UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Carrot nutrition : the influence of varying levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the yield… Hughes, Robert William 1952

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1952_A4 H8 C2.pdf [ 19.46MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106788.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106788-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106788-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106788-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106788-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106788-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106788-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106788-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106788.ris

Full Text

CARROT NUTRITION: THE INFLUENCE OF VARYING LEVELS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM ON THE YIELD AND FOOD VALUE OF Daucus carota (L.), v a r i e t y Red Core Chantenay. by ROBERT WILLIAM HUGHES, B.S.A. ( B r i t . Col.) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE TN AGRICULTURE i n the Department HORTICULTURE (PLANT NUTRITION) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE Members of the Department of HORTICULTURE THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1952 i ABSTRACT In a vegetable n u t r i t i o n experiment, f e r t i l i z e r s were applied i n such a way as to make possible a study of the e f f e c t s of three l e v e l s each of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the y i e l d and food value of carrots. The l e v e l s of each nutrient applied were: nitrogen 50, 100, and 150 pounds; phosphoric aoid 100, 200, and 300 pounds; and potash 50, 100, and 150 pounds per acre. The experiment was arranged i n a 5 X 3 X 5 design with second order in t e r a c t i o n s confounded with blocks. Under the conditions of the experiment i t was found that applications of nitrogen caused a very highly s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e , l i n e a r response f o r root y i e l d ; that applications of phosphorus had no primary e f f e c t on y i e l d ; and that applica-tions of potassium caused a highly s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e , l i n e a r and quadratic response f o r root y i e l d . Nitrogen applications caused a very highly s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e , l i n e a r trend f o r crude protein content, and a negative trend of s i m i l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r crude ash content. No e f f e c t was observed on dry weight, t o t a l available carbohydrate or t o t a l carotenoid contents. Phosphorus applications had no primary e f f e c t on those food value factors assayed. Potassium applications caused a s i g n i f i c a n t , negative, l i n e a r trend f o r dry weight, and a highly s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e , l i n e a r trend and a s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e , quadratic trend f o r ash content. No primary e f f e c t was observed on t o t a l available carbohydrate, crude protein, or t o t a l carotenoid contents. Five s i g n i f i c a n t interactions were found. These were: quadratic phosphorus X l i n e a r potassium, f o r t o t a l y i e l d ; l i n e a r nitrogen X l i n e a r phosphorus and l i n e a r phosphorus X quadratic potassium, f o r t o t a l available carbohydrates; quadratic phosphorus X quadratic potassium, for crude protein; and quadratic nitrogen X l i n e a r phosphorus f o r crude ash content. The experimental design adopted, and the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis used, proved s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the evaluation of primary and second order i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . Significance of pairs of adjusted means f o r root y i e l d , calculated as a part of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, has been summarized by means of the tri-cyolograph. AC MO WLEDGMEN TS The writer wishes to express his sincere thanks to Dr. G. H. H a r r i s , Professor, Department of Horticulture, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s guidance during the course of t h i s experiment. The author also wishes to thank Dr. A. F. Barss, Professor and Head, Department of Horticulture, The Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s i n t e r e s t and encouragement. Thanks are also due to Dr. R. E. F i t z p a t r i c k and the s t a f f of the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, who made t h e i r services f r e e l y available during the preparation of the plates. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i i i INTRODUCTION. 1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Nature of F i e l d Experimentation 4 The Major Nutrients. 4. E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Y i e l d 5 E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Carbohydrate Content 6 E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Protein Content 8 E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Mineral Content ...9 Ef f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Carotene Content..... 10 F a c t o r i a l F e r t i l i z e r Experiments with Carrots.........11 Summary. 15 • MATERIALS AND METHODS A. F i e l d Work (1950).... 14 B. Laboratory Work. 21 OBSERVATIONS .. 26 RESULTS . . . . . 2 9 * DISCUSSION ' .66 SUMMARY '..75 RECOMMENDATIONS 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY 78 APPENDIX - PLATES » 8? LIST OF FIGURES Figure I: Relative Location and Dimensions of the Plots Used i n the Study 17 Figure I I : Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Total Fresh Weight .30 Figure H I : Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Total Root Weight 31 Figure IV: Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Total Top Weight. 32 Figure V: Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Per Cent Dry Weight 36 Figure VI: Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Per Cent Total Available C arbohydrat es. i .' .37 Figure VII: Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Per Cent Crude Protein 41 Figure VIII: Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Per Cent Crude Ash of Fresh Weight 42 Figure IX: Graph and Table Showing the Primary E f f e c t of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Total Carotenoid Content 46 Figure X: Graphs and Table Showing the E f f e c t of the Interaction, Quadratic Phosphorus X Linear Potassium, on Total Y i e l d . . . . . . 3 2 Figure XI: Graph and Table Showing the E f f e c t of the Interaction, Quadratic Phosphorus X Linear Potassium on Total Root Weight 33 v i Figure XII: Graphs and Table Showing the E f f e c t of the Interaction, Linear Nitrogen X Linear Phosphorus, on Per Cent Total Available Carbohydrates .54 Figure XIII: Graphs and Table Showing the E f f e c t of the Interaction, Linear Phosphorus X Quadratic Potassium, on Per Cent Total Available Carbohydrates .55 Figure XIV: Graphs and Table Showing the E f f e c t of the Interaction, Quadratic Phosphorus X Quadratic Potassium, on Per Cent Crude Protein .56 Figure XV: Graphs and Table Showing the E f f e c t of the Interaction, Quadratic Nitrogen X Linear Phosphorus, on Per Cent Crude Ash of Fresh Weight .. 57 Figure XVI: Mono-Cyclographs Showing the Significance of Treatment Ef f ects-I Primary. . .59 XVII: Mono-Cyclographs Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e c t s - I Primary (con.)......... .60 XVIII: Di-Cyclographs Showing the Significance of Treatment Ef feet s-II Interactions..... 6 l Figure Figure Figure Figure XIX: XX: Di-Cyclographs Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e o t s - I I Interactions (con.)....62 Di-Cyclographs Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e o t s - I I Interactions (con.)... .63 Figure XXI: .Figure XXII: Tri-Cyclograph Showing the Significance of Differences Between Adjusted Treatment Means - I Odds of Nineteen to One or More but Less Than 99:1 ,64 Tri-Cyclograph Showing the Significance of Differences Between Adjusted Treatment Means - H Odds of Ninety-nine to One . or More. .65 LIST OF PLATES Plate I: Plate n : Plate I I I : Plate TV: Plate Y: Plate VI: Plate YII: Plate YIII: Plate IX: Plate X: Plate XI: Plate XII: Plate XIII: Plate XTV: Plate XY: Plate XYI: Plate XVII: Plate XVIII: Appearance of land p r i o r to c u l t i v a t i o n . . . . . . 8 7 Appearance of land a f t e r c u l t i v a t i o n . . . . 87 Appearance of treatment row p r i o r to thinning and Weeding .88 Appearance of treatment row a f t e r thinning and weeding .88 Appearance of plots a f t e r treatment. June.....89 Appearance of p l o t s . July. I 90 Appearance of p l o t s . J u l y . X T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 0 Appearance of plants treated with N 1 P 1 K 1 • J u l y • • • • .91 Appearance of plants treated with N 2 p i K i • J u l y • • 91 Appearance of plants treated with N^Pi K]_. J u l y .91 Plants i n Plates YIII - X, earth removed. N^PjKi, N^PiKi, N i P i K i . J u ly...... ......92 Guard and treatment plant N i P i E ^ . July. . . 9 2 Appearance of p l o t s . September.. 93 Appearance of plants treated with N l p l K l • September 94 Appearance of plants treated with N 2P 1K 1. September .94 Appearance of plants treated with N 3 P 1 K 1 • September. 94 Appearance of plants treated with N 1 P 1 K 1* S e P t e m D e : r • 95 Appearance of plants treated with N 1 F 2 K 1 ^ September 95 v i i i Plate XIX: Appearance of plants treated with N 1 P 3 K 1 * September 95 Plate XX: Appearance of plants treated with N l p ' l K l * September 96 Plate XXI: Appearance of plants treated with N 1 P 1 K 2 • Sept ember .. ...96 Plate XXII: Appearance of plants treated with NTPTE^. September i 96 Plate XXIII: Appearance of a t y p i c a l inflorescence i n treatment N^PTK^* September . . . . 9 7 INTRODUCTION Studies i n human n u t r i t i o n are hampered by a lack of opportunity to conduct experiments on man. Over the years, however, s u f f i c i e n t data have been accumulated to give the modern n u t r i t i o n i s t s and d i e t i c i a n s a.reasonable guide with which to work ( 2 ) s . We now know that a balanoed d i e t should consist of both meat, grains, and vegetables, the l a t t e r of which com-p r i s i n g the bulk of the d i e t . This bulk must provide roughage and yet be n u t r i t i o u s . I f the kinds and amounts of foods consumed by a f a i r sample of American f a m i l i e s are evaluated with regard to t h e i r nutrient content and oompared to currently accepted standards (2), a large proportion of these diets would appear inadequate (84), Though there has been some tendency reoently to inolude more vegetables i n the dietary on t h i s continent, the per capita consumption of sugar has r i s e n sharply with i t s consequent diminution of the appetite toward more balanced foods. Consequently i t i s a matter of increasing importance to see that the vegetable portion of the d i e t be as n u t r i t i o u s as possible. On other continents large proportions of the population are e x i s t i n g at a subsistence l e v e l , as a r e s u l t of shortages of food, which are i n part induced by economic d i f f i c u l t i e s . ..  * Numbers i n brackets r e f e r to L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d . 2. Therefore, i t i s both desirable and essential that our food crops be increased both i n y i e l d and n u t r i t i o n a l value to t h e i r economio maximum. Many investigations have been published which show that environmental factors are responsible f o r wide v a r i a t i o n s i n the y i e l d and composition of plants. These investigations furnish l i t t l e information concerning the ef f e c t of s p e c i f i c factors on the n u t r i t i v e value of vegetables. F i e l d studies have been o h i e f l y ooncerned with y i e l d and marketability of vegetables rather than with n u t r i t i v e value. Greenhouse studies have been conducted to determine the e f f e c t s of certa i n environmental factors on y i e l d and composition of vegetables, but the extent to which these studies may be applied to the f i e l d i s questionable. Reported studies thus do not provide adequate i n -formation which might serve as a basis f o r recommending c u l t u r a l practices designed to increase the n u t r i t i v e value of food plants (83). During the past f o r t y years since "Student's" paper on the probable error of a mean was f i r s t published, a g r i c u l t u r a l research has found an increasingly valuable t o o l i n s t a t i s t i c s . About f i f t e e n years ago Yates made two s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to s t a t i s t i c s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l research (104,105). The former of these greatly f a c i l i t a t e d the design of f a c t o r i a l experiments and the subsequent evaluation of the r e s u l t s obtained. 3. Despite t h i s , l i t t l e data have been published on completely f a c t o r i a l f e r t i l i z e r experiments with vegetable crops. This i s probably a r e s u l t of the complexity, the danger of mechanical error, and the high cost of execution, of such experiments. The completely f a c t o r i a l f e r t i l i z e r experiment remains, notwithstanding, a very excellent means of obtaining information, and i s per f e o t l y suited to f i e l d experimentation with these crops. Of the root vegetable crops c u l t i v a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, oarrots are both produced to the greatest extent, and are increasing i n rate of production more rap i d l y , than any other member of t h i s class (1). This r i s e i n production i s probably the r e s u l t of the good p a l a t a b i l i t y and of the excellent storage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of oarrots. Few experiments, i n which the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t combinations of complete f e r t i l i z e r s on oarrots are assessed, appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Since information of t h i s kind i s highly desirable, i t was determined that a f a c t o r i a l experiment should be l a i d out, along the l i n e s suggested by Yates (104), to determine the influenoe of applications of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, on the y i e l d and food value of carrots grown under B r i t i s h Columbia coastal conditions. 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Nature of F i e l d Experimentation F i e l d f e r t i l i z e r experiments oonsist mainly of studies of the eff e c t of v a r i a t i o n of number, kind, source, l e v e l , and proportion of nutrients applied, on y i e l d and composition of the crop being investigated. E f f e c t s of the major nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, together with climate and l o c a t i o n , have been extensively investigated with a large number of food crops (11,21,27,31,32,29,67). The Major Nutrients Of the major n u t r i t i v e elements, nitrogen i s absorbed to the greatest extent. I t , more than any other element, i s responsible f o r increases i n y i e l d when applied to food crops (35). Of phosphorus, C o l l i n g s (22) has stated: "Lower crop y i e l d s are more often due to a lack of phosphoric acid than to a lack of any other nutrient." Most s o i l s w i l l respond to an a d d i t i o n of phosphatic f e r t i l i z e r s (35)» I t has long been recognized that potassium plays a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n crop production (62), The physiological s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s ubiquitous element i s s b i l l , nevertheless, not altogether clear (35)• Experiments with commercial f e r t i l i z e r s have 5. yielded exceedingly contradictory r e s u l t s . Though the findings from many experiments have been reported, few general conclusions can be drawn. E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Y i e l d Y i e l d i s not consistently influenced by the applica-t i o n of commercial f e r t i l i z e r s , but most reports indicate that at l e a s t moderate application w i l l exert some e f f e c t . Sheets et a l 0 (83) report i n a very detailed ex-periment involving a wide range of l o c a t i o n s , that nitrogen highly s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased y i e l d i n eight out of t h i r t e e n experiments. S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus, and nitrogen and potassium were also obtained. Evidence, on the other hand, showing that nitrogen depresses y i e l d , i s rare ( 31 ) , though reports of nitrogenous applica-tions having no e f f e c t on y i e l d do occur ( 28 ,50 ) . Olsen et a l . (72) report, i n an extensive ex-periment involving a number of f e r t i l i z e r souroes and l o c a t i o n s , that applications of phosphorus increased the y i e l d of wheat, barley, and a l f a l f a . The y i e l d of potatoes and sugar beets was not s i g n i f i o a n t l y influenced. The r e s u l t s of the above experiment f o r sugar beets are corroborated by Davis et a l . (28) who found no increase i n y i e l d of sugar beets with applications of up to 80 pounds per acre of P2 °5* Terman (89), i n a report dealing with the r e s u l t s of twenty years* experimentation with potassio f e r t i l i z e r s on potatoes, states that applications of over 280 pounds per acre of potash would cause a reduotion i n y i e l d . He found the optimum application rate to be s l i g h t l y over 20G pounds per acre. Dunn and Host (31) found that applications of 200 pounds per acre of muriate of potash s i g n i f i c a n t l y depressed the y i e l d of sugar beets-. Applications of about £0 pounds per acre, i t was thought, would have increased y i e l d . Davis et a l . (28) found, however, that applications of such amounts had no e f f e c t on the y i e l d of t h i s crop. Rahn and P h i l l i p s ( 7 6 ) , working with cantaloupes, found that applications of a wide range of commercial f e r t i l i z e r s and stable manures, a l l produced as s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n y i e l d . Janes (51) also found, with oabbages and beans, that applications of f e r t i l i z e r increased y i e l d . Anderson ( 5 ) , working with sweet potato, found no effect on y i e l d with applications of commercial f e r t i l i z e r s , but considerable v a r i a t i o n with l o c a t i o n . Maok and Tuttle (65) found no apparent association between moderate f e r t i l i z e r applications and y i e l d , with a number of vegetable crops. Their r e s u l t s showed that, under the conditions of the experiment, r e l a t i v e s o i l moisture was the most important factor influencing crop y i e l d . E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Carbohydrate Content The carbohydrate f r a c t i o n of food plants has long been studied (23). I t i s frequently determined,' and reported, as per cent dry weight, which shows, i n many crops, a close c o r r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l available carbohydrate content. J o d i d i and Boswell (56,57) found that applications of nitrogen increased the sugar content, and depressed the starch content, of Alaska Pea, Using applications of the same element,. Watson (96) reports an increase i n the dry weight of wheat and a decrease i n the dry weight of barley. Lagasse' (59) found that applications of phosphorus and potassium to young E l b e r t a Peaches, i n the absence of nitrogen, caused a pronounced drop i n dry weight of leaves. Olsen et a l . (72) conclude that sugar beets show no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n sugar content with applications of phosphorus. Dunn and Rost (31), on the other hand, found that heavy applications of phosphorus would increase the carbohydrate content of sugar beets. They state, however, that applications at a lower, normal rate, would haver no e f f e c t . Watson (96) reports that applications of potassium s a l t s decreased the dry weight of wheat plants, but increased that of barley. James (53) reports that f e r t i l i z i n g with potassium has no ef f e c t on the dry weight of potato leaves but does stimulate the production of starch i n the tubers. In a l a t e r paper (54) he states further, that throughout the growing period potato plants show a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between potassium and water contents. Terman (89) reports that moderate applications of potassium depressed the t o t a l dry weight and starch content of potato tubers. Jacobs and White-Stevens (47) found that even low applications of potassic s a l t s depressed the carbohydrate content of mellons. Lee and Sayre (60), on the other hand, found that applications of a potassium source increased the dry weight of tomato, Dunn and Rost (31), s i m i l a r l y , found that applications of potassium increased the dry weight of sugar beet. In an experiment conducted shortly a f t e r the turn of the century, C o l l i n s (25) found that applications of a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r s g reatly reduced the dry weight of swedes. More recently Janes (51) has made s i m i l a r findings with cabbage and beans. Lee and Sayre (60), notwithstanding, found that applications of complete f e r t i l i z e r s Increased the dry weight of tomato. Haut (45), working with tomatoes and strawberries, and Anderson ( 5 ) , working with sweet potatoes, found no increase i n the carbohydrate content with increasing applications of oomplete commercial f e r t i l i z e r s . E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Protein Content The protein f r a c t i o n of food crops i s of im-portance In n u t r i t i o n . I t also has been the subject of many investigations and i s frequently expressed i n terms of per cent nitrogen. J o d i d l and Boswell (56,57) found that applications of nitrogen increased the protein content of Alaska Pea. Knowles et a l . (58) also report an increase i n the nitrogen content of potato with applications of nitrogen. Davis et a l . (28) report an increase i n the nitrogen content of tne tops of sugar beets when treated with 40 pounds per acre of a nitrogenous f e r t i l i z e r , but co-applications of phosphorus and potassium were found to depress the nitrogen content. 9. Dunn and Rost ( 3 D state that no e f f e c t of phosphatic f e r t i l i z e r s on the t o t a l nitrogen content of sugar beets could be found, but that applications of potassium caused a depression. Knowles et a l . (58) found that applications of potassium lowered the n i t r a t e content of potato plants. Vandecaveye and Baker (11) found that applications of a complete f e r t i l i z e r to c e r t a i n forage crops caused a marked increase i n the protein content. E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Mineral Content The mineral content of food crops i s another f r a c t i o n considered of n u t r i t i o n a l importance. I t i s some-times separated into i t s components, of whieh potassium i s normally the l a r g e s t , or i s reported merely as ash. Knowles et a l . (58) found that applications of nitrogen increased the potassium content of potato. B i z z e l l (13) compared the f e r t i l i z i n g powers of ammonium sulphate to sodium n i t r a t e , f o r a number of vegetable crops, and found that the former caused a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the potassium and calcium content, when compared to the e f f e c t s of the l a t t e r . In 24 out of 30 cases, Sheets et a l . (83) reported that an a p p l i c a t i o n of nitrogen reduced,, the calcium content of turnip greens and an application of phosphorus had a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . Both Sheets et a l . (83) and others (35) concur i n that an application of phosphates w i l l i n -crease the phosphorus content of crop plants. Olsen et a l . (72), who worked with sugar beets, a l f a l f a , and potatoes, also contour i n t h i s f i n d i n g . Knowles (58) showed that applications of phosphorus, when accompanied by nitrogen, depressed the potassium content of potatoes and that applications of potassium reduced the phosphorous and i n -creased the potassium content. Dunn and Rost (31) found that applications of phosphates had no effe c t on the mineral content of sugar beets but that applications of potassium increased the ash weight. True et a l . (93) report that -spinach shows a lower ash weight with applications of potassium and Sheets et a l . (83) report that potassium depresses the phosphorus content of turnip greens. Vandecaveye and Baker (94) found that applications of a complete f e r t i l i z e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased the phosphorus and potassium content of cer t a i n forage crops. E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n on Carotene Content Considerable i n t e r e s t has been expressed i n recent times as to what n u t r i t i o n a l factors influence the vitamin content of crop plants (3,38). Those factors which influence the carotene content of plants have been the frequent subject of in v e s t i g a t i o n . Wynde and Noggle (101,102,103) report that the carotene content of the leaves of cereal crops can be correlated with available nitrogen i n the s o i l but not with phosphorus or potassium. Freeman and Harris (34) report a l i n e a r response of carotene content to nitrogen applications i n carrots but found no ef f e c t with phosphorus and potassium ap p l i c a t i o n s i Moon (71) found that applications of nitrogen 11. phosphorus, and potassium a l l increased the carotene content of poor pasture. He considered nitrogen to be the most im-portant fa c t o r , f i n d i n g that an application of t h e i r nutrient increased the carotene content 28f.. Swanson et a l . (87) state that a high application of a complete f e r t i l i z e r produced no eff e c t on the carotene content of sweet potatoes. Teng-Yi (88), working with garden pea, reports a s i m i l a r r e s u l t . M i l l e r et a l . (70), i n a very d e t a i l e d experiment with carrots, could f i n d no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of n u t r i t i o n on colour of carrots 3 5. This i s corroborated by Bernstein et a l . (12) who found that carotene content was not influenced by n u t r i t i o n , but varied with season and l o c a t i o n . Hansen (40), on the other hand, could f i n d no v a r i a t i o n in- the carotene content of carrots that could be associated with l o c a t i o n . Barnes (8) concludes that f e r t i l i z e r s can only influence the carotene content of carrots when one or more nutrients are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r normal growth. His work and that of P o l l a r d (75) indicate that only s l i g h t increases i n carotene could be expected with extreme v a r i a t i o n i n environment of carrots. F a c t o r i a l F e r t i l i z e r Experiments with Carrots Few completely f a c t o r i a l f e r t i l i z e r experiments on vegetable crops have been reported, and s t i l l fewer with carrots. The studies of Woodman et a l . i n England are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t (Tables XI to XIV). s Colour has been shown to have a very highly s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with the carotene content of carrots (33)'. 12. In a f i e l d experiment on a gravel s o i l Woodman and Johnson (99) report that carrots showed no response to nutrients when 27 f a c t o r i a l combinations of low l e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r s a l t s and moisture applications were employed. In a s l i g h t l y more complex, f a c t o r i a l , pot culture experiment involving the appl i c a t i o n of 27 combinations of three l e v e l s of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, to ca r r o t s ' i n a f4n s o i l , Woodman and Parer (100) found that nitrogen and potassium had no ef f e c t on y i e l d of roots, but that potassium caused a highly s i g n i f i c a n t depression of y i e l d . A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n of nitrogen and phosphorus, and a negative i n t e r a c t i o n of phosphorus and potassium on y i e l d was obtained. In a s i m i l a r experiment on a gravel s o i l Woodman and Johnson (98) report that with regard to y i e l d of tops, a highly s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e l i n e a r response to nitrogen app l i c a t i o n was obtained. A very highly s i g n i f i c a n t negative l i n e a r response to potassium was also obtained and a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between nitrogen and phosphorus was observed. Y i e l d of roots showed a highly s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e l i n e a r response to nitrogen applications, a very.highly s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e l i n e a r response and a s i g n i f i c a n t negative quadratic response to potassium, and a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between phosphorus and potassium. Dry weight of roots showed a highly s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e quadratic response to nitrogen applications and four s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s , the second 1.3. of which was highly s i g n i f i c a n t . These were: l i n e a r nitrogen X quadratic potassium, quadratic nitrogen X l i n e a r potassium, quadratic nitrogen X quadratic potassium, and l i n e a r phosphorus X quadratic potassium. Summary Evidence so f a r obtained may be summarized i n that no i n f a l l i b l e prediction can be made as to y i e l d response to nutrients- applied, by any given crop, under a wide range of conditions; but, that under a given set of conditions, which have been experimentally evaluated, s u b s t a n t i a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y recommendations with regard to n u t r i t i o n can be made, and the resultant y i e l d responses predicted with accuracy. I t i s generally thought that n u t r i t i o n i s of secondary importance to climate and l o c a t i o n i n influencing the composition of vegetables. Assessment of l o c a l conditions i s essential to s a t i s f a c t o r y f e r t i l i z e r recommendations. Further experimental work, in v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t of n u t r i t i o n a l environment on y i e l d and food value o f vegetable crops, i s desirable. Such an experiment, with carrots, i s reported I n thi s paper. 14. MATERIALS AND METHODS A. F i e l d Work (1950) The l o c a t i o n chosen f o r t h i s study was on the farm of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The s o i l i n the area selected has been described as an upland, g l a c i a t e d , sandy-loam of low moisture holding capacity (42). I t has a pH of 5 . 9 , whieh i s suited to carrots (106), and.suffers extensive leaching during the winter r a i n s . I t s composition i s reported i n Table I . This s o i l had produced turnips i n the previous season and a covering of natural vegetation during the winter (Plate I ) . In preparation f o r the l a y i n g out of the p l o t s , the s o i l was ploughed early i n the season, to allow the weed growth to decompose somewhat before the land was seeded (Plates I and I I ) . In the second week of May, 1950, the plots were l a i d out and the s o i l was prepared for seeding (Figure I ) . On May 28, 1950, the treatment rows were planted, and on the following day the guard rows were put i n . Registered seed of the carrot v a r i e t y Red Gore Chantenay was used. This v a r i e t y was selected because of i t s increasing popularity with growers. . The treatments were applied as soon as the second true l e a f had appeared. Treatment was not made at time of seeding because i t was f e l t that the natural spring r a i n f a l l 15. TABLE I The C o m p o s i t i o n and R e a c t i o n o f Two T y p i c a l U n i v e r s i t y Farm S o i l s I n v e s t i g a t o r s T o t a l A v a i l . A v a i l . pH N P K Mohr * .046% .045% .0212% 5.9 E d g a r .179% .023% . .0119% 5.1 .161% .013% .0152% 5.0 M o h r , W. P . - P r i v a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . E d g a r , R. J . - Some e f f e c t s o f hemlock sawdust m u l c h i n g and m i c r o e l e m e n t s on s t r a w b e r r y l e a f c o m p o s i t i o n and on c e r t a i n s o i l f a c t o r s . U n p u b l i s h e d M . S . A . t h e s i s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A p r i l , 1952. 16. would, cause excessive l o s s of nitrogen through leaching. Each treatment was banded down both sides of a treated row, at a distance of about two inches from the plants, and subsequently dispersed to a depth of about three inches with a trowel. The treatments consisted of three l e v e l s of nitrogen, three l e v e l s of phosphorus, and three l e v e l s of potassium compounded together to form twenty-seven f a c t o r i a l combinations. The nitrogen source selected was C.I.L. 21% Sulphate of Ammonia, which on analysis showed 21.15% available nitrogen. This s a l t was used because i t was f e l t that ammonium nitrogen would show l e s s i n i t i a l leaching from the s o i l than n i t r a t e nitrogen. The phosphorus source selected Was C.I.L. 19% Superphosphate of Lime which showed an available P2O5 content of 17.65%. This source was selected because i t gave bulk to the compounded applications. The potassium source selected was C.I.L. 50% Sulphate of Potash, which showed a water soluble potash "V"' content of 50.09%. This s a l t was selected i n preference to muriate of potash since i t was f e l t that the chlorine i n the l a t t e r s a l t might exert a deleterious e f f e c t on the crop. The.levels of nitrogen selected were 50, 100, and 150 pounds per acre. The lowest l e v e l was selected as approximating the current o f f i c i a l recommendations i n FIGURE I Relative Location and Dimensions of the Plots Used i n the Study s9 A l l paths between plots 4»-wide. Each plot contains nine of the twenty-seven treatments i n each r e p l i c a t i o n and one check p l o t . A l l treatment and guard rows 12» long and 2' apart. 18. B r i t i s h Columbia. The other two l e v e l s were determined proportionally, being twice and three times the lower l e v e l . The three l e v e l s were, from lowest to,, highest, designated by the symbols N^, N2, and respectively. The l e v e l s of phosphorus applied were 100, 200, and 300 pounds per acre. Since rapid t e s t s always show the available phosphorus i n the s o i l at t h i s l o c a t i o n to be inadequate, the lowest l e v e l of application was set at a moderately high l e v e l f o r a crop such as carrots, which has:; a low phosphate requirement (44). This l e v e l was, however, l e s s than the o f f i c i a l l y recommended amount. The other two l e v e l s of application were determined as f o r nitrogen. The three l e v e l s of phosphorus, from lowest to highest, were designated by the symbols P i , P2, and P3. The three l e v e l s of potassium were determined s i m i l a r l y to those of nitrogen and set at the same amount per acre, namely, 50, 100 and 150 pounds of K2O. These were designated by the symbols Ej., K^> and K5. Thus, a treatment N1P2K1 would be termed low nitrogen, medium phosphorus, low potash, and equal an applica-t i o n of one ton of 2|-10-2| to the acre. The combination N 3 P 1 K 2 w o u l d represent high nitrogen, low phosphorus, and medium potassium, or an application of one ton to the acre of a 7ir-5-5. The treatments were applied to the plots indicated i n Figure I according to the plan shown i n Table I I . 19 A* TABLE I I The Arrangement of Treatments Within Figure I A BLOCK ONE BLOCK TWO BLOCK THREE BLOCK FOUR xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx N-jP^ Kg NjP 5K x N!P3K2 xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx N3P5K3 NiPiKi NiPiKx N5P2K1 xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx N 3P 2K 3 N 3PiK 2 N 3P 5K 2 NJPJKJ xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx N ^ l K i N 2P 2K X NlPlKi xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx W3 N3P3K2 x x N2P!K3 Yi N 2P 2Kj Z l N 2PiK 3 xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx N xP 2Ki NIPJKJ NJPQKJ N3P1K2 xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx NgP/jK^  N 2P 3K 2 N 2P XK 2 N 2P 2K 2 xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx N 2P 2K 2 N 2 P 2 K 3 N XP 2K 2 N2P3K! xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx N 2PiK ? NiP 2K 2 N3P2K! N XP 2K 3 xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Che ok Cheek Check Check xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Guard rows between each treatment row. BLOCK ONE TABLE I I (oontd.) H BLOCK TWO BLOCK THREE 1'?; B BLOCK FOUR xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx N 2P 3K 2 xxxxx N 2P 2K 3 xxxxx N 3P 5K 3 X> xxxxx N 2PiK! xxxxx N i p i K 3 xxxxx N 1 P 3 K 1 xxxxx xxxxx Check xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx NjPjKg xxxxx N 2PiK! xxxxx N 3 P 1 K 3 xxxxx N 2P2K 2 xxxxx N 2P 3K 3 xxxxx N 5P 2K 1 xxxxx N l p 2 * 3 xxxxx N 1 P 3 K 1 xxxxx Check xxxxx xxxxx N 3 P l K l xxxxx N 1 P 3 K 1 xxxxx N XP 2K 5 xxxxx N 3P 3K 3 xxxxx N 3P 2K 2 xxxxx N 2P 2K X xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx NgPjKg xxxxx Check xxxxx J3 xxxxx N 3 P A xxxxx xxxxx N 2P 3K 3 xxxxx N 3P 3K 2 xxxxx N 3P 2K 3 xxxxx N 1P 2K 2 xxxxx N l p 3 K l xxxxx N1 P1 K2 xxxxx N 2P 2K r xxxxx Che ok xxxxx Guard rows between each treatment row. BLOCK ONE TABLE I I (contd.) s BLOCK TWO BLOCK THREE 19 C BLOCK FOUR xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx N 1 P 1 K 3 N 2P 2K 2 N-jPgK-L xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx N 2P 3K 3 N 1 P 2 K 1 N 3P 3K! xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx N ^ K j N 5P 2K 2 N 2 P 1 K 1 N 3P 2K 2 xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx W i NjP-LKg N XP 3K 3 xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx w l x 3 N 1 P 3 K 2 T 2 N 1 P 1 K 3 * Z 2 N 2P 3K 3 xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx N 2P 3K 3 N ^ P ^ xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx N J P ^ K J N 2P 2K 3' N 3P XK 3 xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx N l p l K l N 2 P 3 K 1 N 3P 2K 3 N 2 P l K l xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx H J P J K J N 3 P 3 K 1 N 2 P 3 K 2 xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx mnnrr Cheok Check Cheok Check xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx s Guard rows between each treatment row. 20 e The plots were thinned to one hundred plants to the row shortly a f t e r treatment application, that i s , when three to four true leaves were present per plant (Plates I I I , IV, & V). The rows were also hand weeded at t h i s time» C u l t i v a t i o n f o r the control of weeds was necessary throughout the season. Only the surface of the s o i l was disturbed so that no i n j u r y would be done to the l a t e r a l roots of the carrot. Watering was also necessary throughout the season. This was done by means of an overhead s p r i n k l e r (Plate V). Since the y i e l d of oarrots i s markedly influenced by moisture l e v e l , the s o i l was always kept near the saturation point. Benzenehexachloride was applied once during the season to deter attacks of Carrot Rust F l y . Several instances of virus i n f e c t i o n , diagnosed as Aster Yellows W i l t , were observed i n the l a t t e r part of the season. This was as-cribed to a heavy i n f e s t a t i o n of Leaf Hoppers early i n the season, and which was controlled by a weak spray of D.D.T. In the f a l l each block of carrots was harvested three times, at three separate dates: October 6th, November 10th, and November 25th. This was done to determine what e f f e c t time of harvest had on the yield-treatment response. •Plants i n the f i r s t and l a s t foot of the rows were discarded. In the f i r s t harvest everythird carrot was taken; i n the second harvest alternate carrots were taken; i n the t h i r d harvest the residue was taken. Total weight, weight of 21. tops, and weight of bottoms was recorded. The roots from the f i r s t harvest were u t i l i z e d f o r preliminary t e s t s of a n a l y t i c a l methods• The second harvest was variously preserved f o r analysis,. The material from the t h i r d harvest was dried and stored. B. Laboratory Work After harvesting the carrot roots were brought into the laboratory. Material from the f i r s t harvest was used i n preliminary t e s t s . The r e s u l t s of these tests determined the a n a l y t i c a l procedures used, f o r dry weights, t o t a l available carbohydrates, crude protein, ash, t o t a l carotenoids, and the procedure used i n drying the t h i r d harvest f o r storage. A t o t a l of 8,231 carrots were'harvested, and from which the y i e l d data was derived. Preliminary tests required 2,764 of these, and 2,731 were used f o r analysis. The remainder were sampled, dried, and stored. A f l u c t u a t i o n of a l l the factions analysed f o r , except crude protein which was not tested, was found. Such variati o n s are common to the edible parts of most' vege-table crops (84). The phloem was found to have a higher dry weight than the xylem, and i t has been reported that there i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the sugar content between these two parts (97). The top h a l f of a carrot root was found to contain more t o t a l available carbohydrate than the bottom, and the bottom was found to have a higher ash weight than 22. the top. Total carotenoids varied from top to bottom and from xylem to phloem. I t was apparent that d i f f i c u l t y would be encountered i n obtaining a representative sample f o r analysis. I t was found that t h i n discs removed from a point half-way down the length of the edible portion of the root, were representative of the whole. These discs were used as the source f o r a l l a n a l y t i c a l material. The product o f the second harvest was prepared f o r analysis. One disc or a portion of one, from each carrot i n t h i s harvest was used i n the determination of every factor reported. Dry weight was determined by coarsely grinding one disc from each carrot, placing duplicate samples on watch glasses i n an oven f o r one hour at 90°* 3°0»» then trans-f e r r i n g the material to another oven at 5 0 ° - 1 ° 0 . f o r 4-8 hours. The samples were cooled i n a dessicator over calcium chloride and weighed, Results are reported as per cent dry weight of fresh weight. The dried material so produced was ground to 80 mesh and stored i n sealed t e s t tubes over calcium chloride f o r use i n the determination of crude protein and crude ash. The coarse grinding of fresh material i n the determination of dry weights was conducted i n such way as to preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of l o s s of sap r e s u l t i n g from undue pressure. The material then could be more adequately sampled. The preliminary high oven temperature used was designed to i n a c t i v a t e enzymes, and the subsequent low oven temperature,and consequent extended drying period, was used to prevent the l o s s of fructose which forms a considerable portion of the reducing sugars i n carrots (78). Preliminary tests showed pronounced carameliza'tion to occur when the material was dried at 60°C. Preliminary tests also corro-borated the work of Link et a l . (63) i n that a wide range of drying temperatures had no e f f e c t on crude protein. Total available.carbohydrate was determined on portions of the ground carrot used i n the dry weight determinations. This material was preserved i n duplicate immediately a f t e r grinding by placing i n hot, neutral, alcohol according to the o f f i c i a l A.O.A.C. procedure (6); '6.2(b) and saved f o r analysis.' Immediate preservation was necessary because.of the marked influence of a short storage period on the reducing sugar-sucrose r a t i o i n carrots (78). The material was subsequently treated by means of A.O.A.C. procedures 6.48 (a) f o r extraction, 6.48 (b) f o r clearing of the extract, and 29.32 to 29.34 (Lane-Eynon Method) for reducing sugars. A portion of the extract was inverted by procedure 20.52 and invert sugar was determined by procedure 29.32-34. Sucrose was calculated by the method i n procedure 22.33. Starch was determined by treating a portion of the residue from procedure 6.48 (a) by procedure 24 . 22.24 and estimating the reducing sugar r e s u l t i n g by procedure 29.32 to 29 .24. In the determination of starch i n carrot i t was found that hydrolysis was complete a f t e r only one and a h a l f hours of heating. The procedure was changed accordingly. Preliminary tests showed that with the above method f o r starch, the conversion f a c t o r of Ost (72) was the most sa t i s f a c t o r y . The r e s u l t s f o r reducing sugar, sucrose, and starch were summed and reported as per cent t o t a l available carbohydrate of fresh weight. -Crude Protein was determined with duplicate samples of dried material saved, as previously noted, from the dry weight determinations. The A.O.A.C. procedure 2.24, (Kjeldahl-Wilfarth- (Gunning Method) was used to determine nitrogen and the r e s u l t s were m u l t i p l i e d by the conversion factor 6.2.5 to give crude protein. This was reported as per cent of fresh weight. The mineral content of the root was estimated by dry ashing. Weighed samples of the dessicated material produced during the dry weight determinations were placed i n s uitably prepared and tared c r u c i b l e s , ashed, cooled over H2SO4 i n a dessicator, and reweighed. The temperature of ashing was considered s i g n i f i c a n t . I t has been reported that increments of phosphorus are l o s t i n rough proportion to the ashing temperature used, and.that above 530°C., a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s of potassium occurs ( 79 ,80 ) . A l l samples were therefore ashed at 525° ± 5°C. f o r 24 hours. This produced 25. a white, f l u f f y ash. Results are reported as per cent crude ash of fresh weight. Total carotenoids i n carrots are generally reported to increase on storage ( 1 7 , 6 4 , 4 7 ) . The samples f o r analysis were therefore preserved i n such way that b i o l o g i c a l processes were suspended. Duplicate discs were' taken from the center of each carrot and segments removed as suggested by Booth ( 1 4 ) . These segments were preserved i n b o i l i n g neutral, aldehyde free alcohol. Check samples thus preserved showed a non-significant decrease i n t o t a l carotenoids of .71% of the content of the fresh material ( 8 1 ) . On analysis, the alcohol was f i l t e r e d o f f and the pigments extracted with petroleum ether. The residue was treated by Booth's method ( 1 4 ) , and the combined extract read i n a photoelectric colorimeter against a standard potassium dichromate solution. This standard was that of Russel et a l . ( 7 7 ) . Results were reported as milligrams of t o t a l carotenoids per hundred grams fresh weight. 26, OBSERVATIONS By the month of July considerable growth had occurred (Plate VI). Extreme v a r i a t i o n i n response was noted with the various l e v e l s of nitrogen applied. Application of the lowest l e v e l of nitrogen (Ni), produced plants of squat appearance, with d e l i c a t e , pale green f o l i a g e (Plate V I I I ) , Plants treated with the second highest l e v e l of nitrogen ( N 2), were of decidedly d i f f e r e n t appearance from the above, (Plate IX). The f o l i a g e was held more erect and was l a r g e r , more extended, and a darker green i n colour. The highest l e v e l of nitrogen produced plants which, though greener and grosser i n appearance, were sim i l a r with regard to the po s i t i o n of the fo l i a g e as compared to the lowest nitrogen treatment (Plates VIII and X). V a r i a t i o n i n the growth of roots was also observed. The highest application of nitrogen produced roots which were the larg e s t i n size and a v i s i b l e graduation of decreasing s i z e , from high to low nitrogen applications noted (Plate X I ) . In the month of September further observations on growth of tops were made (Plate X I I I ) . The ef f e c t s of 27. increasing nitrogen applications were s t i l l apparent. Plants receiving the lowest l e v e l of nitrogen remained small (Plate XTV). The f o l i a g e was s i m i l a r to that produced hy medium nitrogen applications i n July (Plate XI) • The medium l e v e l of nitrogen (Plate XV) produced much denser growth than the lowest l e v e l , but i t was by no means as gross as that with the highest nitrogen applic ation (Plate X V I ) . As nitrogen applications increased, the density of the f o l i a g e became greater and the colour darker. F o l i a r symptoms of mineral stress were v i s i b l e with a l l l e v e l s of nitrogen, with low phosphorus and potassium. The purpling of the foliage., :with the high nitrogen treatment,(Plate XVT), was associated with phosphorus deficiency (95)» Phosphorus produced plants having a l i g h t , feathery, pale green f o l i a g e with the f i r s t increment applied (Plates X V I I - X V I I I ) , and a heavier, greener f o l i a g e with the second increment (Plate X I X ) . F o l i a r symptoms associated with nitrogen s t r e s s (95) were observed i n a l l r e p l i c a t i o n s of treatment N1P2K1 (Plate X V I I I ) , but with only one of four r e p l i c a t i o n s of treatment NTPJKI (Plate X I X ) . Application of the f i r s t increment of potassium caused an increase i n density and deepening i n colour of the tops, (Plates XX and X X I ) . Application of the second inorement of potassium (Plate X X I I ) caused a s l i g h t reduction i n density and depth of colour of the f o l i a g e , as compared to the basic r a t i o (Plate X X ) . Both treatments NiPiK&and 2 8 ; N 1 P 1 K 3 produced d e f i n i t e l y superior f o l i a g e to that of the lowest basic l e v e l N I P I K Q . . Symptoms of mineral stress were observed with the highest l e v e l of potassium. These were associated with nitrogen stress (95). An unusual response to treatment was the development of inflorescence i n 6.7f. of the plants i n treatment N^PiKg* high nitrogen, low phosphorus, medium potassium. This phenomena occurred i n three of four r e p l i c a t i o n s of the above treatment, and was found with no other treatment applied. 2?... RESULTS Results f o r y i e l d are summarized i n Table VII«, Primary treatment.effects are shown i n Figures n to TV, and inte r a c t i o n e f f e c t s i n Figures X and XI. Adjusted mean y i e l d s f o r bottoms i s presented i n Table IX. A summary of the analyses of variance f o r y i e l d s i s presented i n Table H I . ' Significance of primary treatment e f f e c t s i s summarized i n •Figure XVI, Interaction e f f e c t s i n Figure XVIII, and adjusted means f o r bottom y i e l d i n Figures XXI and XXII. ' Reference to Figures I I , XII and IV reveals that y i e l d response to applications of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, by both tops and roots was s i m i l a r . Consequently, t o t a l y i e l d showed the same trends. From Table I I I i t may be seen that the po s i t i v e response to nitrogen was l i n e a r and highly s i g n i f i c a n t , while no response could be found to phosphorus. A highly s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e l i n e a r and p o s i t i v e quadratic response of bottoms to potassium may be noted; and a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e l i n e a r , but not a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e quadratic response of tops to potassium. When the data f o r tops and bottoms are summarized as t o t a l y i e l d , the pos i t i v e l i n e a r and posit i v e quadratic responses to potassium are both highly s i g n i f i c a n t . The summaries of significance between means f o r primary e f f e c t s of treatment, Figure XVI, show that i n -creasing nitrogen produced s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e differences Figure jl • Graph and Table Showing the Primary Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Total Fresh Weight. * 30. IH.OO JL. 4) c a: JL it JL \n o 13 .oo 11-00 II .00 10 00 / 2 3 N 11-30 P II.IS II 57 K II.LO Ni - SO j As/acre f¥ Ni^ /oo liV ^ c r e . N Ns- '<5"0 ii.s/*cre. N £.5V ±3 08 P. P* P3 ' 100 Ibs/ncre "3 SO \bj/lLllr«. L S D .8*J II1H Ftfur-cJE' Qr&ph and Tttb/e. Shewing the Primary £Hect *f A/rfr*f*-n , PhrtphtrvS, ^.nd 1 © il.co r (I. ao 10.00 <?,oc g.oo 1 t 3 1 z 3 N 7. n L 5 O* P 9,/f <7 53 p-- •as' H g.HI 9fo 4 p -- .0 1 hf, = St lb. Ucre A/ p, /ao/S. /acre % 05 ft, ,fo lb. /curt KLO NZ-(Ob " " " fi^z-JLoo •• '• " fib, /C6 a " " Al3 « 150 • P$z3oa •< " " /^3;/5V) n " Figure M • Cjroiph Q-nd TaA/e fAof'/nj fAe Primary £ffeet of tVitffe/t, Phosphorus, and Pofassit/m Oh Total Top kfelqht. N / 47 Zo7 Z.J7 P Z./5 Z./f 207 M t<rz 2 - 2 3 2.'6 /V, - s~a Ib.kcre. N 4^2. : /00 " " " CJecA I *3 LS 0 .237 p - .0 1 ^ -see riyv? Xv7jC TABLE I I I Analysis of Variance f o r Y i e l d (Summary) Source of "F" f o r "F" f o r Y i e l d »F" f o r Y i e l d V a r i a t i o n Total Y i e l d of Bottoms of Tops XX 1 o c/iSS A A e^ QE Sub-Blocks 11.88** 12.54s* 4e45 N 1 ( l i n e a r ) 71.39** 59.60** 57.81 F 2 (quadratic) — N 1 X P 1 X P 2 N X P 1 N 2 X P 2 N 1 X K 1 N 1 X K 2 N 2 X N 2 X K 2 pi x K£ P 1 X Kr P 2 x K1 ______ P 2 X K 2 3.81° 3 . 9 ^ N X P X K - — — — xx p l ( l i n e a r ) — — — -• P 2 (quadratio) — — — - - — — — — -K 1 ( l i n e a r ) 8.93** 8.35** 4.14** K 2 (quadratio) 9 . 7 0 s * 10.05** O: - X XX -approaches si g n i f i c a n c e . - s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of 19:1 or over. - . s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of 99:1 or over. i n y i e l d between a l l l e v e l s . Phosphorus applications had no e f f e c t , while potassium responses varied i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . From low to medium potassium y i e l d of tops and bottoms, and t o t a l y i e l d showed a highly s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e difference. The difference between low and high potassium applications was p o s i t i v e , and highly s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r roots and t o t a l y i e l d . The observed negative trend between medium and high potassium treatments, (Figures n to IV), though pronounced, was hot s i g n i f i c a n t . Two in t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , which barely escape si g n i f i c a n c e , are reported i n Table I I I . These are quadratic phosphorus X l i n e a r potassium, f o r y i e l d of " • bottoms and t o t a l y i e l d . An absence of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was observed i n the analysis of variance f o r top y i e l d . Though the in t e r a c t i o n data show pronounced v a r i a t i o n ; from Figure XVIII i t may be seen that only two s i g n i f i c a n t differences occurred. With constant medium phosphorus, increasing potassium from low to medium or from low to high, resulted i n a highly s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n y i e l d of bottoms. Constant high phosphorus applications, with from low to medium potassium, produced a highly s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n bottom yield;and with from low to high potassium, a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n bottom y i e l d . The trends of the i n t e r a c t i o n P 2 X K 1 are si m i l a r f o r t o t a l y i e l d , but l a s s pronounced. In order to correct f o r confounding, the mean 3 5 . y i e l d per treatment should be adjusted. These adjusted means for" •> root y i e l d appear i n Table IX, and may be compared to the unadjusted means i n Table I I I . Significance between adjusted means i s best expressed by separate " t " t e s t s between these means. The r e s u l t s of such tests appear i n Figures XXI and XXII. Results f o r dry weight, reported as per cent moisture, are summarized i n Table VIII. Primary e f f e c t s of treatment are shown i n Figure V. A summary of the analysis of variance f o r dry weights i s presented i n Table IV and significance of primary treatment e f f e c t s i s summarized i n Figure XVI. The outstanding e f f e c t of treatment on dry weight, „ (Figure V and Table IV), was a s i g n i f i c a n t negative l i n e a r trend r e s u l t i n g from increasing potassium applications. Reference to Figure XVI shows that the depression r e s u l t i n g from high, as compared to low, potassium l e v e l s , was s i g n i f i c a n t , but that no other treatment produced a s i g -n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . Results f o r t o t a l available carbohydrates are summarized i n Table V I I I . Primary e f f e c t s of treatments , are shown i n Figure VI, and in t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s i n Figures XII and XIII. A summary of the analysis of variance f o r t o t a l available carbohydrates appears i n Table IV. Significance of primary and i n t e r a c t i o n treatment e f f e c t s i s summarized i n Figures,XVII and XIX. F, jote JL : (j ra.ph o.nd "Titbit *>h*v'/*f the Primary Effect tf Mittijen, PhtSphtrvj, and Potassium oh Per Cent Vry Ue'tfhf.* 36. II,6O r 1 2 5 N (6-71 P /OS? /0.77 /A 7t H It. (, 7 SO lb. Acre N Afe - /*• " L S D . J7/ p - • 01 .993 // -- /oo Ik /ewe /<ir-^ Ikfa. #5 = 3<so see figure X v7z? Fiyure ~Tf : (Jraph and Table Shawiny the Primly Effect af Nittoyen, Ph*spn*rust and Pcfatsium on Per Cent Total Available 3 7 . Carbohydra lit o 7>l5-7.30 7A0 l 2 3 N 7 2 / 7.Z0 7 2<7 P 7-2C n.Zo 7 - 2 V H 7 2 1 ? 7 2 ? 7. jig; a /00 " " *' /V 3 = /So " " 7. ft t.m L SO p- .OS .2 p - ,01 Pz-Zoo - /)_ ! /d t " # see //yt/^-e X^/M 3 8 . " TABLE IV Analysis of Variance f o r Dry Weight and Total Available Carbohydrates (Summary) Souroe of ttF" f o r Dry HF t t f o r Total V a r i a t i o n -Weights Available Carbohydrates Sub-Blocks 2 . 2 0 s 7 . 1 5 s * N 1 ( l i n e a r ) — — — N 2 (quadratic) P 1 ( l i n e a r ) P 2 (quadratic) • Kj (lin e a r ) 4 . 1 0 s  K~ (quadratic) — • — - -: --N 1 X P 1 6 . 0 0 s N i X P 2 N 2 X P~ N 2 X P 2 N1, X K 1 N 1 X K 2 N 2 X K 1 N 2 X K 2 p i x X j — — p l X K 2 — 4*4©^ p2 X Kj P 2 X K 2  N X P X K o - approaches significance* s - s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of 19:1 or over. - s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of or over. 39 . A comparison of dry weights, Figure V, to t o t a l available carbohydrates, Figure YI, reveals opposing trends f o r the primary treatment e f f e c t s of nitrogen and phosphorus, between the two separate sets of determinations, but s i m i l a r trends within the sets of determinations. Potassium applications also produced s i m i l a r trends, both.in dry weight and carbohydrate content. On r e f e r r i n g to the summary of significance between means, (Figure XVTI), i t i s found that no treatment produced a s i g n i f i c a n t primary eff e c t on the t o t a l available carbohydrate content. The negative trend due to potassium applications did not approach s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s u l t s of the analyses of variance, •(Table IV), show that two s i g n i f i c a n t interactions occurred, l i n e a r nitrogen X l i n e a r phosphorus, and l i n e a r phosphorus X quadratic potassium. From the graphical presentation, (Figure X I I ) , and the summary of sig n i f i c a n c e , (Figure XTX), i t - i s apparent that four s i g n i f i c a n t trends occurred as a r e s u l t of the inter a c t i o n N 1 I P 1 . With constant low phosphorus (Py ), an addition of either medium (N 2) or high nitrogen (N^), caused a s i g n i f i c a n t drop in.the carbohydrate content. When medium nitrogen (N 2) was applied with medium phosphorus ( P 2 ) , and high nitrogen (Mj) was applied with high phosphorus ( P j ) , a s i g n i f i c a n t r i s e i n the carbohydrate content occurred. In-creasing the phosphorus l e v e l from low (P^) to medium (P 2) resulted i n a drop i n carbohydrates when the l e v e l of nitrogen was kept low. 40. Though the interaction linear phosphorus X quadratic potassium is significant, and considerable variation may be observed in the graphical presentation, (Figure XIII), none of the separate means involved differ significantly from each other, (Figure XX). Results for crude protein are summarized in Table VTII. Primary effects of treatments are shown in Figure VII and interaction effects in Figure XIV. A summary of the analysis of variance for crude protein appears in Table V. Significance of primary and interaction treatment effects Is summarized in Figures XVII and XX. From the data in Figure VTI i t may be seen that there is a pronounced positive linear response of crude protein to applications of nitrogen. On referring to Table V i t may be seen that this trend is very highly significant. Applications of phosphorus and potassium, on the other hand, caused no-significant trends, but a significant interaction of quadratic phosphorus.X quadratic potassium occurred.: This interaction produced two significant trends, (Figures XTV and XX). With medium phosphorus (P2) a constant, increasing potassium from low (KjJ to medium (K2) caused a significant depression in protein content. Increasing potassium from medium (Kg) to high (Kj), with high phosphorus (P5) a constant, also caused a significant depression in protein content. No other trends were significant despite pronounced variation. 41. Figure j/Jl : Cjraph and Table SAwtnj the Primary Effect of fl/i fro fen, PAosp/tor us, and Potassium on Per Cent Crude Protein* /, 10 r I o /, oo <jo %0 •7o / Z 3 I z 3 N • 74 .it l.o% Chcc/i I SO* P . 9o .<?° p * .OS H • 1Z . i .zz p - 01 . 01 5 /CO 11 " " /V^  = /So 11 1. P,~. tec lb. /<tcr<z llCsr 5~c lb./acre /C^ P^, - Ztt " " " /(;?=./OC " " " Pi =• Sec « » /{5 - /st a jk see //yore %Y/tB 42. Figure JMM • (jtaph and To. hie Sh*uinj the Primary Effect of H/ifroyen, Phesphoras, and Potass I urn on Pet Cent Crude Ash of Fresh L/eiaht V. C .90 r-• 15 • So • 7S~ .10 I p . S3 • % o •79" • 79 • 7$ • IS . 11 Al'i ~- 5~6 lb. /(LCttL H Hz. = /oo » /Yi -- /so » . 25" LSD P* - OS p - .01 f, . I to (b. M<-re P?_-2JC0 « •< / j : Sao " • " M, z So /b./acz /ix.0 /(/L = loo II « " M 3» * " • see //yore. Mil C TABLE V Analysis of Variance f o r Crude Protein and Crude Ash (Summary) Source of "F" f o r "F" f o r Var i a t i o n Crude Protein Crude Ash Sub-Blocks 15.94** 3 . 2 7 s * N 1 ( l i n e a r ) 142 . 3 0 s 3 5 23.16** N 2 (quadratic) — — — — P 1 ( l i n e a r ) . P 2 (quadratic) — K 1 ( l i n e a r ) • l l o S G f * K 2 (quadratic) 4.51 s K 1 X.P 1  N l X P 2 — — — — N 2 X P 1 — — 4o62 s N 2 X P 2  N 1 X K 1 — N 1 X K 2 . N 2 x K 1  N 2 X K 2  p l X K1  P 1 X K 2 ^ p2 x K 1  P 2 X K 2 4.3&* N X P X K - approaches s i g n i f i c a n c e , *'- s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of 19 r l or over. s - s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of 1 99-1 or over. 44. Results f o r crude ash are summarized i n Table vTII. Primary e f f e c t s of treatments are shown i n Figure VIII and in t e r a c t i o n effects i n Figure XV. A summary of the analysis of variance f o r crude ash appears i n Table V. Significance of primary and in t e r a c t i o n treatment e f f e c t s i s summarized i n Figures XVII and XX. A study of Figure VTII and Table V w i l l reveal that applications of nitrogen caused a highly s i g n i f i c a n t negative l i n e a r response f o r ash content. Applications of potassium produced a highly s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e , l i n e a r e f f e c t and a s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e , quadratic e f f e c t on ash oontent. Phosphorus had no e f f e c t . . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n occurred between quadratic nitrogen and l i n e a r phosphorus. This i n t e r a c t i o n resulted i n s i x s i g n i f i c a n t trends, four of which were highly s i g n i f i -cant. • Increasing nitrogen from low (N]_) to high (Nj) or from medium (N 2) to high (N3), with constant medium phosphorus ( P 2 ) , caused a:highly s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n ash content. Similarly,. increasing nitrogen from low (%) to high (N3), or from'medium (H 2) to high foj) with constant high ^phosphorus (P5), also caused a highly s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n ash content. Increasing phosphorus from low (P^) to high (P3) , with'constant medium nitrogen (N 2), caused a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e trend i n ash content. An entire absence i n trend was evidenced with constant low nitrogen (Ni) and increasing phosphorus (P-j_ - P^). Results f o r t o t a l carotenoids are summarized i n Table X. Primary treatment e f f e c t s are shown I n Figure IX. A c r i t i c a l portion of the analysis of variance, f o r t o t a l carotenoids appears i n Table VI. Significance of primary treatment e f f e c t s i s summarized i n Figure XVII. Considerable v a r i a t i o n with treatment i s apparent, Figure IX. From Figure XVII i t i s seen that no s i g n i f i c a n t primary e f f e c t s of treatment were found. The s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, (Table VI) shows that no s i g n i f i c a n t interactions occurred. Two interactions did, however, approach s i g n i f i c a n c e more c l o s e l y than any other treatment e f f e c t s . Those were quadratic nitrogen X l i n e a r phosphorus, and quadratic phosphorus X l i n e a r potassium. The c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n was 19.16%. A s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n due to l o c a t i o n was found for dry weights. V a r i a t i o n as a result of l o c a t i o n was highly s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l other variables reported (Tables I I I to V I ) . 46, Figure TK : (Jraph and Table S' how iny He Primary E ffecf of N itroaen t Phosphorus, and Potassium on 7~o taf Carofenoid Content. I}.oo I 1 s / Z.Jo 11.00 Y 11.00 I P n (ZZt /'.If //. t« 11.19 /Z.cg //.to /I.95 ft. t>9 Ni 5~4 lb. /<L<.re N f*X - I oo it i, a A/*-- /5"o " It tt /5T23 t .?3 Pz --Zoo LSD p = , oS /.oS7 p -- , 0 1 /,*/03> • 1 1 1 P, - /CO Ik Acre /^tV A/ = Ik (act MzO Mz - /°a " & 5ee i/9ore Xv//£» 47. TABLE VT Analysis of Variance f o r Total Carotenoids Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Var i a t i o n Freedom Squares Square Sub-Blocks 150.9777 13^7252 N 1 ( l i n e a r ) • 1 6.7712 N 2 (quadratic) 1 5.7362 p i ( l i n e a r ) 1 7.7224 P 2 (quadratic) 1 6.4135 V K 1 ( l i n e a r ) 1 .1404 V K 2 (quadratio) 1 1.8853 N 1 X P 1 1 5.5760 1 2.1609 , N X P 1 1 13.6900 V N 2 X P 2 1 .0811 NJ- X 1 .0027 N 1 X K 2 1 .5776 N 2 X 1 4.9729 \f N X K 1 1.3781 P?" x K J 1 3.4026 \ / P X E T 1 6.0270 P 2 X K 1 1 18.9660 \S P 2 X K 2 1 1.3787 N X P X K 8 36.1817 4.5227 Calculated 2.71 SEX - approaches s i g n i f i c a n c e . - s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of 19:1 or over. - s i g n i f i c a n t at odds of 99 :1 or over. 48. TABLE VII Influence of Varying N u t r i t i o n a l Levels on Y i e l d 1 Treatment Top Weight 2 Bottom Weight 2 Total Weight 2 NPK 111 1.49 - • 7.55 9 .04 211 1.87 8.15 10.02 311 2.44 9.96 12.40 121 1.36 6.92 8.28 221 1.62 6.90 8.52 321 2 .61 9.92 12.53 131 1.82 8.25 10.07 231 1.80 9.77 11.57 331 2.25 8.28 10.53 112 1.67 7.69 9.36 212 1.78 8.19 9.97 312 3.03 12.67 15.70 122 1.88 9.29 11.17 222 2.54 10.25 12.79 322 2.08 9.28 11.36 132 1.60 8.07 9.67 232 2.35 10.54 12.89 332 3.15 13 .10 16.25 113   .  .15 2.44 9.96 .36 6.92 1.  6 .90 2 .61 .  1.82 8 .25 1.80 2 .25 8.28 1.67 7.69 1.78 8.19 3 .03 12 .67 1.88 9.29 2.54 10 .25 2.08 9.28 1.60 .07 2.35 10.54 3.15 13.10 1.69' 6.79 2.53 10 .51 2.65 10.04 2 .06 8 .32 2.39 10.00 2.49 11.50 1.43 8.10 1.74 8.82 2.47 10.86 8.48 213 2.53 10.51 13.04 313 2.65 10. 4 12.69 123 2.  .32 10.38 223 2.3  1 .  12.39 323 2.49 11.50 13.9.9 133 1.43 8.10 9.53 233 1.74 8.82 10.56 333 2.47 10.86 v 13.33 \lean of four r e p l i c a t i o n s . 2 Kilograms per hundred plants, TABLE VIII Influence of Varying N u t r i t i o n a l Levels on Moisture Content and Certain Food Factors* 2 Total Treatment Moisture. Available p Crude Crude NPK Carbohydrates'1 Protein 2 Ash 2 .655 .788 .876 .755 1.141 .657 .817 .790 .949 o?68 1.121 .690 .830 .784 .776 .779 1.112 .711 .704 .882 .991 .740 1.051 .855 .728 .847 ;812 .782 1.073 .704 .860 .873 .934 .897 1.032 .773 .852 .834 .799 .848 1.061 .813 .723 .839 .961 .839 1.025 .737 .685 .841 .789 .854 1.088 .703 111 89.083 7.473 211 88.168 7.606 311 89.558 7.305 121 89.255 7.529 221 88.673 7.009 321 88.948 7.554 131 89.488 7.015 231 89.130 6.751 351 88.718 7.558 112 89.560 7.661 212 89.815 6.827 312 89.185 6.826 122 89.190 6.545 222 88.878 7.592 522 89.290 7.588 132 89.420 7.634 252 89.515 7.185 352 89.288 7.479 115 89.625 7.421 215 89.133 7.109 515 89.940 7.150 125 89.903 6.919 225 89.595 7.455 323 89.385 7.038 155 89.295 6.951 235 89.198 7.245 553 8 9 .340/ 7.565 1 Means of four replications. ^Percent of fresh weight. TABLE IX Influence of Varying Levels of N u t r i t i o n on Adjusted Mean Yields of Roots* Treatment Kilograms per 100 Plants NPK 111 7.68 211 8.07 311 9.91 121 6.73 221 7.03 321 9.96 131 8.28 231 9.72 331 -8..g 112 7.53 212 8.47 312 12.54 122 9.29 222 10.23 322 9.20 132 8^23 232 10.28 113 6.81 213 10.31 313 10.21 123 8.48 225 9.89-323 11 .44 133 7.90 222 9.13 333 10.74 Averages of four r e p l i c a t i o n s TABLE X Influence of Varying Levels of N u t r i t i o n on Total Carotenoid Content* Treatment Milligrams per 100 NPK Grams Fresh Weight 111 211 311 121 221 321 131 231 331 112 212 312 122 222 322 132 232 332 113 213 313 123 223 323 133 233 333 12.69 9.49 12.56 10.53 11.12 11.71 13.52 11.77 11.05 12.29 10.64 12.28 13.27 12.40 11.68 12.45 10.59 10.47 10.69 10.07 13.06 11.92 13.00 12.41 12.26 11.35 Averages of four r e p l i c a t i o n s Figure J L ; graphs and Table. Showing tie Fffecfofthe Interact/on, Quadratic Phosphor us X Linear Pota$sium) on Total Yield.^ ft. Phosphorus HariaSle B. Pttassiom Variable >2 / 3 . o o i -4 12.00 <?.00 Krs P, \ 3 / 3. oo 11.00 to.ao £ Leo i Hi /fe. $2 «3 p, ft: ci 3? (LhedA Pz ft. 7 7 fZJLS (.. FY /0.C7 fZ.ft /V, = 6~o lb. Ucre. N <40 lb. /, /Vz. -- Aw " /V5 = /3"<! " L S O p - .oS • p- .01 t.*% Pjuz Zoo A : 3 « 0 Mlj- fOO !• - /SO " Fifate AL : tfraph and Ta i>/e Show in f the Effect of the Interact/on| Quadratic Phosphoru.s X Linear Potassium on Total ftooi hfeijhf. A. Phosphorus VariaM/e 8. Pot&ssi*m Variobk fZ.ee ll.oo L to.oa q.oo t.oo •a | § / Z . o a 9. oo $.00 P, fit a* *i p, M. M*. <2.SS~ 9*t 9.H 7. 9/ 9- it 9.9 f •g.77 /O.JT7 9 2 4 Ni = ^o lb. /acre. /V /oo « » " <Lh*-tt 5~./o LSD p: .OS /• Z3 .01 /. 4 3 Pt- /oc lb./acre PZ(>S A/ - So (A /acre X^o i' " " /fg - t*6 * a 'l ^=3" " " " #5-/SO " 5 4 . Figure X// : Qraphs and Table £howmy /be Effect of /be Interaction} Linear Al/froyen X I/near Phosphor u s 0/? Per Cent Total A va/fa. ble Carb* hydrates. A- Nitroyen Variable 3. Phosphorus tfariab/e P. 7. S~2 C.95 7/9 7./S 73S 7-Oi. 7-oq 7.32 7- V7 N, - 3"0 lb. Ac r<L A/ /V?. - /oo " t&£ - /fO " 7.9-1 t.L9 . 91 p- .01 P,- loo lb. I care. Pz.0* P\,-. So/b.Ucm. Pz-Z0t '• n ., Hi- /°° " * " Pi,-. 5 0 6 « •' " /iiz/S'i " •• " * see l/jt/re. x/X. 55 • Figure X/// : Qtaphs and Table ^hohiiny tbe Effect of tbe Ihftracf/on Linear Phosphorus X 0 uajrafic Potassium on Per Cent Total Ava'i I able Car bo hy d f rates. A. Phosphorus Variable 8. Potassium Variabk v» 4 7- 5o 7.3o l.Za I. to -l,5o _ 7.5o 72.0 7,/o 8 ^ A/ A; A, Mz 7./o 7-2Z 721 7/% 7/3 7. II 7-93 7/1 N, = Z~a/b./acre. N fix - / o c " " z /S~6 '• -C A e c A 7.V/ +-LSD pi. OS p- .0 1 Pr- loo /b./acr* P^Os fit- So Ik /acre. fl^0 Pz-Zoo « i " Mzz /oo » it " P^^cc ' 'i " /jz,-/50 • " " ifc see -ft'e/ure: x/x Figure J\Y: Qraphs and Table Shoviny the Effect ofthe Ih ferae IVon , Quadratic Phosphorus X Quadr-afic Potassium on Per Cent Crude Protein. A. Phosphorus Variable S. Potassium Variable ^ l.oo % •9o I .85 L f,Oa .95 25" £ £ /f, A , ^3 P. • 9Z • 9a • 81 • 9" .91 • 9f . ? 5 HSO lb. /acre, Al /Vz- loo '• " .15 t.zz L SP p - - 0S~ . 09 p- .01 . / 2 $ = /Ob lb. /acre PiOs fit* So lb/acrt / f z # ^ " " " A i r / o o <• " " P-$ c 3 0 0 " " " / S O " " » 5 ^ 5ee ftqurt XX 57 . Figure J(y : Qraphs and Table ihoiuiny the Effect of the Interaction, Quadratic A/ifrofen X Linear Phosphorus, on Per Cent Crude Ash of Fresh Uelfht * A. Nitrogen Variable 3- Phosphorus Variabk P, N, .23 . 23 . $3 •77 , So . 77 . 1 1 -73 A/, a so ik. (acre. N Nf. - /oo " " " /V3- /$". " " " CPtcA LSD p - .of . 07 p ^.01 .0<j P, /oo Ik/acrc PTLQ? I\I = So Ik /acre. A* a Pz - Zee « " '< M)j_- /oo « " " 58. CYCLOG-RAPHS The cyclograph i s used to express g r a p h i c a l l y the degree of s i g n i f i c a n c e of the divergence "between two means'. I t contains, i n a s i m p l i f i e d form, the information derived by comparison of differences between means with a Least S i g n i f i c a n t Difference. Oyclographs are of p a r t i c u l a r value where f a c t o r i a l designs are used. The s i g n i f i c a n c e between adjusted means could otherwise be expressed only by tabulations of separate n t " t e s t s . The cyclograph i s a summary of such information. The mono-cyclograph and the di-cyclograph, i n t h i s report, are used to compare means of treatment e f f e c t s ; the tri-cyclograph i s used to compare adjusted treatment means. To f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the chart, a l l seg-ments assigned to low l e v e l s (N^, P^, are shown i n red, medium l e v e l s (N2, P2» Kg) i n white, and high l e v e l s (N3, P3, K3) i n blue. Primary e f f e c t s are shown on the mono-cyclograph. The single ring of the s h e l l contains a segment f o r each of the three l e v e l s of nitrogen, of phosphorus, and of potassium. F i r s t order i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s are shown on the d i -cyclograph. The variable f a c t o r i s found i n the outer ri n g and the constant f a c t o r i n the inner r i n g . Two graphs are required to evaluate the i n t e r a c t i o n of any two f a c t o r s . Second order i n t e r a c t i o n effeots are shown on the tri-cyclograph. Since there were no s i g n i f i c a n t t e r t i a r y e f f e c t s , t h i s graph i s used only to demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t differences between adjusted treatment means. Nitrogen l e v e l s appear i n the outer ring; phosphorus i n the center ring; and potassium i n the inner r i n g of the s h e l l . S i g n i f i c a n t differences between means are indicated by l i n e s between the means. A red l i n e indicates that the odds are 99:1 or greater, that the difference between the two means i s due to treatment, not to chance; a black l i n e Indicates odds of 19:1 or greater; a broken black l i n e indicates the difference approaches s i g n i f i c a n c e , but the odds are l e s s than 19:1 against the difference being due to chance alone. Where no l i n e connects two means, there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between them. 59. FIGURE XVI Mono-Cyclographs* Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e c t s - I Primary C. Top Y i e l d D. Dry Weight (See Figure IV) (See Figure V) 50 lb./acre N P i * 100 lb./acre P2O5 K i - 50 lb./acre K_0 100 lb./acre N P 2 = 200 lb./aore P 2 0 5 K 2 s 100 lb./acre K 20 150 lb./acre N P j : 300 lb./aore P 2 0 ^ K3 s 150 lb./acre K 20 See page 5& Odds of 19:1 or more. Odds of 99:1 or more. 6o. FIGURE XVH Mono-Cyclographs* Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e c t s - I Primary (con.) A. Carbohydrates (See Figure VI) B. Crude Protein (See Figure VII) C. Crude Ash (See Figure VIII) N x * 50 lbs./acre N P1 s 100 N 2 s 100 lbs./acre N P 2 = 200 N 5 s 130 lbs./acre N P j = 300 z See page 38. D. Total Carotenoids (See Figure K ) lbs./aore P2 ° 5 K 1 = ^° l b s * / a o r e E . 0 lbs./acre P2O3 E£ s100 lbs./acre K2O lbs./acre P2O3 K3SI5O lbs./aore KgO — Odds of 19:1 or more. — Odds of 99:1 or more. 61. FIGURE XVIII Di-Cyolographs* Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e c t s - I I Interactions A* Phosphorus Variable. B. Potassium Variable. E f f e c t of Interaction - Quadratic Phosphorus X Linear Potassium - on Total Y i e l d . (See Figure X). A. Phosphorus Variable, B. Potassium Variable. E f f e c t of Interaction - Quadratio Phosphorus X Linear Potassium - on Y i e l d of Roots. (See Figure XI). ? ! s 100 lb./aore P 2 0 ^ P 2 = 200 lb./acre PgO^ P j s 300 lb./aore P 2 0 ^ E See page 38 • 50 lb./acre j^O Kg = 100 lb./acre K 2 0 Kj = 150 lb./aore K 2 0 Odds of 19:1 or more. Odds of 99:1 or more. 62. FIGURE XIX Di-Cyclographs* Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e c t s - n Interactions (con.) A. Nitrogen Variable B. Phosphorus Variable E f f e c t of Interaction - Linear Nitrogen X Linear Phosphorus -on Total Available Carbohydrates. (See Figure XTI). A. Phosphorus Variable B. Potassium Variable E f f e c t of Interaction - Linear Phosphorus X Quadratic Potassium - on Total Available Carbohydrates. (See Figure XTII). N x r 50 lb./acre N P x r 100 lb./acre P 2 0 ^ K x s 50 lb./acre K2O N 2 s 100 lb./acre N P 2 s 200 lb./acre P 2 0 ^ ^ s 100 lb./acre KgO N5 = 150 lb./acre N P3 r 300 lb./acre P 2 0 3 K3 r 150 lb./aore K 2 0 x Odds of 1 9 : 1 or more. See page58. O D D S O F 9 9 : 1 or more. FIGURE XX 63. Di-Cyolographs Showing the Significance of Treatment E f f e c t s - n Interactions (con,) A. Phosphorus Variable B. Potassium Variable E f f e c t of Interaction - Quadratic Phosphorus X Quadratic Potassium - on Crude Protein, (See Table XIV). A. , Nitrogen Variable B. Phosphorus Variable E f f e c t of Interaction - Quadratic Nitrogen X Linear Phosphorus - on Crude Ash. (See Table XV). s 50 lb./acre N P x = 100 lb./aore P 2 0^ K x a 50 lb./aore K 2 0 N 2 = 100 lb./acre N P 2 = 200 lb./aore P ^ K 2 = 100 lb./aore K 2 0 r 150 lb./acre N P ? = 500 lb./aore P 2 0^ r 150 lb./aore K 2 0 See page Odds of 19:1 or more. Odds of 99:1 or more. 64. FIGURE XXI Tri-Cyclograph* Showing the Significance of Differences Between Adjusted Treatment Means - I Odds of Nineteen to One or More , FIGURE XXII 65. Tri-Cyclograph* Showing the Significance of Differences Between Adjusted Treatment Means - I I Odds of Ninety-nine to one or More. See page 5 8 . DISCUSSION In the review of l i t e r a t u r e i t was shown that applications of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to a number of crops caused responses which varied markedly with the type of crop, l o c a t i o n , and climate. The work of Woodman and Johnson (98,99) and Woodman and Parer (100) showed that carrots were no exception. No broad generalization can therefore be made as to the e f f e c t of any given treatment on carrots. Under a s p e c i f i c set of conditions, however, certain conclusions can be reached. The r e s u l t s f o r y i e l d , (Tables H - TV) indicate that nitrogen was the p r i n c i p l e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r to growth, followed by potassium which showed some b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s , and phosphorus which showed no e f f e c t . Since t o t a l s o i l nitrogen was i n i t i a l l y v e r y low, (Table I) the increase i n y i e l d due to applications of nitrogen was to be expected. Available phosphorus was moderately high and con-sequently there was no s i g n i f i c a n t primary- response to applications of superphosphate. This lack of response may i n part be caused by the i n t e r a c t i o n observed between phosphorus and potassium f o r y i e l d ; an in t e r a c t i o n which was also found by Woodman et a l . (98,100), (TablesXI - X I I I ) . The work of Tiedjens and Schermerhorn (91) indicates that calcium prevents potassium from becoming to x i c to carrots i n sand culture. But applications of superphosphate,which i s high i n calcium (22), had no apparently consistent • TABLE XI Comparison Between Experimental Results and Those Reported i n the L i t e r a t u r e - I . Top Y i e l d Found U.B.C. Reported Woodman Woodman et a l . (100} et a l . (98) N 1 ( l i n e a r ) N 2 (quadratic) P 1 ( l i n e a r ) P 2 (quadratic) K 1 ( l i n e a r ) K 2 (quadratic) N 1 X P 1 N i x P 2 N 2 X P 1 N 2 X P 2 N 1 X K\ Nj X K 2 N 2 X K 1 N 2 X K 2 P 1 X K 1 P l X K 2 P 2 X K 1 P 2 X K 2 N I P I K SSS ss ss ss s - approaches sig n i f i c a n c e S - S i g n i f i c a n t SS - Highly s i g n i f i c a n t SSS - Very highly s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE XII Comparison Between Experimental Results and those Reported i n the Lit e r a t u r e - I I . Bottom Y i e l d N 1 ( l i n e a r ) N 2 (quadratic) P 1 ( l i n e a r ) P 2 (qiiadratio) K 1 ( l i n e a r ) K 2 (quadratio) N 1 X P 1 N 1 X P ^ N 2 X P Found U.B.C. SSS SS SS Reported Woodman Woodman et a l . (100) et a l . (98) SS SS SS SSS s s N x X K X N J X K 2 N 2 X K 1 N 2 P i X K 2 X K X P 1 X K 2 P 2 X K 1 P 2 X K 2 S N X P X K s - Approaches significance 3 - S i g n i f i c a n t SS - Highly s i g n i f i c a n t SSS - Very highly s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE XIII Comparison Between Experimental Results and Those Reported i n the L i t e r a t u r e - I I I . Total Y i e l d Found Reported U.B.C. Woodman (100) N 1 ( l i n e a r ) SSS N 2 (quadratic) P 1 (linear) SS P 2 (quadratic) SS K J ( l i n e a r ) SS K ^(quadratic) SS N 1 X P 1 S N i x p f — s Nj x H N X P* N 1 X K 1 Nj X K 2 N 2 X KJ N X Kr — . p 1 x K ! — s s P£ X KT Pp X K% --- S P* X K S • N X P X K s - Approaches si g n i f i c a n c e S - S i g n i f i c a n t SS - Highly s i g n i f i c a n t SSS - Very highly s i g n i f i c a n t ameliorating e f f e c t with high potassium on y i e l d , (Figures X and XI). Other explanations of the lack of y i e l d response to phosphorus applications are: that i n s u f f i c i e n t was applied, which i s highly u n l i k e l y ; that the majority of the application was rendered unavailable, (82), which i s also u n l i k e l y (despite controversial evidence on t h i s point, (68, 69,86); that treatment was improperly applied, which i s not l i k e l y , (36,61,74-); that the presence of ammonium ions i n an accompanying f e r t i l i z e r s a l t caused optimum absorption at the lowest l e v e l of application, (9,26); ..or. that the two increments were i n excess. This latjfcer theory that the medium and high l e v e l s of phosphorus applied were i n excess, substantiates the work of Hartwell (44) and Woodman et a l . (98). Potassium influenced y i e l d considerably. The increase i n y i e l d r e s u l t i n g from low to medium applications of potassium was probably due to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of growth requirements. The depression observed with applications of high potassium i s by no means unique (31,89). Woodman et a l . (98,100) obtained s i m i l a r responses f o r carrots. Ratios that produced the highest y i e l d of roots contained high nitrogen (Nj) and moderate potassium (Kg), with low" (P.) or high (P_) phosphorus. The discrepancy of the 1 3 performance of r a t i o s compounding the moderate phosphorus (Pg) l e v e l i s explained on the basis of the presence of the i n t e r -71. action quadratic phosphorus X l i n e a r potassium f o r roots. The r a t i o s applied that gave the highest y i e l d were s i m i l a r to those determined by Martin et a l . (66) f o r potatoes, and Hartwell (44) f o r carrots, when s o i l conditions at the respective locations of the experiments are considered. Dry weight and t o t a l available carbohydrates showed no consistent trends, one to another, with applications of nitrogen and phosphorus* A consistent negative l i n e a r trend occurred with applications of potassium, which trend, f o r dry weight only, was s i g n i f i c a n t . No explanation f o r t h i s much- noted phenomena has been found*. I t i s known that potassium i s essential to the condensation of carbohydrates and amino acids, (24,29,55,92), and that calcium is'associated with the translocation of carbohydrates (7,22). Excesses of potassium reduce calcium absorption i n plants (9,82,92). I t i s possible that such excesses have a deeper phy s i o l o g i c a l effect;-that the whole system of translocation i s disrupted. I f so, then applications of calcium, even i n the form of superphosphate, might p a r t i a l l y o f f - s e t the e f f e c t s of high potassium. This would i n part explain the trends r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e r a c t i o n linear phosphorus X quadratic potassium for t o t a l available carbohydrates,(Figure X I I I ) . No explanation can be given at t h i s time f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s of l i n e a r nitrogen X l i n e a r phosphorus. (23,51,54,55,60,89,96) 72. Crude protein increased with, nitrogen applications but showed no v a r i a t i o n with phosphorus and potassium. This lack of v a r i a t i o n with potassium and phosphorus can p a r t i a l l y be explained as r e s u l t i n g from an i n t e r a c t i o n which was found, namely, quadratic phosphorus X quadratic potassium. There i s no evidence to show what caused t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . Such an eff e c t has not been reported f o r carrots, and controverts e a r l i e r solution culture work (15). Since potassium i s the p r i n c i p l e constituent i n plant ash, i t i s not^unusual to f i n d that applications of t h i s element to the s o i l w i l l increase the crude ash content of plants growing thereon. The depressing e f f e c t of nitrogen applications on ash content has been previously reported (20), and presuming n i t r i f i c a t i o n has occurred, substantiates the theory of Bear (9). The i n t e r a c t i o n of quadratic nitrogen X l i n e a r phosphorus would i n part account f o r the absence of a primary e f f e c t of phosphorus on ash content. What e f f e c t s of phosphorus are observable as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r a c t i o n , Figure XX* show some r e l a t i o n to the findings of Breazeale (15). Lack of s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t o t a l carotenoid content as a r e s u l t of f e r t i l i z e r treatment have been previously reported (12,70). I t i s thought that the plants used i n t h i s experiment were not s u f f i c i e n t l y uniform g e n e t i c a l l y f o r an adequate estimation of treatment e f f e c t s . The c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n was very high, 19.16%, but reports have shown i t may go as high as 33•6% i n lines, of commercial carrots (33)• Dark and Booth (25) have s i m i l a r l y found great v a r i a b i l i t y within s t r a i n s of high carotene bearing carrots. The observed v a r i a t i o n between sub-blocks i s hot unusual. Careful studies by H a r r i s and S c o f i e l d (43) reveal that no matter what s i t e i s selected, the heterogeneity of l o c a t i o n w i l l have a profound influence on experimental r e s u l t s f o r y i e l d . The experimental r e s u l t s i n t h i s paper indicate that t h i s generalization may be extended to the composition of plants as w e l l . . Si m i l a r interactions to those noted i n t h i s paper and to those described by Woodman et a l . (98,100) f o r carrots, have been encountered i n other crops (30,46). The prevalence of these interactions emphasizes that nutrient balance i s of considerable p r a c t i c a l importance i n f i e l d f e r t i l i z e r studies. The data show that both y i e l d and food value are markedly influenced by such i n t e r a c t i o n s . Making sound f e r t i l i z e r recommendations i s therefore subject to greater complexities than the l i t e r a t u r e would heretofore lead one to expect. The f i e l d design and method of analysis used was s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r investigating i n t e r a c t i o n s . F a c t o r i a l 74. designs f a c i l i t a t e the precise determination of average responses and of i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . At the same time a greater degree of f l e x i b i l i t y of nutrient l e v e l s i s possible. I t i s apparent that with carrots, or with any other crop showing s i m i l a r i n t e r a c t i o n responses, that applications of one element i n the presence of only one l e v e l of other elements allows no estimation of the e f f e c t of the element under study i n the presence of other l e v e l s of n u t r i t i o n . 75. SUMMARY Three l e v e l s each of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were applied to carrots, v a r i e t y Red Core Chantenay, i n a completely f a c t o r i a l f i e l d experiment. Rates of applica-t i o n per acre were: nitrogen 50, 100, 150 pounds; phosphoric acid 100, 200, 200 pounds; potash 50, 100, 150 pounds. Observations included periodic growth records, yi e l d s of tops and roots, and food value as determined by chemical analyses. Under the conditions of the experiment i t was found that: Increasing nitrogen increased y i e l d of roots and tops, and crude protein content, decreased erude ash content, and had no e f f e c t on dry weight, t o t a l available carbohydrate, or t o t a l carotenoid content, regardless of phosphorus or potassium l e v e l . Increasing phosphorus had no primary e f f e c t on y i e l d or food value. The medium l e v e l of potassium increased y i e l d of roots and tops, and crude ash content while the high l e v e l increased y i e l d of roots and crude ash, and i n addition, depressed dry weight. Interaction e f f e c t s of nitrogen X phosphorus were found f o r t o t a l available carbohydrate and f o r crude ash content. Interaction e f f e c t s . o f phosphorus X potassium ' were observed f o r y i e l d of roots, t o t a l available carbo-1 76 . hydrate content, and crude protein. Certain f o l i a r symptoms of mineral stress were observed i n plants which had received extremely unbalanced r a t i o s . Excesses of potassium caused a marked reduction i n y i e l d of tops. The experimental design proved s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the evaluation of primary e f f e c t s and f i r s t order i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . A method of summarizing the degree of s i g n i f i c a n c e of differences between pai r s of adjusted means i n balanced f a c t o r i a l designs i s demonstrated by means of a t r i -cyclograph. RECOMMENDATIONS Experimental r e s u l t s j u s t i f y further investigation into the nature of the interactions encountered. I t i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance that the cause f o r such e f f e c t s he discovered. I t i s suggested that an analysis of the crude ash r e s u l t i n g from ah experiment such as ' that reported i n t h i s paper, would be of great value i n inte r p r e t i n g the causes of i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . BIBLIOGRAPHY 78. 1 . Anon. Acreage and production of vegetables, Canada, 1940-1948. Memorandum prepared i n the'Special Crops Unit of the Crop Section, A g r i c u l t u r a l D i v i s i o n , Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa, 1949. 2. Anon. Recommended dietary allowances. National Research Council Reprint and C i r c u l a r Series, No. 129, 1 9 4 8 . 5 Washington, D.C. 3. Anon. Factors a f f e c t i n g the n u t r i t i v e value of foods, U.S.D.A. Misc. Pub. 6 6 4 , 1 9 4 8 . 4. Anon. E f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r s on the chemical compositions of plants and on t h e i r value as feeds. Wash. Sta. C i r . 103, 1950. 5. Anderson, W. S. The influence of f e r t i l i z e r s upon the y i e l d and starch content of the triumph sweet . potato. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 3 4 : 4 4 9 - 4 5 0 , 1936. 6. Association of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemists. O f f i c i a l methods of analysis of the association of o f f i c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l chemists. 7th ed. Washington, D.C. 195O. 7. Bamford, R. Changes i n ro o t . t i p s of wheat and corn grown i n nutrient solutions d e f i c i e n t i n calcium. Torrey Bot. Club Bui. 58:149-78 »31. 8. Barnes, W. G. E f f e c t s of some environmental factors on growth and colour of carrots. Cornell Ag. Exp. Memoir 186. 1 9 3 6 . 9. Bear, F. E. Cation and anion r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n plants and t h e i r bearing on crop q u a l i t y . Agron. J . 42:176-178. 1 9 5 0 . 1 0 . Beeson, K. C. The eff e c t of mineral supply on the mineral concentration and n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t y of plants. Bot. Rev. 12:424-455. 1946b 1 1 . . The mineral composition of crops with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the s o i l s i n which they were grown. U.S.D.A. Misc. Pub. 369. 1941. 12. Bernstein, L., K. C. Hamner, and R. Q. Parks. The influence of mineral n u t r i t i o n , s o i l f e r t i l i t y , and climate on carotene and ascorbic acid content of turnip greens. Plant Physiology 20:340-572. 1 9 4 5 . 79. 13. B i z z e l l , J . A. The comparative e f f e c t s of ammonium sulfate and sodium n i t r a t e on the composition of " certain vegetable crops. S o i l Soc. Am. Proc. (1937): 342-345. 1938. 14. Booth, V..H. Si m p l i f i e d procedure f o r estimation of t o t a l carotenoids i n carrots. Soc. Chem. Ind. J . 64:194-196. 1945. 15. Breazeale, J. F. The ef f e c t of one element of plant food upon the absorption by plants of another element. A r i z . Ag. Exp. Tech. B. 19. 1928. 16. Brown, G. B. E f f e c t of maturity and storage on the carotene content of carrot v a r i e t i e s . Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 50:34-7-352. 1947. 17. . E f f e c t of winter storage on the carotene content of carrot v a r i e t i e s . Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Pro. 54:304-306. 1949. 18. Brown, H. D., M . B. Patton, A. Blythe and M . R. Shetlar. Influence of mineral l e v e l s upon the carotene and ascorbic acid contents of swiss chard grown i n the greenhouse. Food Res. 12:4-9. 1947. 19. , R. D. ?Schuekers, and M . R. Shetlar. E f f e c t of mineral d e f i c i e n c i e s on the carotene content of vegetables grown i n the greenhouse. Am. Soc-. Hort. S c i . Proc. 44:462.-464. 1945. 20. Carolus, R. L. E f f e c t of certai n ions, used si n g l y and i n combination, on the growth and potassium, ' calcium, and magnesium absorption of bean plants. Plant Physiology 13:344-262. 1928. 21. Coleman, J . M . and R. W. Ruprecht. The ef f e c t s of f e r t i l i z e r s and s o i l types on the mineral com-position of vegetables,. J . N u t r i t i o n 9:51-62. 1935. 22. C o l l i n g s i G. H. Commercial F e r t i l i z e r s . . The Blakiston Co. 3rd ed. 1941. 23. C o l l i n s , S. H. Variations i n the chemical composition of the swede. J . Ag. S c i . 1:89-107. 1905. 24. C o o i l , B. J . , and M . C. S l a t l e r y . E f f e c t of potassium deficiency and excess upon ce r t a i n carbohydrate and nitrogenous constituents i n ^uayule. Plant Physiology 23:425-442. 1948. 80o 25. . Dark, S.O.S., and V. H. Booth. Total carotenoids i n carrots. J . Ag. S c i . 36:192-198. 1936. 2 6 . Davidson, J . - The possible e f f e c t of hydrogen ion concentration on the absorption of potassium and phosphorus by wheat plants under f i e l d conditions. - J . Ag. Res. 46:449-453. 1933. . . . . 27. , J . A. Le Olerc. The v a r i a t i o n i n the mineral content of vegetables. J . N u t r i t i o n 11:55^ 5 6 . 1936. 2 8 . Davis, J . P., W. D. Baten, and R. L. Cook. The e f f e c t of time of application and l e v e l s of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash on the growth of sugar beets with a d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c a l procedure of confounding i n a 3 X 3 X 3 design. Mich. Ag. Exp. Tech. B. 203. 1946. 29. Day, D., and S. Comboni. E f f e c t s of potassium deficiency on the formation of starch i n pisum sativum. Am. J . Bot. 24:594-597. 1937. -30. Dumeril, L., and L. B. Nelson. Nutrient balance and i n t e r a c t i o n i n f e r t i l i z e r experiments. S o i l S c i . Soc, Am. Proc. 13:335-41. 1948. 31. Dunn, L. E. and C. D. Rost. Influence of f e r t i l i z e r s on composition and q u a l i t y of sugar beets. Minn. Ag. Exp. Tech. B. 183. 1949. 32.1 Eisenmerger, W. S. and K . J . Kucinski., Minerals i n n u t r i t i o n . I. The absorption by food plants of certain-chemical elements important i n human physio-logy and n u t r i t i o n . Mass. Ag. Exp. B. 374. 1940. 33. Emsweller, S. L. and P. C. B u r r e l l , and H. A. Borthwick. Studies on the inheritatBce of carotene i n carrots. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 1935:508-11. 1936.. 34. Freeman, J . A., and G. H. H a r r i s . The e f f e c t of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and chlorine.on the carotene content of the carrot. S c i . Ag. 31:207-211. 1951. 35. G i l b e r t , F. A. Mineral n u t r i t i o n of plants and animals. Uni v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press. 1st ed. 1949. 36. G i l e , P . L . and J . 0. Carrera Absorption of nutrients as affected by the number of roots supplied with the nutrient. J . Ag. Res. 9:73-95. 1917. -81. 37. G i l e , P. L ., and J.. G.. Smith., C o l l o i d a l s i l i c a and the e f f i c i e n c y of phosphates. J . Ag. Res. 31: 247-260. 1925. 38. Hamner, K. C , and L . A. Maynard. Factors influencing the n u t r i t i v e value of the tomato. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e . U.S.D.A. Misc. Pub. 502. 1942. 39. Hansen, E. Seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n the mineral and vitamin content of cer t a i n green vegetable crops. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 46:299-304. 1945. 40. . .Variation i n the carotene content of carrots. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 46:355-358. 1945. 41. Harper, R. H. and F. P. Zscheile. Carotenoid content of carrot v a r i e t i e s and s t r a i n s . Food Res. 10: 84-97. 1945. 42. H a r r i s , G. H. The ef f e c t of micro-elements on the red raspberry i n coastal B r i t i s h Columbia. Am. Soc. Hort. S o i . Proc. 45:300-302. 1945. 43. H a r r i s , J . A. and C. S. S c o f i e l d . Permanence of differences i n the,plots of an experimental f i e l d . J . Ag. Res. 20:335-356. 1920. 44. Hartwell, B. L. Relative growth response of crops, to each f e r t i l i z e r ingredient and the use of th i s response i n adopting a f e r t i l i z e r analysis to a crop. J . Am, Soc. Agron. 13:353.-356. 1922. 45. Haut, I . C., J . E. Webster, and G. W. Cochran. The influence of commercial f e r t i l i z e r s upon the firmness and chemical composition of strawberries and tomatoes. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 33:405-410. 1936. 46. Huelsen, W. A. E f f i c i e n c y factors and t h e i r use i n determining optimum f e r t i l i z e r r a t i o s . J . Ag. Res. 45:675-704. 1932. 47. Jacobs, W. 0. and R. H. White-Stevens. Studies i n the minor element n u t r i t i o n of vegetable crop plants... n . The in t e r a c t i o n of potash, boron and magnesium upon the flavour and sugar content of mellons. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.. Proc. 39:369-74. 1942. 48. Janes, B. E. -Composition of florida-grown vegetables. II. E f f e c t of va r i e t y , l o c a t i o n , season, f e r t i l i z e r l e v e l and s o i l moisture on the organic composition 82". • of*cabbage, beans, tomatoes, c o l l a r d s , b r o c c o l i , and carrots. F l a . Ag. Exp. B. 455 . 1949. 49. Janes, B. E. Composition of f l o r i d a grown vegetables. I I I . E f f e c t s of l o c a t i o n , season, f e r t i l i z e r l e v e l and s o i l moisture on the mineral composition of cabbage-, beans, c o l l a r d s , b r o c c o l i and carrots. F l a . Ag. Exp. B. 488. 1951. 50. . The e f f e c t of i r r i g a t i o n , nitrogen l e v e l . and season on the composition of cabbage. Plant Physiology 25 :441-452. 1950. 5 1 . The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t of v a r i e t y and en-vironment i n determining the v a r i a t i o n s of per cent dry weight, ascorbic acid and carotene content of cabbage and beans. Am. Soc* Hort,. S c i . Proc. 45:387 -390. 1945. 52. . V a r i a t i o n i n the dry weight, ascorbic acid and carotene content of c o l l a r d s , b r o c c o l i and carrots as influenced by geographical l o c a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r l e v e l . Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 48:407-12. 53. James, W. 0. Studies i n the physiological importance " of the mineral elements i n plants. I . The r e l a t i o n of potassium to the properties and functions of the l e a f . Ann. Bot. 44:173-198. 1930. 54. - . Studies i n the physiological importance of the mineral elements i n plants. IT. Potassium: I t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , movement, and r e l a t i o n to -growth i n the potato. Ann. Bot. 45:425-442. 1931* 55. Janssen, G. and R. P. Bartholomew. The translocation of potassium-in tomato-plants and-its r e l a t i o n to t h e i r carbohydrate and nitrogen d i s t r i b u t i o n . J . Ag. Res. 38:447-465. 1929. 56. J o d i d i , S. L. and V. R. Boswell. Chemical-composition and y i e l d of the alaska pea as influenced by certain f e r t i l i z e r s and by the stage of development. J . Ag. Res. 48:703-736. 1934. 57. . ; E f f e c t of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash on composition of alaska peas. Am. Soc.^ Hort.- S c i . Proc- 29:454-458. 1933. 58., Knowles, F.,. J . E. Watkins, and G. A; Cowie. Some effe c t s of f e r t i l i z e r interactions on growth and composition of the potato plant. J . Ag. S c i . 30:159-181. 1940. 8 3 ; 5 9 . Lagasse, P . S. Some growth responses of elberta peach trees to f e r t i l i z e r treatments. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 2 6 : 1 8 7 - 1 9 0 . 1950. 60. Lee, F. A., and C. B. Sayre. Factors a f f e c t i n g the acid and t o t a l s o l i d s content of tomatoes. N. Y. Ag. Exp. Tech. B. 2 7 8 . 194-6. 61. Lewis, A. H. The placement of f e r t i l i z e r s . I. Root crops. J . Ag. S c i . 51:295-507. 1941. 62. L e i b l g , J . Die chemie i n i h r e r anwendung auf agrikultur und physiologie. Braunshweig. 6th ed. 1846. 63. Link, K. P., and Scholz. E f f e c t s of the method of dessication on the nitrogenous content of plant t i s s u e . Am. Chem. Soc. J . 4 6 : 2 0 4 4 - 2 0 5 0 . 1924. 64. M c K i l l i c a n , M. E. S t a b i l i t y Of carotene i n carrots during storage. S c i . Ag. 28 :185-184. 1948. 65. Mack, W. B., and 0 . P. T u t t l e . The r e l a t i o n among f e r t i l i z e r treatment, s o i l moisture, organic matter, and y i e l d of vegetable crops. Am. Soc. Agron. J . 2 4 : 1 8 2 - 2 0 2 . 1 9 5 2 . 66. Martin, W. H., B. E. Brown, and H. B. Spr*tgue. The influence of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash on the number, shape, and weight of potato tubers. J • Ag. Res. 4 5 : 2 5 1 - 2 6 0 . 1951. ' 67. Maynard,' L. A., and,K„ C. Beeson. Some causes of v a r i a t i o n s i n the vitamin content of plants grown fo r food. Nut. Abstr. and Revs. 15:155-164. 1945. 68. Metzger, W. H. D i s t r i b u t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r residues i n . the s o i l a f t e r fourteen years of a f e r t i l i z e r experiment with a l f a l f a . Am. Soc. Agron. J . 26: 6 2 0 - 6 2 5 . 1954. 69i Midgley, A. R. The movement and f i x a t i o n of phosphates i n r e l a t i o n to permanent pasture f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Am. Soc. Agron. J . 2 3 :788-99. 1951. 70. M i l l e r , J . C , F. D. Cochran, and 0 . B. Garrison. Some factors a f f e c t i n g colour i n carrots. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 5 2 :585-6. 1955. 71. Moon, F. E. The influence of manurial treatment on the ., carotene content of poor pasture grass, and on the rel a t i o n s h i p of t h i s constituent to. the ash and organic f r a c t i o n s . J . Ag. S c i . 29:529-543. 1959. 84. 72. Olsen, S. R . , W. R . Schmehl, F. S. Watanabe, C. 0 . Scott,/W...H. .Fuller, J . V . Jordan, and R.- Kunkel. U t i l i z a t i o n of phosphorus by various crops as affected by source of material and placement. Colorado Ag. Exp. Tech. B. 42. 1950. 73. Ost, . Chem. Ztg. 19:1501. 1895. Cited from Browne, C. A., •and F. W. Zerban. Physical and chemioal methods of sugar analysis. John Wiley and Sons. , 3rd. ed. 1941. 74. Parker, H. M. Truck crop inv e s t i g a t i o n s . Ya. Truck Exp.. Sta. B. 107. 1942. 75. P o l l a r d , A. Ann. Rep. Long Ashton Ag. Hort. Res. Sta. 1941. p.32. 76. Rahn, E. M., and W. H. P h i l l i p s . The ef f e c t of various f e r t i l i z e r and manure treatments on the y i e l d , s i z e , stand, and disease resistance>of cantaloupes. Del. Ag. Exp. B. 256. 1945. 77. Russell, W. C , M. W. Taylor, and D. F. Chichester. Colourimetric determination of carotene i n plant t i s s u e s . Plant Physiology 10:325-39. 1935. 78. Rygg, J . L. Sugars i n the root of the carrot. Plant Physiology 20:47-50. 1945. 79. St. John,-J. L. E f f e c t s of ashing temperature on percentage of minerals retained. Assn. O f f i c , Ag. Chem. J . 24:848-54. 1941. 80. _ . Report on ash. Assn. O f f i c . Ag. Chem* J . 25:b57-64. 1942. 81. Schertz, F. M. Some physical and chemical properties of carotin and the preparation of the pure-pigment. J . Ag. Res. 30:469-74. 1925. 82. Sewell, M. C , and W. L. Latshaw. The e f f e c t of lime, superphosphatei and potash on reaction of s o i l and growth and composition of a l f a l f a . Am. Soc. Agron. J . 23:799-814. .1931. 83. Sheets, 0. A., L. McWhirter, W. S. Anderson, M. Geiger, L. Ascham, H. L. Cochrani M. Speirs, R. Reder, J . B. Edmond, E. J . Leasey J . H. M i t c h e l l , G. S. Fraps, J i Whitacre, S. H. Y a r n e l l , W. G. E l l e t t , R. C. Moore, and H. H. Zimmerley. E f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r , s o i l composition, and cer t a i n c l i m a t o l o g i c a l con-di t i o n s on the calcium and phosphorus content^of turnip greens. J . Ag. Res. 68:145-90. 1944. 85. 84. Sherman, H. C. Chemistry of foods and.nutrition. The . Macmillan Co. 4 t h ed. 1935. 85. Sims, G. T., and G. M. Volk. Composition of f l o r i d a -grown vegetables. I . Mineral composition of commercially grown vegetables i n f l o r i d a as affected by treatment, s o i l type and l o c a l i t y . F l a . Ag. Exp. B. 4 3 8 . 1947. 86. Stephenson, R. E., and H. D. Chapman. Phosphate penetration i n f i e l d s o i l s . Am. Soc. Agron. J . 23:759-770. 1931. 87. Swanson, P., G. Stevenson, E. S. Haber, and P. M. Nelson. E f f e c t of f e r t i l i z i n g treatment on vitamin A content of sweet potatoes. Food Res. 5:431-438. 1940. 88. Teng-Yi, Lo. Carotene and c i t r i n content of peas as influenced by chemical treatment. Food Res. 10: 308-311. 1945. 89. Terman, G. L. E f f e c t of rate and source of potash on y i e l d and starch content of potatoes. Results over a 20-year period. Maine Ag. Exp. B. 4 8 l . 1950. 90.. Thomas, W. Absorption, u t i l i z a t i o n and recovery of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium by apple trees grown i n cylinders and subjected to d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment with nutrient s a l t s . J . Ag.'Res. 47: 565-580. 1933. 91. Tiedjens, V, A., and L. G. Schermerhorn. Notes on nutrient d e f i c i e n c i e s i n some vegetable crops. Am. Soc,Hort. S c i . Proc. 3 5 : 7 0 4 - 7 0 8 . 1938. 92. , .and M. E. Wall. The importance of potassium i n the growth of vegetable plants. Am. Soc. Hort. S c i . Proc. 3 6 :740-743. 1 9 3 9 . 93« True, R. H. A s h absorption by spinach from concentrated s o i l solutions. J . Ag. Res. 16:15-25. 1919. 9 4 . Vandecaveye, S. C , and G. 0* Baker. Chemical com-po s i t i o n of certain forage crops as affected by f e r t i l i z e r s and s o i l types. J . Ag. Res. 68 :191-220i 1944. 95. Wallace, T. The diagnosis of mineral d e f i c i e n c i e s i n plants by v i s u a l symptoms. London: H. M. Stationery O f f i c e . 1951. APPENDIX - PLATES PLATE I I : Appearance of land a f t e r c u l t i v a t i o n . PLATE H I : Appearance of treatment row p r i o r to thinning and weeding. (Side view). PLATE IV: Appearance of treatment row a f t e r thinning and weeding. Note spacing of plants. (Side view). 89. PLATE VII: Appearance of p l o t s . July. T I 91. 1 PLATE Y H I : PLATE XI: Plants i n Plates VIII - X, earth removed. N 3 p i K i » N 2 p i K i » N i p i K i * J u l y » Note v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e . PLATE XII: Guard and treatment plant N^P^K^. July PLATE XLTT: Appearance of p l o t s . September. 94. PLATE XIV: Appearance of plants treated with N J P J K ^ . September. PLATE XV: Appearance of plants treated with NgP^Ki. September. PLATE XVI: Appearance of plants treated with N^P-j^. September. 95. PLATE XVTI: Appearance of plants treated with N_P-JK-J_» September, PLATE XVIII: Appearance of plants treated wj September, ith N 1P 2K 1. PLATE XIX: Appearance of plants treated with N-jP^K^. September. PLATE XXI: Appearance of plants treated with N^P^Kjj* September. 96. PLATE XX: Appearance of plants treated with N-jP-jK^. September. PLATE XXII: Appearance of plants treated with N - J P - J K ^ * September. 97. m I Plate X X I I I : Appearance of a t y p i c a l inflorescence i n tr e a t -ment N^P^Kg. September. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106788/manifest

Comment

Related Items