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UBC Theses and Dissertations

History and economic development of the Shuswap area Akrigg, Helen Brown 1964

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HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OP THE SHUSWAP AREA by HELEN BROWN AKRIG-G-B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1943 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the reauired standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964. A B S T R A C T HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT . OF THE SHUSWAP AREA by H e l e n B r o w n A k r i g g The p r o b l e m w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s s e e k s t o a n s w e r i s why t h e S h u s w a p r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e b e t w e e n K a m l o o p s a n d R e v e l s t o k e , endowed w i t h s o many n a t u r a l a d v a n t a g e s o f c l i m a t e a n d s c e n e r y , o f l o c a t i o n o n e a r l y w a t e r r o u t e s a n d l a t e r a r t e r i a l r a i l w a y a n d h i g h w a y s , h a s r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t i n t h e economy o f t h e p r o v i n c e . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f f i n d i n g a n s w e r s t o t h i s p r o b l e m a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y h a s b e e n m a d e , f i r s t o f t h e t o p o g r a p h y a n d t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a r e a , t h e n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h o s e who f i r s t s o u g h t t o o p e n u p t h e r e g i o n , a n d f i n a l l y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m i n i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , l u m b e r i n g and t h e t o u r i s t t r a d e . F r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r o w t h , o r s o m e t i m e s o f t h e d e c l i n e , o f t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s , m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d a s t o t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e a r e a i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e h a n d i c a p s i m p o s e d b y t h e Shuswap r e g i o n ' s d i s t a n c e f r o m m a j o r m a r k e t s , and t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d b y t h e i n h a b i t a n t s i n u t i l i z i n g some o f t h e r e s o u r c e s . B a s i c a l l y , t h e a r e a l a c k s r i c h n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s - t h e r e i s l i t t l e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ; t h e a r e a s o f a r a b l e l a n d a r e l i m i t e d and are scattered i n pockets through the region; the timber resources are not .as extensive as at f i r s t appears, vast stands of mature timber having been burned over since' settlement came into the area, and much of the remaining timber having a high incidence of disease. Both lumbering and agriculture have been handicapped by high transportation costs because of the remoteness of the area from major markets. The recent vastly increased number of tourists and summer residents i n the Shuswap area (much of i t due to the completion of the Trans-Canada Highway through Rogers Pass) i s responsible for a recent upswing i n the region's economy and augurs well for the future. The conclusion i s f i n a l l y reached that the tourist trade i s the sole a c t i v i t y which offers r e a l prospect of future development. The Shuswap country's lovely scenery, hundreds of miles of lakeshore, and fine climate have proved to be i t s major natural resource. The main d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n working on this thesis has been finding the necessary data. A certain amount of information i s available i n printed government documents - i n gazettes, sessional papers, annual reports, memoirs and reports of royal commissions. Newspapers, both early and more recent, have proved helpful, as have a few books and some theses. The resources of the University Library, the Provincial Archives, the Vancouver Public Library's Northwest Room and the Kamloops Museum were used. But much v i t a l information was s t i l l missing. To make good the deficiencies i n the printed materials, many old-timers around Shuswap Lake were interviewed and, i n a •:t-number of cases, their conversations were tape recorded. These talks were most helpful i n securing a general picture of the process of settlement and the history of various ind u s t r i a l and land settlement schemes. Extensive corres-pondence was carried on with various individuals, government departments and companies, asking for sp e c i f i c information. Much time was spent i n personally interviewing key c i v i l servants i n such sections as the Legal Surveys Division, the Water Resources Service and the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service of the Department of Lands and Forests i n V i c t o r i a . Thanks to these contacts, permission was obtained to dig deep into f i l e s at least f i f t y years old or, where the f i l e s had been destroyed, to use the microfilm copies that had been made for departmental use. F i n a l l y , a reasonably balanced and f u l l picture of the growth of the area began to emerge. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study, I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r -mission, f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that c o p y i n g or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without, my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of H i s t o r y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date May 5 , 1964 i i i Acknowledgement s It i s customary to l i s t the persons who have given assistance i n the preparation of a thesis. Because of the very nature of this one, I have been greatly dependent upon such help. Many people i n the Shuswap lake area have helped me -among them are Mr. R. Bristow of Celista, Mr. Prank Kappel of Eagle Bay, Mr. R.R. Mason of Ghase, Mrs. A. Reedman of Blind Bay, Mr. Ernest Doe and Mr. and Mrs. E. Turner of Salmon Arm. In my work i n V i c t o r i a , I was aided by Dr. Dorothy Blakey Smith of the Provincial Archives; Mr. Maurice Glover, Director of the Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s ; Mr. Alan Baker of the Legal Surveys Division; Mr. A.C. Garter, Provincial Horticulturist; and Mr. Paul Beere of the Central Microfilm Bureau. The staff of the University Library's Special Collections have been most helpful. I have been very fortunate i n having as my advisor Dr. Margaret Ormsby, a person who has a deep knowledge and love of the country, and has been most helpful with her many suggestions. Contents Chapter I II III . 1 7 7 7 1 7 1 1 The Natural Setting Page 1 The Shuswap Area before the Construction 11 of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway The Growth of Communications The F i r s t Homesteaders Development of Agriculture i n the Shuswap Area Development of Lumbering i n the Shuswap Area Summary, and the Economic Outlook 28 39 64 82 112 Appendix - Shuswap Place Names 125 Bibliography 131 Illu s t r a t i o n s 1 3 4 Map showing Shuswap area i n i v relation to Kamloops, Okanagan and Revelstoke d i s t r i c t s Topographical map (2 miles = 1 inch) 7a of southern half of Shuswap Lake Sketch map (1866) of t r a i l s from 17a Seymour City to Big Bend mines View of Shuswap Pra i r i e , scene of 2 3 a f i r s t agricultural settlement 5 7iew of Squilax Bridge over L i t t l e River 3 4 a Illustrations Page 6 View 'of Sicamous 40a 7 Map (10 miles = 1 inch) showing 44a Railway Belt boundaries from Kamloops to Revelstoke 8 land Use Map of area, 1911 48a 9 land Use Map of area, 1913 48b 10 View of lower Adams River, famous 99a sockeye spawning area. 11 Picture of Bear Creek Plume, 101a Adams River Lumber Company. 12 Topographic map (2 miles = 1 inch) 112a showing how l i t t l e of the Shuswap area has been cleared. 13 View looking north from Kualt H i l l 113a up through Tappen valley. 14 View east from Scotch Creek to 121a Copper Island. S C A L E - 1 0 Miles to 1 Inch 10 20 30 40 50 - I I I 1 1 Kilometres 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 r t = n = n — I I 1 I — I 1 1 W. R. YOUNG, CHIEF GEOGRAPHER REFERENCE Municipality—City " —District " — Town and Village Post Office Settlement Locality Government Agent Boundary —Internatio ml Boundary—Inter provincial ZD • Roads—Trunk " —Main " —Local " -Logging " —Four Wheel Drive Trail Railway and Station Mileage Historic Monument -I J—h Ferry (Auto) and Route Steamship Route Airport, Aerodrome—Licensed Seaplane Port—Licensed Park a i Camp or Picnic Site Hospital Glacier •— Customs Port of Entry Ferry Chapter One The Nat/oral Setting The Shuswap Lake area i s one of the most attractive regions i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Situated in the south-central part of the province,"^ i t extends roughly between 50.5° and 51.5° north latitude, and 118.8° and 119.8° west longitude. The town of Chase stands at the region's western l i m i t and 2 Sicamous marks i t s eastern boundary. The area as a whole l i e s along the eastern edge of the Interior Plateau. On the east i t i s bounded by the Monashee Mountains, which have peaks of over 8000 feet and which form the divide between the Upper Columbia River watershed and the Shuswap watershed. The mountains on the other three sides of the area are not as high as those of the Monashee Range, but they too form 1 See map (scale 10 miles = 1 inch) preceding this chapter. 2 Although for the purpose of this study the Shuswap region i s considered to be the drainage basin of Shuswap Lake, including the Adams Lake system, I have not included the Shuswap River valley south of Mara Lake. The economic and social orientation of this valley has been much more towards Armstrong and the Okanagan Valley centres than to the settlements on Shuswap Lake. This early southerly orientation of the valley known as the Spallumcheen was aided by the construction of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway i n 1892 which ran from Sicamous on Shuswap Lake (where i t made connection with the Canadian Pacific mainline), down the west shore of Mara Lake and through the Spallumcheen Valley to Okanagan Landing, near Vernon, at the north end of Okanagan Lake. From there a boat service was provided to other points on the lake by such boats as the Canadian Pacific sternwheeler, Lady Aberdeen. - 2 -d i v i d e s between , d r a i n a g e b a s i n s . To t h e n o r t h and w e s t l i e s t h e N o r t h Thompson d r a i n a g e b a s i n , a n d t o t h e s o u t h t h a t o f t h e O k a n a g a n . Shuswap L a k e i t s e l f c o n s i s t s a c t u a l l y o f t w o b o d i e s o f w a t e r , o c c u p y i n g l o n g , r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l f j o r d - l i k e v a l l e y s , w h i c h a r e j o i n e d by a n a r r o w s t r i p o f w a t e r a t C i n n e m o u s u n f a r r o w s . Two s m a l l e r l a k e s , L i t t l e S h u s w a p L a k e a n d M a r a L a k e , w e r e onee p a r t o f Shuswap L a k e b u t h a v e b e e n n e a r l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e m a i n l a k e b y t h e g r o w i n g d e l t a s o f Adams R i v e r and E a g l e R i v e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Shuswap L a k e , a t a n a l t i t u d e o f 1 1 3 1 f e e t a b o v e s e a l e v e l , i s a l a r g e o n e , a b o u t 90 m i l e s i n l e n g t h and c o v e r i n g 123 s q u a r e m i l e s . The g e o l o g y o f t h e Shuswap r e g i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g . The r o c k i s m a i n l y h i g h l y m e t a m o r p h i s e d PreCambrian, a c c u r a t e d a t i n g o f w h i c h i s i m p o s s i b l e s i n c e no f o s s i l s h a v e a s y e t •5 b e e n f o u n d i n i t . The t e r r a i n o f t h e Shuswap c o u n t r y i s f a i r l y b r o k e n and b e c o m e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y r o u g h e r a s one t r a v e l s e a s t . A r o u n d t h e m a i n l a k e t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y s e v e r a l b e n c h e s n e a r t h e l a k e s h o r e , a n d t h e n t h e l a n d r i s e s q u i t e s t e e p l y t o o v e r 4 0 0 0 f e e t e l e v a t i o n . Up S e y m o u r a n d A n s t e y A r m s , and o n Adams L a k e , t h e l a n d r i s e s v e r y s h a r p l y f r o m t h e 4 w a t e r . 3 C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a , A G e o l o g i c a l R e o o n n a i s s a n o e b e t w e e n G o l d e n and K a m l o o p s , B . C . , a l o n g t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . (Memoir I o . 6 8 } , 1 9 1 5 , p . 1 1 0 . 4 See t o p o g r a p h i c a l map ( s c a l e 2 m i l e s = 1 i n c h ) f o l l o w i n g page 7 . A s i m i l a r map c o v e r i n g t h e Seymour Arm a n d A n s t e y Arm r e g i o n i s i n p r e p a r a t i o n , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y h a s n o t y e t b e e n p u b l i s h e d . - 3 -A l l t h e Shuswap r e g i o n was h e a v i l y g l a c i a t e d . S t r i a t i o n s f o u n d o n L i c h e n M o u n t a i n and o n Adams P l a t e a u , a t a l t i t u d e s o f 6800 and 6100 f e e t , i n d i c a t e t h a t i c e moved a c r o s s t h e s u m m i t s i n a s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . W i t h t h e s e s t r i a t i o n s a s r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s , g e o l o g i s t s h a v e e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e m a i n i c e - c a p i n t h e Shuswap a r e a was a t l e a s t 7 0 0 0 f e e t a b o v e p r e s e n t s e a l e v e l . T h i s h e a v y g l a c i a t i o n w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g o u g i n g o u t o f t h e r o c k y t r o u g h s now o c c u p i e d b y Adams L a k e a n d much o f Shuswap L a k e . A l t h o u g h Shuswap L a k e i s f a i r l y d e e p ( i n S e y m o u r A rm s i x m i l e s n o r t h o f C i n n e m o u s u n M a r r o w s a d e p t h o f 550 f , ?h^as b e e n m e a s u r e d ) , Adams l a k e (1334 f e e t a b o v e s e a l e v e l ) i s much d e e p e r . F o r many m i l e s i t m a i n t a i n s t h e r e m a r k a b l e d e p t h o f some 1 2 0 0 f e e t , u n t i l a t i t s o u t l e t i t d r a i n s o v e r a r o c k y l i p c o v e r e d b y o n l y a f e w f e e t o f d r i f t m a t e r i a l . A n o t h e r r e s u l t o f t h e g l a c i a l a g e i s t h e i m p o s i n g s i l t t e r r a c e f o r m a t i o n t h a t s t r e t c h e s a l o n g t h e S o u t h Thompson P a v e r f r o m K a m l o o p s t o t h e v e r y m o u t h o f L i t t l e Shuswap L a k e . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t a t t h e end o f t h e l a s t i c e age t h e S o u t h Thompson v a l l e y was o c c u p i e d b y a l a r g e l a k e hemmed i n o n t h e w e s t b y a g l a c i e r e o m i n g down t h e N o r t h Thompson V a l l e y and s i m i l a r l y c o n f i n e d o n t h e e a s t b y a n i c e dam a t t h e p r e s e n t s i t e o f Shuswap V i l l a g e . The s i l t i n t h e t e r r a c e s i s s e d i m e n t d e p o s i t e d when t h i s a r e a w a s p a r t o f t h e b e d o f t h i s g l a c i a l l a k e . The m e l t w a t e r c h a n n e l f r o m t h i s l a k e 5 G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a , M e m o i r N o . 6 8 ^ p . 1 4 4 . _ 4 -passed south of the present Shuswap Lake (perhaps through the low valley between Sorrento and Tappen), through the Spallumcheen Valley and into the Okanagan. With this history of severe glaciation, the Shuswap region lacks large areas of good s o i l . The most important belt of arable s o i l extends along the Salmon River Valley, broadening out around Salmon Arm and continuing into the valley of Canoe Creek. Another stretch of good s o i l i s at the mouth of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake where the South Thompson River flows out of the lake. There i s also a band of arable s o i l between Tappen and Sorrento. The rest of the arable land i s mainly limited to a few benchlands and to fans at the mouths of creeks emptying into the lake. The gravelly sandy loam, which covers much of the area, tends to be f a i r l y shallow over the parent g l a c i a l t i l l and contains varying amounts of gravel and stones. The climate of the Shuswap area i s typ i c a l of the Interior, with the summers being warmer and winters colder than on the Coast. Because of the moderating influence of the large area of lake surface, the settlements around Shuswap Lake experience a smaller range of temperature than does Kamloops, 35 miles to the west: - 5 -C e n t r e A v e r a g e mean t e m p e r a t u r e S a l m o n Arm C h a s e S i c a m o u s J a n u a r y J u l y 68° 68° 69° E a m l o o p s The f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d u s u a l l y e x t e n d s f r o m 1 4 0 t o 1 5 0 d a y s , and l a s t s f r o m e a r l y May u n t i l t h e end o f S e p t e m b e r , s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g t o e n s u r e m a t u r i t y f o r m o s t f i e l d c r o p s . ^ T h o u g h t h e Shuswap r e g i o n i s b u t f o r t y m i l e s w i d e , t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n d i f f e r s q u i t e m a r k e d l y , i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e e a s t e r n z o n e a s one a p p r o a c h e s t h e h i g h m o u n t a i n r a n g e s : 7 C e n t r e A v e r a g e A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n C h a s e 1 4 . 9 4 i n c h e s S a l m o n Arm 1 9 . 6 8 tt T h i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s d i s t r i b u t e d f a i r l y e v e n l y o v e r t h e 8 t w e l v e m o n t h s o f t h e y e a r . 6 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s , The K a m l o o p s A r e a B u l l e t i n * 1 9 5 8 , p . 5 7 . 7 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , C l i m a t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 9 6 1 . 8 T h e s e f i g u r e s o f t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e and o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n a r e r e c o r d e d i n v a l l e y s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h a n a v e r a g e a l t i t u d e o f 1 2 0 0 f e e t . P o r l o c a t i o n s h i g h e r u p i n t h e h i l l s o r m o u n t a i n s , t h e a v e r a g e mean t e m p e r a t u r e i s l o w e r f o r b o t h w i n t e r and summer, w h i l e t h e a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n t e n d s t o be much h i g h e r . S i e a m o u s 2 5 . 7 8 n - 6 -V e g e t a t i o n , v a r i e s w i t h t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n . A r o u n d L i t t l e Shuswap L a k e , a t t h e e a s t e r n edge o f t h e D r y F o r e s t Z o n e , t h e r e i s o p e n p a r k l a n d d o t t e d w i t h y e l l o w p i n e . H i g h e r u p o n t h e h i l l s D o u g l a s f i r "becomes more n u m e r o u s . F u r t h e r e a s t , w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n , t h e f o r e s t c o v e r becomes more d e n s e . H e r e i t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e C o l u m b i a F o r e s t , w i t h D o u g l a s f i r and some w h i t e p i n e c o m b i n e d w i t h much c e d a r and h e m l o c k a t t h e l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s * and w i t h s p r u c e and b a l s a m i n t h e h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s . B e c a u s e m o s t o f t h e S h u s w a p r e g i o n i s w e l l t i m b e r e d , s a w m i l l i n g h a s b e e n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t l o c a l i n d u s t r y s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . We s h o u l d n o t t a k e i t f o r g r a n t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e Shuswap a r e a h a s u n i f o r m l y e x c e l l e n t t i m b e r . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , f o r e s t f i r e s h a v e b u r n e d o v e r many o f t h e b e t t e r s t a n d s . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s a h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e i n t h r t r e e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n h e m l o c k and c e d a r - much more d i s e a s e t h a n i s encountered o n t h e C o a s t . A s u r v e y o r i n 1 9 0 9 r e p o r t e d t h a t a r o u n d S c o t c h C r e e k , a l t h o u g h t h e c e d a r s (up t o t w e n t y i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r ) a p p e a r e d s o u n d a t f i r s t s i g h t , m o s t o f t h e m p r o v e d t o be " h o l l o w b u t t s " - t h e h e a r t -w o o d , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t n e a r t h e b a s e , h a v i n g r o t t e d , a w a y due t o a r o o t f u n g u s . The h e m l o c k e x a m i n e d i n t h i s same s u r v e y p r o v e d t o be a b o u t f i f t y p e r c e n t u n s o u n d , w i t h t h i s q p r o p o r t i o n i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e l o w e r a l t i t u d e s . R e c e n t w o r k 9 C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r , D e s c r i p t i o n o f S u r v e y e d L a n d s i n t h e R a i l w a y B e l t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P a r t H o . 1 , 1 9 1 4 , p . 1 1 5 . - 7 -by f o r e s t p a t h o l o g i s t s h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h i s v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f d e c a y e d h e m l o c k i s c a u s e d b y I n d i a n P a i n t F u n g u s . ^ T h i s f u n g u s t h r i v e s b e s t i n a summer c l i m a t e t h a t f e a t u r e s a h i g h a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e and h i g h h u m i d i t i e s ( a g o o d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Shuswap summer c l i m a t e ) , a n d i t a t t a c k s t h e w e s t e r n h e m l o c k v e r y r e a d i l y . The D o u g l a s f i r v e r y s e l d o m i s a t t a c k e d b y t h i s f u n g u s . One o f t h e c h i e f a d v a n t a g e s e n j o y e d b y t h e Shuswap a r e a i s t h a t o f b e i n g o n m a i n t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n r o u t e s . The m a i n l i n e o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y f o l l o w s t h e s o u t h s h o r e o f Shuswap L a k e f o r f i f t y m i l e s , w h i l e t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l s t h e r o u t e o f t h e r a i l w a y . When one c o n s i d e r s b o t h t h e n a t u r a l a d v a n t a g e s o f s c e n e r y a n d c l i m a t e e n j o y e d b y t h e Shuswap L a k e r e g i o n , and i t s f a v o u r e d p o s i t i o n o n t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l and r o a d r o u t e s , one m i g h t e x p e c t t o f i n d a number o f w e l l - r o o t e d and f l o u r i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e i n p a r t s o f t h e K o o t e n a y s , i n t h e O k a n a g a n and i n t h e L o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y . S u c h i s n o t t h e e a s e . S a l m o n A r m , b y f a r t h e l a r g e s t c e n t r e , i n 1 9 6 1 h a d a p o p u l a t i o n o f o n l y 1 5 0 6 , w i t h C h a s e and S i c a m o u s muoh s m a l l e r i n s i z e . One s t a r t s t o l o o k f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s a s t o why t h e Shuswap c o u n t r y r e m a i n s l a r g e l y u n d e v e l o p e d . " ^ " 10 Thomas, G . P . , "The O c c u r r e n c e o f t h e I n d i a n P a i n t F u n g u s , E c h i n o d o n t i u m t i n c t o r i u m E . & E . , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , S t u d i e s i n F o r e s t P a t h o l o g y , X V I I I , C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t B i o l o g y D i v i s i o n , P u b l i c a t i o n 1 0 4 1 , 1 9 5 8 , p . 2 5 . 1 1 The t o p o g r a p h i c a l map f o l l o w i n g t h i s page shows i n y e l l o w t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a ( i n c l u d i n g t i m b e r b e r t h s ) t h a t i s a l i e n a t e d . :)POGRAPHlC SYSTEM D E P A R T M E N T OF LANDS A N D FO!«iSTS B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A H O N O U R A B L E R, G . W I L L I S T O N , M I N I S T E R E. W. B A 5 S E T T , DEPUTY MINISTER OF L A N D S G. S . A N D R E W S , DIRECTOR OF S U R V E Y S A N D MAPPING FIRST STATUS E D I T / O N October Ut, 1959 S H E E T 82 VNW 121" 120° 119" Note: O n the abtme index the jiitcu puhlisM am shown tincud green. GnvKnmiKnr Agent — SolmoTi A r m Mineral Claims arc not shown an this sheet - 8 -A c u r s o r y g l a n c e a t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Shuswap L a k e a r e a g i v e s no c l u e s , f o r t h e Shuswap r e g i o n h a s n o t b e e n b y -p a s s e d b y m o s t o f t h e m a i n e c o n o m i c a d v a n c e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The C a r i b o o g o l d r u s h i n t h e e a r l y 1 8 6 0 ' s b r o u g h t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y and g r e a t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e C a r i b o o R o a d . T h i s r o a d was u s e f u l i n t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Shuswap r e g i o n f o r , when g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e B i g Bend c o u n t r y i n 1 8 6 5 , t h e g o v e r n m e n t p r o m p t l y b u i l t a new r o a d s t e m m i n g f r o m t h e C a r i b o o R o a d a t C a c h e C r e e k and l e a d i n g t o S a v o n a o n E a m l o o p s L a k e , f r o m w h i c h p o i n t b o a t s c o u l d be t a k e n t o Seymour Arm a t t h e n o r t h e r n t i p o f Shuswap L a k e . Many h u n d r e d s o f m i n e r s p o u r e d t h r o u g h t h e Shuswap r e g i o n e n r o u t e t o t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r v a l l e y . The n e x t i m p o r t a n t a d v a n c e f o r w a r d o n t h e m a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The Shuswap a r e a was t h o r o u g h l y e x p l o r e d b y s u r v e y o r s and t h e m a i n l i n e o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y was b u i l t r i g h t a c r o s s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e r e g i o n i n 1 8 8 5 , t h e y e a r o f i t s c o m p l e t i o n . The g r e a t a d v e r t i s i n g c a m p a i g n s i n b o t h G r e a t B r i t a i n and E u r o p e , m o u n t e d b e f o r e t h e t u r n o f t h e e e n t u r y b y t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company and t h e f e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r , r i v e t e d a t t e n t i o n o n t h e f r e e l a n d a v a i l a b l e t o t h e h o m e s t e a d e r i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a and i n 1 9 1 3 , t h e p e a k y e a r o f i m m i g r a t i o n , 400,000 p e o p l e l a n d e d i n C a n a d a . The - 9 -p e r i o d 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 1 4 was m a r k e d b y a r a p i d l y r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y f r o m t h i s i n f l u x o f s e t t l e r s , a s t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n s u s f i g u r e s f o r t h e p r o v i n c e s h o w : 1 8 9 1 9 8 , 0 0 0 1 9 0 1 1 7 9 , 0 0 0 1 9 1 1 3 9 2 , 0 0 0 1 9 2 1 5 2 5 , 0 0 0 The Shuswap r e g i o n r e c e i v e d a s h a r e o f t h i s i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , and i n t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e W o r l d War I s e t t l e m e n t e x p a n d e d r a p i d l y a r o u n d t h e l a k e . The r a p i d f i l l i n g - u p o f t h e P r a i r i e s r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d • a c t i v i t y i n t h e l u m b e r i n d u s t r y . On t h e C o a s t , l u m b e r h a d b e e n e x p o r t e d i n s a i l i n g s h i p s f o r many y e a r s , b u t w i t h t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y came t h e g r o w t h o f a d o m e s t i c m a r k e t f o r l u m b e r o n t h e C a n a d i a n P r a i r i e s . H e r e , w i t h t h e g r e a t i n f l u x o f h o m e s t e a d e r s o n t o t h e l a n d and t h e b u i l d i n g o f many c o m m u n i t i e s l a r g e and s m a l l , l a r g e amounts o f l u m b e r w e r e v -n e e d e d . The Shuswap c o u n t r y b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h i s new o p p o r t u n i t y . T h e r e w e r e l a r g e r e s e r v e s o f t i m b e r c l o s e t o t h e l a k e s h o r e and i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o c u t t h i s t i m b e r and tow t h e l o g s t o t h e m i l l s . T h e s e l a k e s h o r e m i l l s , s e r v e d by t h e n e a r b y mQ.wi l ine o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c , w e r e i n a n e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n t o s u p p l y t h e l a r g e P r a i r i e m a r k e t . I n one o t h e r m a j o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h e Shuswap r e g i o n h a s a g a i n b e e n f o r t u n a t e . I t h a s b e e n a s w e l l s e r v e d - 10 -a s a n y o t h e r p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e b y t h e g r o w i n g n e t w o r k o f r o a d s t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s b u i l t o v e r t h e l a s t f i f t y y e a r s f o r t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g a u t o m o t i v e t r a f f i c . I n t h e n e t w o r k o f r o a d s i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r , t h e Shuswap c o u n t r y h o l d s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n - r o a d s c o n n e c t i n g Kami o o p s and R e v e l s t o k e , t h e O k a n a g a n Y a l l e y a n d R e v e l s t o k e , and one o f t h e two r o u t e s b e t w e e n K a m l o o p s and t h e O k a n a g a n , t o u c h Shuswap L a k e . M o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l i s t h e f a c t , a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h a t t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y c l o s e l y f o l l o w s t h e s o u t h s h o r e o f Shuswap L a k e f o r most o f t h e f i f t y m i l e s b e t w e e n C h a s e and S i c a m o u s . W i t h t h e r e c e n t o p e n i n g o f t h e R o g e r s P a s s s e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h w a y , S a l m o n Arm h a s become t h e midway p o i n t b e t w e e n V a n c o u v e r and C a l g a r y . And y e t - w i t h a l l t h e s e f a v o u r a b l e f a c t o r s o f a t t r a c t i v e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and c l i m a t e , o f e a r l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g o l d r u s h , o f many new s e t t l e r s a r r i v i n g e s p e c i a l l y b e f o r e 1 9 1 4 , o f t i m b e r r e s e r v e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and o f a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e h i g h w a y s y s t e m o f s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - t h e Shuswap r e g i o n h a s r e t r a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a g n a n t e c o n o m i c a l l y . I t i s t h e i n t a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t o p r o b e i n t o t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Shuswap c o u n t r y , w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and p r e s e n t s t a t e o f a g r i c u l t u r e and o f t h e l u m b e r i n d u s t r y , t o f i n d t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n - why h a s t h e Shuswap a r e a n o t made more e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s ? - 11 -Chapter Two The Shuswap Area before Me Construction of the Canadian Pa c i f i c Railway The early history of the Shuswap Lake region i s very much l i k e that of other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia: the f i r s t white men to arrive were fur traders i n quest of new fur areas and better communication routes. Next on the scene were prospectors, i n this instance prospectors passing through the country en route to the Big Bend. About the same time, the f i r s t ranchers settled on some of the best arable land i n the d i s t r i c t , the riverside f l a t s of Shuswap P r a i r i e . It was not, however, u n t i l the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was b u i l t i n 1885, right through the heart of the area, that the country began r e a l l y to be opened up. It was inevitable that the fur traders would early become aware of the existence of the Shuswap Lakes, for they l i e on a natural east-west communication route between the Columbia River and the Eraser River. David Thompson, i n his map published 1815-14., gives a rough sketch of a large lake draining into "Sheewap River" to the west, and shows another r i v e r whose headwaters are near this large lake and whieh drains southeasterly into the Columbia River. A map of 1827 , entitled "Sketch of Thompson's River D i s t r i c t " , indicates 1 B r i t i s h Museum #14797, a photostatic copy of which i s i n the Provincial Archives i n Vi c t o r i a . - 12 -Shuswap L a k e and E a g l e E l v e r and a d o t t e d l i n e c o n t i n u e s f u r t h e r e a s t w i t h t h e ' n o t a t i o n " c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h C o l u m b i a " . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Shuswap r e g i o n f o r t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company and i t s t r a d i n g p o s t a t P o r t K a m l o o p s . The a n n u a l f u r b r i g a d e s c o m i n g o v e r l a n d f r o m t h e Okanagan V a l l e y b y - p a s s e d t h e S h u s w a p s , s w i n g i n g s o u t h w e s t t h r o u g h t h e G r a n d e P r a i r i e r e g i o n t o K a m l o o p s . T h e r e w a s , h o w e v e r , a H u d s o n ' s B a y p o s t a t t h e h e a d o f Seymour Arm b e f o r e t h e B i g Bend g o l d r u s h o c c u r r e d i n 1865 and a n e a r l y s e t t l e r i n S a l m o n A r m , A . E . G . S e t t l e , i n h i s m e m o i r s s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e w e r e a l s o H u d s o n ' s B a y o u t p o s t s a t E u a l t a n d a t C h a s e . U n t i l t h e end o f W o r l d War I I , t r a p p i n g f o r b e a v e r i n t h e v a l l e y s and m a r t e n b a e k i n t h e h i l l s was w i d e l y c a r r i e d o n . M r . S e t t l e n o t e d t h a t b e a v e r u s e d t o be a b u n d a n t i n t h e S a l m o n R i v e r V a l l e y and a n o t h e r e a r l y s e t t l e r , H e n r y C a l h o u n o f T a p p e n , m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e many b e a v e r dams i n t h a t v a l l e y a s l a t e a s t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s and t h a t a number o f p e o p l e t r a p p e d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . ^ " A s l a t e a s t h e 1 9 4 0 ' s , a l l a v a i l a b l e t r a p l i n e s w e r e b e i n g o p e r a t e d , w i t h a c c e s s t o some o f t h e b e s t o f them b e i n g f r o m t h e h e a d o f Seymour and A n s t e y A r m s . S i n c e t h a t d a t e , w i t h t h e p r i c e s f o r w i l d f u r b e i n g v e r y l o w ( m a i n l y due t o t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m f u r - f a r m p r o d u c t s and a r t i f i c i a l f i b r e s ) l i t t l e t r a p p i n g h a s b e e n d o n e . 2 E r n e s t D o e , S a l m o n Arm t o 1 9 1 2 , p .1. 3 T h i s and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n l e t t e r f r o m P.W. M a r t i n , A s s i s t a n t C h i e f Game B i o l o g i s t o f t h e Game B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a , d a t e d M a r c h 7 , 1 9 6 4 -4 C a l h o u n , H e n r y , F i f t y Y e a r s Ago a t T a p p e n (9 p p . m i m e o -graphed) , 1 9 5 8 . - 13 -Though, l i t t l e i s known about the early trappers and fur traders i n the region, there i s no lack of information concerning the sudden r i s e , and as sudden decline, of Seymour City as a gold rush transportation base during the Big Bend gold rush of 1865-66. As early as 1861, Governor James Douglas i n writing to W.G. Cox, Gold Commissioner at Eoek Creek, pointed out the advantages of a Shuswap route to the Columbia River: As i t i s desirable to intercept the trade from the upper Columbia River at some point north of the 49th parallel...His Excellency trusts that you w i l l make enquiries as to the best points for opening roads from the Shouswap [sic] Lake or Great Okanagan Lake to the Columbia River - i n order that the miners may be supplied from Erasers [sic] River and not from Oregon. By reference to the map - which you received from me you w i l l observe that a l i n e of road i s shown by a dotted l i n e as leading from Shouswap Lake to the Columbia River beyond the Upper [Arrow] Lake - that t r a i l i s well known to the Indian population and possibly other t r a i l s leading direct from the Great Okanagan Lake to the Columbia may also be known to them. Make enquiries and forward a l l the information 5 that i s obtainable on that subject. The project outlined by Douglas was soon abandoned when the news came of the very r i c h strikes i n the Cariboo, and Douglas decided to use the limited resources of the colony to build a 6 f i r s t - c l a s s waggon road into the Cariboo. 5 Douglas, James to W.G. Cox, December 9, 1861. 6 Moberly, Walter, The Rocks and Rivers of B r i t i s h Columbia, London, Blacklock, 1885, p.36. - 14 -T h o u s a n d s o f w o u l d - b e m i n e r s f l o c k e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h t h e e x c i t e m e n t g e n e r a t e d by t h e r i c h p l a c e r g o l d s t r i k e s i n t h e C a r i b o o , and t h e r e was g e n e r a l o p t i m i s m t h a t s i m i l a r r i c h d i s c o v e r i e s w o u l d be made i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o l o n y . As we h a v e s e e n , a s e a r l y a s 1 8 6 1 m i n e r s w e r e w o r k i n g t h e i r way u p t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r , t e s t i n g b a r s and c r e e k s f o r " c o l o u r " . Now, i n t h e summer o f 1 8 6 5 , g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d i n q u a n t i t y o n C a r n e s C r e e k , o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f C o l u m b i a R i v e r a b o v e t h e B i g E d d y . E a g e r m i n e r s t e s t e d o t h e r n e a r b y c r e e k s and f o u n d g o l d a l s o o n C o l d s t r e a m R i v e r and o n i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , F r e n c h C r e e k and M c C u l l o c h C r e e k . A s w o r d s p r e a d a b o u t t h e n e w l y - d i s c o v e r e d r i c h e s o f t h e B i g B e n d , i t s o o n became o b v i o u s t h a t t h o u s a n d s o f m i n e r s w o u l d be h e a d i n g f o r t h e B i g B e n d , w h i c h a t t h i s t i m e was most e a s i l y r e a c h e d b y t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h W a s h i n g t o n t e r r i t o r y and up t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . The c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t moved f a s t t o d i v e r t t h e s u d d e n l y i n c r e a s e d t r a d e t o a r o u t e w h o l l y w i t h i n i t s own t e r r i t o r y . On J u l y 8 t h , 1 8 6 5 , J o s e p h W. T r u t c h , C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s and Works and S u r v e y o r -G e n e r a l , s e n t a l e t t e r o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o W a l t e r M o b e r l y . I t r e a d i n p a r t : The r e c e n t d i s c o v e r i e s o f G o l d on t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r , above t h e A r r o w L a k e s and on t h e h e a d w a t e r s o f t h e K o o t e n a y R i v e r , h a v i n g r e n d e r e d i t o f i m m e d i a t e i m p o r t a n c e t o d e t e r m i n e and l a y o u t t h e b e s t l i n e f o r a Waggon Road f r o m t h e L o w e r E r a s e r - 15 -t o t h e s e Sew M i n i n g D i s t r i c t s , y o u h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d t o c o n d u c t a r e c o n n a i s a n c e o f t h e C o u n t r y l y i n g t o t h e E a s t w a r d o f t h e O k a n a g a n and Shuswap L a k e s . . . . [ m o r e i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n a b o u t l o o k i n g f o r p a s s e s i n t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s ] I n t h e m e a n t i m e , y o u r s e l f and t h e r e m a i n d e r o f y o u r p a r t y w i l l c o n t i n u e c a r e f u l l y r e e o n n o i t e r i n g and n o t i n g t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n o n t o t h e E a s t e r n e n d o f Shuswap L a k e , and w i l l t h e n c e u n d e r -t a k e t h e f i r s t m a i n o b j e c t w i t h w h i c h y o u a r e e n t r u s t e d - w h i c h i s , t o a s c e r t a i n t h e b e s t l i n e f o r a Waggon R o a d f r o m t h e E a s t e r n end o f Shuswap t o 7 t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r . M o b e r l y w e n t i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e h e a d o f S e y m o u r Arm w h e r e t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company h a d a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s t . T h i s s e t t l e m e n t was f i r s t k n o w n a s O g d e n v i l l e ( a f t e r M r . C h a r l e s Ogden who was i n c h a r g e o f t h e H . B . C . p o s t a t t h i s t i m e ) , b u t i n M a r c h 1866 t h i s name was o f f i c i a l l y Q c h a n g e d t o Seymour t h o u g h t h e s e t t l e m e n t was more commonly c a l l e d Seymour C i t y . M o b e r l y , r e a l i z i n g t h e p r o b a b l e v a l u e o f t h e s i t e o f Seymour C i t y a s t h e j u m p i n g - o f f p l a c e f o r t h e B i g Bend m i n e s , p u t a g o v e r n m e n t r e s e r v e o n i t on A u g u s t 6 t h , 1 8 6 5 - The H u d s o n ' s Bay Company a t o n c e c h a l l e n g e d t h i s r e s e r v e , s a y i n g t h a t one o f i t s s e r v a n t s , W i l l i a m A l e x a n d e r M o u a t , h a d p r e e m p t e d 160 a c r e s a t a p r i o r d a t e . A f t e r much 7 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f Lands and W o r k s , C o l u m b i a R i v e r E x p l o r a t i o n , 1 8 6 5 , New W e s t m i n s t e r , Gove rnment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 8 6 6 , p . 1 . 8 M e n t i o n e d i n l e t t e r f r o m M o b e r l y t o J . W . T r u t c h , M a r c h 2 0 t h , 1 8 6 6 . 9 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . M a r c h 8 t h , 1 8 6 6 , p . 3 -- 16 -correspondence, the government was able to prove that, although the Hudson's Bay Company post was established before the Big Bend excitement had focussed attention on the strategic value of the s i t e , the preemption i n the name of Mouat had not been recorded at lytton u n t i l September 1st, 1865. From Seymour City, Moberly investigated several routes across the Monashee Range and down into the Columbia Valley. The Indian t r a i l ran northeasterly from Seymour Arm to the Columbia, rea&ingJt near the mouth of Gold Creek. This t r a i l was seventy miles long. Moberly's party found another route, about forty miles i n length, reaching the Columbia t h i r t y miles downstream from the Gold Creek junction. While neither of these routes was suitable f o r the construction of the projected waggon road, Moberly set a crew to work cutting a t r a i l along the shorter route. It was his hope that goods could soon be packed i n to the miners, who were suffering from the lack of supplies and the very high prices charged for those available. Meanwhile i n August an enterprising pair of men, Smith and ladner, had arrived at Seymour City with merchandise bound for the Big Bend mines. Finding the so-called "government t r a i l " impassable, they used the Indian t r a i l , making some improvements as they went. In February 1866 they sent a l e t t e r to the Acting Colonial Secretary asking to be compensated not only for the work done on the t r a i l but also 10 Trutch, J.W. to Acting Colonial Secretary, March 20th, 1866. - 17 -for some supplies given to miners i n distress. They attached to their l e t t e r a sketch map of the area, showing the relative location of th e i r t r a i l and the government t r a i l . ^ Meanwhile, once Moberly had made arrangements for the work to be done on the shorter t r a i l from Seymour City to the Columbia River, he moved off to explore other regions. He was quite impressed by the easy grade on the pass between the east end of Shuswap lake up through the Eagle Pass to the Columbia, and reported that i t would be the best location for a waggon road or an overland railroad. The government con-sidered Moberly's lengthy report on his explorations during the summer of 1865 of such wide interest that i t was printed i n The Government Gazette of December 23rd, 1865. ¥hen winter, with i t s b i t t e r cold and heavy snows, closed down the Big Bend mines, new plans were made for the spring. Witness the following notice i n The Government Gazette of November 4th, 1865: The Officer Administering the Government being desirous of encouraging the construction of a Steamboat, to ply between the western extremity of Kamloops Lake and the upper or eastern end of Shuswap Lake...persons wishing to undertake this enterprise are invited to send i n to the Colonial Secretary's Office...written proposals for the above service. The Hudson's Bay Company, with posts both at Savona on Kamloops Lake and at Seymour City, was the l o g i c a l supplier U Map on page 17a i s a copy of this map from the Smith & Ladner f i l e , Provincial Archives. Creek CQ S k e t c h o-f- S m i t h ««• LacUer mgp •fra^ns l e t t e r d U t e . o ( F e b . i 4 - , ) S £ 6 -file Flfcl5l - 18 -of the steamboat service sought by the government. In fact, already i n the autumn of 1865 the Company had instructed some of i t s men to investigate the navigational hazards of the South Thompson River and the Shuswap lakes at low water, and had begun plans for the building of the steamer Marten at Savona. The Hudson's Bay Company was also laying i n large supplies for the expected rush of prospectors. Early spring found many adventurers i n the South Thompson country, anxiously waiting for the ice to go out of Shuswap lake. Some impatient miners started on the long overland journey from Shuswap Prairie northeasterly to Seymour City; others were able to get passage i n small boats starting from l i t t l e Shuswap lake; and many reached Seymour City days before the long-awaited maiden voyage of the H.B.C. steamer Marten. Fi n a l l y , amid much rejoicing, the Marten reached her destination on May 26th, 1866. The B r i t i s h Colonist of V i c t o r i a did i t s best to keep i t s readers informed about the new mines. In the issue of June 4th, 1866, following a v i v i d account of the f i r s t a r r i v a l of the Marten, a correspondent gave the following description of Seymour City: The population i s about five hundred, and can boast of six saloons, thirteen stores, five bakeries, three restaurants, two butcher's shops, and eleven shoemakers, two painters, one stationery shop, six physicians, and a drug store, two t i n shops, two barber shops, - 19 -eight washhouses and a bathing house. I might also mention an extensive fishery, two breweries, two blacksmiths' shops and a l i v e r y stable to say nothing 12 of a coffee and doughnut stand. This was probably the high point of Seymour City's prosperity. When the government put up for auction sixty l o t s i n the Town of Seymour on June 9th, 1866, only a few lots were sold, for by that time the news from the mines was discouraging. Warm weather near the end of May had caused 13 the creeks to r i s e rapidly and flood the diggings, forcing miners to abandon temporarily their claims. In addition, the claims themselves proved to be very shallow and were soon worked out. Furthermore, the American steamship Forty-Nine from Washington Territory ascended the Columbia River to within a f a i r l y close distance of the mining a c t i v i t y , bringing tons of supplies on each t r i p . A l e t t e r from Seymour dated June 20th, 1866, reported: The Forty-Nine has again arrived, bringing a few tons of freight and three beef cat t l e . The steamer was lying at Laporte, and entire cargo of flour, bacon, vegetables etc., was offered at 250 per pound a l l around, i n order to pay the freight."^ 12 P. 4-13 Fortune, A.I., Early Travels to the Cariboo (typescript), pp. 44-45. 14 Colonist & Chronicle, June 27, 1866, p. 3-- 20 -Seymour City went downhill rapidly. By the end of August 1866 few people were l e f t . In 1877, CM. Dawson, i n 15 a report of the Geological Survey of Canada mentioned that the settlement was entirely abandoned, with not a single building remaining intact. In 1963, the present writer found i n heavy undergrowth deep excavations, some with rotted timber sidings s t i l l v i s i b l e - the cellars of the buildings hurriedly erected during the brief gold rush boom period of Seymour. Some of the disappointed miners i n the region tested the lakes, rivers and creeks around Shuswap Lake i t s e l f for traces of gold. In July 1866 Henry Peatherstone, a surgeon, notified the Colonial Secretary that discoveries had been made on Scotch Creek and on Adams Lake. On August 29th, 1866, he sent the following information: When Adam's Lake and Scotch diggings were f i r s t discovered, i t was thought another Wms. Creek had been struck....A considerable number of men l e f t here [Seymour City] but the Indians showed such a hostile front and refused to allow miners to pass, but by great persuasion after two days talking [they agreed to l e t miners pass] for the sum of $15. [which] i s blackmail.... Six were allowed to pass up Lake, who sunk a shaft and found gold i n every pan but provisions getting short before they bottomed 15 1877-78, p.22B. - 21 -same, were coming here for more provisions when they were informed they would not he allowed to return....The Indians said the Boston man would destroy a l l his potatoe patches that are now cultivated ravish their women and infect them with disease therefore threatened any one with death 16 who went up the lake. The same l e t t e r goes on to report that eight or ten men were s t i l l on Scotch Creek and were doing well. These Scotch Creek claims were obviously soon abandoned and partly forgotten, for i n 1871 i t was reported that "new" diggings 17 had been discovered by Montana miners on Scotch Creek. Over the years there continued to be sporadic a c t i v i t y on Scotch Creek which continued up to 1940. In the sixty years 1885-1945 Scotch Creek produced 1 ,999 ounces of gold 18 worth $40 ,693, but the best gravels are i n high benches up to 400 feet above the stream. To work these gravels by hydraulicking would require either pumping water up from Scotch Creek or fluming the limited water available from tributary creeks above the deposits - expensive procedures which are not economically feasible. Although there have been f l u r r i e s of excitement over possible development of hardrock mining around Shuswap Lake, no claim has proved r i c h enough to overcome the high cost of development and of shipping out the ore. In 1893 a number 16 August 2 9 , 1866. 17 B r i t i s h Colonist. December 28th, 1871, p.3-18 Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 296, Vernon Map Area, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959, p.139. - 22 -of claims containing copper, zinc, s i l v e r and gold, with, a l i t t l e lead, were staked i n an area west of Adams Lake. Among these were the Homestake, Maple Leaf, Troublesome and Argentum claims. Some development work was done, and a waggon road twelve miles long was b u i l t to the mouth of Louis Creek on the North Thompson"^, hut these claims were soon abandoned. Other claims have been staked i n the Cotton Belt Plateau, which l i e s east of Seymour River at an elevation of 6000 feet, i n a mineralized belt containing low grade lead-zinc ores. Here, too, although some development work has been done at various periods, the ore recovered has not proved s u f f i c i e n t l y r i c h to j u s t i f y the expense of transportation to a smelter. In the 1920's, some small copper claims were staked on the 20 divide between White Lake and Shuswap Lake. Mount Ida, near Salmon Arm, has been the scene of numerous attempts, from 1900 on, to bring a mine into f u l l production. Ore, often very r i c h i n s i l v e r , has been found, but always something has prevented further exploration - the lode has been lo s t , a fault has occurred, water seepage has become too great, or 21 the price of the metal has f a l l e n . 19 B r i t i s h Columbia, Sessional Papers, 1895. Report of the Minister of Mines, p.696. 20 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines Report 1928, pp. C209-210. 21 Doe, Ernest, A History of Salmon Arm 1912-1944, pp.121-5-- 23 -After the trappers and the miners came the ranchers and the farmers, hut only the so-called Shuswap Prairie at the west end of l i t t l e Shuswap Lake was settled before the building of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. There were a number of reasons why Shuswap Pra i r i e was settled early. The land i t s e l f was excellent - a f l a t f e r t i l e a l l u v i a l plain, only l i g h t l y timbered, with a creek flowing through i t . (See picture on next page.) Easy communication with the settlement of Kamloops was provided by the South Thompson River, an easily navigable and smooth-flowing stream. Land travel westward was also easy, for p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the way to Kamloops there were f l a t open benches near the r i v e r . An early description of a ranch at Shuswap Pra i r i e i s found i n the B r i t i s h Colonist i n 1866 when a t r a v e l l e r reported: ...at the Shuswap lake, a Mr. Tod has one of the finest ranches I ever saw, either here or i n California. A r i c h a l l u v i a l p r a i r i e , some l£ miles wide, with a mountain stream some 3 or 4 yards i n width, running through i t , and the 22 richest pasture.... This Mr. Todd may have been one of a party of sixteen men whom the B r i t i s h Colonist two years e a r l i e r had reported as having "gone from Kamloops to take up land and settle on Shuswap 23 Lake, where they said there was excellent agricultural land". 22 June 6th, 1866, p.3-23 May 13th, 1864, p.3. - 23a -XIUs. 4 -View of Shuswap Pra i r i e (with town of Chase i n the right background) - scene of f i r s t agricultural settlement i n Shuswap area 100 years ago. Chase Creek i s i n the foreground, l i t t l e Shuswap Lake i n background. - 24 -In 1864 one preemption at Shuswap Prairie was recorded, and i n 1865 three. 2^ The settlers had to travel far to register their preemptions - lytton was the nearest place, while several went to Port Steele. There was some confusion about these early preemptions. Although Whitfield Chase had settled at Shuswap Pra i r i e by 1865, due to some legal technicalities his name did not appear as a preemptor u n t i l 1883- In 1886 the Crown Grant Register showed that Marcus Chase, heir of Whitfield Chase, was given the Crown Grant for l o t 157, covering 1100 acres. Whitfield Chase was by f a r the most successful of the pioneer white settlers and i t was he who gave his name to the town of Chase now flourishing at the west end of l i t t l e Shuswap lake. Born i n Uew York, Chase came to the P a c i f i c Coast at the time of the C a l i f o r n i a gold rush and then took 25 part i n the Cariboo gold rush. l a t e r , he ranched at Shuswap Pra i r i e , r a i sing cattle and hogs, growing wheat, planting an orchard, and building a f l o u r m i l l and smokehouse. During the construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway he was i n an advantageous position to s e l l a l l his produce, at good prices, to the construction camps. Other early settlers who took up land on Shuswap Prairie were Alexander McBryan, D.G. MacPherson and C E . Williams. 24 laing, F.W., Colonial Parm Settlers on the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia 1858-1871. p.405-25 Information gained from interview with Mrs. Pred B e l l of Chase, a granddaughter of Whitfield Chase. - 25 -By 1883 there were suf f i c i e n t children i n the settlement to warrant the opening of a school - the f i r s t school i n the whole of the Shuswap region, pre-dating the Salmon Arm school by eight years. From the very start of ranching at Shuswap Pra i r i e there was trouble with the Indians. In 1866 a newspaper reported: The se t t l e r s on the lake and r i v e r below L i t t l e Shuswap Lake complain of hostile feeling shown by the Indians who claim 60 miles 1 reservation on the opposite side of the r i v e r . The prairies have been fi r e d i n numerous places, and wherever hay i s attempted to be cut the p r a i r i e i s sure to be set on f i r e . A s e t t l e r , who commenced building a house on the Indian side of the riv e r , was driven off and the grass f i r e d on his preemption. Miles 26 and miles of pasture are burning. Naturally the Indians disliked seeing the white men settle i n the country and build miles of fencing over what the Indians considered was their land. The Indians also feared they would be driven away from their t r a d i t i o n a l r i c h salmon fishing grounds on the Adams River and from other streams flowing into Shuswap lake, streams which i n the early days had as large salmon runs as the Adams River has today. Despite this c o n f l i c t between the Indians and the white settlers, the dominion government did not set aside reserves 26 B r i t i s h Columbian, July 25th, 1866, p.3-- 26 -i n this area for the Indians u n t i l 1877. When the reserves were set up for the natives, the settlers complained loudly about the Indians being granted some land on the south shore of the South Thompson River (now known as Neskaialith No. 2 Reserve), and sent a p e t i t i o n to the "Provincial Parliament of B r i t i s h Columbia"• Parts of the s e t t l e r s ' p e t i t i o n were plaintive i n the extreme: The Commissioners...awarded to the Indians, i n addition to other very large grants, a tract of land on the South side of the Thompson River, embracing the highway, four miles i n length and upwards of a mile i n breadth, thus enclosing us completely within a huge Indian reservation, is o l a t i n g us entirely from a l l our neighbours, and effectually closing the highway to uninterrupted t r a f f i c . . . . Not a horse can be ridden past, nor an animal moved, to or from our farms, without danger of being stampeded by the savages and their dogs, scores of which starved and ravenous brutes pertain to each and every lodge. The position of the reservations, they being on every side of us, w i l l induce the passing to and fro constantly of trains of lawless savages, who w i l l throw down our fences leaving them open, allowing animals to stray upon our crops and elsewhere; by their dogs our poultry w i l l be exterminated and our pigs and young stock worried and destroyed. Our fruit, and our gardens w i l l be plundered almost under our eyes, and every implement and a r t i c l e of value must be under bolts or the eyes of i t s owner, or he 27 forever l o s t . 27 B r i t i s h Columbia, Sessional Papers 1878, p.451. - 27 -An. investigation was made of the se t t l e r s ' complaints. Part of the resulting report i s interesting: This piece of land, which hears the marks of having been an ancient Indian winter settlement, i s . . . " u t t e r l y worthless" for purposes other than the grazing of a few cattle, owing to the "poverty of the s o i l " and the entire "absence of water". The fact i s inconsistent with the opinion expressed by these gentlemen that the inclusion of this unattractive piece of land within the Indian Reserve must check white settlement. Mr. McBryan indeed states that he knows of a s e t t l e r who was going to take up this piece of land, but the land has long been vacant, and i t obviously i s not a piece of land on which a white family could make a l i v i n g . A white s e t t l e r i n fact had made the attempt and had abandoned the p l a c e . ^ The investigator obviously f e l t that the sett l e r s ' complaint was not j u s t i f i e d . The subsequent references to Indian-white relationships are of a more moderate nature and, indeed, there seems to have been a f a i r b i t of cooperation between the two races. In l a t e r years the white settlers often hired Indians to clear land and to help with the harvest. This i s the picture of the Shuswap region before the coming of the railway. A few isolated trappers and miners are roaming the country and the one settlement i s located at the western edge of the region on a stretch of fine s o i l and with easy communication with Kamloops. After 1885 railway stations provide nuclei around which settlement grows. 28 B r i t i s h Columbia Sessional Papers 1878, p.447. - 28 -Chapter Three The Growth of Communications B r i t i s h Columbia has always had d i f f i c u l t y i n providing adequate communication f a c i l i t i e s for i t s citizens. This d i f f i c u l t y i s partly due to the size of the province and partly to the fact that, outside of the Lower Mainland, the wide dispersal of a sparse population has necessitated the building of long stretches of road through areas that are largely uninhabited. The d i f f i c u l t y i s also partly due to the broken topography of the province. Crossing high mountain ranges and bridging many rivers and creeks result i n extraordinarily expensive road building. To the settlers i n a r u r a l area l i k e Shuswap, the various means of communications, especially roads, have been and s t i l l are very important. A s e t t l e r must have them to bring his produce to the nearest market, or to ship i t at the closest railway station, and to take back to his homestead necessary supplies. But to the early sett l e r s , having the lake or a road nearby meant more - i t meant that the i s o l a t i o n of their homesteads was greatly reduced and" that, i n times of emergency, aid could be summoned quickly. Roads were less necessary to settlers on the lakeshore than to those up valleys or on back benches. Shuswap Lake, L i t t l e Shuswap Lake, Adams Lake and Mara Lake were important - 29 -waterways for many years. Not for nothing were the Shuswap Indians with their two types of canoes - a rough dug-out 1 canoe made from cottonwood, and a small hark canoe - known as the "canoe people". Well after the turn of the century, the Indian i n his dugout canoe was s t i l l a familiar sight on Shuswap Lake. Many of the white set t l e r s around the lake had their own boats, ranging from small rowboats to large gasoline motorboats. From the time of the Big Bend gold rush u n t i l after the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1885, Shuswap Lake provided the main transportation route for the area. The Marten was the f i r s t large boat on the lake but, during the next two decades, other steamboats made regular t r i p s in the area, link i n g the fast-growing settlement i n the Spallumcheen Yalley with Kamloops. Among these steamboats were the S-pallumcheen and the Peerless owned by Mara & Company, and the Lady Dufferin, owned by William Fortune of Tranquille. 1 CM. Dawson gives the following description of the Shuswap bark canoe: [The Shuswaps made] small and shapely canoes from the bark of the western white pine (Pinus monticola). These may s t i l l occasionally be seen on Shuswap Lake and In the v i c i n i t y of the Columbia. The inner side of the bark, stripped from the tree i n one piece, becomes the outer side of the canoe, which i s fashioned with two sharp projecting spur-like ends, strengthened by wooden ribs and thwarts internally; the whole Is lashed and sewn with roots, and knot-holes and fissures stopped with resin. The canoes thus made are very swift, and for their size, when properly ballasted, remarkably seaworthy. - Royal Society of Canada Transactions 1891, Section II, pp.14-15. - 30 -With the completion of the railway, the freight and passenger business available for these boats dropped substantially. By the turn of the century, however, with increasing settlement i n scattered communities around the lakeshore quite remote from the railway, there was once again s u f f i c i e n t business to warrant a boat service. The Arrow Lakes Lumber Company, which had logging operations up Seymour Arm, owned and operated the C. B.. Lamb and the And over, which provided regular service between Kamloops and points on Shuswap Lake. Captain G-.B. Ward of Kamloops was a long-time skipper of steamboats i n the area, while the l a s t operator was William Louie of Kamloops, who maintained service with the C.R. Lamb u n t i l the mid-1930's. There has also been boat service more l o c a l i n nature. With the growing settlements around Celist a on the North Shore, there was need for a regular mail, passenger and freight service from Blind Bay. At f i r s t W. Smith of Notch H i l l , and then John Eeedman of Blind Bay, made regular c a l l s at various points on the North Shore. The settlement at the north end of Seymour Arm has always depended on boats for communication with the nearest road and r a i l centre, Sicamous, 35 miles to the south. To this very day there i s a regular service out of Sicamous to Seymour and Anstey Arms, provided by Captain Frank Smith and his steel tug and barge. Government subsidies have been provided for boat service on the Shuswaps, from the Marten i n 1866 to the present-day - 31 -Sicamous-Seymour Arm service. The comment of the Inland Sentinel^, i n 1910 upon Captain Ward's application for a subsidy gives a good picture of the need for boat transportation early i n the present century: Mr. Ward could, i f he took the right steps, secure suffici e n t trade to keep his boat busy a l l through the season. There are a good many settlers on the lake, and almost every one of these would go i n largely f o r raising produce for which they have now no market, for the reason that they cannot get the produce to the same. Last summer a service was started and these same ranchers gave i t good support along the l i n e of having supplies brought i n , etc. and then, when the time came for shipping produce out, the boat was withdrawn from the run. The Kamloops and Salmon Arm merchants both supported the boat, even though the service was not of the best, and w i l l do so again. We think i t i s up to Capt. Ward. Let him guarantee the settlers and other shippers that he w i l l run a regular service through 'the season, late enough to take out the produce grown, and we think he w i l l see enough business i n sight to keep him going very nearly up to the time when the lake freezes up. In addition quite a passenger service could be worked up i f the fact that the boat made regular t r i p s and the beauty of the scenery were advertised. 2 February 28th, 1910, p.2. - 32 -While i t was not too d i f f i c u l t (with the aid of government subsidies) to provide adequate water transportation for communities situated on the lakeshore, much more d i f f i c u l t and expensive was the provision of land transportation for settlers i n areas away from the waterfront. The f i r s t land routes followed by the w±te men were narrow, winding Indian t r a i l s which followed the l i n e of least resistance. I f a tree f e l l across a t r a i l , the Indians seldom attempted to remove i t , but simply looped a new t r a i l around the end of the windfall. When the white man came to the Shuswap region the country was f u l l of Indian t r a i l s , for although the Shuswap Indians were noted for their canoes, they possessed horses and did much of their t r a v e l l i n g by land. Gradually, after the coming of the railroad, t r a i l s were widened and waggon roads were b u i l t radiating out from the railroad stations to the adjacent areas occupied by homesteaders. The waggon roads at f i r s t were very primitive. The timber was slashed and the stumps were pulled from an area just wide enough to permit the passage of a waggon. Corduroy (logs l a i d close together across the road) was put i n the marshy spots. Gradually the roads were improved, but no matter how fast and how well the waggon roads were b u i l t , the settlers s t i l l shouted for more. Typical of the complaints i s the following l e t t e r published i n the Inland Sentinel i n 1894: - 33 -I see by your l a s t issue that one speaker at a public meeting, said the government had done a l o t for the country i n building roads, bridges and other works. If that gentleman would take a t r i p through the Salmon Arm valley, he would be convinced of the smallness of the benefit Salmon Arm valley has received from the government. This valley i s settled for over nine miles, and a l l i t has to boast of i s a road on one side of the r i v e r and another small branch road a mile long, with a bridge, which i t takes expert swimmers to cross... and the roads are best described as the "rocky roads to Dublin"....I would l i k e to say, we pay our $11 every year for taxes, and what for? If i t i s to build parliament buildings, then I say we want men that w i l l vote against such a measure. "A Settler" 5 Often groups of settl e r s , having waited i n vain for the government to provide access to their land, would cooperate i n cutting new t r a i l s or primitive roads that would l i n k their holdings with the existing roads. Once b u i l t , these new roads were generally taken over by the government crews, which were not only being constantly called upon to open up new roads but had also to spend much of their time i n maintaining and improving the already established routes. Gradually these l o c a l roads spread over a wider area and began to connect the major centres of settlement. By 1887 there was a narrow and rough road between Sicamous and 3 June 1st, 1894, p . l . - 34 -Enderby'S by 1892 the public highway leading east out of Kamloops was extended from Duck's (now Monte Creek) to Chase's; i n 1898 the road between happen Siding and Notch H i l l was finished; and by 1900 there was a road 23 miles long joining Shuswap Pra i r i e and Kualt, climbing upon the plateau and then through Back (Skimiken) Valley to Kualt. Roads b u i l t as part of logging operations were a boon to some settlements. The Adams River Lumber Company b u i l t good roads between L i t t l e Shuswap Lake and the foot of Adams Lake; and again from the head of Adams Lake up to Turn-Turn Lake. The settlers at Blind Bay i n 1904 used an old logging road to travel to the railroad station at Notch H i l l . The settlers i n the growing communities on the North Shore, needed not only a road paral l e l i n g the lakeshore to join the settlements together but also improved means of crossing to the south shore. There were two main crossings of Shuswap Lake used by the North Shore residents, and over the years the government provided f a c i l i t i e s on both these routes. One crossing was at Squilax on L i t t l e River. Originally the settlers wishing to cross here were dependent on an Indian and his dugout canoe. In 1921 a government ferry was installed at Squilax, greatly f a c i l i t a t i n g travel between the North Shore settlements and those on the south side of the lake. In 1930 this ferry was replaced by Squilax Bridge (see picture next page), which crosses L i t t l e River 4 Lequime, Bernard, "Over the Penticton T r a i l " , Okanagan Histo r i c a l Society Seventh Report, 1937, p.19-- 34a -Squilax Bridge, spanning L i t t l e River which, flows from Big Shuswap Lake into L i t t l e Shuswap lake. - 35 -a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e h e i g h t and h a s a l i f t s p a n . T o d a y t h i s l i f t s p a n i s n e v e r u s e d , b u t when t h e b r i d g e was b u i l t t h e r e was s t i l l s t e a m b o a t s e r v i c e u p i n t o Shuswap l a k e . U n d e r -s t a n d a b l y t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e s t e a m b o a t i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d t h e b r i d g e w i t h s u f f i c i e n t c l e a r a n c e f o r h i s s t e a m b o a t t o p a s s u n d e r . P r o m 1915 u n t i l 1 9 5 7 t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t e d a f r e e f e r r y b e t w e e n S o r r e n t o ( n e a r B l i n d B a y ) t o S c o t c h G r e e k , g i v i n g t h e N o r t h S h o r e r e s i d e n t s a n a l t e r n a t e r o u t e a c r o s s t h e l a k e . I n 1957 t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t d i s c o n t i n u e d t h i s f e r r y s e r v i c e , p r o m i s i n g i n i t s s t e a d a good h a r d -s u r f a c e d r o a d r u n n i n g a l o n g t h e N o r t h S h o r e f r o m S q u i l a x B r i d g e e a s t w a r d t o w a r d s A n g l e m o n t . (By 1 9 6 1 t h e h a r d -s u r f a c i n g h a d r e a c h e d G e l i s t a 16 m i l e s e a s t o f l i t t l e R i v e r , and by 1963 a l m o s t t o Magna B a y . ) T h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s t r i c t , t h e p i o n e e r r o a d s v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n w i d t h and i n q u a l i t y . The p u b l i c h i g h w a y b u i l t b e t w e e n D u c k ' s and C h a s e ' s i n 1892 was 33 f e e t w i d e ; l e s s i m p o r t a n t r o a d s w e r e o f t e n j u s t w i d e e n o u g h t o a l l o w t h e p a s s a g e o f a s i n g l e waggon o r s l e i g h . The c h a n g e i n s e a s o n s a f f e c t e d t r a v e l by r o a d . I n t h e summer, t h e d u s t o n t h e r o a d s c o m b i n e d w i t h p o t h o l e s and w a s h b o a r d s o m e t i m e s made t r a v e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e . By c o n t r a s t , t h e h a r d - p a c k e d snow i n t h e w i n t e r , c o v e r i n g a s i t d i d t h e u n e v e n n e s s e s on t h e r o a d s u r f a c e c a u s e d b y p o t h o l e s , r o c k s , o r b y s t r a y p i e c e s o f - 36 -stumps and roots, made travel by sleigh almost a pleasure. In times of heavy rains, or spring thaws, however, some of the roads would become almost impassable, with glue-like "gumbo" into which the horses and waggon wheels would sink. When the roads dried out, these deep ruts cut when they were soft l e f t them f a r from attractive. At the outbreak of war i n 1914 p r a c t i c a l l y every home-steader i n the far-flung settlements had a passable road near his holding. But the war-caused loss of population and the noticeable s h i f t of the remaining people from outlying areas towards the larger centres i n the Shuswap region posed problems for the Public Works. Department. The 1917-18 Report of the Department describes i t s dilemma: As the mileage [of roads] has been greatly increased during the past few years, the Department must be prepared to spend an increasingly greater annual sum to properly maintain par t i c u l a r l y the main roads i n order to protect the i n i t i a l capital outlay. The regular upkeep of roads through sparsely settled d i s t r i c t s for the express benefit of only one or two settlers, whose neighbours had abandoned their ranches and either enlisted or removed to towns, w i l l continue to be a drain on our fin a n c i a l resources u n t i l times become more normal and the land i s more thickly settled.... Few settlers are coming i n to take the places of the young and strong who have l e f t ; consequently, many of the roads which were b u i l t i n "the "boom" days have few, i f any, settlers adjacent to them. It i s very - 37 -d i f f i c u l t to decide whether we are j u s t i f i e d i n even keeping them i n r e p a i r . I f we do not keep them open, i t would look as i f we were abandoning the country to i t s f a t e . . . . Cur road appropriations, instead of being diverted to the construction and maintenance of such [ s e t t l e r s ' ] roads, should be almost wholly concentrated upon a comprehensive road system connecting up a l l the 5 centres of population and i n d u s t r i e s . . . . As t h i s report foreshadows, a f t e r the end of the war much more money and e f f o r t was devoted to b u i l d i n g the province-wide highway system which the great increase i n automotive transport soon made mandatory. At the same time, l e s s a t t e n t i o n has been paid to the s o - c a l l e d " s e t t l e r s ' roads", although i n the Shuswap area there i s s t i l l an amazing t o t a l mileage of these kept graded i n the summer and snow-ploughed i n the winter. During the l a s t t h i r t y years great improvements i n highway l o c a t i o n , construction and maintenance have taken place i n the Shuswap region, e s p e c i a l l y on the Trans-Canada Highway. This slow but constant improvement i n roads and water routes i n the Shuswap area has been most important to the farmers, f o r sometimes these improvements have made i t economically f e a s i b l e f o r them to grow and market c e r t a i n crops. Despite such changes, the Shuswap a g r i c u l t u r a l 5 P. C8. - 38 -economy s t i l l labours under one of i t s main drawbacks -sheer physical distance from any sizeable market. And this same physical distance has over the years affected such other Shuswap industries as lumbering. - 39 -Chapter Four The F i r s t Homesteaders The f i r s t few years i n any newly-settled community were d i f f i c u l t ones for the pioneers, for they were confronted with many problems, some familiar but others unfamiliar, and their success or f a i l u r e i n coping with these problems had much bearing on the rel a t i v e prosperity of the area and on i t s subsequent rate of growth. The l i f e of persons who arrived l a t e r was usually not as d i f f i c u l t , for they benefitted from the experience of these e a r l i e r s e t t l e r s . Homesteaders around the Shuswap lake had their share of d i f f i c u l t i e s . While the climate was conducive to many types of agriculture, good land was not abundant and there were d i f f i c u l t i e s i n securing t i t l e to i t . Most of the land was heavily timbered and hence required a great deal of labour i n clearing before farming could be started. There was, moreover, the"ever-present problem of communication i n a country which was forested, had broken topography, and i n which the settlements (whose location was largely dictated by the presence of arable land) were i n scattered pockets. The construction of the Canadian Pa c i f i c Railway through the Shuswap area i n 1885 was not i n i t s e l f responsible for an influx of would-be homesteaders into the region. True, the railway provided excellent land communication, but good communication by water had been afforded since 1870 by the - 40 -steamers running from K&TTilQi.ops up the Shuswap Lakes to Mara Lake, and up the Spallumcheen River to the present-day site of Enderby. Had there been any communities i n these years on Shuswap Lake, these steamships could have provided them with the necessary communication with Kamloops or Savona. Construction of the railway did generate a certain increase i n a c t i v i t y . In 1884 a tote road was b u i l t from Revelstoke to Eagle Pass Landing on Shuswap Lake. This landing, now known as "Old Town" and situated across the bay from Sicamous, was used for the trans-shipment of supplies, both to and from the east. When the railroad tracks were being l a i d along the south shore of Shuswap Lake, many steamship runs were made from Savona and Kamloops bringing i n materials and supplies to points along the right-of-way. Moreover, the building of the railroad called for quantities of ties and lumber, and much of this demand was f i l l e d by lumber cut near the route of the railroad. Once the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed (the l a s t spike being driven i n November 1885 at Craigellachie i n Eagle Pass), most of this new a c t i v i t y died down. True, there were certain nodes of settlement around railway stations such as those at Sicamous (see picture next page), whence road and water routes led to the Spallumcheen and the Okanagan further south, and at Salmon Arm with i t s f e r t i l e hinterland. Notch H i l l was a railway settlement of a specialized kind. -In the 9*12 miles between Tappen and Notch H i l l , the railroad climbs 531 feet, reaching TIluS. (o ~ Yiew of Sicamous today, looking south. Mara Lake at upper right, Eagle River at lower l e f t . Note new highway. - 41 -a maximum grade of 1.57%. The relative steepness of this grade required the use of ptfiBher steam engines from 1885 u n t i l the advent of dieselization between 1955 and 1956.^ These pusher engines were stationed at Notch H i l l and the men of the engine and maintenance crews often took up homesteads i n close proximity to their employment. Even though the coming of the railroad brought these small settlements around i t s stations and made i t possible for farmers around Salmon Arm to ship fresh f r u i t s , vegetables and dairy products to markets i n the Rockies and on the Prairies, i n the f i r s t f i f t e e n years of operation the Canadian Pa c i f i c did not bring many settlers into the Shuswap area. In 1891 there were only forty settlers i n the v i c i n i t y of the v i l l a g e of Salmon Arm and i n the Salmon River valley, most of whom were very recent a r r i v a l s . The Shuswap country had to wait u n t i l external conditions changed before large numbers of settlers came into the area. The worldwide depression started l i f t i n g around 1896 and soon after the large immigration from Europe began. About the same time land hunger i n Ontario and the v i r t u a l end of free homestead land i n the United States forced many people i n these areas to look to the northwest for their opportunity to obtain free land. It was i n this era that the number of settlers coming into the Shuswap area increased substantially. 1 Information i n l e t t e r from the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, February 4, 1964. 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, Sessional Papers 1891» Dept. of Agri-culture Report, p.748. - 42 -The f i r s t a r r i vals i n any area naturally take the best land for their homesteads. Such was the practice i n the Shuswap area. To find where good land attracted the earl i e s t homesteaders, one finds helpful the records of the f i r s t openings of school d i s t r i c t s . The chronological l i s t of schools opened i n the Shuswap region up u n t i l 1910 i s as follows: 1883 - Shuswap Prairie 1891 - Salmon Arm 1894 - Deep Creek (south of Salmon Arm) 1897 - Notch H i l l 1899 - Kualt (moved to Tappen Siding 1900) 1901 - Canoe Creek 3 This evidence should be used with caution. Although the establishment of a school indicates a settled community, the records of school openings give no indication of transient adult populations such as one finds i n construction or logging camps-. Moreover, school attendance s t a t i s t i c s f a i l to indicate the presence of childless adults, or of families with children homesteading i n isolated areas where a minimal school attendance of six could not be mustered. These l a t t e r families are referred to i n the 1904 Annual Report of the Department of Education: There are...also many isolated parts of the country being taken up by settlers and school accommodation being asked for. In most of these the opening of schools i n the near future i s rendered unwarranted, because of the absence of roads, poor roads, the great distances separating the people, or, what i s sometimes a greater obstacle, the people's unwillingness to send their children regularly to a school b u i l t i n the centre of the settlement. - p.A46. - 43 -1902 Dolan's Corners (near Salmon Arm) 1902 Silv e r Creek (11 miles southwest of Salmon Arm) 1909 - C a r l i n Siding 1909 - Chase 1910 - Seymour Arm North Shuswap Sicamous A glance at the location of these early schools makes i t plain that settlement had indeed occurred f i r s t i n the best agricultural lands close to communication. Gradually settlement spread hack from the lakeshore and the Canadian Pa c i f i c mainline into the few f e r t i l e valleys and up onto the henchlands. Always, the lack of roads held hack settlement i n these more remote areas, hut newcomers (mainly from Eastern Canada and the Western United States) kept arriving and these, i n th e i r quest for free land, often started homesteading beyond the existing roads. The f i r s t -class land having been taken up by the early settlers, these newer arrivals had to be content with less desirable s o i l . By 1902 i t was reported that settlers were taking up land which a few years previous would have been considered unsuitable for farming^ and which too often, indeed, did prove unable to support a family. 4 Canada, Sessional Papers 1903, No. 10; Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, p.77. - 44 -One of the vexatious problems faced by the early settlers on both sides of the lake was the delay and d i f f i c u l t y often experienced i n acquiring t i t l e to their land. Much of this delay was due to the fact that the Shuswap Lake area (with the exception of the very t i p of Seymour Arm and the upper half of Adams Lake) lay within the so-called "Railway Belt" of B r i t i s h Columbia. This was a s t r i p of land, twenty miles wide on either side of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway (see map on following page) which had been set aside by the province as a subsidy for the building of a railway. Because l i t t l e of the land was f i t for settlement, the Canadian Pa c i f i c Railway Company refused to accept the Belt as part of i t s subsidy. Accordingly, the dominion government took over t i t l e to the Railway Belt and the Canadian Pa c i f i c Railway was given instead additional arable land i n the Northwest Territory. The Settlement Act of 1884 (between the dominion and provincial governments) made reasonable provision for settlers coming into the Railway Belt: (h) The Government of Canada s h a l l , with a l l convenient speed, offer for sale the lands within the railway belt upon the mainland, on l i b e r a l terms to actual settlers; and -(i) Shall give persons who have squatted on any of the said lands, within the railway belt on the mainland, prior to the passing of this Act, and who have made substantial improvements - 45 -thereon, a prior right of purchasing the lands so improved at the rates charged to settlers 5 generally. Unfortunately the Government of Canada did not move "with a l l convenient speed", and thousands of applications for land piled up i n the office of the Agent of the Dominion Government i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The B r i t i s h Columbia government complained loudly about what seemed a deliberate attempt to discourage settlement i n the Railway Belt. F i n a l l y , as a result of the province's complaints, i n May 1886 a federal Order-in-Council was passed under which the more generous provisions of the Dominion lands Act were extended to the Railway Belt 7 of B r i t i s h Columbia. It was expected that this measure would speed up the granting of t i t l e s but a lands Act clause, l i m i t i n g the privilege of homestead entry to surveyed agricultural lands, raised problems when applied to B r i t i s h Columbia. On the Prairies, where large areas could be surveyed i n a short time, the surveyors were generally able to keep ahead of the flood of homesteaders; i n the Railway Belt of B r i t i s h Columbia, with i t s more rugged topography and with the 5 Canada, Statutes 1884. Chap. 6. 6 For more details of this complicated question, see C a l l , Robert, Disposal of Crown lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vol. 1, M.A. thesis, U.B.C., 1956, pp.281-290. 7 B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette, May 27, 1886, p.165. - 46 -added complications of e a r l i e r , provincially-granted land t i t l e s based on a different surrey system, the systematic survey of the region was slow. In 1896 the Dominion Lands Agent commented: Letters of enquiry constantly being received.... One of the chief d i f f i c u l t i e s i s to have ready a - considerable area of surveyed land to which I can direct strangers. Nearly a l l the agricultural land i s taken up as soon as surveyed, and frequently i n advance.... ^  Many homestead entries were held up for years u n t i l a survey could be made of the property involved. In such cases, too often the boundaries of a squatter's homestead turned out to have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the survey lines of the township grid. The two aforementioned d i f f i c u l t i e s facing the incoming s e t t l e r - finding arable land and obtaining t i t l e to i t - were combined i n the Shuswap area with a third problem, that posed by the existence of timber berths. The timber berths were huge tracts of land, sometimes as large as t h i r t y - f i v e square miles, which were held by timber Q companies even though the Crown retained t i t l e to the land. After the limited amount of arable land i n the public domain had been taken up by the e a r l i e r settlers, would-be settlers kept on arriving i n increasing volume u n t i l the 8 Canada, Sessional Papers 1896, No. 10, Department of the Interior Immigration Report, p.147-9 For background of timber berths, see pp.83-9. - 47 -outbreak of "war i n 1914. Where could these people find the free land they had heard so much about? Many of them discovered unoccupied arable land within the timber berths and promptly settled there, even though they were-trespassing. In time, the problem of these "squatters" on timber berths became acute. Peeling ran high on both sides. The holders of the timber berths disliked seeing settlement anywhere near their berths for with i t came a greatly increased likelihood of forest f i r e s , either accidental or deliberate. On the other hand, the settl e r s , anxious to acquire land, could not understand why the arable land i n the timber berths should remain unoccupied, especially i f the timber on the arable land had already been logged off or burned over. This c o n f l i c t of interests became so serious i n the Shuswap area and the Columbia Elver valley that i n June 1909 a reservation was put on the land, pending a thorough investigation by the government of the timber berths i n the area and the taking of an inventory of the arable land they contained. During the next few summers teams of surveyors went into the regions, carefully examining the timber berths. They cruised the timber on them (the old rule s t i l l applied that a quarter section must have at least 80,000 feet B.M. Of timber on i t i f i t was to be c l a s s i f i e d as timber land). Where arable land was found i n the berths, the surveyors reported the probable use to which -such land should be put -- 48 -f r u i t farming, dairy farming, mixed farming. In 1913, after the completion of this survey, large amounts of arable land were withdrawn from the timber berths and opened for s e t t l e -ment. The s t a r t l i n g increase i n the extent of land l e g a l l y held by settlers i s shown by a comparison of the accompanying land use maps of 1911 and 1913- One question persisted even after the resurvey of the timber berths - what r e a l l y constituted arable land? In i t s 1915 report, the Dominion Forest Service recorded the attempt of one of i t s o f f i c i a l s to answer this question: It i s considered to be the duty of the Government to take upon i t s e l f the guardianship of the future of these people [incoming set t l e r s ] instead of encouraging them to waste years of their l i f e i n unprofitable pursuits. This can best be done by excluding poor lands from settlement. By "poor lands" I mean areas...which are at high elevations, generally over 4,000 feet, where frost occurs every month of the year, and on which only hay can be raised, and that successfully only i n limited quantities i n small sloughs and meadows. There has been i n many cases a succession of entries and abandonments of lands of this class. Encouragement of settlement on such areas i s surely a mistaken policy which must inevitably retard the permanent prosperity of the country through the bad name given to the whole d i s t r i c t by d i s s a t i s f i e d settlers who have moved elsewhere. Placing lands of this ? / / Department of tae I n t e r i o r Canada 1911 B r i t i s h Columbia Railway B e l t ( s c a l e 3 m i l e s = 1 inch) Legend Tra i l s Tra i ls su rveyed Post Of f ices R a i l w a y S t a t i o n s R a n g e numbers . Townsh ip n u m b e r s Homesteads patented and Homesteads entered for and unpatented . S a l e s , S p e c i a l g r a m s . M i n i n g Lands dales O L a n d s disposed of b y Provincial Government 2 3 Forest Reserves and Parks 4 2 T imber B e r t h s G r a z i n g L e a s e s . I n d i a n R e s e r v e s - 49 -class i n forest reserves w i l l exclude this unprofitable settlement, and at the same time leave the way open for the f u l l e s t use of any resources they may contain."^ Although the problem of the squatter was less acute after 1913, i t did not disappear. In 1921 a homestead inspector made some illuminating i f indiscreet comments about squatters: As far as I know, Mr. Hebert i s the only Canadian born squatter we have i n the Kamloops D i s t r i c t and although I did not see him when on the ground I am s a t i s f i e d from what I heard of him that he i s a much better c i t i z e n than his Missourian neighbors who went into this timber when i t was i n i t s v i r g i n state and staid there i n spite of a Court Order for them to vacate, and who no doubt were at least i n d i r e c t l y responsible for the bush f i r e that destroyed so much of this timber. Hebert -is undoubtedly a better c i t i z e n than the Bolshevik Infidel Finns who are squatting on T.B. 528 and T.B. 239-No doubt i t i s wrong for these people to attempt to take i l l e g a l possession of this land, but i t seems too bad to allow the foreign trash to do so and eject one of our own citizens ."^ 10 Canada, Sessional Papers 1915, No. 19, Part 2, p.73. 11 Prom microfilm of Dominion Timber Berth f i l e 34053-B, #2, November 4, 1921, Central Microfilm Bureau, Parliament Buildings, Victoria. - 50 -One of the characteristics of a pioneer agricultural community such as that which existed i n the Shuswap area i s the large number of people who spend only a few years i n the region, build a cabin of sorts, clear an acre or two of land, and then decide to " p u l l up stakes" and move on. A number of reasons can be advanced for some of this movement. Sometimes, as we just noted, people take up land where there i s absolutely no hope of successful farming. After one or two years of struggle, of trying to grow crops, the d i s p i r i t e d family packs up i t s few belongings and moves elsewhere to try i t s luck again. Some people, even though they have settled on good land, find that they are not capable of the long arduous days of t o i l required to clear a homestead i n timbered areas, and these soon give up, leaving behind 12 "two acres cleared and 158 acres of firewood". Other people are chronic fa i l u r e s , unable to cope successfully with the problem of making a l i v i n g no matter where they are. Such people began their adult l i v e s by f a i l i n g to f i t into the more settled, more r i g i d pattern of existence i n their native Eastern Canada or United States, and perhaps came out to the Prairies. After one year on the Prairies, especially i f the winter was a hard one, they were ready to move on to B r i t i s h Columbia. The Shuswap area, with i t s delightful scenery and climate, looked, very attractive, especially after their Prairie sojourn. Here, 12 Prank Eappel's description of the property of a fellow homesteader c. 1912. - 51 -l i f e seemed easier, and the area offered the additional attraction of abundant f i s h and game. But soon this type of person was again on the move, having f a i l e d once more, but s t i l l pathetically hopeful that his "luck" would change in some other area. A well-known American geologist, dealing with the western United States i n the nineteenth century, gives an escellent description of these restless, inadequate people, sustained by their u n r e a l i s t i c f a i t h that they would succeed i f only they could find the right place. When I had breakfasted I joined Mr. Newty i n his t r i p to the corral, where we stood together for hours, during which I had mastered the story of his years since, i n 1850, he l e f t his old home i n Pike of Missouri. I t was one of those histories common enough through this wide West, yet never f a i l i n g to startle me with i t s horrible lesson of social disintegration, of human retrogression. ...that restless s p i r i t which has dared, to uproot the old and plant the new [is ] admirable, i s poetic, i s to f i l l an immortal page i n the history of America; but when, instead of wresting from new lands something better than the old can give, i t degenerates into mere weak-minded restlessness, k i l l i n g the power of growth, the ideal of home, the faculty of repose, i t results i n that race of perpetual emigrants who roam as dreary waifs over the West, losing possessions, love of l i f e , love of God, slow dragging from valley 13 to valley t i l l they f a l l by the wayside.... ^  13 King, Clarence, Mountaineering i n the Sierra Uevadas, 1871. - 52 -Although the Shuswap area i n the early days had i t s share of these restless migrants, i t also attracted many excellent settlers able and w i l l i n g to work hard to carve farms out of the forest. The clearing of land was the most formidable task facing the settlers i n the Shuswap area, and i t was one to be avoided, i f at a l l possible. Settlers who had some capital (there were never many of these i n the Shuswap country) could often buy a p a r t i a l l y or f u l l y cleared, property and start farming immediately. But newcomers with few or no funds often had no choice but to clear timbered land. A report of the Department of the Interior indicates the degree of their handicap: A s e t t l e r entering upon land that requires to be cleared of timber before i t can be cultivated i s " starting out badly handicapped i n the race for success. It costs...in B r i t i s h Columbia from one hundred to fiv e hundred dollars per acre, and, as these lands are invariably only taken up by settlers with l i t t l e or no capital to start with, very slow progress towards earning support from 14 the land i s made. The s e t t l e r on forested land f i r s t had to f e l l the trees. If the timber could be used for sawlogs, or poles, or t i e s , he was glad either to s e l l i t to a m i l l for cash (the proceeds helped to pay for the costs of clearing), or to trade i t to a m i l l In return for lumber with which to build his house and 14 Canada, Sessional Papers 1915, No. 18, p.133. - 53 -barn* After the merchantable timber was taken off, the rest of the growth was slashed. Often much of this smaller timber was made into cordwood, this being i n great demand i n the early days by both the Canadian Paci f i c Railway for i t s wood-burning locomotives, and by the steamboats operating on Shuswap lake. The standard price was S3.00 per cord delivered - either hauled to the railway stations or piled at points on the lake where steamboats stopped to take on f u e l . When a l l the usable wood had been salvaged, the rest of the slash was burned. The s e t t l e r then faced the r e a l l y gruelling work -pulling out the stumps. Sometimes he could afford stumping powder to blow the stumps apart. Sometimes he had a team of horses or oxen to hitch onto the stump puller. But i f he used these animals he encountered a new problem - that of securing feed for the animals. Often he had not suffi c i e n t land cleared to grow enough feed for his animals, yet the cost of buying and transporting hay to his new clearing might be prohibitive. There were some wild hay meadows around Shuswap lake where wild hay could be had.merely for the labour involved i n cutting, drying and transporting i t . But these meadows were few i n comparison with those i n various other parts of the Interior. Sometimes the s e t t l e r could afford to hire help i n clearing, or would exchange labour with a neighbor. Sometimes the settler had only the help of 'his wife and children. - 54 -Under such conditions, a man did well to clear a couple of 15 acres a year. With progress so slow i n clearing an area su f f i c i e n t to make a farm self-supporting, many settlers were forced to take outside jobs for part of the year i n order to earn enough to support their families. The lumber industry around Shuswap Lake was most important to the settlers as an occasional employer of their labour. Other se t t l e r s (on the North Shore and at White Lake) who had previously been miners at Phoenix, B r i t i s h Columbia, often l e f t their families on the partly-cleared farms for the winter and returned to work i n the mine to earn their grubstake f o r 16 the coming spring. Most of the settler s , i n order to earn the small but indispensable amount of cash they needed, had to be versatile and take whatever seasonal jobs were offered. Often, i f they could afford, to be away from their own farms at haying time, they would hire out as hay hands at the standard rate of "$1.00 a day and board". In l a t e r years, when much of the farm land had been cleared and was under cultivation, many settlers s t i l l continued to earn part of their income off the farm. This supplementary income was necessary for many farms proved to be marginal at the best of times. 15 Information from interview with the late Major C.W. Mobley of Sunnybrae. 16 Booklet Celis t a Pioneers, Kamloops, Kamloops Sentinel Ltd., 1943, p.3-- 55 -What was l i f e l i k e i n a pioneer community i n the 17 Shuswap region? The incoming settl e r ' s most pressing job was to build a home. The f i r s t cabin was l i k e l y to be a small, one-roomed one, for i t s construction had to be finished before winter set i n . The roof was generally of hand-split shakes (cedar was p l e n t i f u l i n the area) and extended out over a large porch. Usually the space between the logs was at f i r s t chinked with moss or lichen and l a t e r on, when the logs had shrunk, f i l l e d with a more permanent type of chinking such as moss and clay; a mixture of sawdust, flour and water; or even cement. A well-built log cabin of any size provided good shelter, and could be kept snug i n winter by the all-purpose, wood-fired cookstove. 17 The description I am giving i s based mainly on the North Shore community around Gelista, a typical settlement of homesteaders of limited means. Here, as i n other areas, many people had known each other before they arrived i n the d i s t r i c t . An early a r r i v a l would be favourably impressed by the country's p o s s i b i l i t i e s and would write enthusiastic l e t t e r s back to his friends encouraging them to j o i n him. I have gathered information from a number of people, among them Mrs. A. Beguilin (the f i r s t white woman to settle on the North Shore, arriving i n 1907); Mrs. Reedman (who settled at Blind Bay i n 1905); Mr. Prank Kappel (who took up a homestead on the lakeshore between Celista and Magna Bay i n 1912); and the late Major C.W. Mobley (who settled at Sunnybrae i n 1907)• Some of my remarks are also based on my own experiences in the mid-1930's i n a backwoods area of the Cariboo, four miles from the nearest road, where homesteads were being cleared and the homestead inspector was s t i l l an important o f f i c i a l . - 56 -The porch, served many purposes, especially as a handy storage area for items that had to be kept dry. The log wall of the porch would hold many nails from which hung a wide variety of a r t i c l e s - snowshoes, a few steel traps, assorted c o i l s of ropes, a storm lantern, perhaps a horse's bridle, big wash tubs, an axe and saw. Often a pair or two of antlers would be hung up near the gable, and a bearskin nailed up to dry. On the porch, or by the side of the cabin, would be a pi l e of firewood. The furnishings of the cabin differed, according to the background and personality of the owners. Sometimes there would be a few prized pieces of furniture, or dishes, or linen, which the s e t t l e r had brought with him into the wilderness. Sometimes there would be nothing but recent hand-made furnishings showing varying degrees of craftsmanship. Often the beds were made of chicken wire nailed to a pole frame and the mattresses were straw or hay - f i l l e d ones. There would be absolutely no conveniences such as running cold water - for years the housewife would carry buckets of water from the nearby creek, lakeshore or well. If there was a woman on the premises, the small cabin could be spotless, with starched lace curtains framing the small windows. Other cabins, especially those which were bachelors' establishments, were so dir t y and disordered as to defy description. One bachelor, an early s e t t l e r on the North Shore named Decker, had a cabin at the mouth of Meadow - 57 -Greek. He was noted i n the d i s t r i c t for his custom of not sawing and s p l i t t i n g and p i l i n g his winter wood supply outside his cabin, but instead of dragging a log into his " l i v i n g room" and, when his f i r e needed more wood, then and there sawing a piece off the log. In a few years, depending on the growth of a family, the progress made i n clearing land, and. especially on the importance the s e t t l e r attached to the size and comfort of his l i v i n g quarters, a larger log house - perhaps even a frame house - would be b u i l t , and the ori g i n a l log cabin be relegated to service as a chicken house or an additional storage area. At f i r s t the average homesteader would find that cash was very scarce, and the clothes of his family, the furnishing of his home and the equipment of his farm would r e f l e c t this shortage. The family's clothes would show a remarkable dependence on flour sacking and gunny sacking; and the furniture and farm equipment would be homemade as f a r as the settler's s k i l l s would allow. But when there were a few dollars to spare, soon the clothes, furniture and farm equipment would begin to r e f l e c t the result of long winter evenings spent poring, by the l i g h t of a candle or c o a l - o i l lamp, over Eaton's Mail Order Catalogue, along with the Bible, the favourite reading material of most pioneer homes. The diet of the s e t t l e r was limited at f i r s t , but fortunately the Shuswap country was f u l l of game animals and birds and had excellent fishing. As the s e t t l e r was - 58 -permitted to shoot game for food a l l through the year, he could keep his family i n meat. Once enough land had been cleared for a good vegetable garden to he planted and for suffic i e n t hay to he grown to feed a cow or two over the winter, the settler's meals showed much more variety. Vegetables could be kept for many months i n a root c e l l a r . This was a sort of half-buried small room with a roof made of small poles or planks over which was put an earth cover, from eight to twelve inches i n depth, which provided suffic i e n t insulation to protect the contents from freezing i n the winter and from heating i n the summer. The milk cows not only provided the family with milk, cream and butter, but also with excess cream which could be shipped to a creamery, bringing i n the much-coveted "cream cheque". Of course, chickens were a familiar sight on most farms, as were small berry patches and young orchards. Li f e was hard on a homestead for both man and wife, especially for those who had re a l ambition (a quality which was by no means universal among the settlers i n any area). The man had a never-ending series of chores awaiting him. In the spring and summer there was work to be done i n the f i e l d s - ploughing, seeding, cultivating, harvesting of various crops, and haying (with the homesteader trusting that the fine weather would last u n t i l he got his hay safely stowed away i n the hayloft). Then there were always other jobs - a new barn to be b u i l t , more land to be cleared, - 59 -fences to be attended to, or a supply of firewood to be cut for the winter ahead. But i n many ways the l i f e of a pioneer woman was even harder, for she not only had the housekeeping duties of cooking, washing and ironing (with no mechanical or e l e c t r i c a l aids), and the raising of the children, but usually she also looked after feeding the chickens and collecting the eggs, hoeing the vegetable garden, milking the cows, separating the milk and churning the butter. Mrs. A. Beguelin of Celis t a i s a fine example of 18 this type of pioneer woman. The Salmon Arm Observer on the occasion of the Beguelins' golden wedding anniversary, recalled how: Mrs. Beguelin was a w i l l i n g and t i r e l e s s helper of her husband as they were establishing a home on the bench behind Celista. She helped him i n his land-clearing and after cows were obtained she churned butter regularly. To market her butter and eggs from their flocks of hens, she was compelled to walk down the h i l l to the lakeshore, where the produce was sold to B i l l y Louie, who operated a boat on the lake. In f a i r weather or foul, she made the long arduous t r i p with a keg of butter balanced on her head and carrying a p a i l of eggs i n each hand. Hot every man was as lucky as Mr. Beguelin i n having such a helpmate. Pioneer communities generally had many more men than women. Significant i s a notice i n the Inland Sentinel 18 November 16, 1950. - 60 -of November 18, 1893 - "Wanted - Twenty-seven marriageable young ladies to pay a v i s i t to the Arm [Salmon Arm]. None need apply who do not want to take a rancher." Although most of the pioneers worked hard, they enjoyed the company of their neighbours and were generally ready to TO help them. Building bees, whether to replace a home or barn destroyed by f i r e , or to build a school or a community h a l l , were frequently held. From mites around the people would gather - the men with their tools, the women laden with food. Such bees not only accomplished much, but provided the social intercourse needed to offset the loneliness of l i v i n g i n isolated spots and the drudgery of hard manual labour. Purely s o c i a l occasions such as dances and community concerts were held chiefly i n the winter when the demands of farm work were less. People travelled long distances (even twenty or t h i r t y miles) to attend them. The modes of transportation varied - some people would walk to them; some would ride horseback, tieing their "party clothes" i n a flour sack behind the saddle (the clothes worn to these a f f a i r s ranged from f a i r l y s t y l i s h suits and dresses to freshly laundered work clothes); others would arrive i n horse-drawn waggons or sleighs, the bottom of which would be covered with a thick layer of hay upon which the people 19 Settlements differed. For example, Blind Bay had the reputation of being a peaceful cooperative community while i t s near neighbour, Sorrento, was divided. One person likened l i v i n g i n Sorrento to l i v i n g on top of a volcano, with frequent eruptions. - 61 -sat, warmly covered with, blankets. In the case of North Shore residents, i f the lake was ice-free boats were used, to get over to social functions at Notch H i l l or Blind Bay; i f the lake was frozen s o l i d , i t was easy for people to walk across or to ride i n a sleigh. Sometimes residents from these two settlements would cross the lake to attend gatherings at Celista. These dances and concerts were family a f f a i r s , with everyone down to the youngest child attending. When the younger children f e l l asleep, they were put i n an improvised pen at one end of the room. Often these a f f a i r s continued a l l night. The women would serve a substantial supper around midnight, and food would again be served just as the dawn was breaking. Then the people would start for home i n the c h i l l of early morning. Sometimes, i f the party-goers came from very far, they did much v i s i t i n g en route. The school held a very important place i n the community and was usually quite centrally located, for the pupils had to make their own way to school by foot or by horseback (this being long before the era of school buses and consolidated schools). In settlements without community ha l l s , the school served as a centre for social gatherings and religious services (when there were any). The post office was another gathering-place, especially when mail came i n only once or twice a week. In lakeshore communities many of the residents -made i t a habit to be down - 62 -at the wharf on. mail day to greet the boat, to see who was arriving and who was leaving, and to hear the latest news i n the d i s t r i c t - even i f they expected no mail and had no business to transact. The same type of gathering occurred at the post office of the inland communities. The year 1914 i s an important one i n the history of the Shuswap region, for i t marked the high tide of this type of pioneer settlement. With the outbreak of war new settlers no longer arrived i n the Shuswap area. The tide of settlement now began, i n fact, to ebb - men (especially 20 those who had been born i n Great B r i t a i n and s t i l l f e l t that i t was their r e a l home) were leaving for war service and their families were moving into a town or c i t y . The outbreak of war caused much reshuffling of the population in the Shuswap area - marginal, isolated farms were abandoned i n large numbers, and many of them have never been resettled. The people who did remain i n the area tended to concentrate around the established settlements. 20 It i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain accurate figures of the nationalities represented i n the area, hut one source gives the following percentages based on the nationality of the fathers of present-day farmers: Anglo-Saxon 60% European 27% Others 13% - N.D. Turnbull, B.K. Acton, E.D. Woodward, Agriculture in the North Okanagan V l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961, p.110. - 63 -The year 1914 also marked the end for a few years of the small influx of well-educated and moneyed English families into the area. Although this type of s e t t l e r was much more i n evidence i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia such as the Okanagan Valley, a few, attracted by the f r u i t ranching p o s s i b i l i t i e s , did reach the Shuswap area 1910-1914- (See pp.70-7). After 1918, while some men who had survived war service returned to their farms, others settled elsewhere. The population of the area remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c u n t i l the end of the Second World War when, i n common with most other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Shuswap region saw i t s population start to increase. - 64 -Chapter Five Development of Agriculture i n the Shuswap Area The story of the development of agriculture i n the Shuswap area i s an interesting and varied one. It i s not the story, l i k e that of wheat on the Prairies, of specialization i n the growing of one main crop and the recent consolidation and mechanization of the farms. It i s rather a story of t r i a l and error. It t e l l s of the attempt to find what crops would grow best with the d i s t r i c t ' s s o i l and climatic conditions. More especially, i t t e l l s of the quest to determine what crops could be marketed profitably. During the f i r s t few years when the homesteaders were engaged i n their f i r s t clearing, they li v e d at a subsistence l e v e l . But as soon as they were able to produce more dairy and poultry products, f r u i t and vegetables, than their immediate families required, and more hay and grain than their livestock needed, they had to look for buyers. For some items, l i k e dairy products, small f r u i t s and vegetables, there have been certain limited markets from the earliest days to the present. Different i s the tree f r u i t industry, which created excitement i n the Shuswap area especially i n the period 1905-1914. Hundreds of acres were planted i n orchards and the industry, despite fluctuations i n production - 65 -and i n market price, remained very important u n t i l the drastic winter of 1949-50 proved conclusively that the Shuswap region was too fa r north for successful large-scale production of tree f r u i t s . Dairying has always been a major agricultural industry around the Shuswaps, especially i n the valleys of Salmon River and of Deep Creek, south of Salmon Arm. Here, i n the f e r t i l e a l l u v i a l s o i l s , ground moisture conditions favour the growth of lush pasture and of forage crops. These valleys with their climatic and s o i l conditions were not only admirably suited for dairying, they were admirably placed to take advantage of some of the markets for dairy products opened up by r a i l . Being so close to the Salmon Arm railway station, the Salmon Valley farmers were able to ship their dairy products, including fresh milk, to railway centres and other settlements i n the mountains to the east. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i t s e l f provided a market for some of the Salmon Arm produce. For years the transcontinental passenger trains used to pick up a diner at Salmon Arm, and much of the food used on this diner was ohtained from the lo c a l farmers. Before the turn of the century there was talk about establishing a creamery at Salmon Arm, though i n 1902 the d i s t r i c t a griculturist reported that " i n consequence of the ready market for milk afforded by railroad hotels, dining - 66 -cars and points i n the mountains, there has been no pressing need for a creamery". 1 Not u n t i l 1915 was the Salmon Arm Cooperative Creamery Association formed and a creamery 2 opened. The story of the creamery has been one of almost constant growth, and i t s existence has proved an asset not only to farmers i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of Salmon Arm, but to homesteaders around Tappen and Notch H i l l , C e l i s t a and Magna Bay. Today dairying i s s t i l l important, especially i n the valley bottoms. With the exception of dairying and the tree f r u i t industry, the agriculture carried on around Shuswap lake can be described as "mixed". For many years (especially when the horse provided the main means of transportation), forage crops were important. Horses were used extensively in logging operations up u n t i l the Second World War, and the stables of the logging camps were a major market for these crops. Today forage i s s t i l l needed to winter-feed the beef cattle which are raised i n small numbers through the d i s t r i c t , and for the dairy cows. A few sheep have been raised in the past but today they are seldom seen, with one exception: i n the late spring large flocks, numbering about 2000, are driven from Falkland along the highway, across Squilax Bridge and up to summer pasture on Crowfoot Mountain behind Celista. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Agriculture Annual Report 1902, P-A33. 2 Doe, Ernest, A History of Salmon Arm 1912-1944, p.76. - 67 -After the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway service, farmers i n the valleys near Salmon Arm found a market for their potatoes and vegetables, as well as for th e i r dairy products, i n the mountain settlements, i n Kootenay mining camps and on the Prair i e s . Over the years there has continued to be a certain amount of truck farming carried on i n the region. The extent of this market gardening has, however, been severely limited by the high cost of transpor-tation i n outlying areas and by the lack of much irrigated, land. Except for the Chase f l a t s and the valleys of Salmon River and Deep Creek, where i r r i g a t i o n water can be obtained either by gravity or by pumping from nearby streams, Irrigation at reasonable cost i s not available i n most of the Shuswap area. In the absence of i r r i g a t i o n , the large-scale commercial production of vegetables i s a risky undertaking, for abnormally dry summers are sometimes experienced.. The growing of small f r u i t s , especially strawberries, has been f a i r l y important i n several areas for many years. During the last war, when the Japanese were evacuated from B r i t i s h Columbia coastal areas, about 400 settled around Celista and Magna Bay on the North Shore. Some of the men found work i n the woods and i n mill s , but others started to raise strawberries (before the war many of them had owned 3 Information contained i n l e t t e r from R. Bristow of Celista, November 1 1 , 1 9 6 3 -- 68 -berry farms i n the Lower Fraser Valley). When the war ended, being once more free to settle where they chose, the majority moved away. A. number of Japanese families remained at Magna Bay, however, working on th e i r berry farms. In 1948 these families shipped out 12,000 crates of strawberries but the severe winter of 1949-50 cut their output enormously. Some strawberries are s t i l l grown, but the amount i s small. In 1963 there were s t i l l about 40 Japanese at Magna Bay, but the young men and women leave to get advanced education, technical training or jobs. Strawberries and other small f r u i t s are grown i n the Salmon Arm-Sorrento area, and the production seems f a i r l y steady. Such crops can be grown on limited acreages, and they are often raised by part-time farmers or semi-retired people. The shipping of these highly perishable soft f r u i t s to markets on the Prairies has always been a problem, but much of this d i f f i c u l t y has been overcome since the opening of the Rogers Pass route permitted fast truck transport direct to Calgary and other Prairie centres. Salmon Arm and i t s surrounding d i s t r i c t s were for many years much better known for their tree f r u i t s than for any other agricultural product. The story of the tree f r u i t industry i n the region i s a fascinating one, with the early excitement and boom being followed by an extended period of reasonably profitable returns. Then, within the last f i f t e e n years, came a dramatic decline. - 69 -As early as 1891 the provincial Department of Agriculture noted that apples, plums and many small f r u i t s were doing extremely well around Salmon Arm, Shuswap, Notch Hi l l , and Tappen Siding. Many apple trees were planted on the bottom lands around Salmon Arm. They did not thrive there and soon the farmers found that the benehlands, despite a lack of i r r i g a t i o n , were more suitable for tree f r u i t r a i s i n g . Thus dairying gradually superseded the growing of f r u i t on the 4 bottom land. Around the turn of the century, f r u i t farming (more commonly known i n the early days as " f r u i t ranching") came to be regarded as a glamorous occupation, suitable for English gentleman farmers. Many people thought that f r u i t farming required but l i t t l e work, thinking that after the harvest the trees would look after themselves for the rest of the year and would return large, steady p r o f i t s . Helping to publicize f r u i t farming i n B r i t i s h Columbia were the prizes won by B r i t i s h Columbia f r u i t exhibited i n London, England. In 1904 a small exhibit was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Horticultural Society; i n 1905 a carload l o t won f i r s t prize; and i n 1906 a collection of B r i t i s h Columbia apples won gold medals from the Royal Horticultural Societies of England and Scotland. In 1909 J.T. Bealby published his 4 Doe, Salmon Arm to 1912. p.14. 5 Canadian Pacific Railway pamphlet, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1907, p.44. - 70 -c F r u i t Ranching i n B r i t i s h Columbia , which gave glowing accounts of fantastic yields from even the young orchards, and of the high p r o f i t s to be earned. Bealhy supplied many pictures of f r u i t farms i n a l l stages of development, often with a lovely lake i n the background. In London the Agent-General for B r i t i s h Columbia and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway were both very active i n publicizing the bright future of f r u i t ranching i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Shuswap Lake area had already proved that i t could grow excellent f r u i t . Moreover, i t had the advantage that, being i n an area of heavier r a i n f a l l than the Okanagan or the other Dry Belt regions, i t did not require expensive i r r i g a t i o n systems befnre orchards could be planted. The new excitement about f r u i t farming drove up the price of land. When the dominion government i n 1909-1913 reassessed the quantity and quality of the arable land around the Shuswap Lake, i t decided that, i n view of the relative scarcity of such land and i t s value when used i n f r u i t farming, the previous area allowed for a homestead (160 acres) was much too large. Accordingly, the Department of the Interior subdivided the more valuable land and offered i t i n parcels 7 of forty acres or less. 6 Published i n London by Adam and Charles Black. 7 Canada, Sessional Papers 1916, -No. 19, p.xxxix. - 71 -The fact that homesteaders are w i l l i n g to exercise their homestead privileges when they know that such comparatively small areas are a l l that they can expect to find adapted to farming operations i s easily explained when i t i s known that land i n the valley of Oanoe creek between the Larch h i l l s and mount Ida i s s e l l i n g at present from $100 per acre for uncleared land to $1,000 per acre for 8 lands planted i n orchards. It was i n this period (1910-1914), during the height of the fruitlands boom, that some families with means settled i n the area. Around Sorrento gathered a number of Montrealers, who had made their money i n the East but had been attracted by the beauty of the country and the lake, and were interested i n becoming gentlemen farmers. In the Canoe-Broadview area near Salmon Arm settled some well-to-do English people. Here and there large frame homes were b u i l t , with lovely furnishings brought out from former homes, with flower gardens and sometimes even a tennis court to remind one of the gracious l i v i n g enjoyed by the well-to-do i n the Old Country. Luring this f r u i t boom, the commercial p o s s i b i l i t i e s of acquiring large tracts of land and subdividing them into smaller f r u i t farms were not overlooked. Two instances of such large-scale promotion occurred on Shuswap Lake - the ventures of the Shuswap Lake Land and Development Company 8 Canada- Department of the Interior, Topographical Surveys Branch. Description of Surveyed Lands i n the Railway Belt of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ho. 1, p.112. - 72 -Limited at Sorrento* and of the Seymour Arm Fruit Lands Company Limited at Seymour Arm. g The Sorrento project started i n A p r i l 1909. At the beginning the main shareholders were: Walter S. Mitchell (Vernon fruitgrower) 40 shares Alwyn Constine (Salmon Arm farmer) 10 " Frank C. Haydock (Salmon Arm r e a l estate 6 11 agent) Each share had a face value of $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 . In May 1909 the directors of the Shuswap Lake Land and Development Company were l i s t e d as follows: President: R.W. Shepherd, B e l l Telephone Bldg., Montreal Vice-Pres. R.W. Tyre, Northern Insurance Company, Montreal Directors: H.A. McMurtry, Ogilvie M i l l i n g Company, Montreal J.O. Marchand, London & Lancashire Bldg., Montreal J.C. Simpson, Merchants Bank Bldg., Montreal 1^ The Kamloops Inland S e n t i n e l 1 1 noted the profitable consequences of having these Eastern capitalists, enter the Shuswap area: 9 Information on this company taken from Registrar of Companies microfilm 2414 (1897) i n Central Microfilm Bureau, Vi c t o r i a . 10 Mr. C. Joe Davidson, who lived at Sorrento for many years from 1911 on, said he never met any of these men at Sorrento, that they must have been interested i n the venture solely as an investment. 11 March 2 3 , 1909, p . l . - 73 -A wealthy syndicate of Montreal c a p i t a l i s t s i s purchasing large quantities of land around Shuswap Lake, Notch H i l l , i n several cases the prices being high. C. Baines w i l l receive $8000 for his improved, farm and orchard, 160 acres i n a l l . . - . I t i s rumoured that the C.P.R. w i l l shortly run their main l i n e along the lake shore. By 1910 the largest shareholder i n this company was J.R. Kinghorn, a wealthy Montrealer who had st e e l interests i n the Bast and close connections with the Head Office of the Canadian Pacific Railway. His participation i n the land company, and his building of a fine large home on the lakeshore at Sorrento (named by him after the scene of his honeymoon i n Italy) were generally taken as proof of an imminent relocation of the Canadian Pa c i f i c along the land company's lakefront holdings at Sorrento. (The steep grade between Tappen and Notch H i l l made such a relocation seem logical.) Eastern speculators who counted on this relocation and bought up shares i n Kinghorn !s company were mistaken -the Canadian Paci f i c i s s t i l l using i t s original roadbed. Although the Shuswap Lake Land and Development Company cleared a large amount of land i n the area and acquired water rights to Newsome Creek, i t sold few lots either i n i t s townsite by the lake, or i t s acreage farther back. In 1912 i t went into liquidation, transferring i t s assets to Shuswap and J J i l l o o e t Prultlands Limited i n return for $10,500 cash and $40,000 i n shares i n the new company. - 74 -A much, more ambitious venture was that undertaken by the Seymour Arm F r u i t lands Company Limited. The a r t i c l e s of association of this company were registered i n A p r i l 12 1911 and l i s t e d the following as shareholders: Wm. Eobins, Walkerville, Ont. Manufacturer 1 share James Henry Smith, Detroit, Mich. Merchant 1 " C.W. Hoare, Walkerville, Ont. Physician 1 " Sidney C. Robinson, Walkerville, Ont. Manager 1 " William Albert Read, Vancouver (number of shares not indicated) The company had- a capitalization of $500,000 and spent much of this money not only i n acquiring 6,500 acres at the north end of Seymour Arm (just outside the Railway Belt boundary) but i n clearing land, building a hotel and a store, providing a boat which made regular passenger and freight runs from Sicamous to the settlement - and i n advertising. A s l i c k , 32-page booklet was printed and widely d i s t r i -buted, giving the plans of the company, information about f r u i t growing as a commercial occupation, and many pictures, including some of the attractive site of the settlement, and others of large amounts of f r u i t being shipped i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Unfortunately some of the l a t t e r pictures w i l l not bear close scrutiny - i n one picture the name "St. Catherines' Cold Storage" i s evident; i n another, "St. Catherines, Niagara Palls and Buffalo". On every page 12 Registrar of Companies microfilm 400 (1910). - 75 -of the booklet appears the notation, "No Irrigation Required at Seymour Arm". The booklet mentions that a l l the land i n the f i r s t sub-division has been sold, but hastens to console i t s readers with news that land i s now being sold i n a second subdivision at $125.00 an acre for f r u i t land ( i f the purchaser desires the company to clear i t , the price i s to be increased by $50.00 an acre), and $100.00 per acre for "black, bottom land, suitable for celery". It i s interesting to note that so-called " f r u i t land" was valued more highly than black bottom land. The terms quoted were 20$ cash, with the balance i n four annual payments. A number of families moved to this new development, some of them having bought the land sight unseen. Much land was cleared, and at one time between sixty and seventy acres were planted i n apples. At f i r s t , the venture seemed to be a sound one, but within three years i t went into receiver-ship. The settlers started to d r i f t away, a trend accelerated by the outbreak of the F i r s t World War. As far as the s o i l was concerned, the company had chosen the site of i t s f r u i t lands well. Much of the land was f e r t i l e a l l u v i a l s o i l , and the r a i n f a l l was indeed sufficient to make i r r i g a t i o n unnecessary. Magnificent crops of vegetables and small f r u i t s were repeatedly grown, though hard freezes came frequently enough to demonstrate that the area lay a l i t t l e too far north for successful tree f r u i t farming. - 76 -The main cause for the fa i l u r e of Seymour Arm as a farming area, however, was Its distance from markets. The Seymour Arm settlement was 35 miles from the nearest road or railroad - 35 miles of travel down a lake which could he f a i r l y stormy at times and which, during the winter, was often frozen over. The boat service to Seymour Arm was infrequent, slow and expensive, and added much to the cost of supplies for the settlers as well as to the expense of marketing the produce of the area. A few families did remain at Seymour Arm, often eking out a l i v i n g by working i n logging camps. At the present time there i s s t i l l residing i n Seymour Arm Mr. Guy Collings, who arrived with his family i n 1910 and has lived there ever since. The story of the Collings and what they created i n Seymour Arm i s an interesting one, anl ty p i c a l of the well-educated, moneyed English who before the F i r s t World War settled i n so many out of the way corners of B r i t i s h Columbia. The father, Charles J. Collings, was a well-known English a r t i s t who suddenly ti r e d of the familiar English scene and wanted to escape to a country where there were open spaces and solitude. He f i r s t considered the Okanagan, but found i t s bare h i l l s i d e s too bleak. He then inspected Seymour Arm and decided to settle there with his wife and two sons. In this remote spot the Collings family over the years b u i l t a beautiful Tudor-style country home, complete with lawns, topiary garden, rose arbour, sundial and - 77 -ornamental pond. The sons of the family farmed, growing excellent small f r u i t , hut because of the transportation expense were unable to market It at a p r o f i t . From 1938 to 1943» as a f i n a l expedient, they operated on their farm the Seymour Arm Canning Company, canning their f r u i t or making jam out of i t . Guy Colllugs, the sole survivor of the family, s t i l l l i v e s i n the house and i s currently building an addition to i t , a b i l l i a r d room - something which, he 13 points out, the family always planned to have. Today Seymour Arm, s t i l l connected with the outside world only by boat, i s almost a ghost town. There i s a logging operation nearby, one or two settlers run a few head of beef cattle, and there are several small resorts. The only evidence of the settlement's former prosperity i s the deserted hotel bu i l t by the Seymour Arm Fruit lands Company, some derelict log cabins f a i r l y well hidden by the lush undergrowth i n what obviously were once large gardens, and the Collings mansion. Despite the f a i l u r e of these two land companies, the raising of tree f r u i t s continued for many years to be an important industry around the Shuswap area. At one time, there were 100 acres of apple trees i n the v i c i n i t y of Tappen, and 120 acres i n the Sorrento-Blind Bay area. In 1948 there were 1585 acres of tree f r u i t s and 200 commercial 14 orchards around Salmon Arm. 13 Information obtained i n interview with Mr. Guy Collings at Seymour Arm, August 1963-14 Trevor, H.W. and Ware, D'.W., Farm Organization i n the Northern Okanagan Valley B r i t i s h Columbia. 1952, pp.5-7. - 78 -U n t i l 1950 most of the f r u i t growers were able to make a l i v i n g , even though their orchards were mainly on the non-irrigated benchlands. The i n s t a l l a t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n systems had been considered but these were deemed not economically feasible, even though they would improve the y i e l d per acre. By 1946 the apple growers around Salmon Arm f e l t that the two packing plants i n that town (the Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange and the privately-owned Turner's) did 15 not have suf f i c i e n t storage capacity and so a much larger packing plant was b u i l t at Canoe by the Farmers' Exchange. The building of this large plant was badly timed for the winter of 1949-50 was the coldest i n f i f t y years. At one point the temperature f e l l to -40 F., and the minimum mean temperature for January at Salmon Arm was -13.45°F. Thirty-one percent of the f r u i t trees around Salmon Arm were winter-16 k i l l e d , and many more were badly damaged. The orchardists took stock of their situation. Parts of their orchards had been winter-killed before but had been replanted. - and i t was these younger trees that had suffered the most damage. They looked at the s t a t i s t i c s which showed that, over a four-year period, an acre of apple trees i n the Okanagan yielded an average of 650 boxes a year, but i n Salmon Arm only 215 boxes a year (mainly due to lack of 15 See page 79 for figures of apple production for the years 1942-1962 for the Salmon Arm-Sorrento area. These figures are taken from a l e t t e r of October 21., 1963 from the Provincial Horticulturist. 16 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Agriculture, Annual Report 1950. pp. BB101-2. - 79 -A p p l e P r o d u c t i o n 1 9 4 2 - 6 2 S a l m o n Arm - S o r r e n t o D i s t r i c t Y e a r P r o d u c t i o n ( i n b o x e s ) 1942 2 0 5 , 6 1 6 1943 2 0 0 , 3 2 9 1944 3 1 7 , 7 0 9 1945 2 7 4 , 7 2 4 1946 445,564 1947 3 3 4 , 1 3 7 1 9 4 8 2 8 4 , 1 5 1 1949 3 2 9 , 6 3 8 1 9 5 0 1 6 9 , 6 3 7 1 9 5 1 7 3 , 2 8 1 1 9 5 2 119 , 3 3 6 1953 110 , 3 7 5 1954 1 1 4 , 0 3 6 1955 8 6 , 2 6 9 1956 83 , 5 3 9 1957 8 0 , 7 6 2 1958 6 0 , 9 6 1 1959 2 6 , 8 6 1 I 9 6 0 3 8 , 1 0 9 1 9 6 1 31 , 3 7 2 1962 5 0 , 9 4 9 - 80 -17 i r r i g a t i o n . They, looked at their accounts, noting the re l a t i v e l y small payments they received, the rapidly r i s i n g cost of packing, the seemingly unwarranted wide spread between the payments they received and the r e t a i l prices paid by the consumer. They contemplated the cost of pulling out the dead trees, replanting, and waiting the usual ten years for a non—irrigated apple orchard to come to maturity. Weighing a l l these considerations, most of the orchardists decided to abandon the commercial production of apples and to turn to other pursuits. Often the farms, small and unirrigated, could not easily be used for other types of farming. Fortunately, logging was very active at this time and many ex-orchardists took jobs i n this industry. A few continued to grow tree f r u i t , but not many. By 1962 a l l the packing plants i n the area had closed down. Today those few remaining orchardists who wish to-market their f r u i t through a packing plant must 18 truck their produce forty miles south to Vernon. Ro doubt there would be greater agricultural production i n the Shuswap area i f profitable markets could be found. 17 B r i t i s h Columbia. Royal Commission on the Tree-fruit Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia, Proceedings, v o l . 2, p. 7-(Hearings at Salmon Arm, B.C., February 2, 1957). 18 Much of foregoing information obtained i n interview with Mr. and Mrs. B. Turner of Salmon Arm. - 81 -At the present, the distance from markets and the cost of transporting produce to them i s such that only larger farms i n favoured l o c a l i t i e s are r e a l l y profitable. A l l things considered, population pressure i n the province and the resultant demand f o r agricultural produce w i l l have to mount a great deal before the Shuswap becomes a more important agricultural area. - 82 -C h a p t e r S i x D e v e l o p m e n t o f L u m b e r i n g i n t h e Shuswap A r e a E v e r s i n c e t h e Shuswap c o u n t r y was f i r s t o p e n e d up w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c E a i l w a y , l u m b e r i n g h a s b e e n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y i n t h e a r e a ; a n d , i f t h e p r e s e n t e f f o r t s t o p u t t h e i n d u s t r y o n a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d b a s i s a r e s u c c e s s f u l , i t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be i m p o r t a n t . B e c a u s e t h e r e g i o n was a l m o s t e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e E a i l w a y B e l t , i t s f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e d o m i n i o n D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r u n t i l 1 9 3 0 . T h e n t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t o o k o v e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l l t h e l a n d s t i l l u n a l i e n a t e d i n t h e B e l t , and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r s e e i n g t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a r e a . B e c a u s e b y 1 9 3 0 much o f t h e t i m b e r l a n d i n t h e a r e a h a d b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o e i t h e r t i m b e r b e r t h s o r f o r e s t r e s e r v e s , i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o t r a c e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s e b e r t h s and r e s e r v e s b e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a c t u a l i n d u s t r y i t s e l f . C e r t a i n l y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s was a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e g r o w t h o f l u m b e r i n g i n t h e Shuswap a r e a . i U n d e r t h e S e t t l e m e n t A c t o f 1884 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n v e y e d , among o t h e r a r e a s , t h e m a i n l a n d R a i l w a y B e l t t o t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . To p r o v i d e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d s 1 C a n a d a . P a r l i a m e n t , S t a t u t e s o f C a n a d a 1 8 8 4 , 47 V i c t o r i a , C h a p . 6 , p p . 5 5 - 6 2 . - 83 -i n v o l v e d , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n 1886 p a s s e d " A n A c t r e s p e c t i n g c e r t a i n P u b l i c L a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " m a k i n g 2 p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n L a n d s A c t t o t h e R a i l w a y B e l t . T h i s f e d e r a l a c t c o n t a i n e d v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s c o v e r i n g t i m b e r a n d t i m b e r l a n d s . T h e s e s e c t i o n s h a d , o f c o u r s e , b e e n d r a w n u p w i t h o n l y t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s and M a n i t o b a i n m i n d . S i n c e a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e s e a r e a s w e r e t r e e l e s s , i t w a s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e f o r e s t e d a r e a s w o u l d be u s e d t o t h e b e s t a d v a n t a g e f o r t h e l a r g e number o f s e t t l e r s whom O t t a w a h o p e d w o u l d s o o n be a r r i v i n g t o o p e n u p t h e P r a i r i e s . (The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a d a l r e a d y s e e n , i n t h e D J c o t a s , how q u i c k l y t r e e d a r e a s c o u l d be d e n u d e d b y P r a i r i e r e s i d e n t s w a n t i n g wood f o r b u i l d i n g , f e n c i n g and f i r e w o o d . ) Thus i t was t h a t t h e l a n d A c t l i m i t e d t h e amount o f t i m b e r t h a t t h e s e t t l e r s c o u l d c u t f o r t h e i r own u s e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h e r e s u i t a b l e f o r e s t a r e a s d i d e x i s t , t h e A c t p r o v i d e d s p e c i a l i n d u c e m e n t s f o r t h e s e t t i n g up o f s a w m i l l s t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e h o m e s t e a d e r s a s u p p l y o f r e a s o n a b l y - p r i c e d l u m b e r n e a r b y . I t was t o e n c o u r a g e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s a w m i l l s t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n l a n d s A c t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s e t t i n g u p o f " t i m b e r b e r t h s " i n t i m b e r l a n d s . ( T i m b e r l a n d s w e r e d e f i n e d a s l a n d s t h a t c a r r i e d more t h a n 2000 f e e t B . M . p e r a c r e o f 2 C a n a d a . P a r l i a m e n t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s 1 8 8 6 , V o l . 1 , C h a p . 5 4 . - 84 -m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r . P T h e s e t i m b e r b e r t h s , w h i c h c o u l d be o f a n y a r e a u p t o f i f t y s q u a r e m i l e s , g a v e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r t h e r e o n t o t h e h o l d e r o f t h e l e a s e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e t i t l e t o t h e l a n d r e m a i n e d w i t h t h e G r o w n . A s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t f o r a t i m b e r b e r t h h a d " t o e r e c t , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e b e r t h l e a s e d , and t o h a v e i n o p e r a t i o n w i t i a t i m e [ u s u a l l y one y e a r ] p r e s c r i b e d i n t h e l e a s e , a saw m i l l o r m i l l s , o f c a p a c i t y t o c u t i n t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s a t h o u s a n d f e e t , b o a r d m e a s u r e , f o r e v e r y two and a h a l f s q u a r e m i l e s o f t h e a r e a l e a s e d . . . . " ^ The o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s w e r e n o t o n e r o u s - t h e l e a s e was t o r u n f o r one y e a r o n l y , b u t c o u l d be r e n e w e d i f t h e h o l d e r o f t h e l e a s e o b s e r v e d a l l r e g u l a t i o n s . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e l e a s e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y r e n e w e d y e a r a f t e r y e a r i n d e f i n i t e l y ; and t h e r e was no t e r m i n a l d a t e b y w h i c h t h e t i m b e r m u s t be r e m o v e d and t h e l a n d t u r n e d b a e k t o t h e C r o w n . The f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e l e a s e h o l d e r w e r e s m a l l - a n a n n u a l g r o u n d r e n t o f $5.00 p e r s q u a r e m i l e s , p l u s a r o y a l t y o f 5% o n t h e s a l e o f p r o d u c t s o f t h e b e r t h . I n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d 1 8 8 6 t h e r e w e r e q u i t e a f e w c h a n g e s i n t h e s e b a s i c r e g u l a t i o n s , b u t s e l d o m d i d t h e c h a n g e s w o r k a n y h a r d s h i p on t h e o w n e r s o f t h e t i m b e r b e r t h s . I n 1892 ( b e c a u s e t h e r e seemed t o be s u f f i c i e n t m i l l s t o s u p p l y b o t h t h e d o m e s t i c and e x p o r t m a r k e t d e m a n d ) , t h e c l a u s e 3 W h i t f o r d , H . N . & C r a i g , R . D . , F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O t t a w a , C o m m i s s i o n o f C o n s e r v a t i o n , C a n a d a , 1 9 1 8 , p.103. 4 S e c t i o n 70 ( a ) o f D o m i n i o n l a n d s A c t . - 85 -requiring the holder of a timber berth to erect a sawmill within one year and to keep i t i n operation for at least 5 six months a year was dropped. However, the Minister of the Interior was given discretionary power to demand that a sawmill be erected and be kept i n operation i f he f e l t i t was i n the public interest. There were changes over the years i n the regulations covering the acquisition of timber berths. At the beginning there were three ways i n which timber berths could be acquired. F i r s t , the right to cut timber on a certain berth could be offered at public auction, with the government maintaining an upset price. Secondly, the right to cut timber could be granted to a sole applicant. (Until 1899 timber berths could be granted, without competition, to sawmill owners.) Thirdly, the right to cut timber could be awarded by tender. By 1907 the dominion government realized that, with the growing demand for berths and the increasing value of timber, i t was not receiving an equitable return from their sale and so i t brought i n new regulations. From this date on, before a timber berth was offered for sale, a government timber cruiser checked the volume of the timber on i t . The upset prices became much more r e a l i s t i c . Since the cruiser';s estimate was made public, small companies or private individuals had useful guidance i n planning their bids. 5 Canada, Sessional Papers 1892, Mo. 9, Department of the Interior Report, p. x v i . - 86 -Heretofore, only the large companies with trained personnel to cruise the timber before the sales r e a l l y knew what they were bidding on. Furthermore, i n a move to increase the number of potential buyers, i t was decided to advertise l o c a l l y the future sales, and to hold the auction at the offi c e of the timber agent for the d i s t r i c t . After these changes were made, the government received bids much closer to the market value of the timber involved, resulting i n sharply increased income. Even after their prices rose, these timber berths were desirable properties, with r e l a t i v e l y low rentals, indefinite renewals, lack of obligation to work on them, and ready ve n d i b i l i t y (the required approval of the Minister of the Interior for transfer of rights to a berth seems to have been given as a matter of course. Speculators and trust companies found the timber berths attractive investments. lumber companies which owned many square miles of federal timber berths often preferred to hold these i n reserve while getting their logs from tracts they held under provincial leases. The 1910 B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Timber and Forestry6indicates why the provincial holdings were logged while the federal ones often were being held for future use. Almost a l l the provincial leases contained definite terminal dates or required actual operation on the areas under lease. These 6 F i n a l Report, pp. 2 4 - 2 5 -- 87 -terms forced the operators to remove the timber within a certain period. Moreover, there was a f i n a n c i a l advantage which made the operators log their provincial holdings before their federal ones. The annual ground rent of the provincial leases east of the Cascades was $115.00 per square mile; on dominion timber berths i n the same area i t was only $5.00. In view of a l l this, i t i s not surprising that at times fewer than t h i r t y percent of the dominion 7 timber berths were being logged. It i s not hard to explain the desire of the loggers to get tracts of forest adjacent to Shuswap Lake leased to them as timber berths. Proximity to lakes and navigable rivers greatly increased the value of a timber stand i n days when logs were hauled out of the woods by horses, and horses were 8 used extensively as late as 1937 i n the Interior . Certainly the Shuswap Lakes with 600 miles of shoreline supplied a major area of forest close to cheap transportation by water. Logs could be transported to Kamloops by water a l l the way from up the Shuswap River, from the top of Seymour and Anstey Arms and from Adams Lake. The Shuswap region provides a good example of the invasion of B r i t i s h Columbia by American lumber companies at the beginning of the century, a fact noted i n the 1911 7 Canada, S^P. 1912, No. 17, p.78. 8 Mulholland, 57.D., The Forest Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vict o r i a , King's Printer, 1937, p.117. - 88 -Report of the Department of the Interior: ...for the past ten years, millions of American capital have been invested i n acquiring Dominion timber i n the west. The lumbering business i s now largely i n the control of Americans, who have been forced out of Wisconsin, Michigan and parts of Minnesota, owing to these states being largely denuded of timber. These men had learned through experience that timber i s not an inexhaustible resource (a view s t i l l widely held by B r i t i s h Columbians), and had accumulated suffi c i e n t capital to move i n on a large scale. By 1910 the Columbia River 10 Lumber Company held f i f t y - e i g h t timber berths , t o t a l l i n g some 700 square miles i n the Shuswap-Columbia Yalley country. The Arrow Lakes Lumber Company, another American firm1"1", 12 had 900 square miles of timber berths on Shuswap Lake. As timber berths were supposed to revert to the Crown once the merchantable timber was removed, i t i s easy to see why the companies, once they had decided to operate on their dominion timber berths, were i n no hurry to complete the logging. In the Shuswap country there has been considerable 9 Canada, SUP. 1912, Ho. 17, p.78. 10 Dominion Timber Berth f i l e 34025A, #33. 11 Dominion Timber Berth f i l e 34053, #162. 12 The Truek Logger, A p r i l 1954, p.40. - 89 -selective cutting for poles and t i e s . Also, as regeneration and growth i s fast enough to permit the cutting of cedar poles i n twenty-five years after the f i r s t logging occurred, i t was i n the companies.' interests to hang on to their berths as long as possible. The companies, when logging, would often be careful to leave suffi c i e n t timber standing so that i t would average out to more than the 2000 feet B.M. per acre required for i t to be o f f i c i a l l y timber land. In the e a r l i e r days especially, f i r s t the Dominion Forest Service and then the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service were rather lax i n keeping a close check on the berths. There can be no doubt that the berths contained much land that had been logged off or burned over which, i f the regulations had been followed closely, would have been removed from the berths. This situation aggravated the c o n f l i c t between squatters and timber berth holders. (See pp. 47-49.) The Shuswap area has always suffered much from forest f i r e s . Many of these are caused by lightning strikes, the area having frequent e l e c t r i c a l storms i n the summer followed by i n s u f f i c i e n t r a i n to snuff out the newly-started f i r e s . The 1925-26 Eeport of the Dominion Forest Service mentions "the continued example of Shuswap being a bad f i r e place, with about 50% of a l l f i r e s due to lightning strikes. 13 Canada, Department of the Interior Annual Report 1925-26 Dominion Forest Service, p. 81. - 90 -With, the construction of the Canadian Pa c i f i c Railway and the settlement of the country, human carelessness added greatly to the number of f i r e s . In clearing the right-of-way for the railroad, the workmen would simply pile the slash to one side. Here i t lay, a perfect dry tinderbox waiting for a shower of sparks from a wood-burning locomotive and then exploding into flame. These f i r e s , often burning for weeks, covered tremendous areas u n t i l a combination of heavy r a i n and wind from the right direction put them out. A number of the dominion land surveyors i n their reports to the Department of the Interior, commented on how thick the smoke was for weeks on end, often making i t impossible for them to carry out some of their survey work. In 1888 one surveyor i n the Shuswap v i c i n i t y added: The destruction of the forests by f i r e which has been going on for several years, fortunately received a check during the past season....Should the same ratio of destruction continue, i n a few more years a l l the timber along the railway l i n e , and contiguous to settlement, w i l l be destroyed."^" Gradually, regulations were brought i n making i t mandatory that slash be properly disposed of, that fine wire mesh screens be installed at the top of the locomotive smokestacks to catch the sparks, and that f i r e patrols follow trains after a short interval to extinguish incipient f i r e s . These 14 Canada, S j P . 1889. No. 12, p.68. - 91 -measures, plus the introduction of coal-burning locomotives, greatly reduced the number of forest f i r e s caused by the railway. But other human agencies were not so easily controlled. Indians were known to start f i r e s deliberately to clear off timber, for wild berries grew very well i n burned-over areas, as did the young shrubs that provided feed for game animals such as deer. Settlers were responsible for f i r e s , both unintentional and intentional. Often f i r e s which had been started by settlers to burn slash or stumps got out of control. Moreover, i t was not unknown for would-be home-steaders, unable to get t i t l e for their land because of the existence of a timber berth, to set f i r e deliberately to the nearby timber so that the company could no longer claim that the affected area carried merchantable timber. The Dominion Forest Service, from i t s inception i n 1899, was very conscious of the need to do everything possible to reduce the forest f i r e losses. Even before this date, i n 1890 the Department of the Interior had circularized the owners of the timber berths, asking them to share the expense of maintaining forest rangers to guard 15 their berths from f i r e . The owners were happy to cooperate. In 1900 the f i r s t forest reserve was set aside. In his report for that year, the Chief Inspector of Timber and 15 Canada, S.P. 1891. No. 14, p.xv i i . - 92 -Forestry explained that, for the benefit of a l l , the reserves were set aside to arrest the destruction of timber and to regulate the cutting of timber. Two reserves i n the Shuswap area were set aside - the larch H i l l s Forest Reserve covering 43*50 square miles, and the Fly H i l l Forest Reserve of 219.39 square miles. The Dominion Forest Service was very active i n improving i t s f i r e - f i g h t i n g potential i n these reserves. Expense was not spared i n opening up thousands of miles 16 of access roads and t r a i l s through the timber lands and forest reserves i n the Railway Belt, i n building ranger cabins, establishing f i r e lookouts and providing telephone communication. Suitable stocks of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment were kept at strategic points and, as early as 1910, the Forest Service maintained a boat on Shuswap lake, with gratifying results noted by the Superintendent of Forestry: In the Notch H i l l and Shuswap lake d i s t r i c t s . . . no serious f i r e s occurred, and this fact I attribute largely to...foresight i n allowing me to keep the gasoline boat constantly patrolling the waters of Shuswap lake and Seymour Arm. Many f i r e s were discovered i n an incipient stage by 17 the ranger i n charge of the boat.... 16 B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Forestry 1945, Proceedings, Vol. 16, p.6326. 17 Canada, S.P. 1911, No. 16, Report of Superintendent of Forestry, p.32. - 93 -The R a i l w a y B e l t r e c e i v e d , i n . f a c t , much b e t t e r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n t h a n t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , more money b e i n g s p e n t and f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . O n l y i n 1 9 0 6 - 0 7 d i d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t b e g i n s p e n d i n g p u b l i c 18 money t o p r o t e c t p r o v i n c i a l t i m b e r e d a r e a s . H o w e v e r , t h e p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s w e r e n e v e r p r o v i d e d on a n a d e q u a t e s a c a l e and when t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e t o o k o v e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e R a i l w a y B e l t t i m b e r l a n d s f o l l o w i n g t h e 1 9 3 0 a g r e e m e n t , i t u n f o r t u n a t e l y h a d n e i t h e r t h e money n o r t h e p e r s o n n e l t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a n d a r d o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e t by t h e D o m i n i o n F o r e s t S e r v i c e . The h i s t o r y o f l u m b e r i n g i n t h e Shuswap a r e a f a l l s i n t o f i v e m a i n e r a s : ( 1 ) 1 8 8 5 - 1 9 0 5 • D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s s m a l l m i l l s s u p p l i e d t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y and t h e l o c a l s e t t l e r s w i t h t h e i r l u m b e r n e e d s . (2 ) [ . . 1905 -1920 . T h i s was a n e r a d u r i n g w h i c h l a r g e A m e r i c a n c o m p a n i e s d o m i n a t e d t h e i n d u s t r y , s u s t a i n e d by t h e g r e a t demand f o r l u m b e r on t h e P r a i r i e s . (3 ) 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 4 0 . T h e s e y e a r s saw t h e r i s e t o i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e R.W. B r u h n Company, w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s o n p o l e s and t i e s . (4 ) 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 5 5 . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a l a r g e number o f s m a l l m i l l s w e r e spawned by t h e w a r and p o s t - w a r demand. The w e a k e r o n e s s o o n c l o s e d down, b u t t h e b e t t e r - m a n a g e d and b e t t e r - f i n a n c e d o n e s g r e w s t e a d i l y . 18 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on T i m b e r and F o r e s t r y 1 9 1 0 , R e p o r t . p . D 3 4 . - 94 -(5) 1955- • Recent years have been marked by efforts to put the Shuswap area (along with other areas in the province) on a sustained yield basis. The very nature of the system favours large companies and the Federated Co-operatives Limited with its mill at Canoe is steadily buying up smaller companies and their valuable quotas, and is becoming something of a monopoly in the area. Before there were any sawmills in the Shuswap area, lumber was either brought from Kamloops or whip-sawed, a process succinctly described in the memoirs of one of the pioneers: A log was rolled onto two skife over a pit, and one man descended into the pit while the other stood on the log, and then up and down a l l day the saw went. It was considered to be a good day's work for two men to turn out 100 feet board measure in a day which made dear lumber, from $60 to $70 per 1000 feet. There was no planing mill and all doors, windows, and dressed lumber had to 19 be worked out of rough planks. Lumbering activity started with the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, with Chinese and French-Canadians figuring prominently. In 1889 Ah Loy and Company had a contract with the Canadian Pacific Company for 2,041 cords to be delivered in the area from Sicamous to Five-Mile 19 Lloyd-Jones, David, "Over the Hope Trail" in 6th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, 1955, pp.292-3. - 95 -Notch. H i l l , while Kwong On Wo and Company delivered 20 34,336 ties to the Company at Notch H i l l . In the same report, Peter Crenelle is listed as having supplied 25,000 ties at Notch H i l l . This same Peter Crenelle, in partnership with his brothers Joe and Jack, built one of the earliest mills in the whole Shuswap region around 1890 at Tappen Siding, beside a convenient beaver pond a quarter mile west 21 of the Canadian Pacific mainline. In 1892 this mill was 22 moved to the lakeshore at Kualt. It was a fair-sized operation, with one hundred men working for G-enelle, not including his sub-contractors. The Canadian Pacific Railway built loading tracks and a siding so that the lumber could be shipped conveniently. On the lake the Genelles had a steamer to tow to their mill booms of logs cut in various camps around the lake. They also ran a floating camp which wandered around the lake poaching likely logs. The men engaged in this piratical venture would spot from the water good trees on other people1s tracts, move in, f e l l the trees and buck them, then add the logs to the boom tied behind. G-enelle evidently was careless 20 Canada, S.P. 1890. No. 15, Paper 31A, p.44. 21 Calhoun, Fifty Years Ago at Tappen. 22 Doe, Salmon Arm to 1912, p. 13« - 96 -i n reporting stumpage even when he cut with proper authority. F i n a l l y the government forced him out of business and he sold h i s m i l l to the Columbia River lumber Company. M i l l s were e a r l y b u i l t at Salmon Arm. In 1893 the 23 Kamloops Inland S e n t i n e l noted, "Richard Davis and Frank Mclntyre have purchased the portable sawmill of Mr. Clemence, and are prepared to saw lumber f o r the s e t t l e r s . I t i s reported that they intend putting i n planing and shingle machines." A m i l l was b u i l t by Brayden and Johnson i n 1901, on the banks of the Salmon River where i t cuts through the V a l l e y Road. 2^ l a t e r on there was a small shingle m i l l at Annia. With the growing number of homesteaders on the P r a i r i e s , a large new market f o r B r i t i s h Columbia lumber came i n t o being. Because of t h e i r favoured p o s i t i o n nearer the market than were the Coast m i l l s , the I n t e r i o r m i l l s ( e s p e c i a l l y those by the mainline of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway) were i n an advantageous p o s i t i o n to s e l l t h e i r lumber i n t h i s new market. I t i s i n t h i s period that large m i l l s were financed by American c a p i t a l . A major American-owned enterprise, the Arrow lakes lumber Company (known as the Iamb-Watson lumber Company l i m i t e d before 1908^^ bad m i l l s at Arrowhead and at Kamloops. 23 Sept. 9th, 1893, p.8. 24 Doe, Salmon Arm to 1912, p.14. 25 Dominion Forest Berth F i l e 34053, #101. - 97 -Although the company had no mi l l s on the Shuswap lakes, i t held large timber reserves around the lakes, and obtained from these many of i t s logs, towing them down the South Thompson River to i t s m i l l at Kamloops. The best example of an American-owned m i l l , and the most important logging and lumber operation around the Shuswaps i n the period, was the Adams River lumber Company limited, with i t s large m i l l at Chase. This company was 2 S incorporated i n 1907, i t s directors being: James Patrick McGoldrick lumberman Spokane, Wash. George August lammers w Stillwater, Minn. Arthur William lammers " Spokane, Wash. Prank Hamilton Crombie 11 Spokane, Wash. John Twohy Railroad Spokane, Wash. Contractor This company was capitalized at $500,000, through the issuance of 5000 shares of $100 each. By 1910 the capitalization had been increased to $850,000, and i n 1911 the balance sheet l i s t e d assets of $1,224,314.50. It was, especially for the Interior, a large company. The Adams River lumber Company chose a site at the foot of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake for i t s m i l l , and proceeded to build a modern settlement there which became known as Chase. Water rights were granted for 320,000 gallons a day from Chase Creek to supply both the industrial and townsite requirements. The m i l l i t s e l f was a modern one, with a capacity of between 175,000 and 219,000 feet B.M. per ten-hour s h i f t . 2 7 26 Registrar of Companies microfilm #1810 (1897). 27 Truck Logger, A p r i l 1954, p.40. - 98 -At the "beginning of i t s operations, the company purchased a large number of provincial timber licenses on the Upper Adams River, between the upper end of Adams lake and Turn Turn Lake. It then proceeded, at great expense, to 28 open up the area. The company b u i l t boats, scows and warehouses on L i t t l e Shuswap Lake, a freight tote road from L i t t l e Shuswap Lake to Adams Lake where camps were established and other boats and scows provided. The Adams River Lumber Company carried on logging according to the Eastern or Minnesota pattern - cutting logs i n the winter and putting them i n the r i v e r to wait for the spring r i s e and r i v e r driving. To aid i n the r i v e r drives, obstructions were removed from the r i v e r beds and dams b u i l t . On the Upper Adams River the company prepared a log storage boom with a capacity of 30 m i l l i o n feet and a sluice gap at Bateaux F a l l s . A breakwater was 29 also b u i l t near Depot camp at the head of Adams Lake. On the Lower Adams River a dam was placed about one-quarter mile below the outlet from Adams Lake. This dam, which cost $32,000, was " r o c k - f i l l e d , timber-cribbed, about 180 feet long and 15 feet high, with six sluice-gates and a f i s h l a dder". 5 0 28 Most of the information about this company i s from a l e t t e r , November 28, 1963, from. Mr. R.R. Mason of Chase, who was a director of the company as early as 1918. 29 Prospectus of Adams River lumber Company, 1926. 30 Canada, S.P. 1914, No. 21, Report on Railway Belt Hydrographic Survey for 1911-12, p.77. - 99 -A number of problems bedevilled the use of the Lower Adams River. The very course of the ri v e r proved hard to s t a b i l i z e . Sudden changes i n the level of the water, and the passage of the logs themselves, combined to do much damage to the r i v e r bed: When the logs are being driven, the sluice gates are opened and a large quantity of water freed, carrying with i t the logs that are to be driven. This volume of water...does considerable cutting to the banks of the river...and a very marked change i s shown i n the course of the ri v e r from 31 that on the present township plan. And this Lower Adams River (see picture next page), which f a l l s 190 feet i n i t s length of six miles, i s the spawning ground of the famous Adams River sockeye run. These log drives not only damaged the ri v e r bed, but almost wiped out the salmon run i n the early years. The Adams f i s h escaped the 1913 tragedy at Hell's Gate, [large slide prevented most runs of salmon from ascending Fraser River] only to die unspawned from trouble of a different kind on their own spawning ground. About 1908 a logging company b u i l t a splash dam at the upper end of the Adams River i n the outlet of Adams Lake. This dam was used to store water which would be released suddenly to "flash-float" logs down the river. The sudden wall of water and logs crashing downstream was l i k e a spring freshet occurring several times during the 31 Canada, S.P. 1918, No. 11, Surveys, p.69-- 9 9 a -Lower Adams River, s i t e of famous sockeye salmon spawning grounds. - 100 -spawning and incubation periods. The salmon didn't stand a chance of spawning effectively, for they were carried downstream with the flood each time i t was released. In between floods the stream bed was nearly dry and i n the winter the eggs were exposed and frozen. Only a few f i s h were able to reproduce each year u n t i l f i n a l l y 32 i n 1922 the dam was no longer used. The company's timber on provincial leases along the Upper Adams Eiver proved to be not only too distant but too defective to be manufactured into lumber economically, and the operation on the Upper Adams closed down after the winter of 1911-12. A better source of timber was necessary, and the company raised money to purchase Timber Berth 482 north of Chase which contained f i r s t - c l a s s timber and was much closer to the m i l l . Once again the company did not spare expense i n ' developing the f a c i l i t i e s needed for large-scale logging operations. (In 1915 the Adams Eiver Lumber Company borrowed $500,000 at Sfo interest from A.J. Lammers, one of i t s d i r e c t o r s . ) 5 5 The most spectacular of these f a c i l i t i e s was the famous Bear Creek flume used to float logs from the very centre of Timber Berth 482 to the most northerly point of L i t t l e Shuswap lake. According to one description, the flume was eleven miles long, and i t s 32 International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, Salute to the Sockeye, lew Westminster, B.C., 1958, p.9-33 Eegistrar of Companies F i l e #1810 (1897). - 101 -owners claimed that i t was the longest and largest i n Canada, and among the largest i n the world. It was said that logs of from four to five feet i n diameter at the butt passed down this chute at expresslike speeds.^i&ee next p.ge.) The company was unfortunate i n the timing of i t s large investments i n the timber berth and the above-mentioned f a c i l i t i e s , for conditions were changing i n the lumber industry and the demand for lumber on the Prairies, the company's chief market, was rapidly f a l l i n g off. Moreover, lumber prices were dropping. The following tables^show why the Adams River Lumber Company, with i t s modern m i l l situated on the Canadian P a c i f i c mainline, i t s excellent water transportation for logs and i t s good log supply, f i n a l l y closed i n 1926: Tear l e t price per M feet received for lumber sold (before deducting discount) 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 $ 13-41 14.62 14.71 15.16 15-39 14-99 14.76 16.09 19-33 24-33 34 Truck Logger, A p r i l 1954, p.40. 35 Tables from R.R. Mason's l e t t e r . - 101a -By Courtesy of Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C. Illog. I(-Bear Creek flume of Adams River lumber Company, Chase, B.C. - 102 -Year Net returns per M feet for lumber sold during year Cost of lumber per M feet F.O.B. cars 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 $ 26.04 $ 25.41 37.82 24.40 19.13 23.73 23.01 23.73 23.89 38.92 37.27 22.63 26.73 30.93 26.63 26.40 At this point the Adams River Lumber Company decided to close down i t s m i l l but, wanting to do what i t could for the town of Chase, tri e d to find a buyer for i t s property who would carry on the operation. The company was w i l l i n g almost to give the property away to such a buyer. In 1929 the company's assets were sold to M.B. Carlin and a company formed under the name of the Adams River Timber Company Limited, but the l a t t e r did not stay in business for long. While these American companies, with their large investments i n forests, elaborate transportation f a c i l i t i e s and modern mills, were closing down, a small lumber company which at f i r s t produced only railway t i e s and cedar poles was growing steadily. Soon this company came to overshadow the rest of the lumber industry of the Shuswap region, continuing i t s dominance u n t i l the Second World War. This - 103 -company was owned by Rolf W. Bruhn, a man destined to become well known throughout the province. Rolf Bruhn, a Swede by birth, came to Canada as a youngster and i n 1897 took up a homestead at Malakwa, doing logging and mixed farming. He also worked on the roads, becoming a road foreman for the Public Works Department, and l a t e r the Department's road superintendent at Salmon Arm. In this l a t t e r capacity he was i n charge of a World War I camp for enemy aliens on the east side of Mara Lake, about six or seven miles from Sicamous. The inmates of this camp b u i l t the Mara Lake Road. About this time Bruhn was badly burned i n a boat accident near Sicamous and, upon his recovery from the injuries thus sustained, he started a pole camp on the southeast side of Anstey Arm. (Cedar poles, for which there was a large demand i n the United States after 1900, have always formed a substantial part of the lumber production of the Shuswap area.) When a number of poles had been cut, a representative of the B.J. Carney Company of Spokane, the largest pole company i n the United States, purchased them and offered to give Bruhn enough financial assistance to set him up i n the pole business. Over the years, Bruhn developed a large pole business and s t i l l continued to s e l l a l l his poles to the Carney company. By 1926 Bruhn was processing 125,000 poles a year-36 A l l information about R.W. Bruhn and his company has been obtained from Prank Eappel who worked closely with Mr. Bruhn for twenty-five years, being secretary-treasurer of the company for much of the time. - 104 -The Shuswap country from the f i r s t has been an important supplier of tie s to the Canadian Paci f i c Railway. Bruhn cut some ties and bought many from sub-contractors, s e l l i n g a l l of them to the Canadian Pacific, which used Shuswap ti e s i n the area between the Rocky Mountains and Mission i n the lower Praser T a l l e y . In effect, Bruhn had a monopoly of the tie-cutting business from Monte Creek to Taft. Prom 1921 or 1922 on, anyone who wanted to cut tie s had to get a contract from Bruhn. The number of tie s involved was quite large - i n 1926, the peak year, over half a m i l l i o n t i e s were shipped. In the early days when Bruhn was primarily interested i n poles and t i e s , he sold logs suitable for sawmilling to the Adams River lumber Company at Chase. But when that company's m i l l closed down i n 1926, Bruhn built a m i l l at Canoe to process these sawlogs. In 1941 this m i l l was sold to Ormie Harris. It burned down soon after, but Harris rebuilt i t on a larger scale and i n 1945 sold i t to the Federated Co-operatives limited. With his business i n excellent condition, Rolf Bruhn decided to enter p o l i t i c s i n 1924 when Salmon Arm was given a seat. Bruhn was elected on his f i r s t try and retained his Salmon Arm seat u n t i l his death i n 1942, serving as Minister of Public Works i n both the Tolmie government and the coalition government. Bruhn's only son, Ted, was drowned i n Shuswap lake i n 1941, and upon Bruhn's - 105 -death his company gradually went downhill u n t i l i t went into liquidation i n 1949, many of i t s assets being taken over by the Federated Co-operatives Limited. Although the Bruhn company held both timber berths (some acquired i n the 1920's from the Arrow Lakes Lumber Company) and provincial timber leases, i t got many of i t s poles and ti e s from small sub-contractors and individual farmers. Here we must note again that the existence of the lumber industry has always been important to the settlers i n the Shuswap region and that many of them have been dependent on i t for at least part of their cash income. Homesteaders clearing land would haul their logs and t i e s down to the beach. The going price for logs delivered on the beach was $5.00 per thousand feet B.M., with the more desirable white pine bringing $6-7. Number 1 tie s brought the homesteader 350 each, and No. 2 ti e s brought 250. Many of these settlers working part time i n the woods required cash advances to cover their immediate needs u n t i l they could get the timber delivered on the beach. (Granting such an advance i s known as "grubstaking" a man.) Rolf Bruhn i s s t i l l remembered with gratitude as a man who kept hundreds of families going by the advances he made while their men were getting out logs and, according to Mr. Kappel, there were very few bad debts. - 106 -Tie-cutting was carried on mainly i n the winter by the settlers, the Scandinavians being most active. Tie cutters would f e l l the trees, trim them, and shape the log with a broad axe. These t i e "stringers" (containing two, three, or four ties) were hauled to the lakeshore where a tug picked them up and towed them to a Bruhn m i l l , such as that at Sicamous. Here the stringers were hauled up a jack ladder which had circular saws set at eight-foot intervals. These saws cut the ti e s into proper lengths. Skilled axemen could produce many ties i n a day, with one expert i n a competition cutting ninety-two. In the early days the ti e s were not creosoted, and often they were not peeled. For a long time the demand for t i e s was remarkably stable, and the Bruhn company came to be the largest operator i n the Southern Interior. Gradually small portable m i l l s began to be used more and more i n t i e cutting, and by 1945 these small units were producing 92$ of the ties 36 i n the Shuswap area, compared to 5$ i n the early days. With the coming of war i n 1939, and the great demand for a l l types of lumber, a new phase began i n the lumber industry of the Shuswap area. This was a time when small portable sawmills sprang up everywhere, there being twenty just on the North Shore of the main lake. Many of the 36 B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Forestry, 1945, Proceedings, Vol. 16, p.6330. - 107 -people who started these mills were settlers who owned a l i t t l e timber of their own, but who had l i t t l e or no experience i n sawmilling. For a time, while lumber prices were high and their supply of timber held out, these men found the work profitable, but as soon as demand slackened and prices dropped, most of these small mills closed down. This same pattern of the fast blossoming and early withering of portable sawmills was evident i n much of the rest of the Interior. However, a few of these newer mills , with better management and financing, saw a period of growth. Gradually another pattern of the lumber industry around the Shuswap area i s emerging - that of the domination of the industry by one large company, the Federated Co-37 operatives limited with i t s m i l l at Canoe. During the last war the Federated Co-operatives i n Saskatchewan had great d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining supplies of lumber for their seven hundred member associations, and resolved to secure their own m i l l . Accordingly, i n 1945, to assure a steady and permanent source of supply, the Co-op purchased the Shuswap lumber Company's m i l l at Canoe and i t s timber holdings. The Co-op has enlarged and 37 There are four other mills i n operation at the present time: Holding lumber Company limited at Adams lake; Shuswap Timbers limited at Sicamous, who obtain about 50% of their logs from their Tree Farm license #33; and two small independents, the Salmon Arm Planing M i l l s and Tappen Valley Timber limited. 38 B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Forest Resources, Proceedings, 1955, Vol. XIV, pp.6473-6512. - 108 -modernized this m i l l , and the annual cut has been increasing steadily, from 12 million board feet i n 194-9 39 to 4 2 m i l l i o n board feet i n 1962. ^ The Go-op associations take about 80$ of this cut, and the rest i s sold on the open market. The Co-op i s fortunate i n having this assured market — but guaranteed log supplies, not markets, are the key to continued success i n the lumber industry. The Co-op early realized this, and for years has followed an aggressive program of building up i t s own timber reserves, often through purchase. Here again the Co-op i s fortunate, for i t i s able to finance expansion of i t s timber holdings (and i t s mill) with tax-free profits, whereas private companies which must pay the government 50$ of their profits find i t much more d i f f i c u l t to lay aside sufficient funds to finance expansion. The Co-op acquired some timber berths i n i t s original purchase of the Shuswap lumber Company i n 1945 and i t obtained others on the liquidation of R.W. Bruhn limited i n 1949. It has also bought some provincial timber leases, and has applied for but never been granted a Forest Management license (now called Tree Farm license). In the la s t few years the Co-op has bought out at least seven smaller lumber operations - and their quotas.^ 0 39 Federated Co-operatives limited, Annual Report 1962, p.19. 4 0 The B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service has set up Sustained Yield Units i n Crown timber i n the Shuswap area, i n which units cutting i s s t r i c t l y controlled and quotas assigned on the basis of the size of the operations of companies at that time. This allocation of a l l the timber i n the S.Y.U.s makes i t impossible for a new company to start up unless i t buys the quota of an already-existing company. It also happens that often the main asset of an already-existing company i s i t s quota. - 109 -Recently the Co-op has joined with Holding Lumber Company and several other large mills i n the Kamloops area i n plans to build a pulp and paper m i l l at Kamloops, and i n the f a l l of 1963 the provincial government gave i t s f i n a l approval to the building of this plant. It w i l l be easy for the Co-op m i l l to send i t s sawdust and other waste to this proposed mi l l (eighty miles away by r a i l ) , and u t i l i z a t i o n of this waste w i l l probably add substantially to the Co-op's pr o f i t s . (One Coast company, Rayonier Limited, makes more p r o f i t from i t s almost complete u t i l i z a t i o n of former "waste" material than from i t s sawmilling operations.) The comment has been made, with some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , that the Co-op i s as much of a monopoly i n the Shuswap area as the huge MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Company i s on parts of the Coast. In the long run, i s i t good for the Shuswap area to have this one large operation dominate i t s forest industry? Prom the point of view of forest management, i t certainly i s . A large company, with an up-to-date m i l l and modern methods, can u t i l i z e a high proportion of each log. (One has only to see the huge piles of waste lumber and sawdust lying around the portable m i l l s to understand how wasteful the small operations are.) A large company, interested i n maintaining a perpetual supply of timber, i s more l i k e l y to conserve i t s timber resources than a smaller - 110 -company, much, more l i k e l y to guard against over-cutting and to see that regeneration of the best species occurs as fast as possible. Prom the point of view of the d i s t r i c t as a whole, the continuing consolidation of lumbering into several large firms probably i s good also. The large m i l l , with a guaranteed supply of logs and a ready market, i s a stable industry, better able to withstand economic recessions and price fluctuations. The large m i l l provides steady employment for i t s workers, and a dependable payroll for the d i s t r i c t . (In 1955 the Co-op had 18Q employees and a payroll which amounted to more than $500,000. Almost as many men again were employed indi r e c t l y by sub-contractors.) Prom the point of view of some of the smaller d i s t r i c t s and some individuals, this consolidation has meant r e a l hardship. Prom the earliest days of settlement to the present, especially on the l o r t h Shore of Shuswap lake, many settlers have depended on logging for part i f not most of their cash income. This dependence was especially in evidence during World War II and after, when so many small mills were i n operation. Indeed, for years many farmers spent more time logging than farming, and l e t much of their land return to hush. Now, however, there i s l i t t l e employment i n the nearby woods for the settlers. Three reasons can be given - recent extensive logging has l e f t l i t t l e timber standing near the settlements; steadily - I l l -increasing mechanization of logging has decreased the number of men required; and the purchase of l o c a l small logging companies and lumber mills by the Go-op has often been followed by shut-downs. Thus these former part-time loggers often find they must either leave their immediate d i s t r i c t to find employment elsewhere or s i t back and become more or less permanent recipients of social welfare cheques. As has been so evident on the Coast i n recent years, and increasingly evident i n the Interior, there i s no future i n the B r i t i s h Columbia lumber industry for the small operator. Instead, the future belongs to large companies with good reserves of timber and integrated operations - such as the Federated Co-operatives Limited m i l l at Canoe. - 112 -Chapter Seven Summary, and the Economic Outlook One hundred years ago the f i r s t agricultural settlement i n the Shuswap area started at Shuswap Pr a i r i e . This event was soon followed by the Big Bend gold rush which brought thousands of people through the country. Eighty years ago settlement along the Hakeshore started. The intervening years have seen the development of two main primary industries, agriculture and lumbering, and sporadic a c t i v i t y i n a third primary industry, mining. In concluding this history of the economic development of Shuswap lake d i s t r i c t , l e t us consider the present state of each of these industries and the prospects each offers for future growth. There w i l l always be some agriculture carried on i n the Shuswap area, but i t i s unlikely that i t w i l l become much more important than i t i s at present. The explanation i s not hard to find - sheer lack of any sizeable area of arable s o i l . The accompanying map (p. 112a) shows how large a percentage of the Shuswap region remains covered by trees, and what a small area has been cleared of forest growth during the eighty years since the Canadian Paci f i c Railway was b u i l t across the region. The most extensive - I l i a -TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES M I N E S A l ^ D T E C H N I C A L S U R V E Y S SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH THIRD EDITION: SHEET 82ix N W Siiyniour \ !-Arm y llEfcO' Haven Pt^^i^^- J ^ l 0 0 - 113 -clearing has occurred along the valleys of Salmon River and Deep Greek, both south of Salmon Arm, and on the Chase Flats southwest.of l i t t l e Shuswap Lake. Here one finds the best arable s o i l i n the d i s t r i c t and here the farms have a very prosperous look. The scattered farms i n the more marginal agricultural areas (such as the stretch between Sorrento and Tappen, and the region around Celista on the North Shore) have a very different appearance. (See picture on next page). One i s struck by the number of abandoned farms, with brush growing up on once-cleared f i e l d s . Most of the farms that are s t i l l occupied are now worked only i n a desultory manner, although enough farms are being operated by hard-working people to prove that even i n these marginal areas i t i s possible to grow a surprising variety of crops and, with some effort, to s e l l at least part of them. Why, then, are so many of these farms not being operated One reason i s that many of them are too small to warrant expenditure on the mechanized equipment necessary for modern agriculture. Some of these farms are small because there i s only a limited amount of f e r t i l e s o i l i n their l o c a l i t y ; others are small because of the unfortunate early sub-dividing of larger areas into smaller farms, often for f r u i t farming."1" Intensive cultivation such as truck gardening i n the irrigated valley bottoms i s possible, but once again the 1 Salmon Arm Observer, March 19, 1964, p.7, t e l l s of one farm of 137 acres i n the Gleneden d i s t r i c t which over the years has been broken up into eleven holdings. - 1 1 3 a -I/I us. 13. looking north from Kualt H i l l (near Tappenj. Note scattered clearings. - 114 -lack of a good-sized market nearby, and the expense of transporting perishable goods over long distances, greatly increases the d i f f i c u l t y of making a p r o f i t . 2 A recent e d i t o r i a l i n The Sun sums up the fate of the small farm today: ...small farms continue to be abandoned. The small B.C. farm, of which there used to be many, usually began as a subsistence operation. land was free, or at least cheap. The farmer worked part of the year i n the mines or the woods, cleared his land and to a great extent l i v e d off i t . That day i s gone. Off-season jobs are hard to get. land costs have risen. The success of the farmer now depends on a heavy investment and his use of modern power-driven equipment to the l i m i t of i t s efficiency. For best results, i t has recently been estimated, a young man should have $50,000 to $70,000 capital to invest i f he wants to farm....It [ i s ] taken for granted the day of the small farm, except i n certain lines of specialist production, i s over. These comments are as applicable to the farming around the Shuswap region as to that carried on i n other parts of the province. Many of the owners of uneconomic small farms i n the Shuswap d i s t r i c t are loath to leave the area for they find i t an attractive one i n which to l i v e . (A survey i n 1961 2 March 10, 1964, p.4-- 115 -among farmers i n North. Okanagan area, including the south shore of Shuswap Lake, showed that a l l hut 5 of the 241 polled expressed themselves t o t a l l y s a t i s f i e d with the area because of climate, scenery, recreational opportunities and their neighbours.) Many of these farmers, knowing they cannot make a real l i v i n g from their farms, realizing they can no longer find work i n the increasingly mechanized lumber industry, yet not wanting to leave the area to look for employment elsewhere, become more or less permanent recipients of social welfare. In rural B r i t i s h Columbia, with a home of one's own, a piece of land, and a car (which must not be valued over $1000) to travel around in, one can l i v e f a i r l y comfortably on social welfare. Some of these defeated small farmers make l i t t l e attempt now even to keep a cow or to raise their own vegetables. A classic story (and a true one) i s of the social welfare recipient i n North Shuswap, l i v i n g on good arable land, who bought even his rhubarb from the l o c a l storekeeper with r e l i e f money. Obviously he found i t too much work to plant a root of rhubarb and l e t i t grow. Fortunately there are many hard-working farmers i n the d i s t r i c t . What i s the prospect for these? For the dairy farmers, especially those on good-sized farms, the outlook i s f a i r l y bright. Though the s e l l i n g of butterfat i s not very profitable on today's market, the sale of f l u i d 3 Turnbull, Acton and Woodward, Agriculture i n the North Okanagan 1961, p.118. - 116 -milk "brings i n good returns. One real advantage for the Shuswap dairy farmer i s this - his peak production period (late spring into summer) coincides with the peak demand for f l u i d milk when the influx of summer residents and tourists adds temporarily to the population. One type of farming that i s growing i n importance i n many parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, and for which part of the Shuswap area i s well suited, i s the farm raising (not ranch raising) of beef cattle. The best type of farm for this i s one that possesses a sizeable acreage of irrigated hayland, so that multiple crops of forage can be grown for winter feeding of the animals. The farm should also have f a i r l y extensive pastureland for, due to heavy timber cover, the Shuswap area has always lacked good rangeland. Already a number of farmers raise beef cattle either as a sideline or as their main a c t i v i t y and there seems to be a good future i n i t . Finally, we may note that there w i l l always be a demand for the small f r u i t s of the d i s t r i c t , especially now that the Trans-Canada Highway through the Sogers Pass has made the booming Prairie market much more accessible. To the f i r s t pioneers i n the Shuswap d i s t r i c t , the country's timber resources seemed lim i t l e s s - i n fact, there appeared to be nothing but timber. Consequently, l i t t l e care was given to preventing forest f i r e s , and vast - 117 -stands of mature timber were burned over. With the opening up of the Prairie lumber market at the turn of the century, the Shuswap forests came to be valued and more care was paid to their preservation. This change i n attitude was not unique - i t occurred a l l through the province. But the forest reserves of the Shuswap were not as great as had appeared on the surface - great areas had been swept by f i r e s , and many large stands were so heavily infected with Indian paint fungus and yellow root rot that only about 50$ of the trees could be salvaged. In the early days, with the opening up of the country and the growing settlement, there was always a certain l o c a l market for lumber. When the large demand coincident with the homestead rush occurred on the Prairies, the Shuswap lumber industry had a decided advantage over the great coastal lumber concerns, for the Shuswap mills were 350 miles closer to the Prairie market. This boom i n the lumber business on the Prairies faded with the outbreak of the Pir s t World War but, since the end of the Second World War, with the growing population and economic ac t i v i t y i n the western provinces, and with the generally high sustained demand for lumber both i n l o r t h America and overseas, the outlook for a good permanent market for Shuswap lumber, shipped east by r a i l , has remained good. With this r e l a t i v e l y bright prospect as far as markets - 118 -are concerned, can the Shuswap d i s t r i c t look forward to much expansion of i t s lumber industry? The answer i s i n the negative. Here again, as i n agriculture, the resources of the area are limited. Already the f u l l annual allowable cut i s being taken from most of the sustained yield units. Although mining had an early start i n the region, and has been intermittently carried on right up to the l a s t decade when test holes were being sunk i n the Adams Plateau area, there seems l i t t l e hope that i t w i l l ever contribute substantially to the economy of the area. The explanation i s simple - the area i s not a heavily mineralized one. Ores have been found i n a few locations (Adams Plateau, Cotton Belt and Mount Ida), and some developmental work has been done, but invariably the decision has been the same - the ores are too low i n grade to overcome the high cost of developing the properties and shipping the ores out to a smelter. And unless there are spectacular new mineral discoveries, the mining industry i n the Shuswap area has l i t t l e future. The few secondary industries of the Shuswap (the lumber mills , the creamery, and several smaller plants handling agricultural produce) process the area's primary products; and as there i s no-prospect of greatly increasing the output of these primary industries, there i s small likelihood that secondary industries w i l l expand much. - 119 -Although the primary and secondary industries have achieved no great momentum i n the Shuswap region, the d i s t r i c t has been making progress since the Second World War, slow hut unmistakable progress. Perhaps as good an index as any to the economic ac t i v i t y of a region i s a l i s t of the opening and closing of banks. The following i s 4 the record of the banks i n the Shuswap area: Banks Opened Chase Imperial Bank of Canada 1910 Canadian Bank of Commerce 1954 Royal Bank of Canada 1956 Closed 1952 Salmon Arm Bank of Hamilton 1906 Canadian Bank of Commerce 1911 Bank of Montreal 1929 Bank of Nova Scotia 1950 (Amalgamated with Bank of Commerce 1923) 1931 Sicamous Bank of Montreal 1955 This l i s t i s interesting. Pour of the eight banks mentioned have opened since 1950. Obviously there has been a general opening up of the country since 1945, a growth which cannot be f u l l y explained by increased a c t i v i t y i n the primary industries - although these have played a part. 4 l e t t e r from A.O. Jenkins of Regional Office, Canadian Imperial. Bank of Commerce, Vancouver, dated October 16, 1963-- 120 -The rea l economic progress i s occurring i n the ter t i a r y industries, especially the services catering to summer residents and the tourists. Of primary importance i s the great improvement that has been made i n the highway system. The Trans-C anada Highway i s of immense importance to the Shuswap area for, cutting through the centre of the region as i t does, i t not only li n k s together l o c a l settlements, but funnels through the Shuswap a torrent of trans-provincial and inter-provincial t r a f f i c . The end of gasoline rationing i n 1945, the ever-increasing ownership and use of automobiles, the better highways, have ended the comparative isolation of many Shuswap communities. People residing on the North Shore of Shuswap lake can now drive the 42 miles into Salmon Arm within an hour. The three main centres of Chase, Salmon Arm and Sicamous, becoming more accessible for residents from a wider rural c i r c l e , are offering more services - medical and dental, commercial and recreational. Drive-in theatres and even bowling alleys are now an important part of the Shuswap scene. Shuswap Lake has long been known for i t s scenery, and i t s combination of natural beauty (in some parts very much l i k e that of the English Lake D i s t r i c t ) and good climate i s i n i t s e l f a natural resource. There were cottages around Shuswap Lake before the Second World War. After the war many more summer cottages were b u i l t , also an increasing - 121 -number of homes intended for around-the-year l i v i n g after retirement from careers i n the c i t y . Among the factors accounting for this a c t i v i t y are the increasing affluence (and numbers) of the ci t y dwellers i n B r i t i s h Columbia who want to escape to the country; the movement northward of Americans who cannot find (or afford) lakeshore i n their own country; and the notable invasion of well-to-do Albertans and Sas&tchewanians who have found that the improved highways have brought Shuswap close enough to warrant having their summer homes there. With the improving highway systems, more tourists have had an opportunity to see the Shuswap region, a trend that was enhanced when the provincial government opened i n the late 1950's the attractive Shuswap lake Campsite at Scotch Creek, containing over 269 camping units. (See picture on next page.) A number of these tourists have been so impressed by the area that they too have become owners of summer homes there. And of course there i s an increasing number of commercial resorts on the lake catering to tourists. When, in the early 1950's, the provincial government wisely stopped the further alienation of waterfront property throughout the province, this order accelerated the increase i n prices for waterfrontage. One of the features which has made Shuswap increasingly favoured not only by tourists but by elderly persons - 121a -I/(U6. >4-Looking east from the beach of the large Shuswap Lake Public Campsite. Copper Island i n centre of picture. This type of scenery, combined with warm summers, attracts many summer residents and v i s i t o r s . - 122 -seeking peaceful rural retirement has been the introduction of e l e c t r i c power to much of the area. Power was distributed 5 i n Salmon Arm by 1914 . Sicamous received i t i n 1929. The other areas had to wait longer. Service was extended to other settlements i n the following years: Sorrento 1948 Blind Bay - 1949-50 Silvery Beach North Shore 1957 Blind Bay - Eagle Bay 1963 ^ The momentum of the development of Shuswap lake as a summer colony and a favourite stopping-place for tourists was greatly increased with the opening of the Rogers Pass highway early in August 1962. Suddenly the t r a f f i c on the highway, both private and commercial, grew enormously. A t a l l y taken at Rogers Pass from A p r i l 1st -December 31st, 1963, showed that 474,750 cars and trucks, and 1,500,000 people travelled over that route i n the nine month period. The Shuswap Lake area i s admirably placed (halfway between Vancouver and Calgary) to cater 5 Doe, History of Salmon Arm 1912-1944. p.2. 6 Letter from W.S. Cawsey, B.C. Hydro foreman at Salmon Arm, March 13th, 1964. 7 The Rogers Pass section i s 91 miles long, bu i l t to a high standard through d i f f i c u l t but very scenic country. It by-passes the notorious 180 miles of the t e r r i b l y rough and not very scenic Big Bend Highway. 8 Salmon Arm Observer, February 6th, 1964, p.9« - 123 -to much of this t r a f f i c , to supply sleeping and eating f a c i l i t i e s for the tourists, and to provide service for their cars. Within the l a s t three years, millions of dollars have been invested i n the area to increase these f a c i l i t i e s . What does a l l this new a c t i v i t y mean to the Shuswap area. It means a very great deal to a region whose agricultural p o s s i b i l i t i e s are limited by i t s lack of large areas of f e r t i l e s o i l and i t s distance from markets; whose lumbering p o s s i b i l i t i e s have been almost f u l l y realized; and whose mining p o s s i b i l i t i e s have never been bright. Retired people from other are as are coming to the Shuswap to make their homes, bringing with them their savings and the income of their pension cheques. The growing number of summer residents also increases economic ac t i v i t y for a part of each year at least - the l o c a l general storekeeper, service station operator, carpenter and ele c t r i c i a n are kept busier. The ever-mounting number of tourists (the increase i n those from the Prairies i s amazing) means much more turnover of money i n a l l centres, not only for meals and shelter, but also i n groceries, drug stores, hardware stores and sporting goods stores - in fact, right through the community. - 124 -Perhaps the most attractive side of the new development i s this*- the Shuswap area, whose economic growth was held hack for many years by the relative lack of r i c h natural resources, i s now capitalizing on one of the area's prime assets - i t s lovely scenery, good climate, hundreds of miles of lakeshore - assets which (with a l i t t l e care) are indestructible and which w i l l continue in the decades ahead to attract people. - 125 -Appendix Shuswap Place Names Adams lake - Named a f t e r an Indian c h i e f Sehowtken who was baptized Adam by Father N o n i l i i n 1849-Albas - O r i g i n a l name was Celesta Creek, but too much confusion with C e l i s t a Post O f f i c e . Renamed Albas, a f t e r A l Bass, an early trapper who l i v e d there. A l i n e H i l l - a f t e r A l i n e , a daughter of Major C.W. Mobley Anglemount - a mass of high land opposite Cinnemousun Narrows which, when viewed from a distance, has a plateau l i k e appearance. Annis. - A contractor during C.P.R. construction Anstey Arm - Named a f t e r Francis S. Anstey, a s e t t l e r i n 1889. Ashby Point - a f t e r an Englishman, John Ashby, who l i v e d there, a man very active i n the Conservative party. Bruhn. Creek and Ridge - a f t e r Rolf ¥. Bruhn, prominent lumberman, M.L.A. and p r o v i n c i a l cabinet minister who l i v e d f i r s t i n Salmon Arm and then i n Sicamous. Bryden Lake - Bryden & Johnson ran an early sawmill i n Salmon Arm. - 126 -Canoe - Indians used to do a l o t of fishing there, and there was a good beach to land their canoes at Canoe Creek. Cape Horn - A stormy spot on the lake. Carlin - after Michael Burns Carlin, a Golden lumberman i n the 1880's and 1890's and manager of the Columbia River lumber Company which had a m i l l near Carlin. Celista - When a post office was to be established, the names "Fowler's landing" and "Sunnydale" were suggested, and a controversy followed. Mr. John Riley Sr. looked at a map and noticed Celista Creek was not too far away, so that name was chosen. Origin of name Celista not known. Chase - named after Whitfield Chase who settled near there i n 1865 and by 1880's was the largest landowner i n area. China Valley - A big farm up the valley was cleared by a Chinaman, and valley named after him. Cinnemousun Narrows - Shuswap word meaning "the bend" or "the centre pass". Copper Island - Shuswap name for i t "Hoom-a-tat-kwa" meaning " s i t t i n g i n the water". There have been copper claims on the island. Corning Creek - after Corning, an assistant engineer of Public Works Department who had a homestead near i t . Crowfoot Mountain - has three ridges on i t , similar to a crow's foot. Now o f f i c i a l l y Mobley Mountain. - 127 -Eagle Pass and River - named by Walter Moberly i n 1865 who was at the mouth of the river, and saw some eagles f l y up the valley. He thought the valley might lead him to a pass through the Monashee Mountains and explored i t a short time later, finding the much desired route and naming i t for the eagles which gave him the idea. Engineers Point - place where engineers i n charge of CPR construction had a camp for some time. Fly H i l l s - well known for their f l i e s (and mosquitoes). Fowler Mountain - l o c a l l y known as Grizzly Mountain. After Harry Fowler, earliest settler around Celista who had a farm up on a beaver meadow on Meadow Creek. Fraser Bay - after two brothers (Harry Fraser was one) who took up land there. Gazelle Creek - after an old German a r t i s t who lived there and b u i l t a cabin on fine sandy beach; soon tired of i t and b u i l t another behind, and s t i l l a third. Gleneden - lovely f e r t i l e valley. Hazel Creek - after C.¥. Mobley's daughter Hazel. Henstridge Prairie - after B i l l y Henstridge, " B i l l y the Trapper" who was f i r s t resident of Sorrento which was i n early days known as "Trapper's Landing". Henstridge had a trapline i n the Adams country. Herman Lake - A German, Henry Herman, had a farm by lake. - 128 -Hlina Bay and Creek - after Hlina, an Austrian, who homesteaded for a time hack of Fowler's meadow. Creek known l o c a l l y as Meadow Creek. Hudson Creek - two Hudson brothers lived near Anglemount. Hum-a-milt Lake - Shuswap language for "whitefish". Hunakwa Lake - Shuswap for "one lake only". Jade Mountain - jade has been found on the mountain. Kernaghan Creek and Lake - Kernaghan family ran a m i l l at mouth of Kernaghan Creek. Knight Creek - Captain Knight, a retired English army offi c e r , lived there. Kualt (or Kault)- name given to Genelle m i l l located about one mile east of Tappen station at edge of lake. Mining cold? - i n shade of Granite Mountain i n afternoon. Kwa-ow-oot - Shuswap for the "bay". Lee Creek - early settler there was Lee. Loftus Lake - C.P.B.. man Loftus homesteaded i n region. Magna Bay - used to be called Steamboat Bay. When a post office was to be put in, several names suggested to the Post Office Department were not acceptable, so they proposed Magna Bay. McBride Point - Tom McBride was an old settler there. - 129 -Mcleod Point - Mcleod was a skipper of Adams River Lumber Company boat on Adams Lake. Mara Lake - J.A. Mara was an active businessman in Kamloops and Shuswap area for many years, and at one time his company ran steamboats from Kamloops, up through Mara lake to Enderby. Mqwich - Chinook for "deer" Mobley Mountain - after C.W. Mobley, early settler at Sunnybrae, later with Dominion Forest Service at super-visor at Salmon Arm, later big game guide. Overseas with forestry unit in World War II. Died 1964. Mount Hiliam - after General Hiliam, World War I hero, who before war lived at Scotch Creek, afterwards at Sorrento. Notch H i l l - there is a curious notched effect in nearby h i l l . Pisima Mountain and Lake - often called McConnell, after an Adams River Lumber Company timber cruiser. Palmer Creek - after Palmer, early settlers in Salmon Arm. Ross Creek - J . Ross, Dominion Land Surveyor, did a lot of work in the area before World War I. Salmon Arm - in years gone by large runs of salmon went up rivers and creeks emptying into this part of Shuswap Lake. Indian name for area was •Shi-whoots-i-matl", meaning "many soap berries". Seymour Arm - probably after Governor Seymour. - 130 -Shuswap - I n d i a n name f o r t r i b e . S i c a m o u s - Shuswap f o r " i n t h e m i d d l e " . S k i m i k i n l a k e - Shuswap f o r " b a c k o f t h e m o u n t a i n " S o r r e n t o - named b y J . R . K i n g h o r n a f t e r S o r r e n t o , I t a l y , w h e r e he a n d h i s b r i d e s p e n t t h e i r h o n e y m o o n . S p a l l u m s h e e n - Shuswap f o r "edge o f t h e o p e n i n g " . S q u i l a x - Shuswap f o r " b l a c k b e a r " . S t e q u m w h u l p a - Shuswap f o r " k n o t t y l imb' . ' S u n n y b r a e - when s c h o o l d i s t r i c t f o r m e d i t was n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e a name, s o C.W. M o b l e y c h o s e t h i s o n e . T a p p e n - s u b - c o n t r a c t o r d u r i n g C . P . R . c o n s t r u c t i o n d a y s . I n d i a n name f o r T a p p e n B a y i s " S i l k e t w a " , m e a n i n g " w i d e b a y " I n d i a n s w o u l d o f t e n s h o u l d e r t h e i r c a n o e s a t B l i n d B a y and t a k e a s h o r t c u t o v e r l a n d t o T a p p e n B a y . V e l l a M o u n t a i n - a f t e r s t i l l a n o t h e r d a u g h t e r o f C .W. M o b l e y V e l l a . F o r m e r l y c a l l e d l i t t l e B a s t i o n . W a l l e n s t e e n L a k e - a f t e r K a r l W a l l e n s t e e n , f o r many y e a r s e m p l o y e d i n a r e a b y D o m i n i o n F o r e s t S e r v i c e . W h i t e L a k e - v e r y p r o n o u n c e d w h i t e r i n g a r o u n d edge o f l a k e due t o l i m e . - 131 -Bibliography I. Manuscript Sources 1. Correspondence A l l correspondence l i s t e d i s on f i l e i n the Provincial Archives, Vic t o r i a , B.C. Ball , H.M., Correspondence, 1866. Cox, W.G-., Correspondence, 1861. Moberly, Walter, Correspondence, 1865-68. Smith & ladner, Correspondence, 1866. Trutch, J.W., Correspondence, 1866-68. 2. Diaries, Journals and Reminiscences Fortune, A.I.. Collection of Narratives and Addresses by A.L. Fortune^ (Typescripts bound i n one volume, Howay-Reid Collection.) Fortune, A.I., Hunniford, J., and Willoughby, R.C.; typescripts from diaries of above collected i n one volume by Judge Howay. McLeod, John, Sr., Journals and Correspondence of John McLeod, Sr., 1812-1844. (Typescript i n Provincial ArchivesTJ Swanson, Judge, J.D., The Late Alexander Leslie Fortune and the Overland Party, 1862. (Typescript of speech delivered at Bnderby, B.C., Feb. 4, 1936?) 3. Theses Bescoby, Isabel M.L., Some Social Aspects of the American Mining Advance into Cariboo and Kootenay, M.A. thesis,U.B.C. 1935. - 132 -Bilsland, ¥.¥., A History of Revelstoke and the Big Bend, M.A. thesis,. U.B.C, 1955. Gail, Robert, Disposal of Crown Lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia, M.A. thesis, U.B.C., 1956. Cottingham, Mollie E., History of the West Kootenay D i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia , M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1947. Denholm, J.J., The P a l l i s e r Survey, 1857-1860, M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1950. Gurney, W.H., The Work of Reverend Father J.M.R. LeJeune, O.M.I. M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1948. Johns, H.P., B r i t i s h Columbia 1s Campaign for Better Terms, 1871-1905, M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1935-Johnson, Arthur J., The Canadian Pacific Railway and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1886, M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1936. Lawrence, Joseph, A History of the Lumber Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia 1778-1952, M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1957-Mikkelsen, Phyllis M., Land Settlement Policy on the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1874, M.A. thesis, . U.B.C, 1950. Ormsby, Margaret A., A Study of the Okanagan Valley of Br i t i s h Columbia , M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1931. Sanger, David, The Archaeology of EeQw:1 - a Burial Site near Chase, B r i t i s h Columbia, M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1962. Yerburgh, R.E.M., An Economic History of Forestry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, M.A. thesis, U.B.C, 1931. 4. Miscellaneous B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Attorney-General, Registrar of Companies, f i l e s 1810 (1897), 2414 (1897), and 400 ( 1 9 1 0 ) , a l l on microfilm. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Timber Berth F i l e s 34025A and 34053, on microfilm. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests; old f i l e s of Water Rights Branch dealing with Adams River Lumber Company and Shuswap Lake Fruit and Land Company applications for water rights. - 133 -laing, F. ¥., Colonial Farm Settlers on the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871 (tvpescriptT Turnbull, ELD., Acton, B.K., and Woodward, E.D., Agriculture i n the North Okanagan Valley B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 "(unpublished manuscript). Woodward, E.D., Tree Fruit Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1956, (unpublished manuscript). II. Printed Works 1. Printed Government Documents B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Agriculture, Annual Reports of the Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, Queen's Printer. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Agriculture, Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961, Victoria, Queen's Printer. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Annual Reports of the Minister of Education, Victoria, Queen's Printer. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Industrial Development, Trade and Commerce, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , The Kamloops Region, An Economic Survey May 1961, Victoria. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of lands, B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service, Forests and Forestry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, Victoria, King's Printer, 1928. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of lands, Kamloops Land Recording Division, Victoria, King's Printer, 1919. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Annual Reports of the Forest Service, Victoria, Queen's Printer. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forest, The Kamloops Bulletin Area, Victoria, Queen's Printer, 1958. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Works, Columbia River Exploration, 1865, New Westminster, Government Printing Office, 1866. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Works, Annual Reports of the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Victoria, Queen's Printer. - 134 -B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines, Victoria, Queen's Printer. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the Provincial Secretary, Government Gazette, 1863-1871; Gazette 1871 on; Victoria, Que en's Pr int er. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Public Works, Annual Reports of the Minister of Public Works, Victoria, King's Printer, 1908-1930. B r i t i s h Columbia, l e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Sessional Papers, Victoria, Queen's Printer. B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s , Report (4 vols), Victoria, Acme Press limited, 1916. B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Timber and Forestry 1909-10, Pinal Report, Victoria, King's Printer, 1910. Br i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Forestry 1945, Proceedings, Vols. 9 and 16. (Typescript). B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Forestry 1955, Proceedings, Vol. XIV. (Typescript). B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on the Tree Fruit Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia, Proceedings, Vol. 2. (Typescript). Canada, Department of the Interior, Annual Reports 1925-1930, Ottawa, King's Printer. Canada, Department of the Interior, Forestry Branch, The Forests of Canada, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1923. Canada, Department of the Interior, Topographical Surveys Branch, Description of Surveyed lands i n the Railway Belt of B r i t i s h Columbia, Part 1, Eastern Division, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1914. Canada, House of Commons, Sessional Papers, 1884-1925, Ottawa, Queen's and King's Printer. [Note especially Annual Reports of the Department of the Interior.J Canada, House of Commons, Statutes, 1881, 1884; Revised Statutes 1886, Ottawa, Queen's Printer. Canada, Report of Royal Commission, Reconveyance of land to B r i t i s h Columbia, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1928. - 135 -Daly, R.A., A Geological Reconnaissance between G-olden and Kamloops, B.C., Along the Canadian Paci f i c Railway, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1915. (Canada Department of Mines, Geological Survey of Canada Memoir series No. 68). Dawson, G.M., Kamloops Map Area, Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1894. (Geological Survey of Canada, Annual Report 1894, Part B.) Dawson, CM. , "Preliminary Report on the Physical and G-eological Features of the Southern Portion of the Interior of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1877", Geological Survey of Canada, Report of Progress for 1877-78, Montreal, 1879. Foster, R.E., Craig, H.M., and Wallis, G.W., "Decay of Western Hemlock i n the Upper Columbia Region, B r i t i s h Columbia", Studies i n Forest Pathology XII, Canada, Department of Agriculture, Division of Forest Biology Science Service. Reprinted from Canadian Journal of Botany 32:145-171, 1954. Jones, A.C, Vernon Map Area, B r i t i s h Columbia, Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1959- (G-eological Survey of Canada, Memoir 296.) Mulholland, F.D., The Forest Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia 1937, B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service, Victoria, King's .Printer, 1937. Thomas, CP., "The Occurrence of the Indian Paint Fungus, Bchinodontium tinctorium E.& E., In B r i t i s h Columbia", Studies i n Forest Pathology XVIII, Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1958^ [Canada, Department of Agriculture, Forest Biology Division, Publication 1041.) Trevor, H.W., and Ware, !).¥., Farm Organization i n the Northern Okanagan Valley, B r i t i s h Columbia; Canada, Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics Division, 1952.° Whitford, H.N. & Craig, R.D., Forests of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ottawa, Commission of Conservation, Canada, 1918. 2. Newspapers Kamloops Inland Sentinel Kamloops Sentinel New Westminster B r i t i s h Columbian - 1 3 6 -Salmon. Arm Observer Vancouver The Sun Vi c t o r i a B r i t i s h Colonist 3• Periodicals Dawson, G-.M., "Shuswap People of B r i t i s h Columbia", Royal Society of Canada Transactions, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1891, pp. 3-44. Harvey, A.Gf., "David Stuart: Okanagan Pathfinder and Pounder of Kamloops", B r i t i s h Columbia His t o r i c a l Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 4, October 1945. lequime, Bernard, "Over the Penticton T r a i l " , Okanagan Histo r i c a l Society Seventh Report, 1937, pp. 17-20. Lloyd-Jones, David, "Over the Hope T r a i l " , Okanagan Histo r i c a l Society Sixth Report, 1935, pp.291-297. Ormsby, M.A., "Captain Houghton's Exploratory Trip 1864", Okanagan Hi s t o r i c a l Society Thirteenth Report, 1949, • pp.38-44-Patterson, R.M., " T r a i l to the Big Bend", The Beaver, Spring I960, pp.38-43-Truck Logger, A p r i l 1954, pp.40-42. 4. Pamphlets and Miscellaneous Items Adams River Lumber Company Limited, Prospectus, 1926. Calhoun Henry, F i f t y Years Ago at Tappen, 1958. Canadian National Railways, Research & Development Department, An Industrial Survey of the Okanagan V a l l e y Region, B r i t i s h Columbia, Montreal, 1963-Canadian Paci f i c Railway, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1907. Celista Pioneers, Kamloops, Kamloops Sentinel Ltd., 1943-- 137 -Doe, Ernest, History of Salmon Arm 1885-1912, Salmon Arm, Salmon Arm Observer Ltd., 1947. Doe, Ernest, A History of Salmon Arm 1912-1944 (typescript) Federated Co-operatives Limited, Annual Report 1962. International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, Salute to the Sockeye, New Westminster, 1958. Kirksey, the Rev. C.W., A Parish History of Grande Prairie and Shuswap (1945?) LeJeune, Father J.L., Kamloops Wawa, 1901-04-Morse, J.J., Kamloops the Inland Capital, Kamloops, Kamloops Museum Association, 1958. Robinson, Noel, Blazing the T r a i l Through the Rockies, Vancouver, News Advertiser, 1915-Sederberg, L.M., The Serpent's T a i l , 1958. (Early days at Malakwa and Eagle Valley.) Seymour Arm Fruit Lands of Shuswap Lake, B.C., 1910. 5. Books Andrews, Ralph W., Glory Days of Logging, Seattle, Superior Publishing Company, 1956. Bealby, J.T., Fruit Ranching in B r i t i s h Columbia , London, Adam and Charles Black, 1909. Boam, Henry J. (compiler) and Brown, Ashley G. (editor), B r i t i s h Columbia, Its History, People, Commerce, Industries and Resources, London, Sells Ltd., 1912. B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, Inventory of the Natural Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia 1964, Victoria. Holliday, Charles W., The Valley of Youth, Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton Printers Ltd., 1948. Howay, F.W., B r i t i s h Columbia from the Earli e s t Times to the Present, Vancouver, Clarke", 1914. - 138 -Innis, H.A., A History of the Canadian Pacific Railway, London, King, 1923. King, Clarence, Mountaineering i n the Sierra Nevadas, 1871. Moberly, Walter, The Rocks and Rivers of B r i t i s h Columbia, London, Blacklock, 1885• Ormsby, Margaret A., B r i t i s h Columbia: A History, Vancouver MacMillans, 1958. Redmayne, J.S., Pruit Farming on the Dry Belt of B r i t i s h Columbia, London, The Times Book Club, 1912. Wade, M.S., The Overlanders of '62, Victoria, King's Printer 1931. (Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia Memoir No. IX.) Wade, M.S., The Thompson Country, Kamloops, Inland Sentinel Printing, 1907. I l l . Personal Enquiry 1. Personal Interviews • (during l a s t two years) Beguelin, Mrs. A. Bel l , Mr. and Mrs. Fred Bristow, MrR.A. Carter, Mr. A.C. Collings, Mr. Guy Davidson, Mr. and Mrs. Joe Doe, Mr. Ernest Herring, Mr. and Mrs. W. Kappel, Mr. Frank Mobley, Major C.W. Reedman, Mrs. John Ruth, Mr. Percy Turner, Mr. & Mrs. Ed. Wallensteen, Mr. Karl Woodward, E.D. - 139 -2. Enquiries by Letter (a) Individuals Bristow, Mr. R. A. Doe, Mr. Ernest Jenkins, Mr. A.C. Kappel, Mr. Prank Mason, Mr. R.R. Nelson, Mr. G.H. Orchard, Mr. O.D. Reedman, Mrs. A.-Turner, Mrs. E. (b) Others .British Columbia Government - Department of Agriculture Provincial Horticulturist - Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s - Department of lands and Forests - B r i t i s h Columbia Porest Service - Geographic Division - Legal Surveys Division - Water Resources - Department of Recreation and Conservation, Game Department. B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro Office at Salmon Arm Canadian Pacific Railway Company Federated Co-operative M i l l at Canoe Shuswap Timbers Limited M i l l at Sicamous IV. Maps B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Shuswap Lake sheet, 82 L/NW, 2 miles = 1 inch, Victoria, 1959. Kamloops Land D i s t r i c t , indicating alienated land. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. 10 miles = 1 Inch, Victoria, 1959. - 140 -British. Columbia, Department of lands and Forests, ozalid print from Legal Surveys Section, scale 2 miles = 1 inch, upon which i s superimposed the township grid system. B r i t i s h Museum #14797, Sketch of Thompson1s River D i s t r i c t , 1827. Photostat i n Provincial Archives. Canada, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, National Topographic Series, Shuswap Sheet, 82 l/NW, 2 miles = 1 Inch, Ottawa, 1955. Canada, Department of the Interior, B r i t i s h Columbia Railway Belt, Kamloops East, 1911 and 1913- (3 miles = 1 inch), land use map. Trutch, J.W., Guide Map to the Big Bend Mines, 1866. 

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