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The British Columbia police, 1858-1871 Hatch, Frederick John 1955

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THE BRITISH COLOMBIA POLICE, 1858-1871 by Frederick John Hatch  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of History  We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS  Members of the Department of Hi story THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1955  The British Columbia Police. 1858-1871 F.J. Hatch Abstract* The British Columbia Police was established in September, 1858, by James Douglas (later Sir James Douglas) . At that time DougLas was Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company and Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island. When the Fraser River gold rush occurred, Douglas assumed responsibility for maintaining law and order on the Mainland of British Columbia, and established a small police force at the diggings. This force was not an organized police force in the modern sense, but rather a modified form of the English system of police offices composed of stipendiary magistrates and paid constables established in London in 1792• In British Columbia, the gold fields were divided into administrative districts each in charge of a gold commissioner armed with magisterial powers. These officials, who were under the orders of and directly responsible to the Governor, were referred to both as stipendiary magistrates and as gold commissioners. One of their main functions was to put down lawlessness in their districts. For this reason, each magistrate was authorized to appoint a staff of not more than six constables. Since the constables were also employed as the magistrates1 clerks, recorders, collectors and postmasters, they became integrated with the administrative system of the Colony. The suddenness of the Fraser River gold rush found Douglas without competent men to appoint to the important office of stipendiary magistrate. He hesitated until June, then appointed a staff chosen from the gold mining population. Without exception the men whom he appointed proved incompetent. The constables also were selected from among the miners, and with few exceptions their service was unsatisfactory. Before any of the appointments were made, the miners had taken the law into their own hands. They treated the magistrates and constables with neither fear nor respect. At the end of the year there was a breakdown in law and order in the goldfieids, culminating in a dispute between two of the magistrates, generally referred to as the "McGowan War." The question now arose as to whether or not British Columbia should have a large, centrally controlled, semi-military police force organized along the lines of the Royal Irish Constabulary. There was already in the Colony an officer of the famous Irish Force. This was Chartres Brew, whom Sir Edward Buliver Lytton had selected to assist Douglas in organizing a police force. Brew, who arrived in the Colony in November, 1858, was appalled at the inability of the police to control the miners. He proposed that  a force of 150 men should be raised in the Colony, but the expense involved caused Douglas to withhold his consent* After the McGowan War, Governor Douglas, with Brewfs concurrence, requested the Colonial Office to send out a force of about 150 of the Irish Constabulary at the British Government's expense. This plan was dropped when it was learned that the expense would have to be borne by the Colony. Brew then requested to take the constables in the goldfields under his charge. However early in 1858 the military forces in the Colony had been substantially increased. Also a new and competent staff of magistrates had been appointed. Consequently Douglas did not now feel the need of a strong police force. His unco-operative attitude persuaded Brew to abandon all hope of taking control of the police. He accepted instead a position in the magistracy. Consequently the colonial const ableP remained under the control of the magistrates. Fortunately there appeared a better class of magistrates and constables after 1858. The magistrates were selected from suitable candidates sent over by the British Colonial Office. Without exception they won the confidence of the Governor. Their efforts were mainly responsible for the general good order that prevailed in British Columbia after 1858. The Governors of the Colony allowed the magistrates to choose their own constables© However in 1864, under Governor Seymour, the constable establishments for each district were fixed by the Governor-inCouncll and all appointments to the constabulary had to have the Governor's approval. Although these measures gave more stability to the police the early development of the Force was hampered by the financial circumstances of the Colony, There were too few constables to deal with the serious increase in crime at the height of the Cariboo gold rush or to coerce large mining conqpanies if they defied government regulations. Nevertheless the British Columbia Police was motivated by high ideals of public service. When there were openings for new Magistrates, first consideration was given to the constables. After Confederation the magistrates became servants of the Dominion Government while the constable8 came under the jurisdiction of the Province. This change led to two important steps in the evolution of the British Columbia Police. First the police became independent of the judiciary. Second, a superintendent was appointed for the whole force. However modernization was not completed until 1923 when the British Columbia Police was reorganized by the Police and Prisons Regulations Act.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGE The Force is Created  Chapter I  1  Chapter II  -  The Fraser Hiver Gold Rush  10  Chapter III  -  Chartres Brew  19  Chapter IV  -  The Magistrates  30  The Colonial Constables  48  Chapter V Chapter VI  -  Crime in the Colony  69  Chapter VII  -  The White Man's Law  83  Chapter VIII -  Two Police Forces  98  Chapter IX  Police Traditions  104  Appendix A  -  Men Who Served in the British Columbia Police, 1858-1871  Appendix B  Distribution of Constables  Appendix C  Murders Committed in British Columbia During the Years 18 58 to I869  Maps  British Columbia, 1871 - Back Cover,  i xiv XV  - 1 CHAPTER I THE FORCE IS CREATED On August 15, 1950, the task: of policing the Province of British Columbia was officially transferred from the British Columbia Provincial Police to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.  For the British Columbia  Ftirce, this date terminated 92 years of policing the Pacific CoaBt Province.  Originally it consisted of fewer than a dozen constables whose  duty was to police the gold fields of the lower Fraser River valley. At the time of its replacement by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, it had developed into one of the most modern and efficient police forces in North America, comprising over five hundred officers, noncommissioned officers and men, who policed British Columbia^ 360,000 square miles.  The British Columbia Provincial Police had the distinc-  tion of being the oldest territorial police force in Canada, looking back to November 19, 1858, as the date of its origin.1  The fact that  this is also the date on which the Colony of British Columbia was formally constituted, shows how closely the history of the British Columbia Police parallels that of the Province. Before the Colony of British Columbia was brought into existence and before the British Columbia Police was formed, the Pacific Coast Mainland was inhabited almost exclusively by Indians and Hudson^ Bay Company officials.  In 1821, the courts of Upper Canada were given juris-  diction in all civil and criminal law cases arising in British territory  1 The B.C. Police predates the North-West Mounted Police by 15 years and the Ontario Provincial Police by 17 years.  west of the Great Lakes but this arrangement became a dead letter in so far as it applied to the remote area west of the Rocky Mountains.  When  Vancouver Island became a Colony in 1849, courts of judicature were established there, but it was not until after gold was discovered along  2  the Fraser River that British law was introduced into the Mainland. As early as I856, James Douglas, Governor of Vancouver Island and Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, informed the British Government that gold in considerable quantities had been found in the Columbia River 3 region.  The problem of enforcing law and order in the event of a sudden  increase in population was considered, but the British were not prepared at that time to incur any unnecessary expense and consequently took no step to introduce an organized government for the Mainland.  The means  of preserving law and order should a gold rush occur was left to Douglas 4 who was the nearest representative of Her Majesty's Government. The expected rush of miners to the Fraser River began in April, 1858 and by that summer had reached its height.  Between April and July, 5  it was estimated that 22,000 people arrived on the Mainland.  Douglas  realized that no time was to be lost in establishing some form of government.  In June, on a visit to the gold fields, he  6  appointed the first law officials.  In July, at Fort  2 E.O.S. Scholefield and F.H. Howay, British Columbia: From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vancouver, S.J. Clarke, 1914. H , p . 25. 3 Douglas to H. Labouchere, 16 April, 1856, in Great Britain, Parliament, Copies of Extracts of Correspondence Relative to the Discovery of Gold in the Fraser River District in British North America, London. 1858. p. 5o 4 Labouchere to Douglas, 4 August, 1856, log. cit« 5 Victoria Weekly Gazette. 16 July, 1859, 6 See below, Chapter II, for an account of the first law officialso  - 3 -  Langley, Douglas drew up a draft of instructions for these newly appointed officials in which was contained the first orders for the organization of a police at the diggings. Your establishment will consist of 6 men, namely, a Serjeant Csic) at one dollar and a half and the remainder at '41 per diem each, with rations (two shillings) and with clothing. You will hold courts of Petty Sessions at the place near to your head quarters which may be proclaimed for that purpose, on such days as shall be most convenient giving sufficient publicity to the same. You will carry on general public business of your district taking especial care that drinking and gambling and other disorders are as much as possible put down. The Sergeant of your party will also act as Chief Constable, and his duties will be those ordinarily belonging to such officers. You will furnish me monthly with an account of the number of days on which Courts of Petty Sessions are held, and of the number of cases and their results, distinguishing their several characters. You will have the power of dismissing any of your party for drunkeness or other misconduct reporting to me the circumstances.^ In September, still not having received definite instructions from the Home Government .for establishing law and order at the diggings, Douglas again visited the Mainland and appointed the first constables.  He hesi-  tated to employ as many as he thought necessary, as the expense involved  1 James Douglas, Instructions to the First Gold Commissioners, 13 July, 1658, Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia, lart I, (Cmd. 2476), London, 1859, p. 31. Hereafter cited as B.C. Papers. It is interesting to contrast this original plan for a police with the force which actually developed in the Colony. The following differences are noted: (1) the district constable establishment was usually less than six depending on local exigencies (see Chapter V); (2) military ranks such as sergeant, were never used; (3) the Colonial Police were not given rations or clothing; (4) the chief constable's duties entailed a much wider variety of jobs than those "ordinarily belonging to such officers".  - 4 -  was so great.  Douglas reported to the Colonial Secretary,  A considerable force of public officers is necessary at Fort Hope to consist of a magistrate, Sheriff and Constabulary Force, but the expense would have been so great...that I thought it proper to consult you on the subject.... No man of worth will accept employment at less than ^3.25 or 13/7 a day, the men however in that case finding their own board and lodging - I however made the following appointment: Robert Smith a native of Scotland to be Justice of the Peace and Assize Officer - Robert Ladner to be a Chief Constable. Douglas went on to say: A regular police force consisting of one Chief Constable at 150 dollars a month and five policemen at 100 dollars each a month were appointed during my stay at Fort Yale. This is a very high rate of pay but no men worth having will serve for less. Thus the British Columbia Colonial Police came into existence.  The  event was noted by a few lines in the Victoria Gazette by the correspondent at Fort Yale. At last there is some prospect toward establishing law and order. I saw a bona fide policeman today for the first time and on enquiry I learned there were 2 or 3 more. Their pay is ^100 per month which is no more than is required to get good men. The Chief of Police or High Constable is...Mr. William Kirby.... - It was not until October that Douglas at last received some concrete advice from the British Government in connection with the administration of the new gold fields.  Sir Edward Bulwer I<ytton, who became Secretary  of State for the Colonies in 1858, wrote to Douglas suggesting that he appoint magistrates and form a constabulary force at the diggings without  8 Douglas to Lytton, 12 October, 1858, B.C. Papers, Part II (Cmd. 2578), London, 1859, p. 6. 9 Victoria Weekly Gazette, 2 October, 1858.  It was with some satisfaction then, that Douglas answered I have received your communication... suggesting the appointment of gold commissioners with the powers of magistrates, and the establishment of a police at the diggings. It was highly satisfactory to learn that in respect to those measures I had only anticipated your wishes..... 1 For several years prior to the ]?raser River gold rush Douglas had repeatedly requested the British Government to send him military support. In 1858 several more such requests reached Great Britain.  Lytton was ap-  prehensive lest Douglas make the mistake of using the military to compel obedience to civil law.  Not only did Lytton feel strongly against entrust-  ing police duty to troops, but-he also wished to avoid the embarrassment that might arise if British soldiers arrested ^erican miners.  He  advised Douglas:The Governor of the Colony should...use every endeavor to render the authority of the Givil Government independent of his military force and thus be in a position to feel the full advantage of the moral support which the military affords to legitimate authority in proportion to the rarity of their interference. On the other hand nothing is so important to the peace and progress of the Colony as a well-organized and effective Police. And I find that a Police is always feeble in the colonies that have been accustomed in every disturbance to rely upon soldiers. It is by the establishment of this Civil Constabulary with a sufficient staff of Stipendiary Magistrates, that I would wish the Colonists to cooperate with the Government in the requisite protection of life and property....^"1  19 Douglas to Lytton, 9 November, 1858, B.C. Papers, Part II, p. 26. 11 Lytton to Douglas, 16 October, 1858, B.C. Papers, rart I, p. 70.  6 If Douglas had appeared over anxious for military support it was because he felt it wise- to "err on the safe side and maintain a respectable military force in order that the power as well as the dignity of the  12  British Government should "be represented.11  He feared that the Americans  might fail to recognize the forty-ninth parallel as the northern limit of the United States1 territory* and felt that a strong military force would most effectively remind them,that they were now on British soil. Such a force also would have a great moral effect on the Indians. He had no intention of using it except as a show piece Or in case of emergency. As it happened the nroblem of law enforcement during the colonial period did, fo-r the most part, rest with the civil authorities. An exception  was the use of ships of the Royal Wavy along the north-west  coast for the purpose of investigating the illicit liquor trade and the occasional murders committed "by the natives. The Captain of the ship concerned was sworn in as a Justice of the Peace to give him authority to enforce the law. In 1858, a detachment of Hoyal Engineers was sent to the Colony of British Columbia for th<p purpose of surveying roads. There are only a very few instances of their being called upon 13 capacity of police.  to act in the  When the British Columbia Police was formed, the modern idea of polic e as an organized, salaried force, entirely distinct from the judiciaryf was still very new. Such a force was not established in  12 Douglas to Lytton, 27 December, 1858, B.C. Papers, Part II, p. 47. 13 See Chapter II, p. 17 and Chapter V, pp. 60-bl.  - 7 -  England until 1829 when the London Metropolitan Police was formed.  The  Colonial Police was neither an organized force in the modern sense, nor was it separate from the judiciary.  The circumstances surrounding its  formation necessitated the incorporation of police duties with not only judicial duties but also with most of the other civil requirements of the Colony.  For administrative purposes the Colony was divided into districts  according to the distribution of the mining population.  Over each district  there was appointed a stipendiary magistrate, with a staff of paid constables.15 The stipendiary magistrate was the most important local official in the Colonial Government,  lie was called upon to render services which, in  a more advanced stage of government, would never have fallen to his lot. As the Colony developed, the magistrates became responsible for a bewildering list of offices. police authority.  The magistrate of each district was also the local  In this combined capacity he saw to the apprehension  of criminals by his constables or sometimes by himself; he examined the prisoners, and committed them to trial; where a jail was available he was responsible for the detention of criminals, or, if there was no jail, the transfer of criminals to a place of detention.  The office of stipendiary  magistrate was also combined with that of gold commissioner, an arrangement based 011 the methods used in trie A u s t r a l i a n gold rush. 16  i-.s a gold  14 See J. F. Lloylan, Scotland Yard and the Metropolitan Police, London and New York, G.P. Putnam 80ns, Ltd., 1929, pp. 18-23. 15 The positions of stipendiary magistrate and paid constable came into existence in England in 1792 by the Middlesex and Surrey Justices ^ct which provided for the establishment of 7 police courts in the London area each with 3 stipendiary magistrates and 6 police constables who were paid a salary. See_ , ibid., p. 19. 16 Douglas to Sir xienry Barkely, 6 August, 1360, Governor's Private Official Letterbook, LIS., Archives of B.C. —  -  8  -  commissioner he was responsible for collecting miners' licenses, recording claims and settling claim disputes.  In addition, the magistrates  were justices of the peace, judges of the small debts court and most of them were county court judges.  Another title of the magistrate was  Sub-Commissioner of Lands and Y;orks,in which capacity he reported to the Governor such pertinent information as returns of land pre-emptions, suitable locations for new roads and conditions of existing roads and trails.  In some districts the magistrate performed the duties of a cus-  toms official, supervising the collection of imoort duties or of revenue from road tolls.  For lack of any other officials appointed for the pur-  pose, the magistrate also served as Indian Agent.  Other duties which fell  to the magistrate's lot were those of coroner, postmaster, local register, and, in one district, hospital superintendent and librarian.  In 1863  when the Legislative Council was established on the lJainland, some of the magistrates, in addition to all of the above duties, became members 17 of that Body.  Tne magistrate was indeed the most important local  government official in the Colony. the only local officials.  In fact, he, with his constables, were  No wonder the Colonial Secretary, in writing  to a newly appointed magistrate, said that it was "impossible to lay down rules for your guidance in every contingency.  i.Iuch must be left to your  own discretion and judgement" In estimating the work of the British Columbia Colonial Police Force outlined in the ensuing chapters, it is only fair to keep in mind that 17 Of. m.a. Ormsby, "some Irish Figures in Colonial Days", British Columoia Historical Quarterly, XIV (1950), p. 72. 1 8 J.A.G. YoungtoA-OBllotb, 8 July, 1861, Colonial Secretary's Viscellaneous Letterbook, Lis., archives of B.C. ~ ~ "  -  9  -  although the constables were appointed primarily to maintain lav; and Order, they were> still, assistants to tlie magistrates, and as such., they were required to act in so many capacities that their efficiency as police was necessarily impaired.  CHAPTER II THE FRASER RIVER GOLD RUSH The Fraser River gold rush m s one of the most sudden in history. The comparative nearness of the United States territory and an available transportation system enabled men from California to reach the gold producing area shortly after hearing the news of rich strikes.  The actual  diggings commenced on a bar about one mile be loir Fort Mope and extended to the commencement of the Falls, a distance of approximately forty-five miles.  The suddenness of the rush precluded Douglas1 establishing machin-  ery to maintain law and order until after the influx of migrants was at its peak.  In the meantime, the thousands of gold seekers had completely  transformed the scene along the lower Fraser where the pallisaded forts of the Hudson's Bay Company at Langley, Yale and Hope, had been the only signs of European civilization.  After the miners, ca^ie the gamblers,  smugglers and thieves, all intent on getting a share of the miners' rold. The miners showed little concern over the absence of police Protection; they came well armed, prepared to protect themselves and even in some cases, to make their own laws.  For instance, when Douglas visited the  mines in June, 18^8, he found that at Hill's  Bar, just below the town of  Yale, the miners had drawn UP their own code of laws which provided penalties for such offences as stealing, molesting the Indians or providing them -with liquor.^ Douglas appointed the first law officials in June.  George Perrier,  "a British subject", was appointed "Justice of the Peace for the district  1 W. N. Sage, Sir James Douglas and British Columbia, University of Toronto Press, 1930, p. 2237 —  - 11 -  of Hill's Bar".  For the district of Fort Yale, Richard Hicks, "a respect-  able miner", was appointed as "Revenue Officer".2  Above the Yale District  was the district of Fort Dallas, which extended from the Falls to "some point beyond the Fountain to be fixed hereafter".3 Captain O.J. r£ravaillot, a Frenchman who had been mining in the region, was appointed "Revenue Officer" for this district.  4  No constables were appointed until September on Douglas' second visit to the gold fields.  At that time he appointed Robert Smith to be justice  of the peace and revenue officer at Fort Hope. 5  Under him was appointed  the first constable on the mainland - William Ladner, an Englishman who had come to the Fraser River diggings in Lay from San Francisco.  Ladner  served as collector of customs as well as constable at Fort Hope.  One of  his first police assignments was to apprehend William King for the murder of william Eaton.  He arrested King at the foot of the Canyon and brought 7  him down to Fort Hope for trial.  Ladner did not serve long as a constable,  probably until the spring of 1859. up farming in British Columbia.  He left the government service to take  Later his name was given to Ladner's  2 Douglas to Lord Stanley, 15 June, 185S, Vancouver Island Despatches to Downing Street, MS., Archives of B.C. 3 Young to Travaillot, 16 August, 1858, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. 4 Douglas to Stanley, 1 July, 1858,op.,cit.. other titles of these first officials were: Magistrate; Assistant (or'Lub) Commissioner of Crown Lands or Assistant Crown Commissioner; .and Assize Officer. The title, Stipendiary Magistrate and assistant Gold Commissioner, was not firmly fixed until later. 5 See above Chapter I, p. 4. 6 W.W. Walk em, Stories of Early British Columbia, Vancouver, News advertiser, 1914, p. 122. Douglas states that he appointed a Robert Ladner. W.W. 7/alkem, who apparently was personally acquainted with him calls him Bill Ladner. .. . SvLrf^i^'. S  W  E  )  !  0  ?;.  t  ™  12 l  °°tober> i  e  185a  .  Part II, t,. 4.  Of.  Landing. Although British Columbia's first constable was stationed at Fort Hope it is to Yale that one must go for a picture of the British Columbia Police at the time of its inception.  Yale was the center of gold rush  activity in 1858 and it was here that Douglas reported a regular police force of six men had been formed.  The first chief constable at Yale was o  William Henry Kirby, a former resident of Australia. member of the Yale Police approximately a month.  Kirby remained a  He resigned in October  when Mr. B. Donnelan, who had served in the Sail Francisco Police and had been mining in British Columbia since July, was appointed as chief con-  10  stable in his stead.  11  Donnellan resigned in December.  In addition  to these two there was also a Constable Smith, Constable Davis, Constable David McLean and Constable Joseph W. Carey, a^-1 of whom had either resigned or been discharged by the spring of 1859. These men who first policed the gold fields of the Eraser River valley make a strange contrast with the men who served in the nresent day Force.  The latter were carefully selected, well trained and disciplined.  In their smart khaki uniforms, they patrolled British Columbia by automobile, plane and hiptfi powered boats.  British Columbia's first constables,  on the other hand, were selected from such material as the gold rush afforded.' They had no training and discipline made little appeal to them.  Since they wore no uniform, it was impossible to distinguish  8 W.W. Walkem, OP. cit., pp. 125-126. 9 See above,Chapter I , p. h. 10 Hicks to Douglas, 1 November, 1858, Hicks Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 11 P.B. Whannell to Douglas, 15 December, 1858, Ttemnell Letters. MS., Archives of B.C. — —  - 13 thorn from tho rest of tho population us thoy made their way up and down the Fraser River valley on foot or by canoe. Desirable recruits were not easily attracted to the position of constable.  Few of the gold seekers indeed, were willing to forego the lucra-  tive possibilities of gold mining for tho onerous duty of enforcing the law among their unruly brethren.  Besides, a constable's pay was too  small and the chances of getting it regularly, too uncertain.  The men  who offered themselves for enrolment were chiefly independent miners who would never become obedient subordinates.  These men, besides,  ore dotrr-  mined to return to return to their mining pursuits whenever a favorable opportunity arose, so that just when they were becoming fairly useful they would abandon the Force. 12 With few exceptions, British Columbia's first constables rave unsatisfactory service.  According to Hicks, Constable Kirby was "all talk and  13 do nothing".  Constable Donnellan wus nnid to be "totally unfit for his  14 job".  One constable, appointed by Travaillot, recoived his appointment  shortly after he had stoutly resisted arrest following a charge of attempted murder and highway robbery; another constable was discovered to be a saloon keeper at the same time as he held his r.ovornment appointment. The appearance of these first policemen at the di^gin^s made little impression on the miners.  They continued to ko heavily armed and regarded  the constables with neither fear nor respect.  Whenever it was in their  interest, the miners were obedient enough to law and order, but they 12 Chartres Brew to Douglas, 2d December, IMbU, Brew Lettem, j[fi., Archives of B.C. — 13 Hicks to Douglas, 1 November, 1858, Hicks Letters, MS., Rrchives of B.C. 14 Whannell to Douglas, 3 December, 1858, Whannell Letters, RS., Archives of B.C. —' —  - 14 -  tolerated and even encouraged rowdiness.  Moreover, they would not hesi-  tate to attempt the rescue of any of their friends from police custody. Yale was a typical gold rush town where liquor saloons and gambling halls flourished.  These places sometimes harboured the worst criminals in the  Colony yet the police dared not close them for fear of repercussions among the miners.  Hicks almost gave up hope of preserving order in Yale.  In  desperation he wrote to Douglas:Unless I am supported by a sufficient military force it will be impossible for me or anyone else to maintain law and order. I have six men who are completely harrassed day and night. Worse than the incapacity and weakness of the police was the corruption and indiscretion of most of these first magistrates.  Perrier, either  through fear or fraud, compromised his position at Hill's Bar by association with the lawless element in that district. have held court while intoxicated.  Travaillot vias said to 1c And of Hicks, Begbie said, " he is 1n  totally unworthy of serving Her Majesty in any capacity whatsoever". Complaints against Hicks led Douglas to relieve him of his magisterial duties in November, 1858, but for some reason he v;as allowed to continue as gold commissioner until approximately February, 1859.  The magisterial  duties at Yale were taken over in November by P.B. Vrtiannell, who was said to have served with a militia regiment in Australia prior to coming to British Columbia.  18  Uhannell took over the control of the Yale police  15 Hicks to Douglas, 1 November, 1858, Hicks Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 16 Matthew Baillie Begbie, appointed Judge of the Crown Colony of British Columbia, September 2, 1858. 17 Begbie to Douglas, 3 February, 1859, Begbie Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 18 Victoria Weekly Gazette, 30 October, 1858. Sir Henry Barkley, Governor of Australia, referred to VJhannell as an out-and-out rogue. See Petbit.  PP« Clt.„ p. 127.  " °  - 15 -  and carried on a campaign against lawlessness in such an arrogant and vain manner that he soon lost the support tff his constables and provoked the antagonism of the miners. Whannell's indiscretions paved the way for an event often referrod to in British Columbia history as the McGowan War.  This affair, though  ridiculous in itself, revealed the general disregard for constituted authority in the Fraser River gold fields.  The central figure in the  "war" was a notorious character named Ned McGowan, a refugee from vigilanoe committee justice in San Francisco where his life "was not worth an hour's purchase".19  He announced his arrival in Victoria harbour with  20  a salvo of guns.  MOGowan and his followers installed themselves at  Hill's Bar and proceeded to spread their influence over not only the miners of the district, but also over the local law official, Justice Perrier.  The growing prominence of McGowan was closely watched by a  group of ex-San Francisco vigilantes who made their headquarters at Yale, where Justice Whannell presided.  Thus there developed an unwholesome  rivalry between the Hill's Bar and Yale residents and also between their respective law officials, Perrier and Whannell. a head  The situation came to  ^the- end -of- the vy<ear.  Christmas Day, 1858, found Yale residents at loose ends;  all gambling  halls and saloonshad been closed on Justice Whannell's order.  This drastic  19 Begbie to Douglas, 3 February, 1859, Befebie Letters, MS., Archives of B.c 20 Cf. Petjfclt.OP*  p. 139  - 16 -  action taken by Uhannell was an effort to iirevent further trouble after the murder of the previous day.21  It was an effort in vain.  Before the  day was over a colored man named Dixon was assaulted on the streets of Yale by two miners from Hill's Bar.  Miannell straightaway put Dixon in  jail to make sure of his being on hand for the trial. He then issued warrants for the apprehension of the assailants.  The latter were sub-  sequently arrested at Hill's Bar and arraigned before Justice Perrier. That worthy, on the pretense of wishing to investigate the matter further, dispatched Constable Hickson to Yale to escort the colored witness to Hill's Bar.  Vihannell not only refused to surrender his witness but  after an exchange of words with Constable Hickson, put the latter in jail for contempt of court. miners of Hill's Bar.  This was too much for the proud Perrier and the Entirely ignorant of his powers and authority,  Perrier made out two warrants, one for the arrest of IThannell and the other for removing Dixon from custody at Yale and having him escorted to Hill's Bar.  To execute the warrants and to rescue Constable Hickson,  Ned McGowan and some of his accomplices were sworn in as special constables. The McGowan posse forcibly seized VftLannell su-d his jailor and brought them all, nhannell, jailor, Hickson and Dixon back to Hill's Bar. faced magistrate: prosecutor faced defendant.  Fagistrate  Perrier declared IJhannell  guilty of contempt of court and fined him the sum of twenty-five dollars. Whannell, distraught with fear and indignation, wrote to the Governor:  21 On Christmas eve, William Foster, a notorious gambler, shot and killed a miner in broad daylight. YJhannell personally arrested Foster's partner but Foster managed to escape and was hidden by his associates.  - 17 -  This town and district are in a state bordering on anarchy; my own and the lives of the citizens are in imminent peril - I beg your Excellency will afford us prompt aid An effective blow must at once be struck at the operations of these outlaws, else I tremble for the welfare of this colony. In conclusion I beg to report...that... owing to Mr. Perrier's act this day, my authority is set at defiance and I am, as it were, a 22 mere cipher! Douglas, believing that an insurrection had occurred, lost no time in responding to Whannell's appeal for aid,  A force of one hundred marines  accompanied by about twelve special constables was despatched from Victoria. Colonel Moody?3 who heard of the disturbance before the news reached Douglas, had already set off from Fort Langley accompanied by Judge Begbie and a force of twenty-five of the Royal Engineers.  Their fears that the  country was in open insurrection were soon dispelled;  on arriving in  Yale ahead of the troops, they found everything remarkably quiet. An investigation which was conducted into the -Jhannell-Perrier episode disclosed the state of affairs which prevailed on the Mainland. Judge Begbie summed up the situation:It is easy to conceive what a ready opening there was for disturbance in a district where a weak and corrupt magistrate like Mr. liicks, having thrown men's minds and titles into confusion, was succeeded by two magistrates like Captain channel! and ivir. Perrier, alike ignorant of the lav/, surrounded by evil counsellors and carried away with the most unbounded ideas of the dignity of their offices and themselves.^  22 .'i/hannell to Douglas, 31 December, 1858, V/hannell Letters, IvB., Archives of B.C. ~ 23 ic.C. Lioody, Oommanding Officer of the Company of Royal Engineers sent to the Colony of B.C. in 1858 (See above .Chapter I, p. 6) . 24 Begbie to Douglas, 3 February, 1859, Begbie Letters, of j.o.  archives  18 -  The McGowan War marks the end of a chapter in the story of the British Columbia Colonial Police.  In January, Perrier was removed from  office and the rest of these first magistrates were to go as soon as more capable persons could be found to replace them.  There was, too,  early in 1859 an almost complete turnover in constables.  The McGowan  War also corresponds with the decline of the gold fields on the lower Fraser.  During that winter there was an exodus of miners from this  region and the Colony was in a relative state of tranquillity until the riches of the Cariboo were revealed i n 1860.  By that time a competent  staff of officials was settled in the Colony, ready to cope with the new wave of gold seekers.  In the Cariboo rush, prospectors from Great  Britain and Canada who were intermingled with the California miners, seemed to give the Colony a more law abiding tone.  There also apoeared  a small settled population which demanded more efficient police protection. The confusion of 1858 gradually gave way to order and stability. were to be no more "McGowan Wars".  There  -  IV)  -  III Ci.lJ-i'iV:  B;: : •  For almost a year after trie turmoil at Yalo ca.ic to a close it was debated whether or not a large police force, organized along nili to.ry lines and centrally controlled, should be raised to oolice t:.e ,;;old fields of British Columbia.  The dhief adTOCat®  Tor a force of this nature  was Chartres jjrew, whom Lytton haa selected to assist Douglas in organizing a police force.  Brew arrived in Victoria in Lovenber, 185b, after  a perilous voyage on which his ship was completely destroyed by fire.1 He was most anxious to proceed with the task which he v:as sent over to do, especially after the .ihannell-Perrier episode revealed the pitiful state of the police.  The obstacles he encountered, however, finally convinced  him he would have to abandon the project.  The Colonial Police never be-  came organized along military lines and never were centrally controlled. Brew, however, who actually became one of the magistrates of British Columbia, signed all official correspondence with the letters, C.I.P. (Chief Inspector of Police) after his name.  It is probable that it is  from this anomaly that popular opinion has claimed Chartres Brew as 9 Head of the British Columbia Colonial Police." Chartres Brew had been carefully selected.  ..hen Lytton informed  Douglas that he had sent a Chief Inspector of Police to British Columbia, he described the appointee as "the most experienced and trustworthy person I could select among the Irish Constabulary (a body of men peculiarly distinguished for efficiency)".  Brew was born in Corsfin, County Clare,  Ireland in 1815 and joined the koyal Irish Constabulary in 1840.  He served  1 Brew to Douglas, 11 November, le'bB, Brew Letters, LB., archives of 2 See unsigned article, -Story of the British Columbia Police Closely Parallels History of Province", Suoulder Strap, 22nd edition, 1950, p. 5. 3 lytton to Douglas, 16 October, 1858, B.C. Papers, Part I, p. 70  -  2 0  -  with the British Army in the Crimean Jar and afterwards resumed his career in the famed Irish Force,  brew held the rank of Inspector when Lytton  selected him to be Chief Inspector of roJice for British Columbia. On his arrival in November, lobB, Brev, expected that he would take charce of the police already catubliauod in the Colon/. to form "a boa y of men v;elL disciplined, we 1.1 ar whose general duties would of course  It  -G hin wish  a !1 f,ll drillou,  ,  as oeace office'-, but i-' rnmiirna,  prepared to take the field as soldiers".4  ^ftcr preliminary discussion  with Douglas he left for the Mainland to determine the aaturc and composition of a police force for duty in the gold fields. Brew's first proposal was to raise a force of 150 men.  T^'is was an  estimate for a force to be ready by spring v/aen a large immigration was expected,  Tno force was to be recruited, trained and equipped in the  gold fields,  ite advised embodying a part of the force immediately and  suggested that no time be lost in commencing to erect barracks and taking 5 measures to provide clothes and equipment for the men. volved caused Douglas to reject Drew's proposal. not be had at the time for less than  The expense in-  ^ince a good man could  a day, to pay a force of this  size would have cost the Colony almost ,,>200,000 a year.  The cost of erect-  ing barracks and providing arms, clothing and equipment would have augmented this figure considerably.  The total colonial revenue in 1MB8 was  approximately ^100,000 and in i860, about ,,200,000.  The next year began  an era of deficits which when Douglas retired in 1864, amounted to ;^:0,000. 4 Brew to Douglas, 11 November, 1858, Brew Letters, M3. , archives of B.C. 5 Brew to Douglas, 11 December, 1858, ibid.  - 21 -  Douglas believed the Colony of British Columbia could ill afford an expensive police force and for this reason withheld his consent for Uhartres Brew to implement his plan. Apart from the expense, Douglas dbubted whether an effective police force could be raised from the gold mining population.  In place of Brew's  plan Douglas suggested that the Imperial Government be requested to send to the Colony, sixty of the Irish Constabulary comolete with arms and equipment.  This body of men would serve as a nucleus for the larger force,  the balance of which was to be raised over a period of time in the Colony. Further, he felt that the entire force should be armed and equipped at the expense of the British Government.7  After the Yale disturbances, uouglas  gave up the idea of recruiting any constables in the Colony and asked the British Government for 150 instead of sixty men from the Royal Irish Conp stabulary.  Brew was attracted to Douglas' proposal for now he too, re-  alized tho difficulty of forming a police force from the material afforded by gold rush conditions V/ith reference to your Excellency's communication regarding the expediency of obtaining from Ireland a Body of the Irish Constabulary fully armed and equipped...1...urge that course to be adopted by the Government. The police force in an armed corps otherwise in a country occupied by unruly mining population armed to the Teeth.9  British Columbia must be they would be powerless armed Indians and by an who may be said to be  The Colony's request eventually reached the Inspector General of the  6 Douglas to Lytton, 27 December, 1058, British Columbia Despatches to iUoiKning Street, MS. , archives of B.C.  8 Douglas to Lytton, 8 January, 1859, ibid. 9 Brew to Douglas, 29 December, 1858, Brew Letters, W . t Archives of  -  2 2  -  Irish Constabulary who asked for more information on the composition of of the force and the conditions of pay and allowances.  Chartres lirew  drew up a detailed plan outlining the ranks required and the proposed rates of pay.  Brew's plan called for two sub-inspectors, six head con-  stables, twenty-five constable sergeants and 117 sub-constables.  The  superior ranks were to be filled by ex-army officers residing the the Colony.  The constables were to be between twenty-one ana thirty-five  years of age and preference would be given to married men.  head con-  stables were to receive ten shillings a day, a sergeant, nine shillings and a sub-constable eight.  The men were to be required to feed themselves  but were to be provided with lodging and one suit of clothing annually. At the end of six years' service in the Colony they were to receive a free grant of six acres of land,  ".'hether or not these terras were generous  enough to attract the required number of volunteers, was never determined for the whole scheme ct>.ae to mought when the Imperial Government refused 10 to undertake any part of the expense. After this Douglas avoided further discussion on enlarging the police force.  He felt the need for enlargement to diminish as he saw the naval  and military forces in the Colony increase.  I.iuch to Douglas1 satisfac-  tion, Lytton managed to have the admiralty increase the number of British warships on the Pacific station. 11  In October, admiral Baynes arrived  at Vancouver Island in his flaghhip the Ganges and remained for about two months.  In February, the Tribune and ^ylades arrived at Esnuimalt with  10 Douglas to Lytton, 2 July, 1859, B.C. Despatches to Downing: Street, MS., archives of B.C. ' 11 Lytton to Douglas, 2 September, 1858, B.C. Despatches from Downing Street, MS. , archives of B.C. ™—  - 23 -  150 supernumerary marines.  A part of this force was stationed at Queen-  borough (New Westminster).  Also the presence of the Royal Engineers gave  Uouglas added assurance that he could deal with any major disturbance. He decided to continue, with his original plan for a small police force and to use the military if emergencies should arise.  The Colony would  be well served and at less expense. The large proportion of Americans in the population of the gold fields also influenced Douglas1 views on enlarging the police force,  AS  long as the American portion was dominant it would be difficult to recruit a large force without including some Americans in it.  Douglas wished to  avoid this for it appeared to him :'a most dangerous policy to put the sword in the hands of aliens who have no love for British Institutions and might turn it against the government whenever it suited their purpose". The gradual increase of British immigration into the Colony would supply enough recruits to comprise a small force.  Moreover, Douglas felt that  the British immigrants were giving the population a more stable and law abiding character and a greater degree of cooperation with the police could be expected.  Thus the idea of a large force controlled by a central  police head, became lass important to Douglas as time went on. Brew, however, was adamant.  Not unnaturally,  the constables in the Colony under his supervision.  wished to have all \.hile he was waiting  for a decision on the proposal to have men from the Irish Constabulary sent to the Colony, he was employed by Douglas in various administrative positions.  But he could not forget the ourpose for which he was sent  to the Colony; the organization of the police mind.  12 Douglas to Lytton, 2 July, 1859, og_. cit.  remained uppermost in his  - 24 -  Bovotr • , Brew proved himself more valuable to Douglas in other positions than as an Inspector of Police.  Soon after Brew's arrival  Douglas had planned to remove Richard Hicks from Yale and appoint Brew in his place.  "This arrangement", he explained to Lytton, "will not inter-  fere materially with Mr. Brew's other duties while to me it will afford an incalculable degree of relief as I implicitly can rely on lir. Brew's 13 firmness and integrity". Brew declined the appointment on the grounds that it would hinder him in carrying out his duties as Chief Inspector of police.  .After the Ydaannell-Perrier em'broglio, however, Douglas prevailed  upon Brew to accept the appointment of Chief Gold Commissioner.  The office  was to be only a temporary one and Brew understood that in due tine he would undertake the superintendence of the police force.  14  Brew entered upon his new duties with a characteristic sense of responsibility and a determination to bring some measure of order and regularity into the administration of the gold fields.  His main duties as  a gold commissioner were the collection of the miner's tax and the settlement of claim boundaries.  The former was a wearisome duty, for many of  the claims were so unremunerative that the expense of working them frequently left the miners with insufficient funds to pay the license fee. Considerationshown toward these unfortunate ones evoked complaints and and excuses from many who were able to pay.  Brew covered the entire gold  fields by canoe and on foot in an endeavor to establish uniformity in collection of the tax.  He accepted reasonable excuses for non-payment  13 Douglas to Lytton, 4 February, 1859, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street, MS., archives of B.C. 14 Brew to Moody, 12 January, 1859, Brew Letters, m . , archives of B.C. In February, 1859, Brew established his headquarters as Chief Gold Commissioner at Fort Yale displacing Hicks (assistant gold commissioner). Except for the short period, February to April, 1859, the office of Chief Gold Commissioner was not filled; other magistrates were appointed Assistant Gold Commissioner, or simply Gold Commissioner.  -  2 5  -  but dealt sternly with those he suspected of fabricating excuses for evading the tax. incalculably.15  His personal supervision facilitated the collection Although he personally objected to the license system  on the grounds that it was not equitable, he was prepared to adopt 16 coercive measures to obtain payment if so ordered b^ the Governor. In settling disoutes arising over boundart«»?f^laims, Brew achieved considerable success and won a reputation for impartiality and sagacity. The miners at Hill's Bar haft been particularly troublesome owing to the richness of the claims and the possession of a special code of rules. The result was that innumerable misunderstandings arose.  The settling  of these disputes was a serious matter, for feelings ran high when valuable claims were at stake.  Considering the difficult conditions at  Hill's Bar, it is significant that Brew won the admiration and resnect of the miners there.  The following letter, signed by more than eighty  residents of Hill's Bar, is perhaps the best of many tributes we have to Brew's character:Your discriminating judgment and practical sagacity have been evinced in many exciting questions wherein the rights of miners have conflicted. In their settlement, honesty and common sense were the prominent characteristics of your decisions, and for them, sir, we desire to thank you. The habits and customs of immigrants to new countries - particularly goldbearing countries - are so diversified, that is is indeed one of the most difficult things for those in power to met out justice to all, and not incur the enmity of some. To do so is the act of no ordinary mind, and evinces an intimate knowledge of human nature. You have done the first, sir, and not only avoided the latter, but have retained the kind feelings and respect of all. 17  ID 3.H. oanders to Brew, 30 April, 1859, Sanders Letters,  , Arc-ive  16 Brew suggested to Douglas that it be replaced by an eznort duty on in is system was introduced by Governor Seymour. See F ", ^ v a v tv.p *• ^ History of the Fraser River fanes. Victo?i2?U5har*ll infield, I ^ V IV Victoria .;eekly Gazette, 4 June, 1858.  - 26 -  while Brev; was acting as Chief Gold Commissioner he did not exercise control over all of the constables in the Colony, but only over those at Yale.  The rest of the constables remained under the control of the magis-  trates in whose districts they were stationed. a s the spring of 1859 wore on and Douglas still failed to make any decision regarding the police, Brew brought the matter to his attention. On April 11, he requested to be relieved of his position as Gold Commissioner in order that he could undertake the organization of a uniform system of police in the Colony. 18  rle received no reply to his request  but in the weeks that followed he lost no opportunity to remind the Governor that he had been commissioned to serve in the Colony as Chief In19 spector of Police and not as Chief Gold Commissioner.  His efforts  ended in apparent success at the end of May, 1859, when he was authorized to resign his acting appointment and to undertake the exclusive managment of the police force.20  However, the authority that Douglas gave with one  hand he took away with the other.  He informed Brew that the constables'  rate of pay was to be "very considerably redtced", and that only such number of constables was to be employed as was absolutely and indispensably 21 necessary. strictions.  Brew's enthusiasm was not dampened outwardly by these reHe now asked to be supplied with a horse for travelling to  the different stations for the purpose of organizing the police on an efficient and economical basis.  This Douglas refused.  There was no  18 Brew to Young, 16 April, 1859, Brew Letters, MS. , Archives of B.C. 19 Brew to Young, 21 Kay, 1859, ibid. 20 Young to Brew, 31 May, 1859, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Lettesbook, I.-SS», Archives of B.C. 21 Young to Brew, 17 June, 1858, ibid.  - 27 -  necessity, lie wrote, for incurring the expense of "travelling all over 22 the country", f o r the reports from all quarters viere satisfactory. A request from Brew for an office for conducting the administrative affairs 23 of the police, was completely ignored.J Frr a few months Brew attempted to direct the police force in the face of the negative attitude of Governor Douglas.  By October, he decided  there was no point in continuing the struggle and offered to accept a position as magistrate at New Westminster:If his Excellency the Governor be of opinion that the Colony as yet is not prepareu to permit the working of the small and scattered body of Constables from one central head or that the duty of conducting the department is insufficient at present fully to employ the time of one officer I beg leave to state that I am willing if so ordered to take up my quarters at Liew Westminster as the Capital of British Columbia and to undertake the duty there of Chief I^agistrate in adition to the duties of Head of the police Department of the Colony. And I...suggest by this arrangement the services of a magistrate can be spared for employment in some otner part of the country.24 If Brew entertained any hope that he could direct the police force of the Colony from the capital, he was soon disillusioned.  He was not authorized  to approve expenses without first referring them to the Governor.  If a  magistrate felt it was necessary to appoint an extra constable or to increase a constable's allowance, he was to refer the matter to Brew, who, in turn, had to refer it to the Governor.  The procedure was awkward and  slow and it was not long before the magistrates found it was more satisfactory  22 Brew to Young, 29 June, 1859, Endorsement signed J.D., Brew Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 23 Brew to Douglas, 25 October, 1859, ibid. 24 Brew to Young, 24 October, 1S59, ibid.  - 28 -  to make their own arrangements with respect to the police directly with the Governor through the Colonial Secretary.  The newly born Colony was  not yet ready for a Chief Inspector of Police. As magistrate at the capital of the Colony, Brew was, in a sense, the most important police official in British Columbia.  However, he did  not control the police in districts other than his own.  His position  with respect to the administration of police matters was thus similar to that of the other magistrates in the Colony.  In November, 1864, seven  months after Governor Seymour arrived in British Columbia, Brew was asked for an estimate of the expenses for police and jails in the Colony.  He  replied, "The management of police and prisoners in other parts of the Colony is not conducted through me."**5 In addition to his magisterial duties at New Westminster, Brew was Acting Colonial Treasurer from 1862 to 1864 and during six months of og that period was also Acting Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.  In  1863 Brew was appointed to the newly formed Legislative Council of British Columbia.27  Like most of the other magistrates, Brew was also  a County Court Judge. Brew's versatility was valued highly by Governor Douglas,  When  Frederick Seymour became Governor of the Colony in 1864, he too, was quick to learn of Chartres Brew's capabilities.  In April, 1864, the  Colony was shocked by the Chilcotin massacre at Bute Inlet. 28  Seymour  25 Brew to Young, 24 November, 1854, Brew Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 26 New Westminster British Columbian, 7 February, 1866. 27 Ormsby, ojw cit., p. 70. 28 See below, Chapter VII, p*>. 90-94.  -29selected Brew to head one of the two volunteer forces organized to track down the Indian murderers.  The Governor, who was a member of Brew's  force on this very arduous expedition, wrote to the Secretary of State for the Colonies,"...I shall always look back with satisfaction to the 29 time when I had the honour to serve under him."  In 1867 Governor Sey-  mour again called for Brew!s assistance in a crisis.  Great excitement  30  had been raised in the Colony by the Grouse Creek War in the Cariboo; the authority of the police had been openly flouted in a dispute between two large mining companies.  Again Seymour reported to the Home Govern-  ment, "I had no alternative but to call on Mr. Brew to undertake another 31 disagreeable, dangerous and unhealthy duty."  Brew, who had been  magistrate at New Westminster for nearly eight years, was transferred to the Cariboo to restore the dignity of the police in that district* Governor Seymour was aware that Brewfs health had been seriously undermined by the hardships of the Chilcotin expedition.  The severe  climate of the Cariboo was aggravating his weakened condition.  In 1868,  Seymour requested that Brew be promoted to a position with the Home 32 Government as a reward for his selfless services in the Colony. Nothing came of his request, however Brew remained at his duties until his death on May 31, 1870, at the age of 55.  The epitaph on his  tombstone reads: "A man imperturbable in courage and temper, end w e d with a great and varied administrative capacity, most ready wit, most 33 B.C. Despatches to Downing 29 Seymour to Earl Cardwell, 9 Sept. I864, pure integrity, and a most human heart." Street. MS.. Archives of B.C. " 30 See below, Chapter VI, p. 80-82 31 Seymour to Duke of Buckingham, 11 January, 1868, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street. MS.. Archives of B.C. 32 Loc. cit. 33 From a photograph of the grave in Barkerville, Archives of B.C.  - 30 -  CHAPTER IV THE MAGISTRATES Since the system of policing the Colony of British Columbia revolved around the magistrates as the local police authorities, a history of the Colonial Police must include a study of these officials, their careers in the Colony, and the effectiveness of their efforts. As indicated in Chapter I, the duties of the magistrates touched almost every sphere of government activity.  As one wag put it, "Is nobody  competent to do anything in British Columbia except the Governor, Chief Justioe, or that ubiquitous functionary 'the nearest magi strataf ? ftl When some of the magistrates became members of the Colonial Legislative Council, established in 1863, their powers were further extended.  Theo-  retically, a magistrate could than make the law, carry it into effect and punish offences against it.  In other words, he was concurrently, legis-  lator, executor and justice.  Because such great responsibility was in-  vested in one person, careful selection was essential in making appointments. Douglas1 progress in establishing law and order on the Mainland in 1858 had been impeded by the scarcity of suitable men for magisterial appointments.  When Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton's attention was drawn to 2  this situation,  he directed to the Colony several men with appropriate  '3 qualifications.  On arriving on the Pacific Coast in 1859, bearing let-  ters of introduction from the Colonial Office, some of them did receive X Victoria Colonist, 12 January, 1860. 2 Douglas to Lytton, 27 November, 1858, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street, MS., Archives of B.C. 3 For further information on the selection of these men. see Ormsby, ££. Pit., p; 64. . —  - 31  appointments as magistrates in the Colony of British Columbia. From a confidential report which Governor Douglas made on officials, it is shown that the magistracy after 1858, earned his confidence and respect.4  Besides Chartres Brew, two of the magistrates, Warner Reeve  Spalding, and Peter O'Reilly, had previous police experience.  Four,  Henry Maynard Ball, Edward Howard Sanders, John Boles Gaggin and Thomas Elwyn were ex-army personnel.  Andrew Charles Elliott was a Barrister at  Law, and Philip H. Nind a graduate of Christ Church, Oxford.  Two other  magistrates, John Carmichael Haynes and William George Cox, on arriving in the Colony from Ireland bearing favorable testimonials, were first appointed constables at Yale.  Boles Gaggin and Thomas Elwyn also started  their colonial careers as constables at Yale. By the end of 1859 there were six administrative districts in the Colony. At Hope, the District Magistrate was Peter O'Reilly.  O'Reilly  arrived in British Columbia in 1859 with a letter of introduction from Lytton and a testimonial of a good record as Lieutenant with the Dublin Revenue Police, with whom he had served for seven years and nine months. "His transactions upon all occasions were strictly honorable, and perfectly in accordance with the most strict order and integrity...."5  He was  appointed in 1859 as Justice of the Peace and Revenue Collector.  The  duties of Postmaster and Sub-Treasurer were also performed by OfReilly at Hope.  In 1861, O'Reilly was appointed High Sheriff and County Court  Judge of British Columbia,7  and in 1863 was also appointed to the  4  James Douglas, Confidential Report on Officers. MS., Arohives of B.C.  5  Testimonial with original letter of introduction in the Archives of B.C.  6  O'Reilly to Young, 28 April, 1859, Olellly Letters. MS., Archives of B.(  T "L Y ? u n ? 110 ° , R e l l l y » 26 April, 1861, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. and Young to o'heilly, May 16, 1661, Ibid.  Legislative Council.  O'Reilly was transferred to the Cariboo as Stipen-  diary Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner in 1862 and two years later was placed in charge of the combined Columbia-Ko.otenay District. He was back on the lower Fraser in the Hope-Yale-Lytton District in 1867, and in 1871, was sent to the newly formed Qnineca District.  Douglas des-  cribed O'Reilly as a gentleman of excellent character, high moral worth, 9 and an able and active, resolute magistrate. At Yale, about twenty miles up the Fraser River from O'Reilly's first headquarters, the Magistrate was Edward Howard Sanders who, like O'Reilly, had been introduced to Douglas by a letter ffrom the Secretary of State for the Colonies.  10  Sanders had served as an officer in the Austrian Army.  He was appointed in April, l8f>9, first as Assistant Gold Commissioner, and  11  a short time later, also as Stipendiary Magistrate. County Court Judge.  By 1861 he became a  Sanders' district was enlarged in 1866 to include the  12 Districts of Hope and Yale.  He became Magistrate of the Lillooet Dist-  rict in 1867. The first Magistrate of the Lillooet District was Thomas Elwyn, who, as previously mentioned, began his colonial career as a constable at Yale. In June, 18^9, he was promoted from Chief Constable at Yale to Magistrate 13 and Assistant Gold Commissioner at Lillooet. He received his appointment  8 pie title was often shortened to either "Magistrate" or"Gold Commissioner", and later when most of the magistrates became County Court Judges, they were referred to locally as "Judge". 9 Douglas, Confidential Report on Officers, MS., Archives of B.C. 10 Ibid. 11 See Brew to Young, 16 April, 1859, Brew Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 12 Sanders to H. M. M i l , 6 February, 1866, Sanders Letters, MS., Archives oj 13 KLwyn to Young, 22 June, 1859, ELwyn Letters, ffi., Archives of B.C.  - 33  as County Court Judge in 1861. 14  Because of his military background he 15  was chosen to command the Gold Escort of 1861-62.  In April, 1862 he  again assumed magistrate's duties, then at Quesnel in the Cariboo.  In  December of the same year Elwyn was obliged to resign since he wished to  16  retain his interest in a valuable mining claim.  He was reemployed in 17 1864 as second in command under Brew in the Chilcotin expedition, and again in 1866 as a stipendiary magistrate to accompany the Western Union 18  Telegraph Company on a survey through northern British Columbia. At lytton, Henry Maynard Ball, a former British Army Captain, succeeded Captain Travaillot as Stipendiary Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner in June, 1859. Ball, too, had arrived with a letter of introduction from the Secretary of State for the Colonies.  He was istatibned 1  the Cariboo for about two years, after six years of service at tytton. Ball, a County Courty Judge, was also for a short time Acting Colonial Secretary.  He was in addition, a member of the Legislative Council.  1867, he became magistrate at New Westminster.  In  Douglas described Ball  as a "shrewd, careful Magistrate, extremely methodical and correct in all 19 his official transactions". The fifth magistracy was at Queensborough (New Westminster).  In  1859, Colonel Moody informed Douglas that, "disturbances are beginning 14 Young to Elwyn, 10 May, 1861, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. 15 See below, Chapter V, pp. 60-61. 16 See below, Chapter IV, pp. 38-39. 17 See below, Chapter VII, pp. 90-94. 18 KLwyn was employed to preserve law and order in the company of 150 workers and to prevent trouble between them and the Indians. Half his salary was paid by the Company and half by the Government. 19 Douglas, Confidential Report on Officers. MS., Archives of B.C.  - 34 to be very frequent here and the preeenoe of a magistrate and a few constable* has now become indispensable to preserve order and protect property. The cases were chiefly of a petty oharaoter but there was no one in the vicinity authorized to deal with them.  In answer to Moody's request,  Warner Reeve Spalding was appointed as New Westminster's first magistrate. Spalding had come to British Columbia in 1859 with the usual letter of introduction which stated that he had served with "great credit" for three years in the Mounted Police of Australia, and also as a cavalry officer in the Crimea.21  On arriving in the Colony, Spalding had written Douglas:  "The appointment I am desirous of obtaining is that of Second in Command of the Police Corps about to be formed, the duties of which office I 22 hope my past experience will enable me to perform to your satisfactiorf1. When Chartres Brew took over the magisterial duties at New Westminster, Spalding was appointed Postmaster there in 1860 and in 1864, he was appointed Postmaster General for British Columbia. He  served for a short time as  magistrate in the Cariboo in 1866 and was sent as magistrate to the Nanaimo District in 1867.2:5 Not far from New Westminster the small town of Douglas carried on a brisk trade with the mining districts of the interior.  The constant ar-  rival and departure of trains of pack mules gave the place a lively atmosphere and necessitated the presence of a magistrate and constables.  In  April, 1859, John Boles Gaggin, an Irishman, and at one time a Lieutenant in the Royal City of Cork Militia Regiment of Artillery2,4was made Magistrate 20 Moddy to Douglas, 17 April, 1859, Moody Letters. MS., Arohives of B.C. 21  Original letter  of introduction in the Archives of B.C.  22 Spalding to Douglas, 28 Ootober, 1858, Spalding Letters. MS., Archives c £3 Baykerville Cariboo Sentinel. 6 May, 18G7. 24 Original letter of introduction in the Archives of B.C.  - 35 -  of the Douglas District.25 Gaggin was another of the magistrates who rose from the position of constable. He served alternately at Douglas and Q,uesnelle until 1866, when the District of Douglas was attached to New Westminster.  Magistrate Gaggin was then sent to the Kootenay-Columbia  District to work under O'Reilly.  He died in office in 1867.  New administrative districts were opened up as the restless miners spread over the Colony, followed by magistrates and constables. In 1860 a minor rush led to the formation of the Rock Creek District. William George Cox todc charge of the district as Stipendiary Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner.26  Cox, who arrived in the Colony in  27 December, 1868, was first appointed a constable at Yale,  In May, 1859, 28  he received the appointment of Deputy Collector of Customs at Kamloops. ;  Magistrate Cox was transferred from Rock Creek to the Cariboo in 1863. 9Q In the Chilcotin expedition of 1864, two forces.  Cox was chosen to lead one of the  In 1867, Cox left the Cariboo to become Magistrate at the  Big Bend in the Columbia-Kootenay District.  He became a County Courty  Judge in 1867 and in the same year was a member of the Legislative Council 30 for Kootenay. In 1868, his position at the Big Bend was, without warning, reduced from a magistracy to a minor situation in the Customs Department. 31 Cox resigned in a huff.  William Cox seemed to have a peculiar talent  for handling the rough frontiersmen.  His methods, though unconventional,  were decidedly effective. Oo&s popularity with the miners was shown when, 25  British Columbia Blue Book, 1860, jg., Archives of B.C. 26 W. Hamley to Cox, 12 November, 1860, Hamley Letters, MS., Archives of B 27 Brew to Moody, 20 February, 1859, Brew Letters, MS., Archives of B.C.  28 Hamley to Cox, 30 May, 1859, Hamley Letters. MS., Archives of B.C. 29 See below» Chapter 711, pD. 90-94. 30 Cox to Young, 6 May, 13*8, Cox Letters, vs., Archives of B.C. 31 B>C.,cit. ~  - 36 on leaving the Cariboo, he was presented with an elegant rosewood cane, valued at $250. In the spring of I860, the news of rich strikes along the upper Fraser attracted a large population to the neighborhood of Fort Alexandria. The Alexandria District was then opened, under the supervision of a newly appointed magistrate, Philip Henry Nind, who was introduced to Douglas 32 by a letter from Lord Carnarvon.  Nind received a commission as County  Court Judge in 1861. 33 He left Alexandria in 1862 when he was granted nine months leave of absence.  Alexandria was then divided into the Districts  of Cariboo East and Cariboo West.  The region was again reorganized in  1865 into the Districts of Cariboo and Quesnelle. at Douglas in 1864.  Nind was magistrate  In 1865 and 1866, he was in charge of the Lyjrton  District where he resigned his government position in 1866.  Douglas  wrote of Nind that he was "a gentleman of good character, fair abilities, 34 and efficient as a magistrate". The main port of entry along the southern boundary of the Colony was Osoyoos.  When in 1864, a large influx if miners was expected through this  border point, the area was established as a magistracy. Haynes was the first magistrate of the Osoyoos District.  John Carmichael First a constable  at Yale in 1859, Haynes was appointed Revenue dfficer in the same year. He was sent to help Cox in 1860 in the Rock Creek District then holding the appointment of Deputy Collector of Customs.  In 1861 he was transferred  in the same capacity to the Osoyoos District (Similkameen) and in 1864, 32 Douglas, Confidential Report on Officers, MS., Archives of B.C. 33 Young to Nind, 9 July, 1861, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. 34 Douglas, o£. cit.  - 37 35 was appointed Justice of the Peace.  Later the same year Haynes was  ordered to the Kootenay District still keeping Osoyoos under his supervision.  In 1864 and 1866 he was a member of the Legislative Council.  As  Magistrate and County Court Judge, Haynes presided over the Columbia in 1866, and during the period of retrenchment in the civil service, from 1867 to 1869, he was back at Osoyoos as Deputy Collector of Customs. Haynes again became a magistrate in 1870, then in charge of the Kootenay District.36 The Kootenay District, established as a magistracy in 1864, was combined with the Columbia District in 1866, forming the Columbia-Kootenay District.  Magistrates Haynes and Gaggin were appointed under MagiBtrate  O'Reilly to supervise this extensive area.  Owing to the failure of the  Columbia mines in 1868, that portion of the magistracy was closed.  From  1868 to 1870 the Kootenay was supervised mainly by the Chief Constable of that District. charge there.  In 1870 a magistrate was afeain appointed to take  On the ta/nion of the Colonies, the District of Nanaimo  became part of the Colony of British Columbia.  There were no new Magis-  tracies formed until 1871 -when- 0 'Reilly was sent to the Omineea 37 Stipendiary Magistrate and Gold Commissioner, Although a great part of the magistratesf duties were of a legal nature, the only magistrate in the Colony with legal training was Andrew Charles Elliott, who arrived in British Columbia late in 1859.  In 1860,  Elliott was appointed County Court Judge, and in 1861, Stipendiary Magistrat  35 ArfNBniito Haynes, 14 June, 1864, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook. MS., Archives of B.C. 36 Haynes toHankin,20 April, 1871, Haynes Letters. MS., Archives of B.C. In this letter, Haynes1 record of service is outlined from 1864 to 1870. 37 O'Reilly toTta*faj20 March, 1871, O'Reilly Letters. MB. , Archives of B.  - 38 38  and Assistant Gold Commissioner for the Lillooet District, remained almost continuously until 1867.  where he  Elliott resigned his magisterial  duties in 1867 at Lillooet, when he was appointed High Sherriff of British Columbia.39  Andrew Charles Elliott is Qhtefly remembered as one of the  early premiers of the Province of British Columbia. Following in the wake of British Columbia's sporadic gold rushes, the magistrates became well acquainted with the Colony and its people. At the same time, their movement from place to place tended to keep the magistrates aloof from local interests and factions. aged investments and speculation.  It likewise discour-  In 1861, when rumours of land specula-  tion were circulating in the Colony, DouglasS investigations revealed that the magistrates were not seriously implicated although higher officials were deeply involved.40  The magistrates also had a clear record with re-  gard to speculation in mining claims.  There was strong public feeling  against government officials' investing in mining claims and Governor 41 Douglas explicitly prohibited it.  Only one magistrate, Thomas Elwyn,  as previously mentioned acquired an interest in a mining claim and he was forced to choose between resigning his government position an& 42 forfeiting his claim.  Elwyn chose the former, and forwarded his letter  of resignation:My attention has been directed to an article in the "British Colonist" of the 21st September headed "Should judges speculate mining claims?" I...feel that the arguments used in the article... are correct and have...always considered that a Gold Commissioner, by having anything to do with claims placed himself in a false position. I beg therefore to report...that I own a share in a claim on Williams Creek, that the claim  38 Young to Elliott, 8 July, 1861, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. *  - 39 -  has of late become so valuable that I cannot in justice to myself abandon it and that therefore should His Excellency consider that a Gold Commissioner has no right to hold a claim I am prepared to resign my appointment, feeling...that it is due to His Excellency that against an officer honored by him with so great a trust, the slightest ground of complaint should not exist.43 Evidently, Elwyn's intentions were strictly honorable.  It is interesting  to note that while he held both his claim and his office his integrity as a gold commissioner was not questioned by the miners: of the more than 120 mining disputes over which he presided during that season, only two were appealed and in each case his decision was upheld in the Supreme Court. The conduct of the gold commissioners1 work in the Colony of British Columbia was indeed commendable.  Few frontier gold mining areas can match  British Columbia's record in honest administration of gold fields.  Because  of the magistrates' reputation for honesty and uprightness, and because of their extensive knowledge of the country and their general competence, they were generally held in high esteem both by the Governor and the colonists.  In the Colonial Legislature, the magistrates, more than any  other group, possessed the confidence of the people.  44  Judge Begbie, who  39 B.C. Blue Book, 1867, MS., Archives of B.C. 40 See Peti&t, B p / ^ . ^ . p ; 189. 41 See below, Chapter Y,p. 66. 42 Elwyn was not actually forced to resign as his letter of resignation was dated the same day as was Douglas' circular letter to the magistrates stating that officials could not retain mining interests and remain in the government service. 43 Elwyn to Young, 30 October, 1862, Elwyn Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 44 Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel. 23 August, 1866.  - Uo -  often cam© in contact with the magistrates valued both them and their work highlyi...I think His Excellency & the public have every reason to be satisfied with the services rendered. Those services could not be rendered without a degree of exertion and personal hardships undergone, w[hi]ch perhaps a bare sense of simple duty wo[ulJd not always require, and w[hi]ch, certainly are not elicited by an extraordinary remuneration or immediate reward; and w[hi] ch can therefore only be attributed to an anxious desire in every officer to do his very utmost in his own department, to the sacrifice of his ease and comfort & very often of his health. ^ When the magistrates visited Victoria or New Westminster, there were, undoubtedly, gay social occasions which must have contrasted strangely with their life in the remote districts.  At their headquarters hundreds  of miles apart, the magistrates were the solo representatives of the Government in isolnted communities.  The various activities which fell  to the lot of an isolated magistrate and gold commissioner may be gleaned from the following requisition list submitted by Peter O'Reilly when he arrived in the Qnineca District in 1871:County Court Forms; Magistrate's Forms; Treasury Forms; Mining Licenses; Leave of Absence Fonns; Trade Licenses; Spirit Licenses, Wholesale and Retail; Tape line 100 feet; Gold Scales; one Flag and Halliard; two door locks and hinges; two press locks and hinges; four pairs of handcuffs; two pairs of leg irons; one tent; one axe; Brown's County Court Practice and O'Keefe'e Magistrates1 Synopsis. "...four pairs of handcuffs; two pairs of leg irons....", yes, the magistrates were also the police.  They hired constables, assigned them duties,  U5 Begbie to Young, received 19 January, 1863, Bcgbie Letters, MS., — Archives of B.C., cited in Pettifog, cit., P. 12b 1*6 O'Reilly toHanki^ 20 March, 18?1, O'Reilly Letters. IB., Archives of B.C.  - 41 and released them if and when necessary.  In all oases the magistrates  reported their actions to the Governor who rarely found reason to disagree with their decisions.  In 1864, the Governor directed that all 47  appointmentb of constables were to be made by him  but the magistrates  continued to make recommendations and in most cases were able to select their own constables with the appointments being confirmed by the Governor.  Inmost instances of criminal apprehension, the magistrate's  part was limited to organizing a body of constables or special oonstables to track the wanted criminal. His numerous other duties usually prevented him torn taking a more active role. The opening of the Cariboo District under Magistrate Nind, affords a good example of the general approach of a magistrate to the work of law enforcement. . Several of the lawless characters who had been located on Hill's Bar, left for the new gold fields of the Cariboo.  Those  miners who had found rich claims were afraid that these Hill's Bar rogues would band together and take over their ground.  The honest miners were  therefore anxious for a gold commissioner to be located at Fort Alexandria for they were not prepared to enter into operations of any magnitude until they were satisfied that their claims would be protected.48 In consequence of the high cost of provisions in the Cariboo, the onerous duty of policing rich gold fields, and the temptation to turn to gold mining, Nind had some difficulty in finding a suitable man to accompany him as constable.  He finally selected William Pinchbeck, who  had been recommended to him by Magistrate O'Reilly, to be his Chief  47 See below. Chapter V, p. 56. 48 Ball to Young, 6 April, I860, Ball Letters, m . , Archives of B.C.  - 42 Constable.49  Shortly after Nind's arrival in Alexandria he found it neces-  sary to hire a second constable.  The appointment was given to iharles I.  Seymour, "a gentleman from Canada with whom I had been previously acquaint50 0 ed and one well fitted to discharge the duties of the situation". mour was sworn in on September 1, 1860.  Sey-  His salary was $100 a month.  As the district was very large and the rich diggings scattered, trouble makers had been able to carry on their activities with impunity. About 30 miles above Alexandria, the rich diggings on Ferguson's Bar had attracted a large number of miners who were terrorized by a few desperadoes.  The ringleader was Moses Anderson, a desperate fellow who had been  one of Walker's filibusters in Nicaragua.51 Two nights before Nind's arrival at Ferguson's Bar, Anderson had raised great indignation among the miners by shooting an innocent young Indian. $50 for the apprehension of Anderson.  Nind offered a reward of  A Canadian named Isaac Holden  was sworn in as special constable and given a warrant for Anderson's arrest. Although he was not captured, Anderson never again appeared on Ferguson's Bar.  Law had come to the Cariboo!  There had been other cases of violence at Ferguson's Bar.  Two notor-  ious characters named James Joyce and John McCloud had been particularly  49 Nind to Young, 23 July, 1860, Nind Letters. MS., Archives of B.C. 50 Nind to Young, 17 October, 1860, ibid. 51 William Walker was an American adventurer who attempted to establish control over Nicaragua. He succeeded for a short time. His exploits produced antagonism against him in the Central American States which cooperated politically and militarily to defeat Walker in 1862. William L. Langer, ed., An Encyclopedia of Y/orld History. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1948, p. 819.  -43-  troublesome.  McLoud managed to make his escape although a reward of  $100 had been offered for his capture.  Joyce was arrested by Constable  Pinchbeck and committed for trial for robbery and threatening violence. Had the constable not been there to prevent it, Joyce would have been 52 hanged to the nearest tree.  The miners on Ferguson1s Bar expressed  their gratification at Nind!s arrival and the consequent establishment of law and order in the district, in the following address;Sir, We...beg to congratulate you on your safe arrival at this Bar, and feel pleasure in finding that we are still not altogether neglected by Her Majesty1 s Government, in so far as furnishing us with your protection so much needed as late outrages can testify...we hope that similar occurrences will not take place in future, and pledge ourselves to assist in carrying out the administration of justice for our mutual safety as in duty bound .53 During the winter of 1860-61, rich diggings were found in the Antler Greek area about 60 miles from Williams Lake where Magistrate Nind had his headquarters. same ground.  In some cases different parties had staked the  In the ensuing excitement, the disputing claimants drew  weapons to settle ownership of the claims but they were finally prevailed upon to await the arrival of the Gold Commissioner.  For six days  Nind remained at Antler Creek and Keithley's Creek-settling mining disputes.  54 In every instance his judgment was accepted.  These experiences of Nind in the early days of the Cariboo gold rush, were similar to those of other magistrates elsewhere in the Colony. Before  52  Nind to Young, 17 October, I860, og. cit.  53  loc. cit.  54  Nind to Young, 27 March, 1861, Nind Letters, MS,. Archives of B.C.  - 44 -  law and order were well established in the Colony and with only one or two constables to assist them, they had to uphold the administration of justice in the eyes of the Indians and the often unruly miners.  The mag-  istrates were required to be men of more than ordinary ability for the circumstances of their positions compelled them to rely heavily on their personal influence to preserve tranquillity in the mining camps. Notwithstanding the large districts 1m which the magistrates were responsible for keeping order, and the small number of constables at their disposal, Governor Douglas never failed to question peremptorily any breach of the peace no matter what the circumstances.  On one occasion,  100 destitute miners boarded a boat at Douglas and demanded free passage to New Westminster.  The master of the vessel applied to Magistrate Gaggin  for advice and was told to take the miners on to New Westminster and there apply to the proper authorities for redress.  When the incident was reported  to Douglas he expressed strong disapproval of Gagginfs action:HisjExcellency*..regrets the occurrence...and is unable to discover from your report that any efforts were made by you to maintain order, and to afford the protection of the Law, to the Master of the Boat. On receiving his complaint it was your duty to have afforded that protection. An officer sh[oul"|d have been sent on board with orders to take any person into custody charged by the Master with the offence complained of, and if resisted the officer should have accompanied the boat to New Westminster, and executed the warrant there, through the aid if requisite, of a military force. Or else...a special messenger might have been dispatched to New Westminster for assistance to carry out the law, which must in all cases be enforced in what ever I sic] circumstances you may find yourself placed.55 The predicament in which Gaggin found himself on this occasion reflects the difficulties experienced by the magistrates in other districts, in  55 Young to Gaggin, 20 June, 1862, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook. MS., Archives of B.C. '— —  - 45 -  enforcing law in the Colony.  On the one hand they were expected to keep  order in a gold mining community and faced Douglas1 displeasure when any breach of the peace occurred; on the other, they were allowed the support of usually not more than two or three regular constables.  They were  told to spare no expense when it came to enforcing the law; yet they had to keep the expense of administering their district to a very minimum. Under such a system of law enforcement the magistrates had to depend largely upon the respect and confidence of the populace to maintain order in their districts. Until the end of the colonial period the magistrates retained their powers and prestige.  In 1865 there were nine of these officials drawing  yearly salaries between £400 and £500.  When a demand arose in 1865 to  reduce the number of civil officials, the magistrates were subject to a 56 good deal of attention.  The situation resolved itself.  In the course  of the next two years, the failure of the Columbia and Kootenay gold mines left Cariboo the only district where a gold commissioner was required.  Thereafter the ranks of the magistrates were gradually reduced.  Nind, who had been at Iytton, resigned in 1866; the same year Cox resigned and went to live in California; Elliott resigned as magistrate at Lillooet to become High Sheriff of British Columbia; Boles Gaggin died in office in 1867 and was not replaced. After Brew's death in 1870, there were only four stipendiary magistrates on the Mainland, namely, O'Reilly, Sanders, Ball and Haynes. When the conditions under which British Columbia was to Join the  56 New Westminster British Columbian. 7 February, 1866.  - 46 -  Dominion of Canada were under discussion, considerable attention was focused on the position of the stipendiary magistrates.  Some of the  duties performed by the magistrates wore, according to the British North America Act of 1867, found to fall under Dominion jurisdiction; others pertained to the Province.  Governor Mnthony Musgrave, who became Governor  of British Columbia on Frederick Seymour's death in 1869, was concerned over the fate of the magistrates on Confederation.  In a letter to the  Secretary of State for the Colonies, he indicated the uncertain positions of the magistrates under the Britiah North America Act and went on to pay them a well earned tribute The stipendiary magistrates form another class of officers who, notwithstanding their value would almost certainly be disturbed in their appointments on the introduction of Responsible Government... I think that as a rule these appointments are singularly well filled, and I regard the successful administration of this government and the remarkable maintenance of law and order as compared with the neighbouring territories as mainly due to the services of these officers.57 By the final terms of agreement, the magistrates1 futures were protected: Suitable pensions, such as shall be approved of by fcer; Majesty's Government, shall be provided for those of her Majesty's servants in the colony, whose position and emoluments derived therefrom would be affected by the political changes on the admission of British Columbia into the Dominion of Canada." After Confederation, however, it was fouhi that, in the interest of the -•country* no change should take place in the employment of the magistrates.  57 Musgrave to G.L.G. Granville, second Earl, 17 November, 1870, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street, MS., Archives of B.C. 58 Terms of Union, Section 6. Alexander Begg, History of British Columbia, Toronto, William Briggs, 1894, p. 394.  - 47 -  They became paid servants of the Dominion Government but continued to discharge all the functions as they did prior to Confederation.  In other  words, they were still County Court Judges, Indian Agents, Assistant Commissioners of Lands and Works, Collectors of Revenue, and general Government Agents.  Consequently, British Columbia then received the  benefit of the magistrates1 work without any cost to the Province.  Not-  withstanding the economy of this plan, dissatisfaction was expressed in the Legislative Assembly with the magistrates1 services as County Court Judges.  In due time they were superceded in this phase of their work CQ  by men more learned in the law.  Others of their duties were eventually  taken over by Indian Agents, Revenue Officers, Provincial Government Agents and Chief Constables.  The last mentioned became the local police  authorities under a Provincial Superintendent of Police.  Where there  were no Chief Constables, the Provincial Government Agent was the district police authority reporting to the Superintendent on all police matters. Gradually the old colonial office of 'Stipendiary Magistrate and Gold Commissioner" disappeared.  The office of "Gold Commissioner" continued  to involve eatensive judicial powers until these powers were officially repealed by the Mineral Act of 1897.60  59 Victoria Colonist, 3 August, 1873. 60 Arthnn Fleming Crowe, Mines and Mining Laws of British Columbia, Calgary, Burroughw and Co..Ltd., 1930, p. 26.  - 48 -  CHAPTER V COLONIAL CONSTABLES Although six of the ten colonial magistrates received their appointments without having served as constables, after 1861, it was understood that if any new magistrates were appointed, they would be selected from the constabulary.  That the constables were considered potential magis-  trates is indicative of the type of men who were employed. from various parts of the British Empire.  They came  Some were ex-members of the  Royal Engineers, disbanded in British Columbia in 1863; others were pensioners from the British Army, attracted by the adventure and excitement of a gold colony. At least three men who had previously served as policemen in Australia, and three ex-members of the Royal Irish Constabulary, found their way into the British Columbia Colonial Police.  However,  for the majority of the colonial constables, there is no record of their having previous police or military training, A colonial constables was required to be intelligent and trustworthy, to keep accounts accurately and write legibly.  Fortunately, after 1858,  there was no longer a dearth of men who could meet these requirements. With the wider choice available, more discrimination could be used in appointing constables. The most outstanding of the colonial constables for devotion to duty, length of service, and success in his career, was William H. Fitzgerald.  Fitzgerald came to British Columbia from Canada, and,  oddly enough, appears to have had no previous police or military training.  In 1860, he was in the public service as Shief Constable at lytton.1  1 Victoria Colonist, 9 May, 1873.  - 49  When Magistrate Cox went to the Cariboo in 1063, he arranged to have Fitzgerald accompany him as hie chief constable.  By that time, Fitzgerald  was already known for his "steadiness of character, knowledge of languages and efficiency in the discharge of his duties".2  In the Cariboo his suc-  cess in tracking criminals3 gave him a colony wide reputation.  At Quesnel,  when two Indians accused of murder escaped from Jail, the excited oitizenr contemplated petitioning Magistrate Cox to "loan us Mr. Fitzgerald, that 4 very efficient and able constable....". In 1869 the first rich strikes were made in the Omineca District and tflr 1870, it was considered necessary to send a government representsive to the new District. Fitzgerald was chosen for the Job. Brew, who was then magistrate in the Cariboq said, "I know that he has a hard task be5 fore him but I rely confidently on his determination and discretion". Trouble was threatening to break out between the white miners and the Indians of the Omineca but Ohief Constable Fitzgerald managed to pacify both parties.  Soon after, the Indians attempted to drive off a party of  Chinese miners located on Germansen Creek.  Again Fitzgerald arrived at 6  the scene in time to prevent further trouble. William Fitzgerald* s valuable services were finally rewarded in April, 1872, when the British Columbia Government confirmed his appointment as Gold Commissioner and Stipendiary Magistrate for the Omineca Distriot. 2 Cox to Young, 28 April, 1863, Cox Letters. MS., Archives of B.C. 3 See below, Chapter VI,  72 and 74.  4 New Westminster British Columbian. 3 May, 1866. 5 Brew toHankin, 17 March, 1870, Brew Letters. MS., Archives of B.C. 6 Victoria Colonist. 4 December, 1870.  - 50 -  He served in this position for only a year for he died in 1873 from a heart ailment. Besides Fitzgerald, three other colonial constables were appointed Gold Commissioner and Stipendiary Magistrate after Confederation.  One  of these was Arthur W. Vowell, the son of a prominent Irish lawyer, and Q an ex-lieutenant in the Irish Militia.  Vowell was in the colonial  government service in 1864 and in 1865 was sent to the Columbia as a constable.9  The next year he became a chief constable in the Columbia  where he remained in the same capacity until 1872 when he received an appointment as Magistrate for the Kootenay.  He subsequently served as  a gold commissioner in the Omineca and Cassiar Districts.  Vowell left  the government service temporarily in 1875-76 to enter provincial politics and was returned for Kootenay in the summer of 1875.  As a gold commis-  sioner, Vowell won a reputation for the impartiality and correctness of his decisions.  The following address was presented to him by the miners  of the Omineca:We the undersigned Miners and Residents of Omineca hearing with deep regret that you have been called to the performance of more important duties.. .present ...our heartfelt expression of esteem for yourself personally and for the manner in which you have discharged your duties as Gold Commissioner and Magistrate vtfhile in charge of this district.10 Constable John Howe Sullivan was also promoted to the office of Gold Commissioner but unlike Fitzgerald or Vowell, he received his promotion  funeral in Northern B  -c-  Walkem  '  8 Ormeby, opi elt., p. 71. 9 Ball to C.G. Prichard, 27 March, 1865, Colonial Secretary's Official Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. 10 Victoria Colonist. 4 December, 1870  - 51 -  without having served as a chief constable.  He was first appointed  in November, 1864, as constable and jailer at Quesnel under Magistrate Gaggin.11  In 1866 Sullivan was transferred to Richfield where he served 12 av a mining recorder. On his resignation in the Cariboo in 1872, he beca 13 "Warden of the Gaol and Superintendent of Police" in Victoria,  and in  May, 1875 was promoted to Gold Commissioner in the Cassiar District. November  In  14  of the same year, Sullivan was drowned on a voyage to Ireland.  Stephen Redgrave was another colonial constable who later a magistrate.  became  Although he did not figure prominently in the Colonial  Police, his brief term of service shows the calibre of men who were appointed to the Force.  Redgrave was an adventurous Englishman.  Born  in 1831 and educated at Rugby, he emigrated to Australia in 1852 where he became an Inspector with the Colonial Mounted Police of Australia. 15 He was subsequently a sergeant in the Toronto Police and in January, 16 1863, a constable in the Victoria Police.  The year 1864 found him  in the Cariboo where he was appointed constable in August.  However,  he resigned in April of the following year because of the low rate of pay. Magistrate Cox, in forwarding Redgrave's resignation said, "It is with regret that I have received it and I shall much feel the loss of 17 so valuable an officer". Redgrava again became a constable in 1876 in  11 Gaggin to Birch , 17 November, 1864, Gaggin Letters, MS., Archives of B 12 Brew toHankin, 31 March, 1870, Brew Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 13 Victoria Colonist, 21 November, 1872. 1A TK4 A 2O May, u 1 rtn c 14 Ibid., 1875.  See below, Chapter VIII, p. 102, fOOtnOte 21.  « 3 f^ M B fft«? w a a t 0 n W a d e ' The Over landers of '62, Victoria, Charles F. Banfield, 1931, p. 158. 16 Victoria Colonist, 27 January, 1863. 17 Cox to Birch, 20 April, 1865, Cox Letters, J©., Archives of B.C.  - 52 -  the Cassiar District,  In 1884 he was appointed Stipendiary Magistrate  at Golden where he died in 1903. Apart from the magistrates, there were only two grades of police officers, namely, constable and chief constable.  At New Westminster,  the chief constable was referred to as "high Constable" but this title was not used elsewhere in the Colony.  The office of a chief constable  involved considerable responsibility as the encumbent frequently was left in charge of the district during the magistrate's absence.  On these  occasions he was expected to perform all of the magistrate's duties with the exception of his legal functions.  The position of chief con-  stable was considered to be the stepping stone to a magistrate's appointment.  Although this ambition was realized by so few chief constables,  there were several who merited the promotion. If there had been another opening in the magistracy, James Normansell, Chief Constable in the Kootenay would no doubt have been given consideration for the position. Presumably, Normansell, a pensioner of the Royal Engineers ^arrived in the Colony in 1858.  He had served with the Royal  Engineers for 15 years on his formal discharge in 1866 with the rank of corporal.  Before his formal release from the Army, Normansell was appoint-  ed constable at Wild Horse Creek in the Kootenay District in Marcfc, 1865, and promoted to Chief Constable in June of the same year.  The gold mining  activity in the Kootenay was centred around Wild Horse Creek where men of the roughest sort had gathered.  On several occasions Governor Seymour  referred to Normansell's good work in that District.  For two years after  the Columbia-Kootenay magistracy was abolished in 1868, owing to the failure of the Columbia mines, the Kootenay District, although occasionally of^.S!® 6 1 1 1 7  t0 Birch  '  1 0 June  > IBS'?, Enclosure, Sanders Letters, MS., Arc  - 53 -  visited by O'Reilly and Ball, was in fact, the responsibility of Chief Constable Normansell.  Governor Seymour, writing to the Secretary of  State for the Colonies in 1868, said : "The great distance of the Kootenay from Headquarters and the uncertainty of communication deprive* me of the opportunity of reporting.. .from that Quarter.  I have no complairiB  and I am well satisfied with the Chief Constable whom I have left in 19 that District".  In the following year he referred to Normansell as  "an excellent public officer" and again/, "one of the most satisfactory officers in the Colony".20  Normansell was still serving as Chief Con-  stable of the Kootenay at Confederation.  He died at the Royal Hospital  21 in October, 1884. Constables James Lindsay and Napoleon Fitzstubbs established long records of service with the British Columbia Police, first as members of the Colonial Police and later as Provincial Constables.  Lindsay was a  sergeant in the Royal Engineers and elected to stay in British Columbia when that company was disbanded in 1863. He served for a short time as constable in New Westminster and was one of five supernumerary constables appointed for one year in the Cariboo in 1867 following the Grouse Creak: 22 War.  In 1869 Chartres Brew appointed Lindsay to the position left va-  cant by the resignation of one of the regular constables.  In reporting  the appointment he said that Lindsay had "in every way proved himself a very efficient constable".23  He became chief constable in the Cariboo  19 Seymour to Buckingham, 22 August, 1868, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street, MS., Archives of B.C. ^ 20 Ibid., 20 March, 1869 and 28 April, 1869. 21 Victoria, Colonist. 16 October, 1884. 22 See below, Chapter VI, pp. 80-82. 23 Brew toHankin, 24 July, 1869, Brew Letters, MS,, Archives of B.C.  -  -  in 1871, and, in this year of Confederation, a member of the Provincial Force.  At the time of his death in 1890, Lindsay was still serving in  the Cariboo, at Barkerville.  2h  Napoleon Fitzstubbs was an ex-cavalryman who sailed from England to Victoria in a twenty ton yawl.  He went back to England but returned and  decided to settle in British Columbia.  Philip Nind employed him as con-  stable, collector and jailer at the Forks of Quesnel in l86l.  Fitzstubbs  was desirous of obtaining an appointment as magistrate and, in Judge 25 Begbie»s opinion, he was "not at all an unfit person for the appointmentn. Fitzstubbs later served as a constable under Elwyn in the West Cariboo but little is known of his career from that time until after Confederation* In 1878, he was in the British Columbia Provincial Police at Atlin in the Cassiar District, and was later in charge of a body of police sent to help quell the anti-Oriental riots in Vancouver. a Government Agent at Nelson.  Prior to 1897> Fitzstubbs was  In that year, he became Warden of the Nelson  26  Jail and was retired on a pension in 1900. 1/fiLlliam H. Lowe is another constable who deserves mention.  Lowe was  about 23 years of age when he entered the government service as constable and collector of customs.  He was stationed at Osoyoos, the port of entry  through which entered most of the miners, their supplies and cattle, en27 route to the Columbia region. The work of customs collection required a 2k New Westminster British Columbian 18 February, I890. Begbie to loung, 29 November, 1861, Begbie Letters, MS. Archives of B.C 26 Unsigned article, "Fitzstubbs and the Law", Shoulder Strap, 21st editio p ^ 8 . " 1 9 ' ^ ^ S # P a t t e r s o n > ,IThe Nelson Gaol", ibid., 2nd edition, t0 Bal1 (Actin mo 27 S Colonial Secretary), 3 May, 1866, Haynes Letters MS., Archives of B.C.  - 55 -  capable mail since the miners were not always willing to pay customs duties. Magistrate Haynes, who was nominally in charge of the District often had to be away for long periods of time attending to duties in the Kootenay and later in the Columbia Districts. Lowe was left in full charge.  During his long absences, Chief Constable  Lowe served at Osoyoos from 1864 to the end  of the colonial period.28 Little is known of his background.  His name  appears in the correspondence of the period mainly in connection with routine matters.  There is one noteworthy item, however, the capture  of Nikilplask, the elusive Indian murderer^9 by Constable Lowe, in the Osoyoos District.  The confidence which was placed in Lowe in entrusting  him with the aupervision of the Osoyoos District for such extended periods shows he must have been a man of above average abilities.  The Colonial  Secretary referred to him in correspondence as "an excellent public 30 officer".  Lowe met with a tragic accident in 1871 while fisiting in  Eastern Canada.  On boarding a train he fell and sustained injuries which  resulted in the loss of one hand and an arm.®^ raising in the Osoyoos District.  Lowe later took up cattle  He died at Keremeos in the Similkameen  in 1881 at the age of 42. 32 The length of service for these Colonial Constables, Fitzgerald, Vowell, Normansell, Lindsay, Fitzstubbs and Lowe, was much longer than average.  The records shows that an aggregate of about 150 men served in  British Columbia as regular constables from 1858 to 1871. quarter of these served for one year or less.  Almost one-  About 35 remained in the  28 Haynes to Birch, 11 February, 1865, Haynes Letters. MS. , Archives of B 29 See below, Chapter VII, pp. 89-90. 30 Haynes to Birch, loo, cit. , Endorsement signed A.N.B. 31 Victoria Colonistt 30 May, 1873. 32 Ibid., 12 January, 1882.  - 06 -  government employ for period* of one to four yearn while Just over 20 served for more than four years.  Inntancoa of personnel norvinp: for n  year or less were most frequent between 11U38 and 1H64. such terms of sarvioe were qui to rate. trend toward longer terms of sorviaa.  After this tlmo  There were three rennonn for thin Firnt, employment in tho Colony wna  not so plentiful as in tho poak period of tho Cnriboo KO](1 runh nround 1862.  Second, after 1864, when Seymour became Governor, u now policy  was instituted with regard to the appointmout nnd dinminsnl of conntoblen and third, a change was made regarding tha.rixin« of conntnblo ofitnbli nhmnr Until 1864 the recruiting and dinmisaal of conv-tnblnn wan almont ontirely in tho hands of the magistraton who merely ronortod thnir notlonn to tho Governor. helped  A slipjit change in this nystem wnc made in 1864 which  to stabilize the constables* positions.  Henceforth all appoint-  ments had to be confirmed by the Ccvonior bofm-n thoy beoamo effective. Outwardly this made little difference for in mout canea tho mngiatruton did the actual selecting of thoir constables.  However, whenever a posi-  tion waa open for a constable in ono part of the Colony, the Governor gave priority to experienced  rrion  from other parts of tho Colony who had  been released through no fault of thoiv own.  Consequently, Brltinh Col-  umbia's small body of conntablos gradually came to oonrvini mainly of oxperiencod personnel.  After 1865, the Colonial Police Force oonfilntod of  about 18 man, most of whom served continuously until tho end of thn col onial period. Also, under Seymour'a adminiMiration, the countable <«tabllahmonbn  33 Circular Letter to tho Magintratofl, 11 Juno, 1864, Colonial jjeoretnry• Mlseellaneous Lettorbook. Mb., Archives of Ji.c.  - 57 were fixed by the Governor-in-Council, the decisions being based on the revenue of the districts and the probable expenditures therein.  Previously  the decisions were left to the discretion of the magistrates who were instructed to keep their police establishments to a minimum so that the expense of maintaining them would be less than the ordinary district, road tolls excluded.34  revenue of the  This resulted in much hiring and firing  of constables because the magistrates felt that it was their responsibility to decrease their staffe on even temporary declines in the district revenues The transfer of responsibility for fixing constable establishments was another change which made the constables' positions more secure. There were three main hindrances to the early develpment of the British Columbia Police, all deriving from the lack of funds in the Colony. These were, their numerical weakness, the absence of mounted patrols, and the low rate of pay. There were too few constables employed both to carry on strative duties and to provide efficient police protection.  the adminiAppendix B  shows the number of constables employed for periods of one year or more and the distribution of constables, in 1860, 1865 and 1870.  The figures  do not show the number of men on actual police duty for in most places the constables were also used for other types of work.  For instance, at  Osoyoos and Fort Shepheid,the constable's time was taken up almost excluBiT^y by the collection of customs duties; at Douglas and Lytton a constable was employed continuously as road toll clerk; one of the constables in the Cariboo was required to serve exclusively as clerk to the  34 Young to Elliott, 29 January, 1864, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. "  -  58  magistrate; at Tale, Henry J. Commeline, the Chief Constable, was also postmaster, magistrate's clerk, clerk to the county court, and deputy 35 sheriff.  Other duties the constables might be called upon to perform  were those of mining recorder, jailer, supervisor of road repairs, coroner, or surveyor.  The collection of the ordinary district revenue such as li-  censes, mining receipts, and rents, also occupied..", a great deal of the constables' time.  Since there was considerable laxity in the voluntary  payment of taxes, constables were sent out to collect on the spot.  Al-  though this was not strictly a part of their job, it came to be recognized 56 in popular opinion as another of the constables' functions. Constables who were employed mainly as collectors of customs were often the sole representatives of the Government at their isolated posts. These posts were of importance mainly as ports of entry into the Colony. Ihere were three such points along the southern boundary, Osoyoos in the Similkameen Valley, Fort Shepherd in the Columbia, and St. Joseph's Prairie in the Kootenay. which  servea  as  At each place the post consisted of a log hut  housing for the constable or constables and an insecure  lock-up for prisoners.  There was nothing but Indian villages within  many miles of these lonely stations. In the larger centres, a constable's duties often kept him tethered to headquarters leaving no opportunity for regular patrols.  In the Cariboo  the staff of constables was barely large enough to enable the magistrate to cope with all the business of a busy mining season. 1869 this situation existed in the Cariboo.  Even as late as  Chartres Brew explained his  35 Sanders to Young, 14 June, 1861, Sanders Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 36 Nind to Ball, 25 November, 1865, Nind Letters, MS., Archives of B.C.  - 59 -  problems to the Governor:I have two provisional constables and one permanent constable. One of the provisional constables acts as Jailer, and as there is a prisoner in Jail..#he cannot attend to Constable duties, therefore the whole police duties of the District fall on the other two Constables. Mr. Fitzgerald the Chief Constable is Clerk of the Petty Sessions Court, Clerk of the County Court and Clerk of the Mining Court, and on a day of heavy business is engaged in court duties during the whole of the office hours, and he has also to attend to the superintendence of the District Police duties. Mr. Cochrane the Recorder, who acts as Magistrates Clerk, would find it utterly impossible to attend to the Post Office duties during the open Mining Season, indeed, on some days...I have to put a constable in the office to assist him in order that the business may be got through within the office hours. To compensate for the small number of regular constables, special constables were hired for temporary emergencies and dismissed whenever their services were no longer required.  The magistrates had to exercise  this authority quite frequently but the service of the special constables was often both unsatisfactory and expensive.  As Judge Be&bie pointed out:-  It often happens that some service has to be rendered, some prisoner secured, or conveyed to a place of safety which renders it necessary to have additional assistance in the shape of special constables. Special constables, however are rarely as efficient as men already accustomed to the office and I have had on more than one occasion to allude to the miscarriage of specials, through no fault of theirs but simply from want of knowledge and experience. Yet this inferior assistaance is bought at a rate which throws the regular constablesfisalaries strongly into contrast. Beyond the Quesnelle River respectable men are not to be procured under $10 per diem. At Williams Lake in OctobBr I thought myself fortunate in securing the services of 5 capable men at $7 per diem: while a regular constable's pay of £25 per mo. [sic] is 6s. per diem. This compariO son diows I think that the more valuable officer receives a lower rate of remuneration.38  37 Brew to Young , 29 March, 1869, Brew Letters. MS., Archives of B.C. 38 Begbie to Young, July, 1863, Begbie Letters. MS., Archives of B.C.  - 60 -  The police were also handicapped by the lack of mounted patrols. In most cases when a constable needed a horse it had to be hired and the expense thus incurred reported to the Governor. were not all provided with horses.  Even the magistrates  When Peter 0 'Reilly was stationed at  Hope in I860, he informed Governor Douglas that he had personally purchased a horse since "I am frequently compelled to visit portions of my district which cannot be conveniently reached in a canoe and are too distant for walking, and as the expense of hiring a horse on such occasion* 39 is very great, and sometimes impossible". year for the horsete keep.  O'Reilly was allowed £70 a  Both Cox and Haynes also used their own horses.  However, for most of the magistrates, and their constables, a horse was considered too much of a luxury, even though their duty might take them as far aa a hundred miles from headquarters.  Travel by horseback was  allowed only when less expensive means such as canoe, steam boat, stage coach or express wagon, were not available.  Mounted patrols were especial-  ly needed in the upper country where travellers often carried large sums of money.  Two attempts were made to meet this need: one resulted in the  short lived Gold Escort; the other came to an end in the Colonial Legislati The Gold Escort came into operation in the summer of 1861.  Military  in character, it consisted of a few members of the Royal Engineers under the command of Thomas Elwyn who was chosen by Governor Douglas to head the 40 small but imposing force.  In addition to providing for the safe trans-  port of treasure from the Cariboo mines to the Coast, the Gold Escort was intended to be a show piece.  It was hoped that the periodical appearance  39 O'Reilly to Douglas, 9 June, 1860, O'Reilly Letters. MS., Archives of 40 Young to Elwyn, 26 February, 1861, .Solonial Secretaryys Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. Cf. Petit, op. cit. , p. 129.  - 61 -  of a well organized, mounted and armed force, even though small, would have a salutary effect on the public and give support to the authority of the magistrates.41 unsuccessful.  The venture, so promising at its inception, was  After undertaking the work and expense of organizing and  equipping the force, the Government would not givr its guarantee to the safe delivery of gold by the Escort.  Consequently, the miners preferred  using the services of the flourishing privately owned express firms such 42 as Balloufs Fraser River, Jeffrey's and Freemanb. Thus the Gold Escort 43 came to an end after about ten months of operation. However, the fomation of a mounted force continued to be discussed. r  Ihe merchants were among those who advocated the establishment of such a  force since often they found it necessary to carry large sums of money 44 while travelling in the upper country.  Others felt that a mounted patrol  was a luxury which British Columbia could not afford.  The editor of the  British Columbian wrote:However desirable such an institution may be we would recommend the greatest caution in its establishment if, indeed the Colony is prepared to bear the expense of maintaining such a force. To be effective a Mounted Police would need be large, expense enormous even greater than that of the ill advised, ill devised and ill fated Gold Escort. In March, 1864, the mounted police question was put into a motion in the House of Assembly by the Hon. H.M. Ball and seconded by the Hon. Peter O'Reilly.  Ball moved that a force of ten men using the horses and arms  41 Nind to Young, 25 June, 1861, Endorsement signed J.D., Nind Letters, IvS., Archives of B.C. 42 Begg, British Columbia, p. 311. *  E1Wyn> 21 ApPi1  '  1862  Letterbook , MS., Archives of B.C.  45  K.W5Sin8tar  > Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous  flriti8h Columbian. 23 March, 1864.  -62of the defunct Gold Escort, be established to patrol the road from Lytton to Lillooet to Williams Greek.  The motion was lost.  The British  Columbia Police continued to operate without mounted patrols throughout the rest of the colonial period.  If a small body of mounted policemen  had been available to aid the magistrates in their task of supervising their large districts, such difficulties as Sanders outlines in the following letter would certainly have been considerably reduced * ... on the enlargement of my district I beg humbly to ask whether the Governor conceives it possible that I can maintain 'order and good government* in a Province...more than 200 miles in length and 100 in breadth peopled by numerous and somewhat turbulent natives, a not inconsiderable number of white settlers through the whole extent of which the entire population... threads its way to and from the mines and through which all supplies of the country are poured ... with a staff of three constables... as immobile as the mountains around them, two acting as fac totems in the absence of the magistrate who of necessity must ever be moving, while the third man in all probability, is in charge of more prisoners than it will be possible for him to superintend. 46 In addition to its numerical weakness and enforced immobility, the Colonial Police Force also had to contend with low rates of pay.  A con-  stabled pay on the lower Fraser was approximately the same as a laboure r s wage. year.  In I860 a constable in these districts, received £192 a 47  The chief constables drew £240.  In some cases extra pay was  given to constables who were also employed at an additional job such as a toll collector.  In the early part of the colonial period, the con-  stables on the lower Fraser were occasionally ablo to augment their salaries by arresting liquor traffickers.  There was no set policy; usually  46 Sanders to Ball, 6 February, 1866, Sanders Letters. MS. Archives 1 of B.C. 47 Brew to Young, 13 December, I860, Brew Letters MS. Archives of B.C.  - 63 -  constable was awarded one quarter to atiiird of the fine imposed on the offenders.  This practice seems to have been discontinued around 1866  except in cases where the constable may have performed some service be48 yond the line of duty. When the Cariboo District was opened in I860, the constables there were paid more than those on the lower Eraser but the difference was not enough to compensate for the higher cost of living.  The salary of a  Cariboo constable in 1861, was $100.00 a month plus a travelling allow49 ance of $2.00 a day.  In 1864, the constables were given a straight  $3.00 a day living allowance in addition to their regular salary which raised their pay to almost $200.00 a month.  At the beginning of the  period of retrenchment in 1865, the constables monthly salaries were raised to $121.25 but the living allowance discontinued and no allowance was given except when a constable was actually travelling or on duty at a distance from Headquarters.  In spite of protest* from the magistrat  as well as from the constables, these rates went into effect.  The sudden  change caused some constables to resign, /$>ne of whom was Stephen Redgrave The Cariboo was not the only Si strict where constables' salaries were considered inadequate.  In the Columbia District, the salaries were lower  than in the Cariboo notwithstanding the fact that the cost of living was almost the same. Peter O'Reilly wrote: "Three dollars per meal is charge at the only place where it is possible to procure one...which for one mea per day is ?3 cents less than the gross amount they receive".51 At Clinto 48 Sanders to Birch, 2 July, 1867, Sanders Letters, M3., Archives of B. 49 Nind to Young, 22 May, 1861, Nind Letters, MS. , Archives of B.C. 50 See above, p. 51. 51 O'Reilly to Ball, 15 May, 1866, O'Reilly Letters. MS., Archives of B  - 64 -  where living expenses were also about the same as those in the Cariboo, Constable F.L.S. Hughes, who also acted as toll collector and postmaster, 52 received no more pay than did the constables at lytton or iale. Judge Begbie was among those who felt that the constables were underpaid.  He drew the Governor's attention to the hardships of a constable*s  life in the Cariboo and the inadequacy of the pay for the service per forme Next to some accommodation such as humanity requires to be provided for men who are called upon to perform most thankless duties involving great personal fatigue, exposure and responsibility, I...suggest that...the present inexplicably inadequate rates of salary especially in the case of lower officials, constables etc. should be considered. I say inexplicably inadequate: for rates of pay are notoriously insufficient to provide a constable in the Cariboo (i.e. north of Quesnelle River) with more than one meal per diem.... Until the end of August. ..every meal was charged $2.50. The pay of a constable is £25 a month - not enough to provide him with two meals a day, without allowing anything for clothes (which...are extremely expensive and rapidly worn out) tobacco, an occasional stimulant or any of the other extras which a rough mountain life justifies and almost demands. In;>ept" fsicj it is true meals came down to $2.00 but the rate of charge for miners1 fare was even then, at the cheapest houses, $28 and $30 per week...just 4s more than the constables^'] wages: for men in full health in the mines find 3 meals a day are not enough.... Constables therefore being admittedly quite unable to pay their way, it would seem that they must either be sued for debt, which would cause a scandal - or that their debts must be forgiven by the restaurant keepers which would cause a greater scandal still. So that the rate of pay might really be termed scandalously low, were it not that it gives rise to no scandal, owing to the circumstances mentioned in the ensuing paragraph.... The fact is that most of the constables in the upper country are men who have hitherto filled superior stations in life: some of them having even held field officers commissions in Her Majesty's Army...most of them are provided with some small means of their own. But for this, it is an arithmetical certainty that they could not exist without running into debt which would very much interfere with their utility.53 52 Sanders to Young, 14 June, 1861, Sanders Letters. MS., Archives of B.C 53 Begbie to Young, July, 1863, Begbie Letters. MS. , Archives of B.C.  - 65 -  In spite of the difficult working conditions as described above byJudge Begbie, the Colonial Police has a good record of service.  They  appear to have been actuated in their work by a personal sense of honor, for there was no rigid system of training and discipline. There are only two instances on record of constables being released for improper behaviour. son at Fort Langley.  The first concerned donstables Moore and Ronald-  Apparently Moore took it upon himself to put the  intoxicated Ronaldson in jail for the night.  As a result of this episode 54 Ronaldson resigned and Moore was suspended and released soon after. A few years later, Moore, who had originally come from England with a 55 favourable letter of introduction from the Colonial Office, for re-employment in the government service.  applied  In answer he was told,  "On reference to the officers under whom you served it was a matter of regret to His Excellency to find that he would not be justified in employ56 ing you in the Public Service".  In 1870 one of the chief constables,  Joseph Burr, was involved in a similar incident.  After serving for  about <a year, he was suspended by Magistrate O'Reilly for drunkeness, insubordination and assault on Constable Coffee.  The citizens of Yale  petitioned to have Burr reinstated but the Governor decided that Burr was 57 to be dismissed. A few constables were released for inefficiency.  At least three were  dismissed for letting prisoners escape, one for failing to send in postal accounts and one was suspended for forging signatures on vouchers.  Pre-  54 Brew to Young, 3 March, 1859, Brew Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. n4L?°^ e T l a !. t 0 v A r 1 t h u r Blakewood, 9 January, 1861, Governor's Private Official Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. 56 Young to W.M. Moore, 12 July, 1861, ibid. 57 James Douglas, Answer to Petition from Yale 1ft Tniv i«7n Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbnn" m?. I ^ ' J f 0 f B.C. ' °l0nlal  - 66 -  sumably the last was also dismissed since his name does not appear in subsequent correspondence. Besides demanding a high degree of morality and efficiency, the constables were expected to refrain from speculation in land or in mining claims. If the temptations for speculation proved too great, a constable could either relinquish his interests or resign his government appointment, Douglas* policy is outlined in the following circular letter to the magistrates:It is commonly reported that certain of the Assistant Gold Commissioners and Magistrates of British Columbia, their clerks and constables, are engaged...in mining speculations or in the active transaction of business on their own account, .••such practices, calculated as they are to render. . .ineffective the moral weight and influence of a resident Government officer and staff, but also to become the very source from which disturbance and disaffection may arise, cannot for one moment be permitted.  <  The Government required the entire and undivided services of its officers.... Those officers who may have indulged in sdch practices, must therefore make their election, either at once to relinquish them or to resign the appointment which they may hold under the Government.*®  In 1864 Constable George Hamilton tendered his resignation after becoming involved in a mining claim.  In this case the Governor declined to accept  the resignation and instead, instructed the magistrate under whom Hamiltoj worked, as follows: "...in consequence of the transaction in which he has been implicated.. .you are hereby instructed to dismiss Mr. Hamilton from KQ the public service". Several other constables who were found to be  58 James Douglas, Circular Letter to the Magistrates, 30 October, 1862, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. 59 Young to O'Reilly, 28 May, 1864, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, MS., Archives of B.C. ~ ~  - 67 involved in mining speculation were forced to choose between one or the other, constable or miner.  They could not be both.  Thus the constables of colonial British Columbia were guided in their work, not by a book of rules, but only by the simple stipulations of good personal conduct, honesty, efficiency, end undivided application of interests.  When in 1270 the position of subordinate officers on Con-  federation, was under discussion, the constables were assiired that they would not be deprived of office.  Governor >hsgrave wrotej-  Regarding the subordinate officers.....they will continue to hold their present posts whether the office be transferred to the Dominion or remain under the administration of the local government. As we know, the constables were placed under the control of the Province and the Police of colonial British Columbia became the British Columbia Provincial Police Force, Confederation brought about three changes, in the administration, in the organization and in the duties, of the British Columbia Police, The constables were not longer required to undertake the collection of ' 61 customs.  They were also relieved of duties connected with the post  office, and as the Province developed they were required to serve less often in the role of clerk, jailer, surveyor and other miscellaneous offices.  The constables were becoming more exclusively policemen.  In the administrative field, an important change was the appointment of a Superintendent of Police for the Province.  This appointment was  necessitated when the magistrates became paid servants of the Dominion 60 Musgrave to the Earl of Kimberley, 17 November, 1870, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street. MS., Archives of B.C. 61 Hamley to C. Good, 17 October, 1871, HantLey Letters. MS.. Archives of B.C.  -68-  and were no longer able to direct the provincially controlled constables.  The chief constables, who succeeded the magistrates as the  police authorities in the different administrative districts, were then responsible to the Provincial Superintendent of Police. Another result of the difference in status of the magistrates and constables was that the British Columbia Police then became independent of the judiciary.  The separation of police and magis-  terial duties is one of the basic principles of modern police systems^ Only the police, are responsible for accepting charges, the magistrates for hearing them.  This trend toward modernization of the  British Columbia Police, started after Confederation, was not com-  62 pleted until 1923*  In that year the Provincial Government passed  the Police and Prisons Regulations Act, providing for the reorganization of the Police.  A redistribution of the administrative areas  was made; semi-military ranks were brought into use; and the khaki uniform, so familiar in British Columbia until August, 1950, was introduced.  Under the new arrangements, lieutenant-Colonel J.H.  McMJLin became the first Commissioner of the British Columbia Provincial Police.  62 Statutes of British Columbia. King George V, 1923 Victoria, King's Printer, "An Act Respecting the Provincial Police Force and Provincial Gaols." pp. 257-26$.  -69CHAPTER VI CRII'-E IN THE COLONY When Sir Richard Mayne drafted the general instructions for the London Metropolitan Police in 1829, he set forth the purposes of a police force in terms which it has never been necessary to alter:The primary object of an efficient police is the prevention of crime; the next that of detection and punishment of offenders, if crime is committed. To these ends all the efforts of police must be directed. The protection of life and property, the preservation of public tranquillity, and the absence of crime will alone prove whether those efforts have been successful and whether the objects for which the police were appointed have been attained. It is obvious that in the Colony of British Columbia, where in 1865, there was a population of approximately 47,000 Indians, Europeans and Chinese, and gold mining activity stretching over 400  2 miles through mountainous country,  about 18 regular police officers  could not provide adequate protection to life and property. An analysis of serious crime in British Columbia shows that < between 1858 and I869 inclusive, there were over 100 people murdered in the Colony.  About one-fifth of the victims and one-half of the  murderers were Indians.  Approximately one-quarter of the murders took  place on the Northwest Coast where there were only occasional visits of police authorities.  Of the remaining 75 murders in other parts of  the Colony, it is not known in eleven cases whether or not the murderer  1  Moyland, Scotland Yard, p. 34  2 Seymour to Earl of Carnarvon, 31 October, 1866, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street. M.S.. Archives of B.C.  -70was apprehended.  Of the other 65 oases, in all but ten wore the  murderers caught, but five men aooused of murder escaped from jail. However, in 1861, Judge Begbie felt that there was muoh less crime in the colony of British Columbia than might bo expected in a gold mining colony It is a continued subject of thankfulness that the amount of crime still remains very small in comparison with what might have been anticipated from the amount of population, the extent and difficulty of the country over which the population is scattered, the habits naturally induced by the unsettled and exciting life of a minor, and from the impunity whioh criminals might hope for, looking to the state of communications and the nature of the country generally, the proximity of a long open Frontier accessible by unfrequented passes and the necessarily distant and scanty police Force. 3 There were many orimes of a petty nature such as the stealing of provisions.  This was a common offense in the raining camps, but owing  to the difficulty of identifying the guilty ones, few arrests were made^  The transport of money and gold dust from the upper country  gave rise to crimes of a more serious nature.  Sometimes miners and  merchants rather than pay an express company or packing firra a large percentage to carry their treasure, sought each other's company for mutual protection.  Usually, however, by the tiire the parties were  ready to begin their journey it was well advertised that they wore carrying large sums of money and thore wore always men ©bout who would not hesitate to attack and rob them.5  Along the lonely trails whore  these men carried their treasure, human bodies were occasionally found. Other corpses were re cove rod from lakes and rivers. begbie to Young, hovdmber W T I S S I V ^ 3 Quoted m Petit, op. cit. pp.l4-G-14Y.  It was never  :——  4  O'Reilley toHankin , 1 July, 1071, Qtgeilley Letters, US.,  5  Kind to Young, 28 Hovember, I860, Hind Letters, M3., Archivon of B.C  -71known how most of those unfortunates met their fate.  The ooroner  returned a verdiot of "murdered" or "drcwned" and often little else was heard of the case* In 1862 the Cariboo was at its height in gold production and also in the production of crime. At laast ten murders were committed from July to September alone, and most of the guilty parties made their escape.  So serious did the situation become, that the miners of the  Cariboo threatened that if their lives and property were not protected by the government they would rise and protect themselves against "the 7 villains who infest the country". The most notorious murder of 1862 occurred in August on the lonely stretch of road from LiLlooet to the Cariboo, just north of the Forks of the Quesnel River.  Three Jewish traders who came to the Cariboo with  pack trains of food products and merchandise were returning to Victoria from Antler Creek carrying between ten and twelve thousand dollars in goldrdust.  Shortly after they had crossed the bridge over the north  fork of the Quesnel River (about seven miles from Quesnel town), they were set upon and murdered by three highwaymen. At the time the nearest magistrate was Elwyn at Y/illiams Creek, about 60 miles away.  The victims  bodies were discovered on Monday, August 28, supposedly the same day as the murder took place. Elwyn did not hear of it until Wednesday of 6 One who did not was the gunman Gilchrist who killed a man in a gambling house at Williams Lake. The jury's verdict of manslaughter brought forth one of Judge Begbie's most scathing addresses. See Petit, op. oit. p.145 7 Victoria Colonist. 8 September, 1863.  -72the some we ok and did not arrive at tho 30 one until Friday,  Constable  Coote, in charge of tho jail at the Forks of Quesnol, failed to get a posse in pursuit of the murderers until Wednesday.  The do lay in foming  the posse made the ohanoes of overtaking the murderers, very slight. They esoapod into tho united States and might have gone soot free had they not been arrosted there for other orimes.  Just boforo going to  the gallow3, ono of tho three confessed to tho murder of tho Jews at Q tho Forks of Quesnel. In the early part of the colonial period considerable use was made of the posse to apprehend criminals.  Tho posse was effective in running  offenders out of tho country but often failed to bring them to justice. The time which was required to organize a posse allowed an enterprising criminal to get closer to tho border and to freedom.  In addition a  posse was expensive for the special constables demanded and received the prevailing rate of labourers' wages for their services. r  Later in the colonial period, moro reliance was placed on the regular constables.  One determined man o ould move more quickly and  efficiently than a heterogeneous group of special constables.  William  Fitzgerald established a reputation for skill in tracking down criminals both Indian and white. When a man named John Morgan was found murdered near Soda Creek in December, 1865, Cox sent Fitzgerald in pursuit of the murderer. At Canoe Creek, Fitzgerald learned that tho murdered man's watch had been purchased from two Indians t o had been working with pack trains. With this as his only clue, Fitzgerald traokod his quarry. After leaving Canoe Creek he visited the various packing camps 8 Elwyn to Young, 2 August, 1862, Elwyn letters, MS., Archives of ii.C., also Walkom, Stories of Early B.C», p. 281.  -73and Indian villages from there to Lytton. results.  His  brought  One of the miscreants, he found at Nicola Lake, and the othor  near Lillooet, about 100 miles away.  Fitzgerald brought both men baok 9 to Quesnel where they were put in jail to await trial. The tracking of criminals was made somewhat easier for the constables in the fall of 1865 when the Western Union Telegraph Company  completed a line beyond the town of Quesnel.10  Descriptions of fleeing  oriminals or suspects could now be flashed from one end of the Colony to the other. The telegraph facilities figured largely in the arrest of James Barry who was suspected of murdering a man named C*M. Blessing along the trail near Beaver Pass in September, 18 66.  Several days  passed between the time when the crime was committed and when suspicion was fixed on Bariy*  Constable J*H. Sullivan of Quesnel was sent after  the suspect. Arriving at Soda Creek, Sullivan discovered that his man had taken the stage to Yale*  A description of Barry was telegraphed  ahead" to Yale where he was detained until Sullivan arrived.  Sullivan  escorted his prisoner back to Richfield where he was imprisoned and coimiitted for trial by Magistrate Cox.  The spring assizes being seven  months away and the jail insecure, the prisoner was kept in irons until his trial. Evidence given by Chief Constable Fitzgerald figured largely in the prosecution* 9  Fitzgerald found that Barry had given an ornamental  Cox to Ball, 18 February, 1866^ Cox Letters, MSArchives of B*C.  K) The line was finally abandoned in 1866 at Telegraph Creek when thy laying of the Atlantic cable made it unnecessary for the Y^estern Uni on Telegraph Company to proceed with their plan to carry a line across the Bering Strait* 11 Barry said he thought Sullivan was a newspaper reporter which is understandable because the Colonial Polioe wore no uniform, badge or insignia.  -74pin to one of the dancing girls at Barkerville and proved conclusively 12 that this pin was the property of the murdered man. On August 12, 1867, Barry was executed at Richfield. was the first public execution in the Cariboo.  His hanging  13  In those parts of the Colony outside of the Cariboo, serious crime was less common. Crime decreased in the Cariboo too, as the gold production decreased.  In June 1866 Judge Begbie in addressing the Grand Jury  re marked Fortunately for this colony and creditable alike to the efficiency of the police, there has been a great absence of crime in the various districts which I have visited; this is mainly attributable to the energy and zeal with which crime is ferreted out and the offenders brought to justice.14 The most prevalent crime during the colonial period was the selling of intoxicants to the Indians,  The large profits to be obtained and the  opportunities for carrying on the trade, led to its being plied from one end of the country to the other.  Judge Begbie wrote to the Governor,  "It is clearly impossible for the constables to prevent it; (liquor traffic to Indians) they are too  few in number to keep any look out.."  ^  Complaints were registered against the liquor traffic by both Indians and whites from New Westminster to the Cariboo, but, the scarcity of informers and witnesses made it difficult to make arrests or get oonvictior 12 Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel, 1 October, 1866, 30 November, 1866; 4 July, 1867; 15 October, 1866. 13  Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel, 12 August, 1867.  14 Quoted in Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel, 18 June, 1866. 15 Begbie to Douglas, Circuit Letter, November, 1858, Begbie Letters, MS*« Archives of B.C»  -75The whiskey peddlers shunnod those areas whore a magistrate was located or a o on stab le stationed, but there were plenty of other places where they could oariy on thoir trade with impunity. It was along the North West Coast of the Colony that the liquor laws were most openly flouted.  Regular trading vessels cleared at the  customs in New Westminster or Victoria.  Later they would rendezvous  with oanoes or boats which supplied them with tho rankest of raw liquor for tho Indian trade.  The masters of the whiskey laden vessels had  agents who bartered their liquor for the Indians1 furs.  Ono half gallon  of vile mixture purchased a beaver skin, three quarters of a gallon, 16 an otter skin and one gallon, a bear skin.  This infamous traffic  flourished with little interruption and brought infinite trouble to tho Indian tribes and tho few white settlers along tho coast.  Aftor a visit  from the agents, the drink-crazed Indians, boreft of thoir wealth and craving more liquor, wero capable of the most ferocious orirneo.  Even  the lives of the smugglers wore not safe. The Government called on vessels of the Royal Navy to aid in curtailing the liquor traffic.  Commander J.W. Pike of II.M.S. Devastation  seized at least throe notorious liquor running vessels and his perse rveronce temporarily put a stop to tho activities of the whiskey peddlers in the Bella Coola area.  17  Yet, a glance at the coast of British  16 J.W. Pike to Douglas, 20 October, 1UG2, pike letters, MS., Archives of B.C. ' — 17 Douglas to Newcastle, , 21 May, 1863, B.C. Despatches to 1 Downing Street, MS., Archives of B.C.  -76Colurribia shows what opportunities there were for vessels to land their cargo in sheltered spots.  To stamp out the liquor trade entirely would  have required a fleet of revenue vessels constantly cruising along the coasto The Captains of Her Majesty*s Ships that were employed to intercept the trading schooners were given the authority of justices of the peace to enable them to deal with the whiskey runners.  Also in the northwest  portion of the Colony there were a few men empowered to act as justices of the peace.  John Drummond Buchanan Ogilvie, stationed on the North  Bentinck Arm in the Bella Coola area, was one of these few.  He also  acted as Constable and Revenue Officer. At great odds Ogilvie undertook to protect the Indians and the handful of whites against the evils of the liquor traffic and finally met his death at the hands of one of the unscrupulous whiskey trading agents. Ogilvie had arrested a man named ^ntoine Lucanage for selling whiskey to the Indians.  Lucanage escaped and made his way to his ship,  the Langley, a notorious whiskey peddling craft. other men, overtook the Langley in a canoe.  Ogilvie with two  In reply to their inquiry,  the Captain of the Langley stated that Antoine was not on board. A few moments later a shot rang out from the forward bows of the vessel. Ogilvie fell, mortally wounded.  Antoine, the murderer, escaped in a  18 small boat.  It was thought for a time that he had perished in his  attempt to escape but in July, 1865, a telegram from San Francisco advised that he had been arrested in that city.  Constable Tomkins Brew  18 New;'Wegtmlnster British Columbian. 26 May, 1865.  -77"High Constable11 of New Westminster, prooeeded to San Francisco by the ate aire r Leviathan and brought Luoanage baok to British Columbia to stand trial for his crime.  19  Besides Ogilvie, one other Constable was killed in lino of duty. This was Constable John Laws on, who had oome from the Mari times and was a highly respeoted citizen of the Kootenay District. as constable there in July 1865.  He was employed  Two years later in May 1867, Laws on  was in the act of arresting a man known as "Charlie" Brown on a oharge of horse stealing in the town of Kootenay, when the villain shot him dead.  Brown made off through the woods and headed for the United States.  At Bonner's Ferry, just south of the line, he was overtaken by four miners who had followed him from Kootenay.  They killed Brown on the  spot. The problem of apprehending criminals did not end with their being placed in jail*  In most parts of the Colony, the jail was a  hastily built log lock-up, the insecurity of which was an invitation to any able bodied prisoner to escape. shackled.  Desperate criminals were kept  In 1861, Judge Begbie said of "the jails, "... their condition  is rough, insecure... as might be expected from the expenditure; with the exception of that at New Westminster there Is soarcely one whioh is even a tolerable lock-up...  21  The jail at New Westminster provided prisoner accommodation for all "those in the Colony who received jail sontenoos.  This jail was  constructed in 1860 according to plans drawn by Chartres brew. 'j2 19  IbldL 18 July, 1865, p. 3.  20 Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel, 8 July, 1867. 21 Begbie to Douglas, 30 November, Begbio Letters, £S«, Arcnivos of B.C. 22 Brew to Young, 1 August 1860, Brew Letters, iv.8., Archives of B.C* (<12) continued page 77*  -78The prison yard covered an area of 11,512 square feet and was surrounded by a strong wooden wall about fourteen feet high.  The jail proper  consisted of two wooden buildings which provided space for twenty cells, a work shed and a kitchen.  Prisoners were exercised three hours in the  morning and three in the afternoon.  Those sentenced to hard labour  were employed clearing Government land, cutting firewood and grading and clearing public streets and roads.  The notoriously bad characters  labored in leg irons, In the interior of British Columbia only Williams Lake and C^uesnel had secure jails.  The one at Williams Lake was described by Judge 23  Begbie as a "very good lock-up with four cells." had four cells, a mess room and a constables1 room.  At 'juesnel the jail The prison yard  was surrounded by a fence twelve feet high made of painted wooden slabs 2A which gave the jail the appearance of a Hudson*s Bay fort.  These  jails accommodated persons arrested in the Cariboo for grave offences. Where there was no lock-up those arrested for minor offences were some25 times fastened to the stump of a tree. cabin served as a jail.  At Richfield an insecure log  It was so poorly ventilated that the door had  to be kept open a great deal of the day.  On one occasion a prisoner  slipped away while Chief Justice Begbie and two constables were standing (continued) the main in22 front of the jail door.part of this building is still standing and is in fairly good repair. It is now used by the City of New Westminster as a school and is known as the "T.J. Trapp Technical School." The 20 foot fence which formerly enclosed the prison exercise yard, and where the scaffolds were erected for the execution of condemned prisoners, has been removed leaving only the main prison building standing. Hugh G. Christie, Warden, Oakalla Prison, in correspondence with the author. 23 Begbie to Young, July, 1863, Begbie letters, MS. 24 Ball to J.W.Trutch, 25 August, 1865, Ball Letters, MS. Archives of B.C. 25 Begbie to Young, loc. cit., also ^Lwyn to Young, 22 August, 1862, Elwyn Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 26 Brew to Hankin, 18 June, 1869, Brew Letters, MS., chives of B.C.  - 79 -  Barkervilie was one of the principal business centres of the Cariboo yet there was no jail there until 1869.  Large numbers of miners  congregating in Barkerville in the evenings gave rise to frequent minor disturbances.  Those who were apprehended for disturbing the  peace had to be escorted by sleigh or wagon to the Richfield jail a mile away.  The inconvenience and costliness of this procedure led  Magistrate Ball to request that he be allowed to build a log cabin lock-up and constables1 quarters at Barkerville.  His request was re-  fused, however, as the financial state of the Colony demanded the strictest economy.27  In 1869, Chartres Brew arranged to purchase a  hourse there for ^186.50, to be used as a constables' residence and 28 temporary jail. In addition to the insecurity of the jails, the shortage of legirons and handcuffs made it even more difficult to restrict the movements of prisoners. Remarking on an incident at Williams Lake, Begbie said, "the special constables were a good deal embarrassed by the absence of handcuffs and I have noted the deficiency on many 29 other occasions".  27 Ball to Birch, 20 May, 1867, Ball Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 28 Brew toHankin , 7 January, 1870, Brew Letters, MS. , Archives of B.C. 29 Begbie to Young, July, 1863, Begbie Letters. MS., Archives of B.C.  -80The majority of the crimes committed in the Colony of British Columbia were crimes against society involving murder, robbery > enness or jail breaking. cut.  drunk-  In these oases the constable's duty was clear  To carry it out he required mainly courage and common sense; he  could moreover, always count on the support of the public*  However in  the summer of 1867 when the police became involved in a dispute between two large mining companies, their lack of training as well as lack of numbers, found them at a loss* This dispute, which was known as the Grouse Creek War, involved the ownership of a valuable stretch of ground on Grouse Creek in the Cariboo.  Two mining companies, the Flume Company and the Canadian  Company, claimed ownership to the ground*  The latter Company had  taken over tiie claim feeling it had right of possession*  When the  Company instituted legal proceedings to test its title, its claims were dismissed by Gold Conuiissioner Ball*  Nevertheless, the Canadian 30  Company continued to work the rich ground* Following the Gold Commissioners decision, Chief  Constable  Fitzgerald and Constables Sullivan and George Wilson, were sent to serve an injunction ordering the Canadian Company to quit the piece of ground.  The Company refused, Fitzgerald then attempted to arrest one  of their number, but the thirty or forty members of the Company, not showing hostility or making any tfireats of violence, declared that if any one of them was liable to arrest, they all were.  The oonstables,  not knowing how to proceed, returned to headquarters for further instructions.  31  30 Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel, 15 July, 18€7 31 Ibid, 15 July, 1867  -81-  When Commissioner Ball learned of the state of affairs, he proceeded to Grouse Creek with sworn in as special constables.  a force of about thirty citizens When the motley force of constables,  some mounted, some on foot, arrived, the Canadian Company was at work on the disputed property.  Ball addressed the member of the Company,  saying that they were breaking the law by holding possession of the disputed ground and he urged them to give up the possession peacefully.  The spokesman for the Company stated that they wanted a re-  hearing of the case.  In the meantime the members of the posse were  engaged in friendly conversation with the Canadian Company miners. Ball, looking to his force for support, and finding none, had no 32 alternative but to agree to the company's proposal. The "Grouse Creek War" caused considerable excitement in the Colony.  The citizens of the Cariboo were mainly interested in the  ultimate legal decision rather than in the fact that police authority had been set at defiance.  In New Westminster, on the other hand,  great alarm was raised over the fact that the authority of the constables had been publicly flouted.  Governor Seymour exaggerated the gravity  of the incident, referring to it as a "riot verging on rebellion, if 33 it has not already crossed the line."  He even requested military  assistance but the naval authorities, regarding it impractical to transport a body of seamen so far from the coast, gave only a vague promise that they would lend support to the civil authority if a 32 Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel . 18 July, 1867 33 Seymour to Cardwell 12 May, 1868, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street. MS.. Archives of B.C.  serious enough crisis arose.  Seymour thought tho situation at  least demanded his presence but on his arrival in tho Cariboo, found muoh less excitement than ho had anticipated.  Tho Canadian Company  consented to hand the disputed claim over to him and to submit the claim of title to arbitration.  Eight members of tho Company wore  jailed for contempt of the magistrate's writ and rooistanoe to tho police.  Fearful lest further trouble develop, Seymour dirootod  Chartres Brew, who had on previous occasions proved himself capable of dealing with difficult situations, to roplace Ball in the Cariboo. Five "thoroughly armed" supernumerary constables appointed for a period of one year, aooompanied Brow to the Cariboo.  Brow, authorized  to add to this force if need be, was instructed to enforce tho law .  .,  at all costs.  34 Tho five oonotablos were plaood in possession of tho  disputed ground pending settlement of the case.  In September, Chief  Justice Needham arrived and after an investigation gave his decision in favor of the Flume Company.  His decision was accepted by both  parties and the "Grouse Creek war" came to an end.  34 Seymour to Buckingham, 4 September, 1867., B.C. Deapatohor to_Downlng Street, MS., Arohives of H.C.  - 83 -  CHAPTER VII THE WHITE MAN'S LAW  One of the major law enforcement tasks of the magistrates and their constables, was to teach the Indians of British Columbia to understand and observe the white man's law. limited contaet with white men.  Before 1858, the natives had  Under the firm but just rule of the  Hudson's Bay Company officials, they were peaceful and friendly. They even tolerated the few white prospectors at work along the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.  However, from the time of the first discovery  of gold on the mainland, Governor James Douglas was apprehensive of the trouble which might result if thousands of white men stampeded into  the Indians' hunting ground, bringing with them whiskey, firearms,  and a disdain for the Indians' mode of life.  The Secretary of State  for the Colonies was informed, "...there is much reason to fear that serious affrays may take place between the natives and the motley adventurers who will be attracted by the reputed wealth of the country... and who may attempt to overpower the opposition of the natives by force of arms and thus endanger the peace of the country"."'' As Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, Douglas had come to know and understand the Indians.  At the diggings he spoke to a group of  the natives advising them. to seek redress from the Justice of the Peace at Hill's Bar if they were injured by the whites.  He also appointed  1 Douglas to Labouchere, 15 July, 1857, in Gseat Britain, Parliament, Copies of Extracts of Correspondence Relative to the Discovery of Gold in the Fraser River District in British North America, London, 1858, p. 7.  -8 4 -  Indian magistrates who were to bring to justice any of their tribesmen who were charged with offences against the lavs of the country*  2  He gave the miners the following advice about the Indians, "They are all friendly, and all thievish.... Get on with them as quietly as you 3 can and Government will protect you*n There was trouble, however.  The native population, so well  behaved under the rule of the Hudson^ Bay Company, became more contemptuous of the white man as the miners took over on the lower Fraser* In August 1858, hostilities actually broke out between the miners and the Indians.  Two Frenchmen had been murdered by Indians near the  junction of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers (the Forks).  When the  news of the outrage reached Yale, forty miners immediately headed north and were joined by 150 more at Boston Bar.  In the ensuing encounter  with the Indians, seven braves were killed after a fight that lasted three hours.  The company returned to Yale where 2,000 miners attended  a meeting to consider the best mode of dealing with the Indians.  Over  L  200 miners, enrolled under N.M. Snyder, made a march up the Fraser to the Thompson River.  On their return to Yale seven days later, they had  made treaties of peace with about 2,000 Indians between Spuzzum and the Forks.  In the course of the campaign, thirty Indians and two miners 4 were killed. Governor Douglas, on hearing of the trouble, made another trip to the Mainland accompanied by 38 sappers and miners and twenty marines 2 3 4  Douglas to Lytton, 15 June 1858, B.C. Papers. Victoria Gazette, 24 July, 1858. Begg, ibid., pp. 271-272  Part 1, p. 16  -85fromH.M.S. Satellite.  On his arrival, however, the excitement had abated.  Douglas found that the sale of spirituous liquor was one of the main causes for the disturbances and issued a proclamation declaring that practice to be illegal.5  Penalties for this offence had been included  in the code of laws drawn up by the Hill's Bar miners, but littlo could be accomplished without recognized authorities to whom both the Indians and miners could apply for redress. Unfortunately this authority could not be found in either the magistrates whom Douglas appointed in 1858 or their constables, for none of those succeeded in winning the confidonce of the Indians or the minors.  Consequently during the Fraser River gold  rush the Governor himself carried the responsibility of preventing conflict  between miners and natives.  Douglas' burden of responsibility was greatly relieved in when the new group of magistrates took over.  1859  Few of thorn had previous  experience in dealing with aboriginal peoples, but they proved very effective in managing British Columbia's natives.  The inagistrates soon  gained the confidence of the Indians who came to regard thern as the constituted arbiters of right and wrong.  This was not accomplished by  any show of force but by the constant application of firm yet equitable treatment to whites and Indians alike.  A case in point was Magistrate  Cox«s address to the Indians along the Columbia just north of the Pend-d'Oreille River.  Douglas feared that the presence of the whites  in this area would lead to crime and disorder, since the natives were opposed to the entrance of the miners into their territory.  Cox was  Douglas to Lytton, 12 October, 1858, B.C. Papers, ;>art 11, p. 4.  -86ordered to this area with the following instructions: • • • you must endeavor to conciliate the natives, and to prevent conflicts or collisions with the whites. You must impress upon their minds that they are not to plunder or steal the property, or in any way injure or molest the miners; and you will be equally careful in teaching the miners to respect the law and property of the natives, and that they are equally with white men protected by the Laws....6 Cox addressed the Indians, then the miners in the same vein.  To the  Indians he said: These men have come to seek for gold. They have not come to fight. They roust not be interfered with in any way by the Indians. The Indians and whites shall receive equal protection from the Government when an officer is appointed to this district and crime will be punished on the same terms and no expense will be spared to hunt down offenders. Keep your women to yourselves. Do not dispose of them to the white man. Keep from whiskey, be civil and obliging - do not steal no matter how tempting the opportunity may be... If wronged or assaulted you will have the same protection as myself. You are, as well as the white men entitled to protect your homes and families from injury but do not be the first to quarrel. When an officer resides among you, you must make your complaint to him and not avenge any wrongs yourselves. 7 The Indians pledged their word, they would not molest the miners in their search for gold. In 1865 gold was discovered on French Creek, in the territory of the Shuswap Indians.  Since they were reluctant to allow the whites  to enter their hunting ground, Philip Nind, accompanied by a constable, set out from Lytton to talk with the Shuswap tribe.  On the way he held  court at Kami oops in the Hudson's Bay Company Hall, and convicted a white man of selling spirits to Indians, solely on evidence given by 6 Good to Cox. 27 Sept., 1861, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letterbook, LIS., Archives of B.C. 7 Cox to Young, 19 October, 1861, Enclosure, Cox Letters, T;S., Archives of B.C.  -87Indians.  Nind and his constable then rode up the Thompson River to  the Shuswap's camp.  It was the accepted practice to deal with the  Indians through their Chief, a custom which tended to strengthen the Chief1 s position of supremacy in his tribe and also simplified communications between the officials and the natives. Shuswaps through their Chief.  Hence Nind spoke to the  He spoke about observing the laws and  obtaining redress if injured or oppressed; about equal justice that was observed toward white men and Indians; and about the evils of drinking whiskey.  On completing his speech he presented the Chief with the  customary present of tobacco.  Nind was gratified to learn from settlers  and the Hudson* s Bay Company officials that his visit had had a beneficial effect upon the Indians.  Moreover, shortly after their  departure an Indian who had murdered another Indian, was delivered to Q Nind at Lytton. Besides Cox and Nind; O'Reilley, Brew and Fitzgerald were noted for their valuable work in promoting good relations between Indians and whites. By the end of the colonial period the Indians for the most part had given up most of their barbaric ways. of incorrigible outlaws..  However there remained a sprinkling  These were young men and boys who were wont to  wander aimlessly from place to place until their neediness led them to coirrait depredations.  Unlike white criminals, v/ho invariably attempted to  flee the country, the Indian outlaws remained in the Colony wandering from tribe to tribe.  Douglas instructed the magistrates to spare no  expense or effort to bring these guilty Indians to justice. 8 Nind to Birch, 12 July, 1865, Nind Letters, MS., B.C. Archives.  -aeon© of tho most notorious Indian criminals in tho early history of British. Columbia was Tai tooh alias "John Chinaman", a member of the i.iosqueam Tribe.  Taitach was charged with tho uurder of two white men on  the lower Fraser in October, 1859, and was suspected of bo in; concerned in several other murders-. --It was known that ho was livin;- below Uew Westminster with the So«oh#lt  Indians whose Chief was friendly to tho  Hudson's Bay Company. A reward of £50 was offered for Taitoch's capture.  Julius Voigt of New Westminster, was sworn in as special  constable and given a warrant for his arrest.  Yoigty disguised as an  Indian, and accompanied by three members of the S®ottWttLl Tribe, proceeded to their camp. Stealthily they crept up on the Sea-Shell lodge where they spotted Taitooh sitting quietly by the fire.  Voigt edged  nearer until he was directly behind him, then stepped out of the shadows.  Placing his hand firmly on Taitoch's shoulder he said, "I  arrest you in the name of the Queen". demohium followed. captured him.  Taitooh broke loose, and pun-  Fifteen blankets were offered to the one who  The Indians of the lodge immediately joined the chase.  In the struggle that followed, Taitoch was killed.  His body was taken  to New Westminster for identification.9 The constables could not always be spared for traoking an Indian, who might be hiding anywhere from the lov/er Fraser to the Upper Columbia.  In any case, it was considered a better policy to have the  guilty party delivered to justice by the Indians themselves, and, if a reward was offered, the arrest was usually effected soon after. 9 Spalding to Young, 4 April, 1860, Enclosure, Proceedings of the Coroner's Inquest on Taitoch, alias "John Chinaman", 1 April, I860. Spalding Letters, MS., Archives of B.C., also Brew to Young, 5 i!ay, I860, Brew Letters, HS., Archives of B.C.  -89Without tho help of tho Indians, Moise, the Indian murder#f, would probably not have been captured.  Moise was the ringleader in a  series of murders committed in the late summer of 1863 in the V/illiams Lake district. When Magistrate Cox offered a reward of £20 to tho Indians for the capture of Moise, he was soon brought in and the reward money duly paid.10  With -three of his accomplices ho was tried and  sentenced to be executed.  Tlx© condemned man suoceeded in breaking jail  and Moise alone was not re-captured.  Reports of tho Indian^1 whereabouts  were received from time to time but he was still at large two years later. When Nind was visiting tho Shuswap Indians in July 1865, he inquired if Moise was in the neighborhood. they had seen him.  Many of the Indians acknowledged that  Nind told the Chief, Nesquanilith, who had a great  influence over his tribe, that he would pay him a reward for Moise1 s capture and that he would expect him to be brought to Lytton in ten days': time."^  Before the end of the month the Shuswap Indians had captured  Moise and delivered him to Nind at Lytton.  He was sent under escort to  the New Westminster jail. A note from Nind read, "I. ..forward...a prisoner. ..named Moise.. .convicted of murder at Williams Lake, October, 1863.w  12  Another Indian who managed for a time to evade capture was Nikilplask, 13 murder.  one of the two Indians taken by Fitzgerald for the Morgan Mikilplask escaped from the Quesnel jail in April, 1866.  10 Cox to Young, 20 September 1863, Cox Letter, MS., Archives of B.C. 11 Nind to Birch, 12 July, 1865, Nind Letters, MS., Archives of u.C. 12 Nind to C.G. Priohard, 31 July, 1865, Nind Letters, MS., Archives of 13  See above, Chapter VI, p.p. 72-73.  -90In August, 1866, it was discovered that this Indian was wandering about in the Okanagen.  Magistrate Haynes, of the Osoyoos District was instruotec  to use every ireans to bring the murderer to justice.  No expense was to  be spared and Haynes was authorized to offer $500 reward for his capture. Seven months later, Nikilplask was brought in by Constable Lowe of Osoyoos. Such instances were effective in teaching the Indians the working of the white man's law.  They learned that it not only punished them for  crimes committed against whites but that it protected them from unsorupuloi whites and Indians as well.  Indians were sometimes appointed special  constables and as such, arrested both native and whites guilty of breaking the law.^"6 Both Begbie and Brew report instances where Indian constables were employed with good effect. At Douglas, where Brew was holding County Court and Petty Sessions Court, when an Indian he was suspected of thieving esoaped, an Indian constable was sent after him and made the capture.^  Judge Begbie wrote of a case of horse stealing at the Lillooet  assizes where the thief, the owner and the special constable were all Indians.  "The native special displayed so much tact and perserveranee  that I ordered him a special reward of $10.00 as it is very useful to to encourage this description of s e r v i c e . " ! ® The Colony of British Columbia experienced only one Indian massacre.  On the morning of April 30, 1864, fourteen white men were  taken unaware and savagely slaughtered in their tents by a band of 14 Spalding to Birch, 4 September, 1866, Endorsement signed A.N.B., 26 September, 1866, Spalding Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 15  Sanders to Birch, 25 April, 1867, Sanders Letters, MS., Archives of  16 New Westminster British Columbian, 8 October, 1864. 17 Brew to Ball, 15 May, 1866, Brew Letters, LS., Archives of B.C. 18 Begbie to Ball of B.C.  , 3 September, 1866, Begbie Letters. ;.:S., Arohives  -91Chilcotin Indians near the ferry on the Homathco River.  The murdered  men were members of a party working on a road from Bute Inlet to the Cariboo under the direction of Mr.Alfred Waddington who proposed bringing supplies over this route to the mining camps in the northern part of the Colony. Three other members of the party who escaped brought the news of the tragedy to Nanaimo and thence to Victoria. At the time little was known of the Chilcotin Indians whose hunting grounds extended from the Coast to the Fraser River and £> out 150 miles from north to south. This area had been visited by only the most adventurous white men taking small pack trains through to the Cariboo• The Chilcotins were a tall, athletio warlike tribe, well equipped with horses and arms.  Occasionally they made war with the coastal Indians.  There were two chiefs, Anaheim, who lived in the western section, and Alexis, who resided about one hundred miles from Alexandria* The construction workers, although they had been most imprudent in their treatment of the Indians in the area, appeared blindly confident that the natives would not rise against them.  Not the slightest effort  was made by the men to obtain the good will of the Indians, who, little removed from a state of starvation were well aware of the stores of food ammunition and clothing kept in the construction camp. Some Indians were employed on the road but were poorly paid and not fed.  They were  given blankets, firearms and amnunition in payment but they would not accept food as payment because they felt it was the white man's obligation to feed them while they were in their employ. Food was begged or stolen* The unfriendliness of the natives was further provoked by the white man's treatment of the young Indian women who were well fed as the price of  -92prostitution.  If a sound discretion had been exercised toward the Indians,  19 the outrage probably would have been prevented. After the massacre the Indians marched into the interior where they were joined by other members of the tribe.  Three other white men,  travelling with a pack train from Bentinck Arm, also fell victim to the Indians' savagery.  It was f©ared that the Chilcotins were on the war-  path, prepared to murder every white person from the sea to the upper Fraser.  The few whites who lived in the district fled for their lives.  Two parties of approximately forty volunteers each, were raised to go in pursuite of the insurgent Indians.  The first force was despatched from  New Yfestminster under the coxnnand of Chartres Brew.  The second started  from Alexandria under Magistrate Cox. Brew's force, accompanied by Governor Seymour, was landed at Bella Coola at the head of Bentinck  Arm  and arrived at the scene of the massacre on May 20, after a laborious march.  They pursued the murderers in Bute Inlet Mountains where the  rugged nature of the countiy and the swollen rivers made their expedition extremely hazardous. Much time was lost waiting for horse transport to be seht up and for supplies to build bridges and scale precipices.®0 Cox's party was the first to contact the Chilcotins.  His second-  in-command, Donald McLean, was killed in a brief exchange of fire with the Indians.  It was expected "that the Chilcotins would make a stand in their  village but instead they retreated to the most difficult parts of ihe 19 Brew toBirch, 23 May, 1864, Brew Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 20 Loc. cit  -93the country.  From May to August u series of long, weary and fruitless  marches was made by the volunteer parties. just out of roach of tho whito men. progress during  The Indiana, ovor on tho movo,  However, since tho souroh was in  the fruit and fish season, tho natives woro unablo to  gather food for tho winter.  Little by little, a few of the Chilootlns  came to trade with members of the volunteer force, bringing news of tho suspected murderers. As there was still no prospeot of their being captured in their inaccessible retroats, tho Indiana wore asked to surrender.  The first to do so was Chief Anaheim who gave himself up  with a portion of his tribe, to Chart res Hruw.  Anahuim surrendered  unreoorvedly.  He expo o tad little meroy, but as ho had not taken an 21 active parb in the mas sac re he was granted a pardon. Cox's party contacted Tollot and Klatsa:;sin, two ohiei'e who had taken part in tho luassaore. Gifts of provisions wore sent to tho Indians along with a friendly invitation to come to Cox's oamp. Tollot, Klatfcassin and nine of tlioir followers aooepted tlio invitation only to find themselves surrounded by armod man. Tho Chilootlns woro ordered to lay down -their arms. All but Tollot did so.  In a rago ho smashed hio  muskot against a troo and loudly declared,"Kin/'; Goorgos mori aro great it liars .  Ki^ht of tho group wore osoortod to tjuecnol fur trial.  Five wore found guilty and hanged. Of the Indiana who had taken part in the massacre only Aklan, a powerful Chief, managed to ovade his pursuers during \he winter. 21 Seymour to the Right Hon. E. Cardwell, 7 October 3364, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street. MS,Archives of B.C. 22 A.G. f.yjorioo, the History of the Hortorn Interior of British Columbia, Toronto, William Driggs, 1905, p.ggO * British  -94The search for him went on into the late spring of the following year. He finally deoided to make peaoe with his pursuers and was proceeding down tho Bella Coola River with several hundred dollars worth of choice furs in atonement for his crimes, when he was captured by a party despatched by William Ogilvey, the constable stationed at Bella Coola. Aklan made no attempt to conceal his guilt.  He narrated the full  particulars of his attack on the whites and declared he was prepared to die. His execution at New Westminster in July, 1865, closed the case of the Chilcotin Massacre. The Chilcotin episode had serious financial repercussions.  The  cost of sending the expeditions against the Chilcotins was approximately £17,000, an outlay that a young colony with a decreasing reserve could ill afford.  ?4  Oddly enough the first uniformed constables on the mainland of British Columbia were Indians. Far up the northwest coast in the area where Rupert now stands, William Duncan had established himself as a missionary among the Indians*  To give him authority to punish both delinquent whites  and Indians, Governor Douglas appointed him Justice of the Peace for the District of Metlakahtla.  To assist in settling disputes and  difficulties arising in the Indian community, Duncan appointed ten native cons table s.  pQ  This number was soon enlarged to twenty and a request was  made for a grant for purchasing a simple uniform for the "three chiefs and twenty constables of Metlakahtla".27  Uniforms were provided and in  23 Seymour to Cardwell, 8 June, 1865, og. cit. 24 Seymour to Cardwell, 3 May, 1865, 0£* cit* 25 Young to Duncan, 2 July, 1863, Colonial Secretary's Miscellaneous Letters to LS*, Archives of B*C • ~ ~ — 26  Duncan to Douglas, 6 March, 1863, Dunoa* Letters,  Arohiveo of  -95due time the constables were furnished with arms. Governor Seymour visited the settlement in 1867 and to his surprise was received on the beach by eighteen native constables well drilled and dressed in artillery uniform. The experiment was at first fraught with difficulties; but under Duncan1 s management the constables made great progress in the understanding and performance of their duties.  Of the native constables  Duncan wrote; "They received no pay, or any promise of reward, yet some scarcely ever left the village, even tomgather neoessaxy supplies 29 of food for the winter least something should go wrong. The Metlakahtla constables experienced much trouble at the hands of the Indian tribes in the vicinity who were well supplied with liquor from the spirit traders.  On one occasion, one of the Indian constables  was killed and several others wounded, by the whiskey peddling crew of the schooner Random. Although this boat was later seized by the United States authorities the men who committed the offense were not ,30 captured. To impress the Indians along the extreme northwest coast with the necessity of observing British law, ships of the Royal Na-vy were despatched whenever they could be spared.  Commander J.W. Pike of  H.M.S. Devastation, made periodic visits to this area between 1862 and 1864. pike brought back to Victoria, Indians who had perpetrated the murder of two white parties along the coast.  He impressed on other  27 Duncan to Young, 10 June, 1863, ibid. 28 Seymour to Buckingham, 27 September 1867, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street, LIS., Archives of B.C. 29 Duncan to A. Musgrave, 16 December, 1870, Duncan Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. — — — — — 30  Duncan to Birch, 12 October, 1864, ibid.  -96Indians who had been accused of molesting white traders, the necessity of avoiding violence. Periodic visits were not enough to teach the Indians the ways of the white man's law. Without continuous supervision they soon slipped back into their old ways.  In October, 1871, Dunoan wrote to Lieutenant  Governor Trutch reminding him that no ship of war had visited the northwest coast of British Columbia for over two years.  He went on  to say: I need not have to assure your Excellency how utterly impossible it is to maintain order among numerous tribes of Indians, in possession of intoxicating liquor, - by means of native constables unsupported by an occasional ship of war - nor need to represent how much easier it is to prevent lawlessness arising by the occasional appearance of a ship of war in our midst, than it will be to correct and punish crime when it has once arisen.w 31 By the end of the colonial period little progress had been made in establishing law and order on the northwest coast.  Thanks to Duncan and  his constables the sale of liquor and Indians violence was kept down in the immediate area of Ivletlakahtla but elsewhere liquor continued to be brought from Victoria by both whites and Indians.  The situation was  aggravated by the rush of hundreds of miners to the Skeena and the consequent attraction of hordes of Indians to the area.  It was not  until the 1890« s when the p olice we re pr ovide d wi th smal1 s ai1ing vessels that law was effectively established on the northwest coast. 31 Duncan to J.W.Trutch, 19 October, 1871, Duncan Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. —  -97In the interior muoh progress had been made.  From the mouth  of the Eraser to the upper reaches of the Cariboo region, and west to the Rocky Mountains, tho Indians knew and respected the white man1 s law.  32  3 2 For details of Indian troubles in 1887 see Walter N. Sage, "The North-West Mounted Police and British Columbia". Pacific Historial Review, XVlll (1949) pp. 354 - 361.  - 98 CHAPTER VIII TWO POLICE FORCES Before this study of the British Columbia Police from 1858 to 1871, is concluded, reference should be made to the Victoria Police, for it is sometimes wrongly assumed that the British Columbia Police and the Victoria Police were originally one and the same Force.1 explanations for this mistaken idea.  There are three possible  First, both Forces were formed at  the time of the Fraser River gold rush.  Second, Augustus F. Pemberton,  Commissioner of the Eictoria Police, and Chartres Brew, occasionally sat on the Victoria Bench together as committing magistrates.  Third, both  Forces came into existence under the direction of Governor James Douglas. A brief summary of the history of the Victoria Police and its relation to the British Columbia Police, will show that the two Forces were separate organizations during the colonial period. Vancouver Island was formally constituted a Colony in 1849.  Justice  under English law was first administered by Richard Blanshard, the Colony's 2 first Governor, who arrived at Victoria in March, 1950.  Since there were  no colonial funds from which to pay peace officers, Blanshard acted as both Governor and Justice, and when he wanted a constable, he swore one in. Dr. Jofcn Sebastian Helmcken, a medical officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, was appointed in 1850 as Magistrate at Fort Rupert on the north-east corner of the Island where the Company carried on coal mining operations.  In -the  summer of 1850, Governor Blansard instructed Helmcken to appoint special constables to control the unruly miners.  However, no one was found  1 For instance in an article in the Victoria Colonist, 17 November, 1946: "...the [British Columbia Provincial Police] was first known as the 1 Crown Colonies Police of British Columbia and Vancouver Island1." 2  Begg, History of British Columbia, p. 189.  - 99 3  willing to undertake the duty.  After James Douglas became Governor of Vancouver Island in 1851, justices of the peace, and constables were appointed for the Victoria settlement and district.4  They were paid according to a scale of fees  proposed by the justices and confirmed by the Governor-in-Council.  For  serving a summons, the justices received four shillings, and for executing a warrant, the constables were paid the same amount.  For occasional pro-  tection against Indian attacks, reliance was placed on a guard of "voltigenr which resembled the American posse, raised only when needed.  It was Doug-  las' policy always to punish any Indian who had committed a crime against a white man.  If necessary, he called on Her Majesty's Naval Forces in the  vicinity, to supply a body of men strong enough to impress the Indians. At one time, a force of about 400 seamen and marines, and eighteen Victoria Voltigeurs, was used to capture a Cowichan Indian who had attempted to take 7 the life of one of the white settlers. When the Fraser River gold rush began, thousands of miners were stopping at Victoria on their -my to and from the diggings. sary to establish a regular police force at Victoria.  It was then neces-  On July 17, 1858,  Douglas appointed Augustus F. Pemberton, an Irishman with a reputation for fearlessness and determination, as Stipendiary Magistrate and Commissioner of Police for Vancouver Island, and authorized him to organize a regular 3 Ibid., p. 192. 4 In 1853, there were 4B6 white settlers on Vancouver Island, 300 at Victoria, 125 at Nanaimo and 25 at Fort Rupert. Ibidi , p. 201. 5 December 2, 1853, Minutes of the Council of Vancouver Island, MS., Archives of B.C. 6 See Sage, Douglas, p. 170. S^6tf,t^iv^ho?e^C6.SePtember'  1856  ' V-I- Despatches to Downing  - 100 body of paid policemen for Victoria.8  Pemberton came to Vancouver Island 9 „ in 1855, from Dublin, where he had practised law for some years. rie was  an uncle of J.B. Pemberton, Surveyor-General of Vancouver Island, and a 10 brother-in-law of Chartres Brew. In August, 1858, Pemberton advertised for "a few strong young men, not under 5 feet 9 inches in height, with good character, to serve in the Police Force"  Unlike the police on the Mainland, who were not distin-  guished in dress from ordinary citizens, Pembertonfs stalwart recruits were 12 put into blue uniforms, trimmed with large plain brass buttons.  The  Victoria Police, which numbered about fourteen men in all, was organized on the London Metropolitan model.  In addition to Commissioner Pemberton, 1s  the establishment included one Inspector and two sergeants. ° the position of Superintendent was added.  In 1860,  The office of Commissioner of  Police was abolished in 1864, but Pemberton retained his office of Stip14 endiary Magistrate and continued in charge of the Victoria Police. Outside of Victoria, arrangements for poncing were unsatisfactory. Only in cases of emergency, such as the threat of Indian disturbances, was the service of the Victoria Police extended to the outlying districts. Nanaimo, there was a magistrate but no paid police.  At  One of the first mag-  istrates there was a Captain Stuart who was reported to have hung one Indian and flogged another without giving either a fair trial.15  Stuart,  whose office was presumably unsalaried, was replaced by a stipendiary magistrate, W # H. Franklyn, in the summer of 1860.  Franklyn remained in  8 Douglas to lytton, 11 December, 1858, ibid. 9 Scholefield and Howay, op. cit., IV, 3. 10 Augustus Pemberton married Augusta Brew, sister of Chartres Brew. U Victoria Weekly Gazette, 5 August, 1858. 12 Ibid., 16 October, 1858.  - 101  office until 186V when he was replaced by Warner Spalding.  In 1870,  17 the state of the police at Nanaimo, however, was still unsatisfactory. The Victoria Police was, until 1866, under the control of the Government of the Colong of Vancouver Island.  That it was organized as a sep-  arate Force from the Police on the Mainland is shown in the following despatch from Douglas to lytton: I beg to inform you...that the appointments made for the Colony of Vancouver's Island are entirely distinct and do not in any degree interfere in the appointments., .in British Columbia.. .their salaries are paid by the j$idsonfs Bay Company out of the proceeds of Land Sales effected in Vancouver's Island.18 After the union of the Colonies, both the Victoria Police and the British Columbia Police came under the Government of British Columbia. Nevertheless, they were administered as separate units.  In Victoria,  Magistrate Pemberton continued to direct the police, while on the Main* land, and also at Nanaimo, the magistrates retained local authority over the constables in their respective districts. All were directly responsible to the Governor-in-Council.  This arrangement continued until Confederation.  13 G.H. Carey to Couglas, 11 October, 1860, Carey Letters, MS., Archives of B. 14 Victoria Colonist, 17 December, 1866. 15 Ibid., 10 October, 1859. 16 Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel, 6 May, 1867. 17 In 1870, Nanaimo had a population of 600 to 700 white people, and three nearby Indian tribes who were frequently given to drunken orgies. There was only one constable for the entire district. The Nanaimo jail was insecure, and accessible on all sides, enabling persons on the outside to hold conversations with the prisoners and, if they chose, pass liquor and weapons to them through the window. Begbie to Hankin, 5 December, 1870, Begbie Letters, MS., Archives of B.C. 18 Douglas to Lytton, 15 April, 1859, V.I. Despatches to Downing Street, MS., Archives of B.C.  - 102 -  In 1871, the control of police was transferred from the Gtovernor-inCouncil to the Attorney General's Department.  Until a Superintendent  was appointed exclusively for the Provincial Police, the Victo±±a and the British Columbia Forces were closely related.  In this period of  transition, starting at Confederation and ending with the appointment of a Superintendent of Provincial Police, the Victoria Police were headed by Magistrate Pemberton until a Superintendent for both Police Forces was appointed in 1875.  Just after Confederation the following  opinion was expressed in an editorial on the Victoria Police:...let the force be under the immediate supervision of a thoroughly competent officer, who might possibly occupy the position of Inspector of Police for the entire province thus establishing the connecting link throughout the whole so desirable. The "connecting link" referred to, was supplied presumably, in 1875, when Charles Todd was appointed Superintendent of Police.  ?0  Todd, v\Aio 21  remained in officer until 1884, was placed in charge of both Forces. The citizens of Victoria, however, were still dissatisfied.  Now  19 Victoria Colonist, 4 January, 1872. 20 Ibid., 2 May, 1875. In 1874 A.F. Pemberton was succeeded as Police Magistrate by A.C. Elliot. Ormsby, ££. cit., p. 70^ After that time the Police Magistrate at Victoria was no longer in charfee of the Victor! Police Force, 21 Charles Todd may be claimed as the first Superintendent of the Provincial Police. John Howe Sullivan has been referred to as a Superintend* of the British Columbia Police but there is little ground for this assum] tion. In November, 1872, Sullivan was appointed "Warden of the Gaol and Superintendent of Police in Victoria", after he had resigned as magistra' clerk and mining recorder in the Cariboo. It is not likely that he was in charge of either or both Forces. In 1872, Pemberton was still nomina in charge of the Victoria Police and in 1875, Sullivan was "promoted" to Gold Commissioner in the Cassiar District.  -103Victoria policemen, appointed and paid by the city council, were being sent beyond the city limits to perform provincial police duties• Another e d i t o r i a l , i n 1880, r e a d s t h e chief.  c i t y s h o u l d have i t s own 22  Let the provincial chief attend to the provincial force."  Although the Superintendent was employed by the Provincial Government most of the time was taken up in the Municipal Police Court.  His  divided responsibilities were a hindrance to the development of both Police Forces. It is not just clear when the Victoria Police became independent of Provincial control.  However by November 1883 C.P. Bloomfield had 23 been appointed Superintendent of the Victoria Police. Prior to his appointment Bloomfield was a sergeant in the City Force.  By the  end of the year he was "Inspector and Chief of the city force."  24  In 1900 John H. Langley became "Chief of the Victoria Police 25 Department."  At that time there were only twenty men in the  Victoria Police.  Chief of Police Langley reconstructed the entire  department to cope with the problems brought in by increased population and growing industrialization. It is dear, therefore, that in l8f>8 there was not one police force, but two.  The one was the forerunner of the present Victoria  City Police Force; Police. 22 Victoria 23 Victoria 24 Victoria 2$ 'Chief of  1902.  26  the other became the British Columbia Provincial  Colonist, 27 August, 1880. British Colonist. 1 November, 1883* British Colonist. 1 January, I884. Police Lan&Ley," Victoria Police Department. February,  26 The Victoria Folice officially recognized 1862, the year of the city's incorporation as the year of its origin. "The Victoria Police Department."  -104-  Chapter IX Police Traditions The development of the British Columbia Police can be divided into three general phases in which there is considerable overlapping* The first phase began with the arrangements to police the Fraser River gold fields and lasted until Confederation. the period from Confederation to 1923-  The second phase included  The final phase was the moderni-  zation of the Force by the Police and Prisons Regulation Act of 1923,"^ and the subsequent improvements in methods, equipment and training. This development was influenced by the police system of Great Britain and also by the Royal Irish Constabulary. The effect of the British system of police is, of course, most evident in the first phase.  Douglas1 draft of instructions for the  first magistrates stated that the head of their establishment would "also act as Chief Constable, and his duties will be those ordinarily belonging to such officers.w  2  Thus the British Columbia Police  inherited the historic office of constable as 3 behalf of his fellow citisens."  citizen acting on  The idea of local control was also  copied from the British, although in British Columbia the purpose of local control was different from that in England. In later years the influence of the Irish Constabulary on the development of the British Columbia Police becomes more noticeable.  1 2 3  See above Chapter V page 68. See above Chapter 1 page 3» Mayland, Scotland Yard, page 280.  -105-  Th is is not surprising "because in the nineteenth century most of the British Colonies adopted the Eoyal Irish Constabulary as a model in h organizing their police forces.  The British Police is tradition-  ally an unarmed civilian force subject to local control rather than to control by a central government. These traditions had little appeal outside of Great Britain. On the other hand the Irish Constabulary, which was established in I836 was organized along military lines under officers with military experience. The men lived in barracks, were given military training, and unlike the British Police, were fully armed. Such a force was particularly useful for a central government 5 in quelling disturbances.  In 1873 the Eoyal Irish Constabulary was  taken as a model in the formation of Canada's North-West Mounted Police. It was an ideal type of force for policing the remote, sparsely populated and troublesome North-West. «. There is little evidence of the influence of the Eoyal Irish Constabulary on the British Columbia Police in the colonial period, which at times must have sorely troubled Charters Brew. The colonial constables were armed, or at least were provided with weapons when they needed them. Anart from their carrying arms, however, they bore no resemblance to the famous Irish Force. Even after 1871 British Columbia was slow to develop,a semi-military police forcc. Confederation resulted in the British Columbia Police toming tinder th* control of the Provincial k See above, Chapter III, p.21. 5 Jeffries, The Colonial Police,  31.  -106Government, but it was still a police force in name only.  A substan-  tial change did not come about until 1923 when the British Columbia Police was brought into line with other territorial forces.  It is  interesting to note that this occurred just after the Royal Irish Constabulary ceased to exist. One of the main reasons for the delay in reforming the British Columbia Police was the tradition inherited from the police system of the colonial period.  Prom 185? to 1871 the British Columbia  Police gave satisfactory service in spite of the handicaps under which the constables worked.  How well the Police served the Colony can  clearly be seen by comparing the policing of British Columbia with the policing of the Yukon Territory during the KLondyke gold rush. In 1900 there were about 50,000 white people in the Yukon Territory. To preserve law and order, the Federal Government sent in 300 officers, 7 non-commissioned officers and men of the North-West Mounted Police, or one policeman to every 166 inhabitants.  In 1865 British Columbia  8 had a population of about 9,000 Europeans and 3,000 Chinese.  The  preservation of law and order was left to eight magistrates and eighteen untrained constables, or one peace officer to every 4-60 persons. This comparison does not take into account the fact that the Yukon did not face any potential Indian disturbances such, as from time to time threatened in British Columbia.  6.  That the small British Columbia Police  It came to an end when the Irish Free State was established.  7. Z.T.Wood, "Law and Order in the Yukon," Dawson Daily News, 21 July, 1909— 8. Seymour to Carnarvon, 31 October, 1866, B.C. Despatches to Downing Street, M.S.. .Archives of B.C.  -107Force was able to preserve law and order i n the Colony f o r t h i r t e e n years without any serious a l t e r a t i o n s or c r i t i c i s m s speaks h i g h l y f o r the men who served i n the Force. The system was w e l l adapted to a colony with l i m i t e d revenue where p l a c e r mining was the p r i n c i p a l occupation.  Because of the l i m i t e d  revenue, the d u t i e s of the p o l i c e were i n t e g r a t e d with the administrat i o n of the gold f i e l d s as w e l l as with d u t i e s in almost every other sphere of l o c a l government a c t i v i t y .  In other words the constables  served i n many extraneous c a p a c i t i e s but were a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r p o l i c e duty.  In t h i s way the Colony was saved the expense of employing two  s e t s of o f f i c i a l s * I t was r e a l l y due t o the m a g i s t r a t e s , who proved themselves u s e f u l as administrators as w e l l as p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s , t h a t the p o l i c e system continued t o f u n c t i o n . During the f i r s t years of the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , when the population consisted mainly of t r a n s i e n t miners, the magistrate was looked t o p r i n c i p a l l y as a p r o t e c t o r of person and p r o p e r t y .  These miners,  intent  mainly on making t h e i r f o r t u n e s and l e a v i n g the country, were not i n t e r e s t e d in the development of the Colony.  As a more s e t t l e d population  developed, the m a g i s t r a t e ' s sphere of u s e f u l n e s s t o the c i t i z e n s was widened.  The s e t t l e r s were not only concerned with t h e i r own w e l f a r e ,  but a l s o with that of the Colony.  Although they s t i l l looked t o t h e  magistrate f o r p r o t e c t i o n , they a l s o came t o regard him as t h e i r l i n k with the r e s t of Government.  The i n h a b i t a n t s of each remote and i s o -  l a t e d d i s t r i c t , were thus through t h e i r m a g i s t r a t e , represented in the government.  With the magistrate of each d i s t r i c t r e p o r t i n g t o the Gover-  nor of a l l matters of i n t e r e s t , the widely s c a t t e r e d d i s t r i c t s became a political unit.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s system was given recognition  -112when, on the formation of a Legislative Council for British Columbia, five of the fifteen seats were allotted to the magistrates. In a placer mining community, where it was in the common interest of the individual miners to support tho constituted authorities, there was no difficulty in obtaining extra assistance in tb* form of special constables.  Flow effective the co-operation between magistrate and  miners could be, is illustrated in Hind's arrival at Ferguson's Bar. The police, with the support of the miners in their role of special constables, v^re th^n the joint trustees of the law. After the golden days of the Cariboo, individual mining operations gradually gave way to large mining companies.  A breach of law by one  of these companies, such as occurred in the Grouse Creel: War, did not offend against any moral code or arouse indignation among the inhabitants.  In dealing with such offences, the magistrate and his constables  could no longer count on the same support from th& community which they received when protecting it against drunkards and thieves.  An unruly  company was different from an unruly miner as Magistrate Hall discov^r^d. The Grouse Creek War was an incident which showed that tho police system of British Columbia was becoming inadequate for the needs of the growing Colony. However, the popularity of the police was nob affected by the Grouse Creek affair.  In fact, throughout the colonial period there was little  fluctuation in the general good will which prevailed between police and public.  In the Victoria Police Force, which had a3 many constables r.n  there we re in the wholp of tho Mainland, the main criticism of the j^olice came from the press.  What criticism there was of the British Columbia  Police came from Governors oeymour and Douglas, both of whom were im-  -109mediately aroused at any sign of weakness in enforcing the lav. The people of the Colony, found little to criticize in the services rendered by their constables.  Probably, this goodwill which existed between the  British Columbia Police and the public was partly an expression of sympathy with the numerical weakness of the police, and partly due to the fact that since the police wore no uniform, they were not set apart from the ordinary citizens.  The main reason for it, however, was that the  magistrates and constables proved their worth as individuals® The members of the modern police force are motivated as much from the esprit de corps of their organization as they are from a sense of duty to the public.  It is the force behind the individual rather than  the individual himself, which is feared by the criminal.  In the loosely  organized British Columbia Police there was little, if any, esprit de corps and no strong police organization behind the individual constables. These men acted from a sense of personal honor and of duty to the public* In the British Columbia Police there were no awards for gallantry yet the constables were prepared to jeopardize life and limb in the performance of their duty.  If some criminals went unpunished, it was due to  the fact that too few constables were employed, a thing that the constables themselves could do nothing about. It is significant that in British Columbia, the term "constable" was used rather than "police.1* ill though the words are synonymous, "constable" is an older and friendlier term, which suggests an official whose duty it is to protect the citizens by upholding the laws of society. The term "police,* on the other hand, even to the citizens of a democratic country, has an unpleasant ring, for it is one of the functions of the police to see the citizens obey the dictates of the Government.  The  concept of the constable acting as an individual in the interest of his  -110-  fellow citizen rather than as a member of a force acting on the orders of the government, established a tradition which was inherited by the British Columbia Provincial Police Force. can be no esprit de corps. Force.  Without tradition, there  Without esprit de corps, there can be no  -111-  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Manuscript Sources.  1. Minutes. Minutes of the Executive Council of Vancouver Island, 30 August, 1851 to 6 February, 1861. ~ Minutes of the House of Assembly of Vancouver Island, 12 August, 1856 to 25 September, 1858. ~ 2.  Official Correspondence. British Columbia Despatches from Downing Street 1858 to 1871 • British Columbia Despatches to Downing Street 1858 to 1871. British Columbia Police Officers, Appointments, Salaries, Expenditures, 1855 to 1863. Colonial Secretary1 s Miscellaneous Letterbook 1858 to 1871* Copies of Extracts of Correspondence Relative to the Discovery of Gold in the Fraser River District in British North America. (Crad. 2398) London 1858. Governor1s Private Official Letterbook, 1858 to 1864. L  Douglas, James, Confidential Reports on Officers. Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia, London, 1859, 1860, and 1862 in four parts. Vancouver Island Despatches to Downing Street, 1851 to 1856.  3•  Unofficial Correspondence• Ball, H.M., Letters to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, 21 July, 1865, and 25 August, 1865. Ball, H. M., Letters to Colonial Secretary, 1859 to 1871. Begbie, M. B., Letters to Colonial Secretary, 1859 to 1870. Begbie, M. B., Letters to Sir James Douglas, 1859 to 1864. Brew, C., Letters to Colonial Secretary, 1859 to 1870. Brew, C., Letters to Colonel R# C. Moody, 1859 to I860.  -112-  Brew, C . , L e t t e r s t o S i r James Douglas, 1858* Cary, G. H., L e t t e r t o S i r James Douglas, l l O c t o b e r , I860. C h r i s t i e , Hugh C . , L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , 30 January, 1955. Duncan, W., L e t t e r s t o Anthony Musgrave, 1870• Duncan, W., L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , 1863 t o 1871. Duncan, ¥ . , L e t t e r s t o F r e d e r i c k Seymour, 1865 t o 1867 • Duncan, W., L e t t e r s t o Joseph Trf. Trutch, 1871# Elwyn, T . , L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , 1859 t o 1866* Gaggin, Boles^ L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , 1859 t o 1866. Hamley,  L e t t e r s t o G. W. Cox, 1859 t o 1862.  Haynes, C , . L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , 1861 t o 1871# Hicks, R.,  L e t t e r s t o S i r James Douglas, 1858 t o 1859*  H i c k s , R . , L e t t e r s t o 0 . T . T r a v a i l l o t , 1859* H i c k s , R . , L e t t e r s t o P . B . Whannell, 1859. I^rtton, E . B . , t o S i r James Douglas, 21 October, 1858. ( L e t t e r Of i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r ¥ . H. S p a l d i n g e n c l o s i n g t e s t i m o n i a l s ) . l y t t o n , E # B . , t o S i r James Douglas, 22 December, 1858. ( L e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r B . Gaggin e n c l o s i n g t e s t i m o n i a l s ) . I^ytton, E . B . , t o S i r James Douglas, 31 December, 1858. ( L e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r Peter Q * R e i l l y e n c l o s i n g t e s t i m o n i a l s ) . Moody, R . C . , L e t t e r s t o S i r James Douglas, 1859 t o 1863* Nind, P. H . , L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , I860 t o 1866. O ' R e i l l y , P . , L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , 1859 t o 1871. P i k e , J.W., L e t t e r s t o S i r James Douglas, 1862 t o 1863. Sanders, E . H . , L e t t e r s t o C h a r t e r s Brew, 1859* Sanders, E . H . , L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ,  1859 t o 1870.  S p a l d i n g , W.R., L e t t e r s t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , 1859 t o 1871 • Whannell, P. B . , L e t t e r s t o S i r James Douglas, 1858 t o 1859*  -113-  4*  Diaries. Diary of Peter O'Reilly. Diary of Henry Maynard Ball.  5•  Memoirs .  Helmcken, John Sebastian, Reminiscences, unpublished manuscript memoirs. II.  Printed Works.  1.  Government Documents.  Goldenberg, H. Carl, Provincial - Municipal Relations in British Columbia, Victoria, Kings Printer, 1947. Statutes of the Province of British Columbia, (An Act Respecting the Provincial Police Force and Provincial Gaols), Victoria, Kings Printer, 1923, pp. 257 - 265. 2.  Newspapers. Barkerville Cariboo Sentinel, 1365 - 1872. Dawson Daily News, 21 July, 1909* (Whitehorse Museum). New Westminster British Columbian, 1861 - 1871*  i.  Victoria British Colonist (Daily Colonist), 1859 - 1900. This newspaper was a most valuable reference. Victoria Colonist, 1946 - 1951• Victoria Weekly Gazette, 28 July 1858 - 26 November 1859. 3.  Periodicals.  Johnson, Patricia M., "McCreight and the Law", British Columbia Historical Quarterly, (XII), 1948, pp. 79 - 92. Napier, Colonel R. Ross, "Government Agencies", Okanagan Historical Society, 1935, pp. 195 - 198. Morris, L., "W. G. Cox And His Times", Okana^an Historical Society, 1935, PP. 195 - 199. Ormsby, Margaret A., "Some Irish Figures in Colonial Days". British Columbia Historical Quarterly. (XIV), 1950, pp. 61 - 82.  -LU-  Sage, W. N., "The North West Mounted Police and British Columbia", Pacific Historical Review, (XVIII), 1949, pp. 365 - 366. Shoulder Strap, (Official Journal of the British Columbia Police) Numbers 1 - 2 4 , 1938 - 1951. White, Hester E., "John Carmichael Haynes: Pioneer of the Okanagan and Kootenay", British Columbia Historical Quarterly, (XXXI, Vol. IV, July, 1940, pp. 183 - 201. 4.  General Works,  Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of British Columbia, 1792 - 1887, San Francisco, History Company Publishers, 1887. (Bancroft, Hubert Howe, Works, Vol. 32). This volume contains an interesting chapter on the administration of Justice in British Columbia from 1856 to 1880. The information, however, requires careful checking. Begg, Alexander, History of British Columbia, Toronto, William Briggs, 1894* This book is not indexed but it is a valuable reference as it was written shortly after the period covered. Canada Year Book, 1950, Ottawa, Kings Printer. This Year Book outlines briefly the history of the Ontario Provincial Police. Canada Year Book, 1954, Ottawa, Queens Printer. Morice, A. G., History of the Northern Inrerior of British Columbia, Toronto, William Briggs, 1905. This volume contains much useful information on manners and customs of the Indians of Northern British Columbia. Scholefield, E. 0. S., and Howay, F.W., British Columbia from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vancouver, S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1 9 H , 4 volumes. Volumes I and II provide one of the best general references for the period covered. Volumes III and IV contain interesting biographical sketches. 5.  Special Works.  Crowe, Arthur Fleming, Mines and Mining Laws of British Columbia, Calgary, Burroughs and Co. Ltd., 1930. This volume indicates briefly how an important an official the gold Commissioner was during the colonial period. Cornwallis, Kinshan, The New Eldorado, London, Thomas Cautley Newby, 1858. ~ Downie, W., Hunting for Gold, California Publishing Co., 1893. This book contains personal reminiscences of experiences in the gold fields of California and British Columbia.  -115-  Gosnell, R.E., The Year Book of British Columbia, Victoria, 1903. This interesting statistical survey contains a brief but Interesting reference on the appointment of police magistrates and policemen in the early years of the Province of British Columbia. Hadfield, E.C.R., and MacColl, British Local Government, London, Hutchinsons1 University Library. This is a useful reference on the administration of the police in Great Britain. Howay, F. W., The Early History of the Fraser River Mines, Victoria Charles Banfield, 1926. (The sixth memoir of the Prpvincial Archives). The main body of this work consists of correspondence taken from the original letters in the Archives of British Columbia. These letters are a valuable source of information on the law and order in the Fraser River gold fields. Jeffries, Sir Charles, The Colonial Police, London, Max Parrish, 1952.  An interesting and well written account of the development of police forces in the British Colonies. It also contains a valuable bibliography. Laut, Agnes, The Cariboo Trails Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Company, 1916. This chronicle gives some picturesque descriptions of life in the Cariboo gold fields. Longstretch, Morris, T«, The Silent Force, London, Philip Allan and Co., 1928. This book contains a bibliography of works on the Royal North West Mounted Police. Milton, W.F., and Cheadle, W. B., The North West Passage by Land, London, Cassell, Petter and Galpin, 186$. This narrative contains a brief reference to the scarcity of crime in British Columbia. 1940.  Morrell, W. P., The Gold Rushes. London, M a m and Charles Black, 0  This volume is particularly useful for it compares the Fraser River and Cariboo gold rushes with the gold rushes in California, Australia, and the Yukon Territory. Moylan, J. F., Scotland Yard and the Metropolitan Police. London and New York, G.P. Putnam and Sons Ltd., 1929. This book gives an interesting and valuable account of the origin and development of the Metropolitan Police. The first chapter describes the early police systems of England.  -116-  Itottiftiiydnoy printa  from  Matthow P a H U o  Lhu H r l L l a h  Moflh.lu,  Columbia l l l o L o r l c a l  a  nuparaLn  l^uarLorly,  book  of  ro-  IV///.  Thla onalyala of Lhu work of Jiulr.o liu^bio la Hrlt.Lah Columbia was uaud uxtonalvoly. IL inc.Ludua aovui*al rufuroueua to Lho majr,LaLraloa and conaLabloa. Itoith, Chax\Loa, Hrltloh Police and Lhu DomoeraLlc Idoal, Loudon, Now York and Toronto, 194J• TIilo lo a valuable) roforoncn on Lho prlne Lploa ami trad I.L lona of Lho Britiah Pol Leo ayatouu oa^o, W. N., :>lr Jomoa Dour.laa mid HrlLlah Columbia, Uulvoralty of Toronto Proaa, 1930. Thla work la uaaentlal Tor undoraLandln/', Dou;r,laa 1 runo.Luto policy rocardin/r law and order. lAfaddiiiijtoti, A,, Tho Kraaur Ulvor MLnoa Vindicated, Victoria, 1'. Do (larro, l&W* Thlu work La a valuable euntompoxvix'y duacrlpLlon of LIu; Kxvianx* ltlvor coll flolda. Wado, H.;j., Tho Out lander a of '62, Kl.n^a PrinLur, l(/il. (H.C. Archives Moruolra, Number 9) • ThLa book conla.Lna /*. uaoful blotftoaphLcal n<'cLlon. Walkom, Advoxt l o o r , Thla acqualntud  W.W.,  otorlea  of  Karl.;/  IhvlLltih ColniiibLa,  Vancouver,  Now a  3 m . book with  la  a valuablu  a few o f  roforoneo  for  Lho mun who a o r v u d  Lho a u t h o r wau an e o n a L a b l o a  IJnluaa othox*wlau n L a t o d t h e a b o v o r f j C o n i u c j u a r o t h o P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v m o f l i r L t i a l i Co t u n i b l a .  puraonnlly  and  ma/yLnLraLcn.  eonLfi Lnod  l.n  (i) APPENDIX "A" MEN WHO SERVED IN THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COLONIAL POLICE FORCE (1858-1871) This appendix was compiled mainly from manuscript sources and newspapers in the British Columbia Archives. No references have been given since in most cases the information for each individual was obtained from many different sources. The appendix shows the rate at whioh constables were replaced, the reasons for discharge, the duties performed, seme notes on their background, and in some oases remarks on personal character whioh were obtained from magistrates' correspondence• AGASSIS, CAPT. LEWIS NUNN - 1864,constable at Hope; May>1864Jtransferred to Yale as chief constable and clerk? 1866^transferred back to Hope; discharged lSey^t Yale; was inefficient because unable to do large amount of writing and accounting required of a chief constabl was at one time a 1st Lt. in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers; died at Acre, Syria, July 15, 1880. BADCOCK - prior to February 1860,resigned as constable at Yale. BAKER, JOHN S. - July, 1861 ^appointed chief constable at Rook Creek, on recommendation of A.C. Elliott; 2nd CplRoyal Engineers; died February 1862. BALL, HENRY MAYNARD - June,1859,appointed Stipendiary Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner at lytton; by 1861 was a County Court Judge; remained at lytton 1859-64; 1865-66 Magistrate at Quesnol; 1866 Acting Colonial Secretary; May, 1867, transferred to Cariboo; c August 1867 transferred to New Westminster; 1870jbaok to the Cariboo; Member, Colonial Legislative Council. BATBSON, HENRY - 1865^constable at Harrison River, had resided in the district for many years previously. BEDFORD, CHARIES JOHN RIIAND - January, 1859,appointed Justice of the Peace for Langley^until approximately April, 18595s<x^t• BEVIS, WILLIAM HENRY - 1858,appointed Revenue Officer at Fort Langley; Mar oh 1859 transferred to Douglas as postmaster and Constable. BOYD - 1869 appointed chief constable, Lytton; 1870, same. BREW, CHARTRES - see Chapter H I . BREW, TOMKINS - June, 1862,appointed'High Constable" at New Westminster, July 1865 sent to San Francisco to bring back the murderer of Wm. Ogilvie; April 1869 transferred to Bute Inlet as deputy collector of oustoms, postmaster and chief constable; "excellent and trustworthy"; a brother of Chartres Brew.  (ii) APPENDIX "A" BROWN, D - June, 1859, appointed as constable at Fort Dallas; previously committed for robbery and attempted murder (November, 1858); on death of prosecutor, Brown escaped trial. BROWN, JONATHAN S. - September>1865;appointed constable at Douglas; 14 June ,1866^transferred to Clinton as postmaster and toll oollecto died 1867. BROWN, John George transferred as transferred to because of the  1863-64, assistant jailer New Westminster; June , 1864 constable and jailer at Richfield; March, 1865> Kootenay; July, 1865y resigned at Wild Horse Creek general reduction in consoles' pay.  BROWN, ROBERT A - August ,1867j appointed constable Cariboo; resigned December,1869,to work in Bank of B.C.J one of five supernumerary constables appointed after Grouse Creek War in Cariboo. BURKE, - 1861 constable at lytton; October,1861^ Rock Creek. BUCKNER, CHARLES GODDARD - June 1860 constable at Yale; not in service in October ,1860. BURR, Joseph - appointed February,1869, chief constable and postmaster at Yale; discharged July, 1870, for drunkenness and insubordination; schoolmaster at Yale, 1865, 18663Sgt Major in H.M. 62nd Regt. BUSHBY,Arthur., James, - 1869, Stipendiary Magistrate, New Westminster, sott-in-law of Sir James Douglas. BUTLER, G - August 28, 1862 appointed toll clerk at Lytton; resigned March ,1865. BYRNES, GEORGE - August ,1867, appointed jailer in Cariboo, vice Dewdney CAREY, JOSEPH W - Septenber 15, 1858 appointed cons table ,Fort Yale; still at Yale in January 1859; Sergeant Victoria Police 18601861. CARRINGTON, JOHN S-- 1863-64 constable in Cariboo; June 27, 1867 transferred to Kootenay vice Lawson, deceased; still constable in Kootenay^1871; prior to November, 1863 served in Victoria Police Force; a*determined cool and efficient "officer. CHAMPNESS, J. - prior to June, 1864}was in government service at Hope or Yale and lost appointment through some misunderstanding; reinstated July 14, 1864,appointed constable, toll collector and postmaster at Clinton; resigned in 1866 when ordered to another station.  (iii) APPENDIX "A" CHAPMAN - August }1862,appointed constable at Antler Creek. CHISHOLM, DAN B. - June ,1864xwas appointed constable at Richfield, previously, special constable, Richfield; resigned June 9, 1865 to become deputy sheriff; in October - December 1868 was supervising building of Fort Hope trail. COCHRANE, W.N. - April ^1863 appointed constable at lytton, promoted to chief constable, May} 1863,vice Fitzgerald; served in lytton until May >1866,when he was transferred to Richfield as clerk at Richfield until 1870. DiedjNovember, 1870 (lost in steamer "City of Boston") possessed "pre-eminent qualities as a public servant". COFFEE, EDWARD - April >1860^ appointed constable at Yale; remained as constable at Yale until 1870; a native of Ireland; one time hotel keeper in Australia; came to B.C. in 1858; died September 9, 1884 COLLINS, John - September,I860,appointed constable at Lytton; transfers to Rook Creek and Similkameen in 1861; discharged October ,1862, due to lack of funds in the district; served with "unimpeachable fidelity". COIvMELINE, HENRY J-- I860 - 1864 clerk, postmaster, deputy sheriff and chief constable at Yale; transferred to Williams Creek, 1865; Williams Creek 1866; "efficient, zealous and trustworthy". CONEY, B.G. - Lillooet) constable and toll colleotor, 1862-66; May 7^ 186i transferred to Richfield as constable, clerk and jailer vioo Woodi resigned July, 1867 ,to take up farming and stock raising. COOTE, - August ^1862} appointed constable and jailer at Forks of Quesnei; vice pinchbeck. COX, John - appointed August ,1867, in Cariboo as one of the 5 supernumeri constables stationed there after Grouse Creek War; resigned June ) 1868; member Royal Engineers. COX, W. GEORGE - January,1859,appointed oonstable at Yale; Maroh)1859j) appointed deputy collector of customs at Kamloops; 1800,was sent to Rock Creek as Justice of the Peace and Assistant Gold Commissioner; March 1863 to Cariboo; April, 1867, transferred to Columbia District; appointed County Court Judge October, 1867; 1868 magistracy at Big Bend closed; Cox declined minor position as customs official and resigned. CRAIGIE,- 1860-1863>chief constable at Hope, discharged duties with "zeal, ability and satisfaction".  (iv) APPENDIX "A" CRAWFORDt H - 1862y3onst*ble Lillooet and later ut Douglas; 1867; jailer at New Westminster; born in Canada. CRAWFORD, Matthew W - 1868jConstable New Westminster; possibly is same man as H. Crawford. CROSSIER, DOUGLAS - November^1858,constable at Lillooet. CUDLIP, T.H. - Spring of 1864}appointed constable at Cariboo. CUE - prior to August 1864,appointed by Drew at Douglas; September, 18G4} transferred to Lillooet; (in August,1864, Cue was suspended at Douglas but Govenor Douglas interceded on his behalf since he hod been recommended by Chartres Drew) October ,1865, resigned; ex-Irish Constabulary. CURRAN, MICHAEL - Jaunuary; 1859 ^appointed constable at Yale; resigned June;1859. DANBERRY, EDWARD - 1864,at New Westminster; June ,1864 ^transferred to Douglas aa chief constable vice Nunn; 1866 yto Nov/Westminster as jailer; 1868, suspended because of escape of prisoner. DAUBENY - a general confusion with Danberiy throughout the correspondence due to illegible handwriting; probably same as DANBERRY; captain in militia in England. DEAS, WILLIAM - appointed constable Fort Shepherd April) 1865; discharged November;1865; sapper in the Royal Engineers. DAVIS, - 1858-59 constable at Yale and chief constable at lytton, discharged March 1859 because he ran a public house while holding position of chief constable. DESPARD, F.R. - August,1862appointed magistrate's clerk at Williams Creek; resigned January>1863; a "Deepard" was in the Victoria Police before 1862. DEWDNEY, - 1859, revenue offioer at New Westminster; appointed constable and jailer,Cariboo July, 1867; discharged August, 1867, for letting prisoner escape. DONNELLAN, B.C. - October,1858;appointed chief constable at Yalej resigned December,1858; born in the U.S. ; oaptain in San Francisco police; came tofl.C.in JulyjIBSS, prospecting; unsatisfactory service as constable. DUFFY, JAMS - August, 1865 appointed in Kootenay, vice J.G. B member of Irish Constabulary for 12 years.  (V) APPENDIX "A" EATON, GEORGE - April>1866, temporary appointment as constable at Richfield until May ,1866 replacing Wood; June 8, 1866 temporarily reappo ed until July 22,1866 when Constable Sullivan arrived; 1869 was recording officer in Cariboo vice Coohrane. EDMONDS, SAMUEL - prior to 1862,constable at Hope; constable >East Cariboo 1862; resigned August 4, 1862* EDWARDS, STEPHEN - 1862,appointed constable Cariboo. EDWARDS,WILLIAM H.I. - approximately July)1862,appointed constable in Alexandria District; oonstable and guard at New Westminster 1866-73; sapper Royal Engineers 16 years, 5 months; (formal discharge from R.E. November 1866). ELLIOTT, ANDREW CHARLES - 1860^County Court Judge at Yale; July, 1861 appointed justice of the Peace and Assistant Gold Commissioner at Lillooet; 1862-1867, magistrate at Lillooet; 1867 appointed High Sheriff of B.C.; 1874, Police Magistrate at Victoria vice A.F. Pemberton; 1876 - 1878 premier of B.C*; born in Ireland 1829; Barristej>at-Law; arrived in B*C* about October, 1859. ELWYN, THOMAS - 1858,oonstable at Yale; promoted to chief oonstable the same year; June 8, 1859, appointed Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner for Lillooet; May, 1861, appointed County Court Judge; 1861 - 1862, in conmand of Gold Escort; Magistrate of West Cariboo district,1862 until he resigned in December, 1862, due to mining interest; 1864 was temporarily reappointed as 2nd in conmand under Brew of Chilcotin volunteers; 1866 Stipendiary Magistrate with Western Union Telegraph Co. survey; 1868 member, Legislative C ouncil. EVANS, WILLIAM - Maroh, 1861 >appointed jailer and constable at Yale; also was tollgate keeper at Yale 1862-66; 1866 transferred to Lillooet vice Cue; was oonstable at Lillooet 1866-1870, and deputy sherriff, appointed May 1867; chief oonstable Lillooet 1870-71; a man of "proven integrity". EVERARD, IX)UIS - December,1864 appointed Justice of the peace, 1865 jailer at New Westminster vice Gompertz; left for England December, 1865. FITZGERALD, WILLIAM H. - in service in 1860; 1862,ohief oonstable at lytton; appointed chief oonstable Cariboo \*>st, April, 1863; continued as chief oonstable in the Cariboo until 1870; April, 1870 transferred to the Omineca district; April ,1872,appointed Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner of the Omineoa District; a native of Eastern Canada (Quebec or Ontario); "steady character, efficient, courteous, extensive knowledge of languages"; died June, 187 2 in the Omineoa, approximately 4 2 years old.  (vi) FITZSTUBBS, NAPOLEON - July, 1861, appointed constable, collector and jailer in Alexandria district; 1862 and 63 at William Lake; after Confederation provincial constable and mining recorder in Cassiar district; transferred to Nelson as Government Agent; 1897,appointed warden of Nelson jail; superannuated in 1900. FLYNN, ROBERT JOHN - 1858 to 1861, chief constable at Lillooet except for a few months in 1859 as chief constable at Lytton; Brew did not speak well of hinu FRANKLIN, - constable at Douglas 1863 - 1865. FRANKLIN, WILLIAM BALES - I860 - 1867 magistrate at Nanaimo; dismissed 186' GAGGIN, T. BOLES - April,1859)appointed stipendiary Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner at Douglas; in 1863 or 1864 was suspended but reinstated in 1864 with a clear record; 1864, transferred to Quesnel; 1865 at Quesnel and Douglas; May, 1866 ^transferred to Kootenay; died May 27, 1867. GEARY, CAFT - 1863jConstable at Williams Lake. GIBSON, - 1861,constable Rook Creek or Similkameen. GOD IE, - 1860 and 1861jConstable and toll collector at Yale. GOMFERTZ, GEORGE E.- 1861 Magistrate• s clerk at Alexandria; May^l861; transferred as chief constable and postmaster to Williams Late; 1864,was dismissed because Williams Lake establishment closed; " presumably appointed jailer at New Westminster, 1864; resigned as jailer (New Westminster), July, 1865; native of Cork, Ireland; seven years in Royal Grannigan Militia, rank of captain. GONDERS - February ^861^011 collector at Yale. GREEN, GEORGE - August>1867appointed constable in Cariboo (Grouse Creek War reinforcements); discharged^January 1869; reappointed December,1869^100 R.A.BR01/VN; still constable in Cariboo March, 1870 GRIFFIN, F - 1858; chief constable for Fort Dallas district. GUERRA, H«B. - 1863, constable at Williams Lake; 1864; jailer at New Westminster 1865, constable at Lytton promoted to chief constable May, 1866; October 1866 transferred to Yale; 1867} resigned (in November or December); drinking interfered with duties, otherwise steady and attentive. IIA.IKY, - 1858nonstable Yale district.  M s ; r i : o J t T o d 8 6 4 , a ^ ? f t n t e d 0 0 n s t a b l 9 a t Y a l 9 ; transferred to Lytton District October, 1866; chief constable Lytton 1867,68, 69 -  (vii) AFH3MDIX "A" HAMILTON, GEORGE - 1863-1865,chief constable and deputy sheriff at Richfield; May, 1865 discharged for mining speculation. H M D , GEORGE - August ,1866 ,officer at jail, New Westminster. HANKIN, C - April or May ,1882, appointed olerk at Williams Lake; resigned August 1862. HANKIN, G (or T) - I860 constable at Lillooet; June 1861, appointed constable at Williams Lake; resigned August 1862. (Both Constable Hankins resigned in the same month at Williams Lake). HARDIE, A - October 1860, New Westminster . HAYNES, JOHN CARMICHAEL - Januaiy,1869, appointed cons table jderk ^and revenue officer at Yale; 1860, chief constable at Yale and deputy collector of customs at Rock Creek; 1861, transferred to Similkameen in same capacity; June, 1864 appointed Justice of the Peace; Magistrate in Osoyoos and Kootenay Districts^ same 1865; 1866 Magistrate and County Court Judge, transferred to Big Bend (Columbia under Magistrate O'Reilly; 1867-69, deputy collector of customs, Osoyoos1870-71 Magistrate Kootenay District. HICK, ALEX - 1860 constable at Lytton. HICKS, Riohard - June;1858, appointed revenue officer at Fort Yale; acted as Magistrate and Assistant Gold Comaissioner until I^epember 1858 when he was relieved of magisterial duties* discharged,18595 unsatisfactory service. HICKSON, HENRY - 1858 constable at Hill's Bar; dismissed February} 1859. HIGMAN, F« - October>1860,acting jailer at Hope. HILL, JOHN - 1860 >chief constable at Lytton, also jailer and cook; undertook expedition in search of a route across to Pemberton Lake from Lytton in 1860. HOUGHTON, - 1865, 1866}oonstable at Lytton. HOWLETT, FRANCES E. - May, 1866, appointed constable in Columbia; December 1866 appointed assistant jailer at New Westminster; resigned May, 1867. HDWMAN, EDWARD D.- August ,1867, appointed constable in Cariboo; June ,1869, resigned. One of the Grouse Creek War reinforcements. HCWSE, SAMUEL C. - March, 18 65> constable at New Westminster; April 30, 1866 resigned; served in Boundary Commission.  (viii) APPENDIX "A" HUDSON, - 1860-67, ohief oonstable and jailer at Yale, HUGHES, J.L. SHAW - March.lSeS.constable and jailer at Douglas; 1S65» transferred to Similkameen in 1865 and Fort Shepherd in 1866; 1867 at 49° Creek; 0otober,1867, to Clinton as constable, postmaster and toll collector; 1876,government agent; came to British Columbia in 1858; was an officer in the opium trade and a midshipman and mat* in Messrs/ Greens !employ. HULTZ, - October, 1858appointed oonstable Fort Dallas. HUMPHREYS, THOMAS BASIL - March, 1859, appointed constable and chainman at Fort Hope; 1860 ohief constable at Douglas; reputation for fearlessness. July, 1860 resigned; born in Liverpool^England., 1840, midshipman in India Company; mined in California, came to British Columbia Jujy 26, 1858; 1876, became B.C. Minister of Finance and Agriculture; died,1890. JANE, JOHN - 1865, constable at Derby, May, 1865 constable at Fort Shepherd; 1866, 67 ohief constable and postmaster at Fort Shepherd; a corporal in the Royal Engineers. JOHNSTON,  -  18 63, oonstable at Williams Lake; discharged Jan. 1, 1864.  KEARNEY, L. - 1865, Toll collector at lytton. KIRBY, WILLIAM HENRY - September, 1858 ohief constable at Yale; November, c 1858 resigned;f rom Australia. LADNER, William H. - September >1858, constable and collector of customs at Fort Hope, first constable appointed on mainland; father-in-law of Judge F.W Howay; there is a memorial to W.H. Ladner in Ladner B.C erected by members of the Ladner family. LAWRENCE, I.W. - December, 1867, appointed oonstable Comox; an American. LAWSON, JOHN - July, 1865, appointed a constable at Kootenay District; died May, 1867, shot in line of duty; came from the Maritimes. LEAN, - 1865}constable in Kootenay District, dismissed June. 1865 .for letting prisoners escape. LEMITH, MACH - January^1859)appointed constable at Yale. IEWIS, - 1865 j cons table in Kootenay. LINDSAY, JAMES 1867.sent oonstable constable Artillery  R - prior to Aug. 1867^constable at New Westminster; August to Cariboo;1868 discharged; July, 1869, reappointed as in Cariboo; 1871 ohief oonstable in Cariboo; became provim at Barkerville; died February, 1890; sergeant in the Royal for 21 years; served with Royal Engineers in B.C.  (ix) APFEKDIX "A" LIPSITT, ROBERT - March, 1859, appointed revenue officer at Fort Langley; constable at Derby, November 1859-65; dismissed,1866,when inhabitants Derby moved to New Westminster; "respectable and t rustworthy". LOWE, WILLIAM H - 1864 .constable Osoyoss; May>1865)appointed chief constable and collector of customs at Osoyoos; was still at Osoyoos 1871; lost one hand and one arm in an accident in 1871; turned to ranching in Osoyoos District; died December 13, 1881, age 42; an "excellent public officer". LYNDON, C.A. - 1865, cons table in Kootenay district. LISSIDON, CORNELIUS - August ,1864, appointed constable at Wild Horse Cree McBRIDE, ARTHUR - July, 1870, appointed warden of the jail, New Westminster vicePRICHARD, deceased; formerly a jailer at Victoria. McCAFFRAY, N»L» - October, 1860, appointed constable at RockCreek; November, 1861jtransferred to Similkameen. McKENZIE, - 1858, constable in Yale District. 1VCKE0N, JOSEPH T. - May, 1859, appointed chief constable and deputy sheri at New Westminster; suspended November, 1861 for forging signatures on vouchers, not with criminal intent; was New Westminster's first constable; had served with Mounted Police of Australia; was "zealous and anxious in the performance of his duties". McLEAN, DAVID - September, 1858, appointed constable at Yale; resigned May, 1859. MoLOUGHIAN,DAVID - 18 64 ^c ons tab le in Kootenay. McNAMMARA, - 1860 - 66^constable at New Westminster. NcNEILL, JAMES - 18645constable Richfield; resigned November 1865 ; due to mining interests; a^trustworthy officer.'1 McROBERTS, HUGH - September. 1859, appointed jailer at Fort Yale. MILLER, JAIvES - 1863-64 constable at Douglas; 1864,drowned in Douglas Lake . MOORE, W.H. - January, 1859 .appointed constable at Douglas; March 1859 5 transferred to Yale; June, 1859^discharged. v ' MCSS, - constable at Yale, September ^1859. NICHOL, C - before October, 1859, Justice of the Peace at Douglas.  cxxx APPENDIX "A" NIND, PHILLIP H. - July> 1890}appointed Stipendiary Magistrate and Assisi ant Gold Commissioner for Alexandria district; 1862; 9 months leave of absence; 1863, Williams Lake; 1864, Magistrate at Douglas; 1865 at lytton; January, 1866 resigned and went to Australia; died April 11, 1896 in London. NORMAN, MARTIN - December^ 1858, appointed constable at Yale; September 1859,constable at Douglas. NORMANSELL, JAMES - March, 1865, appointed constable Kootenay and ohiei constablejJune, 1865; still serving in Kootenay as chief constable in 1871; died;1884; "one of the most satisfactory public offioers in the Colony;"Corporal in Royal Engineers for 15 years (formally discharged Nov. 1866); Sergeant-major in New Westminster Volunteer Rifle Corps in 1864. NUNN, CAPT - 1863, chief constable at Douglas; June} 1864, dismissed foa not sending in postal accounts. OGILVY, JOHN DRUM'lAND BUCHANAN - 1864, Justice of the Peace, constable and collector of customs, Bella Coola; was second in command (vice McLean, deceased) of Coxis force in Chilooln expedition, 18& murdered May 1865 in line of duly. O'REILLY, PETER - April, 1859 appointed Justice of ihe Peace and revenue collector at Hope; 1861, appointed High Sheriff and County Court Judge; 1860-61, Magistrate at Hope; 1862-1865, Magistrate , arid Gold Commissioner in Cariboo; 1866, same in Kootenay - Columbii 1867-81, same in Hope - Yale - Lytton District except for occasion* visits to -the Kootenay in 1867/i&fln869, and less than a year as Magistrate an^ Gold Commissioner in the Omineca, 1871; member Colonial Legislative Council; Superintendent of Indian Affairs prior to 1889; born in Inoe, Lanceshire, England, 1828, died Victoria, 1905. PAGE, FRANCES - July>1871>special oonstable in Omineca; 1873>recording clerk, Omineca's Victoria police January 1863. PASCOE, HENRY - constable, Yale. PBRRIER, GEORGE - June, 1858, appointed Justice of the peace to Hill's Bar; January, 1859 discharged. PHILLIPS, W.G. - June, 1864 appointed clerk to Magistrate, Cariboo East; 1865 same. PINCHBECK, WILLIAM - July, 1860, appointed chief constable .Alexandria District; resigned August 1862.  xi APPENDIX "A" POPE, C.E. - 1862-70, road toll collector at Yale; August, 1870, appointee chief constable and olerk at Yale. POTTS, D. - September,, 1860, constable at Cayoosh. PRICHARD, C.G. - Noventoer ,1860, appointed warden of jail at New We strains t< same until 1870; died, July, 1870; Captain in New Westminster Volunte^ Rifle Corps; acted as Couniy Court Judge in Brew's absence in 1864. PYk, HENRY - 1861 and 1862, constable at Yale. REDGRAVE, STEPHEN L. - August)1864, appointed constable at Williams Creek; resigned April 1865| because of low pay; born in England, 1831; educated at Rugby; emigrated to Australia in 1852; mined at Ballarat; warden at the penal settlement; Inspector, Australian Mounted Police; 1859 went to South Africa and in sameyear to Canada joined Toronto Police and promoted to raak of sergeant in 1860; resigned April, 1862 to go to Cariboo; January 1863, constable in the Victoria police; and after his short term in B»C. police, mined the cariboo; returned East in 1869 and back to B.C., 1873; 1876 appointed Mining Recorder and provincial Constable, Cassiar under his friend, A.W. Vornell, Gold Commissioner; 1880 joined commissary department, CPR construction; 1884, made Stipendiary Magistrate at Golden; died at Golden, 1903; his youngest son, Stroud Lincoln Redgrave was Inspector of Police, Victoria, died May 1916 (Wade> Overlanders of 162,p.l58) REED, THOMAS FEARS CM - May, 1860, special constable at New Westminster; 1860 - ISei^chief constable Douglas; 1862 at Lillooet; born 1841 in Great Britain; a sapper in the Royal Engineers. RODELLO, J. - 1870, constable at Comox. ROKALDSGN, T HDL AS - January ,1859, appointed oonstable at Langley; discharged for drunkenness and misconduct. ROSCQE, HENRY - January, 1859, appointed constable at Yale. ROSS, THO I AS - January, 1859,appointed constable at Yale; 1861-65) chief oonstable at Lytton; 1866 at Yale. RUTHERFORD, ARCHIBALD - December, 1858, appointed constable at Yale. SANDERS, EDWARD HOYJARD - April, 1859, appointed Assistant Gold Commission! at Yale and by Septecfcer, 1859, also appointed Magistrate; transferr between Hope and Yale 1860 to 1866, when he was placed in charge of amalgamated district of Hope - Yale - Lytton; by 1801 was appointed County Court Judge; 1867 Magistrate of Lillooet -istrict; same in 1870; an officer in the Austrian Army.  xii APPENDIX "A" SEYMOUR, CHARLES I. - August, I860,appointed constable in Alexandria District; May, 1862, promoted to ohief constable; resigned January, 1863, because of mining interests; re-employed temporarily in 1863; November 1863, no longer in Government service; "a valuable man". SHARWOOD, T.H. - June, 1863,appointed ohief oonstable at Lillooet; same 1864 and 1865; 9 months leave of absence in 1866; 1867, chief constable in Lillooet; November,1867, transferred to Yale as chief constable vice Hudson. SMITH, - June, 1859, discharged as constable at Yale. SMITH, ROBERT F. - September 1858, appointed Justice of ihe Peace and Revenue Officer at Hope; succeeded by OfReilly in April,1859; a native of Scotland. SPALDING, "WARNER REEVE - Maroh, 1859, appointed Stipendiary Magistrate at New Westminster; July, 1860, appointed postmaster, New Westminst* and in 1864, Postmaster General for B.C.; 1866, Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner, Cariboo West; JUne, 1867, became Magistrate of Nanaimo District; 1871, same; captain in the Army, served in Crimean War; three years with Mounted police of Australia. STEPHENSON, - 1861, constable at Lytton. STEWART, G - 1867 -1870, constable Nanaimo. SULLIVAN, J. HOWE - September, 1864, appointed constable and jailer at Quesnelmouth; April, 1866, transferred to Richfield; served in Cariboo until 1870 as constable; 1870 appointed magistrate's clerk and recorder in Cariboo; 1872,appointed Warden of the jail and Superintendent of police in Victoria; resigned at Victoria to become Gold Commissioner in the Cassiar; died 1875 (drowned on a trip to Ireland.) TEAGUE, N. - April, 1859j appointed constable at Hope; 1860 ohief constable at Hope. THOMAS, JAMES - April, 1866 appointed constable Lytton; discharged September, 1866, "of excellent character", private in the Life Guarc Regiment. TRAVAILLOT, CAFT. O.J. - Jtmne, 1858, appointed revenue officer at Fort Dallas; July, 1859, dismissed; unsatisfactory service; native of France; died in Cariboo, February 1879.  xill APPENDIX "A 11  TREVOR, DR. FRANK - June, 1864,appointed chief constable Quesnel; remair as chief constable until 1872 at Quensnel; 1872, appointed Cfe rk of the Bench at Nanaimo; died 1883 (age 69) in San Francisco; "a good and efficient officer", apparently a medical doctor (referred to ir a newspaper article as F.R.C.S. and also as Dr. Frank Trevor). VOIGT, JULIUS - 1865 constable at New Westminster; apprehended Taitaoh, the Indian murderer; not recommended by Brew for promotion. VOWELL, ARTHUR W - 1864, jailer New Westminster; April, 1865, constable in Columbia; April, 1866, appointed chief constable Columbia; for remainder of colonial period served as chief constable in Columbia; 1872)appointed Gold Commissioner and Magistrate of Kootenay; 1873^ transferred to Omineca as Magistrate vice Fitzgerald 1875jtemporarily collector of customs,Burrard inlet; 1875 M.L.A. fc Kootenay; 1876 -1883, Gold Commissioner, Cassiar; 1889, appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs; native of Ireland. WEBSTER, T. - 1865 - constable Kootenay; March 1866 resigned because of low salary. WHANNELL, F»B» - October, 1858}appointed Justice of the Peace at Yale; resigned) September, 1859; of Victoria Yeomanry Cavalry in Australig and in an E. Indies regiment; unsatisfactory service. WHITE, J«W. - 1863 - 1869 constable, clerk and postmaster in Columbia. WHITE, RICHARD - July, 1862, appointed toll clerk at Douglas; 1863, depi sheriff and constable at Douglas; 1865}transferred to New Westminsi as jailer temporarily vice Dewdney; 1866)chief const£> le and toll collector at Douglas; 1868, at Yale and Victoria. WILSON, GEORGE - 1860, constable at lytton; town policeman in Barkervil] 1867. WOOD, George - July,1865, appointed constable at Richfield, postmaster and clerk, Richfield in Comme1ine•s leave of absence; resigned Apri 18 66; a British subject,respectable man.1, TOOLSEY, JOHN V. - April, 1863, appointed constable and clerk in Cariboc ^same 1864; 1865 at Quesnel; formerly employed in Treasury Departmen intelligent, of high character? charged with speculation (newspapei article) mining. MIBHT, EDWAHD E. - October,1858, appointed jailer, Yale, resigned Augus YOUNG, W.C. - 1864, constable Osoyoos; 1864-65 oonstable and customs cle m Kootenay; resigned September 1865; turned to mining.  -xiv  APPENDIX B DISTRIBUTION OF CONSTABLES DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD This table i s compiled from the same sources used f o r Appendix A. DISTRICT  i860  1870  1865  New Westminster (excluding j a i l o f f i c i a l s )  U  h  Douglas  3  u  Hope Yale Lytton  3 3 3  Rock Creek  1  lillooet  2  Alexandria  2  i  )  b^  2  )  i-  7  T  I  3  Quesnel  2  Cariboo  h  3  Osoyoos  2  1  F t . Shepherd  1  Kootenay DOlunibia  u 1  Nanaimo  >  r  * 3  i  XT  APPENDIX C MURDERS COMMITTED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA DURING THE YEARS 18$8-186? (Compiled from newspapers and correspondence o f the p e r i o d ) VICTIM  LOCALITY  APPREHENDED  YEAR  MURDERER  1858  Mosqueam Indians  a white man  New Westminster District  yes  Mosque am Indians  two men  New Westminster District  yes  W i l l i a m King  WLlliam Eaton  Lower Fraser  yes  W i l l i a m Foster  Bernard P r i c e  Yale  yes  Harrison River Indians  a German (or Dutch) (couple)  Harrison River District  no  Indians  two Frenchmen  Lower F r a s e r  ?  Mathias N e i l  William Hartwell  The Forks  yes  Indian  Francois I$yraud  Douglas D i s t r i c t  yes  Fisher  ?  Yale?  Sgt. Leonard  John Shaw  Langley D i s t r i c t ?  Indians  a white man  New Westminster District  Mosqueam Indian  two I t a l i a n s  Lower F r a s e r  yes  Indian  John R e i l l e y  Hope?  yes  W. Rogin  James Donald  Parsonville?  Matilpak Indian  a S e a s h e l l Indian  Northwest Coast  no  two Indians  two Chinese miners  Cayoosh D i s t r i c t  yes  Indian  a Chinaman  Boston Bar  yes  18 $9  i860  7 yes  ?  -xvi  1861  raining partner of Harrison White Harrison White Indian  1862  VICTIM  MURDERER  YEAR  ?  LOCALITY Hope  yes  Cayoosh  yes  Morris Price  Indian  Chinaman  white man  Dr. Fifer  ?  three men (coroners) bodies in Summit (verdict "murdered") Lake Indian Chief Northwest Coast  Louis Cordis  9  ?  Rock Creek vicinity  Indians  Indians  APPREHENDE3  9  Hope  yes yes no no  Idllooet District  yes  Kinnakangreh Indians  John Henley and George  Northwest Coast  yes  Chinaman  Chinaman  Cottonwood Creek  ?  Darling  Charles Rouchier, Harris Lewin and D. Sokoloski  Forks of Quesnelle  Indians  several  near F. Sirrrpson  9  mining partner of Capt. Robinson  Capt. Robinson  Grouse Creek  ?  Gilchrist  a miner  Williams Lake  yes  yes  xvii  YEAR 1863  186U  L  MURDERER  VICTIM  LOCALITY I^ytton District  APPIU5IIENDEE  ?  Indian  Indian girl  Indians (Probably)  six bodies (Coroner's Williams Lake District verdict "murdered")  Indians  two men  Chimney Creek  yes  W# Armitage and Fred Glennon  Biomas Clegg  Williams Lake  yes  Indians  two Italians  Williams Lake  yes  Indians  Robert Macleod  Bella Coola  ?  Indians  two men  on Board Thorndike  ?  Indians  two white men  Bella Coola  ?  Ahoset Indians  Some members of crew Clay-o-quot sound of sloop Kingfisher  Chinaman  Chinaman  Forks of Quesnel  yes  Indian  John Holmes  Bentinck Arm  yes  Chilcotin Indians  nine white men  Bentinck Arm  yes  person(s) unknown  a Chinaman  New Westminster District  ?  William Berrinton  Thomas Walker  Wild Horse Creek  yes  Thomas Jackson, John Love and Samuel Howard  Albert Hope (Indian constable;  Me tl ok ah tin  ?  Everina Rice  Richfield  ?  ?  no  ?  xvxix  YEAR  MURDERER  VICTIM  LOCALITY  APPREHENDED  Indian  his stepmother  Ghilliwack  yes e  Indians ?  Indians ?  Chilliwack  yes  Antoine Lucanage  WLULiam Ogilvy  North Bentinck Arm  yes  two Chinamen  two Chinamen  Lillooet  yes  Mickinson (Indian?) Indian  Kootenay  yes  Indian  John Morgan  Soda Creek  yes  1866  James Barry  Chas Morgan Blessing  Beaver Pass (Cariboo)  yes  1867  Indians  Cabot  Hat Creek Trail  yes  Charlie Brown  John Laws on and an Indian  Kootenay  yes  Indians  nine Indians  Northwest coast  Robert Devlin  Michael Wish  Kootenay  yes e  two of the crew of John Bright  Nootka Sound  yes  Osoyoos District  yes e  Kootenay  yes  1865  1868  1869  ?  Jesse Pearee Indians Indian Indians  Indian  Indians  Robert Clark  ?  yes  ""n/br^i  Wtom  r,t  •mrw  A >j>n± **  1  <nt J<x>nL Vdla*e  .HI LB A*  SOV#V  f^Cinlcoti^  Z*awatft\  cr^a***  Rutisin-1  Spi^-lp i Mmtt„g4  '#'J«SPM Malnxfiuii,  ESPERAK  Woo  7*4fo(irA /f . L'.r en**"* flniittpr Hk'  iWi«fo«u /,  to the 66* Parallel, North Latitude. COMPILED AND D R A W N AT THE LANDS AND W O R K S OFFICE, VICTORIA, B.C under the direction o f THE  H()N B I . K ,J. W . T R U T O H . M . I N S T , C . E . . F . R . G . S ; Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Snrvpyor Central.  tin*my^iil I ..lw.nl Stanford,  < r,^,  Ul"' IM7I  f. n  

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