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A survey of the graduates of the School of Social Work of the University of British Columbia Henry, Jack Alexander 1952

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A SURVEY OP THE GRADUATES OF THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK OF THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA by JACK ALEXANDER HENRY GLEN MILLER HOWIE ISABEL LOUISE RUTTER Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the Sehool of Social. Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1952 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia i l TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Training f o r Social Work Pag Comparative beginnings; B r i t a i n , United States and Can-ada. Systems of s o c i a l work education throughout the world. U.B.C, School of Social Work, beginnings and present status. Purpose of the present study. .......... 1 Chapter 2. Supply and Demand Social workers' functions; pre-war and post-war "output" i n B r i t a i n , United States and Canada. B,C.«e demand fo r q u a l i f i e d personnel. New Settings, The U.B.C. School of Social Work enrollment 1929-1952. Some, d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered. F i e l d placements. 2< Chapter 3« Choosing a Profession Backgrounds of students who have studied at the U.B.C. School of Social Work — residence, sex, age, previous occupation,' s o c i a l work experience f i r s t choice of vo-cation, and methods of financing professional education. Comparison of pre-war and post-war t r a i n i n g , Numbers of students who attend the School f o r one year only. Losses to the profession. .............................. 3 Chapter 4 . The F i e l d of Employment Proportion of men and women — age, marital status, num-ber of children. Settings i n which employed. Profes-sional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s a l a r i e s of workers, supervisors and administrators. Comparison with C.A.S.W. Census of 1950. Predictions for the future. ................................... •................ 5 Chapter 5 . Those Who Retire Numbers, age, sex, degrees or diplomas held of married women and "others". Residence, tra i n i n g , financing and community a c t i v i t i e s . Forecast for the future. ........ 8 Chapter 6. Implications for Professional Development Recapitulation, curriculum suggestions, evaluation of t r a i n i n g by graduates according to diploma or degree held. Some recommendations. .., ................. 9 Appendices: A. Basic Tables f o r Charts i n the Text, B. Questionnaire for Survey Analysis. C. Agencies Represented i n the Survey. D. Bibliography. i i i TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables " Page Table 1. Full-time enrollment i n Canadian and American Schools of So c i a l Work, 19^5-1952. . 12 Table 2. Post-graduate enrollment In Canadian Schools of S o c i a i Work, 1921-194S. . . . 23 Table 3. Enrollment of fu l l - t i m e students i n regular courses, as of Nov. 1, 19^5-1950, by Schools (Canadian). ................................... 25 Table K Total enrollment f o r University of B r i t i s h Columbia Social Work Training, 1930-1952. a. Diploma and related courses. b. Degree courses. 30 Table 5. Respondents to f i r s t questionnaire only, by geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n and sex. .............. 36 Table 6. No r e p l i e s received to either questionnaire, by geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n and sex. .............. 37 Table 7. Residence of 24-5 graduates responding to both questionnaires by geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n and sex. 33 Table g. Employment Status of l 6 l P r a c t i c i n g S o c i a l Work Graduates of the U.B.C. School of Social Work... 59 Table 9., M a r i t a l status of 161 employed So c i a l Work graduates at the U.B.C. School of Social Work.,. 62 Table 10. Number of children (under 20 years of age) i n fam i l i e s of married.social work graduates, .... 63 Table 11. Evaluation of Supervision by 126 workers accord-ing to sex. ......................... ....<>...... 69 Table 12. -Responsibility of 1*1- men and 26 women supervis-ors. 71 Table 13. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of 15 men and 60 women admin-i s t r a t o r s . 7^ Table 14. Monthly salary range of l 6 l S o c i a l Work graduates of U.B.C. School of Social Work. ............... 77 Table 15. -Setting i n which 300 B.C. Social Workers were employed In 1950 according to diploma, B.S.W., and M.S.W. 7& i v TABLES AND CHARTS IH THE TEXT (C0NT!D.) (a) Tables (ctd.) " Page Table 1.6. Average number of years i n Sooial Work, practice before r e t i r i n g . .................... 82 Table 17« Age Range and degree of Homemakers and Others. 82 Table 1 8 . Number of children of Homemakers and Others... 83 Table 19» Previous occupations of a l l graduates, a l l re-t i r e d graduates and homemakers i n the study..,. 85 Table 2 0 . S o c i a l Work, experience p r i o r to t r a i n i n g of a l l graduates, a l l r e t i r e d graduates and home** makers. .. ....*...,...•.•............... ...... 86 Table 2 1 . Methods of Financing Training of Homemakers and Others, according to degree held. ....... 21 Table 2 2 . A. Residence of homemakers before and af t e r t r a i n i n g . ............................... ,90 B, Residence of "others" who have r e t i r e d , before and af t e r t r a i n i n g . ............... 90 Table 23. Bursaries and Scholarships held by sample of graduates of 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 5 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -101 Table 24-. Men and women graduates, members of C.A.S.W. according to p o s i t i o n and degree ( 1 0 4 ) . . . . . . . 108 (b) Charts Figure 1 . Residence p r i o r to tr a i n i n g of University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Social Work G-rad-uates. ......................* • • • • •••• -40 Figure 2 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of survey t o t a l (245) by sex and period of t r a i n i n g . 44 Figure 3 . Social Work Experiences p r i o r to Training. .. .46 Figure 4 . P r i o r occupations and f i r s t choice of occupa-tions of survey t o t a l . «.................*••. -48 Figure 5 . -Methods of Financing S o c i a l Work Training, post-war and pre-war periods. 52 Figure 6 . Sex-age d i s t r i b u t i o n of l 6 l p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers of the U.B.C. School of So c i a l Work... 6 l Figure 7 . Type of program by sex and setting, l 6 l prac-i-t i c i n g s o c i a l workers. .65 V ABSTRACT Professional i n s t r u c t i o n for s o c i a l work has been offered at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r over twenty-seven years, s t a r t i n g with a diploma course, and extending (since 19%?) to a two-year post-graduate course f o r the Master of Social Work degree. During t h i s period over 700 students have taken courses of one kind 03? another. For the f i r s t time a survey has been made of a l l graduates known to the School of S o c i a l Work, obtaining by ques-tionnaire a substantial body of vocational, education and personal information. The r e s u l t s of the enquiry are presented against the back-ground of the development of s o c i a l work education i n Great B r i t a i n , the United States and Canada from i t s d i f f e r e n t begin-nings i n these countries; but special endeavour i s made to Indi-cate the dimensions and changing structure of the demand and supply s i t u a t i o n for q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. So many differences between the "pre-war period", approxi-mately 192S-191r-0, and the most recent "post-war period" are re-vealed by the survey, that t h i s d i v i s i o n i s continued throughout the analysis. Indications are that the t r a i n i n g receivedvat the School has p a r t i c u l a r l y q u a l i f i e d people to f i l l p o s i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and that the bulk of employment found by graduates has been i n B.C. Agencies; but continuous quotas of students have come from outside the province, and some graduates have gone to parts elsewhere. While the v a r i e t y of openings has increased very con-siderably, i t has been seen that men are entering the f i e l d i n lar g e r proportions. The majority of these men, who are married and have fami l i e s , tend to occupy the administrative roles, f o r which higher, salaries are paid. The women, the majority of whom are single and i n a younger age group, seem to be i n the majority i n supervisory positions. Although Public Welfare settings appear to be the most a t t r a c t i v e to s o c i a l work graduates, Corrections would seem to be the most popular setting for the men graduates, with Chi}.d and Family Welfare f i e l d s f o r the women graduates. I t has been discovered that men receive higher s a l a r i e s than do the women graduates i n t h i s survey. -Suggestions are made with-reference to the length of formal t r a i n i n g required at the School of Social Work, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, before a graduate from the School may be considered q u a l i f i e d to practice s o c i a l work i n any area. v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We wish to express our appreciation to Dr., Leonard Mar eh for h i s valuable a s s i s t -ance i n administering and coordinating t h i s f i r s t group study accomplished at the School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Thanks i s also given to the graduates of the School of Social Work, whose contributions and cooperation have made this survey possible. A SURVEY OF THE GRADUATES OF THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER 1. TRAINING- FOR SOCIAL WORK Education for s o c i a l work, i n common with education f o r other professions, grew out of the needs and the e f f o r t s of those already p r a c t i c i n g the profession i n the f i e l d . I t re t a i n s i t s v a l i d i t y by continuing to remain close to p r a c t i c e . Any attempt to evaluate major developments i n s o c i a l work edu*-catlon should therefore take into consideration the r e l a t i o n s h i p of education to developments i n the f i e l d of p r a c t i c e . Neither education nor practice can be seen with any degree of v a l i d i t y without reference one to the other. The present study i s not intended to be a detailed h i s t o r y of s o c i a l work education. I t s main purpose i s to ex-amine the "output" of pro f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia; but i t i s he l p f u l to present t h i s against the background of the general development of educational provisions f o r s o c i a l work personnel. Training f o r Social Work i n Great B r i t a i n Professional t r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l work i n Great B r i t a i n dates from the development of several a c t i v i t i e s , including the work of Octavla H i l l , who was one of the pioneers i n housing management work i n the logo's. At t h i s time, too, the Charity Organization Society ( s t i l l important today i n i t s transformed existence as the Family Welfare Association) was founded. The Charity Organization Society was instrumental i n i n i t i a t i n g some of the spe c i a l i z e d branches of s o c i a l work and of t r a i n i n g workers by giving them p r a c t i c a l work In t h e i r d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . By 18^5 the t r a i n i n g of volunteer workers had become a s p e c i f i c part of the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s 1 function. Four years l a t e r , a series of lectures were begun i n London under the sponsorship of the Charity Organization Society and the National Union of Women Workers. This can be considered the f i r s t organized attempt to t r a i n s o c i a l workers generally f o r the f i e l d , placing an emphasis on teaching t h e o r e t i c a l methods combined with p r a c t i c a l work i n agencies. In 1903 the f i r e t formal courses for t r a i n i n g were org-anized i n an independent School of Sociology. Emphasis was placed upon the importance of applying theory to p r a c t i c a l work. The School of Sociology continued to develop i t s program along these l i n e s u n t i l 1912, giving a basic general t r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l work. Af t e r 1912, when the School of Sociology was amalgamated with the London School of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, the t r a i n i n g given was apparently not meeting the required needs of the p r a c t i t i o n e r . By 1915 the Charity Organization Society, cooperating with other agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s , had organized a formal twelve-month t r a i n i n g course, upon the completion of which a c e r t i f i c a t e was granted. From these early beginnings and developments, t r a i n i n g has gathered pace and taken many forms. In B r i t a i n today the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i s s t i l l undertaken J o i n t l y by the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the professional organizations. As many as 23 university in*, s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r basic courses i n s o c i a l sciences which lead to a degree, a c e r t i f i c a t e or a diploma. Training f o r s o c i a l work consists of t h i s diploma or c e r t i f i c a t e course. The course i s usually of two years 1 duration f o r non*graduates, and one year f o r graduates. It i s followed by a short period (usu*. a l l y between three and twelve months) of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r a p a r t i c u l a r service i n the employment f i e l d . Certain posts are open to holders of degrees and others to c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma holders i n s o c i a l studies without further t r a i n i n g . Specialized t r a i n i n g i s usually given i n the agency i n which the worker i s employed following the completion of the course. The more intensive t r a i n i n g f o r the various s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s of s o c i a l service i s usually organized by the respective professional s o c i a l work agencies, with the cooperation of the u n i v e r s i t i e s . University s o c i a l science courses include lectures and t u t o r i a l classes, i n s t r u c t i o n a l v i s i t s and p r a c t i c a l experience with outside agencies under supervision. Specialized post-univer-s i t y t r a i n i n g i s provided by the Insti t u t e of Almoners; and t r a i n -ing courses, some of which are designed f o r people who have previously taken social science courses, are provided by various organizations, such as the Society of House Managers. There are p o s t - c e r t i f i c a t e university courses f o r p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work, for non-residential c h i l d care work, and university courses i n youth leadership. There are also courses i n special branches of s o c i a l work outside the u n i v e r s i t i e s , which are run by youth organizations and r e l i g i o u s bodies. Miss E i l e e n L. Younghusband, In her report on the Employment and Training of Social Workers f o r Great B r i t a i n , re-views very comprehensively the t r a i n i n g program i n that country. At many points i n the report, heavy emphasis i s placed upon the shortage of s o c i a l workers and i n the abundance of opportunity i n fresh careers. The shortage continues as the number of place-ments i n Social Science Departments and p r a c t i c a l training agencies i s not s u f f i c i e n t to meet the growing demands. She states that the t r a i n i n g courses i n the Departments are of equal q u a l i t y , but there Is much to be desired i n the f i e l d work and p r a c t i c a l aspects of the cour.ses. Miss Younghusband recommends an experi-mental undertaking of broad dimensions to improve the t r a i n i n g to meet the demands of l o c a l governments and the Colonial Service, placing emphasis on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n some branch of case work or group work, accompanied by the cooperation of professional organ-i z a t i o n s i n order to have courses that would give appropriate qual-i f i c a t i o n s upon graduation, thus a l l e v i a t i n g f urther i n - t r a i n i n g . S o c i a l Work t r a i n i n g i n B r i t a i n today s t i l l maintains i t s emphasis on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as compared to the generic approach that has been taken by educators i n the United States and Canada.^ Training f o r Social Work i n the United States In the United States, as i n England, early s o c i a l work Hlany of the facte on Training f o r Social Work i n Great B r i t a i n were obtained from an unpublished manuscript by Marjorle J. Smith, Director, School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. - . 5 -was i d e n t i f i e d with philanthropic and s o c i a l reform movements of the 19th century. The early settlement movement with i t s emphasis on s o c i a l action, community organization and work with neighbourhood groups has affected .social work education and practice i n the United States to a l e s s e r degree than has the Gharity Organization Society movement that grew up i n the ex-panding American i n d u s t r i a l centres about the same time. The l a t t e r , which i n the beginning concerned i t s e l f with the devel-opment and coordination of community services, began to place more emphasis upon i n d i v i d u a l services to c l i e n t s . Community organization took on a secondary function. By the close of the 19th century, s o c i a l workers were coming to r e a l i z e that education was necessary to equip s o c i a l workers to meet the needs of the people whom they were v i s i t i n g . The complexity of family and s o c i a l problems were growing. Such people with problems required the services of experts to a s s i s t them i n t h e i r dilemma. These conditions had grown up quickly i n Eastern United States c i t i e s as the aftermath of the i n d u s t r i a l expansion that was taking place i n America as well as i n B r i t a i n , and only a short time l a t e r . The c i t i e s on the ^astern Seaboard were the f i r s t to experience t h i s i n d u s t r i a l growth, and the accompanying deterioration i n community and family l i f e , and therefore i t i s natural that early s o c i a l work had i t s root6 i n the Eastern States, where the i n d u s t r i a l areas were most prevalent. At f i r s t , preparation f o r s o c i a l work was i n the form of apprenticeship; then, i n 1^93. education f o r s o c i a l work was f i r s t given formal consideration. At the same time that s o c i a l work education was being experimented with i n B r i t a i n , Anna L. Dawes of P i t t s f i e l d , Massachusetts, made the suggestion at the International Congress of Charities, Corrections and Philanthropy, that schools for s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g be estab-l i s h e d . A year before, the only other suggestion for s o c i a l work education had come from Zllpha Smith, at that time the General Secretary of the Boston Associated C h a r i t i e s . In 12>92, i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form, she spoke to the National Conference of Charities and Corrections on the "Education of the Friendly V i s i t o r . " These pioneers were interested i n assuring that future vacancies would be f i l l e d with competent and trained persons. At the same time, new knowledge was also becoming available from developments i n the f i e l d s of sociology, psychology, medi-cine, psychiatry and education. As t h i s information became a v a i l -able to the s o c i a l worker, there was Immediate i n t e r e s t i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of making more s c i e n t i f i c the methods of working with people. In America, as i n B r i t a i n , s o c i a l work lectures were f i r s t given i n when the Committee on Philanthropic Education of the New York Charity Organization opened a s i x -week summer course to serve as a refresher f o r p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers. Such a course continued u n t i l 1903, at which time the f i r s t school of s o c i a l work i n the United States was estab-l i s h e d . During the f i r s t quarter of the century, t r a i n i n g schools f o r s o c i a l work within the United States multiplied, ~ most of them being p r i v a t e l y endowed. These were separate schools, organized apart from the u n i v e r s i t i e s , although a few grew up as part of s o c i a l science departments i n the univer-s i t i e s . Many of the students who were admitted to the p r i v a t e schools were college graduates; some were individuals who, a l -though they lacked a bachelor of arts degree, seemed to have an aptitude for working with people. The schools within the u n i v e r s i t i e s offered undergraduate t r a i n i n g courses i n the t h i r d and fourth years of the l i b e r a l arts curriculum. Gradu-ates from such courses received a bachelor*s degree i n applied sociology or s i m i l a r s o c i a l science courses. By 1919 It. became apparent that some general stand-ards f o r s o c i a l work education were necessary on t h i s continent. As a r e s u l t , the. Association of the Training Schools of Pro-f e s s i o n a l Social Work was formed. This l a t e r became the. Amer-ican Association of Schools of. Social Work (192^)* This organ-i z a t i o n remained the accrediting body for the graduate schools i n the United States and i n Canada u n t i l June 30%ht 195 2, fit which time i t merged with many other s o c i a l work organizations i n t o the new Council on Social Work Education, deleting the term "national" i n deference to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l aspects of i t s f u n c t i o n . 1 In 1932 the American Association of Schools of S o c i a l Work established a minimum curriculum for the f i r s t year of The C*S.W«E., at f i r s t to be c a l l e d the National Council of Social Work Education, but i n deference to the Canadian membership, the term "national", was dropped. professional t r a i n i n g consisting of four groups of subjects. I t was necessary for a l l member schools to adopt t h i s basic curriculum i n order to Insure a common foundation of knowl-edge and s k i l l s i n the f i r s t year of the two-year professional curriculum. Six years l a t e r , i n the Association set up a further requirement, that a l l member schools must operate on a graduate basis. This means that at l e a s t ninety per cent of the students must have the bachelor 1^ degree as one pre-r e q u i s i t e f o r admission. In 1 9 4 4 the Association set a new standard i n the curriculum, which stipulated the w e l l known "basic eight" areas of study as. required of a l l properly q u a l i f i e d students. These eight f i e l d s comprise; public welfare, s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work, community organization, s o c i a l research ( s t a t i s t i c s , research methods), medical Information, p s y c h i a t r i c information (human behaviour and psychopathology), and s o c i a l administration. The establishment of t h i s curriculum resulted i n a new trend i n the education of s o c i a l workers. I t became obvious that a l l eight areas of study could not be included i n • j the f i r s t year of professional t r a i n i n g . It Is therefore nec-essary to spread the course over two years, giving a general* i z e d t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l work course i n the f i r s t year, to be followed i n the second year by more intensive work i n one or more areas of special i n t e r e s t to the student; Training for Social Work i n Canada In Canada, as i n the United States and B r i t a i n , s o c i a l work was i n s t i t u t e d as a result of representation brought to - 9 -the u n i v e r s i t i e s by the s o c i a l workers i n the f i e l d . The need f o r s o c i a l workers i n Canada did not ari s e as early as i t did i n the United States and B r i t a i n f o r several reasons: F i r s t l y , Canada d i d not experience the rapid developments i n I n d u s t r i a l expansion that so affected the B r i t i s h and American scene* Canada remained an a g r i c u l t u r a l country for a much longer period. This was, e s p e c i a l l y true of Quebec, which s t i l l has the t r a d i t i o n a l system of church p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n caring f o r i t s people i n need. Ontario became the f i r s t province where s o c i a l workers were e s s e n t i a l i n programs of welfare, when i n d u s t r i a l expansion began to have i t s e f f e c t upon the populace of the province. In the second place, Canada has not had the resources or has not used any considerable amounts of money , on s o c i a l welfare programs u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y recent times. P r o v i n c i a l governments have had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l welfare, i n t h e i r provinces. Programs developed slowly i n each province as the province took on a more mature status. Today s o c i a l welfare programs i n each province d i f f e r according to the needs of the province, or to the extent to which each i n d i v i d u a l government can finance and recognize the existing needs. A l l Canadian schools of s o c i a l work but one began as part of a university. The school i n Toronto, Canada's f i r s t School of Social Work, came into being i n 1913 as a r e s u l t of pressure which was brought to bear upon the Board of Governors of the University of Toronto by the Social Work Club and a women?s study club. Private funds were donated to finance the estab-lishment of this new school. - 1 0 -In Montreal, the second Canadian school was established as a res u l t of interest which had been stimulated by a series of lectures i n s o c i a l work which had been arranged by the Charity Organization Society of that c i t y before the f i r s t World War. The Board of Governors of McGill f i n a l l y took action, and i n 1919 the Department of Social Work at M c ^ i l l was opened. During the depression years the Montreal school l o s t i t s univ e r s i t y connection, but was c a r r i e d on p r i v a t e l y with, the help of many well-wishers, and was returned to the status of f u l l y constituted school i n 19J0. Eleven years passed be-fore, any new t r a i n i n g units were opened i n Canada. Then, i n 1922, the course i n S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia was established. It was another ten years before the f i r s t French-speaking School of S o c i a l Work came into being i n Montreal at the Universite de Montreal. This was followed soon afterwards by the establishment of the Maritime School of Social Work i n 194-1. By 1943 the beginnings of two addi-t i o n a l schools materialized, one at Laval University In Quebec City, and the other at the University of Manitoba. Thus, i n a period of t h i r t y years, Canadian schools have grown up i n six provinces. In spite of the output of these schools, i t was not long before the demand f o r q u a l i f i e d personnel i n s o c i a l work f a r exceeded the supply. Consequent-l y at the Canadian Conference on Social Work held i n Winnipeg i n May, 1944, the National Committee of Canadian Schools of S o c i a l Work came into being. In the course of the year the new organization met In Toronto to discuss concrete means whereby the shortage of trained workers oould be r e c t i f i e d . Plans were l a i d at subsequent meetings and action was taken to e n l i s t Dominion Government aid i n providing assistance f o r the schools. As a r e s u l t of the Committee's e f f o r t s , the f i r s t of such assistance was made available to the extent of |100,000.00 f o r the year 1946-4-7, when there was an enrollment of 401 f u l l - t i m e students. In 1947*-48i and 1948-49 requests were r e -viewed, and #50,000.00 were received each year. During these three years approximately h a l f the t o t a l money received was set aside f o r scholarships and bursaries to a s s i s t an eveiv- . increasing number of students to finance th e i r professional edu-cation. Of inte r e s t a l 6 0 i s the story of the increasing number of students. As has been pointed out, i n 1924 there were two struggling university departments of s o c i a l work; and f i f t e e n years l a t e r , i n 1939* there were s t i l l only three established t r a i n i n g courses, with a fourth Just beginning at the University of Montreal. In that year, Just at the beginning of the war, the t o t a l enrollment i n a l l schools amounted to about 100 f u l l - t i m e students. By 1945-46 there were seven schools with a t o t a l enrollment of 279 f u l l - t i m e students. In 1946-47, the f i r s t year of the grant from the Department of National Health and Welfare, the t o t a l enrollment was i n -creased to 401 f u l l - t i m e students, and i n 1950-51 the t o t a l enrollment rose again to the substantial t o t a l of 5*7 f u l l -time students. Other developments have been i n proportion. Teaching and supervisory s t a f f s were strengthened and enlarged, the number of welfare agencies drawn on to provide f i e l d place-- 12 -Table 1* Full-time Enrollment In Canadian  and American Schools of Social Work (1345 - mZL Number of Stadent a  Toronto - British"" 1 Columbia 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 279 401 472- - 461 _ ^ l 4 4 -1 0 5 ^ . 1 0 5 -139-135--173 -135 1 2 2 . 119 117 1945-6 1946-7 1947-g 1948-9 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 Toronto . ~ Canada - 13 -ment experience was increased; the range of work into which graduates moved steadily expanded. Soc i a l work expansion, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the post-war years, has been an i n t e r n a t i o n a l phenomenon. Countries i n every part of the world have become interested i n the inaug-uration and the expansion of s o c i a l welfare programs to a l -l e v i a t e d i s t r e s s , to administer new l e g i s l a t i o n to supplement health and mental hygiene programs and other measures designed to raise standards of l i v i n g and bring a greater measure of well-being to national populations. Social welfare enactments have been the expression of t h i s desire, but many of the pro-grams planned i n many countries have been handicapped by the acute shortage of trained personnel. The Social Commission, the Economic and Social Council, and the Social A f f a i r s Committee of the General, Assembly of the United Nations have a l l expressed t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the t r a i n i n g of professional s o c i a l workers to carry out t h e i r various programs of r e l i e f and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of war-devastated countries. The work begun by UNRRA (United Nations R e l i e f , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Administration), .and conducted i n scores of countries a f t e r the war, (among other departments by a wel-fare d i v i s i o n staffed by s o c i a l workers who were recruited from many countries) set the pattern f o r several subsequent developments. The Department of Social A f f a i r s i n the United Nations Secretariat has emphasized welfare a c t i v i t i e s i n i t s program of research and documentation, and has recently pro-duced a comprehensive study on s o c i a l work education i n a l l ~ 14 -parts of the world. Indicative of the present world status of s o c i a l work, the United Nations Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s received reports from 33 countries. Forty d i f f e r e n t countries r e p l i e d to enquiries concerning the administration and p o l i c i e s ©f t h e i r programs of s t u d i e s . 1 Systems of S o c i a l Work Education "Since the beginnings of t r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l work there have been four d i f f e r e n t types of t r a i n i n g i n 367 eduea-2 t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 45 d i f f e r e n t countries** 1) Post-graduate t r a i n i n g i n u n i v e r s i t i e s ; 2) independent schools; 3) graduate schools i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , and 4) general secondary education. In a l l these, i t has been necessary to take into account the s o c i a l development and the educational t r a d i t i o n s of the country concerned. The post-graduate courses f o r which a bachelor of arts degree i s a pr e r e q u i s i t e , number 51, eight of which are i n Canada, The undergraduate courses combine u n i v e r s i t y preparation i n s o c i a l sciences with the professional t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work. The independent schools, which are under government, r e l i g i o u s , secular or p o l i t i c a l "'"Training f o r S o c i a l Work: An International Survey, S o c i a l Commission Documents E/CN,5/196 and E/CN197* add, 2 , and add. 3» Present methods of s o c i a l work education are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning the future actions that w i l l be taken by p o l i c y making bodies with respeet to i n t e r -national aspects of s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . 2 K e n d a l l , Katherine, S o c i a l Work Education i n Review S o c i a l Science Review, V o l . 24, No. 3 , Sept. 1950 **. 15 «* auspices "combine a wide range of humanistic and soelal science subjects with vocational social work^ courses, not attached to the universities," The general secondary education is in a technical training centre, for relatively young students, offering instruction in social, health and legal aspects along with general second-arey education. There is general agreement among the educational centres for social work in these 45 countries regarding basic objectives and general knowledge for the training of profession-al persons. The length of service varies, but two or three years* course is the most accepted. The length of time Is de-pendent upon the quality and the Intensity of the courses, together with the training and experience prior to entering any of the schools. The admission requirements to the various schools In the various countries are diverse, but the majority of the schools place a high priority on personal suitability. They stress the need for warmth and sensitivity In a student, with a combination of sense and sensibility. The Scandinavian countries require a period of work experience prior to admis-sion, which is s t i l l favoured In some circles, and which, in effect, is s t i l l followed by many Canadian and American social workers today. •Kendall, Katherlne: Social Work Edueatlon in Review Social Science Review, Vol, 24, No, 3* Sppt, 1950, « 16 -Social Work at the Wnlversity o f British Columbia In Canada, as already indicated, each school of social work has been founded in order to meet the particular needs of the community which i t serves. This was true o f the British Columbia scene. Before 1927, children's needs had been met through the provision of institutional care. There was no home program for the care o f children; more than that, there was no service in the City of Vancouver through which preventive work could be carried out to enable those children to remain in their own homes. The Children's Aid Society, staffed by a combination of volunteers and untrained social workers, was practically the only agent bearing the burden of neglected children. The staff were concerned about the situation, and, as a result, when the Children's Aid Society "shelter* was condemned in 1925, they had sufficient foresight to lay plans for the future to insure more adequate services for the children. They sought the advice of Miss Charlotte Whltton, then Secretary of the Canadian Welfare Council, who was in Vancouver at the time. She advised that institutional care for children was on its way out, and proposed that the Society launch out into a program of foster home care. As a result of community pressures, a survey was made by a committee of the Children's Aid Society. In 1927 the report of the committee was presented. Miss Whltton, who compiled the report, made three main recommendations. In the fi r s t place It was suggested that the Children*^ Aid Society establish a program of foster home care, rather than proceed with the building of a new institution. Secondly, she recom-- 1 7 -mended the establishment of a Family Service; and l a s t l y , Mls3 Whitton emphasized the importance of trained s o c i a l workers to carry out these programs. The Society acted on a l l of these recommendations, and as a r e s u l t , the same year, Miss Laura Holland was brought out from Toronto to head up the Children«s Aid Society, which was then engaged i n i t s new program of f o s t e r home care. She immediately stressed the need f o r trained personnel. Shortly a f t e r t h i s , Miss Z e l l a C o l l i n s and Miss Margaret Whiteman were also brought from Toronto. In the f a l l of 1 9 2 7 a Family Wel-fare Bureau was established, and Miss Mary McPhedren, also a tralaed s o c i a l worker from Toronto, became i t s d i r e c t o r . Thus, within a short time the two important s o c i a l work agencies were established: the Family Welfare Bureau, and the Children's Aid Society. The executives of the agencies and t h e i r board members a l i k e came t© r e a l i z e that a program of education f o r s o c i a l workers was needed i n Vancouver*, since the Toronto School could not be expected to meet even a small proportion of the need. Moreover, these agencies could be used f o r f i e l d work placement of student s o c i a l workers. By 1 9 2 9 a course i n s o c i a l work, at that time a small u n i t under the Department of Economics, was set up. In the f i r s t few years the number of students was small, s t a r t i n g with three, and then r i s i n g to 2 0 . Lectures were given by agency workers. Miss Z e l l a C o l l i n s , who was then manager of the Children's Aid Society, was a l l o t t e d time from that ageney to supervise the f i e l d work placements. The - 18 -courses, which dealt with the fundamentals, met the needs of the workers for practice at that time. The students received f i e l d experience i n either the Family Agency or the Children*s Agency, as the practicing social workers considered this " t r a i n -ing on the job" to be an essential ingredient in social work training. An important milestone was reached with the reorganiza-tion of the training program In 1943, when Miss Marjorie Smith, a social worker with a varied background of welfare administra-tion and teaching experience in the United States, was appointed as head of the new Social Work course. From 1929 there had been a steady increase in the School*s enrollment u n t i l i t reached a peak of 173 in the 1949-5® season. In recent years a high proportion of the students were veterans of World War II, but i t i s evident that a "normal" enrollment w i l l be much smaller than this, as one "crop" of ex-servlee students has now been almost completely harvested. Almost a quarter of a century has elapsed since the f i r s t lectures in social work were given at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, along with other courses under the auspices of the Department of Economics. Today the School of Social Work is a separate profes-sional post-graduate unit, ranking with the Toronto School as the largest i n Canada, and among the 15 largest schools on the North American continent. What may be even more surprising to some Is that today there are over 700 graduates holding diplomas, bachelors* degrees, or maters® degrees in social - 19 -work from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia so f a r . To date, the h i s t o r y of t h i s remarkable development has not been written. I t i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l be the theme of a separate study before long. The present study Is confined mainly to surveying the picture of the several hundred graduates, to which jobs they have gone, i n which f i e l d s of s o c i a l welfare they are serving, the r e l a t i o n of t h i s to the tr a i n i n g they received, and Isolated matters. Obviously there are many implications which oould be f o l -lowed up. A survey of the graduates can serve a very u s e f u l purpose of int e r p r e t i n g to both lay and professional people the way i n which the school i s attempting to meet the demands f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the f i e l d . Such a survey can be useful to the school i n review of i t s t r a i n i n g program. I t would be reasonable to ask how f a r professional s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i s accepted by the community, how f a r i t i s showing i t s e f f e c t where q u a l i f i e d workers are i n p r a c t i c e , and other questions. These are l e f t f o r the moment, u n t i l the main fa c t s are assembled. CHAPTI1 2. S U P P L Y AND DEMAND The o r i g i n a l establishment of t r a i n i n g courses f o r s o c i a l workers was the r e s u l t of demands from e x i s t i n g s o c i a l work agencies. Concern was expressed over the supply of suitable persons capable of f i l l i n g s t a f f positions which arose as new services were needed, and the vacancies that would become more common as those persons already i n the f i e l d were promoted or were moved elsewhere. These ea r l y demands f o r s o c i a l workers existed through-out the hi s t o r y of s o c i a l work, and they have become more acute today as s o c i a l work begins to take i t s place more confidently among the professions. I t Is h e l p f u l to review t h i s demand as It existed i n the pre-war period, and as i t ex i s t s at the present time, with a view to evaluating the "output" of schools of s o c i a l work. Naturally i n the present survey p a r t i c u l a r emphasis i s placed on the B r i t i s h Columbia scene, giv i n g consideration also to the school*s curriculum development and f i e l d work placements insofar as they affected the number of students that have been trained; but some background measurement f o r Can-ada and the United States generally i s also needed. The demand f o r q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers has come almost e n t i r e l y from public and private organizations, since s o e l a l a workers have not yet entered into the realm of private p r a c t i c e . "^Private practice may perhaps be said to have started to the extent that s o c i a l workers are now a standard part of the team (with doctors, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , c l i n i c a l psychologists, etc.) i n some c l i n i c s which accept the psychosomatic approach. - 21 -S o c i a l work has two main areas of p r a c t i c e : F i r s t , i t i s obligated to give technical help to i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n t h e i r struggle towards a better way of l i v i n g and who have personal, health and welfare needs. Secondly, the profession has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the development and organization of the services that f a c i l i -tate the meeting of people*s needs. There i s a demand f o r trained s o c i a l workers to give these services. Soclety*s greatest demand f o r s o c i a l workers arises when e x i s t i n g problems of the community can no longer be disregarded. There are several such areas which, i n the past and present, provide a great deal of impetus f o r the employment of persons with s o c i a l work s k i l l s . These areas seek to a l l e v i a t e the economic i n s e c u r i t y of individuals and f a m i l i e s ; to work with the s o c i a l m i s f i t s whose a c t i v i t i e s endanger the l i v e s and threaten the happiness of other members of the community} and to recognize with the public the disadvantageous p o s i t i o n of c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c groups within the community such as children, disrupted families and the dependent aged. The pre-war period of s o c i a l work was characterized by an emphasis on treatment of people with acute d i s t r e s s — the poverty-stricken, the c r i p p l e d , the abandoned c h i l d , et cetera. During the war years a large body of knowledge was gathered with reference to individuals and groups and t h e i r reactions to both t h e i r inner and external environments. The post-war period, then, has been characterized by more intensive work with individuals and groups, and so required more s k i l l e d persons to give the services. The need f o r more f u l l y trained s o c i a l workers increased as these new s k i l l s and techniques were put - 22 - . into p r a c t i c e . I t seems evident, then, that the post-war period has been characterized by the acknowledgment of both the public and the profession of the value of t r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l workers; an intensive t r a i n i n g course that w i l l enable them to make use of, and benefit from the vast quantity of new information a v a i l a b l e , In an e f f o r t to give a more complete and s c i e n t i f i c service to both Individuals and groups. This trend has placed an ever-increasing emphasis on preventive t r e a t -ment as opposed to the pre-war approach, In which the problem was usually dealt with only a f t e r I t has reached very serious proportions. The foregoing demands are present i n any society today, and as a r e s u l t of t h i s agencies have been and are being established who, i n turn, seek the services of pr o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers to meet the needs of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . The supply of s o c i a l workers does not keep up with the demands f o r t h e i r services.. Although there are no d e f i n i t e figures on the number of s o c i a l work graduates i n B r i t a i n , the number of students who q u a l i f i e d f o r s o c i a l studies courses i n 1950 In that country's 23 schools was 756, the majority of whom were women. In the United States In the same year there was an enrollment of 4336 students i n the 54 accredited schools of that country. The four accredited Canadian schools i n that year had an enrollment of 383, On a per capita basis the Canadian "output" f o r a pop-u l a t i o n of approximately 15,000,000 i s comparable to that of the United States, with a population of about 140,000,000, and better than the B r i t i s h , with t h e i r population of approximately 40,000,000, - 23 -Since the f i r s t Canadian school was established i n Toronto i n 1913* there has been an ever-increasing s o c i a l work enrollment. In the years from 1921 to 1941, the t o t a l Canadian enrollment increased from 85 to 146, or a 71 per cent increase. Table 2. Post-Qraduate Enrollment i n Canadian  Schools of S o c i a l Work, 1921-194¥ Area 1 Pre--War Years Post-War Years 1921 1926 1931 1936 1941 1946 1947 1948 Canada T. 85 72 110 127 146 277 373 37© M. 13 5 11 22 22 59 98 115 P. 72 67 99 105 124" 218 275 255 Maritime T. — 1 14 19 23 Provinces M. - — • - —• — 3 3 — P V - - - 1 11 ..: 16 23 Quebec T. 13 25 30 17 27 108 . 125 112 M. 3 1 3 4 26 33 31 P. 10 25 29 14 23 82 92 81 Ontario T. 72 47 70 85 92 66 106 94 M. 10 5 9 15 14 12 35 40 P. 62 42 61 70 78 54 71 54 Western T. _ 10 25 26 89 , 123 141 Provinces M. - on 1 4 4 18 , 27 44 P. 9 21 22 71 96 /• -• • 97 Source: Survey of Higher Education, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Education D i v i s i o n . Part 2, 1946-48. In the post-war period, 1946 to 1948, the increase was 33 per cent. These l a t e r figures do not include M.S.W. candidates as the source f o r t h i s information includes students e n r o l l e d f o r - 2 4 -the M.S.W, degree with M.A. enrollment f i g u r e s . 1 Subject to thi s adjustment, the figures give a cl e a r Indication of the ste a d i l y increasing contingent of men and women who came to take s o c i a l work courses at the Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . In 30 years the number has increased more than f i v e - f o l d . For the post-war years, from 1946 to 1952, more de-t a i l e d figures are a v a i l a b l e , showing the number of both B.S.W. and M.S.W. students i n Canada. In 1946 the t o t a l enrollment was 401 students, and there was a sharp increase i n the follow-ing years u n t i l the peak was reached In 1949> when 543 students were enrolled as f u l l - t i m e students i n a l l Canadian schools. This peak coincides with the year i n which the largest number of veteran students were i n attendance i n a l l u n i v e r s i t y courses; many had completed t h e i r undergraduate t r a i n i n g and had begun t h e i r post-graduate studies. There have been decided decreases since t h i s peak was reached with enrollment f o r 1951 dropping to 527. (Table 3.) In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the pre-war period, the great-est demands f o r s o c i a l workers came from family and children's agencies, with public welfare coming strongly into the f i e l d toward the close of the period. I t was f o r the reason of sup-pl y i n g these family and children's agencies with trained s o c i a l workers that the School was o r i g i n a l l y founded, and as new services developed, so did the School i n terms of broadening xSurvey of Higher Education - Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Education D i v i s i o n , Part 2 , 1946-48. , - 25 -Table 3. Enrollment of Full-time Students In Regular Courses, as of November IsC  1945-1950, by schools t Canadian)T School 1945-46 1946*47 1947..48 1948-49 1949-5© 1950-51 B, C. 56 80 89 127 142 143 Manitoba 22 31 35 33 35 36 Toronto 64 105 144 139 135 139 St. Patrick*s - -• - - , 17 27 McOill 49 60 56 68 75 70 Montreal 4© 58 53 40 77 48 Laval 34 46 54 49 45 44 Marltimes 14 21 23 16 17 2© Source: Adat )ted from ©rants to the Schools of S o c i a l Work, A Report, prepared by the National Committee of Canadian Schools of S o c i a l Work, November, 1950. - 26 -i t s s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s i n order to increase i t s enrollment and "output" to meet the demands. The postwar period of s o c i a l work i n B r i t i s h Columbia was characterized by a broad expansion of services. Demands now came from other sources, as well as from the family and children*s agencies and the public welfare f i e l d . There were many newly established services such as C h i l d Guidance c l i n i c s , h o s p i t a l s , probation services, neighbourhood houses and community centres and branches of the Federal Department of Health and Public Welfare. In spite of the f a c t that a body of trained personnel had been b u i l t up, and that most of t h i s development came on a voluntary basis without governmental f i n a n c i a l support, t h i s by no means met the needs of the people even i n prosperous times. The economic depression of the 193©*s proved the i n a b i l -i t y of the volunteer and private agencies to meet the needs of the masses of unemployed. Only the resources of the upper level s of government could provide the necessary services f o r the people. Thus public agencies and services developed, des-tined to meet the needs of great blocks of the population, and i n some instances, a l l people. These services are seen i n the Federal Family Allowances program, and i n some health services. Economic assistance, care of the aged, and services to c h i l d r e n have developed since the government has assumed some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r welfare programs. These services In them-selves have created a demand f o r trained workers. The Provin-c i a l Welfare Branch, which was established i n 1946, has become - 27 -the largest s o c i a l work employing agency since the war. I t s employment record i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the degree to which t h i s expansion has taken place, and the extent to which the public welfare has affected the demands f o r s o c i a l workers. Between the years 1943 and 1952, there has been an increase of 285 per eent i n trained s o c i a l work s t a f f , i . e . , persons with a u n i v e r s i t y degree or diploma i n s o c i a l work. It i s now estimated that approximately one-half of the employed group are i n t h i s service, and that approximately 50 per cent of each school graduating class are being employed by the Province. New Areas of Service Although the basic teaching philosophy of the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School has always been that a "generic" t r a i n i n g i s the essence'of good s o c i a l work, new areas i n which casework can be applied have continuously been experimented with and the d i s t i n c t i v e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of " s o c i a l group work" was started, and integrated into the curriculum i n 1945. S o c i a l group work had i t s formal beginnings at t h i s time, although group work courses and placements had been In existence since the beginning of the course i n 1928. Neighbourhood houses and Community Centres were creating a need f o r q u a l i f i e d leadership, and i n 1945 the Junior League of Vancouver made a grant to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of a group work s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the School of S o c i a l Work, and the f i r s t f u l l - f l e d g e d t r a i n i n g program of any Canadian School was established. This course was the f i r s t In Canada to be accredited by the A.A.G.W. i n the group work s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Pre-war group work lectures were given by volunteer lecturers from the f i e l d , and placements f o r students were made at Alexandra Fresh A i r Camp, Alexandra Neighbourhood House, the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. However there was s t i l l the s t i p u l a t i o n that each group worker must have a part of his t o t a l placement experience i n a family or children's agency. When Hiss £. Thomas was brought into the School In 1945* to head up the group work courses, there was an immediate expansion of placement f a c i l i t i e s and an increase In the number of students e n r o l l i n g f o r t h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The number of placements increased to eight, with some of the older ones no longer being used. The number of group work candidates remains smaller than those enrolled f o r casework. This i s understandable i n view of the f a r greater opportunities f o r employment i n the casework f i e l d . Considering that group work a c t u a l l y had i t s beginnings i n the B r i t i s h Columbia School only i n 1945* I t i s noteworthy that eight leisure-time agencies i n Vancouver have s o c i a l group workers as t h e i r executive d i r e c t o r s . The leisure-time agencies have been the background of s o c i a l group work. There i s now a broadening of the f i e l d into other areas, such as the Com-munity Arts Council, Corrections, and within h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g s . 1 "Sluch of the information on the development of group work In B r i t i s h Columbia i s drawn from a paper prepared by Miss E. Thomas, Associate Professor of Group Work, School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and given to the Group Work Di v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Council. - 29 -Agencies such as the Western Re h a b i l i t a t i o n Society are being established f o r the purpose of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and w i l l i n time create openings f o r s o c i a l group workers. Medical and ps y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l work agencies have now become as Important as family and c h i l d placing agencies f o r second-year student placements, i n that they also offer the candi-date a more advanced experience. Although Family and Children*s agencies were given more emphasis In the ear l y years, medical and p s y c h i a t r i c placements did e x i s t . However, the development of such services has been one of the outstanding aspects of the post-war period, along with s o c i a l group work. The number of medical and ps y c h i a t r i c agencies h i r i n g q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers has Increased with the establishment of c l i n i e a l services f o r children, and s o c i a l service departments i n hospitals and health c l i n i c s . This has meant that more second-year placements have become a v a i l a b l e , allowing f o r an Increased enrollment In the Master's degree years, along with an increase i n the demand f o r s o c i a l workers to s t a f f such services. This step i n the School's development bears out the r a p i d i t y with which the medical and p s y c h i a t r i c f i e l d has been accepted and expanded. Student enrollment i n the B r i t i s h Columbia School of So c i a l Work i n the pre-war period fluctuated between 10 and 45, g i v i n g an average of approximately 28, of whom four or f i v e were men each year. The enrollment i n the post-war years has Increased i n proportion to the number of ex-3ervice men and women who came to the School f o r t r a i n i n g . There Is a steady yearly Increase from 93 i n 1946-47 to the peak year of 1949-50, when 173 students were enrolled. Placement f a c i l i t i e s were stretched to the l i m i t i n that year, and a large block placement program Instituted that was almost equivalent to an extra summer course. This was repeated i n succeeding years, but i t has been possible to discontinue t h i s i n 1951-52. Table 4 . T o t a l Enrollment f o r Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia So c i a l Work Training, 1930-52. a. Diploma and Related Courses YEARS MEN WOMEN TOTAL YEARS MEN WOMEN TOTAL 1930-31 1 9 1© 1938-39 6 47 53 1931-32 3 33 36 1939-40 10 36 46 1932-33 1 14 15 194©-4l 25 46 71 1933-34 1 1© 11 1941-42 3 19 22 1934-35 2 12 14 1942-43 2 27 29 1935-36 4 21 25 1943-44 4 25 28 1936-37 7 25 32 1944-45 4 23 51 1937-38 9 36 45 1945-46 6 23 67 b. Degree Courses YEARS B.S.W. M.S.W. TOTAL MEN " WOMEN MEN WOMEN 1946-47 26 67 „, 93 1947-48 29 49 8 19 105 1948-49 39 69 13 14 135 1949-50 41 64 24 14 173 1950-51 32 44 22 24 122 1951-52 42 30 25 20 117 Source: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Calendars 1930-1952, i n c l u s i v e . T o t a l enrollment includes f u l l - t i m e , part-time, p a r t i a l and s p e c i a l students. Enrollment f o r 1951-52 has shown a decrease of 56 over the peak year, and present Indications are that t h i s decline w i l l continue. This i s important i n that i t brings two important considerations into c o n f l i c t . The University of B r i t i s h C o l -umbia School and many other schools welcome smaller numbers of students, since i t means that a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d educa-t i o n a l job can be done, accompanied by more se l e c t i v e supervision and placement t r a i n i n g . The pressures on now over-worked f a c u l t y members i s reduced. On the other hand, a smaller out-put of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers ( e s p e c i a l l y of M.S.W. graduates) must sooner or l a t e r create very serious repercussions i n the whole employment f i e l d . This i s a problem that Canadian Schools are at the present time t r y i n g to solve. The f i e l d work t r a i n i n g of the pre-war period was focused on the more spe c i a l i z e d family and c h i l d caring agencies, and the lectures were also i n a considerable measure geared to t h i s program. In 1944, when the A.A.S.S.W. set up i t s new basic curriculum, the design f o r the f i r s t post-graduate year was to give the student a basic knowledge that would enable him to work i n any " s e t t i n g " . For various reasons the public welfare settings became Important as f i e l d work placements, as they offered the type ©f experience that most c l o s e l y i n t e -grated the f i r s t - y e a r theory with p r a c t i c e . This meant that the f i r s t - y e a r student was exposed to the handing of cases of a wide va r i e t y , such as public assistance, unmarried mothers or perhaps old-age pensioners. Such a wide var i e t y of casework experience helped to give the student an o v e r - a l l view of the - 3 2 -s o c i a l work f i e l d , and helped him to determine the more advanced area that he would follow i n h i s second year of t r a i n i n g . The second-year student then had a placement i n a more spe c i a l i z e d s e t t i n g such as the medical or the p s y c h i a t r i c , family and children*s agencies. These placements were made i n l i n e with the Interests of the students, and the students* a b i l i t y to work i n such a s e t t i n g , Other factors were also important i n the second-year placement. I t was necessary that the agency have a q u a l i f i e d supervisor to perform the supervisory duties. Where no such supervisor was ava i l a b l e , the School placed a member of i t s s t a f f at the agency to provide the necessary supervision. Present Survey The knowledge that over 700 men and women have l e f t the University with some (perhaps limited) "licence to p r a c t i c e " i n the form of a degree or a diploma was determined from Univer-s i t y f i l e s . The figures of the survey I t s e l f help .to form indications of the present dimensions of the "welfare f i e l d " , and the r e s e r v o i r of trained personnel i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The d e t a i l s of the survey method are therefore spelled out i n what follows: The survey was begun with a review, f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes, of the t o t a l group. The f i l e s and preceding records of the School of S o c i a l Work were checked f o r names, known addresses, degrees obtained and the year that the degree had been given. This information was placed on i n d i v i d u a l cards, one f o r each student. As already indicated, the sp e c i a l and p a r t i a l students were not Included i n t h i s survey, a graduate being defined as a person who had received either a diploma or a degree granted and recognized by the University* A short preliminary questionnaire was f i r s t mailed out during the months of January and February, 1952, to 711 known graduates who had either diplomas, bachelors1 or masters* degrees. Besides checking on present addresses, the main purpose of these questionnaires was to get information from the gradu-ates as to their present whereabouts and present job, including the name of the agency and its location. The accompanying letter asked i f the graduate would give his or her cooperation in completing a more extensive questionnaire, that would be mailed out later. The second and more detailed questionnaire was designed to gain more information about the actual job being done by the graduate. It was comprehensive in design, covering also the graduate's experiences prior to training, experiences during training, and field service since graduation. To do this, the outline was worked out with three questions in mind: (l) Where did the graduate come from before entering the sooial work course? (2) What were his employment experiences and inter-ests in relation to social work before he undertook any formal studies? (3) What were his field work placements while in training and his experiences as a graduate social worker? Supplementing these three questions, information was requested Home addresses were obtained from school application forms* More recent addresses were obtained for some graduates by consulting the more up-to-date School alumni f i l e . - 34 -concerning the p r a c t i t i o n e r * ^ community a c t i v i t i e s , h i s s o c i a l work and related professional a f f i l i a t i o n s , and, i n some d e t a i l , an expression of views on professional t r a i n i n g i t s e l f . A great deal of r e v i s i o n wasapplied to each section i n an e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h the best possible o v e r - a l l picture of the graduate before t r a i n i n g , during t r a i n i n g , and a f t e r t r a i n i n g f o r s t a t -i s t i c a l purposes, without getting involved i n a detailed "case h i s t o r y " . Answers received from the two enquiries were combined f o r each graduate on i n d i v i d u a l cards; these answers were sum-marized and c l a s s i f i e d onto index cards. This system a l l e v i -ated the necessity of r e f e r r i n g to each i n d i v i d u a l questionnaire to compute returns, and greatly f a c i l i t a t e d the tabulation. Size and Significance of the Survey Group The f i r s t questionnaire (reproduced i n Appendix B), was sent to a l l but s i x of the 711 persons indexed from the School*s f i l e s . Addresses were not availa b l e f o r them at the time of mailing. Replies were received from 384, or 55 per cent of the mailing l i s t . Of the 312 remaining, i t i s not known how many of the i n q u i r i e s never reached the people f o r whom they were intended, and how many simply f a i l e d to answer. The annotation, "Please forward", printed on each envelope e v l d e n t a l l y served f o r a great many. Newly established current addresses numbered 75 per cent of the t o t a l 384 returned. The second questionnaire was sent out to the basic l i s t of 384 people. From these 258 were returned, and 245 of them were usable i n t h i s survey. (Of the 13 not used, 10 had - 35 -certain Important sections unanswered, while the remainder had no signature, which meant that the questions could not he amalgamated with the material of Questionnaire No. 1.) Al l discussion In this study is based on the findings obtained from 245 graduates (referred to in a l l following narra-tive as the "survey totaL"). Since this number seems to have dwindled strongly from the original 711, i t is Important to con-sider the validity of the survey total with reference to its representation of the total mailing l i s t . In the f i r s t place, the considerable mobility of British Columbia residents must be remembered. Owing to this, i t is pretty certain that the response was much greater than the nominal 5© per cent referred to above. Other indications also strengthen the probability that i t is proportionately very representative of the employment fields In which graduates are now found. When the survey total Is compared with the total in terms of geographic location, the comparisons are reassuring. The largest majority of the graduates had residence in British Columbia, and this is also true of the residences of those persons who answered both enquiries. Similarly, the correlation between those answering from other areas is comparable to those receiving Questionnaire No. 1, In those areas. This is true for both the men and the women. The number replying from Western Canada is slightly over-weighted, which would indicate that a number of British Columbia graduates have gone to work in the Prairie Provinces. The number of graduates answering both enquiries whose known addresses were in the United States - 36 -was small, although there was a representative response to the f i r s t Inquiry, The poor representation from this quarter Indicates that the graduates who have gone to the United States are removed from the Canadian scene and are less Interested i n a Canadian survey than are those who are close to the situation here in Brit i s h Columbia and other parts of Canada. Table 5* Respondents to F i r s t Questionnaire Only,  by geographic Distribution and Sex. PRESENT RESIDENCE MEN WOMEN NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER GENT Bri t i s h 24 18 7© 51 Columbia Western 4 3 9 7 Canada Eastern 3 2 11 8 Canada United 5 4 1© 7 States i Elsewhere - . 2 1 TOTALS 36 27 1©0 73 A comparable survey was begun by the Licencing and Registration Committee of the Br i t i s h Columbia Mainland Branch of the Canadian Association of Social Workers In June 1950. The findings of the survey were published in the spring of 1952, and are used on a comparison basis in a later chapter of this survey. More important here, though, i s the extent to which their findings and figures bear up the findings in the - 37 -Table 6. No Replies Received to E i t h e r Questionnaire,  by Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n and Sex, PRESENT MEN WOMEN RESIDENCE NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT B r i t i s h Columbia 43 14 175 56 Western Canada 13 4 24 8 Eastern Canada 1 16 5 United States 7 2 11 ..,,,..4 Elsewhere 1 12 4 None Given 8 3 TOTALS 65 2® 247 8® Includes 1 known to be deceased. present study. The C.A.S.W. Registration Survey based i t s f i n d -ings on returns from 300 p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers i n the Province, s o c i a l workers with diplomas and bachelor's and master's degrees, and those without formal t r a i n i n g . However, i n the f i e l d s of employment, the survey r e a d i l y substantiates the findings here. Both studies show that the majority of the trained personnel have B.S.W. degrees, and that they are la r g e l y In the employment of public welfare programs. S i m i l a r l y , the largest number of s o c i a l workers i n any p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d are In public welfare. The C,A,S,W« survey indicates that the majority of the s o c i a l workers with the M,S,W, degree are - 38 -Table 7. Residence of 245 graduates Responding to both  Questionnaires, by geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n PRESENT MEN WOMEN RESIDENCE NUMBER PER GENT NUMBER PER CENT B r i t i s h Columbia 59 24 117 48 Western Canada 15 6 30 12 Eastern Canada 7 3 1© ..,,„_„ , 4 United States 1 0.4 3 1 Elsewhere 2 ©.8 1 ©.4 TOTALS 84 34 161 66 at present employed i n private and group work ageneies, and t h i s i s also substantiated by findings In t h i s present study. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l workers within the various settings also shows a marked s i m i l a r i t y In both surveys, and with t h i s i n mind, i t i s reasonable to surmise that the present survey sample has proven to be a representative random one, and that conclusions drawn from i t are to a large degree representative of the s o c i a l work picture In B r i t i s h Columbia today. CHAPTER 3 . CHOOSING A PROFESSION I t i s a recognized f a c t that u n t i l recent years s o c i a l work was almost e n t i r e l y a woman*s f i e l d . When s o c i a l work hi s t o r y i s examined, i t also becomes quite apparent that persons concerned with welfare have always given a great deal of t h e i r time to the work and have received very l i t t l e i n the way of r e -muneration. This seems to be i n d i r e c t contrast to what might be expected according to the "law of supply and demand", as the number of s o c i a l workers available has always f a l l e n short of the demand. This was true i n the past when s o c i a l work was car r i e d on by volunteers and untrained workers, and I t i s an even more pressing problem today with the rapid expansion of state-wide s o c i a l security programs, accompanied by a growing demand f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers to Implement these programs. The schools and agencies have worked together i n the recruitment and se l e c t i o n of applicants who would become trained s o c i a l workers of the future. Candidates have always been selected by a screening process within the school, as to the prospective student*s academic background: h i s i n -terests, h i s health, h i s previous acquaintance with s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s and h i s ideas on the subject of s o c i a l work as a career. References from three or four people are usually r e -quired. Most schools consider a personal Interview e s s e n t i a l . One section of the questionnaire was set up i n such a manner as to give an i n d i c a t i o n of the kinds of people who - 40 -have come to the School of So c i a l Work f o r formal t r a i n i n g . This chapter discusses the graduates: t h e i r residence p r i o r to tra i n i n g ; t h e i r sex d i s t r i b u t i o n ; t h e i r occupations p r i o r to s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , and t h e i r f i r s t choices of occupation; t h e i r previous experiences i n s o c i a l work; and the f i n a n c i a l aspects of the t r a i n i n g course. The "gap"' between the numbers of graduates with B.S.W. degrees i s compared to the numbers with H.S.W. degrees. The " l o s s " of pr o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers i s discussed, along with the extent to which diploma and B.S.W. graduates are returning to the School f o r a second year of t r a i n i n g . The t r a i n i n g of s o c i a l work students i n B r i t i s h Columbia f a l l s Into two d i s t i n c t periods, the pre-war and the post-war. This d i v i s i o n marks the beginning of degree t r a i n i n g as com-pared to diploma course t r a i n i n g , the former beginning with the introduction of the B.S.W. course i n 1946. I t Is also b e n e f i c i a l In order to estimate any differences or trends that might be present when comparing the e a r l i e r graduates with the more recent, as the above questions are reviewed. The program of t r a i n i n g within the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was established when the need f o r profession-a l l y trained s o c i a l workers i n the Province became apparent and pressing. With t h i s i n mind i t i s important to note that the School has trained s o c i a l workers f o r s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s . I t i s important to know to what extent the graduates were residents of B r i t i s h Columbia, as i t was thought that whatever else the t r a i n i n g course might do, I t would assure a constant supply of workers from B r i t i s h Columbia to f i l l e x i s t i n g personnel vacancies i n s o c i a l work i n the Province. In one sense, at l e a s t , t h i s has not been the case, as the demand f o r workers s t i l l exceeds the number that can be graduated from S o c i a l Work School. Where the Graduates Come Prom Seventy-two per cent of the sample group (245) were resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia before entering the school. The remainder came from other Canadian provinces, with a small per-centage coming from the United States and elsewhere. ( F i g . 1) The largest number from elsewhere came from the p r a i r i e provinces. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n between men and women. The fac t s seem to support the primary service that the School has rendered i n providing t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r people r e s i d i n g In B r i t i s h Columbia; i t has been looked to, however, as a t r a i n i n g centre f o r a small number of students from other parts of Canada, the United States and e l s e -where • The Number of Men and Women Graduates The pre-war period of s o c i a l work i n B r i t i s h Columbia was characterized by a predominance of women workers. There were about s i x women to every man. ( F i g . 2) Salari e s were low, pri m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of the depression, but p a r t l y because of t h i s predominance of women who did not challenge the small remuneration that they received. Men In the profession received a salary s i m i l a r to that paid to a single woman worker. Men -42-• Women Men B r i t i s h C olumbia •-' 47% B r i t i s h Columbia 24% • Other Canadian * Provinces and ^United States Prior Residence by Area;  161 women and 84 men graduates U.S.A. % Elsewhere 2% Elsewhere 1% Prior Residence by Area; 84 men graduates Prior Residence by Area; 161 women graduates ' FIGURE 1. Residence Prior to Training of  University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Social Work Graduates 84 Men: 161 Women Source: Derived from Table 1., Appendix A. m 43 -did not enter the profession i n any numbers, as i t d i d not o f f e r them any remuneration; and possibly to a l e s s e r extent because s o c i a l work was considered to be a "woman's work". In the late t h i r t i e s and the e a r l y f o r t i e s , the demand f o r s o c i a l workers had grown i n a l l areas of welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but e s p e c i a l l y within the p r o v i n c i a l services. This demand, accompanied by r i s i n g salary scales i n l i n e with the prosperity of the e a r l y war years, could have been Instrumental In encouraging more men to enter the profession. However, an increasing number of men and women were e n l i s t i n g i n the armed forces — persons who might have been candidates f o r s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . I t was not u n t i l World War I I was over that men began to enter the School i n large numbers. This i n f l u x was, of course, p a r t l y stimulated by the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program, through which educational opportunities were made possible f o r World War I I veterans. Men whose schooling had been interrupted by t h e i r war services, and those who had been employed as s o c i a l workers without educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and others who wished to change from other professions or occupations, were among those who took s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i n the post-war years, and they make up a large part of the increase f o r that period. I t i s c l e a r l y In-dicated that the r a t i o of men to women In the t o t a l sample was approximately two to one. The pre-war period indicates a s i x to one r a t i o , but In the post-war period i t i s just s l i g h t -l y over four to three. -44-• Men Women ti <D O u © m u u o 60 50 40 30 03 •H § 20 CO 10 66 41 34 25 30 1929-1952 Pre-War period FIGURE 2. Post-War period Di s t r i b u t i o n of Survey Total (245) by Sex and Period of Training  84 Men: 161 Women Source:. Derived from Table 2., Appendix A. - 45 -S o c i a l Work Experience P r i o r to Professional Training S o c i a l work i s one of the few professional f i e l d s In which an Interested person i s able to gain some experience be-fore taking formal t r a i n i n g . As P i g . 3 shows, no less than 50 per cent of the sample group had some experience i n s o c i a l work before entering the school. Distinguishing between men and women, the same pattern i s seen, although more men, compar-a t i v e l y , had had t h i s experience. This experience was gained from working i n a paid capacity, a voluntary capacity, or a combination of paid and voluntary. In some instances the work was d i r e c t l y with i n d i v i d u a l s , e i t h e r In group work or casework settings. The majority of the experi-ences were of a nature not d i r e c t l y concerned with s o c i a l work agencies, but i n re l a t e d f i e l d s , such as playground supervisors or leaders i n church group a c t i v i t i e s , the Scout movement or the G i r l Guides. These previous experiences and i n t e r e s t s would indicate that the graduates were persons with a desire to o f f e r a "helping 0 service to others. I t has, In f a c t , been one of the outstanding a t t r i b u t e s of the students who have come to the School. It Is to be expected that people get a "taste" of the att r a c t i o n s In t h i s way, and while working as a volunteer or an aide, they come to r e a l i z e better the need f o r t r a i n i n g . Occupational Interests The largest number of candidates were students p r i o r to taking s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . ( F i g . 4) An equal number of the candidates had been employed In white-collar jobs, the - 46 -jPaid Capacity ]Voluntary Capacity Voluntary and Paid No Experience 60 50 a 40 o h 30 © 20 10 A. 10 Survey Total 245 = 100 18. Men 84 =100 60 50 * 4 0 a <o o 30 20 10 17 i i - 10 6 1 C. Women 161 = 100 FIGURE 3. Social Work Experiences Prior to  Training Source: Derived from Table 3., Appendix A. - 47 -teaching profession and in unskilled occupations. The white-collar group consisted largely of persons who had previously been employed as clerks and stenographers, A large number of the unskilled persons had had work In the war plants in the country during World War II, The remainder of the sample group were previously employed in other professions and social work, the smallest percentage being in the latter group. Those em-ployed in other professions had professional interests similar to those ©f social work. Those men who were clergymen and teachers, and the women who were nurses, dieticians and teachers were Indicative of the other professional fields from which social workers came. These allied professions, It may be noted, are also professions that meant that the person had personal contact with people with whom he or she worked. Many of the men who entered the School in the post-war period indicated that their previous occupation was In the armed services. This might indicate that he entered the services immediately following the completion of high-school training. These persons have been classified as unskilled workers. The largest single group of the respondents listed social work as their f i r s t choice of a profession. This accounted for slightly more than half of the sample group. Approximately one-quarter of the sample had chosen another profession before training for social work, and these choices were in the fields of medicine, law, nursing, dietetics, the clergy or engineering. Teaching was the f i r s t choice of 15 per cent of the sample group, and this was the largest single group, apart from those - 48 -@§c,upations Prior to Training Jjj||lirst Choice of Occupation Stud- White Teach- Social Other U n s k i l l -ents C o l l a r ing Work Profess ed ional FIGURE 4. Prior Occupations and* F i r s t Choice of Occupations of Survey Total Source: Derived from Table 4., Appendix A. - 49 -who had mentioned social work as their first choice. It may be concluded that the people who came to the School of Social Work were largely those who would have gone on to some other type of professional career, had they not become Interested In social work. Financing of Social Work Training There were various methods by which the social work students financed their training while they were enrolled at the School. It will be helpful to distinguish three main groupings. (1) Private Resources Students in this group received assistance from rela-tives and griends, with assistance from parents being the most common. This was at times supplemented by savings or part-time employment. (2) Government Grants The graduates who received such assistance were almost wholly those who had been in the armed services during the war, and who had returned to university and to social work training as a result of opportunities made available through the rehabil-itation program of the Department of Veterans* Affairs. (3) Scholarships and Bursaries Relatively few of these have been available to students entering the School. Some did use this form of assistance, but they were necessarily forced to supplement i t with other re-sources, since the amounts given were relatively small and did not In any way pay for the total cost of the training. Although the graduates indicated one or the other of the above as t h e i r main source of assistance, the majority of them used some sort of private resources i n combination with one of the other groups. Over three-quarters of the < pre-war sample financed t h e i r t r a i n i n g wholly from private resources. The remainder used private resources, along with assistance i n the form of scholarships and bursaries. The post-war period was outstanding i n the use that was made by ex-service personnel of government grants. The number of students using private resources s o l e l y , became smaller, es-p e c i a l l y among the men, and a large percentage combined gov-ernment grants with savings or part-time employment. Government assistance seems to have ushered i n a new era of educational financing, even though there were very few veterans who were able to finance t h e i r t r a i n i n g completely i n t h i s way. Rather than supplementing the government grants with help from r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , they more and more sup-plemented t h e i r income with part-time employment, summer employ-ment, and with personal savings. The financing of extended education has been i n the past, and s t i l l remains, a problem f o r any u n i v e r s i t y student. This has been e s p e c i a l l y true f o r the graduates who entered the t r a i n i n g course d i r e c t l y from four years of undergraduate study. In the pre-war years the students frequently received assistance from parents and r e l a t i v e s and, i n those days, t h i s meant that only those students could attend u n i v e r s i t y whose parents could a f f o r d to send them. In t h i s period the - 51 -majority of the students were women, and I t was not too easy f o r them to supplement t h e i r parents® assistance with p a r t -time work or summer employment, due p a r t l y to the depression and p a r t l y to the low wage3 that were then being paid to women. The post-war students, on the other hand, seem to have made a great deal more use of part-time employment and summer work. This has been true ot both the women and the men under consideration, (Pig, 5) Screening Requirements f o r entering the School are f a i r l y well defined at the present time, i n terms of prerequisites i n undergraduate studies and personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the applicants themselves. There has, throughout the year, always been some attempt made to select applicants who were considered to be reasonably mature, and applicants who gave indications that they were able to meet the demands of the profession. While the t r a i n i n g course was under the Department of Economies, screening of applicants was attempted and c a r r i e d out to the best of the a b i l i t y of the f i e l d work people, who at that time were contributing t h e i r services to the course as part-time volunteer l e c t u r e r s . One of the main problems that they had to face arose as a r e s u l t of the a f f i l i a t i o n with the Department of Economics. Heads of the Department were not f a m i l i a r with the screening process, nor with the importance of i t . Emphasis was placed on scholastic a b i l i t y of the ap-p l i c a n t , while the p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers were equally con-cerned about personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The compromise between 40 30 20 49 10 26 23 20 0 14 13 12 Survey Total Diploma Graduates (1929-1945) B.S.W. & M.S.W. Graduates (1945-1952) 3 3 2 2 l o P r i v a t e ^ Veterans Bursaries Private, Private, Private, Veterans Nothing Grants and Bursaries, Veterans Veterans Grants, Given Scholar-, ; Scholar- Grants Grants, School ships ships School . Resources VJ1 IV) FIGURE 5. Methods of Financing Social Work Training, Post-War and Pre-War Periods Source: Derived from Table 5., Appendix A - 53 -scholastic ability and personal suitability of the applicant continued until the course became a Department in its own right. When the course became a Department of Social Work in 1944, the Director assumed the primary responsibility of selection, and a more intensive job was done. In 1950 an Ad-missions Committee was set up, with f u l l responsibility for the selection of candidates for training. The Committee has the pre-rogative of either accepting or rejecting a candidate on the basis of his scholastic or personal qualifications. The questions of residence, previous social work experiences and previous employ-ment as discussed before, are a l l considerations in the selection process. These are taken into consideration along with the applicant's personal suitability. The decisions are reached and based on personal interview and references, and in some oases aptitude tests are given. The number of students that are accepted each year Is dependent upon the number of available field work placements. The opportunities for practical experience in the pre-war period were fewer in number than they are now. The development of more specific services in medical and psychiatric settings has allowed for an increase in the number of available second-year placements. The broadening of the group work program of training, and the now extended use of group work in non-recreational agencies and institutions means an increase in the number of candidates that can be accepted Into that specialization. The numbers enrolling for the group work courses s t i l l remains comparatively equal to the numbers that can be accepted for the casework courses. - 54 -The BLag Bin Post-Graduate Training Since social work training consists of two years of post-graduate work, there is reason to feel concern about the large number of graduates who have as yet received only one year of training, A substantial number of these people have, in the past six years, returned to the School for a second year, and many more may be returning in the future. Table 15, Chapter 4, gives an estimate of the number of one-year graduates concerned. Statistics drawn from this table point up the fact that the majority of junior positions in a l l areas of social work are being f i l l e d with one-year graduates. This is an indication of the number who may, in the future, be returning for a second year of training. There are considerations to be taken Into account i f a true evaluation of the reasons for this "lag" are to be reached. The most important is the difficulty of financing a second year of training. As has been pointed out before arid will be verified later, the financing of two years of post-graduate training lays heavy financial burdens on the student. Two other factors combine to effect the "lag", one being the belief amongst many graduates that one year of training is sufficient to qualify them to render satisfactory social work services. The other concerns those programs that s t i l l employ one-year graduates to f i l l their existing vacancies. Some agencies accept diploma holders and B.S.W. personnel because they also believe that one year'of social work training is sufficient to render the services being given, while other employ them because they have pressing staff vacancies that they must f i l l , preferably - 5 5 -by an M.S.W. graduate. Even now, however, i t Is very common to accept as f u l l y - q u a l i f i e d workers, students who have com-pleted t h e i r second year of t r a i n i n g , but are not yet e n t i t l e d to the degree of M.S.W. because they s t i l l have t h e i r thesis work to complete. The present survey v e r i f i e s the f a l l a c y of the opinions of those s o c i a l workers who f e e l s a t i s f i e d with one year of t r a i n i n g . The graduates* views on t r a i n i n g c l e a r l y point out that the majority of the diploma holders, and to a l e s s e r ex-tent, the B.S.W. graduates ( e s p e c i a l l y those with several years of s o c i a l work f i e l d experience), f e l t that the courses that they had taken at the time were s a t i s f a c t o r y to enable them to do a job. However, they now c l e a r l y Indicate that a second year of t r a i n i n g would be most b e n e f i c i a l to them. By the same token,: among the graduates with two years of t r a i n i n g the majority f e e l that t h e i r second year of t r a i n i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y enables them to do a more intensive and professional job. Losses to the Profession Every profession has to expect a c e r t a i n proportion of "losses", as there are always graduates who change t h e i r minds and enter some other f i e l d of work, or perhaps a f i e l d that i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the one i n which they had t r a i n i n g . This i s not to be regarded as bad, since the t r a i n i n g that they received i n t h e i r chosen profession cannot altogether be l o s t to them i n t h e i r new p o s i t i o n . However, these people tend to maintain a c e r t a i n allegiance to t h e i r o l d profession, and r e a d i l y become public r e l a t i o n s agents, Interpreting t h e i r . — 5 6 , —• professional t r a i n i n g as they see i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e i r own work* Although s o c i a l workers at present do not often change t h e i r professional occupations, the time should perhaps come when they ( l i k e doctors and lawyers today) w i l l be regarded as acceptably q u a l i f i e d f o r many other Jobs i n business, government and the community. S o c i a l work t r a i n i n g o f f e r s a basic study that can e a s i l y be u t i l i z e d by other professional groups, e s p e c i a l l y by those who depend on the techniques of interview i n carrying out t h e i r everyday business r e l a t i o n s with people* Since a large number of s o c i a l work graduates has consisted of women, i t i s not at a l l surprising that the greatest " l o s s " to the profession i s through marriage* Some of these women continue i n employment, but t h i s survey has revealed that 25 per cent of the women graduates have become f u l l -time "homemakers"• The extent to which these women are s t i l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l work i n a part-time or voluntary capacity w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n a l a t e r chapter* Other "Losses" Approximately 15 per cent of the graduates who r o r i g i n a l l y had residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia have l e f t the province to l i v e i n other Canadian provinces or the United States. However, t h i s i s l a r g e l y compensated f o r by the fact that a s i m i l a r percentage of students who have come from other Canadian provinces f o r t r a i n i n g have remained i n B r i t i s h Columbia to work* In spite of the fact that there i s great mobility among s o c i a l workers, there seems to be some i n d i c a t i o n that t h i s mobility i s within the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, and - 5 7 -i s not to any extent i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l or i n t e r n a t i o n a l . This i s borne out to a large extent by the change of addresses noted from the r e p l i e s to the f i r s t questionnaire. The School has been able to maintain a favourable balance i n i t s program of admissions, insofar as there has been very l i t t l e loss of pr o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers from the province. In the group under study only four per cent have e n t i r e l y "broken* with the profession, and they were persons who had other in t e r e s t s p r i o r to t r a i n i n g . There were persons who could not accept s o c i a l work as they found I t i n p r a c t i c e , e i t h e r from the philosophical aspect or from the monetary r e -turns. Others have returned to t h e i r o r i g i n a l occupations In which t h e i r s o c i a l work s k i l l s should be of value i n enabling them to render more e f f e c t i v e service. There i s also a trend since the war f o r c e r t a i n professional persons to take s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g to supplement t h e i r primary Interests, and It would appear that t h i s might become a more common occurrence, e s p e c i a l l y with clergymen, teachers and others who make use of interview i n t h e i r contacts with people. The preceding information about the graduates brings to l i g h t some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s that i n common have made them successful candi-dates f o r the courses. There are indications that the survey t o t a l have been a r e l a t i v e l y mature group. They were able to test the work i n t h e i r p r e - t r a i n l n g years i n t h e i r voluntary and paid s o c i a l work, and were able to reach the conclusions •» 58 — that they were interested In the work; and further, they real-ized that formal training would be of benefit to them In making the practice of social work a career. The fact that they were acceptable to the School as candidates indicates that they were reasonably mature at that time. The greatest differences appear between the pre-war and the post-war candidates and graduates. This is mainly em-phasized in the methods in which these two groups financed their social work training, with the latter students becoming more and more independent of help from relatives and friends. Government grants to veteran students added impetus to this trend. With the discontinuance of the grants, a degree of uncer-tainty has come to light with respect to the future methods of student financing. Government grants also brought about a transition in the social work profession, a transition which has broken down the "tradition* that i t is a woman*s fiel d . Men, who entered the field in larger numbers after the war, equalled the number of women that were taking training. The indicated trends in the kinds of people who have taken some social work training have not counteracted the basic fact that the graduates have been people who are interested in working with people, and who, through their past experiences and work have been inclined or drawn towards a profession that gave them opportunities to work with and for others. To further substantiate this, the following chapter gives more detailed data on jobs now being done by the graduates. CHAPTER 4. THE FIELD OP EMPLOYMENT Since 1928 the training offered to social work students at the University of British Columbia has been pro-fessional In nature. It has been geared to meet the demands of the field and has been stimulated, in Its time, by the estab-lishment of new auspices in neighbourhood houses, probation services, child guidance clinics and hospitals. Of the l 6 l graduates who represent the employed social work personnel In this study, 95 per cent are employed full-time. Work Graduates of the U.B.C. School of Social Work. -A l l Practitioners Men Women EMPLOYMENT STATUS No. % No. % No. % Practitioners, Pull-time 153 95 64 4© 89 55 Practitioners, Part-time 8 5 1 1 7 4 TOTAL 160 100 65 41 96 59 This number does not include those who have retired, those who have left the field to enter other fields of endeavour or the present students at the School of Social Work. The employed personnel are composed df administrators, supervisors and workers. At the time this study was made, there were 25 ad-- 6 0 -minlstrators, 4 0 supervisors and 126 workers. However, because of the mobility of s o c i a l workers and the demand f o r t h e i r services which exceeds the supply, and the loss to the pro-fession through marriage or other reasons, such positions are constantly changing. Not only do the employed s o c i a l workers d i f f e r i n positions held, but also i n the t r a i n i n g , sex, age and marital status. Of the employed workers i n the present study, 60 per cent are women. This figure indicates that s o c i a l work i s no longer the women's profession which I t has been considered to be. The post-war picture shows that there are approximately three men to four women p r a c t i c i n g s o e i a l work. The number of women i n the age range between 2 0 - 3 0 equals the combined numbers of those women between 30 and 4 0 and over 41 years of age. This seems to indicate that a large number of the women graduates i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group, between the ages of 3 ® and 4 © have eithe r r e t i r e d from the f i e l d of employment, or have gone into other types of employment. (Pig. 6) The largest number of men graduates, on the other hand, l i e i n the age range of 3 © to 4 ® . This i s not sur p r i s i n g when I t i s known that so many men graduates are veterans of World War I I . Many of these men were too young to have been employed p r i o r to enlistment i n the Armed Forces. Following t h e i r discharge from the Armed Services, a substantial number of the men entered a u n i v e r s i t y and continued t h e i r studies from four to s i x years. A very small proportion of the men - 61 | | Women: 96 persons Men: 65 persons 30 20 10 1 ! _ 14 22 20-30 30-40 Age in Years Over 40 FIGURE 6 Sex-Age Distribution of  161 Practicing Social Workers of the  University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Social Work Source: Derived from Table 6., Appendix A graduates i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study are over 4© years of age. This Is to be expected, as so few men entered the professional f i e l d of s o c i a l work before 1944. Table 9.. M a r i t a l Status of l 6 l Employed S o c i a l  Work Graduates of the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work STATUS MEN WOMEN TOTAL No. No. # No. $ Married 51 78 17 18 68 42 i Single 13 20 74 77 87 I 54 Other 1 2 5 5 6 4 TOTALS 65 1©© 96 100 161 100 The largest number of women i n the group under study are s i n g l e . Among the men, the greatest number are married. The numbers of single men and married women, by comparison, are almost equal. This could be accounted f o r by the fa c t that In the e a r l i e r days women were obliged to leave s o c i a l work employ-ment at the time of marriage. The majority of the married women who are working have no children, whereas the largest propor-t i o n of married men graduates have e i t h e r no children or two children. There i s l i t t l e difference i n the size of the families of the employed men and women s o c i a l work graduates. There are more men p r a c t i c i n g i n the f i e l d of pub l i c welfare and corrections than i n any other area. The next largest group of men i s found i n the Children's A id s o c i e t i e s , with a small proportion i n the public c h i l d welfare departments. The remainder are distributed among hospital, clinic and group work settings. The smallest proportion of men, to date, is employed in the areas of teaching, community organization and research. Table 1©.. Number of Children (under 20 years of  age) In Families of Married Social Work Graduates. Number of MEN WOMEN TOTAL Children No. % No, % No. % © 16 33 13 52 29 39 1 13 28 7 28 2© 27 2 16 33 2 8 18 25 3 4 8 3 12 7 9 TOTALS 49 100 25 74 100 The employed women In the group under study follow a similar pattern with two exceptions. There are more women than men social work graduates employed in the medical and psychiatric settings and there are fewer women than men em-ployed in the area of corrections. In addition to an unequal distribution of men and women in the different areas of social work, there are also 7 differences in their various responsibilities. There are a greater number of men holding administrative positions. The women, on the other hand, are In the majority among the social — .- 64 — work supervisors. The probable reason for the predominance of men in administrative positions in the profession as a whole is that there are many such positions in the field of public welfare and i t is to this field that the men social workers tend to be drawn. The largest number of first-year graduates in the study have entered the field of public welfare. Possible reasons for this are that i t is the policy of the School of Social Work to place first-year students in public agencies in order that they may have a well-rounded experience. It follows that after completion of the f i r s t year of training, a large proportion of these graduates would seek employment in settings with which they are familiar. It is reasonable to assume, also, that public welfare employers would wish to enlist the services of graduates who had been oriented in public welfare settings. In the more specialized areas, such as medical psychiatric, and group work, i t Is observed that there are more workers who have completed their second-year of training. Social workers may practice at many different levels and in different settings. They may be on their own or members of a team in private, federal, provincial or muni-cipal agencies. A social worker may be a caseworker or a group worker in that he is working directly with individuals of groups. He may be a supervisor and supervise other social workers, clerical staff, volunteers or untrained people. He may be a social work administrator in any one of the above-mentioned settings. As such, he would be responsible for the - 65 -Type of Programme Medical Social Work Psychiatric Social Work Child Welfare Family Welfare Group Work Public Welfare Correct-ions Teaching Community Organiz-ation Others Women: 96 p e B s o n s Men: 65 p e r s o n s 10 15 20 Social Workers in Per Cent FIGURE 7. Type of Programme by Sex and Setting^ 161 Practicing Social Workers Source: Derived from Table 7., Appendix A total program and of the people under his Jurisdiction. Social Caseworkers and Social Group Workers A social caseworker or a social group worker is a social worker who is working directly with individuals or groups. The extent to which he is able to provide an effective service is dependent upon his own abilities, the quality of supervision he receives and the function of the employing agency The Workers* Responsibilities The findings of the present study Indicate that the social caseworkers are working directly with 46 to 1©0 cases a month. A large number of the respondents stated that they carried less"than 46 cases a month. Those who are responsible for more than 1©0 cases a month mentioned that they are working intensively with an average of 14 cases out of the total case load. This would mean that the remaining cases are carried on a rather superficial level. It appears that the men graduates are responsible for larger case loads than the women, as the men are carrying from 101 to 25© cases a month. For the case loads of over 1©©, in the instance of men social workers, there is an average of nine cases a month being carried intensively. These findings indicate that the workers in general are carrying larger case loads than is desirable. While i t Is realized that a great number of people are being seen each month by the workers, i t 1 It should be pointed out that these practicing social work graduates have been classified according to their primary responsibility within the agency. - 6 7 -questionable whether the service being rendered Is an effective one because of the size of the case loads. Because there were so few replies from those who have been classified as group workers, and because the majority of those who replied mentioned that their primary responsibility was supervision, i t is not possible to compare the work of the caseworker with the work of the group worker. The Supervision of the Social Workers Supervision is an essential part of any agency program. The "supervisory conference" is a professional relationship through which the worker benefits from increased knowledge of social work skills, administrative procedures and an awareness of community and agency resources. The supervisor calls upon his knowledge and experience to enable the worker to render a better service to the clients. The workers* skills are increased by doing and learning. The extent to which he benefits from super-vision is dependent upon the quality of the supervision and the ability of the individual worker to increase his skills in performance as a result of experience and supervision. A significantly large number of the l 6 l employed gradu-ates replied to the question regarding the supervision thatlthey were receiving.' The largest number stated that they derive-most benefit during the supervisory conferences in learning administra-tive procedures of the agencies in whieh they are employed. The next largest group of respondents said that, through supervision, they were able to increase their skills in casework. Pew workers mentioned that they were gaining knowledge of resources within or outside the agency. To render an e f f e c t i v e service to c l i e n t s or groups of people, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the s o c i a l worker be conversant with a l l known resources i n order that he may enable h i s c l i e n t s to make the maximum use of the f a c i l i t i e s which are In the agency or the community f o r h i s use. I f the worker Is not gaining knowledge of these resources, the i n d i c a t i o n s are that he may already be aware of them and the supervisor heed not Inform him about them during t h e i r supervisory discussions. On the other hand, I t i s possible that the supervisor Is not aware of the resources, or, i f he i s , he does not consider such Information s u f f i c i e n t l y Important to pass on to the worker. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a c e r t a i n percentage of the respond-ents brought out that they received l i t t l e supervision i n " l e a r n -ing the fundamentals of o f f i c e procedure", which they considered to be e s s e n t i a l . I t i s known that such knowledge Is necessary to have In order that any o f f i c e or agency function smoothly and e f f i c i e n t l y * Supervisors A supervisor i s defined as a professional s o c i a l worker who aets i n the teaching-helping-administrative capacity. He Is responsible f o r the work done by those under h i s super-v i s i o n . I t i s he who enables the s o c i a l workers to become more competent professional people. Not only does he supervise the graduate s o c i a l workers, but he i s also responsible f o r the guid-ance of other members of the s t a f f , such as c l e r i c a l , i n - t r a i n i n g workers, untrained workers and volunteers. Table 11. Evaluation of Supervision by 126 Workers  According to Sex. ""T"-Sex of ! Workers Increased 1 Knowledge ' of Office Routines Admlnls-'' t r a t l v e 1 P o l i c i e s Knowledge ;: Resources Within Agency Knowledge ! Community ! Resources Increased • S k i l l In ' Practice Others ' • No Reply • '! T o t a l Men Women 3 6 16 25 4 : .... 11 t 2 6 6 3© 5 1 5 6 41 85 TOTAL 9 41 15 8 36 6 11 126 - 70 -Forty per cent of the group under study are composed of supervisors, the majority of whom are women employed in public agencies. Table 8 indicates that those who are married are equally divided among the men and women In the group. The 26 women and the 14 men supervisors under study, are responsible for the supervision of 34© persons in several different categories, the largest being volunteers. The next largest group of supervisees is composed of professionally trained social workers. The smallest group under supervision are in-training students. The group work supervisors have the responsibility of supervising the greatest number of volun-teers as i t Is frequently to such settings as neighbourhood houses, community centres, et cetera, that the majority of the volunteers are drawn. More than half the number of supervisors stated that, in addition to their supervisory duties, they carried from three to 350 cases a month, or an average of 49 cases each. As only two supervisors mentioned that they carried case loads of 100 or more, the figure "49B would appear to be misleading. When the two figures are deleted, the,average monthly case load for each supervisor is 26. This figure Is s t i l l high when i t is taken into consideration that each casework super-visor Is responsible for an average of 19 supervisees. In contrast, almost half the number of casework supervisors under study carry no cases. This does not conform to present-day thinking with respect to the supervisory function in that i t is considered essential in order to render Table 12. Responsibility of 14 Men and 26 Women Supervisors 1 —3 Super- 1 v i s o r s 8 Sex • Accredited ( School Graduates 1 In- , ] Training Workers 1 Students • from School In-Training Students 11 Volunteers < t C l e r i c a l :< S t a f f 11 Other * ! T o t a l WOMEN 53 40 17 2 55 30 11 208 MEN 14 21 12 9 48 22 6 132 TOTAL 67 61 29 l l 103 52 17 34© - 72 -the most e f f e c t i v e service, the s o c i a l work supervisor should endeavour to carry cases, no matter how few. The largest number of supervisors i n t h i s study are women who are i n the diploma group of graduates. According to information received, the women i n the diploma group have been In the f i e l d of s o c i a l work f o r an average of eleven years. Table 15 indicates that the greatest percentage of supervisors i n the sample group are i n the $250.00 to $300.00 salary range. The facts brought out with reference to p o s i t i o n and salary f o r t h i s group would appear t© indicate that positions ©f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are gained, and f i n a n c i a l remuneration i s paid, f o r length of service regardless of professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . S o c i a l Work Administrators .Social work administrators i n the present study are q u a l i -f i e d s o c i a l workers who have the.over-all r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an agency or a department. I t i s t h e i r duty to assure that the agency or the department of which they are In charge i s f u l f i l l -ing the function f o r which i t was established. For s o c i a l work administration i t has been found that a "subject-matter s p e c i a l -i s t " , or a trained s o c i a l worker, i s best equipped to administer a s o c i a l work agency or department, as the pra c t i c e of administra-t i o n cannot be divorced from the practice of casework or group work. A small percentage of the l 6 l p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers are s o c i a l work administrators, the majority of whom are engaged i n public agency s e t t i n g s . Whereas the largest number of men administrators i n the study are married, the women administrators are, in general, single. It is an ack-nowledged fact that men social workers have tended to seek employment in the area of administration, whereas women social workers have concerned themselves more in the realm of casework or group work with individuals or groups or the supervision of others. It is not surprising, therefore, that of this very small group of administrators under study, the majority should he men. Table 13 indicates that these 25 administrators, f i f -teen men and ten women, are responsible for the work carried out by 677 persons in seven different categories. In addition, these social work administrators are, in general, the persons on the social work staffs who represent their departments at the various policy-making and planning committees of the agencies in which they are employed. In examining the chart i t is noticed that the largest single category for which these administrators are responsible are the clerical workers. It is the women administrators who have the greatest number of clerical staff as their res-ponsibility. It does not seem feasible that women administra-tors should have more clerical assistance than men administra-tors. It is possible that i t is to the women administrators that the responsibility is delegated. In earlier chapters i t has been seen that a large proportion of women graduates, prior to entering the School of Social Work for formal training, had been in clerical positions. Because of their earlier experiences i t may be considered by the employing agencies Table 13. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ef 15 Men and 1© Women Administrators Sex of ;l Adminis-trators '• School ( Gradm-• In- ^ Training Workers t students i from School "in- -Training Students '•' Volun- 1 teers ! C l e r - < l e a l S t a f f 5 Other * *• T o t a l MEN WOMEN 75 22 103 10 29 3 5 1 15 10 62 155 40 8 334 209 TOTAL 97 118 32 6 25 217 48 543 - 75 -that they are the best equipped persons to assume the o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c l e r i c a l group. The same chart indicates, on the other hand, that the men administrators have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a larger number of in-trained workers than do the women administrators. This figure may be accounted f o r by the f a c t that there are more men than women administrators and that the men are employed to a larger extent i n the public agencies where the greatest proportion of in-service-trained workers are employed. The men administrators, too, have a b i l i t y f o r the largest proportion of graduates from an accredited school of s o c i a l work. The reason f o r t h i s may be, again, that there are more graduates from an accredited school employed i n the public agencies than i n the private settings. The "other* Indicates those personnel who do not f i t into any other category. They are, however, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the administrators and must, therefore, be mentioned. The majority of the administrators represented i n t h i s study are graduates of the School of S o c i a l Work of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia who hold the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work. The second largest group are graduates with t h e i r Diploma of S o c i a l Service. There may be several reasons to explain why the majority of the administrators are graduates with the Master of S o c i a l Work degree. In the f i r s t place, they are f u l l y q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers from the educational point of view. Then, too, a large proportion of the group workers under study are administrators. Figures indicate that the group workers i n the Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia area assume administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a f t e r a much shorter period of experience of working d i r e c t l y with groups than do case-workers i n si m i l a r circumstances e I t i s further known that although the group workers are outnumbered by the caseworkers, the largest proportion of group workers who are presently employed do have t h e i r Master of S o c i a l Work degree. The percentage of administrators holding t h e i r Diploma In S o c i a l Work almost equals the number of those with t h e i r Master of So c i a l Work degree. This could be explained by the fac t that the diploma group, many of whom were among the pioneers i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work, have been i n employment f o r a longer period of time, and as a r e s u l t , have had to assume positions of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In general they have had a wide and varied experience i n the f i e l d . Although they have not always had the opportunity to learn the most up-to-date theory i n the practice of s o c i a l work, they have, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r s o c i a l work experience, been able to equip themselves f o r t h e i r present positions of leadership. Salary Standards The median salary of the l 6 l p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers In B r i t i s h Columbia i s $200-$250. The median f o r men i s $250 and the median f o r the women workers IS $225. Table 15* based upon the survey, shows that the average s a l a r i e s f o r men i s s l i g h t l y higher than those f o r women. This would be expected when i t i s r e c a l l e d that i n the group under study 23 per cent of the men and only 1© per cent of the women are i n administrative positions for which positions higher salaries are paid. Table 14. Monthly Salary Range of l 6 l Social Work Graduates of U.B.C. School of Social Work Salary Group MEN WOMEN No. % No. % Under $15© Prom $150 - 200 2©0 - 250 250 - 30© 30© - 35© 35© - 40© 400 - 45© 450 - 50© i 4 2 24 15 20 12 7 4 6 4 3 4 1 1 1 15 9 41 25 28 17 9 6 2 1 TOTAL 65 42 96 58 The highest average salary range of $30©-$350 is earned by the men in the diploma group. The next highest salary range of $250-$300 is paid to the women in the diploma group under study, and the men with their M.S.W. degrees. The third salary range of $20©-$25© Is paid to the men and women with their B.S.W. degrees, the women with their M.S.W. degrees and to the men who have completed a second year of training but have not received a M.S.W. degree. The lowest salary range, $150-$200 is paid to women who have taken two years of training but have hot received their M.S.W. degree. In studying the salaries according to positions held (Table Appendix C) i t is noted that the majority of the workers -78 -Table 15. Setting In Which 300 B.C. So c i a l Workers Were Employed In 1950 According to Diploma*  B.S.W. and M.S.W." Soc. Work fl Education < C h i l d or * Family f General ' Welfare '* Psyc h i a t r i c * * Medical * Diploma B. S. W. M. s. w. Less Social' Work Educa-t i o n than Diploma A 15 20 1© 8 i 24 44 5 7© 3 8 6 3 10 13 . 4 7 TOTALS 53 143 2© 34 S o c i a l Work Ed-ucation Group Work or Commun-i t y Organ-i z a t i o n Teaching Correction ^ To t a l Diploma B. S 0 W. M. S. W. 7 12 Less S o c i a l Work Educa- -^l t i o n than Diploma © © 1 © 0 5 3 9 54 97 41 108 TOTALS 32 17 Source: Report of Committee on Licencing &  Registrations, B.C. Mainland Branch, C.A.S.W., Pub. Jan. 24, 1952. - 7 9 -receive a salary in the $200-$250 salary range. Among the supervisors the largest number receive $250. Administrators are In the highest bracket of $30©~$35©. Indications from these figures are that financial remuneration is granted for length of service and positions held, rather than for educational qualifications. It is known that the H,S,V, graduates have been in practice for an average of three years, whereas the B.S.W. men and women graduates have been working in the field of social work an average of three and four years respectively. The diploma holders among the men have been in practice for an average of nine years, and the women with their diplomas have been working in the field of soeial work for an average of eleven years. Prom a comparison of the figures of the G.A.S.W. census of 195©, previously referred to, with the present study, i t is noted that there are certain similarities and differences. The census offers a fairly valid basis for comparison when the number (108) who have no training is deducted from the number (300) who responded to the inquiries. A similarity in the numbers of the employed social workers is indicated In both studies In the fields of public welfare and child and family welfare. Whereas the area of medical social work was listed as third in popularity for the 1950 survey respondents, in the study of the graduates the field of corrections was listed in third place. In both these areas (corrections and medical social work) there has been - 80 -vast expansion and development. With such development has come the need f o r q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers to man the various p o s i t i o n s . I t i s noted that men are i n the majority In the corrections f i e l d , whereas the women predominate i n the h o s p i t a l and c l i n i c settings. Thirty-nine per cent of the l 6 l employed s o c i a l workers In the present study are diploma holders. Forty per cent of the employed s o c i a l work personnel i n the study are men, the major-i t y of whom are married. On the other hand, the married women who are working are few, and only a small percentage of t h e i r number have ch i l d r e n . The administrative positions are held mostly by men, whereas the women are In the majority In supervis-ory c a p a c i t i e s . The median salary f o r men Is $250., which i s ap-proximately $25* a month higher than the median salary f o r women i n the employed group of women graduates under study. I t i s reas-onable to predict that i n the future the graduates of the School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, who are diploma-holders, w i l l be outnumbered by ei t h e r B.S.W. or M.S.W. degree-holders. Because of our c u l t u r a l pattern and other considerations, i t i s probable that men w i l l continue to be In the majority i n administrative posts, and that the women w i l l outnumber the men i n supervisory p o s i t i o n s . I t i s probable that the present trend, with reference to settings wherein s o c i a l workers are em-ployed, w i l l continue, with the majority of graduates of both sexes entering the public welfare settings and the largest propor-t i o n of corrections w i l l , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , a t t r a c t greater numbers of men, while the h o s p i t a l and c l i n i c settings w i l l continue to a t t r a c t more women than men. CHAPTER 5. THOSE WHO RETIRE I t has been remarked that a graduate who has l e f t the f i e l d of employment f o r which he was trained Is l o s t to the profession. For s o c i a l workers t h i s does not appear to be borne out i n f a c t s . There Is considerable Indication that those who r e t i r e from the f i e l d of professional s o c i a l work s t i l l make contributions i n one way or another, but p a r t i c u l a r l y as volunteers, committee members, et cetera. A student, a f t e r graduation, may go i n a number of d i r e c t i o n s . He may practice i n the profession f o r which he has been trained, or he may enter another profession. A woman student, following graduation, may marry and leave the profession f o r which she was trained, or she may continue i n employment u n t i l i t i s necessary f o r her to devote her time to her c h i l -dren. Any student may leave the c i t y and practice the profes-sion f o r which he has been trained or enter a d i f f e r e n t f i e l d altogether. What Is p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable, however, i s that only a very few who have indicated that they have r e t i r e d from the f i e l d of s o c i a l work never practiced s o c i a l work at a l l following t h e i r graduation. The present study indicates, i n -deed, that the majority of the graduates who have r e t i r e d have remained i n the f i e l d approximately f i v e years. This i s par-t i c u l a r l y true of the diploma-holders. Even those people who have graduated with the B.S.W. or the M.S,W. degrees, i . e . , a more recent "crop* — within the l a s t few years or less • have usually remained i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work at least two years before they have l e f t the f i e l d * Table 16. Average Number of Years i n S o c i a l Work  Practice Before R e t i r i n g Degree Held Diploma B. S. W. M0 S. W« A V E R A G E N U M B E R © F Y E A R S Men 11 3 33 Women Homemakers 5 2 1 ©thers 2 2 2 Note: A few of these have r e t i r e d because of age, i l l - h e a l t h or other reasons than those men-tioned i n the study. Twenty-two per cent, or more than one i n f i v e of the 245 graduates who constitute the t o t a l of the present study, are no longer p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l work. Mostly these are women (51); there were only four such men. The majority of these graduates are married and over h a l f of them have one or two chi l d r e n . Table 17. Age Range and Degree of Homemakers and ©thers. H O M E M A K E R S O T H E R S Age Range V ' Diploma BSW MSW Diploma i f f 20 - 30 4 11 2 3 31 - 40 22 3 2 1 Over 4© 5 0 1 2 TOTAL 31 14 3 6 The age range of the majority of the women Is between 3© and 4©, whereas the age range of the men who have l e f t the f i e l d Is between 20 and 3®. The men i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group have eit h e r t h e i r B.S.W. or M.S.W. degrees. On the other hand, the women, who graduated before B.S.W. or the M.S.W. degrees were established at the School, have t h e i r diplomas. Table 18. Number of Children of Homemakers and Others. No. of Children Homemakers ©thers 0 11 7 1 13 1 2 14 1 3 7 © TOTAL: 45 9 Those who have l e f t the f i e l d because they were d i s s a t -i s f i e d are few; they are, however, s i g n i f i c a n t . Doubtless there are others besides the p a r t i c u l a r Individuals who gave information i n the survey. Two of the graduates who responded to the in q u i r i e s , mentioned that they have "temporarily r e t i r e d " because they have moved away from B r i t i s h Columbia. At the time they r e p l i e d , there were no opportunities to practice s o c i a l work i n the places to which they had gone. I t i s expected that such a s i t u a t i o n would soon be r e c t i f i e d and that they would be able to resume- t h e i r s o c i a l work. •1 - 84 -Of the nine graduates who l e f t s o c i a l work to enter other professions or occupations, the majority have returned to the profession f o r which they had previously been q u a l i f i e d , or they have entered the professions which had been l i s t e d by them as t h e i r f i r s t choice. In one instance a former clergy-man returned to the ministry. There are two examples of a d i e t i c i a n and a lawyer who trained f o r s o c i a l work a f t e r they had q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e i r o r i g i n a l professions. Although they did not practice s o c i a l work, there were indications that the s o c i a l work course was of benefit to them i n t h e i r own pro-fessions. A former teacher who studied s o c i a l work and prac-t i c e d f o r some time, l a t e r transferred from t h i s profession to an a l l i e d profession of counselling i n the schools. Married Women Who Retire As the largest proportion of those who are no longer p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l work i s made up of married women who are not engaged i n remunerative employment outside the home, i t i s proposed to study t h i s group i n more d e t a i l . Their employ-ment, (as the census now o f f i c i a l l y recognizes) i s that of "homemaker", and t h i s terminology i s used i n what follows. Seventy-three per cent of these women (out of 45 i n the study) have indicated that before t h e i r professional t r a i n -ing f o r s o c i a l work they had been e i t h e r students, or had no occupation or profession. I t Is probable that most of those who mentioned that they had no occupation had also been students. Such an assumption Is j u s t i f i e d because the home-- 85 -maker group, 69 per cent of whom are diploma graduates, are f o r the most part In the age group of 3© to 40 at the present time. In other words, they would have been i n t h e i r e a r l y twenties at the time they entered the Department of Sooial Work at the University, Table 19, Previous Occupations of A l l Graduates, A l l Retired Graduates and Homemakers  i n the Study, Previous Occupation A l l Graduates A l l Retired Graduates Homemakers No. % No. % No. % Students or none 88 36 37 59 33 73 Teaching 42 17 6 11 5 11 Other Professions 21 9 5 9 3 6 White C o l l a r 42 17 2 7. 4 9 U n s k i l l e d 39 16 4 4 0 0 Soeial Work 13 5 0 0 0 O TOTAL 245 100 54 100 45 100 I t has frequently been assumed that s o c i a l work has drawn i t s older p r a c t i t i o n e r s from other professions. Such an assumption would appear to be borne out by the fac t s of t h i s study. The survey revealed that 17 per cent of the homemaker group and 25 per cent of the t o t a l number of women under study were drawn from other professions, p a r t i c u l a r l y those open to women — teaching, nursing and home economics (including d i e t i t i a n s ) . - 86 -Table 20, Social Work Experience Prior to Training  of a l l Graduates, a l l Retired Graduates/ and Homemakers. All Graduates A l l Retired Homemakers No. No. % No. % Paid Capacity 39 17 9 17 6 13 Volunteer Capacity 26 10 10 19 8 17 Voluntary & Paid 27 15 1 2 1 2 Some Experience 102 42 20 38 15 32 No Experience 143 59 34 62 3© 67 TOTAL 245 74 45 100 Approximately 32 per cent of the homemakers had been engaged in some sort of social work before they received their formal training for the profession. Their experiences were usually In work with individuals or with groups in the religious, educatlona, or recreational fields. In a few instances they had been employed as untrained social workers in social agencies. Whereas 6l per cent of a l l the women graduates in the survey mentioned that social work was their f i r s t choice of profession, 73 per cent of the women in the home-maker group stated that this had been their f i r s t choice of profession. In general the prospective students of - 87 -s o c i a l work between the years 1929 and 1939* when the majority of the homemakers took the course, learned about the profession through contact with r e l a t i v e s and friends who had been, or were i n practice during those e a r l y days. There was l i t t l e evidence of r e c r u i t i n g f o r s o c i a l workers at that time. Today i t i s considered that r e c r u i t i n g i s one of the major functions of the profession as a whole. A small number of the women l i s t e d as t h e i r f i r s t choice when they were t r a i n i n g f o r a career, other profes-sions which were c l o s e l y a l l i e d with s o c i a l work, such as teaching, nursing, medicine and law. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s seems c l e a r . No matter which they have chosen, the a l l i e d pro-fessions or s o c i a l work, they would have been working with people, and In so doing would have f u l f i l l e d t h e i r desire f o r a career which brought them into contact with people. Training and Financing The professional t r a i n i n g of those i n the homemaker group i n the study corresponds to the t r a i n i n g received by the graduates i n the t o t a l study. The diploma graduates, whose numbers are i n the majority f o r the homemaker group, obtained t h e i r p r a c t i c a l experience with few exceptions i n e i t h e r private family or children's agencies. This was to be expected, as i t was the s o c i a l workers i n the private agencies of B r i t i s h Columbia who devoted such e f f o r t s to getting a t r a i n i n g centre established at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n order that t h e i r agencies could be st a f f e d by q u a l i f i e d personnel. I t was from the private settings that the Department drew I t s p a r t - t i m e , f r e q u e n t l y u n r e m u n e r a t e d l e c t u r e r s , and i t was t o t h e same a g e n c i e s t h a t t h e Department o f S o c i a l Work t u r n e d f o r h e l p i n p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r i t s s t u d e n t s from 1929 t o 1945. T a b l e 2 1 . Methods o f F i n a n c i n g T r a i n i n g b y Homemakers  a n d ' " O t h e r s " , A c c o r d i n g t o Degree H e l d T HOMEMAKERS OTHERS METHODS D i p -lomas D i p -lomas BSW & MSW BSW 1 & MSW R D i p -lomas D i p -lomas BSW & ^MSW BSW & MSW N o . % N o . * N o . % N o . % P r i v a t e 29 64 7 16 3 33 - mm G o v e r n -ment - am 2 4 mm - 2 22 C o m b i n a t i o n o f P r i v a t e , B u r s a r i e s , S c h o l a r s h i p s 1 2 5 11 - 2 22 C o m b i n a t i o n o f P r i v a t e , Government & U n i v e r s i t y 1 2 - - - - 1 11 None G i v e n "* tM 1 11 — TOTALS 31 68 14 31 4 44 5 55 The m a j o r i t y o f t h e women i n t h e homemaker g r o u p u n d e r s t u d y a t t e n d e d the Department o f S o c i a l Work when t h e r e was no s e t c u r r i c u l u m , when t h e r e was no " b a s i c e i g h t " , a n d when f i e l d p l a c e m e n t s , b o t h b l o c k a n d c o n c u r r e n t , were a t a premium. T h e y r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g w h i c h was t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e a t the t i m e and w h i c h was a d a p t e d t o meet t h e needs o f t h e t i m e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s t r u e t h e y may have l a c k e d knowledge - 89 -of the present-day theory which was not available at that time i n the provinceo They did gain welfare experience, however, and they l i v e d through a period of constant change and consid-erable progress i n the young profession of s o c i a l work. The t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work f o r these women was financed l a r g e l y by private means. A l l but a few of the g i r l s received ei t h e r t h e i r t o t a l or p a r t i a l assistance from r e l a t i v e s or friends or a combination of such assistance with addi t i o n a l help from the University, Only four per cent received t o t a l assistance from government resources. Government assistance became more frequent a f t e r 1945, when the Dominion Government, through the new Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s , financed t r a i n i n g and granted allowances to veterans of World War I I . In so doing, the Government of Canada, i n many instances, took over the obli g a t i o n of financing many students and a number of families were r e l i e v e d of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Residence Before and After Training Eighty-seven per cent of the graduates who are now homemakers resided i n the Province jbf B r i t i s h Columbia at the time they took t h e i r s o c i a l work at the University, The figure Is not surprising when i t i s compared with the t o t a l number of graduates i n the sample group, 72 per cent of which group l i v e d In that same Province before they undertook t h e i r professional .-2' • t r a i n i n g , f o r s o c i a l work. When the course was o r i g i n a l l y estab-l i s h e d , i t was c e r t a i n l y the understanding that the major job f o r some time to come would be to t r a i n s o c i a l work personnel - 9 0 -fo r practice i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. U n t i l 1925, when the course was established, t r a i n i n g at the University of Toronto was the closest to Vancouver, and that was two thous-and miles away. and After Training. Location P r i o r to Training Present Address Vancouver 35 20 Other B.C. 4 12 Western Canada 4 3 Eastern Canada 1 . 6 U.S.A. 1 4 Table 22. (B) Residence of "Others" Who Have Retired Before and Af t e r Training Location P r i o r to Training Present Address Vancouver 5 3 Other B.C. 1 3 Western Canada 2 1 None Given 1 - .. Eastern Canada - 2 In 1928 i t was becoming increasingly popular and s o c i a l l y acceptable f o r women not only to attend a u n i v e r s i t y , but, i n addition, to continue at a u n i v e r s i t y f o r a further year - 91 -of study. During the depression years, 1929 to 1939* women graduates of a u n i v e r s i t y found i t d i f f i c u l t to obtain suitable employment. This led some to take s o c i a l work. The Univer s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia offered courses i n teachers* t r a i n i n g and nursing to those women who were interested i n equipping them-selves f o r the practice of such professions. These avenues of study did not s u f f i c i e n t l y appeal to the women i n th i s par-t i c u l a r group to warrant t h e i r return to the University f o r a f i f t h year of study. I t i s not surprising, therefore, that they should have welcomed another course of t r a i n i n g f o r a pro-fession which was an alternative to teaching or nursing. In addition to the number who attended the Department of S o c i a l Work from Vancouver, ten out of the 45 came to the University from some distance. This f a c t indicates that there was some knowledge of the meaning of professional s o c i a l work even where there was no t r a i n i n g centre, and that the courses then offered must have been meeting the needs of the students.. Since Graduation a large number, 25, have l e f t Vancouver to l i v e i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, the United States and a l l the provinces of Canada with the exception of Newfound-land, the Maritimes and Manitoba. There are indications that the departures of the homemakers from the Ci t y of Vancouver came about as a r e s u l t of necessity or wish on the part of t h e i r husbands to leave the c i t y f o r health, business or other reasons. Community A c t i v i t i e s In spite of t h e i r home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , 47 per cent of these women have found time to engage i n community a c t i v i t i e s at the present time. Eighteen per cent, equally divided among diploma and e i t h e r B.S.W. or M.S.W. graduates, are active i n some voluntary work i n the community and serve on at least one board, committee, or are i n at least one community a c t i v i t y . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n that those with no children or s i m i l a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are more active than those women with several children or other home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The largest number of those who are engaged i n some sort of v o l -untary a c t i v i t y seemed to have chosen to work i n connection with professional s o c i a l workers and lay people i n planning f o r the general welfare of the community. I t i s understandable that they should o f f e r t h e i r services to work with professional s o c i a l workers when i t i s known that they had been s o c i a l workers before they married. Summary The voluntary a c t i v i t i e s of homemakers, ei t h e r i n d i r e c t work with individuals or group, or i n d i r e c t l y , through t h e i r influence on committees or boards, are proof of t h e i r continuing inte r e s t i n the profession and i t s goals f o r which they were trained. Through t h e i r contact with lay people, they are i n a favourable p o s i t i o n to interpret the r o l e and the pro-fe s s i o n a l goal of the p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l worker to the community. On the other hand, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r numberous contacts with people i n the community, they are admirably equipped to interpret to the professional workers the thinking and the feelings of the lay person. The homemakers, then, because of - 93 -t h e i r dual role of explaining the professional s o c i a l worker to the lay person, and the lay person to the p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l worker, are giving a service i n a way that few others can duplicate. Those who are engaged i n another profession are able to use the knowledge gained i n s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g and subse-quent practice to enhance t h e i r present work. While they are not engaged i n community a c t i v i t i e s to any great extent, i t i s assumed that t h e i r time i s f u l l y occupied i n other a c t i v i t i e s which would be connected with the profession i n which they are currently engaged. It may be anticipated that as the years go on, more and more married women w i l l enter the School of S o c i a l Work to obtain professional t r a i n i n g . In the e a r l i e r days of pro-fe s s i o n a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , some people attended the School but did not pr a c t i c e . Today the profession i s better known and i s taking i t s place among the older, more established professions. Although there continues to be evidence of d i s -crimination against married women In some agencies, i t i s a n t i c i -pated that such discrimination w i l l pass with the growth of knowl-edge and understanding on the part of the general public of what the trained s o c i a l worker i s able to contribute. The married s o c i a l work has equally as much to o f f e r i n the under-standing of c h i l d care, marital r e l a t i o n s and other problems as the married teacher to the teaching of children. CHAPTER 6 . IMPLICATIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Since 1928, tremendous progress has been made both i n the practice of s o c i a l work and the education f o r s o c i a l work i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. In many ways the education and the practice i n B r i t i s h Columbia p a r a l l e l s that i n the United States. However, these same advancements were made i n a much shorter space of time than was the case i n the United States. During the early years of s o c i a l work education and practice i n B r i t i s h Columbia was concerned with making material help available to those indiv i d u a l s or groups who were i n the lower Income brackets. This held true not only f o r t h i s province, but also f o r other countries, wherever s o c i a l work had i t s be-ginnings. S o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e and trained personnel from the United States have had a widespread influence upon the profes-sional education and practice of the s o c i a l worker i n the f i e l d . In addition, a proportion of s o c i a l workers from B r i t i s h Columbia went to the United States each year to study i n the American schools. Today the s o c i a l worker has passed from a "doer of good" f o r the "underprivileged" to a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained person who i s more f u l l y equipped with the knowledge of human re l a t i o n s than were his predecessors. He i s aware that the socio-per^onal area l i e s within h i s area of treatment, and it i s i n t h i s area that he i s able to render service to any group or i n d i v i d u a l regardless of the l e v e l of Income. - 95 The Background of the Graduates Judging from the survey made f o r the present study, 70 per cent of a l l s o c i a l work students had residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia before t r a i n i n g . The next largest percent-age came from the P r a i r i e Provinces. In the l i g h t of t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t i s not surprising that the largest flow of s o c i a l workers from the Province has been to other western Canadian areas. The United States has also drawn graduates from the B r i t i s h Columbia School, although one or two who came from the United States to B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g have remained to work In Canada. When the o v e r - a l l movement of graduates i s taken into account, i t remains encouraging to r e a l i z e that B r i t i s h Columbia has been able to o f f e r jobs to s o c i a l work graduates, and that a large percentage of the graduates have chosen to remain and work In the Province. The numbers who have l e f t the Province since graduation are nearly balanced by the numbers who have come from other areas f o r t r a i n i n g , and who have remained to take positions i n various s o c i a l welfare settings. This seems to indicate that the welfare settings In the Province have a good deal to o f f e r the graduate i n the way of working conditions and f i n a n c i a l remuneration. The Pro-v i n c i a l Services are considered to be as advanced as any i n the Dominion, and salary scales have gradually Improved, with attempts being made to meet the continuing r i s e i n the cost of l i v i n g . These aspects of the employment f i e l d , along with the favourable climate of the Province, should continue to o f f e r enough a t t r a c t i o n to the graduate to keep them "at home", as well as to draw s o c i a l workers from other areas to the Province. On the other hand, i t i s r e a l i z e d that mobility between parts of the Dominion and even between d i f f e r e n t parts of the world i s desirable. Some of the graduates included i n t h i s study have had experience elsewhere, or are at present employed outside the Province. Some of these people w i l l return to the Province while others w i l l move out, and t h i s Is to be expected as promotions and new ventures In s o c i a l work present themselves elsewhere. High standards of service throughout the Province are Important to the recruitment program of the School. I t i s the agencies themselves who have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of maintaining good public r e l a t i o n s programs, and i n t h i s way gaining the interes t of the people, and e s p e c i a l l y persons who are interested In s o c i a l work as a profession. I t also follows that agencies must o f f e r inducements to young men who are seeking a professional goal. The pre-war period of s o c i a l work i n the Province was characterized by a six to one r a t i o of women to men, and the profession was thought of as a woman's work. However, large numbers of ex-servicemen have taken t r a i n i n g since 1945 so that t h i s r a t i o has been reduced from four to three. This i s a much more favourable s i t u a t i o n , as men have a d e f i n i t e place i n the work and every e f f o r t should be made to maintain t h e i r interest and recruitment. Judging from the survey, h a l f the people who take pro-fe s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r s o c i a l work have t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n - 97 -s o c i a l work aroused through t h e i r p r i o r experiences, e i t h e r as volunteers or i n a paid capacity. The ro l e of the volunteer i n s o c i a l work i s a foremost consideration i n any agency program, and t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true of the leisure-time r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies. The volunteers are a continuing source f o r future trained workers, and through the i n i t i a t i o n of good volunteer programs, with adequate supervision, agencies can do a great deal toward future recruitment f o r the School, Church organizations and national youth movements have large s t a f f s of volunteers, and It seems l i k e l y that they w i l l become more Interested i n s o c i a l work techniques as they come more and more into contact with other recreational settings that have pr o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s t a f f s . I t was i n such a l l i e d f i e l d s of work that the largest number of graduates had t h e i r f i r s t experiences i n working with people, e i t h e r on an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c basis, or In group s i t u a -t i o n s . The largest number of those who took s o c i a l work tr a i n i n g had been u n i v e r s i t y students immediately p r i o r to entering the School, while the remainder were persons who already had professional or business t r a i n i n g . S o c i a l work as a career was the f i r s t choice of over one-half the survey t o t a l , while the remainder had o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s In some other f i e l d . However, t h i s other f i e l d was frequently one that i s today clo s e l y a l l i e d with s o c i a l work; occupations that would have meant that the person would have had close con-tacts with people, working with and f o r them. The findings seem to indicate c l e a r l y that the graduates have been persons who would have taken t r a i n i n g f o r some other type of profession-a l work had they not entered s o c i a l work. Perhaps i n the future the School w i l l be confronted with a new kind of candidate, one who has a primary i n t e r e s t i n some other profession such as teaching, law or the minis-t r y , but who w i l l regard s o c i a l work as a useful a u x i l i a r y . Such persons would become Interested In the t r a i n i n g course as being one that could equip them with new methods of working i n t h e i r chosen profession. Undoubtedly t h i s would be true of f i e l d s i n which the i n d i v i d u a l r e l i e s on interviews i n h i s day-to-day contacts with people. Casework s k i l l s have been accepted by a few as a means of o f f e r i n g better services to t h e i r c l i e n t s , congregations or parents and school c h i l d r e n . Such a development could be advantageous f o r the s o c i a l work profession, since these persons would be i n professions without whose cooperation the s o c i a l worker would lose many of h i s resources f o r services to h i s c l i e n t s . The p h i l -osophy of s o c i a l work would thus be ca r r i e d into new areas of professional p r a c t i c e , bringing about continuing improve-ment i n the stature of s o c i a l work i t s e l f . Future recruitment f o r s o c i a l work candidates becomes more important now that a decline i n School enrollment from the swollen post-war numbers has occurred. Since the com-munity agencies have a primary i n t e r e s t i n the maintenance of an adequate supply of trained personnel, i t becomes t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to carry on a l i v e l y public r e l a t i o n s program which w i l l have two main purposes. The f i r s t w i l l be to make t h e i r services known and acceptable to the public as a a whole. Secondly, the opportunities i n the f i e l d services should be brought to the attention of young people who are interested i n a professional career. The f i e l d agencies can judge those who are interested and can evaluate t h e i r pos-s i b i l i t i e s as workers, and can enable them to know the work that i s being done and how they can best f i t themselves f o r t r a i n i n g along t h i s l i n e . In addition, i t would seem advis-able to employ the services of a capable s o c i a l worker to act i n the capacity of a public r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r . He could be the representative of the professional organization, to i n t e r -pret s o c i a l work to the various groups, Including public and private school students and undergraduates at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Financing of Training The financing of s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i s now a more important consideration f o r the prospective student than i t used to be. The record shows that private resources, govern-ment grants and scholarships and bursaries are mainly r e l i e d on, and many students require a combination of a l l three. In the pre-war period, over 75 per cent of the graduates financed t h e i r t r a i n i n g wholely from private resources. The remainder used private resources along with assistance i n the form of scholarships and bursaries. The post-war period was out-standing i n the extent to which ex-service personnel were able to use governmental educational grants. The number of students using private resources alone was very small, e s p e c i a l l y among the men. A large percentage of the students combined government grants with savings or part-time employment. - 100 -In th i s per iod both men and women students made a great deal more use of part-t ime employment and summer employment. In order to gain more information on the way i n which students f inanced t h e i r education and the problems that they encountered, a spot check was made by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work i n May 1952, Quest ion-naires were sent out to a l l members of the 1951-52 graduating c l a s s . Repl ies were received from 34 B.S .W, candidates and 24 M.S.W. candidates, a 50 per cent response of the t o t a l , but a c t u a l l y a higher percentage response from the M.S.W. group. The majority of the men had financed t h e i r t r a i n i n g with B . V . A . c red i t s while the larges t proport ion of women ind ica ted that they had r e l i e d on savings to finance t h e i r f i f t h and s i x t h years at u n i v e r s i t y . Both the men and the women gave evidence that summer employment and savings had been used to supplement t h e i r primary f i n a n c i a l resources . Eighteen per cent of the B .S .W. candidates and 21 per cent of the M.S.W. candidates c a r r i e d on some part- t ime employment during t h e i r post-graduate years; Seventeen per cent of the respondents mentioned the use of s p e c i a l resources . Of t h i s group, 60 per cent were married men whose wives helped to "put them through college" by working while t h e i r husbands took the course. In a few instances pensions were l i s t e d , and i n one instance a combina-t i o n of inheri tance and sa lary from employment was mentioned. Twenty-nine per cent of the sample rece ived e i t h e r a bursary or a scho larsh ip . Twelve had f i n a n c i a l ass istance from bursar ies and f ive were i n rece ip t of scho larsh ips . Such - 101 -Table 23. B u r s a r i e s and Scholarships Held by Sample of Graduates of 1951 - 1952. B u r s a r i e s Scholarships B.S.W. M.S.W. B.S.W. M.S.W. Married Men Single Men M a r r i e d Women Single Women 0 1 4 0 0 1 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 T o t a l s 7 5 2 3 a s s i s t a n c e i s given to students as an a i d to the f i n a n c i n g of t r a i n i n g , and these persons n e c e s s a r i l y supplemented t h e i r income from other sources. The cost of the y e a r ' s t r a i n i n g v a r i e d widely. Twenty married men stated that f i g u r e s f o r the year ranged from $600. to $2900;, and the median expense was $1400. The cost of t r a i n i n g f o r the s i n g l e men ranged between $600. and $1200., with a median cost of $1,000; the l a t t e r f i g u r e was a l s o the median f o r the s i n g l e women. No l e s s than 4© per cent of the t o t a l stated that they i n c u r r e d debts; these ranging from $100. to $1,000., with a median f i g u r e of $200. Apparently more men than women found themselves i n debt at the end of the y e a r . In some Instances no debts were i n -c u r r e d , but there was a large expenditure of savings. Many stated that they had to give up e s s e n t i a l s such as medical and dental c a r e , h o l i d a y s and the purchasing of a home. The students canvassed were asked to make suggestions or comments about the f i n a n c i a l burden of t r a i n i n g , and how they f e l t i t might be a l l e v i a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the second year of t r a i n i n g . Two main suggestions appear i n these - 102 -responses: 1. Students should be paid during t h e i r second year of t r a i n i n g , as they are q u a l i f i e d professional people. 2. Pees or sa l a r i e s should be paid by the agencies to those persons who agree to work .for the agency between t h e i r f i r s t and second year of t r a i n i n g , with the guar-antee that they w i l l also take employment with the agency a f t e r completion of t h e i r course or second year. In future years i t i s reasonable to anticipate that most students w i l l enter s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g d i r e c t l y from t h e i r undergraduate years. The average student w i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to finance two years of post-graduate t r a i n i n g , as the cost of education i s increasing. This s i t u -ation poses plenty of problems f o r the students who want and need further t r a i n i n g , f o r the School, and f o r the pro-fession as a whole, and sooner or l a t e r , f o r the employing agencies. At the time of t h i s writing, Government grants f o r general s o c i a l work education have been discontinued i n Canada, therefore eliminating one important form of f i n a n c i a l assistance to students. In some quarters, consideration Is being given to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of paid interneships f o r students. There are good arguments f o r and against such a plan, and they cannot be discussed here,, except to say that t h i s Is s t i l l f a r from being a s e t t l e d matter, and i f i n i t i a t e d , w i l l be done on a s t r i c t l y experimental b a s i s . M There are s t i l l many persons p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l work with one year of t r a i n i n g and i t i s hoped that they w i l l return •^In the United States some states f u r n i s h grants which permit employees to take extensive t r a i n i n g , allowing f o r a good standard of l i v i n g i n the process. - 103 -for their second year. To do so many wi l l need financial assistance and at present their i s l i t t l e encouragement along these lines. Generally, employing agencies as yet have not worked through any concrete plans whereby their staff i s able to return to school for training. In a very few instances, the Federal Health Grants to the Provincial Governments* De-partments of Health and Welfare have been used to permit some special people to get training grants in social work. Since i t l i e s heavily with the employing agencies to be con-stantly aware of their responsibilities to the professional standards of their services, i t is in their own interests that they participate activiely in recruitment and staff training, and in so doing, aid prospective social workers, and aid one-year graduates to get the needed financial backing for further studies. On the whole, the future of social work training w i l l not be bright unless the financial problems that currently face a student considering two years of post-graduate work can be provided with a solution. The Field of Employment ' The f i e l d of social work employment has at the present time reached various stages of development, as some fields are well established and stable, while others are in a state of flux, in an attempt to find their place in the over-a l l welfare program. Some agencies are experimenting with new methods and new programs, while others carry on in their traditional manner, along patterns set down and established in earlier years. A l l agencies share the common problem of - 104 -f i l l i n g t h e i r s t a f f positions with p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers. Since 1946, variances i n professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s have arisen i n the area of determining job q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n view of the i n i t i a t i o n of the M.S.W. degree i n s o c i a l work at that time. The place f o r , and the import-ance of these persons i n ,the o v e r - a l l picture does not seem to be too clear as yet, but many agencies, e s p e c i a l l y the private, are ra p i d l y focusing t h e i r programs and s t a f f development on the employment of M.S.W. graduates e x c l u s i v e l y . This i s also true of the spe c i a l i z e d areas of the P r o v i n c i a l Government services, where new job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are i n eff e c t r e l a t i n g s a l a r i e s d i r e c t l y to the degree held and the job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Two years of s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g are now required before the School considers a candidate to be a f u l l y q u a l i -f i e d s o c i a l worker. Public and private agencies have accepted t h i s standard i n d i f f e r e n t degress, but Indications at present are that the majority of employment agencies have accepted It i n p r i n c i p l e . P r a c t i c a l l y , though, the M.S.W. graduates are not available f o r employment, and the agencies must continue to hire graduates with one year of tra i n i n g and untrained people. Contrary to the common b e l i e f that s o c i a l agencies r e c r u i t employees from students who take t h e i r f i e l d work placements with them, t h i s survey has shown that the largest majority of students take t h e i r f i r s t jobs with agencies other than the one i n which they did t h e i r f i e l d work. The - 105 -important exception to t h i s i s the P r o v i n c i a l welfare services, since t h i s i s the largest employing agency, and since they employ one-year graduates whose t r a i n i n g best suits them to work i n such a se t t i n g . However there i s some evidence that M.S.W. graduates tend to take t h e i r f i r s t positions with t h e i r placement agencies, or at least with one o f f e r i n g the same type of service. This i s understandable since second-year placements are more l i k e l y to be selected by them on the basis of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t i n that p a r t i c u l a r area of service. Salaries of s o c i a l workers are undoubtedly going to continue to be a matter of professional concern. They are not high i n r e l a t i o n to some other professions and i n r e l a t i o n to the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g expenditure on the part of the student. Over and above t h i s , the M.S.W. graduate has had si x years of intensive t r a i n i n g , which has given him s k i l l s andknowledge that enable him to do intensive s o c i a l work. Agency c l i e n t s are receiving professional services, and f o r the rendering of these services, the worker should be s u f f i c i e n t l y remun-erated. Within the salary structure i t s e l f , t h i s survey has given indications of a sex-wage d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f o r the same job being done. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y seen i n the f a c t that supervisory and administrative jobs tend to be held by women and men respectively. The top s a l a r i e s are being received by men i n administrative positions, averaging $25. more per month than women i n the same p o s i t i o n . I t i s - 106 -d i f f i c u l t to determine the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n supervisors* s a l a r i e s , since the majority of these positions are at present being held by women, and no concrete deductions can be drawn. In comparing the s a l a r i e s of the workers, super-visors and administrators i n the sample group, i t i s noticed that the administrators receive the highest s a l a r i e s . An explanation f o r t h i s may be that agencies consider that the administrator who assumes greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the personnel under him has the p r i v i l e g e of c a l l i n g f o r a larger salary, or i t may be that the men graduates who are i n the majority i n the area of administration, refuse to give service f o r a l e s s e r salary. I t would seem that the combination of the two reasons, the men on the one hand demanding higher s a l a r i e s , and the employing agency on the other hand considering that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r personnel Is worth a higher remuneration, means that the work with the individuals or groups or the supervisory function of enabling others to render more e f f e c t i v e service i n d i r e c t contact with individuals or groups i s thought of as a less important part of the whole agency function, and therefore demanding of a lower salary. Professional Advancement Forty-three per cent of the survey t o t a l have membership i n the Canadian Association of S o c i a l Workers, t h e i r professional organization. At present t h i s organization aims at the u n i f i c a t i o n and betterment of professional standards i n a l l areas of s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . This l i m i t e d - 107 -membership possibly indicates a lack of i n t e r e s t on the part of the professional s o c i a l workers as to t h e i r status within the profession and with other professional bodies. The s o c i a l work profession i s young, the professional organ-i z a t i o n i s i n Its formative years, and needs the support of a l l s o c i a l workers i f i t i s to be t r u l y representative of the profession, and i f i t i s to act f o r them on matters of concern to a l l . Training f o r s o c i a l work i s on a professional l e v e l , and yet s o c i a l workers do not seem too sure of themselves as professional people. They therefore f a i l to see them-selves i n r e l a t i o n to other professional people, and conse-quently f a i l to understand the significance of a professional organization as one that could speak f o r them as a whole, Just as other professional organizations are t r u l y represent-ative of t h e i r membership, and are able to act and speak on •their behalf. Professional membership i s one way i n which the "growing pains" can be treated, the s e t t i n g i n which the s o c i a l workers can evaluate themselves and t h e i r work, and reach some conclusions on the problems and questions that have been raised by t h i s survey, questions and problems that are not foreign nor unknown to many who have been c l o s e l y linked with the C.A.S.W. since i t s beginnings. (Table 24) Community A c t i v i t i e s It seems to be expected that s o c i a l workers, more than other professional people, should take an active part i n a l l community l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y where i t concerns the Table 24. Men and Women Graduates, Members of C.A.S.W. According to Positi o n and Begree (104*T ~~ W 0 M E N M E N Pos i t i o n Diploma BSW MSW 2nd year No Thesis T o t a l Diploma BSW MSW 2nd year No Thesis Total Administrator 3 1 2 1 7 4 1 5 1 11 Supervisor 8 3 3 2 16 2 3 3 0 8 Worker 5 22 4 4 35 1 10 5 1 17 Teacher 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 , 0 ' Homemaker 0 3 0 0 3 © 0 0 0 _ - 0 Others 1 0 © 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 Students 3 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 r 0 TOTAL 20 30 10 7 67 7 15 13 2 37 - 108 -welfare of the people as a whole. The present survey c e r t a i n l y seems to support t h i s b e l i e f . Those persons who are members of C,A,S,W, indicated that the largest proportion of t h e i r community a c t i v i t i e s consisted of work on committees within the organization. These committees are i n some cases d i r e c t l y concerned with s o c i a l services to the pu b l i c , while others are related to professional aspects of s o c i a l work, which eventually has i t s e f f e c t on the c l i e n t . Board membership on public agencies, private agencies or non-social-work organizations i s n e g l i g i b l e . The people not a f f i l i a t e d with C.A,S 0¥, did mostly volunteer work, and the emphasis, e s p e c i a l l y amongst the men, was on work with youth and church groups, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or on organizational committees. P r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers are obliged to give a great deal of t h e i r time to the job, Gase loads are heavy and the work i s strenuous and mentally f a t i g u i n g . Therefore i t i s understandable that many s o c i a l workers do not p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n community a f f a i r s , but rather use t h e i r spare time to further i n d i v i d u a l recreational i n t e r e s t s . A well-balanced s o c i a l l i f e i s e s s e n t i a l to professional people i f they are to give s a t i s f a c t o r y services to the public during working hours. The s o c i a l worker has knowledge and resources at hand that can be u t i l i z e d b e n e f i c i a l l y i n times of community stress, and at such times he has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a c i t i z e n to make hi s stand known, and to lead others to an objective approach to the problem. Whether the s o c i a l worker i s functioning at the - 110 -l o c a l , regional, national or international l e v e l , i t should be a matter of i n d i v i d u a l choice and capacity. Losses from the Profession -Every profession has losses from i t s membership, but there are several types of a t t r i t i o n . S o c i a l work i s a r e l a t i v e l y young profession; there have been few deaths, but, also, many women marry. Twenty-two per cent have r e -t i r e d from the f i e l d of professional s o c i a l work. Pour per cent have gone into other professions or occupations, and 18 per cent are engaged i n f u l l - t i m e domestic duties. It has been seen that these graduates, although no longer engaged i n s o c i a l work, are nevertheless contributing to the general welfare of the community. Those who have gone into other professions or occupations have, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g and experience, gained a knowledge of human rel a t i o n s which should prove to be an asset to them i n t h e i r work with people. The homemakers, i t has been seen, v through t h e i r community a c t i v i t i e s , are rendering services to any community i n which they reside. It would seem, however, that the services of the homemaker group could be u t i l i z e d to an even greater extent than they are at the present time. A most necessary and time-consuming part of any s o c i a l work program of the School and agencies i s the recruitment of suitable personnel as candidates f o r t r a i n i n g . What better resource i s there to undertake t h i s important task than the homemakers? These women, i n spite of t h e i r home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , have shown - I l l -by t h e i r active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a c t i v i t i e s , and th e i r ready response to the survey questionnaires, that s o c i a l work continues to be of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to them. Because of t h e i r t r a i n i n g and experience, these persons are admirably equipped to interpret to prospective students the meaning of so c i a l work, and what Is entail e d i n the tr a i n i n g program f o r s o c i a l work. To date, the homemaker has pa r t i c i p a t e d i n community a c t i v i t i e s on a voluntary basis; no concerted e f f o r t has been made to organize t h i s group into an active body which could be ca l l e d upon to render sp e c i a l kinds of services i n which they could use t h e i r t r a i n i n g and knowledge. The organization of th i s " s o c i a l work reserve" i s a task which has not been undertaken nor considered and one which would perhaps be a worthwhile project of a l o c a l chapter of C.A.S.W. Graduates" Views on Professional Training at the U.B.C. School Of the 245 respondents, 140 graduates r e p l i e d to the inquiry about t h e i r views on the t r a i n i n g while they were at the school. (Those who are not i n practice at present, f o r reasons of marriage, and the students who currently are attending the School, were not asked f o r t h e i r opinions.) Forty-one graduates, the majority of whom had t h e i r M.S.W. degrees, stated that they were f u l l y s a t i s f i e d with the courses at the School. The B.S.W. graduates made up the greatest number who had some c r i t i c i s m of the teachings at the School. The M.S.W. graduates and the diploma holders were equally represented i n the number o f f e r i n g suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s with reference to the t u i t i o n at the School. - 112 -Eighteen of the graduates with t h e i r B,S,W. degrees who attended the School between the years 1946 and 1951* mentioned that there was too great a discrepancy between classroom theory and f i e l d work p r a c t i c e . Only three diploma holders and three M.S.W. graduates offered a si m i l a r c r i t i c i s m . It i s not surprising that such c r i t i c i s m should be made by graduates with one-year t r a i n i n g at a school where the courses are planned to equip a graduate f o r practice i n any sett i n g a f t e r two years of t r a i n i n g . The remark about the discrepancy between theory and practice would Indicate that e i t h e r a stu -dent, during one year of professional post-graduate studies i n s o c i a l work, i s not able to assimilate 'and integrate the material offered i n such a short span of time, or else the school and the agencies are not working together as cl o s e l y as Is necessary i n t h e i r combined e f f o r t to achieve t h e i r common goal — the professional t r a i n i n g of the s o c i a l worker. As so few M.S.W. graduates expressed such an opinion, i t Is f a i r l y safe to conclude that the one year of t r a i n i n g at the School at the present time does not provide s u f f i c i e n t time to the student to Integrate classroom theory and f i e l d work p r a c t i c e . Indeed, nine of the B.S.W. graduates stated that they r e a l i z e d the necessity f o r a second year of t r a i n i n g at the School, As the respondents i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group have been p r a c t i c i n g from one to f i v e years, i t would be f a i r to assume that they have had time to discover the lacks i n th e i r professional t r a i n i n g . - 113 -Twelve B.S.W. graduates who attended the School between the years 1947 and 1951* mentioned a need f o r " s p e c i a l -i z a t i o n " . They suggested such " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s " as medical, p s y c h i a t r i c , public welfare and administration. Had they been able to attend the School f o r another year, I t i s probable that t h e i r needs would have been met. In the f i r s t year of tra i n i n g , the course i s geared to introduce the students to so c i a l work and to teach them some of i t s basic p r i n c i p l e s , both In the classroom and i n supervised experience i n the f i e l d . In the second year, the student, depending upon his a b i l i t i e s , capacities and in t e r e s t s , i s placed In one of the settings where he Is able to get more advanced t r a i n i n g , such as h o s p i t a l c l i n i c s , families and children's agencies, and i n the area of corrections. In addition to gaining more knowledge i n the various " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s " referred to, he may learn something further of administrative procedures both In the classroom and i n t h e i r f i e l d work placements. Some M.S.W. graduates, however, (four In number) also mentioned a need f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Their request was f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n In " i n s t i t u t i o n a l " care, group work and public r e l a t i o n s . I t was noticed that those In the B.S.W. and the M.S.W. group who suggested more " s p e c i a l -i z a t i o n " were employed i n settings which were somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the supervised f i e l d work that they had had while i n tr a i n i n g . Seventeen diploma graduates who responded to the question, gave i t as t h e i r opinion that the t r a i n i n g at the time they took the course (1932-1941) was adequate to meet the needs of the time. But they added that they r e a l i z e d that - 114 -there had been advancements i n the professional thinking and practice since the time when they had attended the De-partment of So c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Requests f o r Courses f o r P r a c t i c i n g S o c i a l Workers The graduates were asked to make suggestions or comments regarding the courses they desired to take. The f i r s t choice f o r a course to be given by a member of the s t a f f of the School was f o r a course i n casework. The second choice, "medical and p s y c h i a t r i c information", and the t h i r d choice, "administration of Soc i a l Agencies." I t i s understandable that the majority of the respondents should ask f o r a course i n casework when i t i s r e c a l l e d that the majority of those who re p l i e d to the question as well as the greatest number of those p r a c t i c i n g i n the f i e l d are caseworkers. In addition, there being far-reaching developments i n casework i n the l a s t two decades f o r one reason and another. The request f o r a course i n medical and ps y c h i a t r i c information i s not surprising because of the rapid development and expansion of s o c i a l work i n the various hospi t a l s , c l i n i c s and health centres. The t h i r d choice, the request f o r a course i n administration of s o c i a l agencies would be expected, inasmuch as so many of the graduates, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the public welfare settings, are r i s i n g to positions of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Knowledge of administration i s an e s s e n t i a l part of any s o c i a l worker's equipment i f he i s to provide adequate services f o r the c l i e n t 0 and the agency. - 115 -The l i m i t e d number of respondents of the sample group who requested a course i n research i s somewhat surprising, when i t i s r e a l i z e d how great the need i s f o r research i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work. I t i s necessary that research be done by those q u a l i f i e d i n s o c i a l work research i n order to discover facts about the qu a l i t y of the per-formance of the p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers. In addition, through research, i t i s possible to discover whether or not the agency r e a l l y i s providing the required service. As well as meeting these needs, research i n s o c i a l work should serve as a means to the in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the value and of the services of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l work personnel i n many communities and f i e l d s (not necessarily only the recog-nized agencies). Not u n t i l the professional s o c i a l workers are able to present facts about the profession i n a clear, concise and concrete form w i l l the services of the profes-sional s o c i a l workers be f u l l y understood and accepted by other professional persons and lay people. Today i t i s generally considered that a s o c i a l worker i s not f u l l y trained u n t i l he has undertaken two years of post-graduate study at an accredited school of s o c i a l work. The majority of the American schools of s o c i a l work o f f e r a two-year course and only grant a degree a f t e r the success-f u l completion by a student of the f u l l two years. One of the Canadian Schools, MeGill University, recently (1952-1953) abolished the B.S.W. degree and Is granting only the M.S.W. degree from now on. I t i s reasonable that other u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada w i l l follow s u i t . - 116 -It i s known that the various agencies i n the c i t i e s and towns throughout the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia required trained s o c i a l workers to s t a f f the ever-expanding developments of s o c i a l welfare i n t h i s Province. I t i s further known that each year since the B.S.W. degree was i n s t i t u t e d , large numbers of graduates with t h e i r B.S.W. degrees have f a i l e d to return to the School f o r one reason or another to complete t h e i r professional t r a i n i n g . With t h i s t r a i n i n g they were acceptable to the employing agencies, and by the very fa c t that they were granted a s o c i a l work degree, encouraged the b e l i e f that the graduate had completed t r a i n i n g . On the other hand, i t i s agreed that two years of professional t r a i n i n g i s necessary to equip the graduate to render service of the best q u a l i t y . I t would seem advisable to abolish the B.S.W. degree and grant only an M.S.W. degree. If t h i s i s to be done, i t w i l l be necessary to have even closer cooperation between the school, the employed professional personnel and the profession as a whole, including the C.A.S.W. membership. One of the f i r s t steps would appear to be to secure more bursaries or scholarships or some form of f i n a n c i a l assistance i n order that a student may undertake the two years of post-graduate t r a i n i n g without causing too great a hardship on himself or his family. In addition to assistance f o r the present-day student who i s entering the school f o r the f i r s t time, i t i s necessary to give consideration to the p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers who wish to return to the School to acquaint themselves with recent developments i n order - 117 -that they may keep up with the present thinking and practice of the profession. The majority of the p r a c t i c i n g s o c i a l workers who do not have t h e i r M.S.W. degree have indicated that they would l i k e to return f o r a second year, hut would be unable to do so unless they received some f i n a n c i a l assistance. More than ever, the profession as a whole, including the f a c u l t y of the School, need to continue t h e i r j o i n t thinking regarding the amount of t r a i n i n g that i s required before a graduate of an accredited school may c a l l himself a professional s o c i a l worker. Should i t continue to be accepted that one year of t r a i n i n g i s s u f f i c i e n t to equip a s o c i a l worker f o r at least some kinds of jobs, i t i s to be expected that the present trend w i l l continue whereby a large proportion of f i r s t - y e a r graduates discontinue t h e i r formal education and do not return to the School. On the other hand, i f the B.S.W. degree i s to be abolished and the requirements of two years* t r a i n i n g at the school are set up as the necessary requirements f o r a trained s o c i a l worker, then there w i l l have to be some means devised whereby the student may continue at the School for two years. In the long run, the c l i e n t s , the profession and the community would benefit, should the decision be reached that a degree would be granted only a f t e r two years of t r a i n i n g . A personally suitable, f u l l y trained person i s an asset; a p a r t i a l l y trained person could become a l i a b i l i t y . - 118 -A P P E H B I X "A" BASIC TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT - 119 -Table 1. Residence P r i o r to Training of  University of B r i t i s h Columbia  School of So c i a l Work Graduates, 84 men: l b l women. RESIDENCE PRIOR TO TRAINING TOTAL AREA M E N No. 1 W O M E N No,, % MEN No. ? WOMEN No. % B.C. W.C. E.C. ,U « S.A. Elsewhere 59 15 7 1 2 70 182 8 1 3 117 3© 10 3 1 72 19 6 2 1 59 24 125 )10 111 47 44 18 "85 I W 84 34 l b l 65 TOTAL l b l Table 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Survey T o t a l (245)  By Sex and Period of Training 84 men : 161 women. SEX DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE GROUP (245) l 6 l Women. 84 Men Survey T o t a l of 245 Graduates 1929 - 1952 Diploma 1929 Graduates - 1945 B.S.W. and M.S.W. 1 Graduates 1945 - 1952 WOMEN MEN WOMEN . MEN WOMEN MEN No. $> No. % No. £ No. % No. £ No. % 161 66 84 34 61 25 11 4 10© 41 73 3© - 120 -Table 3. Graduates' S o c i a l Work Experiences  P r i o r to Training , Kinds of Men Women Total Experience No. i> No. •* No. $ Paid Capacity 22 26 17 11 39 17 Volunteer Capacity 10 12 16 10 26 10 Voluntary & Paid 10 12 27 17 37 15 Some Experience 42 50 60 37 102 42 No Experience 42 50 101 63 143 58 To t a l 84 100 161 100 245 100 84 = 100 3.61 " 1 0 0 Table 4. P r i o r Occupation and F i r s t Choice M E N W 0 M E N T 0 T A L S Pr i o r F i r s t Choice P r i o r F i r s t Choice P r i o r F i r s t Choiee Occupations No. % No. % No. % No. % No. No. % Students 12 5 3 1 76 31 2 1 88 36 5 2 White C o l l a r 14 6 7 3 28 11 3 1 42 17 10 4 Teaching 15 6 15 6 27 11 22 9 42 17 37 15 S o c i a l Work 8 3 32 13 5 2 98 4© 13 5 130 53 Other Professional 8 3 25 10 13 5 31 13 21 9 56 23 U n s k i l l e d 27 11 2 0 12 5 5 2 39 16 7 2 TOTALS 84 34 84 33 161 65 161 66 245 100 255 99 Table 5 . Methods of Financing Social Work Training, Post-War and Pre-War Periods FINANCING OF SOCIAL WORK TRAINING METHODS OF FINANCING Survey T o t a l (1929-1952) BSW & MSW Grad-uates (1945-1952) Diploma:, Graduates (1929-1945) MEN . WOMEN MEN WOMEN MEN WOMEN NO. % NO. % NO. % NO. NO. % NO. % Private Resources 21 9 98 40 15 6 '48 20 6 2 50 21 Veterans' Grants 17 7 6 2 17 7 * 6 2 - . - -Bursaries and Scholarships 1 - 2 1 1 - - 1 f - .- - 1 1 Private and School 13 5 37 15 9 4 ,28 10 4 2 9 4 Private & Veterans' Grants 21 9 9 4 20 8 9 - • 4 1 «• -Private, Veterans* and School Grants 6 2 2 1 6 2 1 - - «•» • 1 1 Veterans'* and School Grants 1 5 2 3 1 5 f 2 M » - «M> «M> Nothing Given 2 1 2 1 2 1 ! 2 ' 1 - MM TOTALS 84 34 161 66 73 29 100 45 11 4 61 24 - 122 Table 6. Sex-Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of l 6 l Practicing  S o c i a l Workers of the University .of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Soc i a l Work MALE FEMALE TOTALS AGE NO. % NO. £ NO. # 20 - 30 30 - 40 40 / 23 35 35 54 7 i i 4s" 50 . 26 27 22 23 71 44 61 J6 29 lcS TOTAL 65 loo 96 ioo 161 ioo Table 7« Type of Program by Sex and Setting of  l b l P r a c t i c i n g S o c i a l Workers. TYPE OF PROGRAM Men Women Totals No, % No. % NO. i: £ Medical Psychiatric. Child Welfare Family Welfare Group Work Public Welfare . Corrections Social Work Teaching Community Organ-iz a t i o n s Other 4 2 3 2 6 4 1 1 5 3 29 17 13 6 1 1 2 1 1- 1 io 6 12 7 14 9 10 6 * 5 : 37 23 3 2 l l •a* mm 1 1 14 g 15 9 20 13 1 1 I 13 <5 66 ... 4o 16 10 2 2 2 1 2 2 TOTALS 65 4p 96 60. 161 100 - 123 -A P P E N D I X B. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SURVEY ANALYSIS - 124 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School of Social Work January 21, 1952 A sot of studies on the U.B.C. School of Social Work graduates is "being carried out by a group of Master of Social Work students this year. As a past graduate, would you please help us by giving us -Sic following basic information immediately? 1. .Present name (Miss, Mrs.,- Mr.) Given names) (Surname, ploaso print) 2. Present address (Number) Street) (City or Town) (Province or State) 3. Are you practising Social Work?.. F u l l time.».i Part time # (If explanation needed, add here) 4, Name of agency at which employed 5. Address of agency 6. Please indicate i n the chart below, the category or categories of work in which you are engaged. (Tick one or more i f necessary)-Setting MethocT----^^ Medical Psychi-atri c Child Welfare Family Welfare Recre-ation Public Welfare Correc-tions S.W.tea-ching Rehabil-itation Other (Specify) Case Work Group Work .Community Organization j Research i ! 7. Is your work primarily: Administration....Supervision....Practice.... ? 8. If you are employed in other than Social Work, please specify # #(If f u l l time domestic duties, entor ;rHomomakor") 9. Did you register in.tho C.A.S.W. registration during 1950? Yos.... No It would .bo greatly appreciated if you would-be willing to supply further information for these studies later. If so, would you plca.se indicate here. Yes No.... Many thanks for your co-operation, Leonard Marsh, Acting Director. - 125 -THE UNITEISITY 01 BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER; CANADA SCHOOL OF SOCIAL tfOHK February 21, 1952. Dear Graduate: Thank you for your prompt reply to our f i r s t request for information. We are making our second request now} and, as you w i l l soo, wo are seeking detailed information from which, we can make a systematic assessment of social work job opportunities, tho calibre of graduates, and their views about the value of professional training. I'Je feel sure we can enlist your aid. A prompt return w i l l help the "research toon" to get tabulations of this complicated material completed as soon as possible. A l l individual replies arc of course confidential, and tho material w i l l be used in anonymous form for the compilation purposes only. When the results arc written up, we shall be glad to make them available to past graduates in whatever seems the most suitable way. Please accept my appreciation for your contribution. Obviously there never was a study for which i t was truer that "without your co-operation, this study would never have beon possible". Yours sincerely, Leonard Marsh, Act i ng D ire ct or. • - 126 ~ SmrET OF SOCIAL SB0HK GRADUATES  Part I (To be answered by a l l recipients) A. Background 1. Age: 21-30...: 31-40...j Over 40... 2. Marital Status 3, If married, number of children (under 20) Other dependents, 4. Principal employment prior to training for social work , 5. Residence prior to entering the School of Social Work (UBC).... (city or toim & province) 6. From what university did you obtain your: (a) Diploma of Social Work ......... (b) Bachelor of Social Work (c) Master of Social Work (d) Other (specify) 7. What experience in social work, prior to professional training, did you havo in ; (a) paid capacity (b) voluntary capacity 8, Was social woifc your f i r s t choice as a profession? Yes No.... If "no" what was your fi r s t choice? , 9. Whore wore your concurrent field work placements while in social work training? (a) Diploma (b)BS.W. .....(c) M.S.W. 10. If you did a block placement: (a) At what agency (b) length of placement (months) ........ (c) Typo of work (casework, groupwork, etc.) 11. Was your training period financed by (a) D.V.A. grants... (b) Savings •(c) Assistance from relatives or friends...... (d) Part-time employment (e) Bursary...,, (f) Scholarship....(g) Combination of above (specify) (h) Others (spo cify) 12. Number of yoars in social work practice,.,... Typo of work (as in 10(c)) 13. Your Nome Telephone Number (if Vancouvor) If married sinco leaving school, give maiden name B. For Persons at Present Undertaking or Contemplating Further Study 1. If attending a School of Social Work: (a) Nome of School" (b) In which year are you registered? 1st,.,. 2nd,.., 3rd.,,. Completing thosis.... 2. If not attending a School of Social Work, aro you interested in: (a) Obtaining an M.S.W. ...-. (b) Attending social work institutes... (c) Other (specify) 3. If you desire further training, approximately what percentage of the cost could you furnish from your own resources Would yea nood (a) a grant... (b) a loan. C. Community Aotivitios (1) Board Momborship"(spocify) (2) Commlttoos (specify) (3) ©thor Yoluntoor IJork (spocify) Professional affilitations in social work Othor professional affiliations •D* If you Havo Loft the Profession of Social Work, please indicato reasons: (a) marriago..... (b) dissatisfaction(spocify) (c) hoalth reasons (d) to travel......... (c) Other (specify). - 127 -SURVEY OF SOCIAL WORK GRADUATES ParT II ' (To be answered by those engaged in social work, f u l l or part time) I. Present Position ( f i l l out whicheversection applies) (a) Average monthly caseload .......... or Number of groups ; (1B) Approximate number of cases which receive intensive casework service..; (c) In supervision, do you derive most benefit with reference to: i . Increased knowledge of office routine i i . Administrative policies i i i . Knowledge of resources within the agency....... iv. Knowledge of resources i n the community generally v. Increased -skills in the practice of , social work ; v i . Other (specify) It'- ^ SB^li^ ®F, (a) How many persons i n the following categories do you supervise? i . Accredited School graduates 1... vi Volunteers..».. i i . In-trained workers v i . Cler i c a l staff i i i . Students from a school. ........ (name of school) iv . In-training students v i l . Other (specify) * (b) Do you also carry a caseload? Yes... No... If "yes" approximate size (c) Do you supervise any groups? Yes ... No... If "yes" how many ................. C. Mministrato_r (a) How many staff members arc you responsible for i n the following categories? i . Accredited school graduates 'V. Untrained workers - i i . In-trained workers... v i . Volunteers. i i i . Students from a school v i i . Clerical staff... Name of school viii.Others (specify) iv. In-training students (b) In your agency, i s your department or section represented on the planning or policymaking committee (s):. i . by the administrator.......... by the supervisor i i . by others (specify) i i i . not at a l l . . . . D. Teacher (Social Work)' (a) At viia-t school are you located? ........... (b) Yfliat subjects do you teach?'. (c) What other dut ies do you have? • (d) Is your work part time.......... f u l l time [I.. Salary Range. (for a l l groups A - D)' Please indicate in which of the following brackets your present monthly salary f a l l s : (Include cost of liv i n g bonus, i f any: Exclude; a l l regular deductions) (|15O-200 ) (§200-250 :.) (#250-300 .) (|300-350 ..-)• (4350-400.. ....) (§400-450 •)• ( $ 4 5 0 - 5 0 0 . . . . . . ) Cost of living bons- $ ........ - 123 -III* Your views' on Professional Training. 1; In your opinion did the course you took at the School of Social Work moot your needs for doing a successful job in the field? (aj Fully ........... (b) Partly ............ (c) Unsatisfactorily...a..... 2. If "partly" or "unsatisfactorily" ploaso indicate reasons.,... ..; •... ..... 3 i What subjects do you think could bo added beheficially to the curriculum? i i . . i i. : . . . * ii i ; i. i : i . : i . . . . t i 1 i . :. . . . . i . i . . . . i . . . i i Would you derive benefit froni courses given by the staff from the School in • the following courses? (please indicate numerically in order of preference) Casework*.... i Groupwork..... Conuauiaity Organization..... Administration of Social Agencies.... Medical and psychiatric Ihformation..ii Legal Aspects of • Social Work i..... Ethics in Social Work ..... Research Others (spo cify) ............................................................ 5. In your opinion, is thoro a close enough contact between you and the School with reference to practice in your profession? Yes;...; No...-.'i. If notj could you suggest any moans by which this, could be rectified? 1^'« Social Work Experience Positions held in the social work f i e l d since graduation in social work: Position Hold Agency ' Location ^ £ P _ ° £ „ 1 ° ^ L - No*, of Years (as- in pt.1,10(c)) i i - 129 -A P P E N D I X C . AGENCIES REPRESENTED IN THE SURVEY - 130 ~ Agencies Represented i n the Survey Public Welfare Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, S o c i a l Welfare Branch (23 branches represented) Department of National Health and Welfare,^ V i c t o r i a , B.C. , • Ottawa, Ont. c Department of Veterans* Affairs,, Vancouver, B.C. Family Allowances Di v i s i o n , Department of National Health and Welfare, Regina, Sask. City of Vancouver Social Service Department, Vancouver; B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Training School f o r Mental Defectives, Red Deer, Alberta. C i t y of Winnipeg Public Welfare Department, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Federal Government, Vancouver, B.C. V i c t o r i a C i t y Welfare, V i c t o r i a , B.C. , Chil d Welfare Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C. City of Calgary, Children's Aid Department, Calgary, Alberta. Catholic Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, B.C. Child Welfare (cont'd.) Child Welfare Branch, Department of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Province of Saskatchewan. Children's Aid Society of Yellow Knife Administrative D i s t r i c t , Yellow Knife, N.W.T. Children's R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Martha and Mary Home, Paulsbo, Washington, U.S.A. Kent County Children's Aid Society, Chatham, Ontario. Children's Aid Society of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario. Child 1Welfare Department, City of Gary Public Schools, Gary, Indiana, U.S.A. -Children's Aid Society of York County, Toronto, Ontario. Family Welfare Family Welfare Bureau, Vancouver, B.C. Samaritan Club of Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario. Family Service of St. Paul, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. Family Bureau of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Family Service Bureau, Edmonton, Alberta. Family Welfare (Cont'd.) Family Society of Seattle, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Family and Children's Service, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Group Work Gordon Neighbourhood House, Vancouver, ; B. C. Y.M.i.Y.W.CA., Fort Arthur, Ontario, Alexandra Neighbourhood House, Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver East Community, Y.W.C.A., Vancouver, B.C. City-of Edmonton Recreation Commission, Edmonton, A l t a , National Council, Y.W.G.A., Torontoj Ontario. Y.M.C.A. Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. Corrections P r o v i n c i a l I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys, Port Coquitlam, B.C. Corrections Branch, Department of Social Welfare and Rehabil-i t a t i o n , Province of Saskatch-ewan. The John Howard Society of Alberta, Calgary, Alberta. Attorney-General 1s Department, Manitoba P r o v i n c i a l Government. Vancouver Family Court, Vancouver, B, C. Corrections, (Cont' d.) Probation Branch, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia - Abbotsford, B Vancouver, B.C..; Eenticton, B.C. Vernon, B.C. Oakalla Prison Farm, South Burnaby, B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia Borstal Association, Vancouver, B.C. Jackson County Juvenile Court, Jackson County Court House, Medford, Oregon, U.S.A. Medical Social Work Vancouver General Hospital, S o c i a l Service Department, Vancouver, B.C. Social Service Department, Shaughnessy M i l i t a r y Hospital, Vancouver, B.C. Canadian National I n s t i t u t e for the Blind, Vancouver, B.C. Soc i a l Service Department, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, B.C. Health Centre, f o r Children, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, B. G. . Div i s i o n of G e r i a t r i c s , Shaughnessy M i l i t a r y Hospital, Vancouver, B.C. Cerebral Palsy Association, Vancouver, B.C. Social Service Department, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec. Soc i a l Service Department, Royal Jubilee Hospital, V i c t o r i a , B.C. - 132 -Medical S o c i a l Work (Cont'd.) Medical S o c i a l Service Department, Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , Kingston, Ontario. Western Society for Physical R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Vancouver, B.C., Di v i s i o n of Services to the Blind, State of Maine Department of Health and Welfare, Portland, Maine,, U.S.A. So c i a l Service Department, Colonel Belcher M i l i t a r y Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, T.B. Social Services, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Vancouver, B.C. Psy c h i a t r i c S o c i a l Work P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital, Eesondale, B.C. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Vancouver, B,C. Ontario, Hospital, St. Thomas, Ontario. P r o v i n c i a l Guidance Clinic,. Mental Health Division, Department of Health & Welfare, Government of Alberta, Calgary, Alberta. Teaching University of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of Soc i a l Work, Vancouver, B.G. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. Community Organizations Community Chest & Council, Vancouver, B.C. Community Chest Welfare Council of Toronto D i s t r i c t , Toro nto, Ont a r i o» Others Federal Government, Citizenship Branch, Winnipeg, Manitoba. T r a v e l l e r s ' Aid Society, Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a , U.S. Burnaby School Board, Burnaby, B.C. American Red Gross, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. - 133 -A P P E N D I X Do BIBLIOGRAPHY - 134 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Books; Abbott, Edith, Social Welfare and Professional Education, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1945. H o l l i s , Ernest V. and Taylor, A l i c e Ti..,. Social Work Education i n the  United States,. New York, Columbia University Press, 1951. Richmond, Mary E., Friendly V i s i t i n g Among the Poor, The MacMillan Co., 1899. i Tufts, James H.v Education and Training f o r Social Work. Russell Sage Foundation, New Xork, 1923., Walker, Lynor H,r Social Work and the Training of Social Workers. The University of worth Carolina Press, Uhapel H i l l , . 1$2&, A r t i c l e s and Pamphlets: Bowers, Swinton, O.M.I., "The Nature and D e f i n i t i o n of S o c i a l Casework11, P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques i n Social Casework -Selected A r t i c l e s 1940-1950. family Service Association of America, 1 9 2 Lexington Ave.,. New York, 169 N.Y, Bruno, Frank J., "Twenty-Five Years of Schools of Social Work", Soc i a l Service Review. June. 1944, Vol. XVIII. No. 2, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . Hodgee, Margaret B.,, ed.,. "Social Group Work", Social Work Year  Book, No. I I . New York, American Association of Social Workers, 1951. Jones, Marshall C , "The Undergraduate University and the Graduate School of Social Work", Social Service Review, Vol. XVIII, 1944, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . Kendall, Katherin A., "Social Work Education In Review", The Social  Service Review, Vol. XXIV, No. 3, September, 195^7 University of Chicago Press. Massath, Leona, "The Basic Eight", P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques i n Soc i a l Casework - Selected A r t i c l e s 1940-1950. Family Service Association of America, :192 Lexington Ave,, New York, 16, N.Y. Smith, Marjorie J., "Education for Social Work", Canadian Welfare  25th Anniversary Edition. Vol. XXIV, No. 7, Rungee .Tress Ltd., Ottawa, January 15, 194-9. - 135 -A r t i c l e s and Pamphlets (Cont'd.) Smith, Marjorie J.,. "Social Work", Present Trends i n Professional Training i n Law, Medicine and Social Work. November 194g. Thomas, Elizabeth, Group Work In Vancouver, 194^1952, a progress report from the view of the School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Colombia. Report s: S t a t i s t i c s on Social Work Education, American Association of Social Workers, New York 16, N.Y. Academic Years 1949-52. Report of Social Workers Registered i n C a l i f o r n i a 1950, Board of So c i a l Work Examiners, 507 Polk St., San Francisco 2, C a l i f . Survey of Higher Education, 1946*1946, Published by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Education Division, Ottawa 1950. Grants to the Canadian Schools of Social Work, A memorandum presented to the Honourable Paul Martin, Minister of National Health and Welfare, by the National Committee of Canadian Schools of Soc i a l Work, 1952. . , Reports on Students i n Schools of Soc i a l Work, Academic ^ears 1944-1952. American Association of Schools of Social ..Work, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . Proceedings, Canadian Conference on Social Work, Twelfth Biennial Meeting, June 1950, Vancouver. B.C. Report of Committees on Licencing and Registration, B.C.,. Mainland Branch, Canadian Association of Social Workers, January, 1952. 

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