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Crop production on raw muck left after the harvest of sphagnum peat Barber, Louie Edward 1950

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(9 v-o R r  CROP PRODUCTION Off RAW MUCK LEFT AFTER THE HARVEST OF SPHAGNUM PEAT.  Louie Edward Barber  -0O0-  A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the department of  HORTICULTURE (Plant  Nutrition)  -0O0-  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT OF MASTER'S THESIS  L. E. Barber  1950  April  Crop Production on Raw Muck,  •  .'^-••iz  Left After the Harvest of Sphagnum Peat..  In the lower Fraser Valley area of British Columbia there are located considerable areas of low-lying peat lands.  These lands consist  of light yellowish-brown sphagnum moss, averaging three feet in depth,, which i s harvested and sold to the horticultural and poultry industries. Underlying this surface layer of sphagnum moss i s a darker, heavier, more humified layer averaging three to four feet i n depth.. The material of which this lower layer i s composed ia known as "muck", a term used to refer to soils containing a high percentage of organic matter,., but i n which the original plant remains are no longer capable of being identified.. Over the period of the last twenty year3 the raw aphagnum moss has been removed leaving exposed the layer of heavy black muck.  Since the  original sphagnum moss will take many years to grow i n again, these lands which have been cleared must either remain useless and vacant, or some method of reclaiming them for agricultural purposes must be found.  Accord-  ingly, research wa3 directed toward finding the most practical and expeditious means of bringing this muck land into production. During the summer of 1949, a field test wa3 carried out i n an effort to discover the most essential steps to be taken.. Five plot  treatments were used, consisting of: control; lime only; manure only;; f e r t i l i z e r only; and lime, manure and f e r t i l i z e r together., A number of vegetable crops were used as indicators' of response and included onion, celery, corn, lettuce, cabbage, potatoes, pea,,beet and tomato.. The results of this field experiment were very striking and obvious.. The only plot from which a good growth response was obtained was from the plot receiving the combination treatment of lime, manure and f e r t i l i z e r .  Other treatments  were not sufficiently better than the control to recommend their use. Following the field test, a greenhouse teat was carried out during the winter of 1949 to 1950. This test consisted of nineteen different treatments i n which nitrogen, phosphorous, potash, boron, copper, sodium chloride, manganese, and lime were used in various combinations.. In a l l case3, lime gave increased yields over plots receiving no lime, no matter what the mineral treatment happened to be.. It was concluded that the most important feature in reclaiming muck soils was the use of lime to correct the high acidity, which i s the primary limiting factor.. Because of the low content of phosphorous and potash in muck soils, the addition of these two elements i s also of great importance.. From the results of these experiments, i t may be said that the adition of minor elements w i l l give no response until the more limiting factors of acidity and major element deficiency have been corrected..  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The author wishes to express his indebtedness to Dr. G. H. Harris, Professor of Horticulture (Plant Nutrition), University of British Columbia, under whose direction this research was carried out;:also to Dr. A. F. Barss, Head of the Department of Horticulture..  The very helpful  assistance of Dr. V. C. Brink of the Department of Agronomy i n making the photographs i s hereby gratefully acknowledged., To Mr. J . B. Teir,. Dominion Agricultural Scientist i n charge of Vegetable Seed Plots who has been most helpful and encouraging,.the author wishes to make known his sincere  appreciation. The author also wishes to express his appreciation and thanks to  Mr. J..T. Bell of Northern Peat Moss Company Limited,,Lulu Island,.whose interest, encouragement and assistance enabled the carrying out of this work...  TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION General aspects of the problem  page 1.  Definition of "muck" soils and extent  page 2.  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  -  History of muck land reclamation  page 5«  ;  Past experiences with behavior of fertilizers and lime —  page J.  Role of minor elements and effect on production —  page 11.  METHODS AND PROCEDURES Field experiment  —  page 15page 17.  Greenhouse test. Analysis of plant tissue Ash weight Mineral and carbohydrate determinations  —  page 20. page 21.  RESULTS Results of f i e l d experiment  page 24.  Visual symptoms of greenhouse oats —  page 27.  RESULTS (cont.)  Photographs showing response to fertilizer treatments  page ^4.  Results of chemical analysis of plants  page 59«  DISCUSSION"OF"RESULTS Field test observations and correlations  Greenhouse growing test — —  SUMMARY  /  LIST OF REFERENCES  ——-•—  — - — page 44.  — page 49«  page 54.  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1.. Effect of potash salts on acre yields of onion on muck soils  page 8.  Table 2..Classification of vegetables according to range of reaction for satisfactory growth  page 10.,  Table 5» The effect of treatments on the chemical composition of plants  page 59•  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.. Boron only  page 55«  Figure 2. 4-10-10 plus boron  page 55'  Figure 5 ' Manganese only  page 55*  —-—  Figure 4 . 4-10-10 and manganese  • page 55*  Figure 5* Oopper sulphate Figure 6. 4-10-10 plus copper sulphate  •  —  page 55 •  —  page 55 •  Figure 7« Superphosphate only  —  page J 6 .  Figure 8. Potassium chloride only  —  page ^6.  Figure 9. Muck and sand Figure 10.. Sodium chloride only  — —  page 56. page 36.  Figure 11. Control  page 57 •  Figure 12. Lime only  page 57'  Figure 15« Potassium chloride and superphosphate  page 57.  Figure 14. Potassium chloride, superphosphate and lime  page 57.  Figure 15. 4-10-10  page 58..  List of Figures (cont.)  Figure 16.. 4-10-10 plus lime  •  page 38..  Figure 174-10-10, boron, copper sulphate, manganese and lime —  page J 8 .  Figure 18. .Vitalerth  page 38.  Figure 19* Vitalerth and lime.  page 38..  AMI:EVALUATIONj • FOR CROP PRODUCTION. ,OF RAW MUCK 1  LEFT AFTER THE HARVEST OF SPHAGNUM PEAT..  INTRODUCTION  General Aspecta of the Problem In the lower Fraser Valley,., and more particularly on Lulu  Island, are located considerable areas of low-lying peat lands.. These lands consist of light yellowish-brown sphagnum moss, supporting a heavy cover of Labrador Tea with scattered scrub Jack Pine„. About twenty years ago there began the extraction of the sphagnum moss and an industry grew up, encouraged by World War II, which ;  has now reached i t s climax.. Virtually a l l the available peat land has now been opened up and production w i l l begin to decrease.. Lulu Island peat deposits vary i n depth, the average being about five feet.. Only the top two to three feet of raw,, undecomposed sphagnum moss i s harvested and sold to the horticultural and poultry in-? dustries... Underlying this relatively undecomposed surface layer i s a heavier,.-darker,,more  humified layer, averaging three to four feet i n depth*  The f i r s t three foot layer of harvestable moss has been i n the process of forming for a great many years.. It cannot "grow back again" i n one person's lifetime.. The production of peat moss, therefore*  i s simply the exploitation of a natural resource - and peat i s mined out ( not to be replaced ) at such a rate that the next decade or two w i l l see the exhaustion of a l l available deposits.. A3 a result, we shall soour; have a situation in which thousands of acres of land will have been stripped of the raw moss and for which there i s no immediate use.  Eventually, of course,.all the firms  engaged i n the extraction of moss w i l l work themselves out and will be left with large land investments which must either be written off as loss or converted into useful farm land.  It was the object of this research  to diecover the most practical and expeditious means of bringing this vacant land under cultivation.,. The term "muck" i 9 usually used to refer to those soils which contain a high percentage of organic: (vegetable) matter, in. a welldecomposed condition.. The United States Department of Agriculture ( 59 ) states that the term "muck" i s correctly applied to cultivated peat and to surface layers i n an advanced stage of decomposition, i n which the plant remains are for the most part no longer capable of being identified.  The soil matter under consideration in this experiment meets  these conditions and i s the product of the decomposition,of various forms of plant l i f e , resulting i n a heavy black or dark brown material which i s very finely divided and possesses high colloidal characteristics.. On the whole, the decomposition has reached a stage where i t i s impossible to identify the original plant material.  In some local areas, where the  original removal of the raw peat has not been complete, there i s a thin strata of brighter yellow undecomposed peat but on the whole, a l l that  - 3remains i s the heavy black muck material,. Muck soils are among the most productive soil types used for the growing of truck crops,. In some regions i n the United States, such aa Michigan and Florida, muck soils are extensively used for the production of such crops as lettuce, onion and celery.. Eliot ( 11 ) states that there are approximately 79*000,000 acres of swamp land inithe U.S., a considerable proportion of which i a undoubtedly muck. Canada has a total of 22,000,000 acres, of poorly drained land, much of which must be muck and peat.  Not a l l this land w i l l be climatically suited to the grow-  ing of cropa. Locally, i n the lower Mainland area of Vancouver and at scattered points i n the Fraser Valley, there i a a total area of 51,000 acres of peat land ( 16 ), a good portion of which may be converted to suitable farming s o i l , of the muck type.  REVIEW OF LITERATURE ' The conversion of muck lands to productive farming land haa been found through paat experience to be a highly coatly venture. Harmer ( 14 ) points out that two factors limit the amount of new land opened up.  One i s the exceasive cost involved i n draining and reclaiming  large acreages  of bog land.. The other i a the remoteness from market of  a large proportion of the available muck s o i l .  Harmer was speaking of  unbroken muck land found i n certain areas of Michigan.. Fortunately, the situation here i a not such a d i f f i c u l t  - 4one.. The clearing and draining of the land has already been taken care of and paid for through the coat of harvesting the top layer of sphagnum moss., The only additional co3t will be for the removal..of stumps and application of soil conditioners to convert the muck to meet growth requirements.. The second problemis not serious since- part of the area is located close to a large market.. Lulu Island i3 only fifteen miles from a large metropolitan area i n Vancouver, Therefore,.the two main drawbacks are,.in this situation,.not so serious, and further.investigation.-of the possibilities of improving this muck land might prove profitable. Harmer ( 14 ) states that "although the agricultural development of the muck lands i n the United States must be considered as only begun,., that i n Canada i s virtually untouched*"  Of the large muck  acreages i n the United States only a very small fraction are being used for truck crop production.. In many cases, muak land i s simply used as pasture or meadow, without any attempt being made t6 improve the f e r t i l i t y for cropping purposes.. In certain European countries, land i s scarce and a l l available farm land i s utilized for food production.  It i s not surprising  then, that work towards reclaiming muck lands was initiated there at a very early date., Germany, particularly, has done much work on the u t i l ization of muck land3 through the setting up of the world's f i r s t peat experimentation plant at Bremen.. Holland too, where much of the land i s low-lying, was early i n finding methods whereby otherwise unproductive land could be reclaimed.  - 5 -  In .fact, ..it was i n Holland,, as early as the sixteenth century^ that the so-called "Fen? method of muck cultivation was developed* 1  The  subsurface layers of peat were removed for fuel and four or five inches of sand were mixed with surface material..  Animal manures and city refuse  were then mixed i n a 3 fertilizer.. The addition of sand to peat probably added a small amount of f e r t i l i z i n g material but i s seems more likely that the greatest effect imparted by the sand was the lightening of the muck s o i l , ..providing better aeration and t i l t h , . Later on, about the seventeenth century, another method was developed i n which the surface layer of peat was burned over, the ash providing f e r t i l i t y for the following year's growth.. This method was chiefly used on low-lime,.less f e r t i l e mucks and since the burning was carried out each year, i t was not long before the depth had been so reduced that burning could no longer be counted upon to provide the needed stimulatory effedts.. In modern times, this method has been prohibited by law as i t i s considered wasteful,. In.:1862„ German workers developed what i s known as the "Rimpau" imethod.. Like the "Fen" method, sand was applied, but instead of being mixed i n with the muck, i t was spread i n a layer on top of the muck.. Cultivation;was limited to this layer of sand.. Phosphate and potash f e r t i l i s e r s were applied i n place of the city refuse used i n the Fen method. The Rimpau method was developed and was successful on the high lime mucks of southern Germany.. It was a failure, however on the low-lime mucks of northern Germany and, as a result, there was established  the Bremen Peat Experiment Station, the forerunner of a number of similar stations on muck soils i n other European countries., Harmer ( 14 ) reports that the Fen and Rimpau methods have now been displaced by more recent methods.. Sanding large areas of bog land i s a very expensive operation,, and while i t may have been economical, years ago in Europe^, when;labor was cheaper,;it proves to be too expensive in America to be economically practical.. Here on Lulu Island, and also in certain states in eastern United States,,a modification of the Rimpau method i s used for cranberry growing. It i s reported that modified Fen method i s s t i l l used i n the Groningen district of northeastern Holland..  Lime i s added to the admixture  of sand and muck, as well as fertilizer.. The f e r t i l i z e r mixture giving best results i s one high in potash, but also containing nitrogen and phosphate.. Newtonj .• ( 26 ) writing in 193^,  stated that very l i t t l e  experimental work with peats had as yet been done in western Canada and that the best method of reclaiming such lands and bringing them under cultivation was s t i l l uncertain.  He goes on to state that application  of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers and farmyard manure will prove beneficial.. Then,.as a conclusion, he makes the statement that peats very in reaction but many of them are very acid (sic) and such ~~(  peats respond to treatments with lime.. Newton was dealing with the raw surface layers of undecomposed peat (that which had not become muck) and he emphasizes the fact that these overlying layers of light colored and but slightly decomposed  peat require a considerably longer time after  drainage to decompose satisfactorily.. As mentioned before, the situation  with the muck lands here on Lulu Island i s quite different, this raw overlying layer having been removed to expose the humified, dark-colored muck two to three feet deeper down.. Newton states that these underlying layers of peat which are darker i n color and decomposed to a greater degree are probably closer to the productive condition* Black,,. ( 5 ) i  n  reporting on extensive field t r i a l s con-  ducted during a three-year period by the Field Orop Branch: of the British Columbia Provincial Department of Agriculture says that the great majority of peat soils i n this province, .. (in addition to being responsive to lime in correcting their general acidity),, are more or less deficient i n phosphates and potash., He emphasizes the need for potash by stating that fertilizers with a relatively high potash content have given good results... According to Bear,,( 5 )rouckand peat soils are usually very high igt their content of nitrogen, but quite often contain only relatively small amounts of potassium.. He points out that this deficiency exists,.in spite of the fact that the plant residues of which peat and muck are largely composed must have contained large amounts of this element.. The reason for the resulting low level of potassium he gives as being due to leaching. Bear claims that acidic peats are also deficient i n available phosphorous.. Conner ( 9 ) presents experimental data i n which striking results were achieved through the use of potash-containing f e r t i l i z e r s on muck soils. . This data i s shown i n Table One on page 8..  Table One  kr EFFECT OF POTASH SALTS ON ACRE YIELDS OF ONIONS ON MUCK No f e r t i l i z e r yield  County  N and P. # increase  Benton  606  75  Kosciusko  353  Whitley  N,,F-and K # E f f e c t of K increase increase 113  38  41.  66  15  307  20  130  110  Jasper  423  12 ;  202  190  Noble  394  47  89  42  404  49  130  81  Average  k  Yields i n bushels per acre..  #  One thousand pounds of f e r t i l i z e r per acre..  Higgins ( If.;) further claims that higher yields with better than.averages quality came with intensive use of phosphate and potash f e r t i l i z e r s , .along with new varieties that were developed specifically for muck soils. E l l i s ( 12 ) i n reporting on the growing of sweet corn on muck soils i n Indiana, states that i t i s necessary to use f e r t i l i z e r s containing high percentages of potash.  When used alone, i t increased  the yield over the unfertilized check by 1.1 tons per acre...  Phosphorous,, i n addition to the potash, increased the yield another I...5 tons,.— . showing the need for both plant-food materials.  However, when  phosphate wa3 used alone, the yield of corn was depressed... When potash was used i n fertilizer mixtures higher than 2k% with eight per cent t!  phosphate, no additional increase was obtained.. Phosphates higher than in 0-8-24 gave no appreciable increase.. Nitrogen i n 4-8-24 resulted i n no increase i n yield over 0-8-24* In a report on the increasing use of Indiana muck soils for crop production,,Fraser ( 15 ) states that muck soils contain an inexhaustible supply of nitrogen, and need only to be drained and potassium and phosphate added for higher yields.. Fraser'a statement, however, i s by no means applicable to a l l muck soils.. More important than the addition of potassium and phosphate, at least on low-lime mucks, would seem to be the need for lime* Waksman ( 41 ) points out the need for lime on peat soils as an aid to active nitrification.  In order to hasten decomposition, liming of acid ;  soil3 and cultivation are probably the most economical andfaost widely used methods for effecting this change, according to this author.. The majority of our commonly grown vegetables do not make successful growth at the acidity levels found i n peat and muck soils.. Watta and Watts ( 42 ) give the most satisfactory pH ranges for vegetables and these are Bhown in Table 2 on page 10.. In view of the fact that the muck soils dealt with here have been tested as showing a pH range of 5«5 to 4.2,..the necessityr high of liming i n correcting this very^acidity would seem to be of utmost importance. That additions of lime stimulate nitrification i s a well  Table Two  CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES ACCORDING TO RANGE OF REACTION FOR SATISFACTORY GROWTH  pH 6.0 to 6.7  pH 5.5 to 6.7  ^  pH 5.1 to 6.7  Asparagus  Bean,,Snap :  Carrot  Beet  Cabbage  Large lima bean  Bush lima  Celery  Radish  Cauliflower  Cucumber  Sweet Corn  Muskmelon  Onion  Sweet Potato  Parsnip  Pea  Tomato  Spinach  pH 4 . 8 to 5.4 Potato  Turnip After Watts and Watts ( 42 )  - 101 -  -known fact.. Lyon, and Buckman ( 20 -),.. however, point out that acidity seems to have l i t t l e influence on nitrification when adequate calcium i s present.  They claim this i 3 particularly true of peat soils*  values even below five, peat soils may nitrates.,  At pH  show remarkable accumulation of  This i s because of their high total: exchange capacity and the  presence of unusually large amounts of active calcium despite the low percentage base saturation.. Even minor elements stimulate nitrification.. Phosphates are especially effective with a l l soil organisms, as well as n i t r i f i e r 8 . . Competition with higher plants for this available phosphate may be set up and so i t i s important when bringing a muck soil under cultivation, that enough added phosphate be supplied i n order to serve the needs of both the crop plant and the increasing number of soil bacteria which w i l l build up i n the s o i l .  The same i s true of potash.  Harmer's ( 14 ) findings of the relation of organic soils to low copper content are interesting.. COpper has been found deficient on many soil types but more notably on those of organic, origin..  The  importance of copper as a plant nutrient i s emphasized by Harmer.. In a greenhouse study of the use of copper he found that eight tons per acre df OaGOj and one hundred pounds per acre of (Qu^SOij. gave the highest yield.. Ceilings ( 8 ) reports that i n recent years growth abnormalities of many plants produced on peat and muck s o i l , especially those that contain appreciable quantities of ferrous iron, have been corrected by the application of copper compounds.. McMurtrey and Robinson ( 21 ) think that some of the beneficial effects tferived from the application of copper compounds may be due to the influence of copper i n precipitating the toxic sulfide ion of peat soils, and Willis and Piland ( 43 ) suggest that copper sulphate  --12 may serve not only as a nutrient but as a soil amendment which decreases the availability of iron and possibly of manganese. The  United States  Department of Agriculture ( 59 ) state "so far as available experimental evidence indicates, the action of copper compounds i s not beneficial on soils other than peats or muck." According to Sommer ( 57 ) much more copper i s necessary for the correction of copper deficiency i n soils of high humus content than in soils of low humus content.  The addition of copper sulphate to some  muck soils of New York has prevented the premature dying of onions, and i n Florida and Holland i t has been very helpful i n preventing so-called "reclamation disease".. Crop response to copper sulphate has been secured in Holland when crops were planted on newly reclaimed moor soils and on the peat soils of Michigan and Delaware i n the United States... Die-back (Exanthema),of oniona. i s now considered to be a physiological disease resulting from an insufficient  supply of copper.. Some truck growers i n New  York, Florida and Michigan have found i t necessary, i n order to grow lettuce successfully on certain soils which are high i n organic matter, to apply copper at the rate of 25 - 5° pounds of copper sulphate per acre. Allison, Bryan and.Hunter ( 1) as, early as 1927,  reported large increases  in yields of a number of crops on the Everglades organic soils of Florida. Harmer ( 14 ) reports that the most responsive crops i n Michigan muck soils to copper application have been carrots, lettuce, onion, potatoes, spinach and tomatoes.  The same investigator claims that a response can generally  be expected on mucks having a pH of 6.2 or less, provided the pH does not become greater i n the second foot of s o i l . application of copper sulphate vary' widely.  The recommendation on rates of Thus the Florida Everglades  Station ( 1) states that an application of 25 to ^>0 pounds per acre  -13  -  should be made annually. Knott ( 18) i n reporting on onion production on muck soils i n New York recommends "that 200 pounds to $00 pounds to the acre of powdered copper sulphate be used where onion scales are thin and poor i n color".  Harmer ( 14 ) claims that response on the more acid  mucks i n Michigan may be had with as l i t t l e as ten pounds per acre but that i t i s advisable to apply at least 25 pounds and generally 50 pounds per acre, where the nature or the crop and the reaction warrant i t .  For  spinach and lettuce he advises an i n i t i a l application of 100 pounds per acre, with an additional 25 pounds per acre i n the second and later years. However, on mo3t mucks, Harmer claims that 25O to $00 pounds per acre, w i l l completely satisfy the crop requirements, at least for several years,. Naftel ( 27 ) claims that organic soils and crops such as beets require relatively large amounts of boron.  Harmer ( 14 ) states that  three malnutritipnal diseases of muck crop3 - cracked '- stem of celery, girdle of table beets and "born deficiency disease" of sugar beets - are directly due to a lack of boron i n an available form i n some Michigan muck soils.  He claims that 25 pounds per acre i s generally sufficient to  correct these conditions but that on mucks which show this trouble to any considerable extent, 100 pounds of borax mixed into the f e r t i l i z e r and thoroughly mixed into the s o i l may be safely applied. Oollings ( 8 ) claims i t i s generally recognized that boron can be added i n larger quant i t i e s on alkaline and neutral soils without causing injury than when added to acid soils.  The United States Department Agriculture ( j4 ) claims  that as l i t t l e as one pound per acre i s sufficient to cure top rot of tobacco but that "with celery and beets the quantity necessa^^may be greater."  Powers ( 52 ) i n some work on certain acid peat soils i n Oregon reported an increase i n the yields of many crops following the application of manganese sulphate.  Tomatoes were increased i n yield by  as much as 82% following manganese application. Powers also found that manganese was needed on the basic peat soils of Oregon. It seems that i n strongly acid soils the oxidation - reduction conditions favor the reduction of the manganic manganese to the manganous form. The liming of strongly acid soils to an alkaline reaction i s the most common cause of manganese deficiency. Collings ( 8 ) reports that when manganese deficiency occurs i n plants growing on acid soils i t i s thought to be a result of the leaching of soluble manganese. The U.S. Department of Agriculture ( 39 ) reports that the manganese i n soils containing organic matter becomes very soluble when these soils are submerged for relatively short periods.  Under these conditions the concentration of soluble manganese  greatly exceeds the limits that have been found toxic to plants. Harmer ( 14 ) reports that i t i s the availability rather than the total amount of manganese i n the soil which must be taken into consideration i n studying the soil needs. He reports that muck soils are generallyvery low i n this constituent, and that i t i s possible that sufficient manganese may be supplied as an impurity when f e r t i l i z i n g with potash. Another observed characteristic of muck soils has been the increased growth of certain crops following the application of salt (sodium chloride).  Harmer ( 14)  reports that i t has long been the practice of growers of celery on muck soils to add salt along with the addition of manure. He points out that as much as 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre of salt, i n addition to the regular f e r t i l i z a t i o n , can be recommended for newly reclaimed muck.  - 15 -  METHOD AND PROCEDURES  Field Experiment  In order to obtain some indication as to the best method of converting muck soils for truck crop production, various vegetable crops were grown on five plots treated i n different ways. This experiment was carried out during the summer of 1949.  v  The area chosen for the experiment was roughly 500 feet  long and 80 feet wide. The  harve3table  two and half foot layer of sphagnum  moss had been previously removed and the land left fairly level and clean, A considerable number of small stumps and roots of pine had been removed the previous year.  Because of the fact that bog lands are slow to dry  out, there was a delay i n getting onto the land.  Some sections of the  bog were very wet and there was danger of equipment becoming bogged down. By March 15 i t was possible however to use crawler type equipment on the bog. . The field was divided into five nearly equal plots measuring 80' x 9 0 ' , or approximately one-sixth of an acre each. plot was left untreated, i n i t s native state.  The f i r s t  The top layer of harvest-  able moss had been removed and the heavy black muck underlying i t was thus exposed. Platfcfrng was done directly on this muck without any further treatment.  This plot served as a control.  Within  this untreated plot  a small section of approximately 100 square feet was marked out and a three inch layer of sand was spread over i t and harrowed i n .  - 16 The purpose of this was to test the effect of the physical lightening of the muck soil and observe i t 3 effect on growth.. The second plot received an application of agricultural lime at the rate of 5 tons per acre.  This was applied on March 14,  and  harrowed i n the next day with a 5 gang s t i f f - toothed harrow drawn behind an American Army - surplus Weasel, which i s a small, amphibious tracked machine. An application of manure was made at the rate of approximately 20 tons per acre to the same plot and this was applied on March 25»Commercial f e r t i l i z e r ( 4-10-10 ) was applied lastly at the rate of approximately one ton per acre. treatment given t i l l  The plot was again harrowed and no further  seeding.  The third plot received an application of commercial ferti l i z e r only ( 4-10 -10 ) at the rate of one ton per acre.  This was app-  lied by hand as evenly as possible by the broadcast method. It was later harrowed. The fourth plot was limed with agricultural lime, Ca(0H)2, at the rate of 2 tons per acre. 3ame  This was applied and harrowed i n at the  time as that applied to the second plot. The f i f t h plot received approximately 20 tons per acre of  manure alone.  This was harrowed i n along with a l l the final harrowing of  a l l 5 plots previous to planting. The sand used to treat the small section in the control plot was obtaiied from large deposits which had been dredged from the Fraser River in an attempt to deepen the channel. No attempt was made to  analyze this sand but previous analysis of similar samples shov/ed that the available mineral content was negligible. A ten foot wide path was left to separate the various plots.  Since the muck soil 3howed great uniformity, crops were planted  in relatively the same positions i n each plot.  Seeding was begun about  May Jrd and sowing was made directly by hand for the following: corn, beets, celery, carrots, radish, onion ( sets ) , peas and beans. Cabbage, tomato, and lettuce plants were grown from transplants purchased from a commercial seed dealer.  Certified see^potato was used also, being planted  May 4 . The plots received no irrigation water but depended ent i r e l y on the moisture in the muck and natural r a i n f a l l .  Very l i t t l e  cultivation was carried out and no attempt was made to control insects and diseases.  This was done i n order to observe the incidence of disease  and infestation that might be expected on the muck s o i l . Greenhouse Test During the f a l l of 1949 and spring of 1950, further growing tests were carried out i n the greenhouse at the University of British Columbia. Muck samples were taken from the bog at Lulu Island.  Flats of  muck soil were then treated by applying fertilizers i n various combinations. The following treatments were made* 1. Boron  100 pounds per acre.  2. 4 - 10 - 10 & Boron  1500 pounds per acre. ...10 pounds per acre.  3. Manganese  ...100  pounds per acre  - 18  4.  56..  7. 8. 9.  11. 12.  15. Potassium chloride &.. 14.  Potassium chloride  1516..  17. Complete plus lime Copper sulphate .. .,.•,.100 pounds per acre. 18.. Vitalerth (5-10-10) . . (contains Mg, Mn, Cu, B, Zn, -a) 19-  ......5 tons per acre.  The sand used was greenhouse bench sand, clean and sharp* Manganese sulphate was used as the source of manganese (80%). was supplied as sodium.tetraborate - 99g% pure.  Boron:.•  The lime used was  - 19 agricultural lime Ca(0H)2'i The salt used was commercial sodium chloride. Potassium was supplied as potassium chloride and phosphorous as superphosphate., The three-mix fertilizers used were commercial 4 - 1 0 - 1 0 and Vitalerth, $ - 10 - 5 with added minor elements, the latter being the so-called ready-mixed "Complete" fertilizer.. Vitalerth contains magnesium as magnesium sulphate (25 pounds per ton); manganese as manganese sulphate (15 pounds per ton); per ton);  copper as copper sulphate (15 pounds  boron as boric acid (25 pounds per ton);  (10 pounds per ton);  zinc as zinc sulphate  and sulphur (50 pounds per ton). These various  fertilizers were weighed out i n proportionate amount at the rates stated above and thoroughly mixed i n with the soil of the f l a t . Morgan, Gourley and Ableiter ( 24 ) have made an evaluation of the pot method for determining f e r t i l i z e r needs.  Oats are used as an  indicator as rapidly growing crops permit pots with a large number of soil treatments within limi/ted space and i n relatively short time. Of the  results, Schreiner and Anderson ( 35 ) state that they are often  directly applicable i n practice, although allowances must be made for the fact that conditions of the test are different from those of the field.. The soil has been disturbed, and the more uniformly controlled temperatures, moisture, and other factors modify the influence of the soil treatments themselves. About the indicator crop, i t may be said that oats require a favorable amount of available nitrogen, but at a lower level than corn.  Responses to phosphorous and potassium are usually less- definite  than for corn or wheat. The crop i s not exacting i n i t s lime requirement and does well on soils as low as pH 5«2 Oats were sown in these flats about Januar3^ 15, 1950.  - 20 They were treated with a seed disinfectant and measured out i n a small glass jar to ensure equal applications to a l l flats.  The seed was sprink-  led evenly over the surface of the soil and covered with a thin layer.-of muck s o i l .  The flats were kept watered and a l l germinated well.  Ob-  servations were made on the developing plants for irregularities, i n grow-? th and photographs were taken about March 15.  The plants were then har-  vested by cutting them off at the base, ^" above the level of the.soil.. A pH determination was made on the soil after harvest. A sample of 25 plants taken at random from the flats were measured for length,., from the t i p of the longest leaf to the base of the stem. The total fresh weight of green material was then recorded immediately.  The dry weight of the  harvested oat plants was determined by placing duplicate 25 gm samples of fresh material i n an oven at 65 degrees Centigrade and drying to constant weight. ASH WEIGHT Following this, ash weight determinations were made by placing 2g gm.. samples of dried material i n an electric ashing furnace and heating to 475 degrees Centigrade for 4 hours. was light grey i n color. les i n a dessicator.  The resulting ash  Weights were recorded after cooling the crucib-  To get the ash into solution, i t was just moistened  with one or twoclrtops of water and 2.5 cc. of concentrated HCX was added. The dissolving material was then boiled gently for a few minutes, and 10 cc. of approximately ||N HC1 was added and the whole solution v/as brought, to the boil again. It was then filtered while s t i l l hot into a 100 cc. graduate flask, using a Whatman Paper.No. 41. The small residual carbon was retained i n the crucible and washed and extracted three more time3 with 10 cc portions of N/2 HC1, boiling at each stage. The small residue  - 21 was then transferred to the f i l t e r paper an& repeatedly washed with b o i l ing distilled water until the contents of the flask were near the 50 cc. mark.. The solution was then allowed to cool and made up to 50 cc. mixed,, and stored i n a stoppered bottle., CALCIUM DETERMINATION This mineral was determined by the precipitation: as an oxalate and titration of the latter with potassium permanganate, as recommended by Blasdale ( 6 .)• Five ccs. of the extract were pipetted into a lOcc. cent-? rifuge tube,„ 0»22cci of a 0.02% solution of phenol redvere added and a solution of ammonia was run i n from a microburette with constant stirring. This ammonia was of such a strength that less than 0.6 c c of i t . were, used to neutralize the solution.  It was prepared by making a 1-3  dil-  ution of 0.880 ammonia. The solution which was orange at.first became yellow and then purplish red. When this had happened, 0.1 cc, of glacial acetic acid were added, or enough to make the solution bright yellow. Water was then run i n to bring the total volume up to 6.5 cc. and then 1.5 cc. of saturated ammonium oxalate were added to precipitate the calcium. The mixture was allowed to stand for one hour, and then centrifuged.  The centrifuging was done at a speed of 2,000 r. p. m. for  7 minutes. The precipitate was drained .and washed with 5 cc. of 1% ammonia and centrifuged again. To the washed residue i n the centrifuge tube 1 cc. of 4 N.  H2SO4  was added, the tube heated i n a boiling waterr  bath for a few moments, and the oxalate titrated with a solution of N/100 potassium permanganate solution*. The end point appeared as a light pink and was quite permanent..  PHOSPHOROUS DETERMINATION Five ccs. ,of the extract were diluted to 25 c.c.with distilled water. No..2  One c c . of Tschopp's reagent No'., li. and 2 ccs.. of Tachopp's reagent  were then added and the tube was heated i n a water bath at 60 degrees  Centigrade.-, for 10 minutes.. A standard solution of phosphorous of known, concentration was treated i n exactly the same menner and the two tubes were placed i n a colorimeter. Readings were made by adjusting the two halves of the circle of light to equal intensity and taking the readings, finding the concentration of the unknown.  POTASSIUM  according to Peech's ( 27 ) method of determination.. Tr.isodium cobalti-nitrite solution i s the reagent used for It was made up as follows.; 25 gms. of  determining the potash content. NaNO^ were dissolved i n 75  c c s  -  °f water., Two ccs. of glacial acetic acid  were then added. Lastly 2,5 gm.. of Co(N0^)2»j6H20Jwere added.. The solution was allowed  to stand several days, filtered and diluted to 100 ccs.. Five ccs. of extract were placed i n a 50 cc... beaker and  evaporated to dryness..  The reaidue was dissolved i n 1 cc. of I N HNOj  and 10 ccs.. water were added..  Then five ccs., of the sodium-c.obalti-  nitrite solution were mixed in, and the solution allowed to stand for two ;  hours at 20 degrees Centigrade. Asbestos was then boiled i n the potassium  - 22 permanganate solution to oxidize any organic matter and the solution was filtered, after having stood two hours, through the asbestos i n the Gooch crucible. - 0.01 N HNO^ was used i n the wash bottle to make the transfer and the precipitate i n the crucible was repeatedly washed with two c c , portions of 0.01 N HNOj... Fifty ccs. of standardized 0.05 N potassium permanganate solution were placed i n a 400 c c . beaker, diluted with water to about I50 cc. and five ccs. of concentrated sulphuric acid added.. The crucible and the precipitate were then added to the acidified permanganate solution.. The whole were then heated to nearly boiling, removed from the flame and a small excess of standardized oxalic acid was added until the solution appeared colorless.  The excess oxalic was then titrated with potassium  permanganate.. The difference between the quantities of permanganate and oxalic acid used corresponds to the quantity of permanganate reduced by the cobaltinitrite solution.. The content of potassium was then calculated according to the' formula: Net ml., of KMnOij. x normality of KMn04 x 7.10Q = mgms.. of K i n sample taken. 1  NITROGEN DETERMINATION /  Kjeldahl determinations.,  One gram of dry material was weighed out into a Kjeldahl flask and approximately 10 grams of oxidizing mixture (K28O4 plus CuSO^) and approximately 25 ccs. concentrated sulphuric acid were then added. The mixture was then digested by heating under a fume cabinet for 2§- hours* After the solution had become colorless'; i t was cooled and diluted to 200 ccs..and allowed to cool again. Half a teaspoonful of pumice powder and a small piece of wax;  were added to the flask along with some glass beads and finally 100 ccs* of concentrated NaOH were added.. The ammonia was distilled over and caught in 20 ccs.. of N/10 HOE to which methyl red indicator had been added.. The d i s t i l l a t i o n was continued.'until about 100 c.c.had come over. The distillate in the receiving flask was then back-titrated with N/10 NaOH.. The per cent of nitrogen i n the sample was then calculated*.  CARBOHYDRATE•DETERMINATION  / According to the Lane and Enyon method ( 2 .).  Two and a half grams of dried material were weighed out into an Ehrlenmeyer flask and slowly heated i n a reflux condenser for 2§- hours with 50 ccs. of 10% HC1.,  The mixture was then cooled and filtered through  a Gooch crucible.. Because the resulting solution was too dark to titrate successfully, i t was found necessary to clear by heating for two minutes with -g- teaspoonful of carbon and then f i l t e r i n g a second time.. Five ccs. of Fehlings A solution and five 8cs.. of Fehlings B. solution were then placed i n a small Ehrlenmeyer along with |r ccs. of methylene blue.. The Fehlings solution was kept constantly boiling and titrated until the blue color of the bubbles disappeared.. The f i l t r a t e of the plant extract was run i n from a burette.. The carbohydrate content was then calcul&ted..  - 24 -  RESULTS OF THE FIELD EXPERIMENT  -  -  -  Summer 1949  The results of the t r i a l carried out on the muck plots during the summer were very striking and obvious.. The control or untreated plot was characterized by an almost total absence of growth.  The cabbage  transplants failed to develop beyond the fourth or f i f t h leaf stage, and remained at about the same size; as they came from the nursery f l a t .  In  spite of the fact that very poor growth was made,,.there was seldom comp&ete dying out of these plants..  They remained green and stunted throughout the  summer. On July $th, the field notes contain the observation that the potatoes were showing no tops, and that the seed pieces, on being dug showed few aprout3 and no tuber development.. the  The radish seed had germinated, but  plants remained stunted and only a few developed,..and these not to any  extent.. The seedlings as they developed were very dwarfed, "tight" and s t i f f looking and had an unnatural deep-blue color.  In moat cases they didn't  grow more than one inch i n height. Peas sown in the control plot germinated well but made very poor growth.. None grew more than six inches i n height and they were yellow i n color.. Some few plants, .however, bore seed pods which failed to f i l l out normally and soon dried out and withered. Beana showed muck, the same development as did the peas.. There was no fruiting and none grew over four inches i n height. Corn germinated poorly and the resulting growth was very depressed... The tomato transplants failed to make any further growth beyond the transplant stage. They took on a deep blue color and mo3t of them died out completely.. The small section of this control plot which was treated, with sand proved to be of great interest and showed striking results.  The most obvious effect was an earlier ,  germination and a more advanced stage i n the development,.although total growth was not appreciably greater than in- the unsanded portion.. In sharp contrast to the control, the plot receiving a l l three treatments ( i . e . - lime, manure and f e r t i l i z e r ) showed excellent growth. This was the only plot which gave any harvestable crop.. The corn produced on this plot, while not the best grade, formed ears which were usable.. The. radishes made excellent growth, which was very rapid,.and produced tender well-developed roots.. The cabbage plants headed up well, and were a good marketable crop.  There was a high ddgree of infestation by cabbage  worm, but as mentioned before, no attempt was made to control the insects or diseases.. The tomato plants set numerous fruits, but these remained small and failed to color properly.. The fruits themselves showed a mottling distributed very uniformly over the surface and affecting a l l fruits equally.. This mottling i s very suggestive of a calcium or potassium deficiency i n the s o i l .  The onions produced here grew very well.  While  they were young they made excellent bunching onion," and later they developed ;  into large, well-formed cooking onions*. There was a certain amount of dieback amongst some, suggesting a possible copper deficiency.. The beets formed roots which were small, hard and showed severe and very obvious symptoms of boron deficiency, indicating "girdle of beet" - a nutritional trouble.. The potatoes formed large healthy tops which even seemed to be excessive i n si e». The foliage was of good color and stood up well, but z  the tubers formed were small and showed evidence of flea-beetle injury.. The tubers were also badly colored and the muck soil clung tenaciously to them, making drying d i f f i c u l t .  They were very variable i n size and  poor i n shape.. One hundred and f i f t y pounds were harvested from the 80 foot row,- The peas grew large mounts of vine, and bore a heavy crop of  - 26 -  well-filled pods,, On eating, they were sweet and tender.  The bean,.also  produced well, and the wax butter beans were about five inches i n length and hanging i n clusters.  The aelery grew to a height of about five inches  but failed to develop into a marketable head. This was the only plot on which any growth was obtained from celery.. Growth on the f e r t i l i z e r only plot was even more depressed than i t was on the oontrol plot.  The'cabbage transplants, instead of re-  maining stunted but green as they did on the control plot, turned yellow and died off completely.  There was a very slight amount of growth follow-  ing germination on the corru. The tomato transplants failed completely. The peas germinated and made a feeble growth None of the other seeds planted germinated..  but failed to produce pods.. There was no evidence of  aerial portions of potato development and on examining the seed-pieces,, they were found to have sent out only small feeble rootlets.. The entire surface of this plot was observed to have a whitish cast,., presumably from the crystallization of the salts of the f e r t i l i z e r .  This would suggest  that there may not have been a sufficient amount of dissolution of the f e r t i l i z e r salts, i n spite of the rain and the very wet nature of the muck soil i n the early pert of the spring when the f e r t i l i z e r was harrowed i n . The limed plot showed the greatest response i n growth when compared to any other single treatment. crop  There was even here not enough  produced with any of the vegetables to make a harvest possible and  the crop compared to that produced on the lime-fertilizer-manure plot was insignificant.  However, peaa developed pods wBio.ii f i l l e d out and bore  peasj though the total growth was s t i l l very small.. Potatoes produced sufficient growth to appear above ground and produced tubers about the  - 27 -  size of marbles  The cabbage transplants made additional growth and produced  small, loose heads.. The lettuce on this plot was very soft and lacked crispness, but a small head was formed, the color lacking the healthy green of the lettuce on the all-three plot.  The tomato plants produced one or  two small fruits but mo3t of them were depressed and died off. The onions made some green growth but did not reach a marketable stage. Response of the vegetable crops grown on the manured muck plot was about equal to that of the growth produced on the control.  The  cabbage transplants again failed to make any additional new growth although they did not completely die off-.. The seed-pieces of the potatoes failed to develop tops or tubers.. Peas germinated, as did beans, but i n both cases the following growth was very restricted.  There was no growth of corn  beyond the seedling leaf stage and the tomato transplants died off completely.. In this plot, and also i n the plot receiving the manure, lime and f e r t i l i z e r there was a considerable amount of weed growth, unlike the other three plots which were almost entirely free of weed growth.. From these observations, calcium was evidenced as the most pronounced lack, but there i s evidence of a multiple soil deficiency also.  RESULTS" OF" GROWTH OF" GREENHOUSE OATS l  Visual Boron  -  Symptoms of Growth..  Figure 1.  Growth was more depressed i n this flat than i n any of the others. Evidently the rate of application of boron proved decidedly toxic.  Leaves  were the shortest of any of the flats, and averaged about 2", the longest  28 being slightly over 5 inches.  There was very obvious absence of chlorophyll  with bleached white areas showing at the margins of the leaves and yellowing and browning of the tips very evident. the leaves appeared to be dying out.  In the most advanced stage,  In others, there were pale, light  green areas showing i n the centre of the larger leaves, which were as wide as J " i n some cases.,. A general washed out whiteness- seemed to be very typical of a l l plants.. 4-10-10 plus Boron - - - Figure 2.. There was extreme die-back on the t i p leaves, which were showing curling and whitening.  There was browning farther down on some of the  other leaves and these were collapsing.  The remainder of the leaves  fppeared not t<b be affected and were s t i f f standing.. The leaves for the most part were broad and remained green longer along the veins. The growth was thin and spindly at the base of the plants.. Nitrogen deficiency indicate possibility of inability of the plant to absorb because of the low pH. Manganese - - - Figure ;>•The general appearance of this flat was good.. The leaf blades were standing very s t i f f and showed no browning except with some of the older leaves which were showing die-back, not from the t i p but slightly back of the tip.. There seemed to be evidence of a calcium deficiency with the possibility of a secondary nitrogen deficiency.  The manganese  seems to have given a slight stimulation of growth. 4-10  - 10 plus Manganese - - - Figure 4.The growth was very poor and depressed, much more than i n the  -  manganese alone plot.  29  -  There was a large amount of die-back brom the tips  and from the margins of the leaves inward.. Nitrogen deficiency was evidenced and again i t was probably a matter of too low pH affecting the a b i l i t y of the plant to absorb.. The younger leaves were very long and narrow, while the older leaves were fairly broad.. Copper sulphate  Figure 5»-  This element seemed to give some response as evidenced by the  growth.  5O/5O plot  The growth tended to be less upright than i n the sand-muck treatment but the appearance was very similar.  About 25%  of the plants showed a browning of the tips - about one inch back from the tip, suggesting a secondary potash deficiency,.and a possible excess of copper. the  The average height of the leaves wa3 slightly greater than i n  sand-muck flat and the leaves averaged about  i n width.  4 - 10 - 10 plus copper - - - Figure 6. There was a great amount of browning - especially on the older leaves, which were also broader than the younger leaves. , The general appearance was very similar to that of the 4-10-10 plus Boron plot. growth for the most part was thin and spindly.  The  White tips were also  apparent, though only to a limited extent. Superphosphate - - - Figure 7»There was evidence of potash deficiency, caused by excess phosphorous.  The leaves showed the deficiency f i r s t at the growing points.  In almost a l l cases, the f i r s t leaf had turned a light straw brown color along i t s entire length to the stalk., Later leaves showed a healthier  green color for the greatest part of the blade but at the tip<.'- there was evidence of a similar dying back of the leaf points. were narrow, about one-eighth of an inch in width.  The leaf blades The general appearance  of the flat as a whole was depressed.. The plants appeared stunted and spindly and had s t i f f , wiry, and dried out looking leaves.  Some of them  were badly curled and twisted and were reddish-pink i n appearance. Potassium chloride - - - Figure 8. Growth here showed a tendency toward nitrogen deficiency* There was also evidence of multiple deficiency symptoms.. The green color had appeared faded.. The plants as a whole had a s t i f f wiry appearance. There was some twisting and inward rolling of the leaf edges.  Th  Older  leaves had taken on a marked straw color.. Younger leaves were beginning to show this evidence starting at the tips.  The leaves were narrow -  some only one-sixteenth of an inch i n width while none were over five thirty- seconds. Muck and Sand - - - Figure 9. Growth here was fairly good. green and standing upright. were showing bfowning.  Individual leaves are healthy  The extreme tips of some of the older leaves  Individual leaf blades are wider on the average  than those i n the superphosphate treated f l a t .  Thi3  flat shows evidence  of potash deficiency but of a milder degree than that of the superphosphate flat.. Sodium chloride  Figure 10..  The meristematic growing points were killed by this treatment.  -  5  l -  The tips were showing a white, bleached color and were dying back. The green color had faded to a light yellow color.  The yellowing seemed  more general here and not so localized and specific as i n other cases,: The larger leaves were falling over, while the younger leaves were very stiff. . Control - - - Figure 11. Thegrowth was very rigid, and the plants had a s t i f f , stark look to them. The green color appeared quite normal, but about half way down the leaves were showing t i p die-back, which was extending down the margins of the leaves... This would suggest that the nitrogen source available i n the muck had been depleted and there was not sufficient to meet growth requirements.. The growth was thinner and not so well developed as in the plot receiving KC1, Phosphate and lime. Lime only - - - Figure 12. The growth here appeared very good.. There was no die-back of the tips or leaf margins.  The leaves were a lush green color.  This  was one of the best plots.. Most leaves were three-sixteenths of an inch wide and the stalks of the plant were stout and firm.  It would seem to  indicate that here was good healthy growth to a point where the nitrogen become limited. Potassium chloride and phosphorous - - - Figure 15 This flat was characterized by a stiff,, upright, more spindly type of growth.  The older leaf blades tended, to be very wide, while the  young ones were narrow and spindly. The tips were showing slight discoloration,.  Growth i n this flat appeared roughly equal to that i n the copper sulphate treated f l a t . Potassium chloride, phosphorous and lime - - - Figure 14. Growth made under  thi3  treatment was very good.- There was no  evidence of lack of nitrogen. The stalks of the plants were stout and healthy.. The leaves were not broad, the average being one-eighth, of an inch to three-sixteenth of an inch. Nitrogen i n the muck was evidently being utilized, since the addition of lime would allow more active nitrification. 4 - 10 - 10  Figure 15..  There seemed to be no strength i n the, plants grown i n the plot receiving the three major elements. was an unnatural light green. spindly.  They tended to collapse and the color  The bases of the plants were very thin and  The older leaves were bread 1 and yellowed.  Nitrogen shortage  was very evident i n spite of the fact that this element had been added. The low pH of the soil had probably prevented nitrification. 4 - -10 - 10 plus lime - - - Figure 16... This plot stood up very well*  The growth was good,., although  there was some slight amount of t i p - "die-back".  The leaves weee a  healthy green color.. More growth on this plot dried the soil out at a faster rate than occured i n other f l a t s . Complete (NJP,Kj plus B,- Ou, & Mn) plus lime..  Figure 17.  Growth on this plot was equal to that on any of the other plots.-  - 55."Length of atalk growth was very good and the bases of the plants were stout and the leaves a healthy grBen color, with no evidence of developing deficiencies. Vitalerth  Figure 18.. Evidence of lack of nitrogen showed as a paler green, prob-  ably caused by the lack of calcium. to f a l l over badly.  There was a tendency for the leaves  There was dying - a straw color developing from the  tip downward, following the inter-veinal spaces and also along the edges of the leaves.. Vitalerth plus lime.- - -  Figure 19•-  Excellant growth was evidenced here.. There was no t i p browning and no evidence of nitrogen deficiency. The plants as a whole appeared healthy and normal.  The correction i n the pH probably has much to do with  this more normal growth.  In a l l the plots receiving lime, i t was noticed that there was a tendency for the muck soil to dry out faster.. This would lead one to infer that the limed plants were transpiring more water and making better growth and as a result had a higher demand for water..  -34 -  Figures One to Nineteen, showing the growth resulting after treatment of muck soils aa indicated.  - 35 -  Figure 5  Figure 6  - 56 -  Figure 7  Figure 9  Figure 8  Figure 10  37  Figure  Figure 14  - 28 -  Figure 18  Figure 19  - 39 -  THE EFFECT OF TREATMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PLANTS  Table 5  TREATMENT  Fresh St. (grams)  Percentage Percentage Av. length (inches) Dry V/t. Ash V/t. (Fr.. V/t.) (Fr. V/t.)  _19.1  25.5  5.04  5..00  4 - 10 - 10 & Boron  71-5  14.0  1.97"  5.50  Manganese  78.5  16.2  1.45  6.50  4-10-10 & Mn..  64.2  15.0  1.92  5-75  CuSO^  68.4  17.7.  I.52  5.75  67.0  15.4  2.01  5.00  Superphosphate  26.8  26.5  5.18  5.25  KOI  61.1  19.6  2.44  505  1-Iuck s Sand  65-7  16.4  1.85  6.00  Na 01  69.6  12.8  I.65  4.00  Control  85.9  14.8  1.05  4.75  155.©  14.4  1.64  9.25  60.1  17.7  2.51  6.25  118.4  15.6  2.89  8.75  80.0  15.4  2.10  6.25  4-10-10 & Lime  IO5.8  20.0  5-55  9.50  Complete & Lime  145.6  14.2  2.55  10.00  65.O  17.4  2.08  5-75  152.7  17.6  2.68  11.25  Boron  4-10-10 &  CuSOA  Lime KOI & Phos. KC1, Phos. & Lime  4-10-10  Vitalerth Vitalerth & Lime  -40 -  Nitrogen _ Phos. cont. Potash cont. content (mgs/100 gm. (mgs/100 gm. (gms/lOO gm fresh wt. fresh wt. fresh wt.)  Calcium cont. Percentage (mgs./lOO gms total carbohydrates. fresh wt..) (Fr. Wt.)  .8012  278.  476.7  71.6  -  .5500  200  698.5  52.4  8.02  .5344  112  590.6  55-7  7.14  .6019  226  7H.9  74.2  2.89  .2288  152  429.8  49.0  5.62  .6214  262  777.-2  71.2  6.79  .8942  521  524.1  21.2  10.79  .5684  146  1017.9  54.6  8.66  .4599  201  248.-5  72.5  19.92  •5376  124  295-0  56.4  2.86  .6020  98  547.4  20.9  8.50  -5299  89  280.8  171.8  6.01  .5426  211  906.,2  104.1  6.60  .-5460  109  1218 ..6  157.6  12.00  .7456  $66  792.4  62.4  5.80  .5700  109  748.9  200.0  10.00  .4060  222  825.8  118.9  14.20  .9700  450  685.5  .5649  102  924.6  10.28 217.5  13-52.  - 41 -  Laboratory Analysis of Growth It i s a particularly noticeable fact that any plot receiving an application of lime (with or without other minerals) produced a much higher fresh weight than did any other treatment, without lime.. Thus, the highest fresh weight was produced on the limed muck plot,.followed closely by the complete (N,P,K plus minor elements) treatment. . The lowest fresh weight was produced on the boron-treated plot, while the majority of the remaining treatments were intermediate i n their production of fresh weights.. Dry weight results showed that single element treatments reaultedi i n highest dry weights. Thjia, superphosphate gave a dry weight count of 2 6 . T h e fresh weight produced by the treatment, however, was one of the lowest.. The lowest dry weight produced was that of the sodium chloride treated plot which have a reading of 12.8%..  It  i s interesting to note that the best growth produced dry weights intermediate between these extremes - thus, the greatest yield was produced by plants having a dry weight of 14.4%». It would seem that extremely high or low dry weights are not desirable. The highest percentage aah weight (which reflects the high mineral content) was produced by the 4-10-10 plus lime plot. The lowest ash weight resulted from the growth of oats on muck soil used as a control.  This low content of mineral i n the muck soil was borne out  by the low ash weight obtained from the limed plot, the plot which had the highest freah weight.. The majority of the other elements gave ash weight percentages higher than control and lower than the 4-10-10 plus  lime plot. The plots receiving the three major elemeiitsaarid lime gave the greatest length of oat plants. The control gave a length of 4.75 inches while the boron-treated plot showed the evidences of the toxic, concentration of this treatment, with a length of only three inches. The lime only plot gave a high length reading, while the majority of the other treatments were much lower. The nitrogen content of the harvested plants showed wide variations.  Thgis, the highest content of nitrogen was obtained, not  on the limed plots, but on the Vitalerth plot, followed closely by the superphosphate and boron plots.. The lowest nitrogen content was produced by the copper sulphate treated plot.  The control plot proved to have a  higher nitrogen content than the N, P, K plus lime plots.. Phosphorous content was directly reflected by the f e r t i l i z i n g treatment.  Thjis, the highest phosphorous content was produced  in the plants treated with superphosphate... Other treatments involving phosphorous also gave high contents of phosphorous in the analyzed plants. Thus, plants from the Vitalerth, NPK plus single elements, and the complete plus lime plots were quite high in phosphorous content.. The lowest phosphorous content produced  proved to be that of control and control plus lime:..  The potash content results were similar to those found for phosphate.. Thus, the KOI, Phosphorous plus lime plot gave the highest reading of potash i n the plants. . Potassium chloride alone gave the second highest reading. treated plot.  The lowest reading was produced on the sodium chloride  The control was only a l i t t l e higher.  The NPK plus minor  elements plots, with lime, gave high potash readings,.though not so high  - 45 -  as the KOI only plot. Calcium content was highest i n those plants grown on limed muck soils.  Thus the Vitalerth plus lime and the 4-10-10 plus lime plots  gave the highest content of calcium in the harvested plants. The KOI plus phosphorous plotsgave a f a i r l y high calcium reading. phosphate plots gave the lowest calcium readings.  The control and super-  The other treatments  produced plants intermediate in their calcium content. Carbohydrate content varied widely between the different treatments.  Thus, high carbohydrate content was associated with reduced  nitrogen content i n the case of the complete (UPK plus minor elements) plus lime treatment.  On the other hand, higher nitrogen was also assoc-  iated with lower carbohydrate to give less growth, i n the case of the superphosphate treated muck.. There seems to be no definite pattern or relationship between the carbohydrate and nitrogen content as one might expect there should be. The acidity readings made on the soil after growth of the oat plants f e l l into two divisions.  Thus, the pH of the mu'dk soil  in the plots which had been limed tested 6.6 to 6.7•  The pH readings on  the plots receiving no lime ran from.4.6 to 4.8 except i n the case of the Muck/Sand flat i n which the pH reading was 5.O..  —44 -  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Field Test Of field tests, Schreiner and Anderson ( 25 ) state that for direct evaluation of f e r t i l i z e r requirements, taking into account a l l factors affecting crop production, field t r i a l s ..remain the ultimate c r i t eria. . By means of field tests, different fertilizers and cultural treatments may be tested under essentially the same conditions, as prevail in practice.  Unlike greenhouse pot culture methods, the results obtained  in the field reflect the effect of aj.1 climatic and other influences to which the crop and soil are subject during the season., They are directly indicative of the results to be anticipated i n practice under the same or similar conditions. Results of the field test very obviously indicate the need for liming of muck soils as a necessary prerequisite of successful vegetable culture.  The extremely high acidity of the muck soil was shown by  previous readings taken i n which the acidity varied from pH 5»5 to  4.2.  High pH would thus appear to be the basic limiting factor i n growth response.  The high soil acidity.evidenced here would be expected to retard  or entirely prevent the uptake of plant nutrients.  As pointed out by  Morgan, Gourley and Ableiter (24), the degree to which nitrate and ammonium nitrogen may be assimilated by the plant i s a function of the acidity or basicity of the soil solution.  Thus, for the maintenance of a satisfactory  supply of available nitrogen, a reaction of pH 6 to 8 is most favorable. The availability of phosphorous - is affected by the soil reaction. feature of soil reaction is the degree of microbial activity.  Another  Most soil  - 45 bacteria function best when the pH of the soil solution i s neutral or only slightly acidic-. ed at pH 4.  Certainly soil microbial activity would be very restrict-  The field results bear out the fact that these conditions  must be satisfied.. Of the single treatments, lime alone gave the greatest response.. It i s tnuethat total growth was s t i l l very low, but plants made a better start on the limed plot than on either the manured or f e r t i l ized plots.  It has been found, according to Miller ( 25 ) that a pH of  4.8 definitely stops the growth of roots of alfalfa, while they grow well in a medium with a pH of 5 or higher.  This need for liming of acidic soils  would seem to make clear the reason for lack of response to a complete chemical f e r t i l i z e r application to the muck s o i l .  That certain fertilizers  tend to increase soil acidity has been realized for a long time ( 59 )• When the nitrogen source used i s ammonium sulphate there i s a tendency for the soil acidity to increase.  On the other hand, calcium cyanide and  sodium nitrate have the opposite effect.  Thus the use of f e r t i l i z e r mater-  i a l s which tend to increase soil acidity should be avoided. work by Pierre ( 5^)*  As a result of  more attention i s now being given to compounding  fertilizers that will give the most favourable reactions for the particular soil conditions. In some sections of the country f e r t i l i z e r companies are now putting out special mixes specifically adapted to muck soils.  Besides  the possible increase i n soil acidity caused by the addition of the f e r t i l izer salts, .there i s a l 3 o the principle of antagonistic effects produced which may also partly explain the reduced growth. This i s shown more < clearly i n the results of the greenhouse Itest and w i l l be discussed at greater length i n dealing with those tests. , The plot receiving manure alone proved that the answer to reclamation of muck soils doe3 not l i e here.  Cattle manures are known to  -46 contain large amounts of available nitrogen, but are low i n phosphorous and i n potash.  One of their chief, advantages lies i n their ability to  inoculate the soil with large numbers of bacteria which aid i n making the plant nutrients more available. features.  However, muck soils possess much the same  That i s , muck soils tend to be well-supplied with nitrogen  (though not a l l i s available immediately) and are very low i n phosphorous, and particularly i n potash. to muck soils i s not obvious.  Therefore the wisdom of applying cattle manure There would occur simply the increasing of  the nitrogen content which i s already f a i r l y high, with no large increase in the phosphorous and potash contents, which are lowest.  Another benefit  of manure, that i s , i t s humus content, would not be so advantageous here as on a mineral soil since muck soils are largely humus i n character anyway. The bacteria added to muck sould find very unsuitable conditions for growth.. Ruschmann ( 33 ) states that peat used as l i t t e r contains 1-9 million organisms per gran, aa against 31 million i n sawdust and 116 million i n straw.  In addition to their bacteria and major element  content, manures are of course valuable for their minor element content (Mn) and hormone containing substances. This latter feature i s probably the best argument for their use on muck soils.  The contrast i n results achieved  between the control plot and the plot receiving a l l three treatments (lime, manure and f e r t i l i z e r ) points the way to best management of muck soils. The lime applied to the all-three plo ^ f i r s t of all, corrected the extremely 4  acidic conditions, giving a more ideal media for soil bacteria and secondly adjusted the pH of the soil solution to a point where more minerals would be brought into solution. element.  Calcium was also supplied as a necessary mineral  The deficiency of phosphorous and potash was made up through the  use of the complete chemical f e r t i l i z e r , while a more quickly available  source of nitrogen in the mix gave added stimulus to growth.  This added  nitrogen content i s necessary when addition of manure i s made, since i f there i s not sufficient nitrogen available, the organisms contained in the manure will compete with the higher plants for the available nitrogen present.  In addition to the bacteria and nitrogen of the manure, certain  other consituents prove useful i n promoting growth. Creatinine ( $6 ) i s one of these.. B-indolylacetic acid, a powerful stimulant of root growth is also present; and chemically related skatole and hydrogen sulphide are also said to have growth stimulating properties. ( 54 ).  In addition,  to these direct effedts of organic constituents of manure there are possible indirect effects.. The reducing action of manure decomposing in the soil indoubtedly aids in making iron and manganese available.. Salter and Schollenberger  (  ) think that the soluble organic matter supplied by  manure aids i n kepping iron and phosphates i n solution, thus promoting their movement through the-": soil, and tending to have a favorable effect upon mineral colloids.  The control plot, as might be expected, showed very  limited growth, low availability of nitrogen, limited content of phosphate and potash, extremely high soil acidity, and low bacterial population a l l combining to give extremely repressed plant growth. In dealing with productive capacity of muck soils, one important consideration is the content of humus and i t stereakdown..Mucks are firmed from the decomposition of organic matter. Myer and Anderson ( 25) point out that decomposition of organic matter i n bogs and swamps under conditions which are largely anaerobic, results i n the production of relatively large quantities of humus*. Muck soils, therefore, will be made up largely of humus materials.  Humus i s composed principally of the de-  gradation products of the cellulose and lignin derived from plant remains..  -48 When excessive amounts of organic matter rich i n cellulose are added to soil,.the f e r t i l i t y i s reduced until the excess cellulose i s decomposed. Newton ( 26 ) points out that i t i s doubtful i f peat w i l l form a satisfactory soil for common crops until the excess of cellulose has been decomposed.. Myer and Anderson ( 25 ) point out that decomposition under these conditions i s largely effected by fungi.  Bacteria and purely chemical  decomposition may also help to aid in breakdown but organic matter under these decidedly acidic conditions i s largely decomposed by fungi.. In studies of the bioligical decomposition of plant materials,.Norman ( 26 ) found that in general, a l l substances i n straw but ligitin were attacked by fungi to a degree relatively proportional to the apparent total loses of organic, matter. . Newton ( 26 ) working on the utilization of peat soils and their decomposition found that fungi are more important than bacteria in the decomposition of cellulose.  He found also that nitrogen, phosphor-  ous and potash (thetjaree main elements i n f e r t i l i z e r mixes) did not produce rapid decomposition of cellulose but that the addition ef a l l "essential" elements (magnesium, sulphur and calcium) did produce rapid decomposition. It would seem, therefore, that anh practice hastening the further decomposition of the muck would also make possible the early successful culture of muck soil..  Since fungi are more inportant i n producing these break-  down products than are bacillus, animal manures may not be of such great value in effecting this change... Minor elements i n conjunction with the £hree major elements speed the growth of fungi which cause breakdown and therefore i t would appear desirable to these minor elements to a muck soil along with the fertilizer..  Greenhouse.Test The most obvious point to be drawn from the results of the greenhouse experiment was that lime had the greatest influence on the production of high fresh weight.  Thus, no treatment by f e r t i l i z e r s  without the use of lime gave as high a fresh weight of material as^lid the use of lime alone or with added mineral salts.  The highest yield as  shown i n Table 5 s obtained through the use of lime added to muck soils, w a  where the fresh weight produced was nearly twice that produced on the cont r o l plot.  Following in yield very closely-was the complete (NPK. plus  minor elements) plot and the limed plot.  Because these plants were harvest-  ed before diull maturity, i t would appear that possible exhaustion of the :  food supply had not had time to occur, and so the plants in the lime only plot were s t i l l making good growth. However, i t seems reasonable to assume that deficiencies would show sooner in the limed plot than would be the case i n the fertilized plus lime plot and that total growth would be greater in the latter.  Longest length of stem growth was evidenced i n the  Vitalerth plot, which also had the thirdclgreatest fresh weight.. Calcium has been said to play the following three foles,, by Miller ( 25 ). As an antidoting agent i t may play a part through the calcium magnesium ratio; and i t may function in the neutralization of organ-, ic acids.. Work by Lipman ( 19 ) has disproved the theory that there i s a definite calcium/magnesium ratio.. Parker and Truog (29) in connection with the neutralization of acids within the plant believe there i s a close relationship between the calcium and nitrogen in plants.  Other functions  of calcium are structural materials of the middle: lamella and and translocation of carbohydrates..  The increased calcium content of the plant tissue w a 3 clearly shown i n the additions of lime to the muck s o i l .  Thus, the five plots  which were limed showed the highest yield of calcium i n the plant tissues. The low calcium content of muck soils was r^fiected in the $0 mg. per 100 grams fresh weight of the plant.. There i s a direct correlation between the calcium content, the pH of the soil after growth, and the fresh weight of material produced. Beeson ( 4 ) reports that lime added to soil represses the solubility of iron and aluminum and converts insoluble phosphorous compounds to more soluble forms. Ke 3tates that liming affects yield more than i t does the phosphorous content.  This would certainly be true of the reslutjs  obtained here in which yield was more than doubled while phosphorous content was only slightly changed.  Beeson goes further by stating that lime and  phosphate combined have more effect on the concentration of phosphorous i n the plant than either material alone. Liming and intensive fertilization under conditions of limited supply of micronutrients such as boron, manganese, iron and cobalij have been found by Beeson ( 4 ) to further reduce the amount of these elements. This fact should be borne4 i n mind when adapting muck soils for crop production.. Already limited amounts of minor elements present i n the muck soil magi be further reduced by the addition of the large amount of lime necessary to correct the extreme acidity. So far as mineral contents are concerned i t would seem from the results that application of mineral salts are necessary and have a direct influence on the content in the plant. , The element showing this most clearly was potash, which gave a direct increase i n every case i n  which i t was applied*  Thus, potash, phosphorous and lime applied together  gave the highest content of potash in the plant tissue - 1218 mg/100 grams fresh weight.  A l l other cases show a direct correlation between addition  of potash to the soil and subsequent higher quantities in the plant tissue. The limed and control, muck plots reflect the low potash content of muck soils.. The same was true of phosphorous, applications to the soil being reflected directly in the plant tissue.. Thus, superphosphate applied alone gave a content of 551 mg/100 gms. of fresh weight.  This i s surprising i n  view of the fact that i t s extreme acidity would be expected to make the phosphorous unavailable to the plant.  The second highest phosphorous con-  tent was exhibited by the Vitalerth plot.  It i s noted that the boron  treated plot showed a high content of phosphorous i n the plant.  This would  seem to be in agreement with results reported by the U.. 3. Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory ( 40 ).. They reported some highly significant relationships with boron. An increased boron supply resulted i n significant increases in the manganese, iron, phosphorous and cobalt contents of plant tissues.  Boron's function seems to be the regulation of the intake of  other ions.. Various investigators have reported certain ratios between quantities of boron taken in by plants and the intake of such elements as . calcium and potassium.. It i s known that calcium affects the intake of certain other elements, so i f boron affected calcium intake i t would i n directly affect the intake of a l l ions affected by calcium.  Boron occurs  mostly as a constituent of the mineral "tourmaline" and in organic matter ( 10 )., Total quantity in the soil i s of l i t t l e importance,, availability is.  Boron deficiencies occur on soils high in lime.  It is possible to  induce boron starvation by applying lime in excessive amounts to an acid soil.  Boron i s usually not needed on s o i l 3 that need lime, according to  - 52 -  Beeson ( 4 )• However, i t i s doubtful i f this would apply to muck soils. As might be expected, the low content of phosphorous i n muck soils gave a correspondingly low reading in the case of untreated muck, limed muck and muck plus sand.. In work done on vegetable crops by Cornell University i t has been found that i n increased supply of boron in association with increased supplies of N, K, and Ca resulted i n an increased nitrogen content. Results of the greenhouse tests here bear this out, in part.  Thus, the  highest content of nitrogen was given by an application of a "complete" plus minor element f e r t i l i z e r i n which boron i s a constituent. However, a similar plot i n which calcium wa3 included as lime showed lowered nitrogen content.  A straight N, P, K f e r t i l i z e r gave a higher nitrogen content  than one with lime.  Mtrogen content of plants treated with complete fert-  i l i z e r s and lime were not the highest,. In fact, the nitrogen content was higher in the control than i n the complete plus lime plots.. In a l l other cases where nitrogen was not added, the addition of other elements lowered the nitrogen content below that of the control. An interesting point i s the fact that boron alone gave a very high nitrogen content and so too the straight 4-10-10 gave an increase in the nitrogen content.  Yet, when  these two f e r t i l i z e r s were combined, the nitrogen content was considerably reduced, even below that of the control, A point of nutrition illustrated here which has been previously demonstrated i s that with the addition of more salts, the uptake of any one element i s reduced.  Thus theaMition of single elements reduced plant  growth and gave lowered fresh weight readings than did the control.. The inference drawn i s that the soil solution was unbalanced and uptake of nutrients present in the native muck was retarded.  Thus,, as pointed out  by True ( 3&§f, solutions of certain single salts are toxic to living  - 55 -  organisms but in mixed solution of these salts, organisms function normally and are not injured.  This phenomena i s called "antagonism",,a term  used to designate the hindrance that a given salt has upon the toxic action of another salt.  Thus, sodium chloride when applied alone gave a lowered  fresh sight of material, but when applied i n combination with other ferti l i z e r elements and lime, the fresh weight was considerably increased over control, and thetbxic property of the salt was decreased. The physical effect of lightening the muck soil by the addition of sand was shown to increase the growth of crops both on the f i e l d plot and in the greenhouse test... However, i t i s doubtful i f the slight increase in growth would justify the high expense entailed i n spreading sand over a large area of muck. From an appraisal of the results obtained here i t would appear that the addition of minor elements i s not of as great importance in giaking muck soils productive as certain other consideration.  The addit-  ion of certain minor elements such as boron and copper may give increased growth but until more important limiting factors are corrected, minor elements cannot be expected to prove beneficial... Correction of the extremely acidic conditions found i n muck soils through the uae of lime i s the primary consideration for successful reclamation.. Because of the low content of phosphorous and potash i n muck soils, the addition of these two elements i s of great importance.. While total nitrogen i s plentiful i n muck soils, a quickly available added source w i l l prove beneficial..  - 54 -  SUMMARY  The utilization of raw muck left after the harvest of sphagnum peat from^'the surface of bog lands on Lulu Island i 3 becoming increasingly important.. In order to determine the best method of putting these muck soils into truck crop production, a search of the literature was made and field and greenhouse teats were carried out.  The field tests consisted  of five plot treatments each involving:-. I. control ; 2... lime; 5« manure; 4.- fertilizer;'5* lime, f e r t i l i z e r and manure.. The greenhouse tests i n volved the use of nineteen treatments including lime, and major and minor elements in various combinations on muck soils.  The survey, of literature  showed that the principal method of reclaiming muck i n the past had been through the use of cultivation and liming practices, supplemented with additions of the three major elements, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium., ;  In certain cases, the addition of minor elements such as copper and boron to muck soils have given great responses.. Results of the f i e l d test clearly demonstrated that liming was the moat important operation to be considered in the reclamation of muck soils.. This fact was borne out i n the greenhouse study in which highest yields were obtained when lime was used in any treatment, regardless of the mineral element used.-  LIST OF REFERENCES  ( 1.) Allison, R.. Vv, 0.. C Bryan and J . H„ Hunter*, fee stimulation of ;  response on the raw peat soils of the Florida Everglades through the use of copper sulphate and other chemicals. Fla»  Agr. Exp.. Sta. Bui. 190,, 80 pp. 1927.. ' ( 2 ) Association of Official Agricultural Chemists., Official tentative methods of analysis. Washington;, D. C. 6th ed. 1945.. ( 5 ) Bear, F..E..Soils and f e r t i l i s e r s . New York, John Wiley and Sons,. ;  ?rd ed.. 1942, ,p.. 506... ( 4 ) Beeson, K. C, The effect of mineral  3upply  on the mineral concen-  tration and nutritional quality of plants... Bot... Rev. 12s 424-  455> 1946., ( 5 ) Black, .P. C. Peat and muck soils. ,1955,,. British Stolumbia,. Department of Agriculture, Field Crop Circular 5*  ( 6 ) B l a 3 d a l e , W. C. The quantitative separation of calcium from magnesium.. J . Am... Chem., Boa* 27 s917-922,. 1909.. ( 7 ) Bouyoucos, G. and M. M. McCool.  A study of the causes of frost  occurence on muck soils.. Soil Science 24; 5,, 1922. ( 8 ) Collings, G. H... Commercial f e r t i l i z e r s . Philadelphia, Blaki3ton Company, 5rd ed. 1941, p.. 296..  ( 9 ) Conner, 3. D. and J . B. Abbot.. Unproductive black soils.. Indiana Agr.. Exp.. St a. Bui.. 157,, 1912. ( 10 ) Cook, ,R.. L. and C. E. .Millar..  Plant nutrient deficiencies.. Michigan  State College Special.Bui. 353, Jan. 1949. ( 11 ) E l l i o t , G.G. Swamp lands of the United States. Senate Document Wo. 443j 60th Congrees, 1st session, 1908. As reported by Harmer, P..M. i n Muck soils of Michigan. Michigan State College Special Bui.. 314, 1941. p. 10.. ( 12 ) Ellis,. M.. K. Muck soils produce quality sweet corn for canning. Better Crops with plant foods.. April 1946. ( 13 ) Fraser, R. Indiana muck crops increasing. Market.Growers Journal.  78:28, Feb. 1949. ( 14 ) Harmer, P. M. Muck soils of Michigan.. Michigan State College Special Bui. 314, Dec. 1941. ( 15 ) Higgins, T. W.. .Indiana's muok crops program•. Better Crops with  plant foods. 33:21-22. Jan.. 1949( 16 ) Kelley, C. C.and R.. H. Spilsbury. Soil survey of the lower Fraser Valley,.British Columbia, Department of Agriculture, Pub* 650,  pp. 40-43. ( 17 ) Kiesselbach, T. A.. Transpiration as a factor i n crop production.. Nebi.Sta. Report. 1911,.p.91. ( 18 ) Knott, J. E. Growing onions on the muck soils of New York.. Cornell  Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 510, 36 pp. 1930..  ( 19 ) Lipman, C. B.. A critique of the hypothesis of the lime-magnesium ratio.  Plant World 19:83-105, 119-135. As reported by Miller,  E. 0., i n Plant Physiology, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1938. p. 308. ( 20 ) Lyon, T. L. and H© 0. Buckman. The nature and properties of soils. New York, The Macmillan Company., 1943( 21 ) McMurtrey, J.. E. J r . and W. 0 Robinson.  Neglected soil constituents  that effect plant and animal development. U. S„ Dept. of Agriculture Yearbook, 1938. p.807.. ( 22 ) McCance, R. A. and H.. L. Shipp.. Chemistry of Fresh foods and their losses on cooking.  H. M. Stat. Off. London,  1933.  ( 23 ) Miller,.. E. C. 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