Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Anthony Trollope's literary reputation : its development and validity Grant, Ella Kathleen 1950

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1950_A8 G7 A7.pdf [ 7.89MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106774.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106774-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106774-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106774-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106774-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106774-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106774-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106774-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106774.ris

Full Text

ANTHONY TROLLOPE*S LITERARY REPUTATION; ITS DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDITY by ELLA KATHLEEN GRANT A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements for. the Degree o f Master of A r t s i n the Department E n g l i s h of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1950. T h i s essay attempts to t r a c e the course o f Anthony T r o l l o p e ' s l i t e r a r y r e p u t a t i o n ; to suggest some explan-a t i o n s f o r the v a r i o u s spurts and sudden d e c l i n e s o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y among readers and esteem among c r i t i c s ; and to prove t h a t h i s mid-twentieth century p o s i t i o n i s not a j u s t one. Drawing l a r g e l y on T r o l l o p e ' s Autobiography, contemp-orary reviews and essays on h i s work, and re f e r e n c e s to i t i n l e t t e r s and memoirs, the f i r s t chapter d e s c r i b e s T r o l l o p e ' s w r i t i n g career, showing him r i s i n g to popu-l a r i t y i n the l a t e f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s as a favour-i t e among readers t i r e d o f s e n s a t i o n a l f i c t i o n , becoming a byword f o r commonplace m e d i o c r i t y i n the s e v e n t i e s , and f i n a l l y , two years before h i s death, r e g a i n i n g much of h i s former eminence among o l d e r readers and c o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c s . Throughout the chapter a d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn between the two worlds with which T r o l l o p e d e a l s , B a r s e t -s h i r e and m a t e r i a l i s t s o c i e t y , and the p e c u l i a r l y dual nature o f h i s work i s emphasized. Chapter II i s l a r g e l y concerned with the v i c i s s i t u d e s that T r o l l o p e ' s r e p u t a t i o n has encountered s i n c e the post-humous p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s autobiography. During the de-cade f o l l o w i n g h i s death he i s shown as an object o f comp-l e t e contempt to the Art f o r Art's Sake sc h o o l , f i n a l l y rescued around the turn o f the century by c r i t i c s r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t the i d e a l s o f h i s d e t r a c t o r s . There f o l l o w s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s unsteady r i s e to p o p u l a r i t y and es-teem through the next f o r t y years, and o f h i s e x t r a o r d i -nary p o p u l a r i t y d u r i n g the Second World War. Two e s t i -mates of T r o l l o p e emerge from the controversy: the one which p r a i s e s him as the supreme e s c a p i s t c r e a t o r o f Bar-s e t s h i r e ; and the one which e x a l t s the courage and hone-sty o f the Autobiography. I t i s suggested that n e i t h e r of these can provide a j u s t e v a l u a t i o n o f T r o l l o p e ' s importance as a n o v e l i s t , s i n c e the f i r s t ignores the g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s work and the second concentrates on the man r a t h e r than upon h i s novels. The f i n a l p o r t i o n o f t h i s chapter i s devoted to a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f c e r t a i n of T r o l l o p e ' s major novels, and argues that the evidence d e r i v e d i s s u f f i c i e n t to prove both these g r a d u a l l y developed views of Anthony T r o l l o p e i n v a l i d as estimates of h i s worth as a n o v e l i s t . ANTHONY TROLLOPE* S LITERARY REFUTATION I.Anthony T r o l l o p e In h i s own Time. In 1847 appeared! the f i r s t n o v e l from the pen o f Anthony T r o l l o p e , who n e a r l y t h i r t y years l a t e r c ould c l a i m a r e c o r d of l i t e r a r y performance "more i n amount than the works o f any o t h e r l i v i n g E n g l i s h a u t h o r . " 1 As a b e g i n n i n g p f o r such a l e n g t h y c a r e e r The Macdermotts o f B a l l y c l o r a n was not a u s p i c i o u s . P u b l i s h e d by Newby at the u r g i n g o f Fanny T r o l l o p e , s t i l l a p o p u l a r n o v e l i s t h e r s e l f , the book was promptly i g n o r e d by r e a d e r s and c r i t i c s a l i k e . T r o l l o p e r e c a l l s t h a t he never heard another word about i t from h i s p u b l i s h e r ^ , w h i l e the one c r i t i c a l n o t i c e which appeared r e f l e c t s the r e c e p t i o n t h a t any I r i s h n o v e l not of the; r o l l i c k i n g Charles Lever v a r i e t y was l i k e l y to get from an England weary of gloomy news o f the famine of r47: ...an I r i s h novel has become t o us something l i k e the haunted chest i n the c o r n e r o f Merchant Abudak 1s apartment, which even when c l o s e d he knew to c o n t a i n a shape o f T e r r o r and a v o i c e of Woe... fThe Macdermotts of B a l l y c l o r a n : i s ) a t a l e o f r u i n , crime and sorrow... ft t o l d with power and pathos enough t o darken the sun-shine o f t h e most c h e e r f u l reader....Twenty years ago "The Macdermotts" would have made a r e p u t a t i o n f o r i t s a u t h o r ^ . . . . 4 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, An Autobiography, Oxford, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y - Press,1946,"World*s C l a s s i c s " S e r i e s , p . 3 3 1 . A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s are t o t h i s ; e d i t i o n . 2 " T r o l l o p e , Anthony; The Macdermotts of B a l l y c l o r a n , , 3; v o l s , London, Newby, 1847. 3 Trollope,, Auto., p.68. 4 Athenaeum. May 15.1847.p.517. - 2 -\ Such a r e c e p t i o n might have proved c h i l l i n g t o most young writers,, but T r o l l o p e was no o r d i n a r y budding a u t h o r . The T r o l l o p e s were, as the St e b b i n s e s have r e c e n t l y c a l l e d them, 5 "a w r i t i n g f a m i l y . " I n the f o r t i e s Anthony*s mother, brother and s i s t e r were a l l more or l e s s s u c c e s s f u l a u t h o r s , and wit h t h i s f a m i l y background he had from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g a f i r m l y m a t t e r - o f - f a c t approach t o the w r i t i n g of n o v e l s , and a r e a l -i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards h i s probable success at f i r s t . P e r s e v e r -i n g as a matter of course, he next produced The K e l l y s and the 7 O'K e l l y s , which was p u b l i s h e d by Colburn, l o n g Fanny T r o l l o p e ' s p u b l i s h e d , i n 1848, w i t h much the same r e s u l t as had met The Macdermotts. "The book was not o n l y not read, but was never heard of, - a t any r a t e i n I r e l a n d . " 8 I n England the s i t u a t i o n was o n l y s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t : the book was not much re a d , ( C o l b u r n r e p o r t e d the same o f 140 c o p i e s ) ; while anyone who happened to be r e a d i n g t h e l e s s e r n o t i c e s I n the Times and the Athenaeum i n the summer o f 1848 would have met w i t h accounts o f i t which would have f a i r l y warned him a g a i n s t r u s h i n g out to purchase one of the remaining 235 c o p i e s of that f i r s t e d i t i o n . The Times T r o l l o p e r e c a l l s a s comparing the n o v e l to a l e g o f 9 mutton " . . . s u b s t a n t i a l , but a l i t t l e coarse", while the Athen-aeum made much of the "unpleasantness" o f the s u b j e c t matter, a b r o t h e r r s c r u e l t y to h i s s i s t e r , though n o t i n g with a p p r o v a l 5 Stebbins, Lucy Poate, and S t e b b i n s , R i c h a r d Poate, The  T r o l l o p e s : The C h r o n i c l e of a W r i t i n g Family,New. York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press,- 1945. 6 T r o l l o p e , Auto., pp. 48,62-63, 68-69. 7 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The K e l l y s and the O ' K e l l y s : or L a n d l o r d s  and Tenants, 3 vols., London, Colburn, 1848. 8 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.69. 9 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.71. - 3 -that "Humour pervades i t s scenes, - and i t i s the true ' "emerald" humour;.. .""^ The f a i l u r e of t h i s second I r i s h novel resulted In a l e t t e r from Colburn s t a t i n g that " . . . I t i s Impossible... to give any encouragement to you to proceed i n novel-writing...." and yet paradoxically requesting " a sight of" the novel f I B La Vendee which he had heard was nearly f i n i s h e d . This h i s t o r i c a l novel i s the f i r s t of Trollope's attempts to give the public what he thought i t wanted. Colburm too seems to have had higher hopes of t h i s production, since he paid t 20 down and agreed to pay a further E30 when 350 copies had been 13 sold, and £ 5 0 should sales within s i x months reach 450. How-ever, even the lure of an h i s t o r i c a l subject did not save La  Vendee from the fate of i t s I r i s h predecessors. Sales did not • mount, and even the f a i t h f u l Athenaeum considered the book rather an unnecessary venture, i n view of the excellent eye-14 witness accounts extant of the subject. At t h i s point Trollope began to consider not whether he should stop writing, but whether he should s t r i k e out i n some new d i r e c t i o n . His casting about produced a series of l e t t e r s defending the Government's I r i s h p o l i c y i n the Examiner; a play, The Noble J i l t , which was submitted for c r i t i c i s m to an old f r i e n d , George Bart ley, the actor, and condemned without mercy; and a fragment of a handbook to Ireland. A l l of. these 1 QAthenaeum. July 15, 1848, p.701. •^Trollope, Auto..p.72. l 2 T r o l l o p e % Anthony, LaVendee« An H i s t o r i c a l Roman ce. 3 vols., London, Colburn, 1850. 1 3 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.72. 14 Athenaeum. July 6, 1850, p. 708. are of no importance i n the general scheme of T r o l l o p e * s; development, except t h a t t h e y i l l u s t r a t e an a s p e c t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y which becomes q u i t e apparent l a t e r i n h i s c a r e e r , h i s r e a d i n e s s t o attempt something d i f f e r e n t , e i t h e r to demon s t r a t e v e r s a t i l i t y , or to catch the a t t e n t i o n of the p u b l i c . The years from 1850-1852 were In t r u t h too f u l l y taken up with Post O f f i c e work to a l l o w T r o l l o p e mucin time f o r f u r t h e r i n g h i s second c a r e e r . These were the years o f the p o s t a l survey of h i s s e c t i o n o f I r e l a n d and then o f "Devonshire, Cornwall, Somersetshire, the g r e a t e r p a r t o f D o r s e t s h i r e , the Channel I s l a n d s , p a r t of O x f o r d s h i r e , W i l t -s h i r e , G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e , W o r c e s t e r s h i r e , H e r e f o r d s h i r e , Mon-15 mouthshire, and the s i x southern Welsh counties" -: D u r i n g these t r a v e l s he had o c c a s i o n to v i s i t S a l i s b u r y , and there conceived the i d e a f o r a new novel which was to mark the r e a l 16 beginning of h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . T h i s work. The Warden. was begun i n 1852, f i n i s h e d i n 1853, and p u b l i s h e d I n 1855. Comparatively speaking The Warden was at once a s u c c e s s , c r i t i c a l l y i f not p o p u l a r l y . L i k e the I r i s h n o v e l s , i t was a book w i t h a purpose: I had been s t r u c k by two o p p o s i t e e v i l s , -or what seemed t o me t o be e v i l s , - a n d w i t h an absence of a l l a r t - judgment i n such matters, I thought I might; be a b l e to expose them, or r a t h e r to d e s c r i b e them, both i n one and t h e same t a l e . The f i r s t e v i l was the p o s s e s s i o n by the Church o f c e r t a i n funds and endowments which had been intended f o r c h a r i t a b l e purposes, but which had been allowed to become; income f o r i d l e church d i g n i t a r i e s . . . .The second e v i l was i t s v e ry a p p o s i t e . Though I had been much s t r u c k by the i n j u s t i c e above d e s c r i b e d , I had a l s o o f t e n ^ been angered by the undeserved s e v e r i t y of the T r o l l o p e , Auto., pp.80 - 81. T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Warden. 1 vol.,London,Longman,1855 - 5 -newspapers towards the r e c i p i e n t s of such incomes, who could h a r d l y be considered to be the c h i e f s i n n e r s i n the m a t t e r . 1 7 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e problem with which The Warden d e a l t was one much In the minds of the E n g l i s h p u b l i c a t the time. While the I r i s h q u e s t i o n might be f e l t b y the n o v e l - r e a d i n g p u b l i c to be a gloomy p o l i t i c a l bore, s c a n d a l i n the high p l a c e s of the church was q u i t e another m a t t e r . Once again the Athenaeum was f a i t h f u l , and produced a g e n e r a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c review of some l e n g t h ; the c h i e f f a u l t i n the t a l e was f e l t to be that the w r i t e r showed "too much 18 i n d i f f e r e n c e as t o the r i g h t s o f the case." The o b j e c t i o n i s v a l i d enough, f o r though. T r o l l o p e may have i n t e n d e d to d i s c u s s t h e proper management o f c h a r i t a b l e funds, he succeeded i n s t e a d i n p r e s e n t i n g a p o r t r a i t o f a good and g e n t l e man attempting t o decide what he should do, and them, standing- by h i s d e c i s i o n I n s p i t e of argument from h i s f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s . The Warden brought T r o l l o p e the f i r s t money he had ever earned by l i t e r a r y work, s i n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y he p o i n t s L r 19 out that the £20 from Lawendee was an o u t r i g h t g i f t . By the end of 1856 he had r e c e i v e d £20, 3s.9d. from Longman,, but s a l e s could h a r d l y have been termed brisk:. Ten years l a t e r T r o l l o p e could w r i t e to Monckton M i l n e s ; " I send you a copy of *The War-den.*", which Wm. Longman- assures me i s the l a s t o f the F i r s t E d i t . There were, I t h i n k , only.750 p r i n t e d , and they have 20 been over t e n years i n hand...." 1 7 T r o l l o p e , Auto.,p.86. 1 8Athenaeum, Jan.27,1855, p.107, ^ T r o l l o p s , Auto., p.9Q-20Re 11 6 -N e v e r t h e l e s s , The; Warden e s t a b l i s h e d T r o l l o p e as an author. H i s p u b l i s h e d was complimentary, and i n c o n t r a s t t o the d u l l s i l e n c e which had g r e e t e d h i s e a r l i e r e f f o r t s T r o l l o p e found t h a t those around him knew t h a t he had w r i t t e n a book. He f e l t t oo t h a t he had d i s c o v e r e d from i t "...wherein l a y whatever s t r e n g t h I d i d p o s s e s s . . . I had r e a l i s e d t o myself a s e r i e s of p o r t r a i t s , and had: been able so t o put them on the canvas t h a t my r e a d e r s should see t h a t which I meant them to 21 see." A f t e r t h r e e f a i l u r e s abounding i n s e r i o u s purpose T r o l l o p e emerges as a c r e a t o r of p o r t r a i t s , a whole g a l l e r y of the s o c i e t y of B a r s e t s h i r e . F e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t of h i s a b i l i t y to continue i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , T r o l l o p e turned, a t once t o the wr i t i n g ' of a new 22 book:,, Bar Chester Towers , which must s u r e l y be the f i r s t Eng-l i s h n o v e l to; be w r i t t e n almost e n t i r e l y i n a r a i l w a y carriage'. By 1857 the th r e e volume n o v e l was i n the hands o f W i l l i a m Longman, who o f f e r e d t o p r i n t i t on the h a l f - p r o f i t system, w i t h an advance of £100, p r o v i d e d t h a t T r o l l o p e make c e r t a i n changes i n the work:, most o f them s m a l l , but I n c h i e f , a r e d u c t i o n of the s t o r y t o two-volume l e n g t h . T h i s T r o l l o p e refused' t o do, but Longman withdrew h i s request and p u b l i s h e d BarChester  Towers i n th r e e volumes. The m i l d r i p p l e of i n t e r e s t which. The Warden had s t i r r e d was u s e f u l t o the new n o v e l . As the Athenaeum w r i t e r put I t ". .;Hr. T r o l l o p e has not to contend, a g a i n s t t h e d i f f i -c u l t y of I n t e r e s t i n g us, at the o u t s e t , i n h i s personages 2 1 Trollope,, Aufet., pp.90 - 91. 22 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Bar Chester Towers, 5 v o l s . , London, Longman, 1857. - 7 -or In h i s n a r r a t i v e ; we are by no means s t r a n g e r s I n 23 B a r c h e s t e r . . . •** Most r e v i e w e r s d e a l t w i t h the two works t o g e t h e r , and the general f e e l i n g was t h a t a new n o v e l i s t , o f r e a l promise and Importance had appeared. The Times broke s i l e n c e I n August w i t h a complimentary n o t i c e a column 24 l o n g ; and October found the high-minded Westminster- Review b e i n g t r u l y e n t h u s i a s t i c ; "...we can h a r d l y ( a t t h i s l a t e date) expect t o a s s i s t i n extending i t s c i r c u l a t i o n i n i t s present form, when we s t a t e our o p i n i o n of i t as d e c i d e d l y the c l e v e r e s t n o v e l o f t h e season, and one o f the most mascu-l i n e d e l i n e a t i o n s of modern l i f e i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s o f s o c i e t y 25 t h a t we have seen f o r many a day." A more p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n , and one which suggests the main reason f o r t h e n o v e l ' s success, i s found i n a l e t t e r of Edward F i t z g e r a l d , who became a devoted T r o l l o p e r e a d e r : "I have been v e r y g l a d to f i n d I c o u l d take to a novel a g a i n , i n T r o l l o p e * s B a r c h e s t e r Towers, etc.: not p e r f e c t , l i k e Miss Austftn, but t h e n so much wider scope: and p e r f e c t enough t o make me f e e l I know the people though c a r i c a t u r e d or c a r e l e s s l y drawn'.' F i t z g e r a l d t h e n , impatient of the s e n s a t i o n f i c t i o n of the day, was g l a d t o f i n d the s l i m r a n k s o f the domestic a u t h o r s ^ J o i n e d by a w r i t e r whose work was a g r e e a b l y r e s t r a i n e d , yet not bounded e n t i r e l y by the drawing room or c o u n t r y b a l l - r o o m . 27 I n h i s next n o v e l , The Three C l e r k s T r o l l o p e t u r n e d 2 3Athenaeum, May 3.0,1857,p.689. 2 4=StebbInse.s, o p . c i t . , p.149. 2 5 W e s t m l n s t e r Review., October, 1857,p.594. 2 6Wright, t W i l l i a m A., ed., L e t t e r s of Edward F i t z g e r a l d . London» M a c m i l l a n and Co.,Limited, 1901, v o l . 2 , p . 14. 2 7 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Three C l e r k s : A Novel, 3 vols.,, London, Be n t l e y , 1858. h i s bade on B a r c h e s t e r and used: m a t e r i a l l a r g e l y a u t o b i o g -r a p h i c a l . He r e f u s e d to s e l l i t to Longman on the h a l f - p r o f i t system, f e e l i n g t h a t thie success o f B a r c h e s t e r Towers warran-t e d more immediate cash reward f o r h i s new work, and' t h e man"-" ^ s c r i p t , was f i n a l l y bought by Bentley; f o r £250. C r i t i c a l l y , the new work: was not n e a r l y so w e l l r e c e i v e d . I n October of 2B5& the National. Review r a n a l o n g a r t i c l e on "Mr. T r o l l o p e * s 28 N o v e l s , " w i t h p r a i s e f o r The Tfarden and, B a r c h e s t e r Towers, but a decided coolness towards The Three C l e r k s . I n d i s c u s s -i n g I t the w r i t e r sounded the f i r s t note o f a chorus which was to grow i n volume and monotony u n t i l T r o l l o p e T s death, "...a w r i t e r so p r o l i f i c as Mr. T r o l l o p e must w r i t e i n a h u r r y , , . " 2 9 But i f tlaose who had d e l i g h t e d In B a r c h e s t e r Towers found The Three C l e r k s d i s a p p o i n t i n g , they were more than r e -p a i d by the B a r s e t s h i r e n o v e l which f o l l o w e d c l o s e a f t e r I t 3 0 i n the same year, Doctor- Thorne. I n h i s own l i f e - t i m e t h i s was by f a r the most popular of a l l T r o l l o p e r s n o v e l s , running t o f i f t e e n e d i t i o n s by 1875. A chle;f r e a s on f o r i t s g r e a t success was p r o b a b l y expressed by a reviewer i n the Athenaeum. "Mr. T r o l l o p e has a r e a l sense of fun..•*We can promise a h e a r t y laugh t o a l l who undertake "Doctor Thorne", a laugh.*. not c y n i c a l and c r u e l , but h e a r t y and sympathetic:, and t h e r e 31 are so few books nowadays t h a t make us laugh."' The N a t i o n a l 2 8 N a t l o n a l Review. October. 1858, pp. 416-435. 2 9 i b i d , p.427. ^ T r o l l o p e , , Anthony, Doctor Thome: A Novel., 3 vols.,London, 6hapman and H a l l , 1858.. 51Athenaeum, June 5,1858, p.719. - 9 -Review, however, In the a r t i c l e r e f e r r e d t o above, mai n t a i n e d s t e r n l y t h at s i n c e T r o l l o p e was w r i t i n g too f a s t , D octor Thorne>"...though I t w i l l perhaps be a g r e a t a f a v o u r i t e with most o r d i n a r y n o v e l r e a d e r s , . . . i s f a r i n f e r i o r to I t s p r e -decessors as a work of a r t . " . Doctor Thome was f i n i s h e d i n Egypt, where T r o l l o p e was engaged i n n e g o t i a t i n g a p o s t a l t r e a t y , and immediately 33 a f terwards he began t o w r i t e The Bertrams. I t was s o l d t o Chapman and H a l l f o r the same amount as Doctor Thorne,£400 > and while the p u b l i s h e r s undoubtedly d i d not l o s e any money on the venture a f t e r the e x t r a o r d i n a r y success o f Doctor Thome, The Bertrams was a d e f i n i t e f a i l u r e w i t h the p u b l i c ; 34 Not even T r o l l o p e T s f r i e n d s spoke w e l l of It,, though the r e v i e w e r s were e n t h u s i a s t i c , even i n the N a t i o n a l Review, which f e l t t h a t "In i t s l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s t h i s n o v e l shows g r e a t e r b r e a d t h and depth of i m a g i n a t i v e power than any other 35 of Mr. T r o l l o p e ' s works...." Much the same can be s a i d o f C a s t l e Richmond, which f o l l o w e d i n 1860. The r e v i e w e r s l i k e d t h i s new I r i s h n o v e l , but p o p u l a r l y T r o l l o p e m a i n t a i n s t h a t " C a s t l e Richmond, c e r t a i n l y 37 was not a s u c c e s s . " The Bertrams had been w r i t t e n w h i l e T r o l l o p e was on h i s t r a v e l s , and r e f l e c t s t h i s f a c t . The Athenaeum re v i e w com-p l a i n e d t h a t " . . . i t i s f a t i g u i n g to be o b l i g e d to t r a v e l when 3 2 N a t i o n a l Review, l o c . c i t . , p . 4 3 1 . 3 3 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Bertrams: A N o v e l . 3 vols., London, Chapman and H a l l , 1859. 3 4 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.115. 3 5 N a t i o n a i Review. A p r i l , 1 8 5 9 , p.565. 3 6 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, C a s t l e Richmond: A^ Novel, 3 vols #,London, Chapman and H a l l , 1 8 6 0 . 3 7 T r o l l o p e , Auto..p.142. - 10 -one wants t o r e m a i n a t home, .. .to be taken, to t h e E a s t twice i n one n o v e l , passes p e r m i s s i o n w i t h the most p a t i e n t reader^ C a s t l e Richmond's I r i s h , s e t t i n g s d i d n o t p l e a s e e i t h e r , f o r B a r s e t s h i r e had a l r e a d y c a s t t h e s p e l l which t y r a n n i z e s over T r o l l o p e ' s non-Bar set works even now. On. the whole, however, D o c t o r Thorne managed to c a r r y a l o n g t h e s e c o m p a r a t i v e f a i l u r e s on t h e wave of i t s own s u c c e s s , s i n c e a l l three appeared w i t h i n two years. The c r e d i t s i d e was b o l s t e r e d , t o o , b y the f i r s t o f T r o l l o p e ' s t r a v e l , books, the s t i l l d e l i g h t f u l The West I n d i e s and the, 59 S p a n i s h Main,, which was p u b l i s h e d I n 1859 and h i g h l y p r a i s e d 40 41 42 i n The Athenaeum , the A t l a n t i c Monthly , Blackwood's 43 A A the N a t i o n a l Review , and the Westminster R e v i e w . " T r o l l o p e was t o make a habit of t u r n i n g h i s post o f f i c e t r a v e l s to account i n t h i s manner, e s p e c i a l l y when the c o u n t r i e s v i s i t e d were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o the B r i t i s h p u b l i c a t t h e time. By 1859 T r o l l o p e was i n t r u t h an. e s t a b l i s h e d a n i s u c c e s s f u l author as w e l l as a v a l u a b l e c i v i l s e r v a n t . He was assured of a p u b l i c f o r h i s work, and was w e l l thought of by the c r i t i c s , though they were a l r e a d y beginning to d i s t r u s t the q u a l i t y of such a p r o l i f i c w r i t e r ' s work. But In October o f 1859 two l e t t e r s r e a c h e d T r o l l o p e , one from Smith and E l d e r , the p u b l i s h e r s of the new C o r n h i l l Magazine, and the o t h e r from i t s e d i t o r , Thackeray. Smith and E l d e r o f f e r e d £1000 (MOO more 5 8Athenaeum,March 26,1859,p.420. 3 9 T r o l l o p e , A n t h o n y , The West I n d i e s and the S p a n i s h Main, 1 vol«, London, Chapman and Hal1,1859. 4 : 0 A t henaeum, November 5,1859, p.1t«f. 41 A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , March 1860.,pp..375-378. 4 : 2 Blackwood's, Sept ember ,1862., pp. 37 2-39 0. 4 5 N a t i o n a l Review, January,1860,p .527. -^Westminster"Review, J a n u a r y , 1860, pp.289 - 290. - 11 -than Castle Richmond had brought) for the copyright of a new three-volume novel to come out s e r i a l l y i n t h e i r new magazine; and Thackeray's, l e t t e r was a warm personal urging t h a t Trollope accept the o f f e r . The only drawback' was- that the publishers must have the f i r s t part by December 12. Trollope had never yet published any part of a work, before he had completed the whole, but i n this case be broke his r u l e . In view of the greatness of the occasion. The publisher wanted " . . . a n - E n g l i s h t a l e , on English l i f e , with a c l e r i c a l 45 flavour,," and to t h i s order Trollope produced Framley Par-46 sonage. The s e r i a l was a great success: "...the work from the f i r s t to the l a s t was popular, - and was received as i t went on with s t i l l increasing favour by both editor and pro#-prietor of the magazine." Part of i t s success was bound up i n the popularity of the new p e r i o d i c a l I t s e l f , and Mrs. Browning's exclamation, "How good t h i s * C o r n h i l l Magazine* I s ! 48 Anthony Trollope i s r e a l l y superb .»." probably would have ex-pressed the general f e e l i n g of readers towards the C o r n h i l l and i t s f i r s t s e r i a l . The success of t h i s novel, and the association with "kne C o r n h i l l was rewarding both f i n a n c i a l l y and s o c i a l l y . Trollope became a part of the London l i t e r a r y world, being made a member of the Carrick Club i n 1861 and of the Athenaeum three years l a t e r . The years from 1860. to 1867 were a time of security and ever-growing success as an author. '^Trollope ,Aufco. sf>.130. ^ T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Framley Parsonage, 3 vols., il l . M i l l a i S 1 / ? , . London, Smith, Elder,1861 (published f i r s t i n the C o r n h i l l Magazine, January 1860 - A p r i l 1861.) ^ T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.131. 4 8Kenyon, E.G.,ed., The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, .New York., The Macmillan Tfbmp'ahy, 1910, p.397 . ~ 12 -From 1861 on Trollope's novels often appeared f i r s t In monthly numbers and then i n book form. Early i n t h i s year Fr amity Parsonage was brought out In three v o l -umes, and the only other Trollope work to appear that year was a c o l l e c t i o n of previously published short stories,Tales 49 "SO of A l l Countries' . In the f i r s t part o f 1862 Or l e y Farm and the Struggles, of Brown, Jones, and Robinson were pub-li s h e d , the f i r s t i n parts and the second i n The: C o r n h i l l , while Trollope was i n America gathering material for his new t r a v e l book. Orley Farm was we11-liked; years l a t e r Trollope points out that. "Most of those among my friends who t a l k to me now about my novels, and are competent to form an opinion on the: subject say that, t h i s is the best I have 52 written...." but only Trollope had a good word for Brown, Jones, and Robinson; "I think there i s some good, f u n i n I t , but I have heard no one else express such an opinion" 5? 3 I t was Indeed such a f l a t f a i l u r e t h a t Smith an& Elder, though they had bought the copyright, did riot re-issue the story In book form at'a time when Trollope*s name would have sold almost anything. Yet even such, a performance as t h i s d u l l attempt at a s a t i r e could not harm, i t s author much i n 1862, when: ...Mr. Trollope has become almost a national i n s t i t u t i o n . The C o r n h i l l counts i t s readers by m i l l i o n s , and. i t ' i s to his contributions- i n 4 s T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Tales of A l l Countries, 1 vol*,London, Chapman and Hall,1861 0 50-Troll.ope , Anthony, Or ley Farm., 2 vols., i l l ., London, Chapman and Hall,1862^(Originally published i n s h i l l i n g parts,1861.) SlTrollope,Anthony,. The Struggles of Brown,Jones and Robinson, 1 YoL,ill., London,Smith,Elder,187Cy(Originally published i n the Cornhill,1861.) 52TrolTope, Auto., p.152, 55Trollope.AuTo.,.p.146. - 13 -n i n e t y - n i n e cases out o f a hundred t h a t the r e a d e r f i r s t betakes h i m s e l f . So g r e a t I s h i s p o p u l a r i t y , so f a m i l i a r a r e h i s c h i e f charac-t e r s to h i s country men, so wide-spread Is the I n t e r e s t f e l t about h i s t a l e s t h a t they necess-a r i l y form p a r t o f the common stock i n t r a d e with which t h e s o c i a l commerce of t h e day i s c a r r i e d on. 54 H i s next o f f e r i n g t o t h i s eager c i r c l e o f r e a d e r s , N o r t h A m e r i c a . 5 5 had a mixed r e c e i p t i o n , s i n c e T r o l l o p e had a l l i e d h i m s e l f f i r m l y to t h e N o r t h e r n cause. Most o f the r e v i e w e r s approved o f h i s e f f o r t s , and endorsed the baok: as the work, of a s e n s i b l e man w e l l aware o f the l i m i t s of h i s 56 powers, but BIackwood's maintained s t e r n l y t h a t " . . . h i s advocacy, u s e l e s s to the North, i s damaging t o h i m s e l f . . . ) he has c o n t r a c t e d a k i n d of moral s q u i n t . . . . T h i s w i l l Impair h i s c r e d i t with h i s E n g l i s h audience; w h i l e the voracious; v a n i t y o f h i s N o r t h e r n c l i e n t s w i l l be f a r f r o m s a t i s f i e d w i t h the amount o f p a n e g y r i c which the conscience of the 57 p l e a d e r w i l l permit him to award." The book seems to have been w i d e l y read, and was r e g u l a r l y r e i s s u e d four times be-tween 1862 and 1868.. Even Charles Reade promised to read i t on James F i e l d ' s recommendation,"...since you t e l l me I t i s endurable. I had no I n t e n t i o n of r e a d i n g i t otherwise, 54 • National. Review. January 1862, p.28 Cfteview o f O r l e y Farm.) 5 5 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, North America» 2 vols., London, Chapman and n a i l , 1862. 5 6 ' Athenaeum. May 24,1862, p.685; D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y Magazine. J u l y 1862, pp. 75ff ; F r a z e r ' s Magazine. August ,1862, pp.250-264; N a t i o n a l R e v i e w , J u l y 1862,p. 201; Westminster Review» October 1862, pp.536 - 537. ^Blackwood's, September, 1862,p.374. - 14 -58 o r a n y t h i n g e l s e the man. w r i t e s . He i s m e d i o c r i t y i n c a r n a t e . " 0 Matthew A r n o l d did! r e a d i t , judging by a r e f e r e n c e i n a l e t t e r 59 twenty-one years l a t e r . But a ponderous two-volume book o f t r a v e l , and even 60 the charming n o v e l R a c h e l Ray d i d n o t r e a l l y meet the public?: s demand. Rac h e l Ray was a resounding success w i t h the r e v i e w e r s , even the Westminster --Review f a l l i n g a v i c t i m t o I t s d e l i c a t e 61 d o m e s t i c i t y , but not s e t I n B a r s e t s h i r e , I t was overshadowed 62 by The S m a l l House at A l l i n g t o n which had begun i t s run I n the C o r n h i l l of September,1862. The p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s n o v e l marks the high p o i n t o f T r o l l o p e ' s c r i t i c a l r e p u t a t i o n and pop u l a r success d u r i n g h i s own l i f e - t i m e . As a s e r i a l i t appa;?-r e n t l y caused c o n s i d e r a b l e s t i r , f o r a c c o r d i n g to the Athenaeum "...many readers at the moment would have r a s h l y o f f e r e d to f o r f e i t t h r e e weeks i n the month, i f they might thus; have . 63 l e a r n t the p r o g r e s s o f the s t o r y a l i t t l e f u r t h e r ahead." A f t e r the f i a s c o of Brown. Jones, and Robinson, The  Small House a t A l l i n g t o n redeemed T r o l l o p e ' s r e p u t a t i o n w i t h the p r o p r i e t o r o f the C o r n h i l l , w h i l e i t s h e r o i n e " P r i g as she was,...made her way i n t o the h e a r t of many r e a d e r s , both g" • • . -5 8 Q u o t e d In E l w i n , Malcolm, C h a r l e s Reade,London,Jonathan Cape, 1934,p.23.7. • 5 9 R u s s e l l George,W.E..Letter? of Matthew Arnold.1848-1888.London, Macmillan and! Co;,1895, vol3,p.247. GOTrollope,Anthony, Rachel Ray: A Novel,,2 vols.,London,Chapman and H a l l , 1 8 6 3 . 6 I W e s t m i n s t e r Review, January, 1864, pp.291-293. 6 2 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Small House at A l l i n g t o n , 2 v o l a , i l l . M l l l a i s , L o n d o n , Smith,Elder,1864.(Published i n the C o r n h i l l 1862-1864). P r o p e r l y speaking, t h i s i s not a Bar set n o v e l (cf. Auto,p.253) , f o r A l l i n g t o n i s j u s t over the county b o r d e r , - but t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e is; B a r s e t s h i r e S o c i e t y . 6 5Athenaeum. March 26,1864,p.437. - 15 -.66 young and o l d ; so that, from t h a t time t o t h i s , I have been c o n t i n u a l l y honoured w i t h l e t t e r s , the p u r p o r t o f which has 64 always been to beg me to marry L i l y D a le to Johnny Eames." The s t o r y was p u b l i s h e d i n book form i n 1864 and g i v e n l o n g and g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e reviews i n the p r e s s . The American p e r i o d i c a l s were p a r t i c u l a r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c , p a r t l y perhaps because "Mr. T r o l l o p e . . . has ...won the e s p e c i a l r e gard o f Americans from his; honest though u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o 65 g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o American i n s t i t u t i o n s . " The one complaint made over and" over agai n , however, was t h a t the c h a r a c t e r of the hero, John Eames was, a t be s t , "unattractive',' 67 and at worst " a s i n i n e . " To r e a d e r s who had come to expect t h a t a T r o l l o p e n o v e l would always end h a p p i l y w i t h wedding b e l l s p e a l i n g and a l l l o o s e ends n e a t l y t i e d , i t seemed t h a t The Small House at A l l i n g t o n was u n f i n i s h e d and! r e q u i r e d a s e q u e l . But once a g a i n , as In The Three C l e r k s , T r o l l o p e r e f u s e d t o s t a y w i t h i n the bounds o f Bar se t s h i r e and produced two works t h a t were f r a n k l y 68 experimental.. The f i r s t o f these* Can You F o r g i v e Her ? departed In s e v e r a l ways from the g e n e r a l type expectedlby T r o l l o p e ' s devoted r e a d e r s . I n the f i r s t p i a c e , a l t h o u g h the c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n , a young woman h e s i t a t i n g between two l o v e r s , 6 4 T r o l . l o p e , Aufeo.. pp. 165-164. .. 6 5 N o r t h American Review, J u l y , 1864,p.292. 6 6 W e s t m i n s t e r Review, July,1864,p.252. .. 6 7 N o r t h American Review, July,1864,p.294. 6 8 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Can You F o r g i v e Her ? 2 vols., Lond on * Chapman and Hall,1864. 16-was f a m i l i a r enough, the c h a r a c t e r of the young woman was d e c i d e d l y u n u s u a l . A l i c e Vavasor i s not one of T r o l l o p e T s "dear l i t t l e brown g i r l s " who h a v i n g once g i v e n t h e i r h e a r t s are f a i t h f u l t o death. She i s o l d e r than the average T r o l l o | f -p i a n h e r o i n e , being twenty-four a t the opening o f the t a l e j q u i t e independent, both f i n a n c i a l l y and s o c i a l l y ; and e x t r a -o r d i n a r i l y strong-minded, stubborn, i n f a c t . As T r o l l o p e him-s e l f put i t "The c h a r a c t e r o f the g i r l i s c a r r i e d through with 69 c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e n g t h , but; Is not a t t r a c t i v e . " The same ob-j e c t i o n , a p p l i e s to one of h e r l o v e r s , her c o u s i n , George Vavasor; while the other, John Grey, has not even " c o n s i d e r -able s t r e n g t h " t o recommend him. Both T r o l l o p e and h i s r e a d e r s found i t d i f f i c u l t to take much i n t e r e s t i n A l i c e and her t r o u b l e s , but the no v e l was always one of the a u t h o r T s f a v o u r -i t e s , s i n c e i n i t Plantagenet P a l l i s e r and the Lady Glencora were f u l l y p r e s e n t e d f o r the f i r s t t i m e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the p u b l i c did. not d e l i g h t i n these two as t h e i r c r e a t o r d i d , and at l e a s t one reader, a clergyman and former devoted f o l l o w e r wrote i n some anger to ask i f T r o l l o p e thought " . . . t h a t a wife r i 7 contemplating a d u l t e r y was a c h a r a c t e r f i t f o r . . .[.hisj pages?" The r e v i e w e r s t r e a t e d the book k i n d l y , p r a i s i n g T r o l l o p e 1 s d e l i c a t e p o r t r a i t u r e o f women, but the comic r e l i e f r e t a i n e d from the n o v e l 1 s o r i g i n a l , the r e j e c t e d p l a y The Noble J i l t , wafer j u s t l y condemned as v u l g a r and out of key w i t h the ^ 7 1 Whole. , 6 9 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.164. 7 0 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.167. 7 * Athenaeum,,September 2,1865, pp.305-306;Westrainster Review, July,1865,pp.284-285. - 17 -I n what i s f o r m a l l y the s u b - p l o t , the P a l l i s e r p a r t o f t h e s t o r y , Can You F o r g i v e Her 2 i s a s e r i o u s book, p r e s e n t -i n g a d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t w i t h d e l i c a c y and insight:. In i t T r o l l o p e opens up a whole new world, more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and l e s s wholesome than B a r s e t s h i r e , and o f f e r i n g wider o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p l o t s based on what Mr. Sadlelr has termed " s o c i a l dilemma" and ""psychological a n a l y s i s " . With Can You F o r g i v e Her 2 T r o l l o p e breaks from the Never-Never l a n d of B a r s e t i n t o r e a l i t y . T h i s was a l e s s p l e a s a n t domain, and many of h i s r e a d e r s were to become i n c r e a s i n g by l o a t h to e n t e r i t w i t h him. 72 The second book, Miss Mackenzie has no g r e a t value I n i t s e l f i I t i s Important because i t too shows T r o l l o p e attempting to break out I n new p aths. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , he r e f u s e d to s p i n a s l i g h t t a l e out t o t h r e e volumes. The D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y Magazine reviewer approved s t r o n g l y of t h l s t "Miss Mackenzie i s worked out w i t h i n the compass of two volumes, 73 and the i n t e r e s t i s enhanced by t h i s compactness." The n o v e l ' s he r o i n e was even l e s s p r o m i s i n g than A l i c e Vavasor, being a spin' s t e r of t h i r t y - f i v e whom T r o l l o p e d e s c r i b e s as "...a v e r y unat#-74 t r a c t i v e o l d maid who was overwhelmed w i t h money troubles^...." M i s s Mackenzie h e r s e l f , however, came o f f w e l l enough, but the Westminster Review maintained t h a t the book's " . . . p i c t u r e s of 75 human nature d i s t o r t e d by v u l g a r i t y . . . £arej simply o f f e n s i v e . " What was " c l e v e r n e s s " and " p e r c e p t i o n " when a p p l i e d to B a r s e t -7 2 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, M i s s Mackenzie, B vols., London, Chapman and H a l l , 1865. _.-7 5 D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y - M a g a z i n e , May 1865,p.576. 7 4 T r o l l o p e , Auto..p.172- ' ^ W e s t m i n s t e r Review, J u l y , 1865,p.284. - 18 -s h i r e has a l r e a d y become "too f a i t h f u l d e s c r i p t i o n - " 7 6 I n the s p r i n g o f t h i s year, 1865, T r o l l o p e was busy h e l p i n g to e s t a b l i s h The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, which was to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "freedom of speech, combined w i t h p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " 7 7 " f l f a l l the s e r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s of the day, i t p r o b a b l y i s the most s e r i o u s , t h e most e a r n e s t , the l e a s t 78 n devoted to amusement, the l e a s t f l i p p a n t , the l e a s t j o c o s e ^ . . . . For t h i s s e r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n Trollope.was to produce t h e f i r s t 79 n o v e l . This, work, The Bel.ton E s t a t e c o n t a i n s a l l t h e I n -g r e d i e n t s f o r a standard s u c c e s s f u l T r o l l o p e n o v e l . I t s hero-i n e , C l a r a Amedroz, charming,, and a l a d y , h e s i t a t e s between two l o v e r s f o r c h a p t e r s ; the surroundings,, i f not avowedly B a r s e t s h i r e , could be t r a d e d f o r those of Franvley Parsonage; and there i s not a l i n e i n the whole to which the clergyman who was shocked by Lady Glencora eould o b j e c t . I n s h o r t j T r o l l o p e p l a y e d safe and wrote f o r the new magazine a n o v e l t h a t should have been a s u r e - f i r e s u c c e s s . I n s t e a d , i t was greeted w i t h luke-warm reviews and i n v o l v e d i n the s e m i - f a i l u r e 80 of the new magazine i n i t s e a r l y days. Before The B e l t o n E s t a t e had completed I t s r u n i n the F o r t n i g h t l y the r e v i e w had ceased to be e c l e c t i c and had become "an organ of l i b e r a l i s m , 81 f ^ e e - t h l n k l n g , and open e n q u i r y . " The B e l t o n E s t a t e was h a r d l y h e a r t y enough food f o r the s u b s c r i b e r s to such a magazine; T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.172., T r o l l o p e , Auto.„ pp.173-174. T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The B e l t o n E s t a t e , 3 vols., London,Chapman and H a l l , 1866. ( p u b l i s h e d i n The F o r t n i g h t l y Review. May-Dec.,, T r o l l o p e , Auto., pp.17 2-174 f o r d e t a i l s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o l l a p s e of the o r i g i n a l F o r t n i g h t l y Review. T r o l l o p e , Auto.. p.174. - 19 -the Athenaeum s a i d t h a t "...the v e r d i c t of p e r i o d i c a l r e a d -e r s was u n f a v o u r a b l e . " 8 2 Some i d e a of what that v e r d i c t may p r o b a b l y have been can be gained from the review of the book done by one of the b r i g h t young w r i t e r s f o r the H a t i o n of the m i d - s i x t i e s , Henry James, who f e l t t h a t "Mr. T r o l l o p e i s simply unable to S3 d e p i c t a mine! In any l i b e r a l sense of the word." To him " 'The B e l t o n E s t a t e * I s a s t u p i d book:; and i n a much deeper sense than that of b e i n g s i m p l y d u l l , f o r a d u l l book i s always a book t h a t might have been l i v e l y . A d u l l book i s a f a i l u r e . Mr. T r o l l o p e ' s s t o r y i s s t u p i d and a s u c c e s s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y , o r g a n i c a l l y , c o n s i s t e n t l y s t u p i d ; s t u p i d I n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to I t s s t r e n g t h . I t i s without a s i n g l e i d e a . I t I s u t t e r l y Incompetent to t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s of , 84 a book, of whatever n a t u r e , namely - t o suggest thought." We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t the h i g h p o i n t of T r o l l o p e ' s success w i t h c r i t i c s and p u b l i c was reached w i t h t h e p u b l i c -n a t i o n o f The Small House at A l l i n g t o n In 1864. The f i n a n c i a l h i g h - p o i n t came In 1866, when he r e c e i v e d £ 2800 f o r The 85 C l a v e r l n g s ; a s h o r t s t o r y ^ about the l e n g t h of Framley Parson- age, which appeared i n the C o r n h i l l , 1866-1867. G e n e r a l l y accepted today as one o f T r o l l o p e ' s f i n e s t works^ The C l a v e r l n g s a l s o found favour w i t h the contemporary r e v i e w e r s , though the oo Athenaeum, Fe b r u a r y 3,1866, p.166. 8 3 T h e Nation, Jamuary 4,1866,p.21. Q^jbid., p.22 8 5 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The C l a v e r l n g s . 2 vols., i l l . , London,Smith, E l d e r , 1 8 6 7 ^ t f u b l i s h e d i n the Cornhill.1866-1867). - 20 f i r s t , notes of k i n d l y condescension are heard amidst the. 86 p r a i s e . I f we take T r o l l o p e * s evidence i n the Autobiography, 87 the s t o r y g a i ned no g r e a t success w i t h the p u b l i c ; and t h e f a c t t h a t i t was f o u r years a f t e r t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n b e f o r e the book was r e p r i n t e d , a l o n g e r gap than i s found f o r any other of T r o l l o p e * s important works up to t h i s p o i n t except h i s f i r s t f o u r and the unhappy Brown, Jones,, and Robinson,, i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s memory ser v e d him w e l l on t h i s p o i n t . The C l a v e r l n g s has s e v e r a l of the q u a l i t i e s which we have seen, o b j e c t e d to i n e a r l i e r T r o l l o p e n o v e l s i n one q u a r t e r or another. Readers l i k e the clergyman who was shocked by Can You F o r g i v e Her? must have been a l i e n a t e d e n t i r e l y by The C l a v e r l n g s , which I s t h e s t o r y o f a. young woman who J i l t s a man. to marry o p e n l y f o r money and p o s i t i o n , and then, when she i s free,, does her best t o break, up an engagement whi.ch her former l o v e r has entered upon d u r i n g t h e meantime. The F o r t - n i g h t l y Review c r i t i c o b j e c t e d to the humorous c h a r a c t e r s , 89 as the N a t i o n a l Review w r i t e r had i n the case o f O r l e y Farm ^  but w i t h l e s s j u s t i c e . Though some may f e e l t h a t Moulder and h i s companion bagmen are weak: Dickens, Captain Boodle, A r c h i e C l a v e r i n g , and Sophie Gordeloup are a l l T r o l l o p e , and p r e s e n t e d i n t h e round. Some of t h e i r scenes are sheer f a r c e , as when Sophie makes her l a s t e n t r e a t y on the way back f r o m the I s l e 90 of Wight, but i t i s v e r y amusing f a r c e and comes o f f w e l l . 8**> Athenaeum, June 15, 1867 t.p.785; F o r t n i g h t l y Review June,1867,pp.771-772; Blackwood's, September ,1867,pp.275-278. 8 7 T r o l l o p e , Auto., pp.179-180 * 8 8 F o r t n i g h t I y • R e v i e w , l o c . c i t . 8 % a t i o n a I Review, January, 1862,p.40 . 9 ° T h e C l a v e r l n g s , Chapter XXIX. - 21 -Many readers may well have found such scenes "low", however, and c e r t a i n l y many would have f e l t that other elements were "unpleasant": A wife i l l - t r e a t e d by a brutal husband, and an unedlfying mid-Victorian confidence man, Sophie's brother, Count Pateroff. Reviewers had sometimes complained that Trollope 91 kept repeating his characters from book to book, hut they could have no such complaint against The* Claverings, which mentions; not a single f a m i l i a r name. There Is no reason to suppose^though, that novel readers of the s i x t i e s objected to meeting the worthies of Barsetshire again and again, any more than t h e i r contemporary counterparts mind the constant reappearance of whole families In the works o f Bar-set's pre-sent chronicler, Mrs. Thirke11. With such readers The Small  House at Alling t o n , a "nice" story about a "nice" g i r l , had had great success, and i t Is understandable that to them The  Claverings was rather a disappointment. In the eight years 1858 - 1866 Trollope had pro-duced f i v e complete successes (Doctor Thorne, The West Indies_ Framley Parsonage,, Or l e y Farm, and The Small House at A l l i n g - ton) ; f i v e p a r t i a l successes (North America, Rachel Ray, Can  You Forgive Her ? ?The Claverings and The Bertrams); three near-f a i l u r e s (Castle Richmond, Miss Mackenzie, and The Belton Estate); and one complete failure,, (Brown, Jones, and Robinson) • In addition to these he had published four ephemeral c o l l e c t i o n s , Westminster Review, July, 1861, p. 282, and" July, 1864,p.252 - 82 -92 T a l e s o f A l l Co tui t r i e s , H u n t i n g S k e t c h e s , C l e r g y m e n , o f the 95 Church o f I n l a n d , ana T r a v e l l i n g S k e t e h e s ^ a n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f p e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e s . He h a d , I n s h o r t , e a r n e d a name b y m e r i t , a n d k e p t I t c o n s t a n t l y b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c b y h i s q u i c k r a t e o f p r o d u c t i o n . At t h i s s t a g e he w a s m o r e a n d m o r e s t r u c k b y w h a t h e f e l t t o be a n i n j u s t i c e i n l i t e r a r y a f f a i r s , t h e f a c t t h a t " . . . a name o n c e e a r n e d c a r r i e d w i t h i t t o o much Q 5 f a v o u r . " " He f e l t t h a t " . . . a s p i r a n t s c o m i n g up b e l o w me .might do w o r k as g o o d as m i n e , a n d p r o b a b l y m u c h b e t t e r w o r k , 96 a n d y e t f a l l t o h a v e i t a p p r e c i a t e d . " T o t e s t t h i s i d e a T r o l l o p e d e t e r m i n e d t o e s t a b l i s h a s e c o n d l i t e r a r y I d e n t i t y , a n d t o t h i s e n d p u b l i s h e d two 97. n o v e l s anonymously I n Blackwood*s, N i n a B a l a t k a i n 1866, 98 ~ ' ~ & n®- L . i n d a T r e s s e l the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . N e i t h e r h a d m u c h success. w h i l e b o t h w e r e r e c o g n i z e d as T r o l l o p e * s w o r k b y s e a s o n e d ob-99 s e r v e r s . L e s s , t h a n f i v e h u n d r e d c o p i e s o f N i n a B a l a t k a h a d b e e n s o l d i n t h e f i r s t f i v e a n d a h a l f m o n t h s ; a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n , a n < ^ L i n d a T r e s s e l , t h o u g h B l a c k w o o d h a d h i g h e r h o p e s : , d i d l i t t l e b e t t e r o ^ " ^ T r o l l o p e b e c a m e c o n v i n c e d t h a t E n g l i s h r e a d e r s w o u l d r e a d h i s w o r k o n l y i f he p u t h i s .name t o i t Q 4 > T r o l l o p e j, A n t h o n y , H u n t i n g S k e t che s , 1 v o l * , L o n d o n , . C h a p m a n a n d H a l1,1865. 9 ^ T r o l l o p e , A n t h o n y , C l e r g y m e n o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d 1 . v o l * , L o n d o n , Chapman a n d H a l l , 1866.. ^ T r o l l o p e , A n t h o n y j, T r a v e l l i n g S k e t c h e s , 1 v o l . , L o n d o n , C h a p m a n a n d H a l l , 1 8 6 6 . 9 § T r o l l o p e ; , . A u t o , p . 185. " ^ T r o i l o p e , A u t o . , p . 1 8 6 . ^ T r o l l o p e , A n t h o n y , N i n a B a l a t k a , 2 v o l s . , E d i n b u r g h a n d L o n d o n , B l a c k w o o d , 1866 t h i r s t p u b l i s h e d a n o n y m o u s l y i n B l a c k w o o d ' s,1866) 9 8 T r o l l o p e , A n t h o n y , L i n d a T r e s s e l . , 2 v o l s , , . E d i n b u r g h a n d L o n d o n , B l a c k w o o d ' s , 1867^(3tirst p u b l i s h e d a n o n y m o u s l y I n B l a c k w o o d ' s , 1867) 99Bv H u t t o n . I n t h e S p e c t a t o r ; *4r* T r o l l o p e , A u t o . p . 186: a n d H e n r y J a m e s ? N a t i o n , J u n e H t S j i S f e , p g * 4 9 4 - 4 9 5 . " L O O S a d l e i r ^ M I c ' h ' a e l , T r o l l o p e , A ^ C o m m e n t a r y , L o n d o n C o n s t a b l e : a n d C o . L t d . . ^ - 2 3 -Nina B a l a t k a had o r i g i n a l l y been o f f e r e d t o George Smith, but he, perhaps smarting s t i l l from Brown>Jones ?and Robinson, and s a f e l y i n p o s s e s s i o n o f the c o p y r i g h t of a new. two-volume T r o l l o p e work, had r e f u s e d the l i t t l e anonymity. The new n o v e l , The L a s t C h r o n i c l e of B & r s e t , 1 ^ 1 a p p e a r e d i n 1866 and 1867 i n monthly numbers, and was aypopular as any o f 102 I t s Barset p r e d e c e s s o r s , while c r i t i c s p r a i s e d the i n c r e a s e d s e r i o u s n e s s of the theme and the e x t r a o r d i n a r y s u b t l e t y of the p r i n c i p a l p o r t r a i t , t h a t of Mr. Crawley. The book i s indeed an e x t r a o r d i n a r y achievement, having a l l the s u b t l e t y of motive and s i t u a t i o n o f Can You F o r g i v e Her _? and a l l the t a n g i b l e . s e t t i n g ^ and charm of the e a r l i e r Barset n o v e l s . Though T r o l l o p e himself considered t h i s h i s f i n e s t work, on the whole, he was always t r o u b l e d by what he c o n s i d e r e d a fundamental f l a w i n the p l o t , the f a c t that Mrs. A r a b i n had s u p p l i e d her f r i e n d ' s wants by t e n d e r i n g the cheque of a t h i r d person, and t h a t a man 103 l i k e Mr. Crawley should f o r g e t how he had come by i t . T r o l l o p e ' s o b j e c t i o n i s e x a c t l y what we might expect, as h i s main aim i s always c o n s i s t e n t p o r t r a i t u r e , and t h e s e a c t i o n s cannot be r e c o n c i l e d t o the c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d as they have been developed throughout the s e r i e s . The r e v i e w e r s were not so t r o u b l e d , but were concerned by the f a c t t h at t h i s was t o be the l a s t Barset c h r o n i c l e . Presumably r e f l e c t i n g p u b l i c t a s t e ^ .at t h i s p o i n t , Blackwood's reviewer howled i n p r o t e s t 1 Q 1 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The L a s t C h r o n i c l e of B a r s e t . 2 vols., i l l . , London,, Smith, E l d e r , 1867' ( p u b l i s h e d I n monthly p a r t s , 1866-. . . 1867) 1 0 2 C f . Athenaeum. August 3,1867,p.141; Blackwood's.September. 1867. p.277; Westminster Review. July,1867,p.309. 105Trollope,Auto.„ pp. 250 - 251. - 24 to the e f f e c t t h a t r e a d e r s were In no h u r r y t o be done with o l d f r i e n d s ; t h a t k i l l i n g Mrs, P r o u d i e was sheer murder; and t h a t r e a d e r s had been cheated about L i l y Dale, who s t i l l . w r i t e s h e r s e l f " L i l y Dale, Old Maid" at the end of t h i s l o n g 104 n o v e l . Once again i n f a c t , as i n The Small House a t A l l i n g -t o n , T r o l l o p e had w r i t t e n h i s own book and d e c l i n e d t o m a n i -p u l a t e a l l h i s c h a r a c t e r s i n t o a f i n a l t a b l e a u , s u p e r f i c i a l l y p l e a s i n g : but fundamentally I n c o n s i s t e n t with h i s p e o p l e ' s natures as he had drawn them. The L a s t C h r o n l c l e of B a r s e t marks the end of a phase In T r o l l o p e ' s w r i t i n g c a r e e r . I t s main concern i s with a p s y c h o l o g i c a l problem,, but the s e t t i n g i s s t i l l the ordered c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y of B a r s e t . I t i s the l a s t of T r o l l o p e ' s n o v e l s where d i f f i c u l t i e s , , r a n g i n g from Mr. Harding's s t r u g g l e to make the r i g h t d e c i s i o n , through the p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l d i f f i -c u l t i e s of Mary Thome and Frank Gresham,, and f i n a l l y to the t r a g i c dilemma of Mr. Crawley,are p l a y e d out a g a i n s t the back-ground o f a r u r a l England i n which a l l i s more or l e s s s t i l l a l l r i g h t w i t h the w o r l d . In a l l of T r o l l o p e ' s major works from t h i s time on h i s people, good and bad^move a g a i n s t a s e t t i n g which becomes I n c r e a s i n g l y unhealthy and m a t e r i a l i s t i c . T h i s change reaches i t s h e i g h t I n the b i t t e r s a t i r e The Way We L i v e Now, but i t s symptoms a r e q u i t e apparent i n the work t h a t f o l l o w e d 105 The L a s t C h r o n i c l e o f B a r s e t , Phineas F i n n . ^^Blackwood's, September, 1867,p.277/. 1 0 5 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Phineas F i n n . The I r i s h Member.2 vols.,111., London„ V i r t u e , 1869 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n S t . P a u l ' s Magazine. 1867-1869) v - 25 -The f i r s t of the t r u l y " P a r l i a m e n t a r y N o v e l s " was a p p a r e n t l y more s u c c e s s f u l than I t s author had: expected. W r i t t e n a f t e r T r o l l o p e ' s f a i l u r e at the B e v e r l e y e l e c t i o n * the book was designed as a means of" e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f p o l i t i -c a l l y , but so c o n s t r u c t e d as t o p l e a s e the g e n e r a l reader as w e l l : " I f I w r i t e p o l i t i c s f o r my own sake, I must put i n l o v e and i n t r i g u e , s o o i a l I n c i d e n t s , w i t h perhaps a dash o f T 0 fi s p o r t , f o r the b e n e f i t of my r e a d e r s " But i n s p i t e o f t h i s thought f o r the t a s t e s o f h i s readers, T r o l l o p e succeeded I n p l e a s i n g o n l y one c i r c l e o f them,"...the men who would have * l i v e d w i t h Phineas Finn...,and the women who would l i v e d w i t h 107„ Lady Laura S t a n d l s h r o t h e r readers may have agreed with the c r i t i c of the Contemporary Review^ who c o n s i d e r e d the book to be "...not even among the best o f Mr. T r o l l o p e ' s novels^...," and complained t h a t not o n l y d i d the s t o r y l a c k " . . . h i s wonder-f u l g i f t o f s k e t c h i n g the c l e r i c o f the day, and the power o f pathos which he sometimes puts forth 5.'..." hut t h a t "The whole of the Lady Laura s t o r y comes as near c y n i c i s m as Mr. T r o l l o p e -.108 ever goes...*.' "The power of pathos" was c e r t a i n l y not l a c k i n g I n the t i r e l e s s n o v e l i s t ' s next o f f e r i n g ^ t h e extremely l o n g novel 109 He Knew He Was R i g h t . T r o l l o p e h i m s e l f , however, b e l i e v e d t h a t he had f a i l e d I n h i s attempt to; c r e a t e sympathy f o r Lewis 110 T r e v e l y a n , and f e l t t h a t the s t o r y was " n e a r l y a l t o g e t h e r had," I Q 6 T r o l , l q p e , Auto., p . 289. 1 0 7 j b i d . !Q8Contemporary Review^ September,1869, pp. 142-145,. 10 9 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, He Knew He Was Right.2 vols., i l l . , London, Strahan, 1869 (.first, p u b l i s h e d In weekly numbers >1868.-1869.). 1 1 0 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.295. - 26 -r a v e r d i c t with which the Westminster Review h e a r t i l y c o n c u r r e d . C u r i o u s l y , t h i s e r i t i c denounced the hook on the. grounds t h a t T r o l l o p e had long; ago shown h i s f u l l bag of t r i c k s and was now d i s p l a y i n g s i g n s o f exhaustion. There I s no e a r l i e r T r o l l o p e n o v e l that bears the s l i g h t e s t resemblance to t h i s a n a l y s i s of the d e s t r u c t i o n o f f i r s t a marriage and e v e n t u a l l y a man. by mxsunderstanlng and obtuse p r i d e . I t s secondary h e r o i n e , Nora Rftwley,, i s t h e f i r s t of h i s r e a l i s t i c young women v e r y much aware of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f marrying w e l l , while i n Miss W a l l a c h i a P e t r i e and the S p a l d i n g s we meet the f i r s t o f T r o l -l o pe f s Americans abroad. Becoming more e x p l i c i t , the same revie w e r complained t h a t T r o l l o p e had made a s o r r y attempt a t d e s c r i b i n g E x e t e r , and t h a t o n l y Thackeray c o u l d have drawn M i s s Stanhury s u c c e s s f u l l y . The i m p l i c a t i o n seems t o be t h a t o l d T r o l l o p e has reached the point: where he cannot even p l a y h i s trump c a r d , the C a t h e d r a l C l o s e , w i t h any s u c c e s s . While Phineas F i n n had been a p a r t i a l s u c c ess, I n that, i t had reached a s e c t i o n o f the. p u b l i c l i k e l y to apprec-i a t e i t f He Knew He Was Right; was a f a i l u r e ; s i n c e , being; a p p a r e n t l y " j u s t the new T r o l l o p e n o v e l " , i t was o f I n t e r e s t o n l y t o the devoted, who "...probably c o n s i s t o f every young l a d y i n England and the C o l o n i e s ^ . , " 1 1 2 Had the b r i g h t people who were In 1869 p r a i s i n g B a l z a c deigned to r e a d the n o v e l they would have found i t v e r y much t o t h e i r t a s t e ; but; what devotee of s t a r k F r e n c h r e a l i s m would have bothered with Anthony T r o l -l o pe ? H l F & s t m l n a t e r Review, J u l y , 1869. pp. 302 - 305. 1 1 2 W e s t m l n s t e r Review?, J u l y , 1869, p. 302. - 27 -The f a i l u r e of Ete Knew He Was. R i g h t marked; the be-g i n n i n g o f T r o l l o p e ' s d e c l i n e as a popul a r n o v e l i s t . As Mr. Sadleir has p o i n t e d out, "For the f i r s t time T r o l l o p e had o b v i o u s l y been p a i d beyond h i s v a l u e . — T h e knowledge: perco^t-f a t e d through p u b l i s h e r s ' o f f i c e s and from desk to e d i t o r i a l desk t h a t the two l a t e s t T r o l l o p e n o v e l s had not earned t h e i r keep. A u t o m a t i c a l l y and i n response to t h i s d i s q u i e t i n g rumour' h i s e s timated v a l u e as a book or s e r i a l p r o p o s i t i o n c h e c k e d . ^ 1 3 Another f a c t o r which e v e n t u a l l y harmed T r o l l o p e ' s r e p u t a t i o n g r e a t l y was h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h V i r t u e , the p r i n t e r who became p u b l i s h e r of S t . P a u l ' s Magazine o f which T r o l l o p e was e d i t o r . V i r t u e ' s s a l l y Into p u b l i s h i n g was a f f a i l u r e , and i n the gen-e r a l l i q u i d a t i o n o f a s s e t s T r o l l o p e was n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d . Through t h e s a l e o f c o p y r i g h t s he became connected w i t h such f i r m s as Strahan, and Strahan's a s s o c i a t e s , Daldy, I s b i s t e r , and l a t e r , I s b i s t e r . T h i s was bad, f o r t h e i r i m p r i n t s lowered h i s r e p u t a t i o n , and "...he became p r i m a r i l y a w r i t e r o f n o v e l s f o r s e r i a l ^ of novels whose subsequent book i s s u e was l e s s im-p o r t a n t than t h e i r magazine appearances.. . i n an author o f T r o l -114 l o p e ' s c a p a c i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t . . a sure mark of decadence." Perhaps the f e e l i n g i n the a i r t h a t T r o l l o p e was no lon g e r the v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t y he had once been prompted George Smith i n 187Q to p u b l i s h the l o n g - d e f e r r e d Brown, Jones, and  Robinson i n book form, before T r o l l o p e ' s name on i t s s p i n e would a u t o m a t i c a l l y ensure a book's n e g l e c t r a t h e r than a s t i l l r eason-1 1 3 S a d l e i r , T r o l l o p e , pp. 29Q - 291. 1 1 4 i b i d . , p.29a. - 28 -a b l y good s a l e . Whatever the reason f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n , i t d i d u n t o l d harm, t o a r e p u t a t i o n now none too f i r m . S i n c e the e f f o r t had been f e l t t o be a mistake when i t f i r s t r a n i n the C o r n h i l l . when T r o l l o p e was the r i s i n g .star of the day, i t s r e -appearance a t t h i s p o i n t merely served t o push t h e author once and! f o r a l l from h i s p e r c h of eminence. A l l I n a l l , 187Q was d i s a s t r o u s f o r T r o l l o p e . His 115 l o n g novel f o r th a t year^The V i c a r o f B u l l h a m p t o n y "...was w r i t t e n c h i e f l y w i t h the obj e c t of e x c i t i n g not o n l y p i t y but sympathy f o r a. f a l l e n woman, and of r a i s i n g a f e e l i n g o f f o r -116 g i v e n e s s f o r such i n the minds of other women." U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e the theme d i d not appeal t o h i s Barset-minded f o l l o w e r s , nor h i s cautious treatment of i t to the more "advanced", T r o l l o p e succeeded I n p l e a s i n g no one. The o p i n i o n o f the second group may be found i n a n o n - e n t h u s i a s t i c and r a t h e r p a t r o n i z i n g n o t i c e 117 i n the Athenaeum ;while a Blackwood*s reviewer i n a n e l y ex-pres s e d the p o i n t of view of the f i r s t : Why should he have abandoned those e a r l i e r , sweeter, charming young women...to t o s s us about w i t h a l l the doubts and t r i b u l a t i o n s o f a Nora Rowley or a Mary Lowther.. ?r I t i s hard f o r us t o say a word ag a i n s t a w r i t e r from whom we have r e c e i v e d so much amusement;but we must e n t r e a t him to consider h i s ways; -to take thought and mend - to go back upon h i s o r i g i n a l canons, and to f r e e us ^ bf the Mary Lowthers. The l e s s we hear about 1 1 5 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The V i c a r of Bullhampton. 1 v o l , i l l ' , London, Bradbury, Evans, 1870 ( l i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n monthly numbers; 1869-1870,), n o T r o l l o p e , Auto . i. p.300.. 1 1 7Athenaeum. A p r i l 30,1870,p.574. - 29 -such people the b e t t e r , i f there are, as we^g-suppose th e r e a r e , such people i n the w o r l d . The volume of sh o r t s t o r i e s which f o l l o w e d , An 119 E d i t o r * s T a l e s , was g e n e r a l l y d i s m i s s e d as " . . . r e a d i n g f o r s e a - s i d e loungers...land] % , . . h a r d l y worthy of the author," though i t prompted a w r i t e r i n the Westminster Review t o main-t a i n t h a t T r o l l o p e * s c h a r a c t e r s "...have a l l some o f the good heartedness and moral tone of t h e i r c r e a t o r , and we f e e l that t h e y are f i t s o c i e t y f o r even the te n d e r e s t and dearest of 121 ^our f r i e n d s . " The same w r i t e r c a l l e d T r o l l o p e * s n o v e l s "works of a r t " , and he may q u i t e p o s s i b l y have been the l a s t person t o do so u n t i l a c e r t a i n r e v a l u a t i o n took p l a c e at the author*s death. The l a s t T r o l l o p e work to appear i n t h i s u n f o r t u n a t e 122 year was The Commentaries o f Caesar r a l i t t l e book on which he took the pains which c r i t i c s were always u r g i n g him to take with h i s f i c t i o n . With what appears now as m a l i c i o u s p e r v e r s e -ness the c r i t i c s a t t a c k e d the book as a w o r t h l e s s p i e c e of pre-sumption. Xn t h i s they were no doubt prompted, as T r o l l o p e suggests, by "...a f e e l i n g t h a t a man who has spen£ h i s l i f e i n 123 w r i t i n g E n g l i s h n o v e l s c o u l d not be f i t t o w r i t e about Caesar." 1 ^Blackwood's, May, 1870, pp. 647-648. 119T r o l l o p e , Anthony, An E d i t o r * s T a l e s , 1 voL,London,Strahan, 187Q. 1 2 0Athenaeum, J u l y 23,1870,p. 112. -l 2 lYfestmins:ter Review, October, 1870,p.524. 12 2 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Commentaries of Caesar, 1 vol ^ E d i n b u r g h and London, Blackwood,.1870. 1 2 3 T r o l I o p e , Auto., p. 310. - 30 -One kind word came from The Contemporary Review, whose w r i t e r r e c o g n i s e d the modest purpose o f the l i t t l e book .and considered that "...the. v e r s a t i l e author of * Bar C h e s t e r . 124 Towers91 has succeeded i n t h i s to him somewhat novel task....." I t v a i l be noted, however, that to t h i s writer T r o l l o p e ' ' i s s t i l l the successful creator of Barsetshire, and not the r a t h e r pas.se' a u t h o r whom c r i t i c s more a l i v e t o f a s h i o n . seized an opportunity to snipe at. In the spring of 1871 Trollope set s a i l for A u s t r a l i a , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y arranging a c o n t r a c t f o r a book about the Colonies before leaving. While he was on h i s travels three n o v e l s appeared i n book form which had been written b e f o r e he 125 126 l e f t , S i r Harry, Hot spur of Humblethwaite. Ralph the Heir," •» 127 and The Golden Lion of Granpere . The f i r s t of these i s a good novel, Interesting because I t shows the impact o f a worldly wastrelj Harry Brandon, upon the decent society o f Trollope's r u r a l E n g l a n d . I t enjoyed a moderate success, and might poss-i b l y have done very w e l l , had T r o l l o p e published none o f the works that had come out the year before, Ralph the Heir, xvh i c h 128 Trollope considered one of the worst novels he 'had ever written, , Ipg was not so happy; but The. Golden Lion of Granpere which he l e l t to be f a r i n f e r i o r to Nina Balatka or Linda Tressel, was w e l l -l i k e d . 1 P/L "Contemporary Review, September>1870, p. 314. --"Trollope Anthony, S i r Harry Hotspur of Humble thwaite „ 1 vol., London, Hurst and Bla.ckett,1871. 126rp r ollope, Anthony, R a l p h the Heir^ 5 vols., London, H u r s t and Blackett, 1871. 127Troliope, Anthony, The Go Men Lion of Granpere, 1 vol., London, Tinsley,1872. 1 ^ 8 T r o l 1 o p e , A u t o . , p.313. 129T.his. was .the third,, novel offered to Blackwood f o r anonymous DUD l i e a t icon, i n 186 7» 130"*Trol 1 o'nft.Antft. . rm P.PP.-P.Q! - 31 -I f these works d i d not s e r i o u s l y weaken T r o l l o p e ' s p o s i t i o n , n e i t h e r d i d they do a n y t h i n g t o strengthen i t . His 131 next n o v e l , however, The Eustace Diamonds was as great a success p o p u l a r l y as anything he had ever w r i t t e n , and r e s t o r e d much of h i s p u b l i c f a v o u r ; but even i t d i d n o t h i n g f o r h i s l i t -e r a r y r e p u t a t i o n , which a t t h i s p o i n t was .apparently beyond, the a i d of even such an o b v i o u s l y good p i e c e o f work as the h i s t o r y of L i z z i e E ustace. Throughout the Athenaeum n o t i c e s a t i e t y and t h i n l y - v e i l e d contempt are e v i d e n t , though th e w r i t e r l a n g u i d l y observed t h a t " . . . t h i s p a r t i c u l a r permutation o f the m a t e r i a l s 132 i s e f f e c t i v e enough...." Two e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s a t t i t u d e might be offered.. The f i r s t i s t h a t comedy, f o r t h e most p a r t l i g h t and s u b t l e , but v a r i e d by patches of t r u l y amusing f a r c e , was, l i k e the Commentaries of C a e s a r - , not T r o l l o p e ' s p r e s e r v e . Though c r i t i c s are c o n s t a n t l y complaining of the f l a t n e s s and monotony of T r o l l o p e ' s n o v e l s , and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y one to the other a t t h i s time, they seem Incapable o f r e c o g n i z i n g a new and s u c c e s s f u l departure Into f r e s h f i e l d s . A second r e a s o n f o r t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l o f t h i s n o v e l i s that i t q u i t e l a c k s Sa two q u a l i t i e s h i g h l y p r i z e d a t the time, the h e r o i c , and! the m o r a l l y deep. None o f the works t h a t f o l l o w e d Kie Eustace Diamonds was of a s o r t t o c a p i t a l i z e on that n o v e l ' s p o p u l a r success and. ensure a d e f i n i t e r e t u r n f o r T r o l l o p e to p u b l i c f a v o u r . When 131 Trollope,Anthony, The Eustace Diamonds. 3 vols,, London, Chapman and: H a l l , 1873^ ( p u b l i s h e d i n the F o r t n i g h t l y Review ,1871 - 1873). 1 5 2Athenaeum, October 2:6,1872,p.527 . - 32 -t h a t novel had completed. I t s run i n the F o r t n i g h t l y i t was 133 r e p l a c e d by Lady Anna, one o f the few T r o l l o p e novels which even the most devoted present-day reader f i n d s almost imposs-i b l e to f i n i s h , f o r the book i s dead. Contemporary r e a d e r s d i d not f i n d i t so, a p p a r e n t l y , s i n c e T r o l l o p e remarks,"In i t ; a young g i r l , who i s r e a l l y a l a d y of high r a n k and g r e a t wealth, though i n her youth she enjoyed none o f the p r i v i l e g e s o f wealth or rank, m a r r i e s a t a i l o r who had been good t o her, and whom she had l o v e d when she was poor and n e g l e c t e d . A f i n e young noble l o v e r i s p r o v i d e d f o r her, and a l l the charms of sweet: l i v i n g with n i c e people are thrown In her way, i n order that she may be made t o g i v e up the t a i l o r . . . .The book, was read, and I was s a t i s f i e d . The h o r r o r which was expressed to me a t the e v i l t h i n g I had done, I n g i v i n g the g i r l to the t a i l o r , was the s t r o n g e s t testimony I c o u l d r e c e i v e of the 154 m e r i t s of the s t o r y . " However, a book that was simply r e a d was not enough to f o l l o w up a resounding success l i k e The Eustace Diamonds. . T r o l l o p e * s next p u b l i s h e d work A u s t r a l i a and New 135 Zealand was f a r more s u c c e s s f u l than he had ever expected, but the success of such a work has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the gen-e r a l p o p u l a r i t y of a n o v e l i s t . To the two thousand people who bought out the f i r s t expensive e d i t i o n , t h e ponderous volumes were p r i m a r i l y a book about t h e C o l o n i e s , not the new Anthony x ^ T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Lady Anna, 2 vols., London,Chapman and H a l l 1874/(published i n the. F o r t n i g h t l y Review,18.75-1874). 1 3 % r o l I o p e , Auto.,pp. 516-517. 1 3 5 T r o i l o p e , A n t h o n y , A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand, 8 vols,,London, Chapman and H a l l , 1 8 7 3 . Trollope. A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand i s a book off the same c l a s s as North America; had i t been another such readable d e l i g h t as The West I n d i e s and the Spanish Main i t would have been o f r e a l value to T r o l l o p e ' s p o p u l a r i t y and r e p u -t a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t . 156 Harry Heathcote of G a n g o i l was a po p u l a r s t o r y f o r the Christmas t r a d e , regarded as a pl e a s a n t change from T r o l l o p e * s u s u a l f i e l d s : "The s t o r y i s too s l i g h t to add t o the author's r e p u t a t i o n ; but i t w i l l not d i m i n i s h I t , and I s 1317 a t any r a t e , a not unwelcome v a r i a t i o n . " ' I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the r e v i e w e r s who had been complaining of the "photographic r e a l i t y " of T r o l l o p e * s d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r own world p r a i s e d the; same technique when i t was d i r e c t e d towards u n f a m i l i a r scenes. A more important event was the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Phineas _ / 138 g . e d u * i n 1874. T h i s manuscript T r o l l o p e had l e f t with Chap-man and H a l l b e f o r e s e t t i n g o f f to A u s t r a l i a ; but p u b l i c a t i o n had been d e l a y e d . T h i s was u n f o r t u n a t e , f o r i t meant t h a t f i v e years had passed s i n c e Phineas F i n n had come o u t . A r t i s t i c a l l y t h i s i s w e l l enough, s i n c e Phineas has been r u s t i c a t i n g i n I r e l a n d f o r some time between the p e r i o d s of h i s h i s t o r y covered by the two n o v e l s , but f i v e years was a l o n g time f o r r e a d e r s to keep the. d e t a i l s o f Phineas F i n n i n mind. H a r r y Heathcote had been a general s u c c e s s , but so minor a book as to be o f 136rQ r olIope, Anthony, H a r r y Heathcote of G a n g o i l , 1 vol,, London, Sampson,Low, 1874. . . . 1 5 7 A t h e n a e u m % November 7,1874,p.606. 1 3 8 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Phineas Redux, 2 vols., i l L , London, Chapman and Hall,1874. - 3 4 -l i t t l e importance to | r o l l o p e as an author. Phineas Redux i s a major work, but l i k e i t s f o r e r u n n e r appealed l a r g e l y t o "...the men who would have l i v e d w i t h Phineas^...,and the 139 women who would have l i v e d w i t h Lady La u r a . . . . " Not having appeared f i r s t as a s e r i a l and so be-come q u i t e w e l l known b e f o r e I t s p u b l i c a t i o n as a book, Phineas  Redux: r e c e i v e d a l a r g e r number of p r e s s n o t i c e s than had been us u a l f o r r e c e n t T r o l l o p e n o v e l s . These reviews are a l l much a l i k e , and express the ge n e r a l c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e towards T r o l -l o pe In the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . The Athenaeum w r i t e r complains t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say a n y t h i n g new of T r o l l o p e . He o f f e r s " . . . l i t t l e to s t i m u l a t e the Imagination o r suggest t o p i c s f o r r e f l e c t i o n . . . but.. .abundance of the •fight k i n d of i n t e l l -e c t u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n which may be drawn from s e e i n g l i f e - l i k e 140 p o r t r a i t s o f common-place people," L a t e r the w r i t e r speaks of these people as being "^...as l i f e - l i k e and d e p r e s s i n g as u s u a l . . . . " , complaining o f the; l a c k o f the h e r o i c or romantic, and being e s p e c i a l l y hard on the women, s i n c e he f e e l s t h a t "...the absence of romance Is l e s s f a t a l to a man than to a 141 woman....." To t h i s reviewer the s t r o n g e s t p a r t o f the book was. the p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e d e s c r i b i n g the e f f e c t s o f the d i s -establishment o f the Church, o f England. A more i n t e l l i g e n t estimate appeared In the A t l a n t i c  Monthly, whose c r i t i c p a i d homage to T r o l l o p e r s " c l e v e r n e s s " and then summed up the p r e v a i l i n g c r i t i c a l Ideas on the p r o l i f i c 1 5 9Tr.o.llQPe, Auto.,p.289. 1 4 0Athenaeum, January 10,1874,p.53. 1 4 1 i b i d . author by s a y i n g "There i s n o t h i n g but amusement to be got from Mr. t r o l l o p e . . . . G r e a t n o v e l i s t s may t e l l the same s t o r y , but they put a meaning between the l i n e s where Mr. T r o l l o p e l e a v e s a blank. They teach as w e l l as d e s c r i b e . Mr. T r o l -l o p e seems to c a t c h e v e r y t h i n g but the deeper meaning." Most i n t e r e s t i n g and r e v e a l i n g o f a l l was a n o t i c e i n the Nation, i n which T r o l l o p e i s d e s c r i b e d as "...the most s u c c e s s f u l of l i t e r a r y artisans,...£whoJ f i x e s to h i m s e l f a standard of l i t e r a r y e x c e l l e n c e which he never f a i l s g r e a t l y below; h i s sta n d a r d i s e x a c t l y t h a t of the s o - c a l l e d i n t e l l i -gent r e a d e r . He meets the wishes o f that l a r g e c l a s s of p e r -sons whose t a s t e i s too good to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h Mi a a. and not good enough to enjoy George E l i o t . W J - ' C u r i o u s l y , the w r i t e r f e l t that " A . . . f a u l t t h a t w i l l t e l l f a t a l l y a g a i n s t Mr. T r o l l o p e ' s l a s t i n g r e p u t a t i o n , i s t h a t he has not produced any of those great andl o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r s t h a t are t o be found i n the works of Thackeray, M i s s Bronte, or George E l i o t . . . throughout the whole of h i s works there i s not to fee found a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r . . . ^ which i s a permanent a d d i t i o n t o the world 144 of E n g l i s h f i c t i o n . " He a l s o c l a i m s t h a t T r o l l o p e f a i l s "to develop the growth o f character',' c o n n e c t i n g t h i s with h i s b e l i e f t h a t " Mr. T r o l l o p e l a c k s e n t i r e l y the i n t e l l e c t u j a l t r u t h -f u l n e s s which compels Thackeray or Balaac to p a i n t the most r e -p u l s i v e persons or the most p a i n f u l scenes i n a l l t h e i r hideous r e a l i t y . . . . T h e t r u t h i s t h a t Mr., T r o l l o p e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s uper-14! f i c i a l w r i t e r and d e l i g h t s to deal, w i t h the o u t s i d e of t h i n g s . " 1 4 8 A t l a n t i c Monthly .May.-1874,pp.617-618. l ^ N a t i o n , March 12,1874,p. 174. - 36 -The next o f f e r i n g of t h i s ; unromantie and s u p e r f i c i a l 146 w r i t e r t o " an age which worships common-place" was a novel completely d i f f e r e n t from any he had w r i t t e n b e f o r e , The Way 147 We L i v e Now, a s a t i r e prompted by what T r o l l o p e conceived to T A Q be "the commercial p r o f l i g a c y of the age.," " U p o n the whole," says .'Trollope, " I by no means look upon the book as one of my f a i l u r e s ; nor was i t taken as a f a i l u r e by the p u b l i c or the 149 press,'* As f a r as s a l e s are concerned t h i s i s t r u e , s i n c e the n o v e l , though o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n numbers,had r u n t o f o u r e d i t i o n s by 1879, The p r e s s , however, d i d c o n s i d e r i t a f a i l -150 ure, a c c o r d i n g to the S t e b b i n s e s , who are t h o r o u g h l y r e l i a b l e when they are p r e s e n t i n g f a c t s . The Athenaeum f e l t t h a t M e l -mottle " , . , r e q u i r e s a more powerful hand than Mr. T r o l l o p e ' s , and the choice o f such a p r o t a g o n i s t shows ignorance on the 151 n o v e l i s t ' s p a r t of the l i m i t s of h i s c a p a c i t i e s , " w hile the Westminster Review, on one o f the r a r e occasions o f recent y e a r s when i t n o t i c e d T r o l l o p e at a l l , d e l i v e r e d a savage a t t a c k , l i k e n i n g T r o l l o p e to h i s own Lady Carbury, and ending paragraphs of d e n u n c i a t i o n w i t h "In short, we l o o k i n v a i n f o r any of those 152 h i g h e r a r t i s t i c touches that g i v e l i f e t o a work of f i c t i o n , " . 153 ^ F o l l o w i n g The Wgy We L i v e Now, The Prime M i n i s t e r 1 4 6 i b i d , 1 4 7 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Way We L i v e Now, 2 vols., i l L , L o n d o n , Chapman and Hall,1875 y*(«ubiished i n monthly numbers, 1874-1875) . .. 1 4 8 T r o l l o p e , Auto., p.323. 1 4 9 T r o l l o p e , Auto.,, p.325. 150On p.291 o f The T r o l l o p e s they speak of T r o l l o p e as b e i n g " . . . confronted by an accumulation of unfavourable reviews of The Way We L i v e Now." . 1 5 IAthenaeum. June 26,1875,p.851. 1 5 2 W e s t m i n s t e r Review, October 1,1875,p.530. 1 5 3 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Prime M i n i s t e r , 4 vols*, London,Chapman and H a l l , 1876. - 57 -b r i n g s us to the lowest p o i n t of T r o l l o p e ' s c a r e e r . T h i s book had been a labour o f l o v e , I n which he had sought t o produce the f i n a l p o r t r a i t o f h i s i d e a l E n g l i s h gentleman and statesman, but I n s t e a d of e n j o y i n g the m i l d p o p u l a r i t y o f the o t h e r P a l l i s e r n o v e l s . l t was a f l a t f a i l u r e on a l e v e l w i t h Brown, Jones, and Robinson. A r u e f u l f o o t n o t e I n the Autobiography t e l l s of h i s disappointment: " W r i t i n g t h i s note I n 1878, a f t e r a l a p s e of n e a r l y t h r e e y e a r s , I am. ob-l i g e d to say t h a t , as r e g a r d s the p u b l i c , The Prime M i n i s t e r was a f a i l u r e . I t was worse spoken o f by the p r e s s t h a n any n o v e l I had w r i t t e n . I.was e s p e c i a l l y h u r t by a c r i t i c i s m on 154 I t I n the S p e c t a t o r . " The r e c e p t i o n was so bad t h a t T r o l -155 lope f e l t t h a t he should stop w r i t i n g ^ a thought he had never e n t e r t a i n e d b e f o r e . I f the most s c a t h i n g and I n s u l t i n g r e -156 157 views, which appeared i n the A t l a n t i c Monthly and the N a t i o n (whose n o t i c e s o f T r o l l o p e ' s books were u s u a l l y k i n d e r than t h o s e In E n g l i s h p e r i o d i c a l s , can be taken as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t T r o l l o p e was d i s h e a r t e n e d . The c h i e f reason f o r i t s remarkable u n p o p u l a r i t y was the f a c t t h a t The Prime  M i n i s t e r i s e n t i r e l y made up of elements which were unpleasant to the admirers o f t h e p o l i t e world o f B a r s e t , and v u l g a r and commonplace to the c o n s c i o u s l y a r t i s t i c and I n t e l l e c t u a l . To the f i r s t group the n o v e l o f f e r s l i t t l e of romance i n the. s t o r y o f E m i l y Wharton; the hero i s a s t i c k ; and the v i l l a i n i s a d i s -agreeable f o r e i g n adventurer u n p l e a s a n t l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f Melmotte 1 5 4 T r o l l o p e , Auto., f t n . 1»p. 529. 1 5 5 T r o l l o p e , Auto.. f t n . t»p. 5.30. 1 5 6 A t l a n t i c Monthly,-August,1876,pp.245-246. 1 5 7 N a t i o n , J u l y 20,1876,p.45. - 38 -i n The Way We L i v e Now, Never a popular f i g u r e , Plantagenet P a l l i s e r i s here u n u s u a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e : I n h i s o v e r - s e n s i t i v i t y , whL&£ Lady Glencora's charm i s s a c r i f i c e d t o the g r e a t e r g l o r y of T r o l l o p e * s i d e a l gentleman statesman. From the more c r i t i -c a l s t a ndpoint the book was e q u a l l y unhappy, s i n c e the main s u b j e c t of the c a r e f u l p o r t r a i t u r e i s not i n the l e a s t h e r o i c , nor u n u s u a l l y I n t e l l i g e n t , but simply t h e embodiment o f a l l t h a t , I f worthy, i s d e c i d e d l y d u l l . Moreover, E m i l y Wharton*s m i s d i r e c t e d constancy seemed p a i n f u l and s t u p i d r a t h e r than t r a - . g i c ; while Lopez h i m s e l f , the one c h a r a c t e r who might have had appeal I f he had been drawn on the grand s c a l e , was r i g h t l y r e -garded as a mere v u l g a r small-time s w i n d l e r . The f i r s t group of r e a d e r s found the work d e p r e s s i n g ; the second found I t d u l l . U n t i l h i s death, however, T r o l l o p e ' s r e p u t a t i o n was never a g a i n a t so low an ebfo. I n the next year, 1877, we f i n d the f i r s t evidences o f a g r a d u a l change i n ti& a t t i t u d e to T r o l -l o p e , which becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a pproving i n the next f i v e y e a r s . He never r e g a i n s the p o s i t i o n he had h e l d I n t h e s i x t i e s , but i n the l a s t y e a r s o f h i s l i f e he seems to have been gr a n t e d , by some s e c t i o n s o f the p u b l i c at any r a t e , t h a t s o r t of a f f e c t i o n -ate r e g a r d u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . A c l e a r i n s t a n c e o f t h i s change from, the contemptuous f e e l i n g p r e v a l e n t In the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s I s found i n an a r t i c l e which appeared i n 158 the Edinburgh Review of October,1877. The tone i s always a f f e c t i o n a t e and t o l e r a n t , and f r e q u e n t l y e n t h u s i a s t i c . I t is; noteworthy t h a t by f a r the major p o r t i o n of the e s s a y i s devoted to n o s t a l g i c d i s c u s s i o n of the Bar s e t s t o r i e s , though the w r i t e r "Mr. A n t h o n y * s T r o l l o p e * s N o v e l s , " Edinburgh Review. October, 1877,pp.455-488 . - 39 -speaks t o l e r a n t l y of what he d e s c r i b e s as the n e c e s s a r i l y un-equal q u a l i t y of such a p r o l i f i c author's work and c o n s i d e r s t h a t T r o l l o p e has maintained a h i g h general average. " A chance 'Miss Mackenzie' i s f a r more than compensated by a 'Doctor Thome' or a 'Framley Parsonage' and w h i l e we are shaking our heads over a "Eustace Diamonds' he shows h i m s e l f capable of higher:, work than we had h i t h e r t o c r e d i t e d him w i t h , by something- t h a t i s . a l t o g e t h e r charming l i k e 'The L a s t Chron-t 159 i c l e s o f Barset,." The same s h i f t i n o p i n i o n i s expressed by Robert Louis Stevenson I n 1878, though he shows himself a r a t h e r shame-f a c e d c o n v e r t . Do you know who i s my f a v o u r i t e author oust now? How are the mighty f a l l e n ! Anthony T r o l l o p e . I b a t t e n on him; he i s so n e a r l y wearying- you., and y e t he never does; or r a t h e r , he never does u n t i l he gets near the end., when he begins t o wean you from him, so t h a t you're as p l e a s e d to be done with him as you thought you would be s o r r y . I wonder i f I t ' s o l d age ? I t i s a l i t t l e , I am s u r e . A young, per s o n would get s i c k e n e d by the dead l e v e l of mean-ness and cowardliness; you r e q u i r e t o be a l i t t l e s p o i l e d and c y n i c a l before you can enjoy I t . I have: j u s t f i n i s h e d the Way of the World £>lc^0 j there i s o n l y one person i n i t - no, t h e r e are t h r e e , - who are n i c e . . . . A l l the heroes and h e r o i n e s are j u s t g h a s t l y . But what a triumph i s Lady Car bury! That i s r e a l , s t r o n g , genuine work: the man who c o u l d do t h a t , i f he had. had courage, might have w r i t t e n a f i n e book; he has p r e f e r r e d t o w r i t e many readable o n e s . 1 6 0 The r e c e p t i o n given t h e next few novels o f T r o l l o p e ' I s f u r t h e r evidence o f a r e p u t a t i o n being s l o w l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d 161 between 1877 - 1879. The American Senator r e c e i v e d t h e f i r s t r e a l l y favourable: review t h a t the Athenaeum had g i v e n T r o l l o p e 1 5 9 i b i d , p.458. 1 6 0 C o l v i n , Sidney, The Works of Robert L o u i s Stevenson, London, Chatto and WIndus,1912, vol.23,p.215. Stevenson was 28 at the time of the l e t t e r quoted. 1 6 1 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The American Senator, 3 vols., London, Chanman and Hall.18771 - 40 -i n years, w i t h much p r a i s e being granted the q u i e t , B a r s e t -162 l i k e charm of D i l l s b o r o u g h . P o p u l a r l y , T r o l l o p e f e l t t h a t 163 b o t h t h i s n o v el and t h e one that; f o l l o w e d , Is_ He Popenjoy? 164 enjoyed " f a i r s u c c e s s " . Much the same r e c e p t i o n met An Eye f o r an Eye; while John C a l d i g a t e was a d e f i n i t e s u c c e s s . 167 Even Cousin Henry d i d not meet w i t h v e r y h a r s h treatment. Two other- works t h a t appeared d u r i n g t h e s e years serve as reminders t h a t T r o l l o p e , though once a g a i n i n f a i r l y 168 good estate^was not y e t f i r m l y p l a c e d . F o r South A f r i c a , h i s l a s t t r a v e l book, he could arrange a p r i c e o f o n l y 1»850, £400 l e s s than he. had r e c e i v e d f o r North America and A u s t r a l i a 169 and New Zealand, and when the book appeared I t was, a c c o r d i n g 170 to Mr. S a d l e i r n . . . t h e l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l of h i s t r a v e l books." N e v e r t h e l e s s , running i n t o f o u r e d i t i o n s before h i s death, and r e c e i v i n g ; a f a v o u r a b l e n o t i c e i n the Athenaeum, i t had a happier: 1 7 1 h i s t o r y t han the l i t . t l e book on Thackeray, which was. v i o l e n t l y 2Athenaeum, June 16,1877,p.766. 1 6 3 T r o l l o p e , Anthony,,ISQHe Popenjoy?, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman - and H a l l , 1 8 7 8 . Re viewed: Athenaeum. May 4,1878, p . 567, I 6 4 T r o n o p e , i Auto., p.331^ f t n . 1.61JTrollope, Anthony, Ah Eye F o r an Eye, 2 v o l s , London,Chapman and H a l l , 1879, Reviewed: Athenaeum,,Jan.,11 ,,1879,p.47; Blackwood*s March,1879,pp.338-339; Nation, A p r i l 24,1879,p.290. 1 6 6 T r o l l o p e , Anthony,John C a l d i g a t e , 3 v o l s , London,Chapman and H a l l , 1879. Reviewed: Athenaeum., June 14,1879 , p.755.:Nineteenth  Century, August,1880:, p.540. * - 6 7 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Cousin Henry, 2 vols., London, Chapman and • H a l l , 1 8 7 9 . Reviewed: Athenaeum, October 18,1879, p.495. 1 6 8 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, South A f r i c a * 2 vols., London, Chapman and • H a l l , 1878. -1 6 9 S t a b b i n s e s , op_. c i t , p.302. 1 7 Q S a d l e . i r , op_. c i t , p.315. * 7 i T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Thackeray. 1 v o l . ? L o n d o n , Macmillan,1879. - 41 -172 a t t a c k e d as s t u p i d and u n a p p r e c i a t l v e i n America, while more k i n d l y B r i t i s h . r e v I e w s ^ 7 3 f o u n d the c r i t i c a l p o r t i o n o f the book: a t b e s t " d i s a p p o i n t i n g . " 174 But w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1880 of a s e q u e l t o , of a l l books to choose, The Prime M i n i s t e r . T r o l l o p e once. ag a i n came Into h i s own. The'comments i n reviews make i t -c l e a r t h a t he was brought to t h i s p o i n t on a wave o f r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the " e s o t e r i c d o c t r i n e s " o f "the modem s c h o o l o f h i g h 175 a r t " , T r o l l o p e I s p r a i s e d f o r knowing " . . . t h a t the f i r s t t h i n g r e q u i r e d of a n o v e l i s t I s that he should s e i z e the a t t e n t i o n of 176 h i s readers by i n t e r e s t i n g - and amusing them" and a w r i t e r I n the N a t i o n d e c l a r e d t h a t "No one ever, we fancy, r e a d a n o v e l of h i s without w i s h i n g t h a t he might soon w r i t e another, and i t I s o n l y b o r n s t o r y - t e l l e r s who l e a v e us I n t h i s frame o f 177 mind:." To r e a d e r s , weary of problem n o v e l s , who had fond; memories of the enjoyment T r o l l o p e ' s B a r s e t novels had g i v e n them. In the s i x t i e s , when they had been r e p e l l e d by the f l o o d of s e n s a t i o n f i c t i o n , The Duke's C h i l d r e n was a d e l i g h t f u l ex-p e r i e n c e . Though i t i s the author's t h i r t y - n i n t h n o v e l i t has a l l the f r e s h n e s s o f Framley Parsonage. combined w i t h a p l o t 1 7 2 c l . A t l a n t i c Monthly. August 1879,pp.267-268; Nation.August 21,1879, pp.126-127. 1 7 3 c l . Athenaeum. June 14^1879.pp.749-750;Westminster Review. J u l y 1879,p.258. 1 7 4 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, The Duke's C h i l d r e n , 3 vols., London, Chap-man and Hal l , 1 8 8 0 . . 1 7 5Athenaeum, May 29,1880,p.695. l 7 6 i b i d . 1 7 7 Sedgwick,A.G.,"Trollope's 'The Duke's C h i l d r e n ' " , N a t i o n . August 19,1880, p.159. - 42 -t h a t T r o l l o p e had never u t i l i z e d b e f o r e . I n i t Plantagenet P a l l i s e r i s made human, being presentedr.not as the s t i f f l y -moving a r i s t o c r a t i c statesman but as a f a t h e r attempting to understand h i s f a m i l y , who have grown up as s t r a n g e r s t o him. H i s daughter, Mary P a l l i s e r , i s one o f t h e most charming o f the T r o l l o p e g i r l s who descend from Lucy Robarts and Mary Thome; Gerald, the younger son i s a n i t - w i t not without charm; and young L o r d S i l v e r b r i d g e , who bears a c e r t a i n resemblance to L o r d L u f t o n and Frank Gresham, i s r a t h e r more i n t e r e s t i n g than they. Although e a r l y i n the novel he seems a f e a t h e r -headed young man, he grows up during the course o f the a c t i o n , u n l i k e the r a t h e r s t a t i c heroes o f t h e e a r l i e r books, u n t i l f i n a l l y he i s f e l t to be q u i t e worthy of T r o l l o p e * s charming American g i r l abroad, I s o b e l Boneassen. Mary's l o v e r , who d e l i g h t s i n the name o f F r a n c i s O l i p h a n t T r e g e a r , i s a Phineas F i n n a g r e e a b l y ' r e i n f o r c e d i n c h a r a c t e r by a s t r o n g admixture of Frank Greystock from The Eustace Diamonds. Some o f the more a t t r a c t i v e of the c h a r a c t e r s from e a r l i e r P a l l i s e r n o v e l s appear i n The Duke * s C h i l d r e n , but the p o l i t i c a l atmosphere has gone completely, sweeping away the Ratl.ers, and Bonteens, and B a r r i n g ton E r l e s . C e r t a i n elements too. are c a r r i e d over from The Way We L i v e Now,but the s t i n g has gone from the d e s c r i p t i o n , g i v i n g way t o the type of humour1 and comedy t h a t pervaded The  Eust a c e Diamonds. Even the d i s t r e s s i n g American s e n a t o r , E l i a s Gotobed has here been atoned f o r by h i s countryman. E z e k i a l Bon-eassen. A l l i n a l l , i t i s the one T r o l l o p e novel that has a l l the best from h i s two worlds, the i d e a l l a n d o f B a r s e t s h i r e and - 43: -the r e a l i s t i c s o c i e t y o f London, and consequently, l i k e The L a s t C h r o n i c l e of B a r s e t , managed t o p l e a s e everyone. With a r e p u t a t i o n once more e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s l o n g and r i c h n o v e l T r o l l o p e worked on with undiminished 178 v i g o u r . H i s next book was The L i f e of C i c e r o , i n which he defended h i s hero from Froude i n p a r t i c u l a r and t h e s c h o l a r s who f o l l o w e d Mommsen i n g e n e r a l . U n l i k e h i s o t h e r essay i n t o t h e c l a s s i c s , The L i f e of C i c e r o r e c e i v e d g e n e r a l 179 a p p r o v a l . Once agai n In these reviews, and i n those of the 180 f o l l o w i n g Doctor Wortle's School, the a f f e c t i o n a t e tone i s v e r y n o t i c e a b l e , and i t may perhaps be l a r g e l y t r a c e d t o t h a t f a c t t h a t i n both of these works T r o l l o p e ' s own p l e a s a n t p e r s o n a l i t y comes through s t r o n g l y . '.L'IB defending C i c e r o he r e v e a l s a l l h i s own v i g o r o u s and a f f e c t i o n a t e nature, w h i l e Doctor Wortle's honesty, impatience, and k i n d l y common-sense i n e v i t a b l y remind a reader o f the man the author h i m s e l f was commonly supposed to be. 181 Two l e s s important books f o l l o w e d , Ayala's Angel o f which the Westminster Review s a i d t h at though i t ranked below h i s best works, "...which c o n s t i t u t e h i s c l a i m to be 182 considered a r e a l l y good n o v e l i s t . . . . " yet "People who have 1 7 8 T r o l l o p e , A n t h o n y , The L i f e of C i c e r o , 2 vols„ London, Chapman and. Hall,1880 >-1 7 9 c f . Athenaeum, August 6,1881,pp.170-171; A t l a n t i c Monthly, November 1882, pp.669-670; Blackwood's, February 1881,, pp.212-228; N a t i o n , J u l y 28,1881,pp.75-76. 1 8 0 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Doctor Wortle's School, 2 v o l s ^ London, Chapman and H a l l , 1881 # Reviewed: Athenaeum,January 15,1881, p.93; N a t i o n , March 10,1881, pp.172-173;Westminster Review. J u l y 1881, pp.283-284. l S l i r o l l o p e , Anthony, Ayala's Angel, 3 vols., London, Chapman ' and H a l l , 1 8 8 1 . 1 8 2 W e s t m i n s t e r Review. October 1881, p.566. the Trollope taste strongly developed w i l l read i t and enjoy 183 i t thoroughly...."; and another c o l l e c t i o n of short stories with the rather unwieldy t i t l e Why Frau Frphmann Raised Her 184 Prices ; And Other Stories. Neither of these nor the novels 185 186 that followed, Marian Fay and The Fixed Period i s of any great interest i n a study of Trollope's reputation. The l i t t l -187 monograph, Lord Palmerston which had been written i n 1867 bu not published u n t i l 1882, was not very successful, but i t met with none of the deliberate harshness that had assailed The Commentaries of Caesar and, t o a lesser extent ^ Thackeray. On December 6,1882 Trollope died i n London, At the time Kept i n the Dark l d 8was just completing i t s . run i n Good 189 Words and Mr* Scarborough's Family was appearing i n A l l the Year Round. A l l p e r i o d i c a l criticism, of these novels and the 190 two which appeared posthumously, An Old Man's Love and the 191 Incomplete The Landleaguers~ ? i s written with a sort of res-pectful bias that makes i t i m p o s s i b l e to determine how the most i n t e r e s t i n g of these, Mr. Scarborough's Family, was re-ceived'. I t i s a malevolent story o f a man who detests the law of e n t a i l , i n which, according to the Stebbinses, never res-1 8 3 i M d . , p,567. - ^ T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Why Frau Frohmann Raised Her Prices: Ancl Other Stories, 1 vol.,'London, I s b i s t e r , 1882. 1 8 5 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Marion Fay, 5 vols., London, Chapman and H a l l , 1882. "Trollopej Anthony, The Fixed Period, .2 vo 1 s^dinbur&h and London, Blackwood 1^, 1 8 8 2 . * i 8 7 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Lord Palmerston, 1 v o l , London, I s b i s t e r 1.882. 1 8 8 T r o l l o p e , Anthony, Kept i n the Dark, z vols.,London, Chat to and Winders, 1 8 8 2 . 189<rrollope, Anthony, Mr, Scarborough's Family, 3 vols., London, Chat to and Windus*, 1883*1 1 9 0 T r o l l o p e . Anthony, An Old Man's Love, 2 vols.,Edinburgh and , q, London,Blackwood, 188£.-— "~—- — — » •> W V ^ K i ^ ° n 7 i ^ J i a n d l ^ u e r s , 3 vols.London,Chatto and - 45 -t r a i n e d i n t h e i r judgments, " T i t a n - l i k e , T r o l l o p e q uestioned the moral order and writhed with p a i n and contempt a t h i s own 192 answer." I t would he i n t e r e s t i n g to know how the admirers of The Duke's C h i l d r e n took to such a t a l e . The p e c u l i a r a f f e c t i o n t h a t we have found t o he a p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e towards T r o l l o p e s i n c e 1877' reaches i t s h e i g h t , n a t u r a l l y enough, i n the n o t i c e s of h i s d eath. T h i s i s o n l y t r u e , however, of those w r i t t e n by h i s f r i e n d s , which r e c o r d t h e death of Anthony T r o l l o p e , the man. Those which d e a l merely with the death o f . a n o v e l i s t are " . . . a t . b e s t t o l -193 194 erant at worst contempuous. M i While the Athenaeum , B l a c k - wood » s , I 9 5 G o o t Words, 1 9 6 a n d above a l l M a c m i l l a j f s 1 9 ^ were app-r e c i a t i v e and sympathetic, The Times, a f t e r d e s c r i b i n g h i s p e r -s o n a l i t y as t h a t " . . . o f the h e a r t y , f r a n k , E n g l i s h gentleman, t w e l l - c u l t i v a t e d , but somewhat o s t e n t a t i o u s l y contemptuous of the petty; r efinements o f the drawing-room....",firmly and not. v e r y 198 k i n d l y r e l e g a t e d T r o l l o p e * s work to r e s p e c t a b l e o b l i v i o n . S i m i l a r were the account i n the S p e c t a t o r , and a waspish essay 199 by Edmund Yates i n the World. A c c o r d i n g to S a d l e i r " Only th e 1 9 2 S t e b b i n s e s , op. c i t . , p.327. I Q g S a a i e i r , op_. c i t . . p. 361. 1 9 4Athenaeum.Dec. 9,1882,pp.772-773. ^ B l a c k w o o d ' s , Feb.^883,pp. 316-320. 1 9 6011phant," Mrs. Margaret, "Anthony T r o l l o p e , "Good Words ,XZXV,. ; 1882, pp. 142-144. 1 9 7 F r e e m a n , E.A., "Anthony T r o l l o p e " , M a c M H a n s , Jan .,1885,pp236-240 I 9 8 L o n d o n Times, Dec.7,1882,quoted S a d l e i r , o p . c i t . , p p . 3.61-362. 1 9 9 S a d l e i r , op_. c i t . .p. 562. . . 46 -Saturday Review gave. the dead man. t r u e and generous c r e d i t f o r h i s q u a l i t i e s " ^ 0 0 A sad end to the l o n g and l u c r a t i v e c a r e e r o f the n o v e l i s t who had been a b r i g h t hope tw e n t y - f i v e years b e f o r e , but not a v e r y s u r p r i s i n g one. A p p a r e n t l y T r o l l o p e had owed h i s l a s t successes e n t i r e l y to the people who had o r i g i n a l l y t u r n e d to him In the s i x t i e s as a r e l i e f from s e n s a t i o n f i c t i o n , and had r e t u r n e d a g a i n In the s e v e n t i e s i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the " a r t " n o v e l . To t h i s p u b l i c he was a w r i t e r you c o u l d depend on f o r l i k e a b l e gentlemanly work, t h a t contained no unpleasant shocks or v i o l e n t o u t c r i e s a g a i n s t the conventions of c i v i l -i z e d m i d - V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . But u n f o r t u n a t e l y , p o p u l a r i t y with such people, many of whom had been read i n g T r o l l o p e since. 1855j was not v e r y good Insurance of continued favour-. For one t h i n g they were dying out, and those who remained had always depended on a new Anthony T r o l l o p e I n Mudie's box: e v e r y few months. When the supply f a i l e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t was l i k e l y to f l a g . To another group he had remained "the c h r o n i c l e r of s m a l l beer," the photographer of d u l l , commonplace men and. women l e a d i n g f u t i l e l i v e s , and" the endless t u r n e r - o u t of n o v e l s a l l , a s l i k e as peas. F o r them, when T r o l l o p e n o v e l s no longer appeared, the unpleasant hum of an o l d - f a s h i o n e d machine had.stopped, and the s i l e n c e was r e f r e s h i n g . 2 0 0 i b i d IX. I n Examination of T r o l l o p e * s P r e s e n t P o s i t i o n . The r e l e g a t i o n of Trollope*s#work to the o b l i v i o n predicted: by the: Times was d e l a y e d o n l y momentarily by the. 201 p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s Autobiography and then speeded by the book*s e f f e c t . The r e a c t i o n s of both the o l d - f a s h i o n e d l o v e r s of B a r s e t and the r i g o r o u s l y up-to-date were e x a c t l y what we s h o u l d expect. Once agai n the f i r s t group was r e p r e s e n t e d by the r e v i e w e r s In the more c o n s e r v a t i v e p e r i o d i c a l s , the Athen-Q Q 1 202 ^ 203 204 ontz aeum, Blackwood* s , the Edinburgh Review. Good Words 2 0and e s p e c i a l l y the American A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y 2 ? 6 H a p e r * s ? Q 7 a n d the * r * • 2 0 8 Natron T a l l of whom gave the book sympathetic and ready p r a i s e . But the second group,the c o n s c i o u s l y a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l , was younger and f a r more v o c a l . The e f f e c t of t h e A u t o b i o g r a - phy on them has been n e a t l y d e s c r i b e d by M i c h a e l S a d l e i r ; R a r e l y can the conventions and assumptions of a vanished age have made an appearance a t once so un t i m e l y and so uncompromising as d i d those o f mid-Y i c t o r l a n l s m , when. T r o l l o p e * s Autoblography f e l l w i t h a s p l a s h i n t o t h e elegant waters of a e s t h e t -2 0 3 - T r o l l o p e , Anthony, An Autobiography, 2 vols., Edinburgh and London, Blackwood, 1883. . . . . . 202,Athenaeum. October 13,1883, pp.457-45,9. 2 Q 5 B l a c k w o o d * s , November, 1883, pp. 577-596. 2 0 4 E d i n b u r g h Review^ Jan.,lS841.pp 186-203. 2 0 5 G o o d Words, 1884,pp.248 - 252. 2 Q 6 A t l a n t i c Monthly, Feb., 188.4,pp. 667-671. 2 0 7 H a r p e r * s , Jan., 1884, p. 517. 2 0 8 N a t i o n , Nov. 5, 1885,pp. 596-597. - 48 -Icism. The book i s a compendium of a l l t h a t was most o f f e n s i v e to the new modishness. I t Is, the s e l f - p o r t r a i t o f a man who went out o f h i s way to deny h i s l i t e r a r y c a s t e ; of a man p h y s i c a l l y exub-erant and m o r a l l y unadventurous; of a man (and t h i s was perhaps worst of a l l ) who was b l a t a n t l y E n g l i s h . And not content w i t h being p e r s o n a l l y d i s t a t e f u l to the g e n e r a t i o n of h i s s u p p l a n t e r s , T r o l l o p e by h i s expressed views on a u t h o r s h i p f l o u t e d t h e i r every a e s t h e t i c p r e j u d i c e . He put the w r i t i n g o f books on a l e v e l with the p r a c t i c e o f amy other t r a d e ; he g l o r i f i e d i n d u s t r y and perseverance; he spoke a l i t t l e s c e p t i c a l l y of genius; he reckoned the r e -wards o f l i t e r a t u r e i n pounds s t e r l i n g and the calendar of i t s c r e a t i o n i n hours by the c l o c k . I t would have been i m p o s s i b l e t o counter more p r o -v o c a t i v e l y the s t u d i e d a t t i t u d e s o f P a t e r i s m , t h e sour defiance of the Zolaesques, and the p r o c l a i m e d i n d i f f e r e n c e t o p e c u n i a r y reward of a l l the g i f t e d a m o r a l i t i e s , who I n the h a l f l i g h t s o f P a r i s i a n s t u d i e s or a l o n g the m i s t y parapet of Cheyne Walk-chanted the t w i l i t l o v e l i n e s s o f d e c a d e n c e . 2 0 9 Barred from, p e r s o n a l a t t a c k by T r o l l o p e * s i r r i t a t i n g modesty, the a e s t h e t e s defended t h e i r c h e r i s h e d t h e o r i e s from t h i s o l d - f a s h i o n e d f l o u t i n g by a s s a i l i n g the m i d - V i c t o r i a n * s 210 work. A. E. Newton, i n h i s e s s a y "A Great V i c t o r i a n " has quoted some of the remarks made, which d e s c r i b e T r o l l o p e r s n o v e l s as "commonplace", " v u l g a r " , "without charm o r I m a g i n a t i o n , " and so on. These a r e g e n e r a l a t t a c k s , which merely f l i n g derogA-#t.ory a d j e c t i v e s a t T r o l l o p e r s work as a whole. A more e f f e c t i v e sample of the eighties'contempt was a l o n g essay which appeared i n the Westminster Review f o r January, 1885, sandwiched, between. "On the Study:':of the Talmud" and "The M a t e r i a l s , of E a r l y R u s s i a n H i s t o r y . " i n n o c e n t l y t i t l e d " E n g l i s h Character and Manners as 211 P o r t r a y e d by Anthony T r o l l o p e , " the essay contains the most 8 0 9 S a d l e i r , op_> c i t „ pp. 562?-565. 2 1 Q N e w t o n , A.E. The Amenities of Book C o l l e c t i n g , B o s t o n , A t l a n t i c Monthly P r e s s , 5 Imp., 1924,pp. 249-266. 211 Wes minster Review,, January ;1885, pp.53 - 100. - 49 -e f f e c t i v e ; attack, upon T r o l l o p e as a n o v e l i s t t h a t I have seen. The -writer knew h i s T r o l l o p e i n s i d e - o u t , and. by c l e v e r l y chosen e x t r a c t s , s l i g h t t w i s t s , and a d r o i t omissions, managed w i t h the p o l i t e s t and most dexterous r a i l l e r y t o render T r o l -l o p e ' s much-praised photographfs of E n g l i s h s o c i e t y q u i t e r i d i c u l o u s . H i s main p o i n t I s t h a t T r o l l o p e ' s v e r s i o n o f Eng-l i s h c h a r a c t e r and manners cannot be accepted u n r e s e r v e d l y as t r u e to l i f e , which of course h i t s d i r e c t l y a t what was assumed to be T r o l l o p e ' s major c l a i m t o be considered a good n o v e l i s t , h i s r e a l i s m . The w r i t e r goes on to show t h a t T r o l -l o p e ' s manly gentlemen a r e i n t r u t h heavy, i n s e n s i b l e , u n i n -t e l l e c t u a l , unreasonably r e s e r v e d and yet completely l a c k i n g I n r e s t r a i n t , i n a r t i c u l a t e , f r e q u e n t l y d i s c o u r t e o u s and. some-times g r o s s l y rude,. Incapable of c a r r y i n g on a p o l i t e dis,cus#-Sion or of being good-tempered under r a i l l e r y , and eminently i n c a p a b l e of reasonable thought. The much-admired T r o l l o p e g i r l s f a r e l i t t l e b e t t e r , f o r t h e i r shy constancy i s shown to be r e t i c e n t stubbornness. T r o l l o p e , who had seldom been sus-pected of b e i n g u n f i t f o r the f a m i l y r e a d i n g beloved of the mid-V i c t o r i a n s , I s here c o n v i c t e d on t h e charge of d e p i c t i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s i n an i m p o s s i b l e gloomy l i g h t , where t h e r e Is no con-f i d e n c e between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , and s e l f i s h n e s s i s the prime motive f o r a l l a c t i o n . This, charge i s c l o s e l y connected with another, a s o r d i d m a t e r i a l i s t i c over-emphasis on money. A l l In a l l , T r o l l o p e f a r e d b a d l y at the hands o f t h i s c l e v e r w r i t e r , who f i n a l l y p a i d h i s c h a r a c t e r s one tribute}, w h i l e i b i d . , pp.56 f f - 50 -n e i t h e r t h e i r morals nor t h e i r i n t e l l e c t are f i n e , they a r e " . . . s t r o n g i n t h e i r d e s i r e s ; s t r o n g i n p r a c t i c a l , sense and the energy of t h e i r p u r s u i t s ; s t r o n g above a l l In undaunted 213 perseverance and t e n a c i t y . " I n s h o r t , the comfort given Mr. Crawley, " I t ' s dogged as does i t , " i s t h e i r maxim. I f we imagine the r e a c t i o n to such advice of the young George Moore, 214 "eager f o r some adequate p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e " we s h a l l have some i d e a of how completely out of p l a c e T r o l l o p e r s E n g l i s h c h a r a c t e r and manners were i n the world of t h e e i g h t i e s and the n i n e t i e s . To say t h a t no j u s t a p p r e c i a t i o n of T r o l l o p e i s t o be found between h i s death and the t u r n o f the century would be to take an e x c e s s i v e l y gloomy view,, but one not f a r from a c c u r a t e . Provoked no doubt by the meagre p r a i s e granted T r o l l o p e the n o v e l i s t i n the n o t i c e s of h i s death, two m i l d p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the g e n e r a l lack, of sympathy appeared a few months l a t e r i n America. The f i r s t of these was by ¥. H. P o l l o c k , who defended. T r o l l o p e from, the charges of mere mech-a n i c a l hack-work which t h e Autobiography had s t i m u l a t e d , and from the derogatory l a b e l of "photographer", v e r y s e n s i b l y p o i n t i n g out t h a t no photographer needs i n v e n t i o n , a q u a l i t y 215 w i t h which T r o l l o p e was l i b e r a l l y endowed. The second defense came from an u n l i k e l y q u a r t e r , s i n c e I t was w r i t t e n by the man who twenty years or so ago 216 had s l a s h e d The B e l t o n Estatej Henry James. 2 i s i b i d , p.99. ' 2 1 4 M o d r e , George, Confessions o f a Young Man, London,William Heineman Ltd,, 1928,p. 11 (-|irst p u b l i s h e d 1889) . a i 5 P o l l o c k , W.H.J "Anthony T r o l l o p e " , Harper's, May ?1883,pp. 9Q7-912„ 2 1 6 J a m e s , Henrys"Anthony T r o l l o p e " , Century Magazine. J u l y , 1883, pp.385-395. - 51 -H i s advocacy i s l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c than P o l l o c k * s , who had known T r o l l o p e w e l l , but i t s p o i n t of view i s more s i g n i f i -cant of the coming age, though i t i s f a r from u n a p p r e c l a t i v e . He hastens to d i s m i s s the n o t i o n t h a t T r o l l o p e I s unimagina-t i v e , but goes on to complain that "Having h i s i m a g i n a t i o n at h i s command, he i s touched w i t h the common, f o r he abused 217 i t . He never took h i m s e l f s e r i o u s l y as an a r t i s t . " T h i s , however, i s the o n l y h a rsh note I n an essay which remains one of the most sugg e s t i v e t h a t has appeared on T r o l l o p e , as i s shown by h i s t r i b u t e t o the man whom he c o u l d not h e l p but reprove f o r having w r i t t e n too f a s t : When the F r e n c h a r e d i s p o s e d t o pay a com-pliment to the E n g l i s h mind, they are so good as to say t h a t t h e r e i s i n i t something remarkably honnete. I f I might borrow t h i s e p i t h e t without seeming t o be p a t r o n i z i n g , I should a p p l y i t t o the genius of Anthony T r o l l o p e . He r e p r e s e n t s i n an eminent degree t h i s n a t u r a l decorum o f the E n g l i s h s p i r i t , andi r e p r e s e n t s i t a l l the b e t t e r t h a t t h e r e i s not In him a g r a i n of the mawkish or the p r u d i s h . He w r i t e s , he f e e l s , he judges l i k e a man, t a l k i n g p l a i n l y and f r a n k l y about many t h i n g s , and i s by no means d e s t i t u t e of a c e r t a i n s a v i n g grace of coarseness. But he has kept the p u r i t y of h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and h e l d f a s t to o l d f a s h i o n e d r e v e r e n c e s and p r e f e r e n c e s . 2 1 6 H i s summing up i s both acute and j u s t : " T h e r e a r e two k i n d s of t a s t e i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n of i m a g i n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e ; the t a s t e f o r emotions of s u r p r i s e , and the t a s t e f o r emotions of f a m i l i a r i t y . I t i s the l a t t e r t h a t T r o l l o p e g r a t i f i e s , and he g r a t i f i e s i t the more that the medium of h i s own mind, through which.we see what he shows us g i v e s confidence to our sympathy. H i s n a t u r a l T i g h t n e s s and p u r i t y are so r e a l t h a t 219 the.good t h i n g s he p r o j e c t s must be r e a l . " 2 I 7 i b i d . . p . 585. 8 1 8 i b i d . , p.586. 2 1 9Xhi.d* * P. 595. - 52: -One other p o i n t i s worth p a r t i c u l a r n o t i c e / Since i t may w e l l have i n f l u e n c e d l a t e r Trolloplan c r i t i c i s m . I n s p i t e o f h i s sane and sympathetic a t t i t u d e t o T r o l l o p e , James comes out f l a t l y i n condemnation of the l a t e r n o v e l s ; " F o r the most part*...he should be judged by t h e p r o d u c t i o n s of the f i r s t h a l f of h i s c a r e e r ; l a t e r , the s t r o n g wine was r a t h e r 220 too c o p i o u s l y watered." James's o b j e c t i o n t h a t T r o l l o p e had never taken him-s e l f s e r i o u s l y as/an a r t i s t expresses the f i n a l u n f o r g i v e a h l e charge t h a t the e i g h t i e s brought a g a i n s t the once p o p u l a r w r i t e r . Here of course i t I s not the t r u l y c r i t i c a l minds, l i k e James's,at work. T h i s mass r e v i l i n g o f a good author was done by the l i t e r a r y snobs, a t t h i s time d i r e c t e d i n t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s by c r i t i c s whose canons were those o f A r t f o r A r t ' s sake. The c l e a r e s t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark of the l i t -e r a r y snob I s h i s i n a b i l i t y t o l a u d more than one w r i t e r , o r at most one s c h o o l of w r i t i n g , a t a time. H i s p a s s i o n of the moment i s work that complies with the d i c t a o f the c u r r e n t l y f a s h i o n a b l e c r i t i c s , and none t h a t has been w r i t t e n under d i f f -e rent standards I s worth a thought. I t i s not too harsh to say that. A r t f o r A r t ' s Sake c r i t i c i s m a f f o r d s the most sympathetic c l i m a t e f o r the l i t e r a r y snob, s i n c e i t s emphasis upon the i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n as a standard and the b a s i s of Impression-i s t i c c r i t i c i s m , and upon form and matter as separable e n t i t i e s , capable of independent e v a l u a t i o n p r o v i d e s almost u n l i m i t e d scope f o r p s e u d o - c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , t r e m u l o u s l y a p p r e c i a t i v e , a a ° i b i d . , p. 386. - 53 -and w o n d e r f u l l y vague. Led by t h e i r guides, the l i t e r a r y snobs dism i s s e d T r o l l o p e ' s work "... w i t h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I s o f the 2E1 day and the craftsman, not of e t e r n i t y and! a r t . " By 1899 f o r g e t f u l n e s s and snobbery between them had gone a l o n g way towards p r o v i n g the Times * o b i t u a r y a c c u r a t e 222: i n i t s p r e d i c t i o n of o b l i v i o n f o r a l l of T r o l l o p e ' s work. There i s an odd. s e m i - p a r a l l e l between the b e g i n n i n g of h i s c a r e e r and i t s immediate aftermath. Of h i s f i r s t n o v e l , The  Macdermotts of B a l l y c l o r a n ? the Athenaeum reviewer had remarked, that "Twenty years ago 'The Macdermotts' would have made a. r e p u t a t i o n f o r i t s author," and Implied t h a t no one could be bothered: w i t h i t i n the more e n l i g h t e n e d days of 1.847. The T r o l l o p e n o v e l s of the s i x t i e s had made a r e p u t a t i o n f o r t h e i r author, but to the r e a d e r s of twenty years l a t e r they were be-neath notice.. The v a s t q u a n t i t y o f T r o l l o p e ' s work was dead and gone; and J;here was no hope of r e s u r r e c t i o n . 2 2 1 S a i n t s b u r y , George, "Three Mid-Century N o v e l i s t s " , In The  C o l l e c t e d Essays and Papers of George S a i n t s b u r y , London, J . M. Dent and. Sons, Ltd.,, 1923, v o l I I , p-.« 7 -(.First p u b l i s h e d 1890). 2 2 2 N 6 t h i n g g i v e s more concrete evidence of t h i s than the pub-l i s h e r s ' l i s t s from 1885 t o 1889. The E n g l i s h Catalogue, of  Books r e c o r d s f i v e o f T r o l l o p e ' s s i x t y - o d d works, a l l i n cheap monthly numbers w i t h a d v e r t i s i n g , and a cheap e d i t i o n of The Warden, From 1890 U1899. the s o l e l i s t i n g s are a one. s h i l l i n g e d i t i o n of The Commentaries of Caesar and a cheap e d i t i o n o f Marlon Fay. The s i t u a t i o n i n America, as r e v e a l e d by The American Book CatalogueJLs o n l y s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . S e v e r a l of T r o l l o p e ' s l a t e r n o v e l s appeared I n a cheap paper-covered s e r i e s p u b l i s h e d by Munro under the g e n e r a l t i t l e o f the "Seaside L i b r a r y " ' i n 1885, while a cheap e d i t i o n , of Mr,  Scarborough's F a m i l y came out the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Only twa< other l i s t i n g s occur between 1885 and 1899, an expensive set of the B a r s e t s h i r e Chronicles In 1892:, and o f the Parliamen-t a r y Novels i n 1893. The venture does not seem, to have been ve r y s u c c e s s f u l , s i n c e f o r the next seven years T r o l l o p e ' s name disappears completely from the American l i s t s . - 54 -In view of t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i t i s s t a r t l i n g to f i n d i n 1945 a j o u r n a l e n t i t l e d The T r o l l o p i a n , . whose e d i t o r j u s t i f i e s i t s e x i s t e n c e on the grounds, t h a t " F i r s t , T r o l l o p e i s a key f i g u r e f o r a r a t i o n a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a n l i f e ; and second, t h e r e i s a l a r g e group of people who admire the man and h i s works and who wish t o 223 study both i n t e n s i v e l y " ' . I n the f o l l o w i n g number he p o i n t s out t h a t by "...the pres e n t day when T r o l l o p e I s at l e a s t among the h a l f dozen most w i d e l y read English. n o v e l i s t s and" when the amateur of o n l y moderate means Is f r o z e n out of the a u c t i o n s a l e s , a chapter i n the h i s t o r y 224 o f t a s t e has been w r i t t e n . " To examine t h i s chapter i s amusing and v a l u a b l e , f o r by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the v a r i o u s elements t h a t have gone I n t o the making of Anthony T r o l l o p e * s mid-twentieth c e n t u r y r e p u t a t i o n we may be able to form some c o n c l u s i o n s as t o i t s v a l i d i t y as an estimate o f h i s novels* worth. Though the r e g e n e r a t i o n o f T r o l l o p e * s n o v e l s has o f t e n been d e s c r i b e d as unexpected, s t a r t l i n g , s e n s a t i o n a l , or unaccountable, none of these a d j e c t i v e s has In f a c t any g r e a t j u s t i f i c a t i o n . I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t good l i t e r a r y work w i l l weather a few temporary s q u a l l s , and T r o l l o p e * s was the o b j e c t of r e a l c r i t i c a l contempt f o r a r e l a t i v e l y v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d , some f i f t e e n t o twenty y e a r s . By the l a t e n i n e t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y among the o l d e r c r i t i c s , 2 2 3 B 6 o t h , B r a d f o r d Allen,"Preface;* The T r o l l o p i a n , v o l . 1 , No. I.„ 1945, p.#2. 2 2 4 B o o i t h , B r a d f o r d A l l e n , " E d i t o r i a l Note", The T r o l l o p i a n , v o l . 1 , No. 2, 1946, p. 4. - 55 -the e f f e c t s o f yet another r e a c t i o n begin to appear as the pendulum swings away ag a i n not so much from A r t f o r A r t ' s Sake as from. L i f e f o r A r t ' s Sake, no?; f e l t to be a decadent i d e a l . The years j u s t around the t u r n of the c e n t u r y are f o r T r o l l o p e a p e r i o d of c r i t i c s who,taking p i t y on h i s b a t t e r e d r e p u t a t i o n , f e l t t h a t they should p l a y the Good Samaritan, U n f o r t u n a t e l y these w r i t e r s , though f e e l i n g un-e a s i l y t h a t i n j u s t i c e s h a s been done somehow s t i l l cannot man-age a r e a l l y Just' rer»assessment o f h i s work's v a l u e . Men l i k e F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s o n 2 2 5 L e s l i e S t e p h e n f 2 6 George S a l n t s b u r y 2 2 7 a n d : 228 Wilbur. Cross wrote l a r g e l y from the p o i n t of view t h a t "nobody can claim, f o r T r o l l o p e any of the f i r s t - r a t e q u a l i t i e s which s t r a i n the powers o f s u b t l e and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c r i t i c i s m ; but: perhaps i t would be w e l l i f r e a d e r s would sometimes make a 229 l i t t l e e f f o r t t o b l u n t t h e i r c r i t i c a l f a c u l t y " . The r e s u l t o f such an e f f o r t on t h e i r p a r t s is; a body o f a p o l o g i e s f o r T r o l l o p e , which on the whole s e t the key-note f o r many l a t e r c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and e s t a b l i s h c e r t a i n i d e a s about h i s novels which g r a d u a l l y become wide-spread s u p e r s t i t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s . S e v e r a l reasons f o r t h e i r r a t h e r grudging and u n c e r -t a i n p r a i s e might be suggested. F i r s t , to these men the great V i c t o r i a n n o v e l i s t s a r e s t i l l Thackeray and George E l i o t ( n o t , however, Dickens) and t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s c a s t a mighty shadow over t h e i r contemporaries. Second, they are not a t t r a c t e d H a r r i s o n t F r e d e r i o , S t u d i e s i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n L i t e r a t u r e , 2 ed.. London, Edward A r n o l d , lB9o7pp7iaS-"BT!3": " 2 2 6 S t e p h e n , S i r L e s l i e , S t u d i e s , o f a Biographer,London,Duckworth and Co., 1902,vol.4, pp.168-205. 2 ^ 7 S a i n t s b u r y 4 George. A H i s t o r y of N i n e t e e n t h Century L i t e r a t u r e C 1780.-1900£London,Macmillah and"-Go.Ltd. , 1 9 2 . 9 , p i . j a j l f i r s t pub.1896 2 g 8 C r o s s . W.L..- The Development of the E n g l i s h Novel,New Tork,,The Macmillan Co., 1899,pp. 215-224*. 229stephen, S i r L e s l i e , o£. c i t . . pp. 16.9 - 170. - 56 -by the Autobiography. T r o l l o p e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , s o t h o r o u g h l y f o r e i g n to t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f the a r t i s t , d i s t r a c t s them from h i s work: and p r e j u d i c e s them a g a i n s t i t . He r e c o r d e d h i s l i f e as t h a t of a P h i l i s t i n e , and t h e r e f o r e h i s no v e l s must be- w i t h -out beauty and without commendable form. T h e i r f e e l i n g Is t h a t any man who c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f t o be an a r t i s a n c o u l d not i n f a c t be an a r t i s t , and t h a t such a man's system of n e c e s s i t y produces commonplace books, marked by n . . * t h e absence of a l l the g r e a t e s t q u a l i t i e s of s t y l e ; absence o f any p a s s i o n , p o e t r y , e, 230 mystery, o r subtlety". Though they r e c o g n i z e d T r o l l o p e ' s , genius f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , t h e i r p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t h i s w r i t i n g methods i s so s t r o n g t h a t they s p e c u l a t e f r e q u e n t l y on how much f i n e r h i s work would have been " . . . i f h i s whole l i f e had been given t o h i s work, i f every book, every chapter of every book were t h e f r u i t o f ample m e d i t a t i o n and repeated r e v i s i o n , i f he had never w r i t t e n w i t h any thought o f p r o f i t , never w r i t t e n 231 but what he c o u l d not c o n t a i n hidden w i t h i n him...." Here begins the f i r s t s u p e r s t i t i o n about Anthony T r o l l o p e : though h i s work i s good, i t i s n o t as good as i t might have been. The second, t h a t the Bar s e t novels are h i s o n l y important work, grows i n p a r t from t h i s , f o r i n t h e i r view ,his i n a r t i s t i c speed exhausted h i s i n v e n t i o n , and so o n l y h i s e a r l y work could be r e a l l y worthwhile. The f a c t remains,how-ever, t h a t the Barset n o v e l s were w r i t t e n extremely q u i c k l y , H a r r i s o n , op. c i t . . p. 188. 2 3 1 i b i d . , p.187. - 57 -? "^ 2 even f o r T r o l l o p e , and are f a r t h e s t from the i d e a l of a r t i s t i c method o u t l i n e d by H a r r i s o n . H i s work here has. been e v a l u a t e d on the b a s i s of how I t was done, r a t h e r than what i t a c t u a l l y was. By these c r i t i c s T r o l l o p e was pigeon-holed as a n o v e l i s t whose e a r l y work had managed f a i r l y well, t o overcome the c r i p p l i n g handicap of h i s I n a r t i s t i c methods. The p a t r o n i z i n g tones o f these r e s c u e r s g r a t e d upon some whom/ft a w r i t ^ e r In the D i a l d e s c r i b e d as "A group of wor-shi p p e r s who have been f a i t h f u l i n t h e i r devotions a t an a l l . 233 but d e s e r t e d l i t e r a r y s h r i n e . " /no*® S u s p i c i o n s of such luke-warm c o n v e r t s and r e s e n t i n g t h e i r r a t h e r n o i s y p r o c e s s i o n to a s h r i n e which they had been f r e q u e n t i n g a l l the time, some of t h e i r number b u r s t i n t o p r i n t to announce t h a t no a p o l o g i e s were needed f o r Anthony T r o l l o p e . They range i n p o i n t of view from the pugnaciously/ B r i t i s h G.S. S t r e e t 2 3 4 t o the m i l d and s c h o l a r l y H.T; P e c k 2 3 5 a n d the e a r n e s t 236 but ever, urbane Stephen Gwynn. T h e i r essays form a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t to the group we have j u s t examined, f o r they defend T r o l l o p e from the g e n e r a l i t i e s o f H a r r i s o n and Stephen by h i g h l y d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c evidence drawn from the n o v e l s themselves; These are men anxious to b r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n back to the r e a l p o i n t , which i s not T r o l l o p e * s p e r s o n a l i t y and methods, but what they produced. U n f o r t u n a t e l y such l o y a l p a r t i s a n s tend t o be o v e r - a l l u s i v e . , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e y preach e f f e c t i v e l y 2 3 2 c f . the. calendar of events i n T r o l l o p e ' s l i f e appended to Sadleirs* 5' T r o l l o p e , A Commentary. 2 3 3E.M.,"The Re coming o f Anthony T r o l l o p e " , The D i a l , v o l . 3 4 * xx*»v, 1903, p.141. ~ ' 2 3 4 s t r e e t , G.S.'"Anthony T r o l l o p e " , C o r n h i l l , New S e r i e s , v o l . X, 1901, pp. 349-355. 2 3 5 P e c k , H a r r y "Thurston, "Anthony T r o l l o p e " , The Bookman,, v o l . X I I I , 1901, pp.114 - 125. 2 3 6Gwynn, Stephen, "The E n g l i s h Novelfin the N i n e t e e n t h Century", Edinburgh Review. October, 1902, pp. 487 - 506. - 58 -o n l y t o t h e a l r e a d y converted. They do not, i n s h o r t , p l a y i n t o the hands o f the l i t e r a r y snobs, who found the m a t e r i a l i n the more general essays f a r more u s e f u l . On the whole, however, these w r i t e r s d i d c o n t r i b u t e one g e n e r a l i t y to the growing stream o f i d e a s about T r o l l o p e , and that was the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t ^ c h i e f value was s o c i o l o g i c a l . That they were i n c l i n e d t o e x a l t t h i s c l a i m f o r T r o l l o p e over a l l o t h e r s may perhaps be e x p l a i n e d by the consciousness o f r e c e n t s o c i a l changes, and the surge of E n g l i s h n e s s s t i m u l a t e d by the Boer War. Here we f i n d the f i r s t evidence o f T r o l l o p e ' s appeal d u r i n g and! a f t e r wars: " A f t e r a year of p u b l i c e x c i t e -ment when one's i n t e r e s t and! sympathy have gone w i t h the s t r a i n -i n g e n e r g i e s o f the country, now, while s t i l l l a r g e r thoughts of d e s t i n y bear on one's mind, and great i s s u e s s t i l l are t o -ward some ge n t l e refreshment i s necessary, and! i t i s p l e a s a n t to contemplate the s o c i a l E n g l i s h as they were i n a q u i e t time, not our own, but not u n f a m i l i a r l y remote. Consequently I have betaken myself t o Anthony T r o l l o p e , an o l d and constant f r i e n d , 237 and f o r months at a time almost my o n l y r e a d i n g i n f i c t i o n . " So speaks one w r i t e r who makes no pretence of c r i t i c a l detach-ment towards h i s author, while another comes out f l a t l y and maintains t h a t "...the g r e a t e s t c l a i m of T r o l l o p e ' s n o v e l s to permanence^...is t h e i r p i c t u r e of contemporary E n g l i s h l i f e . . . S u r e l y f u t u r e ages w i l l t u r n to T r o l l o p e more than to any other author f o r a t r u e and v i v i d p i c t u r e o f this, l i f e , when i t s h a l l 238 have w h o l l y passed away." _yrm 1 ; — ^ ' s t r e e t , op_. cit..,, p.349$ 2 3 8 B r a d f o r d , G a m a l i e l . , j r ; > _ "Anthony T r o l l o p e " . A t l a n t i c Monthly vol.U8|X,1902,. p. 431. - 59 -The dangers to t h e i r f a v o u r i t e ' s r e p u t a t i o n o f such well-meant p r a i s e can be seen when the same i d e a i s t a k e n up by someone who l a c k s t h e i r s t a b i l i z i n g f a m i l i a r i t y with the n o v e l s . A l i s t of a r t i c l e s on T r o l l o p e c o v e r i n g the past f i f t y years would c o n t a i n a l a r g e number o f essays which i t i s not too h a rsh t o term o p p o r t u n i s t , and these have sent abroad some c u r i o u s melanges and d i s t o r t i o n s of c u r r e n t c r i t i c a l sugges-t i o n s . Perhaps the e a r l i e s t o f these i s W. F. Lord's "The 239 Novels of Anthony T r o l l o p e , " which endeavours to m a i n t a i n a l l the c a u t i o u s n e s s and emphasis upon a r t i s t r y of H a r r i s o n and h i s companions and yet s t a n d by the major p o i n t s of the devoted T r o l l o p l a n s . P r o p e r l y , L o r d was an h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r , but i n 1901-1902 he produced a whole s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s on E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t s , and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t o f the changing fashion, t h a t he should have thought i t p o l i t i c to devote an e n t i r e essay to the once-despised Anthony. Acknowledging e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t h e c l a i m t h a t T r o l l o p e p r e s e n t e d a v i v i d p i c t u r e o f an age* L o r d proceeds t o draw the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n t h a t case h i s n o v e l s are doomed, s i n c e "...the world In which T r o l l o p e l i v e d has 240 passed away." Because o f t h i s "Every page b r i n g s i t s own O A T f l a v o u r of u n r e a l i t y . . .;'" s* xIn order to support t h i s theory L o r d has to r e s o r t to the o l d c r y t h a t T r o l l o p e was not an a r t i s t , but o n l y a photographer. A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s , how-ever, he- i s sent v e e r i n g o f f towards the e n t h u s i a s t p o l e by a c u r s o r y and v e r y general d i s c u s s i o n of the B a r s e t s h i r e n o v e l s , and by the end o f the essay i s tempted t o withdraw the e p i t h e t I n view'of what h i s l a b o u r s have then l e d him t o p r a i s e as 239L,crd, W.F., "The Novels o f "Anthony T r o l l o p e " , Nineteenth  Century, vol.49,1901,pp. 804-815. 2 4 0 L o r d , op_. c i t . , p . 806. ^ l i b l d . , p.811. - 60 -2433 T r o l l o p e ' s f i n e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and mastery o f p l o t and n a r r a t i v e . F i n a l l y , however, he i s brought s a f e l y home ag a i n by t h e r e s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e " . . . o f remembering the I n d i g n a t i o n w i t h which Mr. T r o l l o p e h i m s e l f r e p u d i a t e d the 243 i d e a t h a t he was any more of an a r t i s t than a bootmaker." As a c r i t i c a l essay the p i e c e i s w o r t h l e s s , but I t s e r v e s as a f i n e example of the e f f e c t s of l i t e r a r y g o s s i p upon the l i t e r a r y snob. From 1895 4b1905 then we f i n d T r o l l o p e thoroughly r e s u r r e c t e d , and v e r y much a matter f o r d i s c u s s i o n among c r i t i c s and", .those who make i t a p o i n t t o be a l i v e to what c r i t i c s are s a y i n g . For another year o r two the movement to r e a s s e s s the worth of T r o l l o p e dragged on, but by 1910 the q u e s t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d s e t t l e d and the spate of a r t i c l e s ceased. When the n o i s e had d i e d down he emerged In v e r y much the p o s i t i o n which Henry James had g i v e n him. He i s not the equal of the t h r e e g r e a t Y i c t o r l a n S j T h a c k e r a y , E l i o t and Dickens, but by v i r t u e of h i s B a r s e t n o v e l s he i s a minor c l a s s i c . H i s other work i s of i n t e r e s t o n l y t o the student o f the h i s t o r y of manners, who w i l l find" i n i t h i s c l o s e o b s e r -v a t i o n and "complete a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the u s u a l " d i r e c t e d t o -wards other a s p e c t s o f m i d - V i c t o r Ian Ehglandl than the r u r a l . To e s t a b l i s h t h i s as T r o l l o p e ' s r i g h t f u l p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e d the removal of two f a c t o r s which had been working a g a i n s t h i s r e p u t a t i o n ever s i n c e h i s death. The f i r s t o f t h e s e , 8 4 2 T h e q u a l i t y o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m may be gauged by h i s r e q u i r e -ments here. c f . p . 8 1 4 , " A l l the p l o t s are good: i t . i s n e ver - e x a c t l y obvious how they are going to< end." 2 4 3 l o r d , op. cit.,. p.816. : - 61 -the Autohiography, presented' no g r e ^ t problem. Though the book I t s e l f was f e l t t o be a r a t h e r comic r e c o r d o f l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y , h a r d l y i n the b e s t o f t a s t e , the damning i t had r e c e i v e d was even more comic. Because o f a r e a c t i o n against-those who had condemned i t , the Autobiography was no longer used a s a weapon a g a i n s t T r o l l o p e . Instead, I t was si m p l y sloughed over or a p o l o g i z e d f o r on one ground or another. The second, the sheer b u l k of h i s work, proved e q u a l l y easy t o d e a l w i t h . F o r t y - s i x n o v e l s are a p p a r e n t l y too many to be con s i d e r e d i n e s t i m a t i n g a n o v e l i s t s ' work - the mind haggles -and so by a simple p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n s i x a r e chosen as e c l i p s i n g a l l the ot h e r s completely. No c r i t i c who had a hand i n t h i s a r b i t r a r y a c t i o n o f f e r e d any r e a l evidence o f the Barsat n o v e l s * i m p e r i s h a b l e s u p e r i o r i t y over a l l o f the .others^ but the c h o i c e was made and s t i l l stands; today. Whether or not t h e i r c h o i c e can be j u s t i f i e d w i l l be our c h i e f concern l a t e r , , but undoubtedly I t can be e x p l a i n e d . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the B a r s e t novels, as we have seen, had been the b e s t - s e l l e r s among T r o l l o p e ' s books, and i t I s tempting t o b e l i e v e t h a t here the c r i t i c s see acknowledging the a u t h o r i t y of popul a r t a s t e . More c o n v i n c i n g i s the sugg e s t i o n t h a t t h e i r c h o i c e was i n e v i t a b l e , i n view of the type of l i t e r a t u r e which they were d e c r y i n g . To men who found the works o f Moore and G i s s i n g d i s a g r e e a b l y unhealthy, the i n d i s p u t a b l y wholesome atmosphere o f B a r s e t s h i r e would be boutnd to have unusual a p p e a l . A t h i r d f a c t o r may perhaps have been an unconscious p r e f e r e n c e f o r d e a l -i n g with, a f a i r l y homogeneous group of n o v e l s , which can be d i s c u s s e d n e a t l y as a Whole o r e a s i l y compared one wit h another - 62 rather/ than, r a n g i n g amongst the d i v e r s i t y o f the o t h e r f o r t y , few of which l e n d themselves t o such economical treatment. During t h i s p e r i o d of c r i t i c a l readjustment T r o l l o p e ' s n o v e l s began once a g a i n to be f a i r l y a c c e s s i b l e . At the be-g i n n i n g of the century h i s books came out o f c o p y r i g h t , and John Lane p u b l i s h e d a cheap, and v e r y a t t r a c t i v e e d i t i o n of the complete n o v e l s , while In America a s i m i l a r s e t o f f o r t y v o l -umes appeared,, e d i t e d by H a r r y T h u r s t o n Peck. Other r e p r i n t s were numerous, e s p e c i a l l y of the B a r s e t s h i r e s e r i e s . Prom t h i s p e r i o d may be t r a c e d the b e g i n n i n g of T r o l l o p e ' s c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . P u b l i s h e r s took a chance on the p u b l i c ' s b e i n g I n f l u e n c e d by the c r i t i c s and added T r o l l o p e t o t h e i r l i s t o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y authors whom I t was becoming- h i g h l y p r o f i t a b l e to r e p r i n t . At t h i s time h i s work shared the b e n e f i t s o f c e r t a i n r e a d e r s ' r e t u r n to o l d e r n o v e l i s t s . A c e n t u r y and a h a l f of h i g h achievement i n the f i e l d of the n o v e l had made t h i s form, of a r t by f a r the g r e a t e r p a r t of most r e a d e r s ' l i t e r a r y d i e t , but by 1900; the o r d i n a r y educated man was beginning; to have h i s t r o u b l e s w i t h c u r r e n t f i c t i o n . He was In f a c t caught between two phenomena: the d t s e n t e g r a t i o n of the r e a d i n g p u b l i c ; and the n o v e l ' s i n c r e a s -i n g tendency t o move away from the model s e t by the great elgh<fc-#eenth c e n t u r y n o v e l i s t s and take over f u n c t i o n s f o r m e r l y p e r -formed by biography, the essay, and above a l l , p o e t r y . The f i r s t r e s u l t e d i n lowered standards of t a s t e which ensured f a n t a s t i c s a l e s f o r the n o v e l s of Marie C o r e l l i and H a l l Caine, and" f o r I n d i v i d u a l books l i k e Robert HicHens' Flames. The second was t u r n i n g the n o v e l away from the t r a d i t i o n of s t o r y -- 63 -t e l l i n g and v i v i d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n towards a d i s r e g a r d f o r p l o t , an emphasis on f i n e a n a l y s i s of c h a r a c t e r , motive and emotion, experiment i n language and form, and, v e r y o f t e n , s p e c i a l p l e a d i n g , d i r e c t or i m p l i c i t , f o r some p a r t i c u l a r purpose or g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y . The e v e n t u a l r e s u l t o f both these movements i s the complete s p l i t i n the r e a d i n g p u b l i c which today guarantees m i l l i o n s of eager readers f o r F a i t h Baldwin and L l o y d Douglas, and a ve r y l i m i t e d and s p e c i a l i z e d group f o r Truman Capote, or even I v y Compton-Burnett. The breach was w e l l begun i n the f i r s t decade of the c e n t u r y , and a l r e a d y the reader of some t a s t e and e d u c a t i o n , who was yet no s p e c i a l i s t i n l i t e r a t u r e , was hard put to i t to f i n d many nov e l s among c u r r e n t f i c t i o n with which he c o u l d r e l a x and enjoy h i m s e l f . Novels were e i t h e r v u l g a r and cheap, or r e -q u i r e d the c l o s e a t t e n t i o n of p o e t r y . I n c o n t r a s t , the M i d - V i c t o r I a n p e r i o d had presented »o such d i f f i c u l t i e s t o these r e a d e r s . As Q. D. L e a v i s has 244 p o i n t e d out, Thackeray, George E l i o t and Trollope: were the f a v o u r i t e n o v e l i s t s of the c u l t u r e d , among t h e i r contemporar-i e s , and Dic k e n s , Reade, and W i l k i e C o l l i n s o f the l e s s edu-ca t e d . Between these groups t h e r e was no great b a r r i e r . The admirer of Esmond could r e s p e c t a b l y and e n j o y a b l y k i l l an i d l e evening over The Moonstone; and the most se n t i m e n t a l devotee of L i t t l e N e l l would- not f i n d any i n s u p e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the language or the i d e a s o f Adam Bede. A c c o r d i n g l y , M i d - V i c t o r i a n L e a v i s , Q. D.,. F i c t i o n and the Reading P u b l i c , London, Chat to and WindHSjf, 1932, pp.33 - 34. - 64 -f i c t i o n i s a p a r a d i s e f o r the middle brow and t o t h e n o v e l i s t s of t h i s p e r i o d he began t o t u r n at the beginning of the new 245 century. Once e s t a b l i s h e d as a minor c l a s s i c by v i r t u e of the Barset n o v e l s T r o l l o p e continued t o h o l d much the same p o s i t i o n f o r some ye a r s . The r e c e p t i o n i n 1915 of the f i r s t f u l l l e n g t h study, T. H. S. Escott's, Anthony T r o l l o p e : H i s Works, A s s o c i a t e s 246 and L i t e r a r y O r i g i n a l s , was v e r y much what we sh o u l d expect. I t was welcomed as "...an admirable r e c o r d o f the l i f e of t h e author 247 of the B a r s e t s h i r e novels...." and s t i m u l a t e d much remark on the rece n t r e v i v a l o f T r o l l o p e . The book was c r i t i c i z e d , however, f o r i t s f r e q u e n t analyses of p l o t s , which had l e d E s c o t t t o d e s c r i b e T r o l l o p e as i n some degree the p r o g e n i t o r o f the twen#-t i e t h - c e n t u r y problem n o v e l . The Nation's reviewer d i s m i s s e d the i d e a with ease, on the grounds that V . . i t i s f o r manners, not f o r psychology, t h a t we t u r n to T r o l l o p e . " 2 4 8 The a f f e c t i o n f o r Bar-s e t s h i r e , the impatience w i t h d e t a i l e d study o f T r o l l o p e ' s work, the g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n h i s l i f e and p e r s o n a l i t y , and the c o n s c i o u s -ness of h i s va l u e to the s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n , - a l l these g r e e t e d E s c o t t ' s book, and a l l are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the a t t i t u d e towards T r o l l o p e current from 1900 -fo 1914. With 1915 came the centenary of T r o l l o p e ' s b i r t h and. one or two a r t i c l e s commemorating the date, a. h i g h l y sympathetic 245-p o r on account o f the i n t e r e s t In even v e r y minor V i c t o r i a n s f o r r e p r i n t s , c f . F u l l e r , E d w a r d , "Real Forces i n L i t e r a t u r e " , A t l a n t i c l b n t h l y , v o l . ^ 2,1905, and the general demand e s . i  L i l pp. 270 - 274. ' 2461scott,. T.H.S., Anthony T r o l l o p e : H i s Works. A s s o c i a t e s and  L i t e r a r y O r i g i n a l s , J L O K P O . ) , - X O ^ W Lt*ne, !«•••». 247MelvIlle.Lewis, "Escqtt.'.s Anthony T r o l l o p e " , Bookman,Oct, 1913,p. 43 • 2 4 8 N a t i o n , September 20,1913, p.920. - 65 -one i n the Nat ion., and another i n the Bookman which looked w i t h d i s t r u s t upon the l a s t f i f t e e n year's p r a i s e but admit-t e d f i n a l l y "...,he can be counted on to d i v e r t u s . " 2 5 0 T h i s i d e a a l s o appeared i n Punch, couched i n some e n t h u s i a s t i c but remarkably f l a t v e r s e s by C. L. Graves, who sang h i s g r a t i t u d e to B a r s e t s h i r e i n what might almost be a burlesque of c u r r e n t 251 c r i t i c i s m : Good Chrohiclear of B a r s e t , weaver of g e n i a l yarns, Homely and u n a f f e c t e d as the verse o f Dorset Barnes, When the o u t l o o k i s d e p r e s s i n g , when the j o u r n a l s b l e a t and s c a r e , I t u r n to your k i n d l y pages and f i n d o b l i v i o n t h e r e . You l e a d us back from the t u r m o i l o f these unhappy days To the l a n d where our f a t h e r s went t h e i r u n t r o u b l e d ways; e t c . , e t c . Had there been many such e f f u s i o n s T r o l l o p e and Barset a l i k e might w e l l have been k i l l e d o f f then and there,but on the whole the war p e r i o d l e f t the n o v e l i s t i n peace. T h i s I s not s u r p r i s i n g . Anyone browsing through the newspapers, magazines and l e t t e r s of the time i s immediately struck: by the h y s t e r i a and emotional flag-waving and t e a r - j e r k i n g he f i n d s everywhere. I t i s the hey-day of the s t o c k a p p e a l . Even i f we d i s m i s s T r o l l o p e ' s work as commonplace i t has an honest r e s t r a i n t com-p l e t e l y f o r e i g n i n s p i r i t to such a s e n t i m e n t a l l y overcharged atmosphere as t h i s . The same honesty and absence of cant caused h i s s t a r ^ " T r o l l o p e 1 s Centenary", Nation, A p r i l 29,1915,pp.460 - 46.1. 250seccombe, Thomas, "Anthony T r o l l o p e , " Bookman, A p r i l , 1 9 1 5 . 2 5 1 I t i s n ' t , however. The l a t t e r p a r t i s an outburst a g a i n s t " h i g h brows" t y p i c a l of Punch of t h e p e r i o d . - 66 -to shine f o r t h again i n the post-war p e r i o d , l i g h t e d by en-thusiasm, f o r the Autobiography, which appeared i n 1922 f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e the o r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n . The i n f l u e n c e of t h i s book upon T r o l l o p e ' s r e p u t a t i o n has been remarkable. Having e f f e c t i v e l y damned him f o r one g e n e r a t i o n , . b y i t s v e r y i n t r a n s i g e n c e and a s s e r t i v e b l u n t ness [ i t j remade more than i t ever u n m a d e { a n d ] e s t a b l i s h e d more e f f e c t i v e l y than i t ever d i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the fame o f the man who wrote it.,and of the l o n g l i s t of wise, tender, and u n p r e t e n t i o u s novels 252 which he c r e a t e d . " The t w e n t i e s saw T r o l l o p e r o c k e t t l n g h i g h e r than he had ever soared b e f o r e , even i n the 1860's, and. behind t h i s r i s e were e n t h u s i a s t i c T r o l l o p i a n s , the avant-garde of a c l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t l c i s m , a f i n e s c h o l a r l y c r i t i c , and a sympathetic p o p u l a r i z e r . The f i r s t o f these i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by the American b i b l i o p h i l e , A. E . Newton, whose o p i n i o n of T r o l l o p e i s v o i c e d 255 c l e a r l y I n The 'Amenities of Book C o l l e c t i n g . He ends h i s essay i n t h i s f a s h i o n : Those o f us who l o v e T r o l l o p e l o v e him f o r the v e r y q u a l i t i e s which cause fatigue. In o t h e r s . Our l i v e s , i t may be,, are f a i l y strenuous; i t i s h a r d l y necessary f o r us to have our f e e l i n g s wrung of an evening. When the day I s done and I s e t t l e down In my arm c h a i r by the c r a c k l i n g f i r e , X am no longer i n c l i n e d t o problems, r e a l o r imaginary. X suppose the average man does h i s r e a d i n g w i t h what comfort he may a f t e r dinner; i t i s the time f o r peace - and T r o l l o p e . 2 5 4 252<p r ollope, An Auto b i ogr aphy, ed. S a d l e i r , Oxford, Oxford • U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922, i n t r o d . pp.v - v i . 2 5 3Newton, A . E . The Amenities of Book C o l l e c t i n g , Boston, • A t l a n t i c MbntnTy* J^res.s, b imp"., ly24,pp.249 - 2:65. 254 Newton, op_. c i t . p 257. - 67 -At f i r s t s i g h t , t h i s seems to f o l l o w a l o n g i n the t r a d i t i o n o f S t r e e t and Gwynn hut the I n t e g r i t y t h a t marked t h e i r en-thusiasm has gone, and the s p i r i t of C.L* Graves' unhappy verses has taken i t s p l a c e . However s i n c e r e and well-meant, t h i s type of p r a i s e has a t t r a c t e d a bedside reading- s c h o o l of T r o l l o p i a n s whose g o a l , whether they c a l l i t "peace" or " o b l i v i o n " i s not r a t i o n a l and a p p r e c i a t i v e enjoyment,, but escape; and whose highroad to i t i s unimaginative r e a d i n g . T r o l l o p e * s n o v e l s l e a v e f e e l i n g s unwrung and pose no prob-lems o n l y f o r those who f a i l to r e c o g n i z e the paths i m p l i c i t i n many off h i s s i t u a t i o n s . On the o t h e r hand, h i s second group off s u p p o r t e r s s e i z e d upon t h i s v e r y r e t i c e n c e of emotion and e l e v a t e d T r o l -lope to Jane Austen's a s t r a l p l a n e , t h e r e to j o i n her I n s e r v -i n g as a p a t t e r n o f p e r f e c t i o n and a r e p r o o f to romantic e x c e s s . Here the wheel has come f u l l c i r c l e , and the abomination o f the 1885 aesthetfis has become the d a r l i n g of t h e i r 1928 counter-p a r t s . The f a n t a s t i c l e n g t h s to which t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l c o u l d go are demonstrated by F o r d Madox F o r d i n h i s book on the E n g l i s h n o v e l : T r o l l o p e and M i s s Austen. - l i k e Shakespeare and R i c h a r d s o n - stand so a b s o l u t e l y alone t h a t no-t h i n g v e r y p r o f i t a b l e Can be s a i d about them by a w r i t i n g a n a l y z i n g B r i t i s h f i c t i o n i n s e a r c h o f t r a c e s of main c u r r e n t s of t r a d i t i o n . They were both so a l o o f , so engrossed, so contemplative -and so m a s t e r l y - t h a t beyond s a y i n g t h a t some, people p r e f e r "The Warden" t o "Framley Parsonage" and "Sense and S e n s i b i l i t y " t o " P r i d e and P r e j u d -i c e " and t h a t others t h i n k the r e v e r s e there i s l i t t l e to be s a i d . These at l e a s t are a u t h e n t i c w r i t e r s - they n e i t h e r f l a r e out Into passages t h a t are a l l super-genius.. .nor do t h e y descend. to the I n t o l e r a b l e b a n a l i t i e s o f the endings o f " C o p p e r f i e l d " or " V a n i t y F a i r " , . . 4 a l l you can say i s t h a t t h e y were j u s t temperaments, and q u i e t ones at t h a t . I n i m i t a b l e - that i s what they are ,250. O b v i o u s l y t h i s i s a r a d i c a l move^ s h o o t i n g T r o l l o p e from a l o w l y but r e s p e c t a b l e p o s i t i o n to h e i g h t s on which none of h i s admirers had ever dreamed of h i s b e l o n g i n g b e f o r e . Twenty-f i v e years p r e v i o u s l y L e s l i e Stephen had thought he was doing; h i s best f o r T r o l l o p e when he suggested t h a t "...perhaps i t would be w e l l i f r e a d e r s would sometimes make a l i t t l e e f f o r t t o b l u n t t h e i r c r i t i c a l f a c u l t y . " By 1928 h i s daughter, V i r g i n i a Woolf, c o u l d w r i t e o f a dominion of p e r f e c t i o n e x e r c i s e d by "...those two p e r f e c t n o v e l s , P r i d e and P r e j u d i c e and The Small House At  A l l i n g t o n . . . . ? 2 5 7 a n d she had reached t h i s p o i n t not by any blunt-i n g of her c r i t i c a l f a c u l t y , , but by an extreme sharpening of one s i d e of I t * P r i d e and P r e j u d i c e and The Small. House a t A l l i n g t o n . can be d e s c r i b e d as p e r f e c t novels o n l y i f the i d e a l of f i c t i o n i s the s t i m u l a t i o n of what Henry James c a l l e d "the emotions of '258 f a m i l i a r i t y . " Here T r o l l o p e has been sucked Into a t i d e o f t h a t c r i t i c i s m which c o n s i d e r s these emotions o f f a m i l i a r i t y to c o n s i s t In the p l e a s u r e o f r e c o g n i t i o n not of the commonplace,, the o r d i n a r y , the everyday,, but the b a s i c , u n i v e r s a l f e a t u r e s o f human l i f e and c h a r a c t e r . S i n c e these are fundamental and t r u e t o nature they ean have no power to provoke the "emotions of s u r p r i s e " . 2 5 5 ' F o r d , F o r d Madox, The E n g l i s h Novel. London, J . B . L i p p e n c o t t Company, 1929, pp. 119 - 120. 2 5 6 Q u o t e d above, p . SS, 2 5 7 Woolf, V i r g i n i a , Common Header, 2nd\!L S e r i e s , , London,Hogarth P r e s s , 1935.,, p . 234. (elssay Aiftst p r i n t e d 19.28.) 7 2 5 8 c f . p . -- 69 -With t h e i r emphasis upon the human value s i n l i t e r a t u r e these E n g l i s h twentieth-century; neo--cla.ssI.cals have c e r t a i n elements i n common with another group that ex-t o l l e d T r o l l o p e , the B a b b i t t New Humanists i n America. An o u t s t a n d i n g member of the movement, P a u l Elmer More, devoted a l o n g chapter i n The Demon of the. Absolute to "My Debt t o 259 T r o l l o p e , " making a c l a i m f o r him t h a t had never been s e r i o u s -l y o f f e r e d b e f o r e : The element o f r e l i g i o n which,..pervades a l l Trollope*" s f i c t i o n , , i s the e t h i c a l . ...No one of our g r e a t e r n o v e l i s t s , u n l e s s i t be George E l i o t , saw more c l e a r l y than he the I n -exorable nexus of cause and e f f e c t I n the moral o r d e r , or f o l l o w e d more r e l e n t l e s s l y the wide-spreading consequences of the l i t t l e d e f a l c a -t i o n s of w i l l , the f o o l i s h misunderstandings o f sympathy, the s l i g h t d e f l e c t i o n s from honesty, the d e c e p t i v e temptations of success, the f a i l -ures to make the r i g h t d e c i s i o n a t c r i t i c a l moments, the ruinous conrosions of p a s s i o n and e g o t i s m . 2 6 0 A l l t h i s i s a f a r c r y from the c a u t i o u s p r a i s e o f S a i n t s b u r y and H a r r i s o n , and the dangers t o any author of thus becoming a p a r t i c u l a r movement's d a r l i n g are o b v i o u s . From, th e hands, of the t r u l y c r i t i c a l he f a l l s among a new s e t of l i t e r a r y snobs, and becomes a f a s h i o n , faced" w i t h the i n e v i t a b l e f a t e a w a i t i n g a l l f a s h i o n s . That T r o l l o p e was not b l o t t e d out once more by a new f e e l i n g t h a t the movement a g a i n s t excess was i t s e l f e x c e s s i v e , a l i t t l e unbalanced, and bent upon d e i f y i n g the common-pla c e i n t o the u n i v e r s a l , can be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the r e -261 s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e of M i c h a e l S a d l e l r * s T r o l l o p e , A ^ Commentary, 259More, P a u l Elmer, The Demon of the A b s o l u t e . P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e ton ' U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1*328, pp.8T~-~TT8 260More, op_. c i t . , p.98. 2 6 1 S a d l e I r , M i c h a e l , T r o l l o p e , A Commentary, London, Constable and Co. L t d . , 1927. - 70 -which came out i n 1927. P r i m a r i l y a biography, the book devotes n i n e t e n t h s of i t s space to an examination through T r o l l o p e ^ of the M i d - T i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , s i n c e he i s r e p r e s e n -t e d as having expressed both "a p e r i o d and an i n d i v i d u a l phy-c h o l o g y . " 2 6 2 T h i s i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of T r o l l o p e which has p e r s i s t e d , as we have seen from the aims of The T r o l l o p i a n , P a r t of the success of S a d l e i r ' s view may be t r a c e d t o the f a c t t h a t , u n l i k e V i r g i n i a Woolf's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t j a r s none of the t r a d i t i o n a l ideas t h a t had developed s i n c e T r o l l o p e ' s death. The emphasis throughout f a l l s f i r s t upon the man h i m s e l f , as being f a r more i n t e r e s t i n g u l t i m a t e l y than h i s work, secondly upon h i s n o v e l s ' " e x p r e s s i o n of p e r i o d psychology," and l a s t l y upon the books themselves. The l a s t t h i r t y - f i v e pages of a bulky book are devoted to t r y i n g " . . . t o a p p r a i s e him f a i r l y and d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y , to take account, n e i t h e r of p e r i o d whim nor of h i s own expressed i d e a l s , but o n l y of h i s r i g h t to h o l d a p l a c e i n the i m p e r i s h a b l e pageant of, the E n g l i s h n o v e l " 2 6 4 To t h i s attempt S a d l e i r was prompted by both the C.L. Graves and the V i r g i n i a fifoolf types of T r o l l o p e admirers, f e e l i n g t h a t " T r o l l o p e deserves a graver a d m i r a t i o n than as a mere bed-book author, and at the same time a judgment more s t r i n g e n t than^ . would be passed by a new found enthusiasm f o r h i s V i c t o r i a n i s m " . He i s , i n s h o r t , t o be n e i t h e r p e t t e d nor d e i f i e d , but t r e a t e d s e r i o u s l y and s o b e r l y as a n o v e l i s t . S a d l e i r ' s attempt to do - 71 -t h i s r e s u l t s i n a s e n s i t i v e and a p p r e c i a t i v e survey of T r o l -l o p e ^ output, w r i t t e n w i t h a l l h i s u s u a l w i t and charm. From 266 i t T r o l l o p e emerges as "the supreme n o v e l i s t of acquiescence? whose "almost pugnacious acceptance of r e a l i t y " d i s t i n g u i s h e s 267 him from a l l other n o v e l i s t s o f standing*. H i s a r t has two p r e -dominant q u a l i t i e s : "the power off c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and the power 268 of d r a m a t i z a t i o n of the u s u a l . " Up t o t h i s p o i n t S a d l e i r has o f f e r e d n o t h i n g t h a t had not a l r e a d y been put forward by Henry James i n 1885, and more o r l e s s e s t a b l i s h e d as the proper estimate o f T r o l l o p e by 1910. He does, however, go f a r t h e r than t h i s . T r o l l o p e i s presented as an. a d u l t w r i t e r f o r a d u l t r e a d e r s , "more i n t e r e s t e d I n the d e c e p t i v e calm of s o c i e t y ' s , s u r f a c e than i n t h e d e t a i l s of the 269 hidden w h i r l p o o l s beneath" and. "...In a l l t h i n g s s o p h i s t i c a t e d 270 and i n s o c i a l t h i n g s more than a l i t t l e c y n i c a l . " The r e -mainder o f t h e chapter Is devoted to a d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s l i t -e r a r y development, and, though the novels; a r e recommended whole-s a l e , S a d l e i r ' s purpose here i s to r e a f f i r m the a l r e a d y estab-l i s h e d supremacy o f B a r s e t s h i r e . T h i s he a c h i e v e s by a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s off Doctor Thorne, which he d e s c r i b e s as t y p i c a l off the good q u a l i t i e s of T r o l l o p e as a n o v e l i s t . One p o i n t i n t h i s study i l l u s t r a t e s S a d l e i r ' s p o i n t o f view a t once: he f e e l s t h a t the p o r t r a i t o f S i r Roger Sca t c h e r d , a self-made man who f i n a l l y d r i n k s h i m s e l f to death, is: e s s e n t i a l l y un T r o l l o p - i a n , - the shad-l i l i b i d - . P- 366. 2 6 7 i b i d . , p. 367-2 6 8 i ^ d - , P- 369. 269 ^ f p > 3 7 0 . i b i d -, p. 371. - 72 -i n g i s too s t r o n g . The pure T r o l l o p e i s found i n the drawing of Mary Thome: "In her the l i g h t and beauty o f the whole book are c e n t r e d . " On a wider s c a l e the ending of t h e chapter p r e -sents the same i d e a : "At times one wonders whether t h i s f i e r c e tremendous book fThe Way We L i v e Now)is not the g r e a t e s t n o v e l T r o l l o p e ever wrote. But when the thought of Mary Thome r e -t u r n s , and be cause beauty i s more permanent than anger and sweets ness more a b i d i n g than even r i g h t e o u s c r u e l t y , the s a t i r e f a l l s I n t o second p l a c e , l e a v i n g at the proud apex of T r o l l o p e f i c t i o n 271 the t a l e of Doctor Thorne p e r p e t u a l l y enthroned." U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s b r i l l i a n t biography was c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by the E n g l i s h Men of L e t t e r s S e r i e s ' volume on T r o l -0 7 0 l o p e , w r i t t e n by Hugh Walpole, O s t e n s i b l y the author's aim was the complete p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of T r o l l o p e , but u n h a p p i l y t h i s purpose i s achieved e n t i r e l y on Walpole*s own terms. The e a r l y p a r t of h i s book i s based upon the Autobiography, or r a t h e r upon Walpole's sentimental i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what he d e s c r i b e s as "one of the most honest, s i n c e r e and noble-minded books i n the E n g l i s h 273 language." He produces a T r o l l o p e who bears a s t a r t l i n g r e s -emblance to one o f Walpole*s own c h a r a c t e r s , a p o p u l a r n o v e l i s t 274 named Campbell who appears; i n The Young Enchanted . Seen through the eyes of one P e t e r , who r e p r e s e n t s the w r i t e r ' s own p o i n t o f view, "Campbell was a b i t of a f o o l , too f a t , too p r o s -perous, too anxious to be papular, but he was a happy man, and a y j - i b l d . t pp, 599 - 400., 272 Walpole, Hugh, Anthony T r o l l o p e , London, Macmillan and Co.,Ltd., 1928. 2 7 3 W a l p o l e , op. c i t . , -8.1. '^Walpole, Hugh, The Young Enchanted, London, Macmillan and Co. L t d . , 1921. - 73 -a man who was l i v i n g h i s l i f e at i t s very f u l l e s t . He was not a great a r t i s t , o f course - great a r t i s t s are never happy - but he had' .a n a r r a t i v e g i f t t h a t i t amused him to p l a y w i t h every morning o f h i s l i f e from ten t o twelve, and he made money from t h a t g i f t and could buy books and p i c t u r e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y do a f r i e n d a good t u r n . M o n t e i t h and Grace T a l b o t and the o t h e r s were more s e r i o u s a r t i s t s and were more s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d , but t h e i r g i f t s came to mighty l i t t l e i n the end - t h i n , t h i n l i t t l e s treams.** 2 7 5 £. F a i r l y w e l l f o r e s t a l l e d , however, i n any extended attempt a t biography by S a d l e l r * s book^Walpole of n e c e s s i t y devoted most of h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the n o v e l s . He glances a t the whole catalogue, even the almost f o r g o t t e n La vendee: passes some acute remarks on the l a t e r novels t h a t yet are v i t i a t e d by an u n d e r l y i n g current o f "See*, o l d T r o l l o p e can beat the h i g h -brows at t h e i r own game"; and f i n a l l y plumps f i r m l y f o r B a r s e t -s h i r e , on the grounds t h a t i n t h i s s e r i e s " T r o l l o p e has c r e a t e d 276 a world." One cannot h e l p but f e e l t h a t h i s a f f e c t i o n f o r t h i s world stems from the f a c t t h a t t o h i s mind i t has the v i r t u e of h i s own s e a - s i d e town o f Cladgate. "No New A r t I n Cladgate! No Indeed. M o s t l y v e r y charming warm-hearted people with no nonsense about t h e m . " 2 7 7 I n t h i s , study T r o l l o p e i s f i r m l y dragged down to the middle-brow l e v e l , and the s e a l of approval i s set upon the b e d s i d e - r e a d i n g s c h o o l of T r o l l o p i a n s by a n o v e l i s t of the r e s p e c t a b l e " l i t e r a r y " type who has great popular i n f l u e n c e . The book r e p r e s e n t s the f i n a l debasement of t h e a f f e c t i o n o f Peck and Gwynh, but at the. time reviewers u n i t e d I n saying t h a t I t a 7 5 i b i d . , . Book I I , Chapter V I I . 2 7 6 W a l p o l e , Anthony T r o l l o p e , p . 67. 277walpole, The Young Enchanted. Book I I I , Chapter I . - 74 -would help n o t a l i t t l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f T r o l l o p e ' s r e p u t a t i o n . Whether or n o t i t h e l p e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t e T r o l l o p e ' s reputation,, Anthony T r o l l o p e c e r t a i n l y helped to f i x i t f o r a number of years, and a l s o t o s e l l t h e novels, e s p e c i a l l y the B a r s e t s . From t h i s time on s l i g h t l y querulous- notes are s t r u c k I n a r t i c l e s , complaining t h a t t h i s n o v e l or t h a t , mentioned by Walpole, i s not a v a i l a b l e , and p u b l i s h e r s saw to i t t h a t t h e s e c r i e s d i d not go l o n g unanswered. The Barset n o v e l s appeared i n many e d i t i o n s , the P a l l i s e r " n o v e l s f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y , w hile the Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s devoted an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e s e c t i o n o f t h e i r World's C l a s s i c s S e r i e s to T r o l l o p e ' s works. The r e -s u l t s of a l l t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n should have been happy f o r T r o l -l o p e , s i n c e - i t meant t h a t c r i t i c s who chose to d i s c u s s c e r t a i n n o v e l s c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y sure that; t h e i r r e a d e r s would have access to them. However, though T r o l l o p e was c e r t a i n l y r e a d i n the t h i r t i e s , c r i t i c a l l y speaking he remained almost en-t i r e l y s t a t i c . From 1928 to 1938 o n l y two Important s t u d i e s 278 appeared, an e s s a y b y L o r d David C e c i l , and the s e c t i o n on T r o l l o p e i n Ernest Baker's comprehensive H i s t o r y o f the E n g l i s h 279 N o v e l . T r o l l o p e a t the time was In the p o s i t i o n of an author who stood or f e l l w i t h h i s V i c t o r i a n i s m , M i c h a e l S a d l e i r had s t u d i e d him p r i m a r i l y as an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s p e r i o d , and had done so w i t h a sober detachment t h a t p a s s e d no judgment on the p e r i o d i t s e l f . Walpole on the o t h e r hand had p r a i s e d him because 2 7 8 C e c i l , L o r d David, E a r l y V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s , New York, B e b b s - M e r r i l l Company, 1935., pp, 253 - 287. -2 7 9 B a k e r j E r n e s t A.,The H i s t o r y o f the E n g l i s h N o v e l j L o n d o n H . F . and G. W&therby, L t d . , 1937, v o l . 8, pp.112 - 160. - 75 -of the c o n s e r v a t i v e elements which he admired' i n the Mid-V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l scene, q u i t e i l l o g i c a l l y c o n t r a s t i n g them wit h the i n t e l l e c t u a l I d e a l s of the New A r t highbrows t h a t he f e a r e d . C e c i l , i n h i s t u r n sought to compare the V i c t o r -Ian n o v e l i s t s one to another as a r t i s t s . The r e s u l t i n T r o l -l o p e ' s ease i s an u r b a n e ^ s l i g h t l y b l o o d l e s s essay which passes much the same judgment as had Henry James r " T r o l l o p e Imagined truly,, but he imagined f a i n t l y . " « m s most I n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s t h a t T r o l l o p e , commonly c o n s i d e r e d the A r c h - V i c t o r i a n ^ I s the o n l y one of these n o v e l i s t s to whom the V i c t o r i a n , conven-t i o n s are mere machinery, so t h a t "the modern r e a d e r never has 281 t o a d j u s t h i s mind to a V i c t o r i a n angle I n o r d e r to e n j o y him." There, h i s h e r e s y ends, however, and h i s f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n upon the n o v e l s I s t h a t s i n c e T r o l l o p e ' s g r e a t e s t value l i e s I n h i s power t o make us laugh,, the B a r s e t s e r i e s are h i s h i g h e s t a c h l e v e -282: ment,for t h e y make us laugh the most. S i m i l a r l y , o n l y one new s u g g e s t i o n appears i n the Baker study, and l i k e C e c i l ' s i d e a i t has never been taken up and de-veloped. He i s t h e f i r s t to c l a i m a p o e t i c q u a l i t y f o r T r o l -l o p e , b a s i n g h i s c l a i m upon "the generous f e e l i n g s and s e l f -a bnegation t h a t he regards as p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l , as the r e v e r s e of s u r p r i s i n g and e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n such as Mr. H a r d i ng, Grace 285 Crawley and her f a t h e r , e t c . " On the whole these are the two lone c r i t i c s , s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g T r o l l o p e as a w r i t e r . As the f a s h i o n f o r V i c t o r i a n -ism waned T r o l l o p e was more commonly d i s m i s s e d as a smug; o l d -2 8 Q C e e i l , 0 £ . c i t . . p.265. 2 8 I i h l d . t p.261. 2 8 2 i b i d . ^ p.286. 285Baker, o p . c i t . , p.144. - 76 -f a s h i o n e d c y n i c , t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n s o c i a l conscience. By the end of the t h i r t i e s a r a t h e r pompous l e a d i n g a r t i c l e I n the Times L i t e r a r y Supplement d e s c r i b e d his. p o s i t i o n among those who move w i t h the f a s h i o n s I n no k i n d l y terms. . . . T r o l l o p e ' s l i t t l e b u r s t o f p o p u l a r i t y i n the t w e n t i e s has a l r e a d y warred. I t l e a v e s behind I t a charming book by Mr. Hugh Walpole and a b r i l l i a n t one by Mr. M i c h a e l Sadlelr» but no c u l t s u r v i v e s . Apart from, the u n p a l a t a b l e n e s s of T r o l -l o p e ' s form to modern t a s t e , the r e a s o n d o u b t l e s s i s t h a t on examination he turns; out to be not a genuine de bunker at a l l . There i s no malice I n him. He takes the p o l i t i c a l w orld as he t o o k the. r e l i g i o u s world and e v e r y other k i n d of world he d e s c r i b e d . . . t o be an everyday, m a t e r i a l , seamy-s i d e d a f f a i r , and he was not a b i t h o r r i f i e d by h i s d i s c o v e r y . 2 8 4 T h i s i s a c u r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the gradual T r o l l o p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n we have t r a c e d from 1895. Though th e r e i a ample evidence o f d i f f e r e n t groups t u r n i n g to T r o l l o p e f o r d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h e r e has been no I n d i c a t i o n of h i s e n j o y i n g p o p u l a r i t y as a de^bunker of V i c t o r i a n ! s m of the L y t t o n S t r a c h e y s c h o o l . E q u a l l y Inaccurate was t h e a r t i c l e ' s acceptance of a f r e s h and permanent e c l i p s e f o r T r o l l o p e , s i n c e the " l i t t l e b u r s t o f p o p u l a r i t y " ' from which "no c u l t s u r v i v e s " proved t o be a mere ea r n e s t of the r e a l l y s t a r t l i n g - rage f o r T r o l l o p e during- the Second World War. T h i s surge of p o p u l a r i t y m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n a g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d demand f o r h i s n o v e l s a t a time when p u b l i s h e r s had no paper f o r the purpose, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t p o o r l y bound 285 second-hand c o p i e s of o l d e r e d i t i o n s s k y - r o c k e t t e d i n p r i c e . The e f f e c t s o f t h i s demand are s t i l l w ith us I n 1950, when not on l y — t h e p o p u l a r World^s C l a s s i c s e d i t i o n s are hard t o come by, 284Times L i t e r a r y Supplement. March 20,1957, p. 19 3. 2 8 5 W i l d m a n , John H., "Anthony T r o l l o p e Today", C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , v o l . V I I , 1946, p.398. - 77 -but the expensive Oxford I l l u s t r a t e d T r o l l o p e e l u d e s the eager p u r c h a s e r . During the war^too s e v e r a l of the Barset n o v e l s were broadcast as s e r i a l s by the B.B'.C. with c o n s i d e r a b l e success, while T r o l l o p e even invaded the London stage f o r a r e s p e c t a b l e l i t t l e run with a v e r s i o n of the L a s t C h r o n i c l e of B a r s e t . With the e x c e p t i o n o f the a c t i v i t i e s of R.W. Chapman, who has r e c e n t l y turned h i s a t t e n t i o n to the t a s k of e s t a b l i s h -i n g a d e f i n i t i v e t e x t of T r o l l o p e , T r o l l o p i a n c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g the l a s t ten years has been l a r g e l y devoted to s p e c u l a t i o n about the reasons f o r t h i s c r a z e . From a l l the mass of ephemeral con-j e c t u r e on t h i s p o i n t we. can gather t h a t two T r o l l o p e s caught war-time: England's fancy, the one t h a t o f f e r e d an escape i n t o a world f o r which people f e l t n o s t a l g i a , and the one who o f f e r e d comfort to those who were too honest to t u r n t h e i r backs on the p r e s e n t . The f i r s t of these i s the more common, and I t i s the Trollope- p o p u l a r i z e d by Hugh Walpole aa the c r e a t o r of B a r s e t -s h i r e . The second i s a d i s t o r t e d o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of V i r -g i n i a Woolf's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and I t s main source of I n t e r e s t i s not the n o v e l s , but the Autobiography. For f i f t y years B a r s e t s h i r e has been keeping T r o l l o p e i n the ranks o f a u t h o r s whose work i s not dead, and i t has done so because i t has never l o s t i t s appeal f o r Englishmen and a l l who have a f e e l i n g f o r t h e E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e . Yet i f we t u r n to the B a r s e t r h o y e l s to l e a r n o f B a r s e t s h i r e , i t i s not t h e r e . S e v e r a l people i n c l u d i n g T r o l l o p e h i m s e l f , have drawn maps of the country, complete with r a i l w a y l i n e s , but t h i s bare o u t l i n e i s a l l that i s to be found i n the n o v e l s themselves. I n s p i t e - 78 -of a l l t h a t other people have s i n c e w r i t t e n about the s u n l i g h t , the f i e l d s , the gentle a i r of Barsetj T r o l l o p e has not succeeded i n r e a l i z i n g h i s county as George E l i o t d i d hers and Thomas Hardy h i s . H i s names, Bar c h e s t e r , Eramley, S t . Ewold*s, U l l a t h o r n e , Omnium, Hogglestoc^, and Plumstead E p i s c o p i can c r e a t e a r e a l i t y o n l y f o r those who can draw on t h e i r own experience or background to supply i t , and the d e t a i l s of that r e a l i t y w i l l v a r y from p e r -son to person. T r o l l o p e d i d not c r e a t e the world of B a r s e t s h i r e ; he evoked hundreds of B a r s e t s h i r e s from hundred's o f r e a d e r s . The charm and v a l u e of t h i s f o r people uprooted and t o s s e d about by war i s u n d e n i a b l e , but i t s ' l i t e r a r y worth i s d o u b t f u l s i n c e i t s appeal i s l i m i t e d . More n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l i s the v a l u e found I n T r o l l o p e by a second group of readers, whose p o i n t of view i s expressed i n E l i z a b e t h Bowen's Anthony T r o l l o p e : _ 286 A New Judgement, which was o r i g i n a l l y a f a n t a s y f o r r a d i o pro-d u c t i o n . "Voiced by a yoiing s o l d i e r g o ing to b a t t l e with a borrowed T r o l l o p e n o v e l , t h e i r new judgement I s t h a t the T r o l l o p e c h a r a c t e r s are a support a g a i n s t hopelessness, s i n c e they are s t r o n g e r than ci r c u m s t a n c e s . " I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r us, these days, to b e l i e v e i n people, and i n t h e i r power to l i v e . Not j u s t I n heroes o r monsters, but i n o r d i n a r y people w i t h the knack of l i v i n g o r d i n a r y l i v e s , . . . 287 We l o n g f o r the o r d i n a r y . " The i n f e r e n c e t o be drawn from t h i s i s t h a t T r o l l o p e * s c h a r a c t e r s have a p e c u l i a r power to comfort and r e f r e s h o n l y when the o r d i n a r y i s the e x t r a o r d i n a r y , and i t becomes of g r e a t im-portance to have some source o f assurance, t h a t one need be n e i t h e r hero-nor monster to overcome circumstance. F o r reassurance off t h i s 2 8 6Bowen, E l i z a b e t h , Anthony Trollope:. A New Judgement, Ltardoas, o*f««<, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946. 2 8 7 i b i d . « pp.24 - 25. - 79 -s o r t M i s s Bowen ? however, p r o v i d e s the young s o l d i e r not w i t h the n o v e l t h a t he had intended to take, hut the Autobiography, and by doing so she has s e t the tone of subsequent s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m . I f T r o l l o p e ' s g r e a t value i s to prove t h a t " i t ' s dogged as does i t " then the Autobiography i s h i s g r e a t e s t a c h i e v e -ment and a l l t h a t we need t o remember of h i s vast output. T h i s i s the t r e n d that T r o l l o p i a n c r i t i c i s m i s t a k i n g today, and i t i s . the I n e v i t a b l e outcome of the constant emphasis t h a t i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c s , have l a i d upon the Autobiography s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of the T r o l l o p e r e v i v a l . The r e s u l t o f t h i s c l o s e examination and consequent a p p r e c i a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s the o n l y one of T r o l l o p e ' s works that r e s t s on f i r m c r i t i c a l rock., staun-chly; supported by M i c h a e l S a d l e i r ' s Qommentary. T h i s i s proved by the f a i l u r e of the S t e b b i n s e s to d e s t r o y the image of T r o l l o p e which the Autobiography r e f l e c t s , f o r i n many ways t h e i r s i s a c l e v e r book, s l a n t e d to c a t c h the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l f a n c y of the times. At p r e s e n t Trollope. h i m s e l f Is s a f e , but h i s g r e a t host o f men and women are d r i f t i n g nearer and nearer to a w h i r l p o o l from which they are never l i k e l y t o emerge. 288 I n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h i s a b r i e f study has j u s t appeared i n England which, j u d g i n g by reviews, makes an attempt to t u r n the emphasis back to the n o v e l s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s and to c o n s i d e r them not as mere bed-book r e a d i n g f o r people u n w i l l i n g to cope w i t h n o v e l s t h a t experiment beyond the l i m i t s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a d i t i o n , but as f i c t i o n t h a t has something i n i t of permanent v a l u e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the author, though en-t h u s i a s t i c , has been nervous and h e s i t a n t , and g e n e r a l l y u n s k i l l ^ f u l In p r e s e n t i n g her case, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t a t l e a s t one 2 8 8 B r o w n , B e a t r i c e C u r t i s , Anthony T r o l l o p e , London, Arthur Barker, L t d . , 1950. - 80 -one reviewer has f e l t t h a t "The hook I s one to p u z z l e o v e r . . . But...£itsj a l l - e x c u s i n g m e r i t . . . i s t h a t i t persuades one t h a t a f u r t h e r and more a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g of the novels would r e v e a l a greatness beyond what one has y e t d i s c o v e r e d , whether 289 of T r o l l o p e * s greatness or of h i s c h a r a c t e r " A more a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g o f the whole range o f the novels w i l l c e r t a i n l y r e v e a l t h a t T r o l l o p e I s not j u s t a h i g h l y competent s t o r y - t e l l e r with a g i f t of s k e t c h i n g l i f e - l i k e char-a c t e r s , whose main c l a i m t o our r e g a r d i s h i s drawing of h i s own b l u f f and honest p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s very Autobiography g i v e s us t h e c l u e , f o r i n i t T r o l l o p e i s v e r y d e f i n i t e In e x p r e s s i n g 29 0 h i s views on the purpose and value of f i c t i o n . Because he a l s o made a p o i n t of s a y i n g t h a t he wrote f o r money r e a d e r s have tended to d i s m i s s h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the moral nature of f i c t i o n as t r i -v i a l and s u p e r f i c i a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , T r o l l o p e was q u i t e s i n c e r e In h i s b e l i e f t h a t the f u n c t i o n o o f the n o v e l was both t o d i v e r t and to i n s t r u c t by I m p l i c a t i o n , and most o f h i s own books g a i n value and I n t e r e s t f r o m the f a c t t h a t the problem w i t h which he d e a l t was the one with which he h i m s e l f had s t r u g g l e d through-out h i s e a r l y l i f e , the d i f f i c u l t y and the prime Importance of. r e t a i n i n g one's s e l f - r e s p e c t as a human b e i n g . F i t h i t h i s i n mind we s h a l l f i n d the Autobiography not a record, of l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y , comic, or i n t e r e s t i n g , or admir-a b l e , but a most v a l u a b l e g l o s s on the n o v e l s . I n I t T r o l l o p e p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f |cast as a boy d e s p i s e d by everyone, and above a l l by h i m s e l f . He then t r a c e s h i s s t r u g g l e s t o g a i n the good 2 8 % o t e s and Queries, May 27,1950, p. 242 . 290fcrollope, Auto.., pp.197* - 203. - 81 -o p i n i o n of others, but even more t o r e g a i n h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t . That he has expressed, the course o f t h i s s t r u g g l e l a r g e l y i n terms o f money earned and c l u b s j o i n e d has e i t h e r bothered or p l e a s e d many rea d e r s , and l e t them to' t h i n k e i t h e r t h a t T r o l l o p e was a mercenary snob, or t h a t he was a remarkably honest man In an age t h a t has g a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r h y p o c r i s y . Both these I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have^I b e l i e v e ^ c o n f u s e d T r o l l o p e ' s symbol f o r h i s success with h i s t r u e g o a l . When he w r i t e s the. f i n a l sum of h i s l i t e r a r y e a r n i n g s , the famous B68,939 17s. 6d., he i s merely u s i n g h i s symbol f o r h i s f i n a l s u c c e s s i n his. l o n g s t r u g g l e . We- cannot Ignore T r o l l o p e ' s frequent emphasis on money, but n e i t h e r can we say t h a t to htm I t was the prime good. Sin c e l a c k of i t had o r i g i n a l l y d e s t r o y e d h i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e by denying him. a normal l i f e at Harrow and Winchester and then t o s s i n g him Into a London world with which he was not equipped to deal,, i t I s n e i t h e r u n n a t u r a l nor c u l p a b l e t h a t he s h o u l d l a t e r a s s o c i a t e wealth with happiness, s e c u r i t y , and h i s r e s -t o r e d s e l f - r e s p e c t . That he never confused the symbol w i t h the r e a l good w i t h which he a s s o c i a t e d I t can be seen from h i s t r e a t -ment of the whole q u e s t i o n of s e l f - r e s p e c t in. t h e n o v e l s . M iss Bowen's young s o l d i e r d e s c r i b e d the T r o l l o p e c h a r a c t e r s as o r d i n a r y people-who "...know what th e y want and... 291 want what they want a l l out? Many of T r o l l o p e ' s contemporary c r i t i c s would have been s t a r t l e d a t such a statement, f o r one of t h e i r most f r e q u e n t complaints was t h a t h i s heroes were poor c r e a t u r e s who v a c i l l a t e d i n t e r m i n a b l y , while h i s s i l l y h e r o i n e s never seemed to be a b l e to make up t h e i r minds. N e i t h e r des-c r i p t i o n i s a c c u r a t e , f o r i t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e that the T r o l l o p e 29.1 Bowen, T r o l l o p e , p.24. 8S -• c h a r a c t e r s v e r y o f t e n do not know what t h e y want, ye t t h e i r I n d e c i s i o n does not stem from s t u p i d i t y or l a c k of p r i n c i p l e ; Rather, t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e from a combination of circum-stance and t h e i r own temporary f r a i l t i e s , and the main i n t e r e s t of the n o v e l s c e n t r e s upon t h e i r e v e n t u a l l y making the r i g h t d e c i s i o n , the one which w i l l p r e s e r v e f o r them t h e i r s e l f - r e s -p e c t . In i t s s i m p l e s t form the problem, appears i n The  Warden, where Mr. Harding, whose o n l y f a u l t was that of t a k i n g h i s p o s i t i o n for' granted, p r e v a i l s a g a i n s t a l l the massed power of the Archdeacon's f a c t i o n to make and keep* to the o n l y decis.-. i o n compatible with h i s p r i n c i p l e s . The s t r u g g l e i n t h i s case proves r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d , s i n c e Mr. Harding i s a s a i n t l y o l d man who f i n d s l i t t l e i n the world to tempt him. H i s s o l e concern I s to d i s t i n g u i s h the course which w i l l enable him t o r e g a i n h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t , and once he has found i t h i s u s u a l l y m i l d and amenable temper turns stubborn, and r e f u s e s to o b l i g e those f o r whom he Would do a n y t h i n g e l s e I n the- w o r l d ; B a r c h e s t e r Towers has none o f t h i s element, f o r I t i s simply the t a l e o f a war between, t y r a n t s , Mrs. Proudie and Mr. S l o p e , complicated by the e x o t i c and u n p r e d i c t a b l e n a t u r e s o f B e r t i e Stanhope and the S l g n o r a N e r o n i . L a r g e l y s l a p s t i c k , though on a v e r y h i g h l e v e l , i t i s undoubtedly the Barset h o v e l t h a t makes us laugh the most, and so w i l l p r o b a b l y continue to win an audience. I n the g e n e r a l scheme of the B a r s e t s h i r e C h r o n i c l e s , however, i t s c h i e f v a l u e i s t h a t i t e l a b o r a t e s on c e r t a i n of The; Warden* s personages and i n t r o d u c e s the most famous of a l l the T r o l l o p e c h a r a c t e r s , Mrs. P r o u d i e . - 83 -When, we pass t o Doctor Thorne, however, we f i n d a man f i g h t i n g t o adhere t o what he senses to he r i g h t i n the f a c e of the temptation o f l e t t i n g a wo r t h l e s s young man d r i n k h i m s e l f to death so t h a t a beloved adopted daughter may I n h e r i t the f o r t u n e t h a t w i l l make e v e r y t h i n g smooth before her* M i -c h a e l S a d i e i r has a n a l y z e d . t h i s n o v e l as though I t were c h i e f l y 292 the s t o r y o f Mary Thorne, but T r o l l o p e had a tendency to s p o t l i g h t , the main concern of a n o v e l I n I t s t i t l e , and has done so I n t h i s c ase. The main matter o f Doctor Thorne i s the doc-t o r ' s s t r u g g l e to m a i n t a i n h i s d u t y t o h i m s e l f a g a i n s t a l l the temptations; prompted by h i s l o v e f o r Mary. The Warden and D o c t o r Thorne show as two men f o r whom p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n was never a motive c o m p l i c a t i n g the moral i s s u e , but w i t h Framley Parsonage the whole s o c i a l scene becomes more t a n g l e d and the Issues l e s s cut and d r i e d . N e a r l y everyone I n Framley Parsonage has d i f f i c u l t y In d e c i d i n g what he s h o u l d do, but the c h i e f emphasis; f a l l s upon the young clergyman: Mark Robarts* Though Framley Parsonage has sometimes been d i s m i s s e d as t r i v i a l , i t i s the Barset novel which I n d i r e c t l y presents; T r o l l o p e ' s case f o r the v i r t u e s of a r u r a l E n g l i s h s o c i e t y a l -ready d i s a p p e a r i n g . I n t h i s book we have not o n l y I n d i v i d u a l s t r y i n g to s o l v e I n d i v i d u a l problems, but an o l d e r t r a d i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y both to the l a n d and to one's a s s o c i a t e s s t r i v -ing, a g a i n s t the. s e l f - s e e k i n g , dog^eat-dog a c t i v i t i e s o f the de-generate Sowerbys and t h e i r u p s t a r t f r i e n d s , supported b y the g r e a t power o f wealth the Duke of Omnium. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of Sadie I r , T r o l l o p e , pp.387 - 388:. - 84 -remaining, a conscience - easy young clergyman i n such an en-vironment, when one I s both p e r s o n a l l y ambitious and s o c i a l l y v a i n a r e obvious, and Mark Robarts comes v e r y c l o s e to com-p l e t e d i s g r a c e and s e l f - h a t r e d . Yet e v e n t u a l l y toe chooses the o n l y p a t h t h a t w i l l l e a d him back to s e l f - r e s p e c t and humbly prepares to s a c r i f i c e e v e r y t h i n g t o pay o f f h i s debts. That no such d r a s t i c measures are r e q u i r e d of him, since t h e L u f t o n s come to. h i s a i d , p o i n t s two t y p i c a l T r o l l o p i a n morals: the e s s e n t i a l decency o f the o l d e r order i n r u r a l England, and the. f a c t t h a t I n B a r s e t s h i r e , though a man may make a s e r i o u s mis-take, h i s r e c o g n i t i o n and. repentance o f i t w i l l guarantee h i s r e t u r n to g r a c e . The Small House at A l l i n g t o n i s a B a r s e t n o v e l n e i t h e r In s e t t i n g nor I n outlook, as T r o l l o p e ' s I n s t i n c t t o l d htm when he h e s i t a t e d to Include i t In the B a r s e t C h r o n i c l e s . I n our search f o r t h e c e n t r a l m o t i f of s e l f - r e s p e c t In these c h r o n i c l e s i t w i l l be as w e l l to pass f o r the moment to by f a r the most s u b t l e and engrossing o f them a l l , The l a s t C h r o n i c l e o f B a r s e t ; I n i t two characters; c l a s h who have been d e v e l o p i n g f r o m Bar-cheste r Towers through Framley Parsonage, Mrs. Proudie and the Reverend Mr. Crawley of Hagglestock. Both of these creations; are worth study i n the l i g h t of T r o l l o p e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with the value of i n t e g r i t y , f o r they of a l l the B a r s e t s h i r e p erson-ages are the most f u l l y drawn and j u s t l y the most famous. To T r o l l o p e , s e l f - r e s p e c t was o f n e c e s s i t y based i n self-knowledge, and so the most dangerous f o r c e t h a t e o u l d d r i v e anyone was that p r i d e which l e d to s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , and thesfc Aboth Mrs. Proudie and Mr. Crawley expresses I t s e l f i n a - 85 -m i l i t a n t and uncompromising r i g h t e o u s n e s s . I n The L a s t C h r o n i c l e  o f B a r s e t these two s t i f f - n e c k e d c r e a t u r e s c l a s h f o r the l a s t time, and i t i s the h i t h e r t o i n d o m i t a b l e Mrs, Pro u d i e t h a t g i v e s way. The reason f o r her defeat and the e x p l a n a t i o n T r o l l o p e l a t e r gave f o r her death g i v e us a c l e a r e r n o t i o n of how h i s mind worked on t h i s q u e s t i o n with which he concerned h i m s e l f , Mr. Crawley p r e v a i l s over Mrs, P r o u d i e because he has gained i n s i g h t and so r e c o g n i z e d h i s much p r i z e d r i g h t e o u s n e s s f o r what i t i s , p r i d e . He i s the o n l y p r o o f that need e v e r be c i t e d t o d i s m i s s the n o t i o n t h a t T r o l l o p e ' s g r e a t g i f t to the world i s the r a t h e r d o u b t f u l d o c t r i n e o f " i t ' s dogged as does i t . " Through much of the l a t t e r h a l f o f t h i s v e r y l o n g novel Mr. Crawley c l i n g s t o t h i s i d e a , because i t supports him i n h i s s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s , but f i n a l l y he r e c o g n i z e s i t f o r the m i s l e a d -i n g advice i t I s and makes h i s grand gesture of s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n . Xn doing so he r e g a i n s the s e l f - r e s p e c t which he had destroyed by h i s p r i d e years before, and so goes i n t o b a t t l e w i t h Mrs. Prou d i e with the st r o n g e s t armour t h a t T r o l l o p e can give him. In c o n t r a s t , Mrs. Proudie meets him w i t h no such s e l f -knowledge and has t h e ' r e c o g n i t i o n of the nature of her r i g h t e o u s -ness f o r c e d upon her by d e f e a t . From that moment she i s a bro-ken and repentant woman, and s i n c e she has throughout, been p o r t r a y e d as a fundamentally good person and s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n we accept the sudden c o l l a p s e . I n the novel she d i e s of a 293. heart a t t a c k , though many people have maintained i n 'the l i g h t 2 9 3 c f . Walpole, op. c i t : , p . 66. - 86 -of T r o l l o p e ' s own anecdote t h a t he murdered her i n c o l d b l o o d . Elsewhere i n the Autobiography, however, he says t h a t Mrs. Proudie d i e d o f repentance, a repentance too sudden and too l a t e , that r e s u l t e d not from s e l f - s e a r c h i n g but from exposure.. On the b a s i s o f the B a r s e t s h i r e novels some s o r t of a case might be made out to prove t h a t T r o l l o p e confused wealth w i t h h i s g o a l of s e l f r e s p e c t , f o r I t I s q u i t e t r u e t h a t i n B a r s e t s h i r e " a l l have won and a l l s h a l l have p r i z e s . " A f t e r they have chosen the honourable course I n each case Mr. Harding, Doctor Thorne, Mark Robarts and Mr; Crawley a l l e v e n t u a l l y spend the r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s i n easy circumstances. Mr. Harding and Mr. Crawley g a i n good l i v i n g s , while Doctor Thorne m a r r i e s the fabulous h e i r e s s , Miss Dunstable. Mark Robart's b e n e f i t s are simply the payment of h i s debts, and, as we have n o t i c e d before, t h i s r e s u l t s from the p e c u l i a r l y k i n d l y and unworldly a t t i t u d e of t r u e B a r s e t . T r o l l o p e would probably make t h i s h i s defense a g a i n s t the suggested charge, f o r i n the o l d e r g e n t l e r world o f Bars e t I t i s a case o f : Be u p r i g h t , and a l l good t h i n g s s h a l l come t o you. We have o n l y t o cross the border to A l l i n g t o n to f i n d a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t world which c o n t a i n s two of the most puzz-l i n g of the T r o l l o p e c h a r a c t e r s , L i l y Dale and John Earaes. Here we have two young people who a c t with p r i n c i p l e and courage, and are rewarded w i t h disappointment and f r u s t r a t i o n . Both have a background of Barset s o c i e t y , and both are v i c t i m i z e d by a l e s s honourable world. John Eames T r o l l o p e d e s c r i b e s as a "hobble-dehoy", endowing him w i t h an o r i g i n and background s i m i l a r t o h i s own. He even g i v e s him a s i m i l a r c l e r k ' s job i n the c i v i l - 87 -s e r v i c e , and a l t o g e t h e r the resemblance between Johnny Eames and the young Anthony T r o l l o p e i s q u i t e marked. With the. London schemers Amelia Roper and Madelina Desmollnes he has h i s t r o u b l e s , but h i s good sense and courage e x t r i c a t e him from these entanglements. I t i s Adolphus C r o s b i e , w e a k , s e l f i s h and cowardly, who r u i n s John Eames' l i f e by d e s t r o y i n g L i l y D a l e's f a i t h i n h e r s e l f . More l i g h t may be thrown on T r o l l o p e ' s purpose i n t h i s s t o r y by comparing I t with The B e l t o n E s t a t e . I have never seen the connection between these two n o v e l s noted, yet there i s a p l a i n p a r a l l e l between the s t o r i e s o f L i l y D a l e , John Eames, and Adolphus Crosbie, and C l a r a Amedroz, W i l l B e l t o n , and C a p t a i n Aylmer. I f John Eames i s t h e young Anthony, W i l l B e l t o n I s Anthony self-aware and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t . Where Eames f a i l s , B e l t o n i s s u c c e s s f u l , and, l i k e h i s B a r s e t s h i r e counter-p a r t s , ends up with both h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t and h i s reward. S u r e l y the d i f f e r e n c e may be t r a c e d to t h e f a c t t h a t i n The Small House at A l l i n g t o n the new order of a s e l f i s h and corrupt a r i s t o c r a c y and upper middle c l a s s has overcome the true Barset gentry, whi^fe. IDhe B e l t o n E s t a t e p l a y s i t s e l f out i n the he a r t o f some county where t h e o l d e r standards s t i l l p r e v a i l . In the l a t e r n o v e l s the d i f f i c u l t i e s of m a i n t a i n i n g one's i n t e g r i t y become more and more complicated by the wider o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d f o r mistakes and mishaps i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y l i f e and the p o l i t e s o c i e t y of London. By 1876, when he wrote the Autobiography T r o l l o p e had l e a r n e d to d e s c r i b e the world he d e a l t with i n terms q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from h i s p i c t u r e o f the decent and u n s e l f i s h s o c i e t y off B a r s e t s h i r e . Having- moved once - 88 -and f o r a l l from t h i s s o c i e t y Into t h a t of the present r e a l i t y he turned h i s a t t e n t i o n from men and women whose sense of duty to what they know t o be r i g h t triumphs over d i f f i c u l t i e s ; to those who f a i l , yet repent; and f i n a l l y to those who, p l a c i n g no v a l u e whatsoever on t h e i r own I n t e g r i t y are d r i v e n e n t i r e l y by p r i d e and amb i t i o n : I n these times, when the d e s i r e to be honest Is pressed so hard, i s so v i o l e n t l y a s s a u l t e d by the ambition to be gre a t , i n which r i c h e s are the e a s i e s t road t o greatness; when the temptations to which men a r e s u b j e c t e d d u l l t h e i r eyes to the p e r f e c t e d I n i q u i t i e s ? of ot h e r s ; when i t Is so hard f o r a man to decide v i g o r o u s l y t h a t the p i t c h , which so many are h a n d l i n g , w i l l d e f i l e him i f i t be touched;- men's Conduct w i l l be actu a t e d much by what I s from day to day d e p i c t e d to them as l e a d i n g t o g l o r i o u s or I n g l o r i o u s r e s u l t s . 2 9 4 T h i s i s T r o l l o p e ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s purpose I n the non-Barset n o v e l s , and i t i s one which he achieved i n book a f t e r book. . F i r s t among- the c h a r a c t e r s he draws i n t h i s endeavour are J u l i a Brebazon, l a t e r Lady Ongar, and Lady Laura S t a n d i s h . They may be taken as t y p i c a l of those who make one mistake, and then having r e c o g n i z e d t t , r e p e n t i t f o r the r e s t of t h e i r l i v e s . For both of these women "the ambition to be g r e a t " i s too s t r o n g , causing them to all o w p r i d e or f a l s e r e a s o n i n g to t u r n them from t h e i r l e s s e x a l t e d but honest l o v e r s , Hugh C l a v e r l n g and Phineas F i n n , to men whose wealth i s t h e i r s o l e a s s e t . J u l i a Brahazon has both t oo much w o r l d l y p r i d e to marry a young schoolmaster, and complete confidence i n her a b i l i t y to handle any man, even the d i f f i c u l t L o r d Ongar, Lady Laura's motives are not so simple, and w i t h her the s i t u a t i o n i s f a r more complex;. While J u l i a B r a -kazon has beggared h e r s l f by extravagance, Lady Laura has T r o l l o p e , Auto., p 200 - 89 -s a c r i f i c e d her f o r t u n e to pay her b r o t h e r ' s debts. Her great f a u l t i s not s e l f i s h n e s s , but a s e l f - d e c e i v i n g p r i d e which she r a t i o n a l i z e s as w o r l d l y common sense and" reasonableness. L i k e J u l i a she has complete confidence i n her a b i l i t y t o do her duty i n the sphere which she has chosen, but both women have a l l o w e d p r i d e t o b l i n d them t o t h e duty they owe them-s e l v e s , the sense t h a t would prevent them from degrading them-s e l v e s to the l e v e l of merchandise.> and shoddy at t h a t . T r o l -lope p i t i e s them* however, as people who have d e c e i v e d themselves r a t h e r than d e l i b e r a t e l y designed to deceive o t h e r s . The l i v e s they b r i n g upon themselves I n s p i r e p i t y , and i t i s a p i t y i n t e n -s i f i e d by the i r o n y o f t h e i r f a t e s . The J u l i a who c o n s i d e r e d h e r p o s i t i o n I n the eyes o f the world, t o be more Important than her I n t e g r i t y as a human, being, ends w i t h a d o u b t f u l name, the v i c t i m of the cheapest i n t r i g u e r s . Once so sure of her I n f l u e n c e over men, she l o s e s Hugh C l a v e r i n g and s i n k s to a p o i n t where even the wretched A r c h i e can be persuaded t h a t she would con-s i d e r h i s p r o p o s a l . Lady Laura's f a t e has a s i m i l a r i r o n i c t w i s t : the woman who p l a c e d a l l her t r u s t i n her good sense and s t r o n g I n t e l l i g e n c e f i n a l l y l o s e s her mind i n the h o r r o r of the s i t u a t i o n she has brought upon h e r s e l f . The r e j e c t e d Phineas F i n n and Hugh C l a v e r i n g were c h i e f among, the T r o l l o p e heroes whom contemporary r e v i e w e r s s l a t e d as being v a c i l l a t i n g ; . That they seem t o l a c k the con-v i c t i o n o f the e a r l i e r Far.set heroes r e s u l t s simply from the f a r more d i f f i c u l t world they s t r u g g l e I n . N e i t h e r i s In the l e a s t h e r o i c , and both a r e romantic and Impressionable, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e y f a l l p r e y to the g u i l e of men and women - 90 -w h o w o r k o n t h e i r i m p u l s i v e n e s s f o r t h e i r o w n p u r p o s e s . T e t b o t h P h i n e a s a n d H u g h h a v e t h a t s e n s e o f t h e s u p r e m e i m p o r t -a n c e o f i n t e g r i t y w h i c h p r e v e n t s t h e m f r o m t a k i n g t h e s t e p t h a t w o u l d l e a d I n e v i t a b l y t o s e l f - d i s g r a c e . P h i n e a s w i l l n o t v o t e a g a i n s t ; h i s c o n v i c t i o n s ; H u g h w i l l , n o t g o b a c k o n h i s w o r d t o F l o r e n c e B u r t o n . T h e t e m p t a t i o n s i n e a c h c a s e a r e g r e a t . F o r P h i n e a s a l i t t l e m o r e c o m p l i a n c e w o u l d m e a n f u r -t h e r s u c c e s s i n h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r r a t h e r t h a n a l a m e w i t h -d r a w a l t o I r e l a n d ; w h i l e t o H u g h I s o f f e r e d a b e a u t i f u l w i f e , w i t h a n I n c o m e o f E7,Q00 a y e a r . U n l i k e t h e u n f o r t u n a t e J u l i a a n d L a d y L a u r a t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e s e g o o d s a s o f l e s s u l t i m a t e v a l u e t h a n t h e i r o w n s e l f - r e s p e c t . B r i d g i n g t h e g a p b e t w e e n t h e s e n o v e l s a n d t h e s a v a g e T h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r a n d T h e l a y W e L i v e N o w i s t h a t e x o t i c a m o n g t h e T r o l l o p e w o r k s . T h e E u s t a c e D i a m o n d s . T o a n y o n e r e a d i n g T r o l l o p e f o r a n a l y s e s o f m e n a n d w o m e n w r e s t l i n g , w i t h e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s L i z z i e E u s t a c e a t f i r s t s e e m s a n a n o m a l y , t h o u g h , p e r h a p s s o m e d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n o f t h e S i g n o r a N e r o n i . L i z z i e n e v e r f a c e d a n e t h i c a l p r o b l e m I n h e r l i f e , y e t T r o l l o p e h a d a l a r g e r p u r p o s e t h a n s h e e r a m u s e m e n t I n h i s c a r e f u l d r a w -i n g o f t h i s d i v e r t i n g f i g u r e . T h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l I d e a l s o f h i s a g e w h i c h w e s a w b e g i n n i n g i n F r a m l e y P a r s o n a g e a n d c o n s t a n t l y I m p l i e d I n t h e t h r e e b o o k s w e h a v e j u s t e x a m i n e d , i n T h e E u s t a c e D i a m o n d s b e c o m e s t h e t h e m e o f t h e n o v e l . H e r e i n t e g r i t y o f c h a r a c t e r h a s b e e n a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y s w a m p e d a n d s e l f - s e e k i n g r i d e s h i g h . A g r o u p o f w o r l d l y a n d s e l f i s h p e o p l e a r e t h e m s e l v e s v i c t i m i z e d , b y t h e p e r f e c t p r o d u c t o f t h e s o c i e t y t h e y h a v e c r e a t e d , L i z z i e E u s t a c e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t e x c e p t f o r the S i g n o r a N e r o n i and G r l s e l d a G r a n t l y , n e i t h e r o f whom was e v e r i n t e n d e d to be human,Lizzie i s the o n l y T r o l l o p e woman whose; appearance I s c o n s t a n t l y emphasized. She i s a remarkably p r e t t y woman, but T r o l l o p e manages to convey the i m p r e s s i o n that her beauty was j u s t a l i t t l e f l a s h y . T h i s showiness Is a l l of a p i e c e with the whole s o c i e t y i n which she moves, a world where appearance is- e v e r y t h i n g . The im-portance that L i z z i e h e r s e l f a t t a c h e s to externals causes her d o w n f a l l . The reason t h a t she I s determined to have the d i a -monds i s t h a t to her t h e y are the v i s i b l e s i gh/ and p r o o f o f the wealth and. p o s i t i o n she has a c q u i r e d by her marriage. To L i z z i e e v e r y t h i n g , from a memorized passage from Queen Mab to her l i t t l e son, i s Important o n l y as a means o f g i v i n g her the appearance of being something: she I s n ' t . These a r e t h e weapons w i t h which she d e f e a t s a l l who d e a l as she does I n ex-t e r n a l s , from the pompous L o r d Fawn to the ambitious Frank Greystock. E v e n t u a l l y , however,, i n the face of the s o l i d and honest p e r s i s t e n c e of t h e lawyer Camperdown,. her s t u p i d game to keep, the diamonds f a l l s , and when she l o s e s them she l o s e s a l l the other t r a p p i n g s she has gained. She keeps the s o l i d b e n e f i t s of her marriage, her E.4.00 a year, but i n her own. eyes the g l i t t e r has gone f r o m her l i f e , and she and her Income f a l l v i c t i m t o someone j u s t as unscrupulous as she but f a r more r e a l -i s t i c , the Reverend Mr. E m i l y s . Mr. Emil|u\j)s, l i k e L i z z i e , belongs to comedy; but be-cause he knows e x a c t l y what he wants and and w i l l do anything OJ to get I t , h e r s e r v e s a s ^ r e h e a r s a l f o r F e r d i n a n d Lopez of The  Prime M i n i s t e r and Melmotte of The Way We Liffe Now. The Prime - 92 -M i n i s t e r p r e s e n t s a mixture o f two worlds, i n which an un-scrupulous adventurer invades a decent household where i n t e g r i t y and a f f e c t i o n are the c h i e f goods. Th«$ I n t e g r i t y and a f f e c t i o n he uses f o r his, own ends and by h i s u n b r i d l e d a m b i t i o n k i l l s h i s wife and d e s t r o y s h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' s happiness. Lopez has not even a h i n t o f grandeur to condone h i s machinations; a l l h i s schemes a r e on a m i s e r a b l y s m a l l s c a l e , and In h i s s y s -tematic r o b b i n g of h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w he descends to h a g g l i n g over even the s m a l l e s t b i l l s . He i s a l l sham., and when h i s schemes are f i n a l l y tumbling about him. i t i s t h a t m i s t r e s s o f sham L i z z i e Eustace who g i v e s him the coup de g r a c e . In r e s -ponse, to h i s f l o r i d appeal to f l y w i t h him"to some romantic clime with her £400 a year L i z z i e d i s m i s s e s him w i t h a bored "Mr. Lopez, don't be such a f o o l . " F o o l he c e r t a i n l y was, but a v e r y dangerous one. The Prime M i n i s t e r has been c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds that i t i s simply two n o v e l s s t r u n g t o g e t h e r on the f l i m s i e s t c o n n e c t i o n . T h i s i s not r e a l l y j u s t , f o r the havoc that the miserable Lopez causes even i n the P a l l i s e r house h o l d i s a symptom of the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t the way off l i f e he r e p r e s e n t s can have on even the most high-minded and u p r i g h t . I n t e g r i t y , i n the person of Plantagenet P a l l i s e r , h o lds out a g a i n s t the new order r e p r e s e n t e d by Lopez In Ufae  Prime M i n i s t e r , but with The Way We L i v e Now a l l r e l i c s o f the decency and honour which were the norm i n B a r s e t s h i r e have d i s -29(5 appeared. As M i c h a e l S a d l e i r has observed, t h i s i s the n o v e l S a d l e i r , op. c i t . , p, 396. - 95 -i n which T r o l l o p e seems r e a l l y to d e s p a i r of humanity. Mel-mot te i s the f i n a l e x p r e s s i o n of the new i d e a l s , the I n c a r n a -t i o n of a h e a r t l e s s and unscrupulous ambition t h a t by i t s v e r y nature i s s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . In t h i s book T r o l l o p e has reached the p o s i t i o n t h a t once men have no sense o f duty to t h e i r own i n t e g r i t y or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to anyone e l s e , they d e s t r o y b o t h o t h e r s and. themselves. These novels ^ then,are a f a i r sampling o f the major works of a w r i t e r whom we have not too w i l l i n g l y granted a niche among t h e l a s t i n g E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t s as an u n u s u a l l y s k i l l -f u l d e p i c t e r of m i d - V i c t o r i a n men and manners, complacently r e a l i s t i c and aiming s o l e l y at amusement. But even t h i s b r i e f examination of h i s most f a m i l i a r books shows T r o l l o p e to be I n s t e a d a g r e a t n o v e l i s t , whose major concern i s one of u n i v e r -s a l importance and e t h i c a l i n t e r e s t : the problem of how to l i v e i n such a way as t o m a i n t a i n one's i n t e g r i t y . Because the s t r u g g l e he d e p i c t s was one which he h i m s e l f had experienced i n a world that was not made easy f o r him, h i s t e a c h i n g has the b r e a t h of l i f e t h a t comes o n l y from the understanding gained by e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s estimate of T r o l l o p e ' s value the B a r s e t -s h i r e C h r o n i c l e s must take second p l a c e i n h i s achievement, f o r i n t h i s world the s t r u g g l e s a r e seldom v e r y complex and never u n s u c c e s s f u l . I t i s the l a t e r novels, t h a t the f u l l , f o r c e of T r o l l o p e ' s own courageous b e l i e f i n the supreme value f o r s o c i e t y of p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y and u n s e l f i s h n e s s f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n ; and I t i s t h i s s t r e n g t h of c o n v i c t i o n , combined w i t h the u r b a n i t y and s k i l l as a s t o r y - t e l l e r Yrtilch have never been denied him, t h a t - 94 -e n t i t l e s T r o l l o p e to be l i f t e d once and f o r a l l from the ranks of t h e second-rate to j o i n the company of t h e great E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t s . I BIBLIOGRAPHY I. The works o f T r o l l o p e . *The Macdermotts o f Ballycftinran. London, Newby, 1847. *The K e l l y s and the 0 'Kellyg; o r Landlords and Tenants, 3 v o l s , London, Colburn, 1848. La Vendee: An H i s t o r i c a l Romance', 3 v o l s , London, Colburn, 1850. *The Warden, I v o l , London, Longman, 1855. *Barchester Towers, 3 v o l s , London, Longman, 1857. *The Three C l e r k s ; ,A Novel, 3 v o l s , London,Bentley, 1858. *Doctor Thorne: A NQvel, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1858. The Bertrams: A Novel,3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1859-*The West Indies and the Spanish Main, I v o l , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1859. • C a s t l e Richmond: A Novel, 3 v o l s , London,Chapman and H a l l , I860. *Qrley Farm, 2 v-di&s, London, Chapman and H a l l , 1861. *Framley Parsonage, 3 v o l s , London, Smith, E l d e r , 1861. *T a l e s o f A l l C o u n t r i e s , I v o l , London Chapman and H a l l , 1861. North America, 2 v o l s , London,Chapman and H a l l , 1862. Tales o f A l l C o u n t r i e s : Second S e r i e s , I v o l , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1863. *Rachel Ray: A Novel, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1863-*The Small House at A l l i n g t o n , 2 V o l s , London, Smith, E l d e r , 1864. *Can You Forgive Her?, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1864 • I I *Miss Mackenzie, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1865. Hunting Sketches, I v o l , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1865. *The Belton E s t a t e , 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1866. T r a v e l l i n g Sketches, I v o l , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1866. Clergymen o f the Church of England ? I v o l , London, Chap-man and H a l l , 1866. *Nina B a l a t k a , 2 v o l s , Edinburgh and London, Blackwood, 1867 *The C l a v e r i n g s , 2 v o l s , London, Smith, E l d e r , 1867. *The Last C h r o n i c l e o f Barset, 2.vols, London, Smith, E l d e r , 1867. L o t t a Schmidt: and Other ..Stories, I v o l , London, Strahan, 1867. *Linda T r e s s e l , 2 v o l s , Edinburgh and London, Blackwood, 1868. *Phineas Finn, the I r i s h Member, 2 v o l s , London, V i r t u e , 1869. *He Knew He Was Right, 2 v o l s , London, Strahan, 1869-*The V i c a r o f Bulliiampton, I v o l . London, Bradbury Evans, 1870. An E d i t o r ' s T a l e s , I v o l , London, Strahan, 1870. The Struggles o f Brown, Jones and Robinson: By one o f the Firm, I v o l , London, Smith, E l d e r , 1870. The Commentaries of Caesar, I v o l , Edinburgh and London , Blackwood, 1870. * S i r Harry Hotspur o f Humblethwaite, I v o l , London, Hurst and B l a c k e t t , 1871. *Ralph the Heir, 3 v o l s , London, Hurst and B l a c k e t t , I87I. *The Golden Lion o f Granpere, I v o l , London, T i n s l e y , 1872. *The Eustace Diamonds, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1873. A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1873-I l l *Phineas Redux, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1874. *Lady Anna, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1874. S^EEE Heathcote o f GangAil: A Tale o f A u s t r a l i a n Bush L i f e , I v o l , London, Sampson, Low, 1874. ISY. If. l i v e Now, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1875. *The Prime M i n i s t e r , 4 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1876 *The American Senator, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1877. South A f r i c a , 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1878. * I s He Pop en .joy ?, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1878. An Eye 'for an Eye, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1879. Thackeray, I v o l , London, Mac'millan, 1879. *Jo_hn C a l d i g a t e , 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1879. *Cousin Henry, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1879-*The Duke's C h i l d r e n : A Novel, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1880. The L i f e o f C i c e r o , 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1880. Dr. Wortle's School, 2 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1881. * Aval a 's Angel, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1881. Why Frau FRohmann Raised her P r i c e s : And Other S t o r i e s , I v o l , London, I s b i s t e r , 1882. Lord Palmerston, I v o l , London, I s b i s t e r , 1882. Kep_t i n the Dark, 2 v o l s , London, Chatto and Windus,1882. Marion Fay, 3 v o l s , London, Chapman and H a l l , 1882. The Fixed P e r i o d , 2 v o l s , Edinburgh and London, Black-wood, 1882. *Mr. Scarborough's Family, 3 v o l s , London, Chatto and Windus, 1883-IV *An Autobiography, 2 v o l s , Edinburgh and London, Blackwood, 1883-The Landleaguers, 3 v o l s , London, Chatto and f i n d u s , 1883. *An Old Man 's Love, 2 v o l s , Edinburgh and London,. Blackwood, 1884. * Presently- a v a i l a b l e i n the Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press's " World's C l a s s i c s " s e r i e s . I I . General. Baker, Ernest A., The H i s t o r y o f the E n g l i s h Novel, 10 v o l s , London, H. F. and G. Wetherby, L t d . , 1937. Batho, E d i t h , and Dobree, Bonamy, The Vi c t o r i a n s , and A f t e r , L33_0-I9I4, London, the Cresset Press, 1938. Bowen, E l i z a b e t h , Anthony T r o l l o p e : A New Judgement, Oxford, Cjxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1946. Bowen, E l i z a b e t h , " E n g l i s h N o v e l i s t s ", i n Impressions o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , ed., W. J . Turner, London, C o l l i n s , 1944. Bryce, James, Studies i n Contemporary Biography, New York, The Macmillan Company, I 9 I I . Cazamian, M. L., Le Roman et Les Idees en Anglet e r r e , 2 v o l s , Oxford, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1923. C e c i l , Lord David, E a r l y V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s , New York, B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1935-Chesterton, G. K., A i l i s G r i s t , London, Methuen and Co., Lt d . , 1931. Cheva l l y , Abel, The Modern E n g l i s h N6vel, New York, A l f r e d Pinopf, 1930. C o l l i n s , Norman, The Facts o f F i c t i o n , London, V i c t o r G o l l -ancz, 1932. C o l v i n , G. S., ed., The L e t t e r s o f Robert Louis Stevenson, London, Chatto and Windus, 1912. Cross, J . W., George E l i o t 's L i f e as Related i n her L e t t e r s §5.d J o u r n a l s , Edinburgh, Blackwood, >8*«r. Cross, Wilbur L., The Development of the E n g l i s h Novel, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1899. V Cruse, Amy, ^ he Victorians and t h e i r Reading, Boston, Hough-ton M i f f l i n , 1935. Cunliffe, John, The Leaders of the Victorian Revolution, New York, D. App'leton Century, 1934. Devonshire, M. G., The English Novel i n France, 1830-1870, London, The University of London Press, 1929. Elton, Oliver, A Survey, of English Literature, 1830-1880, 2 vols, London, Edward Arnold and Company, 1932. Elwin, Malcolm, Charles Reade, London, Jonathon Cape* 1934. Flower, Newman F. , ed. , The Journals, of Arnold Bennett, .19II-192I, London, Cassell and Company, 1931. Ford, Ford Madox, The English Novel, London, J. B. Lippin-cott Company, 1929. Forster, E. M., Aspects of the Novel, New York, Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1927-Furniss, Harry, Some Victorian. Men, London, John Lane, 1924. Gerould, Gordon H a l l , The Patteras of English and American  F i c t i o n , Boston, L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1942. Harrison, Frederic, Studies i n Early Victorian Literature, 2 ed., London, Edward Arnold, 1905-Kenyon, F. G., ed., The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Brown-New York, The Macmillan Company, 1910. Lang, Andrew, A History^ of English Literature from " Beowulf " to Swinburne, London, Longmans Green and Co., 1912. Leavis, Q-. • D. , F i c t i o n and the Reading Public,London, Chatto and Win dus, 1932. ~ Lovett, Robert M., and Hughes, Helen S., The History of the  Novel in England, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1932. Lubbock, Percy, The Craft of F i c t i o n , London, Jonathon Cape, 1921. McCarthy, Ju s t i n , A History of Our Own Times, 4 vols, London, Chatto and Windus, 1880. McCarthy, Ju s t i n , Reminiscences, 2 vols, London, Chatto and Windus-, 1899. Maitland, F. W., The L i f e and Letters of Lesli e Stephen, London, Duckworth and Co., 1906. M e l v i l l e , Lewis, ( pseud. L. S. Benjamin ), Victorian Novelists, London, Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1906. VI Moore, George, Co n f e s s i o n s _ q f a Young Man, London, W i l l i a m Heineman L t d . , 1928. "~ More, Paul Elmer, The Demon o f the Absolute, P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e -ton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1928. Newton, A. E., The Amenities o f Book C o l l e c t i n g , Boston, The A t l a n t i c Monthly Press, 1924. Newton, A. E., End Papers, Boston, L i t g l e , Brown, and Company, 1933- ' Paul, Herbert, A H i s t o r y o f Modern England,5 v o l s , London, fflacmillan and Co., L t d . , 1904. Pavey, L. A., " Anthony T r o l l o p e " i n The E n g l i s h N o v e l i s t s , , ed., Derek Verschoyle, London, Chatto and Windus, 1936. Perry, B l i s s , A Study o f Prose F i c t i o n , Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1902. Phelps, W i l l i a m Lyon, The Advance o f the E n g l i s h Novel,New York, Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1927. P o l l o c k , S i r F r e d e r i c , Personal Remembrances^ 2 v o l s , London, Macmillan and Company, 1887. Q u i l l e r - C o u c h , S i r Arthur, Charles Dickens and Other V i c t o r - ians , Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1927. Raleigh, Lady, ed., The L e t t e r s o f Sit Walter R a l e i g h , 1879-1922, 2 v o l s , London, Methuen and Co., L t d . , 2 ed., 1928. Reid, T. Wemyss, ed., The l i f e , L e t t e r s , and F r i e n d s h i p s - o f Richard Monckton Milnes, F i r s t , Lord H 0ughton, 2 v o l s , 2 ed, London, C a s s e l l and Company, L t d . , 1890. R u s s e l l , George W. C., ed., The L e t t e r s o f Matthew Arnold, I848-1888, 2 v o l s , London, Macmillan and. Co., 1895. Sadle^r, Michael, T r o l l o p e : A Commentary, London, Jonathan Saintsbury, George, A History_ of Nineteenth Century L i t e r a t u r e 1780-1900, London, Macmillan and Company, L t d . , 1929-Speare, M o r r i s Edmund, The P o l i t i c a l Novel, New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1924. Stebbins, Lucy Poate, arid Stebbins, Richard Poate, The Trollopes:, The Qh.ronicle of , a Writing. Family, New yYork, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1945. Stephen, S i r L e s l i e , Studies o f a Biographer, 2 s e r i e s , 4 v o l s , London, Duckworth and Co., 1902. VII Swinnerton, Frank, A London Bookman, London, Martin Seeker, 1928. Wagenknecht, Edward, Cavalcade o f the E n g l i s h Novel, New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1943. Walker, Hugh, The L i t e r a t u r e o f the V i c t o r i a n Era, Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1910. Walpole, Hugh, Anthony T r o l l o p e , , London, Macmillan and Co., Lt d . , 1928. Walpole, Hugh, The E n g l i s h Novel, The Rede Lecture, 1925, Cam-bridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1925. Weygandt, C o r n e l i u s , A Century o f the E n g l i s h Novel, D. Apple-ton Century Company, Inc., New York, 1925. W i n g f i e l d - S t r a t f o r d , Esme, The V i c t o r i a n Aftermath, London, Routledge, 1933-Wise, Thomas J . , ed., L e t t e r s o f Robert Browning, New Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1933. Wotton, Mabel E., ed., Word P o r t r a i t s o f Famous Writ e r s , Lon-don, Richard Bentley and Son, 1887. Wright, William A l d i s , ed., L e t t e r s o f Edward F i t z g e r a l d , 2 v o l s , London, Macmillan and Company, 1901. Wright, W i l l i a m A l d i s , ed., L e t t e r s o f Edward F i t z g e r a l d to Fanny; Kemble, I87I-I885, London, Richard B entley and Son, 1895. Young, G . M., ed., E a r l y V i c t o r i a n England, 1850-1865, 2 v o l s , Oxford, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1934. 1 Young, W. T., " Lesser N o v e l i s t s ", i n The Cambridge H i s t o r y ?JL E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , v o l XIII, New York, G . P. Putnam's Sons, 1928. Woolf, V i r g i n i a , The Common Reader, London, The Hogarth Pr e s s , 1935. I I I . P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s . A l l e n , Hope E., " The Text o f T r o l l o p e ", Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, A p r i l 4, 1942, |.180. B e l l o c , H i l a i r e , " Anthony T r o l l o p e ", London Mercury, v o l . n, 1932 - 3 3 , PP- 150-57. Bettany, F. M., " In P r a i s e o f Anthony T r o l l o p e ' s Novels ", l°l£n±£htl£ Seviewj. vol77, N. S. , 1905, pp. I000-I0II. V I I I B o o t h , B r a d f o r d A l l e n , e d . , " P r e f a c e " , T h e T r o l l o p i a n , S p r i n g I 9 4 5 < -B o o t h , B r a d f o r d A l l e n , " E d i t o r i a l N o t e " , T h e T r o l l o p i a n , M a r c h , 1 9 4 6 . B o x , H. O l d f i e l d , 1 1 The D e c l i n e a n d R i s e o f A n t h o n y T r o l l o p e 1 1 , L i s t e n e r , D e c e m b e r 2 8 , 1 9 4 4 , . p p . 7 1 8 - 7 1 9 . B r a d f o r d , G a m a l i e l J r . , " A n t h o n y T r o l l o p e " , A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , v o l 8 9 , 1 9 0 2 , p p . 4 2 6 - 4 3 2 . B u s h , D o u g l a s , " T h e V i c t o r i a n s , God B l e s s Them " , B o o k m a n , v o l 7 4 , I 9 3 I - I 9 3 2 , p p . 5 8 9 - 5 9 7 . C e c i l , L o r d D a v i d , " V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s " , N a t i o n a l R e v i e w , v o l 9 9 , p p . 6 5 2 - 6 6 4 . C h a p m a n , R. W . , " The T e x t o f T r o l l o p e " , T i m e s L i t e r a r y S u p p -l e m e n t , J a n . 2 5 , 1 9 4 1 , p . 4 8 ; M a r c h 2 2 , 1 9 4 1 , P . 1 4 4 ; F e b . 8 , 1 9 4 1 , p . 7 2 ; M a r c h I , 1 9 4 1 , p . 1 0 8 . C h a p m a n , R. W . , " T r o l l o p e ' s A m e r i c a n S e n a t o r " , T i m e s L i t e r -S u p p l e m e n t , J u n e 2 1 , 1 9 4 1 , p . 3 0 4 ; J u l y 1 2 , p . 3 3 5 . C h a p m a n , R. W., " T h e T e x t o f T r o l l o p e ' s A y a l a ' s A n g e l " , M o d e r n P h i l o l o g y , v o l 39, 1 9 4 2 , p p . 2 8 7 - 2 9 4 . C h a p m a n , R. W. " The T e x t o f T r o l l o p e ' s S i r H a r r y H o t s p u r " , N o t e s a n d Q u e r i e s , , J a n . I , 1 9 4 4 , p p . 2 - 3 . C h a p m a n , R. W . , " T r o l l o p i a n C r i t i c i s m " , T i m e s L i t e r a r y S u p -p l e m e n t , J u l y 5 , 1 9 4 1 , p . 3 2 3 ; J u l y 2 6 , 1 9 4 1 , p . 3 5 9 . C h a p m a n , R. W . , e t . a l , " The T e x t o f P h i n e a s F i n n " , T i m e s L i t e r a r y S u p p l e m e n t , M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 4 4 , p . 1 5 6 ; A p r i l 1 5 , p . 1 9 2 . Chapman R. W., " The T e x t o f T r o l l o p e ' s A u t o b i o g r a p h y R e -v i e w o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , v o l 1 7 , p p . 9 0 - 9 4 . C h a p m a n , R. W . , " The T e x t o f T r o l l o p e ' s N o v e l s " , R e v i e w o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , v o l 17, p p . 1 8 4 - 1 9 2 . C h a p m a n , R. ff., " T h e T e x t o f P h i n e a s R e d u x " , R e v i e w o f E n g -l i s h S t u d i e s , v o l 1 7 , p p . 3 2 2 - 3^1. C o o p e r , H., " T r o l l o p e a n d H e n r y J a m e s " , M o d e r n L a n g u a g e N o t e s , v o l 5 8 , 1 9 4 3 , P- 558. • E d w a r d s , R a l p h , " T r o l l o p e o n C h u r c h A f f a i r s T i m e s L i t e r -a r y S u p p l e m e n t , O c t . 2 1 , 1 9 4 4 , p , # 1 6 . E l l i s , S . M., " T r o l l o p e a n d M i d - V i c t o r i a n i s m " , F o r t n i g h t l y  R e v i e w , v o l 1 2 2 , 1 9 2 7 , p p . 4 2 2 - 4 2 5 . " E n g l i s h C h a r a c t e r a n d M a n n e r s a s P o r t r a y e d b y A n t h o n y T r o l -l o p e " , W e s t m i n s t e r R e v i e w , J a n . 1 8 8 5 , p p . 5 3 - 1 0 0 . T V E s c o t t , T. H. S., " Anthony T r o l l o p e : An Ap p r e c i a t i o n and Rem-i n i s c e n c e 11, F o r t n i g h t l y Review, v o l 80, N. S. , 1906, pp. I095-II04. " T. H. S. E s c o t t ' s Anthony T r o l l o p e ", reviewed: Athenaeum, Oct. 4, 1913, pp. 337-338; Nation, Sept. 20, 1913, pp , 9 I 8 -920. M Everybody's Books: Popular Tastes and C l e v e r E n t e r p r i s e s , 1837-1937 ", Times L i t e r a r y Supplement,May I, 1937, pp. 328-329. F., M., " The Re-Coming o f Anthony T r o l l o p e ", D i a l , v o l 34, " 1903, pp. I4I-I42. Freud e n r i c h , C. J.', " V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s : T h e i r Sales ", Notes and O^ueries^ May 4, 1946, p. 193-F u l l e r , Edward, " Real Forces i n L i t e r a t u r e A t l a n t i c Monthly, 1903, v o l $1, pp. 270-274. Greenberg, Clement, " A V i c t o r i a n Novel ", P a r t i s a n Review, Sum-mer, 1944, pp. 234-238. Gwynn, Stephen, " The E n g l i s h Novel i n the Nineteenth Century ", Edinburgh Review, Oct., 1902, pp. 487-506. Hamilton, Lord E r n e s t , " The Midv i c s ", C o r n h i l l , v o l 75, pp. 257-270. Harter, Eugene W., " The Future o f T r o l l o p e ", Bookman, v o l 2, 1905, pp. I37-I4I. House, Humphrey, " Michael S a d l e i r ' s T r o l l o p e ", New Statesman and Nation, Sept. 29, 1945, pp.215-216. Huling, E l i z a b e t h , " Mr. T r o l l o p e ' s New Wine ", New Republic, A p r i l , 16, 1945, p.533-Huxley, Leonard, " Anthony T r o l l o p e and the C o r n h i l l ", C o r n h i l l , v o l 73, 1932, pp. 758-766. James, Henry, " Anthony T r o l l o p e ", Century Magazine, J u l y , 1883, pp. 385-395. K e l l e t t , B. E:., " Mudie's ", Spectator, J u l y 16, 1937; pp. 100-101; J u l y 23, 1937, p. 149. La Farge, C h r i s t o p h e r , " I Know he was Right ", Saturday Re-view o f L i t e r a t u r e , Jan. 27, 1940, pp. 12-14. Lord, W. Frewen, " The Novels o f Anthony T r o l l o p e ", Nineteenth Century, v o l 49, 1901, pp. 805-814. Macarthy, Desmond, " T r o l l o p e on the Stage New Statesman, v o l 27, 1944, P 252. M. , F. , " Is He Popen.joy? ", Kenvon Review, v o l 7, 1945, PP-723-724. X " Menander's M i r r o r : Imagining the Future ", Times L i t e r a r y  Supplement, Dec. 9, 1944, p, 591. " Menander's M i r r o r : On P i c k i n g Sides ", Times L i t e r a r y Sup- plement, Oct. 9, 1943, p. 483. Morgan, Charles, " T r o l l o p e Today A t l a n t i c Monthly, May, 1946, pp. .125-127. Munson, Gorham, " Who are our F a v o u r i t e Nineteenth Century Authors? ", College E n g l i s h , v o l 5, pp. 291-296. O b i t u a r i e s o f Anthony T r o l l o p e : Athenaeum, Dec. 9, 1882, pp. 772-773; Blackwood 's, Feb., 1883, 316-320; Good Words, v o l 24, 1882, pp. 142-144;Macmillan's Magazine, Jan.,1883,pp. 236-240; Punch, Dec. 16, 1882, p. 287. Parker, W. M., " Anthony T r o l l o p e and 1 Maga. 1 ", Blackwood's, vol.257, pp. 57-64. P a r t r i d g e , Ralph, " Lucy and Richard Stebbins' The T r o l l o p e s New Statesman and Nation, Oct. 12, 1946, pp. 268-269. Payn, James, " Some L i t e r a r y RecollectiOBS ", C o r n h i l l , v o l ?3, 3, N. S., 1884, pp. 41-58. Peck, Harry Thurston, " Anthony T r o l l o p e Bookman, v o l 13, 1901, pp. II4-I25. P i p e r , lyfanwy, " T r o l l o p e ", New Statesman, Feb. 17, 1940, p. 209. P o l l o c k , W. H., " Anthony T r o l l o p e Harper's, v o l 66, 1883, pp. 907-912. Punch, June 5, 1880- Oct. 16, 1880," 1 The Beadle, or The L a t e s t C h r o n i c l e o f Small Beerchester ' by Anthony Do l l o p ". Randeil, W i l f r e d L., " Anthony T r o l l o p e and h i s Work ", F o r t - n i g h t l y Review, v o l 108, 1920, pp. 459-467. Richardson, Dorothy, " Saintsbury and Art f o r A r t ' s Sake i n England PMLA, 1944, pp. 243-260. S a d l e i r , Michael, " T h e Caldagate Novels ", Times L i t e r a r y Supplement ,Dec. 20, 194I, p. 643-Sampson, A., " T r o l l o p e i n the Twentieth Century ", London Mercury, v o l 35, 1936-1937, pp. 371-377. St r e e t , S. S ., " Anthony T r o l l o p e ", C o r n h i l l , N. S. V o l 10, 1901, pp. 349-355. Tayl o r , Robert H., " L e t t e r s to T r o l l o p e ", The T r o l l o p i a n , Sept., 1946, pp. 5-9. " T r o l l o p e ' s House of Commons ", Times. L i t e r a r y Supplement, March 20, 1937, pp. 193-194. XI " T r o l l o p e ' s Novels ", Edinburgh Review, Oct., 1877, pp. 455-488. Vincent, C. J . , " T r o l l o p e : A V i c t o r i a n Augustan ", Queen 's Qu a r t e r l y , v o l 52, 1945, pp. 415-428. Waugh, Arthur, " T r o l l o p e a f t e r F i f t y Years ", F o r t n i g h t l y Review,vol 132, 1932, pp. 712-724. Whibley, Charles, " T r o l l o p e ' s Autobiography',' E n g l i s h Re-view, 1923, v o l 37, pp. 33-38. Wildman, John H ., " About T r o l l o p e i n a Postwar Mood ", The T r o l l o p i a n , March, 1946, pp. 17-22. Wildman, John H., " Anthony T r o l l o p e Today ", Co l l e g e Eng-l i s h , v o l 7, 1946, pp. 397-399-Woolf, V i r g i n i a , " Phases o f F i c t i o n ", Bookman, 1929, pp. 123-130. IV. Contemporary Reviews of the T r o l l o p e Novels. The Macdgrmotts o f B a l l y c l o r a n : Athenaeum, May 15, 1847, p. 517. Ih§. N e l l y s and the 0 8 K e l l y s : Athenaeum, J u l y 15, 1848, p.701. La Vendee: Athenaeum, J u l y 6, 1850, p. 708. The Warden: Athenaeum, Jan. 27, I8551, p. 107. Bar c h e s t e r Towers:'Athenaeum, May 3 0 , 1857, pp. 689-690; Westminster Review, Oct., 1857, pp. 594-596. Three C l e r k s : N a t i o j i a l Review, Oct., 1858, pp. 427 f f . Doctor Thorne: Athenaeum, June 5 , 1858, p. 719; N a t i o n a l Review, Oct., 1858, pp. 431 f f . The Bertrams: Athenaeum, March 26, 1859, p. 420; N a t i o n a l Review, A p r i l , 1859, p. 565, and J u l y , 1859, pp. 187-199. C a s t l e Richmond: Athenaeum, May 19, I860, p. 681; Westmin-s t e r Review, Oct., I860, pp. 588-589. Orley Farm: Athenaeum, Oct. 4, 1862, p. 704; Dublin Univer-s i t y Magazine, A p r i l , I 8 6 3 , p.437; N a t i o n a l Review, Jan., 1862, pp. 27-40. Framley Parsonage: N a t i o n a l Review, J u l y , I861, p. 240; Westminster Review, J u l y , 1861, pp. 282-284. Rachel Ray: Athenaeum, Oct. 17, 1863, pp. 492 - 4 9 3 ; West-minster Review, January, 1864, pp. 291-293. Small House at A l l i n g t o n ; Athenaeum, March 26, 1864, pp. XII 437-438; N a t i o n a l Review, A p r i l , 1864, P. 582; A t l a n t i c Monthly., August, 1864, pp. 254-256; North American ~Re^~ view, J u l y , 1864,pp. 292-298; Westminster Review, J u l y , 1864, pp. 251-252. " * Can You For g i v e Her?; Athenaeum, Sept. 2, 1865, pp. 305-306; Westminster Review, J u l y , 1865, pp. 284-285. Miss Mackenzie: Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Magazine, May, 1865, p. 576; Westminster Review, J u l y , 1865, pp. 283-284. The_ Belton E s t a t e 1 Athenaeum. Feb. 3 , 1866, p. 166; Nation, Jan. 4, 1866, pp. 21-22. Nina B a l a t k a : Athenaeum, March 2, 1867, p. 288. The C l a v e r i n g s : Athenaeum,June 15, 1867, p. 783; Black-wood 's, Sept., 1867, pp. 275-278; F o r t n i g h t l y Review, June I, 1867, pp. 771-772. The Last C h r o n i c l e o f Barset: Athenaeum, Aug. 3 , 1867, p. 141; Blackwood's, Sept., 1867, p. 277; Westminster RE-view, July,. 1867, p. 309. Lin d a T r e s s e l : Athenaeum, May 23, 1868, pp. 724-725; Nation, June 18, 1868, pp. 494-495. Phineas F i n n : Contemporary Review, Sept., 1869, pp. 142-143. He Knew He Was Right: Westminster Review, J u l y , 1869, pp.. 302-305. The V i c a r o f Bullhampton: Athenaeum, A p r i l 3 0 , 1870, p. 574; Blackwood's, May, 1870, pp. 647-648. Brown, Jones and Robinson: Westminster Review, A p r i l , I87I, pp. 574-575. S i r Harry Hotspur: Athenaeum, Nov. 19, 1870, p. 527. Ralph the. H e i r : Athenaeum, A p r i l 15, I87I,p. 456; North American Review, A p r i l , 187I, pp. 433-441. The Golden L i o n o f Granpere, Athenaeum,.May 25, 1872, p. 578. The Eustace Diamonds: Athenaeum: Oct. 26, 1872, p. 627; Nation, Nov. 14, 1872, p. 3 2 0 . ' Phineas Redux: Athenaeum: Jan. 10, 1874, p. 5 3 ; A t l a n t i c  Monthly, May, 1874, pp- 617-618; Nation, March 12, 1874, pp. 174-175. Lady. Anna: Athenaeum, A p r i l II,IB8?4,p. 485-Harry Heathcote: Athenaeum, Nov. 7, 1874, p. 606; Westmin-s t e r Review, A p r i l , 1875, p. 558. -XIII The Way. We L i v e How: Athenaeum, June 26, 1875, p. 851; Nation, Sept. 2, 1875, pp. 153-154; Westminster RE-view, Oct. I, 1875, p. 530. The Prime M i n i s t e r ) Athenaeum, J u l y I, 1876, p.' 15; A t l a n -t i c Monthly, Aug., 1876, pp. 245-246; Nation, J u l y 20, 1876, p. 45. ~ " The American Senator: Athenaeum, June 16, 1877, p , 766; At-l a n t a Monthly., Oct., 1877, p . 509. !§. He Popen.joy?: Athenaeum, May 4, 1878, p. 567. M f o r an Ey_e: Athenaeum, Jan. I I , 1879, p. 47; Black-wood 's, March, 1879, pp. 338-339; Nation, A p r i l 24, 1879, p. 290.' 42*22, Caldagate: Athenaeum, June 14, 1879, p. 755; Nineteenth Century, Aug., 1880, p. 340. Cousin Henry, Athenaeum, October 18, 1879, p. 495. The Duke's C h i l d r e n : Athenaeum, May 29, 1880, p. 695; Nation, Aug. 19, 1880, p. 138-139; Nineteenth Century, Aug., 1880, p. 340; Westminster Review, Oct., 1880, p. 574.. Dr. Wprtle 's School: Athenaeum, Jan. 15, 1881, p. 93; Nation, March 10, 1881, pp. 172-173; Westminster Review, J u l y , 1881, pp. 283-284. Ayala's Angel: Athenaeum, May 21, I881,p.686;Harper's, Oct., 1881, pp. 794-794;"Nation, Sept.29, 1881, p. 257; West-Mi n s t e r Review, Oct., I881, pp. 566-567. Kept i n the Dark: Athenaeum, Nov. 18, 1882, p. 658; Westmin- s t e r Review, Jan., 1883, p . 287.. Marion Fay:Athenaeum, June 24, 1882, pp. 793-794. The Fixed P e r i o d : Athenaeum, March I I , 1882, pp. 314-315; Westminster Review," J u l y , 1882, pp.. 285-286. Mr. Scarborough's Family: Athenaeum, l a y 12, 1883, p . 600. The Landleaguers: Athenaeum, Nov. 24, 1883, p. 666. An Old Man's Love: Athenaeum, A p r i l 5, 1884, p. 438; West-minster Review, J u l y , 1884, p. 305. V. Contemporary Reviews of Other T r o l l o p e Works. The West Indies and the Spanish Main: Athenaeum, Nov. 5, 1859, pp. 642-644; A t l a n t i c Monthly, March, I860, pp. 375-378; N a t i o n a l Review;, Jan,. I860, p. 257. XIV North America: Athenaeum, May 24, 1862,p. '685;Blackwood 'a, Sept., 1862, pp.372-390; Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Magazine, J u l y , 1862, p. 75; grazer's Magazine, Aug., 1862, pp. 250-264; N a t i o n a l Review, J u l y , 1862, p. 201; Westmin-s t e r Review, Oct., 1862, pp. 536-537. Tales o f A l l C o u n t r i e s : Second S e r i e s : N a t i o n a l Review, A p r i l , 1863, p. 522. ~* ' Hunting Sketches: F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Aug. I, 1865, p. 764; Westminster Review, Oct., 1865, p. 524. Clergymen o f the Church of England: Contemporary Review, 1866, pp. 240-262. L o t t a Schmidt:.And Other S t o r i e s : AthenaeumN Nov. 23, 1867, p. 723; Nation, Dec. 19, 1867, p. 503; Westminster RE-Oct., 1867, p. 598. An E d i t o r ' s T a l e s : Athenaeum, J u l y 23, 1870, p. 112; Con- temporary Review, Sept., 1870, p. 319; Westminster Rg- view, Oct., 1870, pp. 523-525. The Commentaries o f Caesar: Contemporary Review, Sept., 1870, P- 314. A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand: Athenaeum, March I, 1873, p. 276; F o r t n i g h t l y Review, May, 1873, p. 662; South A f r i c a : Athenaeum, Feb. 16, 1878, p. 211. Thackeray: Athenaeum, June 14, 1879, pp. 749-750; A t l a n t i c  Monthly, Aug., 1879, pp. 267-268; Nation, Aug. 21, 1879, pp. 126-127; Westminster Review, J u l y , 1879, p. 258. The L i f e o f C i c e r o : Athenaeum, Aug. 6, 1881, pp. 170-171; A t l a n t i c Monthly, Nov. 1882, pp. 699-670; Blackwood's, Feb., 1881, pp. 212-228; Nation, J u l y 28, 1881, pp. 75-76; Frau Frohmann: And Other S t o r i e s : Athenaeum, Jan. 14, 1882, p. 54. Lord Palmerston: Athenaeum, Sept. 16, 1882, p. 367; Westmin- s t e r Review, ©ct., 1882, p. 566. An Autobiography: Athenaeum, Oct. 13, 1883, pp. 457-459; At-l a n t i c Monthly, Feb., 1884, pp. 267-271; Blackwood's, Nov., 1883, PP- 577-596; Edinburgh Review, Jan., 1884, pp. 186-203; Good Words, v o l 25, 1884, pp. 248-252; Harper's, Jan., 1884, p. 317; Macmillan's Magazine, Nov., 1883, pp. 47-56; Nation, Nov. 5, 1883, pp. 396-397. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106774/manifest

Comment

Related Items