n d s h i p groups, which a r e composed of members w i t h a number of common f a c t o r s such as age,  i n t e r e s t and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which b r i n g p e o p l e  together. nel  These groups r e q u i r e l e a d e r s h i p from t r a i n e d p e r s o n -  who a r e c a p a b l e of a s s i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o adjust t o the  group, and who have a broad knowledge of programme media through which the group can express themselves and have t h e i r needs met. With the l a c k o f good l e a d e r s h i p , I t i s only n a t u r a l t h a t was a decrease i n the number of these groups.  there  During t h i s same  p e r i o d of time, there was an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f I n t e r e s t groups. est,  I n t e r e s t groups a r e formed around one s p e c i f i c  inter-  such as sewing, b a s k e t b a l l , e t c . , and t h i s i n t e r e s t i s  u s u a l l y the only bond which holds t h e group t o g e t h e r .  It i s  e a s i e r t o o b t a i n l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h i s type of group because the l e a d e r needs s k i l l only i n one area of programme.  This  could  account f o r the i n c r e a s e i n number of i n t e r e s t groups over t h i s four-year  period. During t h i s year there was a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n a t t e n d -  ance and one s e n i o r g i r l s * The  girls*  years The  club and one women's club disbanded.  club which disbanded ranged from s i x t e e n t o n i n e t e e n  of age and had a c q u i r e d a c l o s e attachment t o the l e a d e r .  l e a d e r was unable to continue  t h e f o l l o w i n g year and the  g i r l s f e l t t h a t no one c o u l d take h e r p l a c e , so they were l e f t on t h e i r own.  The club f i n a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t e d because of the  - 43 -• l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p .  T h i s example once a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e s the f a c t  that w i t h o u t good l e a d e r s h i p a great d e a l of harm can r e s u l t .  It  r e v e a l s the need f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of l e a d e r s h i p t o safeguard the members.  With adequate s u p e r v i s i o n , there would have been a  i n g - o f f " process,  i n which t h e l e a d e r would have made a  gradual  withdrawal from t h e group, and i d e a l l y a new l e a d e r should been i n t r o d u c e d  a few weeks previous  "taper-  have  t o h e r complete break from  the group. At t h i s time, i t was noted t h a t there were u s u a l l y not enough persons i n the men's c l u b t o make a foursome i n c a r d s .  The  r a p i d decrease i n number of men was mainly due t o the change i n the economic c o n d i t i o n s . end  of the depression  had  a great  The House opened i t s doors during the  years, when many men were unemployed and  d e a l of time t o s p a r e .  The c o n d i t i o n s  o f war r a p i d l y i  changed t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o one o f economic p r o s p e r i t y . s e r v i c e s t ook the m a j o r i t y  The armed  of t h e p h y s i c a l l y f i t men which meant  there were numerous jobs a v a i l a b l e , even f o r o l d e r men and women. I t was d u r i n g t h i s y e a r that both Alexandra and Gordon Neighbourhood Houses separated  under two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t o r s .  The  new e x e c u t i v e - d i r e c t o r summed-up the s i t u a t i o n a t Alexandra House q u i t e adequately.  She s t a t e d that the s t a f f had done a good j o b ,  although without p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and without knowledge o f the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s , ' they had been attempting t o remedy s i t u a t i o n s t h a t were beyond t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s .  The c h i l d r e n and  young people had been allowed t o come and go as they pleased, and to do what they wished, w i t h no r e s p e c t t o anyone.  The d i r e c t o r  d i d not expand on the r e s u l t s of t h i s l a c k of d i r e c t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n s on the boys and g i r l s , but i t i s another reason f o r  - 44  -  the decrease i n number of a d u l t members. One  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e was  bers toward the House. ment of i t s own  the l a c k of l o y a l t y of mem-  Each group was  working toward the  achieve-  ends and d i d not worry about the o v e r - a l l programme.  They took the House f o r granted and f e l t no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward it.  T h i s was  portrayed  membership f e e s .  i n t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e to payment of token  I t i s evident  had been s t r e s s e d .  that q u a n t i t y  r a t h e r than q u a l i t y  Recording the number of membership and  attend-  ance had been emphasized, r a t h e r than doing a good s o l i d job, even i f i t meant a s a c r i f i c e i n numbers. The outside  s t a f f , during  organizations  and  t h i s p e r i o d , had  no contact  with  d i d not even know the community  Home v i s i t s had not been c o n s i d e r e d  resources.  p a r t of t h e i r work, which meant  that they d i d not know the home c o n d i t i o n s of the members.  Without  an understanding of the p a r e n t s and home c o n d i t i o n s , which have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon the behaviour of the c h i l d r e n , i t i s to do a good groupwork j o b . i n the f a m i l y u n i t .  This a l s o p o r t r a y s  Maintaining  impossible  a l a c k of i n t e r e s t  the f a m i l y u n i t i s one  of  the  fundamentals In the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l work; s e r v i c e to the u n i t i s a l s o one  of the major f u n c t i o n s  family  of a neighbourhood house.  When Alexandra Neighbourhood House opened i t s doors to the p u b l i c i n 1938> there was make any 1944 was  not enough money a v a i l a b l e to  s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the b u i l d i n g .  that a complete r e n o v a t i o n attempted.  The  I t was  and r e - d e c o r a t i o n  b u i l d i n g had r e t a i n e d some of the  helped t o i n c u l c a t e new  until  of the b u i l d i n g  of the orphanage days, even though i t s f u n c t i o n had renovation  not  atmosphere  changed.  a t t i t u d e s i n members and  .because of the b r i g h t e r and more p l e a s a n t  atmosphere.  There  This staff was  -  4 5  an i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g of p r i d e , r e s p e c t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among members. The  shortage  of labour and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s meant  that the r e n o v a t i o n p e r i o d l a s t e d from March u n t i l November. delay p l u s t h e . f a c t t h a t the c a r e t a k e r became i l l ,  This  and the l o s s  of a s t a f f member on A p r i l f i r s t r e s u l t e d i n a d e f i n i t e slump i n programme a c t i v i t y and a drop i n attendance. Lack of i n t e g r a t i o n of c l u b a c t i v i t i e s p l u s l e a d e r s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s were p r e v a l e n t throughout t h i s y e a r . i n February, one  F o r example,  l e a d e r d i d not a t t e n d at l e a s t three  meetings and f a i l e d to n o t i f y anyone of her absence. can h o l d together under such circumstances. were d i s c o n t i n u e d due  consecutive Few  A number of  clubs clubs  to the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n l e a d e r s h i p .  The  f a c t t h a t some of the v o l u n t e e r s were not c a r r y i n g the  responsib-  i l i t y of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c l u b s and,  not  c o o p e r a t i o n between groups and  because t h e r e was  enough  t h e i r l e a d e r s the D i r e c t o r had  to  c a l l a meeting t o d i s c u s s the problems. The F a i r v i e w B a p t i s t Church allowed gymnasium f o r b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e . still  one  The  their  l a c k of a gymnasium i s  of the major problems i n the House and p e r m i s s i o n  a gymnasium was  a great a s s e t .  i t enabled  ment In the teen-age department was  Teen Canteen membership was  Another  develop-  the Teen Canteen, which  i t s own  separate entrance.  was  The  d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g  l e v e l s ; t h i r t e e n to s i x t e e n y e a r s , s i x t e e n to n i n e t e e n  n i n e t e e n y e a r s and up.  use  the membership to  develop b a s k e t b a l l teams to p l a y o u t s i d e groups.  attached t o the House but had  to  T h i s meant t h a t a b e t t e r teen-age  programme c o u l d be developed and  age  the use of  years,  Each of these groups had the house to  - 46 themselves one n i g h t a week and b o t h teen-age groups had dances at the canteen twice per week.  T h i s programme was perhaps the  most p o p u l a r i n the House. While the teen-age programme appeared q u i t e  satis-  f a c t o r y , the a d u l t department had g r a d u a l l y decreased In members h i p s i n c e the peak reached i n 1941 and 1942, u n t i l t h e r e were only three s m a l l groups by the end of 1944. This chapter has d e s c r i b e d the numerous s e r v i c e s rendered by the House during i t s embryonic stage*  There were  c e r t a i n d e f i c i e n c i e s i n programme l i n k e d w i t h a shortage of s t a f f and a p o o r l y f o c u s e d Board. a new i n s t i t u t i o n ,  T h i s i s not an unusual occurrence i n  and e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e A l e x a n d r a House was the  only neighbourhood house i n Western Canada.  The f o l l o w i n g chap-  t e r s w i l l r e v e a l how many of these problems were overcome through good management and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . found i n the e a r l y y e a r s are s t i l l  Some of the problems  apparent today.  One of the  major problems i n these e a r l y years has r e v o l v e d around l e a d e r s h i p which i s the key t o the development of q u a l i t y programmes. These problems have been overcome-but other problems emanating from the community i t s e l f are now  of prime importance.  - 47  -  CHAPTER POST WAR The y e a r 1945  IV  YEARS  i s important to Alexandra House beoause  i t marks the o r i g i n of group work t r a i n i n g i n the Department, School, of S o c i a l Work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  now  Columbia.  The J u n i o r League made a grant to the U n i v e r s i t y to permit group work t r a i n i n g , and t h i s became the f i r s t Canada.  T h i s was  f u l l f l e d g e d course i n  an important event f o r Alexandra House not o n l y  because i t has t r a i n e d capable l e a d e r s h i p f o r the H o u s e , b u t a l s o enabled students to take t h e i r f i e l d House.  work placements  has  a t the  T h i s has r e c i p r o c a l advantages f o r the School of S o c i a l  Work and the Agency. T h i s year a l s o marked the end of World War meant that the Neighbourhood House was  e n t e r i n g a new  I I which era.  House had o r i g i n a t e d i n the l a s t y e a r s of d e p r e s s i o n , had during f i v e y e a r s of war, prosperity.  and was  now  The operated  f a c i n g a p e r i o d of peace and  In the same year a survey was  made by the Community  Chest and C o u n c i l , of group work and r e c r e a t i o n i n G r e a t e r Vancouver."*' at  T h i s r e p o r t g i v e s an o b j e c t i v e view of Alexandra House  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e of development.  The r e p o r t e x p l a i n e d  that the house programme c o n s i s t e d of a k i n d e r g a r t e n i n the morning,  h e a l t h and c u l t u r a l a r t s In the a f t e r n o o n s and e a r l y  and one boy's c l u b , l e d by a s t a f f member, was weekly. . The Teen Canteen programme was  evenings,  o r g a n i z e d and  met  c o n s i d e r e d one of the  1.. Survey Report of Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n of G r e a t e r Vancouver, p u b l i s h e d by the Community Chest a i d Welfare C o u n c i l of Vancouver, 1940.  - 48 s t r o n g e s t i n the House, although gramme i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s .  there was  The  a l s o an e x c e l l e n t p r o -  c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s were  super-  v i s e d by p a r t - t i m e s t a f f and r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l of support  from  the J u n i o r League. The House a t t h i s time was a s t a f f of one  s u p e r v i s e d by a d i r e c t o r ,  group worker f o r teen-agers,  a part-time  person  f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n , a p a r t - t i m e person f o r c u l t u r a l a r t s and librarian.  A s m a l l budget was  but the s a l a r y was  a  p r o v i d e d f o r a boy's group worker,  not too e n t i c i n g and the p o s i t i o n was  vacant.  Three of the above p o s i t i o n s c a l l e d f o r c o l l e g e graduates,  but  only one group worker had a graduate degree i n s o c i a l work. was  c o n s i d e r e d one  of the major reasons  This  for certain deficiencies  i n the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the House. A number of recommendations were made by the ,Chest and  Community  C o u n c i l of which the f o l l o w i n g have been s e l e c t e d i n  order of importance.  The f i r s t recommendation was  t h a t the  of management should become more neighbourhood conscious  i n order  to give the membership a g r e a t e r degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n t e r e s t i n the a c t i v i t i e s .  There was  c o u n c i l to a l l o w the members t o express and developments i n programme. t i o n by member c l u b s there was management was  superimposing  time t h e r e were few,  i f any,  t h e i r ideas about changes  Without t h i s means of r e p r e s e n t a the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the board  i t s ideas upon the members.  At  community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on  the  to say about the o p e r a t i o n of the Agency,  mendation was  and  no house c o u n c i l o r teen  house committees which meant t h a t the neighbourhood people little  board  of this  had  Another recom-  made t h a t the nearby K i t s i l a n o area was  not  served  - 49 adequately and  t h a t another s t a f f person would be r e q u i r e d to  community group work. to be  obtained  I t was  not  This.would mean t h a t f a c i l i t i e s  i n the a r e a b e f o r e  do  would have  a programme c o u l d be  organized.  only the d i s t a n c e but a l s o the a r t e r i a l roads which cut  through the neighbourhood that prevented t h i s area from being e r l y served from the House.  T h i r d i n importance was  that the number of f r i e n d s h i p groups should be  not  suggestion  increased.  been s t a t e d e a r l i e r , such groups r e q u i r e s t r o n g , s h i p and good s u p e r v i s i o n which was  a  stable  As  mittees  then a v a i l a b l e i n the Hous  The  fin-  time a l l the com-  dealt with property  management.  f a c t t h a t the Board members were concerned with minor d e t a i l s  of p r o p e r t y and  and programme, because a t t h a t  of the House, except one,  has  leader-  The l a s t recommendation s t a t e d a need f o r more committees on ance, o p e r a t i o n  prop  i t was  management was  exemplified  i n the p r e v i o u s  not u n t i l t h i s time that the Board became concerned  w i t h the broader i s s u e s of l e a d e r s h i p , programme and I t was Chest and  chapter,,  noted t h a t a f t e r the survey by the  C o u n c i l a committee was  operation. Community  set up f o r the improvement of  the playground, and the Board members s t a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to a l l o w non-board members on the committee. s e l e c t e d from the community were Mr. i n a r e a ) , Mr.  Pound ( r e a l - e s t a t e b u s i n e s s  Hersog (House member), and Reverend McLaughlan  (Pairview B a p t i s t Church i n a r e a ) . ness, Mr.  Committee members  Hersog r e s i g n e d  i n 1946  .Vancouver the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . members from the d i s t r i c t on  Due  to the pressure  of b u s i -  and Reverend McLaughlan l e f t  Thus, there was t h i s committee.  s t i l l a l a c k of  - 50 The year 1947  i s important  t h i s was.the year i n which t h e r e was t i o n of the Board.  t o Alexandra House because  a r e v i s i o n of the c o n s t i t u -  T h i s marked a movement toward the  of autonomy or home r u l e of Alexandra House.  attainment  A committee com-  posed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s t a f f , board and membership appointed t o set up the House c o n s t i t u t i o n which was by the Board.  Budget Committee of the Community Chest members of the House saw The  to be  approved  The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l arranged f o r an i n c r e a s e i n  s a l a r i e s of the s t a f f of Alexandra House which was  Agency.  was  approved  and C o u n c i l .  The  by  the  Committee  t h i s as a t h r e a t t o the autonomy of the  c o n s t i t u t i o n o u t l i n e d i n the Powers, D u t i e s and Regu-  l a t i o n s of the Standing Committee of Alexandra Community A c t i v i ties states:  i  "The House Committee s h a l l have c o n t r o l over the a f f a i r s , o p e r a t i o n s and management of Alexandra Neighbourhood. House and s h a l l have power to engage, suspend or d i s c h a r g e a l l members r e q u i r e d o r employed i n the o p e r a t i o n t h e r e o f , and s h a l l r e g u l a t e , decide and f i x t h e i r s a l a r i e s ; p r o v i d e d a l l expenditures are c o n t a i n e d and approved i n the budget of the y e a r . Any matter a f f e c t i n g p o l i c i e s s h a l l be r e f e r r e d t o the E x e c u t i v e Council."! Pour women members of the Henry Hudson Parent  Teachers'  A s s o c i a t i o n c r i t i c i z e d Alexandra House and a committee was to meet w i t h them.  T h i s group thought  t h a t Alexandra House s h o u l d  be g i v i n g more s e r v i c e to the a r e a n o r t h of F o u r t h Avenue. a l s o suggested  formed  They  t h a t the p l a y s c h o o l be operated i n the a f t e r n o o n  as w e l l as the morning.  The  Committee recommended t h a t the  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Committee of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l be asked t o s e t up a committee t o make a survey of the area which  1.  Minutes  of Board of D i r e c t o r s Meeting,  1947.  Alexandra House was  serving,  or should serve, and to c o n s i d e r  to what extent the s e r v i c e s of Alexandra  House c o u l d meet the  needs of t h i s a r e a . T h i s y e a r marked the f o r m a t i o n of a new  house c o u n c i l ,  which h e l p e d t o c o - o r d i n a t e programme of groups whose members were over s i x t e e n years of age. was  o r g a n i z e d i n 1945,  The c l u b f o r overseas war b r i d e s , which  extended i t s membership to i n c l u d e other  young m a r r i e d women of the community.  More emphasis was  placed  on the women's groups, and as they became more i n t e r e s t e d i n the neighbourhood they attempted t o o b t a i n space f o r a below F o u r t h Avenue.  playground  D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t they were not  success-  f u l , such i n t e r e s t i n the neighbourhood should have been encouraged by the s t a f f .  Three group work st;udents from the Department  of S o c i a l Work took t h e i r f i e l d t r a i n i n g a t Alexandra  House,  which h e l p e d to g i v e some s t a b l e l e a d e r s h i p to the groups. In 1948,  the k i n d e r g a r t e n s u p e r v i s o r was  dismissed  because she c o u l d not accept the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of the Agency.  The Mothers' Study Group thought  an i n j u s t i c e had been  done and they p r e s e n t e d a number of c r i t i c i s m s t o the Board of Directors.  On the e i g h t e e n complaints  submitted t o the Board,  the f o l l o w i n g have been s e l e c t e d by the w r i t e r as the most ant . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Lack of c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h community groups. C o n t i n u a l change of s t a f f , w i t h d i s c o n t i n u e d services. Poor p u b l i c i t y f o r agency and community. Lack of e f f o r t to r e c r u i t v o l u n t e e r s . No attempt to d i s c o v e r and meet community needs. No r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the community or membership on the Board.  import-  7. 8.  There are many age groups whom no attempt i s made t o serve (young a d u l t s , b u s i n e s s g i r l s , married couples, older c i t i z e n s . ) The schedule i s such that o u t s i d e groups have more use of the b u i l d i n g than membership from the community. The Board o f D i r e c t o r s of the Community Chest and  C o u n c i l appointed an I n t e r i m Survey Committee t o r e p o r t on t h e f a c i l i t i e s , programme and s t a f f o f the House.  The composition  of the Committee was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i n c l u d i n g the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y of the Welfare S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l ; a member of the Mothers' Study Group; a member of Alexandra Neighbourhood House Committee; t h e Chairman o f Alexandra Neighbourhood House C o u n c i l ; and the S e c r e t a r y , Group Work D i v i s i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l . Facilities I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t the f a c i l i t i e s were adequate and i n good r e p a i r , and g e n e r a l l y speaking, the space was adequate f o r a neighbourhood house programme.  There was need i n d i c a t e d f o r  another o f f i c e w i t h telephone f o r programme s t a f f .  Mention was  made of the inadequacy of the gymnasium f o r b a l l games, badminton, e t c . , and the need f o r a l a r g e r gymnasium was to depend upon the facilities  of t h i s n a t u r e i n t h e community.  There a r e no such  f a c i l i t i e s i n the neighbourhood and t h i s i s s t i l l l a c k s i n the House.  one o f t h e major  The a n a l y s i s showed t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e  to c a r r y out a more e x t e n s i v e programme than the p r e s e n t one, I f such were needed. Programme In view of the need f o r an immediate a n a l y s i s , f i g u r e s were c o n f i n e d by the Committee t o t h e month of March, 1948. The  - 53 committee in  r e a l i z e d that a t r u e e v a l u a t i o n of programme l i e s w i t h -  the experience of i n d i v i d u a l members and t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y  that a committee,  concerned w i t h f a c t s , c o u l d a c h i e v e an e v a l u a -  t i o n of such i n t a n g i b l e s as d i s c o n t e n t and h a p p i n e s s .  The com-  mittee based t h e i r a n a l y s i s on the f o l l o w i n g s i x c r i t e r i a f o r neighbourhood houses s e t out by Clyde Murray f o r the N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of S e t t l e m e n t s , The f i r s t  c r i t e r i o n s t a t e s that a neighbourhood  house  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a given d i s t r i c t and that the major p o r t i o n of its  membership s h o u l d come from t h i s neighbourhood.  e i g h t hundred and f o r t y on the membership l i s t  There were  of Alexandra Neigh-  bourhood House which was more than adequate f o r a programme s t a f f of  three persons, two of whom had l i t t l e  aration.  or no p r o f e s s i o n a l prep-  Of these e i g h t hundred and f o r t y members, f i v e  hundred  and f o r t y - s i x were a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programme i n March, which r e p r e s e n t s a t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r cent drop i n attendance. T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t drop i n membership, but i t appears, more reasonable when we  see that two hundred and f o r t y - f o u r , or approx-  i m a t e l y t h i r t y p e r cent l i v e o u t s i d e of the l a r g e a r e a bounded by F a l s e Creek and S i x t e e n t h Avenue, Alma Road and Oak Thus, i t was  suggested that the Board of D i r e c t o r s  e s t a b l i s h r e s i d e n c e boundaries, f o r f u l l ing  Street.  d i s t a n c e of the House.  I t was  membership, w i t h i n walk-  e x p l a i n e d that i t c o u l d not '..  become a "law", without e x c e p t i o n , but t h a t the boundary s h o u l d be a guide i f the House was  to become p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h i t s  neighbourhood. The second c r i t e r i o n s t r e s s e s t h a t a l l ages and b o t h sexes should be served i n a neighbourhood house.  Numerous l a c k s  - 54 i n the t o t a l sex and age-groups of the membership are p o r t r a y e d . Table 1  Membership  Age  Members  Preschool School Teen-age Adult  103 149 355 233  of Alexandra Neighbourhood House  Number of Groups Male Available  Participants in March  68 . 73  2 15 12 8  274  157  59  71  205 6 336  Female  49 78 150 227 504  Male Female -  336 i n e i g h t e e n groups 504 i n twenty-three groups  Source:  Survey Report of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, 1948.  Although there was a h i g h percentage of t e e n - a g e r s , t h e r e were o n l y a s m a l l number of f r i e n d s h i p groups. to the shortage o f male l e a d e r s .  T h i s was perhaps p a r t l y due  Another major gap i s found i n  the a d u l t membership, where there were only s i x men i n c o n t r a s t to two hundred and twenty-seven women.  I t was a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t  only f o u r of these men l i v e d i n the neighbourhood.  O u t s i d e of one  women's group, there were few young a d u l t s s e r v e d and no r e c r e a t i o n a l group was o f f e r e d t o s i n g l e men and women i n the young a d u l t age-group. One of Murray's c r i t e r i a s t a t e s t h a t a neighbourhood house s h o u l d be " m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l " .  There was no doubt t h a t A l e x -  andra House s e r v e d numerous f u n c t i o n s , a l t h o u g h there was a need f o r the House Committee  t o review t h e i r s e r v i c e s and t o r a t e them  as t o t h e i r degree of importance.  I t was suggested t h a t  emphasis  - 55 ~ should be p l a c e d on the needs of the membership, t h a t and Welfare Agencies and  Health  f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the neighbourhood  should get second choice and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s of c i t y wide or p u r e l y s o c i a l nature be c a t e r e d to as remaining s t a f f time  and  permitted. The f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n maintains  house Is i n t e r e s t e d i n the f a m i l y u n i t . f o r t y members of the House r e p r e s e n t  persons.  Only one hundred and  one a c t i v e member i n the House.  t h a t a neighbourhood  The  e i g h t hundred  seven hundred and  f a m i l i e s which meant t h a t each f a m i l y was 1.19  space  and  three  r e p r e s e n t e d by  only  eleven f a m i l i e s had more than  In the o l d e r teen-age groups,  f i v e hundred and f o u r c h i l d r e n and teen-agers were r e p r e s e n t e d only twenty-seven mothers.  Thus, the Agency c o u l d not be  by  termed  a family recreation centre. The f i f t h c r i t e r i o n emphasizes the Importance of q u a l i t a t i v e work even i f i t means a s a c r i f i c e of l a r g e r numbers. I t was  r e a l i z e d that through s t a t i s t i c s  whether t h e j o b !  i s , or i s not, q u a l i t a t i v e .  range, the number and I t was  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o judge In the younger  age-  s i z e of groups i n d i c a t e d a q u a l i t y programme  suggested t h a t through a wider use of v o l u n t e e r s  i t would  be p o s s i b l e to serve more people In small groups without  sacri-  f i c i n g q u a l i t y programme. The  l a s t c r i t e r i o n s t a t e s t h a t the neighbours  should  be encouraged to assume more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the activities. important ^  was  one  The  survey  e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s i s one  of the more  r o l e s t h a t a neighbourhood house should f u l f i l . of the major l a c k s i n the House, as there, was  This  an absence  - 56  -  of neighbourhood people on the Board of D i r e c t o r s and a house c o u n c i l was  not f u n c t i o n i n g at t h i s I t was  time.  q u i t e c l e a r that g e n e r a l l y speaking, the  had been inadequate  i n r e s p e c t t o both numbers and  staff  qualifications.  The a n a l y s i s of the programme d u t i e s of the boys' worker, g i r l s ! , worker and p l a y s c h o o l d i r e c t o r showed t h a t none of these s t a f f . members had adequate time f o r home, v i s i t i n g ,  recruit-  i n g and t r a i n i n g v o l u n t e e r s , or m a i n t a i n i n g community c o n t a c t s i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of conducting and v i s i n g programme.  super-  The s t a f f were commended on the e x c e l l e n t con-  d i t i o n i n which the b u i l d i n g and p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s were k e p t , and a l s o on the e x c e l l e n t f i n a n c i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d s . There was  an absence of p o l i c y i n r e g a r d to what types  of programme should be emphasized by the s t a f f , or which r e f l e c t e d the needs of the neighbourhood.  More emphasis was  required i n  e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h community groups, p a r t n e r s h i p of s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s was  emphasized.  A  There were  a p p a r e n t l y l a c k s I n the r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g of v o l u n t e e r s . The  I n t e r i m Committee made a number of recommendations,  of which the f o l l o w i n g have b e e n s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r development. The f i r s t a d v i c e was  t o e s t a b l i s h g e o g r a p h i c a l boundaries,  and t h a t  the needs and i n t e r e s t s of the people from w i t h i n t h i s a r e a should determine the programme development. had been s t a t e d when the House was  The g e o g r a p h i c a l  i n i t s embryonic stage of  development, but they had not been s t r i c t l y adhered t o . r e s u l t was  boundaries  The  t h a t n e a r l y t h i r t y per cent of the membership had come  from o u t s i d e of t h i s l a r g e a r e a .  As has been e x p l a i n e d  earlier,  -  there was  57  -  a need f o r a house c o u n c i l i n o r d e r t h a t the member —  ship might assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own S i m i l a r l y there was or  little,  activities.  i f any, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of membership  neighbourhood people on the Board.  I t was a l s o noted t h a t  there were numerous o u t s i d e groups u s i n g space and f a c i l i t i e s of the  House, vihich might have been devoted to the development  of  programme f o r the members. The i n a d e q u a c i e s of the s t a f f were r e v e a l e d i n the survey and i t was  suggested t h a t adequately t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l  s t a f f be employed as soon as p o s s i b l e .  Qualified staff  could  then cooperate and a s s i s t v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s to g i v e q u a l i t y to  services  the membership, under the d i r e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e of t h e D i r -  ector.  There appears t o have been a poor working r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s , and without c o o p e r a t i o n between a l l p e r s o n n e l , the programme c o u l d not be c o - o r d i n a t e d .  The  staff  had not maintained contacts i n the neighbourhood and, as was t r a y e d i n the f i r s t chapter, t h i s i s one of the major i t i e s of neighbourhood house workers. ing  por-  responsibil-  Without a good understand-  of the trends and developments w i t h i n the neighbourhood i t was  i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s i s t the community people w i t h t h e i r problems. Another recommendation c r i p t i o n s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e .  a d v i s e d t h a t w r i t t e n job des-  T h i s was an important item to  which the House C o u n c i l had not g i v e n aay a t t e n t i o n . d u t i e s d e f i n e d i n w r i t i n g , the s t a f f  With s t a f f  themselves would know t h e i r  areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i t would a l s o be of b e n e f i t t o the d i r e c t o r i n r e g a r d to appointments, d i s m i s s a l s and r e t a i n m e n t s .  - 58 C e r t a i n recommendations were made r e g a r d i n g programme• I t was  suggested  t h a t there was  a need f o r more i n t e r e s t  f r i e n d s h i p groups f o r the teen-agers. s t a f f and without t e e r s , i t was  Without adequately  c o o p e r a t i o n between students, s t a f f and  and trained volun-  o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e r e were o n l y a small number of  such teen-age groups.  I t was  a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t there was  no  men's c l u b i n the Senior C i t i z e n s programme and t h a t such a group, or a mixed group, should be e s t a b l i s h e d . Another major l a c k i n programme was  the absence of young a d u l t groups.  The  survey  a d v i s e d t h a t emphasis be p l a c e d on these weaker a r e a s . The m a j o r i t y of the d e f e c t s and l a c k s i n programme, s t a f f and f u n c t i o n s of the House, which have been e x p l i c i t l y  por-  t r a y e d i n t h i s survey, have been c a r r i e d over f r o m p r e v i o u s y e a r s . The weaknesses have been r e v e a l e d In the p r e c e d i n g pages of thesis.  Many of the weak areas of programme cannot be  this  attributed  to the f a u l t of p e r s o n n e l but can be l i n k e d to the p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s of the neighbourhood.  The next and f i n a l chapter d i s c u s s e s improve-  ments t h a t have been made i n these  areas.  - 59 CHAPTER  V  LOOKING t o the FUTURE From 1948 t o the present time there has been a conc e n t r a t e d attempt t o r e s t r i c t membership of Alexandra reasonable  area.  House t o a  Boundary l i m i t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1948, which  meant t h a t any new r e g i s t r a t i o n s would have t o be w i t h i n the a r e a bounded by S i x t e e n t h Avenue and the w a t e r f r o n t , Oak S t r e e t and Macdonald S t r e e t .  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t a study made i n  1951, by a s o c i a l work student, r e v e a l s t h a t only f i f t e e n p e r cent of the membership came from o u t s i d e of t h i s a r e a ; w h i l e i n 1948 approximately  t h i r t y p e r cent of the membership came from o u t s i d e  e  T h i s i s a great improvement when one c o n s i d e r s the d i f f i c u l t i e s a t t a c h e d t o l i m i t i n g membership. percentage  There w i l l always be a s m a l l  of people who w i l l r e t a i n membership o u t s i d e of t h i s  area, because the neighbourhood i s becoming more and more a t r a n s i t i o n a l zone, and i f people form attachments t o an .Agency, these attachments cannot be suddenly  severed.  In the l a s t few years a g r e a t e r e f f o r t has been made to serve the area n o r t h of F o u r t h Avenue.  Playschool children  were met by a s t a f f person and brought i n a group t o t h e Agency* As heavy t r a f f i c i s a s e r i o u s problem f o r t h i s age group, t h i s s e r v i c e enabled the c h i l d r e n t o g e t to and from the Agency w i t h out danger of an a c c i d e n t .  There has a l s o been repeated attempts  to g a i n the use of f a c i l i t i e s n o r t h of F o u r t h Avenue, i n order t h a t t h i s area might be more adequately  served.  F o r example, from  1948 up t o the present time, attempts have been made to o b t a i n the  - 60 use of the B a p t i s t Church H a l l on Second Avenue, i n order t h a t a programme might be s e t up i n t h i s needy a r e a ,  The requests have  been u n s u c c e s s f u l , but attempts are s t i l l b e i n g made t o g a i n the use of some f a c i l i t i e s  In t h i s  area.  An e x t e n s i o n programme was o r g a n i z e d a t the Henry Hudson School i n 1950,  The Henry Hudson E x t e n s i o n Programme, a t  p r e s e n t , c o n s i s t s of two g i r l s ' groups, s i x t o nine years and nine to  twelve y e a r s .  to  the s c h o o l .  inadequate  A p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f person makes bi-weekly  trips  The s m a l l b u i l d i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s programme i s  but I t i s a step i n the r i g h t  direction.  The need of e x t e n s i o n programmes t o serve a c e r t a i n area does b r i n g up the q u e s t i o n , as t o whether or not t h i s  area  can be c o n s i d e r e d a neighbourhood, and whether or not Alexandra House i s a t r u e neighbourhood house.  T h i s p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  towards the end o f the c h a p t e r . Membership Prom the beginnings  of Alexandra Neighbourhood House,  programme emphasis has been p l a c e d on the boys and g i r l s , a r e s u l t the a d u l t members have f e l t n e g l e c t e d .  and as  Perhaps one of  the reasons f o r t h i s programme emphasis f o r the younger people was due t o the background work of the f i r s t d i r e c t o r .  His e a r l i e r  p o s i t i o n s were c o n f i n e d t o work mainly w i t h c h i l d r e n , and i t i s only n a t u r a l t h a t he understood w i t h them.  c h i l d r e n and p r e f e r r e d t o work  T h i s meant t h a t the m a j o r i t y of space and time of  p e r s o n n e l was devoted t o the programme of the younger p e o p l e . With such a background, i t i s reasonable do not f e e l as welcome as the c h i l d r e n .  that a d u l t s  The survey of the n e i g h -  - 61. bourhood,  which was mentioned  i n the second c h a p t e r , d i s c l o s e d t h a t  a l a r g e number of people i n the neighbourhood served o n l y c h i l d r e n . gramme i s s t i l l the  thought the House  The s i t u a t i o n today i s such that the p r o -  s t r o n g e r and the membership i s s t i l l  larger i n  younger age ranges.  Table 2  Membership o f Alexandra Neighbourhood 1948 - 1952  Members  Nov.  1948  Under 18 y e a r s Over 18 y e a r s  mm  Source:  1949 mm  "*  541  Total  Mar.  690  House  Nov.  Mar.  Nov.  Mar.  Nov.  Mar.  204  170  394 169  352 302  430 339  346  408  175  199  374  563  654  769  521  607  1949  Alexandra Neighbourhood  1950  1950  1951  1951  1952  House, S t a t i s t i c a l Report.  The membership o f those under e i g h t e e n years of age i s still  l a r g e r than the a d u l t membership. There was an i n c r e a s e i n  a d u l t membership d u r i n g 1950 t o 1951 cent of t h e t o t a l membership. In  t o approximately f i f t y p e r  In 1951  t o 1952  t h e r e was a decrease  a d u l t membership t o n e a r l y t h i r t y p e r cent of the t o t a l member-  ship.  This decrease i n membership was p a r t l y due to the d i s i n t e -  g r a t i o n of a l a r g e c h o i r group and a l s o to the f a c t that the square dance group l o s t I t s n a t u r a l l e a d e r .  The l a r g e number o f  new members i n comparison t o the number of renewals makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the s t a f f t o b u i l d a s t r o n g , s u s t a i n i n g membership. In  1949 a g r e a t d e a l of e f f o r t was devoted t o an  attempt t o develop a programme f o r the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s of the  - 62 neighbourhood.  C i r c u l a r s were d i s t r i b u t e d to the C i t y S o c i a l S e r -  v i c e Department  (West U n i t ) , F a m i l y Welfare Bureau and to the  C a t h o l i c Family and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n .  V i s i t s were made t o  Old People's Homes i n the K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t .  Four new  adult  groups were attempted w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of s u c c e s s . Club was  A Men's  s t a r t e d at t h i s time and d e s p i t e the f a c t that a good  d e a l of time and e f f o r t was i n March 1952  spent on t h i s group,  and developed i n t o a mixed group.  i t came t o an In 1951  and  end  1952  d i f f e r e n t r e c r u i t i n g techniques were used such as c o n t a c t s w i t h other agencies and home v i s i t s i n attempts men,  but only a s m a l l number turned out.  t r a t e d r e c r u i t i n g attempt  to i n t e r e s t  different  Thus d e s p i t e a  concen-  and a good programme which i n c l u d e d  movies, cards, checkers, dominoes, a f t e r n o o n t e a , and a banquet at Christmas, the Club s t i l l rant the time and e f f o r t  d i d not develop s u f f i c i e n t l y to war-  expended.  Another weakness i n programme, which was survey of 1948, In the f a l l  was  s t a t e d i n the  the l a c k of f r i e n d s h i p groups f o r teen-agers.  of the same year a number of new. teen-age  groups  were formed which h e l p e d to develop a b e t t e r "house s p i r i t " . e v a l u a t i n g the programme i n 1949* i t was  found t h a t there  p r a c t i c a l l y no t h i r t e e n and f o u r t e e n - y e a r o l d members.  In  was  The  teen-  agers were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p l a n , which they r e j e c t e d , but t h e y suggested t h a t Monday be c l u b n i g h t f o r a l l teen-agers, on Wednesday t h e r e should be a mass a c t i v i t y programme f o r f i f t e e n to eighteen year o l d s , and on F r i d a y there should be a mass a c t i v i t y programme f o r t h i r t e e n t o f i f t e e n year o l d s . the teen-agers was  T h i s suggestion of  f o l l o w e d through w i t h great s u c c e s s .  - 63 In September 1950,  the Red F e a t h e r S p o r t s C o u n c i l was  organized and t h i s enabled the House members to p l a y s p o r t s a g a i n s t teams of the same " c a l i b r e " as themselves, which h e l p e d to develop a greater f e e l i n g  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  toward the House as w e l l as an  " e s p r i t de c o r p s " w i t h i n the groups. A good J u n i o r Programme has e v o l v e d over the p a s t f o u r years.  The number of groups and the enrolment  I n c r e a s e d to such  an extent t h a t the nine to twelve year o l d members and the s i x t o nine year o l d members had t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o a l t e r n a t e  days,  r a t h e r than having the o l d system of a s i x - d a y week f o r both groups.  age  The p e r s o n n e l were then a b l e to devote more time t o the  individual  members.  T h i s r e v e a l s an emphasis on q u a l i t y  rather  than q u a n t i t y . The Young A d u l t Programme Is one of the "missing l i n k s " i n the age range served by the Agency.  During the l a s t two y e a r s  some attempts were made t o f i n d young people who  might be  e s t e d i n a c t i v i t i e s but t h e r e has been no s u c c e s s . of young people i s i i m i t e d ing conditions.  i n t h i s neighbourhood  The young people who  town f o r t h e i r entertainment. a l a c k of i n t e r e s t  The number  due t o poor hous-  do l i v e i n the area go down-  Throughout  i n neighbourhood  the community t h e r e i s  f u n c t i o n s and t h e r e appears  to be no p r i d e a t t a c h e d to l i v i n g i n the neighbourhood. factors,  p l u s the f a c t  inter-  These  t h a t i n times of p r o s p e r i t y fewer young  people a t t e n d s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s put on by the churches and other neighbourhood  i n s t i t u t i o n s , are some of the reasons f o r t h i s  gap  i n the age range s e r v e d by the House. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of boys to g i r l s  d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o -  i n the j u n i o r groups.  However, i n the  -.64 o l d e r groups t h e r e a r e fewer teen-age g i r l s than boys. dent survey brought out one p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h i s the House i s c o n s i d e r e d too "rough" f o r o l d e r g i r l s . attempt was made to encourage  The s t u -  condition; Some  o l d e r . g i r l s to p a r t i c i p a t e but  there appeared t o be a number of boys who were e m o t i o n a l l y r e t a r d e d and who d i d not l i k e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .  T h i s attempt t o  i n c r e a s e the number of g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programme was not  successful.  M u l t i f u n c t i o n a l Role The programme of Alexandra House, as has been p o r t r a y e d i n the p r e c e d i n g pages, c o n s i s t s of a d i v e r s i t y of f u n c tions.  I n the survey made i n 1948 i t was s t a t e d that there was  a need f o r the House Committee to review these s e r v i c e s and t o r a t e them  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r degree of importance.  The survey  a p p a r e n t l y drew the a t t e n t i o n of the House Committee t o t h i s p r o b lem.  P e r i o d i c surveys of d i f f e r e n t programmes were made and w i t h  the c o o p e r a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f many changes were brought about.  Group work l e a d e r s h i p from the U n i v e r s i t y recommended t h a t  a committee  be s e t up t o study the use of the b u i l d i n g by member-  s h i p and a f f i l i a t e d groups and t h a t c e r t a i n standards be s e t up f o r admission of new groups.  The membership was g i v e n f i r s t  p r i o r i t y as t o time and space a v a i l a b l e , w h i l e w e l f a r e and h e a l t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s and groups w i t h i n the neighbourhood g a i n e d second priority.  Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f c i t y - w i d e or s o c i a l nature had  been occupying much of the space and time which was needed f o r the other p r i o r i t y groups, t h e r e f o r e , these were reduced i n number over t h e f o u r - y e a r p e r i o d u n t i l t h e r e are only three such o u t s i d e  - 65 groups remaining. In 1948 cent i n the House. hundred and  eighteen  each f a m i l y was represented By the end  of A p r i l ,  1952,  by only 1.19  per  there were f i v e  r e g i s t e r e d f a m i l i e s i n comparison t o s i x hun-  dred and f i f t e e n members, which means that each f a m i l y i s r e p r e sented by o n l y 1.18 House s t i l l  persons I n the Agency.  Therefore,  Alexandra  cannot be termed a f a m i l y r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e .  The  l a c k o f i n t e r e s t of parents i n the neighbourhood i s a problem t h a t home v i s i t i n g and  s p e c i a l f a m i l y events has  not  overcome.  Emphasis on Q u a l i t y D u r i n g 1948  there was a changeover i n s t a f f and by  the l a t t e r p a r t of the y e a r the s t a f f was adequate i n numbers and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o do a q u a l i t a t i v e job. ber analyzed  A p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f mem-  the membership-behaviour and member-staff r e l a t i o n s  which e x i s t e d previous  to h i s employment i n 1948.  He s t a t e d t h a t  a " r e p r e s s i v e o r c o n t r o l l e d type o f s o c i e t y " i n the younger age groups had  e x i s t e d f o r some time.  F o r example, p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  the teen-age dances were almost t o t a l l y Ignorant of who t h e i r e l e c ted committee members were, and t h a t a committee e x i s t e d .  i n some cases they d i d not know  The committee i t s e l f f e l t no r e a l r e s -  p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the success or f a i l u r e of the A more p e r m i s s i v e , i n the  dances.  s e l f - r e l i a n t , democratic atmosphere  j u n i o r d i v i s i o n became the g o a l , which has  bers t o develop.  helped the mem-  A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r problems, the  v o l u n t a r i l y decided  juniors  that they would p l a y o u t s i d e Tuesday, Wednesday  and F r i d a y , i n order that they might have the e x c l u s i v e use Boys' s e c t i o n on Monday and  Thursday a f t e r n o o n s .  of the  The s e n i o r boys  - 66 agreed c o n v e r s e l y , and t h i s p l a n worked q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y .  The  J u n i o r Canteen was approached i n the same manner and the respons i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g i t out was assumed by the Canteen  Committee.  Table 5  S p e c i f i c Groups of Alexandra Neighbourhood House 1948 - 1952  Type of Group  F r i e n d s h i p groups I n t e r e s t groups I n t e r - c l u b counc i l s , committees, etc. Source:  Nov. 1948  Mar. 1949  Nov. 1949  Mar. 1950  Nov. 1950  Mar. 1951  Nov. 1951  Mar, 1952  16 7  17 7  16 15  21 11  25 9  24 8  21 11  21 11  6  '5  1  4  4  4  3  6  A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House S t a t i s t i c a l R e p o r t .  By d i v i d i n g the membership i n t o numerous groups, the needs of i n d i v i d u a l members and those of the group-as-a-whole can be more e a s i l y met.  The anonymity p r e v a l e n t i n mass a c t i v i t i e s i s absent  i n f r i e n d s h i p groups where r e c o g n i t i o n and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t enables members to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and to develop t h e i r s k i l l  and  a b i l i t y i n many a r e a s . By 1949> i t was  noted t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of the t e e n -  agers were changing from a.negative t o a more p o s i t i v e  feeling.  This i s e x e m p l i f i e d by a "Gay N i n e t i e s P r o j e c t " put on by the teen-agers f o r the a d u l t membership.  I t was the f i r s t  major attempt  to  do something p o s i t i v e f o r the House.  of  members p o r t r a y s the q u a l i t y of programme which was b e g i n n i n g to  be emphasized.  The a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s  - 67 In the f a l l  of 1951  -  a Teen C o u n c i l was  established.  Numerous questions  were r a i s e d and problems s o l v e d by t h i s  r e s e n t a t i v e body.  The  question  of smoking was  which the teen-age r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s tors.  Despite  one  of the  issues  took to the Board of D i r e c -  the f a c t that they c o u l d not  convince the  Direc-  t o r s t h a t smoking p r i v i l e g e s should be g i v e n t o f o u r t e e n f i f t e e n year o l d s , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t the  "top" and  ideas.  Teen C a r n i v a l which was  operated the  a l r e a d y been mentioned, i s the  With i n d i v i d u a l s On b e h a l f of individuals Total  the groups which they  members  represented,  C a r n i v a l w i t h remarkable r e s u l t s .  Nov. 1948  Mar. 1949  Nov. 1949  Mar. 1950'  Nov. 1950  Mar. 1951  Nov. 1951  Mar. 1952  100  mm  87  25  175  92  198  236  65  mm  24  2  39  31  28  28  165  181  111  25  251  123  226  264  Alexandra Neighbourhood House S t a t i s t i c a l Report.  S e r v i c e s to i n d i v i d u a l s have i n c r e a s e d 1952.  The  I n d i v i d u a l S e r v i c e s to Members of Alexandra Neighbourhood House - 1948 - 1952  Conferences  Source:  t h a t they had gone to  planned by the Teen C o u n c i l .  of the Teen C o u n c i l supported by  Table 4  and  that the s t a f f were h e l p i n g them to express t h e i r  Another example, which has  planned and  rep-  s i x t y per cent from 1948  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t more a t t e n t i o n has  i n d i v i d u a l s and  to  been devoted to  a l s o r e v e a l s that the House i s s e r v i n g a l a r g e  number of d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n .  Such c h i l d r e n Require the  profession-  - 68 a l l y t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p and  -  q u a l i t y programme which has  developed  over these y e a r s . Democratic Procedures The the d i r e c t i o n  establishment  of a Teen C o u n c i l i n 1951  of a s t a f f member has  assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own  under  enabled the teen-agers t o activities.  This Council i s  composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of teen-age groups i n the House, and any problems a r i s i n g i n the c l u b , which may  i n f l u e n c e other  groups,  or which i s of such a nature t h a t the l e a d e r cannot g i v e an answer, i s taken to the C o u n c i l by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  This d e v i c e  ena-  b l e s the members t o assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own  acti-  vities. There are a l s o many d e f i c i e n c i e s Instance  at present  there i s no House C o u n c i l to suggest  areas of development or to c o - o r d i n a t e gramme.  i n t h i s area. new  the o v e r - a l l Agency p r o -  Without such a C o u n c i l , the membership are not g i v e n  opportunity  the  of d e c i d i n g i n a democratic manner what programme they  wish t o develop or to expand. gramme Committee o f t e n use In developing  The p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f and  the suggestions  programme, but  groups r e p r e s e n t e d  i t i s not  of i n d i v i d u a l members  i n a C o u n c i l which decides major i s s u e s of In order to have a  House C o u n c i l , i t i s necessary to have groups who " e s p r i t de c o r p s " and who  toward the Agency.  the Pro-  so good as having a l l  programme development and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  an  For  have a f e e l i n g of  have developed  responsibility  The absence of a f e e l i n g of belonging  and  group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has been q u i t e apparent i n the a d u l t groups. Therefore  emphasis has been p l a c e d on the development of  the  - 69 groups themselves, and at p r e s e n t there are two a d u l t groups are at the stage of development i n a House C o u n c i l . cil,  where they would be  who  interested  U n t i l there i s an expressed need f o r a Coun-  i t i s w o r t h l e s s to attempt to superimpose  one upon the mem-  bership. The f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no p e r s o n l i v i n g i n the e f f e c t i v e neighbourhood factor.  One  on the Board of D i r e c t o r s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  of the Board members has a b u s i n e s s i n the area and  a few others work i n the d i s t r i c t which means t h a t t h e r e i s some contact w i t h the community p e o p l e .  T h i s i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to  Marpole Community Centre where a l l the members of the Board i n the neighbourhood,  except one who  live  owns a b u s i n e s s i n the a r e a .  T h i s i s an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n where the community people assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o p e r a t i o n and management of the Agency. Mr. H. Morrow, the E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r of the Agency, has attempted to o b t a i n new board members from the churches  and  schools w i t h i n the a r e a and has had some degree of success i n g e t t i n g board members from the s c h o o l s .  Most of the l e a d e r s h i p  of the churches comes from o u t s i d e of the neighbourhood, I n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k of people i n the with leadership q u a l i t i e s .  which  neighbourhood  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the area i s import-  ant, but i t i s more important to get people who  are w i l l i n g to  devote time and e f f o r t to the cause. In 1948 a committee w i t h a board member as was  chairman  appointed to make a study of f u r t h e r changes to e s t a b l i s h  the autonomy of the House.  R e v i s i o n s of the C o n s t i t u t i o n of the  Board has r e s u l t e d over the l a s t few years i n almost  complete  - 70  -  autonomy, o r home r u l e , f o r Alexandra House.  T h i s Is a major  step, as a neighbourhood house should have home.rule, i n order that the people of the community, who determine the programme and  should be on the board,  f u n c t i o n of the Agency.  Another important f a c t o r i s t h a t , except f o r the unteer l e a d e r s h i p of the soccer teams, a l l the v o l u n t e e r s outside  of the neighbourhood.  The  three  soccer  number of f o r t y - s i x v o l u n t e e r s .  The  of the  House has been very  ate i n having such a l a r g e number of v o l u n t e e r s  from the  League but the p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g l e a d e r s h i p from  provide  overlooked.  The  are  total fortunJunior the  teen-agers might w e l l  good s o l i d l e a d e r s h i p from the community, i f a  programme was  vol-  live  coaches who  from the neighbourhood comprise only s i x per cent  neighbourhood should not be  can  training  organized.  In the e a r l y years of the House, a l e a d e r -  ship t r a i n i n g p e r i o d was  arranged f o r the s e n i o r boys an d i t appears  to have been s u c c e s s f u l , but f o r some reason, i t was Such a t r a i n i n g programme should be  organized,  and  abandoned.  i t might even  be p o s s i b l e to b u i l d a young a d u l t programme from t h i s nucleus of volunteers.  One  coach S o f t b a l l positive.  of the s t a f f has  teams t h i s year and  approached the teen-agers to the response has  T h i s i s a b e g i n n i n g , but a t r a i n i n g programme of a  week at camp would be an added i n c e n t i v e to a t t r a c t leadership. age  been q u i t e  suitable  There i s , of course, the problem of a h i g h  percent-  of t r a n s i e n c y i n the area p l u s the f a c t t h a t young a d u l t s  tend to move more f r e q u e n t l y .  These o b s t a c l e s may  disrupt such an  attempt. Generally  speaking, the membership has not assumed the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s own a c t i v i t i e s .  Some e f f o r t has  been made  - 71  -  to o b t a i n community people f o r membership on the Board and  to  i n t e r e s t them i n the Agency but these attempts have not been too successful. Personnel The  survey of 1948  be made to o b t a i n and  recommended t h a t every e f f o r t  employ adequately t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f .  Since t h a t time, the Personnel efficiency in hiring fully  Committee has  t r a i n e d and  l a t t e r p a r t of the y e a r , there was By 1950  should  displayed  increased  qualified staff.  By  the  a trained professional s t a f f  there were the D i r e c t o r and f o u r other  0  pro-  f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d group workers engaged i n s e r v i n g members from s i x years  of age  to t h o s e a d u l t s who  In a d d i t i o n to these,  an experienced  j o i n e d the s t a f f i n 1948.  The  r e c e i v e old-age kindergarten  teacher  from t h a t time u n t i l membership had  spirit  steadily  to be r e s t r i c t e d because of  they have cooperated q u i t e  that the f e e s c o u l d remain a t a minimum.  of c o o p e r a t i o n  who  Recently more i n t e r e s t has been d i s p l a y e d  the mothers of these c h i l d r e n and t i v e l y i n order  had  attendance of these c h i l d r e n ,  are i n the age range of three to s i x y e a r s , i n c r e a s e d  l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s .  pensions.  of a l l working personnel  by  effec-  The  i s remarkable  and  w e l l worthy of commendation. The y e a r 1951  - 1952  marked a change In the method of  r e c r u i t i n g and p l a c i n g of J u n i o r League V o l u n t e e r s .  Previously,  a placement r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the League endeavoured to l o c a t e volunteers f o r s p e c i f i c  jobs, which caused some a n x i e t y .  The  new  system i s such that the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the League i s the r e c r u i t i n g person who  f i n d s volunteers  to work a t the House.  One  - 72 s t a f f member was  g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of i n t e r v i e w i n g each  p r o s p e c t i v e League v o l u n t e e r and o u t l i n i n g to them the v a r i o u s v o l u n t e e r jobs which were open.  They are then i n a p o s i t i o n to  decide whether or not they wish to work at the House.  The  results  of t h i s experiment have been good, as the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker i s much more capable of d e c i d i n g whether a v o l u n t e e r s h o u l d be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p of a group.  Close  given super-  v i s i o n enables the v o l u n t e e r s to present t h e i r problems to a p r o f e s s i o n a l worker and there i s l e s s danger of the v o l u n t e e r or the group s u f f e r i n g from a bad  experience.  The t a b l e below i l l u s t r a t e s the number of v o l u n t e e r s and the amount of time spent f o r the months of November and March from 1948  t o 1952.  In the l a s t two years the average number of  hours spent by each v o l u n t e e r f o r a month has been  approximately  seven. Table 5  Students and Volunteers at Alexandra Neighbourhood House, 1948 - 1952  Nov.  1948  Mar.  1949  Nov.  1949  Mar.  1950  Nov.  1950  Mar.  Nov.  1951  1951  Mar.  1952  )  Volunteers Number Hours of s e r v i c e>  Students Number Hours of work  resource:  Alexandra  -  9  226  52 197  41 329  26 230  34 164  49 352  46 331  8 412  11 594  10 540  11 688  10 720  8 512  9 576  Neighbourhood House S t a t i s t i c a l  Report.  - 73 Over the p a s t seven years many group work students have taken t h e i r f i e l d work a t Alexandra House.  The House has  been able t o m a i n t a i n such a l a r g e number of students each y e a r only because the s t a f f are q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s , who  are  capable of g i v i n g the r e q u i r e d support and a s s i s t a n c e through supervision.  The  students, i n r e t u r n , have devoted a g r e a t d e a l  of time and e f f o r t t o programme development.  In the l a s t  y e a r p e r i o d , each student has spent an average hours per month.  of s i x t y - f i v e  T h i s i s q u i t e a c o n t r a s t to the average  en hours spent by v o l u n t e e r s .  two-  of  N a t u r a l l y , some of t h i s time  has  been spent i n s u p e r v i s i o n and r e c o r d i n g but t h i s has enabled students t o perform a t h i g h e r l e v e l s of e f f i c i e n c y .  sev-  the  Through t h i s  d i r e c t contact w i t h the School of S o c i a l Work, the p e r s o n n e l of the House have a l s o been helped to m a i n t a i n a h i g h standard of performance. Through the c o o p e r a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f ,  stu-  dents and v o l u n t e e r s , a s t r o n g programme has been developed i n most a r e a s .  New  programme developments have been I n s t i t u t e d , w i t h  good r e s u l t s , because of the c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t  of members and  personnel. Recommendations f o r the F u t u r e I t has been r e v e a l e d t h a t a neighbourhood house should serve a neighbourhood.  The  one  q u e s t i o n which may  Come t o mind  concerning Alexandra House i s j What are the boundaries neighbourhood?  I f the r e c o g n i z e d boundaries  of t h i s  designate the n e i g h -  bourhood, then i t should not be necessary t o have an e x t e n s i o n programme i n an attempt  to serve the a r e a n o r t h of F o u r t h Avenue*  - 74 The  -  s e c t i o n between G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t and  needy but n e g l e c t e d  area  Oak  S t r e e t Is another  i n which only three per cent  Agency's membership r e s i d e s .  of  the  T h i s suggests that the main a r t e r i a l  roads c u t t i n g through t h i s area d i v i d e i t i n t o s e c t i o n s , which are separate from each other.  Another f a c t o r which has  already  mentioned i s that the Agency i s becoming surrounded by and  i n d u s t r y and because of^the l a c k of adequate zoning  the p a s t , b u s i n e s s and side.  been  business laws i n  r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s are found s i d e  These f a c t o r s , p l u s the f a c t t h a t the new  by  G r a n v i l l e Bridge  P r o j e c t w i l l have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the l o c a t i o n of  the  Agency, suggest that i t w i l l have to change i t s f u n c t i o n or move to a new  l o c a t i o n , as there w i l l not be a neighbourhood to  serve.  Another f u n c t i o n of a neighbourhood house i s to a l l ages and both sexes.  T h i s , as has  Alexandra House, as there are do not use  the f a c i l i t i e s .  been shown, i s not t r u e  c e r t a i n age  T h i s i s not  to extend programme to these groups. stems from the community i t s e l f ,  and  through l a c k of attempts  I t appears t h a t the problem  as the c o n t i n u a l s h i f t i n g  There i s no p r i d e attached  r a p i d l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g area and in local institutions. churches where there has  of  sex groupings which  moving of f a m i l i e s tends to break down the f e e l i n g of the bourhood u n i t y .  serve  and neigh-  to l i v i n g i n a  there i s a l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  T h i s has  even been evidenced i n the  local  been a decrease i n the number of p a r i s h -  ioners . Another f a c t o r , which i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the  above,  is  that a neighbourhood house i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the f a m i l y u n i t .  The  f i g u r e s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d show that Alexandra House i s not  f a m i l y agency although i t attempts to serve t h i s purpose.  The  a  - 75 l a c k of p a r e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n programme has been shown by t h e i r conspicuous absence a t s p e c i a l e v e n t s .  For instance, i n  1952, the teen-agers put on a C a r n i v a l to r a i s e funds f o r a worth-while cause, and only two parents put i n an appearance. This example i n d i c a t e s the i n e r t i a and apathy which I s p r e v a l e n t among the a d u l t s . The l a s t , but one of the most important f u n c t i o n s of a neighbourhood house, i s t o endeavour t o get the neighbours t o assume more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own  activities.  Many attempts have been made to encourage members t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but, except f o r the teen-agers, there has been success.  little  The t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n , l i n k e d w i t h the apparent  absence of i n t e r e s t e d people w i t h l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s , seem t o be the major  difficulties. From t h i s b r i e f review, i t might be q u e s t i o n e d as t o  whether Alexandra House i s able t o assume the r o l e of a neighbourhood house.  "true"  Whether or not Alexandra House can f u n c t i o n  as a " t r u e " neighbourhood house, i t s r o l e i n the neighbourhood should be reviewed.  I t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t w i t h the numerous  changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h i s a r e a , the Agency w i l l a l s o have t o change• There are a number of r o l e s which Alexandra House might assume i n the f u t u r e .  In p a r t i c u l a r , there are three  p o s s i b i l i t i e s vihich c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . (1)  Alexandra House c o u l d be used as a "base u n i t " from  which community group work c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d . needy  In t h i s  way,  "pocket a r e a s " , such as n o r t h of F o u r t h Avenue and east of  G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , c o u l d be s e r v e d .  The a r e a east of G r a n v i l l e  - 76 S t r e e t and below N i n t h Avenue i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low income, crowded households, low rent and h i g h delinquency which i s i n d i c a t i v e of the need f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s  0  Such a venture would  r e q u i r e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n these pocket a r e a s , to p r o v i d e the needed s e r v i c e s .  With a good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , an adequate budget  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , t h i s p r o j e c t c o u l d be extended to o t h e r needy areas which have been s t u d i e d by the Community Chest and Council. (2)  The b u i l d i n g and p r o p e r t y on which A l e x a n d r a House i s  l o c a t e d c o u l d be s o l d and a neighbourhood house c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i n another a r e a .  The Survey Report of Group Work and  R e c r e a t i o n of G r e a t e r Vancouver, which was p u b l i s h e d by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l i n 1945, s t a t e d a number of a r e a s which s h o u l d be g i v e n p r i o r i t y f o r such new developments.  Setting  up a neighbourhood house i n one of these areas would mean time and e f f o r t devoted to a worthy cause.  The f a c t t h a t the l i f e of  the p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g i s l i m i t e d i s a p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n f o r moving. The s t a f f i s a t present a good working u n i t which c o u l d be maint a i n e d f o r such a worthy v e n t u r e . (3)  With such a long h i s t o r y as Alexandra House b o a s t s ,  there i s bound t o be a c e r t a i n amount of sentiment a t t a c h e d t o it.  I f i t i s more d e s i r a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h i s b u i l d i n g , i t would  be f e a s i b l e t o devote " i t . e n t i r e l y to*;a k i n d e r g a r t e n programme. At present, the k i n d e r g a r t e n membership In the House has to be l i m i t e d because of the l a c k of space.  There are a l a r g e number  of c h i l d r e n , w i t h i n the extended boundaries of the d i s t r i c t ,  who  - 77 c o u l d be met a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s and brought s a f e l y t o the Agency. T h i s would make i t more convenient f o r the mothers and would mean t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e c o u l d extend over a l a r g e r a r e a . Alexandra Neighbourhood House, through the c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l p e r s o n n e l ,  the Board of Management, the membership and a l l  other groups and i n d i v i d u a l s who have shown an i n t e r e s t i n the House, has performed a s e r v i c e t o the community which a l l may w e l l be proud. has  Despite  the problems encountered over the years,  been a steady development and extension  of s e r v i c e s .  there  In t h i s  study, a t t e n t i o n has been d i r e c t e d towards the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the s e r v i c e s rendered and data has been gathered so t h a t some remedies may be suggested.  I t i s evident  t h a t some of the d e f i c i e n c i e s of  programme a r e c l o s e l y t i e d t o the p h y s i c a l aspects of the n e i g h bourhood.  One of the major d e f i c i e n c i e s i s the l a c k of p a r t i c i -  p a t i o n by l o c & l r e s i d e n t s i n the o p e r a t i o n House.  and management of the  I t appears t h a t p a r t of t h i s problem i s due t o the l a c k  of p r i d e and i n t e r e s t of the people In neighbourhood f u n c t i o n s , which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of such t r a n s i t i o n a l areas of h i g h iency.  Generally  the House.  speaking, there i s l i t t l e  trans-  interest displayed i n  In s p i t e o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d  l e a d e r s i n the l a s t f i v e years have developed a f l e x i b l e p r o gramme w i t h an emphasis on q u a l i t y r a t h e r than q u a n t i t y , and which i s based on the i n t e r e s t s and needs of members.  T h i s i s not a  s t a r t l i n g r e v e l a t i o n , as i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l that workers w i t h an understanding of i n d i v i d u a l behaviour and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s are more q u a l i f i e d t o serve  the community.  - 78 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  BACKGROUND REFERENCES  Addams, Jane, Twenty Years a t H u l l House, New York M a c M i l l a n ,  1911.  Cameron-Parker,  G., Canadian S e t t l e m e n t s , Toronto, 1924*  Carptender, D a n i e l , "The Neighbourhood", New York S o c i e t y f o r E t h i c a l C u l t u r e , E t h i c a l F r o n t i e r s , New York, 1 9 4 8 . Coyle, Grace, L., Group E x p e r i e n c e and Democratic Values, New York, The Women's Press, 1947. F r y , L u t h e r , C , The Technique of S o c i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n , New York, Harper, 1934. Hader, John, Lindeman, Edward, Dynamic S o c i a l Research, London, Harcourt, Brace, 1933* London, The N a t i o n a l Holden, A r t h u r , C , The Settlement Idea, New York, M a c M i l l a n ,  1922.  -Kennedy, A l b e r t , J . , F a r r a , Kathryn, S o c i a l Settlements i n New York C i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  1935.  Maxwell, Jeanj McDowell, John; We B e l i e v e , N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Settlements, New York, 1 9 5 0 . P i m l o t t , J . A., Toynbee H a l l , London, Dent, 1 9 3 5 . Simkhovitch, Mary, K., The Settlement Primer, New York, N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of S e t t l e m e n t s , 193b. S p a l d i n g , Henry, S o c i a l Problems and Agencies, New York, Benziger,  1929.  Wald, L i l l i a n , D., The House on Henry S t r e e t , New York, Holt, 1915.  Henry  Webb, Sydney and B e a t r i c e , Methods o f S o c i a l Study, London, Longmans Green, 193^7 Woods, Robert, A., Kennedy, A.,.. J . , The_Settlement H o r i z o n , New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1 9 2 2 . " General Report of the C l e v e l a n d Settlement Study, Research D e p a r t ment of the Welfare F e d e r a t i o n of C l e v e l a n d , 1 9 4 6 .  - 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY SOURCES FOR  THIS STUDY  Minutes of Meetings (a) (b) (c)  II  Minutes of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, Board of D i r e c t o r s Meetings. Minutes of S t a f f Meetings. Minutes of Alexandra C h i l d r e n ' s Home, Board of D i r e c t o r s Meetings.  Reports and Surveys (a)  (b)  Survey Report of Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n of G r e a t e r Vancouver, p u b l i s h e d by The Community Chest and Welfare C o u n c i l o f Vancouver, 1945» Annual Reports of Alexandra Neighbourhood House Monthly Reports of Alexandra Neighbourhood House. S t a f f Reports of Alexandra Neighbourhood House. Community Chest and Welfare C o u n c i l , Survey Report on Alexandra Neighbourhood House, 1948. 0  (c) (d) (e)  Ill  Other Documentary M a t e r i a l (a) (b) (c) (d)  IV  Correspondence concerning Alexandra Neighbourhood House* , Programme S t a t i s t i c s . F r i e n d s h i p group r e c o r d s , M a t e r i a l from C i t y H a l l on G r a n v i l l e B r i d g e P r o j e c t and the surrounding a r e a .  Interviews (a) (b) (c) (d)  Mr. H. Morrow, D i r e c t o r of Alexandra Neighbourhood House. Programme S t a f f of Alexandra Neighbourhood House. Mr. C h a r l e s B a i l e y , a t e a c h e r a t K i t s i l a n o High S c h o o l . Mr. F. Neumann, E n g i n e e r , The Vancouver City Hall.  

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