Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Overgrazing on western rangelands, with special reference to those of British Columbia MacDonald , Malcolm Allan 1949

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1949_A4 M2 O8.pdf [ 10.28MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106761.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106761-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106761-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106761-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106761-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106761-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106761-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106761-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106761.ris

Full Text

OVERGRAZING ON WESTERN  RANGELANDS  WITH S P E C I A L REFERENCE TO THOSE OF B R I T I S H  A Thesis  submitted  COLUMBIA  i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of  t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE I N AGRICULTURE i n the Department of AGRONOMY  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H A p r i l , 1949•  COLUMBIA  OVERGRAZING ON WESTERN RANGE LANDS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  ABSTRACT Overgrazing  and i t s e f f e c t s  c o n t r o v e r s y and d e b a t e i n N o r t h century. with  I t has been r e f e r r e d  o t h e r work i n a n n u a l  bulletins, debates.  livestock While  or i n p a r t w i t h if  from  t h e combined  effects  A study  the ranchers  that  farmers' and p o l i t i c a l  dealing  totally  o f o v e r g r a z i n g , few  o f o v e r g r a z i n g on t h e  livestock,  the s o i l ,  and t h e  has been made o f i t s e f f e c t s  o f t h e west w i t h  the i n t e r i o r  effects  papers  one or more of t h e a s p e c t s  a system o f range u t i l i z a t i o n enable  technical  half a  and i n c o n n e c t i o n  reports, editorials,  journals,  of the west.  on r a n g e l a n d s  f o r over  t o as s u c h  v e g e t a t i o n , the domestic  wildlife  America  t h e r e a r e numerous p a p e r s  any d e a l w i t h  native  has been t h e s u b j e c t o f  the i n t e n t i o n in British  of  encouraging  Columbia  which  will  to derive the greatest possible benefits  range l a n d s without  overgrazing exerts  suffering  on t h e g r a z i n g  the harmful environment.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The w r i t e r wishes t o take t h i s  o p p o r t u n i t y to thank  Dr. V. C. Brink, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r i n the Department of Agronomy, f o r h i s guidance, a s s i s t a n c e , and c r i t i c i s m i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  study.  The w r i t e r would a l s o l i k e  to thank the members of  the Departments of Agronomy and Animal Husbandry f o r t h e i r interest  and suggestions.  To the s t a f f s of the Dominion Range Experiment S t a t i o n , Kamloops, B.C., and the Dominion S t a t i o n , Swift Current,  Experimental  Saskatchewan, who so k i n d l y  a s s i s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e and i n f o r m a t i o n , the w r i t e r i s deeply  indebted.  "God has l e n t us the earth f o r our life.  I t i s a great e n t a i l .  I t belongs  as much to those who are to come a f t e r us as to us and we have no r i g h t by anything do or n e g l e c t , to i n v o l v e them i n any unnecessary  p e n a l t i e s or t o deprive them of  the b e n e f i t which was i n bur power t o bequeath."  Ruskin.  we  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page,ACKNOWLEDGEMENT L  II.  III.  INTRODUCTION A. M a j o r Range R e g i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ... B. M a j o r Range R e g i o n s i n Canada C. G r a z i n g H i s t o r y o f t h e W e s t e r n R a n g e l a n d s ..  1 2 11 19  THE EFFECTS OF OVERGRAZING ON NATIVE VEGETATION A. E f f e c t s on G r a z i n g A s s o c i a t i o n s (1) V a l u e o f P l a n t I n d i c a t o r s i n D e t e r m i n i n g Range U t i l i z a t i o n ( a ) I n d i c a t o r s o f Range F o r a g e D e t e r i o r a t i o n i n Western North America (b) I n d i c a t o r s o f Range F o r a g e Deterioration i n Interior B r i t i s h Columbia (c) I n d i c a t o r s of Proper Forage Utilization (2) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f V e g e t a t i o n f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Degree o f O v e r g r a z i n g (3) The V a l u e o f Range S u r v e y s i n D e t e r m i n i n g Range U t i l i z a t i o n B. E f f e c t s on I n d i v i d u a l P l a n t s  28 30  THE EFFECTS OF OVERGRAZING ON DOMESTIC HERBIVORES A. I n f l u e n c e on Meat and Wed. P r o d u c t i o n B. I n f l u e n c e on C a l f and Lamb C r o p s C. I n f l u e n c e on Death L o s s e s (1) P o i s o nous P l a n t s (2) S t a r v a t i o n and O t h e r F a c t o r s  3'1  33  38 43 46 56 59 62 64 68 69 69 72  IV.  THE EFFECTS OF OVERGRAZING ON THE SOIL 76 A. Water E r o s i o n 78 (1) F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Water E r o s i o n .... 78 (2) R e s u l t s of Water E r o s i o n 89 B. Wind E r o s i o n 95 (1) F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Wind E r o s i o n ..... 95 (2) R e s u l t s o f Wind E r o s i o n 97 C. Summary of t h e E f f e c t s o f O v e r g r a z i n g on t h e Soil 102  V.  OVERGRAZING AND WILDLIFE POPULATIONS ...104 A. L a r g e . R a n g e W i l d l i f e S p e c i e s 105 B. S m a l l Range W i l d l i f e S p e f i i e s 110 C. H a r m f u l Range I n s e c t s 121 D. P r e d a t o r s o f W i l d l i f e and D o m e s t i c L i v e s t o c k 125 (1) C o y o t e s 125 (2) Wolves 128  - i i-  V. OVERGRAZING AND W I L D L I F E POPULATIONS  [3)  Other P r e d a t o r s  V I . DISCUSSION VII.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  (Cont'd) 129  2.31 142  APPENDIX A  a  _  b  APPENDIX B  c  _  d  BIBLIOGRAPHY  OVERGRAZING ON WESTERN RANGELANDS' WITH S P E C I A L REFERENCE TO THOSE OF B R I T I S H  I.  The  COLUMBIA  INTRODUCTION  range a r e a s o f w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a have been des-  c r i b e d by some a s a d e s o l a t e d e s e r t e d r e g i o n , g r a z e d t o b a r r e n n e s s , b u f f e t e d by d u s t - s t o r m s , g u t t e d by e r o s i o n gullies,  pocked  w i t h gopher  the pungent odour and  remains  h o l e s and b l o w o u t s , s c e n t e d w i t h  of s a g e b r u s h and s t r e w n w i t h t h e s k e l e t o n s  o f g r a z i n g l i v e s t o c k , e a c h a mute s y m b o l  d e s t r u c t i o n brought about  of the  by o v e r g r a z i n g .  Others c l a i m t h a t t h e r e has been v e r y l i t t l e t h e v e g e t a t i o n and t o p o g r a p h y  change i n  throughout the years of grazing  and t h a t t h e r e i s no c a u s e f o r a l a r m . W h i l e r a n g e s may be f o u n d  t o s u p p o r t t h e b e l i e f s and  contentions of both groups, i t i s w e l l t o study t h e former c o n d i t i o n of r a n g e l a n d s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e a c t u a l  conditions  may be a n a l y z e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e t h e West a s i t i s d e s c r i b e d by t h e e a r l y " v o y a g e u r s " who t o l d grassland, r o l l i n g  hills,  o f the tremendous areas o f  and m o u n t a i n s ,  populated only-by  -  2  -  w a n d e r i n g b a n d s o f game such a s e l k , a n t e l o p e and  nomadic bands o f I n d i a n s such  Navajo.  I t i s estimated  t h e w h i t e man t h e v i r g i n  and b u f f a l o  a s t h e Creer; B l a c k f o o t a n d  (230) t h a t b e f o r e range covered  of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada.  s e t t l e m e n t by  the western  E x c l u d i n g such  two-thirds non-grazable  l a n d a s m o u n t a i n s , d e s e r t s , d e n s e f o r e s t s and t u n d r a , t h e range comprised  almost  850 m i l l i o n  acres i n the United  States  alone. Needless  t o say, w i t h i n t h i s area t h e r e a r e tremendous  v a r i a t i o n s i n v e g e t a t i o n , topography, s o i l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the v i r g i n  range p i c t u r e w i l l  r a n g e t y p e s t h a t were f o u n d most c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s 242,  and c l i m a t e .  Re-  indicate the  by t h e e a r l y p i o n e e r s .  While  r a n g e d i f f e r somewhat ( 2 1 4 ,  of the v i r g i n  230) due t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f what  c o n s t i t u t e s a major o r separate range t y p e , a l l a r e b a s i c a l l y similar. the  I n d e s c r i b i n g the v i r g i n  States,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e l e c t e d i s t h a t used by S t o d d a r t and  Smith  (214).  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g r a z i n g l a n d s o f  Canada i s t h a t p r e s e n t e d  A.  range o f t h e U n i t e d  by C l a r k ( 4 5 , 4 6 , 47) a n d h i s  staff.  MAJOR RANGE REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES N i n e m a j o r g r a z i n g r e g i o n s a r e r e c o g n i z e d by S t o d d a r t a n d  Smith  (214),  each w i t h a d i s t i n c t  Because of the i n t e r p l a y clearly  d e f i n e d boundary l i n e s  impossible. (l)  Tall  of s o i l ,  vegetational composition. c l i m a t e , and t o p o g r a p h y ,  between t h e r e g i o n s a r e  These r e g i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s f o l l o w s :  Grass;  (2) S h o r t  Grass;  (3) D e s e r t  Grass;  (4) Bunch  Grass or Palouse  Grass;  (6)  Southern Desert  and  (9)  (1)  The T a l l G r a s s  Coniferous  This 252  (5) Northern  S h r u b ; (7)  or Intermountain  Chaparral;  Shrub;  (8) Pinon-Juniper;  Forest. Region  region, often called  true p r a i r i e , t o t a l l e d  some  m i l l i o n a c r e s w h i c h e x t e n d e d f r o m M a n i t o b a t o Texas  along the M i s s i s s i p p i  f r o m 50 t o 500 m i l e s ( 2 1 4 ) .  width  was h i g h , t h e a r e a tation rich  R i v e r watershed i n a s t r i p ranging i n The m o i s t u r e  r e c e i v i n g f r o m 25 t o 40 i n c h e s  throughout the g r a z i n g season.  The s o i l  and t h e t o p o g r a p h y smooth and r o l l i n g .  was a b u n d a n t a n d p r o d u c t i v e , b e i n g drier  efficiency  s l o p e s and 4 t o 5 f e e t t a l l  of p r e c i p i -  i s b l a c k and  The v e g e t a t i o n  2 to 3 feet t a l l  on t h e  on t h e b o t t o m l a n d s  (230).  In t h i s a r e a , b u f f a l o (204) r a n g e d i n u n c o u n t a b l e  h e r d s * and  almost every  both  s p e c i e s i n t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n was  p a l a t a b l e and n u t r i t i o u s  (230).  Throughout t h e t a l l  grass  r e g i o n t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y was h i g h ; o n l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s t o one  and o n e - h a l f  acres being  month of, g r a z i n g . did fall (2)  required to supply  Early pioneers  n o t c u r e w e l l when l e f t  one  animal  found t h a t t h e v e g e t a t i o n  s t a n d i n g and h e n c e l i t t l e  late  o r w i n t e r g r a z i n g was a v a i l a b l e . The S h o r t  Grass  Region  This a r e a , found t o t h e west of the t a l l included approximately *E.T. S e t o n e s t i m a t e d head.  280 m i l l i o n a c r e s  grass  region,  (214) i n i t s v i r g i n  t h e b u f f a l o p o p u l a t i o n a t 50,000,000  state.  I t extended  4 -  f r o m t h e T e x a s P a n h a n d l e i n t h e s o u t h to*  A l b e r t a and S a s k a t c h e w a n i n t h e n o r t h , f r o m  the f o o t h i l l s o f t h e 100th  the Rocky Mountains i n the west t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y m e r i d i a n i n t h e e a s t where i t merged w i t h t h e t a l l region  (230).  wide.  The a v e r a g e r a i n f a l l  Ina l l , . i t  that of the t a l l  formed a b e l t  some 300 t o 600 m i l e s  o f t h e a r e a i s much l o w e r  than  g r a s s r e g i o n , b e i n g a b o u t 13 i n c h e s i n t h e  n o r t h a n d somewhat h i g h e r i n t h e s o u t h e r n p l a i n s . was brown a n d l a c k e d humus, t h e t o p o g r a p h y level.  grass  The s o i l  v a s t and u n i f o r m l y  The v e g e t a t i o n , a s t h e r e g i o n a l name i n d i c a t e s , was  s h o r t , c o n s i s t i n g t h e n a s i t l a r g e l y d o e s now o f s u c h c u r i n g s p e c i e s a s grama, b u f f a l o , w h e a t g r a s s e s grasses.  Inthis  a r e a game b i r d s , (129)  a n t e l o p e and b u f f a l o entire year. maintained  utilized  hard  and spear-  r o d e n t s , s m a l l mammals, the forage throughout the  The h o t d r y summer w i n d s c u r e d t h e f o r a g e  i t s n u t r i t i v e value throughout  the f a l l  which  and w i n t e r  months (42).  The g r a z i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e s h o r t g r a s s r e g i o n  was a b o u t 2.5  to 4 acres per animal  month i n t h e n o r t h and  i n c r e a s e d t o 5 t o 10 a c r e s p e r a n i m a l month i n t h e s o u t h . T h e r e i s some c o n t r o v e r s y among n o t e d  ecologists  (129,  as t o w h e t h e r t h e s h o r t g r a s s r e g i o n i s a d i s t i n c t w h e t h e r i t i s a n d was m e r e l y a s s o c i a t i o n brought such  (3)  a sub-climax of a  about by t h e r e p e a t e d  242)  region or  mixed-grass  heavy g r a z i n g o f  a n i m a l s a s a n t e l o p e and b u f f a l o .  The D e s e r t  Grass  Region  This a r e a , synonymously c a l l e d t h e semi-desert r e g i o n (255)  occupied  grass  some 93 m i l l i o n a c r e s a n d was c o n f i n e d  t o t h e s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n s o f New M e x i c o , I t was f o u n d  t o be much t h e d r i e s t  low  ( 1 0 t o 12 i n c h e s p e r y e a r )  rainfall  A r i z o n a , and T e x a s .  of the rangelands,  and e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h  e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e s and temperatures  (214).  the t o p o g r a p h y changed f r o m b r o a d ,  flat  t o mesa t o p s The  soils  and f i n a l l y  to lower  From e a s t t o w e s t  p l a n s and l o w h i l l s  s l o p e s of t h e mountains.  a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r e d and y e l l o w .  t a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n was f o u n d  The v e g e -  t o be h i g h l y v a r i a b l e ,  f r o m a n open g r a s s l a n d t o p a t c h e s  of desert shrubs.  time  i s reputed  of pioneer  carrying year (4)  grazing this  area  ranging At the  t o have had a  c a p a c i t y o f 20 a c r e s p e r h e a d p e r y e a r on a s u s t a i n e d  round g r a z i n g b a s i s . The B u n c h G r a s s  Region  This region occupied interior British  C i 0  u m  intermountain  t > i a through  areas  western  f r o m A l a s k a and  Montana,  southwest-  e r n I d a h o , e a s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n and O r e g o n t o c e n t r a l and  having  p o r t i o n s o f Nevada ( 2 4 2 ) .  California  The p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f t h e b u n c h  g r a s s r e g i o n i s l o w , r a n g i n g f r o m 8 t o 20 i n c h e s p e r annum. Most o f t h i s  falls  early April  (214).  The  soils  d u r i n g the p e r i o d from e a r l y September t o  under w e l l developed  b u n c h g r a s s were  t o be b l a c k , h i g h i n l i m e , o r g a n i c m a t t e r ductive.  Under l e s s w e l l d e v e l o p e d  found  and were v e r y  stands, the s o i l s  s h a l l o w , b r o w n , r o c k y and u n s u i t e d t o c u l t i v a t i o n .  pro-  were  The v i r g i n  o r c l i m a x v e g e t a t i o n was d o m i n a t e d b y b l u e b u n c h w h e a t g r a s s , highly nutritious  and e q u a l l y p a l a t a b l e s p e c i e s .  Other  a\  s p e c i e s e v i d e n t i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n were Idaho f e s c u e , wild  r y e , and s p e a r g r a s s e s .  P r o m i n e n t f o r b s were b a l s a m r o o t ,  mountain d a n d e l i o n and hawksbeard (230). d e s c r i b e d an a r e a i n C a l i f o r n i a , which c o n s i s t e d mainly  giant  over  Clements (48)  100 m i l e s i n e x t e n t ,  of n e e d l e g r a s s e s .  No q u e s t i o n i s so d e b a t e d b y w e s t e r n  e c o l o g i s t s (214)  as t h a t o f t h e c l i m a x r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e b u n c h g r a s s to  the south.  I t i s agreed  t h a t true g r a s s l a n d i s normal i n  t h e f a r n o r t h e r n a r e a s and on t h e h i g h e r , m o i s t e r and  benches f a r t h e r  as t o j u s t sagebrush gists  south.  There i s disagreement,  grazing.  of e a s t e r n Washington, western  Nevada and U t a h a r e c l i m a x g r a s s l a n d . records tend  northern  and e a r l y  i n many r e s p e c t s .  s t u d i e s do n o t l e n d  support  the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the c l i m a x i s g r a s s l a n d s i n c e g r a s s -  lands elsewhere  i n t h e w o r l d r e c e i v e most o f t h e r e  t i o n d u r i n g t h e growth p e r i o d (190).  Climatically,  seem t h a t t h i s  b e t w e e n open  shrub  support (5)  by  Idaho and  Montana,  Research  to bear out t h i s viewpoint  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c l i m a t i c  and  however,  Many p r o m i n e n t e c o l o - .  (242) m a i n t a i n t h a t much o f s o u t h w e s t e r n  large areas  to  foothills  how much o f t h e g r a s s l a n d h a s b e e n i n v a d e d owing t o improper  lands  region i s a transition  regions.  one h e a d p e r a n i m a l  virgin  i t would parkland  Under c l i m a x c o n d i t i o n s t h i s a r e a  The I n t e r m o u n t a i n The  precipita-  could  month on o n l y 2 . 2 a c r e s .  Shrub R e g i o n  intermountain  shrub  Rocky Mountains and Cascade Ranges.  r e g i o n l a y between t h e T h i s r e g i o n , some  96.5  million  acres  7  -  i n e x t e n t , was f o u n d i n U t a h , N e v a d a , a n d p a r t s states (214).  of the a d j a c e n t  Precipitation  i s more a b u n d a n t i n t h e d o r m a n t s e a s o n w h i l e hot 20  and d r y . inches.  The a n n u a l  v a r i e d f r o m y e l l o w t o b r o w n , was  s h a l l o w and r o c k y , and had l i t t l e The  o r no p r o f i l e  t o p o g r a p h y was r o u g h a n d i r r e g u l a r .  that o r i g i n a l l y this with  I t i s b e l i e v e d (242)  s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g o n l y as sub-  dominant a s s o c i a t e s o r as l o c a l dominants.  animal  ( 2 3 0 ) t h a t o n l y 2 . 8 a c r e s were r e q u i r e d p e r  climax.  The S o u t h e r n D e s e r t The  arid  southern  lands  Shrub  desert  of southern  Region  shrub r e g i o n , l o c a t e d i n the v a s t  California,  southern  w e s t e r n A r i z o n a , s e c t i o n s of s o u t h e r n  in i t s virgin  s t a t e o n l y 25 m i l l i o n  be g r a z a b l e .  xeric  of North  acres.  of these  south-  However,  a c r e s were f o u n d  T h i s r e g i o n was a l s o f o u n d t o have t h e most American climates (214).  b e l o w optimum f o r p l a n t g r o w t h , b e i n g a n n u a l l y , and i n extreme c a s e s one  Nevada,  New M e x i c o and w e s t e r n  51 m i l l i o n  Texas, c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  to  The U.S. F o r e s t  month on t h e good s a g e b r u s h l a n d s w h i c h a r e t o d a y t h e  apparent (6)  development.  r e g i o n was d o m i n a t e d b y w h e a t g r a s s e s  s a g e b r u s h and o t h e r b r u s h  Service estimated  t h e summers a r e  i n the region i s 6 to  precipitation  The v i r g i n s o i l  over the area  inch f o r a given year.  Precipitation  is far  only 3 to 5 inches  i t i s known t o t o t a l l e s s  The p o t e n t i a l  evaporation  from a  f r e e w a t e r s u r f a c e may r e a c h 120 t o 130 i n c h e s p e r y e a r . was  noted  that the p r e c i p i t a t i o n  than  It  r e a c h e s i t s peak i n t h e l a t e  - 8 summer a l t h o u g h atures  as  as 130°F. a r e  high  (230)  were i m p r e s s e d of t h e  plants  Forest  Service  some s e c t i o n s  on  not  the  late winter uncommon.  rains.  varied  these sunscorched desert  lands.  described  the  Temper-  Pioneer  b i z a r r e and  (230)  with  get  vegetation  as  travellers  appearance The  U.S.  follows:  " T h e r e was l i t t l e u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e p l a n t cover. Gray s t r e t c h e s o f d e s e r t s a l t b r u s h f o r m e d dense t h i c k e t s 3 or 4 f e e t t a l l i n v a l l e y s . Over e x t e n s i v e t r a c t s , w i d e l y spaced creosote bushes gave t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s c r u b b y o r c h a r d s . On t h e s u r r o u n d i n g h i l l s and r i d g e s were v a r i e d f o r m s o f c a c t i , c e n t u r y p l a n t s , a g a r i s and y u c c a s . Over most o f the r a n g e p a l a t a b l e f o r a g e was provided by m e s q u i t e b r o w s e and weeds w h i c h s p r a n g up a f t e r rains. The v e g e t a t i o n became more a b u n d a n t as t h e h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s were r e a c h e d and a t t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t s w i t h i n t h e t y p e were s u c h t r u e f o r a g e species as grama g r a s s e s , s a l t g r a s s and t h r e e - a w n g r a s s . " It  was  c a l c u l a t e d t h a t under v i r g i n  ing  capacity  4.5  acres  (7)  The  o f the  per  Chaparral  Mexican o r i g i n . since  widely  has  s t a t e d t h a t the  plant  They l i s t  scrub, The  and  word " c h a p a r r a l "  scrub type.  different habitat conditions,  region i n t o three  oak  about  i s of  I t o r i g i n a l l y meant e v e r g r e e n s c r u b oak  a s s o c i a t i o n s , the  v a r i e d range use.  tion.  s h r u b r e g i o n was  carry-  Region  come to r e f e r t o a n y  ences i n the  the  (214).  a n i m a l month  Plummer (162)  has  southern desert  conditions  Stoddart  and  and  the  Because of resultant  chaparral  S m i t h (214)  has  follows:  the differ-  greatly  have d i v i d e d  s u b - g r o u p s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t h e s e as  a  but  California  descrip-  chaparral,  mountain brush.  California  chaparral  this  occurs over l a r g e areas  of  -  southern  California  some 5*5 m i l l i o n creases The  with  9 -  and s o u t h e r n  acres.  Arizona.  The t o t a l a r e a i s  The d e n s i t y o f t h e c h a p a r r a l i n -  t h e e l e v a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y on t h e n o r t h e r n  slopes.  u p p e r l i m i t was f o u n d a t a b o u t 8000 f e e t where i t g i v e s  way t o t h e c o n i f e r o u s  forest.  a r e a was a l m o s t e n t i r e l y The  oak type  Under v i r g i n  conditions  this  ungrazed.  also occupies  t h e name i m p l i e s , t h e p r i n c i p a l  l a r g e areas i n the west.  As  v e g e t a t i o n was t h e many  s p e c i e s o f oak which ranged from s c a t t e r e d clumps t o a dense brush  stand. The  mountain brush type  exists  as a narrow  transition  zone b e t w e e n t h e c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t a n d g r a s s l a n d s . n o t e d t o be t y p i c a l l y a s o u t h e r n Utah, A r i z o n a ,  grass  valuable  This  area  and f o r b g r o w t h a s a n u n d e r -  The s h r u b s t h r o u g h t h e i r  t h i s type  found p r i n c i p a l l y i n  C o l o r a d o and New M e x i c o (214).  possessed considerable story.  type  I t was  high  nutritive  value  made  f o r g r a z i n g d e s p i t e t h e draught and rough  topography which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the r e g i o n . (8)  The P i n o n - J u n i p e r  Region  This region i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y scattered stand  stands  occurring north  d i d not occur  areas east  south  only  o f t h e 42nd L a t i t u d e . The  o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s (230).  acres  with  on t h e west c o a s t , n o r d i d i t cover  open f o r e s t s o f p i n o n s , million  southern  These  low-growing  p i n e s , and j u n i p e r s o c c u r r e d  i n Colorado,  t h r o u g h the f o o t h i l l s  large  o v e r 74  westward t o c e n t r a l Oregon, and country  o f U t a h , Nevada,  C a l i f o r n i a , A r i z o n a , and New M e x i c o (230).  This  eastern  r e g i o n was  -  10  -  f o u n d a t e l e v a t i o n s o f 4000 t o 6000 f e e t .  The a r e a  and  precipitation,  e r o s i o n removes t h e s o i l  rapidly.  Low  i s steep  u s u a l l y b e l o w 16 i n c h e s , a n d h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s r e s u l t organic  matter production,  pinon-juniper wide s p a c i n g  l e a v i n g an u n p r o d u c t i v e  r e g i o n was an i m p o r t a n t of" t r e e s p e r m i t t e d  forage  i n low  soil.  resource.  The  the development of c o n s i d e r -  a b l e b r o w s e s u c h a s m o u n t a i n mahogany, b i t t e r b r u s h and r o s e , a s w e l l a s many p a l a t a b l e g r a s s e s ing  The  and f o r b s .  c a p a c i t y of t h e v i r g i n r a n g e was 3 t o 4 a c r e s  cliff-  The c a r r y p e r cow  month. ( 9 ) The C o n i f e r o u s The  Forest  coniferous  ture regions  f o r e s t region occupying  A b i e s.  the  altitude  the higher  of the genera Pseudotsuga. P j n u s  from sea l e v e l t o 12,000 f t . Under v i r g i n  The s o i l s a r e  c o n d i t i o n s , open  of s m a l l t r e e s i n t h e s o u t h w e s t and Rocky M o u n t a i n  the  a dense undergrowth of f o r a g e  dense stands  support  little  Also  foothills  and t a l l - g r o w i n g f o r e s t s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t  o r no g r a z a b l e  undergrowth.  of n o t e were t h e s u b - a l p i n e  Many f o r e s t s ; were e x c e l l e n t stands of  a n d a l p i n e meadows.  On t h e e c o t o n e b e t w e e n t h e f o r e s t s a n d t h e g r a s s l a n d s shrubs,  stands  p l a n t s , w h e r e a s many o f  f o u n d t o have l a r g e open p a r k s s u p p o r t i n g grass.  Picea.  t  The p r e c i p i t a t i o n r a n g e s f r o m 15 t o 100 i n c h e s ,  characteristically acid.  support  mois-  o f w e s t e r n Worth A m e r i c a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  evergreen trees mostly and  Region  the southern  slopes  while the f o r e s t occupied  supported  the moist  a grassland shaded s l o p e s .  or  vegetation, Under  - 11 virgin types  conditions the grazing was f o u n d  t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y  4.0 acres  forest  per animal  (230).  month  B.  c a p a c i t y o f t h e open  MAJOR RANGE REGIONS OF CANADA " The v i r g i n  range a r e a s o f Canada, l i k e t h e U n i t e d  were f o u n d i n t h e w e s t , n a m e l y , M a n i t o b a , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h  Saskatchewan,  Columbia.  On t h e C a n a d i a n p l a i n s t h e v e g e t a t i o n was m a i n l y land although the  s h r u b and f o r e s t  recognized,  and  submontane r e g i o n s .  namely, t a l l  grass,  The e x t e n t  i n grass,  short g r a s s , mixed of these  regions  grass,  i s shown  F i g u r e 1. Like the t a l l  and s h o r t g r a s s  regions  plains,  t h e bunch g r a s s  British  Columbia a r e merely the n o r t h e r n  regions  bearing  ( 1 ) The S h o r t As is  and i n t h e Rocky  Four main r e g i o n s , p r i n c i p a l l y  are  grass-  c o m m u n i t i e s were f o u n d i n  s a n d h i l l regions,- i n the Cypress H i l l s ,  Mountain f o o t h i l l s .  in  States,  and c o n i f e r o u s  of the Canadian  forest regions of extensions  t h e same name i n t h e U n i t e d  States.  Grass Region  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned the short grass  m e r e l y an e x t e n s i o n  However, t h a t  ofthe  r e g i o n i n Canada  of t h a t r e g i o n i n the United  States.  r e g i o n i s so v a s t t h a t c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e  Canadian o r northern what f r o m t h o s e  extremities of the region d i f f e r  f o u n d i n t h e more s o u t h e r n  some-  s e c t i o n and a c c o r d -  i n g l y t h e C a n a d i a n s e c t i o n w a r r a n t s some f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n .  -  The  Canadian short grass  r e g i o n i n an a r e a  13  -  r e g i o n i s f o u n d w e s t of t h e  of low r a i n f a l l . .  The  s i m i l a r t o t h a t found i n the n o r t h e r n the United but  States  i s approximately  average  rainfall,  short grass  region  inches  t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e i s somewhat l o w e r  tation-to-Evaporation Ratio virgin  c o n d i t i o n s the  soil  surface  (46),  other  (P/E  i s f o u n d t o be  P l a n t g r o w t h was  much t a l l e r  t o 18  not  c u r e d w e l l and  Under  inches  Not  below  the  o n l y were  growing,.but they  a r e a s were a b l e t o p r o v i d e  n a t i v e grasses  Precipi-  g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r than w i t h i n  u n d e r more humid c o n d i t i o n s .  t h a t much of t h e r e g i o n was  the  of  b r o w n , l a c k i n g humus  Canadian g r a s s l a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s .  dominant s p e c i e s n a t u r a l l y low  these  and  grass  (47)  per year  Ratio) i s higher.  c a l c i u m , l a y e r 15  arid shows a d i s t i n c t  the  13  tall  d i d not  W h i l e i t was  suitable for cereal e x c e l l e n t pasture  were a l s o p a l a t a b l e  the grow  found  crops, since  the  and  nutritious. I t was ing  f o u n d (46)  c a p a c i t y of t h i s  t h a t under v i r g i n  r e g i o n was  c o n d i t i o n s the  approximately  4 acres  carry-  per  cow  month. ( 2 ) The As  Mixed Grass  Region  F i g u r e 1 i n d i c a t e s , the mixed g r a s s  s e m i - c i r c u l a r b e l t around the n o r t h e r n grass  region.  No  B e c a u s e of t h e tions  (both c o n t r i b u t i n g to a higher  found i n the  limits  d o u b t i t s p r e s e n c e i s due  c o o l e r t e m p e r a t u r e s and  short grass  of t h e  a  short  to several factors.  better moisture  P/E  region, there  r e g i o n forms  Ratio) than  condithose  is a richer flora  and  - 14 generally t a l l e r  growth  present.  It i sdifficult  t o separate  the s h o r t g r a s s r e g i o n from t h e mixed g r a s s r e g i o n because o f the broad t r a n s i t i o n  z o n e s where t h e s h o r t g r a s s g i v e s way  t o m i x e d g r a s s a s s o c i a t i o n s and Brown s o i l s g i v e way t o Dark Brown. The  f l o r a o f t h e v i r g i n m i x e d g r a s s r e g i o n was f o u n d t o  c o n s i s t o f b o t h s h o r t a n d . m e d i u m - t a l l g r a s s e s and f r o m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h e r e g i o n d e r i v e d i t s name. the grasses  (46)  which  this  Practically a l l  o c c u r r e d i n t h e s h o r t g r a s s r e g i o n were  a l s o present i n t h e mixed grass r e g i o n although they o c c u r r e d  F i g u r e 2. M i x e d g r a s s p r a i r i e and h a y meadows i n southwestern Saskatchewan. The C y p r e s s H i l l s , s o u t h o f M a p l e C r e e k , S a s k a t c h e w a n , a r e shown i n the background.  -  in  different  proportions.  which were not p r e s e n t  15  -  However, s e v e r a l s p e c i e s w e r e  i n the s h o r t g r a s s r e g i o n , namely  d o m i n a n t s as s h o r t - a w n e d p o r c u p i n e r o u g h f e s c u e and virgin  green  (3)  grass, northern  needlegrass.  I t was  The  a c r e s p e r cow  Submontane  month  such  wheatgrass,  found t h a t under  c o n d i t i o n s the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of t h i s  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.5  found  region  was  (46).  Region  This r e g i o n occurs a d j a c e n t t o the mixed g r a s s r e g i o n at h i g h e r l a t i t u d e s and a l t i t u d e s Mountain f o o t h i l l s  i n the Cypress  c o n d i t i o n s than those under which developed.  Although  the Black S o i l and  (47).  and n o r t h e r n p r a i r i e s  associated w i t h cooler temperatures  and  f o r t h e most p a r t on t h e S h a l l o w  i n some c a s e s t h e Dark Brown S o i l Zone.  while other important  i n the ecotone  dominant g r a s s s p e c i e s ,  oat g r a s s .  Forbs  northern slopes.  r e g i o n v a r i e d f r o m 1.25 The As  were  relatively  Bunch G r a s s  t o 2 a c r e s per  forest.  c a p a c i t y of  this  month.  Region  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h i s  intermountairi areas  cow  pre-  P i n e t r e e s were  b e t w e e n t h e g r a s s l a n d s and  Under v i r g i n c o n d i t i o n s , t h e c a r r y i n g  (4)  Black  virgin  a s p e n , r o s e s and w i l l o w s w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y  v a l e n t a l o n g c o u l e e s and found  the  Under  on  s p e c i e s were June g r a s s , awned w h e a t -  g r a s s , I d a h o f e s c u e and a b u n d a n t and  moister  the mixed g r a s s r e g i o n i s  a l s o develop  r a n g e c o n d i t i o n s , r o u g h f e s c u e was  Rocky  It i s also  slightly  the r e g i o n i s found  Zone, i t may  Hills,  of i n t e r i o r  r e g i o n was  found  i n the  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where i t was  -  16  c o n f i n e d t o the v a l l e y bottoms grassland area, t o t a l l i n g  and a d j a c e n t  slopes.  The  some 3 t o 4 m i l l i o n a c r e s  (227)  an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e b u n c h g r a s s (242).  Three main  States  s u b d i v i s i o n s or communities s i m i l a r  t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by Daubenmire (206).  r e g i o n of the U n i t e d  is  p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s l o w , v a r y i n g f r o m 8 t o 20  The  inches.  -  (64)  i n Washington are  On a c c o u n t of t h e i r v e r t i c a l  distribution,  p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s were d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e L o w e r , Upper G r a s s l a n d The Lower  to  evident  these  Middle  and  zones. Grassland  b e l t occurred at e l e v a t i o n s of  1100  t o a b o u t 2300 f e e t and c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e Brown E a r t h  zone.  From 2300 t o 2800 f e e t was  zone,  found the M i d d l e G r a s s l a n d  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Dark Brown s o i l s .  The  Upper  e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e u p p e r edge of t h e M i d d l e  Grassland  Grasslands  f o r e s t edge a t a b o u t 3200 f e e t and c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e Earth  zone.  A l l t h r e e g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s were  under v i r g i n  c o n d i t i o n s by p e r e n n i a l bunch  b a s i s f o r the area's  classification.  t h a t of t h e bunch  to the Black  dominated  grasses,  Under v i r g i n  c o n d i t i o n s , t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of t h i s  zone  a r e a was  grass r e g i o n i n the n o r t h w e s t e r n  the or  climax  similar United  States. (5)  The  Coniferous  In B r i t i s h region occupied mentioned, supported  Forest  Region  C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a t h e c o n i f e r o u s the higher moister regions.  t h e dense s t a n d s little  forest  As p r e v i o u s l y  and t a l l - g r o w i n g f o r e s t s  o r no g r a z a b l e u n d e r g r o w t h .  This  was  to  - 18 particularly  true  i n areas  Columbia t h e c o n i f e r o u s claimed  supporting  this  acres type  B.C. g r a s s l a n d s ,  munities. alpine  forest  f o r summer g r a z i n g .  about 10 m i l l i o n  the  of high  rainfall.  region  was t h e l a s t  I t i s estimated  of c o n i f e r o u s  of g r a z i n g this  forest  (227).  that there are capable  r e g i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  com-  respectively.  and Upper Sub-  t h e Lower, M i d d l e a n d  Shrubs f l o u r i s h  is fairly  open.  i n t h e Montane  G r a s s e s and o t h e r  h e r b s g r o w ' w e l l i n b o t h t h e Montane a n d Upper communities, alpine  but a r e l e s s  zone.  extensive grasses  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  differ  and s e d g e s . the coniferous  f o r grazing  region  grazing  and common i n t h e Sub-  d e n s i t y and g r o w t h as w e l l a s by t h e p r e s e n c e  summer g r a z i n g this  Subalpine  t r e e l e s s meadows w h i c h p r o d u c e l a r g e amounts o f  Since utilized  vigorous  The Upper S u b a l p i n e  ences i n t r e e  of with  f o r e s t s ( 6 4 ) and c o i n c i d e w i t h  zone where t h e t r e e c o y e r  t o be  As was t h e c a s e  They a r e t h e Montane, S u b a l p i n e  Upper P o d s o l s  In B r i t i s h  only,  forest  r e g i o n was t h e l a s t  and s i n c e i t i s c a p a b l e far less  than elsewhere.  grazing  northwestern  that  Under v i r g i n  United  of t h e a r e a s States.  of supporting  harm has been done i n  c a p a c i t y of t h e open c o n i f e r o u s  found t o equal  t o be  c o n d i t i o n s , the  forest  classified  region  similarly  was i nthe  -  F i g u r e 4.  Livestock  -  grazing  t h e Montane F o r e s t  C.  19  a n a t i v e meadow i n  near Pass Lake,  GRAZING HISTORY OF THE WESTERN  B.C.  RANGELANDS  Before t h e p r e s e n t range c o n d i t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d , well to trace, i n brief,  t h e h i s t o r y of l i v e s t o c k grazing  over t h e rangelands o f w e s t e r n North America. f i r s t mention  History's  of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d o m e s t i c g r a z i n g  t o w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a was i n 1521 duced A n d a l u s i a n c a t t l e t o M e x i c o . "Conquistadores" from Mexico t h a t i s now T e x a s (230).h o r s e s , c a t t l e and sheep.  i t is  when V i l l a l a b o s I n 1540  animals intro-  Coronado l e d t h e  onto t h e p l a i n s o f l u s h g r a s s  W i t h h i s e x p e d i t i o n were bands o f I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e sheep  - 20 p e r i s h e d but  cattle  -  and  horses  s u r v i v e d and  were a g a i n d o m e s t i c a t e d  by t h e  Indians,  horses.and " w i l d " c a t t l e , were w e l l d e v e l o p e d  and  as f a r n o r t h as B r i t i s h  the Spanish  M e x i c a n s had  of b r a n d i n g ,  r o p i n g , the  stock  which are  still  livestock  management. the  present  settlers  the A l l e g h a n i e s , t h e Spanish  blished  f r o m San  pany p a i d l i t t l e A l b e r t a and the  and  the p r a c t i c e s  M e x i c a n s had  a t t e n t i o n to the  the  I n 1821 settle  esta-  (In western  Hudson's Bay  vast g r a z i n g areas  S a s k a t c h e w a n s i n c e b u f f a l o h i d e s and  the  Com-  of  wolf s k i n s , highly  Company.) the M e x i c a n government i n v i t e d Americans t o  i n T e x a s and  by 1830  e m p i r e o f B o r d e n was  the great  " h i d e and t a l l o w "  well established.  Since the area  so f a r r e m o v e d f r o m t h e  t h e s e were t h e  o n l y c o m m o d i t i e s t h a t c o u l d be m a r k e t e d .  Dana i n h i s Two  Years Before  centers  of  of  p r o d u c t i o n was  1834,  t h e Mast n o t e d  population,  that  s i n g l e t r a d i n g v e s s e l p i c k e d up 40,000 h i d e s a t t h r e e f o r n i a p o r t s , San one  range  U n i t e d S t a t e s had  D i e g o n o r t h on t h e w e s t c o a s t . same p e r i o d of t i m e  features  methods o f  p r i n c i p a l commodities of the p l a i n s , were not  p r i z e d by  "wild"  (87).  many o t h e r  day  from the  crossed  the  these  Columbia  developed  s a d d l e , and  p r o m i n e n t i n our  before  Canada d u r i n g  By 1800  Indian l i v e s t o c k i n general  By t h i s t i m e  By 1800,  t o some d e g r e e  D i e g o , M o n t e r e y and  Santa Barbara  In a  Cali-  during  trip. By 1840,  of horses  and  the  Hudson's B y  cattle  a  Company had  e s t a b l i s h e d herds  a t i t s p o s t a t K a m l o o p s , B.C.  The  year  •  - 21 1850  witnessed  longhorns  the t r a i l i n g  t o Ohio.  The  t h e west u n t i l  in  British  1885.  Columbia;  being t r a i l e d  even t o t h i s  From  1861,  January,  cattle, at  the  (234).  trek about  this  770  blished  Customs,  time  were  first  I n 1858  Osoyoos,  B.C.  Jerome H a r p e r ,  establishment  mile  houses a l o n g  well  developed British  who  and  of the  Northwest. 4,817  cattle  recorded  northward to  B.C.  e s t a b l i s h e d the  h i s b r o t h e r , who The  year  ranching  Cariboo  Road.  i n the  Nicola,  Okanagan, and  producing  were  during t h e i r  the  C o l u m b i a was  cattle  sheep were  drove  By  one  1872,  1863  also  ranching  Kamloops  Harper  esta-  i n d u s t r y at  half  Texas  discovered  f o r example,  1,310  p i o n e e r s who  of Kamloops i n 1862,  the  g o l d was  t h e n - r e m o t e p a r t of t h e  m u l e s , and  of  increased  soon a f t e r w a r d s  t h e famous Gang Ranch i n 1863.  witnessed  great herds  of t r a i l i n g  December, 1862,  Among n o t e d  Ranch n o r t h  and  to  3,396 h o r s e s , Canadian  of t h e  practice  throughout central  -  the was  areas  i t s beef  requirements. The B.C. the in  d e c a d e 1870  ranching  from  the  of a wagon r o a d .  same t i m e  brothers brought ville nessed  west the  150  Association.  too,  t o Hope and  the  the  coast  and  cattle  T h i s decade of the  to  '70's  of t h e West's f i r s t  as  Okanagan  were f i r s t  i n A l b e r t a , the  head of h o r s e s  establishment  throughout  Cattle,  (1871, 1872)  of C a l g a r y .  many more changes i n  such n o t e w o r t h y e v e n t s  of c o m m u n i c a t i o n  Similkameen V a l l e y  About t h e  brought  amongst w h i c h were  establishment t h e form  t o 1880  trailed  markets. McDougall Morleyalso  wit-  Stockmen's  - 22 I t has o f t e n been s a i d t h a t t h e n e x t d e c a d e was t h e most e v e n t f u l i n w e s t e r n r a n c h i n g the United  S t a t e s a n d i n Canada.  marked t h e r i s e Wyoming a l o n e ,  of c a t t l e  20 l a r g e c a t t l e  total capitalization  h i s t o r y , both i n  In the United  ranching  (1880-1890)  S t a t e s , 1883  as " b i g b u s i n e s s " .  In  companies were formed w i t h a  o f over $12,000,000 ( 1 5 0 ) .  Of t h e s e ,  t h e U n i o n C a t t l e Company was i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r $ 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; the North  A m e r i c a n C a t t l e Company a n d t h e S e a r i g h t  Company f o r $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 e a c h . sentative area; up  Cattle  Wyoming was m e r e l y a r e p r e -  t h e same t h i n g was h a p p e n i n g o r h a d h a p p e n e d  and down t h e G r e a t P l a i n s f r o m M o n t a n a t o T e x a s .  outfit  The X I T  i n t h e T e x a s P a n h a n d l e r a n a b o u t 150,000 h e a d on  3,000,000 a c r e s  of l a n d —  n o r t h and south  (24).  25 m i l e s e a s t a n d w e s t by 200 m i l e s  O u t f i t s o f 5,000 t o 10,000 h e a d w e r e  common on t h e p l a i n s and i n t h e S o u t h w e s t , a n d p r o p e r t i e s o f s m a l l owners were o f t e n c o n s o l i d a t e d b y p u r c h a s e o r b y i n corporation. I n w e s t e r n Canada t o o , r a n c h i n g viz., and  the formation  o f t h e D o u g l a s L a k e C a t t l e Company  t h e Gang Ranch ( 1 8 8 0 ) i n B r i t i s h  f i n a n c e d by A l i e n s o f M o n t r e a l , by  British  1884  prairies  almost 3 m i l l i o n acres  19th  t h e Waldron and O x l e y Ranches  c o m p a n i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s h e l d u n f e n c e d  on t h e s h o r t g r a s s  The s e t t l e m e n t  (1886)  Columbia; t h e Bar U  c a p i t a l and t h e Cochrane Ranch, i n A l b e r t a .  forty-one  grazed.  became " b i g b u s i n e s s " ,  o f Canada w i t h l e a s e s  By leases  totalling  o v e r w h i c h 47,000 head 'of c a t t l e of Indians  on r e s e r v a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e  C e n t u r y i s a f a c t o r t h a t d i d much toward- p e r m i t t i n g t h e  - 23 establishment of ranching i n the West.  As long as the  Indians l a i d c l a i m to grazing l a n d s , the ranching industrywas  impaired or prevented,  depending  the t r i b e s occupying those r e g i o n s .  on the d i s p o s i t i o n  of  There are many accounts  i n the l i t e r a t u r e of s t r i f e and bloodshed  stemming from  this  very c l a i m . The 1883  Canadian  P a c i f i c Railway reached the p r a i r i e s i n  thereby p r o v i d i n g a means of access to the r i c h e a s t e r n  markets and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n west f o r the farmsteaders settlers.  In 1885  f o r beef and  and  the R i e l R e b e l l i o n troops proved a market  i n 1887  the f i r s t  Kingdom v i a the C.P.R. was  shipment of beef to the United  completed.  By 1885  a t o t a l of  more than 5 m i l l i o n head of c a t t l e had been d r i v e n northward from Texas (150) mainly t o r a i l c e n t e r s f o r shipment E a s t . Other important  changes were i n the making at t h i s  time.  The c a l f crop had r i s e n to 25 percent, purebred c a t t l e were i n t r o d u c e d to the West, v i z . , the importations of purebred Herefords, Shorthorns and Devons by the Utah Mormons, S h o r t horns by the Oxley Ranch ( A l b e r t a ) and the Cochrane Ranch ( A l b e r t a ) . tance was  pedigree b u l l s  by  Also of r e v o l u t i o n a r y impor-  the change i n ranch management and the d e c l i n e  the "Spanish" i n f l u e n c e .  of  P r i o r to the severe winters of  1882-83 and 1886-67, no w i n t e r feed had been prepared;  with  the heavy l o s s e s experienced during these winters i t became evident that hay p r o d u c t i o n was l o s s e s i n the f u t u r e . that t h i s was  necessary to o f f s e t  these  Some c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s have claimed  one of the f i r s t  steps toward o v e r g r a z i n g .  - 24 The  decade 1880 to 1890 saw t h e r i s e of the western  sheep industry, widespread farm settlement throughout the west, of i r r i g a t i o n , and of the i n i t i a t i o n grazing c o n t r o l s . and farming  much of  of government'  The a d d i t i o n of l a r g e numbers of sheep  settlement t o areas already c a r r y i n g maximum  numbers of c a t t l e p r e c i p i t a t e d many v i o l e n t regarding the use of rangeland.  disagreements  In C a l i f o r n i a , the g o l d boom  r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n sheep numbers from one m i l l i o n i n 1859  t o 6.9 m i l l i o n i n 1880, while  i n 1882 t h e r e were 5.2  m i l l i o n i n New Mexico and 5.7 m i l l i o n i n Texas (280). vast numbers of sheep, appearing  almost without  f u l l y used c a t t l e ranges not only aroused among the cattlemen f u r t h e r exhaustion  These  warning on the  deep resentment  but had a d i r e e f f e c t i n causing even of the range f o r a g e .  In some i n s t a n c e s ,  s i n c e c a t t l e fences d i d n o t stop t h e sheep, hay f i e l d s were invaded  and the.crop  Settlement  destroyed.  which competed with both t h e c a t t l e and sheep  i n d u s t r i e s f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d the a l r e a d y severe range use. In many areas, settlement  e s p e c i a l l y mountain and f o o t h i l l s  claimed much of the s p r i n g and f a l l  even at t h a t time, i n short supply.  localities,  range which was,  For many years,  ranchers  had no p r o t e c t i o n since s e t t l e r s were given p r i o r i t y i n l a n d usage.  However, not a l l the i n f l u e n c e s of settlement and  c u l t i v a t i o n were harmful  to the range.  I r r i g a t i o n to i n c r e a s e  forage p r o d u c t i o n complemented the g r a z i n g lands p r o v i d i n g feed f o r stock during periods of short  supply.  Since barbed wire had become common, the great  cattle  drives  from t h e southwest t o the e a s t e r n  or swung n o r t h the  to the Canadian P l a i n s .  Kettle Valley l i n e  construction dustry  (completed  a r e a d y market  i n British  At t h e t u r n publish  warnings  "old-timers" reports.  the grazing i n -  rejuvenated.  the r e p o r t s  i n the grazing  At t h i s  deterioration  time  were d o i n g  varied  districts  from  to the ranges. interviews.with  to detailed  t o two m i s t a k e n  ideas;  y e a r a f t e r y e a r and, s e c o n d l y ,  needless  areas  that  by c u l t i v a t i o n ,  grazing  irrigation,  by o v e r g r a z i n g .  that  i n every range r e g i o n ,  lands  erosion,  . I t i s now a m a t t e r overgrazing  i s not u n i v e r s a l i n a l l areas throughout  Needless t o say,  b u t i t i s upon t h e a v e r a g e f o r a g e palatable  forage  were reduced,  the  each  production  per acre  production  per area  that  live-  i s present  t o s u c h a marked  u n i t s are produced. The  fact  that  overgrazing  5)  has r e s u l t e d i n a  reduction  stock  to i t s  of h i s t o r y ( F i g u r e  i n c a r r y i n g c^a-pal-city ( 2 3 0 ) .  the t o t a l  i n order  and f e n c i n g , but  reduction  and  without  t o s a y , were p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e a n d  of "unlimited"  also  region,  firstly,  capacity.  These i d e a s ,  only  range  c a n c a r r y t h e maximum number o f s t o c k  maximum c a r r y i n g  not  statistical  i t was g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t  t o g e t t h e most out of a r a n g e i t must be s t o c k e d  gradually vast  in its  ( 9 2 , 93, 18, 168, 91) of- t h e harm t h a t t h e  States  the range  Columbia  of t h e C e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s began t o  d e t e r i o r a t i o n was t r a c e a b l e that  In B r i t i s h  and once a g a i n  C o l u m b i a was  had c e a s e d  i n 1897) c r e a t e d  " g e t - r i c h - q u i c k ^ methods o f g r a z i n g In the U n i t e d  States  cr  CD  CD  CD  O  B  CO  •  IN CARRYING CAPACITY O F T H E M A J O R GRAZING REGIONS-  or  Q CD c+1 P H* N O H- 3  oHq*  REDUCTION  VIRGIN  •  p CJ. CD O *i T 3  a  THE  ACRES REQUIRED PER COW MONTH  TALL GRASS  Tzm  SHORT GRASS  V/////A  PRESENT  '///////////A  DESERT GRASS  BUNCH GRASS fcl  H*  c+  cr  INTER-MOUNTAIN SHRUB  o  SOUTHERN D. SHRUB  CD  p  ////////////////A  <iH- CHAPARRAL OP  o p T3 P  o  PINON-JUNIPER OPEN C. FOREST  V///////A  0  3  6  12  15  18  - 27 d e g r e e i n t r o d u c e s many c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s i n r a n g e and  livestock production.  age  production  areas,  Is the reduction i n palatable  the o n l y problem?  e c o l o g i c a l balance?  May t h i s  i n t h e f o r m of f l o o d s ,  increases i n harmful datory animals?  mechanically  upset manifest dust  Does o v e r g r a z i n g  upset the  itself  i n such  result  rodents  and p r e -  i n a reduction i n  Does i t c a u s e i n c r e a s e s i n  covering  the subject  I t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s  populations?  i s e x t e n s i v e and  Thesis  to collect,  s e m i n a t e and c r i t i c a l l y  d i s c u s s some o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l  problems o f o v e r g r a z i n g  w i t h a view t o a p p l y i n g the  t i o n gained the  for-  storms, e r o s i o n and  i n j u r i o u s and p o i s o n o u s p l a n t  The l i t e r a t u r e absorbing.  Does o v e r g r a z i n g  insect populations,  d e s i r e d w i l d l i f e numbers?  management  t o t h e problems of o v e r g r a z i n g  range areas of B r i t i s h Columbia.  present  dis-  informathroughout  - 28  II.  To  the  THE  -  EFFECTS OF OVERGRAZING ON NATIVE VEGETATION  p l a n t e c o l o g i s t , t h e r a n g e m a n a g e r , and  s e r v a t i o n i s t , the terms used to d e s c r i b e vegetatiohal  c o n d i t i o n s present  no  the  con-  grazing regions  problem s i n c e they  and  con-  s t i t u t e a component p a r t o f t h e i r t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y . the layman, however, t h i s  terminology  The  of f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r a n g e l a i i d  numerous c o m b i n a t i o n s  serves  v e g e t a t i o n have r e s u l t e d i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y t i v e terms. rendered  However, t h e  general  u s e l e s s many e x a c t  use  only to  To  numerous d e s c r i p -  of t h e s e  definitions.  confuse.  terms  has  O t h e r s h a v e become  so r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t e m p l o y them.  Several c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  have been made by range usage.  of t h e n a t i v e  In s p i t e of t h i s i t i s g e n e r a l l y d e s i r a b l e t o  largely according  classifications  and  to grazing value.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has  been p r e s e n t e d  delimit vegetation  An  i n the  example of  terms g r a z i n g type  and  v e g e t a t i o n type  distinct  i n t h e i r usage and  may  r e f e r to various  s p e c i e s o r t o v a r i o u s v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t i e s of same s p e c i e s  combination,  Many v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s These t y p e s  h a v e no  are  by  a  not  kinds  of  approximately  o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as  are recognized  such  Introduction.  The  managers.  vegetation  e c o l o g i s t s t h a t i n part are a p p l i c a b l e to  deviate from these  the  to  sub-types.  t e c h n i c a l range  e c o l o g i c a l b a s i s but  are  - 29 d e t e r m i n e d , r a t h e r , by t h e  dominating  species  dominating.  apply  t o b r o a d c l a s s e s of v e g e t a t i o n i n c l u d i n g a r e a s  several  term v e g e t a t i o n  o r what a p p e a r s  t o be  by  The  -  region i s suggested  e c o l o g i s t s g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t not  vegetation c o n s t a n t l y undergoing various a l s o that the i n c r e a s i n g habit changes i n s t e a d of  were s t a t i c th^e n a t u r e A great  entities  kinds  o f change  but  a t t e n t i o n on  p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s as i f t h e y  to a f a r g r e a t e r understanding  o f v e g e t a t i o n and  the  part i t plays i n the  become a r e c o g n i z e d  of  world.  p a r t o f v e g e t a t i o n a l c h a n g e i s g e n e r a l l y known  ecology  as  t e c h n i c a l term i n  (220).  A succession t a t i o n w h i c h can  i s a continuous be  Generally speaking,  separated  process  of c h a n g e i n v e g e -  i n t o a s e r i e s of  however, i t i s the  or a s s o c i a t i o n o f s p e c i e s  climatic  resulting  fluctuations.  whereby  replaces another.  one  Among  changes i n  Induced s u c c e s s i o n ,  f r o m some b i o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e  k  phases.  process  t h e n a t u r a l c a u s e s of s u c c e s s i o n a l c h a n g e a r e and  o n l y i s the  of c o n c e n t r a t i n g  studying  leads  s u c c e s s i o n w h i c h has  species  dominated  species.  Plant  these  to  soil  i . e . , that  s u c h as  o r i n s e c t i n v a s i o n , l e a d s away f r o m t h e n o r m a l or  grazing climax  condition. A climax i s a r e l a t i v e l y c e s s i o n a l c h a n g e . Change may climax,  but  i f i t i s too  t o a f f e c t the g e n e r a l s t a b l e p h a s e must be  s t a b l e s t a t e r e a c h e d by still  s l o w t o be  nature called  be  proceeding  appreciated  within a or too  of the'vegetation, the a climax.  The  suc-  highest  small  apparently types  of  - 30 vegetation characteristic  -  of a c l i m a t i c  o n l y by c l i m a t e f o r m t h e c l i m a t i c  r e g i o n and  climax.  be d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as s o i l animals, f i r e ,  may  Other c l i m a x e s  may  types, grazing  e t c . (220).  An i n s p e c t i o n o f p l a n t s o c i e t i e s from uniform.  limited  shows t h a t t h e y a r e f a r  I n many c a s e s p r i n c i p a l  form minor groups  or secondary  c a l l e d communities.  species  Communities  e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d i n the case of s p e c i e s where  are  individuals  grow i n g r o u p s . Many o t h e r t e r m s etc.,  s u c h as a s s o c i a t i o n ,  ecotone.  a r e commonly u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e ,  serving to render e c o l o g i c a l  dominant. each  d i s c u s s i o n s more e x a c t i n g .  The  t r u e v a l u e of t h e s e t e r m s a n d t h e i r m e a n i n g , h o w e v e r ,  can  o n l y be m a i n t a i n e d by a s t r i c t  origin  and u s a g e of s u c h t e r m s  and p r o p e r u s a g e .  i s both i n t e r e s t i n g  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s not p o s s i b l e  The  and a b s o r b i n g .  to e n l a r g e f u r t h e r at  this  point.  A.  EFFECTS ON In  GRAZING ASSOCIATIONS  o r d e r t h a t p l a n t s i n an a s s o c i a t i o n may  grow, t h e y  must a b s o r b w a t e r a n d e s s e n t i a l p l a n t - f o o d e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e soil  a n d t r a n s f e r them t o t h e l e a v e s where p h o t o s y n t h e s i s  m a n u f a c t u r e s t h e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h make p o s s i b l e f u r t h e r the  development  of s e e d s , a n d ,  growth,  of prime i m p o r t a n c e i n range  f o r a g e management, t h e s t o r a g e o f f o o d f o r w i n t e r  maintenance  and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h e r b a g e  spring.  the  photosynthetic  growth  the following  p a r t s are removed by g r a z i n g  If  b e f o r e nutrients  - 31 h a v e been s y n t h e s i z e d  t o take  care  functions, the plants' vigor w i l l supply  o f t h e e s s e n t i a l growth be s a p p e d .  i s i n a d e q u a t e , t h e p l a n t may d i e .  vitally  important  I t i s therefore  t o have a s u b s t a n t i a l l e a f a g e  p l a n t s throughout t h e growing  t h e needs o f t h e p l a n t c o v e r ,  for  moisture.  overstocked,  The  i s a somewhat  b a l a n c e b e t w e e n the m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n t  and  ly  a v a i l a b l e on  season.  In the range areas of t h e west t h e r e tical  I f the n u t r i e n t  When g r a z i n g the palatable  reduces t h e competition chance t o i n c r e a s e unpalatable  i s introduced  Overgrazing  and t h e range i s  plants are grazed f i r s t  i n basal area  intense  and severe-  competition.  of t h e p a l a t a b l e  plants  f o r t h e s u b - d o m i n a n t s g i v i n g them a  i n density.  species  growth  with a r e s u l t i n g competition  and hence t h e y s u f f e r most i n t h i s inevitable reduction  cri-  become  When o v e r g r a z i n g  i s continued  dominant.  f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d of t i m e i s i n d i c a t e d b y  the  vegetation  present  the  p r e f e r r e d r a n g e p l a n t s and t h e p r e v a l e n c e  and  grasses.  Signs  (120), e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e s c a r c i t y o f  which a r e a l s o evident  o f a n n u a l weeds  a r e the presence  o f dead a n d p a r t l y dead stumps o f s h r u b s , damage t o t r e e reproduction, marked w i t h  and e r o s i o n a n d b a r r e n n e s s o f t h e s o i l ,  stock  able i n determining  trails.  These p l a n t  usually  indicators are invalu-  t h e e f f e c t s 'of o v e r g r a z i n g  on t h e n a t i v e  vegetation. (l)  The V a l u e o f P l a n t Utilization  I n d i c a t o r s i n D e t e r m i n i n g Range  Sampson (175) s t a t e s t h a t t h e p l a n t  i n d i c a t o r concept i s  -  b a s e d on a c a u s e - e f f e c t  -  3 2  r e l a t i o n s h i p , where t h e e f f e c t i s  t a k e n a s a s i g n of t h e c a u s e .  A l l p l a n t s a r e a measure o r  i n d i c a t o r of t h e i r environment.  Because g r o w t h and p l a n t  d u c t i o n a r e g o v e r n e d by t h e h a b i t a t , a n y p l a n t s p e c i e s serve  a s an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f i t s h a b i t a t .  ever,  o n l y a few s p e c i e s  a r e s e l e c t i v e enough t o be  as good i n d i c a t o r s . C l e m e n t s ( 4 9 )  pro-  may How-  considered  states:  " The p r o b l e m o f i n d i c a t o r v a l u e s i s c h i e f l y one o f a n a l y z i n g t h e f a c t o r c o m p l e x , t h e h a b i t a t , and o f r e l a t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l r e s p o n s e o f b o t h p l a n t and community t o i t . " Needless to say, a plant variety  of circumstances  species  that i s found i n a  i s f a rless reliable  a s an i n d i c a t o r  o f r a n g e c o n d i t i o n s t h a n one r e q u i r i n g more e x a c t i n g conditions.  growth  D o m i n a n t s w h i c h do n o t e n j o y an e s p e c i a l l y w i d e  range a r e c o n s i d e r e d  b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s u s u a l l y because  r e a c t more v i o l e n t l y t o t h e c h a n g e s i n h a b i t a t .  they  Similarly,  a g r o u p of p l a n t s o r an a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e g a r d e d a s a b e t t e r i n d e x o f range g r a z i n g vegetation  will  present  h i s t o r y of economic u t i l i z a t i o n Clements (49)  considers  of aspect,  and w i t h  a  reliable  (175).  t h e dominant s p e c i e s  which  com-  a s s o c i a t i o n t o be t h e most r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s .  He u r g e s t h e u s e o f keen judgment i n s e l e c t i n g p l a n t tors.  however,  has b e e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e  structure, transformation  prise a climax  The  i n d i c a t e a c o n d i t i o n of overgrazing,  o n l y when t h e f o r a g e soil  c o n d i t i o n s t h a n one s p e c i e s .  indica-  S u r v i v a l u n d e r h e a v y g r a z i n g may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e  plant i s unusually  resistant to grazing, trampling,  or that  • - 33 it  i s unpalatable  -  t h r o u g h o u t a l l or p a r t  of the  grazing  season. (a)  I n d i c a t o r s o f Range F o r a g e D e t e r i o r a t i o n Western Morth America Range i n d i c a t o r s p r o v i d e  range c o n d i t i o n s the  soil.  varying  qualified,  leading  overgrazing.  i t s a p p l i c a t i o n may  overgrazing  may  o n l y be  According to a t i o n may  be  be  one  o f the  the  into several  as  of s p e c i e s  c o v e r of the forage plants of r e l i c t  are or  e v i d e n c e o f p a s t damage t o soil  conditions,  the  and  Sampson (175)  sum-  follows:  of the  of low  i s shown by limited,  most p a l a t a b l e  palatability,  entire vegetation, by  factors  i n i t i a l decline  p r i n c i p l e forage species,  absence of r e p r o d u c t i o n grazing  destruc-  groups, namely, range  Range d e t e r i o r a t i o n w e l l u n d e r way of the  term i s  contributory  i n d i c a t o r s of range c o n d i t i o n s .  vitality  the  These r a n g e i n d i c a t o r s  r a n g e , i n d i c a t o r s of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  marizes these points  interpret  (217), i n d i c a t o r s o f r a n g e d e t e r i o r -  d e t e r i o r a t i o n w e l l u n d e r way,  doubtful  changes  condition.  Talbot  divided  used t o  the  become e r r o n e o u s f o r  important i n recognizing  r i s e i n range f o r a g e  They i n d i c a t e  However, u n l e s s  to range d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  exceedingly  assessing  o f an a s s o c i a t i o n and  Range i n d i c a t o r s may  d e g r e e s of  means o f  r a n g e h a p p e n i n g s (217).  physiological condition  i n the  tive  and  the  in  t h o s e r e g a r d e d as  of  little  or  the  species,  a thinning  replacement  weakened  of the value,  f o r a g e p l a n t s , i n c i p i e n t g u l l y i n g and  close  ground good evidence  evidence  of  - 34 increasing  soil  -  erosion.  E v i d e n c e s o f p a s t r a n g e damage are* a r e l a t i v e of f o r m e r l y a b u n d a n t f o r a g e  absence  p l a n t s , f o l i a g e and b r a n c h e s o f  the t a l l e r  browse p l a n t s trimmed back as h i g h  can  dead r e m n a n t s o f t h e b r o w s e s p e c i e s o f l o w s t a t u r e ,  reach,  abnormal abundance o f t h o s e  as t h e a n i m a l s  s p e c i e s w h i c h p e r s i s t and r e p r o -  duce a f t e r more p a l a t a b l e s p e c i e s have d i s a p p e a r e d , accelerated  soil  e r o s i o n a c c o m p a n i e d by g u l l y i n g .  Indicators resulting soil  principally  c o n d i t i o n s as a r e s u l t  from u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  of o v e r g r a z i n g  are given i n  S e c t i o n I V b u t may be b r i e f l y m e n t i o n e d a s t h o s e conjunction with  other  indicators.  a n o r m a l amount o f o r g a n i c or shrubs,  and  an i n c o m p l e t e  These a r e :  found i n a l a c k of  m a t t e r between groups o f h e r b s  soil  profile  with the p o s s i b l e  a b s e n c e o f t h e A Q and A - ^ l a y e r s , and t h e c o n s p i c u o u s of bunch g r a s s in  hummocks, i n d i c a t i n g g e n e r a l  the absence of g u l l i e s . Doubtful  or l e s s r e l i a b l e  animals  or d i s p l a c e m e n t , on a r e s t r i c t e d  i n d i c a t o r s of a d e t e r i o r a t i n g sometimes caused by  o r by c o n g r e g a t i o n area;  r e s u l t i n g from a favorable  of g r a z i n g  increases i n poisonous  successional reaction;  a p p e a r a n c e and c o n d i t i o n of t h e g r a z i n g a n i m a l s , overstocking  o f an a r e a  contributing  f a c t o r ; and c o n d i t i o n o f t h e t i m b e r  The  forage  erosion  •  range a r e l o c a l denudation of t h e s o i l , slipping  sheet  presence  plants  general a s where  f o r a s i n g l e season i s the p r i n c i p a l reproduction.  i n d i c a t o r s used t o determine the degree o f  grazing vary with  t h e l o c a l a r e a s and i n d i v i d u a l  plant  F i g u r e 6» P a s t u r e s a g e . An i n d i c a t i o n of l o n g c o n t i n u e d o v e r g r a z i n g of t h e r a n g e l a n d s o f Southern Saskatchewan.  associations w i t h i n these areas.  In northern A r i z o n a ,  A r i z o n a f e s c u e ( F e s t u c a a r i z o n i c a V a s e y ) and m o u n t a i n m u h l y H  M u h l e m b e r g i a montana N u t t . ) s e r v e as i n d i c a t o r s grazing  (6l).  C l a r k e (45)  s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a and respects  over-  s t u d i e d short grass areas i n  S a s k a t c h e w a n w h i c h were s i m i l a r i n a l l  except the i n t e n s i t y of g r a z i n g .  o v e r g r a z e d p a s t u r e s n e e d l e and  He f o u n d t h a t i n  thread grass  Trin.),  June g r a s s ( K o e l e r i a g r a c i l i s  species  (Poa spp.)  Indicators  of  (Stipa  P e r s . ) and  w e r e among t h e f i r s t  comata  bluegrass  t o be e l i m i n a t e d .  o f o v e r g r a z i n g w e r e broom-weed ( G u t i e r r i z i a  thrae B r i t t .  and R u s h y ) and  p r a i r i e sage ( A r t e m i s i a  saro-  frigida  Willd.). J a r d i n e and g r a z i n g as  Anderson (120)  classify indicators  of  over-  follows: 1. P r e d o m i n a n c e o f a n n u a l weeds and g r a s s e s 2. P r e d o m i n a n c e o f weeds and s h r u b s of l i t t l e or no v a l u e t o l i v e s t o c k 3. Dead or p a r t l y d e a d stumps of s h r u b s 4. N o t i c e a b l e damage t o t r e e r e p r o d u c t i o n 5.  E r o s i o n and  barrenness  They s t a t e t h a t t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s a r e r e l a t i v e l y more tive  of s h e e p t h a n o f c a t t l e  grazing reaches  damage.  indica-  However, when o v e r -  t h e s t a g e t h a t i t c a n be r e c o g n i z e d by  symptoms t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g  range  these  i s very  s i m i l a r f o r both c l a s s e s of stock. D a u b e n m i r e (65, on t h e b u n c h g r a s s  66)  i n studying the e f f e c t  of o v e r g r a z i n g  areas of n o r t h w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s  found  t h a t i n n e a r v i r g i n s t a n d s , on a d r y m a t t e r b a s i s at. t h e t i m e T h e a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e b o t a n i c a l names w i l l o n l y be g i v e n t h e f i r s t time mentioned.  H  - 37 o f maximum g r o w t h , bluebunch  -  t h e f o r a g e a s s o c i a t i o n was  weatgrass  85  spicatum Pursh.), 5  (Agropyron  Saridberg's b l u e g r a s s (Poa secunda P r e s l . ) , and cheatgrass  percent  (Bromus t e c t o r u m L . ) .  i n c r e a s e s , bluebunch wheatgrass  5  percent  percent  As t h e i n t e n s i t y o f g r a z i n g (Agropyron  spicatum) i s  g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d , m o s t l y by s m a l l u n p a l a t a b l e d i c o t y l e d o n s . I f t h e «native p r a i r i e  i s grazed only during f a l l  the v e g e t a t i o n i s only s l i g h t l y  s p r i n g - f a l l ranges  altered. (159)  O b s e r v a t i o n s , made i n U t a h  showed t h a t t h e a r e a s  l o n g p r o t e c t e d f r o m g r a z i n g and  s u p p o r t a good c o v e r o f p l a n t s p a l a t a b l e chief forage plants  spicatum). b e a r d l e s s wheatgrass bluestem wheatgrass  wheatgrass  (Agropyron  palatable  inerme  Rydb.), Sandberg's  P e r e n n i a l g r a s s e s r e p r e s e n t 49  81 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l p l a n t c o v e r . t r i d e n t a t a Nutt.) i s unimportant  Sagebrush  i n such areas, occupying  o f s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e p l a n t  Annual  g r a s s e s , p r i n c i p a l l y downy brome o r c h e a t g r a s s  relatively  shrubs other than sagebrush,  cover. (Bromus  are a l l  on s i m i l a r a r e a s t h a t h a v e been s u b j e c t e d t o  h e a v y g r a z i n g showed i n e v e r y c a s e a s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n p e r e n n i a l g r a s s e s , a decided i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y of  annual  g r a s s e s , and  of  sagebrush,  some c a s e s a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n t h e d e n s i t y of p o o r  weeds and  an  unimportant.  Observations  in  to  (Artimesia  average  t e c t o r u m ) weeds, and  The  (Agropyron  ( A g r o p y r o n S m i t h i i R y b d . ) and  (Poa secunda).  of  fire  to l i v e s t o c k .  on t h e s e a r e a s i n c l u d e h i g h l y  p e r e n n i a l grasses, c h i e f l y bluebunch  bluegrass  and w i n t e r ,  a decrease i n the t o t a l  perennial plant  -  density.  These v e g e t a t i o n a l  tions  o f 40 t o 75  areas  studied.  -  changes have r e s u l t e d i n r e d u c -  percent i n the  Throughout the w i t h the  38  carrying capacity  l i t e r a t u r e there  i n d i c a t o r s of o v e r g r a z i n g  of  the  a r e many p a p e r s  and  dealing  range c o n d i t i o n s  every major r e g i o n  and  and  discussions  s u c h n o t e d a u t h o r i t i e s as Weaver, A l b e r t -  son  and  (223,  others  g r a s s and  by  short  rounding areas; 45,  46,  47,  m i r e (66, States;  Clarke,  237,  246,  248,  1,  2,  Tisdale  i n the  Sampson and  and  Barnes i n C a l i f o r n i a  Hanson i n U t a h (211,  212,  (175, 214,  have a l l made n o t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e i r to studies  sur-  38,  39,  at t h i s  p o i n t , t o p r e s e n t an  a n a l y s i s of t h e s e p a p e r s .  213,  the  e f f e c t s of overgrazing  on t h e  Columbia w i l l  e f f e c t s of o v e r g r a z i n g  on t h e  Upper G r a s s l a n d  174)  100,  It is  discussion  discussion  rangeland vegetation  give climax  some i n d i c a t i o n o f species  99,  respective  adequate  However, a s h o r t  United  11,  o f r a n g e management i n g e n e r a l .  and  M i d d l e and  37,  176,  98)  southern B r i t i s h  tall  the  Palouse areas of n o r t h w e s t e r n  Stoddart  impossible,  i n the  C a m p b e l l (34,  and  a r e a s and  3)  papers  i n t h e r a n g e a r e a s o f w e s t e r n C a n a d a ; Dauben-  67)  and  240,  These  g r a s s a r e a s o f K a n s a s , N e b r a s k a and  228) 65,  i n almost every d i s t r i c t .  in  of t h e  of  of the  Lower,  areas. .1  (b)  Indicators Interior The  of Range F o r a g e D e t e r i o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  grasslands  of s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h  found i n the v a l l e y s of the hillsides.  The  i n t e r i o r and  C o l u m b i a may  on t h e  be  surrounding  a l t i t u d e o f t h e s e a r e a s v a r i e s f r o m 1000  to  approximately  3000 f e e t above s e a l e v e l .  The t o t a l  extent of  3 to 4 million  these  grasslands include approximately  (227)  and c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e g r a z i n g i n d u s t r y o f  this is  province.  acres  The c l i m a t e o f t h e open o r g r a s s l a n d r a n g e s  r e l a t i v e l y warm and d r y .  T h i s may be shown i n T a b l e I .  TABLE I Average A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Temperature o f C e n t e r s i n t h e G r a s s l a n d A r e a s o f B.C. ( 2 2 7 ) ~"  PLACE  AVE. ANNUAL PPT.  ZONE ;  Tranquille  Lower G r a s s l a n d  July  8.0"  January  70°  25°  Ashcroft  "  "  6.9"  Merritt  "  "  8.6"  64°  22°  Vernon  Upper  "  15.2"  68°  23°  Vavenby  Montane F o r e s t  14.5"  63  0  19°  12.2"  56°  15°  (206),  each;type  B i g Creek  The  "  "  No R e c o r d No R e c o r d  s o i l s v a r y f r o m Brown t o B l a c k  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l The  MEAN TEMPERATURE  grassland associations.  vegetation i s divided into three r e l a t i v e l y  distinct  i n t h e g r a s s l a n d s w h i c h g i v e way t o t h e Montane F o r e s t i s u s e d f o r summer a n d e a r l y f a l l The soils  Agropyron-Artimesia  (Agropyron  sagebrush  spicatum).  which  on t h e Brown  the climax vegetation of t h i s  a r e a was composed o f a s p a r s e g r o u n d c o v e r .grass  zones  grazing only.  a s s o c i a t i o n i s found  o f t h e Lower G r a s s l a n d s .  being  of bluebunch wheat-  Sandberg's b l u e g r a s s  ( P o a secunda).  ( A r t i m e s i a t r i d e n t a t a ) and a f e w p e r e n n i a l f o r b s .  - 40 Very l i t t l e  -  of t h e a r e a r e m a i n s i n c l i m a x v e g e t a t i o n ,  d o m i n a t e d by s u c h t r i d e n t a t a ) and  s u c c e s s i o n a l p l a n t s as  other  semi d e s e r t  sagebrush  shrubs.and  being  (Artemisia  plants  (228).  F i g u r e 8. S e r i o u s O v e r g r a z i n g on t h e Lower G r a s s l a n d s n e a r K a m l o o p s , B.C. r e s u l t e d i n t h i s E x c e s s i v e Stand of Sagebrush.  On t h e s a n d i e r s l o p e s t h e d o m i n a n t s p e c i e s i n c l u d e n e e d l e thread grass tandrus  A.  (Stipa  comata). sand dropseed  G r a y ) , and r a b b i t b r u s h  (Sporobolus  and  cryp-  (Crysothamnus nauseosus  Pall.) The  Middle  Grasslands  are dominated i n the c l i m a x  by t h e A g r o p y r o n - P o a a s s o c i a t i o n .  This type  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Dark Brown s o i l s .  The  this  of g r a s s l a n d i s  principal  species  c l i m a x type are bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron  f o l l o w e d by S a n d b e r g ' s b l u e g r a s s  (Poa  stage  secunda).  of  spicatum)  Tisdale  -41 reports  -  (228) t h a t i n t h e c l i m a x , s h r u b s  species, that being r a b b i t brush  (Crysothamnus  Under c o n d i t i o n s o f s e v e r e g r a z i n g t h i s way  t o two  communities.  thread grass  (Stipa  comata).  wheatgrass (Agropyron secunda) are s t i l l reduced  and  Greene) are present climax association. cheatgrass  first The  spicatum)  one  nauseosus).  a s s o c i a t i o n has  given  i s d o m i n a t e d by n e e d l e climax species  and  and  bluebunch  Sandberg's b l u e g r a s s  (Poa  r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n but i n  proportions.  (Bromus t e c t o r u m )  The  are l i m i t e d to  Annual  s p e c i e s s u c h as  little  bluebur  (Lappula  cheatgrass occidentalis  i n r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r numbers t h a n i n t h e The  second  (Bromus t e c t o r u m ) .  community i s dominated  by  These a r e a s v a r y i n s i z e s  F i g u r e 9. M i d d l e G r a s s l a n d s b e t w e e n P a s s L a k e and K a m l o o p s , B.C. N o t e t h e t o p o g r a p h y and r e s e a r c h enclosure.  - 42 up  t o as much as two  Grasslands.  or t h r e e  square m i l e s (227)  T h i s community_has developed  p r e v i o u s l y Stipa-Agropyron-Poa overgrazing.  The  type  p l a n t s of t h e  Upper G r a s s l a n d s  as a r e s u l t  a r e dominated i n t h e  (Festuca s c a b r e l l a T o r r . ) . p e r annum t h a n  and t h e  soils  (206).  The  two-coloured  p a r t of t h e  g r a s s l a n d , severe  t i o n t o two  communities. occupied  (228)  g r a z i n g has  As  death  i n the case  as t h e S t i p a - P o a and  Stipa-Poa  of  the  Macoun) and  Kentucky bluegrass  N e i t h e r of t h e s e  grasses  Kentucky bluegrass on a r e a s  grass  These h a v e Poa-Bromus  (Stipa  and  deep.  C o l u m b i a n a ) was  found  where the  zone i s by  Columbi-  (Poa p r a t e n s i s L . ) .  are abundant i n the c l i m a x a s s o c i a (Poa  p r a t e n s i s ) i s found  t h a t were somewhat s h e l t e r e d and  s o i l s were f i n e  the  evolu-  community, w h i c h i s dominated  ana  e x p o s e d and  plants,  r e s u l t e d i n the  p e r e n n i a l g r a s s e s , Columbia needle  (206)  poisonous  b i c o l o u r N u t t . ) and  two  tion.  zone  A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e Upper G r a s s l a n d  by t h e  rough  zones  Black S o i l  major Upper G r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s .  been i d e n t i f i e d  associ-  o t h e r two  c l i m a x a s s o c i a t i o n c o n t a i n s two larkspur (Delphinium  climax  T h i s a r e a r e c . i e v e s more  camus ( Z y g a d e n u s v e n e r o s u s S. W a t t ) . middle  continuous  s p i c a t u m ) and  does e i t h e r o f t h e  a r e c l a s s e d as  of  the  b o t h i n b a s a l a r e a and v i g o r .  a t i o n by b l u e b u n c h w h e a t g r a s s ( A g r o p y r o n  moisture  from  and  climax association that sur-  v i v e d have become s m a l l , l a c k i n g  fescue  Middle  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the N i c o l a  Thompson V a l l e y s .  The  of the  Columbia needle  to dominate i n a r e a s s o i l was  coarser.  grass  chiefly  where  the  (Stipa  t h a t were more  Balsam r o o t  -  43  -  ( B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a N u t t . ) and ghost's b e a r d  (Tragopogon  p r a t e n s i s L.) a r e two o f t h e f o r b s commonly f o u n d i n t h i s community. The  Poa-Bromus c o m m u n i t y i s u s u a l l y d o m i n a t e d  by Sand-  b e r g ' s b l u e g r a s s ( P o a s e c u n d a ) . b u t c h e a t g r a s s (Bromus t e c t o r u m ) i s d o m i n a n t i n some a r e a s w h i l e b e i n g much important i n others. ditions  T h i s community i s produced  less under  con-  of severe g r a z i n g .  Not o n l y a r e t h e m a i n g r a s s e s  but a l s o many t a l l - g r o w i n g  forbs of t h e Agropyron-Festuca  c l i m a x and t h e S t i p a - P o a c o m m u n i t y a r e r a r e o r l a c k i n g Poa-Bromus type..  i nthe  Many of t h e s e p l a n t s , w h i l e n o t e a t e n t o  any e x t e n t on m o d e r a t e l y g r a z e d l a n d s ,  a r e g r a z e d r e a d i l y on  o v e r s t o c k e d r a n g e s and t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s c o n s e q u e n t l y become markedly  reduced.  I t may be s e e n t h a t t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h the range and  Columbia  i s q u i t e comparable  t o some o f  a r e a s i n t h e s t a t e s o f Washington.,...Oregon,  Utah.  Bluebunch  wheatgrass  Idaho  (Agropyron spicatum) i s  common t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e a r e a s as i t i s t h e p r e s e n c e a n d relative  abundance o f s p e c i e s such as s a g e b r u s h  tridentata), balsam  root  r a b b i t b r u s h (Crysothamnus  nauseosus) and  (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) .  (c) I n d i c a t o r s of Proper Forage The as r a n g e  (Artemisia  carrying  Utilization  c a p a c i t y of semi a r i d g r a s s l a n d such  i s l o w compared w i t h p a s t u r e s u n d e r more h u m i d  d i t i o n s and i n a d d i t i o n , ment d i f f e r .  the p r i n c i p l e s  con-  o f g r a z i n g manage-  G r e a t a r e a s o f r a n g e have b e e n r u i n e d by  - 44 o v e r g r a z i n g , due or  -  e i t h e r to o v e r s t o c k i n g of the  entire  t o b a d l y d i s t r i b u t e d s t o c k i n g c o n s e q u e n t upon  management.  The  inadequate  r e s u l t s are again a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of  o r i g i n a l v e g e t a t i o n u n d e r t h e c o n s t a n t g r a z i n g and of  area  stock, through  the e c o l o g i c a l  stages  the  trailing  of r e t r o g r e s s i o n  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o o r e r t y p e s  of p e r e n n i a l  grasses, annual  bushes  g r a s s e s , weeds and i n some c a s e s  and  scrub. In  order to m a i n t a i n range forage p r o d u c t i o n at i t s  highest l e v e l ,  and  r e s t o r e d e p l e t e d ranges,  p l a n t s must be  p r o p e r l y used.  the b e t t e r forage  But what i s p r o p e r  use?  The  a n s w e r r e q u i r e s a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o g r a z i n g of s e v e r a l hundred s p e c i e s which f e e d and  watershed  r e q u i r e s 20 t o 100  f u r n i s h both t h e b u l k of  protection.  However, i n a l a n d t h a t  o r more a c r e s t o s u p p o r t  a cow  on a  l o n g b a s i s ( 3 5 ) , t h e a r e a t h a t can be i n s p e c t e d w i t h frequency  by one  s t o c k m a n i s so s m a l l a p r o p o r t i o n o f  w h o l e t h a t t h e a c t u a l d e g r e e of u t i l i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y very d i f f i c u l t to determine. very small study p l o t s ,  death  necessary the  eaqh s e a s o n In f a c t ,  on  is  except  judgment a c q u i r e d  But where c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i v i t y o r  o f a good f o r a g e g r a s s may  f o l i a g e removal  year-  on  or p a s t u r e s , t h e d e g r e e of u t i l i z a -  t i o n i s commonly b a s e d e n t i r e l y experience.  the  of as l i t t l e  from  gradual  depend upon a d i f f e r e n c e i n  as 10 p e r c e n t , a more a c c u r a t e  measurement i s n e c e s s a r y . Talbot f o r a g e use  (217) are:  found  that indicators  of s a t i s f a c t o r y  range  - 45  -  ( i ) v i g o r o u s appearance and l u x u r i a n c e of the forage stand; (ii)  absence of a c c e l e r a t e d s o i l  (iii)  slight  (iv)  washing;  o r no u s e o f u n p a l a t a b l e  l a c k of e x t e n s i v e a r e a s palatable plants;  overrun  species; by  (v) absence of s e r i o u s i n j u r y t o t i m b e r reproduction. Depleted  ranges and ranges i n v a r y i n g degrees of d e t e r i o r a t i o n  show i m p r o v e m e n t w i t h t h e t h i c k e n i n g o f t h e s t a n d d e s i r a b l e forage  s p e c i e s and when g u l l i e s  of t h e  are being  naturally  reclaimed. An i n f i n i t e number o f q u e s t i o n s s e t t i n g up u t i l i z a t i o n units.  st.andards  must be a n s w e r e d i n  f o r any p a r t i c u l a r  range  F o r e x a m p l e , what a r e t h e s p e c i e s t h a t do o r s h o u l d  f u r n i s h most o f t h e f o r a g e What a r e t h e i r  life  at different  histories,  c l a s s e s of stock r e l i s h  them?  seasons of t h e year?  and how do t h e d i f f e r e n t What i s t h e n a t u r a l p l a n t  s u c c e s s i o n , how i s i t a f f e c t e d by o v e r g r a z i n g and t h e v a r i o u s other  degrees of u t i l i z a t i o n ,  maintained has  under g r a z i n g use?  a n d what s t a g e  can or s h o u l d  Even when p r o p e r  be  utilization  been d e t e r m i n e d f o r a s p e c i e s or g r a z i n g a s s o c i a t i o n under  one s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s , what a d j u s t m e n t s must be made when t h e association necessary  i s s e v e r e l y d e p l e t e d , a n d what p r e c a u t i o n s a r e  f o r extreme d r o u g h t o r where s p e c i a l l a n d s e r v i c e s  s u c h as w a t e r s h e d p r o t e c t i o n , t i m b e r are important  production,  or w i l d l i f e  o r dominait?  T h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t as a r e s u l t o f  - 46  -  t h e r a n g e r e s o u r c e , . b o t h as t o c o m p o s i t i o n , and  i n production,  (2)  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of V e g e t a t i o n Degree of O v e r g r a z i n g The  one  year with  form, h a b i t a t ,  another. f o r Determining  the  r e c o g n i t i o n o f r a n g e c o n d i t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by  accurate  a n a l y s i s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n and  ioration  from the  the degree of  c l i m a x a s s o c i a t i o n or the h i g h e s t  v e g e t a t i o n the area  would n a t u r a l l y s u p p o r t ;  an  deter-  type  of  the p r e s c r i p t i o n  of c o r r e c t i v e measures r e q u i r e s t h a t the  various  degrees  d e t e r i o r a t i o n o r r a n g e c o n d i t i o n must be  classified.  of  A m o d i f i c a t i o n of s i x c o n d i t i o n c l a s s e s used i n range i n v e s t i g a t i o n by  the  N o r t h w e s t o f the  United  c l a s s e s can  be  be  i s now  or past  use.  presented.  Pacific  These  Range c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  b a s e d on p l a n t s p e c i e s  u t i l i z a t i o n as t h e facilitate  States  S e r v i c e i n the  a p p l i e d to c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia to  determine present k i n d should  S o i l Conservation  subject to  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s designed  correct grazing  use  ( a ) E x c e l l e n t or C l a s s A  of the  forage  of  any  livestock  p r i m a r i l y to species.  Condition  T h i s c l a s s i s composed of c l i m a x a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e most p a r t w i t h l i t t l e of n o n - c l i m a x s p e c i e s . ant  over the  occur  as  The  species  e n t i r e rangeland  t h a t were f o r m e r l y  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l  d o m i n a n t s i n e x c e l l e n t r a n g e and  essentially t o be  o r no r e p l a c e m e n t by an i n t r o d u c t i o n  their  original  abundance.  d i s c u s s e d the r e l a t i v e  will  In the  occur other  a b u n d a n c e of t h e s e  dominstill  in classes  species  will  - 47 have been m o d i f i e d , replaced this be  or t h e y w i l l  by p l a n t s l o w e r  class,  have b e e n e l i m i n a t e d a n d  in.the succession.  i n t h e Lower G r a s s l a n d s  of B r i t i s h  Sandberg's b l u e g r a s s  ever  overgrazed  stock,  or year  I f overgrazing  have b e e n o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n o n l y . evident  spicatum)  have been r a r e l y i f  e i t h e r s e a s o n a l l y , by a p a r t i c u l a r long.  that there  class of  has been p r e s e n t  Under t h e s e  i t will  conditions i t  i s adequate s a l t and water a v a i l a b l e  t h a t good management p r i n c i p l e s a r e i n f o r c e .  no m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g r a z i n g undertaken.  will  (Poa secunda).  A range i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n w i l l  and  Columbia,  s u c h p l a n t s as b l u e b u n c h w h e a t g r a s s ( A g r o p y r o n  and  is  Indicators of  system  Little  or  e m p l o y e d n e e d be  No r u n - o f f c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s n e e d t o be t a k e n  on  ranges i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n . ( b ) Good o r C l a s s B C o n d i t i o n In t h i s  class,  of t h e p l a n t c o v e r , present in  climax species  but there  i n the a s s o c i a t i o n s .  still  form t h e bulk  a r e some n o n - c l i m a x  species  One o r some o f t h e d o m i n a n t s  t h e c l i m a x a s s o c i a t i o n may have r e p l a c e d o t h e r members o f  the a s s o c i a t i o n . Grasslands,  For example, i n B r i t i s h  bluebunch wheatgrass  Sandberg's b l u e g r a s s However, c h e a t g r a s s some l o c a l i t i e s  C o l u m b i a Lower  ( A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m ) and  (Poa secunda) w i l l  still  (Bromus t e c t o r u m ) w i l l  predominate.  be e v i d e n t i n  a s w e l l as s a g e b r u s h ( A r t i m e s i a t r i d e n t a t a ) .  Sandberg's b l u e g r a s s  (Poa secunda) w i l l  u s u a l l y be more  a b u n d a n t t h a n on C l a s s A r a n g e s , b u t u n d e r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f grazing  (class overgrazing  b y s h e e p ) i t may be  completely  - 48 r e p l a c e d by b l u e b u n c h w h e a t g r a s s A range  i n this  (115).  c o n d i t i o n i s not considered overgrazed  b u t when i t does o c c u r i t i s t h e r e s u l t t h e g r a z i n g c a p a c i t y , t h e wrong c l a s s shortage of f e e d d u r i n g a drought. will  be s u f f i c i e n t  ioration will  t o remedy t h i s  of o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of  o f s t o c k or a  C o r r e c t i o n of t h e f a u l t overuse and f u r t h e r d e t e r -  be p r e v e n t e d .  These r a n g e s  will  r e q u i r e f e w o r no r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s  except o c c a s i o n a l minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s  o f some p h a s e s o f  management i n w a t e r r e t a r d a t i o n a n d f l o o d (c)  Fair  control.  or Class C C o n d i t i o n  Under f a i r showing  condition, the climax association i s  s i g n s of d e p l e t i o n and a r a t h e r heavy i n f e s t a t i o n o f  annuals and n o n - c l i m a x  perennials i s evident.  s p e c i e s may o r may n o t have become d o m i n a n t . c o n d i t i o n s - t h e bluebunch will  wheatgrass  A sub-climax Under t h e s e  (Agropyron  spicatum)  be d e f i n i t e l y weakened a n d S a n d b e r g ' s b l u e g r a s s ( P o a  s e c u n d a ) may o r may n o t have s u f f e r e d a s w e l l . (Bromus t e c t o r u m ) - w i l l  be f a r u m o r e  ranges  a n d i n some a r e a s s a g e b r u s h  rabbit  brush  ing  temporary  (Crysothamnus  both the appearance  plentiful  Cheatgrass  t h a n on good  (Artemisia tectorum) or  nauseosus,) w i l l  and t h e c a r r y i n g  be p r e s e n t  affect-  c a p a c i t y of t h e  range. A range and  i n fair  condition w i l l  be c o n s i d e r e d o v e r g r a z e d  one o r more o f s u c h c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s  management a s p r o p e r  o f good  s e a s o n a l u s e , p r o p e r numbers,  range proper  c l a s s o f s t o c k , and proper  -  distribution, will  violated.  This  in  Columbia i t w i l l  British  49  c o n d i t i o n may be t h e r e s u l t probably  e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e amount o f f o r a g e of l i v e s t o c k ,  of d r o u g h t , b u t  i n d i c a t e e i t h e r an o v e r -  available,  t h e wrong c l a s s  t o o e a r l y s p r i n g g r a z i n g , or t h e f a i l u r e t o  remove t h e s t o c k f r o m s p r i n g p a s t u r e s seed p r o d u c t i o n . grazed  have b e e n  On C l a s s C r a n g e s ,  s o o n enough t o p e r m i t w h i c h a r e f o u n d t o be  b y t h e r i g h t number o f s t o c k , a v a r i a t i o n i n t h e  g r a z i n g s y s t e m must be i n t r o d u c e d .  I t i s n o t uncommon t o  find fair  r a n g e i n t e r s p e r s e d among a r e a s  excellent  condition.  In this  of otherwise  good o r  event a c l o s e s c r u t i n y o f t h e  management p r a c t i c e s must be u n d e r t a k e n a n d c o r r e c t i v e measures applied. lies  I n most c a s e s  i n poor d i s t r i b u t i o n  inadequate  this  should  be f o u n d t h a t t h e t r o u b l e  o f t h e s t o c k as a r e s u l t o f  berding, watering  Ranges i n f a i r but  i t will  facilities  c o n d i t i o n should  or improper  n o t be g r a z e d  salting.  to f u l l  capacity  be g i v e n a s a f e t y m a r g i n t o a l l o w r e c o v e r y .  If  i s not p e r m i t t e d , t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s of o v e r g r a z i n g  will  result. These r a n g e s w i l l  u s u a l l y c a l l f o r c h e c k dams o r o t h e r  localized flood controls. (d) Poor or C l a s s D C o n d i t i o n Under t h e s e  c o n d i t i o n s a major p o r t i o n o f t h e p l a n t  a s s o c i a t i o n i s composed of s u b - c l i m a x conditions  of accompanying t o p s o i l  t h e c l i m a x s p e c i e s may be l a c k i n g . (Agropyron  spicatum),  although  species while  erosion both  under  t h e s e and  Bluebunch wheatgrass  usually s t i l l  present,  will  be  - 50 s c a t t e r e d and  badly  stunted  to  with  cheatgrass  be c o v e r e d  with  -  plants.  The  ground w i l l  (Bromus t e c t o r u m ) i n t e r s p e r s e d  s a g e b r u s h ( A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a ) and  (Crysothamnus  r a b b i t brush  nauseosus)•  Rangeland i n t h i s  condition i s indicative  and  r a n g e management.  A marked r e d u c t i o n i n l i v e s t o c k  often coupled  drastic  with  a general  of l o n g ,  tinued overgrazing  p r a c t i c e s , i s necessary recovery and  undertaken.  grasses  may  be  constitute a f i r e make s u r e begins  t h a t the  rangeland  i n the  H o w e v e r , c a r e must be  shoots favour  and  removed t h e  perennials w i l l  saved  the  taken  s o o n as t h e  desirable climax topsoil  (26),  protection against  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y and  these  ranges w i l l  Reduced species, climax  good greater  necessitate  c h a n g e s i n management p r a c t i c e s w i t h more f r e q u e n t o f s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l of l o c a l (e) Very Poor or Class E When r a n g e s a r e  drastic instances  areas. Condition  c l a s s e d as v e r y  poor, the  i s absent w h i l e non-climax s p e c i e s , o f t e n  able, poisonous,  to  erosion.  F l o o d c o n t r o l on  vegetation  plants  stock  the  r e t u r n t o c o m p r i s e an e x c e l l e n t o r  range w i t h consequent h i g h e r  and  such ranges  of p e r e n n i a l grasses.  l i v e s t o c k numbers w i l l e r o s i o n has  management  i s t o be  event t h a t  s t o c k i s removed as the  other  of  numbers,  A r a t h e r heavy g r a z i n g of annual  justified  con-  abuse of the p r i n c i p l e s  changes i n the  i f the  hazard.  to u t i l i z e  unless  appear  or m e c h a n i c a l l y  injurious,  climax unpalat-  predominate.  - 51 Under c o n d i t i o n s s u c h  as t h e s e  i n interior British  bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron bluegrass  (Poa secunda) w i l l  (Bromus t e c t o r u m ) , R u s s i a n tumblemustard brush w i l l bare  be t h e r e s u l t rotational  for  i n years  o r , o r be a g g r a v a t e d  use.  by i m p r o p e r  In general, ranges i n t h i s  perennials are present  closing  range areas  of f a i r .  c o n d i t i o n should  L o c a l i z e d areas  o f good r a n g e management.  of t h e w a t e r i n g falling  into this  as t o p r e v e n t  concentration as, or s a l t i n g at a the l o c a t i o n of with  I t may n e c e s s i t a t e  classification.  or i n d e f i n i t e l y  T h i s f a c t o r must be c a r e f u l l y  c o n d i t i o n may be so delay complete  c o n s i d e r e d , both  recovery.  i n deter-  t h e r a t e o f r e c o v e r y and r e v e g e t a t i o n by n a t i v e  s p e c i e s and i n p r o j e c t s o f a r t i f i c e d flood  showing  holes i n the s e c t i o n s of the  S o i l l o s s e s from range i n t h i s  mining  seasonal or  s a l t i n g p o i n t s and w a t e r hcfles i n a c c o r d a n c e  the p r i n c i p l e s  also  i n s u f f i c i e n t number t o p e r m i t  poor c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g from l o c a l  additional  over-  uriil the climax species or  e x a m p l e , f r o m t o o many s t o c k w a t e r i n g  severe  conditions.  T h i s c o n d i t i o n may  g i v e n p o i n t , c a n u s u a l l y be c o r r e c t e d t h r o u g h  the  or r a b b i t  of poor growing  of l i v e s t o c k .  least a classification  a very  ( S a l s o l a p e s t i f e r A. N e l l s J ,  t h e r e may be l a r g e amounts o f  c l o s e d t o g r a z i n g o f any t y p e  desired at  thistle  Cheatgrass  p o o r rangers u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e l o n g - c o n t i n u e d  g r a z i n g by one c l a s s  be  have d i s a p p e a r e d .  although  ground, p a r t i c u l a r l y Very  s p i c a t u m ) and Sandberg's  ( N o r t a a l t i s s i m a L.) and s a g e b r u s h  dominate,  Columbia  reseeding.  If in a  a r e a , t h e s e r a n g e s s h o u l d be c l o s e d t o g r a z i n g t o  - 52 #  facilitate  special  flood  treatment.  1  F i g u r e 1 0 . A w e l l managed w a t e r i n g p l a c e i n Southern Saskatchewan. Note t h e abundance o f f o r a g e and the c o n d i t i o n o f t h e l i v e s t o c k .  F i g u r e 1 1 . A p o o r l y managed w a t e r i n g p l a c e i n S o u t h e r n Saskatchewan. Note t h e d e n u d a t i o n o f the ground and p o o r c o n d i t i o n o f t h e l i v e s t o c k  - 53 (f)  Depleted  Into t h i s g r o u n d s and  or C l a s s F  class f a l l  stock t r a i l s  -  Condition  n e a r l y deseeded areas  that are almost worthless  g r a z i n g b e c a u s e o f e x t r e m e and  repeated  abuse.  species bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron berg's bluegrass Cheatgrass  may  (Poa  be  secunda) w i l l  present  b e e n removed e i t h e r by  but  stock while very  be  alone, but,  an  so as  a l t e r n a t e route  result  t a t i o n a r o u n d two  11  from  of the  as  livestock  can be o r by  The  heavy  remedied salting  by  and  grazing i n  waterholes. effect  o t s t o c k on t h e  p l a c e s i n Saskatchewan.  F i g u r e 11  shows a  vege-  Figure  constructed i n co-operation with  a r o u n d w h i c h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f good  to concentrate  i n the  area  10  the  range watering  p l a c e w h i c h i s t o o f a r removed f r o m t h e n e x t w a t e r h o l e . s t o c k were p e r m i t t e d  be  erosion  employed.  facilities  show t h e  management have been a p p l i e d .  the  overgrazing  u n n e c e s s a r y t r a m p l i n g and  watering  shows a w a t e r i n g p l a c e  be  by  either  t r a m p l i n g and  around w a t e r h o l e s  to p r e v e n t  F i g u r e s 10 and  should  nau-  grazing.  Where t h i s c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s on  immediate v i c i n i t y  P.F.R.A. and  trampled  ( S a l s o l a p e s t i f e r ) may  providing a d d i t i o n a l watering herding  Sagebrush  (Crysothamnus  b r o k e n and  s u c h as t h e s e  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of stock  the  have  i n p a r t , from e x c e s s i v e  w e l l as f i r e . driveways  areas  Sand-  i n many p l a c e s i t w i l l  a b u n d a n t o r t e m p o r a r i l y removed by S e l d o m do  climax  out.  r a b b i t brush  thistle  The  have been k i l l e d  severely grazed,  Russian  bed  for  s p i c a t u m ) and  g r a z i n g or t r a m p l i n g .  ( A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a ) and seosus) w i l l  s u c h as  resulting  The in  - 54 the very  evident denudation  out t h a t the up  t y p e and  i n his cattle.  bred  cattle  the c a t t l e  -  of t h e l a n d .  I t i s w e l l to point  c o n s c i e n t i p u s n e s s of the  rancher  I n t h e p r o p e r l y managed r a n g e we  shows  see  well  i n good c o n d i t i o n ; on t h e p o o r l y managed r a n g e are of n o n - d e s c r i p t  breeding  and  are i n r e l a t i v e l y  poor c o n d i t i o n . On be  F Class areas  structural  r e q u i r e d i n many c a s e s  r e d u c t i o n of e x c e s s i v e  c o n t r o l and  reseeding  t o e x p e d i t e r e c o v e r y and  soil  and  will  hasten  water l o s s e s .  TABLE I I G r a z i n g C a p a c i t i e s of V a r i o u s C o n d i t i o n C l a s s e s on Open G r a s s and S h r u b R a n g e s n e a r D a y t o n , Washington (115) Range Type  e a  Condition Class  Grazing Capacity/100  acres  ANIMAL UNIT MONTHS  PATIT CREEK  A B C D B C A B C D  OPEN GRASS SHRUBS  POMEROY  While  OPEN GRASS  this table  was p r e p a r e d  144 74 48 31 49 23 127 80 37 23  from  data gathered  in  Washington, the general p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s are s i m i l a r those  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  to  various grazing condition  c l a s s e s have been s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e I I I . Regardless step i s to  of the e x a c t  s t o p the  type  cause of o v e r g r a z i n g , the  o f m i s u s e o f t h e l a n d t h a t has  first caused  Condition Class EXCELLENT CLASS A GOOD CLASS B  FAIR CLASS C  POOR CLASS D  VERY POOR CLASS E  DEPLETED CLASS F  TABLE I I I Summary o f t h e E f f e c t o f G r a z i n g on Bunch G r a s s Ranges ( 1 1 5 ) Predominating Management P r a c t i c e s Revisions required Erosion or Flood Vegetation R e s p o n s i b l e f o r C o n d i t i o n i n Present P r a c t i c e s C o n t r o l Measures indicated C o r r e c t numbers, c l a s s Continuation of Climax d i s t r i b u t i o n and None p r e s e n t manages e a s o n a l use ment p r a c t i c e s Primarily c l i - Numbers,class,distribuNone; s l i g h t r e Adoption of t i o n & seasonal use max, n o n d u c t i o n i n numbers, recommended usually c o r r e c t . Class c l i m a x p l a n t s may o r c h a n g e i n c l a s s management o c c a s i o n a l l y be b e g i n n i n g t o wrong' o r c a r r y i n g of s t o c k . practices capacity overestimated invade Climax, but U s u a l l y o v e r g r a z e d ; may R e d u c t i o n i n numA d o p t i o n o f recommended management b e c o m i n g d e - be t h e wrong c l a s s o f b e r s ; change o f pleted;; non- s t o c k ; m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n practices. May c l a s s ; change o f climax s p e c i e s require occasiono r wrong s e a s o n o f use season or r e al structural becoming di stribution abundant control Climax, but Heavy o r l o n g c o n t i n u e d D r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n A d o p t i o n o f recoms e r i o u s l y de- o v e r g r a z i n g ; improper i n numbers, o r mended management pleted.; non- c l a s s of s t o c k ; malchange i n c l a s s o f p r a c t i c e s , o f t e n stock. Seasonal climax s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n o r wrong accompanied by g r a z i n g o f a n n u a l s some s t r u c t u r a l season of use predominate t o r e d u c e f i r e hazard c o n t r o l & p o s s i b l y reseeding Non-climax Severe o v e r g r a z i n g , Close to aH g r a z i n g . Close t o a l l graR e s e e d i n g may be a n n u a l s and wrong c l a s s o f s t o c k , zing except f o r pe r e n n i a l s wrong s e a s o n o f u s e , o r r e s t r i c t e d s e a s o n a l ns et cr eu scstaurrya.l cSome ontrol use improper d i s t r i b u t i o n usually required. Close t o a l l graSevere o v e r g r a z i n g , None o r f e w zing. Reseeding Close t oa l l non-climax wrong c l a s s o f s t o c k , and s t r u c t u r a l grazing specie s wrong s e a s o n o f u s e , control usually t r a m p l i n g , or improper required. distribut ion  - 56 the  t r o u b l e , whatever the  ately brings may  be  the  The  whose l a n d  economic  use  This  a r e a t o be  may  may be  be  immeditreated  uninhabited  difficult  to  upheaval.  The V a l u e o f Range S u r v e y s i n D e t e r m i n i n g Range Utilization Few  unless  r a n g e management p r o g r a m s can  more t h a n p r e s e n t g r a z i n g knowledge of p r e s e n t  fully effective  (115).  involved  practices that  and  of the  remedial  considered  i n terms of the  a knowledge of the  have r e s u l t e d i n the measures t h a t w i l l  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  d e t e r i o r a t e d ranges, to  d e t e r i o r a t i o n , and  present  to p r e s c r i b e  surveyed.  range  unit land  vegetation  restore d e t e r i o r a t e d differences  between top  condition of  c o r r e c t i v e measures. o b j e c t i v e the  furnishing  n e c e s s a r y f o r sound r a n g e management of e a c h Their  primary purpose i s to c o l l e c t data  i n d i c a t e how  much and  range f o r a g e  crop annually  or t o o t h e r  a  the  c l a s s i f y d i f f e r e n t degrees  Range s u r v e y s have as t h e i r information  the much  specific  I t i s , i n short, necessary to recognize  i n r a n g e c o n d i t i o n and  of  knowledge i n c l u d e s  t h a t m i g h t grow on  It i s also  use  This  vegetation  capacities* i t i s intrinsically  vegetation  most d e s i r a b l e v e g e t a t i o n  areas.  be  b a s e d on a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f t h e  range u n i t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  and  have b e e n .  town o r c o m m u n i t y and  grazers  change w i t h o u t an (3)  c a u s e may  i n tie economic f a c t o r .  f a r f r o m any  e x c e p t by  -  what k i n d  of use  may  without i n j u r y  n a t u r a l renewable resources  s u r v e y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y n o t e s the  be  the  forage,  of r a n g e l a n d s .  amount o f v e g e t a t i o n  area  which  made o f  to the  of  soil, The  present  and  i t s value  57  -  to grazing animals.  It is fully  gathering a d d i t i o n a l facts relative  concerned  t o managing the  with  range  resource. Data from range surveys drafting ing On  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o manage r a n g e s s u c h as  ranges grazed  policy.  by an  The  data  o f s t o c k w h i c h may l e n g t h of  water.  individually  serve  graz-  be  placed  g r a z i n g and  steps  The  on  the  the  l a n d , the  correlated with  and  social  programs are  numbers  correct  season  rodents  and  and  the necessary  to improve  c o n d i t i o n s which are  the maintenance of these  cor-  Canada as w e l l as  the  directly  highly  important  commonwealth and  s u c h p r o b l e m s c o n n e c t e d w i t h management o f t h e given  the  n a t u r a l renewable  I n W e s t e r n Canada, r a n g e l a n d s a r e  economy of  as  rangelands  serious consideration.  Range management p l a n s p r e t a t i o n of range surveys problems s o l e l y E f f o r t must be range forage  or  undertaken.  e x i s t i n g e c o n o m i c and  must be  of c a t t l e  c o r r e c t l o c a t i o n of s a l t  clearly.marked  o b j e c t i v e s of these  resources.  owned.  as a b a s i s f o r a f u t u r e management  Areas subject to e r o s i o n , p r e d a t o r s ,  rective  the  owned h e r d  a p p l i e d t o maps a c t s as a g u i d e t o  p o i s o n o u s p l a n t s c a n be  to  crown  l a n d s , l e a s e s , f o r e s t r e s e r v e s , or ranges p r i v a t e l y  sheep, range surveys  and  o f f e r a dependable b a s i s f o r  from the  r e s u l t i n g f r o m a n a l y s i s and must n o t  resource  approach the  management  made t o h a r m o n i z e t h e  w i t h the  s o c i a l and  p o p u l a t i o n d e p e n d i n g on t h e  range  standpoing.  efficient  harvest  economic w e l f a r e  rangeland  inter-  resources  of  for a  of  the living.  - 58 Range management and r a n g e s u r v e y i n g a r e , t h e r e f o r e , i n s t r u ments d e s i g n e d evolve  to a s s i s t i n s o l v i n g  i n an a t t e m p t  t o m a i n t a i n l i v e s t o c k , f o r a g e , and t h e  o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s p r o d u c e d on Most c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r c e n t e r s on t h e i r these  the complex problems t h a t  rangelands.  the r e s u l t s of range  surveys  estimates of grazing capacity, e s p e c i a l l y i f  e s t i m a t e s h a p p e n t o be c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h e  numbers o f a n i m a l s tion.  In every  being grazed  on t h e range under c o n s i d e r a -  case, the survey  s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d by a n  i n t e n s i v e , o b j e c t i v e range i n s p e c t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g year t o decide whether the r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d a r e sound.  I f this  study  i n d i c a t e s t h e g r a z i n g c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s made t h e p r e v i o u s year are too low, the survey  s h o u l d n o t be d i s c r e d i t e d a n d  i g n o r e d f o r t h e r e l a t i v e values between the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e r a n g e may s t i l l  be u s e d and t h e w h o l e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y  estimate  or lowered  may be r a i s e d  Apart  from f i n d i n g  a c l u e t o g r a z i n g c a p a c i t y , the range  manager f i n d s i n t h e r a n g e s u r v e y impersonal  d a t a a most s y s t e m a t i c a n d  a p p r a i s a l of range v a l u e s , range problems and  range c o n d i t i o n s . date  as t h e s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s .  The i n i t i a t i o n  o f good r a n g e management t o  has been s e r i o u s l y h a n d i c a p p e d t h r o u g h  the l a c k of these  fundamental s t u d i e s . The country lar.  o b j e c t i v e s of range surveys  and r e s e a r c h i n t h e r a n g e  o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  simi-  The p r a c t i c e s o f r a n g e management b e s t a d a p t e d t o t h e  c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e l a n d a n d c o n s i s t e n t w i t h maximum t i o n , r e s t o r a t i o n , and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e f o r a g e  utiliza^  s u p p l y and  t h e most e f f e c t i v e p r o d u c t i o n o f l i v e s t o c k a r e now applied.  They have b e e n e n u m e r a t e d by W.  R.  widely  Chapline  as  follows: ( a ) D e f e r r e d and r o t a t i o n g r a z i n g ( w h i c h p e r m i t s f u l l use of f o r a g e b u t d e l a y s g r a z i n g u n t i l a f t e r s e e d d i s s e m i n a t i o n ) on a d i f f e r e n t p o r t i o n o f t h e r a n g e each y e a r . ( b ) L a t e r o p e n i n g d a t e s f o r r a n g e s , more i n harmony w i t h r e a d i n e s s of p l a n t s f o r g r a z i n g . ( c ) A f a i r l y good b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a p p r o x i mate g r a z i n g c a p a c i t i e s o f m o u n t a i n r a n g e t y p e s . ( d ) I m p r o v e d methods o f g r a z i n g sheep and g o a t s , s u c h as*, open and q u i e t h e r d i n g and b e d d i n g them down i n a new p l a c e e v e r y n i g h t t o a v o i d d a m a g i n g t h e r a n g e t h r o u g h t r a m p l i n g and l o c a l i z e d overgrazing. ( e ) O b t a i n i n g the b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a t t l e on the range t h r o u g h w e l l p l a c e d w a t e r i n g f a c i l i t i e s and b e t t e r s a l t i n g m e t h o d s , t h u s b r i n g i n g a b o u t even and more e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e a v a i l a b l e range f o r a g e .  B.  THE  EFFECTS ON" INDIVIDUAL PLANTS  While the u l t i m a t e u n i t of study the  i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t , i t can  h a r d l y be  i n g r a z i n g management i s divorced e n t i r e l y  from  t h e m y r i a d s o f f a c t o r s w h i c h compose i t s e n v i r o n m e n t o r , i n short, from the able the  ecological association.  to f o c u s h i s u n d i v i d e d range s p e c i a l i s t  specific.  The  a t t e n t i o n on t h e  physiologist i s individual plant,  o r r a n g e e c o l o g i s t , h o w e v e r , c a n n o t be  p h y s i o l o g i s t may  reserves  i n the  they  t r a n s l o c a t e d ; the  are  The  speak i n d e t a i l , of p l a n t  i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t , how  they  accumulate,  food how  range e c o l o g i s t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  o n l y i n t e r e s t h i m s e l f i n the food  r e s e r v e s as  so  can  they i n f l u e n c e  reproduction, forage  6 0 ^  p r o d u c t i o n , w i n t e r h a r d i n e s s , and r e -  g r o w t h i n b r o a d t e r m s , and how r a n g e management o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n may be i n f l u e n c e d . Grazing,  r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s e a s o n , has a marked  on t h e m e t a b o l i c  activity  f o l i a g e , photosynthesis  of a p l a n t .  effect  With the removal of  i s r e d u c e d and h e n c e t h e r e i s a  r e d u c t i o n i n r o o t r e s e r v e s , r o o t p r o d u c t i o n , and f o r a g e duction. but  Under m o d e r a t e g r a z i n g , l e s s f o r a g e may be p r o d u c e d ,  the i n c r e a s e i n q u a l i t y  of forage w i l l  compensate f o r  r e d u c t i o n (214)•  this (l)  pro-  E f f e c t on P l a n t R o o t s With o v e r g r a z i n g  there  reduction i n photosynthesis the e n t i r e p l a n t , both  i s , as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , a and h e n c e a r e d u c t i o n i n g r o w t h o f  f o l i a g e and r o o t s .  This i s very im-  p o r t a n t under such c o n d i t i o n s s i n c e i t i s n e c e s s a r y p l a n t t o have r e a d y a c c e s s the p h o t o s y n t h e t i c these  to s o i l  f o r the  n u t r i e n t s i n order  p a r t s of the p l a n t are w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h  n u t r i e n t s necessary  to r e p l a c e the grazed  foliage.  d e v e l o p m e n t i s of f a r g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i n s e m i - a r i d such as r a n g e l a n d s moisture.  than  Therefore,  overgrazed-plants  that  regions  u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f more a b u n d a n t  under c o n d i t i o n s of m o i s t u r e  s u f f e r more t h a n  normally  Root  soil  shortage,  or undergrazed  plants. Under c o n d i t i o n s o f o v e r g r a z i n g , wet s o i l s to  a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree (139).  absorbers  and p r e v e n t s  are compacted  T h i s makes t h e m p o o r  normal r o o t development.  moisture  Hanson ( 1 0 2 )  in  studying the effect  (Agropyron  o f o v e r g r a z i n g on a w n l e s s  inerme) found  w h i l e on u n g r a z e d  wheatgrass  t h a t t h e r o o t s o n l y p e n e t r a t e d 44 cm.,  a r e a s t h e y p e n e t r a t e d more t h a n 65 cm.  This  l a c k of adequate r o o t development impedes f o r a g e development d u r i n g p e r i o d s of m o i s t u r e (2) E f f e c t With  on P l a n t  shortage  (210).  Reproduction  o v e r g r a z i n g , not o n l y i s the r o o t development r e -  duced, but the p l a n t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a l s o i m p a i r e d .  While i t  i s n o t so i m p o r t a n t t o have a h i g h r a t e o f r e p r o d u c t i o n because of t h e l o n g e v i t y of t h e p e r e n n i a l p l a n t s c o m p r i s i n g the c l i m a x a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have  replacements  f o r those p l a n t s d e s t r o y e d by t h e g r a z i n g l i v e s t o c k . may i n t r o d u c e many p r o b l e m s f o r t h e r a n g e  manager.  This These  a n i m a l s may g r a z e t h e p l a n t so h e a v i l y t h a t t h e y do n o t p e r m i t the development  o f a seed  stalk.  They may a l s o d i s r u p t t h e  p h y s i o l o g y o f t h e p l a n t t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t seed i s not permitted. of awnless  significant  Hanson a n d S t o d d a r t ( 1 0 2 ) s t u d i e d t h e s e e d  wheatgrass  properly grazed  grazed seeds  (Agropyron  rangelands.  They f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no  produced,  as overgrazed a l l range  Many, e s p e c i a l l y  of t h e s e e d  produced.  two men c o n s i d e r e d t h e number o r volume t h e y found  s t a n d s were f o u n d  Not  i n e r m e ) on o v e r g r a z e d a n d  d i f f e r e n c e i n the v i t a l i t y  However, when t h e s e of seeds  setting i s  a striking difference.  Properly  t o p r o d u c e 50 t i m e s a s many v i a b l e  stands. species reproduce  e x c l u s i v e l y by  seeds.  i n t h e m o i s t e r a r e a s and g r a s s l a n d s a t  - 61 higher a l t i t u d e s , or  stolons.  to  those It  r e p r o d u c e by c r e e p i n g r o o t s t a l k s ,  However, t h e e f f e c t s  of overgrazing  when p l a n t s r e p r o d u c e s o l e l y by s e e d  are s i m i l a r  (103).  i s therefore established that overgrazing  mental t o both  rhizomes,  i s detri-  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , r e p r o d u c t i o n and l o n g e v i t y o f  t h e p a l a t a b l e r a n g e p l a n t a s an i n d i v i d u a l and i n a g r a z i n g association.  What e f f e c t w i l l  centage composition  t h i s r e d u c t i o n have o n t h e p e r -  of the climax a s s o c i a t i o n , i n competition  with the unpalatable  species of the a s s o c i a t i o n or invaders  such as m e c h a n i c a l l y  i n j u r i o u s or poisonous p l a n t s ?  effect w i l l livestock  these  c h a n g e s have on t h e c o n d i t i o n and numbers o f  g r a z i n g on s u c h r a n g e s ?  What e f f e c t w i l l t h e  c h a n g e s i n v e g e t a t i o n h a v e on t h e s o i l questions  What  i n s u c h an a r e a ?  These  c a n o n l y be a n s w e r e d a f t e r c a r e f u l s t u d y a n d k e e n  o b s e r v a t i on.  - 62 -  III.  On g r a s s l a n d extent  THE EFFECTS OF OVERGRAZING ON DOMESTIC HERBIVORES  r a n g e s t h a t have b e e n o v e r s t o c k e d  that overgrazing  has r e s u l t e d , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f  p a l a t a b l e , perennial grasses t i o n s of low v a l u e ,  of p a l a t a b l e species  (II).  are discussed  overgrazing  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g order:  reasons,  the influence of  on meat a n d w o o l p r o d u c t i o n , upon c a l f and lamb  plants, s t a r v a t i o n , predators t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e numbers  and d i s e a s e . of stock  from The  poisonous  hypothesis  per area, the greater  the r e t u r n t o the o p e r a t o r does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l y long-term  rangeland  not  throughout short-term  t h i s are discussed available  The  These e f f e c t s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 6  c r o p s , a n d upon d e a t h l o s s e s i n c l u d i n g t h o s e  apply  brush.  are f a r reaching  of g r a v e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p r o d u c e r f o r many  b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t . and  f o r b s and  change have been d i s c u s s e d  e f f e c t s of the shortage and  a n d f o r b s g i v e way t o a s s o c i a -  less palatable grasses,  The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s  t o s u c h an  ina  g r a z i n g p r o g r a m and i n some c a s e s i t does programs.  The r e a s o n s f o r  a s w e l l a s t h e l i m i t e d amounts  of d a t a  permit.  In. s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h e s e , t h e methods a r e c o m p l i c a t e d  by  the n e c e s s i t y o f i n c l u d i n g such v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s as v e g e t a t i o n , t o p o g r a p h y a n d g e n e t i c make-up o f t h e a n i m a l s . exceptionally d i f f i c u l t  t o compare  and a n a l y z e  I t i s also such f a c t o r s as  THE  E F F E C T  OF  O V E R G R A Z I N G  INCREASED YIELD OF POISONOUS a INJURIOUS PLANTS  ON  DOMESTICATED  LIVESTOCK  PRODUCTION-  LOSSES FROM POISONOUS PLANTS -  F i g u r e 1 2 . The E f f e c t o f O v e r g r a z i n g o n D o m e s t i c a t e d Livestock Production.  vigor, disease stock.  due t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y  to analyze  i n order  many w o r k e r s have i g n o r e d  this  While e f f e c t s of o v e r g r a z i n g  effects  o f t h e methods  t h e l a r g e numbers o f v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s  w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d  soil are f a i r l y  -  r e s i s t a n c e , and g r a z i n g e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e l i v e -  Therefore,  necessary  64  to test  the h y p o t h e s i s ,  s e c t i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h  work.  on t h e v e g e t a t i o n a n d on t h e  w e l l known, t h e s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e  on d o m e s t i c g r a z i n g a n i m a l s  i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r a great  have h a r d l y b e g u n .  d e a l o f work i n t h i s  There  field i f  t h e p r o b l e m s of meat p r o d u c t i o n a n d i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t o be s o l v e d .  A.  INFLUENCE ON MEAT AND WOOL PRODUCTION The  prime o b j e c t i v e o f the r a n c h i n g  d u c t i o n o f l a r g e amounts o f h i g h q u a l i t y and  wool.  This  production  program, the value ning average over production  should  i n d u s t r y i s the probeef,  be b a s e d on a  long periods  of one o r two y e a r s  animals  long-term  o f t h e p r o d u c e t o be c o n s i d e r e d o f time  r a t h e r than  are vigorous  as a r u n on t h e  of i n t e n s i v e g r a z i n g .  o f t e n stockmen a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the a n i m a l s the  m u t t o n , lamb  and t h r i f t y ,  alone  Very  and,  i f  they b e l i e v e that  management i s a d e q u a t e a n d o v e r g r a z i n g a b s e n t .  Though  such  an i n d e x t o r a n g e c o n d i t i o n s a p p e a r s s u p e r f i c i a l l y t o be s o u n d , an i n a d e q u a c y l i e s t h r i f t y without Studies  i n the f a c t that animals  making economical  may a p p e a r  gains.  have shown t h a t c a t t l e ,  though o c c a s i o n a l l y  m a k i n g some g a i n on t o o h e a v i l y u s e d r a n g e s ,  do n o t g a i n  -  65  -  n e a r l y as much as on p r o p e r l y u s e d Utah,  on h e a v i l y g r a z e d r a n g e ,  ranges  (88).  a study of mixed  showed t h a t g a i n s came i n t h e e a r l y s e a s o n  In southern cattle  and t h a t l a t e r  on  some o f t h e s e g a i n s were l o s t .  T h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o t h e  presence  such  o f s h o r t - l i v e d annuals  tectorum)  t h a t produced  when t h e y  d r i e d up a n d / o r s e t s e e d ,  as c h e a t g r a s s  f o r a g e u n t i l t h e advent  mechanically injurious.  o f hot weather  becoming u n p a l a t a b l e o r  The a v e r a g e  weight  i n c r e a s e s over  t h e g r a z i n g s e a s o n w e r e 55 t o 90 p o u n d s , d e p e n d i n g age  of t h e s t o c k .  expected. full  overgrazing Sarvis intensities ranging  percent  i n weight  o f t h e f o r a g e b u t o c c u r r e d some t i m e  had been (177)  after  reached.  i n studying the rate  of g r a z i n g found  of g a i n s under  t h a t c a t t l e made a v e r a g e  different gains  p a s t u r e s down t o 180 pounds  The q u a n t i t y of p a s t u r e r e m o v e d was 51  pastures.  on 1 0 0 - a c r e  pastures.  on t h e  d i d not begin immediately w i t h  f r o m 294 pounds i n 7 0 - a c r e  i n 30-acre  1  The g a i n s were much l o w e r t h a n s h o u l d be  Losses  utilization  (Bromus  p a s t u r e s a n d 98 p e r c e n t on t h e 30-acr'e  The 2 p e r c e n t c a r r y - o v e r i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r  t h a n t h e 45 p e r c e n t c a r r y - o v e r recommended' by t h e D o m i n i o n Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ( 4 6 ) . Overgrazing results perennial grasses  of p a l a t a b l e ,  ( I I ) . This p a l a t a b i l i t y . f a c t o r  s p e c i a l importance  assumes  f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f f o r a g e s p e c i e s when  selective  g r a z i n g over  practised  (15).  range  i n a reduced y i e l d  e x t e n s i v e areas such  as r a n g e l a n d i s  O b s e r v a t i o n s made b y t h e a u t h o r on s h e e p  i n t h e Kamloops a r e a have shown t h a t s h e e p when p l a c e d  - 66 on new  -  range choose c e r t a i n f a v o u r e d p a l a t a b l e s p e c i e s  they r e s o r t to normal systematic are  placed  see  them f a n  i n an  on  upper g r a s s l a n d out,  circling  attempt to crop the  Hook.) p r e s e n t i n t h e  rendered useless  t i o n s were n o t  of l o w  that  At t h e  same  less palatable  forage  i s trampled  of t h e  the  stock  exercise  has  no  time,  observa-  the p r i n c i p l e  under such c o n d i t i o n s  reproductive species  W h i l e B u l l and  e f f e c t on  significant  100  the  in  s h o o t s and  may young  associations  Rusk (31)  that  i t required  pounds g a i n .  forage  per  is plentiful.  t i m e a day  reduction  i n the  excessive  travelling. opinions  and factors  considerably  On o v e r g r a z e d l a n d , grazing  then,  animal  u n i t g a i n t h a n on an a r e a w h e r e D o r a n (75)  t i o n s c o n t r i b u t o r y to overgrazing, hours feeding  found  f l a v o u r or other  s i t u a t i o n i s e v e n more a c u t e s i n c e t h e  must g r a z e more f o r a g e  producing  toughness of beef  changes i n the  they d i d f i n d  more n u t r i e n t s p e r  Two  these  a m a r k e d e f f e c t on t h e meat  livestock.  of p a l a t a b i l i t y ,  the  Now  o v e r g r a z e d l a n d but  looking for palatable  movement has  c a u s e s no  the  orcholeucus  palatability.  This ability  trot  association.  e x c e s s i v e l y t r a m p l e many of t h e plants while  (Lathyrus  for l a t e r grazing.  a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l and  sheep  uncommon t o  t h e r a n g e a t a f a s t w a l k or  plant  made on  When bands o f  r a n g e s , i t i s not  w i l d peavine  much of t h e n u t r i t i o u s b u t and  grazing.  before  and  found t h a t under  s h e e p may  l o s e about  consequently cause a  c o n d i t i o n of the  e x i s t concerning  lambs.  the  It also  forage  condi2  great causes  consumption  of  -  animals  on o v e r g r a z e d p a s t u r e .  amount e a t e n available Wallace  67  d a i l y was  -  Raymond (167)  almost independent  of the g r a z i n g  b u t i n c r e a s e d o n l y w i t h body s i z e .  (122)  found t h a t the  Johnstone-  s t u d i e d t h e g r a z i n g b e h a v i o r of c a t t l e ,  t h a t t h e y showed no  inclination  finding  to extend the g r a z i n g p e r i o d  p e r day b e y o n d 8 h o u r s ,  even when h e r b a g e consumed f e l l  as  l o w as 30 t o 45 p e r c e n t  o f t h e amount n o r m a l l y g r a z e d .  In  the f i r s t  case, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the animals w i l l  travel  f a r t h e r t o g e t t h e same amount o f f o r a g e n u t r i e n t s b u t i n c r e a s e d amounts o f e n e r g y  i n order t o h a r v e s t the f e e d ,  t h e r e b y m a k i n g a l o w e r r a t e o f g a i n , i f any. case, the animals in  e a t much l e s s and  a t t e m p t i n g to harvest a normal  cases the net r e s u l t animal's response be r e d u c e d .  spend  also  In the  expend l e s s  amount o f f o r a g e .  other energy In  i s t h e same i n t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f  both the  t o t h e f e e d s h o r t a g e , t h e r a t e of g a i n  These f i n d i n g s a r e v e r i f i e d  summary, i t i s w e l l w o r t h  emphasizing  by W h i t e ( 2 5 6 ) .  t h a t range  i n b o t h q u a l i t y a n d amount o f  Experimentation conducted  at  the i n t e n s i v e rate  of 20 a c r e s p r o d u c e d  h e a d t h a n g r a z i n g a t 40 a c r e s p e r The  (226),  con-  nutrients.  a t t h e D o m i n i o n Range  ment S t a t i o n , M a n y b e r r i e s , A l b e r t a  In  i n good  c o n d i t i o n p r o v i d e s a w e l l b a l a n c e d d i e t . -Range i n p o o r dition i s deficient  will  Experi-  showed t h a t g r a z i n g less gains  per  head.  p r o d u c t i o n of w o o l on o v e r g r a z e d l a n d i s a l s o  s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d because of t h e r e d u c t i o n i n n u t r i e n t s a v a i l a b l e t o the g r a z i n g sheep.  I t i s common k n o w l e d g e t h a t  t h e p l a n e o f n u t r i t i o n has a m a r k e d e f f e c t upon w o o l production.  (140)  Morrison  6.8  -  s t a t e s t h a t a d v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s s u c h as  n e s s , undue e x p o s u r e ,  or a d e c i d e d  the y i e l d  produce s m a l l e r f i b r e s .  o f w o o l and  f o u n d t h a t s h e e p on  and  s u b m a i n t e n a n c e r a t i o n s u c h as may rangelands.  l a c k of f e e d w i l l  be  f o u n d on  heavily  A l l experimental  evidence  (78,  of n u t r i t i o n ,  forage  needs of the  B.  a f e a t u r e which  escape n o t i c e .  CALF AND  of the  However, one  a need of  production  cause, r e s u l t s  t h e n o t i c e of t h e  p r o d u c e r and  T u r n e r (86)  the l e v e l  are  c a l f crops  and  fertility  ovulation, breeding,  of  the  escape him..  deficien-  phosphorus have a marked Miller,  was  fertilization  G e s t a t i o n , on t h e  Hart  and  Cole  i n sheep, found t h a t  s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n of v i t a m i n A r e s e r v e s  were a f f e c t e d .  do n o t  of grave concern t o  of r e p r o d u c t i o n .  however, i n s t u d y i n g  physio-  conditions  found t h a t under e x i s t i n g  c i e s o f p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A,  in  point i s clear regardless  D e c r e a s e d lamb and  oestrus,  on  LAMB CROPS  c a u s e or c a u s e s .  (137),  253)  the reproduction  d i s t u r b a n c e s , many of w h i c h u n d e r r a n g e  e f f e c t on  over-  emphasizes the  t o meet b o t h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and  Malnutrition, regardless  F r i e d m a n and  a  animal.  INFLUENCE ON  logical  longer  79,  when s h e e p a r e  f o r proper g r a z i n g p r a c t i c e s which permit sufficient  (258)  Wilson  s t r o n g e r , t h a n s h e e p on  p o i n t s toward g r e a t e r wool p r o d u c t i o n high plane  decrease  a f a t t e n i n g r a t i o n grew more w o o l ,  i n s t a p l e , s u p e r i o r i n crimp,  grazed  sick-  necessary and  before  implantation  o t h e r h a n d , m i g h t become  markedly a f f e c t e d w i t h t h e death of the  foetus  a  i n utero  or  - 69 the b i r t h  -  of weak l a m b s .  When r a n g e s have been o v e r g r a z e d , not  able to provide  nourishment f o r t h e i r  m o r t a l i t y r a t e of t h e after are  Frequently,  i n s u c h poor c o n d i t i o n i n t h e do  not  alternate years. Conversely,  later The  B a k e r and  conceive result  and  on o v e r s t o c k e d  c o n t r a s t w i t h an on c o m p a r a b l e b u t  it  the  crops.  f o u n d t h a t when  (230)  a high The  animals  percentage  practical the  showed t h a t  r a n g e s a v e r a g e d o n l y 55  a v e r a g e o f 72.6  percent  c o n s e r v a t i v e l y grazed  percentage c a l f crop, the  f o r the ranges.  lower  i s f u r t h e r evidence t h a t overgrazing  ranching  C.  calf  in  of f l u s h i n g ewes.  crop  higher  calves  calf only  l o n g been u s e d i n  Experiments conducted i n Arizona calf  low  t o good p a s t u r a g e ,  f i n d i n g s has  high  e a r l y summer  consequently  i s extremely  are  The  cows w i t h y o u n g  lambs i s i n v a r i a b l y p r o d u c e d .  a p p l i c a t i o n of these process  young (83).  s p r i n g and  Q u e e n s b u r y (8)  a r e g a i n i n g i n f l e s h due o f c a l v e s and  ewes  o f f s p r i n g i s r e s u l t a n t l y very  c a l v i n g or l a m b i n g .  that they  p o o r cows and  percent  the in  same p e r i o d Since  the  the cost per  i n c r e a s e s the  calf,  cost  of  operations.  INFLUENCE ON  DEATH LOSSES  ( l ) P o i s onous P l a n t s W i t h few a r e not  exceptions,  s p e c i e s abundant  the p o i s o n o u s p l a n t s of the  range  i n t h e c l i m a x a s s o c i a t i o n but  l a r g e numbers or a r e i n t r o d u c e d  as a r e s u l t  of heavy  develop  grazing.  -  70  -  With the e x c e p t i o n of h a b i t f o r m i n g s p e c i e s f o r which stock a c q u i r e a d e s i r e , poisonous a result range  of h u n g e r .  The  plants are only grazed  main c a u s e o f t h i s  as  hunger i s poor  conditions. The  British galus  p r i n c i p a l poisonous Columbia  (227)  plants  s e r o t i n u s A. G r a y ) , l a r k s p u r venerosus  (Cicuta occidentalis  S. W a t t . ) and w a t e r  Greene).  The  poisonous  are poisonous  larkspur  poisonous  hemlock  The  f i r s t and  i s approxilast  b o t h t o c a t t l e and  ( D e l p h i n i u m spp.) m a i n l y t o c a t t l e ,  camus ( Z y g o d e n u s Because  (Astra-  order of l i s t i n g  importance.  plants l i s t e d  venerosus) t o  and  p l a n t s , the exact l i v e s t o c k for either  to death  sheep.  many r a n c h e r s o m i t t o r e p o r t t h e l o s s e s  not a v a i l a b l e  of  (Delphinium spp.), death  mately t h a t pf r e l a t i v e  sheep,  of the i n t e r i o r  were f o u n d t o be t i m b e r m i l k v e t c h  camus ( Z y g o d e n u s  are  live-  British  from  l o s s e s from t h i s Columbia  cause  or Canada,  but  r e p o r t s f r o m o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l a r e a s g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n . comparison,  h o w e v e r , b e t w e e n p r i v a t e l y owned r a n g e s and  d o m a i n i n A r i z o n a and New  Mexico  ( 1 5 1 ) has shown t h a t  on m o d e r a t e l y g r a z e d , p r i v a t e l y owned r a n g e s t o t a l l e d p e r c e n t cows and 2.8 grazed public  percent other c a t t l e ,  d o m a i n 15  c a t t l e were l o s t .  When one  percent loss  c o n s i d e r s t h a t under  constitutes a t e r r i f i c income.  Similar  suffered  economic  s i t u a t i o n s may  losses 8.7 over-  percent other good  t i o n s 25 t o 27 p e r c e n t o f t h e h e r d s h o u l d be m a r k e t e d y e a r , t h e 18.5  public  w h i l e on t h e  p e r c e n t cows and 3.5  A  on t h e p u b l i c  r e d u c t i o n to the  condieach  domain  producer's  be f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t  the  - 71 western grazing areas.  F o r s l i n g (83) f o u n d t h a t t h e m o r t a l i t y  f r o m p o i s o n o u s p l a n t s i s i n v a r i a b l y h e a v i e s t when  livestock  a r e h u n g r y a n d / o r when t h e r a n g e i s c l o s e l y g r a z e d . observations  are supported  b y many o t h e r s  ^is  (230, 2 1 4 , 235,  212,  91). Many p o i s o n o u s p l a n t s a r e among t h e e a r l i e s t make t h e i r forage  a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e s p r i n g ; and i f t h e s u p p l y o f  i s s h o r t , as i n t h e c a s e o f . o v e r g r a z i n g , l i v e s t o c k a r e  a t t r a c t e d t o these w i s e w o u l d be. condition  serotinus).  As e x e m p l i f i e d b y t i m b e r  milk vetch  d e a t h i s n o t the. o n l y i l l  effect  stand  I n the advanced stages  i n a semi-stupor  emaciation  (Astragalus  of poisonous  manager i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y  of herding  i s t h e author's  of p o i s o n i n g ,  f o r long periods Of even g r e a t e r  of t i m e ,  they  refusing  concern t o t h e range  these  affected  animals.  b e l i e f t h a t a f f e c t e d wet cows c o n t i n u a l l y  attempt t o leave the subalpine  meadows  l e v e l s w h e r e i t i s warmer d u r i n g vetch  con-  V e r y o f t e n a f f e c t e d c a t t l e l o s e c o n d i t i o n a n d become  b o t h t o e a t and t o move.  It  other-  t h e s t o c k a r e i n a somewhat w e a k e n e d  poisonous p l a n t s causes i n c r e a s e d  s e v e r e l y emaciated. will  degree than they  from t h e e f f e c t s of w i n t e r i n g and s h o r t f e e d ,  death.  plants.  plants to a greater  Since  sumption of these and  species to  and r e t u r n t o  the night  lower  and t h e t i m b e r  ( A s t r a g a l u s s e r o t i n u s ) grows b e c a u s e : ' ( l ) The a f f e c t e d c a t t l e f e e l t h e c o l d and dampness more t h a n u n a f f e c t e d c a t t l e ; o r (2) The a f f e c t e d c a t t l e become a d d i c t e d t o t h e t i m b e r milk vetch (Astragalus s e r o t i n u s ) poisonous p r i n c i p l e ; or (3) B o t h ( l ) and ( 2 ) .  milk  - 72  -  This introduces increased r i d i n g poisoned  cows and  where t h e y may gullies,  (2)  be  overgrazing.  p r o t e c t e d from p r e d a t o r s ,  swamps, b o g s ,  Other F a c t o r s  of h e a v y d e a t h  l o s s e s from s t a r v a t i o n (235)  These l o s s e s o c c u r  preparations  Griffiths  as  (91)  produced during  f o r severe  any  other to the  s t o c k were c o m p e l l e d  d e p l e t i o n of the  of w i n t e r f e e d r e n d e r e d  to support  enough s t o c k t o make s e r i o u s i n r o a d s While h i s statements  c o r r e c t , i t i s d o u b t f u l i f the l i v e s t o c k  a winter  s u c h as t h i s  ranges i s  (1948-49) even i f t h e y  As  i t impossible more  theoreti-  could  had  long  the  on t h e  are  little  contri-  r o u n d on  limited  not  survive be.en  weakened o r p o o r l y c o n d i t i o n e d f o r t h e w i n t e r by f e e d i n g overgrazed this  land.  In the annals  winter w i l l  u n d o u b t e d l y be  winters  on  of the l i v e s t o c k  industry  compared w i t h t h e  severe  of t h e 1880's w h i c h f o r c e d r a n c h e r s  to  on  drought.  range a r e a .  range, the  a b u n d a n t summer g r o w t h .  of  f a c t o r w h i c h has  t o s u b s i s t the year  supply  subsequent  good y e a r s w i t h  w i n t e r s or p e r i o d s  s t a t e s t h a t t h e one  more t h a n  r a n g e and  in  because ranges are s t o c k e d  d e v e l o p m e n t of hay p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e  cally  herd  .  f r o m m i s u s e of t h e  t h e b a s i s of t h e f o r a g e  the  the  w i t h the  southwest r e s u l t  buted  since  etc.  Instances  o r no  labour  t h e i r c a l v e s must be k e p t  S t a r v a t i o n and  the  and  prepare  e m e r g e n c y f e e d on a l a r g e s c a l e . Forsling  (83)  the unfavorable  f o u n d t h a t young a n i m a l s  c o n d i t i o n s and  this  are stunted  f u r t h e r reduces the  by income  -  from the British be  livestock business.  -  I n a r e a s s u c h as  C o l u m b i a , under good g r a z i n g  s o l d as g r o s s  lings  73  f a t t e n e d b e e f a t an  o r c o m i n g two  d i t i o n s , the  c o n d i t i o n s , stock  may  age  year-  the  stock  may  be  d i v e r t e d to producing  are w i n t e r e d  as l o n g  take  a good p a r t  to r e g a i n the weight l o s t the  hay  used during  W a l k e r and  L  disease,  w i t h the  kind  although  (235)  the  of s t o c k  and  is  found t h a t the are  have s t r a y e d f r o m t h e  somewhat.  As  causes.  by c o y o t e s  i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e where t h e  differs  The  of  Death  Figure  12  i s s m a l l , but  herd  s h e e p on t h e r a n g e t h e  u s e d by t h e s e a n i m a l s w i t h g r e a t  frequently  these  seen t h e success.  a t t a c k t h e band of s h e e p d i r e c t l y b u t  losses  young.  e m a c i a t e d a n i m a l s and  r e s t of the  a u t h o r has  indi-  O r d i n a r i l y , the  dams a r e t o o weak t o p r o t e c t t h e i r  When c o y o t e s k i l l  and  predators  emaciated c o n d i t i o n of l i v e s t o c k  c o n t r i b u t e s to lossew from other  calves  forage  major causes  the r e g i o n concerned.  p o o r or  This  seasons  i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s e v a r i e s g r e a t l y  cates,  i n c r e a s e when t h e  This  poisonous p l a n t s ,  r e l a t e d t o range c o n d i t i o n s .  number of c a l v e s k i l l e d  a  expensive.  l o s s e s are the  When  summer g r a z i n g  during the winter.  d e a t h among r a n g e l i v e s t o c k and  grassland  Under s u c h c o n d i t i o n s i t  s p r i n g and  wintering  anton  much o f t h e  y e a r l i n g s t h e y a r e h e l d on  of t h e  con-  grazing  more young s t o c k .  maintenance'or submaintenance d i e t . may  Under t h e s e  a n i m a l s and  them f o r a n o t h e r y e a r i s e l i m i n a t e d and forage  known as l o n g  (18-24 months of a g e ) .  expense of w i n t e r i n g  interior  their  (83). procedure  f o l l o w i n g system The  c o y o t e does  s t a m p e d e s them a l o n g  not a  - 74 r i d g e or the animals are  s i d e of a h i l l . f o r c e d t o the  c o y o t e moves i n on t h e  As t h e  s i d e s and  downhill  sheep a r e  running  and  downhill with i t .  rolls  - . sheep r u n ,  the  b a c k of t h e  s i d e of t h e  flock.  f l o c k and  s e l e c t s h i s v i c t i m , g r a s p s i t by  Death l o s s e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m a l a c k  weaker  of f o r a g e  The as  the  on  the  throat,  overgrazed  i]  r a n g e may  m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n o t h e r j W a y s as w e l l .  contibuted the  t o f a c t o r s s u c h as  r e s u l t of  overgrazing  poor c o n d i t i o n are bearing result  diseases  i n d e a t h as  are  often  indirectly  since stock  i n an  emaciated  to disease  (256)  and  subject  (230).  disease  Losses  or  parasites  E m a c i a t i o n or poor c o n d i t i o n  a r e s u l t of the  inability  of t h e  may  animals  t o overcome p h y s i c a l obstad.es s u c h as bogs andjswamps or i n t o which the  a n i m a l s wander and  t h e n have n o t  t o s t r u g g l e back t o normal r a n g e l a n d . factors can  be  c o n t r i b u t i n g to increased traced  factors the  strength  Almost a l l these  death l o s s e s  on t h e  d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y t o o v e r g r a z i n g .  contribute  d i r e c t l y to  economic l o s s e s  range These  suffered  by  producer. I t has  bearing ranching effects c a l f and and  the  gullies  been shown t h a t  has  an  on t h e many f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the enterprise. of  important  s u c c e s s of  a  T h r o u g h g r a z i n g management, h a r m f u l  overgrazing  on t h e  lamb c r o p i n c r e a s e d ,  marketed at a higher  at i t s maximum.  l i v e s t o c k may and  profit.  r a n c h income i s c o n t i n g e n t duction  proper grazing  be  minimized, the  more l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c e d C o n t i n u o u s and  upon m a i n t a i n i n g  Whereas an  the  dependable forage  pro-  i m m e d i a t e maximum meat  - 75 y i e l d i s n o t a l w a y s c o m p a t a b l e w i t h r a n g e management, i t i s d e f i n i t e l y u n w i s e f o r t h e r a n g e manager t o i g n o r e meat as a n i n d e x t o c o r r e c t r a n g e use, f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e g o a l o f r a n g e management. application  S i n c e i t has no  t o human n u t r i t i o n , f o r a g e  r a n g e i s n o t an end i n i t s e l f .  production  yields  o f meat  direct on t h e  - 76 -  IV.  The not  THE EFFECTS OF OVERGRAZING ON THE SOIL  results  of overgrazing,  a s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , do  end w i t h t h e r e d u c t i o n o r r e m o v a l o f v e g e t a t i o n  rangeland.  R a n g e l a n d , when i t i s i n t h e c l i m a x s t a g e  properly grazed, this  stage,  i s i n balance  the s o i l  from the o r i g i n a l climax s o i l . entered these  with the eroding  rock  or parent  of r e l a t i v e  stability  with t h e climate.  c o n d i t i o n s , t h e downward movement o f s o l u b l e  by  Geological erosion a s s i s t s  t h i s balance.  b y t h e u p w a r d movement o f m a t e r i a l s  In a climax s o i l  more, a b i o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e multicellular  activities  w i t h t h e weather  the p l a n t s i n m a i n t a i n -  t h e h o r i z o n t a l development  are v i r t u a l l y  constant,  varying  only  (148). of t h e combined  and c l i m a t e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t as a s o i l a p -  proaches i t s climax, normal•conditions,a and  Further-  i s a t t a i n e d i n which b a c t e r i a l and  Now s i n c e v e g e t a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t of s o i l  Under  materials  complete and a c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n i s n e g l i g i b l e .  factors  At  m a t e r i a l a n d has become a  i s balanced  is  forces.  has u n d e r g o n e a s e r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t s  by l e a c h i n g  ing  or i s  S u c h a s o i l may be d e f i n e d as a s o i l w h i c h has  a stage  plants.  from the  s o a l s o does t h e v e g e t a t i o n . climax s o i l  supports  a climax  Under vegetation  b o t h a r e i n a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e c l i m a t e .  t h e c l i m a t e v a r i e s , so does t h e v e g e t a t i o n , t h e a n i m a l s on t h e v e g e t a t i o n  and, t o a l e s s e r degree, t h e s o i l .  As living  A change  - 77 in  t h e plant a s s o c i a t i o n , whatever the cause, i s almost  certain  to a l t e r  about by a l o n g in  climate,  period  lands.  tion i n soil  of abnormal weather, a s e c u l a r  This  man, o r a h o s t o f o t h e r  change i n tte v e g e t a t i o n  fertility  until  grazing  causes a reduc-  e q u i l i b r i u m i s again  conditions.  some a l a r m among b o t h s o i l  This  and w i l d l i f e  established  c h a n g e has c a u s e d  conservationists.  p r i m a r y problem of w e s t e r n r a n g e l a n d s , t h e n ,  developing the  change  a s s o c i a t i o n i s p r o d u c e d on w e s t e r n  u n d e r t h e new v e g e t a t i v e  The  The c h a n g e may be b r o u g h t  With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of domestic  a new p l a n t  grazing  equilibrium.  by a p a r a s i t e , f i r e ,  causes (119). animals,  this  a system of proper range u t i l i z a t i o n  prevention  of a c c e l e r a t e d  soil  erosion  (7).  involves  combined This  with  fact i s  b o r n e out i n t h e r e s u l t s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( 2 6 l ) o f mismanaged and  excessively  overstocked  parts  of the Palouse  Young f o u n d t h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n indicate that  unless  region,  of t h e s o i l  as o r g a n i c  matter,  i n such total  n i t r a t e - n i t r o g e n , and hydrogen i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n  erosion  particular  do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  p r o n o u n c e d c h a n g e s have a l s o t a k e n p l a c e  chemical constituents nitrogen,  Prairie.  has been a s s o c i a t e d  with  overgrazing.  s t u d y ( 2 6 l ) has shown t h a t i n t h e P a l o u s e  This Prairie  o v e r g r a z e d a r e a s w h i c h have n o t s u f f e r e d f r o m  are not c h e m i c a l l y  i m p o v e r i s h e d as h e r e t o f o r e  Maximum p r o d u c t i o n maximum c o n s e r v a t i o n of e r o s i o n  erosion  assumed.  on r a n g e l a n d i s a l w a y s c o n g r u o u s  of s o i l  and m o i s t u r e .  Vegetative  with  control  on t h e r a n g e l a n d t h e n c o n s i s t s o f a c a r e f u l s t u d y  of t h e l i v e s t o c k h a n d l i n g  p r a c t i c e s a n d l i v e s t o c k numbers t o  - 78 d e t e r m i n e any  source  -  of mismanagement t h a t g i v e s r i s e t o  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the v e g e t a t i o n . is  t h e most d i r e c t and  tion.  I t should  be  grazed  c o n d i t i o n s the  erosion regardless On  A good c o v e r  forage  A.  WATER EROSION  emphatically repeated  conserva-  t h a t under  over-  p r o b l e m becomes t h a t o f c o n t r o l l i n g  o f w h e t h e r i t i s c a u s e d by w a t e r o r  production,  ('1) F a c t o r s  vegetation  e f f e c t i v e means t o w a r d s o i l  r a n g e s where e r o s i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y  not  of  the  should  be  severe,  soil  wind.  stability,  the measure of c o r r e c t  I n f l u e n c i n g Water  soil  use.  Erosion  While wind e r o s i o n i n a s e r i o u s form i s l a r g e l y confined to regions per year,  receiving  such i s not  the  b e l o w 15  inches  of  precipitation  case w i t h water e r o s i o n .  However,  most of t h e a r e a s s u b j e c t t o w a t e r e r o s i o n t h a t do more a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a r e c u l t u r e other discussed.  than rangeland  The  q u e s t i o n may  r u n - o f f f r o m s u c h a low  receive  e n g a g e d i n some f o r m of g r a z i n g and  hence w i l l  t h e n be a s k e d :  "How  agri-  not  can  be  the  a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n become a g r a v e  p r o b l e m when a r e a s r e c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y more r a i n f a l l year  are v i r t u a l l y  c o n d i t i o n and must be  type  considered  f r e e of h a r m f u l  is ing  i n nature.  Again,  of v e g e t a t i o n f o u n d g r o w i n g on t h e i n presenting  On more humid a r e a s , forming  erosion?"  the  the v e g e t a t i o n A good c o v e r  answer t o such a o f t e n t e n d s t o be  i s thus p r o v i d e d  w e l l p r o t e c t e d by t h e w e l l - k n i t  sod.  On  the  and  areas  per  the land question. sodthe  soil  receiv-  s m a l l amounts o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n t h e v e g e t a t i o n t e n d s t o  be  -  79  -  found i n bunches, p l a n t r e p r o d u c t i o n and  creeping  root  s t a l k s but  conditions  of c l i m a x  p l a n t s are  able  cipitation. and  tion  or p r o p e r g r a z i n g  to withstand  Therefore  the  When o v e r g r a z i n g  i s permitted,  does t h e v e l o c i t y erosion rainfall  of the  of s u c h r u n - o f f .  and The  As  the  hence the nature  alteration  precipitation velocity  curtailed  stock  conserva-  grazing  thereon.  controls  are  f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the slope  s t e e p e n s , not  r u n - o f f w a t e r i n c r e a s e , but  and  gravity. the  The  texture  this  r a t e and  of t h e soils  only  velocity  p o t e n t i a l eroding  textured  s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s to erosion. since the  pre-  erosion.  o f impar t a n c e s i n c e d i f f e r e n t  that  these  demands o f s o i l  i s of i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g fun-off  Under  kept i n a c o n d i t i o n  these vegetative  f a c t o r i s a l s o a s s i s t e d by  of s u r f a c e  ent  the  or t o p o g r a p h y i s a v i t a l  d e g r e e or r a t e o f e r o s i o n .  rhizomes  e r o s i v e f o r c e s of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s of the  reduced, r e s u l t i n g i n water Sipe  utilization,  i f w a t e r e r o s i o n i s t o be  permit i t to f u l f i l l  as w e l l as t h e  from  from seed d i s t r i b u t i o n .  c o n t r o l l e d t h e v e g e t a t i o n must be  that w i l l  coming not  amount  capacity  soil  i s also  exhibit  I t i s obvious,  of  differ-  therefore,  of range topography, s o i l ,  and  i s e i t h e r e x p e n s i v e or i m p o s s i b l e ,  the  o n l y f e a s i b l e method of c o n t r o l l i n g w a t e r e r o s i o n i s t h r o u g h the  p r o p e r management of t h e  rangeland  vegetation  ( a ) R o l e of t h e G r o s s M o r p h o l o g y o f t h e in Soil Protection It  has  been p o i n t e d  o u t t h a t i n an  s y s t e m t h e e f f e c t s of e r o s i o n a r e  (7).  Vegetation established  o f f s e t by t h e  eco-  activities  of  F i g u r e 14. R e s e a r c h e n c l o s u r e A I I I . Note t h e l o w e r and u p p e r g r a s s l a n d r e g i o n s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d .  - 81 the  plant associations  If the  exclusion  comprising  of g r a z i n g  becomes d o m i n a n t (119), t h e and  f o r b s are  an  increase  in  Figures  soil  of b a r e g r o u n d . and  14.  This  the  climax  i s permitted,  c h o k e d out w i t h  13  -  tall  stemmy h e r b a g e  p r o t e c t i n g bottom  the An  vegetation.  result  grasses  that again  there  example o f t h i s may  enclosure,  be  is  shown  named A I I I , was  e s t a b l i s h e d on M r a M o u n t a i n n e a r Kamloops and  a l l grazing  was  excluded.  negligible  and  l a r g e bare spaces between t h e p l a n t s  a  that  of c o v e r f o u n d on n o r m a l l y  also a tendency toward excessive  between t h e p l a n t s the  of r e p r o d u c t i o n  are  g i v e ample  t h e w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e s e p l a n t s  uniform type is  Indications  soil  as  s u c h and  c o m m e r c i a l meat i s b e i n g (b)  soil the  evaporation. s i n c e the blanket  surface  topsoil  It i s therefore  of t h e  on  the  land,  sun,  and  t h i s markedly  reduces  i s noted  a windbreak, l e a v i n g soil  reduced humidity lower evaporation  the s o i l  p r e v e n t the  soil  from d r y i n g .  draw s u b s o i l m o i s t u r e f o r t r a n s p i r a t i o n  a  surface.  R e d u c e d s u n s h i n e and  plants  nor  seldom i f ever  of e v a p o r a t i o n  a s s o c i a t i o n a c t s as  and  both  Soil  c o v e r may  o f humid a i r i m m e d i a t e l y o v e r t h e  surface  evi-  ;  A further reduction  plant  leaving  i n t h a t n e i t h e r game  Vegetation  under a p l a n t  d i r e c t rays  There  produced.  I n f l u e n c e of t h e Microelements  The  of the  summer d r o u g h t p e r i o d ,  economically  more  areas.  oomplete p r o t e c t i o n i s a d e t r i m e n t t o the  soil  receive  the  quite susceptible to erosion.  dent t h a t to the  during  prevents the  utilized  drying  evidence  from  Since  (214),  the  the  F i g u r e 15. E x c l o s u r e on N i c o l a Range s h o w i n g R e s u l t s of Four Year's P r o t e c t i o n from G r a z i n g .  v e g e t a t i o n may distributed, moister.  be  s a i d t o make t h e  d r y i n g the  T h i s i s an  s u b s o i l and  ideal  flora  The  prevents  f r e e z i n g and to  the  heaving  excessive  thawing  the  surface  drying  of o t h e r  d i r e c t a c t i o n of the  sun  on t h e  of heavy s o i l s  soils and  in  w a t e r more r e a d i l y  i n f l u e n c e of t h e v e g e t a t i o n  and  soil.  This  than micro-  the  w h i c h have been  exposed  wind causes c r a c k i n g or  them by p u s h i n g  a l s o break them out  •  in  c r a c k i n g or beaving  s o i l w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o e r o s i o n may  r o o t s or a c t u a l l y d e s t r o y  soil the  soil  owing t o the absence or p r e s e n c e of m o i s t u r e  a b n o r m a l amounts i n t h e the  keeping  evenly  condition f o r absorption  surface s o i l , moist s o i l absorbing dry s o i l .  s o i l w a t e r more  of  plant  of the s o i l .  - 83 Grassland t e c t i n g the  a s s o c i a t i o n s are  soil  way,  until  some of t h e  moisture  the m o i s t u r e  siderable degree. may  i t can  be  elapse  while  c e p t i o n on  the moisture  been g i v e n t o t h e  s o i l and  amount of m o i s t u r e as t h e  k i n d and  intensity humidity expressed  while p r a i r i e parable  and  w i n d movement.  i t has  the  hours  interlittle  h e l d by  moisture  the  evapora-  a c r e , the be  cover,  the d u r a t i o n  and  relative  amount o f m o i s t u r e  is  m a g n i t u d e o f i n t e r c e p t i o n by  more r e a d i l y a p p r e c i a t e d . ' o f h o l d i n g 8.0  Sweet  tons,  sage ( A r t e m i s i a g n o o h o l o d i e s N u t t . ) , u n d e r com-  and  as w e l l as t o an added t o the  t o two  p o i n t of  temperature,  been n o t e d , i s capable  overgrazing  composition  con-  In g e n e r a l , very  When t h e  c o n d i t i o n s , r e t a i n e d 12.5  Since  canopy  d e p e n d s upon a number of f a c t o r s , s u c h  h e r b a c e o u s v e g e t a t i o n may cover,  vegetative  t r a n s p i r a t i o n f r o m t h e p l a n t s . - The  held  per  this  hence  i s reduced to a  i s granted  d e n s i t y of t h e p l a n t  i n tons  In  the v e g e t a t i v e  amount o f m o i s t u r e  publicity  of t h e r a i n f a l l , and  of the  runs f r o m the  to the ground.  vegetation, while great t i o n from the  soil  hold  g r o u n d and  Another e f f e c t  on t h e  By-  evaporated.  I n some c a s e s a p e r i o d o f one  the f o l i a g e  a t t e n t i o n has  canopy may  n e v e r r e a c h e s the  (13).  pro-  e f f e c t s of r a i n f a l l .  i s t h a t when t h e r a i n f a l l s t r i k e s  t h e i m p a c t of  importance i n  the vegetative  s u c h t i m e as  erosion i s impossible cover  of g r e a t  from the eroding  i n t e r c e p t i n g the r a i n f a l l , the m o i s t u r e  -  an  tons  per  acre  (44) •  l e a d s to a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n b o t a n i c a l  increase  i n stemray a n n u a l g r a s s e s  and  weeds,  i n c r e a s e i n bare ground, f u r t h e r weight i s  argument t h a t e r o s i o n c o n t r o l and  soil  conservation  - 84 on g r a s s l a n d s o f a l l t y p e s a r e synonymous w i t h good  range  management. United tests  S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e  (60) on I d a h o . r a n g e l a n d s  the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r  which  of B r i t i s h  four types i n c l u d e d (a) awnless  a r e s i m i l a r t o those of  Columbia  t y p e s of v e g e t a t i o n u s i n g a r t i f i c i a l  Forest Service  w e r e made on f o u r  r a i n machines.  wheatgrass  The  (Agropyron  inerme),  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g r a s s l a n d c l i m a x ; ( b ) l u p i n e s and needle  g r a s s (Lupinus spp. and S t i p a l i t t e r m a n i i ) , p e r e n n i a l s  representing  the early  stage of d e p l e t i o n from g r a z i n g ;  ( c ) a n n u a l g r a s s (Bromus t e c t o r u m ) , a l a t e r  stage of g r a z i n g  d e p l e t i o n ; a n d ( d ) a n n u a l weeds ( G a y o p h y l u m . m a d i a a n d L a c t u c a ) , an i n f e r i o r  range  cover brought  a b o u t by i n t e n s e  misuse.  Average o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r each  type ( v e g e t a t i o n a l ) , a l l other'  f a c t o r s h a v i n g been i s o l a t e d ,  a r e shown i n T a b l e I V .  Run-off  TABLE I V and E r o s i o n f r o m F o u r V e g e t a t i o n T y p e s of Southern Idaho (44). WHEATGRASS (a)  VEGETATION TYPE  Run-off Soil  (percent)  eroded  Further  0.4  (tons/A)  evidence  LUPINE & ANNUAL NEEDLE GRASSES GRASS (c) (b) 49.9 2.38  0.003  60.8  25.5 1.05  7-64  o f t h e e r o s i o n c o n t r o l o f each  a s s o c i a t i o n i n shown i n C a l i f o r n i a  experiments  s t r a t e d t h a t a s o i l cover o f sagebrush and  ANNUAL WEEDS (d)  grass supplied a r e l i a b l e  which  (Artimesia  plant demon-  tridentata)  s o u r c e o f f o r a g e and a s t a b l e  - 85  -  year-round p r o t e c t i o n f o r the s o i l cultivated  (161).  When t h i s l a n d i s  and p e r m i t t e d t o p r o d u c e u n r e l i a b l e weedy c o v e r s  such as R u s s i a n t h i s t l e ( B r a s s i c a and  ( S a l s o l a p e s t i f e r ) and  Sisymbrium  spp.), e r o s i o n i s a sure  ( c ) C h e m i c a l and P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s Vegetation i n S o i l Protection The  decayed  under v e g e t a t i o n t h a t  mustards result.  of the  matter or " d u f f " t h a t covers the  soil  i s a l l o w e d a c a r r y - o v e r or i s l e f t  un-  g r a z e d i s an i m p o r t a n t p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e r o d i n g a g e n t s  and  an a i d i n a b s o r b i n g w a t e r . the l i t t e r  f r o m one  much as 650  gms.  E x p e r i m e n t s (81)  s q u a r e metre- of g r a s s l a n d  "duff".  has a b s o r b e d  One  a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p l a n t do  o f t i m e an o r g a n i c r e s e r v e i s b u i l t  which r e s u l t s permeability i n Nebraska  i n a h i g h e r water h o l d i n g because  up i n t h e  c a p a c i t y and  of i m p r o v e d s t r u c t u r e .  g r a s s e s the pore space i n the s o i l  d e c r e a s e s f r o m 60  . p l a n t s a r e l a r g e l y g r a s s e s and t h e p a r t s u n d e r g r o u n d  clutching  of stems.  As a r e s u l t  of t h e p a r t i c l e s  m y r i a d s of r o o t s o f g r a s s e s , t h e s o i l  i s compressed  stability.  increased  prairie percent Prairie consist of the  o f e a r t h by t h e  g r a n u l e s and t h e s e a r e s u r r o u n d e d by c o l l o i d a l m a i n t a i n t h e i r p e r m a n e n c e and  subsoil  S t u d i e s conducted  o f t h e v o l u m e a t 6 i n c h e s t o 51 p e r c e n t a t 7 f e e t .  o f r o o t s , r h i z o m e s and b a s e s  roots  Over a  by Weaver e t a l ( 2 4 9 ) showed t h a t u n d e r  i n t e r l a c i n g and  not  of the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from p l a n t  i s t h e t r a n s f e r of o r g a n i c m a t t e r t o t h e s u b s o i l . period  as  of water.  However, t h e p r o t e c t i v e end w i t h  have shown t h a t  The  films living  into which under-  - 86 ground p a r t s i n t h e p r a i r i e the  compose  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one-tenth of  t o t a l o r g a n i c m a t t e r by w e i g h t .  deteriorate,  by t h e r o o t s  ones (239)•  The c h a n n e l s w h i c h were made  i n pressing aside the s o i l  p e r i o d of t i m e , g r e a t l y i n c r e a s i n g quently the a b s o r p t i o n of water  remain f o r a long  the pore  (23l).  s p a c e and  conse-  The c l o s e d e p e n d e n c e o f  o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l upon t h e a b u n d a n c e and v i g o r o f t h e t o p s  c a n n o t be o v e r e m p h a s i z e d . cause  slowly  d i e and d e c a y w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f y e a r s , o n l y t o  be r e p l a c e d by new  this  These p l a n t p a r t s  Frequent removal  of t h e t o p s  may  them t o d i e o r t h e amount o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n t h e  t o be c o n s i d e r a b l y  soil  reduced.  With overgrazing there i s also a reduction i n the plant r o o t r e s e r v e s as w e l l  as a d e c r e a s e i n r o o t v o l u m e w h i c h i n  t u r n r e d u c e s the degree Flory  (8l)  states that  o f g r a n u l a t i o n and p o r o s i t y p r e s e n t . soil  structure i s materially  by b o t h c u l t i v a t i o n and g r a z i n g . cultivation  He f o u n d t h a t  altered  6 years of  reduced the pore space of a c l i m a x p r a i r i e  soil  f r o m 50.5 t o 44.3 p e r c e n t and t h e r a t e o f p e n e t r a t i o n o f w a t e r f r o m 0.94 t o 0.54 i n c h e s p e r h o u r .  In studying  o v e r g r a z e d and d e p l e t e d r a n g e s i n New space  undergrazed,  M e x i c o , he f o u n d a p o r e  o f 68.1, 51.1 n d 46.5 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . a  o f w a t e r p e r n e t r a t i o n p e r h o u r w e r e 4«14, respectively.  2.16,  T h i s d a t a i s shown i n T a b l e V.  and  The i n c h e s 0.28  - 87 TABLE V D e c r e a s e i n P o r e Space and W a t e r P e n e t r a t i n g R a t e i n U n d e r g r a z e d , O v e r g r a z e d , a n d D e p l e t e d New M e x i c o Ranges ( 8 1 ) UNDERGRAZED OVERGRAZED DEPLETED RANGE RANGE RANGE P o r e s p a c e {%)  68.1  Water P e n e t r a t i o n Rate ( i n / h r )  51.1  4.14  2.16  (d) M e c h a n i c a l A c t i v i t i e s in Soil Protection Plant  r o o t s , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r apparent  frailty,  per  square i n c h by o s m o t i c p r e s s u r e  the  r o o t s t o open h o l e s  a r e able t o e x e r t pressures  i n preventing  the s o i l  Grass swards i n p a r t i c u l a r  to  force  same p r e s s u r e  also particles  structure.  and o t h e r v e g e t a t i o n a l a s s o c i thereby  The r e d u c t i o n i n t h e r a t e o f f l o w  i t s o r i g i n a l speed w i l l  of the w a t e r t o o n e - f o u r t h  enables  the percola-  obstruct the flow of r u n - o f f water,  i t s r a t e of f l o w .  one-half  This  e r o s i o n by m o u l d i n g t h e s o i l  i n t o granules, thus improving  ations i n general  alone.  This  tenderness  w e l l o v e r 100 p o u n d s  and c r a c k s w h i c h p e r m i t  t i o n of water through the s o i l .  reducing  0.82  of t h e Vegetation  and  assists  46.5  reduce t h e e r o d i n g  power  and t h e amount o f m a t e r i a l i t c a n  c a r r y t o one t h i r t y - s e c o n d ( 6 ) .  The r e d u c t i o n i n v e l o c i t y  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e p a r t l y t o t h e v e g e t a t i o n h o l d i n g some o f t h e water back, p a r t l y because i t spreads the water out over a greater area increasing  of s o i l  surface, thereby  reducing  i t s volume and  t h e d i s t a n c e i t must f l o w , and p a r t l y b e c a u s e d e b r i s  such as s t i c k s ,  dead l e a v e s and s t e m s l o d g e  between t h e plants.  E F F E C T  O F  O V E R G R A Z I N G  A N D  EROSION  ON  W E S T E R N  GRAZING  LOSS OF VEGETATIVE . COVER  DIMINISHED UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY  INCREASED NUMBERS OF INSECTSSMALL MAMMALS, PREDATORY ANIMALS ETC. EROSION  DROUGHT (INTENSIFIED PERIODS)  8  ITS  RAMIFICATIONS  REDUCED LIVE— . STOCK PRODUCTIO  PARASITES,^ DISEASE  OVERGRAZING  REGIONS  DESTRUCTION OF FOOD 8 COVER FOR WLDLIFE a FISH  DEPOSITION OF POOR SUBSOIL MATERIAL ON RICH ALLUVIAL SOILS  IMPOVERISHMENT  DUSTSTORMS- LOSS OF TOPSCHL a NUTRIENTS  INCREASED SPEED OFF RUN-OF'  SEDIMENTATION IN  NAVIGATION CHANNELS RESERVOIRS DAMS AND DtTCHES HARBOURS  SUFFERING DISEASE DEATH  - FLOODS-  DAMAGE TO ROADS •RAILROADS FARM BUILDINGS ETC-  Figure 16.  REDUCED YEILDS  LOSSES IN  NAVIGATION CITY WATER SUPPLY HYDROELECTRIC POWER ' . IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT FARMING & GRAZING  DETERIORATION OF SOIL FERTILITY  - 8? (2) R e s u l t s  o f Water  Erosion  The r e s u l t s o f s e r i o u s w a t e r e r o s i o n e f f e c t s o f w i n d e r o s i o n , o r by i t s e l f ,  combined  with the  present a p i c t u r e of  d e s t r u c t i o n a n d d e s o l a t i o n t h e e q u a l o f w h i c h w o u l d be e x c e e d intly this  difficult  to find.  continent there  would  Throughout  were c o u n t l e s s  the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e of warnings t h a t  s u r e l y r e s u l t from the systems  erosion  of grazing p r a c t i s e d .  Many of t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s ( 8 9 , 1 0 8 , 127) w e r e w r i t t e n to the turn thirties (or  of the Century.  of the western United  States)  strong  sistence  the mid-  is still  spirit  still  ample good lives  enough t o overcome a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s .  of opinions  West  almost i n v a r i a b l y produced  of p r o t e s t t h a t t h e r e  a l l and t h a t t h e p i o n e e r i n g  prople  until  any m e n t i o n of t h e d e s i c c a t i o n o f t h e Canadian  a counterblast for  Unfortunately,  prior  land  i n the The p e r -  such a s t h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e n e c e s s i t y  of i n t r o d u c i n g the P r a i r i e  Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t (1935) by  w h i c h p r o v i s i o n i s made t o remedy t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s g r a z i n g , d r o u g h t and s o i l  drifting  of over-  i n w e s t e r n Canada.  It is  i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e money i s u s e d n o t o n l y f o r direct assistance education'  and r e s e a r c h  but a l s o f o r propaganda  and  a move t o w a r d e l i m i n a t i n g a l l t h e c o n t r i b u t a r y  causes of poor l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n .  Unfortunately  the conditions  b r o u g h t a b o u t by w a t e r e r o s i o n a r e n o t r e a d i l y r e c t i f i e d . Dr. W. R. C a h p l i e  has s t a t e d  (4l) that  dependent  on g r a z i n g  livestock  industry i t i s imperative  s i n c e t h e West i s  of the range f o r the e x i s t e n c e  of i t s  that the t e r r i f i c  wastage  exemplified  by  80  percent  lands  be  able,  a natural plant  decrease acre.  halted.  The  and  ReM  heavy g r a z i n g of  Wallawa and per  acre  96  that  r a n g e was  green  fescue  in  the  induced  the  with  by  by  the  the  reduced  Subalpine  c a p a c i t y of weed s t a g e  chiefly  0.21  u n f o r t u n a t e l y the  the  loss  that  the  quality  of  natural.shortage grazing  w h i c h was  of  capacity  made i n the  927 t o n s  of  topsoil  lost  studyshows t h a t  when  the  plant association  c o n s i s t s of n e a r l y that  type  has  ranges i n a climax c o n d i t i o n 5»35  sheep months p e r  acre.  when, as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ,  needle  effects  of v e g e t a t i o n and  a  grassland  v i r g i n , o o n d i t i o n but  grass  sheep months p e r  Now  per  statement.  g r a z i n g c a p a c i t y was The  to  not  r u d e r a l weeds p r e d o m i n a t e when t h i s  second  but  a  high  their  zones i n the northwest,  v e g e t a t i o n was  c a p a c i t y was  avail-  contains  subalpine  Their study,  of the  are  such  type, w h i c h i s t h e most p r e v a l e n t  a grazing  In a d e p l e t e d  loss  Washington, found  severely depleted.  and  range-  i n order  literature  Mountains i n d i c a t e s t h a t  become d e t e r i o r a t e d . possessed  soil  studying  r e g i o n has  percent  subalpine  grass  developed  to v e r i f y  p u r e s t a n d s , of f e s c u e when i n t h e needle  be  The  p r o d u c e and  potential.  Blue  and  areas  they  summer r a n g e i n t h e below t h e  evidence  these  erosion control  of e x c e s s i v e  Oregon and  summer f o r a g e  e r o s i o n of w e s t e r n  l o s s e s o f t e n measured i n t o n s  (160), w h i l e  ranges of e a s t e r n  far  must  a l a r m i s t s ' dreams.  of e x p e r i m e n t a l  Pickford  the  cover,  Such e s t i m a t i o n s  wealth  abnormal  most v a l u a h l e  m a t e r i a l l y the  necessarily  90 -  and  weeds, t h e  grazing  acre.  o f o v e r g r a z i n g do  topsoil.  This  soil  not which  end was  -  such  9 1  an asset to the rangeland  -  and t h e p l a n t s t h e r e o n  an e x p e n s e and a menace a s i t i s washed regions.  As i n d i c a t e d  sediment i n stream harbours.  i n F i g u r e 16,  channels,  down t o  this  lower  s o i l may a p p e a r a s  r e s e r v o i r s , dams, d i t c h e s and  The g r a v i t y of t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s  b r o u g h t a b o u t i n t h i s manner may be i l l u s t r a t e d following  b a s i n i s an i m p o r t a n t  for  water gathering f o r the c i t y  and  i s the s i t e  I t was f o u n d  (ll).  by the  examples.  The Morena d r a i n a g e  storage  becomes  o f San D i e g o ,  10.5  California,  percent  o f the r e s e r v o i r  c a p a c i t y had b e e n d i s p l a c e d b y s e d i m e n t a r y That was o v e r  a p e r i o d o f o n l y 25 y e a r s .  g r a z i n g has been m a i n t a i n e d  basin  c o m p l e t e d i n 1910.  o f a dam and r e s e r v o i r  t h a t b y 1935,  drainage  deposits Cattle  as the p r i n c i p a l l a n d use i n the  area.  Overgrazing  t h e v a l l e y s and r e p e a t e d  burning  brushy  s l o p e s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s p r o u t s and weed  of the forage  have been t h e c h i e f c a u s e o f a c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n . Mr. W. T a l b o t has r e p o r t e d  (218) t h a t southwestern  stock  1  watering reservoirs  silt  year.  he c o n s i d e r s t h a t most o f t h e r e s e r v c i r s  At this  rage  a t a n a v e r a g e r a t e o f one f o o t p e r  w i l l be u s e l e s s i n 15 y e a r s  orl e s s .  1935-  During the p e r i o d  36 t o 1943-44, t h e P.F.R.A. s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y #450,000.00 on s t o c k w a t e r i n g  dams a l o n e  (38).  a b l e t o t h e C a n a d i a n West, i t w i l l a year  to maintain the present  The r a m i f i c a t i o n s readily  I f t h i s data  i s applic-  c o s t t h e P.F.R.A. $30,000.00  stock watering  of the r e s u l t s  facilities  of sedimentation  s e e n i n a r e d u c t i o n i n f a r m i n g and r a n g e  alone.  may b e  utilization  -  because  of a lack  92  -  o f i r r i g a t i o n and s t o c k w a t e r i n g s u p p l i e s ,  and a r e d u c t i o n o f s h i p p i n g i n r i v e r e s t u a r i e s b e c a u s e expense  of the  o f r e p e a t e d d r e d g i n g i n an a t t e m p t t o k e e p t h e s h i p -  p i n g c h a n n e l open t o n a v i g a t i o n . While every point mentioned  i n F i g u r e 16 i s o f g r e a t  i m p o r t a n c e u n d o u b t e d l y one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i s t h e f l o o d s which r e s u l t If  from  overgrazing.  the proper u t i l i z a t i o n  o f r a n g e l a n d s was u n d e r t a k e n  i m m e d i a t e l y , p r o b a b l y i n f e w c a s e s where f l o o d s now o c c u r it  will  be p o s s i b l e t o d i s p e n s e w i t h d o w n s t r e a m e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k s  such as t h e d y k i n g p r o j e c t s g o i n g on i n t h e F r a s e r  Valley.  However, t h e v a l u e o f t h e s e w o r k s i n ' t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e c a n be g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d  by t h e a d o p t i o n o f p r o p e r s o i l  ture conservation practices  i n t h e headwaters.  The w a t e r  w h i c h a c c u m u l a t e s i n s t r e a m s a n d r i v e r s may a r r i v e lower l e v e l s or  o r o c e a n i n two ways:  from t h e ground  water t a b l e  and m o i s -  atthe  e i t h e r as surface  i n t h e f o r m o f seepage  run-off water or  springs.  I t i s o b v i o u s f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h have b e e n  made t h a t  excessive run-off  c a n be c o n t r o l l e d i n s p i t e  complexity of the h y d r o l o g i c  of the  c y c l e a n d h e n c e t h e amount o f  r u n - o f f water which passes d i r e c t l y i n t o the r i v e r s causing f l o o d s may be f a v o r a b l y i n f l u e n c e d . b e e n made t o t h e a c t i o n  of t h e g r a s s cover i n g u i d i n g r a i n w a t e r  s a f e l y t o the underground a period  Reference has a l r e a d y  storage from which i t reappears over  of t i m e f r o m s e e p a g e  and s p r i n g s , t h u s m a i n t a i n i n g a  s t e a d y s u p p l y t o t h e streams and r i v e r s sudden  r a t h e r than the  r u s h of r u n - o f f w a t e r t h a t f o l l o w s a q u i c k thaw o r a n  - 93 i n t e n s e downpour on adoption  o f a sound g r a z i n g  w a s h i n g and vegetation duction into  a relatively  are  the  basis  run-off  s o i l and  of e f f e c t i v e f l o o d c o n t r o l .  to the w a t e r t a b l e , t h a t  a r e a s ) and  e r o s i o n and  the  vegetation  floods  thus the  can  reduction  the  the  an  p r o c e s s e s of i s not  d e t a i l a l l the grazing  but  soil  formation  may  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of  soil  any  change w h i c h o v e r g r a z i n g  of w a t e r e r o s i o n w i l l  not  will  denudation, beneficial and  i n a watershed  and  regeneration Thesis  soil  slow.  to discuss  erosion  p r a c t i c e s may  are  pursued.  in  c a u s e d by  over-  acknowledging  the exert  e f f e c t s of on  the  a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the be  this  r e s u l t i n f l o o d damage  as an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n s t u d y i n g  Therefore,  passing  water r e t e n t i o n  d i r e n e c e s s i t y of  the  re-  w h i l e , as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ,  t h e o b j e c t i v e of t h i s  t o i n d i c a t e the  g r a z i n g biome.  The  water t a b l e ( i n  changed to a and  of  facilitates  p r o c e s s of d e g e n e r a t i o n  e x c e p t i o n a l l y short time,  It  soil  floods.  area, r e s u l t i n g from overgrazing, in  which  higher  g r a d u a l l y be  o r e l i m i n a t i o n of  Unfortunately  streams  v i c i o u s c y c l e of  c y c l e of n a t u r a l r e - g r a s s i n g , s o i l the  The  p o l i c y to reduce r u n - o f f ,  g e n e r a l l y b e n e f i t s from the  semi a r i d  watershed.  w i l l mean t h a t more w a t e r i s  have a s t e a d i e r s u p p l y ; transit  barren  t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of a good p r o t e c t i v e c o v e r  of t h e  the  -  effects  HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE  ATMOSPHERIC VAPOR  • PRECIPITATION  SUBSOIL  F i g u r e 17.  - 95  -  B.  WIND EROSION  (l)  F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Wind E r o s i o n Wind e r o s i o n i n a s e r i o u s f o r m  r e g i o n s u s u a l l y b e l o w 15 The  most i m p o r t a n t  i s confined to  arid  inches i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n per  reasons  year.  f o r t h i s a r e as f o l l o w s ( 2 1 4 )  (a) V e g e t a t i o n i s l e s s dense because o f precipitation;  :  lower  ( b ) S o i l o r g a n i c m a t t e r i s l o w e r b e c a u s e of l e s s e r amounts of v e g e t a t i o n and h i g h e r s o i l temperature; (c)  The h u m i d i t y o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s l o w e r hence t h e s u r f a c e s o i l i s d r i e r ;  and  (d) Hot, bare s o i l s cause r i s i n g a i r c u r r e n t s w h i c h l i f t s o i l p a r t i c l e s upward i n t o t h e more s w i f t l y m o v i n g a t m o s p h e r e . Needless  to say, wind v e l o c i t y  f l u e n c i n g the degree of e r o s i o n .  is a vital  factor i n -  However, u n l e s s t h e  vegetation c o n d i t i o n s are  conducive  damage w i l l  t e x t u r e , j u s t as i n a r e a s  water  result.  e r o s i o n , i s one  Soil  t o w i n d e r o s i o n , no  of the important  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to blowing  (260).  The  ial  sand.  t h a t has  The  popular  conception i s conception  f a c t t h a t the sand i s m e r e l y  n o t b l o w n away i s o v e r l o o k e d .  other things being equal, w i l l  what c o n f u s e d  Heavy  the  However, t h i s  by t h e f a c t t h a t s a n d s a r e  being  are mater-  particles,  blow the l e a s t r e a d i l y ,  f i n e p a r t i c l e s t h e most r e a d i l y .  serious  subject to  founded p r o b a b l y upon t h e f a c t t h a t the b l o w i n g a r e a s by  and  factors influencing i t s  t h a t sandy l a n d s b l o w t h e most r e a d i l y , t h i s  covered  soil  and  i s s u e i s some-  single particles  and  - 96 are low i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r , whereas t h e f i n e t e x t u r e d c l i n g t o g e t h e r to form  soils  large granules.  The o r g a n i c c o n t e n t o f s o i l s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n fluencing blowing. very  Though o r g a n i c m a t t e r  subject to blowing,  i t tends  g e t h e r and make them s t a b l e . means a h i g h w a t e r Organic  itself  to bind s o i l  i s light  particles to-  Likewise, a high organic  h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , which  c o n t e n t h a s been c a l l e d  and  decreases  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  content  blowing. single  f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e g r e e o f w i n d e r o s i o n (260). W h i l e W y a t t , S m i t h , Newton a n d G i l l i e s organic matter  c o n t e n t t h e most i m p o r t a n t  mining the degree of wind e r o s i o n , E l l i s v e g e t a t i o n i s t h e most v i t a l susceptibility  of a s o i l t o blowing.  l a t t e r statement directly  soil  single (193)  influences soil  element d e t e r m i n i n g t h e The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h e  structure,  soil  organic matter,  h u m i d i t y and wind v e l o c i t y .  that vegetation protects s o i l  The s t r u c t u r e o f s o i l  i s improved  w i t h increased organic matter sufficient  factor deter-  states that  t h e s e mediums, t o g e t h e r w i t h m e c h a n i c a l  particles,  consider  t o be more e x a c t i n g i n t h a t v e g e t a t i o n i n -  moisture, atmospheric through  single  (260)  root f i b r e  and l a c k  soil  Itis  b i n d i n g of the  from  by r o o t a c t i o n ,  blowing. together  and r o o t f i b r e a c c u m u l a t i o n . o f c o h e s i o n between t h e  In-  soil  p a r t i c l e s a r e t h e more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e a d i n e s s with- w h i c h portant than  soil  blows,  root fibres  b e i n g much more i m -  humus.  The a c t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n i n d e c r e a s i n g w i n d v e l o c i t y a t the  soil  s u r f a c e i s w e l l known  ( i n the form  of t r e e rows) i n  windswept a r e a s . the  use  of  o f Wind  of t h e  of t h e  (148).  I n some c a s e s s o i l  organic  flora  the  o n l y one  t a t i o n by  of t h e  abrasion  may  kill  prevention  when i t has  ment and  t o 85  and  the  amount  actual  tons per  and  travel  deposit  square m i l e a f t e r  soil  l o s s e s on  f a r m and  and  s m o t h e r i n g c a u s e d by  be  deposition  blown f r o m t h e  s t a r t s not  spot from which the  the  to the  are  ground. simple  s t a g e of a c t i v e s o i l  land  of t h e  ecologist.  over a wide area  spread begins.  by  seedling  of w i n d e r o s i o n i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y  progressed  vege-  Exposure of r o o t s  (85), e s p e c i a l l y during  p r o b l e m s f a c i n g the  drifting  rangelands  Damage t o  w i d e s p r e a d d e p l e t i o n i t becomes one  formidable soil  the  r e s u l t s of w i n d e r o s i o n .  plants  s t a g e when t h e y may  but  changing  p h y s i c a l environment  (85)  sometimes s u f f i c i e n t t o c a u s e d e a t h .  The  expected  p a r t i c l e s have b e e n known t o  t o 2,000 m i l e s  extremely serious  blowing  by  be  storm.  The are  soil  m a t t e r and  measurements have shown 10.5 a single  the  swards.  organisms present,  quality  o f 1,000  from  p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , may  number o f t h e  distances  obtained  Erosion  to a f f e c t the a c t i v i t y and  be  p l a n t s or even g r a s s  Sheet e r o s i o n , as  nature  -  S i m i l a r e f f e c t s can  smaller  (2) R e s u l t s  97  but  move-  most  Fortunately, at a small  A p a r t i a l vacuum i s  created  as w i n d p a s s e s o v e r a s m a l l d e p r e s s i o n . o f  causing  an u p w a r d s w i r l i n g a i r c u r r e n t w h i c h c a r r i e s t h e  p a r t i c l e s and hole.  The  c a u s e s an  i n c r e a s i n g l y deep and  material is carried until  focal  the  wide  bare  soil, soil  blow-out  a i r velocity  is  -  98 -  d e c r e a s e d , whereupon t h e l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s dunes a r e f o r m e d  along fence l i n e s  These d u n e s a r e r o l l e d  settle  or any o t h e r  by t h e w i n d , m a t e r i a l  out.  Thus  obstruction.  from the wind-  ward s i d e b e i n g d e p o s i t e d on t h e p r o t e c t e d o r l e e w a r d Blow s p o t s may be s t a r t e d b e c a u s e o f some l o c a l condition  such a s a s a n d  mechanical  s p o t , o r t h e y may be c a u s e  d i s t u r b a n c e such a s i s f o u n d  place, a corral, may be f o u n d  or a roadway.  i n the Swift  side. soil  by some  i n a stock  rolling  An example o f s u c h  an a r e a  C u r r e n t - Webb M u n i c i p a l i t i e s  Community P a s t u r e . During c a r r y i n g of  i n size  of stock i n t h a t area  than t h e areas  sand  evidence  (38). I t i s  covered w i t h a canopy of v e g e t a t i o n .  i s the author's opinion that the a c t i v i t i e s  to  t h e p r o d u c t i o n and s p r e a d  19  and .20.  the blow-outs  of the l i v e -  factors  contributing  o f t h e dune shown i n F i g u r e s 18,  Wooden p e g s and i r o n  the path of t h e blow-out  Division  gave  areas  s i n c e t h e s e a r e a s warm more  s t o c k i n t h i s a r e a were among t h e p r i m e  of  tracks  portion  t h a t s t o c k s p e n d p a r t s o f t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g s on  p o r t i o n s of t h e blow-out readily  dune  t h a t t h e blow-out  and t h a t c a t t l e  the r e p e a t e d p r e s e n c e  suggested  It  s t u d i e s i n t h e sand  t h e c o m m u n i t y p a s t u r e i t was n o t e d  were i n c r e a s i n g of  capacity  s t a k e s have b e e n p l a c e d i n  and a c a r e f u l  i s being conducted  s t u d y of t h e a c t i v i t i e s  by t h e s t a f f  of t h e Dominion E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n ,  of t h e Forage  Swift  Current,  Saskatchewan.(34)« The  soil  throughout  undifferentiated  the area i s c l a s s i f i e d  a s sand and  dune s a n d s (138) a n d t h e v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a -  1 0 0  -  tion folia  contains  species  as  H o o k . ) , sand d r o p s e e d  ricegrass  (Oryzopsis  (Elaeognus carpa  such  A.  e n t e r the (Oryzopsis  disturbed  sandgrass  (Calamovilfa  (Sporobolus  rose soil  choke  (Rosa appears  t o be  Indian  S c h u l t ) , wolf  cherry  spp.).  longi-  cryptandrus),  hymenoides Roem. &  commutata B e r n h . ) ,  N e l s . ) , and  -  The the  (Prunus first  willow  melanoplant  to  Indian r i c e g r a s s  hymenoides).  4-  F i g u r e 21. The R e s u l t of U n c o n t r o l l e d Wind E r o s i o n i n Southern Saskatchewan. Note the P o l e and W i r e s .  - 101 Albertson fields  ( l ) s t a t e s t h a t dust  probably  blown from  c a u s e s g r e a t e r damage t h a n o v e r g r a z i n g .  e x t r e m e example o f t h i s may be s e e n i n F i g u r e p i c t u r e , taken  cultivated  21.  An  This  i n s o u t h w e s t e r n S a s k a t c h e w a n , shows Mr. W. A.  Hubbard ( f o r m e r l y w i t h t h e F o r a g e D i v i s i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n Experimental telephone the  left  S t a t i o n , Swift Current,  wires.  The t o p o f t h e telephone  o f Mr. H u b b a r d .  g r o u n d have c o v e r e d  The s o i l  drifting,  first  not from overgrazing  settled  southern  steaded  the l i g h t e r lands  plowing.  With repeated  the  Figure  to hold.  c e r e a l cropping  When t h e e a r l y  the organic  began.  inundated.  successive  matter of  When t h e s o i l  storms t h e p l a n t  S c e n e s s u c h a s t h e one p i c t u r e d  21 l e n d a d d e d w e i g h t t o A l b e r t s o n ' s  ( l ) statement.  i n t h e case of water e r o s i o n , the e f f e c t s of wind  e r o s i o n a r e both of t h i s  but from the c u l t i -  t o t h e u n c u l t i v a t e d o r g r a z i n g l a n d s t h e s o i l was  c o v e r was f i n a l l y  As  Mr,  because o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e ease o f  h e l d by t h e f o l i a g e u n t i l w i t h  in  The l a n d b e h i n d  S a s k a t c h e w a n t h e y home-  s o i l d e c r e a s e d and s o i l d r i f t i n g  drifted  i n the f o r e -  These dunes a r e t h e r e s u l t  v a t i o n o f s o i l s t h a t were t o o l i g h t pioneers  holding  p o l e may be s e e n t o  (sand) d r i f t s  the road a l l o w a n c e .  H u b b a r d was f o r m e r l y g r a s s l a n d . of s o i l  Saskatchewan),  Thesis  d e v a s t a t i n g and e x t e n s i v e .  i s to deal mainly  Since  the object  with the r o l e played  by t h e  v e g e t a t i o n under c o n d i t i o n s of o v e r g r a z i n g , i t i s suggested t h a t i f f u r t h e r examples of t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s of wind are  d e s i r e d , F i g u r e 16 s h o u l d  be s t u d i e d .  erosion  - 102  , C.  SUMMARY OF THE E F F E C T S OF  -  OVERGRAZING ON  THE  A g r a s s sward w e l l managed i s an e f f i c i e n t  SOIL cover f o r  p r e v e n t i n g e r o s i o n and  r e d u c i n g r u n - o f f ; a g r a s s s w a r d badly-  managed i s a d a n g e r o u s  t h i n g , w i t h the poor v e g e t a t i o n i n -  capable of g u i d i n g the r a i n f a l l ground  favouring s o i l  i n t o the s o i l ,  the  bare  p a c k i n g f r o m s e v e r a l c a u s e s , and  b e g i n n i n g of g u l l y e r o s i o n by w a t e r o r t h e w h o l e s a l e of  t o p s o i l by  ing  has numerous m e r i t s f r o m a  amounts o f w a t e r .  g u i d i n g the f a l l i n g  below t h e herbage of  water.  degree  open and The  l e a v e s of the herbage  r a i n d r o p s to the s o i l .  soil  The  I n t h i s way  a good g r a s s sward  humus l a y e r  favours a high  a n d e n s u r e s t h a t any w a t e r w h i c h  does  e r o d i n g power.  system of the g r a s s i s of v a l u e i n p r o t e c t i n g  the  a g a i n s t e r o s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the a c t i o n of wind. O v e r g r a z i n g removes the p r o t e c t i v e v e g e t a t i v e  the  assist  i s c a p a b l e o f s t o r i n g many t i m e s i t s v o l u m e  of i n f i l t r a t i o n  root  thus  capable of r e c e i v i n g  f l o w away as r u n - o f f i s c l e a r and h a s l i t t l e The  protect-  impact o f the f a l l i n g r a i n d r o p s ,  keeping the pores of the s o i l  in  conservation  I t c o v e r s t h e s u r f a c e of the ground,  i t from the d i r e c t  excessive  removel  wind.  A good sward p o i n t of v i e w .  the  soil  Section.  resulting  i n the c o n d i t i o n s mentioned  Some of t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s  rangelands i n the form of s o i l (l)  of s o i l  b l o w i n g and  cover f o r  throughout  this  e r o s i o n on w e s t e r n s o i l washing are:  t h e s i l t i n g and s e d i m e n t a t i o n o f s t r e a m c h a n n e l s , r e s e r v o i r s , dams, d i t c h e s , and h a r b o u r s ;  -  ( 2 ) t h e l o s s of f e r t i l e storms; (3)  103  -  s o i l material i n dust  t h e p i l i n g up o f s o i l on l o w e r s l o p e s and i t s d e p o s i t o v e r a l l u v i a l plains,; t h e r e d u c t i o n i n p r o d u c t i v i t y or o u t r i g h t r u i n o f r i c h b o t t o m l a n d s by t h e o v e r w a s h o f p o o r s u b s o i l m a t e r i a l such as sand and g r a v e l swept out of t h e h i l l s by s t r e a m s of v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t y ;  ( 4 ) d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f s o i l and i t s f e r t i l i t y and the a s s o c i a t e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n of c r o p y i e l d s per a c r e a n d t h e v e g e t a t i o n grown t h e r e o n ; ( 5 ) l o s s of s o i l and w a t e r w h i c h c a u s e s t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f f o o d and c o v e r f o r w i l d l i f e , i n c l u d i n g a b l o w i n g and w a s h i n g of s o i l i n t o streams w h i c h s i l t over spawning beds as w e l l as d e s t r o y i n g w a t e r p l a n t s -- a f o o d supply of f i s h ; (6) a d i m i n i s h i n g of the underground water s u p p l y which i n t e n s i f i e s p e r i o d s of drought; ( 7 ) an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s p e e d and v o l u m e o f r a i n f a l l r u n - o f f , c a u s i n g s e v e r e and i n c r e a s i n g f l o o d s w h i c h b r i n g s u f f e r i n g , d i s e a s e and d e a t h ; (8) impoverishment of f a m i l i e s a t t e m p t i n g t o e r o d i n g and e r o d e d l a n d s ;  utilize  (9)  damage t o r o a d s , r a i l r o a d s and h i g h w a y s , f a r m b u i l d i n g s , f e n c e s , and o t h e r p r o p e r t y ;  (10)  l o s s e s i n n a v i g a t i o n , h y d r o e l e c t r i c power, m u n i c i p a l water s u p p l y , i r r i g a t i o n developm e n t s , f a r m i n g and g r a z i n g ;  (11)  i n c r e a s e s i n i n s e c t , r o d e n t , and o t h e r s m a l l a n i m a l p o p u l a t i o n s w h i c h may be c a r r i e r s o f d i s e a s e s and p a r a s i t e s , t h u s e n d a n g e r i n g the d o m e s t i c g r a z i n g h e r d s a l r e a d y w e a k e n e d by s c a r c i t y of good f o r a g e .  - 104 -  V.  OVERGRAZING AND W I L D L I F E POPULATIONS  The s i z e o f d o m e s t i c shown, a r e g o v e r n e d range  area.  livestock  p o p u l a t i o n s , i t h a s beai  by t h e f o r a g e and w a t e r  available  So a l s o i t must be f o r w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s .  L a r g e a m o u n t s o f f o r a g e may be l o s t t o c o m m e r c i a l through the a c t i v i t i e s v a r y i n g degree activity,  on a  of w i l d animals.  herds  However, due t o t h e  o f m o t i l i t y a n d t h e d e c i d e d w a r i n e s s o f human  i ti s difficult  to establish the fact that  wildlife  competes w i t h t h e d o m e s t i c a t e d l i v e s t o c k f o r t h e a v a i l a b l e f o r a g e and water.  The d e s t r u c t i o n o f p l a n t l i f e  such as grasshoppers  and l o c u s t s h a s been r e c o r d e d and  mourned s i n c e b i b l i c a l  d a y s and h a s had a p r o f o u n d  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e West. w i l d l i f e ;_are p l a c e d on a r a n g e c a p a c i t y of domestic  influence  When t h e f o r a g e demands o f  already carrying i t s f u l l  livestock,  While a t times grave commercial  by i n s e c t s  overgrazing often  results.  l o s s e s o f f o r a g e a r e s u f f e r e d by  h e r d s , the presence  of w i l d l i f e  species i snot  o  always  considered t o t a l l y  t h e n be asked.:  objectionable.  I f wildlife  l i v e s t o c k of commercial  s p e c i e s compete w i t h  S t o d d a r t and S m i t h (214)  n a t i v e h e r b i v o r o u s range  s i z e and economic  value.  domestic  v a l u e , how and when may t h e y be c o n -  s i d e r e d u n o b j e c t i o n a b l e and h a r m l e s s ? have c l a s s i f i e d  The q u e s t i o n may  They c l a s s i f y  animals according t o t h e f a u n a i n t o two  - 105  -  groups: ( a ) l a r g e mammals w h i c h a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y v a l u a b l e and hence t h e i r v a l u e must be w e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e v a l u e o f r h e f o r a g e t h e y consume; (b)  A.  s m a l l mammals, e s s e n t i a l l y r o d e n t s , whose e f f e c t s on r a n g e a r e p o p u l a r l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be s o l e l y d e s t r u c t i v e .  LARGE RANGE W I L D L I F E S P E C I E S The  large herbivores  e l k , moose, a n t e l o p e , Today, f o r t h e  f o u n d on  bighorn,  m o u n t a i n g o a t s and  most p a r t , o n l y t h e  s e r i o u s l y with domestic animals animals,  o t h e r t h a n e l k and  areas r e l a t i v e l y numbers so available  domestic Elk  forage.  They may  facilities  not  palatable  to  livestock. (cervus (172,  canadiensis), like 201),, a l t h o u g h  seen t h a t e l k do  R e c e n t s t u d i e s by Northwest Forest t h a t a band o f 300  cattle,  and  fundamentally  f o r b s may  diet.  this  compete w i t h  For  domesticated United  e l k consumed t w o - t h i r d s ewes and  lambs d u r i n g  at  reason i t livestock.  States  Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , have  s e a s o n on a summer r a n g e a l l o t m e n t Forest.  are  b r o w s e and  P i c k f o r d (157), o f t h e  as a band of 900  "ational  or i n  i n areas l a c k i n g ade-  or a vegetation  c o n s t i t u t e a p o r t i o n of the  grazing  Large  s e r i o u s l y compete f o r t h e  also exist  times  age  e l k compete  i n a c c e s s i b l e to domestic l i v e s t o c k ,  eaters  be  bison.  f o r range f o r a g e .  grass  may  d e e r and  deer,  deer, u s u a l l y exist e i t h e r i n  s m a l l t h a t t h e y do  quate w a t e r i n g  rangelands include  Pacific  revealed  as much r a n g e  for-  a three-month of t h e  These s t u d i e s a l s o r e v e a l e d  Whitman  t h a t the  ten  - 106 r a n g e p l a n t s w h i c h made .up 80 made up  80 p e r c e n t  -  percent  of the e l k d i e t .  much w e i g h t t o t h e  of the  sheep d i e t  These s t r i k i n g d a t a  stockmen's arguments t h a t the  d o m e s t i c l i v e s t o c k numbers i s o n l y a p a r t i a l g r a z i n g i n a r e a s where e l k a r e competition as  critical  is  much g r e a t e r  most o t h e r  numerous.  as t h a t  of t h e  range areas.  t h a t b r o w s e p l a n t s were c o m p l e t e l y grass  species  were m a i n t a i n e d .  scarce  and  g r a z e d out  grass  of the  c o s t of r a n g i n g  I n s p i t e of t h e p r a i r i e s and stitute  prised only  the 6.0  included mainly  fall  social  p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n game and the (213)  while  found  when f o r b s  are  Coney (51),  diet.  and  competition  by  increasing  n a t i v e s of  does not  The  other  the  seem t o  con-  antelope com-  constituents  weeds (5.7  percent).  problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  l i v e s t o c k a r e not  c a u s e many r a n g e s t o be  that  succulent.  i n studying  p e r c e n t ) and  amount o f a v a i l a b l e f o r a g e .  these areas,  deer  animals.  antelope  of the  b r o w s e (87-4  e c o n o m i c and  found  g r a z i n g p e r i o d , found t h a t grasses  percent  based s o l e l y  S t e e p n e s s and  little  i s not  to  and  premature g r a z i n g  p l a i n s , grass  much of t h e i r d i e t .  foods during  The  f a c t that  intermountain  Columbia  by  f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the  domestic grazing  over-  .population  i s g r e e n and  L a c k of s p r i n g g r a z i n g , a c c e l e r a t e d by d e e r , i s one  deer  However, D i x o n (73)  when t h e  of  appear  Rasmussen (166)  Mule Deer consume l a r g e r amounts o f g r a s s browse are  does not  elk i n British  In A r i z o n a ,  reduction  c o n t r o l of  from e l k ; however, the  than that  add  I n d i v i d u a l l y , the  from deer f o r a v a i l a b l e forage  be  also  u s e d by  serious.  On  comon  l a c k of water  l i v e s t o c k and limited  spring  on  - 107 r a n g e , s u c h a s i s t h e c a s e i n most o f t h e w e s t e r n r a n g e and B r i t i s h  Columbia i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  I n t h e case of^fdeer, b e c a u s e during spring  g r a z i n g ) and  areas  t h e p r o b l e m may be a c u t e .  o f the d i e t a r y d i f f e r e n c e s ( e x c e p t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ranges, t h e y  g r a z e i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o remove 10 t o 50 d e e r t o make room f o r one more s t e e r (213). fied  ( C o m p e t i t i o n i s much  intensi-  by e x c e s s i v e numbers o f e i t h e r game o r l i v e s t o c k . )  r e m o v a l o f s u c h h i g h numbers o f game w o u l d a l a r m among t h e s p o r t s m e n . British (25).  cause  The  considerable  T a b l e V I shows t h e r e v e n u e i n  C o l u m b i a d e r i v e d f r o m h u n t i n g l i c e n c e s and f e e s a l o n e The a m o u n t s s p e n t on e q u i p m e n t ,  t i o n f o r the h u n t e r s , i s many t i m e s  g u i d e s , and  greater.  TABLE V I Revenue f r o m S a l e o f Game L i c e n c e s and F e e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  1943 1944 1945 1946  Total  1913-46  $  5,554.50  $  5,570.50  207,661.72  238,902.36  10,921.00  8,381.50  352,228.85 502,555.25  $199,387.07  $ 5,390,972.23  In r e v i e w i n g the h i s t o r y B r o o k s (26)  (25)  Revenue f r o m L i c e n c e s and F e e s  Fine s  Year  accommoda-  o f game i n B r i t i s h  Columbia,  s t a t e s t h a t i n t h e e a r l y d a y s t h e r e were  s m a l l numbers o j ^ i e e r .  S u b s e q u e n t l y , l a r g e numbers o f d e e r  migrated to the Kootenays the m o u n t a i n l i o n .  relativejy  and t h e Okanagan.  These m o u n t a i n  a t t a c k herds of w i n t e r i n g c a t t l e  W i t h them came  l i o n s h a v e b e e n known t o  causing considerable  damage.  - 108 Because  t h e game a r e owned by t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  g o v e r n m e n t s t h e y have a t e n d e n c y  t o r e a c h l a r g e numbers i n  s u c h p r o t e c t e d p l a c e s a s t h e J a s p e r , B a n f f , and o t h e r l a r g e n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l the t e n d e n c y  parks.  However, when w i n t e r c l o s e s i n ,  i s f o r t h e game t o m i g r a t e t o v a l l e y  such as t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n  Trench.  bottoms  Here t h e y c o n c e n t r a t e i n  l a r g e n u m b e r s , compete s e r i o u s l y w i t h t h e w i n t e r d o m e s t i c l i v e s t o c k and o f t e n a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r i o u s damage t o stored  emergency f e e d s u c h a s hay and u n t h r a s h e d g r a i n .  s i t u a t i o n i s a c o n s t a n t w o r r y t o t h e stockmen  This  of the E l c o -  Waldo and W i n d e r m e r e a r e a s , where w i n t e r f e e d and s p r i n g  range  i s n o t abundant. Many d i s e a s e s and p a r a s i t e s domestic range a n i m a l s ( 1 0 6 ) .  common t o d e e r a l s o  In California,  occur i n  f o r example, t h e  i n t e s t i n a l round-worms f o u n d i n d e e r have a d i r e c t l i f e On r a n g e s domestic livestock  cycle.  i n t e n s i v e l y g r a z e d by d e e r and s h e e p a n d c a t t l e , t h e s p e c i e s o f t e n i n g e s t l a r v a l worms. are treated with drugs, t h e i r  considered temporary infestations  i n deer.  since l i t t l e  While the domestic  relief  c a n o n l y be  can be done t o c o n t r o l t h e  I n t h e c o n t r o l o f d e e r p a r a s i t e s two  methods c a n be e m p l o y e d : ( a ) The game a n i m a l s can be a t t r a c t e d domestic l i v e s t o c k ranges. (b) Both the d e e r and d o m e s t i c  away f r o m t h e  livestock  numbers  must be r e d u c e d . The  problems  o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d o m e s t i c and  n a t i v e g r a z i n g a n i m a l s c a n n o t be r e a d i l y  s o l v e d because o f  the d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s i n v o l v e d .  Domestic  INTERRELATIONS IN A NATURAL BIOME  H O  NO  Figure 22.  - 110 livestock  cannot  be  e l i m i n a t e d f r o m crown o r p u b l i c g r a z i n g  lands without d r a s t i c be  -  economic changes.  Nor  eliminated without upsetting the public  hunters  in particular.  Only through  s t o c k m e n , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s and this  t y p e be  solved.  numbers, r a n g e  can t h e  i n g e n e r a l and  sportsmen  can p r o b l e m s  of  They must s t u d y l i v e s t o c k n u m b e r s , game  then o n l y a f t e r  these f a c t o r s w i l l  the  the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the  c o n d i t i o n s , h u n t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and  c o n d i t i o n s , and  game  economic  carefully integrating a l l  t h e y be a b l e t o make s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  sound  decisions.  B.  SMALL RANGE W I L D L I F E SPECIES In  c o u n t l e s s i n s t a n c e s the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the g r a z i n g  a r e a s o f t h e West i s d e p i c t e d by d e s o l a t i o n , d u s t , s k e l e t o n s and  almost  i n v a r i a b l y a gopher s i t t i n g  haunches b e s i d e i t s burrow. scene  may  The  artist  bleached  on i t s  in portraying his  n o t have b e e n aware of t h e a c t u a l p a r t p l a y e d  t h e s e s m a l l mammals. these animals which  No  range  by  a r e a i s f r e e of t h e presence  are today the  of  s u b j e c t o f some o f t h e most  i m p o r t a n t d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g proper range  management.  S i n c e many of them consume p r i n c i p a l l y t h e same f o r a g e s p e c i e s as t h e d o m e s t i c contributed these  grazing animals  t o numerous broken  small animals are u s u a l l y  f a v o u r by  stockmen.  g r a i n g r o w e r s who  Nor  and  since their  legs f o r a l l classes of stock, considered with great  are they accepted  l o s e much of t h e i r  b i b l i o g r a p h y p u b l i s h e d i n 1936  b u r r o w s have  (171)  by f a r m e r s  c r o p each y e a r . contains 8,274  disand A  important  - Ill  -  b o o k s , a r t i c l e s and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e management' o f w e s t e r n interesting  to note  ranges,  l i v e s t o c k and w i l d l i f e .  t h a t o f t h e s e , 216 come u n d e r t h e t i t l e  of " C o n t r o l of Range-destroying the m a j o r i t y o f t h e a u t h o r s e n t s and o t h e r  Rodents".  I t i s obvious  that  p r i o r t o a b o u t 1939 r e g a r d e d  rod-  s m a l l mammals i n a v e r y b a l e f u l l i g h t .  s u r p r i s i n g to discover that u n t i l vestigators  seemed t o r e a l i z e  t h a t an a n i m a l , e v e n t h o u g h a  t h a t a c a u s e may have more t h a n one  It i s  t h a t time very few i n -  r o d e n t , may p o s s i b l y do more t h a n one t h i n g j i n o t h e r  than  It i s  words,  one e f f e c t a n d an e f f e c t  more  cause.  (l) Detrimental Effects  o f S m a l l G r a z i n g Mammals  Jack r a b b i t s appear t o p r e f e r p l a n t s i n t h e o r d e r of weeds, g r a s s e s and browse, w i t h t h e f i r s t m a j o r and a b o u t e q u a l p a r t o f t h e d i e t  two m a k i n g up a  (5).  The e q u a l p o r t i o n  o f weeds and g r a s s i n t h e d i e t o f f e r s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n a s t o why r a b b i t s a r e more a b u n d a n t on o v e r g r a z e d ranges.  Arnold suggests  t h a t once d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s w e l l  way, r a b b i t s may be a p a r t i a l the f i n a l  Under n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s ( 2 8 ) t h e r a b b i t  t i o n o f mixed g r a s s p r a i r i e per acre.  under  cause o f o v e r g r a z i n g , w h i l e i n  s t a g e s o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n t h e y may be t h e p r i m a r y  of d e p l e t i o n .  tail  t h a n on n o r m a l  cause  popula-  i s one j a c k r a b b i t a n d one c o t t o n -  The j a c k r a b b i t s g r a z i n g i n t e r m s o f cows  is: 62 t 7 A r i z o n a r a b b i t s B one 1000 l b . cow 48 t 2 A n t e l o p e r a b b i t s = one 1000 l b . cow.  (5)  -  Taylor, Vorhies  and L i s t e r  112  -  (225) f o u n d t h a t o n l y 15  antelope  j a c k r a b b i t s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o e a t a s much v a l u a b l e forage  a s one s h e e p , o r 74  Arizona  I t may be n o t e d t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t  crepancy i n the e q u i v a l e n t s made t h e i r Arnold's  i s explained  c a l c u l a t i o n s on v a l u a b l e  45 p e r c e n t  forage  I t was a l s o n o t e d  of that of the Arizona  comsumption  (225) t h a t g r a s s  of t h e d i e t of t h e antelope  consumed by t h e s e  made up  j a c k r a b b i t and 24«1  jack r a b b i t .  r a b b i t s should  c o n s t i t u t e s u c h an  amount when u n d e r n o r m a l C o n d i t i o n s only 2 per acre.  Unfortunately,  g r a z i n g the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s of v a l u a b l e  forage  forage alarming  the r a b b i t population i s  under c o n d i t i o n s of over(Table  V I I ) and t h e amounts  a v a i l a b l e to domestic l i v e s t o c k  reasons f o r these  dis-  amounts, w h i l e  I t w o u l d n o t a p p e a r t h a t t h e amount o f v a l u a b l e  The  148  that Taylor et a l .  c a l c u l a t i o n s were b a s e d on t o t a l f o r a g e  the r a b b i t s .  percent  a s much a s one cowj t h a t 30  j a c k r a b b i t s would, e a t a s much a s one s h e e p and  as much a s one cow.  by  range  decrease.  i n c r e a s e d numbers o f r a b b i t s may be  (225):  ( a ) They p r e f e r a n n u a l s h o o t s (b)  The a d d e d v i s i b i l i t y  and weeds t o o l d g r a s s  i n t h e overgrazed  areas i s  an a d v a n t a g e t o t h e r a b b i t s . In overgrazed  a r e a s where so many d o m e s t i c a n i m a l  v a l e n t s may a p p e a r i n t h e f o r m o f r a b b i t s , t h e q u e s t i o n arise:  equimay  "Can t h e r a n g e be r e h a b i l i t a t e d i f j a c k r a b b i t s a r e  present?"  T h e r e c a n be no one a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , f o r  local conditions w i l l  govern t h e answer t o a  considerable  113  -  degree. tation tion,  Where l i v e s t o c k p r e s s u r e i s m o d e r a t e and close  the  t o a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n i m p r o v e m e n t and  rabbit population  Where t h e  might t i p the  n e s s of t h e state that  jack  rabbit  situation. an  e f f e c t s may  attempt at a r t i f i c i a l  w r i t e r has  not  literature  is theoretically  rodents i s the  been a b l e t o  feasible that  possibility  ( c a u s e d by  among t h e  rabbit  of t h e  residents of t h e  To  writer's  f a r as  the  s u c h may large  be  rabbit  of  deterioration.  the  or  instances  case.  and  spread  organism P a s t e u r e l l a  of  such a g r a z i n g  dog  area; a  of  lives  only  prairie  i s one  regions.  of  the  Taylor  In the  further  dog  "town"  and  United  Loftfield  80  p e r c e n t of t h e  g r a s s e s and  benefit  to  the  See Appendix A  therefore  most d e s t r u c t i v e  h i g h as  a total  and  overgrazing.  c l a i m t h e y d e s t r o y as o f no  and  tularensis)  thus endangering the  much o f a p r o b l e m .  western grazing  found t h a t  may  numbers o f r a b b i t s  contraction  k n o w l e d g e , the  prairie  are  to  rabbits  find verification  e f f e c t s of  constitute  however, the  x  serious-  Canada i s f o u n d n e a r V a l M a r i e , S a s k a t c h e w a n , and  does n o t  in  the  of  population,  ramification the  the  as  that  be  to support these l a t t e r views, although i t  tularemia  health  downward.  reseeding without  some b e l i e v e  Ever present i n areas with  in  go  a b l e to keep a range i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e  i n the  vege-  deteriora-  increase  Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s  control i s inadvisable, while  The  scale  the  l i v e s t o c k p r e s s u r e i s heavy, i t s e f f e c t s w i l l  p r e p o n d e r a n t and  be  -  States, rodents (224)  available  biome*whatsoever.  They  p r o d u c t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,250 pounds  - 114 per  acre  of the i m p o r t a n t forage  were consumed b y t h e p r a i r i e t h a t the p r a i r i e and  grasses,  dogs.  i n t h e same o r d e r  of preference.  such a s i t u a t i o n .  while  i t does c o n t r i b u t e t o  I t does n o t seem p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r e  i n the numbers o f p r a i r i e  dogs u n d e r  would  over-  species  under  conditions. Supervisor  has  be  t o a s s i s t i n over-  g r a z i n g because of t h e shortage of p a l a t a b l e such  species  I t may t h e r e f o r e  dog d o e s n o t h i n g  coming t h e e f f e c t s o f o v e r g r a z i n g ,  any i n c r e a s e  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed  dogs and c a t t l e e a t t h e same p l a n t  seen t h a t t h e p r a i r i e  be  o v e r 1800 p o u n d s  reported  S i m p s o n (168) o f t h e C o c h e t o p a N a t i o n a l  that the elimination of p r a i r i e  dogs f r o m  Forest that  f o r e s t has r e s u l t e d i n : (a)  checking  extensive  (b)  r e c l o t h i n g denuded  (c) e l i m i n a t i n g forage  areas; losses;  (d)  i n c r e a s i n g f o r a g e enough t o c a r r y an a d d i t i o n a l 2,000 head o f sheep and 500 c a t t l e ;  (e)  e l i m i n a t i n g l o s s e s i n lambing through broken  Shaw, i n s t u d y i n g that  erosion;  t h e Columbia ground  i t was d e s t r u c t i v e t o b o t h p a s t u r e  squirrel,  and h a y l a n d s .  ments ( 1 8 5 ) c o n d u c t e d i n t h e summer o f 1913  legs. found Experi-  showed t h a t a  g r o u n d s q u i r r e l a t e o n e - s e v e n t h o f a pound or 17.2 p e r c e n t o f i t s body w e i g h t d a i l y . sume t h e p a s t u r e pasture  A t t h i s r a t e 385 s q u i r r e l s w o u l d  con-  o f one cow o r 96 s q u i r r e l s w o u l d d e v o u r t h e  o f one sheep i n t h e same t i m e .  t i o n experiment conducted i n a ravine  In a complete pasture  eradica-  i t was f o u n d  - 115 t h a t the areas  p o p u l a t i o n was  i t was  noted  10  -  s q u i r r e l s per a c r e .  t o be a s h i g h as 75  p o p u l a t i o n s as h i g h a s  25  o f f o u r a c r e s w o u l d be  able  n o r m a l ^ s a t i s f y one  per  per a c r e , the  Like jack r a b b i t s ,  e l i m i n a t e d l e a v i n g a dense mat  m o d e r a t e but  of  stage  tend  i n the  The  ground grasses and  are  clumps  that  c a u s e of t h e  plant succession i s probably  the  due  over-  decrease to  ground  i n A l b e r t a , i s harmful  the  s q u i r r e l , w h i c h i s commonly f o u n d  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e amount, o f f o r a g e i t  S t u d i e s by Brown and  Roy  (29)  have shown t h a t  s q u i r r e l s t h e m s e l v e s and  the  are  carriers  or Bubonic Plague ( P a s t e u r e l l a  has  and  Tularaemia  and  virus  some R i c h a r d s o n  Increases result  Fever  (Pasteurella tularensis).  ground  Encephalomyelitis) i n  o f any  could r e a d i l y  of these  Gwatkin of  the  the  squirrels.  i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e s e  of o v e r g r a z i n g  outbreak  (Equine  on t h e m  (Dermacentroxenus  a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e were e v i d e n c e s  Sleeping Sickness b r a i n of  Sylvatic  Rocky Mountain S p o t t e d  tickettsi), (96)  of the  ecoparasites l i v i n g  both  the  pestis),  at  forage.  Richardson  consumes.  163)  t h a t would  t o decrease under c o n d i t i o n s of sever  l a c k of p a l a t a b l e The  (115,  area  i n c r e a s e i n numbers u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f  g r a z i n g a c c o m p a n i e d by e r o s i o n . this  With  taller  short grasses  I t i s agreed  other  s q u i r r e l s i n an  s q u i r r e l s a r e e s p e c i a l l y f a v o r e d when t h e  ground s q u i r r e l s  acre.  t o consume t h e f o r a g e  sheep.  of f o r b s (Table V I I I ) .  In  serious  rodents  enharce t h e diseases.  rapid  as  a  spread  - 116 TABLE V I I C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f R i c h a r d s o n Ground S q u i r r e l s i n Southern A l b e r t a (231). LAND ANIMALS/A BURROWS/A ANIMALS/SECTION  8 6 5 3 24 5  Prairie Abandoned Grassland Cultivated Average  5,120 3,840 3,200 1,920  64 48 40 24 192 40  3,200  A f u r t h e r danger t o l i v e s t o c k i s a f f o r d e d i n t h a t  each  s q u i r r e l h a s i t s own b u r r o w a n d e a c h b u r r o w a v e r a g e s 8 o p e n o f 10 t o 15 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r .  i n g s i n an a r e a  Unless the  l i v e s t o c k a r e w a r y , many b r o k e n l e g s may r e s u l t i n s u c h In studying effects  t h e mied g r a s s  o f overgrazing  upon i t ,  total  number o f s p e c i e s  turbed  prairie  prairie  areas.  o f O k l a h o m a , and t h e  S m i t h (200)  found t h a t the  of small animals i s greatest  i n undis-  and l e a s t i n o v e r g r a z e d and e r o d e d a r e a s .  smallest  populations  severely  o v e r g r a z e d b u t u n e r o d e d a r e a s and a g a i n  The  o f a l l s m a l l mammals i s r e a c h e d i n t h e increasing  when e r o s i o n b e g i n s and new p l a n t s i n v a d e t h e c o m m u n i t y . Animals favoured greatest  by a s p a r s e ,  weedy v e g e t a t i o n  a b u n d a n c e on t h e e r o d e d a r e a s .  show  In t h i s  their  group a r e  f o u n d t h e d e e r m i c e , p i c k e t m i c e and c o t t o n t a i l r a b b i t s . T a b l e V I I I shows t h e r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f t h e v a r i o u s mammals c o n s i d e r e d  i n Smith's study.  by a s c a l e o f 1 t o 5. species:,, w h i l e  Abundance i s i n d i c a t e d  One i n d i c a t e s a n i n f r e q u e n t  5 i n d i c a t e s great  f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o p u t such d a t a  small  abundance.  This  or rare method i s  on a c o m p a r a t i v e b a s i s .  TABLE V I I I Relative  ANIMAL  (75)  Abundance o f S m a l l Mammals on Mijed G r a s s P r a i r i e i n Oklahoma  NORMAL PRAIRIE  PROPERLY GRAZED  • SOMEWHAT OVERGRAZED NOT ERODED  HEAVILY OVERGRAZED SOMEWHAT ERODED  HEAVILY OVERGRAZED AND ERODED  D e e r mouse  3  4  1  3  5  Harvest  1  2  1  1  0  0  1  1  . 1  1  House mouse  1  1.  0  0  0  Cotton r a t  2  0  0  0  0  Shrew  1  1  0  0  0  Cottontail Jack r a b b i t Ground s q u i r r e l  2 1 1  3 1 1  3 . 2 2  3 3 2  4 2 0  Mole  1  1  0  0  0  Gopher  1.  2.  '1  0  0  Pocket  mouse mouse  - 118  (2)  B e n e f i c i a l E f f e c t s of S m a l l As  are  -  Grazing  Animals  i n d i c a t e d , r a n g e r o d e n t s p r e f e r as  e a r l y i n the  succession.  the r o d e n t may  assist  by  the  s p e e d i n g up  succession.  between t h e  e f f e c t s of  This  the  the  f o r b s w h i c h some r o d e n t s f i n d more p a l a t a b l e . t h e s e r o d e n t s may  ranges t h a t are not The  climax  prevent the  i o r a t e d r a n g e , t h e y may  w o u l d seem a l s o t h a t t h e  formation  title  of  soil  improvement.  only other  (95)  brings  A l t h o u g h the  i s recognized  important  believes that  to the  native  cultivation  other  small animals,  the  of the be  i s b e l i e v e d by  of  and  small  Indeed, i t  b e n e f i c i a l f u n c t i o n carried away f r o m  valuable  b r i e f l y mentioned under data  has  been  the  presented Grinn-  p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e s m a l l mammals  p l a n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them q u i t e  f o r m of s e e d s , f r u i t , It  rate  t h e s e f a c t o r s m i g h t be.  same s o r t s o f e f f e c t s as t h e cial"  deter-  importance of a n i m a l s i n  "biological forces", l i t t l e  t o show j u s t how dell  of a badly  the recovery  on by t h e s e a n i m a l s i s t o d i v e r t p r e d a t o r s  soil  and  Thus,  m a i n b e n e f i c i a l f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d by t h e  livestock.  lessen-  poor c o n d i t i o n .  mammals a p p e a r t o be t h o s e o f  game and  overgrazing  p e r e n n i a l grasses  recovery  a l s o s p e e d up  i n as  which (20),  i s done by  ing  while  competition  plants  Under some c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i n overcoming the  plant  food  f a r m e r p r o d u c e s by  c r o p he  raises.  And  the  i t noted, l i k e w i s e take  l e a v e s , s t e m s , and  his  to the  "artifi-  rodents  pay,  in  and  the  roots.  many i n v e s t i g a t o r s t h a t t h e  s m a l l mammal b u r r o w e r s c o n t r i b u t e  the  native  optimum w e l f a r e  of  - 119 the plant a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g  ways:  r  (a) Weathering o f the s u b s t r a t u m i s promoted by b u r r o w s y s t e m s w h i c h c a r r y a i r and w a t e r w i t h ^ contained s o l v e n t s t o the s u b s o i l - a n d parent masses b e l o w (95). By t h e i r p r e s e n c e t h e deepening of t h e s o i l i s h a s t e n e d . (b) S u b s o i l i s brought t o t h e s u r f a c e , where i t i s s p r e a d out b y t h e a c t i o n o f t h e a n i n i a l s , t h e w i n d and r a i n , s u b j e c t e d t o f u r t h e r w e a t h e r i n g and f i n a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h t h e t o p s o i l . Bond and B o r e l l (2l) s t a t e t h a t g o p h e r s i n Y o s e m i t e N a t i o n a l P a r k a n n u a l l y move a n a v e r a g e o f 3*6 t o n s o f e a r t h p e r s q u a r e m i l e from underground t o the s u r f a c e . ( c ) The a c t i v i t i e s o f b u r r o w i n g a n i m a l s on g r o u n d that i s not overgrazed tends t o prevent erosion. D u r i n g storms o r r a p i d thaws, the b u r r o w s f o r m e n t r y ways f o r t h e w a t e r l e a d i n g i t i n t o the porous ground f o r f u r t h e r slow d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e r e (2l). Unfortunately,i n some i n s t a n c e s , r o d e n t s a c c o m p a n i e d by o v e r g r a z i n g have b e e n shown t o be t h e p r i m a r y causes o f e r o s i o n . (d) P l a n t m a t e r i a l i s c a r r i e d by the r o d e n t s i n t o t h e i r b u r r o w s where i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o f o r m organic matter i n the dry western s o i l s that a r e g e n e r a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r (222). ( e ) The a c t i v i t i e s o f r o d e n t s i n c r e a s e t h e s u p p l y o f a v a i l a b l e n i t r o g e n and o t h e r s o i l n u t r i e n t s . Greene and R e y n a r d (90) b e l i e v e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e n i t r o g e n v a l u e of the Kangaroo r a t burrow i s 31.5 c e n t s , w h i l e t h a t o f t h e wood r a t i s 10 cents. The rode.nt p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e S a n t a R i t a Range R e s e r v e i s e s t i m a t e d a t 2,000,000, o f  w h i c h a b o u t 500,000 a r e wood r a t s and 100,000 a r e K a n g a r o o r a t s (223). The v a l u e o f t h e n i t r o g e n f r o m t h e s e two r o d e n t s i n t h a t a r e a a l o n e w o u l d t h e n be 81,500 d o l l a r s .  ( f ) The m e c h a n i c a l l o o s e n i n g o f t h e g r o u n d t h r o u g h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f b u r r o w i n g a n i m a l s makes f o r t h r i f t y p l a n t growth. T h i s h e l p s t o combat the compacting e f f e c t of l i v e s t o c k f e e t , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e s o i l i s wet (94).  120  -  -  I f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e s m a l l mammals a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e r a n g e l a n d biome a s t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s 25,  155) w o u l d l e a d us t o b e l i e v e  their  ( 9 0 , 95, 94, 222,  i t may w e l l p r o v e  that  i n c r e a s e i n numbers u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f o v e r g r a z i n g i s  b e n e f i c i a l r a t h e r than d e t r i m e n t a l .  Only the p r e p o n d e r a n t l y  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f t h e s e a n i m a l s has been d i s c u s s e d i n this  sub-section.  I t i s very d i f f i c u l t  as t o w h e t h e r , i n t h e f i n a l  t o form any o p i n i o n  a n a l y s i s , these animals are  e c o n o m i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l or d e t r i m e n t a l under c o n d i t i o n s of overgrazing.  When r a n g e l a n d f o r a g e s a r e p r o p e r l y h a n d l e d ,  there i s a s l i g h t  excess o f f o r a g e above a l l needs f o r l i v e -  stock o r f o r watershed seasons. animals  i n abnormally dry  the consumption  of f o r a g e by t h e s e  Consequently,  i s probably of l i t t l e  overgrazed this  p r o t e c t i o n except  ranges  or i n extremely dry seasons.  f o r a g e i s s t o r e d by t h e a n i m a l s i n t h e i r  s m a l l p a r t of the food  A part of burrows,  t h a t a r e produced  and t h e p r o b a b l e (90).  and a  T h i s adds t o t h e f e r t i l i t y o f  s o i l and i n a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e a l s o t h e p h y s i c a l  mentioned  use  e x c e p t on  consumed i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e s o i l i n  the e x c r e t a of t h e a n i m a l s . the  economic i m p o r t a n c e  by t h e b u r r o w i n g  effects  of the animals  i n c r e a s e of phosphorus a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n t  Under p r e s e n t  c o n d i t i o n s , e x c e p t where t h e s i t u a -  t i o n becomes a c u t e , i t w i l l p r o b a b l y be b e s t t o a w a i t t h e results  of f u r t h e r  recommendations. verified it  studies before Until  initiating  then t h e economic  under overgrazed o r even normal  any widespread  s t a t u s cannot  be  conditions although  d o e s n o t seem i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s may  - 121 equal the i n j u r i o u s  C.  effects  -  of t h e s e s m a l l range  mammals.  HARMFUL RANGE INSECTS The  d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , of grasshoppers are  ed among t h e f o u r  (240).  The  chief  others are:  causes of r a n g e l a n d  lighter  D i b b l e (7l)  contributing  spectacular  on  factor  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , b e c a u s e o f i t s s i z e and  over-  found  infestations, particularly 1  s o i l s , have been a major  erosion.  deterioration  severe long continued drought,  g r a z i n g , and b u r i a l by d u s t o r e r o s i o n . that severe grasshopper  consider-  the  in  soil  t h e more  e f f e c t s that grasshopper i n f e s t a t i o n s  have  on  c e r e a l c r o p s , many r a n c h e r s i g n o r e o r do n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e w i d e s p r e a d damage c a u s e d by t h e s e i n s e c t s . t h a t the c o l l a b o r a t i o n  of heavy g r a s s h o p p e r  w i t h the s e v e r e d r o u g h t s of 1934  and  percent l o s s i n sagebrush f o l i a g e found  o n l y a 15  h o p p e r i n f e s t a t i o n was q u e s t i o n might  damage be  1936  (4)  noted  infestations  brought  about  a  50  (Artimesia tridentata).  He  p e r c e n t l o s s of t h e same p l a n t a s h o r t d i s -  t a n c e away where t h e d r o u g h t was  The  Allred  related  much  t h e same b u t t h e g r a s s -  lighter.  be asked':  to overgrazing?"  "How  can  Branson  grasshopper (22)  has  shown  t h a t t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i n s e c t p o p u l a t i o n and c e r t a i n moisture-temperature r e l a t i o n s . in The  i s an  g r a s s h o p p e r s i n the. a r e a s t h a t a r e g r a z e d most belief  (7l)  subsequent  increase  heavily.  t h a t o v e r g r a z i n g a l o n e by c a t t l e w o u l d  have r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o m p l e t e the  There  loss  of s o i l  not  d e n u d a t i o n o f g r a s s l a n d s and  f r o m w i n d and w a t e r  erosion i s  - 122 repudiated  by D i b b l e .  overgrazed land  showed t h a t t h e  grazed grassland  i s on t h e  the normal p r a i r i e , age  t o the  e x p e r i m e n t s (254)  Further  and  population  i n the  and  over-  average four times as great  resulting  grasslands  total  on n o r m a l  as i n  i n some c a s e s i n p e r m a n e n t dam-  great  i n j u r y to food  and  shelter for  i  wildlife  and  c a t t l e as w e l l as t o s o i l  While studying  and  erosion  (76).  programmes  British  i m p r o v e m e n t and  Columbia  h e a v i l y g r a z e d and  overgrazed areas i n  (1947, 1947) a s w e l l a s i n A l b e r t a  (1946)  S a s k a t c h e w a n (1946, 1947), t h e w r i t e r f o u n d t h a t  the  numbers o f g r a s s h o p p e r s p r e s e n t  i n those areas f a r exceeded  the  o r undergrazed areas.  numbers p r e s e n t  o f the  on p r o p e r l y  areas considered  were i m m e d i a t e l y  I t may a l s o be shown t h a t w h i l e h a b i t a t i s due nudation on  the  and  overgrazing  initial  resulting  break i n  in partial  the  de-  an i n f l u e n c e  grasshopper population which c o n t r i b u t e s t o f u r t h e r erosion.  Where t h i s  erosion  g r a s s h o p p e r ( A g e n c o t e t t i x deorum) has  favorable  i s caused by wind  found a very  environment.  Ball's Arizona  adjacent.  erosion, these f a c t o r s i n turn exert  d e n u d a t i o n and the  t o rash  the  Some  study  (10)  o f the  i n d i c a t e s t h a t out  grasshoppers of Colorado and  o f a b o u t 130 s p e c i e s  of true  grass-  h o p p e r s o c c u r r i n g i n e a c h s t a t e , o n l y a b o u t 5 o r 6 s h o u l d be c a s e d a s i n j u r i o u s t o c r o p s and more s h o u l d  be l i s t e d  the  This  range.  s c a r c e l y more t h a n a d o z e n  as o f s e r i o u s i n j u r y to the  leaves  beneficial or ofl i t t l e  w e l l o v e r 100 s p e c i e s i m p o r t a n c e one  grasses o f  t h a t are  way o r t h e  either  other.  He  - 123 s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t many g r a s s h o p p e r s in  are s t r i k i n g l y  beneficial  t h a t t h e y h e l p t o c h e c k t h e weeds t h a t w o u l d o v e r r u n t h e  ranges.  He f a i l s  t o mention,  h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e " s c a r c e l y more  than a dozen s p e c i e s o f grasshoppers  Injurious  t o the range"  r e a d i l y m u l t i p l y u n d e r f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s t o c a u s e damages of  t h e p r o p o r t i o n s shown i n T a b l e  IX a s w e l l a s c a u s e c o n s i d e r -  able expense f o r c o n t r o l measures. t h a t under proper  B a l l also f a i l s  t o mention  r a n g e management, i . e . , when o v e r g r a z i n g i s  n o t p r e s e n t , t h e weed p o p u l a t i o n s a r e c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e o t h e r species of the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s without beneficial  the a i d of the  grasshoppers.  TABLE IX Losses YEAR  caused  by Grasshoppers  CULTIVATED CROPS  i n Montana (215).  RANGELAND  TOTAL  1934  5,513,000  500,000  6,013,000  1935  2,434,000  600,000 •  3,034,000  1936  1,900.000  650.000  2.255.000  9,847,000  1,750,000  .11,597,000  These f i g u r e s a r e p r o b a b l y t o o l o w f o r t h e r a n g e l a n d s s i n c e t h e y a r e b a s e d o n a n e s t i m a t e d damage o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16 t o 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e r a n g e i n c e n t r a l a n d e a s t e r n M o n t a n a and  a v a l u e o f 10 c e n t s p e r a c r e o f t h e g r a s s  destroyed.  T h e r e i s a l s o t h e c o s t o f p o i s o n a n d c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s t o be considered. The Mormon c r i c k e t  (Anabrus  simplex), contrary t o the  • - 124 — grasshopper species, i s a general  feeder which i n plague  p o r t i o n s o f t e n i n g e s t s a l l the v e g e t a t i o n p r e s e n t S w a i n (216)  of i t s m i g r a t i o n . affinity  tenth acre  plants.  percent  one  percent  of the t o t a l  t o 100  dry w e i g h t of the  t h a n much o f t h e  shortgrass prairie  overgrazed,  and  Chrysomelids  plot  lost  This;.amount - i s more produces per year  forage  in i t s  beetles).  areas  a p p e a r t o be  b r o u g h t a b o u t by  s p e c i e s and  are not  f a v o r e d by  t e r m i n a t e w i t h the animals,  i s a l s o consumed by  the r e s u l t s  some o f t h e  i n s e c t s and  h e a v y l o s s e s t o g r a z i e r s and  changes The similar  r e a c t i o n to o v e r g r a z i n g  other  but  areas.  of o v e r g r a z i n g  s i m p l e l o s s of v e g e t a t i o n t o the but  con-  overgrazing.  g r e a t e s t a b u n d a n c e i n somewhat e r o d e d that again  lice)  e t c . ) showed b e h a v i o u r  Hemiptera i n t h e i r  i s evident  to  Meloidae  specimens under  e r o s i o n f o l l o w i n g severe  Hemoptera ( c i c a d e s , t r e e h o p p e r s ,  domesticated  very unfavorable  f a v o r a b l e to the  d i t i o n s p r o d u c e d by o v e r g r a z i n g b u t  showed t h e i r  undergrazed,  I n g e n e r a l t h e H e m i p t e r a ( b u g s and  i n number of  t o t h a t of t h e  on  eroded l a n d s , found t h a t h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s i n  ( l e a f b e e t l e s ) but  i n c r e a s e both  not  varying  herbage, which i s  i n studying insect populations  severely overgrazed  It  one-  general c o n d i t i o n .  S m i t h (200)  (blister  production  of  p e r c e n t , w h i l e one  pounds o f f o r a g e .  present  an  His observations  e q u i v a l e n t t o 483  path  great l o s s e s i n the  p l o t s showed a l o s s i n f o r a g e  from l e s s than  i n the  f o u n d t h a t i t has  f o r the i n f l o r e s c e n c e s c a u s i n g  r e p r o d u c t i v e powers of t h e  56  has  pro-  do grazing  p o s s i b l y a v a i l a b l e forage invertebrates, causing  crop producers  both  through  losses  - 125 i n p r o d u c t i o n and c o s t l y c o n t r o l  D.  measures.  PREDATORS OF DOMESTIC GRAZING LIVESTOCK AND W I L D L I F E Although  annual  predators  livestock  c a u s e o n l y 1.5 t o 2 p e r c e n t  losses i n the western  rangelands  U n i t e d S t a t e s (164), t h e s p e c t a c u l a r n a t u r e resulted  i n many p r e d a t o r y a n i m a l  establishment and  of the  of t h e l o s s has  c o n t r o l p r o g r a m s . The  o f r e w a r d s and b o u n t i e s  by many p r o v i n c e s , states,  stockmen's a s s o c i a t i o n s has r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n g and t r a p p i n g by e x p e r i e n c e d  following  hunt-  h u n t e r s . ' The c o s t o f t h e s e  b o u n t i e s i s by no means a s m a l l f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r The  of the  (Table X ) .  t a b l e shows t h e b o u n t i e s p a i d b y t h e B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a Game C o m m i s s i o n a l o n e  (25) •  Table X Predatory Animal Bounties p a i d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Game C o m m i s s i o n (1946). PREDATOR Wolves Cougars Coyotes Coyotes  BOUNTIES CLAIMED  $10/head $15/head  932 461 239  9,320.00 6,915.00 1,195.00 4,962.00  4,113  22,392.00 673,658.80  $ 5/head  $ 2/head  1946 1922-46  TOTAL  (l)  RATE  TOTAL  2,481  Coyotes The  coyote,  a symbol of t h e rangelands  o fthe North  A m e r i c a n West, i s c o n f i n e d i n i t s C a n a d i a n h a b i t a t t o t h e three P r a i r i e is  P r o v i n c e s and B r i t i s h  r e s t r i c t e d to the t y p i c a l l y  Columbia,  where i t s r a n g e  open o r semi-wooded  country.  - 126  -  C o n t r a r y t o most p r e d a t o r y a n i m a l s , t h e c o y o t e p o p u l a t i o n s have d e c r e a s e d  o n l y i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s where v i g o r o u s  e x t e r m i n a t i o n h a s "been u n d e r t a k e n .  The g r e a t e s t l o s s e s i n -  f l i c t e d by c o y o t e s a r e t o t h e l i v e s t o c k  industry, the stock  a f f e c t e d b e i n g m a i n l y s h e e p and p o u l t r y . inflicted  upon d o m e s t i c  g r a z i n g animals  s u c h a s g r o u s e , p h e a s a n t s , and d u c k s , Although able  coyote  Next t o t h e l o s s e s come t h o s e upon game  as w e l l as d e e r .  t h e r e a r e no r e c o r d s o f o u t b r e a k s i n C a n a d a , c o n s i d e r -  l o s s e s have been i n f l i c t e d  on d o m e s t i c  animals  such as  cattle,  h o r s e s , and d o g s , t h r o u g h t h e s p r e a d o f r a b i e s  coyotes  (63).  The i n t r o d u c t i o n  o f d o m e s t i c a t e d g r a z i n g animaJs  has p r o v i d e d a new s o u r c e o f f o o d may e n a b l e Criddle  supply f o r the coyote  i t t o s u r v i v e when i t s n o r m a l  (63)  from  diet falls  which  short.  c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e s h e e p - k i l l i n g h a b i t i s by no  means a u s u a l one; b e i n g more t h e work o f one o r two o l d coyotes i t i s also the l a r g e tains  p r o b a b l e t h a t most o f t h e damage i s done by  common c o y o t e  ( C a n i s l a t r a n s ) e a s t o f t h e R o c k y Moun-  and t h e a l m o s t e q u a l l y . l a r g e m o u n t a i n c o y o t e  listis) coyote  w e s t o f them.  In B r i t i s h  shows a g r e a t e r l i k i n g  resulting  i n articles  noted n a t u r a l i s t ,  Columbia,  the mountain  f o r sheep t h a n t h e common c o y o t e ,  b y such men a s M a j o r  and T.P. M a c K e n z i e ,  m i s s i o n e r o f G r a z i n g , each  Allan  former  detrimental.  Brooks, the  Provincial  Com-  condemning the c o y o t e .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , n o t a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s are  (Canis  of the coyote  I t i s u s e f u l b o t h a s a. d e s t r o y e r o f n o x i o u s  r o d e n t s and s m a l l r a n g e  a n i m a l s and as a f u r p r o d u c e r .  A t t e n t i o n has been drawn t o t h e damage t h a t may r e s u l t  from  - 127 -• the a c t i v i t i e s coyote d i e t . gophers,  o f t h e a n i m a l s and i n s e c t s t h a t These i t e m s o f d i e t may i n c l u d e  mice, b i r d s ,  frogs,  w e l l a s t h e more p u b l i c i z e d and  deer.  Coyotes  ground  g r a s s h o p p e r s , w h i t e g r u b s , as s p e c i e s such as c a l v e s ,  squirrels.  They c o m p r i s e  sheep  range i n  t o f e e d m a i n l y on c o t t o n t a i l  the d i e t r e s p e c t i v e l y . is  rabbits,  ( 8 0 ) on a 4,600 a c r e f o o t h i l l  C a l i f o r n i a were f o u n d and  comprise the  rabbits  45«4 and 31»2 p e r c e n t o f  These f a c t s i n d i c a t e how d i f f i c u l t i t •  t o a r r i v e a t an a c c u r a t e c o n c l u s i o n a s t o t h e c o y o t e ' s  standing.  A t one t i m e i t does i n f i n i t e  b e n e f i t s probably outweigh The tion  i t s harmful  evidence a g a i n s t the coyote  of sheep,  occasional  activities.  relates to i t s destruc-  c a l v e s , and p o u l t r y .  h o w e v e r , y e a r s when due t o r a b b i t l i v e s t o c k w i l l be g r e a t .  harm, a t a n o t h e r i t s  There a r e ,  s c a r c i t y the losses to  This problem  c a n be overcome i n  most a r e a s by s t u d y i n g t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f w i l d  r a b b i t s and  r o d e n t s and t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e c a u t i o n s t a k e n a c c o r d i n g l y . is  It  e v i d e n t i n a r e a s o f o v e r g r a z i n g where t h e r o d e n t and  r a b b i t p o p u l a t i o n normally i n c r e a s e s t h a t the presence  of the  c o y o t e i s an a i d t o w a r d  rabbit  and In  p r o t e c t i n g the g r a s s l a n d s from  rodent i n f e s t a t i o n , thus a i d i n g the r e g r a s s i n g processes. these areas the presence  ally  of a c o n s c i e n t i o u s herder,  especi-  j u s t a t dawn, w i l l have a marked i n f l u e n c e i n r e d u c i n g  sheep l o s s e s f r o m c o y o t e s . tection The  Another  expensive but u s e f u l  pro-  i s the coyote-proof fence. c r a v i n g f o r lamb and m u t t o n a s w e l l a s v e n i s o n , how-  e v e r , h a s made t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e m o u n t a i n  coyote  - 128 of B r i t i s h  Columbia  much l e s s d e s i r a b l e i f sheep p r o d u c t i o n i s  t o become a p e r m a n e n t s u c c e s s . and be  s u p e r v i s i o n of r o d e n t  and  of t h e most r i g o r o u s k i n d  detrimental  -  I n g e n e r a l , the  administration  predatory animal c o n t r o l so as t o r e s t r i c t  should  the k i l l i n g  s p e c i e s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s where t h e y  c l e a r l y d e s t r u c t i v e , and the r e q u i s i t e • p o i n t .  even i n such a r e a s t o r e d u c e  The  c o n t r o l s h o u l d be  s p e c i f i c , n o t g e n e r a l and upon o n l y a f t e r  careful  u n i v e - r s a l , and  local  of  are them t o  and  s h o u l d be  decided  investigation.  (2) Wolves It  i s w e l l known t h a t w o l v e s  de"er and  s i m i l a r a n i m a l s w h i c h a r e p a r t of t h e i r n a t u r a l  As i n t h e c a s e  of c o y o t e s , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of  grazing animals vantage cattle lies  of.  has  take  ad-  Sheep p r o b a b l y s u f f e r m o s t , b u t young h o r s e s  and  a r e o f t e n d e s t r o y e d by t h e m (63).  r o d e n t s and  s m a l l mammals.  i n the Rocky Mountain  The  v a l u e of  as d e s t r o y e r s o f  of wolves  to the f a c t t h a t the weakly  p r e y t o them t h a n a r e h e a l t h y a n i m a l s .  stockmen's best f r i e n d s .  found  i s rodents. sickly  game  a r e more a p t t o Men  The  fall  o f t h e Waldo  S t o c k m e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n have s t a t e d t h a t w o l v e s  is  noxious  N a t i o n a l P a r k of Canada  They a l s o p l a y "a u s e f u l p a r t i n e l i m i n a t i n g  a r e among t h e  wolves  D r . Cowan ( 5 8 ) i n s t u d y i n g t i m b e r  t h a t 18 p e r c e n t o f t h e a n n u a l d i e t  a n i m a l s due  diet.  domestic  p r o v i d e d o t h e r prey which wolves  c h i e f l y i n t h e i r p e l t s and  wolves  d e s t r o y l a r g e numbers o f  and  reason  t h a t t h e y h e l p keep down t h e numbers o f d e e r and  coyotes for this game  - 129 that migrate from the N a t i o n a l Parks t o the ranch during  t i m e s of f e e d  engaged i n c a t t l e ,  shortages.  not sheep,  These s t o c k m e n , h o w e v e r , a r e production.  Consid e r i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n would appear that more d e t r i m e n t a l  i n spite  haystacks  concerning  of i t s l i m i t e d  the wolf, i t  benefits i t i s f a r  and f a r t o o d a n g e r o u s t o t o l e r a t e  i n grazing  districts. (3)  Other  Predators  Among t h e o t h e r stock  predators  known t o c o n t r i b u t e t o l i v e -  l o s s e s are the mountain l i o n  b l a c k and c i n a m o n b e a r s , there  i s no e v i d e n c e  increase  and t h e b o b c a t o r l y n x .  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  i n abundance as a r e s u l t  they w i l l  or cougar, the g r i z z l y ,  various  rodent species.  and h e n c e  other predatory  the e f f e c t that  and f a l l  pre-  i n abundance o f  I t has been condended ( 5 7 ) t h a t t h e  p e r s i s t e n t w a r f a r e on c o y o t e s ,  ground  species  n o t be d i s c u s s e d .  mammals have on t h e r i s e  excessive  that these  of overgrazing,  Much h a s been w r i t t e n c o n c e r n i n g datory  However,  f u rbearing  b o b c a t s , wolves, weasels and  animals i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  abundance a t t i m e s o f j a c k r a b b i t s , f i e l d  mice,  s q u i r r e l s , marmots, p o c k e t g o p h e r s and o t h e r  small  mammals r e p u t e d  t o be a g e n t s o f o v e r g r a z i n g .  Couch s t a t e s t h a t w h i l e mammals a r e a f a c t o r small part  there  i n controlling  i n maintaining  i s no d o u b t t h a t rodents,  the balance.  i n v o l v e d and t h e s e i n c l u d e s e a s o n a l  predatory  y e t they play a  Large f a c t o r s a r e  cohditions,  fecundityvof  - 130 the  s p e c i e s , t h e a c t s o f man  -  i n p r o v i d i n g abundant f o o d ,  t h e p r e s e n c e of n a t u r a l and o t h e r  shelter.  and  On t h e o t h e r  hand,  r o d e n t s t h e s i z e of g r o u n d s q u i r r e l s o r s m a l l e r a r e more e f f e c t i v e l y d e c r e a s e d i n numbers predatory tory  animals.  Couch b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e v a l u e  animals i n c o n t r o l l i n g  estimated.  by r a p t o r i a l b i r d s t h a n by  P r e s n a l l ( s work  i n j u r i o u s r o d e n t s has been (l6k)  adds w e i g h t t o t h i s  s i n c e he f o u n d t h a t h e a v y r o d e n t p o p u l a t i o n related verified  to predator i t may  fluctuations.  control  can be c a r r i e d o u t by be f r e e t o  e f f e c t s of t h e f u r b e a r i n g  t h e s e b i r d s assume t h e b e n e f i c i a l w o r k f o r m e r l y  on by t h e s e  animals.  argument  I f these reports are  r a p t o r i a l b i r d s and hence t h e s t o c k m e n w i l l e l i m i n a t e the d e t r i m e n t a l  over-  c y c l e s a r e un-  r e s u l t that the complete b i o l o g i c a l  of r o d e n t s ( 1 8 7 ) on o v e r g r a z e d l a n d  while  of preda-  predators carried  - 131 -  VI.  m  F,or o v e r  half a century  made r e g a r d i n g complaints the tion  DISCUSSION  overgrazing  p e r i o d i c complaints  have been  i n t h e West and i t s a b u s e s .  These  a n d demands f o r c o r r e c t i v e m e a s u r e s r e s u l t e d i n  establishment  o f t h e P.F.R.A. i n Canada and t h e C o n s e r v a -  s e r v i c e s i n the United States.  a concerted  effort  Through these  has b e e n made t o stem t h e d e s t r u c t i o n a n d  economic l o s s caused by o v e r g r a z i n g . "Why a n d how d i d o v e r g r a z i n g legislatures  bodies  The q u e s t i o n  arises:  become s u c h a p r o b l e m t h a t t h e  o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were f o r c e d t o  a p p r o p r i a t e l a r g e sums o f money i n an a t t e m p t t o r e s t o r e t h e p r o d u c t i v e and p r o t e c t i v e v a l u e s  of t h e r a n g e l a n d s  of t h e  West?" The  t e x t i n d i c a t e s t h a t one o f t h e r e a s o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g  such e x p e n d i t u r e s standing  of t h e p r i n c i p l e s  many r a n c h e r s ranges, and  has been t h e l a c k of k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r -  knew n o t h i n g  o f r a n g e management. o f how t o m a i n t a i n  t o r e s t o r e depleted ranges,  t o prepare  f o r or p r e v e n t  In the past  semi-arid  t o plan grazing  periods  systems  o f d r o u g h t and f e e d  shortage. The  d e p l e t i o n of range f o r a g e ,  as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n , became o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y .  prior to the  The a d d i t i o n o f s h e e p t o r a n g e s  stocked t o capacity with c a t t l e ,  coupled  with the f a c t  already that  - 132 settlement  and  productive  p o r t i o n s of the  use  of t h e  remaining  but  one  result  While the not  c u l t i v a t i o n was  --  range, r e s u l t e d i n an  rangelands.  relating  breeding  role  i n causing  a profit  during  1930's.  p r i c e s have a l s o p l a y e d  overgrazing.  S t o c k m e n who peak,  an  bought  of a boom to  on a d e c l i n i n g m a r k e t .  l a c k of a c o n s t r u c t i v e n a t i o n a l l a n d p o l i c y  United  and  mountain g r a z i n g lands  S t a t e s and  i n overgrazing.  Canada) a p p l i c a b l e t o the  The  of t h e West has  ( i n both  semi-arid  been a n o t h e r  major  f a i l u r e to c l a s s i f y grazing  areas  to t h e i r actual long-term  i n d i c a t e d i n S e c t i o n I I - has i n forage  o f good  more i n t e n s e l y i n an a t t e m p t  the  according  have  graze  periods  inevitable result  herds at h i g h p r i c e s d u r i n g the  The  factor  produced during  i s the  in livestock  period i n v a r i a b l y graze realize  procedures  l i v e s t o c k numbers t o c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y  o f d r o u g h t s u c h as t h e mid  Fluctuations  had  d r o u g h t s do p l a y a p*art i n e n c o u r a g i n g  Again overgrazing  important  i n t e n s i f i e d use  e f f e c t s of c l i m a t e on g r a z i n g  o r on t h e b a s i s of t h e f o r a g e  periods  This  intensified  R a n c h e r s have c o n t i n u a l l y a t t e m p t e d t o  ranges without  growth.  e l i m i n a t i n g much of t h e h i g h l y -  overgrazing.  been d i s c u s s e d ,  overgrazing.  -  productive  also played  c a p a c i t y --  an i m p o r t a n t  as  role  depletion.  Today, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d  i n the  body o f  T h e s i s , the western, range a r e a s c o n s t i t u t e r e g i o n s commercially  this which  s u i t e d o n l y f o r g r a z i n g l i v e s t o c k because of  o r more a d v e r s e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s s u c h  as:  are one  -  (a)  rough  133  -  topography;  (b) low p r e c i p i t a t i o n , or t h e l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s to d e v e l o p i r r i g a t i o n , or adverse c l i m a t i c conditions. As i n d i c a t e d  i n S e c t i o n I V , t h e demands made on  native  v e g e t a t i o n i n range a r e a s s u r p a s s t h a t of s u p p l y i n g f e e d f o r grazing livestock. shed c o n d i t i o n the  West.  The  p r e s e r v a t i o n of a s a t i s f a c t o r y  on r a n g e l a n d s i s v i t a l  Irrigation,  hydroelectric  water-  to the w e l l being of and m u n i c i p a l w a t e r  s u p p l y e n t e r p r i s e s d e p e n d on a s t a b l e f l o w f r o m w a t e r  yield-  ing  from  ranges.  W a t e r power i s m a i n t a i n e d by s t r e a m f l o w  range w a t e r s h e d s . unbroken  I t i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o m a i n t a i n an  v e g e t a t i o n and  and t h e optimum y i e l d pletion  security  of w a t e r f r o m r a n g e w a t e r s h e d s .  of t h e e n t i r e c o n t i n e n t .  The  British  wildlife,  destruction  As i n d i c a t e d  such  g r a z i n g r e g i o n s be m a i n t a i n e d ?  management.  as  interest these  range  program.  can t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y and  c a t i o n and s t r i c t  soil  i n the t e x t ,  f a c t o r s must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g a  How  of  doubt  f o r e s t r y and r e c r e a t i o n a r e of v a l u e and  p o l i c y or management  resulted  of t h e range. .  C o l u m b i a , as e l s e w h e r e , f a c t o r s  much of t h e - p o p u l a t i o n .  De-  economic  of w a t e r s h e d v a l u e s i s w i t h o u t  of t h e g r a v e s t r e s u l t s f r o m m i s u s e In  on a l l r a n g e l a n d s  e r o s i o n , m e n a c i n g t h e s o c i a l and  and t h e i m p a i r m e n t  to  soil  o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n , as p r e v i o u s l y shown, has  i n f l o o d s and  one  a productive  adherence  v a l u e of t h e w e s t e r n  The a n s w e r l i e s  to the p r i n c i p l e s  i n the  of s o u n d  Management o f w e s t e r n r a n g e s . w i t h t h e i r  applirange  intri-  - 134 c a t e and v a r i a b l e p a t t e r n o f c o n d i t i o n s and t h e i r l o c k i n g p r i v a t e and p u b l i c v a l u e s to  do w i t h  determining  i s n o t an e a s y j o b .  the proper grazing  system,  c a p a c i t y , s e a s o n o f use,, c l a s s o f l i v e s t o c k , tices,  to a t t a i n the highest  p r o t e c t i v e and s u s t a i n e d y i e l d Conservation British  prac-  portion  simply  An possible cance.  of a l l the resources.  by r e s t r i c t i n g  of t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  yield  of r e s o u r c e s  with  which w i l l  To do s o ,  considerable  social  of l i v e s t o c k ,  is.to  r e s u l t i n the  consistent with their  only i n terms of t h e i r  of  little  The most e f f i c i e n t method  a p p r a i s a l of e i t h e r t h e r e s o u r c e  The p r o d u c t i o n  resources  use.  i n unemployment f o r a  the knowledge.and s k i l l  highest  use c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e  C o l u m b i a and e l s e w h e r e may be a c h i e v e d  however, would r e s u l t  the  grazing  reseeding  and p r o t e c t i o n of t h e g r a z i n g  or e f f i c i e n c y  apply  I t has  game management p r o g r a m , a n d a l l r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s  necessary  skill  inter-  perpetuation.  of i t s d e p l e t i o n i s  and economic  signifi-  t h e w a t e r y i e l d , and  i n c o m e , p l e a s u r e , and d i v e r s i o n f r o m t h e w i l d l i f e and  recreational nothing  o p p o r t u n i t i e s d e p e n d e n t on g r a z i n g l a n d s  unless  they  add t o a n a t i o n ' s  welfare.  On t h e o t h e r  hand, a r e d u c e d g r a z i n g c a p a c i t y , e r o s i o n , f l o o d s , s t o r m s , d e p l e t i o n of w i l d l i f e  populations,  of r e c r e a t i o n c a r r y no i m p o r t  unless  nation's The interior  they  mean:  dust  and t h e i n h i b i t i o n detract from the  welfare. question arises: British  "Are the e f f e c t s of o v e r g r a z i n g i n  C o l u m b i a as d r a s t i c  as t h o s e  areas throughout the western g r a z i n g regions?"  found i n other In answering  - 135 s u c h a q u e s t i o n , many f a c t o r s must be w e i g h e d a n d c o n s i d e r e d . Areas such as I n d i a n holding  reserves, roadsides,  g r o u n d s have been a s s e r i o u s l y a b u s e d a s a n y o t h e r  g r a z i n g areas i n t h e west. lands,  c a t t l e t r a i l s and  However, B r i t i s h  Columbian  i n g e n e r a l , have s u f f e r e d t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e  a v e r a g e f o r one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  range-  than  reasons.  ( 1 ) B e c a u s e g r e a t e r r e t u r n s c o u l d be made on i n v e s t ments i n l u m b e r i n g , m i h i n g a n d o t h e r more i n t e n s i v e f o r m s of a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e e a r l y comp e t i t i o n f o r g r a z i n g l a n d s was n o t as i n t e n s e as i t was i n o t h e r a r e a s t h r o u g h o u t t h e W e s t . ( 2 ) The t o p o g r a p h y of t h e r a n g e l a n d a n d t h e n a t u r a l v e r t i c a l z o n a t i o n of t h e v e g e t a t i o n permits a n a t u r a l form of r o t a t i o n a l g r a z i n g . The s t o c k w i n t e r i n t h e v a l l e y bottoms and as p l a n t g r o w t h a d v a n c e s , t h e y g r a d u a l l y g r a z e up a n d o n t o t h e higher grazing regions. (3)  The n a t u r e o f t h e t o p o g r a p h y a n d t h e v e g e t a t i o n tends t o d i v i d e the rangelands i n t o n a t u r a l g r a z i n g u n i t s , many o f w h i c h a r e i n d i v i d u a l l y owned and c o n t r o l l e d .  (4) Long w i n t e r f e e d i n g p e r i o d s , r o u g h t o p o g r a p h y , s h i p p i n g and t r a i l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , predatory a n i m a l s , and o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s masked the t r u e v a l u e o f t h e i n t e r i o r r a n g e l a n d s and discouraged i n t e n s i v e l i v e s t o c k production f o r many y e a r s . (5)  T h e r e was and i s now a s h o r t a g e winter f e e d i n g grounds.  of h a y l a n d s and  ( 6 ) The c l i m a t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e p e r i o d i c f l u c t u a t i o n s f o u n d i n many of t h e g r a z i n g r e g i o n s . (7) R a i n f a l l i n t e n s i t y i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n most g r a z i n g r e g i o n s . While grazing as  i n many o t h e r  has n o t been as s e v e r e  areas,  i n British  i t has c e r t a i n l y n o t been  Columbia  negligible  - 136 o r a b s e n t , n o r has t h e i n t e r i o r in  the b i o t i c  The  been s p a r e d t h e  community w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  d e t e r i o r a t i o n and a b u s e o f s p r i n g - f a l l  u n i v e r s a l throughout exception. carrying  disturbances  range i s almost  t h e W e s t , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s no  Nor i s t h e r e  capacity  overgrazing.  any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e e x t e n t  of t h i s  type o f range w i l l  or  be m a r k e d l y i n -  creased.  The m a j o r e x p e n s e i n p r o d u c i n g r a n g e l i v e s t o c k i s  wintering  and e m e r g e n c y f e e d i n g .  for  I t i s only n a t u r a l ,  the producer t o attempt to turn  new g r o w t h b e g i n s i n t h e s p r i n g . cost  of w i n t e r i n g  vegetation reserves, tions,  under t h i s  o u t h i s h e r d as s o o n a s  G r a n t e d , he s a v e s on t h e  s y s t e m , b u t he d o e s n o t g i v e t h e  a c h a n c e t o become e s t a b l i s h e d , t o r e p l e n i s h or t h e ground a chance t o d r y .  the vigor  of t h e p l a n t s  These r a n g e s r e c e i v e r o u n d up f a t s t o c k the  on s p r i n g  f o r the late  t h e y c a n be s h i p p e d .  able  again  range i s weakened.  to graze a high  ranchers  (spring-fall period  the f a t stock  p e r c e n t a g e of t h e seed culms or  i s hindered  or delayed.  lost, resulting i n a further intensification  suffer overgrazing, the  range  will  of i t s use.  are not the only v e g e t a t i o n a l b u t as e x t r e m i t i e s  that  With the further  e x p a n s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n , more of t h e s p r i n g - f a l l  Lower g r a s s l a n d s  leave  range)  r e d u c e t h e v i g o r of t h e p l a n t s t o s u c h a d e g r e e  plant reproduction  be  that  date d e l a y e d , they  During t h i s  root  condi-  June m a r k e t and f i n d  t h e s e a n i m a l s on t h e l o w e r g r a s s l a n d s  are  Under s u c h  f u r t h e r a b u s e i n t h a t when  m a r k e t i s p o o r or t h e s h i p p i n g  until  then,  zone t o  o f t h e r a n g e , s u c h as  f o r e s t zones, a r e a p p r o a c h e d , t h e d e l e t e r i o u s  effects  - 137 lessen.  The u s e o f f o r e s t e d r a n g e s f o r summer g r a z i n g has  removed some of t h e g r a z i n g  pressure.  U n t i l recent years,  many r a n c h e r s c o u l d n o t be c o n v i n c e d t h a t l i v e s t o c k to  are able  make e c o n o m i c a l g a i n s f r o m open c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t  d u r i n g t h e summer a n d e a r l y f a l l .  range  The a d v e r s e r a t i o o f  s p r i n g - f a l l r a n g e t o summer f o r e s t r a n g e i s one o f t h e b a s i c causes f o r t h e lack  of f u l l  utilization  of f o r e s t  range.  Many o t h e r f a c t o r s may be i n t r o d u c e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o ductivity  of B r i t i s h  Columbia rangelands.  Reseeding depleted  ranges t o s p e c i e s  such a s c r e s t e d w h e a t g r a s s  toward i n c r e a s i n g  the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of these ranges.  Management p r a c t i c e s water* d e v e l o p m e n t ,  such a s f e n c i n g a n d r i d i n g ,  o f t h e range  s u c h as f l i e s  forage.  and t i c k s and t h e use of w e l l  t h e maximum r e t u r n s f r o m a r a n g e .  V a l l e y s , t h e v e g e t a t i o n of range a r e a s throughout Columbia i s improving.  Windermere British  T h i s i s due t o t h e c o m b i n e d  effects  i m p r o v e d management, l i v e s t o c k , a n d g r a z i n g p r a c t i c e s , t h e  i n c r e a s e d use of f o r e s t increased a c t i v i t i e s of  bred  a l s o do much t o w a r d  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e C h i l c o t i n a n d u p p e r  of  assure  The c o n t r o l o f  s t o c k t h a t c a n make e c o n o m i c a l g a i n s w i l l deriving  s a l t i n g and  t o c o n t r o l l i v e s t o c k movements w i l l  optimum u t i l i z a t i o n parasites  c a n do much  range, b e t t e r growth  conditions,  a n d e f f i c i e n c y of t h e G r a z i n g D i v i s i o n  t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e ,  from grasshopper o u t b r e a k s .  h i g h l i v e s t o c k p r i c e s and freedom The c a u s e s  of o v e r g r a z i n g i n t h e  C h i l c o t i n V a l l e y a r e b e i n g removed, by t h e a c t i v i t i e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e , w h i l e t h e Dominion  E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm  of the Service  - 138  is  conducting reseeding experiments.  W i n d e r m e r e V a l l e y has the  -  ranchers.  The  They have p e r m i t t e d h o r s e s t o r u n w i l d ,  horses i n t h i s  and  harmful s o i l  Columbia.  Valleys,  sheet e r o s i o n , there i s very l i t t l e  l o s s throughout  on k n o l l s ,  cheatgrass.  of e r o s i o n along road-  the  lack  of s o i l  o v e r g r a z i n g has  During  c l o s e l y bound.  this  Other reasons f o r  e r o s i o n h a v e been d i s c u s s e d .  To what  i n c r e a s e d t h e s p e e d of r u n - o f f and  capacity  of t h e r a n g e l a n d s of t h i s  degree  reduced  the  p r o v i n c e has  determined. t h e 1930's and  hoppers caused Chilcotin,  In  Nicola  This p l a n t invades overgrazed r e g i o n s , l e a v i n g  w e l l c o v e r e d and  n o t y e t been  British  i s due t o t h e a n n u a l g r a s s downy brome  soil  holding  ex-  evidence  of i n t e r i o r  e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Thompson a n d  the  water  the ranges  but t h e s e are not c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s .  r e s p e c t , much c r e d i t or  t h e West have s u f f e r e d  T h e r e a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s  s i d e s and  t h e number o f  1949.  other areas throughout  c e s s i v e water of  area during  and  increased tremendously.  Forest Service i s planning to r e s t r i c t  While  i n the  a r i s e n l a r g e l y through the n e g l e c t of  c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e h o r s e p o p u l a t i o n has /The  situation  e a r l y 1940's, o u t b r e a k s  some a l a r m among t h e r a n c h e s  Similkameen,  Thompson and  ever, the combined e f f e c t s l i v e s t o c k . p r i c e s , and  of the  of g r a s s Nicola,  Okanagan V a l l e y s .  of good g r o w i n g  conditions,  sound management p r a c t i c e s has  the  e x t e n t o f many of t h e g r a s s h o p p e r  one  t i m e , some of t h e D o u g l a s L a k e C a t t l e  n o t o r i o u s l y o v e r g r a z e d a n d n o t e d t o be  Howgood  reduced  b r e e d i n g grounds. Company r a n g e s  some o f t h e most  At were  - 139 prominent b r e e d i n g grounds of g r a s s h o p p e r s i n the N i c o l a Valley. the  Under t h e a s t u t e  depletion  o f t h e s e r a n g e s has c e a s e d and a marked  ment i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n Indian  management o f Mr. B.K.DeP. C h a n c e ,  may be s e e n .  At p r e s e n t t h e N i c o l a  R e s e r v e i s one o f t h e f e w g r a s s h o p p e r a r e a s i n t h e  N i c o l a t h a t has n o t shown i m p r o v e m e n t . Entomologist,  Mr. B u c k e l l ,  K a m l o o p s , B.C., now c o n s i d e r s  S m a l l mammals have n e v e r been as g r e a t British  has  Columbia as i n other  suffered  t o any great  extent  N i c o l a V a l l e y n e a r Stump L a k e . high  concentration  a problem i n This  i s pro-  The o n l y a r e a  that  has been t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e A t one t i m e t h e r e was a  of ground s q u i r r e l s  they are v i r t u a l l y absent.  Valley.  a r e a s o f t h e West.  due t o t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f p r e d a t o r s .  Dominion  that the greatest  grasshopper danger areas a r e i n t h e C h i l c o t i n  bably  improve-  i n this  area,  fairly  but t o d a y  I n f a c t , many o f t h e s i g n s o f  r o d e n t h a b i t a t i o n , s u c h as b u r r o w s a n d e a r t h e n hummocks, h a v e disappeared.  Many o f t h e r a n c h e r s i n t h i s  area claim that the  r e m o v a l of t h e c o y o t e b o u n t y and t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e t u r n predator Dr.  caused t h i s  reduction  Cowan b e l i e v e s t h a t  animals  i n ground s q u i r r e l  reports  s u c h as g r o u n d s q u i r r e l s  w e i g h e d and c o n s i d e r e d . vegetation  played  indicated,  prefers  of t h i s  numbers.  of the c o n t r o l of h i b e r n a t i n g by p r e d a t o r s  must be  carefully  U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e improvement i n n a t i v e  some p a r t  since this  animal,  as p r e v i o u s l y  associations lower i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n a l  succession. The and  e f f e c t s of predatory  animals  c o u g a r s , a r e more s t r o n g l y f e l t  s u c h as w o l v e s ,  i n British  bears,  Columbia  than  - 140 in  most r a n g e a r e a s .  this  However, i t i s t h e w a t e r ' s b e l i e f  p r e d a t i o n i s not the r e s u l t  of o v e r g r a z i n g  t h a t l a r g e expanses of u n i n h a b i t e d out  but r a t h e r  land are prevalent  through-  the province. In  cerned deer,  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s a r e g r a v e l y with the w i l d l i f e  are u n s u i t e d f o r domestic l i v e s t o c k  ranges a r e overgrazed, wildlife,  range l e f t  C o l u m b i a , on t h e o t h e r little  p r o d u c t i o n , and consef o rw i l d l i f e .  i s the inevitable  I fthe  result.  In B r i t i s h  hand, t h e s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d .  range s u i t a b l e  f o r domestic  production while w i t h the, p o s s i b l e exception grounds the w i l d l i f e  tha-t  t h e r e i s n o t enough f e e d l e f t f o r  and s t a r v a t i o n  relatively  T h r o u g h o u t much o f t h e  of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e are few areas  quently there i s l i t t l e  con-  s i t u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of t h e  e l k a n d o t h e r b i g game s p e c i e s . .  range r e g i o n s  is  that  s p e c i e s have v i r t u a l l y  There  livestock  of w i n t e r  feeding  t h e same r a n g e  they always had. Unfortunately, overgrazing s h i p s f o r game b i r d s ,  has caused c o n s i d e r a b l e  e s p e c i a l l y ducks.  swamps, and ponds on i n t e r i o r r a n g e l a n d s places  and b r e e d i n g  Many o f t h e l a k e s , serve  grounds f o r m i g r a t o r y  as r e s t i n g  ducks.  Many o f t h e  swamps have been d r a i n e d a n d u s e d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o r swamp h a y w h i c h i s a s o u r c e  to  of w i l d  of w i n t e r f e e d f o r l i v e s t o c k .  Und e r c o n d i t i o n s of o v e r g r a z i n g , l i v e s t o c k a r o u n d the s h o r e s  hard-  crop the v e g e t a t i o n  and edges o f many o f t h e s e  l a k e s a n d ponds  s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t no v e g e t a t i o n and h e n c e no p r o t e c t i v e  cover  i s left  f o r the n e s t i n g b i r d s .  Dr. Cowan s u g g e s t s  that  - 141 a p o r t i o n of t h e shore l i n e be f e n c e d  o f t h e s e ponds and l a k e s  should  o f f t o a l l o w t h e d u c k s an o p p o r t u n i t y <to n e s t . I n summary, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r a n g e l a n d s o f  British  Columbia are improving  a n d many o f t h e d e l e t e r i o u s  p r a c t i c e s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d t o o v e r g r a z i n g being  eliminated.  conditions the  However, c a r e  of overgrazing  must be t a k e n so t h a t t h e  t h a t became so p r e v a l e n t  e n t i r e West a r e n e v e r p e r m i t t e d  Columbia.  i n t h e past are  to occur again  throughout in British  - 142 —  VII.  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  (1) Present range r e g i o n s , i n B r i t i s h W e s t , have r e s u l t e d f r o m i n t e r a c t i o n s  Columbia and t h e  o f e d a p h i c and b i o t i c  factors. (2) R a n g e l a n d s of B r i t i s h tion  o f t h e a r e a of t h i s  Columbia comprise a s m a l l por-  province; the grazing regions  sented a r e t h e bunchgrass and c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t (3)  repre-  regions.  A n . a p p r a i s a l o f t h e g r a z i n g h i s t o r y o f t h e West  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r e s e n t r a n g e  leads  conditions.  (4) A v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r i s o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e maintenance late  o f t h e West.  i n coming.  toward o b v i a t i n g  Realization  o f t h i s was  generally  E x t e n s i o n a n d r a n g e s u r v e y s have done much t h e p r o t e c t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e v a l u e of such  cover. (5) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of vegetation provides a basis f o r  d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i n t e n s i t y o f r a n g e u s e and f u t u r e management  range  practices.  (6) I n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , as e l s e w h e r e , r a n g e  a r e d e p e n d e n t upon l i v e s t o c k rather than l i v e s t o c k  enterprises  products production per acre  numbers.  - 143  (7) With o v e r g r a z i n g , tion,  -  calf and lamb c r o p s , w o o l p r o d u c -  and meat p r o d u c t i o n d e c r e a s e ,  w h i l e death  and f o r a g e  wastages i n c r e a s e . (8) Removal o f t h e v e g e t a t i v e cover causes s e r i o u s l o s s e s through though i n B r i t i s h required  wind and w a t e r e r o s i o n . A l -  Columbia l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o e r o s i o n i s  because ranges a r e p r o t e c t e d from high \ e l o c i t y  by t o p o g r a p h y and b e c a u s e r a i n f a l l c a n n o t be t o t a l l y  ignored.  home o f w i l d l i f e  of B r i t i s h  Columbia, are  as w e l l as d o m e s t i c l i v e s t o c k .  p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n i s i n t e r e s t e d i n w i l d l i f e e c o n o m i c , moral, o r r e c r e a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t , life  winds  i n t e n s i t y i s low, erosion  (9) Rangelands, i n c l u d i n g those the  by o v e r g r a z i n g  Because  f r o m an  the c l a i m s of w i l d -  t o r a n g e s u s e d f o r d o m e s t i c l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t i o n must be  considered.  F o r e s i g h t and p l a n n i n g  solves t h i s problem t o  mutual advantage. (10)  Overgrazing  mammals and i n s e c t s , (11) intended  The b r o a d  r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s e d numbers o f s m a l l many o f w h i c h c a u s e c o n s i d e r a b l e damage. concepts  presented  t o integrate overgrazing  i n this  Thesis are  and i t s e f f e c t s i n such a  manner t h a t t h i s work may s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e on t h e r a n g e l a n d s  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  research  APPENDIX A Doubt has been e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f i n c l u d i n g d o m e s t i c a t e d g r a z i n g a n i m a l s among t h e c o m p o n e n t s of an e c o s y s t e m o r I ' b i o t i c c o m m u n i t y " . P r o f e s s o r P h i l l i p s (154) makes a p o i n t o f s e p a r a t i n g t h e e f f e c t o f g r a z i n g h e r b i v o r o u s a n i m a l s n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n t h e " b i o t i c comm u n i t y " , v i z . , t h e b i s o n and a n t e l o p e f r o m t h e e f f e c t o f g r a z i n g a n i m a l s i n t r o d u c e d by man. The b i s o n and a n t e l o p e a r e s a i d t o have c o - o p e r a t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s h o r t g r a s s v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e G r e a t P l a i n s (129) and t o have a s s i s t e d i n p r e v e n t i n g t h e i n v a s i o n o f g r a s s l a n d s by t h e forest. D o m e s t i c a t e d g r a z i n g a n i m a l s a r e s u p p o s e d t o be d e s t r u c t i v e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s and t o p l a y no p a r t i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n a l o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s (220). I t i s obvious that modern c i v i l i z e d man u p s e t s the " n a t u r a l " e c o s y s t e m s o r " b i o t i c community" t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree. However, i t w o u l d be e x c e p t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e t o draw a n a t u r a l l i n e between t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e human t r i b e s , w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y f i t t e d i n t o a n d f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e s e " b i o t i c comm u n i t i e s " a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i v e human a c t i v i t i e s o f man and t h e modern w o r l d . The q u e s t i o n t h e n becomes* " I s man p a r t o f ' n a t u r e , or n o t ? " Man i s r e g a r d e d as an e x c e p t i o n a l l y p o w e r f u l b i o t i c f a c t o r which i n c r e a s i n g l y upsets the e q u i l i b r i u m of f o r m e r l y e x i s t i n g e c o s y s t e m s , even t o t h e e x t e n t o f d e s t r o y i n g some o f them. A t t h e same t i m e j " human a c t i v i t y o f t e n f o r m s new e c o s y s t e m s s o m e t i m e s o f e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f e r e n t nature. 1  As an e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r a c t i n g on v e g e t a t i o n , t h e e f f e c t o f g r a z i n g h e a v i l y ehough t o p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d f o r e s t g r o w t h i s b a s i c a l l y t h e same e f f e c t r e g a r d l e s s o f how and when i t o c c u r s . I f such i s t h e r e s u l t of grazing, the grazing animals are a very important f a c t o r i n t h e biome a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t r e g a r d l e s s o f how t h e y got t h e r e , whether t h e y m i g r a t e d t o t h a t p l a c e by t h e m s e l v e s o r w h e t h e r t h e y were i n t r o d u c e d by modern man. The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one t y p e o f v e g e t a t i o n f o r a n o t h e r , be i t a g r a s s l a n d o r a f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n , i n v o l v e s d e s t r u c t i o n t o some d e g r e e ; b u t i t a l s o i n v o l v e s t h e g r a d u a l establishment o f a new v e g e t a t i o n c u l m i n a t i n g i n a c l i m a x t h a t i s w e l l d e f i n e d under the i n f l u e n c e of t h e f a c t o r s p r e s e n t . Needless t o s a y , when man i n t r o d u c e s g r a z i n g a n i m a l s s u c h as c a t t l e , sheep and h o r s e s , r e s t r i c t i n g them w i t h f e n c e s and p r o t e c t i n g them by d e s t r o y i n g p r e d a t o r s , he s e t s up an e c o s y s t e m whose e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e i s t h e e q u i l i b r i u m between t h e g r a s s l a n d and t h e g r a z i n g a n i m a l s . I n such a way t h e " b i o t i c communit i e s " may be a l t e r e d f r o m one d e v e l o p e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f man  - b but the  the e s s e n t i a l f o r m a t i v e processes of the v e g e t a t i o n a r e same, h o w e v e r t h e f a c t o r s i n i t i a t i n g them a r e d i r e c t e d .  I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t h a t we have a s y s t e m o f e c o l o g i c a l concepts which w i l l a l l o w the i n c l u s i o n of a l l f o r m s o f b i o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n and a c t i v i t y . We must n o t c o n f i n e o u r s e l v e s t o t h e s o - c a l l e d " n a t u r a l " e n t i t i e s and i g n o r e the processes p r o v i d e d as t h e r e s u l t of t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f man.  APPENDIX E Scientific  and Common Names o f P l a n t s D i s c u s s e d  S C I E N T I F I C NAME  COMMON NAME A.  GRASSES  Agropyron inerme (Rybd.) Awnless wheatgrass A g r o p y r o n S m i t h i i (Rybd. ) Bluestem wheatgrass Agropyron spicatum (Pursh.) Bluebunch wheatgrass Bromus t e c t o r u m ( L . ) Downy brome ( C h e a t g r a s s ) C a l m a g r o s t i s l o n g i f o l i a (Hook.) Sand g r a s s Calmagrostis rubescens (Buckl.) Pine grass Elymus condensatus (Presl.) Giant w i l d rye Festuca a r i z o n i c a (Vasey.) Arizone fescue Fe s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s ( E l m e r . ) Bluebunch fescue Rough f e s c u e Festuca scabrella (Torr.) Wild barley Hordeum .jubatum (L.) Kpeleria c r i s t a t a (L ) June g r a s s Mountain muhley M u h l e m b e r g i a montana ( N u t t . ) Indian r i c e grass O r y z o p s i s h u m e n o i d e s (Roem.& S c h u l t . ) Kentucky b l u e g r a s s Poa p r a t e n s i s ( L . ) Sandberg's b l u e g r a s s Poa s e c u n d a ( P r e s l . ) Common s p e a r g r a s s S t i p a comata ( T r i n . ) Columbia spear grass S t i p a Columbiana (Macoun.) B.  FORBS. SHRUBS, and' TREES  Abies spp. F i r species Artemisia frigida (Willd.) P a s t u r e sage A r t e m i s i a gnaphalodes (Nutt.) P r a i r i e sage Artemisia tridentata (Nutt.) Sagebrush A s t r a g a l u s s e r o t i n u s (A.Gray) Timber m i l k v e t c h Balsalmorhiza sagittata (Nutt.) Balsam root Brassica spp. Mustard s p e c i e s C i c u t a o c c i d e n t a l i s (Greene) W a t e r hemlock' Crysothamnus nauseosus ( P a l l . ) Rabbit brush Delphinium b i c o l o u r (Nutt.) Two-coloured l a r k s p u r E l a e o g n u s commutata ( B e r n h . ) Wolf w i l l o w ( Silverb'erry) G u t i e r r i z i a s a r o t h r a e ( B r i t t . & Rusby) Broom weed Lactuca spp. Lettuce species L i t t l e bluebur L a p p u l a oc c i d e n t a l i s ( G r e e n e ) Creamy p e a v i n e L a t h y r u s o r c h o l e u c u s (Hook*.) Arctic lupine Lupinus a r c t i c u s (S.Wats.) Madia s p e c i e s Madia spp. Tumble m u s t a r d Norta a l t i s s i m a (L.)  Picea Pinus Pinus Prunus  spp• contorta (Dougl.) pondorosa (Dougl.) melanocarpa (A.Nels.)  Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a (Brltt.) Rosa spp. S a l s o l a p e s t i f e r (A. N e l l s . ) - S i s y m b r i u m spp. Tragopogon p r a t e n s i s ( L . ) Zygadenus venenosus (S.Wats.)  Spruce s p e c i e s Lodgepole pine Western y e l l o w pine B l a c k - f r u i t e d choke cherry Douglas f i r Rose s p e c i e s ( w i l d ) Russian t h i s t l e Mustard species Ghost's beard D e a t h camus  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  A l b e r t s o n , F.W., P r a i r i e S t u d i e s i n W e s t - C e n t r a l K a n s a s . T r a n s . K a n s a s A c a d . S c i . Zfcl, 77, 1938.  2.  A l b e r t s o n , F.W., E f f e c t s o f D r o u g h t . D u s t , a n d I n t e n s i t y o f G r a z i n g on C o v e r and Y i e l d o f S h o r t G r a s s P a s t u r e s , E c o l . Monog. 1/t, 1, 1944*  3.  A l b e r t s o n , F.W. and W e a v e r , J . E . , N a t u r e and D e g r e e o f R e c o v e r y o f G r a s s l a n d From t h e G r e a t D r o u g h t o f 1 9 3 3 1 9 4 0 . E c o l . Monog. 14., 393, 1944.  4.  A l l r e d , B.W., G r a s s h o p p e r s and T h e i r E f f e c t on Sageb r u s h on t h e L i t t l e Powder R i v e r i n Wyoming and Monta n a . E c o l . 22, 387, 1941.  5.  A r n o l d , J . F . , Forage Consumption and P r e f e r e n c e s o f E x p e r i m e n t a l l y Fed A r i z o n a and A n t e l o p e Jack R a b b i t s . B i o l . A b s t r . 19., 12301, 1945.  6.  A y r e s , Q.C., S o i l E r o s i o n and I t s C o n t r o l . M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. I n c . , N.Y., .1936.  7.  B a i l e y , Reed W., The R o l e o f Range Management i n E r o s i o n C o n t r o l . I d a h o F o r e s t , 21, 9, 38, 1939*  8.  B a k e r , A . L . and Q u e e n s b e r r y , J.R., F e r t i l i t y o f Range B e e f C a t t l e . J . A n . S c i . 2> 78, 1944.  9.  B a k e r , F.C., I n f l u e n c e o f a Changed E n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e F o r m a t i o n o f New S p e c i e s a n d V a r i e t i e s . E c o l . 2.» 271, 1 9 2 8 .  10.  B a l l , E.D., Food P l a n t s o f Some A r i z o n a G r a s s h o p p e r s , J o u r . E c o n . E n t o m o l . 2 9 , 679, 1936.  11.  B a r n e s , F . F . , K r a e b e l , C . J . a n d L a M o t t e , R.S., The E f f e c t o f A c c e l e r a t e d E r o s i o n on S i l t i n g i n M o r e n a R e s e r v o i r , San D i e g o C o u n t y . C a l i f o r n i a , U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 639, 1939.  12.  B a t e s , C.G., The T r a n s e c t o f a M o u n t a i n V a l l e y . E c o l . A, 54, 1923.  13.  B a v e r , L.D., S o i l P h y s i c s . N.Y., 3rd p r i n t . , 1947.  14.  B e a t t i e , R.K., P l a n t s Used f o r F o o d by Sheep on t h e M i c a M o u n t a i n Summer R a n g e , Wash. A g r . E x p . S t a . B u l l . I l l , 1913.  John W i l e y & Sons, I n c . ,  15.  Beaumont, A.B., S t i t t , R.E., a n d S n e l l , R.S., Some F a c tors A f f e c t i n g the P a l a t a b i l i t y of Pasture P l a n t s . J o u r . Amer. S o c . A g r o n . .25_, 123, 1933.  16.  B e l l , M.A., F o r a g e C o n d i t i o n s G r o w e r 2ji, 16, 1935.  17.  B e n n e t t , H.H., The P l a c e o f Range Management i n E r o s i o n C o n t r o l . I d a h o F o r e s t 21, 10, 36, 50, 1939.  18.  B e n t l e y , H.L., Range Improvement i n C e n t r a l T e x a s . U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . B u r . of- P l a n t I n d u s t r y , B u l l . 13, 1902.  19.  B l a c k , W.H., and C l a r k , V . I . , Y e a r l o n g S t e e r s i n t h e N o r t h e r n Great P l a i n s . C i r c . 642, 1942.  20.  Bond, R i c h a r d M., Range R o d e n t s a n d P l a n t T r a n s . N. Amer. W i l d l i f e C o n f . 10, 229,  21.  Bond, R.M. and B o r e l l , A.E., R o d e n t s a n d S o i l t i o n . S o i l C o n s e r v . A , 220, 1939.  22.  B r a n s o n , F.A., A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on t h e I n s e c t O r d e r s Found i n V a r i o u s G r a s s l a n d H a b i t a t s i n t h e V i c i n i t y o f H a y s . K a n s a s . T r a n s . K a n . A c a d . S c i . Ajj., I89, 1942.  23.  B r e n n e n , C.Q. a n d F l e m i n g , C.E., More B e e f From t h e Same Number o f C a t t l e on Nevada R a n c h e s . Nev. A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 162, 1942.  24.  B r i g g s , H.E., The D e v e l o p m e n t and D e c l i n e o f Open Range R a n c h i n g i n t h e N o r t h w e s t , M i s s . V a l l e y H i s t . R e v . 20,  521,  i n Montana. N a t . Wool  Grazing of U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . Succession. 1945. Conserva-  1934.  25.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The P r o v i n c e o f , D e p t . o f A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , P r o v . Game Comm. Rep. f o r y r . e n d i n g Dec. 31, 1 9 4 6 .  26.  B r o o k s , A., P a s t a n d P r e s e n t B i g Game C o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e P r e d a t o r y Mammal Q u e s t i o n , J o u r . Mammal 2» 37, 1926.  27.  B r o w n , C.B., The C o n t r o l o f R e s e r v o i r S i l t i n g . U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . M i s c . P u b l i c . 521, 1943.  28.  Brown> H.L., C o - a c t i o n o f J a c k r a b b i t . C o t t o n t a i l and V e g e t a t i o n i n a Mixed P r a i r i e . Trans. Kan. Acad. S c i . J5_0, 2 8 , 1947.  29.  Brown, J.H. and R o y , G.D., The R i c h a r d s o n G r o u n d S q u i r r e l , ( C i t e l l u s richardsonTi" S a b i n e ) i n S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a ; I t s I m p o r t a n c e and C o n t r o l i S c i . A g r i c . 2 4 , 176, 1943.  30.  B u k e y , F.S. a n d W e a v e r , J . E . , E f f e c t s o f F r e q u e n t C l i p p i n g on U n d e r g r o u n d Food R e s e r v e o f C e r t a i n P r a i r i e  G r a s s e s , E c o l . 20, 246, 1939*  31.  B u l l , S. a n d R u s k , H.P., E f f e c t o f E x e r c i s e on t h e Q u a l i t y o f B e e f . 1 1 1 . A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 488,  1942.  32.  C a i r d , R.W., I n f l u e n c e o f S i t e a n d G r a z i n g I n t e n s i t y on Y i e l d s o f G r a s s F o r a g e i n t h e Texas P a n h a n d l e , J o u r . F o r e s t . 4 1 , 45, 1945.  33.  C a i r n e s , C.E., G e n e r a l G e o l o g y o f t h e K e t t l e R i v e r S h e e t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Map 538A, D e p t . o f M i n e s & . R e s o u r c e s , Canada, 1936.  34«  C a m p b e l l , • J . B . , P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h J . Baden C a m p b e l l , Head, F o r a g e D i v . , Dom. E x p . S t a . , S w i f t C u r r e n t , Sask., 1948.  35.  C a m p b e l l , R.S., P r o b l e m s i n M e a s u r i n g F o r a g e U t i l i z a t i o n on W e s t e r n R a n g e s . E c o l . 1 8 , 5 2 8 , 1937.  36.  C a m p b e l l , R.S. and B o m b e r g e r , E.H., O c c u r r e n c e o f G u t i e r r e z i a s a r o t h r a e on B o u t e l o u a e r i p o d a Ranges i n S o u t h w e s t e r n New M e x i c o , E c o l . 15_, 49, 1934*  37.  Canada, Dom. D e p t . of A g r i c , E x p . Farm S e r . , F o r a g e D i v . , Dom. E x p . S t a . , S w i f t C u r r e n t , S a s k . , U n p u b l i shed d a t a , 1946, 1947.  38.  Canada, Dom. D e p t . o f A g r i c , R e p o r t on A c t i v i t i e s Cond u c t e d under t h e P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t f o r t h e F i s c a l Y e a r E n d i n g M a r . 3 1 . 1 9 4 4 . P.F.R.A. Mimeo. Pamphlet, 1944.  39.  C a n a d a , Dom. Range E x p . S t a . , K a m l o o p s , B.C., L i s t o f t h e S p e c i e s i n t h e D o m i n i o n Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n Herbarium. Unpublished data, 1946.  40.  C a r p e n t e r , J.R., The G r a s s l a n d B i o m e , E c o l . Monog. 1 0 , 617, 1940.  41.  C h a p l i n e , W.R., The P l a c e o f Range Management i n S o i l E r o s i o n i n t h e Western S t a t e s , Idaho F o r e s t . 2 1 .  7,  1939.  42.  C h r i s t e n s e n , F.W. and H o p p e r , T.H., E f f e c t of W e a t h e r i n g and S t a g e o f M a t u r i t y on t h e P a l a t a b i l i t y and N u t r i t i v e V a l u e of P r a i r i e Hay. N. Dak. A g r i c . E x p t . S t a . T e c h . B u l l . 260, 1932.  43.  C l a r k , N.M.,  High Pastures.  C l a r k , O.R., Weeds, and  I n t e r c e p t i o n o f R a i n f a l l by P r a i r i e G r a s s e s . C e r t a i n C r o p P l a n t s . E c o l . Monog. 10.  1937.  44*  243,  45*  C l a r k e , S.E., P a s t u r e I n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t h e S h o r t g r a s s P l a i n s o f A l b e r t a and S a s k a t c h e w a n , S c i . A g r i c . 10.  732,  46.  1940.  76,  C o u n t r y G e n t l e m a n 107.  1930.  C l a r k e , S.E., C a m p b e l l , J.A., and C a m p b e l l , J.B., An E c o l o g i c a l and G r a z i n g C a p a c i t y S t u d y o f t h e N a t i v e G r a s s P a s t u r e s i n S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and M a n i t o b a , Dom. o f Can. D e p t . o f A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 1 1 0 ,  44,  1942.  47.  C l a r k e , S.E. and T i s d a l e , E.W., The C h e m i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n o f N a t i v e F o r a g e P l a n t s o f S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a and S a s k a t c h e w a n i n R e l a t i o n t o G r a z i n g P r a c t i c e s , Dom. of Can. D e p t . of A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 54, 1945.  48.  C l e m e n t s , F.E., The J o u r , of E c o l . 22,  49*  C l e m e n t s , F.E., P l a n t S u c c e s s i o n and W i l s o n Co., N.Y., 1928.  50.  Compton, L.V.,  215,  1939.  R e l i c t M e t h o d i n Dynamic E c o l o g y . 39, 1934.  Wildlife  and  the  Indicators,  Range. S o i l  H.H.  C o n s e r v . /{.>  51.  Coney, F.M., A n t e l o p e Foods i n S o u t h w e s t e r n Montana. J o u r . W i l d l i f e Management 10, 367, 1946.  52.  Cook, C.W., H a r r i s , L.E. and S t o d d a r t , L.A., Measuring the N u t r i t i v e Content of a F o r a g i n g Sheep's D i e t U n d e r Range C o n d i t i o n s . J o u r . An. S c i . 2> 170, 1948.  53*  C o o p e r r i d e r , C.K., and H e n d r i c k s , B.A., S o i l Erosion and S t r e a m F l o w on Range and F o r e s t L a n d s o f t h e U p p e r R i o Grande W a t e r s h e d i n R e l a t i o n t o L a n d R e s o u r c e s and Human W e l f a r e . U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 567,  1937.  54.  C o r y , V.L., M e t h o d s o f D e t e r m i n i n g F o r a g e P r e f e r e n c e s f o r S t o c k . E c o l . 11, 760, 1930.  55.  C o t t a m , W.P.., and E v a n s , F.R., A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e V e g e t a t i o n o f G r a z e d and U n g r a z e d Canyons o f t h e W a s a t c h Ranges U t a h . E c o l . 26., 171, 1945.  56.  C o t t a m , W.P., and E v a n s , F.R., A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e V e g e t a t i o n o f G r a z e d and U n g r a z e d Canyons o f t h e W a s a t c h Range. U t a h . E c o l . 26, 171, 1945.  57.  C o u c h , L.K., R e l a t i o n s h i p o f P r e y t o Rodent L i f e .  58.  Cowan, I a n McT., The T i m b e r W o l f i n t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s o f Canada, Can. J o u r . R e s . S e c t . D, Z o o l . S c i . 2£, 139, 1947.  59.  C r a d d o c k , G.W., and F o r s l i n g , C.L., The I n f l u e n c e o f C l i m a t e and G r a z i n g on S p r i n g - F a l l Sheep Range i n S o u t h e r n I d a h o . U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 600,  o f P r e d a t o r y Mammals and B i r d s J o u r . Mammal £, 73, 1928.  1938.  60.  C r a d d o c k , G.W., and P e a r s e , C.K., S u r f a c e R u n o f f and E r o s i o n on G r a n i t i c M o u n t a i n S o i l s o f I d a h o as I n f l u e n c e d by Range C o v e r , S o i l D i s t r i b u t i o n . S l o p e . and P r e c i p i t a t i o n I n t e n s i t y , U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . C i r c .  282,  1938.  61.  C r a f t s , E.C., H e i g h t - V o l u m e , D i s t r i b u t i o n i n RangeG r a s s e s , J o u r . F o r e s t . £6, 1182, 1938.-  62.  C r a f t s , E.C., and G l e n d e n i n g , G.E., How t o G r a z e B l u e Grama on S o u t h w e s t e r n R a n g e s , U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . L e a f . 215., 1 , 1942.  63.  Criddle, Wolves  13,  M., The H a b i t s and E c o n o m i c I m p o r t a n c e o f i n C a n a d a , Can. D e p t . A g r i c . B u l l • ( n . s . ) ,  1925.  64.  D a u b e n m i r e , R.F., An E c o l o g i c a l S t u d y o f t h e V e g e t a t i o n o f S o u t h w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n and A d j a c e n t I d a h o , E c o l . Monog. 12, 53, 1942.  65.  D a u b e n m i r e , R.F., C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e E c o l o g y o f t h e B i g Bend A r e a o f W a s h i n g t o n . Forage r e s o u r c e s of t h e S c a b l a n d P r a i r i e s and t h e E f f e c t o f G r a z i n g Upon Them, N o r t h w e s t S c i . 12, 33, 1939.  66.  D a u b e n m i r e , R.F., P l a n t S u c c e s s i o n Due t o O v e r g r a z i n g i n the Agropyron Bunchgrass P r a i r i e of S o u t h - e a s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . E c o l . 21, 55. 1940.  67.  D a u b e n m i r e , R.F., and C o l w e l l , W.E., Some E d a p h i c Changes Bue t o O v e r g r a z i n g i n t h e A g r o p v r o n - P o a P r a i r i e o f S o u t h - e a s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n , E c o l . 23_, 32,  1942.  68.  Davy, J . B . , S t o c k Ranges o f N o r t h e a s t e r n C a l i f o r n i a . U.S. Dept. A g r i c . B u r . o f P l a n t I n d u s t . B u l l . 12, 1902.  69.  Dawson, G.M., R e p o r t on t h e A r e a o f t h e K a m l o o p s Maps h e e t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G e o l . S u r v . Can. Ann. Rep.,  1894.  70.  Dawson, G.M.,  The Shuswap S h e e t , B r i t i s h  Columbia,  G e o l . S u r v . C a n . A n n . R e p . , I898. 71.  D i b b l e , C.B., G r a s s h o p p e r s , a F a c t o r . i n S o . i l E r o s i o n i n M i c h i g a n , J o u r . E c o n . E n t . 3J5., 498, 1940.  72..  D i c e , L.R., The R e l a t i o n o f Mammalian D i s t r i b u t i o n t o V e g e t a t i o n T y p e s . S c i . M o n t h l y 2 1 » 312, 1931.  73.  D i x o n , J . S . , A S t u d y o f t h e L i f e H i s t o r y and Food H a b i t s o f M u l e Deer i n C a l i f o r n i a . C a l i f . F i s h & Game 20, 1 8 1 , 315, 1934.  74.  D o n a l d s o n , F.T., a n d W e l c h , H., Does G r a s s h o p p e r a n d C r i c k e t C o n t r o l Work I n v o l v e H a z a r d s t o L i v e s t o c k ? . M o n t a n a A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 351, 1938.  75.  Doran,  C.W.,  Activities  a n d G r a z i n g H a b i t s o f Sheep on  Summer R a n g e s . J o u r . F o r e s t . L^l, 253,  1943*  76.  D r a k e , C . J . , a n d D e c k e r , G.C., G r a s s h o p p e r s i n Iowa i n 1936, P r o c . Iowa A c a d . S c i . 4Jt, - I 8 9 , 1937.  77.  E l l i s , J.H., S o i l D r i f t i n g i n M a n i t o b a . W e s t . C a n . S o c . A g r o n . P r o c . 1, 38, 1921.  78.  E s p l i n , A..C, E f f e c t o f F e e d . W a t e r , and S h e l t e r Upon t h e F l e e c e s o f U t a h Ewes. U t a h A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 240, 1932.  79.  E s p l i n , A.C., Madsen, M.A., a n d P h i l l i p s , R.W., E f f e c t s o f F e e d i n g Ewe Lambs D u r i n g T h e i r F i r s t W i n t e r , U t a h A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 292, 1940.  80.  F i t c h , H.S., A S t u d y o f C o y o t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s on C a t t l e Range, J o u r . W i l d l i f e Manage. 12, 73, 1948.  81.  F l o r y , E.L., Comparison of the Environment and Some P h y s i o l o g i c a l Responses of P r a i r i e V e g e t a t i o n and C u l t i v a t e d Maize, E c o l . 12, 67, 1936.  82.  F o r s l i n g , C.L., A Study of the Influence of Herbaceous P l a n t Cover on Surface Run-off and S o i l E r o s i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o Grazing on the Wasatch P l a t e a u i n Utah. U.S. Dept. A g r i c . Tech. B u l l . 220, 1931.  83.  F o r s l i n g , C.L., Saving L i v e s t o c k From S t a r v a t i o n on Southwestern Ranges. U.S. Dept. A g r i c . Farmers' B u l l .  1428,  1924.  84.  F o r s l i n g , C.L., and Storm, E.U., The U t i l i z a t i o n of Browse Forage as Summer Range f o r C a t t l e i n Southwestern Utah, U.S. Dept. A g r i c . C i r c . 62, I929..  85.  Free, E.E., The Movement of S o i l M a t e r i a l by the Wind. U.S. Bur. of S o i l s , B u l l . 68, 1911.  86.  Friedman, M.H., and Turner, W.A., The R e l a t i o n of Diet to Reproduction. Food and L i f e , U.S. Dept. of A g r i c . Yrbk., 476, 1939.  87.  Gass, P., Lewis and C l a r k ' s Journal to the Rocky Mounta i n s i n the. Years 1804. '5. '6 as Related by P a t r i c k Gass, one of the O f f i c e r s i n the E x p e d i t i o n , 1847, Ed. by J.K. Hosmer, Dayton, Ohio, 1904.  88.  Goldman. E.A., The C o n t r o l of I n j u r i o u s Animals. S c i . (H.S.) 2£> 309, 1932.  89.  Gorman, M.W., E a s t e r n Part of Washington F o r e s t Reserve. U.S. Geol. Surv. Ann. Rep. 19, 315, 1899.  90.  Greene, R.A., and Reynard, C , The I n f l u e n c e o f Two Burrowing Rodents. Dipodomys s p e c t a b i l i s s p e c t a b i l i s (Kangaroo r a t ) and Neotoma A l b i g u l a a l b i g u l a (pack r a t ) on Desert S o i l s i n A r i z o n a . E c o l . 13_, 73, 1932.  91.  G r i f f i t h s , D., Forage C o n d i t i o n s and Problems i n E a s t e r n •Washington, E a s t e r n Oregon. Northwestern C a l i f o r n i a , and N o r t h e a s t e r n Nevada, U.S. Bur. of P l a n t Indus. B u l l . 38, 1903.  92.  G r i f f i t h s , D., Forage C o n d i t i o n s ofi the Northern Border of the Great Basin, U.S. Dept. A g r i c . Bur. of P l a n t Indus. B u l l . 15, 1902.  93.  G r i f f i t h s , D., Range Improvement i n A r i z o n a . U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . B u r . o f P l a n t I n d u s t . B u l l . 4, 1901.  94.  G r i n n e l l , J . , The B u r r o w i n g R o d e n t s o f C a l i f o r n i a a s A g e n t s o f S o i l F o r m a t i o n . J o u r , o f Mammal. Zjj. 137, 1923.  95.  G r i n n e l l , J . , N a t i v e C a l i f o r n i a Rodents i n R e l a t i o n t o W a t e r S u p p l y , J o u r . Mammal. 2A> 293, 1933.  96.  G w a t k i n , R., I n d i c a t i o n o f t h e P r e s e n c e o f t h e V i r u s o f Equine Encephalomyelitis i n t h e B r a i n o f t h e Ground, S q u i r r e l , C a n . J o u r . Comp. Med., M a r c h , 1940.  97.  H a l l i d a y , W.E.D., a n d B r o w n , A.W.A., The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Some I m p o r t a n t F o r e s t T r e e s i n C a n a d a . E c o l . 2 4 . 353, 1943.  98.  H a n s o n , H.C., E c o l o g y i n A g r i c u l t u r e . E c o l . 2 0 , 111, 1939.  99. »  H a n s o n , H.C., A C o m p a r i s o n o f M e t h o d s o f B o t a n i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e N a t i v e P r a i r i e i n W e s t e r n N o r t h Dakota. J o u r . A g r i c . Res.. / £ , 8 1 5 , 1934.  100.  Hanson,- H. C., 51, 1938.  E c o l o g y o f t h e G r a s s l a n d . B o t . R e v . 4,  101.  H a n s o n , H.C., a n d L o v e , L.D., S i z e o f l i s t Q u a d r a t f o r Use i n D e t e r m i n i n g E f f e c t s o f D i f f e r e n t S y s t e m s o f G r a z i n g u p o n A g r o p y r o n s n p - t h i i M i x e d P r a i r i e , . Jour,. A g r i c . R e s . 4J., 549, 1930.  102.  H a n s o n , W..R., a n d S t o d d a r t , L.A., E f f e c t s o f G r a z i n g on Bunch Wheat G r a s s . J o u r . Amer. S o c . o f A g r o n . 3 2 . 278, 1940.  103.  H a r r i s o n , C.M., E f f e c t o f C u t t i n g a n d F e r t i l i z e r A p p l i c a t i o n s on G r a s s D e v e l o p m e n t , P l a n t P h y s i o l . _6, 669, 1931.  104.  H a r t , G.H., and G u i l b e r t , H.R., F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g P e r c e n t a g e C a l f C r o p s i n Range H e r d s , C a l i f . A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 458, 1928.  105.  H a z e l , L.N., a n d T e r r i l l , C.E., E f f e c t s o f Some E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s on F l e e c e and Body C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Range. R a m b o u i l l e t Y e a r l i n g Ewes, J o u r . A n . S c i . .5_, 382, 1946.  v  106.  Herman, C M , , Deer Management P r o b l e m s as R e l a t e d t o D i s e a s e s and P a r a s i t e s o f D o m e s t i c Range L i v e s t o c k , T r a n s . N.Amer. W i l d l i f e C o n f . 10, 242, 1945.  107.  H i l t s , W.H., A S t u d y o f t h e 1924 C a l f C r o p i n N e v a d a . . Nev. A g r i c . C o l l . E x t . C i r c . 57, 1925.  108.  H i t c h c o c k , A.S., M e t h o d s Used f o r C o n t r o l l i n g and R e c l a i m i n g Sand Dunes. U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . B u r . o f P l a n t I n d u s t . B u l l . 57, 1904.  109.  H i t c h c o c k , A.S., Manual o f t h e G r a s s e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . M i s c . Pub. 200, 1935.  HO".  H o l c h , A.E., H e r t e l , E.W., O a k e s , W.O., and W h i t w e l l , H.H., R o o t H a b i t s of C e r t a i n P l a n t s o f t h e F o o t - h i l l and A l p i n e B e l t s o f R o c k y M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k . E c o l . Monog. 11, 327, 1941.  111.  H o l s c h e r , C.E., The E f f e c t s o f C l i p p i n g B l u e s t e m Wheatg r a s s and" B l u e Grama a t D i f f e r e n t H e i g h t s and F r e q u e n c i e s . E c o l . .26, 148, 1945.  112.  H u b b e l l , D.S., and G a r d n e r , J . L . , Some E d a p h i c and E c o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s o f W a t e r S p r e a d i n g on Range L a n d s , E c o l . 25J, 27, 1944.  113.  H u l t z , F.S., Range Sheep and W o o l i n t h e S e v e n t e e n W e s t e r n S t a t e s , P t . I Range Sheep, John W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , N.Y., 4th P r i n t . , 1947.  114.  Humphrey, R.R., Range F o r a g e E v a l u a t i o n by t h e Range C o n d i t i o n M e t h o d , J o u r . F o r e s t . 4_5_, 10, 1947.  115.  Humphrey, R.R., and L i s t e r , P.B., N a t i v e V e g e t a t i o n as a C r i t e r i o n f o r D e t e r m i n i n g C o r r e c t Range Management and R u n - o f f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f G r a z i n g L a n d s . J o u r . F o r e s t . 2£_, 837, 1941.  116.  H u r t t , L.C., O v e r g r a z i n g I n c r e a s e s P r o d u c t i o n Amer. H e r e f o r d J o u r . 26,, 58, 1935.  117«  I n g r a m , D.C., V e g e t a t i v e Changes and G r a z i n g Use on D o u g l a s F i r Cut Over L a n d , J o u r , o f A g r i c . R e s . 43.  387,  118.  Costs.  1931.  J a c k m a n , E.R., L o s t 200 M i l l i o n Pounds o f M e a t , C o u n t . G e n t . 119. 15, J a n . , 1949*  119.  J a c k s , G.V., and Whyte, R.O., V a n i s h i n g L a n d s a World Survey of S o i l E r o s i o n . Doubleday, Doran & I n c . , N.Y., 1939.  Co.  120.  J a r d i n e , J.T., and A n d e r s o n , M., Range Management on the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s . U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . B u l l . 790, 1919.  121.  J o h n s o n , E.L., The R e l a t i o n o f Sheep t o C l i m a t e . A g r i c . Res. 2o_, 491, 1924.  122.  J o h n s t o n e - W a l l a c e , D.B., B e h a v i o r o f G r a z i n g A n i m a l s Under C l o s e O b s e r v a t i o n . F a r m e r s ' A d v o c a t e 82» 244, March, 1948.  123.  J u d d , B . I . , and J a c k s o n , M.L., N a t u r a l S u c c e s s i o n o f V e g e t a t i o n on A b a n d o n e d Farm L a n d s i n t h e Rosebud A r e a o f W e s t e r n N e b r a s k a . J o u r . Amer. S o c . A g r o n . 21, 541, 1939.  124.  Kammlade, W.G., N.Y., 1947.  125.  K e a r n e y , T.H., B r i g g s , L . J . , S h a n t z , H.L., M c L a n e , J.W., and P i e m e i s e l , R.L., I n d i c a t o r S i g n i f i c a n c e o f V e g e t a t i o n i n Tooele V a l l e y . Utah. Jour. A g r i c . Res. 1, 365, 1914.  126.  K e l l y , A.P., P l a n t I n d i c a t o r s o f S o i l 12, 411, 1922.  127.  K i n g , F.H., D e s t r u c t i v e E f f e c t s o f Winds on Sandy S o i l s and L i g h t Sandy Loams W i t h M e t h o d s o f P r o t e c t i o n . W i s . A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 42, 1894.  128.  L a n t l o w , J . L . , F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Range Management. N . M . S t a t e C o l l . E x t . S e r . C i r c . 74, 1922.  129.  L a r s o n , F., The R o l e o f t h e B i s o n i n M a i n t a i n i n g t h e S h o r t - g r a s s P l a i n s . E c o l . 21,, 113, 1940.  130.  L a r s o n , F., and W h i t m a n , W., A C o m p a r i s o n o f Used and Unused G r a s s l a n d Mesas i n t h e B a d l a n d s o f S o u t h D a k o t a , E c o l . 22, 438, 1942.  131.  L i s t e r , P.B., F i r e C o n t r o l on G r a s s Ranges o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . J o u r . F o r e s t . 2£, 23, 1941.  132.  Lund.egardh, H., The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e S o i l Upon t h e Growth o f t h e P l a n t . S o i l S c i . jtp_> 89, 1935.  Sheep S c i e n c e .  Jour.  J.B. L i p p i n c o t t Co.,  Types. S o i l S c i .  133.  M c G i n n i e s , W.G., The V a l u e o f P h y s i c a l F a c t o r M e a s u r e ments i n Range R e s e a r c h . E c o l . 1 1 , 771, 1930.  134*  M c G i n n i e s , W.G., The R e l a t i o n Between F r e q u e n c y Index and A b u n d a n c e as A p p l i e d t o P l a n t P o p u l a t i o n s i n a S e m i - a r i d R e g i o n . E c o l . 1 5 . 2 6 3 , 1934.  135.  M i d d l e t o n , H.E., P r o p e r t i e s of S o i l s Which I n f l u e n c e S o i l E r o s i o n , U.a. Uept. A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 1 7 8 ,  1930.  136.  M i d g l e y , A.R., M o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e C h e m i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n of P a s t u r e P l a n t s by S o i l , J o u r . Amer. S o c . A g r o n . 2£, 498, 1937.  137.  M i l l e r , R.F., H a r t , G.H., and C o l e , H.H., Fertility in Sheep as A f f e c t e d by N u t r i t i o n D u r i n g t h e B r e e d i n g S e a s o n and P r e g n a n c y , C a l i f . A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l .  672,  138.  1942.  M i t c h e l l , J . , M o s s , H.C., and C l a y t o n , J . S . , S o i l S u r v e y o f S o u t h e r n S a s k a t c h e w a n f r o m T o w n s h i p 1 t o 48 I n c l u s i v e . S o i l S u r v . Rep. No. 12, Univ. of Sask.,  1944.  139.  M o r r i s , E.H., Modern O v e r g r a z i n g o f L i v e s t o c k as t h e D i r e c t Cause o f R u i n o f S o u t h w e s t e r n A g r i c u l t u r e , J o u r . F o r e s t . A£, 929, 1948.  140.  M o r r i s o n , F.B., F e e d s and The M o r r i s o n P u b l . Co.,  141.  M o s s , E.H., The P r a i r i e and A s s o c i a t e d V e g e t a t i o n o f S o u t h w e s t A l b e r t a . Can. J o u r . R e s . C22, 1 1 , 1944.  142.  N e a l e , P.E., B e n e f i t s B a s e d on N u t r i t i o n a l R e q u i r e m e n t s , f r o m P r o p e r S t o c k i n g o f R a n g e s , N.M. A g r i c . E x p . S t a . P r e s s B u l l . 825, 1937.  143.  Nedrow, W.W.,  27,  F e e d i n g , 20th E d . U n a b r i d g . , I t h a c a , N.Y., I936.  S t u d i e s on t h e E c o l o g y  of Roots.  Ecol.18.  1937.  144«  N e l s o n , E.W., The I n f l u e n c e o f P r e c i p i t a t i o n and G r a z i n g Upon B l a c k Grama G r a s s Range, U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 409, 1934.  145.  N e l s o n , E.W., Methods of S t u d y i n g Shrubby P l a n t s i n R e l a t i o n t o G r a z i n g . E c o l . 1 1 , 764, 1930.  146.  N i c h o l , A.A., E x p e r i m e n t a l F e e d i n g o f D e e r . A g r i c . E x p . S t a . T e c h . B u l l . 75, 1 9 3 8 .  Ariz.  147.  N i e l s o n , A.B., Management, a Cure f o r O v e r g r a z e d Range, Jour.- Amer. S o c . A g r o n . .3_2, 602, 1940.  148.  Norman, A.G., and Newman, A.S., Some E f f e c t s o f S h e e t E r o s i o n on S o i l M i c r o b i o l o g i c a l A c t i v i t y , S o i l S c i . 12,_ 31, 1941.  149«  N o r r i s , J . J . , B o t a n i c a l A n a l y s i s o f Stomach C o n t e n t s as a Method o f D e t e r m i n i n g F o r a g e C o n s u m p t i o n o f Range S h e e p . E c o l . 24_, 244, 1943.  150.  O s g o o d , E . S . , The Day o f t h e C a t t l e m a n . M i n n e a p o l i s U.S.Q., 1929.  151.  P a r r , V.V., C o l l i e r , G.W., a n d Klemmedson, G.S., Ranch O r g a n i z a t i o n and M e t h o d s o f L i v e s t o c k P r o d u c t i o n i n t h e S o u t h w e s t , U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 68, 1928.  152.  P e a r s a l l , W.N., The S o i l C o m p l e x i n R e l a t i o n t o P l a n t Communities. I I . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Woodland S o i l s . J o u r , o f E c o l . 26, 194, 1938.  153.  P e a r s e , K., An A r e a L i s t M e t h o d o f M e a s u r i n g Range P l a n t P o p u l a t i o n s . E c o l . 16, 573, 1935.  154.  P h i l l i p s , J o h n , The B i o t i c 1, 1932.  155.  P h i l l i p s , P., The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R o d e n t s g r a z e d and N o r m a l G r a s s l a n d s o f C e n t r a l E c o l . 17_, 673, 1936.  156.  P i c k f o r d , G.D., I n t e r p r e t i n g M o u n t a i n Meadow Range C o n d i t i o n s by O b s e r v i n g t h e Trend and Stage o f P l a n t S u c c e s s i o n . N o r t h w e s t S c i . 12, 87, 1943.  157..  P i c k f o r d , G.D., Range Management I n c l u d e s B i g Game, N a t . Wool Grower 23_, 18, 1943.  158.  P i c k f o r d , G.D., Range S u r v e y M e t h o d s i n W e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . H e r b . R e v . 8, 1, 1940.,  159.  P i c k f o r d , G.D., The I n f l u e n c e o f C o n t i n u e d Heavy G r a z i n g a n d o f P r o m i s c u o u s B u r n i n g on S p r i n g - f a l l Ranges i n U t a h , E c o l . 11,. 159, 1932.  Community, J o u r , o f E c o l .  19.  i n OverOklahoma,  160  P i c k f o r d , G.D., and R e i d , E.H., B a s i s f o r J u d g i n g Suba l p i n e G r a s s l a n d R a n g e s o f Oregon and W a s h i n g t o n . U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . C i r c . 655, 1942.  161.  P i e m e i s e l , R.L., A G e n e r a l A p p r a i s a l o f P l a n t C o v e r i n R e l a t i o n t o B e e t L e a f h o p p e r s . F o r a g e P r o d u c t i o n and S o i l P r o t e c t i o n . P r o c . Amer. S o c . S u g a r B e e t T e c h n o l .  1942,  462,  1942.  162.  Plummer, F.G., C h a p a r r a l , U.S. . S e r . B u l l . 85, 1911.  163.  P o w e r s , W.L., C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of F o r e s t S o i l s of the N o r t h - w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . S o i l S c i . 2A> 1> 1932.  164.  P r e s n a l l , C C , A p p l i e d E c o l o g y o f P r e d a t i o n on L i v e s t o c k R a n g e s . J o u r . Mammal. 29., 155, 1948.  165.  P r i c e , W.A., and G u n t e r , G., C e r t a i n R e c e n t G e o l o g i c a l a n d - . B i o l o g i c a l Changes i n S o u t h T e x a s w i t h C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p r o b a b l e C a u s e s . T r a n s . T e x a s A c a d . S c i . 26., 138, 1943.  166.  Rasmussen, D.I., B i o t i c Communities o f K a i b a b P l a t e a u . A r i z o n a , E c o l . Monog. 11, 229, 1941.  167.  Raymond, W.F., E v a l u a t i o n of Herbage N a t u r e , 1 6 1 , 937, 1948.  168.  R e d i n g t o n , P.G., The B e n e f i c i a l E f f e c t s o f W i l d l i f e on F o r e s t and O t h e r L a n d s . J o u r . F o r e s t . 2J_, 692,  Dept. of A g r i c . F o r e s t  f o r Grazing.  1929.  169.  R e i d , E.H., P l a n t S u c c e s s i o n on S u b a l p i n e Grasslands a s A f f e c t e d by L i v e s t o c k Management. N o r t h w e s t S c i .  1£, 3,  1941.  170.  R e n n e r , F.G., C o n d i t i o n s I n f l u e n c i n g E r o s i o n on t h e B o i s e R i v e r W a t e r s h e d . U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 528, 1936.  171.  R e n n e r , F.G., C r a f t s , E.C., H a r t m a n , T . C , and E l l i s o n , L., A S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y on Management o f W e s t e r n R a n g e s . L i v e s t o c k and W i l d l i f e . U.S. Dept. of A g r i c . M i s c . P u b l . 281, 1938.  172.  R o b e r t s , P.H., The S j t g r e a v e s E l k H e r d . J o u r . 2 8 , 655, 1930.  Forest.  173*  R u t l e d g e , R.H., G r a z i n g and C o n s e r v a t i o n . I d a h o 21, 11, 45, 1939.  174.  Sampson, A r t h u r W., P l a n t S u c c e s s i o n on B u r n e d C h a p a r r a l Lands i n N o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , C a l i f . A g r i c . Exp. S t a . B u l l . 685, 1944.  175*  Sampson, A.W.y B o t a n . Rev.  176.  Sampson, A . W . , . E f f e c t o f C h a p a r r a l B u r n i n g on S o i l E r o s i o n and on S o i l M o i s t u r e R e l a t i o n s . E c o l . 25. 171, 1944.  177.  S a r v i s , J.T., E f f e c t s o f D i f f e r e n t S y s t e m s and I n t e n s i t i e s o f G r a z i n g upon t h e N a t i v e V e g e t a t i o n a t t h e N o r t h e r n G r e a t P l a i n s F i e l d S t a t i o n , U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . B u l l . 1170, 1923.  178.  S a v a g e , D.A., and H e l l e r , V.G., N u t r i t i o n a l Q u a l i t i e s o f Range F o r a g e P l a n t s i n R e l a t i o n t o G r a z i n g w i t h B e e f C a t t l e on t h e S o u t h e r n P l a i n s E x p e r i m e n t a l Range. U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . T e c h . B u l l . 943, 1947.  179.  S c h e f f e r , T.H., H a b i t s and E c o n o m i c P o c k e t G o p h e r s . U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . 1931.  180.  Schwan, H.E., B i g Game and L i v e s t o c k on t h e W e s t e r n Range. T r a n s . N. Amer. W i l d l i f e C o n f . 10, 219, 1945.  181.  S c o t t , S.G., P h o s p h o r u s D e f i c i e n c y i n F o r a g e F e e d s o f Range C a t t l e . J o u r . A g r i c . R e s . 28, 113, 1929.  182.  S e m p l e , A.T., V i n a l l , H.N., E n l o w , C.R., and Woodward, T.E., A P a s t u r e Handbook. U.S. D e p t . A g r i c . M i s c . P u b l . 194, 1940.  183.  S h a n t z , H.L., The R e l a t i o n o f P l a n t E c o l o g y t o Human W e l f a r e , E c o l . Monog. 10, 311, 1940.  184.  S h a n t z , H.L., and P i e m e i s e l , R.L., I n d i c a t o r S i g n i f i cance of t h e N a t u r a l V e g e t a t i o n of t h e S o u t h w e s t e r n D e s e r t R e g i o n . J o u r . A g r i c . R e s . .28, 721, 1924.  185.  Shaw, W.T., W a s h i n g t o n ' s A n n u a l L o s s e s f r o m Ground S q u i r r e l s . Wash. S t a t e C o l l . E x t . B u l l . 69, 1921.  Plant Indicators. 155, 1939-  C o n c e p t and  Forest.  Status.  Status of the T e c h . B u l l . 224,  186.  S h e l f o r d , V.E., D e c i d u o u s F o r e s t , Man a n d t h e G r a s s l a n d F a u n a . S c i e n c e 100. 135, 1944.  187.  S h e l f o r d , V.E., B i o l o g i c a l C o n t r o l o f R o d e n t s a n d P r e d a t o r s , S c i e n t i f i c M o n t h l y jjjL, 331* 1942.  188.  S h e l f o r d , V.E., Some C o n c e p t s o f B i o - e c o l o g y .  189.  S m i t h , A.D., A S t u d y o f t h e R e l i a b i l i t y o f Range Veget a t i o n E s t i m a t e s . E c o l . 2_5_, 4 4 1 , 1944.  190.  S m i t h , A.D., A D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f a C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Diagram, t h e Hythergraph. t o t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f N a t u r a l V e g e t a t i o n T y p e s . E c o l . 21.  455, 1931.  E c o l . 12.  184, 1940..  200.  S m i t h , C.C., The E f f e c t o f O v e r g r a z i n g and E r o s i o n Upon t h e B i o t a o f t h e M i x e d - g r a s s P r a i r i e o f O k l a h o m a . E c o l . 21, 381, 1940.  201.  S m i t h , G.A., The Sun R i v e r E l k H e r d , J o u r .  644, 1930.  F o r e s t . 28,  202.  S m i t h , J.G., F o r a g e C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e P r a i r i e U.S.D.A. Y e a r b o o k , 1 8 9 5 , 309, I896.  203.  Sooter,  Region.  C.A., Some U n u s u a l F o o d s o f Oregon M u l e  J o u r . Mammal. 25, I98,  Deer.  1944..  204.  S o p e r , J.D., H i s t o r y , Range a n d Home L i f e o f t h e N o r t h e r n B i s o n . E c o l . Monog. 11, 3 4 7 , 1 9 4 1 .  205.  S p e n c e , L . E . , R o o t S t u d i e s o f I m p o r t a n t Range P l a n t s o f t h e B o i s e R i v e r W a t e r s h e d . J o u r , o f F o r e s t . 3 5.  747, 1937.  206.  S p i l s b u r y , R.H., a n d T i s d a l e , E.W., S o i l - p l a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s and V e r t i c a l Z o n a t i o n i n t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S c i . A g r i c . 24., 395, 1944.  207.  S t a h e l i n , R., F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g t h e N a t u r a l R e s t o c k i n g o f High A l t i t u d e Burns by C o n i f e r o u s Trees i n t h e C e n t r a l R o c k y M o u n t a i n s . E c o l . 24., 19, 1943.  208.  S t e i g e r , T.L., The S t r u c t u r e E c o l . 11, 170, 1930.  209.  S t e v e n s o n , T.M., and.W.J. W h i t e , Root F i b r e P r o d u c t i o n o f Some P e r e n n i a l G r a s s e s . S c i . A g r i c . 22, 1 0 8 , 1941.  of P r a i r i e  Vegetation.  210.  S t e w a r t , G e o r g e , a n d Y o u n g , A.E., The H a z a r d o f B a s i n g P e r m a n e n t G r a z i n g C a p a c i t y on Bromus t f t c t o r u m . J o u r . Amer. S o c . A g r o n . 21 > 1002, 1939.  211.  S t o d d a r t , L.A., The P a l o u s e G r a s s l a n d A s s o c i a t i o n i n N o r t h e r n Utah.. E c o l . 22, 1 5 8 , 1 9 4 1 .  212.  S t o d d a r t , L.A., P l a n n i n g t h e Use o f Range L a n d s i n t h e W a s a t c h F r o n t A r e a o f U t a h . F a r m & Home S c i . L±, 8,  1943.  213.  S t o d d a r t , L.A., and R a s m u s s e n , D . I . , B i g Game-Range L i v e s t o c k C o m p e t i t i o n on W e s t e r n R a n g e s . T r a n s . N. Amer. W i l d l i f e C o n f . 10, 251, 1945.  214.  S t o d d a r t , L.A., a n d S m i t h , A.D., Range Management. F i r s t E d . , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., N.Y., 1943.  215.  S t r a n d , A . L . , M o n t a n a I n s e c t P e s t s f o r 1935 and 1 9 3 6 . M o n t . A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 333, 1937.  216.  S w a i n , R.B., The Mormon C r i c k e t a n d Range V e g e t a t i o n . U n i v . C o l o r a d o Stfud. Gen. S e r . 26, 117, 1940.  217.  T a l b o t , M.W., I n d i c a t o r s of S o u t h w e s t e r n Range C o n d i t i o n s , U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . F a r m e r s ' B u l l . 1728,  1937.  218.  T a l b o t , M.W., Range W a t e r i n g U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . B u l l .  219'.  T a l b o t , M.W., B i s w e l l , H.H., Normay, A . L . , F l u c t u a t i o n s i n the Annual Vegetation i n C a l i f o r n i a . E c o l . 20,  394,  Places i n the Southwest.  1358,  I926.  1939.  220.  T a n s l e y , A.G., The Use a n d Abuse o f i V e g e t a t i o n a l Conc e p t s and Terms. E c o l . 16, 284, 1935*  221.  T a y l o r , W.P., Some A n i m a l A s p e c t s o f R e f o r e s t a t i o n a n d E r o s i o n C o n t r o l . J o u r . F o r e s t . .22, 8, 1934.  222.  T a y l o r , W.P.,  127,  1935.  Some A n i m a l  Relations to S o i l s .  E c o l . 16,  223.  T a y l o r , W.P., M e t h o d s o f D e t e r m i n i n g R o d e n t on t h e Range. E c o l . 1 1 , 523, 1930.  224.  T a y l o r , W.P., and L o f t f i e l d , J.V.G., Damage t o Range G r a s s e s by t h e Z u n i P r a i r i e Dog. U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . B u l l . 1227, 1924.  Pressure  225.  , T a y l o r . W.P., V o r h i e s , C.T., and L i s t e r , P.B., The Hela£ion o f J a c k R a b b i t s t o G r a z i n g i n S o u t h e r n A r i z o n a . J o u r . F o r e s t . H , 490, 1935.  226.  Thomson, L.B., D o m i n i o n Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . Manvberries. Alberta R e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t s . 1927-1936 I n c l u s i v e . Dom. of Can. D e p t . o f A g r i c , 1937.  227.  T i s d a l e , E.W., Summary R e p o r t , 1935-1939 o f t h e Domi n i o n Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . K a m l o o p s . B.C., Dom. E x p . S t a . , S w i f t C u r r e n t , S a s k . , Mint., 1941.  228.  T i s d a l e , E.W. . The G r a s s l a n d s o f t h e S o u t h e r n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E c o l . 28, 346, 1947.  229.  T r e h e r n e , R.C., and B u c k e l l , E.R., G r a s s h o p p e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h P a r t i c u l a r Reference t o the I n f l u e n c e of I n j u r i o u s S p e c i e s on t h e R a n g e l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , C a n . D e p t . o f A g r i c . B u l l . ( n . s . ) 39,  Interior  1924.  230.  U.S. D e p t . of A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , The R a n g e , U.S. C o n g r e s s 7 4 t h , 2nd S e s s . , S e n a t e  199,  231.  Western Doc.  1936.  U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e , The V e g e t a t i o n F a c t o r i n E r o s i o n C o n t r o l . H e r b . R e v .  4,  13,  1936.  232.  U.S. D e p t . of A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Range Handbook. U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1937.  233.  V o r h i e s , C.T., and T a y l o r , W.P., The L i f e H i s t o r i e s and E c o l o g y of Jack R a b b i t s i n R e l a t i o n t o G r a z i n g i n A r i z o n a , A r i z . A g r i c . E x p . S t a . T e c h . B u l l . 49, 1933.  234.  Vrooman, C.W., H i s t o r y of Ranching i n B r i t i s h E c o n . A n a l . , A p r i l , 1941«  235.  W a l k e r , A.L., and L a n t o n , J . L . , A P r e l i m i n a r y S t u d y o f 127 New M e x i c o R a n c h e s i n 1925, N.M. A g r i c . E x p . S t a . B u l l . 159, 1927.  236.  W a t k i n s , W.E., and Knox, J.H., The B l o o d P h o s p h o r u s L e v e l N e c e s s a r y f o r S a t i s f a c t o r y P r o d u c t i o n o f Range C a t t l e i n t h e S o u t h w e s t . J o u r . An. S c i . J5, 395, 1946.  237.  W e a v e r , J . E . , R e p l a c e m e n t - o f True P r a i r i e by M i x e d P r a i r i e i n E a s t e r n N e b r a s k a and K a n s a s , E c o l . 24.  421,  1943.  Plant  Columbia,  238.  Weaver, J.E., Underground Root Development i n R e l a t i o n t o G r a z i n g , E c o l . 11, 543, 1930.  239.  Weaver, J . E E f f e c t s o f Roots o f V e g e t a t i o n i n E r o s i o n C o n t r o l , ' U . S . Dept. o f A g r i c . S o i l Cons. S e r . Mimeo. P a p e r 2666, 1937.  240.  Weaver,' J . E . , and A l b e r t s o n , F.W., D e t e r i o r a t i o n o f M i d w e s t e r n R a n g e s . E c o l . 21, 2 1 6 , 1940.  241.  W e a v e r , , J . E . , and A l b e r t s o n , F.W., D e t e r i o r a t i o n o f M i d w e s t e r n R a n g e s , E c o l . 21, 2 1 6 , 1940.  242.  W e a v e r , J . E . , a n d C l e m e n t s , F.E., P l a n t E c o l o g y , 2nd E d . , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. I n c . , L o n d o n & N.Y.,  # >  1938.  243.  W e a v e r , J . E . , a n d D a r l a n d , R.W., G r a s s l a n d i n 1 9 4 0 , E c o l . 25_, 202, 1944.  244.  W e a v e r , J i E . , a n d D a r l a n d , R.W., Y i e l d s a n d C o n s u m p t i o n o f F o r a g e i n T h r e e P a s t u r e - T y p e s . E c o l . 26, 424, 1945.  245.  Weaver, J.E., and F i t z p a t r i c k , E c o l . Monog. 4, 111, 1934.  246.  W e a v e r , J . E . , and F i t z p a t r i c k , T . J . , E c o l o g y and R e l a t i v e I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Dominance o f T a l l G r a s s P r a i r i e . B o t . Gaz. Q_3_, 113, 1932.  247.  W e a v e r , J . E . , and H a n s o n , W.W., I n c r e a s e o f S p o r o b o l u s cryptandrus i n Pastures of Eastern Nebraska, E c o l .  20,  Patterns  T . J . , The P r a i r i e ,  374, 1939.  248.  Weaver, J . E . , a n d H a n s o n , W.W., N a t i v e M i d w e s t e r n P a s t u r e s : T h e i r O r i g i n . C o m p o s i t i o n and D e g e n e r a t i o n , N e b r a s k a C o n s . B u l l . 22, 1941.  249.  W e a v e r , J . E . , Haugen, V.H., and W e l d o n , M.D., R e l a t i o n of Root D i s t r i b u t i o n t o O r g a n i c M a t t e r i n P r a i r i e S o i l . B o t . Gaz. £ 6 , 389, 1935.  250.  W e a v e r , J . E . , and N o l l , W., M e a s u r e m e n t o f W a t e r R u n - o f f b y a S i n g l e I n v e s t i g a t o r , E c o l . 1 6 , 1,1935.  251.  W e a v e r , J . E . , S t o d d a r t , L.A., and N o l l , W., R e s p o n s e o f t h e P r a i r i e t o t h e G r e a t D r o u g h t o f 1 9 3 4 . E c o l . 16,  612, 1935.  252.  Weaver, R . J . , W a t e r Usage o f C e r t a i n N a t i v e G r a s s e s i n P r a i r i e a n d P a s t u r e . E c o l . 22. 175, 1941.  253.  Weber, A.D., The E f f e c t o f t h e P l a n e o f N u t r i t i o n on W o o l G r o w t h , Am. S o c . An. P r o d . P r o c . 1 9 3 1 . 228, 1932.  254.  Weese, A.O., The E f f e c t o f O v e r g r a z i n g on I n s e c t P o p u l a t i o n , P r o c . O k l a . A c a d . S c i . 12., 95, 1939.  255*  W e s t , 0., The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f P e r c e n t a g e A r e a D e t e r m i n a t i o n s Y i e l d e d by t h e P e r c e n t a g e A r e a o r D e n s i t y L i s t Method o f P a s t u r e A n a l y s i s , J o u r , o f E c o l . 26, 210,  1938.  256.  W h i t e , W.T., Profit G r o w e r , 3JL, 16,  257.  W i l l i a m s , T.A., A R e p o r t Upon t h e G r a s s e s and P l a n t s and F o r a g e C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e E a s t e r n Mountain Region. U.S. D e p t . of A g r i c . D i v .  A g r o s t . B u l l . 12,  i n Range C o n s e r v a t i o n , N a l . Wool 1945.  I898.  Forage Rocky of  258.  W i l s o n , J . F . , The I n f l u e n c e of t h e P l a n e o f N u t r i t i o n Upon t h e V a r i o u s F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o W o o l P r o d u c t i o n , N a t . Wool Grower 21, 23, 1931.  259.  Wooton, E.O., C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f G r a z i n g Ranges" i n S o u t h e r n A r i z o n a . U.S. D e p t . o f A g r i c . B u l l . 367,  1916.  260.  W y a t t , F.A., S m i t h , S o i l D r i f t i n g and  1932.  261.  Y o u n g , V e r n o n A., Palouse P r a i r i e  Al,  834,  1943.  J.M., Newton, R., and G i l l i e s , i t s C o n t r o l . Univ. A l t a . C i r c .  CC, 13.  Changes i n V e g e t a t i o n and S o i l o f Caused by O v e r g r a z i n g , J o u r . F o r e s t .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106761/manifest

Comment

Related Items