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A study of the social adjustment of Baltic newcomers in British Columbia and an evaluation of the methods… Foster, Helen Grace 1950

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A STUDY GF THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF BALTIC NEWCOMERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND AN EVALUATION OF THE METHODS AND TECHNIQUES USED  by Helen Grace Foster  A Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1950  A STUDY OF THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF BALTIC NEWCOMERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND AN EVALUATION OF THE METHODS AND TECHNIQUES USED The purpose of this study i s to discover what the newcomers from the Baltic countries consider to be some of the more important situations to which they have to adjust i n becoming settled i n Canada, their feelings and attitudes i n this regard, and some of the ways i n which the adjustment has been made. In this connection "newcomer" refers to displaced persons and refugees who arrived i n Canada after World War II. In the course of this investigation various methods and techniques were tried. These included testing, the use of biograms, interviews, systematic f i e l d observations and a questionnaire. Sociometric methods, experiments and l i f e histories vrere considered but not used due principally to the relatively small number of newcomers i n the area under study and the need to maintain anonymity i n order to establish rapport. These methods and techniques might be useful i n studying the social adjustment of newcomers i n larger areas having a larger newcomer population. Of the methods tried, interviews, systematic f i e l d observations and questionnaire replies proved most useful. No one method i n i t s e l f was sufficient, but the combination seemed to yield adequate data for the study of the newcomers' problems. Interviews and f i e l d observations were carried out concurrently throughout the period of investigation. The questionnaire was used towards the end of the study, after rapport had been established, and was based on the data obtained through the use of interviews and f i e l d observations. It was administered to 62 newcomers from the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The replies were useful i n determining the relative significance of problems which had been discovered through the use of the other methods. Some of the tension-situations to which the newcomers had to adjust arose out of difficulties encountered i n understanding the Canadian culture and difficulties i n connection with interpreting their own culture to Canadians. Since assimilation i s a two-way process, the solving of the problem of interpreting their culture to Canadians encouraged the newcomers to endeavor to understand Canadian culture better. Out of 57 newcomers who replied to the question about wanting to interpret their culture to Canadians, £2 replied i n the affirmative. However, when asked what opportunities they had, the replies were, "none", or "very l i t t l e " . Due to this study being made, the newcomers came to the attention of the Canadian Folk Society and were invited to take part i n the Folk Festival, thus relieving i n part the tension i n this regard. Participation i n the planning and program of the Festival resulted i n greater interest, on the part of the newcomers, i n Canadian citizenship. The two problems which seemed most formidable, however, were those arising out of the Russian occupation of their homeland, which resulted in the deportation of friends and relatives; and the separation of families due to the preference given to single adults under the Canadian immigration policy and i t s administration. Before any general conclusions can be drawn, however, concerning the social adjustment of the newcomers, i t would be necessary to conduct the study on a much larger scale than that used i n the present investigation. Further, i t would be necessary to consider the viewpoint of Canadians as well as the newcomers before a f i n a l evaluation can be made.  PREFACE My indebtedness to the newcomers i n connection with this study i s very great and cannot be entirely acknowledged. However, I would like to express my sincere thanks to those who lent or gave me books, and to those who helped with translations. Special mention must be made of the kind assistance of the late Professor J. Raymond of the Department of Slavonic Studies of the University of British Columbia. Professor Raymond was himself a Lithuanian and a close friend of the newcomers. It was through his introductions that I was able to contact the Lithuanian newcomers. Professor E . Leimanis of the Department of Mathematics kindly made available to me his books about Latvia. Pastor and Mrs. J. Benson and Miss J. R. Finden, through their introductions to newcomers at the Lutheran Hostess House and their interpretation of the study to them, assisted immeasurably i n i t s success. Because of their concern for the welfare of the newcomers they were keenly interested i n this research. Their steadfast and kindly support is deeply appreciated. I would also like to express my appreciation to the Victoria Branch of the University Women's Club for their loan which made i t possible to complete this research. The interest of the Club members i n this study was most encouraging. To Dr. W. G. Black, my Faculty advisor, who gave generously of his already crowded time, I am grateful for his careful criticism and encouraging counsel. I would also l i k e to thank Mr. E . 3 . W. Belyea for his discriminating evaluation of the data obtained i n this study.  H. G. F.  T A B L E . O F CONTENTS  Page PREFACE  1 1  LIST OF TABLES  v  CHAPTER I  THE PROBLEM AND THE PROCEDURE  1  The problem  1  Procedures-;used and presentation of conclusions  6  II .A DISCUSSION OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES  9  Studies of immigrant assimilation i n Canada 9 Studies of the social adjustment of Displaced . Persons 10 Methods and techniques tried or considered but not used. 11 Methods considered but not tried 11 Life histories 11 Sociometric 13 Experimental ll). Methods tried but not useful 15 Biograms • • 15 Testing 16 Methods tried and found useful 18 Interviews 18 Systematic Fieid Observations 19 Questionnaire 21 Conclusions about methods and techniques i n the study of the social adjustment of newcomers 22 III INTERVIEWS .... 2U Use of interviews i n the present study 21+ Forms of the interview used 25 Conducting the interviews 26 Illustrations of the use of the interviews 29 Conclusions concerning the social adjustment of the Baltic Newcomers, based on interviews 31 Evaluation of the interview as used i n this study.... 37 IV FIELD OBSERVATIONS 39 Use of systematic field observation i n the present study 39 Types of f i e l d observation used 39 Illustrations of the use of field observations I4.I Conclusions concerning the social adjustment of Baltic Newcomers, based on f i e l d observations ]\6 Evaluation of the f i e l d observation as used i n this study 1$ 1XX  Chapter V  P a  VII VIII  e  k9  QUESTIONNAIRES Use of the questionnaire i n the present study Construction of the questionnaire Methods of presenting the questionnaire to the subjects. Conclusions concerning the social adjustment of the Baltic Newcomers, based on replies to the questionnaire Evaluation of the questionnaire as used i n this study  VI  S  h9 51 58 63 81  SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING METHODS  83  SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE BALTIC NEWCOMERS  89  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH CONCERNING THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF NEWCOMERS  98  BIBLIOGRAPHY  102  APPENDIX  115  A Questionnaire Form , B Biogram Form C Canadian Immigration Policy and i t s Administration with respect to the Displaced Persons D Cultural History of the Baltic Peoples E Situation of Latvian D.P.Families i n the Present Resettlement Action F Problems of the Baltic Newcomers G The International Problem of Resettlement of the . Displaced Persons....  iv  115 117 118 122 128 I32 I36  LIST OF TABLES  Table I  II III IV V  VI  P a  S  e  Proportion of Baltic Newcomers Who .Answered the Questionnaire to Probable Total Baltic Newcomer Population i n Greater Vancouver...................  60  Age Distribution by Sex of 61 Baltic Newcomers Who- Replied to the Questionnaire i n the Present Study.  61  Number of Months Each of 60 Baltic .Newcomers Replyingto the Questionnaire Have Been i n Canada  62  The Choice of Plan for Resettling People i n Canada Favored by 50 Baltic Newcomers.  61+  The Choice of Plan for Admitting Immigrants on the Basis of .Three Broad Occupation Categories, .. Favored by 53 Baltic Newcomers  66  Distribution of Rankings .Ascribed .by $L Newcomers to their Present Jobs i n Terms of Prestige i n their Native Baltic Countries • .  70  Distribution of Choices of 57 Baltic Newcomers Concerning the Place i n Canada They Would Prefer to Live and Reasons for Their .Choice......  72  Distribution Showing the Location of the Families of k$ Baltic Newcomers.  73  Number of Food and Clothing Parcels Sent by Baltic Newcomers to Friends and Relatives i n D.P. Camps and How Often.They Were Sent  7k  X Distribution of Rankings on Friendliness of Canadians Made by 62 Baltic Newcomers...  76  VII  VIII IX  XI  Entertainments Preferred by 62 Baltic Newcomers  v  79  A STUDY OF THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF BALTIC NEWCOMERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND AN EVALUATION OF THE METHODS AND TECHNIQUES USED  CHAPTER  I  THE PROBLEM AND THE PROCEDURE  A.  The Problem The purpose of t h i s study i s to discover what the newcomers  from the B a l t i c countries consider to be some of the more important situations to which they have to adjust i n becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada, t h e i r feelings and attitudes i n t h i s regard, and some of the ways i n which the adjustment has been made.  This process of adjustment could  be analyzed from either the viewpoint o f the receiving society, the people l i v i n g i n Canada i n t h i s instance, or from the viewpoint of the incoming people, the newcomers themselves.  To obtain the most complete  information about the process of adjustment, both points of view might be used.  However i n the present study the approach used was that o f  asking the newcomers themselves about t h e i r problems of becoming establ i s h e d i n Canada.  In some ways t h i s approach i s analogous t o that of a  doctor asking a patient, "Where do you f e e l the pain?".  In l i k e manner  the displaced persons and refugees from the B a l t i c countries were asked, "What are your major s o c i a l problems?  Where do you most strongly f e e l  the p a i n of s o c i a l adjustment to a new culture?"  This information was  sought because i t might prove useful i n l o c a t i n g the cause of the trouble and a i d i n the s e l e c t i o n of treatment.  Further, i t might add to the  general body of theory about the causes of s o c i a l tension.  True, the  answers are not always d i r e c t l y connected with the root of the trouble, just as i n the case of the patient.  They are nonetheless useful i n that  they s t a r t and help to d i r e c t inquiry, and the connection may prove to be very d i r e c t .  2  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t many p e r s o n s i n Canada know a g r e a t d e a l about t h e problems o f the newcomers and how t h e y are a d j u s t i n g t o l i f e i n Canada.  F o r example, employers o f newcomers, w o r k e r s i n v o l u n t a r y  o r g a n i z a t i o n s such a s t h e Y.W.C.A. and c h u r c h groups, and government o f f i c i a l s i n t h e N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e a g r e a t deal of valuable information i n t h i s regard.  Obtaining t h i s  information  i s , however, a s t u d y i n i t s e l f and has not been attempted i n the investigation.  present  I n s t e a d t h i s s t u d y has been c o n f i n e d t o i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m  t h e newcomers themselves c o n c e r n i n g  t h e i r s o c i a l adjustment.  I n t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y i n g t h e s o c i a l adjustment o f the newcomers, v a r i o u s methods and t e c h n i q u e s  Baltic  o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h were used  t o f i n d out w h i c h c o m b i n a t i o n o f methods w o u l d l i k e l y be most u s e f u l i n similar studies.  An attempt i s made t o e v a l u a t e t h e u s e f u l n e s s , i n t h e  p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o f t h e methods t r i e d . B.  Reasons f o r S e l e c t i n g the B a l t i c Newcomers The d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s and refugees  E s t o n i a , L a t v i a and L i t h u a n i a —  from the B a l t i c c o u n t r i e s  —  have been d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y as a  s i n g l e u n i t a l t h o u g h t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h r e e q u i t e d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s . (See i  Appendix, pp.122-27* ) The m a i n r e a s o n f o r d o i n g t h i s i s t h a t t h e r e seems t o be emerging among t h e B a l t i c newcomers i n t h e a r e a s t u d i e d , a n awareness o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l - g e o g r a p h i c a l u n i t , t h e B a l t i c p e o p l e s and countries.  T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t made b y a mem-  b e r o f the e x e c u t i v e o f t h e L i t h u a n i a n A s s o c i a t i o n .  (See Appendix,  P. 132 ): "Many t i m e s f a t e has g i v e n Us ( t h e B a l t i c S t a t e s ) t h e same burden; many t i m e s f a t e has g i v e n us a common d e s t i n y — t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e v e n t s o f good f o r t u n e and m i s f o r t u n e , i n days o f j o y and terror. T h i s f a c t i s u n d e r l i n e d b y bonds o f geography and p o l i c y " .  3  Similarly, the president of one of the Baltic Associations said: "We three countries have different origins, languages and cultures, but we are small i n number here and Canadians speak of us as the Baltic States, the Baltic people. It is better this way — the Baltic people." Secondly, there seems to be a basic similarity i n the situations to which the newcomers from the Baltic countries have to adjust. For instance, education was highly valued i n a l l three countries but high educational qualifications seemed to deter their selection by Canada and other countries.  In this connection, the Deputy Director, Public Inform-  ation, for the International Refugee Organization, states that, "As far as professional people are concerned their resettlement i s very unsatisfactory and i t can be stated that, to this day, (March 1, l°ij-9) the "embargo on brains" i s by no means being l i f t e d .  (See Appendix, p. 136)  The people of the Baltic countries won their educational opportunities after centuries of struggle against foreign conquerors and thus value them highly.  An indication of the high value placed on education was  the tremendous expansion i n educational programmes during the period of freedom in the Baltic countries, between World War I and World War II. (See Appendix, p. 125)  This seeming preference on the part of Western  countries for relatively unskilled immigrants rather than highly educated persons, i s a situation to which the Baltic newcomers must adjust, regardless of whether they come-from Latvia, Lithuania or Estonia. While the situations to which the Baltic newcomers have to adjust seem similar, i t does not follow that the adjustment w i l l necessari l y be similar.  Although i n the course of this study many similarities  were evident, there were also some differences noted.  The numbers from  each of the Baltic countries studied were not sufficiently large to enable any conclusions about the significance of the differences i n  h  in adjustment.  However, there is some suggestion of basic personality  differences between the three cultural groups, which would have a bearing upon their adjustment to the various social situations considered. For example, the Estonians seem to be more ruggedly independent than either the Latvians or Lithuanians. A third reason for selecting the Baltic newcomers was that the investigator had already made a considerable study of the cultural history of the Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians.  In doing a study  of a cultural group, a knowledge of their cultural history is: l i k e l y to prove indispensable i n understanding their adjustment to d i f f i c u l t social situations.  Just as the c l i n i c a l psychologist needs to know something  about the cultural environment i n which his client was raised, as well as the events leading up to the client's present adjustment to d i f f i c u l t situations, to the social psychologist, i n studying cultural groups, needs to know the cultural background of the group studied. Thus, since the newcomers themselves refer to their common problems and destiny "underlined by bonds of geography and policy", since many of the situations to which they have to adjust seem similar, and since the investigator had considerable knowledge of their cultural history, against which present adjustment could be analyzed, the Baltic newcomers were chosen as subjects for this study. C.  Explanations of the Use of Some Terms 1.  "Newcomer" "Newcomer" is a term used by staffs i n voluntary organizations  such as the Y.W.C.A., the Y.M.C.A., and church groups, and some government officials to designate European immigrants who have  5  arrived i n Canada since the end of World War II.  Thus the term  "newcomer" includes "refugees" and "displaced persons" as defined below.  For the purpose of the present study no distinction i s made  between "refugees" and "displaced persons" and the inclusive term "newcomer" i s used. 2.  "Displaced Person" The term "displaced person" i s used as defined by the Inter-  national Refugee Organization ( 21, p.806 ), "displaced person i s intended to apply to an individual who has been deported from his country of nationality or of former habitual residence to undertake forced labor, or has been deported for racial, religious or p o l i t i c a l reasons". 3.  "Refugee" The term "refugee" i s used as defined by the International  Refugee Organization ( 21, p.806), and i s thus "intended to apply to a person who has l e f t or who i s outside of his country of nationality, or of former habitual residence, and who i s a victim of the Nazi, fascist or folangist regimes, or who was considered a refugee before the outbreak of the Second "World War, for reasons of race, religion, nationality or p o l i t i c a l opinion". k.  "Social Adjustment" The term "assimilation" or the currently more popular "integra-  tion" i s not used i n the study because generally speaking changes i n ideational and action patterns are relatively slow, and l i k e l y to take longer than the period during which the present investigation was made. Assimilation, according to Katz and Schanck (11,1^1 ) i s  6 the term used "when the effect of social interaction i s the exchange of ideational and action patterns".  Thus the term "social adjust-  ment", i s used i n this study to describe the more immediate reactions of the newcomers to situations as they find them i n Canada. The term "adjustment" has been variously defined by authors using i t .  Eaton (  p.75 ) for instance, considers some of the ways  in which the term has been used.  In the present study "social  adjustment" i s used to cover the whole range of attitudinal, emotional and overt changes which are mentioned by the newcomers as ways i n which they have tried to solve their problems, or ways i n which they have tried to adjust to situations as they have found them in Canada. The situations considered are social i n that they involve inter-relationships with Canadians, fellow newcomers and kinfolk who have been i n Canada for some time.  Since this study i s  i n the f i e l d of social psychology the emphasis i s placed upon the general ways adjustment i s made to the various social situations. For example, 52 out of 57 newcomers said that they wanted to interpret their culture to Canadians.  (Chapter V, p. 80 )  The emphasis  is placed upon the expressed f e l t need of the 52 rather than the preference of the 5 not to interpret their culture to Canadians. Further, consideration i s given to how this need was somewhat satisfied for the majority of the newcomers. D.  The Procedures Used and Presentation of Conclusions During this investigation various methods and techniques were  tried or considered and not used.  These are dealt with i n Chapter II.  On the whole, interviews, f i e l d observations and questionnaire replies were most useful.  A f u l l description of the use of these methods and  7  conclusions about the social^ adjustment of the newcomers based upon data obtained thereby is given i n Chapters III, IV and V respectively. In the course of the study, interviews and f i e l d observations were used concurrently throughout the whole period.  A questionnaire was used  towards the end of the research period to determine the relative significance of the newcomers' problems and solutions of them.  This  questionnaire was based on data obtained through the use of the interviews and f i e l d observations. The conclusions concerning the social adjustment of the Baltic newcomers were the result of a combination of methods rather than any one particular method.  However, they have been considered  -first i n connection with that method which seemed to e l i c i t the most information about the newcomers' social adjustment i n any particular instance.  For instance, through interviews i t was found that new-  comers '• f e l t an injustice was being committed by the Canadian people through their Government i n giving preference to the immigration of single persons rather than family groups.  This attitude was discussed,  then, i n connection with the interview method.  These conclusions were  later brought together i n a summary chapter, Chapter VII. A summary of conclusions concerning the usefulness of the various methods and techniques tried i n the course of this investigation has been presented i n Chapter VI.  It would seem that no one  method or technique i s l i k e l y to be adequate to study the social adjustment of newcomers, but rather that a combination of methods and techniques i s necessary.  The actual combination w i l l l i k e l y vary for  different groups studied, and w i l l be determined to a considerable extent by the particular characteristics of those groups.  8  This i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been i n the nature of a p i l o t study. Since there have been r e l a t i v e l y few studies of immigrant  assimilation  i n Canada, (see Chapter I I , p. 9), and fewer of the a s s i m i l a t i o n problems of the newcomers who have a r r i v e d since World War I I , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has dealt with the broad pattern of s o c i a l adjustment, rather than dealing with any segmented aspect of i t .  On the basis of t h i s study c e r t a i n  hypotheses as to the psychological bases f o r the s o c i a l adjustment of the B a l t i c newcomers have been suggested. test their validity.  Subsequent studies are needed to  The numbers of B a l t i c newcomers i n the area where  the study was made were too few to enable a s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these hypotheses.  Suggestions f o r further research,  a r i s i n g out of t h i s study have been discussed i n Chapter  VI1T.  CHAPTER I I A DISCUSSION OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES TRIED OR CONSIDERED BUT NOT USED  A.  Studies of faimigrant Assimilation i n Canada On the whole there have been r e l a t i v e l y few studies made i n  Canada of immigrant a s s i m i l a t i o n .  The majority of these studies have  been i n the f i e l d s of economics, p o l i t i c a l science and h i s t o r y .  There  have been a few studies i n sociology which give some consideration to the psychological aspects of adjusting to a new  culture.  For instance,  The P r a i r i e Settlement Studies by Dawson (£, 6) and Ycunge (6) are sociol o g i c a l investigations made a f t e r the immigrants had been i n Canada a considerable number of years and thus could not take i n t o adequate account the psychological costs of adjusting to a new  culture.  In many instances  the ethnic groups investigated, such as the Mennonites, have not adjusted to Canadian ways but have retained t h e i r Old Yforld customs.  To t h i s  extent they are perhaps not subjected to the psychological tensions experienced  by immigrants who  do t r y to adapt to l i f e i n Canada.  This  l i m i t s the usefulness of these studies i n understanding the tensions to which the newcomers are subjected.  These studies were nonetheless  useful i n the present study i n that the research indicated useful methods.  F i e l d work included the use of interviews, f i e l d observa-  tions and the obtaining of l i f e h i s t o r i e s of immigrants who held positions of leadership i n the community. the a s s i m i l a t i o n of Central Europeans was the immigrants had become s e t t l e d .  held or had  England's (8) study of  also made some years a f t e r  The major part of the material f o r  10  that study was obtained through f a i r l y detailed reports from teachers i n the d i s t r i c t s where the immigrants were s e t t l e d ;  Some of the psycho-  l o g i c a l problems a r i s i n g from c u l t u r a l assimilation, e s p e c i a l l y those of the c h i l d r e n who are torn between the o l d and new cultures, are discussed. Reynold (18) investigated the s o c i a l and economic adjustment of the B r i t i s h immigrant and considers some of the situations t o which they have to adjust during the early years of t h e i r a r r i v a l .  He too considers  some of the psychological aspects of the problem of assimilation. recently Lyensko (15) LaViolette's (12.)  More  has studied the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the Ukrainians.  study i s concerned not so much with the s o c i a l adjust-  ment of the immigrant Japanese as the Japanese evacuated from B r i t i s h Columbia during the war. None of the foregoing studies were concerned p r i m a r i l y with the psychological aspects of assimilation.  In contrast, this study i s  an attempt t o investigate the q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of the newcomers' adjustment to l i f e i n Canada. B.• Studies of the Social Adjustment of Displaced Persons To date the s o c i a l adjustment of the displaced persons i n Canada and the United States has been studied p r i m a r i l y by s o c i a l workers, using f o r the most part the case-work method.  One of the  e a r l i e s t studies was that by Newton (16) of the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of Toronto. s i x t y - s i x women.  The case-work method was used with  Rawley (1?) used t h i s method to study^ the adjustment  of Jewish displaced persons, Sterba (29 f''and A l t h o f f (2) t o study the emotional problems of displaced children.  11  The case-work method was not considered f o r use i n t h i s study because i t seemed better suited to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work than i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l psychology. C.  Factors i n the Selection of Methods and Techniques Used 1.  Generally speaking the methods selected to be t r i e d i n the  present study and those considered f o r use were based upon methods and techniques which other investigators have found u s e f u l i n studying the s o c i a l adjustment of immigrant groups.  In t h i s connection  studies of the a s s i m i l a t i o n of immigrants i n the United States as well as those i n Canada were used. 2.  During the summer of l°lj.8 the investigator had unsuccessfully  t r i e d to study the s o c i a l adjustment of 600 Displaced Persons i n domestic employment i n 9 selected Canadian c i t i e s .  This experience  influenced the s e l e c t i o n of methods i n the present study, i n that there was a tendency t o avoid methods which had been unsuccessful previously.  In the e a r l i e r study, l e t t e r s , questionnaire r e p l i e s ,  budgets kept by the newcomers and interviews were to have been the main sources of data. D.  Methods and Techniques Used or Considered 1.  Methods Considered but Not Tried a.  L i f e Histories Many research workers have used l i f e h i s t o r i e s i n the  study of the s o c i a l adjustment of immigrant groups.  The work  of Thomas and Znanieck (20:) i n studying the assimilation of the P o l i s h peasant i n America has shown conclusively the usefulness of t h i s method i n a s s i m i l a t i o n studies.  Of the fore-mentioned  12  studies of Canadian immigration,  a l l but England (8) made use  of l i f e h i s t o r i e s as one method of obtaining data.  In England's  study questionnaires to teachers were the chief method used. Reasons f o r not trying to obtain l i f e h i s t o r i e s : (1) The investigator had found i n the previous study that newcomers seemed reluctant to divulge information ing  concern-  t h e i r pasts. The reason f o r t h i s seemed to be the f e a r  that the information might come t o the attention of the Russians and thus bring hardships on r e l a t i v e s i n the occupied countries.  Further, the ne?rcomers had t o l d the  Government o f f i c i a l s about t h e i r background during t h e i r screening and f e l t that the Government should decide whether t h i s material should be made a v a i l a b l e f o r study purposes. (2)  The Department of Labour and the National Employment Service were contacted during the previous study t o obtain information from t h e i r records, but the d e c i s i o n then was to keep the material c o n f i d e n t i a l .  (3)  The request to the Government was not repeated, since i t had been decided t o secure information from the of the newcomers themselves i n the present  (k)  standpoint  study.  I t was decided not to r i s k l o s i n g rapport with the newcomers by probing i n t o t h e i r past.  However, i n the course  of interviewing many volunteered information t h e i r l i f e at home and i n Germany.  concerning  13  b.  Sociometric Methods At the outset of t h i s study i t was planned to use a  sociometric method t o study the s o c i a l adjustment of:  ( l ) Baltic  newcomers working i n i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and (2) B a l t i c children  attend-  ing school. Reasons f o r not t r y i n g to use t h i s method: (1)  There were too few B a l t i c newcomers i n any one i n s t i t u t i o n to make the study worthwhile.  (2)  There were few B a l t i c children, throughout the c i t y .  and they were scattered  They seemed to be happy, played  w e l l with Canadian children and t h e i r parents were pleased with t h e i r progress at school.  The s i t u a t i o n might have  been d i f f e r e n t had there been a large group at any one school, but i n the circumstances i t d i d not seem worth the expenditure of tame. (3)  I t was thought that t h i s method would be p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable i n studying the adjustment of the children i n the classroom because there would not l i k e l y be l o s s of rapport through loss of anonymity, since school take tests of various kinds.  children  S i m i l a r l y , the loss of  anonymity among g i r l s working i n i n s t i t u t i o n s seemed less l i k e l y important to maintaining rapport than i n other circumstances.  For example, the g i r l s frequently work i n  p a i r s or groups and thus would not l i k e l y object t o "choosing a partner".  However, i n the majority of s i t u a -  tions maintaining anonymity of the subjects seemed important to maintaining rapport, which r e s t r i c t s the use of sociometric methods among newcomers.  lh  c.  Experimental Method During the large-scale immigration of Displaced Persons,  the experimental method could have been used i n a number of instances to study the s o c i a l adjustment of the newcomers, so that t h e i r integration i n t o Canadian l i f e might be accomplished with less mental and emotional s t r a i n than otherwise. For example, i n i n s t r u c t i n g the Displaced Persons about  Canadian  c i t i z e n s h i p , i t would have been possible i n the camps t o set up experimental situations t o determine which methods were the most successful. At the outset of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the experimental method was to have been used t o determine whether there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the s o c i a l adjustment of f a m i l i e s of B a l t i c newcomers s e t t l e d as a family group, and those where the husband or young single member preceded the f a m i l y group by at l e a s t a year. Reasons f o r not trying t h i s method: (1)  The r e l a t i v e l y few B a l t i c families i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  made i t impossible to carry out such a study. (2)  At the time of the study the t o t a l number of B a l t i c newcomers i n the area was approximately 200. This r e l a t i v e l y small number made i t d i f f i c u l t to obtain groups f o r experimental purposes.  15  2.  Methods and Techniques which were Tried but which did Not Prove Useful a. ' Biograms Abel (1) developed the biogram as a technique i n the study of social change, and an aid to the discovery of patterns underlying social behaviour. He points out that they are to be distinguished from autobiographies and l i f e histories.  As a  means of securing biograms, a prize contest (1, p.112) i s discussed. It was decided to use the biogram i n this study since i t could be limited to whatever time the newcomers f e l t they could spend on the essay; i t allowed the individuals to choose whatever situations they wished to discuss; and was thus l i k e l y to e l i c i t material useful i n the study of the social adjustment of the newcomers. p.117  )  T o  (For a copy of the biogram used, see Appendix  ensure anonymity as far as the investigator was con-  cerned, and thus to encourage replies, a system was worked out whereby essays could be given to representatives from the three Baltic groups. When the contestant turned his essay i n to one of these representatives, he was to receive a number, a duplicate of which was to be attached to the essay. Only three papers were submitted. Pleasons why the biogram did not prove useful: (l)  Many of the newcomers seemed reluctant to put down on paper anything about problems they had experienced i n becoming settled i n Canada.  16  (2)  Some thought that the essay topic should be about some p a r t i c u l a r problem selected by the investigator.  (3)  Most of the newcomers write a great many l e t t e r s and d i d not want t o afford the time to write an essay.  b. Testing Two factors l i m i t e d the usefulness of tests in.the present study:  ( l ) the language d i f f i c u l t y ; and ( 2 ) the newcomers'  l i m i t e d amount of time when together i n groups.  Because of the  language d i f f i c u l t y time-saving paper and p e n c i l t e s t s could not be used.  Projective techniques were precluded because of  the length of time required f o r t h e i r administration, and i n some cases because of the special t r a i n i n g needed i n order t o administer them, such as the Rorschach. The thematic apperception technique was used i n the study of culture-personality r e l a t i o n s by Henry (10). used i t with a group.  Clark (it)  In the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was  t r i e d as a group test with w r i t t e n instead of o r a l responses. Reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g the TAT: (1)  The B a l t i c newcomers seemed interested i n pictures, drawing and painting.  I t was thought that i t would be  easier t o secure t h e i r interest i n the TAT than i n the tests which require manipulation of parts. (2)  Many of the B a l t i c people seemed t o have a great deal of imagination and to be very creative.  This t r a i t i s evid-  ent throughout the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the B a l t i c peoples. (See Appendix, p. 127 )  17 ,t  (3)  Since to obtain the greatest response to the pictures the s t o r i e s had to be i n the newcomers own language, 1  written instead of o r a l r e p l i e s were used.  This enabled  them to express themselves f r e e l y and at the same time made i t possible to keep the record f o r l a t e r t r a n s l a t i o n . Even i f the TAT had been administered  to individuals  rather than a group, i t would l i k e l y have been necessary to have r e p l i e s written i n order to overcome the language difficulty. Administration of the (1)  One  TAT  of the classes taking lessons i n English was i n v i t e d  to the investigator's home f o r dinner.  In thus separat-  ing the group from the main gathering i t was possible to control the conditions under which the TAT was  administered  to a greater extent, than i f i t were administered  to the  group as a whole. (2)  Care was  taken to follow the directions of the manual,  with the exception that i n s t r u c t i o n s were given to a group instead of an i n d i v i d u a l , and the responses were written instead of o r a l . (3)  I t was  administered  arrived.  This was  to the four members of the class about half, the number attending  class at that time.  who  the  m Reasons why (1)  the TAT was  The class was  not successful:  separated from the main group and therefore  the attendance was l e s s than usual. (2)  The four newcomers who  took the t e s t wanted to leave  e a r l y to j o i n the others at the regular meeting place and so the test had to be cut short. (3)  Three enjoyed the test and found i t easy to write.  The  fourth found i t very d i f f i c u l t to write stories about the pictures and the enthusiasm of the others seemed to make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r her to concentrate. 3.  Methods and Techniques which were T r i e d and Found Useful a.  The  Interview The interview i s generally regarded highly as a t o o l i n  s o c i a l research. LaViolette (12),  It was  used by Dawson (5,  6),  England (8),  Lyensko (if?), Reynold (18) and Younge (6)  the fore-mentioned studies of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n Canada. (23,  in  Young  p. 17lj.) states that, "It (the interview) i s the most constantly used of a l l techniques employed i n s o c i a l surveys, s o c i a l research, and various f i e l d s of s o c i a l vrork. Whether..a combinat i o n of (methods) i s used i n f i e l d exploration, the interview may constitute i n each instance the major or at l e a s t the supplementary t o o l to be employed i n securing information." Throughout t h i s study a r e l a t i v e l y non-directed type of  interview was used.  That i s , the choice of topics to be d i s -  cussed during the interview was l e f t up to the ne?rcomer, but throughout the interview the investigator noted the statements which seemed to indicate the newcomers adjustment to l i f e i n  I  19  B r i t i s h Columbia.  No notes were taken during the interview  because i t was thought that the newcomers would be l e s s free i n t h e i r discussion of problems i f notes were taken.  However,  to minimize errors due t o the f a u l t y memory of the investigator, f u l l notes were written soon a f t e r the interview. The interview was used both as a means of securing i n formation and imparting information to the newcomers.  On the  whole t h i s type of interview seemed t o a i d i n establishing and maintaining rapport.  Giving information about some aspect of  Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , f o r example, seemed to make the newcomers f e e l f r e e r to discuss t h e i r problems of adjusting to Canadian ways of thinking and acting. A question and answer type of interview, following a printed outline, was thought l i k e l y to deter the newcomers' d i s cussion of t h e i r problems.  The newcomers had already undergone  many such interviews i n the course of t h e i r screening and seemed to d i s l i k e them. The l i m i t a t i o n s and usefulness of the interview i n the present study are discussed at greater length i n Chapter I I I . b.  Field  Observation  In almost any s o c i a l research dealing with immigrant assimilation, i t i s necessary to use f i e l d observations at some stage because i t i s the only way that c e r t a i n data can be obtained.  For example, i t was used i n the fore-mentioned studies  of Canadian ajKmigrant a s s i m i l a t i o n .  20  F i e l d observations used i n t h i s study were f o r the most of the "participant observer" type.  For example, during the  regular weekly meetings f o r newcomers at the Lutheran Hostess House the investigator had supper with the newcomers, took part i n the worship service, played games, and talked with the various members during the course of the evening.  Throughout an attempt  was made t o remain objective i n what was observed and reported. Lindeman (13) states that, "Participant observation enables one to penetrate behind the thinking, f e e l i n g and acting of the group. I t f a c i l i t a t e s the 'sensing' and prepares the learning of the s o c i a l atmosphere, the t o t a l s o c i a l setting, the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s between the single members and the whole group..." S i m i l a r l y , the procedures discussed by Bennett (3)  i n a survey  of techniques and methodology i n f i e l d work are characterized by an emphasis upon p a r t i c i p a n t observation. The investigator's previous knowledge of the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the B a l t i c peoples proved u s e f u l i n f i e l d observations.  The newcomers seemed impressed by the evidence of the  investigator's interest i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l history and consequentl y were anxious to i n t e r p r e t proceedings to make the observations more meaningful.  Frequently an interview was used before and  a f t e r an important occasion to ensure that the s i g n i f i c a n c e of what was observed was i n accordance with what the newcomers reported. To control errors a r i s i n g from s u b j e c t i v i t y on the part of the investigator, reports were checked with other observers at the gatherings. The use of f i e l d observations i s discussed at greater length i n Chapter IV.  21  c.  The Questionnaire The questionnaire has been used extensively i n the study  of the s o c i a l adjustment of immigrants.  England (9), f o r  example, obtained most of the data f o r h i s study through the use of the questionnaire.  However, i n h i s study the question-  naire was used with the teachers i n d i s t r i c t s where j^mmigrants had s e t t l e d and not with the imitdgrants themselves.  In t h i s  investigation i t was used with newcomers themselves. The educational l e v e l of the immigrants i s an important f a c t o r i n determining when questionnaires can be used with immigrants themselves.  For example, many of the immigrants  whose assJLmilation England studied could not read nor write, whereas the average number of years of school completed by the newcomers i n t h i s study was 11 years, with a range of from 5 t o 22 years of schooling. The questionnaire was used i n t h i s study towards the end of the research period, a f t e r rapport had been established with the newcomers.  A questionnaire used at the beginning of a  previous study seemed to prevent the establishing of rapport i n a great many cases. The questionnaire r e p l i e s were used to supplement material obtained through interviews and f i e l d observations.  The questions  asked covered the problems which the newcomers had mentioned most frequently during interviews and which through f i e l d  observations  seemed important t o the adjustment of the newcomers to l i f e i n Canada. The use of the questionnaire i s discussed i n greater d e t a i l i n Chapter V.  22  E.  Some Conclusions About Methods and Techniques i n the Study of the S o c i a l Adjustment of Newcomers 1.  Some of the methods and techniques considered but not t r i e d might prove u s e f u l i n studying the s o c i a l adjustment of newcomers i n areas where larger newcomer populations e x i s t . For example, the r e l a t i v e l y few newcomers i n the area under i n v e s t i gation r e s t r i c t e d the use of sociometric methods. .  2.  Tests i n the study of the s o c i a l adjustment of newcomers are l i k e l y t o be d i f f i c u l t to administer i n the case of adults, although they might be useful i n the study of the s o c i a l adjustment of newcomers' children.  Administration of tests with  adults would be f a c i l i t a t e d i f one of the periods of regular i n s t r u c t i o n i n English were used, but i t would be necessary t o obtain the co-operation of school authorities, the teacher and newcc-meis before such time could be made available. 3.  Methods and techniques which ensure the anonymity of the subjects w i l l probably be most successful i n securing the co-operation of the newcomers.  lu  Interviews and f i e l d observations are l i k e l y t o prove u s e f u l i n the study of the s o c i a l adjustment of newcomers.  Cther research  workers seem to have found these methods of value i n the study of the a s s i m i l a t i o n of immigrants and they were u s e f u l i n the present study. 5.  Questionnaires are not always successful i n obtaining informat i o n from newcomers. stances.  They were, however, useful i n some circum-  For example, i f rapport i s well established, and i f  the newcomers have s u f f i c i e n t education to understand the  §3  questionnaire, the r e p l i e s might be of value i n a study of iinmigration.  In t h i s connection, i t i s not necessary f o r the  newcomers whose s o c i a l adjustment i s being studied to have a command of the English language, since the questionnaires can be translated i n t o t h e i r own languages.  In this study, however,  the questionnaires were printed i n simple English and when needed, translated into one of the B a l t i c languages. 6.  Biograms might be useful i n the study of the s o c i a l  adjustment  of the newcomers, although they did not prove useful i n t h i s study.  For t h e i r successful use i t i s perhaps necessary that  they receive the sponsorship of some person or i n s t i t u t i o n with high prestige r a t i n g insofar as the immigrants are concerned. A worthwhile cash p r i z e might also act as s u f f i c i e n t incentive to secure data useful i n the understanding of the newcomers' problems through t h i s technique. 7.  L i f e h i s t o r i e s have long been recognized as useful i n the study of the assimilation of immigrants, as indicated i n the pioneer work of Thomas and Znaniecki  8.  (22).  In the study of the s o c i a l adjustment of newcomers no one method or technique i s l i k e l y to be adequate.  Studies of immigrant  a s s i m i l a t i o n i n Canada and the United States usually employ a number of methods and techniques.  In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the  combination used was that of interviews and f i e l d observations conducted concurrently throughout the research period and a questionnaire administered towards the end of the period, the questions of which covered the problems discovered through interviews and f i e l d observations.  CHAPTER I I I THE INTERVIEW  A.  The Use of the Interview i n the Present Study In the course of this study 39 interviews with newcomers were  held, of which 3J4. were conducted i n the homes of the newcomers and 5 i n the home of the interviewer. during one interview.  In 11 instances two persons were interviewed  The interviews were usually held during the evening  and l a s t e d on an average of s l i g h t l y over 2 hours.  Many shorter conversa-  tions were held with newcomers during the weekly meetings or at s p e c i a l gatherings, but time d i d not permit the systematic recording of these conversations. Interviews were used at a l l stages of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  At  the outset they were used to discover whether the newcomers found adjustment to l i f e i n Canada easy or d i f f i c u l t , to determine what t h e i r problems were and what they were doing about them, and generally t h e i r attitude to l i f e i n Canada.  This information was used i n the construction of the  questionnaire to determine the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the newcomers  1  problems.  Interviews were used following the presentation of the question-  naire t o supplement and i n t e r p r e t the information so gained. Interviews were used s i m i l a r l y i n connection with f i e l d  observa-  tions, to enable the observer to gain greater insight i n t o the s i g n i f i c ance of the events i n r e l a t i o n to the newcomers' becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada.  2|  B.  The Form of the Interview Used The form of the interview used was determined, p r i m a r i l y , by  the following considerations: 1.  This study deals with information obtained from the newcomers themselves and not with that obtained from government o f f i c i a l s , employers, or secretaries of such organizations as the 1Y.W.C.A. Therefore as a general r u l e a r i g i d outline of questions was not used i n the present study whereas i t was used i n a previous study when interviewing government o f f i c i a l s , employers and secretaries of volunteer organizations.  2.  During the process of screening and placement i n jobs, newcomers have experienced many interviews where the questions followed a r i g i d outline.  The investigator, from previous research with  the newcomers, f e l t that they resented this type of interview. Therefore a r e l a t i v e l y non-directed interview technique was used. 3.  In the present study not only f a c t u a l information dealing with the actions of the newcomers, but also information about t h e i r feelings and attitudes seemed important.  While f a c t u a l informa-  t i o n , such as years of schooling, previous job experience, can best be obtained i n interviews where d i r e c t questions are used, the r e l a t i v e l y non-directed interview seemed best f o r the present purpose. 1;.  Since the newcomers seem to have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e free time, the question-answer type of interview, which wastes l e a s t time, would seem t o be the most appropriate.  However, i n the case of g i r l s  i n domestic employment, they do have free time during t h e i r evenings at home, although they usually have but one afternoon  :26  and evening and every other Sunday o f f , away from t h e i r home. By conducting the interviews at the newcomers' homes, therefore, i t was possible to use a r e l a t i v e l y non-directed type of i n t e r view. 5.  The interview was  used both as a means of securing information  from the newcomers and imparting information to them.  On the  whole t h i s type of interview seemed to a i d i n establishing and maintaining rapport.  For example, the giving of information  about some aspect of Canadian culture seemed to make the newcomers f e e l f r e e r to discuss t h e i r problems of adjusting to l i f e i n Canada.  A case i n point i s that of a student i n q u i r i n g about  the course of studies to obtain a medical degree and i n d i c a t i n g i n the course of discussion an u n f u l f i l l e d desire to gain a better command of the English language. 6.  (See p.  2?)  A more directed type of interview was used during the l a t e r stages to obtain p a r t i c u l a r information to supplement that obtained through e a r l i e r intervievra, f i e l d observations  and  questionnaire r e p l i e s . C.  Conducting the 1.  Interview  Arranging f o r the a.  Interview  Interviews were arranged i n advance by telephone,  a letter  or during conversation at one of the regular meetings. P r i o r arrangement seemed to a i d i n the establishing of rapport with the newcomer. b.  The presidents and most of the members of the executives of the B a l t i c newcomers' associations were interviewed. tacts with other newcomers were made through them.  ConThis  27  seemed to a i d i n gaining the co-operation of the newcomers interviewed. c.  Contacts were also made through persons working with the newcomers, such as church workers and secretaries i n the Y.W.C.A.  d.  Contacts were made i n a few instances through newcomers who were interviewed.  Measures t o Reduce some of the Limitations of the Interview a.  Errors a r i s i n g through Faulty Memory of the Interviewee On the whole errors from t h i s source were of minor importance i n t h i s study, since i t deals with:the newcomers' present adjustment t o Canadian culture.  b.  Errors a r i s i n g through the Faulty Memory of the Interviewer (1)  No notes were taken during the interview.  I t was  thought by the interviewer that notes taken during the interview would detract from rapport and influence the s e l e c t i o n of topics which the newcomers would f e e l free to discuss.  Subsequent use of the questionnaire i n  part bore t h i s out. One of the newcomers returning a p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d - o u t form wrote, "There are some questions, I don't want to answer them...I always remember that 'You can think and t a l k a l l you l i k e , but never put that on the paper'." (2)  (See p. 82 )  Notes were written i n shorthand a f t e r the interview.  •28  (3)  The length of the interviews (approximately  2 hours)  made i t d i f f i c u l t to record a l l of the d e t a i l s of conversation. t h i s way  On the whole, however, what was l o s t i n  seems to have been more than balanced by the  f r e e r discussion of a Tri.de range of topics. Errors a r i s i n g due to Language D i f f i c u l t i e s In a l l cases interviews were conducted i n English.  The  investigator spoke none of the B a l t i c languages and some of the B a l t i c newcomers interviewed had but a s l i g h t command of the English language.  This tended to eliminate f i n e r shades  of meaning i n discussing any problem, but did not seem to l i m i t unduly the range of topics talked about i n the course of the various interviews.  Under the circumstances,  in a l l  l i k e l i h o o d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of some of the l e s s obvious emotional responses were l o s t , but the stronger emotional responses concerning  any problem noticed.  For example, there  could be l i t t l e doubt of the newcomers' deep emotional attachment to t h e i r homelands.  Despite the handicap of  language, the interview was p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n t h i s study. Errors a r i s i n g due to D i f f e r e n t C u l t u r a l Interpretations of Words or Actions ' An example w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point.  At out-  door events i n Canada, clapping, cheering and w h i s t l i n g are usually associated with approval. our country to whistle i s very bad.  Not so i n Latvia.  "In  Only when we do not  l i k e something very much dp we whistle", s a i d one of the members of the executive of the Latvian Association.  To overcome errors of this kind the above example was frequently c i t e d during interviews.  However, the newcomers'  lack of understanding of Canadian usage r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r recognition of such d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l interpretations. 3.  The Interview a.  At the beginning of the f i r s t interview, the paper on the Cultural History of the B a l t i c Peoples (see Appendix, pp. 122 -27 ) was frequently used to e s t a b l i s h rapport and to serve as a beginning f o r discussion.  Out of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n  of the problems of the B a l t i c peoples i n the past, considerat i o n turned to l i f e i n Canada compared with that i n the B a l t i c countries.  In the course of t h i s discussion tension  producing situations i n adjusting to Canadian ways became apparent. b.  No attempt was made to guide the discussion of problems, except during the l a t e r stages of research when  supplementary  material was being sought. I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Use of the Interview 1.  An excerpt from a r e l a t i v e l y non-directed type of interview, which i l l u s t r a t e s material obtained through t h i s type of i n t e r view, which probably could not be obtained through a direct question type of interview, i s given below. "Newcomer: 'I see some people i n Canada know about the Communists. .You have the spy t r i a l s . . . I n Canada (there) i s some t a l k of preventing the spread of Communism. Communism feeds on insecurity. I f the worker feels that he.may be l a i d o f f any day, he w i l l be insecure. Let the  employer keep the worker on pay when the market i s slack. Why f i r e him f o r two or three weeks? He has to keep h i s machinery. The worker, i s he not so important? He would get better work from h i s employees too. I give a personal example i n Sweden. I arrive from the D.P. camp with nothing, only what I have on my back. Did they ask f i r s t , 'What work can you do? No. F i r s t they took me to my l i v i n g quarters. Then they gave me new — not used, but new — clothing. They gave two p a i r s of shoes, pants, s h i r t s and so one can change clothes. They give $20 i n the pocket. Cash g i f t and no one said anything about paying back. I t was given so. Well, I f e l t p r e t t y good and sure worked f o r that company ...But Sweden i s too close to Russia, so better I come here. " 1  1  An excerpt from an interview, i l l u s t r a t i n g the giving of information to the newcomer, as well as receiving information from the newcomer, as a means of maintaining rapport and obtaining further information concerning the newcomers' problems, i s shown below. "Newcomer:  'I want go to medical school. what I do?"  Interviewer:  Can you t e l l  me  'What education have you had? Have you any credent i a l s , any papers to show what work you have completed at school?"  Newcomer: 'I go to High School.  At home I have papers.'  Interviewer: 'Do you mean at home here i n Vancouver, or at home i n your homeland?' Newcomer;  'Here - Vancouver'.  Interviewer:  'Here i s a Calendar of the University of B r i t i s h -Columbia showing the requirements f o r the premedical course. Have you taken these subjects?'  Newcomer: 'Oh yes, a l l ' . Interviewer:  'Would you l i k e me to arrange a meeting f o r you .with the Registrar of the University? He w i l l be able to t e l l you, when he sees your papers, whether you have the pre-requisites f o r Universi t y entrance.'••  Interviewer:  'To get the most out of lectures, you need to be able to understand English w e l l . Have you taken any lessons? 1  Newcomer:  'Oh, yes, I want lessons. I go to school downtown but i t i s no good. I t i s no use. I cannot understand i t . Just s i t . The class i s four months already. So I stop going. You know someone to help with lessons?" 1  3.  An excerpt from an interview, i l l u s t r a t i n g the more directed type of interview used during the l a t e r stages of research to obtain p a r t i c u l a r information to supplement that gained by questionnaire, f i e l d observations and e a r l i e r interviews, i s given below. "Interviewer:  'I notice that some of the g i r l s continue working a f t e r they are married, to help get things f o r t h e i r homes. Also, I have read that many of the women i n the B a l t i c countries continue working a f t e r they are married and wondered whether that information was c o r r e c t . 1  Newcomer: 'Oh yes, that i s so, i f there i s someone to look a f t e r the c h i l d r e n , or i f the children are at school, aHere when they are f i r s t married g i r l s might as w e l l work to buy things f o r the home.'" Some Conclusions, Based on Interviews, Concerning the S o c i a l Adjustment of B a l t i c Newcomers i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1.  The newcomers tended to dismiss present problems as r e l a t i v e l y minor i n comparison to those experienced during l i f e i n the D. P. camps or during the period of forced labor i n Germany.  2.  Many t o l d of h o r r i b l e a t r o c i t i e s they had experienced themselves or witnessed.  A t y p i c a l remark i s , "Canadians cannot believe  such h o r r i b l e things happened.  But they are true."  Many of the  newcomers have suffered deep tragedy but give the impression of  32  not having a care i n the world..  As one newcomer remarked, "I  can laugh with my eyes though my heart i s breaking".  On the  . whole they seem to be t r y i n g t o forget the past tragedies and to make a new l i f e f o r themselves here. 3.  Many of the newcomers s t i l l have r e l a t i v e s and friends i n the B a l t i c countries and fear f o r t h e i r safety under Russian occupation.  Few have received any word from -their homeland since the  Russian occupation i n l ° U l .  Reports of deportations have been  received through the underground.  These make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r  some of the newcomers to forget the a t r o c i t i e s they have experienced, and keeps them anxious about the welfare of t h e i r k i n f o l k . ' 1;.  During the early stages of t h i s research many of the newcomers talked of i n i t i a t i n g a war with Russia t o l i b e r a t e the B a l t i c countries, and planned on returning to b u i l d up t h e i r homeland. Newcomers who had witnessed the improvements i n the B a l t i c countries during t h e i r 2 0 years of freedom were p a r t i c u l a r l y desirous of returning to t h e i r homeland.  In many cases their  s o c i a l p o s i t i o n here i s much lower than i t was previously.  Also  they f e l t that there was more opportunity f o r their advancement once t h e i r homelands were f r e e . 5.  The younger people d i d not seem to have quite such strong t i e s with t h e i r homeland and seemed less discouraged about being able to "get ahead" i n Canada.  6.  On the whole during the l a t e r stages of t h i s research fewer o f the newcomers spoke of returning to t h e i r homeland and more spoke of plans f o r l i f e i n Canada.  In some instances t h i s  33  i n d i c a t i o n of becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada seemed to be accompanied by a f e e l i n g of resignation and f a i l u r e due to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to arouse Canadians to i n i t i a t e a war. 7.  Many of the newcomers wanted to get to the United States where they f e l t they would have greater opportunity f o r advancement. Few had heard about Canada before the Canadian s e l e c t i o n teams v i s i t e d the D. P. camps, but they had heard about the United States.  In some cases t h i s f i r s t impression was not altogether  favourable from the newcomers viewpoint. 1  One older newcomers  remarked that, " A l l of the s e l e c t i o n teams were thorough, Canada's was worst of the l o t , so very very thorough.  but  Canada  only wants the young workers f o r the heavy work and that i s what the s e l e c t i o n teams looked f o r f i r s t . " 8.  The geographical closeness of Canada to Russia seemed to make some of the newcomers f e e l uneasy here.  Some reported f e e l i n g  alarmed when they were shown t h e i r destination of Vancouver on a map.  "So close to Russia.  Soon they w i l l come here l i k e to  the B a l t i c countries." 9.  Most of the persons interviewed had r e l a t i v e s or friends i n Europe, whom they were anxious to have come to Canada.  Frequently  they asked why A u s t r a l i a admitted families but Canada admitted very few.  Some questioned whether Canadians d i d not value family  l i f e highly.  They pointed out that i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r young  people to be separated from t h e i r families, often causing physical and mental i l l n e s s . f o r the single immigrant was  Some f e l t that the preference a reversal of moral values.  3U  They f e l t that the family groups should have received p r i o r i t y . The separation of family groups, the forced segregation of family t i e s , seems to make i t p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e newcomers to adjust to l i f e i n Canada. In this connection,  the B a l t i c newcomers i n V i c t o r i a , where  there was p r a c t i c a l l y no opportunity f o r primary contacts with a large number of. newcomers or with oldtimers from the B a l t i c countries, seemed to f e e l f a r l o n e l i e r than the newcomers i n Vancouver, where there i s a l a r g e r number of newcomers and o l d timers.  The persons interviewed i n V i c t o r i a seemed "hungry"  f o r news of B a l t i c newcomers i n Vancouver and expressed a desire to go to l a r g e r centres where more o f t h e i r countrymen l i v e d , a f t e r completion of t h e i r contracts.  The voluntary  organiza-  tions, such as the Y.W.C.A., and the c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a were interested i n the g i r l s and t h e i r cultures, but such secondary group associations could not f i l l the psychological need f o r primary group acceptance. 10.  The problem of learning to speak English was one most commonly discussed during interviews..  Many of the B a l t i c newcomers have  a reading knowledge of English, since English i s one of the languages taught i n B a l t i c schools. fluently. by".  However, few can speak i t  Under the circumstances there i s a tendency to "get  This was evident i n the attendance at the two classes i n  English held a t the Lutheran Hostess House. Attendance was often irregular.  Shopping, meeting with f r i e n d s , going to shows,  arranging f o r large meetings to celebrate special occasions were some of the reasons why attendance was not more regular.  3£  Some of the g i r l s i n domestic employment seemed to f e e l that they d i d not want to spend t h e i r one free night attending classes.  On other evenings they f e l t too t i r e d a f t e r  working a l l day to attend classes.  Many of them l i v e a  considerable distance from the school where the classes i n English are conducted i n connection with the Vancouver School Board's Night School courses. None of the B a l t i c persons interviewed attended the above-mentioned classes. not heard of them.  Most of the persons contacted had  When t o l d about them some s a i d that they  would j o i n another year, but that i t was too l a t e to do so then. Some of the newcomers who speak English f l u e n t l y revert to t h e i r native language when speaking to t h e i r children. It seems to f a c i l i t a t e the passing on of c u l t u r a l expectations.  In this connection, one newcomer commented, " I t i s  easier to make them mind so." Even f o r those who speak English f l u e n t l y , the s t r a i n of using English rather than t h e i r native tongue i s often very great.  One newcomer remarked,  "At night my head aches so  from t a l k i n g a l l day i n English, that i t i s a r e l i e f to speak my own language."  Most Canadians speak only one language and  are thus l i k e l y to be unaware of the s t r a i n of continually conversing i n a f o r e i g n language, and thus unsympathetic to t h i s problem of the newcomers.  36  11.  The newcomers' a t t i t u d e toward contract labor, seems to be  one  of resignation to "just one more year before vre can be on our own".  While to some people a contract promises s e c u r i t y i n a  job, to many of the newcomers who  are strongly independent, i t  makes them f e e l insecure and thus increases t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y of adjusting to l i f e i n Canada. was  Some f e l t that an i n j u s t i c e  being done the more educated workers i n the D. P. camps by  the Canadian s e l e c t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y u n s k i l l e d workers, f o r work i n the mines, forests, and on the farms. ing  Generally speak-  the newcomers were optimistic about getting i n t o t h e i r  own  l i n e of work i n Canada, but some f e l t that they would never get out of low category work.  Some were prepared to stay i n work  of r e l a t i v e l y low s o c i a l status and requiring l i t t l e i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t because the wages vtere good and the work f a i r l y steady. 12.  The B a l t i c newcomers interviewed seemed interested i n learning about Canadian l i f e and history.  They compared the develop-  ment of s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , education,  job opportunities, the  c o s t - o f - l i v i n g , and entertainments i n Canada with their  own  country and quite frequently thought t h e i r own superior.  Some  expressed surprise that there were not more opportunities i n Canada f o r people of u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g .  For example, one  commented upon meeting a c l e r k i n a store, who a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y . would never be so." living.  "How  can t h i s be?  had a B. A* from  In our country i t  Many commented upon the high cost of  They seemed to f e e l that the educational system com-  pared favorably, but that s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and treatment of minorities lagged behind that of t h e i r own country.  Estonians,  37  f o r example, were proud o f their own l i b e r a l Minnorities Law which was passed soon a f t e r t h e i r country's l i b e r a t i o n i n 1918. 13.  The B a l t i c newcomers a l l seemed anxious to interpret culture to Canadians.  their  They,spoke e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y about the  accomplishments of their countries during the 20 years of f r e e dom from Russian occupation.  However, during the time when  most of the interviews were held, the newcomers said .that they had had l i t t l e opportunity t o acquaint Canadians with t h e i r culture, other than the persons with whom they worked. LU.  During the l a t e r part of t h i s research period the newcomers 1  desire to interpret t h e i r cultures to Canadians met with p a r t i a l satisfaction.  The groups were brought to the attention of the  Canadian Folk Society through this study, and were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Canadian Folk Society F e s t i v a l .  Their  representatives met with the other representatives i n the Society and took an active part .in the discussion of the meetings to plan the program.  Being used to the democratic pro-  cedure f o r conducting meetings and having a good command of English, the representatives found l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n .adjusting to the new s i t u a t i o n . F.  Evaluation of the Interview Used 1.  The use of the r e l a t i v e l y non-directed interview made i t possible t o obtain a great deal of information about the newcomers attitudes t o Canadian l i f e and t h e i r problems i n 1  becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada, from the newcomers' viewpoint.  3 5  2.  The  interpretation of Canadian culture and willingness to try-  to answer the newcomers  1  questions seemed to make the newcomers«  • f e e l f r e e r i n discussing t h e i r problems. 3.  A question and answer-type of interview,  following a printed  outline, would l i k e l j r have deterred establishing rapport with the newcomers.  Further the s e l e c t i o n of topics f o r considera-  t i o n would rest mainly with the investigator, rather than with the newcomers.  Thus matters of considerable importance to the  newcomers i n t h e i r becoming established i n Canada might be omitted, either because they were thought to be unimportant by the investigator or overlooked e n t i r e l y .  CHAPTER  IV  FIELD OBSERVATION  A.  The Use of Systematic F i e l d Observation i n the Present Study In the course of t h i s study lk  regular weekly meetings of  the Latvian newcomers were attended, 1 of the Lithuanians and 11 special gatherings.  A great deal of the research was c a r r i e d  out during the summer months and the Lithuanians were not meeting regularly at that time.  The Estonians do not seem to hold meet-  ings as frequently as the other two B a l t i c groups.  One of the  s p e c i a l gatherings attended was the celebration o f the Estonian Day of L i b e r a t i o n . B.  The Types of F i e l d Observation Used 1.  Generally speaking, f i e l d observations tended t o be of the "participant observer" type, such as that used by the Lynds (2JU) i n t h e i r study of Middletown.  Lindeman (13) indicates the use-  fulness of t h i s type of f i e l d observation, as follows: "Participant observation enables one to penetrate .behind the thinking, f e e l i n g and acting of the group." This type of observation was p a r t i c u l a r l y useful at the regular weekly meetings of the Latvian newcomers.  The i n v e s t -  igator met with them f o r supper, took part i n the worship service, sat  i n on meetings planning special outings, played games, such  as ping-pong, and talked with various members during the course of the evening.  2.  During some f i e l d observations there was relatively l i t t l e participation on the part of the investigator.  An example of  this type i s the Memorial Service, described i n part below. (See p. C.  ki)  Measures to. Reduce Subjectivity i n Reporting Field Observations 1.  In q"H cases an attempt was made to write an unbiased report of what actually happened.  2.  These reports were checked with persons, newcomers and others who were present at the meetings.  3.  Parts of the reports dealing with the meaning of events which had taken place were checked with some of the newcomers qualified to interpret them. For example, the meanings of the songs and dances used during programs were checked with the instructor.  h*  In many instances speeches at meetings were impromptu and i t was thus impossible to obtain exact translations, but when the speeches which were delivered were written out, a complete translation was  D.  secured.  Considerations Influencing the Selection of Illustrations of the Use of Field Observations 1.  The illustrations deal with problems which seem to be important in the Baltic newcomers' adjustment to l i f e i n Canada, judging from information obtained through interviews, questionnaires and f i e l d observations.  2.  The illustrations are indicative of ways i n which the newcomers are adjusting to the existing situations.  3.  An attempt has been made to include gatherings which are representative of the 26 attended:  a memorial service, celebration  of a Day of Liberation, a weekly meeting, a p i c n i c , a meeting where newcomers and Canadians work together i n planning a program. i;.  Each of the B a l t i c groups i s represented i n at l e a s t one i l l u s t r a tion.  I l l u s t r a t i o n s Showing the Use of F i e l d 1. . Memorial Service, June 19,  Observations  19h9  The reasons f o r t h i s service were stated at the top of the Order of Service, copies of which had been typed by one of the . newcomers f o r the congregation: "The June LU, I9I4I, as national mourning date f o r .the 100,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians t h i s very day executed and deported to the Russian Concentration Camps, which sort of B a l t i c s extermination i s i n f u l l use up to today."  1  Although i t was a dark, dismal day with continuous heavy rain, about 2^0 persons were present, including newcomers, t h e i r . friends and k i n f o l k who had been i n Canada f o r a number of years, and Canadians. Some of those present had come i n from the country, others had had long t r i p s across the c i t y . At the front of the church stood the f l a g s and emblems of the three B a l t i c countries. F l o r a l displays carried out the national c o l o r scheme. The Union Jack was given a prominent place, covering the front of the p u l p i t . The Service l a s t e d just under three hours, with t a l k s by representatives of the three B a l t i c groups and the Lutheran minister, Rev. J. Benson. The program included choral numbers, , r e c i t a t i o n s , the singing of the National Anthems of the B a l t i c countries and "God Save the King". The common tragedy which had b e f a l l e n the B a l t i c peoples i s indicated i n the opening remarks of the speech by the Lithuanian representative: "Many times fate has given us the same burden. Many times f a t e has given us a common destiny — to p a r t i c i p a t e i n events of good fortune and misfortune, i n days of joy and t e r r o r . This f a c t i s underlined by bonds of geography and p o l i c y ..."  The f e e l i n g that i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r Canadians or even t h e i r own emigrated countrymen to understand the tragedy of the present Russian occupation of the B a l t i c countries i s shown by the statement: "When we remember those sad events which are so hard to understand f o r people l i v i n g according to democratic p r i n c i p l e s , even f o r our own emigrated countrymen..we must be thoughtful and gather strength f o r the future. We are convinced that i n one way or another t h i s h o r r i b l e past which brings d i s a s t e r to humanity w i l l come to an end, f o r the ideas of the C h r i s t i a n humanitarian era are undestroyable..." One adjustment to the s i t u a t i o n of the Russian occupation of t h e i r homeland and the newcomers forced migration to other countries, i s suggested i n the following words of the f o r e mentioned speaker: "The culture of the American continent was founded by refugees and immigrants. Therefore, we being refugees or immigrants may f i n d an aim f o r our l i f e and may doubtless have an active part i n developing the economic and c u l t u r a l progress of t h i s country..." The Celebration of the Estonian Day of L i b e r a t i o n The celebration of the Estonian Day of Liberation, February .was held on Sunday, February 27th since more people were free from work to attend on that day. Newcomers and Estonians who had been i n Canada f o r 20 to 25 years attended, as w e l l as a few Canadian f r i e n d s . Some came from the Lower Mainland area outside of Vancouver. The meeting was held i n Hastings Auditorium, a f a i r l y large h a l l situated on Hastings Street four blocks east of Main Street, i n the so-called"square mile of v i c e . (In t h i s connection i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the meeting the following year was held i n a h a l l on Broadway near Granville, a h a l l used by such clubs as, f o r example, the University Women's Club.; The meeting was c a l l e d f o r 6 p.m. but by 7 p.m. the gathering s t i l l had not assembled. While the audience was a r r i v i n g the choir of about 20 young men and women p r a c t i c e d i n an adjoining room. The choir leader was only 22 years old, but seemed to have the respect and support of the choir. In the short breaks between pieces, members spoke with the investigator and expressed t h e i r regret that the singing was not as w e l l done as i t should be, that they had so few practices and were so few i n number that they could not do j u s t i c e to the songs.  2lrth,  The meeting was opened with the Estonian National Anthem. This was followed by "God Save the King", which was sung with considerable harmony and zest.  The Chairman, one of the newcomers, welcomed the newcomers, the Estonians who had been i n Canada many years and the Canadian f r i e n d s . The opening welcome was spoken i n English. The rest of the program was conducted i n Estonian with a b r i e f explanation i n English. The speaker was a newcomer i n his l a t e f o r t i e s , a Colonel i n the Estonian army. He spoke i n a s o f t , even tone, with no gestures t o emphasize what he was saying. The Chairman i n summarizing the speech which had taken over an hour, said that the speaker had t o l d of the accomplishments of the Estonians during t h e i r twenty years of freedom and the hardships and sufferings which they and the people s t i l l i n the homeland had undergone since the Russian occupation of Estonia i n June, 19k0. Some members of the audience seemed deeply moved by the speech, and tears were not uncommon i n the eyes of some of the women. Two men s i t t i n g near the investigator were Estonians who had been i n Canada f o r about 25 years. They kept up a conversat i o n throughout most of the speech, even though they were s i t t i n g near the front and thus rather conspicuous. Some of the children became r e s t l e s s and t h e i r parents had a d i f f i c u l t time keeping them quiet. The program continued with songs and dances and ended with f e s t i v e refreshments. A Thursday Supper Meeting of the Latvian Newcomers A l l newcomers were welcome at the Lutheran Hostess Hall on Princess Street, and although there were many n a t i o n a l i t i e s represented by the regular attenders,, the majority of the 30 to J4.0 newcomers who gathered weekly were Latvians. The Hostess House was not popular because of i t s central p o s i t i o n , f o r i t was situated f a r from the business or resident i a l sections of the c i t y , i n one of the most run-down areas of the c i t y . Its popularity seemed to be due rather to the homey atmosphere and the loving understanding of Pastor John Benson and Mrs. Benson. They c a l l e d the group t h e i r family and every Thursday was l i k e a home-coming. They knew, everyone's name and t h e i r own home was always open to the newcomers. As the newcomers arrived the a i r f a i r l y resounded with happy chatter. Supper was usually provided by one of the women.'s organizations of one of the Lutheran churches i n the c i t y . Sometimes the newcomers themselves looked a f t e r getting supper and such pot-luck ventures always resulted I n quantities of food, a r t i s t i c a l l y  •hk  arranged. Dinner -was served buffet s t y l e i n the dining room and taken to the l i v i n g room where people sat around i n small groups and talked. A short chapel service was held a f t e r supper. The newcomers seemed to enjoy singing hymns. D i f f e r e n t ones commented that i t was "a good way to l e a r n English". One of t h e i r f a v o r i t e hymns seemed to be, "What a Friend We Have i n Jesus", at l e a s t i t was the most often chosen during the hymn s e l e c t i o n and they seemed to enjoy singing i t . They l i s t e n e d quietly, i n t e n t l y to the short sermon. At the close of the service the Latvian leader was c a l l e d upon to make any announcements to the group before they adjourned to classes i n English or special committee meetings, or j u s t to t a l k . Almost always there were announcements to be made. Usually these were made i n Latvian and translated i n t o English, When the group as a v/hole were trying to plan a program i t was frequently d i f f i c u l t f o r the chairman to keep order because everyone seemed to have something to say and a l l at the same time. Often the main meeting would go on seemingly undisturbed with a number of people i n two's and three's t a l k i n g excitedly. The evenings never seemed to drag, but always seemed to be very stimulating. The Bensons' and Miss Finden who worked with them often commented that they f e l t "pepped up" a f t e r spending the afternoon and evening with the newcomers. A Lithuanian Picnic One intensely hot July Sunday afternoon the investigator set out f o r an orchard on Lulu Island where a Lithuanian p i c n i c was to be held and arrived two and a half hours l a t e r with the p i c n i c well under way.During interviews Lithuanians had commented, "Ours i s not a country of c i t i e s and towns but of communities. At night, a f t e r the work i s done, the young people go from farm house to farm house, singing and playing the accordian, and dancing the f o l k dances together." Walking i n t o the orchard was l i k e walking i n t o another country. Accordian music f i l l e d the a i r . Throughout the orchard groups of three or more people sat i n the shade of the trees. A small open dance p a v i l l i o n was crowded with the more energetic. Despite the intense heat, some of the g i r l s wore t h e i r b e a u t i f u l Lithuanian costume: f u l l length s k i r t of wool p l a i d of overlapping pleats, a white blouse, r i c h with embroidery, a bolero jacket, a wool apron with the native t u l i p s embroidered on i t . The g i r l s had made t h e i r costumes themselves. They had worn t h e i r street clothes and changed when they got t o the p i c n i c . Before the afternoon was over they had changed back to t h e i r l i g h t dresses.  Oldtimers and newcomers alilce seemed to enjoy the same dance steps. Many of the' steps were very f a s t , such as polkas, but the f l o o r was crowded a l l afternoon. Newcomers from the other B a l t i c groups had been i n v i t e d , but only three Latvians arrived, f a i r l y l a t e i n the afternoon. One noticeable difference between the gathering i n Canada and as i t would have been i n Lithuania was the large number of cars i n evidence. In Lithuania very few people own a car. However, i n Lithuania such gatherings would be within the walking distance of the whole community and they would not need cars f o r that purpose. In Lithuania the setting would be i n a farm-yard or meadow of one of the farmers, v/hereas i n Canada i t required the renting of a p i c n i c ground and the arranging of car or bus transportation. A Meeting of the Newcomers with the Canadian Folk Society " The B a l t i c newcomers were i n v i t e d to a dinner at the Senator G r i l l , one of Vancouver's nicer eating places, along with members of the Canadian Folk Society, Vancouver Branch. The meeting was c a l l e d to discuss plans f o r the Folk F e s t i v a l and the grandstand performance at the P a c i f i c National E x h i b i t i o n . Although people from the B a l t i c countries had been i n Vancouver and v i c i n i t y for 20 to 30 years, t h i s was the f i r s t time that the B a l t i c countries were represented i n the Folk F e s t i v a l . The Society has been promoting Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p among i t s members which represent over 2+0 countries, f o r the past 16 years. The B a l t i c newcomers were t h r i l l e d to be part of the gathering and to have an opportunity to t e l l Canadians about t h e i r cultures. The Estonian and Latvian representatives had a better command of English than d i d the Lithuanian and so entered more into the discussion of the plans. Since a great deal of business was transacted, the i n v e s t i g a t o r helped the newcomers with the recording of the d e t a i l s and dates. The Estonian representative thanked the President f o r the i n v i t a t i o n and said that the Estonians would l i k e l y contribute a dance or two and probably a song. The Latvian representative very graciously thanked the president f o r the dinner i n v i t a t i o n and f o r the opportunity to " t e l l something about the Latvian and Lithuanian cultures. We three countries, Estonia, L a t v i a and Lithuania are small countries, but old countries with very/ old cultures. We w i l l t r y to bring something of our handwork t o . show the people." The representatives of the other countries s i m i l a r l y stated what part i n the program t h e i r groups would l i k e l y take.  F.  Some Conclusions Concerning: the S o c i a l Adjustment of B a l t i c Newcomers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Based on Systematic F i e l d Observations 1.  There i s considerable evidence  that the B a l t i c newcomers are  using the English language and adopting Canadian customs. The use of English i n the Order of Service at the Memorial Service; the t r a n s l a t i o n of speeches, a t the Memorial Service, the Estonian meeting, the weekly Latvian meetings; the singing of "God Save the King"; the prominent display of the Union Jack, a l l suggest a favorable adjustment to l i f e i n Canada. 2.  The deep sense of tragedy due to the Russian occupation of the B a l t i c countries and the deportations t o S i b e r i a make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the newcomers to f e e l s e t t l e d i n Canada.  However,  the attitude of the Lithuanian speaker at the Memorial Service seemed t o meet with the approval of the gathering, "The culture of the American continent was founded by refugees and immigrants .. .we may find an aim for'our l i f e and may doubtless have an active part i n developing ... t h i s 3.  country."  Although the oldtimers and newcomers share many i n t e r e s t s i n common, there does not seem to be the basis f o r strong primary group t i e s between them.  This seems to arise from t h e i r d i f f e r -  ent experiences during the l a s t 20 to 25 years.  The oldtimers  have not l i v e d through the period of rapid development of the B a l t i c countries and subsequent occupation of these countries by the Russians.  A lack of sympathy on the part of the oldtimers  i s indicated by the two oldtimers talking during the recounting of these events at the Estonian Day of L i b e r a t i o n Celebrations. Further evidence i s the Lithuanian speaker's remark that, "even for to  our own emigrated countrymen" the tragic events are d i f f i c u l t understand.  U.  The B a l t i c countries were very independent of one  another,  but t h e i r common tragedy seems to have brought them together, as evidenced by the j o i n t Memorial Service. 5.  The newcomers seem anxious to interpret t h e i r culture to. Canadians, as i s shown by t h e i r enthusiastic p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Canadian Folk F e s t i v a l .  They seemed to be more eager to  l e a r n about Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and culture when they could t a l k about t h e i r 6.  own.  The Baltic newcomers seem to understand -the democratic  pro-  cedure i n meetings, as indicated by t h e i r part i n the various meetings with the Canadian Folk Society and the r e l a t i v e ease with which they adjusted to this new 7.  situation.  The f a c t that the newcomers are able to hold p i c n i c s s i m i l a r to t h e i r community gatherings i n Lithuania w i l l probably help them f e e l more s e t t l e d i n Canada. enjoy with the oldtimers.  Further i t i s something they can  The songs and dances of the B a l t i c  peoples, covering as they-do such a wide range of emotions, attitudes and s o c i a l behavior, seem to have a therapeutic value i n helping the newcomer to adjust to d i f f i c u l t situations.  For  example, one of the Lithuanian dances depicting a windmill when danced i n Canada shows three rather than four .blades, the missing blade representing the homeland.  This acting out of c o n f l i c t  situations would seem to lessen the mental c o n f l i c t which otherwise would r e s u l t . 8.  Generally speaking the newcomers seem to be of a very happy d i s position.  During t h e i r meetings there i s usually an atmosphere  of gaiety and enthusiasm.  Their costumes show a great deal of  imagination and t h e i r handcrafts, ingenuity.  A l l of these  U8  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seem conducive to successful adjustment to new situations experienced i n becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada. G.  Evaluation of the Use of Systematic F i e l d Observations 1. ' Much of the information obtained through f i e l d observations could not have been obtained otherwise.  An example of t h i s  i s the enthusiasm which prevailed at the weekly meetings. 2.  Thus the material secured through systematic f i e l d  observa-  tions supplements that gained through interviews and questionnaire r e p l i e s .  CHAPTER  V  THE QUESTIONNAIRE  A.  The Use of the Questionnaire i n the Present Study The questionnaire was used towards the end of the period of research to supplement material obtained through the interviews and f i e l d observations.  I t was used to determine the significance of  some of the problems of the newcomers i n adjusting t o l i f e i n Canada, information concerning which had been obtained through interviews and f i e l d observations.  The questionnaire proved very  useful i n the present study, although i t had not proved useful i n a previous study.  62 questionnaire returns ?vere received from the  three B a l t i c groups.  On the whole rapport seemed excellent during  the use of the questionnaire, many of the newcomers asking f o r a d d i t i o n a l forms t o d i s t r i b u t e among t h e i r friends. B.  Some Factors Contributing to the Success of the Questionnaire 1.  The questionnaire was used at the end of the research period, a f t e r rapport with the B a l t i c newcomers had been established.  2.  The suggestion f o r a questionnaire came from one of the newcomers. Previous t o the questionnaire an essay contest had been sponsored by the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o secure biograms about the newcomers  1  problems i n becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada. 15)  (See Chapter I I , pp. LU-  The essay contest f a i l e d t o secure data adequate f o r a study  of the s o c i a l adjustment of the newcomers.  However, the new-  comers contacted seemed interested i n the study and seemed t o want to contribute t o i t .  One newcomer stated that i t was  d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d the necessary time t o write an essay, but i f the investigator would make a l i s t of questions, she thought most of the newcomers would answer them. agreed that i t was a good idea.  Other newcomers present  The questionnaire was presented  within the next month. y'i.  The questionnaire was checked with leaders: of the three groups to ensure that the questions would be understood by the majority of the newcomers.  ii.  The questionnaire was kept f a i r l y short, being l i m i t e d t o 18 questions on 2 pages.  During a previous study the investigator  had used a ii page questionnaire, and the newcomers contacted at that time seemed to f e e l that i t was much too long. $.  Many of the questions were worded i n such a way that they could be ans¥/ered by a simple check mark.  Some of the newcomers who  can read and speak English f a i r l y f l u e n t l y s t i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n w r i t i n g English.  Constructing the questionnaire i n this way  f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r answering. 6.  The time required to answer the questionnaire was, on the average, about 25 minutes.  A l l of the newcomers contacted f e l t they could  afford a half an hour, but some hesitated at the suggestion of an hour. 7.  Maintaining the anonymity of the persons replying seemed t o be an important f a c t o r i n securing the cooperation of most of the newcomers i n f i l l i n g out the forms.  Many requested that the  questionnaires be grouped together, f e e l i n g that "Baltic newcomers" afforded greater p o s s i b i l i t y f o r anonymity than Latvian, Estonian or Lithuanian newcomers.  51  C.  Construction of the 1.  Questionnaire  The language used i n the questionnaire i s English.  In a few  cases some of the words or sentences had to be translated i n t o the Baltic languages.  This t r a n s l a t i o n was done by a newcomer  i n each of the three groups, who  spoke both h i s own language and  English f l u e n t l y . 2.  The length of the questionnaire was l i m i t e d to 2 pages. thought by the investigator, on the basis of previous  I t was  experience,  that a longer questionnaire might deter the newcomers from f i l l ing out the form. 3.  To f a c i l i t a t e the answering of the questionnaire, most of the questions were worded i n such a way  that they could be answered  by a simple check mark. iu  The questionnaire was  constructed i n such a way  answered i n about half an hour.  that i t could be  Most of the newcomers contacted  seemed to f e e l that they could afford t h i s much time, but seemed reluctant to spend more. 5.  The questionnaire was important  designed to cover what seemed to be the most  s o c i a l problems of the newcomers i n becoming s e t t l e d i n  Canada, judging from material obtained through interviews and f i e l d observations. 6.  However, no mention was made of the most consistently discussed topic —  the Russian occupation of the B a l t i c countries.  I t was  thought by the investigator that a question about this t o p i c might have evoked strong emotional reactions which would i n t e r fere with the completion  of the rest of the questionnaire.  This  view i s p a r t l y supported by the f a c t that many of the newcomers did  not answer Question 8, "Where i s your family located now,  the best of your knowledge?"  ("Where" was  to  explained to mean,  "Europe, A u s t r a l i a , Canada, etc., rather than any single country or part of a country".)  During interviews, however, many  volunteered the information that they feared t h e i r k i n f o l k and friends had been deported to "Siberia". The f i r s t part of the questionnaire was  designed to f u l f i l l  two  purposes: a.  To provide information about the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the sample of subjects contacted;  b.  and  To give the subjects a p r a c t i c e period on f a c t u a l  questions  which could be answered e a s i l y and which l e d i n t o the actual questions, which vrere probably more d i f f i c u l t to answer concisely. The 18 questions deal with the following topics: a.  The Canadian Immigration P o l i c y Question 1 asks, "Which plan do you think best f o r r e s e t t l i n g people i n Canada?"  During interviews many newcomers indicated  that they f e l t the Canadian immigration p o l i c y was u n f a i r to married people, and to the more highly educated i n the D. camps.  This question was  P.  used to point up the newcomers'  views with respect to the admittance of family versus single workers. Question 2 deals with the newcomers' views regarding the category of labor to be  admitted.  53 Housing Question 3 asks, "How the f a m i l i e s ? "  would you go about arranging to house  One of the reasons given by employers and  government o f f i c i a l s f o r selecting single persons was that the general housing shortage made i t d i f f i c u l t to accommodate newcomers' f a m i l i e s .  The purpose of this question was  to determine whether the newcomers were aware of the general housing shortage i n Canada and whether they had given i t any consideration. Present Jobs and Flans f o r the Next Year Question k asks, "What i s your present l i n e of work?"; you ever done your present l i n e of work before?"; you plan to do next year?  Why?"  Newcomers who  "Have  "What do  are i n t h e i r  own l i n e of work, or hope to be so i n the near-, future, are l i k e l y to f e e l more s e t t l e d , other things being equal, than those who  are not.  Therefore the above question was  asked  to determine the extent to which t h i s was a tension-producing situation. Question 5, "How  would you rank your present job i n terms of  prestige i n your own country?" was  asked to f i n d out how many  newcomers f e l t t h e i r work to be degrading.-  The newcomers  1  f e e l i n g of prestige seems to be a f a c t o r i n t h e i r adjustment to l i f e i n a new  country.  Question 6 asks the newcomers to, " L i s t 3 things you l i k e about your job; and 3 things you do not l i k e . "  This question  was an attempt on the part of the investigator to obtain a written record concerning some of the problems i n connection  m with t h e i r jobs which newcomers talked about during i n t e r views but seemed reticent to put down on paper. d.  The Likelihood of Newcomers Moving to Other Parts of Canada, A f t e r Completing 1'heir Contracts' Question 7 asks, "Where would you l i k e best to l i v e i n Canada?  Why?"  The purpose of t h i s question was to determine  whether there was  a strong p u l l to the large urban centres  i n the East, where there i s more of a concentration of newcomers and oldtimers from the B a l t i c countries. was  This question  not set up as a check-question, with a l i s t of centers and  instructions that one be marked, because the i n v e s t i g a t o r thought that the order and naming of c e r t a i n places might introduce a bias into the answers. e.  The Location of the Newcomers' Families Question 8 asks, "Where i s your family located now to the best of your knowledge?" f a c t o r i n the newcomers  1  question was  Primary group t i e s seem t o b e a adjustment to l i f e i n Canada.  asked to obtain information about:  (l)  This the  dispersion of family members to d i f f e r e n t countries f o r resettlement; (2) the proportion of newcomers who close r e l a t i v e s i n the D. P. camps; (3)  still  had  the proportion of  newcomers whose r e l a t i v e s were s t i l l i n the homeland and thus subject to deportation to Russia; and (I4.) the proportion of newcomers whose families are with them i n B r i t i s h Columbia. f.  Contacts of the Newcomers with Friends and Relatives S t i l l i n  the u. P. Camps  "  Question 9 deals with the number of food and clothing parcels sent by the newcomers to friends and r e l a t i v e s i n the D.- P.  camps.  Strong t i e s with persons s t i l l i n Europe seems to  make the newcomers f e e l unsettled here, and thus a f f e c t s t h e i r adjustment to Canadian customs.  The above question  was therefore asked to. f i n d out whether many of the newcomers contacted had f a i r l y strong t i e s with persons s t i l l i n the D. P. camps. g.  Learning the English Language Although Canada has two o f f i c i a l languages, the majority of Canadians i n B r i t i s h Columbia speak English.  Further, since  courses i n English f o r the newcomers deal with Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , i t was thought by the investigator that the attendance of newcomers at classes i n English would indicate somewhat t h e i r interest i n learning about Canadian l i f e . During interviews i t was found that very few were talcing these classes.  Question 10, therefore, asks, "Are you  taking lessons i n English? lessons? h.  How often?  Do you want more  What other helps have you had?"  Contacts with Canadians The opportunities f o r newcomers to meet Canadians and whether they f i n d Canadians f r i e n d l y or unfriendly seem to be factors i n the newcomers adjustment. 1  Question 11 asks, therefore,  "How many Canadian homes have you been i n since you arrived? How many i n the past month?  Did you f e e l at home with them?"  Question 12 asks, "Have you found Canadians very f r i e n d l y , f a i r l y ' f r i e n d l y , f r i e n d l y , somewhat unfriendly, unfriendly?"  56'  Contacts with Oldtimers from the B a l t i c Countries S a t i s f y i n g primary and secondary group associations seem to be factors i n the newcomers f e e l i n g of security and being 1  s e t t l e d i n t h e i r new home.  However, with some immigrant  groups, such as the Mennonites, Hutterites, Doukabors, the ethnic group t i e s seem so strong as to deter the irnmigrants acceptance  of Canadian customs.  1  Question 13 was asked t o  obtain some information about whether the ethnic group t i e s of the B a l t i c newcomers were s u f f i c i e n t l y strong t o be s a t i s fying, without being too strong to deter t h e i r of Canadian ways.  acceptance  Question 13 asks, "Have you met many  people from your own country here? ( i . e. who came before the war); About how many?  Did you f e e l at home with them?  About  how long have they been here?" Interpreting the B a l t i c Cultures to Canadians During interviews the B a l t i c newcomers expressed a desire to t e l l Canadians about t h e i r own cultures.  Question 16 was i n -  eluded t o obtain f u r t h e r information about the strength of t h i s desire and the extent to which i t had been s a t i s f i e d . The newcomers were asked, "Are you interested i n interpreting your culture t o Canadians? so?  I f so, what?"  Have you had an opportunity to do  Since assiinilation i s a two-way process,  the understanding of the B a l t i c cultures by Canadians seems important i n the adjustment of the B a l t i c newcomers to Canadian culture.  <1.  k.  Recreational Interests of the B a l t i c Newcomers Questions lh, 1$, 17 and 18 deal with t h i s topic. lU  Question  asks, "To what s o c i a l groups do you belong here i n Canada?"  The purpose of this question was to determine the extent to which the B a l t i c newcomers are getting i n t o Canadian clubs i n l i n e with t h e i r hobbies and i n t e r e s t s . Question 1$ asks, "To what s o c i a l groups d i d you belong at home?"  The purpose of t h i s question was to obtain some i n -  d i c a t i o n of recreational group a c t i v i t y i n the B a l t i c countries.  Further, i t was designed to obtain information  which might be used i n helping the newcomers f e e l more" s e t t l e d i n Canada. Question 17  l i s t s a number of d i f f e r e n t types of entertain-  ment and asks the newcomer to "Check the entertainments which you prefer i n the following l i s t " .  The heading "Other  skills"  adds more f l e x i b i l i t y to the structure of this question. The.entertainments l i s t e d are those i n which the newcomer can p a r t i c i p a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The purpose of t h i s ques-  t i o n was to obtain information about the range and concentrat i o n of the interests of the B a l t i c newcomers.  On the whole  i t would seem that persons with many varied interests would f i n d i t easier to adjust to new situations than those who have very few interests. Question 18 asks, " I f you had more free time how would you spend i t ? "  This question was used to obtain information about  the interests which were most popular with the newcomers, since t h i s seemed to have a bearing upon the newcomers'  58 adjustment t o Canadian customs.  Furtherrthe r e p l i e s might  be useful in. determining ways i n which the adjustment could be expedited.  For example, i f newcomers f i n d reading un-  i n t e r e s t i n g , i t would be much more d i f f i c u l t t o explain Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p to them through the p r i n t e d page than i f they found reading i n t e r e s t i n g . D.  Method of Presentation of the Questionnaire t o the Subjects 1.  The majority of the questionnaire forms were presented to groups of B a l t i c newcomers.  In group presentation, instructions were  given i n the newcomers' native language as well as i n English. The i n v e s t i g a t o r gave the instructions i n English, and one of the newcomers who spoke both the p a r t i c u l a r B a l t i c language and English f l u e n t l y , translated. The following i s a p o r t i o n of the verbal i n s t r u c t i o n : "Most of the questions can be answered with a check mark. For example, i f you are a man, put an X' a f t e r 'male ; i f a woman, put an 'X' a f t e r 'female'. If you.are between the ages of 25 and 29 put an "X i n the space provided, and so on f o r the other ages. You w i l l notice that i n Questions 1 and 2 you are t o mark only your f i r s t choice, whereas i n Question 17 you may mark as many as you l i k e . I f you do not have room i n the space provided f o r any of the questions, use the back of the sheet." !  1  1  2.  A few of the questionnaire forms were mailed by the investigator to persons not present at the meetings.  (Not more than 6 out of  the 62) 3.  A few of the questionnaire forms were distributed through members of the three associations. acquaintances,  These were passed on t o friends and  or to newcomers from t h e i r native country whom  they happened t o meet on the s t r e e t .  There may be some bias i n the questionnaire returns from each i n d i v i d u a l group, but these seem to be l a r g e l y o f f s e t when the returns from the .three groups are taken together. a.  The Lithuanian questionnaire returns are probably biased towards attitudes of church attenders, since the meeting of the Association followed d i r e c t l y a f t e r morning mass.  b.  The Estonian questionnaire returns are probably biased towards attitudes of persons interested i n music and f o l k dancing, since they were mainly d i s t r i b u t e d through members of the choir and those persons who were p r a c t i c i n g f o l k dances f o r a forth-coming f e s t i v a l .  There were no regular meetings  of the Estonian Association during the time when the questionnaire forms were given out. c.  The Latvian questionnaire returns are possibly biased  i n the  opposite d i r e c t i o n since some of the regular members o f the Association were attending a concert and thus absent from the meeting at which the questionnaire forms were d i s t r i b u t e d . In the case of both the Latvian and Lithuanian groups the questionnaire forms were completed a f t e r lengthy business meetings.  Most  of the Estonians f i l l e d t h e i r forms out at home and returned them at a l a t e r meeting.  However, there seems to be l i t t l e difference  i n the number o f questions answered by each group or the a d d i t i o n a l comments made. On the whole rapport seems to have been maintained throughout the d i s t r i b u t i o n and completion  of the forms.  This i s i n part borne  out by the f a c t that many newcomers offered to d i s t r i b u t e further copies should they be needed.  6.0  TABLE  I  Proportion of Baltic Newcomers Who Answered the Questionnaire to Probable Total Baltic Newcomer Population i n Greater Vancouver  Country of Origin of Newcomers Contacted  Number of Questionnaire Returns Received  Estimate of Total Baltic Newcomer Population i n Greater Vancouver at , August 31'U9^ '  % of Newcomers Who Answered Questionnaire Forms i n terms of Total Population for Each Baltic Country  1  100  2$%  Estonian  25  Latvian  13  ho  32.5%  Lithuanian  2h  60  ho%  62  200  (l) Source of Estimates: ( i ) Lithuanian - List of Lithuanian newcomers in. Vancouver. Estimate made by President of the Lithuanian newcomers, ( i i ) Latvian - Regular weekly meetings. Estimate made by President and Vice-president of the Latvian Association, ( i i i ) Estonian - No membership l i s t and no regular meetings. Estimate of the President of the Estonian Association.  E.  Difficulties i n Determining the Representativeness of the Subjects Contacted of the Total Baltic Newcomer Population 1.  The newcomers from the three Baltic countries do not form, on the whole, close-knit groups.  Newcomers who have finished their  contracts i n other parts of Canada and have come to British Columbia do not necessarily get i n touch with any of the Associations.  The Estonians seem particularly individualistic i n this  regard, i n that even their Association holds very few meetings i n the course of the year.  This makes i t d i f f i c u l t to estimate  total numbers or the composition of the newcomer population.  .'61  2.  Whlle i t i s possible to obtain information concerning newcomers under contract, without impairing t h e i r anonymity, such contract laborers are s t i l l an unknown proportion of the t o t a l B a l t i c newcomer population i n any part of Canada.  In Canada as a whole  the r a t i o between newcomers who have been admitted under the "group schemes" to those who have been admitted under the " r e l a t i v e clauses" of the Immigration Act, i s roughly 3:2.  In  the sample of subjects used i n t h i s study the r a t i o i s approximately 1J.:1. Some Characteristics of the Nevreomers Who Replied to the Questionnaire 1.  Age and Sex of the Newcomers TABLE I I Age D i s t r i b u t i o n by Sex of 6l B a l t i c Newcomers Who Replied to the Questionnaire i n the Present Study  Age Group  Male  Female  Under 15  Total  0  15 - 19  2  2  20-21;  3  • 3  6  25-29  6  5  11  30 - 3h  6  9  15  35 - 39  10  6  16  Over kO  8  3  11  33  28  61  Total  '  62  2i  M a r i t a l Status of 5U of the Newcomers Married Single Widow Widower Divorced  3.  -  20 29 3 1 1  Educational Level of the Newcomers Average number of school years completed  - 11 years.  Range i n number of school years completed U.  5 to 22 years.  Country of Emigration of 58 of the Newcomers D. P. Camps i n Germany - l+O Sweden - 12 England -6  5.  Admittance to Canada Contract labor under group immigration schemes - U3 - LU  To r e l a t i v e s 6.  Length of Time Since the A r r i v a l of the Newcomers TABLE I I I Number of Months Each of 60 B a l t i c Newcomers Replying t o the Questionnaire Have Been i n Canada  No. of Months from Date of A r r i v a l to Completion of Questionnaire Form ( l )  1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23  Male  - 2  1 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 0  - U  - 6 - 8 -10 - 12  - LU  -  16 18 20 22 2U  7  10  30  30  6o  U  Total ( l ) Form completed August,  19U9.  Total  2 3 2 2 13 3 0 0 1 1 0 3  l  '  Female  3 5 5 5 15 6 2 2 1 5 l  G. Some Conclusions Concerning the Social Adjustment of the Baltic Nevreomers, Based on Replies to the Questionnaire" It i s recognized that no conclusions about the social adjustment of the Baltic newcomers settled i n other parts of Canada, or about newcomers from other countries who have settled i n British Columbia can be made on the basis of the replies from the subjects of this study.  However, the sample of 62 Baltic newcomers out of  a probable total of 200 Baltic newcomers would seem to be an adequate basis for some conclusions concerning the social adjustment of the Baltic newcomers i n British Columbia. These conclusions are based on the newcomers replies to 1  each of the questions and are thus presented immediately  after  the summary of the replies to the particular question to which' they refer. The order in which the material i n this section is presented is as follows: a.  The statement of each question;  b.  The summary of the replies to that question;  c.  The conclusions about the social adjustment of the newcomers, based upon the replies to the question.  In some cases, questions dealing with aspects of a larger topic, such as questions 1±, 5 and 6 which deal with jobs and working conditions, the summary of replies are considered under the individual questions, but conclusions about the social adjustment of the newcomers are discussed on the basis of the replies to a l l three questions.  1.  a.  Question 1;  "Which plan do you think best f o r r e s e t t l i n g people i n Canada? (Check your FIRST Choice)  b.  Summary of Replies TABLE IV. The Choice of Plan f o r Resettling People i n Canada Favored by $0 B a l t i c Newcomers (1)  Choice of Plan  No. Choosing Each Plan  a. Bring i n the young people (17-18 years and over); allow them to become s e t t l e d , and then bring i n t h e i r parents b. Allow only single persons to enter c. Bring i n the husband, wife and children, but leave the e l d e r l y f o l k i n Europe, since i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r old people to l e a r n the ways of a new country d. Bring i n the family, including the grandparents  8  /°  of Total  Male Female Married Single Age: a. Under 20  b. 20-29 c. 30 and Over  16  h  h  a. 0 b. h c. k  2  6  2  2  a. 0 b. 2 c. 2  18*  19*  a. 1 b. 8 c. 28  None  k  38  *  8  76  22  16  * 2 persons making choic "c" d i d not state whether they were male or female and 1 person d i d not state whether he was single or married. 1 person making choice "d" did not state whether she was married or single. ( l ) 12 questionnaire returns f o r t h i s question were spoiled by the subjects checking more than one choice. In conversation a f t e r the completion of the questionnaire many stated that the p o l i c y d i d not matter so long as immigrants were admitted from the D. P. camps.  SB  Conclusions (l)  Based on Replies to Question 1  From the foregoing table i t would appear that the majority of newcomers, i r r e s p e c t i v e of age, sex and marital status, prefer an immigration p o l i c y which favors family groups rather than single persons.  However, the s e l e c t i v e  p o l i c y i n Canadian group immigration schemes has tended to favor the single young persons, f o r economic reasons.  (See Appendix, pp. 118-121 ) This discrepancy between the immigration p o l i c y as i t i s i n f a c t and as the newcomers think i t should  be  seems to arouse a f e e l i n g of i n j u s t i c e and resentment. To the extent t h i s f e e l i n g exists i t deters t h e i r adjustment to conditions i n Canada. (2) Of the 8 persons who  chose to bring i n the young persons  f i r s t and then the parents, 6 are themselves s i n g l e persons and 1+ come within the favored age group.  -The  f a c t , however, that at l e a s t 19 of the 38 persons  who  favored admitting family groups are themselves s i n g l e persons seems to suggest that the majority of s i n g l e persons f e e l d i s s a t i s f i e d with the present p o l i c y .  It  might be i n f e r r e d that the young single people f e l t that l i f e i n Canada was more d i f f i c u l t f o r them because of the separation from t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  Although some young  people might prefer the greater freedom r e s u l t i n g from being away from family controls, the majority seem to • prefer to be i n the family group. ' The separation of family groups would seem to make more d i f f i c u l t the process of adjustment and also prolong the period of s e t t l e ment.  66  2.  •a. Question 2: :  b.  " I t would be best to bring i n : Choice)"  (Check FIRST  Summary of Replies TABLE V The Choice of Flan f o r Admitting Immigrants on the Basis of Three Broad Occupation Categories, Favoured by 53 B a l t i c Newcomersvl/  Choice of Plan  a. Professional People  No. Choosing Each Plan  1 (2)  b. Laborers  2  c. Trades People  0  d. Persons from a l l Trades and Professions  *  *><3>.  %  of Total  Male Female Married Single  Age: a. Under 20  b. 20-29 c. 30 and Over  2% . h%  9h%  27  23  22*  27*  a. 1 b. LU c. 35  1 person f a i l e d t o f i l l i n the marital status information.  (1)  9 persons spoiled t h e i r r e p l i e s to t h i s question by checking more than 1 space.  (2)  The educational l e v e l of the persons who favored bringing i n laborers v/as somewhat below the average f o r the 62 newcomers who answered the questionnaire, being 7 and 6 years as compared with an average of 11 years of schooling f o r the whole group.  (3)  The range of education of persons who chose "d" was from 5 years of schooling t o 17 years of schooling. .  c.  Conclusions Based on Replies to Question 2 (1)  The majority of newcomers, irrespective of age,  sex,  marital status or education, seem to p r e f e r an immigrat i o n p o l i c y which admits workers i n a l l labor categories. On the whole i t has been p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to place the so-called " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " and so a r e l a t i v e l y smaller proportion of t h i s category have been admitted i n t o Canada than t h e i r numbers i n the D.P. seem to have warranted.  camps would  Workers f o r the farms, mines  and forests have tended to be the preferred imnigrants. (See Appendix, pp.118  -121)  This discrepancy between the p r e v a i l i n g  immigration  p o l i c y and what the newcomers consider to be a more just p o l i c y seems to arouse i n the newcomers a f e e l i n g of i n j u s t i c e and resentment.  Further they are l e d to believe  that Canadians do not value educational accomplishments, whereas expenditures of governments on education would seem to indicate otherwise. ing  The confusion i n understand-  Canadian culture which results hinders the newcomers  1  acceptance of Canadian customs and values. (2)  From the fore-going table i t would seem that f o r a l l but the 2 laborers who came w i t h i n the preferred category, s o c i a l adjustment was to some extent made more d i f f i c u l t by the p r e v a i l i n g immigration p o l i c i e s .  Question 3;  "How would you go about arranging to house the families?"  Summary of Replies  (21; out of 62 r e p l i e d )  The most general response was,  "Let the newcomers b u i l d  t h e i r own homes, supported by low i n t e r e s t Government loans." There was,  however, more i n d i v i d u a l i t y than general pattern  evidenced i n the r e p l i e s .  Some of the r e p l i e s are as follows  "Housing smaller f a m i l i e s by giving them p o s s i b i l i t y of dwelling with some other l o c a l f a m i l i e s f o r short time Many people could buy farms and houses i f they could bring a l l t h e i r money over from Sweden and England Finding homes f o r Europeans can be organized better Make a l i s t of house owners who do take i n f a m i l i e s Appeal by radio and newspaper. More people would do so by making the s i t u a t i o n c l e a r to them......Find work f o r them. They s h a l l f i n d accommodation themselves.:" Conclusions Based on Replies to Question.3 (1)  The newcomers seem to be aware of the general housing shortage and w i l l i n g to help solve the problem by building t h e i r own homes.  (2)  On the whole the replies suggest c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ingenuity, i n d i v i d u a l i t y and a willingness to work, a l l of which would seem favorable to a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment to l i f e i n Canada.  Question 1+:  "What i s your present l i n e of work?"  Summary of Replies  (56 out of 62 r e p l i e s )  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of occupations among the newcomers i s as follows:  domestic worker sawmill worker h o s p i t a l worker construction worker carpenter furniture worker tailor draughtsman  12 h 3 3 3 2 2 2  There was one person only i n each of the following occupations farm worker bookkeeper accountant o f f i c e worker c l e r k i n bookstore minister nurse doctor laboratory technician Question:  painter sewer watchmaker manufacturer power machine worker stone worker jack hammer operator cook kitchen help laundry worker  "Have you done your present l i n e of work before?"  Summary of Replies  (59 out of 62  replies)  28 or 1+7.3$ " 31 or 52.75^  Number of newcomers replying, "Yes" was  "  "  Question:  "  "No"  "What do you plan to do next year?  Summary of Replies  (1+8 out of 62  Why?"  replies)  The newcomers plans f o r the following year showed a 1  wide range of i n t e r e s t and t r a i n i n g , but l i t t l e general pattern.  Of those replying, 12 intended t o do the same kind  of work, 9 wanted to get into t h e i r own l i n e of work and 10 r e p l i e d , "Don't know".  Some of the plans are as follows:  "Buy a cheaper l o t and b u i l d my own home Build up own factory. Open own t a i l o r shop Save some money to buy a farm Get married...... Continue studies at university."  70  g.  Question 5:  "How would you rank your present job i n terms of prestige i n your own country?"  h.  Summary of Replies TABLE VI  Distribution of Rankings Ascribed by 51 Newcomers to their Present Jobs i n Terms of Prestige in their Native Baltic Countries  Rank  Number Ascribing Each Rank  Very High  1  Medium High  9  Medium  2k  Medium Low  5  Low  12  i.  Question 6:  "List 3 things you like about your job; and 3 things you do not like."  j.  Summary of Replies  (21 out of 62 replies)  Because of the large variety of occupations of the newcomers who answered the questionnaire, there was no general pattern with regard to agreeable or disagreeable factors.  Some of the replies are as follows:  A carpenter: "I derive moral satisfaction from helping to ease the.housing shortage." Do not l i k e : "Employment and my future depends too much on general business conditions." A manufacturer: "Free enterprise i n this country. To build and calculate things for myself." Do not like: "No stability i n the market."  A hospital worker: "Like the 8 hour work-day and the 5 | day week." A laborer (2 years of university): "I like: money, 5 days work. I do not like: hard job, overtime." A sawmill worker (7 years schooling): "I like the money. I like freedom. I do not l i k e dictator." A sawmill worker (li; years schooling): "I make good money; learn a trade; have healthy work." A sawmill worker (18 years schooling, university graduate): "Good wages. iiO hours week. Good relationship with my employers." Don't like: "Low degree of mechanization; insufficient social insurance; physically hard." A domestic (university graduate): "I do not l i k e anything at all...In the worst years of the war I am never so poor, so lonely and so hopeless as I am here." A domestic (university graduate): "I like the family with which I am living. I do not like the very long hours I have to work and the way that Canadian children are allowed to do everything they like." A domestic (9 years schooling): "I like: nice family, good working hours, employer considerate. I do not like: children i n family of employer are not taught to obey and cause disorder i n the appearance of the house, therefore making more work for me." Conclusions Based on Replies to Questions 1+, 5 and 6 (1) Many of the newcomers seem uncertain about the vrork they w i l l do after they complete their contracts. (2)  The wide range of jobs being done by the newcomers would suggest an ability to adjust rather quickly to new situations.  (3)  The fact that about half of the newcomers have never done their present work indicates an adaptability but might also tend to make them feel insecure i n their present job.  (U)  On the whole the work that the-newcomers are doing i n British Columbia seems to rank about "medium" insofar as prestige i n their native countries i s concerned.  The  social adjustment would l i k e l y be somewhat easier for persons who are doing jobs which rank "medium" than those  72  whose jobs rank "low" i n prestige.  Generally speaking  the g i r l s i n domestic work tended to rank t h e i r jobs as "low" i n prestige i n t h e i r native country.  So long as  these g i r l s f e e l that they are i n "low" category work, they w i l l l i k e l y t r y to leave i t when t h e i r contracts expire.  I f unable to f i n d other work, t h e i r s o c i a l adjust-  ment to domestic work w i l l probably be quite d i f f i c u l t . (5>)  The B a l t i c newcomers' desire..to be, independent i s i l l u s trated i n t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s about t h e i r jobs. Many seem to prefer to work on t h e i r  5.  a.  Question 1:  b.  Summary of Replies  own.  "Where would you l i k e best to l i v e i n Canada? Why?"  TABLE VII B i s t r i b u t i o n of Choices of 57 B a l t i c Newcomers Concerning the Place i n Canada They Would Prefer to Live and Reasons f o r Their Choice  Place  Vancouver B r i t i s h Columbia  (l)  Number Choosing Each Place  35 16  Reasons f o r Liking I t ( l )  Number Mention?ing Each Reason  (Climate (Sea and Scenery  33 12  Toronto Ontario  2 1  (Business (Prospects  3  Montreal Quebec  3 0  (Business Prospects (More Kinfolk  1 2  Not a l l subjects choosing a place where they would prefer to l i v e gave t h e i r reasons f o r the choice.  73  c.  Conclusions (1)  Based on R e p l i e s t o Q u e s t i o n 7  The f a c t t h a t 51 o u t o f 57 B a l t i c newcomers p r e f e r r e d t o s t a y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and 1+5 o u t o f 57 gave as t h e r e a s o n t h e c l i m a t e and s c e n e r y , would seem t o suggest t h a t they f i n d i t r e l a t i v e l y easy t o adjust t o the climate o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The s c e n e r y o f E s t o n i a and p a r t s o f  L a t v i a i s n o t u n l i k e t h a t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. t i o n the Estonians  In addi-  and L a t v i a n s have f o r c e n t u r i e s been  s e a f a r i n g p e o p l e and thus p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s e a make's them f e e l a t home. (2)  The i n f e r e n c e might be drawn f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y 2 newcomers i n d i c a t e d a f e l t need f o r "more k i n f o l k " t h a t on t h e whole t h e newcomers c o n t a c t e d t o n o t f e e l a n unmet need f o r p r i m a r y and secondary group r e l a t i o n s h i p s . would seem t h a t t h e y f e e l q u i t e s e c u r e i n t h i s since the l a r g e r centers w i t h t h e i r greater o f newcomer p o p u l a t i o n have l i t t l e  6.  a.  Q u e s t i o n 8:  regard  concentration  appeal.  "Where i s y o u r f a m i l y l o c a t e d now t o t h e b e s t o f y o u r knowledge?"  b.  It  Summary o f R e p l i e s  TABLE V I I I D i s t r i b u t i o n Showing t h e L o c a t i o n o f t h e F a m i l i e s o f U5 B a l t i c Newcomers Location o f Family B a l t i c countries Siberia Canada D. P. Camps England Sweden  No. o f M e n t i o n s 17 11 11 1+ 1 1  >7k  c.  Conclusions Based on Replies to Question 8 (1)  $1% of the B a l t i c newcomers who answered the above question had close r e l a t i v e s who either had been deported to Russia or were i n danger of deportation. This s i t u a t i o n tends to make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the newcomers to f e e l s e t t l e d i n Canada.  (2)  Some of the newcomers whose immediate families are i n Canada have parents or other close r e l a t i v e s i n t h e i r homeland about whom they are concerned.  For example,  one newcomer replying to t h i s question stated, "Parents i n the o l d country, i f a l i v e . 7.  a.  Question 9:  b.  Summary of Replies  Wife here."  "Do you send the following to D. P. camps:  TABLE  "  IX  Number of Food and Clothing Parcels Sent by B a l t i c Newcomers to Friends and Relatives i n D.P. Camps and How Often They were Sent  Type of Parcel  c.  Total Sent  Friends Relatives  "How Often Unspecper Month ified Once Less More  Food  111;  2k  18  11  16  16  8  Clothing  31  20  11  8  9  17  1  Conclusions Based on Replies to Question 9 (l)  The B a l t i c newcomers seem to have f a i r l y strong t i e s with friends and r e l a t i v e s who  are s t i l l i n the D. P. camps.  i7 5  The f a c t that the persons i n the D.P. camps are s t i l l uncertain about t h e i r future tends to make newcomers here f e e l unsettled.  There i s a tendency to postpone t h e i r  decision to stay i n Canada u n t i l they f i n d where t h e i r r e l a t i v e s or close friends become s e t t l e d . (2)  A considerable portion of the newcomers' wages seem to be spent on food and clothing f o r friends and r e l a t i v e s i n the D. P. camps.  This tends t o strengthen the t i e s with  those s t i l l i n Europe, leaving the newcomers l e s s time and money f o r the purposes of becoming established i n Canada. Question 10:  "Are you taking lessons i n English?"  Summary of Replies  (£6 out of 62 r e p l i e s )  Number of B a l t i c newcomers wanting more lessons - -32 Number of B a l t i c newcomers taking English lessons - 19 Frequency of lessons:  once a week  9  twice a week  k  Other helps: "Conversation vdth Canadians......Reading and p i c t u r e shows .Newspapers, Friends;"'. Dictionary.. High School i n own country " Conclusions (1)  Based on Replies t o Question 10  Most of the B a l t i c newcomers studied English i n t h e i r own country and although they could not speak English f l u e n t l y or write i t e a s i l y , they f e l t that they could improve t h e i r command of the language s u f f i c i e n t l y by themselves.  (2)  32 out of the 62 newcomers replying to this question stated that they would l i k e more lessons.  Some i n -  dicated that they d i d not think the present lessons adequate because the classes were too l a r g e . (3)  Many of the newcomers are learning about Canadians and Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p through t a l k i n g with Canadians and reading newspapers and books.  a.  Question 11:  "How many Canadian homes have you been i n since you arrived? Did you f e e l at home with them?"  b.  Summary o f Replies Average number of Canadian homes v i s i t e d since a r r i v a l - 10 Range i n number - None to $0. Average number of Canadian homes v i s i t e d i n the past month- 1 Range i n number - None to 1$, B a l t i c newcomers who f e l t "at home" with Canadians B a l t i c newcomers who d i d not f e e l "at home" with Canadians  c.  Question 12:  d.  Summary of Replies  - l±8 -  k  "Have you found Canadians: very f r i e n d l y , f a i r l y f r i e n d l y , f r i e n d l y , somewhat unfriendly, unfriendly?"  •• TABLE  X  -  • - -  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Rankings on Friendliness of Canadians Made by 62 B a l t i c Newcomers  Rank Ascribed Very f r i e n d l y Fairly friendly Friendly Somewhat unfriendly Unfriendly  No. of Mentions 28 o 22 1 2  e.  Conclusions Based on Replies to Questions 11 and 12 (1)  The B a l t i c newcomers seem to be meeting and mixing with Canadians.  Only J4 out of 53 B a l t i c newcomers had not  v i s i t e d i n a Canadian home, while 8 had v i s i t e d 20 or more Canadian homes, lh had v i s i t e d from 10 to 19 and 27 from 1 to 9 Canadian homes. (2)  On the whole the B a l t i c newcomers seem to have found t h e i r contacts with Canadians pleasant experiences, as indicated by the f a c t that 28 out of 62 report f i n d i n g Canadians "very f r i e n d l y " , while 22 found Canadians " f r i e n d l y " and only 2 found Canadians "unfriendly".  10.  a.  Question 13:  b.  Summary of Replies  "Have you met many people from your own country here? ( i . e . v/ho -came before the war) About how many? Did you f e e l at home with them?"  B a l t i c newcomers who had met people from t h e i r homeland numbered 59. Average number met by newcomers from the three B a l t i c countries - i+5. Number of B a l t i c newcomers who f e l t at home with t h e i r countrymen - I4.6. Number of B a l t i c newcomers who d i d not f e e l at home with t h e i r countrymen - 11. Average length of time the oldtimers had been i n Canada From 20 to 25 years.. Some of the r e p l i e s of the newcomers were q u a l i f i e d as follows: "Do not get along with some who have Communist leanings Not with a l l of them Yes, i f we don't touch p o l i t i c s . "  78  c.  Conclusions Based on Replies to Question 13 (1)  On the whole the presence of the oldtimers seems to be a s t a b i l i z i n g influence, helping the newcomers to f e e l s e t t l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  (2)  In some instances the newcomers do not f e e l e n t i r e l y "at home" with the oldtimers.  Of those replying, I4.6  claimed that they f e l t "at home" with the oldtimers but 11 stated they d i d not.  Persons i n both cases q u a l i f i e d  t h e i r answers with such statements as " l e s , i f we talk p o l i t i c s " .  don't  Most of the oldtimers came to Canada  about 20 or 25 years ago and thus did not experience the period of freedom In the B a l t i c countries nor the present Russian occupation.  To some extent t h i s would tend to  deter the formation of s a t i s f y i n g primary group r e l a t i o n ships and thus lessen the newcomers' sense of "belonging". 11.  a.  Question lk'-  "To what s o c i a l groups do you belong here i n Canada?"  b.  Question 1$:  "To what s o c i a l groups d i d you belong at home?"  c.  Summary of Replies The number of newcomers replying to the above mentioned questions was very small, but the range of interests indicated i n each case i s considerable. The clubs mentioned as having been attended i n t h e i r homeland are as follows: "Scouts G i r l Guides A t h l e t i c Clubs Hunters Glub Student Groups  Singing and Gymnastic Group Religious, c u l t u r a l and educational Groups Sporting and church groups Sporting and c u l t u r a l groups Newspaper Association Bookkeepers' Society  19-  d.  Question 17: "Check the entertainments you prefer  e.  Summary of Replies  "  TABLE X I  Entertainment Preferred by 62 B a l t i c Newcomers  Type of Entertainment  Total Male Female Attend i n a Group Choice;  Attend Girl G i r l Man I .iJJan Alone -Girt -Man -Man - G i r l  Movies  59  30  2?  12  19  5  10  2  11  Symphony  h6  21  25  11  lh  5  7  2  7  Theatre(Stage)  39  17  22  11  10  6  5  1  5  Dancing  32  lk  18  Folk Dancing  25  10  15  Other Interests Mentioned  Walking  33  15  18  Driving  28  ih  lh  Writing Letter 5 33  18  15  7  6  1  7  6  2  2  Sailing Swimming Skiing Skating ( i c e ) Sculpturing Sewing Knitting Photography Cooking Fishing  21  19  Drawing Tennis  k  Bowling Staying at horn and reading  1  f.  Question 18:  " I f you had more free time how would you spend i t ? "  g.  Summary of Replies The i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the B a l t i c newcomers was manifest i n the r e p l i e s t o this question.  Reading, t r a v e l and music  were the interests most frequently mentioned. r e p l i e s are as follows:  Some of the  "Travel throughout the American  Continent....Reading, good music,  knitting...Hunting..."  Bb Conclusions Based on Replies to Questions lh, l£» 17 and 18 (1)  On the whole the B a l t i c newcomers seem to have a very broad range of i n t e r e s t s , including a c t i v i t i e s which require group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and others which they do alone.  (2)  Generally speaking they seem to prefer to attend a movie or symphony alone or i n a group rather than i n pairs.  When men were asked about t h i s , the frequent  answer was, " I t costs too much to take a g i r l a l l the time. (3)  They make good money too."  The B a l t i c educational system seemed to stress individual-centred rather than group-centred games. Although they enjoy a c t i v i t i e s with groups, the B a l t i c newcomers are quite s e l f - r e l i a n t insofar as recreation i s concerned.  They can go to a movie or symphony  alone, go f o r a walk alone, stay at home and read or write l e t t e r s .  This s e l f - r e l i a n c e tends to lessen  the tension which r e s u l t s from forced separation from friends and families and helps i n t h e i r s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment to new situations. (il)  Many of the B a l t i c newcomers belonged to clubs i n t h e i r homeland s i m i l a r to clubs i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  These  common interests could enable newcomers to become acquainted with Canadians and thus a s s i s t them i n becoming established i n new  communities.  c8l  12.  a.  Question 16:  b.  Summary of  "Are you interested i n interpreting your culture to Canadians? Have you had an opportunity to do so? I f so, what?" Replies  Number of B a l t i c newcomers interested i n interpreting t h e i r culture to Canadians was 52. Number of B a l t i c newcomers not interested i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r culture to Canadians was 5. There seemed to be r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e opportunity f o r doing so.  Typical r e p l i e s were: "Very small opportunity....  No opportunity....When I meet with Canadian f r i e n d s . " c.  Conclusions Based on Replies to Question 16 (1)  The large majority of B a l t i c newcomers seemed to be eager to interpret t h e i r culture to Canadians.  Out  of  57 newcomers replying, 52 s a i d that they were interested i n t e l l i n g Canadians about t h e i r culture. (2)  Few  of the B a l t i c newcomers seemed to have any  to f u l f i l l t h i s strong desire, as indicated by r e p l i e s , "No (3)  opportunity the  opportunities".  Since assimilation i s a two-way process, t h i s lack of an opportunity to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own deterred  culture probably  i n considerable measure the newcomers' interest  i n and acceptance of, Canadian culture. H.  Evaluation of the Questionnaire as Used i n This Study • 1.  On the whole the data secured through the use of the questionnaire was  useful i n understanding the ne?/comers problems I n connection  with becoming established i n Canada.  1  One of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the questionnaire i s that people are often reluctant to express t h e i r views and feelings on paper, although they w i l l do so during an interview.  This l i m i t a t i o n  i s indicated i n a l e t t e r from one of the newcomers, which accompanied h i s questionnaire return: " I f i l l e d out that question form. There are some questions I don't want to answer...I always remember that — 'You can think and t a l k a l l you l i k e , but never put that on the paper ". 1  Since the questionnaire was used i n combination with interviews and f i e l d observations the fore-going l i m i t a t i o n was l a r g e l y offset.  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING METHODS  No one method seemed to y i e l d s u f f i c i e n t data t o determine the major problems of the B a l t i c newcomers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the ways i n which they are endeavoring to solve t h e i r problems, and t h e i r general emotional reactions t o Canadian l i f e .  In the course of t h i s  study various methods were t r i e d or considered but not used.  The  combination which proved most useful was that of interviews and systema t i c f i e l d observations which were carried out concurrently throughout the research period, and a questionnaire administered towards the end of the period to determine the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the problems and the newcomers' solutions of them.  This questionnaire was based on the  data obtained through the use of interviews and f i e l d  observations.  P r i o r to this study a paper was prepared by the investigator, dealing with the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the B a l t i c peoples.  This paper  and the information derived i n i t s preparation were frequently used to e s t a b l i s h rapport.  For instance, the paper was given t o the members  of the executives of the associations formed by the B a l t i c newcomers, f o r criticism. led  The discussion of the past problems of the B a l t i c peoples  into a discussion of t h e i r present problems and what they were doing  about them.  Further, t h i s background material provided a frame of  reference within which the newcomers' present problems of becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada could be better understood. paper, see Appendix, pp. 122-27 ).  (For a summary of this  8k  The methods and techniques which were t r i e d or considered but not used during t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be discussed under two main headings: those which were useful and those which were not. A.  Methods Which Were Useful 1.  Interviews In a l l cases interviews were conducted i n English.  This tended  to eliminate f i n e r shades of meaning i n discussing any problem, but did not seem to unduly l i m i t the range of topics talked about i n the course of various interviews. In order to e s t a b l i s h and maintain rapport, interviews were almost e n t i r e l y of the r e l a t i v e l y non-directed type, and no notes were taken during the interview.  To minimize errors a r i s i n g from the f a u l t y  memory of the investigator, reports were w r i t t e n almost immediately following the interview or notes were made.  To further e s t a b l i s h  and maintain rapport, the interview was used to answer the newcomers  1  questions about Canadian culture.  These questions frequently indicated  situations which the newcomers found i t d i f f i c u l t to understand and thus aided the investigator i n detecting tension producing  situations.  The newcomers seemed to discuss t h e i r problems and f e e l i n g s more f r e e l y i n t h i s two-way interview than i n the more structured type of question and answer interview.  This reaction might be due i n part  to the f a c t that newcomers have had so many of the l a t t e r type of interview during the process of t h e i r screening i n Europe and t h e i r placement i n jobs i n Canada.  Thus i n spite of the language handicap, the interview was  a  p a r t i c u l a r l y useful method i n determining the ways i n which the newcomers are adjusting to l i f e i n Canada.  The chief advantage of  t h i s method was that i t yielded data covering a wide range of s i t u a tions and the newcomers  1  adjustment to them, whereas that obtained  through f i e l d observations and questionnaire r e p l i e s was  considerably  more r e s t r i c t e d i n scope. 2.  Systematic F i e l d  Observations  Throughout t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f i e l d observations were p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n obtaining information about spontaneous group reactions not securable i n other ways.  For the most part these were of the "part-  i c i p a n t observer" type, such as that used by Young (21;) i n studying the culture c o n f l i c t i n immigrant assimilation.  For instance, during  the study the regular weekly meetings of the Latvian newcomers were attended.  The investigator met with them f o r supper, took part i n the  worship service, played games and talked with the various members.  At  the same time an attempt was made to observe objectively what transpired.  To reduce the element of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n the investigator's  account of the incidents, reports were checked with other persons  who  were present. F i e l d observations were made concurrently with interviews and the data obtained thereby helped i n the understanding  of the newcomers'  solutions to the problems encountered i n becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada. For example, the newcomers' f e e l i n g of l o s s due to the foreign occupat i o n of t h e i r homeland was depicted i n a f o l k dance.  The dance u s u a l l y  represents the four blades of a windmill, but when performed by the newcomers had one blade missing — conquered homeland.  i t was  representative of the  ;.36  3.  Questionnaire Replies A questionnaire was  used as a f i n a l means of obtaining informa-  t i o n about the problems which the newcomers are endeavoring to solve i n making a new s t a r t i n Canada.  I t was used to determine the r e l a -  t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the problems of the newcomers  1  adjustment, based  on material obtained through the use of interviews and f i e l d  observa-  tions. In a previous study a questionnaire used at the beginning of the study was  not successful.  (See p. 11)  On the other hand the  questionnaire proved to be a useful research t o o l i n the present study.  There are a number of factors which might have contributed  to the present successful use of the questionnaire, some of which are as follows: a.  The newcomers said that they were interested i n the present  study and f e l t that i t was very worthwhile;  b.  The suggestion f o r  the use of a questionnaire was made by one of the newcomers a f t e r the f a i l u r e of an essay contest to secure biograms dealing with the newcomers s o c i a l adjustment to l i f e i n Canada (see Chapter V, p. 1  c.  The questionnaire was  32);  c a r e f u l l y checked with persons who were  holding high prestige positions i n the various newcomer organizations, f o r example, members of the executive (see Chapter V, p. k9)', questionnaire was  f a i r l y short - 2 pages - and took  d.  The  approximately  h a l f an hour to complete. Thus while there i s no i n d i c a t i o n that questionnaires w i l l always be useful i n s i m i l a r studies, i t may  be a very u s e f u l t o o l i n deter-  mining the newcomers' major problems and their reactions to them.  87.  B.  Methods Which Were Not. Useful 1.  Sociometric Methods, L i f e Histories and Experiments At the outset of t h i s investigation the above had been considered  as means f o r obtaining information pertinent to t h i s study.  However,  because of the need to maintain the anonymity of the subjects during the study, since t h i s seemed important i n maintaining rapport, no attempt was made to use any of the above mentioned methods. the number of newcomers from the Baltic countries who B r i t i s h Columbia was  Further,  had s e t t l e d i n  so small that i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to  obtain experimental and c o n t r o l groups f o r any experimental  study.  In the l a r g e r urban centers such as Montreal or Toronto, these d i f f i c u l t i e s might be overcome.  With the l a r g e r newcomer population,  anonymity might not be such an important factor, and i t would l i k e l y be e a s i e r to obtain experimental and control groups. 2.  Tests Testing as a means of obtaining data about the s o c i a l adjustment  of the newcomers was l i m i t e d by at l e a s t two factors: a.  There are r e l a t i v e l y few p e r s o n a l i t y tests which could be used as a measure of s o c i a l adjustment which do not require either a command of the English language or s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g to administer.  b.  The administration of tests i s time-consuming, e s p e c i a l l y i f done on an i n d i v i d u a l basis.  The administration of group tests  i s also d i f f i c u l t , since the newcomers have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e time together i n groups.  However, i n t h i s l a t t e r connection  88  i t might be possible to arrange f o r some group t e s t i n g during periods of i n s t r u c t i o n i n English, i f the co-operation of the school authorities and nevrcomers i s obtained. During t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n an attempt was made to administer the Thematic Apperception Technique as a group test. p. 15)  (See Chapter I I ,  The r e s u l t s obtained seemed to indicate that i t would not be  possible to obtain s u f f i c i e n t data i n t h i s way to warrant further attempts during the present study.  Also, the p o s s i b i l i t y of  jeopardizing the success of other methods by so doing discouraged a second attempt t o use the TAT.  From the foregoing i t would seem that no one method or technique i s l i k e l y to be adequate f o r the study of the s o c i a l adjustment of newcomers, but rather that i t i s necessary t o use a number of methods and techniques i n various combinations, determined by the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the groups being studied, as these become known.  CHAPTER VII SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE BALTIC NEWCOMERS  On the whole the newcomers tended to dismiss t h e i r present problems as r e l a t i v e l y minor i n comparison to those experienced during the time they were i n the D.P. camps or doing forced labor i n Germany.  During  interviews many t o l d of h o r r i b l e a t r o c i t i e s they had experienced themselves or witnessed.  The psychological scars i n some cases were much  deeper than i n others and much more evident i n some cases than others. Many of the newcomers who had suffered deep tragedy gave the general impression that they had not a care i n the world.  The endeavor to put  tragedy behind them and s t a r t a new l i f e i s indicated by such comments as, "Canadians cannot believe such h o r r i b l e things happened. are true.  Now that i s past.  But they  We make f o r ourselves a new l i f e here."  The B a l t i c newcomers seem t o be of a happy d i s p o s i t i o n .  This  ,  general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has been commented upon by v i s i t o r s t o the B a l t i c countries.  (See Appendix, p. 126)  Thus i n spite of the tragedy experi-  enced down through the centuries t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c happiness and sense of humor has remained.  I t was noticeable a t the regular weekly meetings  and on other occasions when newcomers gathered together.  A general  atmosphere of gaiety seemed t o p r e v a i l . Another general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems t o be a strong drive towards independence.  This seems p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n the Estonian people,  as indicated i n part by the slow growth of co-operatives among the  Estonian farmers during the period of freedom between World War I and World War II, i n contrast t o the f a i r l y rapid growth among the Latvian and Lithuanian farmers.  (See Appendix, p.127)  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was  evident i n the long centuries of struggle against foreigners who occupied the B a l t i c countries.  During this study i t was noticeable i n the r e l a -  t i v e l y few meetings held by the Estonians i n contrast to the many getto-gethers of the Latvians and Lithuanians.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of this  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the s o c i a l adjustment of the newcomer i s indicated i n the r e p l i e s t o the questionnaire.  For example, such answers as,  "I would l i k e t o b u i l d up my own factory", "Soon I s h a l l open my own dressmaking shop", "I s h a l l save and buy a farm of my own", indicate the independence of many of the B a l t i c newcomers. During the early stages of research many of -the newcomers seemed to be almost a f r a i d to plan f o r the future on any long term basis. Their main concern seemed t o be with the immediate present.  This adjust-  ment i s possibly due i n part to the years of uncertainty i n the D.P. camps and during forced labor i n Germany. the newcomers seem irresponsible.  At times i t tended to make  For example, they might enthusi-  a s t i c a l l y arrange" f o r an outing one week, but few turn out when the day arrived. During the l a t e r stages of research the newcomers seemed to f e e l a greater sense of security, and seemed to f e e l that they could plan ahead.  A contributing f a c t o r i n many cases was the a r r i v a l of close  r e l a t i v e s or friends from Europe. completion  Another f a c t o r seemed to be the  of contracts and the f e e l i n g that they were "on t h e i r own".  For convenience i n presentation, the newcomers' problems and t h e i r s o c i a l adjustment to these tension-situations w i l l be discussed under two headings: culture; and B.  A.  D i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n understanding Canadian D i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n interpreting the B a l t i c  cultures to Canadians. A.  D i f f i c u l t i e s Encountered i n Understanding Canadian Culture 1.  Most of the B a l t i c newcomers are anxious to learn about Canada and Canadians.  Few knew anything about Canada before t h e i r  a r r i v a l , whereas they had heard a great deal about the United States.  Questions asked by the newcomers during interviews  indicated that most of them want to l e a r n about Canadian culture. The cultures of the B a l t i c countries are f a i r l y well defined and they f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to understand the rather i l l defined Canadian culture.  In addition, despite the long centuries of  foreign occupation of the B a l t i c countries, the great majority of the people are the native B a l t i c peoples.  They thus experi-  ence some d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . This i s evidenced i n such statements as, "A Latvian i s a Latvian, but a Canadian may be English or P o l i s h or from many countries". 2.  The close proximity of Canada to Russia seems to be a f a c t o r which contributes to the newcomers f e e l i n g of insecurity. 1  During interviews many commented on t h i s , saying as one newcomer did, "We have run from Russia, h a l f way around the world, and now we are back next to Russia".  This f e e l i n g of insedurity i s  further indicated by such statements as, "The Russians w i l l come here, the same as to the B a l t i c countries".  92  Most of the B a l t i c newcomers studied the English language at school i n t h e i r homeland.  This i n part accounts f o r the f a c t  that only 19 out of the 56 newcomers replying to the question regarding classes i n English, were taking lessons i n English. The majority subscribe to a d a i l y newspaper, go to picture shows and l e a r n the language through t a l k i n g with Canadians.  When  asked i f they would l i k e more lessons, 32 out of 62 r e p l i e d , "Yes".  However, i n interviews and on. the questionnaire r e p l i e s  some newcomers indicated that they f e l t the present classes were inadequate i n that they were too large and frequently included persons who were j u s t beginning as w e l l as the more advanced students. So f a r the B a l t i c newcomers do not seem to be withdrawing i n t o close-knit ethnic groups, but rather are meeting and mixing with Canadians.  When asked how many Canadian homes they had v i s i t e d ,  only k out of the 53 replying s a i d they had v i s i t e d none.  Of  the remainder, 8 had v i s i t e d 20 or more Canadian homes, lh bad v i s i t e d from 10 to 19 and 27 from 1 t o 9 Canadian homes. On the whole the B a l t i c newcomers seem to have found t h e i r contacts with Canadians pleasant experiences.  In this  connection,  28 out of 62 reported i n their questionnaire r e p l i e s that they found Canadians "very f r i e n d l y " , while 22 found Canadians " f r i e n d l y " Only 2 of those replying found Canadians "unfriendly".  Occas-  s i o n a l l y during interviews newcomers said that they found Canadians " f r i e n d l y but s u p e r f i c i a l " .  93  6.  One of the effects of the Canadian immigration p o l i c y which for  economic reasons favors the s e l e c t i o n of the single persons  rather than family groups, seems t o be to increase the newcomers  1  f e e l i n g of insecurity, which deters t h e i r successful adjustment to l i f e i n Canada.  The enforced breaking of family ties often  results i n intense loneliness f o r the single immigrant as w e l l as f o r the families l e f t i n Europe.  (For an account by a new-  comer of the effects of the Canadian immigration p o l i c y upon family l i f e , see Appendix, pp.128- 29).  Because of this p r e f e r -  ence f o r the single worker, newcomers i n f e r that Canadians do not value family l i f e as highly as they the B a l t i c people do. This tends to hinder t h e i r understanding of Canadian l i f e and acceptance of i t . 7.  Many of the newcomers contacted seemed uncertain of t h e i r jobs a f t e r the completion of their contracts. When asked what they planned t o do the following year, 12 out of 59 replied, "Same kind of work", 10 said, "Don't know", and 9 answered, "Get into own l i n e of work".  The 12 who plan t o continue i n t h e i r present  l i n e of work include not only those who are i n t h e i r own l i n e of work already, but a l s o those with high school or u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g who f e e l there i s l i t t l e opportunity f o r getting out of t h e i r present low category work.  On the whole the attitude of  persons i n t h i s l a t t e r group seems t o be one of resignation rather than bitterness.  There are, however, instances where the  newcomers f e e l very b i t t e r about being "held down", and not being able to "get ahead" i n Canada.  9k  B.  D i f f i c u l t i e s Encountered i n Interpreting the B a l t i c Cultures to Canadians ~~~~~ 1.  The large majority of B a l t i c newcomers seemed eager to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r culture to Canadians.  In t h i s regard, 52 out of 57 new-  comers r e p l i e d i n the affirmative when asked i n the questionnaire, "Are you interested i n i n t e r p r e t i n g your culture to Canadians?" However, when asked what opportunity they had to do so, the t y p i c a l r e p l y was, "No opportunity".  Integration of the newcomers  into Canadian l i f e i s a two-way process and t h i s lack of opportuni t y to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own culture probably deterred i n some considerable measure t h e i r understanding  and acceptance of Canadian  customs. 2.  Largely because of- the present research, the B a l t i c newcomers - came to the attention of the Canadian Folk Society and were i n v i t e d to take part i n the Folk F e s t i v a l of that Society.  Both  f i e l d observations and interviews indicated that the newcomers f e l t more s e t t l e d here i n B r i t i s h Columbia because of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the F e s t i v a l .  Further, i t seemed t o stimulate  greater i n t e r e s t i n Canadian l i f e . 3.  Many of the newcomers seemed to f e e l a deep sense of l o s s due to the Russian occupation of t h e i r homeland and the large-scale deportations of B a l t i c peoples to "Siberia".  This seemed p a r t i c u -  l a r l y noticeable i n the case of persons i n t h e i r 30's and over, who had taken an active part i n building up t h e i r homeland during the 20 years of freedom between the two World Wars.  This sense  95  of l o s s seems to be a d r i v i n g force i n the newcomers desire to 1  r e t a i n t h e i r culture and to i n t e r p r e t i t t o Canadians.  A  further d r i v i n g force i n t h i s connection may be due t o a sense of g u i l t at having' l e f t t h e i r homeland.  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  t h e i r culture and the preservation of i t might thus be to some extent a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n on the part of the newcomers by which they j u s t i f y t o themselves t h e i r f l i g h t from t h e i r homeland. km  The strong emotional t i e s of the B a l t i c newcomers i n B r i t i s h Columbia with friends and r e l a t i v e s s t i l l i n the D. P. camps seem to make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the newcomers to f e e l s e t t l e d and thus deters t h e i r successful adjustment to l i f e i n Canada. The strength of t h i s attachment i s indicated somewhat by the f a c t that kk out of 62 replying to the questionnaire  said that  they sent food to friends and r e l a t i v e s i n the D. p. camps. 16 of the newcomers sent parcels once a month, 8 more often and 16 l e s s often than once a month. also sent frequently.  Clothing parcels were  31 out of the 62 newcomers sent parcels,  9 sending them once a month, 17 l e s s often, and 1 more often than once a month. 5.  On the whole the presence of oldtimers from the B a l t i c  countries  seemed t o give the newcomers a sense of"belonging" here. t y p i c a l comment i s , "We are not strangers here. people have been here a long time".  A  Many of our  The oldtimers made possible  the primary and secondary group relationships necessary t o the successful adjustment of the newcomers, to t h e i r new environment.  6.  In some instances the newcomers do not f e e l e n t i r e l y "at home" with the oldtimers.  Out of the £>7J newcomers replying i n this  connection to the questionnaire, 1+6 stated that they f e l t "at home" with the oldtimers and 11 claimed that they did not. Persons i n both cases q u a l i f i e d t h e i r answers with such statements as, "not with a l l of them", "yes, i f we don't touch p o l i t i c s " , "not with those who have Communist leanings".  Most  of the oldtimers came to Canada from twenty to t h i r t y years ago and thus d i d not experience the period of freedom i n the B a l t i c countries nor the present Russian occupation of their countries. They l e f t the B a l t i c countries at about the time of the Russian Revolution when the Czar who  represented the Russian conquerors  of the B a l t i c countries, was being overthrown.  In t h i s  t i o n , one of the newcomers r e p l i e d to an oldtimer who  connec-  praised  the Communists, "You have tasted but the sweetness of the pomegranate, we have eaten the b i t t e r seeds". The oldtimers have not formed ethnic groups and from the foregoing i t would seem that the newcomers are not l i k e l y t o form such strong t i e s with the oldtimers that i t w i l l prevent contacts with Canadians.  I t would seem that the primary and  secondary t i e s are strong, but not too strong to deter t h e i r successful adjustment to Canadian l i f e .  The B a l t i c newcomers have shown themselves to be very adaptive to t h e i r new environment. wide range of i n t e r e s t s .  In part t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y i s shown i n t h e i r In replying to questions 17 and 18 of the  97 questionnaire, the B a l t i c nev/comers indicated  an i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s  which require group p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w e l l as those which they could do individually. interested  For example, out of the 62 persons replying,  32 y/ere  i n dancing, 25 i n f o l k dancing, and 20 said that they l i k e d  to meet with a group of friends and t a l k together.  On the other hand  U0 said that they l i k e d to stay at home and read, and 33 indicated an interest i n writing l e t t e r s .  On the whole the range of interests would  seem to indicate that the B a l t i c newcomers can adjust to new situations f a i r l y easily.  In t h i s connection i t i s interesting to note that the  persons who found Canadians "very unfriendly" had r e l a t i v e l y few interests, had not been i n v i t e d t o Canadian homes, and had met with few of the oldtimers. This wide range of interests helped the newcomers to under- . stand Canadian culture.  Many have met Canadians through a common  interest i n sculpiiring, photography, painting, dancing.  In addition,  drawing, chess and f o l k  t h e i r broad interests have helped the B a l t i c  newcomers to interpret t h e i r culture t o Canadians. The s o c i a l adjustment of the B a l t i c newcomers contacted during ^ t h i s study seemed t o have been s a t i s f a c t o r y from the newcomers' point of view.  While many problems s t i l l e x i s t , the B a l t i c newcomers, on the  whole, seem to have found at l e a s t p a r t i a l solutions major problems.  f o r most of their  CHAPTER VIII SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH CONCERNING THE SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF NEWCOMERS •  In the present study an attempt has been made to discover from the newcomers themselves t h e i r feelings and attitudes about the situations to which they have to adjust i n becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada.  Before any  general conclusions can be drawn i n this connection, however, i t would be necessary to conduct the study on a much l a r g e r scale.  Further,  t h i s study has been concerned with the s o c i a l adjustment process from one viewpoint only, that of the newcomers.  I t would be necessary also  to consider the viewpoint of Canadians, such as employers,  club workers,  teachers of newcomers . classes i n English, before a f i n a l evaluation 1  can be made. On the whole there have been r e l a t i v e l y few studies of immigrant assimilation and f o r the most part these have been c a r r i e d out a considerable time a f t e r the j-nrmigrants have arrived.  Also, these studies  tend to deal with the s o c i o l o g i c a l rather than the psychological aspects of assimilation.  Thus, the tension-situations which the newcomers  experience are not discovered u n t i l years a f t e r the time when remedial measures could have been taken. s o c i a l adjustment i n s o c i a l therapy.  I t would seem that the study of the  of newcomers i s one f i e l d where research could be used (6k) Studies of the psychological aspects of  assimilation could provide adequate data upon which to base a mental health program f o r immigrants, the country as a whole.  as part of the mental health program f o r  99  There are two broad areas of research i n connection with the s o c i a l adjustment  of newcomers.  adjustment  to others —  One of these i s the i n d i v i d u a l newcomer's Canadians, oldtimers, newcomers.  The other  area concerns the factors and influences determining the personality of the i n d i v i d u a l . The f i r s t area of study would include research concerning the individual's acceptance by the community and h i s acceptance of the community.  It would include, f o r example, the adjustment  of the  parents at their jobs, the children at school, the part they take i n the l i f e of community organizations,such as church.  Adjustment taking  place i n intra-family relationships, r e s u l t i n g from the influence of the new c u l t u r a l expectations, would also.be included. t i o n a comparison of the s o c i a l adjustment  In t h i s connec-  of newcomers s e t t l e d as  family units and those where the breadwinner preceded the family by at l e a s t a year would be valuable i n determining future settlement programs. S i m i l a r l y , comparisons of the s o c i a l adjustment who  of single young people  have none of t h e i r k i n f o l k with them, and those who  are with family  groups might indicate ways i n which s o c i a l tensions could be mitigated. From the standpoint of personality studies, the second area, there i s ample opportunity to study c u l t u r a l differences and t h e i r influence upon personality structure i n this f i e l d to a new culture.  of newcomers' s o c i a l  adjustment  In the present study there seemed to be basic person-  a l i t i e s i n each of the three groups studied, which d i f f e r e d noticeably from one another.  For example, the Estonians seemed to possess a  100  rugged individualism which was i n sharp contrast to the more groupcentred a c t i v i t i e s of the Lithuanians.  These differences i n the ways  i n which newcomers from d i f f e r e n t countries adapt to any given tensions i t u a t i o n are s i g n i f i c a n t , not only to the newcomer, but t o the Canadian community as a whole, and thus deserve f u l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In conclusion, the p o s s i b i l i t y of psychological studies i n the f i e l d of immigrant i n t e g r a t i o n i s extensive.  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S.  A P P E N D I X  115  APPENDIX  A  Male  Married  Under 15 years  25 to 29  Female  Single  15 to 19  30  20 to 2k  35 to 39  Did you come to Canada under contract?  Yes  Were you sponsored by a r e l a t i v e ? Yes  to 3k  No No  When did you arrive? Month  Year  Did you come from: Sweden  What class did you complete i n school? How many years did. you go to school? 1.  Over 1+0  England .. . ...............  D.B»Camp •  .. . .  Which plan do you think best f o r r e s e t t l i n g people i n Canada? (Check FIRST choice) a.  Bring i n the young people (17-18 years and over); allow them to become settled, and then bring i n t h e i r parents  b.  Only allow single persons to enter  c.  Bring i n the husband and wife and children, but leave the e l d e r l y f o l k i n Europe, since i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r old people to l e a r n the ways of a new country  d.  Bring i n the family, including grandparents  2. I t would be best to bring i n : (Check FIRST choice) a. Professional people  b, laborers  c. trades people  d. Persons from a l l trades and professions 3.  k.  How would you go about' arranging  to house the families?  What i s your present l i n e of work? Have you ever done your present l i n e of work before? Yes What do you plan to do next year?  No  Why?  5. How would you rank your present job i n terms of prestege i n your home country: Very high 6.  Medium high  Medium  Medium low  Low  L i s t three things you LIKE about your job, and three things you DO NOT  LIKE.about*  116 7..  Where would you l i k e b e s t t o l i v e i n Canada? Why?  8.  Where i s y o u r f a m i l y l o c a t e d now,  t o the b e s t of y o u r knowledge?  9. Do you send the f o l l o w i n g t o D.P.Camps t o f r i e n d s Food: Yes  No  I f so, once a month  C l o t h i n g : Yes  No  Money: Yes 10,  No  12,  more o f t e n  less often  "  once a month  more o f t e n  l e s s often  "  once a month  more o f t e n  less often  Are you t a k i n g l e s s o n s i n E n g l i s h ? Yes Do you want more l e s s o n s ? Yes the E n g l i s h language? . ; ... , .  11,  or r e l a t i v e s  No • ('  _No  How  often?  . What o t h e r h e l p s have you had i n l e a r n i n g  How  many Canadian homes have you been i n s i n c e you a r r i v e d ?  How  many i n the p a s t month?  Do you f e e l a t home w i t h them? Yes  Have you f o u n d Canadians: Very f r i e n d l y Fairly friendly  13, Have you met About how  Friendly  many p e o p l e from y o u r own  many?  Somewhat u n f r i e n d l y  c o u n t r y here ( i e who  D i d you f e e l a t home w i t h them?Yes  D i d you f e e l strange w i t h them? Yes  No  No  About how  • Unfriendly  came b e f o r e the war)Yes NoJ No  l o n g had t h e y been here?  l i t . To what s o c i a l groups do you b e l o n g here i n Canada?_ 15.  To what s o c i a l groups d i d you b e l o n g a t home?  16.  Are you i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g y o u r c u l t u r e t o Canadians?Yes Have you had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o do so? I f so what?  17.  Check the e n t e r t a i n m e n t s  No  w h i c h you p r e f e r ^ i n the f o l l o w i n g l i s t :  Going t o the movies: w i t h a group  alone  with a g i r l  with a  man  Going t o a symphony: w i t h a group  alone  with a g i r l  w i t h a man  Going t o a stage p r o d u c t i o n : group  alone  with a g i r l  w i t h a man  Meeting w i t h a group o f f r i e n d s t o eat and t a l k t o g e t h e r Going t o a dance  Playing tennis  Bowling  Driving  S t a y i n g at home and r e a d i n g  Painting_  Doing e m b r o i d e r y __  F o l k dancing Writing letters  Other s k i l l s  " 8. I f you had more f r e e t i m e , how would you spend i t ?  Walking Drawing .  117 ' APPENDIX  B  ESSAY CONTEST FOR THE ESTONIAN, LATVIAN AND TOPIC: SOME OF THE  PROBLEMS OF L I F E IN CANADA AND  LITHUANIAN NEWCOMERS  THE WAY  I HAVE TRIED TO SOLVE THEM,  PRIZES:  i5.00 each t o the male and female c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e b e s t e s s a y s .  LENGTH:  Up t o , b u t n o t more t h a n 1,200  words, and n o t l e s s t h a n £00  words.  LANGUAGE: E s t o n i a n , L a t v i a n , L i t h u a n i a n o r E n g l i s h . DATE DUE: JUDGES:  June 3 0 t h ,  I9I4Q.  E s t o n i a n : Mr. Hugo Voore, Latvian: Mr. A. E. Brunners, Lithuanian: c-o Mr. E. S m i l g i s , Others: Mrs. John Benson, Mrs. H e l e n G, F o s t e r ,  CONTEST SPONSORED BY: Mrs. H e l e n G. F o s t e r , M.A.  BBBBBBBBBBBBi-  s t u d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C.  RULES:, 1.  T h i s c o n t e s t i s open t o a l l persons f r o m E s t o n i a , L a t v i a and L i t h u a n i a , who a r r i v e d i n Canada s i n c e J u l y \9h$.  2.  I t i s WHAT y o u w r i t e about i n y o u r essay t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t and not the s t y l e i n w h i c h you w r i t e i t . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r problems and how you have t r i e d t o s o l v e them, and n o t i n the s t y l e of y o u r w r i t i n g ,  3.  Some of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h t r o u b l e d y o u when you f i r s t a r r i v e d i n Canada have now been overcome, I would l i k e t o h e a r about these problems and how y o u ( o r o t h e r s ) s o l v e d them.  ii.  I n becoming s e t t l e d i n any new c o u n t r y one h i s many a d j u s t m e n t s t o make. would l i k e t o hear about these d i f f i c u l t i e s , whether l a r g e o r s m a l l .  5.  E s s a y s may be m a i l e d or handed t o any of th.3 above mentioned judges.  6.  V/hen you send ( o r hand) i n y o u r e s s a y , you . A i l l r e c e i v e a number. TAKE CARE OF IT. A d u p l i c a t e o f t h e number you r e c e i v e w i l l be a t t a c h e d t o y o u r e s s a y . Winners w i l l be announced by number,  ?.'  D e c i s i o n s o f the Judges w i l l be  3.  P l e a s e d e t a c h t h e CONTEST FORM below and a t t a c h i t t o y o u r e s s a y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l h e l p i n the g r a d i n g o f t h e essay 5 and i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g y o u r problems.  have  I  final.  - S B B B B B B B K B B B B t HB5-  REASONS FOR THE CONTEST 1. 1 am a s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h . Columbia, and f o r over a y e a r I have studied the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the B a l t i c peoples, 2., Because of t h e v e r y g r e a t development I n i n d u s t r y , a r t , music, l i t e r a t u r e i n the B a l t i c c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g t h e i r 20 y e a r s of freedom, I d e c i d e d t o s t u d y t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e o r i g i n a l i t y and e n e r g y o." E s t o n i a n s , L a t v i a n s and L i t h u a n i a n s . i s b e i n g a p p l i e d t o t h e problems of making a new s t a r t i n Canada, 3. Only t h e newcomers themselves can t e l l about t h e s e problems. T h i s c o n t e s t i s to e n a b l e them t o do so. (Signed) H e l e n G, F o s t e r -IBBBBBBBBBf-' "BKBBBBC-  DETACH HERS  ^BBBBBBBWBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB KBBBBBBBBBBBBHHBBBBBBBBS-DETACH  A t t a c h t h i s form to your e s s a y . NOTE:  ESSAY CONTEST FO FOR ESTONIAN, LATVIAN A N D LITHUANIAN NEViiCOMERS  Take car« o f y o u r number.  Age Group:  Over l 0 t  35 t o 39  Number:  E s s a y w i n n e r s w i l l be announced  P l e a s e check (X) t h e a p p r o p r i a t e space: 30 t o 3I1 25 t o 29  by number.  Ms l e  Single  Fe; nale tc~2H ____  Married Under " T T  0  15  t o 19  How many y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g have you had?  hen did you arrive in Canada? Month  :  HERE  Year  Did you come under the Government Displaced Per. ens Scheme? Yes  No  118  APPENDIX  C  THE CANADIAN IMMIGRATION POLICY AND ITS ADMINISTRATION WITH RESPECT TO THE DISPLACED PERSONS (Source: From a paper by Hugh L. Keenleyside, Esquire, M. A., Ph.D., LL.D., Deputy Minister of Mines and Resources, Ottawa. This paper was presented at the Symposium on Population Growth and Immigration into Canada, held at McMaster Universi t y , A p r i l , 19k9.) "Speaking i n the House of Commons on May 1, 19hl, the then Prime Minister, Mr. Mackenzie King, gave the most comprehensive and authoritative statement that has been made since the war, of Canadian p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to immigration. He said i n part: 'The p o l i c y of the Government i s t o foster the growth of the population of Canada by the encouragement of immigrat i o n . The government w i l l seek by l e g i s l a t i o n , regulation and vigorous administration, to ensure the c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and permanent settlement of such numbers of immigrants as can advantageously be absorbed i n our national economy. '•It i s of the utmost importance to r e l a t e immigration t o absorptive capacity. In the past, Canada has received many m i l l i o n s of immigrants, but at the same time marry m i l l i o n s of people have emigrated. The objective of the government i s to secure what new population we can absorb, but not to exceed that number. The figure that represents our absorptive capacity w i l l c l e a r l y vary from year t o year i n response to economic conditions. 'There w i l l be general agreement with the view that the people of Canada do not wish, as a r e s u l t of mass immigration, to make a fundamental a l t e r a t i o n i n the character of our popul a t i o n . .. 'With regard to the s e l e c t i o n of immigrants much has been said about discrimination. I wish to make i t quite c l e a r that Canada i s p e r f e c t l y within her rights i n selecting the persons whom we regard as desirable future c i t i z e n s . . . •During the depression and the war immigration was i n evitably r e s t r i c t e d ; now the categories of admissible persons have been considerably widened. Special steps w i l l also be taken to provide f o r the admission of c a r e f u l l y selected immigrants from among the Displaced Persons of Europe. 1  119  ..."Under the Immigration Act and Regulations as they stand today, three categories of persons who are admissible to Canada as iinmigrants may be readily summarized. The f i r s t most favoured group includes British subjects from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Aust r a l i a and South Africa; citizens of Ireland; citizens of the United States; and French citizens born i n France and entering Canada direct l y from that country. The second general category of admissible persons consists of close relatives of persons legally domiciled i n Canada. The third category comprises citizens of non-Asiatic countries who are coming to Canada as agriculturists and who have sufficient means and the intention to farm i n Canada, either by themselves or with the assistance of relatives; farm labourers coming to engage i n assured farm employment; miners and wood workers coming to assured employment i n the mining and forest industries" ..."Special reference should be made to the arrangements devised to provide for the admission of Displaced Persons* By successive Orders i n Council, permission has been granted for the admission of 40,000 of these persons who would otherwise have been i n admissible. (D.P.'s who are admissible relatives of Canadian r e s i dents are not included i n this quota of 4 0 , 0 0 0 . ) Not only was Canada the f i r s t non-European country to take positive action of this kind, without waiting for a general international agreement; but for many months Canada was admitting more D,P's than a l l other non-European countries combined. Our total of 6 4 , 8 6 0 D.B's admitted (from April 1947 to March 1 9 4 9 ) ' i s s t i l l considerably higher than that of any country outside Europe, including the United States. Since Displaced Persons, once established i n Canada, may apply i n turn for the entry of their own relatives, this country's contribution to the solution of the resettlement problem w i l l probably involve an eventual movement of something over 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 Displaced Persons, "When the Canadian Government decided to make provision for the admission of non-relative D.P.s, steps were also taken to ensure that those admitted were of types that would be useful i n the Canadian economy and likely to make good Canadian citizens. The machinery*set up to carry out this policy includes and inter-departmental j_anigration-Labour-Committee, to assess labour requirements i n Canada 'and to define the types of Displaced Persons which should be admitted to meet established needs. , . "Applications for D.P, iabour from prospective employers are examined by this Committee, to ensure that they are prepared to. give at least one year's employment, to pay the prevailing wage rate for the type of labour concerned, and to provide housing on arrival, "Great care i s taken to ensure that the entry of D.P.s i s not used to depress wages or otherwise adversely affect, .the standards rof labour. When satisfactory conditions are established, i f the applica-  Canadia  120  tion i s approved by the Committee, i t i s forwarded by the Immigration Branch to the International Refugee Organization i n Geneva. At the same time, word i s sent to the Canadian Government Immigration Mission at Karlsruhe. Working out from this headquarters are nine teams of Canadian o f f i c i a l s , each consisting of an Immigration Officer i n charge of the team, a Medical Officer, a Security Officer and, as required, a Labour Officer. At the D.P. camps, a Canadian team medically ex- ' amines the prospective immigrants and screens them for p o l i t i c a l accept a b i l i t y (Nazis and Fascists, as well-as Communists, are screened out); the Labour Officer sees that they are suitable for the type of/employment that i s being offered; f i n a l l y , the Immigration Officer satisfied himself that the immigrants are of a type that i s likely to succeed under Canadian conditions*  ••• "Another administrative activity which deserves a brief comment i s that of assisting immigrants to become quickly and satisfact o r i l y settled i n the Canadian community. This i s more than a matter of providing jobs for D.P.s. It means preparing them before they arrive for conditions that they w i l l find here, and assisting them after arrival to solve the many delicate problems of adjustment to the new and often very strange environment. "In the D.P. assembly centres on the continent, and on the way across the ocean, moving pictures of Canada are shown, and talks on Canadian conditions are given. Moreover, the Immigration Branch of the Department of Mines and Resources has had prepared i n half a dozen languages, a small book entitled "This i s Canada", presenting i n simple form a background to the conditions which the immigrant w i l l meet on arrival. Following their arrival, the D.P. immigrants, and similarly the Dutch immigrants under the Farm Settlement Scheme, are directed to the localities on which arrangements have been made for their reception. At this point these immigrants and, of course, a l l those who come i n on their own, become primarily the responsibility of the provincial rather than the federal authorities. "However, through the work of the Settlement Service of the Immigration Branch, the National Employment Service, and the Citizenship Branch, the Federal Government continues i t s interest i n the new arrivals. A l l aspects of the problem of assimilating immigrants are kept under review by an Advisory Committee on Citizenship, with the Under-Secretary of State as chairman, and including representatives of the Immigration Branch, the Department of National Health and Welfare, the Department of Labour, the Department of Veterans' Affairs, and the Citizenship Branch. (Representatives of the Canadian Council on Citizenship, the Canadian Welfare Council and the Canadian Educational Association attend meetings of the Committee i n an advisory capacity.)  121  "The Citizenship Branch has prepared a c o l l e c t i o n of educat i o n a l materials dealing with such matters as Basic E n g l i s h , the Canadian system of government, and the a c q u i s i t i o n of c i t i z e n s h i p , which are made available to the various provinces f o r t h e i r work with New Canadians. Almost without exception the provinces have taken advantage of t h i s o f f e r , and very wide use i s being made of -the material thus supplied. In c e r t a i n parts -of the country special plans have been - i n i t i a t e d for t r a i n i n g teachers i n c i t i z e n s h i p classes, so that they w i l l be competent to i n s t r u c t immigrants. Films have, i n a d d i t i o n , been d i s t r i b u t e d by the National Film Board f o r use among immigrant groups, and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has recently put on a series of dramatizations designed to f a m i l i a r i z e our people with some of the problems faced by New Canadians. '^Mention should also be made of the free medical a i d that i s given to D.P.s at the port of a r r i v a l . Then, c e r t a i n categories of immigrants come under a co-operative arrangement between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments by which the former pays part of h o s p i t a l and health service costs during the f i r s t s i x months of the immigrants l i f e i n Canada. (Mention should also be made of the assistance extended to the New Canadians by private welfare organizations throughout the country - p a r t i c u l a r l y the Red Cross, the YWCA, and the Catholic Women's League.) "Finally, a recommendation has been made that the government appoint a small number of o f f i c e r s , responsible to the C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, to act as a d i r e c t channel of communication between the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , private organizations and the Federal Government i n connection with the problem of the newly a r r i v e d immigrants. I t i s hoped that these Citizenship- Officers may perform a useful service i n seeing that there i s no overlapping i n the functions of the respective organizations and that there are no gaps l e f t u n f i l l e d . ^ . "  122  APPENDIX  D  CULTURAL HISTORY OF THE BALTIC PEOPLES Excerpts from a Paper on the Cultural History of the Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians prepared by the author f o r presentation to the Immigration Study Group of the Vancouver Branch of the Federation of University Women, March 1 s t , 1943. Estonia, L a t v i a and Lithuania are situated on the eastern coast of the B a l t i c sea, with Russia to the East and Germany to the south and west. The newcomers from these B a l t i c countries miss the r e l a t i v e smallness and. compactness of t h e i r countries as they t r a v e l across the great expanses of Canada. Many commented that they t r a v e l l e d further from H a l i f a x to Vancouver than from Germany to H a l i f a x . Estonia, the smallest of the three countries encompassed 18,353 square miles, L a t v i a 25>395 and Lithuania 21,489 p r i o r to the Soviet Union s occupation i n 1939. By way of comparison, England occupies 50,851 square miles and Vancouver Island 12,408 square miles. 1  The cultures of the three countries stem from d i f f e r e n t roots. The Estonians are a branch of the U r a l - A l t a i c family speaking a language belonging to the Fenno-Ugrian group. The Letts and Lithuanians are of Indo-European stock, the Lithuanian language being r e l a t e d to ancient Sanskrit. None of the B a l t i c peoples speak Russian or any d i a l e c t even c l o s e l y related to i t . Although the B a l t i c peoples have been under the domination of foreign conquerors since the 12th and 13th centuries, only a very small proportion of the population i s of foreign o r i g i n . In Estonia 88.2$ of the population were Estonian, 1.5$ German, 8.5$ Russian (3/4 of these Russians were poor peasants l i v i n g i n the eastern f r o n t i e r d i s t r i c t s ) , •7$ Swedish and .4$ Jewish. In L a t v i a 75.5$ of the population was L e t t i s h , 11.97$ Russian, 4.79$ Jewish, 3.19$ German, 2.51$ Polish and others including Lithuanians and Estonians. In Lithuania 83.88$ of the population (excluding Memel where the majority were German) were Lithuanians, 7.58$ Jews, 2*7$ Russians, 3<23$ Poles and 1.44$ Germans. This high percentage of Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians within t h e i r respective countries may account i n part f o r the r e t a i n i n g and developing of d i s t i n c t n a t i o n a l cultures. With the r e l a t i v e homogeneity of population there i s l i k e l y to be less marked divergence i n the t o t a l culture than i n Canada where the culture i s the product of a great d i v e r s i t y of cultures from countries throughout the world. The h i s t o r y of the B a l t i c peoples from the time of the Danish invasion i n 1030 A.D. has been one of foreign invasion. Yet even at that e a r l y date the cultures of the B a l t i c peoples were f a i r l y w e l l advanced  123 as Indicated by their criminal codes, national administration, monetary system and system of weights and measures. From 1201 onwards the greater part of the Baltic lands f e l l under the domination of the Knights of the Sword and then the Order of Teutonic Knights, to whom i n 1346 the Danes sold their share of Estonia. These Orders colonized the territory} converted the inhabitants to Christianity with considerable bloodshed on both sides for the pagan Baits considered their religion and ethics superior . to that of their conquerors; and made them serfs. Their lineal descendants, the Baltic barons maintained their position as the land-owning class u n t i l f a i r l y recent times, i n spite of the fact that this territory passed into the hands of Sweden, Poland and f i n a l l y Russia. In Lithuania, however; the Teutonic Knights were never able to make headway beyond the Memel territory. While Latvia and Estonia suffered under the conquest of the Teutonic Knights Lithuania enjoyed a period of greatness under Vytautas the Great. From 1392-1430 the country stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. During the period that Estonia and Latvia were under Swedish rule, Lithuania and Poland were united with both states under elected kings. . Eventually the three Baltic countries came under Russian domination i n the 18th century. The period of Swedish rule (1600-1721) was the bright spot i n the history of Estonia and Latvia from the time of the Danish Invasion u n t i l eventual liberation i n 1918. Through the reforms of Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XI, schools were established and land reform instituted which checked the i l l e g a l dealings of the Baltic barons and gave the land to the peasants. But the Great Northern War between Sweden and Russia l a i d waste the populace and lands of the Baltic, leaving Estonia a desert and the Estonians a famine-stricken, diseaseridden remnant of the old peasantry. For 10 years the land was not plowed and i n 1714 of the 38,000 holdings of arable land i n Estonia, only 733 were under cultivation. Estonia and Latvia emerged from the war with no more privileges than they had held prior to the Swedish regime. Not u n t i l 1816 i n Estonia and 1818 i n Latvia was serfdom abolished, and i t was not u n t i l 1849 that the peasants were allowed to buy their own land. Finally i n 1868 forced labor was abolished. The fruition of the centuries of struggle for possession of their land was marked by the intense enthusiasm and effort with which the peasant and his family went to work. Often self-employed people drive themselves much harder than any master would be able to; even under the feudal laws from which-the Estonians and Livonians were now freed. Tenants set about the task of improving their buildings and lands i n what might well be described as a frenzy of work. This release of land was not,however, an unmixed blessing. Many Estonians and Latvians were sinking i n the social scale. The tenant who failed to make good, the cottagers who held but a hut and potato patch on the lord's demesne, the men who never held land, the servants, a l l now wandered about the land as "seasonal workers" being exploited by the nobles and peasant farmers alike. Many of these found their way to the towns. Others emigrated to Southern Russia. One of the results of the trek to the towns and cities of this displaced rural population, was the changed character of the c i t i e s . In  12k 1871 only half of the population of Tallinn and Tartu was Estonian but by 1897, 88$ of Tallinn's population and 70$ of Tartu's population was Estonian. Similarly the Latvian cities were changing i n character. In 1867 the population of Riga was 104,000, by 1888 i t was 182,000 and by 1914 i t had exceeded the half-million mark. The influx i n population consisted mostly of Latvians, thus changing the population of the cities from being predominantly German to Latvian. A similar change took place in the towns. This change i n the character of the cities brought the Latvians and Estonians into close contact with their fellow countrymen and gave impetus to the national awakening i n these countries. About the middle of the 19th century various types of associations were formed: singing societies, sports clubs, educational groups, libraries, night and Sunday schools, people's universities, agronomical and nautical institutes. These supported by a.vigorous press marked a strong cultural ascendance to national consciousness and unity. A set-back was soon experienced'to this sudden growth of national culture i n Estonia and Latvia. In 1882 Russia decreed that the language of instruction i n " a l l but the f i r s t elementary schools would henceforth be Russian. In 1886 a l l schools were put under the Russian Minister of Education.New Russian secondary schools, impressively built, and lavishly equipped were rapidly constructed i n the towns. In 1893 the University of Tartu was closed and reopened as a Russian academy. The Bait students protested this attempt to curb the growth of Estonian culture by withdrawing from the University and the enrollment dropped from 1,054 i n 1890 to 268 i n 1900. In Riga 1,000 teachers met i n conference and passed a resolution demanding the use of the Latvian language i n Latvian schools. Serious riots broke out i n the cities and spread throughout the country, due i n part to this compulsory use of theRussian language,, but augmented by grievances against the German land-owning class and having to fight i n the Russian-Japanese war, 10,000 miles from home. Similarly i n Lithuania the use of Russian was made compulsory i n the schools and organizations and the press were suppressed. Three revolts, i n 1831, I863 and 1905 were put down by force. During this period many Lithuanians escaped to the United States. Finally i n 1918 the Baltic countries won their independence, and eventually the Russians and Germans withdrew their forces. The Lithuanians celebrate their day of liberation on February , the Estonians on February 24th, and the Latvians on November 16th. It i s interesting to note that during the long centuries under German and Russian domination the influence on the Baltic cultures was negligible whereas the Estonians and Latvians who came under the Scandinavian influence were amenable to the influences of that culture. "The Latvians and Estonians while under Swedish and Danish rule willingly adopted Swedish and Danish democratic laws and statutes, culture and mode of l i f e . Nevertheless they continued to preserve their national entities. On the other hand, when they a l l were subjected to the most unscrupulous attempts at russification at the end of the XIX  125 century, they courageously withstood i t , thus showing splendid cultural preparedness and solidarity against these efforts to denationalize them" It i s not surprising to find that considerable importance i s placed upon education i n the Baltic countries after their liberation. This relative importance i s indicated by the fact that next to national defence education was the heaviest burden on the Estonian taxpayer, representing nearly 20$ of the national budget. With a population slightly under that of Montreal, Estonia had by 1929 1,292 primary schools with an enrollment of 97,979, 83 secondary schools with an enrollment of 15,663, a higher technical school and Tartu University, with a combined registration 4,225 students. Similarly, i n Latvia by 1935 there were 1,907 primary schools, 122 secondary schools, and the University of Riga with 7,203 students. In Lithuania from 1919 to 1936 the number of primary schools increased from 877 to 2,557. The school leaving age i n the Baltic countries was 16 years. . Soon after independence was won Estonia adopted the Law of Cultural Autonomy recognizing the rights of minority groups. Thus minority groups numbering not less than 3,000 persons had the right to exercise national autonomy, and this extended to a l l educational, cultural and charitable institutions. The accomplishments of the Baltic countries during their 20 years of freedom are remarkable, especially i n view of the fact that a government had to be set up, and legislative and administrative details worked out. Further the world depression of the 1930's came about mid-way i n the period of freedom. The bulk of the trade of these countries was with the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden. In addition to the disruption to the economy caused by the War, the breaking up of the large estates and the growth of the co-operative movement entailed time i n reorganizing the economies of the countries» Generally speaking Lithuania made more rapid gains i n agriculture than did Estonia or Latvia, but the latter two countries advanced further and faster i n the manufacturing industries. 1  The influence of the past on the accomplishments during the period of freedom i s indicated i n part i n the following statement concerning Latvian industry: "the modern industrial arts turned for inspiration to the ancient traditional patterns, striving for individualistic expression that long had lain dormant i n old homes throughout the countryside. Old furniture, pewter, glass and ceremics rapidly became collectors' items and were reproduced by modern industries for an even increasing demand.. In part the accomplishments i n the Baltic States was due to the very high percentage of employment: 67.6$, 64$ and 62.9$ for Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia respectively as compared with 52.7$ for Sweden, 49.5$ for Britain, and 41.7$ for Denmark. One of the factors contributing to this high percentage of workers may have been the fact that many of the wives worked i n the Baltic countries. For example, the Estonian  126  housewives, i n addition to the excellent care of their homes and children, often worked i n the offices and banks, or i n the various departments of the Ministries. A German chronicler of the 13th century wrote i n amazement about the emancipation of the Baltic women: "Here women ride on . horses the same as men". The Baltic women have long enjoyed a position as their husband's partner and thus took an active part i n the building up of their countries after the' liberation. This did not detract from their enjoyment of the long winter evenings at home, for there was always plenty of gaiety — bridge, concerts, the theatre, ballet, opera and amateur theatricals and reading. One of the characteristics of urban l i f e i n Latvia seems to be the preference of the bulk of the people for large apartment units i n preference to single family dwellings. Although highly individualistic i n other ways they seem to prefer the conveniences of apartments. The large parks afford play space for the children and enable the people to enjoy the beauties of flowers and shrubs. Another characteristic of urban l i f e i n Latvia was the summer exodus of families to the cottages which lined the beaches and the banks of the Daugava river. Mothers and children enjoyed the out-of-doors in this manner from May to September, with the family breadwinner commuting daily from his job intthe city. Many of the offices and stores closed early during the summer months to facilitate this summer l i f e along the beaches and i n the pine forests. Frequently women of the peasant or small-farmer class do not occupy a position of equality with their husbands although women i n cities tend to do so. Thus the independence and equality of the Lithuanian women i s i n marked contrast to the position generally held by women i n rural areas. Davis states: "she works as hard as her husband, but she i s his equal, consulted on a l l matters of importance, and spends her own earnings by garden or loom. On market days she comes i n with him, helps him to drive his bargains, and drinks with him and his friends i n the inn on terms of perfect friendliness and equality". The characteristics of the Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians show marked similarities as well as differences. The folk-tales and songs of these people t e l l of the days prior to the invasion of their conquerors and indicate the tenacity with which they have retained their individual cultures. The extreme pressure of the "out group" conquerors seems but to have strengthened the " i n group" t i e s . An indication of the diversity of their culture and the reinforcing ties i s afforded by the fact that the Folk Lore Archivists at Tartu University alone prior to World War II had documented more than 100,000 songs and rhymes, some 80,000 old songs and 50,000 more recent ones, and more than 10,000 fairy tales, proverbs and riddles. Despite the hardships suffered by the Baltic peoples they a l l seem to possess a very pronounced sense of humour. Evidence of this i s seen i n the comic twist given to many of the Estonian legends. Similarly the view of l i f e expressed i n ancient Lettish legends and folk-lore shows i t to have been a joyous one, sociable, and hospitable. The sadness and note of melancholy found i n later folk-lore i s not indigenous, but the  127  result of long years, of serfdom. The Lithuanians too seem to be of a very happy disposition. Benedictsen, the philologist says, "To find a peasantry i n a l l the world which understands like these how to make a festival of both work and leisure". Davies who spent considerable time travelling i n the Baltic countries says, "Everyone sings i n Lithuania and there i s a song for everythingj for every aspect of nature and every moodj for every action of work or play and every thought of man or woman." The people of the three Baltic countries a l l show indication of l i v e l y imagination and individuality. But the Estonians seem to be more ruggedly individualistic and independent than either the Latvians or the Lithuanians. This may be i n part due to the fact that the Estonian farm owner i s more self-sufficient than i s the Lithuanian or Latvian farmer. In both the latter countries the cooperative movement i n agriculture made much more progress than i t did i n Estonia. Lithuania has been described as a country of towns and communities — small farms, the inhabitants of which can easily v i s i t with one another after the day's work i s finished. The Estonian farmer i s more isolated. In a l l of the Baltic countries there was tremendous interest i n music, opera, ballet and drama. For example i n Latvia, Riga and Liepaja had their own opera companies. School teachers, pastors and sacristans were required to be able to play the piano, the harmonium or the v i o l i n . The opera was subsidized by the State. This sketch outline of the cultural history of the Baltic peoples serves to indicate that they come from well developed and mature cultures© Many of the newcomers from these countries find i t d i f f i c u l t to discover let alone understand the ill-defined Canadian culture. The system of values built up within families and within the more general social framework i s not easily compared with that i n Canada which results i n part from the competitive inter-acting of value systems from many cultures* This brief outline serves to indicate the tremendous importance to the Baltic people of the preservation of their culture, including of course their language. This does not preclude an interest i n Canadian citizenship, but indicates somewhat the basis upon which such citizenship w i l l be acceptable.  128  APPENDIX  E  SITUATION OF LATVIAN D.P. FAMILIES IN THE PRESENT RESETTLEMENT ACTION Excerpts from a paper prepared by a member of the Exeoutive of the Latvian Association. "In the Western zones of Germany there are about 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 Latvian displaced persons (Summer, 1 9 4 9 ) * The conditions of their l i f e are miserable, and their return home i s impossible. Nearly 80% of these people are families: grown-ups, children, old ones; others are single. These persons are supported by IRO and have been living i n D.P. camps for three years, longing for a possibility to lead a human l i f e again. The families with children feel the present difficulties very hard; the lack of food and the camp l i f e have a bad influence upon the children's development. Leaving Latvian D.P.*s — the miserable victims of war — i n physical and moral distress would be inhuman. They deserve such a fate neither by their former l i f e and attitude nor by their present conduct. ... Some of the countries have begun engaging displaced persons thus giving the impression of having solved the resettlement problem. Unfortunately i t i s not like that. There are countries ready to engage the able-bodied single workers. The rest of the D.p.'a are l e f t In absolute distress. No country wants families with children although they indispensably need help. ' It must be said that the present attitude towards D.P.'s shows neither help nor relief, but only selfish interests, and morally cannot be justified as i t i s acting against their v i t a l and moral interests: a. The fact that the single workers are engaged and families refused puts a single person in a more privileged position. It i s quite opposite to moral norms, and may demoralize any society. b. The young people having been obliged to leave their parents, many families are separated and scattered. Many children are l e f t without parents. There i s no need to explain what e v i l , material and moral, i s thereby oaused. We only want to remember the fact that the family has been established by God. c.  It deters Latvian D.P.'s from founding families.  d. It gives a reason to avoid children and even causes abortions; the people begin to feel that children are a hindrance to better conditions of l i f e . ^  129  a.  It causes many divorces among D.P.'s.  The following conclusion i s to be made after the above has been said: By engaging the single workers and refusing the families the natural and sacred human rights are being consciously or unconsciously ignored* •••During Hitler's regime they were looked upon only l i k e working tools and their intellectual interests and needs were absolutely neglected; they were gradually led towards extinction. Founding families was prohibited: abortions was decreed. Is there not a similarity between that time and the present? Latvian D.P.'s families are persecuted by the Eastern communistic dictatorship. Would anything like that be expected from the Western democracies too? Are some countries whioh permit single workers to immigrate, but no families, only keeping in view their own good? I beg to point out several reasons why a family can make a greater profit to a country than a single worker: a. A family after immigrating w i l l settle for a permanent l i f e , not so a single worker. That i s to be observed among the foreign workers in Belgium. Many of the single workers i n the coal industry have returned to Germany, having found conditions were not so good as they had hoped for. On the other hand, no family has come back from Belgium. b. A state as well as a society has a greater guarantee entrusting a responsible duty or means to a family man.than to a single one. The f i r s t one w i l l be more anxious to do his best f o r he knows his responsibility towards his family. c. Any country wants qualified workers and experts; such are among D.P. families. Every state spends plenty of means for training specialists; those expenses could be reduced by engaging D.P. families. Besides a member of a family w i l l be more industrious, for he must take care not only of himself, but also of his family. Hs w i l l not evade working and w i l l be willing to take any job he i s able to do. d. The head of a family having immigrated to a country with his whole family, himself w i l l maintain those members of his family incapable of work. If he immigrates alone, IRO has to continue supporting his family by the means of the Western countries. e. As criminal statistics show — the members of families commit less crime than the single ones. This may be said particularly  130  about the young generation that are obliged to part from t h e i r parents. L i v i n g without t h e i r parents care and c o n t r o l , i n a foreign country they demoralize and may-become a burden and e v i l to the country. f• At l a s t i t i s also t o be mentioned that a person separated from his family and h i s countrymen suffers a great deal from a s p i r i t u a l and p a r t l y a physical depression and of course may have l e s s success i n h i s work.' Many a l e t t e r from single workers abroad c e r t i f i e s this fact. . . . From the material point of view there can be no objection to immigration of f a m i l i e s . And from the moral viewpoint — refusing and neglecting the families causes the collapse of communities and i s a crime against moral and a breach of human r i g h t s and r u l e s that have been established by God who created the human being — husband, wife, father, mother and c h i l d .  The D . P . Problem . . . I t may seem to-the peoples i n the West, who have had no actual contact with the D . P . ' s and have not stopped to consider t h e i r f a t e , with i t s causes, that the D . P . problem can be of no i n t e r e s t to them. . . . A n d s t i l l thoughtful consideration of the causes that have f o r c e f u l l y extracted these, mostly i n t e l l i g e n t , active and d i l i g e n t persons (especially the Baits) from t h e i r homes and f o r b i d them to return there, forces one to regard the D . P . problem i n a new l i g h t . One cannot but r e a l i z e that the' problem i s of consequence not only to the D . P . ' s themselves but also t o us, peoples of the Western World, free members of C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e . . . The D . P . ' s f e e l t h e i r problem very deeply, not only on account of themselves but s t i l l more on account of Western Society with which they f e e l themselves closely bound through common c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and common ideals of education and l i f e . . . The D . P . ' s are weeping not f o r themselves and t h e i r destroyed l i f e but f o r Western Christian C i v i l i z a t i o n i n whioh they and t h e i r children persecuted by the Communism of the East and misunderstood by the West, are gradually being annihilated.  131  ...The P o l i t i c a l Refugee of Europe knows of the horrors that hide behind, the Iron Curtain. He can t e l l of what would happen i f through the weakness and cowardice of the West the Iron Curtain were to move forward. But, i t seems, the West i s deaf...The refugee in the barracks i n Western Germany cannot understand why he must s i t there, inactive and gagged, why there are no ears that could listen to his testimony of the atrocities, horrors and slavery that spread to his country when she was forced behind the Iron Curtain. He looks towards the West. He sees the disturbances i n Italy, France and elsewhere and asks: "Who needs assistance more? — He, the homeless Political Refugee or the free worker and citizen of Western States who, from lack of knowledge and the intoxication of diabolical propaganda, awaits 'liberation' and prosperity from the Soviet Union, the land of slaves and l i e s ? ' . ... The Soviet Union and the International Communism that she guides regard the D.P. problem in a light quite different from the West. They see a hidden force i n the D. P. that is capable of counteracting communist propaganda and hindering i t s spread i n the West. The D.P.'s Have experience i n a Communist state, they are armed with the key of the Iron Curtain. They are absolutely immune to Communist propaganda. That is why the Soviet Union's sole aim is to return the D.P.'s behind the Iron Curtain...In Western Germany ..the Soviet Union and her agents attempted by a l l means, f a i r or foul, to repatriate the D.P.'s. She attempts to s t i r up hostility between the Powers of occupation and D.P.'s, between the German population and the D.P.'s and among the D.P.'s themselves. ...But what i s the attitude of the Western States and Western Society towards the D.P.'s? For them the D.P.'s are a useless and inconvenient burden which must somehow be disposed of. The Westerner comes to the D.P. camps i n Germany and chooses workers — young, strong and single — for his factories and other enterprizes. What is to become of the families, the children, the aged — that does not concern the Westerner. He only takes the workers he needs. Again the D.P. asks: 'Who is helping whom? Is Western Society helping me, the Refugee, or am I, forsaking my family and other dependents and going to work, helping the West?' ...A f u l l conception and evaluation of the D. P. problem is lacking i n Western Society which has not yet realized the position of the D.P.'s in the struggle that i s taking place today...The attitude of-Western Society towards the P o l i t i c a l Refugee of Europe w i l l be a decisive factor i n strengthening the unification and force of Western culture or i n i t s disintegration."  132  APPENDIX F PROBLEMS OF THE BALTIC NEWCOMERS Excerpts from a paper prepared by a member of the executive of the Lithuanian Association* Many times fate has given us (the Baltic States) the same burden, many times fate has had i n i t s destiny our participation i n events of good fortune and misfortune, our participation in days of joy and terror. This fact i s underlined by bonds of geography and policy. For good or bad fate bestowed on us this beautiful, and to our hearts so pleasant, Baltic coast which has brought us so much suffering. . ...The First World War which finished our neighbors to the east and west made i t possible for a new independent and promising l i f e to arise. A symbol of this period i s demonstrated by the farm of the pioneer who started from an era of debris and who thanks to his efforts has made a blooming and prosperous land. It is d i f f i c u l t for a foreigner or even for a close neighbour who did not l i v e i n this period of reconstruction to understand how much effort, how much heart and feelings were concentrated in those efforts. But the f i n a l result achieved showed.that the .agricultural and cultural achievements of the three Baltic States had the same foundation, taking strength from the far past. But not for long could the pioneers of the three Baltic States enjoy their great achievements. The new war brought new events to our three peace-loving countries. The same aril neighbours who at the end of the eighteenth century'called themselves by different names, divided the Baltic States amongst themselves anew. As i n 1775, 1792 and 1795 when Estonia and Latvia became completely under the influence of the throne of Catherine II, now they came under the influence of Stalin, As in those times, Lithuania was again divided in two. The bigger part was to be taken by the Soviet Union and a l l the southern part, south of the Duna River which formerly was taken' by the King of Prussia was to be taken by Hitler, That was one of the essentials of the now notorious pact of non-agression between, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany in 1939. As a result of this pact military bases were established in the Baltic States at the end of 1939. ...After half a year of occupation real tragedy for our countries began. With the same ultimatum with only a difference i n the names of places, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were accused of not  133  keeping the non-aggression pact and since June 15, 1940 those countries have been occupied and quickly made into Soviet States. The explanation given the public i s different. They t e l l the Westeners fighting i n the battlefields of France that this means a break for a further invasion of the Germans to the West. To others they say that i t i s necessary to liberate those countries from reactionaries who imperil the Soviet Union. That sounds similar to a child threatening to slap a grown up man i f he attempts to interfere with his play: a state of 200 million inhabitants becoming afraid of 7 millions who lived quietly by themselves before the great world conflagration. After a few months Lithuania e^erienced a rather famous p o l i t i c a l event which one cannot often find among honourable diplomats — the Soviet Union bought from Germany for more than 10 million dollars the parts of Lithuania south of the Duna River, with the exception of Minor Lithuania... They claimed that by these diplomatic actions.the frontier was pushed a few hundred kilometers further to the West and those countries to which they f e l t attached through history were protected from Hitler* s aggression. Only one thing cannot be explained then: why those countries were l e f t within a few days to their fate and their towns and villages turned into ashes. With this new subjugation began the extermination of the Baltic States which was much worse than the times of serfdom, the prohibition of print and the extermination of culture which had been carried out by Czarist Russia. ...Then other methods were started i n practice which have long been used in Soviet Russia. A plan for deportation to the Far East in vast numbers was prepared because legions of dying slaves required replacement. And this horrible dragon requires more and more victims. He does not stop from taking babies who have just been born, nor from taking old people not far from the grave. And on June 15, 1941 cart wagons with iron bars started to go eastward from every place in Lithuania; f u l l of grown-ups, children and old people.', f u l l of people dying from hunger and t h i r s t . But before the wagons go eastward there i s s t i l l a very hard experience. The separation from friends and relatives. Soviet Russian does not acknowledge the bonds of families. Out of innocent children they must raise blind tools to become N.K.V.D, policemen. The then president Comrade Paleckis proclaimed that i t was only the garbage that was being deported. They tried to calm those s t i l l l e f t at home, but at the same time they prepared new plans for new deportations. At the same time they published in the world, press that the grateful inhabitants of the New Soviet Republics were going to their sister Republics.  13k  In this way about 60,000 people have been murdered or deported to Siberia or other far off Republics, Exact numbers cannot be given. ...The Soviet radio then started to broadcast that those people previously deported had been deported for reasons of safety. What was black now turns out to be white. This explanation which i s so enormously different from the former shows that their conscience i s uneasy for the guilty one i s always apt to search for explanations. On this occasion i t would be worthwhile mentioning the deportation of the Japanese from B, C. during the last war. For this there was only; one explanation: a dangerous element of the population was being deported because of a possible Japanese invasion and there was no other explanation except this one, . . . A l l the nice promises of a good future in the big Fatherland which were, given by the Soviet agents in the displaced persons camps were totally i n vain in view of the fresh remembrance of the events of those horrible days. Vainly they tried to answer the questions of the inhabitants of the camps.by denying the truth as regards the former events. But the-memory of killed children and aged people made the people so angry that the agents fled without finishing their speeches being afraid of possible outbreaks of revenge. ' ...We are convinced that incone way or another this horrible past which brings disaster to humanity w i l l come to an end for the ideas of the Christian humanitarian era are undestroyable...The greatest weakness of the Communist or rather the Bolshevist system i s that i t cannot withstand serious criticism and that i t s system i s f i n a l . . . Terror is destroyed by terror. It i s only a question of time. ...But l i f e continues irresistably and without waiting for those who cannot cope with i t . And the events of history are repeated. It i s not the f i r s t time that refugees are i n this world and there w i l l be refugees in the future as well. Nov; we have to endeavor to find a new basis for l i f e i n Canada, the country which gave us a new home, without forgetting what we have been. The culture of the American continent was founded by refugees and immigrants. Therefore we being refugees or immigrants may find an aim for our l i f e and may doubtless have an active part i n developing the economic and cultural progress of this country. This i s the best and quickest way for a l l those who might have the wish to return to their native country. Every beginning i s hard. The future i s dark. But even through'the darkest clouds one can see a few rays of sunshine. And i f some time fate decides that some of us should take part i n establishing a new independent Lithuania we w i l l , after having forgotten our experiences, our sufferings, personal revenge  135  and any other kind of revenge which i s so a l i e n to the Lithuanian soul, we w i l l s t a r t to begin a new l i f e true to the habits of our forefathers, having learned a l o t i n immigration, and having forgotten many things that are of sad experience. It i s hard to be an optimist now, i n face of a l l those h o r r i b l e events, f o r our thoughts are always going there where we have not been since long past* Today I would l i k e everybody t o remember those staying at home, i n S i b e r i a , i n Germany, A u s t r a l i a , A f r i c a , and other not so well known countries. The f e e l i n g s of most of us p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s memorial service f i n d t h e i r expression i n the words of a poet f i g h t i n g i n the forests of Lithuania as a p a r t i s a n : The r i v e r s flow to the blue distance, The b i r d s w i l l even .leave and come back again, Only I, dear Mother, Do not know whether I w i l l knock again at your door.  136  APPENDIX  G  THE INTERNATIONAL PROBLEM OF RESETTLEMENT OF THE DISPLACED PERSONS  (Excerpts from a letter from the Deputy Director, Public Information, International Refugee Organization, Geneva, March 1, 19h9.)  "...As far as professional people are concerned (intellectuals, doctors, technicians, artists, etc.,) their resettlement is very unsatisfactory and i t can be stated that, to this day, the "embargo on brains" i s by no means being l i f t e d . However, a better view of family resettlement is taken by most countries now. I would point out that the policy previously followed of recruiting unattached adults has brought the.result that, out of four persons receiving at this time IRO's care and maintenance, three belong to family groups."  

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