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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Working with the delinquent Wanden, June Eva 1947

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WORKING, WITH THE DELJff9UE8TC jT«fie W a n d a w A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER of SOCIAL WORK I n the Department of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia October 1947. ABSTRACT WORKING WITH THE DELINQUENT BY JUNE WANDEN 1 This study has grown out of a seven month contact which the w r i t e r had, i n a l o c a l group work agency, w i t h a gang of delinquent teen aged g i r l s and boys from the downtown s e c t i o n of Vancouver. I t i s based l a r g e l y upon the process records which she kept on the gang duri n g i t s s t a y i n the agency, w i t h c e r t a i n c o r r o b o r a t i v e m a t e r i a l from other community sources such as case work agencies, the Family Court, the P o l i c e Department and the newspapers. The problem of delinquency i s approached from a group work p o i n t of view; the c h i e f purpose of the Thesis, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o i n d i c a t e the strengths and short-comings of the group work process, as used here, as a treatment method. At the same time, the study deals w i t h the f a m i l y and environmental d i f f i c u l t i e s which have l e d the gang and i t s members i n t o t h e i r present a n t i - s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . I t s t r e s s e s too, the a t t i t u d e of the gang t o the r e s t o f s o c i e t y and i n t u r n the r e a c t i o n of s o c i e t y t o the gang. The F i r s t Chapter g i v e s the background of delinquency i n Vancouver. I n i t the w r i t e r comments on the i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r i o u s nature of the problem i n the c i t y . She touches on the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the delinquent c h i l d * s f a i l u r e t o a d j u s t s u c c e s s f u l l y - poor f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , bad environmental i n f l u e n c e s , crowded housing, l i m i t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and others - a l l of which have been con s i d e r a b l y aggravated by the war. And i n c o n c l u s i o n , she gives a general p i c t u r e of the youngsters themselves and the gangs they have formed as a s e c u r i t y against the r e j e c t i o n 2 which, they have s u f f e r e d d u r i n g t h e i r growing years. The Second Chapter introduces the gang t o the agency. The w r i t e r t e l l s of the r e f e r r a l made by the head of the women's d i v i s i o n of the C i t y P o l i c e , who, i n the course of her d u t i e s , had become i n t e r e s t e d i n some of i t s g i r l members. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the g i r l s and t h e i r f a m i l y backgrounds i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s chapter. The f i r s t p e r i o d of a c t i v i t y when the club operated as a g i r l s * group, w i t h the boys c o n s t a n t l y i n the background, i s dis c u s s e d . And the g i r l s * p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the i n c l u s i o n of the hoys as guests a t a Christmas p a r t y are described. The T h i r d Chapter deals w i t h the f i r s t contact which the w r i t e r had w i t h the boys at; the Christmas p a r t y . T h e i r a t t i t u d e t o the agency and t o the group l e a d e r i s very evident i n the account of t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e and quarrelsome behaviour on t h i s o c c asion, f o l l o w i n g the s e c t i o n on the p a r t y , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the boys and t h e i r f a m i l y backgrounds i s g i v e n , which makes t h e i r b e l l i g e r e n t a t t i t u d e to the world around them q u i t e understandable. The Fourth Chapter presents the gang as a whole, w i t h the boys e s t a b l i s h e d , o s t e n s i b l y as members of a dance com-m i t t e e , but a c t u a l l y as the governing body of the c l u b . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the members of the gang and p a r t i c u l a r l y between the g i r l s and boys make up the major p o r t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e . T h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n s i d e and outside the agency are described f u l l y and i n d i c a t e very c l e a r l y the i n s t a b i l i t y and i n s e c u r i t y of 3 t h e i r d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . I n the F i f t h Chapter, the w r i t e r continues her d i s -c ussion of the club as a mixed a c t i v i t y , w i t h the r e -l a t i o n s h i p s between the g i r l s and boys g r a d u a l l y worsening u n t i l they reach an open break. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the de-sperate attempt by the boys a t a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by an account of the withdrawal o f the g i r l s as a r e s u l t of the mistreatment they have r e c e i v e d a t the hands of the boys. I n the S i x t h Chapter, the experience of the gang i n the agency i s evaluated i n accordance w i t h B e r n s t e i n ' s C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work. I n t h i s s e c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g questions are answered. Has the area of concern t o the members been enlarged? Do s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s develop so t h a t they f i n d wider e x p r e s s i o n both w i t h i n and without the agency? Has the group matured i n i t s sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the agency. How have the standards of behaviour of the group been a f f e c t e d by the experience i n the agency? Have the p r e j u d i c e s of the group based on n a t i o n a l i t y , f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and other f a c t o r s been a f f e c t e d ? I n the Seventh Chapter, the w r i t e r comments once again on the delinquent's p o s i t i o n i n the community. She i n -d i c a t e s the l i m i t a t i o n s which a group work agency, h a n d l i n g t h i s type of youngster, unsupported by other resources, must fa c e . And she p o i n t s out the n e c e s s i t y of a co-operative e f f o r t on the p a r t of a l l w e lfare o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the community as a whole as the o n l y e f f e c t i v e method of d e a l i n g w i t h the problem. TABLE OF CONTENTS. C h a p t e r . Page. P r e f a c e I . The B a c k g r o u n d o f D e l i n q u e n c y i n V a n c o u v e r . I n c r e a s i n g d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s ; f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r i s e ; p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n I n V a n c o u v e r . . . . , I I . O r i g i n and E a r l y Membership o f t h e C l u b . O r i g i n o f t h e g r o u p ; d e s c r i p -t i o n o f b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e g i r l s ; f i r s t p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n as g i r l s 1 g r o u p ; p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f boys 11 I I I . I n c l u s i o n o f Boys as Members. F i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e b o y s ; b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e boys and t h e g i r l s t h e y b r o u g h t i n t o t h e group 3& I V . The t o t a l gang I n a c t i o n . Permanent i n c l u s i o n o f t h e b o y s i n t h e c l u b ; s e c o n d p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n a s a m i x e d c l u b . 66 V . Temporary d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f g a n g . -E v i d e n c e s o f d i s u n i t y among gang members; a t t e m p t s a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ; w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e g i r l s . 99 V I . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Gang*s Agency E x p e r i e n c e The group e x p e r i e n c e e v a l u a t e d I n a c c o r d -a n c e w i t h B e r n s t e i n 1 s c r i t e r i a f o r group a c h i e v e m e n t 1 2 ° V I I . D e l i n q u e n c y as a community p r o b l e m , i The p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t a n d h i s o r h e r gang i n t h e community; t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e a l i n g w i t h a gang a n d i t s members; t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f community r e s o u r c e s ; t h e f u t u r e o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t group a s a p a r t o f a g'£8&pg#§M a g e n c y p r o b l e m 136 B i b l i o g r a p h y PREFACE This Thesis i s the study o f a gang of teen aged delinquent g i r l s and hoys from the downtown s e c t i o n of Vancouver, who were r e f e r r e d by the p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s t o a l o c a l group work agency f o r supervised club experience. Taken from a group work p o i n t of view, i t presents the youngsters i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t h e i r gang, t h e i r club experience and t h e i r community. I t s purpose i s t w o f o l d : t o p o i n t out, i n a considera-t i o n o f the c l u b s e s s i o n s , the progress made, the problems encountered and the l i m i t a t i o n s revealed, i n attempting the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the delinquent through group work alone; and.to show, by a d i s c u s s i o n of the gang's a c t i v i t i e s both i n s i d e and outside the agency, the n e c e s s i t y f o r a b e t t e r understanding of the problems of the delinquent c h i l d on the p a r t of the community as a whole, an understanding which might l e a d t o a more e f f e c t i v e program of p r e v e n t i o n and cure than now e x i s t s . The m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s Thesis comes, to a l a r g e extent from the process records which the w r i t e r kept f o r the group during her seven month contaot w i t h the g i r l s and boys i n the agency. Other i n f o r m a t i o n of a general s o r t has been secured from Family Court and J u v e n i l e Detention Home o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s , I n d u s t r i a l School Reports and the annual P o l i c e Report. M a t e r i a l from the records of s o c i a l agencies who are h a n d l i n g or have handled cases d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s has been used. These case work sources were very l i m i t e d * however* because i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, contacts w i t h such agencies were l i m i t e d to r e l i e f g i v i n g during the depression when i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e r v i c e was i m p o s s i b l e . Newspaper f i l e s f o r the past years have proved o f considerably more a s s i s t a n c e , s i n c e the members of the gang seem to have a f a r g r e a t e r propensity f o r appearing i n the p u b l i c press than f o r g e t t i n g i n t o the f i l e s of s o c i a l agencies. While t h i s obvious l a c k of c o r r o b o r a t i v e m a t e r i a l has made a r e a l l y comprehensive study of the gang impossible* i t does i n d i c a t e only too c l e a r l y the s e r i o u s gaps i n the present program o f c h i l d w e l f a r e . 1 THE BACKGROUND OF DELINQUENCY IN VANCOUVER. Chapter lf The problem of j u v e n i l e delinquency i s c e r t a i n l y not a new one i n Vancouver. However, i n the past year o r so, i t has been given a greater prominence than i t ever r e c e i v e d b e f o r e . This present awareness i s not confined to f a m i l y c o u r t judges, probation o f f i c e r s , s o c i a l workers and others a c t i v e i n the f i e l d of crime prevention and c h i l d w e l f a r e . I t extends throughout the e n t i r e community. Suggestions ranging from a more frequent a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the l a s h t o more adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s have been advanced as p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the problem by c i v i c and p o l i c e o f f i -c i a l s , s e r v i c e c l u b s , women's groups and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . Newspapers a l t e r n a t e t a l e s of teen age e x p l o i t s i n the f i e l d of crime w i t h demands from i r a t e s u b s c r i b e r s t h a t "something should be done." And s c a r c e l y a day passes when the words " j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t " are not placed prominently before the p u b l i c i n one form or another. There i s no doubt t h a t the avalanche of p u b l i c i t y which has descended upon teen age a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e the c o n c l u s i o n of the war may account f o r a considerable share of t h i s i n -t e r e s t . Recent crimes committed by youngsters, i n c l u d i n g murder, robbery w i t h v i o l e n c e and other major offences have been of a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s a t i o n a l nature and have r e c e i v e d 2 e q u a l l y s e n s a t i o n a l treatment i n the newspapers. However, t h i s d e l i b e r a t e h i g h l i g h t i n g of j u x e n i l e crime i n the press does not e x p l a i n away the apprehension which i s f e l t by those who are i n c l o s e contact w i t h the s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver. Delinquency, they r e a l i z e , i s i n c r e a s i n g a t an alarming r a t e i n the c i t y . While the c r i t i c a l nature of the problem i s accepted by those d e a l i n g w i t h delinquency, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an accurate estimate of the extent of j u v e n i l e crime i n Van-couver. The general p i c t u r e i s confused and no comprehen-s i v e survey has been made which might c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n . The only f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e are those from the Family eourt which show j u s t those who have a c t u a l l y been brought to the a t t e n t i o n of the co u r t and give no i n d i c a t i o n of the number of boys and g i r l s who have been and are operating success-f u l l y o u tside the law. They do show a trend which i s grow-i n g . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e gives a l i s t of the major charges 1 l a i d a g a i n s t j u v e n i l e s i n the past f i v e y e a r s : ( l ) Compiled from the Reports of the Family Court and Detention Home, Vancouver, B. C. 1941 - 1945. 3 Major charges l a i d a g a i n s t j u v e n i l e s 1941 - 1945 Compiled from Reports of the Family Court and Deten- . t i o n Home, Vancouver, B. C. (x) 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 House & Shop Breaking and Attempts. 64 53 50 46 87 Theft of Auto-mobiles and Attempts. 47 68 71 80 79 Thefts and Attempts. 99 73 95 71 76 Re t a i n i n g Sto-l e n P roperty. 12 6 25 15 8 Car r y i n g Weapons. 3 - 6 5 4 Wounding and A s s a u l t s . 5 8 11 10 7 Damage t o Property. 12 11 12 1 1 Sexual Immorality. 13 17 24 46 37 Indecent A s s a u l t . 3 3 3 10 1 Robbery w i t h V i o l e n c e . 2 7 4 5 7 I n t o x i c a t i o n . 11 11 18 22 29 Murder. — — — 1 o (x) F i g u r e s f o r 1946 were not a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n up to October 4, 1947. 4 Workers who have observed the s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver over a p e r i o d of years a r e d i s t u r b e d not so much by the a c t -u a l i n c r e a s e i n delinquency as by the s e r i o u s nature of the crimes committed by young offenders i n the p e r i o d s i n c e the c l o s e of the war. Major crimes which were fo r m e r l y the ex-c e p t i o n where j u v e n i l e s were concerned have now u n f o r t u n a t e l y become the r u l e . Gangs who once would have been g u i l t y of nothing more seriou s than p e t t y p i l f e r i n g are now extending t h e i r operations t o armed robbery, and seem to be i n a c t i v e competition w i t h o l d e r c r i m i n a l s . While a s i m i l a r upsurge of delinquency has been i n e v i -dence i n other c i t i e s throughout Canada s i n c e the end of the war, Vancouver's p o s i t i o n as the western o u t l e t t o the p r a i r i e provinces has made the s i t u a t i o n here q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which e x i s t s elsewhere. As a seaport i t has always a t t r a c t e d a t r a n s i e n t and l a w l e s s element. But mass emigra-t i o n during the war from the p r a i r i e s and the B r i t i s h Columbia i n t e r i o r i ncreased the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n by a t l e a s t 50,000 and probably c o n s i d e r a b l y more. And although some e f f o r t was made through wartime housing p r o j e c t s to provide l i v i n g accomodation f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , a great p a r t o f i t was absorbed i n t o the areas of the c i t y where there was a l r e a d y the g r e a t e s t crowding, the poorest l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and the most unstable community l i f e . Because Vancouver i s a widely s c a t t e r e d c i t y , i t s slum or near slum areas, which i n c l u d e p a r t s of the west end, the downtown commercial and 5 i n d u s t r i a l areas, the East Hastings, Mount Pleasant and E a i r v i e w d i s t r i c t s , cover a much broader area than do the slums i n most of the other Canadian c i t i e s , and the boundaries of these areas were undoubtedly pushed outward to accommodate the i n f l u x of war workers. The end of the war and the clo,sJLng of war i n d u s t r i e s such as the shipyards and a i r c r a f t f a c t o r i e s d i d not r e s u l t i n a wholesale removal of war workers to t h e i r former homes I n the east. A l a r g e number of them remained i n Vancouver to take t h e i r chances i n the u n c e r t a i n post-war employment market. I n t h i s they j o i n e d many of the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s o f the c i t y who had found a b r i e f p r o s p e r i t y d u r i n g the war a f t e r the unemployment and u n c e r t a i n t y of the t h i r t i e s . The damage which was done t o youngsters who grew up t o adolescence during the war years was tremendous and f a r reach-i n g . To a great many f a m i l i e s the war meant a much higher standard of l i v i n g . The war i n d u s t r i e s and the Dependents Allowance Board brought an assured income i n t o the home. But t h i s f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y was purchased a t a h i g h c o s t . t o the emotional s e c u r i t y of the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . I n a great many cases both parents were working and the c h i l d r e n were l e f t t o fend f o r themselves. I n others the f a t h e r was absent from the home w i t h the armed s e r v i c e s w h i l e the mother was doing her s t i n t i n an a i r c r a f t f a c t o r y . A good many f a m i l i e s were broken up when the mother came out t o the coast w h i l e the f a t h e r remained a t h i s job i n the east. Broken f a m i l i e s where 6 the f a t h e r had a l r e a d y l e f t the home were f u r t h e r c r i p p l e d when the mother discovered t h a t the war i n d u s t r i e s were much more l u c r a t i v e than Mother's Allowance or S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . Older brothers and s i s t e r s pushed sc h o o l l e a v i n g dates ahead and a t f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n were r e c e i v i n g wages f a r i n excess of those on which t h e i r parents had had to support l a r g e f a m i l i e s f o r y e a r s . There was no time i n between s h i f t s t o c a r r y on any s o r t of f a m i l y l i f e and even the questionable m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the o l d e r c h i l d r e n were w i t h h e l d from those too young to work. Moral standards, as i s always the case i n wartime, became l a x , and i n many cases an absent f a t h e r was replaced t e m p o r a r i l y by another man or men. The crowds! housing c o n d i t i o n s o f f e r e d no p r i v a c y and c h i l d r e n were ex-posed to a wide range of experiences which must i n e v i t a b l y have co l o r e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o l i f e . I n the worst s e c t i o n s the of the c i t y , w h i l e $. few group work agencies a v a i l a b l e s t r u g -g l e d t o provide some r e c r e a t i o n , the most common playgrounds were the s t r e e t s and the most popular meeting p l a c e s , the cafes or p o o l rooms. I t i s l i t t l e wonder t h e r e f o r e t h a t many youngsters i n the o l d e r teen aged group today are f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o make a s u c c e s s f u l adjustment to s o c i e t y . T h e i r l i v e s have been a constant s t r u g g l e . As s m a l l c h i l d r e n they experienced w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s the d e p r i v a t i o n s of the depression y e a r s . During the formative years they were engulfed i n the e x c i t e -ment, p r o s p e r i t y and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of war. And now when 7 they are reaching the most d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d i n e f f e c t i v e adjustment to the community as a whole, they are faced w i t h the problems of reconversion. Their f a m i l y l i f e has been such t h a t they have no reserves t o f a l l back upon i n t h i s c r i t i c a l p e r i o d . There i s no s e c u r i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the home to which they can c l i n g . I n many cases the psrents are having so much d i f f i c u l t y r e - a d j u s t i n g t h e i r own l i v e s t h a t they have no time t o be bothered w i t h those o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Standards of behavior which must be b u i l t up over a p e r i o d of years have never been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r many c h i l d -ren i n the community. The urge t o have done w i t h school as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e has l e f t them u n f i t t e d t o face the growing competition f o r jobs. But they have sampled p r o s p e r i t y and are determined t o t a s t e i t f u r t h e r . Any ob s t a c l e s such as the f o r c e s o f law and order which stand i n t h e i r way must be circumvented. And so we have groups of youngsters^ both boys and g i r l s , wandering the s t r e e t s of Vancouver l o o k i n g f o r the s e c u r i t y w i t h i n t h e i r gangs which they cannot f i n d elsewhere. They are f i l l e d w i t h resentment a g a i n s t t h e i r f a m i l i e s and t h e i r commu-n i t y and present a s o l i d f r o n t a g a i n s t a l l o u t s i d e r s . Home to them i s merely a- place to r e t u r n to when there i s nowhere e l s e to go. The p o l i c e are regarded as n a t u r a l enemies t o be avoided a t a l l c o s t s . The boys wear the p r e s c r i b e d zoot s u i t , an expensive, w e l l t a i l o r e d uniform which i n d i c a t e s t h e i r worth to people who do not know how crowded and d i r t y t h e i r 8 homes are. Their entertainment i s c h i e f l y of a commercial v a r i e t y because too o f t e n they outwear t h e i r welcome a t the few teen canteens and community centres open to them w i t h t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e behavior. Their energy i s l i m i t l e s s and t h e i r d e s i r e f o r new t h r i l l s i n s a t i a b l e — g a m b l i n g , f i g h t i n g , "borrowing," f l a s h y cars and d r i n k i n g , a l l combine to make l i f e e x c i t i n g i f not s a t i s f y i n g . T h e i r code of e t h i c s i s simple: they have a tremendous contempt f o r an informer and a great respect f o r the bootleggers, gamblers, dope peddlers and other c r i m i n a l s who are f a m i l i a r f i g u r e s i n t h e i r environ-ments Their ambition i s t o make as good a l i v i n g as p o s s i b l e w i t h a minimum of l a b o r and an income from t h e f t or other i l l e g a l sources i s q u i t e acceptable i f one does not get caught. This paper i s the s t o r y of a contact made by a worker i n the youth department of a l o c a l agency w i t h a gand of teen aged g i r l s and boys,, whose f a m i l y background, environment and outlook bear a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y to the c o n d i t i o n s presented i n the preceding paragraphs. The gang was brought i n t o the agency on an experimental b a s i s , the o b j e c t i v e being to t u r n i t s boundless, u n d i r e c t e d energy and strong f e e l i n g of gang l o y a l t y i n t o more s o c i a l l y a c c eptable channels, through the use of group work methods. Re-education was t o be attempted by o f f e r i n g them an opportunity to develop new i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s , by i n c l u d i n g them, as a p a r t of the agency i n something l a r g e r than t h e i r own gang, by g i v i n g them a chance 9 t o operate d e m o c r a t i c a l l y i n a c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g , r a t h e r than out on the s t r e e t and by a s s i s t i n g the members w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l problems of adjustment to a s o c i e t y to which they had not been c o n d i t i o n e d . And most important of a l l i n t h i s process was the n e c e s s i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n each boy and g i r l and i n the gang as a whole, a f e e l i n g o f complete acceptance by the agency and i t s s t a f f , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r behavior or a t t i t u d e s . The s e c u r i t y d e r i v e d from a sense o f belonging, of being wanted and l i k e d had to come before any other steps could be taken i n the d i r e c t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . What f o l l o w s i s a p i c t u r e of the gang and i t s members as they appeared t o the worker. I t shows, through a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r behavior i n the agency and elsewhere, t h e i r a t t i t u d e to the community and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t i n d i c a t e s the measure of success which she had i n d e a l i n g w i t h the gang, and i t presents the problems which she encountered. There must of n e c e s s i t y be many gaps and b l i n d spots throughout the n a r r a -t i v e because the group was e l u s i v e , and the d e s i r e to be i d e n t -i f i e d as a member of the gang r a t h e r than as the member o f a f a m i l y i s str o n g . F a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n from sources other than the members themselves has been d i f f i c u l t t o secure s i n c e , s t r a n g e l y enough, f a m i l y contacts w i t h s o c i a l agencies have been l i m i t e d i n many cases t o s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the t h i r t i e s . However, a con s i d e r a b l e fund of i n f o r m a t i o n has been secured through the worker*s personal observations and through her contacts w i t h other agencies and community sources" 10 which w i l l give, i f not a complete picture, at least a definite indication of the gang»s status i n the community and an account of the factors which have brought i t to i t s present anti-social position* 11 Chapter I I . ORIGIN AMD EARLY MEMBERSHIP OF THE CLUB. Club 57 f i r s t became,known to the agency i n October. At t h a t time Miss Thompson of the C i t y P o l i c e contacted Miss Jackson, the personal c o u n s e l l o r and suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g a group around three g i r l s i n whom she had become i n t e r e s t e d . The three g i r l s , D o r i s Johnstone, 16, Wilma Evans, 16, and Barbara Ebbett, 17, a l l l i v i n g i n the eastern s e c t i o n of downtown Vancouver, had been pi c k e d up on the beach by the p o l i c e a t f i v e i n the morning w i t h two boys. When questioned by Miss Thompson they explained t h a t the r e s t of t h e i r gang, both g i r l s and boys, had spent most of the n i g h t w i t h them but had e v e n t u a l l y gone home. These three had remained out f o r the n i g h t because they .tco knew the doors a t home were locked a t midnight. The two boys had stayed t o keep them company. Questioning f u r t h e r revealed t h a t a l l - n i g h t p a r t i e s of t h i s s o r t were a r e g u l a r p a r t of the gang 1s entertainment and t h a t l i t t l e i f any of l e i s u r e hours were e x e r c i s e d by the f a m i l i e s . Before t a k i n g any d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n h e r s e l f , Miss Thompson approached the agency to see whether any arrange-ments could be made which would, o f f e r the g i r l s some s o r t of supervised r e c r e a t i o n . She was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n D o r i s , who she thought was the leader of the gang and who had expressed a d e s i r e t o a t t a c h h e r s e l f t o a formal 12 agency group i n which w r i t i n g and dramatics would be g i v e n . An e f f o r t to get D o r i s t o j o i n the Agency by h e r s e l f had f a i l e d and Miss Thompson f e l t t h a t unless they came as a group none of them would appear. The gang, she r e a l i z e d , was a very rough one, u n d i s c i p l i n e d and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e sexual experience, and she was not too h o p e f u l t h a t they would be a b l e t o f i t i n t o the Agency set-up or t h a t anything c o n s t r u c t i v e could be done w i t h them i f they d i d become a p a r t of the Agency. However, f o r the sake of the g i r l s , she was most anxious t h a t some s o r t of r e c r e a t i o n a l program be t r i e d on an experimental b a s i s before more s t r i n g e n t methods were employed. As a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n i t i a l c o n t a c t , the worker met w i t h Miss Thompson on November 1st to d i s c u s s more f u l l y the plans f o r a c l u b . Miss Thompson explained t h a t w h i l e the i n c i d e n t which brought the g i r l s to her a t t e n t i o n had not been of a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s nature, her subsequent i n v e s t -i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e i r backgrounds had made i t apparent t h a t they were badly i n need of a s s i s t a n c e . A l l three had come from Saskatchewan w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s during the war i n d u s t r y boom and a l l three were v i c t i m s i n one way or another of f a m i l y n e g l e c t or l a c k o f understanding. D o r i s was now l i v i n g w i t h her grandmother i n a d i r t y tenement house i n the downtown s e c t i o n . Her mother, who was p a r t l y I n d i a n , a l s o l i v e d i n Vancouver but not w i t h her mother and daughter. On her i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t s t o the home 13 she was u s u a l l y drunk and when drunk was extremely b r u t a l t o D o r i s , who expressed nothing but hatred and f e a r of her mother. She had t o l d Miss Thompson on s e v e r a l occasions of her i n t e n t i o n to r e t u r n to her f a t h e r i n Saskatobnv-when she had saved up enough money f o r the f a r e . The f a t h e r , l i v i n g w i t h another woman there now, had a young f a m i l y t o support, but she was sure t h a t he would take her back. The grand-mother had no source of income other than D o r i s 1 s a l a r y , which was i n t e r m i t t e n t because she f l i t t e d from job t o job and was f r e q u e n t l y unemployed. Miss Thompson had found D o r i s e s p e c i a l l y appealing because of her obvious i n t e l l i g e n c e and her l o f t y ambitions which extended f a r beyond her grade e i g h t and messenger jobs. Barbara was another product of a broken home. Her mother had been deserted by the f a t h e r when Barbara and her b r o t h e r , Clarence, were two and t h r e e r e s p e c t i v e l y . The mother had supported the f a m i l y by housework and laundry jobs s i n c e t h a t time, shopping the c h i l d r e n out w i t h r e l a t i v e s u n t i l she came to Vancouver to take a job i n an a i r c r a f t f a c t o r y . She had remarried three years before and there was another f o u r t e e n -month-old g i r l i n the f a m i l y . Barbara seemed q u i t e fond of her mother, but expected and r e c e i v e d no guidance from her. The s t e p - f a t h e r apparently made some attempts t o d e a l w i t h Barbara's misdemeanors but these were r e c e i v e d w i t h r e s e n t -ment both by the w i f e and step-daughter. The l a t t e r was cur-r e n t l y employed i n a t e a f a c t o r y but l i k e D o r i s had c o n s i d e r -14 able d i f f i c u l t y s t a y i n g w i t h a job, and her mother found i t necessary t o do part-time laundry work t o keep her i n spend-i n g money and c l o t h e s . U n l i k e D o r i s , she seemed quxte content w i t h her grade nine education and found the s o c i a l l i f e i n the gang e x c i t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g . Wilma was the most f o r t u n a t e of the t r i o , having both her parents i n her home. She seemed to have a genuine a f f e c t i o n f o r her f a t h e r and mother and two younger b r o t h e r s , and con-s i d e r e d h e r s e l f l u c k y to have a f a m i l y which a t l e a s t she d i d not a c t i v e l y d i s l i k e . S u f f e r i n g from a rheumatic h e a r t she found the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f the i l l n e s s very annoying and when-ever p o s s i b l e ignored them, and d i d so without running i n t o much o p p o s i t i o n from her parents. She was t a k i n g grade nine a t commercial h i g h s c h o o l but was c a r r y i n g on a campaign a t the moment t o q u i t s c h o o l and go to work i n the f a c t o r y where barbara was employed. The two boys who were picked up w i t h them by the p o l i c e were a p a r t o f the group and d a i l y companions o f the g i r l s . They belonged to a gang of z o o t - s u i t e r s who had caused con-s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e i n the east end, and according to Miss Thompson, were a very bad i n f l u e n c e on the g i r l s . She f e l t t h a t a good d e a l of the- g i r l s 1 d i f f i c u l t y was d i r e c t l y a t t r i -butable to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of boys, and hoped t h a t i f the club were organized a t the Agency the g i r l s might t r a n s f e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s elsewhere. 15 I n i t i a l Contact With G i r l s . I t was decided dur i n g t h i s conference t h a t the c l u b idea be placed before the g i r l s . On November 8 t h the worker t a l k e d w i t h the three of them i n Miss Thompson's o f f i c e . They had not been t o l d of the reason f o r the meeting and a p p a r e n t l y had been l o o k i n g forward to a r o u t i n e v i s i t w i t h the policewoman whom they greeted e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . Wilma and Barbara were f r a n k l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the worker when Miss Thompson introduced her and explained t h a t she had a p r o p o s i t i o n to o f f e r , but D o r i s , very dramatic i n a p a i r o f red-rimmed h a r l e q u i n g l a s s e s , was more reserved. Before the worker spoke Miss Thompson made i t very c l e a r to them t h a t they could accept or r e f u s e the pro-p o s i t i o n as they chose, without compromising t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h her i n any way. They l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y as the worker o u t l i n e d the p l a n and once Wilma had e s t a b l i s h e d the f a c t t h a t the c l u b ' s mem-bersh i p would i n c l u d e t h e i r gang only and no o u t s i d e r s , they became q u i t e e x c i t e d . Even Dor i s entered i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n w i t h an announcement t h a t she might now be able t o a c t i n a p l a y . They were anxious to know what the program would i n c l u d e and when the worker, a f t e r suggesting s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s such as h a n d i c r a f t , beauty t a l k s , e t c . , s a i d t h a t i t was r e a l l y up t o them, Barbara, one eye on Miss Hewitt, asked whether the boys would be welcome a t the Agency f o r p a r t i e s . This was of prime importance to the others as w e l l and when i t was confirm-ed they were anxious to s t a r t immediately. 16 Membership was discussed a t great l e n g t h and f i n a l l y a l i s t of seventeen names which s u i t e d a l l of them was turned over t o the worker, w i t h a promise t h a t D o r i s would phone i n any removals or a d d i t i o n s a t a l a t e r date. Monday was chosen as the meeting date and as the f o l l o w i n g one was a h o l i d a y , November 18th marked the s t a r t of the c l u b . F i r s t Meeting of Club. The opening n i g h t brought f o r t h only the three o r i g i n a l s who reported t h a t the gang had decided t h a t Tuesday was a b e t t e r n i g h t f o r a meeting. At the second meeting three more appeared and by the f o l l o w i n g week the club's membership was f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . From the outset i t was obvious t h a t the enthusiasm e x h i b i t e d during the worker's f i r s t meeting w i t h the g i r l s r e s u l t e d from the f a c t t h a t the gang now possessed what i t had here t o f o r e n o t i c e a b l y l a c k e d — a clubhouse. And whi l e t h i s was a most important a c q u i s i t i o n , i t was a l s o import-ant to them t o know whether or not they could f i t i n t o I t comfortably. They l i s t e n e d very c a r e f u l l y when the worker • went over the r e g u l a t i o n s which governed the use o f the room. These they accepted q u i t e r e a d i l y , but two questions which they broached themselves seemed t o concern them more than any o f the o t h e r s , and u n t i l these were taken care o f nobody r e a l l y moved i n . One was smoking. "We're a l l bad g i r l s , " Barbara t o l d the worker. "We a l l smoke." They were very 17 much s u r p r i s e d and r e l i e v e d to l e a r n t h a t there was no regu-l a t i o n f o r b i d d i n g them to smoke, and immediately l i g h t e d u p — b e i n g very c a r e f u l to put the ashes i n the ash t r a y s and not on the f l o o r . The second and more important question concerned the boys. With some pushing from the o t h e r s , Barbara brought up the subject on the f i r s t evening when the worker returned from an errand outside the clubroom. The matter had been under d i s c u s s i o n during her absence and Barbara had been ap-pointed spokesman. ,"We've decided to b r i n g up something before we do anything more about a c l u b , " she explained i n a very embarrassed manner. "We thought we b e t t e r t e l l you about the boys we go around w i t h — - f o r when we have dances. They 1re drapes." The worker, "deciding q u i c k l y t h a t 'drapes 1 were z o o t - s u i t e r s , assured them t h a t the Agency d i d not worry p a r t i c u l a r l y about what people wore. They launched f o r t h then on a v i o l e n t defence of 'drapes' who were, according to them, j u s t as n i c e as anyone e l s e . To prove t h e i r p o i n t they described an overnight t r i p which the gang had made up the mountain r e c e n t l y , the p o i n t being apparently t h a t the boys were f i n e , outdoor types. The c l i n c h i n g argument seemed to be the c a r e f u l l y s t r e s s e d s l e e p i n g arrangements i n which the boys s l e p t out under the s t a r s w h i l e the g i r l s had the c a b i n to themselves. Once they had e s t a b l i s h e d what the Agency expected o f them i n the way of behavior, they were ready t o move on to 18 d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n the group i t s e l f , and i n t h i s , the'gang* s p i r i t was immediately apparent. On the f i r s t evening Wilma questioned the worker very c a r e f u l l y about the way clubs were run, a subject on which they seemed to be completely i g n o r a n t . The worker gave them a handbook on parliamentary procedure which they took home to .study. At tha t time D o r i s i n s i s t e d t h a t closed b a l l o t s would be necessary to i n s u r e a democrati-c a l l y chosen ex e c u t i v e . When e l e c t i o n s were h e l d the next week however, the s l a t e of o f f i c e r s was produced as an accom-p l i s h e d f a c t a t the beginning of the evening and no one r a i s e d any o b j e c t i o n s . They had, Wilma explained, d i s c u s s e d the matter o u t s i d e and t h i s was the way i t was going to be. Club Exe c u t i v e . The p r e s i d e n t , E l l e n F r e i b e r g , aged 16, was a co-worker of Barbara's a t the tea f a c t o r y and l i v e d i n the same block as she d i d . She seemed t o be i n competition w i t h D o r i s both f o r the l e a d e r s h i p of the group and f o r the f r i e n d s h i p of Barbara. Another former r e s i d e n t of Saskatchewan, E l l e n was of German parentage and expressed great contempt f o r her par-ents who d i d n ' t speak E n g l i s h w e l l . The youngest c h i l d i n a been f a m i l y . o f two g i r l s and two boys, she had/more or l e s s brought up by her o l d e r brother who "beat her up" and locked her i n when her behavior was f l a g r a n t l y bad, but who f o r the most p a r t l e t her go her own merry way. She, too, had l e f t s c h o o l i n grade n i n e . 19 The v i c e - p r e s i d e n t was A l i c e Donaldson, aged 15, who a l s o worked i n the t e a f a c t o r y . Her f a t h e r and mother had separated when she was very s m a l l and her mother, a shoe f a c t o r y employee, f e a r f u l t h a t A l i c e might become i n v o l v e d w i t h the wrong company, kept constant watch on her and was always breaking up her f r i e n d s h i p s . She was now t r y i n g t o get her a job I n the shoe f a c t o r y so t h a t her s u p e r v i s i o n would be more complete. A l i c e found t h i s maternal a n x i e t y f r u s t r a t i n g and was f o r c e d t o r e s o r t t o l y i n g i n order to get out w i t h the gang. A l i c e only went to grade e i g h t i n s c h o o l . Roberta Gibson, aged 16, was chosen s e c r e t a r y . She l i v e d w i t h her mother, s t e p - f a t h e r and two o l d e r brothers somewhat f u r t h e r out i n the East Hastings area than the o t h e r s . Em-ployed as a messenger i n the same place where D o r i s worked, she shared D o r i s 1 a t t i t u d e toward employment and o f t e n found h e r s e l f on her mother's bounty. I n t h i s case as w i t h Barbara there was evidence of f r i c t i o n between mother and s t e p - f a t h e r i n the matter of d i s c i p l i n i n g the c h i l d r e n , and the mother worked i n a wholesale f l o w e r shop to provide Roberta w i t h ex-t r a s . The two boys i n the f a m i l y were model sons, b o t h hav-i n g completed h i g h s c h o o l w i t h h i g h honors, but Roberta had been g l a d to leave s c h o o l i n grade n i n e . She a l t e r n a t e d passionate a f f e c t i o n f o r her mother w i t h a d e s i r e to run away from home. As a s o r t of "member a t l a r g e " E t h e l N i v i n s k y , aged 17, was a l s o on the e x e c u t i v e . Though not a leader i n the group, 20 E t h e l was d e f i n i t e l y the steadying i n f l u e n c e . She was w e l l l i k e d by a l l the others and d i d not seem to become i n v o l v e d i n any of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . Her p o s i t i o n on the executive was, as i n d i c a t e d by her t i t l e , a general t r o u b l e - s h o o t e r . E t h e l ' s parents had come from Russia s h o r t l y before she was . born, and she was faced w i t h the problem od a d j u s t i n g her Canadianized outlook t o the old-country customs of her parents. She d i d not get along w e l l w i t h them, but u n l i k e the others r made some e f f o r t to understand t h e i r p o i n t of view and con-r ceded t h a t "while the o l d man was a s t i n k e r " i t wasn't a l l h i s f a u l t . The f a m i l y c o n s i s t e d , i n a d d i t i o n to h e r s e l f , of two o l d e r b r o t h e r s , a married s i s t e r and one younger brother. The two o l d e r boys had been problems i n t h e i r teens and one had served a j a i l sentence, but they had now s t e a d i e d down and Ether was q u i t e o p t i m i s t i c about the chances f o r h e r s e l f and her young b r o t h e r . She had l e f t school i n grade e i g h t because of a s k i n ailment which she s t i l l had and which caus-ed her considerable embarrassment. Her work record stood up ver y w e l l when compared to the ot h e r s . Having been employed a t the same f a c t o r y job f o r about two years she seemed to be much more capable of accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r s e l f than any of the o t h e r s . The three o r i g i n a l members of the club completed the ex e c u t i v e . Barbara occupied the most s u b s t a n t i a l p o s i t i o n of a l l as t r e a s u r e r ; Wilma, because she sang very w e l l , headed the entertainment committee, and D o r i s , i n deference to her 21 dramatic p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , c h a i r e d the glamour committee. Most of the power r e s t e d w i t h E l l e n as p r e s i d e n t and Barbara, but D o r i s , the t e m p o r a r i l y ousted leader of the gang, wielded considerable a u t h o r i t y from her ambiguous p o s i t i o n as a com-mittee head. D i s c i p l i n e . The r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s which were e s t a b l i s h e d r e -f l e c t e d very c l e a r l y the r u l e s of the s t r e e t o u t s i d e , w i t h an eye t o the worker's s e n s i b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t two were s t r i c t l y f o r the purpose of r a i s i n g the tone of the gather-i n g . They had decided, E l l e n explained, t h a t members would be f i n e d a penny f o r swearing i n c l u b and a n i c k e l f o r argu-i n g . Another r e g u l a t i o n to which a l l of them agreed w i t h some r e l u c t a n c e was t h a t there would be no smoking d u r i n g business s e s s i o n s . This was softened somewhat by Wilma who suggested a break h a l f way through f o r cokes and c i g a r e t t e s . Barbara very generously t o l d the worker, who had not smoked i n t h e i r presence, t h a t she would be permitted to do so a l l the time i f she wished. The punishment f o r m i s s i n g two or more meetings was to be a "beating up." When the worker questioned t h i s she was assured t h a t they d i d n ' t h u r t each other very much, but t h a t they found t h i s a good way t o make people behave. Other somewhat unorthodox d i s c i p l i n a r y measures appeared as the c l u b went along. One evening toward the end of the 22 meeting they decided to have a short concert. Wilma was asked to si n g but she demurred. Barbara s a i d , "We'll send t h a t l e t t e r i f you won't s i n g . " Wilma argued and Barbara t o l d hRg worker t h a t they had a l e t t e r which Wilma had w r i t -ten i n an- o f f moment and they used i t to make her do t h i n g s . The worker s a i d she thought Wilma would s i n g without b e n e f i t of b l a c k m a i l . E l l e n commented, "Sing, Maybe, but the l e t t e r ' s u s e f u l l o t s of other ways too." Neither Wilma nor any of the others seemed to consider t h i s method of approach u n e t h i c a l . On another occasion Wilma appeared a t the club w i t h a l o c k of h a i r m i s s i n g a t the f r o n t . The gang had cut i t o f f , she explained c h e e r f u l l y , because, she had been doing something she shouldn't. However d e s p i t e t h i s acceptance of f o r c e as a means of d i s c i p l i n e , there were no episodes of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e a t the c l u b meetings. And the worker f e l t t h a t the o f t e n expres-sed t h r e a t s were l i p s e r v i c e to the code which the boys i n the gang f o l l o w e d and d i d not a c t u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the r e l a t i o n -ship of the g i r l s to each other. That t h i s might be the case was i n d i c a t e d one evening when Dor i s and E l l e n asked f o r the Agency f i r s t a i d k i t . At f i r s t E l l e n claimed t h a t she need-ed i t to tape up a sprained w r i s t . When the k i t a r r i v e d , though, the st o r y came out. Doris had r e p o r t e d l y made some rude remarks about E l l e n and the boys had bet E l l e n f i v e d o l l a r s t h a t she wouldn't have the nerve to "beat Do r i s up" and make her eat her words. The g i r l s had s e t t l e d the matter 23 p e a c e f u l l y , but f o r the sake of appearances and the f i v e d o l l a r s had decided to simulate a f i g h t w i t h adhesive tape and eye shadow. Other Club Members. Of the nineteen g i r l s who attended the c l u b o n l y three proved unacceptable to the o t h e r s . These t h r e e , i t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note, were the only ones who were not a c t i v e -l y f r i e n d l y w i t h the boys 1 gang. One of them, Vera Lane, aged 15, was, i f not a c l o s e f r i e n d , a t l e a s t a great admirer of Wilma. Wilma brought her to the c l u b i n an outburst of generosity and t h e r e a f t e r ignored her. Vera's h i s t o r y was a t r a g i c one. She had come to Vancouver from A l b e r t a w i t h her parents, o l d e r s i s -t e r and younger br o t h e r f o u r years ago. The parents had not been married because of a previous marriage by the f a t h e r , and her mother had returned to Edmonton the year before and married someone e l s e . The s p r i n g before she j o i n e d the c l u b , Vera had had an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d by an American s a i l o r of whom nothing was known. This experience had l e f t her i n a very d i s t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n and she was not a b l e a t the time she came to the Agency to e s t a b l i s h any r e -l a t i o n s h i p w i t h boys even on the most s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . Under the care of the Agency she was j u s t beginning to emerge from s e l f imposed i s o l a t i o n , but the group's overpowering i n f l u e n c e i n the opposite sex d i d nothing to a s s i s t her. 24 Her f a t h e r , according to her case worker, was deeply i n t e r -ested i n Vera's w e l f a r e and t r i e d to keep her away from the o l d e r s i s t e r who had become a p r o s t i t u t e . Vera withdrew from the club when the boys appeared on the scene but remain-ed i n contact w i t h the worker u n t i l she l e f t Vancouver to go t o her mother i n Edmonton. The one c o n t r i b u t i o n which the c l u b made to her comeback was i n the form of the Dubarry Beauty Course. While the r e s t of the g i r l s toyed w i t h the i d e a of t a k i n g the s i x week's s e l f improvement course, Vera looked upon i t almost as an open sesame to the normal s o c i e t y o f which she had been d e p r i v i n g h e r s e l f . A f t e r she l e f t the c l u b she secured a copy of the course from the worker and f o l l o w e d i n s t r u c t i o n s r e l i g i o u s l y , r e p o r t i n g a t i n t e r v a l s on her progress. The other two g i r l s , Louise Wallace, aged 15 and S t e l l a A l b e r t , a l s o 15, were both wards of the — Agency and came i n t o the c l u b more or l e s s by acc i d e n t through another of Wilma's i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i n v i t a t i o n s . They a r r i v e d one evening un-announced when Wilma was absent and there was not one to a c t as t h e i r sponsor. The others acknowledged presence during a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n by the worker but other-wise d i d not seem to be aware t h a t they were t h e r e . H a l f -way through the evening the worker r e c e i v e d a c a l l from the house mother a t the Agency, who wanted to be sure t h a t the g i r l s had a r r i v e d s a f e l y . She had only r e c e n t l y become house mother, and, accepting S t e l l a ' s e x p l a n a t i o n 25 t h a t they were r e g u l a r members of the c l u b , had permitted them to at t e n d . The worker was very much d i s t u r b e d when she learned of the g i r l s * background and f e l t t h a t t h e i r continued member-sh i p i n the c l u b would be most unwise from the p o i n t of view of treatment. Both of them were s u f f e r i n g from s e r i o u s be-h a v i o r problems. Lou i s e , who had been a ward a l l her l i f e , had r e c e n t l y been removed from a f o s t e r home i n which she had : l i v e d f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s . The f a m i l y had r e j e c t e d her comp-l e t e l y when she had become i n v o l v e d i n a sex misdemeanor. Since her a r r i v a l i n the s h e l t e r there had been another e p i -sode of t h i s type which had been handled i n the j u v e n i l e c o u r t . Louise had completed grade s i x i n school and was now being t r i e d out i n grade e i g h t . Not very b r i g h t , she was e a s i l y l e d & a n d d p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to the poorer i n -f l u e n c e s i n her environment. One of these was S t e l l a . S t e l l a , an.aggressive youngster, had been a ward f o r only a few months. She had come i n t o care a t her own request when l i f e w i t h her f a t h e r , two younger brothers and a succes-s i o n of unsympathetic housekeepers had become unbearable. Her mother, who had deserted the f a m i l y , was s t i l l l i v i n g i n the c i t y and r e c e i v e d a l a r g e share of S t e l l a ' s a f f e c t i o n . S t e l l a was subject to e p i l e p t i c f i t s but had only had one si n c e coming i n t o c are. Her gr e a t e s t problems were s t e a l i n g and l y i n g both of which were of a compulsive n a t u r e . 26 The two g i r l s were l i v i n g a t the s h e l t e r as a p a r t of the treatment p r e s c r i b e d by the p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c , s ince n e i t h e r of them was ready to go i n t o a f o s t e r home. They had formed a very c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p , and under S t e l l a ' s l e a d e r s h i p Louise was always g e t t i n g i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s . As an a d d i t i o n a l p a r t of the treatment f o r each, group experience had been advised, and f o r t h i s reason the house mother had been q u i t e w i l l i n g t o have them a t t e n d the c l u b . N e i t h e r of them was able to break through the b a r r i e r of i n -d i f f e r e n c e which the other c l u b members showed them. Louise, a f t e r s e v e r a l conferences between the worker and her case worker, was removed from the group and placed i n another program which s a t i s f i e d her l i k i n g f o r badminton and dancing. By t h a t time her f r i e n d s h i p w i t h S t e l l a was waning so tha t the t r a n s f e r was e f f e c t e d without d i f f i c u l t y . S t e l l a , however, had found the other g i r l s i n the c l u b to be kindred s p i r i t s and i n s p i t e of t h e i r coolness was determined t o make a place f o r h e r s e l f . Her case worker was new and d i d not wish to make an i s s u e of her removal from the group, and consequently, w i t h m i s g i v i n g s on both s i d e s , S t e l l a stayed and t r i e d w i t h b r i b e s of chocolate bars and boasts of prowess as a r o l l e r s k a t e r to become a p a r t of the group. Aside from Louise and S t e l l a , there were only two other g i r i s a t t e n d i n g the c l u b who came from o u t s i d e the downtown s e c t i o n of the c i t y . These two, l i k e S t e l l a , had become acquainted w i t h S t e l l a a t s c h o o l . They were s i s t e r s , S y l v i a 27 and B e t t y Robertson, aged f i f t e e n and s i x t e e n r e s p e c t i v e l y , who l i v e d i n K i t s i l a n o w i t h t h e i r parents and one younger s i s t e r . S y l v i a was i n grade nine w i t h Wilma and S t e l l a , w h i l e B e t t y had l e f t s c hool i n grade te n and was working i n the same place as D o r i s , and a t t e n d i n g n i g h t s c h o o l . Both of them had been members of the teen canteen a t Alexandra House but had l e f t t h a t agency when the j o i n e d the gang. They showed evidences of a c a r e f u l upbringing and the worker found i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine j u s t what had brought them i n t o the group. The only p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n seemed to be t h a t they had t a s t e d the excitement and r e s t l e s s n e s s which were a p a r t of l i f e on the o u t s k i r t s of the underworld and had found them e x h i l a r a t i n g . They were both "going steady" w i t h boys i n the gang and t h e i r parents, who had met the boys, d i d not seem to question t h e i r choice of companions or even the l a t e hours which they kept i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r gang a c t i v i t i e s . Three others j o i n e d the c l u b when i t was s t i l l operat-in g as a g i r l s ' group, V i v i a n Selinchuk, aged 14, Margaret Tonstad, aged 15 and J u l i a Thompson, aged 16. . V i v i a n ' s h i s t o r y was q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t of D o r i s . She and her mother and brother were l i v i n g i n Vancouver wh i l e the f a t h e r remained i n Saskatchewan. With Doris she was c o n s t a n t l y p l o t t i n g ways and means of r e t u r n i n g to her f a t h e r , and was extremely v o l u a b l e i n her d i s l i k e f o r her mother's whining and complaining ways. The mother had come from the Ukraine and according to school a u t h o r i t i e s was not a b l e t o speak a word of E n g l i s h . V i v i a n was s t i l l a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l 23 but d i s l i k e d i t i n t e n s e l y and was f r e q u e n t l y absent. Her mother encouraged her i n t h i s and was always w i l l i n g t o bach up her excuses when she played t r u a n t . Of a l l the g i r l s i n the group Margaret seemed to be the only one who had no n o t i c e a b l e problems. She was happy i n her home w i t h her mother and s t e p - f a t h e r , enjoyed going t o school and never accompanied the gang on t h e i r more flamboyant' escapades. She had .strong crushes on some of the boys but was content t o worship from a d i s t a n c e . Her greatest boast, and the other g i r l s were r a t h e r proud of t h i s too, was t h a t she had never even been k i s s e d . The worker f e l t t h a t the str o n g -e s t bond between Margaret and the r e s t was the f a c t t h a t she l i v e d i n the same d i s t r i c t . J u l i a , on the other hand, was the stormy p e t r e l o f the group. A very a t t r a c t i v e and sensual l o o k i n g g i r l , she l i v e d up to her appearance and was w e l l on the way to becoming an amateur p r o s t i t u t e . More promiscuous than any of the other g i r l s , she was c o n s t a n t l y i n the throes of remorse because of the shame she f e l t she was b r i n g i n g to her r e s p e c t a b l e f a m i l y . She was a l s o the frequent o b j e c t of v i o l e n t a c t i o n on the p a r t of the boys who punished u n f a i t h f u l n e s s w i t h beatings. J u l i a was the youngest i n a f a m i l y of f i v e g i r l s , v w i t h a considerable spread between her and the second daugh-t e r . The f a t h e r had been i n c a p a c i t a t e d d u r i n g the f i r s t world war and both he and the mother were over s i x t y , so t h a t they d i d not take a very a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n her a c t i v i t i e s . 29 None of her s i s t e r s seemed to worry about her and the only a s s i s t a n c e she r e c e i v e d w i t h her problems came from her c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , Roberta and E t h e l , who were c o n s t a n t l y cover-i n g up her s i n s before the f a m i l y found out. Program. The members of c l u b 57 had a very c l e a r i d e a from the beginning as t o what they wished t o do w i t h t h e i r c l u b meet-i n g s , and any attempts a t o r g a n i z a t i o n were not encouraged. When the f i r s t a r r i v a l s appeared i n the c l u b room the record p l a y e r was turned on f u l l b l a s t and so i t remained u n t i l the harrassed p r e s i d e n t removed the double socket and demanded a t the top of her lungs t h a t everyone "shut up and s i t down" because she wanted to s t a r t the business meeting. This some-times d i d not happen f o r s e v e r a l hours because the p r e s i d e n t h e r s e l f was fond of j i v i n g . During t h i s f i r s t p e r i o d a l l the* g i r l s w i t h the excep-t i o n of Doris and S t e l l a , Vera and Louise danced. These f o u r , a f t e r one b r i e f attempt had been made to teach them to dance, were r e t i r e d to the s i d e l i n e s * J i v e seemed to be the only form which they used; consequently boogie woogle predominated and some records were played over as many as ten times i n one evening. Sometimes they put on slower records of the t o r c h song v a r i e t y but these were f o r l i s t e n i n g purposes only and nobody danced. Doris.showed no i n c l i n a t i o n to l e a r n but seemed content to d i s c u s s plays and books w i t h the worker, 39 w h i l e Louise and Vera j u s t sat and watched, s m i l i n g q u i c k l y i f anyone glanced i n t h e i r d i r e c t i o n . They were d i f f i c u l t t o engage i n conversation and always answered i n monosyllab-l e s . S t e l l a looked a f t e r the record p l a y e r but put on only those records which the dancers requested. This p e r i o d too, was used f o r rehashing the week end's f e s t i v i t i e s . The business meetings were c a r r i e d on i n s t r i c t a c cor-dance w i t h parliamentary procedure as l a i d down i n the hand-book which the worker had given them and any d e v i a t i o n s were promptly picked up by one or another of the members. The minutes were read and u s u a l l y amended a f t e r an argument dur-i n g which Roberta swore t h a t she had copied t h i n g s down j u s t as they had been s a i d . The fees had been set a t t w e n t y - f i v e cents a month, plus the Agency fee of f i f t y cents a year and each week Barbara read o f f a l i s t of those i n a r r e a r s , which inc l u d e d everyone, and demanded a reason f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e to pay up. The meetings were always s i t u a t e d wrongly w i t h respect t o pay day so t h a t the books were never balanced. Once the t r e a s u r e r ' s r e p o r t had been g i v e n E l l e n took over to present new business. Planning f o r the f o l l o w i n g week's program u s u a l l y d i s s o l v e d i n t o a suggestion by Barbara t h a t they would as leave dance as do anything e l s e . The Dubarry Course r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n out of courtesy to the worker who had brought i t down, and Doris was assigned to the job o f o r g a n i z i n g i t . E l l e n went so f a r as t o b r i n g down her s h o r t s , but a s i d e from t h a t the course was never heard from again. 31 Two things d i d i n t e r e s t them g r e a t l y however. One was the p o s s i b i l i t y of sponsoring a l a r g e dance. This matter had o b v i o u s l y been di s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h w i t h the boys and was a very important item on the agenda. They spoke w i t h envy of other clubs who were a b l e to hold dances, and were overjoyed when the worker secured permission f o r them to have one a f t e r Christmas. At f i r s t they planned to donate the proceeds to some c h a r i t y l i k e the I n f a n t i l e P a r a l y s i s F u n d — t h i s sugges-t i o n came from Doris and Wilma—but Barbara and E l l e n , who were more p r a c t i c a l , h i t upon the i d e a of buying c l u b sweaters. The other matter which concerned them was a ehristmas p a r t y t o which the whole gang was to be i n v i t e d . During the month before the boys made t h e i r i n i t i a l appearance a t the Agency much e f f o r t went i n t o arranging a s u i t a b l e welcome f o r them. Elaborate plans were made f o r a f l o o r , show which would f e a t u r e a l l the t a l e n t a v a i l a b l e . The g i r l s had a great d e a l of f u n planning t h i s entertainment and considerable time was spent i n impromptu r e h e a r s a l s . This gave both S t e l l a and Vera a b r i e f sojourn i n the s p o t l i g h t . S t e l l a , who had a pleasant v o i c e , sang two solos and received f o r the f i r s t and perhaps only time a genuine response from the o t h e r s . Vera a l s o o f -f e r e d to s i n g but became t e r r i b l y nervous and a f t e r two f a l s e s t a r t s went outside the clubroom and sang a duet behind the c l o s e d door w i t h Wilma who had come to her a i d . The others seemed to understand how d i f f i c u l t the o r d e a l had been f o r her and kept t e l l i n g her how much they enjoyed her song. 52 D o r i s had an opportunity to do some a c t i n g top, although the opportunity was wasted because the other a c t o r s i n s i s t e d on horse p l a y when she wanted to be s e r i o u s . Everyone j o i n e d i n e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y u n t i l Barbara pointed out t h a t the boys d i d not l i k e to have t h i n g s planned ahead and that they probably would not l e t them put on the f l o o r show. The others agreed th a t t h i s would undoubtedly be the case and the plans were di s c a r d e d . The subject of food was important too. They wanted to do t h i n g s p r o p e r l y — t h e lunch had to be r e a l l y "sharp" so the boys would r e a l i z e t h a t they knew how to e n t e r t a i n . A f t e r much c o n s u l t a t i o n and hunting through p a r t y booke they de-cided on a very e l a b o r a t e lunch which i n c l u d e d p l i c e s , s t u f f e d c e l e r y , d i f f e r e n t shaped sandwiches, cookies, cake and marsh-mallows f o r t o a s t i n g a t the f i r e p l a c e . S t e l l a Immediately o f f e r e d to provide the more i n a c c e s s i b l e items such as marsh-mallows and no one p r o t e s t e d . E l l e n asked f o r v o l u n t e e r s f o r the v a r i o u s items and those who d i d not o f f e r were t o l d what to b r i n g . When i t came to the a c t u a l isaaadhigg of the i n v i t a t i o n s t o the boys they were suddenly a s s a i l e d w i t h doubts. Although c l u b meetings seemed to be the only p l a c e where they were not together and t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were more than u s u a l l y w e l l acquainted w i t h the boys, the g i r l s were nervous a t the prospect of p l a y i n g hostess. T h i s , the worker f e l t , was an e n t i r e l y new s i t u a t i o n f o r them; under o r d i n a r y 35 o r d i n a r y circumstances the hoys took the i n i t i a t i v e w i t h the g i r l s f o l l o w i n g where they l e d . They were a f r a i g t h a t the f i r s t independent venture might not measure up too w e l l and th a t the boys would r i d i c u l e t h e i r e f f o r t s . The i n v i t a t i o n s d i d not go to i n d i v i d u a l s but t o the gang as a whole. Barbara, a c t i n g as l i a i s o n , took a l i s t o f those whose presence was s p e c i a l l y requested and promised to do her best. Her p o s i t i o n as g i r l f r i e n d of the l e a d e r of the gang was an envied one, and one which she t r i e d to maintain even though the le a d e r s changed. When the worker asked i f i t was not p o s s i b l e f o r "each g i r l to i n v i t e her own boy f r i e n d E l l e n explained that i f any of them came they a l l would so tha t there was no p o i n t i n p i c k i n g and choosing. The boys* group was an amalgamation of what they c a l l e d the "East" and "West" gangs. The f i r s t made up of boys w i t h a European background, the second being mostly of. B r i t i s h e x t r a c t i o n . The "West" gang, from which the o v e r - a l l leader E r n i e A l l e n came, looked upon the others as "bohunks# but seemed to get along w i t h them w e l l . Most of the time they t r a v e l l e d together, but they l i k e d on occasion to s t r e s s t h e i r separate i d e n t i t i e s . Two weeks before the p a r t y , the g i r l s r e ported to the worker t h a t t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n s had been accept-ed and a l l the boys were coming. The f o l l o w i n g week, however, i t developed th a t Barbara had been t e m p o r a r i l y ousted as Er n i e ' s g i r l f r i e n d and she had t o l d him t h a t he and the "West" gang would not be welcome. The others were wrathy a t her and 34 f e l t t h a t she had been extremely foolhardy i n d e f y i n g the boys i n t h i s way. D o r i s expressed the o p i n i o n , though, t h a t i f they intended t o come, a s m a l l matter l i k e the can-c e l l a t i o n of an i n v i t a t i o n would make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e . This was the way t h i n g s stood when the boys j o i n e d the group. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Worker and G i r l s . The f i r s t p e r i o d of the club's existance was too short t o permit the establishment of a very d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worker and the g i r l s . For both i t was a t e s t i n g p e r i o d and on e i t h e r s i d e concessions were made. The g i r l s showed t h e i r d e s i r e t o co-operate as best they knew how, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n r u l e s of conduct which they f e l t would please the worker. Any suggestions which she made i n the way of a c t i v i t i e s were given a f a i t hearing and though none of them was taken up, they were discarded i n such a way as to imply t h a t they would probably be p a r t of the next week's program. As they became aware t h a t the workers demands upon them were not going t o be too heavy they r e l a x e d and t e s t e d her f u r t h e r , a t the same time g i v i n g constant evidences of t h e i r good i n t e n t . When she seemed s u r p r i s e d a t some of the unorthodox statements of va r i o u s members the others q u i c k l y retrenched and a p l a c a t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n was o f f e r e d . They t r i e d . t o be honest, however, i n presen t i n g t h e i r group as i t r e a l l y was, because they probably r e a l i z e d t h a t the time would come when t h e i r continued presence i n the Agency would 35 be questioned, and they d i d not want to be accepted a t f i r s t only to be turned out l a t e r when t h e i r behavior became d i f -f i c u l t . The worker f e l t t h a t the g i r l s themselves would have had no d i f f i c u l t y adhering more or l e s s to the Agency p o l i c y , but they were preparing her f o r the a r r i v a l of the boys who were not so amenable. In s p i t e o f t h i s obvious attempt a t co-operation the worker was not accepted by the g i r l s as group l e a d e r during t h a t f i r s t month. She was an a d u l t and t h e r e f o r e suspect. They were g r a t e f u l f o r the opportunity t o use the c l u b room and accepted the f a c t t h a t her presence as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Agency was necessary; but they had been a b l e to handle t h e i r a f f a i r s f o r some time without the a s s i s t a n c e of an o l d -er person and were not anxious to have a d u l t i n t e r f e r e n c e now. Most of the group's d e c i s i o n s were made outs i d e of c l u b meet-ings without r e f e r e n c e to the worker, i n the same way as the executive was chosen, and the i n f l u e n c e of the boys could be seen i n many of them. Conversations about the more que s t i o n -a b l e a c t i v i t i e s of the gang were h e l d when the worker was out of the room and cut o f f q u i c k l y when she returned, or took p l a c e around the r e c o r d p l a y e r where the nois e cut o f f t h e i r v o i c e s . As a group they were q u i t e comfofctable t a l k i n g to the worker on c l u b t o p i c s , but a l l of them except D o r i s be-came uneasy when she t r i e d to c a r r y on a co n v e r s a t i o n w i t h them s i n g l y and immediately began l o o k i n g around f o r some excuse t o get away. 36 Only once, on the l a s t evening before the p a r t y , d i d they lower t h e i r reserves and i n c l u d e the worker i n a con-f i d e n t i a l d i s c u s s i o n . This was because they were i n a h i g h l y e x c i t e d s t a t e over, an item which had appeared i n the evening newspaper; and they could not c o n t a i n themselves. E r n i e ' s nineteen year o l d b r o t h e r , Johnny, had been sentenced t h a t day t o a term of three years and twenty lashes on a charged of armed robbery. They spoke q u i t e c a s u a l l y of the f a c t t h a t a l l f o u r A l l e n boys were mixed up i n the dope r a c k e t which v had r e s u l t e d i n Johnny's a r r e s t , and d i d not consider i t un-u s u a l t h a t a l l of them except E r n i e were dope a d d i c t s , a l -though the o l d e s t was only twenty-four. None of them was par-t i c u l a r l y sympathetic. E t h e l expressed the sentiments of the others when she s a i d t h a t Johnny deserved what he got, h i s crime being, as f a r as the worker could see, not the drug s t o r e robbery but the f a c t t h a t he got caught. T h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the p r i s o n sentence was s i m i l a r to t h a t which most people had during the war to the absence of a f r i e n d overseas. Such absenses were to be expected i n the o r d i n a r y course of events and no one wasted any time i n u s e l e s s r e g r e t s . The l a s h i n g , which the worker considered a b a r b a r i c punishment, d i d not seem to perturb them. Barbara s a i d t h a t her c o u s i n had been given the l a s h one time and he d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was so much; i n any case she boasted Johnny was the boy who could take i t . E l l e n a l s o had a r e l a t i v e who had r e c e i v e d t h a t punishment and i t had not done him a b i t of good. 37 H i s mother s p o i l e d him a l l the time he was i n j a i l j u s t be-cause she thought he had been h u r t , and when he came out he was a bad as ever. EVsen during t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d , when the club member-o s t e n s i b l y s h i p was/made up only of g i r l s , the worker f e l t t h a t unof-f i c i a l l y the boys were a c t i v e members. They were kept f u l l y informed of a l l t h a t went on i n club meetings and any d e c i s -ions t h a t were made rec e i v e d t h e i r approval i n gang d i s c u s s i o n before they became law. Once the g i r l s had e s t a b l i s h e d a f o o t h o l d themselves, a l l e f f o r t s were bent on b r i n g i n g them i n t o the club as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e , whether i n the f i r s t p l a ce the g i r l s planned to make them f u l l f l e d g e d members or not, the worker d i d not know, but co n s i d e r i n g t h e i r s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n the gang, i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i f the boys ap^ proved of the clubroom and i t s f a c i l i t i e s they would take possession. 38 Chapter I I I . INCLUSION OF BOYS AS MEMBERS. The p e r i o d d u r i n g which Club 57 operated as a mixed group l a s t e d from January u n t i l the middle of May. But w i t h the coming of the boys to the f i r s t p arty on December 17th, the club changed i t s complexion very d e c i d e d l y . U n l i k e the g i r l s , they made no attempt a t the outset to e s t a b l i s h a co-operative r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the.worker. On the cont r a r y , they behaved as t h i s were j u s t another place where t h e i r f i r s t v i s i t would be t h e i r l a s t . T h e i r f e e l i n g of contempt and s u s p i c i o n f o r the worker and the Agency, r e p r e s e n t i n g a s o c i -ety to which they d i d not belong, was apparent when they stepped i n s i d e the door. J u s t why they came the worker was not sure; perhaps i t was because they could never r e s i s t an opportunity to make t h e i r resentment f e l t . Whatever i t was, t h e i r a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not a n t i c i p a t e a very long s t a y . The g i r l s were caught h a l f way between; they wanted to r e t a i n the good w i l l of the worker, but more than t h a t they wanted to please the boys. The s t r u g g l e was an uneven one. I n the f i r s t evening the r e g u l a t i o n s which they had so c a r e f u l l y s et up f o r the worker's b e n e f i t were apolo-g e t i c a l l y but very d e f i n i t e l y d i s c a r d e d . The party was due to s t a r t a t 8.30 but at 7.00 ei g h t members of the"West"gang, i g n o r i n g the c a n c e l l a t i o n of t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n , moved i n . With them came a new g i r l , I s a b e l Vance, 39 who f o l l o w e d one of the boys, Jack Jamieson, around l i k e a puppy. Since none of the g i r l s had appeared y e t , the worker welcomed the group and t r i e d to make them f e e l a t home. Her remarks were answered w i t h monosyllables or ignored. The room was explored thoroughly and found i n p e n e t r a t i n g v o i c e s to be inadequate and u n s u i t a b l e , and then the group s e t t l e d around the record p l a y e r . Before they had been there long E r n i e reported to the worker t h a t the room was too c o l d and the records were too slow. She l i t the f i r e p l a c e and went to her o f f i c e f o r some more s u i t a b l e r e c o r d s . On her r e t u r n E r n i e t o l d her t h a t the p l a c e was now too smoky and muttered th a t when you were i n v i t e d to a party you expected a t l e a s t to be comfortable. Thereafter u n t i l the g i r l s a r r i v e d she was l e f t to h e r s e l f . I n a l l , seventeen g i r l s and twenty-thcee boys attended the p a r t y . Of the c l u b members everyone but Louise and Vera was present, the other g i r l s , l i k e I s a b e l having been i n v i t e d by t h e i r boy f r i e n d s . Only S t e l l a brought her f r i e n d s w i t h her, and these two boys u n f o r t u n a t e l y were "squares", a word which i n t h e i r vocabulary lumped a l l n o n - z o o t - s u i t e r s i n t o one c l a s s . The other boys came i n s e p a r a t e l y i n l a r g e groups. For the f i r s t hour or so the g i r l s remained bunched around the worker a t the f i r e p l a c e d i s c u s s i n g the boy«i, who were s i m i l a r l y bunched around the record p l a y e r . Wilma, as chairman of the entertainment committee, was ordered by the others t o get the dancing s t a r t e d . She d i d n ' t want t o because 40 she was scared, and asked the worker to do so. The worker approached the hoys but they s a i d they d i d not want to dance and went back to t h e i r c onversation. S t e l l a got one of her f r i e n d s out onto the f l o o r but t h i s produced no r e s u l t s from the boys other than a few rude comments about "squares". F i n a l l y , when E r n i e had turned out a l l the l i g h t s but a couple of candles on the mantlepiece, the party got under way. Only three couples danced; the others found themselves comfortable c h a i r s and s e t t l e d down to a broad necking p a r t y w i t h the boys becoming much more amorous when the worker was i n t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t y . Because i t was so obvious the worker decided t h a t i t was being done f o r the purpose of f o r c i n g some a c t i o n on her p a r t which they could d e f y , and ignored i t as best she c o u l d . The boys who were not so oc-cupied kept s l i p p i n g out i n t o the h a l l f o r d r i n k s from a b o t t l e which she knew was there but could never l o c a t e . While they denied the e x i s t a n c e of such a b o t t l e when asked d i r e c t -l y , s e v e r a l of them boasted t h a t they intended t o f g e t r e a l l y p l a s t e r e d t o n i g h t . 1 1 During t h i s p e r i o d frequent d i s p a r a g i n g remarks were made about the two boys who had come w i t h S t e l l a . F i n a l l y Jack, who had been l o o k i n g f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y a l l evening, took exception to something one of them had s a i d j o k i n g l y t o I s a b e l . He grabbed the boy by the s h i r t c o l l a r and demanded an apology. Bobby stepped back and s a i d t h a t he hadn't meant anyt h i n g . Jack continued to threaten and the worker went 41 over and t o l d them to"break i t up«. Bobby moved o f f and Jack went over to t a l k t o some of h i s f r i e n d s who had been watch-i n g from the corner. I n a few minutes he and another boy got up and went out to the h a l l . The worker went over t o the others and s a i d "We don't want any f i g h t s here. 1 1 One of the boys mumbled,, "There won't be none." "The other guy d i d n ' t do nothing to I s a b e l . " J u s t then however there was a sudden rush of people t o the h a l l . The worker pushed her way through the m i l l i n g cloud to f i n d Bobby's f r i e n d l y i n g on the f l o o r i n appStoifof blood and Jack g i v i n g Bobby a t e r r i f i c pounding. The rest., both boys and g i r l s , were standing around watching w i t h great enjoyment. Jack was a good d e a l bigger than Bobby who kept ducking down onto h i s knees and screaming a t him to stop. The worker got h o l d of Jack s e v e r a l times and t r i e d t o p u l l him o f f , but each time he l i f t e d her out of the way and returned t o the f r a y . Then she turned and appealed to the ... other boys. E r n i e smiled p l e a s a n t l y and shook h i s head. No one made any move except E t h e l ' s s p e c i a l f r i e n d , Tony, who s a i d h a l f h e a r t e d l y , "Aw, cut i t out you guys." I n despera-t i o n the worker announced th a t she would have to c a l l the p o l i c e i f they d i d n ' t stop. This slowed Jack up and a f t e r d e l i v e r i n g one more hard blow w i t h h i s head on Bobby's chest he stopped. Bobby and h i s f r i e n d g who had been raked a c r o s s the face w i t h a p a i r o f homemade brass knuckles s e v e r a l times, went i n t o the g i r l s ' washroom w i t h Tony and some of the g i r l s . 42 Jack i n the meantime s t a r t e d to get h i s coat on and t o l d I s a b e l t o do the same. S e v e r a l of the boys t o l d him he d i d n ' t have to go and one of them came over and asked the worker, "You'r not going t o c a l l the p o l i c e , a r e you?" She s a i d she wouldn't but t h a t she d i d not want any more d i s p l a y s l i k e t h a t . A l l of them, i n c l u d i n g Jack and I s a b e l , went back i n s i d e the clubroom. The two boys who had received the beating.were busy r e p a i r i n g the damage when the worker got down to the washroom. Both of them were p r e t t y badly cut up, but were only stopping long enough to wipe up some of the more obvious evidences of the f i g h t before g e t t i n g out of the b u i l d i n g . They were t e r -r i f i e d of another a t t a c k , although Tony assured them t h a t Jack and the other boy i n v o l v e d , Rudy Amatta, had had t h e i r quota of f i g h t i n g f o r one n i g h t . Roberta, t r y i n g t o make things a l i t t l e b e t t e r , pointed out t h a t there was r e a l l y nothing personal i n the f i g h t . I t had been planned simply be-cause they were "squares 1 1, and S t e l l a should have known bet-t e r than t o b r i n g them to a "drape 0 p a r t y . Everyone had known as soon as the two boys came i n t h a t they would be beaten up sometime during the evening. The atmosphere i n the clubroom was d i f f e r e n t a f t e r the f i g h t . Having done t h e i r worst, the boys seemed to be w i l -l i n g t o s e t t l e down and enjoy the party and d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s to annoy the worker were not so n o t i c e a b l e . For some reason she was i n a s l i g h t l y more f a v o r a b l e p o s i t i o n w i t h the whole 43 group; i t may be because they had expected t o be f o r c i b l y e j ected by the p o l i c e a f t e r the f r a c a s and the worker's de-c i s i o n t o l e t the party c a r r y on had thrown them o f f balance. Whatever i t was, w h i l e none of them apologized f o r the f i g h t , a few off-hand gestures were made i n her d i r e c t i o n . The food was being passed around and she was kept w e l l s u p p l i e d by the serv e r s . Even Jack p i c k e d up a sandwich from one of the p l a t e s and o f f e r e d i t to her, saying t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r brand was b e t t e r than most. When lunch was over s e v e r a l of the boys asked her to dance and were duly r e g r e t f u l when she explained t h a t she d i d not j i v e . One of them, Tommy Baronchuck came over and wanted to know how she had got mixed up i n t h i s "gangster's c l u b " . The boys, he s a i d had come to the c o n c l u -s i o n t h a t she was e i t h e r a policewoman, a prob a t i o n o f f i c e r or a sucker. They could not make up t h e i r minds which. What he couldn't understand was why anyone would d e l i b e r a t e l y become i n v o l v e d w i t h them. The party ended suddenly w i t h the announcement by E r n i e t h a t the boys were l e a v i n g . Wilma, who was busy c l e a n i n g up behind the coke bar, y e l l e d a t the other g i r l s t o come and ' help her. E r n i e t o l d them t h a t i f they wanted to come w i t h the boys they would have t o leave immediately. The g i r l s h e s i t a t e d f o r a moment, l o o k i n g h e l p l e s s l y a t the mess, then grabbed t h e i r coats. Wilma kept on c l e a n i n g and c a l l i n g to the others t o wait f o r her u n t i l the worker t o l d her she had b e t t e r go. Everyone was gone i n l e s s than two minutes except o 44 one of the new g i r l s who returned b r i e f l y t o look f o r her w a l l e t which had disappeared. The c o n d i t i o n i n which they l e f t the clubroom i n d i c a t e d as c l e a r l y as d i d any other phase of the p a r t y , the completely a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e of the boys. I t was a shambles, w i t h h a l f eaten sandwiches, pieces of cake and broken coke b o t t l e s a l l over the f l o o r , under the c h a i r s and i n the corners. Most of the marshmallows had been ground d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t o the rug or the f l o o r and the ping pong t a b l e was l i s t i n g badly. Two c h a i r s behind the ping pong t a b l e which nobody had any occasion t o use during the evening had been smashed and sta c d -ed up l i k e k i n d l i n g wood i n a corner. S e v e r a l records had been broken and eigh t others which the worker had borrowed from a f r i e n d were m i s s i n g . P o s i t i o n of the g i r l s i n the gang. With the coming of the boys the worker was able to see the g i r l s i n a more proper p e r s p e c t i v e . This I n i t i a l contact w i t h the group as a whole i n d i c a t e d c l e a r l y t h a t i n the s o c i a l l i f e of the gang, they took a d e f i n i t e l y subservient r o l e . During the e a r l y p a r t of the evening there was no evidence of the easy i n t e r p l a y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the average teen-age boy and g i r l who a r e w e l l acquainted. Each group kept s t r i c t l y t o i t s e l f f o r some considerable time, the g i r l s w a i t i n g eagerly f o r a s i g n from the boys, who d i s -played a complete i n d i f f e r e n c e to them. When the boys were 45 ready to take an i n t e r e s t they summoned the g i r l s to t h e i r sides i n a l o r d l y manner and the p a r t y proceeded i n accordance w i t h t h e i r i n c l i n a - t i o n s . At no time during the evening d i d ifche g i r l s a s s e r t themselves i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n as hostesses or i n any way i n d i c a t e t h a t they as a c l u b might f e e l respon-s i b l e f o r the behavior of the group i n the Agency. S e v e r a l times E t h e l and Doris apologized s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y f o r the con-duct of the boys, but these apologies came more i n the form of an e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t one must expect such behavior from the boys and a p l e a f o r understanding from the worker, than as an acknowledgment of r e g r e t f o r t h e i r misbehavior. There was no doubt t h a t , as Miss Thompson had surmised, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the g i r l s w i t h t h i s group of boys was such t h a t i t might l e a d them i n t o very grave d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the f u t u r e . However a t the time when they came i n t o the Agency, the r e l a t i o n s h i p was too c l o s e f o r the worker to consider them as other than a s i n g l e group. The g i r l s were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the gang and w h i l e on the s u r f a c t they were more amenable than the boys, they shared w i t h them a deep resentment a g a i n s t a l l forms of a u t h o r i t y , which made i t p o s s i b l e f o r them to accept and condone almost any type of delinquent behavior. Boys' Membership. In the gang f i v e boys stood out as those who possessed, f o r one reason or another, a much greater p r e s t i g e than the „ 46 o t h e r s . Of these f i v e , three came from the "West" gang. E r n i e A l l e n , 17, an I r i s h hoy, was d e f i n i t e l y , the l e a d e r . His p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y derived to a c e r t a i n extent from the f a c t t h a t h i s o l d e s t brother, B i l l , was, i n the eyes of the gang, a b i g time operator. B i l l was always a good "touch" and was suspected by the p o l i c e of paying the boys w e l l t o d e l i v e r dope t o h i s customers. They d i d not consider h i s i n t e r e s t i n them other than k i n d l y however, and Jack r e -ported t o the worker on one occasion t h a t "there were f i f t e e n guys i n the room who would have i t i n f o r anyone who l a i d a f i n g e r on E r n i e , because h i s b i g bro t h e r was so white to them". I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s E r n i e was c l e v e r e r than most of the boys, and h i s dark, r a t h e r s i n i s t e r good looks made him very popular w i t h the g i r l s . At times he showed signs of a c a r e f u l t r a i n i n g i n the s o c i a l graces, but whi l e the g i r l s reported t h a t he had never beaten up a g i r l h i m s e l f , he d i d nothing to discourage the others i n such a c t i v i t i e s . His parents l i v e d i n the West end but he was s t a y i n g w i t h B i l l . According t o the —> S o c i e t y , the f a t h e r had been a v i c t i m of s h e l l shock during the f i r s t World War and spent much of h i s time i n Shaughnessy H o s p i t a l , and the mother was mentally unbalanced. D i s c i p l i n e i n the f a m i l y had been very s t r i c t and sometimes b r u t a l when the boys were young and a l l of them had been a f r a i d of t h e i r parents. Now t h a t they were w e l l launched on a c r i m i n a l career though, the mother sided w i t h them-in t h e i r a n t i - s o c i a l behavior and even encouraged i t . 47 The three younger hoys hero-worshipped B i l l and two of them were now s e r v i n g j a i l sentences as a r e s u l t of h i s dope ped-d l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . E r n i e h i m s e l f d i d not have a job other than a rumored one i n B i l l ' s business which p a i d him, accord-i n g to the g i r l s , t h i r t y d o l l a r s a week. He had completed grade ten a t s c h o o l . I n t h i s connection i t i s r a t h e r i n t e r -e s t i n g to note t h a t most of the boys had gone f a r t h e r i n school than the g i r l s , the reason being apparently t h a t they wanted to be on the rugby and b a s k e t b a l l teams. Jack Jamieson, 18, owed h i s p o s i t i o n of eminence to the f a c t t h a t he was one of the best f i g h t e r s i n the gang. He was a l s o one of the most hot blooded and was c o n s t a n t l y d e f e n - N i ding the gang or h i s g i r l f r i e n d I s a b e l a g a i n s t r e a l or f a n -c i e d i n s u l t s . Jack had been i n t r o u b l e f o r a long time. His f a t h e r had deserted the f a m i l y when he was only eighteen months o l d and the mother had had a hard time keeping the c h i l d r e n , Jack, an o l d e r b r o t h e r , and a younger s i s t e r , together. She had been a b l e to take the g i r l w i t h her to >work but the boys had had to s h i f t f o r themselves a t a very e a r l y age. They had come out from Saskatchewan during the war years and the mother was now employed as an e l e v a t o r operator. She had -reared vthe daughter c a r e f u l l y but had found the boys d u l l and always hard to handle. Jack was only i n grade f i v e a t the age of t h i r t e e n and a t t h a t time h i s mother had appealed to a c h i l d r e n ' s agency i n the c i t y f o r a s s i s t a n c e because of h i s d i f f i c u l t behavior. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h a t h i s o l d e r brother had been k i l l e d i n a gun f i g h t w i t h the p o l i c e d u r i n g a robbery 48 attempt and Jack h i m s e l f had s t a r t e d on a career of crime. Since t h a t time he had spent a l l f i v e b i r t h d a y s i n deten-t i o n . H is mother was fond of him but found i t i m p o s s i b l e to have him i n the house w i t h the daughter, who was a w e l l -behaved and i n t e l l i g e n t youngster, so he spent the time when he was not i n j a i l w i t h E r n i e ' s b r o t h e r B i l l . Denis Peterson, 17, was the t h i r d member of the "West" gang. He acted as E r n i e ' s l i e u t e n a n t and as such occupied a s u b s t a n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n the gang. Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n on Denis' background the worker secured from the r e l i e f r e c -ords. -These i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s f a m i l y had a t one time been h i g h l y respected i n the community and Denis showed evidences o c c a s i o n a l l y of a b e t t e r background than most of the group youngsters. The f a t h e r had l o s t h i s butcher shop i n the e a r l y days of the depre s s i o n , however, and f o r the next ten years the f a m i l y had been on r e l i e f . The parents had stayed together u n t i l Denis was about e i g h t years o l d , when they had begun q u a r r e l i n g and the f a t h e r had l e f t home. A f t e r t h a t the f o u r c h i l d r e n , three boys and a g i r l , had been passed from one to the other and there had been constant accusations and r e c r i m i n a t i o n s on both s i d e s . F i n a l l y the f a t h e r had disappeared a l t o g e t h e r and the mother had been l e f t t o support the f a m i l y . Denis worked s t e a d i l y , and u n l i k e the other boys i n the gang seemed w i l l i n g to c o n t r i b u t e t o the support of h i s f a m i l y . He was q u i t e an i n t e l l i g e n t boy and had completed grade ten a t t e c h n i c a l school 49 The f i r s t member of the "East" gang, and i t s l e a d e r , was Rudy Amatta, 18, a short powerfully b u i l t I t a l i a n boy who, l i k e Jack, commanded respect w i t h h i s f i s t s . He was known throughout the East Hastings d i s t r i c t as a very tough i n d i v i d u a l , and the f o u r sharp s i l v e r r i n g s which he always wore on h i s l e f t hand had scarred many a f a c e . Combining a tendency toward b r u t a l i t y w i t h an i n f e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , Rudy was p o t e n t i a l l y one of the most dangerous members of the gang. He was the youngest i n a f a m i l y of f o u r boys. His f a t h e r had worked f o r the c i t y as a l a b o r e r u n t i l 1931, a f t e r which he had been unemployed f o r t e n and a h a l f years and during only p a r t of t h a t time had been on r e l i e f . I n t h a t ten and a h a l f years the f a m i l y had s u f f e r e d extreme hard-ships w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t food, very l i t t l e c l o t h i n g and on one occasion,no f u r n i t u r e . Rudy had had t r o u b l e w i t h h i s eyes from the time he was a very s m a l l boy, but the f a m i l y had not been able to secure medical a t t e n t i o n f o r him, and when the worker f i r s t saw him h i s eyes were i n very bad c o n d i t i o n , whether because of t h i s e a r l i e r t r o u b l e or h i s frequent f i g h t s she d i d not know. He had only gone to grade seven i n s c h o o l , and h i s one b i g r e g r e t was t h a t he had been e x p e l l e d from school before he had had a chance to get i n t o h i g h school and play rugby. At the time he j o i n e d the c l u b , Rudy was working w i t h h i s brothers i n a garage. A l s o one of the gang's b e t t e r f i g h t e r s was Theo N e d i l a , a seventeen year o l d FJJinish boy. More i n t e l l i g e n t than 50 e i t h e r Rudy or Jack, Theo nevertheless shared t h e i r fondness f o r v i o l e n c e , and when the gang was i n v o l v e d i n a f i g h t he was u s u a l l y one of the i n s t i g a t o r s . His f a m i l y background showed a long h i s t o r y of r e l i e f and d e p r i v a t i o n too during the t h i r t i e s , but h i s f a t h e r had been more e n t e r p r i s i n g than the others. He had managed to run a s m a l l c o a l business on the s i d e and though the r e l i e f o f f i c e was m o r a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s was the case they had never been ab l e to prove i t . A member of the Communist P a r t y , he had been s t r o n g l y op-posed to the government and a l l of i t s departments, i n c l u d -i n g the p o l i c e , and somewhat a n a r c h i s t i c i n h i s t a c t i c s , so t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t Theo came by h i s d i s l i k e f o r author-i t y honorably. He had completed grade nine but had not been employed a t any job s t e a d i l y i n the two years s i n c e he had l e f t s c h ool. Theo was planning to become a l i n o t y p e operator, but a f t e r w a i t i n g f o r two years to get i n t o a newspaper o f -f i c e as an a p p r e n t i c e he was almost prepared to t r y something e l s e . I n a d d i t i o n to these f i v e boys there were twelve others who attended the c l u b r e g u l a r l y . About those f o r whom there was no l i s t i n g i n the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange i t was almost impos s i b l e f o r the worker to get much accurate background i n f o r m a t i o n , because even a f t e r a good r e l a t i o n s h i p had been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h them they were s t i l l most r e t i c e n t about t h e i r f a m i l i e s and even t h e i r addresses. I n some cases t h e r e -f o r e , as w i t h many of the g i r l s , what f o l l o w s w i l l depend 51 s t r i c t l y upon the worker's observations. The f i r s t f i v e boys described below were members of the "West" gang. The f i r s t two, Doug C a l l u s , aged 20, and Johnny C a l l u s , aged 19, were the only brothers i n the group. These two were I n a unique p o s i t i o n . Both of them attended c o l l e g e ; Doug was I n t h i r d year Commerce and Johnny i n second y e a r . And, w h i l e they were q u i t e s e r i o u s about t h e i r s t u d i e s and some-times advocated higher education f o r the other boys, t h i s d i d not prevent them from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some of the d e l i n -quent a c t i v i t i e s of the gang which would I n e v i t a b l y come to the a t t e n t i o n of the c o l l e g e a u t h o r i t i e s . N e i t h e r o f them was a p a r t i c u l a r l y strong p e r s o n a l i t y , and i n s p i t e of t h e i r s u p e r i o r education they d i d not possess any l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s . They were great admirers of E r n i e ' s and one or other of them was u s u a l l y shadowing him. Their parents had operated a r e s t a u r a n t i n the down-town s e c t i o n of Vancouver f o r a number of years and were w e l l thought of i n the d i s t r i c t . They had always been too busy, however, to pay much a t t e n t i o n to the boys and even when they d i d get i n t o t r o u b l e , no attempt was made to withdraw them from the gang or to d i s c i p l i n e them i n any other way. No great concern was shown by the parents during t h e i r court appearances. I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r the worker to r e c o n c i l e the ambition which had caused them to send t h e i r sons t o c o l l e g e w i t h t h e i r apparent d i s i n t e r e s t w i t h t h e i r e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l -a b le on the background and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these 52 two boys which might e x p l a i n what had brought them i n t o the gang. The only i n d i c a t i o n was i n Johnny's comment t h a t "The o l d lady had never been a t home—she was always i n the c a f e . " Doug and Johnny, who were Greek, were the o n l y mem-bers of the "West" gang who were not of B r i t i s h o r i g i n . Roger Newston, aged 17, l i k e the C a l l u s boys, belonged to a f a m i l y which was f a i r l y w e l l s i t u a t e d f i n a n c i a l l y . His parents owned a grocery s t o r e i n the east end and he was con-sid e r e d by the g i r l s t o be the b e s t " c a t c h " i n the gang. An only son, h i s contact w i t h the gang caused h i s parents a good d e a l of worry and he was f r e q u e n t l y punished f o r a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h them. The parents were anxious to have him f i n i s h h i s s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n and when he was e x p e l l e d from the o r d i -nary h i g h s c h o o l , they sent him. to a p r i v a t e c o l l e g e . Roger hi m s e l f a t times a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e and he was never r e a l l y a t ease when he was w i t h the gang. They h e l d a f a s c i -n a t i o n f o r him, however, and even though he was overcome w i t h remorse afterwards he d i d manage to sneak out of the house and take p a r t i n some of t h e i r more v i o l e n t episodes. With E r n i e he played on a c i t y Agency b a s k e t b a l l team, and p r a c t i -ces were used as an excuse to be w i t h the gang. He was f r i e n d -l y w i t h a number of the g i r l s , but u n l i k e the others he a l -ways took h i s current f r i e n d home to meet the f a m i l y . His mother never approved of the g i r l s and as a d u t i f u l son, Roger accepted her r u l i n g s and t r a n s f e r r e d h i s a f f e c t i o n s o f t e n . Each g i r l as she was chosen f o n d l y hoped t h a t she would be looked upon w i t h approval but t h i s never happened. 53 Clarence Ebbett, aged 18, Barbara's o l d e r b r o t h e r , was the only boy who was r e l a t e d to the g i r l s i n any way. An e f -feminate l o o k i n g boy, he was . d e f i n i t e l y under the thumb of the others and was w i l l i n g to f o l l o w wherever they l e d . According to the g i r l s he s e c r e t l y disapproved of Barbara*s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h the gang and was p a r t i c u l a r l y opposed to her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h E r n i e , but she as .the stronger p e r s o n a l i t y over-rode him and d i d as she l i k e d , and Clarence d i d not dare express h i s opinions openly. Although he worked s t e a d i l y i n a b i c y c l e shop and made a f a i r l y good wage, the greater p a r t of h i s earnings came from crap, a t which game he and h i s c l o s -est friend-, A l f F e d e r i c i were most adept. They were never without d i c e , and at every c l u b meeting, the worker had to rout them out from behind the showers where they were busy removing money from three or f o u r of the other boys. Clarence had gone as f a r as grade nine i n s c h o o l . Joe R i v e r s , aged 17, was the l a s t member of the "West" gang. The second of f o u r boys, Joe was another whose f a m i l y had spent the t h i r t i e s on and o f f r e l i e f r o l l s . His f a t h e r , a carpenter, had been the v i c t i m of a disease which was some-times diagnosed as a r t h r i t i s and sometimes as a case of mal-i n g e r i n g . Depending upon what the d i a g n o s i s was the f a m i l y was given s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or refused i t . This made f o r ex-tremely s t r a i g h t e n e d circumstances, and during the p e r i o d of eight years when the f a t h e r was unemployed the f a m i l y was d i f f e r e n t e v i c t e d by a c t u a l count eleven/times. There was c o n s i d e r a b l e 54 t r o u b l e between the parents s i n c e the f a t h e r , because of h i s i l l n e s s , was i r r i t a b l e and d i f f i c u l t to get along w i t h ; f i n -a l l y i n 1942 he moved out of the house. He kept r e t u r n i n g however, and was c o n t i n u a l l y u p s e t t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mother and c h i l d r e n w i t h h i s accusations a g a i n s t her. The f a m i l y remained on a s s i s t a n c e u n t i l the o l d e r brother secured a job as a seaman and then the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r support was t r a n s f e r r e d t o him. Joe had completed grade nine and was now employed h i m s e l f as a seaman i n coas- J t a l s h i p p i n g . He c o n t r i b u t e d h i s earnings to h i s f a m i l y but these were sporadic because Joe d i d not work r e g u l a r l y . The o l d e r boy, a f t e r one p r i s o n term f o r t h e f t , had s e t t l e d down to a steady job and was doing w e l l . Sam Almack, aged 18, was known as the best dressed boy i n the 'East* gang:, a t i t l e which E r n i e h e l d f o r the 'West* gang. A handsome red-headed boy o f P o l i s h o r i g i n , he was extremely v a i n about h i s appearance and even went so f a r as to c a r r y a b i g o l d - f a s h i o n e d black umbrella when i t r a i n e d . Known as a gossip and t r o u b l e maker, Sam was f r e q u e n t l y the object of d i s c i p l i n a r y a o t i o n by the other members of the gang, who accused him of t r y i n g t o cause a s p l i t i n t h e i r ranks. I n between punishments, however, he seemed to be q u i t e w e l l accepted by the other boys. Sam was an o n l y son. H i s f a t h e r had d i e d when he was very young and the mother had remarried when he was about twelve. He d i d not get along w e l l w i t h h i s mother or s t e p - f a t h e r and o n l y l i v e d a t home when he could not a f f o r d t o l i v e elsewhere. Two o f h i s t 55 uncles were i n v o l v e d i n the drug t r a f f i c and the p o l i c e b e l i e v e d , although they had no a c t u a l p r o o f , t h a t Sam him-s e l f had s t a r t e d t a k i n g dope. He had gone as f a r as grade, eleven a t t e c h n i c a l h i g h school and was very proud of the f a c t . More than any o f the others he seemed t o be possessed of a s t r o n g school s p i r i t , and even now when he was no l o n -ger a t t e n d i n g he kept h i m s e l f w e l l informed on the school's progress i n sports and always attended a l l the s o c i a l func-t i o n s . He worked as a bootblack, a job which he found very s a t i s f a c t o r y except f o r the f a c t t h a t i t made h i s hands d i r t y . Sam s t u t t e r e d badly but t h i s a f f l i c t i o n d i d not seem t o bother e i t h e r him or the other members of the gang. Tommy Baronchuk, aged 20, was the most s t a b l e member o f the boys' group. The youngest member of a f a m i l y of t h r e e , Tommy was, according t o the g i r l s , h o p e l e s s l y s p o i l e d by h i s parents, and two s i s t e r s . The worker noted t h a t t h e i r i d e a o f 'being s p o i l e d ' i n v o l v e d nothing more than an easy, a f f e c t i o n a t e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p . They were jealous of Tommy because he was so w e l l t r e a t e d by h i s f a m i l y and r e -i t e r a t e d again and again t o the worker t h a t h i s mother 'sure was s w e l l * . Tommy had wprked s t e a d i l y f o r s e v e r a l years I n the shipyards and w i t h an eye to the f u t u r e had s a l t e d away a s u b s t a n t i a l bank account. H i s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h i s membership i n the gang was t h a t everyone was bound t o go w i l d a t one time or another and he was g e t t i n g the urge out of h i s system. He was planning t o s e t t l e down s h o r t l y , though and was c o n s i d e r i n g going t o u n i v e r s i t y , as h i s 56 f a m i l y wished him to do. I n the meantime he enjoyed the excitement of the gang's a c t i v i t i e s . He stayed on the f r i n g e , however, and was never i m p l i c a t e d i n anything more se r i o u s than a s t r e e t f i g h t . Apparently f e e l i n g that he was capable of t a k i n g care of h i m s e l f , the f a m i l y d i d not i n t e r f e r e very much i n Tommy's a f f a i r s . Tony K a l l e l l a , aged 17, an I t a l i a n boy, was a very popular member of the group. He owed much of h i s p o p u l a r i t y to the f a c t that he was a happy-go-lucky i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h a very charming p e r s o n a l i t y . But i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , he had an o l d e r brother, Mike, who was a prominent boxer i n the c i t y , and t h a t i n i t s e l f would have guaranteed h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h the gang. The others f e l t a c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Tony because he had t u b e r c u l o s i s , and he was not allowed t o mix i n t h e i r f i g h t s or smoke or d r i n k too much. Beyond t h i s , although he was supposed t o be a bed p a t i e n t on two hours l i g h t e x e r c i s e , n e i t h e r Tony nor the r e s t of the gang considered i t necessary to go i n t h e i r h e a l t h measures. In a l l other t h i n g s , such as e a r l y hours and quiet r e c r e a t i o n , the gang was h i s a l l y against Mike, who t r i e d to keep him i n l i n e . H i s parents had been i n Canada f o r t h i r t y years, but they had never become n a t u r a l i z e d and they had not learned t o speak E n g l i s h . The f a t h e r had been very s t r i c t w i t h Mike and the daughter, but the three younger boys had openly d e f i e d him, and the job of b r i n g i n g them up had been turned over t o Mike, who had a strong sense of duty toward h i s f a m i l y . A f t e r one t r i p to j a i l as a r e s u l t of the z o o t - s u i t r i o t s , 57 the second e l d e s t boy had s e t t l e d down to a f a i r l y s t a b l e existence under Mike's guidance, but Tony and the youngest boy were s t i l l causing him a great d e a l of worry. Tony had been i n a sanatorium f o r about nine months when he was s i x t e e n , but had been discharged f o r misbehaviour w i t h one of the female p a t i e n t s . S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e from the h o s p i t a l he had been a r r e s t e d and convicted of car t h e f t and sentenced to s i x months i n j a i l , which he splent i n the i n f i r m a r y . He was t a k i n g treatments every week during the time when he attended the c l u b , and was under the care of a l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s agency. They found him co-operative d u r i n g v i s i t s , but a very u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p a t i e n t the r e s t of the time. They a l s o found t h a t , i n s p i t e of h i s easy-going nature, he had a v i c i o u s temper, and the case worker reported t h a t she had witnessed v i o l e n t q u a r r e l s between Tony and h i s parents, when he had f e l t t h a t they were informing on him to her. Mike make a p r a c t i c e of t a k i n g Tony w i t h him on any of h i s boxing tours so that he could keep an eye on him, and t r i e d i n many other ways to r e g u l a t e h i s schedule, but Tony wanted to enjoy l i f e at the moment and c o u l d see no. point, i n the long-range plans f o r h i s recovery. The f a m i l y had been hard up d u r i n g the depression, but although the f a t h e r had a p p l i e d f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e on s e v e r a l occasions, he had been unable to accept i t when the time came. He was a gardener by t r a d e , but most of the f a m i l y income came, according t o the case worker, from the earnings of the two older sons and from a bootlegging 5S business which the father ran on the side. Tony had l e f t school in grade nine, and was employed when his health permitted as a bootblack. Alf Federici, aged 21, another Italian, was the oldest boy in the gang. He had been at one time the leader, but he made no attempt now to hold his position. When the club began to meet, Alf was in a transition period, moving from this younger group into a broader f i e l d of operation, and while he attended club meetings regularly, his need for and interest in the gang was rapidly dwindling. His ambition in l i f e was to become a successful gambler, and in his own small way he was well on the way to achieving that aim, at con-siderable cost to the other less experienced boys. Alf had no serious criminal tendencies. It was his intention to li v e within the law, but as close to the limit as was comfortable. He was one of a family of six children, three older and two younger than himself. His mother was a widow, and for a good many years, while the family was growing up, they had lived on the Mother's Pension. The boys in the family, four of them, had been unruly and d i f f i c u l t to handle, but none of • them had ever been in serious trouble. The four who were working, Alf included, a l l contributed to the upkeep of the home as a matter of course, and there seemed to be no problem of relationship among the members of the family. Alf had gone as far as grade nine in school, and was employed as a laborer in the railway yards. He planned to give up this job, however, as soon as he was well established as a gambler. 59 There were three other boys i n the group. But about these three the worker was able t o secure no background i n f o r m a t i o n whatever. There was no r e c o r d on any of them w i t h the S o c i a l S ervice Exchange, the school board or the p o l i c e . None of them was l i s t e d i n the c i t y d i r e c t o r y or the phone book. They never mentioned i n conversations which the worker h e l d w i t h them any member of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . And the g i r l s , from whom she secured many of her l e a d s , claimed to know nothing about t h e i r backgrounds. I n f a c t , f o r a l l the worker knew, they might have sprung f u l l y grown i n t o the gang without any antecedents. One of them she knew only by the name of 'Apple'. He was about eighteen years o l d , a s i n i s t e r - l o o k i n g i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a t r a c e of Negro or Indian blood i n him, who disappeared from time t o time f o r a week or two and then turned up again. There was an a i r of mystery about Apple which was c a r e f u l l y n u r tured by ,the boys, who maintained that they had never heard h i s l a s t name. When he was i n town he stayed w i t h E r n i e ' s b r o t h e r , B i l l , and as i f t o make h i s anonymity more complete he even wore E r n i e ' s c l o t h e s . Of a l l the boys, Apple was the most i n t r a c t a b l e , and never once duri n g the time he attended the club d i d he l e t the b a r r i e r s down. He d i d not take an a c t i v e part i n c l u b proceedings, but sat back watching e v e r y t h i n g w i t h a c y n i c a l , contemptuous smile, and when the worker t r i e d t o approach him, he turned her aside a d r o i t l y . ' The other two boys, Mac Holenchuk and Nick Slowinsky, w h i l e they l a c k e d the mysterious aura which surrounded Apple, 60 were i n t h e i r own way as s e c r e t i v e as he was. Max, a s l i m dark boy of about seventeen, was the gang's c h i e f exponent of j i v e . He knew every boogie record that had ever been made, and was considered by the others t o be an a u t h o r i t y on music. II On t h i s subject he was very t a l k a t i v e , but when anything more personal came i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n , Max withdrew. Whether t h i s secrecy arose from some deep-rooted cause or whether i t was j u s t a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n to keep h i s a f f a i r s to h i m s e l f , the worker d i d not know. . Whatever i t was, Max made, a conscious e f f o r t t o keep h i s f a m i l y and background hidden. ,He was a c h e e r f u l boy, and h i s behaviour d i d not i n d i c a t e that there were any s e r i o u s problems l u r k i n g below the surfa c e . L i k e Sam and Tony, he was employed as a bootblack. Nick S l o v i n s k y , aged 18, was a s u l l e n , heavy-set boy, who took offense at the s l i g h t e s t p r o v o c a t i o n . He was the only member of the group who, during her contact w i t h them, ever threatened the worker w i t h p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e ; and at times he seemed t o t r a n s l a t e h i s resentment against s o c i e t y i n t o a personal resentment against her. He was f u l l of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , however, and the worker's commendation was more important to him than t o any of the others. He l i k e d t o -have her watching whenever he played ping pong or danced, and almost begged f o r a fav o r a b l e comment each time. But any attempts on her part t o f i n d out anything about h i s background were met w i t h immediate h o s t i l i t y , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them was t e m p o r a r i l y broken, and had to be l a b o r i o u s l y , b u i l t up again. Consequently, beyond the f a c t that Nick was a 61 hard worker and had to be up every morning at 5:00, she learned nothing at a l l about h i s p r i v a t e l i f e . With the boys came two new g i r l s who a l s o became members •' of the c l u b . These two, u n l i k e the other g i r l s , had e s t a b l i s h e d more or l e s s permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r boy f r i e n d s , and because of t h i s they were t r e a t e d w i t h greater c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a l l the boys i n the gang. One of these was .Jack 1 s g i r l , I s a b e l Vance. Eighteen years o l d , I s a b e l was much more mature than Jack, but she seemed to be possessed of a deep and c o n t i n u i n g a f f e c t i o n f o r him. Their f r i e n d s h i p had l a s t e d f o r more than two years, and during h i s frequent i n c a r c e r a t i o n s she had remained completely f a i t h f u l to him. He, on the other hand, was o f t e n u n f a i t h f u l and sometimes unkind t o her, but she always forgave him and was ready t o take him back. The other boys o b v i o u s l y admired her steadfastness, and when Jack was away they t r e a t e d her w i t h the greatest r e s p e c t . Her f a m i l y , who were s t r i c t God-fearing P r e s b y t e r i a n s , disapproved of her f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Jack, and endeavoured by l o c k i n g her i n her room and other methods to keep her away from him, but without success* Jack's c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s upset her a good deal and she hoped to be able t o s t r a i g h t e n him out, but i n the meantime she was g i v i n g him an acceptance which he badly needed. Aside from t h i s i n f a t u a t i o n , which the worker found hard to understand from I s a b e l ' s p o i n t of view, she seemed to be a normal youngster. A q u i e t , w e l l - r e a d and i n t e l l i g e n t g i r l , she would have f i t t e d more r e a d i l y than 62 any of the others i n t o an average teen-age group. She had. completed grade, ten and was now a t t e n d i n g p r i v a t e business c o l l e g e . The other g i r l was Theo's f r i e n d , Bertha Weldon. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two was even more d i f f i c u l t t o understand than that between I s a b e l and Jack. Bertha was two and a h a l f years Theo's s e n i o r , and o f t e n gave the appearance of being older than her nineteen years. Theo, i n many ways, was young f o r h i s age. At times, seeing them together, the worker was reminded of a mother d e a l i n g w i t h her p a r t i c u l a r l y obstreperous o f f s p r i n g . Whatever the a t t r a c t i o n , there could be no doubt t h a t Bertha was e n t i r e l y devoted t o Theo, and the f r i e n d s h i p was one of long standing. The other g i r l s i n the group f e l t t h a t she chased him too much, and i m p l i e d that the a f f e c t i o n was mostly on her s i d e . This was p a r t l y t r u e , the worker f e l t ; but there was nevertheless a strong bond between them. Bertha, was an independent i n d i v i d u a l , q u i t e capable of making her own d e c i s i o n s and c a r r y i n g them through. She was pregnant a l l the time she was attending the c l u b , and seemed t o accept her c o n d i t i o n c a l m l y and without any evidences of i n n e r c o n f l i c t . As soon as she had discovered t h a t she was pregnant, she had s t a r t e d attending the c l i n i c at the h o s p i t a l . She intended t o keep the c h i l d and f e l t that she would be able t o care f o r i t and h e r s e l f without the a s s i s t a n c e of a s o c i a l agency. She expected that once Theo was s e t t l e d i h a permanent job they would be married, but i n the meantime was 63 s a t i s f i e d to have him admit p a t e r n i t y . • The g i r l s s a i d that she had d e l i b e r a t e l y become pregnant i n order to h o l d Theo; and the worker, c o n s i d e r i n g Bertha's ready acceptance of the f a c t , f e l t that t h i s might p o s s i b l y be t r u e . At times'Theo took h i s impending r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y , but he was r e l u c t a n t t o take the f i n a l step of admitting p a t e r n i t y . Bertha, however, was q u i t e confident that he would do so when the time came. Bertha had attended a r t school a f t e r f i n i s h i n g grade ten, and was employed by one of the department st o r e s as a poster designer. Since she d i d most of her drawing at home, she was a b l e t o continue working r i g h t up u n t i l the b i r t h of her son i n June. Her f a m i l y d i d not approve very h i g h l y of Theo, but they d i d not seem to i n t e r f e r e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p or g i v e any i n d i c a t i o n that they considered her behaviour unorthodox. Return from Holidays F o l l o w i n g the p a r t y there was an i n t e r m i s s i o n of three weeks f o r the Christmas h o l i d a y s . And during that time the worker, new t o the game, questioned whether the group would r i s k another appearance at the agency. She thought that they might f i n d i t e a s i e r to withdraw than face the music. She was wrong. The h o l i d a y s had been f i l l e d w i t h bigger and b e t t e r p a r t i e s and f i g h t s , and when they returned on January 7 the club a f f a i r was nothing but a dim memory. They were too busy l o o k i n g ahead t o regret what was past and gone. 6* The worker, d e c i d i n g that nothing was t o be gained by post morterns at t h i s p o i n t , took the cue from them and made l i t t l e mention of the more unpleasant f e a t u r e s of the p a r t y . There was almost a f u l l attendance of the g i r l s at the f i r s t meeting of the new year. I t was devoted e x c l u s i v e l y t o two s u b j e c t s — w h a t d i d the worker t h i n k of the boys, and when were they going to h o l d t h e i r b i g dance? The f i r s t t o p i c took precedence over j i v i n g during the informal p e r i o d at th'e beginning of the evening and exhaustive d i s c u s s i o n followed the worker's non-committal report on such boys as she could remember. The concensus among the g i r l s was that they were a l l a w f u l l y 'cute* i n c l u d i n g Jack, who was j u s t a l i t t l e e x c i t a b l e . The worker would be pleased t o know, they r e p o r t e d , that the boys had decided that she was okay. This, they f e l t , was a compliment of the highest order, because the boy8 d i d not u s u a l l y l i k e p e o p l e — ' p e o p l e ' being a d u l t s — a t a l l . The question of the dance was broached w i t h great enthusiasm. The gang had t a l k e d i t over, E l l e n s a i d , and they would l i k e to have i t as soon as p o s s i b l e . The conversation which fo l l o w e d i n d i c a t e d that the dance p r o j e c t had r e c e i v e d considerable a t t e n t i o n and was one which was dear t o the hearts of a l l of them. The worker pointed out,though, that the agency would not be able t o sponsor a l a r g e dance f o r them i f there were going t o be any e x h i b i t i o n s of behaviour l i k e that at the p a r t y . Barbara assured her solemnly that the boys had r e a l l y been upset about the w h o l e . a f f a i r , and i f they were given another chance, such an outrage would not occur again. 65 The worker wanted some f u r t h e r evidence of the boys' good f a i t h , however, so she suggested that they might be w i l l i n g t o act on a dance committee w i t h the g i r l s * She f e l t that i n t h i s way she might be able t o i n s t i l some sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t o them. That was j u s t what the g i r l s had been w a i t i n g f o r , and h a r d l y were the words out of her mouth before they had set the f o l l o w i n g Monday as the f i r s t committee n i g h t . O f f i c i a l l y , only the executive and c e r t a i n of the boys were to attend, but an exchange of knowing smiles i n d i c a t e d that everyone would be there. The committee d i d not meet on the f o l l o w i n g Monday as planned because the boys had to go t o a boxing match and were unable to make i t u n t i l Tuesday. But t h e r e a f t e r every Monday was committee n i g h t , and the boys became a permanent p a r t of the c l u b . 66 THE TOTAL GANG Ig ACTION CHAPTER IT During the next five months, the tempo of the club was anything but smooth. The instability of the youngsters was apparent in everything they did. It showed in the uncon-tr o l l e d excitement which pervaded the clubroom after a week-end of particularly violent or daring activity* It was evident in their reluctance to face any issue squarely and in their i n a b i l i t y to hold to any decision, however simple, from one week to the next. It was especially noticeable in their desperate endeavours to keep the gang together against a l l opposing forces whether external or internal* Life for them was i n a continuous state of upheaval* They were constantly searching for something, and while they put a tremendous amount of enthusiasm and energy into the search, as soon as the going became too tough, they changed their objectives and turned with resentment from what they had wanted so badly before* In this major period of the club's existence, no miracles were achieved; there were no sudden conversions to a better way of l i f e . On the contrary the gang, except for certain minor alterations, was in a worse position with regard to the community at large when the session ended than i t was when i t began. The chief value of the club, therefore, 67 aside from the precarious relationship which was established between herself and most of the members, lay, the worker f e l t , in the opportunity which i t offered to observe the gang in a f a i r l y unrestricted situation. Establishment of Dance Committee The f i r s t session of the whole club came after a hair-styling exhibition by Mr. Carson, a friend of Miss Thompson'8 who had volunteered his services. The g i r l s had been most enthusiastic when the worker had suggested the exhibition and had postponed the boys' appearance until 9:00 to make i t possible. Mr* Carson wanted to give them some instruction on the proper care of the hair, but they were interested only in new and startling hair styles which would impress the boys when they got there. After a few unsuccessful attempts at a long range discussion of beauty culture, he abandoned himself to immediate repairs, and the g i r l s lined up, with much jostling, to take their turn. He had got about half way through the group when the thunder of feet on the stairway, and the sound of raucous voices announced the arrival of the boyB. Mr* Carson was at once deserted by a l l but his current subject, who disengaged herself from his comb as rapidly as possible and joined the rest of the g i r l s i n the washroom where they were re-touching their make-up. By exerting considerable force, the worker was able to bring some of the g i r l s back into the clubroom t o c l a p when E l l e n o f f e r e d a quick and a l s o f o r c e d vote of thanks t o Mr. Carson, who was somewhat bewildered by h i s d i s m i s s a l . Shepherding him past the boys, the worker had to t a l k l o u d l y i n order t o drown out t h e i r comments, which i n d i c a t e d that they approved n e i t h e r of h i s p r o f e s s i o n nor of h i s a b i l i t i e s . Back i n the clubroom, a f t e r d e l i v e r i n g him s a f e l y t o the door, the worker was confronted by E l l e n who assured her t h a t she would never have the nerve t o act as president i n f r o n t of the gang, and would the worker mind t a k i n g charge. So the worker went over t o the group of boys who were h o l d i n g a co n v e r s a t i o n i n one corner of the room and asked them t o get out some c h a i r s . E r n i e asked very r u d e l y , "Who do you t h i n k you are, g i v i n g orders?" The worker r e p l i e d t h a t she was the boss, and walked away. In a minute they s t a r t e d t o get out the c h a i r s , and a f t e r a great deal of noise and confusion everyone was seated. D o r i s took over the r o l e of chairman and ex p l a i n e d t h a t the dance was j u s t a t r y - o u t , and that they r e a l l y had t o be good or they would be put out of the agency. The boys made no open comment about t h i s , but whispered among themselves and laughed. Barbara s a i d there could not be any f i g h t s or d r i n k i n g — t h i s comment was dismissed as unnecessary by D e n i s — a n d D o r i s went on to say that the boys were t o p i c k a committee t o work w i t h the g i r l s ' e xecutive. She suggested t h a t they nominate a l e a d e r . E r n i e laughed at t h i s , but when h i s name was put forward, he refused to stand. 69 They wrangled back and f o r t h u n t i l f i n a l l y Tony r i p p e d up some paper and handed a piece t o each of the boys. There was a l o t of f o o l i n g around, w i t h Tommy e x p l a i n i n g to Rudy how many x's t o put down f o r each name so that they would know whom he meant. Denis' name was chosen on the b a l l o t s which Tony counted. D o r i s announced that the gang now had a new lea d e r , and E r n i e guffawed again. They went on to choose the other committee members. As each p o s i t i o n came up, E r n i e ' s name was mentioned, but he re f u s e d , saying that he would not be present f o r the dance* S t e l l a , f o r g e t t i n g her experience w i t h the 'squares' at the, Christmas p a r t y , announced that she had two bo y - f r i e n d s who possessed a l a r g e number of records and had expressed a d e s i r e to a s s i s t w i t h the dance. When the question of records came up, she immediately suggested t h e i r names; Nick and s e v e r a l others muttered t h r e a t s against what they termed, •lower Shaughnessy drapes';and they were about t o be e l i m i n a t e d when Er n i e decided that i f they would b r i n g a l l o f t h e i r three hundred and se v e n t y - f i v e records, they could belong t o the committee. Rudy was appointed bouncer, w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o 'ask people n i c e l y t o leave and i f that didn't work t o h i t them'- Sam was placed i n charge of the coke bar, and some time was taken up i n computing, f o r the worker's b e n e f i t , how much money they could make per case by '8piking' the coca c o l a * The preparations f o r the dance began to p a l l before long, and Denis decided that they would have to put o f f f u r t h e r d e c i s i o n s u n t i l next week because 70 . . . . / there were too many non-committee boys p r e s e n t — e v e r y o n e being aware, of course, t h a t the same number would appear next week* Having d e a l t w i t h t h i s piece of business, they wanted t o r e l a x . Denis, E l l e n and Barbara approached the worker t o ask permission to set up the r e c o r d p l a y e r and dance. Since the p l a y e r i n the lounge was the only one a v a i l a b l e , the worker, w i t h some m i s g i v i n g s , t o l d them that they could move i n there i f they were very c a r e f u l , i t being the n i c e s t room i n the b u i l d i n g * Denis gave h i s personal guarantee that everything would look j u s t the same a f t e r they had been there as i t had b e f o r e , and w i t h t h a t they adjourned to the lounge. The gang seemed to be aware that the worker was worried about the w e l f a r e of the lounge and i t s f u r n i s h i n g s , and f o r some reason most of them decided t o co-operate i n keeping the room t i d y . Only Apple and E r n i e refused t o comply w i t h the worker's requests, and they c a r r i e d on the p o l i c y of a t t r a c t i n g her a t t e n t i o n by obnoxious behaviour. Surrounded by ash t r a y s , they i n s i s t e d upon p u t t i n g t h e i r c i g a r e t t e s on the f l o o r , and at one p o i n t staged a very r e a l i s t i c f i g h t which had the worker worried u n t i l Tommy rushed up t o assure her that they were only p l a y i n g * The g i r l s took turns s i t t i n g down by the worker and t e l l i n g her how n i c e the boys were and how nothing would happen t o n i g h t . They a t t r i b u t e d E r n i e ' s 'unusual' behaviour to the f a c t that he had r e c e n t l y been a r r e s t e d on a dope peddling charge, and was now out on b a i l a w aiting t r i a l . 71 (According t o the records, E r n i e had been a r r e s t e d when p o l i c e had intercepted) a package addressed t o him and c o n t a i n i n g a f l a s h l i g h t i n t o which had been packed four hundred capsules of morphine.) E r n i e , the g i r l s s a i d , was q u i t e innocent of the charge, but he was 'taking the rap* f o r h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , Tom. He expected t o be sentenced the f o l l o w i n g Thursday, so n a t u r a l l y he was f e e l i n g a l i t t l e b e l l i g e r e n t . A l l of the youngsters, and Barbara P a r t i c u l a r l y , were r e g r e t f u l about h i s impending departure from the gang, but they accepted i t without argument. Barbara t o l d the worker proudly t h a t he had asked her t o w r i t e t o him i n p r i s o n , and the others considered t h i s a great honour. The evening concluded without i n c i d e n t and i n a burst of i n d u s t r y which must have s u r p r i s e d even themselves, Denis, Tommy and s e v e r a l others made a tour of the room s t r a i g h t e n -i n g c h a i r s , p i c k i n g up c i g a r e t t e s and c o l l e c t i n g coke b o t t l e s . Tony thanked the worker f o r being 'so r e g u l a r ' and they trooped out the door, l e a v i n g her w i t h the impression that they considered her a very l u c k y woman to have got o f f 80 l i g h t l y . Agency P o l i c y Regarding Group The sojourn i n the lounge r e s u l t e d , among other t h i n g s , i n a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the agency p o l i c y regarding Club 57. While the board and the teen-age committee had a u t h o r i z e d the club's presence i n the agency, they had not r e a l i z e d 72 p r i o r to t h i s occasion i t s d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies* I t was i r o n i c a l , t h e r e f o r e , i n view of t h e i r behaviour at the e a r l i e r p a r t y , that the damage which brought the youngsters most f o r c e f u l l y to the a t t e n t i o n of these two groups was something f o r which they were not a c t u a l l y t o blame. A check of the lounge on the morning a f t e r t h e i r v i s i t showed that the rubber on the s o l e s of t h e i r shoes had marked the hardwood f l o o r s so badly t h a t re-sanding was necessary. The maintenance worker was very much upset because the r e p a i r s meant considerable expense; and t h i s episode, when added t o the Christmas party which had made e x t r a work f o r the j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f , r a i s e d the question of the continued attendance of the cl u b at the agency. The proposed dance, too, caused a great deal of p e r t u r b a t i o n . 80 i t was decided t h a t before plans f o r the c l u b went any f u r t h e r , a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g a group of t h i s s o r t should be explored c a r e f u l l y and some d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n reached regarding the p o l i c y t o be f o l l o w e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h them. The worker presented the matter to the teen-age committee, g i v i n g a c l e a r p i c t u r e of what had alre a d y happened and i n d i c a t i n g what might happen i n the f u t u r e , i f the gang was permitted t o remain i n the agency* While she h e l d out no promises f o r success, she s t r e s s e d the p o t e n t i a l value of a continued acceptance of the youngsters by h e r s e l f and the agency, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r behaviour. In i t 8 d i s c u s s i o n of the s i t u a t i o n , the committee at no time considered dropping the c l u b . The members f e l t t hat the 73 agency, as one of the l a r g e r downtown group work i n s t i t u t i o n s , owed a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o gangs of t h i s type, and were prepared'to accept the f a c t that s e r i o u s d i s c i p l i n a r y problems might a r i s e at any moment. Their recommendation was th a t the club be encouraged t o operate under agency sponsorship, and that i t be given the same o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use the gymnasium f a c i l i t i e s f o r l a r g e dances as were granted to other clubs i n the agency. The o n l y r e s t r i c t i o n suggested was th a t the r e g u l a r c l u b sessions be confined t o the more s e r v i c e a b l e gym clubroom r a t h e r than the lounge. The a c t i v e support of t h i s committee, together w i t h that of the board and the ..general s e c r e t a r y , continued a throughout the s e s s i o n , although on numerous occasions t h e i r p a t i e n c e was s o r e l y t r i e d . Program That the formation o f the dance committee was merely a p r e t e x t f o r the boys to move i n t o the agency became i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious as time went on* They wanted a dance, c e r t a i n l y , but the small matter of o r g a n i z i n g it.concerned them not at a l l . As Tony remarked, "Aw, we know what we're supposed t o do at the dance. Can't we j u s t f o o l around?" T h i s was a f a m i l i a r theme and each evening some new reason f o r postponing the planning s e s s i o n was presented. Denis o f f e r e d the most unconvincing excuse when he explained t o the worker that most of the boys, a l l of whom were already i n the 7* room, were a t t e n d i n g a boxing match, so i t would not be p o s s i b l e to do anything that n i g h t . On only one occasion did-they v o l u n t a r i l y submit to a business meeting, the c h i e f purpose of t h i s being t o inform:the w o r k e r — s i n c e the r e s t of them already knew i t — t h a t E r n i e and not Denis was t o be the boys' leader as w e l l as the c l u b p r e s i d e n t * E r n i e made f a r e w e l l appearances every Monday n i g h t , and r e c e i v e d a remand every Thursday; but he had decided t o a s s e r t h i m s e l f at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y . Apparently he j u s t wanted t o make h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r , because when the worker asked him to take charge o f the meeting, he ref u s e d ; and a f t e r a b r i e f s k i r m i s h i n which s e v e r a l people were pushed forward as p o s s i b l e chairmen, they a l l returned to t h e i r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . The c l u b was a place t o dance or l i s t e n t o records or p l a y ping pong or j u s t t a l k . None of them wanted a formal program; they had not the patience to s e t t l e down t o any s o r t of d i s c u s s i o n ; but they seemed t o f i n d i t s a t i s f y i n g to have a d e f i n i t e place to come on a d e f i n i t e evening, and attendance, p a r t i c u l a r l y by the boys, was very r e g u l a r . The g i r l s , who were s t i l l h o l d i n g separate meetings on Tuesday n i g h t s , t o l d the w o r k e r — w i t h o u t n o t i c i n g t h e i r i n c o n s i s t e n c y , that the boys were no good at o r g a n i z i n g t h i n g s . They would be u s e f u l on the dance n i g h t f o r keeping o r d e r — i f , Doris s a i d d a r k l y , they d i d not decide t o s t a r t the t r o u b l e themselves—but otherwise they were not much hel p . But although they professed to accept f u l l 75 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r arrangements, the g i r l s , too, took the dance l i g h t l y , and t h e i r meetings were taken up w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s -of what would be'done w i t h the proceeds r a t h e r than w i t h work f o r the event i t s e l f . Their one c o n s t r u c t i v e suggestion was that none of the boys be p e r m i t t e d t o handle the cash at the door, checkroom or coke ba r . S t e l l a promised t o b r i n g the records, and Bertha o f f e r e d her own and Theo's s e r v i c e s i n p a i n t i n g p o s t e r s ; but beyond t h i s , the dance preparations were l e f t i n the worker's l a p . The Tuesday n i g h t sessions were soon over-run by the boys, who hung around outside the agency w a i t i n g f o r the g i r l 8 t o f i n i s h . They were f i n a l l y i n v i t e d i n on the Tuesday before E r n i e ' s t r i a l , because he wanted to have one l a s t n i g h t at the c l u b , and J u l i a , h i s current i n t e r e s t , launched a strong appeal f o r h i s presence which was backed up by the other g i r l s . As i t happened, he was a c q u i t t e d because of i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence; but the precedent of attendance at the Tuesday night meetings had been s e t * R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Worker and Glub Members During the p e r i o d before the dance, which took place on February S, the worker made slow but steady progress i n becoming acquainted w i t h the gang. The g i r l s were very f r i e n d l y , and at times showed a w i l l i n g n e s s and a d e s i r e t o confide i n her. For the most part these confidences were of a s o c i a l nature and were, she f e l t , c a r e f u l l y expurgated. 76 In some cases, though, they d i d d i v u l g e c e r t a i n d e t a i l s of the boys 1 sub r o s a a c t i v i t i e s , i n d i c a t i n g that they t r u s t e d her not t o pass the i n f o r m a t i o n on t o the p o l i c e * One such ins t a n c e occurred when Jack Jamieson and E r n i e A l l e n were a r r e s t e d on a breaking and-entering charge. (According t o the p o l i c e , a s t o r e i n the west end had been broken i n t o , but the n i g h t watchman had appeared on the scene and the two b u r g l a r s had escaped by smashing a p l a t e g l a s s window at the f r o n t of the s t o r e . Blood on the g l a s s showed that one of the i n t r u d e r s had been i n j u r e d . Jack and E r n i e had been pi c k e d up by a t a x i close t o the spot and taken home. When the p o l i c e a r r i v e d l a t e r t o a r r e s t Jack, he was attempting t o bandage a severe cut i n h i s l e g * Both boys claimed t h a t the i n j u r y had been r e c e i v e d when he was s t r u c k by a c a r , and s i n c e i t was impossible to prove otherwise, they were ac q u i t t e d . ) The g i r l s d iscussed the a f f a i r q u i t e openly i n f r o n t of the worker, and i t seemed t o be common knowledge among the gang th a t the boys had been g u i l t y of the offense." In c l o s e co-operation w i t h the p o l i c e f o r c e through Miss Thompson, the worker found h e r s e l f i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n at times, when the gang gave her i n f o r m a t i o n of t h i s s o r t . But s i n c e none of i t a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d evidence, she d i d not j e o p a r d i s e her p o s i t i o n w i t h the group by handing i t over to the p o l i c e . Miss Thompson was most understanding i n t h i s connection, and r e a l i z e d that much of the worker's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n handling the youngsters came from t h e i r sure knowledge that she was not an informer. Miss Thompson 77 h e r s e l f was w e l l l i k e d by the g i r l s , and f o r Wilma, Doris 'and Barbara, a v i s i t t o her o f f i c e was d e f i n i t e l y an event. In many ways, she took over the r o l e of case worker f o r these t h r e e , and her advice on t h e i r problems of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n -s h i p s was h i g h l y valued. D o r i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , formed a stro n g attachment f o r her, which c a r r i e d on long a f t e r t h e i r o f f i c i a l i n t e r v i e w s ceased. As an i n d i c a t i o n of her p o p u l a r i t y , i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that Miss Hewitt r e c e i v e d the only i n v i t a t i o n i s sued f o r t h e i r dance. In the group, D o r i s , E t h e l , V i v i a n and Wilma were the most approachable. They appeared anxious to e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the worker, and during the c l u b sessions spent considerable time w i t h her. Except f o r E t h e l , who was very much i n t e r e s t e d i n Tony, these g i r l s were awkward and u n c e r t a i n of themselves when the boys were around, and seemed t o f i n d s e c u r i t y i n s t a y i n g c l o s e to the worker. The others were pleasant, but u s u a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o her, and showed by t h e i r a c t i o n s that they looked upon her more as a p a r t of the clubroom f a c i l i t i e s than as a person. The boys were a much more d i f f i c u l t p r o p o s i t i o n . A l l of them but Tony, Denis and Tommy, ignored the worker's presence d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks, unless she approached them d i r e c t l y , and then they withdrew as r a p i d l y as they could. A f t e r a few r e b u f f s , she made no f u r t h e r attempts a t f r i e n d s h i p u n t i l they were ready to approach her. A number of them, the worker f e l t , waited f o r E r n i e ' s v e r d i c t before they made up t h e i r minds whether to accept her or not. 1& As i t happened, he chose t o acknowledge her presence f o l l o w i n g an argument over a ping pong game. The best p l a y e r , E r n i e had set up the r e g u l a t i o n that the winner played a l l comers, and sin c e he a l s o kept the score i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r anyone e l s e to win. Tommy, who was h i s opponent i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r game, appealed t o the worker on one very obvious p o i n t , and she backed him up. E r n i e argued about i t u n t i l the r u l e book was produced, then he grinned and s a i d magnanimously, " A l l r i g h t , from now on you: keep score." In t h i s o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y i t was much simpler f o r the worker to b u i l d up an acquaintance w i t h the boys, and g r a d u a l l y the impersonal conversation about the game developed i n t o an e a s i e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , although the worker was always aware that she was on pr o b a t i o n . D i s c i p l i n e A f t e r the f i r s t p a r t y , the worker had very l i t t l e t r o u b l e w i t h d i s c i p l i n e at the r e g u l a r meetings, c h i e f l y because very few r u l e s were imposed on the group. The only t h i n g s she f e l t c a l l e d upon t o mention were c l o s i n g time and crap games. The club g e n e r a l l y l a s t e d from s e v e n - t h i r t y u n t i l eleven o'clock. At about a quarter t o eleven she would ask the record p l a y e r operator to make the r e c o r d on the machine the l a s t . A f t e r three or four l a s t r e cords, someone, u s u a l l y Denis, would y e l l , " A l l r i g h t , gang, l e t ' s go," and they would make t h e i r n o i s y e x i t . 79 The crap games were not so simple. The gang members were very fond of t h i s s p o r t, and whenever the worker l e f t , the room f o r so much as a minute, she would r e t u r n to f i n d a l l the boys on the f l o o r i n a c i r c l e . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e argument, a compromise was f i n a l l y reached by which they agreed to p l a y f o r matches i n s t e a d of money, thereby removing the gambling element from the game. She was s u s p i c i o u s , however, that once they l e f t the agency, the matches were converted t o cash. R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Other Groups i n Agency The only contact w i t h other groups i n the agency i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d was an unfortunate one, and one which showed how vuln e r a b l e the youngsters were, i n s p i t e of t h e i r h a r d - b o i l e d e x t e r i o r . A j u n i o r group, h o l d i n g a p a r t y u p s t a i r s , had some refreshments l e f t over, and decided, as a f r i e n d l y gesture, t o b r i n g them down t o Club 57. Without speaking t o the worker f i r s t , they appeared i n the clubroom doorway, laden w i t h sandwiches and cake. As soon as they entered, a s i l e n c e f e l l i n the room—everyone stopped whatever he was doing to look them up and down, and the atmosphere immediately became h o s t i l e . Instead of l e a v i n g the p l a t e s , they t r i e d to pass them around, making p o l i t e l i t t l e comments as they went. The gang seemed to c l o s e ranks a u t o m a t i c a l l y against the i n t r u d e r s . Not one of them spoke or accepted the p r o f e r r e d food, and f i n a l l y the- young g i r l s so turned i n embarrassment to the worker, who asked them to put the p l a t e s on the counter. She shepherded them outs i d e , thanked them q u i c k l y f o r t h e i r thoughtfulness and returned to the room. In an e f f o r t to improve the s i t u a t i o n , she e x p l a i n e d that i t was the custom i n the agency f o r clubs who had food l e f t from p a r t i e s to give i t to other groups meeting i n the b u i l d i n g * The o n l y answer to t h i s came from N i c k , who s a i d b i t t e r l y , "We don't want anybody's l e f t - o v e r s . " The food remained on the counter untouched a l l evening, and a s l i g h t p a i r seemed t o have descended upon the group* There was no doubt that the j u n i o r g i r l s , f o r a l l t h e i r good i n t e n t i o n s , had hurt t h e i r f e e l i n g s * The whole a f f a i r was badly handled, but the worker was caught completely unaware by t h e i r unexpected r e a c t i o n t o a p e r f e c t l y o r d i n a r y courtesy. They d i d not i n c l u d e her i n t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e , however, and the f o l l o w i n g week the i n c i d e n t seemed t o have been f o r g o t t e n . R e l a t i o n s h i p Between G i r l s and Bovs Ju s t before the dance, t r o u b l e developed between the g i r l s and boys f o r the f i r s t time, and the c l u b threatened t o d i s i n t e g r a t e . The g i r l s a r r i v e d at the Monday n i g h t meeting l o o k i n g very d i s c o n s o l a t e , t o report that they had stood the boys up on the preceding Saturday and gone out w i t h the Thompson gang, a r i v a l east end group. The boys had t o l d them on Sunday that they were through with: the c l u b , the 81 dance and ev e r y t h i n g . Roberta had r e c e i v e d a black eye from Clarence, and the others were i n fe a r of s i m i l a r r e p r i s a l s . But while they were worried about the punishment which they expected would r e s u l t from t h e i r u n f a i t h f u l n e s s , they were much more upset t o t h i n k t h a t the boys were going t o throw them over. When the worker asked them why they had d e l i b e r a t e l y broken the engagement, none of them could g i v e a reason, except that i t might, have been because the Thompson gang had had cars and they had wanted t o go f o r a r i d e . They ob v i o u s l y p r e f e r r e d t h e i r own gang, but as f a r as the worker co u l d see, i t was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y impossible f o r them t o r e f u s e an i n v i t a t i o n . L i f e was l o o k i n g very bla c k , and Barbara expressed the f e e l i n g s of a l l of them when she s a i d that the c l u b might as w e l l c l o s e now, because i t would not be any fun without the boys. However, the boys s u f f e r e d a change of h e a r t , and swarmed i n t o the room i n a b e l l i g e r e n t mood about an hour a f t e r the meeting began. They were f u l l of t h r e a t s , and t h e i r language, which was u s u a l l y guarded i n the worker's presence, was f i l t h y . None of the g i r l s made any attempt t o defend her p o s i t i o n — a l l seemed t o accept t h i s as the n a t u r a l consequence of t h e i r behaviour. A f t e r the boys had stormed around f o r a w h i l e , the worker cut i n to suggest that they make up t h e i r minds about the dance. Sam announced that they were having nothing t o do w i t h the a f f a i r , and everybody s t a r t e d to t a l k at once. With the r e c o r d player going at top 88 v e l o c i t y , the d i n was t e r r i f i c * The worker asked E r n i e t o take over* He t o l d Denis t o calm the others down, and co-operated t o the extent of t u r n i n g o f f the r e c o r d p l a y e r and p u t t i n g the double socket i n h i s pocket. Denis climbed on the counter and shouted, "For God's sake, shut-up you guys." They quieted down a l i t t l e , and three or four o f the boys, w i t h a l l the g i r l s , gathered around Denis. The r e s t of the boys withdrew to the back of the room and s u l k e d . Sam and Clarence continued t o argue u n t i l E r n i e s a i d , "Oh keep q u i e t , Sam. The gang'11 be at the dance;" and they agreed grudgingly t o re-consider t h e i r d e c i s i o n . Denis, anxious f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , re-assigned the boys to t h e i r j o b s , and concluded the business s e s s i o n by saying, "No crocks, eh gang? We want t h i s dance to be r e s p e c t a b l e . " The g i r l s , i n a moment of abandon, had asked the Thompson gang to the dance, and when Barbara mentioned t h i s , the row broke out a f r e s h . Rudy s a i d f l a t l y that i f they came, they would be beaten up, so they had b e t t e r be warned t o s t a y away * The boys spent the r e s t of the evening g i v i n g the g i r l B s l y pinches, t w i s t i n g t h e i r arms, and dancing i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y rough manner. Since the g i r l s seemed t o accept t h i s as t h e i r due, the worker d i d not i n t e r f e r e . Once, however, when Tony was t w i s t i n g E t h e l ' s arm and she s t a r t e d t o c r y , she went over and shook her head at him. He l e t E t h e l go and s a i d , "Well, what would you do i f somebody stood you up j u s t to go out w i t h another guy?" The worker S3 said, that she d i d not t h i n k she would t w i s t the other person's arm, i f that was what he meant. He s a i d that was because men did n ' t cheat the way g i r l s d i d . Tommy and Denis came over and discussed the i n f i d e l i t y of women at l e n g t h . Roger commented th a t the boys had no technique, and they had t o h i t a g i r l t o make her understand what they were say i n g . This brought others i n t o the conversation and there was a r o u s i n g argument w i t h the g i r l s , under the worker's wing, expressing t h e i r views q u i t e f r e e l y . Nothing was s e t t l e d — when i t was a l l over the boys s t i l l f e l t that women had t o be d i s c i p l i n e d f r e q u e n t l y and the g i r l s claimed t h a t the boys were rough and coarse. Barbara and E l l e n announced t h a t i n f u t u r e the boys were only t o come on Monday ni g h t s because they d i d not always want to have a bunch of 'toughs' hanging around. This passed without comment from the boys, beyond Tony's query as to when the g i r l s began i s s u i n g orders. They a l l l e f t together, i n more or l e s s good order. But when the worker ran i n t o them down the s t r e e t , the boys were already t a k i n g t h e i r revenge. H a l f of the g i r l s had been r o l l e d i n the snow and were soaked from head t o fo o t , J u l i a and Roberta were weeping l o u d l y because they had been slapped, and the r e s t of the g i r l s were t a k i n g refuge i n a ca f e , w i t h some of the boys standing guard o u t s i d e . When the worker t r i e d t o reason w i t h them, Sam s a i d , "They've j u s t got t o l e a r n that they can't g i v e us the run-around." This b a t t l e was fol l o w e d by a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n that same 8-L evening, and the gang seemed to have f o r g o t t e n i t s d i f f e r e n c e s at-the next meeting. This was the f i r s t i n a long s e r i e s of outbursts over the same i s s u e , and as time went on the matter of d e a l i n g w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the g i r l s and boys became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . The b a s i c problem, as the worker saw i t , was that the two groups were at d i f f e r e n t stages of development. The boys had reached the p l a c e where they were ready to e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s of f a i r l y long standing, d u r i n g which the g i r l of t h e i r choice was expected t o be completely f a i t h f u l . They were more broad-minded about t h e i r own behaviour, but i n the cases where they d i d have such r e l a t i o n s h i p s , they were i n c l i n e d to devote t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o one g i r l . The g i r l s , on the other hand, w i t h a few exceptions, were subject t o v i o l e n t crushes which r a r e l y l a s t e d f o r more than a week or two, and they d i d not consider that such crushes should exclude them from d a t i n g other boys. As Barbara s a i d , "The boys want to be too s e r i o u s a l l the t i m e — a n d we l i k e to p l a y the f i e l d . " Theirs was the more usual teen-age a t t i t u d e , but i t was c e r t a i n l y not compatible w i t h t h a t o f the boys, and since the boys' r e a c t i o n t o any s o r t of b e t r a y a l was t o s t r i k e out against the o f f e n d i n g person, t r o u b l e was i n e v i t a b l e . The beatings which the g i r l s r e c e i v e d d i d not a l t e r t h e i r behaviour very much, but n e i t h e r d i d they seem to b r i n g f o r t h any f e e l i n g of resentment against the boys. In t h e i r code, i t was a boy's p r e r o g a t i v e t o mistreat h i s g i r l f r i e n d i f she s t r a y e d , and S5 u n t i l the boys' methods of d i s c i p l i n e reached s e r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n s , they took t h e i r punishment without complaint and almost as i f they enjoyed i t . F i r s t Dance The dance gave the worker an opportunity t o observe the gang at f i r s t hand on one of i t s h e c t i c Saturday n i g h t o u t i n g s . Aside from e x h i b i t i n g a p r o p r i e t o r i a l a i r and showing a c e r t a i n f l e e t i n g sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the crowd's behaviour, they might have been spending the evening i n Chinatown or at some of t h e i r other hang-outs. The a f f a i r s t a r t e d w e l l , and f o r s e v e r a l hours looked as i f i t might be a success even i n the worker's c r i t i c a l eye. The gang a r r i v e d two hours before s t a r t i n g time and d i s p l a y e d a l a s t - m i n u t e d e s i r e to a s s i s t w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n s . Up t o that p o i n t , S t e l l a ' s two lower Shaughnessy f r i e n d s had been h e l p i n g the worker to get the gymnasium ready. They, i n c i d e n t a l l y , were hoping through t h e i r co-operation at t h i s dance to secure permission to h o l d weekly dances of a semi-commercial nature at the agency. They were reckoning without the o t h e r s , however, because wh i l e they took a c a v a l i e r view of t h e i r ' d u t i e s , the members of the c l u b were very much aware that they were the hosts, and they d i d not i n t e n d t o be ousted from t h i s p o s i t i o n . The g i r l s spent most of the time.before the dance i n the washroom, t a k i n g out p i n c u r l s and f i x i n g t h e i r make-up. But the boys 86 hovered around the worker, a c t i n g very b u s i n e s s - l i k e and r e - i t e r a t i n g t h e i r promises of 'no l i q u o r , no f i g h t s and no crap'. Denis made a s p e c i a l point of t e l l i n g her that he had l e f t h i s 'crock' at home f o r the f i r s t Saturday i n Months, and she expressed proper a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h i s noble gesture. The paying guests were slow i n coming, and f o r a time the gang was i n a fever of apprehension that the dance would not be a success* This f i r s t venture was important t o them, and however n i c e the dance might be, i t could not p o s s i b l y be a success without l a r g e numbers of guests. The crowd, when i t d i d a r r i v e , was what might have been expected from the word-of-mouth a d v e r t i s i n g the dance had r e c e i v e d . About three-quarters of the two hundred and f i f t y guests were boys, a l l z o o t - s u i t e r s , and l i k e the club members, possessed of a b e l l i g e r e n t a t t i t u d e to l i f e . The g i r l s , most of whom were unescorted, looked and behaved very much as the g i r l s i n the group d i d . Most of the boys seemed to f e e l t hat they should pay admission o n l y i f they were cornered, and Tony and A l f , who were a s s i s t i n g E l l e n at the door, concurred i n t h i s . Tony even went so f a r as to lend h i s s k eleton key to some of h i s f r i e n d s who wanted to get i n through the balcony. E r n i e and Apple, w h i l e they had been h e l p i n g to move f u r n i t u r e , had managed to get away wi t h a r o l l o f f i f t y t i c k e t s , which they went out and s o l d on Hastings S t r e e t , p o c k e t j i n g the proceeds themselves. Dancing was spasmodic a l l e v e n i n g — t h e r e were never more than s i x couples on the f l b o r . The r e s t o f the crowd *7 occupied themselves i n v a r i o u s ways. The worker broke up eig h t d i f f e r e n t crap games, i n which a good many of the c l u b members, contrary to t h e i r vow, were i n v o l v e d . The boys stopped p l a y i n g as soon as she came on the scene and e v e n t u a l l y she cut out the games al t o g e t h e r by c o l l e c t i n g t h e i r loose change each time f o r the coke bar. Others found the showers a convenient place t o d r i n k , and there was a heavy t r a f f i c of h a l f empty coke b o t t l e s between the clubroom and the showers. Most of the boys were d r i n k i n g , but i t was d i f f i c u l t to f i n d t h e i r source of supply, because they had a look-out at the foot of the s t a i r s , and whenever the worker appeared, a l l the evidence was whisked out of s i g h t . Ernie' and Apple returned from t h e i r f o r a y on Hastings S t r e e t o b v i o u s l y the worse f o r wear. E r n i e was drunk, but under c o n t r o l — A p p l e was weaving badly and was argumentative. The worker spoke to Denis about i t , and he assigned Johnny and Max to the job of keeping t r a c k of them. The balcony was being used f o r necking purposes, and while the club members agreeably came out of t h e i r c l i n c h e s when the worker spoke to them, other couples who were i n t e r r u p t e d were d e f i a n t and rude. The r e s t of the crowd j u s t stood around the gymnasium, the boys on one si d e and the g i r l s on the other. A l f and Tommy worked hard to get them t o mix, but without success. F i n a l l y Rudy, who was s l i g h t l y drunk but s t i l l c o-operative, c l o s e d the clubroom and ordered everyone i n t o the gymnasium. Taking over the p u b l i c address system, he announced that everyone was t o d a n c e — o r e l s e . This produced some r e s u l t s , and Rudy came over to r e c e i v e the commendation of the worker, and t o t e l l her that he d i d not t h i n k he would be having any f i g h t s . Miss Thompson was present at the dance, and i n s p i t e of her o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n was w e l l r e c e i v e d by both boys and g i r l s . D o r i s attached h e r s e l f to her as soon as she a r r i v e d , ' and f o r a while acted as her e s c o r t . But the greater part of her evening was devoted t o Jack Jamieson, who found her an a t t e n t i v e and sympathetic l i s t e n e r . Much of the c o n v e r s a t i o n was taken up w i t h a v i v i d and d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of how he had i n j u r e d h i s l e g at a s e r v i c e centre d a n c e — a v e r s i o n which amused Miss Thompson some-what, since she was m o r a l l y c e r t a i n that i t was a p l a t e g l a s s window r a t h e r than a k n i f e which had done the damage. The r e s t of the time he t a l k e d about h i s s i s t e r , of whom he was very proud. Miss Thompson was not introduced t o him as * an o f f i c e r and d i d not mention the f a c t h e r s e l f , so she d i d not t h i n k he r e a l i z e d that he was c o n s o r t i n g w i t h the p o l i c e . She remained u n t i l about eleven o'clock, l e a v i n g j u s t before the main event of the evening. In her o p i n i o n the dance had been, f o r t h i s group, extremely o r d e r l y . She had been gone about f i v e minutes when Johnny Thompson and three members of h i s gang a r r i v e d . They went s t r a i g h t through to the clubroom, which Rudy had re-opened and was s u p e r v i s i n g . The minute they appeared, Rudy set down h i s ping pong racket and took a poke at Johnny. The worker knew nothing about the f i g h t u n t i l she ran i n t o a 89 stampede of boys t r y i n g t o get up the s t a i r s . Theo exp l a i n e d q u i c k l y to her t h a t the f i g h t was on, but knowing t h a t she d i d not l i k e to have them on the premises, the boys had agreed to go o u t s i d e . They charged through the gymnasium, gathe r i n g the r e s t of the crowd as they went. F i n a l l y , unable to r e s t r a i n t h e i r tempers any longer, they ho l e d up i n the men's washroom, and the over-flow of the crowd which couldn't get i n t o the room m i l l e d out i n t o the lobby. The most unfortunate aspect of t h i s was that the Student's C h r i s t i a n Movement, which was h o l d i n g a conference i n the lounge, had j u s t completed i t s s e s s i o n and was i n the process of l e a v i n g . The members j o i n e d the crowd and to a l l appearances enjoyed the show as much as anybody e l s e . The worker was able t o make her way i n t o the washroom, but when they saw her t h e r e , Jack and Theo i n s i s t e d upon removing her, e x p l a i n i n g t h a t they d i d not want her t o get h u r t . Before the f i g h t became g e n e r a l , Johnny and h i s three companions were able to get o u t s i d e , w i t h Rudy hot on t h e i r t r a i l * E r n i e and Apple f o l l o w e d them down the s t a i r s . A f t e r the combattants had gone, Denis report e d to the worker that when the f i g h t had begun, he had placed guards on a l l the doors to see that nothing happened. Then he t o l d Max, Nick and Theo to look a f t e r the f r o n t door t o see that none of the Thompson gang could r e t u r n . At t h i s p o i n t the p o l i c e , who had been c a l l e d , a r r i v e d on the scene, and a sudden calm descended on the crowd. F i n d i n g that the t r o u b l e was over, they l e f t , promising t o r e t u r n i f i t broke out again. They 90 had j u s t disappeared when Rudy returned i n a f u r y t o say that Johnny Thompson and h i s crowd had taken E r n i e and Apple w i t h them i n t h e i r c a r , and t h a t they were r e t u r n i n g w i t h the r e s t of t h e i r gang to f i n i s h the f i g h t . The dance was f o r g o t t e n i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the b a t t l e . I n d i c a t i o n of Co-operation w i t h Worker The crowd moved out of the b u i l d i n g q u i c k l y , some of them t o get away before the t r o u b l e s t a r t e d and others so t h a t they would be able t o get a good view of the f r a c a s . The c l u b members stopped b r i e f l y to express t h e i r r e g r e t s at the way the evening had turned out. Tony's comment was backed up by the r e s t of them, "We always p u l l something l i k e t h i s . No wonder no one wants us around." Tommy wanted to know who was going t o clean up, saying that he o b v i o u s l y could not stop now to help, but that he would be w i l l i n g t o come i n the f o l l o w i n g day. The g i r l s and.some of the other boys o f f e r e d to do the same. The worker accepted t h e i r o f f e r , a f t e r which they l e f t , w i t h profuse apologies f o r Rudy's behaviour. The crowd hung around ou t s i d e w a i t i n g f o r the Thompson gang to r e t u r n u n t i l the desk c l e r k telephoned the p o l i c e , who' came and d i s p e r s e d i t . The b a t t l e took place l a t e r i n Chinatown, a f t e r the two gangs had spent h a l f the night l o o k i n g f o r each other. The dance was not a success i n many ways, but there was evident during the evening a co-operation which the worker 91 oould not have counted upon a few weeks e a r l i e r . The g i r l s stuck to t h e i r posts at the door, the coke bar and the checkroom, even though they would have much p r e f e r r e d t o be f r e e agents. Some of the boys, l i k e Denis, Tony and A l f , worked hard, according to t h e i r l i g h t s , to keep the a f f a i r as o r d e r l y as p o s s i b l e , and even Rudy, u n t i l he was confronted by Johnny Thompson, was q u i t e c o - o p e r a i i v e . Sam, i n the coke bar, served f a i t h f u l l y u n t i l he discovered that someone had s t o l e n h i s new gabardine coat, and even then he d i d not go a f t e r the t h i e f u n t i l he had summoned J u l i a to take charge. Though they broke a l l the r u l e s they had set up f o r the dance and a l l the promises they had made to the worker, t h e i r a c t i o n s were i n no way as d e l i b e r a t e l y a n t a g o n i s t i c as they had been at the f i r s t p a r t y . They were w i l l i n g at t h i s p o i n t to admit r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , even i f they were not ready to do anything about i t . Oar Theft The o f f e r of a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the clean-up job was not fo l l o w e d through, because by Sunday afternoon three of the g i r l s were i n j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n home, four of the boys were i n j a i l , and the r e s t of the gang was much too e x c i t e d to t h i n k of such mundane t h i n g s as sweeping f l o o r s . The newspaper r e p o r t went as f o l l o w s : "Three teen-age g i r l s are i n the j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n home, and the p o l i c e are searching f o r four boys f o l l o w i n g a short but w i l d chase a f t e r a 92 s t o l e n auto at 4-: 20 a.m. yesterday. The s t o l e n car was f i r s t s p o tted by ConstablesG. Grant and G. B e l l as i t turned west on F i r s t Avenue from Commercial D r i v e . I t speeded up when the d r i v e r n o t i c e d the p o l i c e car f o l l o w i n g him. As the s t o l e n v e h i c l e swung i n t o a lane at the r e a r of the Woman's Bakery, i t h i t a woodpile and ground t o a stop. Seven young people, three of them g i r l s , leaped from the car and f l e d i n t o the nearby bushes. Search of the wooded area l e d to the capture of two s i x t e e n - y e a r - o l d g i r l s , w h i l e Constable 0. Johnson discovered the t h i r d g i r l h i d i n g under the bakery. No t r a c e was found of the male companions." The worker d i d not hear of the a r r e s t s u n t i l Monday n i g h t , when the gang began to gather at the agency at the unusually e a r l y hour of 6:30. On her a r r i v a l , an animated conversation was i n t e r r u p t e d by E l l e n who wanted t o know i f she had heard about the others, that ' i t ' had been i n the newspapers. The worker had not yet seen the papers, and asked them to t e l l her what had happened. Both E l l e n and Wilma became shy, and s a i d that the g i r l s d i d not want the worker t o know about i t . F i n a l l y E l l e n s a i d , " E r n i e w i l l t e l l you." The worker turned to E r n i e , who explained that the gang had gone f o r a r i d e i n some 'hot' cars,.and D o r i s , Barbara, V i v i a n , Jack, Tony, Max and Doug were i n custody. When he had f i n i s h e d the s t o r y they a l l began to t a l k at once. Both E l l e n and Wilma had had an opportunity t o go f o r a r i d e , but had refused, and had t r i e d to stop the other t h r e e g i r l s . E r n i e was v i r t u o u s about the f a c t that he had 93 a l s o been i n v i t e d but had not gone, since he knew t h a t Jack could not p o s s i b l y be r i d i n g around i n a 19^6 Mercury l e g i t i m a t e l y . The boyswere h i g h l y indignant because they had a l l been p i c k e d up f o r quest i o n i n g by the p o l i c e , and Roger was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b e d . H i s f a m i l y d i d not l i k e i t when t h i n g s l i k e t h a t happened, he s a i d . As each new member of the gang came i n , the whole a f f a i r was rehashed, and i t was evident that a number of the others had been j o y - r i d i n g , too, but had been able t o d i s c a r d t h e i r cars before they had been report e d s t o l e n . The boys were angry at Barbara, D o r i s and V i v i a n because they had informed on the four boys, who had not been p i c k e d up t i l l l a t e r , and Rudy s a i d that they would be much s a f e r i n j a i l than outside where the gang could get at them. Nobody came to the defence of the g i r l s except the worker, who was howled down. 'Squealing 1 was a c a r d i n a l offense. Tommy asked the worker, "Wel l , what do you t h i n k o f your gang now? I t was bad enough when a l l the boys were c o n v i c t s . Now the g i r l s are s t a r t i n g . " He asked Clarence how i t £Q.t t o have a s i s t e r i n the lock-up. Clarence laughed uncomfortably but d i d not comment. This episode took precedence over any d i s c u s s i o n of the dance,, but s u r p r i s i n g l y enough, f o r the f i r s t time they h e l d a f a i r l y long business meeting. I t s t a r t e d out w i t h a statement by Margaret, " I guess t h a t ' s the l a s t dance our bunch w i l l have around here." The worker s a i d that no d e c i s i o n had been reached yet about Saturday dances, but . that the f i g h t had done them a good d e a l of harm. E l l e n 94 expressed r e g r e t but r e p o r t e d that the two gangs were f r i e n d s again and there would be no more f i g h t i n g . The worker commented that the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n could have come at a b e t t e r time. E t h e l brought up the subject of the t i c k e t s which had been s o l d on Hastings s t r e e t , and asked what should be done about i t . Denis s a i d that E r n i e had o f f e r e d to pay f o r them and t h i s would take care of the matter. E t h e l d i d not want to l e t go so e a s i l y but E r n i e moved around beside her and t o l d her t o keep q u i e t . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e b i c k e r i n g , the worker stepped i n and s a i d she thought i f the t i c k e t s were p a i d f o r there was no need f o r f u r t h e r argument. A l l t h e i r other lapses from grace were discussed at l e n g t h . None of them would admit to being d r u n k — ' f e e l i n g good' was as f a r as they would go. Rudy's behaviour was explained away by the statement that he always had a f i g h t on Saturday n i g h t — i t was i n h i s blood. He d i d , however, make extravagant promises f o r the next dance i f there were one. Tommy thought the crap shooting had been p o o r — i t gave the place a bad name. Clarence s a i d that there would be no more crap shooting now t h a t Tony was i n j a i l . This statement came at an inopportune moment because the worker had j u s t n o t i c e d that the boys not t a k i n g part i n the meeting were having a game i n the corner. Several d e c i s i o n s were made i n case there was another dance. Thenajne of the club was t o be changed so no one would know they were the same group; everybody was to be searched at the door f o r l i q u o r ; d i c e were to be l e f t w i t h the c a s h i e r , and Rudy was only to come i f he were i n a 95 p e a c e f u l mood. I n order t o make sure that there would be r e g u l a r business meetings, they decided that the ' r e l i a b l e guys' were t o come i n w i t h the g i r l s at seven o'clock and the others were not to appear u n t i l 8:30, a f t e r which they would j ust • f o o l around 1. There was a good deal of excitement i n the atmosphere d u r i n g the e n t i r e evening, and once the business meeting was over the boys began to wander. Several o f them went up to the gymnasium and heckled the archery group u n t i l the worker went up and c o l l e c t e d them. Downstairs again, they s t a r t e d a water-gun f i g h t i n and out of the showers, and c a r r i e d on w i t h t h i s form of amusement u n t i l they conceived the idea of p u t t i n g the g i r l s under the showers. While she was breaking t h i s up, Tommy explained t o the worker that the gang was always w i l d e r when something 'big' had happened on the week-end. They stayed u n t i l about 10:^5 when Denis suggested that they leave, so the worker could get home e a r l y f o r a change. Going through the gymnasium they t r i e d out the v e r t i c a l bar and a l l the other equipment and d i d a l o t of y e l l i n g and shoving. . In the lobby, Denis and A l f went over the l i s t of the boys who were to come at seven and t o l d the others not t o show up t i l l 8:30 next time. The l i s t was sanctioned by E r n i e and they l e f t . The f o l l o w i n g morning, the worker contacted the J u v e n i l e Detention Home and was t o l d that the g i r l s were being r e l e a s e d that day. No charges had been l a i d against them, but they were to give evidence at the t r i a l o f the four boys. 96 Miss Thompson c a l l e d to r e p o r t that she had seen Barbara and Doris who, she s a i d , were d i s t u r b e d not so much by t h e i r misbehaviour as by the f a c t that the boys would consider them informers. A l l three of them came down to the agency Tuesday evening. They were r a t h e r sheepish, but were f e e l i n g q u i t e important n e v e r t h e l e s s . The episode had been e x c i t i n g , and now that they had been r e l e a s e d they were ab l e t o savour i t . D o r i s assured the worker t h a t the f i r s t t h i n g they had thought of at the det e n t i o n home was that she and Miss Thompson would f i n d out and be disappointed i n them. The worker admitted that both of them were worried and s u r p r i s e d when they heard of i t . Barbara s a i d they had c e r t a i n l y l e a r n e d t h e i r l e s s o n ; and wit h these p r e l i m i n a r i e s out of the way, they launched i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of the chase. The other g i r l s l i s t e n e d i n r a p t s i l e n c e as they t o l d about careening down the highway at eighty m i l e s an hour w i t h the p o l i c e car i n p u r s u i t . Barbara discounted newspaper s t o r i e s which s a i d that the boys had run o f f and l e f t them t o 'take the rap'. She had been beside Jack, when the p o l i c e had s t a r t e d to f i r e at them, and he had pushed her down t o the ground so she would not get h u r t . A l l the boys had t r i e d t o hel p them and had y e l l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s , but they had been laughing so hard they could not run. None o f them had been the l e a s t b i t a f r a i d , they s a i d , u n t i l the p o l i c e had caught them. They had not t o l d on the boys. Each was q u i t e d e f i n i t e about t h a t . I t was Barbara's mother who had t o l d the p o l i c e 97 which of the group were i n v o l v e d . The o f f i c e r s had questioned them s e v e r a l times, and the f i r s t time they had a l l t o l d l i e s . A f t e r that they had t o l d the t r u t h , but had not mentioned the names o f t h e i r companions. They had not l i k e d the de t e n t i o n home very much. Doris s a i d she had c r i e d a l l n i g h t a f t e r they had locked her door. She seemed more unhappy about the a f f a i r than the others , who were c h i e f l y worried about the boys' r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r r e l e a s e . D o r i s ' mother had come out to the home, but she had re f u s e d to see her at f i r s t . F i n a l l y she had gone out, and her mother had been c r y i n g , she s a i d , as i f she were a c t u a l l y s o r r y f o r what had happened. But i t was j u s t a d i s p l a y f o r the o f f i c i a l s , D oris thought. She f e l t badly about her grandmother, who had 'taken i t hard'. Barbara had expected a ' l i c k i n g ' when she got home, but her parents had j u s t looked a w f u l l y sad and s a i d they were g l a d to have her back. Clarence had been sad, too, but he had not s a i d anything mean t o her. V i v i a n s a i d her mother d i d not care one way or the other. She had hardly n o t i c e d her absence. They stayed j u s t l o n g enough to t e l l each of the g i r l s t h e i r s t o r y ; then they l e f t because Barbara and Doris had been placed on a curfew by t h e i r f a m i l i e s . On the way to the s t r e e t car, the boys caught up w i t h them. They accused Doris and Barbara of t u r n i n g the others i n , and t o l d them w i t h a great deal of p r o f a n i t y what was going t o happen to them. Rudy and Denis walked on e i t h e r s i d e of the worker, t e l l i n g her how much t r o u b l e the g i r l s had got them i n t o . She asked 98 i f the boys who had been a r r e s t e d had been i n the c a r . Denis s a i d i m p a t i e n t l y , "Oh yes, they were a l l t h e r e . But those g i r l s sure don't have much l o y a l t y . " The worker s a i d the g i r l s had t o l d her they had not t a l k e d and she accepted t h e i r word. Rudy argued, "But look what the boys are going to get and the g i r l s are o f f w i t h nothing." She pointed out that the g i r l s had had nothing to do with t h e i r r e l e a s e , and s a i d that i n her o p i n i o n they should have s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g about r e s u l t s before the car was taken, not a f t e r . The boys agreed that the others had been s t u p i d to take the car , but they s t i l l could not accept the g i r l s ' b e t r a y a l . Tommy was the only one who defended them, and he s a i d that any time a car was missing those 'guys' were j u s t n a t u r a l l y p i c k e d up and they had probably admitted i t . The worker was not sure that the g i r l s would a r r i v e home i n t a c t w i t h the boys i n t h i s mood, but Rudy f i n a l l y agreed t o a compromise, "We won't do nothing t o n i g h t . We'll wait and see what happens at the t r i a l . " According to the newspapers, f r i e n d s of the accused packed the p o l i c e court to the doors f o r the t r i a l . The worker decided, a f t e r g i v i n g the matter s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t her presence i n the courtroom might j e o p a r d i z e her p o s i t i o n w i t h the group, and would i n any case serve no u s e f u l purpose, so she d i d not attend. The g i r l s gave completely c o n f l i c t i n g evidence, w i t h the r e s u l t that Max and Tony r e c e i v e d a remand. Jack was found g u i l t y and sentenced t o nine months. Doug was f i n e d $150 and placed on suspended sentence. Max and Tony a l s o r e c e i v e d suspended sentence 99 TEMPORARY DISINTEGRATION OF GANG CHAPTER V The t r i a l brought w i t h i t repercussions which once again threatened to break up the gang. The f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of d i s u n i t y came from the g i r l s who a r r i v e d at the meeting t h a t n i g h t about an hour ahead of the boys. D o r i s , Barbara and V i v i a n were f u l l o f t h e i r experience on the witness stand and hoped t h a t , having confused the i s s u e , they had regained the good o p i n i o n of the boys.. Barbara and V i v i a n were i n a gay, e x c i t e d mood, but D o r i s seemed, unhappy. She and Barbara had l o s t t h e i r jobs as a r e s u l t of the a f f a i r and i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s they had been forbidden to have anything to do w i t h each o t h e r . E l l e n was g l o a t i n g over t h i s f a c t , s i n c e D o r i s had repl a c e d her as Barbara's best f&end and now she hoped to r e g a i n her former p o s i t i o n . The worker asked i f t h e i r parents knew they were together t o n i g h t . Barbara pointed out t h a t the c l u b was d i f f e r e n t - you oould not get i n t o t r o u b l e there. E l l e n com)timued t o prod D o r i s u n t i l she flounced out to the washroom w i t h V i v i a n and Margaret i n tow. From the conversation which took place w h i l e she was out o f the room, i t was apparent t h a t she was being groomed a s scapegoat, i n case the boys were s t i l l not m o l l i f i e d . Barbara appeared r e l u c t a n t , but w i t h some coaching from E l l e n , admitted t h a t i f anyone had 1 s q u e a l e d 1 , i t must have been 100 Doris. Some of the others defended her in a half hearted manner, but the worker f e l t that a l l that was needed to under-mine her completely was a l i t t l e pressure from the boys. The worker had just succeeded in returning Doris and her two supporters to the clubroom in a reasonably cheer-f u l frame of mind when Julia came over to report that Denis and some of the boys wished to speak with her privately i n the h a l l . Tony, Clarence and Sam were with Denis. A l l of them were looking grim and Sam had a large bandage over one eye. Denis explained that the boys had had a big argument and half of them had decided to withdraw from the gang. The worker asked what the trouble was. He was not very clear on this, but said that a lot of them were angry with the g i r l s for informing and that someone, namely Sam, (who had been kicked in the eye by Theo), had been passing rumours around and that the gang were just generally fighting among themselves. They wanted to come down into the basement to have i t out, but had agreed to get the worker's permission f i r s t . Denis thought there might be a fight - he hoped though that i t could be settled otherwise. The worker said she did not want a brawl, but that she was willing to take a chance on them. Tony disappeared outside and i n a minute returned with the rest of the boys, who established themselves in two opposing camps on different sides of the basement and brea-thed f i r e at each other. Sam, i n the meantime, had gone i n -side with the g i r l s . The worker hovered around u n t i l Ernie 101 suggested, because o f the bad language which would be s t a r t -i n g t o f l y , that she should go i n t o the clubroom t o o . She d i d so, and was immediately surrounded by the g i r l s who wanted t o know what was happening. They were sure i t was an outcome o f the g i r l s ' evidence and once again D o r i s came i n f o r the g r e a t e r share o f the blame. Over the b l a r e o f the r e c o r d p l a y e r c o u l d be heard the sound o f angry v o i c e s and from the l i t t l e she could p i c k up, the worker q u i t e agreed w i t h E r n i e about the language. The b a t t l e waged f u r i o u s l y f o r about h a l f an hour. Then Denis came t o the worker and s a i d , "They aren't f i n i s h e d arguing but t h e y ' l l come i n t o the clubroom now.* They slunk i n t o the room, s t i l l h o s t i l e and s u l l e n and arranged themselves i n groups, g l a r i n g a t each o t h e r . Denis suggested t h a t they have a business meeting r i g h t away. Rudy t o l d the worker he was going t o have something t o say i n t h i s meeting. E r n i e s t a r t e d t o l e a v e , but h i s gang gathered around and coaxed him t o s t a y . He slumped down i n a c h a i r l o o k i n g very b l a c k . Rudy climbed up on a s t o o l and c a l l e d the meeting t o order. H i s speech, though s l i g h t l y profane, was eloquent. He was g e t t i n g s i c k o f a l l the b i c k e r i n g and back b i t i n g among the members o f the gang -g i r l s t a l k i n g about g i r l s behind t h e i r back, boys doing the same - a l l causing t r o u b l e . He used Sam as an example. He, Rudy s a i d , had got h i s eye k i c k e d i n because he had been t e l l i n g t a l e s among the gang. He asked Sam i f t h i s were not so. Sam s a i d there had been no foundation f o r h i s gossip 102 and admitted that he had deserved the punishment. Rudy-agreed and went on to say that unless they a l l stuck to-gether and played square with each other, the gang might as well break up. He stepped over to the door and flung i t open with a dramatic flourish. If anyone wanted to leave the gang, they could go now - he would deal with them on the way out. No one moved. He returned to his stool and asked a l l those i n favour of staying to raise their hands. Everyone, thoroughly cowed by this time, was only too glad to do so. Having accomplished this, he told them that i f they had any other beefs they were to settle them. Murmurs from the -boys indicated that some of them were s t i l l displeased with Sam and the three g i r l s . Sam.was taken back into the fold after he had formally apologized to Ernie, for some obscure reason, and the two had shaken hands. Rudy was magnanimous about the g i r l s . He would not, he said, state his personal opinion of them at this time - obviously i t -was unprintable -but since they were members of the olub too, the boys were to treat them decently in. club meetings - what they did to them any other time was l e f t to their own discretion. The boys wanted to become regular members of the olub from now on, he said, not just dance committee people. He was quite democratic about this however, giving the g i r l s an opportunity to vote them into the club by another show of hands. Barbara meekly mentioned fees and Rudy, carried away by.his success, announced that the boys could easily con-tribute a dollar each to start. A loud protest from them 103 was smothered when he demanded ominously, "Any beefs, you guys, J u s t take them up w i t h me!** The qu e s t i o n of a t -tendance of the whole gang on Tuesdays was s e t t l e d by the g i r l s , who s a i d t h a t s i n c e the oar episode, t h e i r f a m i l i e s had been clamping down and they were j u s t allowed out on one week n i g h t . They decided t o h o l d the club on Monday evenings only i n f u t u r e . The r e b e l l i o n q u e l l e d , Rudy brought the business meeting t o an end and sat back t o r e c e i v e the p l a u d i t s o f the gang and the worker. Everyone had been v e r y much impressed by h i s speech and f o r the r e s t o f the evening he was surrounded by an admiring audience. The worker, too, had considered the speech e f f e c t i v e , but she was i n c l i n e d t o a t t r i b u t e much of i t s success to Rudy's f i g h t i n g p o t e n t i a l i t i e s r a t h e r than t o h i s o r a t o r y . Aside from t h i s , however, she was sure t h a t he was p u t t i n g i n t o words the f e e l i n g s o f the others when he made h i s p l e a f o r u n i t y among the gang. There was panic in. the a i r when the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a break-up came out i n t o the open. Whatever t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , membership i n the gang meant s e c u r i t y t o a l l of them and t h e i r ready acquiescence once Rudy took c o n t r o l , showed how anxious they were t o . climb back t o s a f e t y . R e l i e f was evident during the r e s t o f the evening and former a d v e r s a r i e s f e l l over each other i n , t h e i r e f f o r t s t o be a f f a b l e . Even the three o f f e n d i n g g i r l s were i n c l u d e d i n the atmosphere of b r o t h e r l y l o v e which eas-veloped the elubroom. Denis thanked the worker f o r a l l o w i n g them t o h o l d t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i n the agency and s a i d , as 1C4 i f lie were p o i n t i n g out a new i d e a t o her, t h a t t h i s j u s t proved what he had always contended - t h a t arguments could be s e t t l e d without having t o r e s o r t t o f o r c e . R e f e r r a l o f D o r i s The only person who d i d not weather the storm was D o r i s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were i n v o l v e d i n her withdrawal from the c l u b . As the worker a n t i c i p a t e d , she bore the brunt of the boys' and consequently the g i r l s ' d i s p l e a s u r e over the oar episode, once they got over the ro s y glow of renewed f r i e n d -s h i p . Her c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Barbara had been d i s -rupted, because Barbara, i n c o n s t a n t i n such t h i n g s , had r e -turned quite h a p p i l y t o E l l e n ' s sphere o f i n f l u e n c e once the fun o f sec r e t rendezvous w i t h D o r i s began t o p a l l . And i n her home as i n the gang D o r i s was faced w i t h complete r e -j e c t i o n . Her n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n was to t r y to escape from the whole s i t u a t i o n by l e a v i n g the d i s t r i c t . I n t h i s d e s i r e she was a l t e r n a t e l y encouraged and discouraged by her grandmother. Her appeal t o the worker f o r help r e s u l t e d i n the f i r s t group work-case work r e f e r r a l i n the c l u b . The r e f e r r a l was not a success; i t foundered before D o r i s ever made an appearance a t the agency t o which she was r e -f e r r e d . And w h i l e the l a c k o f r e s u l t s was p a r t l y a t t r i b u -t a b l e to f a u l t y handling, much of the t r o u b l e l a y i n the f a c t that D o r i s was too o l d , a t l e a s t i n experience to accept, i n her f i r s t contact w i t h a case work agency, the s e r v i c e s 105 o f a c h i l d r e n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n . And there were no other agen-o i e s i n the community who could handle her problems. Her case made only too evident the almost insurmoumtable d i f -f i c u l t i e s w i t h which one was faced i n making any s o r t of p r a c t i c a l a l t e r a t i o n i n the vagabond exis t e n c e o f young-s t e r s of t h i s s o r t . For s i x t e e n years she had been per-m i t t e d to do very much as she pleased, w i t h n e i t h e r a f -f e c t i o n nor d i s c i p l i n e t o keep her i n check. She had been out on the s t r e e t s a t a l l hours of the n i g h t , exposed t o adventures which would make a q u i e t , w e l l ordered home seem d u l l and plodding by comparison. Now her behaviour p a t t e r n was f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Whenever a s i t u a t i o n became too d i f f i c u l t o r unpleasant, she withdrew from i t and t r i e d something e l s e . T h i s was apparent i n her work record as w e l l as elsewhere, and i n her d e c i s i o n t o leave home, she was once again f o l l o w i n g the l i n e o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e . As soon as she r e a l i z e d the complicated nature of such a move, Do r i s l o s t i n t e r e s t . Her f i r s t p l a n was t o move i n t o a g i r l s ' residence but when she discovered t h a t she was too young t o do so, she expressed h e r s e l f as w i l l i n g t o t r y anything the worker sug-gested. She was not too happy when she le a r n e d t h a t any placement would have t o be made through one of the c h i l d -ren's agencies i n town. L i k e most o f the members o f the gang, D o r i s looked upon s o c i a l agencies w i t h s u s p i c i o n , as p o s s i b l e t h r e a t s t o her independence. Then t o o , she p i c -t u r e d l e a v i n g home as something i n the nature of a dramatic io6 runaway, r a t h e r than as a slow, c a r e f u l process i n c h i l d w e l f a r e . For these reasons, the worker decided t o pro-ceed s l o w l y , e x p l a i n i n g thoroughly a l l the steps r e q u i r e d i n such a move. However, even a f t e r becoming f u l l y i n f o r -med i n the matter, Do r i s was apparently ready t o go t o the agency and see what they had to o f f e r . The worker had a conference w i t h Miss Smith o f the s o c i a l agency i n question and made arrangements f o r an i n t e r v i e w between her and D o r i s , Right up u n t i l the day of her appointment, D o r i s kept a s s u r i n g h e r s e l f t h a t t h i s was what she wanted. At the l a s t minute though, she was unable to f o l l o w through. The worker d i d not see' her ag a i n a f t e r she had f a i l e d t o keep her appointment w i t h Miss Smith. D o r i s e x p l a i n e d to Miss Thompson s e v e r a l days l a t e r t h a t she had decided against going to the agency because her grandmother had been upset a t the prospect o f l o s i n g her. Looking back upon the ease, the worker r e a l i z e d t h a t the grandmother should have been brought i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n r i g h t a t the f i r s t , but D o r i s had been s t r o n g l y opposed t o any such con-t a c t . Her grandmother would not leave the house and D o r i s was not anxious t o have the worker v i s i t her t h e r e . Her. greate'st mistake i n the handl i n g o f the case came, the worker f e l t , when she f i n a l l y d i d c a l l a t D o r i s * home. I t was a d r e a d f u l p l a c e , one of s i x t e e n s u i t e s i n a s m a l l , d i r t y , unpalnted tenement house. Her grandmother peered out from behind a h a l f open door and t o l d her D o r i s was not home. The worker gave her name and asked i f she would have 107 Doris get i n touch w i t h her. Without answering, beyond a mutter whioh the worker could not understand, the o l d woman slammed the door i n her f a c e . This v i s i t was, the worker b e l i e v e d , what f i n a l l y removed D o r i s from the agency. She t o l d Miss Thompson t h a t she could not bear t o face the worker now t h a t she knew the k i n d o f place i n whioh she l i v e d . Because M i s s Thompson was c o n t i n u i n g her i n t e r e s t i n D o r i s , the worker made no f u r t h e r attempt t o contact her. I n t h i s connection i t might be noted that throughout the period of her membership i n the c l u b , Miss Thompson had a l -ways been i n the background ready to o f f e r advice and as-s i s t a n c e t o D o r i s w i t h her p e r s o n a l problems. There was, t h e r e f o r e , considerable d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t , as w e l l as some confusion, because the two a d v i s o r s were approaching her problems from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f view. The worker, as club l e a d e r , possessed no a u t h o r i t y and n a t u r a l l y had t o ope-r a t e w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e program. M i s s Thompson, on the other hand, was a b l e t o take d i r e c t a c t i o n , and d i r e c t a c t i o n was what D o r i s wanted. Pr e p a r a t i o n s f o r the second dance The r e s t o f the gang, under Rudy's w a t c h f u l eye, r e -mained on good terms w i t h each other and the worker d u r i n g the weeks p r i o r t o the second dance. A f t e r the row among the boys, E r n i e seemed t o l o s e h i s p o s i t i o n as behind the 103 scenes l e a d e r of the gang, to he replaced by Rudy, whose approach was more d i r e c t . He took h i s job s e r i o u s l y and seemed t o f e e l t h a t the success o f t h i s second dance was necessary to c o n s o l i d a t e h i s gains. Consequently there were r e g u l a r business meetings and everyone was t o l d over and over a g a i n what t h e i r posts f o r the n i g h t would be. The gang undertook to supply a l l the records f o r the event themselves and E t h e l , who was i n charge of c o l l e c t i n g them, by some m i r a c l e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n was able t o secure about two hundred from the v a r i o u s members. T h i s was a conces-s i o n because records were valued possessions and there was always, the danger of having them s t o l e n . Among the c o l l e c -t i o n were some which looked s u s p i c i o u s l y l i k e the ones which had gone m i s s i n g a t the f i r s t p a r t y . When the worker men-t i o n e d t h i s , the boys e x p l a i n e d , q u i t e unabashed, t h a t they had 'borrowed* them. Bertha and Theo spent s e v e r a l n i g h t s making h i g h l y c o l o r e d p o s t e r s w i t h zoot s u i t e r s and Yarga g i r l s a l l over them. And throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n s ran stronger than u s u a l the promises o f good behaviour. Rudy p a r t i c u l a r l y , seemed t o want t o keep i n mind the new l e a f he was t u r n i n g over and he spent a good d e a l o f time r e -a s s u r i n g the worker. Trouble o u t s i d e the agency These good i n t e n t i o n s were i n t e r r u p t e d however on the Saturday before the dance when they became i n v o l v e d i n a 109 brawl at a s i s t e r agency, the Crescent Centre. Rudy s t a r t e d i t w i t h one o f h i s r e g u l a r Saturday n i g h t e f f o r t s , Whea the p o l i c e a r r i v e d , they demanded th a t the troublemakers be i d e n -t i f i e d and w i t h considerable reluctance one of the: members of the Crescent dance club named Rudy, Theo and N i c k , who, of course, had vanished by t h a t time. The news o f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n spread and once the p o l i c e were s a f e l y out of the way, the gangs began t o gather. I t was amazing how q u i c k l y the word passed around the east end on occasions such as t h i s - w i t h i n h a l f an hour about a hundred boys were m i l l i n g around o u t s i d e the agency ready t o a t t a c k the dance group as they l e f t . I n the i n t e r m i s s i o n before the p o l i c e appeared a g a i n , the besiegers were able to make o f f w i t h twelve overcoats through the window of the c l o a k room. The boy who had made the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the group l e a d e r were f i n a l l y smuggled out the back of the b u i l d i n g i n t o a t r u c k and taken home when the gangs threatened t o charge the p l a c e . And some of the others were beaten up once they got beyond the p r o t e c t i o n of the prowler c a r s which came and dispersed the mob. The gang a r r i v e d a t club meeting on Monday n i g h t i n the e x c i t e d mood t h a t always f o l l o w e d a week end of t h i s s o r t . The v e r s i o n whioh they gave the worker of the Crescent a f f a i r was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from that o f the other l e a d e r and i f she were to take t h e i r word f o r i t they were f a r more sinned against than s i n n i n g . The coat episode was not mentioned and when the worker brought i t up, Rudy assured her t h a t t h a t was 110 the work o f 'some other guys*• They were i n t e n t upon se-c u r i n g revenge f o r the outrageous treatment they had r e -ceiv e d and were having a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y f i t t i n g t h e i r own h i g h l y moral dance i n t o the schedule of mayhem they were pl a n n i n g f o r Crescent on the f o l l o w i n g Saturday. The worker went t o a great d e a l o f t r o u b l e t o make .clear t o them the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two agencies, Theo s a i d , "We don't have any beef a g a i n s t the c l u b . I t ' s j u s t the people who go t h e r e . " The worker, on r a t h e r p r e c a r i o u s ground, asked i f they would not res e n t having someone e l s e break up t h e i r dances. To t h i s Denis r e p l i e d a i r i l y , "Nobody would dare." The matter was discussed back and f o r t h a t l e n g t h , and they were not a l i t t l e d i s a p p o inted t h a t the worker should question t h e i r conduct. She d i d manage t o e x t r a c t a h a l f hearted promise that they would leave the Crescent Centre alone, but the promise was s t r i c t l y i n the nature o f a p a l l i a t i v e and not t o be taken too s e r i o u s l y by e i t h e r s i d e . Second Dance Their own dance, except f o r a few new and v i c i o u s s i d e -l i g h t s was s i m i l a r t o t h e i r f i r s t one. However, i f the be-haviour of the crowd as a whole was worse, t h a t of most o f the members was much improved. The g i r l s once again stuck r i g i d l y to t h e i r posts and w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y hung onto most of the money they had c o l l e c t e d . The- boys were deter-mined t o keep order a t any p r i c e - and f o r a time they d i d -I l l the p r i c e being l a r g e numbers of f i g h t s out i n the a l l e y , which, except f o r the evidence o f s e v e r a l b l e e d i n g noses, were kept s u c c e s s f u l l y from the worker*s eyes. None of the g i r l s i n the club and on l y a few o f the boys d i d any d r i n k i n g . Tommy was one o f the exceptions. He was obstreperous and i n s i s t e d upon p l a y i n g Tarzan w i t h some ropes which hung from the balcony t o the gymnasium f l o o r . Wheat the commissionaire t r i e d t o h a l t h i s a c t i -v i t i e s , he became nasty, and the worker c a l l e d i n Denis t o a d e a l w i t h him. N i c k , who was a l s o drunk, came t o Tommy's defence and t o l d the. worker to leave him alone or he would h i t her. Denis took the two of them o u t s i d e . I n about f i v e minutes Tommy rushed back i n w i t h a b l e e d i n g nose and s w e l l i n g eye. Denis t o l d the worker, "I'm s o r r y I had t o h i t him. I couldn't reason w i t h him any other way." N i c k had come around to Denis' way o f t h i n k i n g a f t e r Tommy had landed an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e k i c k i n h i s stomach. E r n i e had a l s o been d r i n k i n g h e a v i l y , but whereas Tommy was quarrelsome, he was amorous. On one of her p a t r o l s through the balcony, the worker came upon him and J u l i a s t a g i n g a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n which went f a r beyond the bounds o f or d i n a r y necking. She tapped E r n i e on the shoulder and sug-gested t h a t they slow down, then went downstairs and sent Tony up t o take a look around. E r n i e appeared l o o k i n g l i k e a storm cloud a few minutes l a t e r a t the cloak room, de-manded h i s coat and l e f t . J u l i a came over and ap o l o g i z e d , saying t h a t E r n i e had been t e r r i b l y embarrassed at being 112 caught be the worker. J u l i a h e r s e l f was not perturbed -she gave the impression t h a t she was e x p l a i n i n g away a s l i g h t lapse i n e t i q u e t t e t o a stodgy a d u l t . The boys managed to keep the dance under uneasy c o n t r o l u n t i l about eleven o'clock. And when the blow-up came i t was not Rudy who touched i t o f f . With a remarkable d i s p l a y of s e l f d i s c i p l i n e he managed t o s t a y out of t r o u b l e f o r the e n t i r e evening. At r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s he reported t h i s f a c t t o the worker and they congratulated each o t h e r on h i s exemplary behaviour. What might have happened had Rudy been, i n the b u i l d i n g when the main bout took p l a c e w i l l never be known; f o r some reason he chose that h a l f hour t o v i s i t elsewhere, r e t u r n i n g t o the dance i n time t o express r i g h t -eous i n d i g n a t i o n a t the d i s g r a c e f u l conduct o f the o t h e r s . The b a t t l e took place i n the lobby once again because the boys were t r y i n g 'to observe the p r o p r i e t i e s and do t h e i r f i g h t i n g o u t s i d e . Clarence, who was q u i t e drunk, claimed t h a t another boy had t r i e d t o h i t him over the head w i t h a broken b o t t l e and they were proceeding to the s t r e e t t o s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . The commissionaire and the j a n i t o r got h o l d of the two boys however and t r i e d t o c a j o l e them i n t o r e t u r n i n g t o the gymnasium. Theo came over t o the worker and s a i d , "You'd b e t t e r l e t them get i t out o f t h e i r system. Clarence i s too h i g h t o hurt the other k i d much.", The worker agreed w i t h him, but the two men i n s i s t e d upon peace. Clarence and Theo went back i n t o the gymnasium w h i l e the other boys cowered behind the commissionaire. The worker 113 t r i e d t o get him away from the b u i l d i n g , but he was- stub-born and i n s i s t e d upon w a i t i n g while someone went i n t o get; h i s f r i e n d s . When they came out, Clarence, Theo, and s e v e r a l others came too, and without any warning, the f i g h t was on. About t e n boys were i n v o l v e d . I t was an extremely b r u t a l f i g h t , i n which a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s and p a r t i c u l a r l y Theo and Clarence used t h e i r f e e t , w h i l e one of the boys was l y i n g on the f l o o r unconscious., Theo k i c k e d him a g a i n and again i n the stomach. The two men and the worker t r i e d to stop the f i g h t , but the boys, beyond shoving them out o f the way, p a i d no a t t e n t i o n t o them. Somehow they got through the doors a t the top o f the s t a i r s and continued the b a t t l e on the s t e p s . F i n a l l y one of them was pushed through the g l a s s doors and the others f o l l o w e d him. The loud crash calmed them down somewhat and when the p o l i c e , whom the r e c e p t i o n i s t had c a l l e d , a r r i v e d a few minutes l a t e r , a l l the combatants had disappeared. Since the group i n the gymnasium was not aware that-anything had been going on and dancing was f a i r l y g e n e r a l , the worker allowed the dance t o c a r r y on t i l l twelve o'clock. The c l u b members gathered around her t o f i n d out what had happened. They seemed t o be genuinely upset about the f i g h t and w o r r i e d about the t r o u b l e she would get i n t o because of the smashed doors. Tony s a i d , "We might as w e l l admit t h a t we can't handle l a r g e dances. From now on we j u s t have p a r t i e s w i t h our own k i d s . " The others agreed, p l a c i n g the 11* blame on the v i s i t o r s and i g n o r i n g the f a c t t h a t the i n -s t i g a t o r s of the f i g h t were, as u s u a l , members o f t h e i r gang. They were very much a f r a i d t h a t t h i s would mean the end of the club and were r e l i e v e d when the worker assured them that the Monday 'meetings would continue. When c l o s i n g time came, the boys c o u l d not get the crowd t o leave. S e v e r a l o l d e r f e l l o w s who had come i n l a t e commandeered the p u b l i c address system and the records and i n s i s t e d upon having a request program. The mood of the crowd became unpleasant when Denis announced t h a t they were c l o s i n g up shop and f i n a l l y A l f came over t o the worker and s a i d , "We t h i n k they need a couple of blue uniforms t o move them. It*11 take a brawl t o get them out otherwise." The p o l i c e were c a l l e d again and when they appeared on the scene, the gymnasium emptied q u i c k l y . Damage was co n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r a t t h i s dance than at the e a r l i e r one. I n a d d i t i o n t o the f r o n t doors, two others had been s p l i n t e r e d . The s t o r e room had been broken i n t o and three cases of coke b o t t l e s had been d e l i b e r a t e l y smashed a l l over the f l o o r . The clubroom and gymnasium were a shambles and pools of blood i n the washrooms, the showers and on the s t a i r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there had been a number of v i o l e n t arguments. However, I n s p i t e of t h i s , most of the club members had done t h e i r duty t o the best of t h e i r a b i l i t y and a d e s i r e t o co-operate w i t h the worker had been evident d u r i n g the e n t i r e evening. Sam came through s u r p r i s i n g l y . He stayed long a f t e r the others had gone, sweeping the clubroom and 115 p i c k i n g up broken b o t t l e s . The others o f f e r e d t o s t a y , too, but the house s e c r e t a r y was anxious t o get everyone out of the b u i l d i n g , so they l e f t without too much u r g i n g . The gang s u f f e r e d a severe l o s s the f o l l o w i n g day. Rudy and Max were a r r e s t e d f o r car t h e f t . They had gone f o r a r i d e and i n the course of the u s u a l p o l i c e chase had jumped a d i t c h , plowed through a fence and t u r t l e d the c a r , thereby smashing i t up r a t h e r badly. For t h i s they each r e c e i v e d a sentence of eighteen months. With Rudy gone, the gang was minus a l e a d e r as w e l l as a s t r o n g advocate f o r u n i t y . E r n i e , a f t e r h i s h u m i l i a t i n g experience at the dance, withdrew from the club t e m p o r a r i l y , and Denis, at l e a s t i n the meetings, took charge. They seemed t o have had t h e i r f i l l o f dances and were content t o s e t t l e down t o a f a i r l y t r a n q u i l round of ping pong games, dancing and t a l k i n g . The removal of Rudy from the gang seemed t o have a q u i e t i n g e f f e c t on the o t h e r s , and f o r some time they managed to keep out of d i f f i c u l t i e s both i n and out of club meetings. Their apparent change of heart was e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e when t h e i r a rch enemies, the Crescent c l u b , h e l d a dance a t the agency on a Monday n i g h t . The worker, when approached, refused to cancel the r e g u l a r meeting of Club 57 f o r t h a t n i g h t , s i n c e she f e l t t h a t t h i s would be u n f a i r , and might have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t upon her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the group. With considerable r e l u c t a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , the dance committee agreed to Issue an i n v i t a t i o n t o the members of Club 57, at the same time t e l l i n g c e r t a i n of t h e i r own boys, who had annoyed the gang, to stay at home. 116 When the gang a r r i v e d the worker t o l d them th a t the Crescent group had i n v i t e d them t o the dance. Tony an-nounced t h a t they knew a l l about i t and had intended t o crash i t anyway. The worker pointed out t h a t the other club had been w i l l i n g t o make a f r i e n d l y gesture and she was hoping,that her club would do the same. They were hard t o convince, but f i n a l l y Denis s a i d , " A l l r i g h t , gang. Kb rough s t u f f . " Then, t u r n i n g to the worker, he added, "But we're not going t o have them i n our c l u b room messing i t up." Nick , who had been put out of the Crescent club s e v e r a l months b e f o r e , s t a r t e d t o leave as soon as he saw them i n the gymnasium. The worker asked him where he was going and he s a i d , " I suppose I'm going t o be k i c k e d out of here too." She e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had a p e r f e c t r i g h t t o come i n s i n c e he was a member of Club 57 and a f t e r a good d e a l of coaxing, she was able t o shepherd him down to the clubroom. He r e -fused to go up t o the dance f o r a lo n g time and when he d i d , he stuck c l o s e t o the worker and Was c o n t i n u a l l y demanding her a t t e n t i o n . • The dance was a huge success as f a r as i n t e r - c l u b r e -l a t i o n s h i p s were concerned. By t h i s i s meant th a t there were no f i g h t s or even near f i g h t s . Club 57 members kept t h e i r i d e n t i t y and d i d not mingle much w i t h the o t h e r s , but they d i d l o a n some o f t h e i r records - names c a r e f u l l y taken down by A l f - t o the committee, and they d i d l i m i t t h e i r c r i t i -cisms of the dance and i t s sponsors t o snide remarks among themselves. The worker was r e g u l a r l y informed by the boys "7 that she should be proud of her gang, and E t h e l s a i d i t j u s t showed you how n i c e the boys could be i f they t r i e d . The absence of l i q u o r and the presence of a h e f t y policeman g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d the boys w i t h t h e i r good i n t e n t i o n s , but they f e l t t h a t the c r e d i t belonged e n t i r e l y t o them. The clubroom was a source of f a s c i n a t i o n t o the Crescent youngsters, and some of them were g r a c i o u s l y p ermitted t o view i t . They were not allowed to mess i t up however—anyone who was seen t o put a c i g a r e t t e b u t t on the f l o o r was se v e r e l y reprimanded, and a l l eoke b o t t l e s were returned t o t h e i r boxes i n good c o n d i t i o n . Denis kept one of the Club 57 g i r l s o r boys on duty i n the clubroom a l l evening, and every once i n a w h i l e , t o show h i s a u t h o r i t y , he c l o s e d the room and sent everyone but club members back t o the dance. On one ocoasion, when a group of the* boys were huddled on. the f l o o r having a crap game, Tony s a i d i n a shocked v o i c e , "Not i n f r o n t of guests, you guys." The clubroom was d e f i n i t e l y t h e i r p r operty, and they wanted the others t o r e a l i z e t h a t f a c t . E r n i e , who had not attended club s i n c e the second dance, appeared at the f r o n t door about 9:30 and asked the worker c o l d l y i f she would send Denis out t o him. She i n v i t e d him i n but he refused, saying that he had merely come t o see Denis and d i d not i n t e n d to s t a y . The worker got Denis and sent himi to the door. A few minutes l a t e r Denis came up to her and whispered out of the corner of h i s mouth, " I j u s t smuggled E r n i e i n t o the clubroom by the back door." The worker, hot understanding the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s move, s a i d , "But he 118 could have come through the f r o n t door j u s t l i k e every-body e l s e . " " B e t t e r t h i s way." Denis r e p l i e d c r y p t i c a l l y and o f f he went. The r e a f t e r , w i t h a l i t t l e c o n c i l i a t i n g on the p a r t of the worker, E r n i e became once more a f a i t h f u l member of the c l u b . Apparently he f e l t t h a t t h i s un-orthodox means o f entry had evened the score between him-s e l f and the worker and he was able t o r e t u r n without l o s i n g f a c e . I n c r e a s i n g d i s u n i t y among the gang members The l u l l i n aggressive a c t i v i t i e s which was climaxed by the Crescent dance d i d not l a s t l o n g . As has been s t a t e d b e f o r e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the g i r l s and boys was most unst a b l e . During the p e r i o d i n which the club met, the bond of I n t e r e s t between them was g r a d u i l y weakening and by s p r i n g , a l l the g i r l s , except Bertha, E t h e l and I s a b e l had t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r a f f e c t i o n s to boys out s i d e the gang. Most of them kept on a t t e n d i n g club throughout the w i n t e r . F o l l o w i n g the Crescent dance however, there was a d e f i n i t e dropping o f f i n the g i r l s 1 membership, w h i l e the boys' attendance remained h i g h . The boys d i d not take k i n d l y to t h i s withdrawal on the p a r t o f the g i r l s and t h e i r attempts to h a l t i t became more and more v i o l e n t as the gang dwindles. Outbursts i n c l u b meetings became more frequent and v i c i o u s . The anger of the boys seemed t o be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the g i r l s as a 119 group and those who remained i n the gang were as l i a b l e f o r an a t t a c k as were the g i r l s who had l e f t * J u l i a , whose u n f a i t h f u l n e s s was n o t o r i o u s , was s i n g l e d out f o r considerable rough treatment* I n f a i r n e s s t o the boys, i t must be admitted that she was c o n s t a n t l y l e a d i n g them on, and no amount of punishment seemed to teach her t h a t her behaviour was not wise* On s e v e r a l occasions, the worker returned to the clubroom t o f i n d her weeping h y s t e r i c a l l y , w i t h Denis and E r n i e d i s a p p e a r i n g r a p i d l y out the door* Each time they had administered a b e a t i n g before they l e f t * Once when S y l v i a refused t o take an order from Doug, he knocked her o f f her s t o o l onto the f l o o r and k i c k e d her i n the stomach. The worker caught him i n the a c t and t o l d him and the other boys t h a t she would not countenance suoh treatment of the g i r l s i n the agency.* A f t e r t h a t they were s l y i n t h e i r a t t a c k s but an unpleasant undercurrent remained. At the same time, the boys became a c t i v e l y delinquent again. The whole gang was p i c k e d up by the p o l i c e on a charge o f r e c e i v i n g s t o l e n property at Bowen I s l a n d , and Doug, Joe, N i c k and Theo were committed f o r t r i a l . A l l of them r e c e i v e d suspended sentences and were f i n e d . Joe went out immediately and, w i t h another boy, s t o l e a c a r and was a r r e s t e d a f t e r the i n e v i t a b l e chase. The other boy r e -c e i v e d a nine month sentence, but Joe was a c q u i t t e d when he claimed he d i d not know tha t the c a r had been s t o l e n . Doug and Theo i n the meantime had been a r r e s t e d on a charge of breaking and e n t e r i n g . They too were a c q u i t t e d . Tony 120 was charged*" with, a s s a u l t and b a t t e r y as a r e s u l t o f a cafe brawl i n which he s t r u c k a g i r l . He was f i n e d and returned t o the care o f h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , Mike. I n the midst of t h i s v i o l e n c e , the gang decided t o make another attempt to get together again. Denis and E t h e l engineered a p a r t y t o which a l l members of the club were i n v i t e d . Most of the gang attended and f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the evening the clubroom was f i l l e d w i t h n o s t a l g i a . Good times of the past were the t o p i c of the conversation and there was a r a t h e r p a t h e t i c e f f o r t on the p a r t of the boys and E t h e l t o r e v i v e the o l d gang f e e l i n g . E t h e l was p a r t i c u l a r l y anxious to keep the group together because she and Tony had become engaged and she d i d not want the q u a r r e l i n g between the others to i n t e r r u p t t h i s engagement - which i t might e a s i l y do, since Tony resented very s t r o n g l y t h a t h i s f r i e n d s were, as he s a i d , 'being given the run around by those dames'. This p a r t y was the c l o s e s t t o an o r d i n a r y teen age a f f a i r which the c l u b h e l d . Only Apple brought l i q u o r and h i s o f f e r s o f d r i n k s were refused by most o f the o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g h i s o l d d r i n k i n g companion, E r n i e . Dancing was more preva l e n t than u s u a l and the necking, which d i s t i n -guished an o r d i n a r y meeting from a p a r t y , was d i s c r e e t . Barbara t o l d the worker, "We wouldn't mind going out w i t h the boys i f . they were always as n i c e as t h i s . They're the best l o o k i n g k i d s we know, i f they onl y weren't so tough." The food was passed out i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n and when Theo 121 and s e v e r a l o f the others dropped b i t s of cake and sandwiches i n the shower s t a l l s where they were d i n i n g , E r n i e scolded them, got out the broom and swept up the crumbs. The atmosphere was f i l l e d w i t h sweetness and l i g h t u n t i l about eleven t h i r t y , when the worker went u p s t a i r s f o r a few minutes. When she returned, e v e r y t h i n g was changed. About h a l f of the g i r l s were b a r r i c a d e d i n the washroom w i t h the boys o u t s i d e t r y i n g t o push the door i n . The g i r l s were g e t t i n g t h e i r coats and pre p a r i n g f o r a hasty e x i t . When the worker appeared the boys f e l l back from the door, w i t h l o u d and profane t h r e a t s a g a i n s t J u l i a and Roberta. She sent them back i n t o the clubroom and w i t h considerable d i f f i c u l t y managed to get the washroom door open. J u l i a was l y i n g on the f l o o r maoning and Roberta was s i t t i n g on the wash bowl, h o l d i n g one eye and howling. J u l i a was completely h y s t e r i c a l and screamed every time anyone went near her. I t was im-p o s s i b l e t o get a l u c i d s t o r y from the o t h e r s . They were a l l , even E t h e l , f u r i o u s , and t h e i r language was s i m i l a r t o t h a t which the boys had been u s i n g on the other s i d e o f the door. The row had s t a r t e d when Tony slapped E t h e l f o r some reason unknown. The other g i r l s had come to her defence, w h i l e the boys jumped i n on Tony's s i d e . A f t e r making s e v e r a l attempts to get J u l i a o f f the cement f l o o r , the worker went t o the clubroom t o get one o f the boys t o c a r r y her u p s t a i r s . They had a l l disappeared by th a t time, so w i t h much h o i s t i n g and p u l l i n g , she and E t h e l managed to" get the r i g i d J u l i a i n t o the lounge. When she had 122 recovered s u f f i c i e n t l y t o move, the worker went t o c a l l a t a x i . But J u l i a became stubborn. She wanted t o go and f i n d E r n i e and i n s i s t e d that the t a x i be c a n c e l l e d . No amount of t a l k i n g could convince her otherwise. F i n a l l y she l e f t w i t h E t h e l and Roberta, who by t h i s time were a l s o anxious to f i n d the boys. J u l i a , Roberta, E t h e l , Barbara and E l l e n came i n the f o l l o w i n g day, a t the worker's request, t o d i s c u s s the question of c o n t i n u i n g the c l u b . The worker explained t o them t h a t , i n view o f the v i o l e n t t u r n i n the behaviour of the boys, she f e l t t h a t she could not be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g them together i n c l u b meetings si n c e they d i d not see each other elsewhere anymore. Roberta s a i d , "Oh, but we see them a l l the time. They go everywhere we do and act much tougher a t dances and pl a c e s than they do here." Barbara t o l d her t h a t they would have t o st a y home a l t o g e t h e r i f they were not going t o run i n t o the boys. The g i r l s were becoming nervous because the boys had been t h r e a t e n i n g them w i t h mass rape. T h i s had happened bef o r e , they s a i d . B e t t y and J u l i a had gone up the mountain w i t h Joe and Denis s e v e r a l weeks before f o r the week-end. When they got to the c a b i n , a l l the boys but Tony, E r n i e , Ron and Tommy had been there. They had been kept i n the c a b i n f o r two days and according t o J u l i a , each o f the boys had attacked them. Another g i r l who had had a date w i t h Sam had been caught i n the same way w i t h the gang. The worker pointed out t h a t i n the f i r s t p l a c e they 123 ./ should have known b e t t e r than to go up the mountain w i t h these boys. They, however, d i d not see anything wrong w i t h week-ends. That s o r t of t h i n g went on a l l the time and sexual experiences were a r e g u l a r p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s . What they d i d not l i k e was t h i s type of mass a c t i v i t y . A sug-g e s t i o n by the worker t h a t she take up the matter w i t h t h e i r parents o r the a u t h o r i t i e s brought f o r t h l o u d p r o t e s t s . E t h e l s a i d they would be kept i n f o r three n i g h t s o r so and nothing e l s e would happen. The worker's v a l u e , according t o Barbara was t h a t they could t a l k t h i n g s over w i t h her which they would never dare t e l l t h e i r parents, and i f she were going t o l e t them know, they would have no one i n whom they could c o n f i d e . The worker t r i e d t o make them see t h a t rape was a s e r i o u s offense and t h a t i f the boys were a c t u a l l y behaving i n the way which they described, i t would be b e t t e r to d e a l w i t h the problem immediately. They began to renege then. None o f them would consider l a y i n g a charge, p a r t l y out of f e a r of r e p r i s a l s , the worker f e l t , and p a r t l y because up to a p o i n t they had been q u i t e w i l l i n g to co-operate w i t h the boys. A f t e r a great d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n i t was decided t h a t they would a v o i d i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e any contact w i t h the boys, and i f they d i d see them they would do nothing to rouse t h e i r i r e . The worker t o l d them t a c t f u l l y that according t o her observations much of the t r o u b l e was s t a r t e d by the 0 g i r l s themselves w i t h t h e i r p r o v o c a t i v e behaviour. She was t o have .a s e r i o u s t a l k w i t h the boys on the f o l l o w i n g Monday. E t h e l s a i d they a l l thought she was okay, and might l i s t e n t o her. 124-The s e r i o u s t a l k was h e l d a t the next meeting, which was * attended by most of the hoys and none of the g i r l s . They l i s t e n e d courteously and agreed h e a r t i l y w i t h a l l the worker's statements. They were t r e a t i n g the g i r l s too roughly. They were g e t t i n g i n t o too much t r o u b l e w i t h the p o l i c e . They were having too many f i g h t s . And they were l i a b l e t o get i n t o r e a l l y s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i f they were not c a r e f u l . A l l t h i s the boys a l l o w e d — t h e n they went back to t h e i r p i n g pong games and records. T h e r e a f t e r , w h i l e they continued to be very f r i e n d l y and t a l k a t i v e w i t h the worker, they s t e e r e d the conversation f i r m l y away from t h e i r misdemeanors. The club c a r r i e d on f o r two more weeks w i t h only the boys i n attendance. During t h a t time, e v e r y t h i n g was p e a c e f u l , both i n s i d e the club and out. The g i r l s , who dropped i n s e v e r a l times to see the worker, reported, without a great d e a l of i n t e r e s t , t h a t they had not been molested by the boys i n any way. The boys i n t h e i r t u r n seemed to be more or l e s s content to drop i n f o r a few games of p i n g pong on Monday n i g h t s . They were q u i t e r e g r e t f u l when they l e a r n e d that club meetings would have to be stopped because the worker was l e a v i n g the c i t y . But when they found t h a t she would be v i s i t i n g Chicago during her absence they immediately became e n t h u s i a s t i c . N i c k suggested t h a t she f i n d out what the boys i n Chicago were doing and see i f she could not b r i n g back a few new angles f o r them. Sam put i n a l a r g e order f o r records and everybody wanted c i g a r e t t e s . Since o n l y one carton could be brought across the border, they gave her 125 s e v e r a l f o o l - p r o o f smuggling methods. They s a i d l oud good-byes a l l through the b u i l d i n g , repeated t h e i r orders and i n s t r u c t i o n s , and promised to see her on her r e t u r n . As he was going out the door, N i c k bowed from the wai s t and k i s s e d her hand i n h i s best c o n t i n e n t a l s t y l e , and the others applauded n o i s i l y . On t h i s a f f a b l e note, the formal club sessions ended. 126 EVALUATION OF THE GANG'S AGENCY EXPERIENCE CHAPTER VI The f i v e preceding chapters g i v e a p i c t u r e of Club 57 and i t s members as they appeared to the worker d u r i n g her seven months' contact w i t h them. I t i s not hard t o see, from the case h i s t o r y of any one of them, j u s t how they q u a l i f i e d f o r membership i n a gang such as t h i s ; and i t i s apparent from t h e i r behaviour how they are r e a c t i n g to the circumstances that placed them th e r e . But the problem of ac h i e v i n g t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l adjustment t o the s o c i e t y of which they have run a f o u l i s more complicated. A s o l u t i o n t o t h a t problem was not much nearer at the end of the s e s s i o n than i t was at the beginning. However, a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of thiB group work experiment i n d i c a t e s that some progress has been made toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the club members. Perhaps the best method of p r e s e n t i n g both the f a i l u r e s and successes o f the p r o j e c t i s to view i t i n r e l a t i o n t o the u n i v e r s a l l y accepted requirements f o r e f f e c t i v e group work as e s t a b l i s h e d by Saul B e r n s t e i n i n h i s a r t i c l e , 1 " C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work". 1. Saul B e r n s t e i n — " C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work," Chapter i n T,he P r a c t i c e of Group Work. E d i t e d by Dorothea S u l l i v a n , e d i t o r A s s o c i a t i o n Press, New York, 19^1. 127 Concerning group achievement, he asks the f o l l o w i n g questions: "Has the area of concern t o the members been enlarged?" "Do s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s develop so that they f i n d wider e x p r e s s i o n both w i t h i n and without the agency?" "Has the group matured i n i t s sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the agency?" "Have the standards of behaviour of the group been f a v o r a b l y a f f e c t e d by the experience i n the agency?" "Have the p r e j u d i c e s of the group based on n a t i o n a l i t y , f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and other t h i n g s been a l t e r e d or improved by /the agency experience?" None of these could be given e i t h e r an e n t i r e l y a f f i r m a t i v e or an e n t i r e l y negative answer. There has been some success i n each area, but the problems i n the way of complete success continue to loom l a r g e . As to the f i r s t o n e — the horizons of the group have been widened t o a c e r t a i n e xtent. When they f i r s t came to the agency, the group members, e s p e c i a l l y the boys, presented a s o l i d f r o n t against a l l i n t r u d e r s , i n c l u d i n g the worker, other groups and the agency i t s e l f . They took what they wanted and l e f t t h e i r trademark of d e s t r u c t i o n everywhere. Gradually, however, as they came t o r e a l i z e that they were being accepted both as a group and as i n d i v i d u a l s i n s p i t e of t h e i r best e f f o r t s to f o r c e an e v i c t i o n , t h e i r a t t i t u d e changed, and the resentment and d i s t r u s t so apparent at f i r s t was replaced by f r i e n d l i -ness and even confidence. The Crescent dance which came 123 toward the end of the s e s s i o n showed c l e a r l y the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r approach. Where once they would have done everything i n t h e i r power to annoy the worker and the v i s i t i n g group, on t h i s occasion they co-operated to the extent of o f f e r i n g t h e i r own records t o the committee—a tremendous c o n c e s s i o n — and i n d i c a t e d i n other ways that, they were doing t h e i r best t o behave. On that evening, too, everyone who crossed the t h r e s h o l d of the clubroom knew that the members o f Club 57 were the h o s t s . They were proud of the appearance of the p l a c e , and pointed out i t s a t t r a c t i v e features eagerly t o the v i s i t o r s , whose premises were more makeshift. By t h a t time, the youngsters were very much a part of the agency, and although they were possessive, they were secure enough i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n to be "out-going" i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a r i v a l group, without any f e a r of having that p o s i t i o n usurped. But w h i l e the agency i s more f a v o r a b l y s i t u a t e d now i n t h e i r eyes, the gang's r e a c t i o n to the r e s t of the community i s much the same as i t was when they were r e f e r r e d . The outbursts of v i o l e n t behavior and vandalism continue. The c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the boys are s t i l l s e r i o u s , and i f anything more frequent than they were before. The general p i c t u r e i s bad. In the l a r g e and complex problem of t u r n i n g these s o c i a l l y c r i p p l e d g i r l s and boys i n t o i n d i v i d u a l s who can operate e f f e c t i v e l y as a p a r t of the community, the new rapport between them and the agency has e s t a b l i s h e d only a s m a l l f o o t h o l d . Regarding the development of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s among 129 the group members, i t must be admitted that there has been l i t t l e success. However, i n the worker's o p i n i o n , the group was not ready t o accept new a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d i n the agency* When they came, they were l o o k i n g f o r a clubhouse, a pl a c e where they could get together and dance, l i s t e n to records or j u s t f o o l around without being t o l d t o move along because they were annoying the other customers. They d i d not want organized a c t i v i t i e s : any attempts on the pa r t of the worker to b r i n g system i n t o t h e i r meetings were looked upon as evidences of the a u t h o r i t y they found e l s e -where. However, the two l a r g e dances which they planned and c a r r i e d through were new experiences to many of them, si n c e t h e i r usual r o l e at a dance was that of the unwelcome guest sneaking past the commissionaire. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o estimate the value which these events had f o r them. C e r t a i n l y the f a c t that they were the sponsoring group was of great importance to them, and i n t h e i r own way, most of them endeavored to do t h e i r duty. But the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was too gre a t . Had the dances been s u c c e s s f u l , the h i s t o r y of the group's progress might have taken a d i f f e r e n t t u r n . As i t was, they seemed almost r e l i e v e d a f t e r the second f a i l u r e , to r e t u r n t o the s e c u r i t y of t h e i r own clubroom and t h e i r own small group. 'One of the strongest d e t e r r e n t s to e f f e c t i v e program plann i n g was the e f f e c t that outside a c t i v i t i e s had upon the group members. Nothing they found i n the agency could equal the t h r i l l of a car chase w i t h the p o l i c e , or a l u s t y f i g h t 130 i n Chinatown, or the enjoyment d e r i v e d from any of t h e i r other questionable pastimes. And whenever anything e x h i l a r a t i n g occurred on Saturday n i g h t , there was an a f t e r -math on Monday i n club meetings which d i s r u p t e d completely any plans they might have inaugurated the preceding week. During the e n t i r e winter, the gang went from one peak of excitement to another, w i t h no time i n between to r e l a x and get on w i t h the business of l i v i n g a normal l i f e . This constant s t a t e of a g i t a t i o n , when coupled w i t h t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o look any f u r t h e r i n t o the fu t u r e than the next day, made lon g range pla n n i n g impossible. Then too, the unstable r e l a t i o n s h i p between the g i r l s and the boys i n the group was another f a c t which hindered the development of other i n t e r e s t s . Alone, the g i r l s might have moved f a i r l y r a p i d l y . Their few meetings showed that they had a normal teen-ager's i n t e r e s t i n such subjects as beauty c u l t u r e , dramatics and music. There was something here on which t o b u i l d a program. But at the beginning, t h e i r enthusiasm f o r the gang was at i t s height, and w i t h t h e i r usual l a c k of f o r e s i g h t , they welcomed the inroad upon the clu b which e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o t h e i r temporary withdrawal from the agency. The worker, too, made the mistake of assuming t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r gang of boys was of a permanent nature, and encouraged the move. Subsequent events proved t h a t the opportunity f o r o f f e r i n g e f f e c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e to the g i r l s would have been f a r g r e a t e r had the group functioned as i t was o r i g i n a l l y organized, w i t h the r a p i d l y changing boy f r i e n d s appearing 131 o n l y at p a r t i e s or s p e c i a l events. However, whether t h i s would have been p o s s i b l e at the outset, when they were BO deeply i n v o l v e d w i t h each other, i s questionable; and whether the g i r l s would have remained together without the boys' p r e s e n c e — t h e y being the back-bone of the g a n g — i s e q u a l l y i n doubt. The t h i r d question, which deals w i t h the development of the group'8 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the agency, has been p a r t l y answered a l r e a d y . In t h i s area, the group has advanced co n s i d e r a b l y . At f i r s t they showed a complete d i s r e g a r d f o r the club's property, and w e r e * d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s t r u c t i v e . They made no attempt t o co-operate i n any way, and at times pushed the patience of the worker and the agency almost to the breaking p o i n t w i t h t h e i r unpleasant behaviour. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , they considered anything removable to be f a i r game, and popular records, which were high on t h e i r p r i o r i t y l i s t , were s t o l e n w i t h amazing r e g u l a r i t y as f a s t as they were r e p l a c e d . This a t t i t u d e underwent a change, however; as t h e i r sense of belonging t o the agency grew, t h e i r d e s i r e t o des t r o y or s t e a l i t s property diminished. This does not mean t h a t such a c t i v i t i e s ceased a l t o g e t h e r . At the l a s t dance the damage was much greater than i t had ever been before. But on that occasion, they d i d not commit t h e i r a c t s of vandalism w i t h the bravado and d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i r e a r l i e r e f f o r t s . The broken doors were i n c i d e n t a l t o a f i g h t brought on by too much d r i n k i n g , and the f o l l o w i n g Monday, the combatants were most a p o l o g e t i c 132 and anxious t o make amends. A f t e r that dance there was no f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y over keeping the clubroom t i d y . At t h e i r l a s t p a r t y , they took q u i t e s e r i o u s l y the job of s e t t i n g the pl a c e i n order. S t e a l i n g , too, ceased e v e n t u a l l y t o be a problem. On one occasion, j u s t before the club stopped, s e v e r a l records were taken, but they were returned the f o l l o w i n g week with the t e r s e explanation that they had been borrowed. The worker's purse was never touched, although d u r i n g the l a s t two months i t was l e f t i n the clubroom a l l the time, whether she was present or not. As one of the boys explained t o her, " I t wouldn't be r i g h t t o l i f t your purse." In p u t t i n g h i s question concerning standards of behaviour, Mr. Be r n s t e i n considers important, as an i n d i c a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the group experience, evidences of a maturing sex a t t i t u d e among the members of the group. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area, i t i s rat h e r d i f f i c u l t to comment. The sex a t t i t u d e s of the group members were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d before they came to the agency, and were so much a part of t h e i r background and environment that i t was almost impossible t o a l t e r them i n any way. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sexes i n the gang was, as has been s t r e s s e d i n the n a r r a t i v e , that of the superior male to the subservient female. This r e l a t i o n s h i p was complicated considerably, however, by the f a c t that the g i r l s were promiscuous and f o r the most part unable t o mai n t a i n the standards of f a i t h f u l -ness which the boys r e q u i r e d of them. Trouble was 133 i n e v i t a b l e and toward the c l o s e of the s e s s i o n the punishment meted out by the boys t o t h e i r e r r i n g g i r l f r i e n d s was reaching s e r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n s . Both g i r l s and boys appeared w i l l i n g t o a i r t h e i r problems of r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the worker, but such d i s c u s s i o n s u s u a l l y descended i n t o arguments i n which each sex h o t l y defended i t s own stand. When she had an opportunity to broach the subject of sex w i t h the g i r l s , the f e a r of mistreatment by the boys over-shadowed e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , and the b a s i c problem was l e f t untouched. Mr. B e r n s t e i n comments that most groups tend t o have p r e j u d i c e s based on n a t i o n a l i t y , f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and other f a c t o r s . The p r e j u d i c e s of t h i s gang are somewhat d i f f e r e n t from those of the average teen-age group. Their p o s i t i o n i n c o n f l i c t w i t h o r d i n a r y s o c i e t y gives them a common bond, and the n a t i o n a l i t y or colour of t h e i r members makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e . There was some exchange on the subject of •bohunks' between the boys of B r i t i s h and European e x t r a c t i o n , but t h i s was on a c h a f f i n g l e v e l and not taken s e r i o u s l y by e i t h e r s i d e . ' The three members of the gang who were of mixed blood were accepted on an equal f o o t i n g w i t h the others, and t h e i r f a m i l y background was never mentioned by the r e s t . An i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o the question of colour came when Wilma and Barbara, on t h e i r i n i t i a l -contact w i t h the worker, defended t h e i r d e c i s i o n to include the name of a Chinese g i r l on t h e i r l i s t of p r o s p e c t i v e members. They were a f r a i d that the worker h e r s e l f might not accept the g i r l — t h e r e was no question of t h e i r own acceptance of her. 134 I n other areas, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p r e j u d i c e s and the d e f i a n t a t t i t u d e which they d i s p l a y toward everyone who crosses t h e i r path. Their approach i n most th i n g s i s n e g a t i v e — t h e y look f o r and u s u a l l y f i n d the worst. This experience i n a group work agency, prepared f o r aggressive and unpleasant behaviour, has been v a l u a b l e i n that i t gave them an opportunity t o outwear t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies and move along i n t o a more acceptable r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the agency and the worker. • During the seven-month p e r i o d , a good r e l a t i o n s h i p has developed between the group members and the worker. I t i s more advanced w i t h some than w i t h others,' but w i t h a l l of them i t i s easy and f r i e n d l y . The g i r l s were q u i t e approachable from the f i r s t , and the boys, a f t e r showing con s i d e r a b l e d i f f i d e n c e f o r a time, seemed e v e n t u a l l y t o look upon her as a necessary p a r t of the c l u b . The worker has moved sl o w l y i n o f f e r i n g personal counsel to the club members. F o l l o w i n g the unsuccessful attempt to r e f e r Doris and her r e s u l t a n t removal from the c l u b , she concentrated her e f f o r t s on b u i l d i n g as s o l i d a r e l a t i o n s h i p as p o s s i b l e w i t h the gang as a whole,- hoping i n the next session to move i n t o a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d type of work. The f u t u r e of the c l u b i s as u n p r e d i c t a b l e as i t s past has been. I t d i d not operate during the summer o f f i c i a l l y , although i t was p o s s i b l e f o r the members to drop i n at any time i f they wished to do so. Almost every week a few of them appeared, but the -fact that t h e i r own room was not 135 a v a i l a b l e discouraged t h i s p r a c t i c e to a c e r t a i n extent* As a p o s t s c r i p t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t both g i r l s and boys have returned t o the agency t h i s f a l l . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between them have not improved, but as a compromise, since both groups f e e l that they belong i n the agency, they have decided t o enlarge t h e i r membership to i n c l u d e the current f r i e n d s of each. 136 DELINQUENCY AS A COMMUNITY PROBLEM CHAPTER V I I The problem o f the delinquent and h i s gang i s not, as must have been apparent i n the preceding chapters, one that, can be d e a l t w i t h by any s i n g l e agency. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of youngsters o f t h i s type i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the t o t a l community - s o c i a l workers, policemen, teachers, employers, cafe owners, and a l l the other people whom they meet i n t h e i r day. The s o c i e t y w i t h which they are i n c o n f l i c t must be ready t o accept them, must be w i l l i n g t o ©o-operate w i t h the s o c i a l f o r c e s i n the community, whose job i t i s t o prepare the way f o r t h e i r r e t u r n , before any wide-spread r e s u l t s can be expected. T h i s means, of course, t h a t there i s a tremen-dous task before us. One of the major o b s t a c l e s i n the way o f any r e a l progress w i t h gangs such as t h i s i s the cumulative e f f e c t t h e i r behaviour has upon t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e s t o f the community. I t i s a v i c i o u s c i r c l e . The youngsters look upon everyone they meet as a p o t e n t i a l enemy and s t r i k e out b l i n d l y without w a i t i n g o r wanting t o see f i r s t what t h e i r r e c e p t i o n might be. I n a s o c i a l agency, t h i s d i f f i c u l t behaviour i s accepted as symptomatic and does not a c t as a b a r r i e r t o t h e i r continued p a r t i c i p a t i o n . But the general p u b l i c who see nothing but t h e i r a c t s o f 137 vandalism and are c o n t i n u a l l y annoyed and Inconvenienced by t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n s , c l a s s i f y them as hoodlums and demand t h a t stronger c o n t r o l s be e x e r c i s e d . With each f r e s h outburst the gangs are pushed f u r t h e r away from s o c i e t y and as t h i s happens, resentment grows and w i t h i t , d e f i a n c e . Few people have an opp o r t u n i t y to know the gang members as i n d i v i d u a l s - t h e i r nuisance value f a r out-weighs any of t h e i r more a t t r a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and i n many cases those who o r i g i n a l l y take a t o l e r a n t view of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s come to the c o n c l u s i o n a f t e r , s e v e r a l de-e l i b e r a t e r e b u f f s that what they need i s a few months im de-t e n t i o n where they would l e a r n t o behave. I n o t her ways, t o o , they manage to annoy everyone w i t h whom they come i n contact* I n t h e i r homes, as lo n g as t h i n g s are running smoothly they are l e f t to themselves, but when they get i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h p o l i c e o r because they need money, they immediately become a source of, i r r i t a t i o n t o t h e i r p a r e nts. At work they are completely ^independable. They accept jobs w i t h great enthusiasm, sure each time t h a t they have found t h e i r n i c h e . *A few days l a t e r they are coming I n l a t e and by the end of a week or two they are l i v i n g on t h e i r f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y again and on the t r a i l of something new* However good the opportunity may be, i t s advantages are over-r u l e d by a d e s i r e to stay i n bed o r take an e x t r a day on the week-end. They w i l l not accept d i s c i p l i n e from t h e i r em-pl o y e r s and a reprimand i s o f t e n f o l l o w e d by an absence o f 136 s e v e r a l days, which n a t u r a l l y leads t o d i s m i s s a l . The same behavior p a t t e r n i s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d i n sch o o l . Truancy i s an oc c u p a t i o n a l disease and many o f them wait o n l y f o r t h e i r f i f t e e n t h b i r t h d a y t o l e a v e . I f i t comes i n the middle of a term they q u i t anyway, showing no i n t e r e s t i n f i n i s h i n g the s c h o o l term. The boys are o f t e n sports minded and c a r r y on w i t h t h e i r sohool rugby and f o o t b a l l and ve r y l i t t l e e l s e u n t i l they are asked t o le a v e . When they mention s c h o o l , t h e i r stock phrase i s not. 'When I f i n i s h e d such and such a grade*, but 'When I was e x p e l l e d * . I n c a f e s , t h e a t r e s , dance h a l l s and other p l a c e s of commercial r e c r e a t i o n , t h e i r f i g h t i n g tendencies, n o i s y , a t t e n t i o n a t t r a c t i n g speech and horseplay make them im?-' mediate o b j e c t s o f d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n . I n many p l a c e s , h i g h e r cover charges, bouncers and other devices are used to discourage t h e i r attendance. I t they are allowed t o pa t r o n i z e an e a t i n g spot o r dance h a l l , i t i s w i t h r e -s e r v a t i o n on the p a r t of the p r o p r i e t o r - a r e s e r v a t i o n which i s u s u a l l y well-founded i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r sub-sequent a c t i o n s . Consequently, the o n l y p l a c e s where they oan r e a l l y f e e l a t home and welcome are those where urn-c o n t r o l l e d behaviour i s an accepted p a r t o f the n i g h t * s entertainment and where they i n e v i t a b l y meet the o l d e r c r i m i n a l types, whose s u c c e s s f u l careers are t o be envied and i f p o s s i b l e emulated. Some means o f educating the p u b l i c t o the problems and * 139 needs o f these gangs must toe found. They are an annoying, d i s r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the community, i t i s t r u e , and o f t e n innocent people have t o resort t o f o r c e as a means of s e l f p r o t e c t i o n against t h e i r l a w l e s s a c t i v i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , there i s very l i t t l e understanding o f f e r e d t o the youngsters and i n too many cases the annoyance which they cause l e a d s to r e t a l i a t i o n i n k i n d when a more t o l e r a n t approach might prove more e f f e c t i v e . I f f o r no other reason than t o pro-t e c t t h e i r property and persons, i t would behoove the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver t o l o o k upon the delinquent gangs i n t h e i r midst as s o c i a l c r i p p l e s r a t h e r than as hoodlums. However, a more open minded a t t i t u d e on the p a r t o f the p u b l i c c o u l d not p o s s i b l y r e p a i r the damage tha t a decade and a h a l f of r e j e c t i o n and d e p r i v a t i o n has caused to' these youngsters. T h e i r c o n d i t i o n i s s e r i o u s and as yet no cure has been devised which has proven completely e f -f e c t i v e . I n the group work s i t u a t i o n , the poor behaviour p a t t e r n s which came t o l i g h t d uring a seven month p e r i o d are l e f t almost untouched. The i n s t a b i l i t y of r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , the f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s , the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e -f u s a l t o l o o k or p l a n ahead remain. An e x c i t i n g e xistence as p a r t o f a s t r e e t corner s o c i e t y i s a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g to combat w i t h the f a c i l i t i e s a t the d i s p o s a l o f the average group work agency. Re-education o f youngsters whose way o f l i v i n g has developed f o r so long i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n i s a complicated p r o j e c t t h a t c a l l s f o r a tremendous amount o f t r a i n i n g , s k i l l and i n s i g h t . 1*0 I n t h i s connection, i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t Vancouver i s not geared t o handle the delinquent gangs ope-r a t i n g throughout the c i t y at the present time. Many o f the gang members look upon e x i s t i n g s o c i a l agenoies w i t h great m i s t r u s t , as t h r e a t s t o t h e i r independence. I n a number o f cases t h e i r o n l y contact w i t h such agencies has been as a part o f a f a m i l y r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and th a t d u r i n g the depression, when the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e -l i e f funds took precedence over case work. But from f r i e n d s who came under the wing of some of the s o c i e t i e s , they have acquired some quite f a n t a s t i c s t o r i e s o f mis-treatment and r i g i d d i s c i p l i n e which make r e f e r r a l a t h i n g t o be avoided a t a l l c o s t . Them too, the agencies t o which they c o u l d be r e -f e r r e d would have t o be c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i e t i e s . The d i f -f i c u l t y there i s t h a t w h i l e they are c h i l d r e n i n age, young-s t e r s o f t h i s type are too o l d i n other ways t o be c l a s s i -f i e d as such. T h e i r problems, which have been developing unchecked over a p e r i o d of s i x t e e n , seventeen o r eighteen ye a r s , r e q u i r e i n t e n s i v e , p s y c h i a t r i c treatment o f a type not a v a i l a b l e here. There i s a need i n the c i t y f o r some s o r t of youth s e r v i n g case work agency which would spe-c i a l i z e i n the problems o f the adolescent and would not c a r r y i n i t s name the stigma of the word * c h i l d r e n * • That the gang contact w i t h the group work agenoy r e -corded i n t h i s t h e s i s was h o p e l e s s l y inadequate was ap parent on many d i f f e r e n t occasions throughout the s e s s i o n . 4 l 4 l With a membership i n the gang of over t h i r t y and an average attendance of from s i x t e e n t o twenty, the amount o f a t -t e n t i o n the worker could g i v e t o any i n d i v i d u a l was l i m i t e d . The need f o r a much broader s o r t o f treatment which would i n c l u d e i n t e n s i v e work w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l members and t h e i r f a m i l i e s was obvious a t every t u r n . The contact d i show however, the value o f a group experience of t h i s s o r t as a p a r t o f an o v e r - a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. Probably the greatest c o n t r i b u t i o n the group work agency can make to the gang and i t s members i s t o a c t as a l i a i s o n , o r as a t r a i n i n g ground i n which they can l e a r n t o l i v e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y together and w i t h the r e s t o f s o c i e t y . 142 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Aic h o r n , August, Wayward Youth. New York, The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1945. Breckenrigge, Sophia, and Abbott, E d i t h , The Delinquent C h i l d and the Home. New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1921. B e r n s t e i n , S a u l , " C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work", Chapter i n The P r a c t i c e of Group Work. Dorothea S u l l i v a n , e d i t o r , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 1941. Bur t , C y r i l , L., The Young Delinquent. London. U n i v e r s i t y of London Press -, 1944. Glueck, Sheldon, and Glueck, Eleanor, One Thousand J u v e n i l e Delinguents. Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. Healy, W i l l i a m , The I n d i v i d u a l Delinquent. Boston, L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1922. Healy, W i l l i a m and Bronner, Augusta, Delinquents and C r i m i n a l s ; Their Making and Unmaking. New York, MacMil-l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co:., 1926. Healy, W i l l i a m , and Bronner, Augusta. New L i g h t on Delinquency and i t s Treatment. New Haven P u b l i c a t i o n f o r the I n s t i t u t e of Human R e l a t i o n s , Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939. Healy, W i l l i a m , Bronner, Augusta; B a y l o r , M. H.; Murphy, P r e n t i c e , Reconstructing Behavior i n Youth. A. A. Knopf,. 1931. Shaw, C l i f f o r d , The Jack R o l l e r . Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1938. Shaw, C l i f f o r d ; Zorbaugh, F r e d e r i c k ; Mackay, Henry; C o t t r e l l , Leanard, Delinquency Areas. Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1929. Slavson, Samuel, An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Group Therapy. New York, The Commonwealth Fund, 1943. 143 Tannenbaum, Frank, Crime and the Community, Boston, Ginn and Co., 1938. Thurston, Henry, Concerning J u v e n i l e Delinquenoy. New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942. Thrasher, F. M., The Gang. Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1926. PERIODICALS Linderman, Wanda;, "An Experiment i n Case Work-Group Work Go-operation", The Group. Volume 7, November, 1945. Moyle, H. B., "Some P s y c h i a t r i c Comments on Group Work", The Group. Volume 8, January, 1946. S c h e i d l i n g e r , S a u l , "Patterns of Case Work S e r v i c e s I n Group Work Agencies", The Group. Volume 7, November, 1945. Schuytema, Guy, "The War, the Family Group, and S o c i a l Agencies", The Group. Volume 7, June, 1945. Sack, Harry, S., "Leadership and-Aggressive Behavior", The Group. Volume 7, June, 1945. McCleary, R. D., "Group Work w i t h Delinquents", The Group. Volume 7, June, 1946. 

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