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Some effects of magnesium and boron on King Alfred daffodil bulbs forced in a Fraser Valley 'problem'… Dennis, Mary Mulvin 1952

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SOME EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM AND BORON ON KING ALFRED DAFFODIL BULBS FORCED IN A FRASER VALLEY 'PROBLEM' SOIL  by  MARY MULVIN DENNIS B.S.A.  A  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE  i n the Department  of Horticulture  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE  Members o f the Department o f Horticulture THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1952  ABSTRACT  A commercial bulb growing concern i n the C l o v e r d a l e s e c t i o n of the Lower Fraser. V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia, has been e x p e r i e n c i n g r e c e n t l y o f mature bulbs produced.  a severe r e d u c t i o n i n tonnage Because of premature r i p e n i n g o f  the f o l i a g e , the bulbs do not a t t a i n an optimum i n c r e a s e i n s i z e and weight.  The l o s s i s . c o n s i d e r e d . t o . b e over  fifty  percent r e d u c t i o n i n crop y i e l d . A bulb f o r c i n g experiment  was.set up i n the U n i v e r s i t y  pf B r i t i s h Columbia greenhouse i n . order to. a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t s of boron and. magnesium on the growth and y i e l d of bulbs produced was  on the C l o v e r d a l e farm..  S o i l , from the, farm  used f o r f o u r s e t s of f l a t s p l a n t e d w i t h comparable l o t s  of bulbs:  a f i f t h s e t of f l a t s was  u n f e r t i l i z e d greenhouse s o i l .  p l a n t e d , u s i n g U.B.C.  The f o u r s e t s of f l a t s  filled  w i t h the 'problem' s o i l were t r e a t e d as f o l l o w s : one s e r i e s of f l a t s was  l e f t u n t r e a t e d , a second  b o r i c a c i d a t the r a t e s e r i e s was  s e r i e s was  treated with  of 50 pounds to the. acre,, a t h i r d  t r e a t e d w i t h magnesium sulphate a t the r a t e of  200 pounds to the a c r e and the. f o u r t h series, was f o l i a r growth was  left  e s t a b l i s h e d and a t t h a t time was  w i t h a b o r i c a c i d spray of 100 ppm  until  sprayed  boron c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  The bulbs were p l a n t e d i n November and brought  into  greenhouse from c o l d frames i n l a t e . January f o r . forcing..  :  the After  the d a f f o d i l s had bloomed, the, f l a t s were p l a c e d o u t s i d e f o r the r i p e n i n g o f f of the f o l i a g e .  No  e a r l y die-back o c c u r r e d and •  the bulbs were l i f t e d they were cleaned  i n June.  and weighed.  A f t e r the bulbs had  been.dried,  Increases i n y i e l d f o r each  treatment were c a l c u l a t e d and analysed  statistically.  I t was found t h a t boron as a f o l i a r  spray o f 100 ppm  had  a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on bulb weight i n c r e a s e , and. t h a t boron a p p l i e d as a f e r t i l i z e r a t the r a t e of 50 pounds, to the a c r e had no b e n e f i c i a l  effect.  Magnesium s u l p h a t e a p p l i e d to the s o i l , a t a r a t e of |00  pounds to the acre, to the 'problem' s o i l had a s i g n i f i c a n t  e f f e c t on bulb weight i n c r e a s e o f , t h e King A l f r e d bulbs f o r c e d i n the greenhouse.  daffodil  TABLE OF CONTENTS.  Acknowledgements  Page 1  Introduction  Page 2  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e  Page 7  M a t e r i a l s and Methods  Page 18  Results  Page 23  D i s c u s s i o n o f Results  Page 42  Summary  Page A8  References C i t e d  Page 50  Appendix  Page 53  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The w r i t e r wishes t o acknowledge w i t h  gratitude  the guidance of Dr. G.H.Harris, P r o f e s s o r , Department of H o r t i c u l t u r e , under whose d i r e c t i o n t h i s p r o j e c t has been conducted. G r a t e f u l acknowledgement  i s made a l s o t o Dr.  A.F.Barss, P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department o f H o r t i c u l t u r e , f o r h i s s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n the completion of t h i s t h e s i s , and to Dr. C.A.Hornby,  Associate  Professor,  Department of H o r t i c u l t u r e , f o r d i r e c t i o n i n the  statistical,  e v a l u a t i o n of r e s u l t s . To E v e r e t t Brothers indebted  o f C l o v e r d a l e , B.C.,  I am  f o r both bulbs and s o i l . Mr. J.H.Crossley  of the  Dominion Experimental S t a t i o n a t Saanichton suggested  this  problem and provided much h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . Mr. N e v i l l e Mayers of the P l a n t P r o t e c t i o n D i v i s i o n of  the Dominion  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f u r n i s h e d data on c u r r e n t experiments conducted on the bulb farm.  field  INTRODUCTION The i n v e s t i g a t i o n arose as a r e s u l t of a v e r y r e a l need by C l o v e r d a l e Bulb Growers, E v e r e t t B r o t h e r s , who  had  experienced a heavy r e d u c t i o n i n bulb y i e l d , e s p e c i a l l y i n top s i z e s o f bulbs, because of premature r i p e n i n g i n t h e i r major p l o t of King A l f r e d d a f f o d i l b u l b s . T h i s e a r l y r i p e n i n g seemed  t o be c o n f i n e d to the one farm and on t h a t farm to  specific  fields.  T h i s p r o j e c t was  suggested by Mr.  J.H.Crossley of the  Dominion Experimental S t a t i o n a t Saanichton, V . I . , as being a problem worthy of more i n t e n s i v e study then the Experimental S t a t i o n a t t h a t time was  able to give i t .  S o i l samples were sent f o r a n a l y s i s t o Saanichton, the U n i v e r s i t y and to B u c k e r f i e l d ' s s o i l s Nothing of note was  laboratories.  evidenced from these a n a l y s i s  (Spurway  and Morgan methods) except low pH r e a d i n g s . Lime was i n v a r i o u s r a t i o s to the a f f e c t e d f i e l d s w i t h v e r y  applied little  e f f e c t on r a i s i n g the pH v a l u e s . The Dominion L a b o r a t o r i e s of  P l a n t Pathology a t Saanichton and a t the U n i v e r s i t y  examined the bulbs i n the f i e l d  and c o u l d a t t r i b u t e the e a r l y  r i p e n i n g to no known v i r u s or nematode i n f e c t i o n s . There were some f i e l d may  i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the  be concerned w i t h a magnesium or boron d e f i c i e n c y , or a  combination o f the two, and so i t was this  problem  possibility.  d e c i d e d to e v a l u a t e  E v e r e t t Brothers bulb farm I s s i t u a t e d a t 440 Latimer Road, C l o v e r d a l e . According t o the " S o i l Survey o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y *  (23  i s l i s t e d as a Whatcom s i l t  ) the s o i l type o f the farm  loam.  The' f i e l d  i n question  e i t h e r borders on, o r i s i n Area No. 3. Whatcom s i l t i s a reddish-brown  silt  loam  loam, f i n e l y g r a n u l a r , l o o s e ,  open, w i t h many i r o n c o n c r e t i o n s . Chemical a n a l y s i s shows t h a t the n i t r o g e n and organic-matter content compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t i n b e t t e r types o f upland s o i l s . The t o t a l phosphorus„content, w h i l e not d e f i c i e n t , i s lower than i n any other s o i l i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . The movement of m i n e r a l s i n d i c a t e s  t h a t c a l c i u m , magnesium, i r o n and  aluminum have been l e a c h e d t o some extent w h i l e s i l i c a has tended to accumulate  i n the s u r f a c e s o i l .  In Mixed Area No. 3 the s u r f a c e s o i l i s a l i g h t sandy loam, l i g h t brown i n c o l o u r . No chemical a n a l y s i s i s g i v e n i n the survey. The e l e v a t i o n a t the  farm ranges from 25 t o 50  f e e t above sea l e v e l . The E v e r e t t B r o t h e r s are members o f the B.C.Bulb Growers F e d e r a t i o n and a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have one of the most p r o g r e s s i v e , and up u n t i l the past few y e a r s , one o f the most s u c c e s s f u l bulb growing  concerns i n the p r o v i n c e . A  b r i e f h i s t o r y o f the l a n d i n q u e s t i o n has been p r o v i d e d by Mr. J . E v e r e t t and i s reproduced here i n p a r t .  In the  S p r i n g of 1949,  o a t s and v e t c h "were p l a n t e d on the a r e a  as a g r e e n manure c r o p .  300 I D S . o f 2-12-6 commercial  f e r t i l i z e r p l u s 25 tons o f manure p l u s \\ tons of ground l i m e s t o n e were a p p l i e d . The g r e e n manure c r o p was s i d e r e d good. I n the f a l l o f 1949, K i n g A l f r e d  con-  daffodil  b u l b s were p l a n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. Trenches 3 f e e t wide and 8 i n c h e s deep were p r e p a r e d w i t h a i s l e s 1 f o o t wide between.  On the f l o o r s o f these t r e n c h e s ,  commercial f e r t i l i z e r was to  the a c r e . The  6-8-6  spread a t the r a t e o f 1600 l b s .  t r e a t e d ground was  s c o r e d , t h e n the b u l b s  were p l a n t e d i n t h e t r e n c h e s and t h e s o i l r e t u r n e d . I n the s p r i n g a t o p d r e s s i n g o f 150 l b s . t o the a c r e o f ammonium n i t r a t e was  a p p l i e d . The y i e l d was  poor due  t o premature  r i p e n i n g o f the f o l i a g e . T h i s e a r l y r i p e n i n g may described-as f o l l o w s ;  be  i n e a r l y June the f o l i a g e s t a r t s t o  t u r n y e l l o w s t a r t i n g a t the t i p s o f  the l e a v e s . I n l e s s  t h a n a f o r t n i g h t the f o l i a g e has become an orange  shade and  the l e a v e s have f a l l e n over i n a s t r a n g e manner w h i c h  may  be d e s c r i b e d as an i n v e r t e d V-shape; they were s t i l l q u i t e s t i f f i n c h a r a c t e r . The f o l i a g e t h e n d i e s down c o m p l e t e l y and a l l b u l b growth has stopped. t h i s phenomenon was  As was  stated e a r l i e r ,  viewed w i t h a l a r m and a d v i c e  was  sought from Government A g r i c u l t u r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . I t was d e c i d e d t o l e a v e the a r e a i n g r e e n manure f o r the'subsequent year and f a l l rye was plowed under i n June o f 1951.  grown i n the f a l l o f 1950  and  I t s h o u l d be s t a t e d here t h a t  the e a r l y d i e - b a c k cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o  fertilizer  5  p r a c t i c e as p l o t s i n o t h e r u n f e r t i l i z e d f i e l d s have been affected also.  T u l i p s had been grown s u c c e s s f u l l y ; on t h e  a f f e c t e d f i e l d a few y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y and had e v i d e n c e d no e a r l y r i p e n i n g . T h e r e f o r t h e l a n d was p l a n t e d i n t u l i p b u l b s i n t h e f a l l o f 1951 and i t has r e c e n t l y been r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e g r o w e r s ' w o r s t f e a r s have been r e a l i z e d and t h e t u l i p c r o p h a r v e s t e d i n t h e summer o f 1952 had s u f f e r e d s i m i l a r l y t o the d a f f o d i l s .  The y i e l d l o s s i n d a f f o d i l  b u l b s i s up t o 50% r e d u c t i o n o v e r a l l and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t among t o p s i z e s o f b u l b s . A premium p r i c e i s p a i d f o r l a r g e r b u l b s ; these l a r g e r bulbs a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y more p r a c t i c a l f o r the f o r c i n g t r a d e as t h e y produce a t l e a s t t h r e e blooms p e r b u l b . T r a n s l a t e d t o a f i n a n c i a l b a s i s i t may be e a s i l y understood t h a t u n l e s s some  s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem c a n  be a s c e r t a i n e d i n t h e v e r y n e a r f u t u r e , E v e r e t t B r o t h e r s and p o s s i b l y o t h e r b u l b growers i n t h e v i c i n i t y w i l l be i n severe f i n a n c i a l  straits.  Mr. J . H . C r o s s l e y p l a n t e d E v e r e t t b u l b s i n l a r g e c r o c k s f i l l e d w i t h E v e r e t t s o i l i n t h e greenhouse a t S a a n i c h t o n a t 55° i n t h e y e a r 1950-51. No symptoms o f e a r l y r i p e n i n g were e v i d e n c e d . T e s t p l o t s o f d a f f o d i l s were grown on t h e a f f e c t e d a r e a and i n o t h e r areas t h e same y e a r . B u l b s were dug a t two week i n t e r v a l s s t a r t i n g w i t h those w h i c h had s u f f e r e d  from premature r i p e n i n g . The  i n c r e a s e s were c a l c u l a t e d .  They were as f o l l o w s : June 4- - 16$ June"20 - 34%  i n c r e a s e , J u l y 4 - 64$  August 15 - 80% Mr.  i n c r e a s e i n weight, i n c r e a s e and  i n c r e a s e . T h i s p r o j e c t was  conducted  by  N e v i l l e Mayers of the Dominion Government P l a n t  P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n  of the growers.  Because of the low pH values diagnosed on l a n d , an experiment i n l i m i n g was Crossley's was  on  conducted under  s u p e r v i s i o n on the E v e r e t t farm, and  analysed  the  by the Saanichton l a b o r a t o r y -  Mr.  the  Results  soil are-as  follows: TABLE 1. - SOIL ANALYSIS (Morgan's Method) OF EVERETT'S SOIL, 1951, FOLLOWING A LIME EXPERIMENT, LIMED FALL 1950. P a r t s per NO3  P  (a) (b)  9 7  1 t o n lime(a) per acre (b) 3 tons l i m e per acre  (a) ()  5 tons 1 l i m e per ' acre  (a) (b)  Treatment Check-no. lime  D  (a) = (b) »  •  million  K  Ga  pH  30 30  100 100  1200 .1200  6.0 6.0  7 6  25 25  100 100  2000 1000  6.3 6.1  1.2  5 5  15 20  100 100  3000 2000  6.7 6.3  6 5  25 25  50 100  3000 1000  6.6 6.0  0-6 6 -12  i n c h depth i n c h depth  From the above t a b l e , i t  may  be noted t h a t a 3 ton  a p p l i c a t i o n of lime r a i s e d the pH more a p p r e c i a b l y than a 5 ton a p p l i c a t i o n .  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  The -king A i f  r e  d daffodil i s a horticultural variety  o f the s p e c i e s , N a r c i s s u s Species  pseudo-narcissus.  w  ithin  are c l a s s e d a l l v a r i e t i e s of the Trumpet  this Narcissus.  In t h i s s p e c i e s , the trumpet or corona,--which i s the c e n t r a l t u b u l a r p a r t of the flower, i s l o n g e r than the  perianth  segments from which i t rises-.  the v a r i e t y ,  I n the case of  King A l f r e d , which i s l i s t e d as a V a r i e t y of M e r i t by Royal H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y , the c o l o u r i n g of  the  a l l floral  p a r t s i s y e l l o w . The King A l f r e d i s s u i t a b l e f o r f o r c i n g or for cutting. To a ibotanist, a n a r c i s s u s bulb i s a s p e c i a l i z e d underground bud w i t h t h i c k f l e s h y l e a v e s ;  to a grower i t i s  a p e r e n n i a l organ which i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e and weight u n t i l at maturity  i t shows signs of d i v i s i o n which r e s u l t s i n the  development of o f f s e t s . and Woods (15).  Thi§ d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n by  These w r i t e r s designate  Crossley  the f o u r types of  n a r c i s s u s b u l b s / u s u a l l y found i n the average p l a n t i n g as follows and  ( l ) s l a b s , (2)  rounds (3)  (4) mother b u l b s . The  order g i v e n .  double and  t r i p l e nose,  sequence of development i s i n the  That i s , s l a b s develop from o f f s e t s , rounds  from s l a b s , double and' t r i p l e nose from rounds, and mother bulbs from the double or t r i p l e nose bulbs. represent  The mother  the f i n a l stage i n development as i n t h i s  the o f f s e t s s t a r t to break away, and  bulbs  stage  the c y c l e continues.  The  double and t r i p l e nose types are the k i n d p r e f e r r e d by bulb f o r c e r s . Slabs and rounds are r e p l a n t e d by the bulb grower u n t i l they develop  to t h a t stage.  C r o s s l e y and Woods (15) s t a t e t h a t i t i s the e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e among the b e t t e r bulb growers to f o r e go the s a l e of cut f l o w e r s .  Experimental  evidence  and  experience show t h a t i t i s a very poor p o l i c y to supply the market w i t h f l o w e r s and bulbs from the same s t o c k .  The  f l o w e r s which are allowed to fade, should be removed from the stem together w i t h the immature seed c a p s u l e .  This  o p e r a t i o n i s necessary i n order to throw the f u l l  energy  of  the p l a n t i n t o bulb p r o d u c t i o n . Removal of the f l o w e r heads i s a standard p r a c t i c e with bulb growers everywhere and i s backed by experimental evidence  There was  (15).  no p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e found  available  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a magnesium s o i l d e f i c i e n c y , or magnesium f e r t i l i z e r experiments  on  w i t h r e s p e c t to .bulb y i e l d s ,  ^here i s a wealth of m a t e r i a l on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h i s element to the y i e l d and metabolism of other p l a n t s . T  he  most recent and most comprehensive s t u d i e s of the  r o l e of magnesium i n p l a n t s and  s o i l s i s i n c l u d e d i n a paper  by Bear et a l ( 5 ) . O r d i n a r i l y most p l a n t s c o n t a i n more c a l c i u m than magnesium.  The d i f f e r e n c e between these  two  elements w i l l vary with the crop and the composition of the soil  (19).  Magnesium i s r e l a t i v e l y more abundant i n the  p a r t s of p l a n t s concerned w i t h v i t a l processes such as  f o l i a g e and r e p r o d u c t i v e such as stems and r o o t s  p a r t s , than i n the storage  parts .  ( 1 7 ) . S u n f l o w e r , s p i n a c h and sugar  b e e t l e a v e s a r e h i g h i n magnesium, t h e c o n t e n t of  which  ranges between 1 and 3 p e r cent on a d r y - w e i g h t b a s i s . Magnesium i s an e s s e n t i a l c o n s t i t u e n t of c h l o r o p h y l l and comprises 2.1% o f t h e c h l o r o p h y l l m o l e c u l e .  I t i s closely  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h phosphate a s s i m i l a t i o n and p r o t e i n prod u c t i o n (5) . Magnesium i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r i n aging and  (5) b u t i t i s known t h a t i t i n f l u e n c e s t h e e a r l i n e s s  the u n i f o r m i t y w i t h which vegetable crops  mature ( 1 9 ) .  The magnesium c o n t e n t o f p l a n t t i s s u e s , tends t o i n c r e a s e i n propotion  t o t h e amount o f n i t r o g e n a v a i l a b l e  p l a n t ' s use (5)'.  f o r the  P l a n t s develop a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h l o r o s i s ,  or l a c k o f normal g r e e n c o l o u r when t h e magnesium is insufficient.  supply  I n t e r v e i n a l c h l o r o s i s of the older  leaves  s t a r t s a t t h e edges and g r a d u a l l y spreads toward t h e l e a f c e n t e r s as t h e s u p p l y o f magnesium  diminishes.  Barnes (3) i n a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f a magnesium d e f i c i e n c y i n p o t a t o e s on an a c i d s o i l found t h a t t h e b e s t way t o c o r r e c t the d e f i c i e n c y was by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a magnesium l i m e t o s u p p l y needed magnesium and t o r a i s e t h e pH o f t h e s o i l .  He s t a t e d  that  i n d i c a t i o n s were t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p o t a s s i u m t o an a c i d s o i l n o t c o n t a i n i n g an adequate s u p p l y o f magnesium w i l l not be o f marked b e n e f i t ;  i f magnesium i s adequate, t h e n  potassium a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e u t i l i z e d . Carolus  (10) found t h a t under f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s ,  potato p l a n t s t h a t c o n t a i n over 0.4- per cent MgO normally accumulated symptoms o f of  throughout  the growing season, w i l l not show  magnesium d e f i c i e n c y . However, under c o n d i t i o n s  excessive r a i n f a l l  during the e a r l y months o f the growing  season, a magnesium d e f i c i e n c y may r e a d i l y be e f f e c t e d by heavy l e a c h i n g .  He found t h a t maximum i n j u r y o c c u r r e d where  potato p l a n t s were p l a n t e d on a c i d s o i l s w i t h a c i d - f o r m i n g fertilizers of  p a r t i c u l a r l y those c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n  ammonium n i t r a t e .  I n another experiment  with vegetable  crops C a r o l u s (10) found t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n s of d o l o m i t i c i limestone  (2000 l b s . / a c r e ) c o n t a i n i n g 1% s o l u b l e magnesium  to 16 vegetable crops i n c r e a s e d the y i e l d s from 1% w i t h onions t o 92% w i t h t u r n i p s . C o l l i n s and Skinner  (13) i n a study on the e f f e c t of  d o l o m i t i c limestone concluded  t h a t i t gave  significantly  higher y i e l d s o f the crops s t u d i e d than d i d a c i d - f o r m i n g fertilizers'.  The d o l o m i t i c limestone  maintained  soil  pH a t approximately the o r i g i n a l l e v e l , i n c r e a s e d t o t a l magnesium i n the p l a n t and the a v a i l a b l e magnesium i n the s o i l o f the r o o t zone.  I t i n c r e a s e d the c a l c i u m i n the p l a n t  with no a p p r e c i a b l e change i n the u l t i m a t e a v a i l a b l e c a l c i u m content of the s o i l o r the  content o f the p l a n t which  i n d i c a t e s no a p p r e c i a b l e l i b e r a t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r Chandler  potassium.  ( l l ) i n a d i s c u s s i o n of magnesium d e f i c i e n t  orchards s t a t e s that an abundance of potassium i n the tends to reduce the i n t a k e of  soil  magnesium by the p l a n t .  Mag-  nesium d e f i c i e n t symptoms are much worse i n orchards t h a t have long been f e r t i l i z e d advises  r a t h e r h e a v i l y w i t h potassium.  t h a t , i n a c i d sandy s o i l s ,  Chandler  which are most l i k e l y  to  be d e f i c i e n t i n magnesium^ that s o i l a p p l i c a t i o n s of magnesium sulphate  of d o l o m i t i c limestone are l i k e l y  I n s o m e orchards,  to be e f f e c t i v e .  however, such magnesium compounds a p p l i e d  to the s o i l , have been slow to cause improvement.  In such  cases,  to  as w e l l as  s o i l a p p l i c a t i o n s , i t i s advised  magnesium a t the r a t e of 10 to 20  l b s . to a 100  spray  gallons  of  spray. Bear et a l (5)  s t r e s s the importance of a balanced  c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p among potassium, c a l c i u m and  magnesium.  Potassium i s the dominant element i n t h i s group.  Once the need  for  normal growth of a g i v e n c a t i o n i s met,  absorbed i n excess of the need may  the amount  i n c r e a s e to the p o i n t at  which i t prevents adequate a b s o r p t i o n  of  one  e s s e n t i a l c a t i o n s . They {5) f u r t h e r a d v i s e  or a l l the  t h a t the  other  anion-  c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p i n p l a n t s must be kept a t a c e r t a i n b a l a n c e . P l a n t s can absorb,the, ammonium form of n i t r o g e n w e l l as the n i t r a t e and Bear (5) of magnesium would be more l i k e l y liberal  concludes that a d e f i c i e n c y to occur as a r e s u l t o f  a p p l i c a t i o n s of ammonium f e r t i l i z e r  f o l l o w i n g the use  of  the  as  to the s o i l  than  same amount of n i t r o g e n i n n i t r a t e  form. Some of the best i n d i c a t o r p l a n t s f o r magnesium  d e f i c i e n c y are corn, potato, sweet potato, cucumber and  snap  bean. ( 5 ) . At the present time, the f e r t i l i z e r is fully Gilbert  v a l u e of boron  r e c o g n i z e d f o r areas d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s element. (17) l i s t s regions i n the United S t a t e s i n which boron  is.likely  to be d e f i c i e n t and among  them i s the P a c i f i c  Northwest. The  amount of boron necessary f o r  the optimum  f u n c t i o n i n g of p l a n t s i s r e l a t i v e l y low and the range between boron d e f i c i e n c y and t o x i c i t y i s narrow. d e f i c i e n c y and  The l i m i t s of  t o x i c i t y should be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e x t e r n a l  f a c t o r s . s u c h as season,. photoperiod and the p h y s i c a l nature of  the s o i l i n which the p l a n t i s grown, ^he  of  optimum a s s i m i l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t boron i s not  and h e l d by s o i l c o l l o i d s  narrow range absorbed  (17).  I t has been suggested  t h a t boron f u n c t i o n s i n p l a n t s  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c a l c i u m and potassium,  and  the e x i s t e n c e of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  well established.  The mechanisms i n v o l v e d i n these  now  relation-  s h i p s are not w e l l known. Boron probably i s i n v o l v e d i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of carbohydrates  and_.possibly  i s f u n c t i o n a l i n p r o t e i n metabolism (17). Boron d e f i c i e n c y symptoms vary w i t h the p l a n t i n q u e s t i o n but n e c r o s i s u s u a l l y s t a r t s a t the t i p of the l e a v e s and a c e s s a t i o n of development of the t e r m i n a l bud develops.  The  leaves become abnormally  soon  l i g h t i n c o l o u r and  are  smooth, s t i f f and b r i t t l e The  (19).  sunflower has been used e x t e n s i v e l y as an i n d -  i c a t o r p l a n t f o r boron d e f i c i e n c y  (31) .  With an extreme  d e f i c i e n c y , the growth of sunflower p l a n t s i s r e s t r i c t e d to the c o t y l e d o n a r y or seed leaves which become e n l a r g e d and it  turgid.  I f the p l a n t develops past t h i s stage under de-  f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s , a c e s s a t i o n of t e r m i n a l growth i s the next stage i n the development of boron d e f i c i e n c y . shortage of moisture and/pr a d d i t i o n of will  A  lime to the  soil  i n t e n s i f y d e f i c i e n c y symptoms i n the sunflower. G i l b e r t and Robbins (18) studying c a l c i u m - boron  n u t r i t i o n of the strawberry found t h a t the r a t i o of c a l c i u m to  boron i n the p l a n t t i s s u e decreased w i t h i n c r e a s i n g  i n the t i s s u e . with d i f f e r i n g  The y i e l d of f r u i t d i d not vary  boron  significantly  boron c o n c e n t r a t i o n s except a t the t o x i c  l e v e l i n which case the y i e l d s were c o n s i d e r a b l y lower. Reeve e t a l ( 2 9 , 3 0 ) i p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e experimental evidence to prove t h a t both boron t o x i c i t y and  deficiency  symptoms are accentuated w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of potassium i n the n u t r i e n t s u b s t r a t e .  Calcium was  found to  be very s i m i l a r i n i t s c a p a c i t y to accentuate symptoms of boron d e f i c i e n c y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h i s  cation  i n the s u b s t r a t e but c a l c i u m l e s s e n e d the e f f e c t of t o x i c boron l e v e l s i n which r e s p e c t i t s i n f l u e n c e was  o p p o s i t e to  t h a t of potassium.  done on c o r n  and tomato p l a n t s .  T h e i r "experimental work was  ^ e r g e r and Truog of  (7) support the view that a n a l y s i s  p l a n t t i s s u e i s a more r e l i a b l e  method of determining the  l e v e l of a v a i l a b l e boron i n the s o i l than i s s o i l  analysis.  Emsweller et a l (16) have conducted the o n l y i g a t i o n on the use of boron as a f e r t i l i z e r d a f f o d i l s t h a t was  invest-  f o r King A l f r e d  to be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e  available.  They found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n y i e l d between any of the  fertilizer  experiments used, but a d v i s e the use o f s o i l  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f borax a t the r a t e of 3 l b s . to the a c r e f o r areas known to be d e f i c i e n t i n boron. They a l s o a d v i s e the use of magnesium sulphate at the r a t e of 60 l b s . to the a c r e as a s o i l  supplement. The r e s u l t s from the boron  experiments on d a f f o d i l s  fertiliser  (16) i n d i c a t e a s t i m u l a t i o n of  new  growth c e n t e r s i n the d a f f o d i l bulbs by the boron. S i n c e the c u r r e n t season's f l o w e r s are l a i d down during the preceding year and are w e l l developed at p l a n t i n g time, the e f f e c t of tie boron i s d e l a y e d one y e a r . r e l a t i v e numbers of  While no d a t a was  secured as to  mother bulbs produced i n the v a r i o u s  treatments, the flower y i e l d s i n d i c a t e t h a t many more occurred i n the l o t s r e c e i v i n g  boron.  Shive (32) has presented a comprehensive survey on the r o l e of boron i n p l a n t l i f e .  I t is interesting  to  note t h a t i n a d i s c u s s i o n of  of  p l a n t s to absorb boron from s o i l s , he s t a t e s  been r e c o g n i z e d  historical  the w i d e l y v a r y i n g  ability  t h a t i t has  that a g r i c u l t u r a l monocotyledonous  plants  ( i n which group the n a r c i s s u s i s c l a s s i f i e d ) have a much  I  lower c a p a c i t y f o r absorbing boron than have the  dicoty-  ledonous p l a n t s . There has  been a great d e a l of experimental work done  on the e f f i c a c y of boron dusts and  sprays as compared w i t h  s o i l a p p l i c a t i o n s of boron. B a t j e r and Thompson (4.) a spray of 125  ppm  found  that  of boron gave s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n the  c o r r e c t i o n of an i n c i p i e n t or" temporary d e f i c i e n c y of boron. They a l s o advise  r e g u l a r s o i l a p p l i c a t i o n s of boron at  the  r a t e of 30 l b s . to the acre a t p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s . (Dr. Peto of the B.C. a 1% boron dust was  Brickley  the season of a p p l i c a t i o n , i n the  (9) a p p l i e d borax a t the r a t e of 7.5  Langley  lbs.  5 l b s . to the acre to beet  found that these boron spray a p p l i c a t i o n s were as  e f f e c t i v e as s o i l a p p l i c a t i o n s at the r a t e o f 20 acre  that  Valley.)  to the acre to swede p l a n t s and p l a n t s and  reported  e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g boron d e f i c i e n c y  of sugar beets during area of the F r a s e r  Sugar R e f i n e r y has  when the r e s p e c t i v e  l b s . to  the  treatments were made at the same  stage of p l a n t growth. MacLachlan and Strong spraying  and  dusting  (25)  t u r n i p s and  i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n on Hanson et a l (20)  in a  s i m i l a r study w i t h swedes support the f i n d i n g s o f B r i c k l e y . They have .found, that borax sprays or dusts are  superior  to  s o i l a p p l i c a t i o n s of dry borax i n the c o n t r o l of d e f i c i e n c y symptoms i n the p l a n t s  studied,  e s p e c i a l l y i n areas where  26,  s o i l f i x a t i o n o f boron i s r a p i d . ^here has been c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n t e r e s t evidenced among  p l a n t p h y s i o l o g i s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the value of t i s s u e or f o l i a r a n a l y s i s as compared with s o i l a n a l y s i s  to g i v e a true  p i c t u r e o f the p l a n t needs under s p e c i f i c s o i l  conditions.  Lundegardh (24) supports the view t h a t l e a f a n a l y s i s give  will  a much truer,, p i c ture o f p l a n t n u t r i e n t requirements than  w i l l s o i l a n a l y s i s . Other workers (2, 12, 31,) present conflicting  viewpoints.  Bould (9a) conducted experiments on t u l i p s and n a r c i s s i i n sand c u l t u r e .  Omission of n i t r o g e n  produced t y p i c a l  d e f i c i e n c y sjamptoms i n the: f o l i a g e and a s i g n i f i c a n t r e duction  i n bulb weight i n c r e a s e .  Omission of potassium,  a l t h o u g h causing a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n increase,  i n bulb weight  •  d i d not produce leaf_,scorch or a f f e c t the q u a l i t y  of the f l o w e r s .  The treatments (omission of N, P o r K)  produced marked changes i n the i n o r g a n i c and n i t r o g e n  content  of the b u l b s . Advice on f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r bulb growers i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been formulated by C r o s s l e y (15).  They support two p o s i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s :  a p p l i c a t i o n s of f e r t i l i z e r proven s u p e r i o r increases fertilizer  to spring  and Woods  firstly,  at the time o f p l a n t i n g applications;  fall  have  secondly, s i g n i f i c a n t  i n bulb y i e l d have been obtained only where the contained n i t r o g e n  Other f e r t i l i z e r  a t about 80 l b s . per a c r e .  elements i n c l u d i n g phosphorus, potassium,  copper, manganese and boron have not been b e n e f i c i a l , the l a s t three o f •which were t e s t e d on t u l i p s o n l y . mixing  of s o i l and f e r t i l i z e r  is stressed.  Failure  Thorough  at the time of bulb p l a n t i n g  to do so may r e s u l t i n severe  burning  to the r o o t s and s e r i o u s r e d u c t i o n i n y i e l d s of f l o w e r s and bulbs.  MATERIALS AND Bulb f o r c i n g  METHODS experiment  Three hundred pounds o f s o i l and 360 King  Alfred  D a f f o d i l bulbs were secured from E v e r e t t ' s farm. Twelve f l a t s o f a s i z e 1 2 x 12"x 6" were f i l l e d w i t h 25 l b s . n  ( s o i l weighed on greenhouse s c a l e ) o f E v e r e t t s o i l . Three a d d i t i o n a l f l a t s were f i l l e d w i t h l i k e  amounts o f an  u n f e r t i l i z e d greenhouse s o i l . Three of the E v e r e t t f l a t s were dumped on canvas on the p o t t i n g room f l o o r and the s o i l thoroughly mixed w i t h 1.544-4- grams o f B o r i c a c i d (amount necessary f o r 3 s q . f t . a t the r a t e o f 50 l b s . t o the a c r e ) . Weighed s o i l was r e t u r n e d t o the f l a t s . Three a d d i t i o n a l f l a t s were t r e a t e d i n l i k e manner w i t h 6.154 grams o f Magnesium sulphate (aiiiount necessary f o r 3 s q . f t . a t the r a t e o f 200 l b s . t o the a c r e ) . A l l f l a t s were l a b e l l e d w i t h t h e s o i l treatment, a Boron f o l i a r  3 being d e s i g n a t e d f o r  spray.  The bulbs were.weighed and grouped a c c o r d i n g t o weight and comparable l o t s taken f o r the 15 f l a t s ; 24 t o a f l a t . The bulbs were p l a n t e d i n the f l a t s on November 20, 1951, then s e t o u t s i d e i n the c o l d frame and covered w i t h ash, u n t i l  good r o o t growth was e s t a b l i s h e d .  f l a t s were brought  The  i n on January 28th and s e t under the  greenhouse bench u n t i l February 4 t h when they were p l a c e d on the greenhouse bench i n the f o l l o w i n g random placement  DIAGRAM OF RANDOM PLACEMENT OF FIFTEEN FLATS ON GREENHOUSE BENCH. U.B.C. Ill  \  Bo , Spray I  MgSO, fertT... Ill Everett I  Bo Spray III  U.B.C. MgSO. E v e r e t t Bo fert. fertT I III I I  Bo fert. II  U.B.C. II  MgSO^ Bo f e r t . Spray II II  When l e a f growth was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  Bo fert. Ill  Everett II  ( f o l i a g e , about  B  a  h i g h , no f l o w e r stems), the t h r e e f l a t s d e s i g n a t e d f o r the Boron spray were removed'to the greenhouse f l o o r on two c o n s e c u t i v e days  and'sprayed  (February 1 3 t h and 14-th) w i t h a  t o t a l o f one l i t r e o f a s o l u t i o n o f B o r i c a c i d o f a conc e n t r a t i o n o f 100 ppm. Tlie spraying was done w i t h a 'Tom Thumb' sprayer which allowed a v e r y f i n e m i s t t o s e t t l e ' on the  l e a v e s . No.spreader was used because i t was not  d e s i r o u s - t o add another chemical f a c t o r t o the experiment. Blooms began appearing on the 24th o f F e b r u a r y . A l l blooms were of a u n i f o r m l y e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y . The o n l y f r e a k was one f l o w e r which appeared without a stem i n the E v e r e t t I I I f l a t . The bloom was p e r f e c t . The blooms were counted and removed before the seed pods had formed and a f t e r trueness to v a r i e t y could be e s t a b l i s h e d .  Blooming  was over i n one week and on March 2nd, the f l a t s were removed from t h e bench and p l a c e d o u t s i d e the greenhouse i n a s h e l t e r e d spot i n the same random placement. The bulbs were l i f t e d  on the 20th of June and  p l a c e d on parchment paper on top of the s o i l i n the f l a t s from which they were removed. The f l a t s  were taken <bo the  H o r t i c u l t u r e h u t and p l a c e d on the f l o o r and l e f t f o r the bulbs to d r y . V e n t i l a t i o n was p r o v i d e d f o r . In August  the bulbs were weighed on a rough balance,  i n d i v i d u a l l y to w i t h i n a t e n t h o f a gram. The aggregate o r i g i n a l weight of each f l a t of bulbs 'was-- s u b t r a c t e d from the new aggregate weight".-- The d i f f e r e n c e was the i n c r e a s e . These i n c r e a s e s were t a b u l a t e d and a n a l y s e d statistically At  a c c o r d i n g to Snedecor ( 3 3 ) .  the same time as the f l a t s  were f i l l e d w i t h  soil  and the bulbs p l a n t e d , f o u r c l a y pots were f i l l e d w i t h  soil  two w i t h U.B.C. s o i l and two with E v e r e t t s o i l . Ten sunflower seeds were planted; i n each p o t . The seed l e a v e s and the  s e e d l i n g l e a v e s were observed f o r boron d e f i c i e n c y  symptoms a c c o r d i n g to Schuster and Stephenson ( 3 l ) . N u t r i e n t s were determined i n the two o r i g i n a l  soils  by the Morgan r a p i d s o i l t e s t i n g method ( 2 7 ) . N i t r o g e n and potassium were determined i n these same two s o i l s the  Kjeldahl  by  ( l ) method and the method o f Peech et a l (28)  respectively.  Soil  samples  of 3 s o i l s  (U.B.C, E v e r e t t ,  and E v e r e t t p l u s MgSO^) were taken from the f l a t s when the  bulbs were removed f o r weighing i n August. The s o i l i n  each of the 9 f l a t s mixed and samples from each;  (3 r e p l i c a t e s f o r each s o i l ) was w e l l  of approximately 100 grams were taken  these were put i n cardboard c o n t a i n e r s and  l a b e l l e d U.B.C.I, U.B.C.II, e t c e t e r a . left  The samples "were  to a i r - d r y i n the l a b o r a t o r y and then a n a l y s e d as  follows.  N i t r o g e n was determined  K j e l d a h l method ( l ) .  i n the s o i l s by t h e  Phosphorus was determined  following  a p e r c h l o r i c a c i d d i g e s t i o n ( l ) by a B.D.H. c o l o u r i m e t e r . A sodium a c e t a t e s o i l e x t r a c t was prepared d e t e r m i n a t i o n of potassium, was determined  ( l ) f o r the  c a l c i u m and magnesium.  by the method o f Peech e t a l ( 2 8 ) .  and magnesium were determined  Calcium  according to Blasdale ( 8 ) .  For the b u l b . a n a l y s i s , s i x bulbs or v a r y i n g were taken from each of nine bulb l o t s I,  Potassium  size  ( I , I I , I I I U.B.C,  I I , I I I E v e r e t t , and I , I I , I I I E v e r e t t p l u s MgSO^.). The  bulbs, were ground and samples weighed out f o r oven-drying (for  4.8 hours a t 5 0 ° C ) The m a t e r i a l was reweighed and the  percentage dry-weight  computed.  A second l o t o f samples  was weighed and the_ m a t e r i a l ashed i n an e l e c t r i c  muffle  furnace a t 8 5 0 ° C u n t i l no f u r t h e r i g n i t i o n glow was e v i d e n t . Bases were then determined  from a d i l u t e a c i d s o l u t i o n of  the ashed m a t e r i a l and the same a n a l y t i c a l methods used as o u t l i n e d above f o r s o i l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . N i t r o g e n and phosphorus were analysed from f r e s h m a t e r i a l u s i n g the d i g e s t i o n and d e t e r m i n a t i o n methods as o u t l i n e d f o r s o i l analyses. C o n d u c t i v i t y , o r the t o t a l s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n expressed as % HaCI on a " S o l u - B r i d g e " was determined r e p l i c a t e s of the 3 s o i l s  on 3  ( I , I I , I I I U.B.C, I , I I , I I I  E v e r e t t , and I , I I , I I I E v e r e t t p l u s MgSO^). A 5 : 1 d i l u t i o n of water and s o i l by weight was prepared  f o r each  t e s t and allowed to stand o v e r n i g h t before' the t e s t was made. pH was determined on the two o r i g i n a l s o i l s  (U.B.C.  and E v e r e t t ) c o l o u r i m e t r i c a l l y , i . e . by the use o f c o l o u r imetric indicators. the 3 s o i l s  pH was determined on 3 r e p l i c a t e s of  ( I , I I , I I I U.B.C, I , I I , I I I E v e r e t t , and  I, I I , I I I E v e r e t t p l u s MgSO^) with a Beckman pH meter. Equal samples o f s o i l were mixed w i t h d i s t i l l e d the c o n s i s t e n c y o f a t h i c k mud f o r the t e s t s .  water t o  RESULTS.  No boron d e f i c i e n c y symptoms were observed on the sunflower s e e d l i n g s . The s e e d l i n g s i n t h e pots s u p p l i e d with Everett s o i l f a i l e d  t o germinate  u n t i l a day a f t e r  those p l a n t e d i n the pots s u p p l i e d with U.B.C. s o i l . The bt^fodiar/l>l@^s^we73e e x c e l l e n t except f o r the one f r e a k noted i n the E v e r e t t I I I f l a t .  A l l flats  started  producing blooms the same•day and continued producing blooms for  the same l e n g t h of time. A f t e r the f l a t s were p l a c e d o u t s i d e , the f o l i a g e was  watched c a r e f u l l y f o r symptoms o f chlorosis,. symptoms were noted.  The l e a v e s d i d not t u r n y e l l o w o r  orange or d i e down e a r l i e r forced bulbs.  No such  than was to be expected w i t h  The U.B.C. f l a t s appeared  to remain green a  few days l o n g e r than the E v e r e t t f l a t s but a l l f l a t s  took  approximately three and a h a l f months t o r i p e n o f f . During the few days before the dying down of the f o l i a g e i n the Everett f l a t s  (untreated and t r e a t e d ) a f a i n t  marginal  s t r i p i n g was d e t e c t e d somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h a t seen when p o t a s s i u m - d e f i c i e n t c o r n p l a n t s a r e i n the i n i t i a l of c h l o r o s i s  stages  (19). However, a l l f o l i a g e , i n c l u d i n g t h a t i n  the U.B.C. f l a t s , had d i e d down i n a uniform manner w i t h i n a week. When the bulbs were l i f t e d from the f l a t s , i t was noted t h a t the bulbs grown i n s o i l t r e a t e d w i t h  boron  appeared t o have a b n o r m a l l y s t o u t r o o t s , o f a s e e m i n g l y secondary n a t u r e .  The f i b r o u s r o o t growth was v i g o u r o u s as  on a l l the b u l b s but i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e r o o t s , l a r g e r , s t o u t e r , and new-looking w h i t e r o o t s were growing around the p e r i p h e r y o f  t he b u l b base.  especially  The b u l b s whose  f o l i a g e had been s p r a y e d w i t h boron had r o o t s e x h i b i t i n g similar characteristics. • When the b u l b s were o r i g i n a l l y weighed and a l l o c a t e d f o r p l a n t i n g i n the f l a t s , 140 b u l b s weighed under 30 grams, were o f t h e " s l a b " t y p e and c o u l d  not be expected t o f l o w e r .  These were a l l o c a t e d 28 t o each f l a t .  There were 50 b u l b s  (10 t o each f l a t ) w h i c h weighed over 45 grams each and were o f the d o u b l e o r t r i p l e - n o s e t y p e s .  The remainder  (170)  were l a r g e s l a b s and s m a l l rounds, r a n g i n g i n w e i g h t between 30 and 45 grams each.(34 t o a f l a t . )  These c o u l d be e x p e c t e d  t o produce one bloom each. These a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n s  by  w e i g h t cannot be g u a r a n t e e d t o be r e f l e c t e d a b s o l u t e l y i n the f l o w e r y i e l d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , however, how c l o s e t h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s t o t h e number o f blooms removed from each s e t of 3 f l a t s . f l a t could  I f 28 (plus or minus) b u l b s i n each  n o t be counted on t o f l o w e r , 34 c o u l d be ex-  p e c t e d t o produce one f l o w e r each, and a n o t h e r 10 i n each f l a t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o produce 2 a t l e a s t and perhaps 3 f l o w e r s each, t h e t o t a l blooms from each f l a t s h o u l d approximate 54 p l u s or minus a v e r y few. F o l l o w i n g i s a t a b l e o f the a c t u a l bloom y i e l d s :  TABLE 2 . -  BLOOMS PER FLAT OF 24 BULBS, AND TOTAL BLOOMS PER SOIL TYPE. 72 b u l b s p l a n t e d November 2 0 , 1951. Blooms counted March 1, 1952. !  Soil  type  Replicates  I  I  U.B.C.  20  Everett  III  Total  20  18  58  18  18  18  54  Everett plus Bo f e r t .  16  17  15  48  Everett plus Bp s p r a y  18  15  18  51  Everett plus MgSO^ f e r t .  17  16  20  53  1  As c a n be seen from T a b l e 2 t h e blooms expected f r o m the b u l b s i n t h e E v e r e t t u n t r e a t e d s o i l agree w i t h t h e a c t u a l count. The b u l b s i n t h e U.B.C. f l a t s exceeded bloom y i e l d ,  the expected  those i n t h e MgSO^ f l a t s , t h e boron sprayed f l a t s  and t h e boron f e r t i l i z e d f l a t s f e l l s h o r t o f t h e e x p e c t e d blooms i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r .  The b u l b s were weighed on a  rough b a l a n c e and the w e i g h t s f o r each f l a t t o t a l l e d . totals  were compared w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l  These  w e i g h t s and t h e  following table presents the increase i n y i e l d s .  BULB YIELDS EXPRESSED IN GRAMS PER FLAT.  TABLE 3. -  Soil  Aggregate weights of 72 bulbs  type  Nov.1951 U.B.C.  Everett  I II III I II III  I Everett II p l u s Bo as f e r t . I ' l l I Everett II plus'Bo as spray I I I ; Everett plus MgSO^  i II i n  Increase  801 803 792 2396  ., 2474»56  789 795 six 2395  858.40 871.68 865.42 • 2595.50  802 800  875.00  864.46  2394  844•41 2583.87  800 789 805  847.81 841.29 , 853.55  2394  ,2542.65  148.65  796 786 812  880.06 873.32 897 19  87.32  2394  , 2650.57  256.57  792  ,  Aug.1952 838.24 822.55 813.77  Percentage Increase  37.24 19.55 21.77  4-65 2.43 2.74  78.56 69.40 76.68 54.42'  8. §;£o . §:51 6.71  200.50 9.10 8.02 6.62  73.00 64.46 52.41 189.87 s  •  t  The yield, i n c r e a s e s per treatment  47.81 52.29 • 48.55  5.98 6.68 6.03  84.06  10.56 11.11 10.49  '  85*1.9,  expressed i n grams  have been analysed s t a t i s t i c a l l y according t o Snedecor (33) and the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the 5% and 1% l e v e l s The r e s u l t s o f these, analyses appear I n T a b l e 4 .  computed.  Because o f  the l a r g e y i e l d d i s c r e p a n c y between the U.B.C and E v e r e t t V  treatments  i t was decided to analyse the E v e r e t t  treatments  as a separate e n t i t y and t h i s a n a l y s i s appears as Table 5.  TABLE 4.  -  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR 5 TREATMENTS WITH KING ALFRED DAFFODIL BULBS PLANTED I N TRIPLICATE IN 15 RANDOMIZED FLATS. Aggregate weight i n c r e a s e s f o r 24 b u l b s i n grams p e r f l a t : Replicates  Treatment Totals  Treatment Means  Treatment  I  II  U.B.C.soil  37.24  19.55  21.77  78.56  Everett  69.40  76.68  54.42  200.50  66.83  73.00  64.46  52.41  189.87  63.29  47.81  52.29  48.55  148.65  49.55  84.06  87.32  85.19  soil  Everett s o i l plus boron fertilizer Everett s o i l p l u s boron f o l i a r spray Everett s o i l p l u s MgSO^ as fertilizer  III  :  256.57  26.19  85.52  L e a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 19:1 odds between means o f 3 = 13.46 a t t h e 5% l e v e l . L e a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 99:1 odds between means o f 3 = 19.58 a t t h e 1% l e v e l . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e 1% l e v e l between b u l b y i e l d s from U.B.C. s o i l and from E v e r e t t ' s s o i l . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e 5% l e v e l between b u l b y i e l d s from E v e r e t t ' s u n t r e a t e d ( C o n t r o l ) s o i l and E v e r e t t ' s s o i l p l u s b o r o n f o l i a r s p r a y o f 100 ppm. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e 5% l e v e l between b u l b y i e l d s from E v e r e t t ' s u n t r e a t e d ( C o n t r o l ) s o i l and E v e r e t t s o i l p l u s MgSO^ a p p l i e d a t t h e r a t e o f 20.0 l b s . . t o the acre.  TABLE 5. -  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR 4 TREATMENTS WITH KING ALFRED DAFFODIL BULBS PLANTED. IN TRIPLICATE IN 12 RANDOMIZED FLATS. ( i . e . E v e r e t t s o i l only)  Aggregate weight i n c r e a s e s f o r 24 bulbs i n grams per f l a t :  I  II  HI  Treatment Totals•  69.40  76.68  54.42  .200.50  68.83  Everett s o i l p l u s boron as a fertilizer  73.00  64»46  52.41  189.87  63.29  Everett s o i l plus boron as a f o l i a r spray  47.81  52.29  48.55  148.65  49.55  Everett s o i l plus MgSO, as a fertilizer  84.O6  87.32  85.19  256.57  85.52  274.27  280.75  240.57  795.59  Replicates Treatment Everett  soil  Treatment Means  Least d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 19.1 odds between means o f 3 - 13.05 a t the 5% l e v e l . L e a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 99.1 odds between means o f 3 = 19.77 a t the. ifo l e v e l . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the 5% l e v e l between bulb y i e l d s from E v e r e t t ' s u n t r e a t e d s o i l and y i e l d s from E v e r e t t ' s s o i l plus boron f o l i a r spray o f 100 ppm. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the 5% l e v e l between bulb y i e l d s from E v e r e t t ' s u n t r e a t e d s o i l and y i e l d s from E v e r e t t ' s s o i l plus MgSO, a p p l i e d a t t h e r a t e o f 200 l b s . t o the a c r e . (A complete  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n i n c l u d e d i n the Appendix).  S o i l Analyses; S o i l samples o f t h e two o r i g i n a l s o i l s  (U.B.C. and  E v e r e t t u n t r e a t e d ) were t e s t e d by t h e Morgan method ( 2 7 ) . T e s t s were done i n t r i p l i c a t e and a l l t h r e e samples i n each s e t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were i n good agreement. TABLE 6. - SOIL NUTRIENTS I N U.B.C. AND EVERETT SOILS EXPRESSED AS PARTS PER MILLION Soil  N0  U.B.C.  1 ppm ' 2i  Everett 2  K  Mg  ppm  50 ppm  b l a n k 150 ppm t r a c e  30 ppm  ppm  5 ppm  b l a n k 100 ppm no trace  30 ppm  P  3  ppm  2  U s i n g t h e same s o i l  Ca  so  CI  4  1  samples as above, pH was  determined  c o l o u r i m e t r i c a l l y w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : U.B.C. -  6.3,  E v e r e t t - 5.6. I t may be noted from T a b l e 6 t h a t the E v e r e t t s o i l has a h i g h e r n i t r o g e n v a l u e , i s s l i g h t l y l o w e r i n phosphorus and c a l c i u m , i s much l o w e r i n p o t a s s i u m and g i v e s a more a c i d r e a c t i o n than i s shown by the U.B.C. s o i l . From t h e s e r e s u l t s i t was c o n s t r u e d t h a t n i t r o g e n and p o t a s s i u m m i g h t be t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i n any response t o t h e two s o i l s t h a t t h e bulbs  might make.  T h e r e f o r , more e x a c t a n a l y s e s were r u n on  the same two s o i l s , u s i n g the K j e l d a h l . method ( l ) . f o r n i t r o g e n d e t e r m i n a t i o n and the method o f Peeeh e t a l (28) f o r potassium.  I h r e e samples o f each s o i l were t e s t e d .  TABLE 7. -  NITROGEN I N U.B.C. AND EVERETT SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS OF AIR-DRY SOIL ( i . e . % N) Novemberi1951. '  Soil  Sample A  1  U.B.C. Everett  |  Sample B  Sample G  Mean  .09712  .10458  .09898  .10023  .25586  .2^652  .24279  .24839  T a b l e 7 shows t h a t t h e r a t i o o f n i t r o g e n i n t h e two s o i l s i s approximately  2:5 as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e K j e l d a h l method  as compared w i t h 1:4 as determined by t h e Morgan method.(see T a b l e 6.)  TABLE 8. -  POTASSIUM IN U.B.C. AND EVERETT SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS OF AIR-DRY SOIL (l.e.% K) November 1951  Soil  Sample A  Sample_B  Sample C  Mean  U.B.C.  .06972  .07091  .06917  .06993  Everett  .00993  .00882  .01099  .00991  T a b l e 8 shows t h a t t h e r a t i o o f p o t a s s i u m i n t h e two s o i l s i s approximately  7:1 as determined by t h e Peech method  as compared w i t h 10:1 as determined by t h e Morgan method., (see T a b l e 6 ) . S o i l samples, f o r a n a l y s i s o f n i t r o g e n , phosphorus, p o t a s s i u m , c a l c i u m and magnesium, were t a k e n f r o m t h e f l a t s designated  as I , I I , I I I U.B.C., I , I I , I I I E v e r e t t , and I ,  I I , I I I E v e r e t t p l u s MgSO^ f e r t i l i z e r . These samples a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e A, B, C samples o f t h e f o r e g o i n g  analyses  •which were t a k e n from the'two o r i g i n a l s o i l l o t s b e f o r e t h e f l a t s were f i l l e d w i t h s o i l . N i t r o g e n was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e K j e l d a h l method ( l ) .  TABLE 9. -  NITROGEN IN U.B.C, EVERETT AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO, SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS OF AIR-DRY SOIL ( i . e . % N) June 1952  Soil  I  U.B.C.  .0834-0  Everett Everett plus M g S 0  Replicates II  III  Mean  .08025  .08025  .08130  .18726  .18355  .180^1  .1904-1  .17309  .16995  .16680  .16995  4  I f t h e means from T a b l e 9 a r e compared w i t h t h e means from T a b l e 7, the l o s s o f n i t r o g e n d u r i n g the growing p e r i o d i s c a l c u l a t e d t o be g r e a t e r from t h e E v e r e t t s o i l t h a n from the .B.C. s o i l and s t i l l g r e a t e r from t h e f l a t s r e c e i v i n g U  MgSO  as a s o i l supplement. These l o s s e s may be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  y i e l d v a l u e s i n T a b l e 3. Phosphorus was d e t e r m i n e d w i t h t h e u s e o f a B.D.H. colourimeter following p e r c h l o r i c a c i d d i g e s t i o n ( l ) .  TABLE 10. - PHOSPHORUS IN'U.B.C, EVERETT AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO* SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS OF AIR-DRY SOIL ( i . e . % P) June 1952 Replicates II  III  Soil  I  U.B.C.  .00655  .00699  .00655  .00669  Everett  .00524  .00524  .00524  .00524  Everett plus MgSO.  .00437  .OO48O  .00437  .00451  Mean  The phosphorus values from T a b l e 10 would, i n d i c a t e t h a t the r a t i o  o f phosphorus i n the two u n t r e a t e d  (7:5) corresponds  roughly w i t h the r a t i o  soils  (5:4) as obtained  from Table 6 w i t h the Morgan method'. The phosphorus value i s l e s s i n the s o i l t r e a t e d w i t h MgSO^ but a h e a v i e r crop of bulbs was removed from t h i s Potassium was determined  soil. by t h e method o f Peech e t a l  (28). TABLE' 11.  POTASSIUM IN U.B.C, EVERETT AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO/ SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS OF AIR-DRY SOIL ( i . e . % K) June 1952.  Soil  r  U.B.C  .06820  Everett Everett plus  Replicates  , II  Ill  Mean  .06820  .06820  .06820  .01038  .00799  .00799  .00879  .00799  .00799 •  .00918  .00839  The amount o f potassium  i n the s o i l has decreased  o n l y s l i g h t l y as seen i n a comparison o f Table, 8. -  the above t a b l e wi  Calcium was determined a c c o r d i n g t o B l a s d a l e ( 8 ) . TABLE 12. - CALCIUM IN U.B.C, EVERETT AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO, SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS OF AIR-DRY SOIL ( i . e . ^ l . C a ) June 1952  Replicates II  III  Mean  Soil  I  U.B.C.  .36^0 1  .4000  .3440  .39330  Everett  .2200  .2400  .2360  .23200  E v e r e t t plus MgSO.  .24.40  .2360  .2360  * 23866  The r a t i o between the c a l c i u m v a l u e s i n the two unt r e a t e d s o i l s i s g r e a t e r than t h a t as seen i n T a b l e 6 w i t h the Morgan method o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The mean value of c a l c i u m i s s l i g h t l y more i n the s o i l  t r e a t e d w i t h MgSO^ but the r e p l i c a t e  values a r e not i n c l o s e enough agreement f o r any s i g n i f i c a n c e to be c r e d i t e d t o the means. The c a l c i u m values were h i g h e s t i n the U.B.C. s o i l . Magnesium was determined a c c o r d i n g t o B l a s d a l e ( 8 ) .  TABLE 13. -  MAGNESIUM IN U.B.C., EVERETT AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO, SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS OF AIR-DRY SOIL ( i . e . % Mg) June 1952'  Soil  I  U.B.C.  .05477  Everett Everett plus MgSO^  Replicates II  III  Mean  .04929  .05477  .05294  .02738  .03824  .03286  . .03286  .06572  .06572  ..06572  .06572  From Table 13 i t may be noted t h a t the magnesium content of the Everett, u n t r e a t e d s o i l i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than that of t h e U.B.C. s o i l but t h a t the a d d i t i o n o f magnesium sulphate to t h e s o i l has r a i s e d the magnesium content of the E v e r e t t s o i l t o more than t h a t o f the U.B.C. s o i l . F o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the mean values f o r a l l n u t r i e n t s f o r the t h r e e s o i l s from samples taken i n June,1952. TABLE 14.. - PERCENTAGE NUTRIENTS IN U.B.C, EVERETT AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO, SOILS. Mean v a l u e s taken from t a b l e s 9 - 13 i n c l u s i v e . Soil  N  P  K  Ca  Mg  U.B.C.  .08130  .00669  .06820  .39330 1  .05294  Everett •  .1904-1  .00524  .00879  .23200  .03862  Everett plus MgSO,  .16995  .00451  .00839  .22386  .06572  The U.B.C. s o i l has a g r e a t e r percentage potassium,  phosphorus,  and c a l c i u m than the other two s o i l s . E v e r e t t  u n t r e a t e d s o i l g i v e s a h i g h e r n i t r o g e n value than the U.B,c. s o i l , and s l i g h t l y h i g h e r n i t r o g e n , phosphorus, potassium and c a l c i u m values than the E v e r e t t s o i l t r e a t e d with MgSO^. The a p p l i c a t i o n o f MgSO^ t o the s o i l has r a i s e d the magnesium value of the E v e r e t t s o i l t o the extent t h a t i t i s h i g h e r than t h a t found i n the U.B.C s o i l .  The  c o n d u c t i v i t y o f the s o i l s was determined  a "Solu-Bridge".  with  TABLE 15. - PERCENTAGE TOTAL SALTS EXPRESSED AS $ NaCl I N U.B.C., EVERETT AND EVERETT.PLUS MgSO SOILS. June 1952. . 4  Soil  % NaCl  U.B.C.  .009  %  Everett  .009  %  Everett plus MgSO^  .0095 %  These c o n d u c t i v i t y r e a d i n g s a r e v e r y low..  The  a d d i t i o n o f magnesium t o t h e s o i l r e s u l t s i n a s l i g h t l y  higher  r e a d i n g t h a n f o r those s o i l s w i t h no supplement. Hydrogen i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a Beckman pH meter, on the t h r e e  soils.  TABLE 16. - pH VALUES OF U.B.C, EVERETT, AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO, SOILS June 1952 Soil  pH r e a d i n g  U.B.C  5.6  Everett  5.0  Everett plus MgSO^  5.05  I f these v a l u e s a r e compared w i t h the pH v a l u e s determined c o l o u r i m e t r i c a l l y (page Z<p ) a t p l a n t i n g t i m e , i t may be seen t h a t the pH v a l u e s have dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e U.B.C  and E v e r e t t s o i l s ;  from 6.3 t o 5.6 i n the f o r m e r case t o  5.7 t o 5.0 i n t h e l a t t e r i n s t a n c e . The s o i l t r e a t e d w i t h MgSO^ has a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r pH r e a d i n g .  Bulb a n a l y s e s : Bulb t i s s u e samples -were prepared and a n a l y s e d f o r n i t r o g e n , phosphorus, potassium, Nitrogen was determined  c a l c i u m and magnesium.  by the K j e l d a h l method ( l ) .  TABLE 17. - NITROGEN IN BULB TISSUE SAMPLES FROM BULBS GROWN IN U.B.C., EVERETT, AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS FRESH WEIGHT. (% N) August 1952  Soil  type  I  Rer f l i c a t e s II  III  Mean  U.B.C.  .27853  .2848-2  .27695  .28010  Everett  .30370  .29898  ,31315  .30527  E v e r e t t plus MgSO.  .29741  .30056  .30370  .30056  From T b l e 17 I t may be noted that there i s a g r e a t e r a  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f n i t r o g e n by the bulbs grown i n the" E v e r e t t s o i l s than there i s by the bulbs grown i n the U.B.C. s o i l . The  s l i g h t l y lower n i t r o g e n values o f the bulbs grown i n the  magnesium t r e a t e d s o i l s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t as t h e r e i s v a r i a n c e among the r e p l i c a t e s as g r e a t as the v a r i a n c e between the treatments. Phosphorus was determined w i t h the use of a B.D.H. colourimeter following p e r c h l o r i c a c i d d i g e s t i o n , ( l ) .  TABLE 18. - PHOSPHORUS I N BULB TISSUE SAMPLES FROM BULBS GROWN I N U.B.G., EVERETT, AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS FRESH WEIGHT {% P) A t 1952 u g u s  Replicates II  S o i l type  I  U.B.C.  .02794 ! .02794•< .02794  .02794.  Everett  .02445  .02445  .02445  .02445  Everett plus MgSO,  .02445  .02445  .02445  .02445  |i  1 1 1  Mean  T a b l e 18 shows t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e phosphorus  i n the  b u l b samples i s s l i g h t l y more i n t h e b u l b s grown i n U.B.C s o i l b u t i s n o t a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e much h i g h e r c o n t e n t o f ' t h e s o i l , (see T a b l e 10)  phosphorus  Magnesium i n t h e s o i l  has made no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s experiment t o t h e phosphorus intake of the bulbs.  .  P o t a s s i u m was determined by t h e method o f Peech e t a l (28). TABLE 19. - POTASSIUM I N BULB TISSUE SAMPLES FROM BULBS GROWN IN U.B.C., EVERETT, AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS FRESH WEIGHT (% K) A t 1952. U g u s  Replicates II III  S o i l type  I  U.B.C.  .36241  . 36241  .36169  .36217  Everett  .21839  .21839  .21839  .21839  Everett plus MgSO/  .23545  .23401  .23863  .23603  Mean  Table 19 shows t h a t t h e percentage p o t a s s i u m i n '  38.  the bulbs grown i n U.B.C. s o i l i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h a t i n t h e bulbs grown i n e i t h e r of the E v e r e t t s o i l s . These  values may be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the potassium  the s o i l s expressed  values i n  i n T a b l e 11. . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s not  t r u e w i t h r e s p e c t t o a comparison o f the v a l u e s d e r i v e d from bulbs  p l a n t e d i n E v e r e t t u n t r e a t e d s o i l and E v e r e t t p l u s  MgSO. t r e a t e d s o i l . The MgSO. t r e a t e d s o i l s y i e l d 4 4 a Slightly  h i g h e r potassium  c o n t e n t . Even though t h e  difference i s small, i t i s consistent Calcium was determined  bulbs w i t h  among the r e p l i c a t e s .  according to Blasdale (8).  TABLE 20. - CALCIUM IN BULB TISSUE SAMPLES FROM BULBS GROWN IN U.B.C, EVERETT AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS FRESH WEIGHT {% Ca) August 1952  Soil  type  Replicates II  I  III  Mean  U.B.C.  .2400  .2320  .2336  .23520  Everett  .2096  .2080  .2064  .20800  E v e r e t t plus MgSO^  .2272  .2224  .2288  .,.22613  I t may be seen from Table 20 t h a t d e s p i t e c a l c i u m values found i n the E v e r e t t s o i l s  the lower  (see T a b l e 12)  t h a t the c a l c i u m value I n bulbs grown i n E v e r e t t s o i l t r e a t e d w i t h MgSO^ i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than f o r those grown' i n Everett untreated  soil.  Magnesium was determined  a c c o r d i n g to B l a s d a l e ( 8 ) .  TABLE 21. - MAGNESIUM IN BULB TISSUE SAMPLES FROM BULBS GROWN IN U.B.C, EVERETT, AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO. SOILS EXPRESSED AS GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS FRESH WEIGHT {% Mg) August 1952 Replicates I  P  III  Mean  U.B.C.  .14239,  .14239  .14239  .14239  Everett  .14788  .11502  .13145  .13145  Everett plus  .26289  .24646  .23003  .24646  Soil  type  Table 21 i n d i c a t e s q u i t e d e c i d e d l y t h a t the magnesium t r e a t e d s o i l has produced  bulbs w i t h an appreciably, h i g h e r mag  nesium content than the u n t r e a t e d  soil.  The magnesium values i n the bulbs grown i n the E v e r e t t u n t r e a t e d s o i l s v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y among the r e p l i c a t e s so t h a t a r e l i a b l e comparison between these v a l u e s and those o f bulbs grown i n U.B.C. s o i l cannot be made. F o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f the mean values f o r a l l n u t r i e n t s f o r the bulb samples prepared and analysed i n August 1952. TABLE 22. - PERCENTAGE NUTRIENTS IN BULBS GROWN IN U.B.C, EVERETT, AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO^ SOILS. Mean values taken from Tables 17-21 i n c l u s i v e . N  P  U.B.C.  .28010  .02794  Everett -.Everett p l u s ' MgSO^  . 30527 .30056  .02445 .02445  Soil  type  K . 36217  Mg .23520  .14239  .21839 . .20800  .13145  .23603  .24646  .22613  I t may be seen from a comparison o f T a b l e 22 w i t h Table 14- t h a t the bulb t i s s u e t e s t s a r e a f a i r l y good i n d i c a t i o n o f g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r values i n the s o i l s i n which the bulbs a r e grown.  The values d e r i v e d from t i s s u e a n a l y s i s  do not approximate the r a t i o o f d i f f e r e n c e between the s o i l n u t r i e n t v a l u e s except perhaps i n the case o f phosphorus where the d i f f e r e n c e i s l e s s marked.  F o r i n s t a n c e , i f the  n i t r o g e n values a r e c o n s i d e r e d , the r a t i o between t i s s u e n i t r o g e n i s 280 : 305 : 301. With the s o i l s i t i s 81 : 190 i 169.  The n i t r o g e n i n t a k e of the bulbs has not i n c r e a s e d  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h the n i t r o g e n i n the s o i l .  With magnesium,  the s i t u a t i o n i s reversed. The, s o i l values f o r the 3 s o i l s :  from Table 14 a r e i n a r a t i o o f 53 : 39: 66. The bulb t i s s u e v a l u e s grown i n these 3 s o i l s a r e i n a r a t i o o f 142 : 131 : 246.  The magnesium i n t a k e has i n c r e a s e d out o f p r o p o r t i o n  w i t h the magnesium i n the s o i l f o r the s o i l t r e a t e d w i t h magnesium s u l p h a t e . Samples of equal weight o f f r e s h ground bulb were oven - d r i e d and reweighed. TABLE 2 3 .  Soil-type  PERCENTAGE DRY WEIGHT OF BULBS GROWN IN U.B.C, EVERETT, AND EVERETT PLUS MgSO/ SOILS. C a l c u l a t e d as percent o f f r e s h weight. August 1952 I  II  III  Mean  U.B.C  30.8  .29.4  30.8  3C3  Everett  32.8  33.2  32.0  32.6  Everett plus MgS0  32.4  32,8  32.0  32.4  4  From Table 23 i t may be s o i l grown bulbs  noted t h a t the E v e r e t t  (both u n t r e a t e d and w i t h MgSO.) have a  h i g h e r d r y weight value than those grown i n U.B.C. s o i l .  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  The f a c t that no boron d e f i c i e n c y symptoms were observed on the sunflower s e e d l i n g s would i n d i c a t e t h a t i f a boron d e f i c i e n c y exists i n the s o i l , not  this: deficiency i s  g r e a t enough to cause macroscopic malformation o f t h i s  indicator plant.  '  No s i g n i f i c a n c e can be attached to the bloom y i e l d s ( i n t h a t f l o w e r buds a r e formed the p r e c e d i n g year) except i n the case o f the bloom r e s u l t s from the b o r o n . f e r t i l i z e d f l a t s wherein some i n c i p i e n t f l o w e r buds may  have a b o r t e d  due to a too heavy a p p l i c a t i o n of boron to the Because no premature  r i p e n i n g was  soil.  evidenced i n these  experiments w i t h E v e r e t t ' s King A l f r e d d a f f o d i l bulbs grown,;"' i n Everett's  'problem' s o i l ,  i t m a y b e supposed  that  climate,  topography, drainage e t c e t e r a are t i e d up w i t h any l a c k of n u t r i e n t i n the s o i l .  The l e a c h i n g e f f e c t of r a i n f a l l I n a  l i g h t uplands s o i l could not be reproduced i n f l a t s of bulbs grown i n the  greenhouse.  No i n f o r m a t i o n was the  a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e a t  time o f w r i t i n g on the e f f e c t of boron on f i b r o u s  growth,  root  and so any e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon could o n l y  be formulated f o l l o w i n g f u r t h e r t e s t s w i t h adequate measurements and photographs. Growth of bulbs i n sand  culture  (where r o o t s sxmld be l i f t e d without danger of breaking) w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s o f boron would probably y i e l d such i n f o r -  mation. The study of expected and a c t u a l bloom y i e l d s i n a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e > i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f l o w e r i n g i n the manner of Emsweller  e t a l (16) might prove v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n  e v a l u a t i n g the p r o s p e c t i v e blooms from c e r t a i n types and weights o f b u l b s . Bulbs f o r c e d hard i n the greenhouse show l e s s percentage i n c r e a s e i n y i e l d than would be expected from bulbs grown under f i e l d  c o n d i t i o n s but the v a r i a n c e between t r e a t -  ments should g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f r a t i o s of i n c r e a s e , i n asmuch as the d i f f e r e n c e s i n y i e l d were proven s i g n i f i c a n t by s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis.  The U.B.C. s o i l used d i d not prove a s a t i s f a c t o r y medium f o r bulb p r o d u c t i o n .  The y i e l d from bulbs p l a n t e d i n  U.B.C.., s o i l was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower  ( a t 1% l e v e l ) than the  y i e l d from bulbs p l a n t e d on E v e r e t t s o i l .  I n a comparison  of the two o r i g i n a l s o i l s used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t may be noted  t h a t the U.B.C. s o i l e x h i b i t e d :  of a l l elements  except n i t r o g e n . N i t r o g e n then might  be the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r from the U.B.C  greater concentrations  i n a comparison  well  o f y i e l d s of bulbs  s o i l and from E v e r e t t ' s u n t r e a t e d s o i l .  The l i m i t i n g e f f e c t o f n i t r o g e n on bulb y i e l d i s s t r e s s e d by Mr. C r o s s l e y i n h i s recommendations f o r bulb fertilization  (15). The f o l i a g e and f l o w e r s from the bulbs  grown on the U.B.C. s o i l were i n no way i n f e r i o r to those  produced  on the s o i l s w i t h ' h i g h e r n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t . T h i s  would i n d i c a t e t h a t a l a c k of n i t r o g e n i n the s o i l i s not manifested by r e d u c t i o n i n bloom and  f o l i a g e q u a l i t y unless  t h a t l a c k i s more pronounced than i t was  i n this soil.  The  U.B.C. s o i l , i f bulb y i e l d s had not been c a l c u l a t e d , would have been c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y as a bulb f o r c i n g medium. Boron added as a f o l i a r  spray o f 100 ppm  d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on bulb weight I n c r e a s e .  The  had a difference  i n y i e l d s between bulbs grown i n E v e r e t t u n t r e a t e d s o i l those grown i n E v e r e t t ' s s o i l and c o n t a i n i n g 100  ppm  sprayed w i t h a  and  solution  boron i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5$ l e v e l .  The  spray used i s o b v i o u s l y much too c o n c e n t r a t e d . A c o n t i n u a t i o n of  t h i s experiment  than 100  ppm  u s i n g a range of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s l e s s  should i n d i c a t e the range of  t o l e r a n c e of the  d a f f o d i l bulb. Boron added to the s o i l as b o r i c a c i d a t the r a t e of 50 pounds to the a c r e had no b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t but d i d not decrease bulb weight i n c r e a s e s a p p r e c i a b l y .  Boron i s e i t h e r  not e f f e c t i v e as a s o i l supplement on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s o i l  or  e l s e an a p p l i c a t i o n of boron a t the r a t e of 50 pounds to the acre i s too much. Any nullified tolerance.  value d e r i v e d from boron would be  by the bulb being a t the l i m i t of i t s range of Emsweller et a l (16) a d v i s e a p p l i c a t i o n of b o r i c  a c i d at the r a t e of  pounds to the acre f o r d a f f o d i l  grown i n d e f i c i e n t s o i l s .  bulbs  B a t j e r and Thompson (l^/J a d v i s e  i :bs.^.bEi'ler%fel^rf#r boron d e f i c i e n t apple orchards i n the :  S_tat.e of Washington.  30  When the t o x i c e f f e t t s of the boron spray used i n these t e s t s are c o n s i d e r e d , i t may  be r e a l i z e d t h a t boron a s s i m i l -  a t i o n through the f o l i a g e . i s a p p r e c i a b l e .  If a deficiency  does e x i s t i n the s o i l , then a f o l i a r a p p l i c a t i o n of boron of  an optimum c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( i . e .  t o l e r a n c e of the bulb) might prove  w i t h i n the l i m i t s of effective. Until  the  t o l e r a n c e of the bulb i s a s c e r t a i n e d , i t would be' i n a d v i s a b l e to  use a boron spray i n any but t e s t p l o t s . S o i l  applications  of  b o r i c a c i d a t the r a t e of .20 to 30 pounds to the acre c o u l d  probably be used q u i t e without d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t . Magnesium sulphate added to the s o i l a t the r a t e of 200  pounds to the acre has - s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d (at the  5$ l e v e l ) the bulb weight y i e l d s i n t h i s experiment. magnesium content of  The  the E v e r e t t s o i l i s not low enough to -  cause any d e f i c i e n c y symptoms i n d a f f o d i l f o l i a g e from grown i n t h i s experiment, yield.  It  may  but i t i s too low f o r good bulb  be noted from the mean percentage n u t r i e n t s  as expressed i n T a b l e L4 t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f 200 of magnesium sulphate to the a c r e has maintained potassium value or depressed tested.  The  bulbs  pounds  the  i t very s l i g h t l y i n the  soils  same i s true of the c a l c i u m v a l u e s as a f f e c t e d  by the a d d i t i o n of magnesium to the s o i l .  As was  explained  f o l l o w i n g T a b l e s 12 and 13, these values cannot be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t because of v a r i a n c e among  the r e p l i c a t e s t e s t e d  but i n view of the experimental evidence presented i n the l i t e r a t u r e , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s on the s o i l s w i t h a g r e a t e r  number o f r e p l i c a t i o n s might show i f the d e p r e s s i n g of magnesium on the c a l c i u m and potassium valid.  effect  i n the s o i l i s  A c c o r d i n g to Bear et a l (5) the potassium:  magnesium r a t i o should be approximately 1 : 4  :  calcium:  2 for  optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of each of these three c a t i o n s . According to  t h i s f i n d i n g the r a t i o i n the E v e r e t t s o i l i s f a r from  optimum. I f the magnesium content of the s o i l as found i n the magnesium t r e a t e d s o i l g i v e s good y i e l d r e s u l t s , then the potassium v a l u e i s inadequate  and the c a l c i u m value i s i n  excess. E v e r e t t ' s s o i l , a l t h o u g h low i n potash,  supported  .superior bulb growth than the U.B.C. s o i l . Low a v a i l a b l e potassium may not be a s e r i o u s d e f e c t i n s o i l s used f o r bulb p r o d u c t i o n (see a l s o 15.)  Varying v a l u e s f o r potassium  i n the s o i l s was not r e f l e c t e d i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of potassium  by the bulb.  T h i s i s not t r u e w i t h magnesium, however.  An i n c r e a s e  of magnesium i n the s o i l allowed an i n c r e a s e i n magnesium by the bulb t o an a p p r e c i a b l e e x t e n t . Where the magnesium v a l u e was r a i s e d from 39 mgm  to 66 mgm  per 100 grams o f s o i l (by  the a p p l i c a t i o n of magnesium sulphate t o the s o i l ) the magnesium value i n the bulb samples was r a i s e d from 131 to 246 mgm  mgm.  per 100 grams f r e s h weight o f bulb.  T i s s u e a n a l y s i s i s then not  always an i n d i c a t i o n o f  s o i l n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r a l l elements and should be accompanied by s o i l  analysis.  ^he r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment i n d i c a t e t h a t an a p p l i c a t i o n of magnesium sulphate  a t the r a t e ®.f 200_- pounds  to the acre has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on bulb weight of King A l f r e d d a f f o d i l bulbs f o r c e d on E v e r e t t under greenhouse c o n d i t i o n s .  soil  increase  SUMMARY  E v e r e t t B r o t h e r s , bulb growers i n the C l o v e r d a l e section of  the F r a s e r V a l l e y , h a v e . s u f f e r e d severe y i e l d  l o s s e s i n t h e i r p l o t s of King A l f r e d d a f f o d i l b u l b s . Because of premature r i p e n i n g o f t h e f o l i a g e , the bulbs do not a t t a i n optimum i n c r e a s e i n s i z e and weight.  The l o s s i s c o n s i d e r e d  to be over f i f t y percent o v e r a l l r e d u c t i o n i n crop y i e l d . An experiment  was s e t up i n the U n i v e r s i t y  green-  house p l a n t i n g E v e r e t t ' s bulbs i n f l a t s , u s i n g f i v e d i f f e r e n t treatments, namely:  U.B.C. u n f e r t i l i z e d  green-  house s o i l , E v e r e t t u n t r e a t e d s o i l , E v e r e t t s o i l plus b o r i c a c i d a t the r a t e of 50 pounds to the a c r e , E v e r e t t s o i l and a boron f o l i a r  spray of 100 ppm c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and E v e r e t t  s o i l p l u s magnesium sulphate a t the r a t e o f 200 pounds to the a c r e . The bulbs were p l a n t e d i n November and brought the greenhouse i n l a t e January  for forcing.  A f t e r blooming  the f l a t s were placed o u t s i d e f o r r i p e n i n g o f f . die-back o c c u r r e d and the bulbs were l i f t e d , weighed.  into  No e a r l y  d r i e d and d u l y  Increases i n y i e l d f o r each treatment were c a l -  c u l a t e d and analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  The magnesium sulphate  fertilized  s o i l produced  in yield.  The bulbs whose f o l i a g e had been sprayed w i t h boron  produced  the g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s e r y i e l d than the E v e r e t t s o i l .  The boron f e r t i l i z e d  s o i l produced  bulbs w i t h a s l i g h t l y  lower y i e l d i n c r e a s e than the E v e r e t t s o i l and the U.B.C. s o i l had the lowest s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d i n c r e a s e o f a l l . Results and  of s o i l a n a l y s i s on the U.B.C., the S v e r e t t o s o i l  the magnesium t r e a t e d E v e r e t t s o i l i n d i c a t e t h a t  nitrogen  i s low i n the U.B.C. s o i l and t h a t phosphorus, potassium, calcium  and magnesium a r e h i g h e r  Magnesium i s h i g h e s t  than i n the E v e r e t t  soil.  i n the s o i l t r e a t e d w i t h that element.  Bulb a n a l y s i s shows comparable r e s u l t s o n l y i n l e s s e r r a t i o of values  between the treatments.  I t was concluded t h a t boron as a f o l i a r ppm had a d e t r i m e n t a l  spray o f 100  e f f e c t on bulb weight i n c r e a s e , and  t h a t boron a p p l i e d as f e r t i l i z e r to the acre had no b e n e f i c i a l Magnesium sulphate  a t the r a t e o f 50 pounds  effect.  a p p l i e d to the s o i l a t the r a t e  of 200 pounds t o the acre to the E v e r e t t problem had  soil  a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on bulb weight i n c r e a s e on King  A l f r e d d a f f o d i l bulbs f o r c e d i n the greenhouse.  50,  REFERENCES CITED 1  A s s o c i a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemists. Official and t e n t a t i v e methods of a n a l y s i s . Washington 4> D.C. 1945.  2  A t k i n s o n , H.J., L.M. P a t r y and R. L e v i c k . P l a n t t i s s u e testing. I l l E f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s . S c i , A g r i c . 2 8 : 223-228. 1948.  3  Barnes, W.C. E f f e c t . o f s o i l a c i d i t y and some minor elements o f the growth of I r i s h p o t a t o e s . South C a r o l i n a S t a . Rpt. f o r 1943 : 127-132.  4  B a t j e r , L.P. and Thompson, A.H. E f f e c t o f b o r i c a c i d sprays a p p l i e d d u r i n g bloom upon the s e t o f pear fruits. P r o c . Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 53 : 141• 1949 - 1.  5  .Bear, F.E., A.L. P r i n c e , S.L. Toth, and E.R.Purvis. Magnesium i n p l a n t s and s o i l s . New J e r s e y A g r i c . Exp. S t a . B u l l . 760. 2 4 pages-.- 1951. -  6  Beaumont, A.B. and S n e l l , M.E. The e f f e c t of magnesium d e f i c i e n c y on_crop p l a n t s . Jour. Agr. Res. 50 :  553-562. 1935.  7  Berger, K.C. and E. Truog. Boron d e f i c i e n c i e s as r e v e a l e d by p l a n t and s o i l t e s t s . J o u r . Amer. Soc. Agron. 32 : 297-301. 1940.  8  B l a s d a l e , W.C. The q u a n t i t a t i v e s e p a r a t i o n o f c a l c i u m from magnesium. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 27 : 917-  922.  1909.  9  B r i c k l e y , Wm."D. The e f f i c i e n c y of spray treatment as a remedy f o r boron d e f i c i e n c y i n sugar beets and swedes and f o r manganese d e f i c i e n c y i n o a t s . E i r e Agr. Jour. 40 : I 4 4 - I 4 8 . 1943. #  10  C a r o l u s , R.L. Some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the a b s o r p t i o n of magnesium i n the potato p l a n t . P r o c . Amer. Soc. H o r t . S c i . 30 : 48O-484. 1933.  11  Chandler, W.H. Deciduous o r c h a r d s . P h i l a d e l p h i a . 1951.  12  Chubb, W.O. and H.J. A t k i n s o n . P l a n t t i s s u e t e s t i n g . II A study o f the method of f o l i a r d i a g n o s i s . S c i . A g r i c . 28 : 49-60. 1948.  13  C o l l i n s , E.R. and J . J . S k i n n e r . E f f e c t o f d o l o m i t i c limestone on s o i l s and crops when used as a nettt-  Lea and F e b i g e r .  51. r a l i z i n g agent i n complete f e r t i l i z e r s . Amer. S c . Agron. 34 : 894-901. 1942.  Jour.  0  14  Cooper, H.P. C e r t a i n f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y a b s o r p t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f magnesium by p l a n t s .  S o i l S c i . 60 : 107-114.  1945.  15  C r o s s l e y , J.H. and J . J . Woods. N a r c i s s u s c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, pub. of Dom. Exper. S t a . a t Saanichton. 1948.  16  Emsweller, S.L., G.O. R a n d a l l and J.G. Weaver. F e r t i l i z e r f o r n a r c i s s u s bulbs i n North C a r o l i n a . P r o c . A e r . Soc. H o r t . S c i . 36 : 791-795. 1939. m  17  G i l b e r t , Frank A. M i n e r a l n u t r i t i o n of p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . Univ. of Oklahoma P r e s s . 194&.  18  G i l b e r t , F.A. and W.R. Robbins.. Calcium - boron n u t r i t i o n of the strawberry. A b s t r a c t i n P r o c . Amer. S . H o r t . S c i . 55 : 276. 1950. o c  19  Hambidge, Gove. ed. Hunger s i g n s i n c r o p s : a symposium. Amer. S c . Agron. and Nat. F e r t . Assoc. Washington, D.C. 1941. 0  20  Hanson, A.A., J.G. Coulson and L.C. Raymond. F u r t h e r s t u d i e s on brown h e a r t i n swedes. S c i . A g r i c . 2 8 :  229-243.  1948.  21  H i l l , H. and H.B. Cannon. N u t r i t i o n a l studies'.by means of .tissue t e s t s with potatoes grown on a muck s o i l . S c i . Agric. 28 :  22  Hoagland, D.R. Botanica.  23  K e l l e y , C.C., and R.H. S p i l s b u r y . S o i l survey of the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Dom. Can. Dept. A g r i c . Pub. 650. Tech. B u l l . 2 0 . 1939.  24  Lundegardh, H. Leaf a n a l y s i s . Trans, by R . L . M i t c h e l l . H i l g e r and Watts, L t d . London, Eng. 1951.  25  MaeLachlan, J.D. and W.F. Strong. Spraying and d u s t i n g t u r n i p s to prevent water core, a d i s o r d e r caused by boron d e f i c i e n c y . S c i . A g r i c . .28 : 61-65. 1948.  26  M i l l e r , Edwin C.  Co. .27  Inorganic p l a n t n u t r i t i o n . 1942. :  Plant physiology.  Chronica'  McGraw - H i l l Book  1931".  Morgan, M.F. The u n i v e r s a l s o i l t e s t i n g system. A g r i c . Exp. S t a . B u l l . 37.2.. 1950.  Conn.  28  Peech, M., L.T. Alexander, L.A. Dean and J . S. Reed. Methods o f s o i l a n a l y s i s f o r "soil f e r t i l i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . U.S.D.A. C i r e . 757. 19-47.  29  Reeve, Eidrow and JiW. S h i v e . Potassium - "boron r e l a t i o n s i n p l a n t s . B e t t e r crops w i t h p l a n t food  27 : 14-16, 45-48.  30  31  1943. #  ' Reeve, Eidrow and J.¥. S h i v e . Potassium - boron and c a l c i u m - boron r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n p l a n t n u t r i t i o n . S o i l S c i . 57 : 1-14. 1944. Schuster, C.E. and R.E.Stephenson. Sunflower as an i n d i c a t o r p l a n t o f boron d e f i c i e n c y i n s o i l s . J o u r .  Amer. Soc. Agron. 32 : 607-621.  1940.  32  Shive, J.W. survey.  Boron i n p l a n t l i f e - a b r i e f S o i l Sci.. 60 : 41-51. 1945.  33  Snedeeor, G.W. S t a t i s t i c a l methods a p p l i e d t o experiments i n a g r i c u l t u r e and b i o l o g y . Iowa S t a t e College Press. 1946.  34  Thatcher, R.W. A proposed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the chemical elements w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r f u n c t i o n s  i n plant n u t r i t i o n .  S c i . 79 : 463-466.  historical  1934.  35  Walker, J.C. H i s t o l o g i c - p a t h o l o g i c e f f e c t s o f boron d e f i c i e n c y . S o i l S c i . 57 : 51-54. 1944.  36  W i l l i s , J.C. B i b l i o g r a p h y o f the minor elements. C h i l e a n n i t r a t e Corp. New York. 1949.  erratum 9a Bould C. N u t r i t i o n a l s t u d i e s w i t h t u l i p s and n a r c i s s i r e p r i n t from Journ. Bomology and H o r t . S c i . V o l . 8. 1939  #  r e f e r s t o l i t e r a t u r e i n a b s t r a c t form only (36)  APPENDIX Statistical  analyses:  ANALYSIS 0F VARIANCE FOR 5 TREATMENTS WITH KING ALFRED.DAFFODIL BULBS PLANTED IN TRIPLICATE I N 15 RANDOMIZED FLATS. Aggregate w e i g h t i n c r e a s e s f o r 24 b u l b s I n grams p e r f l a t : Replicates Treatment  I  II  Ill  U.B.C. s o i l  37.2A  19.55  21.77  Everett, s o i l  69.40  76.68  54,42  Treatment Totals  Treatment Means  78.56  .26.19  200.50 1  Everett s o i l p l u s Boron as a fertilizer Everett s o i l p l u s Boron as a f o l i a r spray Everett s o i l p l u s MgSO^ as a fertilizer  66.83  Si  r  73.00  64.46  52.41  189.87  63.29  47.81  52.29  48.55  148.65  49.55  84.O6  87.32  85.19  256.57  85.52  300.30  262.34  874.15  311.51  . ;  C a l c u l a t i o n o f sums o f squares (S.S.) C o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r (C.F.)= ( 8 7 4 . 1 5 ) j 764.138.2225 =50,0/,?.^,*? 15 1 5  T o t a l Sums o f Squares (S.S..)=57,456.9163 - 50,942.5482 6,514-3681 Treatment Sums o f Squares = 170.347.5279 - 50,942.5842 = 5,839.9611 R e p l i c a t e Sums o f Squares; = 256.040.8457 - 50,942.5842 =  5  .265.6209  Remainder Sums o f Squares =6,514.3681 - 5839.9611 265.6209 = 408.7861 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: Total  S.S. 6,514-3681  Treatment  5,839.9611  F  D.F. Mean Square 14 f  4 | 1,459.9903  Replicates  265.6209  2  132.8105  Remainder  408.7861  8  51.0983  5%F  1%F  | 28.572 ! 3.84 ' 7.01 2.599  4.46  8.65  V a r i a n c e o f a mean o f 3 - 51.0?83 - 17.0328 3 V a r i a n c e o f a d i f f e r e n c e bet-ween means o f 3 = 17.0328 417.0328 = 34.0656 Standard e r r o r o f a d i f f e r e n c e between means o f 3 = J34.0656 = 5.8366 t v a l u e r e q u i r e d f o r 19.1 odds w i t h 8 degrees o f freedom = 2.306 L e a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 19.1 odds between means o f 3 = 5.8366 * 2.306 =,[13.4592 t v a l u e r e q u i r e d f o r 99.1 odds w i t h 8 degrees o f freedom = 3.355 L e a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 99.1 odds between means o f 3= 5.8366 x 3.355 = 19.5818  APPENDIX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR A TREATMENTS WITH KING ALFRED DAFFODIL BULBS PLANTED I N TRIPLICATE IN 12 RANDOMIZED FLATS. ( I . E . EVERETT SOIL ONLY). Aggregate w e i g h t i n c r e a s e s f o r 24 b u l b s i n grams p e r f l a t : Replicates Treatment  I  II  III  Treatment Totals  Everett  69.40  76.68  54.42  200.50  66.83  73.00  64.46  52.41  189.87  63.29  Everett s o i l 47.81 p l u s Boron as a f o l i a r spray Everett s o i l 84.O6 p l u s MgSO^ as a fertilizer  52.29  48.55  148.65  49.55  87.32  85.19  256.57  85.52  274-27  280.75  240.57  795.59  soil  Everett s o i l p l u s Boron as a fertilizer  Treatment Means  C a l c u l a t i o n o f Sums o f Squares (S.S.) Correction Factor  (C.F)=(795.59)? 632.963.4481 = 12 12  5 2  746 95 .,<«...  T o t a l S.S.=55,213.9633 - 52,746.9540 - 2,467.0093 Treatment S.S.-164.175.8543 - 5 4 7 2 5 . 2 8 4 8 - 52,746.9540 = T  3  1,978.3308 R e p l i c a t e S.S. =211,918,520,3, =52,979.6301 - 52,746.9540 232.6781 Remainder S.S.=2,467.0093 - 1978.3308 -.232.6781- 256.0024  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: D.F, , Mean Square F  S.S. Total Treatment  1 .2,467.0093  11  1,978.3308  3  659.4436  Replicates  232.6761  2  116.3381  Remainder  256.0024  6  42.6671  Variance o f a mean o f 3 = 42.6671 3  1%F  5%F  13.11 \ 4.76  9.78  5.14  10.92  2.73  = 14.2224  V a r i a n c e o f a d i f f e r e n c e between means of 3 = 14.2224 +-  14.2224 - 28.4448 Standard  e r r o r o f a d i f f e r e n c e between means o f 3 = ,/28.4448= 5.3334  t value r e q u i r e d f o r 19.1 odds w i t h 6 degrees o f freedom = 2.447 L e a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 19.1 odds between means o f 3 =5.3334 >* 2.447 = 13.0508 t value r e q u i r e d  f o r 99.1 odds w i t h 6 degrees of freedom = 3.707  L e a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 99.1 odds between means o f ,  '  3 - 5.3334.x. 3.707 =119.7709  

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