UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of a standardized personality rating scale Donaldson, John Stanley 1948

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3 3? T H E DEVELOPMENT OP A STANDARDIZED PERSONALITY RATING SCALE toy JOHN STANLEY DONALDSON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP .' THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OP MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OP PSYCHOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1948 I C O N T E N T S CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION p a g e B r i e f survey o f p e r s o n a l i t y measurement 1 D e f i n i t i o n s of p e r s o n a l i t y 3 Nature of p e r s o n a l i t y 5 Importance of p e r s o n a l i t y and i t s r a t i n g 6 Purpose of t h i s these 7 I I . THE STUDY OP A PERSONALITY RATING SCALE PROPOSED BY MR. H. JOHNS (SCALE A) Sec u r i n g and t a b u l a t i n g r a t i n g s 8 Measure of c o n s i s t e n c y 9 Measure of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 15 I I I . THE STUDY OP THE PERSONALITY RATING SCALE OF THE VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE CENTER OF TORONTO (SCALE B ) • . S e c u r i n g and t a b u l a t i n g r a t i n g s 16 Measure of c o n s i s t e n c y 16 . Comparison w i t h S c a l e A 19 Measure of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 21 Comparison w i t h S c a l e A 22 Conclusions o f r a t e r s 22 L e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n to teachers 24 IV. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST ORIGINAL SCALE (SCALE C) S e l e c t i o n of t r a i t s 25 D e s c r i p t i o n of steps o f each t r a i t 29 Format of S c a l e C 30 Measure of c o n s i s t e n c y 31 Comparisons w i t h S c a l e s A and B 34 Measure of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 35 Comparisons w i t h S c a l e s A and B 36 C r i t i c i s m s and suggestions of r a t e r s 36 V. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECOND ORIGINAL SCALE (SCALE D) R e v i s i o n o f t r a i t s 40 Format of Sc a l e D 41 Securi n g and t a b u l a t i n g the r a t i n g s 42 Measure of c o n s i s t e n c y 42 Comparisons w i t h S c a l e s A, B and C 45 Measure of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 46 Comparisons w i t h S c a l e s A, B and C 47 C r i t i c i s m s and suggestions o f r a t e r s 48 R e v i s i o n of S c a l e D as S c a l e E 48 I I C O N T E N T S (CONTINUED) Page CHAPTER VI. THE REVISION OP THE SECOND ORIGINAL SCALE (SCALE E) Weighting of the t r a i t s 50 Sec u r i n g the r a t i n g s 55 Computation of the d e c i l e s 54 Computation of means from f i v e - s t e p s 56 L i s t o f median 57 Computation of d e c i l e s c o r e , f i n a l study 58 Comparison of the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the means and of the c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g the t r a i t s 60 V I I . INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING SCALE E T r a i n i n g the r a t e r s 62 Manual of i n f o r m a t i o n Development of r a t i n g S c a l e E 63 Purpose of Sc a l e E 64 Uses of S c a l e E 65 I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r r a t i n g 65 V I I I . SUMMARY OP THE DEVELOPMENT OP A STANDARDIZED RATING SCALE 66 IX. REFERENCES 77 X. APPENDICES 79 I l l T A B L E S I . ON SCALE A 1 . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t by s e l e c t e d r a t e r s 2 . Number of t imes each grade was used 3 . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades by u n s e l e c t e d r a t e r s 4 . Number of t imes each grade was used 5 . Comparison of two groups f o r c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g 6 . Number of t imes one or more grades to e a c h t r a i t of each p u p i l I I . ON SCALE B 7 . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t -seven steps 8 . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t -f i v e s teps 9 . Comparison of c o n s i s t e n c y of Sca les A and B 10. Number of t imes one or more grades to e a c h t r a i t o f each p u p i l - seven steps 11 . Number of t imes one or more grades to each . t r a i t of each p u p i l - f i v e s teps 12. Number of t imes each grade was used I I I . ON SCALE C 13 . Frequency of use of t r a i t s on 14 a v a i l a b l e s c a l e s 14. Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t 15* Number of t imes one or more grades f o r each t r a i t of each p u p i l 16. Comparison of c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g t r a i t s 17. Comparison o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of Sca les A , B and C I V . ON SCALE D 18. Number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t 19 . Number of t imes one or more grades f o r each t r a i t of each p u p i l 20 . Comparison of c o n s i s t e n c y of Sca les A , B , C and D 2 1 . Comparison of the c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g 22 . Comparison of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of Sca les A , B , C and D iv T A B L E S (CONTINUED) page , V. ON SCALE E 23. Significant weightings 53 24. Decile scores for each t r a i t 55 25. Median of each t r a i t on Scale E 58 26. Means, standard deviations and standard errors of each" of the nin traits on Scale E 59 27. Final deciles on Scale E 59 28. Comparison of rank of traits according to r e l i a b i l i t y of mean and consistency of rating 61 V A P P E N D I C E S A . Sca le A and Sca le B 79 B . L e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n to t eachers 80 C". I n t e r v i e w r a t i n g s c a l e 82 D . Sca le C 85 E . C r i t i c i s m s of S c a l e C 88 P . Proposed s c a l e s f o r r a t i n g s p e c i f i c behav ior 89 G . Sca le D 92 H . L e t t e r a s k i n g f o r c r i t i c i s m s and w e i g h t i n g s of t r a i t s o f Sca le D 96 I . C r i t i c i s m s of Sca le D 97 J . S c a l e E 100 K. Example of I n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d sheet and p r o f i l e 104 I I . TABULATIONS OP DATA ON SCALE A A . T a b u l a t i o n s of r a t i n g s by s e l e c t e d r a t e r s 105 B . T a b u l a t i o n s of r a t i n g s by u n s e l e c t e d r a t e r s 106 C. Number of d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s by each teacher f o r each p u p i l 107 I I I . TABULATIONS OP DATA OP SCALE B A . T a b u l a t i o n of r a t i n g s 108 B . Number of d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s by each teacher f o r each p u p i l 110 I V . TABULATION OP TRAITS A . L i s t s of t r a i t s on v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s 111 B . Frequency of use of the v a r i o u s t r a i t s 114 V . TABULATIONS OP DATA ON SCALE C A . T a b u l a t i o n of r a t i n g s 115 B . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades by each teacher f o r each p u p i l 118 V I . TABULATIONS OP DATA ON SCALE D A . T a b u l a t i o n of r a t i n g s 119 B . Number of d i f f e r e n t grades by each teacher f o r each p u p i l on 15 s teps 122 C. Number of d i f f e r e n t grades by each teacher. f o r each p u p i l on f i v e s teps 123 VI A P P E N D I C E S (CONTINUED) page V I I . DISTRIBUTION OP RATINGS ON SCALE E A . Appearance 124 B . Refinement 125 C. S o c i a b i l i t y 126 D. S o c i a l i t y 127 E . I n f l u e n c e 128 P . Po i se 129 G. A l e r t n e s s 130 H . D e p e n d a b i l i t y 131 I . I n d u s t r y 132 V I I I . COMPARISON OF MEAN SCORES OF GIRLS AND BOYS A . Appearance 133 B . I n d u s t r y 134 I X . COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND DECILES - PRELIMINARY STUDY A . Appearance 135 B . Refinement 135 C. S o c i a b i l i t y 136 D. S o c i a l i t y 136 E . I n f l u e n c e 137 F . P o i s e 137 G. A l e r t n e s s 138 H . D e p e n d a b i l i t y 138 I . I n d u s t r y 139 J . T o t a l s 140 X . COMPUTATIONS OF FIVE-POINT SCALE - PRELIMINARY STUDY A . Appearance 141 B . Refinement 141 C. S o c i a b i l i t y 142 D. S o c i a l i t y 142 E . I n f l u e n c e 143 F . P o i s e 143 G. A l e r t n e s s 144 H . D e p e n d a b i l i t y 144 I . I n d u s t r y 145 X I , EXAMPLE OF LETTER AND QUESTIONNAIRE 146 X I I . WEIGHTED VALUES RECEIVED A . Teachers 148 B . C o u n s e l l o r s and D i r e c t o r s of Guidance 148 C. P r o f e s s o r s of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s 149 D. P r o f e s s o r s of American U n i v e r s i t i e s 150 E . Personne l workers 151 VII A. P P E N D I C E S (CONTINUED) p a g e X I I I . FREQUENCY OF WEIGHTINGS FOR TRAITS AND COMPUTATIONS OF MEDIANS 152 XIV. COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND DECILES - FINAL STUDY 155 XV. EXAMPLE OF INDIVIDUAL RECORD SHEET 161 XVI. EXAMPLE OF WEIGHTED PROFILE CHART 162 XVII. LIST OF PUPILS RATED IN THIS STUDY 163 XVIII. LIST OF TEACHER RATERS 164 XIX. PERSONALITY RATING CARD OF AMERICAN COUNCIL OF EDUCATION 165 XX. ABSTRACT OF THESIS 168 CHAPTER I A BRIEF SURVEY OF PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT. The study of p e r s o n a l i t y i s p robably as o l d as man. Parents have had to r a i s e c h i l d r e n , t r a i n them i n the s k i l l s and knowledges and folk-ways of t h e i r v i l l a g e , community, clan, t r i b e or n a t i o n and to do so they have had to understand each c h i l d . P r i m i t i v e man as w e l l as modern man has had to " s i z e up" h i s a s s o c i a t e s , h i s f r i e n d s , h i s enemies and h i s s u p e r i o r s . Formal study of p e r s o n a l i t y goes back t o the Greek s c i e n t i s t , H i p p o c r a t e s , and to the Roman, Galen, who endeavour-ed to c l a s s i f y and d e s c r i b e human t r a i t s . From t h a t time u n t i l the present p s y c h o l o g i s t s have been t r y i n g to analyze p e r s o n a l i t y to l e a r n more about i t . Thorpe (20), however, has drawn a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s an e n t i t y g r e a t e r than the sum of i t s p a r t s . T h i s t i m e l y warning along w i t h the G e s t a l t theory of i n t e l l i g e n c e has drawn the attention of p s y c h o l o g i s t s back to the whole i n d i v i d u a l . The use of r a t i n g s c a l e s f o r the measurement of per-s o n a l i t y i s not so b l e s s e d w i t h the a u t h o r i t y of time. One of the e a r l i e s t was p u b l i s h e d In the " D u b l i n Evening Post" on January 25, 1784. T h i s s c a l e p urported to measure pa r l i a m e n -t a r y m e r i t by a p p r a i s i n g the l e g i s l a t o r s r e g a r d i n g : Inde-pendence, g e n e r a l knowledge, p o l i t i c a l knowledge, argument, temper, i n f l u e n c e , and g r a c e . As f a r as the p u b l i c s c hools are concerned one of the e a r l i e s t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s was the "Pasadena P u b l i c School Blank" which was d e v i s e d by Hughes (6) d u r i n g the years 1923 to 1925. A second e a r l y - 2 -s c a l e was the " J u l i e t Township High School and J u n i o r C o l l e g e Blank" developed by Hanna (4) i n 1925. For the p a s t twenty years the American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n has s t u d i e d r a t i n g s c a l e s . I t s f i r s t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1928 and i t s most r e c e n t i n 1945 as a r e s u l t o f . t h e " E i g h t - y e a r Study". A copy o f t h i s l a s t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e w i l l be found i n Appendix XVIII. The p o p u l a r i t y of r a t i n g s c a l e s of v a r i o u s types I s a t t e s t e d to by t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n magazines such as " L i f e " which i n the i s s u e of March 20, 1939 turned back the hands of time a century and a h a l f by p r i n t i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e f o r members of both Houses of Congress. The f i e l d of p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t i n g i s v e r y e x t e n s i v e . In 1931 the Will-Temperament T e s t by Downey (2) was p u b l i s h e d . I t d e a l s w i t h the s u b j e c t ' s responses to s i t u a t i o n s I n v o l v i n g handwriting and p u r p o r t s to measure twelve t r a i t s . Because of I t s low c o - e f f i c i e n t s of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , however, Kennedy (7) found t h a t i t Is of l i t t l e value i n c o u n s e l l i n g . The Pressey X-0 T e s t was developed to study sex and I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a f f e c t i o n s and moral judgments, and emotional make-up. While the t e s t Is as v a l i d , r e l i a b l e and u s e f u l as any of the d i s g u i s e d t e s t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , i n the o p i n i o n of Reed (10, p.300) i t measures i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t h e r than person-a l i t y . A very e x t e n s i v e t e s t i s the "Character E d u c a t i o n I n q u i r y " by Hartshorne and others (5, p.92) which measures the t r a i t s : honesty, t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , h e l p f u l n e s s , i n h i b i t i o n s , p e r s i s t e n c e , moral knowledge and a t t i t u d e . As t h i s t e s t must be g i v e n to each person I n d i v i d u a l l y and as i t c o n s i s t s of many Items, i t takes a g r e a t d e a l of time to a d m i n i s t e r the t e s t t o a group and. i s l i m i t e d to experimental work. The Free A s s o c i a t i o n T e s t developed by Kent-Rosanoff (13) i n 1910 has had a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t and T r a x l e r (22, p.32) b e l i e v e s i t has value i n cases o f problem p u p i l s but i t too i s an i n d i -v i d u a l t e s t . Another t e s t d e v i s e d many years ago but one which has become more popular i n r e c e n t years i s the Roraschach I n k - b l o t T e s t . I t has proved to be of value i n the hands of p s y c h i a t r i s t s but few'teachers have had the t r a i n i n g n e c e s s a r y to use and to i n t e r p r e t I t a c c o r d i n g t o T r a x l e r (22, p.9). None of, these t e s t s l s of p r a c t i c a l use i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s -room s i t u a t i o n . With l i t t l e time f o r i n d i v i d u a l work and ..' f a c e d w i t h the n e c e s s i t y of d e a l i n g w i t h l a r g e groups,guidance teachers tend to make use of s e l f - r a t i n g t e s t s such as : Bern r e u t e r P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y , B e l l Adjustment I n v e n t o r y , and the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y . As there was l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to experiment w i t h I n d i v i d u a l t e s t s i n the classroom and as ample r e s e a r c h has been done on s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e s , the w r i t e r d e c i d e d to work on p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s as there seems to be a need i n the h i g h s c h o o l s f o r a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c a l e of t h i s type. D e f i n i t i o n s of P e r s o n a l i t y . P s y c h o l o g i s t s of v a r i o u s schools d e f i n e p e r s o n a l i t y i n terms of t h e i r own f i e l d s . S h a f f e r (14) f o r i n s t a n c e i n "The Psychology of Adjustment" uses these words: "The p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l may be d e f i n e d as h i s p e r s i s t e n t tendencies to make c e r t a i n kinds and q u a l i t i e s of adjustments." Thus a person who adjusts h i s r e -a c t i o n s to conform to what i s expected o f him whether In s o c i a l - 4 -or v o c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s would have a " p l e a s i n g " p e r s o n a l i t y . Should he endeavour to change the s i t u a t i o n to h i s l i k i n g , he might he termed " a g g r e s s i v e " ; should he a v o i d adjustment he might he l a b e l l e d "unco-operative" or " r e t i r i n g " . The be-h a v i o r i s t s a c c o r d i n g to Skinner (15) s t a t e t h a t " p e r s o n a l i t y i s b e h a v i o r . I t i s the human i n d i v i d u a l i n a c t i o n . P e r s o n a l -i t y I n v o l v e s not o n l y behavior on the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l but response to t h a t behavior on the p a r t of another i n d i v i d u -a l . Development of p e r s o n a l i t y r e a l l y means development of b e h a v i o r a l responses or h a b i t u a l modes of b e h a v i o r . " T h i s use of the terminology of a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d to d e f i n e p er-s o n a l i t y .can be seen a l s o i n the case of the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o -g i s t s . "For purposes of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be d e f i n e d as the sum t o t a l of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n " s t a t e s T r a x l e r (21, p.100). . P e r s o n a l i t y i s d e f i n e d by L a P i e r r e and Farnsworth (9) "as the sum t o t a l of the ac q u i r e d behaviors, o f a g i v e n human b e i n g . I t i s the e n t i r e product of s o c i a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of those b e h a v i o r a t t r i -butes t h a t make the i n d i v i d u a l ' l i k e * o ther members of h i s s o c i e t y and those that d i s t i n g u i s h him from them". Landis (8, p.87) too g i v e s a s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n . "What we seem t o mean by p e r s o n a l i t y , viewed from a s o c i a l s t a n d p o i n t , i s h i s t o t a l e f f e c t on o t h e r s . Obviously, we are not t h i n k i n g p r i m a r i l y o f what the i n d i v i d u a l i s , but r a t h e r of the way he a f f e c t s h i s f e l l o w s . We say of an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t he has a good p e r s o n a l -i t y or a poor p e r s o n a l i t y , a s t r o n g or a weak p e r s o n a l i t y , and ap p a r e n t l y mean by t h i s t h a t he has a g r e a t d e a l of i n f l u e n c e over others o r , because of some weakness, f a i l s t o e x e r c i s e great, i n f l u e n c e or to make a f a v o u r a b l e Impression." The l a s t three d e f i n i t i o n s suggest but do not use the term i n t e r a c t i o n . The w r i t e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h i s paper i s : P e r s o n a l i t y i s the sum of the be h a v i o r p a t t e r n s developed, w i t h i n the l i m i t s of h i s b i o l o g i c a l i n h e r i t a n c e , i n an i n d i v i d u a l through i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h h i s t o t a l environment. Nature of P e r s o n a l i t y . S i n c e p e r s o n a l i t y r e s u l t s from . I n t e r a c t i o n , some persons f e e l t h a t I t I s determined by the immediate s i t u a t i o n so t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s a f l e e t i n g t h i n g , evanescent, I n t a n g i b l e and i l l u s i v e which depends as much on the r a t e r as on the one being r a t e d . To a c e r t a i n extent t h i s i s t r u e and to t h i s extent r a t i n g s o f p e r s o n a l i t y are unre-l i a b l e . But, on the other hand, there i s a q u a l i t y , a con-comitant of be h a v i o r , a s y n t h e s i s o f emotional, s o c i a l , and I n t e l l e c t u a l r e a c t i o n s t h a t p e r s i s t s , t h a t g i v e s c o n s i s t e n c y to one's responses and t h a t makes him the i n d i v i d u a l t h a t he i s . Landis (8, p.87) w r i t e s "we must r e c o g n i z e , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s , as has been p o i n t e d out, i n some respects, r e l a t i v e l y unchanging; t h a t i s , there are core p a t t e r n s which g i v e the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l a c o n s i s t e n c y " . In p e r s o n a l -i t y r a t i n g we seek to ev a l u a t e the I n d i v i d u a l i n terms of t h i s p e r s i s t e n t and c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r . To o b t a i n a r e l i a b l e e v a l u a t i o n , one should have s e v e r a l r a t i n g s o f an I n d i v i d u a l made a t d i f f e r e n t times. I f d i f f e r e n t persons do the r a t i n g , i t may even be advantageous to r a t e the r a t e r s i n order t o e q u a l i z e t h e i r r a t i n g s . 6 -Importance of P e r s o n a l i t y and I t s r a t i n g . The importance of p e r s o n a l i t y to the success of an i n d i v i d u a l i s being r e c o g -n i z e d more and more e x t e n s i v e l y . A c e r t a i n type o f p e r s o n a l i t y can be a f a i l u r e i n one s o c i a l or v o c a t i o n a l m i l i e u but a success i n another. For example Landis (8, p.88) s t a t e s t h a t a r e s e a r c h chemist might be s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s work because he i s s t u d i o u s , a n a l y t i c a l , p a i n s t a k i n g and r e t i r i n g but he would be a f a i l u r e as a p o l i t i c i a n . In the world of b u s i n e s s , p e r -s o n a l i t y r a t i n g i s accepted as an a i d In the s e l e c t i o n of pe r s o n n e l . The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company has an ex-t e n s i v e t e s t i n g programme, p a r t of which I s a p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g . Normal Schools, the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s , m i l i t a r y acade-mies, n u r s i n g schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s make use of p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s . I n o r d i n a r y , every-day l i f e people r a t e p e r -s o n a l i t y . They speak of those who have a "winning" p e r s o n a l -i t y , an "unpleasant" p e r s o n a l i t y and base t h e i r judgments e n t i r e l y on o b s e r v a t i o n , on memory and on chance r e a c t i o n without any c o n t r o l Or d i r e c t i o n so t h a t there i s n o w a y of knowing i f the o b s e r v a t i o n has been adequate, accurate or d i s -c r i m i n a t i n g . Such e s t i m a t i o n s of p e r s o n a l i t y are u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y a t any time and are e n t i r e l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n i n p e r s o n n e l work and f o r c o u n s e l l i n g i n our s c h o o l s . The two f a c t s , t h a t we c o n s t a n t l y e v a l u a t e p e r s o n a l i t y and t h a t r a t i n g s c a l e s are b e i n g used w i d e l y , suggest t h a t techniques of rating should be improved so t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the p e r s o n a l i t y -r a t i n g w i l l be i n c r e a s e d and t h a t a g r e a t e r understanding of the s i g n i f i c a n c e and of the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the r a t i n g s s h o u l d - 7 -be developed. None-the-less Reed (11, p.110) s t a t e s t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s are b e i n g used as a t o o l i n the study of the i n d i v i d u a l . Purpose of t h i s t h e s i s . The i n i t i a l i n c e n t i v e f o r t h i s t h e s i s was the d i s t r i b u t i o n by Mr. H. Johns, D i r e c t o r of E d u c a t i o n a l and V o c a t i o n a l Guidance f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, of a t e n t a t i v e cumulative r e c o r d c a r d . Among the items on the c a r d appeared a p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e . As t h i s card was a new d e p a r t u r e , i t was important t h a t the r a t i n g s c a l e should be examined c r i t i c a l l y to make c e r t a i n t h a t i t would be adequate f o r the purpose i n t e n d e d . The w r i t e r undertook to examine t h i s s c a l e and t h a t of the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre of Toronto to d i s c o v e r how adequately they met the demands f o r a p r a c t i c a l and r e l i a b l e s c a l e . Should these prove to be u n s u i t a b l e f o r any reason, he proposed t o attempt to improve on them. To be s a t i s f a c t o r y a p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e should g i v e c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s j t h a t i s , i t should reduce to a minimum the v a r i a t i o n s between the r a t i n g s , by d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s and by the same r a t e r at d i f f e r e n t times. I t should be p o s s i b l e to s t a n d a r d i z e the s c a l e so t h a t the p e r c e n t i l e of each one r a t e d c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d not o n l y on the s c a l e as a whole but on each t r a i t e v a l u a t e d . I t was planned to t r y out the d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s i n Magee High S c h o o l . - 8 -CHAPTER I I THE STUDY OP THE PERSONALITY RATING SCALE PROPOSED BY THE DIRECTOR OP EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA. I n t r o d u c t i o n . The p o s i t i o n of D i r e c t o r o f V o c a t i o n a l and E d u c a t i o n a l Guidance was cr e a t e d i n 1944 and Mr.Harold D. Jones was the f i r s t incumbent of the o f f i c e . Being anxious to improve and s t a n d a r d i z e the guidance r e c o r d s o f the s c h o o l s , he i s s u e d i n 1945 a t e n t a t i v e Cumulative Record Card. T h i s c a r d was sent to Guidance teachers f o r c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s . One p a r t of the card c o n s i s t e d of a form f o r r a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y . A l i s t o f t r a i t s was g i v e n w i t h spaces f o r r e c o r d i n g the grades:-A ( e x c e l l e n t ) , B (good), C (average), D (below average), and E (poor - e n t i r e l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ) . As i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s form might become o f f i c i a l , the w r i t e r was anxious t o t r y i t out i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . S e c u r i n g and t a b u l a t i n g r a t i n g s . The f i r s t s t e p was to have a number of experienced teachers r a t e the same p u p i l s on t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e (See Sc a l e A i n Appendix I A ) . In a s c h o o l o r g a n i z e d on the i n d i v i d u a l - t i m e - t a b l e b a s i s , to f i n d a group of students w i t h the same teachers was d i f f i c u l t . A f t e r a l a r g e number of i n d i v i d u a l t i m e - t a b l e s was examined, two groups each w i t h f o u r teachers the same were t a b u l a t e d . The p u p i l s of the f i r s t group were r a t e d on Sc a l e A and those of the second on Sc a l e B. The second problem was to secure the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the t e a c h e r s . The e i g h t teachers s e l e c t e d were c a l l e d together to have the purpose of the study e x p l a i n -ed, to examine S c a l e A and to d i s c u s s i t s v a r i o u s t r a i t s and • - 9 -grades. Mimeographed copies of Scale A were g i v e n to the teachers a f t e r the p u p i l s ' names had been w r i t t e n on them. Even then some of the teachers demurred as they f e l t inadequate to the t a s k or i n s u f f i c i e n t l y acquainted w i t h the p u p i l s . Other teachers f o r g o t to do the r a t i n g s , m i s l a i d the forms, or f a i l e d to f i n d time i n c l a s s . F i n a l l y f o u r r a t i n g s f o r each of 11 p u p i l s i n the f i r s t group were r e t u r n e d . The t a b u l a t i o n of these w i l l be found i n Appendix I I A . Each p u p i l who was r a t e d on the p e r s o n a l i t y form was a s s i g n e d a number which i s used i n the Tables (See Appendix XVI). C o n s i s t e n c y . S i n c e each of the 11 students was r a t e d by the same f o u r t e a c h e r s , i t was p o s s i b l e to examine the con-s i s t e n c y of the r a t i n g . I n theory, i f the s c a l e were p e r f e c t , the teachers would g i v e the.same grade of the f i v e p o s s i b l e to each t r a i t . The number of d i f f e r e n t grades g i v e n each t r a i t of each p u p i l by the f o u r r a t e r s i s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1. - 10 -TABLE I NUMBER OF DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT BY FOUR SELECTED RATERS on H i a) H p» i U - p C O i CQ •O - P -p . al O u <D aS P u p i l U T I - P a © •P . © •H <D <D r - l 3 © -p a © O u CO - P > ft«H •a 1 ft 2 ° ft T l •H T I © & a o o J3° ft 3 o o C - P « H o W <! o PH # 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 i 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 . 2 2 2 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 6 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 7 1 1 ; . i 2 2 1 1 1 8 2 1 1 1 .1 1 2 2 9 3 . 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 10 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 11 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 . 2 T o t a l 23 23 21 22 17 18 - 17 22 Average 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.5 2.0 Percent 42 42 38 40 31 32 31 40 The t o t a l number o f d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t was computed and the average worked out. T h i s average i n d i -cated the spread of the grades. I f the r a t e r s had been per-f e c t l y c o n s i s t e n t , the average would be one. T h e r e f o r e , the more c l o s e l y the average approached One and the s m a l l e r the percent of grades used, the more c o n s i s t e n t were the r a t e r s . From Table 1 then i t w i l l be seen t h a t the teachers were most c o n s i s t e n t i n r a t i n g appearance and po i s e and l e a s t c o n s i s t e n t i n r a t i n g d e p e n d a b i l i t y and i n d u s t r y . Out of the f i v e p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t the r a t e r s have used on the average 1.85 or 37 p e r c e n t . T h i s measure of c o n s i s t e n c y i n the r a t i n g of each t r a i t w i l l be - 11 -compared w i t h t h a t of each s c a l e used, to d i s c o v e r which has the lowest percentage of spread i n the r a t i n g s . TABLE 2 NUMBER"OP TIMES EACH GRADE WAS USED BY POUR SELECTED TEACHERS ON SCALE A. A - 6 B - 99 C - 197 D - 50 E - n i l The f a c t t h a t only f o u r of the f i v e p o s s i b l e grades were used i n c r e a s e d the percentage of grades used on the aver-age from 37 to 46 p e r c e n t . As t h i s was almost h a l f of the grades on the s c a l e , the r a t e r s were able to p l a c e the p u p i l o n l y r o u g h l y ; t h a t i s , f o r any g i v e n t r a i t of an i n d i v i d u a l the grades would spread over h a l f the s c a l e . T h i s suggests t h a t the form cannot be very c o n s i s t e n t i n the hands of the r a t e r s . Owing to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g any l a r g e number of p u p i l s w i t h the same t e a c h e r s , the w r i t e r d e c i d e d t o have a number of p u p i l s r a t e d by v a r i o u s other teachers on the s t a f f . These r a t i n g s are g i v e n i n Appendix IIB. Prom t h i s t a b u l a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g summaries were made concerning the c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r a t i n g s and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t r a i t s : -- 12 -TABLE 3 NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT BY 18 RATERS H i i» o a) r-i t» as p» u •rl c o i CO i XJ -P •p •P O h u © as P u p i l C-rj CO S Ti -P -p a at © .© o -p © CO nH © •P > Perl O O as 3 T t Ti Ti © .o a o a B O o o C-P « • H o . < o PH H # 12 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 13 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 14 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 15 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 16 3 2 3 3 2. 2 3 3 17 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 18 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 19 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 20 3 2 3 2 2 , 2 2 2 21 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 T o t a l 24 22 22 23 22 21 23 20 Average 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.0 Percent 48 44 44 46 44 42 46 40 Out of the f i v e p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t , the v a r i o u s r a t e r s have used on the average 2.2 or 44 p e r c e n t . i n r a t i n g the boys and g i r l s . TABLE 4 NUMBER OF TIMES EACH GRADE WAS USED BY 18 RATERS ON SCALE A A _ 82 B — 96 C . — 87 D - 36 — n i l " Not r a t e d — 3 Again s i n c e o n l y f o u r of the f i v e p o s s i b l e grades were used, the percentage r o s e from 44 to 55. - 13 -Table 5 shows how the two groups of teacher r a t e r s compare i n c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g each t r a i t . The average number and the percentage o f p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t are g i v e n . TABLE 5 COMPARISON OP THE CONSISTENCY OP RATING BY 4 SELECTED RATERS AND BY 18 OTHER RATERS 4 SELECTED RATERS 18 UNSELECTED RATERS T r a i t s Aver. % Aver. % D e p e n d a b i l i t y 2.1 42 2.4 48 I n d u s t r y 2.1 42 2.2 44 Co-operation 1.9 38 2.2 44 Emotional C o n t r o l 2.0 40 2.3 46 Appearance 1.5 31 2.2 44 Courtesy 1.6 32 2.1 42 Poise 1.5 31 2.3 46 I n i t i a t i v e 2.0 40 2.0 40 Average 1.9 37 2.2 44 The average spread o f grades by the s e l e c t e d group was 1.85 steps or 37 per c e n t o f the p o s s i b l e whereas the aver-age spread of the u n s e l e c t e d group was 2.2 steps or 44 percent of the p o s s i b l e . T h i s I n d i c a t e s t h a t the teachers who r a t e d the f i r s t e leven p u p i l s were the more c o n s i s t e n t . T h i s r e s u l t i s to b e expected as each t e a c h e r of the f i r s t group r a t e d a l l the p u p i l s whereas i n the second group some teachers r a t e d o n l y one student. As r a t i n g s are to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent a matter of comparison, the r a t e r s i n the second group were a t a disadvantage. The d i f f e r e n c e between the two grades i s not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i n c e the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s o n l y - 14 -.021 when i t i s customary to take 3.0 as i n d i c a t i v e o f a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e and w i l l not be s t u d i e d f u r t h e r . In every day p r a c t i c e i t w i l l be ne c e s s a r y to have r a t i n g s made by almost every teacher on the s t a f f so th a t I t would be of l i t t l e advantage to separate the grades of the two groups o f r a t e r s I n the succeeding t a b u l a t i o n s . F o r the convenience o f comparison w i t h r a t i n g s i n subsequent s c a l e s , the frequency o f the grades g i v e n each t r a i t of the 21 p u p i l s r a t e d on the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g . S c a l e A i s summarized i n Tabl e 6. TABLE 6 NUMBER OF TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OF EACH PUPIL ON SCALE A Number of d i f f e r e n t grades Aver. % T r a i t 1 2 3 4 5 Dependabi11ty 2 13 5 1 . 0 . 2.24 45 I n d u s t r y 4 10 7 0 0 2.14 43 C o-operation 4 12 5 0 0 2.05 41 Emotional C o n t r o l 4 10 7 0 0 2.14 43 Appearance 5 14 . 2 0 0 1.86 37 Courtesy 6 12 3 0 0 1.86 37 Poise 5 13 3 0 . 0 1.90 38 I n i t i a t i v e 3 15 3 0 0 2.00 40 T o t a l s 29 99 35 1 0 2.00 40 Percent 17.7 60.3 21.3 0.7 0.0 From Table 6 i t can be seen t h a t 29 times out o f a p o s s i b l e 164 the r a t e r s agreed on t h e i r r a t i n g s of the va r i o u s t r a i t s . The r a t e r s agreed on t h e i r grades f o r co u r t e s y s i x times and f o r d e p e n d a b i l i t y t w i c e . From t h i s view p o i n t c o u r t e s y was the most c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d and d e p e n d a b i l i t y the l e a s t . c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d . T h i s statement i s supported by the - 15 -f a c t t h a t c o u r t e s y along w i t h appearance has the s m a l l e s t average spread of grades (1,86) and per c e n t (37) and dependa-b i l i t y has the l a r g e s t average spread (2.24) and percent (45) of p o s s i b l e grades. D l f f e r e n t l a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o c o n s i s t e n c y , d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n i s important s i n c e i f the teachers gave the same grade to a l l t r a i t s o f a l l the p u p i l s , they would be p e r f e c t l y con-s i s t e n t but completely u n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g . In Appendiz I I C the number of d i f f e r e n t grades by each teacher f o r each p u p i l i s g i v e n . Prom t h i s i t can be seen t h a t 18 times or 22 percent of the times, the r a t e r s used the same grade f o r a l l t r a i t s ; t h a t i s , they made no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the v a r i o u s t r a i t s of a student. They made a d i s t i n c t i o n of two grades 52 times or 64.2 percent of the times. T h i s l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n tends to i n c r e a s e the apparent c o n s i s t e n c y of the r a t i n g s i n S c a l e A by the d i f f e r -ent teachers but i t renders the s c a l e of l i t t l e v a l u e . - 16 -CHAPTER I I I THE STUDY OP THE PERSONALITY RATING SCALE OP THE VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE CENTRE OP TORONTO I n t r o d u c t i o n . The second P e r s o n a l i t y R a t i n g S c a l e t o he used was taken f r o m the Toronto V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre Cumulative Record P o l d e r . T h i s s c a l e , which w i l l he d e s i g -nated S c a l e B, i s used i n many Onta r i o secondary s c h o o l s . As w i l l he seen i n the sample shown i n Appendix IA, i t p r o v i d e s seven steps i n each t r a i t : A ( e x c e l l e n t ) , B (good), C+ (h i g h average), C (average), C- (low average), D (poor), and E (very u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ) . A second d i f f e r e n c e from S c a l e A I s the b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each t r a i t ; perhaps, the word d e s c r i p t i o n i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y exact as, f o r example, the t r a i t dependa-a b i l i t y i s e x p l a i n e d by the a d d i t i o n of two other a b s t r a c t i o n s : r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s . An e f f o r t , a t l e a s t , i s made to c l a r i f y and d e l i m i t the meaning of the terms used i n the s c a l e . S e c u r i n g and t a b u l a t i n g the r a t i n g s . As i n the case o f the f i r s t r a t i n g s c a l e , b o t h s e l e c t e d and u n s e l e c t e d groups of p u p i l s and of teachers were used. The t a b u l a t i o n o f the r a t -ings i s g i v e n In Appendix I I I A . C o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g . T a b l e 7 I s obtained from the t a b u l a t i o n of the r a t i n g s and shows the number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t of each student on S c a l e B. - 17 -TABLE 7 NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY • RATERS STUDENT FOR ON i EACH SCALE TRAIT B - 7 OF EACH STEPS © o © H © > i - d o p? i a S H nH rH S 3 CJ CO a s p? C O nH a s a s © • d +3 • p O a ! J°> © • o o P u p i l s 3 © U p 43 SH C n © rH u o -P c nH +> a s nH P» © © P* 03 P « H < w o O nH O 43 nH P i P i CO o © £> 6H E O O nH O to < < o Q W H C O > # 22 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 23 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 24 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 25 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 26 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 27 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 2 28 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 29 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 30 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 31 1 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 32 2 3 3 4 5 3 4 3 3 33 3 3 2 4 3 4 4 2 4 34 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 35 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 36 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 37 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 38 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 39 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 40 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 41 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 42 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 43 3 4 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 44 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 4 45 2 4 3 3 4 3 2 2 3 T o t a l 51 65 61 65 59 63 63 62 61 Average 2. 1 2.7 2.5 2.7 2. 4 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 Percent 30 39 36 39 35 37 37 37 • 36 From T a b l e 7 I t w i l l be seen that the r a t e r s were most c o n s i s t e n t i n r a t i n g appearance and l e a s t c o n s i s t e n t i n r a t i n g assurance and d e p e n d a b i l i t y . T h i s r e s u l t i s s i m i l a r to th a t of S c a l e A as seen i n Table 1. - 18 -Out of the seven p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t , the r a t e r s used on the average 2.5 or 36 per c e n t . Since Scale B p r o v i d e s f o r C- as low average, C as average and Of as h i g h average, f o r purposes of comparison w i t h the f i v e steps of S c a l e A the s i m p l e s t method would be to co n s i d e r C 4 , C, C- as C. The next t a b l e l i s t s the number of d i f f e r e n t grades i n each t r a i t on a f i v e - s t e p s c a l e . TABLE 8 NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY RATERS FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT ON A FIVE-STEP SCALE B, INCLUDING C-, C, C-f AS C © © o © H • > i -0 S ' o i as i H •H H ti _ 3 c CO at p* a o •P •H as .ti u 3 © -ct -P -p o u as ,o o P u p i l s ai © JH 3 43 CI<H © H SH O Ti -P •p ti T i +> as nH P» © © o © P i CO 3 . P I T ! <SH o o n-i O +» •ri P i P I CO o © ,Q <H S o ti O T t O CO < < o W w H CO > # 22 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 23 • 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 24 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 25 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 26 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 27 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 28 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 29 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 30 2 3 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 31 2. 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 32 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 33 2 3 3 3 3 3 . 4 2 3 34 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 3 35 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 36 1 2 3 2 3 3 .2 2 2 37 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 38 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 39 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 40 2 1 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 41 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 42 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 43 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 44 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 45 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 T 6 t a l 45 52 56 57 57 53 50 47 51 Average 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.1 Percent 38 43 47 48 48 44 42 39 43 Again from Table 8 i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t appear-ance i s r a t e d most c o n s i s t e n t l y and d e p e n d a b i l i t y and e f f o r t the l e a s t c o n s i s t e n t l y . On the f i v e - s t e p s c a l e the teachers used an average of 2.2 steps or 43 percent of the t o t a l . For convenience i n comparing S c a l e A w i t h the two t a b u l a t i o n s of Scale B i n Table 9 the average spread and per-centage of the t o t a l p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t are g i v e n . TABLE 9 COMPARISON OF THE CONSISTENCY OF RATING ON SCALES A AND B AS INDICATED BY AVERAGE NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF POSSIBLE GRADES. Sca l e B S c a l e A ft S c a l e B T r a i t s Aver. % Aver. % Aver. % Appearance 2.1 30 1.9 37 1.9 38 Assurance 2.7 39 1.9 38 2.2 43 Courtesy 2.5 36 1.9 37 2.3 47 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 2.7 39 2.2 44 2.4 48 E f f o r t 2.4 35 2.1 33 2.4 . 48 Emotional C o n t r o l 2.6 37 2.1 33 2.2 44 I n i t i a t i v e 2.6 37 2.0 40 2.1 42 S o c i a b i l i t y 2.6 37 2.0 39 Voice and Speech 2.5 36 2.1 43 Co-operation 2.0 41 Average 2.5 36 2.0 40 2.2 43 From Tab l e 9 i t can been seen t h a t S c a l e A ( f i v e s t e ps) has an average spread of r a t i n g s of 2.0 steps whereas S c a l e B ( f i v e s t e p s ) has an average of 2.2 but as has been p o i n t e d out the s m a l l range of S c a l e A i s p a r t l y due to l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on the p a r t of the r a t e r s . Since o n l y 4 steps were used by the r a t e r s on S c a l e A the percentage of xr Scale B using five-steps, including C-, C and Ct as C, - 20 -spread Is 55 p e r c e n t as compared w i t h 43 percent ( f i v e s t e p s ) and 36 percent (seven s t e p s ) on S c a l e B. The l a t t e r s c a l e , then, seems to g i v e somewhat more c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g s . The t a b l e s f o l l o w i n g show the number of d i f f e r e n t grades g i v e n each t r a i t of each p u p i l by the r a t e r s . The fewer the grades g i v e n the more c o n s i s t e n t i s the r a t i n g or i n other words the more times the teachers g i v e the same grade f o r the same t r a i t of the same p u p i l , the more r e l i a b l e i s the r a t i n g . TABLE 10 NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE B USING SEVEN STEPS Number of d i f f e r e n t grades T r a i t 1 2 3 4 5 Appearance 5 13 4 .2 0 Assurance 0 9 12 3 0 Courtesy 0 11 13 0 0 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 0 10 11 3 0 E f f o r t 2 7 13 1 1 Emotional C o n t r o l 1 9 12 2 0 I n i t i a t i v e 2 9 9 . 4 0 S o c i a b i l i t y 0 11 12 1 0 Voice and Speech 0 13 9 2 0 T o t a l s 10 92 95 18 1 Percentage o f r a t i n g s 4.6 42.6 44.0 8.3 1 - C I -TABLE 11 NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE B USING FIVE STEPS. Number of d i f f e r e n t grades T r a i t 1 2 3 4 5 Appearance 7; 13 4 0 0 Assurance 3 14 7 0 0 Courtesy 0 16 8 0 0 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 1 13 10 0 0 E f f o r t 2 11 11 0 0 Emotional C o n t r o l 4 11 9 1 0 I n i t i a t i v e 7 9 7 • 0 0 S o c i a b i l i t y 6 13 5 0 0 Voice and Speech 4 13 7 0 0 T o t a l s 34 113 68 1 0 Percent of ra.tings 15.7 52.3 31.5 .5 .0 When u s i n g the seven-step s c a l e , the r a t e r s agreed on the grade of a t r a i t o n l y 10 times (4.6 percent) out of 216 r a t i n g s . When u s i n g the f i v e - s t e p s c a l e , they agreed 34 times (15.7 p e r c e n t ) . T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the teachers r a t e more c o n s i s t e n t l y on the f i v e - s t e p . s c a l e than on the seven. The r a t i n g s on S c a l e A were more c o n s i s t e n t as 29 (17.7 p e r -cent) o f the 164 grades agreed. I t w i l l be remembered, how-ever, t h a t on the f i r s t s c a l e there was a l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n between the t r a i t s . There seems to b e some evidence, however, i n f a v o u r of the f i v e - s t e p s c a l e and a g a i n s t the seven-step s c a l e as r e g a r d c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g . D i f f e r e n t ! a t i o n . From a study of the t a b u l a t i o n o f the number of d i f f e r e n t grades g i v e n each student by each teacher (See Appendix I I I B ) , i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t o n l y n i n e times - 22 - . (8.1 percent) i n 111 r a t i n g s d i d the teachers make no d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n between the t r a i t s . Two grades were g i v e n t o a l l the t r a i t s of one p u p i l 32 times (28.8 p e r c e n t ) ; three grades, 36 times (32.5 p e r c e n t ) ; f o u r grades, 28 times (25.2 p e r c e n t ) ; f i v e grades, f i v e times (4.5 p e r c e n t ) ; and seven grades, once (0.9 p e r c e n t ) . On S c a l e A the teachers made no d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n 18 times (22.2 percent), i n the 81 r a t i n g s . S c a l e B, then, enabled the r a t e r s to be more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g but the i n c r e a s e -in d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n may be due i n p a r t to the i n c r e a s e d number of s t e p s , to the form i t s e l f w i t h seven separate columns f o r the grades, t o the p r a c t i c e i n r a t i n g and to the b r i e f ex-p l a n a t i o n of the s t e p s . C o n c l u s i o n . By the time the second l o t of r a t i n g s was completed, there was a g r e a t d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n among the teachers about p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g . The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g was that i t c o u l d not be done s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on the s c a l e s t h a t had been used.. They f e l t t h a t the r a t i n g s c o u l d be i n t e r - . p r e t e d i n v a r i o u s ways. For example on d e p e n d a b i l i t y , a l e t t e r grade of B c o u l d mean t h a t the r a t e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the student was v e r y dependable but c o u l d a l s o mean that he had f a i l e d t o be dependable a t a l l times and t h e r e f o r e he was not e n t i t l e d to a grade of A. The teachers themselves d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t they attached to the grades t h a t they gave. They r e a l i z e d t h a t they gave the same grades f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons and d i f f e r e n t grades on the same e v i d -ence. I t was g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of each l e t t e r grade or s t e p should be more e x p l i c i t . - 23 -On S c a l e s A and B the r a t e r s c o u l d e a s i l y be l e d t o grade a l l t r a i t s from t h e i r g e n e r a l Impression of the student. In other words they might t h i n k the. p u p i l was a f i n e type and put an A a f t e r each t r a i t w ithout a c t u a l l y weighing the evidence of p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r . Reed (11) s t a t e s t h a t some a u t h o r i t i e s have found t h i s h a l o e f f e c t to operate i n the g r a d i n g of t r a i t s on s c a l e s of t h i s type. There i s no s i g n i -f i c a n t evidence i n t h i s study, however, t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f . On the c o n t r a r y , the amount of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on S c a l e s A and B i s s u r p r i s i n g and, perhaps, i s a compliment to the con-s c i e n t i o u s n e s s of the r a t e r s . There i s , however, a c l u s t e r i n g of grades i n the upper h a l f of the s c a l e ; i n f a c t , there are 696 r a t i n g s above C and o n l y 96 below C on S c a l e B (See Table 12). T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e a r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of the teachers to r a t e the p u p i l s below average. TABLE 12 NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS USED EACH GRADE TO INDICATE RATINGS ON SCALE B A 261 B - 277 c+ - 158 c - 184 c- - 65 D — 22 E 9 No r a t i n g 20 F i n a l l y , the l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y between r a t e r s and the l a c k of d i s t r i b u t i o n of grades from h i g h to low l e d the w r i t e r to attempt.an o r i g i n a l s c a l e , a d e c i s i o n which was encouraged by - 24 -the s t a f f of Magee High School, L e t t e r o f E x p l a n a t i o n . The l e t t e r which appears i n f u l l i n Appendix 16 e x p l a i n s t o a l l the members of the s t a f f the reasons why p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s of some of the p u p i l s were being made. I t i n d i c a t e s the probable uses of the r a t i n g s ; such as, r e v e a l i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, a i d i n g the -c o u n s e l l o r , showing p e r s o n a l i t y development, s e r v i n g as a use-f u l r e f e r e n c e and f i n a l l y i n d i c a t i n g a student's r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n a l a r g e group. - 25 -CHAPTER IV THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE FIRST ORIGINAL SCALE IN THIS STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n . There have been very many p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s developed i n the l a s t twenty y e a r s ; but the f i r s t s c a l e one attempts i s o r i g i n a l as f a r as he i s concerned. The f i r s t two s c a l e s s t u d i e d seemed so f a r behind modern p r a c t i c e i n s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t the w r i t e r f e l t encouraged t o attempt a s c a l e to conform w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n as e x p l a i n e d by a u t h o r i t i e s such as Reed. ( I I ) , Remmers and Gage (12), T r a x l e r (21, 22) and o t h e r s . S e l e c t i o n o f t r a i t s . One of the f i r s t t a sks i n b u i l d i n g an o r i g i n a l r a t i n g s c a l e i s the s e l e c t i o n o f the t r a i t s t o be • r a t e d . A l o g i c a l step seemed t o be the study of a number of r a t i n g s c a l e s a l r e a d y i n use. In a d d i t i o n to s e v e r a l which were obtained from schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s , through the kindness o f Mr. J . W. A. F l e u r y o f the s t a f f of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the w r i t e r r e c e i v e d the l o a n of some s c a l e s which were used i n the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s . The p e r s o n a l -i t y t r a i t s from these v a r i o u s s c a l e s are l i s t e d i n Appendix IVA and t h e i r f r e q u e n c y of use i s summarized In Appendix IVB. From the t a b u l a t i o n of the t r a i t s on 14 a v a i l a b l e s c a l e s , those t h a t were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n meaning or i n t e n t were counted together so t h a t the t r a i t s ranked i n occurence as they appear i n Table 13. - 26 TABLE 13 THE FREQUENCY OF TRAITS ON 14 AVAILABLE SCALES. T r a i t Frequency Rank Appearance, b e a r i n g and neatness D e p e n d a b i l i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , 14 1 thoroughness, purposefulness 14 1 In d u s t r y , perseverance 14 1 I n i t i a t i v e 11 4 Poi s e , emotional c o n t r o l , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e 10 5 Co-operation 10 5 Leadership 10 5 I n t e l l i g e n c e , mental a l e r t n e s s 9 8 Force, E f f o r t 7 9 Courtesy, c u l t u r a l refinement, t a c t 6 10 Moral courage, f o r c e of c h a r a c t e r 6 10 Endurance 5 12 Judgment 4 13 Voice and speech 4 13 I n t e r e s t i n d u t i e s , a c t i v i t i e s 3 15 As e i g h t of the 14 p e r s o h a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s s t u d i e d were used f o r the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s , they contained items that are not n e c e s s a r i l y p e r t i n e n t to nor i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e f o r r a t i n g g i r l s and boys i n s c h o o l . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s examination of the r a t i n g s c a l e s r e f e r e n c e was made to s t u d i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . S h a f f e r (14, p.284) w r i t e s t h a t the t r a i t s d e f i n e d by Hippocrates as mo d i f i e d by Galen were: sanguine, c h o l e r i c , m e l a n c h o l i c , phlegmatic; and that Jung c l a s s i f i e d people i n t o e x t r o v e r t and i n t r o v e r t and f o u r f u n c t i o n a l types based on a n a l y s i s of t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , sensation*and i n t u i t i o n . I n our time A l l p o r t (1) l i s t e d the important p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s as: i n t e l l i g e n c e , m o t i l i t y , temperament, s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and s o c i a l i t y . I n 1946 Landis (8, p.83) d e s c r i b e d f i v e main types - 27 -of p e r s o n a l i t y i a l e r t n e s s , a continuum from s t o l i d i n r e -sponse to new s t i m u l i to excitement aroused "by every i n f l u e n c e i n the environment; complexity, from simple-minded, narrow to complex p a t t e r n s , many types i n one; p l i a b i l i t y , a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t to new s i t u a t i o n s ; temperament, i n t r o v e r s i o n and e x t r o -v e r s i o n ; cadence, the r a t e of proceeding to a g o a l . He i n c l u d e d a l s o t h r e e a t t i t u d e s t h a t he considered important, the a t t i t u d e s to s e c u r i t y , to r e a l i t y , and to a u t h o r i t y . Symonds (18) i s somewhat more c o n v e n t i o n a l as he g i v e s the t r a i t s as f o l l o w s : I n d u s t r y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , promptness, a b i l i t y to impress others f a v o u r a b l y , energy, I n i t i a t i v e and o r i g i n a l i t y . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been made to d i s c o v e r which t r a i t s can be r a t e d w i t h g r e a t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . Smith (16), chairman of the Committee on Records and Reports of the Pro-g r e s s i v e Education A s s o c i a t i o n , l i s t e d the f o l l o w i n g as r e p r e s e n t i n g the consensus of judgment of members of the committee as to the q u a l i t i e s most worth r a t i n g : 1. A b i l i t y t o o b t a i n I n f o r m a t i o n from sources o t h e r than r e a d i n g 2. A t t i t u d e towards one's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : dependa-b i l i t y 3. C reativeness and i m a g i n a t i o n 4. I n f l u e n c e 5. I n q u i r i n g mind 6. Open-mindedness 7. Perseverance 8. Power and h a b i t of a n a l y s i s 9 . Standards of accomplishment 10. Energy or v i t a l i t y 11. Emotional response and emotional s t a b i l i t y 12. Thoughtfulness or the h a b i t of r e f l e c t i o n 13. I n t e g r i t y , moral courage 14. P e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p e r s o n a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n a group 15. Reading a b i l i t y 16. The h a b i t of b a s i n g c o n c l u s i o n s on v a l i d evidence I t . i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t of the 16 f a c t o r s most worth r a t i n g , 13 could be c l a s s i f i e d as d e a l i n g w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t y of the p u p i l s . Many of the t r a i t s mentioned i n these s t u d i e s are a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r owing to t h e i r f r e q u e n t use on p e r s o n a l -i t y s c a l e s , a f a c t which I s r e a s s u r i n g to the maker of a scale, Remmers and Gage (12, p.366) have t h i s to say about t h i s t p p i c : "The f i n d i n g s of v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i t h r e s p e c t to the a m e n a b i l i t y of v a r i o u s t r a i t s t o r a t i n g are as f o l l o w s : T r a i t s r e l i a b l y r a t e d - e f f i c i e n c y , o r i g i n a l i t y , perseverance, quickness, judgment, c l e a r n e s s , energy, w i l l , s c h o l a r s h i p , l e a d e r s h i p . T r a i t s u n r e l i a b l y r a t e d - courage, u n s e l f i s h n e s s , i n t e g r i t y , c o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s , j u d i c i a l sense, p u n c t u a l i t y , t a c t . " A f t e r t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y study of p e r s o n a l i t y : r a t i n g s c a l e s and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the o p i n i o n s of v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , the w r i t e r had to decide which t r a i t s he would Include on an o r i g i n a l s c a l e . For con-venience i n use and f o r economy of time In r a t i n g , the number had to be l i m i t e d . Since appearance was r a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y on the s c a l e s mentioned and was one of the most c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d by the Magee teachers on both the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s which had been t r i e d , i t was a. l o g i c a l c h o i c e ; d e p e n d a b i l i t y a l s o was w i d e l y used although the teachers d i d not agree so v e i l i n t h e i r r a t i n g s . . I n d u s t r y , a l e r t n e s s , poise, and l e a d e r s h i p were a l s o s e l e c t e d r e a d i l y . I n i t i a t i v e and c o - o p e r a t i o n were f i n a l l y d i s c a r d e d . The teachers d i d not r a t e i n i t i a t i v e c o n s i s t e n t l y on the f i r s t s c a l e and the w r i t e r - 29 -f e l t t h a t i t c o u l d be touched upon i n r a t i n g i n d u s t r y and a l e r t n e s s . The m i l i t a r y f o r c e s were v e r y c o n s i s t e n t i n a s k i n g t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n be r a t e d but the academic i n s t i t u t i o n s were not so unanimous. The w r i t e r f e l t t h a t misunderstandings might a r i s e s hould attempts be made to r a t e t h i s t r a i t i n s c h o o l . Voice-and-speech and refinement are f a c t o r s that teachers are concerned w i t h and should be i n t e r e s t e d i n r a t i n g S o c i a b i l i t y i s another observable t r a i t i n h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s and i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance i n mental h e a l t h . The l a s t i tem, a c t i v i t y , i s not an e s s e n t i a l t r a i t but was i n s e r t e d t o a t t r a c t the c r i t i c i s m s of the r a t e r s so t h a t they would com-p l e t e the r e s t of the form and would save t h e i r censure f o r t h i s p a r t . I t would, however, g i v e the r a t e r an o p p o r t u n i t y to observe the student i n a f i e l d o u t s i d e h i s academic work In c l a s s and t h i s would have no adverse e f f e c t on e i t h e r the r a t e r or the one b e i n g r a t e d but might even r e s u l t i n b e t t e r understanding between the two. D e s c r i p t i o n - 6 f steps of each t r a i t . The next s t e p was to d e f i n e the average of each t r a i t , to ."determine the extremes and f i n a l l y to l o c a t e the steps between the average and the extremes. An e f f o r t was made to put each d e s c r i p t i o n i n an a s s e r t i v e form so t h a t the r a t e r had a concrete mental p i c t u r e w i t h which to compare the p u p i l . The t r a i t s themselves were not d e s c r i b e d but were e x p l a i n e d somewhat i n an i n t e r r o g a t i v e form so th a t each was presented to* the r a t e r i n the form of a problem. The r a t i n g s c a l e which was f i n a l l y e volved i s r e f e r -r e d to as Sc a l e C and may be found i n Appendix I D. - 30 -Format of the s c a l e . The s i m p l e s t format i s t h a t used on Scale A, Sca l e B and the m i l i t a r y MFM 242 s c a l e s . The t r a i t s are merely l i s t e d and the r a t e r r e q u i r e d o n l y to w r i t e i n one of the l e t t e r - g r a d e s : A, B, C, D, or E. The V o c a t i o n a l Guid-ance Centre form has seven columns headed r e s p e c t i v e l y hy A, B, C+, C, C-, D and E. By p u t t i n g a mark i n the c o r r e c t column and j o i n i n g these the r a t e r has a p r o f i l e o f the pupil's p e r s o n a l i t y . A more i n t e r e s t i n g s c a l e (see Appendix I G) i s one which d e s c r i b e s the extremes and pl a c e s a continuum between these graded i n t o f i v e steps as i n the f o l l o w i n g example: PERSONAL APPEARANCE C a r e l e s s ; ============^ ^ Very n e a t l y unkempt ' [ [ [ ' and appro-Much Below Aver- Above Much p r i a t e l y below Aver. age Aver, Above dressed A l l these forms u s i n g constant a l t e r n a t i v e s are v e r y q u i c k and easy t o use but l e n d themselves to the i n d i c a t i o n o f g e n e r a l impression or ha l o e f f e c t . Because of t h i s weakness the w r i t e r d e c i d e d to use a form w i t h changing a l t e r n a t i v e s i n e i t h e r a continuum or a step arrangement. The R.C.A.F.191 uses f o u r steps and the R.C. A.F.211 and the MFM 243 use f i v e steps f o r each t r a i t . Each step i s d e s c r i b e d and a l l the steps of each t r a i t are arranged from the weakest or lowest to the s t r o n g e s t or h i g h e s t . The Un i t e d S t a t e s M i l i t a r y Academy and the School o f Medicine of Yale U n i v e r s i t y use the continuum form of s c a l e . Below the l i n e and at f i v e e q u i d i s t a n t p o i n t s the f i v e l e v e l s of the t r a i t are d e s c r i b e d w i t h the lowest at the l e f t and the h i g h e s t - 31 -at the r i g h t . The purpose of the continuum i s to permit the r a t e r to make f u l l use of h i s powers of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n so t h a t he can d i s t r i b u t e the r a t i n g s ' along the l i n e as he sees f i t . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t r a i t i t s e l f and of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s a s s i s t the r a t e r s i n r e a c h i n g a more r e l i a b l e judgment and tend to reduce the h a l o e f f e c t . The whole problem of s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n was s t u d i e d . Remmers and Gage (12) c l a s s i f y r a t i n g s c a l e s i n t o ' three t y p e s : (1) d e s c r i p t i v e r a t i n g s c a l e s , (2) n u m e r i c a l r a t i n g s c a l e s , a n d (3) g r a p h i c r a t i n g s c a l e s and s t a t e that, o f these three the gr a p h i c r a t i n g s c a l e i s probably the most f r e q u e n t l y used s i n c e i t embodies the f e a t u r e s of both the o t h e r s . I n view of t h i s l a s t statement the w r i t e r d e c i d e d to rattempt a r a t i n g s c a l e u s i n g a continuum. I t seemed a d v i s a b l e to have the whole s c a l e on one s i d e of the paper both f o r the convenience of the teachers and f o r the sake of economy. I t was necessary, t h e r e f o r e , to d e s c r i b e the t r a i t s and each s t e p w i t h s u f f i c i e n t b r e v i t y to make t h i s p o s s i b l e . A f t e r many attempts the mimeo-graphed form S c a l e C was produced (see Appendix I D). Copies of t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g form were g i v e n t o each t e a c h e r w i t h the request that he r a t e again the p u p i l s which he had r a t e d on Sc a l e A or Scale B. The t a b u l a t i o n of the r a t i n g s w i l l be found In Appendix V A. Consistency of r a t i n g s on Sc a l e C. Prom a study o f the t a b u l a t i o n s the number of d i f f e r e n t grades g i v e n each t r a i t of each student was counted. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n i n Table 14. - 32 -TABLE 14 NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY RATERS FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH STUDENT ON SCALE 0. i t» co p> i u i. at p» u © i 4 3 ©' •d 43 4 3 ti u 1 4 3 nH CO <D © © ti 4 3 ti -H co 43 © Pi © OS nH > © O o © - •rl ti © rH •d «H CO nH H nHP< ti «H P I <H © Port -d © at .cj «H O nH 4 3 P u p i l Pi 3 < o a > © g Cc! © .a o • C H H <! < © CO HH o CH o p CO O < 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 £2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 6 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 9 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 11 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 12 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 13 3 2 2 2 2 2 — 2 2 -14 15 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 16 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 17 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 19 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 20 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 21 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 1 2 _ 22 2 2 1 1 1 2 .2 1 2 3 23 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 24 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 25 2 2 1 1 . 1 1 2 2 1 _ 26 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 27 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 _ _ _ 28 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 29 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 30 2 • 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 31 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 _ 1 1 32 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 33 4 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 34 2 2 2 2 2 3 2' 2 2 2 35 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 36 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 37 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 38 3 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 39 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 40 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 41 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 2 42 2 2 2 2 2 3 ,2 2 3 2 43 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 44 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 45 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 T o t a l 85 83 70 80 83 86 82 79 86 78 Average 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.9 2. 0 2.0 Percent 39 38 32 36 38 39 38 38 40 40 - 33 -Out of the f i v e p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t , the teachers have used on the average 1.9 or 38 p e r c e n t . T h i s av-erage i s iower than the 2.0 of Sc a l e A and the 2.2 of S c a l e B. I t seems, then, t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n of the steps on t h i s s c a l e has enabled the r a t e r s to agree, more c l o s e l y than they d i d on the f i r s t two. On S c a l e A the averages ranged from 1.9 to 2.2, on S c a l e B from 1.9 to 2.4 and on Scale C from 1.6 to 2.0. This comparison i n d i c a t e s t h a t the t h i r d s c a l e g i v e s more co n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s than the other two. I t must be admitted, however, that some of t h i s improvement i n r e l i a b i l i t y might be due to the t r a i n i n g of the r a t e r s . T h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n and t h e i r judgment might be sharpened by p r a c t i c e . The c o n s i s t e n c y of the r a t i n g by the teachers can be f u r t h e r checked by counting the number of times the r a t e r s agreed i n r a t i n g each t r a i t of each p u p i l . The f o l l o w i n g table summarizes the number of times the r a t e r s used i one grade or more f o r each t r a i t of each p u p i l . TABLE 15 NUMBER OP TIMES RATERS GAVE ONE OR MORE GRADES TO EACH TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE C T r a i t s Number o f d i f f e r e n t grades 1 2 3 4 Appearance 10 28 5 1 V o i c e , speech 12 25 7 0 Refinement 20 " 22 2 0 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 13 23 7 1 I n d u s t r y 14 21 9 0 A l e r t n e s s 11 24 9 0 Leadership 11 26 5 1 Poise 11 25 6 0 S o c i a b i l i t y 10 23 10 0 A c t i v i t y 8 24 _6 J L T o t a l 120 241 66 4 Percent of r a t i n g s 14.7 59.0 24.3 2.0 While the percent of the r a t i n g s which agreed i s lower than on the other s c a l e s , the number of times the r a t e r s agreed i s very much l a r g e r . The t o t a l o f the times t h a t the r a t e r s agreed and of the times t h a t they d i s a g r e e d o n l y by one step i s a high e r percent of the t o t a l r a t i n g s i n Sc a l e C than i n S c a l e B and equal to that i n Sc a l e A. Judging by the number of times the r a t e r s agreed on the grade of a t r a i t , one can see t h a t refinement i s r a t e d most c o n s i s t e n t l y and t h a t i n d u s t r y , d e p e n d a b i l i t y , v o i c e - a n d -speech, a l e r t n e s s , l e a d e r s h i p , p o i s e , appearance, s o c i a b i l i t y and a c t i v i t y f o l l o w i n that order. In Table 16 the t r a i t s are ranked a c c o r d i n g to the percentage of the t o t a l grades on which the r a t e r s agreed. The c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g these t r a i t s i s compared w i t h that on each of the other s c a l e s . TABLE 16 COMPARISON''OP CONSISTENCY OP RATING OP TRAITS BY PERCENTAGE OP TIMES RATERS AGREED. Rank Sca l e A % S c a l e B Sc a l e C % 1. Courtesy 28.6 I n i t i a t i v e 30.4 Refinement 45.5 2. Appearance 23.8 Appearance 29.2 I n d u s t r y 31.8 3. Poise 23.8 S o c i a b i l i t y 25.0 Depend a b i l i t y 9.5 4. Emot. Con. 19.0 V o i c e , speech 16.7 Voice, speech 27.3 5. Co-operation 19.0 Emot. Con. 16.0 Poise 26.2 6. Ind u s t r y 19.0 Assurance 12.5 L e a d e r s h i p 25.6 7. I n i t i a t i v e 14.3 E f f o r t 8.5 A l e r t n e s s 25.0 8. D e p e n d a b i l i t y 9.5 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 4.3 S o c i a b i l i t y ^ . 3 9. - Cou-ntegy 0.0 Appearance 22.7 10. — • — A c t i v i t y 20.5 Average 19.6 Average 13.6 Average 27.7 - 35 -I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that S c a l e C has much the h i g h e s t average percent of c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g , t h a t i t has the most" c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g of any one t r a i t ( r e f i n e m e n t ) , and t h a t I t has no average lower than 20.5 per c e n t . These f a c t s seem to I n d i c a t e that the d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i o u s steps i n each t r a i t was of a s s i s t a n c e to the r a t e r s and t h a t t h i s p r o -cedure i s the b e s t . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t r a i t s . Prom the t a b u l a t i o n o f the r a t i n g s appearing i n Appendix V B the amount of d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n between the t r a i t s of each ^student can be a s c e r t a i n e d . No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s shown i n 21 or 14.3 percent o f the 147 r a t i n g s ; two grades were g i v e n In 67 cases or 45.6 p e r c e n t ; three grades, 55 times or 36.4 percent; and f o u r grades, f o u r times or 2.6 per c e n t . I t w i l l be noted a l s o t h a t , i f the r a t -i n g s of teacher: G were n o t co n s i d e r e d , the f i r s t group which gave o n l y one grade to a l l t r a i t s of a p u p i l on S c a l e C would be reduced t o 7.0 per c e n t . TABLE 17 COMPARISON OP DIFFERENTIATION AMONG TRAITS OF EACH STUDENT ON THE THREE SCALES A, B AND C Number of grades g i v e n to a l l t r a i t s of a p u p i l S c a l e Times A % Scale Times i B % Scale Times i C % 1 18 22.2 9 8.1 21 14.3 2 52 64.2 32 28.8 67 45.6 3 11 13.6 36 32.5 55 36.4 4 0 - 28 25.2 4 2.6 5 0 — 5 4.5 0 _ 6 0 , 0 _ 0 7 0 — 1 0.9 0 -T o t a l 81 111 147 - 36 -Comparisons w i t h S c a l e s A and B. As S c a l e B has seven s t e p s , the amount of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s the g r e a t e s t . The f a c t t h a t the teachers are f a m i l i a r w i t h the use of the seven-l e t t e r - g r a d e s c a l e played a p a r t i n t h i s r e s u l t . On t h i s l a s t S cale C, however, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one teacher, the raters used one grade f o r a l l t r a i t s of one p u p i l the s m a l l e s t number and the lowest percentage of times; and they used three d i f f e r -ent grades f o r the t r a i t s o f one p u p i l the g r e a t e s t number and the h i g h e s t percentage of times. These f a c t s f u r t h e r substan-t i a t e the p r e v i o u s statement that the d e s c r i p t i o n of the var-. i o u s steps i n each t r a i t was of a s s i s t a n c e to the r a t e r s and t h a t t h i s procedure i s the b e s t . C r i t i c i s m s and suggestions of the r a t e r s . A f t e r the teachers had completed the r a t i n g s , they'.were asked f o r sug-g e s t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s . The w r i t t e n comments which were r e c e i v e d appear i n Appendix I E. Teacher P, who was very i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s work, f e l t t h a t the t r a i t s were too g e n e r a l and t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n of g e n e r a l i t i e s was i m p o s s i b l e . The s c a l e which he proposed f o r r a t i n g s p e c i f i c t r a i t s appears In Appendix I P together w i t h a s c a l e f o r three t r a i t s worked out by the w r i t e r on the b a s i s of t h i s t eacher's s u g g e s t i o n s . These s c a l e s which aim to r a t e s p e c i f i c t r a i t s r e -q u i r e f o r each t r a i t from three to'10 sub-headings i n the examples g i v e n . Even then there i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a l l the items which should be r a t e d are i n c l u d e d . Each sub-heading, i s open to c r i t i c i s m as i t i n c l u d e s , i n many cases, s e v e r a l - 37 -d i f f e r e n t items. The wording i s open to wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as can be seen i n the use of phrases such as: r e a s o n a b l y c l e a n , and prone t o . In the w r i t e r ' s attempt at .this type of s c a l e , there i s no I n d i c a t i o n as to the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n to be p l a c e d on the grades; poor, average, s u p e r i o r . Owing to the l a r g e number of items necessary t o g i v e a p i c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l , the type of s c a l e would be cumbersome and time-consuming. As i t r e v e a l -ed p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, I t might have been use-f u l as a s e l f - r a t i n g d e v i ce to be used i n c o u n s e l l i n g , p r o v i d -i n g i t were completed by s e r i o u s and c o n s c i e n t i o u s s t u d e n t s . As t h i s form d i d not l e n d I t s e l f to convenient comparative or competitive r a t i n g s and I n g e n e r a l d i d not promise adequate r e t u r n s f o r the e f f o r t i n v o l v e d , the w r i t e r d e c i d e d to abandon i t . One of the r a t e r s d i d not r a t e a l l the t r a i t s , another r a t e d them a l l but doubted h i s a b i l i t y t o do so f a i r l y , a t h i r d d i d not wish the student to s e e the r a t i n g . Teacher L thought t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the spaces below-average, average and above-average d i d not i n d i c a t e equal d i s t a n c e s , t h a t the space between below-average and average was g r e a t e r than that between average and'above-average. He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t there were two p o i n t s of view, t h a t of the p u p i l s and t h a t of the teacher. I t was e x p l a i n e d to the teachers t h a t they were not e x p e c t e d to r a t e a l l the t r a i t s u n l e s s they had ob-served s i g n i f i c a n t b e h a v i o r . The forms were not to be shown to the p u p i l s . The q u e s t i o n of the d e s c r i p t i o n so that they - 38 -would i n d i c a t e equal d i s t a n c e s along the continuum was one t h a t would have to be considered i n a r e v i s i o n . What seemed a more s e r i o u s d e f e c t i n the s c a l e s was t h a t the p l a c i n g of a mark along the continuum over a d e s c r i p t i v e phrase had v a r y i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . Some teachers checked anywhere along the l i n e when they meant merely a c e r t a i n space, perhaps, above-average. Others used the continuum f o r purposes of g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n between r a t i n g s of the same grade l e v e l , but, even w i t h these, there was no agreement as to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the mark other than t h a t f o r the whole space. I t was i m p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , to measure from the base to the mark to a s s i g n a value or to make an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . There was a tendency, a l s o , w i t h some teachers to put check marks one under the other, perhaps without c a r e f u l l y weighing the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the p u p i l a g a i n s t the d e s c r i p t i o n . When the w r i t e r suggested r e v e r s i n g some of the d e s c r i p t i o n s as suggested as a p o s s i b l e procedure by Remmers and Gage (12, p.369), the teachers were opposed as they f e l t t h a t t h i s change would be c o n f u s i n g . In a d d i t i o n to these c r i t i c i s m s , Scale.C had s e v e r a l other weaknesses. The form was too crowded and the f o o l s c a p s i z e was i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r h a n d l i n g and f o r f i l i n g . The des-c r i p t i v e phrases contained too many adverbs of degree, such as: very, f a i r , u s u a l l y , and some were worded n e g a t i v e l y , f o r example, does not waste time. I n some cases the teachers c r i t i c i z e d the attempt to r a t e two t h i n g s a t once; such as v o i c e and speech. I n f a c t , r a t i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t seemed s u p e r f l u o u s as the i n f o r m a t i o n could e a s i l y be a s c e r -- 39 -t a i n e d at the time of an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the student. As r e -gards the t r a i t , ' a c t i v i t y , the teachers wereequally d i s s a t i s -f i e d . T h e y f e l t t h a t i t was u n f a i r to rate s c h o o l a c t i v i t y o n l y but they had l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to observe a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e of s c h o o l . There was doubt too t h a t a student w i t h many a c t i v i t i e s should be r a t e d above one w i t h o n l y one or two i n t e r e s t s . Perhaps i n s t e a d of encouraging the p u p i l i n t h i s r e s p e c t , teachers should r e s t r a i n h i s i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s . There c o u l d be such a t h i n g as being v e r y busy i n i n s i g n i f i c a n t matters. The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g was that the t r a i t , a l e r t n e s s , was more important than a c t i v i t y * I n s p i t e of these c r i t i c i s m s the teachers were unanimous I n saying t h a t t h i s s c a l e was an improvement on S c a l e s A and B and they encouraged the w r i t e r to continue h i s experiments. - 40 -CHAPTER V THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE SECOND ORIGINAL SCALE IN TECS STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n . Mr. J . W. A. P l e u r y i n h i s l e c t u r e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . Columbia on A p p l i e d Psychology spent some time d i s c u s s i n g p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t i o n i n the Royal Canadian A i r Force and the w r i t e r was impressed w i t h the importance attached to p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g and w i t h the success a t t a i n e d i n t h i s f i e l d . Furthermore, two of h i s b e s t f r i e n d s were i n -s t r u c t o r s I n N a v i g a t i o n i n the Royal Canadian A i r Force and had used the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g forms. They c o r r o b o r a t e d the statements of P r o f e s s o r F l e u r y and f e l t t h a t our h i g h s c h o o l s should have attempted some form of p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g . I t was w i t h a good d e a l of i n t e r e s t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the w r i t e r began to e xperiment wi t h a s c a l e s i m i l a r to t h a t used by Royal Canadian A i r Fo r c e . R e v i s i o n of t r a i t s . For reasons e x p l a i n e d i n the previous chapter the w r i t e r planned to omit the two c a t e g o r i e s , v o i c e -and-speech and a c t i v i t y . A new t r a i t , s o c i a l i t y , which would I n d i c a t e h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h h i s f e l l o w students was to be i n t r o d u c e d . I n the l i g h t of present day emphasis on the great-e s t good f o r the g r e a t e s t number and on the f o u r freedoms t h i s t r a i t was important. As the word, l e a d e r s h i p , had many conno-t a t i o n s which i n t e r f e r e d w i t h c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g , i t was r e -p l a c e d by a more g e n e r a l term, i n f l u e n c e . At t h i s p o i n t i n the study, the w r i t e r r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e on the - 41 -cumulative r e c o r d card p u b l i s h e d by the American C o u n c i l on Edu c a t i o n (See Appendix XVTII). He had been corresponding w i t h Mr. Eugene R. Smith, chairman of the committee on Records and Reports, and Mr. Smith o f f e r e d to m a i l him samples of these cumulative r e c o r d cards as soon as they were o f f the p r e s s . The card designed f o r the use o f secondary s c h o o l s has an e x c e l l e n t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e . The f a c t t h a t i t was s i m i l a r to the r e v i s i o n b e i ng made of S c a l e C i n d i c a t e d t h a t the w r i t e r was moving along r i g h t l i n e s and t h a t h i s r a t i n g form had many of the d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good s c a l e . While i t was d i s c o u r a g i n g to f i n d t h a t one's work had been a n t i c i p a t e d , i t was encouraging to see t h a t no attempt had been made to s e t up means and p e r c e n t i l e s f o r the s c a l e . I t was decided then to have p u p i l s r a t e d on the r e v i s i o n o f Sca l e C and, i f the teachers found I t s a t i s f a c t o r y , to proceed to o b t a i n d e c i l e scores f o r each t r a i t and t o d e s i g n a graph to i l l u s t r a t e the student's r a t i n g on the s c a l e . Format of Sc a l e D. I t was planned to l i s t the f i v e steps of each t r a i t from the lowest to the h i g h e s t under the I n t e r -r o g a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the t r a i t . To o b t a i n some of the advantages of the continuum, i t was f u r t h e r planned to have a v e r t i c a l column w i t h t h r e e d i v i s i o n s i n each step o f a t r a i t . The teachers could then d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p u p i l s who would be r a t e d on the same step.. Although the w r i t e r had c a r e f u l l y worded and spaced the whole s c a l e so t h a t i t c o u l d be p l a c e d on l e t t e r - s i z e paper, through an e r r o r i n c u t t i n g the s t e n c i l the f o o l s c a p s i z e had to be used. The r e v i s e d s c a l e designated - 42 -as S c a l e D appears i n Appendix I G. S e c u r i n g the r a t i n g s . As t h i s was,the f o u r t h r a t i n g t h a t the teachers had been asked to make, they d i d not have the same i n t e r e s t . The.end of the s c h o o l year w i t h i t s U n i v e r s i t y examinations was approaching so t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o have the forms completed. F i n a l l y r a t i n g s were r e c e i v e d f o r 45 p u p i l s r a t e d on S c a l e s A or B and C. The t a b u l a t i o n of the r a t i n g s on S c a l e D may be found i n Appendix VI A. C o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g on S c a l e D. As b e f o r e the number i of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t of each p u p i l was d e t e r -mined, and t a b u l a t e d i n Table 18. From t h i s t a b l e i t w i l l be seen t h a t the r a t e r s used on the average 1.7 steps or 34 p e r c e n t . Of a l l the t r a i t s , p o i s e , was r a t e d most c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h a spread over 1.5 s t e p s ; i n f a c t t h i s spread i s the lowest f o r any t r a i t on any of the s c a l e s . The t r a i t , d e p e n d a b i l i t y , was r a t e d e q u a l l y w e l l on t h i s s c a l e as on S c a l e C as on b o t h 36 percent of the p o s s i b l e grades were used; i t was r a t e d more c o n s i s -t e n t l y than on the f i r s t two s c a l e s s i n c e on these 44 percent and 48 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y were used. Along w i t h appearance and a l e r t n e s s , r e f i n e m e n t and s o c i a l i t y had the second lowest spread of grades. Since they c o n s i d e r t a c t , c o - operativeness and u n s e l f i s h n e s s , t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g I s not i n accord w i t h the f i n d i n g s of v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s as r e p o r t e d by Remmers and Gage (12, p.366). Another f a c t t h a t i n d i c a t e s the c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g on Scale D i s t h a t the l a r g e s t spread of r a t i n g on any t r a i t I s 36 percent which i s lower than the - 43 -TABLE 18 NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES GIVEN BY RATERS FOR EACH TRAIT OF EACH PUPIL ON SCALE D. <!>• O p» <D CO • +5 O CO i PS §j i nH ti © aS t» U SH © i -P rH a> ti Tj 43 43 P u p i l aS SH -P aS nH at © 43 ti nH CO <D nH ti •H rH nH H ca *H ©rH 2 P i <M <D O nH O <H nH © PinH Tj P i © g O P O ti o H © ti <! K CQ CO H CM H # 1 2 : 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 - 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 - 2 1 - - 2 4 1 1 2 - 1 1 1 3 . 2 5 2 1 1 - 2 2 1 2 2 6 2 2 2 - 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 3 - 2 2 2 . 2 . 2 . 8 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 9 2 1 2 — 2 2 2 2 2 10 2 2 3 - 2 2 2 2 2 ' 11 2 3 2 — 2 1 2 2 2 15 2 1 1 — 2 2 1 2 2 16 1 2 2 - 2 1 2 1 1 17 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 . 19 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 20 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 ' 21 2 1 1 - 2 2 2 2 2 28 1 : ; i 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 30 1 l 2 — 2 1 2 3 3 33 2 l 2 2 2 1 2 2 34 2 2 2 - 1 1 1 1 2 35 1 2 1 — 1 1 2 2 2 36 2 2 2 - 1 1 2 2 1 37 1 1 2 — 2 2 1 1 2 38 1 2 1 - 2 1 2 1 1 39 2 1 1 — 1 2 2 2 2 40 2 1 2 - 2 1 2 2 2 41 .1 2 1 - 2 2 2 2 2 42 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 2 1 43 1 2 2 — 2 1 2 1 2 44 2 2 2 - 2 2 2 1 1 45 . 1 1 1 - 2 1 2 2 2 T o t a l 51 51 53 8 58 49 51 56 57 Average 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6- 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.8 Percent 32 32 34 32 36 30 32 36 36 - .44 -s m a l l e s t spread on S c a l e s A and B (See Table 9) and which i s lower than the spread of a l l t r a i t s except one, refinement, on Scale C (See Table 14) The number of times the r a t e r s agreed i n g i v i n g a grade to the same t r a i t o f the same p u p i l i s shown i n Table 19. TABLE 19 NUMBER OP TIMES ONE OR MORE GRADES WERE GIVEN BY RATERS TO EACH. TRAIT OP EACH PUPIL ON SCALE D. T r a i t s Number of d i f f e r e n t grades 0 1 2 3 4 Appearance 0 13 19 0 0 Refinement 0 15 15 2 0. S o c i a b i l i t y 0 13 17 2 0 S o c i a l i t y 27 2 3 0 0 In f l u e n c e 0 6 . 26 0 0 Poise 0 15 17 0 0 A l e r t n e s s 1 11 20 0 0 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 1 9 19 3 0 Industry' 0 8 23 1 0 Total-1.:. 29 92 159 8 0 Percent 10 32 55 3 Prom Table 19 i t w i l l be seen t h a t on 32 percent of the grades there was agreement. T h i s h i g h r a t e of c o n s i s t e n c y exceeds the 14.7 perc e n t o b t a i n e d on S c a l e C, 4.6 percent on Scale B and 17.7 percent on S c a l e A. The t e a c h e r s , perhaps as they had had no experience I n g r a d i n g on the t r a i t , s o c i a l i t y tended to omit grades on t h i s item. - 45 -TABLE 20 COMPARISON OP THE CONSISTENCY OP POUR RATING SCALES Scale A B C D Average number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t 2.0 2.2 1.9 1.7 Percent of p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t 40 42 38 34 Range of average grades f o r each t r a i t 1.9 to 2.2 1.9 to 2.4 1.6 to 2.0 1.5 to 1.8 Comparisons w i t h S c a l e s A, B and C. The comparisons i n Table 20 r e v e a l t h a t on S c a l e D the r a t e r s used the s m a l l e s t number of d i f f e r e n t grades f o r each t r a i t ; t h a t i s , grades g i v e n to the t r a i t s on Scale D have the l e a s t spread on the average and, of course, the lowest percent of spread of grades. The range of average r a t i n g s on S c a l e D I s .3 which equals t h a t of S c a l e A and Is s m a l l e r than that of Scale B and of Scale C. A l t o g e t h e r t h i s l a s t s c a l e seems to g i v e more con-s i s t e n t r a t i n g than any of the o t h e r s . In order to check t h i s r e s u l t i n another way the w r i t e r worked out the percent of times the r a t e r s agreed i n r a t i n g each t r a i t . 46 -TABLE 21 CONSISTENCY OP RATING AS SHOWN BY PERCENTAGE OP TIMES RATERS AGREED IN RATING EACH TRAIT. T r a i t s S c a l e A % S c a l e B % S c a l e C % S c a l e D % Appearance 27.8 (1) 29.2 22.7 40.6 Refinement 28.6 0.0 (1) 45.5 46.9 S o c i a b i l i t y — 25.0 23.3 . 40.6 S o c i a l i t y 19.0 (2) - -(3) 40.0 (7) I n f l u e n c e - - 25.6 18.8 Poise 23.8 12.5 26.2 46.9 A l e r t n e s s 14.3 (4) 30.4 (4) 25.0 35.5 . D e p e n d a b i l i t y 9.5 4.3 (5) 29.5 29.0 Indus t r y 19.0 8.5 31.8 :25.0 Average 19.6. (6) 13.6 (6) 27.7 (6) 35.4 (1) Courtesy (5) E f f o r t (2) Co-operation (6) See Table 16, page 34 (3) L e a d e r s h i p (7) I n s u f f i c i e n t r a t i n g s (4) I n i t i a t i v e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d Prom Table 21 i t w i l l be seen t h a t S c a l e D has the h i g h e s t average percentage of agreement by 7.7 percent over the next b e s t , S c a l e C. Only on I n d u s t r y and i n f l u e n c e are the averages much lower being 6.8 percent lower on these on Scale D than on Scale,C. On appearance, s o c i a b i l i t y , p o i s e and a l e r t n e s s the averages are much h i g h e r . On refinement and d e p e n d a b i l i t y there i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two scales C and D. On every t r a i t S c a l e D has a h i g h e r average of con-s i s t e n t r a t i n g s than e i t h e r S c ale A or B and has a h i g h e r aver-age on 5 out of 8 t r a i t s than S c a l e C. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The number of d i f f e r e n t grades g i v e n each p u p i l by each r a t e r i s g i v e n i n Appendix VI B. Prom t h i s t a b u l a t i o n i t can be seen t h a t on the f i v e steps of S c a l e D o n l y twice out of 73 times or 2.7 percent o f the times d i d the teachers make no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . ' T h i s i s the lowest p e r c e n t -age of times on the f o u r s c a l e s and I n d i c a t e s that S c a l e D enables the teachers to make the most d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the t r a i t s of each p u p i l . By u s i n g the 15 d i v i s i o n s ( t a b u l a -t i o n of r a t i n g s i n Appendix VI B) of the v e r t i c a l continuum, the amount of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n corresponds c l o s e l y t o a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h i s can be seen i n the l a s t column of T a b l e 22. T h i s t a b l e p u r p o r t s to show the number of times teachers gave the same grade to a l l t r a i t s of a p u p i l , the number of times they gave two grades to a l l the t r a i t s of a p u p i l and so on. In other words I t aims to compare the amount of d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n made by the r a t e r s i n g i v i n g grades to the t r a i t s of a p u p i l . TABLE 22 DIFFERENTIATION AMONG TRAITS OF EACH PUPIL ON FOUR RATING SCALES w No.of grades S c a l e A S c a l e B g i v e n to a l l 5 grades 7 grades t r a i t s of a student Times % Times % 1 18 22.2 9 8.1 2 52 64.2 32 28.8 3 11 13.6 36 32.5 4 0 - 28 25.2 .5 0 - 5 4.5 6 o - 0 -7 0 - 1 0.9 8 o - 0 -T o t a l 81 111 S c a l e C S c a l e D S c a l e D 5 grade s 5 grades 15 grade s Times % Times % Times % 21 14.3 2 2.7 0 0.0 67 45.6 30 41.1 7 9.6 55 36.4 30 41.1 15 20.5 4 2.6 10 13.7 25 34.2 0 — 1 1.4 15 20.5 0 - 0 — 9 12.3 0 - 0 - 0 — 0 - 0 - 2 2.7 147 73 73 The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among t r a i t s i s the g r e a t e s t on - 48 -S c a l e D as indicated, i n Table 22. The average c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g i s a l s o the g r e a t e s t i n S c a l e D (See Tables 20 and 21). Although p r a c t i c e i n r a t i n g improves the a b i l i t y of r a t e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y , the r e s u l t s might i n p a r t i n d i c a t e t h a t S c a l e D i s the most r e l i a b l e of the f o u r r a t i n g s c a l e s used i n t h i s study. C r i t i c i s m s and suggestions of t e a c h e r s . . When cop i e s of t h i s l a s t r a t i n g s c a l e were being d i s t r i b u t e d , a l e t t e r (See Appendix I H) which asked f o r c r i t i c i s m s of S c a l e D and f o r weightings f o r the n i n e t r a i t s was g i v e n to each r a t e r . The c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions r e c e i v e d In response and the w r i t e r ' s comments and r e p l i e s appear i n Appendix I I . G e n e r a l l y the c r i t i c i s m s concern the d e s c r i p t i o n s of v a r i o u s steps i n the scale, and two of the s u g g e s t i o n s , one r e -g a r d i n g s o c i a b i l i t y and the other about p o i s e , were accepted and used on the r e v i s i o n of S c a l e D. Three of the teachers s t a t e d they c o u l d not grade students on the t r a i t , s o c i a l i t y . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t the teachers c o u l d grade p u p i l s o n l y on t r a i t s concerning which they had observed s i g n i f i c a n t behavior. One teacher c r i t i c i z e d the r a t i n g of t r a i t s as i t d i d not p i c t u r e the whole i n d i v i d u a l , - a weakness r e c o g n i z e d by author-i t i e s such as Thorpe (20). The second p a r t of the l e t t e r asked f o r weightings and the r e p l i e s are l i s t e d i n Appendix XII A, R e v i s i o n of S c a l e D. A f t e r s t u d y i n g the c r i t i c i s m s of Scale D, the w r i t e r r e v i s e d i t as i n d i c a t e d i n h i s answers to the teachers (See Appendix I I ) . The o n l y change of a whole step was i n the t h i r d one of s o c i a b i l i t y . I n t h a t case the - 49 -statement, "Shows no p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l or a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o r " was n e g a t i v e i n sense and was r e p l a c e d by "Is r e s e r v e d , s e l f -c o n s c i o u s , shy; responds to f r i e n d l i n e s s " . A new i t e m , then, was put i n the second p l a c e . I t was, " T r i e s to a t t r a c t a t t e n -t i o n ; i s an e x h i b i t i o n i s t " . T h i s wording was requested o r a l l y by s e v e r a l teachers and was g e n e r a l l y approved. The format was a l t e r e d so that the r a t i n g s c a l e c o u l d be mimeographed on l e t t e r - s i z e paper which would be more con-venient f o r h a n d l i n g and f i l i n g . A copy of the r e v i s e d per-s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e d e s i g n a t e d Scale E w i l l be found i n Appendix I J . 50 -CHAPTER VI THE STANDARDIZATION OP SCALE E I n t r o d u c t i o n . Teachers are f r e q u e n t l y asked f o r r e f e r -ences r e g a r d i n g the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of p u p i l s and a t present they have to depend on t h e i r memories of the Impressions of the p u p i l s concerned. I f the student has not been a t s c h o o l f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h i s r e c a l l i n g of s i g n i f i c a n t t r a i t s i s not very s a t i s f a c t o r y . A number of p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s kept on f i l e would be of g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e and i f these r a t i n g s were In t h e form of s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r e s , the teachers would then, w i t h much l e s s t r e p i d a t i o n , s t a t e t h a t a pupi vl was above or below average i n c e r t a i n t r a i t s . Weighting the t r a i t s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s w h e t h e r - a l l the t r a i t s on the s c a l e are of equal value or Importance. I t i s obvious t h a t the va l u e of the v a r i o u s t r a i t s would vary a c c o r d i n g to use to be made of the r a t i n g . D i f f e r e n t values would be g i v e n the d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s to eva l u a t e the p e r s o n a l -i t y of a stenographer, a r e s e a r c h worker or an automobile mechanic. As i t cannot be known d e f i n i t e l y t h a t a student w i l l enter a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n , i t Is i m p o s s i b l e t o use d i f f e r e n t v ocations as c r i t e r i a i n e v a l u a t i n g the v a r i o u s t r a i t s of p e r s o n a l i t y . In h i g h s c h o o l , then, the teacher has i n mind, when judging the p e r s o n a l i t y of a student, those q u a l i t i e s t h a t are d e s i r a b l e i n a student and they i n tu r n are the r e s u l t , to some extent, of h i s adjustment to the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n , of h i s success i n academic s u b j e c t s , e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r - 51 -a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . As t h i s scaled i s ;,to be used i n r a t i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y of h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s , the c r i t e r i o n t o be used i s simply the q u a l i t i e s t h a t a student should have to make a reasonable success o f h i s h i g h s c h o o l c a r e e r . To d i s c o v e r the op i n i o n s of the teachers who had used the s c a l e to r a t e t h e i r p u p i l s , the w r i t e r asked each to s t a t e whether he thought t h a t the t r a i t s were of equal importance or whether he would weight them. Seventeen of the 25 submitted weight-ings which are t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix XII A. The others ex-p l a i n e d t h a t they c o u l d not g i v e an i n t e l l i g e n t o p i n i o n w i t h -out c o n s i d e r a b l e study on the s u b j e c t . To o b t a i n a wider sampling of o p i n i o n , the w r i t e r sent out 89 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , d i r e c t o r s of guidance, p e r s o n n e l workers and p r o f e s s o r s of v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s . Examples of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and l e t t e r are i n Appendix XI. The response was very g r a t i f y i n g as many of the l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d took time not o n l y to g i v e weightings but a l s o to w r i t e comments. A l t o g e t h e r w r i t t e n r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from 68 of whom 59 r e t u r n e d weightings. These along w i t h the 17 r e c e i v e d from the te a c h e r s , a t o t a l of 76, are l i s t e d i n Appendix X I I . Three of the personnel workers wrote to e x p l a i n t h a t they could not g i v e weightings because of i n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h person-a l i t y r a t i n g , because of i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and because of b e l i e v i n g a l l the t r a i t s to be equal p r o v i d e d a t e n t h one, i n t e g r i t y , were added. Of the p r o f e s s o r s s i x took time to w r i t e t h e i r reasons f o r not a s s i g n i n g weights. Dr. Symonds s t a t e d t h a t he was not w e l l enough acquainted w i t h the - 52 -s i t u a t i o n i n Magee High School to know what t r a i t s s hould he emphasized. Dr. C l a r k d i d not b e l i e v e that i t was f e a s i b l e to combine the scores on a s e r i e s of such t r a i t s to e s t a b l i s h a t o t a l r a t i n g because the values were n o n - l i n e a r . Dr. H a r r i s was more emphatic as he regarded the attempt to a s s i g n numeri-c a l weights as p h y s c h o l o g i c a l l y u n j u s t i f i e d and based on a f a l s e c o nception of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y . Dr. T r a -bue p o i n t e d out t h a t d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s I n l i f e made d i f f e r -ent requirements of people who engage i n those a c t i v i t i e s and t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s would be emphasized i n each. P r o f e s s o r s Stevenson, Smith and Parmenter expressed views s i m i l a r to t h i s . No doubt some of the 21 from whom no r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d d i d not r e c e i v e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Since t h e i r names were obtained from u n i v e r s i t y c a l e n d a r s , they may have moved, r e t i r e d or d i e d . Others may have decided to i g n o r e i t . The preponderance of o p i n i o n i s t h a t the t r a i t s can be weight-ed s i n c e 87 percent of the r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d gave w e i g h t i n g s . As the weights assigned by the teachers to the v a r i o u s t r a i t s were r e c e i v e d some time be f o r e the o t h e r s , the w r i t e r decided to make a p r e l i m i n a r y study u s i n g these v a l u e s . To o b t a i n an average f o r each t r a i t the t h i r t e e n weightings which showed the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n without any extremes were s e l e c t e d and averaged. These weightings and averages are found i n Table 23. - 53 -TABLE 23 SIGNIFICANT WEIGHTINGS Teachers Average A C E F F2 H I J 0 P R W a Weighting Appearance 6 6 10 7 5 6 5 10 6 5 5 5 8 6.5 Refinement 10 9 10 9 10 6 10 8 7 10 15 5 12 9.7 S o c i a b i l i t y 8 10 15 7 15 12 10 10 8 10 15 5 12 10.5 S o c i a l i t y 10 16 10 8 5 6 10 12 9 10 5 15 8 8.8 I n f l u e n c e 12 8 15 9 5 9 10 10 10 5 10 5 6 8.8 Poise 6 8 5 10 5 12 10 8 10 5 10 10 10 8.4 A l e r t n e s s 14 8 5 15 15 16 15 15 10 15 15 15 12 13.1 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 20 20 20 20 20 18 15 15 20 20 15 20 20 18.7 Indus t r y 14 15 10 15 20 15 15 12 20 20 10 15 12 14.8 As there are 15 p o s i t i o n s i n the v e r t i c a l continuum a t which the p u p i l s can be r a t e d , f o r purposes of s c o r i n g i t would be convenient to have the t o t a l s c o r e f o r each t r a i t a m u l t i p l e of 15. This, was done by m u l t i p l y i n g by ten the whole number , n e a r e s t the average which would g i v e the d e s i r e d m u l t i p l e ; f o r example, the average f o r p o i s e i s 8.4, of which nine I s the n e a r e s t whole number which m u l t i p l i e d by 10 g i v e s a m u l t i -p l e of 15; namely 90. I n order to have a grand t o t a l a iconven-i e n t round number, one of the t r a i t s would have to have a t o t a l g r e a t e r than the m u l t i p l e . By i n s p e c t i o n of the averages i n Table 23 one can see t h a t t h i s t r a i t would be s o c i a b i l i t y . The scores f o r the t r a i t s were worked out as f o l l o w s : appearance 60, refinement 90, s o c i a b i l i t y 100, s o c i a l i t y 90, i n f l u e n c e 90, p o i s e 90, a l e r t n e s s 150, d e p e n d a b i l i t y 180, i n d u s t r y 150. S e c u r i n g the r a t i n g s . The next s t e p was to secure as l a r g e a number of r a t i n g s as p o s s i b l e . To do t h i s the w r i t e r asked the c o u n s e l l o r s i n the v a r i o u s h i g h schools to r a t e t h e i r students on the s c a l e . Mr. A. Dodd and Miss Lawrence of - 54 -Lord Byng High School completed and r e t u r n e d 32 and 14 forms r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Misses Casselman, Cope and Lamb of Kitsilano High School r a t e d 30 p u p i l s . While t h i s t o t a l number was sm a l l e r than a n t i c i p a t e d , the 76 added to the 279 p u p i l s r a t e d i n Magee High School gave a t o t a l of 355 r a t i n g s on Scale E. Computation of the d e c i l e s . As the s u p e r i o r i t y of Sc a l e E was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e i t was S c a l e D w i t h but s l i g h t changes, no f u r t h e r t a b u l a t i o n s and comparisons' were made f o r the purpose of showing the c o n s i s t e n c y and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . One s e t of t a b u l a t i o n s which f o l l o w s i n Appendix VII g i v e s the number of r a t i n g s f o r each of the 15 d i v i s i o n s of the v e r t i c a l continuum of each t r a i t . For the second s e t the score value of each of the 15 d i v i s i o n s was set down and i t s frequency determined. To o b t a i n the d e c i l e scores i t was decided to use the f r a c t i o n a l p a r t s of the t o t a l area under the normal pro-b a b i l i t y curve corresponding to d i s t a n c e s on the b a s e l i n e between the mean and the d e c i l e s l a i d o f f from the mean i n u n i t s of standard d e v i a t i o n as g i v e n by G a r r e t t (3, p.110). , These f r a c t i o n a l p a r t s are f o r P90 the mean p l u s 1.28, f o r P80 mean plus..87, f o r P70 the mean p l u s .52, f o r P60 the mean plus .25, f o r P40 the mean minus .25, f o r P30 the mean minus .52, the P20 the mean minus .84 and f o r P10 the mean minus 1.28 times the standard d e v i a t i o n . ;These are worked out f o r the p r e l i m i n a r y study i n Appendix IX E and summarized i n Table 24 and f o r the f i n a l study In Appendix XIV. I t seemed l i k e l y t h a t , i f any sex d i f f e r e n c e s should - 55 -occur on t h i s s c a l e , they would he on the t r a i t s appearance and i n d u s t r y . The scores on these t r a i t s were consequently s t u d i e d s e p a r a t e l y (See Appendix V I I I ) . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o f the d i f f e r e n c e of the means of hoys and g i r l s was .357 f o r appearance and 1.77 f o r i n d u s t r y . For the former t h i s means t h a t there are 64 chances i n 100 and f o r the l a t t e r 96 chances i n 100 t h a t the true d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of the two groups i s somewhat g r e a t e r than zero. Since i t i s custo-mary ac c o r d i n g to G a r r e t t (3, p.213) to t a k e a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of three as i n d i c a t i v e of a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , the d i f f e r -ence between the means of the scores of the boys and of the g i r l s on these two t r a i t s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s not neces-s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , to compute separate means and d e c i l e s f o r the two g roups. TABLE 24 . DECILE SCORES FOR EACH TRAIT D e c i l e s T r a i t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9.9 Appearance 27 31 34 36 39 41 43 46 50 Refinement 37 43 48 52 56 60 64 69 75 S o c i a b i l i t y 52 59 64 68 72 75 80 85 91 S o c i a l i t y 33 42 48 53 58 62 67 72 82 I n f l u e n c e 23 31 35 41 45 49 54 59 66 Poise 35 43 48 53 57 61 66 72 79 A l e r t n e s s 44 . 58 68 76 84 92 100 110 114 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 57 75 87 98 107 117 127 140 157 I n d u s t r y 48 60 69 76 83 90 97 106 118 T o t a l 424 503 544 587 626 666 709 749 828 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n along w i t h a summary of r a t i n g s by d i f f e r e n t teachers are reproduced as a permanent r e c o r d form. The score - 5 6 -val u e s of each d i v i s i o n of each t r a i t are g i v e n and, as the r a t i n g s c a l e s come i n , the r a t i n g s are checked on the form and averaged. These averages then are marked d i r e c t l y on the d e c i l e c h a r t which i s shown. By j o i n i n g the p o i n t s marked a p r o f i l e of the p u p i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n i s o b t a i n e d . A sample p r o f i l e i s shown i n Appendix I K. Computation of means from f i v e - s t e p s . Dr. L e f e v e r of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a was k i n d enough to look over the r e -s u l t s of these experiments w i t h r a t i n g s c a l e s . He f e l t that mos't teachers were not capable of making such f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s as r e q u i r e d by the 15 p o s i t i o n s on the v e r t i c a l continuum and t h a t the f i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r each would have g i v e n s u f -f i c i e n t l y accurate d a t a f o r the computation of the d e c i l e graph. Since the more l a b o r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l t ask on the 15 steps had been done, however, he thought the r e s u l t s should be used e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the f a c t , as was p o i n t e d out to him, t h a t the teachers d e s i r e d the a d d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s on the con-tinuum. The w r i t e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s , d e c i d e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l i a b i l i t y of the means d e r i v e d from the f i v e steps of each t r a i t and to compare the means w i t h those d e r i v e d from 15 s t e p s . I n Appendix X w i l l be found the t a b u l a t i o n of the f r e -quency of the r a t i n g s on the f i v e - s t e p s c a l e and a l s o the computation of the means, the standard d e v i a t i o n s and the standard e r r o r s of the means. By the formula i n G a r r e t t ( 5 , p.213) the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of the two means of each t r a i t were determined. These ranged from 0.07 to 1.17; w i t h an - 57 -average of 0.841. Since a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of three i s c o n s i d e r -ed necessary to he c e r t a i n of a d i f f e r e n c e , there i s l i t t l e chance t h a t the means are d i f f e r e n t whether computed from the 15 or the f i v e steps of each t r a i t . T h e r e f o r e , i n the f i n a l computation o n l y the f i v e - s t e p s were co n s i d e r e d i n computing the d e c i l e s . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n marked the end of the p r e -l i m i n a r y study. Use of the median. When i t seemed t h a t most of the r e -p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t would be r e c e i v e d had a r r i v e d , the 76 weightings were t a b u l a t e d to show those made by each person and to compute the d i s t r i b u t i o n (See Appendices XII and X I I I ) . Prom examination i t w i l l be seen t h a t there are s e v e r -a l extreme weightings such as, out of 100 p o i n t s , one 50 f o r d e p e n d a b i l i t y , another 40 f o r s o c i a l i t y , another 30 f o r a l e r t -ness, and one zero f o r s o c i a l i t y and another one f o r appear-ance. I n view of these extreme o p i n i o n s i t was d e c i d e d , as advised by G a r r e t t (3, p.29), to use the median as the measure of c e n t r a l tendency. The computation of the medians i s g i v e n i n Appendix X I I I and summarized I n Table 25. - 58 -TABLE 25 MEDIAN OP 76 WEIGHTINGS FOR EACH TRAIT ON SCALE E Median - as Median - times 10 T r a i t s computed to n e a r e s t m u l t i p l e of 5 Appearance 7.5 75 Refinement 9.7- 100 S o c i a b i l i t y 10.06 100 S o c i a l i t y 11.0 110 I n f l u e n c e 10.1 100 Poise 9.8 100 A l e r t n e s s 10.75 110 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 14.94 150 I n d u s t r y 12.13 120 In the p r e l i m i n a r y study on the incomplete data, m u l t i p l e s of 15 were used but, as was shown p r e v i o u s l y , computation o f the d e c i l e scores from the f i v e - s t e p s was j u s t as r e l i a b l e ; t h e r e -f o r e , o n l y m u l t i p l e s of f i v e i n s t e a d of 15 are used f o r the medians which w i l l be used as values f o r the t r a i t s . T h i s g i v e s a much c l o s e r approximlnation to the a c t u a l median. The values o f the t r a i t s are as f o l l o w s : appearance 75, r e f i n e -ment 100, s o c i a b i l i t y 100, s o c i a l i t y 110, i n f l u e n c e 100, po i s e 100, a l e r t n e s s 110, d e p e n d a b i l i t y 150 and i n d u s t r y 120. Computation of d e c i l e s c o r e s . The approximate median of each t r a i t was then d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e equal p a r t s f o r the f i v e steps and the frequency of the r a t i n g s f o r each s t e p was taken from Appendix X. Prom these were computed the mean, the s t a n -dard d e v i a t i o n and the standard e r r o r of the mean of the scores of each t r a i t (See Appendix XIV). These f i g u r e s are g i v e n i n Table 26. - 59 -TABLE 26 MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, AND STANDARD ERROR OP EACH OP THE NINE TRAITS ON SCALE E T r a i t s A.M. S.D. S.E. Appearance 49.04 11.1 0.59 Refinement 63.70 16.6 0.88 S o c i a b i l i t y 62.10 17.6 0.94 S o c i a l i t y 71.50 23.65 1.40 I n f l u e n c e 49.70 19.6 1.06 Poise 64.50 19.06 1.02 A l e r t n e s s 61.38 20.6 1.1 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 89.70 30.9 1.65 I n d u s t r y 56.30 24.14 1.29 Prom t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n the : d e c i l e scores f o r each t r a i t were determined (See Appendix XIV) i n the same manner as was used i n the p r e l i m i n a r y study. The d e c i l e s c o r e s are # g i v e n i n Table 27. TABLE 27 . DECILE SCORES \ FOR EACH TRAIT OP SCALE E D e c i l e s i r a x u 1 2 3 4. 5 6 7 8 9 9.9 Appearance 35 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 63 75 Refinement 42 50 55 60 64 68 72 78 85 102 S o c i a b i l i t y 40 47 53 58 62 67 71 77 85 103 S o c i a l i t y 41 52 59 66 72 77 84 91 102 127 I n f l u e n c e 25 . 33 40 45 50 55 60 66 75 95 Poise 40 48 55 60 65 69 74 81 89 . 109 A l e r t n e s s 35 44 51 56 61 67 72 79 88 109 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 50 64 74 82 90 97 106 : 116 129 162 In d u s t r y 25 36 44 50 56 62 69 77 87 113 Instead of u s i n g an o r d i n a r y line graph as was suggested In the p r e l i m i n a r y study, the w r i t e r decided to make the bars of d i f f e r e n t widths p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the weightings of the t r a i t s . - 60 -The graph would then I n d i c a t e not o n l y the s t a n d i n g of the I n d i v i d u a l i n any t r a i t but would a l s o show the r e l a t i v e importance of the t r a i t s . An example i s g i v e n i n Appendix XV. Comparison of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the means and of the  c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g the t r a i t s . S i nce the s m a l l e r the standard e r r o r of the mean, the more r e l i a b l e i s the mean, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the means can be compared by r e f e r e n c e to T a b l e 26 which l i s t s the standard e r r o r s of the means. I t w i l l be seen t h a t the mean of the t r a i t , appearance, i s the most r e -l i a b l e and t h a t of d e p e n d a b i l i t y , the l e a s t . In the case of the l a t t e r , however, the true mean l i e s between 84.75 and 94.65 - the mean 89.70 ± 3 x 1.65. T h i s range i s not g r e a t s i n c e the l i m i t s do^not o v e r l a p one step e i t h e r way on the d e c i l e s c a l e . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n r e g a r d i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g the v a r i o u s t r a i t s c o r r o b o r a t e s t h a t of the p r e l i m i n a r y study. I n Table 28 the t r a i t s are ranked a c c o r d i n g to. the r e l i a b i l i t y of the means and a l s o a c c o r d i n g to the c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g the t r a i t s as g i v e n In Table 21. - 61 -TABLE 28 RANK OP 8 TRAITS A T r a i t Rank According to R e l i a b i l i t y of Mean Rank Accor d i n g t o R e l i a b i l i t y o f Rat i n g Rank D i f f e r e n c e Appearance 1 3.5 2.5.. Refinement 2 1.5 0.5 S o c i a b i l i t y o3 3.5 0.5 Poise 4 1.5 2.5 I n f l u e n c e 5 8.0 3.0 A l e r t n e s s 6 5.0 1.0 In d u s t r y 7 7.0 0.0 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 8 6.0 2.0 Prom the above t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t the t r a i t , i n f l u e n c e , v a r i e s i n rank from f i f t h to e i g h t h . The f i r s t f o u r t r a i t s are the same but i n d i f f e r e n t order i n bot h rankings and apart from the t r a i t , i n f l u e n c e , the l a s t f o u r are the same but i n d i f f e r e n t o r d e r . I n d u s t r y i s the onl y t r a i t which h o l d s the same p o s i t i o n i n bot h r a n k i n g s . A c c o r d i n g to the rank d i f -f e r e n c e method of measuring c o r r e l a t i o n as e x p l a i n e d by G a r r e t t (3, p.361) the rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t i s 0.681 and the product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n i s 0.70. T h i s probably, i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s evidence of correspondence between the ra n k i n g s . A The t r a i t , sociality, i s omitted since on Scale D an insufficient number of grades was?, received. - 62 -CHAPTER VII INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING SCALE E I n t r o d u c t i o n . Before any attempt i s made to have teachers r a t e p u p i l s on t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e , they should be adequate-l y o r i e n t a t e d and motivated. They should understand the reasons f o r making p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s and should be convinced that such r a t i n g s are worthwhile. Nothing i s more exasperat-i n g to teachers than to be c a l l e d upon to do work which they f e e l w i l l be of no use; t h e r e f o r e , t h e y should be informed of the p r e c i s e uses to be made of the r a t i n g s which they are * being asked to make. Once the o b j e c t i v e s of p e r s o n a l i t y r a t -i n g i n the s c h o o l are a p p r e c i a t e d , then the teachers are ready f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n the techniques. T r a i n i n g of r a t e r s . The f i r s t s tep i s to acquaint the teachers w i t h the s c a l e i t s e l f . The b a s i s of the s e l e c t i o n of these p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t s and of t h i s format can be e x p l a i n e d . The whole s c a l e can then be read through and d i s c u s s e d p o i n t by p o i n t so t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i l l be uniform. The types of b e h a v i o r t h a t are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r each of the va r i o u s t r a i t s can be mentioned. The importance of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t p u p i l s on any one t r a i t and between the d i f f e r -ent t r a i t s of any one p u p i l must be made c l e a r . I t can be po i n t e d out t h a t on t h i s form there i s ample o p p o r t u n i t y to e x e r c i s e one fs powers of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t as there are 15 steps i n the v e r t i c a l continuum. The a c t u a l pro-cedure of marking the s c a l e should be gone over. I t should be - 63 -p o i n t e d out t h a t , i f p o s s i b l e , the r a t i n g s hould be done when the p u p i l s are i n f r o n t of the teacher; t h a t the group should be r a t e d on one t r a i t at a time; t h a t s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s f o r s i g n i f i c a n t b ehavior should be r e c a l l e d ; t h a t the r a t i n g s should be made by comparing one student w i t h the o t h e r s ; and that no r a t i n g need be made i f there has been no o p p o r t u n i t y to observe behavior t h a t would be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h a t t r a i t . A f t e r the teachers have r a t e d a number of p u p i l s , a conference should be h e l d to e x p l a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . a n d to com-pare r a t i n g s . Where the divergence of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g a p u p i l i s very g r e a t , a case-study c o u l d be made. The q u e s t i o n , why r a t e a l l the p u p i l s , i s almost c e r -t a i n to be r a i s e d . The answer i s that a l l p u p i l s should be r a t e d as p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s are not r e s t r i c t e d to a l i m i t e d number of "problem" .students; i n s t e a d the impact and the i n t e r a c t i o n of environmental f a c t o r s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l needs and d e s i r e s create f o r a l l some adjustment problems w i t h e f f e c t s on p e r s o n a l i t y . For the t e a c h e r s ' convenience a manual of i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r u s i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e could be g i v e n to each. MANUAL 30F INFORMATION Development of the S c a l e . T h i s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e has been developed i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the t e a c h i n g s t a f f of Magee High School. Three other s c a l e s were t r i e d out b e f o r e t h i s one was formulated. Each one showed an i n c r e a s e i n the c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g and i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the - 64 -t r a i t s . A f t e r u s i n g the f o u r t h =scale, the teachers suggested improvements, which were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the r e v i s i o n . On the f i n a l form 355 students were r a t e d and from these r a t i n g s were computed the d e c i l e scores f o r each t r a i t and f o r the t o t a l . These d e c i l e s were then arranged on a form which can be used as a p r o f i l e . Purpose of t h i s S c a l e . The purpose of t h i s s c a l e i s not to measure p e r s o n a l i t y . I t i s to supplement such t e s t s as the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t of P e r s o n a l i t y and the Adjustment I n v e n t o r y i n order to o b t a i n a more complete p i c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . I n f a c t to understand the student the c o u n s e l l o r should cons i d e r a l l the d a t a a v a i l a b l e : achievement r e c o r d s , s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t r e s u l t s , r e a d i n g q u o t i e n t s , i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and so on. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from Thorpe (18) i s s i g n i f i c a n t . "In our t h i n k i n g about p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , we must always remember t h a t , i n the nature of the case, they do not enjoy any standard o b j e c t i v e s t a t u s . A man's p e r s o n a l -i t y Q u a l i t i e s are always eva l u a t e d by another whose own person-a l sense of v a l u e s c o n s t i t u t e s the c r i t e r i o n of judgment. Thus judgments.of the r a t i n g s accorded one i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a i t s are r e l a t e d to the s u b j e c t i v e standards h e l d by those I s s u i n g the judgments." T h i s statement suggests t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of a s i n g l e r a t i n g might be as low as a s i n g l e - I t e m t e s t and t h i s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by Strang (17, p.109). Symonds (19, p.95), i n h i s summary of .'the r e s e a r c h on t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t , a lthough g e n e r a l l y the r a t i n g by a s i n g l e judge i s u n r e l i a b l e , human c h a r a c t e r could be appraised a c c u r a t e l y enough f o r - 65 -p r a c t i c a l purposes i n e d u c a t i o n when the r a t i n g was the a v e r -age d e r i v e d from three to e i g h t independent r a t i n g s . In view of these f a c t s , then, p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s w i l l not have sa c r o s a n t value but w i l l have a d e f i n i t e f u n c t i o n i n e s t i m a t i n g the i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s which education aims to develop i n a student. One of the most important uses of t h i s s c a l e i s to arouse i n t e r e s t of the p u p i l i n the c r i t i c a l e v a l -u a t i o n of h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y . The p r o f i l e d e r i v e d from the average r a t i n g s of three or more teachers i s impersonal and f a c t u a l and serves as a p o i n t of departure d u r i n g a c o u n s e l l -i n g i n t e r v i e w . P u p i l s may r a t e themselves on t h i s form and the comparison of t h e i r r a t i n g s w i t h those of teachers may show undue d i s c r e p a n c i e s , a f a c t which may r e v e a l symptoms that should be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r . A f o u r t h use i s to i n t e r e s t the members of the s t a f f i n s t u d y i n g the p u p i l s i n d i -v i d u a l l y and to a r r i v e at a more o b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y of each c h i l d . F i n a l l y i t w i l l serve as a f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e both as a r e c o r d of p e r s o n a l i t y development d u r i n g the secondary s c h o o l years and as a comparative s t a n d i n g w i t h the student p o p u l a t i o n . When making recommendations, the t e a c h e r s , the c o u n s e l l o r , or the p r i n c i p a l w i l l f i n d t h i s r e c o r d more trus t w o r t h y than memory dimmed w i t h the p a s s i n g of the y e a r s . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r r a t i n g . A f t e r the teacher has had the o p p o r t u n i t y of observing the p u p i l s , he w i l l be asked to r a t e them on the form. A whole c l a s s or grade should be r a t e d on one t r a i t at a time. By comparing observed b e h a v i o r w i t h the - 66 -d e s c r i p t i o n s on the s c a l e , the r a t e r should decide which one f i t s the p u p i l most c l o s e l y . I f he c o n s i d e r s the student not equal to the d e s c r i p t i o n he w i l l put an " X " . i n the f i r s t square; but i f he c o n s i d e r s him s u p e r i o r to the d e s c r i p t i o n he w i l l put an "X" i n the l a s t square; i f he i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the comparison, he w i l l put an "X" i n the c e n t r e square of the three on the r i g h t of the s t e p . At convenient times d u r i n g the s c h o o l year the teachers w i l l complete the r a t i n g o f the. t r a i t s one at a time. They are asked to add comments., to u n d e r l i n e p e r t i n e n t phrases and to mention s p e c i f i c examples of observed b e h a v i o r . Furthermore, as teachers may not have the o p p o r t u n i t y to n o t i c e s i g n i f i c a n t b ehavior f o r one or another t r a i t , they should i n d i c a t e t h i s f a c t . When the forms are completed they are to be r e t u r n e d to the c o u n s e l l o r who w i l l average the r a t i n g s on the p u p i l ' s r e c o r d form and draw the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e . A l l such i n f o r m a t i o n gathered by the c o u n s e l l o r I s a v a i l a b l e to any teacher. I n b r i e f a c c o r d i n g to Strang (17, p.107) each r a t e r should observe the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Make h i s r a t i n g without c o n s u l t i n g anyone; 2. Rate a l l the p u p i l s on one t r a i t b e f o r e proceeding to a second; 3. Base h i s judgment as f a r as p o s s i b l e on o b j e c t i v e evidence, that I s , on a c t u a l experience w i t h the p u p i l ' s b e h a v i o r ; 4. T r y to put aside any d e s i r e , conscious or uncon-s c i o u s , to h e l p a p u p i l by a f a v o u r a b l e r a t i n g ; 5. Regard the d e s c r i p t i v e phrases of the v a r i o u s steps as suggestive r a t h e r than i n c l u s i v e ; 6. Concentrate on a c o r r e c t i n d i c a t i o n of the p u p i l ' s - p e r s o n a l i t y and make no attempt to achieve any p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n . - 66 -CHAPTER VII I SUMMARY The study of p e r s o n a l i t y i s as o l d as man but was f i r s t s t u d i e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i n the c l a s s i c times by Hippro-cates and Galen. Most of the e f f o r t s of p s y c h o l o g i s t s have been d i r e c t e d towards the r e c o g n i t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of t r a i t s but s i n c e A l l p o r t a t t e n t i o n has been c e n t r e d on the "whole man". P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s are not more than 150 years o l d and as f a r as schools are concerned about 25 years o l d . The c h i e f work with such s c a l e s has been done by the American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n which p u b l i s h e d i t s l a t e s t form i n 1945. P e r s o n a l i t y i s d e f i n e d i n v a r i o u s ways but the sug-gested d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s the sum of the behavior p a t t e r n s , w i t h i n the l i m i t s of b i o l o g i c a l I n h e r i t a n c e , r e s u l t i n g from i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the t o t a l e nviron-ment. To some exte n t the r a t i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s ephemeral depending upon the c o n d i t i o n s of the moment e x i s t i n g between the r a t e r and the s u b j e c t and between these two and t h e i r t o t a l environment. There i s , however, a l s o a core which i n t e g r a t e s the p e r s o n a l i t y . I t i s t h i s p a t t e r n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s wish t o evaluate on a r a t i n g s c a l e . People c o n s t a n t l y evaluate the p e r s o n a l i t y of asso-c i a t e s . T h i s chance method i s u n s u i t e d t o the needs of schools and of i n d u s t r y . Rating s c a l e s are, t h e r e f o r e , w i d e l y used to d i r e c t the o b s e r v a t i o n to s i g n i f i c a n t b e h a v i o r , to a i d i n the comparison of i n d i v i d u a l s and to put on r e c o r d the o p i n i o n of - 67 -the r a t e r s . Large i n d u s t r i a l and m e r c a n t i l e f i r m s , e d u c a t i o n -a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t he m i l i t a r y f o r c e s and others are making wide use of r a t i n g s c a l e s . The q u e s t i o n i s n o t whether to use such d e v i c e s but how to make them more e f f e c t i v e . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine w i t h r e g a r d to t h e i r adequacy f o r r a t i n g h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s two p e r s o n a l -i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s : one suggested by the D i r e c t o r of Education-a l and V o c a t i o n a l Guidance f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and the oth e r p u b l i s h e d by the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre of Toronto. The co n s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g the t r a i t s and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n made among the t r a i t s w i l l be computed and compared. I f these s c a l e s should prove inadequate i n a c t u a l use, i t i s proposed to develop one to meet the needs of the h i g h s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a c o n s i s t e n t , d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and st a n d a r d i z e d s c a l e . The study of the Johns 1 p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e - S c a l e  A. I n t h i s r a t i n g s c a l e the teachers are asked t o grade the p u p i l s A, B, C, D, or E, on the t r a i t s : d e p e n d a b i l i t y , i n d u s -t r y , c o - o p e r a t i o n , emotional c o n t r o l , appearance, courtesy, poise and i n i t i a t i v e . Before copies of the s c a l e were d i s t r i -buted the t e a c h e r - r a t e r s were c a l l e d t ogether to d i s c u s s the experiment and t o examine the terms and the form of the r a t i n g s c a l e . Eleven p u p i l s were r a t e d by the same f o u r teachers and ten others were r a t e d by 18 other t e a c h e r s . I t was found that the t e a c h e r s who graded a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of p u p i l s and who r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n the technique d i d more c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g than the o t h e r s . A l l the r a t i n g s were t a b u l a t e d and - 68 -s t u d i e d f o r the c o n s i s t e n c y of the r a t i n g of each t r a i t and f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among the t r a i t s of the one p u p i l . On Scale A the average c o n s i s t e n c y was 1.85 steps or 37 percent of the p o s s i b l e grades. Since o n l y f o u r grades were used, the percentage r o s e to 46 percent f o r the four r a t e r s who were s e l e c t e d because they taught the same p u p i l s and 55 percent f o r the r a t e r s who were chosen a t random. The teach e r s agreed on the grade i n 17.7 percent of the cases. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i c n was not v e r y g r e a t as on 22 percent of the times the same grade was used f o r a l l t r a i t s of a p u p i l . • The study of the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre p e r s o n a l i t y  s c a l e .- S c a l e B. This s c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f n i n e t r a i t s : appearance, assurance, c o u r t e s y , d e p e n d a b i l i t y , e f f o r t , emotion-a l c o n t r o l , i n i t i a t i v e , s o c i a b i l i t y , and voice-and-speech, with b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s a f t e r each. The teachers were r e q u i r e d t o put a check mark i n one of the seven columns headed A, B, C+, C, C-, D, and E. The r a t i n g s were t a b u l a t e d and s t u d i e d as b e f o r e . On t h i s s c a l e the average spread o f the r a t i n g s was 2.5 grades or 36 percent of the p o s s i b l e . I f on l y f i v e s teps were taken the average was 2.2 or 43 per c e n t . I t seemed then that S cale B enabled the. teachers t o grade each t r a i t more c o n s i s t e n t l y . . The amount of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among the t r a i t s o f the p u p i l was i n c r e a s e d by Scale B as i n o n l y n i n e cases or 8.1 percent was the same grade g i v e n to a l l t r a i t s of a student. The teachers were n o t very w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h e i t h e r of these two forms as they r e a l i z e d t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y of v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s was very g r e a t . Scale A was of l i t t l e - 69 -use as the r a t i n g s of e ach t r a i t covered approximately h a l f the s c a l e b u t i t might serve to d i v i d e the p u p i l s i n t o two groups. S c a l e B gave b e t t e r r e s u l t s but a g a i n the c o n s i s t e n c y was low alt h o u g h the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was very good. The w r i t e r , t h e r e f o r e , d e c i d e d to t r y an. o r i g i n a l s c a l e a l o n g the l i n e s suggested by v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s . The development of the f i r s t o r i g i n a l s c a l e . A number of r a t i n g s c a l e s was s t u d i e d to l e a r n the f r e q u e n c y of occurrence of the v a r i o u s t r a i t s . I t was hoped i n t h i s way to o b t a i n t r a i t s t h a t had the widest use. V a r i o u s textbooks on person-a l i t y were also c o n s u l t e d i n order to determine which t r a i t s could be rated, more r e l i a b l y than o t h e r s . The l i s t of t r a i t s f i n a l l y d e c i d e d upon was as f o l l o w s : appearance, voice-and-speech, refinement, d e p e n d a b i l i t y , i n d u s t r y , a l e r t n e s s , leader-s h i p , p o i s e , s o c i a b i l i t y , and a c t i v i t y . A f t e r the name of each t r a i t a q u e s t i o n was used to d i r e c t the r a t e r ' s observa-t i o n to c e r t a i n phases of the t r a i t . The average, then the extremes, and f i n a l l y t h e steps i n between these, were des-c r i b e d . The s c a l e was to appear on one s i d e o f a page w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l continuum f o r each t r a i t . V e r t i c a l l i n e s s e p a r a t -i n g the f i v e d i v i s i o n s were drawn. The r a t e r s were asked to p l a c e a mark along the continuum to I n d i c a t e the standing of the p u p i l i n r e f e r e n c e to the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t r a i t . . As I t was planned to r a t e the same 45 p u p i l s as had been r a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , three months were allowed t o e l a p s e b e f o r e the mimeographed s c a l e s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e teachers. Owing to the i n c r e a s e d interest on the p a r t of the s t a f f , a l a r g e number of r a t i n g s was obtained. These were t a b u l a t e d and s t u d i e d . Out o f the f i v e p o s s i b l e grades f o r each t r a i t the teachers used on the average 1.9 or 38 percent.. T h i s average i s lower than the average of 2.0 grades on Scale A and the average of 2.2 grades on Scale B. Furthermore, the average percentage o f times t h a t the r a t e r s agreed i n the grade assigned was 27.7 percent which i s b e t t e r than the 13.6 per-cent arid 19.6 percent on the other two s c a l e s . I t seems then t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n of the steps i n t h i s s c a l e enabled the r a t e r s to rate more c o n s i s t e n t l y . The average d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was'greater on Scale C than t h a t on S c a l e A b u t l e s s than t h a t on S c a l e B. The percentage of times the r a t e r s gave two or more r a t i n g s to the t r a i t s of one p u p i l on Scal e s A, B and C were r e s p e c t i v e l y 77, 91.9 and 85.7 pe r c e n t . Among the s e v e r a l t r a i t s on the Scal e s A, B and C no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s were made 22.2, 8.1 and 7 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y of the ti m e s . The d e s c r i p t i v e type of s c a l e , t h e r e f o r e , seemed to g i v e some-what b e t t e r r e s u l t s . A f t e r s u b m i t t i n g the r a t i n g s the teachers were asked f o r c r i t i c i s m s and sug g e s t i o n s . From the former r o s e the f a c t t h a t the marks along the continuum had no s i g n i f i c a n c e except f o r the whole space above one o f the f i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of a t r a i t . One important s u g g e s t i o n was to r a t e p u p i l s on d e f i n -i t e observable p o i n t s such as: "Has he speech d i f f i c u l t y or impediment?". An atfempt was made t o b u i l d a s c a l e on t h i s p r i n c i p l e but i t had to be abandoned as I m p r a c t i c a l . - 71 -The development o f the second o r i g i n a l s c a l e * Through Mr. J . W. A. F l e u r y the w r i t e r became i n t e r e s t e d i n the suc-cess of the Royal Canadian A i r Force with p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s u sing f i v e s t e p s , one below the other. He d e c i d e d to b u i l d a s c a l e of t h i s type and t o overcome the weaknesses of Scale C. About t h i s time the chairman of the* Records and Reports Committee of the P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n sent a copy of the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e developed by h i s committee f o r the American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n (See Appendix X V I I I ) . T h i s s c a l e was s i m i l a r t o t h e one being prepared and assured the w r i t e r that he was working along the r i g h t l i n e s . By the time t h i s f o u r t h s c a l e was ready the end of the year was a t hand and the teachers were very, busy so t h a t fewer r a t i n g s were r e c e i v e d than had been a n t i c i p a t e d . I t was decided, however, to proceed w i t h the t a b u l a t i o n and study o f the r a t i n g s t h a t were i n hand. With an average spread of grades of i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s of 1.7 or 34 percent of the p o s s i b l e , Scale D was found t o have the h i g h e s t average con-s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g . The average percentage o f times that the r a t e r s agreed on the grades g i v e n was 35.4 percent which was 7.7 percent higher than t h a t on S c a l e C. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r a t i n g s approached a normal curve. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among the t r a i t s was the. h i g h e s t of the four s c a l e s s t u d i e d s i n c e two or more r a t i n g s on the f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e were g i v e n 97.3 per-cent of the times and on the f I f teen-po.I>nt . s c a l e 100 percent of the times. The s u p e r i o r i t y o f the r e s u l t s on S c a l e D i n d i c a t e d t h at t h i s was the most r e l i a b l e o f the four used i n - 72 -t h i s study. The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of Scale E. In r e p l y to a l e t t e r sent to the teachers who had done the r a t i n g a number of c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions were r e c e i v e d . The c r i t i c i s m s were answered and some of the suggestions were accepted. The main change i n the s c a l e was.in the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the second and t h i r d steps of the t r a i t s o c i a b i l i t y . The t h i r d s t e p which . was n e g a t i v e i n sense was r e p l a c e d by the second and i t i n tu r n was completed by the statement:' " t r i e s t o a t t r a c t a t t e n -t i o n ; i s an e x h i b i t i o n i s t " . The s c a l e thus r e v i s e d was c a l l e d S c a l e E. The P a l l term was w e l l advanced when the r e v i s e d form was ready and before the teachers had had the time to observe and r a t e t h e i r p u p i l s . To o b t a i n a wider sampling c o u n s e l l o r s i n other s c h o o l s were asked f o r r a t i n g s and they r e t u r n e d 76 completed forms. These and the 279 r e c e i v e d from the teachers of Magee High School gave 355 r a t i n g s t o study. As the s u p e r i o r i t y o f S c a l e D had been e s t a b l i s h e d no attempt was made to s tudy the co n s i s t e n c y or the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on S c a l e E. The q u e s t i o n arose r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e Importance of the t r a i t s . The w r i t e r d e c i d e d to ask the o p i n i o n o f each of the teachers who had a s s i s t e d w i t h the r a t i n g and a l s o to send out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d . While w a i t -i n g f o r r e p l i e s , the w r i t e r d e c i d e d to make a p r e l i m i n a r y study u s i n g the weightings which had a l r e a d y been r e c e i v e d from the t e a c h e r s . A f t e r d i s c a r d i n g the weightings t h a t were out of l i n e - 73 -with the o t h e r s , that f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the t r a i t s , and t h a t were g i v e n by teachers having no experience'with'the s c a l e , the w r i t e r averaged the remaining 13. For convenience i t was d e c i d e d to use as the t o t a l score f o r each t r a i t a m u l t i p l e of 15. The a d j u s t e d weightings were: appearance 60, refinement 90, s o c i a b i l i t y 100, s o c i a l i t y 90, i n f l u e n c e 90, poise 90,. a l e r t n e s s 150, d e p e n d a b i l i t y 180, i n d u s t r y 150, and t o t a l 1,000. From the 355 forms the frequency of the r a t i n g s on each of the 15 d i v i s i o n s o f each t r a i t was t a b u l a t e d ; the means were determined and the d e c i l e s computed. The score values and the d e c i l e s of the t r a i t s were arranged as an i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d sheet. Since no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d to. e x i s t , one s e t of d e c i l e s was s u f f i c i e n t . On the r e c o r d sheet can be marked the r a t i n g by each teacher. These can t h e n be averaged and the average marked on the d e c i l e graph. By j o i n i n g the p o i n t s marked, the c o u n s e l l o r can ob-t a i n a p r o f i l e of the p u p i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . An example i s g i v e n i n Appendix.I K. A s u g g e s t i o n made by Dr. L e f e v e r o f the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a t h a t the computation of the means of the f i v e i n s t e a d of 15 steps would have been s u f f i c i e n t was i n v e s t i -gated and found to be c o r r e c t as was i n d i c a t e d by an average c r i t i c a l r a t i o of .29 where 3 i s considered s i g n i f i c a n t I n the d i f f e r e n c e between two means. T h i s meant t h a t i n the subse-quent study o n l y the f i v e - s t e p s needed to be c o n s i d e r e d i n computing the d e c i l e s c o r e s . - 74 -When 68 r e p l i e s had been r e c e i v e d from the 89 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent out to a s c e r t a i n the o p i n i o n s of experts on the weighting, of the t r a i t s , the f i n a l study was undertaken. The 59 r e p l i e s which gave weighted values i n a d d i t i o n ; to the 17 r e c e i v e d from the t e a c h e r s were t a b u l a t e d . Because of some extreme weightings the measure of c e n t r a l tendency s e l e c t e d t o g i v e a weighted v a l u e f o r each t r a i t was t h e median. For con-venience i n g i v i n g a value to each of the f i v e steps o f each t r a i t , the m u l t i p l e of f i v e .which was n e a r e s t to the a c t u a l median was used. These v a l u e s were: appearance 75, r e f i n e -ment 100, s o c i a b i l i t y 100, s o c i a l i t y 110, i n f l u e n c e 100, p o i s e 100, a l e r t n e s s 110, d e p e n d a b i l i t y 150 and Indus tr y . 120. These values were then used w i t h the f r e q u e n c y . d i s t r l b u t i o n to com-pute the means, the standard d e v i a t i o n s and the standard e r r o r s of the means. From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was evolved the d e c i l e scores f o r each t r a i t b y t a k i n g the mean p l u s the. f r a c t i o n a l p a r t s of the b a s e l i n e of a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n curve to g i v e the v a r i o u s d e c i l e s . The d e c i l e scores were then put i n form of a bar graph w i t h the width of the b a r s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the weightings of the t r a i t s so t h a t the graph gave a weighted p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e . An example i s g i v e n i n Appendix XV. By examining the standard e r r o r s of the means, the w r i t e r found t h a t the mean o f the t r a i t , appearance, was the most r e l i a b l e and that of d e p e n d a b i l i t y the l e a s t but i n the l a t t e r case the range o f the true mean d i d not extend beyond one step i n the d e c i l e s c a l e . The rankings of the t r a i t s - 75 -ac c o r d i n g to t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of the means and a c c o r d i n g to the c o n s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g the t r a i t s were compared by the r a n k d i f f e r e n c e method of measuring c o r r e l a t i o n and the product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was found to be 0.70 so t h a t there, i s evidence of correspondence between the r a n k i n g s . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r u s i n g S c a l e E. Before the teachers are asked to r a t e p u p i l s on t h i s s c a l e they should be f u l l y i n -formed of the uses to be made of the r a t i n g s and they should be t h o r o u g h l y conversant with the terms o f the scal e and with the techniques of r a t i n g . Most o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be put i n t o a manual but even so, i t s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d at a s t a f f meeting. A t t e n t i o n of the te a c h e r s should be c a l l e d , t o the importance o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t p u p i l s on the same t r a i t and between the d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s of the same p u p i l . This need of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s emphasized on t h i s s c a l e by having a v e r t i c a l continuum wi th 15 p o s i t i o n s f o r marking each t r a i t . P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s are not measures of person-a l i t y but are a d d i t i o n s t o the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from other t e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l and are to be i n t e r p r e t e d o n l y i n the l i g h t of a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . The uses of t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e a re: 1. To arouse i n t e r e s t of the p u p i l h i m s e l f i n the c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y ; 2. To se r v e as a p o i n t o f departure d u r i n g a c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w ; 3. To r e v e a l undue d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the p u p i l ' s s e l f - r a t i n g and t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s ; 4. To i n t e r e s t the members of the s t a f f i n an o b j e c t i v e study of the p e r s o n a l i t y of each c h i l d ; 5. To be kept on f i l e as a r e c o r d inhich can be r e f e r r e d to when r e f e r e n c e s are r e q u i r e d a f t e r the p u p i l has l e f t s c h o o l . Teachers, who have d i s c u s s e d the terms used on t h i s s c a l e , who understand i t s format and who appreciate i t s purposes, may s t i l l need to be reminded to r a t e the p u p i l s on one t r a i t a t a time on o b j e c t i v e evidence without c o n s u l t i n g anyone, t o r e g a r d d e s c r i p t i v e phrases as su g g e s t i v e o n l y and to concentrate on an impersonal i n d i c a t i o n o f the p u p i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . - 77 -CHAPTER IX REFERENCES 1. ALLPORT, FLOYD H., S o c i a l Psychology. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1924. 2. DOWNEY, JUNE E., The Will-Temperament and i t s T e s t i n g . New York: World Book Co., 1924. 3. GARRETT, HENRY E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and . E d u c a t i o n . New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1941. 4. HANNA, JOSEPH V., V a r i a b l e F a c t o r s Encountered i n the R a t i n g of Students, School Science and Mathematics, 1925, XXV, 481-488. 5. HARTSHORNE, MAY, MALLER, SHUTTLEWORTH AND OTHERS, Character E d u c a t i o n I n q u i r y , Tenth Year Book of-Department of Superintendents, 1926, 92. 6. HUGHES, W. HARDIN, " Pasedena P u b l i c School Blank, Pasedena P u b l i c Schools E d u c a t i o n a l Research B u l l e t i n , 1923-25 passim; a l s o G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s and R e s u l t s of R a t i n g T r a i t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Method, 4, 421-31. 7. KENNEDY, FLORA, The P r a c t i c a l Value of the June Downey Will-Temperament T e s t s , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 4, 260-3T 8. LANDIS, PAUL H., Adolescence and Youth, New Yorkr McGraw-Hill Book Company I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1941. 9. LA PIERRE, RICHARD T. AND FARNSWORTH, PAUL R., S o c i a l Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company In c o r p o r a t e d , 1942. 10. PRESSY, SIDNEY L. AND JANNEY, J . ELLIOTT, Casebook of Research i n E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1937. 11. REED, ANNA Y., Guidance and Personal S e r v i c e s i n E d u c a t i o n . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1944. 12. REMMERS, H. H. AND GAGE, N.L., E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n . New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1943. - 78 -13. ROSANOFF, AARON J . ( E d i t o r ) Free A s s o c i a t i o n T e s t of Kent-Rosanoff, r e p r i n t e d from Manual of P s y c h i a t r y , New York: John Wiley and Sons I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1927. 14. SHAFFER, LAURANCE F. The Psychology of Adjustment. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1936. 15. SKINNER, CHARLES E. Elementary E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. New York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1945. 16. SMITH, EUGENE R. Judging and Recording P u p i l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , E d u c a t i o n a l J o u r n a l , XV, 87-105. 17. STRANG, RUTH Counseling T e c h n i c s i n C o l l e g e and Secondary Schools. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1937. 18. SYMONDS, PERCIVAL M. Diagnosing P e r s o n a l i t y and Conduct. New York: The Century Company, 1931. 19. SYMONDS, PERCIVAL M. P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i a g n o s i s i n S o c i a l Adjustment. New York: The American Book Company, 1934. 20. THORPE,. LOUIS P. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Foundations of P e r s o n a l i t y . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,1938. 21. TRAXLER, ARTHUR E. Techniques of Guidance. New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1945. 22. TRAXLER, ARTHUR E. The Use of T e s t s and R a t i n g Devices i n the A p p r a i s a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . New York: E d u c a t i o n a l Records Bureau, 1938. - 79 -APPENDIX I A SCALE A Taken from Johns' Cumulative Record Card PERSONALITY r a t i n g of C l a s s P e r i o d Rated by Use t h e ' f o l l o w i n g symbols: A f o r e x c e l l e n t B f o r good C f o r average D f o r below average E f o r e n t i r e l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y D e p e n d a b i l i t y I n d u s t r y " Co-operation Emotional Control' Appearance ' Courtesy Poise I n i t i a t i v e SCALE B Issued by V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre, Toronto P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g of Rated by PERSONALITY RATINGS 1. APPEARANCE - neatness, c l e a n l i n e s s , grooming 2. ASSURANCE - s e l f - c o n f i -dence, s e l f - r e l i a n c e 3. COURTESY - manner, t a c t , r e s p e c t , c o - o p e r a t i o n 4. DEPENDABILITY - r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y , t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s 5. EFFORT - degree to which tl*X@ s 6. EMOTIONAL CONTROL - p o i s e , even temper, acceptance, . f a i r c r i t i c 7. INITIATIVE - c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y , i m a g i n a t i o n 8. SOCIABILITY - mixer, co-o p e r a t i o n w i t h others 9. VOICE & SPEECH - d i s t i n c t , r e sonant, p l e a s a n t P e r i o d C l a s s E v.p. D 1 poor * C-l . a v . j.C 'av. Cf h.av. B s;ood A exc. 80 -APPENDIX I B Mage© High S c h o o l , November 28, 1945. Dear P e l l o w - t e a c h e r : An e x p l a n a t i o n i s due many o f you r e g a r d i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s t h a t you may have seen i n the hands of v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s . I have t a l k e d t o some o f you b u t n o t to others and so I am t a k i n g t h i s method o f e x p l a i n i n g i n more d e t a i l . The P r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r of Guidance i s p l a n n i n g on i n t r o d u c i n g a cumulative r e c o r d c a r d next P a l l and, as w i t h most of these cards, i t has a space f o r r e c o r d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s . The u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s card w i l l depend on the accuracy of i t s i n f o r m a t i o n and as r e g a r d the accuracy of p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt. I t was suggested t o me by a member of the Psychology Department o f U.B.C. t h a t I l o o k i n t o t h i s matter and perhaps I c o u l d work up a t h e s i s on the s u b j e c t . I have, t h e r e f o r e , mimeographed some copies of the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e from the card o f the P r o v i n c i a l Guidance D i r e c t o r and some from the card of the Guidance Department of the Ontario C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n . I have asked a number o f te a c h e r s who see the same p u p i l s to t r y these s c a l e s so that I may check the c o n s i s t e n c y of r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r a t i n g s and so t h a t I may see i f the card d i f f e r e n t i a t e s s u f f i c i e n t l y between the d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s and between the d i f f e r e n t p u p i l s . In a d d i t i o n , a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e study on the subject, I s h a l l draw up two other r a t i n g s c a l e s which I s h a l l submit f o r your c r i t i c i s m s . A f t e r r e v i s i n g these i n accordance w i t h your s u g g e s t i o n s , I hope to have many of you t r y to use them and again to check the r e s u l t s . I r e a l i z e , of c o u r s e , that I am asking q u i t e a favour of you as you are a l l busy and a l l t h i s means e x t r a work. But wi thout your c o - o p e r a t i o n the study i s Impossible. W i l l t h i s study have any v a l u e to anyone except my-s e l f ? I t w i l l be of no v a l u e to me i f we do n o t f i n d a r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t w i l l do the j o b . You w i l l have the experience of t r y i n g out and of c r i t i c i z i n g a number of such s c a l e s . As f a r as the p u p i l s are concerned, the r a t i n g s should r e v e a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses; and the Guidance teachers may draw the a t t e n t i o n of the p u p i l s t o the weaknesses and suggest ways of overcoming them. No p u p i l s w i l l be shown the r a t i n g of a teacher but the r a t i n g s of f o u r or f i v e teachers may be aver-aged and used ( i f time p e r m i t s ) . On the cumulative r e c o r d cards o n l y t h i s composite r a t i n g i s r e c o r d e d . I f these - 81 -p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s are r e c o r d e d at v a r i o u s times d u r i n g the p u p i l ' s s c h o o l days, they w i l l show h i s p e r s o n a l i t y develop-ment and w i l l serve as u s e f u i r e f e r e n c e s l a t e r when recommenda-t i o n s f o r jobs are r e q u i r e d . F i n a l l y we may be able to develop a score which w i l l i n d i c a t e the s t a n d i n g i n a l a r g e group of a student's p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s . We s h a l l know i f he i s above or below the average i n each t r a i t and i n p e r s o n a l i t y . W e l l , i f you have had the p a t i e n c e to r e a d t h i s f a r , I hope you w i l l understand the p r o j e c t t h a t I am engaged i n and hope you w i l l co-operate i n i t . I s h a l l be g l a d to answer any questions and to d i s c u s s any phase of the matter w i t h you. Thank you. - 82 -APPENDIX I C PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW RATING SCALE DATE NAME INTERVIEWED BY INSTRUCTION: Please r a t e the i n d i v i d u a l by making a check mark along the s c a l e ; i f you cannot be sure of a s p e c i f i c p o i n t on the s c a l e check two p o i n t s . Rate him o n l y on those t r a i t s t h a t you d e f i n i t e l y n o t i c e d . Rate him as he appeared to you without too much study. A f t e r making your r a t i n g add some comment i f you can, t r y to g i v e an example, or d e t a i l s not covered In the g e n e r a l r a t i n g . A f t e r 'comments * some sug-gested comments are g i v e n . The d e s c r i p t i o n s a t the s i d e s of the page ap p l y to the. extreme r a t i n g s , 'much below 1 and 'much above' • SOCIABILITY AND FRIENDLINESS s e i r - c o n -s c l o u s ; c o l d and tense ;with-irawing Much Below Below Ave. Aver-age Above Ave. Much Above C o r d i a l ; n a t u r a l & f r e e expres-s i o n ; warmth COMMENT: ( S e l f - c e n t e r e d , over c o r d i a l , s m i l e s , s e r i o u s , anxious, humour, b l u s h i n g , e t c ) Srasps ideas s l o w l y : d u l l INTELLIGENCE AND ALERTNESS i t i i i Aver- Above Much Much Below Below . Ave. age Ave. Above COMMENT: ( F a i l s to see jokes, t h i c k , a f f e c t s b r i g h t n e s s , too w i t t y , e t c . ) Very a l e r t ; q u ick & keen understand-i n g Confused and awk-ward expression ABILITY TO EXPRESS SELF Much Below Aver- Above Much Below Ave. age Ave. Above Cl e a r and co n v i n c i n g ; pleasant voice  COMMENT: (Speech d e f e c t , a c c e n t , harshness, poor v o i c e , s l a n g , d i c t i o n and grammar, etc.) - 83 -Neg l i g e n t ; c a r e l e s s ; un-trustw o r t h y ; p r o c r a s t i -nates DEPENDABILITY AND RESPONSIBILITY Much Below Below Ave. Aver- Above Ave. Much Above COMMENT: (Evasiv e , makes a l i b i s f o r s e l f , e a r l i e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) Thoroughly t r u s t w o r t h y ; honest; i n -d u s t r i o u s ; takes . i n i t i a-t i v e C a r e l e s s ; unkempt PERSONAL APPEARANCE Much Below Aver- Above Below Ave. age Ave. Much Above Very n e a t l y and appro-p r i a t e l y d r e s s e d COMMENT: (Poor t a s t e , over d r e s s e d , l a c k s grooming) PHYSICAL HEALTH Weak; anemic; poor c o l o u r Much Below Aver- Above Below Ave. age Ave. Much Above Strong; al e r t ; good c o l o u r COMMENT: (Capable of ha r d work or not, c h r o n i c d i s e a s e s , c o l d s , I n d i g e s t i o n , overweight, underweight, f a c i a l s c a r s , c r i p p l e d n e s s , deformed, asthma, s k i n t r o u b l e , twitches or t i c s , u l c e r s , headaches, r e s t l e s s n e s s ) CONFIDENCE IN ONES SELF COMMENT: Over-confident, o v e r r a t e s s e l f - some? much? Under-confident, underrates s e l f - some? much? Well balanced s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . TENDENCY TO DOMINATE OTHERS COMMENT: Ti m i d and withdrawing, too f o r c e f u l , o v e r b e a r i n g , happy medium. AMBITIONS AND LIFE AIMS COMMENT: Too h i g h , too low, - w e l l balanced and wise aims. - 84 -SPEED OP GENERAL MOVEMENT COMMENT: Pa s t , slow, moderate, - nervous movement, p l a c i d , o v e r a c t i v e , e a s i l y s t i m u l a t e d . ABILITY TO SUPERVISE OTHERS COMMENT: Sympathetic understanding with good human i n s i g h t , harsh, s e l f - c e n t e r e d , too easy, s o f t . COMMENT IN GENERAL: (Did you communicate w i t h the ' r e a l ' man or a ' f r o n t ' ) APPENDIX I D SCALE G' PERSONALITY RATING SCALE NAME RATED BY P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s are a u s e f u l a d d i t i o n . t o our s c h o o l r e c o r d s but they must be f r a n k , t h o u g h f u l , and d i s c r i m -i n a t i n g . The student should be compared w i t h the e n t i r e group known t o the r a t e r . This group w i l l be d i s t r i -buted as 5% 20% 50% 20% 5% very poor below above superior average average average Mark a cross at the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e on the l i n e to i n d i c a t e the standing of t h i s student compared w i t h others of your acquaintance. APPEARANCE How i s he regarded f o r h i s . manner and bear-i n g ? He i s d i s -l i k e d ; a-voided; makes a very un-f a v o u r a b l e impression. He i s tolerated; i s c a r e -l e s s ; un-t i d y . He i s accepted; i n c o n s i s -t e n t ; makes f a i r impression. He I s n o t i c e d ; i s neat and a t -t r a c t i v e ; good im-p r e s s i o n . le i s very attr a c t i v e ; bakes pains arith appearance SPEECH Does he express. ". h i s i d e a s c l e a r l y ? He makes e r r o r s i s c o n f u s i n g ; has h a r s h v o i c e . He i s . h e s i t a n t ; mumbles; vague. He u s u a l l y expresses h i m s e l f w e l l . He has a s u p e r i o r vocabu-l a r y , has good v o i c e . He has ex-c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y ; c l e a r p l e a s a n t v o i c e . REPINEMESI Does he show good manners, t a c t , courtesy? He i s b o o r i s h , o b j e c t i o n -a b l e , h a b i t u a l l y d i s c o u r t -eous. He. l a c k s t a c t , i s i n c o n -s i d e r a t e , seldom p o l i t e . He i s u s u a l l y p o l i t e , w e l l -mannered, courteous. His good manners are n o t i c -ed. He does the r i g h t t h i n g s . He i s not-ed - f o r h i s f a u l t l e s s manners; l s very t a c t f u l chivalrous. DEPENDABII ITY Is he r e -l i a b l e , p u n c t u a l , s i n c e r e ? He i s very respbns-. i b l e , a l -ways has to be su-p e r v i s e d . He i s f o r -g e t f u l , haphazard, has to be checked up o f t e n . He i s u s u a l l y dependable needs checking periodically. He does as w e l l as he can w i t h l i t t l e supervision. He f u l -f i l l s p ro-mises, can be r e l i e d upon, i s a c c u r a t e . - 8 6 -INDUSTRY Is he d i l i g e n t , p e r s i s -t e n t , e f -f i c i e n t , w i l l i n g ? He Is l a z y , very i n e f -f i c i e n t ; n e g l e c t s work. He pro-c r a s t i n -ates;does what he has t o o f t e n p o o r l y . He does what he must i n a s a t i s f a c t -ory manner. He o f t e n does more than Is r e q u i r e d ; does not waste time e f f i c i e n t . He i s very e f f i c i e n t f i n d s work to dc accomplish es a great d e a l . ALERTNESS Is he a t -t e n t i v e , e n t h u s i a -s t i c , ob-se r v a n t , able t o grasp a s i t u a t i o n ? le Is d u l l .is t l e s s , lay-dreams, il l s under-stands . He needs much r e -petit i o n , explana-t i on; l a c k s concen-t r a t i o n . He i s u s u a l l y a t t e n t i ve; understands grasps meaning. He i s ob-ser v a n t , quick-wi t t ed; needs l i t t l e explana-t i o n . He Is ex-c e p t i o n -a l l y quick, adaptable; a n t i c i -pates need; r e s u l t s . . LEADERSHIP Is he r e -s o u r c e f u l , e n t e r p r i s -i n g , able to i n s p i r e confidence He i s c r i -t i c a l , a n t agonis-t i c , a loof; a weak ?f ollower. He i s not r e -sponsive; g i v e s f a i r sup-p o r t ; pre-f e r s t o f o l l o w . He oc-c a s i o n a l l y l e a d s ; needs en-courage-ment. He tends to take the l e a d ; cooperates e f f e c t i v e -l y ; r e -sponsive. He always lead s i n -s p i r e s confIden-ce; co-operates e n t h u s i -a s t i c a l l y , POISE Does he e x e r c i s e s e l f -c o n t r o l ? Is he e-m o t i o n a l -l y s t a b l e ? He i s e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y angered, depressed, e l a t e d . He i s over-emoti o n a l moody, q u i c k l y annoyed or plea s e d . He i s r e a -sonable ; seldom up-s e t ; meets d i f f i c u l t -i e s , d i s -appointments. He has as-surance ; equable tempera-ment; i s r a r e l y vexed. He exer-c i s e s self c o n t r o l under try-i n g c i r -cumstances good-humored . SOCIABILITY Is he fond of company' Is he popu-l a r w i t h h i s c l a s s -mates? He i s di:s-Sagreeable, • c o l d , tense, keeps to h i m s e l f . He i s s e l f -conscious, shy,some-times un-s o c i a b l e . He mixes w e l l , i s g e n e r a l l y s o c i a b l e and agree-able . He i s f r i e n d l y ; p r e f e r s company; i s w e l l -l i k e d . He i s cor-d i a l ; Is centre of crowd; has nat.ur a l warmth of f r i e n d l i -n ess. - 87 -ACTIVITY Is he fond of s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s ? He has no i n t e r e s t ; takes no p a r t . He attends important f u n c t i o n s ; takes minor part. He shows i n t e r e s t i n many a c t i v i -t i e s and takes p a r t i n some. He takes p a r t i n many, pro-minent i n some; a c t i v e s upporter. He i s keenly i n t e r e s t -ed; an outstand-i n g p a r t -i c i p a n t . - 88 -APPENDIX I E CRITICISMS OP SCALE C BY RATERS Teacher "A": Teacher "D" Teacher " I " : : Teacher "N" Teacher "L" "I have not f i l l e d i n a l l q u e s t i o n s as I have i n s u f f i c i e n t acquaintance with some stu d e n t s . Sometimes I have crossed out phrases as i n a p p l i c a b l e to the case i n q u e s t i o n . " "I r e a l l y do not f e e l t h a t I can be a t r u l y f a i r judge of a l l these t r a i t s - but I marked them anyway J " "These w i l l not .they?" be seen by the stude n t s , w i l l "I'm not sure what you've got when i t s f i n i s h e d . I s there a l i n k between p e r s o n a l i t y and I.Q.? Why not add the t r a i t , " M a t u r i t y " ? " "I don't l i k e the s p a c i n g between 'below average' and 'average'. They are f a r f u r t h e r a p a r t than •average' and 'above average' and as a con-sequence I f i n d myself p u t t i n g down an 'X' and then immediately s a y i n g t o mself t h a t i t i s wrongly p l a c e d . For example, these steps are not e q u a l l y spaced a p a r t : "He i s h e s i t a n t , mumbles, vague." and'"He u s u a l l y expresses h i m s e l f w e l l . " "He has a s u p e r i o r vocabulary, has good v o i c e . " I t h i n k t h a t t h i s c h a r t i s r e q u i r i n g o f me an i m p o s s i b l e t h i n g , t h a t i n one and the same 'X' to say what I t h i n k and what h i s f e l l o w students t h i n k o f the i n d i v i d u a l . For example, there are two p o i n t s of view. "He i s accepted, i n c o n s i s t e n t , makes f a i r i m p r e s s i o n " , and "His good manners are n o t i c e d , he does the r i g h t t h i n g " . " - 89 -APPENDIX I P PROPOSED SCALES FOR RATING SPECIFIC BEHAVIOR TEACHER'S SUGGESTION 1. 2. 3. Appearance: A. • I s he (she) re a s o n a b l y c l e a n and neat as to c l o t h e s , shoes, grooming of h a i r , hands and . f a c e ? B. I s he (she) prone to b i z a r r e or f l a s h y d r e s s i n g - something d i f f e r e n t from the cur r e n t f a s h i o n , perhaps to draw a t t e n -t i o n ? C. Does he (she) c a r r y h i m s e l f w i t h t o l e r a b l e grace? Voice and Speech: A~. I s h i s (her) v o i c e f r e e from harshness, p l e a s a n t , w e l l modu-l a t e d ? B. Does he (she) make proper use of v o c a l organs by c l e a r a r t i -c u l a t i o n of words and avoidance of mumbling? C. Has he (she) s p e e c h - d i f f i c u l t y or impediment? D. Has he (she) more than o r d i n a r y command • of language ? E. Does he (she) speak w i t h r e a s o n -able f l u e n c y ? Refinement: A. I s he (she) l o u t i s h i n b e a r i n g and manner of address? B. I s h i s (her) c h u r l i s h n e s s con-s c i o u s and s t u d i e d ? C. Does h i s (her) l a c k of manners appear to be unconscious and due to unhappy l a c k of t r a i n i n g ? D. Does he (she) show c o n s i d e r a t e -ness and due r e s p e c t where these ought to be expected? Yes No Uncer-t a l n - 90 -APPENDIX I P (CONTINUED) PROPOSED SCALES FOR RATING SPECIFIC BEHAVIOR WRITER'S ATTEMPT • 1. S o c i a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y : c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, speech, manner, b e a r i n g . A; I s he (she) reasonably c l e a n as to clothes,, shoes, groom-i n g of h a i r , hands and f a c e ? B. I s he (she) neat and t i d y as to h i s (her) c l o t h e s , h a i r ? C. Does he (she) show good t a s t e . i n c l o t h e s and a c c e s s o r i e s ? D. Does he (she) express i d e a s c l e a r l y ? E. Does he (she) speak w i t h good a r t i c u l a t i on? P. Does he (she) speak w i t h good modulation? G. Has he (she) good manners? I s he (she) p o l i t e ? H. I s his (her) c a r r i a g e e r e c t ? Poor A b i l i t y to Work: ' i n d u s t r y , p e r s i s t e n c e , e f f i c i e n c y , achievement, c o n c e n t r a t i o n , neat-ness. A. Does he (she) put f o r t h a reasonable e f f o r t to do work? B. Does he (she) keep t r y i n g i n s p i t e of d i f f i c u l t y or f a i l -. ure? C. Does he (she) accomplish a . reasonable amount of work? D. Does he (she) show o r i g i n a l i t y . i n p r e s e n t i n g work? E. Does he (she) depend on h e l p from o t h e r s ? P, Does he (she) work independentljr of others? G. Does he (she) accomplish much i\i a s h o r t time? H. I s h i s (her) work n e a t l y done? I . Does he (she) grasp e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s , main problems? J . Does he (she) f r i t t e r away h i s (her) time? Aver-age auper-i o r - 91 -3. Character Q u a l i t i e s : d e p e n d a b i l i t y l o y a l t y , u p r i g h t -ness, t r u t h f u l n e s s , honesty, s e l f - r e l i a n c e . A. I s he (she) u s u a l l y p u n c t u a l i n t u r n i n g i n assignments? B. Does he (she) have h i s (her) r i g h t books a t c l a s s ? C. Have you found h i s (her) word to be trustworthy? D. Does he (she) accept and f o l l o w advice? Poor Aver-age Super-i o r ^ - 92 -APPENDIX I G SCALE D PERSONALITY' RATING SCALE Student School Date , Teacher P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s are u s e f u l a d d i t i o n s to our sc h o o l r e c o r d s and i f continued w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a c h a r t show-ing p e r s o n a l i t y development d u r i n g the student's s c h o o l l i f e . When r a t i n g , compare the student with o t h e r s . R e c a l l s i g n i -f i c a n t b e havior. . Under each heading decide which statement b e s t d e s c r i b e s the person you are r a t i n g . I f he i s not qu i t e equal to the d e s c r i p t i o n put "X" In the f i r s t square; i f he i s a l i t t l e b e t t e r put an "X n i n the t h i r d square; i f he i s about the same as the statement put an "X" i n the centre square. The u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s form depends on your f r a n k n e s s , t h o u g h t f u l -ness and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 1. Appearance. Does he (she) make a f a v o r a b l e impression? Consider t a s t e , c a r e , c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness. Is o f f e n s i v e l y groomed:: too much, has poor t a s t e . I s u n t i d y , i n d i f f e r e n t Makes f a i r i m p r e s s i o n ; i s ac c e p t a b l e Has p l e a s i n g appearance; i s neat, w e l l - d r e s s e d , c l e a n Is very a t t r a c t i v e ; e x p e r t l y groomed. 2. Refinement. Does he (she) have good manners, t a c t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o u r t e s y , a p p r e c i a t i o n ? Is b o o r i s h , o b j e c t i o n a b l e , i l l - m a n n e r e d . • Is t o l e r a t e d ; l a c k s t a c t , and manners; shows l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n . > Has s a t i s f a c t o r y manners but i s e r r a t i c and off-handed Does and says the r i g h t t h i n g s . Has f a u l t l e s s manners, i s very t a c t f u l and c o n s i d e r a t e - 93 -3.- S o c i a b i l i t y . I s he (she; f r i e n d l y , c o r d i a l , popular, a good mixer? Keeps a l o o f ; i s tense, c o l d or unpleasant; s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t . I s r e s e r v e d , shy; responds to f r i e n d l i n e s s . Shows no p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l or a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . P r e f e r s company; i s w e l l - l i k e d ; i s g e n e r a l l y s o c i a b l e , agreeable. Has a n a t u r a l warmth of f r i e n d l i n e s s ; i s c e n t r e of a group.. 4. S o c i a l i t y . I s he (she) concerned f o r w e l f a r e of o t h e r s ; s e l f i s h , s e l f - c e n t e r e d , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d ? Considers how others can be used f o r h i s advantage; i s r u t h l e s s . I s i n d i f f e r e n t to o t h e r s ' w e l f a r e ; l s c a l l o u s . Claims to be i n t e r e s t e d b ut does n o t h i n g . Is s e l e c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d ; f a v o r s f r i e n d s b ut n e g l e c t s o t h e r s . Is e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n w e l f a r e o f ot h e r s as of h i m s e l f . 5. I n f l u e n c e . What i n f l u e n c e has he (she) on a s s o c i a t e s ? Consider i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s . Has no i n f l u e n c e , no i n i t i a t i v e ; i s i g n o r e d ; i s a hanger-on. Follows n e a r e s t l e a d e r ; o f f e r s few s u g g e s t i o n s . E x e r t s v a r y i n g i n f l u e n c e ; leads sometimes. I n f l u e n c e s thought and a c t i o n of o t h e r s ; tends to l e a d . Moulds o p i n i o n s , i d e a l s , a c t i o n s of group; i n s p i r e s c o n f i d e n c e . - 94 -5. P o i s e . Has he (she) s e l f - c o n t r o l , an even d i s p o s i t i o n , good ; humour, emotional s t a b i l i t y ? I s e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y angered, e l a t e d , depressed; l a c k s c o n t r o l . I n c l i n e d to brood over f a i l u r e s , to be ov e r - j o y e d at success; i s moody. Shows no p a r t i c u l a r p o s s e s s i o n o f or l a c k of s e l f -c o n t r o l . Is r a r e l y vexed, e l a t e d , depressed; i s u s u a l l y cheer-f u l . I s good-humoured under t r y i n g circumstances; has e x c e l l e n t c o n t r o l . 7 . A l e r t n e s s . Is he (she) a t t e n t i v e , observant, able to grasp a s i t u a t i o n ; q u i c k - w i t t e d , adaptable, d e c i s i v e ? Is d u l l , l i s t l e s s , i n a t t e n t i v e ; misunderstands; unable to a d j u s t . Learns s l o w l y ; needs d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s ; s h o r t i n t e r e s t span. Concentrates f o r short p e r i o d s ; masters o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s . Grasps i d e a s q u i c k l y ; needs l i t t l e e x p l a n a t i o n . A n t i c i p a t e s needs; sees r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i d e a s ; has o r i g i n a l i t y . 8 . D e p e n d a b i l i t y . Is he (she) r e l i a b l e ? W i l l he (she) assume and di s c h a r g e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h d e s p a t c h and accuracy? Avoids r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; i s u n r e l i a b l e ; needs constant s u p e r v i s i o n . Often n e g l e c t s d u t i e s ; has to be checked up, r e l i a b l e i n s m a l l way. Is r e l i a b l e when i n t e r e s t e d ; needs some checking; g e n e r a l l y t r u s t w o r t h y . Requires l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n ; can be depended upon to do h i s b e s t . - 95 -F u l f i l s promises; assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , needs no s u p e r v i s i o n . 9. I n d u s t r y . Consider h i s (her) d i l i g e n c e , perseverence, e f f e c t i v e n e s s , purpos efulne s. Is i n d o l e n t , i n e f f i c i e n t , has no aim; wastes time. Works s l o w l y ; g i v e s up e a s i l y ; haphazard; accomplishes . l i t t l e . Does necessary work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; works w e l l when i n t e r e s t e d . Works q u i c k l y , e f f e c t i v e l y ; p e r s e v e r e s ; has immediate g o a l s . •,. • Goes beyond requirements; i s very d i l i g e n t and pur-p o s e f u l . -96-APPENDIX I H LETTER ASKING FOR CRITICISMS AND WEIGHTINGS. OF TRAITS OF SCALE D. Dear : W i l l you k i n d l y t r y out t h i s l a t e s t P e r s o n a l i t y R a t i n g S c a l e by r a t i n g the p u p i l s whose names appear on the sheets? Please c r i t i c i z e the form. Do you t h i n k the most important t r a i t s are b e i n g r a t e d ? Are the steps In each t r a i t d i s t i n c t and e v e n l y graded: What improvements i n the wording would you suggest? Do you f i n d the d i v i s i o n of each s t e p i n t o three p a r t s an advantage o r a disadvantage? Out of 100 marks how many would you g i v e each t r a i t ? Appearance Refinement S o c i a b i l i t y I n f l u e n c e S o c i a l i t y P oise A l e r t n e s s . D e p e n d a b i l i t y I n d u s t r y Thank you very much f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s e f f o r t to e v o l v e a workable and r e l i a b l e s c a l e . Yours s i n c e r e l y , - 97 -APPENDIX I I CRITICISMS OP SCALE D BY RATERS Teacher "G-": "I am unable to r a t e ' S o c i a l i t y ' i n most students s i n c e I do n o t know them w e l l enough." Teacher "U": "None of these headings seem to f i t . " Teacher "N": "Can do nothing a t a l l on ' S o c i a l i t y ' . " Answer: As there were t h i r t y out of a p o s s i b l e seventy r a t -i n g s on t h i s t r a i t , i t i s obvious t h a t some teache r s have observed b e h a v i o r such as would enable them to g i v e a r a t i n g . Not a l l t e a c h e r s , however, were ex-pected to be a b l e to r a t e a l l t r a i t s . The c r i t i c i s m s of the t r a i t s i n g e n e r a l were as f o l l o w s : -Teacher "N": "What i s the d i f f e r e n c e between 'p o i s e ' and ' s o c i a b i l i t y ' ? Can ' d e p e n d a b i l i t y ' and 'indus-t r y ' be separated? 'Industry' depends on i n t e l l i g e n c e and m a t u r i t y . Answer: Experience has shown t h a t the teachers can d i f f e r e n r t i a t e between 'poise' and ' s o c i a b i l i t y ' , and between ' d e p e n d a b i l i t y ' and ' i n d u s t r y ' . The l a s t statement t h a t ' i n d u s t r y ' depends on I n t e l l i g e n c e and maturity needs s u b s t a n t i a t i o n . Could i t n o t be t h a t i n d u s t r y w i l l i n d i c a t e m a t u r i t y and i n t h i s way t h i s s c a l e w i l l g i v e an. i n d i r e c t r a t i n g on 'maturity'? M a t u r i t y i s r e l a t e d to c o n s i s t e n c y of b e h a v i o r and to an i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y (24). Teacher "N": Suggests an improvement I n the wording of the l a s t step of 'poise'; namely, "shows good humour and s e l f - c o n t r o l under t r y i n g circumstances' 1. Answer: Suggestion accepted i n part, Teacher " I " : "In the t r a i t ' a l e r t n e s s ' there should be a p l a c e f o r the i n t e l l i g e n t b u t l a z y student." Answer: Both of these f a c t s can be i n d i c a t e d i n the present form. Teacher "K": "Add a t e n t h t r a i t , ' i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s g e n e r a l l y ' . I s c a l l o u s too strong a word i n the second step of No. 4?" Answer: T h i s a d d i t i o n a l t r a i t f o c u s s e s a t t e n t i o n on a p a r t i -c u l a r f i e l d of i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than on a t r a i t . I f - 98 -t h i s were i n c l u d e d , i t would open up the q u e s t i o n of adding r a t i n g f o r i n t e r e s t i n music, a r t , and so on. The word, c a l l o u s , i s used c o r r e c t l y . Teacher "F": Answer: Answer: "I don't f e e l t h a t my c o n t a c t s w i t h most of the students put me i n a p o s i t i o n to make a f a i r estimate f i r s t hand. A l l I can do Is r a t e ac-cording to classroom behavior which may not c o i n c i d e with b e h a v i o r t r a i t s o u t s i d e i n No. 2 to No. 5 e s p e c i a l l y . Numbers 7 to 9 seem more' In keeping w i t h my experience with the student" Your c r i t i c i s m of the t r a i t s 2 to 5 i s w e l l taken. I t r y to overcome t h i s weakness by a v e r a g i n g the ratings by s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s each y e a r . By end of grade twelve each p u p i l w i l l have had from n i n e to e i g h t e e n r a t -i n g s . For your s a t i s f a c t i o n I can assure you that your r a t i n g s correspond c l o s e l y with those of other c o n s c i e n t i o u s r a t e r s . Teacher "-L": "The p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r t t r a i t s i n t h i s l a s t p l a n are s u p r i o r to the e a r l i e r ones I b e l i e v e . N.B. ' I n d u s t r y 1 : Works s l o w l y ; g i v e s up e a s i l y , haphazard, accomplishes l i t t l e . (Works s l o w l y ) and (accomplishes l i t t l e ) are uneasy b e d f e l l o w s but I don't know y e t how t o suggest an improvement u n l e s s the (works slow-l y ; i s a p p l i c a b l e f r o m two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view; t h a t i s , 1. w i l l i n g n e s s but temperament-a l l y slow,-2. slow on account of l a c k of c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Again ' a l e r t n e s s 1 : ( l e a r n s s l o w l y ) and (short i n t e r e s t span) are not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e a t the same time. I suppose' t h a t both of these c r i t i -cisms are somewhat the same i n a p p l i c a t i o n . Sorry to be so slow i n r e t u r n i n g t h i s . " Thank you f o r your c r i t i c i s m s and f o r the many r a t i n g s t h a t you have turned i n . Your d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o n -c i l i n g these phrases i s a p p r e c i a t e d and I s h a l l add a sentence to the i n s t r u c t i o n s to a i d i n marking the form when these phrases g i v e pause to the r a t i n g s . The sentence i s : 'Underline the t r a i t which b e s t a p p l i e s to the p u p i l ' . Teacher "P" ."The p o i n t that w o r r i e s me i s t h i s : Is t h i s analyzed i n d i v i d u a l - when the sum of the p a r t s are made - the same as the i n d i v i -dual I had i n mind? To the s c i e n t i s t , qua s c i e n t i s t , the " L a s t Supper" r e p r e s e n t s so many square yards of y e l -low c o l o r , grey c o l o r , e t c . and nothing more. I can't h e l p f e e l i n g the same about the psycho-analyzed man - he i s merely an a g g r e g a t i o n of - 99 -numerical symbols agreed upon beforehand by^ the man who p u l l s the s t r i n g s . S u r e l y here i s an i n s t a n c e of where 2 and .2 does not make 4. I f t h i s s c a l e (or any o t h e r such) were a p p l i e d to Jesus when he was on e a r t h would i t prove h i s d i v i n i t y ? You can sense my apprehension. I am a f r a i d o f mechanistic assessments of the human p e r s o n a l i t y . These a p p l i c a t i o n s no doubt have value when a p p l i e d w i s e l y by men of wisdom but you know how soon d e g e n e r a t i o n s e t s i n , and how e a s i l y . I mean t h i s , t h i s time." Answer: I agree u n h e s i t a t i n g l y that t h i s form does not mea-sure the 'man' (1). I t s uses are l i m i t e d and must be understood by the r a t e r , the student and the counsel-l o r . By u s i n g t h i s s c a l e , we have a b a s i s , f r e e o f pe r s o n a l f e e l i n g and p r e j u d i c e , f o r e s t i m a t i n g c e r -t a i n weaknesses and st r e n g t h s of the student's personality.. Ways o f overcoming these weaknesses can be c o n s i d e r e d by the p u p i l and c o u n s e l l o r t o g e t h e r . A f t e r s e v e r a l years of making, and r e c o r d i n g r a t i n g s , we s h a l l have a c h a r t of the p u p i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y development as i n d i c a t e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e and should the o c c a s i o n a r i s e we have a r e c o r d on hand f o r r e f e r e n c e . L a t e r I p l a n to w r i t e out more f u l l y the uses of t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e and I s h a l l be p l e a s e d to c o n s u l t w i t h you then. Your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s p r o j e c t has been g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . - 100 -APPENDIX I J (This form i s not t o be shown to the s t u d e n t b e i n g r a t e d . ) PERSONALITY RATING SCALE E Student Rated by Grade Date School P e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s are u s e f u l a d d i t i o n s t o our s c h o o l r e -cords and i f r e c o r d e d a n n u a l l y w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a c h a r t showing the student's p e r s o n a l i t y development. A summary of s e v e r a l r a t i n g s may be used as the b a s i s of an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p u p i l . The r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s form depends on your f r a n k n e s s , thoughtfulnes.s, and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Com-pare the student you a r e r a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s and r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t b e h a v i o r . Under each main heading decide which one of the statements b e s t d e s c r i b e s the student. Then put an "x" i n the c e n t r a l square of the three on the r i g h t ; but i f the student i s not q u i t e equal to the statement, put the "x" In the square above; i f s l i g h t l y s u p e r i o r to i t , mark the "x!f i n the square below. U n d e r l i n e the t r a i t which b e s t a p p l i e s to the p u p i l . L. Appearance. Does he (she) make a f a v o r a b l e impression? Consider t a s t e , c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, c a r e . Is o f f e n s i v e l y groomed; shows no t a s t e ; i s o v e r - d r e s s e d . Is u n t i d y , i n d i f f e r e n t as t o appearance. Makes a f a i r i m p r e s s i o n ; i s a c c e p t a b l e . Has a p l e a s i n g appearance; i s neat, w e l l - d r e s s e d , c l e a n . I s very a t t r a c t i v e l y d r e s s e d ; e x p e r t l y groomed. 2. Refinement. Does he (she) have good manners, t a c t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n , courtesy, a p p r e c i a t i o n ? Is b o o r i s h , o b j e c t i o n a b l e , i l l - m a n n e r e d . I s t o l e r a t e d ; l a c k s t a c t and manners; shows l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n . Has s a t i s f a c t o r y manners b u t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and o f f -handed. Does and says the r i g h t t h i n g s . Has f a u l t l e s s manners: i s very t a c t f u l and a p p r e c i a t i v e . - 101 -3. S o c i a b i l i t y . I s he (she) f r i e n d l y , c o r d i a l , p o p ular, a good mixer? Keeps a l o o f ; i s tense, c o l d , o r unpleasant. T r i e s to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n ; i s an e x h i b i t i o n i s t . Is r e s e r v e d , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , shy; responds to f r i e n d -l i n e s s . P r e f e r s company; i s w e l l - l i k e d , g e n e r a l l y s o c i a b l e , agreeable. Has a n a t u r a l warmth of f r i e n d l i n e s s ; i s the centre of a group. 4. S o c i a l i t y . I s he (she) concerned f o r the w e l f a r e o f o t h e r s ; i s he s e l f i s h , s e l f - c e n t r e d ; s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d ? Uses others f o r h i s own advantage; i s e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h . I s i n d i f f e r e n t t o o t h e r s ' w e l f a r e ; r a t h e r c a l l o u s . Considers others i f t h e r e i s no c o n f l i c t with h i s own i n t e r e s t . Is s e l e c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d ; f a v o r f r i e n d s but n e g l e c t s o t h e r s . Is e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n w e l f a r e of others as of him-s e l f . 5. INFLUENCE. What i n f l u e n c e has he (she) on a s s o c i a t e s ? Consider i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s . Has no i n f l u e n c e ; no i n i t i a t i v e ; i s i g n o r e d ; i s a hanger-on.. Follows n e a r e s t l e a d e r ; o f f e r s few s u g g e s t i o n s . E x e r t s v a r y i n g i n f l u e n c e ; leads sometimes. I n f l u e n c e s thought and a c t i o n of o t h e r s ; tends to l e a d . • Moulds o p i n i o n s , i d e a l s , a c t i o n s of group; i n s p i r e s c o n f i d e n c e . - 102 -6 . Poise* Has he (she) s e l f - c o n t r o l , an even d i s p o s t i o n , good humour emotional s t a b i l i t y ? Is e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y angered, e l a t e d , depressed; l a c k s c o n t r o l . I n c l i n e d to brood over f a i l u r e s , to be over-joyed at success. Shows no p a r t i c u l a r p o s s e s s i o n of or l a c k of s e l f -c o n t r o l . Is r a r e l y vexed, e l a t e d , depressed; i s u s u a l l y c h e e r f u l Is always good-humoured; has e x c e l l e n t s e l f - c o n t r o l . 7. A l e r t n e s s . I s he (she) a t t e n t i v e , observant, able to grasp a situatibr; q u i c k - w i t t e d , adaptable, d e c i s i v e ? I s d u l l , l i s t l e s s , i n a t t e n t i v e ; misunderstands; unable to a d j u s t . Learns s l o w l y ; needs d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s ; s h o r t i n t e r e s t span. Concentrates f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s ; masters o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s . Grasps idea s q u i c k l y ; needs l i t t l e e x p l a n a t i o n . A n t i c i p a t e s needs; sees r e l a t i o n s h i p of i d e a s ; has o r i g i n a l i t y . 3 . D e p e n d a b i l i t y . - Is he (she) r e l i a b l e ? W i l l he (she) assume and d i s c h a r g e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h d e s p a t c h and accuracy? Avoids r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; i s u n r e l i a b l e ; needs constant s u p e r v i s i o n . Often n e g l e c t s d u t i e s ; has to be checked up; r e l i a b l e i n s m a l l ways. G e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e but needs some checking. Requires l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n ; can be depended upon to do h i s b e s t . F u l f i l s promises; assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; needs no s u p e r v i s i o n . - 103 -9 . I n d u s t r y . Consider His (her) d i l i g e n c e , perseverence, e f f e c t i v e n e s s , p u r p o s e f u l n e s s . Is i n d o l e n t , i n e f f i c i e n t ; has no aim; wastes time. Works slow l y ; g i v e s up e a s i l y ; haphazard; accomplishes l i t t l e . Does necessary work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; works w e l l when i n t e r e s t e d . Works q u i c k l y , e f f e c t i v e l y ; has immediate g o a l s ; ' perseveres. Goes beyond requirements; i s v e r y d i l i g e n t and p u r p o s e f u l . - 104 -APPENDIX I K May, 1947 B l , George XT Date Name Grade INDIVIDUAL RECORD SHEET FOR PERSONALITY RATINGS Rating by teacher F i n d i c a t e d by X " H " 0 " B " # T r a i t s 1 2\' 3 4 5 • 6~. 7 .8 9 10.11 12 13 14 15 Average . Rating Appearance 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 *3§ 36 40 44 48 52 52 60 32 Refinement 6 12 18 24 30 36 45 4*8 54. 60 66 72 78 84 90 48 S o c i a b i l i t y 16 22 28 34 40 46 52 58 6*4 7t> 76 82 88 94 100 70 S o c i a l i t y 6 12 18 24 3D 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 40 I n f l u e n c e 6 12 18 24 3*0 3% 42 4*8 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 38 Poise 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 6*6 72 78 84 90 54 A l e r t n e s s 10 20 30 '4?) 5D 60 70 80 90 100 310 120 130 140 150 73 Dependability 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120132 144156 168 180 60 Ind u s t r y 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110 120130 140 150 63 T o t a l of Average Ratings 478 PERSONALITY PROFILE AND DECILE RATING T r a i t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Appearance 27 31 * 36 39 41 43 46 50 Refinement 37 43 . 5 2 56 ' 60 64 69 75 S o c i a b i l i t y 52 59 64__ • 72 75 80 85 91 S o c i a l i t y 33 48 53 58 62 67 72 82 I n f l u e n c e 23 31 *^41 45 49 54 59 66 Poise 35 43 48 57 61 66 72 79 A l e r t n e s s 44 58 -^76 84 92 100 110 114 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 57«-s 87 98 107 117 127 140 157 Indu s t r y 48 69 . 76 83 90 97 106 118 T o t a l 424 * ^503 >544 587 626 666 709 749 828 9.9 (N.B.: Score g i v e n i s the upper l i m i t of each d e c i l e ; t h e r e -f o r e p l a c e the average f o r each t r a i t on the h i g h e s t number which i t does not exceed.) - 105 -APPENDIX I I A TABULATION OF RATINGS BY SELECTED RATERS - SCALE A P u p i l 1 Teacher B G H N P u p i l 2 Teacher B G H N P u p i l 3 Teacher B G H N P u p i l 4 Teacher B G H N D e p e n d a b i l i t y D C C C B B C B C C C C B C B B I n d u s t r y E C D C B B C D C C C C A C B B Co-ope r a t i on D C D C B B C D C C C C B C B B Emotional C o n t r o l C C C C B B C D C C C C ^ B C B C Appearance C C C B B B B B D C C D B C B C Courtesy D C C B B B C D C C C C B C B B Poise C C C C B B C C' C C C C B C B C I n i t i a t i v e D C D D B B C D C C C D B C B C P u p i l 5 P u p i l 6 Pupil. 7 P u p i l 8 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher B G H N B G H N B G H N B G H N D e p e n d a b i l i t y C A D B D C D D C C C C B B A A Indus t r y B B D B D D D D C C C C B B B B Co-operation C B D B C C D C C C C c B B B B Emotional C o n t r o l C B D B C O D D C C B c B B B B Appearance • C B C C c c c c C C B B B B B B Courtesy C B C B c c c c C C C c B B B B Poise C B C B c c c c G C C B C B B B I n i t i a t i v e B A C B C C D D C C C C C B C B P u p i l 9 P u p i l 10 P u p i l 11 Teacher Teacher Teacher B G H N B G H N B G H N D e p e n d a b i l i t y D C B D C C C B D C D C Indus t r y D C C D B C C A D D D C Co-operati on D C C D B C C B D C D C Emotional C o n t r o l C C B D C C B B C C D C Appearance C C B C C C C C C C C C Courtesy C C C C B C C B. C C C C Poise C C B C C C C B C C C C I n i t i a t i v e D C C D C C C C C C D C P u p i l 12 Teacher B G H N - 106 -APPENDIX I I B TABULATION OP RATINGS BY UNSELECTED RATERS ON SCALE A P u p i l 12 Teacher D L W N P u p i l 13 . Teacher J C X -P u p i l 14 Teacher H Z K Y P u p i l 15 Teacher W N P Z Dependabi11ty B A B B C D B B C B A C D C D Industry B B B B C D B B C B A C D D C Co-operation A A B B B C B C C B B C D C C Emotional C o n t r o l A A B B B D B D D B B B D C C Appearance A B A A B C C B C B B B D B C Courtesy A A A A B D C C C B B C C B C Poise A A A A C D C D C B B B C C C. I n i t i a t i v e C B C B C D C C C C B . C D C D P u p i l 16 Teacher G J N Z P u p i l 17 Teacher I U A P P u p i l 18 Teacher G M R 0 P u p i l 19 Teacher I J W X Dependabi l i t y C A A A A B A B B A B B D C C C Indus t r y C A A A A A B B B B B C D C C C Co-operation C B A A A B A A B A B C C C C C Emotional C o n t r o l C B A A C - A A B A A C C C C B Appearance B B A A B - A B B A A B B C C B Courtesy B B A A B A A A B A A B C C C C Poise C C A A B B A A B A B C D C C C I n i t i a t i v e C A A A A A A A B A A B D C C D P u p i l 20 Teacher G J A Z P u p i l 21 Teacher I U B -D e p e n d a b i l i t y C B A A D B D Indus t r y B B B A C C D Co-operation C B A A C C D Emotional C o n t r o l B B A A D - D Appearance B B A A D B D Courtesy B B A A C C D Poise B B A A D C D I n i t i a t i v e B A B A D C D - 107 -APPENDIX I I C NUMBER OP DIFFERENT RATINGS BY EACH TEACHER FOR EACH PUPIL. Teacher P u p i l 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 120 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 P Q R S T U V w X Y Z (rio 1 2 at 1 1 on 1 2 his forir ) 2 2 2 2 (no (no (no rat in, ;hj s t orn ) rat i r a t i s KS i this "orn.) ;his J'oru.) 2^  2 2 3 1 1 3 Summary: one r a t i n g g i v e n 18 times or 22.2 percent two r a t i n g s g i v e n '52 times or 64.2 percent three r a t i n g s g i v e n 11 times o r 13.6 percent - 108 -APPENDIX I I I A TABULATION OP RATINGS ON SCALE B P u p i l 22 Teacher B G Q A P u p i l 23 Teacher Y G B P P u p i l 24 Teacher P M R* - ' P u p i l 25 Teacher D G Y -Appearance B B A A C C C+C B C C C+ C+ C+ Assurance B B B A C C C+B C- C-B C B C Courtesy B B A A C+C C B B C C • B B C+ Dependabi l i t y B A A A C+C C B C B C- A B C+ E f f o r t A A A A C C C B C D E B B B Emotional C o n t r o l - A A A C C C B A C C+ • B B C I n i t i a t i v e B B B A ' c c c c+ C-C-D C B C+ S o c i a b i l i t y C A - A C C C-B C B C- C B C + Voice and Speech B A A A C C C+B . C C B C B C P u p i l 26 Teacher U B G V P P u p i l 27 Teacher Y B G H P u p i l 28 Teacher T J G K N , P u p i l 29 Teacher P B G Y A\ Appearance B C-C B C- C+B C A B C+B ;B B C C+B. A A Assurance C+C-C-C+C C C C-B A B B B A C C B B B Courtesy C C-C B C- C-C C-D A C+A B A C+B B A A D e p e n d a b i l i t y E D C C D C-C-D D A C+A C+A C+B B A A E f f o r t E E C-C E C-C-D D A C+A C+B C+C+B A A Emotional C o n t r o l - - C C C- C-C c-c- A B A B A C+C*B A B I n i t i a t i v e - E - C-E c - c - c - c - A B A C+A C CtB'B B S o c i a b i l i t y C+C-C GuD- C C C-C+ A B A A A C+C B A A Voice and Speech C 0»C C C- C C C B B C+A B B D C B B B P u p i l 30 P u p i l 31 P u p i l 32 • P u p i l 33 Teacher Teacher Teacher • Teacher U B J P N X W - I E L Z P I E L Z N Appearance B B C B C+ Ci c+ B B B A A CfC+A A C-Assurance A B C B D C C- B B A B C+ B A C-A C-Courtesy - C C B C C B A C+C A C+ B B B A C D e p e n d a b i l i t y - D C C D D C+ A C-C+B C+ B A C A C-E f f o r t C-E C C- D E C A C-C B C+ B A C A C Emotional C o n t r o l A C C B C-C C+ B - C B B C - C+A D I n i t i a t i v e C C C C- D D D B C C+A C+ B B C-A D S o c i a b i l i t y A B C B C-D C+ B C B A - A A C A C Voic e and Speech B B C B D C C C+- B A B B B C A C-- 109 -P u p i l 34 Teacher I E L Z P P u p i l 35 Teacher I E L Z T N P u p i l 36 Teacher I E L Z P P u p i l 37 Teacher I E L Z N Appearance B A B B A Gt O O O B Gf A A A A A C C B A B Assurance C A C-B B C C O O C + O B A A A A B C-B C+fr Courtesy B A A A A C B A B C B O B B A A B B A A A D e p e n d a b i l i t y O A B B O C O B O C O B B B A B A B A A A E f f o r t C+B O B B C B O O C O B O A A B A O A A A Emotional c o n t r o l B A A A A C B B B C O C- C+B A A B O A A B I n i t i a t i v e C C r C C+O C - C C C C+ B B A A B C C+OB B S o c i a b i l i t y C O B B - C - O C C O OC-A A - C O C C+O Voice and speech C B A B B C C - C t C+C O B A A A B C C C+OB P u p i l 38 P u p i l 39 P u p i l 40 P u p i l 41 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher I B L Z T N" I E L Z P I E L Z N I E L Z P Appearance B B B B B B B A A B A C+OB O A A A A A Assur ance B C O B C O B A O A A C+ C+ O O B A A B A Courtesy A A A A C C*- B B A A A B A B C B B C+B A D e p e n d a b i l i t y A A B A C A B B B B A C A B O B B C+OA E f f o r t B A A A C A B B B B A C A B C B B O O A Emotional control B A A A C B O O A B A B A B C A O O B A I n i t i a t i ve B O B A C O B A C B B C+B O O B B C O B S o c i a b i l i t y A B C A C C B A A A - C C O C A A A B -Voice and speech B B G A C B B A A A B O C . o c A A A B B P u p i l 42 P u p i l 43 P u p i l 44 P u p i l 45 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher I E L Z P I E L Z N I E L Z N I E L Z N Appearance B A A A A C C A A B B A A B A C C C C+C Assurance B B A A A C C+A C+B B A B C+A C-D OC+C Courtesy B B A A A B C+A A B A A A B A C C+B C+C D e p e n d a b i l i t y B B A A A A C A A A A B A C+A C- O C C O E f f o r t B C A A A A C A A A A C+A C+A C-B C-C C+ Emoti onal c o n t r o l B A A A A B B A A B A A A B A C B OC+C I n i t i a t i v e B C+B A B C+C B A B B C+C+C A C-- C-C C S o c i a b i l i t y B C+A A - C+C+B B B B B B C+B C C+C+C C+ Voice and speech B A A A B B C B B B A B B C+A C-O C+C Cf APPENDIX I I I B PUPIL BY EACH TEACHER Teacher I81 f& 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 A B • C 1 3 ni 2 1 4 3 3 2 3 4 D ' E 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 F F2 G H I ni 3 1 1 4 7 2 2 3 5. 2 1 3 4 4 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 1 4 2 2 J 2 1 K L 4 3 4 5 5 4 2 4 4 4 2 3 2 2 3 4 M N 2 4 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 0 P 8 S T U V w X Y Z n: 2 n n •h L1 LI 2 3 4 4 4 3 2 3 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 2 Summarv: one r a t i n g given to a l l t r a i t s of one p u p i l 9 times or 8.1 percent summary. one r « 6 t o ^ o f o n Q p u p i l - 3 2 t i n e s or 28.8 percent three r a t i n g s given t o a l l t r a i t s of one p u p i l 36 times or 32.5 percent f o u r r a t i n g s g i v e n t o a l l t r a i t s of one p u p i l 28 times or 25.2 percent f i v e r a t i n g s given to a l l t r a i t s of one p u p i l 5 times or 4.5 percent seven r a t i n g s given to a l l t r a i t s of one p u p i l once or 0.9 percent - I l l -APPENDIX IV A A LIST OP TRAITS ON VARIOUS PERSONALITY RATING SCALES 1. The suggested B.C. s c a l e s (A) d e p e n d a b i l i t y appearance i n d u s t r y c o u rtesy c o - o p e r a t i o n p o i s e emotional c o n t r o l i n i t i a t i v e 2. The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre, Toronto appearance emotional c o n t r o l assurance i n i t i a t i v e c o u r t e s y s o c i a b i l i t y d e p e n d a b i l i t y v o i c e and speech e f f o r t 3. The Board of E d u c a t i o n , Hamilton. p e r s o n a l appearance i n i t i a t i v e c o urtesy d e p e n d a b i l i t y i n d u s t r y c o - o p e r a t i o n 4. The Jones P e r s o n a l i t y Rating Scale d e p e n d a b i l i t y thoroughness c u l t u r a l refinement p e r s o n a l grooming and p e r s o n a l l e a d e r s h i p guidance industrious.ness a b i l i t y to g e t along w i t h mental a l e r t n e s s . others 5. The School of Medicine, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y v i g o r a b i l i t y to l e a r n appearance work t a c t i c s l e a d e r s h i p emotional balance i n d u s t r y f o r c e of c h a r a c t e r 6« American C o u n c i l on Education appearance and b e a r i n g s t a b i l i t y , emotional c o n t r o l i n i t i a t i v e and persistance p u r p o s e f u l n e s s l e a d e r s h i p - 112 -7. U.S. N a v a l Reserve O f f i c e r s , N.Nav.260 i n t e l l i g e n c e m i l i t a r y b e a r i n g I n i t i a t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n l e a d e r s h i p endurance f o r c e neatness apparent i n t e r e s t i n d u t i e s 8. U.S. Navy, F i t n e s s of O f f i c e r s , N.Nav.443a i n t e l l i g e n c e judgment i n i t i a t i v e f o r c e l e a d e r s h i p moral courage c o - o p e r a t i o n l o y a l t y perseverance r e a c t i o n s i n emergencies endurance indus t r y m i l i t a r y b e a r i n g and neatness of person and dress 9. U.S. Naval Reserve O f f i c e r s , N.Nav.137 i n t e l l i g e n c e judgment i n i t i a t i v e f o r c e l e a d e r s h i p t a c t c o - o p e r a t i on l o y a l t y a t t i t u d e to duty presence o f mind endurance i n d u s t r y m i l i t a r y b e a r i n g neatness of person and dress a p t i t u d e f o r s e r v i c e 10. U.S. Navy f o r O f f i c e r s on Shore Duty i n t e l l i g e n c e judgment i n i t i a t i v e f o r c e l e a d e r s h i p moral courage c o - o p e r a t i o n l o y a l t y perseverance r e a c t i o n s i n emergencies endurance i n d u s t r y b e a r i n g and neatness 11. M. F. M. 242 and M. F. M. 243 r e l i a b i l i t y l e a d e r s h i p sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s t a b i l i t y a l e r t n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y energy and p e r s i s t a n c e group value appearance speech w r i t i n g f a c i l i t y b a s i c knowledge of arms t a c t i c a l a p t i t u d e and teaching a b i l i t y - 113 -12. U.S. M i l i t a r y Academy. West P o i n t . p h y s i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n t e g r i t y p h y s i c a l stamina. c o - o p e r a t i o n b e a r i n g and appearance p e r s o n a l magnetism i n d u s t r y and a p p l i c a t i o n emotional s t a b i l i t y i n i t i a t i v e 13. R.C.A.F. R.211 appearance and b e a r i n g ment a l a l e r tne s s power of e x p r e s s i o n s e l f - c o n f l d e n c e I n i t i a t i v e 14. R.C.A.F. R.191 . appearance and b e a r i n g a l e r t n e s s speech co u r t e s y and co-o p e r a t i v e n e s s other i n t e r e s t s , s p o r t s , e t c . common sense, judgment energy and p e r s i s t e n c e accuracy and r e l i a b l l i t y c o - o p e r a t i on i n t e r e s t i n s t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s l e a d e r s h i p sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c e of c h a r a c t e r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e energy and p e r s i s t e n c e i n i t i a t i v e - 114 -APPENDIX IV B SCALES USING THE VARIOUS TRAITS LISTED (The numbers i n d i c a t e the s c a l e s l i s t e d on the p r e c e d i n g pages) T o t a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and mental a l e r t n e s s 4 5 7 8:,9 10 11 13 14 9 i n i t i a t i v e 1 2 3 .6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 11 judgment 8 9 10 12 4 f o r c e 5 7 8 9 10 11 6 l e a d e r s h i p 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 10 moral courage 8 10 14 3 c o - o p e r a t i o n and group value 1 3 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 10 l o y a l t y 8 9 10 3 perseverance and p e r s i s t e n c e 6 8 10 11 13 14 6 r e a c t i o n s i n emergencies 8 9 10 3 endurance 7 8 9 10 12 5 i n d u s t r y 1 3 4 5 8 9 10 12 8 b e a r i n g and neatness 7-8 9 10 12 13 14 7 d e p e n d a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y 1 2 3 4 11 13 6 emotional c o n t r o l , emotional balance 1 2 5 6 11 12 6 appearance 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 7 c o u r t e s y 1 2 3 14 4 p o i s e 1 1 assurance and s e l f -c onfidence 2 13 14 3 e f f o r t . 2 1 s o c i a b i l i t y , g e t along . w i t h others . 2 4 2 v o i c e and speech 2 11 13 14 4 c u l t u r a l refinement 4 1 thoroughness. ' 4 1 p u r p osefulness 6 1 work t a c t i c s 5 1 f o r c e of c h a r a c t e r 5' 12 14 3 sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 11 14 2 t a c t 9 1 i n t e r e s t i n d u t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s 7 13 14 3 a p t i t u d e f o r s e r v i c e 9 1 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y 11 1 - 115 -APPENDIX V A • TABULATIONS OP RATINGS ON SCALE C P u p i l 1 P u p i l 2 P u p i l 3 P u p i l 4 P u p i l 5 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher N B G N B G N B G N B G N B G Appearance C C C B A B C D D C B C B B B V o i c e , speech D D C B A B D D D C B C B B B Refinement B C C C B B C C C C B C B C B Dependabi l i t y C D C B A B C D C C A C A B B I n d u s t r y C D C C A B C D C B B C B B B A l e r t n e s s D D C B A B C C C C B C A A B Leadership D D c C C B C C C C B C C B B Poise B C ' c B B B C c C C B C B B B S o c i a b i l i t y C C c B B B C . c C C B C B B B A c t i v i t y c- C c C B B D c C D C B C B P u p i l 6 P u p i l 7 P u p i l 8 P u p i l 9 P u p i l 10 Te'acher Teacher Teacher . Teacher Teacher' N B G N B G N B G N B G N B G Appearance C C D C C C C B B C C C C B C V o i c e , speech D D D C C C B B C D C D C C D Re f i nement C C D C C C C B G C C C C B C Dependabi l i t y D D D C C C B A B . D D C B B G Indus t r y D D D C C C B B. C D D C C B C A l e r t n e s s D D D C C C B B C D E C C B C Lead e r s h i p C C D c C c C C B D D C C C D Poise C C D B C c B A B D C C B C C S o c i a b i l i t y C C D C C c B B C D C C B C D A c t i v i t y D C - C C c C C c D - D C C -P u p i l 11 P u p i l 12 P u p i l 13 P u p i l 14 P u p i l 15 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher N B • G L N J C X Z N F Z Appearance C D D B B C D B C C B B Vo i c e , speech D D D C C C E C C D D D Refinement - C D B B C E C C C C C D e p e n d a b i l i t y D D D B B C ' C B C D D D Indust r y D D D C B C C B B D D D A l e r t n e s s D D D C C C D C B D D D Lead e r s h i p D D D . B B - - C B . D D D Poise D C D B B C E C D - C C S o c i a b i l i t y - C D B B C D C B D B C A c t i v i t y D C D ' C B C - - D E C E - 116 -P u p i l 16 Teacher G J N Z P u p i l Teache • I U A 17 r P P u p i l 18 Teacher G M R P u p i l 19 Teacher I J X P u p i l 20 Teacher G J A Z Appearance B B B B A A A B A A A C C B B B A A V o i c e , speech C C A A A B A A B .A;. C D C D C C B A R e f i nement G C B A fe C B B C B . B C c C C C B A Dep e n d a b i l i t y C A A A A C B B A B C D D C C B A A Indus t r y C B B A A B B B . B B C D D D C C B A A l e r t n e s s C A A A A B B A C B C D D D C A A A Leadership' C C A A A B A A A A B D D D C C B A Poise C B A A A B A A B A B E C C C B A A S o c i a b i l i t y C C B A A B A B B A A C C C C C B A A c t i v i t y - C A A A B A - A A A D C D D C B A P u p i l 21 P u p i l 22 P u p i l 23 P u p i l 24 P u p i l 25 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher I U B B G A G B 0 P2 D G P Appearance D C C A A B C B C B D B C Vol ce, s pee ch D C D' A A . B C B D D D B- C Refinement C C C A A A C D c- B C B B D e p e n d a b i l i t y D C E' A A A C C B C C B B Indus t r y D - E ' A A A C C C ' D D B B A l e r t n e s s D C E B A B C B D D E B B L e a d e r s h i p E D D B A B C B . C D C B C Poise E - E A A A C D C C C B C S o c i a b i l i t y D C D B A B C B C C C . B B A c t i v i t y D - C A B • C - B D. D B -P u p i l 26 P u p i l 27 P u p i l 28 P u p i l 29 P u p i l 30 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher U B G P B G J G K N B G A U B J P Appearance C c D D C D B B C B C B B B B C B V o i c e , speech - c D D E D B A C A C B- B - C C B Refinement D D D D D D B B C B B B B C C C C D e p e n d a b i l i t y E E D E D D B B C A B B B D D D D I n d u s t r y E E D E D D B B. C A B B B D D D D A l e r t n e s s D D D E D D A B C B B B B D D D C Leadership D D D - D D A B C A C A B B B B B Poise - C D E D - B B B A C . B B B B B C S o c i a b i l i t y C C D E C - B B B A C B B* B A C C A c t i v i t y - c D - - - A A B A C B B B B B -- 117 -P u p i l 31 P u p i l 32 P u p i l 33 P u p i l 34 P u p i l 35 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher N X I L Z P I L Z N I L Z P I L Z N Appearance B C B C. A B B D B C B B C B - C C C V o i c e , speech D D ' C C C C C D C C C D C C - D C C Refinement C C C D C C B B B C C B C C - C C C Dependabi l i t y D D C D C D A C B C B C C C - C B c Indus t r y D D C D B D B C B C C C C B - C B c A l e r t n e s s D E C D C C B C A C C D C' B - D C c Leadership D D C C C D A C A - D D D C - D C c Poise - D C - C D A C A - C C C B - C C c S o c i a b i l i t y D D C C A C A B A B C C C B - D C c A c t i v i t y D D C C C - ' A C A B C D C - - D C c P u p i l 36 P u p i l 37 P u p i l 58 P u p i l 39 P u p i l 40 Teache r teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher I L Z P I L z N I L Z7 N I L z p - L Z N Appearance B A A B C B B B A B B C B B B B B B C Voice., speech C A A B C C B A B C B B C D B B C C C Ref I neme nt C C B B B B B B B B B B C C B B C C C Dependabi l i t y B C A B A B A A A B A B B C B B C C C Industry B C A C. A C A A A C A B B C B A c C c A l e r t n e s s B B A B B C B A B C A B B D B A • 0 C c Leadership B B A B C D C B B D A C B D B C D C c Poise D C B B B C B B B C B B B C B B C C c S o c i a b i l i t y C B B 3 C D D B A D B B B C A B D C c A c t i v i t y B C A - C D C B A D A B B C B D C c .Pupil 41 P u p i l 42 P u p i l 43 P u p i l 44 P u p i l 45 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher I L Z P I L Z P I L Z N 'I L Z N I L z N Appearance A A A B B A B B C B B B B B B B C C B' C V o i c e ; speech B C C B C C B C C C B A . B C C A D D C C Refinement B C C B B B A B B B B B B B C B C C c c D e p e n d a b i l i t y A D C B B B A B B B A A A A C A D D c c Indus t r y B\D C B C C A C B C A B A B B A D D c c A l e r t n e s s B D B B B B A C C B A B B B B A D D D c L e a d e r s h i p C C B B C C A C C C A C B C C B D D C c Poise A C B B B B A B B B A B B B c A C C C c S o c i a b i l i t y A B A B B C A B C C B B B C c B C C C c A c t i v i t y B C B - C C B - C D C B B C c B D D C c - 118 -APPENDIX .V B NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES BY EACH TEACHER FOR EACH. PUPIL P u p i l ~T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Teacher A B C D E F F2 G H K M N 0 3" 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 u w 3 4 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 - 119 -APPENDIX VI A TABULATION OP RATINGS ON SCALE D P u p i l 1 P u p i l 2 P u p i l 3 P u p i l 4 P u p i l 5 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher N B G N B G N G N B G N B G Appearance B B C A A B B C B B B C B B Refineme nt B C C B A C B C B B B B B B S o c i a b i l i t y A : B - B B B B C B B C B B B S o c i a l i t y - - - — B - C - - - - - B -I n f l u e n c e D E D B C — C D C C - B C Poise B C C B A - B B B B B - C B A l e r t n e s s D D D A B - - C B B B - B B D e p e n d a b i l i t y C E C B B - - c' A B C - C B In d u s t r y D E D B A - C D B B C - C B 0 P u p i l 6 Teacher N B G P u p i l 7 Teacher N B G P u p i l 8 Teacher N B G P u p i l 9 Teacher N:' B - G : P u p i l 10 Teacher N B G Appearance C B C B B C Refinement C B C B B C S o c i a b i l i t y B B C B D C S o c i a l i t y - - - - - -I n f l u e n c e - E D C D C Poise - E C B C B A l e r t n e s s - E D C D C D e p e n d a b i l i t y - D C B C C In d u s t r y - E D C D C B B B B B B - B - B B C B B C B B A C B B B 'B B B B B C D E B D C - C D E D D C D C D C D E D E E D D E D C B C B ":B C B D C - C B B C B B B B B D C C c c P u p i l 11 P u p i l 15 P u p i l 16 P u p i l 17 P u p i l 19 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher N B G N P J N U A P J K Appearance C A C E C B B A A Refinement E B D C C A •. C B B S o c i a b i l i t y C B C B B " C B B A S o c i a l i t y - - - D B B B I n f l u e n c e - E D E D C B B Pois e - C C D C B B ~ B A l e r t n e s s D E D C C A B A D e p e n d a b i l i t y E E D C D A A A In d u s t r y D E E E C B B B B B A B A A A B B C B C B C C C C D C D D D C D D D E C E E E - 120 -P u p i l 20 P u p i l 21 P u p i l 28 P u p i l 50 P u p i l 55 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher J A I U J K N U J P L N Appearance B B D B B E" B B B B D B Refinement B A G C B B B 0 c c C c S o c i a b i l i t y B B D D A A A A B A B c S o c i a l i t y B B c - A B - - A - B -I n f l u e n c e c.. B E D 3 B A c B B B c Poise B A E B A A A B B B B c A l e r t n e s s B B E c B B B c D D c c Dependabi l i t y •B B E C A B A C D E D c I n d u s t r y B B D c B B B E c D D c P u p i l 34 P u p i l 35 P u p i l 56 P u p i l 57 P u p i l 38 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher L P Z N L P L N L N Appearance B c B B A B B B' B B Refinement B c A B c B B B A B S o c i a b i l i t y D C B B A B D B D D S o c i a l i t y . A - A - E — A A _ I n f l u e n c e D D c G B B D c 3 D Poise c c B B B B A • B B B A l e r t n e s s D D c B A B B B B C Dependabi l i t y C c c B c B A A B B Indus t r y C D c B B B c B B B P u p i l 39 P u p i l 40 P u p i l 41 P u p i l 42 P u p i l 43 Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher Teacher L P L . N . L P L P . E N Appearance B A C B B- • B B B B B Refinement c C B B C B B B B A S o c i a b i l i t y B B D C B B B B C B S o c i a l i t y c - c - B - A _ A _ I n f l u e n c e c . c C . D B c C c C B Poi s e c B c c E B B B B B A l e r t n e s s D C D C ' 0 D c c B A Dependabi l i t y D B c D . D c c B A A Indus t r y D B C D D c c C A B - 121 -P u p i l 44 P u p i l 45 Teacher Teacher L N L N Appearance B A B B Refineme nt B A B B S o c i a b i l i t y B A. B B' S o c i a l i t y A - B -I n f l u e n c e C B D C Poise B A C C A l e r t n e s s B A D c D e p e n d a b i l i t y A A D c Indus t r y A A D c - 122 -APPENDIX VI B NUMBER OP DIFFERENT GRADES ON THE FIFTEEN-STEP SCALE. Teacher P u p i l A B F G I J K L N P . Z 1 4 3 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 5 2 5 3 4 6 3 3 7 5 4 2 8 3 5 2 9 6 4 4 10 4 3 2 11 5 4 4 15 4 5 16 5 3 17 4 3 4 19 3 6 20 5 3 21 6 4 28 4 4 3 30 6 6 4 33 5 3 34 8 4 35 3 5 36 8 3 37 6 4 38 4 3 39 5 4 40 5 5 41 6 6 42 4 5 43 5 2 44 6 2 45 5 2 Summary: Sc a l e D No. of No. of No. of No. o f No. of No. of No. of No. of times times times times times times times times 1 grade 2 grades 3 grades 4 grades 5 grades 6 grades 7 grades 8 grades g i v e n g i v e n g i v e n g i v e n g i ven g i v e n g i v e n g i v e n 5 p o i n t 15 p o i n t 2 2.7* 0 0.0% 30 41.1% 7 9.6% 30 41.1% 15 20.5% 10 13.7% 25 34.2% 1 1.4% 15 20.5% 9 12.3% 0 2 2.7% T o t a l number of grades on S c a l e D 73 - 12fc -APPENDIX VT C NUMBER OP DIPFERENT GRADES BY EACH TEACHER FOR EACH PUPIL Teacher ! i i i U P u p i l A B F G I J K L N P Z 1 4 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 5 2 2 6 3 2 7 3 2 2 . 8 2 3 1 9 4 . 2 . 3 10 3 2 2 . 11 4 3 3 15 3 4 16 3 3 17 3 2 2 19 2 3 20 2 2 21 3 3 28 2 2 2 30 4 5 4 33 3 2 34 4 2 35 2 3 36 4 1 37 4 3 38 3 3 39 3 3 40 3 3 41 3 3 42 3 2 43 3 2 44 3 2 45 3 2 - 124 -APPENDIX VII A DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E APPEARANCE Boys T o t a l G i r l s T o t a l 0 0 1 1 0 111 3 0 111 3 0 0 111 ' 3 1111 4 111 ' 3 1111/1111/111 13 1111/11 7 .1111/1111/1111 14 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/ 5 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 39 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 26 1111/11 32 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / 1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 43 1111/1111/1111/1111 64 1111/1 6 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/111 8 111 28 0 1111/1111/1 11 l l l l / l l l l 9 111 3 TOTAL 2"08" TOTAL WT 1. APPEARANCE Does he (she) make a f a v o u r a b l e Impression? Consider t a s t e , c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, c a r e . Is o f f e n s i v e l y groomed; shows no t a s t e ; i s over-dressed. 0 1 3 Is u n t i d y , I n d i f f e r e n t as to appearance. 3 3 7 Makes a f a i r i m p r e s s i o n ; i s -ac c e p t a b l e . 20 53 20 Has a p l e a s i n g appearance, i s neat, w e l l - d r e s s e d , c l e a n . 41 96 71 Is v ery a t t r a c t i v e l y d r e s s e d ; e x p e r t l y groomed. 17 17 3 TOTAL 355 - 125 APPENDIX VII B DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E REFINEMENT Boys T o t a l G i r l s T o t a l 111 1 1111/1 1111/1111 11 1111/111 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l 1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/111.1 l l l l / l l l l / l l l 1111/1111/111 1111/ 111 TOTAL 0 3 • 1 6 9 2 8 34 15 ' 37 59 13 13 5 3 2158" 1 1 1111/1 1 1111/1111/1111 .. l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l J i l l / 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111 1111/1111/1111/111 1111/1111/111 1111/1111/1111 1111/111 111 TOTAL 2. REFINEMENT. • Does he .(she) have good manners, t a c t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o u r t e s y a p p r e c i a t i o n ? Is b o o r i s h , o b j e c t i o n a b l e , ill-mannered.. 1 3 2 Is t o l e r a t e d ; l a c k s t a c t and manners, shows l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n : 7 15 3 Has s a t i s f a c t o r y manners but i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and off-handed. 22 58 29 Does and says the r i g h t t h i n g s . 66 77 26 Has f a u l t l e s s manners; i s very t a c t f u l and a p p r e c i a t i v e 27 13 6 TOTAL 355 1 0 1 1 6 1 14 24 14 29 18 13 14 8 3 147 - 126 -APPENDIX VII C DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E • SOCIABILITY Boys T o t a l G i r l s T o t a l 1 ' 1" I 1 I I 2 1111/ 5 1111/1 6 I I I 3 1111/1111/1111/1111/11 22 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 24 1111/1111/1111/111 18 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l 32 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 45 1111/1111/1111/1111/111 23 1111/11 7 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 16 0 TOTAL 203 0 1 1 1 1 111 3 1111/ 5 1111/1111/111 13 1111/111 8 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111 14 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 111 28 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 25 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1 6 1111/1111/ 10 111 3 TOTAL 1T7 3. SOCIABILITY Is lie (she) f r i e n d l y , c o r d i a l , popular, a. good mixer? Keeps a l o o f ; i s ten s e , c o l d , or unpleasant. .1 2 3 T r i e s to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n ; i s an e x h i b i t i o n i s t . 8 11 16 Is r e s e r v e d , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , shy responds to f r i e n d l i n e s s . 30 39 32 P r e f e r s company; i s w e l l - l i k e d , g e n e r a l l y s o c i a b l e , agreeable. 60 70 38 Has a n a t u r a l warmth of f r i e n d l i -ness; i s the c e n t r e of a group. 13 26 3 TOTAL 352 V - 127 -APPENDIX VII D DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E SOCIALITY Boys Total. 0 0 0 1 1 1111/1111/1111/11 . 17 1111 4 l l l l / l 6 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111 34 l l l l / l l l 8 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 20 1111/1111/1111/1111/11 22 111 3 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/126 1111/1111/1 11 1111 _ _ i TOTAL 156 G i r l s T o t a l I 1~ I I 2 I I 2 1 1 1111/ 5 I I I 3 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / U 17 1111/1111/ 10 l l l l / l l l l / l 11 1111/1111/1 11 1111/1111/3 11 1111 4 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 111 28 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 20 111 3 TOTAL "WS 4 SOCIALITY. Is he (she) concerned f o r the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s ; i s he s e l f i s h , s e l f - c e n t r e d , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d ? Uses others f o r h i s own advantage; i s e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h . • 1 2 2 Is i n d i f f e r e n t to o t h e r s ' w e l f a r e ; r a t h e r c a l l o u s . 2 22 7 Considers others i f there i s no c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s own i n t e r e s t . 23 44 19 I s s e l e c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d ; favours f r i e n d s hut n e g l e c t s o t h e r s . 31 33 7 I s e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n welfa r e of others as of h i m s e l f . 54 31 7 TOTAL 285 - 128 -APPENDIX VTI E DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E INFLUENCE Boys Tot a l 1111/1 11 1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l 34 1111/1111/1 11 1111/1111/1111/111 , 18 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/11 47 1111/1111/1111/1111/111 1111/1111/111 1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/111 1111/ 11 TOTAL 23 13 20 8 5 ! 2 0 T5B" G i r l s Tot a l 11 2 1111 4 l l l l / l l l l 9 1111 4 l l l l / l l l l 9 1111/1111/1111 14 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 . 24 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 11 27 1111/1111/1 11 1111/1111/ 10 1111/1111/111 " 13 1111 4 1111 4 l l l l / l l l l . 9 11 2 TOTAL 146" 5. INFLUENCE. What i n f l u e n c e has he (she) on a s s o c i a t e s ? Consider i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s . Has no i n f l u e n c e ; no i n i t i a t i v e ; i s i g n o r e d ; i s a hanger-on. 2 10 n Follows n e a r e s t l e a d e r ; o f f e r s few s u g g e s t i o n s . n 43 25 E x e r t s v a r y i n g i n f l u e n c e ; l e a d s sometimes. 42 74 34 Inf l u e n c e s ' t h o u g h t and a c t i o n of ot h e r s ; tends to l e a d . 23 33 12 Moulds o p i n i o n s , i d e a l s , a c t i o n s of group; i n s p i r e s c o n f i d e n c e . 9 11 2 TOTAL 342 - 129 -APPENDIX VII P DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E POISE Boys 11 11 1111/ 11 1111/11 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ . l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 43 111 3 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 26 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 66 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 16 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/11 12 1111 4 TOTAL 2T>3~ T o t a l G i r Is T o t a l 0 11 2 2 111 3 2 111 3 0 l l l l / l 6 5 1111/11 7 2 1111/ 5 7 l l l l / l l l l 9 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 19 111 3 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 24 l ' l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l 22 1111/1111/111 13 l l l l / l l l l 9 1111/1111/1111/1. 16 1111/ 5 TOTAL 146 6. POISE. Has he (she) s e l f - c o n t r o l , an even d i s p o s i t i o n , good humour, emotional s t a b i l i t y ? Is e a s i l y and f r e q u e n t l y anger-ed, e l a t e d , depressed, l a c k s c o n t r o l . I n c l i n e d to brood over f a i l u r e s t o be over-joyed a t success. Shows no p a r t i c u l a r p o s s e s s i o n o f o r l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l . I s r a r e l y vexed, e l a t e d , de-pressed; i s u s u a l l y c h e e r f u l , I s always good-humoured; has e x c e l l e n t s e l f - c o n t r o l . . TOTAL 12 16 62 88 24 28 349 - 130 -APPENDIX VII G DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E ALERTNESS Boys T o t a l G i r l s T o t a l 1 1 111 3 111 3 1 1 0 1111/ 5 1111/1111/1111 14 l l l l / l 6 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 25 1111/1111/ 10 1111/1 6 1111/111 8 1111/1111/11 12 1111/1111/111 13 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 24 1111/1111 34 1111/1111 9 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 18 1111/1111/111 13 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1 26 1111/1111/111 13 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l / l l l 13 1111/1111 34 1111/111: . 8 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 18 1111/1111/1111 14 1111/1 6 l l l l / l 6 1111/ . 5 1 1 TOTAL 2153" TOTAL T I B " 7. ALERTNESS. Is he (she) a t t e n t i v e , observant, able t o grasp a s i t u a t i o n ; q u ick-w i t t e d , adaptable, d e c i s i v e ? I s d u l l , l i s t l e s s , i n a t t e n t i v e ; misunderstands; unable t o a d j u s t . 4 4 5_ Learns s l o w l y ; needs d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s ; s h o r t i n t e r e s t span. 20 35 14 Concentrates f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s ; masters o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s . 25 58 27 Grasps ide a s q u i c k l y ; needs l i t t l e e x p l a n a t i o n . 39 47 31 A n t i c i p a t e s needs; sees r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f i d e a s ; has o r i g i n a l i t y . 14 19 7 TOTAL 349 - 131 -APPENDIX VII H DISTRIBUTI ON OF RATINGS OF SCALE E DEPENDABI IITY Boys T o t a l G i r l s T o t a l 0 1111/1 6 111 3 111 3 1111/11 7 1 1 1111 4 1111/ 5 1111/1111/1111/1111 19 1111/111 8 1111/1111/1 .11 1111/ 5 1111 4 1111/111 8 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ " 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1 36 11 27 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 25 1111/1111 9 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/111 13 1111/1111/1111/1111/. 45 1111/11 7 1111/1111/1 11 1111/1 6 111 1/111 8 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l 21 1111/1111/1111 14 1111/1111/111 13 11 . 2 TOTAL 204 TOTAL 147 8. DEPENDABILITY. Is he (she) r e l i a b l e ? W i l l he (she) assume and d i s c h a r g e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h d e s p a t c h and accuracy? Avoids r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; i s unre-. l i a b l e ; needs constant s u p e r v i s i o n . 6 6 8 Often n e g l e c t s d u t i e s ; has to be checked up; r e l i a b l e ' i n s m a l l ways. 9 27 16 G e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e but needs some checking. 12 63 30 Requires l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n ; can be depended upon to do h i s be s t . 34 58 18 F u l f i l s promises; assumes r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s ; needs no s u p e r v i s i o n . 14 35 15 TOTAL 351 - 132 -APPENDIX VII G DISTRIBUTION OF RATINGS ON SCALE E INDUSTRY Boys T o t a l G i r l s T o t a l 1 1 111 3 1111/ 5 111 3 1 1 111 3 1111 4 1111/1 6 1111/1111/1111/1111/1 - 21 l l l l / l l l l • 9 1111/1111/11 12 1111/11 t t 7 1111/1111/1111/111 18 1111/1111/1111/111 18 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111 24 1111/1111/1111/11 42 1111/1111/111 13 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 25 l l l l / l l l l 9 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l 19 1111/1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111/1 11 1111/1 31 1111/1 6 1111/1111/111 13 l l l l / l l l l t 9 1111/11 7 1111/1111/1 11 1111/ 5 1 .1 TOTAL SUB" TOTAL XTT 9. INDUSTRY. Consider M s (her) d i l i g e n c e , perseverance, e f f e c t i v e n e s s , p u r p o s e f u l n e s s . I s i n d o l e n t , i n e f f i c i e n t ; has no aim; wastes time. 4 8 4 Works s l o w l y ; g i v e s up e a s i l y ; haphazard; accomplishes l i t t l e . 10 30 19 Does n e c e s s a r y work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; works w e l l when i n t e r e s t e d . 36 66 38 Works q u i c k l y , e f f e c t i v e l y ; has immediate g o a l s ; p e r s e v e r e s . 28 46 24 Goes beyond requirements; i s v e r y d i l i g e n t and p u r p o s e f u l . 13 14 12 TOTAL 352 - 133 -A P P E N D I X V I I I C O M P A R I S O N O F M E A N S C O R E S O F G I R L S A N D B O Y S A P P E A R A N C E X G i r l s f d f d fd2 Boys x ' f d f d fd2 57-60 0 5 0 r • • 3 5 15 75 53-56 8 4 32 128 9 4 36 144 49-52 6 3 18 54 11 3 33 99 45-48 43 2 86 172 . 28 2 56 112 41-44 32 1 32 32 64 1 64 64 37-40 15 0 • 26 0 33-36 5 -1 -5 5 15 -1 -15 15 29-32 14 -2 -28 56 • 39 -2 -78 156 25-28 13 -3 -39 117 7 -3 -21 63 21-24 4 -4 -16 64 3 -4 -12 48 17-20 0 -5 0 0 3 . -5 -15 75 13-16 3 -6 -18 108 0 9-12 3 -7 -21 147 0 5- 8 . 1 -8 • 8 64 0 0- 4 0 -9 0 0 N 147 N 208 T O T A L +33 947 T O T A L +63 851 G . M . - 38.5 c = 53 = .22 147 M . = 38.5 * (.22 x 4) • S . D . * /947 " ( . 2 2 ) 2 X 4] * S . E . = 9.76 - .705 -/IT? 39.38 9.76 G . M . = c M . S . -J 38.5 63 = .30 208 38.5 + (.30 x 4)-- 39.7 851 - (,30) 2 x 4 > 8.0 S08 S . E . 8.0 .554 D -• 39.70 - 39.38 .32 C.R. - .52 = .357 ^ ( . 7 0 5 ) * + (.554)* - 134 -APPENDIX VI I I (CONTINUED) COMPARISON OF MEANS SCORES OF GIRLS AND BOYS INDUSTRY G i r l s Boys X f d f d fd2 X f d f d fd2 140-150 11 7 77 • 539 141- 150 1 7 7 49 131-140 9 6 54 324 131- 140 5 6 30 180 121-130 6 5 30 150 121- 130 7 5 35 175 111-120 11 4 44 176 111- 120 13 4 52 208 101-110 15 3 45 135 101- 110 31 3 63 189 91-rlOO 9 2 18 36 91-100 19 2 38 76 81-< 90 13 1 13 13 81- 90 25 1 25 25 71-. 80 24 0 0 0 71- 80 42 0 61- 70 18 -1 -18 18 61- 70 18 -1 -18 18 51-60 7 . -2 -14 28 51- 60 12 -2 -24 48 41- 50 9 -3 -27 81 41- 50 21 -3 -63 188 31- 40 6 -4 -24 96 31- 40 4 -4 -16 64 21- 30 3 -5 -15 75 21- 30 1 -5 -15 75 11- 20 3 -6 -18 108' 11- 20 5 -6 -30 180 1- 10 3 -7 -21 147 1- 10 1 -7 -7 49 N 147 N 205 TOTAL + 144 1726 TOTAL + 77 1524 G.M. - ' 75 G.M. = 75 c . L44 - .98 c , 77 , .376 14T M. -- ' 75 .+ (.98 x 10) -- 84.8 . M. = 75 (.376. x 10) - 78.. S.D. =/ • 1726 - (.98) 2 x l 0 = 32.83 S.D. »/1524 (.376) 2 x l O ? 26. v • 147 V 205 S.E. - 32*83 = 2.71 S.E. ,26.99 = 1.88 V 1 4 7 - V 2 0 5 D = 32.83 - 26.99 = 5.84 C R . i 5.84 . 1. 77 ^ ( 2 . 7 1 ) * +. (1.88)^ 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 . - 135 -APPENDIX . IX A COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND PERCENTILES' OP TRAITS 3 17 17 71 96 41 20 53 20 7 3 3 3 1 0 N 355 TOTAL f d 5 4 3 2 1 0 •1 -2 •3 -4 -5 -5 •7 -8 -9 15 68 51 142 96 -20 •106 -60 -28 -15 -18 -21 -8 APPEARANCE f d 2 75 272 153 284 96 20 212 180 112 75 108 147 64 96 1798 G.M. = 37.5 C. = 96/355 M - 37.5, + (. S.D. -y.1798 -• 27 27 x 4) - 38.58 (.27)^ x4 - 8.92 S.E. 355 8.92 P100 P 90 * 38.58 + P 80 - 38.58 + P 70 - 38.58 + P 60 = 38.58 + P 50= 38.58 P 40 » 38.58 -P 30 - 38.58 -P 20 - 38.58 -P 10 = 38.58 -- .472 Over 50 (8.92 x 1.28) = 50 (8.92 x .84) = 46 (8.92 x .52) - 43 (8.92 x .25) = 41 - 39 (8.92 x .25) = 36 (8.92 x .52) = 34 (8.92 x .84) = 31 (8.92 x 1.28) - 27 APPENDIX IX B COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS REFINEMENT X f d f d f d 2 90 6 5 30 150 84 13 4 52 208 78 27 3 81 243 72 26 2 52 104 66 77 1 77 77 60 66 0 54 29 -1 -29 29 48 58 -2 -116 232 42 22 -3 -66 198 36 3 -4 -12 48 30 15 -5 -75 375 24 7 -6 -42 252 18 2 -7 -14 98 . 12- 3 -8 -24 192 6 1 -9 -9 81 N 355 TOTAL -95 2287 G.M. = 57.5 C. - -95/355 - -.267 M. = 57.5 - (.267 x 6) S.D. - £298 - (.267)^x6 S.E. * 15.14 - .803. V 3 5 T " 5 5 * 9 = 15.14 P100 Over • 75 P 90 = 55.9 + (15.14 X 1.28) - 75 P 80 = 55.9 + (15.14 X .84) = 69 P70 - 55.9 1- (15.14 X .52) = 64 P 60 = 55.9 + (15.14 X .25) = 60 P 50 = - 55.9 P 40 = 55.9 -(15.14 X .25) - 52 P 30- 55.9 -(15.14 X , .52) - 48 P 20 -55.9 -(15.14 X .84) - 43 P 10 = 55.9 -(15.14 X 1.28) - 37 - 136 -APPENDIX IX C COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND.PERCENTILES OF TRAITS SOCIABILITY G.M. - 61.5 C. = 243 = .69 X f d f d fd2 100 3 6 18 108 94 26 5 130 650 88 13 4 52 108 82 38 3 114 342 76 70 2 140 280 70 60 1 60 60 64 32 0 58 39 -1 -39 39 52 30 -2 -60 120 46 16 -3 -48 144 40 11 -4 -44 176 34 8 -5 -40 200 28 3 -6 -18 108 22 2 -7 -14 98 16 1 -8 -8 64 N 352 TOTAL +243 2597 M. = 61.5 + S.D.=/2597 -V 352 15.72 ^ 3 5 2 S.E. (.69 x 6) (.69) ax6 - .84 P100 P P P P P P P P P 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 = 65.64 * 65.64 = 65.64 - 65.64 = 65.64 - 65.64 - 65.64 = 65.64 - 65.64 +• (15.72 x +• (15.72 x + (15.72 x +• (15.72 x - (15.72 x - (15.72 x - (15.72 x - (15.72 x 65.64 Over 85 1.28)- 85 .84)= 79 .52)= 74 .25) - 69 - 66 .2 5 ) - 62 . 52) ~ 58 .84)= 53 1.28) <= 46 APPENDIX IX D COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS SOCIALITY X f d f d f d 2 90 7 5 35 175 84 31 4 124 496 78 54 3 162 486 72 7 2 14 28 66 33 1 33 33 60 31 0 54 19 -1 -19 19 48 44 -2 -88 176 42 23 -3 -69 207 36 7 -4 -28 112 30 22 -5 -110 550 24 2 -6 -12 72 18 2 -7 -14 98 12 2 -8 -16 128 6 1 -9 -9 81 N 285 C. - 0 M. - 57.5 S.D. =/28"61 x 6 -y"""g8"5" S.E._- 19 19 1.13 V285 P100 Over 82 p 90 - 57.5 +• (19 X 1.28) = 82 p 80 - 57.5 + (19 X .84) = 72 p 70 - 57.5 *• (19 X .52) . .67 p 60- 57.5 + (19 X .25) - 62 p 50 = 57.5 r 57.5 p 40 - 57.5 - (19 X .25) = 53 p 30 = 57.5 - (19 X .52) - 48 p 20 '- 57.5 - (19 X .84) = 42 p 10 - 57.5 - (19 X 1.28) - 33 TOTAL 2861 - 137 -APPENDIX IX E COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS INFLUENCE X f d f d f d 2 90 2 7 14 98 84 11 6 66 396 78 9 5 45 225 72 12 4 48 192 66 33 3 99 297 60 23 2 46 92 54 34 1" 34 .34 48 74 0 42 42 -1 -42 42 36 25 -2 -50 100 30 43 -3 -129 387 24 . 11 -4 -44 176 18 11 -5 -55 275 12 10 -6 . -60 360 6 . 2 -7 -14 98 N 342 TOTAL -42 2772 G.M. - 45.5 c. = -42 = 342 -.12 M. = 45.5 - (.12 x 6) - 44' S. D. = /2772 V 342 - (.12) ^x 6 - 17 S. E. - 17 , .92 V 3 4 2 . P100 Over 66 p 90 - 44.8 + (17 x 1.28) - 66 p 80 = 44.8 + (17 x .84) = 59 p 70 - 44.8 + (17 x .52) = 54 p 60 - 44.8 + (17 x .25) = 49 p 50 - 44.8 45 p 40 - 44.8 -(17 x .25) = 41 p 30 - 44.8 -(17 x .52) ~ 35 p 20 - 44.8.- (17 x .84) = 31 p 10 - 44.8 -(17 x 1.28) * 23 APPENDIX IX F COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS POlSE : G.M. - 57.5 X f d f d f d 2 90 9 5 45 225 84 28 4 112 448 78 24 3 72 216 72 29 2 58 116 66 88 1 88 88 60 50 0 54 6 -1 -6 6 48 62 -2 -124 248 42 16 -3 -48 144 36 7 -4 -28 112 30 12 -5 -60 300 24 6 -6 -36 216 18 5 -7 -35 245 12 5 -8 -40 320 6 2 -9 -18 162 N 349 TOTAL -20 2846 C. = -20 = 34~9~ - .-.537 M. = 57.5 - (.057 x 6) -57.2 S.D. - /2846 V 349 - (.057)^x6 = 17.1 S.E. . 17.1 - .92 7349 P100 Over 79 P 90 = 57.2 + (17.1 x 1.28) = 79 P 80 - 57.2 + (17.1 x .84) - 72 P 70 - 57.2-t- (17.1 x .52) - 66 P 60 - 57.2 + (17.1 x .25) = 61 P 50 - 57.2 = .57 P 40 - 57.2 - (17.1 x .25) - 53 P 30 - 57.2 -(17.1 x .52) - 48 P 20 - 57.2 -(17.1 x .84) - 43 P 10 - 57.2 -(17.1 x 1.28) = 35 - 138 -A P P E N D I X I X . Gr COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND P E R C E N T I L E S OP T R A I T S X f d f d f d 2 150 7 6 42 252 140 19 5 95 495 130 14 4 56 224 120 31 3 93 279 110 47 2 94 188 100 39 1 39 39 90 27 0 80 58 -1 -58 58 70 25 -2 -50 100 60 14 -3 -42 126 50 35 -4 -140 560 40 20 -5 -100 500 30 5 -6 -30 180 20 4 -7 -28 196 10 4 -8 -32 256 N ' 349 T O T A L -61 3453 A L E R T N E S S G - . M . C . M . -S.-D*< S . E . P100 P 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 85,5 -61 ~ M S 85.5 --.174 (.174 x 10) '3453 - (,174) 2x 10 •.1.68 349 31.4 7349 - 83.7 + - 83,7 + - 83.7 + • 83.7 t - 83*7 - 83.7 -- 83.7-- 83*7 -= 83.7 -(31.4 (31.4 (31.4 (31.4 Over 1.28) .84) .52) .25) (31.4 x .25) (31.4 x .52) (31.4 x .84) (31.4 x 1.28) 124 124 110 100 92 84 76 68 58 44 A P P E N D I X I X H COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND P E R C E N T I L E S QF T R A I T S D E P E N D A B I L I T Y X f d f d f d 2 180 15 6 90 540 168 35 5 175 875 156 14 4 56 224 144 18 3 54 162 132 58 2 116 232 120 34 1 34 34 108 30 0 96 63 -1 -63 63 84 12 -2 -24 48 72 16 -3 -48. 144 60 27 -4 -68 272 48 9 -5 -45 225 36 8 -6 -48 288 24 6 -7 -42 294 12 6 -8 -48 384 N 351 T O T A L 139 3785 C M . C . M . • S . D . 96 + (.396 x 12)= S . E . -P100 P 90 5782 -351 58.88 -/35T P P P P P P P P 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 = 107.2 +• - 107.2 + - 107.2 • - 107.2 + - 107.2 ' 107.2 -- 107.2 -- 107.2 -- 107.2 -(.4)* x 12 -2.07 Over (38.88x1.28) (38.88x .84) (38.88x .52) (38.88x .25) (38.88x .25) (38.88x .52) (38.88x .84) (38.88x1.28) 107.2 38.88 157 157 140 127 117 107 98 87 75 57 - 139 -APPENDIX IX I COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND PERCENTILES OP TRAITS X f d f d f d 2 150 12 7 84 588 140 14 6 84 504 130 13 5 65 325 120 24 4 96 384 110 46 3 138 414 100 28 2 56 112 90 38 1 38 38 80 66 0 70 36 -1 -36 36 60 19 -2 -38 76 50 30 T 3 -90 270 40 10 -4 -40 160 30 4 -5 -20 100 20 8 -6 -48 288 10 4 -7 -28 196 N 352 TOTAL 261 3489 INDUSTRY G.M* C. M. -S.D. - 75.5 = 261 "3*5£ 75.5+( •A 489 352" = .74 .74 x 10) - 82.9 - (?7£) 2x 19 -S.E. _ 27.1 - 1.45 V352 P100 Over 118 P 90 - 83 + (27.1 X 1.28) - 118 P 80 - 83 - t - (27.1 X .84) - 106 P 70 - 83 + (27.1 X .52) - 97 P 60 as* 83 +• (27.1 X .25) = 90 P 50 = 83 = 83 P 40 = 83 - (27.1 X .25) - 76 P 30 83 - (27.1 X .52) - 69 P 20 - 83 - (27.1 X ..84) - 60 P 10 = 83 - (27.1 X 1.28) - 48 - 140 -. APPENDIX IX J COMPUTATION OF MEANS AND PERCENTILES OF TRAITS  T a b u l a t i o n of T o t a l Scores and D e c i l e Ratings f d f d f d 2 1000 950 11 2 7 14 98 900 1111/11 7 6 42 252 850 1111/1111/1111/11 17 5 85 425 800 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l 17 4 68 272 750 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l 22 3 66 198 700 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l 22 2 ^ 44 88 650 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1 36 1 36 36 600 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 1111/1111 39 0 0 0 550 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 28 -1 -28 28 500 1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/1111/ 30 -2 -60 120 450 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l 18 -3 -54 162 400 l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / l l l l / 20 -4 -80 320 350 l l l l / l l l l 9 -5 -45 225 300 111 3 -6 -18 108 250 1111 4 -7 -28 196 200 111 3 -8 -24 192 150 1 1 -9 ;-9 81 TOTAL 278 9 2801 G.M. - 624.5 c. - 9/278 = 1/31 - .032 M. = 624.5 (.032) X 50 = i 526.1 S. /2801 - (.032)* X 50 - ; 3.17 x 278 P 90 - 626.1 + (158.5 X 1.28) * 828 P 80 - 626.1 -t- (158.5 X .84) - 749 P 70 - 626.1 -t- (158.5 X .52) - 709 P 60 - 626.1 +- (158.5 X .25) - 666 P 50 - 626.1 - 626 P 40 - 626.1 - (158.5 X .25) - 587 P 30 - 626.1 - (158.5 X .52) - 544 P 20 - 626.1 - (158.5 X .84) - 503 P 10 - 626.1 — (158.5 X 1.23) = 424 158.50 - 141 -APPENDIX X A COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE APPEARANCE X f d f d f d 2 49-60 37 1 37 37 37-48 208 0 0 0 25-36 93 -1 -93 93 13-24 13 -2 -26 52 0-12 4 -3 ' -12 36 TOTAL 355 -94 218 G.M. = 42.5 C. =- 94 =--.26 355 M. - 42.5 - (.26 x 12) = 59.38 S.D. = /218 - (.26)* x 12 = 9.36 V 355 S.E. = 9.36 - .496 T/355 M^SS.SS S.D. - 8.92 S.E.-.472 D. = .80 C.R.* .80 = U 1 7 ^(.496)*+ (.472)^ APPENDIX X B COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE REFINEMENT : X f d f d f d 2 73-90 46 1 46 46 55-72 169 0 0 0 37-54 109 -1 -109 109 19-36 25 -2 -50 100 0-18 6 -3 -18 5# TOTAL 355 -131 309 G.M. - 63.5 C. - -- 131 355 Mg-63. 5- (131x18)- 63. 5-6.64- 56J86 355 S.D.p-/309^(15l)*x 18 - 12.21 V 355 (355) S.E.g = 12.21 = .648 ^355 Mi - 55.9 S . E ^ - .803 D = . 96 C.R. = .96 = .93 y ( . 6 4 8 ) 2 + (.803) 2 - 142 -APPENDIX X C COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE SOCIABILITY X f d f d f d2 83-100 42 1 42 42 6 5 - 8 2 168 0 0 0 47- 64 101 -1 -101 101 29- 46 35 -2 -70 140 0- 29 6 -3 -18 54 TOTALS 352 -147 337 G.M. = 73.5 C. - - 147 = - .47 352 Mg = 73.5 - (.47x18) = 65.0 S.D.2= /S37 - (,47) 2xl8 - 15.44 . V352" S.E. 2= 15.44 - .825 y3"52 Mj-65.64 S.D. 1-15.42 S.E.-.82 D. - .64 C.R. = .64 - .55 >/(.825)2+- (.82)2 APPENDIX X D COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE SOCIALITY X f d f d fd2 £3-r90 92 1 92 92 55-72 71 0 0 0 37-54 86 -1 -86 86 19-36 31 -2 -62 124 0-18 5 -3 -15 45 TOTALS 285 -71 347 G.M. .= 63.5 C. = - 71 - -.24 285 M2 - 65.5 - (.24 x 18) - 59.18 ~ 2, S S.E. 18.39 .D.p-/347 - (.24)^x18 . V 5 5 B " 18.39 - 1.09 //285 Mi=57.5 S.D. r19.0 S.E. r1.13 D. - .32 C.R.= .32 .32 = ^ 1 . 0 9 ) ^ ( 1 . 1 3 ) * T^T 0.204 - 143 -APPENDIX X E COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE INFLUENCE X f d f d f d 2 73-90 22 2 44 88 55-72 68 1 68 68 37-54 150 0 0 0 19-36 79 -1 -79 79 0-18 23 -2 -46 92 TOTALS 342 -13 327 G.M.- = 45.5 C =• -13 = -.038 342 M 2 - 45.-5 - (.058 x 18) = 44.9 S.D.o=/327 - (.038) 2 x l 8 = 17.6 V342 S.E.. .95 17.6 ^342 M1-44..8 S.D.^17.0 S.E. = .92 D - .1 C.R. = .1 =.Q7 ^ ( . 9 2 ^ - r (.~95~P APPENDIX. X F TOTALS 349 COMPUTATION OF FIVE-POINT SCALE POISE X f d 73-90 61 1 55-^72 167 0 37-54 84 -1 19-36 25 -2 0-18 12 -3 f d 61 0 -84 -50 -36 -109 fd2 61 0 84 100 108 353 G.M. - 63.5 C = -109 =-.312 M. - 63.5 - (.512 x 1 8 ) ^ 57.9 S.D. = /353 - (.312Y^x 18 -. 17.2 . . V 349 S.E. 17.2 = .92 V349" M^.57.2 S.D.^17.1 S.E.-.92 D. - ..7 C.R. = .7 «5S> V ( . ^ 9 2 ) B + (,:-92)8 - 1 4 4 -A P P E N D I X X G C O M P U T A T I O N O F F I V E - P O I N T S C A L E A L E R T N E S S X f d f d *fd2 1 2 1 - 1 5 0 4 0 2 8 0 1 6 0 9 1 - 1 2 0 1 1 7 1 1 1 7 1 1 7 6 1 - 9 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 - 6 0 6 9 - 1 - 6 9 6 9 . 0 - 3 0 1 3 - 2 - 2 6 5 2 T O T A L S 3 4 9 1 0 2 3 9 8 G . M . = 7 5 . 5 C . = 1 0 2 = . 2 9 3 4 " 9 M . = 7 5 . 5 + ( . 2 9 x 3 0 ) - 8 4 . 2 S . D . = / 3 9 8 - ( . 2 9 J 2 X 30 - 3 3 . 1 8 V 3 4 9 S . E . = 5 3 . 1 8 = 1 . 7 7 i / 3 4 9 M - L ' 8 3 . 7 S . D . 3 1 . 4 S . E . X - 1 . 6 8 D. = . 5 C . R . * . 5 - . 2 0 5 7 ( 1 . 7 7 ) 2 - * - ( 1 . 6 8 ) 2 A P P E N D I X X H C O M P U T A T I O N O F F I V E - P O I N T S C A L E D E P E N D A B I L I T Y X . f d f d . fd2 1 4 5 - 1 8 0 6 4 2 1 2 8 2 5 6 1 0 9 - 1 4 4 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 7 3 - 1 0 8 1 0 5 0 0 0 3 7 - 7 2 5 2 - 1 - 5 2 ' 5 2 0 - 3 6 2 0 - 2 - 4 0 ' 8 0 T O T A L S 3 5 1 1 4 6 4 9 8 G . M . - 90.5 C . - 146 - .416 351 M . = 90.5 + (.416x36) - 106.68 S.D. = /498 - (.416)*x36 - 40.25 V 351 S.E. - 40.25 . 2.15 V35T M ^ 107.2 S.D. y 38.88 S.E.-2.07 D. = .52 C . R . = £52 = .17 7(2.15)2+ ( 2.07)2 - 145 -APPENDIX X I COMPUTATION OP FIVE-POINT SCALE X f d f d f d * 121-150 39 2 78 156 91-120 98 1 98 98 61- 90 140 0 0 0 31- 60 59 -1 -59 59 1- 30 16 -2 -32 64 TOTALS 352 + 85 377 INDUSTRY G.M. C M. S.D. 75.5 85 - .24 352 75.5 + (.24 x 30) - 82.7 Vf 577 - ( . 2 4 ) * x 30 - 30.4 352 S.E. - 30.4 - 1.63 ~ V552 M-,/83.0 S.D. - 27.1 D. - .3 O.R. - .3 S.E.- 1.45 - .0.2 7(1.63)2+ (1.45)2 - 146 -APPENDIX XI Vancoiyer, B.C., Canada. January 10, 1948. Dear S i r : For some time now I have been working on p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e s w i t h the aim o f d e v e l o p i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d s c a l e f o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s . I have submitted the r e s u l t s of my s t u d i e s and experiments to the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia as a t h e s i s . S i n c e l h a v e made an e f f o r t to g i v e weighted values t o the v a r i o u s t r a i t s on the s c a l e i n o r d e r to make a graph of each p u p i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g , I t has been sug-gested that I should o b t a i n weightings f o r the t r a i t s from a l a r g e r number of experts i n t h i s f i e l d . Although you must have c o u n t l e s s demands on your time I hope t h a t you w i l l be kind enough to look over the t r a i t s on the en c l o s e d p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g form and to a s s i g n a value to each t r a i t so t h a t the t o t a l v a l u e of the s c a l e w i l l be 100. Attached f o r your convenience a r e : a form-l e t t e r on which you may w r i t e your weightings, and an address-ed envelope. Your c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank you. Yours t r u l y , J . S. Donaldson, B.A., B. Ed. - 147 -APPENDIX XI Vancouver, B. C.,Canada. Dear S i r : As you requested i n your l e t t e r of January 10, I • have examined your p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s c a l e . I n my o p i n i o n , s i n c e t h i s form i s to be used f o r r a t i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y of h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s , the t r a i t s should be weighted as f o l l o w s : appearance - p o i n t s refinement p o i n t s s o c i a b i l i t y - p o i n t s s o c i a l i t y - p o i n t s i n f l u e n c e - p o i n t s p o i s e - p o i n t s a l e r t n e s s - p o i n t s d e p e n d a b i l i t y - p o i n t s i n d u s t r y - • p o i n t s t o t a l 100 points. Yours v e r y t r u l y , - 148 -APPENDIX XII A TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM TEACHERS =65= CQ CO S" •P © Teachers on Magee High School S t a f f i cri © © o as i © ' •H G <W © © fi PH I -p aS - H IH rH O O & CO •p at •rl o o CO ==ar o © 3 H H © ra •rl o CM I a t» Xi -P G ^ i © rH Perl © p -p ra T3 a H Mr. W. S. A s h l e y 6 10 8 10 12 6 . 14 20 14 Mr. H. B e l l 1 5 5 10 5 2 3 5 50 10 Miss I . B o l t o n 6 9 10 16 8 8 8 20 15 Miss F. Burnham 10 10 15 10 15 5 5 20 10 Mr. R. Cameron 7 9 7 8 9 10 15 20 15 Mr. T. Chippendale 5 10 15 5 5 5 15 20 20 Mr. N. C l a r k 10 10 11 11 12 11 11 12 12 Mr. S. Donaldson 6 6 12 6 9 12 16 18 15 Miss E. Dow 5 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 Mr. A. C. Gauthier 10 8 . 10 12 10 • 8 15 15 12 Mr. J.' E. Giboard 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 11 Miss M. Langrldge 10 15 12 0 25 13 8 8 9 Mr. G. Ledingham 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 20 20 Mr. N. Murray 5 10 10 10 5 5 15 20 20 Mr. H. McLean 5 15 15 5 10 10 15 15 10 Mr. J . Sutherland 5 10 5 15 5 10 15 20 15 Mr. C. J . Cock 8 12 12 8 6 10 12 20 12 APPENDIX XII B TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM COUNSELLORS AND DIRECTORS OF GUIDANCE Mr. H. R. B e a t t i e Toronto Dr. M. E. Bennett Pasadena Dr. Roy G. Bose Santa Monica Dr. C. W. F a i l o r Denver Miss W. A. Hay New Orleans Mr. A. Howard Vancouver Mr. H. Johns V i c t o r i a Miss M. E. Lawrence Vancouver Major J . F. McLean Vancouver Miss I . S t o r y Vancouver Miss„J. S t o r y Vancouver Mr. B. E. Wales 6 9 10 12 9 10 11 18 15 5 5 10 15 15 5 15 15 15 20 6 5 . 14 10 7 8 18 12 8 7 8 12 12 5 8 20 20 12 10 ' 10 10 12 13 13 10 10 10 10 15 15 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 9 9 14 10 14 14 14 10 12 13 12 10 10 10 13 10 6 6 10 7 16 7 16 16 16 8 15 9 16 6 8 12 17 9 10 15 10 20 10 5 10 15 5 10 10 10 15 15 15 5 10 10 - 149 -APPENDIX XII C TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM PROFESSORS OF CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES i u as © co o < i CD C -P • r l Pi < H © © fi K I -p as «-i •H H o ^ 0 . 0 CO -p as o o CO Influence Poise Alertness Depend-ability Industry 10 10 15 10 15 5 15 15 15 15 16 7 10 18 13 10 15 10 15 15 10 10 10 15 8 12 6 12 15 12 10 12. 10 12 10 13 13 9 9 10 9 14 11 12 .12 10 14 9 14 8 5 15 10 15 10 20 5 5 15 10 10 10 10 15 15 10 12 15 15 10 5 10 10 15 15 10 12 12 12 10 11 - 14 9 14 12 Dr. W. G. B l a c k 5 10 10 15 U.B.C. Dr. J . E. Ewing 5 10 5 15 V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e Dr. R. W. B. Jackson 6 5 5 20 • O.C.E. Mr. J . D. Ketchum 5 5 10 15 Tor onto Dr. S. R. Lay cock 9 12 11 15 Saskatchewan Dr; M. E. L a z e r t e 8 10 10 15 A l b e r t a Dr. R, B. Liddy 10 12 12 12 Western A s s o c i a t e A 10 10 13 13 Western A s s o c i a t e B 11 . 9 11 11 Western A s s o c i a t e C 6 14 11 14 Western A s s o c i a t e D 10 15 15 . 5 Western Dr. J . A. Long. 5 10 15 15 0 C E Dr. M ! V . * M a r s h a l l 7 8 10 15 Acadia Dr, D. E. Smith 5 6 12 15 A l b e r t a Dr. L. Ml Thompson 15 15 5 10 New Brunswick Dr. F..T. T y l e r 10 12 12 10 U.B.C. Dr, H. W. Wright 8 8 10 14 Manitoba - 150 -APPENDIX XII D TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM PROFESSORS OF AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES H +T o fl <D CO A CO •p O CO t» as . fi •H fl CO i t» U CO • -p H CO ' f l •d -P -P 3 c a) TH at CO -p fl TH COCO •H TH rH to u CO r-i ft <in o <W CO ft.H -CS ft CO O o fl o H CO .Q fl < PEJ C  . CO H PH < O as H Dr. A. S. B a r r 10 10 7 8 15 10 15 10 15 Wisconsin t Dr. H. E. B u r t t Ohio.State 5 10 15 10 15 10 15 10 10 Dr. F. S. E n d i c o t t Northwestern 5 10 15 10 20 5 10 15 10 Dr. J . S. F u l c h e r Brown 5 10 15 15 10 10 10 15 10 Dr. N.' L. Gage Purdue 5 5 15 20 10 5 15 15 10 Dr. A. I . Gates Columbia 5 5 5 5 15 5 30 5 25 Dr. Hugh Hartshorne Yal e . 5 5 5 25 5 5 . 10 25 15 Dr. David Jackey U.C.L.A. 15 10 5 5 5 10 10 20 20 Dr. Arthur J . Jones Penns y l v a n i a 9 6 9 18 8 11 . 15 . 12 12 Dr. H. D. K i t s o n Columbia 10 5 5 10 10 5. 15 10 20 Dr. P. H. Landis 7 5 15 15 10 10 8 15 '15 Washington State Dr. H. S. L a h g f e l d P r i n c e t o n 8 12 9 11 12 11 14 12 11 Dr. E. A. Lee U.C.L.A. 10 10 10 10 . 15 • 10 10 15 10 Dr. H. B. McDaniel S t a n f o r d 5 5 15 10 10 5 20 20 10 Dr. Quinn McNemar S t a n f o r d • 15 2 10 10 3 5 15 20 20 Dr. H. H. Remmers Purdue 7 8 10 15 15 10 10 15 10 Dr. L. H. S h a f f e r Columbia 3 2 10 25 15 10 10 15 10 Dr. H. A. Spindt B e r k l e y 5 10 10 10 5 10 10 20 20. Dr. Ruth Strang Columbia 5 10 5 15 10 10 10 15 10 Dr. Louis P. Thorpe U.C.L.A. 10 10 40 10 5 5 5 5 10 Dr. E. G. Williamson Minnesota . 5 5 25 15 15 10 5 10 10 mm 10 10 10 15 10 10 10 15 10 Washington - 151 -APPENDIX XII E TABULATION OF WEIGHTINGS RECEIVED FROM PERSONNEL WORKERS i u OS © © O as < i © <M © © s i -P OS .rl •rl rH O TH O £> CO +3 CS o o CO ~TD 03 O ra >» g © 1 -P fn © T5 Ti +3 3 © -P C rH 0} r-i © »rl 3 <i-H •rl © •o o © OS C H PM < o • H Dr. R. J . Dryden 7 10 8 6 10 11 18 15 15 Dominion Bridge Miss M. J . F i t z -p a t r i c k 5 10 20 20 10 5 10 10 10 M a r s h a l l F i e l d s Mr. J . M. Korner 1 2 5 4 20 8 20 20 20 Alaska Pine Mr. R. A. Mahoney 10 12 . 8 10 8 8 8 20 16 Commerce, U.B.C. Mr. E. A. Munn 25 5 5 5 5 5 20 15 15 Safeway Stores Mrs. J . N e i l l 8 8 10 10 1 5 ' 9 15 10 15 General H o s p i t a l Miss B. Pl a n t 10 5 5 5 10 10 20 15 20 Hudson Bay Co. Mr. M. D. Whidden 13 13 10 9 7' 8 15 10 15 Vancouver Sun RECEIVED TOO LATE TO INCLUDE Dr. Welty L e f e v e r 6 6 10 20 15 8 15 10 10 U.C.L.A. REPLIES Wl THOUT WEIGHTINGS Dr. W. W. C l a r k , C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau Dr. A. H a r r i s , C o l l e g e of C i t y of New York Mr. M. D. Parmenter, O.C.E. • Dr. I . Robbins, Teacher's C o l l e g e , C i n c i n n a t t i Dr. Stevenson Smith, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Dr. M. Ri Trabue, Pennsylvania S t a t e C o l l e g e Mr. F. G. Crompton, H. R. MacMillan Export Co. Mr. 0. A. Petersen, B. C. E l e c t r i c Co. Mr. 0. E. Snead, B. C. Telephone Co. - 152 -APPENDIX XIII FREQUENCY OF WEIGHTINGS GIVEN TO EACH TRAIT AND COMPUTATION OF MEDIANS APPEARANCE x f 25 1 1 24 0 23 0 22 0 21 0 20 1 1 1.9 0 1,8 0 1(7 0 16 . 0 15 111 3 14 0-13 1 1 12 1 1 11 11 2 10 1111/1111/ 1111/1111 19 9 11 2 8 l l l l / l l l 8 7 1111/ 5 6 l l l l / l l l . 8 5 1111/1111/ 23 1111/1111/111 4 0 3 1 . 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 N 76 Mdil. - 6.5 f 5 8 - 5 5 S9 5 = 6.5+- 1.0 - 7.5 REFINEMENT x f 25 0 24 0 23 0 22 0 21/ . 0 20 0 19 0 18 0 17 0 16 0 15 1111/1 6 14 1 1 13 1 1 12 1111/11 7 11 1 1 10 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/11 27 9 1111 4 8 1111/1 6 7 11 2 6 1111/ 5 5 1111/1111/ 111 13. 4 0 3 0 2 111 3 1 0 0 0 N 76 Man. - 9.5+ 38-55 - 9.5 -<- .185 - 9.7 SOCIABILITY X f 25 1 1 24 1 1 23 0 22 0 21 0 20 0 19 1 1 18 0 17 0 16 0 15 l l l l / l 1 1 1 / 1 1 12 14 0 13 11 2 12 1111/1 6 11 1111/ 5 10 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 111 23 9 1111 4 8 l l l l / l l l 8 7 11 2 6 0 5 1111/1111/ 1111 14 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 N 76 Mdn. '- 9.5 f 38-25 - 9.5 +• .56 - 10.06 - 153 -SOCIALITY INFLUENCE POISE X f X f X f 25 11 2 25 1 1 25 0 24 0 24 0 24 0 23 0 23 0 23 0 22 0 22 0 22 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 20 1111 4 20 111 3 20 0" 19 0 19 0 19 0 18 1 1 18 0 18 0 17 0 17 0 17 0 16 11 2 16 11 2 16 0 15 1111/1111/ 15 1111/1111/ 15 1111 4 1111/111 18 1 11 14 111 3 14 1 1 14 111 3 13 1 1 13 1 1 13 111 3 12 1111/ 5 12 1111/1 6 12 1111 4 11 1111 4 11 11 2 11 1111/ 5 10 1111/1111/ i d 1111/1111/ 10 1111/1111/ 1111/11 17 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/1 26 1111/11 27 9 111 "3 9 1111 4 9 1 . 1 8 111 3 8 111 3 8 1111/1 o 7 1 1 7 1 1 7 111 3 6 11 2 6 11 2 6 11 2 5 1111/111 8 5 1111/1111/ 5 1111/1111/ 1 1 11 1111/11 17 4 1 1 4 0 4 0 3 0 3 1 1 3 1 1 2 0 . 2 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 N 76 N . 76 N 76 Mdn. - 10 . 5 1 - 38-36 Mdn. = 9.5+ 38-23 Mrln. _ Q.S + 38-30 27 ~ 10.5 + .5 - 9.5+ .58 " 9.5 + .3 - 11.0 = 10.08 - 9.8 - 154 -ALERTNESS 30 1 25 24 . 23 22 21 20 1111 19 18 1 17 16 11 15 1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l 14 111 13 1 12 1111 11 1111 10 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 11 9 111 8 l l l l / l 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 N 1111/1 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 2 19 3 1 4 4 22 3 6 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 76 Mdn. - 1 0 . 5 - + 5 8 ~ 5 7 4 - 10.5 + .25 = 10.75 DEPENDABI LI TY 50 1 25 I 24 23 22 21 20 1111/1111/ 1111/1 19 18 1111 17 1 16 1 15 :1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ 1111/ 14 111 13 11 12 1111/11 11 10 1111/1111/ 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 N Mdn. 11 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 4 ' 1 1 25 3 2 7 0 11 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 76 "i A, c. , 38-27 - 1 4 . 5 f — g g --14.5 + .44 -14.94 INDUSTRY 25 1 1 24 0 23 0 22 0 21 0 . 20 l l l l / l l l l / 10 19 0 18 0 17 0 16 11 2 15 1111/1111/ l l l l / l l l l 19 14 11 2 13 1 1 12 1111/111 8 11 11 2 10 1111/1111/ 1111/1111/ l l l l / l 26 9 11 2 8 11 2 7 0 6 0 5 1 1 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 N 76 Mdn. - 11.5+ 38-33 - 11.5 -r .625 - 12.125 - 1 5 5 -APPENDIX XIV COMPUTATION OP MEANS AND DECILES OP THE NINE TRAITS PINAL STUDY APPEARANCE X ' f d fd f d 2 x f d f d f d 2 61-75 37 1 37 37 81-100' : 46 ' 2 92 184 46-60 208 0 0 0 61- 80-169 , 1 169 169 31-45 93 -1 -93 93 41- 60 109 0 0 0 16-30 13 -2 -36 52 21- 40 25 -1 -25 25 0-15 4 -3 -12 36 0- 20 6 -2 -12 24 N 355 N 355 TOTAL -94 218 TOTAL 234 402 G.M. = 53 G.M. - 50.5 •C. = -94 = -.26 C. = 234 = .66 355 355 M. - 53 - (.26 x 15) = 49.04 M. = 50.5 + (.66 x 20) = 63.70 S.D. - /218 - (.26)2x15-11.1 S.D.= /402 - (,66) 2x 20 - 16.6 V 355 V 355 S.E. = 11.1 - .59 S • E. = 16.6 » 16.6 = .88 V355 P99-49. P90-49. P80-49. P70-49. P60-49. P50 P40-49. P30-49. P20-49. P10-49. 04-+(11.1x2.33) 04+ (11. l x l . 28) 0 4 + ( l l . l x .84) 04-t-(ll.lx .52) 0 4 + ( l l . l x .25) 0 4 - ( l l . l x .25) 0 4 - ( l l . l x .52) 0 4 - ( l l . l x .84) 0 4 - ( l l . l x l . 2 8 ) 74.90 63.248 58.36 54.81 51.82 49.04 46.27 43.27 39.72 34.83 • REFINEMENT 7355 18.84 P99-63. P90-63. P80-63. P70-63. P60=63. P50. P40-63. P30=63. P20=63. P10-63. 70+(16.6x2.33) 70+(16i:6xi.28) 70+-(16.6x .84) 70+"(16.6x .52) 70+(16.6x .25) 70-(16.6x .25) 70-(16.6x .52) 70-(16.6x .84) 70-(16.6x1.28) 102.38 84.95 77.64 72.33 67.85 63.70 59.55 55.07 ; 49.76 - 42.45 - 156 -SOCIABILITY X f d f d f d 2 X f d f d f d 2 81-100 42 2 84 168 89-110 92 2 184 368 61- 80 168 1 168 168 67- 88 71 1 71 71 41- 60 101 0 0 0 45- 66 86 0 0 0 21- 40 35 -1 -35 35 23- 44 31 -1 *31 31 0- 20 6 -2 -12 24 1- 22 5 -2 -10 20 N 352 N 285 TOTAL 205 395 TOTAL 214 490 G.M. - 50.5 G.M. = 55 C. = 205 - . 58 C. - 214 - .75 352" 285 M. - 50.5 * (.58 x 20) ' -62.1 M. - 55 » + (.75 x 22) » 71.5 S.D. = 7395 - (.58) 2x 20 - 17.60 S . D . - / 4 9 0 - (,75) 2x22= 23.65 V 352 .85 S.E. „ 17.6 „ 17.6 - .94 S.E.- 23•65 - 23.65 =1. 4 V352 18.76 V /28~5 16.88 P99-62. P90-62. P80-62. P70-62. P60=62. P50 P40-62. P30-62*. P20=62. P10-62. 10+(17.6x2.33) 10+(17.6x1.28) 10+(l7.6x .84) 10+(17.6x .52) 10+(17.6x .25) 10-(17.6x .25). 10-(17.6x .52) 10-(17.6x .84) 10-(17.6xl.28) 103.11 84.63 76.88 71.25 66.50 62:i0 57.70 52.95 47 39 32 57 SOCIALITY P99-71 P90-71 P80-71 P70-71 P60-71 P50 P40=71 P30=71 P20-71 P10-71 .50+(23. .50+(23. .50+(23*. .50 + (23. .50+(23. .50-(23. .50-(23. .50-(23. ,50-(23. 65x2. 65x1. 65x . 65x . 65x . 65x . 65x . 65x.. 65x1. 33 )^26£0 28 KL01.74 84)= 91.36 52)- 83.80 25)-7 7.40 = 71.50 25)= 65.59 52)-59.20 84) "51.63 28)=41.25 - 157 -INFLUENCE X f d f d f d 2 x f d f d f d 2 81-100 22 2 44 88 81-100 61 1 61 61 61- 80 68 1 68 68 61- 80 167 0 0 0 41- 60 150 0 0 0 41- 60 84 -1 -81 81 21- 40 79 -1 -79 79 21- 40 25 -2 -50 100 0- 20 23 -2 -46 92 1-20 12 -3 -36 108 N 342 N 349 TOTAL -13 327 TOTAL -106 350 G.M. - 50.5 G.M. - 70.5 ' C. =• -13 - ,-.04 C. = -106 - -.30 342~ 349 M. - 50.5 - (.04 x 20) - 49.7 M - 70.5 - (.30 x 20)- 64*5 S.D.-/327 - (.04)* x 20 • 19.6 S.D. - /350 - (.30) 2 x 2 0 - 19.06 Y342 V349 S.E. = 19*6 . 19.6 1. 06 S.E. = 19.06 = 1. 02 ^342 18.49 V349 • P99»49. P90-49. P80-49. P70-49. P60-49. P50 P40=49. P30-49. P20-49. P10=49. 70+(19.6x2.33) 70+(19.6x1.28) 70+(19.6x .84) 70+(19.6x .52) 70+(19.6x .25) 70-(l9.6x .25) 70-(l9.6x .52) 70-(19.6x .84) 70-(19.6xl.28) 95.37 = 74.79 - 66.16 - 59.89 - 54.60 - 49.70 -• 44.80 - 39.51 - 33.24 = 24.61 POISE P99-P90-P80-P70-P60-P50 P40= P30-P20-P10-64.50+ 64.50+ 64.50+ 64.50+ 64.50+ 64.50-64.50-64.50-64.50" (19.06x2.33) = (19.06xl.28)-(19.06x .84)' (I9.06x .52)^ (19.06x .25) (I9.06x .25)' (19.06x .52) (I9.06x .84) (19.06x1.28)' 108.90 88.90 80..5I 74.41 69.26 64.50 5 9..74 54 ..51 48 ..49 40..10 - 158 -ALERTNESS X f d f d f d 2 89-110 40 2 80 160 67- 88 117 1 117 117 45- 66 110 0 0 • 0 23- 44 69 -1 -69 69 1- 22 13 -2 -26 52 N 349 TOTAL" 102 398 G.M. - • 55. C. = 102 - .29 34"§ M. = 55 +• (.29 x 22) = 61.38 S.D.=/398 - (.29)2 x 22 - 20.6 V349 S.E. = 20.6 = 20.6 - 1.10 ^ 3 4 9 18.68 P99-61 P90=61 P80-61 P70-61 P60-61 P50 P40-61 P30-61 P20=61 P10=61 .38+(20. .38+(20. .38+(20. *38 + (20. .38+(20, .38-(20. .38-(20. .38-(20. .38- (20.. 6x2*33) 6x1*28) 6x .84) 6x *52) 6x .25) 6x .25) 6x .52) 6x .84) 6x1.28) 109*38 87.75 78.68 72*09 66.53 61.38 56.23 50.67 44.08 35*01 DEPENDABILITY 121-150 64 91-120 110 61- 90 105 31- 60 52 1- 30 20 N TOTAL 351 d f d fd2 2 128 256 1 110 110 0 0 0 -1 -52 52 -2 -20 40. 166 458 = .47 G.M. - 75.5 C. . 166 351 M. = 75.5 + (.47 x 30) S.] 3BT S.E. = 30.9 - 1.65 D._- /458 - (,47) 2x 30 89.70 30.9 ^ 3 5 1 P99-P90^ P80* F70-P60= P50 P40-P30-P20* P10= 89.70+ 89.70^ 89.70+ 89.70+ 89.70+ 89.70-89.70-89.70-89.70-(30.9x2.33) (30.9x1.28) (30.9x .84) (30.9x .52) (30.9x .25) (30.9x .25) (30.9x .52) (30.9x .84) (30.9x1.28) 161.70 129.25 115.66 105.77 97.43 89.70 81.97 73.63 63.74 50.15 - 159 -INDUSTRY X f d f d f d 2 97-120 39 2 78 156 73- 96 98 1 98 98 49- 72 140 0 0 0 25- 48 59 -1 -59 59 1- 24 16 -2 -32 64 N 352 TOTAL 85 377 G.M. * 50.5 G. =. 85 = .24 M. - 50.5 + (.24 x 24) - 56.30 S.D.- /377 - (.24)*" i i .24 - 24.14 Y 352" S.E. , 24.14 m 24.14 , 1.29 /352 18.76 P99= 56,30 +(24.14 x 2.33) = 112.54 P90 = 56.30 +• (24.14 x 1.28) - 87.20 P80- 56.30 + (24.14 x .84) - 76.58 P70 = 56.30 t (24.14 x .52) - 68.85 P60 - 56 . 30 + (24.14 x .25) - 62.33 P50 - 56.30 P40 = 56.30 - (24.14 x .25) - 50.27 P30 - 56.30 - (24.14 x .52) = 43.75 P20 - 56.30 - (24.14 x .84) - 36.02 P10- 56.30 - (24.14 x 1.28) = 25.40 - 160 -APPENDIX XIV FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SCORES - FINAL STUDY X f f d f d f d 2 951- 1000 1 l 8 • 8 64 901- 950 1 l 7 7 49 851- 900 l l l l / l l l l / l n 6 66 396 801- 850 l i i i / i i i i / i i i i / i i i . . : . 18 ' 5 90 450 751- 800 l i i i / i i i i / i i i i / i i n / i 21 4 84 336 701- 750 l i i i / i i i i / i i i i / i i i i / n i i / l 26 3 78 234 651- 700 l i i i / i i i i / i i i i / i i i i / n i i 24 2 48 96 601- 650 l i i i / i i i i / i i i i / i i i i / n i i / l i i i / i i i i / i n i 39 1 39 39 551- 600 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / • l i i i / i i i i / i i n / i 41 0 0 0 501- 550 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 / n i l / n i l / 35 -1 -35 35 • 451- 500 l i i i / i i i i / i i i i / i i n / i 21 -2 -42 84 401- 450 . l i i i / i i i i / i i i i / i n 18 -3 -54 162 351- 400 l i i i / i i i i / i i 12 -4 -48 96 301- 350 n i l / 1 6 -5 -30 150 251- 300 n i l / 5 -6 -30 180 201- 250 n 2 -7 -14 98 151- 200 l 1 -8 -8 64 101- 150 0 N 282 TOTAL 159 2533 G.M. ~ 575 C. - 159 - .564. 2 §2 M. - 575 » (.564 x 50) - 603.20 S.D. = /2535 -(.564)*x 50 - 147.0 S.E. B 147.0 - 8.75 V282" P99 - 603.20 t (147.0x2.33) - 945.71 P90- 603.20 +• (147.0x1.28) - 791.36 P80 - 603.20 +(147.Ox .84) - 726.68 P70 - 603.20 -r (147.Ox .52) - 679.64 P60-603.20 +(147.Ox .25) - 639.95 P50 = 603.20 P40 = 603.20 - (147.Ox .25) - 566.45 P30 - 603.20 - (147.Ox .52) - 526.76 P20 - 603.20 -(147.Ox .84) - 479.72 P10 -603.20 -(147.0x1.28)= 415.0 - 161 -APPENDIX XV May, 1947 B l - - — G e o r g e 12 XI Date Name C l a s s Grade INDIVIDUAL RECORD SHEET FOR PERSONALITY RATINGS Ratings by: 1 4 2 5 ' 3 6 Steps on Scale Appearance Refinement Sociability Sociality Influence Poise Alertness Dependabi lity Industry 1 5 6 6 7 6 6 7 10 8 2 10 12 12 14 12 12 14 20 16 3 15 18 18 21 18 18 21 •30 24 4 20 27 27 30 27 27 "30 40 «32 5 25 °33 33 J 3 7 •o 33 33 37 K 50 40 6 30 39 39 .44 x 39 39 44 60 48 7 35 47 47 52 47 47 52 ^ 70 »56 8 |40 /53 53 59 / 53 £ 5 3 59 80 ^64 9 45 59 r*59 66 59 59 £ 66 90 72 10 50 67 x 67 K 74 67 67 74 100 80 11 55 * 73 * 73 81 73 v 73 81 110 88 12 60 79 79 88 79 79 88 120 96 13 65 88 88 96 88 88 96 130 104 14 70 94 94 103 94 94 103 140 112 15 75 100 100 110 100 100 110 150 120 Average of r a t i n g s 40 53 66 49 42 60 54 50 51 I n s t r u c t i o n s : When s e v e r a l r a t i n g s of a p u p i l have been r e -ce i v e d , mark on the above c h a r t the steps of the v e r t i c a l continuums checked by the r a t e r s . Average the va l u e s for each t r a i t and w r i t e these v a l u e s i n the proper columns. T r a n s f e r the averages to the p r o f i l e graph on the next sheet. - 162 -APPENDIX XVI B l , George XI Name Grade PERSONALITY PROFILE AND DECILE RATING T r a i t s Anoearance D e c i l e s 1 —7*5" 2 — * f V -3 4 46 5 49 6 52 7 55 8 58 9 63 9 .9 75 « A fiJ *W %am ^  \£ \f Refinement —42- —50- —5 3 60 ' Ti7V 64 an 72 "71 78 W W 85 o c 102 ATT-_ >*- ft* S o c i a l i t y 41 — f i R 59 66 72 7*i f 1 X 84 / 1 91 o O 102 xuo 127 I n f l u e n c e —95- —33- —46- 45 50 55 60 66 75 95 n r v Poise —w-—48- —55- — £ 0 - 65 69 74 81 89 109 A l e r t n e s s 44 b i _ t 6 61 67 72 79 88 109 D e p e n d a b i l i t y I n d u s t r y TOTAL —50-—25--41S-6 — & 4 6 -74 527 82 —5*3-566 90 - 56 603 97 62 640 106 69 680 116 77 727 129 87 791 162 113 946 I n s t r u c t i o n s : S ince the score g i v e n i n the form above i s the upper l i m i t of each d e c i l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to es t imate the pos i -t i o n i n the d e c i l e ...of the average of each t r a i t (See p r e v i o u s page) . The widths of the bars are p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the w e i g h t -i n g s of the t r a i t s . May, 1947 Date - 163 -APPENDIX XVII LIST OP PUPILS RATED ON PERSONALITY RATING SCALES A, B, C AND D AND THEIR. CORRESPONDING NUMBERS. 1., Robert Speed 24. Warwick H a r r i s o n 2. L l o y d Thomson 25. Dennis H i l l - t o u t 3. Robert Wilson 26. Kerry Park 4. John McGregor 27. John Jose 5. Don Paine 28. Hugh Ross 6. Tremaine P e r r y 29. Ron T a y l o r 7. Mervyn P h i l l i p s 30. Norman Watt 8. Edmund As h l e y 31. Gordon Winter 9. A r t A t k i n s 32. Joan Acteson 10. E r n e s t Hogg 33. Audrey Bur l e y 11. Tom Murray 34. B e v e r l e y Campbell 12. Joan T a y l o r 35. Janet Dobson 13. R o u e l l a T r e f r y 36. Kay Eastwood 14. Mary Pipher 37. B e v e r l e y Fowler 15. June T a r l i e r 38. C l a r e French 16. Mary Minchin 39. Jenda H i l l i e r 17. W i l l a MacKinnon 40. S h i r l e y Malcolmson 18. Barbara Adams 41. Margaret MacCorkindale 19. B e t t y Carnsew 42. S h i r l e y Osterhout 20. Nan Hardie 43. L o r r a i n e PLaskett 21. E v e l y n Lumbard 44. Doreen Shockley 22. A l l a n Binns 45. Yvonne S i l k 23. Douglas F r a n k l i n - 164 -APPENDIX XVIII LIST OP RATERS FOR THIS STUDY I. Teachers o f Magee High I School, Vancouver, B.C. A. Mr. Ashley N. Miss Langridge B. Mr. B e l l 0. Mr. Ledingham C. Miss B o l t o n P. Mr. Murray D. Miss Buckland G> Mr. McCartney E. Miss Bumham R. Mr. McLean F. Mr. Cameron S. Mr. P a i n t e r F2. Mr. Chippendale T. Mr. Poole .0. Mr. C l a r k U. Miss Portsmouth H. Mr. Donaldson V. Mr. Smith I . Miss Dow W. Mr. S u t h e r l a n d J . Mr. G a uthier X. Mr. Templeton. K. Mr. Gibbard Y. Mr. Thomas L. Miss Gibbon Z. Miss Wilcox M. Mr. King a. Mr. Cock I I . . Te'adheirs of Other High Schools, Vancouver, B.C. 1. Mr. A.J.Dodd, Lord Byng 2. Miss M.E.Lawrence, Lord Byng 3. Miss J.Casselman, K i t s i l a n o 4. Miss B.Lamb, K i t s i l a n o 5. Miss L.Cope, K i t s i l a n o 6. Mr. A.M.Howard, King Edward 7. Miss M.E.Lawrence, Lord Byng 8. Miss J.M.Story, K i t s i l a n o 9. Miss I . S t o r y , Point Grey 10. Mr. B.Wales, K i t s i l a n o - 165 -APPENDIX XIX... PERSONALITY RATING CARD OP AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION DESCRIPTION OP BEHAVIOR (made by a l l those who have had s u f f i -c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to observe the pupil) .. Key•to persons making the d e s c r i p t i o n s below: Ad-Advisor, Ag-A g r i c u l t u r e , A r - A r t s , D-Dramatics, E - E n g l i s h , P-Prench,. G-German,HR-Home Room teacher, HE-Home Economics, L - L a t i n , M-Mathematics, MU-Music, NS-Natural S c i e n c e , S S - S o c i a l S c i e n c e ; Others. RESPONSIBILITY Responsible and R e s o u r c e f u l : C a r r i e s through whatever i s undertaken, and a l s o shows i n i t i a t i v e and v e r s a t i l i t y i n accomplishing and e n l a r g i n g upon und e r t a k i n g s . C o n s c i e n t i o u s : Completes without e x t e r n a l compulsion whatever i s a s s i g n e d but i s un-l i k e l y to enlarge the scone of assignments. G e n e r a l l y Dependable: U s u a l l y c a r r i e s through undertakings, self-assumed or assigned by ot h e r s . R e q u i r i n g o n l y o c c a s i o n a l reminder or compulsion. S e l e c t i v e l y Dependable: Shows h i g h p e r s i s t -ence i n undertakings i n which there i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , but i s l e s s l i k e l y to c a r r v through other assignments. U n r e l i a b l e : Can be r e l i e d upon t o complete undertakings o n l y when they are o f moderate d u r a t i o n or d i f f i c u l t y and then o n l y w i t h much prodding and s u p e r v i s i o n . I r r e s p o n s i b l e : Cannot be r e l i e d upon to com-p l e t e any undertakings even when c o n s t a n t l y prodded and guided. CREATIVENESS G e n e r a l : Approaches whatever he does w i t h a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n and o r i g i n a l i t y , so t h a t he c o n t r i b u t e s something t h a t i s h i s own. S p e c i f i c : Makes d i s t i n c t l y o r i g i n a l and s i g n i -f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n one or more f i e l d s . Promising: Shows a degree of c r e a t i v e n e s s t h a t i n d i c a t e s the l i k e l i h o o d o f v a l u a b l e o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n some f i e l d , a l t h o u g h the con-t r i b u t i o n s a l r e a d y made have not proved t o be o a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . L i m i t e d : Shows the d e s i r e t o c o n t r i b u t e h i s own t h i n k i n g and e x p r e s s i o n to s i t u a t i o n s , but h i s degree of i m a g i n a t i o n and o r i g i n a l i t y i s not, i n g e n e r a l , h i g h enough to have much i n f l u e n c e on his. accomplishments. (Continued) - 166 -I m i t a t i v e : Makes l i t t l e or no c r e a t i v e c o n t r i -b u t i o n s , y e t shows s u f f i c i e n t i m a g i n a t i o n to see the i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the c r e a t i o n of others and to make use of t h e i r i d e a s or accomplishments. Unimaginative: Has g i v e n p r a c t i c a l l y no e v i -dence of o r i g i n a l i t y or c r e a t i v e n e s s i n i m a g i n a t i o n or a c t i o n . INFLUENCE C o n t r o l l i n g : His i n f l u e n c e h a b i t u a l l y shapes the o p i n i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , or i d e a l s of h i s a s s o c i a t e s . C o n t r i b u t i n g I n f l u e n c e : His i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e not c o n t r o l l i n g , s t r o n g l y a f f e c t s the o p i n i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s . , or i d e a l s of h i s a s s o c i a t e s . V a r y i n g : His i n f l u e n c e v a r i e s , having f o r c e when " p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y , s k i l l , e x perience or c i r -cumstance g i v e s i t o p p o r t u n i t y or v a l u e . Co-Operating: Has no v e r y d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e on h i s a s s o c i a t e s , but c o n t r i b u t e s to group t h i n k -i n g and a c t i o n because of some d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n r e g a r d to i d e a s and l e a d e r s . P a s s i v e : Has no d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e on h i s a s s o c i -a t e s , b e i n g c a r r i e d along by the n e a r e s t or s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e . -ADJUSTABILITY Secure: Appears t o f e e l secure i n h i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i s accepted by the groups of which he i s a n a r t . U n c e r t a i n : Appears t o have some a n x i e t y about h i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l t h o u g h he i s accepted bv the groups of which he i s a p a r t . N e u t r a l : Shows the d e s i r e t o have an e s t a b l i s h e d p l a c e i n the group, but i s , i n g e n e r a l , t r e a t e d w i t h i n d i f f e r e n c e . Withdrawn: Withdraws from others to an extent that prevents h i s b e i n g a f u l l y accepted member of his groun. Not Accepted: Has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of person or be-h a v i o r that prevent h i s b e i n g an accepted member of h i s group. CONCERN FOR OTHERS G e n e r a l l y Concerned: Shows balance i n c o n s i d e r i n g w e l f a r e o f h i m s e l f and others and does what he nan about i t . S e l e c t i v e l y Concerned: Shows concern by a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n about c e r t a i n problems of w e l f a r e o f persons. P e r s o n a l : Is not s t r o n g l y concerned about the wel f a r e of others u n l e s s a s i t u a t i o n m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t s him. I n a c t i v e : P r o f e s s e s concern about w e l f a r e of others but does n o t h i n g . Continued) - 167 -Unconcerned: Shows l i t t l e o r no concern f o r the we l f a r e of o t h e r s . SERIOUS PURPOSE P u r p o s e f u l : . Has d e f i n i t e purposes and plans and c a r r i e s through to the bes t of h i s a b i l i t y undertakings c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s purpose. L i m i t e d : Makes plans and shows d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n a t t a c k i n g s h o r t time p r o j e c t s t h a t i n t e r e s t him but has not y e t thought out g o a l s f o r him-s e l f . P o t e n t i a l : Takes t h i n g s as they come, meeting s i t u a t i o n s somewhat on the spur of the moment ye t may be capable of s e r i o u s purpose i f once aroused. V a c i l l a t i n g : : Makes plans t h a t are f a i r l y d e f i n i t e - , but cannot be counted on f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n to c a r r y them through. Vague: I s l i k e l y to d r i f t without the d e c i s i v e n e s s and p e r s i s t e n c e that w i l l enable him to c a r r y out h i s vaguely conceived p l a n s . EMOTIONAL STABILITY Des c r i b e t y p i c a l behavior and s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n i t w i t h r e s p e c t t o such f a c t o r s as apathy, e x c i t a b i l i t y , over-s e n s i t i v e n e s s . s t a b i l i t y .  ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ABOUT BEHAVIOR T e n t a t i v e s y n t h e s i s and suggestions f o r guidance made d u r i n g , or at c l o s e o f , each s c h o o l year. NOTES: ABSTRACT OP THESIS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OP A STANDARDIZED PERSONALITY RATING- SCALE T h i s t h e s i s i s a s tudy of the c o n s i s t e n c y and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of g r a d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y on f o u r r a t i n g s c a l e s i n an e f f o r t to obtain a r e l i a b l e , s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y r a t -i n g s c a l e . The f i r s t s c a l e to be s t u d i e d was one i s s u e d by the P r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r of E d u c a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l Guidance . The average spread of grades ass igned anyjone t r a i t by d i f f e r e n t r a t e r s on t h i s s c a l e was 1.85 s teps or 37 percent o f the p o s s i b l e . There was agreement i n 17.7 percent of the g r a d e s . I n 22 percent of the times the same grade was g i v e n to a l l the t r a i t s of a p u p i l by a r a t e r . On the second s c a l e w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d by the Toronto V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Centre the average spread of grades was 2 .2 or 43 percent of the f i v e - s t e p s and the r a t e r s agreed on the grade 15.7 percent of the t i m e s . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was v e r y good as on o n l y 8 .1 percent of the t imes was the same grade g i v e n t o a l l the t r a i t s o f a p u p i l . S ince these two r a t i n g s c a l e s were not c o n s t r u c t e d i n accordance w i t h modern p r a c t i c e , the w r i t e r d e c i d e d to b u i l d one to see i f the c o n s i s t e n c y and the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d . Fourteen s c a l e s and numerous a u t h o r i t i e s were examined r e g a r d i n g t r a i t s to be measured. The f o l l o w i n g were s e l e c t e d : appearance, v o i c e - a n d - s p e e c h , r e f i n e m e n t , dependa-b i l i t y , i n d u s t r y , a l e r t n e s s , l e a d e r s h i p , p o i s e , s o c i a b i l i t y and a c t i v i t y . For each of these t r a i t s f i v e - s t e p s were d e s c r i b e d below a h o r i z o n t a l continuum. The average spread of grades on t h i s s c a l e was 1.9 or 38 per c e n t o f the p o s s i b l e and the r a t e r s agreed on the grade a s s i g n e d 27.7 percent of the times. No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made 7 per c e n t o f the times. These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e b e t t e r r e s u l t s than those of the f i r s t two s c a l e s . As the continuum proved t o be of l i t t l e advantage, I t was abandoned i f f a v o u r o f steps w i t h a v e r t i c a l continuum d i v i d e d i n t o 15 p o s i t i o n s f o r g r a d i n g . A f t e r c e r t a i n changes to meet v a r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s were made, t h i s r e v i s e d s c a l e gave an average spread o f grades of 1.7 or 34 per c e n t o f the pos-s i b l e and the r a t e r s agreed on the grades 35.4 percent o f the times. No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made 2.7 percent o f the times. T h i s l a s t s c a l e then seemed s u p e r i o r t o any of the o t h e r s . In order to s t a n d a r d i z e the s c a l e the medians o f the weightings of 76 teachers and p r o f e s s o r s were used as the bases of the values of the t r a i t s . These v a l u e s , d i v i d e d i n t o 15 p a r t s to correspond to the d i v i s i o n s of the continuum, formed a score sheet. A f t e r o b t a i n i n g the frequency o f each grade on 355 r a t i n g s , the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were computed. The d e c i l e s cores were worked out and put i n the form o f a bar graph w i t h the w i d t h of the bars p r o p o r t i o n a l to the weightings of the t r a i t s . By marking the average score f o r each t r a i t on the graph the comparative extent to which each student possesses each t r a i t w i t h I t s r e l a t i v e importance i s shown. Th i s weighted p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e based on s t a n d a r d i z e d scores of a s c a l e the r e l i a b i l i t y of which has been v e r i f i e d i s the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . 

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