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Casework service in a neighbourhood house : the administrative aspects of its establishment and operation… Hutchinson, Fred Arthur 1952

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OASEWORK SERVICE IN A NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE: The Administrative Aspects of Its Establishment and Operation. A Study Made i n Gordon House, Vancouver. by FRED ARTHUR HUTCHINSON Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Soc i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of So c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1952 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia TABLE" OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. The Administrative Structure of Gordon House, and i t s Relationship to the New Casework Service. ;  what i s administration? An a n a l y t i c a l descript-ion of administration i n Gordon House, The r e l a t i o n -ship between the established organization and the new service, with s p e c i f i c references to: (a) the Gordon House Committee, (b) the sub-commit tees,, (c) the s t a f f , (d) Junior and Senior Houses, (e) the membership, (f) the di r e c t o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2, Initial Problems. Problems encountered i n the introduction of casework services* Understanding the community and i t s needs. Who are the p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e ? Pre-paring to o f f e r the service to community and c l i e n t -ele. Developing adequate working arrangements. Pro-blems of in t e r p r e t i n g to (a) the Gordon House Com-mittee, (b) the sub-committees, (c) the s t a f f , (d) the community , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l l Chapter 3. The Service i n Operation. Problems of Internal organization. What i s a re f e r r a l ? Intra-agency r e f e r r a l s and t h e i r s pecial c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Role of caseworker and groupworker and t h e i r effect on a system of r e f e r r a l s . . . . . . 26 Chapter 4. The Administration i n Action. The functions of command and control i n r e l a t i o n to the counselling service. Command and control op-erating i n s p e c i f i c cases: (a) the case of John D., (b) the case of Mrs. L., (c) the case of Jimmy R. . . .33 Chapter 5. A l l i e d Experiments. Similar experiments with casework i n groupwork settings: (a) the Twin City Federation of Settlements, (b) the Hudson Guild Child Counselling Service,(c) the Bronx House Casework Service . . . . . . . 45 Chapter 6. An Evaluation S t a t i s t i c a l facts regarding success and f a i l u r e . The q u a l i t y of services: strengths and weaknesses. Recommendations and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . 57 I TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd. ). Page Appendicest A Membership Survey. Referral Form for Gordon House Counselling Service. Bibliography. CHARTS IN THE TEXT Fig. 1. The Administrative Structure of Gordon House. . . . 4 Figs.2 (a),(b). Administrative Requirements for Coordina-t i o n > • • * • •• • • • • • • • 36 Fi g . 3. Cooperative Services . . .42 A. B. C i i A B S T R A C T This thesis reviews the administrative process i n -volved i n i n i t i a t i n g and developing a casework service i n Gor-don Neighbourhood House e The service operated over a period of eight months, and during that time accepted only members of the agency as c l i e n t e l e . Through intensive cooperative work with Gordon Neighbourhood.House s t a f f i t was intended that caseworkers should employ t h e i r s k i l l s to improve the s o c i a l adjustment of group members and thereby enhance the general health and welfare of membership groups. The administrative structure of Gordon House, and the problems involved i n integrating t h i s new service into the agency, are described. In evaluation, the achievements and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h i s service are weighed against the Investments of administration and s t a f f required in an ef-f o r t to introduce and to maintain t h i s service. The estimated e f f o r t involved i n r e l a t i o n to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for achievement, i s the c r i t e r i o n used to Judge the value of casework services i n t h i s s e t t i n g . A r a t i n g i s made of the degree of success achieved i n forty-eight cases referred for service. Case summaries reveal the process In-volved i n the operation of t h i s service. The finding i s , that, providing the agency takes appropriate administrative steps, casework services are a practicable method of coping with i n d i v i d u a l problems that cannot be handled s a t i s f a c t o r i l y within groups. It i s im-portant that the workers and the administration be suf-f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to meet each other's requirements. Speci-f i c a l l y , the administration must define the purpose and function of t h i s service i n such a way that r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the casework s t a f f be made clear. The casework s t a f f i n turn must be prepared to apply t h e i r s k i l l s In the less f o r -mal s e t t i n g of the neighbourhood house. i l l ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to preface my acknowledgements by expressing my gratitude to Mrs. K. McKenzie f o r the leadership and stimulation that she provided throughout t h i s study, I want p a r t i c u l a r l y to thank Dr. L. Marsh and Mr. T. Exner f o r t h e i r patient d i r e c t i o n , since without t h e i r assistance t h i s work could never have been completed. For t h e i r co-operation and enthusiastic help, I wish to thank the s t a f f of Gordon House and the Faculty of the School of Soci a l Work. A l l have contributed to the content of t h i s work. I am also moat appreciative f o r the supervision of Miss Helen Wolfe, whose i n s p i r i n g guidance and professional philosophy w i l l always remain with me. iv CASEWORK SERVICE IN A NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE: The Administrative Aspects of Its Establishment and Operation. A Study Made i n Gordon House, Vancouver. v CHAPTER I THE ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF GORDON HOUSEr AND ITS  RELATIONSHIP TO THE NEW CASEWORK SERVICE In Gordon House, as i n the majority of neighbourhood and settlement houses, certain functions are considered to be adminis-t r a t i v e . These- functions are usually to some extent defined by cons t i t u t i o n . With the.inception of a new program or the i n t r o -duction of a new type of service, the questions of what constitute administrative tasks and what distinguishes these administrative tasks from the work of the p r a c t i t i o n e r becomes increasingly im-portant. The introduction of casework services into Gordon House made necessary c a r e f u l consideration of the { r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and roles of both the administrator and the p r a c t i t i o n e r . It was re-cognized by those concerned, namely, the Executive Director, the supervisors and the workers,. that the role of each must, be c l e a r l y outlined i f the services were to function adequately,. What.then are administrative tasks, and what distinguishes these.tasks from the work of the p r a c t i t i o n e r ? Administration i n Gordon House Administration i s the process by which the p r a c t i t i o n -er's services are made possible. Those matters which are l e g i s - . l a t i v e , those which pertain to agency \ o v e r a l l planning, and those which are otherwise concerned with the provision of execut-i v e l e a d e r s h i p , a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . None o f t h e s e r e -l a t e d i r e c t l y to t h e g i v i n g o f s e r v i c e s , h u t r a t h e r t o t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h make i t p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y out t h e s e s e r v i c e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , t h o s e i n v o l v e d In making i t p o s s i b l e to g i v e a s e r v i c e , w h i l e t h e t a s k s o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a r e t h o s e o f a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e r v i c e . I n s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e a d -m i n i s t r a t o r t o be s e n s i t i v e t o community n e e d s , even though t h e y may not have become a r t i c u l a t e . H i e Job i s t o p l a n and t o m a i n -t a i n a c o h e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h e s e needs i n v i e w . Because community needs a r e so v a r i e d , . t h e s e r v i c e s g i v e n by n e i g h -b o u r h o o d houses a l s o t e n d t o v a r y w i d e l y . The m a i n t e n a n c e o f u n i t y o f p u r p o s e i n so d i v e r s i f i e d a s e t t i n g i s a complex u n d e r t a k i n g . When a new s e r v i c e i s I m p l a n t e d , t h i s t a s k becomes even more com-p l e x . B e c a u s e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n most s o c i a l a g e n c i e s I s so I n -t e r d e p e n d e n t , each,new f e a t u r e a f f e c t s t h e f u n c t i o n . o f t h e whole and t h e r e l a t e d d e p a r t m e n t s must a d j u s t a c c o r d i n g l y . . I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e . p r e s e n t s t u d y t o e x p l o r e , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o -c e s s i n v o l v e d , i n s e t t i n g up and o p e r a t i n g a. casework s e r v i c e i n Gordon H o u s e . F i r s t , however,, i t I s Important t o c o n s i d e r what was v i s u a l i z e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ...as t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n c a s e -work s e r v i c e s c o u l d make t o t h e agency a n d t o t h e community. Casework has, b e e n . d e f i n e d i n many ways. One comprehen-s i v e d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h i s now b e i n g w i d e l y q u o t e d i s t h a t o f S w i t h r u n Bowers. "Social casework is an art in which knowledge of the science of human relations and s k i l l in relation-ship are used to mobilize capacities in the indi-vidual and resources in the community appropriate for better adjustment between the client and a l l or any part of his total environment". 1 Common to most definitions is an acceptance that casework, is a s k i l l developed through formal training and experience. Through the media of words and action i t endeavours to help the indivi-dual to a more healthy social adjustment. Obviously this type of service might be given in wrong.settings; and progressive agencies are considering the possibilities of providing such a service elsewhere than in the traditional welfare and assistance areas. In Gordon House, i t had been recognized that many indi-viduals were unable to make.adequate use of the established pro-grammes. Casework, services were seen by the administration as a means to enable people to use the agency facilities, or to help them to make contact with other community resources better equips ped to meet their needs. When it was decided that casework could provide, this kind of service, the next step was to see this ser-vice in relation to the administrative structure which already existed. Neighbourhood houses, of course, have their own spe-cific administrative goals. Their statements of purpose are in most instances constructed in.a very flexible way in order to provide for the wide range of services they offer. This is re-cognized in the .1949 Joint Annual Report of Alexander Community. 1 Bowers, Swlthrun, "The Nature and Definition of Social Casework", Journal of Social Cageworkf December, 1949, Family Services Association of America, New York. - 4 -A c t i v i t i e s , where i t i s stated that: "Neighbourhood houses are concerned with serving the people i n the communities i n which they operate* They seek to meet-the s o c i a l needs of these people and i n so doing contribute-^© t h e i r development and to that of the community". The administrative organization of Gordon House i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y complex. The agency i s one offour organi-zations which are members of a parent body, Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s . Gordon House derives i t s f i n a n c i a l support .from both the parent organization and the Community Chest. The Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s provides f o r a l l c a p i t a l expenditures r e -quired by Gordon House. In addition, the Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s membership annually elects a board of s i x t y d i r e c t o r s . This board i s broken down into committees which assume responsi-2 b i l l t y f o r the member organizations. The Gordon House Committee , to which i s assigned the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Gordon House, f u l f i l s a. role s i m i l a r to that of the ordinary policy-making board. I t i s a group of not less than twelve members, who"have control over the a f f a i r s , operations and management of Gordon House and have power to engage, suspend and discharge a l l employees, Including 3 the Executive Director " At the same time, any matters requiring x Annual Report, Alexander Community A c t i v i t i e s , 1949. Vancouver, B. C. 2 This committee Is composed of business and professional people elected by an "ad hoc" group selected from the membership. Unfortunately> this committee undergoes continual change due to the transference of in t e r e s t of i t s members who leave the neigh- . bourhood. 3 Gordon House Committee, Statement of Purpose and Function 1948 (unprinted material). Conn i Tree VkfZSafiJtslE.L SktPtiK V/Sc^ I I 1 U/=.**g^  I lk/g<*g*] I \J0R.KB.R TAKT-TIHG j L3J I £E*/IOX House A&visofiiy CoflPftTT&E " NurxssRy SCHOOL. At>Viaofiy C'OA/A* ITT BE " COMM / r r e e C u E l t l C A L . STAFF House STAFF ScJfO'OL. STUDGTS - 5 -l e g a l sanction must be referred to the AlexandraCommunity A c t i -v i t i e s Board. This i s more of a formality than a c o n t r o l . In the actual management of Gordon House a f f a i r s , the Gordon House Committee enjoys almost complete autonomy • It i s important to be cognizant of this f a c t , f o r i t was at t h i s l e v e l that the proposal to provide casework services was introduced by the d i r -ector. There i s one f a c t , in- p a r t i c u l a r , which should be men-tioned i n regard to this body since i t could have a- c r u c i a l ef-f e c t on the future of the casework service. While Gordon House, i n r e a l i t y , does negotiate i t s own budget, Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s Board retains f i n a l authority i n "any matter affect--' ing p o l i c y or c a p i t a l funds and expenditures Therefore, un-less there i s an opportunity to interpret new services to the ACA Board, t h e i r values may never be recognized. Although i t would not l i k e l y occur, a decision on the part of the A.C.A. Board could v i t a l l y a f f e c t the future of casework services i n Gordon House. Yet, there i s v i r t u a l l y no contact between this f i n a l governing group and the p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The Gordon House Committee i s aided i n i t s operation . by sub-committees drawn from™the community. Three of these are advisory committees: one to Senior House, one to Junior" House, and one to the Nursery School. The chairmanof each of these com-mittees also s i t s on the Gordon House Committee to ensure that the advisory body has representation at the p o l i c y making l e v e l . "^'Gordon House Committee, Statement of Purpose and Function 1948 (unprinted material). 2 Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s organization i s commonly re-ferred to as ACA. - 6 -These committees concern themselves primarily-wl th p o l i c y , new programmes and the s e t t i n g up of new departments. There are ad-d i t i o n a l committees which have s p e c i f i c tasks such"as: public r e l a t i o n s , house furnishings, personnel, buildings and finance. There i s also one council from Junior House and another from Senior House composed of representatives appointed from the groups using these Houses.. These councils have been of the ut-most value In keeping the Director and s t a f f , as we l l as the Gor-don House Gommittee, i n contact with the opinions and suggestions of the membership. They have acted as a sounding board to e s t i -mate the reaction of those groups. They also played a part i n helping the service to get under way through providing f a c i l i t -ies and making possible the sharing of f a c i l i t i e s at hand. The f u l l - t i m e s t a f f at Gordon House i s comprised of nine workers, three of whom are teachers i n the Nursery School. Three of, the others are p a r t i a l l y trained s o c i a l workers while the remaining three are f u l l y trained s o c i a l workers. There are usually four part-time workers, and, at the time of th i s study, one of these was f u l l y trained '.. The Director and two of the f u l l - t i m e , trained workers assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the super-visory duties. In addition, there are the c l e r i c a l and service personnel, students, and several volunteers. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h i s group i n regard to new services i s mult i f o l d . / I t i s through them that, f o r the project described here, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was made to poten t i a l c l i e n t e l e , the services introduced, and the r e f e r r a l s a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out. 1 F u l l y trained worker refers to the s o c i a l worker having com-pleted two post-graduate years of study at a recognized school of s o c i a l work.-- 7 -Gordon House Is divided into Junior and Senior houses on the basis of chronological age of i t s members. Junior House members must move on to Senior House when they reach the age of eighteen years. This separation of membership i s recognized as a r t i f i c i a l and the present administration i s seeking a more uni-f i e d , c e ntralized structure. This influenced greatly the course of development of casework services within the agency. Casework services were- inaugurated within the agency because the d i r e c t o r was of the opinion tha.t many from, the membership could benefit through the presence of a casework help. I t was d i f f i c u l t to f i n d resources within the community to which these members could be referred f o r the kind of assistance which, through i t s coopera-t i o n , would enable them to use group experience more adequately. The membership of Gordon House i s composed of a wide va r i a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e . The location of i t s building i s close to the downtown business section of the c i t y . The buildings i n this p a r t i c u l a r part of the c i t y are, f o r the most part, board-ing-houses or poor grade apartments. These are surrounded by a congested d i s t r i c t of low-rental housing. It i s from this kind of area that Gordon House r e c r u i t s i t s membership. . Although some of the people take up residence i n this locale because of i t s proximity to the c i t y ' s business section, the people l i v i n g i n this v i c i n i t y are here, i n the main, because housing i s less expensive. Gordon House Annual Report describes Its membership as consisting l a r g e l y of pensioners, working mothers, single men and women l i v i n g away from th e i r f a m i l i e s , and low-income - 8 -family groups whose chil d r e n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , make use of the agencies* f a c i l i t i e s . Comprehensive leisure-time programmes are provided f o r these people, as well as the services of a well-baby c l i n i c , a play school and kindergarten. A c t i v i t i e s cater to a wide range of age groups. Arts and c r a f t s , discus-sion groups, dances, bridge classes, dancing i n s t r u c t i o n , music appreciation, sports a c t i v i t i e s , sewing classes and friendship groups are a selection of the many a c t i v i t i e s offered to the com-munity. The only e l i g i b i l i t y requirements are those of residence within the area which Gordon House serves, together with a nom-1 i n a l membership fee . There are many i n the membership who f i n d great s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the experiences the agency could provide, but there were others who were unable to f i n d t h e i r niche or to use the established services adequately. I t was the l a t t e r group that the administration hoped to a s s i s t through providing a case-work service. The o r i g i n a l decision to introduce casework services into Gordon House was made by the d i r e c t o r of the agency i n con-junction with c e r t a i n members of the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was agreed that these services would be of an experimental nature and that the respon-For membership i n Senior House a fee of $1.50 is.charged, and f o r membership In Junior House there i s a fee of 50 cents, providing the member Is less than twelve years of age. Members between twelve years and eighteen years of age pay a fee of $1.00. Some of this group use the f a c i l i t i e s of both houses. This token fee was i n i t i a t e d to encourage a f e e l i n g of "belong-ing" among members, rather than to enlarge s u b s t a n t i a l l y the funds of the agency. - 9 -s l b i l i t y of t h e i r execution would he undertaken hy two students i n the Master of S o c i a l Work course, working under the super-v i s i o n of a member of the University Faculty. The casework ser-v i c e , therefore, assumed the form of a " s t a f f " service working ... 1 i n conjunction with t h e . " l i n e " organization already operating . The caseworkers were made d i r e c t l y responsible to the casework supervisor. This person, i n turn, administered her responsibi-l i t y i n accordance with the p o l i c y of the Agency, i n order that the services should be ce n t r a l i z e d under the control of the one Executive Director. Against this background, some of the i n i t i a l adminis-t r a t i v e problems i n i n i t i a t i n g t h i s new serv i c e , which were re-cognized early i n the planning, may be summarized at this point* It was seen as e s s e n t i a l , i n the integration of casework into the organizational structure, that the following be observed. The new casework service must be consistent with agency purpose as stated i n the by-laws of the organization. The necessary physical resources must be available i n order to accommodate the hew service. The administrator must take into consideration the staff! capacity to integrate and to use t h i s service as a part of the o v e r a l l programmes. The administrator must be prepared f o r the task of. keeping the many parts i n harmony to insure and main-tain coherent development of the agency's combined services. The administration must also be certain that the new service was i n gear with the needs o f the community and the agency's c l i e n t e l e . "Line organization" and " s t a f f : s e r v i c e " are terms commonly used i n administrative parlance, the former r e f e r r i n g to those under the d i r e c t l i n e of authority, the l a t t e r to those serving i n a consultant capacity. This i s discussed i n d e t a i l i n Chap-te r IV. (1) (2) (3) (4 ) (5 ) - 10 -It was with the l a s t of these f i v e points that the ad-ministration of Gordon House a c t u a l l y started. The question was asked, "What needs are not being met through present services?" In order to answer th i s question, some further discussion and de-s c r i p t i o n of the community and the membership i s necessary. CHAPTER II INITIAL PROBLEMS In observing problems which arise In the e s t a b l i s h -ment and execution of casework i n a neighbourhood house s e t t -ing, i t i s Important f o r the administration to have a picture of the community and people with which i t i s concerned. Con-siderable time had been spent by the administration i n studying the community and the information that had been accumulated was passed on to the new s t a f f . Gordon House i s one of the two n e i -ghbourhood houses i n Vancouver, and i t seems to be i n a strategic area to offe r casework services. I t i s located i n the "West" End" of Vancouver, an area which contains more people per acre than any other part of the c i t y , and residency i s often of a very transient nature. Over a period of years, the West End has: been transformed from Vancouver's best r e s i d e n t i a l area f o r family homes to one of rooming houses and apartment blocks. In general, wealthy people have been replaced by a group whose income i s much lower, although, In the l a s t decade, some new, expensive apart-ments have been b u i l t . Landowners have been hesitant to make im-provements because the population i s primarily transient and be-cause commercial business i s extending f a r i n t o the l i m i t s of this area. Light industry has already encroached on the fringes of the d i s t r i c t , and there has been a steady increase i n the settlement of people of foreign extractions, bringing about a mingling of varying cultures and varying i n t e r e s t s . Gordon House i s situated close to the downtown business section of the c i t y , where the r e s i d e n t i a l buildings are p a r t i c u l a r l y of the boarding-house or apartment type dwelling. Thus many of the houses adjacent to Gordon House are of multiple occupancy. Fur-thermore, these are surrounded by a congested d i s t r i c t of lowr 1 r e n t a l housing • 2 The NorrieReport has compared the area- that Gordon House serves with the eighteen other s o c i a l areas of Vancouver and pointed out that, at the time of the survey, the former area contained the highest percentage of juvenile delinquency and had the largest number of broken homes. I t i s also stated i n the Survey that i n this p a r t i c u l a r area there was an eighty per cent turnover i n the school enrollment. This suggests the transient q u a l i t y of the people who l i v e therein; and i t i s t h i s kind of a community from which the casework service might well draw i t s c l i e n t e l e . Unfortunately, there was l i t t l e material available which could help the administration to define where casework services 1 West End Survey, Group Work D i v i s i o n , Vancouver Council of -S o c i a l Agencies, May, 1941. 2 Norrie, L. E., "Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of Greater Vancouver", Community Chest and Welfare Council of  Greater Vancouver, 1945, p. 51 - 13 -were most needed. Prom the experience of the Agency and from records obtainable therein, i t was evident that the Agency must serve a wide se l e c t i o n of c l i e n t e l e . I t was apparent also that any framework the administration determined to set up must be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to permit service wherever i n d i v i d u a l need was recognized and whenever i t was possible to bring c l i e n t and 1 service together „ A measurement of two hundred and f i f t y members of Gor-don House under the age of eighteen years was made during the 2 process of s e t t i n g up the casework service . This was done with the intention of providing s t a t i s t i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n of facts that were already surmised. The findings of this sample r e -vealed that, the greatest"number of these children under eight-een years of age were of S c o t t i s h and English descent. Of t h i s group, twenty-one per cent came from-homes where at l e a s t one parent, usually the father, was absent. F i f t y - f i v e per cent were l i v i n g i n rooming-houses, twenty-one per cent i n apartments, while only thirteen per cent came from single family homes. Of the others, a few l i v e d i n duplexes, some i n cabins, shacks and boathouses, and some behind stores. I t was also noted, that, i n this group, the older the age, the greater the number of broken homes. This sample of only one segment of the member-ship was employed by the administration to gain a perspective on the magnitude of the task upon which the new service was embarking. 1 The problem of r e f e r r a l s i s discussed i n Chapter I I I . 2 Appendix A. - 14 -Before the casework s t a f f could begin to se l e c t or meet the po t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e there were two problems, i n p a r t i -cular i that had to be considered. These may be conveniently d i s -cussed under two broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : (1) problems of an i n t e r -pretative nature, i . e . , explanations of what these services would mean to the board, to the groupworkers and-to the community; and, (2) problems involving working arrangements and the spe c i a l f a c i -l i t i e s required by the workers. The provision of suit a b l e working arrangements f o r the casework s t a f f was among the f i r s t administrative questions to arise i n the establishment of this new service. At the beginn-ing, provision was made f o r o f f i c e space by having the case-workers share the o f f i c e of the groupwork supervisor i n Junior House. This was found to be quite unsatisfactory however, be-cause the proximity of group a c t i v i t y made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r p r i -vate interviews to be conducted without disturbance. At the same time, there was a tendency, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the part of the c h i l -dren, to i d e n t i f y the caseworker with the members of the group-work staff". In the process of building caseloads the workers found that, on occasion, children would endeavour to manipulate the caseworker into assuming the role of that of a groupworker. This was attempted when the children i n v i t e d t h e i r friends to come to interviews with them, or when the children i n s i s t e d that the caseworkers meet them with th e i r groups. While this seemed to be due, p a r t l y , to the i n a b i l i t y of the c h i l d to f e e l secure enough i n facing the more intimate type of r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t also seemed to be an endeavour to f i t the new worker into a groupwork setting to which the children were accustomed. In conference between the casework supervisor and- executive d i r e c -tor, i t was decided that the children might be assisted i n mak-ing the t r a n s i t i o n from-one type of se t t i n g to the other, should the caseworkers be located i n another- b u i l d i n g . Another advan-tage of new a l l o c a t i o n was that Senior House had t h e - f a c i l i t i e s f o r handling c o n f i d e n t i a l material, while Junior-House had none. A separate f i l i n g and recordingsystem was n e c e s s a r y t o look afte r case material, and Senior House was t h e o n l y part of the I n s t i t u t i o n which could make this provision. However; th i s b u i l d i n g offered no separate o f f i c e space that could be used by the caseworkers. A plan was l a t e r developed whereby arrange-ments f o r the use of the o f f i c e space could be made i n advance. This was nevertheless a disadvantage because, i n spite of c are-f u l planning, appointments would sometimes c o n f l i c t . The most obvious area of need f o r i n d i v i d u a l service was recognized as being the work with the behaviour problems of children. The casework supervisor was of the opinion that, since the Agency was one whose central focus l a y i n the pro-v i s i o n of leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s , a playroom f o r p l a y - i n t e r -viewing would provide a s e t t i n g that was not too f a m i l i a r to the c h i l d r e n and should thus produce results of a more s a t i s -factory nature. This plan was approved by the Director who i n turn presented i t to the Gordon House Committee where i t also met with approval. A s p e c i a l room was set aside f o r t h i s pur-pose, and the Committee voted funds f o r providing the required - 16 -1 equipment . ' Office hours f o r the caseworkers were determined by the programme hours of the Agency. The administration suggest-ed the hours from 1:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., since these hours coincided with most of the agency a c t i v i t i e s . Because of the success of the play-interviewing, there was extensive use of the room laid.aside f o r this purpose. Two hours each a f t e r -noon were selected as appropriate time f o r these interviews and this time was chosen to avoid c o n f l i c t i n g with the school curriculum. Before casework services could begin t h e i r function In Gordon House, i t was necessary to gain the permission of the Community Chest and Council f o r the use of the S o c i a l Service Index. P r i o r to t h i s , only three members of the s t a f f had been granted use of the S o c i a l Service Index, as they were the only professional workers on the s t a f f . On condition that a complete report be made of the plan that was being undertaken, the Com-munity Chest and Council granted the temporary use of the Index. Through the f a c i l i t i e s of the Council other agencies were i n -formed that the service had been established. In order to avoid duplication of services, c a r e f u l plans were made to ensure that clearance of c l i e n t s of mutual concern to Gordon House casework s t a f f and to other casework agencies would be a preliminary step with each case. When both continued to be a c t i v e , the respon-* This equipment included toys of many kinds, d o l l s , c l a y, finger paints, games and pict u r e s , a l l of which were chosen f o r t h e i r use i n play-interviewing. - 17 - . s i b i l i t i e s of each were decided hy determining the nature of the problem and, i n order to help the c l i e n t with this problem, by determining the way i n which the agencies could work together, (a) Interpreting to the Board Before introducing the casework services into Gordon House, the Director had brought the matter to the attention of the Gordon House Board, However, p r i o r to this i t i s noteworthy that the Board had always encouraged cooperation with outside case-work agencies. The opinion was that this experiment might be the l o g i c a l step i n bridging the gap i n services rendered by both types of agencies. Because, then, the Board had always respect-ed previous contacts with outside agencies, i t was anticipated that i t would respond favourably to any proposal which would en-hance both services and, therefore, contribute, to the welfare of the c l i e n t e l e . The suggestion was introduced to the Board which gave approval and thereby sanctioned the new "counselling 1 service". ' This name was thereby adopted after c a r e f u l considera-tion of the matter by the Director and the p o t e n t i a l casework s t a f f . I t was the opinion that such terminology would better f i t the agency setting and thus f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the ser-vices to the community. This counselling service was outlined to the Board as being a service offered to three p r i n c i p a l groups within the Agency. F i r s t l y , those adults and children r e f e r r e d to the Agency "Counselling Service" r a p i d l y became synonomous with the term "Casework Service" i n the vocabulary of both s t a f f and c l i e n t e l e . - 18 -by an outside source. Secondly, those adults and children who come to the Agency seeking leisure-time services but who, be-cause of personal problems, have d i f f i c u l t y i n doing so. Third-l y , those members of the Agency and those people i n the area, which the Agency serves, who present p a r t i c u l a r problems f o r which they seek help and f o r which they must be referred to other re-sources i n the community. The Board suggested that t h i s s ervice be adopted on an experimental basis. At this time, the Director explained that an evaluation would be made at the end of a s i x month period. Dis-cussion of the long term aspect of integrating such services Into present agency p o l i c y was introduced by the Director at l a t e r meet-ings. The object of this experiment, as an endeavour to f i l l the gap e x i s t i n g In present ser v i c e s , was interpreted to the Committee. Its immediacy was accentuated by the f a c t that the value of the services must be proven i n order to e l i c i t , at a l a t e r time, the f i n a n c i a l support of the Community Chest and to lead subsequent-l y to the establishment of a f u l l - t i m e s t a f f caseworker. Because of the long-term consideration of eventually i n s t i t u t i n g this ser-vice on a permanent basis, the necessity of coming to an e a r l y de-c i s i o n i n this matter was stressed by the Director. In such a case, the hudget f o r additional expenditures would have to be submitted to the Community Chest well i n advance, of i t s annual campaign. For this reason, the Director suggested that the Committee give the matter immediate consideration. - 19 -There was the additional task of aiding the Board to see the r e l a t i v e position which this new service would occupy i n the current programme. The d i r e c t o r deferred consideration of s p e c i f i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s of individuals needing casework assistance, u n t i l , a concrete picture.of what the services had contributed to i t s 1^: c l i e n t e l e was made available through the work of the caseworkers. The f i r s t reports that were given to the Board were designed to . provide a quantitative measure of how many c l i e n t s from each of the three groups had u t i l i z e d t h i s service. (b) Interpreting to the Sub-Committees , { Resistance to this, plan came p r i m a r i l y from representa-tives of the Nursery School Committee. The services of these mem-bers are w e l l established i n the Agency and they have access to. psy-chological consultation which has been used constructively i n the past. Their p o s i t i o n was, that a strengthening of t h i s kind of assistance would be more b e n e f i c i a l to the Agency than the'.intro-duction of services as yet untried.- The, Director and casework s t a f f s t r i v e d toward the goal of showing that I t i s not so much a question of which service w i l l be employed but rather the question The Gordon House Board had been included i n the i n i t i a l thinking about casework services. This was done not only because of the f a c t that i t represents good general administrative p o l i c y but because precedent had shown the value of such sharing i n the Bronx. House Project. "The involvement of the members of the board of directors i n the o r i g i n a l thinking about t h i s project and the reports sub-mitted to them during the continuation of this programme, had made a group of laymen i n t e l l i g e n t l y aware of a new f i e l d of cooperative s o c i a l work, namely casework - group work". Ruth Slutzker, Yonata Peldman, Anne W. Langman, Greenum Berger, Bronx House, New York, Group Work, Case Work Cooperation. N. Y. 1946. - 20 -of seeking a means to u t i l i z e both services to the advantage of c l i e n t e l e . The Director encouraged a careful approach i n working with the Nursery School s t a f f because the difference i n background and educational preparation of this group was more marked than that between caseworker and groupworker. Also, Gordon House administra-tion had done a good deal of work toward establishing close co-operation between the Nursery School and the Child Guidance C l i n i c . The d i r e c t o r of Gordon House was of the opinion, that since the Nursery School was•..< already receiving casework help from this other source, i t would be confusing to introduce suddenly other case-work services. Before any suggestion was made to the Nursery School regarding possible r e f e r r a l s to the caseworkers, several meetings and personal contacts were arranged between teachers, cert a i n parents active i n this part of the organization, and the casework s t a f f , i n order to encourage a harmonious working r e l a t i o n -ship. One can only speculate on the causes behind the resistance experienced, here, but i t was assumed that the teachers p a r t i c u l a r l y were threatened by the possible usurpation of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s A f t e r some i n i t i a l f r u s t r a t i o n , appeals were"made by the case-workers to the Director and supervisors to effect a better under-standing of the caseworkers' intended r o l e i n the agency. (c) Interpreting to the Staff Probably the most d i f f i c u l t task faced by the Director was that of i n t e r p r e t i n g the r o l e of the caseworkers to the Neigh-bourhood House s t a f f . I t soon became evident, p a r t i c u l a r l y when - 21 -the workers wanted to seek each other's help i n r e l a t i o n to cer-tain i n d i v i d u a l s , that neither caseworker nor groupworker under-stood c l e a r l y the work being done by the other. This lack of understanding gave r i s e to concern on both sides i n matters of cooperative planning. Some explanation of the dichotomy that exists between groupwork and casework i s given by Dorothy Spellman i n the follow-ing excerpt from a speech she delivered at a Groupwork-Casework Insti t u t e i n Vancouver i n 1947: "The s i z e of the job ( s o c i a l work) as i t developed, necessitated s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and categories of service, and while t h i s made the work more ef f e c t i v e we workers began to lose sight of the fact that we were but part of the whole idea. We began to be so concerned with our area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or branch of the profess-ion and the cataloguing of services that there was dan-ger of each worker or group of workers i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d thinking that they or theirs was the important . and indispensable, and communication began to fade out." I f an administration i s to be e f f e c t i v e , coordination of s p e c i a l i z e d e f f o r t i s e s s e n t i a l . In Gordon House set t i n g these problems were to some extent c l a r i f i e d through a meeting of s t a f f . Consultation was arranged with members of the Uni-v e r s i t y s t a f f , who attended certain of the Agency s t a f f meetings, to a i d i n f i n d i n g means of bringing the two services to a point where they could function cooperatively. Through these meetings the following conclusions were drawn: .Spellman, Dorothy, Groupwork-Casework I n s t i t u t e , Vancouver, 1947, (unprinted material). - 22 -F i r s t l y , i n the matter of intake, i t was decided that either groupworker or caseworker was, by v i r t u e of h i s t r a i n i n g , able to decide whether a c l i e n t could use the agency resources advantageously. Secondly, i t was determined that either groupworker or caseworker could decide at intake whether the c l i e n t was In need of casework services to prepare him f o r a group experience. Thirdly, i t was concluded that the most s a t i s f a c t o r y means of determining how the c l i e n t ' s needs could best be met was through a joint conference of casework and groupwork super-v i s o r s . At such conferences each case was discussed i n d i v i d u a l l y . As the casework service began to function, conferences did not con-f i n e themselves s p e c i f i c a l l y to intake, but were concerned addit-i o n a l l y with a l l cases where Individuals were receiving casework services. These meetings were held bi-monthly at a scheduled hour. In addition to the o r i g i n a l purpose, they also served to :evaluate the progress of each i n d i v i d u a l and to o f f e r suggestions i n carry-ing out the work done with these i n d i v i d u a l s . Fourthly, i t was concluded that there should be j o i n t conferences of workers at which individuals of mutual concern could be discussed. One member from the supervisory conference group was to attend these meetings, so as to provide d i r e c t i o n and to o f f e r suggestions r e s u l t i n g from the discussions of t h i s group. - 23 -These four conclusions provided a formal structure through which r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o u l d b e defined; and, In,this way, the d i f f i c u l t y o f determining the role of the caseworker and the groupworker with regard to s p e c i f i c c l i e n t s was even-t u a l l y overcome. In the short period that preceded this meet- . ing, the main problem had been to determine the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of caseworker and groupworker, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n matters of r e f e r -r a l . More energy had been expended i n sorting out r e s p o n s i b i l i -ties than i n a c t u a l l y working with the c l i e n t e l e . These meet-ings served the additional purpose of integrating the casework services i n t o the current programme and of encouraging more co-operative e f f o r t by means of bringing casework and groupwork . s t a f f together. This also solved the problem of c o n f i d e n t i a l -i t y , f o r , instead of merely turning over f i l e s from one worker to another, the caseworker could bring to conferences the informa-tion necessary f o r the groupworker to help the i n d i v i d u a l within the group setting. In return, the groupworker would provide" the data which was' pertinent to the caseworker working i n an i n d i v i d -ual s e t t i n g . (d) Interpreting to the Community The casework supervisor had o r i g i n a l l y proposed that the community might best be informed of the casework service by means of a l e t t e r , i n the form of a c i r c u l a r , addressed to present and previous members of Gordon House. Because i t was thought that a more controlled selection of c l i e n t e l e would provide b e t t e r material f o r the experiment, th i s plan was abandoned. The procedure which - 24 -was followed Instead, i s s i m i l a r to that which has been described by Gertrude Wilson: " I t i s suggested that any group of caseworkers and groupworkers wishing to s t a r t an experimental pro-ject begin by studying the needs of the c l i e n t s and members within t h e i r own agency loads;, then, choos-ing one or two individuals or groups with which they hope to work, that they work out together a plan of procedure of which each keeps careful records; and. at regular i n t e r v a l s hold conferences when records are analyzed and reactions exchanged." 1 The, administration wa-sv; of the opinion that a similar method of introduction would be more suitable than a c i r c u l a r . The experimental nature of this project at Gordon House, and the f a c t that i t i s pioneering new r e l a t i o n s h i p s , has made imperative the need of an "imaginative approach". The j u s t i f i -cation for this service depends upon the contribution i t can make to the well-being of the community generally. This service has been introduced with the intention of k n i t t i n g together com-munity services that Gordon House has previously given to the Wes t End. The importance of this "imaginative approach" has been stressed by Pierce Atwater, who says: "The p r a c t i t i o n e r with an imaginative approach to problems of administration always keeps i n the forefront the community organization aspects of the job. He recognizes that his p o s i t i o n as the d i r e c t o r of a programme provides a base from which improvements i n the pattern of community services can be accelerated." 2 Wilson, Gertrude, Group Work and Case Work, Their Relation- ship and Practice. Family Welfare Association of America, New York, 1942, p. 101. o Atwater, Pierce, Problems of Administration i n S o c i a l Work, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, January, 1940, P. VII - 25 -The success of any organization depends upon community needs, the a b i l i t y of i t s executives to c l e a r l y define these needs, and the thoroughness with which the executives plan the i n t e r n a l machinery of the agency to meet these needs. Succeed-ing chapters describe the problems of operation once the agency machinery had been set i n motion. • • • CHAPTER III THE SERVICE IN OPERATION To t h i s point, discussion has been confined primar-i l y to planning f o r the counselling service. The problems en-countered In the i n t e r n a l organization may be termed "problems of perpendicular co-ordination" since they concern the function and r e l a t i o n s h i p of various levels within the administrative or-ganization. The more c r i t i c a l administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s were ; i -manifest however as "problems of horizontal co-ordination", and, l e a occurred on the l e v e l of actual practice primarily between caseworkers and groupworkers. At f i r s t , i t was necessary to determine how casework services would supplement the programme which already existed, and to decide what type of cases would make up the c l i e n t e l e to whom services would be offered. I t was known that c e r t a i n i n -dividuals who were members of the Agency were unable to take f u l l James D. Mooney describes perpendicular co-ordination as that which operates through leadership and the delegation of au-t h o r i t y . He contrasts this with horizontal co-ordination, which operates not through authority and the function of command but through the universal service of knowledge. Mooney, James D., "The P r i n c i p l e s of Organization"» Papers -on the Science of Administration, Gulick, Luther, and Urwick, L. editors. New York: Ins t i t u t e of Public Administration, Columbia University, 1937. - 27 -advantage of the programmes offered within the groupwork s t r u c t -ure, presumably because t h e i r personal problems made p a r t i c i p a t -ion very d i f f i c u l t . Many of these individuals were asking d i r e c t -l y or i n d i r e c t l y f o r the kind of assistance the counselling ser-vice could o f f e r . The groupwork s t a f f were, at the outset, able to compile a l i s t consisting of t h i r t y names to which the state-1 ment would apply. These persons, with the exception of some of them, who, the S o c i a l Service Index had indicated, were already . receiving casework services, were to become the prospective case-loads of the casework s t a f f . The next question was that of the mechanics involved i n bringing the c l i e n t and the caseworker to-gether.. I t was necessary to provide, within the administrative structure, some organization through which this could be.accomp-lis h e d . David Franklin has done a previous study describing the complexity of inter-agency r e f e r r a l s . This work was care-f u l l y consulted to anticipate some of the factors which would need.to be considered. In this instance however, both i n t e r -agency and intra-agency r e f e r r a l s were contemplated and many new questions arose. The Director, suggested that an e a r l y , The Director of Gordon House had requested that the group-work s t a f f prepare and submit a l i s t of individuals whom they believed needed and would accept.casework assistance. This group were screened i n ea r l y meetings of s t a f f to determine which could u t i l i z e these services. The screening was done also with the intent to select those who would, be best pros-pects from the point of view of demonstrating the counselling service. * • . ' . ' . 2 David F r a n k l i n , Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. - 28 -mutual understanding of r e f e r r a l s be reached, and made arrange-ments f o r the s t a f f to meet In order that this might be accomp-lis h e d . . What i s a Referral? In r e f e r r i n g cases from one service to another or from one agency to the other, one assumes that the agency having the o r i g i n a l contact with the i n d i v i d u a l has been able to outline the problem presented and has made a b r i e f summary of the circum-stances which previously existed, . This having been done, a f t e r careful consideration and, possibly, a f t e r a l l agency resources have been used, i t may be concluded that the i n d i v i d u a l would best.benefit from assistance available at some other agency. Following this decision the r e f e r r a l i s then c a r e f u l l y planned and, providing the agency receiving the case i s w i l l i n g to ac-cept the i n d i v i d u a l and his problem, preparation i s made to en-sure that the least possible time elapses and the most natural transfer i s expedited. • • A r e f e r r a l , then, i n a c t u a l i t y , i s a t r a n s f e r , or pass-ing on from one to another. However, when applied to the f i e l d of s o c i a l work i t involves a f a r more i n t r i c a t e procedure, f o r one must consider how this .individual would most l i k e l y be bene-f i t t e d and this should determine such a transfer. There Is a tendency f o r some agencies to be unable to foresee the advantages of r e f e r r i n g certain cases f o r other s p e c i a l i z e d services even though, at the same time, they themselves could be equipped to carry c e r t a i n cases from other agencies. Only hy a mutual system of r e f e r r a l between agencies w i l l the i n d i v i d u a l seeking a s s i s t -ance be able to benefit to the greatest degree. In neighbourhood houses the need f o r i n d i v i d u a l atten-tion i s frequently recognized by the s t a f f , and, i n such instan-ces, the use of casework services within the agency would be sought. As an intra-agency r e f e r r a l , this would be made, most probably, by the groupworker who has had t h e . i n i t i a l contact with the Individual concerned. The procedure i n this instance would be,, perhaps, less formal than that between outside agencies. How-ever, at the same time, i t Is recommended that, In order to r e g i s -ter the problem i n a permanent manner fo r agency records, a writ-ten r e f e r r a l be made. The value of thus preserving the material f o r future reference cannot be too greatly stressed. I t i s of importance that neighbourhood houses keep d e t a i l e d records of any service they have rendered as do the outside casework agencies. I f there i s to be a successful referring, of cases between the neighbourhood house and a l l other s o c i a l agencies, i t i s evident that the records must be kept i n such an order as to be of value t o o t h e r s interested. At t h i s point, i t should be mentioned, that, following the r e f e r r a l of a case within the neighbourhood house, there must be close association between the worker who o r i g i n a l l y referred the case and the worker who accepts the case on an active basis. Regular conference periods should be set aside f o r concentrated discussion, at which time mutual contributions could be made by -30 -both caseworkers and groupworkers. Unlike the r e f e r r i n g of cases to outside agencies, this intra-agency r e f e r r i n g of cases from the one service to another can demand a f a r c l o s e r contact bet-ween both workers. Not only i s this to the advantage of the i n -dividual i n receipt of assistance, but at the same time, i t a l -lows f o r the i n t e r p l a y of services by which the one can comple-ment the other. Roles of Caseworker and Groupworker There i s no doubt that, within a neighbourhood house offering a m u l t i p l i c i t y of services, the structure of the agency, among other f a c t o r s , necessitates that the associations of each service with the c l i e n t s w i l l vary quite markedly. The d i r e c t o r , i n conjunction with the s t a f f , decided that i t would be of value to outline the circumstances under which the groupworker and case-worker p a r t i c u l a r l y must demonstrate his s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . This was a c t u a l l y an extension of the subject-matter discussed at e a r l i e r meetings i n preparation f o r the casework service. The decisions that were made at that time i n r e l a t i o n to intake were not being applied e f f e c t i v e l y because the roles of groupworker and case-1 worker were not c l e a r l y defined . I t was possible to i s o l a t e f i v e areas of d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t function. The d i r e c t o r employed this knowledge to focus more sharply on the situations where casework could be employed. See Chapter I I , p. 20 and 21. - 31 -The f i r s t area i s rather an obvious one. The group-worker, i n the main, focuses his attention upon the int e r a c t i o n of his entire group. He i s interested, p r i m a r i l y , i n the con-tributions made by each i n d i v i d u a l to the group as well as i n the contributions made by the group to the i n d i v i d u a l . In compari-son, the caseworker focuses his attention upon the needs of one. i n d i v i d u a l and his i n t e r e s t i s that of meeting these needs so as to contribute to the development and better adjustment of that person. If the caseworker speaks of;the i n d i v i d u a l as a part of a group, i t i s usually i n c i d e n t a l . He speaks of that person's a b i l i t y to adjust to the s o c i a l milieu without emphasizing his place i n a s p e c i f i c group or the reaction between that i n d i v i d u a l and other members of the group as i t relates to group development generally. The second statement that can be made i s that the group- . worker i s usually unable to devote his complete attention to any one i n d i v i d u a l f o r any appreciable length of time. To do so would injure his relationship with the group as a whole, and thus im-pai r his role as a group leader. The caseworker can devote his entire attention to one person, should the necessity f o r this be indicated. The association i s therefore a more d i r e c t , more i n t i -mate one between two people. Except f o r the residue which Is car-r i e d into these contacts from the experience and associations of both caseworker and c l i e n t , these meetings are r e l a t i v e l y free from the more di f f u s e relationships involved where there are a group of people p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n discussion, play or work. Because there i s usually a more intimate, personalized r e l a t i o n s h i p between caseworker and c l i e n t , the relat i o n s h i p often develops more slowly. Usually too, i t i s assumed that the contact has been made by the c l i e n t because he i s seeking help f o r a p a r t i c u l a r problem. The groupworker does not necessarily s t a r t with this assumption. He may instead see the c l i e n t as a person seeking leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s , companionship or recrea-t i o n , r In the group s e t t i n g , i n order to preserve the'welfare of the group, and, at the same time, to l i m i t behaviour which might not be acceptable to the group, the c l i e n t i s , at times, restrained from expressing himself f r e e l y . Limitations may also be Imposed In the casework s e t t i n g , but the worker i n such i n -stances i s not hampered by the f a c t that he must consider the reaction that a statement or action w i l l have on others f o r whom ; he may have equal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e v i -dence with the h o s t i l e c l i e n t . The groupworker may perceive the motivations behind the anger but may f i n d i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to cope with when i t comes out i n a :group s e t t i n g . The caseworker, with si m i l a r understanding of the individual's motivations, can handle such h o s t i l i t y without endangering the well-being of oth-er members of the group. F i n a l l y , when problems arise f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , the group may become a threat to him. The groupworker may f u l l y ac-cept the i n d i v i d u a l and his problem,'but, at the same time, he cannot control the reactions of various group members toward t h i s i n d i v i d u a l . In casework, however, a more controlled atmosphere can generally be maintained. There i s , again, not the same neces-s i t y to divide attention, and i n t e r e s t , and an opportunity to focus more d i r e c t l y oh the c l i e n t ' s problem. Knowledge of the differences as w e l l as the s i m i l a r i t i e s between groupwork and casework was extremely important to administ-r a t i v e organization and structure. Since Gordon House i s p r i -marily a groupwork agency, i t was necessary to recognize these differences i n order that roles of caseworker and groupworker could be more perspicuously defined. With this accomplished, i t was thought that sounder organizational l i n e s could be e s t a b l i s h -ed, duplication of work avoided, and c o n f l i c t and anxiety within the s t a f f minimized. For example, I t was c l e a r that the groupwork supervisor would not be i n a p o s i t i o n to supervise casework a c t i -1 v i t i e s . Such a supervisor could, however, serve as a consultant • The organizational structure could not then be defined simply as d i r e c t o r , supervisors and workers: i t was necessary to use des-c r i p t i v e t i t l e s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e . So It,became d i r e c t o r , super-visors of groupwork or casework, groupworkers, caseworkers and teachers. Once a more c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of r o l e had emerged It was possible to delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s without the confusion that previously existed. The administration, having c l a r i f i e d i t s organizational l i n e s , was ready f o r action. The groupwork supervisors were often requested by the case-work s t a f f to interpret the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the group and to estimate t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s for leadership, creative capacities and status, etc. CHAPTER IV THE ADMINISTRATION IN ACTION One viewpoint regards administrative operation as a f i v e f o l d process. The steps are described as follows: (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) coordinating, (4) commanding, and (5) c o n t r o l l 1 ing. Some aspects of planning, organizing, and coordinating, have already been discussed. The subjects of this chapter are the functions of command and control as these were attained i n Gordon House, with p a r t i c u l a r reference to case studies drawn from the counselling service records. Once an organization Is formed, i t must be made to work. This i s the function of a "command". Once goals are set and res-p o n s i b i l i t i e s delegated, the executive's task i s one of seeing that the job i s accomplished i n accordance with the adopted plan of action, in-such a way that there i s a minimum expenditure of man-power and materials and a maximum r e s u l t . This i s termed "control". When a new service begins, the administrative organi-zation must be adjusted accordingly, and command and control need to be examined In r e l a t i o n to that service© 1 Gulick, Luther and L. Urwick, editors, Papers, on the Science  of Administration, New York: I n s t i t u t e of Puhlic Administration, Columbia University, 1937. , • . ' - 35 -The problems discussed i n the preceding chapter dealt with the maintenance of coordination and harmony within- the administrative organization of Gordon House. This was p a r t i a l l y accomplished through setting up mechanical devices to define s t a f f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y more c l e a r l y , and i s exemplified through the d i s -cussion of the revised r e f e r r a l system. What the Gordon House ad-ministration sought to do was to e s t a b l i s h an integrated type of relationship between d i f f e r e n t services and p a r t i c u l a r l y between 1 casework and groupwork .. In discussing relationships which can exist between casework and groupwork, Matthew Elson distinguishes three s p e c i f i c types (1) The supplementary type of r e l a t i o n s h i p , which had been used rather extensively i n the past, and involved "a neighbourhood v i s i t o r " , who v i s i t e d homes to help the s e t t l e -ment house become f a m i l i a r with the home s i t u a t i o n of i t s members. (2) The r e f e r r a l type of r e l a t i o n s h i p , where within the r e f e r r i n g agency, neither groupworker nor caseworker participates after re-f e r r a l has been made to another agency. (3) The integrated type of r e l a t i o n s h i p , where casework and groupwork function together i n j o i n t l y supervised projects. Since an integrated r e l a t i o n -ship presumed a j o i n t l y supervised project with caseworkers and groupworkers working together, i t meant major changes i n the lines of authority through which command and control were main-tained. The s i t u a t i o n which existed with the introduction of counselling services i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Pig. 2 (a). The goal of 1 Group ?tfork-Case Work Cooperation, a Symposium, The Ameri-can Association of Group Workers, 1946, New York, Association Press. - 36 -integrated service i s represented i n Pig. 2 (b). Command and Control i n the Counselling Service* . Before the counselling service was introduced into Gor-don House, the administration was already a c t i v e l y engaged i n mak-ing major organizational changes. Under the previous executive, Senior House and Junior House had developed Into separate units functioning almost independently of one another, and yet operat-ing under one administrator. This was a n . a r t i f i c i a l d i v i s i o n ' s which had resulted i n part from the geographic separation of the two buildings. The d i v i s i o n was of concern to the present d i r e c t o r because i t also s p l i t up membership and s t a f f not on the basis of a c t i v i t i e s , or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but merely because of the i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n individuals developed with either Junior or Senior House. This had progressed to the point that when, f o r example, a group from Junior House wished to use the f a c i l i t i e s of Senior House there was general misunderstanding and discomfort. The d i r e c t o r was gradually bringing about a t r a n s i t i o n from the dual kind of authority to a clearer., more functional kind of structure. The counselling service made the need f o r a more u n i f i e d organizational structure come s t i l l more to the fore. When the question came up as to where the casework o f f i c e s would be located, i t was recognized that the members of Junior House would be intimidated by v i s i t s to the "adult" b u i l d i n g . S i m i l -a r l y , the members of Senior House regarded the other b u i l d i n g as exclusively f o r children's a c t i v i t i e s . There was some resistance Ft-jS- ZLoj.ik)-, AdrrLLncskatiue- J^^'^esnents j^or Co-orJunction. - 37 -on the part of s t a f f as w e l l , and s t a f f members were uneasy when t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s brought them to the "Other House". In breaking down the dual administrative pattern which had existed, another semi-executive o f f i c e had been formed, namely, the o f f i c e of the Assistant Director. The role of this o f f i c e r was l a r g e l y that of supervision, but some administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s had also been delegated to t h i s o f f i c e . When the supervisory committee was formed to discuss the j o i n t respon-s i b i l i t y of caseworkers and groupworkers, 1t was made up of the workers who would have d i r e c t contact with the c l i e n t , and the supervisors of these workers. Since both d i r e c t o r and assistant d i r e c t o r were also assuming supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t meant that i n the supervisory committee there was a d i s p a r i t y of auth-o r i t y . The executives, forced to assume two r o l e s , could not function to f u l l advantage as administrators to the casework s t a f f or as members i n a supervisory capacity to the supervisory committee. The casework supervisor and caseworkers found this dilemma equally d i f f i c u l t to handle. I t was no easier f o r the l a t t e r group to see the administration i n two roles than i t was for the direc t o r and assistant d i r e c t o r to make t h i s change. Another question which arose was that of a uniform un-derstanding of the goal of casework services. I t has already been stated broadly that the goal agreed upon was that of i n t e -grated service to c l i e n t e l e , where the combined services of Gor-don House could function as a team to the advantage of the c l i e n t . The casework service saw i t s goal, i n many instances, as intensive - 38 -work with s p e c i f i c c l i e n t s . Many of the theories developed through similar experiments were not i n accordance with t h i s goal. The administration was w i l l i n g to give the casework s t a f f an opportunity to experiment i n t h i s area, but at the same time questioned whether t h i s was the most productive function of t h i s part of s t a f f . The a l t e r n a t i v e s , which were seen as possible functions of casework s t a f f , were the interpretation of i n d i -vidual behaviour, to the groupwork s t a f f , and assistance to refer individuals i n need of casework to appropriate agencies. The result of the difference i n goals envisioned, i n conjunction with the t r a n s i t i o n administrative structure was undergoing, placed the counselling service i n a peculiar p o s i -t i o n within the administrative organization. It became primar-i l y a " s t a f f " service i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the organization be-cause the caseworkers 1 function was, to deal with a p a r t i c u l a r phase of the work. Also, the casework service was intended to advise the " l i n e " o f f i c e r s i n areas i n which the caseworkers were experienced. Again, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for co-ordinating work with c l i e n t s was l a r g e l y assumed by the caseworkers. These functions are generally considered to be those of s t a f f organi-zation. In other respects however, the counselling service was i n d i r e c t l i n e of authority. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were delegated through the same channels as i n the case of other agency workers. The caseworkers recognized the assistant d i r e c t o r and groupwork supervisor as t h e i r immediate supervisors and work was delegated to the caseworkers through these o f f i c e r s . - 3 9 -Some S p e c i f i c Cages (a) The case of John D i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of what occurred p r i o r to the setting up of an adequate r e f e r r a l system. It also Indicates the need for a formalized intake policy on which s t a f f and volunteers are thoroughly brie f e d . John D was referred by a public agency, where he was 1 part of a "special case load". In addition to the fact that he was an assistance r e c i p i e n t , that agency was working with him to as s i s t him with severe personality disorders. It was thought that i t would be of value i f he could p a r t i c i p a t e i n group programmes. When John D expressed an interest i n the suggestion of group a c t i -v i t i e s , a consultation was held between the public agency worker and a caseworker from Gordon House. Information was exchanged regarding the c l i e n t and Gordon House as a resource to meet th i s c l i e n t ' s needs. It was decided that a r e f e r r a l would be made. Unfortunately, through a misunderstanding John D went d i r e c t l y to a meeting of the group i n which h i s membership had ten t a t i v e l y been planned. The volunteer leader was not prepared, by exper-ience or tr a i n i n g , to a i d John D. Addi t i o n a l l y , at the time of th i s r e f e r r a l , there was no c l e a r l y stated p o l i c y regarding what should be done i n such matters of intake. As a result of thi s confusion John D, completely withdrew, refusing further contacts with the agency. The f a i l u r e here which resulted i n disappoint-ment for the c l i e n t , f r u s t r a t i o n for the volunteer, and poor public ^ "Special Case Load": t h i s p a r t i c u l a r agency i n addition to providing assistance offers more intensive work to a small s e l e c t -ive group. - 40 -rel a t i o n s with the r e f e r r i n g agency, could have been avoided. Subsequent recommendations, r e s u l t i n g from t h i s and other simi-l a r experiences,, were: the use of trained workers at intake, the u t i l i z a t i o n of r e f e r r a l forms, and a sharing of information regarding adequacy, of procedures.. (b) The case of Mrs. L. i s i n d i c a t i v e of the l a t e r func-ti o n i n g of the counselling service with the operating advantage of more complete organization. Mrs. L. was referred by the s o c i a l service department of a c i t y h o s p i t a l . The worker making the re-f e r r a l was of the opinion, that, i f the c l i e n t could be helped to p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t i e s , i t would greatly a s s i s t her health and her social.adjustment. There were two contacts bet-ween the medical s o c i a l worker and the Gordon House caseworker during which information'was exchanged regarding the c l i e n t and the neighbourhood house resources. The medical s o c i a l worker used th i s information to prepare Mrs. L.,. who had continually express-ed a desire for s o c i a l outlets, for her f i r s t v i s i t to Gordon 2 House. The r e f e r r a l form was completed by the Gordon House caseworker, and at the next meeting of the supervisory committee her case was discussed. Mrs. L. was a middle-aged, woman, pleasant i n appearance, sensitive and i n t e l l i g e n t . Coincident with the death of her only c h i l d , f i v e years before t h i s contact, she had suffered a f a i n t -ing s p e l l . Subsequent s p e l l s , accompanied by convulsive a c t i v i t i e s 1 Appendix B 2 Appendix B - 41 -and incontinence occurred, and the seizures were diagnosed as e p i l e p t i c . Medication had improved the s i t u a t i o n considerably, and attacks were less frequent and less, severe. The medical s o c i a l worker had interpreted the nature of the i l l n e s s to Mrs. ,. and while Mrs. L. had gained some acceptance of her seizures, she was very self-conscious, and reticent to make so-c i a l contacts, although she would state that she wished very much to do so, Mrs. L's i l l n e s s had brought fort h repressive tenden-cies and strong dependency needs. In fantasy she had described to the medical caseworker her desire to be at home again with her parents, with whom she had l i v e d u n t i l her marriage. Mr. L. was completely Intolerant of what he described as his wife's c h i l d i s h ways. The quarrels that ensued were often followed by a seizure. Most of the information passed on to the Gordon House caseworker was brought to the supervisory committee. The case-worker described what i n her opinion represented the needs of th i s c l i e n t . The groupworker then discussed the in t e r e s t s of the group and what he thought might be the reaction of i t s mem-bers to Mrs. L. 1s personality, . The caseworker v i s i t e d Mrs, L. in her home twice before Mrs. L. came to Gordon House. The medical s o c i a l worker had decreased her contacts with the c l i e n t . at t h i s point, but was s t i l l seeing Mrs. L. once a month when the l a t t e r made t r i p s to the h o s p i t a l . This type of support through the period of r e f e r r a l was thought to be desirable for Mrs. L. After a period of two months, the medical s o c i a l worker i n conference with the? Gordon House caseworker, decided with the T 42 -c l i e n t that h o s p i t a l contact could be terminated. Mrs. L. mean-while, had become a member of one of the Gordon House groups. Her performance and reactions i n the group were observed by the groupworker and brought to supervisory committee meeting. Mrs. L. !s progress was observed from two perspectives, casework and groupwork, and a combined ef f o r t was made to help her to f i n d -s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n the group and at home. The plan followed i n this p a r t i c u l a r case was one where casework.services provided the c l i e n t with guidance, sup-port and some i n s i g h t . Groupwork, on the other hand, offered a controlled s e t t i n g through which Mrs. L. could u t i l i z e and con-sol i d a t e the gains which she had made i n the more intimate con-tacts with the caseworker. This,case indicates cooperative planning c a r r i e d out through a simple but effective administrative scheme. Pig. 3 i l -l u strates the joi n t service i n action. (c) The.case of Jimmy R., i n addition to serving as a f u r -ther description of groupwork-casework col l a b o r a t i o n , t y p i f i e s ad-ministrative a c t i v i t y i n three phases: experimentation, documen-tation and in t e r p r e t a t i o n . . Jimmy was a ten-year-old, a t t r a c t i v e youngster, from a broken home. There was an older brother and a younger s i s t e r , a l -so a t home. The father had deserted sh o r t l y before the b i r t h of the t h i r d c h i l d . Jimmy's mother* s h o r t l y a f t e r the desertion, had taken i n a boarder who had become, i n a l l except i n name, the &OP-Z>OM House C.A&&V/ORK:ER Co-oPEKflTitrE &e.RVte.£. CASS. rw>re8./4i- TKBPARSH-J~oFHT AC770A/ head of the household. The family were c l o s e l y knit and very l o y a l . There was,. however, a good deal of bickering and some more serious arguing between the boarder and Mrs. R, which led occasionally to evident verbal and physical abuse. Jimmy was known by the groupwork s t a f f to be i n severe c o n f l i c t over his home s i t u a t i o n . His anger, which he dared not express at home wher punishment was apt to be severe, p e r i o d i c a l l y broke through i n h i s play with other children. Normally he was a s u l l e n l i t t l e boy who suffered occasional attacks of asthma. The groupworker, i n proposing to make the r e f e r r a l , described Jimmy as the most un-predictable c h i l d he had known. He further stated that Jimmy's pattern of behaviour In the group was either that of complete r e -f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e , or of aggressive, h o s t i l e behaviour which endangered other members of the group. The supervisory committee, reviewing the Information presented by the groupworker, decided that the best plan f o r Jimmy would probably involve the use of play interviewing. To use t h i s form of interview meant that the agency was declaring that i t s personnel would do treatment work with c e r t a i n c h i l d -ren. This was an experiment that In p a r t i c u l a r required i n t e r -pretation to other s o c i a l agencies. Records were kept i n pro-cess form i n order that they eould be used at any time i n d i s -guised form f o r presentation as a means of interpretation to the board and to other agencies. Process recording i s the most detailed type of record kept by caseworkers of contacts between worker and client.' - 44 -As the case discussed i l l u s t r a t e s . , the administration of Gordon House succeeded i n planning f o r casework services i n the agency, integrating these' services into the e x i s t i n g organi-z a t i o n a l structure, and c e n t r a l i z i n g operations to the point where jo i n t planning and j o i n t action could be c a r r i e d out. I t i s by no means unimportant, that records containing information regarding accomplishments of the dual s e r v i c e , and permitting evaluation, of the service, be kept to furnish material f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . • • • CHAPTER V ALLIED EXPERIMENTS WITH CASEWORK IN GROUPWORK SETTINGS It i s common administrative practice to survey the po-t e n t i a l i t i e s of a service before s t a f f , energy, time and money are invested. Budgets in s o c i a l agencies are such that t r l a l - a n d -error methods must be minimized. Expense i s seldom incurred un-less the administration of such an agency can be reasonably cer-t a i n that the investment can be J u s t i f i e d . A survey of community, membership, potential c l i e n t e l e and resources, i s esse n t i a l to prognosticate new trends. The information obtained aids mater-i a l l y i n the sett i n g up of the new service and i n determining where emphasis should be placed for best r e s u l t s . I t i s import-ant also to be Informed of what other s o c i a l organizations i n the same community are doing i n order to prevent overlapping of services and possible c o n f l i c t between agencies. Equally essen-. t i a l i s the exploitation of any knowledge or experience of a simi-l a r nature which might be obtained. The ac q u i s i t i o n of reported information from si m i l a r projects was of great value i n setting up a counselling service i n Gordon House. The recognition of a need for Individual services i n neighbourhood houses i s not en t i r e l y new, but i t s importance has been accentuated by the growth in t h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of the profession, and has been further enhanced by the increase i n . - 46 -the number of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained groupworkers. The de-velopment of casework consultation i n neighbourhood houses has followed no uniform pattern, but has instead v a r i e d with each l o c a l s e t t i n g . In some respects,. this f a c t , i n i t s e l f , offers an i n d i c a t i o n of the need f o r this type of service. Although experimenting agencies often began with d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t philosophies and methods they have often arrived at s t a r t i n g l y s i m i l a r conclusions. As has been shown, there are c e r t a i n people who, before they can benefit from group experience, need i n d i v i -dual help. There are s t i l l others who come to the neighbourhood house;seeking to f u l f i l needs which can be met only through con-tact with other community resources. For these people, i t may-be a matter of interpreting a need of which the i n d i v i d u a l may have l i t t l e or no awareness. I t may be a highly personalized, sp e c i a l i z e d job. Examination of various groupwork settings reveals that there are a s i g n i f i c a n t number of individuals In each who seem to be unable to take advantage of groupwork programmes. The Settlement Houses i n Minneapolis, Hudson House and Bronx House i n New York, the Council Educational A l l i a n c e i n Cleveland, the , Jewish Centers Association i n Boston and the Jewish Board of Guardians i n New York, i n an endeavour to provide more accessible casework resources to the communities they serve, have taken an active int e r e s t i n introducing the casework type of programme into t h e i r administrations. Each administration has t r i e d to adapt the programme to i t s own p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g , and i t i s doubtful whether the spread of this service has been as much a resu l t of "transporting the idea" as i t has been a r e s u l t of spontaneous development i n response to community needs. The Twin C i t y Federation of Settlements Counselling Service The growth of the " i n d i v i d u a l service plan" i n the set tlement environment i s perhaps the h i s t o r i c forerunner and c l o s -est equivalent to what we now r e f e r to as casework i n a group-work agency. In 1934 the "Twin C i t y Federation of Settlements" i n Minneapolis and St. Paul introduced a department into t h e i r administration which they c a l l e d the "Personal Service Depart-ment". Their publication describes the work as follows: "The Personal Service Department, i n working out s o l u -tions of problems, i s not only c a l l e d upon to act as l i a i s o n between the Settlement House and other s o c i a l agencies i n behalf of c l i e n t s and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , but i t also frequently acts in.the same capacity as between i t s c l i e n t s , with t h e i r d i f f e r e n t phases of family l i f e , ; and other departments of the House. The work of the department i s , i n short, inter-agency as well as i n t r a --agency. The department i s c a l l e d upon to deal with . both major and minor types of adjustments. In making these adjustments, the Department i s of great help i n coordinating and supplementing the work i n a l l other departments of the settlement. The department i s the main l i n k between the House, the family, the inner i n t i -mate neighbourhood life-problems and the available, s o c i a l work services of the community.".1 The c l o s e - p a r a l l e l that exists between this description and the description of the Gordon House experiment i n preceding chapters i s at once evident. Closer observatiomreveals that there are many differences, but these are p r i n c i p a l l y In the type of pro-Se l f Analysis Survey of Minneapolis Settlement Houses, Twin C i t y Federation of Settlements, 1934, page 15. - 48 -blems met because of the differences i n s e t t i n g , economic circum-stances and i n t r a i n i n g of p r a c t i t i o n e r s . From an administrative standpoint, c e r t a i n differences stand out. The Federation was less formalized i n administrative structure, and less precise i n i t s understanding of agency funct-ion. Their s t a f f was, f o r the most part, not trained i n s o c i a l work schools. They would not have claimed that t h e i r f i r s t ser-vice to c l i e n t e l e followed what might be described as "groupwork 1 methods". Their work was i n f a c t closer to the other s o c i a l work s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of community organization. The Federation desc-ribes i t s purpose i n the following terms: "Taking i t by and large, i t can be s a i d that the ten Settlements of Minneapolis are s t r a t e g i c a l l y located for non-sectarian, non-partisan, c i v i c , and moral ser-v i c e to the City."; 2 These agencies did not see t h e i r "personal service" as a s p e c i a l -ization, to be handled by s p e c i a l i s t s , but rather as a new fact of an established programme to be conducted by the e x i s t i n g s t a f f . One can assume that while this might avoid some of the i n i t i a l problems of "pld s t a f f " sharing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with "new s t a f f " , i t would also mean certa i n losses. I t i s an administrative truism that what i s everyone's job i s no one's. This apparently The Federation was concerned with the development and ad-justment of individuals within the settlement. Its s t a f f d i d not, however, have the benefit of the s c i e n t i f i c and formalized t r a i n -ing of today's generically-trained groupworker. Their approach was to seek within the community resources which might be mobiliz-ed to help the i n d i v i d u a l to a more healthy, and s a t i s f y i n g way of l i f e . Self-Analysis Survey, op. c i t . p. 9 . tended to be the case i n the Federation set-up. Its workers dealt with the problems they observed and the s t a f f member who perceived these d i f f i c u l t i e s often treated them. Furthermore, the difference i n d e f i n i t i o n of c l i e n t e l e and contact i s mark-ed. The Federation states: "The Settlement closes a case only through the death of the c l i e n t or his removal from the neighbourhood as long as he Is a neighbour, he i s p o t e n t i a l l y 'an open case'." 1 This description, of course, also r e f l e c t s the change i n methodol-ogy and philosophy which has occurred In s o c i a l agencies since 1934. The personal service described here was a l o g i c a l f o r e -runner of the specialized.counselling service which Gordon House developed. I t points out a recognition of the need f o r I n d i v i d - • ual counselling where people are l i v i n g , working and finding t h e i r recreation In groups. What i s missing Is the awareness that a s p e c i f i c kind of preparation i n education and experience i s r e -quired to make thi s kind of service of value to c l i e n t e l e . The Hudson Guild C h i l d Counselling Service The Hudson Guild Child Counselling Service, on the other hand, i s the product of a completely d i f f e r e n t type of s e t t i n g . Although, b a s i c a l l y , Its work Is somewhat s i m i l a r to that done i n the Gordon House experiment, i t , too, has been conditioned by the l o c a l environment. The e f f e c t s of this are r e f l e c t e d i n the type of programme that has developed. The reason f o r the conception of this service i s described as follows: Self-Analysis Survey, op. c i t . p* 18. - 50 -. "The Counselling Service was estaolished as a part of the Hudson Guild program i n 1948, i n response to the s p e c i f i c expressed heeds of the community, and be-cause of the strategic p o s i t i o n of Hudson Guild as an agency which has been active i n community organi-zation' and In helping the neighbourhood make most constructive use of the resources which i t and other agencies provided. 1 1 •. There are two factors i n t h i s statement that have been given consideration e a r l i e r i n this study i n connection with 2 Gordon House. The f i r s t i s the matter of "strategic p o s i t i o n " . Because Its groupwork programmes were u t i l i z e d to a considerable extent by young veterans with problems, and because i t was l o -cated i n a community of s o c i a l andethnic changes, the Hudson Guild found i t s l o c a l e p e c u l i a r l y suited to this type of work. S i m i l a r l y , Gordon House Is located i n an area that gives a casework type of service s t r a t e g i c value. As already describ-ed, the West End of Vancouver i s a community that i s badly i n need of s o c i a l services as well as being one where individuals who need casework services are frequently overlooked. To some extent, this gap can be f i l l e d by providing a screening process within the Neighbourhood House. The second point worthy of note i s that of community response. In 1945, Hudson Guild i n i t i a t e d a j o i n t Hudson Guild Community Service Society project with the intention of bringing family casework services into a community centre where there was a regular attendance of a large number of f a m i l i e s . At this time, a psychohiatric s o c i a l worker was as-1 Hudson Guild Child Counselling Service, 1949 (unprinted material). 2 See Chapter I I , p. 11. signed by the Community Service Society to act as consultant on casework problems, v i s i t i n g once a week, through a t r i a l period of one year. Shortly afterwards, the Mayor's Committee on the Wartime Care of Children, working i n conjunction with the New York C i t y Committee on Mental Hygiene, set up a mental hygiene programme i n c e r t a i n day-care centres. Hudson Guild was active i n this development and the r e s u l t has been that one of the chief goals of the counselling service i n this s e t t i n g has become that of Integrating recreational and educational programmes i n accord-ance with mental hygiene p r i n c i p l e s . The administrative goals of the two agencies are markedly d i f f e r e n t . The Gordon House experi ment has had none of the advantages of a previously established casework programme. On the other hand, this has meant that the objectives of the service i n Gordon House have been determined s o l e l y on the basis of s o c i a l work philosophy, and that outside influence from other community projects has not had a marked ef-fect on the d i r e c t i o n i n which this service has developed. Where the Minneapolis Federation seems to s u f f e r from too d i f f u s e an organizational set-up, the Hudson Guild experiment with counselling services, i n contrast, appears to represent a kind of organization which i s too narrow to f i t the needs of Gordon House. The' counselling service i n Hudson Guild confined i t s e l f p r i n c i p a l l y to i n d i v i d u a l situations which could be c l a s -s i f i e d as,within the scope of an already established mental hy-giene programme. Its goals are more s i m i l a r to those of a c h i l d guidance c l i n i c . The Hudson Guild had made the following state-- 52 -ment: "Coordinated handling of an Individual by the consult-ant, nursery teacher, p s y c h i a t r i s t , and psychologist, presented an educational demonstration to the Hudson-Guild Group Work St a f f as well as to the community.1,1 It could be seen from the onset of the Gordon House experiment that i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y those of the casework s t a f f , could r e s u l t i n the development of a programme apart from the organization which fostered i t . In view of this' f a c t the executive of Gordon House attempted to develop the casework ser-vice as a part of the u n i f i e d s.ervice to c l i e n t s . The Bronx House Casework Service Perhaps the most thorough plan f o r incorporating case-work services i n t o the administration of a groupwork s e t t i n g has been c a r r i e d out i n Bronx House, New York. The o r i g i n of this programme has been somewhat s i m i l a r to that of the Minneapolis Settlements. There are, however, very important differences. The objective of this agency i s that of o f f e r i n g groupwork ser-vice to the community, and, by strengthening the professional groupwork representation within the s t a f f , i t has endeavoured to keep these services of high c a l i b r e . As a r e s u l t , there has come a growing awareness that, i n many instances, group a c t i v i t y can become a very r e a l part of the i n d i v i d u a l treatment, plan. This i s , i n r e a l i t y , an expression of the commencement of cooperative treatment. Miss Miriam Cohen i n her writings on casework and groupwork cooperation states: Hudson Guild Child Counselling Service, 1949, (unprinted material) • - 53 -"It was with such cooperative service i n mind that the jo i n t consultation of the Jewish Board of Guardians and Jewish Welfare Board was set up." ^ Joint consultation has meant a blending of the s k i l l s of both caseworker and groupworker. In Bronx House, the function of the caseworker i s that of diagnosing and determining the need f o r intensive i n d i v i d u a l treatment. Where need occurs, a r e f e r r a l i s made to an outside agency. In other instances t h i s function includes the responsi-b i l i t y of Interpreting to the groupworker what the caseworker r e -gards as the s p e c i a l needs of the i n d i v i d u a l and thereby a s s i s t -ing the groupworker i n resolving the individual's problems through the group. What i s important Is the r e a l i z a t i o n that the case-worker i n this s e t t i n g i s not the only one i n possession of pro-fe s s i o n a l s k i l l s . Caseworker and groupworker, each with his own s k i l l s , function together i n a cooperative endeavour to help the i n d i v i d u a l to a more s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l adjustment. Gordon House s i m i l a r l y endeavoured to develop i t s programme on a cooperative basis. . The Bronx House project has received wide acclaim and has succeeded i n pointing out the v a l i d i t y of the need.for a case-worker within the agency as a consultant. As a r e s u l t of the documentation of t h e i r experience, the executive body of Gordon House were reasonably cert a i n that casework services within the agency would help, the s t a f f to a greater awareness of the i n d i -Cohen, Miriam, A Study of Casework-Groupwork Cooperation, Bronx House, unpublished paper. vidual personality and i t s needs. The intent i n Bronx House however, was to work only to the point where the person could recognize his need f o r i n d i v i d u a l help and express his desire f o r such assistance. The caseworker then prepared the c l i e n t for a r e f e r r a l to a cooperating agency. Gordon House was pre-pared to go one step further and to t r y experimentally to do some i n d i v i d u a l therapy,within the neighbourhood house s e t t -ing. Gertrude Wilson views the question of casework coun-s e l l i n g i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . I t has been her conviction that, while casework i s at present v a l i d In.the groupwork s e t t i n g , this i s only true because groupworkers have, i n the past, been lacking In professional preparation. • The inception of casework into, the groupwork agency Miss Wilson regards as a temporary measure u n t i l groupworkers can become t r u l y generic s o c i a l work-ers. I t i s not, however, i n the basic s o c i a l work equipment that groupwork and casework d i f f e r , although i t i s true that both.are specializations and require the c u l t i v a t i o n of s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s . The p r i n c i p a l d i s t i n c t i o n s appear rather to be those of setting and relationship. Even i f the groupworker possessed case-work,skills, his po s i t i o n with regard to the group would be Im-paired i f he concentrated his attention upon an i n d i v i d u a l mem-ber. This was discussed i n some d e t a i l i n s t a f f meetings i n Gordon House and i t was decided that, while either caseworker or groupworker, by virtue of his generic background-in s o c i a l work, could do equally competent work at intake, or i n 'spotting' - 55 -problems, the groupworker could not provide treatment on an in d i v i d u a l basis without damaging his r e l a t i o n s h i p with the group. In her commentary on Miss Wilson's 'Symposium', Yonata Feldman has summed up these facts i n the following passage: "It seems to me that the value of counselling service does not l i e i n the superior t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge or p r a c t i c a l s k i l l of the counsellor, though this might be a f a c t i n many instances. Case work and group work are two d i f f e r e n t approaches to the i n d i v i d u a l that cannot, f o r psychological reasons-, be vested i n one worker at the same time. Just as much as the group leader can benefit from the case worker's investiga-t i o n and understanding of the t o t a l behaviour and per-s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l and then, with this under-standing adjust his r o l e to him and the group, so w i l l , perhaps, the caseworker i n the future modify his approach to the Individual i n casework treatment when he w i l l obtain from the s k i l l e d groupworker at more profound understanding of the dynamics of group behaviour." 1 While few are today i n accord with Miss Wilson's view, one fact does stand out which was important to the Gordon House project. Part of Miss Wilson's b e l i e f that groupworkers could do the job, given more adequate preparation, was probably based on her strong sense of the value of formed relationships between c l i e n t and worker. I t could be argued that, i f the ultimate goal of the caseworker i n a groupwork agency i s to make a r e f e r r a l to another casework agency, this could surely be handled by the group leader who may already have some knowledge of the c l i e n t and some positive relationship with him. Gordon House, therefore, saw a d i f f e r e n t goal f o r casework. Work was done on the hypothesis that Feldman, Yonata, Jewish Centers and Case Work Cooperation, A r t i c l e I I I , The Jewish Center National Jewish Welfare Board Publication, Aug. 14, 1945, P. 11. casework can function co-operatively with groupwork and even un-der the same roof. The preceding passages outline some current situations i n which groupworkers and caseworkers combine th e i r s k i l l s within a single administration. In New York, where the most advanced work has been done, this type of p r a c t i c e - i s no longer regarded as experimental i n nature. Many of the advantages which have been discussed i n the foregoing chapters with reference to Gor-don House would, no doubt, be equally applicable to other s e t t -ings from which Gordon House has taken i t s lead. What Is most important i s that each of these diverse settings has produced the need for a s i m i l a r type of counselling s e r v i c e . There are, of course, p a r t i c u l a r differences, depending upon the needs of the community i n each l o c a l s e t t i n g . In this connection, perhaps the outstanding contribution casework can make i n Gordon House i s one of f i l l i n g a gap i n community services that has been overlooked. CHAPTER VI AN EVALUATION The measure of success i n this administrative ven-ture must depend f i n a l l y upon what casework services were able to accomplish i n Gordon House; and plans f o r the future of this service could only be made through evaluation of what had been accomplished. The counselling service functioned over a r e l a t i v e l y short experimental period: i n t o t a l , the operation continued f o r eight months. During this period 48 cases were r e f e r r e d sue c e s s f u l l y to the Gordon House s t a f f . Of these, 12 received d i r -ect casework service within the agency, 15 were referred to oth-er agencies, 11 received s l i g h t s e r v i c e s , and 10 contacts were terminated with indeterminable r e s u l t s . Of the 12 cases, i n 8 instances there was evidence of marked improvement i n the i n d i v i dual's behaviour i n the group. In 2 instances, there was mode-rate improvement registered in the behaviour of the individuals i n t h e i r respective groups. In the remaining 2 cases, no ap-preciable change was recognized. Of the 15 cases r e f e r r e d to other agencies from the counselling service, 11 were known to have been completed successfully. Three made contact with the other agency but did not maintain t h e i r contacts. The remain-- 58 -ing one withdrew from Gordon House without completing contact with the new agency. The following table may be an a i d i n consolidating these f i g u r e s : Moderately Successful Successful unsuccessful Total Casework 8 2 2 IS Referral 11 3 1 15 TOTAL 19 5 3 27 The t o t a l of 27 cases represented approximately 56 per cent of the persons referred to the casework service and were the groups where intensive work, or a series of contacts with Intent to r e f e r , were involved. In 70 per cent of these 27 cases, the r e s u l t was con-sidered very successful, 19 per cent moderately successful, and i n 11 per cent unsuccessful. The remaining 21 cases, from the o r i g i n a l 48 cases suc-c e s s f u l l y referred, involved s l i g h t service to c l i e n t s , and con-tacts which were terminated with Indeterminable r e s u l t s . The s l i g h t services involved single contacts and i n some instances were a c t u a l l y r e f e r r a l s to other community resources. In these s i t u a t i o n s , however, the r e f e r r a l was made without follow-up. The cases where contact was terminated without determined r e-s u l t s , probably included the majority of f a i l u r e s In the ex-periment. Many of these occurred when the service was just be-ginning to function. The case of John D., discussed previously i n Chapter IV, i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of such a f a i l u r e . In some In-- 59 -stances, the caseworker was unable to define h i s r o l e to the c l i e n t , o r , perhaps, too l i t t l e preparat ion had been done by the groupworker when the r e f e r r a l was made. The re su l t might then be that the c l i e n t withdrew with no service being g iven. Although the number of f a i l u r e s and withdrawals from the service were quite l arge , a f a i r l y large f i gure was a n t i c i -pated. I t was thought that th i s was i n par t due to the f a c t that the service was new. A l s o , i n the majority of s o c i a l agencies, withdrawals and incomplete serv ices are f a i r l y frequent . The transient q u a l i t y of membership i n Gordon House has prev ious ly been stressed and th is a l s o , was thought to be a fac tor of s i g n i -f icance i n regard to withdrawals. On the basis of s t a t i s t i c s , the opinion was that casework services w i th in the agency were war-ranted and va luable . The Qual i ty of Serv ices : Strength and Weakness The goal of the Gordon House adminis trat ion was to of -f e r to i t s membership a counse l l ing serv ice of high c a l i b r e which would improve the hea l th and s o c i a l adjustment of i n d i v i d u a l mem-bers . I t was bel ieved that i f t h i s could be accomplished the hea l th of groups would also improve. Evaluat ion of recorded mater ia l by the adminis trat ion of the agency led to the conclusion that the s e r v i c e s , i n q u a l i t y , were on a par with casework serv ices given elsewhere i n the com-munity. Supervis ion of both caseworkers and groupworkers was known to be of the best q u a l i t y . A sample case was presented by - 6 0 -the Gordon House staff to students of the school of Social Work in the University of British Columbia. The objective opinion of this group revealed that they were in accord with the experi-ment, and that they thought services given were of good standard. It was also the expressed opinion of this group that services reached clientele who would otherwise have never made contact with casework agencies. The referral system between groupwork and casework agen-cies had previously never proven to be adequate. Casework ser-vices in Gordon House provided a bridge between the specialized agencies. Outside casework agencies referred more readily to Gordon House because there was not the same awkwardness i n know-ing what information the groupwork agency would need. The re-f e r r a l was made easily in the manner they were accustomed to mak-ing referrals to other casework agencies. The Gordon House case-worker had an opportunity to interpret the groupwork programme of his agency in the process of re f e r r a l , and the referring ease-worker was able to understand the kind of help groupwork could provide. When i t was the groupworker who in i t i a t e d a referral that resulted in transfer to an outside agency, this was accom-plished more easily with greater understanding and f a c i l i t y due to the aid of the counselling service. Greater respect and ap-preciation for the work of the other was manifest in contacts between casework and groupwork as a result of the intermediary service. After i n i t i a l resistance, mutual respect for the s k i l l s of the other grew stronger within the agency. The supervisory - 61 -committee group through continued consultation greatly enhanced this development. An increasing awareness of i n d i v i d u a l pro-blems developed i n the groupwork s t a f f . S i m i l a r l y , the Gordon House Caseworkers were more appreciative of what could be ac-complished through groups. The two perspectives operating to-gether i n j o i n t diagnosis, j o i n t planning, and j o i n t treatment, offered a f a r more comprehensive service to c l i e n t e l e -Some of the weaknesses which were manifest i n the devel-opment of th i s new service were present i n the administrative structure p r i o r to the introduction of casework In the agency. Indeed, the administrative organization has been under the scrut-iny of the d i r e c t o r and the board, i n order to provide a more e f f i c i e n t kind of working structure. The d i v i s i o n between Sen-i o r and Junior House membership has been discussed, as well as the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h i s created f o r the new service. In coping with this problem, the d i r e c t o r has had to compromise between what would be a more e f f i c i e n t structure, and what i s acceptable to the membership. The r e s u l t has been confusion In the l i n e s of authority, and the e f f e c t of t h i s confusion on the casework ser-vice has also been described. The r e s u l t was that the p o s i t i o n of casework In the administrative structure was never c l e a r l y de-f i n e d . Like most neighbourhood houses, Gordon House suffers from a shortage of trained personnel. More trained p r a c t i t i o n -ers would have been of great advantage, since t h e i r generic pre-- 6 2 -paration would have brought them c l o s e r , i n th e i r understand-ing, to the work of the caseworkers. Although, i n general, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was done thor-oughly, i t was occasionally done too l a t e . There was never ac t u a l l y a working r e l a t i o n s h i p developed between the case-work services and the nursery school. The nursery school s t a f f were encouraged to make r e f e r r a l s as were the groupworkers. The teachers however, being less w e l l acquainted with s o c i a l work ser-v i c e s , were unable to move ahead at the same pace as the group-workers. The nursery school, as a r e s u l t , d i d not lend f u l l co-operation. In i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with other s o c i a l agencies Gor-don House also f a i l e d to interpret the new service to f u l l advant-age. Those who learned of the existence of the se r v i c e often voiced questions of whether i t was not duplicating services a l -ready being given i n the community. Another weakness which influenced the development of the service adversely can be described as the "human element". Resist-ance to change, vested interests and security with the status quo, were a l l factors that continued to be present through the ser-vice's period of operation. The casework s t a f f struggled p a r t i -c u l a r l y with the informality of the neighbourhood house setting and reported that t h e i r a b i l i t y to work was impaired. The encouraging f a c t with regard to the weaknesses which evaluative analysis revealed, was that i n almost every instance the weakness once discovered was e a s i l y remedied. - 6 3 -Rec ommendatlons The casework services were thought to he of d e f i n i t e ad-vantage to the membership and to warrant continuation. I t was thought that eventually a caseworker should be added to the s t a f f on a paid b a s i s , possibly at f i r s t , as a part-time employee. 1. Need fo r Clearer Administrative Organization. I t i s the opinion of the writer that the administration of Gordon House should continue the scrutiny of i t s administrative structure i n order that c l e a r lines of authority can be drawn. A more i n t e -grated programme w i l l then be available to the community. 2. Need f o r Continued Integration. Closer contact bet-ween board and s t a f f also would appear to be of value, and pos-s i b l y periodic presentation of p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s problems to the board would also bring board and s t a f f closer together. The board would then be better equipped to interpret to the com-munity and to other agencies. I f i t i s possible to continue with casework services, as e a r l y as possible a meeting of representatives from the var-ious agencies that work i n the West End should be arranged. Such a meeting could Invite the thinking of these agencies i n regard to the future of casework services i n Gordon House and e l i c i t t h e i r cooperation and i n t e r e s t . Socio-dramatic present-ation of one or two situations i n which caseworker and group-worker work as a team might make the s i t u a t i o n more v i v i d f o r such a group. - 64 -3. Need f o r C a r e f u l l y Defined Roles and Trained Work- ers , The roles of caseworker and groupworker should he contin-u a l l y examined so that the part each plays i n cooperative diag-nosis and cooperative treatment are understood. In t h i s way each service w i l l he of maximum assistance to the other, and of great-est advantage to the c l i e n t . The supervisory committee can be the instrument of control f o r the administration In the operation of j o i n t services. This group should define the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of both caseworkers and groupworkers i n regard to s p e c i f i c cases. More work should be done by this committee s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the matter of intake and, i t would seem advisable, that whenever pos-s i b l e a trained s o c i a l worker should be on intake to make the i n i -t i a l contact with new members. I f this could be arranged, early diagnosis might be possible, and i n many instances an immediate r e f e r r a l to the counselling service. Either caseworker or group-worker are q u a l i f i e d to meet t h i s task. I f trained workers are not a v a i l a b l e , c a r e f u l l y selected and b r i e f e d volunteers should be used, 4. Need f o r More Adequate F a c i l i t i e s . I t i s desirable that more adequate f a c i l i t i e s be provided f o r the casework s t a f f . This would include an o f f i c e i n which they could interview, a sep-arate f i l i n g cabinet f o r c o n f i d e n t i a l records, and a playroom with necessary furnishings f o r play interviewing. The experiment recorded here i s merely the beginning f o r a kind of cooperation which could strengthen the t i e s between - 65 -ra p i d l y diverging s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s of the same profession. With the same ca r e f u l and conscientious administrative leadership, this kind of cooperative service can be the medium through which a better and healthier community can be b u i l t . A P P E N D I X 66 -APPENDIX A A MEMBERSHIP SURVEY A random sample of 250 membership cards were taken from the f i l e s of Junior House and examined to determine what could be learned s t a t i s t i c a l l y of the membership. These members were a l l under eighteen years of age. I t was found that of the 250, there were 155 l i v i n g i n boarding houses, 10 l i v e d i n duplexes, 50 l i v -ed i n apartments, and 29 l i v e d i n single family homes, the remain-ing 6 l i v e d i n boathouses, shacks, cabins or the back of stores. Of the 250, there were 45 who came from homes where there was only one parent present, usually the mother. In most instances the mother was employed. This figure was somewhat enlarged by the fact that some of the members were s i b l i n g s . The o r i g i n a l sample of 250 cases was broken down into two groups; those under f i f t e e n years of age, and those between f i f t e e n and eighteen years of age. I t was noticed that there were a preponderance of broken homes i n the second group. Closer ex-amination revealed that i n the 52 cases representing the group between f i f t e e n and eighteen years of age there were 35 from homes where only one parent was present. This meant that 10% of the children i n this group came from broken homes. I t was con-cluded that many of the younger children, who came from homes where both parents were present, were from families which would eventually break down. 67 -APPENDIX B REFERRAL FORM FOR GORDON HOUSE COUNSELLING SERVICE FILE # Date Opened Name. Sex. . Address Phone. Date of B i r t h .Living With. . . . Father Mother Date of B i r t h Place of B i r t h Address Occupation. • . Siblings . . . . . . . Address S o c i a l Service Index Registration Agency Active • • • • • « • • • • • • • • « School. . . . . . . . . . .Teacher. . .Grade. . • . Program attended Referred by Date . • • • Reason f o r R e f e r r a l : - 68 -APPENDIX C B I B L I O f l R A P H Y Books 1. Atwater, Pierce, Problems of Administration In S o c i a l Work, Minneapolis, Minnesota: The University of Minnesota Press, 1940. 2. Baldwin, Joseph S. , "Working Relationships Between Board and S t a f f " . Proceedings of the National Conference  of S o c i a l Work. 3. Barnard, Chester L., The Functions of the Executive, Cam-bridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1938. 4. Beaver, Helen D., Administration In the Y.W.C.A. - Pr i n c i p l e s and Procedures. New York: The Woman's Press, 1944. 5. Blumenthal, Louis H., Administration of Group Work, New York: Association Press, 1948. 6. Cohn, Martin, and Elizabeth Wallace, Some Problems of Adminis-t r a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work. Toronto! University of Toronto Press, 1944. 7. Dimock, Marshall E., The Executive In Action. New York: Har-per and Brother, 1945. 8. Hanchette, Helen, et a l , Some Dynamics of S o c i a l Agenoy Ad-ministration. New York: Family Service Association of America, 1946. 9. Johnson, A r i l e n , "The Administrative Process i n S o c i a l Work." Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work. 10. Johnson, Forrest Hayden and Robert W. Boise, J r . , Job Evalua-t i o n , New York, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1946. 11, Karpf, M. J . , Jewish Community Organization i n the United States: an Outline of Types of Organizations, A c t i v i - t i e s , and Problems, Block, New York, 1948. - 69 -(II) I Books (Continued) 12. King, Clarence, S o c i a l Agency Boards and How to Make Them E f f e c t i v e . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1938. 13. Landis, James M., The Administrative Process. New Haven, Connecticutt: Yale University Press, 1938. 14. Metcalf, Henry L., and L. Urwick, Dynamic Administration: The Collected Papers of Mary Parker F o l l e t t . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1942. 15. Mooney, James D., and A. C. Reiley, The Pr i n c i p l e s of Organization. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1939. 16. Mosher, William E., and Donald J. Klngsley, Public Per-sonnel Administration. Harper and Brothers, 1936. 17. Reynolds, Bertha C., Learning and Teaching In the Practice of S o c i a l Work. New York: Parrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1942. 18. Robinson, V i r g i n i a P., "The Administrative Function i n So c i a l Work", Four Papers on Professional Function. New York: American Association of S o c i a l Workers, 1937. 19. Stevenson, Marietta, Public Welfare Administration. New York: The Macmi11an Company, 1938. 352 pp. 20. Street, Elwood, The Public Welfare Administrator. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1940 422 pp. 21. Street, Elwood, A Handbook f o r S o c i a l Agency Administration. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1947. ~ 22. Swift, Arthur L., Make Your Agency More E f f e c t i v e . New York: Association Press, 1941, 322 pp. 23. Tead, Ordway, Democratic Administration. New York: Association Press, 1945. 24. Trecker, Harleigh B., Group Process In Administration. New York: The Woman's Press, 1946. 127 pp. 25. Urice, Jay A., Working Together: Democratic Prodedures i n YMCA Administration. New York: Association Press, 1940. 30 pp 26. Urwick, L., The Elements of Administration. New York: Harper and Brothers, n.d. 132 pp. - 70 -(III) I Books (Continued) 27. White, Leonard D., Introduction to the Study of Public Administration. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1939. 611 pp. 28. White, R. Clyde, Administration of Public Welfare. New York: American Book Company, 1940. 527 pp. II Pamphlets 1. Bowers, Swithrun, The Nature and D e f i n i t i o n of S o c i a l Casework, Journal of S o c i a l Casework, December, 1949, Family Services Association of America, New York. 2. Davis, Evelyn, Board and S t a f f Relationship, Council of So c i a l Agencies, Philadelphia, February, 1938. 3. Federal Security Agency, Supervision as an Administrative Process Contributing to Staff Development. Washington D. C. 1940. 4. Group Work - Case Work Cooperation, A Symposium, The Ameri-can Association of Group Workers, New York, Associa-tion Press, 1946. 5. Glaser, Comstock, Administrative Procedure: A P r a c t i c a l Handbook f o r the Administrative Analyst, Washington: American Council on Public A f f a i r s , 1941. 6. Paradise, V i o l a , Toward Public Understanding of Casework: New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1948. I l l Reports 1. Norrie, L.E. Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of Greater Vancouver, Community Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, 1945. 2. Self Analysis Survey of Minneapolis Settlement Houses, Twin C i t y Federation of Settlements., 1934. 3. West End Survey, Group Work D i v i s i o n , Vancouver Council of S o c i a l Agencies, May, 1941. - 71 -(IV) IV Periodicals 1. Peely, J. K., Administration Today, Journal of American P o l i t i c a l Science Review, Dec. 1951. 50 - 54. 2. Waldo, D., Development of Theory of Democratic Administra-t i o n , Journal of American P o l i t i c a l Science Review, March, 1952. 12 - 16. 

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