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Contrasting doctrines of the heart : a study of egocentricity and benevolence in novels by Fielding… Hagan, John Christian 1968

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CONTRASTING DOCTRINES OF THE HEART: A STUDY OE EGOCENTRICITY AND BENEVOLENCE IN NOVELS BY FIELDING AND STEREE by JOHN CHRISTIAN HAGAN B.A., University of Ghana, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English  We accept this thesis as conforming to the require'd standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1968. *  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  f o r an  that  advanced degree at  the  Study.  thesis  thesis  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the  U n i v e r s i t y of  requirements  Columbia, I agree  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  be  Department or by hits r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  or p u b l i c a t i o n  w i t h o u t my  of t h i s  written  Department of  thesis  g r a n t e d by  the  Head o f  ^JEL"uc^y\S k\ Columbia  this  my  It i s understood that  f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada Date  British  the  be  copying  allowed  A B S T R A C T  In 1651, Thomas Hobbes p u b l i s h e d h i s L e v i a t h a n . the passions and behaviour of men society.  I n i t he analyses  i n an emerging market or c o m p e t i t i v e  By posing h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l " s t a t e of nature," he draws the con-  c l u s i o n t h a t man  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a self-motivated creature.  Lord A s h l e y Cooper, the t h i r d E a r l o f Shaftesbury, r e a c t e d to the p i c t u r e of man  drawn by Hobbes.  I n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Men, Manners, Opinions,  and Times, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1709, Shaftesbury analyses the a f f e c t i o n s or passions and concludes t h a t man  i s e s s e n t i a l l y benevolent.  Hobbesian p i c t u r e , the S h a f t e s b u r i a n a n a l y s i s shows man  U n l i k e the  as outward-oriented,  seeking the good and company of o t h e r s . These t h e o r i e s or the d o c t r i n e s of the h e a r t (as I c a l l them f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s ) were c u r r e n t i n the eighteenth century and a t a time when F i e l d i n g and Sterne wrote Tom Jones and The L i f e and Opinions of T r i s t r a m Shandy, Gentleman r e s p e c t i v e l y . i n both n o v e l s .  The d o c t r i n e s are r e f l e c t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y  I n Tom Jones, f o r example, Tom becomes the epitome o f the  d o c t r i n e of benevolence  i n h i s p e r s i s t e n t performance of good works;  i n h i s s e l f i s h attempts to supplant Tom,  Blifil,  d i s p l a y s Hobbesian e g o c e n t r i c i t y .  Uncle Toby and Mr. Walter Shandy each r e f l e c t aspects of both d o c t r i n e s i n T r i s t r a m Shandy. I t i s my i n t e n t i o n to show i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the d o c t r i n e s of e g o c e n t r i c i t y and benevolence  inform both Tom Jones and T r i s t r a m Shandy, and  that F i e l d i n g and Sterne r e a c t c r i t i c a l l y to the teaching of Hobbes and Shaftesbury i n the process o f t h e i r a r t i s t i c . c r e a t i o n . I s h a l l approach thus showing how  the d i s c u s s i o n c h i e f l y by way of character a n a l y s i s  the behaviour of the main f i g u r e s i n the novels suggests  the thoughts of the p h i l o s o p h e r s .  But the n o v e l i s t s ' v i s i o n becomes c l e a r e r  to the reader when i t i s seen i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the s t y l e of t h e i r works.  i i i  In addition  to  the  character analysis,  narrative  technique o f each author,  Fielding,  the  d i g r e s s i o n s as w e l l  attempt to i l l u s t r a t e vision.  how  the  as  style  therefore, I  such as,  shall  emphasize  the " c o m i c - e p i c prose"  the "Shandean r h e t o r i c " strengthens  the of  of Sterne,  the awareness o f  the  and  artistic  iv  C O N T E N T S  Introduction  Thomas  Hobbes: The D o c t r i n e o f E g o c e n t r i c i t y as t h e M o t i v e f o r Man's A c t i o n s  Shaftesbury The D o c t r i n e o f B e n e v o l e n c e a s Man's E s s e n t i a l N a t u r e  Henry  Fielding: Benevolence and E g o c e n t r i c i t y a s R e f l e c t e d i n Tom J o n e s  Laurence  Sterne:  Benevolence and E g o c e n t r i c i t y as R e f l e c t e d i n T r i s t r a m Shandy  Conclusion  INTRODUCTION  Man, t h r o u g h o u t and  the ages, has been i n t e r e s t e d  explaining h i s behaviour.  thus  spoke S o c r a t e s  "The u n e x a m i n e d  and h i s successors  Thomas H o b b e s p u b l i s h e d h i s L e v i a t h a n man  i s basically  qualities "state not  egocentric.  and behaviour  of nature"  controlled  nasty,  power.  at h i s conclusion.  brutish  His life,  and short."  c o n t r o l man  that  to a b s t r a c t from the  s o c i e t y a n d s e t up a h y p o t h e t i c a l  i n order  I twill In this  be shown i n t h i s  state of nature,  according  to argue  thesis  man's  actions  t o Hobbes's a n a l y s i s , i s  By b r i n g i n g o u t t h i s  places himself i n a stronger position that w i l l  I n 1651,  w h i c h h e d i s p l a y s how man w o u l d b e h a v e i f h e w e r e  become h i g h l y e g o c e n t r i c . "poor,  living,"  i n w h i c h he s e t f o r t h h i s t h e o r y  i n civilized  by any o v e r a r c h i n g  how H o b b e s a r r i v e s  i s not worth  i n Western Philosophy.  What Hobbes d i d was  o f man  through  life  i n discovering himself  t h e case  t o save him from  this  p i c t u r e o f man, f o r an overawing  state which  Hobbes power  i s one o f  war.  Anthony Ashley theory  o f man  Opinions,  s e t up b y H o b b e s .  benevolent.  emotions.  the  of Shaftesbury,  In h i s Characteristics  He p r o c e e d s  namely,  opposed  torments."  affections,  such  such  o f Men, M a n n e r s ,  U n l i k e Hobbes's  theory  such  i n w h i c h man  of a l i e n a t i o n  from  Shaftesbury's  theory reveals a gradual  affections.  The u n n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s ,  social  o f man w h i l e  Finally,  what h e l p s  s o c i e t y becomes one o f man's  t o k e e p man  affections.  Involvement w i t h  Shaftesbury's  v i e w m o s t men  motivated  interest,  turns  p i c t u r e p r e s e n t s man a s e s s e n t i a l l y  emulation;  goodand  i n on h i m s e l f ,  constant  he s a y s ,  groups  i n beholding  society-seeking.  elimination  the self-affections  as l o v e , sympathy,  and inhuman d e l i g h t  Shaftesbury's  nature  t h a t man i s  i n h i s actions by three  as l o v e o f l i f e ,  as, "unnatural  this  an a n a l y s i s o f the a f f e c t i o n s  the n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s ,  the s e l f - a f f e c t i o n s ,  unnatural  through  Man, a s he sees h i m , i s m o t i v a t e d  of affections, will;  the third Earl  Times, e t c . , p u b l i s h e d i n 1709, he argues h i s t h e o r y  essentially or  Cooper,  The f e a r  dreads.  A  study of  o f two g r o u p s o f t h e  are incompatible with the  a r e subsumed under  the natural.  i n s o c i e t y i s the d i s p l a y o f the n a t u r a l s o c i e t y b r i n g s man h a p p i n e s s  seek happiness  i n life,  man b e c o m e s  by the n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s which are benevolent  T h e s e c o n t r a s t i n g t h e o r i e s o f human n a t u r e  and s i n c e , i n essentially  i n temper.  competed  f o r the attention  -  of eighteenth-century writers, and  determinism  Chaucer. reflect  The  the opposing  Life  But tracts.  the  creative  attests  they  on the ideas  artistic  h a v e made  century;  that Fielding  though  Fielding  the ideas  and Sterne  largely  vision.  and Sterne,  inform  Making use o f  t o these  I twill  from  were  their  thoughts, i t  b e my a t t e m p t  as n o v e l i s t s  and p l a c e , were i n f l u e n c e d by the c u r r e n t thoughts  that,  o f the philosophers.  have p r o j e c t e d something  What r e a c t i o n t h e y to their  viewpoint  have n o t w r i t t e n p h i l o s o p h i c a l  t o produce works o f a r t .  philosophers,  views  Sterne's  I t i s this  t o show t h a t t h e c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w s o f human n a t u r e  eighteenth time  o f these  say that these  works  thesis.  stress that the novelists  have attempted  free-will  Tom J o n e s a n d  o f T r i s t r a m Shandy, Gentleman.  imagination.  s e e m s t o me,  i nFielding's  they produced a l l e g o r i e s  and Sterne  of  a r e two n o v e l i s t s w h o s e  One c a n s a f e l y  t o d i s c u s s i n my  I should  thoughts  thesis  attempt  claims  the a t t e n t i o n o f w r i t e r s from  and Laurence Sterne  are widely reflected  Nor have  Fielding  as the competing  t h e o r i e s o f man.  and Opinions  that I shall  -  o r p r e d e s t i n a t i o n engaged  Henry F i e l d i n g  o f human n a t u r e  just  2  i n this  current i nthe  of a  of their  particular age;  and  t h e n o v e l s , Tom J o n e s a n d T r i s t r a m S h a n d y ,  have produced e s t h e t i c works i n t h e way they  r e a c t to the  ideas.  In  my o p i n i o n , t h e n o v e l i s t s  dissociating They appear  self-interest to question  make a b o u t human  nature.  attempt  t o show t h e d i f f i c u l t y  f r o m b e n e v o l e n c e when a c t i o n s o f p e o p l e  the absolutism o f the statements  of are analysed.  the philosophers  - 3 -  THOMAS HOBBES  THE D O C T R I N E O F E G O C E N T R I C I T Y A S THE M O T I V E FOR MAN'S A C T I O N S  Although w o r k , De C i v e the  (1642),  t h e o r y o f man  finds  i ti s i n L e v i a t h a n  i t sinitial  will  o f Hobbes's  l e a d me  view  far  I shall  t o h i s argument on s u b j e c t i v i s m .  this  This part w i l l  ideas o f the passions  1  end w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n as i t provides  begin  o f man b y d i s c u s s i n g h i s m e c h a n i c a l  a discussion of Hobbes s  will  expression i n h i s  (1651) t h a t he g i v e s , as i t w e r e , 2  t o t a l i t y o f h i s v i s i o n o f human n a t u r e .  sideration  by  Hobbes's  and power.  o f the Hobbesian "state  the arguments by which  con-  theory  which  be f o l l o w e d My  analysis  of nature," i nso.  man's e s s e n t i a l  egocentricity i s  established. In  h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o L e v i a t h a n , Hobbes  he w i s h e s that and  to follow  the passions  i n order  to a r r i v e  g i v e s a h i n t o f t h e method  a t h i s t h e o r y o f man.  a r e t h e same i n a l l men;  He  "whosoever looks i n t o  indicates himself  c o n s i d e r s w h a t h e d o e s w h e n h e d o e s t h i n k .. h o p e , f e a r e t c . .. h e  thereby read upon l i k e  a n d know w h a t a r e t h e t h o u g h t s  occasions."  p a s s i o n s , Hobbes individuals  (Introd.)  intends  apply  and passions o f a l l other  By e s t a b l i s h i n g  men  the u n i v e r s a l i t y o f the  t o make h i s c o n c l u s i o n s drawn f r o m  t o a l l men.  shall  the behaviour  of  H i s m e t h o d i s w h a t J.W.N. W a t k i n s c a l l s t h e  3 "resolutive-compositive." discussing will  then  such  Hobbes  components as h i s p a s s i o n s  "compose"  t o " r e s o l v e " o r a n a l y s e man b y  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  qualities.  He  h i s c o n c l u s i o n s t o f o r m u l a t e h i s t h e o r y o f man. (i)  Thought, i n Hobbes' eously into  i s going  consciousness.  the mind i n t o motion;  H O B B E S ' S THEORY OF MOTION  system  i smotion  >  Ideas  cannot  spring  spontan-  A n e x t e r n a l o b j e c t impinging on the senses  "thoughts  a r e e v e r y o n e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ... o f some  q u a l i t y o f a b o d y w i t h o u t u s ... c a l l e d  an o b j e c t which  works on the eyes,  e a r s a n d o t h e r p a r t s o f a man's b o d y a n d b y d i v e r s i t y  of working  diversity  as Locke does,  o f appearances."  sets  (Ch.l).  Hobbes  believes,  produces that a l l  - 4 -  thought o r i g i n a t e s from the i n t e r a c t i o n between the e x t e r n a l o b j e c t and mind;  the  hence, there i s , i n h i s w r i t i n g s , a foundation f o r Locke's concept  "tabula rasa."  of  What happens when the sense organ i s e x c i t e d i s t h a t motion  i s t r a n s m i t t e d to the b r a i n which r e a c t s by p r o j e c t i n g an image of the d i s t a n t body .  Then, there i s motion along the "nerves and other s t r i n g s and membranes  of the body" to the heart where i t sets up an "endeavour" towards or away from the o b j e c t .  Hobbes s t r e s s e s t h a t " t h i s endeavour of the heart to d e l i v e r  i t s e l f , because outward, seems to be some matter without. seeming or fancy i s that which men a "seeming or fancy."  c a l l sense."  (Ch.l)  And t h a t t h i s Sense, to Hobbes, i s  By i n t r o d u c i n g the concept of endeavor, he e s t a b l i s h e s  the importance of s u b j e c t i v i s m i n the very a c t of p e r c e p t i o n ;  to experience  the e x i s t e n c e of an o b j e c t needs an endeavor of the h e a r t , a p e r s o n a l , conscious reaction. his  Hobbes' s t r e s s on fancy or seeming becomes an important p o i n t i n  system.  I t i s a "fancy" of the o b j e c t we see that i s aroused i n the mind  and t h e r e f o r e not the o b j e c t i t s e l f .  This p o i n t w i l l emphasize the theory of  - e t h i c a l s u b j e c t i v i s m which I s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r .  (ii)  HOBBES ON THE PASSIONS  The theory of motion subsumes almost a l l of Hobbes' thought and i t i s made the b a s i s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of the passions.  He gives a d e t a i l e d  a n a l y s i s of the passions and the speeches by which they are expressed. s h a l l present some of them and show how  I  they support the theory of man's  essential egocentricity. Hobbes s t a t e s that there are two s o r t s of motions i n animals: v i t a l , "begun i n generation and continued without i n t e r r u p t i o n through whole l i f e " ;  f o r example, the course of the blood, b r e a t h i n g ;  the their  the other  k i n d i s "animal motion, or v o l u n t a r y motion as-to-go, to move any of our limbs." them work.  These v o l u n t a r y motions need the help of the imagination to make Hobbes defines imagination as "decaying sense," as a k i n d of  s t i l l - c o n t i n u i n g , but weak, motion i n the mind. beginning of a l l v o l u n t a r y motion." w i t h i n the body antecedent  (Ch.6)  I t i s "the f i r s t i n t e r n a l  The motion t h a t takes place  to the v i s i b l e a c t i o n s of w a l k i n g , t a l k i n g , e t c . ,  - 5 -  i s what Hobbes c a l l s that  causes  fromward  "endeavor."  i ti s c a l l e d Appetite  something,  a r e made  even  quotes  (a-verto,  something  (Ch.6)  I t c a n be seen  that  the mechanical aspect of the passions or affections  t o h i n g e o n t h e two b a s i c  the L a t i n  I turn  "when i t i s t o w a r d  o r D e s i r e ... A n d w h e n t h e e n d e a v o r i s  i ti s c a l l e d A v e r s i o n . "  Hobbes i s e s t a b l i s h i n g which  T h i s endeavor,  ones,  sources of "appetite"  from), to reinforce  appetite  and a v e r s i o n .  ( a p - p e t o , I seek)  He  and " a v e r s i o n "  the mechanistic or motion  theory.  Both  r o o t s - s u g g e s t movement.  How The  does  the motion-theory lead  image o f m o t i o n  This  idea  and mechanicalness  does n o t mean  is  an i m p l i c a t i o n  of  the passions.  Hobbes w i l l  that  e g o c e n t r i c i t y o f man?  suggests a condition  of being  t h a t H o b b e s ' man i s j u s t a n a u t o m a t i o n ; i twill  n o t be easy  And i n the p i c t u r e  draw l a t e r ,  to the basic  to fight  against  o f man i n t h e s t a t e  the mechanical aspect and force  propelled.  however,  there  the powerful  of nature  urge  which  o f the passions w i l l  be  clear.  B e f o r e I go a n y f u r t h e r , lead  to h i s e t h i c a l  evil.  Hobbes  minds o n l y person;  subjectivism  stresses  i n h i s c h a p t e r on "Sense" thus c a l l e d  but  n o t convey  does  say "John  mind.  t h e name, " J o h n " ,  i s evil,"  There  t h a t names a r o u s e  the r e a l i t y i t i s my  arouses only  t h e image o f John  of the person himself.  sense  of evil  relative  o f t h e one I t h i n k about.  to the person  b u t names," a n d a l s o  thinking;  which  themselves  therefore later  - b u t from  drawing a t t e n t i o n  (Ch.4)  In  i n my  mind  i s aroused;  a n d my  sense  of evil  and the  T h e r e f o r e , "good" and " e v i l " a r e  t o be t a k e n f r o m  t h e p e r s o n o f t h e man."  to the self-centredness  reinforce h i segocentricity  sense o f  a r o u s e s a n i m a g e i n my  f o r there i s "nothing i n the world  o f good and e v i l  i nour  T h e r e f o r e , when I  "there i s nothing simply or absolutely  n o r a n y common r u l e  will  but not the substance o f the  i s n o c o n n e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n my  true personality  objects  nominalism which  t o t h e i d e a s o f good and  i s t h e a v e r s i o n w h i c h I h a v e w h e n t h e name J o h n  evil),  1  names a r e " t o s e r v e f o r m a r k s o r n o t e s o f remembrance." terms,  will  discuss Hobbes  so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  t h e image o f t h e p e r s o n  Hobbesian  evil  I shall  theory.  (Ch.6)  so ( i . e .  universal good o r  the nature of the Hobbes i s  of experience, which  point  -  This  self-centredness  6  -  i n the f i e l d  o f good and e v i l  i s w h a t J.W.N.  4 Watkins a  calls  the ethical  subjectivism  dangerous one f o r , s t r e t c h e d  form o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m . theories  of Plato  In  theories,  those  to i t s l i m i t s ,  The t h e o r y  and A r i s t o t l e a reference  o f Hobbes.  discards  transmitted  theory.  ethical thus  t o do."""  The i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f  that moral  us continue  good e x h i b i t s i t s e l f  "all  appetites,  desire  a l l hatred  an incentive  desire  and love  and aversion,  classical  every preceding  passionate  and e v i l ,  t o move t o w a r d w h a t h e c o n s i d e r s the  same p r i n c i p l e w o r k s :  the  heart  the  argument o f e t h i c a l  m a k e s man t u r n  The analysis  resort  subjectivism  i sfurther  L e t us look  i s c a l l e d GLORYING."  i s enforced  power i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n  element i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  he expects  or aversion,  by themotion o f evil.  Thus,  reinforced.  c a r e f u l and meticulous  a t some d e f i n i t i o n s :  (Ch.6)  and what i s  the egocentricity o f  by thepleasure  i n Hobbes'  o f a m a n ' s own p o w e r a n d a b i l i t y  Man  But theappetite or  to deliver i t s e l f "  which  (Ch.6)  to.  away f r o m what he s u b j e c t i v e l y c o n s i d e r s  power evokes e x u l t a t i o n o f t h e mind. joy with  good.  Therefore,  element o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y appears  from imagination  and that,  principle of  I n t h e case o f hatred  the displeasure  of the passions.  mind which  good.  His  states  and offense."  to thepleasure-pain  man b e c o m e s p r o p e l l e d  says  power."  Hobbes  l a t e r , Hume a n d A d a m S m i t h a l s o  situation i s stressed:  He  some d e l i g h t m o r e o r  ... d i s p l e a s u r e  i s motion o r an "endeavor o f the heart  moral  state o f nature,  i ndispleasure;  t o move t o w a r d s w h a t h e t h i n k s  from  feelings.  o f good a n d e v i l .  to theperson acting.  standards  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  i s accompanied w i t h with  moral  the premisses  the need o f an "over-awing  subscribing  a century  good i s a l s o r e l a t i v e the  provide  subjective  i npleasure  appears Hobbes i s here  morality which, has  passions  the discussion  intense  through Augustine and Aquinas.  i s the only  h i s argument f o r  that  It  a l l theold  s u b j e c t i v i s m becomes p l a u s i b l e i n t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l  Let  theory i s  i t ends on t h e most  Hobbes o v e r t u r n s  t e r m s o f names d e n o t e o n l y  strengthening  less;  moral  i s made t o t h e " f a c t t h a t m o r a l  w h i c h a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f men a n d t h e i r w h i c h men c a n i n f e r w h a t  This  i s that  "Joy  arising  e x u l t a t i o n o f the  T h u s , t h e i n t e r e s t i n o n e ' s own I ti ssignificant  of "glorying;"  o f the state  t h a t Hobbes  links  f o r , power becomes a n a c t i v e  of nature.  I f this  imagination  of  -  power i s ' a b s e n t , t h e r e  q u a l i t y of  i s d e j e c t i o n w h i c h i s d e f i n e d as  a n a l y s i s of  1  -  l a u g h t e r we  laughter  shows t h e  associate with  the  very opposite  tradition  "Sudden g l o r y i s the p a s s i o n w h i c h makes t h o s e is  caused e i t h e r  apprehension suddenly is  states all  some d e f o r m e d  there  that this  men,  by  self-glorifying  themselves."  to help able."  and  I t l o o k s as  attempt from  free others But  to compare  one  from  there  segment o f  i n whom h e  opinion  the  h i s own  the  they  esteems  a c t o r he  him-  prefers Hobbes  to l a u g h t e r , though a p p l i c a b l e to of  compare  the  fewest  abilities  l e s s prone  of  the proper  themselves  only with  suggestion  of  to  this  works i s the  most  s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e even i n  the  the most a b l e , a f e e l i n g o f e l e v a t i o n  s o c i e t y to another.  p r e v a l e n t e v e n when Hobbes a p p e a r s  and  laughter  some d e f o r m i t y .  g r e a t m i n d s one  only with  says,  them o r by  a man  great minds are  a  He  cause of  i f those w i t h  s c o r n and  benevolent  comparison whereof  either  sees  the  c a l l e d LAUGHTER,  conscious  "Of  of  good humour.  them t h a t a r e  is still  themselves  by  d e r i v e s from  attitude  f o r Hobbes says:  (Ch.6)  from  that pleases  I n w h a t e v e r way  t h e p l e a s u r e he  i s " i n c i d e n t most to  own  egocentricity:  d e s p i s i n g one  of  grimaces  thing i n another,  i s the element of  to o t h e r s  their  (Ch.6)  themselves."  self-adulation,  is  some s u d d e n a c t o f  h i g h l y because of  himself  in  by  applaud  viewed,  self  of  "grief  (Ch.6)  of want o f power."  Hobbes  7  Hence,  t o be  the  sense of  justifying  egocentricity  the a c t i o n s o f  some  people.  The "Grief that  f o r the  the  like  c r u e l t y we secure  element of  calamity of another c a l a m i t y may  see  the  in "their  others.  self-interest persists  befall  from  take pleasure  own  himself."  fortune," they  security of  conceive  arises  (Ch.6)  their  become l e a s t  little  from  I n the  own  i t p o s s i b l e . " (Ch.6)  not  As  I h o p e t o show i n my  d i s c u s s i o n of  a c t i o n d o n e f o r i t s own  concerned  sense of  fortune.  i n o t h e r man's g r e a t h a r m s w i t h o u t  do  benevolent  i s PITY, and  element o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y most a t work.  C r u e l t y i s "contempt or  proceeding  even i n the p a s s i o n of  This  the For  the  grief:  imagination  discussion of When p e o p l e about  are  those  of  calamity of others t h a t any  other  i s Hobbes'  end  man  should  o f h i s own,  castigation  of  I altruism.  the n o v e l s , Hobbes cannot e n v i s a g e  sake:  there  i s always  ...  the " o t h e r  end  any of  - 8-  (his) own."  E g o c e n t r i c i t y operates when we attempt to emulate and Hobbes  sees that t h i s e f f o r t can e a s i l y s l i p i n t o envy:  " G r i e f f o r the success of  a competitor i n wealth, honour or other good, i f i t be j o i n e d w i t h endeavor to enforce our own a b i l i t i e s to equal or to exceed him, i s c a l l e d EMULATION, but j o i n e d w i t h endeavor to supplant or hinder a competitor, ENVY." ( C h . 6 ) The comment on emulation and envy gives us a f o r e t a s t e o f what Hobbes w i l l l a t e r say i n h i s argument about the s t a t e o f nature.  The "endeavor to  enforce our own a b i l i t i e s , to equal or to exceed" sets the p a t t e r n f o r the i n t e r m i n a b l e s t r u g g l e f o r "power a f t e r power which ends o n l y i n death." Some general p o i n t s emerge from a look a t the passions as analysed by Hobbes.  F i r s t , the motion-motif.  Almost a l l the passions are made to  hinge on e i t h e r a p p e t i t e (motion toward) or a v e r s i o n (motion from) .  There i s  always the "endeavor" on the p a r t of the subject to a c t e i t h e r toward an o b j e c t when he considers i t good, or away from i t when he considers i t e v i l . The motion-motif r e i n f o r c e s the mechanistic concept o f human nature.  Second,  Hobbes seeks to emphasize that the element of e g o c e n t r i c i t y u n d e r l i e s most, i f n o t a l l , of our passions. sympathy or benevolence, egocentricity.  Where there i s an apparent expression o f  there can be traced a deep-seated element o f  T h i r d , i n a n a l y s i n g the passions, Hobbes i s l a y i n g the  foundation f o r h i s theory of man to be exposed l a t e r i n the statement on the state o f nature.  Having discussed some of the passions as Hobbes sees them,  I s h a l l present a synoptic view o f what he has to say about power and manners and how h i s e g o c e n t r i c i t y theory r e l a t e s to them.  (iii)  HOBBES ON POWER AND MANNERS  Hobbes discusses the i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e s , such as fancy, judgment, d i s c r e t i o n and prudence, and sees i n them the same tendency towards egocentricity.  He describes them as q u a l i t i e s that stand out above others and so  are d e s i r a b l e by men.  The note of e g o c e n t r i c i t y i s s t r u c k a t the outset  when Hobbes says of the i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e s that they are "such a b i l i t i e s of the mind as men p r a i s e , value and d e s i r e should be i n themselves and go commonly under the name of a good w i t . " (Ch.8)  - 9 -  His  d e f i n i t i o n of d i s c r e t i o n as an i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e becomes  r e l e v a n t to what F i e l d i n g and Sterne i n t i m a t e about t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s .  Hobbes  says that when judgment i s a p p l i e d to matters of " c o n v e r s a t i o n and business wherein times, p l a c e s and person are to be d i s c e r n e d , t h i s v i r t u e i s c a l l e d discretion."  One hears echoes of the same n o t i o n from Tom Jones.  Again,  i n Hobbesian terms, prudence i s a f u n c t i o n of experience and memory. the a b i l i t y of man o r d e r - t o see how  It is  to apply previous knowledge to m u l t i p l e s i t u a t i o n s i n  they l e a d to a design:  i t i s the r e l a t i o n of the past to  the present so as to determine the f u t u r e .  When I d i s c u s s the n o v e l i s t s , i t  w i l l be shown how much they r e a c t to the Hobbesian concepts of d i s c r e t i o n and  prudence.  Hobbes d e f i n e s the power of a man f u t u r e apparent good."(Ch.10)  as " h i s present means to o b t a i n some  This means can be e i t h e r n a t u r a l power, which  i s the "eminence of the f a c u l t i e s of body or mind" or i n s t r u m e n t a l power which, having been a c q u i r e d , i s used to a c q u i r e more;  f o r example, r i c h e s , r e p u t a t i o n .  An important p o i n t Hobbes makes about power i s i t s growing or cumulative d e s i r e f o r more once the beginning i s made i n accomodating  it.  This c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c of power i s an important element i n the " s t a t e of nature" argument. Hobbes' statement on power may be taken as a bridge connecting the psychop h y s i o l o g i c a l aspects of man w i t h the s o c i a l . In  the chapter on manners, Hobbes focusses on men  i n society.  He  defines " f e l i c i t y " as " c o n t i n u a l progress of the d e s i r e from one o b j e c t to another, the a t t a i n i n g of the former being s t i l l the way  to the l a t t e r . "  (Ch.ll)  F e l i c i t y becomes an i n c e n t i v e to the attainment of more r i c h e s , r e p u t a t i o n , f r i e n d s and honour, which are "but s e v e r a l sorts of power." fear or apprehension tends to motivate man  i n h i s a c q u i s i t i o n , Hobbes, i n the  end, gives a p i c t u r e of a r e s t l e s s d e s i r e of., power i n a l l men: for  Suggesting t h a t "So, I put  a general i n c l i n a t i o n of a l l mankind a p e r p e t u a l and r e s t l e s s d e s i r e of  power a f t e r power that ceases o n l y i n death." ( C h . l l )  Apparently, Hobbes i s  a b s t r a c t i n g t h i s r e s t l e s s d e s i r e of power from the p o s i t i o n of man society.  in civilized  I f the Hobbesian terms and d e f i n i t i o n s are accepted, i t may  be  seen that the a c q u i s i t i o n of r i c h e s , fame, honour i n a c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c q u i s i t i o n of power.  This a c q u i s i t i o n becomes the means  -  to a s s u r e  the  life  of  (iv)  In of  o f men  of mankind," a  13  of  THE  a n a l y s e d man "resolved"  s o c i e t i e s , he  That  Now,  he  i f he  and  i s going  nature of  the  f a c u l t i e s of  equal"  becomes a  the  ability  arises  e q u a l i t y of  therefore,  i f any  two  cannot both enjoy one  another."  able Man  to  of  (Ch.13)  and  conquest."  The it  of  of act  e v e r y man of  is  the w i l l  to  the  they are  also  known." compete  "there  i s no  place  of  earth  ...  no  in  for  a  for  arts  a t t a i n i n g of  ...  and  endeavor  s i t u a t i o n , man of  nature, to  attack  force  ...  no  our  seek  t h e i r own  then,  t i m e men  live  condition (Ch.13)  is a  the  because society;  to  or  i s no  subdue power  at  any  to  time.  dominate  power i n the forced  s t a t e o f war:  by  acts  the  and  will  s t a t e o f man  "Hereby  common p o w e r  c a l l e d war,  and  they  or w i l e s , "  are  equali  interest.  without a  to  to  s u c h a war war  not  contend  which  i s worst of  ...  is the  in battle  p o s e d by Hobbes  i s uncertain  keep as  only  fight for survival.  fruit  by  And,  destroy  H o b b e s means b y  the  by  are  ends.  t h e i r own men  has  "From t h i s  from anybody and  "by  has  nature.  "men  finds "there  therefore,  nature,  In  that  contention:  s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n or  industry  He  of  e q u a l i t y o f men  fact  s i t u a t i o n i n which "the  (Ch.13)  authority  nature.  natural The  and  condition  i n o t h e r w o r d s , he  i n contemplating  that  e v e r y man."  f i g h t i n g , but  sufficiently  state of  during  the  People begin,  state of  of  the  state  the  natural  same t h i n g w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s  i s fear  their existence  against  is  the  the  that  t h e m a l l i n awe,  the  such a  nature.  Hobbesian  i s manifest  desire  In  state  mind.  struggle  "take pleasure  In  circumstances  posing  hope i n the  There  state of  fellows  by  t h e y become e n e m i e s  overawe him."  is in a  their  men  the  From  t o "compose" man's e s s e n t i a l  b o d y and  source of  "the  were removed from  physiologically;  Hobbes b e g i n s h i s a n a l y s i s reason of  his hypothetical  abstracts  s t a t e w o u l d be  psychologically him.  EGOCENTRICITY  Hobbes e s t a b l i s h e s  s i t u a t i o n o f man  c o n t r o l l i n g power.  NATURE a n d  e s s e n t i a l e g o c e n t r i c i t y o f man.  in civilised  the  STATE OF  Leviathan  n a t u r e which r e f l e c t s the  behaviour  -  man.  HOBBES ON  Chapter  10  there Moreover  no  culture  a l l continual  - 11 -  fear  and danger o f v i o l e n t death;  b r u t i s h and short." characteristics to  It nature  state  what manner o f l i f e This  point  t h a t Hobbes'  I t i s "an inference  the state  nasty,  there  has been d i s c u s s e d  that  i n his  of nature.^  the e x i s t i n g  the passions  (describing)  w e r e n o common p o w e r  r e c e n t l y by Professor  t h a t Hobbes was a b l e  return  description of the state of  made f r o m  w o u l d be where  of abstraction  M a c p h e r s o n , who a r g u e s the  t h e same v i e w s a b o u t  to note  f a c t b u t a n a b s t r a c t i o n made f r o m  there  poor,  I t i s a c t u a l l y an image o f a I t i sworthwhile  to stress  i snot a historical  o f man s o l i t a r y ,  i s the very negation o f the  society.  had expressed  o f man.  state  of nature.  i s necessary  conditions  This  of civilised  the primordial  De C i v e H o b b e s  (Ch.13)  and the l i f e  to fear." C.B.  t o draw on h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  h i s t o r i c a l l y - a c q u i r e d n a t u r e o f men i n e x i s t i n g c i v i l  s o c i e t i e s i n order  g to  get h i s deductions  stresses  t h e same p o i n t In  situation if  about  conclusion,  Hobbes  i snot historical,  passions."  Therefore, natural  state  conditions  society.  state  o f nature"  qualities  o f man.  over-arching is  condition  o f mankind.  i s Hobbes'  against  attack over  The s t a t e  of nature  This  f o r the  s e e k h i s own  from h i s f e l l o w  others.  From  succeeds i n p r o j e c t i n g h i s theory i sa reflection  that  of the  I t i s a H o b b e s i a n image e m p h a s i z i n g h i s argument In existing civil t o some e x t e n t ,  t o " k e e p u s a l l i n awe."  a permanent feature  This  himself  i s curbed and c o n t r o l l e d , power  from  t o Hobbes' a n a l y s i s , a r e u n i v e r s a l .  b y a s s e r t i n g h i s own p o w e r  about the e s s e n t i a l e g o c e n t r i c i t y . egocentricity  made  t h a t man c a n n o t b u t c o n s t a n t l y  argument Hobbes  that i s ,  the state of  i s an "inference  to the general  either protecting  man i s e s s e n t i a l l y e g o c e n t r i c . basic  state  according  a r e such  men o r s e e k i n g h i s " g l o r y "  9  has been drawn from an a n a l y s i s o f  This  can apply  Although  o f man, f o l l o w i n g H o b b e s ' a n a l y s i s , i s s e l f - c e n t r e d ,  i n that  "state  Cive.  t o keep h i m i n awe";  agreements were removed.  But the passions,  good a l l t h e time:  this  t o h i s e d i t i o n o f De  were no "power  the conclusion  h i sconclusion  S.P. L a m p r e c h t , t o o ,  h a s a n a l y s e d man a s h e i s now, i n d i c a t i n g t h e  he w o u l d be i n i f t h e r e  man i n e x i s t i n g c i v i l i s e d the  of nature."  i n the Introduction  a l l law and contractual  nature  the state  by the presence  B u t , i n essence,  i n man's n a t u r e a n d t e n d s  shocking  s o c i e t i e s , man's  to motivate  s t a t e m e n t a b o u t man.  o f an  egocentricity  a l l h i s actions.  - 12 -  FOOTNOTES  H o b b e s ' t h e o r y a b o u t human n a t u r e i s s p r e a d o v e r h i s w o r k s : from De C i v e ( 1 6 4 2 ) t h r o u g h T h e E l e m e n t s o f L a w ( 1 6 5 0 ) , De C o r p o r e ( 1 6 5 5 ) t o De H o m i n e ( 1 6 5 8 )  The c h a p t e r n u m b e r s i n b r a c k e t s r e f e r H e r b e r t W. S c h n e i d e r ( N e w Y o r k , 1 9 5 8 )  J.W.N. W a t k i n s , Quarterly,  Watkins,  Ibid.  to Part I o f Leviathan,ed.  "Philosophy and P o l i t i c s  V(1955),  i n Hobbes,"  Philosophical  125-129.  p.141.  p.129.  " i f now t o t h i s n a t u r a l p r o c l i v i t y o f men t o h u r t e a c h o t h e r , w h i c h they d e r i v e from t h e i r p a s s i o n s , b u t c h i e f l y from a v a i n esteem o f t h e m s e l v e s , y o u a d d t h e r i g h t o f a l l t o a l l ... i t c a n n o t b e d e n i e d b u t t h a t t h e n a t u r a l s t a t e o f men, b e f o r e t h e y e n t e r e d i n t o s o c i e t y , w a s a m e r e w a r . " ( D e C i v e , e d . S.P. L a m p r e c h t (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 9 ) , P a r t I , ch.l.  On t h e q u e s t i o n o f h i s t o r i c i t y a b o u t t h e s t a t e o f n a t u r e , H o b b e s t h o u g h t a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f i t e x i s t e d among t h e s a v a g e p e o p l e i n manyplaces o f America. (See L e v i a t h a n , p.108)  C.B. M a c p h e r s o n , T h e P o l i t i c a l (Oxford,  1962),  Theory o f P o s s e s s i v e  Individualism  pp. 20-21.  "The s t a t e o f n a t u r e i s f o r H o b b e s n o t a n h i s t o r i c a l , b u t a n concept. I t i s n o t some e a r l y s t a g e o f human e x i s t e n c e f r o m l a t e r departed. I t i s r a t h e r a permanent f a c t o r w i t h i n a l l s o c i e t i e s a g a i n s t w h i c h men m u s t a l w a y s " b e o n t h e i r g u a r d i n Lamprecht, p . x x i .  analytical w h i c h man human practice."  -  13 -  SHAFTESBURY  THE D O C T R I N E OF B E N E V O L E N C E A S MAN'S E S S E N T I A L  I t was l e f t and  to Anthony Ashley  l a t e r m o r a l i s t s , such  view  Cooper,  the t h i r d E a r l  as F r a n c i s Hutcheson,  of  Shaftesbury  t o demonstrate a  contrary  t o t h e H o b b e s i a n p i c t u r e o f man a s a n e g o c e n t r i c c r e a t u r e .  argues for  t h a t man  i s e s s e n t i a l l y benevolent.  he a l s o p r o c e e d s  through  h i sw r i t i n g s and personal  ditions, other  a n d he c o u l d n o t a c c e p t  than  self-love.''"  goodness.  a foundation  Shaftesbury  the  the theory  to the theory  as a f e e l i n g  " n a t u r a l moral  of  happiness  I think Shaftesbury directed t h e improvement o f s o c i a l  a t p r o v i n g man's  con-  by nothing  essential  i s outward-directed.  THE THEORY OF N A T U R A L MORAL S E N S E  a s s e r t s t h a t man  as w e l l  By the process  t h a t man i s m o t i v a t e d  Benevolence, u n l i k e egocentricity,  As  calls  towards  Hence, h i s attempts  I.  wrong"  efforts  t o Hobbes'  a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t man's  becomes a f u n c t i o n o f h i s e x i s t e n c e i n s o c i e t y . both  Shaftesbury  H i s method i s s i m i l a r  an a n a l y s i s o f the p a s s i o n s .  e l i m i n a t i o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n , he a r r i v e s  he  NATURE  o f man's e s s e n t i a l  i snaturally  equipped  against doing  sense."  expression "natural moral  injury  w i t h a "sense o f r i g h t and to others.  - and throughout,  sense"  appears  benevolence,  according  t o have been  This  inclination  t o J.M.  first  Robertson,  introduced  2 into  ethics  by Shaftesbury.  The m o r a l  s e n s e b y m e a n s o f w h i c h we " r e c o g n i s e and  proportionate."  like of  a l l other  the moral  essential  like  forms o f t a s t e ,  sense,  harm"  t o anyone" (1,259).  closely  and approve o f t h a t which  i t may b e i m p r o v e d b y t r a i n i n g . "  He a r g u e s  invariably  to the esthetic i s harmonious  "good t a s t e i n the a r t o f l i v i n g and,  therefore, Shaftesbury  g o o d n e s s o f man.  o r does harm of  I t c a n be c a l l e d  sense r e l a t e s  carries  On t h e b a s i s  on t h e argument about t h e  that a person  who " v o l u n t a r i l y  creates i n h i m s e l f "an apprehension  There i s "resentment and a n i m o s i t y  i n every  offends and f e a r creature  - 14 -  who  o b s e r v e s him'.'  society me  seems o f f e n d e d b y  of Hobbes'  everyone the  The  it,  wrong and and  on  everyone.  i s by  moral  account  becomes a  o f i t s own  links  natural sense  passions  or emotions.  not passion-oriented such,  i s done o n l y  He  (1,285).  o f man  a psychological  lines  with  three groups  govern  t h e p e r s o n who  has  an a v e r s i o n  e q u i t y and  right  offended.  to i n j u r y  The  f o r i t s own  (1,259).  Thus,  to the e s t h e t i c ;  "natural  b e a u t y and  t h a t no  "whatsoever  THE  of " a f f e c t i o n s  worth"  PASSIONS  human a c t c a n be  the  done t h a t i s  i s done o r a c t e d b y any  animal  as  love or hatred  p h i l o s o p h e r does n o t b e g i n h i s  analysis  sake  action.  o f human b e h a v i o u r i s b a s e d m a i n l y o n  Augustan  or  o f thought as Hobbes does.  discussion  He  under-  or p a s s i o n s " which must i n f l u e n c e  and  the a n i m a l : i)  The n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s ( s u c h a s a r e f o u n d e d o n l o v e , g o o d w i l l , complacency and a sympathy w i t h the k i n d o r s p e c i e s , g e n e r o s i t y , p i t y . ..) w h i c h l e a d t o t h e g o o d o f t h e p u b l i c ;  ii)  Or  the  self  a f f e c t i o n s which  iii)  Or  such as a r e n e i t h e r  lead  t o the good o f the  of these, nor  g o o d o f t h e p u b l i c . . . a n d w h i c h may unnatural The  morality  these a f f e c t i o n s natural  affections  are mixed.  affections  t o be  so o v e r w h e l m i n g  as  tending either  t h e r e f o r e be  private to  justly  any styled  (1,286)  of a person's actions  t h e y become d e s t r u c t i v e be  as S h a f t e s b u r y  t h r o u g h some a f f e c t i o n o r p a s s i o n a s o f f e a r ,  moving him"  of  beauty and worth"  stresses  because  reminds  t h e r e i s war  ends w h i l e ,  S H A F T E S B U R Y ' S A N A L Y S I S OF  Shaftesbury's analysis  of  This situation  create  towards  f o r the choice of  II.  own  against  or love  the whole  i s that a c c o r d i n g to Hobbes,  their  therefore, w i l l  the moral  condition  person.  difference  to obtain  affection  i n which  of nature" i n which  i s of everyone  sense",  "a r e a l  Shaftesbury  particular  The  everyone  the s t r u g g l e  "natural  this  account o f the " s t a t e  against  struggle  sees  Shaftesbury gives a picture  depends upon the p r o p o r t i o n  Shaftesbury argues  " e x c e s s i v e and  that  i n u n n a t u r a l degree"  and make a p e r s o n v i c i o u s .  t o d e s t r o y i t s own  i t i s possible  end  For  and"prevent  i n which  i n which  f o r the case  instance, p i t y the succour  and  may  -  relief in  r e q u i r e d " (1,286).  destroying both  the o f f s p r i n g  and the parent.  to the rest  good a f f e c t i o n  n a t u r a l o p e r a t i o n " (1,286).  as  the maintenance o f the proper  I n h i s system, balance  one  hand and t h e s e l f - a f f e c t i o n s  "an  exact proportionableness, constancy to their  vicious, concept with  impulses.  t h a t i s , who "living  sort  B u t man  i s over-great, i t  between  the m u l t i p l e meanings o f t h i s  their  force  i s seen  the n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s He  sees  and r e g u l a r i t y "  animals  they  i s sometimes  according to h i s nature. Shaftesbury  on  showing  r e g a r d i n g how  i s t h e o n l y c r e a t u r e who  to nature,"  i n equili-  therefore, virtue  on the o t h e r .  does n o t l i v e  according  m u s t be k e p t  of this  e n d up  sees t h e  a n d d e t r a c t i n some m e a s u r e f r o m  and  respond  Shaftesbury  as a s o r t o f s c a l e which  f o r "wherever any s i n g l e  must be i n j u r i o u s  -  A l s o , t o o much l o v e o f t h e o f f s p r i n g may  functioning of the passions brium  15  By u s i n g t h e  identifies  h i s thoughts  eighteenth century phrase,  the history 4  of  which  But  extends  Shaftesbury  him,  t o have  dictates  wish  be  this  and It  i s to " live  says  t h a t he i s much c o n c e r n e d  are proportionately displayed. analysis  aspect  the n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s . according  For  to nature  and the  i s a balanced  about each group with  to which  One o f t h e p r i n c i p a l  relationship  of eighteenth-century  the degree  of the affections,  thought  between reason  i s utilized  these  elements and  i n  feeling,  by the n o v e l i s t s  to  discussed.  success  first in  with  of nature.  o f supreme wisdom."  Shaftesbury's the  here  the R o u s s e a u i s t i c concept  a n a l y s i n g what Shaftesbury  to emphasize  Shaftesbury's and  through  the natural affections  and r u l e s  affections  the Stoics  i s more c o n c e r n e d  Before I  from  with which  place runs  thesis  these passions  thus:  l o v e , complacency,  i s t h a t a man  natural  a f f e c t i o n s which seeks  (such  as a r e founded  the chief  a n d to want them i s c e r t a i n m i s e r y " enjoyment"  are outward-turning.  happiness,  according to  H i s argument i n the  g o o d - w i l l and i n sympathy) i s t o have  a t the outset, that " s e l f  that a person  are regulated.  " t o have t h e n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s  power o f s e l f - e n j o y m e n t ; i s seen,  i s virtuous or e v i l  then  he w i l l  means  (1,293).  i s made d e p e n d e n t o n t h e Hence, i f i t c a n be  proved  s u r e l y employ t h e n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s .  - 16  Shaftesbury either  stresses  that  the  b o d i l y or mental pleasures;  superior. being  a  I t therefore  constant  flowing  to h i s happiness then i d e n t i f i e s  follows  than the  -  h a p p i n e s s he  ixit  the  ...  a  pleasures  that "whatever  s e r i e s of mental train  of  with  can  of  the  create  enjoyments  sensual  mental pleasures  speaks of  ...  mind  from  are  i n any  intelligent  i s more  enjoyments."  the  derives  considerable  (1,294).  natural affections  He themselves:  the m e n t a l enjoyments are e i t h e r a c t u a l l y the v e r y n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s themselves i n t h e i r immediate o p e r a t i o n , or they w h o l l y ... p r o c e e d f r o m t h e m a n d a r e no o t h e r t h a n t h e i r effects.(1,294)  From an the a  conclusion  rational  mental  apparently that  since  creature"  are  e n j o y m e n t s " , and  happiness",  i t follows  can  ...  procure  The  a  the  since mental that  are  of  fellowship  to  happiness love  and  state of  directly  and  company;  solid  social  and  love  and  i s scarce  a  step  towards  relationship:  h a p p i n e s s he therefore  the  desires;  social  love  natural  a f f e c t i o n or  content  and  Shaftesbury  takes  i s to  love.  He  the  others;  the  but  "the  o n l y means w h i c h  identity  "how of  end,  between  many t h e  pleasures  receiving i t in  he  the  pleased  relates  what d e r i v e s  n a t u r a l and  theory  the  love  of  kind affections"  i s perfect or  from  has or  identified with  imperfect,  sum  of social  (1,299).  benevolence, Shaftesbury the mental  and  happiness  itself  s o u r c e o f man's h a p p i n e s s .  d e p e n d i n g on  therefore  to  stresses  natural a f f e c t i o n s are  becomes  more " c o n s i d e r a b l e  n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s f o r , " i n the main  single article  in  (1,294).  n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s . g i v e man the  established of  e s t a b l i s h an  In  established  of a "succession  i t i n a manner f r o m  (1,298).  the  the  social  happiness  happiness"  gathering  depends i m m e d i a t e l y on  a  enjoyments are  delight with  those around us"  social  attainment  natural a f f e c t i o n s are  c o n t e n t m e n t and  there  As this  the  c e r t a i n and  n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s and  Shaftesbury  n a t u r a l a f f e c t i o n s , when " d u l y  n e x t move S h a f t e s b u r y  sharing  reasoning,  the means f o r t h e  the  happy  mathematical  created  sensual social  Thus,  "as  s o m u s t be  the  love;  i t " (1,299).  argues  t h a t man  is a  social  being  and  that  i t is  - 17  in  the  and,  interest  by  o f h i s own  implication,  benevolent  i n Shaftesbury's  benevolence  was  Shaftesbury's  i n word and  thoughts  Enlightenment." Shaftesbury's  good  of  account  whole  essentially  people  of l i t e r a r y  o f man's  Fielding  and  and  deny  essential  Sterne,  i n England,  were i n f l u e n c e d by  a list  becomes  a  c o n c l u s i o n , however, does not  much i n f l u e n c e on  like  s o c i e t y as  H e n c e , man  This philosophical  t h o s e who  reads  The  towards  known t o t h e n o v e l i s t s ,  had  roster  spirit  scheme.  interest.  certainly  "The  t o be  towards h i s neighbour.  the p l a c e of p r i v a t e  Germany.  happiness  -  since  France  Shaftesbury's  and  philosophy  philosophic greats of  the  Thus w r i t e s S t a n l e y G r e a n i n h i s r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d book,  Philosophy of R e l i g i o n  and  E t h i c s . ~*  S h a f t e s b u r y was  known  as  6  the  founder  of  the "moral  Diderot wrote Encyclopedie  the  sharp  Lord  Shaftesbury."  lend  itself  egocentricity  his  views  use  of  this  action.  use  by  t h a t by  it  linked  to a r a t i o n a l  which  to a k i n d o f c r e a t e s an  expects  maliciously  comes o u t  as  o f man  as  the and  deserves  in  the  a philosopher  though  t w i c e i n Tom  the n o v e l i s t s ,  says  full  of  J o n e s as  possessing  sublime "the  truths."^  elegant  e s s e n t i a l l y benevolent  would  e s p e c i a l l y when H o b b e s ' s  about conscience  benevolence,  novels.  The  the use  f o r both  ..  of h i s reason  theory  F i e l d i n g and  he  can  the mind  ..  i n t u i t i o n i s m as w e l l  intentionally  do  from  Sterne  make  t h a t man  take a  is  so  "home-survey"  the r e f l e c t i o n  as  calls  and  to the n a t u r a l moral  being  the  we  see  sense.  individual  creature  sensible at  unjust  odious"(I,305).  conscience  o t h e r s b e c a u s e "no  i l l without  of any  naturally  o f wrong i n the mind of  same i l l - t r e a t m e n t  emphasize  among h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s .  k n o w s t o be  that Shaftesbury  apprehension  to  awareness of a d e f o r m i t y i n h i s  o f f e n s i v e " t o have (a person)  i n order  philosopher maintains  c r e a t u r e , i s an  horridly  capacity of  Conscience  Shaftesbury  d i s c o v e r what i s wrong i n h i s conduct  or behaviour  i s this  I t i s believed that  provided a contrasting fore-runner.  I t m u s t be  It  t h a t he  t h i n k the view  see what S h a f t e s b u r y  equipped  Conscience,  then  had  to Shaftesbury  idea i n their  h i m s e l f and  action  Shaftesbury  on man's e s s e n t i a l  naturally of  I  to a r t i s t i c  us  o f L o c k e and  schemes o f t e n p o o r l y grounded,  Fielding himself refers  Let  school" i n ethics.  comparison  (1751) i n which  some " b r i l l i a n t  of  sense  the  who  can  same  time  i l l " (1,306).  Shaftesbury  uses  the  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y argument from  design  to  enforce  - 18  his  t h e o r y o f man's e s s e n t i a l  beauty  and  beauty.  order  i n nature  When n a t u r e  (she  i s ) . . e v e n then  Man,  being p a r t of  moral  terms,  c o u l d be  e x p l a i n s how  "animal  bodies  and  i n The  so  and  vice  relationship  be  i n her  death  productions., (11,22).  to achieve  which  beauty are  raise  this  the  i n the v e r y "Man  may  i f even v i r t u e ...  concept  and  the  vegetable  world" of  virtuous",  itself  then  in  constitution be  and  order  the animals  again  in  apparent  the " c h a i n of being"  sustain  suppressed.  some  g o o d l i e s t works"  demonstrating of  the b e t t e r choice  benevolence  of  that Shaftesbury  enthusiasm, rational  motivated  the argument from  i s b a s e d on  rightly  Shaftesbury's  thoughts,  as  a necessary  c r e a t u r e , d e r i v e d from by  l o v e and  the p r i n c i p l e s  be  man  he  unprovided  i s order  of Deism even before  these  creation  The  n o v e l i s t s who of  their  in  for,  reality  next which  or  economy o f  "interestedness of l i f e " ;  or  accepts  i s w h o l l y good  the  view. and  examples of h i s c r e a t o r Sternawould  have  h i s theory  natural religion.  known  since  But  t h e o r y o f human n a t u r e w o u l d  then handle  group o f a f f e c t i o n s he  follow  on  which  deistic world  Shaftesbury publicised  to a  would  s i n c e he  F i e l d i n g and  thoughts  the u n i v e r s e  S t a n l e y Grean s t r e s s e s  element i n the  but  t h e o r y o f man's  the  certainly  the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s thoughts  in  characters.  affections" separate  elements  the  conception of  although  immanent i n the u n i v e r s e .  of d e i s t i c  to  a S u p r e m e B e i n g who  g o o d - w i l l , cannot  D e i s m subsumed e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y application  a deistic  design  i s a Deist with a difference  particularly,  i s Himself  "love  In  order  .. B u t  to achieve  (11,67).  informs  the  their  that there i s  i n h i s nature  makes use  by  i s happy  largely  excite  good.  t h e r e f o r e , sees  v i c e more prosperous,  essential  who  ills  e n r i c h the e a r t h and  i s practised  The  A  general  vegetables  being  the  designed  perverse  p r o v i d e n t i n her  Moralists,  Shaftesbury,  inverted"  and  the  dissolved  by  so a l l t h i n g s a r e  Therefore,  towards  w h e n he  s a y s , "and  emphasizes  the u n i v e r s e i s a l s o designed  Theocles,  when v i r t u e  He  "seems m o s t i g n o r a n t and  as w i s e  nature,  (11,22).  benevolence.  and  i s virtue.  turned  -  d e f i n e s as the  of  d i s c u s s e s i s the  that "relate  c r e a t u r e " (1,317).  self-love".  "resentment  those  Shaftesbury  Basically, injury";  they  He  to the p r i v a t e labels  comprise  "selfinterest  them t o g e t h e r such  as  affections  " p l e a s u r e , or a p p e t i t e  towards  as  - 19 -  n o u r i s h m e n t a n d t h e means honour)";  "indolence  deny the f o r c e admits and  "emulation  o f ease and r e s t ) . "  to the normal  dealing  with  life  o f man,  procreation.  harmful  The p r i v a t e  to society  affections,  nor destructive  man's a c t i o n s .  f o r example,  But h i s point  o f the natural  from our fellows  i n us;  because "a separate  generous views  laid  and  By of  the unnatural  any advantage  331).  to the species  These a f f e c t i o n s  He g i v e s  affections  I think  a  and p l e a s u r e "  sort  In  of aversion  the l i g h t  are,  (1,331).  removed from  f o r these unnatural  of h i s line  the source  contributing  means  f o r making  the l i f e  with  cerned with an  sensibly attempt a t  influenced  the context o f  that with  society.  i n beholding .. w i t h  a  peculiar  "good-breeding",  i s created with  "neither  i n the i n d i v i d u a l .  the unnatural  affections  from t h e i r neighbours and  the unnatural  affections  The p r i v a t e  as n o t  affections,  the s o c i a l a f f e c t i o n s which remain as the  i ti s part  the good o f h i s n e i g h b o u r .  abnormality.  strongly  i n particular"( I ,  of the i n d i v i d u a l viable.  affections are society-oriented,  is  filled  to the enjoyment o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  argues, are not inconsistent  only  towards  of happiness.  To sum u p , S h a f t e s b u r y e l i m i n a t e s  he  thinks  affections  o f a r g u m e n t , men  ..  neither yield  those which a r e  massacre  by reason of t h e i r mental a t t i t u d e s , a l i e n a t e d  thus c u t away f r o m  that  and inhuman d e l i g h t  Shaftesbury  or  characters.  torments and i n viewing d i s t r e s s , calamity,blood, joy  A s we  Shaftesbury's  i n general nor the creature  unnatural  life  the  the natural  (we a r e ) .. t h u s  S h a f t e s b u r y means  are therefore  as an example " t h a t  i s that  e n d .. m u s t b e  the s e l f - a f f e c t i o n s i n the s o c i a l i s something of  of  a r e l e d more and more  subsuming  i n their creation  love  affections.  every day from  and Sterne  (1,330).  with  disjoined  Fielding  society"  aside  and  He  i f they a r e moderate, a r e  a n i m m o d e r a t e u s e o f t h e s e l f - a f f e c t i o n s , we  alienation  of praise  S h a f t e s b u r y does n o t  o r s e l f - a f f e c t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be i n c o n s i s t e n t affections.  formed  (or love  of the s e l f - a f f e c t i o n s i n conditioning  the affections  social  to  (or love  their necessity  private  of generation";  Since  o f t h e e s s e n c e o f man  Any departure  from  this  the natural t o be  con-  behaviour  - 20  III.  Shaftesbury admits t r a i t m u s t be  of  having  i l l  theory "a  the p r i v a t e  In h i s "Essay  nature  T h u s , we  o f man  qualities  and  strange  t o be  able  describes  the  state  "state a  (11,79).  ..  sees  restless  "the  until  ...  (which)  not  fact  Shaftesbury because  then  of  as  The  study from  the  essential  r e t a i n s man  of nature."  ..  societies  cannot  state  any  indeed  in  o f man  ...  For  be  so p r o p e r l y c a l l e d as  imperfect  the  the  first  effort  That of  Nature,  under v i o l e n c e , and (11,79).  I  of nature"  think  suggests  the Hobbesian p r o p o s i t i o n r a t h e r  out  of  emphasizes s t r o n g l y  society, which of a  statement historical  nature."  could not  t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n a b o u t man  accept negates  a  embryonic  that i s , society.  i n s t a n c e , Theocles  subsist"  character,  "that  the Hobbesian " s t a t e  existence of  Moralists,  as  of nature"  o f men,  I n The  other  t h a t S h a f t e s b u r y m i g h t have been t h i n k i n g  r e g a r d i n g the " s t a t e  as  men  system.  Shaftesbury  i n i t s n a t u r a l state but  can  one"(I,282).  "rendered  to Hobbes'  him,  formation of  rough d r a f t  ever  common  happily.  than w i t h i t s a b s t r a c t e d nature.  seems t o s u g g e s t  and  i t attained i t s natural perfection"  d i d nor  interest  b u t w h i l s t H o b b e s a b s t r a c t s man's  vehemence i n d e n y i n g  "never  the  the  he  (1,61).  S h a f t e s b u r y was  the r e a l  concern w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l  t h a t man  another"  the Hobbesian " s t a t e  formation of  o f n a t u r e " was  Shaftesbury's a  He  s p e c i e s i n the b i r t h  still  principle  the p h i l o s o p h e r more t h a n  c o n d i t i o n of mankind  every  Therefore, ...  p h i l o s o p h e r s began t h e i r  the  this  Humour," S h a f t e s b u r y a t t a c k s H o b b e s  religious  to l i v e  before  but  i t is in  i n which  a t t a c k s the Hobbesian " s t a t e  personifies  i n man  (1,248).  to t h a t o f  ends a p p a r e n t l y i n i s o l a t i n g  who  i n the  and  opposed  Theocles,  stage  affection"  opposite  and  i n society;  f o r him  selfishness  constitution!  is directly  how  HOBBES  good, o t h e r w i s e  p o s s i b l e t o one  see  Shaftesbury  state"  vicious  point i s that both  situation  rude  public  every moral  much a s w o l v e s a s was  society  and  A T T A C K ON  some d e g r e e o f  on F r e e d o m o f W i t  overturned  interesting  of  made t o s u b s e r v e  r e s p e c t " e s t e e m e d an c a l l s Hobbes'  THE  -  the Hobbesian " s t a t e a l l inclinations  of  toward  nature" the  - 21 -  formation man  of  s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n o f men,  i s progressive.  Nature," a  the  subsuming  society which  The works of reacted two of  He the  gives  thoughts  s e e s man  of  the n o v e l i s t s , to  the  interest  f o r the  the  Fielding  are  t h a t drew a t t e n t i o n to Hobbes' The  Fable  of  the Bees(1714)  setting  forth  attempts  to  note  thesis  s h o w how  egocentricity to  the  a  We  affections.  in  safely  that  to motivate  Fielding  as  one  say  t h a t , as  century.  Mandeville's  Kaye's  edition  The  to what Hobbes argues  of. t h e  renewal  publication  public virtues.  man's a c t i o n s .  Shaftesbury these  to a  Bernard  i n F.B.  the  f a r as  Another  consulted  of  in  reflection  can  of  effort  living  contributed greatly  similar  vision  first  and  t h e o r y o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y was  - most u s e f u l l y  His or  social  clear  that p r i v a t e v i c e s are  tends  t h a t Kaye l i s t s  the  by Hobbes and  eighteenth  a natural trait,  theory,  find  Shaftesbury  the  "essay  the n a t u r a l ,  Sterne.  presented  i n Hobbes d u r i n g  the  d i s p l a y of  and  concerned,  of  under  philosophers  t h e o r y o f man  philosophers  moving out  self-affections  scope  that i s , society.  I t i s of  in  work the  interest  s e v e r a l w r i t e r s who  reacted  9 to  Mandeville's Fable  by  referring  Thus, from the  very beginning  and  doctrines occupied  benevolent We  can  the benevolent  see  at a  glance  of  to h i s theory  the  eighteenth  people's  i n parts of century,  works.  egocentricity  thoughts.  that i n Fielding's  theory of Shaftesbury's  the  their  Tom  while B l i f i l  Jones,  Tom  shows g l a r i n g  represents aspects  -  of  the Hobbesian  Uncle Walter  egocentricity.  S h a n d y shows  i n many w a y s a s p e c t s  i s not only  of  the n o v e l i s t s but also  the treatment  prudence" by F i e l d i n g  and "conscience"  the novels, they  they  characters  o f such by  p o r t r a y I n my  that attests ideas  the n o v e l i s t s '  artistic  discussion of the novels.  to the r e a c t i o n  as " d i s c r e t i o n  the thoughts  are not categorised projections.  play regarding  Mr.  and  Sterne.  portray  r e a c t i o n by the n o v e l i s t s to the thoughts to  T r i s t r a m Shandy, t o o ,  o f the Hobbesian e g o c e n t r i c i t y .  of the characters  the handling  But,much as these  role  I n Sterne's  Toby embodies c o n v i n c i n g l y t h e S h a f t e s b u r i a n b e n e v o l e n c e w h i l e  It  in  -  22  of the  philosophers  They a r e f l u i d  creation.  of the philosophers  i n the  I t i s the that I  intend  - 23 -  FOOTNOTES  Anthony E a r l  of Shaftesbury,  Benjamin Rand  Life,  Letters  and P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Regim,  ed.  (London, 1900)  A n t h o n y E a r l o f S h a f t e s b u r y , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Men, M a n n e r s , O p i n i o n s , T i m e s , e t c . e d . J o h n M. R o b e r t s o n ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 0 ) , 1,262. C i t a t i o n s from C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n my t h e s i s a r e t o t h e t w o v o l u m e s e d i t e d b y R o b e r t s o n . Basil Willey,  The E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y  Basil  The E n g l i s h  Willey,  S t a n l e y Grean,  Moralists  Shaftesbury's  Background  (London,1940), p.70.  (London,1964),  Philosophy  of Religion  p.73-90. and E t h i c s  (Ohio,1967), p.x.  William XLVI  E. A l d e r m a n ,  (December,  "Shaftesbury  and the D o c t r i n e o f Moral  Sense,"  PMLA,  1931), 1089.  Grean, p . x i . Grean,  p.59-63.  Bernard  M a n d e v i l l e , The F a b l e  o f the Bees,  ed.  pp.431,432. Shaftesbury's  Characteristics  came o u t 1 7 0 9 .  F.B. K a y e  (Oxford,1924),  - 24 -  B E N E V O L E N C E AND AND  From  of  these  either  have  theories  earlier  o f man  and  which  theories  the  attempt  treatment  show  i n f o r m the  com-  artistic  does n o t of  them  i s t h e human s i t u a t i o n  that i t i s d i f f i c u l t  c a n be  observed  t o d e t e r m i n e where one  suggest  altogether. and  chapter, namely, unadorned  o f human n a t u r e  attention to  t h e n o v e l i s t makes an  or h i s r e j e c t i o n  think,  opening  shall  o f human n a t u r e  that  the d o c t r i n e s  I  engaged  and  which  realism; in  the  ends and  the  begins.  Feast," the  Fielding  announces i n h i s opening  that  s u b j e c t o f Tom  the  image o f k i n d s o f f o o d  century  term  nature:  Jones  to be  for "restaurant"),  " i n human n a t u r e  sooner  he  Fielding  than an i s here  Lovejoy  of  1960).  (New  nificant surely,  York,  i n the the  two  suggests  be  a b l e to exhaust  and  have  vegetable food i n  so e x t e n s i v e a  treats The  fully  i n h i s book, Essays  subject"(I,i)  a mixture of ingredients,  o f man's b e h a v i o u r  merge w i t h the b e n e v o l e n t .  But  i n the  metaphor, o f c o o k i n g and m e a l s  o f human n a t u r e i n t h e a c t i o n s  consists  the  (an e i g h t e e n t h -  t h a t a cook w i l l  s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l and  views  of the author,  to  t h e p r o t e a n a s p e c t s o f human  i t suggests  view  of Fare  t h a n Human N a t u r e , "  sense  a realistic  metaphor,  other  Bill  the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y concern w i t h the concept  " n a t u r e " w h i c h A.O. Ideas  i s "no  i s such p r o d i g i o u s v a r i e t y  author w i l l echoing  c h a p t e r , "The  s e r v e d i n an " o r d i n a r y "  gone t h r o u g h a l l the s e v e r a l  the w o r l d  skill  o f man  F i e l d i n g ' s manner o f  i n my  that both  JONES  novelists.  and  i n p r o j e c t i n g what, I  awareness  offers  and  Jones  doctrines.  stressed  actions  by  Tom  IN,  o f human n a t u r e p r e s e n t e d b y H o b b e s  e g o c e n t r i c views  h i s endorsement of  succeeds  other  and  of Fielding's  work of  an  the opposing  the benevolent  position  I  views  eighteenth-century moralists  that  He  get  REFLECTED  I N F O R M I N G , F I E L D I N G ' S TOM  the a b s o l u t i s t  S h a f t e s b u r y we  E G O C E N T R I C I T Y AS  i n which  by  o f men.  Fielding  i n the  cookery of  says " t h e whole, the author  ...  History sig-  implication, Thus,  the e g o c e n t r i c  the metaphor o f c o o k i n g throws  too.  is  of  Fielding  elements  light  to continue the  the e x c e l l e n c e o f  on  the  same the  - 25 -  mental  entertainment  in  well  to  g i v e us  d r e s s i n g i t up" "the  those people  example,  Tom  Hobbesian  o n e s who  and  first  Then, I  critically  and  Italian (I,i).  On  through  two  attempts  plane,  be  there  injured  but  indiscretion,  are by  the other plane  a s p e c t s o f human n a t u r e  are  for  shall  consider specific  approach.  c o u r t s and  cities  of the f i r s t to pursue  indicates  t h a t he  "The  Plot  3  the p l o t .  Hobbes and  the  I  o f Tom  country,  Shaftesburian  comic  Jones,"  attempt  ragout and  of  negating  them  and  author  human n a t u r e ;  of  i t i s  i t w i t h a l l the  vice which  courts  stated  ragout"  the  this  clearly  subject, and  of  and  vice"  and  Fielding R.S.  In  light  of  comic  i n the  incidents,  lastly,  in his form"  the d o c t r i n e s of  indicated  c h a r a c t e r s and  himself  Crane,  the " p e r v a s i v e l y  t o London and  tone  f o r instance, which  novel.  s t a g e s as  and  earlier.  seasoning of a f f e c t a t i o n  similar  t h e way  the  t h i n g s r e g a r d i n g the  the n o v e l i n the  t o show how  of a l l the  t h e o r y o f man  I  i n "which  s i m p l e manner i n w h i c h  tone o f Congreve,  analyses  follow  s e c o n d l y , on  Jones,  into  a "comic e p i c i n prose";  theories of egocentricity Tom  Italian  discussion of  shall  his inquiry  "hash and  the London scenes  Shaftesbury w i l l  quotation.  and  i s writing  My  Jones,  the metaphor of cooking  the author w i l l  e x e m p l i f i e d i n some o f  the  light  episodes  b o o k o f Tom  h e r e a f t e r h a s h and  I t extends  suggest  that  Jones.  c h a r a c t e r s i n the  T h i s q u o t a t i o n d o e s two  announcement of " F r e n c h  the  group.  seasoning of a f f e c t a t i o n  the  the  scarce ever  skill  light.  shall  the manner i n w h i c h  in  On o n e  the p h i l o s o p h e r s ' i d e a s , e i t h e r  he w i s h e s  But  of  to  chapter  c o u n t r y and  afford"  Fielding's  essay,  this  r e p r e s e n t i t " i n t h a t more p l a i n and  high French  is  can  p l a c e , the p r i n c i p a l  theories.  h i s opening  i n the  cities  who  of  therefore, Fielding  nature."  make t h e v i r t u o u s f a l l  the p l a n by w h i c h  found  innocence  them i n a d u b i o u s  In  he w i l l  of honest  i n the author's  t h e S h a f t e s b u r i a n t h e o r i e s b e c o m e r e l e v a n t t o Tom  responds  placing  gives  subject than  his skill,  i s i n connection w i t h these  these opposing  or  With  i s the epitome  d i s c u s s i n the  Fielding  and  i n the  B l i f i l .  It  shall  (I,i).  of " v i r t u e  vicious  less  simple workings  indiscretion." those  consists  last  firstly,  i n London,  reflect  benevolence.  c h a r a c t e r s , i s t h e one  who  being e s s e n t i a l l y benevolent.  comes c l o s e s t He  i s the  to  the  epitome  - 26  of n a t u r a l Hobbesian  goodness. theory  of  these  contrast  other  characters  Fielding  the  device end  becomes a  gets  Allworthy, character  A  full  the  who  Tom  lad  IN  the  THE  occasion  to  Around  these  the  the  i n an  stage  " v i c e s " of  Mr.  Allworthy's  And  the  Tom  Jones,  in  important This  In  doing  of  years discovered  t h a t he  s a y s " i t was was  the  in his exposition,  universal opinion t o be  hanged"  companion,"  displacement of  the  of  the  the  characters  It  i s i n the  natural  a f f e c t i o n s t h a t m a k e men  happiness. Black the  Tom's e a r l y a c t i o n s  George.  use  of  the whole serious  the  Both of  smart, but  seek  the  f i n d him apples  his family  the whole blame"  of "that atrocious wickedness"  in opposition "to  true moral  i n his  theory  company o f i n the and ...  i s the  scales  at  that his essential  that  i t is  the  others  and  thus  company o f  the  gamekeeper,  ducks which are though  (III,ii),  the  light.  Tom's e a r l y b e h a v i o u r  explains  them s t e a l  gamekeeper and  i n their  stresses  (III,ii).  his  f o r the  the  of a l l  of Master B l i f i l ,  Shaftesbury  ...  to  t o many v i c e s "  virtues  i s seen.  is  Fielding i s "obliged  c e r t a i n l y born  apparent v i c e s of  Tom  benevolence.  set  puts  Mr.  of  i r o n y i s i n t e n s i f i e d w h e n Tom's v i c e s a r e  novel  the  chapter.  a propensity  that F i e l d i n g ,  t i l l  this,  character,  theory  light.  through  benefactor  in this  obscurity.  i n a much more d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s manner  o f whom h e  family  later  Tom  i s solved.  Shaftesburian  unpleasant  I t is highly ironical  benevolence  main  Fielding's  c a r r i e s the novel  another  his r o l e i s given  from h i s e a r l i e s t  the  end  the  two  illustrate  h i s hero,  of parentage  introduce  a l s o a t t e s t s to  h e r o on  (III,ii).  symbolises  COUNTRY  s u s t a i n i n g element that  i s introduced  having  who  incidents which  parentage of  apparent puzzle  discussion of  our  and  a b o u t whom Tom's h i s t o r y r e v o l v e s .  a  bring  shrouds  when t h e  author  is Blifil  philosophers.  I.  This  to him  o f man's e s s e n t i a l s e l f i s h n e s s .  persons revolve use  In  -  and  the  poor  "converted l a d bore not  throughout  shooting  of  the  find  the  to only  most  partridges  by  -  the  gamekeeper a f t e r  Poaching man  of  -  to the p e r s u a s i o n s o f  i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y was  a  as  concerned  i f h i s house had  about  lest  himself  been broken  t h a n he  i s about  h i s constancy should f a i l  whose r u i n he  k n e w m u s t now  be  the importune  s e r i o u s o f f e n c e and  the manor " c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e t r e s p a s s  language  being  yielding  27  i n as h i g h terms  open"  (III,ii).  the gamekeeper.  essential  him and  he  makes to  the r a t i o n a l e  a promise  with  inclination  flead It  rather  i s this  also  calls  honour." the  this But  of promise element  him"  (III,  t o do  honour,  or break  though  he  i t c a n n o t be  Thus, from  fidelity  K e e p i n g one's honour  see is  of ladies  having h i s role  motivated  he  h i s master  calls  Tom had  during  out h i s Fieldin fidelity  the w h i p p i n g asked  Tom Tom,  he  himself  strictly  was  had  be  made"(III,ii). Mr.  Allworthy  the epitome  admits  the poor  d e c i d e d how and  how  of  from  that " h i s fellow much  much  to  of  from  a p r e - o c c u p a t i o n i n the as  the q u e s t i o n a b l e  becomes a v i c t i m  However,  him  c o n t e n t e d to  honour.  promised  l e d to d u e l s as w e l l  questioned.  of  i n both  situations.  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n  t h e r e i s no  doubt  We  doctrine,  t h a t he i s  e s s e n t i a l l y by h i s good n a t u r e .  Tom's n a t u r a l action.  though  s p o n t a n e i t y o f good a c t i o n  at court.  that a t the v e r y o u t s e t ,  Tom,  the promise  of action.  Tom's b e h a v i o u r a r i s e s  behaviour  stage, i s acting  to  Thwackum d i s m i s s e s e v e r y n o t i o n o f h o n o u r  iv).  this  gamekeeper  condemns i t as " m i s t a k e n p o i n t  d i d , f o r he  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y and  anxiety  in his intention  n o t c o n f e s s , he was  t o a c t as he  to promise.  i s less  good;  the gamekeeper  o f Tom's m o t i v e  engaged him  conceal  that  the C a l v i n i s t  consideration  honour  he w o u l d  than betray h i s f r i e n d  sense  bitter  c a s e , d e p e n d more on  g r e a t r e s o l u t i o n and  between every s t r o k e , whether  as  i s placed i n a dubious perspective.  o f Tom's b e h a v i o u r , i n t h i s  "bore h i s punishment  Tom  gentle-  (III,ii).  A l t h o u g h the hero, a t t h i s  t h a n on n a t u r a l  and  should b e t r a y the  the consequence"  benevolence, h i s action  the  the gamekeeper, " h i s c h i e f  Tom's g o o d n a t u r e t h e n b e g i n s t o show i t s e l f shield  so  Jones.  He  goodness  i s t h e o n e who  i s interrogated  about  expresses i t s e l f  i s always ready  i n spontaneity of  to obey h i s i n s t i n c t s .  the poaching i n c i d e n t ,  manor " i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h h i s p e r s u a s i o n s . "  frequently  he  The  When  c o n f e s s e s he w e n t i n t o sense  of spontaneity i s  the  - 28 -  evident and  i n the selfless,  Thwackum.  But Fielding's ironical  goodness i s e v i d e n t in  a bloated,  was  frank n a r r a t i o n of the episode  i n the style  high-flown  the whole  truth  of the matter  Tom p l e a d s  w i t h Mr. A l l w o r t h y  family."  Mr. A l l w o r t h y  this  role  confession:  the episode  i s done  s e t i n terms o f c o u r t procedure:  and he would  take  h i s oath  i s seen i n t h i s  episode  "This  on i t " ( I I I , i v ) .  t o "have compassion on t h e poor  bestows benevolence and compassion. criticises  Allworthy  e x p o s i t i o n o f Tom's n a t u r a l  of this  expression  to Mr.  fellow's  a s a D e i t y - f i g u r e who  But elsewhere i n the novel,  a n d t h u s makes us see h i s a r t i s t i c  use o f  Fielding  Shaftesbury's  theory.  The dramatize  progress  the need  elements. while  i n Mr. A l l w o r t h y ' s .  situation  an  honest pride  though  the w o r l d .  these  may  against  Fielding,  give  i n (readers')  Fielding  minds, w i l l  Before  here  capacity,  as i n h i s adherence point Fielding  are necessary which  admits  goodness, assumes situation.^ (III,iii),  that  there  I t i s with  this  Harrison  even t o t h e b e s t  of  the notion trust  i s a degree o f malice  r e l a t e s the h i s t o r y of h i s l i f e  ill-treatment  i n  o f "good  he has s u f f e r e d from o t h e r s . advises  doctrine  naturedness".  i n human g o o d n e s s , a s r e m i n d s o n e o f Tom.  despite h i s belief  point o f view  to  business  i s s t r e s s i n g i s what George Sherburn c a l l s Fielding,  breaks  she c a n n e v e r be s a f e " ( I I I ,  to C h r i s t i a n principles,  o f human b e h a v i o u r .  some  and openness  speaks about t h e u n r e a l i t y o f t h e S h a f t e s b u r i a n He h i m s e l f  gives  g i v i n g us  b y n o m e a n s do t h e i r  to Virtue without  e s s e n t i a l benevolence.  realism"  Dr.  f o rthe  comfort w i t h i n and a d m i n i s t e r  P a r s o n Adams o f J o s e p h A n d r e w s , i n h i s n a i v e  the  Tom.  Blifil  through and  i n h i s omniscient  ... g r e a t  Prudence and c i r c u m s p e c t i o n  They a r e a guard  vii).  well  i s necessary  the whole novel  to  and the Hobbesian  d i r e c t m o r a l i z i n g , when he comments " t h a t g o o d n e s s o f h e a r t  temper,  of  This  since i tcarries  o f Tom's m i s f o r t u n e s ,  of  men.  the opportunity  i n the a f f e c t i o n s o f Mrs.  f o r the machinations o f B l i f i l  instances into  goes o n , r i s e s  out o f the p l o t ,  occasion  gives F i e l d i n g  f o r a convergence o f the Shaftesburian  Tom, a s t i m e  he f a l l s  working  o f Tom's a c t i o n s  But,  the "honest  i n the natural  w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h e human  t h a t Mr. W i l s o n  i n Joseph Andrews  t o P a r s o n Adams, r e c o u n t i n g t h e I n Amelia  (III,i),  the benevolent  Booth n o t to f o r g e t imprudence, "as the m a l i c i o u s  -  disposition they  of mankind i s too w e l l  (people)  take  This  there  i s the  are  Fielding's and  Blifils  i n t h e w o r l d who  i s where, I  thought.  t h i n k , the  One  goodness.  essential  has  to  One  has  to  circumstances  which Tom  i s similar  the  not  necessary  virtue  safe.  a l l his troubles.  the H o b b e s i a n meet  least,  of  the  caution  necessarily losing  same n a i v e  application  of  a  though  the  of becomes  more  t h a t Hobbes's n o t i o n  previous  to decide  note  of B l i f i l ,  connection,  to apply  i n order  type  knowledge or  line  of  experience  of a c t i o n .  circumspection,  in  This  i s something  ability, which  lacks.  Fielding principle.  goes f u r t h e r t o expose  He  the  unreality  s t r e s s e s that w h i l e a person's  them known, b e c a u s e " i t i s n o t  nay,  intrinsically  your  appear  actions are  so  Fielding  ...  or malice  lapses  l a y the  into  and  this  envy w i l l  w o n d e r s why  c l e a r w h e n we  remember  he w o u l d  like  "malice  Fielding,  Tom's k i n d a c t s  be  good,  and  care  to blacken  a c t s o f Tom  envy take  designs,  that they  here  so  that Fielding's  attitude  them, t h e y  should  to b l a c k e n  the  towards strive  as  whose good works  care  But  shall  i t " ( I I I ,v i i ) .  situation  the poor t o be  is  are  them."  w i t h h i s sense of n a t u r a l goodness,  towards B l a c k George.  to h e l p  there i s  enough t h a t your  must take  care  framework f o r f u r t h e r benevolent  One  much as  take  may  Shaftesburian  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e x p o s i t i o n of precept  done w i t h good i n t e n t i o n b u t  criticize  good, you  of the  motives  the problem of making  to  which  It is  5  e x p o s e s i n B i l l y Budd when h i s h e r o  i n this  to F i e l d i n g ' s  at  without  of Claggart, a  ability  through  some s e n s e ,  danger o f  to note,  i n v o l v e s the  going  the B l i f i l s  that Melville  "prudence" present  by  the m a c h i n a t i o n s  malicious.  pleasure  n o t make o u r  S h a f t e s b u r i a n and  to get  I t i s the  goodness  a victim  cruel  circumspection are  will  learns after  circumspection possessed  natural  the  Prudence and  l e s s o n w h i c h Tom  Here  known, and  i n d e s t r o y i n g the r e p u t a t i o n of o t h e r s . "  enough to have "good-nature." because  -  29  should  becomes that  u s e f u l members  6 of  the  "chain the  society. of being"  Like other concept,  successful working  of  and  intellectuals  of h i s time,  t h a t a l l c l a s s e s o f men  the whole.  In  the  are  he  believes i n  the  to c o n t r i b u t e to  i n t e r v i e w between Parson  Adams  - 30 -  and  Parson Trulliber  ironic  s i t u a t i o n which  Trulliber better  the  r e m a r k , " I know w h a t c h a r i t y i s  not  work i n order  Tom  out  of  doing  respect  the m a t t e r  acts  of  the  the  other's  "ingratiated on  Western's  Western  religious  hero's  and  he  of  good n a t u r e ;  through the  "good naturedness"  i s an  innate  i t s presence.  glorious  of  doing  with  Tom.  Blifil  pause  to  i s the  I f Tom  i s the  Black  of  to  Blifil  friendship  George.  George,  Tom's v i r t u e  This  f o r the  and,  a c t on  at  "resolved  hoped  Square thatTom's  subsequent same  of h i s  He  has  time,  friend  previously  t o make u s e  to introduce  to  benevolent  the  behalf  gamekeeper. so he  whom h e  goes to  the  Fielding the  into  good." see  nearest  the  character  i s the  extent  of  motivated  of  this  Mr.  enduring  i s concerned w i t h  Before other  that  the  novel  the  who  the n o v e l i s t  idea the calls  discussion  o f f s e t s the  theory  that  sure "that of  hero.  i s most s h a r p l y  Shaftesburian  pain  dramatization  the  good works a r e  f u r t h e r i n our  direct  philosophers.  w i t h what F i e l d i n g  c h a r a c t e r who  i n the  to  going  the  a  physical  F i e l d i n g handles  is filled  epitome of  character  Tom,  endowment and Tom  by  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Tom's a c t s ,  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of  of  Blifil  out  c a t e g o r i c a l statements of  manifestation  shall  i s expected  I t is significant  Tom's f i n a l  ...  Isut, soon a f t e r  exposes h i s doubts about the  we  partly  e a r l y w o r k s h a v e b e e n shown t o be  execute his benevolent acts.  Tom,  on  s q u i r e " and  to  lust  b i b l e which Master  George  (III,x).  for his friend,  However,  the  poor.  p r o p r i e t y , f o r Thwackum and  to employ the  friend  gamekeeper  conclusion.  centred  the  toward B l a c k  the  family of Black  selfishness.  of h i s  family"  The concern  book, and  come t o no  himself with  behalf  sells  gamekeeper h e i g h t e n s  t o p l e a d w i t h Mr.  favour  f o r the the  the  family.  He  against  but  his  good.  benevolence are  ingratitude of defines  and  money i s s p e n t on  Tom's i s p i t t e d  early  Tom's b e n e v o l e n c e  t o t a l l y m e r i t o r i u s because  continues  The  a r g u e on  is  to vagabonds."  to keep h i m s e l f  buys " p a r t l y  of  an  t u r n s P a r s o n Adams away w i t h  t o be  Tom."  dramatizes  n o v e l i s t ' s a t t i t u d e to  give  light  Fielding  the  to  throws  (II,xiv),  on  than  appears  act  i n Joseph Andrews  of  contrasted benevolence,  the H o b b e s i a n e g o c e n t r i c i t y theory.  -  Fielding's  sense  and  r e p r e s e n t the  to two  Blifil Tom  and  up  s t r o n g e s t marks on  P a r s o n Adams.  That  i n the  Tension  share  b o t h Tom  the  and  but  suggest F i e l d i n g ' s  amount o f e d u c a t i o n o r any endowment;  this  no  make h i m  c o r r e c t i o n would i f a boy  though  so p r i v a t e , w i l l  of  be  - he w i l l  summarizes  be  f o r us  Blifil's and  his chief an  the  essential  b y Tom's l a c k  the Hobbesian  view  of B l i f i l ,  b o t h he  destroy or to  Tom;  to  be  s u b d u e one  "by  the  Tom  signs of  on  the  the  i n nature, the  no  same  school  c o n t r a r y , i f he else  Joseph Andrews  f a v o u r o f Mr.  that B l i f i l ' s  two  be  you thus  Airworthy,  of h i s benefactor.  i n the Hobbesian  I t  schemes a r e h e l p e d  from  men  desire  situation  the p o i n t o f  the  the  two  the person of  for Captain B l i f i l  which  endeavour  brothers  language,  to  apply appear  Blifil  Tom.  relates, exhibits,  His marriage  of  ends."  same t h i n g  .. a n d  Thus, i n the Hobbesian  self-interest  of our  o f combat does n o t  that  on  In  state of " e q u a l i t y  t h e y become e n e m i e s  to master  self-love.  "I  two b r o t h e r s .  i n the eyes  This  towards  brought  the i n n a t e  to London, or wherever  the  to  No  equally  inclination,  good;  the reader's p o i n t of view  tendency  are  as h i s s p o n t a n e i t y o f b e h a v i o u r .  enjoy,  same t h i n g .  i s unknown  vicious  t a k e i t t o be  at winning  plot  are  another."  the  opposite i n  e q u a l i t y o f hope i n the a t t a i n i n g  both  inherent qualities,  blatant  I  scheme i s e s t a b l i s h e d :  force or wiles"  Blifil's  novel,  arises  they cannot  contesting  father's  and  of  h i s a r g u m e n t , " i f any  i t i s from  endeavours  Tom  of d i s c r e t i o n as w e l l  situation,  nevertheless  t r u s t him  part of Fielding's  As Hobbes develops  diametrically  opposed  i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h h i s analogue:  e v e r make h i m  i s to d i s c r e d i t  (from which)  fact  same m o t h e r a n d  i f a y o u n g h o r s e was  are directed  as  of innate predisposition.  otherwise;  this  ability  that  danger o f b e i n g c o r r u p t e d . "  actions  aim  the p i c t u r e  seems c a p a b l e o f c h a n g i n g  inner qualities  Wild  the o u t s e t between  of a mischievous, wicked  i n no  Jonathan  of  though  the  t o be  projection  a r i g h t e o u s t e m p e r , y o u may  please  is  g r o w up  stable,  a m o n g men; ever  come f r o m  p o i n t Joseph Andrews i n the  side  i s created at  training  remember when I was  one  same p a r e n t a g e ,  B l i f i l  same e n v i r o n m e n t  character  -  o f human n a t u r e r e c o g n i s e s a d u a l i t y .  c h a r a c t e r s who  them.  31  I  think,  to h i s  very early  to Miss B r i d g e t ,  i n the  arranged  -  by  h i s b r o t h e r , was  t o w a r d s Mr. animal the  of  Allworthy's  tendency towards  B l i f i l  contrasted with "youth of  so  in ironic  Tom  who  cast  disposition;  The  situation  ironic  of  or  epic  Jones  Hobbesian business  His  terms, B l i f i l wherein  I,viii).  Tom  t h e moment, B l i f i l egocentric  aims.  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  for  the  opportune  B l i f i l  t h a t i s , the  truth  Allworthy, the  For the  from h i s eyes,  motive thus  His  d i v u l g e d w h a t Tom, about B l a c k  i s none o t h e r  thus o b v i a t i n g the s i n c e Mr.  By  A l l w o r t h y would not  reason of  the  the  betray  Tom  hero on  the  on  which In and  (Leviathan  impulse so  the  as nose  of  to  achieve  during waits  tears  tremendous  the  i n the  the  choice  concealed, poaching  presence of  i n t h e way  reports Black  he  sight  In his cleverness, he  reveals  gamekeeper ever Blifil's  and  trip. Mr.  same i n t e n t i o n t h a t the  before  c l e v e r behaviour  the  f r o m h i s nose and and  (III,ii).  bloated.  the  but  of  exposes i t to  Allworthy.  of  lad  self-motivated lad  I t i s with  from h i s uncle  possibility  the  a  qualities  to  lad  family  discerned"  boxes him  than to d i s c r e d i t  cunningly  is  conversation  according  his uncle  scheming works e f f e c t i v e l y  secrecy  are  George accompanying him  and  a  i n h i s b e n e v o l e n c e had  taking h i s revenge.  that  author  beyond h i s age"  t o be  running  appeared before  indeed  i n "matter of  persons are  blood  the  i s emphasized by  poaching i n c i d e n t , the "with  an  a virtuous  only  b e y o n d h i s age,"  spontaneously  s e c o n d p o a c h i n g i n c i d e n t t o Mr. a promise of  was  pious  i n s t a n c e , w h e n Tom  Bible at half-price  Thwackum.  and  acts  t i m e and  Thwackum."  Blifil's  places  who  He  good q u a l i t i e s  to a c t  as  the  Master B l i f i l  knows when t o make r e p o r t s a b o u t  his  galloping  k n o w s how  times,  Unlike  supposedly  first  that not  i s placed pious  eye  a woman a s  i n prose,'"  vice.  d i s c r e e t , and  d i s c r e e t and  an  stresses his point  i s seen a t  from l i t t l e  on  had  hereditary.  "comic  He  i n which B l i f i l  suggest a f f e c t a t i o n .  on  the  light.  sober,  epithets i n "sober,  buys  i s inborn  neighbourhood resounded h i s p r a i s e s .  remarkable  of  evil  he  looked  Thus, F i e l d i n g  i s contaminated w i t h  different  self-love:  M o r e o v e r , "he  (II,vii).  good or  -  the motive o f  following his notion  introduces  the  of  estates.  d o m e s t i c use"  In  all  done o u t  32  he  the matter  defending  of George's  insists to  him,  himself,  trust.  statements of B l i f i l ,  he  he  33  -  begins  to r i s e  virtue  i n the youth  with  i n t h e f a v o u r o f M r . A l l w o r t h y who " s a w e v e r y a p p e a r a n c e o f  the glass  specially  through  inverted"  relevant  "virtue"  -  the m a g n i f y i n g end, and viewed  (III,  vii).  f o r i t suggests  a l lh i s faults  The image o f t h e m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s i s  forcefully  the unreality  o f B l i f i l w h i l e r e m i n d i n g us t h a t h i s a c t s w i l l  o f the apparent  ultimately  be  exposed.  We of  man  occurs  t h e two m a i n c h a r a c t e r s t y p e f y i n g  i n t r o d u c e d up t o a c e r t a i n i n the country.  behaviour the  now h a v e  discussion,  contribution  theories  s t a g e i n t h e movement o f t h e n o v e l ,  I shall  up t o t h e t i m e  the opposing  now  c o n t i n u e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f Tom's  t h a t he s e t s o f f f o r London.  other characters w i l l  as i t  In this  section of  be i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e l i g h t  t o the author's use o f the d o c t r i n e s  of their  o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y and  benevolence.  Tom's b e n e v o l e n t a c t s of  the " l o v e l y  on  relief  S o p h i a w h o s e w h i t e n e s s no l i l i e s ,  could match." approach  a r e thrown i n t o  the heroine.  i s noteworthy; Tom g a i n s ,  but this  very early,  disposition  B l i f i l "  essential  malicious  But  a c t becomes a spur  he  climbs the tree  into and bird  the water. egocentric  schemings  i n my  than the grave  the b i r d ,  situation  "little  o f Tom's  and "almost r e c o v e r s h i s l i t t l e  f o rthe  by h i s i n which  Tommy."  come i n t o p l a y h e r e w h e n h e f r e e s f o r the display  section  and sober  He i s t h e n moved p a r t l y  F i e l d i n g places him, to present Sophia w i t h  this  later  good n a t u r e a n d p a r t l y b y t h e p s e u d o - r o m a n t i c  Blifil's  of heralding the  the approval of the lady  suited better with Sophia (IV,iii).  style  i s treated  " g a i e t y o f h i s temper of Master  the introduction  ivory nor alabaster  Fielding's magnificent, classical  of Sophia  with  spontaneous  the bird. behaviour:  name-sake" when he  falls  The e p i s o d e p r o v i d e s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f t h e b e n e v o l e n t doctrines.  By t h e humorous  episode, F i e l d i n g attempts  to c r i t i c i z e  tone  i n which  he r e l a t e s t h e  n o t so much t h e S h a f t e s b u r i a n  - 34  principle his  i n Tom  social  Tom  w h o s e own  ruin  s t i l l  heard  of  matter  favour  but  and  "to  and  a c t i o n outward,  that of a  now  some h u m a n b r e a s t s ;  This  her  them f r o m  H e n c e , Tom  Blifil  The  does;  into "Mr.  incite  the  this  but  the  i n n a t e q u a l i t y as  w h i c h he  he  J o n e s had agreed  titions,  as  them t o  image o f  the Lord H i g h  elevated  to  presides,  the h i g h e s t  governs,  justice"  i n c a r n a t i o n of  the  the r h e t o r i c  Chancellor position  directs,  (IV, v i ) .  The  i s reminded of  effect  turns h i s  of  his  inward.  good  somewhat a b o u t h i m  though  theory  and  which,  certainly inhabit right  to r e s t r a i n  statement i s the  of "innate moral  innate  quality  i n good  the p e r f o r m a n c e o f good  the p r i n c i p l e . asset  i s . f l u e n t and and  closest  withhold."  (IV,vi),  the  awareness acts. stresses style  i n i t s repeThen, i n  principle  virtues,  the is  for " i t  condemns a c c o r d i n g  seem r a t h e r e l e v a t e d ;  but  works.  from the  melodious  i n Tom's i n t e l l e c t u a l a c q u i t s and  and  That F i e l d i n g  i s evident  from  sense";  t h a t i s , n o t m e r e l y an  restrain  t o n e may  small  s t a t e m e n t o f Tom's i n n a t e  of a kingdom  judges,  One  i s t u r n i n g the  This  this  had  i s t a k i n g advantage  former,  Tom's m o s t i m p o r t a n t  incite,  t h a t Tom  i n i t s name, d o t h  (IV, v i ) .  Shaftesburian  i n , "prompt and  remarks  of  benevolent  so p r o p e r l y t o d i s t i n g u i s h  a movement t o w a r d s  exposes i t ;  His  show  gamekeeper,  consequence  sense w h i l e B l i f i l  i s not  latter"  the  to  directly  the  to p l e a d .  hero  a direct  thoroughly  whose use  wrong but  becomes  of  con-  George i n sending"a  k n o w l e d g e m o v e s Tom  launches  not  behalf of  Fielding  i s F i e l d i n g ' s view of "good nature," and  as  anything  (IV,v).  towards B l a c k  does emphasize the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of  of r i g h t  aspect  in a position  i s not  i n t e r e s t on  Shaftesburian  F i e l d i n g makes a b o u t the  and  to Sophia  discretion.  as  t o prompt and  with-hold  i s now  l a r g e f a m i l y , m u s t be  declares:  think w r i t e r s are  in  request  charitable act  i n the  q u a l i t i e s when he  This  He  h i s a c t i o n a g a i n s t him"  place  Fielding  he  Sophia.  solicit  the Hobbesian view of  w r o n g as  of  His  to h i s w i f e . "  time  This  i n the Molly-Tom r e l a t i o n s h i p  r e v o l v e around B l a c k George.  Sophia's  correct  I  the  to him  love.  Sophia.  Western's pursuing  acts  of  i s continued  that of  gains  c u r r e n t n o t i o n of romantic  h i s good n a t u r e .  profitable  Mr.  the  criticism  trasted with  further  as  -  but,  to  merit  unlike  - 35  other  places where F i e l d i n g  uses r h e t o r i c  language here u n d e r l i e s the social and  outlook,  expresses  namely,  itself  Tom,  i n good works.  y e t he  i t " (IV, v i ) .  the  philosopher maintains  Fielding  "awareness of a deformity of wrong i n the mind of  Our  hero,  to "rob  episode  i s ironic.  a man  I t i s an  this  from the motive of  of h i s c h i l d . " appears  l o v e and  doing  the  on  h i s n a t u r a l goodness and  The courtship Tom  author's  of Molly.  to  the  relationship Tom.  seeks  charge of  raises  t o be  he  on  i t i s not  suggesting  the  a t t e n t i o n on  for  creature, i s  an  apprehension  i t wrong  when he  to this  but  by  theft"  i n the  romance  Fielding's  o f Tom's  the  this  l e a s t want of threatens  one  this  by  story of  "long before  he  the  Sophia,  act renders  taste".  The  has  t h a t Tom's  his interest  him Mollyof expended  generous  i n Molly?  conclusion, Fielding  s e l f - i n t e r e s t when he  under-  benevolence  the benevolence  conclude  he  daughter  the m o t i v e o f  initiative  o f M o l l y and  Could  court  comments  d a u g h t e r o f - B l a c k G e o r g e o n whom Tom  a d v i s a b l e to accept  girl  conscience  i s apparently reluctant i n courting  a problem which p a r t l y  the  not  suffering  away w i t h a man's  i s strengthened  s t u p i d i t y or at  element of  o f Tom  conscience;  to the B l a c k George f a m i l y were m o t i v a t e d  Although  did  c o m m e n d i n g Tom's b e h a v i o u r ,  the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  the a f f e c t i o n  i s the  and  presentation of  h i s l a c k of  o f Tom  h i s e a r l y acts of benevolence.  acts  his  criticism While  M o l l y Seagrim  all  be  h i s doubt about  wholeheartedly  "liable  feeling  same t h i n g f r o m  by  stage.  " t h o u g h he  t h a t i t c r e a t e s an  d i f f e r e n c e between r u n n i n g  i s made t o r a t i o n a l i s e  this  and  v i e w s on  Fielding's  Tom  at  principle.  to a r a t i o n a l  and  Fielding's  individual.  (IV,vi) .  suggests  principle  framework w i t h h i s c r i t i c i s m  i s great  cutting  active  did otherwise without  i n his action"  element i n  the  a man's w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y  echoes Shaftesbury's  Though he  the whole  drawing  informs  that conscience,  the  essential  comments,  a c t i n g from h i s n a t u r a l goodness, f e e l s  Sophia,  that "there  never  by  t o make i r o n i c  of an  t h a t good n a t u r e  for  undercuts  importance  therefore, i s guided  always act r i g h t l y  -  appears  s t a t e s t h a t Tom  had  c o u l d b r i n g h i m s e l f to attempt  to  fixed the  - 36 -  possession  of her person"  dramatizing difficulty not  be  what, I t h i n k ,  Tom;  i s the r e a l i t y  established  the family,  noted  I f this  of dissociating self-interest  absolutely  help  (IV, v i ) .  that  that  i f t h i s were  from benevolence.  with  the Hobbesian.  the d i f f i c u l t y  I twill  to dramatize  move a l o n g s i d e  is  i s , the  Though i t i s attempting  the good n a t u r e o f principle into  be demonstrated i n t h i s  thesis  from benevolent  natural  the B l i f i l s  and Jonathan  Wilds  Tom i s s e e n t u r n i n g h i s s e l f - l o v e  affection;  Such can never r e c e i v e  loving the creature  f o rF i e l d i n g says o f him:  any kind  t o whom t h a t  both gratitude  of satisfaction  satisfaction  i s owing"  stresses  t h e p r i v a t e a f f e c t i o n s c a n b e made c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s passion  Hence, he defends M o l l y pleads with  against  Mr. A l l w o r t h y  difficult  B u t , as Shaftesbury  after  the church  is  a measure o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t ; goodness i s c l e a r l y  Fielding  the occasion  the  stage  philosopher. The  t o comment o n t h e p h i l o s o p h y  I t  since  there  While  this  i t gives  of Shaftesbury.  This i s  where t h e a u t h o r makes a d i r e c t m e n t i o n o f t h e  Thwackum a n d S q u a r e  problem of e v i l  he  exhibited.  the s e l f l e s s n e s s and benevolence o f the hero,  i n the novel  acts.  however, i tcannot be doubted t h a t h i s  M e a n w h i l e , Tom b r e a k s h i s a r m i n t h e s e r v i c e o f S o p h i a . exposes  the natural,  service;  t o d e t e r m i n e how f a r Tom's a c t i o n i s a l l b e n e v o l e n t  incident  another  t o overcome t h e b e n e v o l e n t  her attackers  from  n o t t o send h e r t o t h e House o f C o r r e c t i o n .  is  natural  f o rM o l l y  f o rM o l l y .  "there  (IV, v i ) .  with  Tom d o e s n o t a l l o w  and desire  from  Tom i s f i l l e d that  acts.  s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t man i n t h e i r  a d i f f e r e n t temper o f mind w h i c h borrows a degree o f v i r t u e even  without  con-  t h e Toms a n d P a r s o n A d a m s .  the Shaftesburian  self-love.  to  I t must  i s t h e r e a l i s m o f t h e human  o f human n a t u r e ,  In h i srelationship with Molly, into  from  of eliminating self-interest  I n the f i e l d  that  assumption.  the Shaftesburian  He does n o t a c c e p t a n y o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s ' entirety.  this  so, i t would n o t detract  that what F i e l d i n g attempts dition:  i n mind w h i l e  suggests  however, F i e l d i n g manages t o b r i n g  confrontation  a b o u t human n a t u r e ;  Tom h a d M o l l y  the p l o t of the novel  i s the case, F i e l d i n g i s  i s considered,  d e b a t e o n t h e m o r a l a s p e c t s o f Tom's while  Square expresses  the opinion  fall.  that  - 37 -  "It no  was a mere a b u s e o f w o r d s moral  unfitness"  Tully's  (V,ii).  those  Square's  things evils  draws a t t e n t i o n  in  evil  which  things.  references a r e the "second  But  i n which  bi-t  h i s tongue  The behaviour.  Fielding's  criticism  and that  illness  book o f Thus,  on t h e argument b y d e s i g n fitness  o f S h a f t e s b u r y i s seen  h e p r e s e n t s S q u a r e who " i n p r o n o u n c i n g  While  selfishness  to Shaftesbury's views  t h e r e was  (V,ii).  seems t o b e n o n - e x i s t e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e g r a n d  way  these  ... p u t a n e n d t o h i s d i s c o u r s e  from  of a l l  t h e comic  ... u n f o r t u n a t e l y (V,ii).  o f M r . A l l w o r t h y o c c a s i o n s t h e d i s p l a y o f Tom's i m p u l s i v e other r e l a t i v e s  through  their  interest  o f t h e b e n e v o l e n t man e x h i b i t  their  shown i n t h e w i l l ,  episode  E n g l i s h n o v e l s , as w i t n e s s George E l i o t ' s  the o c c a s i o n o f O l d Featherbed's  death,  the r e c o v e r y o f h i s b e n e f a c t o r . news o f h i s r e c o v e r y b y g i v i n g augmented b y t h e s p i r i t nature  i nwhich  Tusclan questions and the great Lord Shaftesbury"  Fielding  in  to c a l l  description  i n to h i s"naturally The innocence We  i n Middlemarch  of  Tom, i n h i s g o o d n a t u r e d n e s s ,  T h e r e f o r e , he e x p r e s s e s  o f wine."  i s best expressed here.  a familiar  jubilation  violent  animal  and h i l a r i t y  He a s k s B l i f i l  a t the  spirits  ...  o f Tom's  see him s i n g i n g h i s p r a i s e s  A l l w o r t h y and p r o f e s s i n g h i s love f o rhim.  wishes  o f Mr.  to forgive h i s  o f f e n c e a g a i n s t h i m s a y i n g , " H i s e x c e s s i v e j o y f o r Mr. A l l w o r t h y ' s r e c o v e r y had  driven  every other  thought  o u t o f h i smind"  t h e g o o d g e s t u r e o f Tom w i t h s c o r n , a n d r e f e r s the hero's  birth.  two  doctrines.  his  animal  eulogises and  Once a g a i n , F i e l d i n g  but B l i f i l  to the mystery  g i v e s us a  a r e n o t t o be c o n t r o l l e d .  Sophia.  F i e l d i n g breaks  into  The w h o l e beautiful  the e x p e c t a t i o n o f Sophia. a C i r c a s s i a n maid r i c h l y  scene  He r e t i r e s  surrounding  ensues.  into  builds  But  t h e woods a n d  i s romance g i v e n a p a s t o r a l  r h e t o r i c which  opposes  confrontation of the  Tom g i v e s w a y t o h i s i m p u l s e s a n d a s c u f f l e  spirits about  (V, i x ) ;  setting,  up t h e s u s p e n s e f o r  T h e n comes t h e i r o n y w h e n , n o t " h i s S o p h i a , n o r  and e l e g a n t l y a t t i r e d , "  but Molly,  approaches.  Tom t a k e s h i s p l e a s u r e w i t h M o l l y i n t h e g r o v e w h e n , a s F o r t u n e have i t ,  Thwackum a n d B l i f i l  exonerate h i s hero another  come u p o n t h e l o v e r s .  by emphasizing  h i s drunkenness;  e x a m p l e o f Tom's w a n t o f d i s c r e t i o n  would  The a u t h o r a t t e m p t s t o but this  incident i s  and i t c o n t r i b u t e s  to h i s sub-  - 38 -  sequent  sufferings.  Blifil  w h e n Tom's c o u r t s h i p because  o f S o p h i a has  the young l a d y p r e f e r s  e p i s o d e o f Tom's t r i a l criticism the  the hero's  Joseph on  i s also  e x c i t e d Mr.  Western's  to B l i f i l .  at a  indignation  i s replete with  the p h i l o s o p h e r s and w h i c h I d i s c u s s Tom  time  Therefore, i n the  Allworthy, which  i s banished from  becomes c o m p a r a b l e  to the scene  t u r n e d out o f Lady Booby's house.  shall  now  o b s e r v e how  s e c t i o n o f Tom's l i f e enraged Mr.  at the  Fielding  to p o r t r a y  the country.  Fielding's fully This  in  stage  i n Joseph Andrews where Both heroes  Western.  He  i s here  are l e t loose  uses B l i f i l  with  the poor.  gamekeeper "had impossible  Blifil  This reason ties  any motive  towards  of  r e a s o n by  for religion  Blifil's to  Sophia.  B l a c k George, s s i o n o f Mr. the to  the  the i r o n i c  Tom,  Blifil  Molly affair  intention  opinion  i n this  by but,  episode.  for Fielding's  that  and  the poor  But F i e l d i n g  t o n e i n w h i c h he  who  c a n be  sensed  initially  own  ...  Apart attitude  dissipates  links  Blifil  the  i t was (IV,v).  should work  Mr.  Sophia's  a m b i t i o u s t h a t he  f o r t u n e an end more d e s i r a b l e  follows  and M o l l y  i n his intentions  exploits  the Hobbesian  con-  the s e r i o u s n e s s to the g r e a t  Western  came t o M r .  Then, i n a h y p o c r i t i c a l  and, most r u i n o u s o f a l l ,  considers  he  Tom's d r u n k e n n e s s  recounts the on  He  is  he  from mentioning  i n c e n s e d a t Tom's  tone, B l i f i l  posse-  knows when  Thwackum a n d  refrained  Allworthy  the  than any o t h e r .  For example,  i n the grove, but B l i f i l  t o be m a r r i e d  favour to help  n o t i o n of prudence:  a c t i n o r d e r t o d e r i v e maximum b e n e f i t .  court Sophia.  becomes  t o Tom's h e l p i n g B l a c k G e o r g e b e c a u s e  i s so g r e e d y a n d  Western's  incident until  this  virtue.  self-interest  Unlike  in  t o t h e g o o d n a t u r e o f Tom;  i s a mouthpiece  t h e g e n e r a l good.  and  c h a r a c t e r who  came u p o n Tom  Blifil  f o r d o i n g good t o s u c h a w r e t c h "  i n with Fielding's  structively  love  objects  elements.  the r e p u t a t i o n of a loose k i n d o f f e l l o w  to f i n d  Blifil's  a double  he  particularly  to get B l a c k George employed  set i n opposition  f r o m h i s b e i n g o p p o s i t e t o Tom, towards  uses B l i f i l  the Hobbesian  s u c c e s s o f Tom's e f f o r t s  think Fielding  to  the M o l l y a f f a i r  the road.  We  I  of  Allworthy,  life  to r e p o r t  the hero  b e f o r e Mr.  of the doctrines  s e c t i o n on Mr.  of  chooses  daring Tom-  the o c c a s i o n o f  -  Mr. he  Allworth's appears  recovery.  t o be  e x p o s e s Tom  The  39  r h e t o r i c of B l i f i l ' s  s t r u g g l i n g between  while  apparently  -  r e a s o n and  trying  to ask  s u c c e e d s i n h i s i n t e n t i o n s b e c a u s e Tom Allworthy's  Allworthy  Shaftesburian  i s the  doctrine.  i s presented  as  the  He  other  c h a r a c t e r who  i s "a  human b e i n g  God-figure  of a  c o n t r o l l e d experiment: benefactor  of  Tom  and  to  him.  Mr.  Allworthy s 1  especially  orthodox.  the  We the  i m p r e s s e s on  vast  Blifil  discredited in  Mr.  echoing  an  her  missed  and  so  (I,x).  corresponds  fully  philosopher's  has  In to  qualities,  Fielding  does not  formance o f works. of  the  the r e a l she  He  The  mother of  i s "rendered which  with  Mr.  driven  the  fear  education, lately  he  only  Tom  character  himself of who  n o t i o n of benevolence because  w h a t Tom  i n the  religious  benefactor.  does o f t e n , i s the  h i s mother, Miss  of  the  and What  active  good works:  Bridget;  i s ,  is blest  applied  competent judge i n most kinds  present  of  doctrine.  has  the  of  Allworthy  i n f a m o u s and  general  i s a passive manifestation  " f o u n d l i n g " and  humour  n a t u r a l endowments, as  he  of  admonishes  i r o n y and  statement r e c a l l s  a p p e a r a t o be  and  as  been  instead  Tom.  i s a r e p o s i t o r y of moral,  do,  would have  p r i n c i p l e s when he  u n l i k e Tom,  a l l of which are  have him  He  been d e i s t i c  to a b a s t a r d .  very  he  acting  deep r e l i g i o u s  his wife.  his religion  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n  b e n e v o l e n t man  esthetic  care  fact,  by  sentiments,  advantage of a  become " a  characters.  i s matched by  is filled  but,  benevolence,"  to  scheme g o i n g  element i n Shaftesbury's  the  the  less  society" (I,vii),  important  had  act  to  a l m o s t a l l c h a r a c t e r s more o r  Shaftesburian  giving birth  subscribes  A l l w o r t h y becomes the o r i g i n a t o r  death of  f i g u r e had  natural abilities"  letters  the  cunningly  f o r him.  benevolence  the whole  benevolence  t h a t by  of  literature"  on  having  Allworthy himself  " t h o u g h he  with  him  Jenny  as  Mr. for  by  sets  i s that Jenny i s not  l e p e r s , out  alienation  to  see  " s i n " of  situation  like  he  i n h i s views about the  a perfect Shaftesburian  J e n n y on  powerful;  he  replete with  d o l i n g out  t h e Duke i n M e a s u r e f o r M e a s u r e , Mr.  related  forgiveness  is finally  Like  the  passion;  is  favour.  Mr.  and  speech  he  he  pertakes  admits  into  - 40 -  his  household  when C a p t a i n quotes to  Blifil  h e i s a j u d g e who  remonstrates  the B i b l e to support  care  him  the B l i f i l s ;  f o r the c h i l d  i n the r o l e  easily  taken  to  see through  banish  Tom.  o n h i s d e a t h - b e d we s e e  Mr. A l l w o r t h y  concept.  i s placed attempts  He  whom h e now c a l l s  i n a dubious  to j u s t i f y  In  t h e cheque, Mr. A l l w o r t h y r e f l e c t s  g i v i n g Tom  should  natures  of  to serve  t h e movement o f t h e p l o t , Mr. A l l w o r t h y ' s moral  situation  o f b o t h Tom a n d M r . A l l w o r t h y  George i s another  of self-interest.  the hero  from  that  b u t , the i r o n y i s that  o n t h e money a n d i t f a i l s  when i t comes t o t e r m s w i t h  Black theory  o r no v a l u e  the d i f f i c u l t  itself  the reader  b e made u s e f u l i n t h e c o m m u n i t y f o r t h e a m o u n t i s t o " e n a b l e  little  finds  young  Fielding's opinion  Tom p l a c e s  Tom e x p o s e s  " t h a t good  and s e v e r i t y as the h i g h e s t c r u e l t y . "  industry, to get an honest l i v e l i h o o d " ;  helping  lacks the "prudence"  y e t he a l l o w s t h e  (Tom) w i t h  Besides  Allworthy  h i s a c t i o n by emphasizing the  o p i n i o n o f Mr. A l l w o r t h y ; justice  Fielding  l i g h t w h e n h e i s made t o  t o "condemn t h i s  poor  p l a c e , Mr.  o f the hero and even d i r e c t l y p r e v e n t i n g  an unfavorable  him, i n t h e i r  t h a t we f i n d  I n the f i r s t  neighbourhood  the  surround  t h e d o l i n g o u t o f money.  the cunning o f B l i f i l  Fielding  indiscretions forming  legitimate;  i n by the machinations o f B l i f i l .  H i s benevolence  mercy;  o f the f o u n d l i n g and  h i s dependents  sympathy, a w a i t i n g  the benevolence  is  man".  as i f he were  i s i n Tom's d e f e n c e b e f o r e  questioning  h i s care  justice with  h i s argument, he e m p h a s i z e s h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of a God-figure;  self-motivated  It  against  tempers  serves  i n which reality;  i t s purpose.  banishment o f  the benevolent  theory  the e s s e n t i a l l y  good  a r e caught i n t h e schemings o f  c h a r a c t e r who  H i s connection  exemplifies  the Hobbesian  w i t h Tom d u r i n g  to b r i n g h i s s e l f i s h n e s s into  Blifil.  the country  relief.  life  I t i s he and h i s  f a m i l y who a r e a t t h e r e c e i v i n g e n d o f a l m o s t a l l Tom's a c t s o f b e n e v o l e n c e in  the country;  y e t he shows h i s i n g r a t i t u d e b y p o c k e t i n g  F i e l d i n g manages t o expose when a f t e r for  Tom;  Tom w a n t e d  this  the apparent d u a l i t y  i n Black  Tom's  George's  cheque. character  a c t o f i n g r a t i t u d e , t h e gamekeeper o f f e r s t o r u n a n y  h o w e v e r , he a g r e e s  t o do t h i s  t o b o r r o w money f r o m h i m .  after  he h a s e x p r e s s e d  errand  h i s fear  that  - 41 -  B l a c k George becomes life  when F i e l d i n g him  uses  bringing  him  We  see  he  c o n s i d e r s w h e t h e r he  in  to h i s conscience which  from  keeping  makes h i m his  abandon  honour and  factor;  a c t and  In which  his  from  selflessness which  upon your  account"  Sophia's of  parental  it  i s the d e s i r e  in  London, as  preference similar  (IV,  t o be  the  also  i n natural  when he  from  from  this  presents  the aunt  to  prevented  not  conscience  I t i s the i n t e r e s t the  in governing  a c c o r d i n g to  the d e f o r m i t y o f  defined.  t h e means  Apart  h i s most conspicuous  by  from her  and  act of  h i s consequent  i n comparison  one's  play.  being  employment o f B l a c k George,  danger,  give  she  benevolence:  breaking of  of what I  feared  xiii).  instead  appears  of B l i f i l ,  at f i r s t  u n i t e d w i t h her  reflects  that  the d e s i r e J u s t as has  But  the e f f e c t s  sustains  of  Tom  But  directs  S o p h i a has  Western,  as  q u a r r e l w i t h Mr.  life  the heroine's two  characters  her r i n g s , to  to help  She  who  to p r o t e c t  expects  But F i e l d i n g  Western.  has  doubts  Tom  been her  the  humorous way Sophia  so  cultivate  training.  and  acts  of h i s s u f f e r i n g ,  endeavoured  the i r o n i c a l  for  a l l h i s benevolent  been the cause as w e l l  the p l o t ;  teeth  Tom's j o u r n e y a n d  f o r union of  nonsense."  t r a i n i n g because of  i s made i n t h e  the working  o f a r t and  o f her aunt, Mrs.  during her  as  which  the Upton Inn.  f e e l s he  from " r o m a n t i c n o t i o n o f l o v e and received  way  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s come i n t o  are  a l l the money she h a s ,  the t u t o r s h i p  the  to h i s benefactor."  t o r e f l e c t on  Other  Tom's  appears  the o p i n i o n that,  Western's  endowments.  goodness by  on  He  the n o v e l , S o p h i a becomes  i s turned out of doors.  her n a t u r a l under  offer  and  of  conscience.  a c t " t h a t becomes  considers a " t r i f l e  B l a c k G e o r g e b e c a u s e he  does S o p h i a  so.  s t o r y moves f r o m  f o r Tom  of  performs  c h o i c e o f Tom  opposition,  the e v i l  a c t s o f Tom  f o r Mr.  a c c i d e n t he  of  of  i n saving her  on  o f d i s c o v e r y and  t h e money.  e n a b l e s one  doing  the benevolent  fear  totally  t h e c h a r a c t e r f o r whom Tom  t h e arm  to  i s not  period  t h a t h i s c o n s c i e n c e s h o u l d have  the "odiousness  the mediator  t o Tom  t h a t money t o o .  Finally,  the country s e c t i o n  employed as is  reply  cheque.  so d e s i s t  Sophia  "upbraids h i s ingratitude  conscience f u l l y  most of  keep  the i d e a of keeping  not  difficult  Shaftesbury's views  o f money f r o m  should not  thus, F i e l d i n g  Shaftesbury, i l l  the  i n this  to c r i t i c i z e  the purse  B u t F i e l d i n g makes a v a r i c e him  significant  benefit  he  p l a y s on  the  - 42 -  harpsichord. love not  In  f o r Jones,  she  allow herself  training final  to match  scenes,  and Mr.  the c o n f l i c t tries  t o be  t o be  coerced  the n a t u r a l  Sophia w i l l  Allworthy will  between her always into  her  to him  guardians about  obedient to her p a r e n t s , yet  the B l i f i l  impulses  remark  and  t h a t Tom about  confirm the heroine's  engagement. lacks.  his total judgment.  I t is  Later, lack of  in  her does this the  discretion  - 43  II.  The way  next  main  to London.  We  benevolence of the  author  such as with  those  the  of  JOURNEY TO  s e c t i o n o f my  see  Fielding  the hero  handles  THE  the  ideas  t h e Man  of  of  run  is a reflection  it  satiric  a  on  light.  In  this  the  i n special  the G i p s i e s and  essential  section  too,  episodes,  Tom's c o n f r o n t a t i o n  light,  were  on  with  Tom's g o o d n a t u r e  the  f a t h e r , f o r he  This also of  keep  the  in  a l l his  Allworthy,  Tom,  of  these  i s h i s meeting with  and  not  this  be  the  and  who  has  journey,  their  the  Q u a k e r who  against  eighteenth  you  indictment has  on  ironic  of  one's  his  Tom  daughter.  adamant v i e w s a c t i o n and  the  been  to  But  he  of  counsels  love."  Quaker  the  of people,  statements  uses  strong-  alone  cause  of  Fielding  t h e r e f o r e , the hero  his criticism  This  century.  pretend  the hero.  c o n s i s t e n c y o f Tom's c h a r a c t e r ;  Quaker  sacredness  intended  t o one  to love  i s i n d i r e c t l y made i n t h e  the  their  the humorous and  an  involved  Fielding  i s bent upon disowning  A l l w o r t h y , who  pretended  s u f f e r i n g s , complain;  the  the Quaker's  Tom's i s n o t Mr.  of  the  but  with  i n s i s t e n c e on  satirists  gets  a g a i n s t h i s consent.  i n g e n e r a l who,  "cause of misery  statement of  his  married  i s contrasted with  advises  on  Tom-Sophia r e l a t i o n s h i p ;  with  Tom's b e n e f a c t o r ,  Tom's m i s e r y to  the  the b u t t o f  to reason  should  road,  d a r t a g a i n s t Quakers  But  t h a t he  the  One  n o n - c o n f o r m i s m and  attempts  but  Tom  s e c t i o n p r o j e c t i n g the  the p h i l o s o p h e r s  away f r o m h i m  episode  inner  in this  the H i l l ,  incidents.  whose d a u g h t e r has  willed,  d i s c u s s i o n concerns  robbers.  a number o f  as  LONDON  i n a more c r i t i c a l  L i k e J o s e p h Andrews on in  -  intends  does  not,  especially utters.  Mr.  Tom  Jones,  9 as W i l l i a m Empson says ironical set my  out  criticism on  his  father w i l l  o f Mr.  journey, not  i n h i s essay,  A l l w o r t h y i s heard throws h i m s e l f  d e n y me  this  place  ment smacks a b i t o f  sentimentalism  Tom  does i m m e d i a t e l y  afterwards:  his  hair  from h i s head.  is full  of  double  w h e n Tom,  down b y  irony. soon a f t e r  the b r o o k and  to r e s t in'." ( V I , x i i ) . e s p e c i a l l y when one  falling  H o w e v e r , one  he  has  mutters, The  considers  i n t o most v i o l e n t  senses  Another  agonies  the a c c u s a t i o n b e i n g  "Sure,  statewhat and  tearing  levelled  - 44 -  a g a i n s t Mr. A l l w o r t h y , this  e s p e c i a l l y when t h e p a r a g r a p h  incident discusses  the justice  Tom's i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h Ensign  Northerton.  various  After  of the benefactor's  t h e army r e s u l t s  this  t e s t s from contemporary notions.  officer  live;  declare;  l o v e my h o n o u r m o r e "  himself  to cherish malice  honour  a n d so a c c e p t s  rather  in  i n h i sbreast"  and honour,  Tom r e f l e c t s  (VII, x i i i ) .  which  the conflict a  But h i s lack of  to attack Northerton.  of h i saction:  than be c a l l e d  "Shall  He d e b a t e s  with  I incur the Divine  -ha-coward-scoundrel?"  exposed  to notions  B u t he g i v e s  and behaviour  unknown t o h i m , h i s e s s e n t i a l good n a t u r e  Fielding maintains  and  the c o n f l i c t  dis-  into  and a t t a c k s .  a world  the consistency  the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter  with  here dramatizes  of self-interest.  t h e sword  T h o u g h Tom i s b e i n g  in  Fielding  i s shown when he succumbs t o t h e c o e r c i o n o f t h e  the appropriateness  pleasure  hear  very w e l l but I  "how t e r r i b l e m u s t i t b e t o a n y o n e who i s r e a l l y  prudence and i n d i s c r e t i o n sergeant  to  the lieutenant  o f h o n o u r w h e n we  subsumes good n a t u r e d n e s s ,  the Hobbesian notion  Christian  i s subjected  with  t o o ... I l o v e my r e l i g i o n  (VII, x i i i ) .  between C h r i s t i a n i t y which  when he e x c l a i m s ,  H i s dialogue  assaulted by  " N o , my d e a r b o y , b e a g o o d C h r i s t i a n a s l o n g a s y o u  b u t b e a man o f h o n o u r  embraces  i n his being  to the test  preceding  action.  i n c i d e n t , h i s good n a t u r e  exposes h i s concepts about C h r i s t i a n i t y the  immediately  the landlady  (VIII,iii)  Mr. A l l w o r t h y w h i l e  i snot adulterated.  of h i s character  echoes n o t i o n s reflected  p r o j e c t i n g h i s own u n w o r t h i n e s s .  natural  u p o n e a r t h a s i t s own p a t t e r n "  o f eighteen-century  i n nature  In a  optimism  so  itself  Sophia  Mr. A l l w o r t h y , copied  (VIII,ii);  i n which Divine  a n d i n man, t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t  cogently  dialogue  t h e goodness o f both  Tom's w o r d s , i s t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f " b e n e v o l e n c e  (heaven) and sent  as he a r g u e s  t o Book V I I I o f t h e n o v e l . Tom a c k n o w l e d g e s  o f people i n  from  and here  Fielding  goodness i s  element i n the chain o f  creation.  Tom e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r s P a r t r i d g e , h i s s u p p o s e d " f a t h e r " , a n d i n their  dialogue  we  from benevolence.  see p r o j e c t e d  the d i f f i c u l t y  of dissociating  self-interest  P a r t r i d g e o f f e r s t o a c c o m p a n y Tom o n h i s j o u r n e y ,  which  - 45 -  proposal is  i s a generous one;  his self-interest.  He h a d b e e n b a n i s h e d  suspicion o f h i s being p e r s u a d e Tom favour Tom  but underlying Partridge's benevolent  t h e f a t h e r o f Tom.  b y Mr. A l l w o r t h y on t h e He, t h e r e f o r e , wants t o  t o r e t u r n home s o t h a t h e may " a g a i n  o f A l l w o r t h y a n d be w e l l r e w a r d e d  i s n o t shrewd enough t o p e r c e i v e  blames him f o r t h i s  offer  be r e c e i v e d i n t o t h e  f o r h i s pains"  the other's  (VIII,  vii).  self-interest,  and F i e l d i n g  "want o f c a u t i o n and d i f f i d e n c e i n t h e v e r a c i t y o f  -others."  Partridge This  a n d Tom g e t i n v o l v e d i n t h e M a n o f t h e H i l l  i s an i n c i d e n t which n o t a b l e  "Fielding's  11  S o c i a l Outlook,"  critics  episode.  such as George Sherburn i n h i s  12  W i l l i a m E m p s o n , i n "Tom J o n e s "  a n d A.D.  13 McKillop on  i n The E a r l y M a s t e r s o f E n g l i s h F i c t i o n ,  the plot.  o f man,  I t appears  so;  i ti s relevant.  but i n the l i g h t  I n the f i r s t  d e c l a r i n g he h a s " d i s c h a r g e d  The  o l d gentleman  and  so h a s t a k e n  contacts. of  essential  g o o d n e s s o f man  of mankind. there  It  speaks i n the s t r a i n  t h a t "much o f t h i s  commits e v i l  to express  indication life.  t h a t Tom  And, i n t h i s  o f Mr. A l l w o r t h y . other solid,  of Shaftesbury  arrives  than  there  abhorence  when he d e n i e s  that  i s goodness, and  i n h i s heart"  c o u l d be so d e v e l o p e d  at this  (VIII, x v ) . stage  t o be  but h i s statement here i s an  we may n o t e a n o t h e r  to m e r i t  h i s absolute  The l a w y e r  with  e x c h a n g e Tom m a k e s  suspects  Tom o f  having  h i s banishment and d i s i n h e r i t a n c e . lack of self-interest  He p r e f e r s t h e p l e a s u r e s  advantages o r appearances o f fortune" content,  f r o m a l l human  b y m e r e a c c i d e n t a n d m a n y a man  bad and c o r r u p t  to London.  serious crimes  the hero professes  himself  o f man  he i s g r a d u a l l y r e c e i v i n g from h i s contact  connection,  w i t h Dowling on t h e road  Here,  from the inhumanity  t h e o l d man f o r h i s t o t a l  such p h i l o s o p h i c a l views;  of the education  committed very  (evil)  t h e hands o f t h e  s t o r y , i s moved b y h i s c o n c e p t i o n  i n the world  i s not totally  i s a b i t surprising  able  h i s tedious to c r i t i z e  i s much more w i c k e d n e s s  affirms who  Tom  from  t h e common d u t i e s o f h u m a n i t y . "  the extremist view of i n s u l a t i n g heard  excrescence  of the doctrines of the nature  t h e o l d man  has r e c e i v e d e n o u g h s u f f e r i n g  Tom, h a v i n g  an  p l a c e , Tom p r o v e s f u r t h e r h i s s p o n -  taneous acts o f benevolence by d e l i v e r i n g villains,  consider  the s w e l l i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  i n the fortunes  o f the mind because " a l l do n o t c o m p a r e w i t h  the t h r i l l i n g  the  t h e "warm,  t r a n s p o r t s , and the  - 46 -  exulting  t r i u m p h s w h i c h a good mind e n j o y s i n t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f a  generous,  virtuous,  noble, benevolent action"  Tom's s e n t i m e n t s e c h o  (XII, x ) .  Shaftesbury's views  mind as b e i n g t h e h i g h e s t form o f happiness. Tom's o u t p o u r i n g o f h i s h a p p i n e s s d e r i v e d when one c o n s i d e r s to  buttress  the kind o f moral  such i n s i g h t ,  Tom's c h a r a c t e r : wealth  h i s selflessness  from benevolence  scene  a t Upton  informed by the doctrines begins with  education that  i s consistent with  o f benevolence  Tom's c h i v a l r o u s  impulses excited deliverer also  saving  the p o r t r a i t o f  o f Mrs. Waters;  and e g o c e n t r i c i t y .  s i t u a t i o n , we  h i sessential  b u t h i s spontaneous  excited by the s i t u a t i o n  attracted  t h e eyes  of her deliverer."  a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the situation  which F i e l d i n g presents i t .  from death a t the s e e Tom's  gratification  formed  Tom a g r e e s  to walk before her, but  t o Mrs. Waters  f o r the l a t t e r ,  my p o w e r o f r e s i s t i n g Tom's a w a r e n e s s  o f f e n d y o u , and I c o u l d n o t answer f o r charms o f so much b e a u t y "  o f h i s duty i n s e r v i n g Mrs. Waters  s e n t i m e n t s he e x p r e s s e d a f t e r  delivering  the  makes t h e p o i n t ,  self-interest  you; and  remove i t , b y w a l k i n g b e f o r e y o u a l l t h e  the attractive  episode about Mrs. Waters  from benevolence.  ties  i nwith  up  situation  too.  the garrison"  dining  table.  Thus, a f t e r  during  (IX,ii). t h e same  t h e o l d man o f t h e h i l l .  But,  too,of the d i s a s s o c i a t i o n  I t i s the d i f f i c u l t  a s p e c t o f human  n a t u r e a n d Tom, a s i m p u l s i v e a s h e i s , s u c c u m b s t o t h e H o b b e s i a n the  style i n  that "With regard  as  n o t h a v e my e y e s  her half-  and extremely white,  t h e f o r m e r , I h a v e d o n e n o m o r e t h a n my d u t y i n p r o t e c t i n g  f o rI would  o f t h e senses  i s suggested by the r h e t o r i c a l  Tom e x p l a i n s  entirely  natural  t h e woman:  to  I will  The e p i s o d e  b e n e v o l e n c e makes h i m a  i n w h i c h he f i n d s  and " h e r b r e a s t s , which were w e l l  of  appears  of the novel which i s  o f Mrs. Waters  I n this  o n two l e v e l s :  section  nakedness  way,  value,  i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f any m a t e r i a l  I n n i s another  hands o f E n s i g n N o r t h e r t o n .  the  a t face  i s dramatized a l l through the novel.  The  is  I t i s tempting to take  and e s t h e t i c  and the view  on t h e p l e a s u r e s o f t h e  side of  he h a s t a k e n t h e h e a r t y m e a l "he d e l i v e r e d  t h e amorous b a t t l e  so c o m i c a l l y  fought over the  T h i s he d i d w i t h o u t " w e i g h i n g h i s a l l e g i a n c e  to the f a i r  - 47 -  Sophia."  It provides  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  filled.  The r e s i s t a n c e  is  described  i n mock-epic  she o f f e r s  terms o f h i g h bombast.  i s a lady  than she began  some o f t h e p r i n c i p a l  m i s t a k i n g Mrs. Waters h e r o i n e has r e s i s t e d  characters  sets  the parental to agree  whose b e h a v i o u r F i e l d i n g  revelation behaviour  of the novel.  pressure  justifies  going  t o be m a r r i e d  Tom's  to get r i d of Sophia. since  departs  the lapses  to emphasize  Another main Western himself", of  Fielding allows  how c l o s e  a hunter.  to nature  Tom b e i n g of  maid's on by  d e f e n d s Tom w h e n S o p h i a , meantime,  i n the romantic  on t h e scene a t Upton He  A s s o o n a s h e s e e s Tom, h e " s e t s  the fortunes attached.  The  life  the hero i s i n h i s behaviour.  i n search o f h i s daughter.  u s e d b y s p o r t s m e n when t h e i r  of  affair  the a f f a i r s w i t h M o l l y and Mrs. Waters, i n  c h a r a c t e r who a r r i v e s  v i e w o f man, M r . W e s t e r n  Partridge,  she i s goaded  b u t she l a t e r i n h i s room.  order  but  t h e m a i d , who m a k e s t h e d e c i s i v e  t o the wars  Tom a n d S o p h i a , e s p e c i a l l y  The  Therefore,  by drunkenness, reports  accused about the d i s c o v e r y o f the muff  of  to B l i f i l ;  Then  o f guineas from Sophia;  from the i n n .  about  S o p h i a and Honour a r r i v e .  c a n be seen i n terms o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t  three offers  that  During the tussle  s h e comes t o t h e i n n .  But i ti s Susan,  a b o u t Tom's  we  f o r the c o l l o c a t i o n  to an impending wedding.  o f f on the road u n t i l  w i t h Mrs. Waters.  the opportunity  f o rMrs. F i t z p a t r i c k ,  a p p e a r s she w i l l have  she a l s o  the  But i n the landlady  to court her favour.  The U p t o n I n n e p i s o d e p r o v i d e s  it  t o t h e e n t r y o f Tom a n d M r s . W a t e r s  a t r a i t o f t h e H o b b e s i a n e l e m e n t , f o r no s o o n e r h a d she l e a r n t  Mrs. Waters  of  of the landlady a t thei n n  one o f t h e comic e l e m e n t s w i t h w h i c h t h e whole Upton I n n e p i s o d e  is  see  the attitude  game i s i n v i e w . "  i s t h e f a t h e r who w o u l d  i s projected  i s "Squire  i n t h e image  up t h e same h o l l o a  as i s  I n terms o f the Hobbesian insist  on a match  because  T h a t i s why he i s so v e h e m e n t l y opposed t o  favoured by Sophia.  He  s u s p e c t s Tom o f k n o w i n g  Sophia b u t Susan defends the hero.  the whereabouts  - 48 -  III.  At  this  IN  stage o f the novel,  LONDON  i t i s seen t h a t  e x c e p t Mr. A l l w o r t h y  and B l i f i l ,  the way t o London.  Tom now i s o n t h e h u n t f o r S o p h i a w h i l e  Mrs.  Waters have been dropped  in  t h e case o f Mrs.  is  not actively portrayed  several will the  Waters.  events  from  I ti ssignificant  define  him.  e l e m e n t becomes m i x e d w i t h  act  such marriages,"  father,  she should  herself  both her uncle  aunt, which  she decides  Sophia  situation  Tom  continues  relieving  that  Harriet) the Hobbesian  so b i t t e r l y  o f the misfortunes  from these  But underlying  mis-  this  benevolent  that "could  s h e become  t h i s man a n d o f r e s t o r i n g h e r t o h e r a service  from  to the family, reconcile to (XIII,iii).  How f a r i s i t  charitable acts?  Harriet, i n  i s unhappy because o f a l i e n a t i o n from h e r uncle and the philosopher  considers  self-interest  i n this  a potent situation  cause o f our misery. becomes  prominent  o u t t o b e o n e o f t h e L o n d o n l a d i e s c o u r t i n g Tom.  performing  defends h i s f r i e n d N i g h t i n g a l e fifty  attempt  t o save Sophia  and h e r aunt Western"  element o f H a r r i e t ' s turns  (otherwise  she i s o f the o p i n i o n  from  t o a s k about  B e l i e v i n g t h a t Tom i s a  herself "tasted  self-interest  terms,  when she l a t e r  in  Mrs. F i t z p a t r i c k  ... b y s o g r e a t  to divorce  Shaftesburian  received  o f man a s t h e y a p p l y t o  Fitzpatrick  b y g e t t i n g h e r home t o h e r f a t h e r .  the means o f p r e s e r v i n g  The  Blifil  discussion  s e c t i o n o f my  and i t i s i n t h i s  i s h e r s e l f - i n t e r e s t because  possible  that  The l a s t  the Shaftesburian.  and a beggar, and having  fortunes  too,  Tom h a s  a r r i v e s i n London a n d goes t o Mrs.  to exploit the situation  attending  temporarily  section of the novel:  to an examination of the doctrines  S o p h i a whom h e m i s s e s b y m i n u t e s .  rake  M o l l y and  life,  to note,  and a r e on  i n London.  Tom  decides  characters,  from the country  thepicture o f his  i n this middle  p e o p l e now t o h e l p  be devoted  a r e removed  t h emain  h i s benevolent acts while from  the attacks  of his  i nLondon.  footman.  He  Having  pounds f r o m L a d y B e l l a s t o n , he o f f e r s i t a l l t o be s p e n t  t h e p l i g h t o f Mrs.  Miller  and her family.  B u t one o f t h e  - 49 -  conspicuous acts the We  done b y t h e h e r o  topic of seduction  and h i s p r e v a i l i n g upon h i m t o take  s e e Tom a r t i c u l a t i n g  Nightingale  and  the ideas  contemplates  Hobbesian element n o t yours,  i s h i s discussion with Nightingale  o f human b e h a v i o u r  deserting  the g i r l  vehemently elevates  sole  Nancy as w i f e .  he h a s i m b i b e d .  a n d h e r e Tom d e n o u n c e s t h e  i n h i s f r i e n d when he d e c l a r e s :  o u g h t t o be y o u r  "Her i n t e r e s t  consideration"  o f honour, and the r h e t o r i c , w i t h  i t s ironic  phrase,  "Can y o u w i t h  the l i e to the place  Tom  then declares  warm r a p t u r o u s noble, the  sensations  o f b e n e v o l i s m when he a s k s ,  w h i c h we  feel  undeserved p r a i s e of m i l l i o n s ? " to Shaftesbury;  the theory  to your driven  imagination  " A n d do n o t t h e  from the consciousness  (XIV, v i i ) .  imagination  the circumstances  t o madness, o r perhaps I t should  sentimentalism;  moral  o f honour.  o f an honest,  This  opinion  than  relates  b u t Tom g o e s f u r t h e r t o s u g g e s t w h a t i s s i m i l a r  o f sympathetic  (XIV,vii). into  repetition of the  g e n e r o u s , b e n e v o l e n t a c t i o n c o n v e y more d e l i g h t t o t h e m i n d  directly to  h i s notion  gives  Tom  the contemporary  notions  ...?",  alone,  (XIV, v i i ) .  b e n e v o l e n c e a n d common s e n s e a b o v e  honour  on  when he t e l l s  o f her fond,  Nightingale:  despairing  parent,  to death, by the l o s s o f her l o v e l y  be remarked  that  Tom  but h i smotivation  i n s t r u c t i o n to h i s friend  proves  i s drifting,  at this  i s that of intense  fruitful,  "Paint  daughter" stage,  sympathy.  a n d he i s won o v e r  His  to the  marriage.  The  i n t e r v i e w over  that reflects  the Nightingale  Just before  "such dreadful  news c o n c e r n i n g  entirely  f o r every other  angel"  Fielding, can with  immediately  with the  Sophia  person;  t h a t he i m m e d i a t e l y  and h i s whole  stock  Tom  l o s e s a l l con-  o f compassion i s  o n h i s own m i s e r y a n d o n t h a t o f h i s  (XIV,x).  i n this  d i s s i p a t e benevolence; the doctrines  an i n c i d e n t  t h e p a r t y b r e a k s up, M r s . Honour b r i n g s  s w a l l o w e d up i n r e f l e c t i o n  unfortunate  closes with  the confrontation o f the Hobbesian philosophy  Shaftesburian.  sideration  affair  situation,  d r a m a t i z e s how e a s i l y  and i n t h e o n l y preface  which  self-interest deals  o f benevolence and e g o c e n t r i c i t y , and which  the Tom-Nightingale  i n t e r v i e w , he g i v e s  He r e f e r s t o " a s e t o f r e l i g i o u s ,  directly follows  h i s objective  o r r a t h e r m o r a l w r i t e r s who  teach  viewpoint. that  - 50 -  virtue  i s the  t e a c h i n g he The  author  certain road  has  "but  one  e x p l a i n s what Sherburn c a l l s  happiness,  f o r he w i l l  v i c e to misery" that i t i s not  a man  (XV,  i).  I t is unrealistic  be  to  and  golden  tends  t o a g r e e w i t h M c K i l l o p when he w r i t e s i n h i s e s s a y  oppositions:  the  context of  see  i n Mr.  now  a p p e a r s he  of  t o woo  sent  on  on  a  Fitzpatrick  d i s p l a y s her She  this  ship." and  the  schemings o f  Both  vinces h i s uncle  this and  stage, B l i f i l  Miss  to  bring  with  on  of v i r t u e  in  One  Fielding  on p a i r s  that  of  s u s p i c i o u s and  self-  think i t i s i n judged,  a s we  shall  aim  critique  trying by  ladies;  but i t Mrs.  I t i s Lady B e l l a s t o n ,  a  of  to prevent  the Tom  a r r a n g i n g a match  s u g g e s t i n g Tom's b e i n g  manners from  for  "pressed  ends i n the hero's  and  duel  with  imprisonment.  enters  the  scene.  He  and  Mr.  Allworthy  c o u n t r y when the m a i n c h a r a c t e r s s e t o f f f o r London. Tom  to b r i n g him  and  Sophia  Miller's  journey  to London i n o r d e r  house,  to  the  city.  to continue  He  con-  his courtship  them.  the H o b b e s i a n and  are brought i n t o  opposition again.  in  r e p o r t s Tom's i m p r i s o n m e n t t o M r .  t h e manner he  pursuing  A r a b e l l a H u n t and  uses as  ultimately  B l a c k George accompanies  Mrs.  an  him.  s e l f i s h n e s s by  h i s subsequent  hear of him w h i l e  In  on  I  unsuccessfully.  This plot  We  of Sophia.  but  pursues  i n the  not  to  prudent.  him  were l e f t do  a  14  formalism."  statement  behalf of Lord Fellamar  board  At  candor versus  a l l the romance w h i c h F i e l d i n g  gaining Sophia.  Sophia  Mr.  attempt  court ladies,  ever  envy,  spontaneity versus  i s l e a r n i n g t o be  Fitzpatrick  of h i s characters r e s t s  becomes the o b j e c t o f  (XV, i ) .  i n the world.  t h i s m o r a l r e a l i s m t h a t Tom's a c t i o n s a r e  Allworthy's final  Tom  after  estimate  benevolence versus  regarding prudence,  who,  There are B l i f i l s  road  to a r r i v e  n o v e l i s t ' s moral  this  contempt,  i n g r a t i t u d e can  tread a  in  the r o a d  order  "the  a t happiness.  not  conflict with "poverty  the m i s c h i e f s w h i c h b a c k b i t i n g , envy and  mankind"  to  true."  i s "interested  his virtue w i l l  come i n t o  and  h i s " m o r a l r e a l i s m , " when, as  or benevolence,  g o o d o f o t h e r s " a s h i s own,  all  and  o b j e c t i o n , namely,  expression of h i s virtue the  to happiness,  Blifil  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n  exposes h i s v i c i o u s  elements  nature  Allworthy, while  Mrs.  - 51 -  Miller  defends  t h e hero a n d s t r e s s e s h i s good n a t u r e .  Tom, i n B l i f i l ' s  o p i n i o n " h a s p r o v e d one o f t h e g r e a t e s t  villains  been  f i n d s him "one o f t h e w o r t h i e s t  cast  into  prison;  but Mrs. M i l l e r  creatures  breathing."  affected,  e s p e c i a l l y i n h e r r h e t o r i c o f " I know, I f i n d ,  such"  (XVTI,ii),  Tom's p r a i s e s . he  Although  upon e a r t h " a n d so h a s  s h e i s made t h e a c c e p t a b l e How  ironical  Blifil  h a s f o r g i v e n Tom f o r h a v i n g  Miller she  plays  replies:  to  stand  prove  listens but  the prophetic  been f r e e w i t h  to P a r t r i d g e announcing  he h a s t h e i n s i g h t  enought  here r e f e r r i n g  protracts which  the i n c e s t episode  and the frankness  to admit  that " a l l  a significant  element  continues  i m p r i s o n m e n t o f Tom w o u l d  Mrs. Waters  send  the incest;  these a  view  "compassion"  to  serve  Dowling  their  i n f l u e n c e Mrs. Waters  Fielding note  b u t the author  also  death.  Thus, t h e note  permanently  himself  t h e hand o f Sophia.  that the  testimony  against  (mistakenly  Tom;  the evidence"  regarded  I n both  Motivated  b u t when  by with  questioned  a t t r i b u t e s h i sbehaviour  to "soften  and t o  to influence the witnesses  directed to deal with  c a r r y i n g on the prosecution.  t o h a v e Tom  i n the inheritance of h i suncle  hypocritically  and t o endeavour i s not only  and v i c e " ,  t h e two d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s o f h i s ego-  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , he sends Mr. D o w l i n g to strengthening  mischiefs  the ironical  He c o n v i n c e s  of h i s gaining  by Mr. A l l w o r t h y , B l i f i l  Mr.  h i sefforts  favours.  to e s t a b l i s h him alone  the p o s s i b i l i t y  the dreadful  indiscretions(XVIII,ii).  f e a r s about  removed from Mr. A l l w o r t h y ' s  secure  He  i n the plot.  Meanwhile, B l i f i l  centricity:  of h i s nature.  o f my own f o l l y  r e l i e v e s h i m o f t h e w o r r y about Mr. F i t z p a t r i c k ' s is  serves  t h e n e w s a n d i s s t r u c k dumb w i t h a m a z e m e n t ;  to h i s sexual  the hero's  enough  (XVTI,ii).  t h e a g o n y o f Tom b y h a v i n g  increases  But Mrs.  we h a v e a l l s i n s  w h i c h h a v e b e f a l l e n me a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o n l y "vice"  that  s u b s e q u e n t u n m a s k i n g when  o f excitement,  f u r t h e r Tom's i n d i s c r e t i o n  hath  Mrs. M i l l e r  h i scharacter!  f o r g i v e you, sir'.  from i t s heightening  I s e e , he  v e h i c l e f o r the e x p o s i t i o n o f  note about B l i f i l ' s  "And t h e L o r d  she a f f i r m s i s r a t h e r  sounds when he t e l l s  i n need o f h i s f o r g i v e n e s s "  Apart to  the tone i n which  to  of the witnesses.  the witnesses  but also  as Mrs. F i t z p a t r i c k )  cases o f Mr. Dowling's  asked  towards  officiating  - 52 -  for  B l i f i l ,  give  we  hear  the p r o f i t motive  t h e m some h i n t s  Fielding feels,  as  now  has  after  i s the father  virtue",  In  this  narrating  sister this  and  Waters  declares  she  secret with  M i s s B r i d g e t , Mr.  the Hobbesian disclosure  would  have  till  This revelation  t h a t Tom  by h i s  Dowling by  concealed.  of the novel.  i s the hero  o f Tom  i n under-  he  both  A c c o r d i n g to conduct (XVIII,  i n her vii),  the  to d e l i v e r  son;  sister.  suppressed  the  letter  b u t , a s a man k n o w s how  a s s u r i n g him  and  who  to ward o f f  t h a t Mr.  T h u s , Tom's p a r e n t a g e  Allworthy  remains  From t h e r u n o f t h e e v e n t s , one has  l o c k e d up  concerning the hero.  been i r o n i c a l l y  i n prison;  and  t o be  transferred  can  onto  somewhere i n t h e  treated  to the  Tom's i n n o c e n c e i s made m o r e  city  surprising noteworthy  absence.  After willingly  this  about  own  him  Mr.  Allworthy  Tom,  revelation  Allworthy's  Dowling about  i s her  almost a l l the main c h a r a c t e r s have grouped revelations  suspicions  then leads to another  her out of the w o r l d "  f r o m Mr.  the f a c t  the end  Here  he  spell."  thought h e r s e l f nobly rewarded  concept of prudence,  the expected t r i a l  Blifil.  the  her p r o f i t motive  s e l f i s h m o t i v e s make h i m r e f u s e  any p o s s i b l e  say t h a t  to "untie  makes t h e momentous  sounds  shame.  from h i s mother which r e v e a l s  rather  viii).  to the stage where  the e g o c e n t r i c behaviour of B l i f i l .  this  Blifil's  understands  (XVIII,  Allworthy's  l e a d s t o t h e r e v e l a t i o n made b y M r .  letter.  obscure  has  confesses, " I did  A l l w o r t h y r e g r e t s " t h e most u n j u s t i f i a b l e  to c a r r y  note  Waters  h i s mother,  f o r her  namely,  p l o t , Mr.  the experiment  d i s s i p a t e d Mr. Mrs.  event, Mrs.  s e c r e c y and  exposition, the  o f Tom,  t o a c t when she  her  losers"  P r o s p e r o , t h a t he has  as he  b e i n g "Summer, t h e s o n o f a c l e r g y m a n o f g r e a t  l e a r n i n g and  for  controlled  Partridge  . a b o u t Tom's f a t h e r  taking  t h e y s h o u l d n o t be  d i d Shakespeare's  Therefore, t h a t he  that  stressed,  ...  Tom:  performance  "he  i s my  own  I am m o r e a s h a m e d o f my i n d e e d has  f o r h i s whole  banishment  e x o n e r a t i o n and r e v e l a t i o n , Mr.  cause  t o be  sister's  o f good w o r k s .  son - as  such I  p a s t b e h a v i o u r t o him"  declare  shall  i s brought  towards  to q u e s t i o n by h i s  t a k e s c a r e to keep c o n s i s t e n t  What d o e s Mr.  always  (XVIII,ix).  ashamed o f h i s p a s t b e h a v i o u r  concept of benevolence  o f t h e h e r o whom F i e l d i n g  A l l w o r t h y can  A l l w o r t h y mean when he  in his says  of  - 53  Tom,'after  the  birth?"  discovery,  W o u l d he  " I was  as  -  ignorant  have t o l e r a t e d him  had  of h i s merit  he  as  known t h a t he  of  his  was  his  nephew?  It  is interesting  t o o b s e r v e how  egocentric motives regarding consistent Hobbesian i n Mr.  Allworthy's  to  get  Sophia accept  he  joins  (becomes) as couple  her  eager  which The  statement  presence,  to your  favour;  my  my  the  enemies as  discharging  is  not  there  will  be  are  too  t o be  Mr. been  are  the  of  Tom,  nephew  before  and  been  to  of  be  a t t e s t s to  i t , we  to wonder  i s not  i s of  are  to us"  not  (XVIII,x).  novel,  their  As  a man  when he  has  the  now  to  your great,  been"educated" (him)  to  the  i n Tom  that "Prudence  will  be  and  Fielding,  he  has  In other  e s s e n t i a l b e n e v o l e n c e , as sufficient as  Blifil  advantage.  An  to  in this  who  the  words,  be  own  opening awareness ruin,  the  f o l l o w e d by  will  indeed  connection,  o f h i s own  c a r r y a man  life,  deficient  to act w i t h  upon i t " ( X V I I I , x ) .  itself  is  i n d i c a t e s i n the always  is  so m u c h o u r  i f the w o r l d  foundation  own  insignificant  restored  virtue  " l a y s the  of  Shaftesburian  hero's weakest point a l l through h i s  i f we  this  the  again  Tom  and  duty  dialogue  philosophers.  v i c e s which have brought  Allworthy  He  "To  (XVIII, x).  and  the  the  the  o n c e m o r e t h u s k i n d l y r e c e i v e d b y my  such Hobbesian characters to  influence  that a l l h i s s u f f e r i n g s are  to o u r s e l v e s ;  d o c t r i n e of  one's imprudence  had  echoes  opinion  to b u i l d  Allworthy,  he  of  the  o t h e r s who,  apt  Shaftesburian Mr.  states  benevolence alone.  t o B o o k XV  that  there  their  advocating  chapter  and  owe  to n e g l e c t  in  high  turn i n favour  A l l w o r t h y and  Allworthy  w i t h h i s uncle*.  l a c k of prudence.  d u t y w h i c h we  Jones as  another  was  a l l his parental  commendation of  basic ideas  t o Mr.  follies  destruction".  s t r e s s e s w h a t has  namely,  the  generous benefactor"  to " d i s c e r n the  brink of  i n every  is  When B l i f i l  scales  f r o m p r i s o n , meets Mr.  reunion  enough  the  He  (XVIII, i x ) .  the  noble,  soon as  uncle  o f a l i e n a t i o n when he  compared w i t h  then  as  f o l l o w s s u b s u m e s some o f  effects  connection.  the m a r r i a g e w i t h  released  hero's opening  daughter.  W e s t e r n w o u l d use  but  the  for  to B l i f i l "  Tom,  in this  f a v o u r , Mr.  "heartily with  Western p e r s i s t s i n h i s  the marriage of h i s  character  him;  Mr.  both  through  ready to  acceptance of both  Tom life;  turn  the  benevolent  - 54 -  and  the egocentric  life.  t h e o r i e s o f human n a t u r e  Hence, F i e l d i n g ' s "moral  That F i e l d i n g Mr. he  Allworthy's uses  concept is  speech,  that "prudence  i n this  light  But there  ironically.  i n which  o u t i n h i s essay, themes t h e  a s a c o n c o m i t a n t o f goodness."''" advises  Tom  I t  5  t o add prudence t oh i s  c a n be good e n o u g h t o make h i m f o r g e t t h e r u l e s o f are Instances  i n which F i e l d i n g  uses  "prudence"  For i n s t a n c e , B r i d g e t A l l w o r t h y has prudence b u t i t escapes  when c o n f r o n t e d  the  hands o f h e r l o v e r .  Allworthy without  with  t h e romance o f C a p t a i n  a shirt  Blifil;  so she f a l l s  into  Mrs. Deborah behaves  senselessly a t seeing  on and her behaviour  i s a t t r i b u t e d to prudence,  a t t h e age o f f i f t y - o n e ,  she has n o t seen such a s i g h t  Mr.  before.  i s m o s t p r u d e n t w h e n h e b u y s Tom's B i b l e b e c a u s e h e d o e s n o t w i s h  see t h e f a m i l y l o s e  t o u c h e s made of  contexts  A s E.N. H u t c h e n s p o i n t s  i s necessary  her  to  i n the l i g h t of  i s brought o u t by the unstable  t h a t Mr. A l l w o r t h y  f o r n o man  prudence.  Blifil  tract,  i n Tom J o n e s , " F i e l d i n g h a s a s o n e o f h i s m a j o r  generosity  for  reality of  realism."  i s not w r i t i n g a moral  the word "prudence".  "Prudence  i s a necessary  such a property.  through verbal i r o n y ;  These  they  also  situations are satiric  temper  the moral  intensity  t h i s work of a r t .  Fielding light  attempts  by h i s handling  sections  to place  the doctrine of benevolence  o f Mr. A l l w o r t h y  of the novel.  Tom s t i l l  mercy on b e h a l f  the  e s s e n t i a l benevolence o f Mr. A l l w o r t h y  further  Tom t o v i s i t  t h a n my r e l i g i o n  religion with  this  of Mr. A l l w o r t h y ' s Black  George,  offered  who  Blifil  he w a n t e d .  stage,  adding,  i s questioned " I shall  never  I t i s an i r o n i c  n o t t o ..forgive because  is,  at this  i n possession  him  t o o f f e r money t o t h e h e r o ;  o f Tom's but since  to suggest  But  when he  reluct-  forgive  villainy  stroke  to  the very  advises  b y Tom t o h a v e v i s i t e d I t i s right  pleading  to v i o l e n t despair.  statement i s what h i s r e l i g i o n  too, i s reported  any help  i s now d r i v e n  o b l i g e s me."  determination  George i n the f i n i s h i n g  pursues h i s benevolent acts by  for  antly permits  of B l i f i l  and B l a c k  i n dubious  couple opposite  t o be done.  him i n p r i s o n and that  t h e gamekeeper  cheque a n d so i t i s e a s y f o r i ti s d i f f i c u l t  to discover  -  B l a c k George's light  this  o f f e r made t e n d s  i n w h i c h we h a v e s e e n h i m .  justify we  motive,  55 -  Tom r e a l i z e s  t h e gamekeeper's i n g r a t i t u d e  Sophia.  this  the Hobbesian  egocentricity;  c o n s i s t e n c y o f Tom i n h i s a c t s even h i s l a p s e s he  The t r i u m p h o f t h e h e r o  I n London, he w i l l  Tom i s ,  that benevolence  doctrine o f benevolence The which  When  o f S o p h i a , he r e a d i l y o f f e r s t h e  i n fact,  to i l l - t r e a t  the g i r l  the incarnation o f the novelists  expresses i t s e l f  i n good works.  view o f r e a l i t y  regarding  But Fielding the behaviour o f  He s e e s a d u a l i s m i n t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f human a c t i o n ;  of  Tom i s p o l a r i s e d b y t h e e g o c e n t r i c i t y o f B l i f i l ;  by  the hero  the benevolence  the sacrafice  made  to h e l p the f a m i l y o f B l a c k George i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the  ingratitude  o f t h e gamekeeper i n k e e p i n g t h e cheque;  Tom i s o f f s e t b y t h e p r e s u m p t i v e , h y p o c r i t i c a l Fielding,  Blifil  o f benevolence, and the h i l a r i t y w i t h  not suffer Nightingale  does n o t a c c e p t a s i n g l e - e y e d men.  over  a r e p r e s e n t e d , make h i m a n e n d e a r i n g c h a r a c t e r .  who b e a r s h i s c h i l d . opinion  However,  but i ti s debatable to say so.  has b r o k e n one arm i n t h e s e r v i c e  other.  and so a t t e m p t s t o  doctrines.  may b e t a k e n a s t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e S h a f t e s b u r i a n to  the egocentric  by s t r e s s i n g h i s poverty.  see i n B l a c k George aspects o f both  Tom a t l a s t w i n s  to palliate  therefore,  sees both d o c t r i n e s  the spontaneity o f  behaviour of  Blifil.  o f human n a t u r e a t w o r k i n t h e  w o r l d o f men.  A s M r . A l l w o r t h y a d v i s e s Tom, a n d a s t h e o m n i s c i e n t ,  authorial  states  voice  interested forget  the rules  o f prudence.  the doctrines  this  If attempts  Fielding,  t h e r e f o r e , m a k e s h i s own  o f benevolence and e g o c e n t r i c i t y which  state-  largely  novel.  Richardson sets out to reform the morals o f h i sage, F i e l d i n g  t o r e f o r m t h e manners o f h i s t i m e s ;  heartedness which pervades the  " o n e who i s a s m u c h  i n p u r s u i n g t h e good o f o t h e r s a s i t s own" ( X V , i ) , c a n n o t  ment about inform  i n one o f h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n s ,  author, l i k e Horace,  Tom J o n e s  proceeds  tends  a n d t h e humour a n d l i g h t -  to lighten  the strain  t o " l a u g h men o u t o f t h e i r  In which  follies."  -  56  -  FOOTNOTES  The Roman n u m e r a l s i n b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e B o o k a n d C h a p t e r r e f e r e n c e s t a k e n f r o m t h e M o d e r n L i b r a r y E d i t i o n o f F i e l d i n g ' s Tom J o n e s (New York, 1950). 2 S e e A.O. pp.  Lovejoy's Essays  i n the H i s t o r y  of Ideas  (New  York,  1960),  69-77.  3R.S. C r a n e , " T h e P l o t o f Tom J o n e s , " E s s a y s o n N o v e l ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 95-120.  the E i g h t e e n t h  Century  George Sherburn, " F i e l d i n g ' s S o c i a l Outlook," Eighteenth Century E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , Modern E s s a y s i n C r i t i c i s m , ed. J . L . C l i f f o r d (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 2 5 5 .  4  H e n r y F i e l d i n g , A m e l i a , e d . G.H.  ^  Sherburn,  p.  ^  Thomas H o b b e s , L e v i a t h a n , P a r t  Maynadier  (New  York,  1903),  p.127.  254. 1,  Ch.13.  " T h i s s m a l l m a t t e r w a s o n e o f h e r g o w n s , some l i n e n a n d t e n s h i l l i n g s i n m o n e y , o f w h i c h Tom h a d h e a r d , a n d i t h a d , i n r e a l i t y , p u t t h i s s o l i c i t a t i o n i n t o h i s head" ( I V , v ) . W i l l i a m E m p s o n , "Tom  9  1  Jones,"  Charles Vereker, Eighteenth  0  Kenyon Review, Century Optimism  XX(1958) , 217-249. (Liverpool,  1967),  pp.185-2  11 S h e r b u r n , p.  267.  12 Empson, p. 1  3  McKillop, 1956),  p.  1  4  McKillop,  1  5  E.N.  228. The  E a r l y Masters  p.  (Univ. of  Kansas,  131  Hutchens,  ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p.  of English F i c t i o n  131.  496.  "Prudence  i n Tom  Jones,"  Philological  Quarterly,  XXXIX  - 57  B E N E V O L E N C E AND AND  We  have  to  the  in  ironical  last  situations;  artistic  response  Opinions  of  to  current ideas  these  It the  of  i s undeniable  i n his handling  the  that Locke's  of  also reacts  Shaftesbury.  J u s t as  the  benevolent  egocentric  dramatizes  and  his  example,  Sterne  of people both  and  f o l l o w the  t h e h e r o and  very  little  has  linear  to  the  predecessors,  and,  and  since  to  method o f  deal with  are  life  can  and  critically  be  This  accounts  of  ideas  theories of so  light,  Toby and  even  and  place  though Shandy,  egocentric  n o v e l i s t s had  of  the  chief  treated  opinions  of  the  The  life  history  Tristram  the  The  Moll  characters  Sterne's  i n the mind.  linear  he  placed i n .  age.  and  in  Hobbes  d o e s he  Walter  exposition, treating  life  ideas  consciousness.  theory,  s t o r y of T r i s t r a m .  to d i s c a r d the  time  author's  D e f o e ' s R o b i n s o n C r u s o e and  to middle  the  the  benevolent  adventures  h e n c e , on w h a t g o e s on  freedom  of and  the Life  treatment  dubious  the  they  in  direct  Locke's  works.  life  the  I n The  novel.  study  Uncle  of both  from b i r t h  a t t e n t i o n to  the o p i n i o n s fore,  in artistic  heroine  i t professes  a  theories i n a  situations  the  to  the a s s o c i a t i o n of  w r o t e T r i s t r a m Shandy, o t h e r  deal with  of benevolence  a l s o responds  critically  t o w a r d s one.  the  characters  that his vision  o f man.  of  i n the  criticizes  tendencies  d e p e n d i n g on  Flanders  though  he  inclination  exhibit  Before  of  theory  c h a r a c t e r s and  Sterne  placing his  the n o v e l , a t t e s t i n g vision  critically  philosophers.  and  both  theory  t h a t T r i s t r a m Shandy i s m a i n l y  episodes,  lives  Shaftesbury's  framework f o r the main body of S t e r n e ' s  fact  IN,  responds  doubt, however,  T r i s t r a m Shandy, Gentleman, Sterne  But  the  i s no  on  that Fielding  to the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s  the  theories,  REFLECTED  e g o c e n t r i c i t y by  good-nature pervades  for  special  there  closely  Jones's  for  chapter  d o c t r i n e s o f b e n e v o l e n c e and  t h a t Tom  gives  E G O C E N T R I C I T Y AS  I N F O R M I N G S T E R N E ' S T R I S T R A M SHANDY  seen i n the  good-nature borders  -  hero,  emphasis author,  n a r r a t i v e method used by  s h i f t e d when d e a l i n g w i t h  Shandy,  devotes is  on  therehis  consciousness.  - 58  -  . I n view of the n o n - l i n e a r approach of the n o v e l , I s h a l l  first  d i s c u s s the c h a r a c t e r s as they p o r t r a y the benevolent and e g o c e n t r i c theories.  Next, I s h a l l examine p a r t i c u l a r episodes to determine  how  Sterne r e a c t s , through them, to the t h e o r i e s of the p h i l o s o p h e r s . The opening chapter of the novel introduces some of the p r i n c i p a l elements which inform the work ( I , i ) . " "  T r i s t r a m , the hero, comments  on the c o p u l a t i o n t h a t brought him to l i f e and wishes h i s f a t h e r and mother "had minded what they were about when they begot me."  In this  c o p u l a t i o n episode, Sterne introduces the two c o n t r a s t i n g themes of r a t i o n a l i s m and f e e l i n g which subsume the n o v e l , f o r the hero a s s e r t s " t h a t not only the p r o d u c t i o n of a r a t i o n a l Being was concerned i n i t , but that p o s s i b l y the happy formation and temperature of h i s body."  By emphasizing  that the formation of the body i s as e s s e n t i a l as t h a t of the " r a t i o n a l Being," Sterne sets the tone f o r a l l the c o n t r i b u t i o n he makes l a t e r to the sentimental t r a d i t i o n i n eighteenth-century l i t e r a t u r e . i s t r e a t e d elsewhere i n my comments on Sterne.  This aspect  The theme of generation  suggests what H e n r i Fluchere terms " P h y s i o l o g i c a l Determinism";  Sterne  appears to suggest that human nature i s inborn, s i n c e what takes place a t 2 the moment of c o p u l a t i o n determines the being of the person born.  This  idea may be r e l a t e d to F i e l d i n g ' s theory of Innate endowment as regards the development of Tom and B l i f i l , whose natures appear to have been established at b i r t h . But the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark of Sternes e x p o s i t i o n i s the humour i n which grave thoughts are presented.  That sets the tone to the whole work.  Thus, i n i n t r o d u c i n g the next important elements i n the work, namely Locke's theory of the a s s o c i a t i o n of ideas, as w e l l as the obsessive natures of people, p r i n c i p a l l y Uncle Toby and Mr. Shandy, Sterne introduces the "animal s p i r i t s , " h i s c l a i m i s that "nine p a r t s i h ten of a man's sense or h i s nonsense, h i s successes and m i s c a r r i a g e s ... depend upon t h e i r motions a c t i v i t y , and the d i f f e r e n t tracks and t r a i n s you put them i n t o ;  and  so that  when they are once set a-going, whether r i g h t or wrong, ' t i s not a h a l f penny matter -- away they go c l u t t e r i n g l i k e hey-go-mad;  and by t r e a d i n g  the same steps over and over again, they p r e s e n t l y make a road of i t " ( I , i ) .  - 59 -  This running on " t r a c k s and t r a i n s " r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y to the "hobby-horses" of people l i k e Uncle Toby and Mr. Shandy;  but the concept a p p l i e s e q u a l l y  to the way human nature i s formed i n terms of benevolence and e g o c e n t r i c i t y : i n one sense, i t i s by t r e a d i n g the same path o f f e e l i n g that one becomes good or e v i l .  We know Shaftesbury argues that i t i s i n the nature of man  to seek the company of others w h i l e Hobbes says that man always seeks h i s own good;  but, i n one metaphor o f animal s p i r i t s , and i n a humorous and  p l e a s a n t way, Sterne suggests both t h e o r i e s of human nature.  The "motions  and a c t i v i t y " of the animal s p i r i t s , by the way, remind one of the motion theory o f Hobbes.  This t a l e n t f o r making weighty statements i n an  i n d i r e c t , s u r p r i s i n g way i s what John Traugott c a l l s Sterne's r h e t o r i c of wit.  I t i s a s t y l e which subtends the n o v e l . The opening chapter ends w i t h Mrs. Shandy's q u e s t i o n about the c l o  which i n c i d e n t r e s u l t s i n the f a t a l d i s p e r s i o n of the animal s p i r i t s , thus i n t r o d u c i n g the theme of f r u s t r a t i o n .  We have here the theory of the  "sagacious Locke" suggested, f o r the w i f e ' s unfortunate q u e s t i o n i s due to the theory of a s s o c i a t i o n of ideas In which the whole novel i s constructed. I n the opening chapter Sterne gives i n a n u t s h e l l the p r i n c i p a l elements c a r r y i n g the n o v e l .  The f i r s t few chapters, despite the d i g r e s s i o n s ,  d e s c r i b e the a c t i v i t i e s of Parson Y o r i c k and h i s w i f e .  Before d i s c u s s i n g  the main c h a r a c t e r s , I s h a l l examine the treatment of the parson since Sterne r e a c t s c r i t i c a l l y to the d o c t r i n e s of benevolence and e g o c e n t r i c i t y i n h a n d l i n g him. I n the episode about the w i f e of the parson i n s t r u c t i n g the "good o l d woman" i n midwifery, Sterne dramatizes the d i f f i c u l t y of d i s s o c i a t i n g s e l f - i n t e r e s t from benevolence and, i n h i s humorous, l i g h t - h e a r t e d way, c r i t i c i z e s the parson.  There i s , i n Tristram's v i l l a g e , t h i s " t h i n ,  u p r i g h t , motherly, n o t a b l e , good o l d body of a midwife" ( I , v i i ) .  We  suspect the i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n she i s being exposed t o , by the long l i s t of a d j e c t i v e s which i s terminted, not by the word "woman" (as one would expect),but by "body of a midwife."  The parson's w i f e i s touched w i t h  p i t y and so undertakes to i n s t r u c t the o l d woman i n some of t h e " p l a i n p r i n c i p l e s of the business i n order to set her up i n i t " ( I , v i i ) .  She i s  -  supposedly in  great  with  instructing  distress;"  self-pride  thereabouts herself,"  with  but that thewife's  was b e t t e r  Sterne  qualified  interest  of her office,  phraseology  appurtenances"  (I,vii);  together  of this  i nitalics  quotation because  the c r i t i c i s m  his  s e l f - i n t e r e s t b y means o f h i s  comically  this  could  kindness of one  horses,  sympathetic particular  phrase  channel  still  a t once  The p a r s o n ... n a m e l y ,  a n d t h e p a r s o n who  b u t he caught  stood  the attention  -- t h e b u c k e t  gaping  forgot i t s  till  he h a d g o t  to court the and l o s t  of eighteenth-century  awakening  a l l his charity into  t o the, c h i l d - b e a r i n g a n d c h i l d - g e t t i n g f o rthe impotent,  "every  called  dwelt  came o u t w h e n h e p a i d  t o s e t t h e m i d w i f e up:  pursues  t o comment i r o n i c a l l y o n  then "confined  and s i c k n e s s , and a f f l i c t i o n  of their  t h e humour  -- t h e s p i n n i n g w h e e l  instance  s c e n e s he was h o u r l y  circumstances  carries  members a n d  as he pass'd,  excites Sterne  t h e many c o m f o r t l e s s  licence  and c o r p o r a l  members a n d  o f c o u r t s h i p he has i l l - t r e a t e d  reserving nothing  secret of his affair  self-  o f the parson by presenting him  part of his parish;  poverty,  i n the real  a l l i t s 'rights,  a village,  stood  a particular  feeling.  with  reveals Yorick's  H e i s t h e p a r s o n who u s e s h i s o f f i c e  which episode  to animals,  his interest  about  profession.  enter  midwife and i n t h e long p e r i o d several  join'd  invested  -- e v e n c h u c k - f a r t h i n g a n d s h u f f l e - c a p  of sight" (I,x).  p a r s o n ' s w i f e who m o v e s  f o r he l a t e r  hung suspended i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e w e l l ,  out  than  the female p a r t o f the  d r i v e s home t h e c r i t i c i s m  institutions  criticism  o f b o t h o l d and young.-- Labour  round,  t h a t " n o woman  she had formed  by w r i t i n g " r i g h t s ,  the legal  emphasizes h i s  f o r "he n e v e r  i s mixed  Sterne draws s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s t o c k  and  Sterne  of both  with  she i s "a widow  Her benevolent a c t i s there-  that " t h e parson  t h e woman who "was f u l l y  a p p u r t e n a n c e s whatsoever'." legal  i n f l u e n c e over  But Sterne  i n thewhole a f f a i r "  towards  possession  the plan  among t h e p a r i s h i o n e r s .  s e l f - i n t e r e s t when he r e m a r k s his wife's  emphasizing  p r o j e c t s an image o f t h e v i l l a g e  i n i t s sincerity.  since  c h a r i t a b l e behaviour  to execute  she had " g r e a t  self-importance  by-dubious  t h e woman o u t o f b e n e v o l e n c e ,  i s s u b t l y i n d i c a t e d by Sterne  and that  parish."  -  60  forth  together"  -- n o t h i n g f o r  to v i s i t , (I,x).  where  But the whole  the expenses o f the o r d i n a r y ' s  horse he had l o s t ,  with  d e s t r u c t i o n w e r e known a n d d i s t i n c t l y  a l l the  remembered."  -  Sterne  now a s k s  body was l e f t  This  the eternal moral  episode  q u e s t i o n when he s a y s ,  i l l u s t r a t e s where  Parson  self-interest.  This  Eliot  -  t o judge what were h i s views  elements meet:  of doing  61  the r i g h t  i n this  characters  exposure which,  a friend,  i s a dramatization o f the d i f f i c u l t  t h i n g f o r the wrong reason.  selfish  a r e s t r i p p e d o f t h e masks  A century  interests  they  on t o respond  i s presented  i sa fatality  will,  they pass their  rectitude  in its  through  of heart  Sterne  of laughter  also moralizes  performs  even Y o r i c k ' s .  but unlike  Bulstrode's  to the room  until  on h i s episodes  t h e . a c t i o n s o f some men.  can give, it"  Order  own o a r y - f o o t e d  to Middlemarch  kind."  the egocentric  impulses  them  t o p r a i s e which  b u t hear  a  forced to  t h e echo o f George  commenting on t h e f a t e o f  finds the l i v i n g  u n e a s i l y among t h e d u c k l i n g s stream i n f e l l o w s h i p w i t h  Dorothea's e n v i r o n m e n t does n o t conform  of her intentions;  they  so t w i s t s a n d r e f r a c t s  you cannot help  a cygnet i s reared  t h e brown pond, and never  as  them a s  t h e d o e r s o f them a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s  (I,x),  i n the Prelude  t h e "whole  a t t h e end o f Y o r i c k ' s e x p o s i t i o n , "But  a c e r t a i n medium w h i c h  "Here and there  cygnet-purity to  George  out of the meeting  t r u e d i r e c t i o n s -- t h a t w i t h a l l t h e t i t l e s  voice  Dorothea:  to you.  attends  and die without  Eliot's  i na strain  When h e s a y s ,  there  live  later,  than  put on;  problem  I t h i n k , i s done more s h o c k i n g l y a n d p a i n f u l l y ,  does George E l i o t .  from  moral  Y o r i c k ' s u n m a s k i n g i s done w i t h humour a n d l i g h t - h e a r t e d n e s s .  are carried  secret"  (I,x).  cannot be d i s s o c i a t e d from  p o i n t w h e r e he e v e n c o l l a p s e s a n d h a s t o be h e l p e d  You  actof charity."  p r o j e c t s t h e same p r o b l e m i n M i d d l e m a r c h w h e r e B u l s t r o d e  Both  every  the Shaftesburian and the Hobbesian  Y o r i c k ' s benevolence  c h a r i t a b l e w o r k s o u t o f more s e r i o u s  by  "So t h a t  Yorick's "rectitude of heart"  o f h i s own n a t u r e .  tothe  gives i n  The S h a f t e s b u r i a n  and the  H o b b e s i a n elements meet i n t h e parson.  The has  Y o r i c k episode  criticized  introduces  ends w i t h  his indiscreet  sex a f f a i r s .  of the parson The a u t h o r ,  a c h a r a c t e r , E u g e n i u s , who, " i n a n a c c e n t  a d v i s e s Y o r i c k on " h i s u s u a l not  the death  carelessness  of heart;"  heed Eugenius's " l e c t u r e on d i s c r e t i o n . "  becomes a type  o f Tom J o n e s who l a c k s n o t h i n g  after  a t this  Sterne stage,  of sorrowful  apprehension"  b u t the parson  Yorick, i n this but discretion.  does  instance, When  -  62 -  Eugenius advises i n these words, "Trust me, dear Y o r i c k , t h i s unwary p l e a s a n t r y of thine w i l l sooner or l a t e r b r i n g thee i n t o scrapes and d i f f i c u l t i e s , which no a f t e r - w i t can e x t r i c a t e thee out of"  (I,xii),  one r e c a l l s Mr. A l l w o r t h y ' s advice to Tom on the need f o r d i s c r e t i o n . Sterne, l i k e F i e l d i n g , sounds the note that there are m a l i c i o u s , Hobbesian characters around who " s h a l l l e v e l a t a l e of dishonour a t ( Y o r i c k ) , which no innocence o f heart or i n t e g r i t y o f conduct s h a l l s e t r i g h t "  (I,xii).  U n l i k e Tom, however, Sterne's Y o r i c k i s not motivated wholly by innocence of heart.  Again, j u s t as F i e l d i n g s t r e s s e s that when we ignore prudence  i n our a c t i o n s i t becomes easy f o r the B l i f i l s o f t h i s world to scheme a g a i n s t us, so does Sterne make Eugenius say that "When to g r a t i f y a p r i v a t e a p p e t i t e , i t i s once r e s o l v e d upon that an innocent and an h e l p l e s s creature s h a l l be s a c r i f i c e d , ' t i s an easy matter to p i c k up s t i c k s enew from any t h i c k e t where i t has strayed, to make a f i r e to o f f e r i t up w i t h "  (I,xii).  I n t h i s episode o f Y o r i c k ' s death, Sterne introduces the element of tears.  Y o r i c k sheds tears w h i l e he l i s t e n s to h i s f r i e n d a d v i s i n g him;  but the most moving i n c i d e n t i s when Eugenius v i s i t s Y o r i c k on h i s death bed and the parson thanks him f o r the "many tokens of f r i e n d s h i p " . episode i s so s i g n i f i c a n t that I quote i t a t length:  The  "He (Yorick) t o l d  him, he was w i t h i n a few hours o f g i v i n g h i s enemies the s l i p f o r ever. -I hope not, answered Eugenius, w i t h tears t r i c k l i n g down h i s cheeks and w i t h the tenderest tone that ever man spoke, -- I hope not, Y o r i c k , s a i d he.  -- Y o r i c k r e p l i e d , w i t h a look up, and a gentle squeeze of Eugenius's  hand, and that was a l l , -- but i t cut Eugenius to h i s heart.  -- Come, --  come, Y o r i c k , quoth Eugenius, wiping h i s eyes, and summoning up the man w i t h i n him -- " ( I , x i i ) .  The r e a c t i o n to t h i s episode i s one of intense  f e e l i n g even though the author has been exposing the s e l f i s h n e s s of the parson.  Eugenius's response to the dying s t a t e of Y o r i c k i s , I t h i n k , a  genuine one despite Sterne's use of t e a r f u l passages l a t e r on i n the novel. Sterne's  freedom of c r e a t i o n i n T r i s t r a m Shandy i s not l i m i t e d to  s t r u c t u r a l devices only.  This l i b e r t y enables him to explore the use o f  " f e e l i n g " which, i n the eighteenth-century f a c t o r i n man's a c t i o n s .  was gaining ground as a motivating  He has the ground prepared f o r him because, by  - 63 -  his  time,  this  mechanistic rising even  ironic  s i t u a t i o n was d e v e l o p i n g ;  psychology  the romantic  of the seventeenth  and e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r i e s was  s t r e s s on f e e l i n g .  to an e a r l i e r  that out of the very  But this  emphasis dates  trend o f thought.  R.S. C r a n e ,  G e n e a l o g y o f t h e 'Man o f F e e l i n g ' "  gives a clear  cult.  He a r g u e s  that the "key to the popular  back  i n h i s essay,  "A  a n a l y s i s o f the f e e l i n g -  triumph  of  'sentimentalism'  t o w a r d s 1 7 5 0 I s t o b e s o u g h t n o t so much i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l lay  moralists after  divines into  1700, as i n t h e combined i n f l u e n c e o f numerous A n g l i c a n  of the Latitudinarian  the eighteenth-century  their  books,  to the larger  t r a d i t i o n who, f r o m  had preached public,  t h e R e s t o r a t i o n onward  to the congregations  essentially  and,  t h e same e t h i c s  through  of  benevolence,  4 good-nature and tender this  Thus, a b e g i n n i n g  towards  c u l t h a d a l r e a d y b e e n made. A  contemporary of Sterne's,  supremacy o f reason with  a "calm  Again, is,  sentimental feeling."  D a v i d Hume, w a s a l s o u n d e r c u t t i n g t h e  i n the eighteenth-century  p a s s i o n , " b y w h i c h one t a k e s  i n h i s T r e a t i s e o n Human N a t u r e ,  and ought o n l y  f o r he i d e n t i f i e s  a distant  reason  v i e w o f i t s o b j e c t . ~*  Hume i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t  to be, the slave o f the passions  and can never  "Reason  pretend  6 to  any other  emphasis related  office  than  i s shifting  from reason  to Shaftesbury's  publicised  to serve  shortly before  theory of egocentricity,  a n d obey them." to feeling.  When t h i s  doctrine of essential S t e r n e was b o r n Sterne's  I t i s seen  that  current trend i s  benevolence which  was  a n d w h i c h was a r e a c t i o n t o H o b b e s ' s  acceptance  of the role  of feeling i s  seen i n p e r s p e c t i v e . One p e r s o n Shaftesbury  who r e f l e c t s  and Hobbes i s Uncle  becomes, i n a l a r g e r but  the Hobbesian  in  the l i g h t  on  Uncle  Sterne's  sense,  traits  o f these  to the doctrines of  Like Fielding's  Tom, U n c l e  a representative of Shaftesburian  are also exhibited.  characters relate  i n attempting  to t e l l  hislife  Toby  tendencies;  My d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n o v e l  doctrines of the heart w i l l ,  T o b y a n d how o t h e r  Tristram  Toby.  response  at this  stage,  centre  to him.  s t o r y introduces Uncle  Toby  -  cursorily  i n several  places,  becomes c o n c e r n e d w i t h U n c l e Toby: usually one  "My  constitute  catalogue; (I,xxi). usual  and  was  a  t h a t was  o f a man  his  so  (Toby's)  was  "Which e v e r way the  truest  natural  sense of i t " ( I , x x i ) .  of  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n  of  the a b s o l u t e acceptance of  Sterne philosophers from  the war.  of  o f f by  Namur, w h i c h  s t r u c k u p o n my  Meanwhile,  tragedy e n t i t l e d The  Wound a n d  Philoctetes, by a  snake,  on an h e was  island  Seven  the  in a  i t , 'twas  dubious  philosophers,  "Whether  t h o u g h he  are h i s  i s o f the o p i n i o n  about  h i s doubts of  the moral  u n c l e Toby's g r o i n " point which  about  aspects  the  statement of  owing  to a blow  explains  during  t h e s i e g e o f Namur.  from P h i l o c t e t e s ' s  a  siege  This  incident  some a s p e c t s o f h i s  to the hero  i n Sophocles'  Studies i n Literature  (New  York,  1947).  by  the i n s t r u c t i o n healed.  b o t h became t h e h e r o e s  He  He  was  was  Philoctetes,  left  then fought side  i n the  on h i s way  bitten  of a soothsayer,  taking of  P h i l o c t e t e s ' s m y s t e r i o u s wound p a r a l l e l s U n c l e Toby's f o r b o t h g e t grounds:  the  from  a t the  (Ixxi).  be p a r a l l e l e d  t a k e n t o T r o y w h e r e h i s wound was  wounds on p a t r i o t i c  validity  i s d i s c u s s e d b y Edmund W i l s o n i n h i s b o o k ,  years u n t i l ,  until  that  view.  the parapet o f a horn-work  which  of  n e v e r t h e l e s s modesty i n  t h u s s u f f e r i n g a m y s t e r i o u s , i n c u r a b l e wound.  s i d e w i t h Neoptolemus  essential  t h i s modesty  t h e j o u r n e y t o T r o y w i t h Agammemnon a n d M e n e l a u s  for several  Sterne's  o f U n c l e Toby to the m i s f o r t u n e r e s u l t i n g  U n c l e T o b y may  Philoctetes  t h e Bow: on  the moral  s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s m o d e s t y "was  a b o u t U n c l e Toby becomes a u s e f u l character.  like  traits  the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s p o i n t  from  into  are put across with  the n o v e l i s t has  the v i r t u e s  a ball  put  possessed  A l t h o u g h U n c l e Toby demonstrates  shows h i s d o u b t s  linking He  stone, broke  doctrine,  further by  or never  expresses h i s doubt  u n c l e T o b y came b y  which  rectitude,  t h a t U n c l e Toby's v i r t u e s  or a c q u i r ' d , "  about h i s  the v i r t u e s  and  p l a c e s immediately the n a t u r a l  the n o v e l i s t  my  with  Shandy,  u n p a r a l l e l ' d modesty of nature"  virtues  n o t commit h i m s e l f ,  Walter  directly  o f honour  i s seldom  innocence and  e s p e c i a l l y S h a f t e s b u r y , to a s s e r t and  speaks who,  a most extream and  U n c l e Toby's  Sterne w i l l  nature;  Tristram  gentleman,  degree, which  humour, b u t he  light.  ...  Now,  the character  i n a v e r y eminent  -  e s p e c i a l l y when h i s f a t h e r , Mr.  names.  uncle,  64  to b a t t l e ,  s i t u a t i o n being a paradigmic state of  Troy. their  Uncle  B u t w h a t comes o u t o f t h e s e i n c i d e n t s , the a r t i s t  by  Toby,  apart since  -  the Greek  h e r o was  with which enlists  a marvellous archer,  t h e r e a d e r i s made t o r e s p o n d  of character  and  the wound has  been  ness)  as h i s s e x u a l  as w e l l  Wadman).  for  The  the cause  him  instead  He  eighteenth-century,  we  f o r h i s contemporary,  h i s body, and  thence  form  stress  on  i n degree  attempting  apostle of laughter m e n t who our  sees  joys,  Therefore, terms  of  sensibility  of  i n our  feel  identification  concept  i n the  sympathetic  t h e same t o r m e n t s ;  and  even  unlike  out of which  feel them."  we  to U n c l e Toby;  on  opinion  situation;  enter,  as  him  something g  i t were, and  which,  Shaftesbury's essential  as what S t e r n e i s  but Sterne i s not only term)  the  imagination  of the  the d o c t r i n e o f  s e e n i n t h e same t e r m s  as " t h e  to  but a n o v e l i s t  of  an senti-  source inexhausted of a l l that's precious  s o r r o w s ! -- E t e r n a l  e x p r e s s e s t h e same S h a f t e s b u r i a n  f o u n t a i n of our  element  feeling!"  of outwardness  in  feeling.  characters,  listing  the s e v e r a l ways i n w h i c h a u t h o r s have p r e s e n t e d  T r i s t r a m now  hobby-horse.  defining  our  Adam S m i t h was  ( t o u s e R.D.S. P u t n e y ' s  or c o s t l y  he  After  his  n a t u r e o f man,  to say i n r e l a t i o n  is  relevant,  attempt  place ourselves i n (the other's)  i s not altogether  e m e r g e s , c a n be  widow  this  becomes  b e c o m e i n some m e a s u r e t h e same p e r s o n w i t h  the s o c i a l  benevolence  in  (1759).  some i d e a o f h i s s e n s a t i o n s ,  though weaker  and  Adam S m i t h , e l a b o r a t i n g  p r o p a g a t i n g the n o t i o n  of Moral Sentiments  t h e i m a g i n a t i o n we  hobby-horsical-  ourselves.  conceive ourselves enduring a l l  into  the o t h e r and  not alone i n emphasizing this  o f D a v i d Hume, w a s  the Theory  t h a t "by  was  course  affair with  benevolence  t h e theme o f s y m p a t h y i n e n l i s t i n g  w i t h U n c l e Toby.  teaching  i s ,his  f o r U n c l e Toby;  of essential  i n to  Philoctetes'  of h i s m i s f o r t u n e , although  (his unsuccessful  o u r s e l v e s towards  of closing  sympathy  Sterne p r e s e n t s , i n the  endurance  incapacity  of  Sophocles  projecting  of h i s obsession (that  doctrine  a r e made t o p r o j e c t  Sterne uses  in  i s the f e e l i n g  the s i t u a t i o n s .  r e a d e r ' s sympathy i s e n l i s t e d  the Shaftesburian  f o r we  to  his patriotism.  the n o v e l , U n c l e Toby's p a t i e n t  where  -  the r e a d e r ' s sympathy f o r h i s hero w h i l s t  strength of  himself  65  various  d e c i d e s t o draw h i s U n c l e Toby's c h a r a c t e r  S t e r n e uses  the hobby-horse  their  from  c o n c e p t as a medium f o r  a s p e c t s o f U n c l e T o b y ' s b e h a v i o u r , one  of which  i s the  - 66 -  Hobbesian e g o c e n t r i c i t y .  I n the f i r s t  humorous  the hobby-horse w i t h  style,  you  are able  you  may  (I,xxiv).  battle  to  notion  which  e x p l o i t s and t h i s  ... T o b y w a s  was  uncle  T h e map  "increases  with  the  cause o f U n c l e Toby's  to  himself of  to bear  w h i c h he would he  would  their  perpetual  demolitions,  (narrate)  forget himself,  of  with  rider all  through  concept o f power,  The e g o c e n t r i c  t h e means  misfortune,  to f i g h t  on e q u a l  Freud's viewpoint what Sterne  of social  life. remedies  We  the hobbyTherefore, i n to  "the histories  i m p r o v e m e n t s a n d new w o r k s , a l l  t o be a b l e  a p p l i c a t i o n and d e l i g h t ,  to l i v e .  i s a shield  terms w i t h  presents  has been  it.  U n c l e Toby turns  against  Fluchere,  that  (II,iii).  The h o b b y - h o r s e , i n the harsh  " i tpermits  realities  the fortunate  t h e i n s i d i o u s e n e m i e s who  9  beset  him from  tends  to  and sometimes from w i t h i n . "  i n Civilization with  and i t s D i s c o n t e n t s  the hobby-horse."^  b y i t s r e p r e s s i o n o f man's i n s t i n c t s ,  therefore  ills,  h i s wound, h i s c o n f i n e m e n t , h i s d i n n e r "  exposes i n connection  civilization,  element i s  i n which Sterne  So a n y w o r d r e c a l l s  their  i n the words o f H e n r i  s i d e s , from without  that  the Hobbesian  of i t . "  that intense  scheme o f t h e Shandean w o r l d , the world;  the greater  confinement o u t o f which has developed  U n c l e Toby has t o be e g o c e n t r i c the  like  b y means o f h i s h o b b y - h o r s e .  the sieges,  i s des-  (II,iii).  The wound, w h i c h i s a r e s u l t  this  now  due  of the p e r p l e x i t i e s  The wound i s i n c u r a b l e a n d so h e h a s t o l i v e w i t h  be a b l e  narrating  a map w h i c h h e s t u d i e s w i t h t h e  of h i s thirst"  the hobby-horse  circumstances.  H i s obsession  sweet f o u n t a i n o f s c i e n c e ,  the a c q u i s i t i o n  the  with  becomes an o b j e c t o f w o r s h i p a n d " t h e  U n c l e Toby's hobby-horse, ever  of the  o f h i s confinement  and because o f the "nature  Toby drank o f t h i s  identifiable with  horse.  o f Namur.  itself  o f the one,  i s h i s obsession  i n v o l v e d , " he o b t a i n s  the heat and impatience  Now,  "so that i f  and c h a r a c t e r  developed as a r e s u l t  to v i s i t o r s  utmost d i l i g e n c e . m o r e my  through h i s  the r i d e r  of the genius  U n c l e Toby's hobby-horse  the siege  the author,  but a c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the nature  t h e wound r e c e i v e d a t t h e s i e g e  cribing in  to give  form a p r e t t y exact  other" his  identifies  place,  seek to l e s s e n  such a s , f i r s t l y ,  powerful  these  pains  He  justify  argues  produces pains  by employing  diversions of interest  of  palliative  and,  secondly,  - 67 -  substitute I  g r a t i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h l e a d us  think Uncle  diversions reason,  Toby's hobby-horse can  of interest  Sterne  or  --  canter  o r an  any  the  Uncle  h o b b y - h o r s e and  "a b u t t e r f l y ,  t h i n g w h i c h a man  i t away f r o m  the  cares  and  this  aspect  S h a f t e s b u r i a n and  respond  presents "the  engrossed  troubles which  bring  humour w h i c h  the  see him  style  with  serpent.  Uncle  ...  a  unclel  labyrinth"  out:  my  us  weighty is  calls  an  by  and  i n this  at  the  "based on  Toby"  himself i s b u t we  thou  When  Sterne  In  this  intricate  draws o u t  impulse  of  the is  hectic  situation, "mazes  egocentric  of ourselves  "rhetoric  i s not  sees Uncle  will  f r o m i t as  the  of w i t , "  I n a v e r y humorous way,  think, Fluchere f r o m an  victim  about  thy blood w i t h  Here I s where Sterne's  sympathy, a r i s i n g  made  s h o u l d ' s t s i t up,  displays h i s Hobbesian  c h a r a c t e r whose o b s e s s i v e n e s s  that, I  filled  are  fly--fly--fly  (II,iii).  same t i m e , h e  his  the meeting p o i n t f o r  This evocation of p i t y  i s caught i n the He  to  "riding"  p i t y more than  r e v o l t i n g b u t made inviting„and w o r t h y o f light  him  the wound.  uncle!  i t , becomes e f f e c t i v e .  obsessive  s t r i d e on,  b e w i t c h i n g phantom, Knowledge,  " 0 my  uncle  o f knowledge.  Shaftesburian benevolence. Traugott  Toby's  been the u n f o r t u n a t e  character m e r i t i n g our  T o b y i s a C a s a u b o n f i g u r e who  this  a  same  Tristram  uncle  see  later;  i t f i t , g o o d - n a t u r ' d man!  characteristics whilst,  for  this  i s meant to convey.  Is  0 my  f o r the  (VIII,xxxi).  He  t h e wound upon t h y g r o i n , whole n i g h t s b a k i n g  watchings?  of  --  an  to get  life"  see  has  powerful  i n h i s p u r s u i t o f knowledge and warns him  c o m p l e t e when T r i s t r a m c r i e s from a  shall  various levels  the p u r s u i t of  u p o n t h e e , " we  of  --  s y m p a t h y a s we  s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y s i n c e he  i s i n c a p a c i t a t e d on  him  a s we  misery.  hobby-horses.  shift  solicitudes  of  And,  the Hobbesian elements.  to  and  light  o f h i s c h a r a c t e r makes him  o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h benevolence, to him  about our  a picture,  makes a  Toby communicates by  to  o f war  seen i n the  s t r e s s e s t h a t a l l o f us h a v e o u r  But  both  be  little  substituted gratifications.  d e s c r i b e s h i s h o b b y - h o r s e as siege  to care  he  allowed  as  projects  to  be  consideration.  Toby's eloquence  the h e a r t ,  gathering  I t as strength  11 from acquiescence Sterne  attempts,  and  carried  i n this  away by  overflow  p o r t r a i t of Uncle  the  " b e w i t c h i n g phantom, Knowledge;"  how  Mr.  Walter  an  Shandy r e l a t e s  to Uncle  and,  of generosity."  But  Toby, to g i v e h i s w a r n i n g i n this  Toby and  to  c o n n e c t i o n , we the  about  shall  doctrines of  ego-  see  -  centricity  and benevolence.  Tristram natural  describes  philosopher,  (I,iii).  This  h i s f a t h e r , Mr. W a l t e r  a n d much g i v e n  Just  of  fortifications,  and  philosophies.  to have h i s nose  as Uncle  Toby seeks  he  thought a great  .. f l a t  the "choice deal  capable o f conceiving"  (I,xix).  run of events,  of  incidents the  opening episode,  "scattered hence,  than what  When a w i n d o w f a l l s  against  f o rinstance,  of frustration;  o f sexual  suggests  i nwhich  theories  b u t ,I t h i n k , one  by the unfortunate  sign  most  themotif  spirits" are  of unfinished  beginnings and  w i d o w Wadman a r e  i n c a p a c i t y a s a r e s u l t o f h i s wound;  frustration. turning  realities  and philosophies.  i n on himself  of life.  Shandy's  to a f f i r m himself  him  on the plane o f the i r r a t i o n a l .  theories  i n order  and p h i l o -  t o cope  He i s no l e s s a p i t i a b l e  I t i s i n this  Mr.  inside his connection  to him;  i nhis  t h e con-  the barenness o f the ass which  Mr. Shandy's  c o n c e p t o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y becomes r e l e v a n t desire  to  mistake  nose i s a  I n fact,  the "animal  t h a n U n c l e T o b y w h e n we o b s e r v e h i m d w e l l i n g of  Mr. Shandy,  t o be subdued a c c o r d i n g  t h e amours o f U n c l e Toby w i t h  s o p h i e s a r e a means o f h i s uncontrollable  private  i s the element o f f r u s t r a t i o n i n the  c l u d i n g paragraphs r e l a t e the episode about  the  minds were  may b e s e e n i n t e r m s o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n - p r i n c i p l e :  and dispersed"  an instance  himself  on Tristram's  a n y p h y s i c a l wound;  t o be c a l l e d T r i s t r a m  frustrated by his physical  is  superficial  h i s son's nose i s f l a t t e n e d f o r l i f e .  of the novel  articles  o f C h r i s t i a n names o n w h i c h  A g a i n , when he c o n c l u d e s a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  greatness,  hobby-horse  T h u s , when M r . S h a n d y w i s h e s h i s s o n t o b e named  he happens  of Obadiah's.  i nhis  f a c e , " Mr. Shandy consoles  the refusal of r e a l i t y  of people.  Trismegistus,  matters"  f o rthe projection  t o De L e g i b u s H e b r a e o r u m R i t u a l i b u s .  t h e causes he h a s t o f i g h t  desires  consolation  and i m p o s i t i o n  u n l i k e U n c l e Toby, has n o t r e c e i v e d  the  the note  i s "doom'd, b y m a r r i a g e  to his  more depended  h i sfather resorts  ordinary  upon s m a l l  so does Mr. Shandy employ h i s hobby-horse o f t h e o r i e s  squeez'd  t h e o r i z i n g about  Shandy, as an " e x c e l l e n t  reasoning  sounds  Thus, when T r i s t r a m  by  of  to close  introduction, I think,  of Mr. Shandy.  parts,  68 -  with figure  self-built that  mechanism  the Hobbesian  for, l i k e Uncle  Toby,  individual singularity finds  - 69 -  Mr. my  Shandy h a v i n g  d i s c u s s i o n of Uncle  him  i n the  who  helps  servant  context  he  the  too  now  same i l l s  and  so,  reveals  diverts "by  four  years  towns, and  ...  he  was  the  country  Trim,  himself  and  with  The  fly-incident  "curtains"  o f Dr.  ought Mr. that  to Mrs.  tho'  my  out:  wife  i s one  cry out,  --  ...  I wish  the whole  the D e v i l "  (II,xii).  are  peeping  battle  Corporal  victims of  the  by  situation;  the  But  "But  so  full  yet nothing w i l l science At  pains you  but  stage,  the  two  his  volubility  of both  has  It  of to  begins  the  i s questioned, to the  fact  labour,  fortifications. for  sub-  t h a t Dr.  Slop until  confounded --  carry of  by  word  T o b y l e c t u r e s on these  Uncle  begun, and,  l e c t u r e on  i s your head of  of f o r t i f i c a t i o n ,  this  a  Uncle  becomes  qualities,  the mention o f  become, b l i n d  serve  with" u l -  too,  the heart.  Toby i n t o  Shandy i n l a b o u r .  Trim,  qualities  Shandy's labour  h i s benevolence has  pleased  in  s e r v i c e to h i s master  the  ideas,  upon  science  about being  Toby and  doctrines of  S l o p when Mrs.  i n the  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n  devoted  he  continually into  suggestion  that dramatizes  i s t h i s moment i n t h e  her  the  affection,  of h i s  t o do w h a t we  and  Shandy plunges Uncle  Shandy c r i e s  disability,  and  mean p r o f i c i e n t  his  ground  his loyalty  h i s e g o c e n t r i c i t y he  to a t t e n d  Sterne  h i s hobby-horse  reality  the hobby-horse of U n c l e  r i d e s h i s hobby-horse.  merged by  of  of Locke's a s s o c i a t i o n of  by Mr.  servant  h i s m a s t e r , has  b e c o m e no  Shandy i n terms of  the p r i n c i p l e  fidelity  and  t h e H o b b e s i a n as w e l l as  benevolence.  the a r r i v a l  the  Tristram's Uncle. a  to  character  between  also having  great  to Shandy-Hall.  egocentric, while  Mr.  One  knee, r e c e i v e d a t  master  Therefore,  Toby  his  Toby and  his left  the p a i n f u l  had  a "rood  h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to  attest  relationship  advantage o f p r y i n g and  (Trim)  having  a meeting p o i n t of  The  as  continue  characters relate  philosophers.  of  now  o c c a s i o n a l a t t e n t i o n to h i s master's d i s c o u r s e  voluble" (II,v).  timately brings Uncle  make h i m  like  shall  the  Toby w i t h  against  the  ..  the other  introducing Trim  Thus, both  society.  far, I  the benevolence  served Uncle  his master's plans  He  Toby i s Trim.  i n return.  of  fortified  for  doctrines of  c o n t a c t by  having  loved  w h i c h he  the  thus  show how  s u f f e r s from a wound, on  of-Landen; is  of  the master  intensifies for  Toby, and  define Uncle  and  been i n t r o d u c e d  and  you  t h e man  works, hear  midwife  with a l l i t s inventors egocentric natures  of  at  these  - 70 -  characters to  this  intersect.  remonstrance  ground of h i s w i f e after to  this  Mr.  natured  describing  him  (who)  this  he  was  all  was  of  describe terms;  but  Sterne  our  strengthens afterwards  o f my  out  sympathies  --  qualities  character i s a  Toby  by ...  c o u l d do;  --  element i n i t ,  --  Tristram could  of h i s Uncle  suitable  good-  injuries  a man  jarring  (II,xii).  soon  i n s t e a d of  for Uncle  as  back-  insulted his  patient of  no  the  Toby  to him  for having  feelingly  nature,  unique  go  " a man  f a t h e r ' s as  and  a p p r a i s a l of  us  as  so k i n d l y w i t h i n h i m "  benevolent  this  sympathies by  a peaceful, placid  the  s i n c e i t i s done a g a i n s t  i s rather resented  insult  sympathetically  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of U n c l e  t h a t our  immediately  m i x e d up  are meant to respond  Shandy's,  i n c i d e n t i s such  brother.  felt  o f Mr.  i n labour;  S h a n d y , who  but  I t a p p e a r s we  i n any  not better  i n t r o d u c t i o n to the f l y  episode.  Uncle  Toby, i n h i s kind-naturedness  tormented him  cruelly at  to  i t ;  " I ' l l not  go  poor D e v i l ,  i s wide Toby's  when the of  f l y may  the reader  sermon  rhetorical sentence,  this  of  I  incident,  has of  but  a f l y ; but  by U n c l e  style the  of  Toby.  Go.,  This world  surely  comment o f  this  "thee's"  I  has  sympathetic  and  taken and  Toby's me,"  of  life  but  of  egocentric vision  statement  t o t h a t one  taught  and He  to of  his  a  final i s an the  Toby i s "one  Tristram himself  mind."  of  of  with the  confesses  i m p r i n t e d b y my  ad-  benevolent.  comments, i n c o n n e c t i o n  about Uncle  t o human n a t u r e . "  o f my  of  pains  t h u s made m o r e  and  the  indication  aspects  i s suggestive  " t h o u ' s " ) , and  Uncle  especially  t h i n k i t i s an  thee  s i n c e been worn out  (his) philanthrophy  t h y h e a d ; --  i s w i d e enough to h o l d b o t h  that Sterne's paid  says  This  last,  has  he  --  Sterne  the o u t p o u r i n g  l e s s o n of u n i v e r s a l g o o d w i l l then never  of  thee?  (II,xii).  same o p i n i o n o f H a z l i t t w h e n h e  compliments ever "the  me"  a f l y that  i t at  free expression of p e r s o n a l i t y , Uncle  think, not  the  the  hurt a hair  e x p o s i t i o n of  emphasis on a  and  kill  e x h i b i t i o n o f cheap s e n t i m e n t a l i s m  possessed  "This world  mission, am  than  thee  not  caught  should I hurt  i s to n o t h i n g  f o r the  so, h a v i n g  I ' l l not  g o n e , why  seem a n  Although  ( w i t h the  and  ...  to h o l d both  outpouring  character.  thee  thee  genuine q u a l i t i e s  prepare  I  get  enough to the  hurt  dinner  will  finest  that  uncle  t h i n k s he  "owes one  accidental impression"  (II,xii).  half  Toby,  - 71 -  But reflected insulted wife  i t i s not Uncle in this  fly-episode.  h i s b r o t h e r who  i n labour.  different seen as  Now,  from "the  Shandy, i n s p i t e  his  nature,"  two  of h i s  soreness  i n h i s behaviour  truly  loved  w h a t he  ever  gave"  (II,xii).  brother  "penetrates  him  ...  he  worse;  --  to h u r t  --  so u n r e s e n t i n g ; see  dissociate  the  In  Locke's  death  arouses  upon the mourning;  idea,  is  episode of  tinged with  "A  green  death  tinged either with the  presents  theory her  grey of  p r o j e c t e d when a f t e r  i t s office;  consciousness  crying out,  "Oh!  unprovoking,  upon  to  the  same  the  difficulty  author how  the  colour  mother's  green,  ...  Susannah's  the for  was  the  head."  "Well might Locke w r i t e a a l l m u s t go  green."  i d e a s , as  to us. 'twill  be  chapter  into  S u s a n n a h made u s e  i t e x c i t e d not  a l l was  the a s s o c i a t i o n of  state of  brother  announcement of  Susannah suggests  —  Uncle  casting light  The  brought into  or black  from  i d e a s as w e l l as  egocentricity.  doing  to h i s -  so  o f Bobby,  s a t i n n i g h t - g o w n o f my  also of  than  f l y episode,  to expose  the word, mourning, " n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g failed  Uncle  benevolent.  the  to Locke:  in  told  that i t i s d i f f i c u l t  the  about  the  brothers  the a s s o c i a t i o n o f  refers ironically  but  exemplifying author  the  i m p e r f e c t i o n s of words."  h e r s e l f --  two  from  idea which Obadiah's exclamation  Then, Sterne  it  the  In  i n Susannah's i m a g i n a t i o n n o t h i n g but  Tristram relates: first  (Ilxii).  that  man;-- a --  man's  ...  times  seeks f o r g i v e n e s s any  be  generous  "particularly  to h u r t  may  of  Shandy's.attitude  c h a r a c t e r , Susannah,  theory  b e n e v o l e n c e becomes  he  the n o v e l i s t ' s v i s i o n  uses another  dissociation.  illustrates  ' t i s b ase"  dualism  ten  the  light,  stresses  such g e n t l e manners,  egocentric attitude  Sterne of  of  He  f e e l more p a i n , Mr.  for  Shandy's  temper i s " f r a n k and  ' t i s ungenerous  characters of  illustrating  s t r e s s the  towards people  would  a brother  the  of  regard  o f Mr.  are  having  Though S t e r n e  the heart.  to h i s h e a r t ; "  --  to  Therefore,  Toby w h i l s t commenting, "But  each and  i s trying  any  as  father i n another  likeness."  doctrines of  T o b y whom h e  t h e r e f o r e , we  his  sympathy  been p o r t r a y e d  unsympathetic behaviour  t h i n k , he  the  Mr.  and  Shandy has  Tristram presents  I  i n terms of  but  Mr.  r i d e s h i s hobby-horse without  a p o l o g i s i n g f o r the  and  whose b e n e v o l e n c e and  mere h o b b y - h o r s i c a l  toward h i s brother, nature  Toby alone  one  of  single  Susannah i s  the  omniscient  But  her e g o c e n t r i c i t y  the  death  o f my  poor  -  mistress,"  she b e g i n s  to think of  her m i s t r e s s goes i n t o mental  state:  "My  her  r e d damask,  her  brown  was  left  and  -  the m a t e r i a l  mourning.  And  --  her  her  bone-laced  i s i n t e r e s t i n g how He  thinks  o f how  s y m p a t h e t i c he  Obadian also  the death w i l l  lamenting  s h o u l d be;  he  from h i s h e a r t and  death by  Sterne's  the p h i l o s o p h e r s . by Hobbes and  He  another  of  episode of  but,  benevolence neither  a  rag  sympathy  the poor  though  gentleman,  or buy he  the  such  i s so  I  think Sterne here  morality:  how  f a r benevolence  steal  i n order  problem  t o show m e r c y ?  i n which  f o r one  t o be  o f Bobby i s an of  incident  of  illness  i s one  light  context  and  illustrates the p h i l o s o p h e r s .  o f Le F e v e r  expresses  and  shows a r e  --  I would  genuine,  almost  a r e a l l o f us  concerned  i s q u e s t i o n i n g the v a l i d i t y should transcend the c i v i l This situation raises benevolent,  one  has,  i s accepted.  a  could i t for  for  Should  one  complicated  i n certain  cases,  I t is a witty  humorously  that  him"  of absolute  law.  so  c a s u a l l y and  steal  his  his  that " I f I  observation  reader.  vision,  the d o c t r i n e of  by h i s s t a t i n g  thing, -- We  which  the p h i l o s o p h e r s ;  the  of  drawn  t o e x p r e s s h i s own  the d o c t r i n e of  escapes  that  the a b s o l u t e statements  ment S t e r n e i s m a k i n g on  almost  on  sympathetically,  t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t man  use  e g o c e n t r i c , i f the p r e c e d i n g premis  i s expressed  but not  d r a m a t i z i n g the whole n o t i o n  s e n t i m e n t s he  a  i l l .  (VI,vi).  Bobby's  react.  i s p l a c e d i n a dubious borrow,  directly,  the p h i l o s o p h e r s i n a p a r t i c u l a r  r e p o r t s the desperate  beg,  and  the death o f Le F e v e r  but  t o t h e news o f  T r i m r e a c t s more  i n an a t t e m p t  aspect of Sterne's a r t i s t i c  landlord  But  the v a l i d i t y  p e o p l e a c t and  sympathy f o r him;  be  are a mixture of  reacts  death  does n o t r e j e c t  Shaftesbury;  u s w a t c h how  The  doubt about  p l a c e s the statement  The  The  Not  --  i s t h e r e f o r e concerned w i t h the i n c r e a s e d  his soul,  dropping h i s hat.  illustrates  let  her  yellow lutestrings,  a f f e c t him  p i e c e o f work i n s t u b b i n g the ox-moor.  he  when  -- W h a t a p r o c e s s i o n !  bed-gowns,  Susannah's sentiments here  hers  d e s c r i b e s f o r us  followed.  caps, her  be  self-love.  death.  of  that w i l l  orange-tawny, her w h i t e and  --  behind."  good  so T r i s t r a m  mother's whole wardrobe  taffata,  It  how  72  yet  to  state-  this  the impact  of i t  - 73  The responds  landlord's  by  offering  appeal "a  dozen more i f t h e y w i l l who  breaks  next in  h i s arm  one.  him which  he  still  S t e r n e makes him wife's  ring  passing, is  service  Toby i s seen thus Sterne  of Sophia  o f as  a man  and  expression of  s h i f t s Uncle  the  riding  h i s neck.  Dendermond  Toby  from  see  distresses the  a t the  and  c o n f l i c t between reproaches  Trim  bent  the purse  "True,  q u o t h my  --  c e r t a i n l y v e r y w r o n g a s a man"  but  his wish  of o f f e r i n g  looked after.  We  Uncle  Toby and  Uncle  Toby's  feeling  and  thou  t h e s i c k man  corporal  T r i m on  ...  didst  which  l e t you  to  and  to  ...  suggested he  He  h o u s e so  t h a t he  connection;  the  earlier. he  Trim,  but  had as  "There  was  a t once i n t o h i s s o u l ,  carrying  his  purse  same  a  no  soldier, further  be p r o p e r l y between  the f a c t s  fail  effort to  that to l e t  impress  a frankness i n  and  Toby  orders.  exchange  i s m a k i n g an not  in  Uncle  expresses  Fever;  Uncle  private  to o f f e r  t h a t h e may  o v e r c o m e r a t i o n a l i s m do  benevolence.  n e v e r t h e l e s s , he  replies  very right,  affections;  the S h a f t e s -  the p u r s e - o f f e r the  the c a r e o f Le  feeling  Uncle  o f Le F e v e r ,  is willing  and  the  in  genuine  and  towards  (VI,viii).  h i s own  sentiments are genuine  comments i n t h i s  note,  Toby's  a r e made t o r e s p o n d w i t h h u m o u r t o t h i s  good-naturedness  Sterne  u n c l e Toby  T o b y , --  as  for  i s dead.  may  element  thoughts  around  benevolence  for not o f f e r i n g Uncle  "We  to the l a n d l o r d  T h u s , he  Sterne builds  the law and  she  i s engaged a t the time  h i s whole  inn."(VI,viii).  s i c k Le F e v e r .  (VI,vi).  i t employed i n the M a r i a  the Hobbesian  "he  common  affection  f o r the e x e r c i s e of Uncle  h i s hobby-horse:  ...  the  u n d e r l a i d by  s i e g e o f Dendermond, p a r a l l e l w i t h the a l l i e s  g a v e up  to o f f e r  c o m i c a l l y by h i s k i s s i n g  B e f o r e T r i m r e p o r t s the m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n  Toby i s seen  Jones  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n theory o f n a t u r a l  the background  "a  o f Tom  of h i s h o s t "  even though  sentiments  Le F e v e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p  he  more than  i s his natural  t o u c h o f S t e r n e ' s a r t a n d we  lays  here  w i t h "something  think,  so  to g i v e  i s prepared  so much u p o n t h e a f f e c t i o n s  i n the c o n t e x t o f  Sterne  us.  We  cherishes vehemently  the comic  e p i s o d e as w e l l .  to  good."  dramatize h i s a f f e c t i o n rather  a particular  on  are reminded  him  " t i e d w i t h a b l a c k r i b b a n d about  that  buxian.  do  m o r e t h a n common", I  his- w i f e which  Toby's benevolence w i t h the promise  i s spoken  should win  This "something  excites Uncle  couple of b o t t l e s "  i n the  Le F e v e r  -  showed you  my  the  -  goodness of h i s n a t u r e "  Le an  artist,  he  i s going  far.  f o r the  tears.  with  he  The  H e r e one  sees  himself.  He  following  "Nature  instantly  pulse  fluttered  moved  --  stopp'd  incident with a the poor  few  stopp'd shall  In  elsewhere  the  realizes Le Fever  go  Italy  the f i l m  only.  s o l d i e r who  --  throbb'd  to the  H i s book A  joys  generous cares beyond myself;  but  f o u n t a i n of our  feeling!  f o r the  'tender  and  d i s m i s s e s the whole attending  same t e c h n i q u e  of  benevolence  Sentimental Journey  This concept produces  delicious'  "Dear  Sensibility!  joys or c o s t l y  ...  I  feel  through  i n our  some g e n e r o u s  a l l comes f r o m  t h e e , g r e a t , --  of s e n s i b i l i t y  embraces  happiness  i t comprehends a l s o what I a n Watt c a l l s  relish  again  young Le F e v e r  f o l l o w i n g apostrophe:  of Shaftesbury which  the  does n o t p r e s e n t s e n t i m e n t a l i s m i n  ...  benevolism  situation  concludes  exposes h i s q u e s t i o n i n g o f  sorrows'.  the world'."  but  Fever:  stopp'd  Sterne u s i n g the  i n e x h a u s t e d of a l l t h a t ' s p r e c i o u s i n our  of  bursts  grave.  source  Sensorium  and  served h i s  o f Le  then  Toby and  and  and  --  Sterne  France  Eternal  bringing  s h o r t and  the death  -- N o . "  see  has  this  r e t u r n e d t o i t s p l a c e --  about Uncle  Sterne  contains the  is a  dramatizes  on?  t h e M a r i a e p i s o d e we  context of benevolence  suggests  t h e r e f o r e , stops  c h e c k i n g e x c e s s i v e sympathy w h i l e he  the  he  It  i n b e i n g good t o o t h e r s ;  "the  c o n s c i o u s and  cerebral  sentiments  of l o v e found  in  the  benevolence  romances. i s this and  aspect of romantic  sympathy i n the M a r i a  love that creeps episode.  great  the  ,,,12 'best French  as  with his  the i n c o n g r u i t y between the  c h i e f mourners  mixed w i t h s e l f - i n t e r e s t .  Toby becomes o b s e s s e d  h i s purse;  -- w e n t o n I  in  sentimentalist, weeping;  statements  l i e u t e n a n t as  i s discussed f u l l y  Sterne,  e b b ' d a g a i n --  --  h i m s e l f whenever  kisses his wife's ring  Sterne,  quality  t h a t he m u s t c h e c k  offers  statment which  --  unique  s i c k person  reaction.  h i s work i s done. the  aspect of Sterne's  incident, Uncle  s i c k man:  h i s emotional  term;  p r e s e n t s an  This quality  house.  soon checks  and  episode  the Le F e v e r  t o h i s own  into he  too In  kindness  (VI,viii).  that i s , his realization  chapter.  him  Fever's  -  74  The  into  poor  Tristram's  girl  is  "un-  -  settled  i n her mind"  day.  Sterne projects  thin white  less  j a c k e t w i t h her  hair,  a l l but  side  --  she was felt  her."  for  the phrase t h e way,  full  both  sitting  sympathy and  of mixed  and  mentioned  before.  self-love  from  i n my  wiped  matter  As  T r i s t r a m appears t h e r e i s an  A he  love.  heart-ache"  The  and  delicate  e s p e c i a l l y as  moved by  reports:  own,--and t h e n a g a i n , --  a s I am  they  so  --  tender  and  found (his)  t o have been moved by  u n d e r l y i n g sense  difficulty  i n this  sympathy,  of  of  a  physical has  been  dissociating  c o n t a i n s the M a r i a  chapter  jumps o u t o f  fell, --  w i t h my  i n mine,  as I d i d i t I  felt  such  accounted  same and  following;  the p o s t i l l i o n and M a r i a  handkerchief.--I then  then  s u r e c o u l d n o t be  the  the "tender  her;  and  episode  Sentimental  d e s c r i b e d i n the  " I s a t down c l o s e b y  i n her's  and  humour,  f o r her,  a chapter, "Maria", dealing with just  of love,"  He  postillion,  r e l a p s e d from  afterwards, Sterne published A  sentiments  and,  (he)  " i f  benevolence.  year  has  one  near M a r i a , e s p e c i a l l y when h e r b e a u t y  to sense  her's  honest  so m e l a n c h o l y ,  goat before  There i s , t h e r e f o r e , the  t e a r s ) away as  and  her  on  t h e moment I  the c h a i s e to h e l p her  difficult  her.  w i t h i n me  of  I t i s not  sees M a r i a  (her  "an  of pathos  volume o f T r i s t r a m Shandy which  i n which  approaches wipe  and  benevolence,  i n 1767.  delicious  out  Although  Tristram's  last  episode.  Sterne  betwixt her  in his sitting  The  feelings,  a  confesses:  i t was  romantic  in a  into  fantastically  heart-ache,  and  was  d r a w n up  T r i s t r a m then  A s M a r i a made a c a d e n c e  (IX,ix).  of p i t y  Journey  tresses,  "she  t h a t "above a hundred masses have been s a i d  effect."  attraction  Is  (IX,xxiv).  sounds a note  enthusiasm"  came o u t  two  pipe night  terms:  trees twisted a l i t t l e  querulous, T r i s t r a m "sprung  mixture  attractive  f o r c e o f an honest  connotes  remarks  (himself)  it  olive  upon her  I t i s d o u b t f u l w h a t T r i s t r a m means by  but without and  few  beautiful"  the  saw  when he  p l a y s the " s e r v i c e " i n no  net, with a  ever I  -  her  silk  by  and  75  --  and  then  undescribable  f o r from any  and  l e t me  steeped I emotions  combinations  of  motion."  Tristram sits  near M a r i a , Sterne r e a l i z e s  becoming o v e r - i n d u l g e n t .  He  that h i s hero's  i n t r o d u c e s t h e humour:  "Maria  sympathy  looked  - 76 -  wistfully then  f o r some t i m e  a t h e r goat  Sterne  "Well, Maria  the candid reader  can  resembles  say that this  calls  an  unfortunate, insane  poor hapless and  damsel!  irregular  Uncle to  show t r e n d s  He c h e c k s  himself:  Maria  "Adieu,  -- some t i m e , b u t n o t now ... I r o s e  but Sterne,  He  i s , after  all,  Maria--adieu, up a n d w i t h  broken  (IX,xxiv).  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n view  reaction  Uncle  o f benevolence;  Toby then  to the  We h a v e s e e n  o f t h eHobbesian e g o c e n t r i c i t y e s p e c i a l l y becomes  that  b u t h e i s made through h i s the central  t o whom t h e o t h e r s r e a c t i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e e g o c e n t r i c a n d  benevolent  theories.  characters  i nh i s artistic  But Sterne  "Sermon on C o n s c i e n c e " , a purely abstract  Corporal vision  we  bestiality  o f t h a t form.  uses h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o expose h i s c r i t i c a l  Toby c a r r i e s  of Swift,  Travels;  o f man f o r m u l a t e d b y H o b b e s a n d S h a f t e s b u r y .  character  on  i nGulliver's  I f we  t h e same comment i n a h u m o r o u s w a y ,  obsession w i t h h i s hobby-horse.  his  indignatio"  i sover-reaching i t s limit;  away"  I do  the question."  with a l l the connotations  girl.  scene!  the humblest  1  steps walked  Sterne theories  the "saeva  c l o s e l y what S w i f t suggests  that h i s pathos  What a d r a m a t i c  d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f man s e s s e n t i a l  p r e s e n t i n g man a s a " g o a t "  a t me -- a n d  -- W h a t r e s e m b l a n c e do y o u f i n d ?  w i t h h i s l i g h t - h e a r t e d n e s s makes  realizes  --"  m a n i s : -- t h a t I a s k e d  i g n o r e w h a t F.R. L e a v i s  safely  -- a n d t h e n  t o b e l i e v e me, t h a t i t w a s f r o m  c o n v i c t i o n o f what a Beast would  a t h e r goat  a g a i n , a n d so on a l t e r n a t e l y  continues:  intreat  a t me a n d t h e n  Trim  of conscience;  the episode  does n o t f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y  treatment  on these  of the philosophers' theories.  he handles  In  t h e t h e o r i e s o f Hobbes a n d S h a f t e s b u r y  level.  i s t h e medium  through  whom S t e r n e  and t h e humorous, i r o n i c  tone  exposes h i s a r t i s t i c  i nwhich  he p r e s e n t s  i s foreshadowed b y t h e comic way he d e s c r i b e s t h e p o s t u r e o f  -  Trim: to  "He  angle  o f 85  Trim,  Sterne  sciences.  the  k i n d o f v i s i o n he  Trim's half  He  posture:  the a r t s  less  may  in particular,  way  and  views  of  conscience  view,  of Sterne's The to  Sterne  Hebrews i n which  situations  the i n i t i a l  b u r i a n view  of  the knowledge of which  disputable  evidence,  he  --  guide  in his  to r e a c t  less)  t o human  significance,  in  my  sciences b e f r i e n d each artistic  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n .  t r u s t we  St. Paul's f o r us.  have a  epistle F o r we  uprightly  covers  conscience  or  the p h i l o s o p h e r s '  the  and  to l i v e  a  theories.  (more o r  " F o r we  from  desiring  to  are  an  the confident  i n a l l things."  Shaftesbury's  form  good  views,  integral  too.  part  of  Characteriatics.  "Trust!  i f there i s anything  and  t h e way,  to Sterne  i n which  invade  exhorts: "Pray  stages, Trim's  conscience:  regarding  becomes, i n the main, S t e r n e ' s  the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s n o t i o n s about  In  suggests  degress  moral  left  Hence,  to assume t h a t h i s r e a c t i o n  theory i n h i s  their  as our  the a r t s  chooses h i s t e x t  the A p o s t l e  85  arts  other?"  science  sermon i s t h i s :  have a good c o n s c i e n c e ,  the benevolent  of  the Hobbesian elements  the  the  says  shew u s , b y  I t i s now  c o m m e n t , "how  of  the  posture  think,  Sterne  came o u t w i t h  application  conscience  t o be  S h a f t e s b u r y a p p l i e d a more  become q u e s t i o n a b l e .  text of  i t is right  does i t not  sense."  the i r o n i c  ironic  show how  and  I  p r e c i s e angle  treated conscience  this  sermon on  Conscience."  Surely  to  to expose  Trim's  since  t o man  the " n a t u r a l moral  other."  --  f a r , as  I n d e s c r i b i n g the  Shaftesbury.  this  so  the h o r i z o n ; - -  know v e r y w e l l ,  comment w h i c h ,  t h a t b o t h Hobbes and  analysis  nature;  t h a t we  exactness,  of  of knowledge, namely,  ironic  concerning  just  upon the p l a i n  this,  branches  n e c e s s i t y of  recall  his artistic  attempt  two  forwards  sciences m u t u a l l y b e f r i e n d each  scientific  scheme o f  to  has  "The  and  Shaftesbury,  But  a half  bent  incidence"(II,xvii);  t h e n makes an  to a m a t h e m a t i c a l  We  in  of  juxtaposes  and  how  d e g r e e s and  s o u n d o r a t o r s , t o whom I a d d r e s s  true persuasive angle of  -  s t o o d . . w i t h h i s body swayed, and  make an  which  77  i n this  sermon b o r d e r s t r u s t we life  i s capable  i t m u s t be  this  which  have a good a man  of a r r i v i n g  very  c l o s e l y on  may  the  Shaftes-  conscience! depend upon,  and  upon the most i n -  thing,--whether  he  has  a  good  - 78  conscience as  o r no"  a pastor  (II,xvii):  Sterne  i n o r d e r i n g Trim's  of a medieval  debate  typical,  of  p a r t n e r and  this  Uncle  especially,  Mr.  comment, " I d e f y announced  the  without  make us  a man, man.  Since  aware of  w h i c h he  later  and  he  -- A n d  and  his heart  and  fact,  the  concession  deformity  undercuts,  the  exposing  of our  s e l f - a c c u s e d , --  this  t h a t he  condemns him  not;  conscience  --  i s good, and  i s showing  the  then  Sterne's  role  unleashes  t h r e a t e n the r u l e  the  the gravity Slop,  second after  i n which  Trim  has  Sterne  The  that a  s u b j e c t i v i s m of w i t h i n us  draws  the  of  effect full  conscience,  of Sterne's  his  guilty  side,  certainty  must be  position  by  good  conscience  d i s c u s s i n g the  I t i s this  witty  of  a  against  also" places  n e c e s s a r i l y make a g o o d man?  vehement c r i t i c i s m  conscience.  goes  m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y be  a matter  should  conclusion,  testimony  t h a t t h e man  i n c o r p o r a t e s the Hobbesian e g o c e n t r i c i t y  of  key  inward  ironic  Trim  style  to  a l l o w s Dr.  Slop's  the h i g h  t h a t i t i s --  does a good c o n s c i e n c e  the  he  the  actions, Trim  t h a t "whenever  Thus, Sterne  conscience.  tempers  asserts that conscience  to what extent  that  he  coming d i r e c t l y  suggests  us:  which  But  first  c o n t r a r y , when t h e r e p o r t i s f a v o u r a b l e on  t h a t the  (II,xvii).  concession  f o r i n s t a n c e , Dr.  conscience  Shaftesbury  stands  on  makes a  assistant,"  form  topic.  T r i m makes a n o t h e r conscience.  an  studies  t h e m e t h o d S t . Thomas A q u i n a s  comic i n t e r p o l a t i o n s  S h a n d y t o make;  him,  of  from h i s  t e x t i s c a s t i n the  his attack.  the  sovereignty of  treat his  Sterne  unleashes  c l a s s i c a l method by  Toby and  will  then  uses h i s knowledge  sermon, f o r the  u s e s i n h i s Summa T h e o l o g i c a . other  -  into  part of the  criticism  quotation i s necessary.  Trim,  the  conditions  sermon  f u n c t i o n i n g of  i s so much l i n k e d after  accepting  continues:  I make no d o u b t b u t t h e k n o w l e d g e o f r i g h t a n d w r o n g I s so t r u l y i m p r e s s e d u p o n t h e m i n d o f m a n , - - t h a t d i d no such t h i n g ever happen as t h a t the c o n s c i e n c e o f a man, b y l o n g h a b i t s o f s i n , m i g h t . . . i n s e n s i b l y become h a r d . . . and l o s e by d e g r e e s , t h a t n i c e sense and p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h God a n d n a t u r e e n d o w ' d i t . - - o r was i t c e r t a i n t h a t s e l f l o v e c o u l d n e v e r hang the l e a s t b i a s upon the judgment;-o r t h a t t h e l i t t l e i n t e r e s t s b e l o w , c o u l d r i s e up a n d p e r p l e x t h e f a c u l t i e s o f o u r u p p e r r e g i o n s . . C o u l d no such t h i n g a s f a v o u r a n d a f f e c t i o n e n t e r t h i s s a c r e d COURT: -D i d WIT d i s d a i n t o t a k e a b r i b e i n i t ; -- O r w e r e we  to the  - 79  -  a s s u r e d t h a t INTEREST s t o o d a l w a y s u n c o n c e r n ' d w h i l s t t h e c a u s e was h e a r i n g , - - a n d t h a t p a s s i o n n e v e r g o t i n t o the judgment s e a t , and p r o n o u n c ' d s e n t e n c e i n the s t e a d of reason;--Was t h i s t r u l y so...no doubt then, the r e l i g i o u s a n d m o r a l s t a t e o f a man w o u l d b e e x a c t l y w h a t he h i m s e l f esteem'd i t ; - - a n d the g u i l t or innocence of every m a n ' s l i f e c o u l d b e k n o w n , i n g e n e r a l , b y no b e t t e r m e a s u r e t h a n t h e d e g r e e s o f h i s own a p p r o b a t i o n a n d censure. (II,xvii) Sterne way,  i s not  stressing  has  that other  to operate  centricity atrophy  and  this  the r o l e  elements  that the balance  than  may  denying  towards  l e a d to the  as  pure  thus  ideas, I  about Sterne's of  the  artistic  has  Sterne's  conclude  this  f e a t u r e s as  and  stated early  opinions of h i s hero;  life  of Tristram.  i n this but  very  of  i d e a s , and  he  i n t r o d u c e s a number o f d i g r e s s i o n s . sunshine  b o o k --  an  he  i s , i n comic  i n f l u e n c e when the Hobbesian  situation  i n which  conscience ego-  sense."  Conscience  d e f o r m i t y of wrong  action";  a person  con-  conscience.  treatment chapter  conveyed by  the  the  "a  a quiet  to  the  an  but  of  c h a r a c t e r s as  b y m a k i n g some  well  remarks  his handling of  the d o c t r i n e s  heart.  S t e r n e , as I life  now  i n us  dangerous  investigated  shall  have such  t u r n s more towards  creating  s i d e r s h i m s e l f g o o d b e c a u s e he  Having  conscience;  the S h a f t e s b u r i a n " i n n a t e moral  i n i t s work of  s t a t e may  do  of  thin  the l i f e ,  you m i g h t as w e l l string  attempt  characters  as he  says,  to t e l l  of  to w r i t e  the n o v e l  theory of the  T h e s e , he  is  the  story  argues,  association  i n h i s own  take  take  the book a l o n g w i t h  them ( I , x x i i ) .  this  a l s o through  story,  Sterne presents,mainly  specific  them o u t  of  through to  this Thus,  the n o v e l ;  episodes, h i s reaction  way,  are " i n c o n t e s t a b l y ,  s o u l o f r e a d i n g ; --  through  the  devoted  the  of Tristram's l i f e - h i s t o r y runs  t o g i v e us and  little  I n f o l l o w i n g Locke's  i n attempting,  ...  chapter, purposes  and  in  the  the t h e o r i e s  - 80 -  of  egocentricity  Sterne  and benevolence.  As F i e l d i n g  demonstrates  d r a m a t i z e s i n T r i s t r a m Shandy t h a t i ti s d i f f i c u l t  self-interest character,  from benevolence.  has h i s e g o c e n t r i c  so,  despite h i s unique  his  exceptional  self-centredness  But  t r a i t s which  care o f Le Fever  to h i s assistant,  and h i s son, or despite  T r i m , he f r e q u e n t l y  against the inescapable adversities  defense  a war-plagued  society  or from a f r u s t r a t e d  element  the presence  Tom J o n e s  a good w o r l d c o r r u p t e d by t h e B l i f i l s  sees  so he w r i t e s  from S t e r n e .  I n Uncle o f t h e ego-  sustained  emphasis  the unrelenting  themselves universe  maintains  interesting  feature  S t e r n e ' s emphasis  alone b u t on f e e l i n g  as w e l l .  Classic  to Romantic:  hislife  feeling.  of the  foiled.  as w e l l  Critics  call  be c a l l e d  one o f  the word, " h e a r t " i s used i n  on benevolence  i n individual  adds,  judgment based  i n a great n o t on reason  W a l t e r J a c k s o n B a t e , i n h i s book,  Premises  of Taste i n Eighteent Century  b e g a n t o b r e a k a n d how T h i s development  concept  a r e always  o u t how, i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , t h e b a r r i e r  feeling  and  characters to b u i l d f o r  b u t he m i g h t  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t how p r o f u s e l y  of faith  From  o f S t e r n e ' s a r t i s t h e e f f e c t i v e way he  of laughter;"  to a growth  a good w o r l d .  to suggest an absurd  to c o n t r o l  as to r e s t o r e  i n T r i s t r a m Shandy,  the balance between t h e head and t h e h e a r t .  T r i s t r a m Shandy. measure,  of the p r i n c i p a l  a defence, Sterne appears  Sterne "an apostle feeling.  efforts  i n w h i c h man's a t t e m p t s  An  and Jonathan W i l d s ,  creating  o n t h e theme o f f r u s t r a t i o n  I  The a u t h o r o f  t o r e f o r m t h e manners o f h i s times as w e l l  i n the conception of a benevolent Deity  feeling  from  i n a b e n e v o l e n t man, b u t t h e n e e d f o r i t t o b e a b l e t o l i v e . has a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d view  points  i t i s  of the world, either  think Fielding  from  of his l i f e ;  sex-relationship.  Toby S t e r n e d r a m a t i z e s a t one s t r e t c h n o t j u s t  the  into  i t i s a n a p p r e c i a b l e f e a t u r e o f S t e r n e ' s w i t t h a t he makes t h e  his  faith  lapses  by becoming obsessed w i t h h i s f o r t i f i c a t i o n s .  o f U n c l e Toby's an i n d i s p e n s a b l e  and  benevolent  a r e evinced i n h i s hobby-horse;  hobby-horse  centric  Jones,  to dissociate  U n c l e Toby, t h e most t y p i c a l  benevolent  kindness  i n Tom  thought  insight  York,1961),  between thought and  came t o b e a c c e p t e d a s a f a c u l t y o f  l e dultimately  a s a means o f e f f e c t i v e  (New  From  to the romantic stress  and, hence,  to the r o l e  on  o f sympathy  - 81  in  both moral  and  on b e n e v o l e n c e ,  esthetic  and  theory.  thus on  I  feeling,  s o m e o n e whom t h e R o m a n t i c s  follow  -  think  that Sterne, with h i s  c o u l d be  safely  i n s e e i n g man  stress  c o n s i d e r e d as  as p r i m a r i l y  an  emotive  being.  We B u t he until  find  realizes we  find  feelings. year  Sterne's characters that  that  I t i s relevant  as Volumes I and  aspect of  benevolence  t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f s y m p a t h y may  t h e r e i s an  p u b l i s h e d h i s Theory  showing  be  through  sympathy.  carried  to  i n c o n g r u i t y between the o b j e c t and  to note  t h a t Adam S m i t h , i n 1759  I I o f T r i s t r a m Shandy were r e l e a s e d o f M o r a l S e n t i m e n t s i n w h i c h he  sentimentalism.  He  points  p e r s o n who  expresses h i s feelings  ourselves,  fails  to produce  excess  out  over  similar  t h a t we  our  ( t h e same  to the  deals with  public), this  become s h o c k e d  at  a  s o m e t h i n g w h i c h , when a p p l i e d  emotions  i n us.  We  call  this  to  situation  15 pusillanimity. mentalism.  S t e r n e was  I n T r i s t r a m Shandy, t h e r e f o r e ,  between pathos see  p r o b a b l y aware of  and humour, between t h e t r a g i c  that enables him  of  and  to champion h i s cause  the b a l a n c e between head  Sterne's i s a  the  benevolence  readers while  spice  that w i l l  fulsome  t h e humour o f i t , a s w e l l  objectionable. heart.  I  this  we  aspect of h i s and He  think  at  make a p e r e n n i a l  this  quality for  appeal  as S t e r n e ' s r e a l i z a t i o n forestall  the  succeeds  time p r e s e r v e h i s work;  to  that  he  objections  to t h i s  i s largely  sensation which  breast.  About  action  i t s own  benevolence  reward. he  S t e r n e seems t o be  appears  an a c t of b e n e v o l e n c e  t o be  produces  s e t my  whole  frame  into  one  self-  sub-  s e e k i n g the i n one's  own  U n c l e Toby's f l y - I n c i d e n t he makes T r i s t r a m remark  instantly  in  the h i g h e s t form o f p l e a s u r a b l e  aspect of benevolence;  delicious  t o t h e theme o f b e n e v o l e n c e  Shaftesbury's doctrine of  that p h i l a n t h r o p h y produces  s a t i s f a c t i o n which  "the  and  of benevolence  i s going too f a r w i l l  contribution  eighteenth-century literature.  scribing  senti-  benevolence.  S t e r n e m a k e s h i s own  stresses  for a long  expressed i n the n o v e l w i l l  m u s t c h e c k h i m s e l f w h e n e v e r he to  and  the comic;  I t i s this  same t i m e p r e v e n t h i s s y m p a t h y f r o m b e c o m i n g in maintaining  display of  he manages t o show t h e b a l a n c e  done i n t h e M a r i a e p i s o d e o r Le F e v e r ' s .  artistry  this  vibration  o f most  that  - 82 -  pleasurable  sensation."  emphasis l i e s his  James A i k e n  on the pleasurable  benevolence and that  nificant  this  Work s u g g e s t s  rather  that i n Sterne  than on the e t h i c a l  epicureanism  aspect  i n emotion i s Sterne's  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development o f sentimentalism  the of sig-  i n the  16 eighteenth-century. benevolence  current  Although  i s t o o much  stressed.  In  conclusion,  Sterne's  nature. the  i s the l i g h t  on N o s e s ,  of l i f e .  Toby's o b s e s s i o n  hobby-horses;"  to the doctrine of  I think the pleasurable  i n h i s reaction to the doctrine  o f h i s a t t a c k on t h e f a u l t s  Shandy's p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r i e s  a r e u n d e r c u t b y t h e humble f o r c e o f t h e criticizes with  with military  tactics  light-heartedness.  i s satirized  sympathetic  insight  H i s m a n n e r o f a t t a c k i n g man  i s unlike Swift's  his  last  Travels, but l i k e Horace's  the  classical  and the neo-Augustan  wrong-headedness and  Sterne love  artistry, reaction and kind all  satirists  and our f e l l o w creatures  h i s message o f b e n e v o l e n c e ,  seriousness  both  c o n t r o l l e d pathos.  your hearts  human  nature.  of approach i n  style  laugh  i n h i s Satires;  men o u t o f t h e i r  Shaftesbury,  better  t h a n we  though q u a l i f i e d  to the Hobbesian e g o c e n t r i c i t y , i s presented  of a civil,  into  o f us have  folly.  engages our f e e l i n g s and, l i k e  the world  b u t i n a most  t h e m e m o r a b l e comment t h a t " a l l  hence, Sterne's  book o f G u l l i v e r ' s  o f human  t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e pompous a n d t h e a b s u r d ,  But Sterne  manner, and w i t h  conforms  quality  thus, Walter  o n Names a n d o t h e r s  sympathetic our  texture  o f human n a t u r e ;  practicalities Uncle  other  He i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h  foibles  view  i n t h e days o f S t e r n e ,  principle  of benevolence  this  do.  Through  by a  critical  w r i t t e n "a careless  good-humoured, Shandean book, w h i c h w i l l  g o o d -- A n d a l l y o u r h e a d s  this  i n a mood o f l i g h t n e s s  He h a s , a s he s a y s i r o n i c a l l y ,  nonsensical,  t e a c h e s us t o  t o o -- p r o v i d e d  do  you understand  it."  - 83 -  FOOTNOTES  The Roman n u m e r a l s i n b r a c k e t s r e f e r t o t h e v o l u m e a n d c h a p t e r o f t h e R i v e r s i d e E d i t i o n o f The L i f e a n d O p i n i o n s o f T r i s t r a m Shandy, G e n t l e m a n , ed. I a n W a t t (Cambridge, Mass. 1965) 2  v  Henri Fluctiere,  Laurence  Sterne:  From T r i s t r a m  to Yorick  (London,  1965) ,  p.134.  3 John  T r a u g o t t , T r i s t r a m Shandy's World;  ( B e r k e l e y and Los Angeles, R..S. C r a n e ,  4  "A G e n e a l o g y  1954),pp.  o f t h e 'Man o f F e e l i n g ' , "  See W a l t e r J a c k s o n B a t e , From C l a s s i c  5  the E i g h t e e n t h Century ^  1896),  I I , i i i ,  3, p . 4 1 7 .  such  as  ELH, I (1934), 206. Premises  o f Taste i n  1961), p.129  T o Hume,  ed. Selby-Bigge  (Clarendon Press,  the passions included  the "calm  benevolence.  E d m u n d W i l s o n , T h e W o u n d a n d t h e Bow: 1947)  Q  (New Y o r k ,  t o Romantic;  D a v i d Hume, A T r e a t i s e o f Human N a t u r e , passions,"  ^  Sterne's Philosophic Rhetoric  62-75.  Seven S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e  (New Y o r k ,  pp. 272-295.  Adam S m i t h , The T h e o r y  of Moral  Sentiments,  e d . D. S t e w a r t  (London,  F l u c h e r e , p.140.  9  ^  Sigmund F r e u d ,  1 1  F l u c h e r e , p. 298. See L.  I a n Watt's I n t r o d u c t i o n  Sterne, A  Fenwick  4  B a t e , p. 130.  1  5  S m i t h , p. 13.  S  e  e  s  Work  t  e  r  n  e  j  to Tristram  Sentimental Journey  Gaye (London,  1  16  C i v i l i z a t i o n and i t s D i s c o n t e n t s (London,  The L i f e  (New Y o r k ,  1948),  Shandy,  through France  p.  p.xvii. and I t a l y ,  ed. Phoebe  p.140.  and Opinions o f Tristram  1960),  1930)  lxx.  Shandy, e d . James A i k e n  1907)p.4.  - 84 -  C O N C L U S I O N  Thomas H o b b e s g i v e s motivated nature"  creature;  us a s h o c k i n g  p i c t u r e o f man a s a  and from h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l  draws h i s c o n c l u s i o n  S h a f t e s b u r y opposes Hobbes' study of the passions,  t h a t man  premise o f the " s t a t e o f  i s essentially egocentric.  doctrine with  t h a t man  h i s theory,  also  drawn from a  i s e s s e n t i a l l y benevolent.  And i n  contrast  t o the s e l f - c e n t r e d view o f Hobbes', Shaftesbury's  presents  man a s b a s i c a l l y s e e k i n g  others.  Now,  beginning  o f the eighteenth-century  By progressed  these doctrines  "anonymous" P o l i t i c a l Francis in  Topham.  The  and essays.  Sterne  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the  the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  lawyer, Dr.  therefore,  emerge;  Shandy, they demonstrate  their  o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y and benevolence as  Theirs  i s to produce works o f a r t :  own a r t i s t i c  o f men  to a c c e p t e i t h e r d o c t r i n e  I t i si n  v i s i o n o f s o c i e t y that F i e l d i n g and of the  philosophers.  o f d i s s o c i a t i n g one t h e o r y  are considered. i n i t s entirety.  p a r t l y r i g h t when he c o n c l u d e s i s also  pleasure  the n o v e l i s t s present i n r e a c t i o n to the doctrines  i s the d i f f i c u l t y  when a c t i o n s  to give  o f beauty as seen i n the works created.  c r i t i c a l l y to the theories  philosophers  Shaftesbury  satires"  novelist, having  novelists are not w r i t i n g allegories nor philosophical tracts  What I t h i n k  is  quarter.  philosophers.  projection of their  other  from the very  F i e l d i n g had turned  Romance a t t a c k i n g  through a p p r e c i a t i o n  the  the third  an i n s p i r e d w i t through  to the doctrines  the doctrines.  Sterne react  were current  The n o v e l i s t s , F i e l d i n g a n d S t e r n e ,  reaction  posed by the  the  through  t h e t w o w o r k s , Tom J o n e s a n d T r i s t r a m  critical  on  o f the heart  the w r i t i n g of "dramatick  also had proved himself  theory  t h e good, a s w e l l asl t h e company, o f  the middle o f the century, from  self-  t h a t man  of  from the  T h e n o v e l i s t s do n o t a p p e a r They seem t o s a y t h a t i s b a s i c a l l y egocentric;  p a r t l y r i g h t when he a r g u e s  t h a t man  Hobbes that  i se s s e n t i a l l y  - 85 -  benevolent. from  But,  i n their  artistic  creation,  the a b s o l u t e ,  cerebral  theories  of  characters the  i n situations which  same man.  dissociating Allworthy  The  relieve  without  But  the p l i g h t  selfish  Though he  i s seen  with his girl, when he the  essential  "riding  Mr.  theorises  into  seek  smooth o u t  he  on C h r i s t i a n names;  i s seen  The both  novelists'  the a r t i s t i c  t h a t makes the n o v e l i s t s '  p h i l o s o p h e r s more p l a u s i b l e . level the  and  Waters,  fore": battle the of  he w a l k s  a n d when he terms.  The  ahead  that  history  but  egocentricity.  on a c c i d e n t s  i s , i n this  fear  he  or  goes  situation,  of alienation  i s c a r r i e d by the true  distinguishes  their  makes  style:  "Shandean" the  grave  the doctrines  raises h i s subject  the humorous atmosphere  to  of  and  i t is  the  "mock-epic"  i n which most o f  .shows h i s b e n e v o l e n c e  by  saving  o f her as "Orpheus and E u r y d i c e marched h e r e t o -  o f Tom  the episode i s d e s c r i b e d  i s cast  from a l i f e  various  by  s t a t e m e n t on  courts her a t Upton,  f o r prudence.  comes t o t e r m s w i t h  He  But  of benevolence;  c r e a t i o n o f the n o v e l i s t s ;  T h u s , w h e n Tom  country to the c i t y , the need  Nightingale  Similarly,  offends h i s brother,  and  that  Fielding  that device creates  scenes are p l a y e d .  Mrs.  relationships  philosophises  to the d o c t r i n e s  I t i s the s t y l e  p h i l o s o p h i c a l works from style  strain  relationships.  the "comic-epic prose" of F i e l d i n g ' s  the  has  others.  reaction  humour o f S t e r n e ' s .  he  Seagrim.  e x h i b i t i n g Hobbesian  b u t , when he  to r e b u i l d normal  of  i s presented not  however, appeals to us.  e g o c e n t r i c i t y when he  t h e company o f  he  of  Mr.  doctrine  daughter, M o l l y  a c t i n g a c c o r d i n g to the S h a f t e s b u r i a n n o t i o n us  or  to give whatever  his family,  the Shaftesburian  h i s hobby-horse,"  out of himself  ready  in  to h i s Sophia from L o r d F e l l a m a r .  o f Tom,  Toby c a r r i e s  Shandy drops  Jones  immediately f o r g e t s a l l thoughts about  the t h r e a t  benevolence  Sterne's Uncle in  about  T h u s , Tom  to help Nightingale  N a n c y , Tom  i s told  i s always  i n B l a c k George's  trying  their  the d i f f i c u l t y  o f the S h a f t e s b u r i a n  o f B l a c k George and  interest  place  the d i s p l a y of both d o c t r i n e s  from benevolence.  t h o u g h Tom  depart  the p h i l o s o p h e r s and  dramatize, especially,  becomes a r e f l e c t i o n  benevolence. to  characters  self-interest  each  excite  the n o v e l i s t s  i n the form of a  phases  journey from  o f i m p u l s i v e b e h a v i o u r t o an  I t i s i n the course of t h i s o f the e g o c e n t r i c and  i n mock  awareness  journey that  he  the benevolent  - 86 -  doctrines. style  Sterne, too, carries  h i s reaction  o v e r l a i d w i t h w i t a n d humour.  We  to the doctrines  laugh because  i n a  the w i t of the  n o v e l i s t provokes us t o l a u g h t e r .  When U n c l e T o b y i s " r i d i n g h i s  hobby-horse"  to a f l y ;  or delivering  by M a r i a s y m p a t h i s i n g w i t h c o u r s e o f t h e l a u g h t e r we as  a speech h e r , we discern  cannot help  o r when T r i s t r a m laughing;  sits  but i n the  t h e b e n e v o l e n c e o f U n c l e Toby as w e l l  the egocentricity of Tristram.  So i n l i f e ,  t h e p e o p l e i n t h e two n o v e l s d i s c u s s e d  plicated  ( a n d t h e r e f o r e m o r e f u n t o know)  sophical  systems, handy though  a r e more  than any c r e a t i o n s  t h e s e may p r o v e  com-  of philo-  i n t y p e f y i n g human b e h a v i o u r .  A  Alderman,  W i l l i a m E. XLVT  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  " S h a f t e s b u r y and  (1931),  the D o c t r i n e of M o r a l Sense,"  B a t e , W a l t e r J . 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