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Taylor Manor : a survey of the facilities of Vancouver's home for the aged Guest, Dennis Trevor 1952

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TAYLOR MANOR - A SURVEY OF OHE FACILITIES OF VANCOUVER'S HOME FOR THE AGED by Dennis Trevor Guest Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement s for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1952 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRUISE COLUMBIA i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter page 1. Housing the Aged Defining old age; the place of the aged i n society; housing f o r the aged a pressing need; some types of housing arrangements for old people; housing i n Vancouver for old people; boarding homes and homes fo r the aged; the scope of th i s survey 1 2. The Old People's Home - Yesterday and Today Structural setup, s i t e , early h i s t o r y ; the financing of the Home and i t s e f f e c t upon pol i c y ; debate to close the Home; the task undertaken i n 1945; renovations made; Taylor Manor today 12 3. Who Lives at Taylor Manor? A study of f o r t y - f i v e of the f i f t y - o n e case h i s t o r i e s of residents presently l i v i n g i n Taylor Manor. Common background factors noted; age at admittance, country of o r i g i n , marital status, occupational h i s t o r y , housing arrangements p r i o r to entry, health of group p r i o r to entry; a composite picture of the average "Taylor Manorite" 31 4. The Personal Adjustment of Taylor Manor Residents The a c t i v i t i e s and attitudes of Taylor Manor inmates evaluated; health, intimate contacts, leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s , security and r e l i g i o n are a c t i v i t i e s evaluated; evaluation of attitudes toward health, f r i e n d s , work, economic security, r e l i g i o n , f e e l i n g of usefulness, happiness; composite picture of the average "Taylor Manorite" i s added to .42 5. A New Deal f o r Old People The" p r i n c i p a l needs of the old people In Taylor Manor; some suggestions on how these needs may be met; two groups of recommendations f o r Taylor Manor 60 L i s t of Tables Table 1. The age of a group of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor (1) at time of entry i n t o the Home and (2) present March 15, 1952 68 Table 2. Showing marital status of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor and whether or not they are i n contact with r e l a t i v e s at present time, 15 March 1952. Figures f o r female residents given i n parenthesis, 6$ i i i L i s t of Tables - continued page Table 3. Showing housing arrangements of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor immediately p r i o r to t h e i r entry into the Home 69. Table 4. Showing health of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor at the Time of t h e i r entry Into the Home 19 Table 5. Showing how f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor supported themselves, or were supported, f o r the year p r i o r to t h e i r entry Into the Home 6$ BIBLIOGRAPHH 'fO APPENDIX "A": Sample of questionnaire used to evaluate personal adjustment of Taylor Manor residents. ABSTRACT The l i f e of old people i s not made complete by good p h y s i c a l care alone. Opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s , companion-ship and a sense of being "part of things", are equally important. This survey of a wellrestablished home for old people i n Vancouver c l e a r l y Indicates that the people i n a home for the aged tend to become cut off from the stream of l i f e - - t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult a c t i v i t i e s , and their s o c i a l contacts, become extremely l i m i t e d . The survey begins with a discussion of some of the problems of the aged i n our society and p a r t i c u l a r l y those of housing. A variety of housing arrangements for old people are discussed and the s p e c i a l r o l e of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the aged i s outlined. The h i s t o r y of Taylor Manor i s reviewed. The r i s e and f a l l of i t s fortunes are traced against a background of changing attitudes and p o l i c i e s of administration. The central chapter presents a composite pieture of the average Taylor Manorite based on an analysis of case records of f o r t y - f i v e residents. This composite picture i s added to with the aid of a special questionnaire, with which the personal adjustment of twenty-five residents of Taylor Manor i s evaluated. The r e s u l t s indicate that most of the people i n Taylor Manor are lonely, withdrawn from the surrounding community, and hard pressed to f i n d ways In which to "pass the time". The study concludes with recommendations as to how the loneliness and f e e l i n g of ttielassness among Taylor Manor residents 'can ta^** ameliorated. Possible p a r a l l e l s for an a c t i v i t i e s program**(a> In the work done with senior c i t i z e n s at Gordon House and (b) the a u x i l i a r y to the P r o v i n c i a l Infirmary at Marpole. Two major recommendations are made: (a) the appointment of a q u a l i f i e d group worker to s t a r t a program of planned a c t i v i t y i n Taylor Manor and, (b) the establishing of a l a d i e s ' a u x i l i a r y to Increase contact with the outside community and to afford better opportunity fo r s o c i a l contacts f o r the old people i n Taylor Manor. Other recommendations on physical accommodation are also made. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the matron of Taylor Manor and the o f f i c i a l s of Vancouver^ City. S o c i a l Service Department f o r the whole-hearted cooperation they extended t© me. Thanks, also, to Dr. L. C. Marsh, of the School of Social Work, for h i s valuable c r i t i c i s m s . TAYLOR MANOR—A SURVEY OF THE FACILITIES OF VANCOUVER'S HOME FOR THE AGED Chapter I HOUSING THE AGED Who i s "aged"? The word may Immediately conjure up, f o r many people, the image of a wizened, timeworn and rather helpless i n d i v i d u a l . But on second thought, i t i s easy to r e c a l l people who are "old" i n years but not "aged" i n the sense of being feeble and decrepit. This i s the f a l l a c y In trying to define "aged" i n terms o f - a person's chronological age, and a common weakness of pension schemes. The fe d e r a l government has recently lowered the minimum age f o r old age pension benefits from seventy to s i x t y - f i v e years, thus r e l i e v i n g the former inequitable s i t u a t i o n that decreed "old age" as commencing at age seventy. But again we are reminded of the many people past s i x t y - f i v e who are leading independent and s o c i a l l y u s e f u l l i v e s , and therefore, to define "aged" by chronological age alone, leaves too many loopholes. Is i t possible to define the wo£d "aged", i n terms of physi o l o g i c a l change? Such a d e f i n i t i o n i s not possible as yet because we are not aware of what i s normal fo r old age. Our knowledge of normality i s confined to the years of growth and maturity. In this respB ct, g e r i a t r i c s o f f e r s a somewhat disappointing contrast to pa e d i a t r i c s . Every textbook i n the l a t t e r subject i s replete with information as to what i s regarded as normal for the various stages of childhood, but corresponding information f o r the declining stages of l i f e i s lacking. Therefore, i t i s not possible to r e l y s o l e l y on re l a t i n g age to phy s i o l o g i c a l processes f o r the purpose of d e f i n i t i o n . But perhaps i t may be useful to combine both 2 p h y s i o l o g i c a l change and chronological age and define the term "aged" as applying to individuals s i x t y - f i v e , or older, who have l o s t some of th e i r capacity, physical or mental, to l i v e independent and u s e f u l l i v e s . ^  In addition to the d i f f i c u l t y i n deciding who i s aged, o f f i c i a l s who must plan f o r the care of old people are faced with the steady increase i n the numbers of people s i x t y - f i v e and over. Because of advances i n medical and b i o l o g i c a l sciences, people today have a better chance of l i v i n g out their "three score years and ten" than did t h e i r forebears. Related to t h i s , census monographs point out that Canada's population pattern i s an ageing one, and, f o r example, by 1971 there w i l l be one-half m i l l i o n more people i n Canada, age s i x t y - f i v e and over, than there are today. A similar , population trend, due i n part to d e c l i n i n g b i r t h rates, advances i n medicine, and improved standards of hygiene, i s to be seen i n the United States and many of the western European countries. The advances made i n prolonging l i f e have not, unfortunately) been matched by advances i n society's techniques f o r meeting the needs of the aged. In f a c t , the p o s i t i o n of many old people i n t h i s country would appear to make an opportunity for longer l i f e a doubtful blessing. Uniike some pr i m i t i v e cultures, where prestige accrued with advancing years, i n present-day western society, the 1 This d e f i n i t i o n of "old age" was borrowed from an a r t i c l e written by Rose McHugh, "A Constructive Program for the Aged", Proceedings of the National Conference of Social  Work, Columbia University Press, 1947, p.391. "accent i s on youth". It i s not too much of a generalization to say that through advertising media, magazines and motion pictures, the idea i s presented that the best years of l i f e are this side of f o r t y and to step beyond that figure means a person i s going Into a decline. T e s t i f y i n g to the v a l i d i t y of this generalization are the innumerable a r t i c l e s and books that have been written to contradict i t . However, no amount of e f f o r t on the part of the " l i f e begins at f o r t y " school can counteract several cold, economic f a c t s : (1) Nor/th American industry stresses speed, stamina and strength f o r i t s o p e r a t i o n — a l l prime q u a l i t i e s of youth. The older worker, whose s k i l l and craftsmanship was once respected, has been superseded i n highly mechanized industries by the young, the quick, and the adaptable. (2) Related to t h i s i s the f a c t that old age i s , f o r a great many people, a time of indigency and dependency upon others. An American s o c i o l o g i s t has estimated recently, that of the 10,500,000 people i n the United States of s i x t y - f i v e and over: 53 per cent are self-supporting. 47 per cent are supported i n part or whole by r e l a t i v e s or friends. 30 per cent are supported by public or private assistance. In Canada, i n 1949, three out of four pensioners applying f o r 2 the old age pension were v i r t u a l l y d e s t i t u t e . A Manitoba 1 Polsom, J.K., "Old Age as a S o c i o l o g i c a l Problem", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, v o l . X, January, 1940, p.31 2 Canada, Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons on' Old Age Security, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, No. 15, May 11, 1950. 4 survey i n 1947, pointed out that a large proportion of pensioners i n that province were indigent f i v e years before they were e l i g i b l e (that i s , at age s i x t y - f i v e ) and that a number of these were ca r r i e d on municipal assistance p r i o r to enrolment."'" When the consequences of v i r t u a l d e s t i t u t i o n i n this hemisphere are considered—the poor housing, inadequate d i e t , lack of proper medical and dental care, and the loss of s t a t u s ' that comes with a small income, i t i s e a s i l y seen why old age i s pictured as the l e a s t desirable portion of our l i v e s . In the general trend toward Increased s o c i a l security f o r a l l , considerably more attention w i l l have to be paid to t h i s ever-increasing segment of the population. A l l phases of old age security require study and research, but of pressing importance i n many countries today, i s the problem of housing the aged. Many excellent studies have been made on the subject--the Nu f f i e l d Foundation's study, Old People, i n England, and the Governor's Conference on the Problems of the Ageing, i n C a l i f o r n i a , are two outstanding examples. Both studies consider the problem from the viewpoint of the needs of the aged. Present-day knowledge of human behaviour now indicates that the needs of an old person are e s s e n t i a l l y the same as f o r a young person. That i s , the elements that go to make up happiness remain f a i r l y constant throughout l i f e . Companionship, recognition and security are three "musts" for l i v i n g the years past retirement comfortably and happily. Housing for the aged must be planned to cater to 1 "Indigency accompanies old age i n high r a t i o n of 45 to 100", Public Welfare i n Manitoba, v o l , 2, A p r i l , 1947, p. 8. these common human needs as well as to the s p e c i f i c needs of old people who cannot climb s t a i r s , cannot l i v e alone, those who require nursing care and so on. A variety of housing arrangements i s therefore required. These can be grouped Into: (1) self-contained dwellings i n cottages or apartments for married couples; (2) one-roomed suites or hostels for single persons leading independent l i v e s ; and (3) homes fo r persons no longer able or w i l l i n g to l i v e Independently."1 Although careful studies have been made and recommendations for meeting the problems of housing the aged have been put forward, a concerted e f f o r t to tackle the job of providing the housing s t i l l remains to be made i n Canada. However, small-scale experiments under public and private auspices, have been carried out both here and abroad which w i l l serve as valuable examples when i t comes to drawing up plans f o r housing the aged. An example of self-6ontalned apartments for e l d e r l y single people or married couples i s seen i n a modest venture undertaken by the town of Burlington, Ontario. With the aid of the National aousing Act, a three storey building was constructed with three apartments on each f l o o r . Each apartment i s self-contained, having i t s own bathroom and kitchen f a c i l i t i e s . For single people there are two-room apartments which rent f o r $16.00 a month. For couples, the apartments are three-roomed at $21.00 a month. These rentals include heat and e l e c t r c i t y . A second apartment was b u i l t 1 Vancouver Housing Association, Housing for our Older  Citizens, March, 1949, p.2. and a t h i r d i s under construction. A second approach to the problem of fin d i n g l i v i n g space for older people i s that of "granny apartments." This plan provides for the government to subsidize private home builders to add a one-romm apartment with kitchenette, bath-room and private entrance to t h e i r homes fo r renting to people over sixty years of age. This plan would enable families to keep their old people with them without having them under their feet, but close enough for a f r i e n d l y , h e l p f u l , two-way 2 r e l a t i o n s h i p . Cottages for old people are a well-proven method of meeting the housing needs of old people who can look after themselves. On August 23, 1948, the premier of B r i t i s h Columbi o f f i c i a l l y opened a small housing development b u i l t by the c i t y of New Westminster f o r i t s aged c i t i z e n s . The project consisted of six duplex cottages with accommodation f o r twelve married couples. This development was reported as the f i r s t attempt i n Canada, under public auspices, to provide t h i s 3 type of housing f o r the aged. However, there i s some questioning of any large-scale housing projects exclusively devoted to providing l i v i n g space for the aged. Should old people be segregated or should they be kept i n "the stream of l i f e " ? This was the question 1 Good, Jean, "Living Arrangements for Older C i t i z e n s , " B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, Nov-Dec. 1950, p.5. 2 Ibid., p.5. 3 "Housing Projects f o r the Aged, " B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, ..September, 1948. p.16 raised by a C a l i f o r n i a study on problems of the aged. Their opinion was that small groups of homes, designed f o r old people but planned as i n t e g r a l parts of larger and more varied neighbourhoods are desirable. "It i s also f e l t that such groups might f a c i l i t a t e the exchange of service among occupants on a self-help basis, which would not only promote housing economy but also provide opportunity f o r useful, responsible work, a generally-recognized need among the aged!1 Cooperative houses i n which the work and expenses are shared by the residents, i s another approach to housing the aged, p a r t i c u l a r l y for those who require a small measure of care. A description of St. Elizabeth's House, Toronto, gives some idea of the setup: "It i s a small six-roomed house, with a terrace. The front porch i s at the street l i n e and there i s a small yard at the rear. Five e l d e r l y women occupy the house, each with her own room and > e l e c t r i c hot plate where she may prepare her breakfast or supper alone, i f she prefers that to going down to the homey kitchen which i s the common room fo r the household. The residents take turns planning, shopping and preparing the substantial noon meal which i s enjoyed by the residents together i n the kitchen. Large, old houses are s t i l l available that are r e a d i l y convertible to such use and no problem of building i s necessarily involved. ^ Proceedings of the Governor' s Conference on the"  Problems of the Aging, 1951. 2 Ibid., p.71. 3 Good, Jean, "Living Arrangements for Older C i t i z e n s , " B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, Nov-Dec. 1950. p.6. 8 A system of government-Inspe cted fo s t e r homes f o r old people who would l i k e to l i v e i n a private home, and who might require some care, has been suggested. A small subsidy might be paid to families who would be w i l l i n g to take an old person into t h e i r home as one of the family. A popular arrangement f o r care of the aged are boarding homes or r e s i d e n t i a l clubs for el d e r l y people. This plan can offer a great deal of freedom and independence to old people who are not quite able to cook their own meals, clean t h e i r own rooms and do their laundry. In Vancouver today, old people who wish to l i v e independently are, i n most cases, forced to compete with the r e s t of the community f o r housing space. One or two housing developments of small cottages for old people have been undertaken by r e l i g i o u s organizations and service clubs but these cater primarily to married couples. Because of bui l d i n g costs, projects such as these are extremely l i m i t e d i n size and number. For those who need a r e l a t i v e l y protected environment and some services, the "boarding home" i s the only accommodation open to them at present, i n Vancouver. A study i n 1948 showed that there were about t h i r t y o l d people,'s boarding homes i n Vancouver which offered care for approximately five, hundred persons.^" These boarding homes are., i n the main, run by private i n d i v i d u a l s , on a business basis. There i s every i n d i c a t i o n that a vastly greater number could use boarding home care i f i t were available. 1 Leydier, B., B oarding Home Care for the Aged, M.S.W., Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948. 9 The shortage of suitable private boarding homes has led to the creation, i n the l a s t decade, of several "homes" mainly by national groups within t h i s area. In 1944, the Western Canadian Danish Society b u i l t a home to accommodate twenty-four old people of Danish extraction. There are bedrooms f o r one, two or three persons. Each i s furnished with bright chinz curtains and warm rug|fen the f l o o r . Cost of care to guests i s kept at a minimum and a l l are given f i v e d o l l a r s a month pocket money. The Icelandic colony i n Vancouver have converted a f i n e old house i n the Shaughnessy d i s t r i c t into a home f o r the i r old people. I t is luxuriously furnished, has ten bedrooms for two or three guests. This home features a recreation and hobbies room, a l i b r a r y , and a smoking room fo r the men. Rates are moderate and guests on old age pension are given pocket money. Vancouver c i t i z e n s of Swedish o r i g i n have b u i l t the Swedish-Canadian Rest Home In North Vancouver. This home accommodates f i f t y people and married couples are welcomed. Public ally-operated homes f o r the aged Include a new home i n Surrey b u i l t i n 1949. I t w i l l accommodate eighteen people and i n d i v i d u a l or double rooms are provided f o r the guests. This i s a one-storey building and there are no s t a i r s or steps. The la d i e s ' a u x i l i a r y of this home i s an energetic group and l o c a l service clubs are active i n providing extra services. The c i t y of Vancouver has operated a home for the aged since 1915. 10 A d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n should be made between "boarding homes" and "homes for the aged". The l a t t e r tend to be large-scale i n s t i t u t i o n s , operated p r i v a t e l y by a board of c i t i z e n s or, p u b l i c a l l y operated by municipal or other government bodies. , They are not c©nduct©d on a profit-making b a s i s but are designed to meet a community need. The "boarding-home" i s , as the name suggests, a smaller operation, p r i v a t e l y run and operated for a p r o f i t . I t i s the scope of this, study to evaluate the place of these larger homes f o r the aged i n present day thinking on care of old people. This evaluation consists of a study of one such i n s t i t u t i o n , Taylor Manor, the Vancouver municipal home for the aged. In examing the service i t renders to the community a d e f i n i t e bias w i l l be maintained. This i s , does Taylor Manor meet the needs of i t s residents? To properly estimate whether Taylor Manor i s f u l f i l l i n g t h i s function, an opinion and attitude questionnaire, prepared by the authors of Personal Adjustment In Old Age"j" w i l l be used. This w i l l reveal the l e v e l of l i f e adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l within Taylor Manor and should, In some way, r e f l e c t the services offered by that i n s t i t u t i o n . A study w i l l also be made to determine what type of person, i f any, comes into Taylor Manor. B y making an analysis of case h i s t o r i e s of present inhabitants from the standpoint of who they are, where they come from and what their l i f e 1 Cavan. Burgess. Havighurst, Goldhamer, Personal  Adjustment i n Old Age, Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, 1949. 11 experiences have been, perhaps a composite picture of the average Taylor Manor resident can be drawn. By having a picture of the average resident i t w i l l be easier to estimate his needs, which i n turn can be related back to the services and f a c i l i t i e s offered by Taylor Manor. Chapter I i THE OLD PEOPLE'S HOME - YESTERDAY AND TODAY Vancouver was incorporated as a c i t y i n 1886; during i t s early years, there was small need for s o c i a l services. Its c i t i z e n s were mainly composed of young, hearty people, p r i n c i p a l l y young men who were attracted to this area by the gold s t r i k e s i n the Klondike and the appeal of f r o n t i e r l i f e . I t was only with the passing of the years that the people of Vancouver became aware of th e i r old age problem. U n t i l 1906, the Indigent aged and Infirm found refuge i n the public wards of the General Hospital. In that year, the General Hospital moved from Its location on Beatty Street to the present s i t e i n Pairview. The aged indigent, numbering about ten men and two or three women, were allowed to remain i n one of the old buildings vacated by the h o s p i t a l . This group formed the nucleus for Vancouver's Old People's Home. The numbers of Indigent old people gradually increased u n t i l , i n 1915, a special home was b u i l t for them on what was then the outskirts of the c i t y . This i s the building today known as Taylor Manor. Judging by the s t r u c t u r a l design of the building, the architects of the Home were impressed with the fact that I t was an " i n s t i t u t i o n " they were planning and not a "home". B u i l t to accommodate f i f t y - e i g h t persons, Vancouver's Old People's Home i s a large, two-storey, red brick and gray 15 p l a s t e r building with outsized windows, surmounted by a wooden cupola. The ground f l o o r plan o r i g i n a l l y included two dining rooms, (one f o r the men, the other for women), kitchen, large recreation room, sleeping quarters, wash rooms, sun porches, quarters for the s t a f f , f o r the matron, o f f i c e space and so on. The second storey contained more sleeping quarters, made up of two ten-bed dormitories, two four-bed dormitories, as well as single rooms and double rooms. The second storey also has two large sun porches and bathroom f a c i l i t i e s . The f l o o r plan remains e s s e n t i a l l y the same today. I t may also be assumed, judging from the s i t e picked for the Home, that the planners were convinced that old people desired nothing more than peace and quiet. With this idea i n mind, a t r a c t of f i f t y acres was provided by the c i t y facing Boundary Road, four blocks south of Hastings Street, i n what was. then a sparsely settled section of Vancouver; indeed, only ten years before, the area was being logged. Sidewalks were non-existent, except on Hastings Street; and only here and there was a house to be seen. The only other sizeable structure i n the area was, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , enough, another i n s t i t u t i o n , the G i r l ' s I n d u s t r i a l School, which was b u i l t at about the same time, some blocks.away. When the building was completed i n 1915, f o r t y - f i v e old men and women were moved i n from t h e i r former home at Pender and Beatty Streets. A newspaper account, buried i n 14 the back pages of the newspaper, records that: "Most of the inmates are men and they have t h e i r dormitories and sun porches. There are three married couples and there w i l l be about a dozen women In a l l when the house i s completely taken The oldsters' reactions to th e i r spanking new home may be inferred from the reporter's next l i n e : "Just now many of them do not care for th e i r new quarters, although the o f f i c i a l s i n charge wonder how they got along i n the old place, which was gloomy and penned i n . " The reporter evidently did not question the d e s i r a b i l i t y of being moved from a downtown area, which offered a constantly changing panorama of l i f e , to a quiet, secluded spot i n a couritryrlike setting with none of the excitement and human int e r e s t to be found downtown. Many of these f i r s t inmates of Vancouver's Home for the Aged may well have f e l t that they were being pushed out into the outskirts of Vancouver to be forgotten. This was, i n many respects, what actu a l l y happened. The newspaper report continues: "The Home i s gradually being furnished as the c i t y can provide the money. The old men require more couches, for some of them cannot stay up a l l day without becoming t i r e d . They have an in s a t i a b l e appetite fo r l i t e r a t u r e and tobacco and they wait around on a verandah smoking and reading as i f waiting f o r t h e i r c a l l to come... There i s a dining room for the men and one for the women. The cost of keeping each inmate i n the Home i s between $14 and $15 a month which Dr. Underbill, the Medical O f f i c e r , considers low." 1 1 The Province, June 25, 1915, p.9. 15 Vancouver's Old People's Home was, at the outset, under the control of the City Health Department and was 1> therefore under the aegis of the City Medical O f f i c e r . The c i t y bore the c6st of i t s upkeep and hoped to defray expenses by keeping a few farm animals on part of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s f i f t y acres, as well as by r a i s i n g several acres of potatoes and other vegetables for use by the Home. If i n physical appearance the Old People's Home has an " i n s t i t u t i o n a l " look, th i s impression i s strengthened g . by a reading of the c i t y by-law r e l a t i n g to the establishment and maintenance of the home. Such clauses as these have an undeniable i n s t i t u t i o n a l ring i n spite of the many repetitions of the word "home": "A v i s i t o r ' s book s h a l l be kept i n which s h a l l be entered the name of every person v i s i t i n g the home." "The hours of meals, f o r putting out l i g h t s , f o r r e t i r i n g at night and f o r r i s i n g i n the morning, s h a l l be prescribed by regulations made by the R e l i e f and Welfare O f f i c e r subject to the approval of the Council, and every inmate s h a l l s t r i c t l y observe such regulations." "No smoking or expectorating s h a l l be allowed .in the dormitories of the home." "No inmate of the home s h a l l leave the premises _ .without the permission of the Superintendent." "Inmates are warned that they s h a l l not use .profane and obscene, language.. .that they are required to be clean i n personal habits... 1 This continued u n t i l 1936, when the Old People's Home was put under the d i r e c t i o n of the City Relief Department as i t was then c a l l e d . 16 and s h a l l not frequent saloons or places where liquors are sold . " 1 Very l i t t l e i s known about the l i v e s of the early residents of Vancouver's Old People's Home. The absence of any record of early residents may, perhaps, be interpreted as indicating a lack of in t e r e s t i n the l i v e s and fortunes of the. old people who l i v e d there. Perhaps they d i d , as the newspaper account of 1915 suggested, s i t i n t h e i r chairs waiting f o r t h e i r c a l l . There are good reasons to believe that l i f e , f o r many, was a t e r r i b l y bleak a f f a i r i n the Old people's Home—reasons which w i l l be brought out l a t e r . The h i s t o r y of Vancouver's Old People's Home again and again shows how intimately the fortunes of thi s home, and therefore, the fortunes of i t s residents, are bound up with finances. At the beginning, the c i t y paid the b i l l f or the Home and i t s inmates. City council has never been too generous with i t s appropriations f o r the Home; but i t soon became apparent that i t cost more to keep an in d i v i d u a l there than i t did to pay him c i t y r e l i e f and l e t him s h i f t f o r himself on skid road. This state of a f f a i r s was p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable during the depression, the City, hard-pressed to meet the many demands on i t s slim coff e r s , endeavoured i n every way to trim i t s budget. In May and June of 1938, f o r example, the City Council debated l " The by-law i s now undergoing r e v i s i o n to bring i t r into l i n e with more advanced thinking on the subject of i n s t i t u t i o n a l management. 17 whether i t should do away with the Old People's Home altogether. 1 At this time, through federal grants-in-aid, the province was paying eight per cent of c i t y r e l i e f costs. A condition of grants-in-aid stipulated that no i n s t i t u t i o n s were to be subsidized and therefore, the Home, and Its residents, many of whom were not i n receipt of the old age pension, was s t i l l a one-hundred per cent c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . While this s i t u a t i o n existed i t paid the c i t y to keep the place empty. I t i s not surprising, then, that the debate to close the Home arose. The decision to close the Home was shelved and one of the' reasons f o r th i s may have been the f a c t that the City R e l i e f Department was using the Home to Induce people to go o f f c i t y r e l i e f . Applicants for c i v i c r e l i e f , i f they were over s i x t y , were told that "It's the Old People's Home or nothing." Many preferred "nothing"; but, now and then, the odd person who had absolutely ho alternative went into the Home, and i n this way the place was p e r i o d i c a l l y f i l l e d to capacity. While i t was f i l l e d , the c i t y was without i t s "club", but when a vacancy occurred, the old threat was used again. There i s no record of how many unhappy individuals were forced i n "workhouse fashion", but one may well wonder what the atmosphere would be l i k e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n that contained several such unwilling guests. "T The Home at this time, according to Alderman Corey, was costing the c i t y twice as much as i f the inmates were on di r e c t r e l i e f . "I'd l i k e to see i t back on the basis of a few years ago when, they kept cows and chikkens 1/" he said. "Then I t used to pay for i t s e l f . " At this time,there were 18 About 1940, the c i t y debated turning the Home Into a tuberculosis u n i t . Medical aut h o r i t i e s , fearing that such a makeshift h o s p i t a l would only delay s t i l l further the building of an adequate unit, refused. The lack of interest i n the home and the various discussions on the a d v i s a b i l i t y of closing the Home resulted i n l i t t l e or no money being appropriated f o r remodelling, painting and general upkeep. The Home began to deteriorate. This neglect continued u n t i l 1945, when, with the housing s i u t a t i o n i n Vancouver reaching the c r i t i c a l stage, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the older citizens-who could not afford the high rents, the question of what to do with the Old People's Home arose again. The Home at this time had many empty beds and cL ty welfare o f f i c i a l s f e l t they should be put to some use. It was at thi s time that the c i t y approached the province f o r f i n a n c i a l a i d . The province was asked to pay eighty per cent of the cost of c i t y s o c i a l assistance. The c i t y further argued that because federal grants had been d i s -continued, the p o l i c y regarding the subsidizing of i n s t i t u t i o n s was no.longer i n e f f e c t . The province agreed, i n 1945, to pay eighty per cent of the c i t y ' s d i r e c t assistance rate of $27.50 and i n August, 1945, the p r o v i n c i a l department of Health and Welfare agreed to pay eighty per cent of the boarding home rate and thus, those residents of the Home who fif t y - s e v e n inmates, thirty-two of whom received the old age pension, the others being a f u l l charge on the c i t y . The  Province, June 3, 1938, p.22. 19. were c i t y charges, i . e . , not on old age pension, were of much less concern to the c i t y budget. However, the Health and Welfare Department, i n meeting eighty per cent of the boarding home rates, set up standards f o r the running of such homes, and to meet these standards, the c i t y decided to renovate t h e i r Old People's Home. This job was begun by Mr. J. I. Chambers, "who was appointed S o c i a l Service Administrator i n 1945. In his f i r s t report to the S o c i a l Services Committee of the c i t y c o u n c i l , dated December 28, 1945, the administrator noted that there were twenty-nine inmates i n the Home and that i t " i s at present being redecorated and prepared f o r admission of additional inmates." The Task i n 1945 Just how i n s t i t u t i o n a l and unpleasant the atmosphere of the Old People's Home was up u n t i l 1945 can be r e a l i z e d from the descriptions of the place p r i o r to that time'!' The place had deteriorated to the extent that i t did not even have the d i s t i n c t i o n of being clean, the strongest point of a great many si m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s . The present matron t reports that, when she took over, there was ah overpowering I "Twelve years ago" (1940) one resident states, "you couldn't.eat the bread—L.had t o b u y my own—and the matron bawled.me out." "When I f i r s t came here (1932) we got nothing but stewed chicken and plum pudding. " Another resident t e l l s that the keeping o f farm animals was discontinued about 1931. At that time, even with chickens being kept on the premises, the inhabitants received fewer eggs per week than they do today.. The reason f o r t h i s was discovered one day when the City/ R e l i e f O f f i c e r was discharged and imprisoned f o r abuse of h i s o f f i c e which included s e l l i n g the farm produce and pocketing the proceeds. 20 odor of urine present i n the hallways ind In some of the rooms. This odor was sometimes e f f e c t i v e l y camouflaged by the smell of d i s i n f e c t a n t — a poor second choice f o r the inhabitant or v i s i t o r . A paper boy who used to del i v e r papers to the i n s t i t u t i o n at this time remarked to a fr i e n d on the great numbers of f l i e s that clustered to the inside of the screen door leading into the i n s t i t u t i o n . "They always seemed," he said, "to be more anxious to get out, rather than i n . " Prior to the redecorating that was started i n 1945, the woodwork was painted a " l i g h t black" and the walls were an inspid buff colour. In the dormitories, a single bare l i g h t bulb glared from the centre of the c e i l i n g and white beds with white coverlets stood mutely side by side. In the sleeping quarters there was no locker space i n which to hang-, clothes or store possessions. There was no privacy except f o r the fortunate few who had single rooms, granted on a s e n i o r i t y basis, In most cases. Light from the outside flooded through the high,, old-fashioned windows, f a l l on the unrelieved monotonyof bare wooden f l o o r s , l i g h t buff walls and darkly varnished woodwork. This i s the picture of Vancouver's Old People's Home i n 1945 when the new c i t y administrator f o r s o c i a l services took over and decided to bring the home up-to-date. He and his s t a f f had a great deal to do. The y.ears of penny-pinching and lack of i n t e r e s t i n the place had resulted i n the Home 21 becoming p h y s i c a l l y rundown and shabby-looking. In spite of t h i s , the cost of i t s upkeep was not j u s t i f i e d by the twenty-one vacant beds at a time when housing space i n the c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y for the Indigent aged, was at a premium. The f i r s t step towards f i l l i n g the vacancies was to make the Home mor e in v i ting . The scars of physical neglect and indifference were the easiest to tackle, even though this job was made unnecessarily exacting by the continuing niggardly appropriations by the c i t y c o u n c il. The most d i f f i c u l t task was trying to remove the stigma of an i n s t i t u t i o n that had, during the depression, f i l l e d the r o l e of that most odious of a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the workhouse. Related to this was the job of converting the Old People's Home from an i n s t i t u t i o n into a place that could r e a l l y be c a l l e d a home for the aged. This was the goal the administrator and his s t a f f set for themselves. Once given an administrator who would take an active interest i n i t s a f f a i r s , the Old People's Home began to undergo change. The c i t y council at f i r s t balked at the increased appropriation asked for, but I t was argued success-f u l l y that as a minimum of repair work and renovating had been c a r r i e d out since the i n s t i t u t i o n was f i r s t opened, more than the usual amount of money was required to bring i t up to the accepted standard for boarding homes, as well as to make i t more a t t r a c t i v e to p o t e n t i a l guests. Changes Made The dormitories were made more acceptable by building 22 L-shaped p a r t i t i o n s between each bed to the height of about four and one-half feet, which gives a s a t i s f y i n g i l l u s i o n of privacy. The numbers of beds i n the larger dormitories was reduced from twelve to ten. A headlight for reading was placed at each bed and locker space, f o r which there had been a crying need, was provided. Cheerful linoleum was. l a i d , lessening the cleaning problem and at the same time making the rooms more homelike. The white counterpanes f o r each bed were replaced by covers of d i f f e r e n t shades to give a welcome note of colour as well as i n d i v i d u a l i t y . In one of the main wash rooms a new low-modelled bathtub was i n s t a l l e d to replace Its high, old-fashioned predecessor, that many of the residents, because of t h e i r i n f i r m i t i e s , found i t d i f f i c u l t to climb int o . It i s pleasing to see that t h i s new tub i s a cool green colour and not, l i k e the former tub, an i n s t i t u t i o n a l white. Linoleum of a warm colour was l a i d i n both upstairs and downstairs hallways, and woodwork was repainted a l i g h t colour while walls were given fresh coats of paint. The high, outsized windows had a portion of their glassed area painted out to reduce the glare and i n the main s i t t i n g room, bright-coloured curtains were hung. In addition, various pieces of furniture and a broadloom rug were added. The ingenuity with which many of these Improvements were gained'from the c i t y i s a s t o r ^ i n i t s e l f . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f the broadloom rug is a good example. When a c i t y watermain burst up i n the Shaughnessy area, 23 flooding a nearby home and sending a cascade of mud and water over the owner's rug, the c i t y was forced to replace the damaged a r t i c l e . The o r i g i n a l rug, when cleaned, was obtained by o f f i c i a l s f o r the Old People's Home, making a most presentable f l o o r covering. The p a r t i t i o n separating men and women i n the dining room has been removed and the guests now eat together. In addition to' improving the physical surroundings of the Home, action was taken to improve the recreation f a c i l i t i e s of the inhabitants. 1 There i s evidence to show that, p r i o r to 1945, the rec r e a t i o n a l needs of the old people were much neglected. The Home did not supply a radio,, for example, but expected the residents to f i n d solace i n an old gramaphoiee which stood i n the main recreation room. It was seldom used and this may be attributed to the fac t that, by 1945, there were only two records to be played, and one of these was "Abide with Me". There were no newspapers or magazines supplied and the Home l i b r a r y was skimpely made up of books donated by people. A l l the nonentitifes among writers were well represented on the shelves of this l i b r a r y . Further insight into the paucity of recre a t i o n a l pursuits for the inhabitants of the Home p r i o r to 1945 is gained from a l e t t e r sent In the early 1940's to Major Mathews, City A r c h i v i s t . The writer of the l e t t e r , a resident of the Home, was requesting a piece of information about early Vancouver to s e t t l e an argument among his fellow residents who had been 24 delving into the past history of Vancouver. In one part of the l e t t e r the writer states, " 1hey say i t i s a mistake to l i v e i n the past but what would some of us 'oldsters' have to l i v e f o r i f i t were not f o r old times?" Since 1945, a fine radio has replaced the gramaphone; two copies of each of the three Vancouver newspapers are delivered to the Home each day; subscriptions to eight nationally-known magazines were ordered and a small l i b r a r y of pocketbooks i s being b u i l t up. A putting green was l a i d and o f f i c i a l s say i t has proved to be most popular with the re s i d e n t s / The pract i s e of i n v i t i n g various commercial companies t o show their films i n the Home ms begun and these have been enjoyed by the old people. Several service clubs have taken an interes t i n the Home, including the Shriners who take the residents to the circus once a year, the ex-telephone operator's club, who have given parties at the Home, and the Lions Club, which has also been active on behalf of the old people. The Old Age Pension Association has, for the past three years, held their annual p i c n i c on the grounds of the Home. Church servic es which at one time were held every Sunday i n the Home were discontinued because of lack of i n t e r e s t , f • but neighbouring churches are encouraged to come with ears and take the residents to church. Tickets f o r special events such as soccer games, horse racing, and so on, are supplied to the guests. During the summer, i f any o f the guests wish to spend a day i n the park, a lunch is packed f o r them. 25 }& Many of the improvements l i s t e d above were sparked by the addition of a new superintendent i n 1947. A registered nurse, and an e f f i c i e n t manager, the naw superintendent has campaigned vigorously f o r improvements. One of her main contributions has been to vary the menu of meals from week to week. This is a welcome change from the days when every day of the week was Indicated by what was on one *s pla te. With, the work of. improving the physical appearance of the Old People's Home well underway, the c i t y o f f i c i a l s decided, i n 1947, to change Its name from "old People's Home" to something that would get away from the stigma that surrounds the majority of homes f o r the aged. The name decided upon, after considerable debate, was Taylor Manor, i n honour of. a former, c o l o u r f u l mayor of Vancouver, L.D. Taylor. Newspaper reaction to this change of name was to the e f f e c t that "a rose by any other name would smell as sweet." There was no doubt that by 1947 there was a great deal s t i l l to be done and this work progressed slowly. By 1950, the Administrator, In his annual report to the S o c i a l Serivces Committee of the c i t y flouncil, stated: "It i s g r a t i f y i n g to report that, the Superintendent has succeeded i n eliminating the i n s t i t u t i o n a l atmosphere and that the residents now f e e l that they have a r e a l home to which they can, and do, i n v i t e f r i e n d s . " Taylor Manor Today Seen from the roadway, today, Taylor Manor Is s t i l l not an i n v i t i n g structure. Its mixture of red brick, grey plaster and wood, the l a t t e r badly i n need of paint, detract from i t appearance. Once in s i d e , however, the v i s i t o r ' s s p i r i t s are l i f t e d by the bright, clean hallways, covered with pleasant-looking linoleum that shines with a generous application of wax. The s i t t i n g room, or "recreation room" as i t i s c a l l e d , i s comfortably furnished but too large to be "homey". The dining room, also on the main f l o o r , with i t s new coat of green paint and tables of varying sizes, seating from four to eight people, i s undoubtedly an improvement over the two small dining rooms that existed when the room was partitioned off.... However, a great deal more could be done to make this room more a t t r a c t i v e . Some bright curtains on the windows would help. Getting to the second f l o o r involves a climb up two f l i g h t s of s t a i r s , a rather formidable task f o r anyone who i s i n f i r m . The second storey i s e n t i r e l y reserved f o r men and i s made up of sleeping quarters, wash rooms and sun porches. The dormitories appear to be quite comfortable and clean looking. Each cubicle has a bed, night stand, locker and chair with a cusMon on i t . The sun porches could do with a few easy chairs, as many residents spend a good deal of time there. The minimum entrance age for inhabitants i s set at s i x t y , although there have been s l i g h t l y younger residents. 27 preference seems to be given to men, although recently, four women have entered the Home. There i s no provision f o r married couples. Other conditions of entry are that the person be i n reasonably good health, (Taylor Manor i s a boarding home, not a nursing home). He must also have been a resident of the c i t y of Vancouver for at least ten years and must be a person of good character. Before being admitted, the prospect! resident must, i n the words of the c i t y by-law, "pay, assign, transfer and set over to the City f o r the use of the home, any money or property possessed by such person at the time of application f o r admission as an inmate to the home and i f , a fter the admission of any inmate to the home, such inmate s h a l l acquire any money or property he s h a l l sign this over to the c i t y . " There i s provision i n the by-law f o r return of a l l money or property transferred to the c i t y I f the inmate decides to leave, after a reasonable charge for h i s maintenance has been made. Residents are free to leave Taylor Manor at any time and one man, In his seventies, recently did so i n order to get married! Taylor Manor offers one hundred per cent coverage of i t s resident's physical needs. There i s undoubtedly no better dressed group of old people anywhere In the c i t y . Many of the guests arrive shabby and down-at-heel In appear-ance. If they do, they are provided from the skin out with new apparel--underwear, pants, s h i r t s , swea ters, socks, and so on. Some of these items are "hand-me-downs" from former residents who have died. Womens' clothing needs are s i m i l a r l y met. Men are issued three dress s h i r t s for summer 28 and two fla n n e l s h i r t s and one dress s h i r t f or winter. During the current year, sixteen new suits of. clothes were purchased. The re c i p i a n t s of these suits were given an opportunity to chose between several samples of material and given a choice of style.' Phyjamas are offered and residents are encouraged to wear them. Residents may do their own laundry i f they wish but few accept this r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the Home, therefore, does most of the washing and ironing. Missing buttons are replaced and holes i n socks are darned. Some of these jobs are done by the guests who receive remuneration for t h e i r work. Each guest may be given up to ten percent of any pension he may be receiving as a "comforts allowance" which i s paid i n cash. In the case of people on the old age pension, this amounts to f i v e dollars per month. Inmates who are on s o c i a l assistance likewise receive a f i v e d o l l a r spending allowance. In addition, a package of tobacco and papers i s dist r i b u t e d to each man every week. Pipe tobacco, snuff, or chocolate bars i n l i e u of tobacco for non-smokers are also d i s t r i b u t e d weekly. The superintendent describes the food as "good, but p l a i n - -Hothing fancy." The d i e t sheet i s varied from day to day but there are no second choices. If the dinner i s big, the supper i s l i g h t . Breakfast i s the only routine meal. Eggs are served for breakfast once a week. Otherwise, the usual breakfast i s hot or dry ce r e a l , an orange (three times weekly, coffee, toast, jam or marmalade. There are no in-between meal snacks served. 29 Duties assigned to the guests are l i g h t and are r e s t r i c t e d to making their own bed and dry dusting their cubicle or room. One man sets the tables and i s compensated for t h i s . Two women help with the dishes and are likewise paid. Highest remuneration i s f i v e dollars per month but most get two to two-fifty. Other than t h i s , residents are free to come and go as they wish. There are r e l a t i v e l y few rules to be observed. Guests may leave the grounds whenever they wish but i f they plan to miss a meal they are asked to n o t i f y the kitchen s t a f f of t h i s . If they intend to stay out overnight they are asked to t e l l ' t h e matron where they w i l l be staying. Lights are put out at nine o'clock and there Is no smoking allowed after that time. In case of i l l n e s s , a nearby doctor i s c a l l e d , i f necessary, or the guest i s sent to him. A l l residents go to the Outpatient's Department of the General Hospital for other than emergency treatment. I f a resident develops a prolonged i l l n e s s , he i s moved to a nursing home. The s t a f f includes a cook, three maids, three o r d e r l i e s , an ingineer and an i n s t i t u t i o n a l service worker, who i s second-in-command to the superintendent. The orderlies work two weeks on day s h i f t and one week on night s h i f t . The man on night duty makes the rounds of the b u i l d i n g every hour to guard against f i r e and to do anything, that i s necessary for the care of the old people. 30 In the past six or seven years, Taylor Manor, Vancouver's Home for the Aged, has evolved from a "workhouse" to a hoarding home. Considerable improvements both i n the physical setup of the home and for the corf or t of t h e inhabitants have been made. At this point attention can be given to examining the people i n Taylor Manor to determine who they are, and.how they have adjusted to l i f e In a home f o r the aged. Who the residents of Taylor Manor are can be answered through a study of the f i l e s that Vancouver's S o c i a l Service Depart-ment keeps on each resident. The answers to the second and more elusive question can be gleaned from the use of a questionnaire s p e c i f i c a l l y prepared f o r evaluating the personal adjustment of old people. With the answers to these questions i n hand, i t may be possible to evaluate the place of Taylor Manor i n the o v e r - a l l scheme fo r the care of the aged. Chapter I I I 1 WHO LIVES AT TAYLOR MANOR? A majority of the people now In Taylor Manor were 1 * admitted between the ages of s i x t y to sixty-nine. Perhaps this indicates the minimum l e v e l that old age assistance should commence. I t c e r t a i n l y points up the f a c t that the universal old age pension at age seventy misses a considerable segment of people who, at age s i x t y , are unable tu support themselves. However, the f a c t that considerable pressure was exerted on some of the men to enter 2 Taylor Manor must be taken into consideration. Approximately sixteen of the f o r t y - f i v e were known to have re s i s t e d entry into Taylor Manor; seven of these were forced i n . The average age of the seven men who were obliged to enter Taylor Manor was 64.4. One can appreciate the reluctance of men i n t h e i r s i x t i e s to entering an old people's home when they f e e l they can l i v e independently, provided they 1 Prom the study of f o r t y - f i v e of the f i f t y - o n e case records of people at present In Taylor Manor, 62 per cent were admitted between the ages of sixty to sixty-nine. Six of the seven women at present i n Taylor Manor are Included i n this study g r o u p L i t t l e attempt i s made to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between men and women as the sample of women residents i s too small to be s i g n i f i c a n t , although variations i n the pattern set by men and women can be noted. It i s possible that a study of women residents i n homes f o r the aged might y i e l d a somewhat d i f f e r e n t picture from that, of the men. 2 As indicated by c i t y records, the attitudes of 45 residents of Taylor Manor toward entering the Home were as follows: 7 were forced i n , 9 r e s i s t e d the f i r s t o f f e r of care i n the home, 21 appeared w i l l i n g to enter (this number includes those who requested admittance) and i n 8 cases, no attitude was recorded. 3 Men who were refused d i r e c t c i t y assistance but were offered care i n Taylor Manor instead. * See Table 1. 32 receive c i t y s o c i a l assistance. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the case of Mr. A§-, A single man, age sixty-four, a railway labourer but unable to v/ork because of rheumatism i n h i s legs and arms. When he applied for c i t y r e l i e f he was offered accommodation i n the Home. After v i s i t -ing the Home he objected to "the smell of d i s i n f e c t a n t 1 1 and "severely balked at going into the home." The investigator on this case noted that, the man was sharing a "clean and t i d y " room with another man on West Cordova. There was no i n d i c a t i o n that t h i s man could not have cared for himself on d i r e c t s o c i a l assistance. It would appear that, given s o c i a l assistance, Mr. A—, could have maintained himself independently f o r quite a few more years. I t would seem to be a waste of services to have people i n a boarding home who require l i t t l e more than f i n a n c i a l assistance. The cost d>n human happiness must also be reckoned. One man who was forced i n to Taylor Manor remarked: "This Is the beginning of the end"— a d o l e f u l and unhappy statement,for a man i n h i s s i x t i e s . Another, and more unstable personality, threatened suicide and yet another swore he would "commit a crime" when told he must accept care i n Taylor Manor. Contrasted to this Is the fact that the average age of ten residents who, according to c i t y records, were "eager" and "anxious" to enter Taylor Manor, was 74.7. Here, i t would seem that advanced age i t s e l f i s s u f f i c i e n t to make people wish to abandon a l i f e of independence. This 33 i s i l l u s t r a t e d , for example, by Mr. B--, A single man, age eighty-two at time of entry and anxious to enter. Prior to coming into the Home, he was l i v i n g i n a very rundown shack without plumbing or l i g h t . Though his health was good for a man of his age, the problem of caring for himself was becoming too much to handle and he gladly accepted the c i t y ' s offer of care i n Taylor Manor. With regard to country of o r i g i n , f i f t y - o n e per cent of Taylor Manor's residents came from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . The next most sizeable group are Canadian-born, p r i n c i p a l l y from Ontario. In view of the ethnic make-up of B r i t i s h Columbia, figures such as these are to be expected. I t i s noted also from a perusal of the f i l e s that the majority of those v/ho emigrated to t h i s country did so twenty or more years ago. Not a few were early residents of Vancouver, and one resident i s proud of the f a c t that he helped to b u i l d Taylor Manor i t s e l f In 1913! The next c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Taylor Manor's population was that/examined was marital status. (see Table 2). The study shows that sixty-four per cent are s i n g l e , and have never been married. Of the t h i r t y - s i x per cent who were married, h a l f ended their marriages i n divorce or separation. These divorces or separations were, i n the majority of cases, events of long standing. The f a c t that so large a percentage of men i n Taylor Manor were never married, plus the f a c t that those who did marry, ended their marriages unhappily, might be assumed to indicate a type of man who ends hi s days i n 34 a home f o r the aged—-a " r o l l i n g stone", a person who i s unable to form relationships e a s i l y , and so on. However, a more l i k e l y explanation would be found by correlating these findings with the economy of th i s province which hinges on industries that have, i n the past, attracted large numbers of single men, p a r t i c u l a r l y for work i n up-coast logging camps and m i l l s . In this connection, the important f a c t i s that t h i r t y - f i v e out of the thirty-nine male residents i n Taylor Manor spent most of t h e i r l i v e s working as u n s k i l l e d labourers. Men who work i n Isolated camps or m i l l s do not have the same opportunities to meet and marry women as men i n more settled communities. Furthermore, the economic insecurity i n the form of f l u c t u a t i n g wages and periods of no work which accompanied u n s k i l l e d labouring jobs from the period 1900 to the l a t e 1930's (before the advent of unions among the semi-skilled and unskilled,) m i l i t a t e d against men marrying and s e t t l i n g down. The fact that so many of the residents of Taylor Manor were un s k i l l e d or semi-skilled labourers may explain, i n part, t h e i r lack of f i n a n c i a l pr eparation f o r old age. "Boom" periods for labourers were often followed by slack periods, when savings had to be spent to t i d e the man over u n t i l the next job came along. Furthermore, there were few, i f any, company pension schemes or benefit plans f o r t h i s class of workman. When sickness or old age overcame them, they were forced off the labour market and on to c i t y r e l i e f 3 5 r o l l s . Among those men who did marry, the high percentage of men whose marriage ended unhappily may be explained by the fact that i n a ruptured marriage, family ties are often broken and men lose contact, not only with t h e i r former wives but with t h e i r children. Thus with no r e l a t i v e s to help them i n t h e i r old age, they are forced to ask f o r s o c i a l assistance. Related to the preponderance of single men i n Taylor Manor and men whose marriages have broken up, i s the unhappy f a c t that the majority are completely alone i n the worSd. (See Table 2). A study of c i t y records shows that of the thirty-nine men i n Taylor Manor, t h i r t y have no contact with r e l a t i v e s of any description. Of the eleven men who were at one time married, s i x have no contact ;with either the ex-wife or c h i l d r e n . Of the s i x women i n the group, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, a l l have some contact with r e l a t i v e s . A great deal has been said about the loneliness of old age and there i s ample evidence of i t i n Taylor Manor. One resident stated: "I never dreamed I could be as lonely as I am now." Another, commenting on the loss of h i s wife, which occurred s h o r t l y before he entered Taylor Manor, said, i n a voice f u l l of pathos and bewilderment, "I just ctan't seem to get over I t . " The response to the writer's personal i n t e r e s t i n the 36 old people was another v i v i d expression of loneliness. Requests to "come again" were frequent, as were comments l i k e "It's nice to see a new face—we don't get many v i s i t o r s . " City records also provide a picture of a socio-economic aspect of the residents p r i o r to t h e i r entering Taylor Manor. The picture tends to be uniformly dismal--inadequate housing, poor health and near-destitution are commonly found. A study of housing arrangements, (see Table 3), f o r example, shows that i n f o r t y - f i v e cases, twenty-two"lived i n single rooms, the vast majority of these rooms being i n what i s eommonly termed the "skidroad area" of Vancouver. In f i v e cases, a room was shared with another pensioner or f r i e n d ; four people l i v e d i n shacks or houseboats; four l i v e d i n boarding homes, three i n "missions"; two people l i v e s with r e l a t i v e s ; and, i n two cases, the person had two rooms i n which to l i v e . It i s d i f f i c u l t from the records at hand to estimate exactly how many of the above housing arrangements could be termed s a t i s f a c t o r y . It i s well known that the majority of single rooms were located i n the downtown areas where the rents, though not cheap, are less than i n other areas of the c i t y . This area has been studied c a r e f u l l y by competent authorities and from t h e i r reports, good housing i s the exception, rather than the r u l e . I t i s t o be noted from the c i t y records that i n quite a few instances -the s o c i a l worker 37 saw the single room as being "clean and t i d y . " Others, how-ever, were described as "dismal," "dark", " d i r t y " , "bare", "bleak" and so on. Not a few of the people i n thi s study - found t h e i r rooms cold and draughty i n winter. Two people were l i v i n g i n shacks without benefit of e l e c t r i c i t y or plumbing. Twenty-two of the f o r t y - f i v e individuals i n this study group l i v e d i n single rooms p r i o r to moving int o Taylor Manor. This indicates the common nned f o r personal privacy, .which i n most cases, i s not met i n Taylor Manor. The Governor's Conference on problems of the ageing, i n C a l i f o r n i a , speaks strongly on privacy: "Another frequent i n d i c a t i o n of thoughtlessness or ..indifference i n meeting the needs of the aged i s . the denial of their need and r i g h t f o r personal privacy. A l i v i n g arrangement which f a i l s to meet th i s need f a l l s short i n meeting the test of s u i t a b i l i t y . P lans f o r new buildings housing groups of persons are beginning to show recognition of t h i s need i n departure from the stereotype dormitory arrangement and shared rooms. There i s needless h o s t i l i t y and emotional suffering because of the necessity to spend days and nights i n rooms with others." ^ With regard to the health of the group studied p r i o r to their entry into the Home, we find that t h i r t y of the f o r t y - f i v e were rated from " f a i r " to "poor" i n health. (See Table 4 ) . Only f i f t e e n were i n "good health" and i n a large percentage of these cases, "good health" was q u a l i f i e d by such ailments as high blood pressure, rheumatism and so on. In many cases, the applicant's health improved once he entered Taylor Manor. Not a small number were 1 p.84 38 undernourished as a r e s u l t of trying to e x i s t on meagre s o c i a l assistance allowances, or on unemployment insurance and pensions from various sources. One man was reduced to begging from his neighbours and another, who was reported to be "emaciated i n appearance" was l i v i n g on coffee and dough-nuts. By contrast, the nourishing and regular meals at Taylor Manor benefited the majority. A study of c i t y records was made to determine how this groups of f o r t y - f i v e maintained themselves for the year p r i o r to their entry into Taylor Manor. (See Table 5). Of the f o r t y - f i v e , only two worked up u n t i l a month or so of date of entry. Two managed to support themselves by part-time work; two l i v e d on unemployment insurance benefits and applied fo r assistance when these ran out. Seven were l i v i n g by means of a pension of some description, e.g., Workman's Compensation, C.N.R., old age pension, and so on. The majority, or s i x t y - s i x per cent were i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l assistance, and many of these had been on assistance f o r f i v e or more years. One man was l i v i n g o f f savings and In another case, the person was supported by r e l a t i v e s . The point to be made here i s that the average resident of Taylor Manor struggled long and hard to maintain himself independently. He generally accepted care i n the Home as a l a s t r esort. The Typical "Taylor Manorite" Prom the information i n hand thus far, a composite picture of the average resident of Taylor Manor begins to take shape. 39 The average "Manorite" today i s a single man, between the ages of seventy and eighty, but who entered Taylor Manor when he was between s i x t y and seventy. He i s a native of the B r i t i s h I s l e s , probably England, though fee-, has resided i n Canada f o r at laast twenty years. He has l o s t a l l contact with r e l a t i v e s and i s quite alone i n the world except for a few friends. He has had some formal education, but not a great deal, leaving school at twelve to fourteen. He did not take up any p a r t i c u l a r trade but emigrated to Canada as a young man. His l i f e has been spent i n hard, honest endeavour, p r i n c i p a l l y i n labouring jobs, such as railway work, construction or m i l l work. He may have served time i n the r e l i e f camps during the depression, as work fo r an u n s k i l l e d labourer of f i f t y was extremely d i f f i c u l t to obtain. At about age sixty, because of age and f a l l i n g health, he was unable to compete i n the labour market and was forced to turn to the c i t y for help. Prior to coming into Taylor Manor he l i v e d i n a single room or shared a room with a f r i e n d . The room was generally located i n the area of Vancouver known as "skid road" but this man i s not, i n any sense, a "bum", "rubby-dub", or any r e l a t i o n to the dregs of society that inhabit the same area. He l i v e s i n this d i s t r i c t for two reasons: F i r s t l y , because i t is a low-rent area (comparatively speaking), and that suits his pocketbook, and secondly, i t i s the haunt of single labouring men l i k e himself. His room i s close to department stores, to 40 the bright l i g h t s and to the warm and c o n v i v i a l beer parlours. Furthermore, the skid road area, West Cordova, Powell and Water Streets, was the centre of Vancouver's high l i f e when, as a young man, he f i r s t came to the coast, and for this reason, the area holds pleasant memories for him. Unlike the t y p i c a l "skidroad character", this man keeps himself clean and neatly dressed i f he i s at a l l well and able to do so. S i m i l a r l y , h i s room Is generally neat and clean. It i s only with the onslaught of i l l n e s s and loss of income that these standards f a l l . When approached about leaving his s i n g l e room and moving into Taylor Manor, his f i r s t reaction may be unfavourable, but with encouragement, he may change hi s mind. However, most often i t i s r a p i d l y f a i l i n g health, plus i n a b i l i t y to feed and clothe himself properly on a sub-standard pension or assistance rate, that tips the balance i n favour of moving into Taylor Manor. This has been the case p a r t i c u l a r l y since 1945 when prices of necessities rose sharply, d r a s t i c a l l y reducing the standard of l i v i n g of people on small pensions or allowances. Once i n Taylor Manor, the average resident appears to adjust e a s i l y to his new environment. The physical adjustment i s probably a welcome one. Regular and nourishing meals, a clean bed to sleep i n , clothes provided that keep him neat and presentable, well-heated rooms, and the companionship of 41 his fellow residents are, for many, a decided change from former patterns of l i v i n g . Gone i s the worry of stretching an inadequate pension from one pay day to another; the dark, d i r t y and son© times cold room, with i t s hot plate upon which a l l too meagre meals were prepared; the need to "make-do" with shabby and worn-out clothing; the inadequate t o i l e t and washing f a c i l i t i e s which prevented him from keeping as clean as he would wish to be. Gone, too, i s the personal freedom that this singularly unfettered i n d i v i d u a l has enjoyed a l l his l i f e . He must get up and go to bed at c e r t a i n times, he must eat at set hours, he must advise the matron when he plans to v i s i t f r iends, and so on. Thus, the average resident of Taylor Manor, as pictured here, has a de f i n i t e adjustment to make to the l i f e i n the Home. What i s the quality of t h i s adjustment? Is the average resident of Taylor Manor getting the most out of l i f e ? With the answers to these questions i n hand, an attempt can be made to evaluate the place of Taylor Manor and similar I n s t i t u t i o n s , in a scheme f o r care of the aged. Chapter IV THE PERSONAL ADJUSTS NT OF TAYLOR MANOR RESIDENTS To evaluate the personal adjustment of the residents of Taylor Manor, permission was obtained to use a questionnaire prepared at the University of Chicago and designed s p e c i f i c a l l y for use with old people. (See Appendix A). The questionnaire consists of a number of background and opinion items, and of two inventories, the Adult Attitudes Inventory and the Adult A c t i v i t i e s Inventory. The Attitudes Inventory measures the extent to which an i n d i v i d u a l succeeds i n reorganizing his a c t i v i t i e s and attitudes to meet changes In h i s s i t u a t i o n occasioned by old age. This gives a picture of the person's own evaluation of h i s l i f e adjustment. -The degree to which an older in d i v i d u a l i s able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s t y p i c a l of adults gives a some- , what more external measure of his adjustment to o l d age and i s measured by the Adult A c t i v i t i e s Inventory. Some d i f f i c u l t y was experienced In e l i c i t i n g the cooperation of the old people i n answering the questionnaire. There may be several reasons f o r t h i s , one of which i s supplied by the Rowntree Survey, of old people i n England: "Residents i n i n s t i t u t i o n s are very reluctant at f i r s t to j o i n the 'man i n the street' either i n discussion or s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n . " This report suggests that continued residence i n an i n s t i t u t i o n brings about a f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n or i n f e r i o r i t y which i T Old People, Report of a Survey Committee on the-Problems of ageing and the Care of Old People, B. Seebohm Rountree, Chairman', The Nu f f i e l d Foundation, Oxford University Press, London, 1950,. p. 150. 4 3 would i n h i b i t their t a l k i n g f r e e l y to strangers. It was found that those residents who had a f a i r degree of education (completed grade school and better) were more receptive to the questionnaire, than men with less formal education. This may be due to the fact that some a b i l i t y i n reading and writing English i s required to adequately complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire i s probably too long. I t takes approximately ninety minutes to complete and t h i s can be quite a s t r a i n to old eyes and shaky hands. One or two viewed the questionnaire with suspicion, seeing i t as a possible attempt to reduce their standard of l i v i n g within the home. A l l but one of the women residents f e l t that many of the questions were too personal. One woman commsnted indignantly: "Why should I t e l l anyone i f my legs swell up?" A number of men were also bothered by the personal nature of some of the itmes i n the questionnaire. Of a t o t a l of fift y - o n e residents i n the Home at the time of the survey, only t h i r t y , or sixty per cent attempted to complete questionnaires. Of the t h i r t y , f i v e were discarded because they were incompleted. Because of t h i s small sample, the Interpretation taken from i t must be some-what guarded and, at best, i t can only be used to supplement the information at hand. However, when the completed questionnaires were scored, some d e f i n i t e patterns were noted. , \ } 44 The A c t i v i t y Inventory Score of Taylor Manor Residents The Adult A c t i v i t i e s Inventory was constructed on the assumption that p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s i s one of the factors making for personal adjustment i n old age. The inventory consists of nineteen selected questions from' the Adult A c t i v i t i e s Schedule. These questions are designed to cover the objective aspects of adjustment and include f i v e topics: Health, Intimate Contacts, Leisure-time A c t i v i t i e s , Security, and Regligious A c t i v i t i e s . The health questions do not deal with a c t i v i t i e s per se, but since health: i s closely related to almost a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s of older people, items on health were Included i n the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory. The scoring method f o r the inventory enables -those employing the test to rate people who complete i t i n one of three grades of adjustriBnt--good, average and poor, i n each of the f i v e areas mentioned above. A t o t a l of. the f i v e scores gives a picture of the o v e r - a l l adjustment and i s divided into the same three categories—good, average and poor. In twenty-five questionnaires, the scores of the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory a l l f e l l w i thin the "poor adjustment" range. A breakdown of these scores is as follows: Health; One resident's health is rated as "good" i n terms of his possible adjustment to l i f e ; four are rated "average" and twenty residents are rated "poor". 45 A resident whose health i s scored as "average" stated that he had no physical problems but did f i n d that he t i r e d too e a s i l y , f e l t "blue" at times, d i s l i k e d noise and was f o r g e t f u l . He had spent a month or more i n bed l a s t year. He i s i n his early s i x t i e s and rates his health as f a i r . A man whose health i s given the r a t i n g of "poor" states that h i s serious physical problems are: poor s i g h t , hard o£ hearing, general rheumatic s t i f f n e s s and heart trouble. Other d i f f i c u l t i e s that he mentioned were: shortness o f breath after s l i g h t exerdise, heart burn, feeling t i r e d , d i f f i c u l t y in u r i n a t i o n , constipation and backache.' He also checked "sleeplessness," " t i r e s too e a s i l y , " "food doesn't taste good," feels "blue? and "f or getf ulness " as things that b other ..him on occasions. On the c r e d i t side, he spent no time i n bed l a s t year! This man i s over seventy. It i s interesting to note that a majority rated t h e i r own health as " f a i r " with the next most frequent answer being "good". Using the c r i t e r i a f o r good health as set out i n the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory, only one man out of twenty-f i v e i s rated as enjoying good health, while the majority are rated i n poor health. A possible explanation f o r t h i s i s given i n a Chicago study of 3,000 old people,"1" i n which the authors suggest that men tend to minimize th e i r physical d i f f i c u l t i e s and are generally better s a t i s f i e d with their health, than women. Intimate Contacts This category i s divided into two sections i n the questionnaire: "Your Family" and "Your Friends". The majority of the questionnaires revealed "poor adjustment" 1 Cavan, Burgess, et. a l . , Personal Adjustment In Old Age_, Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, 1949, p.57. 4 6 i n both categories, which, combined, af f o r d a view of the individual's intimate contacts. A l l twenty-five scored very low i n the section "Your Family" which deals with marital condition and certain aspects of the family r e l a t i o n s h i p . This i s to be expected i n view of the preponderance of s i n g l e men i n Taylor Manor. The scores on answers given i n the section "Your Friends" were only s l i g h t l y higher. Both sections combined, give a rating of "poor adjustment" In r e l a t i o n to intimate contacts i n a l l twenty-five, cases. The following are some examples of answers received: A man i n his late s i x t i e s , never married, states that h i s r e l a t i v e s neglect him completely. He says he has no friends among chi l d r e n or young people and that he sees his friends less often than he used to because he can't afford to v i s i t them. He claims he has one to four friends and two of these he regards as "close friends". With regard to intimate - c ontae t s , h i s . adjustment i s poor. Another resident, once married but now separated after twenty-three years of married l i f e , rates h i s marriage as "happy" and i f given and change to l i v e h i s l i f e over, would "possibly" marry the same person. He has three l i v i n g c h i l d r e n but sees them and other close r e l a t i v e s less than once a year. He f e e l s a " l i t t l e neglected" by h i s family. He states'he has ten or more friends but does not consider any of them as "close" f r i e n d s . He sees his old friends less ..often.now than he used to because he does not l i v e i n the same community. He hears from children or young people who are friends of his a few times a year. His adjustment i n this sphere is "poor". The A c t i v i t i e s Inventory supports the findings i n Chapter III 47 which point to the loneliness that i s the l o t of many old people i n Taylor Manor. Pleasant s o c i a l and emotional relationships with friends and members of one's family are considered to be one of the keystones of happiness and good adjustment i n old age, but many people i n Taylor Manor are de f i c i e n t i n this very impcr tant area. Leisure-time A c t i v i t i e s Adjustment i n this area Is rated by using two categories of questions: one oh l e i s u r e and recreation and another on clubs and organizations. The l a t t e r gives the i n s t i t u t i o n a l and organizational interests of older people. In twenty-f i v e cases, the adjustment in the area of l e i s u r e and recreation i s seen as "average" i n f i v e and. " poor" In twenty cases. In r e l a t i o n to club and organizational a c t i v i t i e s , a l l twenty-five cases were rated "poor". A man, In f a i r health, has a l l day i n which to do as he l i k e s . He spends his free time mainly i n reading and also writes l e t t e r s , l i s t e n to the radio, and plays cards or other table games. His f a v o t i t e hobby i s reading and studying. He has plans f o r things he wishes to do i n the next year or two which include a v i s i t to friends and relatif/es. He spends p r a c t i c a l l y a l l day reading; attends the movies less, than once a month and spends an hour or more l i s t e n i n g to the radio each day. He l i s t s f i v e types of radio programs that he p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e s . His rat i n g i s "poor". A man, over seventy, and i n f a i r health, has a l l day to himself and he l i s t s eight a c t i v i t i e s that occupy h i s time. These include work i n and around the Home, l i s t e n i n g to the radio, attending movies, attending clubs, lodge or other meetings, shopping, taking r i d e s , v i s i t i n g friends and reading. He has,no hobbies or fav o r i t e pastimes. In the next year he plans to take a pleasure t r i p . He spends an hour or more reading each day and he l i s t s four types of radio programs that he prefers. His r a t i n g 48 Is "average adjustment." In contrast to the above, a t h i r d case i s a man i n his l a t e s i x t i e s who describes his health as "excellent". He has a l l day to himself but spends almost a l l of that time i n reading. This i s his f a v o r i t e pastime--he never attends movies and seldom l i s t e n s to the radio. He has nothing that he plans to do i n the next year or two, he has no club or lodge connections; h i s r a t i n g i s "poor". This section of the questionnaire reveals that reading i s the most popular pastime, followed by l i s t e n to the radio and card playing. Hobbies and favo±ite pastimes were seldom l i s t e d ; but s o l i t a r y pursuits such as writing l e t t e r s , reading, l i s t e n i n g to the radio, were common methods of passing the time. Group a c t i v i t i e s , such as playing g o l f (on the Home gol f course), p a r t i c i p a t i n g In community or church work, were seldom mentioned. The section on "Clubs and Organizations" i n the questionnaire gives further Information on leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s of the people i n Taylor Manor . Here the scoring indicated that a l l of the group rated very low In their organizational i n t e r e s t s . Only seven per cent of those completing questionnaires belonged to organizations or clubss and the majority of these were not active members, either because of lack of Interest or because they were p h y s i c a l l y unable to attend. This section indicates the absence of any club a c t i v i t y within Taylor Manor and suggests that the inhabitants are somewhat i s o l a t e d from the surrounding community. I t should also be remembered, however, that the lack of i n t e r e s t i n clubs or organizational 49 a c t i v i t i e s may be a continuing pattern from the e a r l i e r years of the residents, when, few of them had either union or lodge a f f i l i a t i o n s . Security; This section of the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory evaluates the person's adjustment to objective aspects of s e c u r i t y such as the person's present economic circumstances, chief means of support and f e e l i n g of security. In this section of the inventory, a l l of the group of twenty-five scored "poor", although f i f t y - e i g h t per cent described their present p o s i t i o n In l i f e as "comfortable." When asked "are you i n a better or worse p o s i t i o n now than at age f i f t y - f i v e ? " , forty-two per cent said they were "worse now", forty-two per cent said, "about the same" and sixteen per cent said, "better now. " In answering the question, "do you f e e l that your present source of income gives permanent security?V seventy-one per cent said, "yes". In the Chicago study of old people's problems, an increased f e e l i n g of economic security with increased age was noted. This i t was suggested, could possibly be accounted for i n one of two ways. F i r s t , with increasing r e s t r i c t i o n s i n s o c i a l contacts and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the f e l t need for money to spend f o r recreation may lessen. A l l of the income may then be used to s a t i s f y physical needs, and a great f e e l i n g of security may follow as a r e s u l t . Second, with advanced age comes personal and p h y s i c a l dependence upon some younger person or some agency for d a i l y care, which may engender i n the older person a f e e l i n g of increased security that he does- not . 50 distinquish from economic s e c u r i t y ! 1 This l a t t e r point may be a factor i n the general f e e l i n g of security that many of the residents of Taylor Manor f e e l . Religion: This section of the inventory evaluates interest and a c t i v i t y i n reBgion and changes i n t h i s area. One of the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of l a t e r maturity, according to the Chicago study of old people, i s an increased s a t i s f a c t i o n with r e l i g i o n and a d e r i v a t i o n of a f e e l i n g of security therefDDm. "Apparently, as the prospect of an earthly future fades, 2 the b e l i e f i n a future after death r e p l a c e s q i t . " This does not seem to be the case f o r the average resident of Taylor Manor. The majority of the group are not church members and sixty-one per cent of them never attend r e l i g i o u s services. Furthermore, members of the group attend services l e s s often now than they did at age f i f t y - f i v e . The two most common reasons given for this are f i r s t , "not p h y s i c a l l y able" and second, "lack of i n t e r e s t " . When asked i f they believed i n an aft e r l i f e , f i f t y - s e v e n per cent said they were "not sure", thirty-seven per cent said "no" and six per cent said "yes, sure of i t . " The majority l i s t e n to services over the radio "once i n a while", with the next largest group answering that they "never" l i s t e n to radio services. On the other hand, the majority never read a Prayer Book, Bible or other r e l i g i o u s 1 Personal Adjustment i n Old Age, p.55. 2 Ibid., p.57. 51 books, with the minority reading one of these "less than once a week". Prom these figures i t would appear that the people i n Taylor Manor do not receive much s a t i s f a c t i o n from r e l i g i o n and that t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s is quite l i m i t e d . I t should be noted here that Taylor Manor i s separated from nearby churches/a steep h i l l and bus service i s inadequate. The Attitude Inventory Score of Taylor Manor Residents The Adult Attitude Inventory consists of eight groups of seven statements, each group of which deals with a phase of personal adjustment, or some area of l i v i n g which might condition personal adjustment. The person completing the inventory is merely asked to indicate whether he agrees or disagrees with each statement; i f he i s i n doubt and cannot decide, this can also be indicated. The inventory was designed to enable an ind i v i d u a l to express his f e e l i n g s of s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n eight categories: Health, Friends, Work, Economic Security, Religion, Feeling of Usefulness, Happiness and Family. As i n the case df the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory, scores may be recorded by category, or by t o t a l score. The categories are e s s e n t i a l l y the same as those In the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory, the difference i n the two being that the Attitude Inventory i s a more subjective measurement of adjustment than the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory, which measures objective factors i n the individual's adjustment. Because the categories are s i m i l a r , i t is reasonable to expect that the findings of one inventory w i l l substantiate 52 the findings of the second. This i s true i n the present instance. In twenty-five cases, f i f t y - e i g h t per cent-of the t o t a l scores f e l l within the "poor" adjustment range and forty-two per cent came within the "average" range. This contrasts somewhat with the t o t a l scores of the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory which a l l came within the "poor" adjustment range. It would appear from a subjective point of view that forty-two per cent of the study group are f a i r l y w e ll adjusted to t h e i r l i f e i n the Home. However, the patterns of adjuwtment revealed by the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory are maintained by the Attitude Inventory, i f not i n so pronounced a manner. This can be shown by presenting, from each of the eight categories, the three statue nts on which there was most agreement. Health Statement No. Agree Disagree ? 3 I never f e l t better i n my l i f e 2 19 2 5 When I was younger I f e l t a l i t t l e 17. 2 2 better than I do now. 4 If I can't f e e l better soon I would just as soon die. 2 14 2 It may be that statements three and four are emotionally loaded and l i k e l y to draw an immediate and d e f i n i t e response. The preponderance of "disagree" answers to statement three appears almost as a shouting d e n i a l and suggests that the majority do not enjoy the best of health. Statment f i v e v e r i f i e s t h i s . Perhaps i t can be said that these three statements do not wholly substantiate the findings of the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory which reported that twenty of the group were i n 53 poor health. However, the statments do support the group's own estimation of t h e i r health, which, i n the majority of cases, was " f a i r " . Friends Statement No. Agree Disagree ? 1. . I have more friends now than I ever had before ,» 4 20 0 5 . 1 have so few friends that I am lonely much of the time. 12 4 2 7. I have a l l the'good friends anyone could wish. 6 12 2 The adjustment r a t i n g for Intimate Contacts i n the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory was "poor" for the majority of the group. This is well supported by the above statements. Here i s a picture of the loneliness that attends old age, parti c u l a r l y f o r people without family or long-time f r i e n d s . I t i s heartening to note i n statment seven that at least s i x of the group are happy with their c i r c l e of f r i e n d s . But i t is pathetic to note the number who are "lonely much of the time", even though they are l i v i n g i n close proximity to f i f t y people of thei r own age. Work Statement No. Agree Disagree ? 7. I have more free tiire than I know how to use. . 1 8 0 0 4. I have no work to look forward to. 15 10 e 6. I do better work now than ever before. 0 16 2 Statement seven affords another view of the individual's 54 estimation of hi s own a c t i v i t i e s . The concensus of opinion seems to be that "time hangs h e a v i l y " on t h e i r hands. This correlates with the low a c t i v i t y t o t a l scores shown on the A c t i v i t y Inventory. Statement four i s interesting i n that i t indicates how the residents see themselves. The majority who f e e l they have no work to look forward to might be those who have resigned themselves to old age, i n the most negative meaning of that term. Statement six i s a part of this picture too. The minority, who, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, disagree with t h i s statment, indicates a possible willingness to undertake some a c t i v i t y or part-time job. More than t h i s , i t indicates that some people In Taylor Manor s t i l l i d e n t i f y themselves as p o t e n t i a l l y useful members of ( society and do not c l a s s i f y themselves as "aged". It must be a f r u s t r a t i n g experience f o r t h i s group to f e e l they have work to look forward to and yet have no opportunity to engage i n some a c t i v i t y that would meet this need. Economic Security Statement No. Agree Disagree ? 5. I am provided with many home comforts. 19 4" 0 4. A l l my needs are cared f o r . 19 5 0 6. I have everything that money can buy. 0 16 0 The general f e e l i n g of security noted i n the A c t i v i t i e s Inventory i s supported by statements four and f i v e . The f i r s t two statements speak well for the physical care given 55 to the residents of Taylor Manor. Again i t can be conjectured that physical dependence i s being confused with, economic security .„ Religion Statement No. 1. I have no use for r e l i g i o n 4. Religion doesn't mean much to me. 6. Religion i s the race t important thing i n my l i f e . The A c t i v i t i e s Inventory revealed that a majority of the study group i n Taylor Manor receive l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n from r e l i g i o n and that their r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s are l i m i t e d . Disregarding the f i r s t statement as too emotionally tinged, statements four and s i x support the findings of the f i r s t inventory. The Chicago study found that women tend to receive, more s a t i s f a c t i o n from r e l i g i o n i n the i r old age, than men do."*- Taylor Manor is predominantly an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r men. Furthermore, the background of the majority i s not one that suggests that church membership was a part of t h e i r l i f e . Feeling of Usefulness Statement No. Agree Disagree ? 6. This is the most useful period of my l i f e . 0 21 0 7. I can't help f e e l i n g now that my l i f e i s not very useful. 18 2 2 3. The days are too short for a l l I want to do. 2, 15 3 Agree Disagree ? 0 16 3 15 8 ' 2 6 12 3 T P e r s o n a l Adjustment In Old Age, p. 57. This category helps to round out the picture of the average "Taylor Manorite" by showing what he thinks of himself. As i n the category dealing with "Work" the f e e l i n g of being "on the s h e l f " comes through. The majority seems to be saying, "I'm not much use, anymore." Repeated again, i n statement three, i s the theme, "Time hangs h e a v i l y . " Happiness Statement No. Agree Disagree ? 2. I am just as happy as when I was younger. 0 18 Q) 5. These are the best years of my l i f e . 0 21 0 3. My l i f e could be happier than i t i s now. 15 5 2 Here, the subjective area of "happiness" Is examined and statment two shows a d e f i n i t e tendency, common to aged people who are not well adjusted, to l i v e i n the past. Statement f i v e supports t h i s point of view. A l l three statements show a lack of zest for l i f e which, according to the Chicago Study, i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l a t e r maturity. A l l i n a i l , the entire seven statements i n this category are quite negative and the group seem to f e e l that their share of happiness is a l l i n the past. Family In view of the predominance of single men i n Taylor Manor, this category was only completed by a very few of the group and was, therefore, not scored. In this chapter, an attempt has been made to evaluate the personal adjustment of twenty-five residents of Taylor Manor. 5 7 To round out our p o r t r a i t of an average resident of Taylor Manor, the following may be added to the composite picture begun i n Chapter Three. The average Taylor Manorite i s between seventy and eighty years of age and, by his own estimation, Is i n " f a i r " health, but poorer now than i t was at age f i f t y - f i v e . He does, not l i s t many "serious physical problems", but i s a l i t t l e hard of hearing and his eyesight i s f a i l i n g . However, he does have complaints that often trouble him such as, shortness of breath a f t e r exercise, a general t i r e d f e e l i n g , d i f f i c u l t y i n u rination, sleeplessness, f e e l i n g "blue" and forgetfulness. He has had no serious accidents i n the l a s t f i v e years and has spent l i t t l e or no time i n bed i n the past year. As noted before, he has never married and has l o s t contact with his r e l a t i v e s who are either a l l dead or i n distant parts of Canada. He sees h i s old friends less often than he used to because i t i s d i f f i c u l t to get around and because he l i v e s i n a d i f f e r e n t part of the community. As a r e s u l t , he reports that he often feels lonely. The average man i n Taylor Manor has a l l day i n which to do as he wishes and he finds himself hard-pressed to keep occupied. He l i k e s to read and l i s t e n to the radio (sports broadcasts and news being among h i s f a v o r i t e programes.) He does not have a hobby and generally finds that he has more free time than he knows what to do with. He seldom goes to the movies and has no a f f i l i a t i o n with any club or lodge. He 58 i s not a r e l i g i o u s man, although occasionally he w i l l l i s t e n to services over the radio. He i s doubtful about the prospects of an after l i f e . The average resident seems himself as an old man who i s not much use to the world. Sometimes he f e e l s that he could be u s e f u l , i f given the opportunity, but he says he has no work to look forward to. He fe e l s that he could be happier than he i s at present, and because of t h i s he tends to l i v e in. the past to some extent. "This country was better o f f i n the horse and buggy days". Sometimes he feels the "breaks" i n l i f e have gone against him, but looking back over h i s l i f e , he fe e l s he has enjoyed average happiness and i s reasonably s a t i s f i e d with what he has accomplished. If he could have three wishes, they would be : (1) To l i v e h i s l i f e over again, (2) To have better health,and (3) To see his r e l a t i v e s again. In evaluating the personal adjustment of the people i n Taylor Manor, i t should be renembered that the old person, l i k e the young person, desires s o c i a l recognition, emotional security, sexual expression, relaxation, and new experience, as w e l l as physical comfort, The strength of these drives seems to vary with age, however. In old age, the desire f o r emotional security, s o c i a l recognition, relaxation and physical comfort may Increase, while the desire f o r sexual expression and new experiences may decrease; but none of these drives seems to be completely l o s t . 1 1 Adjustment i n Old Age, p. 79. 59 In Taylor Manor, the heed for relaxation and physical comfort are adequately taken care of and the few women i n the home, i n addition to the female s t a f f members, provide some outlet, broadly speaking, f o r sexual expression. In the area of new experiences, s o c i a l recognition and emotional security there could be some d e f i n i t e improvements. In Taylor Manor, the variety and number of s o c i a l contacts available to the olcj. people seems to be quite l i m i t e d . Interaction with persons and groups i n the surrounding community i s p a r t i c u l a r l y lacking. When the range of i n t e r a c t i o n decreases, some old people tend to s l i p into the past. The garrulous r e c i t a l s of past experiences, which i s common to many old people,, and c e r t a i n l y noticeable among residents of Taylor Manor, often represents a dearth of present experiences. However, i f old people are occupied with interesting a c t i v i t i e s there i s less tendency to while away empty hours by day dreaming of past pleasures and grlevences. Emotional security, a prime factor i n good personal adjustment, depends on the quality of intimate contacts. In t h i s respect, the Intimate contacts of Taylor Manorites appear to be scanty and s u p e r f i c i a l . What can be done to bring a l i t t l e more emotional security, i . e . warm, a f f e c t i o n a l relationships with others, into the l i v e s of these people? More contact with the outside community and some planned a c t i v i t y within the home might help. The Attitude and A c t i v i t y Inventories combined, show that the majority of the group studied were poorly adjusted. Too many of the residents have surrendered to old age and seem to 60 have slipped into a state of passive dependency. With l i f e flowing a l l around them, the people i n Taylor Manor seem only to f i n d solace i n reading and lis t e n i n g to the r a d i o . Judging by the number of bodily complaints l i s t e d , the residents appear to have l i t t l e else to do but become absorbed i n their own physical and mental reactions. This unhealthy withdrawal from l i f e ' s a c t i v i t i e s ddes not have to be. Old age can, and should be, a f r u i t f u l and happy period i n an individual's l i f e . Chapter V A NEW DEAL FOR OLD PEOPLE The p r i n c i p a l needs of old people i n Taylor Manor are evidently twofold. They need s o c i a l c ontacts—the change to meet new people and make new fr i e n d s . And they need a planned program of a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l be v i t a l and appealing} It should be said at once that the picture of i n d i v i d u a l loneliness and i n a c t i v i t y can be duplicated again and again i n nursing homes, boarding homes, rooming houses and apartment blocks throughout Vancouver. I t i s not confined to Taylor Manor. Indeed, loneliness and a f e e l i n g of uselessness on the part of the aged are natural outcomes of society's f a i l u r e to provide a r i c h culture for ^.ts old people. The awakening in t e r e s t i n the many problems of the aged i s an indication that people are determined to do something for the happiness and well-being of this neglected segment of our population. The c i t y , which has made such great strides i n bringing Taylor Manor along the road from a quail-workhouse to a "home" for the aged, should seize the opportunity to demonstrate what can be done to bring happiness and a sense of accomplishment into the li v e s of old people everywhere. Is t h i s a c a l l f o r an "experimental" program f o r which there has never been any precedents The answer here i s d e f i n i t e l y , not Much valuable work has been ~" 1 "Writers i n gerontology strongly emphasize the therapeutic and other values of recreation. E t i e g l i t z , i n The Second Forty  Years, says that: 'Success or f a i l u r e i n the second forty.years, measured i n terms of happiness, i s determined more by how we use or abuse our l e i s u r e time than by any other f a c t . ' " Governor's  Conference on Problems of the Aging, p. 290. 61 done i n restoring the desire and a b i l i t y i n old people to l i v e i n a s a t i s f y i n g manner. The Senior Citizen's Club, formed at Gordon House, for old people l i v i n g In Vancouver's West End, Is c l e a r l y demonstrating that people, s i x t y - f i v e and over, i f given an opportunity, w i l l plan and take part i n a variety of a c t i v i t i e s , some of which are not popularly associated with old age. For example, Gordon House has three main categories of a c t i v i t i e s f o r i t s older patrons which have been evolved out of the expressed desires of the old people. F i r s t l y , there i s the informal "drop-in" type of program i n teich the old people may c a l l i n any time the House i s open to chat with s t a f f , play cards, meet t h e i r friends, read and so on. The second area of a c t i v i t y i s a mass recreation type of . • program. This includes whist and bridge parties twice weekly, pi c n i c s i n the summer and special dinners. Regular weekly entertainments are planned--movies, bingo parties or l i v e entertainment. Saturday night, the old people hold a dance with an orchestra supplied by the house. The important element of a l l these plans i s that the old people, numbering some two hundred and f i f t y , have the i r own executive, which i n cooperation with the Gordon House s t a f f , plan and arrange their entertainment. These old people are helped to help themselves. The t h i r d type of program for senior c i t i z e n s at Gordon House consists of small group a c t i vi ty c atering to a wide variety of i n t e r e s t s . For example, a discussion group, under voluntary leadership, has proved most successful. This group has formed 62 themselves into a u n i t of the C.B.C.'s C i t i z e n 1 s Forum and meet weekly to discuss topics of current interest. There i s a small but enthusiastic Glee Club, made up of women; a mixed club for square dance i n s t r u c t i o n with instructors from youthful square dance teams i n the c i t y . This mixing of youth and age has worked out well and points up the f a c t that old people enjoy the company of young people. S t i l l another group meet s o c i a l l y at the House, play cards, and plan t r i p s to i n t e r e s t i n g spots nearby. A c r a f t s program was started by the House for the old people and s t a f f members point out the great deal of support and encouragement needed to in t e r e s t old people i n taking up handicrafts. Many have come to believe that they are too old to learn anything new--a common misconception among the old. With support and "exposure" i . e . , seeing work that haS already been done, several old people.have taken up t h i s hobby. Before Christmas, the numbers of old people engaged i n handicrafts increases markedly as they engage i n making small g i f t s for their f r i e n d s . A s t a f f member pointed out that the old people f i n d much more security i n copying rather than creating at f i r s t . But as their i n t e r e s t and s k i l l increases, they begin to do more creative work. Pottery making, copper work, sketching, painting and basketry are among the c r a f t s taught. A music appreciation club led by a s o c i a l work student on a volunteer basis, with records supplied by the University Extansion Library, has helped to while away many pleasant hours 63 for the members of th i s group. At Gordon House, the old people are encouraged, with patience and understanding, to brighten t h e i r l i v e s by taking up new a c t i v i t i e s and making new f r i e n d s . The emphasis i s placed on helping the old people to express t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , and then to offer, help i n carrying out these i n t e r e s t s . They are not regarded as "children", or treated i n any way condescendingly. They are a d u l t s 7 - l i k e ourselves--wi th c a p a b i l i t i e s that they may be unaware of, but which blossom f o r t h i n the f r i e n d l y and accepting atmosphere of the House. It Is this atmosphere that prompts several of the older men to take piano lessons and another to take up once again, after some years' absence, the playing of a z i t h e r . What are the implications of the (Jordon House program f o r Taylor Manor? At Taylor Manor there is a great need f o r some type of planned a c t i v i t y for the residents. This i s a job for a trained groupworker. For many of the residents, sinking as they are within themselves, group a c t i v i t y w i l l raise fears, misgivings and h o s t i l i t y . A great deal of psychological support, patience and time w i l l be necessary before they can be brought out of the present lethargy. A simple discussion group might be a good starting-point. Gradually, as the group gains cohesiveness, suggestions f o r other types of a c t i v i t i e s might arise and, by u t i l i z i n g the natural leaders i n the group, a planning committee could be formed to arrange entertainments and outings. As the group takes more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning and arranging program, 64 the group worker can withdraw to the sidelines and stand by as a resource person, offering suggestions and help when needed. I t i s the f e e l i n g of taking part i n the choosing and planning of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y which makes one f e e l a part of things, and i t i s just this f e e l i n g that i s needed among the residents of Taylor Manor. At present they have l i t t l e part i n choosing or planning entertainments or a c t i v i t i e s . Too .much i s done fo r them. The type of a c t i v i t y program i n Taylor Manor at p r e s e n t — c h i e f l y the mass a c t i v i t y varifety--movies, l i v e concerts and so on, i s p a r t l y a r e s u l t of pressure of time on the s t a f f . * The matron, and those under her,-have t h e i r time f u l l y taken up with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s entailed i n keeping the Home running smoothly and meeting the physical needs of i t s residents. Therefore, the recreational needs o f t he old people have been neglected. A trained group worker, assigned to work i n Taylor Manor, would remedy this neglect. The a l t e r n a t i v e appears t o be to l e t the present inmates slip Into s e n i l i t y which happens so often to old people who have no one to meet, nowhere to go and nothing to do. The second major needsof the residents of Taylor Manor i s for s o c i a l contacts--a chance to see new faces and make new friends. To meet this need, the establishment of a ladies' a u x i l i a r y i s suggested. The value of this plan i s well i l l u s t r a t e d by the a u x i l i a r y to the P r o v i n c i a l Infirmary, Marpole. For thirteen years, this organization has provided a v i s i t i n g service 65 to the many patients i n the Infirmary who are without friends or who are f a r from f a m i l i e s . They have provided patients with "luxuries" that cannot be given by the I n s t i t u t i o n , such as radio earphones, bed lamps, birthday g i f t s , p a r t i e s and so on. They arrange for movies every two weeks; f o r bus t r i p s ; and for transportation to special events. The a u x i l i a r y have charge of the Infirmary l i b r a r y and buy new books f o r i t . i t has equipped an occupational therapy room and has redecorated wards, hallways and the auditorium, making the place more cheerful and l i v a b l e . This organization raises money by s e l l i n g calendars and by holding a yearly rummage sale. Thirteen years ago, the proceeds of the au x i l i a r y ' s f i r s t rummage sale was #80.00. This year's sale nefeted $15,000. An a u x i l i a r y f o r Taylor Manor would help i n providing needed s o c i a l contacts for the residents, as well as establishing a l i n k between the Home and the community. It could also provide a few of the luxuries that are so welcome to people i n I n s t i t u t i o n s . The number o f projects to which an a u x i l i a r y could devote i t s time would be i n f i n i t e and varied. Would such an organization Interfere with the administration of the Home? At the Marpole Infirmary, the working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a u x i l i a r y and the s t a f f is one that operates smoothly and amicably. Any tendencies to "control" on the part of an au x i l i a r y might be avoided by a conference of interested people p r i o r to the setting up of such a body to discuss the role and aims of an a u x i l i a r y to a home for the aged. Summarizing the foregoing, there appears t o be two groups 66 of recommendations that can be made i n the int e r e s t s of the old people at, Taylor, (and i n d i r e c t l y , i n the int e r e s t s of old people i n boarding homes, nursing homes, and i n s t i t u t i o n s throughout Canada). The f i r s t group would involve a reconsideration of p o l i c y , while the second group are items that could be taken care of toy an a u x i l i a r y . The f i r s t group o f recommendations i s as follows: (1) The appointment of a trained group worker to develop a program of planned a c t i v i t y f o r the old people. (2) The formation of a l a d i e s ' a u x i l i a r y for the pU'eposes of f r i e n d l y v i s i t i n g , and establishing a l i n k between Taylor Manor and the community, as well as for the many extra services that an a u x i l i a r y can provide. (3) In Taylor Manor i t Is noted that the residents are expected to r e t i r e at nine p.m., at which time, a l l l i g h t s are to be put out. It was one of the strong recommendations of the Rowntree Committee's report on Old people i n England that the routine of the aged should not be too r i g i d . -They p a r t i c u l a r l y stressed that a great deal of freedom i n deciding when to get up and when to go to bed should be allowed. 1 It i s recommended, therefore, that people i n Taylor Manor be allowed to r e t i r e when they wish. (4> The l a s t meal i n the day at Taylor Manor i s at 5.30 p.m.; as i t . i s fourteen and one-half hours u n t i l the next meal, (breakfast at 8 a.m.), i t i s suggested that a bedtime snack of cocoa and a b i s c u i t be available for those who wish i t . (5) A most "un-homelike" feature of Taylor Manor i s the f a c t that there are no sugar containers. on the dining room tables. Residents are issued with an amount of sugar each week and are expected to bring their own supply of sugar to the table for each meal. The reason f o r this appears to be that some of the residents would take, more sugar than i s good for them. Surely these people could be seated at special tables where sugar could be c a r e f u l l y apportioned to them. Sugar containers could then be put on the other tables. , The remaining group of recommednations are those which might serve as projects f o r an a u x i l i a r y : . (6) More colour i s needed i n the dining room. Some bright I Old People, Report of a Survey Committee on the Problems Of Ageing and the Care o f Old People, p. 60. 67 drapes and cheerful tables cloths would add a great deal to the appearance of the room. (7) A few easy chairs f o r the.mens* s i t t i n g rooms upstairs would be most welcome. The present hard-backed chairs are not too i n v i t i n g . , (8) The present l i b r a r y of books i n Taylor Manor i s most inadequate. A connection with the nearest lending l i b r a r y should be established so that a good supply of reading, material i s on hand. One or two of .the residents might be appointed to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : o f keeping account of the books on loan. (9) Quite a few of the movies shewn i n the home are put out by companies for advertising purposes. While some of these are excellent, many are not too entertaining. More use should be made of the National Film Board Libary and the Library at the Extension Department, University o f B r i t i s h Columbia. This, survey of the f a c i l i t i e s of Taylor Manor has shown that the old people there, like many old people, everywhere, f e e l unwanted, lonely and without a sense of usefulness. To replace these feelings with a sense of happiness, worthiness and accomplishment i s as important as seeing to th e i r physical care. This i s the challenging and,worthy task ahead. Judging by the improvements made i n Taylor Manor over the l a s t few years, the present c i t y o f f i c i a l s are equal to that task. 68 Table 1. The age of a group of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor (1) at time of entry into the Home and (2) present.age, March 15, 1952. 1 Age At Time of Entry Age Today 55 - 59 2 1 60 - 64 13 4 65 - 69 15 7 70 - 74 10 14 75 - 79 3 14 80 - 84 1 2 85 - 90 1 3 45 45 Table 2. Showing marital status of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor and whether or not they are i n contact with r e l a t i v e s at present time, 15 March 1952. g Figures for female residents given i n parenthesis. Marital Status Totals xi Contact With Relatives? Yes No Total Single Widowed Separated Divorced 28 (1) 4 (4) 4 (1) 3 (0) 4 (1) 2 (4) 1 (1) 1 (0) 24 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 2 (0) 29 8 5 3 1 City S o c i a l Service Records 2 City S o c i a l Service Records 69 Table 3. Showing housing arrangements of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor immediately p r i o r to their entry into the Home.-*-Type of Accommodation Total Single Room 22 Sharing room with one other person 5 Living i n shack or househoat 4 Living i n a mission or ho s t e l 3 Boarding home 4 With r e l a t i v e s 2 Two room suite 2 Not stated 3 45 Table 4. Showing health of f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor at the time of t h e i r entry into the Home. State of Health* Total Good Health 13 Pair Health 17 Poor Health 15 45" -is- As estimated by c i t y o f f i c i a l s . Table 5. Showing how f o r t y - f i v e residents of Taylor Manor supported themselves, or were supported, f o r the year p r i o r to the i r entry into the Home. Means of Support Total Working f u l l time 2 Working part time ., 2 Livi n g o f f U.I. Benefits 2 Receiving a pension 7 Receiving c i t y s o c i a l assistance 30 Supported e n t i r e l y by r e l a t i v e s 1 Livi n g o f f savings 1 45 1. City Social Service Records 2. City S o c i a l Service Records 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY ARTICLES Poison, Joseph, K., "Old Age as a S o c i o l o g i c a l Problem," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, v o l . X, January, 1940, pp. 30-42. Good, Jean, "Living Arrangements f o r Older C i t i z e n s , " B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, Nov-Dec 1950, pp.4-8. McHugh, Rose, "A Constructive Program f o r the Aged," Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l  Work, Columbia University, 1947, pp. 591-401. unsigned a r t i c l e , B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, September, 1948, p.16. unsigned a r t i c l e , "Indigency accompanies Old Age i n High Ration of 45 to 100", Public Welfare i n Manitoba, A p r i l , 1947, p.8. GOVERNMENT REPORTS Canada, Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons on Old Age Security, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, No. 15, May 11, 1950 and No. 16, May 12, 1950. REPORTS AND SURVEYS ON THE PROBLEMS OF THE AGED Proceedings of the Governor's Conference on the Problems of the Aging, C a l i f o r n i a State Pri n t i n g O f f i c e , Sacremenio, C a l i f o r n i a , 1951, Old People, Report of a Survey Committee on the Problems of ageing and the care of Old People, B. Seebohm Rowntree, chairman, published for the trustees of the N u f f i e l d Foundation, Oxford University Press, London, 1950. Cavan, R.S., Burgess, and others, Personal Adjustment i n Old Age, Science Researcn Associates, Inc., Gnicago, 194y. H ouslng f o r O n r Older Citizens , Vancouver Housing Association, Leydier, B., Boarding Home Care for the Aged, M.S.W. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19487 .7.1 NEWSPAPER ARTICLES The Province, June 23, 1915, p. 9.(unsigned a r t i c l e ) The Province, June 3, 1938, p. 22.(Unsigned a r t i c l e ) APPENDIX "A" it ACTIVITIES and ATTITUDES Prepared by Ernest W . Burgess, Ruth S. Cavern, a n d Robert J . Havighurst The University of Chicago Although the number of middle-aged and older persons in the United States is increasing, we know very little of what interests these people may have, of how they are spend-ing their time, or the kind of work they do. The only relia-ble way to get information about experiences during the fifties, sixties, and the later years of life is to ask people of these ages. If you will tell us about your past experience and your present condition of life, you will help in the gathering of information that may better the life conditions of middle-aged and older persons. It will take between 60 and 90 minutes to answer the questions in this booklet. Thank you for your cooperation. Check the answers to each question in the spaces pro-vided, as in the example below. Are you a man? \/ pr a woman? This schedule is designed to measure your activities and attitudes. Please do not discuss it with others. Published by Science Research Associates, 228 S.Wabash> Avenue,- Chicago 4, III. Copyright 1948, by Science Research Associates All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of 'America A. General Information 1. Are you a man?_ or a woman?-2. How old were you on your last birthday? 3. What race are you? White . . . Negro . . . Other . . . 4. In what country were you born? 5. In what country was your father born? Your mother?— 6. In what city do you live now? (If you live on a farm, give the nearest place where you usually shop.) City-State 7. Do you live on a farm ? Yes No 8. How long have you lived in (or near) the city where you live? years. 9. If you live ina city, in what kind of neighbor-hood do you live ? Business district _ — Rooming house district Apartment house district Hotel district Small private homes (5 rooms or less) Large private homes (6 rooms or more). • . 10. How long have you lived in this neighbor-hood?— 11. Check the last grade of school that you have finished. No schooling . . . Grades 1_2_3_4_5_6—7_8_ High School 1 2 3 4 College l_2_3_^a Other schooling (number of years) Business College, post graduate Trade Other 12. If you went to an ungraded school, what was your age when you left scnool?. . . B. Your Health 1. How would you rate your health at the pre sent time? Very poor Poor Fair Good . Excellent 2. Is your health better or worse now than it was when you were 55 years of age? Worse now About the same Better now 3. What are your serious physical problems? Poor sight Blind or nearly so . Hard of hearing Deaf or nearly so Crippled arms, hands or legs . . General rheumatic stiffness . . . .— Heart trouble Stomach trouble High blood pressure No physical problems Other (what is it?) 4. Below is a list of difficulties that people often have. Check those that trouble you. Shortness of breath at night . . . . Shortness of breath after slight exercise . Heart burn Swelling of feet or legs Feeling tired . Have had nervous breakdown . . . Difficulty in urination Constipation . Aching joints Backache Gas pains Belching Headaches No difficulties . 5. How many days didyou spend in bed last year? All the time A month or more Two to four weeks A few days None 2 6. Which of the following things often trouble you? Sleeplessness . . Bad dreams '. — — Tire too easily. . . . . . . . . . . . .— Food doesn't taste good . . . . . . . ' Feel "blue" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-Nervousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — Dislike noise T. . .——-Worry, about my health . . . . . . . ' ' • Forgetfulness :— Troubled with none of these . . . ._—•— 7. Have you had any serious, accidents in the last five years? Yes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*SL N o . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ If so, what? L 1 C. Your Family 1. Which of the following applies to you? Never been married —•—_ Married and living with , husband or wife. . .'. . . . . . . .——— Married but separated .- _ Widow or widower . .'. . . . How many years ago were you widowed? 2. How many times have you been married?.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. What was your age at the time of your (first) marriage? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. How do you rate the happiness of your (last) marriage? • • Very unhappy. . . . . . .-. . . . \ . . _ _ — . Unhappy -—:—' Average _ Happy . . . . ._——. Very happy ., . 5. If you had your life to live over, would you marry the same person? ho ................... . .-Possibly . Certainly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .—:—— 6. How many living children do you now have? 7. With whom are you living? i With husband .or wife . . . . . . . . "; •' • With husband or wife and children With children alone . . . . . . . . . . — : Alone . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . With/parents .•... v . . ; .— With relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . •-With friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . Others (who are they?) 1—_ 8. Where do you live? v , My own home or apartment . .;. . Someone else'-s home * . t. . . . . . _ Rooming house >. . . . . . . . . . . .——— Hotel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r Homefor bid people '.——^_ Other (where?).: •. ' ' : .— 9. How long have you lived "in this place? —years. 1 10. How does your present neighborhood com-pare with the one you lived in when you were - 55? (If you live 'in the same neighborhood, but it has changed, check any changes.) , Not so good . . / About the same . . . . . . . . . . . . -— Be.tter.'.* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'——'•— 11. Are your present living arrangements the result of;. ' , Choice . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . • .-——— Necessity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .— Both ,. 12. How often do you.see some of your familj or close relatives? ' Less than once a^ year . About once a month .— '-Once or twice a week . . . . . . .— Every day . r -Have no family or relatives . . . . 13. If you have a family or close relatives, do they neglect you? , _. ,i / " . • Yes, completely A l i t t l e . . . . ",: . . . Not at all . . . .'. . — 14. If you iiave a family or close relatives, do they,try to interfere in your affairs? . Yes, often _ Yes, once in a while . . . . . . . . . Almost never. . . . . . . . . . — D. Your Friends 1. How many friends do you have? None . . ... .'. .'. . . ... . . . . . . One to four . . . . . . . . . . . . •.. . Five to nine Ten or more . 2. How many of these are such close friends that you can talk to them about almost anything? . 3. Do you see your friends more or less often now than when you were 55 years old? Less often now About the same More often now . . — 4. If you do not see your friends often, is it because: They have passed away . Can't afford it . . Lost interest in them ....... . Not physically able to get about . No longer live in same community. Other (what?) 5. Do you often see or hear from children or young people who are friends? (Include nieces, nephews, grandchildren.) Less than once a year . A few times a year . Once or twice a month ...... . About once a week Every day Have no friends among children or young people E. Leisure and Recreation 1. How much free time do you have? Al l day ... A half day A few hours Almost none 2. What do you do in your free time? Work in and around the house . . . Work in garden or yard ...... . Work on some hobby ........ , Listen to the radio Farm work . _ _ Write letters Write books, articles, poems, etc. Attend movies . Attend theaters, lectures, concerts Attend clubs, lodges, other meetings Shop . Participate in community or church work Play golf, other sports . Play cards or other table games . Take rides Visit or entertain friends .... . _ Sew, crochet, or knit _ Read . Just sit and think . . . Other (what?) _ 3. List the hobbies or favorite pastimes you now have 4. Are there things you plan to do in the next year or two? Yes No If your answer is "Yes," what are these things? Take a pleasure trip Continue your present work . . . . Begin new work . Redecorate or remodel home . . Start a garden or farm ...... . Visit children, relatives, or friends Other (what?) — . — 5. How much time each day do you spend in reading? Never read .-A few minutes * An hour or more — Practically all day — 6. What magazines do you read regularly? 4 7. How often do you attend the movies? Less than once a month ........ Two or three times a month . . . .. About once a week Almost every day 8. How much time each day do you spend in listening to the radio? Practically all day . . An hour or more . . A few minutes . Almost never 9. What kind of radio programs do you parti-cularly like? Popular modern music . . . . . . . News and commentators —'• Quiz programs Humorous serials . Popular serials Sermons Sports Old time songs Classical music Dramatic plays All of these Other— F. Clubs and Organizations 1. To how many organizations, such as clubs, lodges, unions, and the like, do you now belong? None One Two . . Three Four or more 2. Check the kinds of organizations to which you now belong. Luncheon club ............ Bridge or other social club ... Lodge. . Study group .". •. Union Charitable or welfare organization Veterans' organization • • -"Borrowed Time" or other club for elderly people Business or professional group. Townsend club ._ Church club or circle Women's club P.T.A Music or art association or club . Patriotic society Other (what?) 3. If you belong to organizations, do you hold an office in any one of them? Yes No , 4. If you hold office, in which organization is it? 5. How many club meetings do you usually at-tend each month? None ...<.' Less than one a month One or two a month One a week Two or more a week 6. Do you give more or less time to organiza-tions now than when you were 55 years old? Less now About the same More now . * « 7. If you give less time now, why is it? Not p h y s i c a l l y able to attend meetings Not interested ............ Can't afford it Moved to a new neighborhood or city Other (what?) 5 G. Your Employment History 1J During your adult life,.have you earned * money, either working for .others or for yourself? . . . , Yes . . . .... . . . . . .*.- . ..... . . ._ .No..'-. .. . . . . . . . . rv. ' . . If the answer to Question 1, is"Npr omit the rest of this section and.go on to: H. VVhen You, Were , No t Ga in fu l l y Emp loyed . 2. What work have you done most of the time during your adult years? (Tell what kind of work it was—for example, labor on a road construction gartg, teller in a bank, etc.) 3. At what age did you have your best paying job? 1 ' . • ^  ,,/ / V .. . .;• . •20-29... . .... ..... . . - 30-39 . . . . . .'. . . . :40T49 • • • • • • • • •,••-•* • -50-59 . ... ...... , 60-69 . ....... .'. :. .\ -._ 70 and over .»'' 4. Comparing what you have done'with the work of your brothers, sisters arid first cousins, would you say that you have done: v Not as wellv as they did ...... . About as well as they did .... . . Better than they did ...... . . . ' 1 • 5. Are you working now? v Yes, full-time . . . .'. . ... Yes, part-time. .... . . . . . . . ' - • • . N O , . . _ • -. •. • ' * — ' • • ' 6. If you are working, what do you do? 4 i 7. If you are working now, eitheripart-time or full-time, how does this work compare with '' ' what you did at the age of 55? Present amount earned: Less . . Same . . More v. • •' . Enjoyment of present . job: , -Less . . " -• • ~\ - , Same . ._ . ' , More . . • " . .,' 8. If, you are not working full-time, why not? Can't"find work Can't work because of health \ . ______ Retired. Don't want a job j Prefer to work part-time ...... . Married and stopped paid work . . 9. If you are not working now, how long is it since you held.your.last full-time job? years. * . If you are a woman, or an unemployed man, please answer H .When Y o u W e r e Not G a i n -ful ly Emp loyed . H.When You Were Not Gainfully Employed 1. If you had a regular job and stopped work-ing, what did you do then? 2. If you are a woman, are you taking care of . your home? 'No.. . . ... .............. . ' Do a little or help someone else _______ Dp everything myself < :  Other (what?) .. • -I. Your Security 1. How would you describe your present posi-tion in life? Can't make ends meet ....... • Enough to get along. . . . ... . . ... Comfortable . Well-to-do ....... ... . . L Wealthy __ 2. Are you in a better or a worse position now than1 you were at age'55? Worse now ^ ............ . .__ About the same V Better now ..... ... . . . . . . .' 3. What is your chief means of support? Your (or your husband's) present earnings Social Security . . Old Age Assistance from the state Pension from earlier occupation . Relief agency Home for olid people . . Aid from children . Aid from parents Payments from insurance annui-ties '. Investments or savings . .t  Other (what?) 4. Do you feel that your present source of in-come gives you permanent security? Yes No. 5. If you are a married woman, what was your husband's work during most of his life ? '6. Do you own your own home? No . . . • . Yes, still paying for i t . . . . . . . Yes, clear 1 . 7. What things have you had to do since the age of 55 because of lowered income? > Gave up my home " Moved to less expensive home .. Stopped going to church Bought less expensive foods . . . ._ , v Couldn't keep home or furnishings in repair . Gave up clubs . . . - • Bought less expensive clothes. . ______ Stopped taking vacations Gave up auto or bought cheaper tar Have not had to do any of these . Other (what?) . J. Your Religion 2. Are you a church member? Yes " No 3. How often do you attend religious serv-ices? Never . . Less than once a month . . Once or twice a month. ...... ______ Once a week Twice a week or oftener ..... . 4. Do you attend ^ services more or less often now than you did at age 55? Less often now .— About the same ............ . More often now . ; . . .-5. If you attend church less often now, why is it? . Not physically able to go ..... . Can't afford it Lack of interest Church is too far away . Other (what?) ^ 6. Do you believe in an after life ? No .' Not sure Yes, sure of it ........... . ._ 7.. Do you listen to church services over the radio? x ') Never. . . '. .-Once in a while . . . • About once or twice a week . . . . Three or more times a week . . . 8. How often do you read the Prayer Book, Bible, or other religious book? Never . Less than once a week Once a week .,. . . .",J Every day . . 1. What is your religion? Roman Catholic . . . Greek Catholic Jewish Protestant....... Denomination Other (what?) V 7 K. Your Earlier Life 1. What was your father's occupation? (Tell what kind of work it was—for example, labor on a road construction gang, teller in > a bank, etc.) .  2. Which child in the family were you? Only child . . : Youngest 1 . . In-between Oldest • 3. How many children in your family lived to the age of 5 or older?. ........ 4. If your parents are alive, how old are they? Age of father . . .' • • • • Age of mother . • ... 5. If your parents are not living, how old were they at their death? ' Age of father • Age of mother 6. How was your health when you were about 12 years old?, Poor .' Fair . .__ Good 7. When you were in your teens, how did you feel toward your father? " Considerable dislike . . . ..... . . . Mild dislike Mild attachment . . Considerable attachment . ' Very strong attachment 8. When you were in your teens, how did you feel toward your mother? 1 Considerable dislike ........ . Mild dislike .' . . Mild attachment Considerable attachment Very strong attachment 9. When you were in your teens, about how many friends of the same sex did you have? " Almost none . • Average number. .__ A great many . 10. When you were in your late teens, how many friends of the opposite sex did you have? Almost none . • Average number . . A great many . . I was married in late teens . . . . 11. What was the position of your family when you were about 12 years of age? . Couldn't make ends meet ..... . . Enough to get along on Comfortable . . Well-to-do .............. . Wealthy ._ 12. How often did you attend some religious service when you were about 12 years of age? Never. ..... .... ......... ... Less than once a month . . . . . . ._ Once or twice a month . . About once a week Almost every day ........ . . . L. What You Think About Things If you agree with, the following statements, Check A g r e e . If you disagree, Check D i s a g r e e . If you cannot.answer, check the ? . A D I S - O A g r e e a g r e e ? 1. The people in our country are going to have greater prosperity and happiness than ever before. The world is headed for der ^ structkm. ] Young people are much worse than they used to be. . • The country was much-better off in the horse and buggy days. 2.1 feel that no one cares much what happens to me. l l . . , Life is just a series of dis- -appointments. - _ People have generally worked against me. _^ The breaks in life have us-ually gone against me. _ 8 3. What was the happiest period of your life? Childhood, up to 12 years Twelve to 19 years . .__ Twenty to 39 years . . Forty to 59 years '. . . . Sixty to 74 years ' t Since 75 years Never had a happy period. . . . ... All periods were equally happy . .__ 4. What was the least happy, period of your life? Childhood, up to 12 years ' Twelve to 19, years " Twenty to 39 years Forty to 59 years . . Sixty to 74 years ... ... . . . . . .J Since 75 years ...... ______ Never had an unhappy period . . . Whole life unhappy ......... . 5. As you look back over your life, what things were the hardest for you to bear? Your age i Your, age • ' Your age 6. As you look back over your life, in general would you call it: Very happy Moderately happy . Average Unhappy .__ 7. If you could have three wishes, what would they be ? l . _ '  3. 8. How do youfeel about whatyou have accom-plished in life;'? Well satisfied ;. . Reasonably satisfied . . . . .... . '.— Dissatisfied j. 9. In which age group do you feel that you now belong? Aged , did .,..' ... E l d e r l y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._ Middle-aged .......... . ._ __ Young adult . 10. Did you vote in the last national election? Yes No. G o e n t o t h e n e x t p a g e 9 Your Attitudes If you agree with the following statements, Check A g r e e . If you disagree, Check D i s a g r e e . If you absolutely cannot answer, check the J_ . BE SURE TO ANSWER EVERY QUESTION. A. n A g r e e a g r e e ? 1.1 feel just miserable most of , the time. 2. I am perfectly satisfied with my health. 3.1 never felt better in my life._ 4. If I can't feel better soon, I would just'as soon die. 5. When I was younger, I felt a little better than I do now._ 6. My health is just beginning to be a burden to me. 7. I still feel young and full of spirit. B. 1.1 have more friends now than I ever had before. 2.1 neve- dreamed that I could be as,lonely as I am now. 3.1 would be happier if I could see my friends moreoften.^ 4. I have no one to talk to about personal things. 5.1 have so few friends that I am lonely much of the time. 6. My many friends make my life happy and cheerful. A D I S - •» A g r e e a g r e e • 7. I have all the good friends anyone could wish. 1.1 am happy only when I have' definite work to do. 2.1 can no longer do any kind of useful work. 3. I am satisfied with the work I now do. 4.1 have no work to look for-ward to. 5.1' get badly flustered when I have to hurry with my work. 6. I do better work now than ever before. 7. I- have more free time than I know how to use. A g r e e a g r e e ? 1.1 am just able to make ends meet. 2. I have enough money to get along. 3. I haven't a cent in the world.. 4. All my needs are cared for._ 5.1 am provided with many home comforts. 6.1 have everything that money can buy. 7. I have to watch how I spend every penny. Dis-A g r e e a g r e e 10 1. Religion is fairly important in my life. 2. I have no use for religion. 3. Religion is a great comfort to me. 4. Religion doesn't mean much to me. 5. I don't rely on prayer to help me. 6. Religion is the most impor-tant thing in my life. 7. Religion is only one of many interests. D i s -A g r e e a g r e e ? A g r e e a g r e e ? 1. I am some use to those around me. 2. My life is meaningless now. 3. The days are too short for all I want to do. 4. Sometimes I feel there's just no point hi living. 5. My life is still busy and use-ful. 6. This is the most useful period of my life. 7. I can't help feeling now that my life is not very useful. A g r e e a g r e e ? 1. This is the dreariest time of my life. 2. I am just as happy as when I was younger. 3. My life could be happier than it is now. 4. I seem to have less and less reason to live. 5. These are the best years of my life. 6. My life is full of worry. 7. My life is so enjoyable that I almost wish it would go on forever. IF YOU HAVE NO LIVING FAMILY, OMIT H. A g r e e a g r e e ? 1. My family likes to have me around. 2.1 am perfectly satisfied with the way my family treats me. 3. I wish my family would pay more attention to me. 4. I think my family is the finest in the world. 5. My family is always trying to boss me. 6. I get more love and aiiection now than I ever did before._ 7. My family does not really care for me. NAME ADDRESS 1 1 

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