UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Working with the delinquent Wanden, June Eva 1947

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WORKING,  WITH THE  DELJff9UE8TC  jT«fie W a n d a w  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f The Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER o f SOCIAL WORK I n t h e Department of S o c i a l Work  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia October  1947.  ABSTRACT  WORKING WITH THE DELINQUENT  BY  JUNE WANDEN  1 T h i s study has grown out o f a s e v e n month c o n t a c t w h i c h the w r i t e r had, i n a l o c a l group work agency, w i t h a gang o f d e l i n q u e n t t e e n aged g i r l s and boys f r o m t h e downtown s e c t i o n o f Vancouver.  I t i s based l a r g e l y upon t h e  process  r e c o r d s w h i c h she k e p t on the gang d u r i n g i t s s t a y i n the agency, w i t h c e r t a i n c o r r o b o r a t i v e m a t e r i a l f r o m o t h e r community s o u r c e s such as case work a g e n c i e s , t h e F a m i l y C o u r t , t h e P o l i c e Department and t h e newspapers. The problem o f d e l i n q u e n c y i s approached from a group work p o i n t o f v i e w ; t h e c h i e f purpose o f the T h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o i n d i c a t e t h e s t r e n g t h s and  short-comings  o f t h e group work p r o c e s s , as used h e r e , as a method.  treatment  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e s t u d y d e a l s w i t h the f a m i l y  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h have l e d t h e gang and i t s members i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t a n t i - s o c i a l p o s i t i o n .  It  s t r e s s e s t o o , the a t t i t u d e o f the gang t o t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y and i n t u r n the r e a c t i o n o f s o c i e t y t o the gang. The F i r s t Chapter g i v e s the background o f i n Vancouver.  I n i t the w r i t e r comments on t h e  s e r i o u s n a t u r e o f the p r o b l e m i n the c i t y .  delinquency increasingly  She t o u c h e s  on  t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d * s f a i l u r e t o adjust s u c c e s s f u l l y - poor f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , bad e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s , crowded h o u s i n g ,  limited  r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r s - a l l o f w h i c h have been c o n s i d e r a b l y a g g r a v a t e d by t h e war.  And i n c o n c l u s i o n ,  she g i v e s a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f the y o u n g s t e r s t h e m s e l v e s t h e gangs t h e y have formed as a s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t t h e  and  rejection  2  which, t h e y have s u f f e r e d d u r i n g t h e i r g r o w i n g y e a r s . The Second Chapter i n t r o d u c e s t h e gang t o t h e agency. The w r i t e r t e l l s o f t h e r e f e r r a l made by t h e head o f t h e women's d i v i s i o n o f t h e C i t y P o l i c e , who, i n t h e course o f h e r d u t i e s , had become i n t e r e s t e d i n some o f i t s g i r l members.  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e g i r l s and t h e i r f a m i l y  backgrounds i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . o f a c t i v i t y when t h e c l u b o p e r a t e d  The f i r s t p e r i o d  as a g i r l s * group, w i t h  the boys c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e background, i s d i s c u s s e d .  And  t h e g i r l s * p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e hoys a s guests a t a Christmas p a r t y a r e described. The T h i r d Chapter d e a l s w i t h t h e f i r s t c o n t a c t w h i c h the w r i t e r had w i t h t h e boys at; t h e C h r i s t m a s p a r t y .  Their  a t t i t u d e t o t h e agency and t o t h e group l e a d e r i s v e r y e v i d e n t i n t h e account o f t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e and quarrelsome behaviour  on t h i s o c c a s i o n ,  f o l l o w i n g t h e s e c t i o n on t h e  p a r t y , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e boys and t h e i r f a m i l y backgrounds i s g i v e n , w h i c h makes t h e i r b e l l i g e r e n t a t t i t u d e t o t h e w o r l d around them q u i t e The  understandable.  F o u r t h C h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e gang a s a w h o l e , w i t h  t h e boys e s t a b l i s h e d , o s t e n s i b l y a s members o f a dance comm i t t e e , b u t a c t u a l l y a s t h e g o v e r n i n g body o f t h e c l u b .  In  t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e members o f t h e gang and p a r t i c u l a r l y between t h e g i r l s and boys make up t h e major p o r t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t i v e . activities  Their  i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e agency a r e d e s c r i b e d  and i n d i c a t e v e r y c l e a r l y t h e i n s t a b i l i t y  fully  and i n s e c u r i t y o f  3  their daily existence. I n the F i f t h C h a p t e r , t h e w r i t e r c o n t i n u e s h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c l u b as a m i x e d a c t i v i t y , w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the g i r l s and boys g r a d u a l l y w o r s e n i n g u n t i l t h e y r e a c h an open b r e a k .  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e de-  s p e r a t e attempt by t h e boys a t a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by an a c c o u n t o f t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e g i r l s as a r e s u l t o f the m i s t r e a t m e n t t h e y have r e c e i v e d a t the hands o f t h e boys. I n t h e S i x t h C h a p t e r , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e gang i n t h e agency i s e v a l u a t e d i n accordance w i t h B e r n s t e i n ' s C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work. I n t h i s s e c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e answered. enlarged?  Has the a r e a o f c o n c e r n t o the members been  Do s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s develop so t h a t t h e y f i n d  w i d e r e x p r e s s i o n b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e agency?  Has  t h e group matured i n i t s sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the agency.  How  have the s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r of t h e group  been a f f e c t e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e agency?  Have t h e  p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e group based on n a t i o n a l i t y , f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and o t h e r f a c t o r s been a f f e c t e d ? I n t h e Seventh C h a p t e r , t h e w r i t e r comments once a g a i n on t h e d e l i n q u e n t ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e community.  She i n -  d i c a t e s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h a group work agency, h a n d l i n g t h i s t y p e o f y o u n g s t e r , unsupported by o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , must face.  And she p o i n t s out the n e c e s s i t y o f a c o - o p e r a t i v e  e f f o r t on the p a r t o f a l l w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  the  community as a whole as t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e method o f d e a l i n g w i t h the  problem.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.  Chapter.  Page. Preface  I.  The Background o f D e l i n q u e n c y i n Vancouver. Increasing delinquency rates; factors affecting rise; present s i t u a t i o n In Vancouver....,  II.  O r i g i n and E a r l y M e m b e r s h i p o f t h e Club. O r i g i n o f the group; d e s c r i p t i o n o f background o f the g i r l s ; f i r s t p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n as g i r l s group; p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f boys 1  III.  IV.  V.  VI.  11  I n c l u s i o n o f B o y s a s Members. F i r s t appearance o f the boys; background o f the boys and t h e g i r l s they b r o u g h t i n t o the group  3&  The t o t a l gang I n a c t i o n . Permanent i n c l u s i o n o f the boys i n the c l u b ; second p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n as a mixed c l u b .  66  Temporary d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f g a n g . E v i d e n c e s o f d i s u n i t y among gang members; attempts at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ; withdrawal of the g i r l s . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Gang*s A g e n c y E x p e r i e n c e The g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e e v a l u a t e d I n a c c o r d ance w i t h B e r n s t e i n s c r i t e r i a f o r group achievement  99  1  VII.  1  2  °  D e l i n q u e n c y a s a community p r o b l e m , i The p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t a n d h i s o r h e r gang i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ; t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e a l i n g w i t h a gang a n d i t s members; t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f community r e s o u r c e s ; t h e f u t u r e o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t group as a p a r t o f a g'£8&pg#§M a g e n c y p r o b l e m 136 Bibliography  PREFACE  T h i s T h e s i s i s t h e s t u d y o f a gang o f t e e n aged d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s and hoys from t h e downtown s e c t i o n o f Vancouver, who  were r e f e r r e d by t h e p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s t o  a l o c a l group work agency f o r s u p e r v i s e d c l u b e x p e r i e n c e . Taken from a group work p o i n t o f v i e w , i t p r e s e n t s t h e y o u n g s t e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t h e i r gang, t h e i r c l u b e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r community. I t s purpose i s t w o f o l d :  to point out, i n a considera-  t i o n o f t h e c l u b s e s s i o n s , t h e p r o g r e s s made, t h e p r o b l e m s encountered  and the l i m i t a t i o n s r e v e a l e d , i n a t t e m p t i n g t h e  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t t h r o u g h group work a l o n e ; and.to show, by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e gang's a c t i v i t i e s b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e agency, t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e problems o f the d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d on t h e p a r t o f t h e community as a w h o l e , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  which  might l e a d t o a more e f f e c t i v e program o f p r e v e n t i o n and t h a n now  cure  exists.  The m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s T h e s i s comes, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t from t h e p r o c e s s r e c o r d s w h i c h t h e w r i t e r k e p t f o r the group d u r i n g h e r seven month c o n t a o t w i t h t h e g i r l s boys i n the agency.  and  Other i n f o r m a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l s o r t  has been s e c u r e d from F a m i l y C o u r t and J u v e n i l e D e t e n t i o n Home o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s , I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l R e p o r t s and annual P o l i c e Report. a g e n c i e s who  the  M a t e r i a l from the r e c o r d s o f s o c i a l  are h a n d l i n g o r have handled c a s e s d e a l i n g  w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s has been used.  These  case work s o u r c e s were v e r y l i m i t e d * however* because i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , c o n t a c t s w i t h such a g e n c i e s were l i m i t e d t o r e l i e f g i v i n g d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n when i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e r v i c e was i m p o s s i b l e .  Newspaper f i l e s f o r t h e past  years  have proved o f c o n s i d e r a b l y more a s s i s t a n c e , s i n c e t h e members o f t h e gang seem t o have a f a r g r e a t e r for  appearing  propensity  i n the p u b l i c press than f o r g e t t i n g i n t o the  f i l e s of s o c i a l agencies.  While t h i s o b v i o u s l a c k o f  c o r r o b o r a t i v e m a t e r i a l has made a r e a l l y comprehensive s t u d y o f the gang i m p o s s i b l e * i t does i n d i c a t e o n l y t o o c l e a r l y the s e r i o u s gaps i n t h e present welfare.  program o f c h i l d  1  THE BACKGROUND OF DELINQUENCY I N VANCOUVER. Chapter  l  f  The problem o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s c e r t a i n l y n o t a new one i n Vancouver.  However, i n t h e p a s t y e a r o r s o ,  i t has been g i v e n a g r e a t e r prominence t h a n i t ever r e c e i v e d before.  T h i s p r e s e n t awareness i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o f a m i l y  c o u r t j u d g e s , p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , s o c i a l workers and o t h e r s a c t i v e i n t h e f i e l d o f c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n and c h i l d w e l f a r e . I t extends throughout t h e e n t i r e community.  Suggestions  r a n g i n g from a more f r e q u e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e l a s h t o more adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s have been advanced a s p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e problem by c i v i c and p o l i c e c i a l s , s e r v i c e c l u b s , women's groups and p r i v a t e  offi-  citizens.  Newspapers a l t e r n a t e t a l e s o f t e e n age e x p l o i t s i n t h e f i e l d of  crime w i t h demands from i r a t e s u b s c r i b e r s t h a t  s h o u l d be done."  "something  And s c a r c e l y a day passes when t h e words  " j u v e n i l e delinquent" a r e not placed prominently before the p u b l i c i n one f o r m o r a n o t h e r . There i s no doubt t h a t t h e a v a l a n c h e o f p u b l i c i t y  which  has descended upon t e e n age a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e t h e c o n c l u s i o n of  t h e war may a c c o u n t f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e s h a r e o f t h i s i n -  terest.  Recent c r i m e s committed  by y o u n g s t e r s , i n c l u d i n g  murder, r o b b e r y w i t h v i o l e n c e and o t h e r major o f f e n c e s have been o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s a t i o n a l n a t u r e and have r e c e i v e d  2  e q u a l l y s e n s a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t i n t h e newspapers.  However,  t h i s d e l i b e r a t e h i g h l i g h t i n g o f j u x e n i l e crime i n the press does n o t e x p l a i n away t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n w h i c h i s f e l t by t h o s e who a r e i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver. Delinquency, they r e a l i z e , i s i n c r e a s i n g a t an a l a r m i n g r a t e i n the c i t y . W h i l e t h e c r i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e problem i s a c c e p t e d by those d e a l i n g w i t h delinquency, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a n a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f t h e e x t e n t o f j u v e n i l e c r i m e i n Vancouver.  The g e n e r a l p i c t u r e i s confused and no comprehen-  s i v e survey has been made w h i c h might c l a r i f y  the s i t u a t i o n .  The o n l y f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e a r e t h o s e from t h e F a m i l y e o u r t w h i c h show j u s t t h o s e who have a c t u a l l y been b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c o u r t and g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e number o f boys and g i r l s who have been and a r e o p e r a t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y o u t s i d e t h e law. ing.  They do show a t r e n d w h i c h i s grow-  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e g i v e s a l i s t o f t h e major 1 l a i d against juveniles i n the past f i v e years:  (l)  charges  Compiled from t h e Reports o f t h e F a m i l y C o u r t and D e t e n t i o n Home, Vancouver, B. C. 1941 - 1945.  3  M a j o r charges l a i d a g a i n s t j u v e n i l e s 1941 - 1945 Compiled from R e p o r t s o f t h e F a m i l y C o u r t and Deten- . t i o n Home, Vancouver, B. C. (x)  1941  1942  1943  1944  1945  House & Shop Breaking and Attempts.  64  53  50  46  87  Theft o f Autom o b i l e s and Attempts.  47  68  71  80  79  T h e f t s and Attempts.  99  73  95  71  76  Retaining Stolen Property.  12  6  25  15  8  6  5  4  C a r r y i n g Weapons.  3  -  Wounding and Assaults.  5  8  11  10  7  Damage t o Property.  12  11  12  1  1  Sexual Immorality.  13  17  24  46  37  Indecent A s s a u l t .  3  3  3  10  1  Robbery w i t h Violence.  2  7  4  5  7  Intoxication.  11  11  18  22  29  Murder.  —  —  —  (x)  F i g u r e s f o r 1946 were n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n up t o October 4, 1947.  1 o  4  Workers who  have o b s e r v e d t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver  o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s a r e d i s t u r b e d n o t so much by t h e a c t u a l increase i n delinquency  as by t h e s e r i o u s n a t u r e o f  the  c r i m e s committed by young o f f e n d e r s i n t h e p e r i o d s i n c e t h e c l o s e o f t h e war.  M a j o r c r i m e s w h i c h were f o r m e r l y t h e  c e p t i o n where j u v e n i l e s were concerned have now become t h e r u l e .  Gangs who  ex-  unfortunately  once would have been g u i l t y o f  n o t h i n g more s e r i o u s t h a n p e t t y p i l f e r i n g a r e now  extending  t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t o armed r o b b e r y , and seem t o be i n a c t i v e competition with older c r i m i n a l s . W h i l e a s i m i l a r upsurge o f d e l i n q u e n c y  has been i n e v i -  dence i n o t h e r c i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t Canada s i n c e t h e end o f  the  war, Vancouver's p o s i t i o n as t h e w e s t e r n o u t l e t t o t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s has made t h e s i t u a t i o n h e r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which e x i s t s elsewhere.  As a s e a p o r t i t has a l w a y s  a t t r a c t e d a t r a n s i e n t and l a w l e s s element.  But mass e m i g r a -  t i o n d u r i n g t h e war from t h e p r a i r i e s and t h e B r i t i s h Columbia i n t e r i o r i n c r e a s e d t h e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n by a t l e a s t 50,000 and p r o b a b l y c o n s i d e r a b l y more. made t h r o u g h wartime h o u s i n g  And a l t h o u g h some e f f o r t  projects to provide  was  living  accomodation f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , a g r e a t p a r t o f i t was a b s o r b e d i n t o the a r e a s o f t h e c i t y where t h e r e  was  a l r e a d y the g r e a t e s t c r o w d i n g , t h e p o o r e s t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and the most u n s t a b l e community l i f e .  Because Vancouver i s  a w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d c i t y , i t s slum o r n e a r slum a r e a s , w h i c h i n c l u d e p a r t s o f t h e west end,  t h e downtown c o m m e r c i a l and  5  i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e E a s t H a s t i n g s , Mount P l e a s a n t and E a i r v i e w d i s t r i c t s , c o v e r a much b r o a d e r a r e a t h a n do t h e slums i n most o f t h e o t h e r Canadian c i t i e s , and t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s e a r e a s were u n d o u b t e d l y pushed outward t o accommodate t h e i n f l u x o f war w o r k e r s . The end o f t h e war and t h e clo,sJLng o f war i n d u s t r i e s s u c h as t h e s h i p y a r d s and a i r c r a f t f a c t o r i e s d i d n o t r e s u l t i n a w h o l e s a l e removal o f war w o r k e r s t o t h e i r f o r m e r homes In the east.  A l a r g e number o f them remained i n Vancouver  t o t a k e t h e i r chances i n t h e u n c e r t a i n post-war employment market.  I n t h i s t h e y j o i n e d many o f t h e o l d e r r e s i d e n t s o f  t h e c i t y who had f o u n d a b r i e f p r o s p e r i t y d u r i n g t h e war a f t e r t h e unemployment and u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e t h i r t i e s . The damage w h i c h was done t o y o u n g s t e r s who grew up t o a d o l e s c e n c e d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s was tremendous and f a r r e a c h ing.  To a g r e a t many f a m i l i e s t h e war meant a much h i g h e r  standard of l i v i n g .  The war i n d u s t r i e s and t h e Dependents  A l l o w a n c e Board brought a n a s s u r e d income i n t o t h e home.  But  t h i s f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y was p u r c h a s e d a t a h i g h c o s t . t o t h e emotional s e c u r i t y o f the c h i l d r e n involved.  I n a g r e a t many  c a s e s b o t h p a r e n t s were w o r k i n g and t h e c h i l d r e n were l e f t t o fend f o r themselves.  I n o t h e r s t h e f a t h e r was a b s e n t f r o m  t h e home w i t h t h e armed s e r v i c e s w h i l e t h e mother was d o i n g her s t i n t i n an a i r c r a f t f a c t o r y .  A good many f a m i l i e s were  b r o k e n up when t h e mother came o u t t o t h e c o a s t w h i l e t h e f a t h e r remained a t h i s j o b i n t h e e a s t .  Broken f a m i l i e s where  6  t h e f a t h e r had a l r e a d y l e f t t h e home were f u r t h e r c r i p p l e d when the mother d i s c o v e r e d  t h a t t h e war  i n d u s t r i e s were much  more l u c r a t i v e t h a n Mother's A l l o w a n c e o r S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . Older brothers  and  s i s t e r s pushed s c h o o l l e a v i n g d a t e s  ahead and a t f i f t e e n o r s i x t e e n were r e c e i v i n g wages f a r i n excess o f t h o s e on w h i c h t h e i r p a r e n t s had had large f a m i l i e s f o r years. t o c a r r y on any  There was  to support  no t i m e i n between s h i f t s  s o r t o f f a m i l y l i f e and  even the  questionable  m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the o l d e r c h i l d r e n were w i t h h e l d t o o young t o work.  M o r a l s t a n d a r d s , as i s always the c a s e  i n wartime, became l a x , and was  from those  replaced temporarily  i n many cases a n a b s e n t f a t h e r  by a n o t h e r man  o r men.  h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f f e r e d no p r i v a c y and  The  crowds!  c h i l d r e n were ex-  posed t o a wide range o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h must i n e v i t a b l y have c o l o r e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o l i f e . the  I n the w o r s t  sections  o f the c i t y , w h i l e $. few group work a g e n c i e s a v a i l a b l e s t r u g gled to provide  some r e c r e a t i o n , the most common p l a y g r o u n d s  were the s t r e e t s and  the most p o p u l a r m e e t i n g p l a c e s ,  the  c a f e s o r p o o l rooms. I t i s l i t t l e wonder t h e r e f o r e t h a t many y o u n g s t e r s i n t h e o l d e r t e e n aged group t o d a y a r e f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t make a s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t t o s o c i e t y . been a c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e .  to  T h e i r l i v e s have  As s m a l l c h i l d r e n t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d  w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s the d e p r i v a t i o n s o f the d e p r e s s i o n  years.  D u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i v e y e a r s t h e y were e n g u l f e d  i n the e x c i t e -  ment, p r o s p e r i t y and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f war.  And  now  when  7  t h e y a r e r e a c h i n g t h e most d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d i n e f f e c t i v e adjustment t o t h e community a s a whole, t h e y a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e problems o f r e c o n v e r s i o n .  T h e i r f a m i l y l i f e has been  such t h a t t h e y have no r e s e r v e s t o f a l l back upon i n t h i s c r i t i c a l period.  There i s no s e c u r i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n  t h e home t o w h i c h they c a n c l i n g . a r e h a v i n g so much d i f f i c u l t y  I n many cases t h e p s r e n t s  r e - a d j u s t i n g t h e i r own l i v e s  t h a t they have no time t o be b o t h e r e d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e i r children.  Standards o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h must be b u i l t up o v e r  a p e r i o d o f y e a r s have n e v e r been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r many c h i l d ren  i n t h e community.  The u r g e t o have done w i t h s c h o o l a s  e a r l y as p o s s i b l e has l e f t them u n f i t t e d t o f a c e t h e growing competition f o r jobs.  B u t t h e y have sampled p r o s p e r i t y and  a r e determined t o t a s t e i t f u r t h e r .  Any o b s t a c l e s s u c h a s  t h e f o r c e s o f l a w and o r d e r w h i c h s t a n d i n t h e i r way must be circumvented. And so we have groups o f y o u n g s t e r s ^ b o t h boys and g i r l s , wandering  t h e s t r e e t s o f Vancouver l o o k i n g f o r t h e s e c u r i t y  w i t h i n t h e i r gangs w h i c h t h e y cannot f i n d e l s e w h e r e . f i l l e d w i t h resentment  They a r e  a g a i n s t t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d t h e i r commu-  n i t y and p r e s e n t a s o l i d f r o n t a g a i n s t a l l o u t s i d e r s .  Home  t o them i s merely a- p l a c e t o r e t u r n t o when t h e r e i s nowhere e l s e t o go.  The p o l i c e a r e r e g a r d e d a s n a t u r a l enemies t o be  avoided a t a l l costs.  The boys wear t h e p r e s c r i b e d z o o t s u i t ,  an expensive, w e l l t a i l o r e d uniform which i n d i c a t e s t h e i r w o r t h t o p e o p l e who do n o t know how crowded and d i r t y  their  8  homes a r e .  Their entertainment i s c h i e f l y of a commercial  v a r i e t y because too o f t e n t h e y outwear t h e i r welcome a t t h e few t e e n canteens and community c e n t r e s open t o them w i t h t h e i r destructive behavior. t h e i r d e s i r e f o r new  T h e i r energy i s l i m i t l e s s  and  t h r i l l s insatiable—gambling, fighting,  " b o r r o w i n g , " f l a s h y c a r s and d r i n k i n g , a l l combine t o make l i f e e x c i t i n g i f not s a t i s f y i n g .  T h e i r code o f e t h i c s i s  s i m p l e : t h e y have a tremendous contempt f o r a n i n f o r m e r  and  a g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r t h e b o o t l e g g e r s , gamblers, dope p e d d l e r s and o t h e r c r i m i n a l s who ments  a r e f a m i l i a r f i g u r e s i n t h e i r environ-  T h e i r a m b i t i o n i s t o make as good a l i v i n g as p o s s i b l e  w i t h a minimum o f l a b o r and a n income f r o m t h e f t o r o t h e r i l l e g a l sources i s q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e i f one does n o t  get  caught. T h i s paper i s t h e s t o r y o f a c o n t a c t made by a worker i n t h e y o u t h department o f a l o c a l agency w i t h a gand o f t e e n aged g i r l s and boys,, whose f a m i l y background, environment and o u t l o o k bear a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y to the c o n d i t i o n s presented i n the preceding paragraphs.  The gang was b r o u g h t i n t o t h e  agency on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s , t h e o b j e c t i v e b e i n g t o t u r n i t s b o u n d l e s s , u n d i r e c t e d energy and s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f gang l o y a l t y i n t o more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c h a n n e l s , t h r o u g h use o f group work methods.  R e - e d u c a t i o n was  t o be  by o f f e r i n g them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p new  the  attempted  interests  and  a c t i v i t i e s , by i n c l u d i n g them, as a p a r t o f the agency i n something l a r g e r t h a n t h e i r own  gang, by g i v i n g them a chance  9  to operate d e m o c r a t i c a l l y i n a c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g , r a t h e r t h a n o u t on t h e s t r e e t and by a s s i s t i n g t h e members w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l problems o f a d j u s t m e n t t o a s o c i e t y t o w h i c h t h e y had n o t been c o n d i t i o n e d .  And most i m p o r t a n t  of a l l i n  t h i s process was t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n each boy and g i r l and i n t h e gang as a whole, a f e e l i n g o f complete a c c e p t a n c e by t h e agency and i t s s t a f f , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r o r a t t i t u d e s . The s e c u r i t y d e r i v e d f r o m a sense o f b e l o n g i n g , o f b e i n g wanted and l i k e d had t o come b e f o r e any o t h e r s t e p s c o u l d be t a k e n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . What f o l l o w s i s a p i c t u r e o f t h e gang and i t s members a s t h e y appeared t o t h e w o r k e r .  I t shows, t h r o u g h a d e s c r i p t i o n  o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r i n t h e agency a n d e l s e w h e r e , t h e i r a t t i t u d e to  t h e community and t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  I t i n d i c a t e s t h e measure  o f success w h i c h she had i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e gang, and i t p r e s e n t s t h e problems w h i c h she e n c o u n t e r e d .  There must o f  n e c e s s i t y be many gaps and b l i n d s p o t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a r r a t i v e because t h e group was e l u s i v e , and t h e d e s i r e t o be i d e n t i f i e d a s a member o f t h e gang r a t h e r t h a n a s t h e member o f a family i s strong.  F a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n from s o u r c e s o t h e r  t h e members themselves has been d i f f i c u l t  than  t o secure s i n c e ,  s t r a n g e l y enough, f a m i l y c o n t a c t s w i t h s o c i a l a g e n c i e s  have  been l i m i t e d i n many cases t o s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e thirties.  However, a c o n s i d e r a b l e fund o f i n f o r m a t i o n has  been s e c u r e d  t h r o u g h t h e w o r k e r * s p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and  t h r o u g h h e r c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s and community s o u r c e s "  10  which w i l l give, i f not a complete picture, at l e a s t a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n of the gang»s status i n the community and an account of the factors which have brought i t to i t s present a n t i - s o c i a l position*  11  Chapter I I . ORIGIN AMD  EARLY MEMBERSHIP OF THE  CLUB.  C l u b 57 f i r s t became,known t o the agency i n O c t o b e r . A t t h a t time M i s s Thompson o f the C i t y P o l i c e c o n t a c t e d M i s s J a c k s o n , t h e p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l o r and  suggested the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g a group around t h r e e g i r l s i n whom she had become i n t e r e s t e d .  The t h r e e g i r l s , D o r i s J o h n s t o n e ,  16, Wilma Evans, 16, and B a r b a r a E b b e t t , 17, a l l l i v i n g i n t h e e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f downtown Vancouver, had been p i c k e d up on the beach by the p o l i c e a t f i v e i n t h e morning w i t h two b o y s .  When q u e s t i o n e d by M i s s Thompson t h e y  explained  t h a t t h e r e s t o f t h e i r gang, b o t h g i r l s and b o y s , had most o f the n i g h t w i t h them b u t had  spent  e v e n t u a l l y gone home.  These t h r e e had remained out f o r t h e n i g h t because t h e y .tco knew the d o o r s a t home were l o c k e d a t m i d n i g h t . boys had s t a y e d t o keep them company.  The  two  Questioning f u r t h e r  r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l - n i g h t p a r t i e s o f t h i s s o r t were a r e g u l a r p a r t o f the g a n g s e n t e r t a i n m e n t 1  and t h a t l i t t l e i f any  of  l e i s u r e hours were e x e r c i s e d by t h e f a m i l i e s . B e f o r e t a k i n g any d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n h e r s e l f , M i s s Thompson approached the agency t o see whether any  arrange-  ments c o u l d be made w h i c h would, o f f e r the g i r l s some s o r t of supervised r e c r e a t i o n . i n D o r i s , who who  She was  she thought was  had expressed  particularly interested  t h e l e a d e r o f t h e gang and  a desire to attach h e r s e l f to a formal  12  agency group i n w h i c h w r i t i n g and d r a m a t i c s  would be  given.  An e f f o r t t o get D o r i s t o j o i n t h e Agency by h e r s e l f had f a i l e d and M i s s Thompson f e l t t h a t u n l e s s t h e y came as a group none o f them would a p p e a r . was  The gang, she  realized,  a v e r y rough one, u n d i s c i p l i n e d and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e  s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e , and she was  n o t too h o p e f u l t h a t t h e y  would be a b l e t o f i t i n t o t h e Agency s e t - u p o r t h a t a n y t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e c o u l d be done w i t h them i f t h e y d i d become a p a r t o f t h e Agency. was most anxious  However, f o r t h e sake o f the g i r l s ,  she  t h a t some s o r t o f r e c r e a t i o n a l program be  t r i e d on a n e x p e r i m e n t a l  b a s i s b e f o r e more s t r i n g e n t methods  were employed. As a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n i t i a l c o n t a c t , t h e worker  met  w i t h M i s s Thompson on November 1 s t t o d i s c u s s more f u l l y plans f o r a club.  M i s s Thompson e x p l a i n e d t h a t w h i l e  the  i n c i d e n t w h i c h b r o u g h t t h e g i r l s t o h e r a t t e n t i o n had  not  the  been o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s n a t u r e , h e r subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e i r backgrounds had made i t a p p a r e n t t h a t they were b a d l y i n need o f a s s i s t a n c e .  A l l t h r e e had  from Saskatchewan w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s d u r i n g t h e war boom and a l l t h r e e were v i c t i m s i n one way f a m i l y n e g l e c t or l a c k of D o r i s was now  come industry  or another of  understanding.  l i v i n g w i t h her grandmother i n a d i r t y  tenement house i n t h e downtown s e c t i o n .  Her mother, who  was  p a r t l y I n d i a n , a l s o l i v e d i n Vancouver b u t n o t w i t h h e r mother and d a u g h t e r .  On h e r i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t s t o t h e home  13  she was u s u a l l y drunk and when drunk was e x t r e m e l y b r u t a l t o D o r i s , who mother.  e x p r e s s e d n o t h i n g b u t h a t r e d and f e a r o f h e r  She had t o l d M i s s Thompson on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s o f  h e r i n t e n t i o n t o r e t u r n t o h e r f a t h e r i n Saskatobnv-when she had saved up enough money f o r t h e f a r e . w i t h a n o t h e r woman t h e r e now,  The f a t h e r ,  living  had a young f a m i l y t o s u p p o r t ,  b u t she was s u r e t h a t he would t a k e h e r back.  The  mother had no s o u r c e o f income o t h e r t h a n D o r i s  1  grand-  salary,  w h i c h was i n t e r m i t t e n t because she f l i t t e d f r o m j o b t o j o b and was f r e q u e n t l y unemployed.  M i s s Thompson had f o u n d D o r i s  e s p e c i a l l y a p p e a l i n g because o f h e r o b v i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e and h e r l o f t y a m b i t i o n s w h i c h extended f a r beyond h e r grade  eight  and messenger j o b s . B a r b a r a was a n o t h e r p r o d u c t o f a b r o k e n home.  Her mother  had been d e s e r t e d by t h e f a t h e r when B a r b a r a and h e r b r o t h e r , C l a r e n c e , were two and t h r e e r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The mother had  s u p p o r t e d t h e f a m i l y by housework and l a u n d r y j o b s s i n c e t h a t t i m e , shopping t h e c h i l d r e n o u t w i t h r e l a t i v e s u n t i l she came t o Vancouver  t o t a k e a j o b i n an a i r c r a f t f a c t o r y .  She  had  r e m a r r i e d t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e and t h e r e was a n o t h e r f o u r t e e n month-old  g i r l i n the f a m i l y .  B a r b a r a seemed q u i t e f o n d o f  h e r mother, b u t e x p e c t e d and r e c e i v e d no guidance f r o m h e r . The s t e p - f a t h e r a p p a r e n t l y made some a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h B a r b a r a ' s misdemeanors b u t t h e s e were r e c e i v e d w i t h r e s e n t ment b o t h by t h e w i f e and s t e p - d a u g h t e r .  The l a t t e r was  cur-  r e n t l y employed i n a t e a f a c t o r y but l i k e D o r i s had c o n s i d e r -  14  able d i f f i c u l t y  s t a y i n g w i t h a j o b , a n d h e r mother f o u n d i t  n e c e s s a r y t o do p a r t - t i m e l a u n d r y work t o keep h e r i n spendi n g money and c l o t h e s .  U n l i k e D o r i s , she seemed q u x t e  content  w i t h h e r grade n i n e e d u c a t i o n and found t h e s o c i a l l i f e i n t h e gang e x c i t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g . Wilma was t h e most f o r t u n a t e o f t h e t r i o , h a v i n g b o t h h e r p a r e n t s i n h e r home.  She seemed t o have a genuine a f f e c t i o n  f o r h e r f a t h e r and mother and two younger b r o t h e r s , a n d cons i d e r e d h e r s e l f l u c k y t o have a f a m i l y w h i c h a t l e a s t she d i d not a c t i v e l y d i s l i k e .  S u f f e r i n g f r o m a r h e u m a t i c h e a r t she  found t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e i l l n e s s  v e r y annoying  and when-  ever p o s s i b l e i g n o r e d them, and d i d so w i t h o u t r u n n i n g much o p p o s i t i o n from h e r p a r e n t s .  into  She was t a k i n g grade n i n e  a t c o m m e r c i a l h i g h s c h o o l b u t was c a r r y i n g on a campaign a t the moment t o q u i t s c h o o l and go t o work i n t h e f a c t o r y where b a r b a r a was employed. The two boys who were p i c k e d up w i t h them by t h e p o l i c e were a p a r t o f t h e group and d a i l y companions o f t h e g i r l s . They belonged  t o a gang o f z o o t - s u i t e r s who had caused  con-  s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e i n t h e e a s t end, and a c c o r d i n g t o M i s s Thompson, were a v e r y bad i n f l u e n c e on t h e g i r l s . t h a t a good d e a l o f the- g i r l s  1  difficulty  She f e l t  was d i r e c t l y  attri-  b u t a b l e t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group o f b o y s , and hoped t h a t i f t h e c l u b were o r g a n i z e d a t t h e Agency t h e g i r l s might t r a n s f e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s  elsewhere.  15  I n i t i a l Contact With G i r l s . I t was  decided d u r i n g t h i s conference t h a t the c l u b idea  be p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e g i r l s .  On November 8 t h t h e w o r k e r t a l k e d  w i t h t h e t h r e e o f them i n M i s s Thompson's o f f i c e .  They had  n o t been t o l d o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e m e e t i n g and a p p a r e n t l y  had  been l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o a r o u t i n e v i s i t w i t h t h e policewoman whom t h e y g r e e t e d  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . Wilma and B a r b a r a were  f r a n k l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e worker when M i s s Thompson i n t r o d u c e d h e r and  e x p l a i n e d t h a t she had a p r o p o s i t i o n t o o f f e r , but  D o r i s , v e r y d r a m a t i c i n a p a i r o f red-rimmed h a r l e q u i n was  more r e s e r v e d .  glasses,  B e f o r e t h e worker spoke M i s s Thompson made  i t v e r y c l e a r t o them t h a t they c o u l d a c c e p t o r r e f u s e t h e  pro-  p o s i t i o n as they chose, w i t h o u t compromising t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h h e r i n any  way.  They l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y as t h e worker o u t l i n e d t h e and once Wilma had  plan  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c l u b ' s mem-  b e r s h i p would i n c l u d e t h e i r gang o n l y and no o u t s i d e r s , they became q u i t e e x c i t e d .  Even D o r i s e n t e r e d  w i t h an announcement t h a t she m i g h t now play.  i n t o the  discussion  be a b l e t o a c t i n a  They were a n x i o u s t o know what t h e program would i n c l u d e  and when t h e w o r k e r , a f t e r s u g g e s t i n g  s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s such  as h a n d i c r a f t , b e a u t y t a l k s , e t c . , s a i d t h a t i t was t o them, B a r b a r a , one  really  up  eye on M i s s H e w i t t , asked whether the  boys would be welcome a t t h e Agency f o r p a r t i e s .  T h i s was  prime importance t o t h e o t h e r s as w e l l and when i t was ed t h e y were a n x i o u s t o s t a r t i m m e d i a t e l y .  of  confirm-  16  Membership was d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t l e n g t h and f i n a l l y a l i s t o f s e v e n t e e n names w h i c h s u i t e d a l l o f them was t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e w o r k e r , w i t h a promise t h a t D o r i s would phone i n any removals o r a d d i t i o n s a t a l a t e r d a t e .  Monday was chosen  a s t h e meeting d a t e and as t h e f o l l o w i n g one was a h o l i d a y , November 1 8 t h marked t h e s t a r t o f t h e c l u b .  F i r s t Meeting o f Club. The opening n i g h t b r o u g h t f o r t h o n l y t h e t h r e e o r i g i n a l s who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e gang had d e c i d e d t h a t Tuesday was a b e t t e r n i g h t f o r a meeting.  A t t h e second m e e t i n g t h r e e more  appeared and by t h e f o l l o w i n g week t h e c l u b ' s membership was f a i r l y well established. From t h e o u t s e t i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e e n t h u s i a s m e x h i b i t e d d u r i n g t h e worker's f i r s t meeting w i t h t h e g i r l s r e s u l t e d from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e gang now p o s s e s s e d what i t had h e r e t o f o r e n o t i c e a b l y l a c k e d — a c l u b h o u s e .  And w h i l e  t h i s was a most i m p o r t a n t a c q u i s i t i o n , i t was a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o them t o know whether o r n o t t h e y c o u l d f i t i n t o I t comfortably.  They l i s t e n e d v e r y c a r e f u l l y when t h e worker •  went o v e r t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h governed t h e u s e o f t h e room. These they a c c e p t e d q u i t e r e a d i l y , b u t two q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e y broached t h e m s e l v e s seemed t o c o n c e r n them more t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r s , and u n t i l t h e s e were t a k e n c a r e o f nobody r e a l l y moved i n . One was smoking. Barbara t o l d the worker.  "We're a l l bad g i r l s , "  "We a l l smoke."  They were v e r y  17  much s u r p r i s e d and r e l i e v e d t o l e a r n t h a t t h e r e was no r e g u l a t i o n f o r b i d d i n g them t o smoke, and i m m e d i a t e l y l i g h t e d u p — b e i n g v e r y c a r e f u l t o p u t t h e ashes i n t h e a s h t r a y s and n o t on t h e f l o o r . The second and more i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n concerned t h e boys.  W i t h some p u s h i n g from t h e o t h e r s , B a r b a r a b r o u g h t  up t h e s u b j e c t on t h e f i r s t e v e n i n g when t h e worker r e t u r n e d from an e r r a n d o u t s i d e t h e clubroom.  The m a t t e r had been  under d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g h e r absence and B a r b a r a had been a p p o i n t e d spokesman. ,"We've d e c i d e d t o b r i n g up  something  b e f o r e we do a n y t h i n g more a b o u t a c l u b , " she e x p l a i n e d i n a v e r y embarrassed manner.  "We  thought we b e t t e r t e l l y o u  about t h e boys we go around w i t h — - f o r when we have dances. They re drapes." 1  The w o r k e r , " d e c i d i n g q u i c k l y t h a t ' d r a p e s  1  were z o o t - s u i t e r s , a s s u r e d them t h a t t h e Agency d i d n o t w o r r y p a r t i c u l a r l y a b o u t what p e o p l e wore.  They l a u n c h e d f o r t h  t h e n on a v i o l e n t d e f e n c e o f 'drapes' who were, a c c o r d i n g t o them, j u s t a s n i c e as anyone e l s e .  To p r o v e t h e i r p o i n t  t h e y d e s c r i b e d an o v e r n i g h t t r i p w h i c h t h e gang had made up the  mountain r e c e n t l y , t h e p o i n t b e i n g a p p a r e n t l y t h a t t h e  boys were f i n e , o u t d o o r t y p e s .  The c l i n c h i n g argument seemed  t o be t h e c a r e f u l l y s t r e s s e d s l e e p i n g arrangements i n w h i c h the  boys s l e p t o u t under t h e s t a r s w h i l e t h e g i r l s had t h e  cabin to themselves. Once t h e y had e s t a b l i s h e d what t h e Agency e x p e c t e d o f them i n t h e way o f b e h a v i o r , t h e y were r e a d y t o move on t o  18  d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n t h e group i t s e l f , and i n t h i s , the'gang* s p i r i t was i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t .  On t h e f i r s t evening Wilma  q u e s t i o n e d t h e worker v e r y c a r e f u l l y about t h e way c l u b s were r u n , a s u b j e c t on w h i c h they seemed t o be c o m p l e t e l y  ignorant.  The worker gave them a handbook on p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d u r e w h i c h they took home t o .study.  A t t h a t time D o r i s i n s i s t e d  t h a t c l o s e d b a l l o t s would be n e c e s s a r y c a l l y chosen e x e c u t i v e .  to insure a democrati-  When e l e c t i o n s were h e l d t h e n e x t  week however, t h e s l a t e o f o f f i c e r s was produced a s a n accomp l i s h e d f a c t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e evening and no one r a i s e d any o b j e c t i o n s .  They had, Wilma e x p l a i n e d , d i s c u s s e d t h e  m a t t e r o u t s i d e a n d t h i s was t h e way i t was g o i n g t o b e .  Club Executive. The p r e s i d e n t , E l l e n F r e i b e r g , aged 16, was a co-worker o f Barbara's  a t t h e t e a f a c t o r y and l i v e d i n t h e same b l o c k  a s she d i d .  She seemed t o be i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h D o r i s  for  both  t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e group and f o r t h e f r i e n d s h i p o f  Barbara.  A n o t h e r f o r m e r r e s i d e n t o f Saskatchewan, E l l e n was  o f German p a r e n t a g e and e x p r e s s e d  g r e a t contempt f o r h e r p a r -  e n t s who d i d n ' t speak E n g l i s h w e l l .  The y o u n g e s t c h i l d i n a been  f a m i l y . o f two g i r l s and two b o y s , she had/more o r l e s s b r o u g h t up by h e r o l d e r b r o t h e r who "beat h e r up" and l o c k e d h e r i n when h e r b e h a v i o r was f l a g r a n t l y bad, b u t who f o r t h e most p a r t l e t h e r go h e r own merry way. i n grade n i n e .  She, t o o , had l e f t  school  19  The v i c e - p r e s i d e n t was  A l i c e Donaldson, aged 15,  a l s o worked i n the t e a f a c t o r y . separated  when she was  who  Her f a t h e r and mother had  v e r y s m a l l and h e r mother, a shoe  f a c t o r y employee, f e a r f u l t h a t A l i c e might become i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e wrong company, k e p t c o n s t a n t w a t c h on h e r and always b r e a k i n g up h e r f r i e n d s h i p s .  She was  g e t h e r a j o b I n t h e shoe f a c t o r y so t h a t her would be more c o m p l e t e .  now  was  t r y i n g to  supervision  A l i c e found t h i s m a t e r n a l a n x i e t y  f r u s t r a t i n g and was  forced to r e s o r t to l y i n g i n order to  out w i t h t h e gang.  A l i c e o n l y went t o grade e i g h t i n s c h o o l .  R o b e r t a G i b s o n , aged 16, was w i t h h e r mother, s t e p - f a t h e r and  chosen s e c r e t a r y . two o l d e r b r o t h e r s  She  get  lived  somewhat  f u r t h e r out i n t h e E a s t H a s t i n g s a r e a t h a n the o t h e r s .  Em-  p l o y e d as a messenger i n t h e same p l a c e where D o r i s worked, she s h a r e d D o r i s  1  a t t i t u d e toward employment and o f t e n found  h e r s e l f on h e r mother's bounty. t h e r e was  I n t h i s case as w i t h B a r b a r a  e v i d e n c e o f f r i c t i o n between mother and  step-father  i n t h e m a t t e r o f d i s c i p l i n i n g the c h i l d r e n , and t h e mother worked i n a w h o l e s a l e f l o w e r shop t o p r o v i d e R o b e r t a w i t h tras.  The  ex-  two boys i n t h e f a m i l y were model sons, b o t h hav-  i n g completed h i g h s c h o o l w i t h h i g h h o n o r s , but R o b e r t a had been g l a d t o l e a v e s c h o o l i n grade n i n e .  She a l t e r n a t e d  p a s s i o n a t e a f f e c t i o n f o r h e r mother w i t h a d e s i r e t o  run  away f r o m home. As a s o r t o f "member a t l a r g e " E t h e l N i v i n s k y , aged was  a l s o on the e x e c u t i v e .  17,  Though n o t a l e a d e r i n t h e group,  20  E t h e l was d e f i n i t e l y t h e s t e a d y i n g i n f l u e n c e .  She was w e l l  l i k e d by a l l t h e o t h e r s and d i d n o t seem t o become i n v o l v e d i n any o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . Her p o s i t i o n on t h e e x e c u t i v e was,  as i n d i c a t e d by h e r t i t l e , a g e n e r a l t r o u b l e - s h o o t e r .  E t h e l ' s p a r e n t s had come from R u s s i a s h o r t l y b e f o r e she was . b o r n , and she was f a c e d w i t h t h e problem od a d j u s t i n g h e r Canadianized  o u t l o o k t o t h e o l d - c o u n t r y customs o f h e r p a r e n t s .  She d i d n o t g e t a l o n g w e l l w i t h them, b u t u n l i k e t h e o t h e r s r  made some e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d  t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w and  con-r  ceded t h a t " w h i l e t h e o l d man was a s t i n k e r " i t wasn't a l l his fault.  The f a m i l y c o n s i s t e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o h e r s e l f , o f  two o l d e r b r o t h e r s , a m a r r i e d s i s t e r and one younger b r o t h e r . The two o l d e r boys had been problems i n t h e i r teens and one had s e r v e d a j a i l s e n t e n c e , b u t t h e y had now s t e a d i e d down and E t h e r was q u i t e o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t t h e chances f o r h e r s e l f and h e r young b r o t h e r .  She had l e f t s c h o o l i n grade e i g h t  because o f a s k i n a i l m e n t w h i c h she s t i l l had and w h i c h caused h e r c o n s i d e r a b l e embarrassment.  Her work r e c o r d s t o o d up  v e r y w e l l when compared t o t h e o t h e r s .  H a v i n g been employed  a t t h e same f a c t o r y j o b f o r about two y e a r s she seemed t o be much more c a p a b l e o f a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r s e l f t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r s . The t h r e e o r i g i n a l members o f t h e c l u b completed t h e executive.  B a r b a r a o c c u p i e d t h e most s u b s t a n t i a l p o s i t i o n  o f a l l as t r e a s u r e r ; Wilma, because she sang v e r y w e l l , headed the entertainment  committee, and D o r i s , i n d e f e r e n c e  t o her  21  dramatic  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , c h a i r e d the glamour committee.  Most o f t h e power r e s t e d w i t h E l l e n as p r e s i d e n t and  Barbara,  but D o r i s , t h e t e m p o r a r i l y ousted l e a d e r o f the gang, w i e l d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y f r o m h e r ambiguous p o s i t i o n as a comm i t t e e head.  Discipline. The r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h were e s t a b l i s h e d r e f l e c t e d v e r y c l e a r l y t h e r u l e s o f the s t r e e t o u t s i d e , w i t h an eye t o t h e worker's s e n s i b i l i t i e s .  The f i r s t two were  s t r i c t l y f o r t h e purpose o f r a i s i n g t h e t o n e o f t h e ing.  They had d e c i d e d , E l l e n e x p l a i n e d , t h a t members would  be f i n e d a penny f o r swearing ing.  gather-  i n c l u b and a n i c k e l f o r a r g u -  A n o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n t o w h i c h a l l o f them a g r e e d w i t h  some r e l u c t a n c e was  t h a t t h e r e would be no smoking d u r i n g  business sessions.  T h i s was  suggested a b r e a k h a l f way Barbara very generously  s o f t e n e d somewhat by Wilma  who  t h r o u g h f o r cokes and c i g a r e t t e s .  t o l d the w o r k e r , who  had n o t smoked  i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e , t h a t she would be p e r m i t t e d t o do so a l l t h e t i m e i f she w i s h e d . more meetings was questioned  The punishment f o r m i s s i n g two  t o be a " b e a t i n g up."  t h i s she was  or  When the worker  a s s u r e d t h a t they d i d n ' t h u r t each  o t h e r v e r y much, but t h a t they found t h i s a good way  t o make  p e o p l e behave. Other somewhat u n o r t h o d o x d i s c i p l i n a r y measures appeared a s the c l u b went a l o n g .  One  evening  toward t h e end o f  the  22  meeting they d e c i d e d t o have a s h o r t c o n c e r t .  Wilma was  a s k e d t o s i n g b u t she demurred.  Barbara s a i d , "We'll  send  t h a t l e t t e r i f y o u won't s i n g . "  Wilma a r g u e d and B a r b a r a  t o l d hRg worker t h a t t h e y had a l e t t e r w h i c h Wilma had w r i t t e n i n an- o f f moment and t h e y used i t t o make h e r do t h i n g s . The worker s a i d she t h o u g h t Wilma would s i n g w i t h o u t b e n e f i t of blackmail.  E l l e n commented, " S i n g , Maybe, b u t t h e l e t t e r ' s  u s e f u l l o t s o f o t h e r ways t o o . " others  N e i t h e r Wilma n o r any o f t h e  seemed t o c o n s i d e r t h i s method o f a p p r o a c h u n e t h i c a l .  On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n Wilma appeared a t t h e c l u b w i t h a l o c k of h a i r missing a t the f r o n t .  The gang had c u t i t o f f , she  e x p l a i n e d c h e e r f u l l y , because, she had been d o i n g something she  shouldn't. However d e s p i t e t h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f f o r c e as a means o f  d i s c i p l i n e , t h e r e were no e p i s o d e s o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e a t the c l u b meetings.  And t h e worker f e l t t h a t t h e o f t e n e x p r e s -  sed t h r e a t s were l i p s e r v i c e t o t h e code w h i c h t h e boys i n t h e gang f o l l o w e d a n d d i d n o t a c t u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e g i r l s t o each o t h e r .  That t h i s might be t h e case  was i n d i c a t e d one e v e n i n g when D o r i s and E l l e n asked f o r t h e Agency f i r s t a i d k i t . A t f i r s t E l l e n c l a i m e d ed i t t o t a p e up a s p r a i n e d w r i s t . though, t h e s t o r y came o u t .  t h a t she need-  When t h e k i t a r r i v e d ,  D o r i s had r e p o r t e d l y made some  rude remarks about E l l e n and t h e boys had b e t E l l e n f i v e d o l l a r s t h a t she w o u l d n ' t have t h e n e r v e t o "beat D o r i s up" and make h e r e a t h e r words.  The g i r l s had s e t t l e d t h e m a t t e r  23  p e a c e f u l l y , but f o r t h e sake o f appearances and t h e f i v e d o l l a r s had d e c i d e d t o s i m u l a t e a f i g h t w i t h a d h e s i v e  tape  and eye shadow.  Other C l u b Members. Of t h e n i n e t e e n g i r l s who proved u n a c c e p t a b l e  a t t e n d e d the c l u b o n l y t h r e e  t o the o t h e r s .  These t h r e e , i t was  i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , were t h e o n l y ones who l y f r i e n d l y w i t h the boys  1  were n o t a c t i v e -  gang.  One o f them, V e r a Lane, aged 15, was,  i f not a c l o s e  f r i e n d , a t l e a s t a g r e a t admirer o f Wilma.  Wilma b r o u g h t  h e r t o the c l u b i n an o u t b u r s t o f g e n e r o s i t y and t h e r e a f t e r ignored her.  V e r a ' s h i s t o r y was a t r a g i c one.  She  had  come t o Vancouver f r o m A l b e r t a w i t h h e r p a r e n t s , o l d e r s i s ter  and younger b r o t h e r f o u r y e a r s ago.  The p a r e n t s  n o t been m a r r i e d because o f a p r e v i o u s m a r r i a g e by  had  the  f a t h e r , and h e r mother had r e t u r n e d t o Edmonton t h e y e a r b e f o r e and m a r r i e d someone e l s e .  The s p r i n g b e f o r e  she  j o i n e d t h e c l u b , V e r a had had a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d by A m e r i c a n s a i l o r o f whom n o t h i n g was known.  This  an  experience  had l e f t h e r i n a v e r y d i s t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n and she was  not  a b l e a t the time she came t o t h e Agency t o e s t a b l i s h any r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h boys even on t h e most s u p e r f i c i a l Under t h e c a r e o f t h e Agency she was  level.  j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o emerge  f r o m s e l f imposed i s o l a t i o n , but t h e group's  overpowering  i n f l u e n c e i n t h e o p p o s i t e sex d i d n o t h i n g t o a s s i s t h e r .  24  Her f a t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o h e r case w o r k e r , was d e e p l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Vera's w e l f a r e and t r i e d t o keep h e r away from t h e o l d e r s i s t e r who had become a p r o s t i t u t e .  Vera withdrew  f r o m t h e c l u b when t h e boys appeared on t h e scene b u t remained i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e worker u n t i l she l e f t Vancouver t o go t o h e r mother i n Edmonton.  The one c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h t h e  c l u b made t o h e r comeback was i n t h e form o f t h e Dubarry Beauty Course.  While the r e s t of the g i r l s toyed w i t h the  i d e a o f t a k i n g t h e s i x week's s e l f improvement c o u r s e , V e r a l o o k e d upon i t a l m o s t a s a n open sesame t o t h e n o r m a l s o c i e t y o f w h i c h she had been d e p r i v i n g h e r s e l f .  A f t e r she l e f t t h e  c l u b she s e c u r e d a copy o f t h e c o u r s e from t h e w o r k e r and f o l l o w e d i n s t r u c t i o n s r e l i g i o u s l y , r e p o r t i n g a t i n t e r v a l s on her progress. The o t h e r two g i r l s , L o u i s e W a l l a c e , aged 15 and A l b e r t , a l s o 15, were b o t h wards o f t h e —  Stella  Agency and  came i n t o the c l u b more o r l e s s by a c c i d e n t t h r o u g h a n o t h e r o f Wilma's i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i n v i t a t i o n s .  They a r r i v e d  one  e v e n i n g un-announced when Wilma was a b s e n t and t h e r e was n o t one t o a c t as t h e i r s p o n s o r .  The o t h e r s acknowledged  p r e s e n c e d u r i n g a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n by t h e worker b u t o t h e r w i s e d i d n o t seem t o be aware t h a t t h e y were t h e r e .  Half-  way t h r o u g h t h e e v e n i n g t h e worker r e c e i v e d a c a l l from t h e house mother a t t h e  Agency, who wanted t o be s u r e  t h a t t h e g i r l s had a r r i v e d s a f e l y .  She had o n l y r e c e n t l y  become house mother, and, a c c e p t i n g S t e l l a ' s e x p l a n a t i o n  25  t h a t t h e y were r e g u l a r members o f t h e c l u b , had p e r m i t t e d them t o a t t e n d . The worker was v e r y much d i s t u r b e d when she l e a r n e d o f the  g i r l s * background and f e l t t h a t t h e i r c o n t i n u e d member-  s h i p i n t h e c l u b would be most unwise from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w of  treatment.  B o t h o f them were s u f f e r i n g from s e r i o u s be-  h a v i o r problems.  L o u i s e , who had been a ward a l l h e r l i f e ,  had r e c e n t l y been removed from a f o s t e r home i n w h i c h she h a d lived f o r thirteen years.  The f a m i l y had r e j e c t e d h e r comp-  l e t e l y when she had become i n v o l v e d i n a s e x misdemeanor. S i n c e h e r a r r i v a l i n t h e s h e l t e r t h e r e had been a n o t h e r e p i sode o f t h i s t y p e w h i c h had been h a n d l e d i n t h e j u v e n i l e court.  L o u i s e had completed grade s i x i n s c h o o l and was now  b e i n g t r i e d o u t i n grade e i g h t .  Not v e r y b r i g h t , she was  e a s i l y led&anddparticularly susceptible t o the poorer i n f l u e n c e s i n h e r environment.  One o f t h e s e was S t e l l a .  S t e l l a , a n . a g g r e s s i v e y o u n g s t e r , had been a ward f o r o n l y a few months.  She had come i n t o c a r e a t h e r own r e q u e s t  when l i f e w i t h h e r f a t h e r , two younger b r o t h e r s and a s u c c e s s i o n o f u n s y m p a t h e t i c housekeepers had become u n b e a r a b l e . Her mother, who had d e s e r t e d t h e f a m i l y , was s t i l l l i v i n g i n the  c i t y and r e c e i v e d a l a r g e s h a r e o f S t e l l a ' s a f f e c t i o n .  S t e l l a was s u b j e c t t o e p i l e p t i c f i t s b u t had o n l y had one s i n c e coming i n t o c a r e .  Her g r e a t e s t problems were s t e a l i n g  and l y i n g b o t h o f w h i c h were o f a c o m p u l s i v e n a t u r e .  :  26  The two g i r l s were l i v i n g a t t h e s h e l t e r as a p a r t o f the treatment  p r e s c r i b e d by t h e p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c , s i n c e  n e i t h e r o f them was r e a d y t o go i n t o a f o s t e r home.  They had  formed a v e r y c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p , and under S t e l l a ' s l e a d e r s h i p L o u i s e was a l w a y s g e t t i n g i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s . As a n a d d i t i o n a l p a r t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t  f o r each, group  e x p e r i e n c e had been a d v i s e d , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e house mother had been q u i t e w i l l i n g t o have them a t t e n d t h e c l u b . N e i t h e r o f them was a b l e t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e b a r r i e r o f i n d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h t h e o t h e r c l u b members showed them. Louise, a f t e r s e v e r a l conferences  between t h e worker  and h e r case w o r k e r , was removed from t h e group and p l a c e d i n a n o t h e r program w h i c h s a t i s f i e d h e r l i k i n g f o r badminton and d a n c i n g .  By t h a t t i m e h e r f r i e n d s h i p w i t h S t e l l a was  waning so t h a t t h e t r a n s f e r was e f f e c t e d w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . S t e l l a , however, had found t h e o t h e r g i r l s i n t h e c l u b t o be k i n d r e d s p i r i t s a n d i n s p i t e o f t h e i r c o o l n e s s was d e t e r m i n e d t o make a p l a c e f o r h e r s e l f .  Her case worker was new and d i d  n o t w i s h t o make an i s s u e o f h e r removal f r o m t h e group, and consequently,  w i t h m i s g i v i n g s on b o t h s i d e s , S t e l l a  stayed  and t r i e d w i t h b r i b e s o f c h o c o l a t e b a r s and b o a s t s o f prowess as a r o l l e r s k a t e r t o become a p a r t o f t h e group. A s i d e f r o m L o u i s e and S t e l l a , t h e r e were o n l y two o t h e r g i r i s a t t e n d i n g t h e c l u b who came from o u t s i d e t h e downtown section of the c i t y .  These two, l i k e S t e l l a , had become  acquainted w i t h S t e l l a a t school.  They were s i s t e r s ,  Sylvia  27  and B e t t y R o b e r t s o n , aged f i f t e e n and who  sixteen respectively,  l i v e d i n K i t s i l a n o w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s and one younger  sister.  S y l v i a was  i n grade n i n e w i t h Wilma and  Stella,  w h i l e B e t t y had l e f t s c h o o l i n grade t e n and was w o r k i n g i n t h e same p l a c e as D o r i s , and a t t e n d i n g n i g h t s c h o o l .  Both  o f them had been members o f t h e t e e n c a n t e e n a t A l e x a n d r a b u t had l e f t t h a t agency when t h e j o i n e d t h e gang. showed evidences  House  They  o f a c a r e f u l u p b r i n g i n g and the w o r k e r found  i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e j u s t what had b r o u g h t them i n t o the group.  The o n l y p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n seemed t o be  they had t a s t e d the e x c i t e m e n t  and r e s t l e s s n e s s w h i c h were  a p a r t o f l i f e on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e u n d e r w o r l d and found them e x h i l a r a t i n g .  that  They were b o t h " g o i n g  w i t h boys i n t h e gang and t h e i r p a r e n t s , who  had  steady"  had met  the  b o y s , d i d n o t seem t o q u e s t i o n t h e i r c h o i c e o f companions o r even the l a t e hours w h i c h they k e p t i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r gang activities. Three o t h e r s j o i n e d the c l u b when i t was ing  still  operat-  as a g i r l s ' group, V i v i a n S e l i n c h u k , aged 14, M a r g a r e t  T o n s t a d , aged 15 and J u l i a Thompson, aged 16. . V i v i a n ' s h i s t o r y was  quite s i m i l a r to that of D o r i s .  She and h e r mother and b r o t h e r were l i v i n g i n Vancouver w h i l e t h e f a t h e r remained i n Saskatchewan.  W i t h D o r i s she  was  c o n s t a n t l y p l o t t i n g ways and means o f r e t u r n i n g t o h e r f a t h e r , and was  e x t r e m e l y v o l u a b l e i n her d i s l i k e f o r h e r mother's  w h i n i n g and c o m p l a i n i n g  ways.  The mother had come f r o m the  U k r a i n e and a c c o r d i n g t o s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s was speak a word o f E n g l i s h .  V i v i a n was  not a b l e to  s t i l l attending  school  23  b u t d i s l i k e d i t i n t e n s e l y and was f r e q u e n t l y a b s e n t .  Her  mother encouraged h e r i n t h i s and was a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o bach up h e r excuses when she p l a y e d  truant.  Of a l l t h e g i r l s i n t h e group M a r g a r e t seemed t o be t h e o n l y one who had no n o t i c e a b l e problems.  She was happy i n  h e r home w i t h h e r mother a n d s t e p - f a t h e r , enjoyed g o i n g t o s c h o o l and n e v e r accompanied t h e gang on t h e i r more f l a m b o y a n t ' escapades.  She had .strong c r u s h e s on some o f t h e boys b u t was  content t o worship from a distance.  Her g r e a t e s t b o a s t , and  t h e o t h e r g i r l s were r a t h e r proud o f t h i s t o o , was t h a t she had n e v e r even been k i s s e d .  The worker f e l t t h a t t h e s t r o n g -  e s t bond between M a r g a r e t a n d t h e r e s t was t h e f a c t t h a t she l i v e d i n t h e same d i s t r i c t . J u l i a , on t h e o t h e r hand, was t h e stormy p e t r e l o f t h e group.  A v e r y a t t r a c t i v e and s e n s u a l l o o k i n g g i r l ,  she l i v e d  up t o h e r appearance and was w e l l on t h e way t o becoming a n amateur p r o s t i t u t e . More promiscuous t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r g i r l s , she was c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e t h r o e s o f remorse because o f t h e shame she f e l t she was b r i n g i n g t o h e r r e s p e c t a b l e family.  She was a l s o t h e f r e q u e n t o b j e c t o f v i o l e n t a c t i o n  on t h e p a r t o f t h e boys who p u n i s h e d u n f a i t h f u l n e s s beatings.  J u l i a was t h e youngest i n a f a m i l y o f f i v e g i r l s , v  with a considerable ter.  with  s p r e a d between h e r a n d t h e second daugh-  The f a t h e r had been i n c a p a c i t a t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t  w o r l d war a n d b o t h he and t h e mother were o v e r s i x t y , so t h a t they d i d n o t t a k e a v e r y a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n h e r a c t i v i t i e s .  29  None o f h e r s i s t e r s seemed t o worry about h e r and t h e o n l y a s s i s t a n c e she r e c e i v e d w i t h h e r problems came f r o m h e r c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , R o b e r t a and E t h e l , who were c o n s t a n t l y c o v e r ing  up h e r s i n s b e f o r e t h e f a m i l y f o u n d o u t .  Program. The members o f c l u b 57 had a v e r y c l e a r i d e a f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g a s t o what t h e y w i s h e d t o do w i t h t h e i r c l u b meeti n g s , and any a t t e m p t s a t o r g a n i z a t i o n were n o t encouraged. When t h e f i r s t a r r i v a l s appeared i n t h e c l u b room t h e r e c o r d p l a y e r was t u r n e d on f u l l b l a s t and so i t remained u n t i l t h e h a r r a s s e d p r e s i d e n t removed t h e d o u b l e s o c k e t and demanded a t the  t o p o f h e r l u n g s t h a t everyone " s h u t up and s i t down"  because she wanted t o s t a r t t h e b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g .  T h i s some-  t i m e s d i d n o t happen f o r s e v e r a l hours because t h e p r e s i d e n t h e r s e l f was f o n d o f j i v i n g . D u r i n g t h i s f i r s t p e r i o d a l l the* g i r l s w i t h t h e except i o n o f D o r i s and S t e l l a , V e r a and L o u i s e danced.  These f o u r ,  a f t e r one b r i e f a t t e m p t had been made t o t e a c h them t o dance, were r e t i r e d t o t h e s i d e l i n e s *  J i v e seemed t o be t h e o n l y  f o r m w h i c h t h e y u s e d ; c o n s e q u e n t l y b o o g i e woogle predominated and some r e c o r d s were p l a y e d o v e r as many as t e n t i m e s i n one evening.  Sometimes t h e y p u t on s l o w e r r e c o r d s o f t h e t o r c h  song v a r i e t y b u t t h e s e were f o r l i s t e n i n g purposes o n l y and nobody danced.  Doris.showed no i n c l i n a t i o n t o l e a r n b u t  seemed c o n t e n t t o d i s c u s s p l a y s and books w i t h t h e w o r k e r ,  39  w h i l e L o u i s e and V e r a j u s t s a t and watched, s m i l i n g q u i c k l y i f anyone g l a n c e d i n t h e i r d i r e c t i o n .  They were d i f f i c u l t  t o engage i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and always answered i n les.  monosyllab-  S t e l l a l o o k e d a f t e r t h e r e c o r d p l a y e r but put on o n l y  those r e c o r d s w h i c h t h e d a n c e r s r e q u e s t e d .  This period too,  was used f o r r e h a s h i n g t h e week end's f e s t i v i t i e s . The b u s i n e s s meetings were c a r r i e d on i n s t r i c t  accor-  dance w i t h p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d u r e as l a i d down i n t h e handbook w h i c h the worker had g i v e n them and any d e v i a t i o n s were promptly  p i c k e d up by one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e members.  The  minutes were r e a d and u s u a l l y amended a f t e r an argument d u r i n g w h i c h R o b e r t a swore t h a t she had c o p i e d t h i n g s down j u s t as they had been s a i d .  The f e e s had been s e t a t t w e n t y - f i v e  c e n t s a month, p l u s t h e Agency f e e o f f i f t y c e n t s a y e a r  and  each week B a r b a r a r e a d o f f a l i s t o f t h o s e i n a r r e a r s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d everyone, and demanded a r e a s o n f o r t h e i r t o pay up.  failure  The meetings were always s i t u a t e d w r o n g l y w i t h  r e s p e c t t o pay day so t h a t t h e books were n e v e r  balanced.  Once the t r e a s u r e r ' s r e p o r t had been g i v e n E l l e n took t o p r e s e n t new  business.  over  P l a n n i n g f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g week's  program u s u a l l y d i s s o l v e d i n t o a s u g g e s t i o n by B a r b a r a t h e y would as l e a v e dance a s do a n y t h i n g e l s e .  The  that  Dubarry  Course r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n out o f c o u r t e s y t o t h e worker who  had b r o u g h t i t down, and D o r i s was  of organizing i t .  assigned to the job  E l l e n went so f a r as t o b r i n g down h e r  s h o r t s , b u t a s i d e f r o m t h a t t h e course was  never heard  from again.  31  Two  t h i n g s d i d i n t e r e s t them g r e a t l y however.  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s p o n s o r i n g a l a r g e dance.  One  was  This matter  o b v i o u s l y been d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h w i t h t h e boys and was v e r y i m p o r t a n t i t e m on t h e agenda. o t h e r c l u b s who  a  They spoke w i t h envy o f  were a b l e t o h o l d d a n c e s , and were o v e r j o y e d  when t h e worker s e c u r e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r them t o have one Christmas.  had  after  A t f i r s t they planned t o donate the p r o c e e d s t o  some c h a r i t y l i k e t h e I n f a n t i l e P a r a l y s i s F u n d — t h i s  sugges-  t i o n came f r o m D o r i s and W i l m a — b u t B a r b a r a and E l l e n , were more p r a c t i c a l , h i t upon the i d e a o f b u y i n g c l u b The o t h e r m a t t e r w h i c h concerned p a r t y t o w h i c h the whole gang was  them was a  who sweaters.  ehristmas  t o be i n v i t e d .  During  the  month b e f o r e t h e boys made t h e i r i n i t i a l appearance a t t h e Agency much e f f o r t went i n t o a r r a n g i n g a s u i t a b l e welcome f o r them.  E l a b o r a t e p l a n s were made f o r a f l o o r , show w h i c h would  f e a t u r e a l l the t a l e n t a v a i l a b l e .  The g i r l s had a g r e a t d e a l  o f f u n p l a n n i n g t h i s e n t e r t a i n m e n t and c o n s i d e r a b l e time spent i n impromptu r e h e a r s a l s .  T h i s gave b o t h S t e l l a and  a b r i e f sojourn i n the s p o t l i g h t .  S t e l l a , who  from t h e o t h e r s .  Vera  had a p l e a s a n t  v o i c e , sang two s o l o s and r e c e i v e d f o r t h e f i r s t and o n l y t i m e a genuine response  was  perhaps  Vera a l s o o f -  f e r e d t o s i n g but became t e r r i b l y nervous and a f t e r two  false  s t a r t s went o u t s i d e t h e clubroom and sang a duet b e h i n d  the  c l o s e d door w i t h Wilma who seemed t o u n d e r s t a n d  how  had come t o h e r a i d .  The  others  d i f f i c u l t t h e o r d e a l had been f o r  h e r and k e p t t e l l i n g h e r how much t h e y enjoyed h e r  song.  52  D o r i s had  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o do some a c t i n g t o p , a l t h o u g h  the  o p p o r t u n i t y was wasted because the o t h e r a c t o r s i n s i s t e d h o r s e p l a y when she wanted t o be s e r i o u s .  on  Everyone j o i n e d i n  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y u n t i l B a r b a r a p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e boys d i d n o t l i k e t o have t h i n g s p l a n n e d ahead and  that they  would n o t l e t them p u t on t h e f l o o r show.  probably  The o t h e r s agreed  t h a t t h i s would u n d o u b t e d l y be the c a s e and the p l a n s were discarded. The  s u b j e c t o f f o o d was  important  too.  They wanted t o  do t h i n g s p r o p e r l y — t h e l u n c h had t o be r e a l l y "sharp" so boys would r e a l i z e t h a t they knew how  to e n t e r t a i n .  the  After  much c o n s u l t a t i o n and h u n t i n g t h r o u g h p a r t y booke t h e y  de-  c i d e d on a v e r y e l a b o r a t e l u n c h w h i c h i n c l u d e d p l i c e s , s t u f f e d c e l e r y , d i f f e r e n t shaped sandwiches, c o o k i e s , cake and marshmallows f o r t o a s t i n g a t t h e f i r e p l a c e .  S t e l l a Immediately  o f f e r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e more i n a c c e s s i b l e items s u c h as marshmallows and no one p r o t e s t e d . t h e v a r i o u s items and t h o s e who  E l l e n asked f o r v o l u n t e e r s f o r d i d n o t o f f e r were t o l d what  to b r i n g . When i t came t o t h e a c t u a l isaaadhigg o f the  invitations  t o t h e boys they were s u d d e n l y a s s a i l e d w i t h d o u b t s .  Although  c l u b meetings seemed t o be the o n l y p l a c e where t h e y were not t o g e t h e r and t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were more t h a n u s u a l l y w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e b o y s , the g i r l s were nervous a t the p r o s p e c t o f p l a y i n g h o s t e s s . f e l t , was a n e n t i r e l y new  T h i s , t h e worker  s i t u a t i o n f o r them; under o r d i n a r y  35  o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e hoys t o o k t h e i n i t i a t i v e w i t h t h e g i r l s f o l l o w i n g where t h e y l e d . They were a f r a i g t h a t t h e f i r s t independent v e n t u r e might n o t measure up t o o w e l l and t h a t t h e boys would r i d i c u l e t h e i r  efforts.  The i n v i t a t i o n s d i d n o t go t o i n d i v i d u a l s gang as a whole.  but t o the  B a r b a r a , a c t i n g as l i a i s o n , t o o k a l i s t o f  t h o s e whose p r e s e n c e was s p e c i a l l y r e q u e s t e d and p r o m i s e d t o do h e r b e s t .  Her p o s i t i o n as g i r l f r i e n d o f t h e l e a d e r o f  the gang was an e n v i e d one, and one w h i c h she t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n even though t h e l e a d e r s changed.  When t h e worker a s k e d i f  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r "each g i r l t o i n v i t e h e r own boy  friend  E l l e n e x p l a i n e d t h a t i f any o f them came t h e y a l l would so t h a t t h e r e was no p o i n t i n p i c k i n g and c h o o s i n g . The boys* group was an amalgamation o f what t h e y c a l l e d the  " E a s t " and "West" gangs.  The f i r s t made up o f boys w i t h  a European background, t h e second b e i n g m o s t l y of. B r i t i s h extraction.  The "West" gang, from w h i c h t h e o v e r - a l l  leader  E r n i e A l l e n came, l o o k e d upon t h e o t h e r s as "bohunks# b u t seemed t o g e t a l o n g w i t h them w e l l .  Most o f t h e t i m e t h e y  t r a v e l l e d t o g e t h e r , b u t t h e y l i k e d on o c c a s i o n t o s t r e s s t h e i r separate i d e n t i t i e s .  Two weeks b e f o r e t h e p a r t y , t h e g i r l s  r e p o r t e d t o t h e worker t h a t t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n s had been a c c e p t ed and a l l t h e boys were coming.  The f o l l o w i n g week, however,  i t d e v e l o p e d t h a t B a r b a r a had been t e m p o r a r i l y o u s t e d a s E r n i e ' s g i r l f r i e n d and she had t o l d him t h a t he and t h e "West" gang would n o t be welcome.  The o t h e r s were wrathy a t h e r and  34  f e l t t h a t she had been e x t r e m e l y f o o l h a r d y i n d e f y i n g t h e boys i n t h i s way.  D o r i s expressed t h e o p i n i o n , though,  t h a t i f they i n t e n d e d t o come, a s m a l l m a t t e r l i k e t h e canc e l l a t i o n o f a n i n v i t a t i o n would make l i t t l e  difference.  T h i s was t h e way t h i n g s s t o o d when t h e boys j o i n e d t h e group.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Worker and G i r l s . The f i r s t p e r i o d o f t h e c l u b ' s e x i s t a n c e was t o o s h o r t to permit the establishment of a very d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e worker a n d t h e g i r l s .  F o r b o t h i t was a t e s t i n g  p e r i o d and on e i t h e r s i d e c o n c e s s i o n s were made.  The g i r l s  showed t h e i r d e s i r e t o c o - o p e r a t e as b e s t they knew how, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n r u l e s o f conduct w h i c h t h e y f e l t would p l e a s e t h e worker.  Any s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h she made i n t h e way  o f a c t i v i t i e s were g i v e n a f a i t h e a r i n g and though none o f them was t a k e n u p , t h e y were d i s c a r d e d i n such a way a s t o i m p l y t h a t they would p r o b a b l y be p a r t o f t h e n e x t week's program.  As t h e y became aware t h a t t h e workers demands upon  them were n o t g o i n g t o be t o o heavy t h e y r e l a x e d and t e s t e d h e r f u r t h e r , a t t h e same t i m e g i v i n g c o n s t a n t e v i d e n c e s o f t h e i r good i n t e n t . unorthodox  When she seemed s u r p r i s e d a t some o f t h e  statements o f v a r i o u s members t h e o t h e r s q u i c k l y  r e t r e n c h e d and a p l a c a t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n was o f f e r e d .  They  t r i e d . t o be h o n e s t , however, i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r group as i t r e a l l y was, because t h e y p r o b a b l y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e t i m e would come when t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p r e s e n c e i n t h e Agency would  35  be q u e s t i o n e d , and t h e y d i d n o t want t o be a c c e p t e d  at first  o n l y t o be t u r n e d o u t l a t e r when t h e i r b e h a v i o r became d i f ficult.  The worker f e l t t h a t t h e g i r l s themselves would  have had no d i f f i c u l t y a d h e r i n g more o r l e s s t o t h e Agency p o l i c y , b u t they were p r e p a r i n g h e r f o r t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e boys who were n o t so amenable. In  s p i t e o f t h i s obvious a t t e m p t a t c o - o p e r a t i o n t h e  worker was n o t a c c e p t e d by t h e g i r l s a s group l e a d e r d u r i n g t h a t f i r s t month.  She was a n a d u l t and t h e r e f o r e s u s p e c t .  They were g r a t e f u l f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e t h e c l u b room and a c c e p t e d t h e f a c t t h a t h e r p r e s e n c e a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Agency was n e c e s s a r y ; b u t t h e y had been a b l e t o h a n d l e t h e i r a f f a i r s f o r some time w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f an o l d e r p e r s o n and were n o t a n x i o u s  t o have a d u l t i n t e r f e r e n c e now.  Most o f t h e group's d e c i s i o n s were made o u t s i d e o f c l u b meeti n g s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w o r k e r , i n t h e same way as t h e e x e c u t i v e was chosen, and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e boys c o u l d be seen i n many o f them.  C o n v e r s a t i o n s about t h e more q u e s t i o n -  a b l e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e gang were h e l d when t h e w o r k e r was o u t o f t h e room and c u t o f f q u i c k l y when she r e t u r n e d , o r took p l a c e around t h e r e c o r d p l a y e r where t h e n o i s e c u t o f f t h e i r voices.  As a group they were q u i t e comfofctable t a l k i n g t o  t h e worker on c l u b t o p i c s , b u t a l l o f them e x c e p t D o r i s became uneasy when she t r i e d t o c a r r y on a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h them s i n g l y and i m m e d i a t e l y excuse t o g e t away.  began l o o k i n g around f o r some  36  Only once, on t h e l a s t evening b e f o r e t h e p a r t y , d i d they l o w e r t h e i r r e s e r v e s and i n c l u d e t h e worker i n a conf i d e n t i a l discussion.  T h i s was because t h e y were i n a h i g h l y  e x c i t e d s t a t e over, an i t e m w h i c h had appeared i n t h e e v e n i n g newspaper; and they c o u l d n o t c o n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s .  Ernie's  n i n e t e e n y e a r o l d b r o t h e r , Johnny, had been s e n t e n c e d t h a t day t o a term o f t h r e e y e a r s and twenty l a s h e s on a charged o f armed r o b b e r y .  They spoke q u i t e c a s u a l l y o f t h e f a c t t h a t  a l l f o u r A l l e n boys were mixed up i n t h e dope r a c k e t w h i c h  v  had r e s u l t e d i n Johnny's a r r e s t , and d i d n o t c o n s i d e r i t unu s u a l t h a t a l l o f them except E r n i e were dope a d d i c t s , a l though t h e o l d e s t was t i c u l a r l y sympathetic.  only twenty-four.  None o f them was  par-  E t h e l e x p r e s s e d t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f the  o t h e r s when she s a i d t h a t Johnny d e s e r v e d what he g o t , h i s c r i m e b e i n g , as f a r as t h e worker c o u l d see, n o t t h e drug s t o r e r o b b e r y but t h e f a c t t h a t he g o t caught. toward t h e p r i s o n s e n t e n c e was  Their attitude  s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h most  p e o p l e had d u r i n g t h e war t o the absence o f a f r i e n d o v e r s e a s . Such absenses were t o be expected i n t h e o r d i n a r y c o u r s e o f events and no one wasted any time i n u s e l e s s r e g r e t s . l a s h i n g , w h i c h t h e worker c o n s i d e r e d a b a r b a r i c d i d n o t seem t o p e r t u r b them.  The  punishment,  Barbara s a i d that her cousin  had been g i v e n t h e l a s h one time and he d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was so much; i n any case she b o a s t e d Johnny was the boy who take i t .  could  E l l e n a l s o had a r e l a t i v e who had r e c e i v e d t h a t  punishment and i t had n o t done him a b i t o f good.  37  H i s mother s p o i l e d h i m a l l t h e time he was i n j a i l j u s t because she thought he had been h u r t , and when he came o u t he was a bad as e v e r . EVsen d u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d , when t h e c l u b memberostensibly s h i p was/made up o n l y o f g i r l s , t h e worker f e l t t h a t u n o f f i c i a l l y t h e boys were a c t i v e members.  They were k e p t f u l l y  i n f o r m e d o f a l l t h a t went on i n c l u b meetings and any d e c i s i o n s t h a t were made r e c e i v e d t h e i r a p p r o v a l i n gang d i s c u s s i o n b e f o r e they became law.  Once t h e g i r l s had e s t a b l i s h e d a  f o o t h o l d t h e m s e l v e s , a l l e f f o r t s were b e n t on b r i n g i n g them i n t o t h e c l u b as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e ,  whether i n t h e f i r s t  p l a c e t h e g i r l s p l a n n e d t o make them f u l l f l e d g e d members o r n o t , t h e worker d i d n o t know, b u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r  superior  p o s i t i o n i n t h e gang, i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i f t h e boys ap^ p r o v e d o f t h e clubroom and i t s f a c i l i t i e s t h e y would possession.  take  38  Chapter I I I . INCLUSION OF BOYS AS MEMBERS.  The p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h C l u b 57 o p e r a t e d as a mixed group l a s t e d f r o m J a n u a r y u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f May.  But  w i t h t h e coming o f t h e boys t o t h e f i r s t p a r t y on December 1 7 t h , t h e c l u b changed i t s c o m p l e x i o n v e r y d e c i d e d l y . the g i r l s ,  Unlike  they made no attempt a t t h e o u t s e t t o e s t a b l i s h  a co-operative r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the.worker.  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  they behaved as t h i s were j u s t a n o t h e r p l a c e where t h e i r v i s i t would be t h e i r l a s t .  first  T h e i r f e e l i n g o f contempt and  s u s p i c i o n f o r t h e worker and t h e Agency, r e p r e s e n t i n g a s o c i e t y t o w h i c h they d i d n o t b e l o n g , was a p p a r e n t when they stepped i n s i d e the door.  J u s t why they came t h e w o r k e r was  n o t s u r e ; perhaps i t was because they c o u l d n e v e r r e s i s t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make t h e i r resentment f e l t .  Whatever i t was,  t h e i r a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d n o t a n t i c i p a t e a v e r y long stay.  The g i r l s  were caught h a l f way between; they  wanted t o r e t a i n t h e good w i l l o f t h e w o r k e r , b u t more t h a n t h a t they wanted t o p l e a s e t h e b o y s . uneven one. I n t h e f i r s t evening had  The s t r u g g l e was a n  t h e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h they  so c a r e f u l l y s e t up f o r t h e worker's b e n e f i t were a p o l o -  g e t i c a l l y but very d e f i n i t e l y  discarded.  The p a r t y was due t o s t a r t a t 8.30 b u t a t 7.00 e i g h t members o f the"West"gang, i g n o r i n g t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n , moved i n .  W i t h them came a new g i r l ,  I s a b e l Vance,  39  who  f o l l o w e d one o f t h e b o y s , J a c k J a m i e s o n , around l i k e a  puppy.  S i n c e none o f t h e g i r l s had appeared y e t , t h e worker  welcomed t h e group and t r i e d t o make them f e e l a t home. remarks were answered w i t h m o n o s y l l a b l e s room was  or ignored.  Her  The  e x p l o r e d t h o r o u g h l y and found i n p e n e t r a t i n g v o i c e s  t o be i n a d e q u a t e and u n s u i t a b l e , and t h e n the group s e t t l e d around t h e r e c o r d p l a y e r .  B e f o r e they had been t h e r e l o n g  E r n i e r e p o r t e d t o the worker t h a t t h e room was t h e r e c o r d s were too slow.  She l i t t h e f i r e p l a c e and went  t o her o f f i c e f o r some more s u i t a b l e r e c o r d s . E r n i e t o l d h e r t h a t t h e p l a c e was now  was  On h e r r e t u r n  t o o smoky and  t h a t when you were i n v i t e d t o a p a r t y you t o be c o m f o r t a b l e .  too c o l d and  expected a t l e a s t  T h e r e a f t e r u n t i l t h e g i r l s a r r i v e d she  l e f t to h e r s e l f . I n a l l , s e v e n t e e n g i r l s and t w e n t y - t h c e e boys  the p a r t y . was  muttered  attended  Of t h e c l u b members everyone but L o u i s e and  Vera  p r e s e n t , t h e o t h e r g i r l s , l i k e I s a b e l h a v i n g been i n v i t e d  by t h e i r boy f r i e n d s . h e r , and  Only S t e l l a b r o u g h t her f r i e n d s w i t h  t h e s e two boys u n f o r t u n a t e l y were " s q u a r e s " ,  which i n t h e i r vocabulary one c l a s s .  lumped a l l n o n - z o o t - s u i t e r s  a word into  The o t h e r boys came i n s e p a r a t e l y i n l a r g e groups.  F o r t h e f i r s t hour o r so the g i r l s remained bunched around t h e worker a t t h e f i r e p l a c e d i s c u s s i n g the boy«i, who were s i m i l a r l y bunched around the r e c o r d p l a y e r . chairman o f t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t o t h e r s t o get the d a n c i n g  committee, was  started.  Wilma, a s  o r d e r e d by  the  She d i d n ' t want t o because  40  she was  s c a r e d , and asked t h e worker t o do so.  The  worker  approached t h e hoys b u t they s a i d they d i d n o t want t o dance and went back t o t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n .  S t e l l a got one o f h e r  f r i e n d s out onto the f l o o r b u t t h i s produced no r e s u l t s f r o m the boys o t h e r t h a n a few rude comments about  "squares".  F i n a l l y , when E r n i e had t u r n e d out a l l t h e l i g h t s b u t a c o u p l e o f c a n d l e s on t h e m a n t l e p i e c e , t h e p a r t y got under Only t h r e e c o u p l e s danced; the o t h e r s found  way.  themselves  c o m f o r t a b l e c h a i r s and s e t t l e d down t o a broad n e c k i n g p a r t y w i t h t h e boys becoming much more amorous when the w o r k e r i n t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t y . worker d e c i d e d t h a t i t was  Because i t was  so o b v i o u s  was the  b e i n g done f o r t h e purpose o f  f o r c i n g some a c t i o n on h e r p a r t w h i c h t h e y c o u l d d e f y , and i g n o r e d i t as b e s t she c o u l d .  The boys who  were n o t so o c -  cupied kept s l i p p i n g out i n t o the h a l l f o r d r i n k s from a b o t t l e w h i c h she knew was  t h e r e but c o u l d n e v e r l o c a t e .  they d e n i e d t h e e x i s t a n c e o f s u c h a b o t t l e when a s k e d  While  direct-  l y , s e v e r a l o f them b o a s t e d t h a t they i n t e n d e d t o f g e t r e a l l y plastered tonight.  1 1  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d f r e q u e n t d i s p a r a g i n g remarks were made about t h e two boys who J a c k , who  had come w i t h S t e l l a .  Finally  had been l o o k i n g f o r a n o p p o r t u n i t y a l l e v e n i n g ,  t o o k e x c e p t i o n t o something one o f them had s a i d j o k i n g l y t o Isabel.  He grabbed t h e boy by t h e s h i r t c o l l a r and demanded  an a p o l o g y . anything.  Bobby s t e p p e d back and s a i d t h a t he hadn't meant J a c k c o n t i n u e d t o t h r e a t e n and t h e worker went  41  o v e r and t o l d them t o " b r e a k i t up«.  Bobby moved o f f and J a c k  went o v e r t o t a l k t o some o f h i s f r i e n d s who had been watching  from the c o r n e r .  I n a few minutes he and a n o t h e r boy got  up and went out t o t h e h a l l . o t h e r s and s a i d "We  The worker went o v e r t o t h e  don't want any f i g h t s h e r e .  11  One o f t h e  boys mumbled,, "There won't be none." "The o t h e r guy d i d n ' t do n o t h i n g t o I s a b e l . "  J u s t t h e n however t h e r e was  r u s h o f people t o t h e h a l l .  a sudden  The worker pushed h e r way  through  t h e m i l l i n g c l o u d t o f i n d Bobby's f r i e n d l y i n g on t h e f l o o r i n appStoifof b l o o d and J a c k g i v i n g Bobby a t e r r i f i c  pounding.  The rest., b o t h boys and g i r l s , were s t a n d i n g around  watching  w i t h g r e a t enjoyment.  J a c k was a good d e a l b i g g e r t h a n Bobby  who k e p t d u c k i n g down onto h i s knees and screaming a t him t o stop.  The worker g o t h o l d o f J a c k s e v e r a l t i m e s and t r i e d t o  p u l l him o f f , b u t each t i m e he l i f t e d h e r out o f t h e way r e t u r n e d t o the f r a y . o t h e r boys.  and  Then she t u r n e d and a p p e a l e d t o t h e ...  E r n i e s m i l e d p l e a s a n t l y and shook h i s head.  No  one made any move e x c e p t E t h e l ' s s p e c i a l f r i e n d , Tony, who s a i d h a l f h e a r t e d l y , "Aw,  c u t i t out y o u guys."  I n despera-  t i o n t h e worker announced t h a t she would have t o c a l l p o l i c e i f they d i d n ' t s t o p .  T h i s slowed J a c k up and  the after  d e l i v e r i n g one more h a r d blow w i t h h i s head on Bobby's c h e s t he s t o p p e d . Bobby and h i s f r i e n d g who had been r a k e d a c r o s s t h e f a c e w i t h a p a i r o f homemade b r a s s k n u c k l e s s e v e r a l t i m e s , went i n t o t h e g i r l s ' washroom w i t h Tony and some o f t h e g i r l s .  42  J a c k i n t h e meantime s t a r t e d t o g e t h i s c o a t on and I s a b e l t o do t h e same.  told  S e v e r a l o f t h e boys t o l d him he d i d n ' t  have t o go and one o f them came over and asked t h e w o r k e r , "You'r n o t g o i n g t o c a l l t h e p o l i c e , a r e y o u ? "  She s a i d  wouldn't b u t t h a t she d i d n o t want any more d i s p l a y s l i k e  she that.  A l l o f them, i n c l u d i n g J a c k and I s a b e l , went back i n s i d e t h e clubroom. The two boys who  had r e c e i v e d t h e b e a t i n g . w e r e  busy  r e p a i r i n g t h e damage when t h e worker got down t o t h e washroom. B o t h o f them were p r e t t y b a d l y c u t up, b u t were o n l y s t o p p i n g l o n g enough t o wipe up some o f t h e more o b v i o u s e v i d e n c e s o f t h e f i g h t b e f o r e g e t t i n g out o f t h e b u i l d i n g .  They were t e r -  r i f i e d o f a n o t h e r a t t a c k , a l t h o u g h Tony a s s u r e d them t h a t J a c k and t h e o t h e r boy i n v o l v e d , Rudy A m a t t a , had had quota o f f i g h t i n g f o r one n i g h t .  R o b e r t a , t r y i n g t o make  t h i n g s a l i t t l e b e t t e r , p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e was nothing personal i n the f i g h t .  their  really  I t had been planned s i m p l y be-  cause t h e y were " s q u a r e s , and S t e l l a s h o u l d have known b e t 11  ter  t h a n t o b r i n g them t o a " d r a p e  0  party.  Everyone had known  as soon a s t h e two boys came i n t h a t t h e y would be b e a t e n up sometime d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g . The atmosphere i n t h e clubroom was d i f f e r e n t a f t e r t h e fight.  Having done t h e i r w o r s t , t h e boys seemed t o be w i l -  l i n g t o s e t t l e down and enjoy t h e p a r t y and d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s to annoy t h e worker were n o t so n o t i c e a b l e . she was  F o r some r e a s o n  i n a s l i g h t l y more f a v o r a b l e p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e whole  43  group; i t may be because t h e y had expected t o be f o r c i b l y e j e c t e d by t h e p o l i c e a f t e r t h e f r a c a s and t h e w o r k e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o l e t t h e p a r t y c a r r y on had thrown them o f f b a l a n c e . Whatever i t was, w h i l e none o f them a p o l o g i z e d a few o f f - h a n d  gestures  for the f i g h t ,  were made i n h e r d i r e c t i o n .  The f o o d  was b e i n g passed around and she was k e p t w e l l s u p p l i e d by t h e servers.  Even J a c k p i c k e d up a sandwich f r o m one o f t h e p l a t e s  and o f f e r e d i t t o h e r , s a y i n g t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r b r a n d was b e t t e r t h a n most.  When l u n c h was over s e v e r a l o f t h e boys  asked h e r t o dance and were d u l y r e g r e t f u l when she e x p l a i n e d t h a t she d i d n o t j i v e .  One o f them, Tommy Baronchuck came  o v e r and wanted t o know how she had g o t mixed up i n t h i s "gangster's c l u b " .  The b o y s , he s a i d had come t o t h e c o n c l u -  s i o n t h a t she was e i t h e r a policewoman, a p r o b a t i o n or a sucker.  officer  They c o u l d n o t make up t h e i r minds w h i c h .  What  he c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d was why anyone would d e l i b e r a t e l y become i n v o l v e d w i t h them. The  p a r t y ended s u d d e n l y w i t h t h e announcement by E r n i e  t h a t t h e boys were l e a v i n g .  Wilma, who was busy c l e a n i n g up  b e h i n d t h e coke b a r , y e l l e d a t t h e o t h e r g i r l s t o come and ' help her.  E r n i e t o l d them t h a t i f t h e y wanted t o come w i t h  the boys t h e y would have t o l e a v e i m m e d i a t e l y .  The g i r l s  h e s i t a t e d f o r a moment, l o o k i n g h e l p l e s s l y a t t h e mess, t h e n grabbed t h e i r c o a t s .  Wilma k e p t on c l e a n i n g and c a l l i n g t o  t h e o t h e r s t o w a i t f o r h e r u n t i l t h e worker t o l d h e r she had b e t t e r go. o  Everyone was gone i n l e s s t h a n two m i n u t e s e x c e p t  44  one o f t h e new g i r l s who r e t u r n e d b r i e f l y t o l o o k f o r h e r w a l l e t w h i c h had d i s a p p e a r e d . The  c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h they l e f t t h e clubroom i n d i c a t e d  as c l e a r l y as d i d any o t h e r phase o f t h e p a r t y , t h e c o m p l e t e l y a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e boys.  I t was a shambles, w i t h  h a l f e a t e n sandwiches, p i e c e s o f cake and b r o k e n coke b o t t l e s a l l o v e r t h e f l o o r , under t h e c h a i r s and i n t h e c o r n e r s . Most o f t h e marshmallows had been ground d e l i b e r a t e l y  into  the r u g o r t h e f l o o r and t h e p i n g pong t a b l e was l i s t i n g  badly.  Two c h a i r s b e h i n d t h e p i n g pong t a b l e w h i c h nobody had any o c c a s i o n t o u s e d u r i n g t h e evening had been smashed and s t a c d ed up l i k e k i n d l i n g wood i n a c o r n e r .  S e v e r a l r e c o r d s had  been b r o k e n and e i g h t o t h e r s w h i c h t h e worker had borrowed from a f r i e n d were m i s s i n g .  P o s i t i o n o f t h e g i r l s i n t h e gang. W i t h t h e coming o f t h e boys t h e w o r k e r was a b l e t o see the g i r l s i n a more p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e .  This I n i t i a l contact  w i t h t h e group as a whole i n d i c a t e d c l e a r l y t h a t i n t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e gang, they t o o k a d e f i n i t e l y s u b s e r v i e n t r o l e . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e evening t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f t h e easy i n t e r p l a y w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e average teen-age boy and g i r l who a r e w e l l a c q u a i n t e d . Each group k e p t s t r i c t l y t o i t s e l f f o r some c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e , the g i r l s w a i t i n g e a g e r l y f o r a s i g n f r o m t h e b o y s , who d i s p l a y e d a complete i n d i f f e r e n c e t o them.  When t h e boys were  45  ready t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t they summoned t h e g i r l s t o t h e i r s i d e s i n a l o r d l y manner and t h e p a r t y proceeded i n accordance with their inclina-tions.  A t no t i m e d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g d i d  ifche g i r l s a s s e r t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n as h o s t e s s e s o r i n any way i n d i c a t e t h a t they as a c l u b might f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e group i n t h e Agency.  Several  t i m e s E t h e l and D o r i s a p o l o g i z e d s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y f o r t h e cond u c t o f t h e boys, b u t t h e s e a p o l o g i e s came more i n t h e form of an e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t one must expect s u c h b e h a v i o r from t h e boys and a p l e a f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r o m t h e w o r k e r ,  than  a s an acknowledgment o f r e g r e t f o r t h e i r m i s b e h a v i o r . There was no doubt t h a t , as M i s s Thompson had  surmised,  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e g i r l s w i t h t h i s group o f boys  was  such t h a t i t might l e a d them i n t o v e r y g r a v e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the f u t u r e .  However a t t h e time when t h e y came i n t o t h e  Agency, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was t o o c l o s e f o r t h e worker c o n s i d e r them as o t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e group.  to  The g i r l s were  an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e gang and w h i l e on t h e s u r f a c t t h e y were more amenable t h a n t h e boys, t h e y s h a r e d w i t h them a deep resentment a g a i n s t a l l forms o f a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o a c c e p t and condone a l m o s t any t y p e o f delinquent behavior.  Boys' Membership. I n t h e gang f i v e boys s t o o d out as t h o s e who  possessed,  f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , a much g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e t h a n t h e „  46  others.  Of t h e s e f i v e , t h r e e came f r o m t h e "West" gang.  E r n i e A l l e n , 17, a n I r i s h hoy, was d e f i n i t e l y , t h e l e a d e r . H i s p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y d e r i v e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t from t h e f a c t t h a t h i s o l d e s t b r o t h e r , B i l l , was, i n t h e eyes o f the gang, a b i g time o p e r a t o r .  B i l l was always a good  " t o u c h " and was s u s p e c t e d by t h e p o l i c e o f p a y i n g t h e boys w e l l t o d e l i v e r dope t o h i s customers.  They d i d n o t c o n s i d e r  h i s i n t e r e s t i n them o t h e r t h a n k i n d l y however, and J a c k r e p o r t e d t o t h e worker on one o c c a s i o n t h a t " t h e r e were f i f t e e n guys i n t h e room who would have i t i n f o r anyone who l a i d a f i n g e r on E r n i e , because h i s b i g b r o t h e r was so w h i t e t o them". I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s E r n i e was c l e v e r e r t h a n most o f t h e boys, and h i s d a r k , r a t h e r s i n i s t e r good l o o k s made him v e r y with the g i r l s .  popular  A t t i m e s he showed s i g n s o f a c a r e f u l t r a i n i n g  i n t h e s o c i a l g r a c e s , b u t w h i l e t h e g i r l s r e p o r t e d t h a t he had n e v e r b e a t e n up a g i r l h i m s e l f , he d i d n o t h i n g t o d i s c o u r a g e the o t h e r s i n such a c t i v i t i e s . H i s p a r e n t s l i v e d i n t h e West end b u t he was s t a y i n g w i t h Bill.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e —>  S o c i e t y , t h e f a t h e r had been  a v i c t i m o f s h e l l shock d u r i n g t h e f i r s t World War and spent much o f h i s time i n Shaughnessy H o s p i t a l , and t h e mother was mentally unbalanced.  D i s c i p l i n e i n t h e f a m i l y had been v e r y  s t r i c t and sometimes b r u t a l when t h e boys were young and a l l o f them had been a f r a i d o f t h e i r p a r e n t s .  Now t h a t they were  w e l l l a u n c h e d on a c r i m i n a l c a r e e r though, t h e mother s i d e d w i t h them-in t h e i r a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o r and even encouraged  it.  47  The t h r e e younger hoys hero-worshipped B i l l and two o f them were now  s e r v i n g j a i l sentences as a r e s u l t o f h i s dope ped-  dling activities.  E r n i e h i m s e l f d i d n o t have a j o b o t h e r  t h a n a rumored one i n B i l l ' s b u s i n e s s w h i c h p a i d him, a c c o r d ing  t o t h e g i r l s , t h i r t y d o l l a r s a week.  grade t e n a t s c h o o l .  He had  completed  In t h i s connection i t i s rather i n t e r -  e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t most o f t h e boys had gone f a r t h e r i n s c h o o l than the g i r l s , the reason being a p p a r e n t l y t h a t they wanted t o be on t h e rugby and b a s k e t b a l l teams. J a c k Jamieson, 18, owed h i s p o s i t i o n o f eminence t o t h e f a c t t h a t he was one o f t h e b e s t f i g h t e r s i n t h e gang. was a l s o one o f t h e most h o t b l o o d e d and was  He  constantly defen-  N  i  d i n g t h e gang o r h i s g i r l f r i e n d I s a b e l a g a i n s t r e a l o r f a n cied insults.  J a c k had been i n t r o u b l e f o r a l o n g t i m e .  His  f a t h e r had d e s e r t e d t h e f a m i l y when he was o n l y e i g h t e e n months o l d and t h e mother had had a h a r d t i m e k e e p i n g t h e c h i l d r e n , J a c k , a n o l d e r b r o t h e r , and a younger s i s t e r , t o g e t h e r . She had been a b l e t o t a k e t h e g i r l w i t h h e r t o >work but t h e boys had had t o s h i f t f o r themselves a t a v e r y e a r l y  age.  They had come out from Saskatchewan d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s and t h e mother was now  employed as an e l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r .  She  had  -reared vthe d a u g h t e r c a r e f u l l y b u t had found t h e boys d u l l  and  always h a r d t o h a n d l e . of  J a c k was o n l y i n grade f i v e a t t h e age  t h i r t e e n and a t t h a t t i m e h i s mother had a p p e a l e d t o a  c h i l d r e n ' s agency i n t h e c i t y f o r a s s i s t a n c e because o f h i s d i f f i c u l t behavior.  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h a t h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r had  been k i l l e d i n a gun f i g h t w i t h t h e p o l i c e d u r i n g a r o b b e r y  48  attempt and J a c k h i m s e l f had s t a r t e d on a c a r e e r o f c r i m e . S i n c e t h a t time he had spent a l l f i v e b i r t h d a y s i n d e t e n tion.  H i s mother was f o n d o f him b u t found i t i m p o s s i b l e  t o have h i m i n t h e house w i t h t h e d a u g h t e r , who was a w e l l behaved and i n t e l l i g e n t y o u n g s t e r , so he spent t h e t i m e when he was n o t i n j a i l w i t h E r n i e ' s b r o t h e r  Bill.  Denis P e t e r s o n , 1 7 , was t h e t h i r d member o f t h e "West" gang.  He a c t e d a s E r n i e ' s l i e u t e n a n t and as such  a s u b s t a n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e gang.  occupied  Most o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  on D e n i s ' background t h e worker secured f r o m t h e r e l i e f r e c ords.  -These i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s f a m i l y had a t one t i m e been  h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d i n t h e community and D e n i s showed  evidences  o c c a s i o n a l l y o f a b e t t e r background t h a n most o f t h e group youngsters.  The f a t h e r had l o s t h i s b u t c h e r shop i n t h e  e a r l y days o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n , however, and f o r t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s t h e f a m i l y had been on r e l i e f .  The p a r e n t s had s t a y e d  t o g e t h e r u n t i l Denis was a b o u t e i g h t y e a r s o l d , when they had begun q u a r r e l i n g and t h e f a t h e r had l e f t home.  After that  t h e f o u r c h i l d r e n , t h r e e boys and a g i r l , had been  passed  from one t o t h e o t h e r and t h e r e had been c o n s t a n t a c c u s a t i o n s and r e c r i m i n a t i o n s on b o t h s i d e s .  F i n a l l y t h e f a t h e r had  d i s a p p e a r e d a l t o g e t h e r and t h e mother had been l e f t t o s u p p o r t the f a m i l y . in  Denis worked s t e a d i l y , and u n l i k e t h e o t h e r boys  t h e gang seemed w i l l i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u p p o r t o f  his family.  He was q u i t e an i n t e l l i g e n t boy and had completed  grade t e n a t t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l  49  The f i r s t member o f t h e " E a s t " gang, and i t s l e a d e r , was  Rudy Amatta, 18, a s h o r t p o w e r f u l l y b u i l t I t a l i a n  who,  l i k e J a c k , commanded r e s p e c t w i t h h i s f i s t s .  boy  He  was  known t h r o u g h o u t the E a s t H a s t i n g s d i s t r i c t as a v e r y i n d i v i d u a l , and the f o u r sharp s i l v e r r i n g s w h i c h he wore on h i s l e f t hand had  s c a r r e d many a f a c e .  tough always  Combining a  tendency toward b r u t a l i t y w i t h an i n f e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , Rudy was  p o t e n t i a l l y one o f t h e most dangerous members o f  gang.  He was  the  the y o u n g e s t i n a f a m i l y o f f o u r boys.  His  f a t h e r had worked f o r the c i t y as a l a b o r e r u n t i l 1931, w h i c h he had been unemployed f o r t e n and a h a l f y e a r s d u r i n g o n l y p a r t o f t h a t time had been on r e l i e f . t e n and a h a l f y e a r s t h e f a m i l y had  after and  In that  s u f f e r e d extreme h a r d -  s h i p s w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t f o o d , v e r y l i t t l e c l o t h i n g and one o c c a s i o n , n o f u r n i t u r e . Rudy had had eyes f r o m t h e time he was  on  trouble with his  a v e r y s m a l l boy, b u t t h e f a m i l y  had n o t been a b l e t o s e c u r e m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n f o r him, when t h e worker f i r s t saw him h i s eyes were i n v e r y  and  bad  c o n d i t i o n , whether because o f t h i s e a r l i e r t r o u b l e o r h i s f r e q u e n t f i g h t s she d i d n o t know.  He had o n l y gone t o grade  seven i n s c h o o l , and h i s one b i g r e g r e t was  t h a t he had  been  e x p e l l e d f r o m s c h o o l b e f o r e he had had a chance t o g e t i n t o h i g h s c h o o l and p l a y r u g b y . Rudy was  A t the t i m e he j o i n e d t h e c l u b ,  w o r k i n g w i t h h i s b r o t h e r s i n a garage.  A l s o one o f the gang's b e t t e r f i g h t e r s was a s e v e n t e e n y e a r o l d F J J i n i s h boy.  Theo N e d i l a ,  More i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n  50  e i t h e r Rudy o r J a c k , Theo n e v e r t h e l e s s f o r v i o l e n c e , and when the gang was was  u s u a l l y one  shared t h e i r fondness  i n v o l v e d i n a f i g h t he  o f the i n s t i g a t o r s . H i s f a m i l y background  showed a l o n g h i s t o r y o f r e l i e f and d e p r i v a t i o n too  during  the t h i r t i e s , but h i s f a t h e r had been more e n t e r p r i s i n g t h a n the others.  He had managed t o r u n a s m a l l c o a l b u s i n e s s  t h e s i d e and  though t h e r e l i e f o f f i c e was  t h a t t h i s was  the c a s e t h e y had  morally  on  certain  never been a b l e t o p r o v e i t .  A member o f the Communist P a r t y , he had been s t r o n g l y  op-  posed t o the government and a l l o f i t s d e p a r t m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p o l i c e , and t h a t i t was  somewhat a n a r c h i s t i c i n h i s t a c t i c s ,  so  p o s s i b l e t h a t Theo came by h i s d i s l i k e f o r a u t h o r -  i t y honorably.  He had  employed a t any  j o b s t e a d i l y i n t h e two y e a r s s i n c e he  l e f t school.  Theo was  completed grade n i n e but had  planning  t o become a l i n o t y p e  n o t been had operator,  b u t a f t e r w a i t i n g f o r two y e a r s t o get i n t o a newspaper o f f i c e as an a p p r e n t i c e  he was  a l m o s t p r e p a r e d t o t r y something  else. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f i v e boys t h e r e were t w e l v e o t h e r s who  attended the club r e g u l a r l y .  was  no l i s t i n g i n the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange i t was  impossible  About t h o s e f o r whom t h e r e almost  f o r the worker t o get much a c c u r a t e background  i n f o r m a t i o n , because even a f t e r a good r e l a t i o n s h i p had  been  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h them they were s t i l l most r e t i c e n t about t h e i r f a m i l i e s and  even t h e i r a d d r e s s e s .  I n some c a s e s  there-  f o r e , as w i t h many o f the g i r l s , what f o l l o w s w i l l depend  51  s t r i c t l y upon t h e worker's o b s e r v a t i o n s .  The f i r s t  five  boys d e s c r i b e d below were members o f t h e "West" gang. The f i r s t two, Doug C a l l u s , aged 2 0 , and Johnny aged 19, were t h e o n l y b r o t h e r s i n t h e group. were I n a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n .  Callus,  These two  B o t h o f them a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e ; Doug  was I n t h i r d y e a r Commerce and Johnny i n second y e a r .  And,  w h i l e t h e y were q u i t e s e r i o u s about t h e i r s t u d i e s and somet i m e s advocated h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e o t h e r boys, t h i s d i d n o t p r e v e n t them from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some o f t h e d e l i n quent a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e gang w h i c h would I n e v i t a b l y come t o the  a t t e n t i o n of the c o l l e g e a u t h o r i t i e s .  N e i t h e r o f them  was a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y , and i n s p i t e o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r e d u c a t i o n t h e y d i d n o t p o s s e s s any l e a d e r s h i p qualities.  They were g r e a t a d m i r e r s o f E r n i e ' s and one o r  o t h e r o f them was u s u a l l y shadowing  him.  T h e i r p a r e n t s had o p e r a t e d a r e s t a u r a n t i n t h e downtown s e c t i o n o f Vancouver f o r a number o f y e a r s and were w e l l thought of i n the d i s t r i c t .  They had always been t o o busy,  however, t o pay much a t t e n t i o n t o t h e boys and even when t h e y did  g e t i n t o t r o u b l e , no a t t e m p t was made t o w i t h d r a w them  f r o m t h e gang o r t o d i s c i p l i n e them i n any o t h e r way.  No  g r e a t c o n c e r n was shown by the p a r e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r c o u r t appearances. the  I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e worker t o r e c o n c i l e  a m b i t i o n w h i c h had caused them t o send t h e i r sons t o  c o l l e g e w i t h t h e i r apparent d i s i n t e r e s t w i t h t h e i r curricular activities.  V e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was  extraavail-  a b l e on t h e background and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s e  52  two boys w h i c h might e x p l a i n what had b r o u g h t them i n t o t h e gang. "The  The  o n l y i n d i c a t i o n was  i n Johnny's comment t h a t  o l d l a d y had n e v e r been a t h o m e — s h e was  cafe."  Doug and Johnny, who  b e r s o f the "West" gang who  always i n the  were Greek, were the o n l y memwere n o t o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n .  Roger Newston, aged 17, l i k e the C a l l u s boys, b e l o n g e d t o a f a m i l y w h i c h was  f a i r l y well situated financially.  p a r e n t s owned a g r o c e r y  His  s t o r e i n the e a s t end and he was  s i d e r e d by the g i r l s t o be the b e s t " c a t c h " i n the gang.  conAn  o n l y son, h i s c o n t a c t w i t h the gang caused h i s p a r e n t s a good d e a l o f w o r r y and he was w i t h them.  f r e q u e n t l y punished f o r a s s o c i a t i n g  The p a r e n t s were a n x i o u s t o have him f i n i s h h i s  s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n and when he was  e x p e l l e d from t h e  ordi-  n a r y h i g h s c h o o l , they s e n t him. t o a p r i v a t e c o l l e g e . Roger h i m s e l f a t times a p p r e c i a t e d r e a l l y a t ease when he was n a t i o n f o r him,  w i t h the gang.  however, and  remorse a f t e r w a r d s  t h e i r a t t i t u d e and he was  never  They h e l d a  even though he was  fasci-  overcome w i t h  he d i d manage t o sneak out o f t h e house  and t a k e p a r t i n some o f t h e i r more v i o l e n t e p i s o d e s . E r n i e he p l a y e d on a c i t y Agency b a s k e t b a l l team, and ces were used as an excuse t o be w i t h t h e gang.  With practi-  He was f r i e n d -  l y w i t h a number o f t h e g i r l s , but u n l i k e the o t h e r s he a l ways t o o k h i s c u r r e n t f r i e n d home t o meet the f a m i l y .  His  mother n e v e r approved o f t h e g i r l s and as a d u t i f u l son, Roger a c c e p t e d h e r r u l i n g s and Each g i r l as she was  transferred his affections often.  chosen f o n d l y hoped t h a t she would  l o o k e d upon w i t h a p p r o v a l  but t h i s n e v e r happened.  be  53  C l a r e n c e E b b e t t , aged 18, B a r b a r a ' s the o n l y boy who  was  older brother,  r e l a t e d t o the g i r l s i n any way.  was  An e f -  f e m i n a t e l o o k i n g boy, he was . d e f i n i t e l y under t h e thumb o f the o t h e r s and was w i l l i n g t o f o l l o w wherever they l e d . A c c o r d i n g t o the g i r l s he s e c r e t l y d i s a p p r o v e d f r i e n d s h i p w i t h the gang and was  of  Barbara*s  p a r t i c u l a r l y opposed t o her  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h E r n i e , b u t she as .the s t r o n g e r p e r s o n a l i t y over-rode him and d i d as she l i k e d , and C l a r e n c e d i d n o t d a r e express h i s o p i n i o n s o p e n l y .  A l t h o u g h he worked s t e a d i l y i n  a b i c y c l e shop and made a f a i r l y good wage, the g r e a t e r p a r t o f h i s e a r n i n g s came f r o m c r a p , a t w h i c h game he and h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d - , A l f F e d e r i c i were most a d e p t .  They were n e v e r  w i t h o u t d i c e , and a t e v e r y c l u b m e e t i n g , t h e worker had r o u t them out from b e h i n d  to  t h e showers where they were busy  removing money from t h r e e o r f o u r o f t h e o t h e r b o y s .  Clarence  had gone as f a r as grade n i n e i n s c h o o l . Joe R i v e r s , aged 17, was gang.  The  the l a s t member o f t h e "West"  second o f f o u r b o y s , Joe was a n o t h e r whose f a m i l y  had s p e n t t h e t h i r t i e s on and o f f r e l i e f r o l l s .  His f a t h e r ,  a c a r p e n t e r , had been t h e v i c t i m o f a d i s e a s e w h i c h was times d i a g n o s e d ingering. was  some-  as a r t h r i t i s and sometimes a s a case o f m a l -  Depending upon what the d i a g n o s i s was  given s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or refused i t .  the f a m i l y  T h i s made f o r ex-  t r e m e l y s t r a i g h t e n e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f e i g h t y e a r s when the f a t h e r was unemployed the f a m i l y was different e v i c t e d by a c t u a l c o u n t e l e v e n / t i m e s . There was c o n s i d e r a b l e  54  t r o u b l e between the p a r e n t s  s i n c e the f a t h e r , because o f h i s  i l l n e s s , was  i r r i t a b l e and d i f f i c u l t t o g e t a l o n g w i t h ;  a l l y i n 1942  he moved out o f the house.  however, and was  He k e p t r e t u r n i n g  c o n t i n u a l l y u p s e t t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t h e mother and c h i l d r e n w i t h h i s a c c u s a t i o n s her.  The  fin-  against  f a m i l y remained on a s s i s t a n c e u n t i l the o l d e r  brother secured  a job as a seaman and t h e n t h e  f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t was grade n i n e and was t a l shipping.  He  now  t r a n s f e r r e d t o him.  responsibility  Joe had  completed  employed h i m s e l f as a seaman i n c o a s -  J  contributed h i s earnings to h i s f a m i l y  but t h e s e were s p o r a d i c because Joe d i d not work r e g u l a r l y . The  o l d e r boy, a f t e r one p r i s o n t e r m f o r t h e f t , had  down t o a s t e a d y j o b and was Sam  Almack, aged 18, was  doing  settled  well.  known as t h e b e s t d r e s s e d  i n the 'East* gang:, a t i t l e w h i c h E r n i e h e l d f o r the gang.  'West*  A handsome red-headed boy o f P o l i s h o r i g i n , he  e x t r e m e l y v a i n about h i s appearance and  boy  was  even went so f a r as  t o c a r r y a b i g o l d - f a s h i o n e d b l a c k u m b r e l l a when i t r a i n e d . Known as a g o s s i p and t r o u b l e maker, Sam  was  f r e q u e n t l y the  o b j e c t o f d i s c i p l i n a r y a o t i o n by the o t h e r members o f gang, who ranks.  the  a c c u s e d him of t r y i n g t o cause a s p l i t i n t h e i r  I n between punishments, however, he seemed t o  q u i t e w e l l a c c e p t e d by t h e o t h e r b o y s . H i s f a t h e r had d i e d when he was had r e m a r r i e d when he was  Sam  was  v e r y young and  about t w e l v e .  be  an o n l y  son.  the mother  He d i d n o t g e t  along  w e l l w i t h h i s mother o r s t e p - f a t h e r and o n l y l i v e d a t home when he c o u l d not a f f o r d t o l i v e e l s e w h e r e .  Two  of h i s  t  55  u n c l e s were i n v o l v e d i n the drug t r a f f i c and t h e p o l i c e b e l i e v e d , a l t h o u g h t h e y had no a c t u a l p r o o f , t h a t Sam hims e l f had s t a r t e d t a k i n g dope.  He had gone a s f a r a s grade,  e l e v e n a t t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l and was v e r y proud o f t h e fact.  More t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r s he seemed t o be p o s s e s s e d  o f a s t r o n g s c h o o l s p i r i t , and even now when he was no l o n g e r a t t e n d i n g he k e p t h i m s e l f w e l l i n f o r m e d on t h e s c h o o l ' s p r o g r e s s i n s p o r t s and a l w a y s a t t e n d e d a l l t h e s o c i a l f u n c tions.  He worked a s a b o o t b l a c k , a j o b w h i c h he found v e r y  s a t i s f a c t o r y except f o r t h e f a c t t h a t i t made h i s hands dirty.  Sam s t u t t e r e d b a d l y but t h i s a f f l i c t i o n d i d n o t seem  t o b o t h e r e i t h e r h i m o r the o t h e r members o f the gang. Tommy Baronchuk, aged 2 0 , was t h e most s t a b l e member o f t h e boys' group. Tommy was, his  The youngest member o f a f a m i l y o f t h r e e ,  a c c o r d i n g t o the g i r l s , h o p e l e s s l y s p o i l e d b y  parents, and two s i s t e r s .  The w o r k e r n o t e d t h a t t h e i r  i d e a o f ' b e i n g s p o i l e d ' i n v o l v e d n o t h i n g more t h a n a n e a s y , affectionate family relationship.  They were j e a l o u s o f  Tommy because he was s o w e l l t r e a t e d b y h i s f a m i l y a n d r e i t e r a t e d a g a i n and a g a i n t o t h e w o r k e r t h a t h i s mother ' s u r e was  swell*.  Tommy had wprked s t e a d i l y f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s I n  t h e s h i p y a r d s and w i t h a n e y e t o t h e f u t u r e had s a l t e d away a s u b s t a n t i a l bank a c c o u n t .  His explanation f o r h i s  membership i n t h e gang was t h a t everyone was bound t o go w i l d a t one time o r a n o t h e r and he was g e t t i n g the urge o u t o f h i s system.  He was p l a n n i n g t o s e t t l e down s h o r t l y ,  though and was c o n s i d e r i n g g o i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y , a s h i s  56 f a m i l y w i s h e d him t o do.  I n t h e meantime he enjoyed t h e  e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e gang's a c t i v i t i e s .  He s t a y e d on the f r i n g e ,  however, and was never i m p l i c a t e d i n a n y t h i n g than a s t r e e t f i g h t .  Apparently  more s e r i o u s  f e e l i n g t h a t he was capable  of t a k i n g care o f h i m s e l f , the f a m i l y d i d not i n t e r f e r e very much i n Tommy's a f f a i r s . Tony K a l l e l l a , aged 17, p o p u l a r member o f t h e group.  an I t a l i a n boy, was a v e r y He owed much o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y  t o t h e f a c t t h a t he was a happy-go-lucky i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h a very  charming p e r s o n a l i t y .  But i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , he had an  o l d e r b r o t h e r , M i k e , who was a prominent boxer i n t h e c i t y , and t h a t i n i t s e l f would have g u a r a n t e e d h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e gang.  The o t h e r s f e l t a c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Tony  because he had t u b e r c u l o s i s , and he was n o t a l l o w e d t h e i r f i g h t s o r smoke o r d r i n k t o o much.  t o mix i n  Beyond t h i s ,  a l t h o u g h he was supposed t o be a bed p a t i e n t on two hours l i g h t e x e r c i s e , n e i t h e r Tony n o r t h e r e s t o f t h e gang considered  i t n e c e s s a r y t o go i n t h e i r h e a l t h measures.  In  a l l o t h e r t h i n g s , such as e a r l y h o u r s and q u i e t r e c r e a t i o n , t h e gang was h i s a l l y a g a i n s t M i k e , who t r i e d t o keep him i n line.  H i s p a r e n t s had been i n Canada f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , b u t  t h e y had never become n a t u r a l i z e d and t h e y had n o t l e a r n e d t o speak E n g l i s h .  The f a t h e r had been v e r y s t r i c t w i t h M i k e and  t h e d a u g h t e r , b u t t h e t h r e e younger boys had o p e n l y d e f i e d him,  and t h e j o b o f b r i n g i n g them up had been t u r n e d over t o  M i k e , who had a s t r o n g sense o f d u t y toward h i s f a m i l y . A f t e r one t r i p t o j a i l as a r e s u l t o f t h e z o o t - s u i t r i o t s ,  57  t h e second e l d e s t boy  had  s e t t l e d down t o a f a i r l y  e x i s t e n c e under M i k e ' s g u i d a n c e , but Tony and t h e boy  were s t i l l  c a u s i n g him  stable youngest  a great deal of worry.  Tony had been i n a s a n a t o r i u m f o r about n i n e months when he was w i t h one  s i x t e e n , but had been d i s c h a r g e d f o r m i s b e h a v i o u r  o f the female p a t i e n t s .  Shortly after his  from the h o s p i t a l he had been a r r e s t e d and  release  convicted  t h e f t and s e n t e n c e d t o s i x months i n j a i l , w h i c h he the infirmary.  He was  of  car  splent  in  t a k i n g t r e a t m e n t s every week d u r i n g  t h e t i m e when he a t t e n d e d the c l u b , and was  under the c a r e o f  a l o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s agency.  co-operative  They f o u n d him  d u r i n g v i s i t s , but a v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p a t i e n t t h e r e s t o f the time.  They a l s o found t h a t , i n s p i t e of h i s e a s y - g o i n g  n a t u r e , he had  a v i c i o u s temper, and t h e case worker  reported  t h a t she had w i t n e s s e d v i o l e n t q u a r r e l s between Tony and parents, her. his  his  when he had f e l t t h a t t h e y were i n f o r m i n g  on him  to  M i k e make a p r a c t i c e o f t a k i n g Tony w i t h him  on any  of  b o x i n g t o u r s so t h a t he c o u l d keep an eye on him,  and  t r i e d i n many o t h e r ways t o r e g u l a t e h i s s c h e d u l e , but Tony wanted t o enjoy l i f e at t h e moment and  c o u l d see no. point, i n  the long-range plans f o r h i s recovery. The  f a m i l y had been h a r d up d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n ,  a l t h o u g h the f a t h e r had  applied for s o c i a l assistance  but on  several occasions,  he had been u n a b l e t o accept i t when the  t i m e came.  a gardener by t r a d e , but most o f  He was  f a m i l y income came, a c c o r d i n g e a r n i n g s of the two  the  t o the case worker, from the  o l d e r sons and  from a  bootlegging  5S  business which the father ran on the side. school i n grade nine, and was  Tony had  left  employed when his health  permitted as a bootblack. A l f F e d e r i c i , aged 21, boy  i n the gang.  another I t a l i a n , was  the oldest  He had been at one time the leader, but  made no attempt now  to hold h i s p o s i t i o n .  began to meet, A l f was  he  When the club  i n a t r a n s i t i o n period, moving from  t h i s younger group into a broader f i e l d of operation,  and  while he attended club meetings regularly, his need for and interest i n the gang was r a p i d l y dwindling. l i f e was way  His ambition i n  to become a successful gambler, and i n h i s own  he was well on the way  to achieving that aim,  at con-  siderable cost to the other less experienced boys. no serious criminal tendencies.  It was  two  A l f had  his intention to l i v e  within the law, but as close to the l i m i t as was He was  small  comfortable.  one of a family of s i x children, three older  younger than himself.  His mother was  and  a widow, and for a  good many years, while the family was growing up, they had l i v e d on the Mother's Pension.  The boys i n the family, four  of them, had been unruly and d i f f i c u l t them had ever been i n serious trouble.  to handle, but none of • The four who  were  working, A l f included, a l l contributed to the upkeep of the home as a matter of course, and there seemed to be no problem of relationship among the members of the family. gone as far as grade nine i n school, and was laborer in the railway yards. however, as soon as he was  A l f had  employed as a  He planned to give up t h i s job,  well established as a gambler.  59 There were t h r e e o t h e r boys i n the group.  But about  t h e s e t h r e e t h e worker was a b l e t o s e c u r e no background i n f o r m a t i o n whatever.  There was no r e c o r d on any o f them  w i t h t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange, police.  the school board or the  None o f them was l i s t e d i n t h e c i t y d i r e c t o r y  phone book.  or t h e  They never mentioned i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s w h i c h the  worker h e l d w i t h them any member o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  And t h e  g i r l s , from whom she s e c u r e d many of her l e a d s , c l a i m e d t o know n o t h i n g about t h e i r backgrounds.  I n f a c t , f o r a l l the  worker knew, t h e y might have sprung f u l l y grown i n t o the gang w i t h o u t any a n t e c e d e n t s . One o f them she knew o n l y by t h e name o f 'Apple'. was about e i g h t e e n y e a r s o l d , a s i n i s t e r - l o o k i n g  He  individual  w i t h a t r a c e o f Negro or I n d i a n b l o o d i n him, who d i s a p p e a r e d from t i m e t o t i m e f o r a week o r two and then t u r n e d up a g a i n . There was an a i r of mystery about Apple w h i c h was  carefully  n u r t u r e d by ,the boys, who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e y had never h e a r d h i s l a s t name. Ernie's brother, B i l l ,  When he was i n town he s t a y e d w i t h and as i f t o make h i s anonymity more  complete he even wore E r n i e ' s c l o t h e s .  Of a l l t h e boys,  A p p l e was the most i n t r a c t a b l e , and never once d u r i n g t h e t i m e he a t t e n d e d t h e c l u b d i d he l e t the b a r r i e r s down.  He d i d n o t  t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n c l u b p r o c e e d i n g s , but s a t back w a t c h i n g e v e r y t h i n g w i t h a c y n i c a l , contemptuous  s m i l e , and when t h e  worker t r i e d t o approach him, he t u r n e d her a s i d e a d r o i t l y . ' The o t h e r two boys, Mac Holenchuk and N i c k S l o w i n s k y , w h i l e t h e y l a c k e d t h e m y s t e r i o u s a u r a which surrounded A p p l e ,  60  were i n t h e i r own way as s e c r e t i v e as he was.  Max, a s l i m  d a r k boy o f about seventeen, was t h e gang's c h i e f exponent o f jive.  He knew every b o o g i e r e c o r d t h a t had ever been made,  and was c o n s i d e r e d by t h e o t h e r s t o be an a u t h o r i t y on m u s i c . II  On t h i s s u b j e c t he was v e r y t a l k a t i v e , but when a n y t h i n g more p e r s o n a l came i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n , Max withdrew.  Whether t h i s  s e c r e c y arose from some d e e p - r o o t e d cause o r whether i t was j u s t a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o keep h i s a f f a i r s t o h i m s e l f , t h e worker d i d not know. . Whatever i t was, Max made, a e f f o r t t o keep h i s f a m i l y and background hidden. c h e e r f u l boy, and h i s b e h a v i o u r  conscious ,He was a  d i d not i n d i c a t e that  were any s e r i o u s problems l u r k i n g below t h e s u r f a c e .  there Like  Sam and Tony, he was employed as a b o o t b l a c k . N i c k S l o v i n s k y , aged 18, was a s u l l e n , h e a v y - s e t boy, who t o o k o f f e n s e a t t h e s l i g h t e s t p r o v o c a t i o n .  He was t h e  o n l y member o f t h e group who, d u r i n g h e r c o n t a c t w i t h them, ever t h r e a t e n e d t h e worker w i t h p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e ; and a t t i m e s he seemed t o t r a n s l a t e h i s resentment a g a i n s t s o c i e t y i n t o a p e r s o n a l resentment a g a i n s t h e r .  He was f u l l o f  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , however, and t h e w o r k e r ' s commendation was more important  t o him t h a n t o any o f t h e o t h e r s .  He l i k e d t o -  have h e r w a t c h i n g whenever he p l a y e d p i n g pong o r danced, and almost begged f o r a f a v o r a b l e comment each t i m e .  But any  a t t e m p t s on h e r p a r t t o f i n d o u t a n y t h i n g about h i s background were met w i t h immediate h o s t i l i t y , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between them was t e m p o r a r i l y broken, and had t o be l a b o r i o u s l y , b u i l t up a g a i n .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , beyond t h e f a c t t h a t N i c k was a  61 and had t o be up e v e r y morning a t 5:00,  h a r d worker  l e a r n e d n o t h i n g a t a l l about h i s p r i v a t e  life.  W i t h t h e boys came two new g i r l s who of  the c l u b .  she  a l s o became members •'  These two, u n l i k e the o t h e r g i r l s ,  had  e s t a b l i s h e d more or l e s s permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r boy f r i e n d s , and because o f t h i s t h e y were t r e a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a l l t h e boys i n the gang. One  of t h e s e was .Jack s g i r l , 1  I s a b e l Vance.  Eighteen  y e a r s o l d , I s a b e l was much more mature t h a n J a c k , but  she  seemed t o be p o s s e s s e d o f a deep and c o n t i n u i n g a f f e c t i o n f o r him.  T h e i r f r i e n d s h i p had l a s t e d f o r more than two y e a r s ,  and d u r i n g h i s f r e q u e n t i n c a r c e r a t i o n s she had c o m p l e t e l y f a i t h f u l t o him.  remained  He, on the o t h e r hand, was o f t e n  u n f a i t h f u l and sometimes u n k i n d t o h e r , but she f o r g a v e him and was ready t o t a k e him back.  always  The o t h e r boys  o b v i o u s l y admired her s t e a d f a s t n e s s , and when J a c k was away t h e y t r e a t e d her w i t h the g r e a t e s t r e s p e c t . Her f a m i l y , who were s t r i c t G o d - f e a r i n g P r e s b y t e r i a n s , d i s a p p r o v e d o f her f r i e n d s h i p w i t h J a c k , and endeavoured by l o c k i n g her i n her room and o t h e r methods t o keep her away from him, but w i t h o u t s u c c e s s *  Jack's c r i m i n a l  activities  u p s e t her a good d e a l and she hoped t o be a b l e t o s t r a i g h t e n him o u t , but i n t h e meantime she was g i v i n g him an w h i c h he b a d l y needed. t h e worker  acceptance  A s i d e from t h i s i n f a t u a t i o n ,  which  found hard t o u n d e r s t a n d from I s a b e l ' s p o i n t o f  v i e w , she seemed t o be a normal y o u n g s t e r . and i n t e l l i g e n t g i r l ,  A quiet, well-read  she would have f i t t e d more r e a d i l y t h a n  62  any o f the o t h e r s i n t o an average teen-age group. c o m p l e t e d grade, t e n and was  now  She  had.  attending p r i v a t e business  college. The o t h e r g i r l was  Theo's f r i e n d , B e r t h a Weldon.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two was understand  The  even more d i f f i c u l t  t h a n t h a t between I s a b e l and J a c k .  to  B e r t h a was  two  and a h a l f y e a r s Theo's s e n i o r , and o f t e n gave t h e appearance o f b e i n g o l d e r than her n i n e t e e n y e a r s . was  young f o r h i s age.  worker was  Theo, i n many ways,  At t i m e s , s e e i n g them t o g e t h e r , the  reminded o f a mother d e a l i n g w i t h her  obstreperous o f f s p r i n g .  Whatever t h e a t t r a c t i o n , t h e r e c o u l d  be no doubt t h a t B e r t h a was f r i e n d s h i p was  particularly  e n t i r e l y devoted t o Theo, and  one o f l o n g s t a n d i n g .  The o t h e r g i r l s  the  i n the  group f e l t t h a t she chased him t o o much, and i m p l i e d t h a t t h e a f f e c t i o n was m o s t l y on her s i d e . worker f e l t ; but t h e r e was  T h i s was p a r t l y t r u e , t h e  n e v e r t h e l e s s a s t r o n g bond between  them. Bertha, was making her own  an independent i n d i v i d u a l , q u i t e c a p a b l e d e c i s i o n s and c a r r y i n g them t h r o u g h .  pregnant a l l t h e time she was to  pregnant,  to  was  a t t e n d i n g the c l u b , and seemed  accept her c o n d i t i o n c a l m l y and w i t h o u t any e v i d e n c e s  inner c o n f l i c t .  She  She  of  As soon as she had d i s c o v e r e d t h a t she  of was  she had s t a r t e d a t t e n d i n g the c l i n i c a t t h e h o s p i t a l .  i n t e n d e d t o keep t h e c h i l d and f e l t t h a t she would be a b l e care f o r i t and h e r s e l f w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a s o c i a l  agency.  She expected t h a t once Theo was  settled ih a  permanent j o b they would be m a r r i e d , but i n t h e meantime  was  63  s a t i s f i e d t o have  him admit p a t e r n i t y . • The g i r l s s a i d t h a t  she had d e l i b e r a t e l y become pregnant i n o r d e r t o h o l d Theo; and the worker, c o n s i d e r i n g B e r t h a ' s ready a c c e p t a n c e o f f a c t , f e l t t h a t t h i s might p o s s i b l y be t r u e .  the  At times'Theo  t o o k h i s impending r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y , but he  was  r e l u c t a n t t o take the f i n a l s t e p o f a d m i t t i n g p a t e r n i t y . B e r t h a , however, was  q u i t e c o n f i d e n t t h a t he w o u l d do so when  t h e t i m e came. B e r t h a had attended and was  employed by one  designer.  a r t s c h o o l a f t e r f i n i s h i n g grade t e n , of t h e department s t o r e s as a p o s t e r  S i n c e she d i d most o f her drawing at home, she  a b l e t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g r i g h t up u n t i l the b i r t h o f her i n June.  Her  t h e y d i d not  was son  f a m i l y d i d not approve v e r y h i g h l y o f Theo, but seem t o i n t e r f e r e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p or g i v e  any  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d her b e h a v i o u r unorthodox.  R e t u r n from  Holidays  F o l l o w i n g t h e p a r t y t h e r e was weeks f o r the C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s . w o r k e r , new  t o the game, q u e s t i o n e d  an i n t e r m i s s i o n of And  d u r i n g t h a t time the  whether the group would  r i s k another appearance at the agency.  She  thought t h a t t h e y  might f i n d i t e a s i e r t o withdraw t h a n f a c e t h e m u s i c . was  wrong.  The h o l i d a y s had been f i l l e d w i t h b i g g e r  b e t t e r p a r t i e s and  three  She and  f i g h t s , and when t h e y r e t u r n e d on J a n u a r y  7 t h e c l u b a f f a i r was n o t h i n g but a dim memory. t o o busy l o o k i n g ahead t o r e g r e t what was  They were  past and  gone.  6*  The  worker, d e c i d i n g t h a t n o t h i n g was t o be g a i n e d by p o s t  morterns a t t h i s p o i n t , took t h e cue from them and made l i t t l e m e n t i o n o f t h e more u n p l e a s a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e p a r t y . There was almost a f u l l a t t e n d a n c e o f t h e g i r l s a t the f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e new y e a r . two  I t was devoted e x c l u s i v e l y t o  s u b j e c t s — w h a t d i d t h e worker t h i n k o f t h e b o y s , and when  were t h e y g o i n g t o h o l d t h e i r b i g dance?  The f i r s t  topic  t o o k precedence over j i v i n g d u r i n g t h e i n f o r m a l p e r i o d a t th'e beginning  o f t h e evening and e x h a u s t i v e  discussion followed  t h e worker's n o n - c o m m i t t a l r e p o r t on such boys as she c o u l d remember.  The concensus among t h e g i r l s was t h a t t h e y were  a l l a w f u l l y 'cute* i n c l u d i n g J a c k , who was j u s t a l i t t l e excitable.  The worker would be p l e a s e d t o know, t h e y  r e p o r t e d , t h a t t h e boys had d e c i d e d t h a t she was okay.  This,  t h e y f e l t , was a compliment o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r , because t h e boy8 d i d not u s u a l l y l i k e p e o p l e — ' p e o p l e ' b e i n g a d u l t s — a t a l l . The  q u e s t i o n o f t h e dance was broached w i t h  enthusiasm.  great  The gang had t a l k e d i t o v e r , E l l e n s a i d , and t h e y  would l i k e t o have i t as soon as p o s s i b l e .  The c o n v e r s a t i o n  w h i c h f o l l o w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e dance p r o j e c t had r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n and was one w h i c h was dear t o t h e h e a r t s o f a l l o f them.  The worker p o i n t e d out,though, t h a t t h e agency  would n o t be a b l e t o sponsor a l a r g e dance f o r them i f t h e r e were g o i n g t o be any e x h i b i t i o n s o f b e h a v i o u r l i k e t h a t a t t h e party.  B a r b a r a a s s u r e d h e r s o l e m n l y t h a t t h e boys had r e a l l y  been upset about t h e w h o l e . a f f a i r , and i f t h e y were g i v e n another chance, such an o u t r a g e would not occur  again.  65 The worker wanted some f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e b o y s ' good f a i t h , however, so she s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y might be t o a c t on a dance committee w i t h t h e g i r l s *  willing  She f e l t t h a t i n  t h i s way she might be a b l e t o i n s t i l some sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t o them.  That was j u s t what t h e g i r l s had  been w a i t i n g f o r , and h a r d l y were t h e words out o f her mouth b e f o r e t h e y had s e t t h e f o l l o w i n g Monday as t h e f i r s t committee n i g h t .  Officially,  o n l y t h e e x e c u t i v e and c e r t a i n  o f t h e boys were t o a t t e n d , but an exchange o f knowing s m i l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t everyone would be t h e r e . The committee d i d n o t meet on t h e f o l l o w i n g Monday as p l a n n e d because t h e boys had t o go t o a b o x i n g match and were u n a b l e t o make i t u n t i l Tuesday.  But t h e r e a f t e r every  Monday was committee n i g h t , and t h e boys became a permanent part of the club.  66  THE TOTAL GANG Ig ACTION  CHAPTER IT  During the next f i v e months, the tempo of the club was anything but smooth.  The i n s t a b i l i t y of the youngsters was  apparent i n everything they d i d .  It showed i n the uncon-  t r o l l e d excitement which pervaded the clubroom a f t e r a weekend of p a r t i c u l a r l y violent or daring a c t i v i t y *  It was  evident i n t h e i r reluctance to face any issue squarely and i n their i n a b i l i t y to hold to any decision, however simple, from one week to the next.  It was e s p e c i a l l y noticeable i n  t h e i r desperate endeavours  to keep the gang together against  a l l opposing forces whether external or internal* them was i n a continuous state of upheaval*  L i f e for  They were  constantly searching for something, and while they put a tremendous amount of enthusiasm and energy into the search, as soon as the going became too tough, they changed their objectives and turned with resentment from what they had wanted so badly before* In t h i s major period of the club's existence, no miracles were achieved; there were no sudden conversions to a better way of l i f e .  On the contrary the gang, except for  c e r t a i n minor a l t e r a t i o n s , was i n a worse p o s i t i o n with regard to the community at large when the session ended than i t was when i t began.  The chief value of the club, therefore,  67 aside from the precarious r e l a t i o n s h i p which was established between h e r s e l f and most of the members, l a y , the worker f e l t , i n the opportunity which i t offered to observe the gang i n a f a i r l y unrestricted s i t u a t i o n .  Establishment  of Dance Committee  The f i r s t session of the whole club came a f t e r a h a i r s t y l i n g e x h i b i t i o n by Mr. Carson, a f r i e n d of Miss Thompson'8 who had volunteered h i s services.  The g i r l s had  been most enthusiastic when the worker had suggested the exhibition and had postponed the boys' appearance u n t i l to make i t p o s s i b l e .  9:00  Mr* Carson wanted t o give them some  i n s t r u c t i o n on the proper care o f the hair, but they were interested only i n new and s t a r t l i n g hair styles which would impress the boys when they got there.  After a few  unsuccessful attempts at a long range discussion of beauty culture, he abandoned himself to immediate r e p a i r s , and the g i r l s l i n e d up, with much j o s t l i n g , to take t h e i r turn.  He  had got about h a l f way through the group when the thunder of feet on the stairway, and the sound of raucous voices announced the a r r i v a l of the boyB.  Mr* Carson was at once  deserted by a l l but h i s current subject, who disengaged h e r s e l f from h i s comb as rapidly as possible and joined the r e s t of the g i r l s i n the washroom where they were re-touching their make-up. By exerting considerable force, the worker was able to bring some of the g i r l s back into the  clubroom t o c l a p when E l l e n o f f e r e d a q u i c k and a l s o f o r c e d v o t e o f t h a n k s t o Mr. C a r s o n , who was his to  dismissal.  somewhat b e w i l d e r e d by  Shepherding him p a s t t h e boys, t h e worker had  t a l k l o u d l y i n o r d e r t o drown out t h e i r comments, w h i c h  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they approved n e i t h e r o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n n o r o f his  abilities. Back i n t h e clubroom, a f t e r d e l i v e r i n g him s a f e l y t o t h e  d o o r , t h e worker was c o n f r o n t e d by E l l e n who a s s u r e d her t h a t she would never have t h e n e r v e t o a c t as p r e s i d e n t i n f r o n t of t h e gang, and would t h e worker mind t a k i n g c h a r g e . the  So  worker went over t o t h e group o f boys who were h o l d i n g a  c o n v e r s a t i o n i n one c o r n e r o f the room and asked them t o g e t out some c h a i r s .  E r n i e a s k e d v e r y r u d e l y , "Who  you a r e , g i v i n g o r d e r s ? " b o s s , and w a l k e d away. the  do you t h i n k  The worker r e p l i e d t h a t she was t h e I n a minute they s t a r t e d t o g e t out  c h a i r s , and a f t e r a g r e a t d e a l o f n o i s e and c o n f u s i o n  everyone was s e a t e d . D o r i s t o o k over t h e r o l e o f chairman and e x p l a i n e d t h a t the  dance was j u s t a t r y - o u t , and t h a t t h e y r e a l l y had t o be  good o r t h e y would be put out of the agency.  The boys made  no open comment about t h i s , but w h i s p e r e d among t h e m s e l v e s and l a u g h e d .  B a r b a r a s a i d t h e r e c o u l d not be any f i g h t s or  d r i n k i n g — t h i s comment was d i s m i s s e d as u n n e c e s s a r y by D e n i s — a n d D o r i s went on t o say t h a t the boys were t o p i c k a committee t o work w i t h t h e g i r l s ' e x e c u t i v e . t h a t t h e y nominate a l e a d e r .  She suggested  E r n i e l a u g h e d at t h i s , but  when h i s name was put f o r w a r d , he r e f u s e d t o s t a n d .  69  They w r a n g l e d back and f o r t h u n t i l f i n a l l y Tony r i p p e d up some paper and handed a p i e c e t o each o f t h e boys.  There was  a l o t o f f o o l i n g around, w i t h Tommy e x p l a i n i n g t o Rudy how many x's t o put down f o r each name so t h a t t h e y would know whom he meant. Tony c o u n t e d .  D e n i s ' name was chosen on t h e b a l l o t s w h i c h D o r i s announced t h a t t h e gang now had a new  l e a d e r , and E r n i e guffawed a g a i n . They went on t o choose t h e o t h e r committee members.  As  each p o s i t i o n came up, E r n i e ' s name was mentioned, b u t he r e f u s e d , s a y i n g t h a t he would n o t be p r e s e n t  f o r t h e dance*  S t e l l a , f o r g e t t i n g h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e 'squares' a t t h e , Christmas  p a r t y , announced t h a t she had two b o y - f r i e n d s who  possessed  a l a r g e number o f r e c o r d s and had e x p r e s s e d  d e s i r e t o a s s i s t w i t h t h e dance. came up, she immediately  a  When t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e c o r d s  s u g g e s t e d t h e i r names;  N i c k and  s e v e r a l o t h e r s m u t t e r e d t h r e a t s a g a i n s t what t h e y termed, •lower Shaughnessy drapes';and they were about t o be e l i m i n a t e d when E r n i e d e c i d e d t h a t i f t h e y would b r i n g a l l o f t h e i r t h r e e hundred and s e v e n t y - f i v e r e c o r d s , t h e y b e l o n g t o t h e committee.  could  Rudy was a p p o i n t e d b o u n c e r , w i t h  i n s t r u c t i o n s t o 'ask p e o p l e n i c e l y t o l e a v e and i f t h a t d i d n ' t work t o h i t them'and  Sam was p l a c e d i n charge o f t h e coke b a r ,  some time was t a k e n up i n computing, f o r t h e w o r k e r ' s  b e n e f i t , how much money t h e y c o u l d make p e r case by '8piking' the coca cola*  The p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e dance  began t o p a l l b e f o r e l o n g , and D e n i s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y would have t o p u t o f f f u r t h e r d e c i s i o n s u n t i l next week because  70 .  .  .  .  /  t h e r e were t o o many non-committee boys p r e s e n t — e v e r y o n e b e i n g aware, of c o u r s e , t h a t the same number would appear n e x t week* H a v i n g d e a l t w i t h t h i s p i e c e o f b u s i n e s s , they wanted t o relax.  D e n i s , E l l e n and B a r b a r a approached the worker t o ask  p e r m i s s i o n t o set up the r e c o r d p l a y e r and dance. p l a y e r i n t h e lounge was  Since  the  the o n l y one a v a i l a b l e , t h e worker,  w i t h some m i s g i v i n g s , t o l d them t h a t they c o u l d move i n t h e r e i f t h e y were v e r y c a r e f u l , i t b e i n g t h e n i c e s t room i n t h e building*  D e n i s gave h i s p e r s o n a l g u a r a n t e e t h a t  everything  would l o o k j u s t the same a f t e r they had been t h e r e as i t had b e f o r e , and w i t h t h a t t h e y a d j o u r n e d t o t h e l o u n g e . The  gang seemed t o be aware t h a t t h e worker was  about t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e lounge and  worried  i t s f u r n i s h i n g s , and f o r  some r e a s o n most o f them d e c i d e d t o c o - o p e r a t e i n k e e p i n g room t i d y .  the  Only Apple and E r n i e r e f u s e d t o comply w i t h t h e  w o r k e r ' s r e q u e s t s , and t h e y c a r r i e d on the p o l i c y a t t r a c t i n g her a t t e n t i o n by obnoxious  of  behaviour.  Surrounded by a s h t r a y s , t h e y i n s i s t e d upon p u t t i n g t h e i r c i g a r e t t e s on t h e f l o o r , and a t one p o i n t staged a v e r y r e a l i s t i c f i g h t w h i c h had t h e worker w o r r i e d u n t i l Tommy r u s h e d up t o a s s u r e her t h a t they were o n l y p l a y i n g * The g i r l s took t u r n s s i t t i n g down by t h e worker t e l l i n g her how happen t o n i g h t .  n i c e the boys were and how  and  n o t h i n g would  They a t t r i b u t e d E r n i e ' s 'unusual'  behaviour  t o the f a c t t h a t he had r e c e n t l y been a r r e s t e d on a dope p e d d l i n g c h a r g e , and was  now  out on b a i l a w a i t i n g  trial.  71  ( A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e c o r d s , E r n i e had been a r r e s t e d when p o l i c e had i n t e r c e p t e d ) a package a d d r e s s e d t o him and c o n t a i n i n g a f l a s h l i g h t i n t o which had been packed hundred c a p s u l e s o f morphine.)  four  E r n i e , t h e g i r l s s a i d , was  q u i t e i n n o c e n t o f t h e charge, b u t he was ' t a k i n g t h e r a p * f o r his  o l d e r b r o t h e r , Tom.  f o l l o w i n g Thursday, belligerent.  He expected t o be s e n t e n c e d t h e  so n a t u r a l l y he was f e e l i n g a l i t t l e  A l l o f t h e y o u n g s t e r s , and B a r b a r a P a r t i c u l a r l y ,  were r e g r e t f u l about h i s impending  d e p a r t u r e from t h e gang,  b u t t h e y a c c e p t e d i t w i t h o u t argument.  Barbara t o l d the  worker p r o u d l y t h a t he had asked h e r t o w r i t e t o him i n p r i s o n , and t h e o t h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h i s a g r e a t honour. The e v e n i n g c o n c l u d e d w i t h o u t i n c i d e n t and i n a b u r s t o f i n d u s t r y which must have s u r p r i s e d even t h e m s e l v e s ,  Denis,  Tommy and s e v e r a l o t h e r s made a t o u r o f t h e room s t r a i g h t e n ing  c h a i r s , p i c k i n g up c i g a r e t t e s and c o l l e c t i n g coke b o t t l e s .  Tony thanked t h e worker  f o r b e i n g 'so r e g u l a r ' and t h e y  t r o o p e d out t h e door, l e a v i n g her w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d h e r a v e r y l u c k y woman t o have g o t o f f 80 lightly.  Agency P o l i c y R e g a r d i n g Group  The s o j o u r n i n t h e lounge r e s u l t e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , i n a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a g e n c y p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g C l u b 57. W h i l e t h e board and t h e teen-age  committee had a u t h o r i z e d  t h e c l u b ' s p r e s e n c e i n t h e agency, t h e y had n o t r e a l i z e d  72  p r i o r t o t h i s occasion  i t s d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies*  I t was  i r o n i c a l , t h e r e f o r e , i n view o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a t t h e e a r l i e r p a r t y , t h a t t h e damage w h i c h brought t h e y o u n g s t e r s most f o r c e f u l l y t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s e two groups was something f o r w h i c h t h e y were n o t a c t u a l l y t o blame. check o f t h e l o u n g e on t h e morning a f t e r t h e i r v i s i t  A showed  t h a t t h e r u b b e r on t h e s o l e s o f t h e i r shoes had marked t h e hardwood f l o o r s so b a d l y t h a t r e - s a n d i n g  was n e c e s s a r y .  The  maintenance worker was v e r y much u p s e t because t h e r e p a i r s meant c o n s i d e r a b l e  expense; and t h i s e p i s o d e , when added t o  t h e C h r i s t m a s p a r t y which had made e x t r a work f o r t h e j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f , r a i s e d the question of the continued a t t e n d a n c e o f t h e c l u b a t t h e agency.  The p r o p o s e d dance,  t o o , caused a g r e a t d e a l o f p e r t u r b a t i o n . 80 i t was d e c i d e d t h a t b e f o r e p l a n s any  f o r t h e c l u b went  f u r t h e r , a l l t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g a group o f  t h i s s o r t s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d c a r e f u l l y and some d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n reached regarding d e a l i n g w i t h them.  t h e p o l i c y t o be f o l l o w e d i n  The worker p r e s e n t e d t h e m a t t e r t o t h e  teen-age committee, g i v i n g a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f what had a l r e a d y happened and i n d i c a t i n g what might happen i n t h e f u t u r e , i f t h e gang was p e r m i t t e d  t o r e m a i n i n t h e agency*  W h i l e she h e l d out no p r o m i s e s f o r s u c c e s s , p o t e n t i a l value of a continued  she s t r e s s e d t h e  acceptance of the youngsters  by h e r s e l f and t h e agency, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . I n i t 8 d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e committee a t no t i m e considered  dropping the club.  The members f e l t t h a t t h e  73  agency, as one o f t h e l a r g e r downtown group work i n s t i t u t i o n s , owed a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o gangs of t h i s t y p e , and were p r e p a r e d ' t o accept t h e f a c t t h a t  serious  d i s c i p l i n a r y problems might a r i s e a t any moment.  Their  recommendation was t h a t t h e c l u b be encouraged t o o p e r a t e under agency s p o n s o r s h i p ,  and t h a t i t be g i v e n t h e same  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use t h e gymnasium f a c i l i t i e s f o r l a r g e dances as were g r a n t e d  t o o t h e r c l u b s i n t h e agency.  The  o n l y r e s t r i c t i o n suggested was t h a t t h e r e g u l a r c l u b  sessions  be c o n f i n e d t o t h e more s e r v i c e a b l e gym clubroom r a t h e r t h a n the lounge.  The a c t i v e s u p p o r t o f t h i s committee,  w i t h t h a t o f t h e board and t h e ..general s e c r e t a r y ,  together continued  a  throughout t h e s e s s i o n , a l t h o u g h on numerous o c c a s i o n s  their  p a t i e n c e was s o r e l y t r i e d .  Program  That t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e dance committee was m e r e l y a p r e t e x t f o r t h e boys t o move i n t o t h e agency became i n c r e a s i n g l y o b v i o u s as t i m e went on*  They wanted a dance,  c e r t a i n l y , but t h e s m a l l m a t t e r o f o r g a n i z i n g i t . c o n c e r n e d them not a t a l l .  As Tony remarked, "Aw, we know what we're  supposed t o do a t t h e dance.  Can't we j u s t f o o l around?"  T h i s was a f a m i l i a r theme and each e v e n i n g some new r e a s o n f o r p o s t p o n i n g t h e p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n was p r e s e n t e d . o f f e r e d the most u n c o n v i n c i n g  Denis  excuse when he e x p l a i n e d t o t h e  worker t h a t most o f t h e boys, a l l o f whom were a l r e a d y i n t h e  7*  room, were a t t e n d i n g a b o x i n g match, so i t would n o t be p o s s i b l e t o do a n y t h i n g t h a t n i g h t .  On o n l y one o c c a s i o n did-  t h e y v o l u n t a r i l y submit t o a b u s i n e s s meeting, t h e c h i e f purpose o f t h i s b e i n g t o i n f o r m : t h e w o r k e r — s i n c e t h e r e s t o f them a l r e a d y knew i t — t h a t E r n i e and n o t Denis was t o be t h e b o y s ' l e a d e r as w e l l as t h e c l u b p r e s i d e n t * E r n i e made f a r e w e l l appearances and r e c e i v e d a remand every Thursday;  every Monday n i g h t , b u t he had d e c i d e d t o  a s s e r t h i m s e l f a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y . A p p a r e n t l y he j u s t wanted t o make h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r , because when t h e worker a s k e d him t o t a k e charge o f t h e meeting, he r e f u s e d ; and a f t e r a b r i e f s k i r m i s h i n w h i c h s e v e r a l people were pushed f o r w a r d as p o s s i b l e chairmen, t h e y a l l r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r various a c t i v i t i e s .  The c l u b was a p l a c e t o dance o r l i s t e n  t o r e c o r d s o r p l a y p i n g pong o r j u s t t a l k .  None o f them  wanted a f o r m a l program; t h e y had n o t t h e p a t i e n c e t o s e t t l e down t o any s o r t o f d i s c u s s i o n ; b u t t h e y seemed t o f i n d i t s a t i s f y i n g t o have a d e f i n i t e p l a c e t o come on a d e f i n i t e e v e n i n g , and a t t e n d a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h e boys, was v e r y regular. The g i r l s , who were s t i l l h o l d i n g s e p a r a t e meetings on Tuesday n i g h t s , t o l d t h e w o r k e r — w i t h o u t n o t i c i n g t h e i r i n c o n s i s t e n c y , t h a t t h e boys were no good a t o r g a n i z i n g things.  They would be u s e f u l on t h e dance n i g h t f o r  keeping o r d e r — i f , Doris s a i d d a r k l y , they d i d not decide t o start the trouble themselves—but much h e l p .  o t h e r w i s e t h e y were n o t  But although they p r o f e s s e d t o accept  full  75 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r arrangements, the g i r l s , t o o , t o o k t h e dance l i g h t l y , and t h e i r meetings were t a k e n up  with  d i s c u s s i o n s -of what would be'done w i t h t h e proceeds r a t h e r t h a n w i t h work f o r the e v e n t i t s e l f . c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n was  Their  one  t h a t none o f the boys be  p e r m i t t e d t o h a n d l e the c a s h a t the d o o r , checkroom or coke bar.  S t e l l a p r o m i s e d t o b r i n g t h e r e c o r d s , and  o f f e r e d her own  Bertha  and Theo's s e r v i c e s i n p a i n t i n g p o s t e r s ;  but beyond t h i s , t h e dance p r e p a r a t i o n s were l e f t i n t h e worker's l a p .  The  by t h e boys, who  Tuesday n i g h t s e s s i o n s were soon  over-run  hung around o u t s i d e the agency w a i t i n g f o r  the g i r l 8 t o f i n i s h .  They were f i n a l l y i n v i t e d i n on  the  Tuesday b e f o r e E r n i e ' s t r i a l , because he wanted t o have l a s t n i g h t a t t h e c l u b , and J u l i a ,  h i s current  interest,  l a u n c h e d a s t r o n g a p p e a l f o r h i s p r e s e n c e w h i c h was up by t h e o t h e r g i r l s .  As i t happened, he was  because of i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e ;  one  backed  acquitted  but t h e p r e c e d e n t o f  a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e Tuesday n i g h t meetings had been s e t *  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Worker and  Glub Members  D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e t h e dance, w h i c h t o o k p l a c e F e b r u a r y S, t h e worker made slow but steady p r o g r e s s becoming a c q u a i n t e d  w i t h t h e gang.  The  on  in  g i r l s were v e r y  f r i e n d l y , and a t t i m e s showed a w i l l i n g n e s s and a d e s i r e t o confide i n her.  For the most p a r t t h e s e c o n f i d e n c e s  o f a s o c i a l n a t u r e and were, she f e l t , c a r e f u l l y  were  expurgated.  76 I n some c a s e s , though, t h e y d i d d i v u l g e c e r t a i n d e t a i l s o f boys  1  the  sub r o s a a c t i v i t i e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y t r u s t e d her  not t o p a s s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t o the p o l i c e *  One  such  i n s t a n c e o c c u r r e d when J a c k Jamieson and E r n i e A l l e n were a r r e s t e d on a b r e a k i n g a n d - e n t e r i n g  charge.  (According  to  t h e p o l i c e , a s t o r e i n the west end had been b r o k e n i n t o , but the n i g h t watchman had appeared on t h e scene and the  two  b u r g l a r s had escaped by smashing a p l a t e g l a s s window at  the  f r o n t of t h e s t o r e .  Blood  on the g l a s s showed t h a t one  t h e i n t r u d e r s had been i n j u r e d .  J a c k and E r n i e had  p i c k e d up by a t a x i c l o s e t o the spot and  t o bandage a s e v e r e cut i n h i s l e g *  s i n c e i t was  acquitted.)  The  When  attempting  B o t h boys c l a i m e d  t h e i n j u r y had been r e c e i v e d when he was and  been  t a k e n home.  t h e p o l i c e a r r i v e d l a t e r t o a r r e s t J a c k , he was  of  that  s t r u c k by a c a r ,  impossible to prove otherwise,  t h e y were  g i r l s discussed the a f f a i r q u i t e openly i n  f r o n t o f t h e worker, and  i t seemed t o be common knowledge  among t h e gang t h a t t h e boys had been g u i l t y o f t h e In c l o s e co-operation  offense."  w i t h the p o l i c e f o r c e t h r o u g h  M i s s Thompson, the worker found h e r s e l f i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n at t i m e s , when t h e gang gave her i n f o r m a t i o n of t h i s sort.  But s i n c e none o f i t a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d e v i d e n c e ,  she  d i d not j e o p a r d i s e her p o s i t i o n w i t h the group by h a n d i n g i t over t o the p o l i c e . t h i s connection,  M i s s Thompson was  most u n d e r s t a n d i n g  in  and r e a l i z e d t h a t much o f the worker's  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h a n d l i n g the y o u n g s t e r s came from t h e i r s u r e knowledge t h a t she was  not an i n f o r m e r .  M i s s Thompson  77  h e r s e l f was w e l l l i k e d by t h e g i r l s , and f o r Wilma, D o r i s 'and B a r b a r a , a v i s i t t o h e r o f f i c e was d e f i n i t e l y an e v e n t . In many ways, she took over t h e r o l e o f case worker f o r t h e s e t h r e e , and h e r a d v i c e on t h e i r problems o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s was h i g h l y v a l u e d .  D o r i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , formed a  s t r o n g attachment f o r h e r , w h i c h c a r r i e d on l o n g a f t e r o f f i c i a l i n t e r v i e w s ceased.  their  As an i n d i c a t i o n o f h e r  p o p u l a r i t y , i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t M i s s H e w i t t r e c e i v e d t h e o n l y i n v i t a t i o n i s s u e d f o r t h e i r dance. In t h e group, D o r i s , E t h e l , V i v i a n and Wilma were t h e most a p p r o a c h a b l e .  They appeared a n x i o u s t o e s t a b l i s h a  c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e worker, and d u r i n g t h e c l u b s e s s i o n s spent c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e w i t h h e r . Except f o r E t h e l , who was v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n Tony, t h e s e g i r l s  were  awkward and u n c e r t a i n o f themselves when t h e boys were around, and seemed t o f i n d s e c u r i t y i n s t a y i n g c l o s e t o t h e w o r k e r . The o t h e r s were p l e a s a n t , but u s u a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o h e r , and showed by t h e i r a c t i o n s t h a t they l o o k e d upon h e r more as a p a r t o f t h e clubroom f a c i l i t i e s t h a n as a p e r s o n . The boys were a much more d i f f i c u l t  proposition.  A l l of  them b u t Tony, Denis and Tommy, i g n o r e d t h e worker's presence d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two weeks, u n l e s s she approached  them  d i r e c t l y , and t h e n t h e y withdrew as r a p i d l y as t h e y c o u l d . A f t e r a few r e b u f f s , she made no f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s a t friendship until of  t h e y were r e a d y t o approach h e r .  A number  them, t h e worker f e l t , w a i t e d f o r E r n i e ' s v e r d i c t b e f o r e  t h e y made up t h e i r minds whether t o a c c e p t her or n o t .  1&  As i t happened, he chose t o acknowledge h e r p r e s e n c e f o l l o w i n g an argument over a p i n g pong game.  The b e s t  p l a y e r , E r n i e had s e t up t h e r e g u l a t i o n t h a t t h e w i n n e r played  a l l comers, and s i n c e he a l s o kept t h e s c o r e i t was  difficult  f o r anyone e l s e t o win.  Tommy, who was h i s  opponent i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r game, a p p e a l e d t o t h e worker on one  v e r y o b v i o u s p o i n t , and she backed him up.  E r n i e argued  about i t u n t i l t h e r u l e book was produced, t h e n he g r i n n e d and  s a i d magnanimously, " A l l r i g h t , from now on you: keep  score."  I n t h i s o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y i t was much s i m p l e r f o r  t h e worker t o b u i l d up an a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e boys, and g r a d u a l l y the impersonal conversation  about t h e game  d e v e l o p e d i n t o an e a s i e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l t h o u g h t h e worker was  always aware t h a t she was on p r o b a t i o n .  Discipline  A f t e r t h e f i r s t p a r t y , t h e worker had very  little  t r o u b l e w i t h d i s c i p l i n e a t t h e r e g u l a r meetings, c h i e f l y because v e r y few r u l e s were imposed on t h e group. t h i n g s she f e l t c r a p games.  The o n l y  c a l l e d upon t o mention were c l o s i n g time and  The c l u b g e n e r a l l y l a s t e d from s e v e n - t h i r t y  u n t i l eleven o'clock.  At about a q u a r t e r t o e l e v e n she  would ask t h e r e c o r d p l a y e r o p e r a t o r t h e machine t h e l a s t .  t o make t h e r e c o r d on  A f t e r three or four l a s t  records,  someone, u s u a l l y D e n i s , would y e l l , " A l l r i g h t , gang, l e t ' s go,"  and t h e y would make t h e i r n o i s y  exit.  79 The c r a p games were n o t so s i m p l e .  The gang members  were very f o n d o f t h i s s p o r t , and whenever t h e worker l e f t , t h e room f o r so much as a minute,  she would r e t u r n t o f i n d  a l l t h e boys on t h e f l o o r i n a c i r c l e .  After considerable  argument, a compromise was f i n a l l y r e a c h e d by w h i c h  they  agreed t o p l a y f o r matches i n s t e a d o f money, t h e r e b y removing t h e gambling  element from t h e game.  She was s u s p i c i o u s ,  however, t h a t once t h e y l e f t t h e agency, t h e matches were converted t o cash.  R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Other Groups i n Agency  The o n l y c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r groups i n t h e agency i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d was an u n f o r t u n a t e one, and one w h i c h showed how v u l n e r a b l e t h e y o u n g s t e r s were, i n s p i t e o f t h e i r hard-boiled exterior.  A j u n i o r group, h o l d i n g a p a r t y  u p s t a i r s , had some r e f r e s h m e n t s l e f t o v e r , and d e c i d e d , as a f r i e n d l y g e s t u r e , t o b r i n g them down t o Club 57.  Without  s p e a k i n g t o t h e worker f i r s t , t h e y appeared i n t h e clubroom doorway, l a d e n w i t h sandwiches and cake. entered, a s i l e n c e f e l l  As soon as t h e y  i n the room—everyone  stopped  whatever he was d o i n g t o l o o k them up and down, and t h e atmosphere i m m e d i a t e l y became h o s t i l e .  Instead of l e a v i n g  t h e p l a t e s , t h e y t r i e d t o pass them around, making p o l i t e l i t t l e comments as t h e y went.  The gang seemed t o c l o s e r a n k s  automatically against the intruders.  Not one o f them spoke  or a c c e p t e d t h e p r o f e r r e d f o o d , and f i n a l l y the- young g i r l s  so  turned  i n embarrassment t o the w o r k e r , who  t h e p l a t e s on t h e c o u n t e r .  She  asked them t o  shepherded them o u t s i d e ,  t h a n k e d them q u i c k l y f o r t h e i r t h o u g h t f u l n e s s t h e room. explained had  f o o d l e f t from p a r t i e s t o g i v e i t t o o t h e r  N i c k , who  The  s a i d b i t t e r l y , "We  who  groups  o n l y answer t o t h i s came from don't want anybody's l e f t - o v e r s . "  food remained on the c o u n t e r untouched a l l e v e n i n g , and  s l i g h t p a i r seemed t o have descended upon the group* was  to  she  t h e custom i n t h e agency f o r c l u b s  m e e t i n g i n the b u i l d i n g *  The  and r e t u r n e d  I n an e f f o r t t o improve the s i t u a t i o n , t h a t i t was  put  a  There  no doubt t h a t t h e j u n i o r g i r l s , f o r a l l t h e i r good  i n t e n t i o n s , had badly  hurt t h e i r f e e l i n g s *  h a n d l e d , but the worker was  The whole a f f a i r  caught c o m p l e t e l y  was  unaware  by t h e i r unexpected r e a c t i o n t o a p e r f e c t l y o r d i n a r y courtesy.  They d i d not  i n c l u d e her i n t h e i r  displeasure,  however, and t h e f o l l o w i n g week the i n c i d e n t seemed t o have been f o r g o t t e n .  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between G i r l s and Bovs  Just before  the dance, t r o u b l e d e v e l o p e d between t h e  g i r l s and boys f o r the f i r s t t i m e , and to disintegrate.  The  the c l u b  threatened  g i r l s a r r i v e d a t t h e Monday n i g h t  meeting l o o k i n g very d i s c o n s o l a t e , to report that they s t o o d the boys up on the p r e c e d i n g  had  Saturday and gone out  t h e Thompson gang, a r i v a l east end group.  The  boys had  them on Sunday t h a t t h e y were t h r o u g h with: the c l u b ,  the  with told  81  dance and e v e r y t h i n g .  R o b e r t a had r e c e i v e d a b l a c k eye from  C l a r e n c e , and the o t h e r s were i n f e a r o f s i m i l a r  reprisals.  B u t w h i l e t h e y were w o r r i e d about t h e punishment w h i c h t h e y e x p e c t e d would r e s u l t from t h e i r u n f a i t h f u l n e s s , t h e y were much more upset t o t h i n k t h a t the boys were g o i n g t o throw them o v e r .  When the worker asked them why t h e y had  d e l i b e r a t e l y b r o k e n the engagement, none o f them c o u l d g i v e a r e a s o n , e x c e p t t h a t i t might, have been because t h e Thompson gang had had c a r s and t h e y had wanted t o go f o r a r i d e .  They  o b v i o u s l y p r e f e r r e d t h e i r own gang, but as f a r as t h e worker c o u l d see, i t was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o r e f u s e an  invitation.  L i f e was l o o k i n g v e r y b l a c k , and B a r b a r a e x p r e s s e d t h e f e e l i n g s o f a l l o f them when she s a i d t h a t t h e c l u b might as w e l l c l o s e now, because i t would not be any f u n w i t h o u t t h e boys.  However, t h e boys s u f f e r e d a change o f h e a r t , and  swarmed i n t o t h e room i n a b e l l i g e r e n t mood about an hour a f t e r the m e e t i n g began.  They were f u l l o f t h r e a t s , and  t h e i r language, w h i c h was u s u a l l y guarded i n the worker's p r e s e n c e , was  filthy.  None of the g i r l s made any attempt t o defend her p o s i t i o n — a l l seemed t o a c c e p t t h i s as the n a t u r a l consequence  of t h e i r behaviour.  A f t e r t h e boys had  stormed  around f o r a w h i l e , the worker cut i n t o suggest t h a t t h e y make up t h e i r minds about t h e dance.  Sam announced t h a t t h e y  were h a v i n g n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e a f f a i r , and everybody s t a r t e d t o t a l k a t once.  W i t h the r e c o r d p l a y e r g o i n g at t o p  88 v e l o c i t y , t h e d i n was t e r r i f i c * t a k e over*  The worker asked E r n i e t o  He t o l d Denis t o calm t h e o t h e r s down, and  co-operated t o the extent o f t u r n i n g o f f the r e c o r d p l a y e r and p u t t i n g t h e double s o c k e t i n h i s p o c k e t .  Denis climbed  on t h e c o u n t e r and shouted, "For God's sake, shut-up guys."  They q u i e t e d down a l i t t l e ,  and t h r e e or f o u r o f t h e  boys, w i t h a l l the g i r l s , g a t h e r e d around D e n i s . of Sam  you  The  rest  t h e boys withdrew t o t h e back o f the room and s u l k e d . and C l a r e n c e c o n t i n u e d t o argue u n t i l E r n i e s a i d ,  keep q u i e t , Sam.  "Oh  The gang'11 be at t h e dance;" and t h e y  agreed grudgingly t o r e - c o n s i d e r t h e i r d e c i s i o n .  Denis,  a n x i o u s f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , r e - a s s i g n e d t h e boys t o t h e i r j o b s , and c o n c l u d e d t h e b u s i n e s s s e s s i o n by s a y i n g , c r o c k s , eh gang? The g i r l s ,  "No  We want t h i s dance t o be r e s p e c t a b l e . "  i n a moment o f abandon, had asked t h e Thompson  gang t o the dance, and when B a r b a r a mentioned broke out a f r e s h .  t h i s , the  row  Rudy s a i d f l a t l y t h a t i f t h e y came, t h e y  would be beaten up, so t h e y had b e t t e r be warned t o s t a y away * The boys spent the r e s t o f t h e e v e n i n g g i v i n g the g i r l B sly  p i n c h e s , t w i s t i n g t h e i r arms, and d a n c i n g i n a  p a r t i c u l a r l y rough manner.  S i n c e the g i r l s  seemed t o accept  t h i s as t h e i r due, t h e worker d i d not i n t e r f e r e .  Once,  however, when Tony was t w i s t i n g E t h e l ' s arm and she to  c r y , she went over and shook her head at him.  started  He l e t  E t h e l go and s a i d , " W e l l , what would you do i f somebody s t o o d you up j u s t t o go out w i t h another guy?"  The  worker  S3  said, t h a t she d i d n o t t h i n k she would t w i s t t h e o t h e r p e r s o n ' s arm,  i f t h a t was what he meant.  He s a i d t h a t was because  men d i d n ' t cheat t h e way g i r l s d i d .  Tommy and D e n i s came  over and d i s c u s s e d t h e i n f i d e l i t y o f women a t l e n g t h . commented t h a t t h e boys h a d no t e c h n i q u e ,  Roger  and they had t o h i t  a g i r l t o make h e r u n d e r s t a n d what t h e y were s a y i n g .  This  brought o t h e r s i n t o t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e r e was a r o u s i n g argument w i t h t h e g i r l s , under t h e w o r k e r ' s wing, e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r views q u i t e f r e e l y . when i t was a l l over t h e boys s t i l l  N o t h i n g was s e t t l e d — f e l t t h a t women had t o  be d i s c i p l i n e d f r e q u e n t l y and t h e g i r l s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e boys were r o u g h and c o a r s e .  B a r b a r a and E l l e n announced  t h a t i n f u t u r e t h e boys were o n l y t o come on Monday n i g h t s because they d i d n o t always want t o have a bunch o f 'toughs' h a n g i n g around.  This passed without  comment from t h e  boys, beyond Tony's query as t o when t h e g i r l s began issuing orders. They a l l l e f t t o g e t h e r , i n more o r l e s s good o r d e r . But when t h e worker r a n i n t o them down t h e s t r e e t , t h e boys were a l r e a d y t a k i n g t h e i r revenge.  H a l f o f t h e g i r l s had  been r o l l e d i n t h e snow and were soaked from head t o f o o t , J u l i a and R o b e r t a were weeping l o u d l y because they had been s l a p p e d , and t h e r e s t o f t h e g i r l s were t a k i n g r e f u g e c a f e , w i t h some o f t h e boys s t a n d i n g guard o u t s i d e .  ina When  t h e worker t r i e d t o r e a s o n w i t h them, Sam s a i d , "They've j u s t g o t t o l e a r n t h a t they can't g i v e us t h e run-around." T h i s b a t t l e was f o l l o w e d by a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h a t same  8-L  evening,  and the gang seemed t o have f o r g o t t e n i t s  d i f f e r e n c e s a t - t h e next meeting. T h i s was  t h e f i r s t i n a l o n g s e r i e s o f o u t b u r s t s over  t h e same i s s u e , and as time went on the m a t t e r o f d e a l i n g w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e g i r l s and boys became increasingly d i f f i c u l t . it,  was  The b a s i c problem, as t h e worker  t h a t t h e two groups were a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s  development.  d u r i n g w h i c h the g i r l o f t h e i r c h o i c e was  own  of  The boys had r e a c h e d t h e p l a c e where they were  ready to e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s of f a i r l y long  completely  saw  faithful.  behaviour,  standing,  expected t o be  They were more broad-minded about t h e i r  but i n the c a s e s where t h e y d i d have such  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , they were i n c l i n e d t o devote t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o one g i r l .  The g i r l s , on t h e o t h e r hand,  w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , were s u b j e c t t o v i o l e n t c r u s h e s r a r e l y l a s t e d f o r more t h a n a week or two, c o n s i d e r t h a t such crushes o t h e r boys.  and t h e y d i d not  s h o u l d e x c l u d e them from d a t i n g  As B a r b a r a s a i d , "The  boys want t o be  too  s e r i o u s a l l t h e t i m e — a n d we l i k e t o p l a y t h e f i e l d . " was  t h e more u s u a l teen-age a t t i t u d e , but i t was  not c o m p a t i b l e  which  Theirs  certainly  w i t h t h a t o f t h e boys, and s i n c e t h e boys'  r e a c t i o n t o any s o r t o f b e t r a y a l was the offending person,  t r o u b l e was  t o s t r i k e out  inevitable.  The  against beatings  w h i c h the g i r l s r e c e i v e d d i d not a l t e r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r much, but n e i t h e r d i d t h e y seem t o b r i n g f o r t h any resentment a g a i n s t t h e b o y s .  I n t h e i r code, i t was  very  f e e l i n g of a boy's  p r e r o g a t i v e t o m i s t r e a t h i s g i r l f r i e n d i f she s t r a y e d ,  and  S5  u n t i l t h e boys' methods o f d i s c i p l i n e r e a c h e d s e r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n s , t h e y took t h e i r punishment w i t h o u t c o m p l a i n t and almost as i f t h e y e n j o y e d i t .  F i r s t Dance  The dance gave the worker an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e t h e gang a t f i r s t hand on one o f i t s h e c t i c Saturday n i g h t outings.  A s i d e from e x h i b i t i n g  showing a c e r t a i n  a p r o p r i e t o r i a l a i r and  f l e e t i n g sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e  crowd's b e h a v i o u r , t h e y might have been spending t h e e v e n i n g i n Chinatown o r at some o f t h e i r o t h e r  hang-outs.  The a f f a i r s t a r t e d w e l l , and f o r s e v e r a l hours l o o k e d as i f i t might be a s u c c e s s even i n the worker's eye.  critical  The gang a r r i v e d two hours b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t i m e and  displayed a last-minute desire to a s s i s t with preparations. Up t o t h a t p o i n t , S t e l l a ' s two lower Shaughnessy f r i e n d s had been h e l p i n g t h e worker t o g e t t h e gymnasium ready.  They,  i n c i d e n t a l l y , were hoping t h r o u g h t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n a t t h i s dance t o s e c u r e p e r m i s s i o n t o h o l d weekly dances o f a semi-commercial  n a t u r e a t t h e agency.  They were r e c k o n i n g  w i t h o u t t h e o t h e r s , however, because w h i l e they t o o k a cavalier  view o f t h e i r ' d u t i e s ,  t h e members o f t h e c l u b were  v e r y much aware t h a t they were t h e h o s t s , and t h e y d i d not i n t e n d t o be o u s t e d from t h i s p o s i t i o n .  The g i r l s  spent  most o f the t i m e . b e f o r e t h e dance i n t h e washroom, t a k i n g out p i n c u r l s and f i x i n g t h e i r make-up.  But the boys  86  hovered around the worker, a c t i n g v e r y b u s i n e s s - l i k e and r e - i t e r a t i n g t h e i r p r o m i s e s o f 'no l i q u o r , no f i g h t s no c r a p ' .  and  D e n i s made a s p e c i a l p o i n t o f t e l l i n g her t h a t he  had l e f t h i s ' c r o c k ' a t home f o r t h e f i r s t Saturday i n Months, and she e x p r e s s e d proper a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h i s n o b l e g e s t u r e . The p a y i n g g u e s t s were slow i n coming, and f o r a time t h e gang was  i n a f e v e r o f a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t the dance would  not be a s u c c e s s *  T h i s f i r s t v e n t u r e was  i m p o r t a n t t o them,  and however n i c e the dance might be, i t c o u l d not p o s s i b l y be a s u c c e s s w i t h o u t l a r g e numbers o f g u e s t s . The crowd, when i t d i d a r r i v e , was what might have been e x p e c t e d from t h e word-of-mouth a d v e r t i s i n g t h e dance had received.  About t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e two hundred and  fifty  g u e s t s were boys, a l l z o o t - s u i t e r s , and l i k e t h e c l u b members, p o s s e s s e d o f a b e l l i g e r e n t a t t i t u d e t o l i f e .  The  g i r l s , most o f whom were u n e s c o r t e d , l o o k e d and behaved v e r y much as t h e g i r l s i n the group d i d . to  f e e l t h a t t h e y s h o u l d pay a d m i s s i o n o n l y i f they were  c o r n e r e d , and Tony and A l f , who door, concurred i n t h i s . his  Most o f t h e boys seemed  were a s s i s t i n g E l l e n a t the  Tony even went so f a r as t o l e n d  s k e l e t o n key t o some o f h i s f r i e n d s who wanted t o g e t i n  t h r o u g h the b a l c o n y .  E r n i e and A p p l e , w h i l e t h e y had been  h e l p i n g t o move f u r n i t u r e , had managed t o get away w i t h a r o l l o f f i f t y t i c k e t s , which t h e y went out and s o l d H a s t i n g s S t r e e t , p o c k e t j i n g t h e proceeds Dancing was  on  themselves.  spasmodic a l l e v e n i n g — t h e r e were never  more than s i x c o u p l e s on t h e f l b o r .  The r e s t o f t h e crowd  *7  o c c u p i e d t h e m s e l v e s i n v a r i o u s ways.  The worker broke up  e i g h t d i f f e r e n t c r a p games, i n w h i c h a good many o f t h e c l u b members, c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r vow, were i n v o l v e d .  The boys  s t o p p e d p l a y i n g as soon as she came on t h e scene and e v e n t u a l l y she c u t out t h e games a l t o g e t h e r by c o l l e c t i n g t h e i r l o o s e change each time f o r t h e coke b a r .  O t h e r s found  t h e showers a c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e t o d r i n k , and t h e r e was a heavy t r a f f i c o f h a l f empty coke b o t t l e s between t h e clubroom and t h e showers.  Most o f t h e boys were d r i n k i n g ,  b u t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d t h e i r s o u r c e o f s u p p l y , because t h e y had a l o o k - o u t a t t h e f o o t o f t h e s t a i r s , and whenever t h e worker appeared, a l l t h e e v i d e n c e was w h i s k e d out o f sight.  Ernie' and Apple r e t u r n e d from t h e i r f o r a y on H a s t i n g s  S t r e e t o b v i o u s l y t h e worse f o r wear.  E r n i e was drunk, b u t  under c o n t r o l — A p p l e was weaving b a d l y and was a r g u m e n t a t i v e . The worker spoke t o D e n i s about i t , and he a s s i g n e d Johnny and Max t o t h e j o b o f k e e p i n g t r a c k o f them.  The b a l c o n y  was b e i n g used f o r n e c k i n g p u r p o s e s , and w h i l e t h e c l u b members a g r e e a b l y came out o f t h e i r c l i n c h e s when t h e worker spoke t o them, o t h e r c o u p l e s who were i n t e r r u p t e d were d e f i a n t and r u d e .  The r e s t o f t h e crowd j u s t s t o o d around  t h e gymnasium, t h e boys on one s i d e and t h e g i r l s on t h e other.  A l f and Tommy worked h a r d t o g e t them t o m i x , b u t  without success.  F i n a l l y Rudy, who was s l i g h t l y drunk but  s t i l l c o - o p e r a t i v e , c l o s e d t h e clubroom and o r d e r e d everyone i n t o t h e gymnasium.  T a k i n g over t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system,  he announced t h a t everyone was t o d a n c e — o r e l s e .  This  p r o d u c e d some r e s u l t s , and Rudy came over t o r e c e i v e t h e commendation o f the worker, and t o t e l l her t h a t he d i d not t h i n k he would be h a v i n g any  fights.  M i s s Thompson was p r e s e n t at the dance, and i n s p i t e o f h e r o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n was w e l l r e c e i v e d by b o t h boys girls.  and  D o r i s a t t a c h e d h e r s e l f t o her as soon as she a r r i v e d , '  and f o r a w h i l e a c t e d as h e r e s c o r t .  But t h e g r e a t e r p a r t  of her e v e n i n g was devoted t o J a c k J a m i e s o n , who an a t t e n t i v e and s y m p a t h e t i c l i s t e n e r .  found her  Much o f t h e  c o n v e r s a t i o n was t a k e n up w i t h a v i v i d and d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f how he had i n j u r e d h i s l e g at a s e r v i c e c e n t r e d a n c e — a v e r s i o n w h i c h amused M i s s Thompson somewhat, s i n c e she was m o r a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t i t was a p l a t e g l a s s window r a t h e r than a k n i f e w h i c h had done the damage. The r e s t o f the time he t a l k e d about h i s s i s t e r , o f whom he was v e r y proud.  M i s s Thompson was n o t i n t r o d u c e d t o him as *  an o f f i c e r and d i d not mention t h e f a c t h e r s e l f , so she d i d n o t t h i n k he r e a l i z e d t h a t he was c o n s o r t i n g w i t h t h e p o l i c e . She remained u n t i l about e l e v e n o ' c l o c k , l e a v i n g j u s t b e f o r e the  main event o f the e v e n i n g .  I n h e r o p i n i o n the dance had  been, f o r t h i s group, e x t r e m e l y o r d e r l y . She had been gone about f i v e m i n u t e s when Johnny Thompson and t h r e e members o f h i s gang a r r i v e d .  They went  s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t o t h e clubroom, w h i c h Rudy had  re-opened  and was s u p e r v i s i n g .  The minute t h e y appeared, Rudy s e t  down h i s p i n g pong r a c k e t and took a poke a t Johnny.  The  worker knew n o t h i n g about t h e f i g h t u n t i l she r a n i n t o a  89  stampede o f boys t r y i n g t o get up the s t a i r s . e x p l a i n e d q u i c k l y t o her t h a t the f i g h t was  Theo  on, but  knowing  t h a t she d i d not l i k e t o have them on the p r e m i s e s , the boys had  agreed t o go o u t s i d e .  They charged t h r o u g h the  gymnasium, g a t h e r i n g the r e s t o f the crowd as t h e y went. F i n a l l y , u n a b l e t o r e s t r a i n t h e i r tempers any l o n g e r , h o l e d up i n the men's washroom, and t h e o v e r - f l o w o f crowd w h i c h c o u l d n ' t get i n t o the room m i l l e d out lobby.  The most u n f o r t u n a t e  a s p e c t o f t h i s was  S t u d e n t ' s C h r i s t i a n Movement, w h i c h was  they the  i n t o the  that  the  holding a conference  i n t h e l o u n g e , had j u s t completed i t s s e s s i o n and was process of l e a v i n g .  i n the  The members j o i n e d the crowd and t o a l l  appearances e n j o y e d t h e show as much as anybody e l s e . The worker was  a b l e t o make her way  i n t o t h e washroom,  but when t h e y saw her t h e r e , J a c k and Theo i n s i s t e d upon removing h e r , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e y d i d not want her t o get hurt.  B e f o r e the f i g h t became g e n e r a l , Johnny and h i s t h r e e  companions were a b l e t o get o u t s i d e , w i t h Rudy hot on trail*  their  E r n i e and Apple f o l l o w e d them down the s t a i r s .  After  t h e combattants had gone, D e n i s r e p o r t e d t o the worker t h a t when the f i g h t had begun, he had p l a c e d guards on a l l the d o o r s t o see t h a t n o t h i n g happened.  Then he t o l d Max,  Nick  and Theo t o l o o k a f t e r the f r o n t door t o see t h a t none o f Thompson gang c o u l d r e t u r n .  the  At t h i s p o i n t the p o l i c e , who  had been c a l l e d , a r r i v e d on the scene, and a sudden calm descended on the crowd. they l e f t , promising  F i n d i n g t h a t t h e t r o u b l e was  over,  t o r e t u r n i f i t broke out a g a i n .  They  90  had j u s t d i s a p p e a r e d  when Rudy r e t u r n e d i n a f u r y t o say t h a t  Johnny Thompson and h i s crowd had taken E r n i e and Apple w i t h them i n t h e i r c a r , and t h a t t h e y were r e t u r n i n g w i t h the r e s t o f t h e i r gang t o f i n i s h the f i g h t .  The dance was  forgotten  i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the b a t t l e .  I n d i c a t i o n of Co-operation  The  w i t h Worker  crowd moved out o f the b u i l d i n g q u i c k l y , some o f  them t o get away b e f o r e t h e t r o u b l e s t a r t e d and o t h e r s  so  t h a t they would be a b l e t o get a good view o f t h e f r a c a s . The  c l u b members stopped b r i e f l y t o express t h e i r r e g r e t s a t  t h e way  the evening had t u r n e d o u t .  backed up by the r e s t of them, "We this.  Tony's comment  always p u l l something l i k e  No wonder no one wants us around."  know who  was  g o i n g t o c l e a n up,  c o u l d not s t o p now  was  Tommy wanted t o  s a y i n g t h a t he  obviously  t o h e l p , but t h a t he would be w i l l i n g t o  come i n the f o l l o w i n g day.  The g i r l s and.some o f t h e  boys o f f e r e d t o do the same.  The worker a c c e p t e d  other  their  offer,  a f t e r which t h e y l e f t , w i t h p r o f u s e a p o l o g i e s f o r Rudy's behaviour.  The  crowd hung around o u t s i d e w a i t i n g f o r the  Thompson gang t o r e t u r n u n t i l t h e desk c l e r k t e l e p h o n e d p o l i c e , who' came and d i s p e r s e d i t .  The  the  b a t t l e took p l a c e  later  i n Chinatown, a f t e r the two gangs had spent h a l f t h e n i g h t l o o k i n g f o r each o t h e r . The dance was not a s u c c e s s e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e evening  i n many ways, but t h e r e  was  a c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h t h e worker  91  o o u l d n o t have c o u n t e d upon a few weeks e a r l i e r .  The g i r l s  s t u c k t o t h e i r p o s t s a t t h e door, t h e coke b a r and t h e checkroom, even though t h e y would have much p r e f e r r e d t o be f r e e agents.  Some o f t h e boys, l i k e D e n i s , Tony and A l f ,  worked h a r d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r l i g h t s ,  t o keep t h e a f f a i r  as o r d e r l y as p o s s i b l e , and even Rudy, u n t i l he was c o n f r o n t e d by Johnny Thompson, was q u i t e c o - o p e r a i i v e .  Sam,  i n t h e coke b a r , s e r v e d f a i t h f u l l y u n t i l he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t someone had s t o l e n h i s new g a b a r d i n e c o a t , and even t h e n he d i d n o t go a f t e r t h e t h i e f u n t i l he had summoned J u l i a t o t a k e charge.  Though they b r o k e a l l t h e r u l e s t h e y had s e t  up f o r t h e dance and a l l t h e p r o m i s e s t h e y had made t o t h e w o r k e r , t h e i r a c t i o n s were i n no way as d e l i b e r a t e l y a n t a g o n i s t i c as t h e y had been a t t h e f i r s t p a r t y .  They were  w i l l i n g a t t h i s p o i n t t o admit r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , even i f t h e y were n o t r e a d y t o do a n y t h i n g about i t .  Oar T h e f t  The o f f e r o f a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e c l e a n - u p j o b was not f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h , because b y Sunday a f t e r n o o n t h r e e o f t h e g i r l s were i n j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n home, f o u r o f t h e boys were in j a i l ,  and t h e r e s t o f t h e gang was much t o o e x c i t e d t o  t h i n k o f such mundane t h i n g s as sweeping f l o o r s . newspaper r e p o r t went as f o l l o w s :  The  "Three teen-age g i r l s a r e  i n t h e j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n home, and t h e p o l i c e a r e s e a r c h i n g for  f o u r boys f o l l o w i n g a s h o r t b u t w i l d chase a f t e r a  92  s t o l e n auto a t 4-: 20 a.m. y e s t e r d a y .  The s t o l e n c a r was f i r s t  s p o t t e d by C o n s t a b l e s G . Grant and G. B e l l a s i t t u r n e d west on F i r s t Avenue from Commercial D r i v e . the  I t speeded up when  d r i v e r n o t i c e d t h e p o l i c e c a r f o l l o w i n g him.  As t h e  s t o l e n v e h i c l e swung i n t o a l a n e a t t h e r e a r o f t h e Woman's B a k e r y , i t h i t a w o o d p i l e and ground t o a s t o p .  Seven young  p e o p l e , t h r e e o f them g i r l s , l e a p e d from t h e c a r and f l e d i n t o t h e nearby bushes.  S e a r c h o f t h e wooded a r e a l e d t o t h e  c a p t u r e o f two s i x t e e n - y e a r - o l d g i r l s , w h i l e C o n s t a b l e 0. J o h n s o n d i s c o v e r e d t h e t h i r d g i r l h i d i n g under t h e b a k e r y . No t r a c e was found o f t h e male  companions."  The worker d i d n o t h e a r o f t h e a r r e s t s u n t i l Monday n i g h t , when t h e gang began t o g a t h e r a t t h e agency a t t h e u n u s u a l l y e a r l y hour o f 6:30.  On h e r a r r i v a l , an animated  c o n v e r s a t i o n was i n t e r r u p t e d by E l l e n who wanted t o know i f she had h e a r d about t h e o t h e r s , t h a t newspapers.  ' i t ' had been i n t h e  The worker had n o t y e t seen t h e p a p e r s , and  asked them t o t e l l h e r what had happened.  B o t h E l l e n and  Wilma became shy, and s a i d t h a t t h e g i r l s d i d n o t want t h e worker t o know about i t . t e l l you." the  F i n a l l y E l l e n said, "Ernie w i l l  The worker t u r n e d t o E r n i e , who e x p l a i n e d t h a t  gang had gone f o r a r i d e i n some 'hot' c a r s , . a n d D o r i s ,  B a r b a r a , V i v i a n , J a c k , Tony, Max and Doug were i n c u s t o d y . When he had f i n i s h e d t h e s t o r y t h e y a l l began t o t a l k a t once.  B o t h E l l e n and Wilma had had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o go f o r  a r i d e , b u t had r e f u s e d , and had t r i e d t o s t o p t h e o t h e r three g i r l s .  E r n i e was v i r t u o u s about t h e f a c t t h a t he had  93  a l s o been i n v i t e d b u t had n o t gone, s i n c e he knew t h a t J a c k c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y be r i d i n g around i n a 19^6 M e r c u r y legitimately.  The b o y s w e r e h i g h l y i n d i g n a n t because t h e y  had a l l been p i c k e d up f o r q u e s t i o n i n g b y t h e p o l i c e , and Roger was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b e d .  H i s family d i d not l i k e  i t when t h i n g s l i k e t h a t happened, he s a i d .  As each new  member o f t h e gang came i n , t h e whole a f f a i r was r e h a s h e d , and i t was e v i d e n t t h a t a number o f t h e o t h e r s had been j o y - r i d i n g , t o o , but had been a b l e t o d i s c a r d t h e i r c a r s b e f o r e t h e y had been r e p o r t e d s t o l e n .  The boys were angry  a t B a r b a r a , D o r i s and V i v i a n because t h e y had i n f o r m e d on t h e f o u r boys, who had n o t been p i c k e d up t i l l l a t e r , and Rudy s a i d t h a t t h e y would be much s a f e r i n j a i l t h a n o u t s i d e where t h e gang c o u l d g e t a t them.  Nobody came t o t h e defence  o f t h e g i r l s except t h e w o r k e r , who was howled down. 'Squealing  1  was a c a r d i n a l o f f e n s e .  Tommy asked t h e worker,  " W e l l , what do you t h i n k o f your gang now? when a l l t h e boys were c o n v i c t s .  I t was bad enough  Now t h e g i r l s a r e s t a r t i n g . "  He asked C l a r e n c e how i t £Q.t t o have a s i s t e r i n t h e l o c k - u p . C l a r e n c e l a u g h e d u n c o m f o r t a b l y but d i d not comment. T h i s e p i s o d e took precedence over any d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e dance,, but s u r p r i s i n g l y enough, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y h e l d a f a i r l y long business meeting.  I t s t a r t e d out w i t h a  statement by M a r g a r e t , " I guess t h a t ' s t h e l a s t dance our bunch w i l l have around h e r e . "  The worker s a i d t h a t no  d e c i s i o n had been r e a c h e d y e t about S a t u r d a y dances, but . t h a t t h e f i g h t had done them a good d e a l o f harm.  Ellen  94  expressed  r e g r e t but r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e two gangs were  f r i e n d s a g a i n and t h e r e would be no more f i g h t i n g .  The  worker commented t h a t the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n c o u l d have come a t a b e t t e r time.  E t h e l brought up the s u b j e c t o f the  tickets  w h i c h had been s o l d on H a s t i n g s s t r e e t , and asked what s h o u l d be done about i t .  D e n i s s a i d t h a t E r n i e had o f f e r e d  t o pay f o r them and t h i s would t a k e c a r e o f t h e  matter.  E t h e l d i d not want t o l e t go so e a s i l y but E r n i e moved around b e s i d e her and t o l d her t o keep q u i e t . b i c k e r i n g , the worker stepped  After considerable  i n and s a i d she thought i f t h e  t i c k e t s were p a i d f o r t h e r e was no need f o r f u r t h e r argument. A l l t h e i r o t h e r l a p s e s from grace were d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h . None o f them would admit t o b e i n g d r u n k — ' f e e l i n g good' as f a r as t h e y would go.  Rudy's b e h a v i o u r  was  e x p l a i n e d away  by t h e statement t h a t he always had a f i g h t on S a t u r d a y i t was  i n his blood.  He d i d , however, make  was  night—  extravagant  p r o m i s e s f o r t h e next dance i f t h e r e were one.  Tommy thought  the crap s h o o t i n g had been p o o r — i t gave the p l a c e a bad name. C l a r e n c e s a i d t h a t t h e r e would be no more c r a p s h o o t i n g t h a t Tony was inopportune  in jail.  T h i s statement came a t  now  an  moment because t h e worker had j u s t n o t i c e d t h a t  t h e boys not t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e meeting were h a v i n g a game i n the corner.  S e v e r a l d e c i s i o n s were made i n case t h e r e  a n o t h e r dance.  Thenajne o f the c l u b was  t o be changed so no  one would know they were t h e same group; everybody was searched a t the door f o r l i q u o r ; d i c e were t o be l e f t t h e c a s h i e r , and Rudy was  was  o n l y t o come i f he were i n a  t o be with  95  p e a c e f u l mood.  I n o r d e r t o make s u r e t h a t t h e r e would be  r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s meetings,  they decided that t h e ' r e l i a b l e  guys' were t o come i n w i t h t h e g i r l s a t seven o ' c l o c k and the o t h e r s were n o t t o appear u n t i l 8:30, a f t e r w h i c h they would j u s t • f o o l a r o u n d . 1  There was a good d e a l o f e x c i t e m e n t  i n t h e atmosphere  d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e e v e n i n g , and once t h e b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g was o v e r t h e boys began t o wander.  S e v e r a l o f them went up t o  t h e gymnasium and h e c k l e d t h e a r c h e r y group u n t i l t h e worker went up and c o l l e c t e d them.  Downstairs  a g a i n , they  started  a water-gun f i g h t i n and out o f t h e showers, and c a r r i e d on w i t h t h i s form o f amusement u n t i l t h e y c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a o f p u t t i n g t h e g i r l s under t h e showers.  W h i l e she was b r e a k i n g  t h i s up, Tommy e x p l a i n e d t o t h e worker t h a t t h e gang was always w i l d e r when something ' b i g ' had happened on t h e week-end. suggested for  They s t a y e d u n t i l about 10:^5 when Denis t h a t they l e a v e , s o t h e worker c o u l d g e t home e a r l y  a change.  Going t h r o u g h t h e gymnasium t h e y t r i e d out t h e  v e r t i c a l b a r and a l l t h e o t h e r equipment and d i d a l o t o f y e l l i n g and s h o v i n g . . I n t h e l o b b y , Denis and A l f went over t h e l i s t o f t h e boys who were t o come a t seven and t o l d t h e o t h e r s n o t t o show up t i l l  8:30 next t i m e .  s a n c t i o n e d by E r n i e and t h e y  The l i s t was  left.  The f o l l o w i n g morning, t h e worker c o n t a c t e d t h e J u v e n i l e D e t e n t i o n Home and was t o l d t h a t t h e g i r l s were b e i n g r e l e a s e d t h a t day. No charges had been l a i d a g a i n s t them, but they were t o g i v e e v i d e n c e a t t h e t r i a l  o f t h e f o u r boys.  96  M i s s Thompson c a l l e d t o r e p o r t t h a t she had seen  Barbara  and D o r i s who, she s a i d , were d i s t u r b e d n o t so much by t h e i r m i s b e h a v i o u r as by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e boys would c o n s i d e r them informers. A l l t h r e e o f them came down t o t h e agency Tuesday evening.  They were r a t h e r s h e e p i s h , but were f e e l i n g q u i t e  important n e v e r t h e l e s s .  The e p i s o d e  had been e x c i t i n g , and  now t h a t t h e y had been r e l e a s e d t h e y were a b l e t o savour i t . D o r i s a s s u r e d t h e worker t h a t t h e f i r s t t h i n g t h e y had thought o f a t t h e d e t e n t i o n home was t h a t she and M i s s Thompson would f i n d out and be d i s a p p o i n t e d i n them.  The  worker a d m i t t e d t h a t b o t h o f them were w o r r i e d and s u r p r i s e d when they h e a r d o f i t .  Barbara  s a i d t h e y had c e r t a i n l y  l e a r n e d t h e i r l e s s o n ; and w i t h these p r e l i m i n a r i e s out o f t h e way, t h e y l a u n c h e d i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e chase.  The  o t h e r g i r l s l i s t e n e d i n r a p t s i l e n c e as t h e y t o l d about c a r e e n i n g down t h e highway at eighty m i l e s an hour w i t h t h e police car i n pursuit.  B a r b a r a d i s c o u n t e d newspaper s t o r i e s  w h i c h s a i d t h a t t h e boys had r u n o f f and l e f t them t o 'take the rap'.  She had been b e s i d e Jack, when t h e p o l i c e had  s t a r t e d t o f i r e a t them, and he had pushed h e r down t o t h e ground so she would n o t g e t h u r t .  A l l t h e boys had t r i e d t o  h e l p them and had y e l l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s , b u t t h e y had been l a u g h i n g so hard t h e y c o u l d n o t r u n .  None o f them had been  t h e l e a s t b i t a f r a i d , t h e y s a i d , u n t i l t h e p o l i c e had caught them.  They had n o t t o l d on t h e boys.  about t h a t .  Each was q u i t e d e f i n i t e  I t was B a r b a r a ' s mother who had t o l d t h e p o l i c e  97  w h i c h o f t h e group were i n v o l v e d . questioned  The o f f i c e r s had  them s e v e r a l t i m e s , and t h e f i r s t time t h e y had  a l l told lies.  A f t e r t h a t t h e y had t o l d t h e t r u t h , but had  n o t mentioned t h e names o f t h e i r companions. They had n o t l i k e d t h e d e t e n t i o n home v e r y much.  Doris  s a i d she had c r i e d a l l n i g h t a f t e r they had l o c k e d h e r door. She  seemed more unhappy about t h e a f f a i r t h a n t h e o t h e r s ,  who were c h i e f l y w o r r i e d about t h e b o y s ' r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r release.  D o r i s ' mother had come out t o t h e home, b u t she had  r e f u s e d t o see h e r a t f i r s t .  F i n a l l y she had gone o u t , and  her mother had been c r y i n g , she s a i d , as i f she were a c t u a l l y s o r r y f o r what had happened. the o f f i c i a l s , Doris thought.  But i t was j u s t a d i s p l a y f o r She f e l t b a d l y about h e r  grandmother, who had 'taken i t h a r d ' . a  B a r b a r a had expected  ' l i c k i n g ' when she g o t home, b u t h e r p a r e n t s had j u s t  l o o k e d a w f u l l y sad and s a i d t h e y were g l a d t o have h e r back. C l a r e n c e had been sad, t o o , b u t he had n o t s a i d a n y t h i n g mean t o her. other.  V i v i a n s a i d h e r mother d i d n o t care one way o r t h e She had h a r d l y n o t i c e d h e r absence.  They s t a y e d j u s t l o n g enough t o t e l l each o f t h e g i r l s t h e i r s t o r y ; t h e n they l e f t because B a r b a r a and D o r i s had been p l a c e d on a curfew by t h e i r f a m i l i e s . s t r e e t c a r , t h e boys caught up w i t h them.  On t h e way t o t h e They accused D o r i s  and B a r b a r a o f t u r n i n g t h e o t h e r s i n , and t o l d them w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f p r o f a n i t y what was g o i n g t o happen t o them. Rudy and D e n i s walked on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e worker, her how much t r o u b l e the g i r l s had g o t them i n t o .  telling She asked  98  i f t h e boys who had been a r r e s t e d had been i n t h e c a r . D e n i s s a i d i m p a t i e n t l y , "Oh yes, t h e y were a l l t h e r e . But t h o s e g i r l s s u r e don't have much l o y a l t y . "  The worker  said  t h e g i r l s had t o l d h e r t h e y had not t a l k e d and she a c c e p t e d t h e i r word.  Rudy argued,  "But l o o k what the boys a r e g o i n g  t o g e t and t h e g i r l s a r e o f f w i t h n o t h i n g . "  She p o i n t e d out  t h a t t h e g i r l s had had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e i r r e l e a s e , and s a i d t h a t i n h e r o p i n i o n t h e y s h o u l d have s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g about r e s u l t s b e f o r e t h e c a r was t a k e n , n o t a f t e r . The boys agreed t h a t t h e o t h e r s had been s t u p i d t o t a k e t h e car,  but t h e y s t i l l c o u l d n o t accept t h e g i r l s '  Tommy was t h e o n l y one who defended any time a c a r was m i s s i n g those  betrayal.  them, and he s a i d t h a t  'guys' were j u s t  p i c k e d up and they had p r o b a b l y a d m i t t e d i t .  naturally  The worker was  not s u r e t h a t t h e g i r l s would a r r i v e home i n t a c t w i t h t h e boys i n t h i s mood, but Rudy f i n a l l y agreed t o a compromise, "We won't do n o t h i n g t o n i g h t .  W e ' l l w a i t and see what  happens a t t h e t r i a l . " A c c o r d i n g t o t h e newspapers, f r i e n d s o f t h e accused packed t h e p o l i c e c o u r t t o t h e doors f o r t h e t r i a l .  The  worker d e c i d e d , a f t e r g i v i n g t h e m a t t e r s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t her presence  i n t h e courtroom might j e o p a r d i z e her  p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e group, and would i n any case s e r v e no u s e f u l purpose, so she d i d n o t a t t e n d .  The g i r l s  gave  c o m p l e t e l y c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t Max and Tony r e c e i v e d a remand. s e n t e n c e d t o n i n e months. suspended s e n t e n c e .  J a c k was found g u i l t y and Doug was f i n e d $150 and p l a c e d on  Max and Tony a l s o r e c e i v e d suspended  sentence  99  TEMPORARY DISINTEGRATION OF GANG  CHAPTER V  The  t r i a l b r o u g h t w i t h i t r e p e r c u s s i o n s w h i c h once  a g a i n t h r e a t e n e d t o b r e a k up t h e gang.  The f i r s t  indication  o f d i s u n i t y came from t h e g i r l s who a r r i v e d a t t h e m e e t i n g t h a t n i g h t about a n h o u r ahead o f t h e b o y s . and V i v i a n were f u l l o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s t a n d and hoped t h a t , h a v i n g c o n f u s e d  Doris,  Barbara  on t h e w i t n e s s  the i s s u e , they had  r e g a i n e d t h e good o p i n i o n o f t h e boys..  B a r b a r a and V i v i a n  were i n a gay, e x c i t e d mood, b u t D o r i s seemed, unhappy.  She  and B a r b a r a had l o s t t h e i r j o b s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e a f f a i r and i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s t h e y had been f o r b i d d e n t o have a n y t h i n g to  do w i t h each o t h e r .  E l l e n was g l o a t i n g o v e r t h i s f a c t ,  s i n c e D o r i s had r e p l a c e d h e r a s B a r b a r a ' s b e s t f&end and now she hoped t o r e g a i n h e r f o r m e r p o s i t i o n .  The w o r k e r a s k e d  i f t h e i r p a r e n t s knew t h e y were t o g e t h e r t o n i g h t .  Barbara  p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e c l u b was d i f f e r e n t - y o u o o u l d n o t g e t into trouble there.  E l l e n com)timued t o p r o d D o r i s u n t i l she  f l o u n c e d o u t t o t h e washroom w i t h V i v i a n a n d M a r g a r e t i n tow. From t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i c h t o o k p l a c e w h i l e she was o u t o f t h e room, i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t she was b e i n g groomed a s s c a p e g o a t , i n case t h e boys were s t i l l n o t m o l l i f i e d . B a r b a r a appeared r e l u c t a n t , b u t w i t h some c o a c h i n g from E l l e n , a d m i t t e d t h a t i f anyone h a d s q u e a l e d , 1  1  i t must have been  100  Doris.  Some of the others defended her i n a h a l f hearted  manner, but the worker f e l t that a l l that was needed to undermine her completely was a l i t t l e pressure from the boys. The worker had just succeeded i n returning Doris and her two supporters to the clubroom i n a reasonably cheerf u l frame of mind when J u l i a came over to report that Denis and some of the boys wished to speak with her p r i v a t e l y i n the h a l l .  Tony, Clarence and Sam were with Denis.  A l l of  them were looking grim and Sam had a large bandage over one eye.  Denis explained that the boys had had a b i g argument  and h a l f of them had decided to withdraw from the gang. The worker asked what the trouble was. He was not very clear on t h i s , but said that a l o t of them were angry with the g i r l s f o r informing and that someone, namely Sam, (who had been kicked i n the eye by Theo), had been passing rumours around and that the gang were just generally f i g h t i n g among themselves.  They wanted to come down into the basement to  have i t out, but had agreed to get the worker's permission first.  Denis thought there might be a f i g h t - he hoped  though that i t could be s e t t l e d otherwise.  The worker said  she did not want a brawl, but that she was w i l l i n g to take a chance on them. Tony disappeared outside and i n a minute returned with the rest o f the boys, who established themselves i n two opposing camps on d i f f e r e n t sides of the basement and breathed f i r e a t each other. side with the g i r l s .  Sam, i n the meantime, had gone i n -  The worker hovered around u n t i l Ernie  101  s u g g e s t e d , because o f t h e bad language w h i c h would be s t a r t i n g t o f l y , t h a t she s h o u l d go i n t o t h e clubroom t o o .  She  d i d s o , and was i m m e d i a t e l y s u r r o u n d e d by t h e g i r l s who wanted t o know what was happening.  They were s u r e i t was  an outcome o f t h e g i r l s ' e v i d e n c e and once a g a i n D o r i s came i n f o r t h e g r e a t e r share o f t h e blame.  Over the b l a r e o f  t h e r e c o r d p l a y e r c o u l d be h e a r d t h e sound o f a n g r y v o i c e s and from t h e l i t t l e she c o u l d p i c k up, t h e w o r k e r q u i t e a g r e e d w i t h E r n i e about t h e l a n g u a g e . f u r i o u s l y f o r about h a l f an h o u r .  The b a t t l e waged  Then D e n i s came t o t h e  w o r k e r and s a i d , "They a r e n ' t f i n i s h e d a r g u i n g b u t t h e y ' l l come i n t o t h e clubroom now.* They s l u n k i n t o t h e room, s t i l l h o s t i l e and s u l l e n a n d a r r a n g e d t h e m s e l v e s i n g r o u p s , g l a r i n g a t each o t h e r .  Denis  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y have a b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g r i g h t away. Rudy t o l d t h e w o r k e r he was g o i n g t o have something t o s a y i n t h i s meeting.  E r n i e s t a r t e d t o l e a v e , b u t h i s gang  g a t h e r e d around and coaxed him t o s t a y . a chair looking very black. c a l l e d t h e meeting t o o r d e r . p r o f a n e , was e l o q u e n t .  He slumped down i n  Rudy c l i m b e d up on a s t o o l and H i s speech, though  slightly  He was g e t t i n g s i c k o f a l l t h e  b i c k e r i n g and back b i t i n g among t h e members o f t h e gang g i r l s t a l k i n g about g i r l s b e h i n d t h e i r b a c k , boys d o i n g t h e same - a l l c a u s i n g t r o u b l e .  He used Sam a s a n example.  He, Rudy s a i d , had g o t h i s eye k i c k e d i n because he had been t e l l i n g t a l e s among t h e gang.  He a s k e d Sam i f t h i s were  n o t s o . Sam s a i d t h e r e had been no f o u n d a t i o n f o r h i s g o s s i p  102  and admitted that he had deserved the punishment.  Rudy-  agreed and went on to say that unless they a l l stuck t o gether and played square with each other, the gang might as w e l l break up.  He stepped over to the door and flung i t  open with a dramatic f l o u r i s h .  I f anyone wanted to leave the  gang, they could go now - he would deal with them on the way out.  No one moved.  He returned to h i s stool and asked a l l  those i n favour of staying to raise t h e i r hands.  Everyone,  thoroughly cowed by t h i s time, was only too glad to do so. Having accomplished t h i s , he t o l d them that i f they had any other beefs they were to s e t t l e them.  Murmurs from the -  boys indicated that some of them were s t i l l displeased with Sam and the three g i r l s .  Sam.was taken back into the f o l d  a f t e r he had formally apologized to Ernie, f o r some obscure reason, and the two had shaken hands. about the g i r l s .  Rudy was magnanimous  He would not, he said, state h i s personal  opinion of them at t h i s time - obviously i t -was unprintable but since they were members of the olub too, the boys were to treat them decently in. club meetings - what they d i d to them any other time was l e f t to t h e i r own  discretion.  The boys wanted to become regular members of the olub from now on, he said, not just dance committee people.  He  was quite democratic about t h i s however, giving the g i r l s an opportunity to vote them i n t o the club by another show of hands.  Barbara meekly mentioned fees and Rudy, c a r r i e d away  by.his success, announced that the boys could e a s i l y contribute a d o l l a r each to s t a r t .  A loud protest from them  103  was smothered when he demanded o m i n o u s l y , "Any b e e f s , y o u guys,  J u s t t a k e them up w i t h me!** The q u e s t i o n o f a t -  tendance o f t h e whole gang on Tuesdays was s e t t l e d b y t h e g i r l s , who s a i d t h a t s i n c e t h e o a r e p i s o d e , t h e i r f a m i l i e s had been c l a m p i n g down a n d t h e y were j u s t a l l o w e d o u t o n one week n i g h t .  They d e c i d e d t o h o l d t h e c l u b on Monday e v e n i n g s  only i n future. The r e b e l l i o n q u e l l e d , Rudy brought t h e b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g t o a n end and s a t back t o r e c e i v e t h e p l a u d i t s o f t h e gang and t h e w o r k e r .  Everyone had been v e r y much i m p r e s s e d by h i s  speech and f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e e v e n i n g he was s u r r o u n d e d b y an a d m i r i n g a u d i e n c e .  The w o r k e r , t o o , had c o n s i d e r e d t h e  speech e f f e c t i v e , b u t she was i n c l i n e d t o a t t r i b u t e much o f i t s s u c c e s s t o Rudy's f i g h t i n g p o t e n t i a l i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n t o his oratory.  A s i d e from t h i s , however, she was s u r e t h a t he  was p u t t i n g i n t o words t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e o t h e r s when he made h i s p l e a f o r u n i t y among t h e gang.  There was p a n i c i n .  t h e a i r when t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a break-up came o u t i n t o t h e open.  Whatever t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , membership i n t h e gang  meant s e c u r i t y t o a l l o f them and t h e i r r e a d y a c q u i e s c e n c e once Rudy t o o k c o n t r o l , showed how a n x i o u s t h e y were t o . c l i m b back t o s a f e t y .  R e l i e f was e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e r e s t o f  t h e e v e n i n g and f o r m e r a d v e r s a r i e s f e l l o v e r each o t h e r i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o be a f f a b l e .  Even t h e t h r e e o f f e n d i n g g i r l s  were i n c l u d e d i n t h e atmosphere o f b r o t h e r l y l o v e w h i c h easv e l o p e d t h e elubroom.  D e n i s t h a n k e d t h e worker f o r a l l o w i n g  them t o h o l d t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i n t h e agency and s a i d , a s  ,  1C4  i f lie were p o i n t i n g o u t a new i d e a t o h e r , t h a t t h i s  just  p r o v e d what he h a d a l w a y s contended - t h a t arguments c o u l d be s e t t l e d w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o r e s o r t t o f o r c e .  Referral o f Doris  The  o n l y p e r s o n who d i d n o t w e a t h e r t h e storm was D o r i s .  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were i n v o l v e d i n h e r w i t h d r a w a l club.  from the  A s t h e w o r k e r a n t i c i p a t e d , she bore t h e b r u n t o f t h e  boys' and c o n s e q u e n t l y  t h e g i r l s ' d i s p l e a s u r e over the oar  e p i s o d e , once t h e y g o t o v e r t h e r o s y glow o f renewed f r i e n d ship.  H e r c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B a r b a r a h a d been d i s -  r u p t e d , because B a r b a r a , i n c o n s t a n t i n s u c h t h i n g s , had r e t u r n e d q u i t e h a p p i l y t o E l l e n ' s sphere o f i n f l u e n c e once t h e f u n o f s e c r e t rendezvous w i t h D o r i s began t o p a l l .  And i n  h e r home a s i n t h e gang D o r i s was f a c e d w i t h complete r e jection.  H e r n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n was t o t r y t o escape f r o m t h e  whole s i t u a t i o n by l e a v i n g t h e d i s t r i c t . was a l t e r n a t e l y encouraged and d i s c o u r a g e d  I n t h i s d e s i r e she by h e r grandmother.  Her a p p e a l t o t h e w o r k e r f o r h e l p r e s u l t e d i n the f i r s t group work-case work r e f e r r a l i n t h e c l u b . The r e f e r r a l was n o t a s u c c e s s ; i t f o u n d e r e d b e f o r e  Doris  e v e r made a n appearance a t t h e agency t o w h i c h she was r e ferred.  And w h i l e t h e l a c k o f r e s u l t s was p a r t l y a t t r i b u -  t a b l e t o f a u l t y h a n d l i n g , much o f t h e t r o u b l e l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t D o r i s was t o o o l d , a t l e a s t i n e x p e r i e n c e  t o accept,  i n h e r f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h a case work agency, t h e s e r v i c e s  105  of a children's association.  And t h e r e were no o t h e r agen-  o i e s i n t h e community who c o u l d handle h e r p r o b l e m s .  Her  case made o n l y t o o e v i d e n t t h e a l m o s t insurmoumtable d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h w h i c h one was f a c e d i n making any s o r t o f p r a c t i c a l a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e vagabond e x i s t e n c e o f youngsters of this sort.  F o r s i x t e e n y e a r s she had been p e r -  m i t t e d t o do v e r y much a s she p l e a s e d , w i t h n e i t h e r a f f e c t i o n n o r d i s c i p l i n e t o keep h e r i n check.  She h a d been  out on t h e s t r e e t s a t a l l h o u r s o f t h e n i g h t , exposed t o a d v e n t u r e s w h i c h w o u l d make a q u i e t , w e l l o r d e r e d home seem d u l l and p l o d d i n g b y comparison.  Now h e r b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n  was f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Whenever a s i t u a t i o n became too d i f f i c u l t o r unpleasant, something e l s e .  she w i t h d r e w f r o m i t and t r i e d  T h i s was apparent  i n h e r work r e c o r d a s  w e l l a s e l s e w h e r e , a n d i n h e r d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e home, she was once a g a i n f o l l o w i n g t h e l i n e o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e . As soon a s she r e a l i z e d t h e c o m p l i c a t e d n a t u r e o f such a move, Doris lost interest. Her f i r s t p l a n was t o move i n t o a g i r l s ' r e s i d e n c e b u t when she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t she was t o o young t o do s o , she e x p r e s s e d h e r s e l f a s w i l l i n g t o t r y a n y t h i n g t h e w o r k e r suggested.  She was n o t t o o happy when she l e a r n e d t h a t any  placement w o u l d have t o be made t h r o u g h one o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a g e n c i e s i n town.  L i k e most o f t h e members o f t h e  gang, D o r i s l o o k e d upon s o c i a l a g e n c i e s w i t h s u s p i c i o n , a s p o s s i b l e t h r e a t s t o h e r independence.  Then t o o , she p i c -  t u r e d l e a v i n g home a s something i n t h e n a t u r e o f a d r a m a t i c  io6  runaway, r a t h e r t h a n a s a s l o w , c a r e f u l p r o c e s s i n c h i l d welfare.  F o r these reasons, t h e worker decided t o pro-  ceed s l o w l y , e x p l a i n i n g t h o r o u g h l y a l l t h e s t e p s r e q u i r e d i n s u c h a move.  However, even a f t e r becoming f u l l y  infor-  med i n t h e m a t t e r , D o r i s was a p p a r e n t l y r e a d y t o go t o t h e agency and see what t h e y had t o o f f e r .  The w o r k e r had a  c o n f e r e n c e w i t h M i s s S m i t h o f t h e s o c i a l agency i n q u e s t i o n and made arrangements f o r a n i n t e r v i e w between h e r and Doris,  R i g h t up u n t i l t h e day o f h e r a p p o i n t m e n t , D o r i s  k e p t a s s u r i n g h e r s e l f t h a t t h i s was what she wanted.  At  t h e l a s t m i n u t e though, she was u n a b l e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h . The w o r k e r d i d n o t see' h e r a g a i n a f t e r she had f a i l e d t o keep h e r appointment w i t h M i s s S m i t h .  Doris explained  t o M i s s Thompson s e v e r a l days l a t e r t h a t she had d e c i d e d a g a i n s t g o i n g t o t h e agency because h e r grandmother had been upset a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f l o s i n g h e r .  L o o k i n g back  upon t h e e a s e , t h e worker r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e grandmother s h o u l d have been b r o u g h t i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n r i g h t a t t h e f i r s t , b u t D o r i s had been s t r o n g l y opposed t o any s u c h contact.  H e r grandmother w o u l d n o t l e a v e t h e house and D o r i s  was n o t a n x i o u s t o have t h e w o r k e r v i s i t h e r t h e r e . Her. greate'st m i s t a k e i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e case came, t h e w o r k e r f e l t , when she f i n a l l y d i d c a l l a t D o r i s * home. I t was a d r e a d f u l p l a c e , one o f s i x t e e n s u i t e s i n a s m a l l , d i r t y , u n p a l n t e d tenement house.  H e r grandmother p e e r e d  out from b e h i n d a h a l f open door a n d t o l d h e r D o r i s was n o t home.  The w o r k e r gave h e r name and a s k e d i f she w o u l d have  107  Doris get i n touch w i t h h e r .  W i t h o u t a n s w e r i n g , beyond a  m u t t e r whioh t h e w o r k e r c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d , t h e o l d woman slammed t h e d o o r i n h e r f a c e .  T h i s v i s i t was, t h e  worker b e l i e v e d , what f i n a l l y removed D o r i s from t h e agency. She t o l d M i s s Thompson t h a t she c o u l d n o t b e a r t o f a c e t h e w o r k e r now t h a t she knew t h e k i n d o f p l a c e i n w h i o h she lived. Because M i s s Thompson was c o n t i n u i n g h e r i n t e r e s t i n D o r i s , t h e w o r k e r made no f u r t h e r a t t e m p t t o c o n t a c t h e r . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t m i g h t be n o t e d t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e period o f h e r membership i n the c l u b , M i s s Thompson had a l ways been i n t h e background r e a d y t o o f f e r a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e t o D o r i s w i t h her p e r s o n a l problems.  There  was,  t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r a b l e d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t , as w e l l a s some c o n f u s i o n , because t h e two a d v i s o r s were a p p r o a c h i n g h e r problems f r o m d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w .  The w o r k e r , as  c l u b l e a d e r , p o s s e s s e d no a u t h o r i t y and n a t u r a l l y had t o oper a t e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e program.  Miss  Thompson, on t h e o t h e r hand, was a b l e t o t a k e d i r e c t a c t i o n , and d i r e c t a c t i o n was what D o r i s wanted.  P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e second dance  The r e s t o f the gang, under Rudy's w a t c h f u l eye, r e mained on good terms w i t h each o t h e r and t h e w o r k e r d u r i n g the weeks p r i o r t o t h e second dance.  A f t e r t h e row among  t h e b o y s , E r n i e seemed t o l o s e h i s p o s i t i o n as b e h i n d t h e  103  scenes l e a d e r o f the gang, t o he r e p l a c e d by Rudy, whose approach was more d i r e c t .  He t o o k h i s job s e r i o u s l y  and  seemed t o f e e l t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h i s second dance  was  necessary to consolidate h i s gains.  Consequently  there  were r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g s and everyone was t o l d o v e r and o v e r a g a i n what t h e i r p o s t s f o r the n i g h t w o u l d be. The gang undertook t o s u p p l y a l l t h e r e c o r d s f o r t h e themselves and E t h e l , who  was  event  i n charge o f c o l l e c t i n g them,  by some m i r a c l e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n was a b l e t o s e c u r e about two hundred from t h e v a r i o u s members.  T h i s was a  conces-  s i o n because r e c o r d s were v a l u e d p o s s e s s i o n s and t h e r e always, t h e danger o f h a v i n g them s t o l e n .  was  Among t h e c o l l e c -  t i o n were some w h i c h l o o k e d s u s p i c i o u s l y l i k e t h e ones w h i c h had gone m i s s i n g a t the f i r s t p a r t y .  When t h e worker men-  t i o n e d t h i s , t h e boys e x p l a i n e d , q u i t e unabashed, t h a t t h e y had 'borrowed* them.  B e r t h a and Theo spent s e v e r a l n i g h t s  making h i g h l y c o l o r e d p o s t e r s w i t h z o o t s u i t e r s and g i r l s a l l o v e r them.  Yarga  And t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s r a n  s t r o n g e r t h a n u s u a l t h e p r o m i s e s o f good b e h a v i o u r .  Rudy  p a r t i c u l a r l y , seemed t o want t o keep i n m i n d t h e new  leaf  he was t u r n i n g o v e r and he spent a good d e a l o f t i m e r e a s s u r i n g the  worker.  T r o u b l e o u t s i d e the agency  These good i n t e n t i o n s were i n t e r r u p t e d however on t h e S a t u r d a y b e f o r e t h e dance when t h e y became i n v o l v e d i n a  109  b r a w l a t a s i s t e r agency, t h e C r e s c e n t C e n t r e .  Rudy s t a r t e d  i t w i t h one o f h i s r e g u l a r S a t u r d a y n i g h t e f f o r t s ,  Whea t h e  p o l i c e a r r i v e d , t h e y demanded t h a t t h e t r o u b l e m a k e r s be i d e n t i f i e d and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l u c t a n c e one o f the: members of t h e C r e s c e n t dance c l u b named Rudy, Theo and N i c k , of  c o u r s e , had v a n i s h e d by t h a t t i m e .  who,  The news o f t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s p r e a d and once t h e p o l i c e were s a f e l y out o f t h e way,  t h e gangs began t o g a t h e r .  I t was  amazing  how  q u i c k l y t h e word passed around t h e e a s t end on o c c a s i o n s such as t h i s - w i t h i n h a l f an hour about a hundred boys were m i l l i n g around o u t s i d e t h e agency ready t o a t t a c k the dance group as t h e y l e f t .  I n the i n t e r m i s s i o n before the p o l i c e  appeared a g a i n , t h e b e s i e g e r s were a b l e t o make o f f w i t h t w e l v e o v e r c o a t s t h r o u g h t h e window o f t h e c l o a k room. boy who  The  had made t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t h e group l e a d e r  were f i n a l l y smuggled out t h e back o f t h e b u i l d i n g i n t o a t r u c k and t a k e n home when t h e gangs t h r e a t e n e d t o charge t h e place.  And some o f t h e o t h e r s were b e a t e n up once t h e y got  beyond the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p r o w l e r c a r s w h i c h came and dispersed the  mob.  The gang a r r i v e d a t c l u b m e e t i n g on Monday n i g h t i n t h e e x c i t e d mood t h a t always f o l l o w e d a week end o f t h i s  sort.  The v e r s i o n w h i o h t h e y gave t h e worker o f t h e C r e s c e n t a f f a i r was  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e o t h e r l e a d e r and i f she  were t o t a k e t h e i r word f o r i t t h e y were f a r more s i n n e d against than s i n n i n g .  The c o a t e p i s o d e was n o t mentioned  and  when t h e w o r k e r brought i t up, Rudy a s s u r e d h e r t h a t t h a t was  110  t h e work o f 'some o t h e r guys*•  They were i n t e n t upon s e -  c u r i n g revenge f o r t h e outrageous t r e a t m e n t t h e y had r e c e i v e d a n d were h a v i n g a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y f i t t i n g t h e i r own h i g h l y m o r a l dance i n t o t h e s c h e d u l e o f mayhem t h e y were p l a n n i n g f o r C r e s c e n t on t h e f o l l o w i n g S a t u r d a y .  The w o r k e r  went t o a g r e a t d e a l o f t r o u b l e t o make . c l e a r t o them t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two a g e n c i e s , don't have any b e e f a g a i n s t t h e c l u b . who go t h e r e . "  Theo s a i d ,  "We  I t ' s j u s t the people  The w o r k e r , on r a t h e r p r e c a r i o u s ground,  asked i f t h e y w o u l d n o t r e s e n t h a v i n g someone e l s e b r e a k up t h e i r dances. dare."  To t h i s D e n i s r e p l i e d a i r i l y , "Nobody w o u l d  The m a t t e r was d i s c u s s e d back and f o r t h a t l e n g t h ,  and t h e y were n o t a l i t t l e d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t t h e w o r k e r s h o u l d q u e s t i o n t h e i r conduct.  She d i d manage t o e x t r a c t  a h a l f h e a r t e d promise t h a t t h e y w o u l d l e a v e t h e C r e s c e n t C e n t r e a l o n e , b u t t h e promise was s t r i c t l y i n t h e n a t u r e o f a p a l l i a t i v e and n o t t o be t a k e n t o o s e r i o u s l y b y e i t h e r s i d e .  Second Dance  T h e i r own dance, e x c e p t f o r a few new and v i c i o u s s i d e l i g h t s was s i m i l a r t o t h e i r f i r s t one. However, i f t h e beh a v i o u r o f t h e crowd a s a whole was w o r s e , t h a t o f most o f t h e members was much improved.  The g i r l s once a g a i n s t u c k  r i g i d l y t o t h e i r p o s t s and w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y hung onto most o f t h e money t h e y had c o l l e c t e d .  The- boys were d e t e r -  mined t o keep o r d e r a t any p r i c e - and f o r a t i m e t h e y d i d -  Ill  the p r i c e b e i n g l a r g e numbers o f f i g h t s o u t i n t h e a l l e y , w h i c h , e x c e p t f o r the e v i d e n c e o f s e v e r a l b l e e d i n g n o s e s , were k e p t s u c c e s s f u l l y from t h e w o r k e r * s e y e s . None o f t h e g i r l s i n t h e c l u b a n d o n l y a few o f t h e boys d i d any d r i n k i n g .  Tommy was one o f t h e e x c e p t i o n s .  He was o b s t r e p e r o u s and i n s i s t e d upon p l a y i n g T a r z a n w i t h some r o p e s w h i c h hung from t h e b a l c o n y t o t h e gymnasium floor.  Wheat t h e c o m m i s s i o n a i r e t r i e d t o h a l t h i s a c t i -  v i t i e s , he became n a s t y , and t h e w o r k e r c a l l e d i n D e n i s t o d e a l w i t h him. a  N i c k , who was a l s o drunk, came t o Tommy's  defence a n d t o l d the. w o r k e r t o l e a v e h i m a l o n e o r he would h i t her.  D e n i s took t h e two o f them o u t s i d e .  I n about  f i v e m i n u t e s Tommy r u s h e d back i n w i t h a b l e e d i n g nose a n d s w e l l i n g eye. h i t him.  D e n i s t o l d t h e w o r k e r , "I'm s o r r y I had t o  I c o u l d n ' t r e a s o n w i t h h i m any o t h e r way."  Nick  had come around t o D e n i s ' way o f t h i n k i n g a f t e r Tommy h a d l a n d e d an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e k i c k i n h i s stomach. E r n i e had a l s o been d r i n k i n g h e a v i l y , b u t whereas Tommy was q u a r r e l s o m e , he was amorous.  On one o f h e r p a t r o l s  t h r o u g h t h e b a l c o n y , t h e w o r k e r came upon h i m a n d J u l i a s t a g i n g a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w h i c h went f a r beyond t h e bounds o f ordinary necking.  She t a p p e d E r n i e on the s h o u l d e r a n d sug-  g e s t e d t h a t t h e y slow down, t h e n went d o w n s t a i r s a n d s e n t Tony up t o t a k e a l o o k around.  E r n i e appeared l o o k i n g l i k e  a storm c l o u d a few m i n u t e s l a t e r a t the c l o a k room, d e manded h i s c o a t and l e f t .  J u l i a came o v e r a n d a p o l o g i z e d ,  s a y i n g t h a t E r n i e h a d been t e r r i b l y embarrassed a t b e i n g  112  caught be t h e w o r k e r .  J u l i a h e r s e l f was n o t p e r t u r b e d -  she gave the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t she was e x p l a i n i n g away a s l i g h t lapse i n e t i q u e t t e t o a stodgy a d u l t . The boys managed t o keep t h e dance under uneasy u n t i l about e l e v e n o ' c l o c k .  control  And when t h e blow-up came i t  was n o t Rudy who t o u c h e d i t o f f . W i t h a r e m a r k a b l e d i s p l a y of  s e l f d i s c i p l i n e he managed t o s t a y out o f t r o u b l e f o r t h e  e n t i r e evening.  A t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s he r e p o r t e d t h i s f a c t  t o t h e w o r k e r and t h e y c o n g r a t u l a t e d each o t h e r on h i s exemplary b e h a v i o u r .  What m i g h t have happened had Rudy been,  i n the b u i l d i n g when t h e m a i n bout t o o k p l a c e w i l l n e v e r be known; f o r some r e a s o n he chose t h a t h a l f h o u r t o v i s i t e l s e w h e r e , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e dance i n time t o e x p r e s s r i g h t eous i n d i g n a t i o n a t the d i s g r a c e f u l conduct o f t h e o t h e r s . The b a t t l e t o o k p l a c e i n the l o b b y once a g a i n because the  boys were t r y i n g 'to observe t h e p r o p r i e t i e s and do  fighting outside.  their  C l a r e n c e , who was q u i t e drunk, c l a i m e d  t h a t a n o t h e r boy had t r i e d t o h i t him o v e r t h e head w i t h a b r o k e n b o t t l e and t h e y were p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e s t r e e t t o settle their differences.  The c o m m i s s i o n a i r e and t h e  j a n i t o r got h o l d o f t h e two boys however and t r i e d t o c a j o l e them i n t o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e gymnasium.  Theo came o v e r t o t h e  w o r k e r and s a i d , "You'd b e t t e r l e t them get i t out o f t h e i r system.  C l a r e n c e i s t o o h i g h t o h u r t t h e o t h e r k i d much.",  The w o r k e r a g r e e d w i t h him, b u t t h e two men peace. the  i n s i s t e d upon  C l a r e n c e and Theo went back i n t o t h e gymnasium w h i l e  o t h e r boys cowered b e h i n d t h e c o m m i s s i o n a i r e .  The  worker  113  t r i e d t o g e t him away from t h e b u i l d i n g , b u t he was- s t u b b o r n and i n s i s t e d upon w a i t i n g w h i l e someone went i n t o get; his friends.  When t h e y came o u t , C l a r e n c e , Theo, and  s e v e r a l o t h e r s came t o o , and w i t h o u t any w a r n i n g , t h e f i g h t was  on. About t e n boys were i n v o l v e d .  I t was an e x t r e m e l y  b r u t a l f i g h t , i n w h i c h a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s and Theo and C l a r e n c e used t h e i r f e e t ,  particularly  w h i l e one o f t h e b o y s  was l y i n g on the f l o o r unconscious., Theo k i c k e d him a g a i n and a g a i n i n t h e stomach.  The two men  and t h e worker  tried  t o s t o p t h e f i g h t , but t h e b o y s , beyond s h o v i n g them out o f t h e way, p a i d no a t t e n t i o n t o them.  Somehow t h e y got  t h r o u g h t h e doors a t t h e t o p o f the s t a i r s and c o n t i n u e d t h e b a t t l e on t h e s t e p s .  F i n a l l y one o f them was  pushed  t h r o u g h t h e g l a s s d o o r s and t h e o t h e r s f o l l o w e d him.  The  l o u d c r a s h calmed them down somewhat and when t h e p o l i c e , whom t h e r e c e p t i o n i s t had c a l l e d , a r r i v e d a few m i n u t e s  later,  a l l t h e combatants had d i s a p p e a r e d . S i n c e t h e group i n t h e gymnasium was n o t aware thata n y t h i n g had b e e n g o i n g on and d a n c i n g was f a i r l y g e n e r a l , t h e worker a l l o w e d the dance t o c a r r y on t i l l t w e l v e o ' c l o c k . The c l u b members g a t h e r e d around h e r t o f i n d out what had happened.  They seemed t o be g e n u i n e l y upset about t h e f i g h t  and w o r r i e d about t h e t r o u b l e she w o u l d get i n t o because o f the smashed d o o r s .  Tony s a i d , "We  we c a n ' t h a n d l e l a r g e dances. p a r t i e s w i t h o u r own k i d s . "  might as w e l l admit t h a t  From now  on we  j u s t have  The o t h e r s a g r e e d , p l a c i n g t h e  11*  blame on t h e v i s i t o r s a n d i g n o r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n s t i g a t o r s o f t h e f i g h t were, a s u s u a l , members o f t h e i r gang. They were v e r y much a f r a i d t h a t t h i s w o u l d mean t h e end o f t h e c l u b and were r e l i e v e d when t h e worker a s s u r e d them t h a t t h e Monday 'meetings w o u l d c o n t i n u e . When c l o s i n g time came, t h e boys c o u l d n o t g e t t h e crowd t o l e a v e .  S e v e r a l o l d e r f e l l o w s who had come i n l a t e  commandeered t h e p u b l i c a d d r e s s system and t h e r e c o r d s a n d i n s i s t e d upon h a v i n g a r e q u e s t program.  The mood o f t h e  crowd became u n p l e a s a n t when D e n i s announced t h a t t h e y were c l o s i n g up shop and f i n a l l y A l f came o v e r t o t h e w o r k e r and s a i d , "We t h i n k t h e y need a c o u p l e o f b l u e u n i f o r m s t o move them.  It*11 t a k e a b r a w l t o g e t them o u t o t h e r w i s e . "  The  p o l i c e were c a l l e d a g a i n and when t h e y appeared on t h e s c e n e , t h e gymnasium emptied q u i c k l y . Damage was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r a t t h i s dance t h a n a t t h e e a r l i e r one.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f r o n t d o o r s , two o t h e r s had  been s p l i n t e r e d .  The s t o r e room had been b r o k e n i n t o a n d  t h r e e cases o f coke b o t t l e s had been d e l i b e r a t e l y smashed a l l over the f l o o r .  The clubroom and gymnasium were a shambles  and p o o l s o f b l o o d i n t h e washrooms, t h e showers and on t h e s t a i r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e had been a number o f v i o l e n t arguments.  However, I n s p i t e o f t h i s , most o f t h e c l u b  members had done t h e i r d u t y t o t h e b e s t o f t h e i r a b i l i t y and a d e s i r e t o co-operate w i t h t h e w o r k e r had been e v i d e n t d u r i n g the e n t i r e e v e n i n g .  Sam came t h r o u g h s u r p r i s i n g l y .  He s t a y e d  l o n g a f t e r t h e o t h e r s had gone, sweeping t h e clubroom and  115 p i c k i n g up b r o k e n b o t t l e s .  The o t h e r s o f f e r e d t o s t a y , t o o ,  but t h e house s e c r e t a r y was  a n x i o u s t o get everyone out  the b u i l d i n g , so t h e y l e f t w i t h o u t The and Max  of  t o o much u r g i n g .  gang s u f f e r e d a s e v e r e l o s s t h e f o l l o w i n g day. were a r r e s t e d f o r c a r t h e f t .  Rudy  They had gone f o r a r i d e  and i n the c o u r s e o f t h e u s u a l p o l i c e chase had  jumped a  d i t c h , plowed t h r o u g h a f e n c e and t u r t l e d t h e c a r ,  thereby  smashing i t up r a t h e r b a d l y .  F o r t h i s t h e y each r e c e i v e d a  sentence o f e i g h t e e n months.  W i t h Rudy gone, t h e gang  was  minus a l e a d e r as w e l l as a s t r o n g a d v o c a t e f o r u n i t y . a f t e r h i s h u m i l i a t i n g experience  Ernie,  a t the dance, w i t h d r e w f r o m  the c l u b t e m p o r a r i l y , and D e n i s , a t l e a s t i n the m e e t i n g s , took charge.  They seemed t o have had t h e i r f i l l o f dances  and were content  t o s e t t l e down t o a f a i r l y t r a n q u i l r o u n d  o f p i n g pong games, d a n c i n g and t a l k i n g .  The  removal o f Rudy  from the gang seemed t o have a q u i e t i n g e f f e c t on t h e and f o r some t i m e t h e y managed t o keep out o f  others,  difficulties  b o t h i n and out o f c l u b m e e t i n g s . T h e i r apparent change o f h e a r t was  especially noticeable  when t h e i r a r c h enemies, t h e C r e s c e n t c l u b , h e l d a dance a t the agency on a Monday n i g h t .  The w o r k e r , when approached,  r e f u s e d t o c a n c e l t h e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g o f Club 57  for that  n i g h t , s i n c e she f e l t t h a t t h i s would be u n f a i r , and m i g h t have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t upon h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h group.  the  W i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l u c t a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e dance  committee a g r e e d t o I s s u e an i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e members o f Club 57, who  a t t h e same t i m e t e l l i n g c e r t a i n o f t h e i r own  had annoyed the gang, t o s t a y a t home.  boys,  116  When t h e gang a r r i v e d t h e worker t o l d them t h a t t h e C r e s c e n t group had i n v i t e d them t o t h e dance.  Tony a n -  nounced t h a t t h e y knew a l l about i t and had i n t e n d e d t o c r a s h i t anyway.  The w o r k e r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e o t h e r  c l u b h a d been w i l l i n g t o make a f r i e n d l y g e s t u r e a n d she was h o p i n g , t h a t h e r c l u b w o u l d do t h e same.  They were h a r d  t o c o n v i n c e , b u t f i n a l l y D e n i s s a i d , " A l l r i g h t , gang. rough s t u f f . "  Kb  Then, t u r n i n g t o t h e w o r k e r , he added, "But  we're n o t g o i n g t o have them i n o u r c l u b room m e s s i n g i t up." N i c k , who had been p u t o u t o f t h e C r e s c e n t c l u b s e v e r a l months b e f o r e , s t a r t e d t o l e a v e a s soon a s he saw them i n t h e gymnasium.  The worker a s k e d him where he was g o i n g and  he s a i d , " I suppose I'm g o i n g t o be k i c k e d o u t o f h e r e t o o . " She e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had a p e r f e c t r i g h t t o come i n s i n c e he was a member o f C l u b 57 and a f t e r a good d e a l o f c o a x i n g , she was a b l e t o shepherd h i m down t o t h e clubroom.  He r e -  f u s e d t o go up t o t h e dance f o r a l o n g t i m e a n d when he d i d , he s t u c k c l o s e t o t h e worker and Was c o n t i n u a l l y demanding h e r attention. • The dance was a huge s u c c e s s a s f a r a s i n t e r - c l u b r e l a t i o n s h i p s were concerned.  By t h i s i s meant t h a t t h e r e were  no f i g h t s o r even near f i g h t s .  Club 57 members k e p t t h e i r  i d e n t i t y and d i d n o t m i n g l e much w i t h t h e o t h e r s , b u t t h e y d i d l o a n some o f t h e i r r e c o r d s - names c a r e f u l l y t a k e n down by A l f - t o t h e committee,  and t h e y d i d l i m i t t h e i r  criti-  cisms o f t h e dance and i t s sponsors t o s n i d e remarks among themselves.  The worker was r e g u l a r l y i n f o r m e d by t h e boys  "7  t h a t she s h o u l d be proud o f h e r gang, and E t h e l s a i d i t j u s t showed y o u how n i c e t h e boys c o u l d be i f t h e y t r i e d .  The  absence o f l i q u o r and t h e p r e s e n c e o f a h e f t y p o l i c e m a n g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d t h e boys w i t h t h e i r good i n t e n t i o n s , b u t t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e c r e d i t b e l o n g e d e n t i r e l y t o them. The clubroom was a s o u r c e o f f a s c i n a t i o n t o t h e C r e s c e n t y o u n g s t e r s , a n d some o f them were g r a c i o u s l y p e r m i t t e d t o view i t .  They were n o t a l l o w e d t o mess i t up h o w e v e r — a n y o n e  who was seen t o p u t a c i g a r e t t e b u t t on t h e f l o o r was s e v e r e l y reprimanded, and a l l eoke b o t t l e s were r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r boxes i n good c o n d i t i o n .  D e n i s k e p t one o f t h e C l u b 57  g i r l s o r boys o n d u t y i n t h e clubroom a l l e v e n i n g , and e v e r y once i n a w h i l e , t o show h i s a u t h o r i t y , he c l o s e d t h e room and sent everyone b u t c l u b members back t o t h e dance.  On one  o c o a s i o n , when a group o f the* boys were h u d d l e d on. t h e f l o o r h a v i n g a c r a p game, Tony s a i d i n a shocked v o i c e , "Not i n f r o n t o f g u e s t s , y o u guys."  The clubroom was d e f i n i t e l y t h e i r  p r o p e r t y , and t h e y wanted t h e o t h e r s t o r e a l i z e t h a t  fact.  E r n i e , who had n o t a t t e n d e d c l u b s i n c e t h e second dance, appeared a t t h e f r o n t door about 9:30 and a s k e d t h e w o r k e r c o l d l y i f she would send D e n i s out t o h i m . She i n v i t e d h i m i n b u t he r e f u s e d , s a y i n g t h a t he had m e r e l y come t o see D e n i s and d i d n o t i n t e n d t o s t a y . t o t h e door.  The worker g o t D e n i s and s e n t himi  A few m i n u t e s l a t e r D e n i s came up t o h e r and  w h i s p e r e d o u t o f t h e c o r n e r o f h i s mouth, " I j u s t E r n i e i n t o t h e clubroom by t h e back door."  smuggled  The w o r k e r , h o t  u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s move, s a i d , "But he  118  c o u l d have come t h r o u g h t h e f r o n t d o o r j u s t l i k e body e l s e . "  " B e t t e r t h i s way."  and o f f he went.  every-  Denis r e p l i e d c r y p t i c a l l y  T h e r e a f t e r , w i t h a l i t t l e c o n c i l i a t i n g on  t h e p a r t o f t h e w o r k e r , E r n i e became once more a f a i t h f u l member o f t h e c l u b .  Apparently  he f e l t t h a t t h i s un-  o r t h o d o x means o f e n t r y had evened t h e s c o r e between hims e l f and t h e w o r k e r and he was a b l e t o r e t u r n  without  losing face.  I n c r e a s i n g d i s u n i t y among t h e gang members  The l u l l i n a g g r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h was c l i m a x e d b y t h e C r e s c e n t dance d i d n o t l a s t l o n g .  As has been s t a t e d  b e f o r e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e g i r l s and boys was most unstable.  D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e c l u b met, t h e  bond o f I n t e r e s t between them was g r a d u i l y weakening and by s p r i n g , a l l t h e g i r l s , e x c e p t B e r t h a , E t h e l and I s a b e l had t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r a f f e c t i o n s t o boys o u t s i d e t h e gang.  Most  o f them k e p t on a t t e n d i n g c l u b t h r o u g h o u t t h e w i n t e r . F o l l o w i n g t h e C r e s c e n t dance however, t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e dropping o f f i n the g i r l s  1  membership, w h i l e t h e boys'  a t t e n d a n c e remained h i g h . The boys d i d n o t t a k e k i n d l y t o t h i s w i t h d r a w a l  on t h e  p a r t o f t h e g i r l s and t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o h a l t i t became more and more v i o l e n t a s t h e gang d w i n d l e s .  Outbursts i n club  m e e t i n g s became more f r e q u e n t and v i c i o u s .  The a n g e r o f  t h e boys seemed t o be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e g i r l s a s a  119  group and t h o s e who  remained i n t h e gang were as  f o r an a t t a c k as were t h e g i r l s who whose u n f a i t h f u l n e s s was  n o t o r i o u s , was  c o n s i d e r a b l e rough t r e a t m e n t * i t must be a d m i t t e d  had l e f t *  liable  Julia,  s i n g l e d out f o r  I n f a i r n e s s t o the boys,  t h a t she was  c o n s t a n t l y l e a d i n g them on,  and no amount o f punishment seemed t o t e a c h her t h a t b e h a v i o u r was  not w i s e *  her  On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , the w o r k e r  r e t u r n e d t o the clubroom t o f i n d h e r weeping h y s t e r i c a l l y , w i t h D e n i s and E r n i e d i s a p p e a r i n g r a p i d l y out t h e door* Each t i m e t h e y had a d m i n i s t e r e d  a beating before they l e f t *  Once when S y l v i a r e f u s e d t o t a k e an o r d e r f r o m Doug, he knocked h e r o f f h e r s t o o l onto t h e f l o o r and k i c k e d h e r i n t h e stomach.  The w o r k e r caught him i n t h e a c t and t o l d  him  and the o t h e r boys t h a t she w o u l d not countenance suoh t r e a t m e n t o f the g i r l s i n the agency.* A f t e r t h a t t h e y were s l y i n t h e i r a t t a c k s but an u n p l e a s a n t u n d e r c u r r e n t A t the same t i m e , the boys became a c t i v e l y again.  The whole gang was  remained.  delinquent  p i c k e d up by t h e p o l i c e on  a  charge o f r e c e i v i n g s t o l e n p r o p e r t y a t Bowen I s l a n d , and Doug, J o e , N i c k and Theo were committed f o r t r i a l .  A l l of  them r e c e i v e d suspended s e n t e n c e s and were f i n e d .  Joe went  out i m m e d i a t e l y and, w i t h a n o t h e r boy, a r r e s t e d a f t e r the i n e v i t a b l e chase.  s t o l e a c a r and The  c e i v e d a n i n e month s e n t e n c e , but Joe was  o t h e r boy  was  re-  a c q u i t t e d when  he c l a i m e d he d i d not know t h a t the c a r had been s t o l e n . Doug and Theo i n the meantime had been a r r e s t e d on a charge o f b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g .  They t o o were a c q u i t t e d .  Tony  120  was  charged*" with, a s s a u l t and b a t t e r y as a r e s u l t o f a  b r a w l i n w h i c h he s t r u c k a g i r l .  He was  f i n e d and  cafe  returned  t o the care o f h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , Mike. I n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s v i o l e n c e , t h e gang d e c i d e d make a n o t h e r a t t e m p t t o get t o g e t h e r a g a i n .  Denis  to and  E t h e l e n g i n e e r e d a p a r t y t o w h i c h a l l members o f t h e were i n v i t e d .  Most o f t h e gang a t t e n d e d  and f o r t h e  g r e a t e r p a r t o f the e v e n i n g t h e clubroom was nostalgia.  club  filled  with  Good t i m e s o f t h e p a s t were t h e t o p i c o f  c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e r e was  the  a r a t h e r p a t h e t i c e f f o r t on  the  p a r t o f the boys and E t h e l t o r e v i v e t h e o l d gang f e e l i n g . E t h e l was  p a r t i c u l a r l y a n x i o u s t o keep the group  together  because she and Tony had become engaged and she d i d n o t want the q u a r r e l i n g between the o t h e r s t o i n t e r r u p t t h i s engagement - w h i c h i t m i g h t e a s i l y do, s i n c e Tony v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t h i s f r i e n d s were, as he s a i d ,  resented 'being  g i v e n t h e r u n around by t h o s e dames'. T h i s p a r t y was  the c l o s e s t t o an o r d i n a r y t e e n  a f f a i r which the c l u b h e l d .  age  Only A p p l e brought l i q u o r  and h i s o f f e r s o f d r i n k s were r e f u s e d by most o f t h e i n c l u d i n g h i s o l d d r i n k i n g companion, E r n i e .  Dancing  others, was  more p r e v a l e n t t h a n u s u a l and the n e c k i n g , w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e d an o r d i n a r y m e e t i n g f r o m a p a r t y , was d i s c r e e t . B a r b a r a t o l d the w o r k e r , "We  wouldn't mind g o i n g out  the boys i f . t h e y were a l w a y s as n i c e as t h i s .  with  They're t h e  b e s t l o o k i n g k i d s we know, i f t h e y o n l y weren't so t o u g h . " The  f o o d was  p a s s e d out i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n and when Theo  121  and s e v e r a l o f t h e o t h e r s dropped b i t s o f cake and sandwiches i n t h e shower s t a l l s where t h e y were d i n i n g , E r n i e s c o l d e d them, g o t o u t t h e broom and swept up t h e crumbs. The atmosphere was f i l l e d w i t h sweetness and l i g h t  until  about e l e v e n t h i r t y , when t h e w o r k e r went u p s t a i r s f o r a few minutes.  When she r e t u r n e d , e v e r y t h i n g was changed.  About  h a l f o f t h e g i r l s were b a r r i c a d e d i n t h e washroom w i t h t h e boys o u t s i d e t r y i n g t o push t h e door i n .  The g i r l s were  g e t t i n g t h e i r coats and p r e p a r i n g f o r a h a s t y e x i t .  When t h e  worker appeared t h e boys f e l l back f r o m t h e d o o r , w i t h l o u d and p r o f a n e t h r e a t s a g a i n s t J u l i a and R o b e r t a .  She s e n t  them b a c k i n t o t h e clubroom and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e managed t o g e t t h e washroom door open.  difficulty  J u l i a was l y i n g on  the f l o o r maoning and R o b e r t a was s i t t i n g on t h e wash b o w l , h o l d i n g one eye and h o w l i n g .  J u l i a was c o m p l e t e l y h y s t e r i c a l  and screamed e v e r y t i m e anyone went n e a r h e r .  I t was im-  p o s s i b l e t o get a l u c i d s t o r y from the o t h e r s .  They were  all,  even E t h e l , f u r i o u s , and t h e i r language was s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h t h e boys had been u s i n g on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e d o o r . The row had s t a r t e d when Tony s l a p p e d E t h e l f o r some r e a s o n unknown.  The o t h e r g i r l s had come t o h e r d e f e n c e , w h i l e  t h e boys jumped i n on Tony's s i d e . A f t e r making s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s t o get J u l i a o f f t h e cement f l o o r , t h e w o r k e r went t o t h e clubroom t o g e t one o f t h e boys t o c a r r y h e r u p s t a i r s .  They had a l l d i s a p p e a r e d b y  t h a t t i m e , so w i t h much h o i s t i n g and p u l l i n g , she and E t h e l managed to" g e t t h e r i g i d J u l i a i n t o t h e l o u n g e .  When she had  122  recovered taxi.  s u f f i c i e n t l y t o move, t h e w o r k e r went t o c a l l a  B u t J u l i a became s t u b b o r n .  She wanted t o go a n d f i n d  E r n i e and i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e t a x i be c a n c e l l e d . of t a l k i n g could convince h e r otherwise.  No amount  F i n a l l y she l e f t  w i t h E t h e l and R o b e r t a , who b y t h i s time were a l s o a n x i o u s to f i n d t h e boys. J u l i a , R o b e r t a , E t h e l , B a r b a r a and E l l e n came i n t h e f o l l o w i n g day, a t the w o r k e r ' s r e q u e s t , t o d i s c u s s t h e question o f c o n t i n u i n g the c l u b .  The w o r k e r e x p l a i n e d t o  them t h a t , i n v i e w o f t h e v i o l e n t t u r n i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f the b o y s , she f e l t t h a t she c o u l d n o t be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g them t o g e t h e r i n c l u b m e e t i n g s s i n c e t h e y d i d n o t see each o t h e r elsewhere a n y m o r e . we s e e them a l l t h e t i m e .  R o b e r t a s a i d , "Oh, b u t  They go everywhere we do and a c t  much t o u g h e r a t dances a n d p l a c e s t h a n t h e y do h e r e . " B a r b a r a t o l d h e r t h a t t h e y w o u l d have t o s t a y home a l t o g e t h e r i f t h e y were n o t g o i n g t o r u n i n t o t h e b o y s .  The g i r l s were  becoming nervous because t h e boys had been t h r e a t e n i n g them w i t h mass r a p e .  T h i s h a d happened b e f o r e , t h e y s a i d .  Betty  and J u l i a had gone up the m o u n t a i n w i t h J o e and D e n i s s e v e r a l weeks b e f o r e f o r t h e week-end.  When t h e y g o t t o t h e c a b i n ,  a l l t h e boys b u t Tony, E r n i e , Ron and Tommy had been t h e r e . They had been k e p t i n t h e c a b i n f o r two days and a c c o r d i n g t o J u l i a , each o f t h e boys had a t t a c k e d them.  Another g i r l  who had had a date w i t h Sam had been caught i n t h e same way w i t h t h e gang. The w o r k e r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e y  123 ./  s h o u l d have known b e t t e r t h a n t o go up t h e m o u n t a i n w i t h these boys. week-ends.  They, however, d i d not see a n y t h i n g wrong w i t h That s o r t o f t h i n g went on a l l t h e t i m e  and  s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e s were a r e g u l a r p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s . t h e y d i d not l i k e was  t h i s type o f mass a c t i v i t y .  What  A sug-  g e s t i o n by t h e w o r k e r t h a t she t a k e up t h e m a t t e r w i t h  their  p a r e n t s o r t h e a u t h o r i t i e s brought f o r t h l o u d p r o t e s t s . E t h e l s a i d t h e y would be k e p t i n f o r t h r e e n i g h t s o r so n o t h i n g e l s e w o u l d happen. B a r b a r a was  and  The w o r k e r ' s v a l u e , a c c o r d i n g  to  that they could t a l k t h i n g s over w i t h her which  t h e y w o u l d n e v e r dare t e l l t h e i r p a r e n t s , and i f she were g o i n g t o l e t them know, t h e y w o u l d have no one  i n whom t h e y  could confide. The worker t r i e d t o make them see t h a t rape was  a serious  o f f e n s e and t h a t i f t h e boys were a c t u a l l y b e h a v i n g i n t h e way  w h i c h t h e y d e s c r i b e d , i t would be b e t t e r t o d e a l w i t h t h e  problem i m m e d i a t e l y .  They began t o renege t h e n .  None o f  them would c o n s i d e r l a y i n g a c h a r g e , p a r t l y out o f f e a r o f r e p r i s a l s , the w o r k e r f e l t , and p a r t l y because up t o a p o i n t t h e y had been q u i t e w i l l i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e b o y s . A f t e r a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n i t was  decided that  they  w o u l d a v o i d i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e any c o n t a c t w i t h t h e b o y s , and i f t h e y d i d see them t h e y would do n o t h i n g t o r o u s e t h e i r ire.  The w o r k e r t o l d them t a c t f u l l y t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o h e r  o b s e r v a t i o n s much o f the t r o u b l e was  s t a r t e d by t h e  themselves w i t h t h e i r p r o v o c a t i v e behaviour.  0  girls  She was  .a s e r i o u s t a l k w i t h t h e boys on t h e f o l l o w i n g Monday. s a i d t h e y a l l thought she was  t o have Ethel  okay, and m i g h t l i s t e n t o h e r .  124-  The s e r i o u s t a l k was h e l d a t the n e x t m e e t i n g , w h i c h * a t t e n d e d by most o f t h e hoys and none o f t h e g i r l s .  They  l i s t e n e d c o u r t e o u s l y and agreed h e a r t i l y w i t h a l l t h e statements.  worker's  They were t r e a t i n g t h e g i r l s t o o r o u g h l y .  were g e t t i n g i n t o too much t r o u b l e w i t h t h e p o l i c e . were h a v i n g t o o many f i g h t s .  was  They  They  And t h e y were l i a b l e t o g e t i n t o  r e a l l y s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i f t h e y were n o t c a r e f u l .  A l l  t h i s the boys a l l o w e d — t h e n t h e y went back t o t h e i r p i n g pong games and r e c o r d s .  T h e r e a f t e r , w h i l e t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o be  v e r y f r i e n d l y and t a l k a t i v e w i t h t h e w o r k e r , t h e y s t e e r e d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n f i r m l y away from t h e i r misdemeanors. The c l u b c a r r i e d on f o r two more weeks w i t h o n l y t h e boys i n a t t e n d a n c e .  D u r i n g t h a t t i m e , e v e r y t h i n g was  p e a c e f u l , b o t h i n s i d e the c l u b and o u t . dropped  The g i r l s ,  who  i n s e v e r a l t i m e s t o see t h e w o r k e r , r e p o r t e d , w i t h o u t  a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t , t h a t t h e y had n o t been m o l e s t e d t h e boys i n any way.  by  The boys i n t h e i r t u r n seemed t o be more  o r l e s s c o n t e n t t o drop i n f o r a few games o f p i n g pong on Monday n i g h t s .  They were q u i t e r e g r e t f u l when t h e y l e a r n e d  t h a t c l u b meetings would have t o be stopped because t h e worker was  l e a v i n g the c i t y .  But when t h e y found t h a t she  w o u l d be v i s i t i n g Chicago d u r i n g h e r absence t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y became e n t h u s i a s t i c .  N i c k s u g g e s t e d t h a t she  find  out what t h e boys i n Chicago were d o i n g and see i f she c o u l d not b r i n g back a few new  a n g l e s f o r them.  Sam put i n a l a r g e  o r d e r f o r r e c o r d s and everybody wanted c i g a r e t t e s .  Since only  one c a r t o n c o u l d be brought a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r , t h e y gave h e r  125  s e v e r a l f o o l - p r o o f smuggling methods.  They s a i d l o u d  good-byes a l l t h r o u g h t h e b u i l d i n g , r e p e a t e d t h e i r o r d e r s and i n s t r u c t i o n s , and promised t o see h e r on h e r r e t u r n . As he was g o i n g out t h e door, N i c k bowed from t h e w a i s t and k i s s e d h e r hand i n h i s b e s t c o n t i n e n t a l s t y l e , and t h e o t h e r s applauded n o i s i l y . t h e f o r m a l c l u b s e s s i o n s ended.  On t h i s a f f a b l e n o t e ,  126  EVALUATION OF THE GANG'S AGENCY EXPERIENCE  CHAPTER VI  The f i v e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s g i v e a p i c t u r e o f Club 57 and i t s members as t h e y appeared t o t h e worker d u r i n g h e r seven months' c o n t a c t w i t h them.  I t i s not hard t o see,  f r o m t h e case h i s t o r y o f any one o f them, j u s t how t h e y q u a l i f i e d f o r membership i n a gang s u c h as t h i s ; and i t i s apparent from t h e i r b e h a v i o u r how t h e y a r e r e a c t i n g t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t p l a c e d them t h e r e .  B u t t h e problem o f  a c h i e v i n g t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l adjustment t o t h e s o c i e t y o f w h i c h t h e y have r u n a f o u l i s more c o m p l i c a t e d . A s o l u t i o n t o t h a t problem was n o t much n e a r e r a t t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n t h a n i t was a t t h e b e g i n n i n g .  However, a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i B  g r o u p work experiment i n d i c a t e s t h a t some p r o g r e s s has been made toward r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e c l u b members. Perhaps t h e b e s t method o f p r e s e n t i n g b o t h t h e f a i l u r e s and s u c c e s s e s o f the  p r o j e c t i s t o view i t i n r e l a t i o n t o  t h e u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e f f e c t i v e group work as e s t a b l i s h e d by S a u l B e r n s t e i n i n h i s a r t i c l e ,  1 " C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work".  1.  S a u l B e r n s t e i n — " C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work," Chapter i n  T,he P r a c t i c e o f Group Work. E d i t e d by Dorothea S u l l i v a n , e d i t o r A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York,  19^1.  127  C o n c e r n i n g group achievement,  he asks t h e f o l l o w i n g  questions: "Has t h e a r e a o f concern t o t h e members been e n l a r g e d ? " "Do s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s d e v e l o p so t h a t t h e y f i n d wider e x p r e s s i o n b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e agency?" "Has the  t h e group matured i n i t s sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  agency?" "Have t h e s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r o f t h e group been  f a v o r a b l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e agency?" "Have t h e p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e group based on n a t i o n a l i t y , f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and o t h e r t h i n g s been a l t e r e d o r improved by /the agency e x p e r i e n c e ? " None o f t h e s e c o u l d be g i v e n e i t h e r an e n t i r e l y a f f i r m a t i v e o r an e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e answer.  There has been  some s u c c e s s i n each a r e a , but t h e problems i n t h e way o f complete  s u c c e s s c o n t i n u e t o loom l a r g e .  As t o t h e f i r s t  one—  t h e h o r i z o n s o f t h e group have been widened t o a c e r t a i n extent.  When t h e y f i r s t came t o t h e agency, t h e group  members, e s p e c i a l l y t h e boys, p r e s e n t e d a s o l i d f r o n t a g a i n s t all  i n t r u d e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e worker, o t h e r groups and t h e  agency i t s e l f . trademark  They took what t h e y wanted and l e f t  o f d e s t r u c t i o n everywhere.  their  G r a d u a l l y , however, a s  t h e y came t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y were b e i n g a c c e p t e d b o t h as a group and as i n d i v i d u a l s i n s p i t e o f t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t s t o f o r c e an e v i c t i o n , t h e i r a t t i t u d e changed, and t h e resentment and d i s t r u s t so apparent a t f i r s t was r e p l a c e d by n e s s and even c o n f i d e n c e .  friendli-  The C r e s c e n t dance w h i c h came  123  t o w a r d t h e end o f the s e s s i o n showed c l e a r l y the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r approach.  Where once they would have done e v e r y t h i n g  i n t h e i r power t o annoy t h e worker and the v i s i t i n g group, on t h i s occasion they co-operated  to the extent of o f f e r i n g  t h e i r own r e c o r d s t o the c o m m i t t e e — a tremendous c o n c e s s i o n — and i n d i c a t e d i n o t h e r ways t h a t , they were d o i n g t h e i r b e s t t o behave.  On t h a t e v e n i n g , t o o , everyone who  crossed the  t h r e s h o l d o f the clubroom knew t h a t t h e members o f Club were the h o s t s .  57  They were proud o f t h e appearance of t h e  p l a c e , and p o i n t e d out i t s a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s e a g e r l y t o t h e v i s i t o r s , whose p r e m i s e s were more m a k e s h i f t .  By t h a t  t i m e , the y o u n g s t e r s were v e r y much a p a r t o f t h e agency, and a l t h o u g h t h e y were p o s s e s s i v e , t h e y were secure enough i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o be " o u t - g o i n g "  i n their relationship with a  r i v a l group, w i t h o u t any f e a r o f h a v i n g t h a t p o s i t i o n  usurped.  But w h i l e t h e agency i s more f a v o r a b l y s i t u a t e d now  in  t h e i r eyes, t h e gang's r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e s t o f the community i s much the same as i t was  when they were r e f e r r e d .  The  o u t b u r s t s o f v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r and v a n d a l i s m c o n t i n u e . c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the boys a r e s t i l l  s e r i o u s , and i f  a n y t h i n g more f r e q u e n t t h a n they were b e f o r e . p i c t u r e i s bad.  The  The  general  I n the l a r g e and complex problem o f t u r n i n g  t h e s e s o c i a l l y c r i p p l e d g i r l s and boys i n t o i n d i v i d u a l s  who  can operate e f f e c t i v e l y as a p a r t o f t h e community, t h e  new  r a p p o r t between them and the agency has e s t a b l i s h e d o n l y a small foothold. Regarding  the development o f s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s among  129  t h e group members, i t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e has been little  success.  However, i n t h e worker's o p i n i o n , t h e group  was n o t ready t o a c c e p t new a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d i n t h e agency*  When t h e y came, they were l o o k i n g f o r a  c l u b h o u s e , a p l a c e where t h e y c o u l d g e t t o g e t h e r and dance, l i s t e n t o r e c o r d s or j u s t f o o l around w i t h o u t b e i n g t o l d t o move a l o n g because t h e y were annoying t h e o t h e r  customers.  They d i d n o t want o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s : any a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e worker  t o b r i n g system i n t o t h e i r meetings  l o o k e d upon as e v i d e n c e s o f t h e a u t h o r i t y t h e y found where.  were else-  However, the two l a r g e dances which t h e y p l a n n e d and  c a r r i e d t h r o u g h were new e x p e r i e n c e s t o many o f them, s i n c e t h e i r u s u a l r o l e a t a dance was t h a t o f t h e unwelcome guest sneaking past the commissionaire.  It i sdifficult to  e s t i m a t e t h e v a l u e w h i c h t h e s e e v e n t s had f o r them. C e r t a i n l y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were t h e s p o n s o r i n g group was o f g r e a t importance t o them, and i n t h e i r own way, most o f them endeavored  t o do t h e i r d u t y .  But t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  was t o o g r e a t .  Had t h e dances been s u c c e s s f u l , t h e h i s t o r y  of t h e group's p r o g r e s s might have t a k e n a d i f f e r e n t  turn.  As i t was, t h e y seemed a l m o s t r e l i e v e d a f t e r t h e second failure,  t o r e t u r n t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e i r own clubroom and  t h e i r own s m a l l group. 'One o f t h e s t r o n g e s t d e t e r r e n t s t o e f f e c t i v e program p l a n n i n g was t h e e f f e c t t h a t o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s had upon t h e group members. the t h r i l l  N o t h i n g t h e y found i n t h e agency c o u l d equal  o f a c a r chase w i t h t h e p o l i c e , o r a l u s t y f i g h t  130 i n Chinatown, o r t h e enjoyment d e r i v e d from any o f t h e i r other questionable pastimes.  And whenever  anything  e x h i l a r a t i n g o c c u r r e d on Saturday n i g h t , t h e r e was an a f t e r math on Monday i n c l u b meetings w h i c h d i s r u p t e d any p l a n s t h e y might have i n a u g u r a t e d  completely  t h e p r e c e d i n g week.  D u r i n g t h e e n t i r e w i n t e r , t h e gang went from one peak o f excitement  t o another,  w i t h no t i m e i n between t o r e l a x and  get on w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s o f l i v i n g a normal l i f e . constant  This  s t a t e o f a g i t a t i o n , when c o u p l e d w i t h t h e i r  r e l u c t a n c e t o l o o k any f u r t h e r i n t o t h e f u t u r e t h a n t h e n e x t day, made l o n g range p l a n n i n g  impossible.  Then t o o , t h e u n s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e g i r l s and t h e boys i n t h e group was another f a c t which t h e development o f o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . have moved f a i r l y r a p i d l y .  hindered  A l o n e , t h e g i r l s might  T h e i r few meetings showed t h a t  t h e y had a normal t e e n - a g e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n such s u b j e c t s as beauty c u l t u r e , d r a m a t i c s  and m u s i c .  h e r e on which t o b u i l d a program.  There was something  But a t the b e g i n n i n g ,  their  e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e gang was a t i t s h e i g h t , and w i t h t h e i r u s u a l l a c k o f f o r e s i g h t , t h e y welcomed t h e i n r o a d upon t h e c l u b w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o t h e i r temporary w i t h d r a w a l t h e agency.  from  The worker, t o o , made t h e m i s t a k e o f assuming  t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r gang o f boys was  o f a permanent n a t u r e , and encouraged t h e move.  Subsequent e v e n t s p r o v e d t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o f f e r i n g e f f e c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e g i r l s would have been f a r g r e a t e r had t h e group f u n c t i o n e d as i t was o r i g i n a l l y o r g a n i z e d , w i t h t h e r a p i d l y changing boy f r i e n d s  appearing  131 o n l y at p a r t i e s or s p e c i a l events.  However, whether t h i s  would have been p o s s i b l e a t t h e o u t s e t , when they were BO deeply  i n v o l v e d w i t h each o t h e r , i s q u e s t i o n a b l e ; and  whether t h e g i r l s would have remained t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t t h e boys' presence—they  b e i n g t h e back-bone o f t h e g a n g — i s  e q u a l l y i n doubt. The t h i r d q u e s t i o n , w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e development o f t h e group'8 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y answered a l r e a d y . considerably.  t o t h e agency, has been  partly  I n t h i s a r e a , t h e group has advanced  At f i r s t they showed a complete d i s r e g a r d f o r  t h e c l u b ' s p r o p e r t y , and w e r e * d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s t r u c t i v e . made no attempt t o c o - o p e r a t e  They  i n any way, and a t t i m e s pushed  t h e p a t i e n c e o f t h e worker and t h e agency almost t o t h e breaking p o i n t w i t h t h e i r unpleasant  behaviour.  In addition  t o t h i s , they c o n s i d e r e d a n y t h i n g removable t o be f a i r game, and p o p u l a r r e c o r d s , w h i c h were h i g h on t h e i r p r i o r i t y l i s t , were s t o l e n w i t h amazing r e g u l a r i t y replaced.  as f a s t as t h e y were  T h i s a t t i t u d e underwent a change, however; as  t h e i r sense o f b e l o n g i n g t o t h e agency grew, t h e i r d e s i r e t o d e s t r o y or s t e a l i t s p r o p e r t y d i m i n i s h e d . t h a t such a c t i v i t i e s ceased a l t o g e t h e r .  T h i s does n o t mean At t h e l a s t dance  t h e damage was much g r e a t e r t h a n i t had ever been b e f o r e . But on t h a t o c c a s i o n , they d i d n o t commit t h e i r a c t s o f v a n d a l i s m w i t h t h e bravado and d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t w h i c h characterized their earlier efforts. incidental  The broken d o o r s were  t o a f i g h t brought on by t o o much d r i n k i n g , and  the f o l l o w i n g Monday, t h e combatants were most a p o l o g e t i c  132 and a n x i o u s t o make amends.  A f t e r t h a t dance t h e r e was no  f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y over k e e p i n g t h e clubroom t i d y .  At t h e i r  l a s t p a r t y , they took q u i t e s e r i o u s l y t h e j o b o f s e t t i n g the place i n order. S t e a l i n g , t o o , ceased e v e n t u a l l y t o be a p r o b l e m . one  occasion, j u s t before t h e club stopped, s e v e r a l  On  records  were t a k e n , but they were r e t u r n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g week w i t h t h e t e r s e e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e y had been borrowed.  The  w o r k e r ' s p u r s e was never t o u c h e d , a l t h o u g h d u r i n g t h e l a s t two months i t was l e f t i n t h e clubroom a l l t h e t i m e , whether she was p r e s e n t  or not.  As one o f t h e boys e x p l a i n e d t o  h e r , " I t wouldn't be r i g h t t o l i f t your p u r s e . " In p u t t i n g h i s question concerning behaviour,  Mr. B e r n s t e i n c o n s i d e r s  standards o f  important,  i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e group  as an experience,  e v i d e n c e s o f a m a t u r i n g s e x a t t i t u d e among t h e members o f t h e group. comment.  I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area, i t i s rather d i f f i c u l t t o The s e x a t t i t u d e s o f t h e group members were w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e they came t o t h e agency, and were so much a p a r t o f t h e i r background and environment t h a t i t was almost i m p o s s i b l e t o a l t e r them i n any way.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t h e sexes i n t h e gang was, as has been s t r e s s e d i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , t h a t o f t h e s u p e r i o r male t o t h e s u b s e r v i e n t female.  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was c o m p l i c a t e d  considerably,  however, by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g i r l s were promiscuous and f o r t h e most p a r t u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a n d a r d s o f f a i t h f u l n e s s w h i c h t h e boys r e q u i r e d o f them.  T r o u b l e was  133 i n e v i t a b l e and toward t h e c l o s e o f t h e s e s s i o n t h e punishment meted out by t h e boys t o t h e i r e r r i n g g i r l f r i e n d s was reaching serious proportions.  B o t h g i r l s and boys appeared  w i l l i n g t o a i r t h e i r problems o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the worker, but such d i s c u s s i o n s u s u a l l y descended i n t o arguments i n w h i c h each sex h o t l y defended i t s own s t a n d .  When she had an  o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r o a c h t h e s u b j e c t o f sex w i t h t h e g i r l s , t h e f e a r o f m i s t r e a t m e n t by t h e boys over-shadowed e l s e , and t h e b a s i c problem was l e f t  everything  untouched.  Mr. B e r n s t e i n comments t h a t most groups t e n d t o have p r e j u d i c e s based on n a t i o n a l i t y , f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and o t h e r factors.  The p r e j u d i c e s o f t h i s gang a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t  from t h o s e o f t h e average teen-age group.  Their p o s i t i o n i n  c o n f l i c t w i t h o r d i n a r y s o c i e t y g i v e s them a common bond, and t h e n a t i o n a l i t y or c o l o u r o f t h e i r members makes l i t t l e difference.  There was some exchange on t h e s u b j e c t o f  •bohunks' between t h e boys o f B r i t i s h and European e x t r a c t i o n , but t h i s was on a c h a f f i n g l e v e l and n o t t a k e n s e r i o u s l y by e i t h e r s i d e . ' The t h r e e members o f t h e gang  who  were o f mixed b l o o d were a c c e p t e d on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r s , and t h e i r f a m i l y background was never mentioned by t h e r e s t .  An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o t h e q u e s t i o n  o f c o l o u r came when Wilma and B a r b a r a , on t h e i r i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e worker, defended t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e t h e name o f a C h i n e s e g i r l on t h e i r l i s t o f p r o s p e c t i v e members.  They were a f r a i d t h a t t h e worker h e r s e l f might not  a c c e p t t h e g i r l — t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n o f t h e i r acceptance of her.  own  134 I n other areas, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  between p r e j u d i c e s and t h e d e f i a n t a t t i t u d e w h i c h t h e y d i s p l a y toward everyone who  crosses t h e i r path.  a p p r o a c h i n most t h i n g s i s n e g a t i v e — t h e y u s u a l l y f i n d the w o r s t . agency, p r e p a r e d  This experience  Their  look f o r  and  i n a group work  f o r a g g r e s s i v e and u n p l e a s a n t  behaviour,  has been v a l u a b l e i n t h a t i t gave them an o p p o r t u n i t y outwear t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s  to  and move a l o n g i n t o a  more a c c e p t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e agency and the worker. • D u r i n g the seven-month p e r i o d , a good r e l a t i o n s h i p has d e v e l o p e d between the group members and the w o r k e r .  It is  more advanced w i t h some t h a n w i t h others,' but w i t h a l l of them i t i s easy and f r i e n d l y .  The g i r l s were q u i t e  a p p r o a c h a b l e from t h e f i r s t , and the boys, a f t e r showing c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i d e n c e f o r a t i m e , seemed e v e n t u a l l y t o l o o k upon her as a n e c e s s a r y  p a r t o f the c l u b .  The worker  has  moved s l o w l y i n o f f e r i n g p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l t o t h e c l u b members. F o l l o w i n g the u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o r e f e r D o r i s and r e s u l t a n t removal from the c l u b , she c o n c e n t r a t e d  her  her  e f f o r t s on b u i l d i n g as s o l i d a r e l a t i o n s h i p as p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e gang as a whole,- h o p i n g i n t h e next s e s s i o n t o move i n t o a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t y p e o f work. The has been. although  f u t u r e o f t h e c l u b i s as u n p r e d i c t a b l e as i t s p a s t I t d i d not o p e r a t e d u r i n g the summer o f f i c i a l l y , i t was  p o s s i b l e f o r the members t o drop i n at  t i m e i f they w i s h e d t o do so.  Almost every week a few  them appeared, but the -fact t h a t t h e i r own  room was  not  any of  135 a v a i l a b l e discouraged t h i s p r a c t i c e t o a c e r t a i n extent* As a p o s t s c r i p t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t b o t h g i r l s and boys have r e t u r n e d t o t h e agency t h i s  fall.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between them have not improved, but as a compromise, s i n c e both groups f e e l t h a t t h e y b e l o n g i n t h e agency, t h e y have d e c i d e d t o e n l a r g e i n c l u d e the c u r r e n t f r i e n d s o f each.  t h e i r membership t o  136  DELINQUENCY AS A COMMUNITY PROBLEM  CHAPTER V I I  The problem o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t and h i s gang i s n o t , a s must have been apparent i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , one that, can be d e a l t w i t h b y any s i n g l e agency.  Rehabilitation  of  youngsters o f t h i s type i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t o t a l community - s o c i a l w o r k e r s , p o l i c e m e n , t e a c h e r s , e m p l o y e r s , c a f e owners, and a l l t h e o t h e r p e o p l e whom t h e y meet i n t h e i r day.  The s o c i e t y w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e i n c o n f l i c t must be  r e a d y t o a c c e p t them, must be w i l l i n g t o ©o-operate w i t h t h e s o c i a l f o r c e s i n t h e community, whose j o b i t i s t o p r e p a r e t h e way  f o r t h e i r r e t u r n , b e f o r e any w i d e - s p r e a d r e s u l t s c a n be  expected.  T h i s means, o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e r e i s a tremen-  dous t a s k b e f o r e u s . One  o f t h e m a j o r o b s t a c l e s i n t h e way o f any r e a l  p r o g r e s s w i t h gangs such as t h i s i s t h e c u m u l a t i v e t h e i r b e h a v i o u r h a s upon t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e community.  I ti s a vicious  circle.  effect  w i t h the r e s t o f  The y o u n g s t e r s  l o o k upon everyone t h e y meet a s a p o t e n t i a l  enemy a n d  s t r i k e o u t b l i n d l y w i t h o u t w a i t i n g o r w a n t i n g t o see f i r s t what t h e i r r e c e p t i o n m i g h t b e . I n a s o c i a l agency, t h i s d i f f i c u l t b e h a v i o u r i s a c c e p t e d a s symptomatic  and does  not a c t a s a b a r r i e r t o t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . But t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c who see n o t h i n g b u t t h e i r a c t s o f  137  v a n d a l i s m and a r e c o n t i n u a l l y annoyed and I n c o n v e n i e n c e d by t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n s , c l a s s i f y them a s hoodlums and demand t h a t s t r o n g e r c o n t r o l s be e x e r c i s e d .  With  each f r e s h o u t b u r s t t h e gangs a r e pushed f u r t h e r away f r o m s o c i e t y and a s t h i s happens, resentment defiance.  grows and w i t h i t ,  Few p e o p l e have a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o know t h e gang  members a s i n d i v i d u a l s - t h e i r n u i s a n c e v a l u e f a r o u t weighs any o f t h e i r more a t t r a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and i n many c a s e s t h o s e who o r i g i n a l l y t a k e a t o l e r a n t v i e w o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n a f t e r , s e v e r a l dee  l i b e r a t e r e b u f f s t h a t what t h e y need i s a few months i m det e n t i o n where t h e y w o u l d l e a r n t o behave. I n o t h e r ways, t o o , t h e y manage t o annoy everyone whom t h e y come i n c o n t a c t *  with  I n t h e i r homes, a s l o n g a s t h i n g s  a r e r u n n i n g smoothly t h e y a r e l e f t t o t h e m s e l v e s , b u t when t h e y g e t i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h p o l i c e o r because t h e y need money, t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y become a source o f , i r r i t a t i o n t o t h e i r parents. A t work t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e l y ^independable.  They a c c e p t  j o b s w i t h g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m , s u r e each t i m e t h a t t h e y have found t h e i r n i c h e . *A few days l a t e r t h e y a r e coming I n l a t e and by t h e end o f a week o r two t h e y a r e l i v i n g on t h e i r f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y a g a i n and on t h e t r a i l o f something new* However good t h e o p p o r t u n i t y may b e , i t s advantages a r e o v e r r u l e d b y a d e s i r e t o s t a y i n bed o r t a k e an e x t r a day on t h e week-end.  They w i l l n o t a c c e p t d i s c i p l i n e f r o m t h e i r em-  p l o y e r s a n d a reprimand i s o f t e n f o l l o w e d by an absence o f  136  s e v e r a l days, w h i c h n a t u r a l l y l e a d s t o d i s m i s s a l . The school.  same b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n i s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d i n Truancy i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s e a s e a n d many o f  them w a i t o n l y f o r t h e i r f i f t e e n t h b i r t h d a y t o l e a v e . I f i t comes i n t h e m i d d l e o f a term t h e y q u i t anyway, showing no i n t e r e s t i n f i n i s h i n g t h e s c h o o l term.  The boys a r e  o f t e n s p o r t s minded a n d c a r r y o n w i t h t h e i r s o h o o l rugby and f o o t b a l l a n d v e r y l i t t l e e l s e u n t i l t h e y a r e a s k e d t o leave.  When t h e y m e n t i o n s c h o o l , t h e i r s t o c k p h r a s e i s  n o t . 'When I f i n i s h e d such and such a g r a d e * , b u t 'When I was e x p e l l e d * . I n c a f e s , t h e a t r e s , dance h a l l s and o t h e r p l a c e s o f commercial r e c r e a t i o n , t h e i r f i g h t i n g t e n d e n c i e s , n o i s y , a t t e n t i o n a t t r a c t i n g speech and h o r s e p l a y make them im?-' mediate o b j e c t s o f d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n .  I n many p l a c e s ,  h i g h e r c o v e r c h a r g e s , bouncers and o t h e r d e v i c e s a r e u s e d to discourage t h e i r attendance.  I t they are allowed t o  p a t r o n i z e a n e a t i n g spot o r dance h a l l , i t i s w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e p r o p r i e t o r - a r e s e r v a t i o n w h i c h i s u s u a l l y w e l l - f o u n d e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r subsequent a c t i o n s .  Consequently,  t h e o n l y p l a c e s where t h e y  oan r e a l l y f e e l a t home and welcome a r e t h o s e where urnc o n t r o l l e d behaviour i s an accepted part o f the n i g h t * s e n t e r t a i n m e n t and where t h e y i n e v i t a b l y meet t h e o l d e r c r i m i n a l t y p e s , whose s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r s a r e t o be e n v i e d and i f p o s s i b l e emulated. Some means o f e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c t o t h e p r o b l e m s and *  139  needs o f t h e s e gangs must toe found.  They a r e an a n n o y i n g ,  d i s r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the community, i t i s t r u e , and o f t e n i n n o c e n t p e o p l e have t o resort t o f o r c e a s a means o f s e l f protection against t h e i r lawless a c t i v i t i e s .  Nevertheless,  t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f e r e d t o the y o u n g s t e r s and i n t o o many cases t h e annoyance w h i c h t h e y cause l e a d s to  r e t a l i a t i o n i n k i n d when a more t o l e r a n t approach  p r o v e more e f f e c t i v e .  might  I f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t o p r o -  t e c t t h e i r p r o p e r t y and p e r s o n s , i t would behoove t h e c i t i z e n s o f Vancouver  t o l o o k upon t h e d e l i n q u e n t gangs i n  t h e i r m i d s t as s o c i a l c r i p p l e s r a t h e r t h a n as hoodlums. However, a more open minded a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f the p u b l i c c o u l d not p o s s i b l y r e p a i r t h e damage t h a t a decade and a h a l f o f r e j e c t i o n and d e p r i v a t i o n has to' t h e s e y o u n g s t e r s .  caused  T h e i r c o n d i t i o n i s s e r i o u s and as y e t  no c u r e has been d e v i s e d w h i c h has p r o v e n c o m p l e t e l y e f fective.  I n t h e group work s i t u a t i o n , t h e p o o r b e h a v i o u r  p a t t e r n s w h i c h came t o l i g h t d u r i n g a seven month p e r i o d are  l e f t a l m o s t untouched.  The i n s t a b i l i t y o f r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s , t h e f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s , t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e f u s a l t o l o o k o r p l a n ahead r e m a i n .  An e x c i t i n g e x i s t e n c e  as p a r t o f a s t r e e t c o r n e r s o c i e t y i s a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g t o combat w i t h t h e f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e average group work agency.  R e - e d u c a t i o n o f y o u n g s t e r s whose way  of  l i v i n g has d e v e l o p e d f o r so l o n g i n t h e wrong d i r e c t i o n i s a c o m p l i c a t e d p r o j e c t t h a t c a l l s f o r a tremendous amount o f t r a i n i n g , s k i l l and  insight.  1*0  I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , i t must be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t Vancouver i s n o t g e a r e d t o h a n d l e t h e d e l i n q u e n t gangs oper a t i n g throughout t h e c i t y a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .  Many o f  t h e gang members l o o k upon e x i s t i n g s o c i a l a g e n o i e s w i t h g r e a t m i s t r u s t , a s t h r e a t s t o t h e i r independence.  In a  number o f c a s e s t h e i r o n l y c o n t a c t w i t h s u c h a g e n c i e s h a s been a s a p a r t o f a f a m i l y r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and t h a t d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n , when t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e l i e f funds t o o k precedence o v e r case work.  B u t from  f r i e n d s who came under the w i n g o f some o f t h e s o c i e t i e s , t h e y have a c q u i r e d some q u i t e f a n t a s t i c s t o r i e s o f m i s t r e a t m e n t and r i g i d d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h make r e f e r r a l a t h i n g t o be a v o i d e d a t a l l  cost.  Them t o o , t h e a g e n c i e s t o w h i c h t h e y c o u l d be r e f e r r e d would have t o be c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i e t i e s .  The d i f -  f i c u l t y t h e r e i s t h a t w h i l e t h e y a r e c h i l d r e n i n a g e , youngs t e r s o f t h i s t y p e a r e t o o o l d i n o t h e r ways t o be c l a s s i f i e d a s such.  T h e i r problems, w h i c h have been d e v e l o p i n g  unchecked o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x t e e n , s e v e n t e e n o r e i g h t e e n years, r e q u i r e i n t e n s i v e , p s y c h i a t r i c treatment o f a type not a v a i l a b l e here.  There i s a need i n t h e c i t y f o r some  s o r t o f y o u t h s e r v i n g case work agency w h i c h would spec i a l i z e i n t h e problems o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t and would n o t c a r r y i n i t s name t h e s t i g m a o f t h e word * c h i l d r e n * • That t h e gang c o n t a c t w i t h t h e group work agenoy r e corded i n t h i s t h e s i s was h o p e l e s s l y i n a d e q u a t e was ap p a r e n t on many d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e s s i o n . 4  l4l  W i t h a membership i n t h e gang o f o v e r t h i r t y and an average a t t e n d a n c e o f from s i x t e e n t o t w e n t y , t h e amount o f a t t e n t i o n t h e w o r k e r c o u l d g i v e t o any i n d i v i d u a l was l i m i t e d . The  need f o r a much b r o a d e r s o r t o f t r e a t m e n t w h i c h w o u l d  i n c l u d e i n t e n s i v e work w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l members and t h e i r f a m i l i e s was o b v i o u s a t e v e r y t u r n .  The c o n t a c t d i  show however, t h e v a l u e o f a group e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s s o r t as a p a r t o f a n o v e r - a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. Probably the greatest  c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e group work agency c a n  make t o t h e gang and i t s members i s t o a c t a s a l i a i s o n , o r a s a t r a i n i n g ground i n w h i c h t h e y c a n l e a r n t o l i v e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o g e t h e r and w i t h t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y .  142  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS  A i c h o r n , August, Wayward Y o u t h . New Y o r k , The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1945. B r e c k e n r i g g e , S o p h i a , and A b b o t t , E d i t h , The D e l i n q u e n t C h i l d and t h e Home. New Y o r k , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1921. B e r n s t e i n , S a u l , " C r i t e r i a f o r Group Work", C h a p t e r i n The P r a c t i c e o f Group Work. Dorothea S u l l i v a n , e d i t o r , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1941. B u r t , C y r i l , L., The Young D e l i n q u e n t . London. U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1944. -  G l u e c k , S h e l d o n , and G l u e c k , E l e a n o r , One Thousand J u v e n i l e D e l i n g u e n t s . Cambridge, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. H e a l y , W i l l i a m , The I n d i v i d u a l D e l i n q u e n t . B o s t o n , L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1922. H e a l y , W i l l i a m and B r o n n e r , A u g u s t a , D e l i n q u e n t s a n d C r i m i n a l s ; T h e i r M a k i n g and Unmaking. New Y o r k , M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co:., 1926. H e a l y , W i l l i a m , and B r o n n e r , A u g u s t a . New L i g h t on D e l i n q u e n c y and i t s Treatment. New Haven P u b l i c a t i o n f o r t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Human R e l a t i o n s , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939. H e a l y , W i l l i a m , Bronner, A u g u s t a ; B a y l o r , M. H.; Murphy, P r e n t i c e , Reconstructing Behavior i n Youth. A. A. Knopf,. 1931. Shaw, C l i f f o r d , The J a c k R o l l e r . C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1938. Shaw, C l i f f o r d ; Zorbaugh, F r e d e r i c k ; Mackay, Henry; C o t t r e l l , Leanard, Delinquency Areas. Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1929. S l a v s o n , Samuel, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Group Therapy. New Y o r k , The Commonwealth Fund, 1943.  143  Tannenbaum, F r a n k , Crime and the Community, B o s t o n , Ginn and Co., 1938. T h u r s t o n , Henry, C o n c e r n i n g J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n o y . New Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942. T h r a s h e r , F. M.,  York,  The Gang. C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1926.  PERIODICALS  Linderman, Wanda , "An Experiment i n Case Work-Group Work G o - o p e r a t i o n " , The Group. Volume 7, November, 1945. ;  M o y l e , H. B., "Some P s y c h i a t r i c Comments on Group Work", The Group. Volume 8, J a n u a r y , 1946. S c h e i d l i n g e r , S a u l , " P a t t e r n s o f Case Work S e r v i c e s I n Group Work A g e n c i e s " , The Group. Volume 7, November, 1945. Schuytema, Guy, "The War, the F a m i l y Group, and S o c i a l A g e n c i e s " , The Group. Volume 7, June, 1945. Sack, H a r r y , S., " L e a d e r s h i p a n d - A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o r " , The Group. Volume 7, June, 1945. M c C l e a r y , R. D.,  "Group Work w i t h D e l i n q u e n t s " , The Group. Volume 7, June, 1946.  

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