UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of a standardized personality rating scale Donaldson, John Stanley 1948

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1948_A8 D65 D3.pdf [ 12.51MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106829.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106829-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106829-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106829-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106829-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106829-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106829-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106829-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106829.ris

Full Text

3  3?  T H E DEVELOPMENT OP A STANDARDIZED PERSONALITY RATING SCALE  toy JOHN STANLEY DONALDSON  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP .' THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OP  MASTER  OF ARTS  I N THE DEPARTMENT  OP  PSYCHOLOGY  THE UNIVERSITY OP B R I T I S H  SEPTEMBER, 1948  COLUMBIA  I C O N T E N T S page  CHAPTER  I.  INTRODUCTION B r i e f s u r v e y o f p e r s o n a l i t y measurement Definitions of personality Nature o f p e r s o n a l i t y Importance o f p e r s o n a l i t y and i t s r a t i n g Purpose o f t h i s these  II.  THE STUDY OP A PERSONALITY RATING SCALE PROPOSED BY MR. H. JOHNS (SCALE A ) S e c u r i n g and t a b u l a t i n g r a t i n g s Measure o f c o n s i s t e n c y Measure o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  III.  THE DEVELOPMENT (SCALE C)  THE DEVELOPMENT (SCALE D)  16 16 19 21 22 22 24  OF THE F I R S T ORIGINAL SCALE  Selection of t r a i t s D e s c r i p t i o n of steps o f each t r a i t Format o f S c a l e C Measure o f c o n s i s t e n c y C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h S c a l e s A and B Measure o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h S c a l e s A and B C r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s o f r a t e r s V.  8 9 15  THE STUDY OP THE PERSONALITY RATING SCALE OF THE VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE CENTER OF TORONTO (SCALE B ) • . S e c u r i n g and t a b u l a t i n g r a t i n g s Measure o f c o n s i s t e n c y . Comparison w i t h S c a l e A Measure o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Comparison w i t h S c a l e A Conclusions of r a t e r s L e t t e r of explanation to teachers  IV.  1 3 5 6 7  25 29 30 31 34 35 36 36  OF THE SECOND ORIGINAL SCALE  Revision of t r a i t s Format o f S c a l e D S e c u r i n g and t a b u l a t i n g t h e r a t i n g s Measure o f c o n s i s t e n c y C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h S c a l e s A, B and C Measure o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h S c a l e s A, B a n d C C r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s o f r a t e r s R e v i s i o n o f S c a l e D as S c a l e E  40 41 42 42 45 46 47 48 48  II C O N T E N T S CHAPTER  VI.  (CONTINUED)  THE REVISION OP THE SECOND ORIGINAL SCALE (SCALE E )  Page  Weighting o f the t r a i t s S e c u r i n g the r a t i n g s Computation o f the d e c i l e s C o m p u t a t i o n o f means f r o m f i v e - s t e p s L i s t o f median Computation o f d e c i l e s c o r e , f i n a l study Comparison o f the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e means and o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g the t r a i t s VII.  60  INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING SCALE E T r a i n i n g the r a t e r s Manual o f i n f o r m a t i o n Development o f r a t i n g S c a l e E Purpose o f S c a l e E Uses o f S c a l e E Instructions f o r rating  VIII.  50 55 54 56 57 58  SUMMARY OP THE DEVELOPMENT OP A  62 63 64 65 65 STANDARDIZED  RATING SCALE  66  IX.  REFERENCES  77  X.  APPENDICES  79  Ill T A B L E S I.  ON SCALE A 1 . Number o f d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t by selected raters 2 . Number o f times each grade was used 3 . Number o f d i f f e r e n t grades by u n s e l e c t e d raters 4 . Number of times each grade was used 5 . Comparison o f two groups f o r c o n s i s t e n c y of rating 6 . Number of times one o r more grades to e a c h t r a i t o f each p u p i l  II.  ON SCALE B 7 . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t seven s t e p s 8 . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r e a c h t r a i t f i v e steps 9 . Comparison of c o n s i s t e n c y o f S c a l e s A and B 10. Number of times one o r more grades t o e a c h t r a i t o f e a c h p u p i l - seven s t e p s 1 1 . Number o f times one o r more grades t o each . t r a i t of e a c h p u p i l - f i v e s t e p s 12. Number of times each grade was used  III.  ON SCALE C 1 3 . Frequency of use o f t r a i t s on 14 a v a i l a b l e scales 14. Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t 15* Number o f t i m e s one o r more grades f o r e a c h t r a i t of each p u p i l 1 6 . Comparison of c o n s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g t r a i t s 17. Comparison o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of S c a l e s A , B and C  IV.  ON SCALE D 18. Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t 1 9 . Number of t i m e s one o r more grades f o r e a c h t r a i t of e a c h p u p i l 2 0 . Comparison of c o n s i s t e n c y of S c a l e s A , B , C and D 2 1 . Comparison o f the c o n s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g 2 2 . Comparison of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of S c a l e s A , B , C and D  iv T A B L E S , V.  (CONTINUED)  ON SCALE E 23. 24. 25. 26.  S i g n i f i c a n t weightings Decile scores f o r each t r a i t Median of each t r a i t on Scale E Means, standard deviations and standard errors of each" of the n i n t r a i t s on Scale E 27. F i n a l deciles on Scale E 28. Comparison of rank of t r a i t s according to r e l i a b i l i t y of mean and consistency of rating  page  53 55 58 59 59 61  V  A P P E N D I C E S  A. B. C". D. E. P. G. H.  S c a l e A and S c a l e B L e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n t o t eachers Interview rating scale Scale C C r i t i c i s m s of Scale C Proposed s c a l e s f o r r a t i n g s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r Scale D L e t t e r a s k i n g f o r c r i t i c i s m s and w e i g h t i n g s of t r a i t s of Scale D I . C r i t i c i s m s of S c a l e D J . Scale E K. Example o f I n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s h e e t and p r o f i l e  II.  108 110  111 114  TABULATIONS OP DATA ON SCALE C A. T a b u l a t i o n of r a t i n g s B . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades by each t e a c h e r f o r each p u p i l  VI.  107  TABULATION OP TRAITS A . L i s t s of t r a i t s on v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g scales B . Frequency o f use of the v a r i o u s t r a i t s  V.  105 106  TABULATIONS OP DATA OP SCALE B A . T a b u l a t i o n of r a t i n g s B . Number of d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s by each t e a c h e r f o r each p u p i l  IV.  96 97 100 104  TABULATIONS OP DATA ON SCALE A A . T a b u l a t i o n s of r a t i n g s b y s e l e c t e d r a t e r s B . T a b u l a t i o n s of r a t i n g s by u n s e l e c t e d r a t e r s C . Number of d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s by each t e a c h e r f o r each p u p i l  III.  79 80 82 85 88 89 92  115 118  TABULATIONS OP DATA ON SCALE D A . T a b u l a t i o n of r a t i n g s B . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades by each t e a c h e r f o r e a c h p u p i l on 15 s t e p s C. Number of d i f f e r e n t grades by e a c h t e a c h e r . f o r each p u p i l on f i v e s t e p s  119 122 123  VI A P P E N D I CES VII.  DISTRIBUTION OP RATINGS ON SCALE E A. B. C. D. E. P. G. H. I.  VIII.  (CONTINUED)  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry  page 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132  COMPARISON OF MEAN SCORES OF GIRLS AND BOYS A . Appearance B. Industry  IX.  COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND DECILES - PRELIMINARY STUDY A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.  X.  XII.  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry Totals  135 135 136 136 137 137 138 138 139 140  COMPUTATIONS OF FIVE-POINT SCALE - PRELIMINARY STUDY A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.  XI,  133 134  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry  EXAMPLE OF LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE  141 141 142 142 143 143 144 144 145 146  WEIGHTED VALUES RECEIVED A. B. C. D. E.  Teachers C o u n s e l l o r s and D i r e c t o r s of Guidance P r o f e s s o r s of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s P r o f e s s o r s of American U n i v e r s i t i e s P e r s o n n e l workers  148 148 149 150 151  VII A. P P E N D I C E S XIII.  XIV. XV. XVI. XVII.  (CONTINUED)  FREQUENCY OF WEIGHTINGS FOR TRAITS AND OF MEDIANS COMPUTATION  page COMPUTATIONS 152  OF MEANS AND DECILES - FINAL STUDY  EXAMPLE OF INDIVIDUAL RECORD SHEET  161  EXAMPLE OF WEIGHTED PROFILE CHART  162  L I S T OF PUPILS RATED I N THIS STUDY  163  X V I I I . L I S T OF TEACHER RATERS XIX. XX.  155  PERSONALITY RATING CARD OF AMERICAN  164 COUNCIL OF  EDUCATION  165  ABSTRACT OF THESIS  168  CHAPTER A B R I E F SURVEY OF The  study of  P a r e n t s h a v e had and  or n a t i o n  personality  folk-ways of  and  t o do  child.  P r i m i t i v e man  up"  associates,  his  PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT. i s p r o b a b l y as  to r a i s e c h i l d r e n , t r a i n  k n o w l e d g e s and  tribe  I  so  their village,  ed  to  until  classify the  and  to  than the Gestalt  The  earliest  J a n u a r y 25,  of  the  of r a t i n g  so b l e s s e d published  1784.  This  Thorpe  are  c o n c e r n e d one  was  the  Hughes  of  personality This  scales  for  w i t h the In  the  "Pasadena P u b l i c (6) d u r i n g  the  the  the  analyze has  entity  warning  drawn t h e  along  attention  measurement o f  authority  of  time.  "Dublin Evening  purported  As  earliest  Post"  t o measure  knowledge,  f a r as  the  personality  1923  t o 1925.  A  per-  One  of  on  parliamenInde-  argument,  public rating  S c h o o l B l a n k " w h i c h was  years  time  however,  i s an  timely  Greek  endeavour-  l e g i s l a t o r s regarding:  grace.  the  the  to  (20),  "size  superiors.  From t h a t  have b e e n t r y i n g  pendence, g e n e r a l knowledge, p o l i t i c a l and  his  each  whole i n d i v i d u a l .  scale  appraising  to  Roman, G a l e n , who  i t s parts.  back to  temper, i n f l u e n c e ,  had  goes back t o  human t r a i t s .  f a c t that  was  t a r y m e r i t by  has  t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e has  use  s o n a l i t y i s not  the  sum  of p s y c h o l o g i s t s  the  describe  the  t o l e a r n more a b o u t i t .  drawn a t t e n t i o n  w i t h the  to  present psychologists  personality  greater  and  skills  community, c l a n ,  h i s f r i e n d s , h i s e n e m i e s and  Hippocrates,  man.  to understand  as modern man  Formal study of p e r s o n a l i t y scientist,  them i n t h e  t h e y h a v e had  as w e l l  o l d as  schools scales  devised  second  early  by  - 2 s c a l e was Blank"  the  developed  years  as  last  XVIII.  Hanna  was  a result  scale w i l l  I n 1931 It  field  d e a l s w i t h the  Its  low  P r e s s e y X-0  make-up. any Reed  and  of  found  While  the  i n Appendix  Hartshorne  t r a i t s : honesty,  of  published.  traits.  Because  reliability,  however,  sex  and  reliable  Individual  emotional  and  o f p e r s o n a l i t y , i n the  t e s t i s the  and  others  of  value i n c o u n s e l l i n g .  to study  t e s t I s as v a l i d ,  the d i s g u i s e d t e s t s  I n q u i r y " by  "Life"  to s i t u a t i o n s I n v o l v i n g  and  developed  (2) was  and m o r a l j u d g m e n t s , and  A very extensive  Is  scale f o r  useful  "Character  (5, p.92)  as  opinion of  (10, p.300) i t m e a s u r e s i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t h e r t h a n  ality.  of  testing i s very extensive.  that i t Is of l i t t l e  affections  copy  s u c h as  a rating  t o measure t w e l v e  of v a l i d i t y  T e s t was  A  t u r n e d back the hands  subject's responses  purports  (7) f o u n d  differences,  i t s most r e c e n t  Congress.  of p e r s o n a l i t y  co-efficients  Kennedy The  1939  t h e W i l l - T e m p e r a m e n t T e s t b y Downey  handwriting  studied rating  and  be  twenty  s c a l e s of v a r i o u s types  a h a l f by p r i n t i n g  members o f b o t h Houses o f The  the p a s t  t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n magazines  a c e n t u r y and  Junior College  o f . t h e " E i g h t - y e a r Study".  w h i c h i n t h e i s s u e o f M a r c h 20, time  and  For  p u b l i s h e d i n 1928  p o p u l a r i t y of r a t i n g  t o by  School  (4) i n 1925.  personality rating  The  attested  Township High  C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n has  Its first  1945  this  by  the American  scales. in  "Juliet  person-  Education  w h i c h measures  the  trustworthiness, helpfulness, inhibitions,  p e r s i s t e n c e , m o r a l knowledge and be g i v e n t o e a c h p e r s o n  attitude.  Individually  and  As  this  test  as i t c o n s i s t s  must o f many  Items, i t takes  a g r e a t d e a l o f time  a g r o u p and. i s l i m i t e d  to experimental  A s s o c i a t i o n Test developed had  a revival  has  value i n cases  of interest  vidual test.  to administer the test t o work.  by Kent-Rosanoff  The F r e e (13) i n 1910 h a s  and T r a x l e r ( 2 2 , p.32) b e l i e v e s i t  o f p r o b l e m p u p i l s b u t i t t o o i s an i n d i -  Another  t e s t d e v i s e d many y e a r s  ago b u t one  w h i c h h a s become more p o p u l a r  i n r e c e n t y e a r s i s t h e Roraschach  Ink-blot Test.  t o be o f v a l u e  psychiatrists to  I t has proved but few'teachers  u s e and t o i n t e r p r e t  None of, t h e s e  i n t h e hands o f  have h a d t h e t r a i n i n g  I t a c c o r d i n g t o T r a x l e r (22, p . 9 ) .  t e s t s l s o f p r a c t i c a l use i n the r e g u l a r  room s i t u a t i o n .  With l i t t l e  time  Bernreuter and  t o make u s e o f s e l f - r a t i n g  Personality Inventory,  class-  f o r i n d i v i d u a l work a n d ..'  faced with the n e c e s s i t y of d e a l i n g w i t h large teachers tend  necessary  Bell  tests  groups,guidance such  Adjustment  as :  Inventory,  the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y . As  Individual  t h e r e was l i t t l e  o p p o r t u n i t y t o experiment  tests i n the classroom  b e e n done on s e l f - r a t i n g personality rating  scales,  and as ample r e s e a r c h h a s the w r i t e r decided  t o work on  s c a l e s as t h e r e seems t o b e a n e e d i n t h e  high schools f o ra standardized scale Definitions  with  of P e r s o n a l i t y .  of this  type.  Psychologists of various  s c h o o l s d e f i n e p e r s o n a l i t y i n terms o f t h e i r  own  Shaffer  o f Adjustment"  uses  (14) f o r i n s t a n c e i n "The P s y c h o l o g y  these words:  "The p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l may b e  d e f i n e d as h i s p e r s i s t e n t qualities actions  fields.  o f adjustments."  tendencies  t o make c e r t a i n  k i n d s and  Thus a p e r s o n who a d j u s t s h i s r e -  t o c o n f o r m t o what i s e x p e c t e d  o f him whether I n s o c i a l  - 4 or  vocational  s i t u a t i o n s would have a " p l e a s i n g "  personality.  S h o u l d he e n d e a v o u r t o change t h e s i t u a t i o n t o h i s l i k i n g , m i g h t he termed " a g g r e s s i v e " ;  s h o u l d he a v o i d  a d j u s t m e n t he  m i g h t he l a b e l l e d " u n c o - o p e r a t i v e " o r " r e t i r i n g " . haviorists is  according  behavior.  to Skinner  Involves not only  but  response  "personality  behavior  on t h e p a r t  t o t h a t b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t  of the i n d i v i d u a l of another i n d i v i d u -  r e s p o n s e s o r h a b i t u a l modes o f b e h a v i o r . "  of the terminology o f a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d  gists.  "For purposes o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n  defined  a s t h e sum t o t a l  situation"  acquired product butes  and F a r n s w o r t h  human b e i n g .  t h a t make t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' l i k e *  personality,  effect  ( 9 ) " a s t h e sum t o t a l  o f the  I t i s the e n t i r e  a social definition.  fellows.  We  O b v i o u s l y , we a r e n o t t h i n k i n g  i s his total primarily of  o f t h e way he a f f e c t s h i s  s a y o f an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t he h a s a g o o d  or a poor p e r s o n a l i t y ,  apparently  Landis  "What we seem t o mean  viewed from a s o c i a l s t a n d p o i n t ,  on o t h e r s .  a strong  attri-  o t h e r members o f h i s  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h h i m f r o m them".  what t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s , b u t r a t h e r  ity  i s defined  o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f those behavior  (8, p . 8 7 ) t o o g i v e s by  psycholo-  p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be  (21, p.100). . P e r s o n a l i t y  behaviors, o f a given  s o c i e t y and t h o s e  per-  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r i n s o c i a l  states Traxler  LaPierre  This  to define  s o n a l i t y .can be s e e n a l s o i n t h e c a s e o f t h e s o c i a l  by  Personal-  D e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y r e a l l y means d e v e l o p m e n t o f  behavioral use  that  The b e -  I t i s t h e human i n d i v i d u a l i n a c t i o n .  ity  al.  (15) s t a t e  he  personal-  o r a weak p e r s o n a l i t y , a n d  mean b y t h i s t h a t he h a s a g r e a t  deal  of influence  over others  o r , b e c a u s e o f some w e a k n e s s , f a i l s  great, i n f l u e n c e three  o r t o make a f a v o u r a b l e  Impression."  The l a s t  d e f i n i t i o n s s u g g e s t b u t do n o t u s e t h e t e r m i n t e r a c t i o n .  The  writer's  sum  o f the b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s  definition  his biological  f o r this  immediate  Since  some p e r s o n s f e e l  inter-  p e r s o n a l i t y r e s u l t s from .  that  I t I s determined by the  s i t u a t i o n so t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s a f l e e t i n g and i l l u s i v e  t h e r a t e r as on t h e one b e i n g  liable.  the l i m i t s o f  environment.  evanescent, Intangible  true  P e r s o n a l i t y i sthe  developed, within  Nature o f P e r s o n a l i t y . Interaction,  paper i s :  i n h e r i t a n c e , i n an i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h  action with h i s t o t a l  is  to exercise  and t o t h i s  extent  rated.  To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t  hand, t h e r e  a synthesis  Intellectual reactions  w h i c h d e p e n d s a s much on this  ratings of p e r s o n a l i t y are unre-  B u t , on t h e o t h e r  comitant of behavior,  thing,  i s a q u a l i t y , a con-  o f e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and  that p e r s i s t s , that gives  consistency  t o one's r e s p o n s e s and t h a t makes h i m t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t he is.  Landis  ( 8 , p.87) w r i t e s  "we must r e c o g n i z e ,  t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s , as h a s b e e n p o i n t e d r e l a t i v e l y unchanging; that give  the l i f e  i s , there  persistent reliable  are core  and c o n s i s t e n t  evaluation,  to equalize  pattern  one s h o u l d  their  respects,  patterns  of behavior.  which  In personal-  ratings.  To o b t a i n  a  have s e v e r a l r a t i n g s o f an I f d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s do  r a t i n g , i t may even be a d v a n t a g e o u s t o r a t e  order  of a l l ,  the I n d i v i d u a l i n terms o f t h i s  I n d i v i d u a l made a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . the  o u t , i n some  of the i n d i v i d u a l a consistency".  i t y r a t i n g we s e e k t o e v a l u a t e  first  the r a t e r s i n  6 Importance of p e r s o n a l i t y nized can  of Personality  and I t s r a t i n g .  t o t h e s u c c e s s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s b e i n g  more and more e x t e n s i v e l y .  be a f a i l u r e  i n one s o c i a l  success i n another. a research  or v o c a t i o n a l  F o r example L a n d i s  is  studious,  a n a l y t i c a l , painstaking  be  a failure  as a p o l i t i c i a n .  s o n a l i t y r a t i n g i s accepted  tensive  i n h i s work b e c a u s e he  and r e t i r i n g  scales.  entirely  schools  Company h a s an e x -  of which I s a p e r s o n a l i t y  In ordinary,  every-day l i f e  people rate  T h e y s p e a k o f t h o s e who h a v e a " w i n n i n g "  on o b s e r v a t i o n ,  and b a s e t h e i r  there  p e r s o n n e l work a n d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g  facts,  t h a t we  scales  are b e i n g used widely,  rating will  be i n c r e a s e d  i s noway of or d i s -  suggest  that  the r e l i a b i l i t y  and t h a t  f o r selection  i n our schools.  evaluate personality  s h o u l d be i m p r o v e d s o t h a t  reaction  of personality are u n s a t i s -  f a c t o r y a t a n y t i m e and a r e e n t i r e l y u n s u i t a b l e  constantly  personal-  has been adequate, a c c u r a t e  Such e s t i m a t i o n s  per-  judgments  on memory and on chance  any c o n t r o l Or d i r e c t i o n s o t h a t  criminating.  the  per-  and u n i v e r s i t i e s make u s e o f p e r s o n a l i t y  knowing i f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n  in  b u t he w o u l d  as an a i d I n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f  an " u n p l e a s a n t " p e r s o n a l i t y  without  that  Normal S c h o o l s , the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s , m i l i t a r y acade-  sonality. ity,  (8, p.88) s t a t e s  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E l e c t r i c  mies, nursing rating  milieu but a  In the world o f business,  t e s t i n g programme, p a r t  rating.  recog-  A c e r t a i n type o f p e r s o n a l i t y  c h e m i s t m i g h t be s u c c e s s f u l  personnel.  The i m p o r t a n c e  a greater  and t h a t  The two rating  techniques o f rating of the personalityunderstanding of  s i g n i f i c a n c e and o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e r a t i n g s  should  - 7 be  developed.  personality study of  N o n e - t h e - l e s s Reed  rating scales  the  the  Educational tentative  this thesis.  and  Vocational  cumulative record  d e p a r t u r e , i t was  purpose The  of  the  Vocational  Guidance the  rating scale  the on  the  the  I t s h o u l d be  as  that  the  for  Johns, D i r e c t o r  Among t h e As  this  of  Columbia, of  items  t h i s card  r a t i n g scale  on  the  was  a  should  i t w o u l d be  a  card new be  adequate  of  t r y out  Magee H i g h  School.  be  and  possible  e a c h one  the  and  that  Centre of Toronto to d i s c o v e r  unsuitable them.  by  to  rated on  To  for be  any  the  reliable reason,  resultsj  same r a t e r  be  each t r a i t  he  that  v a r i a t i o n s between  standardize could  how  satisfactory a  consistent  t o a minimum t h e  a whole but  planned to  examine t h i s s c a l e  should give  different raters  scale  card.  t o i m p r o v e on  i t should reduce  percentile  H.  incentive  Guidance f o r B r i t i s h  these prove to  personality  times.  tool i n  demands f o r a p r a c t i c a l and  attempt  r a t i n g s , by  Mr.  undertook to  proposed to  is,  a  that  intended.  writer  Should  initial  t o make c e r t a i n t h a t  a d e q u a t e l y t h e y met scale.  The  rating scale.  important  examined c r i t i c a l l y the  p.110) s t a t e s  b e i n g u s e d as  d i s t r i b u t i o n by  appeared a p e r s o n a l i t y  for  are  (11,  individual.  Purpose of t h e s i s was  -  at d i f f e r e n t so  that  ascertained  not  only  evaluated.  It  different personality  the  the  scale  rating scales  was in  -  8  -  CHAPTER I I THE STUDY OP THE PERSONALITY RATING SCALE PROPOSED BY THE DIRECTOR OP EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR B R I T I S H COLUMBIA. Introduction.  The p o s i t i o n o f D i r e c t o r o f V o c a t i o n a l a n d  E d u c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e was c r e a t e d was t h e f i r s t and  i n 1944 and M r . H a r o l d D.  incumbent o f the o f f i c e .  standardize  the guidance records  1945 a t e n t a t i v e C u m u l a t i v e R e c o r d  to  Guidance teachers  of  the card  of t r a i t s  E  (poor  (good),  - entirely unsatisfactory).  out i n a s c h o o l Securing  D  personality.  A  personality rating  the grades:-  (below a v e r a g e ) ,  t h e w r i t e r was a n x i o u s  and that to t r y  scale  teachers  The f i r s t rate  (See S c a l e  s t e p was t o  t h e same p u p i l s on  A i n Appendix I A ) . I n  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l - t i m e - t a b l e b a s i s , t o f i n d  a group o f students  with  t h e same t e a c h e r s  was  difficult.  A f t e r a l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l  time-tables  two  groups each w i t h  t h e same were t a b u l a t e d .  The  p u p i l s o f the f i r s t  four  o f t h e s e c o n d on S c a l e co-operation  were c a l l e d ed,  list  situation.  have a number o f e x p e r i e n c e d  the  sent  One p a r t  As i t was p o s s i b l e  and t a b u l a t i n g r a t i n g s .  organized  t o improve  c a r d was  and s u g g e s t i o n s .  C (average),  t h i s f o r m m i g h t become o f f i c i a l ,  a school  This  was g i v e n w i t h s p a c e s f o r r e c o r d i n g  (excellent), B  this  Card.  consisted of a form f o r r a t i n g  A  it  anxious  o f t h e s c h o o l s , he i s s u e d  in  f o r criticisms  Being  Jones  teachers  g r o u p were r a t e d on S c a l e B.  t o examine S c a l e  examined,  A and  those  The s e c o n d p r o b l e m was t o s e c u r e  o f the t e a c h e r s .  together  was  The e i g h t  teachers  selected  t o have t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y  explain-  A and t o d i s c u s s i t s v a r i o u s  t r a i t s and  •  - 9 -  grades.  Mimeographed c o p i e s o f S c a l e A were g i v e n  teachers  after  Even then to the  t h e p u p i l s ' names h a d  some o f  the  Other t e a c h e r s  f o r g o t t o do  failed  time  to f i n d  these  r a t e d on  w i l l be  found  Consistency. the  i n Appendix I I A .  the  each of  The  o f e a c h p u p i l by  In  them. inadequate  pupils. the forms,  11  The  or  tabulation  E a c h p u p i l who  assigned  Since  same f o u r t e a c h e r s , i t was  each t r a i t .  w i t h the  g r o u p were r e t u r n e d .  XVI).  t e a c h e r s would g i v e  they f e l t  the  F i n a l l y four r a t i n g s f o r each  (See A p p e n d i x  s i s t e n c y o f the r a t i n g . the  acquainted  t h e p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m was  u s e d i n the T a b l e s  as  the r a t i n g s , m i s l a i d  i n class.  o f 11 p u p i l s i n t h e f i r s t of  b e e n w r i t t e n on  t e a c h e r s demurred  task or i n s u f f i c i e n t l y  to  a number w h i c h i s  s t u d e n t s was  rated  p o s s i b l e to examine the  t h e o r y , i f the  the.same g r a d e o f  is listed  by  con-  s c a l e were p e r f e c t , the f i v e  p o s s i b l e to  number o f d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s g i v e n e a c h the f o u r r a t e r s  was  i n Table  1.  trait  - 10 TABLE  I  on  NUMBER OF DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT BY FOUR SELECTED RATERS  i Pupil  U  •O - P  -p  r-l  3 •a a  <D  ft«H  © &  «  2 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 3 . 2 2 23 2.1 42  #  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Total Average Percent  The was  H  3 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 3 2 23 2.1 42  t o t a l number  1  U ©  ft  o o o 2 3 1 2 3 2 ;.i 1 2 2 2 21 1.9 38  TI  -p  the spread  -P  ft ft 3  2 ° J3° W  <!  2 i 2 2 . 2 1 2 .1 2 1 1 17 1.5 31  1 3 1 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 2 22 2.0 40  fectly  From T a b l e  1 then i t w i l l  consistent i n rating in rating  t h e more  u  o o  ©  CO  Tl  o  PH  •H -P •H  <D > TI  C  -P  2 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 .2 22 2.0 40  grades f o r each  trait  3 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 18 1.6 32  T h i s average  indiper-  Therefore,  the  One and t h e s m a l l e r t h e  c o n s i s t e n t were t h e r a t e r s .  be s e e n t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s  appearance  and p o i s e  and l e a s t  were most consistent  d e p e n d a b i l i t y and i n d u s t r y . Out o f t h e f i v e  raters  •P .  aS  1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 17 1.5 31  c o n s i s t e n t , t h e a v e r a g e w o u l d be one.  of grades used,  <D  I f the r a t e r s had been  c l o s e l y the average approached  percent  i  CQ  u a ©O ©  a  of different  of the grades.  p»  i  computed and t h e a v e r a g e worked o u t .  cated  more  -p al  .  H a) H C O O  p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t the  have u s e d on t h e a v e r a g e  measure o f c o n s i s t e n c y  1.85 o r 37 p e r c e n t .  i n the r a t i n g  of each t r a i t  This will  be  - 11  -  compared w i t h t h a t o f e a c h s c a l e u s e d ,  to d i s c o v e r which  the  ratings.  lowest percentage  of spread  i n the  TABLE  has  2  NUMBER"OP TIMES EACH GRADE WAS USED BY POUR SELECTED TEACHERS ON SCALE A.  A B C D E  The were u s e d age  on  t o 46  the  only roughly; the grades that  6 -  99 197 50 n i l  t h a t o n l y f o u r of the f i v e  i n c r e a s e d the percentage  f r o m 37  grades  fact  -  percent.  scale,  t h i s was  used  almost  on  half  the of  t h a t i s , f o r any g i v e n t r a i t  cannot  be  over h a l f  o f an  the s c a l e .  aver-  the  t h e r a t e r s were a b l e t o p l a c e t h e  would spread  the f o r m  As  of grades  p o s s i b l e grades  pupil  individual  This  suggests  v e r y c o n s i s t e n t i n the hands of  the  raters. Owing t o t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y number o f p u p i l s w i t h  These r a t i n g s Prom t h i s  made c o n c e r n i n g of r a t i n g s  and  the  large  t h e same t e a c h e r s , t h e w r i t e r d e c i d e d  h a v e a number o f p u p i l s r a t e d b y staff.  o f o b t a i n i n g any  various other  are g i v e n i n Appendix  tabulation  t e a c h e r s on  to the  IIB.  t h e f o l l o w i n g summaries were  consistency of r a t i n g s ,  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between  the  distribution  traits:-  - 12 TABLE  3  NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT BY 18 RATERS  p» XJ -P Perl  © .o « • 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 24 2.4 48  #  12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total Average Percent  Out various rating  a  H  2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 2.2 44  of the f i v e  r a t e r s have u s e d t h e boys  a)  •rl •P  Ti  3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 23 2.3 46  t»  CO © -p  i u at ©  -P  -p O a O B O  o a o 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 22 2.2 44  r-i  c oh O  S  CO  C-rj  Pupil  H  o  i» u •p  ais  .© o  .  as <  3 o o 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21 2.1 42  3 2 2 3 2. 2 2 2 2 , 2 22 2.2 44  p o s s i b l e grades f o r each on t h e a v e r a g e 2.2 o r 44  ais  © CO Tt  nH © •P >  o PH  C-P  2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 23 2.3 46  trait,  Ti  H  2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 20 2.0 40  the  percent.in  and g i r l s . TABLE  4  NUMBER OF TIMES EACH GRADE WAS USED BY 18 RATERS ON SCALE A _  A B C D Not  Again since were u s e d ,  — . —  -  —  rated  only  —  four  the percentage rose  82 96 87 36 nil" 3  o f the f i v e  possible  f r o m 44 t o 5 5 .  Ti  grades  - 13 Table  5 shows how t h e two g r o u p s o f t e a c h e r  compare i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g number and t h e p e r c e n t a g e are  each t r a i t .  o f p o s s i b l e grades  The  raters  average  f o r each  trait  given. TABLE  5  COMPARISON OP THE CONSISTENCY OP RATING BY 4 SELECTED RATERS AND BY 18 OTHER RATERS 4 SELECTED RATERS  %  Aver.  Traits  18 UNSELECTED RATERS  %  Aver.  Dependability Industry Co-operation Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  2.1 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.5 2.0  42 42 38 40 31 32 31 40  2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.0  48 44 44 46 44 42 46 40  Average  1.9  37  2.2  44  spread  o f grades  The  average  by the s e l e c t e d  group  was 1.85 s t e p s o r 37 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o s s i b l e w h e r e a s t h e a v e r age of  spread  o f t h e u n s e l e c t e d g r o u p was 2.2 s t e p s o r 44 p e r c e n t  the p o s s i b l e .  T h i s I n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s who r a t e d  the f i r s t e l e v e n p u p i l s were t h e more c o n s i s t e n t . is  to b e expected  the p u p i l s  matter  As r a t i n g s  o f comparison,  disadvantage. significant  result  as e a c h t e a c h e r o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p r a t e d a l l  whereas i n t h e s e c o n d  o n l y one s t u d e n t .  This  g r o u p some t e a c h e r s r a t e d  are to a considerable extent  the r a t e r s  i n the second  g r o u p were a t a  The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r a d e s  statistically  a  s i n c e the c r i t i c a l r a t i o  i snot  i s only  - 14 .021  when i t i s c u s t o m a r y t o t a k e 3.0 a s i n d i c a t i v e o f a  significant  difference  every day p r a c t i c e by  and w i l l  i t will  n o t be s t u d i e d  be n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e r a t i n g s  a l m o s t e v e r y t e a c h e r on t h e s t a f f to separate  so t h a t  little  advantage  raters  I n the succeeding tabulations.  comparison w i t h r a t i n g s the  personality  the grades  rating. Scale  In made  I t would be o f  o f t h e two g r o u p s o f F o r the convenience o f  i n subsequent s c a l e s ,  grades given each t r a i t  further.  o f t h e 21 p u p i l s  the frequency o f rated  on t h e  A i s summarized i n T a b l e 6. TABLE  6  NUMBER OF TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OF EACH PUPIL ON SCALE A Number o f d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s Trait  1 2 4 4 4 5 6 5 3  Dependabi11ty Industry Co-operation Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  29 17.7  Totals Percent  2 13 10 12 10 14 . 12 13 15 99 60.3  Aver.  %  2.24 2.14 2.05 2.14 1.86 1.86 1.90 2.00  45 43 41 43 37 37 38 40  0 2.00 0.0  40  3  4  5  5 7 5 7 2 3 3 3  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  . 0. 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0  35 21.3  1 0.7  From T a b l e 6 i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t 29 t i m e s o u t o f a possible  164 t h e r a t e r s  traits.  The r a t e r s  a g r e e d on t h e i r r a t i n g s  of the various  a g r e e d on t h e i r g r a d e s f o r c o u r t e s y s i x  times and f o r d e p e n d a b i l i t y  twice.  From t h i s view  c o u r t e s y was t h e most c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d least.consistently rated.  This  point  and d e p e n d a b i l i t y t h e  statement i s supported by the  fact  t h a t c o u r t e s y along w i t h appearance has the s m a l l e s t  average bility of  spread  of grades  has the l a r g e s t  (1,86) and p e r c e n t  average  spread  tiation  i s important  a l l traits  sistent  (2.24) a n d p e r c e n t ( 4 5 )  In addition to consistency, s i n c e i f t h e t e a c h e r s gave  o f a l l the p u p i l s ,  but completely In  seen  t h a t 18 t i m e s  used  t h e same g r a d e f o r a l l t r a i t s ;  o r 22 p e r c e n t  Prom t h i s  o f the times,  ent  o f two g r a d e s  52 t i m e s  This lack of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  c o n s i s t e n c y o f the r a t i n g s  teachers but i trenders  grades  by  i t c a n be  the raters  t h a t i s , t h e y made no  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the v a r i o u s t r a i t s  apparent  con-  undifferentiating.  teacher f o r each p u p i l i s given.  times.  t h e same g r a d e  A p p e n d i z I I C t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t  made a d i s t i n c t i o n  differen-  t h e y w o u l d be p e r f e c t l y  each  the  (37) and d e p e n d a -  p o s s i b l e grades. Dlfferentlation.  to  15 -  of a student.  They  o r 64.2 p e r c e n t o f tends  to increase the  i n Scale A by the d i f f e r -  the scale  of l i t t l e  value.  - 16 CHAPTER  III  THE STUDY OP THE PERSONALITY RATING SCALE OP THE VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE CENTRE OP TORONTO Introduction. u s e d was  The s e c o n d P e r s o n a l i t y R a t i n g  taken f r o m the T o r o n t o  Cumulative Record P o l d e r . nated will  S c a l e B, i s u s e d i n many O n t a r i o  t o he  Centre  he d e s i g -  secondary schools.  As  he s e e n i n t h e sample shown i n A p p e n d i x I A , i t p r o v i d e s  average),  C (average),  unsatisfactory). brief  C-  A  (excellent), B  (low a v e r a g e ) ,  D  (good),  C+  (high  ( p o o r ) , and E  (very  A second d i f f e r e n c e from S c a l e A I s the  d e s c r i p t i o n of each t r a i t ;  not s u f f i c i e n t l y  ability  exact  p e r h a p s , t h e word d e s c r i p t i o n  a s , f o r example, t h e t r a i t  dependa-  i s e x p l a i n e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f two o t h e r a b s t r a c t i o n s :  responsibility  and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s .  made t o c l a r i f y the  V o c a t i o n a l Guidance  This s c a l e , which w i l l  seven steps i n each t r a i t :  is  Scale  and d e l i m i t  An e f f o r t ,  at least, i s  t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e terms u s e d i n  scale. Securing  the f i r s t pupils  and t a b u l a t i n g t h e r a t i n g s .  rating  scale, both  and o f t e a c h e r s  ings i s given  Consistency tabulation  s e l e c t e d and u n s e l e c t e d  were u s e d .  I n Appendix  As i n t h e c a s e  of  groups of  The t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e r a t -  IIIA.  of r a t i n g .  Table  7 Is obtained  from the  o f t h e r a t i n g s and shows t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t  grades f o r each t r a i t  of each student  on S c a l e  B.  -  17 -  TABLE  7  NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY • RATERS FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH SCALE B - 7 STEPS STUDENT ON  i  © o 3 3 ©  Pupils  P* Pi  < #  © CJ  Total Average Percent  ©  as  U p  © « rH P H  <w  2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 3  a!  O  6H  -P c o O E O  1 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 3 5 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 4  1 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3  59 2. 4 35  be s e e n  nH +> nH H  W  2 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 4 4 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 2  A as s e e n i n T a b l e  1.  i  rH nH  that  -d  S as o  J°>  © © nH P» • o © O 43 nH P i O nH O to as  >  CO  2 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2  62 63 63 2.6 2.6 2.6 37 37 37 •  2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 61 2.5 36  the r a t e r s w e r e  a p p e a r a n c e and l e a s t  a s s u r a n c e and d e p e n d a b i l i t y .  of Scale  nH  C O  u o  © £>  7 It will  most c o n s i s t e n t i n r a t i n g  that  • p  Q  2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3  2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 4  +3  51 61 65 65 2.7 2. 1 2.7 2.5 30 39 36 39  From T a b l e  rating  o  o  p?  Cn  SH  CO  <  i  as •d  43  03  2 2 2 1 3 4 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 2  22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  p? CO  o  © >  H a S H  consistent i n  This result  i s s i m i l a r to  - 18 Out raters  used  o f the seven p o s s i b l e  grades f o r each t r a i t ,  on t h e a v e r a g e 2.5 o r 36  Since  Scale B provides  the  percent.  f o r C- as l o w a v e r a g e , C a s  a v e r a g e a n d Of as h i g h a v e r a g e , f o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r i s o n with the f i v e  steps  o f S c a l e A t h e s i m p l e s t method w o u l d be t o  C 4 , C, C- as C.  consider different  The n e x t t a b l e  grades i n each t r a i t  lists  on a f i v e - s t e p  TABLE  t h e number o f scale.  8  NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY RATERS FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT ON A F I V E - S T E P SCALE B, INCLUDING C-, C, C-f AS C © o  S 3  Pupils  u ai © Pi  PI  #  22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  T6tal Average Percent  '  ©  o c3  JH  CO © 43  CO CO  o  3  3  <  <  o  2 • 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2  2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 2  2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2  2.  2 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 1  .  i at -ct p* -P CI<H © H  -p  © ,Q  <H  PIT!  2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 1  52 57 45 56 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.4 43 47 38 48  SH  O  <SH W  H as i H a o o u Ti -P •p ti o o S o  w  1 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2  1 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2  57 2.4 48  53 2.2 44  ©  • •H> •P as Ti  +> n-i  ti  H  2 1 2 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 3 .4 1 1 .2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 1  i H •H ,o as nH P»  O +»  O Tt CO  2 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 1  47 50 2.1 2.0 42 39  -0  ti _ as .ti o © © o © •ri Pi O CO  >  2 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 3 1  51 2.1 43  Again from Table  8 i t w i l l be  ance i s r a t e d most c o n s i s t e n t l y and the  least  used  consistently.  an a v e r a g e o f 2.2 For  tabulations  On  the  steps  noticed that  d e p e n d a b i l i t y and  f i v e - s t e p s c a l e the  o r 43  percent  of  convenience i n comparing S c a l e  of Scale  centage of the  B i n Table  total  appear-  9 the  the  teachers  total.  A with  the  average spread  p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t TABLE  effort  two  and are  pergiven.  9  COMPARISON OF THE CONSISTENCY OF RATING ON SCALES A AND B AS INDICATED BY AVERAGE NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF POSSIBLE GRADES. Scale B Traits  %  Aver.  Appearance Assurance Courtesy Dependability Effort Emotional Control Initiative Sociability V o i c e and S p e e c h Co-operation  2.1 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5  Average  2.5  From T a b l e s t e p s ) has  36  (five  pointed  out  1.9 1.9 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0  37 38 37 44 33 33 40  2.0  41  2.0  40  an  o f r a t i n g s o f 2.0 a v e r a g e o f 2.2  small range of Scale  of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  on  steps  the r a t e r s on  were u s e d b y  the p a r t of the  but  1.9 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.1  Scale A  38 43 47 48 48 44 42 39 43  .  2.2  steps as h a s  A i s partly raters.  %  Aver.  9 i t can b e e n s e e n t h a t S c a l e A  s t e p s ) has  the  ft S c a l e B  %  Aver.  30 39 36 39 35 37 37 37 36  an a v e r a g e s p r e a d  Scale B  Scale A  due  Since  43  (five whereas been to  only  the p e r c e n t a g e  xr Scale B using f i v e - s t e p s , including C-, C and Ct as C,  lack  of  4  spread and  I s 55 p e r c e n t a s compared w i t h 43 p e r c e n t  36 p e r c e n t  then,  (seven  seems t o g i v e The  grades g i v e n  s t e p s ) on S c a l e B.  (five  The l a t t e r  steps)  scale,  somewhat more c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g s .  t a b l e s f o l l o w i n g show t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t each  trait  fewer the grades g i v e n  o f each p u p i l by the r a t e r s .  t h e same t r a i t  The  t h e more c o n s i s t e n t i s t h e r a t i n g  o t h e r words t h e more t i m e s for  20 -  the teachers give  o f t h e same p u p i l ,  t h e same g r a d e  t h e more r e l i a b l e  i s the  rating. TABLE 10 NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE B USING SEVEN STEPS  Number Trait  1  Appearance Assurance Courtesy Dependability Effort Emotional Control Initiative Sociability V o i c e and Speech Totals Percentage  of ratings  5 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 0 10 4.6  or i n  of different  grades  2  3  4  13 9 11 10 7 9 9 11 13  4 12 13 11 13 12 9 12 9  .2 3 0 3 1 2 . 4 1 2  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  92 42.6  95 44.0  18 8.3  1  5  1  - C I TABLE 11 NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE B USING F I V E STEPS.  Number  7;  Appearance Assurance Courtesy Dependability Effort Emotional Control Initiative Sociability V o i c e and S p e e c h Totals Percent  7 6  4  34  on  (15.7  When u s i n g  percent).  more c o n s i s t e n t l y The  ratings  This  4 7 8 10 11 9 7 • 5 7  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  68 31.5  1  only  10 t i m e s  the f i v e - s t e p s c a l e , seems t o i n d i c a t e  A were more  c e n t ) o f t h e 164 g r a d e s  agreed.  ever, that  scale  on t h e f i r s t  t i o n between t h e t r a i t s .  as r e g a r d  Different!ation.  the r a t e r s  times  the teachers  rate  t h a n on t h e s e v e n .  consistent  as 29  (17.7 p e r -  I t w i l l b e remembered, how-  t h e r e was a l a c k  T h e r e seems t o b e  consistency  of d i f f e r e n t i a -  some  evidence,  and a g a i n s t  From a s t u d y o f the t a b u l a t i o n  Appendix I I I B ) , i t w i l l be n o t i c e d  the  of rating.  number o f d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s g i v e n e a c h s t u d e n t b y e a c h (See  agreed  t h e y a g r e e d 34  that  however, i n f a v o u r o f the f i v e - s t e p s c a l e seven-step scale  .0  (4.6 p e r c e n t ) o u t o f 216  on t h e f i v e - s t e p . s c a l e  on S c a l e  0 .5  the s e v e n - s t e p s c a l e ,  the grade o f a t r a i t  ratings.  113 52.3  15.7  When u s i n g  5  3  13 14 16 13 11 11 9 13 13  3 0 1 2 4  o f ra.tings  4  2  1  Trait  of d i f f e r e n t grades  that  only  nine  o f the teacher times  - 22 (8.1  percent)  i n 111  36  traits times  o f one  (32.5  .  r a t i n g s d i d the  e n t i a t i o n b e t w e e n the the  -  traits.  p u p i l 32  Two  times  teachers  g r a d e s were g i v e n (28.8  percent);  p e r c e n t ) ; f o u r g r a d e s , 28  five  grades, f i v e  (0.9  percent).  times  On  (4.5  Scale  (22.2  percent);  A the  make no  and  teachers  percent), i n the  times  made no  t h e r a t e r s t o be more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b u t  of s t e p s ,  t o the  form i t s e l f  the g r a d e s , t o the planation  of the  teachers  By  t h e r e was  b e e n used..  preted  student  the  t o be  and  second  The  done s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  They f e l t  t h a t the  then,  increase  increased  number  columns f o r  t o the b r i e f  ex-  l o t of r a t i n g s  general on  the  was  the  feeling scales  r a t i n g s c o u l d be  was that  inter-  F o r example on d e p e n d a b i l i t y , a the  r a t e r considered could  dependable a t a l l times  t o a g r a d e o f A.  The  They r e a l i z e d  that  teachers  t h e r e f o r e he themselves  attached  letter  was  had not  differed  to the  grades  gave  the  same g r a d e s  d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s on  the  same e v i d -  for different  r e a s o n s and  ence.  I t was  g e n e r a l l y agreed  letter  grade or s t e p  should  be  that they  .  the  a l s o mean t h a t he and  s i g n i f i c a n c e that they  they gave.  the  d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n among  very dependable but  g r e a t l y i n the that  be  c o u l d mean t h a t  was  entitled  time  a great  i n v a r i o u s ways.  grade of B  failed  the  about p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g .  that i t could not had  the  once  S c a l e B,  with seven separate  practice i n rating  percent);  steps.  Conclusion. completed,  ratings.  i n p a r t to  grades,  differentia-  enabled  due  three  seven grades,  times  be  to a l l  (25.2  t i o n 18  - i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n may  81  differ-  that the more  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  explicit.  each  - 23 On  Scales A  grade a l l t r a i t s In  and  an  A  after  the  raters  c o u l d e a s i l y be  from t h e i r g e n e r a l Impression of  o t h e r words t h e y m i g h t  put  B  -  t h i n k the. p u p i l  each t r a i t without a c t u a l l y  particular  behavior.  authorities  have f o u n d  this halo effect  of  traits  on  ficant  evidence i n  On  c o n t r a r y , the  B  the  is surprising  scientiousness of  grades i n  696  ratings  12).  This  teachers  scales  this  the  raters.  upper h a l f  above C and  to  rate  the  o n l y 96  pupils  compliment  to  scale;  b e l o w C on  a reluctance below  TABLE  belief.  Scales A the  Scale B the  signi-  this  in fact,  on  some the  T h e r e i s no  on  and  the that  T h e r e i s , however, a  of  indicate  the  type.  type  operate i n  differentiation  perhaps, i s a  the  seems to  this  to  states  to  student.  a fine  s t u d y , however, t o s u p p o r t  amount o f  and, of  of  Reed  the  weighing  (11)  evidence of  grading  was  led  and  conclustering  there (See  part  are Table  of  the  average.  12  NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS USED EACH GRADE TO INDICATE RATINGS ON SCALE B  A B  c+ c cD No  Finally, of  the  —  E rating  l a c k of  distribution  -  261 277 158 184 65 22 9 20  c o n s i s t e n c y between r a t e r s  of grades from h i g h to  attempt.an o r i g i n a l s c a l e ,  a decision  low  led  w h i c h was  and the  the  lack  writer  encouraged  to by  - 24 the  staff  o f Magee H i g h  Letter in  of Explanation.  A p p e n d i x 16 e x p l a i n s  r e a s o n s why p e r s o n a l i t y b e i n g made.  ful  The l e t t e r w h i c h a p p e a r s i n f u l l  t o a l l t h e members o f t h e s t a f f t h e ratings  I t indicates  such as, r e v e a l i n g counsellor,  School,  strengths  and f i n a l l y  p o s i t i o n i n a large  group.  were  the probable uses of the r a t i n g s ; and w e a k n e s s e s , a i d i n g  showing p e r s o n a l i t y  reference  o f some o f t h e p u p i l s  development,  serving  i n d i c a t i n g a student's  the as a u s e -  relative  - 25 CHAPTER I V THE  DEVELOPMENT OP THE F I R S T ORIGINAL SCALE I N THIS STUDY  Introduction. scales  T h e r e h a v e b e e n v e r y many  developed i n the l a s t  one  attempts i s o r i g i n a l  two  scales  scale  construction  a scale as  studied  as f a r a s he i s c o n c e r n e d .  The f i r s t  that  the w r i t e r  felt  encouraged t o attempt construction  b y a u t h o r i t i e s s u c h a s Reed. ( I I ) , Remmers and  (12), T r a x l e r  (21, 22) and  others.  One o f t h e f i r s t  tasks  i n building  o r i g i n a l r a t i n g s c a l e i s the s e l e c t i o n o f the t r a i t s  rated. rating  A logical scales  scale  seemed s o f a r b e h i n d modern p r a c t i c e i n  Selection of traits. an  but the f i r s t  t o conform w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s o f s c a l e  explained  Gage  twenty y e a r s ;  personality  step  already  t o be •  seemed t o b e t h e s t u d y o f a number o f i n use.  were o b t a i n e d f r o m s c h o o l s  In addition  to several  which  and u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h r o u g h t h e  k i n d n e s s o f Mr. J . W. A. F l e u r y  o f the s t a f f  of B r i t i s h  received  Columbia, the w r i t e r  of the U n i v e r s i t y  the loan  o f some  s c a l e s w h i c h were u s e d i n t h e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s .  The  ity  traits  i n Appendix IVA  and  t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f u s e i s summarized I n A p p e n d i x I V B .  from these various  From t h e t a b u l a t i o n scales,  are l i s t e d  of the t r a i t s  on 14 a v a i l a b l e  t h o s e t h a t were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n m e a n i n g o r i n t e n t  were c o u n t e d as  scales  personal-  together  so t h a t  t h e y a p p e a r i n T a b l e 13.  the t r a i t s  ranked i n occurence  -  26  TABLE 13 THE FREQUENCY OF TRAITS ON 14 AVAILABLE SCALES. Trait  Frequency  A p p e a r a n c e , b e a r i n g and n e a t n e s s Dependability, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , thoroughness, purposefulness Industry, perseverance Initiative Poise, emotional c o n t r o l , self-confidence Co-operation Leadership I n t e l l i g e n c e , mental a l e r t n e s s Force, E f f o r t Courtesy, c u l t u r a l refinement, t a c t Moral courage, f o r c e o f character Endurance Judgment V o i c e and s p e e c h Interest i n duties, a c t i v i t i e s  As e i g h t for  o f t h e 14 p e r s o h a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s  the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s ,  necessarily pertinent girls  14  1  14 14 11 10 10 10 9 7 6 6 5 4 4 3  1 1 4 5 5 5 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 15  studied  items  that  were  used  are not  to nor i n t r i n s i c a l l y valuable  f o rrating  and b o y s i n s c h o o l . In  reference (14,  they contained  Rank  addition  to t h i s examination o f the r a t i n g  was made t o s t u d i e s  p.284) w r i t e s  modified  that  the t r a i t s  b y G a l e n were:  p h l e g m a t i c ; and t h a t  of personality defined  traits.  Shaffer  by H i p p o c r a t e s as  sanguine, c h o l e r i c , melancholic,  Jung  classified  p e o p l e i n t o e x t r o v e r t and  introvert  and f o u r f u n c t i o n a l t y p e s b a s e d o n a n a l y s i s o f  thinking,  f e e l i n g , sensation*and i n t u i t i o n .  Allport  (1) l i s t e d  scales  the important p e r s o n a l i t y  I n o u r time traits as:  i n t e l l i g e n c e , m o t i l i t y , temperament, s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and sociality.  I n 1946 L a n d i s  (8, p.83) d e s c r i b e d  f i v e main types  - 27 of p e r s o n a l i t y i s p o n s e t o new in  the  alertness,  environment;  t o new  also three  attitudes (18) as  ability  re-  influence  pliability,  ability  s i t u a t i o n s ; temperament, i n t r o v e r s i o n and  included  traits  a r o u s e d "by e v e r y  many t y p e s i n one;  cadence, the r a t e  Symonds  in  complexity, from simple-minded, narrow  version;  the  a continuum from s t o l i d  s t i m u l i to excitement  complex p a t t e r n s , adjust  -  of proceeding  attitudes  t h a t he  to a g o a l .  considered  to s e c u r i t y , to r e a l i t y ,  and  to  i s somewhat more c o n v e n t i o n a l  as  follows:  Industry,  to impress  to  to extro-  He  important,  authority. he  gives  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , promptness,  others favourably,  energy, I n i t i a t i v e  and  originality. Several traits  can  be  chairman of gressive  studies  rated  the  committee as  to the  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.  consensus of  reliability.  Records  Education Association, the  2.  with greatest  Committee on  representing  1.  have b e e n made t o d i s c o v e r  and  listed  which  Smith  (16),  Reports of the  the  following  judgment o f members o f  Pro-  as the  q u a l i t i e s most w o r t h r a t i n g :  A b i l i t y to obtain Information from sources other than reading A t t i t u d e towards one's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : d e p e n d a bility C r e a t i v e n e s s and imagination Influence I n q u i r i n g mind Open-mindedness Perseverance Power and h a b i t o f a n a l y s i s Standards of accomplishment Energy or v i t a l i t y E m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e and e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y T h o u g h t f u l n e s s or the h a b i t o f r e f l e c t i o n I n t e g r i t y , moral courage Personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , personal a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n a group Reading a b i l i t y The h a b i t o f b a s i n g c o n c l u s i o n s on v a l i d e v i d e n c e  I t . i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note rating, of  the  13  could  pupils.  be  that  of  the  classified  as  dealing  Many o f  the  traits  16  f a c t o r s most w o r t h with  the  mentioned i n these  are  already  f a m i l i a r owing t o t h e i r f r e q u e n t u s e  ity  scales,  a f a c t which Is r e a s s u r i n g  Remmers and this  tppic:  respect  "The  to the  follows:  Gage  (12,  findings  of  various  Traits r e l i a b l y rated  scholarship,  punctuality,  and  on  the  rated  personality  he  scales  the  of  and  with  to r a t i n g are  energy, -  as  will,  courage,  judicial  Since  an  on  been t r i e d ,  of  writer  sense,  of  i t was  rated  a. l o g i c a l  and  leadership  readily.  discarded. on  For  the  The first  con-  number  frequently  rating  choice;  a l t h o u g h the  a g r e e so v e i l i n t h e i r r a t i n g s . . I n d u s t r y ,  consistently  decide  consistently  personality  not  initiative  to  most  the most  b o t h the  w i d e l y used  c o - o p e r a t i o n were f i n a l l y  had  time I n r a t i n g , the  one  were a l s o s e l e c t e d  various  original scale.  a p p e a r a n c e was  Magee t e a c h e r s  a l s o was  opinions the  f o r economy o f  was  w h i c h had  the  on  m e n t i o n e d and  dependability  rate  about  study of p e r s o n a l i t y :rating  traits,  would I n c l u d e  limited.  scales by  traits  Traits unreliably rated  consideration  v e n i e n c e i n use to be  scale,  tact."  a u t h o r i t i e s on  had  investigators  i n t e g r i t y , co-operativeness,  the  which t r a i t s  a  - efficiency, originality,  After t h i s preliminary scales  personal-  maker o f  judgment, c l e a r n e s s ,  leadership.  unselfishness,  to the  on  studies  p . 3 6 6 ) have t h i s t o s a y  a m e n a b i l i t y of v a r i o u s  perseverance, quickness,  personality  teachers  alertness,  did poise,  Initiative  and  teachers d i d  not  scale  and  the  writer  - 29 felt  t h a t i t c o u l d be touched upon i n r a t i n g  alertness. that not  The m i l i t a r y  f o r c e s were v e r y c o n s i s t e n t  c o - o p e r a t i o n be r a t e d b u t the academic so unanimous.  might  arise  school.  i n d u s t r y and  The w r i t e r f e l t  institutions  s h o u l d a t t e m p t s b e made t o r a t e t h i s  trait i n  t e a c h e r s a r e concerned w i t h and s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i s another observable t r a i t  i n high  attract plete  the c r i t i c i s m s  the r e s t  this part. to  i s n o t an e s s e n t i a l o f the r a t e r s  o f t h e f o r m a n d would  I t would,  however, g i v e  observe the student i n a f i e l d  trait  i n rating  The  t h e y would  their  the r a t e r  and t h i s w o u l d  rater  o r t h e one b e i n g r a t e d b u t m i g h t  last  h a v e no a d v e r s e e f f e c t  com-  censure f o r  an o p p o r t u n i t y  o u t s i d e h i s academic  class  pupils  b u t was i n s e r t e d t o  so t h a t save  that  school  and i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i n m e n t a l h e a l t h . item, a c t i v i t y ,  were  that misunderstandings  V o i c e - a n d - s p e e c h and r e f i n e m e n t a r e f a c t o r s  Sociability  i n asking  work I n  on e i t h e r t h e  even r e s u l t  i n better  u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n t h e two. Description-6f define  steps of each t r a i t .  the average o f each t r a i t ,  and f i n a l l y extremes.  to locate An e f f o r t  t o ."determine t h e e x t r e m e s  the s t e p s between t h e average and t h e was made t o p u t e a c h d e s c r i p t i o n i n a n  a s s e r t i v e f o r m so t h a t  the r a t e r had a concrete mental  w i t h w h i c h t o compare t h e p u p i l . not  The n e x t s t e p was t o  d e s c r i b e d b u t were e x p l a i n e d  The t r a i t s  picture  t h e m s e l v e s were  somewhat i n an i n t e r r o g a t i v e  f o r m s o t h a t e a c h was p r e s e n t e d to* t h e r a t e r  i n the form o f a  problem.  evolved i s r e f e r -  red  The r a t i n g  t o as S c a l e  s c a l e w h i c h was f i n a l l y  C and may b e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x I D.  - 30 Format o f the Scale  scale.  o f the  and the r a t e r r e q u i r e d o n l y  l e t t e r - g r a d e s : A, B, C, D, o r E .  ance C e n t r e f o r m has  column a n d j o i n i n g personality.  these  to w r i t e  i n one  The V o c a t i o n a l  By p u t t i n g a mark i n the  these  t h e r a t e r has  A more i n t e r e s t i n g  which describes  The t r a i t s  Guid-  s e v e n columns h e a d e d r e s p e c t i v e l y h y A,  C+, C, C-, D a n d E .  one  format i s t h a t used on  A, S c a l e B a n d t h e m i l i t a r y MFM 242 s c a l e s .  are m e r e l y l i s t e d  B,  The s i m p l e s t  the  graded i n t o f i v e  scale  a profile  as i n the  o f the  pupil's  (see A p p e n d i x I G) i s  extremes and p l a c e s steps  correct  a c o n t i n u u m between  f o l l o w i n g example:  PERSONAL APPEARANCE Careless; unkempt  All  these  forms u s i n g  easy t o use impression  ============^^ ' [ Much Below below Aver.  but  [ Average  constant  Very neatly and appropriately dressed  ' Much Above  Aver,  a l t e r n a t i v e s are  lend themselves  or halo  [ Above  very  t o the i n d i c a t i o n  quick and  o f general  effect.  B e c a u s e o f t h i s weakness t h e w r i t e r d e c i d e d form with  changing  a l t e r n a t i v e s i n e i t h e r a continuum o r a  step arrangement. A.F.211 and t h e  T h e R.C.A.F.191 u s e s f o u r  MFM 243 use  step i s described  States  steps  steps  and a t f i v e  steps  t o the strongest School  t r a i t are d e s c r i b e d w i t h the lowest  the  five  a t the  are  Each arranged  or highest.  The  o f Medicine o f  t h e continuum form o f s c a l e .  equidistant points  a n d t h e R.C.  f o r each t r a i t .  o f each t r a i t  M i l i t a r y Academy and t h e  Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y use line  five  and a l l the  f r o m the weakest o r lowest United  t o use a  Below  levels  left  the  of the  and t h e h i g h e s t  - 31 at  the r i g h t .  rater he  The p u r p o s e o f t h e c o n t i n u u m i s t o p e r m i t t h e  t o make f u l l  can d i s t r i b u t e  The  u s e o f h i s powers o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s o t h a t the ratings' along  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t r a i t  assist  the r a t e r s i n r e a c h i n g  to reduce  the halo The  the l i n e  itself  as he s e e s  and o f the v a r i o u s  a more r e l i a b l e  judgment and t e n d  effect.  (12) c l a s s i f y r a t i n g  (1) d e s c r i p t i v e r a t i n g (3) g r a p h i c r a t i n g graphic rating  scales,  scales into' three  (2) n u m e r i c a l  rating  s c a l e s and s t a t e that, o f these  scale i s probably  this  t o rattempt  the w r i t e r d e c i d e d  a continuum.  I t seemed  I n view o f a rating  a d v i s a b l e t o have t h e  whole s c a l e on one s i d e o f t h e p a p e r b o t h f o r t h e of  the teachers  therefore, brevity  and f o r t h e sake o f economy.  to d e s c r i b e the t r a i t s  t o make t h i s  possible.  of this  and e a c h s t e p w i t h  tabulations each student  t h a t he r a t e a g a i n  14.  t h e mimeo-  the p u p i l s  The t a b u l a t i o n o f  I n A p p e n d i x V A.  o f r a t i n g s on S c a l e  t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t was c o u n t e d .  sufficient  (see Appendix I D ) .  w h i c h he h a d r a t e d on S c a l e A o r S c a l e B.  Consistency  necessary,  p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g f o r m were g i v e n t o  each teacher with the request  t h e r a t i n g s w i l l be f o u n d  convenience  I t was  A f t e r many a t t e m p t s  g r a p h e d f o r m S c a l e C was p r o d u c e d Copies  scales,and  t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d the others.  statement  types:  three the  s i n c e i t embodies t h e f e a t u r e s o f b o t h  scale using  levels  whole p r o b l e m o f s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n was s t u d i e d .  Remmers a n d Gage  last  fit.  C.  Prom a s t u d y  o f the  grades g i v e n each t r a i t o f  This information i s given i n Table  - 32 TABLE 14 NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY RATERS FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT ON SCALE 0.  i C uO <D © © Pupil 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Total Average Percent  © O P< ti Pi  <  3  1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 3  2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 • 2 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 2  i. ©' ti  i  43  o © - •rl ti «H P I <H © o a © g Cc!2 >2  at p» •d 4 3 ti -H © rH Port  © .a o2•  t»  u  43  co  © ti  co -d C  43  H  <!  2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2  2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2  2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2  2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2  1 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 2  1 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1  1 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 2 2  1 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 2 . 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 1 3 2 3 2 2  i u © Pi  •d «H ©at .cj CO  ©  H  2< 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 2  HH  2 £2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 —  1 2 2 2 1 3 2 .2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 2' 2 2 3 4 3 2 2 ,2 2 2 2  p>  43  1  43  OS nH H O o pnH  ©  CO  «o H  nH  CH2  CO  nH  >  nH 43  O  <  1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2  1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 2  1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2  1 3 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 3  3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3  2 2 2 1 2 4  2 2 2  2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 1  2 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2  _  _  2 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 1  _  -  _  3 2 _  2 _  85 70 83 86 83 80 82 79 86 78 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.9 2. 0 2.0 39 32 38 38 39 36 38 38 40 40  - 33 Out  o f the f i v e  p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t , the  t e a c h e r s h a v e u s e d on t h e a v e r a g e 1.9 o r 38 p e r c e n t .  This av-  e r a g e i s i o w e r t h a n t h e 2.0 o f S c a l e A and t h e 2.2 o f S c a l e B. It  seems, t h e n , t h a t  the d e s c r i p t i o n  has  enabled the r a t e r s  the  first  two.  o f the s t e p s on t h i s  t o agree, more c l o s e l y  comparison i n d i c a t e s  training  that  the t h i r d  t h a n t h e o t h e r two.  some o f t h i s  than t h e y d i d on  On S c a l e A t h e a v e r a g e s r a n g e d f r o m 1.9 t o 2.2,  on S c a l e B f r o m 1.9 t o 2.4 a n d on S c a l e  results  scale  improvement  o f the r a t e r s .  C f r o m 1.6 t o 2.0. This  s c a l e g i v e s more  consistent  I t must b e a d m i t t e d , however, t h a t  i nreliability Their  might  be due t o t h e  o b s e r v a t i o n and t h e i r  judgment  m i g h t be s h a r p e n e d b y p r a c t i c e . The further  c o n s i s t e n c y o f the r a t i n g  b y t h e t e a c h e r s c a n be  c h e c k e d b y c o u n t i n g t h e number o f  agreed i n r a t i n g summarizes  each t r a i t o f each  t h e number o f  more f o r e a c h  t r a i t of  times  each  the  pupil.  times The  the  raters  following  r a t e r s u s e d ione g r a d e o r  pupil. TABLE 15  NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE C Traits Appearance Voice, speech Refinement Dependability Industry Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity Total Percent o f r a t i n g s  Number o f d i f f e r e n t 2 1 3 10 12 20 13 14 11 11 11 10 8 120 14.7  table  28 25 " 22 23 21 24 26 25 23 24 241 59.0  5 7 2 7 9 9 5 6 10 _6 66 24.3  grades 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 JL 4 2.0  While  the percent  l o w e r t h a n on t h e o t h e r  o f the r a t i n g s which agreed i s  s c a l e s , t h e number o f t i m e s  a g r e e d i s v e r y much l a r g e r . raters  agreed  and o f t h e t i m e s  step i s a higher in  Scale  percent  B and e q u a l Judging  the  percentage  one c a n s e e t h a t r e f i n e m e n t  appearance,  i s rated voice-and-  sociability  order.  16 t h e t r a i t s a r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g  o f t h e t o t a l g r a d e s on w h i c h t h e r a t e r s  consistency  C than  A.  c o n s i s t e n t l y and t h a t i n d u s t r y , d e p e n d a b i l i t y ,  In Table  on  o n l y b y one  b y t h e number o f t i m e s t h e r a t e r s a g r e e d on  a c t i v i t y f o l l o w i n that  The  disagreed  that the  of the t o t a l r a t i n g s i n Scale  speech, a l e r t n e s s , l e a d e r s h i p , p o i s e , and  o f the times  t h a t they  to that i n Scale  grade of a t r a i t ,  most  The t o t a l  the r a t e r s  of r a t i n g  each of the other  these  to the  agreed.  t r a i t s i s compared w i t h  that  scales.  TABLE 16 COMPARISON''OP CONSISTENCY OP RATING OP TRAITS BY PERCENTAGE OP TIMES RATERS AGREED. Rank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  Scale  A  Courtesy Appearance Poise Emot. Con. Co-operation Industry Initiative Dependability  -  % 28.6 23.8 23.8 19.0 19.0 19.0 14.3 9.5  — •  Average  Scale B  C  %  Initiative Appearance Sociability Voice, speech Emot. Con. Assurance Effort Dependability Cou-ntegy  30.4 29.2 25.0 16.7 16.0 12.5 8.5 4.3 0.0  R e f i n e m e n t 45.5 Industry 31.8 Depend a b i l i t y 9.5 Voice, speech 27.3 Poise 26.2 L e a d e r s h i p 25.6 Alertness 25.0 Sociability^. 3 A p p e a r a n c e 22.7 Activity 20.5  Average  13.6  Average  —  19.6  Scale  27.7  - 35 It highest  i s interesting  average percent  seem t o I n d i c a t e e a c h t r a i t was  that Scale  of consistency  t h e most" c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g t h a t I t h a s no a v e r a g e  to note  of r a t i n g ,  o f any one t r a i t  lower  C h a s much t h e t h a t i t has  (refinement),  t h a n 20.5 p e r c e n t .  These f a c t s  t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the v a r i o u s  of a s s i s t a n c e  and  t o t h e r a t e r s and t h a t  steps i n this  pro-  cedure i s the b e s t . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t r a i t s . the r a t i n g s appearing tiation  Prom t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f  i n A p p e n d i x V B t h e amount o f d i f f e r e n -  between the t r a i t s  o f e a c h ^student  c a n be  ascertained.  No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s shown i n 21 o r 14.3 p e r c e n t ratings;  two g r a d e s were g i v e n  I n 67 c a s e s  t h r e e g r a d e s , 55 t i m e s o r 36.4 p e r c e n t ; t i m e s o r 2.6 p e r c e n t . ings  g a v e o n l y one g r a d e t o a l l t r a i t s be r e d u c e d t o 7.0  o r 45.6  percent;  and f o u r g r a d e s ,  I t w i l l be n o t e d a l s o  o f t e a c h e r : G were n o t c o n s i d e r e d ,  o f t h e 147  four  that, i f the r a t -  the f i r s t  group which  o f a p u p i l on S c a l e  C would  percent.  TABLE 17 COMPARISON OP DIFFERENTIATION AMONG TRAITS OF EACH STUDENT ON THE THREE SCALES A, B AND C Number o f g r a d e s given to a l l t r a i t s of a p u p i l  Scale A  %  Times  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  18 52 11 0 0 0 0  Total  81  Scalei C  Scalei B  22.2 64.2 13.6  —  —  %  Times 9 32 36 28 5 , 0 1 111  8.1 28.8 32.5 25.2 4.5 _  0.9  %  Times 21 67 55 4 0 0 0 147  14.3 45.6 36.4 2.6 _  -  - 36  -  C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h S c a l e s A and steps, fact  the  amount o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  t h a t the  teachers  used and  C, however, w i t h one  the  traits  the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e tiate  the p r e v i o u s  o f one  of times; o f one  of  statement  steps i n each t r a i t  that  t h i s procedure  i s the  Criticisms  suggestions  t e a c h e r s had  completed  gestions  criticisms.  and  was  t h a t the  generalities rating  traits was  the  seven-  this the  last raters  s m a l l e s t number  they used  three  differ-  t h e g r e a t e s t number  These f a c t s  further  and  substan-  o f the  the r a t e r s  var-. and  best. of  the r a t e r s .  the r a t i n g s ,  T e a c h e r P, who  On  teacher,  of a s s i s t a n c e to  The  was  After  they'.were a s k e d  the  f o r sug-  w r i t t e n comments w h i c h were  r e c e i v e d appear i n Appendix I  felt  and  The  of the  t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n  ious  and  the use  pupil  pupil  times.  seven  i s the g r e a t e s t .  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one  percentage  ent g r a d e s f o r the  S c a l e B has  a part i n this result.  grade f o r a l l t r a i t s lowest  As  are f a m i l i a r w i t h  letter-grade s c a l e played Scale  B.  E. very i n t e r e s t e d  were t o o g e n e r a l and  impossible.  The  i n this  work,  that observation  s c a l e w h i c h he  of  proposed f o r  specific  traits  appears In Appendix I P together w i t h  scale f o r three  traits  worked o u t b y  of  this  teacher's  quire f o r each t r a i t  the i t e m s is  the b a s i s  suggestions.  T h e s e s c a l e s w h i c h aim  examples g i v e n .  t h e w r i t e r on  a  from three  Even then  w h i c h s h o u l d be  open t o c r i t i c i s m  to r a t e s p e c i f i c to'10  traits  sub-headings i n  there i s l i t t l e  likelihood  r a t e d are i n c l u d e d .  Each  as i t i n c l u d e s , i n many c a s e s ,  re-  the that a l l  sub-heading, several  - 37 different  items.  The  w o r d i n g i s open t o w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as  c a n be  reasonably clean,  and  In is  no  the  prone  to  of  s c a l e w o u l d be  ed  personal as  a self-rating  and  t h i s form d i d not  competitive returns  ratings  f o r the  as:  the  scale,  placed  there  on  the  l a r g e number  individual,  time-consuming.  t o be  serious  the  As  of  type  i t reveal-  used i n c o u n s e l l i n g , and  lend I t s e l f  effort  such  weaknesses, I t might have been u s e -  device  and  t o be  Owing t o  a p i c t u r e of the  i n g i t were c o m p l e t e d by As  Interpretation  cumbersome and  strengths  of phrases  at .this type of  superior.  items necessary to give  use  in  to.  attempt  the  grades; poor, average,  ful  seen i n the  writer's  I n d i c a t i o n as  -  conscientious  to convenient  In general involved,  did  not  provid-  students.  comparative  promise  or  adequate  the w r i t e r d e c i d e d  to  abandon  it. One  of  another r a t e d a  third  a v e r a g e and that  the  r a t e r s d i d not  them a l l b u t  d i d not  thought t h a t  the  w i s h the  the  rate  a l l the  doubted h i s a b i l i t y  student  to see  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  the  above-average d i d not  the  spaces  s p a c e b e t w e e n b e l o w - a v e r a g e and  of  there  the  were two  teacher.  points  I t was  were n o t e x p e c t e d served  significant  to the  pupils.  to r a t e  The  of view, t h a t  explained a l l the  behavior. question  The of  t o do  rating.  Teacher  a v e r a g e was  of  fairly, L  distances,  He the  stated  pupils  teachers  traits  unless  f o r m s were n o t  greater  also  to the  the  so  below-average,  i n d i c a t e equal  t h a n t h a t between a v e r a g e a n d ' a b o v e - a v e r a g e . that  traits,  and  that  they  t h e y had to be  d e s c r i p t i o n so  that  that  ob-  shown they  - 38 would  indicate  t h a t would  equal distances  have t o be  -  a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m was  considered i n a revision.  a more s e r i o u s d e f e c t i n the s c a l e s was mark a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m significance.  Some t e a c h e r s c h e c k e d  tion  the c o n t i n u u m  between r a t i n g s  these,  t h e r e was  no  the p l a c i n g  space, perhaps,  f o r purposes  level,  differentia-  b u t , even  I t was  impossible,  t o t h e mark t o a s s i g n  v a l u e o r t o make an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  T h e r e was  a  without c a r e f u l l y weighing  pupil against  reversing  the d e s c r i p t i o n .  some o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s  p r o c e d u r e by Remmers and Gage opposed  as t h e y f e l t In  that  When the w r i t e r  The  f o r m was  change would  be  confusing.  S c a l e . C had  t o o crowded and  the  i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r h a n d l i n g and f o r f i l i n g .  criptive  phrases  c o n t a i n e d t o o many a d v e r b s  usually,  suggested  the t e a c h e r s were  s i z e was  very, f a i r ,  several  foolscap The  of degree,  dessuch  and some were worded n e g a t i v e l y , f o r  example, does n o t w a s t e t i m e .  I n some c a s e s t h e t e a c h e r s  criticized  two  voice  and  the a t t e m p t speech.  of  as s u g g e s t e d as a p o s s i b l e  addition to these c r i t i c i s m s ,  other weaknesses.  the  the p e r s o n a l i t y  (12, p . 3 6 9 ) ,  this  a  tendency,  a l s o , w i t h some t e a c h e r s t o p u t c h e c k marks one u n d e r  the  with  a g r e e m e n t as t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e  t o measure f r o m t h e b a s e  other, perhaps  line  above-average.  of g r e a t e r  o f the same g r a d e  of a  varying  anywhere a l o n g the  mark o t h e r t h a n t h a t f o r the w h o l e s p a c e . therefore,  seemed  over a d e s c r i p t i v e phrase had  when t h e y meant m e r e l y a c e r t a i n Others used  that  What  one  to r a t e  In fact,  rating  things this  seemed s u p e r f l u o u s as t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  a t once;  particular  s u c h as trait  c o u l d e a s i l y be  ascer-  as:  - 39 tained gards fied. but  at  the  the  o f an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e s t u d e n t .  trait,'activity,  they had  activities  little  respect,  s h o u l d be  unfair  doubt too  busy i n i n s i g n i f i c a n t  a l e r t n e s s , was In  spite  c o u l d be  matters.  w i t h o n l y one  saying that t h i s  S c a l e s A and  B and  experiments.  The  or  the p u p i l and  general feeling  criticisms  unanimous I n  outside  two i n this  participa-  s u c h a t h i n g as b e i n g  more i m p o r t a n t  of these  only  t h a t a s t u d e n t w i t h many  r a t e d above one  There  re-  dissatis-  activities  should r e s t r a i n h i s i n t e r e s t  in activities.  As  to rate s c h o o l a c t i v i t y  Perhaps i n s t e a d of encouraging  teachers  trait,  teachers wereequally  opportunity to observe  T h e r e was  interests.  the  the  T h e y f e l t t h a t i t was  of s c h o o l .  tion  time  -  s c a l e was  than  the  was  very  that  activity*  teachers  were  an improvement  on  they encouraged the w r i t e r to c o n t i n u e  his  - 40  -  CHAPTER THE  DEVELOPMENT OP  Introduction.  THE  Mr.  V  SECOND ORIGINAL SCALE I N  J . W.  A.  Pleury  i n h i s lectures at  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a on A p p l i e d some t i m e d i s c u s s i n g p e r s o n n e l Air Force attached in  and  the  w r i t e r was  this f i e l d .  had  u s e d the  was  with  the  the  Royal  p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g forms. F l e u r y and  a good d e a l of i n t e r e s t ,  began to e xperiment w i t h Royal Canadian A i r Revision chapter  of  f r i e n d s were i n and  They c o r r o b o r a t e d  felt  t h a t our  therefore,  high  that  the  For  reasons explained  activity.  A new  two  trait,  sociality,  introduced.  In  of present  the  light  g r e a t e s t number and  important.  As  the  information  this  voice-  to  the  be great-  the f o u r freedoms many  c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g , i t was  the  study,  the  writer  re-  received  p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e on  this  conno-  term, i n f l u e n c e .  p o i n t i n the  concerning  on  was  e m p h a s i s on  word, l e a d e r s h i p , h a d  t a t i o n s which i n t e r f e r e d w i t h a more g e n e r a l  day  previous  which would  with h i s f e l l o w students  At  by  categories,  co-operation  by  writer  i n the  Indicate his  was  It  Force.  traits.  e s t good f o r the  the  schools  a s c a l e s i m i l a r to t h a t used  the w r i t e r p l a n n e d t o omit the  a n d - s p e e c h and  placed  attained  have a t t e m p t e d some f o r m o f p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g .  with  trait  Canadian  importance  success  of h i s best  the  spent  i n the R o y a l Canadian A i r F o r c e  statements of Professor should  impressed with  F u r t h e r m o r e , two  structors In Navigation  Psychology  s e l e c t i o n i n the  t o p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g and  TECS STUDY  the  - 41 cumulative Education with and  record  card published  b y t h e A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on  (See A p p e n d i x X V T I I ) .  He h a d b e e n  corresponding  Mr. Eugene R. S m i t h , c h a i r m a n o f t h e committee o n R e c o r d s Reports,  these  and Mr. S m i t h o f f e r e d t o m a i l h i m s a m p l e s o f  cumulative  press.  record  cards  The c a r d d e s i g n e d  a s s o o n a s t h e y were o f f t h e  f o r the use o f secondary s c h o o l s has  an e x c e l l e n t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g similar  to the r e v i s i o n being  t h e w r i t e r was moving a l o n g  scale.  The f a c t  made o f S c a l e  right  lines  C indicated that  and t h a t h i s r a t i n g  f o r m h a d many o f t h e d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s scale.  W h i l e i t was d i s c o u r a g i n g  to f i n d  b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d , i t was e n c o u r a g i n g had It  b e e n made  o f a good  t h a t one's work h a d  t o s e e t h a t no a t t e m p t  t o s e t u p means and p e r c e n t i l e s f o r t h e s c a l e .  was d e c i d e d  Scale  t h a t i t was  t h e n t o have p u p i l s r a t e d  C and, i f the t e a c h e r s  to  obtain decile  to  illustrate  scores  F o r m a t o f S c a l e D. of each t r a i t  found I t s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  f o r each t r a i t  the student's  on t h e r e v i s i o n o f  rating  and t o d e s i g n  to l i s t  to the highest  r o g a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t r a i t .  the f i v e  The be  column w i t h  teachers  could  three  T o o b t a i n some o f t h e  divisions  then d i f f e r e n t i a t e  r a t e d on t h e same s t e p . .  i n each step  t o have a  of a  the  letter-size  trait.  b e t w e e n p u p i l s who w o u l d  Although the w r i t e r had c a r e f u l l y  worded and s p a c e d t h e whole s c a l e s o t h a t i t c o u l d b e on  steps  under t h e I n t e r -  a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e c o n t i n u u m , i t was f u r t h e r p l a n n e d vertical  a graph  on t h e s c a l e .  I t was p l a n n e d  from the lowest  to proceed  placed  p a p e r , t h r o u g h an e r r o r i n c u t t i n g t h e s t e n c i l  f o o l s c a p s i z e h a d t o be u s e d .  The r e v i s e d s c a l e  designated  - 42 as S c a l e D a p p e a r s Securing the  the r a t i n g s .  t e a c h e r s had  same i n t e r e s t . examinations  i n Appendix I As  been asked  t o make, t h e y d i d n o t h a v e  approaching  the forms completed.  G.  t h i s was,the f o u r t h r a t i n g  T h e . e n d o f the  was  -  the  school year with i t s U n i v e r s i t y  so t h a t i t was  difficult  t o have  F i n a l l y r a t i n g s were r e c e i v e d f o r  p u p i l s r a t e d on S c a l e s A o r B and ratings  on S c a l e D may  be  found  Consistency of r a t i n g  that  C.  The  tabulation  i n A p p e n d i x VI  on S c a l e D.  As  45  of  the  A.  before  the  number  i  of  different  m i n e d , and  grades  f o r each t r a i t  tabulated i n Table From t h i s  used  on t h e  traits,  p o i s e , was  steps; i n fact  any  o f the  s t e p s o r 34  trait,  d e p e n d a b i l i t y , was  this  scale  as  and  48  percent r e s p e c t i v e l y  and  alertness, refinement of grades.  Since  unselfishness, this  Gage  consistency  of r a t i n g  on  any  i t was  s c a l e s s i n c e on were u s e d .  and  trait  Along  s o c i a l i t y had  with  44  on  percent  percent  appearance  the second  Is not i n accord  as r e p o r t e d  Another f a c t  on S c a l e D i s t h a t t h e  lowest  co-operativeness  consistency of r a t i n g  I s 36  trait  rated  these  they c o n s i d e r t a c t ,  (12, p . 3 6 6 ) .  over  r a t e d more c o n s i s -  of various i n v e s t i g a t o r s  Remmers and  rating  two  f o r any  on S c a l e C as on b o t h 36  were u s e d ;  on t h e f i r s t  the f i n d i n g s  raters  Of a l l t h e  The  than  with  percent.  i s the l o w e s t  tently  and  t h a t the  spread  the p o s s i b l e grades  spread  seen  this  scales.  e q u a l l y w e l l on  be  r a t e d most c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h a s p r e a d  1.5  of  1.7  deter-  18.  table i t w i l l  average  o f e a c h p u p i l was  by  that indicates largest  p e r c e n t which i s lower  than  spread the  the of  - 43 TABLE 18 NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY RATERS FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH PUPIL ON SCALE D. <!>•  p»  O  §j SH  Pupil  aS <D Pi Pi  <!  #  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 15 16 17 19 20 21 28 30 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  Total Average Percent  2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 .1 1 1 2 . 1 51 1.6 32  ©i  +5  i -P  © g  aS nH •H rH O nH O P CQ  : 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 :;i l l 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1  2 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1  -P  SH ti nH <M <D K  51 1.6 32  53 1.7 34  nH rH  at  nH O O CO  -  2  -  —  —  —  1 2 1  -  2 —  —  —  —  —  CO CO  <D O  ©  ti  a>  43  o  H  ca nH  H  CM  ti 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2  ti  ©  H <H  2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1  *H  ©  •  aiS t»  Tj 43 ti nH ©rH PinH  ©  CO  2 Tj  ti  H  1 2  2 1  1 1 2 2. 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2  3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2  -  PS  U 43  -  8 58 49 51 56 1.5 1.6 1.6- 1.8 1.8 32 36 30 32 36  2 2 2 . 2 2 2 . 2 . 1 2 2 ' 2 2 1 2 . 2 1 ' 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 57 1.8 36  - .44 smallest  S c a l e s A and B (See T a b l e of a l l  than the spread  lower  on S c a l e agreed is  s p r e a d on  C (See T a b l e  i ngiving  traits The  14)  except  9) and w h i c h i s  one, r e f i n e m e n t ,  number o f t i m e s  a g r a d e t o t h e same t r a i t  the raters  o f t h e same  pupil  shown i n T a b l e 19. TABLE 19 NUMBER OP TIMES ONE OR MORE GRADES WERE GIVEN BY RATERS TO EACH. TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE D. Traits  0  Number o f d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s 1 2 3 4  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry'  0 0 0 27 0 0 1 1 0  13 15 13 2 6 15 11 9 8  19 15 17 3 . 26 17 20 19 23  0 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 1  0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Total- .:. Percent  29 10  92 32  159 55  8 3  0  1  Prom T a b l e the grades  19 i t w i l l  be s e e n  t h e r e was a g r e e m e n t .  that  on 32 p e r c e n t o f  This high rate  of consistency  e x c e e d s t h e 14.7 p e r c e n t o b t a i n e d on S c a l e C, 4.6 p e r c e n t o n S c a l e B a n d 17.7 p e r c e n t  on S c a l e A.  t h e y h a d h a d no e x p e r i e n c e tended  t o omit  grades  In grading  on t h i s  item.  The t e a c h e r s , p e r h a p s as on t h e t r a i t ,  sociality  - 45 TABLE 20 COMPARISON OP THE CONSISTENCY OP POUR RATING SCALES A  B  C  D  2.0  2.2  1.9  1.7  Scale A v e r a g e number o f d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t Percent of p o s s i b l e f o r each t r a i t  Comparisons w i t h S c a l e s  38  A, B and C.  1.5 to 1.8  The comparisons i n  on S c a l e D t h e r a t e r s  used the s m a l l e s t  number o f d i f f e r e n t  grades f o r each t r a i t ;  given  on S c a l e D h a v e t h e l e a s t  to the t r a i t s  34  1.6 to 2.0  1.9 to 2.4  1.9 to 2.2  Range o f a v e r a g e g r a d e s f o r each t r a i t  T a b l e 20 r e v e a l t h a t  42  40  grades  that i s , grades s p r e a d on t h e  average and, o f c o u r s e , t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t o f s p r e a d o f grades. The r a n g e that  o f average r a t i n g s  on S c a l e D I s .3 w h i c h e q u a l s  o f S c a l e A and I s s m a l l e r  Scale  C.  sistent  Altogether rating In  this  last  than that scale  o f S c a l e B and o f  seems t o g i v e more  t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r s .  order t o check t h i s  result  i n a n o t h e r way t h e  w r i t e r worked o u t t h e p e r c e n t o f t i m e s t h e r a t e r s rating  each  con-  trait.  agreed i n  46  -  TABLE 21 CONSISTENCY OP RATING AS SHOWN BY PERCENTAGE OP TIMES RATERS AGREED I N RATING EACH TRAIT. Scale A  Traits  %  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Indus t r y  27.8 28.6  Average  19.6. (1) (2) (3) (4)  the  -  S c a l e D than alertness  -  23.8 14.3 9.5 19.0  12.5 30.4 4.3 8.5  (4)  13.6  (6)  Courtesy Co-operation Leadership Initiative  (5) (6) (7)  sistent age  Scale C  percentage  being  D  %  (1)  22.7 45.5 23.3 . (3)  (4) (5)  25.6 26.2 25.0 29.5 31.8  40.6 46.9 40.6 40.0 (7) 18.8 46.9 35.5 . 29.0 :25.0  (6)  27.7  (6)  35.4  -  Effort See T a b l e 16, page 34 Insufficient ratings to b e considered  t h a t S c a l e D has the  o f a g r e e m e n t b y 7.7 p e r c e n t  Only  much l o w e r  Scale  %  21 i t w i l l be s e e n  over  on I n d u s t r y and i n f l u e n c e a r e 6.8 p e r c e n t  lower  on t h e s e  on  on Scale,C. On a p p e a r a n c e , s o c i a b i l i t y , p o i s e and  the averages  a r e much h i g h e r .  dependability there i s l i t t l e C and D.  B  -  (2)  b e s t , S c a l e C.  averages  29.2 0.0 25.0  (1)  19.0  average  the n e x t  %  —  Prom T a b l e highest  Scale  On e v e r y ratings  trait  On r e f i n e m e n t  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two s c a l e s  S c a l e D has a h i g h e r  than e i t h e r  and  average  o f con-  S c a l e A o r B and h a s a h i g h e r  aver-  on 5 o u t o f 8 t r a i t s t h a n S c a l e C. Differentiation.  The number o f d i f f e r e n t  each p u p i l by each r a t e r t a b u l a t i o n i t c a n be s e e n  grades  i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x V I B. t h a t on t h e f i v e  given Prom  this  steps of Scale D  only  twice  teachers age  of  make no  the  the  gave the  By  times they on.  c a n be  table purports same g r a d e gave two  Indicates  using B)  the  15  of the  times d i d  lowest  s e e n i n the  closely  grades  to  last  column o f  a pupil,  a l l the  D  between (tabula-  to a normal  t o show t h e number o f t i m e s  to a l l t r a i t s of  percent-  that Scale  divisions  the  v e r t i c a l continuum,  corresponds  Table teachers  t h e number  of  t r a i t s o f a p u p i l and  I n o t h e r words I t aims t o compare  t i a t i o n made b y  the  t o make t h e most d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  amount o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n This  of  T h i s i s the  f o u r s c a l e s and  of r a t i n g s i n Appendix VI  This  percent  differentiation.'  teachers  distribution. 22.  t i m e s o r 2.7  t r a i t s of each p u p i l .  tion the  o f 73  t i m e s on  enables the  out  the  the r a t e r s i n g i v i n g grades  amount o f t o the  so  differen-  t r a i t s of  pupil.  TABLE  22  DIFFERENTIATION AMONG TRAITS OF EACH PUPIL ON FOUR RATING SCALES  w  No.of grades S c a l e A g i v e n to a l l 5 grades t r a i t s of a student Times %  1 2 3 4 .5 6 7 8  18 52 11 0 0 o 0 o  Total  81  The  22.2 64.2 13.6 -  Scale B 7 grades  Scale C 5 grade s  Scale D 5 grades  Scale D 15 grade s  Times  Times %  Times %  Times  21 67 55 4 0 0 0 0  2 30 30 10 1 0 0 0  0 7 15 25 15 9 0 2  9 32 36 28 5 0 1 0 111  differentiation  %  8.1 28.8 32.5 25.2 4.5 0.9 -  147  14.3 45.6 36.4 2.6  -  —  -  73  2.7 41.1 41.1 13.7 1.4  -  —  -  %  0.0 9.6 20.5 34.2 20.5 12.3 —  2.7  73  among t r a i t s i s t h e g r e a t e s t  on  a  - 48 Scale D  as i n d i c a t e d , i n T a b l e  rating  The  average c o n s i s t e n c y  i s a l s o the g r e a t e s t i n S c a l e D  Although p r a c t i c e i n r a t i n g individually, is  22.  improves  (See  the  Tables  ability  20  of  and  21).  of r a t e r s  the r e s u l t s might i n p a r t i n d i c a t e t h a t S c a l e  t h e most r e l i a b l e  of  the  four rating  s c a l e s used i n  D  this  study. Criticisms this  last  and  rating  A p p e n d i x I H)  suggestions  s c a l e were b e i n g  f o r the n i n e  criticisms  and  comments and  steps  garding  sociability  stated It  was  they  the  picture  and  could not  the  of Scale D  given  two  other  of  and  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  suggestions,  Three of the  and  the  The  replies  the  trait,  of t r a i t s  teachers  (See  i n the  Appendix I I ) .  third  one  listed  After studying  the w r i t e r r e v i s e d i t as  one  re-  accepted teachers sociality.  could grade p u p i l s o n l y  second p a r t are  The  I I .  as  i t did  the w h o l e i n d i v i d u a l , - a weakness r e c o g n i z e d (20).  for  the  observed s i g n i f i c a n t  the r a t i n g  (See  and  a b o u t p o i s e , were  teachers  w h i c h t h e y had  the  on  of  to each r a t e r .  c o n c e r n the  o f S c a l e D.  t h a t the  R e v i s i o n o f S c a l e D.  s t e p was  a letter  grade students  criticized  f o r weightings  the  distributed,  appear i n Appendix  s c a l e , and  s u c h as T h o r p e  S c a l e D,  was  criticisms  revision  concerning  teacher  ities  i n the  explained  traits One  on  When c o p i e s  r e c e i v e d In response  replies  the  various  used  traits  suggestions  Generally  and  teachers..  which asked f o r c r i t i c i s m s  weightings  writer's  of  of  the  behavior. not  by  author-  letter  asked  i n Appendix XII the  on  criticisms  A, of  i n d i c a t e d i n h i s answers The  only  of s o c i a b i l i t y .  to  change o f a w h o l e In  t h a t case  the  - 49 s t a t e m e n t , "Shows no was  negative  conscious, was  put  tion; by  i n the  i s an  replaced  second p l a c e .  and  f o r m a t was  mimeographed on  was  I t was, This  by  "Is reserved,  and  A new  w o r d i n g was  a l t e r e d so  filing.  selfthen,  requested  orally  the r a t i n g s c a l e  copy o f  Scale  atten-  approved.  that  A  behavior"  item,  p a p e r w h i c h would be  s o n a l i t y r a t i n g scale designated J.  anti-social  " T r i e s to a t t r a c t  generally  letter-size  f o r handling  Appendix I  or  responds to f r i e n d l i n e s s " .  several teachers  venient  was  exhibitionist".  The be  particular social  i n s e n s e and  shy;  -  the  E will  be  could  more  revised found  conper-  in  50  -  CHAPTER V I THE  STANDARDIZATION OP SCALE E  Introduction. ences r e g a r d i n g  Teachers are f r e q u e n t l y asked f o r r e f e r -  the p e r s o n a l i t i e s  o f p u p i l s and a t p r e s e n t  have t o depend on t h e i r memories o f t h e I m p r e s s i o n s pupils  concerned.  I f the student  this recalling  satisfactory.  A number o f p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s k e p t  much l e s s  traits  the t r a i t s .  would  The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s value  of the various  traits  the d i f f e r e n t  traits  to evaluate  will  a particular  enter  vocations  i n m i n d , when j u d g i n g  situation,  vary values  the personal-  that a  vocation, i t Is impossible  student t o use  as c r i t e r i a i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s  of p e r s o n a l i t y .  In high  school, then,  the t e a c h e r has  the p e r s o n a l i t y o f a student,  that are d e s i r a b l e i n a student  the r e s u l t ,  would  It  a r e s e a r c h w o r k e r o r an a u t o m o b i l e  As i t c a n n o t be known d e f i n i t e l y  qualities  with  whether-all  Different  mechanic.  traits  then,  o r Importance.  t o u s e t o be made o f t h e r a t i n g .  of a stenographer,  different  file  traits.  t h a t the v a l u e  w o u l d be g i v e n ity  on  r a t i n g s were I n t h e  the teachers  on t h e s c a l e a r e o f e q u a l  obvious  according  i s n o t very  v  Weighting  is  scores,  traits  t r e p i d a t i o n , s t a t e t h a t a p u p i l was above o r b e l o w  average i n c e r t a i n  the  of significant  a s s i s t a n c e and i f t h e s e  form of standardized  of the  has n o t been a t s c h o o l f o r  several years,  w o u l d be o f g r e a t  they  t o some e x t e n t , of h i s success  and t h e y  those i n turn are  of h i s adjustment t o the s c h o o l  i n academic s u b j e c t s ,  extracurricular  - 51 activities in rating  and s o c i a l  situations.  As t h i s  the p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i g h  school p u p i l s , the c r i t e r i o n  t o be u s e d i s s i m p l y  the q u a l i t i e s  t o make a r e a s o n a b l e  success  discover  the o p i n i o n s  to r a t e t h e i r  that a student  of h i shigh  o f the teachers  thought  that  he  would weight  school  out  t h a t they  S e v e n t e e n o f t h e 25 s u b m i t t e d  considerable  sampling high  could not give study  of opinion,  school  questionnaire  was v e r y g r a t i f y i n g field  Altogether  whom 59 r e t u r n e d  These a l o n g  with  t h e 17 r e c e i v e d  i n Appendix X I I .  because o f i n e x p e r i e n c e  r a t i n g , because o f i n s u f f i c i e n t  were a d d e d .  but also to write  o f 76, a r e l i s t e d  of b e l i e v i n g a l l the t r a i t s  stated  The r e s p o n s e  workers wrote to e x p l a i n t h a t  could not give weightings  write  Examples o f  w r i t t e n r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m 68 o f  a total  Three o f the personnel  integrity,  personnel  are i n Appendix X I .  to give weightings  weightings.  from the teachers,  ality  o u t 89 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o  as many o f t h e l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s  took time n o t o n l y  comments.  with-  To o b t a i n a w i d e r  of various u n i v e r s i t i e s .  and l e t t e r  weight-  opinion  counsellors, d i r e c t o r s of guidance,  w o r k e r s and p r o f e s s o r s the  on t h e s u b j e c t .  o r whether  The o t h e r s e x -  an i n t e l l i g e n t  the w r i t e r sent  To  the scale  importance  i n g s w h i c h a r e t a b u l a t e d i n A p p e n d i x X I I A. plained  career.  have  each t o s t a t e whether  t h e t r a i t s were o f e q u a l them.  should  who h a d u s e d  p u p i l s , t h e w r i t e r asked  he  s c a l e d i s ;,to b e u s e d  information  t o be e q u a l  provided  Of t h e p r o f e s s o r s  they  with  person-  and b e c a u s e a t e n t h one,  s i x took time t o  t h e i r reasons f o r not assigning weights. t h a t he was n o t w e l l e n o u g h a c q u a i n t e d  D r . Symonds w i t h the  - 52  -  s i t u a t i o n i n Magee H i g h S c h o o l  t o know what t r a i t s  should  emphasized.  believe  feasible  Dr.  t o combine the  Clark d i d not  scores  on  a s e r i e s of such t r a i t s  a t o t a l r a t i n g because the was  more e m p h a t i c  c a l w e i g h t s as false  as he  of  bue  pointed  ent  requirements  out  the  traits  No  names were o b t a i n e d moved, r e t i r e d  ed  the  attempt  w o u l d be  s i n c e 87  various  percent  receive  the  writer decided o b t a i n an  In  of  based  life  emphasized  the  the r e p l i e s  were r e c e i v e d  by  made  the  replies their have  to ignore i t . can  teachers the  using  thirteen  be  weight-  weightings. to  the  others, these  weightings  were s e l e c t e d and  averages  found  i n Table  23.  and  the  values.  any  These w e i g h t i n g s  and  views  w h i c h showed the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h o u t averaged.  Tra-  differ-  Since  r e c e i v e d gave  t o make a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y  a  Dr.  t h e y may  traits  some t i m e b e f o r e  average f o r each t r a i t  on  21 f r o m whom no  have d e c i d e d  the  numeri-  i n each.  questionnaire.  O t h e r s may  Harris  activities  from u n i v e r s i t y calendars,  the weights a s s i g n e d  traits  and  Parmenter expressed  d o u b t some o f  or d i e d .  Dr.  to assign  engage i n t h o s e  preponderance of o p i n i o n i s t h a t the  As  To  were n o n - l i n e a r .  activities  S t e v e n s o n , S m i t h and  to t h i s .  to e s t a b l i s h  o r g a n i z a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y .  o f p e o p l e who  were r e c e i v e d d i d n o t  The  regarded  that different  therefore different  similar  values  physchologically unjustified  conception  Professors  t h a t i t was  he  extremes are  - 53  -  TABLE  23  SIGNIFICANT WEIGHTINGS  A Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Indus t r y  As the  there  are  pupils  ,  15.  10 10 15 10 15 5 5 20 10  15  the  15;  rated,  scores 60,  can  the  refinement  poise  90,  i n the  P  6 7 8 9 10 10 10 20 20  5 10 10 10 5 5 15 20 20  vertical  f o r purposes of  total score  multiplying  by  5 8 5 5 12 15 5 12 15 8 5 15 10 5 6 10 10 10 15 15 12 15 20 20 10 15 12  order  of  the  multiple. see  the  that  90,  the  By  large  a number o f r a t i n g s  asked  the  their  s t u d e n t s on  counsellors  of which nine  the  scale.  Is  gives  a  to have a g r a n d  total  aiconven-  trait  100,  The  i n the  multiple;  10  next  as  Mr.  A.  the  multi-  averages  180,  To  high  do  90,  influence  this  The  the to  90,  150.  to secure  schools  Dodd and  in  appearance  industry  s t e p was  total  sociability.  follows:  sociality  possible. various  of  w o u l d be  dependability  as  multiple  w h o l e number  desired  inspection  this  ratings.  a  be  t r a i t s w o u l d have t o have a  sociability 150,  which  i t would  trait  ten  i s 8.4,  t r a i t s were worked o u t  alertness  Securing  In  6.5 9.7 10.5 8.8 8.8 8.4 13.1 18.7 14.8  continuum a t scoring  the  Average a Weighting  W  R  f o r each  average f o r p o i s e  n a m e l y 90.  one  for  10 8 10 12 10 8 15 15 12  5 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15  0  whole number w h i c h m u l t i p l i e d by  t h a n the  T a b l e 23  6 6 12 6 9 12 16 18 15  average which would g i v e  i e n t r o u n d number, one greater  5 10 15 5 5 5 15 20 20  7 9 7 8 9 10 15 20 15  done by  example, the  of  Teachers H I J  F F2  positions  t o have the  the n e a r e s t ple  6 6 10 9 8 10 10 16 12 8 6 8 14 8 20 20 14 15  T h i s , was  nearest for  E  can be  convenient of  C  as writer  rate  Miss Lawrence  of  - 54 Lord  Byng H i g h S c h o o l  respectively. High School smaller  completed  The M i s s e s  and r e t u r n e d  32 and 14 f o r m s  C a s s e l m a n , Cope and Lamb o f K i t s i l a n o  r a t e d 30 p u p i l s .  While  this  t o t a l number was  t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e 76 a d d e d t o t h e 279 p u p i l s  r a t e d i n Magee H i g h S c h o o l  gave a t o t a l  o f 355 r a t i n g s on  Scale E. Computation of the d e c i l e s . E was a l r e a d y  As t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f S c a l e  e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e i t was S c a l e D w i t h b u t s l i g h t  c h a n g e s , no f u r t h e r t a b u l a t i o n s and comparisons' were made f o r the  purpose o f showing the c o n s i s t e n c y  and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  One  s e t o f t a b u l a t i o n s which f o l l o w s i n Appendix V I I g i v e s the  number o f r a t i n g s f o r e a c h o f t h e 15 d i v i s i o n s continuum o f each t r a i t .  of the v e r t i c a l  F o r the second s e t the score  o f e a c h o f t h e 15 d i v i s i o n s was s e t down and i t s determined. the  To o b t a i n  f r a c t i o n a l parts  bability  curve  the d e c i l e  scores  o f the t o t a l  corresponding  of standard  to distances  d e v i a t i o n as g i v e n  These f r a c t i o n a l p a r t s mean p l u s . . 8 7 ,  f o r P70 t h e mean p l u s  .25, f o r P40 t h e mean minus  .52,  t h e P20 t h e mean minus  1.28 t i m e s t h e s t a n d a r d the 24  preliminary  study  and f o r t h e f i n a l It  i t was d e c i d e d  o f f f r o m t h e mean i n by G a r r e t t  (3, p.110).  ,  1.28, f o r P80  .52, f o r P60 t h e mean  .84 and f o r P10 t h e mean m i n u s ;  T h e s e a r e worked o u t f o r  i n A p p e n d i x I X E and summarized  seemed l i k e l y  pro-  .25, f o r P30 t h e mean minus  deviation.  study  t o use  on t h e b a s e l i n e  a r e f o r P90 t h e mean p l u s  plus  frequency  area under the normal  b e t w e e n t h e mean and t h e d e c i l e s l a i d units  value  i n Table  I n Appendix XIV. t h a t , i f any sex d i f f e r e n c e s  should  - 55 occur and  on t h i s  industry.  studied  s c a l e , t h e y w o u l d he on t h e t r a i t s The s c o r e s  separately  on t h e s e  traits  (See A p p e n d i x V I I I ) .  were  that there in  was  ratio of  .357 f o r  For the former t h i s  a r e 64 c h a n c e s i n 100 and f o r t h e l a t t e r  means  96 c h a n c e s  100 t h a t t h e t r u e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e s  two  g r o u p s i s somewhat g r e a t e r  mary a c c o r d i n g of  consequently  The c r i t i c a l  t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e means o f h o y s and g i r l s a p p e a r a n c e and 1.77 f o r i n d u s t r y .  appearance  three  to Garrett  as i n d i c a t i v e  than  zero.  ( 3 , p.213) t o t a k e  of a s i g n i f i c a n t  ence between t h e means o f t h e s c o r e s two t r a i t s  Since  girls  on t h e s e  sary,  t h e r e f o r e , t o compute s e p a r a t e  of the  i t i s custo-  a critical  ratio  d i f f e r e n c e , the d i f f e r -  o f t h e b o y s and o f t h e  i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  I t i s n o t neces-  means and d e c i l e s  f o r the  two g r o u p s .  TABLE 24 . D E C I L E SCORES FOR EACH TRAIT  Traits Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry Total  1  2  3  4  27 37 52 33 23 35 44 57 48  31 43 59 42 31 43 . 58 75 60  34 48 64 48 35 48 68 87 69  36 52 68 53 41 53 76 98 76  424  503  This information along teachers  are reproduced  544  587  Deciles 5  6  7  8  9  39 56 72 58 45 57 84 107 83  41 43 46 50 60 64 69 75 91 75 80 85 62 67 72 82 49 54 59 66 72 61 66 79 92 100 110 114 117 127 140 157 90 97 106 118  626  666  709  749  9.9  828  w i t h a summary o f r a t i n g s b y d i f f e r e n t as a permanent r e c o r d f o r m .  The s c o r e  -56 values of each d i v i s i o n rating  scales  averaged. decile  These  averages  o f the p u p i l ' s  sample p r o f i l e  joining  I  kind  classifications  scales.  f o r each would  a c c u r a t e d a t a f o r the computation  s t e p s had b e e n d o n e , however, he  statistical thought  He  felt  the t e a c h e r s d e s i r e d  that  distinctions  continuum  and  have g i v e n s u f o f the  decile  t a s k on t h e  the r e s u l t s  u s e d e s p e c i a l l y i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t , a s was that  A  Dr. L e f e v e r o f t h e  on the v e r t i c a l  S i n c e t h e more l a b o r i o u s  a  K.  c a p a b l e o f making s u c h f i n e  as r e q u i r e d by t h e 15 p o s i t i o n s  graph.  the  enough t o l o o k o v e r the r e -  of these experiments w i t h r a t i n g  ficiently  on  and  t h e p o i n t s marked  o f means f r o m f i v e - s t e p s .  o f C a l i f o r n i a was  the f i v e  the  on t h e f o r m  t h e n a r e marked d i r e c t l y By  as  personality pattern i s obtained.  mos't t e a c h e r s were n o t  that  a r e g i v e n and,  are checked  i s shown i n A p p e n d i x  Computation University  trait  come i n , t h e r a t i n g s  c h a r t w h i c h i s shown.  profile  sults  of each  -  pointed  the a d d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s  15  s h o u l d be o u t t o him,  on t h e  con-  tinuum. The w r i t e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s , d e c i d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e reliability trait  and  steps. quency  o f the means d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f i v e  t o compare  I n Appendix  t h e means w i t h t h o s e d e r i v e d  standard  on the f i v e - s t e p  scale  and  o f the means, t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  e r r o r s o f t h e means.  p.213) t h e  critical ratios  were d e t e r m i n e d .  from  X w i l l be f o u n d t h e t a b u l a t i o n  o f the r a t i n g s  computation  steps of  These  By  ranged  each 15  o f the  also  the  and  the  the f o r m u l a i n G a r r e t t  o f t h e two means o f e a c h f r o m 0.07  the  trait  t o 1.17; w i t h an  fre-  (5,  - 57 a v e r a g e o f 0.84 .  Since  1  ed n e c e s s a r y  t o he  -  a critical ratio  certain  of a d i f f e r e n c e ,  c h a n c e t h a t t h e means a r e d i f f e r e n t 15  or the f i v e  steps  of  of three i s considerthere i s  w h e t h e r computed f r o m  each t r a i t .  T h e r e f o r e , i n the  c o m p u t a t i o n o n l y t h e f i v e - s t e p s were c o n s i d e r e d i n the d e c i l e s . liminary  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n marked t h e end  of the median.  t o the  XIII). al  and  t o compute the d i s t r i b u t i o n  Prom e x a m i n a t i o n  dependability,  ance.  computing  of the  and  one  i t w i l l be  such a s , out  another  40  pre-  these  a d v i s e d by G a r r e t t  tendency.  i n Appendix XIII  o f 100  and  The  each  are  p o i n t s , one another  another  one  e x t r e m e o p i n i o n s i t was  (3, p . 2 9 ) , t o u s e  arrived,  made by  seen t h a t there  and  re-  (See A p p e n d i c e s X I I  for sociality,  zero f o r s o c i a l i t y  I n view of  of c e n t r a l  r e c e i v e d had  were t a b u l a t e d t o show t h o s e  extreme w e i g h t i n g s  ness,  final  When i t seemed t h a t most o f t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t w o u l d be  t h e 76 w e i g h t i n g s person  the  study.  Use plies  little  and  sever-  50  30 f o r  for alert-  f o r appeardecided,  t h e m e d i a n as  the  as  measure  computation o f the medians i s g i v e n  summarized I n T a b l e  25.  - 58 T A B L E 25 MEDIAN OP 76 WEIGHTINGS FOR EACH TRAIT ON SCALE E  In  the preliminary study  15  were u s e d b u t ,  fore,  scores  75 100 100 110 100 100 110 150 120  7.5 9.710.06 11.0 10.1 9.8 10.75 14.94 12.13  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry  decile  M e d i a n - t i m e s 10 to n e a r e s t m u l t i p l e of 5  Median - as computed  Traits  on t h e i n c o m p l e t e  f r o m t h e f i v e - s t e p s was j u s t  a much c l o s e r a p p r o x i m l n a t i o n o f the t r a i t s  ment 100, s o c i a b i l i t y 100,  f o r the t r a i t s .  The  100, s o c i a l i t y  110, i n f l u e n c e 100, p o i s e  a l e r t n e s s 110, d e p e n d a b i l i t y 150 and i n d u s t r y 120.  and t h e f r e q u e n c y  f r o m A p p e n d i x X.  scores.  The a p p r o x i m a t e m e d i a n o f  26.  equal  parts f o r the f i v e  o f t h e r a t i n g s f o r e a c h s t e p was  Prom t h e s e  were computed  d e v i a t i o n and t h e s t a n d a r d  of each t r a i t Table  This  a p p e a r a n c e 75, r e f i n e -  e a c h t r a i t was t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e  dard  there-  t o t h e a c t u a l median.  a r e as f o l l o w s :  Computation o f d e c i l e  steps  as r e l i a b l e ;  i n s t e a d o f 15 a r e u s e d f o r t h e  m e d i a n s w h i c h w i l l be u s e d as v a l u e s  values  multiples of  as was shown p r e v i o u s l y , c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e  only multiples of f i v e  gives  data,  taken  t h e mean, t h e s t a n -  e r r o r o f t h e mean o f t h e s c o r e s  (See A p p e n d i x X I V ) .  These f i g u r e s a r e g i v e n i n  - 59 T A B L E 26 MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, AND STANDARD ERROR OP EACH OP THE NINE TRAITS ON SCALE E A.M.  Traits Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry  Prom t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n t h e: d e c i l e s c o r e s  determined in  49.04 63.70 62.10 71.50 49.70 64.50 61.38 89.70 56.30  (See A p p e n d i x X I V ) i n t h e  the p r e l i m i n a r y study.  Table  The  decile  S.D.  S.E.  11.1 16.6 17.6 23.65 19.6 19.06 20.6 30.9 24.14  0.59 0.88 0.94 1.40 1.06 1.02 1.1 1.65 1.29  for  each t r a i t  were  same manner as was #  used  scores are given i n  27. TABLE 27 . D E C I L E SCORES\ FOR EACH TRAIT OP SCALE E  irax u  1  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry  Instead  35 42 40 41 25 . 40 35 50 25  of using  preliminary different  2  3  40 50 47 52 33 48 44 64 36  43 55 53 59 40 55 51 74 44  Deciles 4. 5 46 60 58 66 45 60 56 82 50  49 64 62 72 50 65 61 90 56  9  9.9  55 58 63 72 78 85 71 77 85 84 91 102 60 66 75 74 81 89 72 79 88 106 :116 129 69 77 87  75 102 103 127 95 109 109 162 113  6 52 68 67 77 55 69 67 97 62  7  an o r d i n a r y l i n e g r a p h as was  study,  the w r i t e r d e c i d e d  widths proportionate  8  suggested  .  In the  t o make t h e b a r s o f  to the weightings  o f the  traits.  - 60 The  g r a p h would then I n d i c a t e n o t  I n d i v i d u a l i n any  trait  importance  traits.  of  the  Comparison of  standard  the  which l i s t s  and  the  standard the  however, t h e  the  limits  decile  scale.  rating  the  o f the Since  This  In Table  the  trait,  rating  the  smaller  traits  the  the  i s t h e mean,  reference  to  the  Table  It will  least.  one  In  the  be  case  between 84.75  T h i s range i s not s t e p e i t h e r way  corroborates  o f the means and  the  1.65.  traits  of  XV.  a p p e a r a n c e , i s t h e most r e -  conclusion regarding  28  the  relative  t h e means.  t r u e mean l i e s  traits  of  means and  compared by  e r r o r s of  do^not o v e r l a p  various  reliability of  show t h e  traits.  94.65 - t h e mean 89.70 ± 3 x  study.  also  t h a t of d e p e n d a b i l i t y , the  latter,  since  standing  example i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x  o f t h e means can be  s e e n t h a t t h e mean o f  the  An  the  e r r o r o f t h e mean, the more r e l i a b l e  reliability  liable  but would  only  the r e l i a b i l i t y  consistency of r a t i n g  26  -  the  as g i v e n I n T a b l e  21.  the  according  also according  and great the  consistency  that of  are ranked  on  to the  of  of  preliminary to. t h e consistency  -  61 -  TABLE 28 RANK OP 8 TRAITS A Rank A c c o r d i n g t o R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean  Trait  Appearance Refinement Sociability Poise Influence Alertness Industry Dependability  Rank A c c o r d i n g t o Rank R e l i a b i l i t y of Difference Rating  1 2 o3 4 5 6 7 8  2.5.. 0.5 0.5 2.5 3.0 1.0 0.0 2.0  3.5 1.5 3.5 1.5 8.0 5.0 7.0 6.0  Prom t h e above t a b l e i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e t r a i t , i n f l u e n c e , v a r i e s i n rank from f i f t h are  to eighth.  t h e same b u t i n d i f f e r e n t  order  from the t r a i t , i n f l u e n c e , the l a s t different  order.  same p o s i t i o n  Industry  i n both  Garrett and  i n both four  and a p a r t  to the rank  dif-  c o r r e l a t i o n as e x p l a i n e d b y  t h e product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n that there  rankings  traits  a r e t h e same b u t i n  According  ( 3 , p.361) t h e r a n k c o r r e l a t i o n  indicates  four  i s the only t r a i t which holds the  rankings.  f e r e n c e method o f m e a s u r i n g  The f i r s t  i s evidence  co-efficient  i s 0.70.  This  i s 0.681  probably,  o f correspondence between t h e  rankings.  A  The t r a i t , s o c i a l i t y , i s omitted since on Scale D an i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f grades was?, received.  - 62 -  CHAPTER  VII  INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING SCALE E  rate ly  Introduction.  Before  p u p i l s on t h i s  personality scale,  o r i e n t a t e d and m o t i v a t e d .  reasons that ing  any attempt  i s made t o h a v e they  s h o u l d be a d e q u a t e -  They s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d  the  f o r m a k i n g p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s and s h o u l d be  such r a t i n g s are worthwhile. to teachers  Nothing  than t o be c a l l e d  i s more  convinced  exasperat-  upon t o do work w h i c h  f e e l w i l l b e o f no u s e ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e y the p r e c i s e u s e s  teachers  they  s h o u l d be i n f o r m e d o f  t o b e made o f t h e r a t i n g s w h i c h t h e y a r e *  being  asked  t o make.  Once t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y r a t -  i n g i n the s c h o o l are a p p r e c i a t e d , then ready  for instruction Training  teachers with these The  i n the techniques.  of raters.  The f i r s t  the s c a l e i t s e l f .  particular  traits  step i s to acquaint the  The b a s i s o f t h e s e l e c t i o n o f  and o f t h i s  w h o l e s c a l e c a n t h e n be r e a d  format  through  by p o i n t s o t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i l l of behavior  that are s i g n i f i c a n t  can b e m e n t i o n e d . the d i f f e r e n t ent  traits  pointed exercise there  the teachers are  c a n be e x p l a i n e d .  and d i s c u s s e d p o i n t  be u n i f o r m .  The types  f o r each o f the various t r a i t s  The i m p o r t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  p u p i l s on a n y one t r a i t  between  and b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r -  o f any one p u p i l must be made c l e a r .  I t can be  o u t t h a t on t h i s f o r m t h e r e i s ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o o n e s powers o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h i s  r e s p e c t as  f  a r e 15 s t e p s i n t h e v e r t i c a l  cedure o f marking  continuum.  The a c t u a l p r o -  t h e s c a l e s h o u l d b e gone o v e r .  I t s h o u l d be  - 63 p o i n t e d out the be  t h a t , i f p o s s i b l e , the r a t i n g  p u p i l s are i n f r o n t r a t e d on one  significant  trait  behavior  s h o u l d be made b y t h a t no to  conference pare pupil  t o be  rated  student  should  instances for  t h a t the r a t i n g s w i t h the o t h e r s ;  made i f t h e r e h a s  t h a t w o u l d be  done when  t h a t the group  recalled;  one  s h o u l d be  that specific  b e e n no  significant  and  opportunity  f o r that  trait.  t h e t e a c h e r s have r a t e d a number o f p u p i l s , to e x p l a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . a n d  Where the d i v e r g e n c e  i s very g r e a t , a case-study The  tain  s h o u l d be  s h o u l d be h e l d  ratings.  the t e a c h e r ;  comparing  behavior  After  of  at a time;  r a t i n g n e e d be  observe  -  q u e s t i o n , why  raised.  The  t o com-  of opinion regarding  c o u l d be  a  made.  r a t e a l l the p u p i l s ,  i s almost  answer i s t h a t a l l p u p i l s s h o u l d  as p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s  are not  a  restricted  cerbe  to a  l i m i t e d number o f " p r o b l e m " . s t u d e n t s ; i n s t e a d t h e i m p a c t  and  the  interaction  needs  and  d e s i r e s c r e a t e f o r a l l some a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s  effects  of environmental  on p e r s o n a l i t y .  manual of i n s t r u c t i o n s c o u l d be  given  For  the  for using  factors with individual with  t e a c h e r s ' convenience  a  the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g  scale  to each.  MANUAL 30F INFORMATION  D e v e l o p m e n t o f the has  been developed  Magee H i g h S c h o o l . this  one  was  Scale.  This personality rating  i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Three other  formulated.  consistency of r a t i n g  and  teaching s t a f f  s c a l e s were t r i e d  E a c h one  scale  out  of  before  showed an i n c r e a s e i n  the  i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between  the  - 64 traits.  After using  the  -  f o u r t h =scale, the  improvements, w h i c h were i n c o r p o r a t e d final  f o r m 355  computed  the  s t u d e n t s were r a t e d  d e c i l e scores  T h e s e d e c i l e s were t h e n as  a  i n the  and  on  this  Scale.  t o measure p e r s o n a l i t y .  The  the  f o r the  were  total. be  used  I t i s to  is  not  supplement  s u c h t e s t s as  the  a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e  to obtain  personality. should  quotients  a l l the  t e s t r e s u l t s , reading  and  on.  is  significant.  "In  we  must a l w a y s remember t h a t ,  do  not  e n j o y any  j u d g m e n t s . o f the  single  our  subjective  by  as  Strang  human c h a r a c t e r  the  could  student  the  by  (17, on  the  of  case,  they  personalperson-  j u d g m e n t . Thus  individual's traits  that  those I s s u i n g  the  p.109).  reliability t e s t and  Symonds  t h i s question a single  (18)  traits,  a n o t h e r whose own  a single-Item  appraised  records,  from Thorpe  A man's  criterion  suggests as  counsellor  intelligence  of  status.  s t a n d a r d s h e l d by  low  the  achievement  nature  in  individual's  about p e r s o n a l i t y  i n the  r a t i n g by be  the  quotation  a c c o r d e d one  summary o f .'the r e s e a r c h  although generally  of  quotients,  objective  statement  r a t i n g m i g h t be  corroborated  thinking  constitutes  ratings  This  Adjustment I n v e n t o r y  the  following  always e v a l u a t e d  sense of v a l u e s  t o the  The  standard  Q u a l i t i e s are  judgments."  the  data a v a i l a b l e :  so  related  and  I n f a c t to understand  consider  standardized  Personality  this scale  order  his  On  purpose of  of  is  and  a form which can  C a l i f o r n i a Test  al  revision.  profile. Purpose of  ity  suggested  from these r a t i n g s  f o r each t r a i t  arranged  teachers  (19,  are the of  this  p.95),  indicated  a  in  that,  judge i s u n r e l i a b l e ,  accurately  enough f o r  - 65 p r a c t i c a l purposes age  d e r i v e d from In  will in  i n e d u c a t i o n when t h e r a t i n g was  three to e i g h t independent  view of these f a c t s ,  develop scale  i n a student.  i s to arouse  u a t i o n o f h i s own average  ratings  f a c t u a l and  One  interest  qualities  w h i c h education aims  the p u p i l i n t h e  personality.  The  ratings  have a d e f i n i t e f u n c t i o n  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t of  aver-  ratings.  then, p e r s o n a l i t y  n o t have s a c r o s a n t v a l u e b u t w i l l  e s t i m a t i n g the i n t r i n s i c  the  profile  uses o f  as  a p o i n t of departure  ing  interview.  P u p i l s may  r a t e themselves  the  comparison of t h e i r r a t i n g s w i t h those  this  critical  eval-  d e r i v e d from  the  o f t h r e e o r more t e a c h e r s i s i m p e r s o n a l  serves  during a  to  and  counsell-  on  this  form  of  teachers  and may  show undue d i s c r e p a n c i e s , a f a c t w h i c h may r e v e a l symptoms that  s h o u l d be  investigated further.  interest  t h e members o f the s t a f f  vidually  and  personality  to a r r i v e  the s e c o n d a r y the  the  i n s t u d y i n g the p u p i l s  Finally  i t will  serve  indithe  as a f u t u r e  as a r e c o r d o f p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g school years  student population.  teachers,  i s to  a t a more o b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n o f  of each c h i l d .  reference both  A f o u r t h use  and  as  a comparative  standing  When m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ,  c o u n s e l l o r , or the p r i n c i p a l w i l l  find  with  the this  r e c o r d more t r u s t w o r t h y t h a n memory dimmed w i t h t h e p a s s i n g the  years. Instructions for rating.  opportunity of observing them on one  of  the form.  trait  By  the  t h e p u p i l s , he  A whole  at a time.  After  class  t e a c h e r has will  be  asked  o r g r a d e s h o u l d be  comparing observed  had  the  to r a t e  rated  behavior with  on the  - 66 descriptions fits  on  the s c a l e ,  t h e p u p i l most  the r a t e r  closely.  e q u a l t o the d e s c r i p t i o n he square; will the  but  put  i f he  an "X"  comparison,  three the  on  traits  one  an  the  put  o f the  the  "X"  step.  an " X " . i n t h e  i f he  complete  trait,  are  completed  Furthermore,  will  average  they should i n d i c a t e they are  the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e . counsellor Is available Strang  on  with of  behavior  of  this fact.  not  have or  When t h e  counsellor and  A l l such i n f o r m a t i o n gathered  (17, p.107) e a c h r a t e r  teacher.  In b r i e f  should observe  the.  examples  f o r one  the p u p i l ' s r e c o r d form  t o any  the  forms who draw by  according following:  1.  Make h i s r a t i n g w i t h o u t  2.  Rate a l l the p u p i l s to a second;  3.  Base h i s judgment as f a r as p o s s i b l e on o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e , t h a t I s , on a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e pupil's behavior;  4.  T r y t o p u t a s i d e any d e s i r e , c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s , to h e l p a p u p i l by a f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g ;  5.  Regard the d e s c r i p t i v e phrases of the v a r i o u s s t e p s as s u g g e s t i v e r a t h e r t h a n i n c l u s i v e ;  6.  on  c o n s u l t i n g anyone; one  the  comments., t o  t e a c h e r s may  to the  he  during  the r a t i n g  t o add  as  t o be r e t u r n e d  the r a t i n g s  times  to mention s p e c i f i c  opportunity to n o t i c e s i g n i f i c a n t  another  not  first  i s satisfied  convenient  They a r e a s k e d and  student  i n the c e n t r e square  At  teachers w i l l  behavior.  c o n s i d e r s the  one  s u p e r i o r to the d e s c r i p t i o n  he  will  should decide which  put  square;  at a time.  observed  will  i n the l a s t  u n d e r l i n e p e r t i n e n t phrases of  I f he  c o n s i d e r s him  the r i g h t  school year  -  t r a i t before  proceeding  C o n c e n t r a t e on a c o r r e c t i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e - p e r s o n a l i t y and make no a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e particular distribution.  pupil's any  the to  - 66 CHAPTER  VIII  SUMMARY The  study of  first  studied  cates  and  p e r s o n a l i t y i s as  scientifically  Galen.  Most o f  i n the  the  o l d as man  classic  efforts  of  since Allport  man".  as  f a r as  schools  c h i e f work w i t h  C o u n c i l on  are  not  concerned  s u c h s c a l e s has  Education  definition  been c e n t r e d  P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s are  o l d and The  a t t e n t i o n has  sum  the  of  behavior  Inheritance, ment.  To  a b o u t 25  i t s latest  the  conditions subject  of  and  the  environment.  T h e r e i s , however, a l s o It i s this  psychologists wish to  and  This  direct  the  pattern  a core of  Rating  observation  old.  American 1945.  the  sug-  of  the  the  biological  total  environ-  two  evaluate  s c a l e s are,  which  their  total  integrates  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that  the  p e r s o n a l i t y of t o the  to put  needs of  therefore, widely  to s i g n i f i c a n t behavior,  c o m p a r i s o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s and  and  on a r a t i n g s c a l e .  chance method i s u n s u i t e d  of i n d u s t r y .  the  years  form i n  limits  between t h e s e  evaluate  People c o n s t a n t l y ciates.  "whole  moment e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n  the  personality.  traits  the r a t i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s e p h e m e r a l  t h e r a t e r and  the  of  years  ways b u t  r e s u l t i n g from i n t e r a c t i o n with  d e p e n d i n g upon the  have  thesis i s that personality i s  patterns, within  some e x t e n t  the  was  Hippro-  more t h a n 150  Personality i s defined i n various definition for this  on  been done b y  which p u b l i s h e d  gested  t i m e s by  psychologists  b e e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s the r e c o g n i t i o n and but  but  on r e c o r d  to the  assoschools used  to  aid i n  the  opinion  of  - 67 the r a t e r s . al  Large i n d u s t r i a l  institutions,  the military  wide u s e o f r a t i n g  scales.  and m e r c a n t i l e forces  and o t h e r s  to  their  ity al  purpose of t h i s  scales:  one s u g g e s t e d b y the D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n -  of rating  among t h e t r a i t s scales  should  the t r a i t s  Centre o f Toronto.  The  and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  prove inadequate i n a c t u a l use, the n e e d s o f the h i g h  o f the J o h n s  rating  scale  1  co-operation,  the t e a c h e r s  emotional  and i n i t i a t i v e .  experiment  Before  copies  are asked t o grade the dependability,  o f t h e s c a l e were together  who g r a d e d  teachers.  a considerable  distri-  to discuss the of the r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and  I t was f o u n d  that  number o f p u p i l s a n d  who r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e t e c h n i q u e the o t h e r s .  indus-  courtesy,  p u p i l s were r a t e d by t h e same f o u r  were r a t e d b y 18 o t h e r  the t e a c h e r s  than  scale - Scale  and t o examine t h e t e r m s and the f o r m  Eleven  ten others  rating  schools of  c o n t r o l , appearance,  buted the t e a c h e r - r a t e r s were c a l l e d  scale.  I f these  i t i s proposed  personality rating  p u p i l s A, B, C, D, o r E , on the t r a i t s :  poise  made  scale.  study  In this  try,  The  Columbia f o r a c o n s i s t e n t , d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and  standardized  A.  C o l u m b i a a n d the o t h e r  w i l l b e computed and compared.  d e v e l o p one t o meet  British  regard  s c h o o l p u p i l s two p e r s o n a l -  b y the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance  consistency  to  effective.  and V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e f o r B r i t i s h  published  a r e making  t h e s i s i s t o examine w i t h  adequacy f o r r a t i n g h i g h  rating  education-  The q u e s t i o n i s n o t w h e t h e r t o u s e  s u c h d e v i c e s b u t how t o make them more The  firms,  d i d more  consistent  A l l t h e r a t i n g s were t a b u l a t e d and  - 68 s t u d i e d f o r the c o n s i s t e n c y o f the r a t i n g for  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  S c a l e A the average  among the t r a i t s  c o n s i s t e n c y was  of the p o s s i b l e g r a d e s . percentage  rose  to 46 percent  s e l e c t e d because they for on  Since  taught  1.85  of each t r a i t and o f t h e one p u p i l . steps  only f o u r grades  the same p u p i l s  g r a d e was u s e d  for a l l traits  of a  .- S c a l e B.  This scale  appearance, assurance, al  control,  brief put  scale  personality  traits:  were t a k e n  the average  Scale B enabled  and v o i c e - a n d - s p e e c h ,  The  spread o f the r a t i n g s  o f the p o s s i b l e .  I f only f i v e  was 2.2 o r 43 p e r c e n t .  I t seemed  the. t e a c h e r s t o g r a d e e a c h  The amount o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  trait  C+,  t e a c h e r s were n o t v e r y realized  well s a t i s f i e d  steps then  more  cases or  o f a student. with  t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s was v e r y g r e a t .  was  among t h e t r a i t s  the same g r a d e g i v e n t o a l l t r a i t s  o f t h e s e two f o r m s as t h e y various  with  columns h e a d e d A, B,  o f t h e p u p i l was i n c r e a s e d b y S c a l e B as i n o n l y n i n e 8.1 p e r c e n t was  emotion-  The t e a c h e r s were r e q u i r e d t o  the average  o r 36 p e r c e n t  consistently..  t h e same  T h e r a t i n g s were t a b u l a t e d and s t u d i e d as  2.5 g r a d e s  that  each.  agreed  differentiaticn  Centre  consisted of nine  a c h e c k mark i n one o f t h e s e v e n  On t h i s  percent  pupil.  sociability,  descriptions after  before.  The  the  were  courtesy, dependability, effort,  initiative,  C, C-, D, a n d E .  and 55  o f the t i m e s  • The s t u d y o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e scale  who  The t e a c h e r s  o f the c a s e s .  was n o t v e r y g r e a t as on 22 p e r c e n t  percent  were u s e d ,  f o r the four r a t e r s  the r a t e r s who were c h o s e n a t random. the g r a d e i n 17.7 p e r c e n t  o r 37  On  S c a l e A was  of  either of little  - 69 use  a s the r a t i n g s  the  s c a l e b u t i t might serve to d i v i d e  groups. was  Scale  of e a c h t r a i t  B gave b e t t e r  covered  lines  r e s u l t s but again  therefore,  decided  suggested by v a r i o u s  rating  scales  was  the v a r i o u s  traits  studied  traits.  I t was  ality  were a l s o  could  be r a t e d , more r e l i a b l y t h a n  original scale.  poise,  each t r a i t tion  cribed.  the  others.  as f o l l o w s :  sociability,  The  s c a l e was  The l i s t  appearance,  industry,  and a c t i v i t y .  traits  of  a mark a l o n g  been r a t e d  voice-and-  alertness,  The a v e r a g e ,  trait.  observa-  then the  Vertical lines  to t h e i n c r e a s e d  des-  to r a t e  t h r e e months  separat-  The r a t e r s were a s k e d t o  to the d e s c r i p t i o n s  planned  the mimeographed  leader-  A f t e r t h e name o f  the c o n t i n u u m t o I n d i c a t e  previously,  traits  to a p p e a r on one s i d e o f a page w i t h a  continuum f o r each  As I t was  Owing  on p e r s o n -  a q u e s t i o n was u s e d t o d i r e c t t h e r a t e r ' s  pupil i n reference  before  obtain  i n order to determine which  t h e f i v e d i v i s i o n s were drawn.  place  to  and f i n a l l y t h e s t e p s i n b e t w e e n t h e s e , were  horizontal ing  a l o n g the  A number o f  Various textbooks  t o c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f the t r a i t .  extremes,  The  the f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e  speech, refinement, d e p e n d a b i l i t y , ship,  consistency  very good.  h o p e d i n t h i s way  t h a t h a d the w i d e s t u s e .  f i n a l l y d e c i d e d u p o n was  the  two  authorities.  to l e a r n  consulted  half  into  t o t r y an. o r i g i n a l s c a l e  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f i r s t  of  the p u p i l s  low a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was  writer,  approximately  the standing  of  o f the t r a i t . .  the same 45 p u p i l s  as h a d  were a l l o w e d t o e l a p s e  s c a l e s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e teachers. i n t e r e s t on the p a r t  of t h e s t a f f ,  a  l a r g e number studied.  o f r a t i n g s was obtained.  Out o f t h e f i v e  T h e s e were t a b u l a t e d  and  p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t the  t e a c h e r s u s e d on t h e a v e r a g e 1.9 or 38 p e r c e n t . .  This  is  A and the  l o w e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e o f 2.0 g r a d e s  a v e r a g e o f 2.2 g r a d e s on S c a l e percentage o f times t h a t  B.  on S c a l e  Furthermore,  the r a t e r s  arid 19.6 p e r c e n t  that  the description  raters  t o r a t e more  consistently.  Scale  B.  more r a t i n g s  t o the t r a i t s  traits  descriptive  what b e t t e r  that for  ite  enabled the  A but less  than  type o f s c a l e ,  t h e r a t e r s g a v e two o r on S c a l e s  A, B and C  Among t h e  respectively  therefore,  submitting the ratings  t h e marks a l o n g  of the t i m e s .  seemed t o g i v e  t h e t e a c h e r s were  some-  One i m p o r t a n t  observable points  asked  From t h e f o r m e r r o s e t h e f a c t  t h e c o n t i n u u m h a d no s i g n i f i c a n c e  the whole s p a c e a b o v e one o f the f i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s s u g g e s t i o n was t o r a t e  pupils  except of a  on d e f i n -  s u c h a s : "Has he s p e e c h d i f f i c u l t y o r  i m p e d i m e n t ? " . An atfempt was made t o b u i l d a s c a l e principle  that  A, B and C no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s  c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s .  trait.  then  results.  After for  scale  77, 91.9 and 85.7 p e r c e n t .  were made 22.2, 8.1 and 7 p e r c e n t The  on S c a l e  o f one p u p i l  on t h e S c a l e s  I t seems  The a v e r a g e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  The p e r c e n t a g e o f t i m e s  were r e s p e c t i v e l y several  C than t h a t  t h a n t h e 13.6 p e r -  two s c a l e s .  o f the steps i n t h i s  w a s ' g r e a t e r on S c a l e on  on t h e o t h e r  t h e average  agreed i n the grade  a s s i g n e d was 27.7 p e r c e n t w h i c h i s b e t t e r cent  average  b u t i t h a d to b e abandoned as  on t h i s  Impractical.  - 71 The Mr.  development o f  J . W.  A.  -  t h e second  original scale*  F l e u r y t h e w r i t e r became i n t e r e s t e d  cess o f the R o y a l  Canadian A i r Force  scales using f i v e  s t e p s , one  build  a s c a l e of t h i s  Scale  C.  Reports sent  a  type  About t h i s t i m e Committee of  copy o f  the  and the  assured  This  was  the  t h e y e a r was  time  t o overcome t h e w e a k n e s s e s  of  rating  was  S c a l e D was  the  found The  r a t e r s agreed  grades  7.7  percent  ratings the  higher  or more r a t i n g s cent of  of t h e  the  times.  indicated  The  average  or 34  g i v e n was  percent  t h a t t h i s was  end  of that  35.4  The  of  It  study  spread  percent The  of  con-  which  was  distribution  s c a l e were g i v e n 97.3 100  of  among  the four s c a l e s s t u d i e d s i n c e  t h e most r e l i a b l e  of  t h a t the  differentiation  o f the r e s u l t s  was  the  of times  on t h e f I f teen-po.I>nt . s c a l e  superiority  the  and  lines.  h i g h e s t average  S c a l e C.  on t h e f i v e - p o i n t and  the r i g h t  ready  percentage  curve.  Appendix  prepared  t a b u l a t i o n and  t o h a v e the  t h a n t h a t on  (See  by h i s  were v e r y , b u s y so  W i t h an  of 1.7  the. h i g h e s t o f  times  and  been a n t i c i p a t e d .  w i t h the  average  approached a normal  t r a i t s was  being  working along  teachers  proceed  sistency of rating. on t h e  one  f o u r t h s c a l e was  of i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s  possible,  the* R e c o r d s  scale developed  to the  t h e r a t i n g s t h a t were i n h a n d . grades  He  rating to  f e w e r r a t i n g s were r e c e i v e d t h a n had d e c i d e d , however, t o  other.  suc-  decided  similar  this  a t hand a n d  the  C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n  the w r i t e r t h a t he By  with p e r s o n a l i t y  chairman of  the p e r s o n a l i t y  scale  i n the  Progressive Education Association  committee f o r t h e A m e r i c a n XVIII).  below  Through  two  per-  percent  on S c a l e  D  o f the f o u r used  in  - 72 this  study. The  sent  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of Scale E.  In reply  to t h e t e a c h e r s who h a d done the r a t i n g  criticisms answered  and s u g g e s t i o n s  and some o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s  change i n the s c a l e w a s . i n third  steps of the t r a i t  . was n e g a t i v e i n s e n s e t u r n was tion;  were r e c e i v e d .  completed  to a  a number o f  The c r i t i c i s m s  were a c c e p t e d .  The t h i r d  was r e p l a c e d b y t h e s e c o n d  by t h e statement:'  "tries  The s c a l e t h u s  were  The m a i n  the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e c o n d  sociability.  i s an e x h i b i t i o n i s t " .  letter  and  step which and i t i n  to attract  atten-  r e v i s e d was  called  Scale E. The was r e a d y and in  Pall  term  and b e f o r e  rate their  was w e l l a d v a n c e d when t h e r e v i s e d  t h e t e a c h e r s h a d h a d the time  pupils.  To o b t a i n a w i d e r  o t h e r s c h o o l s were a s k e d  completed  forms.  o f Magee H i g h  T h e s e and  sampling  to  observe  counsellors  f o r r a t i n g s a n d t h e y r e t u r n e d 76 the 279 r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e  S c h o o l g a v e 355 r a t i n g s  t o study.  teachers  As t h e  s u p e r i o r i t y o f S c a l e D h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d no a t t e m p t made t o s tudy  t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  E.  The q u e s t i o n a r o s e  the  traits.  study using from  on S c a l e  t o a s k the o p i n i o n o f e a c h of  had a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e r a t i n g  out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s ing f o r replies,  was  r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e I m p o r t a n c e o f  The w r i t e r d e c i d e d  the t e a c h e r s who  form  the w r i t e r d e c i d e d  the w e i g h t i n g s  and a l s o  field.  While  t o send wait-  t o make a p r e l i m i n a r y  which had a l r e a d y been r e c e i v e d  the teachers. A f t e r d i s c a r d i n g the w e i g h t i n g s  t h a t were out of  line  - 73 with the and  others, that f a i l e d  t h a t were g i v e n by  was  decided  multiple  to use  o f 15.  refinement  90,  The  as  total  1,000. F r o m the 355 15  and  the d e c i l e s  found  record  to. e x i s t ,  of  sheet  can t h e n b e graph. tain  By  one  can be  joining  a profile  instead gated  each  as  an  sex d i f f e r e n c e On  the  the  These  decile  c o u n s e l l o r can An  on  score  teacher.  a v e r a g e marked on  and  the  sufficient.  Dr.  ob-  example i s g i v e n  L e f e v e r o f the  s t e p s w o u l d have b e e n s u f f i c i e n t to be of  study o n l y  computing  The  were a r r a n g e d  pupil's personality.  c o r r e c t as was  .29  means.  scores.  five  was  investian  be  average  significant  T h i s meant t h a t i n the  the f i v e - s t e p s n e e d e d t o  the d e c i l e  U n i v e r s i t y of  the  i n d i c a t e d by  where 3 i s c o n s i d e r e d  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n two quent  tabulated;  computed.  by  90,  of the r a t i n g s  was  60,  i n d u s t r y 150,  significant  rating  a  K.  and f o u n d ratio  convenience  influence  t h a t the computation o f t h e means o f  o f 15  critical  90,  was  the p o i n t s marked, t h e  A s u g g e s t i o n made by California  traits  S i n c e no  the  For  were: appearance  frequency  s e t of d e c i l e s  and  o f the  i n Appendix.I  the  marked the  averaged  13.  sociality  the d e c i l e s  traits,  experience'with'the  d e p e n d a b i l i t y 180,  and  among t h e  score f o r each t r a i t  d i v i s i o n s o f each t r a i t  i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d sheet. was  100,  f o r m s the  means were d e t e r m i n e d values  the r e m a i n i n g  the t o t a l  sociability  90,. a l e r t n e s s 150,  the  no  adjusted weightings  poise  each of  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  teachers having  s c a l e , the w r i t e r averaged it  -  In  the  subse-  considered  in  - 74 When 68 r e p l i e s questionnaires  sent  -  had b e e n  received from  out to a s c e r t a i n  59  r e p l i e s w h i c h gave w e i g h t e d  17 r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s were  s t u d y was  tabulated.  a weighted value f o r each t r a i t  venience i n g i v i n g trait,  Because  median was ment 100, 100,  of f i v e .which was  These v a l u e s were:  sociability  alertness  values pute  used.  100,  sociality  110, d e p e n d a b i l i t y  selected  t h e median.  For  to  con-  steps o f each  nearest to the  actual  appearance  refine-  75,  110, i n f l u e n c e  150  o f some  100,  and Indus t r y . 120.  poise These  were t h e n u s e d w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y . d i s t r l b u t i o n t o com-  the means, t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and t h e s t a n d a r d  errors  of t h e means.  decile  scores f o r each  fractional  parts  curve to g i v e  proportional  From t h i s trait  evolved the  t h e mean p l u s the.  of a normal The  distribution  decile  s c o r e s were  of a b a r g r a p h w i t h t h e w i d t h o f t h e b a r s  to t h e w e i g h t i n g s o f the profile.  traits An  so that  the  graph  example i s g i v e n i n  XV. By e x a m i n i n g  w r i t e r found most r e l i a b l e latter  by taking  o f the b a s e l i n e  a weighted p e r s o n a l i t y  Appendix  i n f o r m a t i o n was  the v a r i o u s d e c i l e s .  t h e n put i n f o r m  gave  was  a v a l u e t o e a c h o f the f i v e  the m u l t i p l e  undertaken.  v a l u e s i n a d d i t i o n ; to t h e  extreme w e i g h t i n g s t h e measure of c e n t r a l t e n d e n c y give  89  the o p i n i o n s of e x p e r t s  on t h e w e i g h t i n g , o f t h e t r a i t s , t h e f i n a l The  the  the s t a n d a r d e r r o r s  t h a t the mean o f t h e t r a i t , and  that of d e p e n d a b i l i t y  c a s e the r a n g e o f the  one s t e p i n the d e c i l e  scale.  o f t h e means, t h e a p p e a r a n c e , was  the  the l e a s t b u t  i n the  t r u e mean d i d n o t e x t e n d  beyond  The  r a n k i n g s of  the  traits  - 75 according  to t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  o f the means and a c c o r d i n g  t o the  consistency  o f r a t i n g t h e t r a i t s were compared b y the r a n k  difference  method o f m e a s u r i n g c o r r e l a t i o n and t h e p r o d u c t -  moment  c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d t o b e 0.70 so t h a t  there, i s  e v i d e n c e of correspondence between t h e r a n k i n g s . Instructions asked to r a t e formed be  f o r using  pupils  Before the teachers are  they  s h o u l d be f u l l y i n -  o f the u s e s t o b e made o f t h e r a t i n g s  and t h e y  t h o r o u g h l y c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e terms o f t h e s c a l e techniques  put  i n t o a manual b u t e v e n  staff  on  E.  on t h i s s c a l e  the  the  Scale  meeting.  of r a t i n g .  Attention  Most o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  should and w i t h  c a n be  s o , i t s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d o f the t e a c h e r s  at a  s h o u l d be c a l l e d , t o  importance o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t h e d i f f e r e n t the same t r a i t  pupil.  This  each  the d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s  need o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  scale by having marking  and b e t w e e n  a vertical  i s emphasized  pupils  o f t h e same on t h i s  c o n t i n u u m wi t h 15 p o s i t i o n s f o r  trait.  Personality  rating  scales  a r e n o t measures of p e r s o n -  ality  but are additions  t o the i n f o r m a t i o n  tests  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l and a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d  light  of a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n  available.  obtained from only  other  i n the  The u s e s o f t h i s  personality rating scale are: 1.  To a r o u s e i n t e r e s t o f t h e p u p i l h i m s e l f i n t h e c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y ;  2.  To s e r v e a s a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e d u r i n g counselling interview;  3.  T o r e v e a l undue d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e p u p i l ' s s e l f - r a t i n g and t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s ;  a  4.  To i n t e r e s t t h e members o f t h e s t a f f i n an o b j e c t i v e study o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y of each child;  5.  T o be k e p t on f i l e as a r e c o r d inhich c a n b e r e f e r r e d t o when r e f e r e n c e s a r e r e q u i r e d a f t e r the p u p i l h a s l e f t school. T e a c h e r s , who have d i s c u s s e d  t h e terms u s e d o n t h i s  s c a l e , who u n d e r s t a n d i t s f o r m a t and who a p p r e c i a t e i t s p u r p o s e s , may s t i l l one  trait  need t o be reminded to r a t e  a t a t i m e on o b j e c t i v e  anyone, t o r e g a r d d e s c r i p t i v e to concentrate personality.  the p u p i l s  evidence without  phrases  on  consulting  as s u g g e s t i v e o n l y and  on an i m p e r s o n a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the p u p i l ' s  - 77 CHAPTER  IX  REFERENCES  1.  ALLPORT, FLOYD H., S o c i a l Psychology. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1924.  2.  DOWNEY, JUNE E . , Testing. New Y o r k :  3.  GARRETT, HENRY E . , Education. New Y o r k :  4.  HANNA, JOSEPH V., V a r i a b l e F a c t o r s Encountered i n t h e R a t i n g o f S t u d e n t s , S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 1925, XXV, 481-488.  5.  HARTSHORNE, MAY, MALLER, SHUTTLEWORTH AND OTHERS, C h a r a c t e r E d u c a t i o n I n q u i r y , T e n t h Y e a r Book o f D e p a r t m e n t of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , 1926, 92.  6.  HUGHES, W. HARDIN, " Pasedena P u b l i c S c h o o l Blank, Pasedena P u b l i c Schools E d u c a t i o n a l Research B u l l e t i n , 1923-25 p a s s i m ; a l s o G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s and R e s u l t s o f R a t i n g T r a i t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Method, 4, 421-31.  7.  KENNEDY, FLORA, The P r a c t i c a l V a l u e o f t h e Downey W i l l - T e m p e r a m e n t T e s t s , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4, 260-3T  8.  LANDIS, PAUL H., New Y o r k r McGraw-Hill  The W i l l - T e m p e r a m e n t W o r l d Book Co., 1924.  and i t s  S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and . Longmans, G r e e n and Co., 1941.  A d o l e s c e n c e and Y o u t h , Book Company I n c o r p o r a t e d ,  9.  LA  10.  PRESSY, SIDNEY L. AND JANNEY, J . E L L I O T T , Casebook o f R e s e a r c h i n E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . York: H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1937.  1941.  PIERRE, RICHARD T. AND FARNSWORTH, PAUL R., S o c i a l Psychology. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1942.  11. REED, ANNA Y., i n Education. 12.  June  London:  New  G u i d a n c e and P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e s O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1944.  REMMERS, H. H. AND GAGE, N.L., E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n . H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1943.  New  York:  - 78 13.  ROSANOFF, AARON J . ( E d i t o r ) Free A s s o c i a t i o n Test of K e n t - R o s a n o f f , r e p r i n t e d f r o m Manual o f P s y c h i a t r y , New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y and Sons I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1927.  14.  SHAFFER, LAURANCE F . The P s y c h o l o g y o f A d j u s t m e n t . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1936.  15.  SKINNER, CHARLES E . Elementary E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. New Y o r k : Prentice-Hall Incorporated, 1945.  16.  SMITH, EUGENE R. J u d g i n g and R e c o r d i n g P u p i l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , E d u c a t i o n a l J o u r n a l , XV, 87-105.  17.  STRANG, RUTH and S e c o n d a r y 1937.  Schools.  Counseling Technics i n College New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s ,  18.  SYMONDS, PERCIVAL M. Conduct. New Y o r k :  D i a g n o s i n g P e r s o n a l i t y and The C e n t u r y Company, 1931.  19.  SYMONDS, PERCIVAL M. S o c i a l Adjustment. Company, 1934.  20.  THORPE,. LOUIS P. Psychological Foundations o f Personality. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company,1938.  21.  TRAXLER, ARTHUR E . Techniques o f Guidance. New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1945.  22.  TRAXLER, ARTHUR E . The Use o f T e s t s and R a t i n g D e v i c e s i n the A p p r a i s a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d s B u r e a u , 1938.  Psychological Diagnosis i n New Y o r k : T h e A m e r i c a n Book  - 79 -  APPENDIX  I A  SCALE A Taken f r o m Johns' Cumulative Record PERSONALITY r a t i n g  of  Card  Class  Period  Rated by Use A B C D E  the'following  for for for for for  symbols:  excellent good average below a v e r a g e entirely unsatisfactory  Dependability Industry " Co-operation Emotional Control' Appearance ' Courtesy Poise Initiative  SCALE B Issued by V o c a t i o n a l Guidance  Period  Personality r a t i n g of Rated by PERSONALITY  RATINGS  1. APPEARANCE - n e a t n e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s , grooming 2. ASSURANCE - s e l f - c o n f i dence, s e l f - r e l i a n c e 3. COURTESY - manner, t a c t , respect, co-operation 4. DEPENDABILITY - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , trustworthiness 5. EFFORT - d e g r e e t o w h i c h tl*X@ s 6. EMOTIONAL CONTROL - p o i s e , e v e n temper, a c c e p t a n c e , . fair critic 7. I N I T I A T I V E - c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y , imagination 8. S O C I A B I L I T Y - m i x e r , c o operation with others 9. VOICE & SPEECH - d i s t i n c t , resonant, pleasant  Centre, Toronto Class  D CE Cf B A j.C poor *l . a v . 'av. h.av. s;ood e x c . v.p. 1  80 APPENDIX  I  B Mage© H i g h S c h o o l , November 28, 1945.  Dear  Pellow-teacher:  An e x p l a n a t i o n i s due many o f y o u r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s t h a t y o u may have s e e n i n t h e h a n d s of v a r i o u s teachers. I have t a l k e d t o some o f y o u b u t n o t t o o t h e r s and so I am t a k i n g t h i s method o f e x p l a i n i n g i n more detail. The P r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r o f G u i d a n c e i s p l a n n i n g on i n t r o d u c i n g a c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d n e x t P a l l and, as w i t h most o f t h e s e c a r d s , i t has a s p a c e f o r r e c o r d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y ratings. The u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s c a r d w i l l d e p e n d on t h e a c c u r a c y o f i t s i n f o r m a t i o n and as r e g a r d the a c c u r a c y o f p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g there i s considerable doubt. I t was s u g g e s t e d t o me b y a member o f t h e P s y c h o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t o f U.B.C. t h a t I l o o k i n t o t h i s m a t t e r and p e r h a p s I c o u l d work up a t h e s i s on the s u b j e c t . I h a v e , t h e r e f o r e , mimeographed some c o p i e s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e f r o m the c a r d o f the P r o v i n c i a l G u i d a n c e D i r e c t o r and some f r o m the c a r d o f the G u i d a n c e Department o f the O n t a r i o C o l l e g e of Education. I h a v e a s k e d a number o f t e a c h e r s who s e e t h e same p u p i l s t o t r y t h e s e s c a l e s so t h a t I may c h e c k the c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r a t i n g s and s o t h a t I may see i f the c a r d d i f f e r e n t i a t e s s u f f i c i e n t l y between t h e d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s and b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t p u p i l s . I n a d d i t i o n , a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e s t u d y on t h e s u b j e c t , I s h a l l draw up two o t h e r r a t i n g s c a l e s w h i c h I s h a l l s u b m i t f o r your c r i t i c i s m s . A f t e r r e v i s i n g these i n accordance with y o u r s u g g e s t i o n s , I hope t o h a v e many o f y o u t r y to u s e them and a g a i n t o c h e c k t h e r e s u l t s . I r e a l i z e , of course, that I am a s k i n g q u i t e a f a v o u r o f you a s y o u a r e a l l busy and a l l t h i s means e x t r a w o r k . But wi t h o u t y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n t h e study i s Impossible. W i l l t h i s s t u d y h a v e any v a l u e to anyone e x c e p t myself? I t w i l l be of no v a l u e to me i f we do n o t f i n d a r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t w i l l do the j o b . You w i l l h a v e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t r y i n g o u t and o f c r i t i c i z i n g a number of s u c h s c a l e s . As f a r as t h e p u p i l s a r e c o n c e r n e d , the r a t i n g s s h o u l d r e v e a l s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s ; and t h e G u i d a n c e t e a c h e r s may draw the a t t e n t i o n o f the p u p i l s t o t h e w e a k n e s s e s and s u g g e s t ways o f o v e r c o m i n g them. No p u p i l s w i l l be shown t h e r a t i n g o f a t e a c h e r b u t t h e r a t i n g s of f o u r o r f i v e t e a c h e r s may be a v e r aged and u s e d ( i f t i m e p e r m i t s ) . On the c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d cards o n l y t h i s composite r a t i n g i s r e c o r d e d . I f these  - 81 p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s a r e r e c o r d e d a t v a r i o u s times d u r i n g the p u p i l ' s s c h o o l d a y s , t h e y w i l l show h i s p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p ment and w i l l s e r v e as u s e f u i r e f e r e n c e s l a t e r when recommendations f o r jobs are required. F i n a l l y we may b e a b l e t o d e v e l o p a score which w i l l i n d i c a t e the s t a n d i n g i n a l a r g e group of a s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s . We s h a l l know i f he i s above o r below t h e a v e r a g e i n e a c h t r a i t a n d i n p e r s o n a l i t y . W e l l , i f you have had the p a t i e n c e t o r e a d t h i s f a r , I hope y o u w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o j e c t t h a t I am engaged i n and hope y o u w i l l c o - o p e r a t e i n i t . I s h a l l be g l a d t o a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s and t o d i s c u s s any p h a s e o f t h e m a t t e r w i t h y o u . Thank y o u .  - 82 APPENDIX  I C DATE  PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW RATING SCALE  INTERVIEWED BY  NAME  INSTRUCTION: P l e a s e r a t e the i n d i v i d u a l b y m a k i n g a c h e c k mark a l o n g t h e s c a l e ; i f y o u c a n n o t be s u r e o f a s p e c i f i c p o i n t on t h e s c a l e c h e c k two p o i n t s . R a t e h i m o n l y on t h o s e t r a i t s that you d e f i n i t e l y n o t i c e d . R a t e h i m a s he a p p e a r e d t o y o u w i t h o u t t o o much s t u d y . A f t e r making your r a t i n g add some comment i f y o u c a n , t r y t o g i v e a n e x a m p l e , o r d e t a i l s not c o v e r e d I n the g e n e r a l r a t i n g . A f t e r 'comments * some s u g g e s t e d comments a r e g i v e n . The d e s c r i p t i o n s a t t h e s i d e s o f the page a p p l y t o t h e . e x t r e m e r a t i n g s , 'much b e l o w a n d 'much above' • 1  S O C I A B I L I T Y AND FRIENDLINESS seir-conCordial; sclous; natural & c o l d and Much AverAbove f r e e expresMuch Below t e n s e ;withs i o n ; warmth Below Ave. age Ave. Above irawing COMMENT: ( S e l f - c e n t e r e d , o v e r c o r d i a l , s m i l e s , s e r i o u s , a n x i o u s , humour, b l u s h i n g , e t c )  INTELLIGENCE AND ALERTNESS Srasps ideas slowly: d u l l  i  Much Below  t  i  Below Aver. Ave. age  i  Above Ave.  i  Much Above  Very a l e r t ; q u i c k & keen understanding  COMMENT: ( F a i l s t o s e e j o k e s , t h i c k , a f f e c t s brightness, too witty, e t c . )  A B I L I T Y TO EXPRESS SELF Confused and awkward expression  Much Below  Below Ave.  Average  Above Ave.  Much Above  Clear and convincing; pleasant voice  COMMENT: ( S p e e c h d e f e c t , a c c e n t , h a r s h n e s s , p o o r v o i c e , s l a n g , d i c t i o n and grammar, e t c . )  - 83 DEPENDABILITY AND  RESPONSIBILITY  Negligent; c a r e l e s s ; unMuch Above AverBelow Much trustworthy; Above Ave. Below Ave. procrastinates COMMENT: ( E v a s i v e , makes a l i b i s f o r s e l f , earliest responsibility)  PERSONAL  APPEARANCE  Careless; unkempt Much Below  Below Ave.  Average  Above Ave.  COMMENT: ( P o o r t a s t e , o v e r d r e s s e d ,  PHYSICAL Weak; anemic; poor colour  Thoroughly trustworthy; honest; i n dustrious ; t a k e s . i n i t i ative  Much Above lacks  Very n e a t l y and a p p r o priately dressed grooming)  HEALTH Strong; alert; good c o l o u r  Much Below  Below Ave.  Average  Above Ave.  Much Above  COMMENT: ( C a p a b l e o f h a r d work o r n o t , c h r o n i c diseases, c o l d s , Indigestion, overweight, underweight, f a c i a l s c a r s , c r i p p l e d n e s s , deformed, asthma, s k i n t r o u b l e , t w i t c h e s or t i c s , u l c e r s , headaches, r e s t l e s s n e s s )  CONFIDENCE I N ONES S E L F COMMENT: O v e r - c o n f i d e n t , o v e r r a t e s s e l f - some? much? U n d e r - c o n f i d e n t , u n d e r r a t e s s e l f - some? much? Well balanced self-confidence.  TENDENCY TO DOMINATE OTHERS COMMENT: T i m i d a n d w i t h d r a w i n g , t o o f o r c e f u l , o v e r b e a r i n g , h a p p y medium.  AMBITIONS AND L I F E AIMS COMMENT: T o o h i g h , t o o l o w , - w e l l b a l a n c e d a n d wise aims.  - 84 SPEED OP GENERAL MOVEMENT COMMENT: P a s t , s l o w , m o d e r a t e , - n e r v o u s movement, placid, overactive, easily stimulated.  A B I L I T Y TO SUPERVISE OTHERS COMMENT: S y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g with g o o d human i n s i g h t , harsh, s e l f - c e n t e r e d , too easy, soft.  COMMENT I N GENERAL:  ( D i d y o u communicate w i t h or a ' f r o n t ' )  t h e ' r e a l ' man  APPENDIX  I  D  SCALE G' PERSONALITY RATING SCALE NAME RATED BY P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s a r e a u s e f u l a d d i t i o n . t o our s c h o o l r e c o r d s b u t t h e y must be f r a n k , t h o u g h f u l , and d i s c r i m inating. The s t u d e n t s h o u l d be compared w i t h t h e e n t i r e g r o u p known t o t h e r a t e r . T h i s g r o u p w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d as 20% 5% 20% 50% 5% above s u p e r ior below very poor average average average Mark a c r o s s a t the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e on the l i n e t o i n d i c a t e the s t a n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d e n t compared w i t h o t h e r s o f your acquaintance. APPEARANCE How i s he regarded for his . manner and b e a r ing? SPEECH Does he e x p r e s s . ". his ideas clearly?  He I s noticed; i s neat and a t tractive; good i m pression.  le i s very attractive; bakes pains arith appearance  He u s u a l l y He i s . h e s i t a n t ; expresses himself mumbles; well. vague.  He has a superior vocabul a r y , has good voice.  He has exceptional ability; clear pleasant voice.  He. l a c k s tact, i s inconsiderate, seldom polite.  He i s usually polite, wellmannered, courteous.  H i s good He i s n o t manners ed - f o r h i s are n o t i c - f a u l t l e s s ed. He manners; does t h e l s very right tactful things. chivalrous.  He i s f o r - He i s usually getful, haphazard, dependable has t o b e n e e d s checked checking up o f t e n . periodically.  He d o e s He f u l as w e l l f i l l s proas he can m i s e s , can with be r e l i e d little upon, i s supervision. a c c u r a t e .  He i s d i s l i k e d ; avoided; makes a v e r y unfavourable impression.  He i s tolerated; i s carel e s s ; untidy.  He makes errors i s confusing; has h a r s h voice.  REPINEMESI He i s Does he show g o o d b o o r i s h , objectionmanners, able, tact, courtesy? h a b i t u a l l y discourteous. DEPENDABII I T Y I s he r e - He i s v e r y liable, respbns-. punctual, i b l e , a l sincere? ways has to be s u pervised.  He i s accepted; inconsistent; makes f a i r impression.  INDUSTRY I s he diligent, persistent, e f ficient, willing? ALERTNESS I s he a t tentive, enthusias t i c , observant, able t o grasp a situation? LEADERSHIP I s he r e sourceful, enterprising, able to i n s p i r e confidence  POISE Does he exercise selfcontrol? I s he emotionally stable?  86 -  He I s l a z y , very i n e f ficient ; neglects work.  He p r o crastinates;does what he has t o often poorly.  He does what he must i n a satisfacto r y manner.  He o f t e n does more than I s required; does n o t waste time efficient.  He i s very efficient finds work t o dc accomplish es a g r e a t deal.  le I s d u l l .is t l e s s , lay-dreams, ills understands .  He n e e d s much r e petition, explanat i on; lacks concentration.  He i s usually a t t e n t i ve; understands grasps meaning.  He i s o b servant, quickwi t t e d ; needs little explanation.  He I s e x ceptionally quick, adaptable; anticip a t e s need; results. .  He o c He t e n d s c a s i o n a l l y to take leads; the l e a d ; needs encooperates courageeffectivement. ly; r e sponsive.  He a l w a y s leads i n spires confIdence; cooperates enthusiastically,  He i s c r i - He i s tical, not r e antagonis- sponsive; t i c , aloof; gives a weak f a i r sup?f o l l o w e r . p o r t ; prefers to follow. He i s overemoti o n a l moody, quickly annoyed o r pleased.  He i s r e a sonable ; seldom ups e t ; meets difficulties, disappointments.  He h a s as- He e x e r surance ; c i s e s self equable control temperau n d e r tryment; i s ing c i r rarely cumstances vexed. goodhumored .  SOCIABILITY I s he f o n d He i s d i : s -He i s o f company'S a g r e e a b l e , s e l f conscious, I s he popu-• c o l d , shy,sometense, lar with times unh i s c l a s s - keeps to sociable. himself. mates?  He m i x e s well, i s generally sociable and a g r e e able .  He i s friendly; prefers company; is wellliked.  He i s e a s i l y and frequently angered, depressed, elated.  He i s cord i a l ; Is c e n t r e of crowd; has nat.ur a l warmth o f friendliness.  - 87 ACTIVITY I s he f o n d of school activities?  He h a s no interest; t a k e s no part.  He a t t e n d s He shows important interest f u n c t i o n s ; i n many activitakes m i n o r p a r t . t i e s and takes part i n some.  He t a k e s part i n many, p r o minent i n some; active supporter.  He i s keenly intereste d ; an outstanding participant.  - 88 APPENDIX CRITICISMS  I E  OP SCALE C BY RATERS  Teacher  "A":  " I have n o t f i l l e d i n a l l q u e s t i o n s a s I h a v e i n s u f f i c i e n t a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h some s t u d e n t s . Sometimes I have c r o s s e d out p h r a s e s as i n a p p l i c a b l e to t h e c a s e i n q u e s t i o n . "  Teacher  "D"  " I r e a l l y do n o t f e e l t h a t I c a n be a t r u l y f a i r j u d g e of a l l t h e s e t r a i t s - b u t I marked them anyway J "  Teacher " I " : :  "These w i l l n o t be s e e n b y t h e s t u d e n t s , .they?"  will  Teacher  "N"  "I'm n o t s u r e what y o u ' v e g o t when i t s f i n i s h e d . I s t h e r e a l i n k b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l i t y and I.Q.? Why n o t add the t r a i t , " M a t u r i t y " ? "  Teacher  "L"  " I d o n ' t l i k e the s p a c i n g b e t w e e n 'below average' and ' a v e r a g e ' . They are f a r f u r t h e r a p a r t than • a v e r a g e ' and 'above a v e r a g e ' and as a c o n s e q u e n c e I f i n d m y s e l f p u t t i n g down an 'X' and then immediately s a y i n g t o mself t h a t i t i s wrongly p l a c e d . F o r example, these s t e p s a r e not e q u a l l y spaced a p a r t : "He i s h e s i t a n t , mumbles, v a g u e . " and'"He u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e s himself well." "He h a s a s u p e r i o r v o c a b u l a r y , has good v o i c e . " I think that this chart i s requiring of me an i m p o s s i b l e t h i n g , t h a t i n one a n d the same 'X' t o s a y what I t h i n k and what h i s f e l l o w students think of the i n d i v i d u a l . For example, t h e r e a r e two p o i n t s o f v i e w . "He i s a c c e p t e d , i n c o n s i s t e n t , makes f a i r i m p r e s s i o n " , and " H i s g o o d manners a r e n o t i c e d , he does t h e right thing"."  - 89 APPENDIX  I P  PROPOSED SCALES FOR RATING S P E C I F I C BEHAVIOR TEACHER'S SUGGESTION Yes 1.  Appearance: A. • I s he ( s h e ) r e a s o n a b l y c l e a n and n e a t as t o c l o t h e s , s h o e s , grooming o f h a i r , hands and . face? B. I s he ( s h e ) p r o n e to b i z a r r e or f l a s h y d r e s s i n g - something d i f f e r e n t from the current f a s h i o n , p e r h a p s t o draw a t t e n tion? C. Does h e ( s h e ) c a r r y h i m s e l f w i t h tolerable grace?  2.  V o i c e and S p e e c h : A~. I s h i s (her) voice f r e e from h a r s h n e s s , p l e a s a n t , w e l l modulated? B. Does he ( s h e ) make p r o p e r u s e of v o c a l o r g a n s b y c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f w o r d s and a v o i d a n c e o f mumbling? C. Has h e ( s h e ) s p e e c h - d i f f i c u l t y or i m p e d i m e n t ? D. Has he ( s h e ) more t h a n o r d i n a r y command • o f l a n g u a g e ? E. Does he ( s h e ) s p e a k w i t h r e a s o n able fluency?  3.  Refinement: A. I s he ( s h e ) l o u t i s h i n b e a r i n g and manner o f a d d r e s s ? B. I s h i s (her) c h u r l i s h n e s s cons c i o u s and s t u d i e d ? C. Does h i s ( h e r ) l a c k o f manners a p p e a r t o b e u n c o n s c i o u s a n d due t o unhappy l a c k o f t r a i n i n g ? D. Does he ( s h e ) show c o n s i d e r a t e n e s s and due r e s p e c t w h e r e t h e s e ought to be e x p e c t e d ?  No  Uncertaln  - 90 APPENDIX I P (CONTINUED) PROPOSED SCALES FOR RATING S P E C I F I C BEHAVIOR WRITER'S ATTEMPT • Poor 1.  Social Acceptability: c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, speech, manner, b e a r i n g . A; I s he ( s h e ) r e a s o n a b l y c l e a n as t o c l o t h e s , , s h o e s , groomi n g o f h a i r , h a n d s and f a c e ? B. I s he ( s h e ) n e a t and t i d y a s to h i s ( h e r ) c l o t h e s , h a i r ? C. Does he ( s h e ) show g o o d t a s t e . i n c l o t h e s and a c c e s s o r i e s ? D. Does he ( s h e ) e x p r e s s i d e a s clearly? E . Does he ( s h e ) speak w i t h good a r t i c u l a t i on? P. Does he ( s h e ) s p e a k w i t h g o o d modulation? G. Has he ( s h e ) g o o d manners? I s he ( s h e ) p o l i t e ? H. I s his ( h e r )c a r r i a g e e r e c t ? A b i l i t y t o Work: ' industry, persistence, efficiency, achievement, c o n c e n t r a t i o n , n e a t ness. A. Does he ( s h e ) p u t f o r t h a r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t t o do work? B. Does he ( s h e ) k e e p t r y i n g i n s p i t e of d i f f i c u l t y or f a i l . ure? C. Does he ( s h e ) a c c o m p l i s h a . r e a s o n a b l e amount o f w o r k ? D. Does he ( s h e ) show o r i g i n a l i t y . i n p r e s e n t i n g work? E . Does he ( s h e ) d e p e n d on h e l p from others? P, Does he ( s h e ) work i n d e p e n d e n t l j r of others? G. Does he ( s h e ) a c c o m p l i s h much i\i a short time? H. I s h i s ( h e r ) work n e a t l y done? I . Does he ( s h e ) g r a s p e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s , main problems? J . Does he ( s h e ) f r i t t e r away h i s (her) time?  Average  auperior  -  91 Poor  3.  Character Q u a l i t i e s : dependability loyalty, uprightness, t r u t h f u l n e s s , honesty, self-reliance. A. I s he ( s h e ) u s u a l l y p u n c t u a l i n t u r n i n g i n assignments? B. Does he ( s h e ) have h i s ( h e r ) right books a t c l a s s ? C. Have y o u found h i s ( h e r ) word to be t r u s t w o r t h y ? D. Does he ( s h e ) a c c e p t and f o l l o w advice?  Average  Superi o r ^  - 92 APPENDIX  I G  SCALE D PERSONALITY' RATING Student Date ,  SCALE School Teacher  P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s are u s e f u l a d d i t i o n s to o u r s c h o o l r e c o r d s a n d i f c o n t i n u e d w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a c h a r t showing p e r s o n a l i t y development d u r i n g the s t u d e n t ' s s c h o o l l i f e . When r a t i n g , compare t h e s t u d e n t w i t h o t h e r s . Recall signif i c a n t b e h a v i o r . . Under e a c h heading decide which statement b e s t d e s c r i b e s the p e r s o n y o u a r e r a t i n g . I f he i s n o t q u i t e e q u a l t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n p u t "X" I n the f i r s t s q u a r e ; i f h e i s a l i t t l e b e t t e r p u t an "X i n t h e t h i r d s q u a r e ; i f h e i s a b o u t t h e same as t h e s t a t e m e n t p u t an "X" i n t h e c e n t r e s q u a r e . The u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s f o r m d e p e n d s on y o u r f r a n k n e s s , t h o u g h t f u l n e s s and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . n  1.  Appearance. Does he ( s h e ) make a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n ? t a s t e , care, c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness. Is  o f f e n s i v e l y groomed::  Is  untidy,  Makes f a i r  Consider  t o o much, has p o o r t a s t e .  indifferent impression;  i s acceptable  Has p l e a s i n g a p p e a r a n c e ; i s n e a t , w e l l - d r e s s e d , Is  2.  very  attractive;  e x p e r t l y groomed.  Refinement. Does he ( s h e ) have good m a n n e r s , t a c t , courtesy, appreciation? Is  boorish,  clean  consideration,  objectionable, ill-mannered. •  Is t o l e r a t e d ; l a c k s t a c t , appreciation. > Has s a t i s f a c t o r y  and manners; shows  manners b u t i s e r r a t i c  Does and s a y s  the r i g h t  Has f a u l t l e s s  manners, i s v e r y  and  little off-handed  things. tactful  and  considerate  - 93 3.-  Sociability. I s he ( s h e ; f r i e n d l y ,  cordial,  Keeps a l o o f ; i s t e n s e , sufficient. Is reserved,  popular,  a good  c o l d or unpleasant;  mixer?  self-  s h y ; r e s p o n d s to f r i e n d l i n e s s .  Shows no p a r t i c u l a r  social  or a n t i - s o c i a l  behavior.  P r e f e r s company; i s w e l l - l i k e d ; i s g e n e r a l l y s o c i a b l e , agreeable. Has a n a t u r a l warmth o f f r i e n d l i n e s s ; group.. 4.  Sociality. I s he ( s h e ) c o n c e r n e d f o r w e l f a r e self-centered, self-interested? C o n s i d e r s how o t h e r s is ruthless. Is  indifferent  Claims  i s centre  of others;  of a  selfish,  can be u s e d f o r h i s advantage;  to o t h e r s '  welfare;  to be i n t e r e s t e d b u t d o e s  l s callous.  nothing.  Is s e l e c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d ; favors f r i e n d s b u t neglects others. Is e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n welfare himself. 5.  of others  a s of  Influence. What i n f l u e n c e h a s he ( s h e ) on a s s o c i a t e s ? Consider i n i t i a t i v e , self-assurance, resourcefulness. Has no i n f l u e n c e , no i n i t i a t i v e ; hanger-on. Follows Exerts  nearest  leader; offers  few  varying i n f l u e n c e ; leads  Influences  i s ignored;  suggestions.  sometimes.  t h o u g h t and a c t i o n o f o t h e r s ;  Moulds o p i n i o n s , confidence.  ideals,  actions  is a  tends to l e a d .  of g r o u p ; i n s p i r e s  -  5.  94  -  Poise. Has he ( s h e ) s e l f - c o n t r o l , an even d i s p o s i t i o n , g o o d ; humour, e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y ? I s e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y a n g e r e d , e l a t e d , lacks control. Inclined success;  t o brood over i s moody.  Shows no p a r t i c u l a r control.  failures,  possession  t o be o v e r - j o y e d at  o f or l a c k of s e l f -  Is r a r e l y vexed, e l a t e d , d e p r e s s e d ; ful. I s good-humoured u n d e r t r y i n g excellent control.  7.  depressed;  i s usually  circumstances;  cheer-  has  Alertness. I s he ( s h e ) a t t e n t i v e , o b s e r v a n t , a b l e t o g r a s p s i t u a t i o n ; quick-witted, adaptable, d e c i s i v e ? Is to  dull, listless, adjust.  inattentive;  L e a r n s s l o w l y ; needs d e t a i l e d i n t e r e s t span.  misunderstands;  explanations;  Concentrates f o r short p e r i o d s ; masters difficulties. Grasps i d e a s  q u i c k l y ; needs l i t t l e  a unable  short  ordinary  explanation.  A n t i c i p a t e s needs; sees r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i d e a s ; has originality.  8.  Dependability. I s he ( s h e ) r e l i a b l e ? W i l l he ( s h e ) assume and d i s c h a r g e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h d e s p a t c h and a c c u r a c y ? Avoids r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; supervision.  i s u n r e l i a b l e ; needs  constant  O f t e n n e g l e c t s d u t i e s ; h a s t o be c h e c k e d up, r e l i a b l e i n s m a l l way. I s r e l i a b l e when i n t e r e s t e d ; n e e d s some generally trustworthy. Requires l i t t l e do h i s b e s t .  checking;  s u p e r v i s i o n ; can b e d e p e n d e d u p o n t o  - 95 F u l f i l s promises; supervision.  9.  assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  Industry. Consider h i s (her) d i l i g e n c e , p u r p o s e f u l n e s. Is  perseverence,  i n d o l e n t , i n e f f i c i e n t , has no  Works s l o w l y ; g i v e s up e a s i l y ; .little.  needs  aim;  effectiveness,  wastes  haphazard;  no  time.  accomplishes  Does n e c e s s a r y work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; works w e l l when interested. Works q u i c k l y , e f f e c t i v e l y ; goals. •,. • Goes b e y o n d r e q u i r e m e n t s ; poseful.  p e r s e v e r e s ; has  i s very d i l i g e n t  immediate and  pur-  -96APPENDIX  I  H  LETTER ASKING FOR CRITICISMS AND WEIGHTINGS. OF T R A I T S OF SCALE D. Dear  : Will  Rating  you k i n d l y t r y o u t t h i s  S c a l e by r a t i n g  latest  Personality  t h e p u p i l s whose names a p p e a r on t h e  sheets? Please important distinct  criticize  the f o r m .  t r a i t s are being r a t e d ? and e v e n l y  would you s u g g e s t ?  graded:  Out  you  t h i n k t h e most  Are the steps  What improvements  Do y o u f i n d  t h r e e p a r t s an a d v a n t a g e  Do  the d i v i s i o n  I n each  trait  i n the w o r d i n g  o f each s t e p  into  or a disadvantage?  o f 100 marks how  many would  you g i v e  each  trait? Appearance Refinement Sociability Influence Sociality Poise Alertness . Dependability Industry Thank you effort  to e v o l v e  v e r y much f o r y o u r  a workable  co-operation  and r e l i a b l e Yours  scale.  sincerely,  in  this  - 97 APPENDIX CRITICISMS T e a c h e r "G-":  " I am u n a b l e  I I  OP SCALE D BY to r a t e  RATERS  ' S o c i a l i t y ' i n most  s i n c e I do n o t know them w e l l T e a c h e r "U":  "None o f t h e s e h e a d i n g s  seem  students  enough."  to f i t . "  T e a c h e r "N": "Can do n o t h i n g a t a l l on ' S o c i a l i t y ' . " Answer: As t h e r e were t h i r t y o u t o f a p o s s i b l e s e v e n t y r a t i n g s on t h i s t r a i t , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t some t e a c h e r s h a v e o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r s u c h as w o u l d e n a b l e them to g i v e a r a t i n g . Not a l l t e a c h e r s , h o w e v e r , were e x p e c t e d to be a b l e to r a t e a l l t r a i t s . The c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e t r a i t s  i n general  were  as f o l l o w s : -  Teacher  "N":  Answer:  E x p e r i e n c e h a s shown t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s c a n d i f f e r e n r t i a t e between ' p o i s e ' and ' s o c i a b i l i t y ' , and b e t w e e n ' d e p e n d a b i l i t y ' and ' i n d u s t r y ' . The l a s t s t a t e m e n t t h a t ' i n d u s t r y ' d e p e n d s on I n t e l l i g e n c e and m a t u r i t y needs s u b s t a n t i a t i o n . C o u l d i t n o t be t h a t i n d u s t r y w i l l i n d i c a t e m a t u r i t y and i n t h i s way t h i s s c a l e w i l l g i v e an. i n d i r e c t r a t i n g on ' m a t u r i t y ' ? M a t u r i t y i s r e l a t e d t o c o n s i s t e n c y of b e h a v i o r and t o an i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y (24).  Teacher  "N":  "What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n ' p o i s e ' and 'sociability'? Can ' d e p e n d a b i l i t y ' and ' i n d u s t r y ' be s e p a r a t e d ? ' I n d u s t r y ' d e p e n d s on i n t e l l i g e n c e and m a t u r i t y .  S u g g e s t s an improvement I n t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e l a s t s t e p of ' p o i s e ' ; n a m e l y , "shows g o o d humour and s e l f - c o n t r o l u n d e r t r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s ' . 1  Answer:  Suggestion accepted i n part,  Teacher " I " :  " I n t h e t r a i t ' a l e r t n e s s ' t h e r e s h o u l d be a p l a c e f o r the i n t e l l i g e n t b u t l a z y s t u d e n t . "  Answer:  Both of these f a c t s form.  c a n be i n d i c a t e d i n t h e  Teacher  "K":  Answer:  This additional t r a i t focusses c u l a r f i e l d of i n t e r e s t r a t h e r  present  "Add a t e n t h t r a i t , ' i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s generally'. I s c a l l o u s t o o s t r o n g a word i n the s e c o n d s t e p of No. 4 ? " a t t e n t i o n on a p a r t i t h a n on a t r a i t . If  -  98  -  t h i s were i n c l u d e d , i t w o u l d o p e n up t h e q u e s t i o n o f a d d i n g r a t i n g f o r i n t e r e s t i n m u s i c , a r t , and so on. The word, c a l l o u s , i s u s e d c o r r e c t l y . Teacher  Answer:  Teacher  "F":  "I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t my c o n t a c t s w i t h m o s t of the s t u d e n t s p u t me i n a p o s i t i o n t o make a f a i r e s t i m a t e f i r s t hand. A l l I can do I s r a t e a c c o r d i n g to c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r w h i c h may n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h b e h a v i o r t r a i t s o u t s i d e i n No. 2 to No. 5 e s p e c i a l l y . Numbers 7 to 9 seem more' I n k e e p i n g w i t h my e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t "  Your c r i t i c i s m o f the t r a i t s 2 t o 5 i s w e l l t a k e n . I t r y to overcome t h i s weakness b y a v e r a g i n g the r a t i n g s by s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s each y e a r . By end o f g r a d e twelve each p u p i l w i l l have had f r o m n i n e t o e i g h t e e n r a t ings. F o r y o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n I can a s s u r e you t h a t your r a t i n g s correspond c l o s e l y with those of other conscientious raters. "-L":  "The p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r t t r a i t s i n t h i s l a s t p l a n a r e s u p r i o r to t h e e a r l i e r ones I b e l i e v e . N.B. ' I n d u s t r y : Works s l o w l y ; g i v e s up e a s i l y , haphazard, accomplishes little. (Works s l o w l y ) and ( a c c o m p l i s h e s l i t t l e ) a r e u n e a s y b e d f e l l o w s b u t I d o n ' t know y e t how t o s u g g e s t an i m p r o v e m e n t u n l e s s the (works s l o w l y ; i s a p p l i c a b l e f r o m two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w ; t h a t i s , 1. w i l l i n g n e s s b u t temperamenta l l y slow,2. s l o w on a c c o u n t o f l a c k of concentration. A g a i n ' a l e r t n e s s : ( l e a r n s s l o w l y ) and ( s h o r t i n t e r e s t span) are not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e a t the same t i m e . I suppose' t h a t b o t h o f t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s a r e somewhat t h e same i n a p p l i c a t i o n . S o r r y t o be so s l o w i n r e t u r n i n g t h i s . " 1  1  Answer:  Teacher  Thank you f o r y o u r c r i t i c i s m s and f o r t h e many r a t i n g s t h a t you have t u r n e d i n . Y o u r d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o n c i l i n g t h e s e p h r a s e s i s a p p r e c i a t e d and I s h a l l add a s e n t e n c e t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s to a i d i n m a r k i n g t h e f o r m when t h e s e p h r a s e s g i v e p a u s e to t h e r a t i n g s . The s e n t e n c e i s : ' U n d e r l i n e the t r a i t w h i c h b e s t a p p l i e s to the p u p i l ' . "P"  ."The  p o i n t t h a t w o r r i e s me i s t h i s : I s t h i s a n a l y z e d i n d i v i d u a l - when the sum of t h e p a r t s a r e made - t h e same as t h e i n d i v i d u a l I had i n mind? To the s c i e n t i s t , qua s c i e n t i s t , t h e " L a s t S u p p e r " r e p r e s e n t s s o many s q u a r e y a r d s of y e l low c o l o r , g r e y c o l o r , e t c . a n d n o t h i n g more. I c a n ' t h e l p f e e l i n g t h e same a b o u t t h e p s y c h o a n a l y z e d man - he i s m e r e l y an a g g r e g a t i o n o f  -  99 -  n u m e r i c a l symbols a g r e e d upon b e f o r e h a n d by^ t h e man who p u l l s t h e s t r i n g s . S u r e l y h e r e i s an i n s t a n c e o f where 2 and .2 d o e s n o t make 4. I f t h i s s c a l e ( o r a n y o t h e r s u c h ) were a p p l i e d t o J e s u s when he was on e a r t h w o u l d i t p r o v e h i s divinity? You c a n s e n s e my a p p r e h e n s i o n . I am a f r a i d o f m e c h a n i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t s o f t h e human personality. T h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s n o d o u b t have v a l u e when a p p l i e d w i s e l y b y men o f wisdom b u t you know how soon d e g e n e r a t i o n s e t s i n , and how easily. I mean t h i s , t h i s t i m e . " Answer:  I a g r e e u n h e s i t a t i n g l y t h a t t h i s f o r m does n o t meas u r e t h e 'man' ( 1 ) . I t s u s e s a r e l i m i t e d a n d must be u n d e r s t o o d b y the r a t e r , t h e s t u d e n t and t h e c o u n s e l lor. By u s i n g t h i s s c a l e , we have a b a s i s , f r e e o f p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g and p r e j u d i c e , f o r e s t i m a t i n g cert a i n w e a k n e s s e s and s t r e n g t h s o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s personality.. Ways o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e s e w e a k n e s s e s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d b y the p u p i l a n d c o u n s e l l o r t o g e t h e r . A f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s o f making, and r e c o r d i n g r a t i n g s , we s h a l l have a c h a r t o f t h e p u p i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e and s h o u l d t h e o c c a s i o n a r i s e we h a v e a r e c o r d on h a n d f o r reference. L a t e r I p l a n t o w r i t e o u t more f u l l y the uses o f t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e and I s h a l l be p l e a s e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h y o u t h e n . Your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s p r o j e c t has been g r e a t l y appreciated.  - 100  -  APPENDIX (This form i s not  t o be  I  J  shown t o t h e s t u d e n t b e i n g  rated.)  PERSONALITY RATING SCALE E Student Grade  Rated by School  Date  P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s are u s e f u l a d d i t i o n s t o our s c h o o l r e c o r d s and i f r e c o r d e d a n n u a l l y w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a c h a r t showing the s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y development. A summary o f s e v e r a l r a t i n g s may b e u s e d as the b a s i s o f an i n t e r v i e w with the p u p i l . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s f o r m d e p e n d s on y o u r f r a n k n e s s , t h o u g h t f u l n e s . s , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Comp a r e t h e s t u d e n t y o u a r e r a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s and r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t behavior. Under e a c h m a i n h e a d i n g d e c i d e w h i c h one o f the s t a t e m e n t s b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e s t u d e n t . Then p u t an "x" i n t h e c e n t r a l s q u a r e o f the t h r e e on t h e r i g h t ; b u t i f the s t u d e n t i s n o t q u i t e e q u a l t o t h e s t a t e m e n t , p u t the "x" I n t h e s q u a r e above; i f s l i g h t l y s u p e r i o r to i t , mark t h e "x! i n t h e s q u a r e b e l o w . U n d e r l i n e the t r a i t w h i c h b e s t a p p l i e s to the p u p i l . f  L.  Appearance. Does he ( s h e ) make a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n ? taste, c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, care. I s o f f e n s i v e l y groomed; shows no Is untidy, i n d i f f e r e n t Makes a f a i r Has Is  2.  as t o  taste;  Consider  i s over-dressed.  appearance.  impression; i s acceptable.  a p l e a s i n g appearance; i s neat,  well-dressed, clean.  very a t t r a c t i v e l y d r e s s e d ; e x p e r t l y groomed.  Refinement. Does he (she) have g o o d manners, t a c t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n , courtesy, appreciation? Is b o o r i s h , o b j e c t i o n a b l e , ill-mannered. Is tolerated; appreciation.  lacks tact  and  Has s a t i s f a c t o r y manners b u t handed. Does and Has  says  the r i g h t  manners; shows  little  i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and  off-  things.  f a u l t l e s s manners: i s v e r y  tactful  and a p p r e c i a t i v e .  - 101 -  3.  Sociability. I s he ( s h e ) f r i e n d l y , Keeps a l o o f ; i s t e n s e , Tries  to attract  Is reserved, liness.  cordial,  popular,  cold, or  a good  mixer?  unpleasant.  a t t e n t i o n ; i s an  exhibitionist.  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , shy; responds  to f r i e n d -  P r e f e r s company; i s w e l l - l i k e d , g e n e r a l l y s o c i a b l e , agreeable. Has a n a t u r a l warmth o f f r i e n d l i n e s s ; a group. 4.  Sociality. I s he ( s h e ) c o n c e r n e d f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s ; i s he s e l f i s h , s e l f - c e n t r e d ; s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d ? Uses others  f o r h i s own a d v a n t a g e ; i s e n t i r e l y  Is i n d i f f e r e n t Considers interest.  to others' welfare;  rather  o t h e r s i f t h e r e i s no c o n f l i c t  Is s e l e c t i v e l y others.  selfish.  callous. w i t h h i s own  i n t e r e s t e d ; favor f r i e n d s but neglects  Is equally i n t e r e s t e d i n welfare self.  5.  i s the c e n t r e of  of others  as o f h i m -  INFLUENCE. What i n f l u e n c e h a s he ( s h e ) on a s s o c i a t e s ? Consider i n i t i a t i v e , self-assurance, resourcefulness. Has n o i n f l u e n c e ; no i n i t i a t i v e ; hanger-on.. Follows  nearest  leader; offers  Exerts varying i n f l u e n c e ; leads Influences  i s ignored; i s a  few  suggestions.  sometimes.  t h o u g h t and a c t i o n o f o t h e r s ;  Moulds o p i n i o n s , i d e a l s , confidence.  tends to l e a d .  actions of group;  inspires  •  - 102 6.  -  Poise* Has he (she) s e l f - c o n t r o l , an emotional s t a b i l i t y ? I s e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y lacks control.  angered, e l a t e d ,  Inclined success.  to b r o o d o v e r f a i l u r e s ,  Shows no control.  p a r t i c u l a r possession  Is r a r e l y vexed, e l a t e d , Is  7.  even d i s p o s t i o n , g o o d humour  to be  of  or  over-joyed  l a c k of  to grasp a  i n a t t e n t i v e ; misunderstands;  L e a r n s s l o w l y ; needs d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s ; i n t e r e s t span.  Grasps ideas  periods;  -  A v o i d s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; i s u n r e l i a b l e ; needs supervision.  Generally  r e l i a b l e but  Requires l i t t l e do h i s b e s t .  to  be  c h e c k e d up;  n e e d s some  supervision;  can  be  diffi  explanation. has  Dependability. I s he (she) r e l i a b l e ? W i l l he (she) assume and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h d e s p a t c h and a c c u r a c y ?  O f t e n n e g l e c t s d u t i e s ; has i n s m a l l ways.  unable  masters o r d i n a r y  q u i c k l y ; needs l i t t l e  situatibr;  short  A n t i c i p a t e s needs; sees r e l a t i o n s h i p of i d e a s ; originality. 3.  cheerful  excellent self-control.  Alertness. I s he (she) a t t e n t i v e , o b s e r v a n t , a b l e quick-witted, adaptable, d e c i s i v e ?  Concentrates for short culties.  at  self-  depressed; is u s u a l l y  a l w a y s good-humoured; has  Is d u l l , l i s t l e s s , to a d j u s t .  depressed;  discharge  constant reliable  checking. d e p e n d e d upon  F u l f i l s p r o m i s e s ; assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; supervision.  needs  to no  - 103  9.  -  Industry. Consider His (her) d i l i g e n c e , perseverence, purposefulness. Is  indolent, inefficient;  Works s l o w l y ; g i v e s up little. Does n e c e s s a r y interested.  has  no  easily;  aim;  Works q u i c k l y , e f f e c t i v e l y ; perseveres. Goes b e y o n d r e q u i r e m e n t s ; purposeful.  has  wastes  haphazard;  work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ;  time.  accomplishes  w o r k s w e l l when  immediate  i s very  effectiveness,  diligent  goals;' and  - 104 APPENDIX May, 1947 Date  I K Bl  , George Name  XT Grade  INDIVIDUAL RECORD SHEET FOR PERSONALITY RATINGS Rating  Traits  1  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry Total  by teacher " "  4 6 16 6 6 6 10 12 10  2\' 3 8 12 22 12 12 12 20 24 20  4  12 18 28 18 18 18 30 36 30  16 24 34 24 24 24 '4?) 48 40  F H B  indicated " "  5 • 6~. 7 20 30 40 3D 3*0 30 5D 60 50  24 36 46 36 3% 36 60 72 60  28 45 52 42 42 42 70 84 70  .8  *3§ 36 40 44 48 52 4*8 54. 60 66 72 78 58 6*4 7t> 76 82 88 48 54 60 66 72 78 4*8 54 60 66 72 78 48 54 60 6*6 72 78 80 90 100 310 120 130 96 108 120132 144156 8 0 90 100110 120130  52 60 84 90 94 100 84 90 84 90 84 90 140 150 168 180 140 150  o f Average R a t i n g s  Traits Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Indu s t r y  (N.B.:  X 0 #  9 10.11 12 13 14 15 Average . Rating  1  2  27 37 52 33 23 35 44 57«-s 48  31 * 43 59 31 43 58  424 *^503  32 48 70 40 38 54 73 60 63 478  PERSONALITY PROFILE AND DECILE  Total  by  RATING  6  7  8  9  39 41 56 ' 60 64__ • 72 75 48 62 53 58 *^41 49 45 48 57 61 -^76 92 84 87 107 117 98 69 83 90 . 76  43 64 80 67 54 66 100 127 97  46 69 85 72 59 72 110 140 106  50 75 91 82 66 79 114 157 118  709  749  828  3  4  5  36 .52  >544  587  626  666  9.9  Score g i v e n i s t h e upper l i m i t of e a c h d e c i l e ; t h e r e f o r e p l a c e t h e a v e r a g e f o r e a c h t r a i t on t h e h i g h e s t number w h i c h i t d o e s n o t e x c e e d . )  - 105 APPENDIX  II A  TABULATION OF RATINGS BY SELECTED RATERS SCALE A  Dependability Industry Co-ope r a t i on Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  Dependability Indus t r y Co-operation Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  Dependability Indus t r y C o - o p e r a t i on Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  Pupil 1 Teacher B G H N  Pupil 2 Teacher B G H N  Pupil 3 Teacher B G H N  Pupil 4 Teacher B G H N  D E D C C D C D  B B B B B B B B  C C C C D C C C  B A B B B B B B  C C C C C C C C  C D D C C C C D  C C C C B B C D  B B B B B B B B  C C C C B C C C  B D D D B D C' D  C C C C C C C C  C C C C C C C C  C C C C^ D C C D  C C C C C C C C  B B B B B B B B  B B B C C B C C  Pupil 5 Teacher B G H N  Pupil 6 Teacher B G H N  Pupil. 7 Teacher B G H N  Pupil 8 Teacher B G H N  C A D B B B D B C B D B C B D B •C B C C C B C B C B C B B A C B  D C D D D D D D C C D C C ODD  C C D D  C C C C C C G C  B B B B B B C C  Pupil 9 Teacher B G H N  P u p i l 10 Teacher B G H N  P u p i l 11 Teacher B G H N  D D D C C C C D  C B B C C B C C  D D D C C C C C  C C C C C C C C  B C C B B C B C  D D D D C C C D  c c c c c c c c c c c c  C C C C C C C C  C C C B C C C C  B A B B C B. B C  C C C C C C C C  C D C C C C C C  C C C B B C C C  D D D D C C C D  C C  c c  B  c  B C  C C C C C C C C  B B B B B B B B  A B B B B B B C  A B B B B B B B  P u p i l 12 Teacher B G H N  - 106 APPENDIX  II B  TABULATION OP RATINGS BY UNSELECTED RATERS ON SCALE A  Dependabi11ty Industry Co-operation Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  Dependabi l i t y Indus t r y Co-operation Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  Dependability Indus t r y Co-operation Emotional Control Appearance Courtesy Poise Initiative  P u p i l 12 Teacher D L W N  P u p i l 13 . Teacher J C X -  P u p i l 14 Teacher H Z K Y  B B A A A A A C  C C B B B B C C  B B C D B C D C  A B A A B A A B  B B B B A A A C  B B B B A A A B  D B D B C B D B C C D C D C D C  C C C D C C C C  B B B B B B B C  A A B B B B B B  P u p i l 15 Teacher W N P Z C C C B B C B . C  D D D D D C C D  C D C C B B C C  D C C C C C C. D  P u p i l 16 Teacher G J N Z  P u p i l 17 Teacher I U A P  P u p i l 18 Teacher G M R 0  P u p i l 19 Teacher I J W X  C C C C B B C C  A A A C B B B A  B B B B B B B B  D D C C B C D D  A A B B B B C A  A A A A A A A A  A A A A A A A A  B A B A B A  A B A A A A A A  B B A A B A A A  P u p i l 20 Teacher G J A Z  P u p i l 21 Teacher I U B -  C B C B B B B B  D B D C C D C C D D-D D B D C C D D C D D C D  B B B B B B B A  A B A A A A A B  A A A A A A A A  A B A A A A A A  B B B A A A B A  B C C C B B C B  C C C C C C C C  C C C C C C C C  C C C B B C C D  - 107 APPENDIX  II C  NUMBER OP DIFFERENT RATINGS BY EACH TEACHER FOR EACH PUPIL. Pupil  8  Teacher A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R S T U V  (rio 1 2  at  on 1 2  1 1  10 11  12 13  14 15  16  17 18 19 120  h i s forir ) 2 2 3 1 2 2 2  2  ;hj s t orn )  (no rat in, (no r a t i s (no r a t i KS  i t h i s "orn.) ;his J'oru.)  w 2^  X Y Z  Summary:  one r a t i n g two r a t i n g s three ratings  g i v e n 18 t i m e s g i v e n '52 t i m e s g i v e n 11 t i m e s  1 3  o r 22.2 percent o r 64.2 percent o r 13.6 percent  - 108 APPENDIX  III A  TABULATION OP RATINGS ON SCALE B  Appearance Assurance Courtesy Dependabi l i t y Effort Emotional Control Initiative Sociability V o i c e and Speech  P u p i l 22 Teacher B G Q A  P u p i l 23 Teacher Y G B P  P u p i l 24 Teacher P M R* - '  P u p i l 25 Teacher D G Y -  B B B B A B C B  C C C C C+C C+C C C CC  B C C C- C-B B C C • C B CC D E A C C+ • C-C-D C B CC C B  C+ C+ C+ C B C B B C+ A B C+ B B B B B C C B C+ C B C+ C B C  B B B A A A B A A  A B A A A A B A  A A A A A A A ' A A  P u p i l 26 Teacher U B G V P  c c c c+  C C C-B C C C+B .  P u p i l 27 Teacher Y B G H  P u p i l 28 Teacher T J G K N,  P u p i l 29 Teacher P B G Y A\  C+B C A C C C-B C-C C-D C-C-D D C-C-D D C-C c-cC C C-C+ C C C B  B A A A A A A A B  C C+B. A C C B B C+B B A C+B B A C+C+B A C+C*B A C CtB'B C+C B A D C B B  P u p i l 30 Teacher U B J P  P u p i l 31 Teacher N X W -  P u p i l 32 Teacher I E L Z P  • P u p i l 33 • Teacher I E L Z N  B B C A B C - C C - D C C-E C A C C C C C A B C B B C  C+ Ci c+ D C CC C B D D C+ D E C C-C C+ D D D C-D C+ D C C  B B B A B B A B A C+C A A C-C+B A C-C B B - C B B C C+A B C B A C+- B A  CfC+A A B A C-A B B B A B A C A B A C A C - C+A B B C-A A A C A B B C A  B C-C B CAppearance C+C-C-C+C Assurance C C-C B CCourtesy E D C C D Dependability E E C-C E Effort E m o t i o n a l C o n t r o l - - C C C- E - C-E Initiative C+C-C GuDSociability V o i c e and S p e e c h C 0»C C C-  Appearance Assurance Courtesy Dependability Effort Emotional Control Initiative Sociabi l i t y V o i c e and S p e e c h  C+C C+B C B C B C B CB  B B B C CB CB B  c-c-c-c-  C+B B B B B B A C+A B A C+A C+A C+A C+B B A B A B A C+A B A A A C+A B B ;  A C+ C+ C+ C+ B C+ B  A B A A A B B A B  CCC CC D D C C-  - 109 -  P u p i l 34 Teacher I E L Z P  P u p i l 35 Teacher I E L Z T N B A B B A Gt O O O B Gf Appearance C C OOC+O C A C-B B Assurance C B A B C B B A A A A Courtesy OA B B O C OB OC O Dependability C B O O C O C+B O B B Effort C B B B C O Emotional c o n t r o l B A A A A C C r C C+O C - C C C C+ Initiative C - OC C O C OB B Sociability C B A B B C C-CtC+C O V o i c e and s p e e c h  P u p i l 38 Teacher I B L Z T B B B B B Appearance B C OB C A s s u r ance A A A A C Courtesy A A B A C Dependability B A A A C Effort Emotional control B A A A C B OB A C I n i t i a t i ve A B C A C Sociability V o i c e and s p e e c h B B G A C  N" B O C*A A B O C B  P u p i l 42 Teacher I E L Z P Appearance Assurance Courtesy Dependability Effort Emoti o n a l c o n t r o l Ini tiative Sociability V o i c e and s p e e c h  B B B B B B B B B  A A B A B A B A C A A A C+B C+A A A  A A A A A A A A A  A A A A A A B B  P u p i l 39 Teacher I E L Z P B A A B A B A OA A B B A A A B B B B A B B B B A O O A B A B A C B B B A A A B A A A B  -  P u p i l 43 Teacher I E L Z N C C A A B C C+A C+B B C+A A B A C A A A A C A A A B B A A B C+C B A B C+C+B B B B C B B B  P u p i l 36 Teacher I E L Z P  P u p i l 37 Teacher I E L Z N  A A A B A A OB B B B B B OA C- C+B B B A OC-A B A A  C B B A A B C C C  A A A A A A A A A  A A A B B A B B  P u p i l 40 Teacher I E L Z N  C B A B C-B C+fr B A A A B A A A OA A A OA A B C+OB B O C C+O C C+OB  .oc  P u p i l 41 Teacher I E L Z P A A A A A B A A B A B B C+B A B B C+OA B B O O A A O O B A B B C OB A A A B A A A B B  P u p i l 44 Teacher I E L Z N B A A B A B A B C+A A A A B A A B A C+A A C+A C+A A A A B A B C+C+C A B B B C+B A B B C+A  P u p i l 45 Teacher I E L Z N C C C C+C C-D O C + C C C+B C+C C- O C C O C-B C-C C+ C B OC+C C-- C-C C C C+C+C C+ C-O C+C Cf  C+OB O C+ C+ O O B A B C C A B O C A B C B A B C C+B O O C C OC OC  APPENDIX  Teacher A B • C D ' E F F2 G H I  I8  f&  1  PUPIL BY EACH TEACHER 24  1 3 2 ni 1 ni 1 3  1  25 26 27 3  8  S T U  V w X Y Z  28 29 30 2 3  3  4 7  2  2  3 5.  2  4  •h 2  n L1 n LI  3  3  one r a t i n g one r « 6 three four five seven  ratings ratings ratings ratings  43 44 45  4  3  3  4  4  4  4  3  4  3  4  3  4  5  3  4  4  2  4  3  2  2  3  2  1  4  2  2  4  5  5  4  2  4  4  4  2  3  2  2  3  4  3  3  2  1  3  3  3  2  2  3  4  2  2  3  3  3  2  2  3  1  2  3  2  4 4  Summarv: summary.  1  3  4  40 41 42  1  2  n:  37 38 39  34 35 36  4  2 3  2  31 32 33  4  J  K L M N 0 P  III B  4 5 4  2  2  given t  given given given given  to a l lt r a i t s ^ o  to to to to  a a a a  3  3  1  o  2  3  1  o f one p u p i l -  f  o  n  Q  p  u  p  i  l  3  2  2  3  9 t i m e s o r 8.1 p e r c e n t t i n e s or 28.8 p e r c e n t  l l t r a i t s o f one p u p i l 36 t i m e s o r 32.5 p e r c e n t l l t r a i t s o f one p u p i l 28 t i m e s o r 25.2 p e r c e n t l l t r a i t s o f one p u p i l 5 t i m e s o r 4.5 p e r c e n t l l t r a i t s o f one p u p i l once o r 0.9 p e r c e n t  - I l lAPPENDIX  IV A  A L I S T OP TRAITS ON VARIOUS PERSONALITY RATING SCALES  1.  The s u g g e s t e d  B.C. s c a l e s  dependability industry co-operation emotional c o n t r o l 2.  appearance courtesy poise initiative  The V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e appearance assurance courtesy dependability effort  3.  4.  appearance  The S c h o o l  6«  initiative dependability co-operation  A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on  Scale  thoroughness p e r s o n a l grooming and p e r s o n a l guidance a b i l i t y to g e t along with others  of Medicine,  vigor appearance leadership industry  Toronto  Hamilton.  The J o n e s P e r s o n a l i t y R a t i n g dependability c u l t u r a l refinement leadership industrious.ness mental a l e r t n e s s .  5.  Centre,  emotional c o n t r o l initiative sociability v o i c e and s p e e c h  The B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , personal courtesy industry  (A)  Yale U n i v e r s i t y a b i l i t y to l e a r n work t a c t i c s emotional balance f o r c e of character  Education  a p p e a r a n c e and b e a r i n g s t a b i l i t y , emotional i n i t i a t i v e and p e r s i s t a n c e p u r p o s e f u l n e s s leadership  control  - 112 7.  U.S.  N a v a l Reserve  intelligence Initiative leadership force apparent i n t e r e s t 8.  U.S.  Navy, F i t n e s s  Officers,  U.S.  Naval Reserve  of O f f i c e r s ,  Officers,  Navy f o r O f f i c e r s  F. M.  242  and M.  N.Nav.137  a t t i t u d e to duty presence o f mind endurance industry m i l i t a r y bearing n e a t n e s s o f p e r s o n and d r e s s aptitude for service  on S h o r e  intelligence judgment i n i t i ative force leadership moral courage co-operation 11. M.  N.Nav.443a  loyalty perseverance r e a c t i o n s i n emergencies endurance indus t r y m i l i t a r y b e a r i n g and n e a t n e s s o f p e r s o n and d r e s s  intelligence judgment initiative force leadership tact c o - o p e r a t i on loyalty 10. U.S.  N.Nav.260  m i l i t a r y bearing co-operation endurance neatness i n duties  intelligence judgment ini tiative force leadership moral courage co-operation 9.  -  Duty  loyalty perseverance r e a c t i o n s i n emergencies endurance industry b e a r i n g and n e a t n e s s F. M.  reliability leadership sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y stability alertness administrative a b i l i t y e n e r g y and p e r s i s t a n c e  243 group value appearance speech writing f a c i l i t y b a s i c knowledge of arms t a c t i c a l a p t i t u d e and t e a c h i n g ability  - 113 12.  U.S.  Military  Academy. West P o i n t  physical co-ordination p h y s i c a l stamina. b e a r i n g and a p p e a r a n c e i n d u s t r y and a p p l i c a t i o n initiative 13.  R.C.A.F.  R.C.A.F.  .  integrity co-operation p e r s o n a l magnetism emotional s t a b i l i t y common s e n s e , judgment  R.211  a p p e a r a n c e and b e a r i n g ment a l a l e r tne s s power o f e x p r e s s i o n self-confldence Initiative 14.  -  e n e r g y and p e r s i s t e n c e a c c u r a c y and r e l i a b l l i t y c o - o p e r a t i on interest i n station activities leadership  R.191  . a p p e a r a n c e and b e a r i n g alertness speech c o u r t e s y and c o operativeness other i n t e r e s t s , sports, etc.  sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c e of c h a r a c t e r self-confidence e n e r g y and p e r s i s t e n c e initiative  - 114  -  APPENDIX SCALES USING THE (The  numbers i n d i c a t e  the  IV  B  VARIOUS TRAITS L I S T E D  scales  l i s t e d on  the  preceding  pages) Total  i n t e l l i g e n c e and mental a l e r t n e s s initiative 12 judgment force leadership moral courage co-operation and group value 1 loyalty p e r s e v e r a n c e and persistence r e a c t i o n s i n emergencies endurance industry 1 3 b e a r i n g and n e a t n e s s dependability and reliability 1 2 emotional c o n t r o l , emotional balance 1 2 appearance 1 2 courtesy 12 poise 1 a s s u r a n c e and s e l f confidence 2 effort .2 s o c i a b i l i t y , g e t along . with others . 2 4 v o i c e and s p e e c h 2 c u l t u r a l refinement thoroughness. ' 4 purposefulness work t a c t i c s f o r c e of c h a r a c t e r sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y tact i n t e r e s t i n d u t i e s and activities aptitude for service administrative a b i l i t y  4 5  3  7 8:,9 .6 7 8 9 8 9 5 7 8 9 4 5 6 7 8 9 8  3 6 4 5  10 10 10 10 10 10  11 12 12 11 11  14 14  13 14  7 8 9 10 8 9 10  11  8 8 7 8 8 7-8  11  10 9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10  12  13 13  12  12 12 12  3 4  11  5 6 3 4 5 6 3  11 11  13  14  10 3  13  14  13  14  6 3 5 8 7  13  6  12 14  11  13  14  13  14  4 6 5 5'  12  14 14  11 9 7  13 9 11  9 11 4 6 10 3  14  6 7 4 1 3 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1  - 115 APPENDIX  V A •  TABULATIONS OP RATINGS  Appearance V o i c e , speech Refinement Dependabi l i t y Industry Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity  Appearance V o i c e , speech R e f i nement Dependabi l i t y Indus t r y Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity  Pupil 1 Teacher N B G C C C D D C C B C C D C C D C D D C D D c B C ' c C C c c- C c  Pupil 2 Teacher N G B  Pupil 6 Te'acher N B G C D C D D D C C C D  C D C D D D C C C C  D D D D D D D D D  -  P u p i l 11 Teacher N B •G Appearance V o i c e , speech Refinement Dependability Industry Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity  C D D D D D D D  ON SCALE C  Pupil 3 Teacher N G B C D D D D D C C C C D C C D C C C C C C C C c C C .c C D c C  Pupil 4 Teacher N B G C B C C B C C B C C A C C B B C B C C B C C B C C B C D C  Pupil 5 Teacher N B G B B B B B B C B B A B B B B B A A B C B B B B B B B B B C B  Pupil 7 Teacher N B G  Pupil 8 Teacher . N B G  Pupil 9 Teacher N B G  P u p i l 10 Teacher' N B G  C C C C C C  C B C B B B C B B C  B B C B C B C B B C  c  B C C  A A B A A A C B B B  C C C C C C C C C C  B B B B B B B B B B  C C C C C C  c c c c  P u p i l 12 Teacher L N  D D B B D D C C C C D B B D D B B D D C B C D D C C D D .B B C D B B C D B B C D ' C B  B B B A B. B C A B C  C B C D G C B . D C D C D D B D B C D c D  P u p i l 13 Teacher J C X C D B E C C E C C ' C B C B C D C - - C C E C C D C C - -  C C C D D E D C C  -  C D C C C C C C C D  P u p i l 14 Teacher Z C C C C B B B . D B D  C C C B C C C B B C  B C B B B B C C C C  C D C G C C D C D  -  P u p i l 15 Teacher N F Z C D C D D D D D E  B D C D D D D C B C  B D C D D D D C C E  - 116 -  P u p i l 17 P u p i l 16 Teacher Teache r G J N Z •I U A P A A A B B B B B Appearance A B A A V o i c e , speech C C A A fe C B B G C B A R e f i nement A C B B Dep e n d a b i l i t y C A A A A B B B . C B B A Industry A B B A C A A A Alertness A B A A C C A A Leadership' A B A A C B A A Poise A B A B C C B A Sociability C A A A B A Acti vity  -  P u p i l 18 Teacher G M R A A A B .A;. C C B. B A B C C B B C B C A A B B A B B A A A A A  P u p i l 21 P u p i l 22 P u p i l 23 Teacher Teacher Teacher U I B B G A G B D C C A A B C B Appearance C D' A A .B C V o l c e , s pee c h D B C C C A A A C D Refinement C E' A A A C C Dependability D D C E ' A A A C Indus t r y D A B C E B C B Alertness D D A B C E B B . Leadership E A A C E A D Poise D C D A B Sociability B C B D C A Activity B • C  -  -  -  P u p i l 26 Teacher U B G P Appearance Voice, speech Refinement Dependability Industry Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity  C c D c D D D D E E D E E D D D D D D D C D C C D c D  -  -  P u p i l 27 Teacher B G  D D D E E E  C E D D D D D  D D D D D D D  E E  D  -  -  C  -  -  P u p i l 28 Teacher J G K N B B B B B A A B B A  B C A C B C B C B. C B C B C B B B B A B  B A B A A B A A A A  P u p i l 19 Teacher I J X  P u p i l 20 Teacher G J A Z  C D C D D D D E C D  B C C C C C C C C D  C C  c D D D D C C C  B D C C D D D C C D  P u p i l 24 Teacher 0 P2 D C D  B D c- B B C C ' D D D C D C C C C D. B  B C C B C A C B C C  A B B A B A B A B B  A A A A A A A A A A  P u p i l 25 Teacher P G  D D C C D E C C C . D  B BB B B B B B B B  C C B B B B C C B  -  P u p i l 29 Teacher B G A  P u p i l 30 Teacher U B J P  C B B C B- B B B B B B B B B B B B B C A B C .B B C B B* C B B  B B C C C D D D D D D B B B B B A B B  -  C C C D D D B B C B  B B C D D C B C C  -  - 117  P u p i l 31 Teacher X N Appearance Voice, speech Refinement Dependabi l i t y Indus t r y Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity  Appearance Voice., s p e e c h R e f I neme n t Dependabi l i t y Industry Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity  Appearance Voice; speech Refinement Dependability Indus t r y Alertness Leadership Poise Sociability Activity  C D C D D E D D D D  B D C D D D D  -  D D  P u p i l 32 Teacher I L Z P B C. A 'C C C CDC CDC C D B CDC C C C C - C C C A C CC  B C C D D C D D C  -  -  P u p i l 33 Teacher I L Z N B C B A B B A A A ' A  D D B C C C C C B C  B C B B B A A A A A  C C C C C C B B  P u p i l 34 Teacher I L Z P  P u p i l 35 Teacher I L Z N  B C C B C C D C C C  -  B D B C C D D C C DC  C C C C C C' D C C  B C C C B B C B B -  P u p i l 36 P u p i l 37 Teache r teacher I L Z P I L z N  P u p i l 58 Teacher I L Z7 N  P u p i l 39 Teacher I L z p  B C C B B B B D C B  A B B A A B B B A A  B C C B B B B B B B  A A C C C B B C B C  A A B A A A A B B A  B B B B C. B B B 3 -  C C B A A B C B C C  B C B B C C D C D D  B B B A A B C B D C  B A B A A A B B B B  B C B B C C D C D D  B B B A A A A B B A  C B B B B B C B B B  B D C C C D D C C C  B B B B B B B B A B  C DC C C C DC DC C DC DC  C C C C C B c B c  c c C c c c  P u p i l 40 Teacher L Z N  -  B B B B A A • C B B  B C C C  c 0  D C D D  B C C C C C C C C C  C C C C  c c c c c c  . P u p i l 41 Teacher I L Z P  P u p i l 42 Teacher I L Z P  P u p i l 43 Teacher I L Z N  P u p i l 44 Teacher 'I L Z N  P u p i l 45 Teacher I L z N  A A B C B C ADC B\D B D C C A C A B B C  B C B B C B C B B C  C C B B B C C B C C  B B B A A B B B B B  C D C D D D D C C D  A B C B C B B C B B B B B B B A B B -  A C B B C B C B C C  B B A A A A A A A B  B C B B C C C B B  -  B C B B C B C B C D  B B B A A A A A B C  B A . B A B B C B B B  B C B A B B C B C C  B C C C B B C  B A B A A A B c A c B c B  C D C D D D D C C D  B' C C C  c c c c c c D c C c C c C c C c  - 118 APPENDIX  .V B  NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES BY EACH TEACHER FOR EACH. PUPIL  Pupil  ~T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  Teacher A B C D E F F2 G H  K  M N 0 3" 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  u  w  3 4 2  3 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3  - 119 APPENDIX  VI A  TABULATION OP RATINGS ON SCALE D Pupil 1 Teacher N B G Appearance B B Refineme n t B C A : B Sociability Sociality D E Influence B C Poise D D Alertness E Dependability C Industry D E  C  - - C  Pupil 2 Teacher N B G A A B A B C B B B  —  B  D  B  C  C  B  D  A  C  B  D  B  A B B A  Pupil 4 Teacher N B G B B B B B B B C B  Pupil 3 Teacher N G B C C B C B  - C — C - B - - - C  -  - - -  Pupil 5 Teacher N B G C B B B B B B B B B -  D B  C  C  -  B  C  B  B  B  -  C  B  C  B  -  B  C  -  C  D  B B B  B  A B  C  -  C  B B B  c'  0  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Industry  Pupil 6 Teacher N B G  Pupil 7 Teacher N B G  Pupil 8 Teacher N B G  N:' B -  G:  C C B -  B B B B B D - C D B C C D B C C D  B B B B B B B  C D E D D D E D  C D C  B C B C B C - E D E C E D D C E D  P u p i l 11 Teacher N B G Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Pois e Alertness Dependability Industry  C E C D E D  A C B D B C - E D C C E D E D E E  C C C C B C C C  P u p i l 15 Teacher N P E C C C B B " D E D D C C C C D E C  B B B B B C B 'B B  Pupil 9 Teacher  C B B A C B B B B  B D C C E C E E E  D D D D D  P u p i l 16 P u p i l 17 Teacher Teacher J N U A P B A C B C  A  B •. C B  B B B A B A B B  ~  A B B B B B A A B  A B A B A A B C C  B B A B A B B B  P u p i l 10 Teacher N B G C  B  C  B  ":B  C  B  D  C  -  C  B  B  D C C  C B  B  c c  B B  B  P u p i l 19 Teacher J K C C C C D C D D D  C D D D E C E E E  - 120  P u p i l 20 Teacher J A Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependabi l i t y Industry  Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality . Influence Poise Alertness Dependabi l i t y Indus t r y  B B B B  c..  B B •B B  B A B B B A B B B  P u p i l 34 Teacher L P B c B c D C A D D  D G D  B C D  E E E E D  D B  c  -  c  c  D C C  B  D  c  D  B  c  B  A C B  -  c c . c c B  D D D  C B B  -  c  C  c  P u p i l 35 Teacher Z N B A B A  P u p i l 39 Teacher L P Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependabi l i t y Indus t r y  P u p i l 21 Teacher U I  c  c c c  B B B  -  G B B B B  P u p i l 40 Teacher L . N C B D  B B C  C .  D  D  C' D D  c  c  c  C  -  c  -  P u p i l 28 Teacher K N J  P u p i l 50 Teacher P U J  B B A A 3 A B A B  A  B B A  B 0 A  B B A B B B  A A B A B  c  E" B  -  -  B  c  C E  B  B  B A B B D D  A  c  c  -  B B D E D  c  P u p i l 55 Teacher L N D C B B B B  c  D D  B  c c  -  c c c c c  P u p i l 56 Teacher L P A B c B A B — E B B B B A B c B B B  P u p i l 57 Teacher L N B B' B B D B A D c A • B B B A A c B  P u p i l 41 Teacher .L P  P u p i l 42 P u p i l 43 Teacher Teacher L P . E N  B- • B C B B B B B c E B 0 D . D c D c  -  B B B A C B  c c c  B B B _  c B  c  B C  P u p i l 38 Teacher L N B B A B D D _ A 3 D B B B C B B B B  B B C A C B B A A  B A B _  B B A A B  - 121  P u p i l 44 Teacher L N Appearance Refineme n t Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependability Indus t r y  B B B A C B B A A  A A A.  -  B A A A A  P u p i l 45 Teacher L N B B B B D C D D D  B B B'  C C  c c c  -  - 122  -  APPENDIX  VI B  NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES ON THE F I F T E E N - S T E P SCALE. Teacher A B  Pupil  F  4 4  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 15 16 17 19 20 21 28 30 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  G  I  J  K  L  .Z  P  4 4 4 2  3 4 5 4 3 4 5 4 3 4  3 3 3 5 3 6 4 5  N  2 2 4 2 4 5 3  4 5 4 5  3 3  6  4 6  4  4  3  6  4  3 5 8 8 6 4 5 5 6 4 5 6 5  3  6  4  4 3  5 3  4 3 4 5 6 5 2 2 2  Summary: No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.  of of of of of of of of  times times times times times times times times  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  grade grades grades grades grades grades grades grades  given given given given g i ven given given given  T o t a l number o f g r a d e s on S c a l e D  Scale 5 point 2 2.7* 30 41.1% 30 41.1% 10 13.7% 1 1.4%  73  D 15 0 7 15 25 15 9 0 2  point 0.0% 9.6% 20.5% 34.2% 20.5% 12.3% 2.7%  - 12fc APPENDIX  VT C  NUMBER OP DIPFERENT GRADES BY EACH TEACHER FOR EACH PUPIL i i i  !  Pupil 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 15 16 17 19 20 21 28 30 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  Teacher B A  F  I  J  K  L  3 2 2 2 2 3 . 2 2 3  P  U  2  2  Z  2. 1 . 3 2. 3 4 3  3 3  3  2  N 4 2 2 2  2  4 3 2 2 3 3 2 4 3 4  G  3  2 2  3  2 4  2  3 2 5 3 4  2 3  2 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  4  2 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2  - 124 APPENDIX DISTRIBUTION  Boys  OF RATINGS ON SCALE E APPEARANCE  Total 0 0 0 0 3 ' 3 7  111 ' 111 1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 39 1111/1111/1111/ 15 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 26 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111 64 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 111 28 1111/1111/1 11 l l l l / l l l l 9 111 3 TOTAL 2"08" 1.  VII A  Girls  Total 0 1 1 111 3 111 3 0 1111 4 1111/1111/111 13 .1111/1111/1111 14 1111/ 5 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/11 32 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 43 1111/1 6 1111/111 8 0  TOTAL  WT  APPEARANCE Does he ( s h e ) make a f a v o u r a b l e Impression? Consider t a s t e , c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, care. Is o f f e n s i v e l y groomed; shows no t a s t e ; i s o v e r - d r e s s e d . Is u n t i d y , I n d i f f e r e n t appearance. Makes a f a i r acceptable.  as t o  impression; i s -  Has a p l e a s i n g a p p e a r a n c e , i s neat, well-dressed, c l e a n . Is very a t t r a c t i v e l y e x p e r t l y groomed. TOTAL  dressed;  0 1 3 3 3 7 20 53 20 41 96 71 17 17 3 355  -  125  APPENDIX  VII B  DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E REFINEMENT  0 111 3 1 • 1 1111/1 6 1111/1111 9 2 11 8 1111/111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 34 l l l l / l l l l 15 ' 1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 37 1111/1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 59 1111/1111/111.1 13 l l l l / l l l l / l l l 13 1111/1111/111 5 1111/ 3 111 TOTAL 2158" 2.  Total  Girls  Total  Boys  1 1 1111/1 1 1111/1111/1111 .. l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l Jill/1111/1111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111 1111/1111/1111/111 1111/1111/111 1111/1111/1111 1111/111 111  TOTAL  29 18 13 14 8 3  147  REFINEMENT. • Does he .(she) h a v e g o o d m a n n e r s , tact, consideration, courtesy appreciation? 1 3 2 : 7 Is t o l e r a t e d ; l a c k s t a c t and 15 m a n n e r s , shows l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n 3 22 Has s a t i s f a c t o r y manners b u t i s 58 i n c o n s i s t e n t and o f f - h a n d e d . 29 66 Does and s a y s t h e r i g h t t h i n g s . 77 26 27 Has f a u l t l e s s manners; i s v e r y 13 t a c t f u l and a p p r e c i a t i v e 6 Is b o o r i s h , o b j e c t i o n a b l e , ill-mannered..  TOTAL  1 0 1 1 6 1 14 24 14  355  - 126 APPENDIX  VII C  DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON S C A L E E • SOCIABILITY Boys 1 I II 1111/ 1111/1 III 1111/1111/1111/1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 1111/1111/1111/111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/111 1111/11 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l TOTAL  Total ' 1" 1  2  5 6 3 22 24 18 32 45 23 7 16  0  203 3.  Total  Girls 1 1 111 1111/ 1111/1111/111 1111/111 1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1 1111/1111/ 111  i s tense,  28 25 15 6 10 3  1T7  TOTAL  SOCIABILITY I s lie ( s h e ) f r i e n d l y , c o r d i a l , p o p u l a r , a. good m i x e r ? Keeps a l o o f ; unpleasant.  0 1 1 3 5 13 8 15 14  cold, or  T r i e s to a t t r a c t attention; i s an e x h i b i t i o n i s t . Is reserved, s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , r e s p o n d s to f r i e n d l i n e s s .  shy  .1 2 3 8 11 16 30 39  32  P r e f e r s company; i s w e l l - l i k e d , generally sociable, agreeable. Has a n a t u r a l warmth o f f r i e n d l i n e s s ; i s t h e c e n t r e of a g r o u p . TOTAL  60 70 38 13 26 3 352  V  - 127 APPENDIX  VII D  DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E SOCIALITY Total.  Boys  0 0 0 1 17 4 6  1 1111/1111/1111/11 . 1111 l l l l / l 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111 34 l l l l / l l l 8 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 20 1111/1111/1111/1111/11 22 111 3 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/126 1111/1111/1 11 1111 _ _ i TOTAL 156 4  Girls I II II 1 1111/ III l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / U 1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l 1111/1111/1 1111/1111/3 1111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 111 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 111  SOCIALITY. I s he ( s h e ) c o n c e r n e d f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s ; i s he s e l f i s h , s e l f - c e n t r e d , self-interested? advantage;  Is i n d i f f e r e n t to o t h e r s ' rather callous.  welfare;  C o n s i d e r s o t h e r s i f t h e r e i s no c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s own i n t e r e s t . Is s e l e c t i v e l y interested; favours friends hut neglects others. Is of  equally interested i n welfare o t h e r s as o f h i m s e l f .  TOTAL  28 20 3 "WS  TOTAL  U s e s o t h e r s f o r h i s own is e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h .  Total 1~ 2 2 1 5 3 17 10 11 11 11 4  • 1 2 2 2 22 7 23 44 19 31 33 7 54 31 7 285  - 128 APPENDIX  VTI E  DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E INFLUENCE Boys  1111/1 11 1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l 1111/1111/1 1111/1111/1111/111 , 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/111 1111/1111/111 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/111 1111/ 11  34 11 18  !  47 23 13 20 8 5 2 0  T5B"  TOTAL 5.  Girls  Tot a l  Tot a l  11 2 1111 4 l l l l / l l l l 9 1111 4 l l l l / l l l l 9 1111/1111/1111 14 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 . 24 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 11 27 1111/1111/1 11 1111/1111/ 10 1111/1111/111 " 13 1111 4 1111 4 l l l l / l l l l . 9 11 2 TOTAL  INFLUENCE. What i n f l u e n c e h a s he ( s h e ) on associates? Consider i n i t i a t i v e , self-assurance, resourcefulness. 2 10 n n Follows nearest leader; o f f e r s 43 few s u g g e s t i o n s . 25 42 Exerts varying i n f l u e n c e ; leads 74 sometimes. 34 23 I n f l u e n c e s ' t h o u g h t and a c t i o n o f 33 others; tends to l e a d . 12 9 Moulds o p i n i o n s , i d e a l s , a c t i o n s 11 of group; i n s p i r e s c o n f i d e n c e . 2 TOTAL 342  Has no i n f l u e n c e ; no i n i t i a t i v e ; is ignored; i s a hanger-on.  146"  -  129 -  APPENDIX DISTRIBUTION  Boys  OF RATINGS ON SCALE E POISE  Total 0 2 2 0 5 2 7  11 11  1111/ 11 1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ . l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 43 111 3 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 26 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 66 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 16 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/11 12 1111 4 TOTAL 2T>3~ 6.  VII P  G i r Is  Total  11 111 111 l l l l / l 1111/11 1111/ l l l l / l l l l l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 l'lll/llll/llll/llll/ll 1111/1111/111 l l l l / l l l l 1111/1111/1111/1. 1111/  TOTAL  146  POISE. Has h e ( s h e ) s e l f - c o n t r o l , an e v e n d i s p o s i t i o n , g o o d humour, emotional s t a b i l i t y ? I s e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y a n g e r ed, e l a t e d , d e p r e s s e d , l a c k s control. I n c l i n e d to brood over f a i l u r e s to be over-joyed a t success.  12  Shows no p a r t i c u l a r p o s s e s s i o n of o r lack o f s e l f - c o n t r o l .  16 62  Is r a r e l y vexed, e l a t e d , depressed; i s u s u a l l y cheerful,  88  I s a l w a y s good-humoured; h a s excellent self-control. .  24 28  TOTAL  2 3 3 6 7 5 9 19 3 24 22 13 9 16 5  349  - 130 APPENDIX  DISTRIBUTION  Boys 1 111  OF RATINGS ON S C A L E E ALERTNESS  Total 1 3 0 14 25 6 12  1111/1111/1111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1 1111/1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111 34 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 18 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1 26 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111 34 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 18 1111/1 6 1111/ . 5 1 1 TOTAL 2153" 7.  VII G  Girls 111 1 1111/ l l l l / l 1111/1111/ 1111/111 1111/1111/111 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 1111/1111 1111/1111/111 1111/1111/111 l l l l / l l l l / l l l 1111/111: . 1111/1111/1111 l l l l / l TOTAL  ALERTNESS. I s he ( s h e ) a t t e n t i v e , o b s e r v a n t , able t o grasp a s i t u a t i o n ; quickwitted, adaptable, d e c i s i v e ? 4 4 5_ 20 L e a r n s s l o w l y ; needs d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s ; s h o r t i n t e r e s t s p a n . 35 14 25 Concentrates f o r short periods; 58 masters o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s . 27 39 Grasps i d e a s q u i c k l y ; needs 47 l i t t l e explanation. 31 14 A n t i c i p a t e s needs; sees r e l a t i o n 19 ship o f ideas; has o r i g i n a l i t y . 7 TOTAL 349  Is d u l l , l i s t l e s s , i n a t t e n t i v e ; misunderstands; unable t o adjust.  Total 3 1 5 6 10 8 13 24 9 13 13 13 8 14 6 TIB"  -  131 -  APPENDIX  VII H  DISTRIBUTI ON OF RATINGS OF SCALE E DEPENDABI I I T Y Boys  Total  0 111 3 1111/11 7 1111 4 1111/1111/1111/1111 19 1111/1111/1 .11 1111 4 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ " 1111/1111/1 36 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 25 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/. 45 1111/1111/1 11 111 1/111 8 1111/1111/1111 14 11 . 2 TOTAL 204 8.  Girls  Total  1111/1 111 1 1111/ 1111/111 1111/ 1111/111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 11 1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111 1111/1111/111 1111/11 1111/1 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 1111/1111/111 TOTAL  6 6 8 9 O f t e n n e g l e c t s d u t i e s ; has t o be 27 c h e c k e d up; r e l i a b l e ' i n s m a l l ways. 16 12 G e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e b u t n e e d s some 63 checking. 30 34 R e q u i r e s l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n ; can 58 be d e p e n d e d upon t o do h i s b e s t . 18 F u l f i l s p r o m i s e s ; assumes r e s p o n s i - 14 35 b i l i t i e s ; n e e d s no s u p e r v i s i o n . 15 TOTAL  27 15 9 13 7 6 21 13 147  DEPENDABILITY. I s he ( s h e ) r e l i a b l e ? W i l l he ( s h e ) assume and d i s c h a r g e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h d e s p a t c h and accuracy? Avoids r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; . l i a b l e ; needs c o n s t a n t  6 3 1 5 8 5 8  i s unresupervision.  351  - 132 APPENDIX  VII G  DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E INDUSTRY Boys  Total  1 1 1111/ 5 1 1 1111 4 1111/1111/1111/1111/1 - 21 1111/1111/11 12 1111/1111/1111/111 18 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/11 42 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 25 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 19 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1 31 1111/1111/111 13 1111/11 7 1111/ 5 1 .1 TOTAL SUB" 9.  Girls  Total  111 111 111 1111/1 l l l l / l l l l 1111/11 1111/1111/1111/111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 1111/1111/111 l l l l / l l l l 1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1 1111/1 l l l l / l l l l 1111/1111/1  3 3 3 6 •9 7 18 24 13 9 15 11 6 9 11  TOTAL  XTT  t  t  t  INDUSTRY. Consider M s (her) d i l i g e n c e , perseverance, e f f e c t i v e n e s s , purposefulness. I s i n d o l e n t , i n e f f i c i e n t ; has no aim; w a s t e s t i m e . Works s l o w l y ; g i v e s up e a s i l y ; haphazard; accomplishes l i t t l e . Does n e c e s s a r y work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; works w e l l when i n t e r e s t e d . Works q u i c k l y , e f f e c t i v e l y ; h a s immediate g o a l s ; p e r s e v e r e s . Goes b e y o n d r e q u i r e m e n t s ; d i l i g e n t and p u r p o s e f u l . TOTAL  i s very  4 8 4 10 30 19 36 66 38 28 46 24 13 14 12 352  - 133 A P P E N D I X  COMPARISON  OF  MEAN  V I I I  SCORES  OF  G I R L S  A N D  BOYS  APPEARANCE  Girls X  f  57-60 53-56 49-52 45-48 41-44 37-40 33-36 29-32 25-28 21-24 17-20 13-16 9-12 5- 8 . 0- 4  Boys d  0 8 6 43 32 15 5 14 13 4 0 3 3 1 0  5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9  f d  fd2  0 32 18 86 32  r • •  -5 -28 -39 -16 0 -18 -21 • 8 0  5 56 • 117 64 0 108 147 64  +33  947  c  =  38.5 53 = .22 147  3 9 11 . 28 64 • 26 15 39 7 3 3. 0 0 0 0  =  c  =  38.5 * (.22 x 4) •  S.D.  * /947 "  (.22)  S.E.  =  -  2 X  4] *  39.38  M.  9.76  S.  .705  -J  f d  fd2  5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5  15 36 33 56 64  75 144 99 112 64  -15 -78 -21 -12 -15  15 156 63 48 75  +63  851  ^ ( . 7 0 5 ) * + (.554)*  851 - ( , 3 0 )  =  2  S08  .32  D -• 39.70 - 39.38 .52  38.5 63 = .30 208 38.5 + (.30 x 4)-- 39.7  8.0  S.E.  -/IT?  C.R. -  d  208  TOTAL G.M.  M.  9.76  f  N  TOTAL G.M.  '  128 54 172 32  147  N  x  .357  .554  x 4>  8.0  - 134 APPENDIX  VIII  (CONTINUED)  COMPARISON OF MEANS SCORES OF GIRLS AND INDUSTRY Girls  X  f  140-150 131-140 121-130 111-120 101-110 91-rlOO 81-< 90 71-. 80 6 1 - 70 51-60 4 1 - 50 3 1 - 40 2 1 - 30 11- 20 1- 10 N TOTAL G.M. c M.  Boys  fd  fd2  X  f  d  fd  fd2  77 54 30 44 45 18 13 0 -18 -14 -27 -24 -15 -18 -21  • 539 324 150 176 135 36 13 0 18 28 81 96 75 108' 147  141- 150 131- 140 121- 130 111- 120 101- 110 91- 100 8 1 - 90 7 1 - 80 61- 70 51- 60 4 1 - 50 3 1 - 40 2 1 - 30 1 1 - 20 1- 10  1 5 7 13 31 19 25 42 18 12 21 4 1 5 1  7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7  7 30 35 52 63 38 25  49 180 175 208 189 76 25  -18 -24 -63 -16 -15 -30 -7  18 48 188 64 75 180 49  N TOTAL  205 + 77  1524  d  7 11 9 6 6 5 4 11 15 3 9 2 13 1 0 24 18 -1 7 . -2 9 -3 6 -4 3 -5 3 -6 -7 3 147  + 144  - '75 . L44 - .98 14T -- '75 .+ (.98 x 10)  v•  1726  G.M. = 75 c , 77 , .376 M.  -- 84.8 .  S.D. =/ •1726 - (.98) x l 0 = 32.83 147 S.E. - 32*83 = 2.71  V  BOYS  =  1 4 7  D = 32.83 - 26.99 CR. i  5.84  ^(2.71)*  75  S.D. »/1524 V 205 S.E. , 2 6 . 9 9  2  +. ( 1 . 8 8 ) ^  V  205  = 5.84 . 1.77  (.376. x  10) - 78..  (.376) x l O ? 2  = 1.88  26.  . - 135 APPENDIX . IX A COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND PERCENTILES' OP TRAITS APPEARANCE fd  60 3 56 17 52 17 48 71 44 96 40 41 36 20 32 53 28 20 24 7 20 3 16 3 12 3 8 1 4 0 N 355 TOTAL  5 4 3 2 1 0 •1 -2 •3 -4 -5 -5 •7 -8 -9  fd  2  15 68 51 142 96  75 272 153 284 96  -20 •106 -60 -28 -15 -18 -21 -8  20 212 180 112 75 108 147 64  96  1798  G.M. = 37.5 • 27 C. = 96/355 27 x 4) - 38.58 M - 37.5, + (. S.D. -y.1798 - (.27)^x4 - 8.92 355 S.E. 8.92 - .472 P100 P 90 * 38.58 + (8.92 P 80 - 38.58 + (8.92 P 70 - 38.58 +(8.92 P 60 = 38.58 +(8.92 P 50= 38.58 P 40 » 38.58 -(8.92 P 30 - 38.58 - (8.92 P 20 - 38.58 -(8.92 P 10 = 38.58 -(8.92  APPENDIX  Over 50 x 1.28) = 50 x .84) = 46 x .52) - 43 x .25) = 41 - 39 x .25) = 36 x .52) = 34 x .84) = 31 x 1.28) - 27  IX B  COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS REFINEMENT X  f  90 6 84 13 78 27 72 26 66 77 60 66 54 29 48 58 42 22 36 3 30 15 24 7 18 2 . 12- 3 6 1 N 355 TOTAL  d  fd  fd  30 52 81 52 77  150 208 243 104 77  2  5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -29 -2 -116 -3 -66 -4 -12 -5 -75 -6 -42 -7 -14 -8 -24 -9 -9  29 232 198 48 375 252 98 192 81  -95  2287  G.M. = 57.5 C. - -95/355 - -.267 M. = 57.5 - (.267 x 6) " * S.D. - £298 - (.267)^x6 = 15.14 5  5  9  S.E. * 15.14 - .803. V35T  P100 P 90 =55.9 P 80 =55.9 P70 - 55.9 P 60 =55.9 P 50 = P 40 =55.9 P 30- 55.9 P 20 -55.9 P 10 =55.9  + (15.14 + (15.14 1- (15.14 + (15.14  X X X X  -(15.14 -(15.14 -(15.14 -(15.14  X X X X  Over • 75 1.28) - 75 .84) = 69 .52) = 64 .25) = 60 - 55.9 .25) - 52 , .52)- 48 .84) - 43 1.28) - 37  - 136 APPENDIX  IX C  COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND.PERCENTILES SOCIABILITY X  100 94 88 82 76 70 64 58 52 46 40 34 28 22 16  f  d  fd  fd2  3 26 13 38 70 60 32 39 30 16 11 8 3 2 1  6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8  18 130 52 114 140 60  108 650 108 342 280 60  -39 -60 -48 -44 -40 -18 -14 -8  39 120 144 176 200 108 98 64  +243  2597  352 N TOTAL  OF TRAITS  G.M. - 61.5 C. = 243 = .69 M. = 61.5 + (.69 x 6 ) 65.64 S.D.=/2597 - (.69) x6 V 352 S.E. 15.72 - .84 ^352 P100 Over 85 P 90 = 65.64 +• (15.72 x 1 . 2 8 ) - 85 P 80 * 65.64 +• (15.72 x .84)= 79 P 70 = 65.64 + (15.72 x .52)= 74 P 60 - 65.64 +• (15.72 x . 2 5 ) - 69 P 50 = 65.64 - 66 P 40 - 65.64 - (15.72 x . 2 5 ) - 62 P 30 - 65.64 - (15.72 x . 52) ~ 58 P 20 = 65.64 - (15.72 x .84)= 53 P 10 - 65.64 - (15.72 x 1.28) <= 46 a  APPENDIX  IX D  COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS SOCIALITY X  90 84 78 72 66 60 54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6  f 7 31 54 7 33 31 19 44 23 7 22 2 2 2 1  N 285 TOTAL  d 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9  fd 35 124 162 14 33  fd 175 496 486 28 33  -19 -88 -69 -28 -110 -12 -14 -16 -9  19 176 207 112 550 72 98 128 81  2  2861  C. - 0 M. - 57.5 S.D. =/28"61 x 6 y"""g8"5" S.E._-  19  19  1.13  V285  P100 p 90 p 80 p 70 p 60p 50 = p 40 p 30 = p 20 'p 10 -  57.5 +• 57.5 + 57.5 *• 57.5 + 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.5 -  (19 (19 (19 (19  X  (19 (19 (19 (19  X  X X X  Over 1.28) .84) .52) .25)  = = . -  .25) .52) .84) 1.28)  = = -  r  X X X  82 82 72 .67 62 57.5 53 48 42 33  - 137 APPENDIX  IX E  COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS INFLUENCE  X 90 84 78 72 66 60 54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6  f 2 11 9 12 33 23 34 74 42 25 43 . 11 11 10 . 2  d fd 7 14 6 66 5 45 48 4 99 3 2 46 34 1" 0 -42 -1 -2 -50 -129 -3 -4 -44 -5 -55 -6 . -60 -7 -14  342 N TOTAL  -42  fd 98 396 225 192 297 92 .34 2  42 100 387 176 275 360 98 2772  G.M. - 45.5 c. = -42 = -.12 342 M. = 45.5 - (.12 x 6) - 44' S.D. = /2772 - (.12)^x 6 - 17 V 342 17 , .92 S.E . -  V  P100 p 90 p 80 = p 70 p 60 p 50 p 40 p 30 p 20 p 10 -  APPENDIX  3  4  2  .  44.8 + (17 44.8 + (17 44.8 + (17 44.8 + (17 44.8 44.8 -(17 44.8 -(17 44.8.- (17 44.8 - (17  66 Over x 1.28) - 66 x .84) = 59 x .52) = 54 x .25) = 49 45 x .25) = 41 x .52) ~ 35 x .84) = 31 x 1.28) * 23  IX F  COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS POlSE :  X 90 84 78 72 66 60 54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6  f  d  fd  9 28 24 29 88 50 6 62 16 7 12 6 5 5 2  5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9  45 112 72 58 88  225 448 216 116 88  -6 -124 -48 -28 -60 -36 -35 -40 -18  6 248 144 112 300 216 245 320 162  -20  2846  349 N TOTAL  fd  2  G.M. - 57.5 C. = -20 =- .-.537 34~9~ M. = 57.5 - (.057 x 6 ) -57.2 S.D. - /2846 - (.057)^x6 = 17.1 V 349 S.E. . 17.1 - .92 7349 P100 Over 79 P 90 = 57.2 + (17.1 x 1.28) = 79 P 80 - 57.2 + (17.1 x .84) - 72 P 70 - 57.2-t- (17.1 x .52) - 66 P 60 - 57.2 + (17.1 x .25) = 61 P 50 - 57.2 = .57 P 40 - 57.2 - (17.1 x .25) - 53 P 30 - 57.2 -(17.1 x .52) - 48 P 20 - 57.2 -(17.1 x .84) - 43 P 10 - 57.2 -(17.1 x 1.28) = 35  - 138 APPENDIX  I X . Gr  COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND P E R C E N T I L E S ALERTNESS  X  f  d  fd  fd  150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10  7 19 14 31 47 39 27 58 25 14 35 20 5 4 4  6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8  42 95 56 93 94 39  252 495 224 279 188 39  -58 -50 -42 -140 -100 -30 -28 -32  58 100 126 560 500 180 196 256  N ' 349 TOTAL  -61  2  3453  G-.M. C.  OP T R A I T S  85,5 -61 ~ -.174 M S  M.  -  85.5 -  S.-D*<  (.174 x 10)  '3453 - ( , 1 7 4 ) x 349 •.1.68 31.4 2  S.E.  7349  P100 P 90 80 70 60 • 50 40 30 20 10 =  APPENDIX  83.7 83,7 83.7 83.7 83*7 83.7  + (31.4 + (31.4 + (31.4 t (31.4 - (31.4 x  83.7- (31.4 x 83*7 - (31.4 x 83.7 - (31.4 x  f  d  fd  180 168 156 144 132 120 108 96 84 72 60 48 36 24 12  15 35 14 18 58 34 30 63 12 16 27 9 8 6 6  6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8  90 175 56 54 116 34  540 875 224 162 232 34  -63 -24 -48. -68 -45 -48 -42 -48  63 48 144 272 225 288 294 384  351 N TOTAL  139  fd  2  3785  .25) .52) .84) 1.28)  124 124 110 100 92 84 76 68 58 44  QF T R A I T S  CM. C. M.  Over 1.28) .84) .52) .25)  IX H  COMPUTATION OP MEANS A N D P E R C E N T I L E S DEPENDABILITY  X  10  96  •  + (.396 x 12)= 107.2  S.D.  5782 - (.4)* x 12 - 38.88 351 S . E . - 58.88 - 2.07 P100 P 90 = P 80 P 70 P 60 P 50 P 40 ' P 30 P 20 P 10 -  /35T  107.2 +• 107.2 + 107.2 • 107.2 + 107.2 107.2 107.2 107.2 107.2 -  Over (38.88x1.28) (38.88x .84) (38.88x .52) (38.88x .25) (38.88x .25) (38.88x .52) (38.88x .84) (38.88x1.28)  157 157 140 127 117 107 98 87 75 57  - 139 APPENDIX  IX I  COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND PERCENTILES OP TRAITS INDUSTRY X  150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10  f  d  f d  12 14 13 24 46 28 38 66 36 19 30 10 4 8 4  7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2  84 84 65 96 138 56 38  352 N TOTAL  T3  -4 -5 -6 -7  f d  2  588 504 325 384 414 112 38  -36 -38 -90 -40 -20 -48 -28  36 76 270 160 100 288 196  261  3489  G.M* - 75.5 C. = 261 = .74 "3*5£ M. - 75.5+( .74 x 10) - 82.9 S.D. S.E.  489 - ( ? 7 £ ) x 19 352" 27.1 - 1.45 2  •A _  V352  P100 83 + (27.1 X P 90 P 80 83 (27.1 X 83 + (27.1 X P 70 P 60 83 +• (27.1 X P 50 = 83 P 40 = 83 - (27.1 X 83 - (27.1 X P 30 P 20 83 - (27.1 X P 10 = 83 - (27.1 X  -  -  as*  -  -t-  Over 1.28) .84) .52) .25) .25) .52) ..84) 1.28)  118 - 118 - 106 97 = 90 = 83 - 76 - 69 - 60 - 48  - 140 -. APPENDIX COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND  IX J PERCENTILES OF TRAITS  T a b u l a t i o n of T o t a l Scores  1000 950 900 850 800 750 700  650 600 550  and D e c i l e  Ratings  f  d  fd  f d  11 1111/11 1111/1111/1111/11  2 7 17  7 6 5  14 42 85  98 252 425  l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l  17 22 22  4 3 2 ^  68 66 44  272 198 88  1  36  36  1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1 36 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111 39  0  0  0  500  l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l  28  1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 30  -2  -60  120  450 400 350  l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l  18 20 9  -3 -4 -5  -54 -80 -45  162 320 225  300 250 200 150  111 1111 111 1  3 4 3 1  TOTAL  -1  2  -6 -7 -8 -9  278 - 624.5 c. - 9/278 = 1/31 M. = 624.5 (.032) /2801 - (.032)* S. 278 P 90 - 626.1 + (158.5 P 80 - 626.1 -t- (158.5 P 70 - 626.1 -t- (158.5 P 60 - 626.1 +- (158.5 P 50 - 626.1 (158.5 P 40 - 626.1 - (158.5 P 30 - 626.1 P 20 - 626.1 - (158.5 P 10 - 626.1 — (158.5  G.M.  .032 50 = i526.1 X 50 - ;3.17 x  -28  28  -18 -28 -24 ;-9  108 196 192 81  9  2801  X  X X X X X X X X  1.28) * .84) .52) .25) .25) .52) .84) 1.23) =  828 749 709 666 626 587 544 503 424  158.50  - 141 APPENDIX  X A  COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT S C A L E APPEARANCE  X 49-60 37-48 25-36 13-24 0-12  f 37 208 93 13 4  d 1 0 -1 -2 -3  TOTAL 355  fd 37 0 -93 -26 ' -12 -94  fd  2  G.M. = 42.5 C. = - 94 =--.26 355 M. - 42.5 - (.26 x 12) = 59.38  37 0 93 52 36  S.D. = /218 - (.26)* x 12 = V 355 S.E. = 9.36 - .496 T/355  218  M^SS.SS  S.D. - 8.92  S.E.-.472  D. = .80 C.R.* .80 = ^ ( . 4 9 6 ) * + (.472)^  APPENDIX  9.36  U17  X B  COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE REFINEMENT :  X  f  d  fd  73-90 46 55-72 169 37-54 109 19-36 25 0-18 6  1 0 -1 -2 -3  46 0 -109 -50 -18  46 0 109 100 5#  -131  309  TOTAL 355  fd  2  G.M. - 63.5 C. - -- 131 355 Mg-63. 5- (131x18)- 63. 5-6.64- 56J86 355 S . D . p - / 3 0 9 ^ ( 1 5 l ) * x 18 - 12.21 V 355 (355) S.E.g = 12.21 = .648 ^355 M i - 55.9 D = . 96 C.R. =  S . E ^ - .803 .96  y(.648) + 2  = .93 (.803)  2  - 142 APPENDIX  X C  COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE SOCIABILITY  X  f  d  83-100 42 6 5 - 8 2 168 47- 64 101 29- 46 35 0- 29 6  1 0 -1 -2 -3  TOTALS 352  fd  fd2  42 0 -101 -70 -18  42 0 101 140 54  -147  337  G.M. = 73.5 C. - - 147 = - .47 352 Mg = 73.5 - (.47x18) = 65.0 S.D. = /S37 - ( , 4 7 ) x l 8 2  2  .  V352"  - 15.44  S . E . = 15.44 - .825 y3"52 2  Mj-65.64  S.D. -15.42  S.E.-.82  1  D. - .64 C.R. = .64 >/(.825)2+- (.82)2  APPENDIX  - .55  X D  COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE SOCIALITY  X  £3-r90 55-72 37-54 19-36 0-18  f  d  fd  fd2  92 71 86 31 5  1 0 -1 -2 -3  92 0 -86 -62 -15  92 0 86 124 45  -71  347  TOTALS 285  G.M. .= 63.5 C. = - 71 - -.24 285 M2 - 65.5 - (.24 x 18) - 59.18  2, S .D.p-/347 ~ - (.24)^x18 .  18.39  V55B"  S.E.  18.39  Mi=57.5  //285 S.D. 19.0  D. - .32 C.R.=  - 1.09  r  .32  ^1.09)^(1.13)*  S.E. 1.13 r  .32 = T^T 0.204  - 143 APPENDIX  X E  COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE INFLUENCE  X  f  d  fd  fd  73-90 22 55-72 68 37-54 150 19-36 79 0-18 23  2 1 0 -1 -2  44 68 0 -79 -46  88 68 0 79 92  -13  327  TOTALS 342  2  G.M.- = 45.5 C =• -13 = -.038 342 M - 45.-5 - (.058 x 18) = 44.9 2  S.D.o=/327 - ( . 0 3 8 )  V342  S.E..  17.6  2  x l 8 = 17.6  .95  ^342 M -44..8 1  D  S.D.^17.0  S.E. = .92  - .1  C.R. =  .1 ^(.92^-r  =.Q7 (.~95~P  APPENDIX. X F COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE POISE  X 73-90 55-^72 37-54 19-36 0-18  f  d  fd  fd2  61 167 84 25 12  1 0 -1 -2 -3  61 0 -84 -50 -36  61 0 84 100 108  -109  353  TOTALS 349  G.M. - 63.5 C = -109 =-.312 M.  -  63.5 - (.512 x 1 8 ) ^ 57.9  S.D. = /353  . .V  -  349 17.2  S.E.  (.312Y^x  18  -. 17.2  = .92  V349" M^.57.2 D.  S.D.^17.1  S.E.-.92  - ..7  C.R. =  «5S>  .7  V(.^92) + B  (,:-92)  8  -  1 4 4  -  A P P E N D I X  COMPUTATION  OF  G  X  F I V E - P O I N T  S C A L E  ALERTNESS  f  X  d  fd  *fd2  2  8 0  1 6 0  117  1  117  117  110  0  1 2 1 - 1 5 0  4 0  9 1 - 1 2 0 61-90  0  0  3 1 -  6 0  69  -1  -69  69  .0-  3 0  13  -2  -26  52  102  398  G.M. C.  =  3 4 9  1 0 2  =  . 2 9  34"9  M.  =  S.D.  = / 3 9 8 - ( . 2 9 J 2  7 5 . 5  V  S.E. TOTALS  7 5 . 5  =  +  30  - 3 3 . 1 8  =  5 3 . 1 8 =  1 . 7 7  i/349  D. C.R.  S . D . 3 1 . 4  = *  A P P E N D I X  S.E.  X  - 1 . 6 8  .5 .5 7(1.77)2-*-  OF  X  3 0 ) - 8 4 . 2  3 4 9  M-L'83.7  COMPUTATION  x  (.29  X  - . 2 0 5 ( 1 . 6 8 ) 2  H  F I V E - P O I N T  S C A L E  D E P E N D A B I L I T Y  . f  X  d  fd.  fd2  1 4 5 - 1 8 0  64  2  128  2 5 6  1 0 9 - 1 4 4  1 1 0  1  1 1 0  110  7 3 - 1 0 8  105  0  0  3 7 -  7 2  52  -1  -52  0-  3 6  2 0  -2  -40'  TOTALS  3 5 1  146  0 ' 5 2 8 0  G.M. C.  M.  - 90.5 146 - .416 351 = 90.5 + (.416x36) - 106.68  -  S.D. = /498 - (.416)*x36 V 351 S.E. - 40.25 . 2.15  40.25  V35T  498  M ^ 107.2 D.  =  C.R.  =  S.D. y 38.88  S.E.-2.07  .52 £52  = .17  7(2.15)2+ ( . 0 7 ) 2 2  - 145 APPENDIX  X I  COMPUTATION OP FIVE-POINT SCALE INDUSTRY f  d  fd  fd*  121-150 39 91-120 98 61- 90 140 3 1 - 60 59 1- 30 16  2 1 0 -1 -2  78 98 0 -59 -32  156 98 0 59 64  + 85  377  X  TOTALS  352  G.M.  75.5 85 - .24 352 75.5 + (.24 x 3 0 ) - 82.7  C M. S.D.  577 - ( . 2 4 ) * x 30 - 30.4 352 S.E. - 30.4 - 1.63  Vf  ~ V552 M-,/83.0 D.  S.D. - 27.1  S.E.- 1.45  - .3  O.R. -  .3  7 ( 1 . 6 3 ) 2 + (1.45)2  - .0.2  - 146 APPENDIX  XI  Vancoiyer, B.C., Canada. J a n u a r y 10, 1948.  Dear S i r : F o r some t i m e now I h a v e b e e n w o r k i n g on p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g scales with the aim o f developing a standardized scale for high school pupils. I h a v e s u b m i t t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f my s t u d i e s and e x p e r i m e n t s t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as a t h e s i s . S i n c e l h a v e made an e f f o r t t o g i v e w e i g h t e d v a l u e s t o t h e v a r i o u s t r a i t s on t h e s c a l e i n o r d e r t o make a g r a p h o f each p u p i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g , I t has been s u g gested that I should obtain weightings f o r the t r a i t s from a l a r g e r number o f e x p e r t s i n t h i s f i e l d . A l t h o u g h y o u must h a v e c o u n t l e s s demands on y o u r t i m e I hope t h a t y o u w i l l b e k i n d e n o u g h t o l o o k o v e r t h e t r a i t s on t h e e n c l o s e d p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g f o r m and t o a s s i g n a v a l u e t o e a c h t r a i t s o t h a t t h e t o t a l v a l u e of t h e s c a l e w i l l be 100. A t t a c h e d f o r y o u r c o n v e n i e n c e a r e : a f o r m l e t t e r on w h i c h y o u may w r i t e y o u r w e i g h t i n g s , and an a d d r e s s ed e n v e l o p e . Y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank you. Yours  truly,  J . S. D o n a l d s o n , B.A., B. E d .  - 147 APPENDIX  XI  V a n c o u v e r , B. C.,Canada. Dear S i r : As you r e q u e s t e d i n y o u r l e t t e r o f J a n u a r y 10, • have examined y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e . I n my o p i n i o n , s i n c e t h i s f o r m i s to be r a t i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s , the s h o u l d be w e i g h t e d as f o l l o w s :  appearance  -  points  refinement  points  sociability  -  points  sociality  -  points  influence  -  points  poise  -  alertness  points points  -  dependability  -  points  industry - •  total  points  100  points.  Yours v e r y  truly,  I  used f o r traits  - 148 APPENDIX  XII  A  TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM TEACHERS  •p  ar o  at  © 3  H  o o  © ra •rl  H  CM  ==  i  T e a c h e r s on Magee H i g h School Staff  cri © © o  as  Mr. W. S. A s h l e y Mr. H. B e l l Miss I . B o l t o n M i s s F. Burnham Mr. R. Cameron Mr. T. C h i p p e n d a l e Mr. N. C l a r k Mr. S. D o n a l d s o n M i s s E . Dow Mr. A. C. G a u t h i e r Mr. J.' E . G i b o a r d M i s s M. L a n g r l d g e Mr. G. Ledingham Mr. N. M u r r a y Mr. H. McLean Mr. J . S u t h e r l a n d Mr. C. J . C o c k 1  6 5 6 10 7 5 10 6 5 10 11 10 6 5 5 5 8  i  © '  •H  <W  G ©  © fi  PH  10 5 9 10 9 10 10 6 10 8 11 15 7 10 15 10 12  I -p aS - H  IH r H O O  &  CO  8 10 10 15 7 15 11 12 10 . 10 11 12 8 10 15 5 12  APPENDIX  •rl CO  10 5 16 10 8 5 11 6 10 12 11 0 9 10 5 15 8  XII  12 2 8 15 9 5 12 9 10 10 • 11 25 10 5 10 5 6  =65= CQ CO  o  6 . 3 8 5 10 5 11 12 10 8 11 13 10 5 10 10 10  S"  •P ©  14 5 8 5 15 15 11 16 15 15 11 8 10 15 15 15 12  I  a t» Xi - P G ^i © rH Perl  © p  -p ra  T3 a  H  20 50 20 20 20 20 12 18 15 15 12 8 20 20 15 20 20  14 10 15 10 15 20 12 15 15 12 11 9 20 20 10 15 12  B  TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM COUNSELLORS AND DIRECTORS OF GUIDANCE Mr.  H. R. B e a t t i e Toronto Dr. M. E . B e n n e t t Pasadena D r . Roy G. Bose Santa Monica Dr. C. W. F a i l o r Denver M i s s W. A. Hay New O r l e a n s Mr. A. Howard Vancouver Mr. H. J o h n s Victoria M i s s M. E . L a w r e n c e Vancouver M a j o r J . F. McLean Vancouver Miss I . S t o r y Vancouver Miss„J. S t o r y Vancouver Mr. B. E . Wales  6  9  10  12  9  10  11  18  15  5  5  10  15  15  5  15  15  15  20  6  5  . 14  10  7  8  18  12  8  7  8  12  12  5  8  20  20  12  10 '  10  10  12  13  13  10  10  10  10  15  15  10  10  10  10  10  8  8  9  9  14  10  14  14  14  10  12  13  12  10  10  10  13  10  6  6  10  7  16  7  16  16  16  8  15  9  16  6  8  12  17  9  10  15  10  20  10  5  10  15  5  10  10  10  15  15  15  5  10  10  - 149 APPENDIX  XII C  Influence  Poise  Alertness  Dependability  Industry  TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM PROFESSORS OF CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES  10  10  15  10  10  15  10  15  10  5  15  5  15  15  15  15  5  5  20  16  7  10  18  13  5  10  15  10  15  10  15  15  12  11  15  10  10  10  15  8  10  10  15  12  6  12  15  12  12  12  12  10  12.  10  12  10  10  13  13  13  13  9  9  10  9  14  11  12  .12  -p  i  u  as © co o  < Dr. W. G. B l a c k 5 U.B.C. Dr. J . E . Ewing 5 V i c t o r i a College D r . R. W. B. J a c k s o n 6 • O.C.E. Mr. J . D. Ketchum 5 Tor onto Dr. S. R. Lay c o c k 9 Saskatchewan D r ; M. E . L a z e r t e 8 Alberta D r . R, B. L i d d y 10 Western Associate A 10 Western Associate B 11 Western Associate C 6 Western Associate D 10 Western D r . J . A. Long. 5 0 C E Dr. M ! V . * M a r s h a l l 7 Acadia Dr, D. E . S m i t h 5 Alberta Dr. L . Ml Thompson 15 New B r u n s w i c k Dr. F..T. T y l e r 10 U.B.C. Dr, H. W. W r i g h t 8 Manitoba  i CD  C  •rl <H  -P Pi  ©  © fi  K  . 9  I  -p  as «-i o ^  as  CO  CO  •H H  0.0  11  o  o  11  14  11  14  10  14  9  14  8  15  15  .5  5  15  10  15  10  10  15  15  20  5  5  15  10  8  10  15  10  10  10  15  15  6  12  15  10  12  15  15  10  15  5  10  5  10  10  15  15  12  12  10  10  12  12  12  10  8  10  14  11  - 14  9  14  12  - 150 APPENDIX  XII D  TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM PROFESSORS OF AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES +T  H  o A  as U  3 CO ft ft  <  D r . A. S. B a r r 10 Wisconsin 5 Dr. H. E . B u r t t Ohio.State Dr. F. S. E n d i c o t t 5 Northwestern 5 Dr. J . S. F u l c h e r Brown 5 Dr. N.' L . Gage Purdue 5 D r . A. I . G a t e s Columbia Dr. Hugh H a r t s h o r n e 5 Yale. Dr. D a v i d J a c k e y 15 U.C.L.A. 9 Dr. A r t h u r J . J o n e s Pennsylvania 10 Dr. H. D. K i t s o n Columbia 7 Dr. P. H. L a n d i s Washington S t a t e Dr. H. S. L a h g f e l d 8 Princeton D r . E . A. L e e 10 U.C.L.A. Dr. H. B. M c D a n i e l 5 Stanford Dr. Q u i n n McNemar 15 Stanford • D r . H. H. Remmers 7 Purdue Dr. L . H. S h a f f e r 3 Columbia Dr. H. A. S p i n d t 5 Berkley Dr. Ruth Strang 5 Columbia Dr. L o u i s P. T h o r p e 10 U.C.L.A. Dr. E . G. W i l l i a m s o n. 5 Minnesota mm 10 Washington  fl CO  .  fi  CO  c •H  <CinO PEJ  •p •H • -p H a) TH THat  O CO  o o  . CO  <D  CO  fl  CO  O  CO  CO  ' f l  CO  -p u  H  o  H  PH  rH <W  fl  to  CO  <  10  7  8  15  10  15  10  15  10  15  10  10  15  10  20  10  15  15  5  15  5  t» t» •d CO fl-PTH -P i  CO r-i ft.H  CO .Q O as  -C S fl H  10  15  15  10  10  5  10  15  10  10  10  10  15  10  20  10  5  15  15  10  5  5  15  5  30  5  25  5  5  25  5  5.  10  25  15  10  5  5  5  10  10  20  20  6  9  18  8  11  . 15  . 12  12  5  5  10  10  15  10  20  5  15  15  10  10  8  15  '15  12  9  11  12  11  14  12  11  10  10  10 .  15  • 10  10  15  10  5  15  10  10  5  20  20  10  2  10  10  3  5  15  20  20  8  10  15  15  10  10  15  10  2  10  25  15  10  10  15  10  10  10  10  5  10  10  20  20.  10  5  15  10  10  10  15  10  10  40  10  5  5  5  5  10  5  25  15  15  10  5  10  10  10  10  15  10  10  10  15  10  t  5.  - 151 APPENDIX  XII E  TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM PERSONNEL WORKERS  i  u  OS ©  © O  as  <  D r . R. J . Dryden 7 Dominion B r i d g e M i s s M. J . F i t z patrick 5 Marshall Fields Mr. J . M. K o r n e r 1 Alaska Pine Mr. R. A. Mahoney 10 Commerce, U.B.C. Mr. E . A. Munn 25 Safeway S t o r e s Mrs. J . N e i l l 8 General Hospital M i s s B. P l a n t 10 Hudson Bay Co. Mr. M. D. Whidden 13 V a n c o u v e r Sun  i  i -P  © <M ©  ©s  OS .rl •rl rH O TH O £>  CO  +3 CS  o o  CO  ~TD  03  g  ©  ra  O  ©  3  ©  -P  <i-H  •rl  ©  H  PM  <  r-i  o  1 -P  T5  Ti  C rH © »rl © OS  o  •  >» fn +3 0}  3 C H  •o  10  8  6  10  11  18  15  15  10  20  20  10  5  10  10  10  2  5  4  20  8  20  20  20  12  .8  10  8  8  8  20  16  5  5  5  5  5  20  15  15  8  10  10  '  9  15  10  15  5  5  5  10  10  20  15  20  13  10  9  8  15  10  15  15  10  10  1 5  7'  RECEIVED TOO LATE TO INCLUDE Dr. W e l t y L e f e v e r U.C.L.A.  6  6  10  20  15  8  R E P L I E S Wl THOUT WEIGHTINGS Dr. Dr. Mr. Dr. Dr. Dr.  W. W. C l a r k , C a l i f o r n i a T e s t B u r e a u A. H a r r i s , C o l l e g e o f C i t y o f New Y o r k M. D. P a r m e n t e r , O.C.E. • I . Robbins, Teacher's College, C i n c i n n a t t i Stevenson Smith, U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington M. Ri T r a b u e , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e C o l l e g e  Mr. F. G. Crompton, H. R. M a c M i l l a n E x p o r t Co. Mr. 0. A. P e t e r s e n , B. C. E l e c t r i c Co. Mr. 0. E . S n e a d , B. C. T e l e p h o n e Co.  -  152 -  APPENDIX  XIII  FREQUENCY OF WEIGHTINGS GIVEN TO EACH TRAIT AND COMPUTATION OF MEDIANS APPEARANCE x 25 24 23 22 21 20 1.9 1,8 1(7 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0  f 1  1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 01 1 2  1  . 111 1 1 11 1111/1111/ 1111/1111  N  76  S9  = 6.5+- 7.5  5  x  f  X  25 24 23 22 21/ 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 1 7 1  25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10  8  -  5  5  .  1111/1 1 1 1111/11 1 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/11 1111 1111/1 11 1111/ 1111/1111/ 111  f 1 1  1  llll/l111/11  4 3 2 111 1 0  13. 0 0 3 0 0  11 1111/1 1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 111 9 1111 8 l l l l / l l l 7 11 6 5 1111/1111/ 1111 4 3 2 1 0  N  76  N  19  11 2 l l l l / l l l 8 1111/ 5 l l l l / l l l . 8 1111/1111/ 23 1111/1111/111 0 1 . 1 0 1 1 0  Mdil. - 6.5 f  SOCIABILITY  REFINEMENT  9 8 7 6 5  Man.  - 9.5+  27 4 6 2 5  38-55  - 9.5 -<- .185 - 9.7  23 4 8 2 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 76  Mdn. '- 9.5 f  38-25  5  1.0  1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 12 0 2 6 5  - 9.5 +• .56 - 10.06  - 153 -  SOCIALITY  INFLUENCE  X 25 11 24 23 22 21 20 1111 19 18 1 17 16 11 15 1111/1111/ 1111/111 14 111 13 1 12 1 1 1 1 / 11 1111 10 1111/1111/ 1111/11  f  X  2 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 2  25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15  18 3 1 5 4  14 13 12 11 id  17  9 111 8 111 7 1 6 11 5 1111/111  "3 3 1 2 8  9 8 7 6 5 1  4 1 3 2 1 0 1  1 0 0. 0 1 76  N  Mdn. - 1 0 . 5 1 - 38- 36 ~ 10.5 + .5 - 11.0  POISE  f 1  1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2  111  11 1111/1111/ 1 1 1 1111/1 11 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/1 1111 111 1 11 1111/1111/ 1  4 3 1 2 1 1 0  11 1 1 6 2  Mdn. =  9.5+  - 9.5+ = 10.08  .58  14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5  11 0 1 1 0 0  38-23  f  25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 1111  26 4 3 1 2  76  N .  X  4 3 2 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0" 0 0 0 0 4  111 3 111 3 4 1111 5 1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 27 1111/11 . 1 1 o 1111/1 3 111 2 11 1111/1111/ 17 1111/11 0 1 1 0 0 0 76  N Mrln. _ " -  Q.S + 38-30 27 9.5 + .3 9.8  -  ALERTNESS  154 -  DEPENDABI LI TY  INDUSTRY  50 1 30 1 25 24 . 23 22 21 20  1 0 0 0 0 0 4  1111  19 18 1 17 16 11 15 1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l 14 111 13 1 12 1111 11 1111 10 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 11 9 111 8 llll/l 7 6 5 1111/1 4 3 2 1 0 N Mdn. - 1 0 . 5 - +  ~ 4 - 10.5 + .25 = 10.75 5 8  0 1 0 2 19 3 1 4 4  25 I 24 23 22 21 20 1111/1111/ 1111/1 19 18 1111 17 1 16 1 15 :1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/ 14 111 13 11 12 1111/11 11 10 1111/1111/ 1  22 3 6 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0  9 8 7 6 5 11 4 3 2 1 0  76  N  5 7  Mdn.  1 0 0 0 0 16 0 4 ' 1 1 25 3 2 7 0 11 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 76  38-27 - "i1A,4 .c.5,f — gg-14.5 + .44 -14.94  25 1 24 23 22 21 . 20 l l l l / l l l l / 19 18 17 16 11 15 1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l 14 13 12 11 10  1 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 2 19  11 1 1111/111 11 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ l l l l / l 9 11 8 11 7 6 5 1 4 3 2 1 0  26 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  N  76  Mdn. - 11.5+  38-33  - 11.5 -r .625 - 12.125  2 1 8 2  -155 APPENDIX  XIV  COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND DECILES OP THE NINE TRAITS PINAL STUDY • REFINEMENT  APPEARANCE  X  ' f  d  fd  61-75 46-60 31-45 16-30 0-15  37 208 93 13 4  1 0 -1 -2 -3  37 0 -93  N 355 TOTAL  fd  2  -12  37 0 93 52 36  -94  218  -36  G.M. = •C. =  53 -94 = -.26 355 M. - 53 - (.26 x 15)  = 49.04  S.D. - /218 - (.26)2x15- 11.1 V 355 S.E. = 11.1 - .59  V355 P99-49. 04-+(11.1x2.33) P90-49. 04+ (11. l x l . 28) P80-49. 0 4 + ( l l . l x .84) P70-49. 0 4 - t - ( l l . l x .52) P60-49. 0 4 + ( l l . l x .25) P50 P40-49. 0 4 - ( l l . l x .25) P30-49. 0 4 - ( l l . l x .52) P20-49. 0 4 - ( l l . l x .84) P10-49. 0 4 - ( l l . l x l . 2 8 )  74.90 63.248 58.36 54.81 51.82 49.04 46.27 43.27 39.72 34.83  x  f  81-100' : 46 ' 61- 80-169 41- 60 109 21- 40 25 0- 20 6 N TOTAL  d  fd  fd  2 , 1 0 -1 -2  2  92 169 0 -25 -12  184 169 0 25 24  234  402  355  G.M. - 50.5 C. = 234 = .66 355 M. = 50.5 + (.66 x 20) = 63.70 S.D.= /402 - ( , 6 6 ) x 20 - 16.6 V 355 S • E . = 16.6 » 16.6 = .88 18.84 7355 2  P99-63. 70+(16.6x2.33) P90-63. 70+(16i:6xi.28) P80-63. 70+-(16.6x .84) P70-63. 70+"(16.6x .52) P60=63. 70+(16.6x .25) P50. P40-63. 7 0 - ( 1 6 . 6 x .25) P30=63. 7 0 - ( 1 6 . 6 x .52) P20=63. 7 0 - ( 1 6 . 6 x .84) P10-63. 7 0 - ( 1 6 . 6 x 1 . 2 8 )  102.38 84.95 77.64 72.33 67.85 63.70 59.55 55.07 49.76 - 42.45 ;  - 156 -  SOCIALITY  SOCIABILITY X  f  81-100 42 61- 80 168 41- 60 101 21- 40 35 0- 20 6 N TOTAL  f d  f d  2 1 0 -1 -2  84 168 0 -35 -12  168 168 0 35 24  89-110 67- 88 45- 66 23- 44 1- 22  205  395  N TOTAL  2  352  f  d  f d  92 71 86 31 5  2 1 0 -1 -2  184 71 0 *31 -10  368 71 0 31 20  214  490  X  d  f d  285  G.M. - 50.5 C. = 205 - . 58 352" M. - 50.5 * (.58 x 20) ' -62.1  G.M. = 55 C. - 214 - .75 285 M. - 55» + (.75 x 22) » 71.5  S.D. = 7395 - ( . 5 8 ) x 20 - 17.60 V 352 S.E. „ 17.6 „ 17.6 - .94 18.76  S . D . - / 4 9 0  2  V352  P99-62. 10+(17.6x2.33) P90-62. 10+(17.6x1.28) P80-62. 1 0 + ( l 7 . 6 x .84) P70-62. 10+(17.6x .52) P60=62. 10+(17.6x .25) P50 P40-62. 1 0 - ( 1 7 . 6 x .25). P30-62*. 1 0 - ( 1 7 . 6 x .52) P20=62. 1 0 - ( 1 7 . 6 x .84) P10-62. 1 0 - ( 1 7 . 6 x l . 2 8 )  103.11 84.63 76.88 71.25 66.50 62:i0 57.70 52.95 47 32 39 57  S.E.-  2  -  (,75) x22= 23.65 2  .85 23•65 - 23.65 16.88 V 28~5  =1.4  /  P99-71 .50+(23. 65x2. 33 )^26£0 P90-71 .50+(23. 65x1. 28 KL01.74 P80-71 .50+(23*.65x .84)= 91.36 P70-71 .50 + (23.65x . 52)- 83.80 P60-71 .50+(23. 65x .25)-7 7.40 P50 = 71.50 25)= 65.59 P40=71 . 5 0 - ( 2 3 . 65x . P30=71 .50-(23. 65x . 52)-59.20 P20-71 .50-(23. 65x.. 84) "51.63 P10-71 ,50-(23. 65x1. 28)=41.25  - 157 -  POISE  INFLUENCE  fd  f  d  fd  81-100 22 61- 80 68 41- 60 150 2 1 - 40 79 0- 20 23  2 1 0 -1 -2  44 68 0 -79 -46  88 68 0 79 92  -13  327  X  N TOTAL  342  2  f  d  fd  81-100 61 6 1 - 80 167 4 1 - 60 84 2 1 - 40 25 1-20 12  1 0 -1 -2 -3  61 0 -81 -50 -36  61 0 81 100 108  -106  350  x  N TOTAL  fd  349  G.M. - 50.5 C. =• -13 - ,-.04 342~ M. - 50.5 - (.04 x 20) - 49.7  G.M. - 70.5 ' C. = -106 - -.30 349 M - 70.5 - (.30 x 2 0 ) - 64*5  S.D.-/327 - (.04)* x 20 • 19.6 Y342 S.E. = 19*6 . 19.6 1. 06 18.49 ^342  S.D. - /350 -  P 9 9 » 4 9 . 70+(19.6x2.33) P90-49. 70+(19.6x1.28) P80-49. 70+(19.6x .84) P70-49. 70+(19.6x .52) P60-49. 70+(19.6x .25) P50 P40=49. 7 0 - ( l 9 . 6 x .25) P30-49. 7 0 - ( l 9 . 6 x .52) P20-49. 7 0 - ( 1 9 . 6 x .84) P10=49. 7 0 - ( 1 9 . 6 x l . 2 8 )  = -• =  95.37 74.79 66.16 59.89 54.60 49.70 44.80 39.51 33.24 24.61  V349  S.E. =  2  19.06  V349  (.30) x 2 0 - 19.06 2  = 1.02 •  P99- 64.50+ (19.06x2.33) =108.90 P90- 64.50+ ( 1 9 . 0 6 x l . 2 8 ) - 88.90 P80- 64.50+ (19.06x .84)' 80..5I P70- 64.50+ ( I 9 . 0 6 x .52)^ 74.41 P60- 64.50+ (19.06x .25) 69.26 P50 64.50 P40= 64.50- ( I 9 . 0 6 x . 2 5 ) ' 5 9..74 P30- 64.50- (19.06x .52) 54 ..51 P20- 64.50- ( I 9 . 0 6 x .84) 48 ..49 P10- 64.50" (19.06x1.28)' 40..10  - 158 -  DEPENDABILITY  ALERTNESS  fd  f  d  fd  89-110 40 6 7 - 88 117 4 5 - 66 110 2 3 - 44 69 1- 22 13  2 1 0 -1 -2  80 117 0 -69 -26  160 117 • 0 69 52  121-150 64 91-120 110 6 1 - 90 105 3 1 - 60 52 1- 30 20  102  398  N TOTAL  X  N 349 TOTAL"  2  G.M. - • 55. C. = 102 - .29 34"§ M. = 55 +• (.29 x 22) = 61.38 S.D.=/398 - (.29)2 x 22 - 20.6 V349 S.E. = 20.6 = 20.6 - 1.10 18.68 ^349 P99-61 .38+(20. 6x2*33) P90=61 .38+(20. 6x1*28) P80-61 .38+(20. 6x .84) P70-61 *38 + (20.6x *52) P60-61 .38+(20, 6x .25) P50 P40-61 . 3 8 - ( 2 0 . 6x .25) P30-61 . 3 8 - ( 2 0 . 6x .52) P20=61 . 3 8 - ( 2 0 . 6x .84) P10=61 .38- (20.. 6x1.28)  109*38 87.75 78.68 72*09 66.53 61.38 56.23 50.67 44.08 35*01  d  fd  fd2  2 1 0 -1 -2  128 110 0 -52 -20  256 110 0 52 40.  166  458  351  G.M. - 75.5 C. . 166 = .47 351 M. = 75.5 + (.47 x 30) S.]D._- /458 - ( , 4 7 ) x 30 2  89.70 30.9  3BT S.E. = P99P90^ P80* F70P60= P50 P40P30P20* P10=  30.9 ^351  - 1.65  89.70+ (30.9x2.33) 8 9 . 7 0 ^ (30.9x1.28) 89.70+ (30.9x .84) 89.70+ (30.9x .52) 89.70+ (30.9x .25) 89.7089.7089.7089.70-  (30.9x .25) (30.9x .52) (30.9x .84) (30.9x1.28)  161.70 129.25 115.66 105.77 97.43 89.70 81.97 73.63 63.74 50.15  - 159 -  INDUSTRY  fd  f  d  fd  97-120 73- 96 49- 72 25- 48 1- 24  39 98 140 59 16  2 1 0 -1 -2  78 98 0 -59 -32  156 98 0 59 64  N TOTAL  352 85  377  X  G.M. * 50.5 G. =. 85 = M. - 50.5 +  .24 (.24 x 24) -  56.30  /377 - (.24)*" ii .24 - 24.14 Y 352" 24.14 , 1.29 S.E. , 24.14 18.76 /352  S.D.-  m  P99= P90 = P80P70 = P60 P50 P40 = P30 P20 P10-  56,30 +(24.14 56.30 +• (24.14 56.30 + (24.14 56.30 t (24.14 56 . 30 + (24.14 56.30 56.30 56.30 56.30  -  (24.14 (24.14 (24.14 (24.14  x 2.33) = 112.54 87.20 x 1.28) x .84) 76.58 .52) 68.85 x .25) - 62.33 x 56.30 x .25) - 50.27 x .52) = 43.75 x .84) - 36.02 x 1.28) = 25.40  2  -  160 -  APPENDIX  XIV  FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SCORES - FINAL STUDY X  f  f  951901851801751701-  1000 950 900 850 800 750  651601-  700 650  551-  600  501-  550  451401351301251201151101-  500 450 . 400 350 300 250 200 150  1 1 llll/llll/l liii/iiii/iiii/iii..: . liii/iiii/iiii/iin/i liii/iiii/iiii/iiii/nii/ l liii/iiii/iiii/iiii/nii liii/iiii/iiii/iiii/nii/ liii/iiii/ini  1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/  d  fd  fd  8 7 n 6 18 ' 5 21 4  •8 7 66 90 84  64 49 396 450 336  26 24  3 2  78 48  234 96  1  39  39 0  l l  39 •  liii/iiii/iin/i  41  0  0  nil/nil/ liii/iiii/iiii/iin/i liii/iiii/iiii/in liii/iiii/ii nil/1 nil/ n l  35 21 18 12 6 5 2 1 0  -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8  -35 -42 -54 -48 -30 -30 -14 -8  1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/  282  N TOTAL G.M. ~ 575 C. - 159 - .564. 2 §2 M.  -  575 »  (.564 x 50) - 603.20  S.D. = /2535 - ( . 5 6 4 ) * x 50 - 147.0 S.E.  B  147.0 - 8.75  V282" P99 - 603.20 P90603.20 P80 - 603.20 P70 - 603.20 P60-603.20 P50 P40 = 603.20 P30 - 603.20 P20 - 603.20 P10 - 6 0 3 . 2 0  2  t (147.0x2.33) - 945.71 +• (147.0x1.28) - 791.36 +(147.Ox .84) - 726.68 -r (147.Ox .52) - 679.64 +(147.Ox .25) - 639.95 = 603.20 - (147.Ox .25) - 566.45 - (147.Ox .52) - 526.76 - ( 1 4 7 . O x .84) - 479.72 - ( 1 4 7 . 0 x 1 . 2 8 ) = 415.0  159  35 • 84 162 96 150 180 98 64  2533  - 161 APPENDIX  May, 1947 Date  XV  Bl-- — G e o r g e Name  12 Class  XI Grade  INDIVIDUAL RECORD SHEET FOR PERSONALITY RATINGS  Instructions:  49  42  When s e v e r a l r a t i n g s  c e i v e d , mark on t h e above continuums trait the  66  chart  and w r i t e t h e s e v a l u e s  averages to t h e p r o f i l e  Industry  7 8 6 10 12 20 16 14 21 •30 24 18 40 « 3 2 27 "30 33 37 K 50 40 39 44 60 48 47 52 ^ 70 » 5 6 £53 59 80 ^64 72 59 £ 66 90 67 100 74 80 81 110 88 v 73 79 88 120 96 88 96 130 104 94 140 112 103 100 110 150 120 60  54  50  o f a p u p i l have  the steps  checked by t h e r a t e r s .  Dependabi lity  53  6 12 18 27 •o 33 x 39 47 / 53 59 67 73 79 88 94 100  Alertness  40  Average of ratings  7 6 12 14 21 18 27 30 33 J 3 7 39 .44 52 47 59 53 r*59 66 x 67 K 74 * 73 81 79 88 88 96 94 103 100 110  Poise  6 12 18 27 °33 39 47 /53 59 67 * 73 79 88 94 100  Influence  5 10 15 20 25 30 35 |40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75  Sociality  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  Sociability  Refinement  4 5 6  Appearance  1 2 '3  Steps on Scale  Ratings by:  Average  51  been r e -  o f the v e r t i c a l t h e v a l u e s for each  i n the p r o p e r columns. g r a p h on t h e n e x t  sheet.  Transfer  -  162  APPENDIX  XVI  May, 1947 Date  Bl  , George  XI Grade  Name PERSONALITY PROFILE AND DECILE RATING Deciles  Traits  2  1  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  9.9  Anoearance  —7*5" — * f V -  46  49  52  55  58  WW  63  75  Refinement  —42- —50- —5 3  60  64  an  72  78  85  102  ft*  "71  « A  fiJ  *W  %am ^  \£ \f  ATT-_  >*-' Ti7V  oc oO  1 /1 X  Sociality  41  — f i  R  59  xuo  66  72  7*i f  84  91  102  127  45  50  55  60  66  75  95  Influence  —95—33- —46nrv  Poise  —w-—48- —55- — £ 0 -  65  69  74  81  89  109  Alertness  44  bi _ t 6  61  67  72  79  88  109  D e p e n d a b i l i t y —50-  64  74  90  97  106  116  129  162  —5*3- - 56  62  69  77  87  113  640  680  727  791  946  Industry  —25-  TOTAL  -41S-  Instructions:  — &  6527  82  566  603  S i n c e the s c o r e g i v e n i n the f o r m above i s  the  upper l i m i t of each d e c i l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to e s t i m a t e the p o s i t i o n i n the d e c i l e ...of the average of each t r a i t page).  (See p r e v i o u s  The w i d t h s of the b a r s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o the w e i g h t -  i n g s of the  traits.  - 163  -  APPENDIX  XVII  L I S T OP PUPILS RATED ON PERSONALITY RATING SCALES A, B, C AND D AND THEIR. CORRESPONDING NUMBERS. Speed  24.  Warwick H a r r i s o n  Thomson  25.  Dennis  Wilson  26.  Kerry  McGregor  27.  John  28.  Hugh R o s s  29.  Ron  30.  Norman Watt  Edmund A s h l e y  31.  Gordon  Art Atkins  32.  Joan  10.  Ernest  33.  Audrey  11.  Tom  34.  Beverley  12.  Joan  35.  Janet  13.  Rouella  36.  Kay  14.  Mary P i p h e r  37.  Beverley  15.  June  Tarlier  38.  Clare  French  16.  Mary M i n c h i n  39.  Jenda  Hillier  17.  Willa  40.  Shirley  18.  B a r b a r a Adams  41.  Margaret  19.  Betty  42.  Shirley  20.  Nan  43.  Lorraine PLaskett  21.  Evelyn  44.  Doreen  Shockley  22.  Allan  45.  Yvonne  Silk  23.  Douglas  1.,  Robert  2.  Lloyd  3.  Robert  4.  John  5.  Don  6.  Tremaine  7.  Mervyn  8. 9.  Paine Perry  Phillips  Hogg  Murray Taylor Trefry  MacKinnon  Carnsew  Hardie Lumbard Binns Franklin  Hill-tout Park  Jose  Taylor  Winter  Acteson Bur l e y Campbell  Dobson  Eastwood Fowler  Malcolmson MacCorkindale Osterhout  - 164 APPENDIX LIST  XVIII  OP RATERS FOR THIS STUDY  o f Magee H i g h IS c h o o l , V a n c o u v e r ,  I.  Teachers  A.  Mr.  Ashley  N.  Miss  B.  Mr.  Bell  0.  Mr.  Ledingham  C. D.  Miss B o l t o n Miss Buckland  P.  Mr.  Murray McCartney  E.  G> R.  Mr.  Miss  Mr.  McLean  F.  Mr.  Cameron  S.  Mr.  Painter  Chippendale  Poole  F 2 . Mr.  Bumham  Langridge  .0.  Clark  T. U.  Mr.  Mr.  H.  Mr.  Donaldson  V.  Mr.  I. J. K.  M i s s Dow Mr. G a u t h i e r  W.  Mr.  Sutherland  X.  Mr.  Templeton.  Mr.  Gibbard  Y.  Mr.  L. M.  Miss Gibbon Mr. K i n g  Z. a.  Miss W i l c o x Mr. Cock  I I . . Te'adheirs o f O t h e r  Miss  Portsmouth Smith  Thomas  High S c h o o l s , Vancouver,  1.  Mr. A.J.Dodd, L o r d Byng  2.  M i s s M.E.Lawrence, L o r d Byng  3.  Miss J.Casselman,  4.  M i s s B.Lamb,  Kitsilano  5.  M i s s L.Cope,  Kitsilano  6.  Mr. A.M.Howard, K i n g Edward  7.  M i s s M.E.Lawrence, L o r d Byng  8.  Miss  9.  Miss I . S t o r y , Point  10.  B.C.  J.M.Story,  Mr. B.Wales,  Kitsilano  Kitsilano Grey  Kitsilano  B.C.  - 165 APPENDIX  XIX...  PERSONALITY RATING CARD OP AMERICAN  COUNCIL ON EDUCATION  DESCRIPTION OP BEHAVIOR  (made b y a l l t h o s e who have h a d s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to o b s e r v e t h e pupil) .. K e y • t o p e r s o n s making t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s b e l o w : A d - A d v i s o r , A g A g r i c u l t u r e , A r - A r t s , D - D r a m a t i c s , E - E n g l i s h , P-Prench,. GGerman,HR-Home Room t e a c h e r , HE-Home E c o n o m i c s , L - L a t i n , MM a t h e m a t i c s , MU-Music, N S - N a t u r a l S c i e n c e , S S - S o c i a l S c i e n c e ; Others. RESPONSIBILITY R e s p o n s i b l e and R e s o u r c e f u l : Carries through w h a t e v e r i s u n d e r t a k e n , a n d a l s o shows i n i t i a t i v e and v e r s a t i l i t y i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g and e n l a r g i n g upon u n d e r t a k i n g s . Conscientious: Completes w i t h o u t e x t e r n a l compulsion whatever i s a s s i g n e d b u t i s unl i k e l y t o e n l a r g e t h e scone o f a s s i g n m e n t s . G e n e r a l l y Dependable: U s u a l l y c a r r i e s through undertakings, self-assumed or assigned by others. Requiring only o c c a s i o n a l reminder or compulsion. S e l e c t i v e l y Dependable: Shows h i g h p e r s i s t ence i n u n d e r t a k i n g s i n which t h e r e i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , but i s less l i k e l y to c a r r v through other assignments. Unreliable: Can b e r e l i e d u p o n t o c o m p l e t e u n d e r t a k i n g s o n l y when t h e y a r e o f m o d e r a t e d u r a t i o n o r d i f f i c u l t y and t h e n o n l y w i t h much p r o d d i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n . Irresponsible: Cannot b e r e l i e d upon t o comp l e t e a n y u n d e r t a k i n g s e v e n when c o n s t a n t l y p r o d d e d and g u i d e d . CREATIVENESS General: A p p r o a c h e s w h a t e v e r he d o e s w i t h a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n and o r i g i n a l i t y , so t h a t he c o n t r i b u t e s s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s h i s own. Specific: Makes d i s t i n c t l y o r i g i n a l a n d s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n one o r more f i e l d s . Promising: Shows a d e g r e e o f c r e a t i v e n e s s t h a t indicates the l i k e l i h o o d of valuable o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n some f i e l d , a l t h o u g h t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a l r e a d y made h a v e n o t p r o v e d t o b e oarticularly significant. Limited: Shows t h e d e s i r e t o c o n t r i b u t e h i s own t h i n k i n g and e x p r e s s i o n t o s i t u a t i o n s , b u t h i s d e g r e e o f i m a g i n a t i o n and o r i g i n a l i t y i s n o t , i n g e n e r a l , h i g h enough t o h a v e much i n f l u e n c e on h i s . a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . (Continued)  - 166 Imitative: Makes l i t t l e o r no c r e a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , y e t shows s u f f i c i e n t i m a g i n a t i o n t o see t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f o t h e r s and t o make u s e o f t h e i r i d e a s o r accomplishments. Unimaginative: Has g i v e n p r a c t i c a l l y no e v i dence o f o r i g i n a l i t y o r c r e a t i v e n e s s i n imagination or a c t i o n . INFLUENCE Controlling: H i s i n f l u e n c e h a b i t u a l l y shapes the o p i n i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , o r i d e a l s o f h i s associates. Contributing Influence: His influence, while not c o n t r o l l i n g , s t r o n g l y a f f e c t s the o p i n i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s . , or i d e a l s o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s . Varying: H i s i n f l u e n c e v a r i e s , h a v i n g f o r c e when " p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y , s k i l l , experience or c i r cumstance g i v e s i t o p p o r t u n i t y o r v a l u e . Co-Operating: Has no v e r y d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e on his a s s o c i a t e s , but c o n t r i b u t e s t o group t h i n k i n g and a c t i o n b e c a u s e o f some d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o i d e a s and l e a d e r s . Passive: Has no d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e on h i s a s s o c i ates, being c a r r i e d along by the nearest or strongest influence. ADJUSTABILITY Secure: Appears t o f e e l secure i n h i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i s a c c e p t e d b y t h e g r o u p s o f w h i c h he i s a n a r t . Uncertain: A p p e a r s t o have some a n x i e t y a b o u t h i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l t h o u g h he i s a c c e p t e d b v t h e g r o u p s o f w h i c h he i s a p a r t . Neutral: Shows t h e d e s i r e t o have a n e s t a b l i s h e d place i n the group, but i s , i n g e n e r a l , t r e a t e d with indifference. W i t h d r a w n : W i t h d r a w s f r o m o t h e r s t o an e x t e n t t h a t p r e v e n t s h i s b e i n g a f u l l y a c c e p t e d member o f h i s groun. Not A c c e p t e d : Has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e r s o n o r beh a v i o r t h a t p r e v e n t h i s b e i n g an a c c e p t e d member of h i s g r o u p . CONCERN FOR OTHERS G e n e r a l l y Concerned: Shows b a l a n c e i n c o n s i d e r i n g w e l f a r e o f h i m s e l f and o t h e r s a n d d o e s what he nan a b o u t i t . S e l e c t i v e l y Concerned: Shows c o n c e r n b y a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n a b o u t c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s o f w e l f a r e o f persons. Personal: I s n o t s t r o n g l y concerned about the welfare of others unless a s i t u a t i o n m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t s him. Inactive: P r o f e s s e s concern about w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s b u t does n o t h i n g . Continued)  -  - 167 Unconcerned: Shows l i t t l e welfare of others.  o r no c o n c e r n  f o r the  SERIOUS PURPOSE P u r p o s e f u l : . Has d e f i n i t e p u r p o s e s and p l a n s and c a r r i e s through to the b e s t of h i s a b i l i t y undertakings c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s purpose. Limited: Makes p l a n s and shows d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n a t t a c k i n g s h o r t time p r o j e c t s t h a t i n t e r e s t him b u t has n o t y e t thought out g o a l s f o r himself. Potential: T a k e s t h i n g s a s t h e y come, m e e t i n g s i t u a t i o n s somewhat o n t h e s p u r o f t h e moment y e t may be c a p a b l e o f s e r i o u s p u r p o s e i f once aroused. V a c i l l a t i n g : : Makes p l a n s t h a t a r e f a i r l y d e f i n i t e - , b u t c a n n o t b e c o u n t e d on f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o c a r r y them t h r o u g h . Vague: I s l i k e l y to d r i f t w i t h o u t t h e d e c i s i v e n e s s and p e r s i s t e n c e t h a t w i l l e n a b l e h i m t o c a r r y o u t h i s vaguely conceived plans. EMOTIONAL S T A B I L I T Y D e s c r i b e t y p i c a l b e h a v i o r and s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n i t w i t h r e s p e c t t o such f a c t o r s as a p a t h y , e x c i t a b i l i t y , o v e r sensitiveness. stability. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ABOUT BEHAVIOR  T e n t a t i v e synthesis and suggestions f o r g u i d a n c e made d u r i n g , o r a t c l o s e o f , each s c h o o l y e a r . NOTES:  ABSTRACT OP THESIS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OP A STANDARDIZED PERSONALITY RATING- SCALE T h i s t h e s i s i s a s t u d y o f the c o n s i s t e n c y and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f g r a d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y on f o u r r a t i n g  scales  i n an e f f o r t t o o b t a i n a r e l i a b l e , s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y r a t ing scale.  The f i r s t s c a l e t o be s t u d i e d was one i s s u e d by the  P r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r of E d u c a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e .  The  average s p r e a d of grades a s s i g n e d anyjone t r a i t by d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s on t h i s s c a l e was 1.85 possible.  s t e p s o r 37 p e r c e n t o f  the  There was agreement i n 17.7 p e r c e n t of the g r a d e s .  I n 22 p e r c e n t of the times the same grade was g i v e n t o a l l the t r a i t s of a p u p i l by a r a t e r .  On the second s c a l e w h i c h was  p u b l i s h e d by the Toronto V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre the  average  spread of grades was 2 . 2 o r 43 p e r c e n t o f the f i v e - s t e p s and the r a t e r s agreed on the grade 1 5 . 7 p e r c e n t of the t i m e s . d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was v e r y good as on o n l y 8 . 1 p e r c e n t of  The  the  times was the same grade g i v e n t o a l l the t r a i t s o f a p u p i l . S i n c e t h e s e two r a t i n g s c a l e s were n o t c o n s t r u c t e d i n accordance w i t h modern p r a c t i c e , the w r i t e r d e c i d e d t o b u i l d one t o see i f the c o n s i s t e n c y and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c o u l d be increased.  Fourteen scales  and numerous a u t h o r i t i e s were  examined r e g a r d i n g t r a i t s t o be measured. selected:  appearance, v o i c e - a n d - s p e e c h , r e f i n e m e n t , dependa-  b i l i t y , industry, alertness, activity.  The f o l l o w i n g were  l e a d e r s h i p , p o i s e , s o c i a b i l i t y and  F o r each of these t r a i t s f i v e - s t e p s were d e s c r i b e d  below a h o r i z o n t a l this  continuum.  The a v e r a g e  spread  on t h e g r a d e a s s i g n e d 27.7 p e r c e n t  o f the times.  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e s . indicate better results As  sible times.  the continuum proved  o f the f i r s t  After  spread  scale  weightings  ratings,  The  decile  graph  with  o f the times.  to standardize the scale  t h e medians o f t h e  a n d p r o f e s s o r s were u s e d  as t h e b a s e s  These v a l u e s , d i v i d e d  t o the d i v i s i o n s  i n t o 15  o f the continuum, formed  A f t e r o b t a i n i n g the frequency  o f each grade on computed. of a bar  the w i d t h o f the bars p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the weightings  on  the graph  By m a r k i n g  the average  the comparative  extent  p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e based  the r e l i a b i l i t y  contribution of this  score f o reach  to which each  each t r a i t w i t h I t s r e l a t i v e  This weighted a scale  gave  35.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e  s c o r e s were worked o u t a n d p u t i n t h e f o r m  the t r a i t s .  possesses  scale  t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were  of  unique  on t h e g r a d e s  of the t r a i t s .  t o correspond  355  changes  o f 1.7 o r 34 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o s -  agreed  o f 76 t e a c h e r s  a score sheet.  continuum  t h e n seemed s u p e r i o r t o a n y o f t h e o t h e r s .  order  the values  figures  advantage,  certain  No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made 2.7 p e r c e n t  In  parts  o f grades  No  two s c a l e s .  t o be of l i t t l e  15 p o s i t i o n s f o r g r a d i n g .  and t h e r a t e r s  This l a s t  of  those  meet v a r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s were made, t h i s r e v i s e d  an a v e r a g e  of  than  These  was abandoned i f f a v o u r o f s t e p s w i t h a v e r t i c a l  divided into to  on  s c a l e was 1.9 o r 38 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o s s i b l e and t h e r a t e r s  agreed  It  o f grades  importance  student i s shown.  on s t a n d a r d i z e d  o f w h i c h has been v e r i f i e d thesis.  trait  scores  i s the  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106829/manifest

Comment

Related Items