Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A history of the town and district of Coronation, Alberta Goulson, Carlyn F. 1951

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1951_A8 G6 H5.pdf [ 13.56MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106768.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106768-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106768-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106768-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106768-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106768-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106768-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106768-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106768.ris

Full Text

L-B 5 B? G U H 5 &4>f I. A HISTORY OF THE TOWN AND DISTRICT OF CORONATION« ALBERTA A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CARLYN F. GOULSON APRIL, 1951 Coronation i n 1949 Viewed quarter mile from Town, looking north Coronation i n 1949 V i c t o r i a Avenue, looking east PREFACE The h i s t o r y of the town and d i s t r i c t of Coronation, Alberta, was written with two objectives i n mind. The f i r s t was to recreate the beginnings and growth of a p r a i r i e town i n an attempt to portray the general tone, character, and purpose of country l i v i n g , as well as the hopes, thoughts, and f e e l i n g s of r u r a l and small town f o l k . This was to be achieved by t r a c i n g i n d e t a i l the development of a s p e c i a l p r a i r i e community, but, at the same time, i t was f e l t that such a story of one settlement i n a semi-dry area would t y p i f y the h i s t o r y of dry b e l t pioneering throughout much of the West. This was my second aim. Typical of the West was the d i v e r s i t y of language and national o r i g i n of Coronation's early s e t t l e r s . Typical also were the reasons f o r leaving t h e i r homeland and t h e i r methods of t r a v e l . Like most pioneers of the semi-dry b e l t they had been l e d to expect a land of everlasting plenty} instead they -found hardships almost impossible to overcome. In common with the r e s t of the West t h e i r fortunes rose or f e l l according to the crop year, but, t y p i c a l of the dry areas, t h e i r crop f a i l u r e s were f a r more numerous than i n d i s t r i c t s more blessed with r a i n . T y p i c a l , too, was the overdependence on wheat and the overinvestment i n land - factors leading to r u i n i n the hungry " T h i r t i e s . And, as depression and f r u s t r a t i o n took the place of wild expansion and unbridled optimism, the people of Coronation joined t h e i r neighbours i n the f i g h t f o r a farmers' government to oppose the suspected dominance of eastern big-business i n t e r e s t s . F i n a l l y , with the rebounding f a i t h so t y p i c a l of the West, Coronationites were quick to forget the hardships of the past with the promise of good times to come. In order to set the stage f o r my d e t a i l e d study I have purposely included a f a i r l y extensive introductory chapter. Here I have discussed b r i e f l y the main steps i n western development, from the time of Confederation up to the early 1900's, when Coronation's story r e a l l y begins. By f i r s t presenting a general picture of what was happening throughout the entire West, I f e l t that my story of one community could s l i p more r e a d i l y into proper perspective. V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l 11, 1951. C.F.Goulson. TABLE OF CONTENTS Frontispiece #1 : Town of Coronation i n 1911 and 1949 Frontispiece #2 : Victoria Avenue, Coronation, i n 1911 and 1949 .... Preface • Chapter I : BACKGROUND FOR SETTLEMENT - End of Hudson's Bay Company control; Beginning of Dominion respon-s i b i l i t y J Western population i n 1867; Missionaries North-West Mounted Police; Dominion land policy; Journey westward; Early frontier problems; R a i l -way expansion; Sifton and immigration; Spotlight on Coronation Chapter II : EARLY EXPLORERS OF THE CORONATION REGION -Henry Kelsey; Anthony Henday; Fur rival r y ; Father Laeombe; Reverend John McDougall; John Nelson; Vanguard of pioneers; Frontier work and play ..... Chapter III : PIONEER TRAILS - Language and national differences; John Nelson; Albert Caseley; Dick Goodall; Andrew Landvik; George, Herb, and Norman High; John Osetsky Chapter IV : THE FOUNDING OF A TOWN - Choice of town-site; Pre-sale activity; Townsite sale; Expansion; Board of Trade; Formation of a village; Formation of a town Chapter V : EARLY EXPANSION AND WORLD WAR I - F i r s t c i v i c election; Water; E l e c t r i c i t y ; Hospital; Further construction; Railway development; Sports and recreation; Churches and clubs; L i f e i n general; War Chapter VI : THE TURBULENT 'TWENTIES - More land and more wheat; United Farmers of Alberta; Wheat Pool; Railway development; Radio; Motion pictures; Flying machines; Sports and recreation; Civic apathy Chapter VII : THE HUNGRY 'THIRTIES - Drought and low prices; Depression; Erosion; Exodus; Recession; Relief assistance; Social Credit; Improvement .... Chapter VIII : THE END OF DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR II -Results of depression; Prairie Farm Assistance Act; Summerfallow bonus; Reconstruction and improvement; Twenty-fifth Anniversary; World War II VI page Chapter IX : THE WAY AHEAD -.Prosperity and progress; Municipal amalgamation; School amalgamation; Expansion; O i l ; I r r i g a t i o n ; The way behind; The way ahead 134 Appendices : Appendix A - S t a t i s t i c s on population of p r a i r i e provinces, immigration a r r i v a l s , homestead entri e s , and Winnipeg wheat pri c e s i i Appendix B - S t a t i s t i c s on Winnipeg wheat p r i c e s , Coronation average wheat y i e l d s , Alberta average wheat y i e l d s , Wheat Board prices at Ft.William, and Wheat Board prices at Coronation i v Appendix C - Population, r a c i a l o r i g i n , and r e l i g i o u s denominations of Coronation municipality and town v Appendix D - Coronation weather bureau s t a t i s t i c s . v i i Appendix E - Mayors of Coronation and t h e i r terms of o f f i c e v i i i Appendix F - L i s t of Coronation's o l d timers who registered on the 30th Anniversary of the founding of the town i x Bibliography xv Maps : Map #1 - Main railway l i n e s of the West xxvi Map #2 - Coronation area x x v i i Map #3 - Municipal D i s t r i c t s of Coronation and Paintearth . x x v i i i Map #4 - Townsite plan of Coronation xxix A I l I L T O i . Y OF T K & WW PMD DISTRICT C£ . COEOHATIOH,' ALBBETA. The history of the town and d i s t r i c t of Coronation, Albertai.'was written with two objectives in mind. The f i r s t was to recreate the beginnings and growth of a prairie town i n an attempt to portray the general tone, character, and purpose of country l i v i n g , as well as the hopes, thoughts,, and feelings of rural and small town folk. This was to be achieved by tracing in detail, the development of a special prairie community, but at the oame time, i t was f e l t that aueh a story of one settlement.in a semi-dry area would, typify the history of dry belt pioneering throughout the entire 'West. This was the author *-s.. second- aim. • -v s. ; , The introductory chapter has been traced at some length -because i t was f e l t that a general review of western develop-ments after 1&67 was necessary as a background for the story which follows. For this reason such things as the changeover from Hudson1 a Bay Company to dominion rule, the make up of the Indian population, the work of the missionaries, the Inception ©f the North %est Counted Police, the dominion land policy, railway expansion, immigration, and the problems confronting the incoming pioneer have been presented very briefly. The town of Coronation i s located some 2u0 miles southeast of Edmonton and about 60 miles west of the Saskatchewan border. Before the founding of the town, which did not take place until 1911, there was considerable exploratory and pioneering activity. Henry Kelsey, in 1691 was undoubtedly the f i r s t white man to approach the area; Anthony Henday (1754) and other fur traders coming much later. Next appeared the selfless, indomitable missionaries, such as Father Lacombe and the Reverend John &1cDou&ali, who did so much to reconcile the natives to the encroachment of c i v i l i z a t i o n . Finally, in lfc.97, came John Nelson, the d i s t r i c t ' s f i r s t pioneer. The incoming settlers, destined to work and l i v e together as neighbours, were of many different tongues and races. To portray this diversity of origin but singleness of purpose, the stories of a few typical pioneers have been told at length. By the f a l l of 1911 there was a considerable number of home-steaders already settled in the area chosen by the Canadian Pacific Railway as the locale for the townaite of Coronation. These were the hardy pioneers who had outdistanced the oncoming steel. The founding of the town was accompanied by raucous fanfare, (1) w i l d e x c i t e m e n t , m u s h r o o m i n g s p e c u l a t i o n , and o p t i m i s t i c hopes 1, F o r a t i m e i n i t i a l e x p a n s i o n , goofi c r o p y e a r s , and W o r l d War 1 p r o s p e r i t y , e m b e l l i s h e d a d v a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e n i n t h e " T w e n t i e s , o v e r - s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n one c r o p - wheat, and o v e r -e x p a n s i o n i n l a n d and m a c h i n e r y when p r i c e s . w e r e high, s e t t h e ota&e f o r a b s o l u t e o r n e a r r u i n i n t h e ' d r o u g h t - d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s o f t h e h u n g r y ' t h i r t i e s * Though r e c o v e r y was a t f i r s t s l o w , b y t h e end o f t h e • F o r t i e s , a s s i s t e d by f a r - s e e i n g g o v e r n m e n t l e g i s l a t i o n and W o r l d War I I m a r k e t s and p r i c e s , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f the C o r o n a t i o n a r e a were b e t t e r o f f t h a n t h e y had e v e r b e e n . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o i l and i r r i g a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s sometime i n t h e f u t u r e . U n t i l s u c h t i m e a s t h e s e n e b u l o u s p r o j e c t s m a t e r i a l i s e d , however, C o r o n a t i o n ' s ' e c o n o m y w o u l d be f a r f r o m cecur'e* U n d o u b t e d l y p a r t o f t h e s o l u t i o n l a y i n a more d i v e r s i f i e d s o u r c e o f i n c o m e . U t t e r d e p e n d e n c e o n o n e c r o p i s a l w a y s a gamble, and i n an a r e a where d r o u g h t i s an e v e r p r e s e n t s p e c t r e , i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y s u i e i d a l . F o r C o r o n a t i o n ! t e a , m i x e d f a r m i n g c o u l d w e l l be t h e answer. The p e r i o d s o f boom and d e p r e s s i o n , o f hope and f r u s t r a -t i o n , w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f t h e d i s t r i c t o f C o r o n a t i o n a r e t y p i c a l o f t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e d b y a l l s u c h c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e s e m i - d r y a r e a s o f t h e p r a i r i e s . The o r i g i n a l h a r d s h i p s , the h o p e d f o r m i r a c l e s t o be b r o u g h t a b o u t by r a i l w a y e x p a n s i o n , t h e d i a t r u s t o f E a s t e r n b i t o -b u s i n e s s , t h e g r o w t h o f c o - o p e r a t i v e movements and new l i n e p a r t i e s , t h e d e p t h s o f d e g r e s s i o n a n d t h e b l o s s o m i n g h o p e s w i t h t h e r e t u r n o f g o o d t i m e s , t h e r a l l y i n g t o t h e M o t h e r C o u n t r y i n two w o r l d w a r s , a n d t h e u t t e r d e p e n d e n c e o n v/heat, - t h e s e , t o o , a r e a l l t y p i c a l . M i r r o r e d i n t h e s t o r y o f C o r o n a t i o n i s t h e s t o r y o f much o f C a n a d a ' s West. V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l 11 , 1951. C F . G o u l s o n . Chapter I BACKGROUND FOR SETTLEMENT Behind the squaw's l i g h t b i r c h canoe The steamer rocks and raves, And c i t y l o t s are staked f o r sale Above old Indian graves. I hear the tread of pioneers, Of c i t i e s yet to be -The f i r s t low wash of waves where soon S h a l l r o l l a human sea. (Whittier) The year, 1870, marked the end of one era and the be-ginning of a new i n the h i s t o r y of the great Canadian West. For i n that year control of the vast, uncharted North West T e r r i t o r i e s passed out of the hands of the Hudson's Bay 1 Company and into those of the young Canadian government. Thus began the change from trader's trap to pioneer's plough, from f u r to wheat. The Hudson's Bay Company o f f i c i a l s , i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , had followed a p o l i c y designed to discourage land settlement, and had passed along.stories of bleak winters and barren s o i l s , 1 Statutes of Canada, 35 V i c t o r i a , p p . l x i i i - l x x x i i i . Contains Orders i n Council, Communications and Memoranda, and the deed of Surrender by the Hudson's Bay Co. under the heading "Rupert's Land and the North-Western T e r r i t o r y . " Assented to on Nov. 19, 1869. (1) 2. 2 of hardships and of f a i l u r e s . The Confederation Fathers, committed to the construction of a transcontinental railway and development of the i n t e r i o r , had to devise ways and means of combating such adverse propaganda. They had made rash predictions and promises to constituents (and p o t e n t i a l con-st i t u e n t s ) i n a l l parts of the country, and nearly every such 3 scheme of optimism c a l l e d f o r the opening up of the West. I t was found, however, that settlement was not a process that could be accomplished over night. Many problems had to be overcome, and many waves of development and recession were to take place before any vestige of permanence and security could be credited to the movement. The s e t t l e r had to be provided with an adequate means of acquiring land; he had to be protected from the lawlessness of the f r o n t i e r ; he had to f i n d a crop which could be grown successfully under new condi-tions; he had to be assured of a ready and p r o f i t a b l e market f o r h i s productj and he had to have cheap and easy access to 2 In 1857, S i r George Simpson, Governor of the Company f o r some 37 years, when gi v i n g evidence before a Select Committee of the Imperial Government, stated i n answer to a question as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the t e r r i t o r i e s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n and colo n i z a t i o n , "I do not think that any part of the Hudson's Bay Company's t e r r i t o r i e s i s well adapted f o r settlement; the crops are very uncertain." See Report from the Select Committee of the Hudson's.Bay Company. 1857, p.45. 3 For t h i s phase of the confederation story see Hammond, M«0#, Confederation and i t s Leaders. Toronto, McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart $ Parliamentary Debates on the Sub.iect of the Confed-eration of the B r i t i s h North American Provinces. 3rd Session, 8th P r o v i n c i a l Parliament of Canada, Quebec, Hunter, Rose & Co., 1865; and pertinent p e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e s l i s t e d i n the bibliography. T r o t t e r , R.G., Canadian Federation f Toronto, J.M.Dent & Sons, 1924, gives a very good o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . and from M s place of settlement. These were not easy hurdles to overcome, and even h a l f a century l a t e r , some were s t i l l blocking the progress of the western farmer. At the time of Confederation but a mere handful of white-men were scattered throughout the vast reaches beyond what was 4 to be the province of Manitoba. Most of these were i n the employ of the Bay Company, and made t h e i r homes at the company f o r t s which were located at strategic points along the inland network of a r t e r i a l waterways. The great bulk of the region's population was made up of 5 some 50,000 f u l l blooded Indians - Assiniboine, Sarcee, Crees Athapascan 6 (of the Algonkian language stock), and the warlike Blackfeet. Their ranks were continually being swelled by discontented Metis, t r y i n g to escape the r e s t r i c t i o n s of an onsurging c i v i l i z a t i o n ; and with the Metis came the missionaries. These brave men, ir r e s p e c t i v e of denomination, faced the hardships of the wilderness to bring t h e i r teachings to Indian and halfbreed a l i k e , and t h e i r messages of peace helped ma t e r i a l l y i n making the way more secure f o r the pioneer soon to follow. During the 'Seventies the missionaries, i n t h e i r attempts - t o b r i n g peace and order to the land, were joined by the forces 4 The f i r s t o f f i c i a l f i g u r e s given i n Census of Canada; 1880-81. Vol . 1 . Ottawa, MacLean, Roger & Co., 1882, showed an estimated 56,446 persons i n the T e r r i t o r i e s beyond Manitoba i n 1881. Of these, 49,472 were l i s t e d as Indians, leaving only 6,974 whites and mixed blood. 5 See preceding footnote. 6 For a b r i e f * comprehensive study of Canada's Indians, see Jenness, E i l e e n , The Indian Tribes of Canada. Toronto, The Ryerson Press, rcl933]. 7 of the newly formed North West Mounted P o l i c e . This body had been organized to combat the a c t i v i t i e s of rum-running rene-gades from across the border, as well as to p o l i c e the whole of the West. The Mounties not only quickly brought to an end the i l l e g a l t r a f f i c , but proved invaluable i n s e t t l i n g the 8 Indians onto reservations and i n quell i n g unrest among the Metis. Thus law and a new sec u r i t y were given the country's inhabitants. Meanwhile the dominion leaders were busy introducing a bungling, near-sighted, land-policy, f u l l of shortcomings 9 and contradictions. To be sure t h e i r hands were p a r t i a l l y t i e d by the c o s t l y settlement which the Imperial Government had made with the Hudson's Bay Company, but they further shackled themselves by magnanimously o f f e r i n g some 25,000,000 acres of the country'3 best land to the Canadian P a c i f i c 7 Statutes of Canada. 36 V i c t o r i a , Chap.35, "An Act respect-ing the Administration of J u s t i c e , and f o r the establishment of a P o l i c e Force i n the North West T e r r i t o r i e s , " assented to May 23, 1873. Perhaps the most authoritative record of the Royal North West Mounted Po l i c e i s A.L.Haydon's, The Riders of  the P l a i n s 1 London, Andrew Melrose, 1910. 8 Part of the t r e a t i e s ' 3tory i s given i n Haydon's Riders of  the P l a i n s . For a very f u l l , account see Morris, Alexander, The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the  North-West T e r r i t o r i e s . Toronto. W i l l i n g & Williamson, 1880. Though ol d , t h i s book covers the ten year period from 1870 to 1880 (as well as e a r l i e r achievements; when p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the Indians of the West were given t r e a t i e s . 9 Two works that give an excellent o v e r a l l coverage of the dominion land p o l i c y are Martin, Chester, "Dominion Lands"  P o l i c y . (Canadian Fronti e r s of Settlement, vol.2), Toronto, MacMIllan Co., 1938; and Hedges, J.B., The Federal Railway  Land Subsidy P o l i c y of Canada. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1934. 5. 10 Railway Company. Not only d i d t h i s g i f t release a huge acreage from governmental c o n t r o l , i t also served to t i e up the whole process of land settlement while the C.P.R. t r i e d to decide which proposed transcontinental route would be best - best, that i s , f o r the C.P.R.• The northern route through B a t t l e f o r d , Edmonton, and the Yellowhead Pass had long been exto l l e d as the l o g i c a l choice because i t tapped the f e r t i l e lands contiguous to the North Saskatchewan River. With t h i s i n mind many of the more resolute and courageous pioneers had gone ahead to choose t h e i r land and await the coming of the railway. The sudden switch to the southern route through Calgary and the Kicking Horse Pass l e f t 12 these s e t t l e r s stranded f o r over twenty years. 10 Statutes of Canada, 44 V i c t o r i a , Chap.l, "An Act respect-ing the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway," assented to.Feb.15, 1881. Aft e r several f a l s e s t a r t s t h i s was sub s t a n t i a l l y the f i n a l settlement. 11 Among the best broad studies of the, Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way's r o l e i n the opening up of the Canadian West are Innis,H.A. , A History of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1923} Gibbon,J.M.. St e e l of Empire. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, £cl935J} and Hedges, J.B., Bu i l d i n g the Canadian West: The Land and Colonization P o l i c i e s of the  Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, New York. The MacMillan Co., 1939. 12 The spectacular change which caused the railway to be b u i l t through near desert wastes instead of f e r t i l e valleyland has been c a l l e d "one of the unsolved problems of Canadian h i s t o r y . " The explanations most often c i t e d are: to keep out a competitive l i n e to the south} to counteract American pressure} because the southern, route through the Rockies was l e s s hazardous; and because of pressure from southern ranchers. One i n t e r e s t i n g theory, recently expounded, i s that the Railway Company preferred to pass through a region where i t could choose and ex p l o i t the townsites rather than to b u i l d through centers l i k e B a t t l e f o r d and Edmonton, where, instead of s e l l i n g land, i t would have to buy. See F.G.Roe, "An Unsolved Problem of Canadian History," Annual Report: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association. 1936, pp.65-77. The whole question was further complicated by the govern-ment turning over large sections of land to col o n i z i n g companies i n the hopes that settlement would thereby be hastened. Some of these private companies l i v e d up to t h e i r contracts. Most, however, f a i l e d miserably, and f i n a l l y the scheme was given up as a bad job. Even the generous homestead p o l i c y , adapted from the American system i n 1872, was unable to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s 13 of the s i t u a t i o n i n general. By the Land Act of that year any man who was the head of a household or who had reached the age of twenty-one, could apply f o r a quarter-section and af t e r three years residence could obtain t i t l e to his landj-providing he had met c e r t a i n other simple s t i p u l a t i o n s . The only charge was a $10 r e g i s t r a t i o n fee. Two years l a t e r an amendment 14 permitted the pre-empting of an adjoining quarter-section. In subsequent years the requirements were made s t i l l easier, but the r e s u l t s were long a disappointment. By the end of 1874 only 1,376 entries had been made and 890 of these were l a t e r cancelled. In 1875 there were 499 entries and 153 15 cancellations, and i n 1877 the figures were 845 and 463. The reasons f o r t h i s slow development were many and 13 Statutes of Canada. 35 V i c t o r i a , Chap.23, "An Act respect-ing the Public Lands of the Dominion," assented.to A p r i l 14, 1872, (Sec.33, "Homestead Rights or Free Grant Lands"). 14 Statutes, of Canada. 37 V i c t o r i a , Chap.19, "An Act to amend the Dominion Lands Act," assented to May 26,1874, (Sec.8). 15 England, Robert, The Colonization of Western Canada. London, P.S.King & Son, 1936, p.55. ~~ 7* varied. The confused land p o l i c y , complicating the choice of l o c a t i o n , has already been mentioned. Once t h i s choice had been made, the s e t t l e r , i n the days before the transcontinental, then had to face a seemingly endless, backbreaking journey. There was a Canadian lake route from Sarnia or Collingwood to Fort William, and from there by cart and boat over the Dawson T r a i l to Lake of the Woods and on to" Winnipeg. The easier and more popular route, however, was by r a i l to Chicago and St.Paul, and thence north to Winnipeg by r i v e r , t r a i l , and - a f t e r 1878 - by r a i l . The route through the States was beset by a d i f f e r e n t kind of hazard. Westward expansion i n that country was at i t s height, and on every t r a i n , <.American agents trumpeted the advantages to be gained by remaining south of the border. w Lots" of good land was s t i l l to be had, the country was being i n t e r -laced with railways, and the benefits of c i v i l i z a t i o n were becoming available to a l l . Faced with attractions such as these, i t i s l i t t l e wonder that many p o t e n t i a l Canadian c i t i z e n s followed the European avalanche which saw nearly 2,000,000 s e t t l e r s , i n one ten year period, enter the four states of 16 Iowa, I l l i n o i s , Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Even afte r reaching Winnipeg the incoming s e t t l e r had but begun h i s journey; the worst hardships l a y yet ahead. A l l of hi s worldly possessions had to be p i l e d i n wagon and buckboard. Enough bulk provisions, such as f l o u r , bacon, and beans had to 16 Martin, Chester, "Confederation and the West," Annual Report: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association. 1927, p.22. 8. be packed to l a s t the winter. Harness, seed, carpenter supplies, and guns and ammunition had to be provided. Cattle and other l i v e s t o c k had to be l e d or driven. Then began the long slow trek overland. Prince Albert l a y some two months to the west, and Edmonton another two months beyond that. Included i n i n s t r u c t i o n s , given to s e t t l e r s proceeding to B a t t l e f o r d i n 17 March, 1882, were the following suggestions: Route: take t r a i n from Winnipeg to Brandon or to the end of the C.P.R. Wagons drawn by Canadian horses - the load should not exceed f i f t e e n hundred pounds. Good oxen i n carts - from f i v e hundred to eight hundred pounds. The best time to t r a v e l i s i n early spring. A f a i r average rate per day i s f o r oxen 15 miles, f o r horses 15 to 25 miles. With the golden phrases of the Eastern propagandist s t i l l -r i n g i n g i n t h e i r ears, the hardy pioneers, rumbling ever westward i n Red River ca r t and p r a i r i e schooner, soon found a l l was not milk and honey i n the proffered Promised Land. Drought and f r o s t , mosquito and sandfly, dust storm and b l i z z a r d , grasshopper and p r a i r i e dog added to the miseries of an already 13 burdensome p o s i t i o n . But on they came. 17 England, Western Canada, p.58. 18 Invaluable as authoritative background references f o r the entire westward movement are several of the Canadian F r o n t i e r of Settlement seri e s : Vol.2 - Morton, A.S., History of P r a i r i e  Settlement. Toronto, MacMillan Co., 1938} Vol.4 - Mackintosh, W.A., Economic Problems of the P r a i r i e Provinces? Toronto, MacMillan Co., 1935} Vol.5 - Murchie, R.W., A g r i c u l t u r a l Progress  on the P r a i r i e F r o n t i e r , Toronto, MacMillan Co., 1936} and Vol.8 - Dawson, CA., & Younge, Esa R., Pioneering i n the  P r a i r i e Provinces. Toronto, MacMillan Co., 1940. The atmosphere and f e e l i n g of pioneer days i s well portrayed i n Dawson X Younge's book, and i n Burt, A.L., The Romance of the P r a i r i e  Provinces. Toronto, W.J.Gage & Co., 1945} and England, Robert, The Colonization of Western Canada. London, P.S.King & Son,1936. P e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e s and other h e l p f u l works are l i s t e d i n the bibliography. Most of the f i r s t summer was spent b u i l d i n g a house and barn - out of logs i f they were avail a b l e , sod i f they were not. Perhaps a l i t t l e land was ploughed, but there could be no hope of a substantial crop u n t i l the second or t h i r d year, and u n t i l such time the heads of households had to maintain t h e i r f a m i l i e s as best they could. These f i r s t s e t t l e r s came mostly from Ontario and knew l i t t l e of the ways of the West. They found the seed wheat they had brought with them was unable to stand the drought and d i d not ripen early enough to escape the autumn f r o s t s . And when they did reap a harvest i t was to f i n d they had no market - f o r t h e i r s t e e l l i f e - l i n e s l a y f a r to the rear. A series of crop f a i l u r e s i n the early •Eighties burst the bubble of pseudo-prosperity. The f i r s t settlement period had ended i n f a i l u r e , and the words of the Winnipeg Times« though used at a l a t e r date, were even more applicable here. "The t r a i l s from Manitoba to the States... were worn bare and barren by the fo o t p r i n t s of departing 19 s e t t l e r s . " Not a l l of the s e t t l e r s were forced out by the overwhelming pressure of ruinoug weather and circumstances. Those who remained formed the nucleus of the permanent population of the West. Determined to make t h e i r new l i f e a success they set about adapting themselves as best they could to conditions as they found them, and i n t h i s work they were ably assisted by the M i n i s t r y of Agriculture. Farmers were urged to summer-fallow t h e i r land, to sow seed at the e a r l i e s t possible time, 19 England, Western Canada, p.64 10. and to adopt mixed-farming methods so that they would not be u t t e r l y dependent on any one crop. And meanwhile government experts under the able guidance of William Saunders were busy at the Ottawa, Brandon,and Indian Head experimental farms searching f o r a new v a r i e t y of wheat. Even more important was the railway expansion taking place i n t h i s 1 p e r i o d . In 1883 Winnipeg was connected to the A t l a n t i c seaboard, and tv/o years l a t e r the l i n e was completed to the P a c i f i c Coast. Then came ohe process of f i l l i n g i n branch l i n e s to provide shipping points f o r a l l the main centers of s e t t l e -ment. The railway b u i l d i n g boom helped the f r o n t i e r i n several ways. Most obvious was the transportation i t provided i n and out of the country, but there were other important aspects. Work, and consequently a cash income, were provided the newly arrived homesteader who desperately needed some ready money to tide him over. The large construction gangs served as temporary markets f o r the l o c a l communities, and the regular salary r o l l s kept money c i r c u l a t i n g f r e e l y . Times were "picking up". With the end of good, avail a b l e , American land almost i n sight, the eyes of more and more European immigrants were turning, rather r e l u c t a n t l y , to view the huge and r e l a t i v e l y unknown quantity to the north - Canada. A. contemporary B r i t i s h e r remarked that, "In the minds of nine out of ten persons i n the Old Country Canada stands f o r the S i b e r i a of the B r i t i s h Empire, a country i n which residents suffer the most t e r r i b l e hardships owing to thesextreme cold which i s supposed to wrap the country around f o r seven or eight months together, bringing a l l i n d u s t r i a l 11. 20 and s o c i a l l i f e to a s t a n d s t i l l . " I t i s true that an increas-ing number of immigrants from B r i t a i n and the Continent were reaching the Canadian West, but as yet t h i s movement was a mere t r i c k l e . C l e a r l y d r a s t i c action was required and, with the appointment of C l i f f o r d S i f t o n as Minister of the I n t e r i o r i n 1896, a man was found who was both able and w i l l i n g to put such a p o l i c y into e f f e c t . Thus began the next period of west-ern development - the age of great i n f l u x . S i f t o n believed that only by f i l l i n g her vast empty spaces with people, and by*gearing"her economy to that of the modern world, could Canada achieve her r i g h t f u l p o s i t i o n as one of the great nations of the world. And only i n t h i s way could her own educated sons be kept at home. To achieve h i s objective he set i n motion one of the most ambitious and most successful p u b l i c i t y campaigns ever devised. Immigration agencies were established i n the United States, i n Great B r i t a i n , and on the Continent. E n t i c i n g advertisements f i l l e d the pages of foreig n newspapers; atlases and maps of Canada were placed i n t h e i r schools; pamphlets and l e t t e r s were widely c i r c u l a t e d ; lantern s l i d e s were shown;and i n America, tours and excursions were arranged f o r i n f l u e n t i a l newspapermen and farmer delegations. Immigration agents, hir e d on a commission basis, were taught the values of persistence and ingenuity, and i t was not long before the high-pressured salesmanship of S i f t o n and h i s men began to produce amazing r e s u l t s . 20 Hurd, Archibald S., "The Foreign Invasion of Canada," The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, vol.72 (Dec.,1902),p.1055. 12. In 1896, a t o t a l 16,835 immigrants arrived i n Canada. In 1906 the figure reached 189,064. The homestead entries f o r these years are even more revealing. Only 1,857 entries were f i l e d i n 1896; ten years l a t e r the figure had r i s e n to 41,869, No longer d i d B r i x a i n contribute the bulk of the immigrants. In 1903 Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Scandinavia each sent over 12,000 persons to Western Canada, and during a four year period from 1899 to 1903 continental entries were about double those from the United Kingdom. Even more spectacular was the increased migration from across the border. In 1897 only 712 21 Americans s e t t l e d i n Canada; i n 1907 the t o t a l was 57,919. B r i t i s h e r s viewed with alarm t h e i r l o s s of leadership i n the drive to s e t t l e Canada. •Must we s i t by,' wrote one correspondent, 'and watch one of the most promising daughterlands of the Mother-country being peopled by s e t t l e r s of a l i e n blood, witness the development of a p o l i c y which i f not a n t i - B r i t i s h i s seemingly not p r o - B r i t i s h , and r i s k the p o l i t i c a l complications which may occur, i n spite of a l l the sanguine hopes of the Dominion immigration o f f i c i a l s ? ' ^ While there proved to be great d i f f i c u l t y i n assimilating c e r t a i n Continental immigrant groups, i n the case of American s e t t l e r s "the sanguine hopes" of Dominion o f f i c i a l s were more than r e a l i z e d . The l a s t of the good homesteads i n the United States had been claimed by 1890, and as a r e s u l t the p r i c e of 21 Mackintosh, W.A., Economic Problems of the P r a i r i e Provinces (Canadian F r o n t i e r s of Settlement,vol.4), Toronto, Macmillan Co., 1935, Appendix A,pp.281-2; England, Western Canada.p.68j Wallace, "Canadian Immigration P o l i c y , " p.359. 22 Hurd, "Foreign Invasion," p.1064. 13. land i n the older s e t t l e d d i s t r i c t s had been r i s i n g s t e a d i l y . Farmers suddenly discovered that they could s e l l t h e i r land at a good p r i c e , move to Canada and acquire a larger farm at next to nothing, and s t i l l have a considerable stake with which to improve and develop t h e i r new home. S i f t o n estimated that, i n the f i v e year period 1898 to 1903, some 123,000 American immigrants had brought with them $19,000,000 i n s e t t l e r s ' effects and $25,000,000 i n cash at a t o t a l cost to the Department of 23 only $701,000. Besides these material assets, s e t t l e r s from across the l i n e brought a knowledge of, and an experience i n , dry-belt farming which was to prove extremely valuable i n the years to come. Also of importance was t h e i r a b i l i t y to mix with and become a part of every community wherein they s e t t l e d . The opening decades of the twentieth century saw the appearance of a new Canadian West. S e t t l e r s were pouring i n , branch-lines were being b u i l t , towns were"mushrooming"into existence, and everywhere the t i n y real-estate o f f i c e s pro-claimed the progress, prosperity, excitement, and speculation of a f r o n t i e r boom. Such were conditions when, on September 27, 1911, a townsite sale some 180 miles southeast of Edmonton heralded the b i r t h of a new community - Coronation, Alberta. Chosen as d i v i s i o n a l point on the Canadian P a c i f i c branch l i n e from Lacombe to Kerrobert, and with the prospects of other railway spokes connecting i t with Edmonton, Sedgewick, Swift Current, and perhaps Calgary, Coronation was being touted as the railway 23 Wallace, "Canadian Immigration P o l i c y , " p.359. hub, the d i s t r i b u t i n g center of a vast and f e r t i l e p r a i r i e hinterland. Here would be the newest and f a s t e s t growing c i t y 24 i n the Canadian West. E n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y - and o p t i m i s t i c a l l y -contemporaries c a l l e d Coronation "the Wonder Town of the West." 24 Coronation's p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the main c i t i e s and railway l i n e s of the West may be seen on the map on page xxvi of the appendix. Chapter I I EARLY EXPLORERS OF THE CORONATION REGION Though the buffalo had been gone f o r some twenty years, the e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s a r r i v i n g i n the Coronation d i s t r i c t saw on every side evidences of the once mighty herds that had roamed the vast central p l a i n s . Deep t r a i l s l e d down to coulee water holes, slough bottoms were potted with old hoof p r i n t s , and over the p r a i r i e s were scattered countless heaps of bleach-in g bones. For the r i c h grazing land extending from the b i g bend of the Batt l e River south to S u l l i v a n Lake and East to the Nose and Neutral H i l l s was one of the l a s t retreats of the 1 vanishing herds. And as a r e s u l t here also was one of the l a s t 2 great hunting grounds of the western Indian. Probably the f i r s t white man to penetrate through to the western Canadian p l a i n s was Henry Kelsey, employee of the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1691 he pushed inland from York Factory on Hudson's Bay and eventually reached the regions between the branches of the Saskatchewan River. Kelsey's d e s c r i p t i o n of r i v e r s , lakes, and other physical features of the countryside, through which he passed, i s extremely vague, making i t d i f f i c u l t to chart h i s exact course, but i t i s very doubtful that he t r a v e l l e d as f a r as the present border of 1 See map of the d i s t r i c t i n appendix, p. x x y i i . 2 I t i s said that so p l e n t i f u l were the buffalo i n t h i s area that Cree and Blackfoot a l i k e used to journey here from great distances to hunt - and what was very r a r e f o r these two warlike t r i b e s - to hunt i n peace; thus the name Neutral H i l l s . (15) 16. Alberta. He d i d reach buffalo country, however, and h i s accounts of t h i s strange new animal are among the f i r s t on record. On August 20, 1691, he wrote i n h i s journal: Today we p i t c h t to y e outtermost Edge of y e woods t h i s p l a i n affords Nothing but short Round s t i c k y grass & B u f f i l l o & a great s* ror of a Bear w" i s Bigger then any white Bear & i s Neither White nor Black but s i l v e r hair'd l i k e our English Rabbit y e B u f f i l l o Likewise i s not l i k e those to y e Northward t h e i r Horns growing l i k e an English Ox but Black.... 3 I t was more than h a l f a century a f t e r Kelsey had made h i s journey before another whiteraan penetrated inland through the 4 5 northern p l a i n s . Anthony Henday, also an employee of the Bay Company, was sent out from York Factory on the 26th of June, 1754, to t r y to recover some of the trade that was beginning to flow i n ever increasing quantities to the French i n the south. Henday's t r a v e l s , c a r e f u l l y notated, are f a i r l y easy to follow. By September he had reached the Battle River which he c a l l e d the Countenack. This he followed f o r several days before c u t t i n g south-west to the Red Deer River (the .Waskesew), reaching i t at a point near the present town of Nevis. Thai, winter Henday spent south of the Battle River learn-i n g what he could of the country and i t s native inhabitants. Among the experiences which he recorded were the buffalo hunts he took part i n . ' On one occasion he wrote: 3 Doughty, Arthur G. & Martin, Chester, i n t r o d . , The Kelsey Papers, Ottawa, The Public Archives of Canada, 1929, pp.12-13. 4 The routes of the LaVe'rendryes i n the 1730*s and '40s were much further south. 5 Other variat i o n s i n s p e l l i n g found are Hendey and Hendry. I went with the young men a-buffalo hunting, a l l armed with bows and arrowsj k i l l e d several; f i n e sport. We beat them about, lodging twenty arrows i n one beast. So expert are the natives that they w i l l take the arrows out of them when they are foaming with pain, and tearing the ground up with t h e i r f e e t and horns u n t i l they f a l l down.0 The next few decades saw a rapid increase i n white a c t i v i t y i n the West f o r these were the years of b i t t e r r i v a l r y between the two great f u r companies - the Hudson's Bay and the North West Company. Trading f o r t s sprang up at strategic spots along the mighty inland waterways, and more and more agents were sent into the i n t e r i o r to champion t h e i r company's cause. In 1787 the Hudson '3 Bay Company b u i l t Manchester House a few miles east of the present Alberta border on the North Saskatchewan River. In 1795 they b u i l t Edmonton House some twenty miles east of the present c i t y , and a year l a t e r the North West Com-pany constructed Fort Augustus alongside the other's post. The union of the two companies i n 1821 ended the old r i v a l r y , but the opening up of the West f o r purposes of tapping the f u r reserves continued. The' following h a l f century saw the beginnings of change i n the l i f e of the western Indian. He l i v e d and fought and hunted much as he had always done, but h i s contacts with the whiteman were becoming more numerous. R i f l e s , blankets, and "firewater" had p r a c t i c a l l y become ne c e s s i t i e s . The demands § Burt,A.L., The Romance of the P r a i r i e Provinces. Toronto, W.J.Gage & Co:,194b,p.b7; Morton, Arthur g., A History of the  Canadian West to 1870-71. Toronto, Thomas Nelson & Sons, pp.244-250; Blue, John, Alberta: Past and Present. Chicago, Pioneer H i s t o r i c a l Publishing Co., 1924,vol.1,pp.18-20. 18. of c i v i l i z a t i o n were beginning to cut into the heretofor inex-haustable supply of ready meat, and f a r to the east were the f a i n t rumblings of Metis dissension. L i v i n g with and t r a v e l l i n g between the native t r i b e s were the indomitable missionaries, r i s k i n g t h e i r l i v e s and enduring t e r r i f i c hardships i n order to teach the Indians the ways of peace and a purposeful l i f e . One of those, best loved by 7 Indian and whiteman a l i k e , was Father Lacombe. I t was to hold a Christmas service f o r the scattered bands of p l a i n Crees that Father Lacombe and h i s f a i t h f u l native• servant Alexis set out from St.Paul des Metis f o r the Nose H i l l s on December 4, 1867. The large house-tent he had designed from f i f t y buffalo skins formed the biggest part of the load drawn by t h e i r two horses. Provisions had been scarce i n the north so they had only a two or three days supply of frozen f i s h and pemmican, and t h i s they shared with a starving band of Indians whose t r a i l they crossed. For fourteen days thereafter they wandered over the frozen wilderness i n a state of near starva-t i o n , hunting f o r the camps of the Indians they had come to v i s i t . At times they subsisted only on a b o u i l l o n made of the skins of old sacks, cords of sinews, and old pieces of moccasin. F i n a l l y , when there seemed nothing l e f t but to k i l l and eat t h e i r badly needed horses, they stumbled onto the campfires oS those they sought. Soon t h e i r strength had been restored and Father Lacombe 7 Father Lacombe arrived at F o r t Edmonton i n 1852, founded the settlement of St.Albert i n 1862, and was active i n h i s chosen work u n t i l h i s death i n 1916 at the age of 89. was able to go ahead with his plans for the Christmas service. Three masses he held in the early hours of Christmas morning and of the f i r s t he wrote: As I robed myself for that Mass...this is what passed i n my heart....The Holy Gospel t e l l s us that the shepherds of the valley of Bethlehem came to the stable to adore the divine Child. And here to-night i n this wild countx-y i n North America another kind of shepherds -the shepherds of the great flocks of buffalo - are kneeling down to adore the same Child Jesus, the Son of God, that lay on the straw i n Bethlehem in the far east. In a buffalo-skin tent, pitched near the peak of the Nose H i l l s , this Christmas service was held on that winter night 8 over eighty years ago. Another early missionary , who knew the Battle River and 9 Nose H i l l region intimately, was the Reverend John McDougall. Travelling back and forth across the central plains he learned to know and love this land of blazing blue skies and endless empty spaces, and with the eye of the true romanticist he foresaw the day when the empty prairies would be teeming with people. Recalling the view from a vantage point on the Battle River one fine day in 1869, he wrote: The sweep of the valley, the windings of the stream, the autumn tints, the unoccupied fields and farms and lawns and terraces of the future, the natural placing of the clumps 8 Hughes, Katherine, Father Lacombe: The Black-Robe Voyageur. New York, Moffat, Yard & Co., 1911,pp.141-157} LePere Lacombe, . Memoires et Souvenirs. Montreal, Imprime' au Devoir, 1916. 9 John McDougall (1842-1917), son of the Reverend George Millward McDougall, worked among the western Indians un t i l he was superannuated in 1906. He i s the author of several books on his travels and experiences, i n the far West. • , . 20. of timber, the smell of the land both wholesome and rich, the wild cattle to be seen here and there feeding or moving l a z i l y down to the creek for water, the long beards of the bulls swaying rhythmically to their ponderous tread; yonder a wolf or coyote, slinking from clump to clump of bush, or indifferently seated on his haunches surveying the scene, even as we were - a l l this was before our vision, nor yet sign of any man with i t . To our ears there came no articulate sound; a hush was upon a l l things. This was the time of day for quiet in nature, but i n fancy we caught the rumble of waggons on well-travelled roads, the shriek of the locomotive, the hum of machinery, the lowing and bleating of herds and flocks, the tinkle of the cowbell, the ringing of the church and school bells. I could hear a l l these in anticipation, for verily the land before me was worthy and in good time i t would come to i t s inheritance. ^  These were indeed prophetic words, for less than thirty years later, i n 1897, John Nelson, the f i r s t man to settle i n the Coronation d i s t r i c t , forded the Battle River with a herd of cattle he and his partner had driven down from Sedgewick, and made his permanent home i n the sheltered r o l l i n g country directly south of the river. These two men were the vanguard of the stream of settlers who took up homesteads in the d i s t r i c t during the next two decades. In 1905 the C.P.R. started building i t s branch line east from Lacombe - a line that was eventually to link up with 11 Kerrobert some 200 miles to the east. As always i s the case in the opening up of new territory, the twin ribbons of steel were far outdistanced by the more hardy of the pioneers who 10 McDougall, John, In the Days of the Red River Rebellion. Toronto, William Briggs, 1903, pp.98-99. 11 Coronation's position in relation to the main ci t i e s and railway lines of the West may be seen on the map on page***; of the appendix. 21. rushed ahead i n the hopes of locating the best land and the most suitable building sites. By the f a l l of 1911 when the railroad reached the future site of Coronation there was already a f a i r l y large group of settlers in the d i s t r i c t , some of whom had been l i v i n g there for five or more years. These years before the town was bu i l t were years of isolation and hardship. Bulk supplies had to be purchased, and any marketable produce sold, at the nearest town. Sedgewick was some 60 miles away, Hardisty was 50 miles, Lacombe 110 miles, Stettler 60 miles, and later Castor was 25 miles to the west. Advancing railway lines gradually lessened the distances that had to be travelled before contact was made with the outside world. Later many of the homestead-ers' wants were provided at Haneyville (6 miles west) and Caseleyville (12 miles to the northeast of where Coronation now stands) in the general stores b u i l t by two of the earliest pioneers. This service necessitated frequent freighting trips over the long prairie t r a i l s . During the summer the homesteader was busy from sun-up 12 to sun-down building or improving, his house and barn, breaking what land he could, harvesting his tiny crops, cutting and stacking the wild hay, and tending his precious livestock. The sod was tough, but the s o i l was rich and black, and f a i r l y easy to turn over with hand plough and teams of oxen, mules, horses, or any combination of the three. Although there was . 12 The early buildings were usually constructed of logs, or sod, or both. Very often the walls were of logs and the roof and floor of sod. 2 2 . much bushland in the northern d i s t r i c t s , most of the area was relatively free from brush, and required l i t t l e clearing. These days were hard for women as well as men. Most took their places alongside their husbands in the work outside and yet somehow found time to raise and feed and clothe large families. They grew their own vegetables, baked their own bread, churned their own butter, made their own clothing, cut the family's hair, and tried to teach the children a l i t t l e book-learning.' Then, when their husbands made the long trips out for supplies, they did their work as well. There was fun as well as work i n the lives of the early settlers, however. Quilting, building, and threshing bees not only got needed work finished, but also served as occasions on which to get together with one's neighbours. Hunting and horseback riding were popular pasttimes, and in the winters there were sleighing parties, dances, and card parties alternating from home to home. Large Sunday picnics and gatherings were frequent. Distances meant l i t t l e to the early settlers. A twenty mile trip by horseback, buggy, or cutter to an a l l night dance was not uncommon. D i f f i c u l t and trying times these were, but those who experienced theffl look back upon them as good times too, for these were s t i l l the days when the entire family lived and worked and played together. L i f e was simple, but i t was good. / Chapter III PIONEER TRAILS Like most settlements in the West the Coronation d i s t r i c t drew i t s pioneers from many lands. Earliest available s t a t i s t i c s showed B r i t i s h settlers (from Ontario and the Old Country) making up the bulk of the population, but, with the arrival of more and more immigrants from the Continent, together with the departure of many of the original pioneers, this majority gradually decreased. In 1921, out of a total population of 2,687 (2,042 in the country and 645 in town), 76% were B r i t i s h , 8% Scandinavian, 6% German, 3% Russian, French, and 2% Dutch. Twenty years later, i n 1941, Britishers made up only 61%, Germans 12%, Scandinavians 11%, 1 Russians 5%, French 5%, and Dutch 2% of the 2,421 total. This change in ra c i a l ratio was typical of the trend throughout the West. Though the early pioneers spoke different tongues, and had different national heritages and cultures, they had many things in common too. They had the desire to make a fresh start in a new world. They had the wish to build and own their own home, and to c a l l no man their master. To do a l l this, they had to fight the farmer's greatest foe - nature and the elements. These common bonds, as well as the need for companionship between men thousands of miles from home and 1 From statistics enclosed in a letter to the author from the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, dated June 28,1949, Reasons for the drop in population w i l l be discussed in a later chapter. , . (23) 24. country, helped overcome r a c i a l and national barriers and make most small l o c a l i t i e s , as indeed the whole Canadian West, a melting pot of diverse peoples. Coronation was no exception. The journey from homeland to frontier, the conditions which were l e f t behind and those which lay ahead, the reasons for picking Canada, Alberta, and f i n a l l y Coronation - these perhaps can best be depicted by describing in some detail the experiences of a few of the early pioneers. These stories have been chosen, almost at ranaom, from men who were among the f i r s t to settle at Coronation and make this d i s t r i c t their permanent home. No history of Coronation would be complete without the memoirs of her f i r s t pioneer - a man who, for over half a century, made his home on the site he chose just south of the Battle River. John Nelson was born near Trondheim, Norway, in the year, 1860. By the time he was twelve, John was working on the fishing boats and freighters up and down the Norwegian coast. Three years later he joined the crew of a Br i t i s h merchant ship, and for several years sailed from England a l l over the world. On his second tr i p to Australia, in 1882, he decided to stay, and for ten years he worked on the great sheep ranches of Victoria and New South Wales. In 1892 Nelson was back in Norway, but, after a ten month v i s i t , he headed for the United States and the American West. After three weeks i n Idaho he moved on up to Wetaskiwin, Alberta, - arriving there in the spring of '93. Here he took up homestead, but, in his own words, "there were too many people around." He wanted room, and"lots"of i t , to raise 2 5 . c a t t l e - a l m o s t a n i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n s e t t l e d a r e a s c r i s s - c r o s s e d w i t h b a r b e d w i r e . F i n a l l y , i n 1 8 9 7 , N e l s o n s t a r t e d d o w n f r o m S e d g e w i c k , d r i v i n g 2 0 0 h e a d o f c a t t l e . J u s t a c r o s s t h e B a t t l e R i v e r h e f o u n d t h e l a n d h e s o u g h t . H e r e w a s p l e n t y o f g r a s s a n d w a t e r , a n d a f e w m i l e s t o t h e s o u t h w e r e l a r g e - h a y m e a d o w s w h i c h c o u l d c a r r y t h e s t o c k t h r o u g h e v e n t h e h a r d e s t o f w i n t e r s . D e e p c o u l e e s a n d l a r g e b l u f f s o f t r e e s p r o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t s h e l t e r . H e r e J o h n a l s o f o u n d t h e " r o o m " f o r w h i c h h e w a s s e e k i n g . F o r m i l e s a n d m i l e s s o u t h , e a s t , a n d w e s t t h e r e w a s n e i t h e r s e t t l e r n o r f e n c e . R o v i n g b a n d s o f I n d i a n s a n d s c a t t e r e d h e a p s o f b u f f a l o b o n e s r e f l e c t e d t h e n e w n e s s o f t h e l a n d . T h e s e f e w I n d i a n s , r e l u c t a n t t o l e a v e t h e i r o l d h a u n t s , p r o v e d a r e a l a i d t o t h e c a t t l e m a n i n t r a c k i n g d o w n s t r a y s a n d w a n d e r i n g h e r d s . M u c h o f h i s t i m e N e l s o n s p e n t i n t h e s a d d l e , r o u n d i n g u p c a t t l e a n d d r i v i n g t h e m t o m a r k e t - f i r s t t o W e t a s k i w i n , t h e n t o L a c o m b e - p o c k e t i n g f o r h i s p r i m e s t e e r s , t h r e e t o f o u r c e n t s a p o u n d . A t f i r s t , t w o t r i p s a y e a r w e r e m a & e t o W e t a s k i w i n f o r s u p p l i e s , b u t g r a d u a l l y i n c o m i n g s e t t l e r s b r o u g h t c i v i l i z a t i o n n e a r e r . T h e y a l s o b r o u g h t a n e n d t o o p e n p a s t u r e s a n d u n l i m i t e d r a n c h i n g . F i n a l l y J o h n N e l s o n w a s f o r c e d t o a d d f a r m i n g t o c a t t l e r a i s i n g a s t h e b e s t m e a n s o f l i v e l i h o o d i n t h e n e w a n d 2 " c r o w d e d " w e s t . 2 F r o m a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h M r . N e l s o n a t M s B a t t l e R i v e r h o m e o n J u n e . 1 2 , 1 9 4 9 . A f t e r a b r i e f i l l n e s s J o h n N e l s o n p a s s e d a w a y o n D e c e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 4 9 , a t t h e a g e o f 8 9 . I n 1 9 0 4 , s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r J o h n N e l s o n h a d s e t t l e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t , A l b e r t C a s e l e y d r o v e a l a r g e h e r d o f c a t t l e a n d h o r s e s a c r o s s c o u n t r y f r o m C a l g a r y , a n d b u i l t h i s h o m e a f e w m i l e s w e s t o f t h e p e a k o f t h e N o s e H i l l s a n d s o m e t w e n t y m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f t h e N e l s o n p l a c e . H e h a d d r i v e n u p f r o m C a l g a r y t h e y e a r b e f o r e l o o k i n g f o r g o o d r a n c h i n g l a n d , a n d , l i k e N e l s o n , h a d d e c i d e d t h a t t h e g r a s s l a n d s s o u t h o f t h e r i v e r w e r e i d e a l f o r r a i s i n g c h o i c e c a t t l e . H e , t o o , c h o s e a s i t e w i t h g o o d h a y r e s e r v e s n e a r a t h a n d . C a s e l e y w a s b o r n a n d r a i s e d o n a f a r m i n S o m e r s e t , E n g l a n d . I n 1 8 8 5 , w h e n h e w a s 1 4 y e a r s o l d , h e s h i p p e d o u t t o C a n a d a o n a c a t t l e b o a t , s e e k i n g a d v e n t u r e a n d o p p o r t u n i t y . F o r t h e n e x t t h r e e y e a r s h e w o r k e d o n a f a r m n e a r W o o d s t o c k , O n t a r i o , a n d t h e n , s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g n e w , h e h e a d e d a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h e r e h e s p e n t s o m e t i m e o n a f a r m i n t h e O k a n a g a n V a l l e y . T h e n , w i t h t h e s t a k e h e h a d . b u i l t u p , h e r e n t e d l a n d o n t h e B o w R i v e r , s o u t h e a s t o f C a l g a r y , a n d b e g a n f a r m i n g a n d r a n c h i n g f o r h i m s e l f . I t w a s a l r e a d y d i f f i c u l t t o a c q u i r e o n e ' s o w n l a n d i n t h a t p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y , h o w e v e r , a n d t h u s i t w a s t h a t C a s e l e y , i n 1 9 0 3 , h e a d e d n o r t h e a s t i n t o t h e l i m i t l e s s p r a i r i e s t o p i c k o u t a n e w s p o t t o s e t t l e . L a t e r t h a t y e a r h e f i l e d h i s h o m e s t e a d a t t h e l a n d o f f i c e i n R e d D e e r . I n J u n e , 1 9 0 3 , A l b e r t C a s e l e y m a r r i e d J a n e N i c h o l s o n . J a n e w a s b o r n i n C u m b e r l a n d , E n g l a n d , i n 1 8 8 2 . S i x y e a r s l a t e r t h e f a m i l y h a d m o v e d t o C a n a d a a n d t h e W e s t w h e r e M r . N i c h o l s o n w o r k e d i n t h e C . P . R . s h o p s i n M e d i c i n e H a t a n d C a l g a r y . 27. The following spring after they were married. Caseley set out from Calgary for their new home, in a hay rack loaded with household effects and settler supplies. Mrs.Caseley followed in the f a l l ; travelling "by train as far as Alix (then the end of the line) and by team and wagon the f i n a l 80 odd miles. I t wasn't long before the log and sod house on the Caseley homestead became a familiar landmark in the d i s t r i c t , for i t was here that neighbours came for their mail and supplies, as well as to many a card party and dance. Here, too, travellers stopped to eat and rest before journeying on their way. Only after the railway had pushed through, six miles to the south, did Caseleyville play a less important part in the l i f e of the 3 new community. • Like the two ranchers who preceded him, Dick Goodall, when he arrived in the Coronation area in 1906, was primarily interested in raising cattle. Dick was born in Northampton-shire, England, in 1886, with the love of horses and the outdoors i n his blood. For generations his family had been huntsmen at Althorpe House, home of the Pytchley and Belvoir Hounds. Though both his father and his grandfather had been k i l l e d on the hunts, Dick was in the saddle when he was three years old and was brought up to ride. By the time he was sixteen Dick had quit school, and was looking for a job where he could get his f i l l of horses and adventure. T h r i l l i n g stories of the Wild West, and the name Calgary on a map, made up his mind for him, and in 1902, he 3 From an interview with Mrs.Caseley on June 5, 1949. Albert Caseley died April 14, 1948. 28. sailed from Liverpool, bound for Canada and the far West. Before Dick l e f t England, his godfather, Lord Spencer, had introduced him to Lord Strathcona. The latter gave him letters of introduction to influential men in the Canadian West, but these Dick never used, for i n this new country he wanted to make his own way. For the next four years Goodall was in the saddle from morning t i l l night,"punching"cattle near Calgary. By 1906 he had his own small herd and was looking for land. His f i n a l choice was a quarter section five miles northeast of the later site of Coronation,, and with a four horse team and prairie schooner he headed overland from Calgary to start proving up his new homestead. That f i r s t summer he broke about 1*5 acres and put up a 12 by 12 frame shack just in time for the terrible winter of 1906 and''07 - a winter which oldtimers s t i l l r e c a l l as one sof the worst on record. Huge d r i f t s made i t almost impossible to use horses., so that Dick had to travel the fifteen miles to Brownfield on snowshoes to get his food and mail. So late did freeze-up last that hay had to be burned as fuel in order to get through the f i n a l few weeks of winter* The bad weather had been general over the West, and, after riding a month, Dick was only able to find 22 head of skin and bones -a l l that remained of the 70 cattle he had l e f t to winter in the south. In 1907, Dick Goodall married Irene Shaw, a real daughter of the Old West. Irene's father and mother had come from England i n 1883 and settled on Fish Creek, ten miles south of 2 9 . C a l g a r y ; M r s . S h a w b e i n g o n e o n t h e v e r y e a r l i e s t w h i t e w o m e n t o a r r i v e i n t h e t e r r i t o r y . H e r e I r e n e w a s b o r n i n 1 8 8 6 a n d w a s b r o u g h t u p i n t h e f r o n t i e r a t m o s p h e r e o f I n d i a n s , h a l f -b r e e d s , c o w b o y s , a n d p i o n e e r s . A n e a r b y f r i e n d a n d n e i g h b o u r w a s F a t h e r L a c o m b e w h o k n e w s o w e l l t h e d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h 4 t h e G o o d a l l s w e r e t o m a k e t h e i r f u t u r e h o m e . D u r i n g t h o s e f i r s t y e a r s , G o o d a l l g r e w s o m e o a t s f o r f e e d a n d t o s e l l t o s e t t l e r s , b u t h i s m a i n i n t e r e s t w a s r a i s i n g c a t t l e . G r a d u a l l y , h o w e v e r , a s l a n d w a s t a k e n u p , r a n c h i n g b e c a m e m o r e d i f f i c u l t , a n d m o r e . s t r e s s h a d t o b e p l a c e d o n f a r m i n g . O v e r t h e y e a r s D i c k G o o d a l l h a s m a d e a h o b b y o f g a t h e r i n g o l d I n d i a n r e l i c s , a n d h e h a s a m a s s e d a f i n e c o l l e c t i o n o f t o m a h a w k s , s p e a r a n d a r r o w h e a d s , f l e s h e r s , m o c c a s i n l a s t s , • 5 I n d i a n r i f l e s , a n d t h e l i k e . T r u l y a w o r t h y h o b b y i n a 6 c o u n t r y w h o s e p a s t w i l l s o o n b e g o n e . 1 A n d r e w L a n d v i k w a s b o r n n e a r O s l o , N o r w a y , i n 1 8 7 9 . W h e n h e w a s s e v e n y e a r s o l d , t h e f a m i l y m o v e d t o M i n n e s o t a w h e r e t h e y h a d r e l a t i v e s . A n d y g r e w u p o n t h e h o m e s t e a d , g o i n g t o s c h o o l , w o r k i n g o n t h e f a r m , a n d l e a r n i n g t h e b a r b e r i n g t r a d e o n t h e s i d e . A t t h e a g e o f 1 9 h e s t a r t e d h i s o w n b a r b e r s h o p 4 W h e n M r s . G o o d a l l w a s b a c k h o m e o n a v i s i t a f e w m o n t h s a f t e r h e r m a r r i a g e , F a t h e r L a c o m b e a s k e d h e r w h e r e t h e y l i v e d - n o t i n m i l e s , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o s e c t i o n , t o w n s h i p , a n d r a n g e . A f t e r a m o m e n t s t h o u g h t h e s a i d , " Y o u ' r e s t r a i g h t w e s t o f N o s e h i l l s . " 5 I n J u n e , 1 9 4 9 , M r . G o o d a l l a c q u i r e d a n o l d f l i n t l o c k t h a t h a d b e e n p i c k e d u p i n t h e N o s e H i l l s 4 1 y e a r s a g o a n d b o r e t h e i n s c r i p t i o n " P a r k e r F i e l d & C o . , 1 8 6 4 " . 6 F r o m i n t e r v i e w s w i t h M r . a n d M r s . G o o d a l l o n J u n e 8 a n d 1 5 , 1 9 4 9 , M r s . G o o d a l l p a s s e d a w a y i n J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 0 . 30. i n S o u t h D a k o t a w h e r e h e r e m a i n e d f o r n i n e y e a r s . T h e n , w h i l e o n a t r i p t o M i n n e a p o l i s , h e a n d s o m e f r i e n d s v i s i t e d t h e C a n a d i a n i m m i g r a t i o n o f f i c e t h e r e a n d w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o t h e 7 S i f t o n s a l e s m a n s h i p . T h e r e s u l t w a s a t r i p b y A n d y , h i s b r o t h e r E d , B i l l A d a m s , a n d O t t o K o r t g a a r d t o t h e C o r o n a t i o n d i s t r i c t i n 1 9 0 6 t o l o o k f o r h o m e s t e a d s . U s e d t o t h e p r a i r i e l a n d o f M i n n e s o t a a n d t h e D a k o t a s , t h e y h a d c h o s e n a r e g i o n w i t h v e r y . l i t t l e b u s h . T h a t w i n t e r w a s s p e n t b a c k i n t h e S t a t e s , a n d t h e f o l l o w -i n g s p r i n g A n d y h e a d e d f o r H a r d i s t y w h e r e h e b a r b e r e d p a r t o f ' t h e s u m m e r a n d t h e n m o v e d d o w n t o h i s h o m e s t e a d f o r t h e w i n t e r . T h r e e y e a r s h e d i d t h i s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g h i s o w n b a r b e r s h o p a t 8 . • • H a n e y v i l l e i n 1 9 1 0 . M e a n w h i l e h e h a d b u i l t a h o u s e o f f r a m e a n d s o d , a s w e l l a s a l o g b a r n , o n h i s h o m e s t e a d f i v e m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f t h e f u t u r e t o w n , a n d w a s s o w i n g h i s a c r e a g e t o w h e a t , o a t s , a n d f l a x . W h e n C o r o n a t i o n w a s s t a r t e d i n 1 9 1 1 , A n d r e w L a n d v i k w a s t h e t o w n ' s f i r s t b a r b e r , h a v i n g m o v e d h i s 9 b u i l d i n g i n f r o m H a n e y v i l l e a w e e k b e f o r e t h e s a l e o f l o t s . T y p i c a l o f t h o s e s e t t l e r s w h o m o v e d t o t h e p r a i r i e s f r o m O n t a r i o w e r e G e o r g e H i g h a n d h i s t w o s o n s , H e r b a n d N o r m . T h e y 7 I n t h e w i n d o w o f t h e o f f i c e w a s a d i s p l a y s h o w i n g a m a n c u t t i n g a h u g e l o a f o f b r e a d , a n d a l o n g s i d e t h e c a p t i o n , " S u n n y S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a . 1 W i l l y o u h a v e a s l i c e ? " 8 A b u s y l i t t l e f r o n t i e r s e t t l e m e n t n a m e d a f t e r E d H a n e y , H a n e y v i l l e h a d s p r u n g u p a s a s u p p l y c e n t r e s i x m i l e s w e s t o f t h e f u t u r e s i t e o f C o r o n a t i o n . T h e f i r s t h a i r c u t " A n d y L a n d v i k g a v e a t H a n e y v i l l e w a s t o G e o r g e F a i r , s t i l l a r e s i d e n t o f C o r o n a t i o n . 9 I n 1 9 1 4 A n d y L a n d v i k m a r r i e d J e r g i n a O l s e n o f M i l a n , M i n n e s o t a . W h e n t h e i r h o u s e b u r n e d i n 1 9 1 5 , t h e L a n d v i k s . m o v e d t o t h e i r p r e s e n t h o m e t w o m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f t o w n . F r o m a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h A n d r e w L a n d v i k o n J u n e 1 9 , 1 9 4 9 . h a d m i x e d - f a r m e d f o r y e a r s n e a r M a p l e i n Y o r k C o u n t y , b u t t h e s t o r i e s , f r o m f r i e n d s i n t h e W e s t , o f f r e e f a r m s , f o r t y b u s h e l c r o p s , a n d s u p p o s e d i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m m i l k c o w s m a d e t h e m r e s t l e s s . I n 1 9 0 8 H e r b m a d e a t r i p o u t t o s e e t h e c o u n t r y . T h e r a i l w a y , t h e n b e i n g b u i l t e a s t o f L a c o m b e , w a s o p e n i n g u p n e w t e r r i t o r y , a n d h e r e i t w a s t h a t h e d e c i d e d t h e g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y l a y . I n 1 9 0 9 H e r b a n d h i s f a t h e r t o o k o u t h o m e s t e a d s t w o m i l e s e a s t o f t h e f u t u r e t o w n o f C o r o n a t i o n , a n d s p e n t t h e s u m m e r p u t t i n g u p b u i l d i n g s a n d b r e a k i n g l a n d . T h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g t h e y s h i p p e d f r o m t h e e a s t t h e i r h o r s e s , m a c h i n e r y , a n d h o u s e -1 0 h o l d e f f e c t s . H e r b , t r a v e l l i n g w i t h t h e s t o c k , t o o k 1 7 d a y s t o m a k e t h e t r i p o u t , a n d , w h e n h e a r r i v e d a t G a d s b y , t h e n t h e e n d o f t h e s t e e l , h e w a s m e t b y N o r m w h o h a d g o n e o n a h e a d . T h e y d r o v e o n t o C a s t o r i n o n e d a y a n d r e a c h e d t h e i r h o m e s t e a d a d a y l a t e r . I n J u n e o f 1 9 1 0 N o r m t o o k o u t h i s h o m e s t e a d - f i l i n g b y p r o x y w i t h h i s f a t h e r s i n c e h e w a s n o t y e t 1 8 . T h e f i r s t y e a r s w e r e s p e n t i n b u i l d i n g , b r e a k i n g , a n d g e t t i n g a s m u c h l a n d a s p o s s i b l e i n t o c r o p . V e r y l i t t l e w a s s o w n i n 1 9 1 0 , f r o s t m a d e t h e w h e a t n o t w o r t h t h r e s h i n g i n 1 9 1 1 , a n d s o i t w a s 1 9 1 2 b e f o r e t h e H i g h s g o t a p a y i n g c r o p . G r a d u a l l y , h o w e v e r , h i g h e r p r i c e s a n d b e t t e r y i e l d s e a s e d t h e " p i n c h " o f t h e f i r s t f e w 1 1 s e a s o n s . 1 0 T h e i r b o x c a r , c l a s s i f i e d a s u s e d s e t t l e r e f f e c t s , , r e c e i v e d t h e u s u a l r e d u c t i o n f r o m t h e s t a n d a r d f r e i g h t r a t e . 1 1 G e o r g e H i g h d i e d i n 1 9 1 8 . H e r b , i n t h e h u n g r y " T h i r t i e s , m o v e d o n t o t h e n e w l y d e v e l o p i n g C o l d L a k e r e g i o n s o f N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a . N o r m , i n 1 9 1 7 , m a r r i e d M a r y A n d r e w s , w h o s e f a m i l y h a d m o v e d i n t o t h e d i s t r i c t f r o m t h e L a c o m b e a r e a . F r o m a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h N o r m H i g h o n M a y 2 4 , 1 9 4 9 . J o h n O s e t s k y w a s b o r n o n a f a r m i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f K a r o s o n i n R u s s i a i n t h e y e a r 1 8 8 8 . T i m e s w e r e h a r d a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h e r e w a s a s h o r t a g e o f l a n d ; l a b o u r w a s c h e a p ; c r o p s w e r e p o o r ; a n d t a x e s w e r e h i g h . I n a d d i t i o n a l l y o u n g m e n f a c e d a t h r e e t o f o u r y e a r p e r i o d o f c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e w i t h o n l y a f e w c e n t s a m o n t h a s p a y . T h e n i n e a c r e s o f l a n d o n t h e O s e t s k y f a r m h a d t o s u p p o r t t h e f a t h e r , h i s t h r e e s o n s , a n d t h e f a m i l i e s o f t h e l a t t e r a s t h e y m a r r i e d . T h u s i t w a s t h a t w h e n a n i m m i g r a t i o n a g e n t , i n 1 9 0 9 , g a v e a l o c a l t a l k o n t h e f r e e d o m a n d f o r t u n e s t o b e h a d f o r t h e a s k i n g i n t h e N e w W o r l d , J o h n a n d h i s w i f e , P o l l y , j o i n e d w i t h a g r o u p o f n e i g h - , b o u r s a n d s i g n e d u p t o g o . O n c e t h e . 1 7 0 r u b l e s ( a b o u t $ 8 5 ) h a d b e e n p a i d b y e a c h a d u l t , a l l t h e d e t a i l s o f t r a n s i t w e r e t a k e n c a r e o f b y i m m i g r a -t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l s . T h e r e w e r e 4 7 m e n , w o m e n , a n d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i m m i g r a n t g r o u p f r o m J o h n O s e t s k y 1 s v i l l a g e , a n d t h e y t r a v e l l e d a s o n e p a r t y a l l t h e w a y f r o m t h e i r n a t i v e R u s s i a , t h r o u g h P o l a n d , b y b o a t t o H u l l , a c r o s s E n g l a n d t o L i v e r p o o l , f r o m L i v e r p o o l t o P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , a n d f i n a l l y b y ' r a i l t o S t e t t l e r , A l b e r t a . I t w a s t h e f o u r t e e n t h o f D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 9 , w h e n t h e n e w s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e l i n e , a n d , a s i t w a s f a r t o o l a t e i n t h e s e a s o n t o t a k e o u t h o m e s t e a d s , t h e y h a d t o m a k e d o t h r o u g h t h e w i n t e r a s b e s t t h e y c o u l d . T h r o u g h t h e l o n g c o l d m o n t h s , a l l 4 7 o f t h e m l i v e d i n " I m m i g r a t i o n H o u s e " , a 1 4 b y 2 0 t w o s t o r y b u i l d i n g w i t h t w o r o o m s u p s t a i r s a n d t w o o n t h e g r o u n d f l o o r . . F i n a l l y w i n t e r e n d e d , a n d , w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f s p r i n g , t h e p a r t y t h a t h a d l i v e d t o g e t h e r f o r s o l o n g s p l i t u p , t h e d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s s c a t t e r i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e 3 3 . v a s t n e w l a n d s t o t h e e a s t . O s e t s k y p i c k e d a s h i s h o m e s t e a d , a s i t e 3 5 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f C a s t o r ( t h e i i - t h e n e a r e s t t o w n ) a n d 1 7 m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f w h e r e C o r o n a t i o n w a s t o s t a n d . H e r e , h e a n d h i s g r o w i n g f a m i l y l i v e d u n t i l 1 9 2 5 w h e n t h e y m o v e d c l o s e r t o C o r o n a t i o n . I n t h a t f i r s t s u m m e r o f 1 9 1 0 J o h n , w i t h t h e h e l p o f n e i g h b o u r s , p u t u p a s o d h o u s e a n d b a r n , a n d b r o k e a b o u t t e n a c r e s . F o l l o w i n g t h e a d v i c e o f x h e d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t , h e s o w e d h i s n e w s o i l t o f l a x - t h e o n l y c r o p , s u p p o s e d l y , t h a t c o u l d b e g r o w n s u c c e s s f u l l y o n s p r i n g b r e a k i n g - b u t i t f r o z e . I n 1 9 1 2 t h e f l a x a g a i n f r o z e , a n d i t w a s n o t u n t i l 1 9 1 4 t h a t a r e a l -1 2 p a y i n g c r o p ( o f w h e a t a n d o a t s ) w a s r a i s e d . D u r i n g t h o s e f i r s t y e a r s J o h n , a s s o m a n y o f t h e n e w s e t t l e r s d i d , w o r k e d o u t w h e n a b l e i n o r d e r t o g e t a b i t o f r e a d y c a s h . A l s o h e l p i n g t o b u y c o a l a n d g r o c e r i e s w a s t h e $ 8 a t o n w h i c h h e g o t f o r h a u l i n g h a y t o C o r o n a t i o n . B y 1 9 1 3 J o h n w a s a b l e t o b u y h i s f i r s t t e a m o f o x e n , a n d t h e g o o d c r o p s a n d a n d h i g h p r i c e s o f t h e w a r y e a r s h e l p e d s e t h i m f i r m l y o n h i s 1 3 f e e t . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , h e r e , t o t e l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t o r y o f 1 4 e v e r y s e t t l e r w h o m a d e h i s h o m e i n t h e C o r o n a t i o n d i s t r i c t . A l l s u c h t a l e s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g , a l l a r e d i f f e r e n t , y e t a l l a r e 1 2 W i t h t h e n e a r e s t t h r e s h i n g m a c h i n e s o m e 2 5 m i l e s a w a y , t h e f i r s t c r o p s h a d t o b e t h r e s h e d b y t r a m p l i n g t h e g r a i n w i t h t e a m a n d w a g o n , a n d t h e n l a b o r i o u s l y c l e a n i n g i t b y h a n d . 1 3 F r o m a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h J o h n O s e t s k y o n M a y 2 4 , 1 9 4 9 . 1 4 S e e a p p e n d i x f o r c o m p l e t e l i s t o f s u r v i v i n g p i o n e e r s w h o r e g i s t e r e d o n t h e 3 0 t h . A n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e t o w n o f C o r o n a t i o n , S e p t e m b e r 2 7 , 1 9 4 1 . f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e s a m e . F r o m g r e a t d i s t a n c e s a n d f a r a w a y p l a c e s t h e p i o n e e r s c a m e , a n d , w h e t h e r t h e y c h o s e t o m a k e t h e i r h o m e i n t o w n o r c o u n t r y , e a c h m a n a n d w o m a n , w h o s e t t l e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t , h a d a p a r t t o p l a y i n t h e l i f e a n d h i s t o r y o f t h e l a n d . Chapter IV THE FOUNDING OF A TOWN September, 1911, was a month of great excitement i n the d i s t r i c t lying beyond Castor, then the easternmost link on the Lacombe branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway. A new townsite was to be established which, besides being i n the heart of a 1 fine wheat growing area, was to be the divisional point on the 2 Lacombe-Kerrobert railway, then being rushed to completion. This town was to be called Coronation in honour of the corona-tion of King George V and Queen Mary;which had taken place the 3 previous June, and, as was usual in such forthcoming events, the occasion was well publicized in newspaper and pamphlet throughout the West. The railway company picked as the town's location a 1 The land around Coronation i s r o l l i n g prairie, mostly free from bush, with a general elevation of about 2,500 feet. The s o i l , a dark clay loam, i s admirably suited to growing the finest hard wheat - when there i s enough rain. However, precipitation i s scanty, and the d i s t r i c t i s included in the Dominion Department of Agriculture's "Moderate-Drought Area" l i s t i n g s . Wide extremes of temperature, ranging from 40 oelow zero in winter to the high 90*s in summer, are common. The months of June, July, and August are usually free from severe frosts, out there have been exceptions. There i s much sunshine, both summer and winter, and the climate is a healthful one. See statis t i c s of local weather station (organized in 1944) in appendix, p.vW. 2 See map i n appendix, p.xxvi. 3 Other towns along the line continued this patriotic vein as witness Throne, Veteran, Loyalist and Consort. Even the streets and avenues of Coronation had a decidedly imperialistic flavour. Names like Victoria, Windsor, Mary, Queen, Royal, King, George, and Edward set the tone. (35) stretch of high ground alongside the railroad in Section 13 of Township 36, Range 11, West of the 4th. Meridian. As happened so often in choosing townsites, the company bypassed the settlers' own l i t t l e community, and the inhabitants of Haneyville had to move their business establishments the six miles on to Coronation or be l e f t in the backwash of progress. Already that tiny centre boasted two or three general stores, a boarding house, pool h a l l , post office, and a branch of the Merchants' Bank of Canada, and the transporting of these buildings by teams 6f horses over prairie t r a i l s was no easy task. One of the big events of the day of sale was the arrival at Coronation of a large double-fronted hardware store pulled 4 by ten teams of horses. Once the site of the new town had been chosen, and the land surveyed and staked out, many enterprising businessmen hurried to erect tents and temporary buildings in order to get as much head start as possible in their particular line of business. Among the f i r s t to arrive were Mr. and Mrs. J.H. Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. A.A.Towns, Mrs.A.C.Bury, Mrs.McNeice, A.J.Stewart, A.D.McEwen, D.Craig, J.Odell, C.Wilson, D.Craig, J.Cahoun, J.Mayhew, E.Bartlett, E.R.Haney, A.Bernhardt, Dr. 5 Hurlburt, and Lee Ping. 4 Later written reports placed the number of teams at any-where from six to sixteen. Ten i s accepted as most reliable. That winter 28 horses were used to move the Star Theatre building across the snow on runners. 5 In an article in The Coronation Review. Dec. 14, 1916, J.H.Robinson l i s t e d the above persons as being among the very f i r s t of the townspeople to arrive at the new townsite. For the homesteaders of the d i s t r i c t the appearance of a new town was an occasion of great importance. No longer would they have to travel great distances to s e l l their produce and buy supplies. A thriving community near at hand would provide an increasing local demand for the output of the farm. And in addition a town would become the social centre of the d i s t r i c t - a place where hardworking farmers could meet once or twice a week to exchange gossip and discuss the po s s i b i l i t i e s of rain. September 27 was the day set for the sale, and by the night of the 26th. the area near the railway bore the appear-ances of a bustling tent city. Tents and shacks were scattered across the landscape. Piles of lumber, and the unceasing din of hammer and saw, gave evidence of the hurried construction work taking place. Every few minutes the arrival of horses, buggies, wagons, and automobiles brought new groups of buyers and sight-seers anxious to be on hand for the following morning. Shortly after 6:00 that evening the track laying gang reached town, and only two hours behind came the f i r s t train - baggage car, observation car, and four passenger coaches loaded with some 300 railway o f f i c i a l s , settlers, townspeople and speculators. The day of the sale dawned clear and bright, but, even before daybreak, men were up, walking among the survey stakes trying to choose the lots on which to bid. People continued to arrive, u n t i l , by mid-morning, over 500 persons stood 6 Pamphlet entitled Coronation published by the Land Depart-ment, Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Winnipeg, 1911, p.9. around the platform on which was mounted a large scale plan of the town to be. From a l l four corners of the continent they had come - drawn by the lure of the West and a booming frontier. 7 About 9:30, T.C.Norris mounted the platform and, after f i r s t saying a few words on the golden opportunities then at hand, o f f i c i a l l y opened the townsite sale. Bidding was brisk. By noon 121 of the 828 lots put up for auction had been sold, and the day closed with over $130,000 worth of property sold. Prices varied a l l the way from $50 and $75 for single lots 8 to a high of $2900 for a 50 foot business corner. The average price for a business l o t with a 25 foot frontage ran from $1200 to $1500, These were near record prices for a new and untried community - evidence of the unbridled enthusiasm and 9 optimism of the times. One of the highlights of the day was the appearance of The News Review, claiming to be "the f i r s t newspaper ever 10 printed in Canada on i t s own press, issued from i t s own offices and distributed to the public free of charge on the very day on which the the [sic] townsite i t s e l f was offered 11 for sale to the public." The editor, G.C.Duncan, like 7 Mr.Norris later became premier of Manitoba. 8 These were Lots 1 and 2 of Block 12. See townsite plan in appendix, p.xxix, 9 C.P.R.Pamphlets; The News Review, Sept. 27, 1911. The News  Review later became The Coronation Review, and w i l l be referred to in succeeding footnotes as Review. I t is a weekly newspaper, being published every Thursday. 10 The press was set up on a horse drawn dray. 11 Review, Sept. 27, 1911. everyone else, believed in the future bf the d i s t r i c t -"September 27 w i l l go down in the history of Coronation as the alpha of her existence. From this date w i l l be reckoned the building, not only of business establishments, but of character and i t may be of fortunes also." He went on, however, to give a sober warning against the "wolves" at the auction who hoped "to draw sustenance from them by preying upon them in the garb of speculators, having no intention of improving their purchases but rather expecting by the industry of others to share in the 12 general prosperity which accompanies industry. These speculators and investors were a part of every townsite sale during this period of land fever; their practices often making the cost of locating, forbiddingly high for the. budding merchant. Nor was such investment and real-estate turnover.discouraged by the railway companies. In C.P.R. propaganda pamphlets publicizing the birth of Coronation such 13 statements as the following appear: Selected by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company to be a Divisional town and the scene of extensive railway operations, occupying a commanding site, situated in the centre of exceptionally fine farming d i s t r i c t s , and located on what w i l l eventually be a great through route from Chicago to Edmonton, Coronation has before i t a prosperous future which - whatever else i t may mean - certainly means prof i t on property investments. Also: While the price paid for lots may appear somewhat high to the outsider they were 12 Review. Sept. 27, 1911. 13 From pamphlets published by the Land Dept., C.P.R.Co*,-Winnipeg, 1911, 40, undoubtedly on a solid business basis since farming operations in the vi c i n i t y of Coronation, together with the railway pay-roll and commercial activity, w i l l yield to the future City a purchasing revenue more than ample to j u s t i f y their investments. Many of the merchants w i l l turn over a car-load of goods per week and the annual value of their trade w i l l run well into the thousands. Or: Be convinced by the progress of thirty days. Coronation i s s t i l l growing and affords splendid inducements for investors and those in search of profitable business locations. Or again: I t i s almost safe to prophesy, however, that within a year from date the new town of Coronation w i l l have a population of at least one thousand. Such publicity was undoubtedly necessary to entice people and money into new d i s t r i c t s , but i t also helped push prices beyond their real value and give an air of pseudo-prosperity to areas basically unable to live up to such great expectations. Coronation did not have a population of one thousand a year later - nor does i t have that number today, almost forty years later. The activities of unscrupulous speculators were pa r t i a l l y neutralized on sale day by the co-operative action of the original businessmen of the town. They, and others intending to locate permanently, had held a meeting the night before the sale to try to devise a procedure which would guard as far as possible the location of those lots that they, themselves, wanted. The plan was f a i r l y successful - one result being to make the main street of business Victoria Avenue instead 14 of Windsor as the surveyors and company agents had expected. 14 See townsite plan in appendix, p .xxi* , 41.' The fanfare that accompanied the birth of Coronation was heard round the world. Publicity pamphlets were circulated widely, and motion pictures taken of sales^day proceedings were shown as far away as London, England. According to one publication " . . . i t needed but an airship to complete a scene : . _15 of twentieth century progress as typified in western Canada." I t had been quite a day. During that f i r s t f a l l and winter the town's rapid growth seemed to bear out even the wildest predictions. Building continued right into freeze-up. By the f i r s t week of November 107 car loads of lumber and 330 kegs of nails had been used, and these figures did not include the building programme of the C.P.R.. A telegram, dated November 16, 1911, from H.S. Northwood, the railway company land agent at Coronation, to his head office stated that "Coronation contains One hundred 16 and forty-one buildings - - accurate count," and another tele-16 gram five days later gave the census as 524 people. A l i s t of the town's f i r s t business establishments well illustrates the amazing expansion that was taking place. By the f i r s t week in November there were six real estate and loan offices, six restaurants and boarding houses, five coal and fuel dealers, four draying concerns, four pool halls, four lumber yards, three general stores , three hardware stores, three livery barns, three implement dealers, three barber 15 C.P.R.Pamphlet, 1911. 16 Telegrams, dated Nov. 16 and 21, 1911, from H.S.Northwood to J.L.Doupe, Ass't. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg, Manitoba. These were reprinted in a C.P.R. pamphlet of that year. s h o p s , t h r e e w e l l - d r i l l i n g o u t f i t s , t w o b a n k s , t w o d r u g s t o r e s , t w o m e a t m a r k e t s , t w o b l a c k s m i t h s h o p s , t w o b a k e r i e s , o n e d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e , o n e p r i n t i n g o f f i c e , o n e h a r n e s s s h o p , o n e p a i n t i n g a n d d e c o r a t i n g c o n c e r n , o n e d a i r y , a n d o n e l a u n d r y -a l l o f t h i s w i t h i n a m o n t h a n d a h a l f o f t h e t o w n ' s b e g i n n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t v / o h o t e l s w e r e b e i n g b u i l t ; o n e o f t h e m a 1 7 $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 s t r u c t u r e . T h e d e m a n d f o r l o t s c o n t i n u e d t o b e b r i s k , a n d w i t h i n s i x w e e k s o f t h e t o w n s i t e s a l e , a n a d d i t i o n a l $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 w o r t h 1 8 o f p r o p e r t y h a d b e e n s o l d . T h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y l e t i t b e k n o w n t h a t c h o i c e l o c a t i o n s w e r e s t i l l t o b e h a d f r o m $ 5 0 u p , a n d t h a t t h e s e c o u l d b e h a n d l e d w i t h a d o w n p a y m e n t o f o n e t h i r d , a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r i n s i x t o t w e l v e m o n t h s . T o m e e t t h e h o p e d f o r e x p a n s i o n t w o m o r e s u r v e y s w e r e m a d e , a n d n e w s t r e e t s , b l o c k s , a n d l o t s w e r e l a i d o u t , n o t o n l y i n t h e o r i g i n a l a r e a o f S e c t i o n 1 3 , b u t i n t w o n e i g h b o u r i n g q u a r t e r 1 9 s e c t i o n s a s w e l l . L a n d w a s r e s e r v e d f o r m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g s , s c h o o l s , a n d a p u b l i c p a r k , a n d r o o m y s t a t i o n g r o u n d s a n d r a i l w a y y a r d s w e r e p u t a s i d e t o h a n d l e h e a v y d i v i s i o n a l t r a f f i c . T h e s u r v e y o r s , d r a u g h t s m e n , a n d o r i g i n a l p l a n n e r s w e r e m a k i n g s u r e t h a t t h e " W o n d e r T o w n o f t h e W e s t " h a d r o o m i n w h i c h t o g r o w i n t o t h e W o n d e r C i t y . D u r i n g t h e s e f i r s t f e w . f e v e r i s h w e e k s o f e x p a n s i o n t h e g u i d a n c e o f p u b l i c a f f a i r s w a s l a r g e l y b y u n o f f i c i a l c o - o p e r a -1 7 R e v i e w . N o v . 7 , 1 9 1 1 . 1 8 C . P . R . P a m p h l e t , 1 9 1 1 . 1 9 S e e t o w n s i t e p l a n i n a p p e n d i x , p . x x i x , tion. On the evening of September 28, the day after the townsite sale, the businessmen of the town gathered in the 20 Bank of Toronto to organize a Board of Trade. The f i r s t slate of officers included D.A.Thomson, president; C.W.Hurlburt, vice-president; J.D.Corbet, secretary-treasurer; and a pro-visional executive committee consisting of A.D.McEwen, A.J. 21 Stewart, and C.G.Dunning. Interest and enthusiasm were high, and the original membership of 30 rose steadily. "Working for the betterment of our town" was the avowed aim of the newly formed Board of Trade, and many were the problems this group faced at their regular Thursday meetings. Arrangements had to be made for an adequate water supply, for the construction of sidewalks, for fire-fighting equipment, for school f a c i l i t i e s . Letters were continually being received from interested parties asking about business potentialities in the new town. Perhaps most important of a l l was the question of o f f i c i a l organization. Should a village be formed, and i f so, when? Or should the status of a town be sought at once? Not a l l these problems could be cleared up immediately, but as the weeks stretched into months, temporary or permanent solutions were found, and progress continued with few serious set-backs. Different wells were dug giving a goodly supply of water at depths varying from 15 to 200 feet. The building of wooden sidewalks was begun at once, and within two months 20 The Bank of Toronto was the f i r s t building on the new townsite and was long the rendezvous for much of the town's acti v i t i e s . During the f i r s t weeks i t was post office and meeting place as well as bank. 21 Review. Nov. 7, 1911. 44 • some $1500 worth had been l a i d . School began December 1 on the 22 second floor of a downtown building, with C.F.Stein as the f i r s t teacher. I t was not u n t i l January of 1913, however, that a 23 proper volunteer f i r e brigade was organized. Early in November.of 1911, President Thomson reported to the Board of Trade on interviews he had had in Edmonton regarding the formation of a village. At that time i t was decided to postpone the election of officers u n t i l the new year so that a second election would be unnecessary for 1912. Therefore, though Coronation was erected a village on December 24 16, 1911, i t was January 6, 1912, before the three man council consisting of H.S.Northwood, D.A.Thomson, and A.Munn was chosen. This group had not long to serve, for within four 24 months - on April 29 - Coronation was proclaimed a town, and a few weeks later a new election was held to choose a mayor and councillors. The community's infant days were over. 22 This building later became Anderson's Funeral Home 23 Two weeks earlier the Review, after noting the arrival of new chemical f i r e fighting equipment, had cryptically remarked, "The next step w i l l no doubt be to organize a f i r e brigade." Review, Jan. 2, 1913. 24 Sources vary as to these dates,. I am accepting as o f f i c i a l , information contained in a letter to the author dated July 18, 1949, from the Department of Municipal Affairs, Edmonton. C h a p t e r V E A R L Y E X P A N S I O N A N D W O R L D W A R I C o r o n a t i o n S l o g a n O h , w e t o o k y o u f r o m t h e p r a i r i e a n d t h e p l o u g h , A n d w e l a i d y o u o u t s o v e r y t r i m a n d n e a t , W e b u i l t y o u u p s o q u i c k t h a t e v e n n o w L a r g e r t o w n s a r e j e a l o u s o f y o u r R o y a l S t r e e t } I t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r w h a t y o u w e r e b e f o r e , O r W h a t t h e o u t s i d e f a n c i e d f o r y o u r n a m e , O n c e t h e r a i l w a y s t a r t e d s e l l i n g , a n d t o b o o s t y o u w e r e s o w i l l i n g W e c a l l e d y o u C o r o n a t i o n j u s t t h e s a m e . O h , C o r a , C o r o n a t i o n , y o u ' r e a t o w n o f g o o d r e n o u n Y o u ' r e a c r e d i t t o t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t o a l l t h e f a r m e r s r o u n d } M a y y o u r l u c k b e n e v e r f a i l i n g , m a y y o u r m e n b e e v e r t r u e } G o d b l e s s y o u C o r o n a t i o n , t h a t ' s A l b e r t a ' s w i s h f o r y o u . T h e s e w o r d s f o r " C o r o n a t i o n S l o g a n " , p e n n e d b y a n e a r l y 1 r e s i d e n t o f t h e t o w n , w h i l e p e r h a p s f a l l i n g s h o r t o f p o e t i c e x c e l l e n c e , d o c a t c h t h e p r i d e a n d o p t i m i s m , s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f C o r o n a t i o n ' s f i r s t i n h a b i t a n t s . A d v e r s e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s p o o r c r o p s , s l o w r a i l w a y d e v e l o p m e n t s , a n d o t h e r d i s a p p o i n t -m e n t s i n t h o s e f i r s t y e a r s f a i l e d t o s h a t t e r t h e f a i t h i n a g o l d e n h e r i t i a g e . T h e s e f i r s t m i n o r s e t b a c k s w e r e o n l y t e m p o r a r y . T h e f u t u r e w o u l d s e e t h e f r u i t i o n o f a l l t h e i r d r e a m s . S o t h e y b e l i e v e d . T h e f i r s t c i v i c e l e c t i o n o n J u n e 1 , 1 9 1 2 , w a s e n t e r e d i n t o w i t h u n b r i d l e d e n t h u s i a s m . C o r o n a t i o n w a s n o w a f u l l 1 T h e p o e m w a s s i g n e d w i t h t h e i n i t i a l s W . D . G . , s t a n d i n g i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y f o r W . D . G u t h r i e , t h e t o w n ' s f i r s t s e c r e t a r y . T h e r e w e r e t h r e e o t h e r v e r s e s , a l l t o b e s u n g t o t h e t u n e o f " T o m m y A t k i n s . " A c o p y i s o n f i l e i n t h e C o r o n a t i o n R e v i e w o f f i c e , (45) f l e d g e d t o w n , c o m p l e t e w i t h o f f i c i a l c h a r t e r , a n d t h e g u i d a n c e o f p u b l i c a f f a i r s d e s e r v e d t h e b e s t l e a d e r s h i p p o s s i b l e . T h e r e w a s n o s h o r t a g e o f n o m i n e e s - f o r m a y o r t h e n a m e s o f A . B e r n h a r d t , E . R . H a n e y , a n d H . S . N o r t h w o o d w e r e p u t f o r w a r d , a n d t h e r e w a s a n i m p r e s s i v e l i s t o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r c o u n c i l l o r s . W h e n t h e d a y ' s v o t e s h a d b e e n c o u n t e d , H . S . N o r t h w o o d e m e r g e d a s f i r s t m a y o r o f t h e n e w t o w n . R o u n d i n g o u t h i s c o u n c i l w e r e J . E . B o n s a l l , L . B u r g e s s , A . C . B u r y , A . K e i t h , A . M u n n , a n d W . J . M c N e i l , w i t h W . D . G u t h r i e a s s e c r e t a r y . T h e c h o o s i n g o f t h e f i r s t t o w n f a t h e r s w a s a n o c c a s i o n w h i c h d e s e r v e d c e l e b r a t i o n , a n d t h a t n i g h t " e v e r y b o d y i n 2 t o w n , b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n , j o i n e d i n a n d m a d e a n i g h t o f i t . " A f t e r a t o r c h l i g h t p a r a d e t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s , a n i m p r o m p t u d a n c e w a s h e l d i n t h e h a l l o v e r t h e d r u g s t o r e . T h e r e s t o f t h e n i g h t ' s f e s t i v i t i e s c a n b e s t b e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e w o r d s o f 2 o n e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . A b o u t 2 : 3 0 A . M . s o m e o n e s u g g e s t e d e a t i n g a n d w e a d j o u r n e d t o t h e o l d C l u b C a f e . T h e t w o r a t h e r s t a r t l e d C h i n a m e n t h e r e , w i t h t h e i m m o v a b l e c a l m n e s s o f t h e i r r a c e , m e t t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d p r o v i d e d t h e c r o w d w i t h j u s t w h a t t h e y h a d o n h a n d , f r i e d e g g s b e t w e e n s l i c e s o f u n b u t t e r e d b r e a d a n d c o f f e e . W h e n t h e s o m e w h a t t i r e d g a n g l e f t t h e r e s t a u r a n t i t w a s t o f i n d t h e s u n r i s e n h i g h a b o v e t h e N o s e H i l l . . . . T h e f i r s t c o m m u n i t y g a t h e r i n g i n C o r o n a t i o n w a s a t a n e n d . M a n y w e r e t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h f a c e d M a y o r N o r t h w o o d a n d h i s c o u n c i l l o r s a s t h e y b e g a n t h e i r t e r m o f o f f i c e , b u t t h e . 2 T h e s e a r e t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f H . S . N o r t h w o o d , t h e f i r s t m a y o r , u p o n t h e o c c a s i o n i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 , o f J . E . B o n s a l l ' s r e t i r e m e n t f r o m o f f i c e a f t e r t w e l v e y e a r s a s m a y o r . R e v i e w , F e b . 1 3 , 1 9 3 6 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s , t h e b a c k n u m b e r s o f t h e R e v i e w f o r t h e y e a r , 1 9 1 2 , a r e u n a v a i l a b l e . 4 7 . t w o w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e m o s t i m m e d i a t e a t t e n t i o n a n d w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e l a r g e s t o u t l a y o f f u n d s w e r e t h e p r o v i d i n g o f w a t e r a n d e l e c t r i c l i g h t t o t h e t o w n s p e o p l e . E a r l y i n J u l y , 1 9 1 2 , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e r e b e g u n t o f i n d o u t t h e b e s t m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e s e s e r v i c e s c o u l d b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g F e b r u a r y , t v / o b y - l a w s w e r e p r e s e n t e d c a l l i n g f o r 3 a w h o p p i n g $ 5 5 , 0 0 0 l o a n . T h e t o t a l a m o u n t o f t h e l o a n w a s t o b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o p a r t s . B y - L a w 2 7 p r o v i d e d f o r t h e b o r r o w i n g o f $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a n d l a y i n g a m u n i c i p a l w a t e r w o r k s s y s t e m . T h i s p r o j e c t w a s t o b e f i n a n c e d b y t h e s a l e o f 3 0 y e a r d e b e n t u r e s a t 6 % . B y - L a w 2 8 c o v e r e d t h e $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i n s t a l l -i n g a n d e r e c t i n g o f a n e l e c t r i c l i g h t p l a n t a n d s y s t e m , a n d p r o v i d e d f o r 2 0 y e a r d e b e n t u r e s , a l s o a t 6 % . T a x p a y e r s w e r e p r a c t i c a l l y u n a n i m o u s i n a c c e p t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l s . T h e w a t e r w o r k s b y - l a w p a s s e d w i t h 6 1 v o t e s f o r a n d n o n e a g a i n s t , w h i l e t h e e l e c t r i c l i g h t b i l l h a d 6 0 a f f i r m a t i v e a n d o n l y o n e n e g a t i v e 4 v o t e . C o r o n a t i o n i t e s f o u n d i t s o e a s y t o f i n a n c e t h e i r a f f a i r s , a n d w e r e s o r e a d y t o i n v e s t i n t h e i r o w n f u t u r e , t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d r a t h e r a r u d e j o l t w h e n t h e i r d e b e n t u r e b o n d s m e t w i t h a c o o l r e c e p t i o n o n t h e o u t s i d e m a r k e t . E a r l y h o p e s o f 3 Y e a r s l a t e r M r . N o r t h w o o d r e m a r k e d t h a t f i n a n c i n g " w a s t h e e a s i e s t t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d i n t h o s e d a y s , m o n e y w a s n o o b j e c t . " I n a d d i t i o n t o f i n a n c i n g t o w n a f f a i r s , m o n e y w a s a v a i l a b l e f o r d o n a t i o n s a n d g i f t s . I n 1 9 1 2 t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y w a s g i v e n $ 1 0 0 0 , a n d t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e a n a d d i t i o n a l $ 3 0 0 . R e v i e w . F e b . 1 3 , 1 9 3 6 . 4 R e v i e w . F e b . 6 a n d F e b . 2 7 , 1 9 1 3 . 4 8 . s e c u r i n g t h e w a t e r w o r k s s y s t e m a n d e l e c t r i c l i g h t p l a n t b e f o r e w i n t e r g r a d u a l l y f a d e d , a n d i n d e e d i t w a s n o t u n t i l M a r c h o f 1 9 1 4 t h a t t h e s a l e o f d e b e n t u r e i s s u e s w a s c o m p l e t e d w i t h t h e f i n a n c i a l h o u s e o f M c K i n n o n a n d C o m p a n y o f T o r o n t o . O n c e t h e f i n a n c i n g h a d b e e n ' a r r a n g e d , " w o r k o n t h e t w o p r o j e c t s m o v e d a h e a d q u i c k l y . A n a m p l e s u p p l y o f w a t e r w a s f o u n d a t a d e p t h o f 2 8 0 f e e t , a n d i n a 1 6 . h o u r t e s t , e x c e l l e n t w a t e r a t t h e r a t e o f 3 0 0 0 g a l l o n s p e r h o u r , w a s p r o d u c e d . E a r l y i n J u n e , 1 9 1 4 , e m p l o y e e s o f t h e D e s M o i n e s B r i d g e C o m p a n y a r r i v e d t o e r e c t a n e l e v a t e d s t o r a g e t a n k o n a 1 0 0 f o o t s t e e l g i r d e r t o w e r . T h e t a n k , i t s e l f , w a s c a p a b l e o f h o l d i n g 6 0 , 0 0 0 g a l l o n s , a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , a r e s e r v o i r h o l d i n g 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 g a l l o n s w a s b u i l t u n d e r g r o u n d . I n S e p t e m b e r t h e T o w n C o u n c i l m e t t o 5 d e c i d e o n w a t e r a n d e l e c t r i c i t y r a t e s , a n d i n t h e s e c o n d w e e k o f O c t o b e r t h e t w o s e r v i c e s w e r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c . M e a n w h i l e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t . c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k w a s i n p r o g r e s s . A f i n e $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 b r i c k s c h o o l w a s b u i l t i n 1 9 1 3 , a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g -y e a r s a w t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a m o d e r n 1 5 t o 2 0 b e d h o s p i t a l . T h e - h o s p i t a l b y - l a w ( N u m b e r 4 1 ) h a d c a l l e d f o r a $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 d e b e n t u r e i s s u e ( 1 5 y e a r s a t 6 % ) a n d h a d b e e n f i n a n c e d i n t h e s a m e t r a n s a c t i o n w i t h t h e w a t e r a n d l i g h t . I n M a y o f 1 9 1 3 t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y h a d b e e n a p p r o a c h e d w i t h t h e h o p e o f 5 W a t e r r a t e s w e r e to b e a s f o l l o w s ; L i v e r y B a r n s , $ 1 0 . 0 0 p e r m o n t h } . R e s t a u r a n t s a n d . L a u n d r i e s , $ 1 . 0 0 p e r w e e k } D w e l l i n g s a n d S t o r e s , $ 1 . 5 0 p e r m o n t h ( a " b a t h w a s Q0$ e x t r a p e r m o n t h ) ; . R e s t a u r a n t s w i t h o u t i n s t a l l a t i o n s w e r e t o b e ' c h a r g e d 5 0 ^ a b a r r e l o r 5 ^ p e r p a i l f o r t h e i r w a t e r . T h e e l e c t r i c l i g h t r a t e w a s t o b e 200 p e r K . W . w i t h a d i s c o u n t o f 1 0 % f o r p r o m p t p a y m e n t s . R e v i e w , S e p t . 1 7 , 1 9 1 4 , s e c u r i n g a f r e e s i t e , b u t a t t h a t t i m e t h e b e s t t h e y s a w f i t t o o f f e r w a s a b l o c k o f l a n d f o r $ 1 5 0 0 . A l m o s t a y e a r l a t e r - i n t h e f o l l o w i n g M a r c h - M a y o r N o r t h w o o d a n d D r . C . W . H u r l b u r t j o u r n e y e d t o C a l g a r y , a n d s e c u r e d f r o m C . P . R . o f f i c i a l s t h e r e a r e d u c t i o n , f r o m $ 1 5 0 0 t o $ 5 0 0 , i n t h e p r i c e o f t h e h o s p i t a l s i t e . T h e c o m p l e t e d h o s p i t a l w a s a t h r e e s t o r y b u i l d i n g w i t h t w o p u b l i c , o n e s e m i - p r i v a t e , a n d f i v e p r i v a t e w a r d s , a s w e l l 6 a s a n u p t o d a t e o p e r a t i n g r o o m . I t s l o c a t i o n o n a h i g h s l o p e o f g r o u n d w e s t o f t h e t o w n g a v e i t n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e a n d t h e n e c e s s a r y s e c l u s i o n , a n d a l s o s e r v e d t o m a k e i t o n e o f t h e f i r s t l a n d m a r k s ( a f t e r t h e w a t e r t o w e r ) d i s c e r n i b l e t o a n y o n e a p p r o a c h i n g t o w n f r o m t h e w e s t . P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w a s a l s o v e r y a c t i v e i n t h i s p e r i o d . T h e 6 0 r o o m R o y a l C r o w n H o t e l h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d b y t h e e n d o f 1 9 1 1 , a n d i n O c t o b e r o f 1 9 1 3 t h e p r o p r i e t o r s o f t h e h o t e l h a d p o i n t e d t h e w a y f o r t h e t o w n f a t h e r s b y i n s t a l l i n g t h e i r 7 o w n e l e c t r i c l i g h t p l a n t . T h e n e w C o r o n a t i o n t e l e p h o n e e x c h a n g e b e g a n o p e r a t i o n i n J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 3 , a n d w o r k o n t h e l i n e e a s t t o M o n i t o r c o n t i n u e d a t t h e r a t e o f 1^- m i l e s a d a y . I n J u n e o f t h a t y e a r t h e n e w B a n k o f T o r o n t o b u i l d i n g w a s c o m p l e t e d o n t h e c o r n e r o f R o y a l S t r e e t a n d V i c t o r i a A v e n u e . 6 F e e s w e r e s e t a s f o l l o w s : P u b l i c w a r d , $ 2 . 0 0 ; s e m i - p r i v a t e , $ 2 . 5 0 ; a n d p r i v a t e , $ 3 . 0 0 p e r d a y . R e v i e w , J a n . 2 8 , 1 9 1 5 . 7 A c o n t e m p o r a r y r e m a r k b y t h e R e v i e w s h e d s l i g h t o n t h e t i m e s : I t e l e c t r i c i t y i s p r o v i n g i t s e l f a m u c h m o r e s a t i s -f a c t o r y m e t h o d o f s u p p l y i n g t h e w h e r e w i t h a l t o s e e , t h a n t h e o l d g a s o l i n e s y s t e m a n d c o a l o i l l a m p s , w h i l e t h e d a n g e r f r o m f i r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e n e d . R e v i e w , O c t . 2 3 , 1 9 1 3 . 5 0 . I n J u l y r o o m y s t o c k y a r d s w e r e b u i l t b e s i d e t h e t r a c k s a t t h e e a s t e n d o f t o w n , a n d i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 1 2 t o 1 9 1 6 f o u r 8 l a r g e g r a i n e l e v a t o r s w e r e e r e c t e d . P l a n s b y a g r o u p o f E d m o n t o n b u s i n e s s m e n t o i n v e s t $ 2 4 , 0 0 0 i n a f l o u r m i l l t o s e r v i c e t h e f i n e g r a i n g r o w i n g h i n t e r l a n d c a m e t o n a u g h t w h e n t h e y w e r e u n a b l e t o c o m e t o t e r m s w i t h t h e C . P . R . H o w e v e r , o n e o f t h e d i s t r i c t s m o r e i m p o r t a n t n e e d s w a s m e t , w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e K o f o e d B r o t h e r s ' m o d e r n c r e a m e r y i n t h e s u m m e r , o f 1 9 1 7 . T h i s u p t o d a t e p l a n t , c o m p l e t e w i t h p a s t e u r i z e r a n d m e c h a n i c a l r e f r i g e r a t o r , h a d a b u t t e r o u t p u t o f o v e r 1 0 0 0 p o u n d s d a i l y . T h e l o c a l c r e a m e r y a t o n c e a s s u m e d a p o s i t i o n o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e f o r n e i g h b o u r i n g f a r m e r s - a n d e s p e c i a l l y s o f o r t h e i r w i v e s . F o r t h e m t h e s a l e o f o u t t e r a n d e g g s p r o v i d e d m u c h o f t h e c a s h t o p u r c h a s e n e c e s s a r y g r o c e r i e s , a n d i n t h e l e a n y e a r s o f t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s - s t i l l f a r i n t h e f u t u r e - t h e w e e k l y c r e a m e r y c h e q u e w a s v e r y o f t e n t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f f a r m i n c o m e . H o w e v e r , t h e s e w e r e s t i l l t h e y e a r s o f o p t i m i s m w h e n m e n o f t h e d i s t r i c t h o p e d t o m a k e t h e i r f o r t u n e s b y s h a r i n g t h e h e r i t a g e , o f t h e l a n d i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . S h a r e t h e c o u n t r y ' s h e r i t a g e t h e y w o u l d , b u t n o t i n t h e w a y t h e y h a d e x p e c t e d . I n t h e C . P . R . p r o p a g a n d a p a m p h l e t s p u b l i c i z i n g t h e b i r t h o f C o r o n a t i o n , t h e t o w n h a d b e e n s h o w n o n m a p s a s t h e p o t e n t i a l 8 T h e A l b e r t a P a c i f i c e l e v a t o r w a s b u i l t i n 1 9 1 2 ; t h e U n i t e d G r a i n G r o w e r s a n d t h e N o r t h S t a r i n 1 9 1 5 ; a n d t h e M i d l a n d -P a c i f i c i n 1 9 1 6 . I n 1 9 2 7 t h e A l b e r t a W h e a t P o o l e l e v a t o r w a s c o n s t r u c t e d , m a k i n g f i v e . H o w e v e r , a f t e r t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s o f t h e ' T h i r t i e s , o n e , t h e N o r t h S t a r , w a s d e m o l i s h e d . 51. h u b o f a m i g h t y n e t w o r k o f f a r r e a c h i n g s t e e l . T h e r e w a s m u c h s a i d a n d w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e " f u t u r e c i t y o f t h e w h e a t l a n d s . " R a i l w a y l i n e s w o u l d c o n n e c t h e r w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r g r e a t c i t i e s o f t h e W e s t . T h e r e w o u l d b e t h r o u g h r o u t e s t o E d m o n t o n a n d C a l g a r y , t o R e g i n a a n d W i n n i p e g , t o M i n n e a p o l i s a n d S t . P a u l . I n t h o s e f i r s t f e w y e a r s C o r o n a t i o n i t e s w e r e e x t r e m e l y i m p a t i e n t t o h a v e t h e s e b i g p l a n s b e g u n . I n i t s s u r v e y o f t h e t o w n ' s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e l o c a l n e w s p a p e r h a d , w i t h h o p e f u l e x p e c t a n c y , e x a m i n e d t h e f u t u r e s c h e m e s o f t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y . I t w a s 9 n o t e d t h a t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e l a s t l a p t o K e r r o b e r t w a s a l r e a d y g r a d e d , a n d i t w a s f o r e c a s t t h a t w i t h i n t w e l v e m o n t h s , t h r o u g h t r a i n s w o u l d c u t o f f t h e C a l g a r y - L a c o m b e t r i a n g l e t o W i n n i p e g , a n d C o r o n a t i o n " w o u l d c o m e i n t o i t s o w n , " t h e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i -10 b u t i n g p o i n t f o r C e n t r a l A l b e r t a . A s u s u a l , h o w e v e r , a c t u a l p r o g r e s s f e l l f a r s h o r t o f c o n j e c t u r e . B y M a y o f 1 9 1 3 t h e s t e e l w a s s t i l l o n l y o n e m i l e e a s t o f M o n i t o r , a n d i t w a s n o t u n t i l . J u n e , 1 9 1 4 , t h a t t h e ' C o r o n a t i o n - K e r r o b e r t l i n e w a s c o m p l e t e d . I m m e d i a t e r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s l o n g - a w a i t e d a c h i e v e m e n t w e r e d i s a p p o i n t i n g . I n N o v e m b e r o f 1 9 1 3 a d a i l y m i x e d t r a i n , c o m p r i s e d o f f r e i g h t , b a g g a g e , m a i l , a n d p a s s e n g e r s h a d b e g u n o p e r a t i n g f r o m C o r o n a t i o n e a s t t o V e t e r a n a n d C o n s o r t . W i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l o n g e r l i n e , d a i l y s e r v i c e w a s f o u n d i m p r a c t i c a l , a n d 9 K e r r o b e r t , a S a s k a t c h e w a n d i v i s i o n p o i n t , w a s a l r e a d y c o n n e c t e d b y m e a n s o f s e c o n d a r y l i n e s t o t h e l a r g e r c e n t r e s o f t h e e a s t . F o r t h i s a n d s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s o f r a i l w a y d e v e l o p m e n t , s e e t h e m a p s i n t h e a p p e n d i x , p p . *xvi * xxv i i . 10 R e v i e w , S e p t . 2 7 , 1911. 5 2 . p e o p l e o f t h e d i s t r i c t h a d t o b e c o n t e n t w i t h t r i - w e e k l y r u n s t o t h e e a s t a s a p r o m i s e o f b e t t e r t h i n g s t o c o m e . S e r v i c e t o t h e w e s t w a s b e t t e r . S t o p o v e r s a t C a s t o r h a d b e e n d o n e a w a y w i t h s o t h a t C o r o n a t i o n h a d d a i l y c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h L a c o m b e o n t h e m a i n C a l g a r y - E d m o n t o n l i n e . 1 1 T h i s w a s a p e r i o d o f t r e m e n d o u s r a i l w a y e x p a n s i o n i n A l b e r t a , a n d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a l l t h r e e o f t h e m a i n c o m p a n i e s - t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c , t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n , a n d t h e G r a n d 1 2 T r u n k P a c i f i c - c o n t e m p l a t e d n e w l i n e s i n t o t h e w h e a t l a n d s b e t w e e n t h e B a t t l e a n d R e d D e e r R i v e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e c o n n e c -t i n g c h a i n s t o C o r o n a t i o n n e v e r q u i t e s e e m e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e . C e r t a i n s e c t i o n s w e r e c o m p l e t e d , b u t t h e r e r e m a i n e d s e v e r a l m i s s i n g l i n k s w h i c h w e r e n e v e r f i l l e d i n . • I n t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 1 3 t h e C . P . R . a n d t h e C . N . R . b e c a m e i n v o l v e d i n a d i s p u t e o v e r t h e r i g h t o f w a y t o a n e i g h t e e n m i l e s t r e t c h i n t h e B a t t l e R i v e r v a l l e y , n o r t h o f C o r o n a t i o n . I n A p r i l , t h e C . P . R . h a d b e g u n c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k n o r t h a s t h e f i r s t s t e p ' o n a r a i l w a y l i n e t o S e d g e w i c k , w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e C . N . R . w a s w o r k i n g s o u t h f r o m E d m o n t o n . T h e p l a n s o f t h e C . N . R . s h o w e d t h e i r p r o p o s e d C a m r o s e - A l s a s k l i n e p a s s -i n g 1-2- m i l e s e a s t o f C o r o n a t i o n , a n d t h e t o w n s p e o p l e j o i n e d t h e C . P . R . i n b u c k i n g t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t - f e a r i n g t h a t i t w o u l d i n j u r e t h e p r e s e n t t o w n s i t e . T h e y e v e n w e n t s o f a r a s 1 1 F i g u r e s i n t h e C o r o n a t i o n R e v i e w f o r J a n . 3 0 , 1 9 1 3 , s h o w t h a t i n a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 0 9 t o 1 9 1 2 t h e t o t a l m i l e a g e o f t h e p r o v i n c e h a d r i s e n f r o m 1 3 9 1 m i l e s t o 3 0 2 0 m i l e s . T h i s l a t t e r f i g u r e w a s b r o k e n d o w n a s f o l l o w s : C . P . R . , 1 4 7 0 m i l e s ; C . N . R . , 9 1 2 m i l e s ; G . T . P . , 6 3 8 m i l e s . 1 2 T h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n , t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c , a n d c e r t a i n o t h e r l i n e s w e r e t a k e n o v e r b y t h e d o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 1 8 t o 1 9 2 1 , a n d b e c a m e t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l -w a y C o m p a n y . 5 3 . t o s e n d a d e l e g a t i o n , c o m p o s e d o f M a y o r N o r t h w o o d , A . A . T o w n s , W . J . M c N e i l , a n d D . A . T h o m s o n t o P r e m i e r S i f ' t o n w i t h t h e r e q u e s t t h a t t h e C.N.R. e i t h e r r u n t h e i r l i n e i n t o t h e t o w n o r k e e p i t " a s u f f i c i e n t d i s t a n c e " a w a y . M e a n w h i l e b o t h c o m p a n i e s w e n t ahead w i t h t h e i r b u i l d i n g p l a n s . B y t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 1 5 t h e C . P . R . had completed t h e i r l i n e as f a r a s the Battle River, and were busy putting a bridge across the r i v e r . Two new towns had sprung up along the route - Bulwark, 13 miles north of Coronation, and Lorraine, j u s t south of the r i v e r - and service was soon expected to begin along the new spur l i n e . Such service never m a t e r i a l i z e d , however. The C.N.R.'s t o w n of A l l i a n c e , a few miles north of the r i v e r , with connecting s t e e l to Edmonton, became the va l l e y ' s terminal, and within two years the town of Lorraine had a l l but died. Thus matters remained, and C o r o n a t i o n i t e s i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g t w o r i v a l d i r e c t l i n e s t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l w e r e l e f t w i t h n o n e . J u s t h o w s u c h a n i m p a s s e was r e a c h e d , a n d w h y n o t h i n g w a s d o n e a b o u t i t , w e r e q u e s t i o n s n o t e x p l a i n e d t o t h e p e o p l e w h o h a d s t a k e d t h e i r f o r t u n e s a l o n g the proposed r o u t e s a n d a r o u n d t h e n e w t o w n s i t e s . O n e o t h e r r a i l w a y d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s p e r i o d s h o u l d b e 1 3 m e n t i o n e d . T h e M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t o f C o r o n a t i o n , m a d e u p o f 1 4 t w e l v e f u l l t o w n s h i p s a n d p a r t s o f f o u r o t h e r s , w a s o n e o f t h e 1 3 M . D . N o . 3 3 4 w a s o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d W h i t e s i d e a f t e r F r a n k W h i t e s i d e , e a r l y m e m b e r o f p a r l i a m e n t , a n d o n e o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s m o s t p r o m i n e n t c i t i z e n s . I n N o v e m b e r , 1 9 1 6 , i t s n a m e w a s c h a n g e d t o C o r o n a t i o n . 1 4 S e e d i a g r a m i n a p p e n d i x , p . x x v i i i . l a r g e s t i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h o s e p e o p l e l i v i n g n o r t h o f C o r o n a -t i o n e x p e c t e d t o b e s e r v i c e d b y t h e r a i l w a y l i n e s t h e n b e i n g b u i l t . T h o s e l i v i n g s o u t h w e r e s t i l l a w a i t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s . T h e n i n M a r c h , 1 9 1 5 , t h e s e s o u t h e r n s e t t l e r s h e a r d t h e g o o d n e w s t h a t t h e B a s s a n o a n d B o w R i v e r V a l l e y R a i l w a y C o m p a n y 1 5 h a d r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o c o n s t r u c t a l i n e f r o m B a s s a n o t o C o r o n a t i o n . T h e r o u t e w a s t o p a s s t h r o u g h H a n n a , F e r t i l i t y , a n d L a k e T h e l m a , a n d t h e f i r s t l a p . f r o m B a s s a n o t o t h e R e d D e e r R i v e r w a s t o b e c o m p l e t e d t h a t y e a r . T h a t w a s t h e l a s t h e a r d o f t h e n e w l i n e . P r o b a b l y , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e l a r g e r c o m p a n i e s , w a r t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s c a u s e d t h e B o w R i v e r C o m p a n y t o f o r e g o i t s p l a n s . S u r p r i s i n g l y e n o u g h , d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s i n t h e f i e l d o f r a i l w a y e x p a n s i o n , o p t i m i s m , s t i l l r a n h i g h . E a c h n e w d e v e l o p m e n t b r o u g h t h o p e s t h a t a t l a s t t h e d i s t r i c t ' s r e a l f u t u r e w a s a b o u t t o b e g i n . T h e e d i t o r i a l s o f t h e R e v i e w m i r r o r e d t h e s e e v e r - p r e s e n t h o p e s . A s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e L a c o m b e - K e r r o b e r t l i n e h a d b e e n h e r a l d e d 16 a s t h e s t e p n e c e s s a r y f o r C o r o n a t i o n t o " c o m e i n t o i t s o w n . " T h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e l i n e n o r t h t o w a r d s E d m o n t o n w a s e x p e c t e d t o l a y " t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e w h i c h o u r 1 7 t o w n i s s u r e l y d e s t i n e d t o b e c o m e . " T h e p r o p o s a l o f t h e r o u t e b e t w e e n B a s s a n o a n d C o r o n a t i o n w a s g r e e t e d t h u s . " A d r e a m i s c o m i n g t r u e a n d t h e r a i l r o a d c o n n e c t i n g t h e s e t w o t o w n s o f p r o m i s e o n t h e p r a i r i e , o p e n i n g u p t o t h e w o r l d ' s 1 5 T h i s r a i l w a y b i l l w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y p r e s e n t e d t o t h e H o u s e b y F . H . w h i t e s i d e , m e n t i o n e d a b o v e a s t h e m a n a f t e r w h o m t h e m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t h a d o r i g i n a l l y b e e n n a m e d . 1 6 R e v i e w . S e p t . 2 7 , 1 9 1 1 . 1 7 I b i d . , O c t . 1 , 1 9 1 4 . 5 5 . m a r k e t s t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f p r o d u c i n g a c r e s i s ' t o b e b u i l t 1 8 w i t h o u t d e l a y . " A n d t h e n e w s i n M a r c h , 1 9 1 7 , t h a t t h e C . P . R . h a d d e c i d e d t o d o u b l e t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e t o w n ' s r o u n d h o u s e t o h o l d t w e l v e l o c o m o t i v e s , w a s " . . . a s t e p n e a r e r a m a r k s o m e f a r s i g h t e d g e n t l e m e n s e t f o r C o r o n a t i o n , w h e n t h e y p i c t u r e d 1 9 r a i l r o a d s r u n n i n g n o r t h , s o u t h , e a s t , a n d w e s t . " D e a r d r e a m s d i e h a r d . L i f e , f o r C o r o n a t i o n i t e s , h a d b e e n r a t h e r h e c t i c i n t h o s e f i r s t f e w f r a n t i c m o n t h s a f t e r t h e t o w n ' s i n c e p t i o n b u t w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t i m e t h i n g s s e t t l e d d o w n t o a s a n e r r o u t i n e . F e w e r n e w f a c e s w e r e i n e v i d e n c e , a n d t h e t i e s b e t w e e n t h e o l d e r r e s i d e n t s w e r e b e c o m i n g e v e r m o r e c l o s e l y k n i t . F r o m t h e . s t a r t t h e y h a d w o r k e d t o g e t h e r - n o w t h e y w e r e f i n d i n g m o r e t i m e t o p l a y , . D a n c e s c o n t i n u e d t o b e a p o p u l a r s o u r c e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . T h e s e b e g a n e a r l y a n d l a s t e d u n t i l a l a t e h o u r , a n d a l w a y s t h e r e w a s t h e 1 2 : 0 0 o ' c l o c k b r e a k s o t h a t d a n c e r s c o u l d f o r t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h f r i e d c h i c k e n , s a l a d s , j e l l i e s , p i e , c a k e s , c o f f e e , a n d t h e l i k e . O n c e f e d t h e y w e r e r e a d y f o r m o r e s c h o t t i s c h e s , p o l k a s , r e e l s , a n d g o o d o l d - f a s h i o n e d s q u a r e d a n c e s . N o t i n f r e q u e n t l y s l e i g h l b a d s o f m e r r y m a k e r s j o u r n e y e d t o V e t e r a n a n d o t h e r d i s t a n t p o i n t s t o t a k e i n s p e c i a l a f f a i r s w h e n t h e r e w a s a d e a r t h o f s o c i a l l i f e a t h o m e . C a r d p a r t i e s , t o o , p r o v i d e d m a n y a n e v e n i n g o f f u n . W h i s t 1 8 R e v i e w , M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 1 5 . 1 9 I b i d , , M a r c h 2 9 , 1 9 1 7 , d r i v e s a n d f i v e - h u n d r e d s e s s i o n s d r e w e n t h u s i a s t i c c r o w d s , a n d i n m o s t h o m e s , d e c k s o f c a r d s w e r e a s m u c h i n e v i d e n c e o n t h e t a b l e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w e e k a s B i b l e s w e r e o n S u n d a y s . C h i l d r e n l e a r n e d t h e i n t r i c a s i e s o f N o r w e g i a n a n d T r u m p W h i s t a l m o s t a s s o o n a s t h e y w e r e a b l e t o h o l d t h e c a r d s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , a l s o , m o r e a n d m o r e p e o p l e w e r e b e c o m i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n s p o r t s o f a l l k i n d s . C u r l i n g , b e g u n i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 , w a s t o p r o v e o n e o f t h e t o w n ' s m o s t p o p u l a r w i n t e r p a s t t i m e s . E v e n t h a t f i r s t s e a s o n t h e r i n k e c h o e d t o s u c h n a m e s a s S h o r t , C l a r k , T h o m a s , C a m p b e l l , B o n s a l l M i t c h e l l , N o r t h w o o d , B e r n h a r d t , a n d M a y h e w . T h e s e s a m e n a m e s w o u l d b e s e e n o n m a n y a t o u r n a m e n t d r a w i n t h e y e a r s t o c o m e . F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 4 , m a r k e d t h e f i r s t a n n u a l C o r o n a t i o n b o n s p i e l -w o n t h a t y e a r b y E . B . N e f f ' s r i n k . Y e a r a f t e r y e a r , a t b o n s p i e l t i m e , t h e r i n k w a s p a c k e d w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c c u r l e r s a n d e x c i t e d o n l o o k e r s . B e h i n d t h e l a r g e g l a s s w i n d o w s t h e y m u n c h e d s a n d -w i c h e s , d r a n k c o f f e e , a n d " p u l l e d " f o r t h e i r f a v o u r i t e s c o m p e t i n g o n t h e t h r e e s h e e t s o f i c e b e f o r e t h e m . P r o u d w e r e t h e p e o p l e o f C o r o n a t i o n w h e n , i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 7 , G . A . S h o r t ' s r i n k b r o u g h t b a c k t h e V i s i t o r ' s C u p a n d S i l v e r f r o m t h e h i g h l y -t o u t e d E d m o n t o n B o n s p i e l . V i e i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y w i t h c u r l i n g d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s w e r e s k a t i n g a n d h o c k e y . T h e s k a t i n g r i n k , b u i l t i n 1 9 1 3 , p r o v e d a f a v o u r i t e h a u n t f o r y o u n g a n d o l d a l i k § # T h e c o s t o f a f a m i l y s e a s o n ' s t i c k e t w a s n e g l i g i b l e i n v i e w o f t h e h o u r s o f h e a l t h y f u n i t p r o v i d e d . S e n i o r , j u n i o r , a n d j u v e n i l e h o c k e y t e a m s w e r e f o r m e d , a n d e n t h u s i a s m r a n h i g h w h e n a h o c k e y l e a g u e m a d e u p o f t o w n s a l o n g t h e l i n e , w a s o r g a n i z e d i n t h e f a l l o f 2 0 1 9 1 3 . I n t h e s u m m e r m o n t h s b a s e b a l l b a t s r e p l a c e d t h e c u r l i n g r o c k s a n d h o c k e y s t i c k s , a n d f r o m t h e f i r s t , C o r o n a t i o n t u r n e d o u t f i n e b a l l p l a y e r s . I n M a y , 1 9 1 3 , t h e B e a v e r B a s e b a l l L e a g u e , m a d e u p o f S t e t t l e r , B o t h a , G a d s b y , H a l k i r k , C a s t o r , a n d C o r o n a t i o n w a s f o r m e d , a n d i n t h a t f i r s t s e a s o n o f p l a y , 2 1 C o r o n a t i o n w o n t h e p e n n a n t . D u r i n g t h e s u m m e r p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y o n e p l a y e d b a l l , a n d n o p i c n i c o r s p o r t s - d a y w a s c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t i t s s o f t b a l l o r b a s e b a l l g a m e s . O t h e r s p o r t s a s w e l l h a d t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . G o o s e a n d d u c k h u n t e r s h a d t h e i r o w n h a p p y h u n t i n g g r o u n d r i g h t a t h o m e , f o r e a c h f a l l t h e s e b i r d s p a s s e d o v e r i n e n d l e s s f o r m a t i o n s , a n d c o u n t l e s s f l o c k s u s e d t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g h a r v e s t f i e l d s a s r e g u l a r s t o p - o v e r s . A l o c a l g u n c l u b w a s o r g a n i z e d i n 1 9 1 3 , 2 2 a n d f o r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s t r a p s h o o t i n g w a s p o p u l a r . A l s o i n 1 9 1 3 s o m e p r o p o n e n t s o f l a c r o s s e t r i e d t o i n t r o d u c e t h e g a m e , b u t i t w a s o n e o f t h e f e w s p o r t s w h i c h , o n c e a t t e m p t e d , f a i l e d t o g a i n a f o o t h o l d i n t h e d i s t r i c t . B e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 1 2 y e a r l y f a l l f a i r s w e r e p u t o n b y t h e C o r o n a t i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y . T h e s e a n n u a l e x h i b i t i o n s w e r e h e l d a t t h e F a i r G r o u n d s , o n e m i l e n o r t h o f t o w n , w h e r e 2 0 T h e l i n e u p o f C o r o n a t i o n ' s f i r s t h o c k e y t e a m w a s a s f o l l o w s : g o a l , W . J . M c N e i l ; p o i n t , M o r s e ; c o v e r p o i n t , W a t c h o r n ; r o v e r , G . A . S h o r t ; • f o r w a r d s , C a s s l e m a n , H a y w a r d , a n d T h o m a s . R e v i e w , J a n . 8 , 1 9 1 4 . 2 1 O n A u g u s t 7 , 1 9 1 3 , C o r o n a t i o n ' s e n t r y i n t h e B e a v e r B a s e -b a l l L e a g u e l i n e d u p a s f o l l o w s : C . W a l l a c e , 1 b ; F . B i n g g e l i a , 2 b ; L . 0 t k i n , 3 b ; J . L a w s o n , s s ; R . K o r t g a a r d , r f ; R . G i l b e r t , c f ; E . B l e c h a I f ; P . E d e n , p ; a n d J . W a l t h a m , c . B o b K o r t g a a r d w a s t h e f i r s t o f t h e f a m i l y o f b a l l p l a y i n g b r o t h e r s w h o w e r e t o m a k e s u c h a n a m e f o r t h e m s e l v e s o n l o c a l d i a m o n d s i n t h e y e a r s t o c o m e . R e v i e w , A u g . 7 , 1 9 1 3 . 2 2 F o r . t h e s e c o n d t i m e t h a t y e a r G . A . S h o r t , i n J u l y , 1 9 1 7 , r o o m y g r o u n d s w e r e a v a i l a b l e , a n d a h a l f - m i l e r a c e t r a c k h a d b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d . F o r m o s t p e o p l e o f t h e d i s t r i c t t h e f a i r w a s t h e b i g e v e n t o f t h e s e a s o n . F a r m e r s a n d t o w n s p e o p l e a l i k e g a t h e r e d t o w a t c h t h e j u d g i n g o f a l l m a n n e r o f e x h i b i t s , r a n g -i n g f r o m c o o k i n g a n d h a n d i c r a f t s t o p r i z e g r a i n a n d l i v e s t o c k . C o m p e t i t i o n w a s k e e n , a n d i n t h o s e f i r s t y e a r s t h e e n t r y l i s t s w e r e a l w a y s l a r g e . A d d i n g v a r i e t y t o ( t h e d a y w e r e t h e n o v e l t y a n d f o o t r a c e s a s w e l l a s t h e e v e r p o p u l a r b a l l g a m e s a n d h o r s e r a c e s . O f t e n , t o o , t h e r e w a s s o m e s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i o n b i l l e d . I n 1 9 1 4 e v e r y o n e w a s d i s a p p o i n t e d w h e n t h e m u c h h e r a l d e d f l i g h t o f a r e a l a i r p l a n e h a d t o b e c a n c e l l e d b e c a u s e o f a s t r o n g w i n d . H o w e v e r , a t t h e f a l l f a i r i n 1 9 1 8 , s o m e 2 , 5 0 0 p e o p l e w e r e t h r i l l e d w i t h t h e d a r i n g o f L u c i e l l e B e l m o n t , " t h e W o r l d ' s C h a m p i o n A e r o n a u t , " w h o j u m p e d b y p a r a c h u t e f r o m a b a l l o o n 5 , 0 0 0 f e e t a b o v e t h e g r o u n d . A n a n n u a l e v e n t t o w h i c h m a n y C o r o n a t i o n i t e s l o o k e d f o r w a r d w a s t h e t w o d a y R a n c h e r s 1 R o u n d U p h e l d i n t h e N e u t r a l H i l l s s o m e 3 0 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f t o w n . P e o p l e c a m e f r o m a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e t o a t t e n d t h e s e c o l o u r f u l r o d e o e x t r a v a g a n z a s w h i c h , b e s i d e s t h e u s u a l b u c k i n g a n d r a c i n g e v e n t s , p r e s e n t e d f a s t m o v i n g p a g e a n t r y o f t h e h a r d r h i t t i n g W e s t . I n 1 9 1 7 o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 s p e c t a t o r s w i t n e s s e d a r u n n i n g g u n - f i g h t b e t w e e n c o w b o y s a n d M e x i c a n s , a n d l a t e r , B i l l y t h e K i d ' s " b o l d d a s h f o r l i b e r t y T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r 1 2 0 0 c a r s , 5 0 0 t e a m s , a n d 2 0 0 s a d d l e h o r s e s b r o u g h t s o m e 7 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e t o s e e t h e s p e c t a c l e o f C h i e f S i t t i n g b r o u g h t s p e c i a l l a u r e l s t o C o r o n a t i o n b y w i n n i n g t h e A l b e r t a C h a m p i o n s h i p i n t h e D o u b l e s a t t h e E d m o n t o n T r a p s h o o t . 2 3 B u l l o n t h e W a r p a t h . G r o w i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y a s a p l a c e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r C o r o n a t i o n i t e s w a s t h e S t a r T h e a t r e w h e r e , f o r 1 0 a n d 1 5 c e n t s , n i g h t l y m o v i n g p i c t u r e s c o u l d " b e s e e n . A l i s t o f s o m e o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a t t r a c t i o n s s e r v e s a s a n e x c e l l e n t m i r r o r o f t h e t i m e s . I n M a y , 1 9 1 3 , t h e " P e n d l e t o n R o u n d U p " d r e w a p a c k e d h o u s e , a n d w a s a d j u d g e d o n e o f t h e " b e s t f i l m s y e t s e e n . O n M a y 1 3 , 1 9 1 4 , M a r y P i c k f o r d " t h e r e n o u n e d P h o t o P l a y s t a r " w a s s e e n i n " T h e B i s h o p ' s C a r r i a g e , " a f o u r r e e l F a m o u s P l a y e r s p r o d u c t i o n . T w o y e a r s l a t e r " T i l l i e ' s P u n c t u r e d R o m a n c e , " s t a r r i n g C h a r l i e C h a p l i n , w a s w e l l r e c e i v e d . T h e t h e a t r e a l s o h e l d a n a p p r e c i a t i v e a u d i e n c e , w h e n e v e r a t r a v e l -l i n g g r o u p o f a c t o r s , , v a u d e v i l l e e n t e r t a i n e r s , o r C h a u t a u q u a p l a y e d t h e t o w n . A p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d y e a r w a s 1 9 1 6 , f o r t h a t s e a s o n b r o u g h t " P e g 0 * M y H e a r t > " " C h a r l i e ' s A u n t , " a n d 2 4 " U n c l e T o m ' s C a b i n " t o t h e C o r o n a t i o n s t a g e . I n t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r s p o r t a n d r e c r e a t i o n , C o r o n a t i o n -i t e s w e r e n o t n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r d e v o t i o n a l l i f e . T h e t o w n ' s f i r s t c h u r c h s e r v i c e s h a d b e e n h e l d i n t h e S t a r T h e a t r e , ' b u t i n 1 9 1 2 t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h r e e c h u r c h e s , a M e t h o d i s t , a n A n g l i c a n , a n d a P r e s b y t e r i a n , w a s b e g u n , a n d t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r 2 5 a C a t h o l i c c h u r c h w a s e r e c t e d . I n t h e o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s t h e 2 3 R e v i e w , J u l y 1 2 , 1 9 1 7 a n d J u l y 4 , 1 9 1 8 . 2 4 F r o m t h e f i l e s o f t h e R e v i e w 2 5 I n 1 9 1 5 t h e M e t h o d i s t a n d P r e s b y t e r i a n c o n g r e g a t i o n s j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o f o r m t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , c o n t i n u i n g t o u s e t h e M e t h o d i s t b u i l d i n g . T h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s t r u c t u r e w a s m a d e o v e r i n t o a p r i v a t e h o m e . N o n e w c h u r c h w a s b u i l t u n t i l 1 9 4 3 w h e n a G o s p e l M i s s i o n w a s e r e c t e d . M e a n w h i l e J e h o v a h W i t n e s s s e r v i c e s w e r e b e i n g h e l d i n a d o w n t o w n b u i l d i n g . I n t h e f a l l 6 0 . o n e r o o m c o u n t r y s c h o o l h o u s e s e r v e d a s p l a c e o f w o r s h i p , a n d t h e r e g u l a r S u n d a y m e e t i n g s f u l f i l l e d n o t o n l y t h e r e l i g i o u s , b u t t h e s o c i a l n e e d s a s w e l l , o f m a n y t o w n a n d c o u n t r y f o l k . M e a n w h i l e a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f s o c i a b i l i t y , t h e f r a t e r n a l o r d e r , h a d m a d e i t s a p p e a r a n c e . I n 1 9 1 2 t h e F r e e M a s o n s w e r e o r g a n i z e d a n d r e m a i n e d a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s . T h e O d d -f e l l o w s , a f t e r a n a u s p i c i o u s b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 1 3 , w e r e f o r c e d t o d i s b a n d t w o y e a r s l a t e r b e c a u s e o f p o o r a t t e n d a n c e . Y e a r s l a t e r t h e E l k s , F o r e s t e r s , a n d L e g i o n w e r e t o m a k e t h e i r 2 6 a p p e a r a n c e . T i m e s w e r e c h a n g i n g i n t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . N e w i n v e n t i o n s o f t h i s , t h e M a c h i n e A g e , w e r e c r o w d -i n g o u t t h e o l d w a y s o f l i f e . I n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s c h a n g e w a s t h e i n c r e a s e d s p a c e t a k e n u p b y t h e a u t o m o b i l e a d v e r t i s i n g . I n M a r c h , 1 9 1 4 , t h e R e v i e w n o t e d t h a t B o n s a l l ' s G a r a g e h a d o n e x h i b i t i o n t h e f i n e , n e w , 1 9 1 4 m o d e l , M c L a u g h l i n - B u i c k c o m p l e t e w i t h a l l t h e l a t e s t i m p r o v e m e n t s . W h a t t h e s e c a r s w e r e c a p a b l e o f c o u l d b e a s c e r t a i n e d " b y a p e r u s a l o f t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e i r o f 1 9 3 7 t h e o l d C a l g a r y B r e w e r y w a r e h o u s e w a s m o v e d t h e e i g h t e e n m i l e s t o t h e N o s e h i l l s t o b e r e m o d e l l e d i n t o a L u t h e r a n c h u r c h f o r t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n f o l k s e t t l e d t h e r e . F o r s t a t i s t i c s o n t h e r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s o f t h e ' t o w n a n d m u n i c i p a l i t y o f C o r o n a t i o n f o r t h e c e n s u s y e a r s , 1 9 2 1 , 1 9 3 1 , a n d 1 9 4 1 , s e e a p p e n d i x , p . v i • 2 6 T h e E l k s ' C l u b w a s o r g a n i z e d i n 1 9 2 7 a n d f o r m a n y y e a r s t o o k a v e r y a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , o r g a n i z i n g s p o r t s d a y s , d a n c e s , a n d t h e l i k e . T h e E l k s b u i l t t h e l o c a l h a l l i n 1 9 2 7 a n d o p e r a t e d i t u n t i l 1 9 4 5 w h e n i t w a s t a k e n o v e r b y t h e C o r o n a t i o n b r a n c h o f t h e C a n a d i a n L e g i o n . O n e o t h e r g r o u p , t h e C a n a d i a n O r d e r o f F o r e s t e r s , w a s o r g a n i z e d i n 1 9 4 8 . p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e b i g d e s e r t r o a d r a c e f r o m L o s A n g e l e s t o p f t o e n i x . . . • " F o r d s , a l s o , w e r e i n t h e l i m e l i g h t . I n S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 6 , n e w l o c a l p r i c e s w e r e r e l e a s e d l i s t i n g t h e C h a s s i s m o d e l 2 8 a t $ 4 5 0 , t h e R u n a b o u t a t $ 4 7 5 , a n d t h e T o u r i n g C a r a t $ 4 9 5 . S p e e d w a s b e c o m i n g a v i t a l f a c t o r . I n A u g u s t , 1 9 1 3 , J . E . B o n s a l l a n d D . T h o m s o n m a d e " a s p l e n d i d r u n " b a c k f r o m E d m o n t o n i n a n e w c a r - c o v e r i n g t h e 2 0 0 m i l e s i n a b o u t 1 3 2 9 h o u r s . T o k e e p u p w i t h t h e t i m e s t h e t o w n f a t h e r s p a s s e d a n e w b y - l a w l i m i t i n g t h e s p e e d o f a u t o m o b i l e s i n , t o w n t o 1 5 m i l e s p e r h o u r - 6 m i l e s p e r h o u r o n c o r n e r s . N o t a l l o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s r e s i d e n t s h a d t a k e n t o t h e h o r s e l e s s c a r r i a g e , h o w e v e r . O n A u g u s t 7 , 1 9 1 3 , a R e v i e w h e a d l i n e p r o c l a i m e d t h a t " R u n a w a y t e a m s a r e ' b e c o m i n g a m a t t e r o f a l m o s t d a i l y ' o c c u r r e n c e o n C o r o n a t i o n s t r e e t s . " E v e n i n t h e c o u n t r y t h e t i m e h o n o u r e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e h o r s e w a s b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d , f o r o n t h e f a r m s w e r e a p p e a r i n g m o r e a n d m o r e s t e a m - e n g i n e s a n d t r a c t o r s . T h e f o r m e r w e r e t o p r o v e t o o h e a v y a n d p o n d e r o u s f o r f i e l d w o r k , b u t t h e l i g h t e r a n d m o r e p r a c t i c a l g a s - e n g i n e s w e r e e v e n t u a l l y t o d r i v e t h e " O l d G r a y M a r e " i n t o r e t i r e m e n t . T h e d e l i v e r y , i n J u n e , 1 9 1 7 , o f a R u m e l y O i l P u l l T r a c t o r t o t h e A n d r e w s b r o t h e r s e a s t o f t o w n , a n d t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h e s a m e m o n t h o f a n $ 8 9 0 l i g h t F o r d t r a c t o r o n t h e K o r t g a a r d f a r m t o t h e n o r t h , b r o u g h t t h i s c o m m e n t 2 7 R e v i e w , M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 1 4 . 2 8 I b i d . , S e p t . 7 , 1 9 1 6 . 2 9 I n 1 9 5 1 t h e s a m e t r i p t a k e s a b o u t f o u r h o u r s . 6 2 . i n t h e l o c a l n e w s p a p e r . " T h a t t r a c t o r f a r m i n g h a s p r o v e d a s u c c e s s i s q u i t e e v i d e n t a n d e s p e c i a l l y s o ' i n t h e C o r o n a t i o n 3 0 D i s t r i c t . " T h i s w a s p e r h a p s a n o v e r s t a t e m e n t s i n c e i t w a s a n o t h e r t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e t r a c t o r s w e r e r e a l l y r e g a r d e d a s n e c e s s i t i e s . H o w e v e r , e v e n a t t h a t t i m e i n t e r e s t i n t h e m w a s s p r e a d i n g r a p i d l y . I n t o w n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e w a s a g r o w i n g f e e l i n g . o f a p a t h y a n d d i s i n t e r e s t r e g a r d i n g c i v i l a f f a i r s . T h i s w a s a f a r c r y f r o m t h e f l a m b o y a n t e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e f i r s t p u b l i c 3 1 e l e c t i o n a n d t h e e a g e r v i t a l i t y o f t h e e a r l y B o a r d o f T r a d e . I n D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 3 , M a y o r N o r t h w o o d w a s ' r e t u r n e d b y a c c l a m a t i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , i n a l i s t l e s s e l e c t i o n , a l l o f t h e c o u n c i l -l o r s a l s o w e r e r e t u r n e d w i t h o u t a f i g h t . A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e - t o w n f o r d i s c u s s i n g m u n i c i p a l m a t t e r s w a s p o o r l y a t t e n d e d . T h e s o r r y s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n 1 9 1 4 3 2 b r o u g h t a c a l l f o r n e w " v i m a n d v i g o r " f r o m t h e l o c a l e d i t o r b u t w i t h l i t t l e e f f e c t . M a r c h , 1 9 1 5 , b r o u g h t a n o t h e r c r y f o r 3 3 i m p r o v e m e n t - " W h y N o t A B o o s t e r C l u b ? " T h e r e s e e m s t o b e a f e e l i n g a m o n g t h e l i v e b u s i n e s s m e n o f o u r ' t o w n t h a t C o r o n a t i o n n e e d s s o m e k i n d o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t w i l l l o o k a f t e r t h e g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s o f t h e t o w n a n d s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y . T h e b o a r d o f 3 0 R e v i e w , J u n e , 2 1 , 1 9 1 7 , 3 1 T h e B o a r d o f T r a d e ' s p a r t i n g u i d i n g t h e t o w n ' s d e s t i n y i n i t s e a r l i e s t d a y s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d . I t h a d b e e n a c t i v e a l o n g o t h e r l i n e s a s w e l l . O n e o f i t s v e n t u r e s h a d b e e n t o s e n d a n e x h i b i t o f f a r m a n d g a r d e n p r o d u c t s t o t h e 1 9 1 2 D r y F a r m i n g C o n g r e s s a t L e t h b r i d g e , w i t h M r s . A . A . T o w n s i n c h a r g e . B o o k l e t s a n d p a m p h l e t s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a n d f o r f u r t h e r a d v e r t i s i n g " C o r o n a t i o n - W o n d e r T o w n o f t h e W e s t " w a s d i s p l a y e d i n p r o m i n e n t l e t t e r s . 3 2 R e v i e w , N o v . 2 6 , 1 9 1 4 . 3 3 I b i d . , M a r c h 1 1 , 1 9 1 5 . 6 3 . t r a d e w h i c h u s u a l l y p r o v i d e s s u c h d u t i e s h a s f a l l e n u p o n e v i l t i m e s a n d i t d o e s n o t s e e m p o s s i b l e t h a t i t c a n b e r e v i v e d t o a n e x t e n t w h e r e i t w o u l d b e c o m e a r e a l f a c t o r • i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . F o r t h e t i m e b e i n g t h e R e v i e w s e e m e d t o b e f i g h t i n g a l o s t c a u s e . A n e d i t o r i a l o f N o v e m b e r 1 1 , 1 9 1 5 , s h o w e d a d e f i n i t e n o t e o f b i t t e r n e s s . " T h e p e r i o d o f m u n i c i p a l - w e l l , w e w e r e a l m o s t g o i n g t o s a y s t r i f e b u t r e a l l y m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s a r e i n v a r i a b l y s o p e a c e f u l . i n C o r o n a t i o n t h a t i t s e e m s b e t t e r t o 3 4 u s e t h e w o r d n o m i n a t i o n s - i s o n c e a g a i n a t h a n d . " A p p a r e n t l y s o m e w h e r e a l o n g t h e l i n e t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c e x u b e r a n c e o f y o u t h h a d b e g u n t o w a n e . I n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s t h e u n i n h i b i t e d l u s t i n e s s o f t h e f r o n t i e r t o w n h a d b e g u n t o d i s a p p e a r , t o o . T h e b a r s w e r e n o l o n g e r a s f u l l o f r e g u l a r c u s t o m e r s a s t h e y h a d b e e n , a n d t h e f o u r p o o l - h a l l s h a d f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o o p e r a t e p r o f i t a b l y . 3 5 F i g h t s , a c t s o f v i o l e n c e , a n d o t h e r b r e a c h e s o f t h e p e a c e w e r e b e c o m i n g f e w e r i n n u m b e r . S o l a w - a b i d i n g d i d t h e c i t i z e n s a p p e a r , t h a t t h e T o w n C o u n c i l i n A p r i l , 1 9 1 5 , p a s s e d a r e s o l u -t i o n t o d i s p e n s e w i t h a C h i e f o f P o l i c e a f t e r J u n e ; . . l . T h e p l a n w a s n o t a l t o g e t h e r s u c c e s s f u l , h o w e v e r , a n d i n t h e J u n e 2 4 i s s u e o f t h e R e v i e w t h e e d i t o r , a f t e r c o m m e n d i n g t h e t o w n f a t h e r s o n t h e i r a t t e m p t e d e c o n o m y , n o t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s s t i l l s o m e l a w - b r e a k i n g i n e v i d e n c e , a n d a t o w n p o l i c e m a n w a s a n 3 4 I n t h e D e c e m b e r e l e c t i o n t h a t y e a r , J . E . B o n s a l l b e c a m e t h e s e c o n d m a n t o h o l d t h e o f f i c e o f m a y o r o f C o r o n a t i o n . 3 5 I n C o r o n a t i o n , a s w e l l a s i n m o s t t o w n s o f t h e O l d W e s t , s c a r l e t w o m e n h a d p l a y e d t h e i r p a r t . A n e w s i t e m i n M a r c h , 1 9 1 3 , n o t e d t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f a k e e p e r a n d t w o i n m a t e s o f ' a d i s o r d e r l y h o u s e . M a g i s t r a t e B u r y f i n e d t h e f o r m e r $ 1 0 0 a n d t h e l a t t e r $ 2 5 e a c h . R e v i e w , M a r c h 1 3 , 1 9 1 3 . 6 4 . o b v i o u s n e c e s s i t y . R a n c h e r s o f t h e d i s t r i c t w e r e h a v i n g t h e i r t r o u b l e s } t o o . B e c a u s e o f c o n t i n u o u s " m y s t e r i o u s l o s s e s " o f c a t t l e t h e y f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y i n M a y , 1 9 1 8 , t o f o r m t h e " F a r m e r s ' P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n . " A l l m e m b e r s w e r e g i v e n r e g i s t e r e d b r a n d s f o r t h e i r s t o c k a n d t h e s e w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n l o c a l p a p e r s . T h e e f f o r t s o f t h i s g r o u p w e r e m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n l e s s t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s i t h a d b e c o m e a f i n a n c i a l l y a n d p o l i t i c a l l y s o u n d b o d y , a n d w i t h i n a s h o r t . t i m e , r u s t l i n g i n t h e a r e a h a d a l l b u t d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e f i r s ^ f e w y e a r s a f t e r C o r o n a t i o n ' s i n c e p t i o n s a w l i t t l e c h a n g e i n t h e h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t o w n a n d c o u n t r y d w e l l e r s . T h e i r f o r t u n e s w e r e t o o c l o s e l y t i e d u p i n t h e f u t u r e o f t h e d i s t r i c t a s a w h o l e , a n d t h e y h a d c o m e t o o r e c e n t -l y f r o m t h e s a m e s t o c k f o r t h e r e t o b e m u c h d i s s e n s i o n a t t h i s t i m e . T h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e t o w n p r o v i d e d t h e r u r a l f o l k . a m u c h a p p r e c i a t e d s o c i a l o u t l e t , w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n w a s i n l a r g e p a r t d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e a m o u n t o f m o n e y t h e f a r m e r s h a d t o s p e n d . O n e d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t c a u s e d t h e m e r c h a n t s o f t h e t o w n c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n w a s t h e i n c r e a s e d f l o w o f b u s i n e s s b e i n g s e n t t o t h e n a t i o n ' s l a r g e m a i l - o r d e r c o m p a n i e s . T h e y f e l t t h a t T i m o t h y E a t o n a n d R o b e r t S i m p s o n w e r e g e t t i n g t r a d e t h a t s h o u l d r i g h t f u l l y b e k e p t i n t h e d i s t r i c t . E d i t o r i a l s i n t h e t o w n p a p e r h e l p e d s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w p o i n t . A h e a d l i n e i n t h e R e v i e w f o r J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 1 5 , r e a d , " S u p p o r t Y o u r H o m e T o w n Or I t C a n ' t S u p p o r t Y o u . " T h i s a r t i c l e w e n t o n t o s t a t e t h a t t h e y m u s t " [ k ] e e p t h e m o n e y a t h o m e s o t h a t i t c a n b u y g r o c e r i e s t o - d a y a n d f a r m p r o d u c e t o m o r r o w . " F i v e m o n t h s l a t e r i t w a s o b s e r v e d t h a t , " F a r m e r s i n t h e p r o g r e s s i v e c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e w e s t a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r t r u e i n t e r e s t s a r e b e s t 3 6 s e r v e d w h e n t h e y s u p p o r t t h e i r o w n c o u n t r y t o w n . " A g a i n i n S e p t e m b e r a p p e a r e d t h e h e a d l i n e , " R e m e m b e r Y o u r L o c a l M e r c h a n t , " a n d t h e q u e s t i o n , " H o w m u c h m o n e y d o t h e m a i l o r d e r h o u s e s s p e n d i n t h e d i s t r i c t f o r s c h o o l s , r o a d s a n d o t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t s ? " T h e r e w a s m u c h t o b e s a i d f o r t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , b u t t h e r e w a s a n o t h e r s i d e t o t h e q u e s t i o n a s w e l l . M a i l - o r d e r g o o d s w e r e o f t e n c h e a p e r , a n d s o m e p e o p l e , n o t s o w e l l o f f a s o t h e r s , f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o b u y " s i g h t u n s e e n " i n o r d e r t o m a k e t h e i r p e n n i e s s t r e t c h f u r t h e r . T h e n , t o o , i t w a s o b v i o u s t h a t , a l a r g e d e p a r t m e n t c h a i n c o u l d c a r r y a w i d e r s t o c k t h a n c o u l d s m a l l l o c a l s t o r e s . O n l a r g e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s f a r m e r a n d t o w n s m a n a l i k e f e l l • i n w i t h w e s t e r n s e n t i m e n t i n o p p o s i n g t h e " c i t y - s l i c k e r " a n d 3 8 b i g - b u s i n e s s m a n o f t h e E a s t . T h e d o m i n i o n e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 1 1 ( h e l d l e s s t h a n a w e e k b e f o r e C o r o n a t i o n ' s t o w n s i t e s a l e ) h a d s e e n o n e o f t h e s t o r m i e s t a n d m o s t h e a v i l y b e c l o u d e d c a m p a i g n s 3 6 R e v i e w , M a y 2 0 , 1 9 1 5 . 3 7 I b i d . , S e p t . 9 , 1 9 1 5 . 3 8 I n t h e 1 9 1 1 ' l a n d s l i d e , B o r d e n a n d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s w o n a s w e e p i n g v i c t o r y f r o m L a u r i e r ' s L i b e r a l s . E l e c t i o n r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s w i t h 1 3 3 s e a t s , t h e L i b e r a l s w i t h 8 6 , a n d I n d e p e n d e n t s w i t h 2 . T h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1 9 3 7 , p . 3 5 4 . 39 i n C a n a d a ' s h i s t o r y y e t f o r C o r o n a t i o n i t e s o n l y o n e i s s u e h a d 4 0 b e e n a t s t a k e - r e c i p r o c i t y - a n d t h a t h a d b e e n d e f e a t e d . T h e y , a s d i d m o s t o f t h e i r f e l l o w A l b e r t a n s , f e l t t h a t a g r a r i a n i n t e r e s t s h a d b e e n s o l d d o w n t h e r i v e r . M o r e b i t t e r t h a n e v e r w e r e t h e y o v e r t h e i r d e p e n d e n c e u p o n e a s t e r n c a p i t a l t o p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h e l e v a t o r s t o r a g e , r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d b a n k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . T h e y w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t w e s t e r n t o i l a n d s w e a t • w e r e m a k i n g e a s t e r n m i l l i o n a i r e s . D u r i n g t h e m o n t h s l e a d i n g u p t o A u g u s t , 1 9 1 4 , f e w c i t i z e n s o f t h e N e w W o r l d - e s p e c i a l l y p e o p l e o f t h e W e s t - w e r e a w a r e o f t h e t e n s e d r a m a a n d f r a n t i c d i p l o m a t i c m a n o e u v e r i n g t a k i n g p l a c e b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s i n E u r o p e . O n e d a y t h e y w e r e c a r r y i n g o n t h e i r n o r m a l p e a c e t i m e p u r s u i t s ; t h e n e x t t h e y w e r e e n g a g e d i n a w o r l d w i d e s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e . E v e n t h e n i t w a s s o m e t i m e b e f o r e t h e w e s t e r n e r r e a l i z e d j u s t w h a t a l l - o u t w a r w o u l d m e a n . A t f i r s t i t m e a n t o n l y a r a p i d r i s e i n p r i c e s f o r h i s f a r m p r o d u c e ; t h e f i g h t i n g w a s s t i l l f a r a w a y . T h e n h i s s o n s b e g a n t o g o , a n d h e a n d h i s w i f e w e r e l e f t t o d o t h e w o r k o f m a n y . T h e y c o u l d f e e l t h e o l d s e c u r e w a y o f l i f e b r e a k i n g u p a r o u n d t h e m . N e x t c a m e t h e c a s u a l t y l i s t s o f t h e m a i m e d a n d w o u n d e d , t h e m i s s i n g a n d t h e d e a d . W i t h t h e s e t h e f u l l h o r r o r 39 I s o l a t e d a s t h e y w e r e f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y , a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s a n d o c c u p a t i o n s , c i t i z e n s o f t h e s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e W e s t w e r e e i t h e r u n a w a r e or n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e d i v e r s e i s s u e s o f t h e 1 9 1 1 e l e c t i o n . F r e e t r a d e w a s m o r e v i t a l t o t h e m t h a n t h e t h r e a t o f A m e r i c a n a n n e x a -t i o n , a n d q u e s t i o n s , o f i m p e r i a l l o y a l t y a n d c o a s t a l d e f e n s e ;-~ s e e m e d r a t h e r r e m o t e t o p e o p l e l i v i n g s o m e 1 , 0 0 0 m i l e s f r o m e i t h e r s e a . 4 0 A f t e r t h e 1 9 1 1 e l e c t i o n r e t u r n s w e r e i n , t w o l o c a l m e r c h a n t s E . R . H a n e y a n d A l e x B e r n h a r d t , d e f i a n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n t h e i r s h o p t h e s i g n , " R e c i p r o c i t y N o t D e f e a t e d I n O u r S t o r e . " R e v i e w , S e p t . 2 7 , 1 9 1 1 . ' 67. o f w a r a t l a s t s t r u c k h o m e . C o r o n a t i o n i t e s , i n t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 1 4 , w e r e b r o u g h t f a c e t o f a c e w i t h t h e w o r l d s i t u a t i o n b y a l a r g e b l a c k - f a c e h e a d l i n e i n t h e J u l y 30 i s s u e o f t h e R e v i e w : " W a r T h r e a t e n s i n E u r o p e -A u s t r i a D e c l a r e s W a r o n S e r v i a . " A w e e k l a t e r t h e y r e a d " W a r R a g e s T h r o u g h o u t T h e C o n t i n e n t o f E u r o p e , " f o l l o w e d b y t h e 4 1 d e c l a r a t i o n , " C A N A D A I S R E A D Y . " I n o r d e r t o k e e p t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s u p t o d a t e w i t h w o r l d n e w s , t h e R e v i e w a r r a n g e d t o g e t d a i l y b u l l e t i n s f r o m t h e C a l g a r y N e w s - T e l e g r a m s , , a n d i n t h e d a y s b e f o r e r a d i o t h e s e w e e k l y s u m m a r i e s w e r e a n x i o u s l y a w a i t e d . T h e d i s t r i c t ' s i m m e d i a t e r e s p o n s e t o B r i t a i n ' s n e e d f o r a i d w a s d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o m a n y . N e i g h b o u r i n g t o w n s q u i c k l y o r g a n i z e d p a t r i o t i c s o c i e t i e s a n d s t a r t e d d r i v e s f o r f u n d s w h i l e C o r o n a t i o n s e e m i n g l y d i d n o t h i n g . A n e d i t o r i a l o f S e p t e m b e r 1 0 , e n t i t l e d " W h a t i s C o r o n a t i o n D o i n g ? " c i r c u l a t e d a c a l l f o r a c t i o n . I n a l l p a r t s o f A l b e r t a t h e n e w s p a p e r s g i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e a r e v e r y m u c h a l i v e t o t h e n e e d o f a i d i n g t h e B r i t i s h c a u s e i n e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e w a y . W h a t i s C o r o n a t i o n g o i n g t o d o t o s h o w t h a t w e o . w e s o m e t h i n g t o t h e M o t h e r c o u n t r y f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n w e h a v e e n j o y e d a l l t h e s e y e a r s . C o r o n a t i o n i s o n e o f t h e f e w t o w n s i n A l b e r t a t h a t h a s n o t s t a r t e d s o m e m o v e m e n t c a l c u l a t e d t o s h o w a s p i r i t o f p a t r i o t i s m a n d o f t h a n k f u l n e s s f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e o f l i v i n g u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e U n i o n J a c k . L a t e r t h a t m o n t h M a y o r N o r t h w o o d w a s s e n t t o C a l g a r y a s a d e l e g a t e t o t h e r e - o r g a n i z i n g m e e t i n g o f t h e A l b e r t a b r a n c h o f 4 1 R e v i e w , A u g . 6 , 1 9 1 4 . t h e C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s S o c i e t y , a n d e a r l y i n O c t o b e r h e w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f o r m i n g a l o c a l R e d C r o s s b r a n c h i n C o r o n a t i o n . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e a p a t r i o t i c m a s s m e e t i n g w a s h e l d i n t h e S t a r T h e a t r e w h e r e p l a n s w e r e d r a w n u p f o r t h e n e w s o c i e t y , a n d a s l a t e o f o f f i c e r s e l e c t e d . F . H . W h i t e s i d e w a s c h o s e n H o n o r a r y P r e s i d e n t w h i l e A . A . T o w n s w a s m a d e a c t i n g p r e s i d e n t . T h e m e e t -i n g c l o s e d w i t h t h e h o p e s t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s w o u l d h e l p r e m o v e 4 2 . " t h e s l u r " o f d o i n g n o t h i n g " f r o m t h e n a m e o f o u r t o w n . " T h e n e w l y f o r m e d R e d C r o s s S o c i e t y m a d e g o o d p r o g r e s s . W i t h i n t w o w e e k s i t h a d r a i s e d o v e r $ 5 0 0 , a n d b y t h e m i d d l e o f N o v e m b e r t h e s u m h a d r e a c h e d $ 1 0 0 0 . M e a n w h i l e a n o t h e r f o r m o f c o n t r i b u t i o n h a d b e g u n i n t h e d i s t r i c t . O n A u g u s t 2 0 t h e f i r s t C o r o n a t i o n i t e l e f t f o r t h e w a r s . H e w a s W . H . M c M u r r a y o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e C . P . R . a n d a m e m b e r o f a W i n n i p e g S i g n a l c o r p s w h i c h h a d b e e n s e l e c t e d f o r d u t y a t t h e f r o n t . I n N o v e m b e r , f o u r m o r e h o m e t o w n b o y s - F . H . G l o v e r , R . T . B e c k i n s a l e , N . G . W i t h e r b y , a n d M . J . M c L e a n - were a c c e p t e d f o r d u t y . T h e s e w e r e t h e f i r s t o f a g r o w i n g s t r e a m o f v o l u n -4 3 t e e r s w h o m a d e t h e j o u r n e y t o R e d D e e r t o e n l i s t . I n s p i t e o f t h e f l o w o f v o l u n t a r y e n l i s t e e s i n t o t h e l a r g e i n d u c t i o n c e n t r e s i t w a s s o o n f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o s e n d r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r s o n t o u n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . C o r o n a t i o n , l i k e a l l t h e 4 2 R e v i e w . O c t . 8 , 1 9 1 4 . 4 3 T h e c o u n t r y w i d e t r e n d i s v i v i d l y s h o w n b y t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o t e l e g r a m s w h i c h w e r e e x c h a n g e d o n M a y 7 , 1 9 1 6 . F r o m B r u s s l e s , O n t . , t o R o b t . F o r r e s t , C o r o n a t i o n : " E n l i s t e d l a s t n i g h t , c o m e h o m e o n c e . - C h a r l i e . " F r o m C o r o n a t i o n , A l t a . , t o C h a r l e s F o r r e s t , B r u s s l e s , O n t . : . " E n l i s t e d t w e n t y - e i g h t h F e b r u a r y , c a n n o t g o h o m e . - B o b . " R e v i e w , M a y , 1 1 , 1 9 1 6 . 4 4 o t h e r t o w n s a l o n g t h e l i n e , r e c e i v e d p e r i o d i c v i s i t s . O n e o f t h e f e w n o t e s o f h u m o u r i n t h e s e g r i m d a y s w a s s u p p l i e d b y a n i t e m o f n e w s w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e L o n d o n , E n g l a n d , D a i l y S k e t c h . I t w a s c o n t r i b u t e d b y a " M r . G o s s i p " a n d r e a d a s 4 5 f o l l o w s : C o r o n a t i o n ( C a n a d a ) i s a s m a l l p l a c e b u t i t i s d o i n g m a r v e l s i n t h e w a y o f r e c r u i t i n g . F r o m a n o l d f r i e n d s e t t l e d o u t t h e r e I l e a r n a l t h o u g h o n l y 1 2 0 0 m e n w e r e a s k e d f o r , w i t h i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e o v e r 5 0 0 0 e n t h u s i a s t s s e n t i n t h e i r n a m e s . A l a r g e n u m b e r o f t h e m a r e r e a l c o w b o y s a n d t h e y a r e j u s t d y i n g t o g e t s q u a r e w i t h t h o s e G e r m a n s . B y t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 1 5 zhe d e p a r t u r e o f l o c a l b o y s t o t h e f r o n t h a d b e g u n t o s h o w e f f e c t s a x h o m e . F a r m s w e r e u n d e r m a n n e d . , S c a r c i t y s c h o o l s w e r e u n d e r s t a f f e d , a n d t h e s t r e e t s s h o w e d a & i o p a r o i t y o f y o u n g m e n . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e b a d i n t h e m s e l v e s , b u t t h e y b e c a m e a t h o u s a n d f o l d w o r s e w h e n t h e c a s u a l t y l i s t s b e g a n t o a p p e a r . I n M a y t h e t o w n l e a r n e d t h a t C o l o u r - S e r g e a n t H u g h C r e e d o f t h e P r i n c e s s P a t r i c i a s h a d b e e n w o u n d e d , a n d t h a t D e c e m b e r , S e r g e a n t G . O . H a m m o n d w a s l i s t e d a s k i l l e d . T h e n c e -f o r w a r d t h e c a s u a l t y f i g u r e s r o s e r a p i d l y . C o r o n a t i o n ' s H o n o u r R o l l o n J a n u a r y 6 , 1 9 1 6 , s h o w e d . 6 7 e n l i s t e e s , i n c l u d i n g 1 k i l l e d a n d 3 w o u n d e d . A y e a r l a t e r t h e r e w e r e 2 k i l l e d , 2 d e a d , 2 m i s s i n g , a n d 1 6 w o u n d e d o u t o f 1 4 1 e n l i s t e e s . J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 8 , s h o w e d 1 4 k i l l e d , 4 d e a d , 3 m i s s i n g , a n d 3 1 w o u n d e d f r o m a t o t a l 4 4 I n 1 9 1 6 l o c a l e n l i s t e e s f o r m e d a s p e c i a l p l a t o o n i n t h e 1 5 1 s t I n f a n t r y B a t t a l i o n . L a t e r C o r o n a t i o n ' s p l a t o o n w a s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e 1 8 7 t h . B n . 4 5 T h i s p a s s a g e i s q u o t e d f r o m t h e R e v i e w , F e b . 2 5 , 1 9 1 5 . W h o " M r . G o s s i p " w a s o r . ' h o w t h i s r i d i c u l o u s s t a t e m e n t m a d e i t s w a y i n t o p r i n t . t h e a u t h o r w a s u n a b l e t o f i n d o u t . 4 6 o f 1 8 1 e n l i s t m e n t s . A n d s t i l l t h e f i g u r e s r o s e . T h e n a s s u d d e n l y a s i t b e g a n t h e w a r w a s o v e r . J u b i l a n t l y C o r o n a t i o n i t e s s c a n n e d R e v i e w h e a d l i n e s o f N o v e m b e r 7 , 1 9 1 8 , w h i c h t r u m p e t e d : H U R R A H J H U R R A H i T h e W a r i s E n d e d A p u b l i c h o l i d a y w a s d e c l a r e d , f l a g s w e r e u n f u r l e d , a s p o n t a n e o u s p a r a d e w a s o r g a n i z e d , a n d w i l d c e l e b r a t i n g c o n t i n u e d f a r i n t o t h e n i g h t . I n t h e e v e n i n g a m o n s t e r b o n f i r e w a s b u i l t n e a r t h e w a t e r t o w e r a n d a l i f e s i z e d , g u n p o w d e r f i l l e d , e f f i g y o f t h e K a i s e r w a s s t r u n g u p f r o m t h e g i r d e r s . H i g h l i g h t > o f t h e p r o -c e e d i n g s c a m e w h e n H i s W o r s h i p t h e M a y o r l i t a m a t c h t o t h e f u s e . U n b r i d l e d j o y a t t h e r e t u r n o f p e a c e w a s f o r a t i m e m a r r e d b y . t h e v e r y s e r i o u s e p i d e m i c o f f l u w h i c h s w e p t t h e c o u n t r y i n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 1 8 . N o r d i d t h e C o r o n a t i o n a r e a e s c a p e . B y t h e f i r s t w e e k i n N o v e m b e r 1 2 5 c a s e s o f i n f l u e n z a h a d b e e n r e p o r t e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t . O f " t h e s e , m a n y d e v e l o p e d p n e u m o n i a , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f f a t a l i t i e s r o s e s t e a d i l y . D r a s t i c q u a r a n t i n e r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e i s s u e d , a n d D r . B r o o k m a n a n d h i s h e a l t h i n s p e c t o r s w o r k e d l o n g h a r d h o u r s i n a h o p e l e s s e f f o r t t o k e e p u p w i t h t h e n e e d s , a n d s t i l l s e v e r a l w e e k s w e r e t o p a s s b e f o r e t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e e p i d e m i c h a d e a s e d . T h e w a r y e a r s h a d b r o u g h t s u f f e r i n g a n d h a r d s h i p s t o 4 6 T h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r y e a r s t h e R e v i e w p e r i o d i c a l l y l i s t e d t h e H o n o u r R o l l f i g u r e s . . 7 . 1 . m o s t . T h e y a l s o b r o u g h t b e n e f i t s t o m a n y . F a r m e r s , e s p e c i a l l y , w e r e m u c h b e t t e r o f f - m a t e r i a l l y a t l e a s t - i n 1 9 1 8 t h a n t h e y h a d b e e n " i n 1 9 1 4 . U p t o l y l 3 C o r o n a t i o n h a d n o t h a d a " r e a l l y g o o d c r o p , a n d t h i s , t o g e t h e r w i t h l o w p r i c e s , h a d k e p t t h e h o m e s t e a d e r i n d i r e s t r a i t s . H e w a s q u i c k l y p u t o n h i s f e e t , h o w e v e r , b y t h e g o o d y e a r s w h i c h f o l l o w e d . T h e b u m p e r c r o p o f 1 9 1 3 w a s f o l l o w e d b y a b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e y i e l d i n 1 9 1 4 , a n d b y t h e e n d o f t h a t y e a r t h e l o c a l m a r k e t p r i c e f o r N o . l 4 7 N o r t h e r n W h e a t h a d r e a c h e d $ 1 . 0 3 p e r b u s h e l . 4 8 T h e y e a r , 1 9 1 5 , s a w a c o n t i n u e d r i s e i n p r i c e s a n d a n o t h e r b u m p e r c r o p . T h e l o c a l p a p e r w a s f u l l o f a c c o u n t s 4 9 o f r e c o r d s t a n d s o f g r a i n . S o m e f i e l d s w e r e s o h e a v y t h a t i t w a s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o c u t t h e m , a n d o n e f a r m e r b r a g g e d t h a t h e h a d t o u s e a n e i g h b o u r i n g q u a r t e r t o f i n d r o o m f o r h i s s t o o k s . S o m e i d e a o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e d i s t r i c t c a n b e a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t o n e i m p l e m e n t d e a l e r , J . E . B o n s a l l , s o l d s o m e 4 0 D e e r i n g b i n d e r s i n a m a t t e r o f a f e w w e e k s . . • F a i r l y g o o d c r o p s w e r e h a r v e s t e d i n 1 9 1 6 a n d 1 9 1 7 , a n d b y t h e e n d o f t h e l a t t e r y e a r t h e l o c a l p r i c e f o r N o . l w h e a t 5 0 h a d r i s e n t o a w h o p p i n g $ 2 . 0 1 . T h e 1 9 1 8 c r o p w a s d e f i n i t e l y 4 7 R e v i e w , D e c . 2 4 , . 1 9 1 4 . O n J a n . 2 , 1 9 1 3 , C o r o n a t i o n ' s m a r k e t p r i c e f o r N o . l N o r t h e r n W h e a t h a d b e e n o n l y 5 7 ^ a n d f o r f i r s t g r a d e o a t s 16$, R e v i e w , J a n . 2 , 1 9 1 3 . S e e l i s t i n g o f W i n n i p e g w h e a t p r i c e s i n a p p e n d i x , p p . i U i i i . 4 8 B y F e b r u a r y 4 , t h e l o c a l p r i c e f o r w h e a t h a d r e a c h e d $ 1 . 3 5 p e r b u s h e l . ' R e v i e w , F e b . 4 , 1 9 1 5 . 4 9 O t t o K o r t g a a r d ' s w h e a t , w h i c h r a n 4 1 b u s h e l s t o t h e a c r e , w a s n o e x c e p t i o n . 5 0 R e v i e w , O c t . 2 5 , 1 9 1 7 . a l e a n o n e , b u t i n t h e g e n e r a l e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e t i m e s , t h i s w a s e a s i l y o v e r l o o k e d a s w a s t h e d r o u g h t , a n d f r o s t , a n d p o o r p r i c e s o f t h o s e f i r s t h a r d y e a r s . T h u s i t w a s t h a t s e t t l e r s o f t h e C o r o n a t i o n d i s t r i c t l o o k e d a h e a d t o t h e ' T w e n t i e s w i t h n o t h i n g b u t o p t i m i s m . T h e w a r h a d e n d e d i n v i c t o r y , a n d t h e i r s o n s w e r e r e t u r n i n g h o m e . T h e g o o d t i m e s w h i c h t h e y h a d l o n g e x p e c t e d w e r e h e r e a t l a s t . T h e h u n g r y p e o p l e o f E u r o p e w o u l d p r o v i d e a b o t t o m l e s s m a r k e t , f o r y e a r s t o c o m e , a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t d e m a n d t h e r e w o u l d b e f o r g o o d C a n a d i a n w h e a t , p r i c e s w o u l d r e m a i n h i g h . T h e b u m p e r c r o p s o f t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s s h o w e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o f i n e r l a n d i n t h e w o r l d f o r r a i s i n g t o p q u a l i t y w h e a t , a n d t h e r e w e r e s t i l l . a f e w u n c u l t i v a t e d q u a r t e r s t o b e h a d i n t h e d i s t r i c t . " M u s h r o o m i n g " p r o d u c t i o n a n d a n i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a -t i o n w o u l d b r i n g t h e l o n g a w a i t e d r a i l w a y e x p a n s i o n . O b v i o u s l y a n e w e r a w a s a b o u t t o b e g i n , a n d i n t h e n e x t d e c a d e C o r o n a t i o n w o u l d r e a l l y c o m e i n t o i t s o w n . C h a p t e r V T T H E T U R B U L E N T ' T W E N T I E S T h e e n t h u s i a s t i c o p t i m i s m w i t h w h i c h t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e C o r o n a t i o n d i s t r i c t e n t e r e d t h e 1920 ' s , w a s t o b e s o r e l y t r i e d t i m e a n d t i m e a g a i n d u r i n g t h e n e x t d e c a d e . T h e t e n u o u s b a n d o f f a i t h a n d h o p e , s t r e t c h e d t o t h e b r e a k i n g p o i n t y e t s o m e h o w h o l d i n g t o g e t h e r , w a s t o s n a p c o m p l e t e l y a s t h e t r y i n g ' T w e n t i e s m e r g e d i n t o t h e h e a r t b r e a k i n g ' T h i r t i e s . I t w a s o n l y t h a n t h a t m a n y b e g a n t o d o u b t t h e p r o u d d e s t i n y t h a t h a d s o l o n g b e e n p r o m i s e d t h e i r l a n d . T h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s e y e a r s w a s a r e c o r d o f u p s a n d d o w n s . T h o u g h t h e c r o p y e a r o f 1 9 1 8 h a d b e e n a l m o s t a t o t a l l o s s , t h e n e x t t w o y e a r s b r o u g h t p r o g r e s s i v e l y b e t t e r y i e l d s . P r i c e s 1 w e r e a t a n a l l - t i m e h i g h , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t f a r m e r s h a d u n p r e c e d e n t e d a m o u n t s o f h a r d c a s h t o s p e n d . I n s t e a d o f . c o n s o l i d a t i n g p r e s e n t h o l d i n g s o r p u t t i n g t h e m o n e y a w a y t o w a r d s a l e s s p r o s p e r o u s t i m e , a l l t o o . m a n y s a n k t h e i r p r o f i t s i n t o m o r e a n d m o r e l a n d . R e a l - e s t a t e , p r i c e s w e r e h i g h , a n d f i n a n c e c o m p a n i e s s e i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s a d d l e b u y e r s w i t h l o n g t e r m c o n t r a c t s b a s e d o n t h e c u r r e n t i n f l a t i o n . W h e a t w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f a r m e r ' s p r e s e n t p r o s p e r i t y . W h e a t w a s s o r e l y n e e d e d b y h u n g r y , p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . W h e a t c o u l d b e c u l t i v a t e d e c o n o m i c a l l y i n l a r g e a c r e a g e s . n ^ r , T h e ^ 9 i ? W i n n i p e g p r i c e f o r N o . l N o r t h e r n w a s $2.22: III A " ^l1??0," $ 2 - ? ; „ - M a c k i * t o s h , E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s . ^ ; n d i x ; P 1 ' ; , i i ( - ? e e l l s t i n g o f W i n n i p e g w h e a t p - i c - -(73) 7 4 . M o r e a n d m o r e w h e a t w a s t h e r e f o r e t h e f a r m e r ' s a n s w e r . L a n d p r e v i o u s l y u n c u l t i v a t e d w a s t o r n u p . N e w e x p a n s e s o f p r a i r i e s o d w e r e t u r n e d o v e r , a n d e v e r y w h e r e , s t a n d i n g c l u m p s o f t r e e s w e r e c l e a r e d t o m a k e w a y f o r t h e l o n g s t r a i g h t f u r r o w s . A c c o m p a n y i n g t h i s w i l d e x p a n s i o n i n w h e a t r a i s i n g w a s a m o d e r a t e s l u m p i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o a r s e g r a i n s . I n t h e t e n y e a r s f r o m 1 9 2 1 t o 1 9 3 1 t h e w h e a t a c r e a g e i n t h e C o r o n a t i o n d i s t r i c t j u m p e d f r o m 4 1 , 7 2 8 a c r e s t o 7 3 , 2 0 8 - a n i n c r e a s e o f o ' v e r 7 5 p e r c e n t . D u r i n g t h e s a m e p e r i o d t h e a c r e a g e o f b a r l e y r o s e o n l y 1 , 1 9 3 ( 1 , 2 8 9 t o 2 , 4 8 2 ) , w h i l e o a t s s h o w e d a d e c r e a s e o f 2 , 6 5 2 a c r e s ( 2 4 , 1 1 7 t o 2 1 , 4 6 5 ) , a n d r y e a d e c r e a s e o f 1 6 7 2 a c r e s ( 5 6 5 t o 3 9 8 ) . T h i s l o s s i n c o a r s e g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n m e a n t l e s s f e e d f o r l i v e s t o c k , w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e n a t u r a l p a s t u r e l a n d w a s 3 f a s t d i s a p p e a r i n g - u n d e r t h e p l o w . A s a r e s u l t t h e n u m b e r o f c a t t l e i n t h e d i s t r i c t d r o p p e d f r o m 1 0 , 4 2 8 i n 1 9 2 1 t o 6 , 6 1 7 4 t e n y e a r s l a t e r , a n d w i t h t h e m w e n t a l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r b u t m o r e c e r t a i n f o r m o f f a r m i n c o m e . T h e t r e n d w a s q u i t e a p p a r e n t . C o r o n a t i o n i t e s w e r e d o i n g t h e s a m e a s m o s t w e s t e r n e r s - t o s s i n g a s i d e t h e s e c u r i t y o f m i x e d f a r m i n g f o r t h e g e t - r i c h - q u i c k s t a k e ' s o f s i n g l e c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n . B y t h r o w i n g a l l - t h e i r e g g s i n t o o n e b a s k e t t h e y w e r e p l a c i n g t h e m s e l v e s c o m p l e t e l y a t t h e m e r c y o f p r o v i d e n c e 2 F r o m s t a t i s t i c s e n c l o s e d i n a l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , O t t a w a ; d a t e d J u n e 2 8 , 1 9 4 9 . 3 I n t h e f i v e y e a r s f r o m 1 9 2 1 t o 1 9 2 6 t h e a r e a o f n a t u r a l p a s t u r e i n t h e d i s t r i c t f e l l f r o m 1 1 2 , 4 1 8 t o 8 0 , 8 6 5 a c r e s . I b i d . . 4 I b i d . . 7 5 . a n d t h e e l e m e n t s . M o s t o f t h e m g a m b l e d a n d l o s t . F o r a t i m e i t l o o k e d a s t h o u g h w h e a t r e a l l y w a s t h e g o l d e n e l i x i r . T h e c r o p s o f 1 9 2 1 , 1 9 2 2 , a n d 1 9 2 4 w e r e p o o r , b u t t h o s e o f 1 9 2 3 a n d t h e f o u r y e a r s , 1 9 2 5 t h r o u g h 1 9 2 8 , w e r e e x c e l l e n t . E s p e c i a l l y f a v o u r a b l e w a s t h e s e a s o n o f 1 9 2 7 w h e n c r o p s a v e r a g i n g u p t o 5 0 b u s h e l s t o t h e a c r e w e r e f a i r l y 5 c o m m o n . F a r m o r e g r a i n w a s h a r v e s t e d t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , a n d 6 t h o u g h t h e m i d - ' T e n t i e s b r o u g h t a b i g d r o p i n p r i c e s , t i m e s w e r e g o o d . A s h a d h a p p e n e d h a l f a d e c a d e b e f o r e , m o s t o f t h e p r o f i t s 7 w e r e s u n k i n t o n e w m a c h i n e r y a n d m o r e l a n d - t h i s i n s p i t e o f t h e n o t e o f w a r n i n g s o u n d e d b y t h e m o r t g a g e a n d t a x s a l e s o f t h e e a r l y ' T w e n t i e s . T h e g o v e r n m e n t , t o o , d i d i t s p a r t t o m a k e s u r e t h e r e w a s n o p o t e n t i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e l a n d l y i n g i d l e . P u b l i c a t i o n s w e r e i s s u e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r g i v i n g p a r t i c u l a r s r e g a r d i n g u n o c c u p i e d , p r i v a t e l y o w n e d f a r m l a n d s f o r s a l e i n t h e l o c a l i t y . S u c h d e t a i l s a s a r e a f i t f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , n a t u r e o f s o i l , d i s t a n c e f r o m r a i l w a y , a n d p r i c e a n d t e r m s o f p a y m e n t w e r e g i v e n . A s a l e o f s c h o o l l a n d s a t C o r o n a t i o n i n J u n e , 1 9 2 8 , b r o u g h t t h i s e b u l l i e n t c o m m e n t 8 i n t h e R e v i e w . 5 ' W . H . B a r t e l l s o f t h e B r o w n f i e l d d i s t r i c t n o r t h o f t o w n t o o k a 5 7 b u s h e l p e r a c r e c r o p o f f o f 9 0 a c r e s o f s u m m e r f a l l o w . R e v i e w , O c t . 2 0 , 1 9 2 7 . 6 S e e t a b l e o f p r i c e s i n a p p e n d i x , p . i V . 7 I n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 2 0 , t h i r t e e n s e p a r a t o r s w e r e s o l d w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f a f e w d a y s , a n d a l l t h r o u g h t h e ' T w e n t i e s n e w b i n d e r s , c o m b i n e s , a n d t h r e s h i n g m a c h i n e s f o u n d r e a d y m a r k e t s . 8 R e v i e w , J u n e 2 8 , 1 9 2 8 . H u n d r e d s o f c a r s l i n e t h e s t r e e t s , t h e a l l e y s , a n d e v e r y a v a i l a b l e p a r k i n g s p a c e i n C o r o n a t i o n t o - d a y . F o r d s , C h e v r o l e t s , C h r y s l e r s , H u p r n o b i l e s a n d o t h e r s } a l l f r o m t h e y e a r 1 t o 1 9 2 8 m o d e l s , b r o u g h t t h e i r l o a d s o f p a s s e n g e r s , f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y t o a t t e n d " t h e b i g g e s t s a l e o f l a n d s p u t o n b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r t h i s s u m m e r . D u r i n g t h e t w o d a y s a l e 3 0 0 q u a r t e r s e c t i o n s w e r e a u c t i o n e d o f f a t a n a v e r a g e p r i c e o f $ 1 2 p e r a c r e . ( h i g h e s t w a s $ 3 1 . 5 0 9 a n d l o w e s t $ 7 ) . I n a l l $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 w o r t h o f n e w l a n d w a s s o l d . H a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s w a s t h u s i n v e s t e d i n l a n d w h i c h , h a l f a d o z e n y e a r s l a t e r , w a s p r a c t i c a l l y w o r t h l e s s . . , A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e w e s t e r n f a r m e r w a s " g o i n g o v e r b o a r d " f o r w h e a t , o c c a s i o n a l w o r d s o f c a u t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f g o v e r n -m e n t p a m p h l e t s a n d n e w s p a p e r e d i t o r i a l s d i d t r y t o p o i n t o u t t h e d a n g e r s o f s i n g l e c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n , a n d g o v e r n m e n t s p o n s o r e d s h o r t c o u r s e s o n m i x e d f a r m i n g w e r e g i v e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a . A t o n e s u c h c o u r s e a t C o r o n a t i o n i n 1 9 2 3 t h e m e r i t s o f d i v e r s i -f i e d i n t e r e s t s - b e e f a n d d a i r y c a t t l e , h o g s a n d p o u l t r y a s w e l l a s g r a i n - w e r e e x p o u n d e d . T h o u g h t h e a n n u a l t u r n o v e r 1 0 f r o m t h e s e p r o d u c t s w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e , i t w a s h a r d t o s t a n d b a c k a n d w a t c h w h i l e o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r s r e a p e d g o l d e n f o r t u n e s f r o m w h e a t a l o n e . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s s o m e t h i n g n e w i n f a r m e r c o o p e r a t i v e s 9 R e v i e w , J u l y 5 , 1 9 2 8 * 1 0 I n 1 9 2 5 , f o r e x a m p l e , 1 1 7 c a r l o a d s ( 2 6 0 4 h e a d ) o f c a t t l e , 4 1 c a r s ( 3 8 3 9 h e a d ) o f h o g s , a n d 2 7 c a r s ( 4 3 2 h e a d ) o f h o r s e s w e r e s h i p p e d , w h i l e c r e a m , e g g s , a n d p o u l t r y t o t h e v a l u e o f $ 1 3 6 , 0 0 0 w e r e d e l i v e r e d t o t h e l o c a l c r e a m e r y . F r o m a n a r t i c l e o n C o r o n a t i o n i n t h e E d m o n t o n J o u r n a l , J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 2 6 . 7 7 . a p p e a r e d i n t h e W e s t . T h e y e a r s 1 9 2 1 t o 1 9 2 4 h a d b r o u g h t t h e f a r m e r ' s f o r t u n e s t o a v e r y l o w e b b . P o o r y i e l d s a n d d r o p p i n g 1 1 p r i c e s c o m b i n e d w i t h i n f l a t i o n a r y e x p e n s e s i n s h i p p i n g a n d f a r m p u r c h a s i n g - E v e r y w h e r e w e r e c r i e s , f o r l o w e r f r e i g h t r a t e s , m o r e e q u i t a b l e m a r k e t i n g , a n d l e g i s l a t i o n g e a r e d t o ' t h e r u r a l p r o d u c e r r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r o r t h e p a m p e r e d m i d d l e m a n . T h u s w e r e t i m e s r i p e f o r t h e U n i t e d F a r m e r s ' o f A l b e r t a t o s w e e p t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a n d g a t h e r i n t h e r e i n s o f p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . C l o s e b e h i n d t h e U . F . A . c a m e t h e W h e a t P o o l , a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o s u p e r v i s e g r a i n s a l e s a n d s e e t h a t m e m b e r s r e c e i v e d t h e 1 2 h i g h e s p r i c e p o s s i b l e f o r t h e i r w h e a t . C o r o n a t i o n i t e s w e r e q u i c k t o j o i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s i n t h e t r e n d t o w a r d c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n . T h e y , t o o , w e r e f e d - u p w i t h h i g h s h i p p i n g r a t e s a n d k n o c k d o w n g r a d i n g o f t h e i r g r a i n . I n S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 9 a R e v i e w e d i t o r i a l p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n W h e a t B o a r d h a d s e t t h e F o r t W i l l i a m p r i c e f o r N o . l N o r t h e r n w h e a t a s $ 2 . 1 5 , a n d y e t C o r o n a t i o n f a r m e r s g o t o n l y 1 3 $ 1 . 9 7 . " W h o g o t t h e o t h e r 18$ p e r b u s h e l ? " M o r e h e a t e d w e r e t h e c o m p l a i n t s o f l o c a l p r o d u c e r s t h a t f a l l t h a t t h e i r g r a i n w a s b e i n g g r a d e d t o u g h i r r e s p e c t i v e o f . q u a l i t y . T h e y e v e n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e m a n a g e r s o f s o m e o f t h e 1 1 T h e , 1 9 2 0 W i n n i p e g p r i c e f o r N o . l w h e a t w a s $ 2 . 6 3 : 1 9 2 1 -' $ 1 . 6 5 ; 1 9 2 2 - $ 1 . 2 1 ; 1 9 2 3 - $ 1 . 1 0 ; a n d 1 9 2 4 - $ 1 . 0 7 . M a c k i n t o s h , E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s , A p p . A , p . 2 8 3 . 1 2 F o r a c o n c i s e , c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f f a r m m o v e m e n t s i n t h e ' T w e n t i e s , s e e c h a p t e r I V o f M a c k i n t o s h , E c o n o m i c  P r o b l e m s o f t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s . 1 3 R e v i e w , S e p t . 1 8 , 1 9 1 9 . 7 8 . e l e v a t o r s h a d a d m i t t e d r e c e i v i n g s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e i r h e a d o f f i c e s . A t t h i s p o i n t M a y o r T h o m a s s e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g t e l e g r a m t o t h e c o m p a n y h e a d o f f i c e s : " W h y h a v e y o u i n s t r u c t e d y o u r b u y e r h e r e t o g r a d e a l l w h e a t t o u g h . P l e a s e w i r e r e p l y . " T h e d e n i a l s w h i c h f o l l o w e d d i d l i t t l e t o d i s p e l t h e g r o w i n g c l o u d s o f r e s e n t m e n t a n d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . S o i t w a s t h a t w h e n H . W . W o o d , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U.F.A., a r r a n g e d a m e e t i n g a t t h e S t a r T h e a t r e i n C o r o n a t i o n o n A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 2 0 , h e s p o k e b e f o r e a p a c k e d h o u s e . A l r e a d y m e e t i n g s h a d b e e n h e l d a t C a s t o r , F l e e t , F e d e r a l , L a k e T h e l m a , B u l w a r k , a n d o t h e r s u r r o u n d i n g p o i n t s , a n d t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w a s a s t i r w i t h e n t h u s i a s m a t t h e t h o u g h t s o f a t l a s t h a v i n g a r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h s o m e v e s t i g e o f p o w e r . A l o c a l U.F.A. 1 5 g r o u p w a s s o o n f o r m e d , a n d d e l e g a t e s w e r e s e n t t o a t t e n d a c e n t r a l c o n v e n t i o n i n E d m o n t o n , f r o m w h e n c e t h e y r e t u r n e d " e n d o r s i n g t h e m o v e m e n t w h o l e h e a r t e d l y " a n d " t h o r o u g h l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t w a s t h e g r e a t e s t m o v e m e n t i n t h e c o u n t r y 1 6 t o d a y . " • • E a r l y i n A p r i l o f 1 9 2 1 t h e C o r o n a t i o n l o c a l g r o u p h e l d a U.F.A. c o n v e n t i o n t o c o m p l e t e i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a s a p o l i t i c a l b o d y . T h e e n t i r e c o n s t i t u e n c y w a s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 0 a c c r e d i t e d d e l e g a t e s i n a t t e n d a n c e . A c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d p l a t f o r m w e r e a d o p t e d , a n d H . W i l s o n o f F e d e r a l 1 4 R e v i e w , O c t . 3 0 , 1 9 1 9 . 1 5 O f f i c e r s c h o s e n f o r 1 9 2 1 i n c l u d e d L . H . W o o d y , P r e s i d e n t ; W . M e r c h a n t , V i c e P r e s i d e n t ; R . M e r c h a n t , S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r ; a n d F . H e n n i g h a n , A . C r o w e r , E . P a y n e , E . S t o k e s , a n d G . S w e e t a s D i r e e t o r s . I b i d . , J a n . 1 3 , 1 9 2 1 . 1 6 I b i d . , J a n . 2 7 , 1 9 2 1 . w a s e l e c t e d a s p e r m a n e n t c h a i r m a n . A f e w w e e k s l a t e r G e o r g e N . J o h n s t o n ' w a s c h o s e n U . F . A . c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e C o r o n a t i o n c o n s t i t u e n c y a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n h e l d i n J u l y h e 1 7 w o n a n e a s y v i c t o r y . A l l e y e s t u r n e d t o w a r d s E d m o n t o n a s H e r b e r t G r e e n f i e l d f o r m e d h i s m i n i s t r y , a n d p r i d e a n d h o p e w e r e i n e v e r y f a r m e r ' s h e a r t f o r , a t l o n g l a s t , h e r e b e f o r e h i m w a s a f a r m e r s ' g o v e r n m e n t - a g o v e r n m e n t h e w a s a r e a l p a r t o f . A s t h e y e a r s p a s s e d , h o w e v e r , a n d m a n y o f t h e l o o k e d f o r i m p r o v e m e n t s f a i l e d t o a p p e a r , h i s i n i t i a l f a i t h a n d c o n f i d e n c e b e g a n t o w a v e r . T h e n , a s u s u a l w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f b e t t e r t i m e s , h e t e n d e d t o o v e r l o o k h i s g o v e r n m e n t ' s e f f o r t s . W i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n h e f o u n d i t e a s y t o c o n d e m n . M e a n w h i l e t h e n e w l y o r g a n i z e d W h e a t P o o l w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s a m e e a r l y s u c c e s s a n d p o p u l a r i t y a s h a d g r e e t e d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p a r e n t U . F . A . . T h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e l a t t e r b o d y h a d - c l a i m e d t h a t " a s u c c e s s f u l w h e a t p o o l w o u l d g i v e m o r e d i r e c t e c o n o m i c r e l i e f t o t h e f a r m e r s t h a n t e n y e a r s ' l e g i s l a -1 8 t i o n , " a n d t h e f a r m e r s w e r e e a g e r t o a t t a c h t h e i r s i g n a t u r e s . I n A u g u s t , 1 9 2 b , t h e C o r o n a t i o n c o n s t i t u e n c y w a s n o t i f i e d i t w a s t o h a v e o n e o f t h e f i r s t p o o l s i n . o p e r a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t h e l o c a l B o a r d o f T r a d e a t o n c e o f f e r e d i t s a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e d r i v e f o r m e m b e r s h i p . B l a c k f a c e h e a d l i n e s i n t h e R e v i e w 1 7 I n t h e A c a d i a C o n s t i t u e n c y , G . M . J o h n s o n p o l l e d 3 , 7 3 6 v o t e s t o 9 6 0 f o r D r . A . M . D a y , h i s L i b e r a l o p p o n e n t . T h e s t a n d i n o f p a r t i e s i n t h e A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e o n M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 2 2 , w a s U . F . A . - 3 9 , L i b e r a l s - 1 3 , L a b o u r - 4 , I n d e p e n d e n t s - 2 , a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e s - 1 . T h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1 9 2 3 , p p . 5 2 1 - 5 2 2 . 1 8 F r o m a n a d d r e s s b y M r . W o o d a t V e g r e v i l l e o n J u n e 1 5 , 1 9 2 1 . R e v i e w , J u n e 1 6 , 1 9 2 1 . s h o u t e d , " F a r m e r s , r e m e m b e r w h a t y o u h a v e t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n : A l o n g t e r m c o n t r a c t w i t h y o u r f e l l o w g r o w e r s o r a l i f e s e n t e n c e 1 9 w i t h t h e s p e c u l a t o r s . " D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s t h e n u m b e r o f s i g n e d u p m e m b e r s m u s h r o o m e d u n t i l , b y t h e e n d o f 1 9 2 6 , s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e w h e a t a c r e a g e i n t h e t h r e e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s -2 0 2 1 w a s u n d e r p o o l c o n t r a c t . I n . k e e p i n g w i t h i t s n e w p o l i c y t o e s t a b l i s h a f a r f l u n g n e t w o r k o f l o c a l s t o r a g e b i n s , t h e P o o l , i n t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 2 7 , p u t u p a l a r g e 4 0 , 0 0 0 b u s h e l e l e v a t o r i n C o r o n a t i o n - t h e f i f t h t h a t t h e p r a i r i e t o w n ' s s k y l i n e b o a s t e d . F o r a t i m e t h i n g s w e n t v e r y w e l l . T h e n c a m e t h e d e p r e s s i o n a n d t h e g l u t o f w h e a t o n t h e w o r l d m a r k e t . A t o n c e t h e W h e a t P o o l w a s i n s e r i o u s t r o u b l e , a n d C o r o n a t i o n i t e s a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e W e s t r e a d a p p e a l s f r o m i t s d i r e c t o r s c a l l i n g f o r w h o l e - h e a r t e d s u p p o r t , f o r i t w a s h o p e d t h a t t h i s , " t h e d a r k e s t h o u r i n t h e p o o l ' s b r i e f h i s t o r y w o u l d b e f o l l o w e d b y t h e d a w n o f r e n e w e d p r o s p e r i t y a n d c o - o n e r a t i v e 2 2 s t a b i l i z a t i o n . " T h e n i g h t w a s t o o l o n g , h o w e v e r , a n d w h e n a n e w d a y f i n a l l y d a w n e d t h e W h e a t P o o l h a d c e a s e d t o e x i s t i n i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m . N o o n e c o u l d s a y t h a t t h e P o o l h a d f a i l e d c o m p l e t e l y . I t h a d h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s i n d e e d i n m a n y o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s i t 1 9 R e v i e w , M a r c h 6 , 1 9 2 4 , 2 0 M a c k i n t o s h , E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s ? p . 5 1 . 2 1 W h i l e t h e W h e a t P o o l h a d a t f i r s t b e e n e n v i s i o n e d s i m p l y a s a f a r m e r s ' s e l l i n g a g e n c y , i n o r d e r t o g a i n a w i d e r c o v e r a g e a n d g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o f t h e w h e a t i t h a n d l e d , i t s o o n b r a n c h e d o u t i n t o t h e e l e v a t o r b u s i n e s s . 2 2 R e v i e w , A u g u s t 2 1 , 1 9 3 0 . ' 8 1 . h a d u n d e r t a k e n , a n d w h e n i t f a l t e r e d , i t h a d a s c o m p a n y p r a c t i -c a l l y e v e r y o t h e r b u s i n e s s i n t h e l a n d . T h e r e w e r e o n e o r t w o o t h e r c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s m a d e b y t h e p e o p l e o f t h e C o r o n a t i o n d i s t r i c t i n t h i s p e r i o d . I n 1 9 2 3 t w o g r o u p s , t h e C a s t o r - C o r o n a t i o n C o - o p e r a t i v e L i v e s t o c k S h i p p i n g A s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e C o r o n a t i o n P o u l t r y S h i p p i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , b e g a n o p e r a t i n g . W h i l e t h e l a t t e r w a s n o t p a r t i -c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e , t h e L i v e s t o c k A s s o c i a t i o n w a s a s u c c e s s f r o m t h e s t a r t . W i t h i n t h r e e m o n t h s i t w a s d o i n g 8 0 p e r c e n t . 2 3 o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s l i v e s t o c k b u s i n e s s , a n d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s i t c o n t i n u a l l y s t r o v e t o p l a c e o n t h e c e n t r a l m a r k e t t h e s t o c k 24 o f i t s m e m b e r s a b s o l u t e l y a t c o s t . A s i n p r e v i o u s d e c a d e s t h e ' T w e n t i e s w e r e f i l l e d w i t h e x t r a v a g a n t p l a n s f o r e x p a n d i n g C o r o n a t i o n ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k s , a n d , a s u s u a l , m o s t o f t h e p r o j e c t s f a i l e d t o g e t b e y o n d t h e p e n c i l a n d p a p e r s t a g e . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e m o d e r n a u t o m o b i l e a g e , h o w e v e r , a v e r y c r e d i t a b l e g r a d e d r o a d w a s c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1 9 2 5 , - c o n n e c t i n g C o r o n a t i o n w i t h L a c o m b e a n d t h e n c e w i t h E d m o n t o n , C a l g a r y , a n d p o i n t s b e y o n d . L a t e r , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a g o o d t o p o f g r a v e l , t h i s r o u t e b e c a m e a m u c h t r a v e l l e d m a i n h i g h w a y . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d m a n y d i s t r i c t s h a d t h e i r " A u t o C l u b s " - g r o u p s f o r m e d t o t a l k o v e r m u t u a l m o t o r i n g p r o b l e m s a n d t o a i d i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f b e t t e r r o a d s . F o r e v e r y d o l l a r r a i s e d 2 3 R e v i e w , J u n e 2 8 , 1 9 2 3 . 2 4 I n t h e y e a r , 1 9 3 1 , e v e n a f t e r t h e d e p r e s s i o n h a d g o t w e l l s t a r t e d , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' p a i d i t s m e m b e r s o v e r $ 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 . I n J u n e o f t h a t y e a r p a t r o n a g e d i v i d e n d s o f 1 6 - ^ p e r h u n d r e d p o u n d s i n c a t t l e w e r e p a i d o u t . E d m o n t o n J o u r n a l , O c t . 2 9 , 1 9 3 2 , 82. by such an organization the government would put up two; such money to be expended on road b u i l d i n g and maintenance. In May, 1919, l o c a l car owners formed the Coronation D i s t r i c t Automo-b i l e Club under the chairmanship of H.S.Northwood, but the news that the government had already made i t s road estimates and could o f f e r no funds, quickly dampened the group's enthusiasm. March of the following year brought the news that a representative of the Dominion T r a i l Association was to o f f i c i a l l y blaze a t r a i l i n and out of Coronation, thus p l a c i n g the town on the automobile guide map of Alberta. By 1927 Coronation had a roomy Auto Camp with a stove and running water available f o r t o u r i s t s . Two years l a t e r a shower was added to the other conveniences. The opening years of the decade had revived the same o l d . t a l k of converging railway spokes with Coronation at t h e i r hub. R i v a l companies vied with one another i n the hopes of tapping the area's r i c h e s t wheatlands. Spring of 1919 brought reports that the C.N.R. would soon s t a r t construction on the A l l i a n c e -Alsask branch l i n e passing through or near Coronation; that the C.P.R. was contemplating a l i n e south from Coronation to the projected Acme-Drumheller-Empress route; and that work on the Bassano-Coronation l i n e , stopped by the war, would be continued as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e . Developments were slow. The following March (1920) the C.P.R. announced that work on the Coronation-Empress l i n e • would s t a r t that summer i f labour could be secured, and three years l a t e r , work on the C.N.R.'s Alliance-Alsask l i n e seemed 83. 2 5 i m m i n e n t w h e n i t s a p p r o p r i a t i o n a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e F e d e r a l H o u s e . B y t h i s t i m e > h o w e v e r , t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e e a r l y J T w e n t i e s w a s r u n n i n g i t s c o u r s e , a n d t h i s t o g e t h e r w i t h r i g h t o f w a y t r o u b l e s b r o u g h t a l l w o r k t o a s t a n d s t i l l . S i x y e a r s w e r e t o p a s s b e f o r e b r a n c h l i n e a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n r e a c h e d t h e s p o t l i g h t . T h e n i n M a r c h , 1 9 2 9 , C o r o n a t i o n i t e s h e a r d t h e n e w s t h a t C . N . R . a n d C . P . R . w e r e t o r u n j o i n t l y t h r o u g h t h e t o w n . A c o m p r o m i s e h a d f i n a l l y b e e n r e a c h e d e n d i n g t h e r i g h t o f w a y i m p a s s e w h i c h h a d c r i p p l e d c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k t h r o u g h t h e B a t t l e R i v e r V a l l e y a n d r e g i o n s t o t h e s o u t h . T h e C . N . R . w a s t o b u i l d o n f r o m A l l i a n c e t o t h e r i v e r w h e r e t h e y w o u l d m e e t t h e C . P . R . f r o m B u l w a r k , a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e b o t h c o m p a n i e s w o u l d u n d e r t a k e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l i n e s o u t h t o E m p r e s s . O n c e t h e s t a l e m a t e . h a d b e e n s e t t l e d , w o r k w e n t a h e a d r a p i d l y . W i t h i n a m o n t h s u r v e y o r s h a d b e g u n s t a k i n g o u t t h e r o u t e f r o m C o r o n a t i o n s o u t h t o Y o u i j ^ t o w n . B y t h e e n d o f 2 6 A u g u s t , 7 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r a d i n g h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d , a n d s o m e e i g h t m i l e s o f s t e e l h a d b e e n l a i d f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n e n d . O n J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 3 0 , t h e l a s t s p i k e w a s d r i v e n h o m e , a n d t h e n e w b r a n c h w a s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e e a s t - w e s t , A l s a s k - H a n n a l i n e . A t l a s t C o r o n a t i o n h a d a d i r e c t r o u t e t o t h e p r o v i n c e ' s c a p i t a l c i t y , a n d r e s i d e n t s o f t h e d i s t r i c t s a t b a c k t o e n j o y t h e b o u n t i f u l b e n e f i t s t h e y h a d s o l o n g b e e n t o l d w o u l d a c c r u e . 2 5 T h e e s t i m a t e f o r t h e A l l i a n c e - A l s a s k B r a n c h w a s s e t a t $ 1 , 0 3 4 , 0 0 0 . R e v i e w , J u n e . 2 1 , 1 9 2 3 . 2 6 L o c a l , m e n w i t h t h e i r o w n h o r s e s d i d m u c h o f t h e r o a d b e d w o r k . 84. Disappointment, and disillusionment came instead. The new route did not become a main line from Regina and Moose Jaw through to the Coast. The completion of the railway did not open up vast, r i c h , new areas. No regular service was started to Edmonton - in fact outside of a few t r i a l runs no trains at a l l passed over the newly l a i d tracks. Weeds quickly grew up, and the shining steel was l e f t to rust. Various factors probably contributed to the unhappy end of the Youngstown line. The 'Thirties brought the drought and dust storms which turned the area southeast of Coronation into wind swept semi-desert. Grain production could not even support the old r a i l lines - much less the new. Then, too, both the C.P.R. and the C.N.R. already had their main through lines running smoothly, with accommodation and operating f a c i l i t i e s geared accordingly. To affect a major change would entail far more expense than was practicable. Perhaps, also, the r i v a l companies had not found joint running rights a particularly satisfactory arrangement. At any rate the elusive bubble of railway expansion had been punctured, and Coronation-ites could view the country's destiny with a saner eye than they had heretofore possessed. At the same time that the Alliance-Coronation-Youngstown r a i l line was being completed, businessmen along the way were proposing the construction of an angling Empress to Edmonton highway alongside the newly bu i l t r a i l route. Coronation's Board, of Trade heartily endorsed the suggestion, pointing out that such a road would cut 48 miles off the present distance to Edmonton. Figures were also advanced to show the mileage s a v i n g s f o r o t h e r t o w n s a l o n g t h e w a y . T h e d i s t a n c e f r o m Y o u n g s t o w n t o E d m o n t o n w o u l d h e c u t b y 6 0 m i l e s , a n d t h a t f r o m E m p r e s s b y 7 0 . M e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d , p e t i t i o n s w e r e c i r c u l a t e d , a n d d e l e g a t i o n s w e r e s e n t , b u t s t i l l t h e p r o p o s a l s c a m e t o n a u g h t w h e n , i n A u g u s t , 1 9 3 0 , t h e g o v e r n m e n t a d v i s e d t h a t i t c o u l d g i v e " n o i m m e d i a t e p r o m i s e " r e g a r d i n g t h e a n g l i n g h i g h -2 7 w a y . T h e c h a n g i n g t i m e s o f t h e ' T w e n t i e s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d s e v e r a l o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n s c h e m e s , s o m e l a r g e a n d s o m e s m a l l j m a n y o f w h i c h w o u l d b e a d v a n c e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n i n t h e y e a r s t o c o m e . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 1 9 t h e d o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t w a s t o y i n g w i t h t h e i d e a o f d r a i n i n g S u l l i v a n L a k e , a s p r a w l i n g , s h a l l o w l a k e c o v e r i n g s o m e 7 2 s q u a r e m i l e s t o t h e s o u t h w e s t o f 2 8 C o r o n a t i o n . M o s t r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a a g r e e d t h a t i t w a s " p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t w o r t h l e s s b o d y o f w a t e r i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a , " b u t f e w c o u l d s e e a n y c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s t h a t w o u l d b e a c h i e v e d e x c e p t p e r h a p s t h e s t r a i g h t e n i n g o f a f e w r o a d a l l o w a n c e s . T h e y f e l t t h a t a n y l a n d s o r e c l a i m e d w o u l d b e a l k a l i o r g u m b o f l a t s f o r y e a r s t o c o m e , a n d b e s i d e s , o n e o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s b e s t s t o p p i n g o f f s p o t s f o r m i g r a t i n g d u c k s a n d g e e s e w o u l d b e l o s t . A n o t h e r p r o p o s a l b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r s o m e t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r s e e m e d f a r m o r e p r a c t i c a l . T h i s t i m e , i n s t e a d o f d r a i n i n g a w a y n a t u r a l r e s e r v o i r s , i t w a s s u g g e s t e d 2 7 R e v i e w , A u g u s t 7 , 1 9 3 0 . 2 8 S e e m a p o f a r e a i n a p p e n d i x , p . x x v u . 2 9 S o d e s c r i b e d i n a R e v i e w e d i t o r i a l o f M a y 1 , 1 9 1 9 . 8 6 . t h a t a m o n s t e r c a n a l b e b u i l t a c r o s s t h e p r a i r i e s f r o m S u l l i v a n L a k e t o S a s k a t o o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s t o r i n g h u g e q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n p u r p o s e s . T o . o b t a i n t h e e n o r m o u s a m o u n t s o f w a t e r n e c e s s a r y , e n g i n e e r s w o u l d r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f t h e R e d D e e r R i v e r s o m e 1 5 0 f e e t a n d t h a t o f S u l l i v a n L a k e s o m e 2 0 f e e t . A s u r v e y o f t h e m a i n c a n a l w a s a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d o u t , b u t t h a t w a s a s f a r a s t h e w o r k w e n t a t t h a t t i m e . T h e i d e a w a s n o t d r o p p e d e n t i r e l y , h o w e v e r , a n d t o m a n y f a r s e e i n g m e n , i t s e e m e d e v i d e n t t h a t s o m e s o r t o f i r r i g a t i o n s c h e m e w a s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e w a y t h a t t h e v a s t p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s f i n e s o i l w o u l d e v e r b e r e a l i z e d . T h e n , a n d o n l y t h e n , w o u l d t h e l o s i n g g a m b l e w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s b e w o n . T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f 1 9 2 9 a n o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t . T h a t w i n t e r a n A m e r i c a n c o m p a n y c o n d u c t e d a n o i l s u r v e y o f t h e B a t t l e R i v e r a r e a f r o m C o r o n a t i o n t o H a r d i s t y . T h o u g h c o n d i t i o n s w e r e p r o m i s i n g , n o i m p o r t a n t f i n d s w e r e m a d e , a n d t v / o d e c a d e s w e r e t o p a s s b e f o r e t h e s e a r c h f o r o i l i n t h e d i s t r i c t a g a i n b e g a n i n e a r n e s t . D u r i n g t h e ' T w e n t i e s C o r o n a t i o n ! t e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e m e t a t c l o s e r a n g e s e v e r a l o f t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e n e w , f a s t m o v i n g , e a s y l i v i n g a g e o f s c i e n t i f i c l u x u r y . A m o n g t h e s e w e r e t h e r a d i o , t h e t a l k i e , a n d o f c o u r s e t h e a i r p l a n e . O n M a y 1 3 , 1 9 2 2 , r e s i d e n t s o f C o r o n a t i o n h e a r d t h e i r f i r s t r a d i o c o n c e r t . T h e p r o g r a m m e o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e E d m o n t o n  J o u r n a l ' s n e w b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n - t h e f i r s t i n A l b e r t a . - a n d w a s p i c k e d u p b y a r e c e i v e r s e t u p i n t h e S t a r T h e a t r e . T h e R e v i e w , n o t e d t h a t , " T h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o n S a t u r d a y w a s v e r y g o o d 87. i n r e g a r d t o t h e o r c h e s t r a l s e l e c t i o n , h u t t h e m e s s a g e s a n d o t h e r s p o k e n i t e m s w e r e s o m e w h a t i n d i s t i n c t d u e t o a d v e r s e i n f l u e n c e s . " H o w e v e r t h e E d m o n t o n S u n d a y c o n c e r t a n d s e r m o n r e c e i v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y w a s " m u c h m o r e d i s t i n c t , e v e r y w o r d b e i n g c l e a r l y h e a r d b y t h e a u d i e n c e . " T h e e d i t o r i a l e n d e d w i t h t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t " T h e r a d i o h a s a m u c h l a r g e r f i e l d t h a n w e r e a l i z e a s y e t a n d w i l l a f f e c t s o c i a l a n d b u s i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s 3 0 b e y o n d o u r k e n . " I n t e r e s t i n t h e n e w m e d i u m o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t s p r e a d r a p i d -l y . B y J a n u a r y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r C o r o n a t i o n i t e s w e r e " l i s t e n i n g i n " o n m o r e t h a n t w e n t y p r i v a t e l y o w n e d r a d i o -p h o n e s . M o s t o f t h e s e w e r e h o m e m a d e , o n e t u b e a f f a i r s - t h e f a c t o r y m a d e sets s t i l l r e t a i l i n g a t a p p a l l i n g l y h i g h p r i c e s . I t w a s n ' t l o n g , h o w e v e r , u n t i l t h e t w i n - d i a l l e d S t r o m b e r g C a r l s o n . w i t h i t s b l a c k h o r n - l i k e a m p l i f i e r b e c a m e a f a m i l i a r s i g h t i n m a n y h o m e s . A s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , m o v i n g p i c t u r e s h a d q u i c k l y b e c o m e a f a v o u r i t e p a s t t i m e i n t h e d i s t r i c t , a n d a r e v i e w o f t h e S t a r T h e a t r e ' s t o p b i l l i n g s o v e r t h e y e a r s e v o k e s n o s t a l g i c m e m o r i e s . T h e y e a r , 1 9 1 9 , s h o w e d D o u g l a s F a i r b a n k s i n " T h e M a n f r o m P a i n t e d P o s t , " a n d M a r y P i c k f o r d i n " R e b e c c a o f S u n n y b r o o k F a r m ; " 1 9 2 3 b r o u g h t R u d o l p h V a l e n t i n o i n " T h e F o u r H o r s e m e n ; " a n d 1 9 2 7 , D o u g l a s F a i r b a n k s a g a i n i n " T h e T h i e f o f B a g d a d . " T h e y e a r , 1 9 2 8 , w a s o n e o f t h e m o s t m e m o r a b l e o f a l l . J o h n B a r r y m o r e i n " W h e n a M a n L i v e s , " C l a r a B o w i n " I t , " R i n T i n T i n i n " R i n t y o f t h e D e s e r t , " a n d t h e r o u s i n g " B e n H u r " w e r e a m o n g t h e m a i n a t t r a c t i o n s . A l s o t h a t y _ e a r a p p e a r e d " W i n g s " - o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t a i r e p i c s e v e r 3 0 R e v i e w , M a y 1 8 , 1 9 2 2 . 8 8 . f i l m e d . I t w a s i n ' t h i s p i c t u r e t h a t C o r o n a t i o n i t e s h e a r d t h e i r f i r s t s o u n d e f f e c t s ( " D o n ' t M i s s t h e w h i r o f W i n g s " ) , a n d t h e w a y w a s p o i n t e d t o f u l l l e n g t h t a l k i e s . " R i o R i t a , " s h o w n t w o y e a r s l a t e r , b r o u g h t s t i l l a n o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n , f o r i n t h i s f i l m m a n y o f . t h e s c e n e s w e r e s h o w n i n t e c h n i c o l o u r . C o r o n a t i o n h a d h a d i t s f i r s t v i s i t f r o m a " r e a l f l y i n g m a c h i n e " i n J u n e , 1 9 2 0 , w h e n t v / o H a n n a f l i e r s l a n d e d t h e i r C u r t i s s a e r o p l a n e e a s t o f t h e s c h o o l a n d c o m m e n c e d t a k i n g u p p a s s e n g e r s . A s e a r l y a s 1 9 2 8 a R e v i e w e d i t o r i a l n o t e d t h a t a l l t h a t w a s r e q u i r e d f o r a n a i r p o r t w a s a f a i r l y s m o o t h p i e c e o f g r o u n d 4 0 0 b y 4 0 0 y a r d s , t h a t i n t h e v e r y n e a r f u t u r e e v e r y t o w n w o u l d h a v e o n e , a n d t h a t C o r o n a t i o n c o u l d a n d s h o u l d b e 3 1 a m o n g t h e f i r s t . T h e i d e a w a s s l o w t o t a k e h o l d , h o w e v e r , a n d b a r n s t o r m i n g p i l o t s c o n t i n u e d t o u s e a s t h e i r l a n d i n g s t r i p s c o n v e n i e n t l y s i t u a t e d s t u b b l e f i e l d s n e a r t h e f a i r g r o u n d s a n d t o w n . S p o r t s o f a l l k i n d s w e r e e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r i n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d W o r l d W a r I. T o t h e o l d s t a n d - b y s w e r e a d d e d t e n n i s a n d g o l f . T h e l a t t e r g a m e w a s f i r s t p l a y e d i n t h e f a l l 3 2 o f 1 9 1 9 w h e n a f e w e n t h u s i a s t s l a i d o u t a c o u r s e o f s i x h o l e s o n C . P . R . l a n d d i r e c t l y n o r t h o f t o w n ; t o m a t o c a n s t a k i n g t h e 3 3 p l a c e o f r e g u l a t i o n c u p s . V e r y f e w o f t h e f i r s t m e m b e r s h a d 3 1 R e v i e w , N o v . l , 1 9 2 8 . 3 2 A m o n g t h o s e e a r l y d e v o t e e s t o t h e g a m e w e r e s u c h m e n a s F . D i l l o n , H . B . D o u g h t y , H . S . N o r t h w o o d , J . E . B o n s a l l , R . E l l i s , a n d t h e S h o r t b r o t h e r s . 3 3 C e r t a i n r u l e s h a d t o b e a d o p t e d t o m e e t l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e i t w a s s t i p u l a t e d t h a t , " A b a l l l y i n g i n a g o p h e r h o l e m a y b e l i f t e d a n d d r o p p e d w i t h o u t p e n a l t y . A b a l l p l a y e d i n t o a g o p h e r h o l e m u s t b e r e c o v e r e d o r t r e a t e d a s a l o s t ' 1 b a l l . " F r o m a l i s t o f r u l e s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e R e v i e w , A p r i l 2 8 , 1 9 2 1 . e v e r p l a y e d b e f o r e , b u t t b e g o l f i n g g e r m s p r e a d r a p i d l y a n d t h e c l u b ' s e n r o l l m e n t q u i c k l y g r e w . T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h r e e m o r e h o l e s w e r e a d d e d , a n d t h e n i n 1 9 2 2 t h e w h o l e l a y o u t w a s r e v i s e d a n d i m p r o v e d . S o m e f o u r h u n d r e d y a r d s w e r e a d d e d , s a n d g r e e n s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d , a n d a s m a l l b u i l d i n g w a s e r e c t e d t o h o u s e e q u i p m e n t . B e s t o f a l l , t h e f a c i l i t i e s w e r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e a t a v e r y l o w f e e - j u s t e n o u g h t o p a y f o r t h e - u p k e e p . M e a n w h i l e c u r l i n g , b a s e b a l l , a n d h o c k e y c o n t i n u e d t o d r a w e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t y e a r a f t e r y e a r . T h e a n n u a l c u r l i n g b o n s p i e l h a d g r o w n s t e a d i l y u n t i l i n 1 9 2 1 , w h e n $ 8 0 0 i n p r i z e s 3 4 w e r e g i v e n , i t w a s a d j u d g e d t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t i n t h e p r o v i n c e . B a s e b a l l r e a c h e d t h e h e i g h t o f i t s p o p u l a r i t y i n 1 9 2 4 a n d 1 9 2 5 3 5 w h e n t h e l o c a l t e a m c a r r i e d a l l b e f o r e i t i n b o t h t o u r n a m e n t a n d l e a g u e p l a y . C o r o n a t i o n i t e s w e r e a l s o v e r y p r o u d o f t h e i r h o m e t o w n b a n d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . I t h a d b e e n o r g a n i z e d i n M a r c h , 1 9 1 9 , a s o n o u t l e t f o r y o u t h f u l e n e r g y . E x p e n s e s w e r e p a i d b y p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c d o n a t i o n s , a n d t u i t i o n w a s f r e e t o a n y o n e w h o w a n t e d t o j o i n . M e m b e r s h i p s o o n r e a c h e d h a l f a h u n d r e d , a n d b y p l a y i n g a t r e g u l a r S a t u r d a y n i g h t c o n c e r t s a s w e l l a s o n h o l i d a y s a n d s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s , t h e g r o u p i n t i m e a t t a i n e d 3 4 T h a t y e a r F r a n k M i t c h e l l ' s r i n k t o o k t o p h o n o u r s . 3 5 A t a t o u r n a m e n t i n A u g u s t , 1 9 2 5 , C o r o n a t i o n t o o k f i r s t p r i z e m o n e y f r o m s u c h f o r m i d a b l e o p p o n e n t s a s S e d g e w i c k , A l l i a n c e , L a k e s e n d , C a s t o r , a n d Y o u n g s t o w n . P l a y e r s s u c h a s B a k e r , R y a n , S e t h W a l l a c , J a c k a n d J o e M a r t i n , a n d J a c k , H a n k T o m m y , A n d y , a n d P e t e K o r t g a a r d w e r e o u t s t a n d i n g c o m p e t i t o r s . 90. quite a high degree of p r o f i c i e n c y . The band's b i g day came i n J u l y , 1928, when i t took part i n a c t i v i t i e s at the c o l o u r f u l Edmonton E x h i b i t i o n . Horse racing was another top a t t r a c t i o n at the f a i r s and sports days. In J u l y , 1927, a l o c a l Horse Racing Association was formed with such men as E.R.Haney, E.J.Gibson, G.Fair, J.Marsh, and J.Rovenski as ardent supporters. One of t h e i r most successful race meets was held on June 21 of the following year when 21 well matched horses vied f o r honours. Harness racing was also popular.during t h i s period, and i n 1929, there was even an attempt at Roman raci n g - prompted no doubt by the "Ben Hur" f i l m of the previous year. Through the years the f a l l f a i r had slowly l o s t ground u n t i l i n 1923 i t was stopped altogether. I t depended, f o r success, on wholehearted support from a l l members of the community, e s p e c i a l l y r u r a l , and yet the f a l l was, the busiest time of the year f o r farmers; a season when they could i l l a f f ord to prepare and send e x h i b i t s , or even take time out from t h e i r harvesting to attend. As the f a i r dwindled i n importance, so the annual sports day became the top a t t r a c t i o n of the year, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1923 when i t was decided to hold the celebration on Dominion Day. The weather on J u l y 1 could almost always be counted on to turn out f a i r and warm, and the date was a perfect one f o r r u r a l f o l k , f a l l i n g as i t d i d between spring work and haying. As a r e s u l t , each year the sports day broke new records. In 1924, 2000 people attended i n some 600 automobiles, and paid $1000 i n gate re c e i p t s . In 1926, 2600 people came, and i n 1928 and.1929 over 3000 were i n 91. attendance. Meanwhile the Neutral H i l l s Stampede, a f t e r one wild f i n a l f l i n g i n 1919, dropped out of the picture as the top annual a t t r a c t i o n of the area. In June of that year, 160 of the stampede r i d e r s were i n v i t e d to parade through the streets of Edmonton with the mayor of that c i t y r i d i n g i n the lead. The cowboys, having obtained permission to f i r e t h e i r s i x -shooters i n the a i r , were i n t h e i r element, and even staged a mock bank holdup, with one desperado r i d i n g h i s horse r i g h t into the bank and onto the marble f l o o r . These antics i n the c a p i t a l c i t y proved f i n e advance p u b l i c i t y f o r the stampede two weeks l a t e r , f o r 15,000 people flocked to the Round Up that year. The passing of the Neutral H i l l s Stampede served further notice that the rough, exuberant, pioneering period was more and more a thing of the past. Though l o c a l trade was r e l a t i v e l y good i n the post war years, few new business establishments appeared. Those active i n the mid-'Twenties were l i s t e d as follows: three general stores, three hardware stores, two butcher shops, one grocery store, one c l o t h i n g store, one drug store, one jewelry,store, one bakery, one large h o t e l , two rooming houses, three r e s t -aurants, two barber shops, one pool room, three implement dealers, three lumber yards, two garages, two blacksmith shops, one tinshop, one harness shop, one shoe repair shop, four elevators, one creamery, two banks, three r e a l estate o f f i c e s , one law o f f i c e , two doctors' o f f i c e s , one dentist's o f f i c e , one 92. 36 photograph studio, one theatre, and one newspaper o f f i c e . A c t u a l l y the t o t a l was s l i g h t l y l e s s than i t had been s i x weeks afte r the town's inception, but of course, much of that f i r s t expansion had been f a l s e growth. For example, the d i s t r i c t could not possible support the s i x r e a l estate o f f i c e s and four pool h a l l s which were included i n the o r i g i n a l l i s t . New public projects were fewer during t h i s period, too. In 1919 work was started on a town o f f i c e and f i r e ' h a l l on the municipal s i t e near the water tower, and ten years l a t e r a fine b r i c k municipal o f f i c e was constructed across from the telephone exchange. For several years many residents of out-l y i n g homes had been c a l l i n g f o r an extension of the waterworks system so that they would be r e l i e v e d of the necessitv of 37 buying t h e i r water from the outmoded water-wagon. The time seemed ripe i n 1929, f o r i n that year the l a s t of the h o s p i t a l debentures were paid o f f , and the previous year had seen the 38 sale of the e l e c t r i c l i g h t plant. Accordingly the necessary 36 Compiled from l i s t s appearing i n the Review, Feb.14, 1924, and the Edmonton Journal, June 12, 1926. The town's surviving l i v e r y barns were not l i s t e d ; however spectacular f i r e s had taken t h e i r t o l l of these from time to time through the years. A small m i l l had been b u i l t i n the spring of 1924 but i t , too, had been destroyed by f i r e two years l a t e r . 37 In 1922 water from the water-wagon cost 3 # per bucket. C i t i z e n s had to buy t h e i r t i c k e t s from the waterman i n advance, and a card of 12 t i c k e t s sold f o r 400. Review. Nov. 16, 1922. 38 The l i g h t and power debentures were taken o f f the town's hands i n 1928 when a by-law was passed turning over the power r i g h t s a n d . f a c i l i t i e s to Canadian U t i l i t i e s Limited. This company had offered $15,000 f o r the l o c a l power system plus a ten year franchise. Once the bid was accepted, power and l i g h t were supplied over a l i n e from Drumheller. 93. 39 by-law was drawn up and put before the public i n Ju l y . I t was ca r r i e d by a large majority — 68 f o r and 10 against - and work on the project was begun immediately. Though the h o s p i t a l debt had been cleared up on schedule, the i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f had at times f a i l e d to pay i t s running expenses. The lean years of the early 'Twenties had forced the h o s p i t a l to operate temporarily on a cash basis. During the two year period from May 1, 1920, to A p r i l 30, 1922, unpaid accounts amounted to $6,199.46, more than one-third of 40 the t o t a l r e c e i p t s . Any d e f i c i t had to be met l a r g e l y by the town, although private donators and organized bodies such as the Ladies Aid, Women's I n s t i t u t e , Hospital A i d , and Sunshine Club helped considerably. Towards the end of the decade, badly overcrowded f a c i l i t i e s and the great preponderance of r u r a l patients brought up the p o s s i b i l i t y of a municipal h o s p i t a l d i s t r i c t being formed i n the area. There was much t a l k on the subject, i n the months that followed, but no d e f i n i t e action was taken u n t i l many years l a t e r . The growing apathy and general d i s i n t e r e s t towards public a f f a i r s which Coronationites had shown with the passing years continued almost undisturbed through the 'Twenties. Occasionally a leading a r t i c l e or pointed e d i t o r i a l i n the Review s t i r r e d up some i n t e r e s t , but a f t e r a short time enthusiasm again faded. In May, 1920, a C i v i c Improvement.League was formed with i t s 39 By-Law No.140 c a l l e d f o r the r a i s i n g of $37,000 to extend the waterworks system and purchase the necessary materials. Debentures at 6% over a 20 year period were provided f o r . 40 Further figures f o r the above period show that of the 673 patients,. 82 were from the town of Coronation and 491 from the surrounding d i s t r i c t ; or 14.3% from the town and 85.7% from the country. Review. Mayl8, 1922. f i r s t objective the construction of a boulevard on the south end of Royal Street. A year l a t e r i t was noted that the condition of the t r e e l e s s streets and avenues was "exactly the same as i t was ten year ago." Sporadic campaigns f o r a memorial park. and a public swimming pool suffered the same f a t e . August, 1922, brought another e d i t o r i a l c a l l i n g f o r a 41 l o c a l Board of Trade. I t proclaimed i n part: The country town i s the r e s u l t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of the surrounding country; the i n t e r e s t of the store and the farm are one. What have our r e t a i l merchants done, l e t us say during the four years since the end of the war, to induce settlement, i n i t i a t e i n d u s t r i e s , and speed up the wheels of progress? The answer i s " p r a c t i c a l l y nothing." A Board of Trade, e f f i c i e n t l y o f f i c e r e d , i s the only means by which we can l i f t our-selves out of the r u t we*ve been i n f o r several years.... Goaded into action the town's businessmen met within a week and formed a l o c a l Board of Trade with Mayor Thomson acting as temporary chairman and T.N.Cuthbert as Secretary. For a time the group d i d good work i n organizing, p u b l i c i z i n g , and leading public a f f a i r s . E a r l y i n February, 1923, the Board met with ratepayers i n a j o i n t r a l l y and succeeded i n arrousing consider-able i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm over the forthcoming elections. As a r e s u l t nine candidates were nominated f o r the three vacant cou n c i l seats, and e l e c t o r s , f o r the f i r s t time i n several years, exercised t h e i r ' r i g h t to vote. Public i n t e r e s t was d i f f i c u l t to sustain, however, and soon the old lethargic unconcern returned. 41 Review. Aug. 10, 1922. 95., As the 'Twenties merged into the ' T h i r t i e s the sudden breakdown of markets, p r i c e s , and finances the world over, brought the threat of depression to the land. Though times were' as yet f a i r l y good the general outlook was quite d i f f e r e n t from that which had prevailed i n the d i s t r i c t ten years before. There was s t i l l hope and optimism i n most men's hearts, but the ups and downs of the past decade had shattered the unbridled f a i t h , which so many had held, i n the glorious destiny predicted f o r t h e i r land. There had been so many bad years they could no longer be regarded as exceptions; and i n addition to drought, gophers and grasshoppers were becoming a r e a l menace to the farmer. The Wheat Pool had not been able to guarantee high prices and a steady market; nor had the farmers' government been ^ able to smooth out a l l the bumps. The f a c t that further railway expansion had been proved impractical seemed to destroy any p o s s i b i l i t y that the town might someday become a great p r a i r i e d i s t r i b u t i n g centre. F a l l i n g p r i c e s were swelling the already ruinous debts and mortgages into impossible fi g u r e s . And yet, with a l l h i s m u l t i p l y i n g troubles, the farmer, ever the gambler and the optimist, turned h i s eyes to the horizon and murmured, "Next year.'" Chapter VII THE HUNGRY 'THIRTIES No period i n the h i s t o r y of western agriculture has been so disastrous f o r the producer as that of "the hungry ' T h i r t i e s . " Drought and depression combined to threaten the very existence of farmers throughout the s t r i c k e n area. For almost a decade f a m i l i e s fought to keep food on t h e i r tables and a roof over t h e i r heads. And on the border of some of the hardest h i t t e r r i t o r y lay- the town of Coronation. Much of the story i s shown i n the d i s t r i c t ' s crop averages f o r the ten years from 1929 to 1938. The average y i e l d s per 1 acre were as follows: 1929 - 4.9 1934 ^ 11.5 1930 - 20.2 1935 - 8.7 1931 - 16.1 1936 - 4.8 1932 - 16.5 1937 - 2.7 1933 - 9.0 1938 - 15.3 Making matters worse was the f a c t that grain p r i c e s seemed to 2 vary conversely according to the y i e l d , i n 1930 the l o c a l p rice of wheat plummeted from above $1.00 i n January to 320 i n 1 Acreage and Production of P r i n c i p a l Grain Crops by Census  D i v i s i o n s , 1921-1947 Inclusive, Alberta Department of Agriculture, Sept., 1948. Coronation i s included i n Crop Census D i v i s i o n No. 7, " a Moderate Drought Area," which stretches from beyond Sedgewick i n the northwest to Consort and the border i n the southeast. The average y i e l d f o r the ten year period was onlv 10.97 bushels per acre - some 4 bushels l e s s than the Alberta average as a whole. A complete l i s t of the d i v i s i o h l s average y i e l d s from 1921 on, i s given i n the appendix, p. w , 2 The stock market crash, increased production abroad, and newly erected t a r i f f b a r r i e r s l e f t Canadian bins bulging and burst the bottom out of p r i c e s . (96) 97. the month of December. For tv/o years the downward trend con-tinued u n t i l i n December, 1932, the abysmal figu r e of 220 was reached. Then, at a time when the worst crop years were yet to come, pr i c e s slowly began to r i s e , u n t i l , i n 1936, " d o l l a r wheat" was again an a c t u a l i t y . By that time i t didn't r e a l l y matter to Coronationites, f o r from two and four bushel crops they found l i t t l e l e f t to market. While pr i c e s on t h e i r own produce were shrinking to nothingness, farmers discovered that the commodities which they had to buy remained high. Those who had kept a goodly number of milk cows and chickens now found the weeklv creamery 3 cheque - small as i t was - a god-send i n providing a l i t t l e ready cash with which to purchase such staples as f l o u r , sugar, tea, and coffee, as w e l l as emergency items l i k e medicine. Those, however, who had depended s o l e l y on wheat found themselves with no income at a l l . With not even enough money to secure the ne c e s s i t i e s of l i f e farmers could not hope to pay t h e i r taxes or keep up t h e i r mortgage payments - mortgages that had been drawn up i n times of plenty when pr i c e s were i n f l a t e d . Although defaulters were usually c a r r i e d f o r a time, i t wasn't long u n t i l many faced the necessity of g i v i n g up t h e i r lands, and when t h i s represented one's home and labour over a period of years i t was a t e r r i b l e blow indeed. Others, by l e t t i n g some of t h e i r outlying quarters 3 Dairy p r i c e s followed the trend of other a g r i c u l t u r a l produce. Cream and egg prices at Coronation i n September, 1934, were 15$ and 14^ respectively, as compared to 35$ and 28^ i n August, 1929, and 57$ and 58$ i n November, 1950. 98. go, were able to consolidate their holdings and so keep the home-place. Machinery prices remained high, but even had they been cut in half, few could have afforded new equipment. During the years that followed, farmers had to make do the best way they were able, and harness, hay racks, binders, and the like saw regular service long after they should have been junked. Falling into disrepair along with machinery were the farm buildings. The scorching sun and high winds of July and August caused paint to crack and peel, and endless days of unbearable heat l e f t houses, once weal^rproof, f u l l of cracks and open to the fury of the frequent dust storms. Every year i t was the same. The spring thaw and rains i n May and early June would bring the promise of a real crop. Then would come the dry spell, and for weeks on end, sun and wind would wreak their havoc on young and tender plants. Showers always seemed to just miss materializing, and general rains were a thing of the past. Almost every evening a dark and menacing cloud bank would pile up on the western horizon only to bring disillusionment as the setting sun shone through. Worst of a l l were the terrible "black blizzards" - dust storms which tore, up and scattered the precious loam, leaving seed and seedlings naked and withering on the ground. Approaching with almost cyclonic speed these storms swept across the land, blotting out the afternoon sun so completely that lamps and lanterns had oftentimes to be l i t . Behind them they l e f t dust and g r i t over everything. Under doors, through 99. c r a c k s , a n d w i n d o w s a s h e s t h e d i r t s i f t e d , a n d i n e v e n t h e b e s t b u i l t h o u s e s , d e s i g n s c o u l d b e d r a w n i n t h e d u s t l a y e r s t h a t c o v e r e d w a l l s a n d f u r n i s h i n g s . T h i s s o i l d r i f t i n g w a s a n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f p r a i r i e w e a t h e r a n d p r a i r i e f a r m i n g t e c h n i q u e s . I n t h e a l l o u t d r i v e f o r w h e a t , l a r g e f i e l d c u l t i v a t i o n w a s p r a c t i s e d i n o r d e r t o p e r m i t t h e u s e o f f u l l s c a l e p l o u g h i n g , s e e d i n g , a n d h a r v e s t i n g m e t h o d s . T h i s w a s t h e q u i c k a n d e a s y w a y , a s w e l l a s t h e m o s t s h o r t s i g h t e d , f o r w h e n t h e s e s a m e l a r g e f i e l d s w e r e i n s u m m e r -f a l l o w i t m e a n t v a s t u n b r o k e n e x p a n s e s o f f i n e l y d i s c e d a n d h a r r o w e d s o i l l a y o p e n t o t h e f u r y o f h i g h w i n d s . A n d g o n e w a s n a t u r e ' s p r e v e n t a t i v e f o r s o i l d r i f t i n g - t h e r o o t f i b e r s o f t o u g h o r a i r i e s o d . T h e r e s u l t s o f w i n d e r o s i o n w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s a s t r o u s s o u t h e a s t o f C o r o n a t i o n w h e r e t h e s o i l w a s l i g h t a n d s a n d y . H e r e t h e d r i f t i n g w a s s o b a d t h a t d i t c h e s w e r e f i l l e d , f e n c e p o s t s w e r e b u r i e d , a n d r o l l i n g s a n d d u n e s t u r n e d t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e i n t o a v e r i t a b l e d e s e r t . W i t h c o n d i t i o n s g r o w i n g w o r s e e v e r y y e a r a n d w i t h n o p r o s p e c t s o f b e t t e r t i m e s t o c o m e , m o r e a n d m o r e f a m i l i e s p u l l e d u p s t a k e s a n d s e t o u t t o l o o k f o r g r e e n e r f i e l d s e l s e -w h e r e . S o m e , w i t h g o v e r n m e n t h e l p , u s e d b o x c a r s ; o t h e r s p i l e d a l l o f t h e i r b e l o n g i n g s o n t o w a g o n a n d h a y r a c k , a n d , w i t h t h e i r l i v e s t o c k t i e d o n b e h i n d , s t a r t e d o v e r l a n d . M a n y h e a d e d n o r t h i n t o t h e C o l d L a k e r e g i o n w h e r e h o m e s t e a d s w e r e s t i l l a v a i l a b l e , a n d w h e r e d r o u g h t h a d n o t y e t p e n e t r a t e d . H e r e , h o w e v e r , t h e y f a c e d o n c e m o r e t h e h a r d s h i p s o f t h e 100 f r o n t i e r , a n d . f o r t h e o l d e r o n e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s m e a n t g i v i n g u p . t h e c o m f o r t s a n d c o n v e n i e n c e s t h e y h a d s t r u g g l e d s o h a r d t o o b t a i n . M e a n w h i l e t h e a c t u a l t o w n o f C o r o n a t i o n , c l o s e l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e s u r r o u n g d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e f o r i t s p r o s p e r i t y , w a s s u f f e r i n g t h e s a m e p a n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n . S t o r e s w e r e f o r c e d t o c l o s e b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s n o t e n o u g h b u s i n e s s t o g o a r o u n d . T a x e s w e n t u n p a i d , a n d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t w e n t y y e a r s t h e t o w n f a t h e r s h a d b u d g e t p r o b l e m s . C o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k c a m e t o a s t a n d s t i l l , a n d i n s t e a d o f e x p a n s i o n , r e c e s s i o n n o w s e t i n , w i t h m a n y b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d h o m e s g a p i n g v a c a n t l y t o t h e w e a t h e r - t h e i r o w n e r s g o n e . M a n y o f t h o s e w h o r e m a i n e d , w i t h n o m o n e y c o m i n g i n a n d n o w o r k t o t u r n t o , r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l h e l p a n d a t t e n t i o n , a n d s o i t w a s t h a t r e l i e f m e a s u r e s b e c a m e o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e p e r i o d t h a t f o l l o w e d , b o t h t o t o w n s m a n a n d c o u n t r y d w e l l e r a l i k e . . A l l t h r e e g o v e r n m e n t s - f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , a n d m u n i c i p a l - j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f a s s i s t a n c e , b u t i t w a s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h b o r e t h e h e a v i e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . R e l i e f w a s b o t h d i r e c t a n d i n d i r e c t , w i t h t h e l a t t e r t a k i n g s u c h f o r m s a s t h e p r o v i d i n g o f i n e x p e n s i v e s e e d a n d f e e d , g o v e r n m e n t p u r c h a s i n g o f w o r t h l e s s s t o c k , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o w o r k o f f t a x e s o n r o a d p r o j e c t s , a n d l a t e r , w h e a t p e g g i n g , d r o u g h t b o n u s e s , a n d h e l p u n d e r t h e P r a i r i e F a r m R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t o r P . F . R . A . a s i t w a s c a l l e d . D i r e c t r e l i e f , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a d t o d o w i t h m a t e r i a l a i d - f o o d , c l o t h i n g , f u e l , - a n d s h e l t e r , i n c a s h o r i n k i n d . A p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e l i e f w a s m a d e t o t h e l o c a l c o u n c i l w h e r e u p o n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e p a s s e d w h i c h e n d e a v o u r e d t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s p e c i a l w a n t s o f e a c h n e e d y i n d i v i d u a l . T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s t a k e n f r o m t h e m i n u t e s o f C o r o n a t i o n M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s f o r t h e y e a r 4 . 1 9 3 6 , M o v e d b y C o u n c i l l o r ] t h a t a M o n t h l y R e l i e f A l l o w a n c e o f $ 1 2 . 0 0 p l u s n e c e s s a r y f u e l a n d c l o t h i n g f a v o r o f b e r e c o m m e n d e d . M o v e d b y C o u n c i l l o r t h a t a M o n t h l y R e l i e f A l l o w a n c e o f $ 7 . 5 0 p l u s 7 t o n s o f c o a l f a v o r o f b e r e c o m m e n d e d . . T h a t s u c h a i d p r o v i d e d n o m o r e t h a n a b a r e s u b s i s t e n c e i s s h o w n b y t h e f o l l o w i n g b r e a k d o w n o f f i g u r e s n o t e d b y t h e C o r o n a t i o n C o u n c i l o n A p r i l 9 , 1 9 3 4 . A t t h a t t i m e t h e r e w e r e 3 7 p e o p l e o n r e l i e f s p e n d i n g $ 1 0 6 . 0 0 p e r m o n t h o n f o o d , a n d a l l o w i n g t h r e e m e a l s a d a y , e a c h m e a l f o r e a c h p e r s o n a v e r a g e d 6 o n l y a b o u t t h r e e c e n t s i n c o s t . T h i s o f c o u r s e d o e s n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t g a r d e n p r o d u c e w h i c h w a s t h e m a i n f o o d s u p p l y d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r m o n t h s , b u t , e v e n a t t h a t , t h e r e w a s n o p l a c e o n t h e t a b l e f o r a n y t h i n g b u t t h e b a r e s t o f n e c e s s i t i e s . M o n t h b y m o n t h t h e n u m b e r r e c e i v i n g d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e r o s e . By A p r i l , 1 9 3 5 , t h e r e w e r e 7 5 p e o p l e o n r e l i e f i n t o w n - 3 2 a d u l t s a n d 4 3 c h i l d r e n , a n d t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r t h e 4 I n 1 9 4 4 . C o r o n a t i o n M . D . N o . 3 3 4 w a s a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h o t h e r n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o f o r m t h e l a r g e m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t o f P a i n t e a r t h ( M . D . N o . 5 3 ) . S e e m a p i n a p p e n d i x , p . x * v i i i . T h e ' m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e i s n o w a t C a s t o r , a n d v e r y f e w o f t h e e a r l i e r r e c o r d s s e e m t o b e o n f i l e . S o m e m i n u t e s o f c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s f r o m 1 9 3 4 o n w e r e a v a i l a b l e , a n d f r o m t h e s e a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s w a s o b t a i n e d . 5 F r o m f i l e s o n r e c o r d i n t h e T o w n O f f i c e i n C o r o n a t i o n , 102. municipality l i s t e d 135. Thus i t was that through the 'Thirties both town and country alike had to budget for the new and heavy expense item - r e l i e f , and with a drastically reduced income to draw from, this meant r i g i d retrenchment and close to the belt economy. Coronationites would remember the decade of the 'Thirties as the longest and the leanest they had ever put in. The end' of each successive bad season brought the fervent hope that they had at last reached the bottom, and that the way ahead lead up, but week after week, month after month, and year after year conditions grew worse instead of better, unti l even the most optimistic hearts were f i l l e d with despair. The disillusionment and shattered hopes of these grim years can best be shown by a rapid survey of the path of depression. As early as 1930 there were some signs of the rough road that lay ahead. By far the most obvious was the disastrous plunge which the price of wheat had taken that year. Already the dominion and provincial governments were talking of plans for mutual emergency r e l i e f works, and in Coronation i t was noted that the Soldier Settlement Board was finding i t d i f f i c u l t to. get r i d of unoccupied land. In January of 1931 the C.P.R. l e t i t be known that service on the Coronation-Kerrobert line might have to be reduced 6 because receipts had been "very lig h t for the past season," and i t had been continued at a loss. Accordingly, in March, trains started making the run every second day. So many complaints 6 Review, Jan.8, 1931. 103 were voiced along the li n e , however, that the Board of Railway-; Commissioners in Ottawa announced that daily service would be reinstituted at once. This was only a reprieve. With the continuation of hard times, f i r s t one train and then two were dropped, with the result that the line which had once been predicted as a v i t a l strand in Canada's network of steel now was l e f t with two mixed trains a week making the return run. The year, 1931, also saw the end of the hometown band - an organization that had proven so popular, and had been so much a part of the l i f e and s p i r i t of the 'Twenties. The break-up was necessitated by lack of funds. The Board of Trade was in 7 dire s t r a i t s , and the Town Council f e l t that "under present conditions i t was decidedly unfair to ask taxpayer to share 8 the burden of musical education for a few." In April of that year a Review headline proclaimed that 9 - - -"Purchasers of School Lands May Petition Government." These were the farmers who had purchased lands at the large auction sales held at Camrose, Stettler, and Coronation a few years before (cf. previous chapter), and now they were requesting the provincial government to waive interest or make some con-' cessions i n view of the impossibility of meeting payments. Nor were they the only land holders being buried under ruinous debts, for notices of mortgage and tax recovery sales were 7 Many of the local merchants in the f i r s t months of the depression had given credit to town and rural friends only to find, when the hard times continued, that many customers had no way of paying back their debts. 8 Review, Feb..5, 1931. 9 Ibid., April 9, 1931. 1 0 4 . m o u n t i n g s t e a d i l y . S e p t e m b e r b r o u g h t w o r d t h a t w o r k o n t h e C o r o n a t i o n - C a s t o r h i g h w a y , ( p a r t o f p r o v i n c i a l H i g h w a y N u m b e r 1 2 ) , d u e t o c o m m e n c e t h a t f a l l , w o u l d u s e 6 0 p e r c e n t l o c a l l a b o u r - a w e l c o m e r e l i e f m e a s u r e f o r m a n y n e i g h b o u r i n g f a r m e r s . T h e n e w h i g h w a y . w a s t o f o l l o w t h e r a i l w a y l i n e d i r e c t l y i n f r o m t h e w e s t a n d w o u l d c u t o f f t h e b i g a n g l e n o r t h o f t o w n . T h e B o a r d o f T r a d e , h o p i n g f o r a n i n f l u x o f b u s i n e s s , f o u g h t a l o s i n g b a t t l e t o h a v e t h e h i g h w a y p a s s a l o n g V i c t o r i a A v e n u e . I n s t e a d , t h e 1 0 1 1 m a i n r o u t e w a s l a i d h a l f a m i l e s o u t h o f t o w n . . T h e g r a v e l l i n g d i d n o t k e e p u p w i t h t h e g r a d i n g , a n d i t w a s 1 9 3 4 b e f o r e t h e r o a d f r o m C o r o n a t i o n t o L a c o m b e c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d a n a l l w e a t h e r h i g h w a y . E a r l y i n 1 9 3 2 i t . w a s a n n o u n c e d t h a t a u t o m o b i l e l i c e n s e s f o r t h a t y e a r w o u l d c o s t $ 5 . 0 0 m o r e t h a n h e r e t o f o r e . T h i s p r o v e d t h e f i n a l s t r a w f o r m a n y c a r o w n e r s w h o h a d b e e n f i n d i n g i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o p a y t h e e x p e n s e o f k e e p i n g t h e i r v e h i c l e s o n t h e r o a d . F a r m e r s , w h o i n r e c e n t y e a r s h a d b e e n e n j o y i n g t h e c o m f o r t s a n d c o n v e n i e n c e s o f m o d e r n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ! f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o p u t t h e i r c a r o n b l o c k s a n d t o t u r n o n c e a g a i n t o t h e h o r s e , t h e b u g g y , a n d t h e d e m o c r a t . O n t h e r o a d , a l s o , a p p e a r e d i n n u m e r a b l e r u b b e r t i r e d , h o r s e d r a w n 10 S e e m a p o f t o w n i n a p p e n d i x , p . x / c i x . 1 1 E a r l i e r i n t h e y e a r a g r o u p , i n c l u d i n g G . N . J o h n s t o n , l o c a l M . L . A . , a n d M a y o r J . E . B o n s a l l h a d m a d e t h e t r i p t o E d m o n t o n t o p e t i t i o n t h e M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c W o r k s t o f i n i s h g r a d i n g a n d g r a v e l l i n g t h e r o a d e a s t f r o m S t e t t l e r , T h e y w e r e t o l d , h o w e v e r , t h a t a l l p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n a l l o c a t e d . v e h i c l e s - t h e d e p r e s s i o n " b e n n e t t - b u g g y . 1 1 I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e o v e r a l l p o l i c y o f r e t r e n c h m e n t , t h e M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t o f C o r o n a t i o n , i n A p r i l , d e c i d e d t o d e c r e a s e t h e r e e v e ' s a l l o w a n c e t o $ 5 . 0 0 , a n d t h a t o f e a c h c o u n c i l l o r t o $ 4 . 0 0 p e r m e e t i n g . A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e r a t e s f o r m u n i c i p a l w o r k m e n w e r e c u t a s w e l l . A l a b o u r e r w a s n o w t o r e c e i v e 2 5 0 a n h o u r , a f o r e m a n 4 0 0 , a m a n w i t h a t w o h o r s e t e a m 4 5 0 , a n d a m a n w i t h f o u r h o r s e s 6 5 0 . F a r m h e l p , t o o , w a s d r a w i n g g r e a t l y r e d u c e d p a y . G e n e r a l f a r m l a b o u r e r s r e c e i v e d a r o u n d $ 2 0 . 0 0 a m o n t h ( w i t h b o a r d ) ; s t o o k e r s w e r e p a i d $ 1 . 5 0 ; a n d 1 2 t h r e s h e r s $ 2 . 0 0 p e r d a y . T h e p r o b l e m s o f l o c a l d i s t r i c t s w e r e f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f o u t o f w o r k d r i f t e r s f o l l o w i n g t h e r o a d s a n d r a i l s . A R e v i e w a r t i c l e o f S e p t e m b e r ^ ! , e n t i t l e d " D o n ' t F e e d T r a n s i e n t s , " r e a d i n p a r t : " S o m e t r a n s i e n t s a r e d e m a n d i n g $ 2 . 0 0 f o r s t o o k i n g , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e . f a r m e r h a s l i t t l e c h a n c e f o r m a k i n g a p r o f i t o n h i s g r a i n , a n d a l s o o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e v e r y s a m e m e n w i l l b e e x p e c t i n g 1 3 r e l i e f d u r i n g t h e c o m i n g w i n t e r . " I n M a r c h o f 1 9 3 3 C o r o n a t i o n ' s T o w n C o u n c i l , i n a n a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e t h e s o u r c e o f i t s f u n d s , f o l l o w e d t h e l e a d o f m a n y o t h e r t o w n s a n d m a d e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r a b u s i n e s s t a x . U p 1 2 I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a b o v e p r i c e s , f a r m w o r k e r s i n 1 9 2 8 h a d b e e n p a i d a p p r o x i m a t e l y a s f o l l o w s : g e n e r a l f a r m l a b o u r e r , $ 4 5 . 0 0 p e r m o n t h ; s t o o k e r $ 4 . 5 0 p e r d a y ; a n d t h r e s h e r , $ 5 . 0 0 p e r d a y . B y 1 9 5 0 , f i f t e e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e d e p r e s s i o n l o w s , p r i c e s h a d c l i m b e d a g a i n t o e v e n h i g h e r l e v e l s . F i g u r e s f o r t h a t y e a r s h o w e d g e n e r a l f a r m l a b o u r e r s r e c e i v i n g a b o u t $ 9 0 . 0 0 a m o n t h ; s t o o k e r s , $ 1 0 a d a y ; a n d t h r e s h e r s , $ 1 1 p e r d a y . 1 3 R e v i e w , S e p t . 1 , 1 9 3 2 . 106. to that time residential property had."borne an equal share of the cost with revenue producing property, and i t was now f e l t that the latter should carry an additional proportion of the burden. Meanwhile, each year, more and more municipal taxes remained uncollected. In 1929 the figure was $3,679.32. Two years later i t had reached $15,045.22. In 1933 i t was $23,559.71; 14 in 1935, $36,927.18; and by 1937 i t had risen to $50,971.79. Thus at a time of greatly increased responsibility the town's sources of revenue were drying up. A Board of Trade meeting in February, 1934, gloomily noted that there were now seven families on r e l i e f as compared to none the year before; that the town's indebtedness at the bank was $1,000 greater than i t had been the previous year; that taxes from ratepayers were dropping, and that citizens were gradually losing their homes. They further noted that though these homes went to the town, they were no longer even theoretically revenue producing, and the load was subsequently heavier on those who continued to pay. As the number requiring direct r e l i e f assistance rapidly grew, i t became increasingly evident that local municipalities would require very substantial governmental assistance i f they were to carry on. So i t was that Coronation councillors . breathed more easily when, i n September, 1934, they were notified that their municipal d i s t r i c t was to receive $12,600 from the government - the grant to be used solely for the purpose of relieving distress among the needy. 14 From records on f i l e i n the Town Office at Coronation. 1 0 7 . T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f 1 9 3 5 s t e a d i e r g r a i n p r i c e s a n d a b e t t e r f e e d s i t u a t i o n b r o u g h t h o p e s t h a t t h e w o r s t w a s o v e r . I n O c t o b e r t h e R e v i e w r e m a r k e d t h a t " O n e c a n n o t i c e a m o r e o p t i m i s t i c f e e l i n g t h e s e d a y s a b o u t t o w n , a m o n g f a r m e r s a n d b u s i n e s s m e n a l i k e . T h e r e s e e m s t o b e a d e f i n i t e s w i n g s e t i n 1 5 t o w a r d l e s s a r d u o u s t i m e s . " I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e n e w t o n e a f e w b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b e g a n t o c a r r y o u t l o n g n e e d e d r e n o v a t i o n s , a n d a g u e s t e d i t o r i a l i n t h e R e v i e w q u e r i e d , " H a v e 1 6 W e F o r s a k e n O u r H o m e s ? " A t l o n g l a s t a n e w p a r k s i t e , t o b e c a l l e d J u b i l e e P a r k , w a s b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r t r e e p l a n t i n g , a n d a n e w s k a t i n g r i n k w a s r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h i n g c o m p l e t i o n . S p r i n g i n d i c a t i o n s p r e d i c t e d a " b u m p e r " c r o p , a n d p l a n s w e r e u n d e r w a y f o r a r o u s i n g c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e t o w n ' s 2 5 t h A n n i v e r s a r y t h a t f a l l . T h e n c a m e t h e h o t t e s t a n d d r i e s t s u m m e r y e t o n r e c o r d . F o r o v e r 3 5 d a y s t h r o u g h J u n e a n d J u l y - t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p e r i o d o f t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n - t h e r e w a s n o t a d r o p o f r a i n . C r o p s w e r e s c o r c h e d a n d s e a r e d b e y o n d r e p a i r . M a n y f a r m e r s p u t " p o v e r t y b o x e s " i n p l a c e o f t w i n e a n d b u n d l e c a r r i e r s o n t h e i r b i n d e r s i n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t w h a t f e e d t h e y c o u l d . S o m e u s e d m o w e r s a n d r a k e s t o c u t t h e s t u n t e d g r a i n a n d w e e d s . S t i l l o t h e r s t u r n e d s t o c k i n t o t h e i r f i e l d s o r s i m p l y p l o u g h e d t h e m u n d e r . G o n e w e r e t h e f a r m e r s ' h o p e s f o r a p a y i n g c r o p a n d a s t a r t t o w a r d s r e c o v e r y . G o n e w e r e t h e m e r c h a n t s ' h o p e s f o r a r e v i v a l 1 5 R e v i e w , O c t . 3 , 1 9 3 5 . 1 6 I b i d . , A p r i l 9 , 1 9 3 6 . 1 0 8 . o f t r a d e . A n d g o n e w e r e t h e c o u n c i l f a t h e r s ' c h a n c e s f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s - p a s t a n d p r e s e n t . I n A u g u s t t h e b a n k n o t i f i e d t h e C o u n c i l t h a t t h e t o w n ' s l i n e o f c r e d i t w a s e n d e d . T h u s , o n S e p t e m b e r 2 7 , t h e d a y o f t h e t o w n ' s S i l v e r A n n i v e r s a r y , t h e r e s e e m e d l i t t l e t o c e l e b r a t e . ' I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e , ' s a i d t h e R e v i e w , ' t h a t t h e y e a r 1 9 3 6 , t h e t w e n t y - f i f t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e t o w n o f C o r o n a t i o n , i s p o s s i b l y o n e o f t h e l e a n e s t y e a r s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s a r e a . S h o r t c r o p s c o m i n g a t a t i m e w h e n t h e p r i c e o f w h e a t I s o n t h e r o a d t o r e c o v e r y t o a p r o f i t a b l e l e v e l , f o l l o w i n g f i v e o r s i x y e a r s o f d i s a s t r o u s l y l o w p r i c e s f o r l i v e s t o c k a s w e l l a s g r a i n s . , h a s d o n e m u c h t o c u r b u n b r i d l e d e n t h u s i a s m i n t h e e v e n t , w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d i n t h i s c o m m u n i t y . ' ' A n d t h e r e w a s s t i l l w o r s e t o c o m e . T h e 1 9 3 6 w h e a t c r o p f o r t h e w h o l e a r e a a v e r a g e d 4 . 8 b u s h e l s p e r a c r e ; t h a t o f 1 9 3 7 a v e r a g e d o n l y 2 . 7 . S o d r y w a s t h e s u m m e r t h a t t h e r e w a s v e r y l i t t l e h a y , p a s t u r e g r a s s w a s t h i n a n d s p o t t y , a n d e v e n t h e w e e d s w e r e s t u n t e d . . M a n y w h o h a d c u t t h e i r " c r o p s " ( g r a i n a n d w e e d s ) t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r f o r c o a r s e f e e d , n o w f o u n d t h i s s o u r c e p r a c t i c a l l y w o r t h l e s s . W i t h n o f e e d r e s e r v e s f a r m e r s f a c e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f g e t t i n g r i d o f c a t t l e a n d h o r s e s b e f o r e w i n t e r s e t i n - c a t t l e t h a t h a d p r o v i d e d m i l k , c r e a m , b u t t e r , a n d b e e f , a n d h o r s e s t h a t w e r e b a d l y n e e d e d t o p u t i n n e x t y e a r ' s c r o p . A m i l d w i n t e r w o u l d h a v e b e e n a g o d s e n d . I n s t e a d , i t w a s l o n g a n d h a r d . M a n y f a r m e r s , w h o h a d t a k e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , i n O c t o b e r , o f s e l l i n g t o t h e . g o v e r n m e n t w h a t c a t t l e t h e y w o u l d n ' t b e a b l e 1 7 R e v i e w , S e p t . 2 4 , 1 9 3 6 . 1 0 9 . t o f e e d , h a d g o t t e n r i d o f t h e i r t h i n n e s t a n d s c r u b b i e s t a n i m a l s . O t h e r s , t r y i n g d e s p e r a t e l y t o m a k e t h e i r o w n w a y u n a s s i s t e d , h a d g a m b l e d o n a m i l d w i n t e r w h i c h w o u l d h a v e e n a b l e d t h e m t o h o l d o v e r t h e i r s t o c k . G o v e r n m e n t . s h i p m e n t s o f f e e d d i d n o t b e g i n t o g o a r o u n d , a n d e a c h p a s s i n g w e e k o f b a d w e a t h e r m a d e t h e s i t u a t i o n m o r e s e r i o u s . O n F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 3 8 , t h e f o l l o w i n g u r g e n t r e q u e s t w a s f o r w a r d e d t o t h e 1 8 M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n E d m o n t o n . H o n o r a b l e S i r , A t t h e a n n u a l r a t e p a y e r s 1 m e e t i n g h e l d i n C o r o n a t i o n o n S a t u r d a y , F e b . 1 9 , i t w a s u n a n i m o u s l y r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e l i v e s t o c k a n d f e e d s i t u a t i o n b e b r o u g h t t o y o u r p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n . L a s t f a l l t h e f a r m e r s s h i p p e d 3 6 2 h e a d o f c a t t l e f r o m t h i s p o i n t u n d e r g o v e r n m e n t o p t i o n a l m a r k e t i n g p l a n , a n d t h e f a r m e r s w h o r e d u c e d t h e i r l i v e s t o c k t o s c h e d u l e s e t o u t i n t h e D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l a g r e e m e n t r e f e e d a n d f o d d e r a s s i s t a n c e a r e b e i n g t a k e n c a r e o f . W e h a v e a l a r g e n u m b e r o f f a r m e r s w h o k e e p o f f r e l i e f f r o m t h e r e v e n u e r e c e i v e d f r o m o p e r a t i n g o r o w n i n g a l a r g e r n u m b e r o f s t o c k , e s p e c i a l l y m i l k c o w s t h a n a l l o w e d b y t h e f e e d p o l i c y , a n d t h e s e f a r m e r s k e p t t h e i r s t o c k f i g u r i n g t h e y h a d a s u f f i c i e n t a m o u n t o f f e e d t o c a r r y t h e i r s t o c k t h r o u g h a n o r m a l w i n t e r , w h e r e a s t h e y h a v e h a d a n a b n o r m a l w i n t e r , a n d a r e n o w o u t o f f e e d , w i t h n o m e a n s t o p r o c u r e m o r e , a n d t h e i r s t o c k ( h o r s e s a n d c a t t l e ) a r e d y i n g b y t h e d o z e n d a i l y , a n d t h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l s t e a d i l y g r o w w o r s e u n t i l s p r i n g . T h e r e s i d e n t s f e e l t h a t w h e n t h e y h a v e b e e n a b l e t o g o s o f a r o n t h e i r o w n , t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d s u r e l y s t e p i n u n d e r t h e a b n o r m a l w i n t e r c o n d i t i o n s , a n d . p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t f e e d t o s a v e t h i s s t o c k w h i c h i s s o b a d l y n e e d e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t . P r o m p t a c t i o n a n d r e s u l t s a r e e a r n e s t l y d e m a n d e d b y t h e r e s i d e n t s a n d t h e c o u n c i l o f T h e M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t o f C o r o n a t i o n , N o 3 3 4 E . J . G i b s o n , S e c ' y - t r e a s . 1 8 R e p r i n t e d i n t h e R e v i e w , F e b . 2 4 , 1 9 3 8 . n o . T w o w e e k s l a t e r c a m e t h e r e p l y f r o m a s o r e l y p r e s s e d g o v e r n m e n t . " I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r u s t o e x t e n d h e l p i n a n y d i s t r i c t o t h e r t h a n p r o v i d e d f o r u n d e r t h e p o l i c y a s s e t o u t f o r t h e D r o u g h t 1 9 A r e a . " I t w a s n o t o n l y l i v e s t o c k t h a t w e n t s h o r t o f f e e d i n t h e w i n t e r o f ' 3 7 - ' 3 8 . C a s h f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f g r o c e r i e s w a s p r a c t i c a l l y n d n e x i s t a n t . P a r t i c u l a r l y h a r d u p w e r e t h o s e f a m i l i e s w h o , t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s , h a d s t r u g g l e d s o d e s p e r a t e l y . t o k e e p o f f r e l i e f . T h e a r r i v a l , i n m i d - D e c e m b e r , o f b o x c a r l o a d s o f a p p l e s , c h e e s e , d r i e d b e a n s , a n d f i s h , s e n t b y t h e D o m i n i o n . G o v e r n m e n t R e l i e f F o o d s O r g a n i z a t i o n , d i d m u c h t o 20 m a k e f o r a m e r r i e r C h r i s t m a s . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e m i d - T h i r t i e s a n e w p o l i t i c a l m o v e m e n t w a s s w e e p i n g t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . A s i s s o o f t e n t h e c a s e , d e p r e s s i o n h a d b r o u g h t d i s c r e d i t t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n p o w e r , a n d p e o p l e w e r e l o o k i n g r o u n d , s e a r c h i n g f o r a p a r t y w h o s e p o l i c i e s w o u l d l e a d t h e m b a c k t o g o o d t i m e s . T h e c o n -s e r v a t i v e m e t h o d s o f o l d l i n e p a r t i e s d i d n o t s e e m t o h o l d t h e a n s w e r , a n d s o , w h e n t h e e x t r a v a g a n t t r u m p e t i n g o f S o c i a l C r e d i t r e a c h e d t h e i r e a r s , m a n y t u r n e d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n w i t h ' t h e b l i n d h o p e o f d r o w n i n g m e n . S o w o n d e r f u l d i d t h e c r i e s o f " t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s a m o n t h a n d p l e n t y f o r a l l " s o u n d t h a t f e w d a r e d s t o p a n d a s k w h e r e t h e m o n e y w o u l d c o m e f r o m . I n t h e e a r l y d a y s . o f S o c i a l C r e d i t , r e l i g i o n a n d p o l i t i c s 1 9 L e t t e r d a t e d M a r c h 3 , 1 9 3 8 . R e p r i n t e d i n t h e R e v i e w , M a r c h 1 7 , 1 9 3 8 . " 2 0 T h e f o o d w a s r a t i o n e d o u t t o e v e r y o n e i n t h e d i s t r i c t ; h a l f a b o x o f a p p l e s p e r p e r s o n , t e n p o u n d s o f c r a b a p p l e s p e r f a m i l y , n i n e p o u n d s o f f i s h p e r p e r s o n - a n d s o o n . 1 1 1 . w e r e c l o s e l y i n t e r t w i n e d , a n d m a n y g a t h e r i n g s c a r r i e d t h e e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l o f a r e v i v a l m e e t i n g . C o r o n a t i o n ! t e s w e r e f i r s t s u b j e c t e d t o t h e d o c t r i n e s o f f a i t h a n d h o p e o n J u l y 1 0 , 1 9 3 4 , w h e n W i l l i a m A b e r h a r t a n d E r n e s t M a n n i n g a d d r e s s e d a n 2 1 o v e r f l o w i n g c r o w d a t t h e E l k s ' H a l l . S c o r e s o f c o n v e r t s w e r e m a d e t h a t n i g h t , a n d i n t h e w e e k s t h a t f o l l o w e d , t h e i r n u m b e r s w e r e r a p i d l y s w e l l e d . S o c i a l C r e d i t b e c a m e t h e m a i n t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e h o m e s , i n t h e f i e l d s , i n t h e s h o p s , a n d o n t h e s t r e e t s . E v e n t a l k o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n w a s p u s h e d , f o r o t h e m o m e n t , i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d , t h o u g h o f c o u r s e t h e t w o q u e s t i o n s w e r e b a s i c a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e . H e a t e d a r g u m e n t s , b r i s t l i n g g u e s t e d i t o r i a l s , a n d s t o r m y p o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s f e a t u r e d t h e e n s u i n g p r e - e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n . T h e m a i n c o n t r o v e r s y w a s b e t w e e n U . F . A . a n d S o c i a l C r e d i t f a c t i o n s , t h o u g h t h e L i b e r a l c a m p h a d a c l o s e l y k n i t b a n d o f f o l l o w e r s a s w e l l . J u s t b e f o r e e l e c t i o n d a y t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e s 2 2 b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a t f o r m p r o m i s e s : ( 1 ) B a n i s h p o v e r t y f r o m A l b e r t a . ( 2 ) P a y a b a s i c d i v i d e n d - t e n t a t i v e l y s e t a t $ 2 5 a m o n t h - t o e v e r y c i t i z e n . ( 3 ) E s t a b l i s h a " j u s t p r i c e " f o r b o t h p r o d u c e r a n d c o n s u m e r . ( 4 ) N o n e w m o n e y w o u l d b e u s e d . ( 5 ) N o n - n e g o t i a b l e s e c u r i t i e s w o u l d b e u s e d f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s . ( 6 ) T h e b a s i c d i v i d e n d w o u l d b e c o l l e c t e d b y a l e v y . I t w a s m o r e t h a n e n o u g h . O n A u g u s t 2 2 , 1 9 3 5 , C o r o n a t i o n j o i n e d w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n g i v i n g ' S o c i a l C r e d i t 2 1 T h a t a f t e r n o o n M r . A b e r h a r t h a d v i s i t e d t h e h i g h s c h o o l , s a i d a f e w w o r d s , a n d t h e n s h o o k h a n d s w i t h a l l t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e a u t h o r w a s p r e s e n t , b o t h t h e r e a n d a t t h e p o l i t i c a l m e e t i n g t h a t n i g h t . 2 2 R e v i e w , A u g . 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 . 1 1 2 . a l m o s t a c l e a n s w e e p i n t h e e l e c t i o n . W i l l i a m A b e r h a r t b e c a m e t h e n e w p r e m i e r o f A l b e r t a w i t h a n o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y o f 2 3 4 9 . V o t i n g i n t h e C o r o n a t i o n c o n s t i t u e n c y s h o w e d S o c i a l C r e d i t w i t h 2 5 6 1 v o t e s , U . F . A . w i t h 8 4 8 , a n d L i b e r a l s w i t h 6 1 2 , w h i l e . i n t h e t o w n , i t s e l f , t h e f i g u r e s w e r e 1 8 0 ; 4 8 ; a n d 8 7 r e s p e c t i v e -2 4 l y . T h u s t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t o r s h a d r e c e i v e d 6 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s v o t e s . T w o m o n t h s l a t e r , w h e n t h e L i b e r a l s s w e p t t o 2 5 a n o v e r w h e l m i n g v i c t o r y i n t h e d o m i n i o n e l e c t i o n , A l b e r t a e l e c t e d 1 5 S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e s o u t o f 1 7 s e a t s , a n d t h e A c a d i a C o n s t i t u e n c y , o f w h i c h C o r o n a t i o n w a s a p a r t , f o l l o w e d 2 6 s u i t w i t h a l a r g e S o c i a l C r e d i t m a j o r i t y . O n c e t h e d i e h a d b e e n c a s t , l o y a l p a r t y m e m b e r s s a t b a c k a n x i o u s l y t o a w a i t r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t ' s s w e e p i n g p r o m i s e s . O t h e r s s a t b a c k a n d w a i t e d t o s h o u t , " I t o l d y o u s o . " 1 W i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e i t b e c a m e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e 2 7 p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h a d b i t t e n o f f m o r e t h a n t h e y c o u l d c h e w . 2 3 T h e s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i e s o n D e c . 1 5 , 1 9 3 5 , w a s S o c i a l ' C r e d i t 5 6 , L i b e r a l s 5 , a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e s 2 . T h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y  G u i d e , 1 9 3 6 , p . 4 0 1 . ' 2 4 R e v i e w . A u g . 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 . 2 5 M a c k e n z i e K i n g ' s L i b e r a l s w o n 1 7 1 o f t h e 2 4 5 s e a t s . S o d e c i s i v e w a s t h e v i c t o r y t h a t S o c i a l C r e d i t , w i t h 1 7 s e a t s , b e c a m e t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t p a r t y . T h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s w o n 3 9 s e a t s . T h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1 9 3 7 , p . 3 5 5 . 2 6 I n t h e A c a d i a r i d i n g , V . Q u e l c h , t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e , p o l l e d 6 , 1 6 6 v o t e s , C . C . F . h a d 1 , 8 5 9 v o t e s ; L i b e r a l s 1 , 4 4 4 ; a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e s , 1 , 0 2 4 . I b i d . , p . 2 3 4 . 2 7 T h e $ 2 5 a m o n t h d i v i d e n d p l e d g e a t n o t i m e s e e m e d l i k e l y t o b e f u l f i l l e d . O n A u g u s t 6 . , 1 9 3 6 , t h e R e v i e w r e m a r k e d t h a t " T h e S o c i a l C r e d i t d i v i d e n d s c o u l d n ' t h a v e c o m e i n a m o r e o p p o r t u n e t i m e , t h a t i s , . i f t h e y c o m e . B u t i f t h e y a r e b a s e d o n p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h i t f i n a l l y s e e m s t h a t o u r g o v e r n m e n t h a s a g r e e d t h a t t h e y a r e , t h e n t h i s d i s t r i c t i s f a r f r o m p r o d u c i n g a n y t h i n g l i k e s u f f i c i e n t g o o d s t o p a y t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r m o n t h l y d i v i d e n d s , m u c h l e s s s e v e n t y - f i v e . " 1 1 3 . M a n y o f t h e m w e r e n e w c o m e r s t o t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t o p l e v e l f i n a n c e a n d d o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S o m e o f t h e i r p l a n s t h e y t h e m s e l v e s t h r e w o u t . O t h e r s w e r e 2 8 t h r o w n o u t f o r t h e m . E a r l y i n J u l y , 1 9 3 6 , t h e C o r o n a t i o n c o n s t i t u e n c y w a s n o t i f i e d t h a t i t w o u l d b e a l l o w e d $ 5 , 0 0 0 i n P r o s p e r i t y B o n d s p e r m o n t h t o b e u s e d f o r r o a d w o r k . O n l y t h o s e o n r e l i e f w e r e t o b e e m p l o y e d i n t h e u n d e r t a k i n g , a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t , b y p a m p h l e t a n d r a d i o , s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f k e e p i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t e s i n c i r c u l a t i o n . S h o u l d t h e p u b l i c r e f u s e t o t a k e c h a n g e i n t h a t m e d i u m a n d f o r c e t h e m e r c h a n t s t o s e n d i t b a c k t o t h e w h o l e s a l e r s t h e r e w a s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e n o m o r e s c r i p i s s u e d f o r f u t u r e p r o j e c t s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . T h e e x p e r i m e n t w a s s h o r t l i v e d . I t s o o n b e c a m e o b v i o u s t h a t n o a m o u n t o f w h e e d l i n g o r t h r e a t e n i n g w o u l d c h a n g e h u m a n n a t u r e . T h e o l d f a m i l i a r c a s h w a s s o m u c h m o r e c o m f o r t i n g a n d c o n c r e t e t h a n t h e n e w a n d u n c e r t a i n s c r i p . " I t i s q u i t e c l e a r n o w , " r e m a r k e d t h e R e v i e w o n S e p t e m b e r 1 0 , " t h a t t h e • p r o s p e r i t y c e r t i f i c a t e s ' h a v e l o s t t h e i r m o m e n t u m . T h e i r v e l o c i t y i s c h a n g e d t o s t a m p e d e a n d t h a t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o f f e r s w h e r e t h e y w i l l b e e x c h a n g e d b y t h e a d m i t t e d l y o v e r l o a d e d m e r c h a n t s f o r a m o r e r e a d i l y t r a n s f e r a b l e 2 9 -t y p e o f c r e d i t . " 2 8 A m o n g t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t l e g i s l a t i o n t h r o w n o u t b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a w e r e t h r e e o f M r . A b e r h a r t ' s b a s i c b i l l s c o v e r i n g t h e l i c e n s i n g o f b a n k s , t h e p r o v i d i n g o f a d d i t i o n a l c r e d i t , a n d t h e e n s u r i n g o f a c c u r a t e n e w s , a l l o f w h i c h w e r e d e c l a r e d u l t r a v i r e s i n M a r c h , 1 9 3 8 . C a n a d a L a w R e p o r t s ;  S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a ; 1 9 3 8 , p p . 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 . 2 9 R e v i e w , S e p t . 1 0 , 1 9 3 6 . 1 1 4 . T h e s e m a j o r s e t b a c k s m i g h t h a v e s p l i t w i d e o p e n a g o v e r n -m e n t l e s s s i n c e r e a n d l e s s d e v o t e d t o t h e t a s k i t h a d u n d e r t a k e n . I n s t e a d , t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s - m e n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a s w e l l a s c o n v i c t i o n - s t o p p e d t o t a k e s t o c k o f t h e i r m i s t a k e s , a n d t h e i r s u c c e s s e s . G r a d u a l l y t h e m o r e r a d i c a l o f t h e i r p r o p o s a l s w e r e d r o p p e d , a n d t h e p a r t y ' s p l a t f o r m p l a c e d o n a m o r e s e c u r e 3 0 f o u n d a t i o n . A l b e r t a n s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , o v e r s h a d o w e d b y c e r t a i n h a i r - b r a i n e d s c h e m e s , m u c h s o l i d l e g i s l a t i o n h a d b e e n p a s s e d . B y t h e t i m e o f t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n t h e y h a d d e c i d e d t h a t t h e g o o d f a r o u t w e i g h e d t h e b a d , a n d i n t h i s a n d s u b s e q u e n t p o l l s t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e r a l l i e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a r o u n d 3 1 t h e i r o w n s p e c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . M e a n w h i l e t h e r e w e r e a b u n d a n t s i g n s t h a t . t h e l o n g p e r i o d o f l e a n y e a r s w a s j u s t a b o u t a t a n e n d . S p r i n g r a i n s o n t o p o f h e a v y w i n t e r s n o w s w e r e g i v i n g t h e 1 9 3 8 c r o p a f i n e s e n d o f f . 3 2 C r e a m p r i c e s w e r e f a i r l y g o o d , h e l p i n g t o m a k e u p f o r t h e s m a l l e r h e r d s , p o o r f e e d , a n d c o l d w e a t h e r w h i c h h a d s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d t h e o u t p u t o f m i l k . I n A p r i l t h e l o c a l c o u n c i l r e c e i v e d t h e h e a r t e n i n g n e w s t h a t i t s l i n e o f c r e d i t h a d o n c e a g a i n b e e n a p p r o v e d a t t h e b a n k , a n d t h a t t h e t o w n w a s b e i n g 3 0 W i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f y e a r s , S o c i a l C r e d i t s h i f t e d f r o m a r a d i c a l l e f t c e n t r e p a r t y t o " a c o n s e r v a t i v e r i g h t i s t g r o u p . 3 1 I n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1 9 4 0 , 1 9 4 4 , a n d 1 9 4 8 t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t g o v e r n m e n t w a s r e t u r n e d b y o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t i e s . T h e p a r t y , s t a n d i n g s i n t h e s e y e a r s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : D e c e m b e r , 1 9 4 0 , S o c i a l C r e d i t 3 5 , I n d e p e n d e n t s 1 9 , L i b e r a l s 1 , L a b o u r 1 , ( V a c a n t 1 ) : D e c e m b e r , . 1 9 4 4 , S o c i a l C r e d i t 5 1 , I n d e p e n d e n t s 3 , C . C . F . 2 , V e t e r a n s & A r m e d F o r c e s 1 ; D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 8 , S o c i a l C r e d i t 5 1 , L i b e r a l s 2 , C . C . F . 2 , I n d e p e n d e n t S o c i a l C r e d i t 1 , I n d e p e n d e n t 1 . T h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1 9 4 1 p . 3 9 6 ; 1 9 4 5 , p . 3 8 3 ; 1 9 4 9 , p . . 4 2 8 . 3 2 O n F e b . 2 4 , t h e C o r o n a t i o n m a r k e t p r i c e o f c r e a m w a s 3 2 0 a f t e r a s i x c e n t , j u m p i n t h e p r e c e d i n g t w o w e e k s . 1 1 5 . . a d v a n c e d . $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 - w i t h t h e s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t t h e m o n e y w a s n o t t o b e u s e d f o r d e b e n t u r e p a y m e n t s . B y m i d - J u l y m a n y c r o p s l o o k e d g o o d f o r a t l e a s t 2 5 b u s h e l s t o t h e a c r e , a n d i d e a l r i p e n i n g w e a t h e r a s s u r e d a b o u n t i f u l 3 3 h a r v e s t . " T h e f i e l d s a p p e a r t o b e l a d e n w i t h g r a i n a s t h e y n e v e r w e r e b e f o r e , " o b s e r v e d t h e R e v i e w , " a n d v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e l a n d w h i c h w a s e v e r c u l t i v a t e d i s n o t n o w c o v e r e d w i t h 3 4 c r o p s . . . . " A t l a s t t h e r e w o u l d b e m o n e y c o m i n g i n , a n d l o c a l m e r c h a n t s w e r e b u s y p l a n n i n g w a y s a n d m e a n s o f h e l p i n g t o s p e n d i t . " N e w S t o c k , L o w P r i c e s a n d W i d e r R a n g e M e r c h a n d i s e t o B e F e a t u r e d F o r S h o p p e r s " w a s t h e h e a d l i n e a d v e r t i s i n g 3 5 C o r o n a t i o n ' s " M a m m o t h H a r v e s t S h o p p i n g C a r n i v a l . " T h e S t a r T h e a t r e m a d e p l a n s t o r e o p e n a f t e r m o n t h s o f i d l e n e s s , a n d t h e t o w n f a t h e r s d e c i d e d n o w w a s t h e t i m e t o c l a m p d o w n o n p e r s i s t e n t 3 6 t a x d e f a u l t e r s . P l a n s f o r p u b l i c s p e n d i n g w e r e o n c e m o r e u n d e r w a y a s w e l l . T h e C o r o n a t i o n - V e t e r a n s t r e t c h o f H i g h w a y N u m b e r 1 2 w a s t o b e g r a v e l l e d , a n d t h e P u b l i c W o r k s D e p a r t m e n t w a s a u t h o r i z e d t o 3 3 T h e g r o w i n g e n t h u s i a s m w a s m o m e n t a r i l y d a m p e n e d b y t h e s u d d e n o u t b r e a k , i n J u l y , o f a s t r a n g e m a l a d y ( E q u i n e E n c e p h a l o -m y e l i t i s ) w h i c h a t t a c k e d t h e h o r s e s i n t h e a r e a . W i t h s y m p t o m s r e s e m b l i n g a f o r m o f s l e e p i n g s i c k n e s s , h o r s e s w e n t i n t o " c o m a s , s t a g g e r e d a b o u t , o r s t a r e d g l a s s i l y i n t o s p a c e . M a n y d i e d , " a n d e v e n t h o s e t h a t l i v e d s e e m e d t o l a c k s t r e n g t h a n d s p i r i t , a n d c o u l d n o l o n g e r d o t h e w o r k t o w h i c h t h e y h a d b e e n a c c u s t o m e d . " ' I n s p i t e o f f a r m e r s t a k i n g e v e r y p r e c a u t i o n t h e y k n e w h o w , t h e r e w a s h a r d l y a h e r d i n t h e d i s t r i c t t h a t e s c a p e d . O n l y " w i t h t h e -a r r i v a l o f g o v e r n m e n t p r e p a r e d s e r u m a n d m a s s v a c c i n a t i o n d i d t h e s p r e a d o f t h e d i s e a s e s l a c k e n . 3 4 . R e v i e w , S e p t . 8 , 1 9 3 8 . 3 5 I b i d . , O c t . 2 0 , 1 9 3 8 . 3 6 B y t h e e n d o f 1 9 3 8 t h e t o w n ' s u n c o l l e c t e d t a x e s a m o u n t e d t o $ 6 2 , 9 1 4 . c o n s t r u c t o n e b l o c k o f c e m e n t s i d e w a l k o n o n e s i d e o f a n y s t r e e t t h e y d e e m e d a d v i s a b l e . T h e C o u n c i l e v e n f o u n d t h e w h e r e w i t h a l t o m a k e a g r a n t o f $10 t o a n e e d y n a t i o n a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n , whereas a f e w m o n t h s b e f o r e , t h e y , t h e m s e l v e s , w o u l d h a v e b e e n o n l y t o o g l a d t o r e c e i v e a n y a n d a l l d o n a t i o n s . T h e d e p r e s s i o n w a s i n d e e d o v e r . Chapter VIII THE END OF DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR I I The depression had vanished even more quickly than i t had come. Almost over night, i t seemed, drought, recession, and despair were replaced by b o u n t i f u l harvests, mushrooming construction, and renewed hope. Plans that had long been shelved were gotten out, du3ted o f f , and put under way. Farmers, merchants, and householders looked to t h e i r homes and business establishments; town fathers took stock of long needed public projects; and higher up the governmental ladder, ways and means were being devised to combat the c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t s of future crop f a i l u r e s . The lean years had l e f t t h e i r mark, however. By the end of the ' T h i r t i e s many f a m i l i a r faces from e a r l i e r days were missing. From the town, i n the ten years from 1931 to 1941, the exodus had taken 157 persons, and i n the same period 182 .1 r u r a l ! t e s had l e f t the d i s t r i c t i n search of greener f i e l d s . There were changes, too, i n the condition ©f the farmland. In 1931 there were 513 occupied farms i n the area. Ten years l a t e r there were only 478. Meanwhile the area under crop had f a l l e n from 100,790 acres to 75,645, and the area of p r a i r i e or n atural pasturage had r i s e n from 98,944 to 141,015 acres. 1 From s t a t i s t i c s enclosed i n a l e t t e r to the author, dated June 28, 1949, from the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa. The town population i n 1931 was l i s t e d as 738, and i n 1941 as 581, while the municipality f i g u r e s were 2,022 and 1840 resp e c t i v e l y . The actual number of people leaving would be somewhat higher than l i s t e d because during the period there were a few incoming replacements - e s p e c i a l l y i n town. (117) 118. The actual acreage sown to wheat had dropped considerably -from 73,208 to 43,273 - while at the same time there was a corresponding increase i n coarse grains and tame hay f o r feeding purposes. Oat acreage rose from 21,465 to 23,501, barley from 2,482 to 4,363, rye from 398 to 730 and c u l t i v a t e d hay from 2 617 to 2,157. This switch from wheat to feed was a natural r e s u l t of the growing dependence on l i v e s t o c k and mixed farming. In spite of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n carrying animals through the long, hard winters, the number of l i v e s t o c k (exclusive of poultry) i n the area a c t u a l l y increased during the ' T h i r t i e s . In 1931 there were 6,617 c a t t l e as compared to 8,248 ten years l a t e r . Swine increased from 3,408 to 4,944, horses showed a decrease from 5,547 to 4,602, and poultry dropped sharply from 44,865 to 3 33,773. Farmers were learning from b i t t e r experience that returns from c a t t l e and hogs, though l e s s spectacular than wheat i n good years, were more dependable over long periods. Not a l l of the above trends were the r e s u l t of hard times alone. The r u r a l exodus, begun by the depression, was c a r r i e d 4 along by the forces of war and i t s aftermath. Many sons and daughters of the farm, serving i n the armed forces or carrying on war work i n b u s t l i n g c i t i e s , discovered new i n t e r e s t s and decided to make t h e i r homes elsewhere. 2 L e t t e r from Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , dated June 28,1949. 3 Loc. c i t . . 4 In the f i v e years a f t e r 1941 the r u r a l municipality l o s t a further 346 persons. Meanwhile the town population rose from 581 to 633. Loc. c i t . . 119. Though the actual number of farms i n the d i s t r i c t continued to decrease (by 1946 there were only 453 as compared to the 478 f i v e years before), the average area of each farm showed a 5 steady increase i n s i z e . This condition was p a r t l y brought 6 about by the great i n f l u x of new and improved farm machinery ? which enabled one man on a t r a c t o r to farm f a r more acres than bad been possible with horses. In a ten hour work day, seven horses and a two bottom plow could cover about f i v e acres. A t r a c t o r and a t i l l e r could not only turn over 25 acres i n the same period, but could seed i t to crop i n the same process. For the work horse the handwriting was on the wall. As the 1 T h i r t i e s merged into the 'Forties, farm dwellers were entering a new period of prosperity and progress. Good crop years, p r o f i t a b l e s t o c k - r a i s i n g conditions, and s p e c i a l government innovations combined to make the farmers' returns more c e r t a i n than they had ever been. The new government regulations came a l i t t l e too l a t e to help the worst years, but once i n e f f e c t they seemed to o f f e r hope that times would never get quite as bad again. Of considerable importance to the western producer was the "pegging" of the p r i c e of wheat -a measure undertaken by the Canadian Wheat Board a f t e r i t s 5 In 1931 the average area of each farm was 504 acresj i n 1941 i t was 593 acresj and i n 1946 i t was 693 acres. L e t t e r from Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , dated June 28, 1949. 6 In the twelve month period before A p r i l 1940, f i f t e e n new tractors' were sold i n the d i s t r i c t , and more orders were pouring in? Review. April,4^ 1940• 7 reorganization i n 1935. Especially i n 1938 when the farmer had not had a paying crop for several years did the wheat peg assure him of substantial returns and enable him to at least 8 make a start towards getting back on his own feet. More far reaching were the benefits derived from the 9 Prairie Farm Assistance Act, instituted in 1939. Under this plan, acreage bonuses were paid to a l l farmers in the prairie provinces who lived i n areas which had crop failures. The area unit was the township, and there were three categories of awards: v i z . when the average wheat yie l d 3 for the township were 8 to 12, 4 to 8, and 0 to 4 bushels per acre. Certain restrictions were l a i d down limiting the cultivated area eligible for payment and the maximum value of the awards i n 7 Statutes of Canada. 25-26 George V. Chap.53, "An Act to provide for the Constitution and Powers of the Canadian Wheat Board," assented to July 5, 1935. Government Boards had handled the marketing of Canadian grain from 1917 to 1920, and many farmers associated the high prices of that period with the centralized policy then i n effect. 8 The pegging of wheat guaranteed farmers, selling to the Canadian Wheat Board, a certain set minimum price for that particular crop year (twelve month period from July 31), and at the same time made provision for later participation certificates (bonus payments) i f the years*s crop was sold at a substantial p r o f i t . In 1938 the Wheat Board set the price for No.1 Northern wheat at Ft. William or Vancouver as 80 cents per bushel. Because of freight and handling costs, the Coronation price i s 18^ cents less than the Ft. William l i s t i n g . In other words, i n 1938, Coronation farmers were assured of at least 6l£ cents per bushel for top quality wheat If they decided to s e l l to the government board. See appendix, p. iv , for a l i s t of Canadian Wheat Board i n i t i a l payments from 1935 to 1950 - at Ft. William and at Coronation. 9 Statutes of Canada. 3 George VI, Chap.50, "An Act to Assist Agriculture i n the Prairie Provinces," assented to June 3, 1939. 10 a l l case S i Payments under the act were made i n two instalments, 60 percent i n December of the year of the award, and 40 percent i n March of the following year. This system provided cash f o r the winter and at the same time kept back some reserves to help put i n the a l l important next year's crop. The assistance P.F.A.A. had given i n helping to s t a b i l i z e the grain growers' income has been tremendous. In the ten years since i t s inception i n 1939, farmers i n the Coronation 11 d i s t r i c t have received a t o t a l of $637,429.01, and 2,826 i n d i v i d u a l awards have been made. In 1949, alone, 413 farmers received $136,102,60. Only i n 1940, 1942, and 1944 - a l l good 12 crop years - were there no payments to the area. 3 From 1941 to 194$ many farmers were i n r e c e i p t of s t i l l another source of income. This was the wheat acreage reduction 10 The award was made on one h a l f the t o t a l c u l t i v a t e d acreage up to, but not exceeding 400 acres, and the maximum i n d i v i d u a l award f o r the "8 to 12" category was set at $200, f o r the "4 to 8" at $300,. and f o r the "0 to 6" at $600. Also the "8 to 12" category could only come into e f f e c t when the p r i c e of No.l Northern Wheat was l e s s than 800 per bushel at F o r t William. From material enclosed i n a l e t t e r to the author dated June 14, 1950, from the P r a i r i e Farm Assistance Branch, Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Regina, Sask.. Included were a copy of the P r a i r i e Farm Assistance Act, an explanation of the act, a summary of the one percent levy c o l l e c t e d , a summary of payments by provinces, and a d e t a i l e d l i s t of a l l payments made to the Paintearth Municipal D i s t r i c t No.53 with breakdown figures f o r the townships involved. 11 I b i d . . The above figu r e only includes payments to farmers l i v i n g within the boundaries of the Municipal D i s t r i c t of Coronation, No. 334. 12 Before 1947 i t was necessary f o r the Governor i n Council to declare a Crop F a i l u r e Year or Emergency Year before payments could be made. Now i t i s automatic. However, 1942 was the only year i n which no P.F.A.A. program was i n e f f e c t . 122. 13 bonus or summerfallow bonus as i t came to be c a l l e d . During these years the dominion government c a l l e d upon producers to r a i s e only as much wheat as could be sold i n the domestic and export markets during the ensuing twelve month periods. However, an unlimited production of coarse grains was needed f o r l i v e s t o c k feeding to produce "the Animal Products and Fats; needed i n the Domestic Market as well as the Bacon, 14 Dairy Products and Eggs Wanted by B r i t a i n . " Flaxseed, too, was urgently needed to meet the wartime vegetable o i l require-ments of Canada and the United States. Ottawa, therefore, was prepared to pay farmers f o r switching from wheat to coarse grains and grasses, or f o r 15 l e t t i n g t h e i r land l i e fallow. In 1941 a t o t a l of 343 Corona-t i o n farmers received upwards of $85,000 i n summerfallow 16 bonuses, and when to t h i s was added the $113,000 i n acreage bonuses, the re s u l t a n t sum assured the d i s t r i c t of f a i r l y 17 substantial returns even i n t h i s , a very bad crop year. During t h i s same period when the graingrower was c o n s o l i -dating h i s improving p o s i t i o n , the fortunes of the l i v e s t o c k producer also were taking a swing f o r the better. Year a f t e r 13 Statutes of Canada. 6 George VI, Chap.10, "An Act respecting Wheat Acreage Reduction," assented to March 27, 1942. 14 Dominion Department of Agriculture advertisement c a r r i e d i n the Review. A p r i l 2, 1942. 15 For every acre taken out of wheat production (based on 1940 figures) $2.00 was paid. 16 Review. June 20, 1941} Edmonton Journal, Jan. 24, 1942. 17 The o v e r a l l average f o r Coronation's crop census d i v i s i o n was only 5.9 bushels per acre. year the Castor-Coronation Co-operative Livestock Shipping Association broke new records i n volume of stock handled and p r o f i t s made. In 1943 t h i s organization shipped 780 c a t t l e , 11,697 pigs, and 181 sheep worth a t o t a l of $374,082.00. The following year nearly 1600 c a t t l e and over 10,300 hogs 18 were sold f o r almost $400,000. The same increases were shown i n general shipments from the Coronation stockyards. In 1940 there were 2,103 c a t t l e , 2,761 hogs, and 367 sheep shipped. Two years l a t e r the f i g u r e s reached 2,621} 4,415} and 368} 19 and by 1944 they had r i s e n to 3,578} 7,443; and 466. Good pr i c e s and a f a i r l y steady market encouraged more and more farmers to r a i s e stock, thus spreading out t h e i r r i s k as well as t h e i r investment. Many who had never before r a i s e d tame hay, planted f i e l d s to brome grass, a l f a l f a , and clover. In 1931 the Coronation d i s t r i c t had had only 617 acres planted 20 to tame hay. By 1946 t h i s f i g u r e had jumped to 6,457. I t seemed at long l a s t that the dangers of single crop farming were being neutralized. Meanwhile the gr e a t l y increased purchasing power i n the hands of the d i s t r i c t ' s r u r a l population was having a marked e f f e c t on conditions i n town. As always, the fortunes of the town businessman were almost e n t i r e l y dependent on the progress ©f h i s country neighbour. Farming represented, the basic industry and therefore the r e a l basis of wealth while the town provided secondary services and l i v e d o f f the fruit3 of 18 Review. J u l y 20, 1944 and J u l y 12, 1945. 19 I b i d . , June 20, 1946. 20 L e t t e r from Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , dated June 28,1949. 124, the hinterland. Now with the return of good times the wheels of progress, s t i l l e d by the depression, were once more beginning to turn. As,sales increased, store owners were able to carry out badly needed r e p a i r s and a l t e r a t i o n s . Shops, long i d l e , were open again f o r business, and plans f o r new establishments 21 were being drawn up. A disastrous $100,000 f i r e , which i n December, 1942, completely destroyed the Builders' Hardware and Howards' Garage, was only a temporary set back. Within a year and a h a l f a f i n e new b u i l d i n g had r i s e n above the ruins -i t s clean, modern l i n e s s e t t i n g a standard f o r other construc-t i o n work to follow. Keeping pace with private progress was the program of public works and reforms cautiously set i n motion by the town fathers. The b i t t e r lessons of xhe past decade had been we l l learned, and before any great spending was done, steps were taken to f o r t i f y the p o s i t i o n of the budget. By 1939 the town debt was almost wholly debenture debt, and i n J u l y of that year, arrangements were made f o r refunding t h i s over a period of 20 years at 4% percent i n t e r e s t . Previously due i n ten instalments, the new agreement cut the annual payment from $7,400 to around $3,600 - thereby permitting the Council a much freer, hand i n future planning. Later i n the same year a 21 Coronation had had no serious f i r e f o r several years. From 1933 to 1936 there had been only eight f i r e c a l l s , and the f i r e l o s s over that period had amounted to $67.40. The 1942 f i r e , however, showed up c e r t a i n weaknesses i n the care and handling of equipment though the tower and water supply were among the f i n e s t i n the province. Aroused c i t i z e n s pointed out the dangers of f a l s e security, and steps were at once taken to prepare adequately f o r future emergencies. further reduction i n annual commitments was made when a new contract with the power company provided an annual saving of $400 f o r the town and some $300 f o r domestic and commercial users. Gradually the town improvement program gained momentum. In 1939 three s t r e e t blocks were resurfaced with gravel, and eleven others were given t h e i r f i r s t coat. In the same year the f i r s t of several hundred trees were planted i n Jubilee Park, along the boulevard on Windsor Avenue, i n f r o n t of the h o s p i t a l , and i n windbreaks along the northwest borders of town. Within a few summers these trees had added welcome patches of green and shade to streets that had long been bare and forbidding. Improving conditions brought a recovery of l o s t c i v i c p r i d e , and i n June of 1941 the decision to turn on the town's brigh t l i g h t s was made. Consequently a s t r i n g of varicoloured globes were strung along the base of the water tower's elevated tank, and a large l i g h t was l i t on the very peak. At night t h i s beacon, shining some 160 f e e t above the ground, proudly advertised the town f o r many miles i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . Working side by side with the Council during these years was an energetic and far-seeing Board of Trade. Any plan f o r the betterment of the town received i t s whole hearted support, and i n many cases i t s members were the o r i g i n a t o r s , as well as the backers, of b e n e f i c i a l schemes. The return of good times had snapped the lethargy and defeatism of "depressionites, and c i t i z e n s were again anxious to make t h e i r ' s one of the most progressive towns on the map. One project, which t y p i f i e d the new found s p i r i t and showed what could be accomplished when everyone chipped i n and helped, was the construction of a recreation dam beside 22 the fairgrounds one mile north of town. For several years there had been t a l k of b u i l d i n g a public swimming pool, but. nothing had been done. Now a s t a r t was made. In 1940 a l o c a l delegation to the Credit Foncier land company i n Edmonton had received the promise of a g i f t of the required acreage f o r an a r t i f i c i a l lake once the necessary plans had been completed, and i n the following summer work was begun. By the end of October a large rock-faced embankment had been b u i l t , complete with d r a i n pipe and shut o f f f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the flow of water. A f i n e d i v i n g p i e r had been constructed, and a cottage f o r dressing rooms provided. Further arrangements were under 23 way f o r the providing of beach sand and the p l a n t i n g of trees. For two summers the new dam provided a recreation spot f o r young and old a l i k e , and the addition of water sports to the Dominion Day celebrations proved to be an extremely popular innovation. Plans were being made f o r bigger and better days to come when unforseen circumstances brought b i t t e r disappoint-ment. By mid-summer each year there developed i n the water a form of green algae which caused minor disturbances of the 22 See map of the town i n the appendix, p.xxix. The dam was to be b u i l t across the Ribstone Creek which had i t s beginnings two or three miles north of town. 23 The cost had been well shared. Twelve acres of land had been donated, the town had spent over one thousand d o l l a r s , and the municipal d i s t r i c t several hundred d o l l a r s . In addition many residents had given f r e e l y of t h e i r time and labour and were prepared to a s s i s t further. skin. The addition of chemicals to the stagnant water seemed to have no e f f e c t , and a f t e r such a hopeful beginning the project f i n a l l y had to be abandoned. Though the scheme eventu-a l l y f a i l e d , i t s i n i t i a l f u l f i l m e n t showed the value of cooperative e f f o r t on: a community bas i s , and most c i t i z e n s r e a l i z e d that t h i s one f a i l u r e need not discourage the group planning of future ventures. Coronation• s twenty-fifth anniversary had come during the very worst part of the depression, and at that time few residents of the d i s t r i c t had f e l t the urge to celebrate. They were determined, however, not to l e t the t h i r t i e t h anni-versary i n the f a l l of 1941 pass by unheralded. F e s t i v i t i e s were i n charge of the Womens' In s t i t u t e and the Board of Trade who o f f i c i a l l y named the occasion Pioneer Day and claimed as t h e i r honoured guests a l l those Old Timers who were i n the area on or before September 27, 1911. A l l pioneers were asked to sign a r e g i s t e r i n the Old Timers' Hut, f i l l i n g i n t h e i r name, .birthplace, manner of t r a v e l from t h e i r jumping 24 o f f place, and date of a r r i v a l . They were then given souvenir i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cards which e n t i t l e d them to s p e c i a l discounts at a l l business places, and free admittance to the dance at the E l k s ' H a l l or the movie "North West Mounted P o l i c e " which had been brought to the Star Theatre e s p e c i a l l y f o r the occasion. I t was a day i n which Coronationites paused to think bacjs. on the progress that had Deen made since those f i r s t hardy pioneers had pushed into the country f a r ahead of the creeping 24 A complete l i s t of the oldtimers who signed i s given i n the appendix on p. »'x . 128. l i n e s of s t e e l . I t was also a day to take stock of present surroundings and look forward to what l a y along the pathway ahead* Pioneer Day had been Doth happy and successful. Celebra-t i n g had not been completely carefree, however, f o r i n the back of everyone's,mind were thoughts of the struggle that was then taking place i n B r i t a i n and the Continent, and the growing r e a l i z a t i o n that World War I I was going to be neither short, easy, nor free from personal s a c r i f i c e . J ust as had happened twenty-five years before, the present war had exploded rather unexpectedly f o r the western farmer, engrossed as he was i n t r y i n g to extricate himself from the bonds of depression-ism. And j u s t as before, he r e a l i z e d the benefits of wide markets and high p r i c e s , but was faced with the hardships of i n s u f f i c i e n t help ana the heartbreak of family losses. In 1914 most Englishmen and many Canadians had f e l t that Canada was merely carrying out the necessary obligations of a "colony" to i t s mother country. By 1939 there was a new a i r of independence and s e l f respect evident i n the dominion, yet the l o y a l t y to England and the B r i t i s h Empire seemed strong as ever. This had been shown e a r l i e r i n the year by the thunderous ovations and unbridled enthusiasm which greeted the King and Queen et every stop, large and small, i n t h e i r tour of the country. In wishing to pay t h e i r respects to the r o y a l family Coronation!tes were no d i f f e r e n t from other of t h e i r fellow Canadians. Several hundred journeyed to Edmonton 25 to see t h e i r majesties on June 2, and a day l a t e r an estimated one thousand persons got up i n darkness and drove the eighty miles to Wainwright where the r o y a l t r a i n made "a b r i e f stop 26 on i t s way eastward. After the war was declared, l o c a l residents l o s t no time i n answering the c a l l to arms. Within ten days Norman McFarlane and Melvin Madore had l e f t Coronation f o r Calgary to commence t r a i n i n g with the Calgary Highlanders. They were the f i r s t of an ever increasing flow of e n l i s t e e s . By J u l y , 1942, there 27 were 103 from the d i s t r i c t i n uniform, and s t i l l the figure 28 rose. Before the end of that f i r s t September Coronation had organized a l o c a l Red Cross branch, and by the f i r s t week of December over $700 had b^en c o l l e c t e d . Other welfare groups, too, were quick to organize f o r war work. Among t h e i r many a c t i v i t i e s was the sending of food parcels and cigarettes t© l o c a l boys overseas, and a l l through the war years, the Review published i n i t s pages "thank you l e t t e r s " from g r a t e f u l s o l d i e r s i n every theatre of war - s o l d i e r s that had grown up 25 Boys of the Coronation cadet corps had f i n e views of the r o y a l procession when they were chosen to help l i n e the streets. Parading with Edmonton Xavier cadets they were posted along 109 Street and Jasper Avenue. 26 Review. June 8, 1939. 27 This t o t a l included 4 women. I b i d . , J u l y 2, 1942. 28 The United Church Honor R o l l , complete except f o r Roman Catholic f i g u r e s , shows that by the end of the war 230 from the d i s t r i c t had joined the armed forces. Of these, 220 were men: 178 i n the Army, 37 i n the A i r Force, and 5 i n the Navy5 and 10 were women: 7 i n the A i r Force, 2 i n the Army, and 1 i n the Navy. From s t a t i c t i c s included i n a l e t t e r dated March 29, 1951, to the author from the President of the S o l d i e r s ' Comfort Fund. across the stre e t or down the road a ways. In J u l y , 1941, a l o c a l reserve detachment of the Calgary Regiment was formed i n the Coronation-Veteran d i s t r i c t . Uniforms were issued, and v.here possible up to date equipment was made avai l a b l e . The school grounds were used f o r d r i l l i n g , and periodic f i e l d manoeuvers added a semblance of realism to the t r a i n i n g . Much good work was done by t h i s group, and many volunteers received excellent preparation f o r the more arduous conditions they l a t e r faced i n Canada's f i g h t i n g forces. Nothing b e t t e r ' t y p i f i e s the f i n e s p i r i t of l o y a l t y and patriotism which characterized Coronation's a l l round war e f f o r t , than the enthusiastic response which met a l l national drives f o r funds. In 1942 the Coronation branch of the Red Cross c o l l e c t e d $1600. Two years l a t e r they received nearly $2000 - many hundreds of d o l l a r s more then the $1250 quota which they had been given. Even more noteworthy were the 29 r e s u l t s of the nine v i c t o r y loan dr i v e s , as pictured below. Year Quota Subscribers Amount Percentage Subscribed Subscribed 1 V i c t o r y Loan 1941 17,000 358 53,600 315% 2 Vi c t o r y Loan 1942 25,000 462 58,160 233% 3 V i c t o r y Loan 1942 32,000 392 53,450 167% 4 Vi c t o r y Loan 1943 61,000 624 94,650 155% 5 V i c t o r y Loan 1943 83,000 707 109,600 132% 6 Vi c t o r y Loan 1944 83,000 736 136,050 164% 7 V i c t o r y Loan 1944 135,000 - 154,460 114% 8 Vi c t o r y Loan 1945 145,000 698 195,550 135% 9 V i c t o r y Loan 1945 185,000 619 188,050 102% Though s u b s t a n t i a l l y increased each year, every quota was considerably oversubscribed. Only i n the l a s t loan was trouble 29 Review. June 20, 1941; March 12, 19^2; Nov. 12, 1942; A p r i l 29, 1943; Nov. 4, 1943; May 18, 1944; Nov. 16, 1944; May 24, 1946} Nov. 15, 1945. 131. experienced i n reaching the objective, and an extra week sent that t o t a l over the top. Here was a record Coronation!tes could well he proud of. As the months dragged by, those at home became ever more aware of the emptiness created by the departure of t h e i r sons and daughters. Gone from the streets were a l l but a few of the town's young men. The theatre and dance h a l l were now patronized by older people and a new group - the budding adolescents. Here and there an occasional man i n uniform, home on leave, was surrounded by a c i r c l e of fr i e n d s . Labour was becoming ever more scarce, and farmers i n p a r t i c u l a r were hard pressed to f i n d harvest help. Soldiers on spe c i a l furloughs, town merchants working h a l f days, and high school students, excused from school, managed to meet the emergency more or le s s 30 adequately each f a l l . Sports, too were severely affected. For years Coronation had had no outstanding hockey or baseball,teams. Then, towards the end of the ' T h i r t i e s , a group of high school students began to develop into f i n e competitors. On the baseball diamond and i n the hockey r i n k , boys l i k e B i l l Duncan, B a s i l Meyers, Wilfred and Claude Luke, and Al b e r t and Craig Thomas began to win juni o r tournaments with consistent r e g u l a r i t y . The prospects looked b r i g h t f o r future competition. Then came the war, and within a few months, the group had been scattered to the four 30 In 1942, f o r t y - f i v e French Canadian boys, aged around 17 and 18, made the t r i p by s p e c i a l coach from Shawenegan F a l l s Technical School, Quebec, to aid i n harvest operations. In view of the f a c t that the youths were not used to western farming methods and were handicapped by language d i f f i c u l t i e s the experiment was not too successful. 132. corners of the earth - Canada, B r i t a i n and the Continent, and the Far East. They never got together again. I t had not taken long f o r l o c a l boys to see action. In September, 1941, Coronation received word that Privates G.Taylor and J . M i l l e r had been among the landing party i n the Spitzbergen r a i d . The following August, Trooper William Stannard was " o f f i c i a l l y reported missing i n action" i n tne Dieppe r a i d . This was the f i r s t of the dreaded telegrams bearing news of ba t t l e wounds, capture, and death. The worst part of the war 31 had j u s t begun. So accustomed had people become to the inconveniences and the hardships, the r e s t r i c t i o n s and the rati o n s , the suf f e r i n g and the tragedy of war, that i t seemed almost i n c r e d i b l e when, i n the spring of 1945, unmistakable signs pointed to an early end of the s i x year struggle. Coronation, along with every community throughout the nation, made plans f o r a monstrous celebration. At 9:00 A.M. on Monday, May 7, the f i r e s i r e n screamed the joyous news of v i c t o r y . Schools were l e t out, and merchants and businessmen closed to decorate t h e i r premises. That night a large and happy crowd staged an impromptu dance as a preliminary to the o f f i c i a l holiday events scheduled f o r the following day. At 2:00 P.M. on Tuesday, p r a c t i c a l l y the whole populace turned out f o r one of the la r g e s t parades the town had ever had. At the head of the procession were two horseback r i d e r s carrying f l a g s of the United Nations; and behind them came the 31 The previously mentioned United Church Honor R o l l l i s t e d eleven l o c a l boys k i l l e d on service. 133. mayor, the ch i e f magistrate, and the l o c a l R.C.M.P. of f i c e r } returned men of World War II and service personnel on leave} the Canadian Legion and other war veterans} the l o c a l tank corps} the school army cadet corps} the g i r l s ' cadette corps} the Masonic Lodge; and f i n a l l y hands of school children. Later i n the day a thanksgiving service was held, and that night f e s t i v i t i e s ended with a huge bonfire at the west end of town. V.J.Day celebrations on August 14 were s i m i l a r though somewhat a n t i c l i m a c t i c to those they succeeded, f o r most c i t i z e n s had f e l t that with peace i n Europe, o v e r a l l v i c t o r y could not be f a r behind. One l a s t b i t of war work remained to be done, and the people of Coronation were quick to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In June, 1945, a C i t i z e n s ' Committee f o r War Veterans was organized to "cooperate with returning veterans and to help i n every way towards the smooth working of t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; to take up problems and complaints with the proper au t h o r i t i e s ; and i n 32 general to act i n an advisory and h e l p f u l capacity." Much good work was done by t h i s group i n a s s i s t i n g the sometimes d i f f i c u l t t r a n s i t i o n from s o l d i e r to c i v i l i a n . On J u l y 26 the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n committee sponsored a "Welcome Home" reception and banquet at the Royal Crown Hotel. Guests of the occasion were servicemen (on leave or discharged) and t h e i r wives or parents, as well as representatives from the Board of Trade, the Womens' I n s t i t u t e , and the Soldiers* Comfort Fund. I t was good to see the boys coming back, and i t was even better to be among those returning home. 32 Review. June 21, 1945. Chapter IX  THE WAY AHEAD With the end of h o s t i l i t i e s a brand new period of prosperity had begun f o r the people of Coronation and d i s t r i c t . The next f i v e years were to see more progress than any s i m i l a r period since the very f i r s t days of the founding of the town. Bottom-l e s s markets, consistently high p r i c e s , generally good crops, and government bonuses brought wealth, optimism, and ambitious hopes f o r the future. In the country the municipality had set i n motion an 1 ambitious program of road b u i l d i n g . Payment of back debts on top of current taxes provided the necessary money f o r increased public spending, and government grants were becoming ever more generous. In 1941 the municipality had set aside $3,000 f o r 2 main road improvements, and the province provided $2,000. The following year* the government sent $2,600 to be matched 3 d o l l a r f o r dollar'by the municipal d i s t r i c t , and that summer a s t a r t was made on g r a v e l l i n g the road north to Brownfield and the Battle River. By 1943 the d i s t r i c t had decided to purchase some b i g power road equipment so that larger projects could be undertaken l o c a l l y . 1 In February, 1942, there were s t i l l $75,000 i n outstanding taxes, and over $40,000 f o r r e l i e f seed grain, fodder, and f u e l o i l owing to the municipality. Review. Feb. 26, 1942. 2 I b i d . . A p r i l 24, 1941. 3 I b i d . , J u l y 30, 1942. (134) 135. Meanwhile, plans were underway i n the province f o r reorgan-i z i n g smaller m u n i c i p a l i t i e s into fewer large d i s t r i c t s . In 4 the f a l l of 1943, C.E.Gerhart, now Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s , spoke before a Coronation audience and t o l d them of the benefits to be derived from the regrouping process. Because of lower administrative expenses and l a r g e r grants and assets, the bigger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would be able to provide s o c i a l services impossible i n smaller areas. To add weight to the arguments, arrangements were quickly completed f o r g r a v e l l i n g the highway to Veteran. The government was to provide the necessary money and a gravel loader; the d i s t r i c t to -furnish the trucks. E a r l y i n 1944 the amalgamation was completed and the old d i s t r i c t s of Coronation, Progress, and part of Stocks became the new municipality of Paintearth, M.D.Number 53, with head-6 quarters at Castor. The area was divided into f i v e d i v i s i o n s , each of which was to e l e c t i t s own c o u n c i l l o r , and these f i v e men were to choose one of t h e i r members to act as reeve. Advantages of the increased spending power were seen at once. In 1944 Paintearth asked the government f o r $4,000 and received 7 $10,000 instead, and that summer the grading was f i n i s h e d from 4 Coronationites were extremely proud of the rapid r i s e of t h e i r onetime fellow c i t i z e n . Mr.Gerhart, mayor of Coronation from 1936 to 1940, was elected to the Alberta Legislature i n 1940 and reelected i n 1944 and 1948. He was appointed Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s i n 1943, Minister of Trade and Industry i n 1944, and P r o v i n c i a l Secretary i n 1948. 5 Review. Nov. 11, 1943. 6 See map i n appendix, p.xxW/'i. 7 Review. Nov. 2, 1944. 136. Brownfield to Silver Heights on a highway "second to none." The year, 1945, found the district planning a $50,000 road pro-•8 gram. The path of the new district was not entirely smooth. When the old municipal office in Castor burned down early in 1946 and woric was begun on a new building, eastern ratepayers brought forward a petition that the perfectly good office in 9 Coronation be used, but nothing v/as done. A short time later there was much i l l feeling over charges by two councillors that only.30 percent of tax arrear collections rightfully belonging to the old Coronation municipality were being allotted to the eastern divisions. The Paintearth administration was branded a "dictatorship" and a delegation was sent to the 10 Minister of Municipal Affairs - to no avail. Gradually, however, as residents came to realize that narrow localism and general welfare were incompatible, difficulties were ironed out, and a spirit of harmony was achieved. In keeping with the trend towards larger administrative units, the Coronation and Castor school districts, in December of 1945, signed up for amalgamation. Henceforth there was to be one large division, Castor S.D.Number 27. Under the terms of the agreement the Coronation school was to receive a badly needed new heating plant in 1946 and a three room addition to the old building in 1947-1948. The extra classrooms were to 8 Review. April 19, 1945. 9 Ibid., March 28, 1946. 10 Ibid.. April 11, 1946. 137. make room f o r the add i t i o n a l enrollment which a school bus 11 service covering a wide radius would provide. The resultant c l o s i n g of many one room r u r a l schools would f a c i l i t a t e admini-s t r a t i v e procedure, and at the same time provide a r i c h e r curriculum and more uniform opportunities f o r the children of the d i s t r i c t . Most c i t i z e n s appreciated these very r e a l benefits of the scheme. They were somewhat concerned, however, with the thoughts of the long winter bus r i d e s over poor roads, and 12 the expected increase i n education costs. The construction of a new wing to the school was only one of the many projects underway i n town. During the war, and i n the years following, Coronation was i n the midst of a major b u i l d i n g boom, and f o r the f i r s t time i n years, town l o t s were i n demand. In 1945 alone, 60 l o t s became revenue producing. Among the newly erected business establishments were two garages, a frozen food locker plant, two farm implement shops, and a large apartment block. Other businessmen were renovating and adding to t h e i r shops, and many residents were improving o l d , or b u i l d i n g new homes. 11 Two school buses i n 1946, the f i r s t year of operation, picked up 30 r u r a l children. By 1950, s i x buses s e r v i c i n g a radius of 7 to 10 miles i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , were bringing 75 country childr e n to school i n town. The enrollment of Coronation school at t h i s time was 250. From s t a t i s t i c s included i n a l e t t e r of March 29, 1951, to the author from George High, resident of the Coronation d i s t r i c t . 12 Coming at a time when a l l l i v i n g costs were sky-rocketing, tax-payers were often prone to blame the school amalgamation alone f o r t h e i r higher taxes. 138. There were other innovations i n the post-war period too. A dominion meteorological s t a t i o n was set up, a brome-seed 13 cleaning plant was established, compulsory milk pasteurization was put into e f f e c t , and a l o c a l f l y i n g club was organized. There was even some t a l k of p u t t i n g i n a sewage system f o r the 14 town. The weather s t a t i o n , housed i n the old municipal o f f i c e , provided hourly weather reports f o r airway purposes and sent i n synoptic weather observations every s i x hours. Careful records were kept of a l l temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n readings, and with Coronation now i n o f f i c i a l radio weather forecasts, l o c a l residents received the benefits of early and accurate 15 warnings of f r o s t or b l i z z a r d . The f l y i n g club was a r e s u l t of an increasing public awareness that the A i r Age was at hand. In September, 1945, the town secretary was i n r e c e i p t of a l e t t e r from the Calgary Board of Trade s t a t i n g that they expected to have three companies operating commercial a i r service out of that c i t y within a short time, and requesting information as to what plans 13 Set up i n 1947 under the auspices of the Seed Growers* Association, the plant was expected to receive and clean 1,000,000 bushels of brorae seed annually. 14 In June of 1946 the Board of Trade urged the Council to have engineers investigate the cost of constructing a sewage system. At a l a t e r meeting i n November a report was given l i s t i n g the estimated cost at $30,000 to $40,000. No further action was taken at that time. 15 The weather s t a t i o n was not set up u n t i l the spring of 1944 so there are no figures with which to compare the s t a t i s t i c s of the l a s t few years. An exact record of the depression drought period would have been p a r t i c u l a r l y useful. A summary of available s t a t i s t i c s i s given i n the appendix,p. vii • 139* were contemplated f o r landing f a c i l i t i e s i n the Coronation 16 area. Four months previously, the Honourable C.E.Gerhart, 17 speaking at an A i r Conference i n Edmonton, had said i n part: Those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s that are going to step out and get an a i r s t r i p w i l l be on the a i r map* Those who don't, f i v e years from now w i l l wish they had because j u s t as the automooile has caused our l i t t l e v i l l a g e s to become smaller, and those 60 or 60 miles apart to become larg e r , i t seems to me a i r travel, w i l l make that distance greater than 60 or 60 miles. Coronation's Board of Trade was quick to- take up the question of a l o c a l landing s t r i p , and they received the whole-hearted support of ex-Air Force boys who s t i l l had the urge to f l y i n t h e i r blood. Enthusiasts pointed out that the town's weather s t a t i o n was the natural centre f o r such a i r routes as Edmonton to Minneapolis, and Calgary to Saskatoon, and v i s i o n s of Coronation as an air-base hub began to replace the o l d hopes of a t h r i v i n g railway centre. Though the f l y i n g club was formed, the landing s t r i p b u i l t , and an airplane purchased, immediate r e s u l t s f e l l f a r short of what had been predicted. Commercial a i r l i n e s were slow to show active i n t e r e s t , and f l y i n g as a hobby was found too expensive f o r most. Perhaps the future would prove these pioneering steps worthwhile. Meanwhile two long-range a c t i v i t i e s that could hold tremendous p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r Coronationites were getting under-way i n the area. E i t h e r was p o t e n t i a l l y capable of changing 16 Review. Sept. 27, 1946. 17 Loc.Cit.. 140. the whole aspect of present l i f e i n the d i s t r i c t . One was the search f o r o i l , the other the promise of i r r i g a t i o n . As part of the intensive survey being c a r r i e d out i n Alberta by American o i l companies} seismographic t e s t i n g was 18 begun i n the Coronation area i n the year? 1942. D r i l l i n g commenced i n the spring of 1949 ? and by December of 1950 some ten wells had been sunk. Though traces of gas and o i l were found, no sensational s t r i k e s had been made, and the year ended, r i f e with the usual hopes, fe a r s , and rumours, but with few concrete r e s u l t s from which to forecast the future. More tangible than o i l , and more c e r t a i n of securing dividends f o r a l l , was the water of the Red Deer River which the dominion government P.F.R.A. was hoping to make available to residents of h a l f a m i l l i o n acres i n east-central Alberta. The P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act was passed by P a r l i a -19 ment i n A p r i l , 1935 8 to help p r a i r i e -farmers combat the c r i p p l i n g combination of drought and economic depression i n the T h i r t i e s . I t s p r a c t i c a l p o l i c i e s (both immediate and f a r reaching) have proven invaluable to countless dry b e l t dwellers. 18 The search was widespread and thorough, and at one period i n 1949, some 50 American o i l and survey men had t h e i r head-quarters i n town. Hotel, restaurants, and boarding houses were overflowing, and merchants d i d a.good business catering to the.free spending.visitors. Enthusiastic sportsmen, the Americans entered t h e i r own baseball and S o f t b a l l teams i n l o c a l competition - with good success = and on the b a l l diamond, as on the streets of town, the nasal twang of the Eastern States and the slow drawl of the deep South became f a m i l i a r sounds. 19 Statutes of Canada. 25-26 George V, Chap.23, "An Act to provide f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of drought and s o i l d r i f t i n g areas i n the Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta," assented to A p r i l 17, 1935. 141. The main objectives of P.F.R.A. have been to improve faiming methods, to better u t i l i z e the land, and to conserve water. I t s water development program has been conducted on both small and large scales - dugouts and stock-watering dams making up the former, r i v e r and large stream i r r i g a t i o n works, the l a t t e r . Coronation!tes f i r s t became aware of the Red Deer River i r r i g a t i o n scheme as a postwar p o s s i b i l i t y when delegates from the area met at Hanna i n October, 1944, to organize an associa-t i o n f o r the purpose of ge t t i n g the government to finance and operate such a project. P.F.R.A. had already made a preliminary survey of the area, but because of the high estimated cost of 20 construction, the matter had not been pressed* Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however, showed great p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and with l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments d e f i n i t e l y ranged i n favour 21 of the scheme, P.F.R.A. began planning i n earnest. As envisaged, the Red Deer Project would be a combined i r r i g a t i o n and power project to serve an area of approximately 500P00 acres l y i n g between Coronation on the north, the Red deer River on the south, and between Hanna on the west and the Alberta-Saskatchewan boundary on the east. Water from the Red 20 P.F.R.A., A Record of Achievement. Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, 1943, p.65. 21 On December 12, 1945, the Honourable C.E.Gerhart, speaking before a Hanna audience, said, "My constituency runs from Coronation east to the Saskatchewan boundary and from Hanna east to the boundary. This area needs water and I am here to help you get i t . A l l my colleagues i n the government are strongly i n favor of i r r i g a t i o n f o r the whole province where needed." Review, Dec. 20, 1945. 142. Deer River would be stored and diverted by a dam near Ardley, Alberta, and would be c a r r i e d to the i r r i g a b l e area by a main canal about 100 miles In length, terminating i n the natural 22 rese r v o i r s of Hamilton and Ki r k p a t r i c k Lakes near Coronation. In addition to the d i r e c t i r r i g a t i o n benefits, the power i n s t a l l a t i o n would y i e l d an estimated 30,000,000 kilowatt 23 hours of e l e c t r i c a l energy annually. According to a l e t t e r , dated June 12, 1960, from the 24 Direc t o r of P.F.R.A., the engineering survey was p r a c t i c a l l y completed at that time, and other surveys such as s o i l s , economics, and power were expected to be f i n i s h e d towards the end of the year. Once the f i n a l report was completed, further discussion would take place between the p r o v i n c i a l and dominion governments, and i t was here that the fate of the project, and of the entire region, would be decided. For Coronationites a new era seemed about to begin. Con-d i t i o n s i n the area south of the Battle River were considerably d i f f e r e n t i n 1950 than they had been h a l f a century before. Well c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s of wheat, and endless miles of barbed wire neatly divided up once l i m i t l e s s rangeland. Gravelled highways and c r i s s - c r o s s i n g road allowances ignored the paths of pioneer t r a i l s . -Truck and automobile had replaced s l e i g h 22 See map i n the appendix, p.xxvii, 2 3 Thirteenth Annual Report on A c t i v i t i e s under the P r a i r i e  Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act. Dept. of Ag r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa, 1948, p.11. 24 L e t t e r to the author from L.B.Thomson, Director of P.F.R.A., Regina, Sask., dated June 12, 1950. 143. and buggy, and on the farm the once noble horse had become almost a parasite. The days of the h i t c h i n g posts and the l i v e r y barns were a l l but forgotten. Gone, too, was something of the neighbourliness of e a r l i e r 25 days. Long distances were no longer a hardship. The car and the movie had combined to s h i f t the recreation centre from home and f i r e p l a c e to street and cafe. One f i n e r e s u l t of the change, however, was the increased intermingling of town and country dwellers. Theatre, dance h a l l , c u r l i n g r i n k , b a l l diamond, skating r i n k , schoolhouse, church - a l l became centres where common int e r e s t s helped b u i l d a r i c h e r understanding between town boy and country boy, town mother and country mother, merchant and farmer. Completely interdependent as t h e i r economic existence was, so was i t only r i g h t that t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i v e s should merge together. Coronationites, at the halfway mark of the Twentieth Century, were r i d i n g the crest of a wave of prosperity. Times had never been better nor had the future ever looked brighter. I r r i g a t i o n , i f i t came, could w e l l mean r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r most cherished dreams. A c o n t r o l l e d water supply might s t i l l make Coronation the Wonder C i t y of a meeca-land of milk and honey. But, t i l l such a time arrived, Coronationites would do well to remember the b i t t e r lessons of the past. Farming at the best of times was a gamble. For those, i n the semi-dry b e l t between the Battle and Red Deer Rivers, to stake 25 The box s o c i a l s and the whist drives, the s l e i g h i n g p a r t i e s and the l o c a l Christmas concerts were becoming r e l i c s of a bypassed age. 144. t h e i r entire fortunes on a single crop, wheat, was worse than foolhardy. Never, over a long period, could they hope to win. For them the dice were loaded. Coronation's h i s t o r y , from the days preceding the coming of the white man down to the present time, though d i f f e r e n t i n d e t a i l , i s t y p i c a l of dry b e l t pioneering throughout the West. Typical are the periods of boom and depression, of hope and f r u s t r a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l hardships, the hoped f o r miracles to be derived from railway expansion, the unbounding f a i t h i n the land, the gradual disillusionment, the d i s t r u s t of Eastern big-business, the growth of co-operative movements and new l i n e p a r t i e s , the depths of depression and the blossoming hopes with the return of good times, the r a l l y i n g to the Mother Country i n two world wars, and the utter dependence on wheat - these, too, are a l l t y p i c a l . Mirrored i n the story of Coronation i s the story of much of Canada's West. A P P E N D I C E S ( i ) i i APPENDIX A Year Population P r a i r i e Provinces Winnipeg Immigration Homestead Wheat A r r i v a l s Entries P r i c e s 24,706 1070 27,773 127-36,578 127 50,050 123 39,373 1,376 114 27,382 499 103 25,633 347 108 27,082 845 137 29,807 1,788 101 40,492 4,068 107 38,505 2,074 120 47,991 2,753 126 112,458 7,483 121 133,624 6,063 111 103,824 3,753 100 79,169 1,858 89 69,152 2,657 81 84,526 2,036 83 88,766 2,655 93 91,600 4,416 99 75,067 2,955 85 82,165 3,523 93 30,996 4,840 80 29,633 4,067 73 20,829 3,209 61 18,790 2,394 72 16,835 1,857 65 21,716 2,384 79 31,900 4,848 93 44,543 6,689 71 23,895 7,426 75 49,149 8,167 75 67,379 14,633 73 128,364 31,383 79 130,331 26,073 92 146,266 30,891 90 189,064 41,869 76 124,667 21,647 88 262,469 30,424 104 146,908 39,081 109 208,794 41,568 100 311,084 44,479 96 354,237 39,151 97 402,432 33,699 88 384,878 31,829 100 144,789 24,088 128 48,537 17,030 138 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 73,228 118,706 251,473 419,512 808,646 1,328,121 1,698,137 Year Population P r a i r i e Provinces Immigration A r r i v a l s Homestead Entr i e s Winnipeg Wheat Prices 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1,956,082 75,374 79,074 57,702 117,336 148,477 11,199 8,319 4,227 6,732 5,389 2200 222-221 263 165 Compiled from data contained i n Mackintosh, Economic Problems, pp.281-283, and The Canada Year Book; 1950. i v APPENDIX B Coronation Alberta Wheat. Wheat Winnipeg Average Average Board Board Wheat Wheat Wheat Pric e s Prices Year Pr i c e s Y i e l d s Y i e l d s Ft.William Coronation 1920 2630 1921 165- 8.7bu. 10.4bu. 1922 121 9.9 11.3 1923 110 28.6 28.0 1924 107 6.0 11.0 1925 168 18.7 18.3 1926 151, 19.1 18.5 1927 146 25.3 27.4 1928 146 22.8 25.5 1929 124 4.9 12.3 1930 124 20.2 20.5 1931 64 16.1 17.7 1932 60 16.5 20.4 1933 54 9.0 13.0 1934 68 11.5 15.0 1935 82 8.7 13.2 87}0 690 1936 85 4.8 8.8 87}- 69-1937 123 2.7 9.7 87} 69 1938 131 15.3 18.6 80 61} 1939 62 13.9 19.3 70 51} 1940 76 18.0 20.8 70 51} 1941 74 5.9 15.1 70 51} 1942 77 22.4 26,8 90 71} 1943 94 17.5 17.1 90 71} 1944 135 16.3 14.7 1.25 1.06} 1945 144 9.2 12.9 1.25 1.06} 1946 175 14.1 18.2 1.35 1.16} 1947 175 9.5 15.5 1.35 1.16} 1948 175 1.55 1.36} 1949 1.75 1.56} 1950 1.40 1.21} 1 Taken from The Canada Year Books 2 Taken from Acreage and Production of P r i n c i p a l Grain Crops Coronation i s i n Census D i v i s i o n VII. 3 From Reports of the Canadian Wheat Board. 4 Coronation's p r i c e i s 18} cents l e s s than that at Ft.William. V APPENDIX C Population» R a c i a l O r i g i n , and Religious Denominations of Coronation  Population Total Male Female Munic. Town Munic. Town Munic• Town 1916 456 257 199 1921 2,042 645 1,180 338 862 307 1926 1,865 713 1,072 368 793 345 1931 2,022 738 1,149 385 873 353 1936 1,941 605 1,099 312 842 293 1941 1,840 581 1,033 305 807 276 1946 1,494 633 847 325 647 308 \ Racial O r i g i n 1921 Munic. Town 1931 Munic. Town 1941 Munic. Town B r i t i s h Races < English 857 273 663 279 543 228 I r i s h 335 124 342 108 285 73 Scotch 285 119 303 133 209 100 Other 28 21 17 27 38 10 European Races Austrian 7 am 3 8 c Belgian 8 - 11 — 12 u French 64 11 86 21 82 * 32 German 132 25 232 ' 33 252 32 Hungarian - - - 2 - 9 •a* Jewish - - 5 _ 7 Netherlands 50 11 47 10 44 6 .' P o l i s h 4 - 10 8 9 10 Roumanian - 5 — 8 6 Russian 86 1 56 6 98 15 Scandinavian 174 34 233 74 224 47 Ukrainian - - 1 - 12 6 Other 8 4 10 8 7 1 A s i a t i c Races Chinese and Japanese 2 20 1 24 — 7 Other - 1 _ Indian 1 — — _ 1 Unspecified 2 1 - 1 Tot a l 2,042 645 2,022 738 1,840 581 v i Religious Denominations 1921 1931 1941 Munic. Town Munic. Town Munic. Towi Adventist 18 _ 3 _ 5 Anglican 238 105 255 133 235 115 Bap t i s t .126 17 101 20 136 9 Brethren 9 - • - - 3 -Greek Catholic - - 23 -Greek Orthodox 5 - 18 „ 23 -Jewish - - - 5 7 Lutheran 231 29 269 50 318 48 Mennonite 14 _ 3 24 _ Methodist 1 410 261 - — P e n t i c o s t a l - — — 1 — 7 Presbyterian 681 137 43 41 74 17 Roman Catholic 237 50 258 55 176 64 United Church 1 - - 1,030 403 665 277 Other 73 46 41 28 158 34 Not stated — - 1 2 - 3 Total 2,042 645 2,022 738 1,840 581 From data enclosed i n a. l e t t e r dated June 28, 1949, from the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa. 1 Methodist included with United Church i n years 1931 and 1941. v i i APPENDIX D  Weather Bureau Statistics Highest Temperature Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 1944 85.0 95.1 91.8 82.0 80.3 72.4 46.9 43.2 1945 41.2 38.0 57.1 65.0 83.8 87.6 93.1 91.2 84.0 83.8 45.0 41.0 1946 65.4 83.0 87.0 82.2 57.2 61.0 41.1 1947 47.0 40.0 51.5 76.0 73.0 78.8 92.5 90.1 82.0 72.2 63.0 41.1 1948 44.4 35.2" 40.0 58.9 81.8 88.8 87.0 90.9 88.0 74.5 48.0 37.0 1949 41.0 37.0 52.8 80.0 Lowest Temperature Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 1944 1945 1946 22.8 27.9 29.0 2.2 22.5 38.1 44.2 39.0 24.9 25.8 17.7 23.0 1947 38.0 41.3 1948 15.0 27.0 1949 35.3 33.0 14.0 22.0 4.5 14.0 30.8 42.8 37.6 17.5 7-1 24.8 22.6 15.6 28.0 12.8 25.5 31.0 26.0 13.2 20.0 30.1 38.6 38.2 31.8 19.5 9.0 4.8 24.2 11.9 31.1 37.8 44.0 38.0 20.2 15.0 10.8 31.0 Monthly Mean Temperature Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 1944 1945 20.0 1946 1947 42.0 1948 16.5 1949 1.1 64.9 69.2 73.2 71.5 64.2 62.4 29.4 21.4 35.5 82.6 59.3 66.9 76.7 67.0 30.4 44.9 47.9 1.1 17.2 39.9 48.3 40.2 21.8 15.7 50.8 56.2 67.4 58.9 44.4 43.9 20.0 15.1 0.5 2 10.1 25.2 52.7 59.9 61.1 20.2 4.2 3.7 24.3 45.8 Total Precipitation Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 1944 1945 0.98 1946 5.0 .52 .45 1.51 2.14 4.53 2.27 1.86 .07 3.62 .53 1.03 .45 2.87 2.15 1.20 1.41 4.45 5.15 .62 .35 1.94 3.63 1.03 4.61 2.78 .88 0.47 1.63 1947 0.43 0.35 0.56 1.28 0.75 2.72 1.30 3.94 2.57 1.16 1.08 0.44 1948 0.89 2.34 0.89 2.75 0.61 0.99 3.39 1-13 0.66 0.25 0.63 0.79 1949 1.00 0.62 0.50 0.16 The Coronation Weather Bureau began operation in 1944, APPENDIX E Mayors of Coronation and Their Terms of O f f i c e H.S.Northwood 1911 _ 1915 Five Years J.E.Bonsall 1916 - 1917 Two Years A.O.Thomas 1918 - 1920 Three Years R.G.Kahl 1921 - One Year D.A.Thomson 1922 - 1923 Two Years Frank Burns 1924 - 1925 Two Years J.E.Bonsall 1926 - 1935 Ten Years C.E.Gerhart 1936 - 1940 Five Years John Anderson 1941 - 1946 Six Years John Stewart 1947 -» 1950 Four Years From s t a t i s t i c s enclosed i n a l e t t e r dated Feb. 8, 1951, from the Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s , Edmonton. i x APPENDIX F Register of Pioneers 30th Anniversary of Founding of Town of Coronation: September27«1941 (Each name i s followed by: date of a r r i v a l ; manner of t r a v e l from jumping-off place; birthplace) 1897 John Nelson;July,1897\Wagon from Sedgewick d r i v i n g cattlejNorway 1903 W.W.Greathouse; July,1903,Drove c a t t l e from Billings,Mont. ;Howard C.,Ark.• 1904 L i l l i a n Annie CarterjJuly,1904;Running gears of wagon from A l i x ; Minnesota. George Lewis;May,1904;Saddle horse,High River;Scotland. 1906 John Bargholz;March,1906;Livery from Red Deer;Davenport,Iowa. H.N.Black;May,1905;Horse and wagon from Red Deer;Melton Mowbray,Eng.. Annie Bedson;June,1905,Horses and wagon from Red Deer;Yorkshire,Eng.. John E.Carter;July, 1905;Team and wagon from Lacombe;Plainville, Kansas,U.S.A. J.L.Carter;May,1905;Team from Wetaskiwin;Texas,U.S.A. Edmond iChabrier;September,1905^Horses from Red Deer; Nacazaki,Japan. S.E.Chabrier;September,1905jHorses and wagon from Red Deer;north France. Joseph A.Crower;April,1905:Saddle horse from 01ds;0ntario. Albert J.DollingjOctober ,1905}0xen from Stettler;London,Eng.. E.W.Eksandh;September,1905;Horses from Stettler;Smaland, Sweden. E.J.Gibson;May,1905;Team and wagon,Blackfaids;Wheatley,Ont.. - s Mrs.E.J.Gibson;July,1905;Team and wagon,Blackfaids;Guelph,Ont.. Gladys Gibson;July,1905;Team of horses from Blackfaids;Detroit,Mich.. T.E.McConkey;Fall,1905;Horses and wagon from Okotoks;Grey Co.,Ont.. James Richardson;April, 1905;Team from Red Deer;Eng.. Wm.Roach;March,1905;Horses from Red DeerjPort Perry,0nt.. W.W.Warnock;September,1905,Milch cow and horse,Stettler;0nt.. 1906 Mrs.J.Anderson;0ctober,1906;Drove c a t t l e from Stettler;Bagot,Man., ( Mrs.J.AnhornjMarch,1906;Wagon from St e t t l e r ; F r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a . Mrs.John Bargholz;March,1906;Team from St e t t l e r ; R i c e Lake,Wisconsin. Edward Bartlett;September,1906;Walked from Stettler;Owen Sound,Ont.. Alex Bernhardt;July,1906;Team from StettlerjKitchener,Ont.. Mrs.E.Binning;July,1906}Horses and wagon from Bowden;Cambum,Eng.. Mrs.Reatha M.Brown;1906;Wagon from A l i x ; A l i x . Mrs.Archie Carter;June,1906;Wagon from Stettler;Man.. Mrs.J.L.Carter;June,1906;Team from Stettler;Man.. J.Collier;May,1906;Native}Bulwark. E.Doering;June,1906;Team and wagon from Stettler,North Dakota. Enock Evans;October,1906jHorses from Stettler;Wales. X 1906 (Cont'd) R.Goodall;March,1906;Prairie schooner and team from Calgary; No rthamp ton,Eng.. Henry Goodenough;Spring,1906;Team and wagon,Lacombe;Nebraska,U.S.. Mrs.Mary Goodenough;Spring,1906;Team and wagon,Lacombe;Nebraska,U.S.. Aug.Krauss;July,1906;Livery from Wetaskiwin;Germany. B a s i l Lind;Spring,1906;Oxen and wagon from StettlerjPortage La P r a i r i e ,Man.. R.Lind;June,1906;0:xcart from Stettler;Portage La Prairie,Man.. H.McLarty;Deeember,1906;Sleigh from S t e t t l e r ; 0 n t a r i o . Mrs.H.McLarty;Junejl906;Wagon from Stettler;Quebec. M.McRae;September,1906;Horses from Stettler;Moray,Scotland. George Omilusik;Spring*1906;Walked from B.C.jPoland. Keith Roach;June,1906;Team from StettlerjManitoba. Emily Robson;October ,1906;Team and democrat from Stettler;Devon,Eng.« C. D.Schaffer;Fall,1906;0xen from Stettler;South Dakota. W.J.Snider;1906;Team from S t e t t l e r ; 0 n t a r i o . Peter StergerjMarch,1906;Team from S t e t t l e r j R u s s i a . Mrs.Peter Sterger;March,1906;Wagon from Stettler;Saradough,Russia. D. F.Valantive;June ,1906jHorses from Wetaskiwin;Wetaskiwin. H.A.Vought;May,1906;Team;Minnesota. Mrs.H.A.Vought;April,1906;Team from S t e t t l e r j B e r l i n g , M i s s . . 1907 Stephen Banister;May;1907;Horses from Calgary;England. Mrs.MabelBlack;May,1907;Horses and wagon from Stettler;Brandon,Man.. Fred Cameron;June,1907;Horses from S t e t t l e r ; 0 n t a r i o . Jennie E.Crower;June,1907;Wagon,EagleHill(W Olds) ;Northumberland,Eng. Richard Ewbank;November,1907;Team,Stettler;Yorkshire,Eng.. W.E.Glasier;Mareh,1907; Wagon from Ste t t l e r ;0ntario. Mrs.W.E.Glasier;March,1907;Wagon from S t e t t l e r ; 0 n t a r i o . Mrs.R.Go6dall;August,1907;Team from Stettler;Midnapore;N.W.T.. John Handby;December, 1907;Wagon from Stettler;Eng.. William.Handby;December,1907;Team of horses from Stettler^Yorkshire, England. Henry Heidecker;May,1907;Wagon from Wetaskiwin;Germany. W.Henson;March,1907;Sleigh from Hardisty;England. Mrs.W.Henson;March,1907;Sleigh from Hardisty;England. Frank E.Hilstob;March,1907;Horse team from Stettlerjlowa. Mrs.Ruth Huff;0ctober,1907;Team from S t e t t l e r ; V i r g i n i a . S.Kisch;December,1907;Team from Sedgewick;Minnesota. A.Landvik;August,1907; Team and wagon from Stettler;Norway. Mrs.R.Lind;May, 1907;Horses from Stettler;U.S.A. Sam Mills;April,1907;Horses from Stettler;Bracebridge,Ont.. D. Nicoud;November,1907;Livery from Castor;France. Mrs.Don 0'Connor;May,1907;Native daughter;Puffer. W.J.Radel;1907;Horses from Castor;Wisconsin. F.Robinson;April,1907;Oxen from Stettler;Liecester,Eng.. E. Stokes;May,1907;Team of horses from St e t t l e r j F i n g a l , O n t . . Mrs.Ed.Stokes;May,1907;Team of horses from Stettler;Iona,Ont.. Halvor Tangen;June,1907;Bicycle from S t e t t l e r to file;Blanchard,N.D. Mrs.R.J.Twa;March,1907;Sleigh from Hardisty;England. Lester H.Wager;April, 1907;Wagon and horses from Stettler;New York. x i 1908 R.H.Bowden;May,1908;Horses from StettlerjOwen Sound,Ont.. Fred Burgman;May,1908;0xteam from Stettler;Hohah,Minn.. Frank Burns;February,1908;Team from Stettler}Castle Douglas,Scotland Mrs.J.W.Cameron;May,1908;Horses from StettlerjMiddlesex.Ont.. E l r y C l i n e j April,1908 jNative,Coronation. Wm.Constable;April,1908,Horses from Stettler;Glasgow,Scotland C a r l Ekman;July,1908;Walked from Williston(s.Castor);Brainard,Minn.. Edwin Ekman;May,1908j0xen from Stettler;Minnesota. Walter Ekman;May,1908;Two oxen, one horse wagon,Stettler;Brainard, Minn.. P.0.Glomlien;Spring,1908;Walked from Stettler;Norway. Jo8.Haggerty;April,1908;Walked from Stettler;Hamilton,Ont.. L.Hansen;March,1908;Horses and slwigh from Stettler;Iowa. Mrs.Fred Hudson;May,1908 ;Native daughter;Puffer(Fairfield) A.Kortgaard;August,1908;Freighted from Hardi sty ;Madison,Minn.. H.Lowis;May,1908;Wagon from Stettler;England. Wallace H.MeComish;0ctober,1908;Drove from Banff;0ntario. Mrs.Ex.0'Hara;Apr11,1908;Team from Stettler;Ontario. , Mrs.Emma Stockwell;November,1908;Horses from Hardisty}Deerfield Twp.,Iowa. V.H.Stockwell ;Dec. 51908; Team and wagon,Hardi sty; Sherwood ,N .Dak. ,U. S. Mrs.M.J.Taylor}June,1908}0xen from Stettler}Cobalt,0nt.. O.H.Walhovd;April, 1908;Team from WetaskiwinjNorway. Ingvald Wee;November,1908}Team of horses from Stettler}Hanska,Minn.. Helene F• Wilson;Oetober,1908;Native daughter;Talbot. 1909 J.Edgar Agar;May,1909;Team from Stettler;Kleinburg,0nt.. R.F.Agar;Spring,1909;Horses from Castor;Vaughan,0nt.. , ' A.L.Anderson;January,1909;0xen and horses from Stettler;GrantCo.,Mini J.Anderson;Mareh,1909}Team from Stettler;0ntario.-OleBakken;July,1909;Walked from Hardisty;Waldris,Norway. M.Bernhardt;Fall,1909}Horses from Bassano;Kitchener,Ont.. Mrs.N.Bowers;September, 1909;Team from Hardisty;Minnesota,U.S.A. Wm.B.Butterwick;0ctober,1909;Native}Coronation. Archie Carter}May,1909}Wagon from AlixjKanaas. Severin ChristoffersonjApril,1909jOxen and wagon,New Norway;Bergen, Norway. L.J.Cochrane}June,1909jHorses from Red Deer}Milbrooke,0nt.. Mrs.F.Colson;July,1909}Horses and wagon from Stettler}Bracebridge, Ont.. Frank Colson}July,1909jHorses and wagon from Stettler}Bracebridge, Ont.. Mrs.J.A.Crane}September,1909}Team from Idaho}Idaho. James Crane}November*1909}Horses from Wyoming}Ohio W.D.Duncan}April,1909}Horses from S t e t t l e r j O n t a r i o . K a l l a Eksandh;November,1909;Horses from Stettler;Gotland,Sweden. W.E.Hazlewood;June,1909;Horses and wagon from Stettler;Kirkton,Ont.. Geo.C.Johnson;July,1909jDemocrat from Hardisty;Paris,France. Geo.Jorgenson;August,1909;Four-horse teamloaded;Caledonia,Minn. Louis Larsen;May,1909;Horses from Wetaskiwin;Norway. Thos.Layeraft;April,1909;Team of horses from Hardisty;Leeds,Quebec. E.G.Leake;July,1909;Wagon from Hardisty;0ntario. x i i 1909 (Cont'd) Mrs.E.G.Leake ;July,1909 jWagon from Hardisty;Ontario. H.J.Leake sr.;July,1909;wagon from HardistyjOntario. J.E.Leake;July,1909;Wagon from Hardisty;Ontario. Mrs.B.Lind;August,1909;Horses from Sedgewick;DesMoines,Iowa. Peter LindelljMay,1909;Team of horses from Bassano;Malmo,Sweden. Mrs.Wallace McComishjMay,1909;Team from StettltrjSpokane Wash.. Rod McLeod;April,1909jTeam from StettlerjBroughty Ferry,Scotland. Elmer MoorejMay,1909jHorse back with bunch of c a t t l e jNova Scotia. Mrs.Elmer Moore;September,1909}Prairie schooner from StettlerjU.S.A.. Aug.Nicoud}Dec.,1909}First t r a i n S t e t t l e r to Castor,then horses; T sere,France.. N.R.0setsky;Fall,1909;0xen and wagon,StettlerjOddessa,Russia. Mrs.A.Quast;May,1909;0xteam from S t e t t l e r j R u s s i a . J.W.Peet;Aug. ,1909;Team and wagon from Calgary;Austin,Minn. • Fred Rail;May,1909;Team oxen from Stettler}North Dakota. Nels Rodvang;Aug.,1909;Horses and s l e i g h from. Wetaskiwin;Valdris, Norway. Henry Roessler;March,1909}Team from Stettler;Ashley,North Dakota. Gustav Schoene;October,1909;Team of horses from StettlerjGermany. P h i l Taylor;Fall,1909;With oxen from StettlerjMorristown,Wales. B i l l Thomson;April, 1909;0xtearn from StettlerjOrkney Islands,Scotland.. A.S.Waltham;April,1909;Team from Stettler;Ontario. John Whittaker;September,1909;Team of horses from Stettler} Bismark,N.Dakota. 1910 J.W.Bargholz;October,1910;Native son;Coronation. E.Binning;April,1910jHorses and wagon from Bowden;Clay Co.,Iowa. R.Boettcher}March,1910}0xen from Castor}Russia. Herb Brigham;March,1910}Team hors«s from Castor}Yorkshire,Eng.. M.R.Butterfield}April,1910}Horsc and buggy from Hardisty}Hartington, Neb.. O.J. Co ok} June, 1910} Walked from Castor ;0ntario. T.H.Cuthbert}May,1910}Team and wagon from Medicine Hat;Victoria,B.C. Ora E.Dafoe;March,1910;Team and supplies from Castor;Avon,Ont.. Roland Eksandh;November,1910;Native sonjTalbot. Geo Fair;April,1910;Horses from Castor to HaneyvillejArkona,Ont.. Merle Gatehell;August,1910}Walked from CastorjMichigan. John Hallett}April,1910}0xteam from Castor}England. H.J.Hamner}August,1910}Team from Castor. Mrs.O.C.Hamner}August,1910}Team from Castor}Toronto,Ontario. Ogle C.Hamner}August,1910jHorses from Castor}Clinton,Ont.. Thorvald Hansen}July,1910}Team from CastorjDenmark. N.W.High}April,1910;Wagon from Castor;Ontario. Mrs.Frank Kilborn; May,1910jHorses and democrat from S t e t t l e r ; Brockville,0nt.. William F.Kilborn;May,1910jHorses and democrat from Stettler} . Brockville,Ont.. Mrs.P.C.McLean;May,.1910}Oxen and wagon from Castor}Bangor,Ont.. Peter C.McLean}May, 1910}Oxen and wagon from Castor}Dutton,Ont... Mrs.M.McRaejSeptember,1910}Horses from Castor;Inverness,Scotland. John A.Miller;Fall,1910;Team and sleigh,Huxley;Portsmouth,England. Edwin Nelson;June,1910;Horses from Castor;Holland,Sweden. x i i i 1910 (Cont'd) J.0setsky;March,1910jOxteam from S t e t t l e r j R u s s i a . Mrs.J.OsetskyjMarch,1910jOxteam from SteotlerjRussia. Ernest Paterson;April,1910jTeam and wagon from CastorjOntario. E. A.Perry;July,1910jOxteam from Hard i s t y j V a l l e y Field,Que.. H.M.Perry;July,1910jPrairie schooner from HardistyjOntario. Mrs.K.Perry;July,1910jPrairie schooner from HardistyjOntario. John PerryjJuly,1910jHorses from HardistyjOntario. Geo.G.PricejMai-ch,1910jWagon from CastorjWales. Mrs.Geo.G.PricejMarch,1910jWagon from CastorjStreetsville,Ont.. Alex.QuastjJune,1910jTeam from CastorjRussia. E. W.Robinson;March,1910;Ox^n from Castor jOntario. Mrs.E.W.RobinsonjAugust, 1910 jHorses and wagon from Hardisty} Peterborough,Ont.. P.V.SandbergjFebruary,1910}Rode on lumber from Castor;Sweden. Mrs.P.V.Sandbergj0ctober,1910jTeam of horses from Castor;Wyley, Minn.. . Mrs.Starzman;October,1910;Team of horses from CastorjGreenock,Scot.. G. Starzman;0ctober,1910;Team of oxen from Camrose;Youngstown,Ohio. F. C.Stockwell,October,1910;Team from Castor;North Dakota. Melvin J.Taylor}April,1910}Team from Castor}Ontario. J.W.Thring}May,1910;Six oxen and wagon from Roland,Man.;Wilts.,Eng. .• Edward Towns}April,1910}Team from Castor}N.Dakota. Mrs.Annie Townsend}July,1910}Team from Castor}London,England. Mrs.Fred Wagner}April,1910}Team and wagon,CastdrjBessarabia,Russia. Ole WalhovdjJuly,1910jTeam from Pigeon Lake}South Norway. Mrs.Gwendolyn Warnock;October,1910;Team from Castor;Castor. Mrs.Jennie Taylor Watson;April,1910;Team from Castor;Ontario. R.Watson;April,1910jFreight car;Sault Ste.Marie,Ontario. 1911 <* Jas.O.Barnes;March,1911;Team from CastorjOntario. H. B.Bedson;May,1911;Oxen from CastorjToronto,Ontario. J.E.Bonsall;September,1911jTeam from CastorjPaltimore,Que.. D.N.CampbelljNovember,1911jtrainjOntario. Mrs.L.J.Cochrane;May,1911;Team of horses from CastorjOntario Co.,Ont Mrs. J . C o l l i e r j April,1911jNative daughter}Bulwark Mr s.0 sc ar Cook}1911}Train j Sarnia,Ontario. Wm.CouturierjDecember,1911}Train from Casoor ,2^hours;Michigan. A.B.DeWitt;Spring,1911jTeam from StettlerjNapanee,Ontario. Mrs.Albert J.DollingjOctober,1911jtrain from WinnipegjPlymouth,Eng.. Charles DuerjMay,1911jHorse team from CastorjKansas. Mrs.Sarah L.GolbyjJune,1911;Horse ana buggy from CastorjBrinsmead, Neb.. Rosalie HeideckerjMarch,1911jHorses from StettlerjCrimea,Russia. Alb.HoferjDecember,1911jHorses from StettlerjBerne,Switzerland. Henry JorgensonjThanksgiving,1911;Horses from StettlerjMinnesota. Mabel KischjMay,1911jStorkjMichigan. Orin KartgaardjOctober,1911 ;Train;Minnesota. Mrs.Alice Kotow;June,1911;Wagon from CastorjRussia. S.Laycraft;July,1911;Native sonjVeteran. Mrs.Anna LindquistjApril,1911jTeam of horses from CastorjButterCo., Nebraska. Byron Lindquist j A p r i l , 1911 j Wagon from- Castor ;Harrison, Idaho. xiv 1911 (Cont'd) J.E.Maddock;November,1911;Team from Castor ;Ontario. Mrs.J.Mayhew;November,1911;Train;Huntsville,0nt.. Joseph Mayhew;September,1911;Buggy from Castor;Ontario. Mrs.M.J.McMahon;November,1911;First passenger trainjOntario. R.M.Merchant;April,1911;Horses from CastorjMica,Washington. W.W.Merchant;September,1911;Team of horses from Castor;Renfrew Co., Ont.. M.MjolsnessjApril,1911jTeam and buggy from StettlerjHendrum.Minn.. Mrs.M.Mjolsness;June,1911;(first bride);Horse and buggy from Stettler;N.Dak... G. R.Miller;Spring,1911;0xen from HuxleyjPortsmouth,England. Mrs.Leslie Moore;August, 1911 jOxen from Stettler;Provmont,Michigan. Mrs.A.NicoudjAugust,1911;Team from Castor; H. S.Northwood;September,1911;First t r a i n to Coronation;Chatham,Ont.. Don 0'Connor;April,1911;Livery from Castor;0ntario. Mrs.J.O 'Hou;April,1911 ;Oxen and wagon,Huxley;Summerset,Eng.. Ed.Osetsky;July,1911;Native son;Coronation. Mrs.E.Paterson;July,1911;Democrat from Castor;Ontario. Leonard E.Paterson;July,1911;Democrat from Castor;Ontario. J.H.Paugh;September,1911;Saddle horse from Castor;East Bideford,P.E«] Chris PetersenjMay,1911;Team from Castor{Denmark. Mrs.Chris Petersen;May,1911;Work t r a i n from Castor;Denmark. Ernest Robson;July,1911;Native son;Coronation. . Jens Sande;March,1911;0xen from Castor;Hammar,Norway. H.F.Schmidt;June,1911;Horses from Castor;Aabenvan,Denmark. W.P.Sharplin;March,1911;0x team;London. George Sneath;August,1911;0x team from Castor;Gait,Ont.. Mrs.D.Valantine;0ctober,1911;Train from Nebraska;U.S.A. Mrs.O.H.Walhovd;April,1911;Team from WetaskiwinjNorway. t R.Wangsness;March,1911;Team;Elbou Lake,Minn.. Mrs.G.Augusta Whittaker}March,1911;Horses from Castor;Yorkshire,Eng.. A.C.Williamson;April,1911;Team from Castor;Colorado. Mrs.W.H.Wilson;August,1911;Team from Castor;North Dakota. Dewey Woody;April,1911;Horses from Gastor;Moore,Montana. L.H.Woody;April,1911;Team and wagon from Castor;Indiana,U.S . . L.R.Woody;Spring,1911;Horses from Castor jMontana,U.S.A.. Mary E.Woody;April,1911;Team and wagon from Castor;Illinois,U.S.. J.Zimmerman;August,1911 ;Native son;Coronation. Taken from the Review. Oct. 2,1941. This i s a complete l i s t of those who registered i n the Old Timers' Hut i n Coronation. BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Acreage and Production of P r i n c i p a l Grain Crops "by Census  D i v i s i o n s : 1921-1947 Inclusive. Dept. of Agriculture. Government of the Province of Alberta, September,1948. The s t a t i s t i c s included proved invaluable i n obtaining an accurate picture of the Coronation area's crop record. Canada Lav Reports: Supreme Court of Canada:1938. pp.100-163* Contains the u l t r a v i r e s decision on three S o c i a l Credit b i l l s passed by the Alberta L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i n 1937. The Canadian Annual Review of Publ i c A f f a i r s : 1937 and 1938. Toronto, The Canadian Review Company, pp 468-494. Contains an excellent b r i e f coverage of S o c i a l Credit developments i n Alberta. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, Coronation. 1911. C.P.R.land department pamphlets p u b l i c i s i n g Coronation's townsite sale, and pointing out the b r i l l i a n t future for anyone deciding to s e t t l e i n the area. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, Farming and Ranching i n Western Canada: Manitoba. As s i n i b o i a . Alberta. Saskatchewan (c 1891). C.P.R. propaganda. The opening words read l i k e t h i s : "Those who doubted, and those who wished the public to dis b e l i e v e the reports concerning the f e r t i l i t y , of the Canadian Northwest have ceased to be heard; the f i r s t have been converted into warm advocates of the country's merits, the others are s i l e n t f o r very shame sake, and because no one w i l l now believe them." (p.3). Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, Western Canada: The Granary of the  B r i t i s h Empire (cl9077I Regulations f o r homesteaders, i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s e t t l e r s , and C.P.R. propaganda, including testimonies such as the following: "I have nothing to say against New Zealand. I t ' s a f i n e climate - but you can't eat climate, and a fellow has to l i v e . In Canada you get climate a l l r i g h t , and you get what's more, cash returns f o r your labor J 1 1 (p.79). Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, Department of Natural Resources, The Western Provinces of Canada: The Granary of the B r i t i s h  Empire, (c 1914). : • ' C.P.R. propaganda, and information on western weather, healthfulness, and means of obtaining land. The Cyaadian Parliamentary Guide. vaiuablieo ror checking p o l i t i c a l party standings and ©lection r e s u l t s . The Canadian Wheat Board: 1935-46,Ottawa, King«s Printer,1947; and Reports of The Canadian Wheat Board f o r the Crop Years 1946-47, 1947-48, 1948-49, and 1949-50. x v i i Census of Canada: 1880-81« Volume 1, Ottawa, MacLean, Roger & Co., 1882. Contains the f i r s t o f f i c i a l f igures on white and native populations i n the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s . Coronation Review. 1911*1948. (The 1912 f i l e i s missing). The hack f i l e s of the Review proved to he my greatest storehouse of information. Here i t was that I got the f a c t s , f i g u r e s , and f e e l i n g of the passing years. Doughty, Arthur G. & Martin, Chester, introd., The Kelsey  Papers. Ottawa, The P u b l i c Archives of Canada, 1929. Contains the records of the f i r s t white man »to explore the vast Canadian Vest. Edmonton Journal. June 12,1926? Oct.29, 1932} Jah.24, 1942. In these issues appear b r i e f reports on Coronation as a t h r i v i n g Alberta centre. P a l l i s e r , Captain John, Papers Relative to the Exploration of  That P o r t i o n of B r i t i s h North America Which L i e s between  the Northern Branch of the River Saskatchewan and the  Fro n t i e r of the United States; and between the Red River  and Rocky Mountains. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office,1859. In early July, 1858, P a l l i s e r was i n the B a t t l e River d i s t r i c t of Alberta. His report contains i n t e r e s t i n g comments on the ph y s i c a l features of the area. Parliamentary Debates on the Subject of the Confederation of  the B r i t i s h North American Provinces. 3rd Session, 8th P r o v i n c i a l Parliament of Canada, Quebec, Hunter, Rose & Co., 1865. An extremely valuable primary source showing what the leaders were thinking i n 1865. P.P.R.A.: A Record of Achievement. Ottawa, Department of Agri c u l t u r e , 1943; Thirteenth Annual Report on A c t i v i t i e s  under the P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act. Ottawa, Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1948; and F i f t e e n t h Annual Report on  A c t i v i t i e s under the P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act. ' Regina, P.F.R.Branch, Dominion Dept. of Agriculture, 1950. A Plan to Reduce Wheat Acreage and Make More Money Available  for Necessary War Supplies. Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1941. The P r a i r i e Farm Assistance Act: An Act to A s s i s t Agriculture i n the""Prairie Provinces. O f f i c e Consolidation of the P r a i r i e Farm Assistance Act and Amending Acts as assented to August 7,1940, and June 14,1941, March 27,1942, June 27, 1947 and A p r i l 23,1948. x v i i i Report from the Select Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1857. " ; An important primary source giving the findings of the spec i a l committee. S o i l Survey of S u l l i v a n Lake Sheet. University of Alberta,' College of Agriculture, B u l l e t i n Ho. 31, August, 1938. Statutes of Canada. Indispensable for pinpointing government l e g i s l a t i o n and for tracking down o f f i c i a l information pertaining thereto. xix Secondary Sources Books: B e l l , Charles N., The Journal of Henry Kelsey. The H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1928. Contains a good map of Henry Kelsey*s approximate tra v e l s . Blue, John, Alberta: Past and Present. Chicago, Pioneer H i s t o r i c a l Publishing Co., 1924, vol.1. Includes information of Alberta*s early explorers. Burt, A.L., The Romance of the P r a i r i e Provinces. Toronto, W.J.Gage & Co., 1945. Probably written f o r popular consumption, but contains a great deal of information pertinent to my subject. Mr. Burt expert&y recaptures the atmosphere of the age. Dale,Arch, $25.00 a month: Adventures i n Aherhartia with Arch  Dale and the Winnipeg Pree Press, c 1938. This l i t t l e booklet of Arch Dale cartoons i s a clever and vivid attack on S o c i a l C r e d i t . Dawson, CA., & Younge, Eva R., Pioneering i n the P r a i r i e  Provinces. (Canadian F r o n t i e r s of Settlement, vol.8), Toronto, Macmillan Co., 1940. Useful f a c t s and figures on the s o c i a l aspects of p r a i r i e settlement. Douglas, CH., The Alberta Experiment. London, Eyre and Spottis-woode, 1937. The s e l f appointed master of S o c i a l Credit casts a depre-c i a t o r y eye on Mr.Aberhart*s e f f o r t s i n Alberta. England, Robert, The Colonization of Western Canada. London, P.S. King & Son, 1936. A study of contemporary land settlement from 1896 to 1934. The f i r s t part was most valuable here. . Gibbon, J.M., Steel of Empire: The Romantic History of the Canadian P a c i f i c , the Northwest Passage of Today, Toronto, McClelland & Stewart (c 1935). ! An indispensable reference work on the entire h i s t o r y of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Extension, highly readable, but very pro C.P.R, Hammond, M.O., Confederation and i t s Leaders, Toronto, McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, (Copyright 1917). A compact and well "organized work" summarizing the contribu-tions of each of the Fathers of Confederation. Haydon, A.L.. The Riders of the P l a i n s : A Record of the Royal  North-West Mounted P o l i c e of Canada: 1873 - 1910. London, Andrew Melrose, 1910. A l e s s romantic but more authoritative h i s t o r y of the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . The reasons behind their formation, and the account of the i r early years i n the West helped f i l l out the backeround f o r t h i s work. XX Hedges, J.B., B u i l d i n g the Canadian West: The Land and Coloni-zation P o l i c i e s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, Hew York, The MacMillan Co., 1939. An excellent and r e l a t i v e l y unbiased coverage of the C.P.R.*s r o l e In western development, settlement, and colonization. Hedges, James B., The Federal Railway Land Subsidy P o l i c y of  Canada. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1934. A comprehensive discussion of the evolution and development of the land subsidy p o l i c y i n Canada. The defects as well as the merits of the o v e r a l l plan are c l e a r l y treated. Hughes, Katherine, Father Lacombe: The Black-Robe Yoyageur, Hew York, Moffat, Yard & Co., 1911. -Of some value though* a very s u p e r f i c i a l and sketchy account of the great missionary and h i s work. Innis, Harold A., A History of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1923." A well documented, impartial survey of the history of the C.P.R.. The f i r s t three chapters were p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n giving the background of the opening up of the Canadian West. Irwin, L.B., Pacific-Railways and Nationalism i n the Canadian- American Northwest: 1845-1873.Doc.of P h i l . Treatise, Philadelphia, 1939. i n s i g h t into Canadian-American r i v a l r y over control of the Northwest. Written as a struggle between S i r John A. Macdonald, the Imperial statesman, and Jay Cooke, the American c a p i t a l i s t . Jenness, Diamond, The Indians of Canada, Anthropological Series No.15, B u l l e t i n 65. A very complete account of every part of Indian l i f e . The chapter on " P l a i n s 1 Tribes" was of p a r t i c u l a r value. Jenness, E i l l e e n , The Indian Tribes of Canada, Toronto, The Ryerson Press, (c 1933). An i n t e r e s t i n g short survey of the Indian t r i b e s of Canada. B e a u t i f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d and extremely readable. Laut, Agnes C , The Conquest of the Great Northwest. Toronto, Musson Book Co., (c 1918). Contains a good discussion of the transfer of land from Hudson's Bay Co. to Dominion r u l e . Le Pere Lacombe, Memoires et Souvenirs. Montreal, Imprime au Devoir, 1916. Mackintosh, W. A., "Economic Problems of the P r a i r i e Provinces. (Canadian F r o n t i e r s of Settlement, vol.4), Toronto, Macmillan Co., 1935. Presents the s p e c i a l economic problems of the p r a i r i e farmer. I t i s very readable and i s f u l l of i n t e r e s t i n g and useful data. xxi Martin, Chester. "Dominion Lands" P o l i c y , (Canadian Frontiers of Settlement, v o l . 2 ) , Toronto, MacMillan Co., 1938. Exc e l l e n t coverage of the railway land grants and the free homestead p o l i c y . McDougall, John, In the Days of the Red River Rebellion. Toronto, William Briggs, 1903. Reminiscences of f r o n t i e r missionary l i f e , a quarter of a century before. Frequent mention i s made of the B a t t l e River and Nose H i l l country. Morris, Alexander, The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s , W i l l i n g & William-son, 1880. The story of the Indian t r e a t i e s and the record of the negotiations, with p a r t i c u l a r stress on the ten year period 1870-1880. Morton, Arthur S., History of P r a i r i e Settlement. (Canadian F r o n t i e r s of Settlement, v o l . 2 ) , Toronto, MacMillan Co., 1938. A d e t a i l e d survey of f r o n t i e r development. Discusses the widespread delusion that p r a c t i c a l l y the whole West had a uniform wheat climate, and shows the error made by. many-s e t t l e r s i n tr y i n g to use their native humid climate farming methods i n the semi-arid regions of the West. The wealth of information and d e t a i l make t h i s book essential f o r a study of p r a i r i e settlement. Morton, Arthur S., A History of the Canadian West to 1870-71. Toronto, Thomas Nelson & Sons. A f u l l authoritative account of the development of the west. Includes the tr a v e l s of Anthony Henday and other early explorers. Murchie, R.W., A g r i c u l t u r a l Progress on the P r a i r i e Frontier (Canadian F r o n t i e r s of Settlement, vol.5), Toronto, Macmillan Co., 1936. Too technical and too de t a i l e d to be of much use here, but has an excellent summary of land tenure. Parkin, George R., The Great Dominion. London, Macmillan & Co., . 1895. Includes an i n t e r e s t i n g and often penetrating discussion of Canada's Northwest as i t was i n the 1890 fs. Foresees the dangers of the government and railway companies ov e r s e l l i n g poor land. Defends the leaders of the C.P.R. as courageous, far-seeing statesmen. Shippee, Lester B., Canadian-American Relations 1849-1874. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1939. Chapter 9, "Independence, Confederation, or Annexation? 1 1 was p a r t i c u l a r l y pertinent to my present work. x x i i Trotter, R.G., Canadian Federation:Its Origins and Achievement, Toronto, J.M.Dent & Sons, 1924. -; A broad survey of the movement towards "federation, taking i n such aspects as the p o l i t i c a l , economic, and psychologi-c a l f a c t o r s involved. Vhelan, Edward, The Union of the B r i t i s h Provinces, Gardenvale, Garden C i t y Press, 1927. Contains many of the important speeches at Charlettetowh, Halifax, .arid Quebec. Not a l l of the speeches are quoted verbatim however. P e r i o d i c a l s : Cameron, Agnes D., "New Words with Crops of Yellow Wheat," The Canadian Magazine, vol.31 (June, 1908), pp 141-143. The experiences of an Englishman when l e t loose i n the vastness of Western Canada. ; Doughty, A.G., "The Awakening of Canadian Interest i n the Northwest," (President's Address), Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  Association: Annual Report. (May, 1928) pp.5-11. Some i n t e r e s t i n g comments on the West i n general and on Red River i n p a r t i c u l a r . F i r t h , J.B., "The Bubble i n the Pax West," The Fortnightly  Review, vol.92 ( D e c , 1912), pp.1051-1059. A contemporary warning that the real-estate bubble was bound to burst. F u l l e r t o h , Aubrey, "The Lure of the Better West," The Canadian  Magazine, vol.26. ( D e c , 1905), pp.126-132. A very ^ i n t e r e s t i n g and h e l p f u l contemporary discussion of Canadian immigration propaganda i n the United States. Harvey, D.G. "The Maritime Provinces and Confederation," C.H.A.: Annual Report. (May. 1927). pp.39-45. A sparkling address discussing the views of the Maritime provinces regarding the opening up of the Canadian West. Howey, John, "When Edmonton and Prince Albert are Connected by. Railway," The Canadian Magazine, vol.18 (March, 1902), pp.456-459. The context doesn't l i v e up to the enticing t i t l e . Hurd, Archibald S., "The Foreign Invasion of Canada," The Fort- n i g h t l y Review, vol.72 (Dec., 1902), pp.1055-1065. B r i t i s h sentiment regarding the "foreign" invasion of Canada- at the turn of the century. "The Immigrant i n Canada," The Outlook, vol.84 (Dec.15, 1906), pp.936-7. ' A review of a work by H.R.Whates, an E n g l i s h j o u r n a l i s t , who points out that In" the Canadian West, muscles rather than brains are necessary to keep from starving. x x i i i Martin, Chester, "Confederation and The West," Annual Report:  Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1927, pp.20-28. Of some value, hut mainly stresses the trouble at Red River, Nelson, Joseph, "The North-west of Canada, The Great Corn, Ca t t l e and Mineral Country of the Future," The Westminster Review, vol,139 (March, 1893), pp.286-291. A B r i t i s h e r views the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the Canadian Northwest. Roe, F.G., wAn Unsolved Problem of Canadian History," Annual  Report: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1936, pp,65-77. Expounds the theory that the C.P.R. chose the southern route i n order to c a p i t a l i z e on i t s own townsites. Roe, F.G., "Early Opinions on the ' F e r t i l e Belt* of Western-Canada,11 Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, vol.27 (June, 1946), pp.131=149. A discussion of the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of Alberta weather. Saunders, William, "Wheat Growing i n Canada," The Canadian  Magazine, vol.22 (1904), pp.561-568. O f f i c i a l optimism by the Director of Dominion Experimental farms. S i f t o n , C l i f f o r d , "The Needs of the Northwest," The Canadian  Magazine, vol.20 (March, 1903), pp.425-428. An important a r t i c l e i n which the Minister of the Inter i o r enumerates the needs of Canada, and points the way to the future. 1 T a i t , W.McD.. "The New Canadian West," The Canadian Magazine. vol.43 (August, 1914), pp.349-354. A v i v i d , n o s t a l g i c , review; of the p r a i r i e ' s recent past. Trant, William, " P r a i r i e Philosophy," The Westminster Review. vol.134 (July, 1890), pp.19-40. Romantic armchair philosophizing i n B r i t a i n , but valuable as an expression of contemporary opinion. Wallace, W.S., "The Canadian Immigration P o l i c y , " The Canadian  Magazine, vol.30 (March, 1908), pp.358-361. Some pertinent f i g u r e s and f a c t s on Canadian immigration p o l i c y by a well informed contemporary. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Note: In addition to the sources here l i s t e d I have received a great deal of valuable information from records on f i l e i n the Town O f f i c e i n Coronation and the Municipal O f f i c e i n Castor; from personal interviews with old-timers of the Coronation d i s t r i c t ; and from f a c t s , f i g u r e s , and s t a t i s t i c s included i n numerous l e t t e r s from a v a r i e t y of sources. P a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l were the Honourable C.E.Gerhart, Alberta Minister of Municipal A f f a i r s ; O.A.Lemieux, Census D i v i s i o n Director of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ; L.B.Thomson, Director of P.P.R.A.; R.B.Brown, Superintendent of P.P.A.A.; A.Jenson, E d i t o r of the Coronation Review; and R.Denison and G.W.High, residents of Coronation. MAPS (xxv) Map #1 xxvi #1 Based on maps i n The Times Atla s of the  World : "Western Canada"- Plate 84; "United States - Central Section"- Plate 91} "United States - Western Section"- Plate 92. Ml* /5 L<»A»ltr . HACKCTT I 6Yt noon CORONATION A M A M A I N H W H W W •» SICONOARY R M . — — N O N - M A M A W E N T L A K E S Sou*: I I N . « f M I . 51* Sull I V4PI UKt 1 BULWARK \* V J . O Z O N A T I O N T. NANNA #2 Based on National Topographical Series maps: Red Deer - Edmonton; Wainwright -Battleford; Banff -Bassano; and Hanna » Kindersley* Map #3 x x v i i i # 3 Based on map on f i l e i n the Paintearth municipal office at Castor. M a p #4 X X I X # 4 Based on o r i g i n a l survey map, on f i l e i n the Coronation Review o f f i c e . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106768/manifest

Comment

Related Items