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A comparision of land use changes in Richmond, British Columbia; a study of urban expansion upon an agricultural… Ulmer, Arno Leopold 1964

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A COMPARISON OF LAND USE CHANGES IN RICHMOND, BRITISH COLUMBIA  A Study o f Urban Expansion upon an A g r i c u l t u r a l Area i n a Rural-Urban F r i n g e  by Arno L e o p o l d Ulmer B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1964  ABSTRACT  As a m e t r o p o l i t a n  area expands, f r i n g e areas are  by the growing number of people and urban f u n c t i o n s . t u r a l and vacant a r e a s are converted trial,  commercial and  influenced Agricul-  into residential,  institutional sites.  indus-  In r e c e n t y e a r s a  g r e a t e r concern has a r i s e n over the manner i n which l a n d i s conv e r t e d and the e f f e c t s of such c o n v e r s i o n upon an  agricultural  region. T h i s study d e s c r i b e s and a n a l y s e s one 1949  the l a n d use p a t t e r n of  such r e g i o n , Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the years and 1958.  The  and s t a t i s t i c a l l y . y e a r s and a f t e r 1958  l a n d use data i s r e p r e s e n t e d  1930,  cartographically  Changes which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the  intervening  are noted and reasons f o r them e i t h e r  e x p l a i n e d or suggested, depending upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of mation.  infor-  The major emphasis i s on the e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g urban  expansion upon the c h a r a c t e r of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use and upon Richmond's r o l e as an a g r i c u l t u r a l and  pattern,  suburban area  w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver r e g i o n . S i n c e the 1958  a n a l y s i s i s based upon a d e t a i l e d l a n d  use  survey conducted by the author, more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n on the c h a r a c t e r of l a n d use than f o r any other  period.  R e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i e l d c r o p s , amounts of a g r i c u l t u r e per s e c t i o n and problems r e s u l t i n g from wastage of l a n d i n s u b d i v i s i o n s are examples of the f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d The  i n the t h e s i s .  e f f e c t of the past haphazard manner of urban develop-  ment, e s p e c i a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l , has c r e a t e d a jumbled l a n d  use  pattern with l a r g e , unproductive  or unused a r e a s .  Little  s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n t o the consequences o f t h i s  con-  increased  s p o r a d i c u r b a n i z a t i o n upon a g r i c u l t u r e and the m u n i c i p a l i t y . In the f u t u r e an ever-growing p o p u l a t i o n i n the Greater Vancouver area w i l l c r e a t e f u r t h e r demands f o r more urban l a n d i n t h e f r i n g e a r e a s , such as Richmond.  Sound p l a n n i n g w i l l be  needed t o ensure a. more o r d e r l y and l e s s w a s t e f u l development of the r e g i o n ' s v a l u a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s .  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and m i s s i o n f o r extensive purposes may  study * I f u r t h e r agree that per-  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y  be granted by the Head of my Department or by  h i s representatives,.  I t i s understood that copying or  publi-  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission,  Department o The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada  vii  IH ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes t o acknowledge t h e t h o u g h t f u l a s s i s t ance p r o v i d e d on numerous o c c a s i o n s by A . D . C r e r a r , Land Use P l a n n e r , and J . W i l s o n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , both  for-  merly o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, New Westminster,  and a l s o by G. T r i g g , A s s e s s o r , Richmond  M u n i c i p a l i t y and W. McAuly, B.C. Hydro T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended t o V. W e i l e r , A s s i s t a n t P l a n n e r , Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, who c o n t r i b u t e d so much of h i s time and h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n throughout t h e entire  study.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e G e o g r a p h i c a l Branch, Department of Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys,  Ottawa,  i n a l l o w i n g t h e author t o make use o f i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e 1958 l a n d use survey, cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . The S t a f f of t h e Department o f Geography,and D r . J . L. Robinson,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , who s u p e r v i s e d the w r i t i n g of t h i s  t h e s i s , a r e most s i n c e r e l y thanked f o r t h e i r guidance and assistance.  i  )  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I CHAPTER I I A B C D E  INTRODUCTION THE 1930 LAND USE PATTERN  1 13  A g r i c u l t u r a l : Land Use, s o i l s and r e g i o n a l development . . . . . Urban Land Use Road and R a i l Network Vacant Land Summary  15 2436 39 40  CHAPTER I I I THE 1949 LAND USE PATTERN A B C D E F  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use Urban Land Use Peat E x t r a c t i o n Road and R a i l Network Vacant Land Summary  CHAPTER IV A B C D E F  44 50 60 62 63 64  THE 1958 LAND USE PATTERN  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use Urban Land Use Peat E x t r a c t i o n Road and R a i l Network Vacant Land . . . . . . Summary . . . . .  CHAPTER V A B C D E F  42  65 .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  POST-1958 DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS  ....  A g r i c u l t u r a l Changes Urban Developments . . . . . . . . Peat E x t r a c t i o n Developments Road and R a i l Network . Vacant Land Summary and Recommendations . . . . . . . . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  67 75 87 87 90 91 94 96 114 130 130 134 137 141  APPENDIX I II III IV V  D e f i n i t i o n s of C a t e g o r i e s useyd i n A g r i c u l t u r a l - Lciricl Us s • » « • • » • » • • • • D e f i n i t i o n s o f C a t e g o r i e s r e f e r r e d t o as Urban Functions 1958 Land Use Survey Methods used t o o b t a i n D e t a i l e d Land Use I n f o r m a t i o n f o r 1958 The Gross Acreage w i t h i n Each Zoned Area . . .  144: 145 146 147 149  LIST OF TABLES Number  Page Increases i n P o p u l a t i o n , 1921 - 31 . .  #  a  »  •  13  Land Use. i n Richmond, 1930  •  *  - 9  »  15  A g r i c u l t u r a l Area based upon S o i l Type, 1930 .  17  IV.  Area of Urban F u n c t i o n s , 1930  ....  »  24  V.  Urban Land by S o i l Type, 1930  ....  m  I. II. III.  VI. VII. VIII. T V  X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. vv XXI.  Comparison of Land Use i n 1930 and 1949 Comparison of Crop Acreage, 1931-1951  •  m  *  *  *  25  *  •  «  »  •  w  *  «  43 45  A g r i c u l t u r a l Area based upon S o i l Type, 1949 .  46  Area of Urban F u n c t i o n s , 1949  ....  *  »  *  a  51  Urban Land by S o i l Type, 1949  ....  >  •  •  •  51  . .  »  *  *  •  66  A g r i c u l t u r a l Area based upon S o i l Type, 1958 .  67  Crops Grown, 1958  Changes i n Land Use, 1949 t o 1958  Urban Land by S o i l Type, 1958  ....  A r e a l Importance of Urban F u n c t i o n s  e  •  •  e  73  t  »  »  »  76  t  »  *  »  77  *  *  «  78  I n d u s t r i a l P l a n t s , Richmond 1958 . . . I n d u s t r i a l P l a n t s by Type, 1958  . . .  79  P o p u l a t i o n I n c r e a s e s , 1956-61  95  A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n , 1951-61 . . . .  98  Zoned Urban A r e a , 1960  114  The Degree of Development o h Large R e s i d e n t i a l Lots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  125  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.  P o p u l a t i o n Growth - Greater Vancouver . . .  2.  P o p u l a t i o n 1956 and 1961  4 97  iv  LIST OF M P S Map  F o l l o w i n g page  1.  R e g i o n a l Map - Lower M a i n l a n d . .  2.  Township of Richmond  3.  1930 Land Use  14  4.  S o i l Map  14  5.  Small L o t S u b d i v i s i o n p r i o r t o 1930 . . . .  22  Number of Small L o t s per S e c t i o n  . . . . .  22  . . . . . . . . .  33  5A.  2 i n pocket  6.  1930 Road - R a i l Network  7.  S o i l Map  8.  1949 Land Use  43  9.  1947 Zoning  56  10.  1949 Road - R a i l Network  62  11.  S o i l Map  66  12.  1958 Land Use  66  13.  1958 Dominant Land Use by S e c t i o n . . . . .  72  14.  I n t e n s i t y of A g r i c u l t u r e 1958  72  15.  I n t e n s i t y of A g r i c u l t u r e and S m a l l - h o l d i n g QSR  74  1958 Farm Crops  74  ,  1  16.  17. " Zoning 1964 - S i m p l i f i e d 18. 19.  I l l  Number of D w e l l i n g Changes per S e c t i o n , 1957—59 . « . . . • . • • • • . • • . .  123  Number o f • D w e l l i n g Changes per S e c t i o n , X 9 5 9 *~ o X ^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 » » • * • •  X23  Number of D w e l l i n g s per S e c t i o n , 1962 . . .  124  #  20.  43  9  rn-,^  t  I  V  LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Number  Page  1.  Former d a i r y farm  99  2.  Intensive d a i r y farming . . . . . .  100  3.  Feeder l o t farm, Ewen Road  101  4.  C r a n b e r r y and B l u e b e r r y f i e l d s on the Northern X 02  B o cf « « • • • • • • • • • • • • • * » * • • • 5.  S m a l l s c a l e f a r m i n g on Deep Peat S o i l s  6.  Mixed f a r m i n g on s h a l l o w peat s o i l s  7.  F i l l e d d i t c h e s a l o n g Westminster Highway  8.  F l o o d e d l a n d - No. 6 Road and Westminster Highway F l o o d i n g o f p a s t u r e l a n d - No. 6 Road and  9.  Westminster Highway  . . . .  103  . . . . . .  104  . . .  105  .  105  . . . .  10.  F l o o d e d yards - Westminster Highway  ,  11.  Furrow d r a i n a g e used a t No. 1 Road and Westm i n s t e r Highway . . . . .  106 106  106  12.  Empty d r a i n a g e d i t c h a t low t i d e i n summer  . .  106  13.  P a r t i a l l y - f i l l e d d i t c h d u r i n g autumn months . .  107  14.  Extremely stagnant water due t o poor drainage - B l u n d e l l and No. 3 Roads  107  15.  Oat f i e l d s and p a s t u r e on Sea I s l a n d  16;  O l d d a i r y farm - No. 5 Road  108  17.  Chicken farm on No. 1 Road  109  18.  Cabbage f i e l d - No. 1 Road and S t e v e s t o n Highway Large s c a l e d a i r y farm - Westminster Highway  109  19.  . . . . .  and No. 7 Road  109  20.  I n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s a l o n g V u l c a n Way  21.  I n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s a l o n g R i v e r Road a t No. 5 Rocicl  , * « » « «  108  • » * « • ( <  • « • * « • * •  116 11-6  i  Number 22.  A p r o f i l e o f peat and s i l t y - c l a y l a y e r s Deas Thruway  23.  S e a f a i r shopping c e n t r e - No. 1 Road . . . .  24.  Commercial b u i l d i n g - South B r i d g e p o r t . . .  25.  Unwise s u b d i v i s i o n c r e a t e s w a s t e l a n d . . . .  26.  Poor housing o u t s i d e the dyke, East Richmond  27.  E x c a v a t i n g roadbed through peat l a n d . . , .  28.  Excavated roadbed - Deas Thruway  29.  Deas Thruway i n t e r c h a n g e . . .  30.  S t r a i g h t f o u r lane thruway from the t u n n e l .  31.  Delays due t o an open span  32.  Narrow wooden b r i d g e c o n n e c t i n g No. 5 Road a  . . . . . . . . .  Mitchell Island 33.  Vacant l a n d on t h e Deep Peat s o i l s  34.  Large vacant areas i n a s u b d i v i s i o n  . . . . . . . . .  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  In a g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n a l study attempts a r e made t o answer the q u e s t i o n "...why do people do what they do where they do i t ? "  x  In h i s search f o r t r u t h t h e geographer " . . . d e a l s w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f phenomena and g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 9  of t h e f a c e of the earth."'  6  I n u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s t a s k he must  c a r r y out e x t e n s i v e f i e l d work, u t i l i z e c a r t o g r a p h i c and a p p l y a chorographic  techniques  p o i n t o f view i n d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y s -  i n g t h e p a t t e r n s , trends and r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r e d i s c o v e r e d . The  l a n d use p a t t e r n of a r e g i o n i s t h e outcome o f man's  work w i t h i n h i s p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l environment.  Regional  dif-  ferences i n p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , p a t t e r n of settlement and economic a c t i v i t y occur, and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of man and h i s p a r t i c u l a r environment undergoes v a r i a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n as each r e g i o n i s transformed  from r u r a l i t y t o an urban c h a r a c t e r .  Because of these b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e g i o n s the study of l a n d use, i t s changes and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n w i t h i n t h e scope o f geographic r e s e a r c h .  fall  The geographic approach  w i t h i t s emphasis on the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the s p a t i a l aspects of l a n d use should p r o v i d e some new i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h a r a c t e r and trends of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e area from an a g r i c u l t u r a l t o a n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use. 1 '^  J . L. Robinson, B r i t i s h Columbia Geography Manual, V i c t o r i a , The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1954, p. v i . I b i d . , p. v.  2  In order f o r man geographic  t o comprehend and i n t e r p r e t the present  f e a t u r e s w i s e l y , some knowledge of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l  development must be a c q u i r e d .  S i m i l a r l y , p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e  development of a r e g i o n cannot be j u d i c i o u s l y undertaken  unless  past and present c o n d i t i o n s and t r e n d s have been examined and analysed.  In t h i s t h e s i s the author undertakes  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  a geographic p o i n t of view and techniques to i l l u s t r a t e , d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t some of the l a n d use changes which have o c c u r r e d i n Richmond d u r i n g the past f o u r decades. The c o n t i n u a l growth of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver has  resulted  i n s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n the l a n d use of the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . The d e s i r e of i n d u s t r y , commerce and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s t o o b t a i n l a r g e r , more i n e x p e n s i v e p r o p e r t i e s i n l e s s - c o n g e s t e d areas  has  l e d t o a n o t a b l e movement t o the outer f r i n g e s of the c e n t r a l Metropolitan region.  However, w i t h the passage of time and the  con-  t i n u a l outward expansion from the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n , the o r i g i n a l o u t e r f r i n g e a c q u i r e s many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the core a r e a , and may  e v e n t u a l l y become c o m p l e t e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i t .  Richmond i s  an example of a m u n i c i p a l i t y e x p e r i e n c i n g such an e v o l u t i o n . (Map  1). -The M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond, comprised of a t o t a l area of  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 58 square m i l e s , c o n s i s t s of t h r e e major i s l a n d s , L u l u , Sea and M i t c h e l l - T w i g g , ^ and s e v e r a l s m a l l e r i s l a n d s .  (Map 2 ) .  3  R. Hartshorne, The Nature of Geography, L a n c a s t e r , P e n n s y l v a n i a , The A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, 1939, p. 463.  4  O r i g i n a l l y , M i t c h e l l and Twigg I s l a n d s were d i s t i n c t l a n d u n i t s : today, due to e x t e n s i v e f i l l i n g , they are one l a n d mass. Since the name M i t c h e l l I s l a n d i s a p p l i e d most f r e q u e n t l y t o the area, t h i s name w i l l be used throughout the t h e s i s .  3 The t h r e e main i s l a n d s , c o v e r i n g 47 square m i l e s , are  unquestion-  a b l y the most i m p o r t a n t , whether c o n s i d e r e d demographically economically.  or  T h e r e f o r e , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l p l a c e most of i t s em-  p h a s i s on these  islands.  T h i r t y years ago Richmond was b a s i c a l l y a r u r a l area f a r r e moved from the b u s t l i n g b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n of Vancouver C i t y .  To-  day, t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y has e x t e n s i v e urban s e c t o r s but a t the same time i t r e t a i n s some former r u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Although i t  can be c a l l e d a r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e r e g i o n of Vancouver, t h i s urban i n t e r m i x t u r e , which o c c u r r e d haphazardly,  rural-  has c r e a t e d a  jumbled l a n d use p a t t e r n . The expansion landscape may  of urban f u n c t i o n s on a r u r a l or a g r i c u l t u r a l  take many forms, f o r example, an augmentation of  h o u s i n g , i n d u s t r y and commerce.  Regardless  of the form, u r b a n i -  z a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i m p l i e s an i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and a decrease i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  acreage.  Richmond's p o p u l a t i o n has shown enormous growth over the past f o r t y years.  In 1921,  there were 4,825 r e s i d e n t s i n the m u n i c i -  p a l i t y ; whereas i n 1961, 43,323 people, or nine times the p r e v i o u s number, were r e c o r d e d .  In F i g u r e 1, the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n  of the s u r r o u n d i n g d i s t r i c t s i s compared w i t h t h a t of Richmond. The graphs show t h a t r a p i d i n c r e a s e s took p l a c e i n a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , but the two c i t i e s , Vancouver and New Westminster, d i d not e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r r a t e of growths The Richmond graph has f o u r d i f f e r e n t slopes s i g n i f y i n g changes i n the percentage r a t e of growth.  The t o t a l number of  r e s i d e n t s doubled between each of the census p e r i o d s , except  dur-  i n g the 1931-41 i n t e r v a l , when o n l y a 27 percent i n c r e a s e occurred.  POPULATION GROWTH - G R E A T E R  VANCOUVER  JOOOS VANCOUVER  400  200  S URREY  100  80  RICHMOND  /  / /  /  60  /  / /  y  /  COQUITLAW  /  /  /  40  /  /  s  /  ,/_— —* Oe.LT  /  / '  /  20  A  /  /  \  / 10  8  /  /  /  1331  19*1  1951  1961  /57I  FIGURE  I  T h i s means t h a t the average annual r a t e of growth has r i s e n subs t a n t i a l l y s i n c e 1921. by 1971  I f t h i s present r a t e were to c o n t i n u e ,  the p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d be 80,000.  In order t o p r o v i d e l i v i n g space, employment and s e r v i c e s f o r the growing p o p u l a t i o n , more l a n d must be converted t o uses t h a t w i l l meet urban demands.  A g r i c u l t u r a l acreage, w i t h i t s low  housing d e n s i t y and good s o i l s , i s v e r y d e s i r a b l e because i t r e q u i r e s l i t t l e i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r urban development.  Since  s a l e p r i c e s f o r farm l a n d a r e o f t e n very e n t i c i n g , farmers  con-  t i n u e t o d i s p o s e of r i c h s o i l s f o r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses.  For  some land-use p l a n n e r s and a g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e t a i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r e i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , the decrease i n farm l a n d i s r e a c h i n g an a l a r m i n g s t a t e . ^  Between 1949 and 1958,  2,825  a c r e s of Richmond's a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d were removed from production.  More s e r i o u s l y , 60 percent of t h i s l o s s was  recorded  Richmond's best s o i l s , and the remainder on the s o i l s next b e s t i n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  on  considered  I f t h i s r a t e of d e c l i n e  were t o c o n t i n u e , good farm l a n d would disappear i n a few decades, and the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y r e g i o n would be d e p r i v e d of e s s e n t i a l nearby food-producing  areas.  T h i s d e p r i v a t i o n would be  disadvan-  tageous f o r s e v e r a l reasons, f o r example, the g r e a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t i n v o l v e d and the i n c r e a s e d dependency upon d i s t a n t sources. D u r i n g p e r i o d s of r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n , farm l a n d was taken out of p r o d u c t i o n l o n g b e f o r e i t was  5  often  r e q u i r e d f o r urban uses.  Land f o r Farming, New Westminster, The Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Board, 1962, pp. 6, 17,  Regional  6 T h i s removal r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i d l e l a n d . A d d i t i o n a l vacant l a n d has been produced through unwise s u b d i v i s i o n , namely, the c r e a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s too l a r g e t o be e a s i l y maintained.  T h i s wastage of l a n d may  be  questioned.  T h i s t h e s i s examines and a n a l y s e s the l a n d use p a t t e r n of Richmond and the changes from 1930  to 1962.  Special attention  has been g i v e n t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c h a r a c t e r of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , t o the e f f e c t i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n has had upon the farm a r e a s , t o the manner i n which u r b a n i z a t i o n expanded and t o the problems c r e a t e d by unplanned or p o o r l y - p l a n n e d development.  In  order to account f o r the changing l a n d use p a t t e r n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n t o the h i s t o r i c a l development of such urban f u n c t i o n s as f i s h c a n n e r i e s and the a i r p o r t .  Minor a t t e n t i o n has  been g i v e n t o the changing c h a r a c t e r of the p o p u l a t i o n and to the economic reasons f o r the development of the suburbs as r e s i d e n tial  areas. The techniques used f o r the r e s e a r c h have c o n s i s t e d of f i v e  main approaches:  mapping l a n d use, c o l l e c t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l  data,  examining h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w i n g and a n a l y s i n g . In order t o o b t a i n a v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n of the l a n d use p a t t e r n s , maps were prepared f o r the years 1930,  1949 and  1958.  These t h r e e p e r i o d s were chosen because i n each case s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n was  a v a i l a b l e and c e r t a i n stages of development had  been a c h i e v e d .  The 1930  l a n d use map  i n d i c a t e s the r e s u l t s of  the changes which took p l a c e d u r i n g the prosperous 1920's. 1949  The  l a n d use p a t t e r n i s the product of a l t e r a t i o n s which  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n , the war and the e a r l y post-war  years.  The 1958 map r e f l e c t s t h e outcome o f the r a p i d p o p u l a -  t i o n and development boom which Richmond e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t h e 1950's. of  Thus, each l a n d use map i l l u s t r a t e s some of the f e a t u r e  the t h r e e growth s t a g e s . For  each map f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s o f l a n d use w i l l be des-  c r i b e d and the changes i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s e d . These uses a r e :  land  a g r i c u l t u r a l , urban, peat e x t r a c t i o n , r o a d and r a i l  f a c i l i t i e s and v a c a n t . ^ The 1930 map i s based upon i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f i r s t a e r i a l photographs taken o f Richmond.  A l t h o u g h some of t h e phot  graps were somewhat b l u r r e d , i t was p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the b a s i c l a n d uses.  The r e s u l t a n t map was compared and checked  w i t h t h e 1935 Richmond Waterworks maps and N a t i o n a l Topographic S e r i e s 92G/2 and 92G/3. A s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e was employed f o r the 1949 map.  Pro-  v i n c i a l a e r i a l photographs, dated 1949, were used f o r the b a s i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and supplementary maps and photographs were u t i l i z e d t o check t h e l a n d use map's a c c u r a c y and t o study subsequent changes.  6  The f o l l o w i n g o t h e r sources were used:  a. A g r i c u l t u r e i n c l u d e s those areas h a v i n g p l o t s of t h r e e a c r e s or more i n a r e a and p r o d u c i n g some a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . P l o t s h a v i n g l e s s than t h r e e a c r e s but which a r e s t i l l p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l i n nature w i l l be c a l l e d small-holding agriculture. (See Appendix I ) . b. Urban means r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d use. These w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as urban functions. (See Appendix I I f o r d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n ) . c. Peat e x t r a c t i o n i n c l u d e s o n l y t h e area where peat i s b e i n g removed, and t h e s i t e of t h e p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t .  8  a l a n d use map o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , prepared i n 1949 by A. C r e r a r f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, New Westminster; one of Richmond, 1954, by D. Muirhead and Associ a t e s , f o r t h e Richmond M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l ; and a composite a e r i a l photograph of t h e Western P o r t i o n o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d Region, 1953, (based upon B r i t i s h Columbia Government A i r Photos taken i n October, 1952), and p r e p a r e d by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board. The 1958 l a n d use map was prepared from i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d by t h e a u t h o r w h i l e employed by t h e G e o g r a p h i c a l Branch, Department of Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, Ottawa. for d e t a i l s of survey).  (See Appendix I I I  The c a t e g o r i e s chosen t o be r e p r e s e n t e d  on t h e map were taken from the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Land Use and were i n t e r p r e t e d by A. D. C r e r a r and t h e a u t h o r . The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each of the maps was f i r s t p l o t t e d on m u n i c i p a l base maps  a t a s c a l e o f 1:28,200.  Subsequent  t i o n s were made t o b r i n g t h e maps t o t h e s i s page s i z e .  reducBasic  s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on l a n d use acreage was o b t a i n e d from t h e maps. The t o t a l a r e a of each l a n d use was measured w i t h a p o l a r p l a n i meter and checked w i t h a dot p l a n i m e t e r . Farm acreages were compared w i t h census data f o r 1931, 1951 and 1956.  Additional  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e 1930 and 1949 p e r i o d s was not r e a d i l y a v a i l able.  More a c c u r a t e f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d f o r the 1958 map  from data c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e G e o g r a p h i c a l Branch survey. (See Appendix IV f o r d e t a i l s on method employed).  More recent  s t a t i s t i c s were s u p p l i e d by the Richmond M u n i c i p a l O f f i c e and the  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board.  9  S e v e r a l problems became apparent when d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about past and present c o n d i t i o n s was  sought.  A search of  l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v e s r e v e a l e d t h a t h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l about Richmond was  v e r y l i m i t e d i n scope, d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r than  a n a l y t i c a l i n n a t u r e , and seldom a u t h e n t i c a t e d .  Municipal  r e c o r d s , a l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d and adequate f o r the present  day,  are l a c k i n g f o r past y e a r s due t o a m u n i c i p a l h a l l f i r e i n 1913.  Subsequent records were o f t e n incomplete  d e s t r o y e d i n 1957 t o the present  and many were  when the m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e s were t r a n s f e r r e d  hall.  S i n c e v e r y l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l was unearthed, the author was  f o r c e d t o r e l y upon i n t e r v i e w s w i t h c i v i c  and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s .  officials  I n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s so d e r i v e d  were o f t e n based upon vague r e c o l l e c t i o n s of days gone by; however, by c o r r e l a t i n g the v a r i o u s p i e c e s of data, a g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o Richmond's past was The  gained.  c o l l e c t i o n and c o m p i l a t i o n of s u i t a b l e data proved t o  be v e r y time-consuming.  D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n of the  present  day s i t u a t i o n was more o f t e n than not u n a v a i l a b l e t o the  author  due t o government r e s t r i c t i o n s on p o p u l a t i o n and t r a f f i c  data.  P o p u l a t i o n data i n c l u d e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , (type of employment, source and amount of income, age s t r u c t u r e and former r e s i d e n c e ) , and d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n on a s c a l e s m a l l e r than t h a t of a census t r a c t .  Census t r a c t s them-  s e l v e s have been changed f r e q u e n t l y , t h e r e f o r e no comparisons between them c o u l d be made.  T r a f f i c data was. even more l i m i t e d  and no i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be obtained on the amount of t r a f f i c ,  10  t y p e , (whether commuter, commercial or l o c a l ) , or p a t t e r n of t r a f f i c flow.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would have been most u s e f u l  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a f f i c trends and i n e s t i m a t i n g the i n f l u e n c e s of each of the r i v e r c r o s s i n g s as w e l l as the Deas Thruway. Incomplete and uncompiled data was  found i n the m u n i c i p a l  hall,  B, C. E l e c t r i c Company, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and i n v a r i o u s p r i v a t e companies.  Dates of s u b d i v i s i o n , l a n d use acreages and  farm s i z e s had t o be s i f t e d from m u n i c i p a l r e c o r d s .  The volume  of f r e i g h t and number of passengers handled by the tram s e r v i c e were a v a i l a b l e f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s which f i r s t r e q u i r e d lengthy compilation. was  A g r i c u l t u r a l data on types of crops and farms  incomplete because o n l y c e r t a i n crops and r e g i o n s were  considered. Chapters I I and I I I , d e a l i n g w i t h the developments of l a n d use u n t i l 1949,  are based upon l i m i t e d sources and numerous  o p i n i o n s expressed by l o n g time r e s i d e n t s of Richmond; whereas, recent developments, Chapter IV, were o b t a i n e d by surveys  i n 1962  and 1963,  reconnaissance  and by d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Richmond c i v i c  o f f i c i a l s and members of the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l Board.  Chapter IV, based upon the 1958  Planning  l a n d use survey,  provides  the most d e t a i l e d and a u t h e n t i c a t e d s e c t i o n . An examination  of Canadian g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e  indi-  c a t e s t h a t t h e r e are s e v e r a l s t u d i e s c o v e r i n g aspects of l a n d use s i m i l a r t o those c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s ; m a j o r i t y are of E a s t e r n Canada.  however, the  Some noteworthy ones are  by:  11  D a v i s , (Scarborough Township);  7  G e n t i l c o r e , ( A n t i g o n i s h County);^ L a n g l o i s , (Greater M o n t r e a l ) , 12 ario).  x x  G a w i n s k i , (North Y o r k ) ; Kreuger, (Niagara); " 11  8  1  and Matthews, (Southern Ont-  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l  P l a n n i n g Board has r e p o r t e d on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of l a n d use, urban s p r a w l and a g r i c u l t u r e i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , f o r example, "Land f o r F a r m i n g " , ^  but no attempt has been  made t o examine the l a n d use changes of a s p e c i f i c area over a p e r i o d of t i m e . Land use s t u d i e s numerous.  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s have been more  Only a few a r e noted because they d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y  w i t h the problem of c o n v e r s i o n of l a n d from a g r i c u l t u r a l t o urban use, which i s the theme of t h i s t h e s i s .  These s t u d i e s  7  R.A. D a v i s , "The E v o l u t i o n of the Settlement P a t t e r n of Scarborough Township, O n t a r i o - A Rural-Urban F r i n g e Study", u n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Toronto, 1948.  8  T.G. G a w i n s k i , "The Township of North York - A Study of Toronto's Rural-Urban F r i n g e " , u n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Toronto, 1951.  9  R.L. G e n t i l c o r e , "Land Use and the D a i r y I n d u s t r y i n A n t i g o n i s h County, Nova S c o t i a " , The Canadian Geographer, I I , 1952, pp. 43-50.  10  R. Kreuger, "Changing Land Uses i n the Niagara F r u i t B e l t " , G e o g r a p h i c a l B u l l e t i n , No. 14, 1960, pp. 5-24.  11  C. L a n g l o i s , "Problems of Urban Growth i n G r e a t e r M o n t r e a l " , The Canadian Geographer, V, No. 3, 1961, pp. 1-11.  12  B.C. Matthews, " S o i l Resources and Land Use Hazards i n Southern O n t a r i o " , The Canadian Geographer, V I I I , 1958, pp. 55-62.  13  Land f o r Farming-, New Westminster, The Lower Mainland Regi o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1962.  12  include:  Ackerman, (Boston);  Bogue, ( M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth);  G r i f f i n and Chatham, (Santa C l a r a County), /Q x 17 (Syracuse).  and Hanlon,  From the s t u d i e s examined, some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n  was  g l e a n e d , because approaches t o the problem under study were p r o v i d e d and a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o the f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g i n a suburban a r e a was o b t a i n e d .  I n summation,  i t was  consoling  and y e t f r u s t r a t i n g t o f i n d t h a t the t a s k of c o l l e c t i n g  specific  data f o r l a n d use s t u d i e s i s d i f f i c u l t throughout Canada.  14  E. Ackerman, "Sequent Occupance of a Boston Suburban Community", Economic Geography, X V I I , No. 1, 1941, pp. 61-74.  15  D.J. Bogue, M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth and the C o n v e r s i o n of Land to N o n - A g r i c u l t u r a l Uses, S t u d i e s i n P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n , No. 11, Oxford, Ohio, S c r i p t F o u n d a t i o n f o r Research i n P o p u l a t i o n Problems, 1956.  16  P.F. G r i f f i n and R.L. Chatham, "Urban Impact on A g r i c u l t u r e i n Santa C l a r a County, C a l i f o r n i a " , Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, X L V I I I , No. 3, September, 1958, pp. 195-208.  17  E.E. Hanlon, "Twenty Years of Change i n a P o r t i o n of the Rural-Urban F r i n g e of Syracuse, New York", Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, XLVI, No. 2, June, 1956, p. 249.  13 CHAPTER I I THE  1930  LAND USE  PATTERN  The m u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond i n 1930 area of r u r a l settlement duction.  was  definitely  o r i e n t e d towards a g r i c u l t u r a l  T h i s r u r a l i t y was  e x e m p l i f i e d by a s m a l l  an  pro-  population,  w i t h a v a s t , dominant farm acreage, l a r g e , vacant areas and a r e l a t i v e l a c k of urban f u n c t i o n s . D u r i n g the decade from 1921  t o 1931,  Richmond's p o p u l a t i o n  had i n c r e a s e d by 3,257, b r i n g i n g the t o t a l t o 8,182. Table I ) .  With the e x c e p t i o n of Burnaby, the other  (See cities  and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a d j a c e n t to Vancouver had r e g i s t e r e d a small e r numerical  increase.  Table I Increases  i n P o p u l a t i o n 1921-1931 . Increase  Vancouver Burnaby Richmond New Westminster Coquitlam West Vancouver Surrey N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t N o r t h Vancouver C i t y  83,373 12,681* 3,257 3,029 2,497 2^352 2,274 1,838 858  * A 12,681 i n c r e a s e i s i n d i c a t i v e of urban sprawl from Vancouver.  U n t i l 1931  Burnaby was  the only m u n i c i p a l i t y d i r e c t l y  14  a f f e c t e d by the urban expansion  from Vancouver C i t y .  Of the  remaining areas t a b u l a t e d above, Richmond shows the g r e a t e s t population increase. r e g i o n , was  Thus Richmond, an a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d  a t t r a c t i n g more r e s i d e n t s than any other a r e a ,  whether urban or r u r a l i n c h a r a c t e r . The was  i n f l u x of p o p u l a t i o n to Richmond d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d  due p r i m a r i l y t o the d i v e r s i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a v a i l -  able.  I t was  p o s s i b l e t o purchase e i t h e r l a r g e acreages s u i t a b l e  f o r f u l l - s c a l e f a r m i n g , or s m a l l h o l d i n g s f o r p a r t - t i m e employment.  The s u p e r i o r g u a l i t y of the s o i l s a l s o enhanced the  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the area t o an a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - i n c l i n e d population.  T h e r e f o r e , by 1931,  f i f t y percent of the r e s i d e n t s of  Richmond were c l a s s i f i e d as l i v i n g on farms; no other m u n i c i p a l i t y i n p r o x i m i t y t o Vancouver recorded t h i s h i g h I t was 1931  percentage.  not f e a s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h p o p u l a t i o n trends b e f o r e  f o r two reasons.  P r i o r to 1921 Richmond was not  listed  as a separate m u n i c i p a l i t y . Because gross f i g u r e s o n l y were g i v e n i n 1921, t h e r e i s no way  of a s c e r t a i n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l  or n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r of the p o p u l a t i o n . The paramount importance of a g r i c u l t u r e as a l a n d use,  and  the minor r o l e of urban development i s e v i d e n t i n the Land Use Map  of 1930  (Map 3) and i n Table I I .  1930  LAND  USE  RICHMOND  AGRICULTURAL S M A L L - HOLDING ~1  INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL RESIDENTIAL 1  INSTITUTIONAL VACANT  1/2  0  I MILE  Table I I Land Use i n Richmond, 1930 Land Use  Agriculture Urban Road and R a i l Vacant  Network  Acres  Percentage o f T o t a l Acreage  19., 664 559 630 8,600+  67 2 2 29  29,453  100  E x t r a c t i v e - v e r y s m a l l , not a v a i l a b l e * The method of o b t a i n i n g t h e acreages f o r each type o f l a n d use was as f o l l o w s : 1. The v a r i o u s l a n d uses were o b t a i n e d from 1930 a e r i a l photographs. 2. The major uses were p l o t t e d on a map a t a s c a l e o f 1:28,200. 3. The a r e a f o r each use was o b t a i n e d by means o f a p o l a r p l a n i m e t e r and checked by a dot p l a n i m e t e r . + T h i s acreage i s approximate because i t does not i n c l u d e s m a l l vacant a r e a s .  Large farms of p a s t u r e , g r a i n and vegetables- covered t h e major p o r t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ; o n l y the two l a r g e , vacant peat bogs and a few urban areas d i s r u p t e d t h e overwhelming agricultural pattern.  Due t o t h e m i l e - g r i d system of c o n s t r u c t  i n g roads, t h e a r e a devoted t o the r o a d and r a i l network i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n comparison t o t h a t of urban l a n d .  A.  Agriculture:  Land use, s o i l s and r e g i o n a l  development  A g r i c u l t u r e i n Richmond was an important l a n d use, not o n l y t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , but a l s o t o the Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n  16  because i t p r o v i d e d food and employment t o many people.  From  i t s e a r l y b e g i n n i n g s i n the 1860's and 1870's, Richmond had p r o v i d e d e s s e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l produce such as d a i r y p r o d u c t s , g r a i n and v e g e t a b l e s t o the n e i g h b o u r i n g c i t i e s of New m i n s t e r and Vancouver.  West-  The means of t r a n s p o r t of the products  had changed c o n s i d e r a b l y from b o a t s , barges and wagons to t r u c k s and t r a i n s , but the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these products t o the c i t i e s had remained r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t .  The t h r e e major i s l a n d s ,  L u l u , Sea and M i t c h e l l , c o n t i n u e d as the most a v a i l a b l e  sources  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l goods. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e t o Richmond was  reflected  i n the f a c t t h a t one-eighth of the r e s i d e n t s were farm o p e r a t o r s . No data c o u l d be o b t a i n e d of the number of people employed on farms, but a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e would be another of the p o p u l a t i o n .  one-eighth  Thus one-quarter of Richmond's r e s i d e n t s  were d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , which was  c h i e f l y o r i e n t e d t o the markets i n n e i g h b o u r i n g urban a r e a s . As a r e s u l t of the g r e a t demand f o r food by the adjacent  communities, a v a r i e t y of farms developed i n Richmond.  Many  farms grew f i e l d crops and r a i s e d l i v e s t o c k ; however, some s p e c i a l i z e d i n d a i r y products, e s p e c i a l l y f r e s h milk, while others produced g r a i n s or v e g e t a b l e s . One  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a g r i c u l t u r e i n Richmond  was the predominance of farmland devoted t o grass or g r a i n crops.  In 1931, of the t o t a l improved farm a r e a , or 18,515  a c r e s , 44% was grain.  i n g r a s s , (pasture and h a y ) , w h i l e 34% was i n  L o c a l d a i r y farms consumed a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of these  17  c r o p s ; however, the excess was shipped t o n e i g h b o u r i n g r e g i o n s . Thus Richmond was a major s u p p l i e r of d a i r y products and g r a i n f e e d f o r the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . The s o i l s upon which a g r i c u l t u r e was b e i n g c a r r i e d out v a r i e d r e g i o n a l l y throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  A s o i l survey  p u b l i s h e d by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ^ and a r e c e n t l a n d 2 c a p a b i l i t y study by the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board make i t p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e the amount of farmland on each s o i l type.  The o v e r l a y , (Map 4 ) , o u t l i n e s the areas o c c u p i e d by the  t h r e e major s o i l s , C l a s s I I I , C l a s s IV and Deep Peat.  Table I I I  p r o v i d e s the s t a t i s t i c a l data f o r the t h r e e more important i s l a n d s , L u l u , Sea and M i t c h e l l .  Table I I I A g r i c u l t u r a l Area based upon S o i l Type, 1930 Soil-Type*  Acres  Class I I I - Lulu Sea Mitchell  Percentage of T o t a l  10,106 3,347 197  Total C l a s s IV Deep Peat T o t a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  51.4 17.1 1.0 13,650  69.5  5,094  25.9  920  4.6  19,664  100.0  * A d e s c r i p t i o n of the c l a s s e s of s o i l s i s g i v e n i n summary form by M.L. C r e r a r , "Land C a p a b i l i t y " , 'The O c c a s i o n a l Papers.  1  C.C. K e l l e y and R.H. S p i l s b u r y , S o i l Survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1939.  2  Land f o r Farming,  1962.  18  Vancouver, The B.C. D i v i s i o n of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geographers, No. 3, 1962, p. 2. " C l a s s I I I s o i l s - These a r e f a i r s o i l s w i t h moderate deductions f o r s e v e r a l s o i l f a c t o r s . There a r e s l i g h t crop l i m i t a t i o n s , and good management p r a c t i c e s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r satisfactory returns. C l a s s IV s o i l s - These a r e f a i r t o poor s o i l s , g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d f o r some c r o p s . Low p r o d u c t i v i t y may be due t o the need f o r i r r i g a t i o n , d r a i n a g e , f e r t i l i z e r or other i n t e n s i v e management p r a c t i c e s . Deep Peat - With drainage l i m e , manure, f e r t i l i z e r s and summer i r r i g a t i o n t h e Deep Peat areas can be made prod u c t i v e and when such expenses a r e warranted t h e peat bogs may w e l l become a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . "  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c a p a b i l i t y study there were no C l a s s I or C l a s s I I s o i l s i n Richmond because t h e t e x t u r e , drainage and f e r t i l i t y l e v e l s of s o i l s were o n l y f a i r , and s a t i s f a c t o r y  crops  c o u l d not be grown without e f f i c i e n t farm p r a c t i c e s . The best and most e x t e n s i v e s o i l s i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y were the C l a s s I I I group.  I n 1930 a l l t h e l a n d having C l a s s I I I and IV s o i l s was  being used, whereas o n l y a s m a l l percentage o f the peat area was under p r o d u c t i o n . From the l a n d use map, (Map 3 ) , f o u r a g r i c u l t u r a l can be r e c o g n i z e d : Lulu Island.  regions  Sea I s l a n d , Western, Southern and E a s t e r n  Each of these had d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  a r e a , shape, s o i l s , r e g i o n a l u n i t y , f i e l d s i z e , d e n s i t y and crop t y p e s .  farmstead  A g e n e r a l impression of the f i r s t two  f e a t u r e s can best be seen on the 1930 l a n d use map. S i n c e a l l o f Sea I s l a n d i s composed of the best Richmond s o i l s , namely, C l a s s I I I , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a t t h i s time almost t h e e n t i r e i s l a n d was devoted t o some form of agriculture.  The o n l y p a r t s which had some urban development  were l o c a t e d i n the southwest p o r t i o n of the i s l a n d , near the mouth of the M i d d l e Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , and i n the n o r t h east s e c t o r between the two b r i d g e s which connected Sea I s l a n d w i t h South Vancouver and L u l u I s l a n d . A l a r g e f i e l d p a t t e r n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of g r a i n and d a i r y farming covered most of Sea I s l a n d .  F i e l d s ranged i n s i z e from  20 t o 100 a c r e s w i t h a prevalence of 30 t o 50 a c r e  farms.  I n d i v i d u a l d a i r y farms were o f t e n l a r g e , f o r example, J . J . Grauer's F r a s e a Farm, the l a r g e s t i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , which employed 10 men,  p r o v i d e d pasture f o r 160 m i l k cows, and  o c c u p i e d 400 a c r e s of the f i n e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d on n o r t h e r n Sea I s l a n d . tions.  S e v e r a l other farms extended over one or two  sec-  As a r e s u l t of the l a r g e farms, houses were few i n num-  ber and w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d .  Thus an atmosphere of r u r a l i t y  was  e x p e r i e n c e d as one drove through an area of green p a s t u r e s , waving g r a i n and n a t u r a l s e r e n i t y . The western a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n , bounded by the F r a s e r R i v e r on the n o r t h and the G u l f of Georgia on the west, and separated from the other farming r e g i o n s of L u l u I s l a n d by a s e r i e s of s m a l l - h o l d i n g s and urban a r e a s , e x h i b i t e d some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Sea I s l a n d but a l s o had s e v e r a l t h a t were d i f f e r e n t .  The  l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of the r e g i o n had  good s o i l s , namely C l a s s I I I , (see Map 4 ) , and the e a s t e r n  3  S e c t i o n s i n Richmond are g e n e r a l l y between 150-160 acres i n a r e a ; thus they are e q u i v a l e n t t o one-quarter s e c t i o n s i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s ' l a n d system.  20  p a r t alone had the C l a s s IV t y p i c a l of Sea  I s l a n d , was  p a r t s of the r e g i o n .  type.  The  large f i e l d pattern,  present o n l y i n the outer c o a s t a l  S i n c e d a i r y i n g was  the most widespread  type of f a r m i n g t h e r e , the p a r a l l e l w i t h the p a t t e r n of Sea to a g r e a t e r  I s l a n d might be expected.  agricultural  Further  inland,  due  s u b d i v i s i o n of the s e c t i o n s , a d i f f e r e n c e i n the  k i n d of f a r m i n g , and the e x i s t e n c e of poorer grades of s o i l , f i e l d s were more numerous and l e s s e x t e n s i v e .  Because of  these c o n d i t i o n s , there were more houses i n the i n l a n d p o r t i o n •J  of the  region.  The g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y of s u b d i v i s i o n and  subsequent s e t t l e -  ment on the l a n d l o c a t e d f u r t h e s t from the coast i s due t o the h i s t o r i c a l development of L u l u I s l a n d .  The  partly  original  p i o n e e r s s e t t l e d a l o n g the r i v e r banks because the r i v e r prov i d e d the s o l e means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  T h e i r farms, o f t e n  s e v e r a l hundred a c r e s i n s i z e , extended a l o n g and back from the r i v e r , and remained f o r g e n e r a t i o n s as vast h o l d i n g s . i n t e r i o r s e c t i o n s , on the other hand, were bought and l a t e r , (1900  to 1920), and  The settled  s i n c e these s e t t l e r s were i n t e r e s t e d  i n s m a l l s c a l e f a r m i n g , g r e a t e r s u b d i v i s i o n occurred and l a r g e number of s m a l l e r farms were c r e a t e d .  a  Many of these  farmers produced v e g e t a b l e and f r u i t crops; others favoured mixed f a r m i n g . by people who  The  s m a l l - h o l d i n g areas were developed e i t h e r  worked i n some n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y , making  gardening an important a v o c a t i o n , to p r o v i d e much of t h e i r own  or by r e t i r e d persons who  food s u p p l y .  wish  Thus the inner por-  t i o n of the western a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n had s m a l l e r farms and f i e l d s where mixed, v e g e t a b l e , or small f r u i t farming were i n  21  evidence. The  s o u t h e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n was  bog and s m a l l - h o l d i n g s the south.  on one  bounded by the peat  s i d e and by the F r a s e r R i v e r i n  S i m i l a r to the western r e g i o n , good s o i l s were  a v a i l a b l e g e n e r a l l y i n the a r e a , but a s m a l l p o r t i o n were of the C l a s s IV type.  The  southern zone, d e s p i t e i t s l a r g e  total  acreage of p a s t u r e and g r a i n , e x h i b i t e d a predominance of small e r f i e l d u n i t s and a p a u c i t y of farm houses.  No other  region  shared t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Much of the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of southern r e g i o n was  the  comprised of the o l d slough area which  r e q u i r e d a dense drainage network of d i t c h e s .  Their  necessity  p r o b a b l y accounts f o r a g r e a t e r number of f i e l d s per farm i n that sector. explicable.  The p a t t e r n i n other p o r t i o n s i s not as r e a d i l y For example, i n the e a s t e r n p a r t i n a s i m i l a r  slough a r e a , where a d i s r u p t e d f i e l d p a t t e r n due to d i t c h i n g might a g a i n be expected, there were i n f a c t s e v e r a l l a r g e f i e l d s owned by d a i r y farms.  A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t thorough  drainage of these pasture  lands was  not deemed necessary.  v e r s e l y , i n the western p o r t i o n , on a p p a r e n t l y l a n d , the s m a l l f i e l d p a t t e r n occurred.  Con-  well-drained  Regardless of the  reason f o r the s i z e of f i e l d , the more d i m i n u t i v e areas were nonetheless major producers of vegetables and f r u i t s as w e l l as g r a i n and  pasture.  The e a s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n was  s i m i l a r to the western  zone because i t a l s o e x h i b i t e d a combination of s m a l l and fields.  Many of the s m a l l e r p l o t s i n the northern  large  s e c t i o n of  t h i s r e g i o n c o n s i s t e d of C l a s s IV and Peat s o i l s ; whereas the  l a r g e r f i e l d s , g e n e r a l l y i n the southern p a r t , were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b e t t e r s o i l s . (1900  As the r e s u l t of e a r l y s u b d i v i s i o n ,  t o 1914), when an abundance o f s m a l l p a r c e l s of l a n d were  c r e a t e d on poor s o i l s , the b u l k of the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n d e v e l oped i n t o s m a l l farms which ranged i n s i z e from 1 t o 10 a c r e s . Mixed farming, p o u l t r y r a i s i n g and vegetable growing became common forms o f a g r i c u l t u r e . The b o u n d a r i e s of t h e e a s t e r n r e g i o n corresponded approxi m a t e l y w i t h t h e p e r i p h e r y o f the peat bog, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c e n t r a l and southern p a r t s o f the r e g i o n .  I n 1930  there  was e i t h e r no need or no d e s i r e t o extend farming onto the poorer s o i l s of the peat bog. The  l a n d use  map, (Map 3 ) , a l s o d e p i c t s s m a l l acreages  c l a s s i f i e d as s m a l l - h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , l o c a t e d mainly i n the western p a r t s o f L u l u I s l a n d .  These areas were comprised of  l e g a l l o t s , v a r y i n g i n s i z e from one t o t h r e e a c r e s .  Their  l o c a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n the poorer s o i l zones; however, the l a r g e s t t r a c t was s i t u a t e d on both C l a s s I I I and IV s o i l s . A l l of the l o t s c l a s s i f i e d as s m a l l - h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e i n 1930  had been c r e a t e d between 1908 and 1914, a p e r i o d of a c t i v e  s u b d i v i s i o n i n western L u l u I s l a n d . (Map 5 ) .  Apparently,  optimism over settlement had surged i n the pre-war years due t o improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ,  (roads and trams), and  i n c r e a s e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n nearby i n d u s t r i e s . A l though the m a j o r i t y of the s m a l l - h o l d i n g s were not s e l f s u p p o r t i n g economic u n i t s , they were producing goods. for  agricultural  By so doing, they c o n t r i b u t e d t o the o v e r a l l  Richmond and the Lower Mainland.  production  To  f o i l ow pac^e. 2.2  A 3  D  Q  A  A  C  B  B  B  F  B  MAP  5A  1 - 49 A  50 - 99  B  100 - 149  C  150 - 199  D  200 - 399  E  400 - 599  F  600 1/2  *  MILE  23  Summary A g r i c u l t u r e i n Richmond i n 1930 was based p r i m a r i l y upon the needs and demands of the urban c e n t r e s of Vancouver and New Westminster,  L u l u and Sea I s l a n d s , w i t h t h e i r f l a t , f e r t i l e  l a n d were i d e a l areas f o r the development of d a i r y , feed, f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e farms.  Large, w e l l - k e p t d a i r y barns d o t t e d the  landscape marking the n u c l e i of e x t e n s i v e g r a s s and g r a i n growing a r e a s .  F r e s h m i l k and cream, e i t h e r b o t t l e d or i n b u l k ,  moved i n t o the nearby urban areas t h e year round.  Similarly,  but on a seasonal b a s i s , v e g e t a b l e s found t h e i r way t o the c i t i e s ' markets and g r a i n s were shipped e i t h e r t o f l o u r m i l l s or t o b u s i n e s s concerns which r e q u i r e d f e e d f o r t h e i r dray horses. S o i l c o n d i t i o n s and pre World War I s u b d i v i s i o n had a marked i n f l u e n c e upon the l o c a t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s and on t h e type and s i z e of the crop u n i t s .  The l a r g e r farms  and f i e l d s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of d a i r y and g r a i n farms, were s i t uated on the b e t t e r s o i l s .  S m a l l e r , l e s s - s p e c i a l i z e d farms  developed upon t h e poorer and more s u b d i v i d e d s o i l s around the peat bog.  The peat s o i l s the most d i f f i c u l t t o develop  agric-  u l t u r a l l y , were used o n l y i n t r a n s i t i o n a l a r e a s , where s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of peat o c c u r r e d n a t u r a l l y w i t h b e t t e r grades of soil. Thus the a g r i c u l t u r a l p i c t u r e o f Richmond was one of l a r g e g r a z i n g and g r a i n l a n d s , s m a l l e r i n t e n s i v e l y - c u l t i v a t e d vegetable p l o t s , and s c a t t e r e d , m u l t i - c r o p h o l d i n g s , a l l prov i d i n g products f o r the neighbouring urban c e n t r e s .  B.  Urban Land Use  The urban l a n d use p a t t e r n was v e r y simple i n 1930, A mere 559 a c r e s , or 1.8 percent o f t h e t o t a l Richmond area was occupied by commercial, e n t i a l developments.  i n d u s t r i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and r e s i d -  Of t h i s acreage, 99 percent was l o c a t e d  on L u l u I s l a n d . Table IV p r o v i d e s data on the r e l a t i v e  importance of each  of t h e urban f u n c t i o n s . As might be expected, r e s i d e n t i a l use was by f a r t h e l a r g e s t i n a r e a .  The h i g h commercial  acreage  was t h e r e s u l t o f two race t r a c k s which had a combined area of 1825 a c r e s .  Table IV Area of Urban F u n c t i o n s , 1930 Function Residential Commercial Institutional Industrial  Acres 322 190 5 42 559  jp.  57.6 34.0 0.9 100.  The dominant use o f C l a s s IV s o i l s f o r urban development becomes obvious when the l a n d use and s o i l s maps a r e compared.  Table V f u r t h e r emphasizes t h i s p o i n t .  S i n c e the  poorer grades of s o i l were l e s s p r o d u c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e d s m a l l e r economic r e t u r n s , t h e r e was l i t t l e  incentive  25  Table V Urban Land by S o i l Type. 1930 S o i l Type  Acreage  %  Class I I I C l a s s IV Deep Peat  78 466 15  13.9 83.5 4.2  Total  559  100.0  t o r e t a i n them as a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s .  S u b d i v i s i o n and subse-  quent s a l e of the l o t s p r o v i d e d a more immediate source o f income.  Industrial  Centres  I n d u s t r i a l development i n Richmond up t o 1930 was based p r i m a r i l y on the p r o c e s s i n g of f i s h and t i m b e r .  The f i s h i n g  grounds o f Georgia S t r a i t and the F r a s e r R i v e r p r o v i d e d an abundance o f salmon f o r many c a n n e r i e s , w h i l e the nearby f o r e s t r e g i o n s o f Howe Sound and Georgia S t r a i t s u p p l i e d e x c e l l e n t raw m a t e r i a l s t o the two s a w m i l l s l o c a t e d on the North Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r ,  Very f e w other i n d u s t r i e s had developed i n  Richmond because t h e l o c a l market was inadequate and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s would have made c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h c i t y p l a n t s impracticable. The f i s h - p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y was,  and had been f o r f o u r  decades, t h e dominant secondary i n d u s t r y whether c o n s i d e r e d from the s t a n d p o i n t of value of p r o d u c t i o n , number of p l a n t s , area occupied, or number employed.  26  The canning i n d u s t r y began i n Richmond i n the l a t e 1880's w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s e v e r a l s m a l l p l a n t s a t t h e mouths of the two arms of the F r a s e r R i v e r . out i n a d j a c e n t w a t e r s .  A l l f i s h i n g was c a r r i e d  The p r o x i m i t y i o the source of supply  and the. adequacy o f d o c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r f i s h boats and f r e i g h t e r s a i d e d t h e p r o s p e r i t y of t h e c a n n e r i e s .  By 1893,  f o u r t e e n c a n n e r i e s were i n o p e r a t i o n a l o n g t h e lower of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r :  reaches  by 1897 t h e r e were twenty-four.~  Although  many of the c a n n e r i e s were modest i n s i z e , they p r o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e employment and gave impetus t o growing communities such as S t e v e s t o n , Between 1900 and 1930 the canning i n d u s t r y f a c e d p e r i o d s of expansion and r e d u c t i o n .  I n 1902 many of the p l a n t s were  c o n s o l i d a t e d by t h e B. C. P a c k e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , thus a g r e a t e r order emerged i n t h e i n d u s t r y . ^ New machinery such as the "Iron Chink",  0  and automatic can-making equipment i n c r e a s e d  the r a t e of p r o d u c t i o n and reduced the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n because fewer Chinese and Indians were r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s l a b o u r . Expansion  f o l l o w e d w i t h an i n f l u x o f Japanese workers between  1905 and 1910.  S e r i o u s d e c l i n e s were experienced i n the f i s h -  4  T. K i d d , H i s t o r y of L u l u I s l a n d and O c c a s i o n a l Poems, Vancouver, W r i g l e y ' s D i r e c t o r y , L t d . , 1927, p. 179.  5  M. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , Vancouver, The M a c m i l l a n Co. of Canada L t d . , 1958, p. 338.  6  The I r o n Chink or I r o n Chinaman cleaned f i s h f a s t e r , worked t i r e l e s s l y , and never complained as d i d i t s human counterpart.  27  i n g i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the World War  I years because w o r l d markets  were l o s t and the salmon runs d i m i n i s h e d due to the H e l l ' s Gate s l i d e of 1913.  Economic c o n d i t i o n s i n the i n d u s t r y remained  a t a low ebb u n t i l the mid-1920's. As. the r e s u l t of c o n s o l i d a t i o n and the c l o s u r e of uneconomic p l a n t s , by 1928,  twelve c a n n e r i e s were o p e r a t i n g i n Richmond:  S t e v e s t o n c l a i m e d seven, t h e r e were t h r e e on Sea I s l a n d , and 7 each on northwestern 1930 Two  L u l u I s l a n d and L i o n I s l a n d .  However, by  some had shut down, w h i l e others were f a c i n g bankruptcy. b a s i c reasons f o r t h i s d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n were:  much-anticipated  heavy salmon runs of 1928  m a t e r i a l i z e , and  ( 2 ) , the tremendous c a t c h of 1930  market due t o the d e p r e s s i o n . was  one  d r a s t i c a l l y reduced by  and 1929  ( 1 ) , the  f a i l e d to lacked a  Thus the f i s h - p a c k i n g i n d u s t r y  1930.  In a d d i t i o n to the f i s h c a n n e r i e s , t h e r e were two  operating  s a w m i l l s , one a t B r i d g e p o r t , and the other on M i t c h e l l - T w i g g Island:  these formed p a r t of the i n f a n t i n d u s t r i a l complex  d e v e l o p i n g a l o n g the North Arm  of the F r a s e r R i v e r .  Accessib-  i l i t y t o water and l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n determined the l o c a t i o n of the m i l l s .  Logs towed i n t o the r i v e r from northwest f o r e s t  r e g i o n s were sawn and the lumber was  shipped to nearby urban  or f o r e i g n markets. Less p r e t e n t i o u s e n t e r p r i s e s , e s s e n t i a l to the w e l f a r e of the community, sprang up as a r e s u l t of the s a w m i l l s .  Boat  b u i l d e r s and r e p a i r e r s , as w e l l as woodworkers, made use of 7  P. W i l s o n , B.C.  Packers L i m i t e d , i n t e r v i e w .  28  the r e a d i l y - a c c e s s i b l e lumber t o i n i t i a t e businesses  i n Steveston  and B r i d g e p o r t r e s p e c t i v e l y . In Bridgeport, a densely-populated was  a r e a , a s m a l l cannery  p r o c e s s i n g f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y peas, grown on  adjacent farms.  Since t h e o p e r a t i o n was s e a s o n a l , r e q u i r i n g only  p a r t - t i m e women l a b o u r e r s , i t s l o c a t i o n was r e l a t e d t o the urban nucleus. A brick-making  p l a n t i n Steveston p r o v i d e d an example of  a l o c a l market-oriented  industry.  The b r i c k s , produced from  imported c l a y , were used i n c o n s t r u c t i o n on L u l u I s l a n d .  How-  ever, adverse economic c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e 1930's f o r c e d t h e permanent c l o s u r e of t h e p l a n t . I n d u s t r i a l development i n Richmond was thus l i m i t e d i n scope and l o c a t i o n i n 1930.  F i s h - p r o c e s s i n g and sax-mulling  were the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t secondary i n d u s t r i e s :  s i n c e both  r e q u i r e d w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n s , i n d u s t r i a l growth became p e r i pheral i n character.  The emergence of other urban f u n c t i o n s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l , was d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the l o c a t i o n of these i n d u s t r i e s which o f f e r e d employment t o the communities of Steveston and B r i d g e p o r t .  Commercial Land Use Commercial development i n 1930 was not e x t e n s i v e . I t b u i l t up i n p r o x i m i t y t o the main r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l areas  B r i d g e p o r t , Brighouse  and Steveston on L u l u I s l a n d ,  and Eburne on Sea I s l a n d , were s e r v i c e d by s t o r e s and shops which c a t e r e d t o the b a s i c requirements of these more populated centres. S t e v e s t o n boasted the l a r g e s t , i f somewhat drab, v a r i e t y of commercial  e n t e r p r i s e s , i n c l u d i n g a bank, a h o t e l and s e v e r a l  c a f e s and s t o r e s which had sprung up b e f o r e World War I .  Sit-  uated on Moneton S t r e e t between Number 1 Road and F o u r t h Avenue, they s u p p l i e d the needs of the fishermen, cannery workers and n e i g h b o u r i n g farmers. B r i d g e p o r t , a s m a l l community a t the south end of the b r i d g e l i n k i n g L u l u I s l a n d and Sea I s l a n d , possessed the second l a r g e s t commercial  centre.  R e s i d e n t s employed l o c a l l y and i n  Vancouver's i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s a c r o s s the r i v e r were served by t h r e e g e n e r a l s t o r e s and a lumber y a r d . The Brighouse shopping a r e a , o p p o s i t e the Brighouse r a c e t r a c k and Richmond M u n i c i p a l H a l l , c o n s i s t e d of f o u r s t o r e s . The low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of the e n v i r o n s made unnecessary a l a r g e number of commercial  establishments.  The two l a r g e s t areas of commerce by 1930 were the race Q  tracks:  B r i g h o u s e , (Minoru P a r k ) ,  and Lansdowne.  The former,  near the j u n c t i o n of No. 3 Road and G r a n v i l l e Avenue, was cons t r u c t e d i n 1910  9  and occupied 100 a c r e s .  The l a t t e r , a t  No. 3 Road and Lansdowne Avenue, was completed i n 1924, and covered an area of 82.5 a c r e s .  The choice of an urban f r i n g e  8  The Brighouse t r a c k i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as Minoru  Park.  9  The H a s t i n g s Park t r a c k was a l s o b u i l t i n the same y e a r .  30  a r e a f o r b o t h t r a c k s appeared t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the times. The Brighouse t r a c k , which emerged as the r e s u l t of t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c e f f o r t s of Samuel B r i g h o u s e , was e r e c t e d on the poorest s o i l o f h i s vast e s t a t e .  The n a t u r a l peat base and  c l a y t o p p r o v i d e d a s u p e r i o r running s u r f a c e t o other more s o l i d l y - b a s e d t r a c k s , and thus t h i s area g a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n as one of Canada's f i n e s t r a c i n g  surfaces. ^ 1  1  In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Brighouse, s p e c i a l passenger trams were put i n t o s e r v i c e c a r r y i n g the r a c i n g fans t o and from the t r a c k . v i v i d l y describes  I n h i s book, H. T i l l  1 1  the f a n f a r e , j u b i l a t i o n and adventure shared  by Vancouver r e s i d e n t s as they rode out t o L u l u I s l a n d f o r an afternoon at the races.  The slow, open-sided and sometimes  r o o f l e s s trams never seemed t o dampen the enthusiasm of the r i d e r s . The  a c t i v i t i e s of the Brighouse t r a c k were not c o n f i n e d  to horse-racing  a l o n e , however.  Many other a t t r a c t i o n s took  p l a c e t h e r e , i n c l u d i n g the demonstration by C h a r l e s Hamilton 12 in  1910  of t h e f i r s t aeroplane ever flown west of Toronto,  and the attempt by Barney O l d f i e l d , a famous c a r r a c e r , t o lower t h e world's c i r c u l a r t r a c k r e c o r d i n 1912. 10  C. O l d f i e l d - t r a c k b u i l d e r - i n t e r v i e w  11  H. T i l l , Vancouver T r a f f i c H i s t o r y , Vancouver, B.C. E r i c Company, (no date g i v e n ) , p. 4.  12  M. J e f f e r y , "The Sockeye L t d . " , Vancouver, B.C. E l e c t Company, 1958, p. 4. (mimeographed).  31  The Lansdowne t r a c k , b u i l t i n 1924 as p a r t of the expans i o n programme of the R a c i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , d i d not share i n some of the e a r l y glamour of B r i g h o u s e .  I t d i d , however, o f f e r  a longer r u n n i n g d i s t a n c e , (one m i l e , compared to the s i x f u r l o n g , or t h r e e - q u a r t e r m i l e course a t B r i g h o u s e ) , and newer f a c i l i t i e s f o r the many race s p e c t a t o r s .  R e s i d e n t i a l Development Three c e n t r e s of r e s i d e n t i a l development are shown on the land-use map:  S t e v e s t o n , i n the southwest s e c t o r ;  Brig-  house, c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d , and B r i d g e p o r t , i n the n o r t h . R e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n dates back t o 1892 1908  - 1909  i n Brighouse, and 1915  i n Steveston,  i n Bridgeport,  The e a r l y success of S t e v e s t o n as a settlement i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the man a f t e r whom the area i s named, Herbert S t e v e s . The e l d e s t son of Manoah S t e v e s , (the f i r s t farmer i n the d i s t r i c t ) , H e r b e r t Steves, was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l a y i n g out the r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d f o r the t o w n s i t e i n 1892, b u i l d i n g the community h a l l named the Opera House, and e s t a b l i s h i n g the f i r s t newspaper, the S t e v e s t o n E n t e r p r i s e . He envisaged S t e v e s t o n , w i t h i t s r i v e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n , c a n n e r i e s , abundance of f l a t l a n d , and nearby source of food supply, as the s i t e f o r a major city.  T h i s dream was u n f u l f i l l e d because Vancouver, w i t h  i t s many n a t u r a l advantages and i t s t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y t e r m i n a l , soon surpassed a l l other urban c e n t r e s . S t e v e s t o n d i d , however, continue t o expand s l o w l y .  By  1899 the v i l l a g e , an area of approximately 200 a c r e s , had a  32  p o p u l a t i o n numbering 2,350, of whom almost 2000 were Japanese 13 fishermen and cannery workers. Subsequent immigration of more Japanese and a few  whites  i n c r e a s e d the p o p u l a t i o n t o 3,200 by the year of i n c o r p o r a t i o n , 1909.  The p r o p o r t i o n of w h i t e s t o O r i e n t a l s remained r e l a t i v e l y 14  c o n s t a n t , or 1:5  T h i s p o p u l a t i o n might w e l l have been 50 or  even 75 percent  of Richmond's t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a t t h i s time  but no o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d i s a v a i l a b l e . The m a j o r i t y of the O r i e n t a l s were men  who  were housed  i n s m a l l , o f t e n u n s a n i t a r y , shacks near the c a n n e r i e s .  These  cramped, u n s i g h t l y q u a r t e r s , coupled w i t h the almost p e r p e t u a l f o u l odour of the c a n n e r i e s , degraded the t o w n s i t e and suaded many from s e t t l i n g t h e r e .  dis-  Thus the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d  o n l y a few hundred between 1909 and 1930.  Wrigley's  B.C.  15 D i r e c t o r y , 1930,  l i s t s 1,000  r e s i d e n t s f o r S t e v e s t o n , which  undoubtedly d i d not i n c l u d e the workers i n h a b i t i n g the cannery  shacks. The Brighouse  r e s i d e n t i a l area developed around a  c o n s i s t i n g of a s m a l l s t o r e and a few o l d homes b u i l t on  nucleus poorer  q u a l i t y s o i l which had been c o n s i d e r e d u n s u i t a b l e f o r l a r g e s c a l e farming. With the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Marpole-Steveston 13 R.M. Bone, "A Land Use Study o f " t h e Steveston D i s t r i c t " , u n p u b l i s h e d honours essay, B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1955, p. 21. 14 15  "Steveston", B.C. Gazetteer and D i r e c t o r y , X I I I , 1910, p. 1046. W r i g l e y ' s B.C. D i r e c t o r y , Vancouver, W r i g l e y D i r e c t o r i e s L i m i t e d , 1930, p. 591.  33  r a i l l i n e i n 1902, electric  (see Map  6 ) , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the  tram s e r v i c e i n 1905, the opening of the r a c e t r a c k  i n 1910, and the b u i l d i n g of the m u n i c i p a l h a l l next t o i t 16 i n 1914,  Brighouse became an important f o c a l p o i n t .  Around  t h i s c o r e , many s e c t i o n s , w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of the tram l i n e , were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s .  (Map 5 ) .  S i m i l a r t o many other a r e a s , Brighouse underwent the expansion and s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t were p a r t of the  "McBride  P r o s p e r i t y " - ^ e x p e r i e n c e d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the pre-war y e a r s .  However, expansion between 1914 and  was h i n d e r e d due t o the war and subsequent r e c e s s i o n .  1920 During  the mid-1920's, expansion r e c u r r e d because new h e i g h t s i n p r o s p e r i t y were a c h i e v e d , and people a g a i n sought i n e x p e n s i v e land.  By 1930,  one hundred and f i f t y houses occupied  acres east of the m u n i c i p a l h a l l . local  industrial  and commercial  640  As a r e s u l t of the l i m i t e d  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  many new wage-earning r e s i d e n t s had become commuters t o Vancouver . S t a r t i n g as a s m a l l n u c l e a t i o n soon a f t e r the opening of the b r i d g e i n 1890, B r i d g e p o r t d i d not assume the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an urban area u n t i l a f t e r World War  I.  Although  s u b d i v i s i o n had c r e a t e d numerous urban l o t s , e a r l y develop-  16  The p r e v i o u s h a l l , e r e c t e d i n 1881 at Cambie and R i v e r Road, had burnt down. The new s i t e , the southeast corner of the Brighouse e s t a t e , was more c e n t r a l .  17  Ormsby, p.  353.  To follow pacje 33.  34  merits were meager.  By 1930, low r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y remained  an o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e .  A mere 60 homes occupied the 60 a c r e s .  New B r i d g e p o r t r e s i d e n t s , l i k e those of Brighouse, became p a r t of an I n c r e a s i n g d a i l y commuting movement t o Vancouver's i n d u s t r i a l and commercial c e n t r e s . E a r l y optimism throughout Richmond i s evident by the e x t e n s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n which was c a r r i e d out a f t e r 1908.  (Map 5 ) .  Hundreds of l o t s , r a n g i n g i n s i z e from 25 f e e t by 100 f e e t , (approximately  one-twentieth  o f an a c r e ) , t o 5 acres were  c r e a t e d upon C l a s s IV and peat s o i l s .  How s u b d i v i d e r s hoped  t o a t t r a c t 400 t o 600 f a m i l i e s per s e c t i o n t o the peat bog i s d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend.  Even today the m a j o r i t y o f the l o t s  on the peat, and many on the C l a s s IV s o i l s , remain unoccupied. T h i s e a r l y d i v i s i o n of l a n d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r other u n d e s i r a b l e developments, such as low d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l zones and i n e f f i c i e n t small-holdings.  I n s t i t u t i o n a l Land Since the p o p u l a t i o n of Richmond was s m a l l and the demand f o r s c h o o l , church and m u n i c i p a l p r o p e r t y was l i m i t e d , 1  the  f i v e a c r e s devoted t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s was minute i n comparison w i t h the a l l o t m e n t t o other urban uses. Seven s c h o o l s , e n r o l l i n g approximately  1400 students,  were d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the more densely-populated of western L u l u I s l a n d .  areas  The l a r g e s t elementary s c h o o l s ,  uated i n B r i d g e p o r t and S t e v e s t o n , had s e v e r a l  sit-  classrooms.  35  These s c h o o l s were s i m i l a r t o those of urban areas because each teacher was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o n l y one or two grades. In the more r u r a l s c h o o l s , however, t e a c h e r s had s i x t o e i g h t grades i n one room.  Due t o the e x i s t e n c e of only one h i g h  s c h o o l , l o c a t e d i n B r i d g e p o r t , some of the 200 s e n i o r  students  throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y were f o r c e d t o t r a v e l long d i s tances t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s . Churches sprang up as p a r t of the r e s i d e n t i a l ment.  I n 1886, the P r e s b y t e r i a n s e r e c t e d the f i r s t  on Sea I s l a n d ,  developchurch  L u l u I s l a n d ' s f i r s t church, a t Cambie and  R i v e r Roads, was b u i l t by the M e t h o d i s t s  i n 1891.  sequent y e a r s , churches appeared i n S t e v e s t o n and  I n subBrighouse,  By 1930 L u l u I s l a n d b o a s t e d s i x churches of v a r i o u s denomina t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g a Buddhist Temple s e r v i n g the O r i e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n of S t e v e s t o n . Designated  park and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  been s e t a s i d e by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . owned c e n t r e s , i n c l u d i n g Minoru Park,  had not  However, s e v e r a l p r i v a t e l y (the r a c e t r a c k and i t s  e n v i r o n s ) , the Richmond A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s grounds a t Number 3 Road and G r a n v i l l e Avenue, the l a c r o s s e f i e l d i n B r i d g e p o r t , and the s c h o o l grounds, e s p e c i a l l y those o f B r i d g e p o r t and S t e v e s t o n , were o f t e n f r e g u e n t e d by the p u b l i c . These a r e a s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the open spaces of e a s t e r n L u l u I s l a n d , adequately dents of Richmond.  served the needs o f the 8,000 r e s i -  36  C.  Road and R a i l Network Roads and r a i l w a y s were unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout  the  municipality.  The o n l y w e l l - s e r v i c e d a r e a s were B r i d g e p o r t ,  Brighouse and S t e v e s t o n . Road development phases.  (Map 6 ) .  i n Richmond p r o g r e s s e d through s e v e r a l  The year 1881 saw the g a z e t t i n g o f t h e f i r s t r o a d s .  A m i l e - g r i d system, f r e q u e n t l y employed i n B r i t i s h e a r l y h i s t o r y , was e s t a b l i s h e d .  Columbia's  Roads numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5  and 9 on L u l u I s l a n d , and 12 and 13 on Sea I s l a n d , were s u r 18 veyed.  A t f i r s t , e a r t h from the drainage d i t c h e s served as  a r o a d bed, and corduroy roads were l a i d where the s o i l l a c k e d compactness.  L a t e r , p l a n k e d roads appeared, n o t a b l y i n and  around S t e v e s t o n , because the d i r t roads became t r a i l s of mud d u r i n g the w i n t e r months.  The use of g r a v e l commenced i n the  post-1900 e r a , and the f i r s t experiments w i t h pavement took 19 p l a c e i n 1919, on Number 3 Road. By 1930, the t h r e e major s e t t l e d areas e x h i b i t e d t h e most d e n s e l y - c o n s t r u c t e d r o a d system. ston,  B r i d g e p o r t and Steve-  w i t h t h e i r c l o s e l y - s p a c e d s t r e e t s , a l r e a d y had the  b e g i n n i n g s of an urban p a t t e r n .  In the remainder of the mun-  i c i p a l i t y , a one m i l e g r i d had almost been completed west of No. 4 Road, whereas t o the e a s t , t h i s system was s t i l l i n an e a r l y stage of development. 18  K i d d , p. 76.  19  C. O l d f i e l d ,  interview.  37  In  o r d e r t o t r a v e l from western t o e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s of  L u l u I s l a n d , a c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e was f o l l o w e d because no thoroughf a r e , such as t h e Westminster Highway of today, had been c r e a t e d . S i n c e areas h a v i n g l a r g e farms r e q u i r e d fewer roads than r e g i o n s dominated by s m a l l e r h o l d i n g s , the road network r e f l e c t e d the more r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n . The r a i l w a y "network", b u i l t i n 1902 by the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , and c o n s i s t i n g of one l i n e c o n n e c t i n g Marpole i n Vancouver w i t h S t e v e s t o n , was a c q u i r e d by t h e B.C. E l e c t r i c Company i n 1905. The purpose of t h e l i n e was t h r e e f o l d :  the  e x p o r t i n g o f l o c a l f r e i g h t , (lumber and canned and packed f i s h ) ; the  i m p o r t i n g o f machinery and o t h e r s u p p l i e s from Vancouver,  and t h e t r a n s p o r t i n g o f passengers v i a trams. In a d d i t i o n t o the one r a i l r o a d , two r i g h t s - o f - w a y had been e s t a b l i s h e d on L u l u I s l a n d .  P r i o r t o 1918, a r a i l  line  p a r a l l e l t o t h e main arm o f the F r a s e r R i v e r l i n k e d S t e v e s t o n and New Westminster; however, the t r a c k s were removed soon a f t e r 20  a l a r g e peat f i r e d e s t r o y e d an important p i l e t r e s t l e .  In  1930, a second r i g h t - o f - w a y was c r e a t e d a c r o s s the n o r t h e r n s i d e of the i s l a n d .  I t was t o p r o v i d e a new r a i l c o n n e c t i o n  between B r i d g e p o r t and New Westminster, a v o i d i n g t h e l o n g e r h a u l through Vancouver. Because the m u n i c i p a l i t y was composed of i s l a n d s , the b r i d g e s c o n n e c t i n g them t o the mainland were e s s e n t i a l as a  20  G.R. Stevens, Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s . Toward the I n e v i t a b l e . 1896-1922, Toronto, C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L i m i t e d , 1962, I I , p. 98.  means o f t r a n s p o r t .  They a l s o were l o c a t i v e f a c t o r s f o r com-  m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l developments.  The two wooden road  b r i d g e s c o n n e c t i n g Sea I s l a n d w i t h Marpole, and Sea I s l a n d w i t h L u l u I s l a n d , were c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1889 and 1890, respeci v e l y , and p r o v i d e d t h e f i r s t d i r e c t access from Vancouver  t  the m u n i c i p a l i t y . In 1905, t h e completion  of two b r i d g e s j o i n i n g L u l u  I s l a n d ' s Number 5 Road t o Vancouver's F r a s e r S t r e e t , v i a M i t c h e l l I s l a n d , p r o v i d e d a d i r e c t route f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products  from c e n t r a l L u l u I s l a n d t o downtown Vancouver.  The m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s e a s t e r n end r e l i e d upon a c r o s s i n g from Queensborough t o New Westminster. In 1930, one r a i l w a y b r i d g e was o p e r a t i n g and a second was n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n .  In 1901, t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -  way Company e r e c t e d t h e f i r s t r a i l w a y b r i d g e n o r t h of Bridge p o r t , forming p a r t of t h e Steveston-Vancouver r a i l The  line.  second b r i d g e , completed i n 1931, spanned the North Arm  of t h e F r a s e r near Number 9 Road and l i n k e d New Westminster and Richmond. During the e a r l y p e r i o d i n Richmond's h i s t o r y , t r a n s portation f a c i l i t i e s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r a i l w a y , had a n o t a b l  i n f l u e n c e upon the settlement p a t t e r n and economic l i f e of the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  The r a p i d e l e c t r i c tram system, i n t r o d u c e  i n 1905, p r o v i d e d comfortable, r e g u l a r s e r v i c e , a l l o w i n g commuters t o r e s i d e long d i s t a n c e s from t h e i r source of employment.  The tram l i n e was a l s o an important  locative  f a c t o r because r e s i d e n t i a l settlement developed w i t h i n  39  w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of the l i n e .  In a d d i t i o n t o s e r v i n g the  l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s , the trams brought numerous v i s i t o r s , such as r a c i n g fans and sportsmen, to the r e g i o n .  By so doing,  they a i d e d l o c a l commerce.  D.  Vacant Land Vacant l a n d , composed of a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - u n s u i t a b l e areas  and undeveloped r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s , occupied approximately q u a r t e r of the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  The wet,  one-  spongy peat bogs, w i t h  t h e i r p o o r l y - d r a i n e d a c i d i c s o i l s , formed the g r e a t e r p o r t i o n of the 8,600 odd acres of i d l e l a n d . Because c o s t s of p r e p a r i n g the deep peat s o i l were p r o h i b i t i v e , and economic r e t u r n s per a c r e were, g e n e r a l l y inadequate, farmers chose t o c u l t i v a t e o n l y the outer margins of the bogs where C l a s s IV and peat s o i l s were i n t e r m i x e d .  There-  f o r e , vacant p o r t i o n s of t h e i r farms were a t t r i b u t a b l e to the poorer peat s o i l s . Unoccupied l o t s are p a r t of a normal t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d o c c u r r i n g when l a r g e acreages of l a n d change from one use to another.  I n any growing r e s i d e n t i a l area there i s an  interval  of vacancy between the a c t u a l s u b d i v i s i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of housing.  The i n t e r v a l may  v a r y from a few weeks to a decade,  depending on f a c t o r s such as the l o c a t i o n o f , and demand f o r , r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , and the s u i t a b i l i t y of the  soil.  In Richmond, a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of vacant l a n d probably e x i s t e d i n 1930;  however, accurate estimates cannot  40  be made because a e r i a l photographs l a c k c l a r i t y and data i s not a v a i l a b l e .  One  statistical  can surmise t h a t a g r e a t e r propor-  t i o n of the vacant l o t s were near the margins of the peat bogs, where the d r a i n a g e ,  f e r t i l i t y , and t e x t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of the  s o i l were i n f e r i o r .  E.  Summary of the 1930  Land Use  Pattern  A l l the changes i n Richmond's landscape which had p l a c e d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s 70 years of settlement had t o form the l a n d use p a t t e r n i n 1930,  taken  culminated  as i l l u s t r a t e d by Map  3.  As the r e s u l t of e x t e n s i v e dyking and drainage, almost a l l of the b e t t e r s o i l s , namely, the C l a s s I I I and IV types, were emploj^ed p r i m a r i l y i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n .  Other l a n d  uses were extremely l i m i t e d i n area and were u s u a l l y l o c a t e d on the poorer a g r i c u l t u r a l The  soils.  l a n d use p a t t e r n e x e m p l i f i e d the process of r e g i o n a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n of f u n c t i o n s based upon the p h y s i c a l needs of the specific function.  A g r i c u l t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y d a i r y i n g and veg-  e t a b l e growing, r e q u i r e d a v a s t expanse of r i c h , f e r t i l e  soils,  whereas the f i s h canneries needed l i t t l e acreage but demanded the p r o v i s i o n of a ready source of raw m a t e r i a l s and adequate f a c i l i t i e s for  docking.  R e s i d e n t i a l and commercial areas developed e i t h e r i n p r o x i m i t y t o i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s , or where inexpensive  land  and other f e a t u r e s , ( f o r example, convenient t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , attracted  settlement.  41  The  importance of a g r i c u l t u r e as a major l a n d use,  a  c h i e f source of economic w e a l t h , and a r e g i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r y , cannot be overemphasized.  Richmond was  one  of  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's c h i e f s u p p l i e r s of d a i r y and products and v e g e t a b l e s .  The  grain  economy of the farming community  depended s o l e l y upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of these nearby markets. No other l a n d use e i t h e r h e l d such a l a r g e acreage or so h e a v i l y on the urban c e n t r e s minster.  The  canning and  of Vancouver and New  relied West-  lumber i n d u s t r i e s shipped the  bulk  of t h e i r products beyond the Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n ; whereas, the s m a l l commercial and i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s served o n l y  the  needs of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Thus the l a n d use p a t t e r n of 1930  r e f l e c t e d the  natural  r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , the s e l e c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l and urban f u n c t i o n s , and the stage of settlement ipality. region.  Richmond was  of the munic-  c l e a r l y a major r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l  42  CHAPTER I I I THE 1949 LAND USE PATTERN  D u r i n g the p e r i o d from 1930 - 1949, the p o p u l a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i n c r e a s e d by 128 percent t o approxima t e l y 560,000.  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s growth was the i n c r e a s e d  m i g r a t i o n of people t o the suburbs and the immediate areas.  rural  The s u r r o u n d i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s such as Richmond,  Burnaby and N o r t h Vancouver began e x p e r i e n c i n g the i n f l u e n c e s of t h i s expanding urban g i a n t . more complex:  The l a n d use p a t t e r n became  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l o s t some of t h e i r former  r u s t i c , r u r a l atmosphere, and a c q u i r e d more o f the suburban features. Many of the f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 1930 p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e d t o a l t e r the l a n d use.  These i n c l u d e d a steady  p o p u l a t i o n growth, f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n o f land,.an i n c r e a s e i n the number of i n d u s t r i a l and commercial e n t e r p r i s e s , cont i n u e d lower r e a l e s t a t e and t a x c o s t s than Vancouver, and a m o r e . i n t e n s i v e use of the peat l a n d s . By 1951, the p o p u l a t i o n of Richmond had reached 19,186: a 134.5 percent i n c r e a s e over the 1931 f i g u r e of 8,182. Of the 1951 t o t a l , 2,375 were l i v i n g . , on farms but o n l y 451 of these were farm o p e r a t o r s . r e d u c t i o n of 1,713  These f i g u r e s demonstrate a  i n the farm p o p u l a t i o n , and 608 i n the  number of farm o p e r a t o r s .  I n s t e a d of 50 percent of the people  b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , as i n 1931, Richmond had  43  o n l y 12.3  percent  i n 1951.  A l s o , the number of wage-earners  g r e a t l y exceeded t h a t of the self-employed.  Of the 6,833  employed persons, 5,739 or 84 percent were wage-earners. Richmond had thus changed from a m u n i c i p a l i t y of  self-employed  farmers t o one of wage-earners whose main employment opportuni t i e s l a y o u t s i d e the  area.  I n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n had a d i r e c t e f f e c t upon the l a n d use p a t t e r n .  The predominance of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d  remained, but i t was  n o t i c e a b l y reduced,  i n c r e a s e i n urban and e x t r a c t i v e l a n d  x  (Map  8).  percent  The  large  i s shown i n Table V I .  N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses had i n c r e a s e d from 4 percent t o 20.8  still  in  1931  of the t o t a l land a v a i l a b l e .  Table VI Comparison of Land Use Category  i n 1930  and  1930  1949  Agriculture Urban Extractive Road and R a i l Network Vacant  19,664 559 0  18 ,067 3 ,624 1 ,310  - 1,597 + 3, 065 + 1,310  .61 .2 12 .6 4 .4  630 8,600  1 ,170 5 .300  540 + - 3,300  3 .8 18 .0  Total  29,453  29 ,471  1  Change  1949 1949 % of T o t a l Area  100 .0  The e x t r a c t i v e l a n d i n c l u d e s the area upon w h i c h a c t i v e peat removal was t a k i n g p l a c e . Since t h i s i s a type of s u r f a c e mining, i t i s not i n c l u d e d under the urban category.  T o - f o l l o w pacj£ ^ 3 .  1 9 4 9  LAND  USE  RICHMOND  -  HOLDING  INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTIONAL PEAT  EXTRACTION  VACANT 1/2  0  I MILE  44  To p r o v i d e f o r the n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l growth, some a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage was removed from p r o d u c t i o n and a much l a r g e r amount o f vacant l a n d was brought i n t o a c t i v e use.  A.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use In t h e two decades f o l l o w i n g 1930, a g r i c u l t u r e i n Richmond  underwent  some s i g n i f i c a n t changes, which were apparent i n the  l a n d use p a t t e r n and i n the d e c l i n i n g importance o f farming as an economic a c t i v i t y .  P r o v i d i n g t h e urban areas w i t h f r e s h  produce remained a g r i c u l t u r e ' s c h i e f purpose.  However, R i c h -  mond's r e l a t i v e importance as a s u p p l i e r f o r Vancouver and i t s e n v i r o n s had d i m i n i s h e d , not because of a decrease i n product i o n , b u t because o t h e r r e g i o n s such as D e l t a , C e n t r a l and E a s t e r n Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , and the Western U n i t e d S t a t e s had considerably increased t h e i r proportion.  Due t o improved  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , o t h e r areas were b e g i n n i n g t o compete s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r markets which Richmond had f o r m e r l y cont r o l l e d by v i r t u e of i t s p r o x i m i t y .  A marked decrease i n the  t o t a l a r e a devoted t o f i e l d crops was not, as might have been expected, o f f s e t by an i n c r e a s e on d a i r y farms of pasture and tame hay p r o d u c t i o n . D a i r y i n g c o n t i n u e d t o be Richmond's l a r g e s t and most important a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y .  (See Table V I I ) . Large  farms such as t h e Frasea Farm on Sea I s l a n d , Quilchena D a i r y on Cambie Road, and the May Farm on No. 6 Road were major producers o f f r e s h m i l k .  T h e i r m i l k wagons were f a m i l i a r  45  Table V I I Comparison  of Crop Acreages 1931-1951 1931  Under Under (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  pasture crop Wheat Oats Barley Rye Potatoes Tame hay  Source:  3,476 12,586 79 3,968 60 26 2,172 2,756  1951 4,627 9,540 21 2,680 71 87 1,353 3,626  Dominion Census, 1956  s i g h t s on t h e s t r e e t s o f Vancouver. More p r o f i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n the d a i r y i n d u s t r y prompted e x p a n s i o n of pastures and hay f i e l d s onto the peat s o i l s and l a n d f o r m e r l y u t i l i z e d f o r o a t s , i n order t o f e e d the  i n c r e a s i n g number of c a t t l e .  The s m a l l e r farms, a l t h o u g h  seasonal producers of v e g e t a b l e s and f r u i t , s u p p l i e d the nearby c a n n e r i e s and markets w i t h f r e s h produce, and thereby made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n of the  region.  With improved f a r m i n g methods and g r e a t e r mech-  a n i z a t i o n , o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i o n was i n c r e a s e d ; however, i t was never a b l e t o f u l f i l l the demands of the expanding urban a r e a s . Between 1930 and 1949, a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage was reduced on a l l s o i l types except those of Deep Peat. importance of each s o i l i s noted i n Table V I I I .  The r e l a t i v e The l a r g e  decrease i n t h e C l a s s I I I v a r i e t y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e t e n t i o n of good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was c o n s i d e r e d secondary t o urban expansion.  46  Table V I I I A g r i c u l t u r a l Area based upon S o i l Type, 1949 S o i l Type  Acres  Percentage of T o t a l  + Change "(acres)  9,760 2,106 173  54.3 11.7 1.0  - 346 -1,241 24  12,039  66.5  -1,611  C l a s s IV  4,532  25.2  -  562  Deep Peat  1,496  8.3  +  576  - Total Agricultural 18,067 Land  100.0  Class I I I Lulu Sea Mitchell Total  -1,597  A comparison of the 1930 and 1949 l a n d use maps, (Maps 3 and 8 ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h there,were s t i l l  four  a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , each had undergone m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n s i z e and c h a r a c t e r .  I n every case, t h e p r i n c i p a l reason  f o r the change was the f u r t h e r expansion of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. On Sea I s l a n d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Vancouver A i r p o r t i n the southern s e c t i o n s , and the development  of r e s i d e n t i a l  s u b d i v i s i o n i n the n o r t h , produced a o n e - t h i r d r e d u c t i o n i n farmland acreage.  A p a r t from t h i s change the a g r i c u l t u r a l  p a t t e r n of l a r g e f i e l d u n i t s remained  unaltered.  Greater d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n l a n d use- was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the western a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n o f L u l u I s l a n d . an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on v e g e t a b l e s ,  Due t o  and l e s s on g r a i n crops,  and t o widespread, detached s u b d i v i s i o n , the i n l a n d p o r t i o n  47  had developed a more i r r e g u l a r f i e l d p a t t e r n .  F i e l d sizes  had been reduced, w h i l e crop types had become more v a r i e d . C r o p l a n d became r e s t r i c t e d t o the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s of s e c t i o n s because h o u s i n g had sprung up a l o n g t h e s e c t i o n a l r o a d s .  On  the o t h e r hand, a l o n g t h e c o a s t a l p e r i m e t e r of the r e g i o n , where c o n d i t i o n s were more s t a t i c , l i t t l e m o d i f i c a t i o n occurred. Although  the a r e a l e x t e n t o f t h e southern r e g i o n remained  unchanged, the boundaries  had s h i f t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y .  Further  s u b d i v i s i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n had expanded southward from the Brighouse area and eastward  from S t e v e s t o n , thus removing from  p r o d u c t i o n some C l a s s I I I and IV s o i l s .  The l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d due t o these movements was compensated f o r by the development of more a g r i c u l t u r e on the peat bogs i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n part of the region.  T h i s f o r m e r l y vacant area was now used by  numerous s m a l l b l u e b e r r y farms. form a d i s t i n c t unproductive  No longer d i d the peat bog  zone between the southern and  eastern a g r i c u l t u r a l regions.  A band o f s m a l l - h o i d i n g a g r i -  c u l t u r e l i n k e d the two a r e a s . The g e n e r a l f i e l d p a t t e r n of the southern r e g i o n had been s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d .  The l a r g e f i e l d s e v i d e n t i n 1930  were d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r crop u n i t s , thus making the whole r e g i o n one of s m a l l f i e l d s . Due t o t h e expansion  of r e s i d e n t i a l and s m a l l - h o l d i n g  a r e a s , the e a s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n was s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced i n s i z e .  L a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e was v i r t u a l l y e l i m -  i n a t e d from t h e area west o f Number 5 Road.  The e x t e n s i o n of  43  f a r m i n g f u r t h e r i n t o t h e bog area a l o n g the southern boundaryr e g a i n e d some of the l o s t acreage.  A b e t t e r understanding  of  -peat s o i l s , the p r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l drainage, and more f a v o u r a b l e economic c o n d i t i o n s prompted the movement toward more a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n an area f o r m e r l y thought t o be uneconomical.  I n order t o o b t a i n p r o f i t a b l e r e t u r n s , and t o m i n i -  mize e x p e n d i t u r e s  f o r l a b o u r , crops such as g r a i n and hay were  grown i n l a r g e f i e l d s .  Farming on deep peat s e c t i o n s d i d not  occur because these areas were s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d  submarginal.  S m a l l - h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l areas had expanded tremendo u s l y from a t o t a l o f 1,000 acres i n 1930, t o 2,700 acres i n 1949.  A w r i t e r i n the Marpole-Richmond Review^ d e s c r i b e d the  reasons f o r the growth i n t h e 1930's a c c u r a t e l y : Whereas many b i g farms s t i l l s u r v i v e and continue t o s h i p tons of m i l k , hay and g r a i n , more and more of Richmond's b i g farms a r e b e i n g s u b d i v i d e d and broken up i n t o s m a l l b u i l d i n g s , where the man w i t h a j o b i n the c i t y makes h i m s e l f a comfortable home w i t h c h i c k e n s , a cow, s m a l l f r u i t s and a garden t o occupy h i s spare t ime. Many other l i n e s , such as b u l b r a i s i n g , seed p r o d u c t i o n , bee-keeping, r a b b i t r a i s i n g [ s i c ] e t c . , have-formed s i d e l i n e s which the s m a l l h o l d e r has found p r o f i t a b l e and p l e a s u r a b l e . The  expansion of s m a l l - h o l d i n g s was not r e s t r i c t e d t o  any one s o i l type, but was r e l a t e d t o the h i g h degree of subd i v i s i o n t h a t had o c c u r r e d b e f o r e 1930 and t o the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Due t o the v a r i o u s s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s did 2  d e v e l o p i n the c h a r a c t e r of the s m a l l - h o l d i n g s .  Those  " S o i l i n Richmond H i g h i n F e r t i l i t y " , Lfarpple-Richmond Review, V, No. 9, May 27, 1936, p. 6.  49  l o c a t e d near S t e v e s t o n and on the b e t t e r s o i l s were g e n e r a l l y more r e s t r i c t e d i n s i z e , ( i - 1 a c r e ) , but managed, neverthel e s s , t o produce enough t o market the e x c e s s .  Other h o l d i n g s  s i t u a t e d - o n peat s o i l , such as the b l u e b e r r y farms, were more e x t e n s i v e because of the economic advantages i n v o l v e d i n farming a l a r g e r area of l e s s v a l u a b l e l a n d .  The a c q u i s i t i o n of l a r g e r  acreages n e c e s s i t a t e d the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s e v e r a l s m a l l e r p a r t i c u l a r l y where e x t e n s i v e The  s u b d i v i s i o n had taken p l a c e .  s c a t t e r e d nature of the s m a l l - h o l d i n g s  s e v e r a l f a c t o r s had These i n c l u d e d :  lots,  i n d i c a t e s that  i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r extent and l o c a t i o n .  l a c k of p l a n n i n g as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of  g i v e n areas f o r t h i s type of use;  s a l e of l o t s on an  individual,  r a t h e r than on a l a r g e - s c a l e b a s i s ; v a r i a t i o n i n p r i c e of s m a l l h o l d i n g s throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y depending on s i z e , l o c a t i o n and s o i l type and on the owner's d e s i r e to s e l l  the  property.  Summary The a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use p a t t e r n had t h e r e f o r e become much more d i s p e r s e d by 1949.  Increased u r b a n i z a t i o n was  evid-  ent through s m a l l , s c a t t e r e d r e s i d e n t i a l developments throughout some of the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s . number of new  With the ever-growing  r e s i d e n t s seeking a s m a l l - h o l d i n g , a l a r g e num-  ber of s m a l l farms had developed around the c e n t r a l bog Thus a notable c o n t r a s t i n farms e v o l v e d .  area.  The d a i r y farms,  which o c c u p i e d s e v e r a l hundred a c r e s , appeared as g i a n t  50  o p e r a t o r s a g a i n s t the few a c r e s of the s m a l l - h o l d i n g s and the v e g e t a b l e farms. Expanding u r b a n i z a t i o n thus i n f l u e n c e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n i n s e v e r a l ways:  i t reduced the t o t a l farm a r e a ; each  a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n was reduced a d i f f e r e n t amount; the, l a n d use p a t t e r n became more complex; new areas on the peat bogs were brought under p r o d u c t i o n ; and an i n c r e a s i n g number of p a r t - t i m e farmers developed on s m a l 1 - h o l d i n g s .  •B.  Urban Land  Use  With the impetus of wartime employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and post-war p r o s p e r i t y , the urban area i n Richmond i n c r e a s e d s e v e n f o l d over the 1931 t o t a l .  A l l areas a d j a c e n t to the  m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e were growing and undergoing some changes due t o the outward movement of people, i n d u s t r y and commerce. The d e s i r e f o r more l a n d , lower r e a l e s t a t e and t a x c o s t s , and l e s s - c o n g e s t e d c o n d i t i o n s prompted many t o move t o the suburbs.  Richmond o f f e r e d some urban a m e n i t i e s w h i l e a l s o p r o -  v i d i n g s p a c i o u s , low-cost l a n d .  S i n c e many of the r e s i d e n t i a l  l o t s were on former farmlands which had f i n e , a l l u v i a l  soils,  they were e a s i l y developed i n t o s m a l l gardens and lawns.  There  was no need t o c l e a r the l a n d , remove the r o c k s and improve the t o p s o i l .  Thus Richmond appeared v e r y a t t r a c t i v e to many  people. Each of the urban f u n c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i d e n t i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l , c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l a r g e , o v e r a l l i n urban l a n d . 1949,  increase  Of the 3,624 acres occupied by urban uses i n  71.9 percent was r e s i d e n t i a l .  Table IX shows the  51  s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  acreages  and the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g a i n s made i n commercial and i n d u s t r i a l areas.  The b u i l d i n g of the a i r p o r t i n 1931 and i t s sub-  sequent enlargement  d u r i n g the war were the main reasons f o r  the l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the area d e s i g n a t e d as  institutional  land. Whereas i n 1930, most of the urban uses were on C l a s s IV s o i l s , by 1949 they were d i s t r i b u t e d almost e q u a l l y over the two b e t t e r s o i l s , C l a s s I I I and IV.  (See Table X ) .  Table IX Area of Urban F u n c t i o n s Function  Acres  %  Residential Commercial Institutional Industrial  2,604 255 673 92  71.9 7.0 18.6 2.5  Total  3,624  100.0  1949 Increase over (acres)  1930  2,282 65 668 50 3,065 a c r e s  Table X Urban Land bv S o i l Type, 1949 S o i l Type  Acreage  %  Class I I I C l a s s IV Deep Peat  1,772 1,566 286  48.9 43.2 7.9  Total  3,624  100.0  Increase over  "  1930  1,694 1,100 271 3,065 a c r e s  52  The extended use of C l a s s I I I s o i l s s i g n i f i e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , even when on the best s o i l s , gave way  to  u r b a n i z a t i o n when a s u f f i c i e n t demand a r o s e .  I n d u s t r i a l Developments A l t h o u g h the outward movement of people had  substantially  i n c r e a s e d the amount of l a n d used f o r r e s i d e n c e s i n Richmond, a s i m i l a r growth i n the i n d u s t r i a l area was not e v i d e n t .  The  t r e n d t o l o c a t e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s o u t s i d e the m e t r o p o l i t a n core was  s t i l l i n i t s beginnings.  D i s t a n c e from s u p p l i e r s  and markets, i n v o l v i n g a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , overshadowed the d e s i r e f o r g r e a t e r space and l e s s c o n g e s t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some i n d u s t r i a l expansion d i d o c c u r , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the a i r p o r t on Sea I s l a n d , on M i t c h e l l I s l a n d , and near the No. 5 Road b r i d g e on L u l u I s l a n d . During the war y e a r s , a g r e a t e r i n d u s t r i a l use of l a n d o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of the Boeing A i r c r a f t p l a n t b u i l t a t the a i r p o r t .  I t s abandonment a f t e r 1945 prevented the change  from b e i n g apparent on the 1949 map.  However, some i n d u s t r i e s ,  such as B r i s t o l Aero Engines, d i d remain i n the a i r p o r t a r e a . Continued expansion of the wood manufacturing  industries  took p l a c e on M i t c h e l l I s l a n d and on L u l u I s l a n d as the r e s u l t of i n d u s t r i a l expansion a c r o s s the r i v e r from South Vancouver. These new developments formed p a r t of the g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n of an i n d u s t r i a l complex a l o n g both s i d e s of the North Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r .  The r i v e r served as an important t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n system, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the movement of b u l k  mat-  53  e r i a l s such as l o g s .  Thus between 1945 and 1950,  three sawmills,  (two lumber and one s h i n g l e ) , were e s t a b l i s h e d on M i t c h e l l I s l a n d , and two m i l l s ,  (one lumber and one s h i n g l e ) , on the  n o r t h s i d e of L u l u I s l a n d . Low  c o s t l a n d and s u i t a b l e water f r o n t a g e a t t r a c t e d  two  g r a i n m i l l i n g companies, Canada B i c e M i l l s and G r e t c h m i l l F l o u r M i l l i n g , t o southern L u l u I s l a n d .  The r i c e m i l l , e s t -  a b l i s h e d i n 1931-32, r e c e i v e d i t s raw m a t e r i a l by boat from the southern U n i t e d S t a t e s . cessed, was  The r i c e , a f t e r having been pro-  then d i s t r i b u t e d by r a i l throughout western Canada.  The f l o u r m i l l , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1944,  r e l i e d upon r a i l  a t i o n of g r a i n from the P r a i r i e s , and the f l o u r was to  overseas markets.  import-  then  shipped  Thus, a l t h o u g h the two companies were  m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s , the one p r o v i d e d Canada w i t h a f i n i s h e d product, w h i l e the other exported a Canadian r e s o u r c e . By the e a r l y 1930's, S t e v e s t o n had become the o n l y f i s h canning c e n t r e i n Richmond. a n i e s such as B.C.  F u r t h e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n t o comp-  Packers, and the d e p r e s s i o n of the 1930's  had r e s u l t e d i n the c l o s u r e of a l l other p l a n t s . had t h r e e main advantages:  i t was  Steveston  s t r a t e g i c a l l y located at  the mouth of the main arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r ; i t s canneries were l a r g e and w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , and there was a copious of O r i e n t a l l a b o u r e r s , (fishermen and cannery w o r k e r s ) , to  i t s t h r i v i n g Japanese community.  supply due  Other f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g  to Steveston's supremacy were p r o x i m i t y to f i s h i n g grounds, e x t e n s i v e docking f a c i l i t i e s , s h e l t e r e d wharfage and railroad service.  convenient  54  Commercial Developments To meet the and t o p r o v i d e  needs of the expanding l o c a l community,  s e r v i c e s f o r the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s , more  commercial l a n d was  developed.  S e v e r a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were  l o c a t e d i n Richmond f o r the f i r s t t i m e . a i r l i n e s , two  These i n c l u d e d  three  f l y i n g s c h o o l s , an a i r c r a f t f u e l depot and  four  radio transmitting stations. The  f i r s t r e a l impetus to commercial f l y i n g i n the Lower  M a i n l a n d was  p r o v i d e d by the development of the Vancouver  A i r p o r t on Sea  Island.  Many of the e a r l y companies,  organized  i n the 1930's, had d i s a p p e a r e d as l a n d users by 1949 .  The  t h r e e remaining a i r l i n e s were Trans Canada, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1937, The  B.C.  A i r l i n e s L t d . , (1940), and Canadian P a c i f i c ,  o n l y b u s i n e s s e s o f f e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and  f a c i l i t i e s were West Coast A i r S e r v i c e s , C l u b of B.C., Due  (1942).  aircraft-renting  (1942), and the Aero  (1945).  t o B r i t i s h Columbia's rugged t e r r a i n and l a c k of  adequate ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the convenience of a i r t r a v e l became apparent t o many people. p e r i o d s , Sea  During the war  and post-war  I s l a n d became the home base f o r the  airlines  s e r v i n g the l o g g i n g and f i s h i n g camps, c o a s t a l towns and interior  centres.  Because L u l u I s l a n d has a f l a t topography and has nearby p h y s i c a l o b s t r u c t i o n s , i t was broadcasting  area.  considered  The Canadian Broadcasting  no  a good r a d i o Corporation,  (C.B.C.), e r e c t e d the f i r s t t r a n s m i t t e r i n 1937.  This  was  55  f o l l o w e d i n 1939,  1940 and 1945 by s t a t i o n s CKWX, CJOE and  CKMO r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Thus L u l u I s l a n d became the core of t h e  Lower M a i n l a n d b r o a d c a s t i n g a r e a .  As l a n d u s e r s , the t r a n s -  m i t t i n g s t a t i o n s shared a unique f e a t u r e , namely, a l l were l o c a t e d on s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l a c r e s of p r o p e r t y , b u t the a r e a a c t u a l l y u t i l i z e d f o r the s t a t i o n s and b r o a d c a s t i n g towers was extremely s m a l l .  The unoccupied p o r t i o n s g e n e r a l l y  c o n t a i n e d some a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p such as grass or g r a i n . e x p l a i n s why,  on the l a n d use map, the s t a t i o n s appear as  minute commercial Two lets:  This  areas.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s marked the expansion o f r e t a i l out-  f i r s t , the g r e a t e s t development took p l a c e i n t h e  Brighouse a r e a ;  s e c o n d l y , many more corner s t o r e s were opened.  Due t o a c t i v e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l support and encouragement, the Brighouse area became r e c o g n i z e d as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and b u s i n e s s c e n t r e o f Richmond.  Besides b e i n g c e n t r a l l y l o -  c a t e d , i t was near an area of dense r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t . Thus s t o r e s , b o t h g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l i z e d , and other b u s i n e s s e s , such as a t h e a t r e , were e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g No. 3 Road. The corner s t o r e s , s u p p l y i n g many food products and other s u n d r i e s , t h r i v e d because o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n near or i n the r e s i d e n t i a l zones.  As new n u c l e i o f urban development  a r o s e , so new s t o r e s were e s t a b l i s h e d nearby. The l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l users of commercial  l a n d continued  to be the two r a c e t r a c k s , which were both owned by one organization.  However, i n the post-war p e r i o d , s i n c e i t was more  economical t o operate one t r a c k , a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  56  energy and money was Lansdowne t r a c k .  put i n t o improving and p o p u l a r i z i n g the  S i n c e Lansdowne had new  f a c i l i t i e s , and i t s  maintenance c o s t s were, t h e r e f o r e , s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s , Brighouse t r a c k was  the  relegated to a t r a i n i n g area.  R e s i d e n t i a l Developments The  i n c r e a s e d movement of people out of the c i t y and i n t o  the suburbs produced s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the development of Richmond.  residential  As t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  improved  between Richmond and Greater Vancouver, i t became more f e a s i b l e for  people to r e s i d e i n Richmond and work i n nearby d i s t r i c t s ,  thus a move t o L u l u I s l a n d d i d not n e c e s s i t a t e a change i n employment.  I n s t e a d , the new  r e s i d e n t s j o i n e d the ever-growing  number of commuters. The  l a n d use map,  (Map  8 ) , shows how w i d e l y - d i s t r i b u t e d  the r e s i d e n t i a l areas had become by 1949. and use r e s t r i c t i o n s were few, d i v i d e or s e l l t h e i r p r o p e r t y  Because s u b d i v i s i o n  l a n d owners c o u l d f r e e l y subf o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes.  (Map  9)  Moreover, i n d u s t r i a l developments v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n s i z e and shape, depending upon s u b d i v i s i o n plans and s a l e s promotions Little  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  a l t h o u g h C l a s s I I I was  g i v e n to the s o i l type occupied, favoured.  R e s i d e n t i a l expansion underwent.three forms of growth: f i l l i n g - i n and enlargement; l i n e a r occupancy, and i s o l a t e d subdivision.  The  f i r s t occurred  i n the o l d centres of  Bridge-  p o r t , Brighouse and S t e v e s t o n which became more densely popul a t e d as vacant l o t s were u t i l i z e d . ^  Of  *vthe  -three  areas,-  To f o l  IOW  p°1  5(o.  — —  s  s  1/2  0  I MILE  57  Brighouse showed the most s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n s u b d i v i s i o n and  expansion. L i n e a r h o u s i n g developments o c c u r r e d a l o n g major s e c t i o n a l  roads.  In some cases, e.g.,  east of B r i d g e p o r t , the l a n d  had been s u b d i v i d e d f o r s e v e r a l decades, but few l o t s had been s o l d p r i o r to 1930.  D u r i n g the 1930's and 1940's these l o t s  appeared more a t t r a c t i v e because they were near Vancouver and i t s i n d u s t r y and had p o t e n t i a l i t i e s as s i z e a b l e gardens. of Brighouse,  West  t h i s " S t r a s s e n d o r f " p a t t e r n developed a l o n g  roads c l o s e t o and a t r i g h t - a n g l e s t o the tram l i n e , r e emphasizing the f a c t t h a t many of the r e s i d e n t s were commuters. L i n e a r occupancy which a l s o o c c u r r e d p a r a l l e l t o major s e c t i o n a l roads a l l o w e d the i n t e r i o r p a r t s of the s e c t i o n s t o remain i n agricultural  production.  Three i s o l a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l areas were formed by F e d e r a l Government under the V e t e r a n s ' Land A c t .  The  the first  was  on Sea I s l a n d , the second, n o r t h of G r a n v i l l e Avenue on  No.  1 Road and the t h i r d , n o r t h of B r i d g e p o r t on No. 4 Road.  Since the purpose of the areas was v e t e r a n s , each p l o t of l a n d was size.  However, the veterans  the p a r t i a l support of the  at l e a s t one-half acre i n  found t h i s p l a n i m p r a c t i c a l and  most of the l a n d on each l o t remained i d l e because each p a r c e l of l a n d was  too s m a l l f o r the p r o v i s i o n of a s a t i s f a c t o r y  farm income, and too l a r g e f o r maintenance as a w e l l - k e p t lawn 3  S e c t i o n a l roads are those l o c a t e d around the perimeter of s e c t i o n s , as c r e a t e d by the o r i g i n a l l a n d survey These tds one-half m i l e a p a r t , may run east-west and n o r t h roac south and thus form a g r i d . j  58  and garden.  I n s t i t u t i o n a l Developments I n s t i t u t i o n a l l a n d use was  i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y between  1930 and 1949 by the opening of- the Vancouver A i r p o r t . itional  s c h o o l and park s i t e s accounted  Add-  f o r only a t r i f l i n g  amount. Rather than a Richmond u n d e r t a k i n g , the a i r p o r t ' s development was  the work of an a c t i v e c i t i z e n r y i n Vancouver  who  foresaw the value of adequate a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i n the Greater Vancouver a r e a .  The temporary and i m p r o v i s e d l a n d i n g s t r i p  near Minoru Park was undoubtedly  insufficient.  In May,  1929,  the Vancouver taxpayers passed a bylaw e n a b l i n g the c o u n c i l to purchase l a n d v a l u e d up t o $300,000 In the same year, 500 a c r e s were o b t a i n e d south of M i l l a r Road on Sea I s l a n d . the runway was  The s i t e p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l advantages:  f a r removed from any r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ; the  s u r r o u n d i n g l e v e l t e r r a i n a l l o w e d an u n o b s t r u c t e d view; a nearby, s h e l t e r e d l a n d i n g area on the Middle Arm was for  available  f l o a t p l a n e s , and the a i r p o r t c o u l d e a s i l y be expanded.  D u r i n g the war, an a d d i t i o n a l 500 acres were purchased air traffic  i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y , and t h e r e were i n d i c a t i o n s  t h a t improved f a c i l i t i e s would be needed t o handle  4  because  the  T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, Vancouver A i r p o r t I n d u s t r i a l Survey 1958, A r e p o r t prepared by the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, Vancouver, 1958, p. 15.  59  i n c r e a s e d volume.  Thus i n 1949,  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l a n d i n  the a i r p o r t area i n c l u d e d the o p e r a t i o n a l and t e r m i n a l a r e a , the Royal Canadian A i r Force S t a t i o n and the Department of Transport b u i l d i n g s . S i n c e these f u n c t i o n s d i d not occupy the t o t a l area owned by the a i r p o r t , a l a r g e p o r t i o n was  devoted  to a g r i c u l t u r e . In comparison w i t h the v a s t a i r p o r t a r e a , the i n c r e a s e i n s c h o o l acreage was modest indeed. were added, the r a t i o of elementary  S i n c e o n l y three schools s c h o o l s to p o p u l a t i o n had  i n c r e a s e d from 1:1600 t o 1:2700, r e s u l t i n g i n l a r g e r c l a s s e s for a l l schools.  S i m i l a r l y , the h i g h s c h o o l was  extremely  overcrowded and remained so f o r t h r e e y e a r s , u n t i l the opening of the new  s c h o o l on F o s t e r Avenue i n 1952.  Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y were f a c e d w i t h a s i m i l a r s c h o o l problem: an overabundance of c h i l d r e n and i n s u f f i c i e n t c l a s s rooms.  The  student p o p u l a t i o n was  increasing rapidly, while  money a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n seemed l i m i t e d . In g e n e r a l , the r e c r e a t i o n areas served o n l y t h e i r immedi a t e r e s i d e n t i a l environment, and t h e r e f o r e new  playgrounds  were s m a l l and l o c a t e d w i t h i n the l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n s .  One  park s i t e had been set a s i d e a t Cambie and No. 5 Road, but no improvements were made upon the u n c l e a r e d l a n d .  School  grounds c o n t i n u e d to be used as p l a y f i e l d s f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as S o f t b a l l and  soccer.  60  Summary of Urban Developments The urban l a n d use p a t t e r n of 1949 the b e g i n n i n g s of s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  was  a r e f l e c t i o n of  i n Richmond.  As the pop-  u l a t i o n e n l a r g e d y e a r l y , due p r i m a r i l y t o the i n f l u x of numbers of new  r e s i d e n t s , more l a n d was  c o n v e r t e d a n n u a l l y t o some  urban f u n c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l . p l a n n i n g was  Since l i t t l e  municipal  a v a i l a b l e , development became s p o r a d i c and a g r i c -  u l t u r a l r e g i o n s were d i s r u p t e d . I n d u s t r i a l and commercial expansion was  not as dramatic  as r e s i d e n t i a l , and t h e r e f o r e , job o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r new earners were r e s t r i c t e d both i n number and of t h i s s i t u a t i o n was  i n kind.  An outcome  the i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n of the  which became d a i l y commuters to other a r e a s . w i t h i t s l a r g e acreage, p r o v i d e d  wage-  population  Even the a i r p o r t ,  l i m i t e d employment f o r R i c h -  mond's r e s i d e n t s .  C.  Peat E x t r a c t i o n Large-scale  1930  and 1949.  e x t r a c t i o n on the peat bogs began between Peat had been employed f o r s e v e r a l decades  by l o c a l farmers as a f l o o r cover i n barns, but p r i o r to no commercial development had taken p l a c e .  1930,  During the 1930's  a growing number of p o u l t r y farmers found t h a t d r i e d peat  was  an e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l because of i t s h i g h l y a b s o r p t i v e q u a l i t y and ease of h a n d l i n g .  At the same time, gardeners and  hort-  i c u l t u r i s t s made g r e a t e r use of peat i n areas" where s o i l s were poor.  These two developments p r o v i d e d encouragement t o e a r l y  61  e x t r a c t i o n companies.  However, the war was  responsible  f o r the  f i r s t r e a l i n c e n t i v e f o r the l a r g e - s c a l e development and pansion of the peat i n d u s t r y .  Vast q u a n t i t i e s were needed  i n the e x t r a c t i o n of magnesium, a h i g h l y - i m p o r t a n t metal.  ex-  wartime  As a r e s u l t , government r e s t r i c t i o n s were imposed on  the commercial use of p e a t , and Richmond p l a n t s shipped tons of i t t o Canadian and American s m e l t e r s .  A f t e r the war,  new  markets were found i n C a l i f o r n i a and other western s t a t e s , where an i n c r e a s i n g amount of sphagnum peat moss was  used as a s o i l  conditioner. The  type of peat i n f l u e n c e d the r a t e and e x t e n t of  traction.  In p r o c e s s i n g ,  the peat was  gathered, p u l v e r i z e d and sacked.  c u t , stacked,  ex-  dried,  Texture and d e n s i t y determined  the d r y i n g time r e q u i r e d , and the weight of the f i n a l p r o d u c t . S i n c e the open a i r method of d r y i n g was  p r e v a l e n t , and  shipping  c o s t s were determined by weight, l i g h t , low d e n s i t y peat preferable.  Thus the n o r t h e r n bog was  the i n d u s t r y ' s e a r l y p e r i o d . a p p r o x i m a t e l y two Extensive bog  f e e t deep, was  e a s i l y c u t , d r i e d and  areas were put i n t o p r o d u c t i o n  established.  the h e a v i e r  during  T h i s bog's l i g h t - w e i g h t peat,  remained untouched u n t i l 1946,  p l a n t was  the c h i e f source  was  shipped.  w h i l e the southern  when the f i r s t  commercial  Because of i t s h i g h e r organic  content,  peat of the southern bog has s i n c e g a i n e d favour  with h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . The peat was  l i m i t a t i o n of e x t r a c t i o n t o the inner areas where s e v e r a l f e e t i n depth p r e c l u d e d i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h  other economic a c t i v i t i e s .  The  outer f r i n g e s of the  bog,  62  where the s h a l l o w peat was mixed w i t h a l l u v i a l s o i l , were used for  a g r i c u l t u r e ; f o r example, the p r o d u c t i o n o f p a s t u r e and  blueberries.  No a g r i c u l t u r a l use was made of the deep peat  areas or those from which the peat had been removed. The l o c a t i o n o f the p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to  the a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s .  The n o r t h e r n  p l a n t s were a l l a d j a c e n t t o the r a i l l i n e because i t was the c h i e f means of moving l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of p e a t .  The southern  p l a n t s were f o r c e d t o r e l y on t r u c k s t o h a u l the peat t o a r a i l w a y or t o the consumer. Thus a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e t h a t had h i t h e r t o remained untouched opened a new i n d u s t r y , ( w i t h i t s concomitant revenue), and p r o v i d e d v a r i e d seasonal employment f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  D.  Road and R a i l Network The road and r a i l network of 1949 r e f l e c t e d the s e t t l e -  ment p a t t e r n .  The r o a d network had f i l l e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l y  west o f Number 5 Road, but the r a i l w a y system b o a s t e d o n l y one more major l i n e .  (Map 1 0 ) .  The 1,160 a c r e s now o c c u p i e d by roads was almost double the  1930 t o t a l o f 630 a c r e s .  i n road d e n s i t y had developed.  More d e f i n i t e r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s The more complex road systems  were r e l a t e d t o the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s of western L u l u I s l a n d . The a g r i c u l t u r a l areas which r e q u i r e d few roads s t i l l the  one-mile g r i d system.  utilized  The completion o f s e v e r a l s e c t i o n a l  roads, e s p e c i a l l y the Westminster Highway, p r o v i d e d f a s t e r , more d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n s between the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the  To olf,low  paq(  (ol.  municipality. In 1930 a l l roads except R i v e r Road were based upon the r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d system.  By 1949, some r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ,  such as the V e t e r a n s ' Land A c t s u b d i v i s i o n s , had curved s t r e e t s , thus v a r i e t y was added t o t h e s i z e and shape of l o t s and to an otherwise monotonous road p a t t e r n .  In a r e g i o n which was  r e l a t i v e l y f l a t and had few n a t i v e t r e e s , the new p a t t e r n enhanced t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the r e s i d e n t i a l  districts  considerably. The r a i l w a y system had been expanded by the completion of a l i n e from New Westminster t o the g r a i n - m i l l i n g areas along the south arm of the F r a s e r .  The new l i n e served many  i n d u s t r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the 1930-49 p e r i o d , namely, the p e a t . p l a n t s , the lumber and s h i n g l e m i l l s a l o n g the North Arm, -and the f l o u r and r i c e m i l l s i n the south.  The o l d l i n e i n  the west c o n t i n u e d t o be used by the i n d i s p e n s a b l e passenger tram and the f r e i g h t t r a i n s s e r v i n g the c a n n e r i e s .  Except,  f o r the tram s e r v i c e , the r a i l w a y system was geared p r i m a r i l y t o moving i n d u s t r i a l products from Richmond.  E.  Vacant Land Between 1930 and 1949, the vacant area had been reduced  by 38'%, from 8,600 acres t o 5,300 a c r e s .  The g r e a t e s t reduc-  t i o n took p l a c e on the peat bog, where l a r g e areas were used f o r peat e x t r a c t i o n , and s m a l l e r areas used by s m a l l - h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , d a i r y and g r a i n farms, and r e s i d e n t i a l developments.  The two l a r g e b l o c k s of vacant l a n d which appear on  64  the 1930  l a n d use map  p l a c e was  (Map 3 ) , had disappeared.  In t h e i r  an i r r e g u l a r p a t t e r n which i n c l u d e d many uses.  decrease i n vacant l a n d was  a s i g n of g r e a t e r  The  intensification  of l a n d use a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n  pressure  and growing r e g i o n a l importance.  F.  Summary The  couver was  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between Richmond and Greater Vanc o n t i n u a l l y changing as the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s s i g n i -  f i c a n c e t o the broader r e g i o n was a l t e r e d . As other areas c o n t r i b u t e d more products, and Richmond's a g r i c u l t u r a l u c t i o n was  prod-  reduced by i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n , the importance  of Richmond as a major s u p p l i e r of food t o the M e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n decreased.  On the other hand, the m u n i c i p a l i t y was  s l o w l y e v o l v i n g as another suburban a r e a , capable  of p r o v i d i n g  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of l o w - p r i c e d l a n d t o people moving from the c i t y and f a c e d w i t h problems of crowded schools and transportation  inadequate  facilities.  Although b a s i c a l l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d w i t h few urban a m e n i t i e s , Richmond a t t r a c t e d a growing number of people. growth was  r e f l e c t e d by the i n c r e a s i n g complexity of the l a n d  use p a t t e r n .  Large areas were s u b d i v i d e d i n a haphazard manner,  best d e s c r i b e d as urban s p r a w l .  Farmland became i n t e r m i x e d  w i t h s m a l l c l u s t e r s of i s o l a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l developments ing  This  out from the o l d e r s e t t l e m e n t s .  spread-  C o n c u r r e n t l y , numerous  s m a l l - h o l d i n g s were produced by people seeking to supplement t h e i r income.  Urban encroachment, w i t h a l l i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s ,  was becoming more evident year by  year.  65  CHAPTER IV THE 1958 LAND USE PATTERN  Introduction D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from 1949 t o 1958, widespread and s i g n i f i c a n t changes took p l a c e i n Richmond.  Large i n c r e a s e s  i n p o p u l a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and road mileage had a profound e f f e c t upon the a g r i c u l t u r a l landscape.  I n order t o c o n t r o l  the r a p i d m u n i c i p a l developments, the c o u n c i l , d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of t h e p e r i o d , i n t r o d u c e d more f o r c e f u l r e g u l a t i o n s . A marked growth i n p o p u l a t i o n o c c u r r e d a f t e r 1951, i n d i c a t e d by a comparison o f t h e census f i g u r e s f o r 1956 and 1961.  The 25,978 i n h a b i t a n t s i n 1956 r e p r e s e n t e d a 35 percent  i n c r e a s e over 1951. I n 1961, a 67 percent i n c r e a s e brought the t o t a l t o 43,323.  The upsurge d u r i n g the 1950's was due t o  a number of f a c t o r s , a l l i n t e r - r e l a t e d and p a r t of a North American suburban movement.  Richmond's g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n  a d j o i n i n g t h e l a r g e Vancouver mass was the main f a c t o r i n a "normal" p r o c e s s .  The movement of people from Vancouver  r e s u l t e d i n v i g o r o u s r e a l e s t a t e promotion and a tremendous b u i l d i n g boom on r e l a t i v e l y low-cost l a n d . This i n f l u x changed t h e c h a r a c t e r of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s population. reduced:  The p r o p o r t i o n o f farm r e s i d e n t s was n o t a b l y  from 12 percent i n 1951, t o 9.5 percent i n 1956,  and then down t o 4.4 percent i n 1961. N u m e r i c a l l y , t h e r e were 1,624 fewer than i n 1931, Thus, i n t h i r t y y e a r s , Richmond  had changed from an area dominated by a farm p o p u l a t i o n t o one overwhelmed by urban d w e l l e r s . Due t o the s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses, (Table X I ) , the l a n d use p a t t e r n had become more i r r e g u l a r and complex.  (Map 1 2 ) .  U n l i k e the s i m p l e p a t t e r n of 1930,  the urban uses now dominated a g r e a t e r t o t a l a r e a and were more w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the i s l a n d s .  Whereas i n  1949, urban usage o c c u p i e d o n l y 12.6 percent of the e n t i r e  Table X I Changes i n Land Use. 1949 t o 1958 1958 % of T o t a l Area  Category  1958 Ac.  Change (Ac.)  Agriculture Urban Extractive Road and R a i l Network Vacant  15,242 6,254 1,932 2,207 3.844  - 2,825 + 2,630 + 622 +1,037 - 1.464  51.6 21.3 6.5 7.5 13.1  Total  29,479*  0  100.0  *See Appendix IV f o r d e t a i l s of 1958 Survey  acreage, by 1958 the percentage had r i s e n t o 21.3.  Agricul-  t u r a l and vacant acreages c o n t i n u e d t o decrease; the former a t an average r a t e of 314 a c r e s per y e a r , and the l a t t e r a t 163 a c r e s per y e a r .  These decreases-, p l u s the subsequent  expansion i n urban l a n d , were i n d i c a t i v e of the r u r a l t o urban t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t Richmond was e x p e r i e n c i n g .  To 'follow  p a q e . (ob.  5^  67 A.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use. A g r i c u l t u r e remained the major l a n d use i n 1958; however,  i t s dominant p o s i t i o n had g r e a t l y d e c l i n e d s i n c e 1930.  Instead  of occupying 66.6 percent of Richmond, (as i n 1930), a g r i c u l t u r e now covered o n l y 51.6 p e r c e n t .  The l o s s e s were e v i d e n t  on a l l types of s o i l s except those composed of peat.  (Table X I I ) .  Table X I I A g r i c u l t u r a l Area based on S o i l Type. 1958 Acreage Change from '49  % Change from '49  S o i l Type  Acres  Class I I I Lulu Sea Mitchell  8,219 2,015 101  -  1,541 91 72  - 15.8 4.3 - 41,6  10,335  -  1,704  - 14.1  C l a s s IV  3,088  -  1,444  -  Deep Peat  1,819  +  323  + 21.5  - 2,825  - 15.6  Total  Total  15,242  31.8  The i n c r e a s e i n f a r m i n g on the peat s o i l s r e s u l t e d from the development  of l a r g e - s c a l e c r a n b e r r y and b l u e b e r r y farming  on p a r t s of the n o r t h e r n bog from which peat had been e x t r a c t e d and drainage improved.  Both b e r r y crops are of the genus  Vaccinium. which p r e f e r s the t e x t u r e and h i g h l y a c i d i c q u a l i t y of peat s o i l .  C r a n b e r r y f a r m i n g l a n d a l s o demands adequate  moisture i n the summer, and a l e v e l t e r r a i n .  The p l a n t s s u f f e r  i n dry weather, i n c o l d w i n t e r s , and i n p e r i o d s of h i g h i n s e c t  68  infestation.  Therefore the a b i l i t y t o f l o o d the l a n d i s of the  utmost importance.  S i n c e t h e o l d commercial peat bogs o f f e r e d  a water t a b l e near t h e s u r f a c e and some e s t a b l i s h e d drainage, the c o n v e r s i o n of t h e l a n d i n t o c r a n b e r r y f i e l d s was r e l a t i v e l y simple.  I n summer or when f l o o d i n g was d e s i r e d , the f i e l d  drainage channels were c l o s e d , and i r r i g a t i o n water from t h e l a r g e , nearby d i t c h e s was pumped onto the l a n d .  Further incen-  t i v e s t o p r o d u c t i o n were p r o v i d e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a s i z e a b l e nearby market and l i m i t e d o u t s i d e c o m p e t i t i o n .  Once  the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l attempts had been completed, the cranberry area expanded r a p i d l y .  The a s s o c i a t e d b l u e b e r r y p r o d u c t i o n ,  c a r r i e d on i n n e i g h b o u r i n g f i e l d s , was a more e x t e n s i v e form of f r u i t f a r m i n g because f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s were not necessary, and c u l t i v a t i o n was l e s s demanding. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s 1930-1949 and 1949-1958, t h e b e s t soils,  ( C l a s s I I I ) , were e x p e r i e n c i n g the h i g h e s t r a t e of  change from a g r i c u l t u r a l t o n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l use, namely, an average of 85 a c r e s per year f o r t h e f i r s t , and 189 a c r e s f o r the second p e r i o d .  The changeover on the Class IV type rose  from 30 t o 160 a c r e s per annum.  The g r e a t e r use of the C l a s s  I I I s o i l s r e s u l t e d from t h e d e s i r e of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d p r o motors t o o b t a i n l a r g e b l o c k s of e a s i l y - d e v e l o p e d l a n d f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s , such as Richmond Park on No. 1 Road. In 1958 a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of the l a n d used f o r urban expansion  came from a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s .  During the 1930-1949  p e r i o d , the urban acreage i n c r e a s e d by 3,065 a c r e s , w h i l e farmland decreased by 1,597 a c r e s .  I n other words, the r a t i o  69  of urban g a i n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l o s s was  2:1.  In the 1949-1958  p e r i o d , the urban i n c r e a s e was  2,630 acres and the farm decrease  was  The t r e n d towards a lower  2,825 a c r e s , a 1:1  ratio.  ratio  would suggest t h a t a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p had been e s t a b l i s h e d between the i n c r e a s e i n urban l a n d and the amount of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d removed from p r o d u c t i o n .  T h i s i n t u r n was  a t i v e of the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of vacant peat l a n d as a f o r urban development:  indicsource  farmland f a c i l i t a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l  and  i n d u s t r i a l development, whereas the vacant peat bogs d i d not. I n Chapter I I I i t was  noted t h a t the f o u r a g r i c u l t u r a l  r e g i o n s had undergone changes i n a r e a , f i e l d p a t t e r n , and amount of urban encroachment.  As the r e s u l t of f u r t h e r u r b a n i z a t i o n ,  a l l the r e g i o n s became even s m a l l e r , more i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , and l e s s d i s t i n c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o boundaries and c o n t i n u i t y as a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , On Sea I s l a n d , d u r i n g the 1950's, farmland was  reduced  an a d d i t i o n a l 550 acres by the enlargement of the a i r p o r t . A g o l f d r i v i n g range and m i n i a t u r e course, l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n end of the i s l a n d , consumed a f u r t h e r 35 a c r e s . Although a r e a , " t h e r e was  the farmland on Sea I s l a n d had d i m i n i s h e d i n no n o t a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the f i e l d p a t t e r n .  Large pastures and g r a i n f i e l d s c o n t i n u e d to dominate the a g r i c u l t u r a l scene because most of the l a n d was by d a i r y farmers who feed areas.  owned or l e a s e d  were p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n g r a z i n g and  S i n c e the a i r p o r t owned many of the s e c t i o n s  l e a s e d by the farmers, and zoning r e g u l a t i o n s r e s t r i c t e d subd i v i s i o n , t h e r e was a g r i c u l t u r e t o be  l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e f o r other forms of initiated.  70  The western a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n on L u l u I s l a n d experi e n c e d t h e g r e a t e s t encroachment by urban f u n c t i o n s :  the v a s t ,  open spaces c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the 1920's, had been l a r g e l y obliterated.  R e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s , commercial zones and  vacant l a n d were now d i s p e r s e d throughout t h e r e g i o n . s e c t i o n s r e t a i n e d o n l y one-quarter t o one-half farm acreage, and one s e c t i o n was u r b a n i z e d The  of t h e i r former  completely.  c h a r a c t e r o f the western r e g i o n had been  i n other ways. of farmland,  Many  transformed  A p a r t from a l t e r a t i o n s i n s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n  a s m a l l e r f i e l d p a t t e r n was e v i d e n t ,  particularly  i n the s e c t i o n s were p a r t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n had taken p l a c e , s h i f t i n emphasis t o vegetable  A  crops, e s p e c i a l l y p o t a t o e s ,  was r e v e a l e d by t h e 1958 survey, and a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e of farm and the type of crop grown was n o t i c e able.  The l a r g e r farms s t i l l produced g r a i n s and p a s t u r e ,  whereas the s m a l l e r areas s p e c i a l i z e d i n more i n t e n s i v e crops, f o r example, p o t a t o e s .  I n s e v e r a l s e c t o r s , former  farmland  l a y i d l e because i t had been purchased and s u b d i v i d e d f o r f u t u r e housing, but no a c t i v e development had y e t taken p l a c e . Thus,- urban and vacant l a n d , i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h small and l a r g e farms, c r e a t e d an i r r e g u l a r and complex p a t t e r n throughout the region. In the southern a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n , fragmented r e s i d e n t i a l development had a l s o a r i s e n t o a l e s s e r extent than i n the western one.  Major decreases i n farmland  took p l a c e i n the  n o r t h e r n s e c t o r where s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s , f o r m e r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l , were now o n l y p a r t i a l l y so used.  entirely Residential  71  expansion i n t h e form of s e v e r a l s u b d i v i s i o n s moved southward from t h e Brighouse a r e a . been converted  Other p a r t s of the southern zone had  t o i n d u s t r i a l and commercial l a n d , t h e former,  a l o n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , and t h e l a t t e r , f u r t h e r i n l a n d . The of 1949.  f i e l d p a t t e r n of the r e g i o n remained s i m i l a r t o t h a t The c r e a t i o n o f more s m a l l - h o l d i n g s upon l a n d  border-  i n g t h e peat bog simply m u l t i p l i e d the number of s m a l l f i e l d s . In t h e post-1949 e r a , Richmond's e a s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l region experienced  t h e l e a s t m o d i f i c a t i o n of a l l f o u r  Some decreases i n a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage were e v i d e n t ,  areas. princi-  p a l l y on the western s i d e where s e v e r a l urban uses, such as commercial e n t e r p r i s e s and r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s , a r o s e . Development was slower because t h e d a i r y farmers d i d not w i s h t o break up t h e i r l a r g e farm u n i t s , and the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l discouraged  urban expansion t h e r e by zoning t h e area east of  Number 5 Road as a g r i c u l t u r a l . S m a l l - h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e continued t o d o t t h e Richmond landscape i n 1958,  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e western h a l f of L u l u I s l a n d .  The g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of t h e s m a l l - h o l d i n g areas remained upon the poorer s o i l s , C l a s s IV and Peat; however, a few l a r g e areas were found upon t h e b e t t e r C l a s s I I I s o i l s .  Generally  speaking,  the s m a l l - h o l d i n g farms were more widespread on peat l a n d than on other s o i l s , because of the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s by the former. the c h i e f crop grown.  Blueberries constituted  I n order t o produce l a r g e r , more econ-  omical farm u n i t s , many l o t s were c o n s o l i d a t e d , thus the number of s m a l l - h o l d i n g s was reduced.  72  No c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e n s i t y of use and f i e l d s i z e was d i s c e r n i b l e among t h e s m a l l - h o l d i n g s . Both l a r g e and s m a l l h o l d i n g s grew p a s t u r e and g r a i n which were used as f e e d f o r a cow or another a n i m a l , or were s o l d t o nearby d a i r y farms. Other h o l d i n g s r a i s e d v e g e t a b l e crops f o r s a l e or p e r s o n a l use, w h i l e another type produced a m i x t u r e of vegetablesand g r a i n s . Patches of vacant l a n d were a l s o a common s i g h t on a l l types of farms.  I t appeared t h a t some economic r e t u r n s , v a r y i n g  c o n s i d e r a b l y because of t h e c r o p type and the amount of prod u c t i o n , were g e n e r a l l y o b t a i n e d .  S i n c e t h e area of t h e h o l d i n g s  was s m a l l , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e l i a n c e upon farm p r o f i t s as a s o l e income was indeed remote. A l t h o u g h u r b a n i z a t i o n was on t h e i n c r e a s e , t h e municipa l i t y was s t i l l a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d because f a r m i n g domina t e d f i f t y - s i x percent of the s e c t i o n s .  (Map 13).  Only  s i x t e e n percent were predominantly urban, and most of these were s i t u a t e d upon C l a s s IV and submarginal peat  soils.  R e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the i n t e n s i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r e ^ r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r i n g amounts of urban encroachment and/or v a r y i n g degrees of q u a l i t y of the l a n d .  Map 14 emphasizes  these r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . In t h e m a j o r i t y of cases the s e c t i o n s of h i g h e s t i n t e n s i t y were those l o c a t e d on t h e best s o i l s .  1  The southern,  I n t e n s i t y of a g r i c u l t u r e and s m a l l - h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e was c a l c u l a t e d by comparing the s e c t i o n a l acreage o f each of t h e two c a t e g o r i e s w i t h t h e t o t a l area of the s e c t i o n and e x p r e s s i n g t h e r e s u l t i n g f r a c t i o n as a percentage.  T o f o i l OVJ  11.  NTENSITY  OF  AGRICULTURE  1958 RICHMOND \\\\w\ www www  www www  MAP PERCENTAGE  14  AGRICULTURE  0 www  1 -  WWWJ  19  20  -  39  40  -  59  60  -  79  80  -  100  1/2  MILE  73  e a s t e r n and Sea I s l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , which had been p r o t e c t e d by 1954 zoning r e g u l a t i o n s r e s t r i c t i n g urban encroachment, c o n t a i n e d the l a r g e s t areas of i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e . On t h e other hand, s e c t i o n s o f h i g h i n t e n s i t y l o c a t e d on the poorer peat s o i l s were due t o l a r g e - s c a l e c r a n b e r r y and b l u e berry  farming. Very few s e c t i o n s l a c k e d some farmland.  The vacant  s e c t i o n s were on t h e peat bog o r were b e i n g used f o r some s p e c i a l purpose r e q u i r i n g a l a r g e , a c r e a g e ,  f o r example, t h e  a i r p o r t , g o l f course, c i v i c c e n t r e and government w i r e l e s s station.  The two maps, 11 and 12, i l l u s t r a t e t h a t i n Richmond  a g r i c u l t u r e s t i l l covered the g r e a t e s t a r e a . A d e t a i l e d crop survey made on L u l u I s l a n d a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t pasture and hay, the most p r e v a l e n t crops, occupied the l a r g e s t acreage.  Table X I I I Crops Grown. 1958. by Category Crop Pasture* Vegetables Grains Fruit Total  A g r i c u l t u r a l Type (%) 56 22 12 / 10 100  Small-HoIdings Type (%) 45 23 6 26 100  Note: The t o t a l crop area f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l category was 10,905 a c r e s ; f o r the s m a l l - h o l d i n g category, 1,026 a c r e s . * Pasture a l s o i n c l u d e d hay l a n d s .  2  I f the s m a l l - h o i d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l area i s added t o t h e t o t a l  74  The  prominent p o s i t i o n of the d a i r y i n d u s t r y was r e f l e c t e d  by the h i g h percentage of p a s t u r e . pasture  f o r privately-owned  t o d a i r y farmers.  Large areas were used as  c a t t l e , or f o r hay, grown and  T h i s l a t t e r p r a c t i c e was  sold  common on l o t s  too  l a r g e f o r i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n , and where owners were a n t i c i p a t i n g f u t u r e s u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g .  The growing of  hay  r e q u i r e d l i t t l e e x p e n d i t u r e of time and money, but s t i l l  pro-  v i d e d some f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n on l a n d which would o t h e r w i s e have lain  idle. By 1958  Map  t h e r e was  a s h i f t i n the l o c a t i o n - o f d a i r y  16 shows t h a t the major pasture and hay b e l t was  eastern a g r i c u l t u r a l region.  farming.  i n the  The d a i r y farms, f o r m e r l y occupy-  i n g l a r g e areas i n the western p o r t i o n of L u l u I s l a n d , had l a r g e l y d i s a p p e a r e d , whereas i n the e a s t e r n r e g i o n , almost the e n t i r e area was  devoted t o some type of c a t t l e feed.  Thus as  urban- encroachment reduced the number of d a i r y farms i n the western r e g i o n , the e a s t e r n zone emerged as the main d a i r y a r e a . The  l o c a l i z a t i o n of s m a l l f r u i t farming i n both the  southern a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n and the peat bogs i s evident Map  16.  Regional  d i f f e r e n c e s i n farm o r g a n i z a t i o n and  type r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e  specialization.  soil  On the b e t t e r  s o i l s of the southern r e g i o n , where farms were owned and e r a t e d l a r g e l y by O r i e n t a l s , strawberry  in  and loganberry  op-  crops  2 (cont.) a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage f o r each s e c t i o n , the prop o r t i o n c o n s t i t u t i n g farmland i s i n c r e a s e d and the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e as a l a n d use i s f u r t h e r emphasized. (Map 15).  75  To foil .ere  >og,  r-  ver,  t ion. an-  on-  ent. ed s  dly.  530  INTENSITY OF AGRICULTURE + SMALL-HOLDING  1958  RICHMOND  1 -  1 9  20 -  39  40 -  59  60 -  79  80 -  100  1/2  0  I MILE  1958  FARM  CROPS  RICHMOND •  I  Iff;'?'--!  \ I  n, L  ml •  Li=ffl  |  MAP  I  .D E23  FRUIT  Tax  POTATO H I  OTHER  VEGETABLES  GRAIN P A S T U R E - HAY  1/2  0  I MILE  75  were combined w i t h v e g e t a b l e growing. the  On the peat l a n d , where  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r crops were more l i m i t e d , farmers con-  c e n t r a t e d m a i n l y on b l u e b e r r i e s and seldom r a i s e d a second crop.  Except f o r the huge, company farms on the n o r t h e r n bog,  i n d i v i d u a l b l u e b e r r } r farms were s m a l l e r than those i n the southern a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n .  Throughout Richmond, many f a r -  mers s o l d a l l t h e i r f r u i t a t r o a d - s i d e stands or on a " p i c k your-own" ba s i s.  Summary The four a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s p e r s i s t e d i n 1958; however, each had e x p e r i e n c e d some changes due t o i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n . Farming on Sea I s l a n d d i m i n i s h e d i n a r e a because of the expans i o n of the a i r p o r t .  The w e s t e r n r e g i o n had been reduced con-  s i d e r a b l y by a growing, but haphazard, r e s i d e n t i a l  development.  In the s o u t h e r n and e a s t e r n r e g i o n s , where z o n i n g had  imposed  r e s t r i c t i o n s on urban development, a l e s s r a d i c a l change i n the  farm landscape o c c u r r e d .  These areas became the c e n t r e s  f o r v e g e t a b l e growing and d a i r y i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Small-  h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e had become more widespread, but was f i n e d p r i m a r i l y t o C l a s s IV and Peat  B.  con-  soils.  Urban Land Use D u r i n g the p e r i o d 1949-1958, u r b a n i z a t i o n spread r a p i d l y .  The r e s u l t a n t f i g u r e s f o r 1958 show a t o t a l urban area of 6,254 a c r e s , or 21 percent of Richmond.  An expansion of 2,630  76  a c r e s over the n i n e y e a r p e r i o d (1949-1958), s i g n i f i e d t h a t the  annual r a t e of growth of t h e urban area had r i s e n from  161 a c r e s , (1930-1949), to 259 a c r e s .  Thus the tempo of l a n d  c o n v e r s i o n from a g r i c u l t u r a l t o n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l had quickened. Because the l e n i e n t z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s b e f o r e 1956 had had l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the l o c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , h o u s i n g , had pervaded Richmond, forming a s p o r a d i c p a t t e r n , and t h e r e b y had consumed good, f a i r and poor a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Of the t h r e e s o i l t y p e s , the C l a s s I I I s o i l s were s t i l l favoured by new urban development; however, p r o p o r t i o n a l i n creases i n the use of the other two s o i l types r e s u l t e d i n no o v e r a l l percentage change.  (Table X I V ) .  Thus i n 1949 and  1958, 48 p e r c e n t of the urban development remained on C l a s s I I I soils,  44 percent on C l a s s IV, and 8 p e r c e n t on Peat. The a r e a l importance of the v a r i o u s urban f u n c t i o n s was  considerably modified.  The dominant p o s i t i o n of the r e s i d e n -  t i a l a r e a i n 1949 was reduced s u b s t a n t i a l l y from 71 t o 58  Table XIV Urban Land bv S o i l Type. S o i l Type Class I I I  1958  1958 Acreage Lulu Sea Mitchell-Twigg  Increase s i n c e 1949 1,106 74 68  1,563 1,354 103  Total C l a s s IV Deep Peat  3,020 2,739 495  1,248 1,173 209  Total  6,254  2,630  77  percent.  (Table XV). T h i s t r e n d c o u l d be expected because  Table XV A r e a I Importance of Urban F u n c t i o n s Function Residential Institutional Commercial Industrial Total T o t a l Urban Area ,  1949 (%)  1958 (t)  71.3 18.5 7.1 2.5  58.5 24.3 9.9 7.3  100.0  100.0  3,624  ac.  ,6,254 a c .  Richmond was beoming i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the G r e a t e r Vancouver i n d u s t r i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l complex r a t h e r than remaining a r e s i d e n t i a l suburb.  Many of the i n d u s t r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s  emerging i n Richmond p r o v i d e d wider p o p u l a t i o n  goods and s e r v i c e s f o r a much  than the immediate m u n i c i p a l i t y .  As an  example, a l t h o u g h t h e a i r p o r t was l o c a t e d i n Richmond, i t had become of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e Greater Vancouver a r e a . A comparison of t h e 1949 and 1958 l a n d use maps i n d i cated t h a t major a l t e r a t i o n s i n the urban p a t t e r n had occurred, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a l expansion and degree of d i s p e r s i o n . Another f a c t o r , not evident  on the maps, was the i n c r e a s e d  d i v e r s i t y of a l l f u n c t i o n s , e.g., new commercial e n t e r p r i s e s , such as s p e c i a l i z e d c l o t h i n g and s p o r t i n g goods s t o r e s , were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e newer shopping c e n t r e s . such as aluminum metal p r o c e s s i n g  Industrial plants,  and b a t t e r y making, were  l o c a t e d f o r the f i r s t time i n Richmond.  78  Industrial  Developments  Industrial  development a l o n g the r i v e r f r o n t  continued  t o e n l a r g e i n the type of i n d u s t r y and i n a r e a l e x t e n t . and barges t r a n s p o r t e d the raw m a t e r i a l s f o r new  Ships  paper, cement  and concrete p l a n t s a l o n g the south arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , and r a i l w a y s and t r u c k s handled the outgoing products.  manufactured  The modern food and metal p l a n t s near the North  of the F r a s e r r e l i e d more h e a v i l y on r a i l and t r u c k to acquire t h e i r supplies.  facilities  Thus, the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of more  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s p l a y e d an important  role in industrial  development. An i n d u s t r i a l survey by the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board r e p o r t e d t h a t t w o - t h i r d s of the p l a n t s l o c a t e d i n Richmond i n 1958, 1950.  (Table X V I ) .  industrial  were e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r  Furthermore, 25 of the 46 p l a n t s  had  Table XVI Industrial  P l a n t s - Richmond.  Number by P e r i o d of Area  1958  Establishment  1900-30  1931-49  Sea I s l a n d Northern Lulu I s l a n d Southern L u l u I s l a n d  0 1 6  1 6 1  7 21 3  8 28 10  Total  7  8  31  46  Note:  Arm  1950-58  Northern L u l u I s l a n d i n c l u d e s M i t c h e l l  Island.  Total  79  s t a r t e d p r o d u c t i o n between 1955 and 1958, and the v a r i e t y o f i n d u s t r y was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d .  P r i o r t o 1950, f o o d p r o c e s s i  and s a w m i l l i n g were the main secondary a c t i v i t i e s .  The k i n d s  of i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s o p e r a t i n g i n 1958, and the number e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1950 a r e t a b u l a t e d .  (Table X V I I ) .  Most o f  the developments had o c c u r r e d i n the Northern L u l u I s l a n d D i s t r i c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y between Number 4 and 6 Roads.  Table X V I I I n d u s t r i a l P l a n t s by Type - 1958  Il2§.  Sea I s l a n d  K. L u l u  A i r c r a f t supplies Contractors F i s h canners Food and beverage Metal works N o n - m e t a l l i c works P u l p and paper Sawmill-plywood Shipbuilding T r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment  8 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Woodworking  0  _4_  lotal  8 (1)  28 (7)  Wholesale  0  S. L u l u  0 3 0 6(2) 4 1 1 7 (5) 0 1 0  0 0 4 (4) 1(1) 0 1 1 0 2 (2) 1  _IL.  1  10 (7)  Total 8 (1) 3 4 (4) 7(3) 4 2 2 7 (5) 2 (2) 1 2  -446 (15)  ( ) number of p l a n t s e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o 1950,  Mam^ of the i n d u s t r i e s which o b t a i n e d p r o p e r t y i n R i c h mond between 1950 and 1958 sought l a n d which was l a r g e r i n area and more moderately p r i c e d than corresponding couver.  p r o p e r t y i n Van-  I n a d d i t i o n , Richmond c o u l d o f f e r l a r g e , uncongested  water f r o n t a g e s u i t a b l e f o r docking purposes and booming grounds.  80  These c o n d i t i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o u r a b l e  for industries  r e l y i n g on imported l o g s , (plywood p l a n t and s a w m i l l s ) , and p u l p , works).'  (paper p l a n t s ) , and c l a y and crushed rock,  chips  (cement  Companies such as S w i f t Canadian Company L i m i t e d ,  Hygrade Packers L i m i t e d , (Husky Animal food), and  Standard  Brands L i m i t e d , (Dr. B a l l a r d ' s a n i m a l f o o d ) , l o c a t e d near 5 Road, o b t a i n e d  i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s away from densely populated  areas and where t h e d i s p o s a l of l i q u i d sewage i n t o the was  No.  river  possible.  Commercial Developments The 1949  commercial area i n c r e a s e d almost t h r e e f o l d between  and 1958.  g o l f courses,  The main c o n t r i b u t o r s to t h i s growth were the commercial n u r s e r i e s , shopping c e n t r e s , as w e l l  as a d r i v e - i n t h e a t r e . Richmond was Vancouver.  The development of these f u n c t i o n s i n  a t r e n d t y p i c a l of a l l suburban areas around The h i g h cost of l a n d and i n c r e a s e d taxes i n the  more d e n s e l y - s e t t l e d urban areas p r e c l u d e d  the  establishment  of commercial f u n c t i o n s such as g o l f d r i v i n g ranges and  courses.  Thus, f o r the f i r s t time, these f u n c t i o n s were not o n l y ,  (or  m a i n l y ) , f o r the b e n e f i t of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n or l o c a l economy, but were r e l a t e d to Richmond's p o s i t i o n and a t t r a c t i o n t o Greater Vancouver r e s i d e n t s . The  l a r g e s t s i n g l e commercial users of good, a g r i c u l t u r a l  s o i l were the 13 h o l e g o l f course and the n u r s e r i e s .  The  former, a l o n g the western dyke of L u l u I s l a n d , occupied an area which had p r e v i o u s l y been a d a i r y farm. l a n d was  Since good grass  a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e , l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l improvement  81  was necessary f o r t h e f a i r w a y s .  The s e a s i d e l o c a t i o n p r o v i d e d  a r e f r e s h i n g , s c e n i c view t o an o t h e r w i s e f l a t c o u r s e .  On t h e  other hand, t h e n u r s e r i e s developed throughout the western h a l f of L u l u I s l a n d where s u i t a b l e s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , e s s e n t i a l t o t h e r a p i d growth of f l o w e r s , shrubs and t r e e s , were a v a i l a b l e . The g r e a t e s t expansion o f shopping f a c i l i t i e s o c c u r r e d i n the  Brighouse a r e a , which c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e p r i n c i p a l  c e n t r e i n Richmond.  The steady development  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o f o u r major f a c t o r s :  retail  o f t h i s area was  the l a r g e s t r e s i d e n t i a l  area was s i t u a t e d near t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n ; . c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  commercial b u i l d i n g s was f a v o u r e d by m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and  l o c a l businessmen;  p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s were improved a d j a c e n t  to the shopping c e n t r e s ; and t r a f f i c the  c o n g e s t i o n was reduced by  w i d e n i n g of Number 3 Road from Westminster Highway t o  G r a n v i l l e Avenue.  R e s i d e n t i a l Developments D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v a l from 1949 t o 195 8,  r e s i d e n t i a l dev-  elopment c o n t i n u e d t o e n l a r g e , but a t a much f a s t e r annual rate* than i t had p r e v i o u s l y .  By 1958, an almost u n i n t e r r u p t e d  b e l t o f r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t l i n k e d B r i d g e p o r t and B r i g h o u s e , w h i l e l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n s d o t t e d t h e landscape west and south of B r i g h o u s e .  S m a l l developments  sprang up throughout L u l u  I s l a n d , d i s s e c t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s . The 1958 l a n d use map (Map 12), r e f l e c t e d the housing boom which had reached Richmond i n the 1950's.  The modern  s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h i t s medium-cost homes, ($10,000 - $15,000),  82 c o n s t r u c t e d i n a s s e m b l y - l i n e manner, h i g h l i g h t e d the r e s i d e n t i a l growth.  These s u b d i v i s i o n s f e a t u r e d f o u r or f i v e house  s t y l e s , easy terms of payment, a few c u r v e d s t r e e t s , (to reduce traffic  speed and add v a r i e t y ) , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a nearby  shopping c e n t r e , R e a l e s t a t e promotion and an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n suburban l i v i n g , c o u p l e d w i t h the prosperous economic c o n d i t i o n s of  1956-58, encouraged l a r g e - s c a l e h o u s i n g developments i n  Richmond,  Because optimism about economic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l e d ,  and l a n d c o s t s , t a x e s and r e n t s rose i n the city,many p e o p l e , ( e s p e c i a l l y younger f a m i l i e s ) , sought suburban homes where a few hundred d o l l a r s a s a down payment would purchase a new house on a l a r g e l o t .  Improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  facilities,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the i n c r e a s e d use of the a u t o m o b i l e , l e s s e n e d the problems of commuting.  S i n c e more i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s were  moving i n t o suburban a r e a s , many employees found i t a l s o conv e n i e n t t o move t o the suburbs. R e a l e s t a t e promotion and more r e l a x e d r e s t r i c t i o n s on loans  f a c i l i t a t e d the b u y i n g of new homes,  The l a n d was pur-  chased from the farmer a t a modest p r i c e (approximately $2,000 per  a c r e ) , and houses were b u i l t on a mass-production b a s i s .  The r e s u l t a n t minimal cost t o tie r e s i d e n t i a l developer enabled the  r e a l e s t a t e promoters t o s e l l the homes a t a p r i c e a t t r a c -  t i v e t o young, middle-income f a m i l i e s .  In a d d i t i o n , down  payments were kept below $2,000, and were o f t e n l e s s than $1,000.  Loans from C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n  and p r i v a t e companies were r e l a t i v e l y easy t o o b t a i n .  Thus a  f a m i l y , r e s i d i n g i n Vancouver and paying a monthly r e n t of one hundred d o l l a r s , c o u l d move t o Richmond, and f o r a s i m i l a r expenditure  c o u l d own a new three-bedroom home, f u l l y l a n d -  scaped,' i n a "soot and smog-free" neighbourhood, -The r a p i d expansion of the r e s i d e n t i a l area w i t h i t s s p r a w l i n g nature p r e s e n t e d the m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s w i t h problems t o p r o v i d e adequate s e r v i c e s such as water, drainage and g a r bage c o l l e c t i o n .  Costs of expanding and improving these f a c -  i l i t i e s were o f t e n h i g h e r than the revenue r e c e i v e d from s e r v i c i n g the new developments.  Water l i n e s had. t o be l a i d f o r  s e v e r a l m i l e s i n order t o supply a s m a l l group of houses. S i m i l a r l y , drainage  f a c i l i t i e s had t o be i n t e n s i f i e d over a  g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Although  farms were  not damaged by heavy r a i n s , r e s i d e n t s d i d not l i k e t o have t h e i r backyards f l o o d e d when i t r a i n e d .  With the i n c r e a s e i n  t r a f f i c , more roads had t o be b u i l t and they r e q u i r e d more maintenance.  The growing school p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the  need f o r more s c h o o l s .  Therefore,  implementation  and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s became necessary  of zoning  to direct  develop-  ment i n t o s p e c i f i c areas, c r e a t e a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of housing, and economize on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s .  I n s t i t u t i o n a l Developments The e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r more l a n d f o r the a i r p o r t , w i r e l e s s s t a t i o n s , schools and parks r e s u l t e d i n an a r e a l expansion o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l l a n d t o 1,522 a c r e s .  Sixty-  seven percent of the acreage was u t i l i z e d by the a i r p o r t .  84  Another 21 percent, or 320 a c r e s , was  occupied by a Department  of N a t i o n a l Defense W i r e l e s s s t a t i o n , and the remaining  12  p e r c e n t , or 190 a c r e s , c o n s t i t u t e d other i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses. As aeroplanes the a i r p o r t was  became l a r g e r and a i r t r a f f i c  grew,  o b l i g e d to extend i t s t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s  o p e r a t i o n a l a r e a , which i n c l u d e d runways and a i r c r a f t space.  By 1958,  1,014  however, another 1,736  parking  a c r e s were a c t i v e l y used by the a i r p o r t ; acres had a l r e a d y been purchased and  r e s e r v e d f o r f u t u r e expansion.  Much of the a d d i t i o n a l l a n d  l e a s e d t o farmers on- a s h o r t term b a s i s .  i n c r e a s e the t a x revenue.  was  From a m u n i c i p a l  s t a n d p o i n t , the expansion of the a i r p o r t d i d not  substantially  Assessment of a i r p o r t b u i l d i n g s was  s i m i l a r t o t h a t of other commercial p r o p e r t y : runways and s e r v i c e areas was farming was  and  t a x a t i o n of  very low, and l a n d l e a s e d f o r  s t i l l r a t e d on a farmland b a s i s .  A g r e a t demand f o r new f i c a n t growth i n p o p u l a t i o n .  s c h o o l s was By 1958,  c r e a t e d by the  signi-  the system had been  extended t o i n c l u d e one s e n i o r h i g h , t h r e e j u n i o r h i g h and seventeen elementary s c h o o l s , occupying a t o t a l area of 129  acres.  A 100 percent enlargement i n the number of schools a f t e r had t e m p o r a r i l y r e l i e v e d the overcrowding. c a p a c i t y was  r a i s e d to 8,865,  reached 6,500,  The t o t a l  student  w h i l e the enrollment had  just  However, w i t h the h i g h average number of elem-  e n t a r y p u p i l s and p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n per house, (.53  3  1950  and  School Meeds f o r Richmond 1959-61, New Westminster, Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board, Sept., 1958,  .86  The p.9 .  85  respectively),**  and the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l  population,  s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n western L u l u I s l a n d , would soon have t h e i r vacant desks f i l l e d . c o n s t r u c t i o n was  A c o n t i n u a l program of s c h o o l  t h e r e f o r e necessary t o meet f u t u r e demands.  F i f t y - n i n e a c r e s had a l r e a d y been r e s e r v e d f o r t h i s purpose by the Richmond School  Board.  The e f f e c t of an I n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n upon the r e c r e a t i o n a l area was ities.  l e s s dramatic  than t h a t of the e d u c a t i o n a l  Four a d d i t i o n a l playgrounds were added, but the  acreage amounted t o l e s s than 10 a c r e s .  facil-  total  Local children s t i l l  used the s c h o o l grounds as major p l a y a r e a s .  The parks commis-  s i o n had o b t a i n e d 91 acres t o be used f o r f u t u r e park development.  The  l a r g e s t s i t e , near the m u n i c i p a l h a l l , occupied  acres and was  d e s i g n a t e d as Richmond's C e n t e n n i a l  59  Park.  C e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , i t would be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o a major p o r t i o n of the  population.  I t appeared t h a t a l l f u n c t i o n s of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  nature,  (schools, - a i r p o r t , and p a r k s ) , had a c q u i r e d l a n d f o r f u t u r e expansion and development.  D u r i n g a p e r i o d when l a n d conver-  s i o n from a g r i c u l t u r e t o urban use was r e l a t i v e l y easy and inexpensive for  t a k i n g p l a c e , i t was  to r e s e r v e s u i t a b l e p r o p e r t y  f u t u r e needs.  Summary  In the i n t e r v a l from 1949  4  I b i d . , p.  5.  t o 1958,  urban l a n d use  had  86  grown throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y ; however, t h e g r e a t e s t expansion o c c u r r e d on L u l u I s l a n d .  Urban growth had emerged on  a l l s o i l t y p e s , but more of t h e b e t t e r s o i l s were u t i l i z e d because they were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a r g e , u n d i v i d e d and a v a i l a b l e t r a c t s of l a n d on Sea I s l a n d and on the western end of L u l u I s l a n d .  Economic f a c t o r s , such as h i g h t a x e s , low  farm incomes and e n t i c i n g r e a l e s t a t e o f f e r s , l e d many farmers to s e l l o r s u b d i v i d e t h e i r farms.  L i m i t e d zoning  restrictions  a l l o w e d r e a l e s t a t e companies and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s t o subd i v i d e l a n d and develop r e s i d e n t i a l areas almost anywhere i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  The r e s u l t was a widespread, d i s j o i n t e d  u r b a n i z a t i o n e x h i b i t i n g many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban sprawlIn  t h i s r e s p e c t , Richmond had many of the same char-  a c t e r i s t i c s as other suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s around Vancouver. The one major d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t i n Richmond, good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l was b e i n g removed from p r o d u c t i o n , whereas i n other areas such as Burnaby, Coquitlam  and Surrey, the r e s i d e n t i a l areas  were b e i n g developed upon upland s o i l s , thus no s e r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l l o s s was i n c u r r e d . > Geographical  f a c t o r s such as p r o x i m i t y t o Vancouver,  e a s i l y - d e v e l o p e d s o i l s and areas, and s u i t a b l e commercial and i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s were h e l p i n g p o p u l a t i o n growth, and thereby,  5  Urban sprawl has been d e f i n e d by A.D. C r e r a r as "...a stage of t r a n s i t i o n between t r u e a g r i c u l t u r a l development, which has a d e n s i t y l e s s than 0.3 people per a c r e , and suburban r e s i d e n t i a l development, w i t h a d e n s i t y g r e a t e r than 3.5 people per a c r e . " Economic Aspects o f Urban Sprawl. New Westminster, Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board, May, 1956, p. 8.  87  the expansion of urban l a n d uses.  C.  Peat E x t r a c t i o n The  l a n d use map  f o r 1958,  (Map  12), i n d i c a t e s the l a r g e  area occupied by the peat e x t r a c t i o n i n d u s t r y . worthy a l t e r a t i o n was of the peat was  The most note-  on the c e n t r a l bog where a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  b e i n g removed.  The  i n c r e a s e d demand f o r more  h i g h l y o r g a n i c and c h e m i c a l l y e n r i c h e d peat  r e s u l t e d i n the  expansion of o p e r a t i o n s of the two companies l o c a t e d t h e r e . Prepared peat, i n b u l k and large t r a i l e r - t r u c k s .  i n packaged form, was  shipped out  T h i s method of t r a n s p o r t d i f f e r e d sub-  s t a n t i a l l y from the r a i l method used more e x t e n s i v e l y by p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s on the n o r t h e r n bog. experienced  by  the  The n o r t h e r n bog a l s o  some d e p l e t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n t o c r a n b e r r y and b l u e -  b e r r y farms on o l d e r f i e l d s .  In no i n s t a n c e were the o l d f i e l d s  u s e d , f o r any other purpose,  D.  Road and R a i l Network C o n t i n u a l growth of u r b a n i z a t i o n meant a steady  increase  i n the d e n s i t y of the road network, and, to a more l i m i t e d e x t e n t , the r a i l l i n e s .  The combined coverage by these  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s was the t o t a l l a n d a r e a .  Although  2,207 a c r e s , or 7.5 percent t h i s percentage was  still  two of only  one-half t h a t of a h i g h l y - u r b a n i z e d a r e a , i t d i d s i g n i f y t h a t road and r a i l acreage was a noteworthy l a n d use. Road c o n s t r u c t i o n was an important a c t i v i t y ,  particularly  i n the western h a l f of L u l u I s l a n d where the g r e a t e s t r e s i d -  e n t i a l development was developed  taking place.  In any l a r g e area b e i n g  f o r housing, t h e r e are e x t e n s i v e i n c r e a s e s i n road  acreages t o p r o v i d e access t o the many houses.  In the p e r i o d  from 1949-1958, f o r every 2.5 a c r e s converted to urban use, one a c r e of road was added i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  In a r e s i d -  e n t i a l a r e a , t h i s meant t h a t f o r every 15 homes c o n s t r u c t e d , 6 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 660 f e e t of road, 66 f e e t wide, were p r o v i d e d . In 1958,  the p r o v i n c i a l government began the c o n s t r u c t i o n  of an express thruway, (the Deas Thruway), extending from Vancouver t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r . highway was  The main-purpose of the  to p r o v i d e f a s t , convenient f a c i l i t i e s between  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and U n i t e d S t a t e s c e n t r e s .  F o r Richmond,  the thruway n e c e s s i t a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a f o u r lane t o l l b r i d g e a c r o s s the North Arm  of the F r a s e r R i v e r , a t u n n e l under  the south arm of the F r a s e r , and a f o u r lane d i v i d e d highway w i t h overpasses and c l o v e r l e a v e s c o n n e c t i n g the b r i d g e and tunnel.  Since much of the highway was  over peat l a n d , the  area taken out of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . However, i t d i d d i s s e c t some good farmland i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l region.  southern  As the thruway had o n l y l i m i t e d c r o s s i n g s ,  (one every m i l e ) , i t presented a gross inconvenience to many farmers who  owned p r o p e r t y on e i t h e r s i d e of i t .  Otherwise,  the highway d i d not r e s t r i c t east-west movement.  6  In Vancouver t h e r e are from 12 t o 24 m i l e s of road f o r every square m i l e of r e s i d e n t i a l development, t h e r e f o r e , i f a s i m i l a r square m i l e i n Richmond were to be developed, an equal mileage of new roads would be necessary.  89  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the b r i d g e and t u n n e l g r e a t l y imp-  roved the access routes t o Richmond.  The  old bridges, b u i l t  i n the 1890's, c o u l d no longer cope w i t h the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g amount of  traffic.  Rush-hour t r a f f i c moved s l o w l y a c r o s s the narrow, c r e a k i n g wooden b r i d g e s .  P e r i o d i c a l l y , t h e i r spans were c l o s e d because  a barge had h i t the swing span, thus damaging some v i t a l p a r t , and p r e v e n t i n g the span from r e t u r n i n g t o i t s r i g h t f u l p o s i t i o n . Besides  these annoyances, t h e r e were always temporary delays  when the b r i d g e s were 'forced to open to a l l o w f i s h b o a t s , tugs and barges to move up and down the The Delta.  river.  t u n n e l a l s o improved connections  No longer was  between Richmond and  i t necessary t o l i n e up f o r the s m a l l  car f e r r y which shunted back and f o r t h between Woodward's Landing and Ladner, and departed from a l t e r n a t e s i d e s every h a l f hour.  The  f o u r lane t u n n e l p r o v i d e d f o r a continuous  f l o w of t r a f f i c which covered a s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e i n l e s s than three minutes.  The  thruway t h e r e f o r e brought new access to  Richmond. Between 1949 two p l a c e s o n l y :  and 1958,  r a i l f a c i l i t i e s were extended i n  one t o the Lefarge Cement p l a n t a t the  south  end of Ewen Road, and the o t h e r , to the Crown Z e l l e r b a c h paper p l a n t at the south end of Garden C i t y Road.  In both cases,  the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway lengthened i t s trackage about one m i l e .  By 1958,  a l l i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s on L u l u I s l a n d had  d i r e c t access t o r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s . On February 27, 1958,  as the l a s t B.C.  r o l l e d across the t r a c k s from Steveston  E l e c t r i c tram  to Marpole, an o l d era  90  i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ended and a new one began. years of continuous tram s e r v i c e , the B.C.  After  fifty-three  E l e c t r i c decided  to r e t i r e the o l d trams and change to gas-powered buses, thus p r o v i d i n g more widespread s e r v i c e t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y , p l u s a r a p i d express s e r v i c e t o downtown Vancouver by way of  Oak  Street Bridge.  As i n many other suburban a r e a s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  was modernized  t o meet the demands of a growing urban p o p u l a t i o n  i n an ever-expanding m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  E.  Vacant Land Vacant l a n d c o n t i n u e d t o decrease i n area d u r i n g the  p e r i o d under study because more l a n d was r e q u i r e d f o r f a r m i n g and urban use.  The average r a t e of decrease over the nine year  p e r i o d was 153 a c r e s per annum, or approximately one-half t h a t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l  figure.  The s m a l l e r r a t e of decrease  was  q u i t e understandable because most of the vacant l a n d was comp r i s e d of peat s o i l s which were not as d e s i r a b l e f o r u r b a n i z a t i o n as the b e t t e r s o i l s .  Some r e s i d e n t i a l  development d i d occur  on the more i n e x p e n s i v e peat l a n d where adequate drainage provided.  was  The type of housing areas c r e a t e d on t h i s l a n d was  o f t e n u n d e s i r a b l e from a m u n i c i p a l p o i n t of view.  Because the  l o t s were too l a r g e , the owners l e f t i n wasteland the p o r t i o n s not immediately used f o r houses.  S i n c e houses tended t o be  s t r u n g out a l o n g t h e roads, m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e c o s t s were h i g h e r than i n more d e n s e l y - p o p u l a t e d a r e a s .  Very l i t t l e m u n i c i p a l  c o n t r o l c o u l d be e x e r c i s e d because most of the l a n d had a l r e a d y been s u b d i v i d e d f o r decades.  The o n l y p o s s i b l e measure t h a t  91  c o u l d be undertaken was t o attempt t o prevent any f u r t h e r subd i v i s i o n unless i t created a high density r e s i d e n t i a l area, or an important commercial or i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e . The a d d i t i o n a l problems of d r a i n a g e , f o u n d a t i o n s and roads made development upon the peat s o i l s l e s s a t t r a c t i v e t o l a n d promoters.  Thus development was r e s t r i c t e d t o an  i n d i v i d u a l , r a t h e r than a l a r g e - s c a l e , s u b d i v i s i o n b a s i s , and much vacant l a n d  remained.  As a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was c o n v e r t e d t o v a r i o u s urban uses, not a l l o f i t was immediately developed; t h e r e f o r e , some areas w i t h good s o i l s were v a c a n t .  I n n e w l y - s u b d i v i d e d a r e a s , many  l o t s l a y i d l e u n t i l owners decided t o b u i l d or u n t i l c o n t r a c t o r s completed other p o r t i o n s of the s u b d i v i s i o n .  Examples o f  such vacant l a n d i n Richmond were e v i d e n t west of Number 1 7 Road, (Map 1 2 ) .  Recent s t u d i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  and i n  r e p o r t t h a t t h i s i s a phenomenon com-  mon t o t h e f r i n g e areas of m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s . Thus, vacant l a n d i n Richmond i n 1958 was e i t h e r i n a s t a t e of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from a g r i c u l t u r a l t o urban use, or was c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e due t o i t s s o i l F.  structure.  Summary, 1958 As t h e r e s u l t of a r a p i d growth i n p o p u l a t i o n and a  7 8  M. Mason Gaffney, "Urban Expansion", Land, The Yearbook of A g r i c u l t u r e , Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1958, p. 521. Economic Aspects of Urban Sprawl, pp. 8,9.  92  g r e a t e r urban o r i e n t a t i o n , Richmond by 1958  had a c q u i r e d  char-  a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o other suburban a r e a s , such as Burnaby. The r e s i d e n t s were m a i n l y wage-earners employed w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver r e g i o n , thus commuting p l a y e d an  important  part i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s .  created,  the a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage was former t o t a l .  As more urban area was  reduced to t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of i t s  These r e d u c t i o n s meant t h a t v a l u a b l e farmlands  were taken out of p r o d u c t i o n , and produce f o r the urban areas c o n s i d e r a b l y c u r t a i l e d .  adjacent  For Vancouver t h i s s i g -  n i f i e d a g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e upon more d i s t a n t sources of d a i r y products and f r e s h v e g e t a b l e s .  W i t h i n Richmond, i n order to  r e s t r i c t the haphazard d i s p o s a l of v a l u a b l e l a n d , s e r i o u s thought was  g i v e n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n of a planned program of  development, which was Although  put i n t o e f f e c t i n  1956.  the enlargement of the u r b a n i z e d s e c t o r s of  the m u n i c i p a l i t y r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e r r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial a r e a s , the sprawled nature of the urban development was a f f e c t e d only s l i g h t l y .  In t h i s r e g a r d , Richmond shared a phenomenon  w i t h many other o u t l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Unoccupied and  a c c e s s i b l e l a n d was w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d and s u s c e p t i b l e to urban encroachment: few c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were g i v e n to the e f f e c t of these s p o r a d i c developments on the o v e r a l l r e g i o n . A s h i f t i n emphasis from an a g r i c u l t u r a l to urban economy was  r e f l e c t e d by the i n c r e a s e d number and broader  r e g i o n a l b a s i s of urban f u n c t i o n s .  More commercial and i n d -  u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s were emerging which s u p p l i e d s e r v i c e s and products t o markets throughout the Greater Vancouver a r e a .  93 Because of these developments, Richmond experienced o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s than ever b e f o r e .  greater  I t s peripheral position  coupled w i t h i t s p r o x i m i t y t o Vancouver, made p o s s i b l e l a r g e area f u n c t i o n s such as g o l f courses and i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s , where.space was e a s i l y a c q u i r e d , r e g u l a t i o n s were not too s t r i n g e n t and markets were nearby.  As the o u t s i d e demands f o  l a n d i n c r e a s e d , farmers r e a s s e s s e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and f u t u r e possibilities.  I n many cases immediate r e t u r n s were s u b s t i t -  uted f o r unpredictable a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o f i t s .  94 CHAPTER V POST-1958 DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS  As Richmond became more i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the Greater Vancouver urban complex, the l a n d use p a t t e r n r e f l e c t e d the larger proportion of the m u n i c i p a l i t y a l l o c a t e d to non-agric u l t u r a l uses, and the d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r e .  No longer d i d  v a s t g r a s s l a n d s and South Vancouver's f o r e s t e d s l o p e s  separate  Richmond's q u i e t r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n from Vancouver's b u s t l i n g urban comraunity.  I n the 1950's and e a r l y 1960's, Richmond  was caught up i n the dynamic expansion o c c u r r i n g throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Greater Vancouver a r e a . A f t e r 1930 the p o p u l a t i o n of Richmond i n c r e a s e d f i v e f o l d t o more than 44,000  by 1962. The percentage growth had  r i s e n d u r i n g each census p e r i o d : 1951-61:126%.  1931-41:27%;  By 1961, the a c t u a l number of people had more  than doubled t h a t of 1951.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t Richmond's t r e n d  of growth concurred w i t h the tendencies municipalities.  1941-51:85%;  of other  neighbouring  However, from 1956-1961, Richmond's p o p u l a t i o n  i n c r e a s e d by a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n than i t had from 1951-56: t h i s p r o p o r t i o n a l i n c r e a s e was g r e a t e r than any m u n i c i p a l i t y i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver or the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . (Table X V I I I ) .  During the i n t e r v a l from 1951-56, Burnaby and  Table  XVIII  P o p u l a t i o n Increases 1956-1961 Municipality 1. 2. 3.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  Surrey  Increase 1956-61  Vancouver Richmond Burnaby North Vancouver D i s t . Coquitlam West Vancouver Delta North Vancouver C i t y P o r t Moody New Westminster  26,911 18,678 17,345 16,412 12,719 8,253 6,257 5,845 3,705 2,076 1,989  Vancouver had r e g i s t e r e d the l a r g e s t g a i n s .  Increase 1951-56 14,198 21,011 6,792 25,359 11,783 5,103 5,207 2,051 4,264 467 3,026  Burnaby, due t o  i t s p r o x i m i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o Vancouver,, had experienced the f i r s t e f f e c t s o f the rush t o s u b u r b i a .  However, Burnaby  soon a c q u i r e d many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s i d e n t i a l Vancouver and t h e r e f o r e people began t o move i n t o Surrey and Richmond where p r o p e r t y was s t i l l q u i t e e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e and inexpensive. The F r a s e r R i v e r had f o r many years a c t e d as a settlement b a r r i e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r those who intended t o commute t o Vancouver.  The o l d b r i d g e s a c r o s s the North Arm of the F r a s e r  were scenes of b o t t l e n e c k e d t r a f f i c d u r i n g e a r l y morning and l a t e a f t e r n o o n rush hours.  With the b u i l d i n g of the Oak S t r e e t  B r i d g e and the subsequent improvement i n the t r a n s i t system, t r a v e l between Richmond and Vancouver became c o n s i d e r a b l y easier. Thus, spurred on by the improvement and the b u i l d i n g expansion  i n Richmond, more people than ever before looked t o  t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y as t h e i r f u t u r e home.  (Figure 2).  i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y , the p o p u l a t i o n became b a s i c a l l y  Besides urban-  o r i e n t e d i n r e s p e c t t o occupations sought a f t e r and s e r v i c e s demanded.  T h i r t y years b e f o r e , the m a j o r i t y of i n h a b i t a n t s  o b t a i n e d a l i v i n g from the l o c a l s o i l r e s o u r c e , whereas the present i n h a b i t a n t s a r e almost independent  of the l a n d , and  c a p i t a l i z e on the p o s i t i o n of Richmond i n the Greater Vancouver region.  A.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Changes One  of the f i r s t e f f e c t s t h a t i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n had  on Richmond a f t e r 1958 was t o decrease the area of a g r i c u l t u r a l land.  A c c o r d i n g to the 1961 census, Richmond had 15,867 acres  of farm l a n d , of which 11,439 acres (or 72 p e r c e n t ) , were c l a s s i f i e d as improved.  Since a farm was d e f i n e d as "...  a  h o l d i n g of one acre or more w i t h s a l e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o ducts d u r i n g the past twelve months v a l u e d a t $50 or more",  x  some h o l d i n g s , c a t e g o r i z e d as farms, would not have been cons i d e r e d as such i n the census years of 1951 and 1956, or i n the 1958  l a n d use survey.  T h e r e f o r e , no d i r e c t i n d i c a t i o n c o u l d be  o b t a i n e d from the 1961 census data as t o the amount or r a t e of decrease i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a . by the 1961 census and 1958  Since the acreages o b t a i n e d  survey are approximately e q u a l , i t  can be assumed t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage had decreased.  1  A  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , A g r i c u l t u r e , 1961 Census of Canada, B u l l e t i n AA-6, Ottawa, The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962, p. 1.  97  CENSUS  TRACTS  POPULATION B Y C E N S U S T R A C T S  1956-6  IOOO  z  4  L  2  L  o H  <  10  _J  0-  o  220  2 2  1956  222 223 TRACTS 1961  224  225  FIGURE  2  98  r e c e n t reconnaissance survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l  areas  o c c u p i e d l a r g e s e c t i o n s which i n 1958 were crop l a n d s .  These  areas were most n o t i c e a b l e i n the western and southern a g r i c u l t u r a l regions. encroachment was  I n other p a r t s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , urban  r e d u c i n g the farm acreage much more s l o w l y .  As the t o t a l farm acreage decreased other changes took p l a c e i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n .  Some i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of  l a n d use o c c u r r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n c r e a s e d acreage of v e g e t a b l e and f r u i t c r o p s , (Table X I X ) , and i n the r e d u c t i o n  Agricultural Use Under Crop Grains Potatoes Vegetables &. F r u i t Under P a s t u r e  P r o d u c t i o n 1951-61 (Acres)' 1951  1956  1961  9,540 3,259 1,353 1,302  7,409 1,932 1,402 1,396  8,056 1,696 1,551 2,069  4,627  3,397  2,457  * The change i n farm d e f i n i t i o n i n the 196.1 census had l i t t l e e f f e c t on f i e l d crop acreages - Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , " A g r i c u l t u r e " , 1961 Census of Canada, B u l l e t i n AA-1, 1962, p. 1.  of g r a i n crops and pasture l a n d .  The c l o s u r e of s e v e r a l  d a i r y farms on the western end of L u l u I s l a n d , and on M i t c h e l l and Sea I s l a n d s l a r g e l y reduced, g r a i n and pasture acreage, w h i l e farmers i n the southern and eastern, a g r i c u l t u r a l zones c o n v e r t e d some of the g r a s s l a n d s i n t o vegetable and plots.  Photograph  fruit  1 shows a former d a i r y farm on M i t c h e l l  I s l a n d , p a r t of which was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a market  garden.  The remains of the d a i r y barn are v i s i b l e i n the c e n t r e background.  Photograph 1.  Former d a i r y farm.  As the use of d r i e d f e e d and s i l a g e became-more p o p u l a r , some d a i r y farmers found t h a t they r e q u i r e d l e s s p a s t u r e . The d a i r y farm shown i n Photograph 2 and l o c a t e d at Capstan Way and Number 3 Road i s a prime example of t h i s newer method of f a r m i n g .  T h i r t y t o f o r t y cows a r e kept on 4 . 3 acres of  heavily f e r t i l i z e d pasture.  Photograph 2.  I n t e n s i v e d a i r y farming.  Another t r e n d i s f o r some farms t o become feed l o t s f o r beef c a t t l e such as the one d e p i c t e d i n Photograph 3 .  The y a r d  space i s e s s e n t i a l l y f o r e x e r c i s e r a t h e r than f o r p a s t u r e . Hay and g r a i n a r e f e d t o the c a t t l e from s m a l l feed s t a l l s s i m i l a r t o the one seen i n the centre of the photograph.  Photograph 3.  Feeder l o t farm, Ex-Jen Road,  T h i s type of farming can be p r o f i t a b l e o n l y i f the p r i c e of f e e d , whether home-grown or imported, remains low enough;  o t h e r w i s e , the farms can not compete w i t h areas where  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of low-cost f e e d are grown, f o r example, i n southern A l b e r t a , A g r i c u l t u r a l use of the peat bogs i n c r e a s e d a f t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o n g Number 6 Road on the southern bog.  1958, Sev-  e r a l scores of a c r e s were c l e a r e d of bush and p l a n t e d i n b l u e b e r r i e s , a crop which r e q u i r e s a minimum amount of s o i l  prepar-  a t i o n and b r i n g s good p r o f i t s i n a s h o r t time. Cranberry and b l u e b e r r y farming on the northern bog are s t i l l mainly under the c o n t r o l of one development company, B i g Red Cranberry Company. s i z e , have been p l a n t e d .  Vast f i e l d s , each 30 - 40 acres i n  Photograph 4 shows a c r a n b e r r y  field  102  on the l e f t and a b l u e b e r r y f i e l d on the r i g h t .  Each of these  f i e l d s i s 30 a c r e s or l a r g e r .  Photograph  4.  Cranberry and B l u e b e r r y f i e l d s on n o r t h e r n bog.  The f u r t h e r development of the o l d peat bogs as a g r i c u l t u r a l areas w i l l depend upon p r o f i t s b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t t o warr a n t the i n i t i a l expenses of drainage and s o i l p r e p a r a t i o n . I f b e r r y p r i c e s remain a t t h e i r present l e v e l or show an i n c r e a s e , more areas w i l l probably be developed and w i l l p r o v i d e an income from l a n d t h a t would otherwise remain  idle.  Other types of farming on peat s o i l do not seem t o be increasing.  The farm i n Photograph 5 i s t y p i c a l of the  l i m i t e d type of development t h a t occurs where most of the farm i s composed of peat s o i l s ,  A s m a l l p o r t i o n was  converted  to p a s t u r e ; however, a major p a r t of the p r o p e r t y i s s t i l l  103  Photograph 5 . S m a l l s c a l e f a r m i n g on Deep Peat undeveloped.  soils.  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r farmer p a s t u r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  10 - 12 C a t t l e .  An i n c r e a s e i n p a s t u r e acreage would r e q u i r e  a s i z e a b l e c a p i t a l o u t l a y t o p r o v i d e adequate d r a i n a g e , bush removal, s o i l c o n d i t i o n i n g and g r a s s seeding.  Farmers w i t h  s m a l l incomes cannot e a s i l y undertake such a p r o j e c t .  Where  t h e r e i s b e t t e r s o i l mixed w i t h peat a farmer can more r e a d i l y develop h i s whole farm as shown i n Photograph 6.  T h i s farm,  l o c a t e d i n the extreme e a s t e r n p a r t of L u l u I s l a n d , i s comp l e t e l y improved.  104  Photograph 6.  Mixed f a r m i n g on s h a l l o w peat s o i l s .  A form o f mixed farming i s c a r r i e d on i n t h a t c a t t l e are  r a i s e d , and some g r a i n and v e g e t a b l e s a r e grown.  Although  the  p r o f i t s from t h i s type of farm may be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o  support t h e farmer, they w i l l form a reasonable supplement to h i s e a r n i n g s . Drainage i s s t i l l a major problem throughout the municipa l i t y and p r o b a b l y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be f o r many y e a r s . The i s l a n d s a r e a l l p a r t of t h e f l o o d p l a i n of the F r a s e r R i v e r and, as such, must be dyked and d r a i n e d .  During the w i n t e r months  when the amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s a t i t s g r e a t e s t , the water t a b l e r i s e s t o w i t h i n a few inches of the l a n d s u r f a c e . I f the  t i d e s and r i v e r a r e h i g h , very l i t t l e water i s removed  from the l a n d by the d i t c h e s , d e s p i t e the many pumps which operate 24 hours a day. As a r e s u l t , l a r g e s e c t i o n s of the  i s l a n d s may be i n u n d a t e d .  Photographs 7 t o 11 show drainage  c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the w i n t e r .  Pasture lands must o f t e n have  furrow channels (see Photograph 11) i n order t o remove the water more q u i c k l y .  Photograph 7.  F i l l e d d i t c h e s a l o n g Westminster Highway.  Photograph 8. Flooded l a n d - No. 6 Road and Westminster Highway.  106  Photograph 9, F l o o d i n g of p a s t u r e l a n d No. 6 Road and Westminster Highway  Photograph 10. Flooded yards - Westminster Highway  Photograph 11. Furrow d r a i n age used a t No. 1 Road and Westminster Highway.  Photograph 12. Empty drainage d i t c h at low t i d e i n summer.  107  In summer when p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s low and the l e v e l o f t h e water t a b l e has f a l l e n , the d i t c h e s may become d r y a t low t i d e , (see Photograph  12), p a r t i a l l y - f i l l e d ,  (Photograph 13), or  extremely stagnant, (Photograph 1 4 ) .  Photograph 13. P a r t i a l l y f i l l e d d i t c h during autumn months.  Photograph 14. Extremely stagnant water due to poor drainage B l u n d e l l and No. 3 Roads,  S t a g n a t i o n presents a h e a l t h problem, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t occurs near r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s .  Since Richmond w i l l  always  be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a drainage problem due t o i t s low, f l a t t e r r a i n , and s i n c e urban areas demand adequate drainage, the m u n i c i p a l i t y has two c h o i c e s :  (1) t o g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e pumping  f a c i l i t i e s and the drainage network, e n t a i l i n g l a r g e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , or (2) t o a l l o w the l a n d t o remain as farmland, i n s t a l l a few a d d i t i o n a l pumps and permit t h e l a n d t o f l o o d  108  only d u r i n g p e r i o d s of extremely h i g h p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  An i n -  crease i n u r b a n i z a t i o n w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e making the f i r s t  choice.  S e v e r a l a s p e c t s of a g r i c u l t u r e i n Richmond are changing as u r b a n i z a t i o n expands and farmers attempt t o take advantage of  the improved economic  conditions.  Large green f i e l d s such  as those p i c t u r e d on Sea I s l a n d , (Photograph 15), and p i c t u r e s q u e o l d barns such as the one on Number 5 Road, (Photograph 16), are  d i s a p p e a r i n g from the landscape.  S m a l l c h i c k e n farms and  cabbage f i e l d s are b e i n g superseded by urban (Photographs 17 and 18).  development.  Only i n the southern and e a s t e r n  a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s can widespread evidence of the former a g r i c u l t u r a l landscape be found.  (Photograph 19).  D i s a p p e a r i n g Scenes i n Western Richmond  Photograph 15. Oat f i e l d s and p a s t u r e on Sea Island.  Photograph 16. Old dairy, farm - No. 5 Road..  109  Present Day Reminders of Richmond's Past  tograph 17. Chicken farm on No. 1 Road  Photograph 18. Cabbage f i e l d - No. 1 Road and Steveston Highway,  Photograph 19. Large s c a l e d a i r y farm Westminster Highway and No. 7 Road  110  The f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n Richmond w i l l depend upon s e v e r a l f a c t o r s such as economic c o n d i t i o n s , r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth, urban growth, t a x a t i o n , z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , and m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards f a r m i n g . S i n c e the i n t e r a c t i o n of these f a c t o r s and many more present a very complex s i t u a t i o n , i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to f o r e c a s t how  l o n g a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l remain a major l a n d use.  I f the a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage were t o decrease a t the same r a t e as i t d i d from 1951 t o 1958,  (314 a c r e s per y e a r ) ,  t h e r e would be o n l y a few a c r e s of farmland l e f t i n Richmond by the year 2000.  S i n c e both C l a s s I I I and IV s o i l s were  reduced a t the same r a t e , C l a s s IV s o i l s would be consumed first,  (by 1976), by urban development, because a t the present  time, t h e r e i s a s m a l l e r acreage One  left.  important f a c t o r which w i l l h e l p to determine whether  or not farmers continue farming w i l l be the t a x a t i o n - p r o f i t s ratio.  At the present time farm l a n d , (a farm over 5 a c r e s ) ,  i s t a x e d a t a r a t e of $200 per a c r e .  The new p r o v i n c i a l a c t  a l l o w s $1,000 exemption f o r s c h o o l t a x e s , thereby g i v i n g the 3 farmer a d i s t i n c t advantage. A farmer h a v i n g 5 acres pays no l a n d t a x , whereas one having 20 a c r e s would pay $3,000.  Thus, farmers w i t h s m a l l  2  The 1951-58 r a t e of decrease was chosen because i t r e p r e sents a moderate f i g u r e , as the p e r i o d i n c l u d e d both a r a p i d and a slow c o n v e r s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d to urban uses.  3  G, T r i g g , Assessor of Richmond, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w .  Ill  acreages have been g r e a t l y encouraged to continue farming, whereas farmers owning l a r g e acreages have not been g i v e n proportional The  incentives.  taxation-assessment-service  problem has been d e a l t  w i t h i n a recent r e p o r t by the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l Board.  The  Planning  report states that:  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board s t u d i e s some years ago proved t h a t i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t a i n i n g b o t h urban and a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s , farmers were b e i n g overtaxed i n r e l a t i o n t o the b e n e f i t s they r e c e i v e d from municipal s e r v i c e s . Subsequent changes i n assessment procedure, n o t a b l y the changing of assessment values t o 50 percent of c u r r e n t market v a l u e , seem to have g r e a t l y worsened the p o s i t i o n of the l a r g e r farmer w h i l e b e t t e r i n g t h a t of the s m a l l h o l d e r . S i n c e the l a r g e farm i s g e n e r a l l y the more e f f i c i e n t we seem t o have imposed another p e n a l t y on e f f i c i e n c y . 4  Thus i f a g r i c u l t u r e i s to be r e t a i n e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , g r e a t e r encouragement must be g i v e n to l a r g e s c a l e farmers. A second f a c t o r which has an i n f l u e n c e upon the of a g r i c u l t u r e i s z o n i n g of l a n d use. were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d  i n 1947  retention  Zoning r e g u l a t i o n s which  and made more s t r i n g e n t i n  1956,  have had marked e f f e c t s upon the r e t e n t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e and the r e s t r i c t i o n of the urban development t o c e r t a i n a r e a s , (Map  17).  In the zone d e s i g n a t e d as a g r i c u l t u r a l , r e s i d e n t i a l  subdivision i s severely l i m i t e d .  Other urban f u n c t i o n s  be developed only a f t e r m u n i c i p a l  council's approval.  can Thus most  of the recent l o s s e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l - a c r e a g e have been i n areas not r e s e r v e d  4  for agriculture.  T h e r e f o r e , the f u t u r e of a g r i -  Land f o r Farming, pp. 17-19.  12  ilow pacje 111s  gs  it  ZONING -  1964  SIMPLIFIED RICHMOND  AGRICULTURAL S M A L L - HOLDING \ \ \ \  ^"  ~-  MANUFACTURING RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL  WM  SCHOOL  a  PARK  AIRPORT 1/2  0  MILE  112 c u l t u r e i n Richmond i s p a r t i a l l y dependent upon the maintenance of s t r o n g z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . I f the present a g r i c u l t u r a l zones are m o d i f i e d t o a l l o w more urban development, as they have been i n s e v e r a l c a s e s , e v e n t u a l l y very l i t t l e farmland w i l l The present z o n i n g map,  remain.  (Map 17), shows t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i s  l i m i t e d to a narrow b e l t i n the south and t o a broad area east of Number 5 Road.  In a d d i t i o n to these two zones, s m a l l - h o l d i n g s  w i l l p r o v i d e some farm p r o d u c t s . The m u n i c i p a l a t t i t u d e towards the importance  of a g r i -  c u l t u r e t o the area i s another f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the s u r v i v a l of a g r i c u l t u r e .  Two b a s i c p o i n t s of view emerge w i t h regard  to a g r i c u l t u r e and Richmond:  the f i r s t r e g r e t s the use of  good f a r m l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes and hopes t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l always be r e t a i n e d ; the second f o r e s e e s Richmond as an urban area w i t h l i t t l e or no a g r i c u l t u r e . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n the f i r s t p o i n t of view has over the second.  merit  Good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s a t a premium i n the  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  w h i l e v a s t areas of s u i t a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l  l a n d can be found on poor a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s , such as those of the uplands.  As the m e t r o p o l i t a n area grows i t w i l l r e q u i r e  i n c r e a s i n g amounts of food, e s p e c i a l l y f r e s h produce.  At the  present time, Richmond s u p p l i e s some of those products; however, l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s are b e i n g imported from other municipa l i t i e s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and from the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  5  M.L. C r e r a r , "Land C a p a b i l i t y " , The O c c a s i o n a l Papers, Vancouver, The B.C. D i v i s i o n of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Geography, No. 3, 1962. p. 2.  113  I f the nearby sources cease t o supply some of the demand, because of u r b a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e w i l l be a complete dependence upon d i s t a n t s o u r c e s .  T h i s would not be a s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n  i f these areas from which M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver g e t s i t s f o o d were not a l s o e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n upon a g r i c u l t u r a l 6 lands.  As a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage decreases i n d i s t a n t a r e a s ,  l e s s f o o d w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p o r t , then Vancouver  will  be f o r c e d t o f i n d new source a r e a s . These f a c t o r s w i l l l e a d t o h i g h e r p r i c e s and g r e a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs f o r food supplies.  Since a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d , once removed from p r o d u c t i o n due t o u r b a n i z a t i o n , cannot be r e t u r n e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e i t would seem h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e to r e t a i n a valuable l o c a l resource. In a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g an important source of f o o d t o the  Vancouver r e g i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l areas of Richmond have aes-  t h e t i c v a l u e t o the urban r e s i d e n t s .  The green pastures and  l u x u r i a n t gardens p r o v i d e a p e a c e f u l and r e f r e s h i n g  atmosphere  to nearby urban d w e l l e r s who o f t e n seek the open roads on weekends f o r temporary r e l i e f from the n o i s e , b u s t l e and c o n g e s t i o n of c i t y l i f e .  In the autumn a short d r i v e t o Richmond g i v e s  the  urban r e s i d e n t the o p p o r t u n i t y t o buy products f r e s h from  the  garden or b e r r y f i e l d from the many r o a d s i d e markets.  Thus he has the s a t i s f a c t i o n of o b t a i n i n g produce near the peak of i t s p e r f e c t i o n . 6  7  A e s t h e t i c v a l u e , per se, cannot be  P.F. G r i f f i n and R.L. Chatham, "Urban Impact on A g r i c u l t u r e i n Santa C l a r a County, C a l i f o r n i a " , Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, X L V I I I , No. 3, Sept.,1958, pp. 195-208. Land f o r Farming, p. 3.  114  measured i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s ;  however, i n a w o r l d plagued  by a n x i e t i e s , i t cannot be d i s c o u n t e d , The a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d of Richmond i s ever d e c r e a s i n g i n area and t h e r e seems l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h i s t r e n d w i l l cease.  The southern and e a s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s w i l l  the l a s t areas t o s u r v i v e .  be  I n d i c a t i o n s a l r e a d y a r e that these  areas w i l l become d i s s e c t e d by more urban f u n c t i o n s such as g o l f courses and i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s .  Thus, l a r g e acreages of  a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n Richmond can o n l y be r e t a i n e d i f s t r o n g a c t i o n i s taken now t o p r e s e r v e them.  B.  Urban Developments Richmond has a c q u i r e d a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a sub-  urban r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l areas and commercial and i n d u s t r i a l developments.  limited  The e v o l u t i o n of  urban development i n the past few years has been much more controlled.  Zoning has d i r e c t e d development i n t o planned  a r e a s , thus m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s are l e s s expensive and the sprawl appearance which Richmond had p r i o r t o 1958 has been reduced.  Present z o n i n g has r e s e r v e d 12,204 acres f o r v a r i o u s  urban uses.  Table XX Zoned Urban Area 1960* Used and P o t e n t i a l Residential Industrial Commercial Institutional Total  5,004.69 3,337.75 275.38 3,586.38 12,204.20  115  *For d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n see Appendix V Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department  I n d u s t r i a l Developments The p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r i a l areas remain a l o n g the and  south channels of the F r a s e r R i v e r where water  and r a i l and road f a c i l i t i e s are near at hand.  north  frontage  Due  to t h e i r  w i d e l y - s p a c e d nature, the i n d u s t r i a l areas s t i l l , have the appearance of i n d u s t r i a l s p r a w l .  Food and wood-processing  are s t i l l the main i n d u s t r i e s ; however, a few metal have r e c e n t l y l o c a t e d i n Richmond.  processors  For example, West Coast  S t e e l Company has e s t a b l i s h e d a p l a n t on M i t c h e l l I s l a n d . b a s i c raw m a t e r i a l i s scrap i r o n which i s shipped i n by The main l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r was  The  rail.  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l a r g e ,  i s o l a t e d piece of p r o p e r t y h a v i n g both water and r a i l s e r v i c e s . I n a s i m i l a r way,  the Aluminum Company of Canada L i m i t e d  e r e c t e d a p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t on Vulcan Way D u r i n g the p e r i o d from 1958  - 1953,  on L u l u I s l a n d . new  p l a n t s have  opened i n the i n d u s t r i a l zones along Vulcan Way Bridgeport.  and i n South  Amongst those l o c a t e d i n the former area are a  l i t h o g r a p h e r , s o f t d r i n k b o t t l i n g p l a n t , meat packer plywood manufacturer.  and  In the l a t t e r area, a f u r n i t u r e f a c t o r y  and a boat yard have been added.  Photographs 20 and 21 show  a few examples of i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s now  l o c a t e d i n Richmond.  Photograph 20, I n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s a l o n g Vulcan Way,  Photograph 21, Industrial plants along River Road a t No. 5 Road,  The m u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond has r e s e r v e d l a r g e areas a l o n g the n o r t h and south arms of the F r a s e r R i v e r f o r pote n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l use,  (Map 17),  However, development has  been r e l a t i v e l y slow because of c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h other suburban r e g i o n s f o r a prominent p o s i t i o n i n the growing t r i a l complex of the Greater Vancouver a r e a .  indus-  Although Richmond  has a l a r g e area s u i t a b l e f o r i n d u s t r y , l a n d p r i c e s t h e r e are no longer low, thus a former advantage no longer e x i s t s ,  In  g e n e r a l , the l a n d zoned f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes can r e a d i l y be developed.  Even the peat lands present few problems be-  cause the peat i s not deep and the sub-layer i s composed of s i l t y c l a y which p r o v i d e s an adequate foundation m a t e r i a l . (Photograph  22).  117  Photograph 22. i l p r o f i l e of peat and s i l t y - c l a y l a y e r s . Peas Thruway. Removal of the peat, s i l t - f i l l i n g and adequate drainage would be necessary i n most i n s t a n c e s . The i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l of Richmond w i l l depend upon how i t s r e g i o n a l p o s i t i o n and i t s s i t e f a c t o r s compare w i t h other areas around Greater Vancouver.  Richmond can p r o v i d e  i n d u s t r y w i t h l a r g e p a r c e l s of l a n d , wide w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y , and adeguate r a i l and road f a c i l i t i e s . ional report  8  A Lower Mainland Reg-  on i n d u s t r i a l l a n d prospects c o n s i d e r e d Richmond  as an important area i n the development of the Lower Mainland Region.  8  I n d u s t r i a l Lnnd P r o s p e c t s i n the Lower. MainlancLRegion of B T T r r T ^ v T e ^ t ^ I n s t e r , The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1961, p. 3.  118  The r e p o r t f o r e c a s t s t h a t Richmond s h o u l d r e c e i v e 36,5 percent of the new i n d u s t r i a l acreage and 13.0 percent of the new i n d u s t r i a l employment i n the years 1960-66? a c o n t i n u e d h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of development  Furthermore,  i s forecast f o r the  p e r i o d 1966-71; 29,2 percent o f the acreage and 15,6 percent of t h e employment. The main reasons f o r the o p t i m i s t i c o u t l o o k a r e :  Rich-  mond's p r o x i m i t y t o the present i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s which p e r m i t s a t r a v e l l i n g time of l e s s than f o r t y minutes t o c e n t r a l Vancouver; r e s e r v a t i o n of ample medium-cost i n d u s t r i a l  acreage  which possesses deep sea and s h a l l o w water f r o n t a g e , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l expansion through reclamat i o n of t h e L u l u I s l a n d peat bog, {1,200 a c r e s ) , Sturgeon Bank, (1,500 a c r e s ) , and Barber I s l a n d , (1,900 a c r e s ) . One major r e s e r v a t i o n made i n r e g a r d development  to industrial  throughout the Lower M a i n l a n d , which a p p l i e s p a r t -  i c u l a r l y t o Richmond, i s t h a t i n order t o prevent f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l s p r a w l , a r e g i o n a l approach must be taken towards f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l growth.  S i n c e the Lower Mainland r e g i o n  i s s m a l l , optimum use must be made of the a v a i l a b l e l a n d . Therefore areas near the present i n d u s t r i a l core, Vancouver, s h o u l d be developed f i r s t , then c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o the  9  I b i d . , p. 5  10 I b i d . , p. 11 11 I b i d . , p. 7  1  more p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s . " "  I f t h i s idea i s accepted Richmond  w i l l share i n t h e immediate i n d u s t r i a l growth, otherwise, i n d u s t r i a l sprawl w i l l continue t o be t h e o u t s t a n d i n g d i s a g r e e a b l e f e a t u r e i n t h e l a n d use p a t t e r n .  Commercial Developments Commercial developments s i n c e 1958 have been r a p i d and widespread,  and i n c l u d e shopping  and n u r s e r i e s .  c e n t r e s , marinas, g o l f courses  The c h i e f aim of the shopping  c e n t r e s was t o  p r o v i d e t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s w i t h more f a c i l i t i e s , both i n numbe and i n v a r i e t y .  The purpose of the other e n t e r p r i s e s was an  o r i e n t a t i o n towards a r e g i o n a l market. Although  there was a g e n e r a l commercial growth through-  out Richmond, r a p i d development was more r e g i o n a l i n n a t u r e . Most of t h e development was o u t s i d e the t h r e e main business d i s t r i c t s , Brighouse, B r i d g e p o r t and S t e v e s t o n , shopping areas were opened or expanded.  Several  These i n c l u d e d cen-  t r e s a t Number 1 Road and F r a n c i s , Number 3 and W i l l i a m s , Number 4 and Steveston Highway, and Number 5 and Gamble. The new c e n t r e s p r o v i d e d goods and s e r v i c e s f o r t h e newlydeveloped  r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the immediate d i s t r i c t .  Each  c e n t r e has a supermarket, drugstore,., medical o f f i c e and seve r a l s p e c i a l t y and s e r v i c e shops. 24).  12  I b i d . , p. 39, 40,  (Photographs 23 and  120  Photograph 23. S e a f a i r Shopp i n g C e n t r e , No. 1 Road.  Photograph 24. Commercial b u i l d i n g . South B r i d g e port .  Brighouse remains the main b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and w i l l continue t o be now t h a t a major department s t o r e , S e a r s ) , has decided to l o c a t e t h e r e .  (Simpsons-  By 1965 w i t h the com-  p l e t i o n of Richmond Square on the west s i d e of Number 3 Road, the Brighouse Commercial area w i l l extend a l o n g both s i d e s of the road from G r a n v i l l e Avenue t o Westminster  Highway.  I t w i l l have the g r e a t e s t number of s t o r e s and s e r v i c e  shops,  and, w i t h i t s c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n , w i l l become the main b u s i n e s s , r e c r e a t i o n a l and apartment c e n t r e i n Richmond. With the c l o s u r e of the o l d b r i d g e and the opening of the new road on Sea I s l a n d , the business centre of B r i d g e p o r t has moved south t o the new road.  A t present the commercial  area i s d e v e l o p i n g i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n along Number 3 Road:  121  t h i s f a c t may  r e s t r i c t any f u t u r e l a r g e - s c a l e development.  S i n c e B r i d g e p o r t i s o n l y a m i l e and one-half from Brighouse, and r e s i d e n t i a l development around B r i d g e p o r t i s s m a l l , t h e r e i s an u n l i k e l i h o o d of s u b s t a n t i a l growth i n the B r i d g e p o r t commercial a r e a .  The l i m i t e d commercial growth i n S t e v e s t o n  r e s u l t s from the s m a l l amount of i n d u s t r i a l and growth i n  the a r e a .  residential  The commercial area remains almost the  same s i z e today as i n 1958.  To p r o s p e c t i v e Richmond r e s i -  dents, S t e v e s t o n has few a t t r a c t i o n s because of the f i s h c a n n e r i e s and t h e i r p e r i o d i c s t r o n g odours.  Because of the  l a c k of r e s i d e n t i a l growth, t h e r e i s l i t t l e demand f o r , or p r o f i t i n v o l v e d i n , the expansion  of present commercial  facilities. Most of the r e g i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d commercial e n t e r p r i s e s have grown c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e 1958. both s i d e s of the Middle Arm Channel B r i d g e .  Marinas have l o c a t e d on  of the F r a s e r near the new Moray  The marinas p r o v i d e a w e l l - p r o t e c t e d area  w i t h i n a short d i s t a n c e of Georgia S t r a i t .  More n u r s e r i e s  have been e s t a b l i s h e d throughout L u l u I s l a n d , p r o v i d i n g f l o w e r s , shrubs and t r e e s t o the Greater Vancouver a r e a .  The  opening of another g o l f course a l o n g the Steveston Highway w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - z o n e d area reduced the a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , has e l i m i n a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t vegetable-growing  area.  The two race t r a c k s , which f o r m e r l y occupied the l a r g e s t commercial a r e a , were n o t a b l y reduced i n importance.  The  122  Brighouse t r a c k was c l o s e d as a p r a c t i c e t r a c k and p a r t i a l l y dismantled.  The Lansdowne t r a c k was c l o s e d t o the p u b l i c i n  I960, and i s now used s o l e l y as a t r a i n i n g a r e a .  Poor a t t e n d -  ance a t the r a c e s , and a severe outbreak of coughing amongst the race h o r s e s caused s e r i o u s economic l o s s e s i n 1959 and 1960. I t was d e c i d e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e a l l r a c i n g a t E x h i b i t i o n Park i n Vancouver r a t h e r than t o t r y t o make major improvements a t Lansdowne. In summary, commercial development i n Richmond has two noteworthy f e a t u r e s :  l o c a l l y - o r i e n t e d shopping and s e r v i c e  c e n t r e s and r e g i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d e n t e r p r i s e s .  New c e n t r e s a r e  b e i n g c r e a t e d , and commercial development i s becoming more widespread and more suburban i n c h a r a c t e r .  R e s i d e n t i a l Developments R e s i d e n t i a l development has always been the dominant urban l a n d use i n Richmond; however, I n the past decade and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , the c h a r a c t e r o f the development has changed from i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s to company undertakings.  S i m i l a r t o many other suburban r e g i o n s , R i c h -  mond's r e c e n t major h o u s i n g developments have, been c h i e f l y of a s p e c u l a t i v e nature r a t h e r than.of a c u s t o m e r - b u i l t b a s i s In other words, houses were b u i l t i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of a population influx.  The r o l e of the r e a l e s t a t e companies and the  s u b d i v i s i o n developers should not be underestimated when the main reasons f o r Richmond's r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth i n t h e  123 past t e n years are c o n s i d e r e d .  Land entrepreneurs  obtained  low-cost l a n d from the farmers, approximately $2,000 per a c r e , and b u i l t homes i n the medium-price range, $9,000 t o $12,000. S i n c e down payments and monthly mortgage payments continued to be r e l a t i v e l y low, many people, p a r t i c u l a r l y young couples, have moved out of Vancouver, where r e a l e s t a t e i s more expensive. By m i g r a t i n g , these people have become immersed i n the sea of s i m i l a r houses w i t h t h e i r g u a s i - a r t i s t i c l a n d s c a p i n g .  Commut-  i n g problems, overcrowded s c h o o l s , and a m u l t i t u d e of  neighbour-  hood c h i l d r e n form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of l i f e in' s u b u r b i a . Due  t o p r e v a i l i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s , the r a t e of r e s i -  d e n t i a l development v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from year to year r e g i o n a l l y w i t h i n Richmond.  Between 1957 and 1959  took p l a c e ; however, between 1950 and 1962 was  retarded.  and  r a p i d changes  r e s i d e n t i a l growth  Maps 18 and 19 i n d i c a t e the numerical change i n  d w e l l i n g s per s e c t i o n f o r these two p e r i o d s .  The s e c t i o n s  west and south of Brighouse, zoned as r e s i d e n t i a l areas, e x h i b i t e d most of the growth.  No s e c t i o n s experienced  i n the number of d w e l l i n g s d u r i n g the 1957 s e v e r a l d i d from 1959  - 1961.  reductions  - 1959 p e r i o d , as  Decreases r e g i s t e r e d d u r i n g  the l a t t e r p e r i o d were due t o a change i n l a n d use, f o r example, t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n the a i r p o r t a r e a , or to commercial or i n d u s t r i a l on L u l u I s l a n d . The e f f e c t s of zoning upon r e s i d e n t i a l development are c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n Maps 18 and 19.  In the zones not a l l o c a t e d  f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use, minimal growth, and i n s e v e r a l cases, reductions, occurred.  The l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n was  o f t e n the r e s u l t  124  tial  ns e  r  ee  OF D W E L L I N G PER  CHANGES  SECTION, 1957-1959 RICHMOND  N U M B E R OF D W E L L I N G  -I  CHANGES  --15 0 I  -  15  16  -  49  50  -  149  150  -  350  1/2  0  1 MILE  124  of a change t o some other urban use. A d d i t i o n a l modern l a r g e - s c a l e housing schemes, evident west of Number 3 Road on L u l u I s l a n d , i n c r e a s e d the density. and Map  The  residential  development i s s t i l l very d i s p e r s e d i n nature,  20, which shows the number of d w e l l i n g s i n  emphasizes t h i s p o i n t . o t h e r s , very few.  1962,  Some s e c t i o n s have over 300  houses;  W i t h i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l y - z o n e d a r e a ,  extreme c o n t r a s t s r e s u l t from the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of s e c t i o n s of h i g h and low d e n s i t y , thus a p a t c h w o r k - q u i l t  pattern  has  emerged. An i r r e g u l a r d e n s i t y p a t t e r n makes great demands upon e x i s t i n g municipal  services.  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t , r e g u l a t i o n s  have been i n s t i t u t e d t h a t r e q u i r e l a n d developers to  provide  many of the urban conveniences, such as paved roads, storm and s a n i t a r y sewers and s t r e e t l i g h t s .  U n t i l such time as  the o v e r a l l d w e l l i n g d e n s i t y reaches 100 or more per s e c t i o n , the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l not be r e c e i v i n g a maximum revenue f o r the s e r v i c e s i t mustprovide. S e v e r a l of the low d e n s i t y areas are remnants of past unwise s u b d i v i s i o n , which now to correct.  The  demands c o n s i d e r a b l e  effort  l o t s i n the low d e n s i t y areas are l a r g e ,  a q u a r t e r t o one a c r e , and f r e q u e n t l y long and narrow.  Three  such s u b d i v i s i o n s were examined to a s c e r t a i n the degree of use b e i n g made w i t h i n them.  (Table  XXI).  Tc0  t ol low poo. e m .  Table XXI The Degree of Development on Large R e s i d e n t i a l L o t s Degree of Development i n percent of t o t a l l o t area Size Sample 1 0.5  t o 1.0  0-19 ac.  20-39  40-5!  60-79  80-100  Total Lots  14  101  32  27  22  6  ac. ac.  3 17  2 37  2 32  2 25  ac. ac.  0 16  1 11  1 7  Sample 2 0.1 0.5  to 0.49 t o 1.0  74 25  oo 136  1 17  21 57  Sample 3 0.1 0.5  to 0.49 t o 1.0  Note: Sample 1 was Sample 2 was Sample 3 was  i n S e c t i o n 23, Block 5, Range 6 i n S e c t i o n 17, Block 4, Range 6 i n S e c t i o n 11, B l o c k 4, Range 7  In each sample, over h a l f of the 0.5  C l a s s IV s o i l s C l a s s IV s o i l s Class I I I s o i l  to 1.0  acre  lots  had l e s s than s i x t y percent of the area developed, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l a r g e r l o t s were not as e f f i c i e n t l y used as the s m a l l e r .  The undeveloped p a r t c o n s i s t e d of u n s i g h t l y  weeds or rough g r a s s , an example of the wastage of l a n d . (Photograph 25).  F u r t h e r d i v i s i o n ' o f the p r o p e r t y i s o f t e n  i m p o s s i b l e due t o i t s shape or t o the placement of the house. A s e r i o u s problem p e r s i s t s i n the Brighouse r e g a r d i n g the d e n s i t y of housing. major business centre "...  area  Many s e c t i o n s next to the  are r e a c h i n g a s t a t e of s t a t i c  d e n s i t y a t a l e v e l which i s uneconomically low due t o undev13 e l o p a b l e and waste 'back-land'". Early subdivision i n  Photograph 25. Unwise s u b d i v i s i o n c r e a t e s wasteland. t h i s r e g i o n c r e a t e d wide, deep l o t s , v a r y i n g i n area from one to f i v e acres.  Some f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n has taken place but now  the d e n s i t y of housing i s not i n c r e a s i n g ... because the m a j o r i t y of t h e a v a i l a b l e d e d i c a t e d and improved road f r o n t a g e has been developed t o a near maximum c a p a c i t y . I n hundreds of cases t h i s has produced l o n g narrow l o t s , the back p o r t i o n s of which can not be developed i n t o marketable l o t s unl e s s a l a r g e number of such adjacent b a c k - p r o p e r t i e s are c o n s o l i d a t e d and developed as one u n i t . 14  13  " D e n s i t y of R e s i d e n t i a l Development i n M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond, B.C.", Richmond, Town P l a n n i n g Department, 1959, p. 6. (mimeographed).  14  I b i d . , p. 6.  127  That these b a c k - p r o p e r t i e s should be developed i s readilyj u s t i f i e d because the l a n d i s not b e i n g u t i l i z e d f o r the growth of any a g r i c u l t u r a l crop the predominantly there.  "... and i s i n e f f e c t a burden t o  'urban-oriented'' p r o p e r t y owner r e s i d i n g  , Thus a s i t u a t i o n has a r i s e n due t o a change i n out-  look of a modern g e n e r a t i o n .  When the s e c t i o n s were f i r s t  d i v i d e d , l a r g e , l o n g l o t s were c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e .  Now  subthey  o n l y h i n d e r the compact u r b a n i z a t i o n t h a t the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t ment c o n s i d e r s necessary i n p r o x i m i t y t o the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s * core. The poorest housing i n Richmond i s found along and outs i d e the dykes, e s p e c i a l l y i n East Richmond. as seen i n Photograph  The houses,  such  26, hover over the r i v e r r e c e i v i n g min-  imum s e r v i c e s from the m u n i c i p a l i t y , namely, water and e l e c t ricity.  The homes are owned by fishermen or people  w i t h the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y .  P h o t o g r a p h 26.  12  I b i d . , p. 6.  P o o r housing..ojrtside_the_dyjfce^ E a s t RichmgripL.  connected  128  R e s i d e n t i a l development i n the f u t u r e must be planned and c o n t r o l l e d i f sprawl i s to be reduced and l a n d e f f i c i e n t l y used.  M u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s should encourage a r e g i o n a l d e v e l -  opment w i t h i n the present r e s i d e n t i a l zones, thereby r e s e r v i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d .  Without the most s t r i n g -  ent zoning r e g u l a t i o n s r e s i d e n t i a l development w i l l  completely  d i s s e c t and r u i n the remaining a g r i c u l t u r a l area as i t d i d i n the western r e g i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l Developments Richmond's growth i n p o p u l a t i o n and importance i n the Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n have r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r e a .  The p r i n c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l  owners at present are the Department of Transport,  land  which owns  the a i r p o r t , the Department of N a t i o n a l Defense, which operates the l a r g e w i r e l e s s s t a t i o n on L u l u - I s l a n d , and the munic i p a l i t y , which owns the parks and On Sea way  schools.  I s l a n d , the a i r p o r t has again augmented i t s run-  f a c i l i t i e s and thus e l i m i n a t e d approximately 400 a d d i t i o n a l  acres of a g r i c u l t u r e .  Since most of the i s l a n d i s owned by  the Department of Transport and  i s slated for future airport  expansion, farm acreage w i l l continue Sea  to decrease.  I s l a n d ' s emergence as a major i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t  i s c r e a t i n g ' s e v e r a l problems i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , over some of which i t has no c o n t r o l .  The  p r o f u s i o n of aeroplanes,  now  l a r g e i n s i z e , i s c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g the noise l e v e l around the a i r p o r t .  The  screaming of j e t engines as planes take o f f  or are t e s t e d , c r e a t e s a d i s t u r b a n c e , and s h a t t e r s the t r a n -  129  q u i l i t y of nearby r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s .  Old-time r e s i d e n t s c l a i m  t h a t they have become i n d i f f e r e n t t o the n o i s e ; however, p r o s p e c t i v e r e s i d e n t s may  not f e e l the same  way.  The more frequent use of the a i r p o r t has generated a vast i n c r e a s e i n the amount of ground t r a f f i c between the a i r p o r t Greater Vancouver.  To reduce f u t u r e t r a f f i c  congestion,  and  im-  proved highway s e r v i c e w i l l be i m p e r a t i v e , and a t u n n e l or another b r i d g e may  have t o be  constructed.  The o p e r a t i o n s of the Department of N a t i o n a l Defense on L u l u I s l a n d w i l l probably have l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the f u t u r e growth of any of Richmond's f u n c t i o n s because of the l o c a t i o n of the w i r e l e s s s t a t i o n upon s o i l s w i t h a h i g h peat content. At present the s t a t i o n marks an open area between two zones composed of r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l s m a l l - h o l d i n g s . To keep pace w i t h i t s growing p o p u l a t i o n the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s ever m u l t i p l y i n g the number of s c h o o l s , parks and p l a y grounds. reserved.  Some f u t u r e s i t e s have a l r e a d y been purchased or In 1963 Richmond operated 34 s c h o o l s , e n r o l l i n g  10,655 p u p i l s , compared to the 1958 6,500 p u p i l s .  and  The h i g h e r number of students r e f l e c t s the  p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , and, new  t o t a l s of 21 schools  i n p a r t i c u l a r , the f a c t t h a t many  r e s i d e n t s are younger people w i t h school-age c h i l d r e n .  As long as younger couples continue to take up residence i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , Richmond w i l l be f a c e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g educational costs.  130  C.  Peat E x t r a c t i o n Developments S i n c e t h e r e i s a f i n i t e amount of peat l o c a t e d i n R i c h -  mond, e x h a u s t i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y occur;  however, the a v a i l a b l e  r e s e r v e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r s e v e r a l decades i f the present production'rate i s maintained.  The recent i n t r o d u c t i o n of  a type of g i a n t vacuum machine supplements hand-digging  of  the peat, and has i n c r e a s e d the r a t e and amount of commercial e x t r a c t i o n of peat moss. have been abandoned may  Through t h i s i n n o v a t i o n , areas which  a g a i n provide marketable  peat.  S i n c e the n o r t h e r n bog has the s m a l l e s t r e s e r v e s and the g r e a t e s t number of e x t r a c t i o n companies, i t w i l l be the f i r s t t o become d e p l e t e d .  However, much of t h i s area w i l l  probably be c o n v e r t e d i n t o c r a n b e r r y and b l u e b e r r y farms, thus changing  i t s l a n d use type.  Markets f o r peat products have been e x c e p t i o n a l l y good i n the past decade and f u t u r e demands seem o p t i m i s t i c because few other areas can p r o v i d e the raw m a t e r i a l , Richmond's c h i e f competitor l i e s a c r o s s the r i v e r i n D e l t a , where the  Burns'  Bog i s the l a r g e s t and most p r o d u c t i v e i n the Lower Mainland. Richmond w i l l continue to be a major producer of raw  and  processed peat f o r the Lower Mainland r e g i o n , as w e l l as a p r o v i d e r of l a r g e g u a n t i t i e s f o r the western U n i t e d S t a t e s .  D.  Road and R a i l Network The road and r a i l network continued t o expand a f t e r  1958; however, t h i s growth was c o n f i n e d i n area and removed  131  o n l y a s m a l l amount of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from p r o d u c t i o n . Most roads were c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n new r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t o r s , or as c o n n e c t i n g l i n k s w i t h the Deas Thruway.  New r a i l  c o n s i s t e d o n l y of spur l i n e s l e a d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l  lines  industrial  p l a n t s . (Map 2 shows roads and r a i l l i n e s i n 1962). The most noteworthy road c o n s t r u c t i o n was the completion i n 1959 of the Deas Thruway.  To p r o v i d e adequate f o u n d a t i o n s  f o r the highway, a l l the peat was removed from the roadbed and silt f i l l , truck.  t h r e e to s i x f e e t i n depth, was then hauled i n by  (Photographs 27 and 28).  Photograph 27. E x c a v a t i n g a road bed through peat land.  Photograph 28. Excavated roadbed - Deas Thru, way.  The completed highway p r o v i d e d r a p i d , d i r e c t access across Lulu Island.  (Photographs 29 and 30).  The Oak S t r e e t  B r i d g e a t the n o r t h end of the highway e a s i l y accommodates Richmond-Vancouver t r a f f i c , and the Deas Tunnel a l l o w s a  132  speedy c r o s s i n g of the F r a s e r R i v e r i n t o D e l t a and points.  southern  The Oak S t r e e t Bridge has reduced the t r a f f i c on the  Photograph 29. Deas Thruway interchange.  Photograph 30, S t r a i g h t f o u r lane thruway from the t u n n e l .  o l d b r i d g e s c o n n e c t i n g F r a s e r S t r e e t i n Vancouver and Number 5 Road on L u l u I s l a n d .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Queensborough  B r i d g e c o n n e c t i n g New Westminster and L u l u I s l a n d has  helped  to ease t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s on the e a s t e r n end of the i s l a n d . The main r a i l extensions i n t o i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t y were l o c a t e d e i t h e r a l o n g Vulcan Way facilitate was  or on M i t c h e l l I s l a n d .  To  shipment of f i n i s h e d aluminum products, a spur l i n e  extended i n t o the p r o p e r t y of the Aluminum Company of  Canada.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of West Coast S t e e l M i l l s on M i t c h e l l  I s l a n d n e c e s s i t a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a swing-span b r i d g e a c r o s s the North Arm  of the F r a s e r , as w e l l as an a d d i t i o n a l  133  m i l e of t r a c k a g e .  The r a i l e x t e n s i o n b r i n g s i n scrap i r o n and  s h i p s out processed  steel.  At p r e s e n t , road and r a i l f a c i l i t i e s a r e adequate, and w i l l undoubtedly ality.  i n c r e a s e w i t h the expansion of the municip-  However, new b r i d g e s connecting Number 5 Road t o F r a s e r  S t r e e t i n Vancouver, v i a M i t c h e l l I s l a n d , a r e u r g e n t l y needed, The o l d two-lane wooden b r i d g e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r frequent d e l a y s of t r a f f i c .  (Photograph  31).  Some r e l i e f may be f o r t h -  coming when t h e t o l l s a r e removed from the Oak S t r e e t Bridge on A p r i l 1, 1964; n e v e r t h e l e s s , b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s a r e a necess i t y i n the Number 5 Road area because i t forms a major l i n k between C e n t r a l and E a s t e r n Vancouver and the Deas Thruway. Mass c o n g e s t i o n r e s u l t s d u r i n g rush hours as t r a f f i c  creeps  over t h e two o l d b r i d g e s and a l o n g t h e narrow Number 5 Road. (Photograph automobile  32),  As Richmond's p o p u l a t i o n grows, more of i t s  commuters w i l l seek b e t t e r access routes from and  to the i s l a n d s .  A t t h e same time, because Richmond i s p a r t of  the new freeway system, i t i s i n c r e a s i n g i n importance Lower Mainland t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n .  t o the  A l l of these f a c t o r s  w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y . However, any improvements w i l l mean a f u r t h e r change i n l a n d use and undoubtedly in a g r i c u l t u r a l land.  a decrease  So f a r the c p n s t r u c t i o n of the thruway  has not brought about any s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e use of land along i t s route.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n would change i f the  m u n i c i p a l i t y a l l o w e d commercial and i n d u s t r i a l development to occur a l o n g the highway.  Photograph 31. Delays due t o an open span.  E.  Photograph 32. Narrow wooden b r i d g e c o n n e c t i n g Ho. 5 Road and M i t c h e l l I s l a n d .  Vacant Land Vacant l a n d i s s t i l l abundant throughout the municip-  a l i t y . Large areas a r e found on the peat bogs; tens of acres surround the p a r t i a l l y - d e v e l o p e d s u b d i v i s i o n s ; and s c a t t e r e d , empty l o t s a r e conspicuous i n the more d e n s e l y - s e t t l e d a r e a s . (Photographs 33 and 34).  The r a t e a t which vacant l a n d i s  becoming u t i l i z e d v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y .  Regional d i f f e r e n t i a -  t i o n s i n s o i l t y p e , a c c e s s i b i l i t y , p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r use, and c o s t , i n f l u e n c e not o n l y the r a t e of occupancy, but a l s o the type of development.  Since the area of vacant land i s  l a r g e , l a n d users have a wide c h o i c e of l o c a t i o n s .  135  'holograph 33, Vacant l a n d on the Deep Peat  Photograph 34.  soils.  Large vacant areas i n a s u b d i v i s i o n .  W i t h i n the present r e s i d e n t i a l zone there a r e approxi m a t e ^ 1,000 acres of vacant- l a n d , or enough space t o b u i l d 6,000 more homes.  I f the present r a t e of b u i l d i n g , (300  d w e l l i n g s per y e a r ) , c o n t i n u e s , there w i l l be vacant l a n d  a v a i l a b l e f o r the next twenty y e a r s .  However, i t i s very  u n l i k e l y t h a t complete occupancy w i l l take p l a c e .  New  areas,  such as the present a g r i c u l t u r a l zones, w i l l probably be opened to r e s i d e n t i a l development. may  Thus some vacant l a n d  always, be p a r t of the Richmond landscape. The peat lands have been the g r e a t e s t vacant  areas  because development of any k i n d must contend w i t h a number of problems, such as drainage, s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , and foundations.  suitable  Zoning r e g u l a t i o n s have r e s e r v e d most of t h i s  area f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l or i n d u s t r i a l use.  The l a t t e r use would  r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e f i l l i n g i n order to improve f o u n d a t i o n material.  Even i f the peat areas were zoned as r e s i d e n t i a l there  i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t widespread use would be made of these lands f o r t h i s purpose, f o r the u n a t t r a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s of poor drainage and spongy s o i l s would discourage p r o s p e c t i v e residents.  In the p a s t , peat lands were occupied by  s e e k i n g l a n d which was  low i n p r i c e and taxes..  and taxes have i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y the peat areas now have no s p e c i a l  people  Land values  over the y e a r s , thus  attraction.  At the present  t i m e , and f o r some years to come, t h e r e w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t vacant l a n d a v a i l a b l e on good s o i l s so t h a t the m a j o r i t y of urban developers w i l l have l i t t l e areas.  Furthermore,  i n c l i n a t i o n to use the poorer  b u i l d i n g and zoning r e g u l a t i o n s do not  permit the development of "poor" housing upon-the peat because m u n i c i p a l standards have been e s t a b l i s h e d .  lands  137  F . Summary and Recommendations The  l a n d use and p o p u l a t i o n of Richmond have been g r e a t l y  m o d i f i e d s i n c e 1930.  No longer i s the m u n i c i p a l i t y mainly a  r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l area producing  s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of d a i r y  products and f r e s h produce f o r the Greater Vancouver r e g i o n . The  former inexpensive  l a n d and low tax r a t e s have  disappeared  because of changing economic c o n d i t i o n s and the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r urban p r o p e r t y .  S i m i l a r l y , the farm p o p u l a t i o n  e x h i b i t e d a steady d e c l i n e , and c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y a very percentage of today's t o t a l Richmond i s now  small  population.  one of s e v e r a l suburban areas  t o the C i t y of Vancouver.  has  adjacent  As such, i t has many urban c h a r a c t -  e r i s t i c s , f o r example, r a p i d l y - g r o w i n g r e s i d e n t i a l and commerc i a l a r e a s , expanding i n d u s t r i a l regions and an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g population.  However, d e s p i t e these f e a t u r e s , i t r e t a i n s many  r u r a l q u a l i t i e s such as l a r g e farmlands and vast peat bogs. To the Greater Vancouver a r e a , the Richmond of today o f f e r s many a t t r a c t i o n s : a g r i c u l t u r a l produce i s s t i l l  obtainable,  l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d remain a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l  and  commercial development, and the i n c r e a s e i n the number of houses enhances the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o s s i b i l i t y as a r e s i d e n t i a l area. Richmond has a l s o provided an important  l i n k i n the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network of the Lower Mainland because of the Deas Thruway and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t . the area f a r more a c c e s s i b l e to those who  The thruway makes  r e s i d e t h e r e , or  138  whose d e s t i n a t i o n i s Richmond.  The l o c a t i o n of the a i r p o r t  i n Richmond i n v o l v e s the passage of many people t o and from the a r e a .  However, the c h i e f b e n e f i t from these two  facilit-  i e s accrues t o the Greater Vancouver a r e a , and not t o Richmond. . An examination of past and present trends and of R i c h mond's a s s e t s as a r e g i o n w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver a r e a , i n d i c a t e s t h a t Richmond w i l l continue t o become more u r b a n i z e d . The f o l l o w i n g reasons are o f f e r e d i n support of t h i s conclusion:  Richmond has l a r g e areas of l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r urban  f u n c t i o n s i n p r o x i m i t y t o an expanding m e t r o p o l i s .  I t s coastal  and r i v e r p o s i t i o n o f f e r s a prime area f o r f u t u r e expansion of i n d u s t r y based upon s h i p p i n g .  No m u n i c i p a l i t y adjacent t o  Vancouver has such an abundance of p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w i t h both deep sea and s h a l l o w d r a f t water frontage r e s e r v e d and ready f o r development.  As i n d u s t r i a l and commercial employ-  ment i n c r e a s e s and urban a m e n i t i e s such as sewers, covered d r a i n a g e , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and shopping f a c i l i t i e s are improved, the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l become more a t t r a c t i v e t o those seeking r e s i d e n t i a l property.  C o n t i n u a l growth i n p o p u l a t i o n  i n the Lower Mainland r e g i o n w i l l ensure t h a t l a r g e numbers of people w i l l l i v e i n the suburbs. With i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n f o r e s e e n , a c o n t i n u a l r e d u c t ion  i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage can be expected because farm,  lands are the areas most e a s i l y converted to urban developments, and some farms are a l r e a d y o p e r a t i n g on a m a r g i n a l economic b a s i s .  I n c r e a s i n g urban encroachment i s e v i d e n t w i t h i n  a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l sectors.  Zoning r e g u l a t i o n s do not completely  prevent farmland from b e i n g used i n the f u t u r e by urban  139  f u n c t i o n s : b a s i c a l l y , they o n l y ensure a more o r d e r l y development of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y .  Increased pressure t o expand the  u r b a n i z e d area and t h e g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s of people t o subd i v i d e and s e l l t h e i r l a n d ,  make i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r  m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s t o f o r e s t a l l i n d e f i n i t e l y the occupancy of some farm l a n d . If the b e l i e f that greater urbanization i s inevitable i s accepted, s e v e r a l recommendations should be made t o assure t h a t Richmond and the Lower Mainland r e c e i v e the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t from a l l resources and a s s e t s a v a i l a b l e . 1.  The scope of p l a n n i n g , both on a m u n i c i p a l and on a  broader r e g i o n a l b a s i s , should be enlarged t o guard a g a i n s t i n j u d i c i o u s developments which have been common i n the p a s t , to prevent unnecessary  c o m p e t i t i o n between r e g i o n s f o r t h e  a c q u i s i t i o n of new i n d u s t r i e s , and most important of a l l , t o g i v e p l a n n i n g departments, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, g r e a t e r a u t h o r i t y t o implement the p r o p o s a l s o f t h e i r l a n d use s t u d i e s . 2.  S i n c e Richmond i s b a s i c a l l y a r e s i d e n t i a l area, a g r e a t e r  e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o expand the i n d u s t r i a l base and thus reduce the t a x burden p l a c e d upon the r e s i d e n t i a l and farm population. 3.  Through zoning and redevelopment, uneconomical urban sprawl  c o n d i t i o n s can be reduced t o g i v e g r e a t e r cohesion t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and produce a more e f f i c i e n t use o f l a n d , 4.  A c a r e f u l reassessment of the p o s i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e i n  Richmond and the Lower Mainland i s i m p e r a t i v e .  If i t i s  a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t farmland i s a necessary and i n t e g r a l p a r t of  140  the r e g i o n , as t h e author b e l i e v e s i t s h o u l d be, then immediate a c t i o n s h o u l d be forthcoming t o prevent f u r t h e r l o s s of good s o i l r e s o u r c e s and e c o n o m i c a l l y sound farm u n i t s .  The r a t e of  t a x a t i o n on farmland should not be a l l o w e d t o i n c r e a s e and, i f p o s s i b l e , i t should be decreased. of  I n c e n t i v e s i n the forms  t e c h n i c a l a i d and broader l o a n f a c i l i t i e s would make pos-  s i b l e the improvement of farming methods and p r o d u c t i o n , and adequate and p r o f i t a b l e marketing o p p o r t u n i t i e s should be m a i n t a i n e d f o r those farmers i n t e r e s t e d i n keeping a g r i c u l t u r e as an important l o c a l  industry.  The haphazard and o f t e n premature consumption  of v a l -  uable a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t h a t o c c u r r e d i n Richmond, e s p e c i a l l y i n the past two decades, i s p r e s e n t l y e n g u l f i n g other munici p a l i t i e s i n the Lower Mainland and s i m i l a r areas adjacent t o many North American major c i t i e s .  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New Westminster, Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1961. J e f f e r y , M . "The Sockeye L t d . , " Vancouver, B.C. Company, 1958. (Mimeographed).  Electric  K e l l e y , C.C. and R. H, S p i l s b u r y . S o i l Survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1939. K i d d , T,  H i s t o r y of L u l u I s l a n d and O c c a s i o n a l Poems. Vancouver, W r i g l e y D i r e c t o r y L i m i t e d , 1927.  K r e u g e r , R. "Changing Land Uses i n the Niagara F r u i t B e l t , " Geographical B u l l e t i n , Number 14, 1960, pp. 5-24. Land f o r Farming. New Westminster, Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board, 1962, L a n g l o i s , C. "Problems of Urban Growth i n Greater M o n t r e a l , " The Canadian Geographer, V, No. 3, 1961, pp. 1-11. Matthews, B.C. " S o i l Resources and Land Use Hazards i n Southern O n t a r i o , " The Canadian Geographer, V I I I , 1958, pp. 55-62. Ormsby, M. B r i t i s h Columbia:: a H i s t o r y . Vancouver, M a c m i l l a n Company of Canada L i m i t e d , 1958. Robinson, J . L . B r i t i s h Columbia Geography Manual. The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1954,  Victoria,  School Needs f o r Richmond 1959-61. New Westminster, Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, September, 1958. " S o i l s i n Richmond High i n F e r t i l i t y , " Marpole-Richmond Review, V, No. 9, May 27, 1936. Stevens, G.R. Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways, Toward the I n e v i t a b l e , 1896-1922, I I , Toronto, C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L i m i t e d , 1962. "Steveston," pp.  B.C. Gazetteer and D i r e c t o r y , X I I I , 1910, 1046-1050.  143  T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board. Vancouver A i r p o r t I n d u s t r i a l Survey 1958. A r e p o r t prepared by the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, Vancouver, 1958. T i l l , H. Vancouver T r a f f i c H i s t o r y . Vancouver, no date g i v e n . Wrigley's  B.C. D i r e c t o r y . L i m i t e d , 1930.  B.C. E l e c t r i c Company,  Vancouver, W r i g l e y D i r e c t o r i e s  144  APPENDIX I D e f i n i t i o n s of C a t e g o r i e s used i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use: Agricultural - i n c l u d e s a l l p l o t s of l a n d 3 acres or more i n area which produce some a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . Grains - I n c l u d e a l l p l o t s of l a n d h a v i n g more than one-half acre of a g r a i n crop such as o a t s , b a r l e y or wheat. Fruits - i n c l u d e s m a l l f r u i t s such as s t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , l o g a n b e r r i e s , b l u e b e r r i e s and c r a n b e r r i e s . - exclude any s i z e a b l e orchards of a p p l i e s or c h e r r i e s , as these were not present i n Richmond. Market Garden - i n c l u d e s l o t s which produce a v a r i e t y of vegetables i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s to be of commercial  value.  P a s t u r e or Grass - i n c l u d e s p a s t u r e grass and  hay.  - excludes rough g r a s s , d e f i n e d as grass which i s not being tended or used f o r any  purpose.  - excludes lawns or g o l f courses.  145  APPENDIX I I D e f i n i t i o n s of C a t e g o r i e s  r e f e r r e d to as Urban F u n c t i o n s :  Industrial - a l l l o t s on which a product i s manufactured. - i n c l u d e s e l e c t r i c a l s u b s t a t i o n s and o i l pumping s t a t i o n s . Commercial - a l l l o t s on which e i t h e r r e t a i l or wholesale goods are sold. - includes a l l service  establishments.  - i n c l u d e s commercial n u r s e r i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , such as g o l f courses and race t r a c k s . Residential - i n c l u d e s a l l l o t s l e s s than 3 acres which are comprised of r e s i d e n c e s and a s s o c i a t e d lawns and gardens. - excludes  l o t s 1 t o 3 acres which have an annual cash crop  v a l u e d at or above $250. Institutional - i n c l u d e s a l l governmental or m u n i c i p a l p r o p e r t y , f o r example, s c h o o l s , community h a l l s , l e g i o n s , parks and playgrounds. - i n c l u d e s the a i r p o r t - o p e r a t i o n a l and t e r m i n a l areas, Royal Canadian A i r Force S t a t i o n and Department of I; i  I  Transport b u i l d i n g s .  146  APPENDIX I I I 1958 Land Use Survey In May, 1958, as an employee of t h e Geographical Branch, Department c f Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, Ottawa, the author undertook a p i l o t l a n d use survey of Richmond m u n i c i p a l i t y . The survey i n c l u d e d a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d o f the use made of every p a r c e l of l a n d on L u l u and M i t c h e l l I s l a n d s . *  Each l o t was  c l a s s i f i e d as t o o v e r a l l use, then the s p e c i f i c use of each i n t e r n a l area of t h e l o t was noted.  In a d d i t i o n , f o r areas  c o n s i d e r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l , the p r o p o r t i o n of l a n d devoted t o each crop was r e c o r d e d .  The i n f o r m a t i o n obtained was recorded  upon f i e l d maps a t a s c a l e of 1:2400.  Subsequently, a com-  p o s i t e map was prepared f o r the Geographical Branch a t a s c a l e of  1:12,000.  The composite map, f i e l d sheets and a d d i t i o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n gained w h i l e c a r r y i n g out t h e survey formed the b a s i s used by the author f o r Chapter IV.  *  The l a n d use survey of Sea I s l a n d , recorded by the author i n August, 1958, was independent of the government survey.  147  APPENDIX IV Methods used t o o b t a i n D e t a i l e d Land Use I n f o r m a t i o n f o r 1958. S i n c e no a c c u r a t e f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e f o r each type of l a n d use i n Richmond, i t was necessary t o compile the needed i n f o r m a t i o n from the 1958 survey f i e l d maps. i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l time-consuming 1.  This  procedure  steps:  The area of each l o t was obtained from the assessment  r o l e s , Assessment Department, Richmond. 2.  Each l o t was then c l a s s i f i e d as t o type of l a n d use,  whether r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , e t c . 3.  The area used and unused on each l o t was t a b u l a t e d and  the degree of development was c a l c u l a t e d on a percentage b a s i s . 4.  L o t s c l a s s i f i e d as a g r i c u l t u r a l or s m a l l - h o l d i n g areas  were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o the area occupied by v e g e t a b l e s , f r u i t s , g r a i n s , grasses and other uses. 5.  The r e s u l t s of a l l the t a b u l a t i o n s were summarized so  t h a t a t o t a l acreage c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r each major l a n d use and a g r i c u l t u r a l crop on a s e c t i o n a l , regional, i s l a n d or m u n i c i p a l basis,, The f o l l o w i n g a r e samples of the t a b l e s prepared t o t a b u l a t e the acreage f o r each l a n d use and each a g r i c u l t u r a l crop.  148  Sample T a b l e . Land Use Acreage f o r a Few S e c t i o n s on Sea I s l a n d Block 5 - Range 6 Sections 7 17 18 19 20 21 29 31 Total  Res,,, Com.  Ind.  27.0 1.7  Inst.  46.1  7.5  17.8  .1 117.2 51.6  46.1  36.2  17.8  168.9  Agric.  Vacant  7.6 12.5 124.0 156.3 107.0  T o t a l Area 7.6 12.5 124.0 156.3 134.0 1.8  188.6 51.6 407.4  0.0  676.4  Res. - r e s i d e n t i a l ; Com. - commercial; I n d . - i n d u s t r i a l ; Inst. - institutional; Agric, - agricultural.  Sample T a b l e . A g r i c u l t u r a l Crops by P l o t s Crop  1  Plots 2  3  Vegetables Grain Fruit Grasses Other  36 .0  16.0  50.0  1 .6 8 .0 ,2  8.0 1.7  15.0 5.5 ,5  Total  45 .8  25.7  76.0  4 38.7 10.0 13.0 1.0 62.7  149  APPENDIX V The Gross Acreage w i t h i n Each Zoned Area. 1960 Zone General R e s i d e n t i a l I General R e s i d e n t i a l I I Small-Holding D i s t r i c t Agricultural District L o c a l Commercial D i s t r i c t Gas S t a t i o n D i s t r i c t General Commercial D i s t r i c t Service D i s t r i c t General M a n u f a c t u r i n g Schools and Parks Airport Private Recreational  Acres 2,376 .08 2,628 .61 3,115 .44 12.341 .94 20 .61 7 .45 132 .27 115 .05 3,337 .75 703 .48 2,879 .49 3 .41 27,664 .58  Roads and Rights-of-way  2,207 ,08 29,871 .66  Source:  Richmond P l a n n i n g Department  

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