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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Love-death theme in D. H. Lawrence's early novels Falk, Linda Margaret 1968

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THE LOVE-DEATH THEME IN D. H. LAWRENCE'S EARLY NOVELS by  B.A-,  L i n d a Margaret F a l k The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  A Thesis Submitted I n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t Of The Requirements F o r The Degree Of Masters of Arts i n the Department English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h »  A p r i l , 1968  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  f o r an  that  advanced degree at  the  Study.  thesis  thesis- in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  I further  or p u b l i c a t i o n  w i t h o u t my  be  h.f.'s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  of t h i s  written  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  /?.  g r a n t e d by  the  Head o f  Columbia  /ft?  this  my  It i s understood that  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  Department  Cl^g  and  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  Department or by  Date  British  the  be  copying  allowed  ABSTRACT The t h e s i s explores the v a r i o u s aspects o f the l o v e death theme i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d , man-man, and man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f o u r of D. H. Lawrence's e a r l y novels: The White Peacock, Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, and Women i n Love. However, before t h i s theme can be examined, i t i s necessary  t o e s t a b l i s h , i n d e t a i l , what Lawrence con-  s i d e r s t o be the u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r a l f a c t o r  determining  the d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s i n the love r e l a t i o n s h i p s : the C h r i s t i a n teaching of s e l f - d e n i a l .  C h r i s t i a n i t y has l e d  the i n d i v i d u a l t o deny h i s S e l f , h i s d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y , his  instinctive individuality.  " s e l f l e s s " creature.  He becomes a " s a c r i f i c e d , " •  Lawrence sees modern i n d u s t r i a l i s m ,  n a t i o n a l i s m and education as s e c u l a r extensions ianity:  of C h r i s t -  i n a l l o f them,the i n d i v i d u a l no longer counts.  He becomes a mere u n i t i n the great machinery of i n d u s t r i a l i s m , i n the impersonal i n s t i t u t i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m , and i n the education  system with i t s f a l s i f i e d Truths and  "vulgar a u t h o r i t y . " has taken p l a c e .  A " d i s s o c i a t i o n of s e n s i b i l i t y "  I n d i v i d u a l s have l o s t the c a p a c i t y t o  respond spontaneously with the "whole" man.  They have  become "not me" c r e a t u r e s . Because modern man has denied Selfhood, the love between man and woman, which should r e c e i v e f i r s t i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d by p a r e n t - c h i l d l o v e .  place,  The woman  cannot love and respect the weak man with the destroyed Self.  I n her desperate attempt t o f i n d the f u l f i l l m e n t  that she cannot f i n d with her husband, she turns to h e r children. she  They become the s u b s t i t u t e l o v e r s t o which  "sacrifices" herself.  By t u r n i n g t o her c h i l d r e n ,  she h u m i l i a t e s her husband and thus f u r t h e r him,  as w e l l as h e r s e l f .  destroys  And the c h i l d r e n , too, become  " c r i p p l e d " as the r e s u l t o f such a p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n ship :  they f e e l o b l i g a t e d t o r e t u r n the s a c r i f i c i a l  to the parent  and thereby rob themselves o f love that  f i n d expression  elsewhere.  love should  Mot o n l y  does  and r e s p e c t of establish  t h e w e a k man f a i l t o m a i n t a i n t h e  t h e woman,  but  a wholesome r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r  c o r d i n g t o L a w r e n c e , a man the  "purposive,  man-to-man  the four for  they bring further  building  d i s t i n c t Selfhood to  either  novels  examined,  Acfor  world.  a  bring  the love  usually destructive: t h e man o r w o m a n ,  a destroyed Self  to  to  this  a form of  or both.  w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l becomes f r e e ;  i i  death  Frequently and  a purgation  a destruc-  through  t h r o u g h d e s t r u c t i o n he  to a capacity for  love.  the  O c c a s i o n a l l y , the  t i o n i n t h e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a rebirth  between  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  destruction takes place.  experiences  men.  to  friendship.  man a n d woman i s occurs  fails  m u s t u n i t e w i t h o t h e r men  c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y " of  The w e a k l i n g h a s no In  a l s o he f r e q u e n t l y  love  a new,  spontaneous  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  I  II  III  IV V  VI  Page  Introduction .  1  The C u l t u r a l F a c t o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Destructive Relationships  5  The "Rotten" Church and t h e D e s t r u c t i v e Man-Woman R e l a t i o n s h i p . . . . . .  13  The I n f l u e n c e of C h r i s t i a n i t y on I n s t i t u t i o n s a n d the R e s u l t i n g D e s t r u c t i v e Relationships. . . . . .  33  The U n f u l f i l l e d Parent and t h e C h i l d  55  "The N a t u r a l Flow o f Common Sympathy Between Men and Men"  77  The D e s t r u c t i v e and C r e a t i v e Elements of the Man-Woman Relationship  88  Conclusion  110  INTRODUCTION I n one o f h i s essays Lawrence writes:- "A. woman i s one bank o f t h e r i v e r o f my l i f e , and the w o r l d i s t h e o t h e r . Without t h e two s h o r e s , my l i f e would be a marsh. I t i s the r e l a t i o n t o woman, and t o my f e l l o w men, which makes me myself a r i v e r o f l i f e . . " Establishing satisf a c t o r y human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s o f v i t a l importance t o Lawrence. I t i s t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t of h i s n o v e l s . While both the r e l a t i o n t o t h e woman and t o h i s f e l l o w men are a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o make a man " a r i v e r of l i f e , " h i s r e l a t i o n t o t h e woman i s paramount. Lawrence s t r e s s e s t h i s i n h i s essay " M o r a l i t y and the Novel":; "The g r e a t r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r humanity, w i l l always be the r e l a t i o n between man and woman. The r e l a t i o n between man and man, woman and woman, and parent and c h i l d , w i l l always be s u b s i d i a r y . A l t h o u g h t h e o t h e r r e l a t i o n s are s u b s i d i a r y , they a r e extremely i m p o r t a n t ; f r e q u e n t l y they determine t h e success o f t h e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e novels.. I n f a c t , a l l t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n t r i c a t e l y bound t o g e t h e r and dependent upon one another. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Lawrence's n o v e l s e x i s t i n a c i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing. With t h e change has come c o r r u p t i o n . Lawrence m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e c o r r u p t i o n has i t s source i n the C h r i s t i a n o r i e n t e d society.. C h r i s t i a n i t y emphasizes s e l f - d e n i a l : j u s t as C h r i s t denied h i m s e l f and s a c r i f i c e d h i s l i f e f o r mankind, so the C h r i s t i a n must deny h i s S e l f . . According to Lawrence, t h i s t e a c h i n g o f s e l f - d e n i a l has become t h e u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r o f the c u l t u r e i n which the p e r s o n , whether C h r i s t i a n o r n o t , f i n d s h i m s e l f . I n t h i s c u l t u r e the i n d i v i d u a l man no l o n g e r counts. He has become a meaningless f i g u r e i n the g r e a t machinery of i n d u s t r i a l i s m and i n the impersonal i n s t i t u t i o n of nationalism.. The i n d i v i d u a l has l o s t h i s d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y ; he i s no l o n g e r a unique e n t i t y . H i s S e l f has been " s a c r i f i c e d " and consequently destroyed. A person w i t h a 1  2 d e s t r o y e d S e l f has l o s t t h e c a p a c i t y f o r t h e spontaneous response o f l o v e ; he can g i v e o n l y a f o r c e d , s a c r i f i c i a l l o v e . I n any r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such a l o v e i s d i s a s t r o u s . I t d e s t r o y s t h e S e l f o f o t h e r s . Thus the C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g o f s e l f - d e n i a l has c o r r u p t e d our c i v i l i z a t i o n . Man has become a d e p e r s o n a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l . Lawrence's n o v e l s a r e c e n t r a l l y concerned w i t h human l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . U s u a l l y these r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d e s t r u c t i v e . Sometimes t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i e s a p h y s i c a l death which i s symbolic o f h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n ; at o t h e r times t h e destroyed i n d i v i d u a l c o n t i n u e s a l i f e i n - d e a t h e x i s t e n c e ; a few i n d i v i d u a l s d i e t o the s e l f - d e n i a l w a y - o f - l i f e and a r e reborn t o a new S e l f . , I t i s t h e l o v e - d e a t h r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e man-woman, man-man, and p a r e n t - c h i l d t h a t I wish t o examine i n t h i s paper. I t i s my i n t e n t i o n t o e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n t aspects of t h e l o v e - d e a t h theme as p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r o f Lawrence's e a r l y n o v e l s : The White Peacock, p u b l i s h e d i n 1910, Sons and L o v e r s , 1913, The Rainbow, 1915, and Women i n Love, 1920. These f o u r n o v e l s have been chosen because they present very adequately t h e u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t determine t h e death i n the i n d i v i d u a l l o v e relationships. I n The White Peacock, the l o v e - d e a t h v i s i o n has i t s g e r m i n a t i o n . I n Sons and L o v e r s , t h i s v i s i o n expands; new aspects a r e i n t r o d u c e d . Then i n The Rainbow and Women i n Love, which a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d Lawrence's g r e a t e s t n o v e l s , t h e v i s i o n o f l o v e and death achieves f u l l bloom; t h e c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s determining t h e l o v e between the man and woman, the man and man, and t h e parent and c h i l d a r e presented c l e a r l y , d y n a m i c a l l y , and w i t h f u l l complexity.. Before t h e l o v e - d e a t h theme can be examined, i t i s necessary t o e s t a b l i s h i n d e t a i l the u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r a l f a c t o r t h a t determines the d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Chapter one w i l l attempt t o do t h i s . Chapter two 3  4  3  w i l l then examine more d i r e c t l y the church's d e s t r u c t i v e ness as r e l a t e d t o t h e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o r r u p t e d by C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Then the l a s t t h r e e chapters w i l l e x p l o r e more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e l o v e - d e a t h theme o f the i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s : t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d , t h e manman, and f i n a l l y t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p .  4  FOOTNOTES 1. D. H. Lawrence, "We Need One Another," i n Phoenix: The Posthumous Papers of D. II. Lawrence, ed. E. D. McDonald (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1936), p. 192. 2. D. II. Lawrence, " M o r a l i t y and t h e Novel," i n Phoenix The Posthumous Papers o f D. H. Lawrence, p. 531. 3., A f t e r Lawrence had w r i t t e n The White Peacock, he h u r r i e d l y wrote h i s second n o v e l , The Trespasser. I n D. H.„ Lawrence: N o v e l i s t , page 19, F. R. L e a v i s summarizes h i s c r i t i c i s m of t h i s n o v e l i n one statement: " I t shows an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l power o f t h e r e n d e r i n g of p a s s i o n and emotion; the deadlock a t Siegmund's home has an o p p r e s s i v e r e a l i t y ; but s h o r t as the book i s , i t i s hard t o read through, and cannot be s a i d t o c o n t a i n any c l e a r promise o f a great n o v e l i s t . " The l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s statement c o u l d a l s o apply more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e l o v e - d e a t h theme, f o r t h e r e i s no " c l e a r promise of a g r e a t n o v e l i s t " i n t h e r e n d e r i n g of t h i s theme i n Lawrence's second n o v e l . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e no great development o f Lawrence's concept o f l o v e and death i s shown i n The T r e s p a s s e r , t h a t n o v e l w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper.. 4. Some of Lawrence's l a t e r n o v e l s , f o r example, The Plumed Serpent and Lady C h a t t e r l e y ' s L o v e r , a l s o present t h e u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . But i n order t o l i m i t t h e paper, i t w i l l concern i t s e l f w i t h t h e f o u r e a r l y novels o n l y .  CHAPTER I THE CULTURAL FACTOR DETERMINING THE DESTRUCTIVE RELATIONSHIPS According t o Lawrence, the C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g of s e l f - d e n i a l has been the source, i n our c u l t u r e , of the d e s t r u c t i o n of l o v e i n i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The c r i t i c Mark S p i l k a m a i n t a i n s t h a t "the c h i e f moral c r i t e r i o n f o r l o v e i n Lawrence's w o r l d , or f o r any emotiona l e x p e r i e n c e , i s t h i s : does i t a f f i r m or deny, renew o r d e s t r o y , the s a c r e d l i f e w i t h i n us?""'" Lawrence i s conv i n c e d t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y denies and as a consequence d e s t r o y s "the s a c r e d l i f e " w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , and i s t h e r e f o r e d e t r i m e n t a l t o l o v e . I n the "Study of Thomas Hardy," he e x p l a i n s what the C h r i s t i a n l i f e demands: I n C h r i s t we adjure the f l e s h , there i s no f l e s h . A man must l o s e h i s l i f e to save i t . A l l the n a t u r a l d e s i r e s of the body, these a2 man must be able to deny before he can l i v e . , Lawrence f e e l s t h a t t h i s d e n i a l " k i l l s " a v i t a l p a r t of man; the sensual man, the " f l e s h , " becomes dead. I n T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y , he i n d i c a t e s the o n l y p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n t h a t a denying of o n e s n a t u r a l sensual d e s i r e s can take. 1  The [ t h r i s t i a i j movement a l l the time was i n one d i r e c t i o n , towards the e l i m i n a t i o n of the f l e s h . Man wanted more and more t o become f r e e and a b s t r a c t . Pure freedom was i n pure a b s t r a c t i o n . The Word was a b s o l u t e . When man. begame as the Word, a pure law, then he was f r e e . However such a freedom would be i r o n i c . Man would have f r e e d h i m s e l f by k i l l i n g the " f l e s h , " the d e s i r e s of the sensual man w i t h i n him. By k i l l i n g the s e n s u a l , he would have denied the S e l f , h i s d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l i t y , h i s s u b j e c t i v e b e i n g . F i n a l l y as a s e l f l e s s c r e a t u r e , he would be a b s t r a c t . As a pure a b s t r a c t i o n , he would be " f r e e " L He would be a n o n e n t i t y . Such a c r e a t u r e would be dead.  6 Lawrence f e e l s t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y emphasizes death. People worship a dead C h r i s t . I n the chapter "The C r u c i f i x a c r o s s t h e Mountains" i n T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y , Lawrence d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r e n t images o f C h r i s t . A l l show a dead, c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t . The u g l y , b l e e d i n g wounds a r e always prominent. The body i s s t i f f and l i f e l e s s . The body . . . of t h e C h r i s t u s i s s t i f f and conventionalised, yet curiously beautiful i n p r o p o r t i o n , and i n s t a t i c t e n s i o n which makes i t u n i f i e d i n t o one c l e a r t h i n g . There was no movement, no p o s s i b l e movement. The being i s fixed, finally.. 4  The body o f C h r i s t i s dead; t h e " f l e s h , " t h e s e n s u a l man i n him, has been k i l l e d . The Western w o r l d worships such a C h r i s t ; He teaches the people how t o deaden t h e i r b o d i e s . At t h e same t i m e , t h e body o f C h r i s t i s " c u r i o u s l y beaut i f u l ." People admire the beauty o f C h r i s t ' s body; w o r s h i p p i n g i t becomes an a e s t h e t i c a d m i r a t i o n t o t h e man-woman l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . F r e q u e n t l y t h e woman i s the " a e s t h e t i c " l o v e r : she admires t h e body of the man but r e f u s e s t o g i v e h e r body t o h i s . She i s i n love w i t h the " i d e a " of t h e man's body and responds t o the i d e a i n s t e a d o f t o the body. She has denied h e r sensual des i r e s and s u b l i m a t e d them t o an a e s t h e t i c a d m i r a t i o n ; thus she has d e s t r o y e d h e r d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l i t y , h e r S e l f . At the same time, she has destroyed h i s S e l f by r e f u s i n g t o s a t i s f y h i s s e n s u a l man. Lawrence i l l u s t r a t e s how g r o s s l y out of p r o p o r t i o n the body of t h e dead C h r i s t has become i n a C h r i s t i a n r i d d e n c u l t u r e . He d e s c r i b e s a c r u c i f i x on which t h e body o f C h r i s t i s l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e and a dead weight. I n the c o l d gloom o f the pass hangs the l a r g e , p a l e C h r i s t . He i s l a r g e r than l i f e - s i z e . He has f a l l e n f o r w a r d , j u s t dead, and the weight of the f u l l - g r o w n , mature body hangs on the n a i l s of the hands. So t h e dead, heavy body drops f o r w a r d , sags, as i f i t would t e a r awaji and f a l l under i t s own w e i g h t . 5  7 The man whose S e l f has been destroyed by the t e a c h i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y i s a w e a k l i n g . He can, i n Lawrence's o p i n i o n , make o n l y a f e e b l e pretense of a u t h o r i t y . The woman, who cannot r e s p e c t h i s l a c k o f m a s c u l i n i t y , f r e q u e n t l y t u r n s t o h e r c h i l d r e n f o r f u l f i l l m e n t . She may " s a c r i f i c e " h e r s e l f t o h e r c h i l d r e n i n h e r desperate attempt t o f i n d t h e l o v e t h a t she cannot f i n d i n t h e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p . B u t , a c c o r d i n g t o Lawrence, t h e c h i l d r e n should never take t h e p l a c e o f t h e man. F r i e d a Lawrence, who had t h r e e c h i l d r e n by h e r f i r s t marriage, l e f t them t o go w i t h Lawrence. I n h e r book Not I , But the Wind, she i n c l u d e s a l e t t e r t h a t Lawrence wrote t o her s i s t e r , E l s e , i n which he s t a t e s h i s views on the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n i n F r i e d a ' s p a r t i c u l a r case: I f F r i e d a and the c h i l d r e n c o u l d l i v e h a p p i l y t o g e t h e r , I should say 'Go' because t h e happiness of two out o f t h r e e i s s u f f i c i e n t . But i f she would o n l y be s a c r i f i c i n g h e r l i f e , I would not l e t h e r go i f I c o u l d keep h e r . Because i f she brings to her c h i l d r e n a s a c r i f i c e , that i s a curse t o them. I f I had a prayer I t h i n k i t would be 'Lord, l e t no one ever s a c r i f i c e l i v i n g s t u f f t o me—because I am burdened enough.' Whatever t h e c h i l d r e n may miss now, they w i l l preserve t h e i r i n n e r l i b e r t y , and t h e i r independent p r i d e w i l l be s t r o n g when they come o f age. But i f F r i e d a gave a l l up t o go and l i v e w i t h them, t h a t would sap t h e i r s t r e n g t h because they would have t o support h e r l i f e when they grew up. They would not be f r e e t o l i v e of t h e m s e l v e s — they would f i r s t have t o l i v e f o r her, t o pay her back. In F a n t a s i a of t h e Unconscious, p u b l i s h e d i n 1922, Lawrence devotes an e n t i r e chapter t o "Parent Love." I n i t he d i s c u s s e s the d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s o f the Oedipus complex. Here i s a b r i e f e x c e r p t : At the v e r y 'age dangereuse', when a woman should be accomplishing h e r own f u l f i l l m e n t i n t o maturi t y and r i c h quiescence, she turns r a b i d l y t o seek a new l o v e r . At t h e very c r u c i a l time when she should be coming t o a s t a t e of pure  8 e q u i l i b r i u m and r e s t w i t h h e r husband, she t u r n s r a b i d l y a g a i n s t r e s t or peace o r e q u i l i b r i u m or husband i n any shape o r form, and demands more l o v e , more l o v e , a new s o r t of l o v e r , one who w i l l understand' her. And as o f t e n as not she t u r n s t o h e r son. 1  Here, i n h e r son who belongs t o h e r , she seems to f i n d t h e l a s t p e r f e c t response f o r which she i s c r a v i n g . He i s a medium t o h e r , she provokes from him h e r own answer. So she throws h e r s e l f i n t o a l a s t g r e a t l o v e f o r h e r son, a f i n a l and f a t a l d e v o t i o n , t h a t which would have been t h e r i c h n e s s and s t r e n g t h of h e r husband and i s p o i s o n t o h e r son.' Not o n l y does t h e man weakened by the t e a c h i n g of s e l f - d e n i a l f a i l t o m a i n t a i n t h e l o v e and r e s p e c t of t h e woman, but f r e q u e n t l y he a l s o f a i l s t o e s t a b l i s h a wholesome r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h another man. I n F a n t a s i a o f t h e Unconscious, Lawrence s t r e s s e s t h e importance o f the manman f r i e n d s h i p . A man must u n i t e w i t h other men f o r t h e 8  "purposive, c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y " of b u i l d i n g a world. U n i t e d , they become s t r o n g as men; then when they r e t u r n to t h e i r women, t h e s t r e n g t h they have found w i t h t h e i r fellowmen makes them e q u a l l y s t r o n g t o s a t i s f y t h e s e x u a l needs of t h e i r women. The man w i t h a destroyed S e l f has no d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y , no s u b j e c t i v e b e i n g , t o b r i n g t o the man-man r e l a t i o n s h i p . He cannot e s t a b l i s h a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a man because he has no i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o o f f e r . . Consequently he f i n d s no s t r e n g t h i n the man-man r e l a t i o n s h i p which i n t u r n w i l l make him s t r o n g i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e woman. Lawrence sees the C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g of s e l f - d e n i a l as t h e c h i e f i n s t i g a t i n g f o r c e of i n d u s t r i a l i s m . By denyi n g t h e S e l f , t h e person becomes a "not me" c r e a t u r e . "When I am a l l t h a t i s not me, than I have p e r f e c t l i b e r t y , I know no l i m i t a t i o n s . Only I must e l i m i n a t e the S e l f , " Lawrence reasons. Then he l i n k s the "not me" concept w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i s m . The machine i s the p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f 9  9  the "not me," t h e s e l f l e s s power, the a b s t r a c t f o r c e . I t was t h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f [ e l i m i n a t i o n of the S e l f ] which expressed i t s e l f i n s c i e n c e . Science was the a n a l y s i s of t h e outer s e l f , the elementary substance of t h e s e l f , t h e outer w o r l d . And t h e machine i s t h e g r e a t r e c o n s t r u c t e d s e l f l e s s power. Hence the a c t i v e worship t o which we were g i v e n at the end of the l a s t c e n t u r y , t h e worship of mechanised force.. 10  An e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e s e l f l e s s power o f mecha n i z a t i o n as an outgrowth of C h r i s t i a n s e l f l e s s n e s s i s shown i n Women i n Love. Mr.. C r i c h , t h e C h r i s t i a n , denies h i s S e l f so he can g i v e h i m s e l f t o h i s workmen. I n order to come near t o God, Mr. C r i c h f e e l s he must come near to the people.. They become h i s "mindless Godhead of h u m a n i t y . " ^ They do not e x i s t as i n d i v i d u a l s ; they are a b s t r a c t i o n s , o b j e c t s t h a t he worships. He has l o s t h i s S e l f h o o d , and then he d e s t r o y s t h e i r s . H i s son G e r a l d , r e s e n t i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s C h r i s t i a n weakness, t u r n s t o t h e machine and i t becomes h i s "mindless Godhead." The i r o n y i n v o l v e d i s t h a t h i s f a t h e r ' s C h r i s t i a n i t y has a l s o taught G e r a l d t o worship an a b s t r a c t i o n . I n s t e a d of worshipping t h e s e l f l e s s p e o p l e , he worships the s e l f l e s s power of the a b s t r a c t machine. Lawrence sees modern i n d u s t r i a l i s m as c o - e x t e n s i v e w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y ; they have the same e f f e c t on the workmen. I n both c a s e s , the S e l f of the i n d i v i d u a l i s destroyed; t h e i r h e a r t s "die w i t h i n them." The c r i t i c J u l i a n Moynahan expresses Lawrence's view thus: 1  The i n d u s t r i a l system, l i k e the system of the medieval church . . . s o l v e s the problem o f l i v i n g i n one mode o n l y . I t s a t i s f i e s the economic needs of men and t h e i r hunger f o r order by a r r a n g i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to an i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d , s i m p l i s t i c model of human r e a l i t y . The workmen are s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r s o u l but t h e i r h e a r t s 'died w i t h i n them . The c e n t r e s of t h e i r f e e l i n g s dry up.12 1  10  When men, l i k e Mr. C r i c h and G e r a l d , b r i n g a denied S e l f to t h e i n t i m a t e man-woman l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e i r weaknesses suddenly become very apparent. They have no S e l f t o o f f e r ; t h e i r women d e c l a r e them "impotent." T h e i r women d e s t r o y them f o r they cannot r e s p e c t them.. C h r i s t i a n i t y i s co-extensive with i n d u s t r i a l i s m , and i t i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o a type of s e l f l e s s n a t i o n a l i s m . Many i n d i v i d u a l s deny r e a l S e l f h o o d i n order t o d e d i c a t e themselves t o t h e n a t i o n . They pretend t o f i n d s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t as they swear a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e i r c o u n t r y , but i t i s a p e r v e r t e d s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t . I n an essay, Lawrence, i n an i r o n i c tone, comments on t h i s type of f a l s i f i e d allegiance. So we go t o war t o show t h a t we can throw our l i v e s away. Indeed, they have become of so l i t t l e v a l u e t o us. We cannot l i v e , we cannot be.. Then, l e t us t i p - c a t w i t h death, l e t us r u s h , throwing our l i v e s away. Then, a t any r a t e , we s h a l l have a s e n s a t i o n — a n d — ' p e r h a p s , a f t e r a l l , t h e v a l u e o f l i f e i s i n death.- -' 1  1  5  Such a p e r v e r t e d s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t t h r i v e s on s e n s a t i o n . While t h e r e a l S e l f f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t i n c r e a t i o n , the perverted s e l f f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t i n destruction.. When t h e man who has s o l d h i m s e l f t o t h e n a t i o n comes t o t h e woman, he b r i n g s w i t h him h i s c o r r u p t e d s e l f . The woman r e c o g n i z e s t h e f a l s e n e s s , and the i n e v i t a b l e end o f t h e i r l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a f u r t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e man and a l s o the woman. C h r i s t i a n i t y , w i t h i t s emphasis on denying a v i t a l p a r t i n man, f o s t e r s a people who eannot respond w i t h the "whole" man. A " d i s s o c i a t i o n of s e n s i b i l i t y " has 14 taken p l a c e w i t h i n them. They have separated the s p i r i t and the body ( o r one c o u l d say, t h e mind and t h e body). Consequently some i n d i v i d u a l s respond t o l o v e o n l y w i t h t h e mind; others respond o n l y w i t h t h e body. I n d i v i d u a l s l i k e Hermione i n Women i n Love experience l o v e  11 through the mind; hers i s a s p i r i t u a l knowledge of love.. Those whom the West A f r i c a n s t a t u e r e p r e s e n t s , on the o t h e r hand, l o v e o n l y w i t h the body; t h e i r s i s a " p u r e l y sensual,, 15 p u r e l y u n s p i r i t u a l knowledge" of l o v e . Both types of i n d i v i d u a l s have l o s t the c a p a c i t y t o respond w i t h the whole man. Both have l o s t , what Eugene Goodheart i n The Utopian V i s i o n of D. H. Lawrence c a l l s , a response of 16 the "profound spontaneous s o u l of men." The l a s t paragraph of "The Lemon Gardens," i n T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y , i s an e x c e l l e n t summary of what Lawrence b e l i e v e s i s happening to our c i v i l i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d EnglandThere i t [ i n d u s t r i a l i z e d England) l a y , v a s t masses o f rough-hewn knowledge, v a s t masses of ideas and methods, and n o t h i n g done w i t h i t , o n l y teeming swarms of d i s i n t e g r a t e d human beings s e e t h i n g and p e r i s h i n g r a p i d l y away amongst i t , t i l l i t seems as i f a w o r l d w i l l be l e f t covered w i t h huge r u i n s , and scored by strange devices of i n d u s t r y , and q u i t e dead, the people swallowed up i n the l a s t e f f o r t s towards a p e r f e c t , s e l f l e s s s o c i e t y . ^ To conclude, the c u l t u r e of a C h r i s t i a n - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y f o s t e r s , i n Lawrence's view, a s e l f l e s s people. Such i n d i v i d u a l s b r i n g a form of d e s t r u c t i o n to every love relationship •  12 FOOTNOTES 1.. Mark S p i l k a , The Love E t h i c o f D. E. Lawrence (Bloomington: I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), p. 22. 2. D. II. Lawrence, "Study o f Thomas Hardy," i n Phoenix: The Posthumous Papers o f D. H. Lawrence, ed. E. D. McDonald~XLondon: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1936), p. 456. 3. D. H. Lawrence, T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1956~J, p. 34. 4.  I b i d . , p. 7.  5..  I b i d . , p. 9„  6. F r i e d a Lawrence, Not I , But the Wind (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1935J, p. 57. ~ 7. D. H. Lawrence, F a n t a s i a of the Unconscious (London: Heinemann L t d . , 19237, pp. 111-2. 8..  I b i d . , pp. 98-9.  9..  D. H. Lawrence, T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y , p. 40.  10..  I b i d . , p. 40..  11.. D. II. Lawrence, Women i n Love (Middlesex:: Penguin Books L t d . , I 9 6 0 ) , p. 242.. 1 2 . J u l i a n Moynahan, The Deed of L i f e ( P r i n c e t o n ; P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), p.. 79., 13.  D. Ii. Lawrence, "Study o f Thomas Hardy," p. 406.  14.. Robert L. Chamberlain, "Pussum, M i n e t t e , and the A f r i c o - N o r d i c Symbol i n Lawrence's Women i n Love," PMLA, L X X V I I I , ( W i s c o n s i n , 1963), p. 414. 15.  D. H. Lawrence, Women i n »Love, p. 285.  16.. Eugene Goodheart, The Utopian V i s i o n o f D. H. Lawrence (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1963), p. 10. (The paragraph on page ID and 111 on the " d i s s o c i a t i o n o f s e n s i b i l i t y " may appear as an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e problem. Both Hermione and the West A f r i c a n statue w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n a l a t e r chapter.) 17.. D. H. Lawrence, T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y , p. 54.  CHAPTER I I THE "ROTTEN" CHURCH AND THE DESTRUCTIVE MAN-WOMAN RELATIONSHIP In' Lawrence's n o v e l s , a c u l t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e church's C h r i s t i a n v i s i o n i s t h e source o f t h e d e a t h l i n e s s / i n t h e man-woman l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The " s p i r i t u a l " woman worships the man as she worships t h e dead body o f C h r i s t . She admires the man's body but r e f u s e s t o respond spont a n e o u s l y t o i t w i t h h e r body. When she does respond p h y s i c a l l y , i t i s i n the form o f a s a c r i f i c e . Her sacr i f i c i a l l o v e " k i l l s " a p a r t o f the man f o r i t h u m i l i a t e s h i s m a s c u l i n i t y ; he i s made t o f e e l ashamed o f h i s sensual d e s i r e s . Then, a g a i n , the s t r o n g - w i l l e d woman, a second type o f d e s t r o y e r , k i l l s a p a r t o f the man who has been weakened by the C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e and has become a s e l f less creature. Not o n l y i s t h e woman t h e d e s t r o y e r : the man may a l s o destroy as he " l o v e s . " He, t o o , may be t h e " s p i r i t u a l " l o v e r who admires t h e beauty of t h e woman but i s a f r a i d t o respond s e n s u a l l y t o h e r body. He may subl i m a t e h i s l o v e : C y r i l i n The White Peacock w r i t e s p o e t r y , P a u l i n Sons and Lovers p a i n t s , and W i l l i n The Rainbow s t u d i e s t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f c h u r c h e s — t h e church becomes the " p e r f e c t womb." Thus the " s p i r i t u a l " l o v e r destroys h i s n a t u r a l d e s i r e s , and consequently a l s o t h e woman' s .. I n The White Peacock, Annable d e f i n e s the d e s t r u c t i v e woman through h i s comments on the c e n t r a l image, the peacock. Then C y r i l , the n a r r a t o r , l i n k s t h e image to t h e church.. A peacock, s t a r t l e d from the back premises of the H a l l , came f l a p p i n g up the t e r r a c e s t o t h e churchyard. . . . The peacock f l a p p e d beyond me, on t o the neck of an o l d bowed a n g e l , rough and dark, an angel which had long ceased sorrowi n g f o r the l o s t Lucy, and had d i e d a l s o . The b i r d bent i t s voluptuous neck and peered about. Then i t l i f t e d up i t s head and y e l l e d . The sound t o r e t h e dark sanctuary o f t w i l i g h t . . . .  14 The keeper looked a t me and s m i l e d . He nodded h i s head towards t h e peacock, s a y i n g : 'Hark a t t h a t damned t h i n g ! ' Again t h e b i r d l i f t e d i t s c r e s t e d head and gave a c r y , a t the same time t u r n i n g awkwardly on i t s u g l y l e g s , so t h a t i t showed us t h e f u l l wealth o f i t s t a i l glimmering l i k e a stream o f c o l o u r e d s t a r s over t h e sunken f a c e of t h e a n g e l . 'The proud f o o l ! — l o o k a t i t ! Perched on an a n g e l , t o o , as i f i t were a p e d e s t a l f o r v a n i t y . That's t h e s o u l o f a woman—or i t ' s t h e d e v i l . He was s i l e n t f o r a t i m e , and we watched t h e g r e a t b i r d moving u n e a s i l y b e f o r e us i n t h e twilight. 'That's t h e v e r y s o u l o f a l a d y , ' he s a i d , 'the v e r y , v e r y s o u l . Damn t h e t h i n g , t o perch on t h a t o l d a n g e l . I should l i k e t o w r i n g i t s neck..' Again t h e b i r d screamed, and s h i f t e d awkwardly on i t s l e g s ; i t seemed t o s t r e t c h i t s beak a t us i n d e r i s i o n . Annable p i c k e d up a p i e c e of sod and f l u n g i t at the b i r d , s a y i n g : 'Get out, you s c r e e c h i n g d e v i l ! GodL' he laughed. 'There must be p l e n t y o f h e a r t s t w i s t i n g under h e r e , ' — a n d he stamped on a grave, 'when they hear t h a t row.' He p i c k e d another sod from a grave and threw a t t h e b i g b i r d . The peacock f l a p p e d away, over t h e tombs, down t h e t e r r a c e s . 'Just l o o k ! ' he s a i d , 'the m i s e r a b l e b r u t e has d i r t i e d t h a t a n g e l . A woman t o t h e end, I t e l l you, a l l v a n i t y and screech and d e f i l e m e n t . ' . .. . ' The church, ' s a i d I , ' i s rotten.. I suppose they'11 stand a l l over t h e c o u n t r y l i k e t h i s , s o o n — w i t h peacocks t r a i l i n g t h e graveyards .,' Here, t h e n , i s a p i c t u r e of t h e d e s t r u c t i v e woman: a " s c r e e c h i n g d e v i l " w i t h a "voluptuous neck" and awkward u g l y l e g s , perched upon something t h a t i s sacred—a dead angel*—and d a r i n g t o d e f i l e i t . The graveyard has become the peacock's r e s t i n g p l a c e ; i n t h e background stands t h e " r o t t e n " church. The d e s t r u c t i v e woman, r e p r e s e n t e d by the peacock, and t h e church a r e u n i t e d by t h e graveyard; t h e i r s i s a union o f death f o r both have l o s t t h e c a p a c i t y f o r a l i f e - g i v i n g experience of l o v e . The church has taught the woman t o d e s t r o y i n as much as she only pretends to love.. 1  Amiable i s q u i c k t o g i v e an example o f t h e "peacock," the d e s t r u c t i v e woman: he d e s c r i b e s h i s w i f e , Lady C r y s t a b e l , as a woman who gets h e r ideas on l o v e from a "sloppy French n o v e l . " She l o v e s Annable w i t h a g r a s p i n g , c l u t c h i n g l o v e t h a t never a l l o w s him out of h e r s i g h t . She views him " i n an a e s t h e t i c l i g h t " as a "Greek s t a t u e , " meanwhile h u m i l i a t i n g him as she denies him h e r body. Thus she d e s t r o y s h i s p r i d e i n h i s m a s c u l i n i t y . A l l h e r l o v e i s p r e t e n s e ; i t i s not a spontaneous response t o h i s " l i f e flame." Therefore h e r l o v e i s a n e g a t i o n of l i f e . It i s a destructive love. J u s t as Lady C r y s t a b e l d e s t r o y s a p a r t o f Annable, so L e t t i e B e a r d s a l l destroys a p a r t o f George Saxton. L e t t i e teases him w i t h h e r k i s s e s , arouses h i s emotions, admires h i s body, y e t r e f u s e s t o g i v e h e r s e l f t o him. She " p l a y s " a t l o v i n g him, but i n r e a l i t y she does not know what a meaningful l o v e experience i s . The man as t h e " s p i r i t u a l " l o v e r i s a l s o i n t r o d u c e d . C y r i l " p l a y s " at being i n l o v e w i t h Emily Saxton. He enjoys having t e a w i t h the Saxtons and admiring E m i l y as she h e l p s h e r younger b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . At t h e Christmas p a r t y , he comments on Emily as she a r r i v e s : "Emily, ruddy from t h e c o l d a i r , was wearing a wine 2  c o l o u r e d d r e s s , which s u i t e d h e r l u x u r i o u s beauty." O c c a s i o n a l l y he may k i s s h e r , but i n a h e s i t a t i n g and embarrassed manner. C y r i l continues h i s " p l a y i n g " w i t h l o v e f o r more than ten y e a r s , meanwhile s u b l i m a t i n g h i s sensual d e s i r e s i n w r i t i n g p o e t r y and watching George and Meg, and L e s l i e and L e t t i e have t h e i r romances. I n The White Peacock, through Lady C r y s t a b e l and L e t t i e , t h e reader becomes acquainted w i t h t h e s p i r i t u a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e woman, and through t h e image of the peacock i n t h e church graveyard, h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the "dead" church i s shown. Then i n Sons and Lovers, t h i s c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d e s t r u c t i v e woman and the church  16 i s developed more f u l l y . Miriam L e i v e r s i s the s p i r i t u a l l o v e r ; Tier d e s t r u e t i v e n e s s l i e s i n h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h C h r i s t . P a u l Morel i s a l s o a s p i r i t u a l l o v e r . Both Miriam and P a u l a r e d e s t r u c t i v e as they s t r u g g l e t o suppress t h e i r s e n s u a l d e s i r e s . Both have had t h e t e a c h i n g s of t h e church i n s t i l l e d i n them by t h e i r mothers. Miriam has been taught by h e r mother t o " t r e a s u r e r e l i g i o n " i n s i d e h e r s e l f , t o 3  l o v e C h r i s t and God " t r e m b l i n g l y and p a s s i o n a t e l y . " She has been taught by h e r mother t h a t s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e i s the "one t h i n g i n marriage t h a t i s always d r e a d f u l , but women have t o bear i t . " P a u l ' s mother has a background s i m i l a r t o M i r i a m ' s . Her f a t h e r , George Coppard, i s d e s c r i b e d as "proud i n h i s b e a r i n g , handsome, and r a t h e r b i t t e r ; who p r e f e r r e d t h e o l o g y i n r e a d i n g , and who drew near i n sympathy o n l y t o one man, t h e A p o s t l e P a u l ; who was harsh i n government, and i n f a m i l i a r i t y i r o n i c ; who i g n o r e d a l l sensuous p l e a s u r e . " Although Mrs. Morel has been taught t o "ignore a l l sensuous p l e a s u r e , " she i s a t t r a c t e d t o i t i n Walter M o r e l : "the dusky, golden s o f t ness of t h i s man's sensuous flame of l i f e , t h a t flowed o f f h i s f l e s h l i k e t h e flame from a c a n d l e , not b a f f l e d and g r i p p e d i n t o incandescence by thought and s p i r i t as h e r l i f e was, seemed t o h e r something w o n d e r f u l , beyond her." Mrs. Morel never s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e s her conf l i c t : she i s t o r n between h e r P u r i t a n i c i n d o c t r i n a t i o n of s e l f - d e n i a l and her d e s i r e t o respond t o the "man's sensuous flame o f l i f e . " Mr. Morel's d r i n k i n g and cons e q u e n t i a l i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards h i s f a m i l y compounds Mrs. Morel's c o n f l i c t . I n h e r f r u s t r a t i o n , she t u r n s d e s t r u c t i v e l y t o her sons, P a u l , who i s v e r y c l o s e t o h i s mother and r e s e n t s h i s f a t h e r , perhaps subconsciou s 1 y chooses, i n h i s attempt t o p l e a s e h e r , a g i r l l i k e h e r . Mrs. Morel i s what Miriam c o u l d become were she t o marry another Walter M o r e l ; Miriam, although seemingly shy, has a similar destructive potential. 4  17 As a young g i r l , Miriam i s a f r a i d of p h y s i c a l experience." Her b r o t h e r s and P a u l enjoy l e t t i n g t h e hen peck c o r n from t h e i r palms. Miriam i s a f r a i d t h e hen w i l l 7  hurt her.  When she and P a u l a r e t r y i n g out t h e swing,  she i s a f r a i d of swinging t o o h i g h . "Ha! she laughed i n f e a r . 'No h i g h e r ! 'But you're not a b i t h i g h , ' he remonstrated'But no h i g h e r . " He heard t h e f e a r i n h e r v o i c e , and desisted.. Her h e a r t melted i n hot p a i n when the moment came f o r him t o t h r u s t h e r forward a g a i n . But he l e f t h e r a l o n e . She began t o breathe.° 1  1  There i s n o t h i n g f r e e and spontaneous about Miriam. Her eyes a r e dark and brooding; h e r body i s s t i f f and l i f e -  A l l t h e l i f e o f Miriam's body was i n h e r eyes, which were u s u a l l y dark as a dark church, but c o u l d flame w i t h l i g h t l i k e a c o n f l a g r a t i o n . Her f a c e s c a r c e l y ever a l t e r e d from i t s look of b r o o d i n g . She might have been one of the women who went w i t h Mary when Jesus was dead. Her body was not f l e x i b l e and l i v i n g . She walked w i t h a swing, r a t h e r h e a v i l y , h e r head bowed f o r w a r d , pondering. . . .There was no looseness or abandon about her. E v e r y t h i n g was gripped s t i f f w i t h i n t e n s i t y , ancKher e f f o r t , overcharged, c l o s e d i n on i t s e l f . Miriam i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e "dark church;" her l o v e , l i k e the church's, i s " c l o s e d i n on i t s e l f . " She i s , as P a u l l a t e r c a l l s h e r , a nun who has found her l o v e r i n the church. When she b r i n g s her s p i r i t u a l l o v e t o the " r e a l " w o r l d , t h e r e s u l t s are d i s a s t r o u s . F o r example she l o v e s the f l o w e r s w i t h an absorbing l o v e and thus " d e s t r o y s " them. P a u l hates h e r f o r i t . He i n t e r p r e t s  18 her l o v e as n e g a t i v e : "'You don't want t o l o v e — y o u r e t e r n a l and abnormal c r a v i n g i s t o be l o v e d . You aren't p o s i t i v e , you're n e g a t i v e . You absorb, absorb, as i f you must f i l l y o u r s e l f up w i t h l o v e , because you've got 10  a shortage somewhere.'" When she "smothers" h e r l i t t l e b r o t h e r w i t h a f f e c t i o n , t h e c h i l d becomes uneasy and begs 11 to be released.. Although P a u l hates Miriam's "absorbing" l o v e f o r the f l o w e r s and accuses h e r o f being a f r a i d o f p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , he cannot always respond spontaneously e i t h e r . He, l i k e M i r i a m , a t t a c h e s r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e t o many of h i s o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s . " E v e r y t h i n g took a r e l i g i o u s 12 value-" When he and Miriam a r e i n church t o g e t h e r , "he f e l t t h e strange f a s c i n a t i o n of shadowy r e l i g i o u s place's. A l l h i s l a t e n t m y s t i c i s m Q u i v e r e d i n t o l i f e . 13 She was drawn t o him. He was a prayer along w i t h h e r . " When Miriam does make a f e e b l e attempt t o respond p h y s i c a l l y , P a u l becomes very upset: " i f she put h e r arm i n h i s , i t caused him almost t o r t u r e . H i s consciousness seemed t o s p l i t . The p l a c e where she was t o u c h i n g him r a n h o t w i t h f r i c t i o n . He was one i n t e r n e c i n e b a t t l e , 14 and he became c r u e l t o h e r because o f i t . " Both Miriam and P a u l d e s t r o y themselves as they suppress t h e i r n a t u r a l sensuous d e s i r e s . When they f i n a l l y do a l l o w these d e s i r e s t o f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n sexual i n t e r course , i t becomes a s a c r i f i c i a l experience f o r Miriam and, in part, also f o r Paul. He never f o r g o t s e e i n g h e r as she l a y on t h e bed, when he was u n f a s t e n i n g h i s c o l l a r . . . . Her b i g brown eyes were watching him, s t i l l and r e s i g n e d and l o v i n g ; she l a y as i f she had g i v e n h e r s e l f up t o s a c r i f i c e : t h e r e was h e r body f o r him; but the look a t the back o f h e r eyes, l i k e a c r e a t u r e av/aiting immolation, a r r e s t e d  19 him, and a l l h i s b l o o d f e l l back. . . .He c o u l d h a r d l y bear i t . She l a y t o be s a c r i f i c e d f o r him because she l o v e d him so much. And he had t o s a c r i f i c e h e r . For a second he wished he were s e x l e s s o r dead. T h i s i s not an experience of l o v e : t h i s i s a s a c r i f i c e . Miriam's s a c r i f i c e h u m i l i a t e s P a u l ; he f e e l s ashamed t h a t he wants her body. "The f a c t t h a t he might want her as a man wants a woman had i n him been suppressed i n t o 16 shame." Every c o n t a c t w i t h Miriam i n c r e a s e s h i s f e e l i n g of h u m i l i a t i o n ; " t h e r e remained a f t e r w a r d s always the 17 sense of f a i l u r e and of death." At the b e g i n n i n g of the n o v e l , a comparison i s made between Walter and Gertrude M o r e l . He has a "sensuous flame of l i f e t h a t f l o w e d o f f h i s f l e s h l i k e the flame from a c a n d l e ; " by comparison, her flame i s " b a f f l e d and g r i p p e d i n t o incandescence by thought and s p i r i t . " Both P a u l and M i r i a m , l i k e Mrs. M o r e l , have t h e i r "flames of l i f e " " b a f f l e d and g r i p p e d i n t o incandescence by thought and s p i r i t . " Although P a u l compares h i m s e l f t o the Norman arch t h a t symbolizes the " l e a p i n g f o r w a r d of the p e r s i s t e n t human s o u l , on and on, nobody knows where," he i s at times v e r y much l i k e M i r i a m , whom he compares t o the G o t h i c a r c h , which " l e a p t up at heaven and touched the 18 e c s t a s y and l o s t i t s e l f i n the d i v i n e . " Whenever Miriam's response t o P a u l cannot " l o s e i t s e l f i n the d i v i n e , " i t becomes a " s a c r i f i c e . " P a u l , although s t r u g g l i n g t o f r e e h i m s e l f from the l i m i t i n g G o t h i c a r c h , a g a i n and a g a i n a l s o becomes " l o s t i n t h e d i v i n e " as he i n t e r p r e t s h i s responses i n r e l i g i o u s terms. N e i t h e r can respond spontaneously. Both are too c l o s e l y bound to the " r o t t e n church" w i t h i t s l i f e - d e n y i n g emphasis•  20 In The Rainbow, t h e "peacock," t h e d e s t r u c t i v e woman, i s not the s p i r i t u a l  lover of the e a r l i e r novels:  i n this  l a t e r n o v e l , t h e "peacock" i s t h e s t r o n g - w i l l e d woman who pushes t h e c h u r c h  i n t o the background.  She i s t h e one who  d e f i l e s the once-sacred  angel.  church  At t h e b e g i n n i n g  i n The Rainbow.  t o t h e Brangwens t h e c h u r c h and  beyond:"  Something happens t o t h e of the novel,  i s a symbol o f "something  above  "whenever one o f t h e Brangwens i n t h e f i e l d  l i f t e d h i s head from h i s work, he saw t h e c h u r c h - t o w e r a t I l k e s t o n i n t h e empty sky.  So t h a t as he t u r n e d a g a i n t o  t h e h o r i z o n t a l l a n d , he was aware o f s o m e t h i n g above him  19 and  beyond h i m i n t h e d i s t a n c e . "  At t h e end o f t h e  n o v e l , C y r i l ' s p r e d i c t i o n i n The White Peacock has been fulfilled  i n Ursula's v i s i o n :  she sees  "the o l d  church-  20  tower s t a n d i n g up i n h i d e o u s g r a n d f a t h e r , t h e church of has  obsoleteness."  was a d i s t a n t  "something above and beyond him;" become u g l y and o u t - o f - d a t e .  church  has been c a u s e d , p a r t i a l l y ,  women, Anna and U r s u l a .  For Ursula's  symbol o f t h e Unknown f o r U r s u l a the church  What h a s happened t o t h e by t h e d e s t r u c t i v e  The woman i s n o t e n t i r e l y t o blame  f o r h e r man, by h i s v e r y n a t u r e , f o r c e s h e r t o r i d i c u l e him  and t o d e s t r o y h i s v a l u e s b a s e d on t h e n o - l o n g e r - v a l i d  concepts  o f the church.  I n The Rainbow, t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who r e l y  on t h e c h u r c h  t u r n t o i t because o f a l a c k w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s . although  i t i s a f a l s e hope, t h e c h u r c h  stitute for their deficient does n o t need t h e c h u r c h scend  the r e s t r i c t i v e  Selfhoods.  will  be a sub-  Someone l i k e  for fulfillment. to l i f e  Lydia  She c a n t r a n -  teachings o f the church:  r e l i g i o n i s an i n t u i t i v e r e s p o n s e  They hope,  her  and to God.  Her  r e l i g i o n i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e e a r l y Brangwen  men  who saw t h e c h u r c h  as a d i s t a n t symbol o f t h e Unknown,  y e t a symbol o f p r o t e c t i o n . t o any p a r t i c u l a r  Her r e l i g i o n i s n o t c o n f i n e d  dogma o r c r e e d .  21 She had some b e l i e f s somewhere, never d e f i n e d . She had been brought up a Roman C a t h o l i c . She had gone t o the Church of England f o r p r o t e c t i o n . , The outward form was a matter of i n d i f f e r e n c e to h e r . Yet she had some fundamental r e l i g i o n . I t was as i f she worshipped God as a mystery, never s e e k i n g i n the l e a s t to d e f i n e what He was.. She shone and gleamed t o the Mystery, whom she knew through a l l her senses, she glanced w i t h strange m y s t i c s u p e r s t i t i o n s that never found e x p r e s s i o n i n the E n g l i s h language, never mounted t o thought i n E n g l i s h . But so she l i v e d , w i t h i n a p o t e n t , sensuous b e l i e f t h a t i n c l u d e d her f a m i l y and c o n t a i n e d her destiny..21 Then i n the two succeeding g e n e r a t i o n s , those who t r y the church or i t s C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g s as an escape from an u n f u l f i l l e d l i f e d i s c o v e r both to be inadequate. W i l l and, b r i e f l y , Anna use the church as an escape from an u n f u l f i l l e d l i f e , but the church proves an uns a t i s f a c t o r y r e f u g e . Anna, as a young g i r l , t r i e s the church: "Many ways, she t r i e d , of escape. She became an assiduous church-goer. But the language meant n o t h i n g t o 22 her: i t seemed f a l s e . " ' The church does not f u l f i l l her need. Although she may f e e l r i g h t e o u s i f she p r a c t i c e s the t e a c h i n g of s e l f - d e n i a l i n s e r v i n g o t h e r s , she cannot e s t a b l i s h her a l l - i m p o r t a n t S e l f h o o d by doing so.. Because she r e a l i z e s the inadequacy of the church, and yet at the same time because she i s i n c a p a b l e of d i s c o v e r i n g her own r e l i g i o n i n the "sensuous b e l i e f that i n c l u d e s her f a m i l y and c o n t a i n s her d e s t i n y " (as her mother, L y d i a , c o u l d ) , Anna r e s o r t s t o r i d i c u l i n g the church and her husband, who f i n d s h i s s t r e n g t h i n the church, the f a l s e A b s o l u t e . J u s t as she laughs at him the f i r s t time they go to church t o g e t h e r b e f o r e t h e i r marriage, so she laughs at him a g a i n and a g a i n a f t e r t h e i r marriage when she n o t i c e s h i s f a l s e  22 aspirations in  the  the  church,  fillment  church.  Unable to  Anna f i n a l l y a t t a i n s  through  Bearing she  to  the magnificence  some  fulfillment  sort  of her  c h i l d r e n becomes a p a r t i a l  achieves her  find  of  ful-  pregnancies.  fulfillment  for  "Mount P i s gab.," h e r m o u n t a i n t o p  her:  vision-  She h a d a s l i g h t e x p e c t a n t f e e l i n g , as o f a d o o r h a l f o p e n e d . . ... . S h e was s t r a i n i n g h e r eyes to something beyond. And from h e r P i s g a h m o u n t , w h i c h she h a d a t t a i n e d , what c o u l d she see? A f a i n t , g l e a m i n g h o r i z o n , a l o n g way o f f , and a r a i n b o w l i k e an archway, a shadowdoor w i t h f a i n t l y c o l o u r e d coping above i t . Must she be m o v i n g t h i t h e r ? Something she had n o t , s o m e t h i n g she d i d n o t g r a s p , c o u l d not a r r i v e at.. T h e r e was s o m e t h i n g b e y o n d her.. 3  Unlike their the  L y d i a , who s h a r e s marriage,  rainbow.  w i t h Tom t h e r a i n b o w t h a t  Anna can c a t c h  "The  token of  o n l y a. d i s t a n t  the  covenant,"  spans  glimpse  that  all  of flesh  24 will  not  be  destroyed,  only  a glimpse  fulfillment . both for plete for  of  the  herself  yet  t o L y d i a ; Anne she  has  not  the church as she has  child-bearing is  not  catches  found an  Self-  Absolute  found her  only a  com-  substitute  Self.  For  Will  the  church i s  life.  He l o v e s  is  not  an e x p e r i e n c e  He  already  Anna.  for  destroyed  and W i l l , her  given  token,  She h a s  Selfhood;  the  is  has  Anna, at  the this  an escape from an u n f u l f i l l e d  church passionately, with l i f e ; passion  first,  finds  for  it  is  the  this  but  this  passion  an escape from  church before  a-ttractive  he  i n him:  L i s t e n i n g t o h i m , as he s p o k e o f c h u r c h a f t e r c h u r c h , o f nave and c h a n c e l and t r a n s e p t , o f r o o d - s c r e e n and f o n t , o f h a t c h e t - c a r v i n g and moulding and t r a c e r y , s p e a k i n g always w i t h c l o s e passion of p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e s ,  life. meets  23  t h e r e gathered i n her h e a r t a pregnant hush of churches, a mystery, a ponderous s i g n i f i c a n c e of bowed s t o n e , a dim-coloured l i g h t through which something took p l a c e o b s c u r e l y , p a s s i n g i n t o darkness: a h i g h , d e l i g h t e d framework of the m y s t i c s c r e e n , and beyond i n the f u r t h e s t beyond, the altar.,25 W i l l t r i e s to make h i s p a s s i o n f o r the church come a l i v e , but he does not succeed: the " C r e a t i o n of Eve," which he i s c a r v i n g f o r the church, never comes a l i v e . Try as pg  he w i l l , he cannot get h i s Eve "tender and s p a r k l i n g . " " "She was a keen, u n r i p e t h i n g . With t r e m b l i n g p a s s i o n , f i n e as a b r e a t h of a i r , he sent the c h i s e l over her b e l l y , her h a r d , u n r i p e , s m a l l b e l l y . She was a s t i f f l i t t l e f i g u r e , w i t h sharp l i n e s , i n the throes and t o r t u r e and e c s t a s y of her c r e a t i o n . " " H i s Eve i s a d i s t o r t i o n of the r e a l woman, a s u b s t i t u t e f o r her. A p a s s i o n f o r the r e a l woman can b r i n g him S e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t , whereas h i s p a s s i o n f o r Eve, l i n k e d w i t h h i s p a s s i o n f o r the church, i s a p a s s i o n f o r something dead and d i s t o r t e d . When W i l l m a r r i e s Anna, he continues h i s p a s s i o n f o r the church. Anna r e s e n t s t h i s . She r e c o g n i z e s t h i s p a s s i o n as a weakness. She cannot r e s p e c t h i s l a c k of m a s c u l i n i t y . She does not want to be b u l l i e d by a weakl i n g , t h e r e f o r e she d e f i e s h i s f l a u n t i n g of a u t h o r i t y . 'Fool!' she answered. ' F o o l ! I've known my f a t h e r , who c o u l d put a dozen of you i n h i s p i p e and push them down w i t h h i s f i n g e r - e n d . Don't I know what a f o o l you are!' He knew h i m s e l f what a fo"ol he was, and was f l a y e d by the knowledge. Yet he went on t r y i n g to s t e e r the s h i p of t h e i r dual l i f e , lie a s s e r t e d h i s p o s i t i o n as the c a p t a i n of the ship.. And c a p t a i n and s h i p bored her. He wanted to loom important as master of one of the innumerable domestic c r a f t that make up the great f l e e t of s o c i e t y . I t seemed to her a r i d i c u l o u s armada of tubs j o s t l i n g i n f u tility. She f e l t no b e l i e f i n i t . She j e e r e d  24 at him as master of the house, master of t h e i r dual l i f e . And he was b l a c k w i t h shame and rage. He knew, w i t h shame, how her f a t h e r had been a man without a r r o g a t i n g any authority.28 W i l l f e e l s he i s denied h i s proper p o s i t i o n , yet he i s too weak t o enforce h i s a u t h o r i t y . L a c k i n g m a s c u l i n i t y , he cannot g a i n Anna's r e s p e c t . So, i n h i s f r u s t r a t i o n , he t u r n s a g a i n t o the church, "the p e r f e c t womb," where he w i l l never be d e n i e d . The church, as female, does not c h a l l e n g e h i s m a s c u l i n i t y . In i t h i s emotions can run f r e e l y , h i s passions can always be g r a t i f i e d . He f e e l s unthreatened. When he enters L i n c o l n C a t h e d r a l , the experience i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e x u a l terms; he has h i s "sexual i n t e r c o u r s e " w i t h the church: Here the stone l e a p t up from the p l a i n of e a r t h , l e a p t up i n a m a n i f o l d , c l u s t e r e d des i r e each t i m e , up, away from the h o r i z o n t a l e a r t h , through t w i l i g h t and dusk and the whole range of d e s i r e , through the swerving, the d e c l i n a t i o n , ah, to the e c s t a s y , the t o u c h , to the meeting and the consummation, the meeting, the c l a s p , the c l o s e embrace, the n e u t r a l i t y , the p e r f e c t , swooning consummation, the timeless ecstasy. There h i s s o u l remained, at the apex of the a r c h , c l i n c h e d i n the t i m e l e s s e c s t a s y , consummated.^ L i k e Miriam i n Sons and L o v e r s , W i l l l o s e s h i s s o u l i n the "apex of the arch." I n the ecstasy of the d i v i n e , h i s s o u l f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t , at l e a s t , so he imagines. He continues h i s "passionate i n t e r c o u r s e " w i t h the cathed r a l u n t i l Anna begins to j e e r at h i s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h the sacred c a r v i n g s . The experience ends i n chaos f o r him: " t h a t which had been h i s a b s o l u t e , c o n t a i n i n g a l l heaven  and e a r t h , was become t o him as t o h e r , a shapely heap of dead" m a t t e r — b u t dead, dead. H i s mouth was f u l l of 30  ash, h i s s o u l was f u r i o u s . " He r e a l i z e s t h e church "doorway was no doorway. I t was too narrow, i t was f a l s e 31  . .. ... ... He had l o s t h i s a b s o l u t e . " i n destroying h i s Absolute.  Anna has succeeded  A f t e r h i s p a s s i o n f o r t h e church has been d e s t r o y e d , he f i n d s h i m s e l f f r e e t o accept the "Absolute of  Beauty"  the body of a woman. He had always, a l l h i s l i f e , had a s e c r e t dread o f A b s o l u t e Beauty., I t had always been l i k e a f e t i s h t o him, something t o f e a r , r e a l l y . For i t was immoral and a g a i n s t mankind. So he had t u r n e d t o t h e G o t h i c form, which always a s s e r t e d t h e broken d e s i r e of mankind i n i t s p o i n t e d a r c h e s , escaping t h e r o l l i n g , a b s o l u t e beauty of the round a r c h . But now he had g i v e n way, and w i t h i n f i n i t e s e n s u a l v i o l e n c e gave h i m s e l f t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s supreme, _p immoral, A b s o l u t e Beauty, i n t h e body o f woman.  Although t h e "rainbow" never spans W i l l ' s marriage w i t h Anna, although he and Anna never a t t a i n the Selfhood of Tom and L y d i a , W i l l , a f t e r being destroyed by Anna i n the church and a f t e r f i n d i n g h i s Absolute Beauty i n t h e body o f Anna, does experience a r e b i r t h of a f e e b l e S e l f . He becomes f r e e t o take an i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c l i f e , 33  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the education system." lie i s no l o n g e r bound by the l i m i t i n g "apex of t h e a r c h " of the church. U r s u l a a l s o t r i e s the church as a p o s s i b l e doorway to f u l f i l l m e n t . But even more than h e r mother, she q u e s t i o n s the v a l i d i t y o f some o f the C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g s . She cannot understand why so great an emphasis i s p l a c e d on t h e b l e e d i n g hands and f e e t of a c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t . I t seems v u l g a r t o h e r t o imagine p l a c i n g one's f i n g e r s i n His wounds. The c r o s s , the tomb and "the s m e l l o f gravec l o t h e s " overshadow the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  26 I t was b e c o m i n g a m e c h a n i c a l a c t i o n n o w , t h i s drama: b i r t h at Christmas f o r death at Good F r i d a y . On E a s t e r S u n d a y t h e l i f e - d r a m a was a s g o o d a s f i n i s h e d . F o r -the R e s u r r e c t i o n was s h a d o w y a n d o v e r c o m e b y t h e s h a d o w o f d e a t h , t h e A s c e n s i o n was s c a r c e n o t i c e d , a mere c o n f i r m a t i o n o f d e a t h . 3 4  Ursula  cannot  Christianity glorifying  accept becomes  the  Christianity ugly,  clings  vulgar*  for  her  church's  a negation  resurrected to  breast  i n her  life:  death.  instead  of death,  c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t who d i e d  girl,  Ursula briefly  satisfaction.  that  accepts  He b e c o m e s t h e  i m a g i n a t i o n she  and f i n d s  underneath  of  on  C h r i s t who h a d c o n q u e r e d  the  spiritual lover.  her:  emphasis  an  death.  As a t e e n a g e as  the  s h e was  lays  male  her  "And a l l  playing false,  Christ substitute  head upon H i s the  time  accepting  she  knew  the  35 passion  of  Jesus  for  her  own p h y s i c a l  But when A n t o n S k r e b e n s k y forgets She  the  turns  satisfaction."  comes a l o n g ,  c h u r c h and C h r i s t , h e r  to Anton, a l o v e r  of  "spiritual"  what  sacred  was  teachings  once of  sacred.  the  lover.  f lesh-and-blood..  Thus b o t h U r s u l a a n d A n n a become defiles  Ursula quickly  the  peacock  who  They have  defiled  the  declared  t h e m no  longer  church,  valid.  They have pushed  the  church into  the  background  because  it  The  church that  was  the  of  the  is  distant  Brangwens hideous  has  become  the  still  time Lawrence  of  writes  very its  s t a n d i n g up  much a p a r t  of  the  i n loving one's  destructive  effect  v/dmen i n L o v e ,  become  Christianity, its  self-denial  have  older generations  a "church-tower  a f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n , has  influence of  Unknown f o r  symbol of  the  in  obsoleteness."  By t h e as  "rotten."  obsolete.  disastrous culture. fellowmen  on the  the But  effects,  Christ's  the are  teaching  continues  intimate love  church  to  relation-  %  27 s h i p between the man and the woman. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Mr. -and Mrs. C r i c h serves as an example. Mr. C r i c h b e l i e v e s i n C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y , i n l o v i n g h i s neighbours. He denies h i s S e l f h o o d i n order to commit h i m s e l f t o h i s workmen, the "mindless Godhead of humanity.," He had been so constant t o h i s l i g h t s , so constant t o c h a r i t y , and to h i s l o v e f o r h i s neighbour. Perhaps he had l o v e d h i s neighbour even b e t t e r than h i m s e l f — ' w h i c h i s going one f u r t h e r than the commandment. Always, t h i s flame had burned i n h i s h e a r t , s u s t a i n i n g him through e v e r y t h i n g , the w e l f a r e of the people. He was a l a r g e employer of l a b o u r , he was a g r e a t mine-owner. And he had never l o s t t h i s from h i s h e a r t , t h a t i n C h r i s t he was one w i t h h i s workmen. Nay, he had f e l t i n f e r i o r t o them, as i f they through p o v e r t y and l a b o u r were n e a r e r to God than he. He had always the unacknowledged b e l i e f t h a t i t was h i s workmen, the miners, who h e l d i n t h e i r hands the means of s a l v a t i o n . To move nearer to God, he must move towards h i s miners, h i s l i f e must gravi t a t e towards t h e i r s . They were, u n c o n s c i o u s l y , h i s God made m a n i f e s t . I n them he worshipped the h i g h e s t , the g r e a t , sympathetic, mindless Godhead of humanity Mr. C r i c h denies h i s S e l f to worship the workmen, "the mindless Godhead of humanity,".the people who have become a b s t r a c t i o n s upon whom he can bestow h i s C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y . He i s not concerned w i t h them as i n d i v i d u a l s ; they have become the "God made m a n i f e s t " which h i s denied S e l f can worship., Mrs. C r i c h c o n s i d e r s her husband a we ale l i n g : "She c o u l d not bear the h u m i l i a t i o n of her husband's s o f t h a l f a p p e a l i n g kindness to everybody."° Mrs. C r i c h a s s o c i a t e s denying o n e s e l f and l i v i n g f o r others w i t h death: " i t seemed to M r s . C r i c h as i f her husband w e r e some s u b t l e 38 f u n e r a l b i r d , f e e d i n g on the m i s e r i e s of the people."  28  In worshipping the is  committed to  his  wife  "mindless  Godhead,"  an a b s t r a c t i o n .  a similar abstract,  Consequently,  self-denied  i n t i m a t e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p , never she  satisfy.  cannot  Instead  the  39  him, yet  to  she  white,  excited  is  spiritual  death.  What  effect  have on G e r a l d ? hates his by  himself  symbolic  that  Till than  of  his  There  father's  is  his  her  father,  yet  love  can  it.  "white love  death:  snow-  for  b l e d to  4-0  and  him.  "the  burned i n her  eyes  death  His  slow  torturous  Christian  Christian charity,  i t ; he d e s p i s e s  the  anything."  a conflict  offers  In  admit  h e was  slow  does M r . C r i c h ' s  he  him because  to  of  him to  light  h e r more  of  whole-hearted  "bleeding"  destructive  is  type  lie r e f u s e s  and r o u s e d h i m .  death  this  Crich  love.  i s destroying  convince  a n d t h e n he d r e a d e d physical  she  v i r g i n i t y and h e r  while  terrible only  respect  he t r i e s  flowered" All  He k n o w s  Mr.  philosophy  within Gerald: yet  he  he has  is  he  dominated  a feeling  of  tenderness for him: G e r a l d was i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t c h a r i t y ; a n d y e t he was d o m i n a t e d b y i t , i t a s s u m e d s u premacy i n t h e i n n e r l i f e , and he c o u l d not confute i t . So h e was p a r t l y s u b j e c t t o t h a t w h i c h h i s f a t h e r s t o o d f o r , b u t h e was i n reaction against i t . Now h e c o u l d n o t s a v e himself. A c e r t a i n p i t y and g r i e f and t e n d e r ness f o r h i s f a t h e r overcame h i m , i n s p i t e of t h e d e e p e r , more s u l l e n h o s t i l i t y . l  Ivhen h e b e c o m e s t h e to  reject  tude  of  he r e j e c t s the  " I n d u s t r i a l Magnate,"  Christian charity: love  "the  and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e  the  commitment  "the  Gerald  commits h i m s e l f  tion.  Gerald denies  mindless to  whole  of  is  determined  Christian atti42  Although  self-sacrifice  Godhead o f  an e q u a l l y  Selfhood  he  was o l d h a t . "  Christian attitude to  l  and  humanity,"  "mindless"  abstrac-  and becomes c o m m i t t e d  to  29 a " l i f e s u b j e c t e d t o pure mathematical p r i n c i p l e s . "43 T h i s commitment i s as a b s t r a c t as Hr. C r i c h ' s s a c r i f i c e to h i s fellowmen. G e r a l d , "God of the machine," " meets h i s defeat i n t h e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p 'with the woman. J u s t as Mrs. C r i c h destroys Mr. C r i c h , so Gudrun destroys G e r a l d . Although Gerald's powerful w i l l holds good a t the i n d u s t r i a l l e v e l , i n t h e i n t i m a t e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i t breaks. The s t r o n g man i s r e v e a l e d as t h e weakling; Gudrun proves him "impotent." H i s a b s t r a c t commitment to t h e machine makes him "impotent" i n t h e i n t i m a t e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Gudrun. While some i n d i v i d u a l s i n "omen i n Love are destroyed i n t h e man—woman l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p because they b r i n g - to i t t h e f a l s i f i e d S e l f t h a t i s committed t o an a b s t r a c t i o n , others l i k e E i r k i n and U r s u l a , are capable of e s t a b l i s h i n g a new r e l i g i o n based on an e q u i l i b r i u m between the S e l f and t h e Other, the "pure balance of two s i n g l e 45 beings." T h e i r l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes t h e new r e l i g i o n f o r them. I n the c l i m a c t i c "Excurse" chapter, the minster b e l l s are p l a y i n g t h e hymn: G l o r y to Thee my God t h i s n i g h t For a l l t h e b l e s s i n g s of the l i g h t —  4 6  This hymn i s U r s u l a and B i r k i n ' s response a t I t i s a hymn of p r a i s e t o the "God of l o v e . " a hymn of C h r i s t i a n s e l f - d e n i a l ; furthermore, a hymn o f C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c i a l love*. One of  t h i s time. I t i s not i t i s not the "sons 47  of God" i s d i s c o v e r i n g one of the "daughters of men" and t h e "God as a mystery" t h a t Ursula's grandmother's 48  L y d i a experienced "through a l l h e r senses" i s giving h i s b l e s s i n g . B i r k i n and U r s u l a ' s consummation of l o v e becomes a r i c h r e l i g i o u s experience f o r them:  T h i s was r e l e a s e a t l a s t . S h e h a d h e e l l o v e r s , she-had known p a s s i o n . But t h i s was n e i t h e r l o v e nor passion.. I t was t h e daughters o f men coming back t o t h e s o n s of God, the strange inhuman sons of God who a r e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g . 4 9 I n c o n c l u s i o n , how i s t h e out-dated concept o f C h r i s t i a n i t y c e n t r a l t o t h e love-death r e l a t i o n s h i p of the man and woman i n Lawrence's e a r l y n o v e l s ? I n Sons and L o v e r s , he shows the man and woman who a r e governed by the concepts o f t h e church. P a u l and Miriam l i v e a l i f e o f s e l f - d e n i a l by t r y i n g t o suppress t h e " l i f e f o r c e " w i t h i n them. They f e e l h u m i l i a t e d and ashamed of t h e i r b o d i l y d e s i r e s . F o r Lawrence, t h e l i f e of s e l f d e n i a l demanded by C h r i s t i a n i t y i s wrong because i t d e s t r o y s the n a t u r a l " l i f e f o r c e " w i t h i n man. I n The Rainbow, he shows the man o r woman w h o , not f i n d i n g f u l f i l l m e n t i n the man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p , t u r n s t o t h e church f o r a s u b s t i t u t e l o v e r . Lawrence i m p l i e s that C h r i s t i a n i t y appeals t o t h e inadequate, u n f u l f i l l e d i n d i v i d u a l . But the church cannot be a s a t i s f a c t o r y f u l f i l l m e n t because C h r i s t i a n i t y emphasizes a dead C h r i s t . I n Women i n Love, although the Church as a f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s not ment i o n e d , t h e i n f l u e n c e of a s e l f - d e n y i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y l e a v e s i t s d r a s t i c e f f e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l s . Through s e l f d e n i a l , i n d i v i d u a l s worship a b s t r a c t i o n s .  31  FOOTNOTES 1D. H. Lawrence, The •..hito Peacock (London: Duckworth and Co., 1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 226-7., 2I b i d , p.. 171. 3*. D. H. Lawrence, Sons and L o v e r s (New York:. The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1958), p. 142.. ( s u b s e q u e n t page r e f erences to t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s novel.) 4 . , pp.. 290-1. 5. p. 10. 6.. p.. 10. 7., pp.. 126-78. p. 151. 9... pp.. 153-4. 10.. pp. 173 and 218. 11. p. 153. 12. p . . 147. 13.. p.. 16714... p . 17315- pp. 289-290. 16.. p. 178. 17.. n.. 290., 18. p. 177. 19... D... H. L a w r e n c e , The Rainbow ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 4 9 ) , p.. 7... ( s u b s e q u e n t page r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s e d i t i o n o f t h i s n o v e l . ) 20. p. 495. 21... pp. 103-4. 22. p. 106. 23.. p . 195. 24. p. 325. 25. p.. 113. 26. p.. 149. 27. p.. 120. 28. pn. 173-4. 29. p. 202. 30. p. 205. 31. p. 206. 3S» IP* Q^ * 33. p . 238. 34. p. 281. 35. pp. 287-8.. 36. D. H. Lawrence, Women i n Love (Middlesex:. Peng u i n Books L t d . , 1960), p. 241-2. ( s u b s e q u e n t page r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l . ) 242. 37.. 38. p • 244. 245. 39. P. 40. p. 245.  41... p . 42 P43. P« 44.. . p. 45. p. 46.. p. 47., p.  246. 255. 260. 256. 164. 351. 352.  48. D. H . Lawrence, Footnote 21.). 49.,  D.  H.  Lawrence,  The R a i n b o w ,  pp. 1 0 3 - 4  Women i n L o v e ,  p.  353.  (  CHAPTER I I I THE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY O N INSTITUTIONS A N D THE RESULTING DESTRUCTIVE RELATIONSHIPS At the b e g i n n i n g o f The White Peacock, Lawrence, through h i s p e r s o n a , Annable, d e s c r i b e s c i v i l i z a t i o n as a " p a i n t e d fungus o f r o t t e n n e s s . " ^ He then proceeds t o d e s c r i b e t h e r o t t e n c o n d i t i o n and t o e x p l a i n i t s cause.. L a t e r , i n Sons and L o v e r s , The Rainbow, and Women i n Love, Lawrence examines t h i s theme f u r t h e r . He g i v e s examples o f i n d i v i d u a l s who cannot s u r v i v e t h e r o t t e n c i v i l i z a t i o n and examples o f those who have become the "painted fungus," who have f u r t h e r e d t h e decay. U s u a l l y such an i n d i v i d u a l i s a p a r t o f a b a s i c a l l y r o t t e i i n s t i t u t i o n . According t o Lawrence, the most important i n s t i t u t i o n i n our c u l t u r e has been the church. I t s rottenness a f f e c t s a l l the other i n s t i t u t i o n s : the s c h o o l , the u n i v e r s i t y , the n a t i o n , and t h e i n d u s t r y . B a s i c a l l y the c o r r u p t i o n i s caused by the d e n i a l o f t h e Selfhood which i s taught by C h r i s t i a n i t y ; t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s a f a l s i f i e d S e l f t h a t i s committed t o " i d e a s " o r i s s u b s e r v i e n t t o an a b s t r a c t h i g h e r f o r c e . The c o r r u p t i o n i s f u r t h e r caused by the i n d i v i d u a l who f o r c e s h i s w i l l upon others and thus destroys t h e i r Selfhood. This c o r r u p t i o n i n c i v i l i z a t i o n d r a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t s the l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the man and woman. The man who i s comm i t t e d t o an " i d e a " o r t o an a b s t r a c t f o r c e w i l l b r i n g a s i m i l a r a b s t r a c t l o v e t o t h e i n t i m a t e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h i s type o f love can never s a t i s f y . The man who e x e r t s h i s w i l l e i t h e r " k i l l s " the d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t h e S e l f , i n the woman o r c l a s h e s w i t h h e r w i l l , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes a b a t t l e i n which the S e l f of each i s destroyed. I n The White Peacock, through the use of animal imagery, Lawrence draws t h e reader's a t t e n t i o n t o the c o r r u p t i n g change i n our c i v i l i z a t i o n , t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l  34  who cannot s u r v i v e t h i s change, and to the i n d i v i d u a l who causes t h e c o r r u p t i o n . The s e t t i n g of t h i s e a r l y n o v e l i s the seemingly p e a c e f u l E n g l i s h c o u n t r y - s i d e ; many o f the episodes take p l a c e i n the woods and meadows. However, one soon n o t i c e s t h a t the s e t t i n g i s not as i d y l l i c as i t at f i r s t appears. Again and a g a i n the t o r t u r e , p a i n , and death of animals i s i n t r o d u c e d as the c r e a t u r e s s t r u g g l e i n a c r u e l s u r v i v a l - o f - t h e - f i t t e s t environment. The i n c i d e n t t h a t f o l l o w s immediately a f t e r Amiable's d e s c r i p t i o n of c i v i l i z a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the d e s c r i p t i o n v e r y f i t t i n g l y : C y r i l B e a r d s a l l , when w a l k i n g through the 2  woods, f i n d s a dead r a b b i t w i t h maggots f e e d i n g upon i t . Because Annable has j u s t c a l l e d c i v i l i z a t i o n "the p a i n t e d fungus of r o t t e n n e s s , " the reader immediately  associates  the dead r a b b i t w i t h the r o t t e n c i v i l i z a t i o n and r e p u l s i v e maggots w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l s who  the  are f u r t h e r i n g  its  decay. On another o c c a s i o n , C y r i l and h i s s i s t e r , L e t t i e , are on t h e i r way to S t r e l l e y M i l l when they f i n d a wounded cat w i t h both i t s hind-paws t o r n from being caught i n a gamekeeper's t r a p . They take the b l e e d i n g animal to the M i l l where the Saxton f a m i l y l i v e s . They bathe the i n j u r e d c r e a t u r e and do a l l they can to h e l p i t . , but i n the end George Saxton drowns the cat i n order to r e l i e v e i t 3  of i t s misery. The i n c i d e n t foreshadows a s i m i l a r t o r t u r e and death s t r u g g l e t h a t George w i l l experience when he, the wounded beast, w i l l not be a b l e to s u r v i v e i n an e n v i ronment t h a t f o r c e s him o f f h i s land i n order to make room f o r the impersonal machine. A f t e r " h e i s f o r c e d from the farm, he moves to the i n n ; but away from the farm he cannot f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t . H i s marriage only aggravates h i s a l r e a d y unhappy and u n f u l f i l l e d l i f e . J u s t as he e a r l i e r helped the animal out of i t s misery, so he wishes someone would h e l p him to a quick death, f o r he has become the "condemned man" b e t t e rwho-'"can o n l y say, "'. . . the sooner I c l e a r out, the 4  35  One day, from a window, L e t t i e and C y r i l watch the dreary outdoors. A s t r o n g g a l e i s blowing and a d r i z z l i n g r a i n i s f a l l i n g . O c c a s i o n a l l y a b l a c k , wet l e a f i s t o r n from a t r e e and staggers down " i n a dance of death." Suddenly L e t t i e and C y r i l n o t i c e some crows f i g h t i n g the weather. Four of them l i g h t upon a h o l l y t r e e and c l i n g t o i t . L e t t i e a i a i n t a i n s t h a t crows are an omen of death because o l d Mrs. Wagstaff heard a crow croak i n her t r e e every n i g h t f o r a week b e f o r e her husband's death. L e t t i e f e e l s g l a d t h a t the "drunken o l d wretch" drowned i n the c a n a l , y e t she f e e l s uncomfortable t h a t the crows are now so near to h e r . They continue to watch as three of the crows, one by one, t r y to f l y away, but are a l l pushed by the wind, born down i n t o the stream, and sv/ept away to t h e i r death. One crow remains: "only the f i r s t ghoul was l e f t on the w i t h e r e d , s i l v e r - g r e y s k e l e t o n of the 5  holly." The d e s t r u c t i o n i n nature i s symbolic of the d e s t r u c t i o n i n c i v i l i z a t i o n . The crows are symbolic of Lawrence's c h a r a c t e r s . J u s t as the t h r e e crows c o u l d not s u r v i v e the r a g i n g storm, so some of Lawrence's c h a r a c t e r s — George, f o r example—cannot s u r v i v e t h e i r "storms." When the Squire demands changes w i t h which George cannot comply, he and h i s f a m i l y are f i n a l l y f o r c e d o f f the farm. As soon as he has l e f t the o l d way of l i f e , he begins to d e t e r i o r a t e ; the d e s t r u c t i o n of the o l d way i s a d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s very S e l f . L a t e r , other Lawrencian c h a r a c t e r s w i l l be other "crows" t h a t f i g h t the storm and f i n a l l y succyteb to i t . S t i l l others w i l l be l i k e the "ghoul" crow t h a t s u r v i v e s ; they w i l l be i n d i v i d u a l s who continue to c o r r u p t s o c i e t y by t h e i r d e a t h - i n - l i f e e x i s t e n c e . Thus i n The White Peacock, the death of the animals foreshadows the death of the i n d i v i d u a l whose S e l f i s destroyed. George maintains h i s Selfhood, at l e a s t to a degree, on the farm where he f u n c t i o n s as aa i n d i v i d u a l . Away from the farm, h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s destroyed. The  36  d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s a d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s spontaneity. With a destroyed S e l f , George becomes the weakling who l a c k s the courage to e s t a b l i s h a l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L e t t i e and l a t e r cannot s u s t a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Meg. I n Sons and L o v e r s , Lawrence g i v e s examples of i n d i v i d u a l s who, l i k e George i n The White Peacock, enjoy the o l d a g r a r i a n way of l i f e . P a u l Morel i s a t t r a c t e d t o the L e i v e r s who l i v e on W i l l e y Farm. P a u l enjoys working w i t h the L e i v e r s b r o t h e r s — h o e i n g the t u r n i p s , working i n the h a y f i e l d s and m i l k i n g the cows. i.licn they are t i r e d of working, they l i e i n the h a y s t a c k s , they go f o r w a l k s , or P a u l teaches them a new song. He enjoys the freedom t o do as he p l e a s e s , t o act spontaneously. I n c o n s t r a s t , P a u l sees i n d i v i d u a l s who have l o s t t h e i r s p o n t a n e i t y . He hates to see the miners r e t u r n i n g i n the evening, walking along the road l i k e a h e r d of d i r t y c r e a t u r e s . He hates t o go to the pay-room and wait i n l i n e to c o l l e c t the wages f o r h i s c o a l - m i n i n g f a t h e r . He i s h u m i l i a t e d by the rough and impersonal treatment he r e c e i v e s . I t has been engrained i n t o him by h i s mother t h a t he s h a l l never go "underground" l i k e h i s f a t h e r . P a u l has no d e s i r e t o be a miner; he despises the d i r t and the u g l i n e s s of the coal-mines; he d e t e s t s the v u l g a r u n i f o r m i t y of the coal-miners. They have l o s t t h e i r spontaneous l i f e ; they seem l i k e p r i s o n e r s to him. Although P a u l does not go "underground," he becomes a " p r i s o n e r of i n d u s t r i a l i s m " of another sort., While l o o k ing f o r a j o b , he a l r e a d y f e e l s "taken i n t o bondage." Already he was a p r i s o n e r of i n d u s t r i a l i s m . Large sunflowers s t a r e d over the o1d r e d w a l l of the garden o p p o s i t e , l o o k i n g i n t h e i r j o l l y way down on the women who were h u r r y i n g w i t h something f o r dinner. The v a l l e y was f u l l of c o r n , b r i g h t e n i n g i n the sun. Two c o l l i e r i e s ,  37 among t h e f i e l d s , waved t h e i r s m a l l w h i t e plumes of stream. F a r o f f on t h e h i l l s were t h e woods o f A n n e s l e y , dark and f a s c i n a t i n g . Already h i s h e a r t went down. lie was b e i n g t a k e n i n t o bondage. H i s freedom i n t h e b e l o v e d home v a l l e y was g o i n g now.' When he  and h i s mother go  Paul f e e l s ventured  as though he  to Jordan's  where he  i s t o work,  i s g o i n g to h i s death:  under t h e archway, as i n t o the  "They  jaws o f t h e  dragon.  .. .- ... C h a r l e s I mounted h i s s c a f f o r d w i t h a l i g h t e r t h a n had P a u l M o r e l steps to the d i r t y of  the L e i v e r s '  the impersonal  as he f o l l o w e d h i s mother up 8 door.,"  farm life  The  dirty  life  been r e p l a c e d by  of i n d u s t r y at Jordan's.  i t i s not as d i r t y as t h e l i f e t h e same i m p r i s o n i n g effect... In  the  For Paul the p e a c e f u l  i s gone; i t has  heart  Although  of the c o a l - m i n e r ,  i t has  Rainbow, Lawrence f u r t h e r e x p l o r e s what i s  happening to c i v i l i z a t i o n : "dead r a b b i t , " he  he  examines more f u l l y  a c q u a i n t s t h e r e a d e r w i t h the  that  a r e f e e d i n g on i t .  from  The  Or u s i n g the o t h e r  the  "maggots"  illustration  White P e a c o c k , Lawrence p r e s e n t s some more "crows"  t h a t cannot  s u r v i v e t h e storm  and  a l s o some o f t h e  "ghoul"  9  crows t h a t do s u r v i v e . Tom r i a n way thrived:, of  Brangwen, l i k e George S a x t o n b e l o n g s of l i f e .  On  to the  t h e farm h i s f o r e f a t h e r s and  "so t h e Brangwens came and went w i t h o u t  n e c e s s i t y , working hard because o f the l i f e  he fear  that  was  10 in  agra-  them, n o t f o r want o f t h e money." I t was enough f o r t h e men, t h a t the e a r t h h e a v e d and opened i t s f u r r o w s t o them, t h a t the wind blew t o d r y t h e wet wheat, and s e t t h e younge a r s of c o r n w h e e l i n g f r e s h l y round about, i t was enough t h a t t h e y h e l p e d t h e cow i n l a b o u r , or f e r r e t e d t h e r a t s from under the b a r n , o r b r o k e the back of a r a b b i t w i t h a s h a r p knock of t h e hand. So much warmth and g e n e r a t i n g  38 a n d p a i n a n d d e a t h d i d t h e y know i n t h e i r b l o o d , e a r t h a n d s k y a n d b e a s t and g r e e n p l a n t s , s o much exchange and i n t e r c h a n g e they had w i t h t h e s e , t h a t t h e y l i v e d f u l l and s u r c h a r g e d , t h e i r s e n s e s f u l l f e d , t h e i r faces always turned to the heat o f t h e b l o o d , s t a r i n g i n t o t h e sun, d a z i n g w i t h l o o k i n g towards the source of g e n e r a t i o n , unable to t u r n r o u n d . 1 1  The  spontaneous  wen m e n — s o looked  out  "blood intimacy"  they  think^  is  i t least.  "from the heated,  enough  for  the D r a n g -  The B r a n g w e n women  blind  intercourse  of  farm-  12  l i f e to the spoken w o r l d beyond" w h e r e a s t h e men " f a c e d inwards to the teeming l i f e of c r e a t i o n , which poured unresolved  into  their  veins."  Tom B r a n g w e n m a r r i e s Lydia,  u n l i k e the  Tom, has her  become  "a potent,  13  a P o l i s h woman, L y d i a  B r a n g w e n women b u t  immune t o sensuous  the  l i k e her  outside  belief  that  world;  Lensky*  husband, she has  included her  within  family  . 14 and c o n t a i n e d her  destiny."  Hers are  instinctive  re-  sponses v e r y s i m i l a r t o Tom's " b l o o d i n t i m a c y . " F o r a t t h e M a r s h l i f e had a c e r t a i n f r e e d o m a n d , largeness. T h e r e was no f r e t a b o u t m o n e y , no mean l i t t l e p r e c e d e n c e , n o r c a r e f o r w h a t o t h e r p e o p l e t h o u g h t , because n e i t h e r M r s . Brangwen n o r B r a n g w e n c o u l d be s e n s i b l e o f a n y j u d g e m e n t p a s s e d on them f r o m o u t s i d e . T h e i r l i v e s were too separate.. The f r e e d o m of  life  at  allows  respond i n h i s  the  an i n d i v i d u a l , own w a y .  commercialism. Furthermore, the  capacity  to  aware  the  of  dividuality-  He l i v e s  the  two p e o p l e  Marsh e x i s t s  freedom as  other  l i k e Tom, t o  Tom i s for of  involved:  live  b e c a u s e the a g r a r i a n not p r e s s u r e d by  himself the  and outside  and h i s  family..  Marsh e x i s t s  because  b o t h Tom and L y d i a h a v e  two s e p a r a t e person,  choose  yet  beings,  t o be f r e e  t o be  way  of  the  unconsciously  in their  in-  39 T h i s freedom will  be" t h e l a s t  nearby them.  i s brought  t h e Brangwens t r y t o r e m a i n  as l o n g as p o s s i b l e , t h e c o l l i e r y  near The  d i s t a n c e and  t h e smoke from  Then one  t h e c a n a l embankment b r e a k s  ization.  isolated  n i g h t d u r i n g a heavy  and Tom  as t h e crows i n The  the r u s h i n g stream,  so Tom  the  homes i n t h e  Brangwen, who  rain,  i s re-  Thus Torn i s  d e s t r o y e d by t h e u n c o n t r o l l a b l e Just  from  town, t h e y meet t h e  t u r n i n g from town, drowns i n t h e f l o o d . indirectly  to  the c i t y b l u r s the h o r i z o n .  when t h e y d r i v e home from  "blackened c o l l i e r s . "  closer  i s s p i n n i n g in  Brangwens see t h e r e d , c r u d e c o l l i e r s '  valley;  Brangwen  i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e meadows o f t h e  Thus i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n  Although  Tom  A canal l e a d i n g to the  to enjoy i t .  collieries  Marsh Farm. it  i s , however, soon l o s t ;  industrial-  White P e a c o c k d i e d i n  drowns i n the  flood.  In the u t t e r darkness, the unconscious, drowning body was r o l l e d a l o n g , t h e water p o u r i n g , washing, f i l l i n g i n t h e p l a c e . The c a t t l e woke up and r o s e t o t h e i r f e e t , t h e dog began t o yelp. And t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , drowning body was washed a l o n g i n t h e b l a c k , s w i r l i n g d a r k n e s s , passively. 1 6  When t h e body i s d i s c o v e r e d the f o l l o w i n g  day,  "hay  and  17 t w i g s and and  dirt  were i n t h e b e a r d and h a i r . "  t h e meadows t h a t were so much a p a r t  seem t o go w i t h him dirt"  way Tom  of l i f e  to h i s death.  dies with  The  The  o f Tom's  "hay  soil life  and t w i g s  and  Tom.  Brangwen's son, Tom,  who  seems t h e most  defiant  towards t h e f o r c e t h a t c a u s e d h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , i s , ironically,  the f i r s t  o f t h e Brangwens t o become a l e a d i n g  agency o f t h a t v e r y f o r c e . little after  H i s d e f i a n c e i s e v i d e n c e d when  U r s u l a , u n e x p e c t e d l y , comes a c r o s s h e r U n c l e the  funeral:  Tom  40 Only a f t e r w o r d s U r s u l a , f l i t t i n g between t h e c u r r a n t b u s h e s down t h e g a r d e n , saw h e r U n c l e Tom s t a n d i n g i n h i s b l a c k c l o t h e s , erect and f a s h i o n a b l e , but h i s f i s t s l i f t e d and h i s f a c e d i s t o r t e d , b i s l i p s c u r l e d back from h i s t e e t h i n a h o r r i b l e g r i n , l i k e an a n i m a l w h i c h g r i m a c e s w i t h t o r m e n t , w h i l s t h i s body p a n t e d quick, l i k e a panting dog's. He was f a c i n g t h e open d i s t a n c e , p a n t i n g , and h o l d i n g s t i l l , t h e n p a n t i n g r a p i d l y a g a i n , but h i s face never changi n g from i t s almost b e s t i a l look of t o r t u r e , the t e e t h a l l showing, the nose w r i n k l e d u p , the eyes u n s e e i n g , fixed.18 At  this point,  killed  his  the  y o u n g Tom i s  father.  His f i s t s  enraged, a t  are  l i f t e d towards  open d i s t a n c e " — i n the  d i r e c t i o n of  ies,  and t h e  the  smoking c i t y ,  face has  a bestial  forgets  this  lieries  and uses  destroy  the  no l o n g e r become  expression  look. the  separate:  colliery.  force  that  of  others.  ugly,  He c o n t r o l s  the  of  His never  the  col-  father  to  The M a r s h Farm  is  Brangwen f a m i l y  r e d houses  the people  collier-  Ursula  manager  that  "the  red houses.  destroyed his  a member o f  the  distant  torture;  L a t e r he becomes  i n d i v i d u a l i t y of  a part  the  crude, of  the force  and t h e  who l i v e  has  blackened  i n the  "mass  1 9  of  homogeneous  dwellings  red-brick dwellings."  become  In contrast  to  the  Marsh,  the  the  colliers  1  i n d i c a t i v e of  the  freedom,  confinement, homes  is  The  homogeneous  t h e i r homogeneous  beauty,  inmates.  and i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f  ugliness,  and c o n f o r m i t y  of  apparent.  The s t r e e t s w e r e l i k e v i s i o n s o f p u r e u g l i n e s s ; a g r e y - b l a c k macadamized road,* a s p h a l t causeways, h e l d i n between a f l a t s u c c e s s i o n of w a l l , window and d o o r , a n e w - b r i c k c h a n n e l t h a t began nowhere, and ended nowhere. E v e r y t h i n g was amorphous, yet e v e r y t h i n g repeated i t s e l f endlessly..  When U r s u l a a n d W i n i f r e d I n g e r come t o Ursula recognizes noticed lost The  as  his  the  bestiality  a little girl,  humanity;  for  c o l l i e r s h a v e become  w i t h no h o p e , being,  but  which s t i l l  along,  is  Tom,  she  had  horrified.  Tom h a s  i n d i v i d u a l no l o n g e r  animals  w i t h i n some u t t e r l y  meaninglessly  i n Tom t h a t  and she  him the  visit  to him:  live  "Like  and h a v e  unliving shell,  with strange,  exists.  creatures  passionate they  isolated  passed  dignity.  21 I t was a s i f a h a r d , h o r n y s h e l l e n c l o s e d t h e m a l l . - " Tom c a n n o t l o v e a human b e i n g : " t h e p i t was t h e g r e a t 22 mistress"  for  Tom c h o o s e s perverted merely the  In choosing  someone  way.  who,  W i n i f r e d as  to  a  "mate,"  l i k e h i m , can o n l y love  Her e a r l i e r homosexual  transferred  machine.  'impure  him."  in a  perversion is  a new p e r v e r s i o n o f  now  love—love  of  B o t h Tom a n d W i n i f r e d h a v e s u b s t i t u t e d  abstraction"  for  pure  "the  Selfhood.  H i s r e a l m i s t r e s s was t h e m a c h i n e , a n d t h e r e a l m i s t r e s s o f ' W i n i f r e d was t h e m a c h i n e . She t o o , W i n i f r e d , w o r s h i p p e d t h e i m p u r e a b s t r a c t i o n , t h e mechanisms of m a t t e r . There, there, i n the machine, i n the s e r v i c e of the m a c h i n e , was s h e f r e e f r o m t h e c l o g a n d d e g r a d a t i o n o f human f e e l i n g . There, i n the monstrous mechanism t h a t h e l d a l l m a t t e r , l i v i n g o r dead, i n i t s s e r v i c e , d i d she a c h i e v e h e r consummation and her p e r f e c t u n i s o n , her i m m o r t a l i t y .23 Thus t h e in  the  C h r i s t i a n teaching  lives  of  of  self-denial  anism that  They  find  their  held a l l matter."  consummation i n each hood has  been  other;  destroyed  by  T h u s W i n i f r e d a n d Torn a r e of  rottenness"  demonstrated  individuals involved i n industry.  and W i n i f r e d deny t h e i r S e l f h o o d the machine.  is  that  and g i v e  they  cannot,  "impure  a part  Annable of  love  consummation i n the T h e y do n o t  the  their  Tom  of  find for  to  "mech-  their  their  Self-  abstraction."  "the  painted  The W h i t e P e a c o c k  fungus mentions  in  his  d e s c r i p t i o n of  civilization.  is  one  of  of  the  survive, crow,  "crows"  the  "the  The W h i t e P e a c o c k  y o u n g Tom a n d h i s  ghoul  .  .  .  Whereas  left  wife  that  become  on the  Tom's  cannot  the  withered,  father  surviving silver-grey  24  skeleton  of  the  holly."  and W i n i f r e d , she ghoulish  even  In fact,  noticed  in their  that  very  as  Ursula observed  " t h e r e seemed  d e p l o r i n g the  Tom  something  state  of  things. 25  They  seemed  to  take  a ghoulish  I n Women i n L o v e , Brangwen,  destroys  upon them. his  The  satisfaction  Gerald Crich,  the  Self  of  others  i n d i v i d u a l does not  prime aim i s  to  like  i m p r o v e mass  T h e R a i n b o w Tom a n d W i n i f r e d ' s by R u p e r t  opening he  of  young the  bolts  bride.  great  To t h i s of  to  subjugate that  the  it.'"  thing  seems t o o  control people, them t o  his  does not  bleeding  .  .  to  .'"  with  to  to  to  is  a  thinks  part  of  the  act  claims. be  in  a  spontaneously  respond  spon-  He f e e l s  and t h i n g s  stand s t i l l  the  this  Birkin  like  He f o r c e s  a n i m a l means  the o n how  world to  Gerald.  animals,  will.  want  others to  At  however,  i n d i v i d u a l l y and  dangerous  inter-  and r a c e s  on t h e  i n the  r<  To a l l o w  is  begins  think  Birkin,  " I shouldn't  who a c t e d 1  bridegroom  onlookers  impulses  in  analyzed  Mundi."  spontaneity  hardest  on o n e ' s  people  taneously way  the  will  wedding c e r e m o n y ,  acting;  and  Gerald remarks:  you c a l l  by;  courage  "'It's  spontaneously  horse  the  u n d i g n i f i e d way o f  shows  the  Many o f  is  B i r k i n s comment  before the  away f r o m t h e  his  Whereas  behaviour  The n o v e l  Tom  Gerald:  living  "Salvator  Gerald hears  Just  church door.  world  the  exerting  matter t o  way o f  it." young  production.  should respond.  scene.  bride  rather  as  novel  thinks people  a wedding  it  the  Birkin,  the  by  b y U r s u l a , i n Women i n L o v e G e r a l d ' s preted  in  his  will  as  is  that to  on  a train  nothing to him except  the thunders as  an 27  indication Just  that  his  will  as G e r a l d c a n n o t  has  "dare"  triumphed over to  a l l o w the  the  horse  creature. " to  respond  43 to  impulse,  so he  have h i s way.  cannot  a l l o w Bisraarlc, t h e r a b b i t ,  When t h e r a b b i t  to  s t r u g g l e s i n Gudrun's  g r a s p , G e r a l d h u r r i e d l y takes the r a b b i t v i o l e n t blow on t h e back o f i t s neck.  and  The  gives i t a  rabbit  screams  an u n e a r t h l y c r y o f d e a t h , g i v e s a f i n a l c o n v u l s i o n , and sulks  into  s u b m i s s i o n ; i t s w i l l has been b r o k e n , 28 t e m p o r a r i l y , by a s t r o n g e r w i l l . A " c o n v u l s i o n of death," by t h e h o r s e of  and  Mr.  Crich tries  self-denial  and  s i m i l a r t o t h e one  the r a b b i t , runs  the c o l l i e r i e s  through  system  f u r t h e r h i s own  He p l a y s t h e  industry.  i n o r d e r t o move n e a r e r t o God,  In  the o l d  Christian  that  collieries,  experienced  to maintain the p r i n c i p l e of 29  of the C h r i s t i a n s o c i a l i s t  the people.  least  when G e r a l d t a k e s o v e r from h i s f a t h e r .  part to  at  to h i s workers.  feels  he must move n e a r e r  At t h e same t i m e , he  and he  He  i s t h e owner o f t h e  wants h i s i n d u s t r y t o be a s u c c e s s .  t i m e , by t r y i n g b o t h t o be a C h r i s t i a n s o c i a l i s t  a successful  capitalist,  he  and  l o s e s touch with r e a l i t y  and  has  t h e r e s p e c t o f n e i t h e r h i s workers nor h i s f a m i l y . .  Mr.  C r i c h s slow p h y s i c a l 1  spiritual Tom  d e a t h he  Brangwen, Mr.  civilization. in  death  C r i c h cannot  But  u n l i k e Tom,  d e a t h b e c a u s e he had  lived  experiencing a f u l f i l l e d  sacrificed to  s u r v i v e the who  a fulfilled never  life  Like  changing life,  touched"  stately  Mr.  him.  i n the S e l f , he  h i s S e l f to h i s workers,  the C h r i s t i a n cause. which he  slow  l o o k e d n o b l e and  Crich,  Instead has  t o h i s f a m i l y , and  G e r a l d i s determined  make t h e same m i s t a k e , b u t , i r o n i c a l l y , in  of the  s u f f e r s because of h i s f a i l u r e .  when dead, l o o k s "as i f l i f e of  i s symbolic  he w i l l  he makes a  d e n i e s h i s S e l f h o o d i n a n o t h e r way.  not  mistake  When he  t a k e s o v e r , improvements i n m a c h i n e r y and p r o d u c t i o n a r e made v e r y q u i c k l y .  The  workers a r e f o r c e d  to a c c e p t  whatever G e r a l d demands.  G e r a l d becomes "the God  machine."  e v e r y t h i n g becomes o b e d i e n t  his  will-  Everyone  and  of  the to  44 And i t was h i s w i l l t o s u b j u g a t e M a t t e r t o h i s own e n d s . The s u b j u g a t i o n i t s e l f was t h e p o i n t , t h e f i g h t was t h e b e - a l l , t h e f r u i t s of v i c t o r y were mere r e s u l t s . I t was not f o r t h e sake o f money t h a t G e r a l d took over t h e mines. He d i d n o t c a r e about money, f u n d a m e n t a l l y . He was n e i t h e r o s t e n t a t i o u s nor l u x u r i o u s , n e i t h e r d i d he c a r e about s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , n o t finally. What he wanted was t h e p u r e f u l f i l l m e n t of h i s own w i l l i n the s t r u g g l e w i t h the n a t u r a l -• conditions. H i s w i l l was now, t o t a k e the c o a l out o f t h e e a r t h , p r o f i t a b l y . The p r o f i t v/as m e r e l y t h e c o n d i t i o n o f the v i c t o r y , b u t ^ t h e v i c t o r y i t s e l f l a y i n the f e a t a c h i e v e d . 3 1  For Gerald,  "Matter"  i n c l u d e s the c o a l i n the  t h e m a c h i n e r y t o remove the operate  c o a l , and  the m a c h i n e r y — e v e r y t h i n g  s o m e t h i n g which b i s wi 1 1 . can ciples" his  i s only Matter  control.  the Selfhood  F o r Mr.  o f o t h e r s by  who to  him,  "Mathematical of the  l e a r n e d from h i s C h r i s t i a n f a t h e r how  S e l f and  tence .  t h e workmen  are h i s s u b s t i t u t e f o r the S e l f h o o d  G e r a l d has  ground,  denying  prin-  individual,  to  destroy  their  exis-  C r i c h , t h e workers became an a b s t r a c t  Christian charity effort;  f o r G e r a l d , t h e workers become  a p a r t of the  a b s t r a c t " m a t h e m a t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s " that,  will  production.  speed up  perfect  F o r Lawrence, "the g r e a t  system t h a t s u b j e c t e d l i f e  p r i n c i p l e s , " the r e s u l t  and  to p u r e m a t h e m a t i c a l  of C h r i s t i a n s e l f - d e n i a l ,  was  t h e most d e s t r u c t i v e t h i n g t h a t e x i s t e d . I t was t h e f i r s t g r e a t s t e p i n u n d o i n g , t h e f i r s t g r e a t phase o f chaos, t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f the m e c h a n i c a l p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e o r g a n i c , the d e s t r u c t i o n of the o r g a n i c p u r p o s e , the o r g a n i c u n i t y , and t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n of every o r g a n i c u n i t to the g r e a t mechanical purpose. I t was p u r e o r g a n i c d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and pure m e c h a n i c a l organization. T h i s i s t h e f i r s t and f i n e s t s t a t e of c h a o s . ^  /  45 as  Just horse  and  G e r a l d lias been a b l e t o b r e a k t h e w i l l  t h e r a b b i t , so he  of  the  to  f o r c e i t upon Gudrun i n an  ship.  colliers.  own  Here, the r e s u l t  a p p e a r s as the  Mis  i s able to break the  end  she  "kills"  w i t h him  he of  as  The  a " c o n v u l s i o n of d e a t h " he  "kills"  will kill  a p a r t o f Gudrun; i n wet  f u n e r a l , he  c l a y from h i s  been caked on h i s b o o t s .  f o r c e d upon t h e h o r s e , Just  At f i r s t , i t  After his father's  comes t o Gudrun d u r i n g the n i g h t . f a t h e r ' s g r a v e has  tries  i n t i m a t e man-woman r e l a t i o n -  i s disastrous.  d e s t r o y s him.  the  wills  w i l l h o l d s good u n t i l he  though h i s w i l l  of  He  brings  s i m i l a r t o the one  the r a b b i t , and  the  a p a r t o f e v e r y t h i n g he  a p a r t o f Gudrun, and  he  colliers. touches,  she w i l l k i l l  so  a part  him. lie had come f o r v i n d i c a t i o n . . . ... I n t o h e r he p o u r e d a l l h i s pent-up d a r k n e s s and c o r r o s i v e d e a t h and he was whole a g a i n . . . ., And she, s u b j e c t , r e c e i v e d him as a v e s s e l f i l l e d w i t h h i s b i t t e r p o t i o n of d e a t h . She had no power a t t h i s c r i s i s t o r e s i s t . The t e r r i b l e f r i c t i o n a l v i o l e n c e of d e a t h f i l l e d h e r , and she r e c e i v e d i t i n an e c s t a s y o f s u b j e c t i o n , i n ' throes of acute, v i o l e n t s e n s a t i o n . 3 3  That n i g h t Gudrun e x p e r i e n c e s l a t i o n s h i p with Gerald  a form o f d e a t h .  continues,  and  mountains i t becomes i n t e n s i f i e d .  i n the  The  Her  re-  Northern  c l a s h i n g of  wills  which began a t the water p a r t y i s g r e a t l y m a g n i f i e d c o l d Northland. reaches  The  a climax.  "She  wondered d i d not k i l l he  stood,  deadly  s t r u g g l e between the two  hated  him. 34  e f f a c e d him."  him  she k i l l e d  Gudrun i s d e t e r m i n e d t o  and  d e s t r o y Gudrun.  "He [Gerald] was  the other..  w i t h a power t h a t  In her w i l l  Gerald e n t i r e l y , d e s i r e to k i l l  i n the wills she him  as  destroy  G e r a l d i s e q u a l l y determined to  h e r . " O n e  V/hich s h o u l d  one  blind,  incontinent  o f them must t r i u m p h  i t be?  e r soul steeled  over itself  46 with  strength."  possible  but  ically.,.  Gudrun  drowning  Diane  at  the  36 '  "Death  death." '  water  "chokes" Crich  party.  was  i n e v i t a b l e , and  Gerald  0  the  choked  38  i s the  l i f e the  Gudrun  f i r s t  out  of  l i f e  to  him  out  gives  die,  as  of  her  nothing  phys-  the  her  final  was  young  blow  man  as  she  39  prophesied  she. would, g i v e .  everything  and  "cold, who  mute  does  everyone  Matter."  not  In  to  Matter;  This,  believe  that  l i f e ,  i n death,  then,  people  Gerald  i s the  should  had he  becomes  end  act  reduced  of  someone  "individually  41 and  spontaneously;" "  denies  the  dies  psychological  a  lationship  Selfhood  has  According is  also  by  Christianity  leads as  Self  of-self-denial by  v  to  The to  death.  swears i s  an  someone  who  Gudrun  destructive  love  also re-  both. the  the  loyal The  of  abstractions.  nation,  be  end  Their  theft!  destroy  force.  i s the  worship  Lawrence,  i n d i v i d u a l s to  falsified  ed  to  "killed"  corrupt.  an. a b s t r a c t  this  nation  like  a l l e g i a n c e to of  institution has  Cultural  subservient  Selfhood  outgrowth  an  industry  Self. and  as  been  idealism to. the  i s destroyed the  the  nation;  and this  self-denial  The g o o d o f t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r was a l l that mattered. T h a t w h i c h was the g r e a t e s t good f o r a l l , c o l l e c t i v e l y , was the greatest good f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . A n d s o , e v e r y " man must g i v e h i m s e l f t o s u p p o r t t h e s t a t e , and so l a b o u r f o r the g r e a t e s t good of a l l . One m i g h t m a k e improvements i n the s t a t e , perhaps, but always with a view of p r e s e r v i n g i t i n t a c t . 2  state a form  demand-  Christianity. One hcid t o f i l l o n e ' s p l a c e i n t h e W h o l e , t h e g r e a t scheme o f man's e l a b o r a t e civilization, t h a t was a l l . T h e I/hole m a t t e r e d — - b u t t h e u n i t , t h e p e r s o n , h a d no i m p o r t a n c e , e x c e p t a s he represented the Whole.  4  taught  47  T h i s i s Anton S k r e b e n s k y ' s b e l i e f . Yet, t h i s cannot b r i n g v i t a l f u l f i l l m e n t to him. U r s u l a r e a l i z e s t h i s , end she accuses him o f b e l i e v i n g i n " o l d , dead t h i n g s . " Just as G e r a l d had s o l d h i m s e l f t o the machine, so Skrebensky has s o l d h i m s e l f to the n o t i o n . Consequently both have d e s t r o y e d t h e i r S e l f h o o d ; t h e i r women cannot love s e l f l e s s men. J u s t as U r s u l a d e c l a r e s Skrebensky "impotent" i n h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the n a t i o n , so f o r ber he a l s o becomes s e x u a l l y impotent. Both G e r a l d and Skrebensky are destroyed f i n a l l y by t h e i r women. Gerald d i e s a p h y s i c a l death; Skrebensky c o n t i n u e s a d c a t h - i n - l i f e e x i s t e n c e p r e t e n d i n g to serve h i s c o u n t r y i n I n d i a . 4 3  Lawrence, a l s o , examines the s c h o o l and the c o l l e g e , , and, as i n the case of the church, these i n s t i t u t i o n s have the G o t h i c arch as t h e i r doorway to T r u t h . J u s t as a l l e g i a n c e to the n a t i o n has become g. s u b s t i t u t e f o r f u l f i l l m e n t of the S e l f , so the school and the c o l l e g e have come to p r o v i d e o n l y s u b s t i t u t e s f o r f u l f i l l m e n t . U r s u l a accepts a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n at the I l k e s t o n s c h o o l . ¥ith eager a n t i c i p a t i o n she a r r i v e s the f i r s t day.. "She entered the arched doorway of t h e porch. The whole p l a c e seemed t o have a t h r e a t e n i n g expression:, . i m i t a t i n g the c h u r c h ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e , f o r the purpose of domineering, l i k e a gesture of v u l g a r authority.""" Ursulas' s y o u t h f u l hopes and noble ambitions a r e s h a t t e r e d when the "domineeri n g " and " v u l g a r a u t h o r i t y " foreshadowed by the a r c h i t e c t u r e becomes a l i v i n g r e a l i t y i n the classroom. Ursula i s forced t o comply w i t h the system. The c h i l d r e n are accustomed to the i r o n r u l e of the head-teacher, Mr. Harby, and they know no other d i s c i p l i n e than t h a t o f sheer, b r u t a l f o r c e . This he [Mr. IlurbyJ had i t i n h i s power to do, to c r y s t a l l i z e the c h i l d r e n i n t o hard, mute fragments, f i x e d under h i s w i l l : h i s brute w i l l , which, f i x e d them by sheer f o r c e . She too must  48  l e a r n t o subdue them t o her w i l l : she m u s t . F o r i t was h e r d u t y , s i n c e t h e s c h o o l was such. He h a d c r y s t a l l i z e d t h e c l a s s i n t o o r d e r . But t o s e e h i m , a s t r o n g , p o w e r f u l man, using a l l his power f o r such a p u r p o s e , seemed almost h o r r i b l e . 4  The  whole  system  of the'adult will  being  forget  i s "wrong  forcing  by  as a  until  as  and  will  h i s  crushed  the child  children only  5  upon  terrorizing  The them  mass into  their  individuality;  Ursula,  with  great  bitterness,  ual  would  to her class.""  Ursual she  more  gains  had p a i d  I t seemed burnt  that  that  they  they  brutally  price  flame  be  are  teacher  must  control  controlled and  destroyed.  "Never individ-  concludes: as  a b i g boy,  of the children.  the whole  the  teacher  beating  had gone  beaten,  matter child's  c a n be  herself  •• . . She  disobeyed  a  and t h e  to  Both  o u t o f h e r own  tissue.  should  finally  respect  as i f a great  her sensitive  reality, than  a great  both  she g i v e  After  the fearful  in order  respect.  lose  and never  The  of children  student  more,  the c h i l d  i t i s broken.  an i n d i v i d u a l  class.  It becomes  ugly."  soul,  through would rules  broken,  "But  t o do her  this,  and  rather, i n of the school,  reduced  to  this  ,47  crying,  hopeless  state."  When U r s u l a b e g i n s a r c h . '~  the  Gothic  and  keen  she  soon r e a l i z e s  fied,  At  college, first  to learn the Truth  outdated,  that  and  she a g a i n e n t e r s  she i s very e n t h u s i a s t i c from  t h e l e a r n e d men,  i t is not the Truth,  empty  through  but a  but f a l s i -  one.  The l i f e went o u t o f h e r s t u d i e s , why, s h e did n o t know. B u t t h e w h o l e t h i n g seemed sham, spurious; spurious Gothic arches, s w i o u s p e a c e , s p u r i o u s L a t i n i t y , s p u r i o u s d i g n i t y of F r a n c e , s p u r i o u s naivete* o f C h a u c e r . 4 9  49 The  college  cial  seems  commodity"  barrenly, cial  the  examination the  worth  in  could  room;  money  Ursula.  their  gowns  be turned  ready  "commer-  t o good  commerin  account  too,  to fetch;  "And  Truth.  offered  made s t u f f  i t was i n t e n d e d  A  the  substituted for  professors that  to  and barren  has been  commodity  the  cheap  and not r e a l l y  which  a l l  they  ,,50 knew./' In Gerald the  Crich, Anton  basic  either upon it  by  of  that  their  own  they  The  appear the  t o have  •choice  force  gone  or a  very  thing  illustrates  real.  the Self  instead  i s that, system  committed t h e genuine disguised  committed  t o an  itself.  Thus  of this  o f Hersnione,  kind  among  idea  their  but merely secondary.  not primary  forced  be s u b t l y  become  of the thing  the falseness  character  and  substitute for  People  Ursula,  wrong  o f the  o r because  falsified  Xnger,  and t h e p u p i l  s u b s t i t u t e can sometimes  experience i s the  seems  have  an abstract  thing.  Skrebensky,  thing  them,  to  - and  o f Torn Brangwen J r . , W i n i f r e d  the case  Lawrence  o f commitment  others.  through  She, as t h e  "Kulturtrager," c l a i m s t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t i s "to know." Her c r a v i n g f o r k n o w l e d g e i s very d e l i b erate.  She  power.  In both  Birkin ail,  lashes  that  i t as much  cases,  ledge.'" "'"  understanding,  and there  Gerald  nor Skrebensky  energy  act  with  because  experiencing itself.  approval :  only  mirror,  Again  this, your  own t i g h t  beyond  it..'"'"  forces,  idea Birkin  each  that  violently  know-  will,  own f i x e d conscious Just  as  neither  love  has exhausted h i s  h e r passions sexual  i s your  this  s o H e r m i o n e becomes  o f the  exerting  destroyed.  can sustain, the intimate  she exhausts the  i s  your  a woman b e c a u s e  on a b s t r a c t  impotent on  i s nothing  craves  "'To know,  have  got that  world,  relationship  spontaneity  l i f e — y o u  '"You've  immortal  a l l  as Gerald  o u t a t Ilermione:  i s your  5  your  craves  on  sexually "knowing,"  act instead  expresses  of  h i s dis-  the  50 "You a r e merely m a k i n g w o r d s , ' l i e s a i d ; 'knowledge means e v e r y t h i n g to y o u . Even y o u r a n i m a l i s m , y o u want i t i n your h e a d . You don't want t o h e a n a n i m a l , y o u w a n t t o o b s e r v e y o u r own a n i m a l f u n c t i o n s , t o g e t a m e n t a l t h r i l l o u t of t h e m . I t i s a l l p u r e l y s e c o n d a r y — a n d more d e c a d e n t t h a n the most h i d e - b o u n d i n t e l l e c t u a l . What i s i t but t h e w o r s t a n d l a s t f o r m o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m , t h i s l o v e o f yours f o r p a s s i o n a n d the;-animal i n s t i n c t s ? P a s s i o n and t h e i n s t i n c t s — y o u want them h a r d enough, b u t t h r o u g h your h e a t , i n your c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t a l l t a k e s P l a c e i n y o u r head, u n d e r t h a t s k u l l o f y o u r s . *53 1  Hermione's from  primary  experience  civilization. another is  kind  and therefore  of dissociated knowledge,  knowledge..  Gerald  and B i r k i n  notice  a statue  "conveying  through t h e mind  I n Women i n L o v e ,  a spiritual  sensual  knowledge  knowledge.  a r e a t Ha.lliday's  African  the suggestion  also  emphasizes  Whereas  kind  Both are equally  o f a West  corrupting to  Lawrence  the other  i s dissociated  i s a  Hermione's  physical,  corrupting. place  When  i n London,  they  woman i n c h i l d - l a b o u r ,  o f t h e extreme  of physical  54 sensation, She  has  beyond  a tiny  crushed  "Moony" c h a p t e r "phallic the  cult"  statue.  thousands "the  "purely draws long  and  happiness"  body,  There  her race  the desire been  probably  unspiritual  after  i n the  whether t h e  must have  stomach,  h a s been  least  f o rc r e a t i o n and  dead.  F o r thousands  functioned  with  knowledge."  ugly  died  at  examining her figure:  the short,  the protruding  Later  f o rthousands o f years  must have  purely  face.  f o r h i m , he s u d d e n l y remembers  Africans  conclusion  elegant  face.  ago:  consciousness."'"  i sresolving  the holiness,  sensual,  buttocks, like  i s enough  primitive  this  beetle-like  He c o n c l u d e s t h a t  goodness,  years  o f mental  when B i r k i n  of years  productive of  the limits  legs,  the  the heavy  a n d t h e .crushed,  a dissociation  Birkin  beetle-  o f t h e mind and  51  the body. P h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n without t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e mind has i n t i m e formed t h e b e e t l e f a c e . B i r k i n then, a s s o c i a t e s G e r a l d with, t h i s k i n d - o f " s e n s u a l , u n s p i r i t u a l " knowledge.  Just  as t h e A f r i c a n race  died  many y e a r s  ago,  so B i r k i n f e a r s G e r a l d w i l l h a v e t o d i e . J u s t a s t h e A f r i c a n race h a d d i e d i n " t h e b u r n i n g d e a t h — t h e a b s t r a c tion  of t h e S a h a r a , "  so G e r a l d ,  way w i l l b e d e s t r o y e d b y " t h e Both have l o s t " t h e g o o d n e s s ,  the Nordic,  i n a  destructive frost  different mystery."  the holiness, the desire  5^  c r e a t i o n ; " both think only of p h y s i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , Hermione and t h e A f r i c a n s t a t u e r e p r e s e n t the. same c o r r u p t i o n : Hermione i s o b s e s s e d , w i t h t h e d e s i r e " t o know" t h r o u g h t h e m i n d ; t h e A f r i c a n s t a t u e i s o b s e s s e d "to know" t h r o u g h t h e b o d y . And as a r e s u l t b o t h know o n l y  for  . a d i s t o r t i o n of l o v e . instinctively. Amid  Birkin's  Peacock feels  Neither  a l l t h e examples  v i s i o n of thinks  there  a  there  new  can respond  of decay,  way.  i s , b u t as lie s a y s ,  Lawrence  Whereas  i s no h o p e ,  spontaneously,  Annable  Birkin "'You've  gives o f The  i n "./omen got very  in  White  Love  badly  t o want t o get r i d o f the o l d b e f o r e a n y t h i n g n e w w i l l appear—even i n t h e s e l f . ' " ' ' Birkin.'s answer i s found i n the c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f that w h i c h i s , i n e f f e c t , dead. S o m e nei-/ f o r m o f l i f e w i l l a r i s e a n d a new c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l be b u i l t . K e g i v e s h i s a n s w e r t o Gerald as t h e two o f t h e m a r e on t h e t r a i n t r a v e l l i n g t o London. B i r k i n l o o k e d a t . the l a n d , a t t h e e v e n i n g , was t h i n k i n g : 'Well, i f mankind i s destroyed, o u r r a c e i s destroyed l i k e Sodom, a n d t h e r e i s t h i s b e a u t i f u l evening with the luminous l a n d and t r e e s , I am s a t i s f i e d . T h a t which i n f o r m s i t a l l i s t h e r e , and. c a n never he l o s t . A f t e r a l l , w h a t i s m a n k i n d b u t j u s t one e x p r e s sion of the incomprehensible. A n d i f mankind passes away, i t w i l l o n l y mean t h a t t h i s particular e x p r e s s i o n i s completer! and done. That and if  52  w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d , and t h a t v/hich i s t o be e x p r e s s e d , c a n n o t be d i m i n i s h e d . There i t i s , in  the  shining  evening.  L e t mankind p a s s  away—  time i t d i d . The c r e a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s w i l l n o t c e a s e , t h e y w i l l o n l y be t h e r e , h u m a n i t y d o e s n ' t embody t h e u t t e r a n c e o f t h e i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e any more. H u m a n i t y i s a. dead l e t t e r . There w i l l b e a new embodiment, i n a new way. Let humanity d i s a p p e a r a s cjuick as p o s s i b l e . Birkin of  f i n d s h i s answer  mankind:"  the  i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e "mass  young Tom  Brangwens,  the H e r m i o n e s a n d the other " l i v i n g be  destroyed.  appear. bodiment" new  The  This k i n d of "creative  i n t h e "new"  civilization..  the Gerald Criches,  dead" w i l l have t o  "humanity" w i l l  have t o d i s -  u t t e r a n c e s " w i l l be a "new  em-  B i r k i n and. U r s u l a f i g u r e s o f a  53 FOOTNOTES  1„  to  D. II. L a w r e n c e ,  'The h h i t e P e a c o c k ( L o n d o n : DuckCo.., 1 9 2 1 ) , p . 2 2 4 . (subsequent p a g e r e f e r e n c e s this edition of this novel.) 2. p. 224. 3. pp. 18-21. 4. p. 496. 5.. p. 126.  worth and  6.. I n S o n s a n d L o v e r s , t h e theme of t h e c h a n g i n g a n d c o r r u p t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n i s perhaps n o t a s e v i d e n t as i n t h e o t h e r ' t h r e e n o v e l s under d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s paper. Nevertheless, I think i t i s important to include Sons and L o v e r s , a l t h o u g h o n l y b r i e f l y , i n t h i s c h a p t e r so a s t o g i v e a c o n t i n u i t y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t h e m e . For example, P a u l M o r e l , a l t h o u g h q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from George Saxton, has v e r y s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s towards freedom on t h e f a r m a n d i m p r i s o n m e n t away f r o m i t . •7D. I I . L a w r e n c e , ' V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p.  8.,  Sons 89.  and  Lovers  York:  (New  The  I b i d . , p. 93.  9., I am not s u g g e s t i n g t h a t acters h a v e t o be e i t h e r " c r o w s " t h a t s u r v i v e . The a n a l o g y d r a w n f o r e x a m p l e , i s n e i t h e r a "crow" that  survives.  Nevertheless,  a i l of L a w r e n c e ' s c h a r that die or "ghouls" does b r e a k down—Lydia, t h a t d i e s or a " g h o u l " the analogy i s worth using.  10., D. H. Lawrence, T h e R a i n b o w ( M i d d l e s e x : Penguin Books L t d . , 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 7 . ( s u b s e q u e n t page r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l . ) 11pp.8 a n d 9.. 12. p.. 8...  13.. p.  9 .  14. 15.. 16. 17.. 18. 19.. 20. 21.. 22. 23.  p. p. p. p. po.  104. 101.  24.  D.  H.  Lawrence,  The  Yhite  25-  D.  H.  Lawrence,  The  hainbow,  247.  250. 251-2. 345. 345. 346. 349. 350.  v.  p.. p. p.  p.  Peacock, p.  p.  349.  125-  54 guin to  ;*  Love (f-licldlese: D. II. Lawrence, './omen 'enp. 36. "Xsubsecuent page r e f e r e n c e s novel.) .  B o o k s L t d . , 1360), t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s 122-f pp. 27 -271. 28 PP •  29 30 31 32  34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41  PP  O  pp P P P P P P P  P P  c:  r\  lla O  v/ .  251—2. 260. uspO •  512. 520. 465. ed X • 191. 540. 36'.  (subsequent  42. D. H, Laivrence 'references to t h i s 43., p. 462. 44. p. 369. 45. P • 388. 46. p. 395. 47. P . 405. 48. p. 430. 49. P» 434. 50. p. 436. 51.. D. 11. Lawrence i r e f erences to t h i s p • 45. A 53. P • HcO o r>.. O.S 54., p. 55. P P . 285-7. 56..  13. II. Lawrence  57.,  B.  58.  I b i d . , p.  II. Lawrence 65..  43.  (subsequent  12A.  CHAPTER IV THE UNFULPILIICR PARENT AND THE C H I L D In." t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r ,  t h e men-wonk-m l o v e w i t h i n t h e  C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e h a s b e e n examined. A c c o r d i n g t o Lawrence, the woman who models h e r l o v e f o r the m a n a f t e r t h e s a c r i f i c i a l love of C h r i s t d e s t r o y s a part of t h e " l i f e f l a m e " w i t h i n t h e man. the  idea  Her l o v e  o fChristian l o v e ,  i s based on an " i d e a , "  and istherefore  i n s t i n c t i v e response t o l i f e .  n o t an  The man, a g a i n , who t u r n s  from t h e woman t o t h e c h u r c h f o r a s u b s t i t u t e  lover finds  only  of the d e a d  the l i m i t i n g Gothic  C h r i s t and t h e s a i n t s . institutions have  been  arch  a n d the s t a t u e s  I nt h e t h i r d examined.  t o t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s have l o s t  chapter,  the corrupted  Individuals belonging a n d spon-  an instinctive  t a n e o u s r e s p o n s e o f t h e S e l f a n d have f o s t e r e d a d e l i b e r a t e response of a p e r v e r t e d  self.  I nt h i s  chapter,  a further  d e s t r u c t i v e element i n t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l be examined: l o v e between man and woman, w h i c h s h o u l d r e c e i v e p l a c e , has been r e p l a c e d by p a r e n t - c h i l d , l o v e . s t r u c t i o n takes n i e c e : is  destroyed,  first A de-  o f t e n e i t h e r t h e man o r t h e woman  and t h e c h i l d r e n a r e s e v e r e l y i n j u r e d .  Lawrence b e l i e v e d t h a t  t h e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p  was c e n t r a l t o a l l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s h o u l d , fore, receive f i r s t  p l a c e i n b o t h t h e man a n d woman's l i v e s  In h i s e s s a y "We Need One A n o t h e r " h e w r i t e s : t i o n s h i p o f man and woman i s t h e c e n t r a l f a c t human l i f e .  there-  "The r e l a i n actual  Next comes t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man t o man.  And, a long w a y a f t e r , a l l t h e other r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f a t h e r hood, motherhood, s i s t e r , b r o t h e r , f r i e n d .  1,1  In h i s novels  Lawrence shows what happens i f t h i s ' o r d e r i s n o t f o l l o w e d . The woman who does n o t f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t lover turns  i n h e r husband  t o motherhood f o r a s u b s t i t u t e  fulfillment.  She may t u r n t o h e r c h i l d r e n a s s u b s t i t u t e l o v e r s , o r she  may s a c r i f i c e h e r s e l f t o h e r c h i l d r e n and p l a y b o t h  the f a t h e r and mother r o l e t o them.  B y turning to her  56  c h i l d r e n , she h u m i l i a t e s her husband and destroys h i m ; she " k i l l s " a v i t a l p a r t i a h i m . The husband, a g a i n , who i s t o o weak t o m a i n t a i n the l o v e - and r e s p e c t o f h i s w i f e , may t u r n r a v a g i n g l y t o b i s c h i l d r e n t o e x e r t h i s p o w e r over them and thus prove h i s s t r e n g t h . The u n f u l f i l l e d man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p u s u a l l y "cripples" the children i n some way: they f e e l o b l i g a t e d t o r e t u r n the s a c r i f i c i a l l o v e o f the parent and thereby rob themselves o f l o v e t h a t should b e spent - e l s e w h e r e . The c h i l d " c r i p p l e d " by the wrong l o v e o f the parent " d i e s " o r continues a dismal d e a t h - i n - l i f e e x i s t e n c e u n l e s s h e i s a b l e , i n some way, to f r e e h i m s e l f o f h i s p a r e n t . In The White Peacock, t h e r e a d e r becomes a c q u a i n t e d w i t h several- u n f u l f i l l e d , man-women r e l a t i o n s h i p s which . r e s u l t i n d a m a g i n g the parent a n d c h i l d . P e r h a p s t h e most obvious o n e i s t h a t o f C y r i l a n d L e t t i e ' s p a r e n t s . Mr. B e a r d s a l l makes a b r i e f , mysterious appearance i n t h e n o v e l , and the reader i s h e r d l y prepared f o r h i s s u d den death. One day as C y r i l B e a r d s a l l and George Saxton a r e w a l k i n g through, t h e woods, t h e y come across a man l y i n g under the t r e e s . The m y s t e r y as t o the i d e n t i t y of t h e man i s s o l v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter when Mrs. .Beardsall r e c e i v e s a l e t t e r from her d y i n g husband. When C y r i l and h i s mother go t o the f a t h e r , who by t h i s time i s dead, C y r i l r e c o g n i z e s him as the f o r s a k e n man i n the w o o d s . I t s e e m s t h a t he d i e d because o f heavy d r i n k i n g w h i c h began a s a r e s u l t o f a. breakdown i n the l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h i m s e l f and: h i s w i f e . - Re l e f t home and. s l o w l y d e t e r i o r a t e d . One i s made t o understand t h a t Mrs." ' S e e r d s s l l , by her s u p e r i o r a n d condescending a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h e r husband, had forced, him away from home, and he d i d not dare t o r e t u r n . Thus i n d i r e c t l y , Mrs. B e a r d s a l l has caused h i s death. At f i r s t the c h i l d r e n have been g i v e n the i m p r e s s i o n  '  •  57  s  t h a t the f a t h e r was e n t i r e l y t o blame- f o r d e p r i v i n g them of a f a t h e r , b u t a f t e r admits her  the mother r e c e i v e s  the l e t t e r  she  guilt.  'You know, s h e s a i d , 'he h a d a r i g h t to t h e c h i l d r e n , , and I ' v e k e p t .them a l l t h e t i m e . * 'He c o u l d h a v e come,' s a i d I . 'I s e t them a g a i n s t him, I h a v e k e p t them from him, a n d h e wanted t h e m . I o u g h t t o b e b y him n o w , — I ought to h a v e t a k e n you to h i m l o n g a g o . ., . .- h e w o u l d h a v e c o m e — h e w a n t e d t o come — I have f e l t i t f o r y e a r s . h u t I k e p t him a w a y . I know I h a v e k e p t h i m away. I have f e l t i t , 1  and he h a s .  now.  Poor F r a n k — h e ' l l s e e h i s m i s t a k e s  He would n o t have b e e n a s c r u e l a s I h a v e been. . . . I have f e l t i n myself a l o n g time - t h a t he was s u f f e r i n g ; I have h a d t h e f e e l i n g o f h i m i n . me. I knew, y e s , I did. k n o w he wanted, me, a n d y o u , I f e l t i t . I h a v e h a d t h e f e e l i n g o f him u p o n me t h i s l a s t t h r e e m o n t h s e s p e c i a l l y , . . . I h a v e b e e n c r u e l t o him.' A f t e r Mrs. B e a r d s a l l r e t u r n s f r o m s e e i n g her d e a d husband,  she a g a i n a d m i t s her g u i l t :  ' " Y o u m i g h t have h a d a  t h e n she adds, " ' I f e v e r you f e e l near you r i s i n g  lad.'"  i n your throat,  father—'";  s c o r n f o r o n e who i s  t r y a n d b e g e n e r o u s , my  3  H e r e t h e n i s an u n f u l f i l l e d the  woman d e s t r o y e d  and  her children's.  t h e man How  love relationship  i n which  by d e n y i n g him b o t h h e r  does t h i s  affect  love  the children?  When L e t t i e h e a r s o f h e r f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , s h e r e m a r k s : ""Then  it's  a g o o d t h i n g h e i s o u t o f t h e way  i f he  was  A.  such a nuisance to mother. "  The a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t e d i n  1  this  comment s e e m s a s c o l d  and h a r s h as h e r m o t h e r ' s  l i e r a t t i t u d e which f o r c e d h e r f a t h e r ' s The  abandonment.  daughter has learned, from her.mother.  to be c r u e l calls  to their  Lettie  "a c o l d  lovers. little  may seem, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t hate the f e e l  Leslie, lover."  ear-  B o t h know how  o n one  occasion,  Coincidental  as i t  t h a t b o t h mother and d a u g h t e r  of wedding r i n g s .  The m o t h e r s a y s t o L e t -  58  t i e when she complains about the heaviness of the r i n g t h a t L e s l i e has g i v e n h e r , "'You are l i k e me, I never c o u l d wear r i n g s . I hated, my wedding r i n g f o r months. ' " .Doth mother and daughter would l i k e to cast o f f the r i n g , the symbol that binds a marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p . There i s a f u r t h e r e f f e c t t h a t the u n f u l f i l l e d r e l a tionship has on the c h i l d r e n . The death r e s u l t i n g from the u n f o r t u n a t e marriage l e a v e s a permanent i m p r e s s i o n upon C y r i l and Lettie: "the unanswered crying of f a i l u r e . " C y r i l comments: 6  The -death of the man who was our f a t h e r changed our l i v e s . I t was not t h a t we s u f f e r e d a great g r i e f ; the c h i e f t r o u b l e was the unanswered c r y i n g , of f a i l u r e . 5ut we were changed i n our - f e e l i n g s and i a our r e l a t i o n s ; there was a new c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a new-carefulness.? T  "The unanswered crying of f a i l u r e " haunts them. As the mother has f a i l e d , so the c h i l d r e n f e e l they w i l l f a i l . Lettie says to George, on one o c c a s i o n , "'You wonder how I have touched de:. t h . You don't know. There's always a sense of death i n t h i s home. I b e l i e v e my mother hated my f a t h e r before I v/as bora. That was death i n her v e i n s 8  f o r me b e f o r e I w?s.horn. I t makes e difference.*" George does not r e a l i s e t h a t Lettie w i l l nno the deedliness received from her pother's v e i n s to d e s t r o y him. By r e f u s i n g him and choosing L e s l i e , she w i l l k i l l a pert of George. Again b y choosing L e s l i e "vh en. she knows she cannot love him, she d e s t r o y s a p a r t of him. The "unanswered cry of f a i l u r e " i s e v i d e n t in e v e r y t h i n g she does. L a t e r , she v / i l l heve to t u r n to her c h i l d r e n f o r f u l f i l l m e n t . L e t t i e w r i t e s to C y r i l a f t e r she has been married f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s : "'1 hope I s h a l l heve another c h i l d next s p r i a g . . . t h e r e i s o n l y t h a t to take away the misery of t h i s t o r n e r .  59 I seem f u l l of p a s s i o n and e n e r g y , and i t a l l f i z z l e s out q  i n d a y - t o day d o m e s t i c s — " C y r i l ' s l i f e a l s o r e v e a l s "the unanswered c r y i n g o f failure." He does not have the courage to marry E m i l y S a x t o n a l t h o u g h he c l a i m s h e l o v e s her. After c o u r t i n g her f o r more than t e n y e a r s , C y r i l aatches h e r marry someone e l s e . A l l he can say i s " ' I A r . Renshaw, you have o u t m a n o e u v e d me a l l unawares, n u i t e i n d e c e n t l y . ' " The whole matter i s . taken l i g h t l y and. no one seems t o mind. C y r i l seems t o l a c k the moral e n e r g y to e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a man-woman l o v e . Lawrence's p r e d i c t i o n conc e r n i n g F r i e d a ' s c h i l d r e n , i f she were to s t a y w i t h them, i s f u l f i l l e d i n C y r i l ' s l i f e . Lawrence writes i n a l e t t e r concerning F i e d a and her c h i l d r e n the f o l l o w i n g : 1  v  r  But i f F r i e d a geve a i l up t o go and l i v e w i t h • them, t h a t would sap t h e i r s t r e n g t h because they w o u l d hpve t o support h e r when they g r e w up. They would not be f r e e to l i v e of t h e m s e l v e s — they would f i r s t have t o l i v e f o r her t o pay back. Mrs. B e a r d s a l l has "sapped" C y r i l of h i s s t r e n g t h i n t h e t he f e e l s he has t o support h e r when he i s grown up; he f e e l s he has t o pay her back. . T h u s he i s robbed of the energy t h a t should be spent on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h E m i l y . I n The W h i t e Peacock, another u n f u l f i l l e d man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i s George and Meg's. A t f i r s t , t h e i r marriage t h r i v e s on p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n , but a f t e r the c h i l d r e n a r r i v e , the marriage soon d e t e r i o r a t e s to a constant b i c k e r i n g between  h u s b a n d and w i f e .  Keg h u m i l i a t e s  George  before h i s f r i e n d s by accusing him of not t a k i n g care of the c h i l d r e n ; George, i n t u r n , i s enraged t h a t she f i n d s h e r s e c u r i t y i n h e r c h i l d r e n and not i n him. On one o c c a s i o n when C y r i l and Emily are v i s i t i n g - at the Ram, Keg b r e a s t - f e e d s the c h i l d during the meal.  60 She was secure In her h i g h m a t e r n i t y ; she was mi-stress and s o l e a u t h o r i t y . George, as f a t h e r , was f i r s t s e r v a n t ; as en i n d i f f e r e n t f a t h e r , she h u m i l i a t e d him and was h o s t i l e to h i s wishes .-^ L a t e r , C y r i l , as n a r r a t o r , comments on Meg's behaviour and the r e s u l t i t has on George: "a woman who has her c h i l d i n her arms i s a tower of s t r e n g t h t h a t may i n t u r n 11  stand q u i e t l y d e a l i n g death." Meg with her " s t r e n g t h " deals death to George. She g i v e s her f i n a l blow when she antagonizes her c h i l d r e n , a g a i n s t t h e i r f a t h e r . George, who was so f o r d of h i s l i t t l e daughter G e r t i e and saw her 14  as "a l i g h t " f o r h i s dark w o r l d , i s made to s u f f e r c r u e l l y as h i s l i t t l e daughter i n s o l e n t l y mocks him and d i s d a i n 1 5  f u l l y t u r n s her back on him. C y r i l , having watched t h i s unpleasant scene between daughter and f a t h e r , takes h i s l e a v e . as George accompanies him to the door, n e i t h e r speaks. F i n a l l y C y r i l says good-bye and George r a i s e s h i s eyes: "His eyes were heavy and as he l i f t e d them to 16  me,  seeirfed to r e c o i l  i n an agony of shame." One can imagine Emily capable of making the same e r r o r t h a t L e t t i e and" "Meg have made. On one o c c a s i o n , she and C y r i l are v i s i t i n g at the Rain. She takes one of Meg's babies and accompanies C y r i l i n t o the garden. She chats to the baby, meanwhile h a l f - i g n o r i n g , h a l f - t a n talizing Cyril. "Thus she teased me by f l i n g i n g me a l l • k i n d s of b r i g h t gages of love w h i l e she kept a l o o f because of the c h i l d , " C y r i l complains. La.ter he m o r a l i z e s on the s i t u a t i o n : . A woman i s so ready to d i s c l a i m the body of a man's l o v e ; she y i e l d s him her own s o f t beauty w i t h so much g e n t l e p a t i e n c e and r e g r e t ; she c l i n g s to h i s r e c k , to h i s head and h i s cheeks, f o n d l i n g them f o r the s o u l ' s meaning t h a t i s t h e r e , and s h r i n k i n g from h i s passionate limbs  61  and h i s body. It- was with.some n e m l c x i t y , some a n g e r and b i t t e r n e s s t h a t l " watched. Emily moved almost t o ecstasy by the baby's s m a l l innocuous person.18 E m i l y , at t h i s p o i n t , l i k e the " s p i r i t u a l " l o v e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r , teases the man w i t h h e r "fondling," arouses h i s emotions, and admires h i s body. Yet she r e f u s e s t o g i v e h e r b o d y to him; i n s t e a d , she g i v e s h e r s e l f to the c h i l d . I n Sons and hovers, Lawrence concentrates on a n O e d i p a l p a r e n t - c h i l d , r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t i n g from an u n f u l f i l l e d man-woman  love;  he  elaborates, in d e t a i l ,  on  the  crippling  e f f e c t i t has u p o n t h e c h i l d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Walter and Gertrude Morel i s s i m i l a r to Mr. and Mrs. B e a r d s a l l ' s , except t h a t Mr. Morel does not leave home, but f i g h t s h i s l o s i n g b a t t l e i n the midst of h i s f a m i l y . M r s . M o r e l i s h a p p y f o r t h e f i r s t s i x m o n t h s o f her marr i a g e . But when s h e d i s c o v e r s h e r husband's d i s h o n e s t y , she  is  a n g r y and  begins  to  nag  him.  There began a b a t t l e between the husband and w i f e — a f e a r f u l , bloody b a t t l e that ended, only w i t h t h e death o f o n e . She .fought t o make him undertake h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , to make him f u l f i l l h i s o b l i g a t i o n . But he was too d i f f e r e n t from her. His nature was p u r e l y sensuous, and she s t r o v e to make him moral, r e l i g i o u s . She t r i e d to f o r c e him to face t h i n g s . He could not endure i t — i t drove him out of h i s m i n d . 19  The  one  to  die  is  Mr.  Morel:  spiritually,  Mrs.  Morel  d e s t r o y s him by r e f u s i n g to respond to h i s " l i f e - f l a m e . " At the same t i m e , she, too, i s destroyed. The d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t of the b a t t l e on the c h i l d r e n i s foreshadowed i n the scene where Mr. Morel, i n a drunken c o n d i t i o n , throws a. c u t l e r y drawer at h i s w i f e who i s h o l d -  62  ing  t h e baby, P a u l .  the  mother's brow.  T h e drawer m i s s e s t h e b a b y b u t h i t s The b l o o d  drops f r o m op.  mother unto t h e s c a l p o f t h e b a b y /  t h e brow o f t h e  So a l t h o u g h t h e  mother h a s b e e n a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e c h i l d directly blood  the c h i l d  spilled  becomes i n v o l v e d i n t h e b a t t l e .  on t h e c h i l d  symbolically  involvement i n thep a r e n t s ' b a t t l e . a permanent s t a i n  on him.  Uhereas M r s .  Beards a l l  by  directly, i n -  represents  h e r son,  "sapping" h i m o f h i s s t r e n g t h and thus  woman.  Because M r s .  personality,  theeffects  seem m o r e d e a d l y At as  first  a lover.  Morel  Firs. M o r e l  Cyril,  r o b b i n g him o f Morel  t o t h e m and t h u s  s h o u l d be g i v i n g  has a n extremely  o f h e r attachment  t h a n Mrs.  leave  w i t h a woman, M r s .  " c r i p p l e s " h e r s o n s by b e c o m i n g a " l o v e r " r o b b i n g them o f t h e l o v e t h e y  this  The b l o o d w i l l  "cripples"  moral energy f o r h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  The •  t o another  powerful t o h e r sons  Beardsall's.  chooses h e r o l d e s t son,  l i e soon l e a v e s home and becomes  V/illiam,  engaged.  I/hen h e b r i n g s h i s f i a n c e home, h e c o m p a r e s h e r t o h i s mother a n d f i n d s while,  Mrs.  his girl  Morel  o f her s o n b e i n g  feels  d o e s n o t " m e a s u r e up." _Mean-  hopelessly  l o s t a t t h e thought  a t t a c h e d t o a n o t h e r woman.  "Before,  w i t h h e r h u s b a n d , t h i n g s h a d s e e d e d t o b e b r e a k i n g down i n h e r , b u t t h e y d i d n o t d e s t r o y h e r power t o l i v e . Now her s o u l f e l t l a m e d i n i t s e l f . I f was h e r h o p e t h a t was  21  struck."  K e r hone t h a t h e r s o n w x l l a l w a y s  first  p l a c e f o r h i s mother i s suddenly  feels  destroyed.  after  t h ev i s i t  any the has  girl  reserve  shattered;she  : - i I l i u m does n o t m e r r y t h e g i r l . ;  t o h i s home, h e d i e s ,  w h i l e h i s mother i s s t i l l  he cannot  alive,  dilemma t h r o u g h d e a t h . Indirectly, c a u s e d h i s death. M r s . M o r e l now t u r n s t o h e r s e c o n d become c l o s e l y a t t a c h e d .  Shortly  marry  s o h e excapes  h i s mother's son,  Paul.  love They  63  P a u l l o v e d to sleep w i t h h i s mother. Sleep i s s t i l l most p e r f e c t , i n s p i t e of h y g i e n i s t s " , when i t i s sh.- red w i t h a beloved. . . "/"'Paul l a y a g a i n s t her and s l e p t , and .got b e t t e r ; w h i l s t she, always a bad s l e e p e r , f e l l l a t e r on i n t o -a profound s l e e p t h a t seemed to g i v e her f a i t h . -  2 2  When he i s i l l , and they cannot a f f o r d nurse, h i s mother cares f o r him, s l e e p s w i t h him, and r e s t o r e s i n him the w i l l to l i v e . She i n s p i r e s him i n h i s p a i n t i n g , and he, i n t u r n , dreams' of some day r e t i r i n g w i t h h i s mother i n a c o t t a g e where he w i l l p a i n t and keep her happy. During h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Miriam, P a u l f o r g e t s h i s mother f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s of time. But again and a g a i n he r e t u r n s from Miriam to f i n d h i s peace w i t h h i s mother; i n the end he l o v e s her b e s t . "He had f o r g o t t e n Miriam; he o n l y saw how h i s mother's h a i r v/as l i f t e d back from her warm, broad brow."'*' " I n s t i n c t i v e l y he r e a l i z e d t h a t he was l i f e to h e r . --aid, a f t e r a l l , she was the c h i e f t h i n g to him, the o n l y supreme t h i n g . " ' ' The same t h i n g happens when P a u l has the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C l a r a ; i n the end he r e t u r n s to h i s mother, whom he l o v e s b e s t . Paul -says to h i s mother, " ' I even love C l a r a , and I d i d Miriam; but to g i v e myself t o them i n marriage I c o u l d n ' t . I c o u l d n ' t belong to them. They seem to want me, and I can't ever g i v e i t them.'" h i s mother r e p l i e s , "''You haven't met the r i g h t woman. To t h i s Paul i s nuick to answer: ""And I never s h a l l meet the r i g h t woman w h i l e you l i v e . ' "" 1M  When i t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s mother has cancer, P a u l cares f o r her l o v i n g l y : "He k i s s e d her a g a i n , and s t r o k e d the h a i r from her temples, g e n t l y , t e n d e r l y , as PR  i f she were a .lover.""' "His face v/as near h e r s . Her blue eyes s m i l e d s t r a i g h t i n t o h i s l i k e a g i r l ' s — w a r m , l a u g h i n g w i t h tender l o v e . " In the end, as her c o n d i t i o n becomes very p a i n f u l and he can. no longer bear to see h i s mother s u f f e r , he and h i s s i s t e r " m e r c y - k i l l " J  6 4  her w i t h an overdose of morphia. This a c t , t o o , i s an a c t of l o v e , y e t underneath the l o v e , one r e c o g n i z e s the subconscious h a t r e d he f e e l s f o r h i s mother who c l i n g s so t i g h t l y to him. He l o v e s and hates h i s mother at the same time. T h i s s t r o n g love—hate ambivalence towards h i s mother, which under normal c o n d i t i o n s would manifest i t s e l f as' l o v e , i n a time of s t r e s s r e v e a l s the hidden h a t r e d , a deadly h a t r e d . S u b c o n s c i o u s l y , he wants to k i l l the woman who d e s t r o y s h i s c a p a c i t y to l o i e another woman. T  Even a f t e r her death, he cannot f r e e h i m s e l f of h e r . when he goes to see h i s dead mother, he nuts h i s arms around her and whispers again and a g a i n , "'My love—my l o v e — o h , my love!'"'"" For days and weeks, he wanders •. about a i m l e s s l y . For him, l i f e has l o s t a l l purpose. He g i v e s C l a r a back to her former husband; he r e f u s e s Miriam's o f f e r of marriage. He contemplates s u i c i d e . Then, q u i t e m e c h a n i c a l l y and the c o n v e r s a t i o n began again 'She's dead. Ahat was i t a l That was h i s d e s p a i r wanting 'You're a l i v e . ' "She's not.'  more d i s t i n c t l y , i n s i d e him. l f o r — h e r struggle?' to go a f t e r her..  'She i s — i n you.'  Suddenly he f e l t t i r e d w i t h the burden of i t . 'You've got to keep a l i v e f o r her sake,' s a i d h i s w i l l i n him. Something f e l t s u l k y , as i f i t would not rouse. 'You've got to c a r r y forward her l i v i n g , and what she had done, go on w i t h i t . ' 2 9  The s t r u g g l e c o n t i n u e s w i t h i n him. Suddenly h i s mother seems v e r y  Again weeks go  by.  near:  Who c o u l d say h i s mother had l i v e d and d i d not l i v e ? Che had b e e n i n one p l a c e , and was i n another; t h a t was a l l . And h i s s o u l c o u l d not l e a v e h e r , wherever she was. Now she. was gone abroad i n t o the n i g h t , and ho was w i t h her s t i l l .  o U  65  He wants t o touch her; he i s tempted t o f o l l o w her i n t o the darkness. Then w i t h sudden d e t e r m i n a t i o n , he decides a g a i n s t i t : "Ke would not take that d i r e c t i o n t o the darkness t o f o l l o w h e r . He wo Iked, towards t h e f a i n t l y humming, glowing town, q u i c k l y . " So he does not f o l l o w her i n p h y s i c a l death, out he f o l l o w s h e r i n s o i r i t as he t u r n s towards the town, t h e p l a c e t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s mother and h e r bourgeois v a l u e s . By t u r n i n g t o the town, he has made up h i s mind t o " c a r r y forward her l i v i n g . " Thus he does n o t f r e e h i m s e l f o f h i s mother, and one i s l e f t t o b e l i e v e t h a t he never w i l l . Although she has d i e d , her l o v e l i v e s on i n him and continues d e s t r o y i n g him. I n h i s next n o v e l , The ha i n boy/, Lawrence examines another d e s t r u c t i v e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p and. the r e s u l t . i t has on the s m a l l c h i l d . Anna cannot f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n W i l l f o r she r e s e n t s h i s l a c k of manliness and h i s b e l i e f i n t h e "Gothic a r c h . " Soaring c h i l d r e n becomes her p s e u d o - f u l f i l l m e n t . 0 1  I t was enough t h a t she had m i l k and could s u c k l e her c h i l d : Gli, oh, the b l i s s of the l i t t l e l i f e s u c k i n g t h e m i l k of her body! Oh, oh, oh the b l i s s , as the i n f a n t grew s t r o n g e r , of the two t i n y hands c l u t c h i n g , c a t c h i n g b l i n d l y y e t p a s s i o n a t e l y at h e r b r e a s t s , o f the t i n y mouth seeking her i n b l i n d , sure, v i t a l knowledge, of the sudden consummate peace es the l i t t l e body sank, t h e mouth and t h r o a t s a c k i n g , s u c k i n g , d r i n k i n g l i f e from h e r t o make a new l i f e , almost sobbing w i t h p a s s i o n a t e j o y of r e c e i v i n g i t s own e x i s t e n c e , t h e t i n y hands c l u t c h i n g f r a n t i c a l l y as the n i p p l e was drawn back, not t o be g a i n s a i d . This was enough f o r Anna. She*seemed t o pass o f f i n t o a k i n d of r a p t u r e of motherhood, her • r a p t u r e o f motherhood was e v e r y t h i n g . 041  So Anna c o n t i n u e s , e x i s t i n g " i n her own v i o l e n t f r u i t f u l ness." Motherhood has been p l a c e d f i r s t i n h e r l i f e ; she has found h e r s u b s t i t u t e f u l f i l l m e n t . 0 3  66  How does t h i s a f f e c t V/ill and the c h i l d r e n ; Will t u r n s to h i s l i t t l e daughter U r s u l a , and a very c l o s e , almost i n c e s t u o u s , attachment develops between them. Between him and the l i t t l e U r s u l a t h e r e came i n t o being a strange a l l i a n c e . They were aware of each other. He knew the c h i l d was always on h i s s i d e . But i n h i s consciousness he counted i t f o r n o t h i n g . She was always f o r him. He took i t f o r granted. Yet h i s l i f e was based on h e r , even w h i l s t she was„a t i n y c h i l d , on her support and her accord. -" 0  Feeling inadequate w i t h anna, ' - / i l l t u r n s to someone w i t h whom he w i l l not f e e l i n s e c u r e . b'ith b i s l i t t l e g i r l he can be a brave man; he can do d a r i n g t h i n g s . For examp l e , -when he takes her swimming, he has her c l i n g to h i s neck w h i l e he takes dangerous d i v e s o f f the b r i d g e . She • 35 admires h i s courage. Again, when he takes her to the f a i r , they r i d e on the swingboats and he mokes the boats go dangerously h i g h . The c h i l d becomes white and mute; l a t e r she i s v i o l e n t l y sick.'' Both of the examples, however, suggest more t h a n , j u s t an i n s e c u r e man s e e k i n g a d m i r a t i o n . Right from the b e g i n n i n g t h e r e i s a c l a s h i n g of w i l l s between I / i l l and U r s u l a . There is a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n , yet at the same time he wants to d e s t r o y her o r destro;/- h i m s e l f through some r e g r e s s i v e a c t i o n . 3oth of them come very c l o s e to death d u r i n g t h e i r swimming t o g e t h e r . One time when she i s hanging on to h i s back a s lie jumps from the bridge, she f a l l s forward and almost breaks h i s ' n e c k . For a b r i e f moment both s t r u g g l e w i t h death, "lie saved her, and s a t on the bank, enlivening. Rut h i s eyes wore f u l l of the blackness of death, i t was es i f death had cut between t h e i r l i v e s , and separatee? them." A f t e r , the dangerous r i d e on the swing boats, when Anna f i n d s out about the escapade, she becomes very angry with " ' / i l l . "His golden0  brown eyes g l i t t e r e d , be had a s t r a n g e c r u e l l i t t l e s m i l e . " When U r s u l a s e e s h i s c r u e l s m i l e , she suddenly f e e l s a 3° coldness towards h i m . "Her s o u l was dead towards him." Ursula recognises a c e r t a i n deadliness, o t craving to destroy, i n M i l l . W i l l , the i n s e c u r e man, and consequently the d e s t r u c t i v e man, u s e s h i s c h i l d as a " s o u n d i n g b o a r d " f o r h i s anger.  Because she i s s m a l l and weak, she cannot  retal-  i a t e , and he f e e l s unthreatened. a l t h o u g h outwardly she may not appear i n j u r e d , i n w a r d l y her s e n s i t i v i t y i s s e r i o u s l y wounded. 'Will, i n h i s i n s e c u r i t y , cannot a c c e p t t h e c h i l d as a c h i l d ; he e x p e c t s h e r t o a c t as an a d u l t i n accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  F o r example, when she h e l p s  w i t h t h e p o t a t o p l a n t i n g , s h e , i n h e r e x c i t e m e n t and - e a g e r n e s s t o h e l p , seeds t h e potatoes t o o c l o s e l y , and him  h e , as an a d u l t , cannot  a c c e p t t h i s as  c h i l d . ' s way o f  helping.  He came n e a r . 'Not so c l o s e , ' he s a i d , s t o o p i n g o v e r h e r p o t a t o e s , t a k i n g some out and r e a r r a n g i n g o t h e r s , She stood by w i t h the p a i n f u l t e r r i f i e d  h e l p l e s s n e s s o f c h i l d h o o d . . . . Then he went down the row, r e l e n t l e s s l y , t u r n i n g the potatoes i n w i t h h i s s h a r p spade-cuts. lie took no n o t i c e of h e r , o n l y worked o n . Be had another w o r l d from h e r s .  And she relayed o n , because o f her d i s appointment p e r s i s t i n g even the more i n her p l a y . She d r e a d e d work, because she could not do i t as he  did i t .  She was c o n s c i o u s o f t h e g r e a t  b r e a c h between them. She knew.she had no power. The grown-up power t o work d e l i b e r a t e l y '-'ais a mystery to h e r . lie would, smash i n t o h e r s e n s i t i v e c h i l d ' s work destructively.^  When she t r a m p l e s a c r o s s t h e flower-bed to  i n her  eagerness  g e t some t i n y buds f o r h e r t e a - p a r t y , W i l l shouts a t  68  h e r „ ' " I ' l l break your o b s t i n a t e l i t t l e f a c e . ' " Sobbing b i t t e r l y , she creeps away and h i d e s under the p a r l o u r s o f a , w h e r e s h e l i e s " c l i n c h e d i n t h e s i l e n t , hidden m i s e r y of c h i l d h o o d . " - Once a g a i n , w h e n . s h e i s o l d e r , he slaps h e r w i t h a dusting c l o t h : 4 1  I n s p i t e of h e r , h e r face broke, she made a c u r i o u s g u l p i n g grimace, and the t e a r s were falling. So she -went away, d e s o l a t e . But her b l a z i n g h e a r t was f i e r c e and u n y i e l d i n g . He watched h e r g o , and a pleasurable p a i n ' f i l l e d h i m , a sense of triumph and. easy p o w e r , followe d i m m e d i a t e l y by acute o i t y . , ^ 4  as U r s u l a g r o w s o l d e r , she comes t o r e s e n t h e r f a t h e r more a n d more. She hates h i s b u l l y i n g and r e c o g n i z e s i t . a s a cover-up f o r h i s weaknesses. In. I/omen i n L o v e , w h e r e U r s u l a i s a young woman of t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s , she s t i l l e<t times s u f f e r s from the b u l l y i n g of her f a t h e r . The p r o p o s a l scene serves as a good e x a m p l e o f h e r r e s e n t m e n t . Birkin  comes t o  Beldover  to  ask  ber  f a t h e r i f he  may  marry h e r . She i s not present at the time. 1/hen, she a r r i v e s , she accuses both men of t r y i n g f o b u l l y h e r , • of t r y i n g t o f o r c e her i n t o s o m e t h i n g . W i l l b e c o m e s very a n g r y and. h u m i l i a t e s h i s daughter. B i r k i n l e a v e s . U r s u l a , •g r e a t l y annoyed a t t h e whole f i a s c o , goes u p s t a i r s a n d refuses  t o a l l o w h e r father  t o influence  h e r i n a n y way..*  announces t o h e r f a m i l y t h a t s h e a n d B i r k i n p l a n to marry the next day, her f a t h e r f l i e s i n t o a r a g e b e c a u s e h e has n o t been t o l d . He c a l l s h e r a  Later  when she  "shiftless replies: for  bitch." "'You  U r s u l a , m o r t i f i e d at t h i s  accusation,  o n l y wantad t o b u l l y me—you n e v e r  my h a p p i n e s s . ' " '  'a i l l , caught i n t h e  terrible  cared conflict  wanting t o d e s t r o y h e r , g i v e s h e r a hard smack across the f a c e . She i s extremely upset and leaves the house to go t o B i r k i n ' s p l a c e . She confides i n B i r k i n : " ' I have loved him, I have . . . of  wanting  to  possess her  and y e t  69 I've he  - l o v e d h i m a l w a y s and l i e ' s a l w a y s done t h i s t o H i e , 46 has-". ' " To t h i s i l i r k i n r e p l i e s : " ' I t ' s b e e n a love  of o p p o s i t i o n . . . y o u h a d to b r e a k w i t h h i m , i t h a d to 47  Thus, o n t h e w h o l e , t h e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her f a t h e r h a s been a d e s t r u c t i v e o n e , a n d U r s u l a h a s b e e n be.'"'  s e v e r e l y wounded. life the  and  her  But  b e c a u s e o f her  fulfillment  psychological  i n her  s c a r s mr.de by  great  capacity  r e l a t i o n s h i p with her  father  for  Sirkin.,  eventually  disappear. I n '/omen i n h o v e , L a w r e n c e a l s o s h o w s t h e an  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l o v e b e t w e e n Mr.  is  a similarity  Mrs.  between these  Crich, l i k e  gnd  two  Anna, r e s e n t s  Mrs.  and  the  hill  Crich. and  lack of  r e s u l t s of There  hnna:  masculinity,  the weakness o f C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y , i n h e r h u s b a n d . cannot respect  her  She  husband.  H i s p a s s i o n f o r h e r had a l w a y s r e m a i n e d k e e n 'as d e a t h . He had. a l w a y s l o v e J h e r , l o v e d h e r w i t h i n t e n s i t y . . . . But she had gone a l m o s t maid. Of w i l d and o v e r w e e n i n g t e m p e r , s h e c o u l d not h e a r t h e h u m i l i a t i o n o f h e r husbend.*s s o f t , h a l f - a p p e a l i n g kindness to everybody/* 0  The  only t h i n g t h a t has u n i t e d them i s t h e i r s e x u a l  and. t h e i r  children.  children, For  e x a m p l e , i f Mr.  could go  with very look  i n w i t h her  t o my  their  When B i a n e it.  murder i n her ;'hnd when t h e  coward. " 1  mother tvithdraws  drowns, Mrs.  upset.  She  d o o r was  ant  as  more and  like  had  the  been  a  up a  a face  opened,  have y o u  for  paced  outside,  ''• c o .  her.  study  "She  that  she'd doing  children  more f r o m  C r i c h seems l i t t l e  In. r e p l y t o G e r a l d ' s  to  them t o t h e  hands l i f t e d — W a h a t 49  c h i l d r e n , you  grow up,  Crich takes  while*like a tiger  death.  C r i c h b e a r s many  mean e v e r y t h i n g  becomes e x t r e m e l y  down a l l t h e  tiger,  Anna, Mrs.  hhen young, they  w h i p p i n g , she and  Like  life  them.  a f f e c t e d , by  a r e s t i c n as t o w h e t h e r  his  70  mother i s abnormal, A i r k i n s a y s : " K o I I t h i n k she o n l y wanted something more, o r other than the common r u n of l i f e . And not g e t t i n g i t , she has gone wrong p e r h a p s . " The "something more" she cannot f i n d i n h e r husband: ^ he has no S e l f t o b r i n g t o t h e i r l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . She cannot r e s p e c t the s e l f l e s s c r e a t u r e who has given h i s Self to C h r i s t i a n charity. Although K r . C r i c h vaguely recognizes h i s w i f e as h i s d e s t r o y e r and dreads h e r f o r i t , he t r i e s t o hide h i s f e a r even from h i m s e l f by t e l l i n g h i m s e l f how happy he has been with her. 1  1  5 0  He thought o f her as pure, chaste; the white flame o f h e r sex was a white f l o w e r o f snow t o h i s mind. . . . Se had subdued h e r , and h e r ' s u b j u g a t i o n was t o him an i n f i n i t e c h a s t i t y i n h e r , a v i r g i n i t y which he could never break and which dominated him as by a s p e l l . A l l t h i s Mr. C r i c h t r i e s very hard t o b e l i e v e ; "only death would show t h e p e r f e c t completeness of the l i e . " " Death does show "the l i e ; " h i s w i f e ' s awful response a t the s i g h t of h e r dead husband i s : " ' B e a u t i f u l as i f l i f e never' touched you.'" He i s t h e one who has been "subdued" and "subjugated.;" l i f e has passed him by. H i d i n g behind a mask of C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y , he has r e f u s e d to a l l o w h i m s e l f a v i t a l and l i f e - g i v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a woman; h i s v i r g i n i t y has boen unbroken. Thus the l o v e of hr-. and I-irs. C r i c h ends i n a p h y s i c a l death f o r his« .;.nd a p s y c h o l o g i c a l death f o r her. Row does the parents' love r e l a t i o n s h i p a f f e c t the c h i l d r e n ? They, l i k e L e t t i e R e a r d s a l l , r e c e i v e death from t h e i r p a r e n t s ' v e i n s . Death p r e v a i l s i a the C r i c h s ' home s i m i l a r to t h e "sense of death i n the home." that L e t t i e experi e n c e s . S i r k i n t h i n k s of G e r a l d as the Cain f i g u r e .  71 And G e r a l d was C a i n , i f anybody. Not t h a t he was C a i n , e i t h e r a l t h o u g h he had s l a i n h i s brother. T h e r e was s u c h a t h i n g as m r e a c c i d e n t , and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s d i d n o t a t t a c h t o o n e , even t h o u g h one h a d k i l l e d o r e ' s b r o t h e r i n s u c h w i s e . G e r a l d as a boy had a c c i d e n t a l l y k i l l e d h i s brother. What t h e n ? Bhy seek t o draw a b r a n d and. a c u r s e a c r o s s t h e l i f e t h a t had. c a u s e d the a c c i d e n t ? h man c a n l i v e by a c c i d e n t , and d i e by a c c i d e n t ? Gr c a n he n o t ? I s e v e r y man's l i f e s u b j e c t t o pure a c c i d e n t , i s i t only the r a c e , t h e g e n u s , t h e s p e c i e s , t h a t h a s a. u n i v e r s a l reference? Or i s t h i s mot t r u e , I s t h e r e no s u c h t h i n g as p u r e a c c i d e n t ? Has e v e r y t h i n g t h a t happens a u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ? Has i t ? B i r k i n p o n d e r i n g as he s t o o d t h e r e . . . . d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e was any s u c h t h i n g as accident^. I t a l l hung t o g e t h e r , I n t h e d e e p e s t sense.  .  The c u r s e o f C a i n hangs o v e r t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y , and t h e c a u s e o f t h e c u r s e c a n be t r a c e d hack t o t h e p a r e n t s . J u s t as t h e uead.lin.ess o f C a i n comes as a r e s u l t o f t h e sin  of h i sparents,  Mam  and E v e , so t h e d c a d l i n e s s o f  G e r a l d r e s u l t s , a t l e a s t in. p a r t , f r o m h i s p a r e n t s ' "sin." to  The wrong l o v e h a s caused, t h e "sense o f d e a t h "  he a l w a y s p r e s e n t  with the children:  Gerald k i l l s ' h i s  b r o t h e r , D i a n a drowns, and f i n a l l y G e r a l d f r e e z e s t o d e a t h . ¥hen she s e e s h e r dead husband., M r s . C r i c h r e c o g n i s e s t h e dilemma i n t o w h i c h t h e y have p l a c e d t h e i r "'Pray!'  she s a i d s t r o n g l y .  'F  r a  children:  y f o r y o u r s e l v e s t o God, 55  for  t h e r e ' s no h e l p f o r y o u from y o u r p a r e n t s . ' " " In  c o n t r a s t to the d e s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of B r .  and M r s . b e a r d s a l l , B a i t e r * n d G e r t r u d e Bill,  M o r e l , Anna and  and Mr. and. M r s . C r i c h and t h e d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t  of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s on t h e i r c h i l d r e n , Lawrence shows his  readers  a man-woman. l o v e w h i c h does n o t lead, t o t h e  d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n , h u t w h i c h l e a d s t o a new freedom and i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r them.  I n The' Rainbow, Tom  and L y d i a have t h e e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s w h i c h b r i n g f r e e d o m :  72 "be  seemed t o l i v e  unaccountable  and i r c a l c u l - b l e .  n o t i c e o f each  They d i n,<ot t a k e much r  other, c o n s c i o u s l y . "  a r e aware o f each another.  t h u s i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e unknown, t h e  o t h e r and f i n d  Unconsciously,  5 0  their  fulfillment  In  i n one  At t h e same time t h e y a r e s e c u r e i n t h e i r  S e l f h o o d and do n o t have t o l e a n on the c h i l d t h e e a r l y days o f t h e m a r r i a g e ,  own  f o r support.  the c h i l d  Anna  q u e s t i o n s why h e r mother no l o n g e r s l c e a s w i t h h e r . fact  that  they  The  a s t r a n g e man has t a k e n away h e r mother could,  have been a t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e young c h i l d ; y e t it  i s n ' t , b e c a u s e o f t h e way t h e p a r e n t s h a n d l e  situation. child  As t h e y a c c e p t one a n o t h e r ,  t o accept  the c h i l d  to accept  learns to trust for  t h e new s i t u a t i o n .  the new  t h e y expect t h e  They do n o t f o r c e  t h e new f a t h e r , but g r a d u a l l y as she  h i m , she a c c e p t s him.  By d o i n g t h i n g s  h e r , Tom g a i n s h e r c o n f i d e n c e . And g r a d u a l l y , w i t h o u t knowing i t h e r s e l f , she c l u n g t o him, i n h e r l o s t , c h i l d i s h , d e s o l a t e moments, when i t was good t o c r e e p up f o somet h i n g b i g and. warm, and b u r y h e r l i t t l e s e l f i n h i s b i g , unlimited being. I n s t i n c t i v e l y he was c a r e f u l o f h e r , c a r e f u l f o r e c o g n i z e h e r and fo g i v e h i m s e l f to her d i s p o s a l . ' 0  F o r Tom, t h e b i g t e s t  of the c h i l d ' s  trust  i n him  comes when t h e mother i s i n c h i l d - l a b o u r , and t h e l i t t l e  Anna f r e t f u l l y c r i e s f o r h e r and demands t o be w i t h h e r . A f t e r u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t r y i n g t o hush h e r , he wraps h e r i n a shawl and t a k e s h e r t o t h e b a r n where he i s about t o make h i s n i g h t l y round, o f f e e d i n g t h e c a t t l e .  Holding  h e r c l o s e l y t o him w i t h one arm, he t a k e s the. pan o f g r a i n in  t h e o t h e r arm and makes h i s rounds.  calmed and goes t o s l e e p . t o u c h i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d scene it  i s a b e a u t i f u l response  G r a d u a l l y she i s  T h i s scene i s perhaps that  t h e most  Lawrence has ever  o f an a d u l t t o a c h i l d .  written;  73 The ful  birth  o f h i s own  experience  f o r Tom.  child A new  becomes a r i c h awareness  and  peace-  results.  When h e r [ L y d i a ' s] p a i n s b e g a n a f r e s h , f e a r i n g h e r , he t u r n e d a s i d e , and c o u l d n o t look. B u t h i s h e a r t i n t o r t u r e was a t p e a c e , h i s bowels were g l a d . lie went d o w n s t a i r s , ' and to the door, o u t s i d e , l i f t e d h i s f a c e to the r a i n , and f e l t t h e d a r k n e s s s t r i k i n g u n s e e n and s t e a d i l y upon him. The s w i f t , u n s e e n t h r e s h i n g o f "the n i g h t u p o n h i m s i l e n c e d h i m a n d h e was o v e r c o m e . He t u r n e d pway i n d o o r s , h u m b l y . T h e r e was the i n f i n i t e w o r l d , e t e r n a l , u n c h a n g i n g , as w e l l as t h e w o r l d o f l i f e . 0  Ee  recognizes  of  life,"  of the  h i s capacity to create  as  only  a part, although  much g r e a t e r  The  new  child  realises  Tom  But  Lydia, although  her  f i r s t passion  Bill's  with  case,  she  and  has  a new to  for fulfillment.  for a further life  on  satisfying her.  of  "the  life;  the  independent, f o r g e t f u l  child  was  little  of  love, her.  r o t , as  in  comple-  i n . .nna  his  /anna, i n t u r n ,  charge of the  t h e m o t h e r , had. d e v o l v e d  Gradually  and  when L y d i a . i s  Buna, but  is realised,  one,  reserves  Anna becomes a  b e c o m e s m o r e and. more c a r e f r e e ; the  time  a part  Tom,  rich  world  world."  love, s t i l l  l o v e f o r Tom.  IK.by, t u r n s  "the  important  infinite  w i l l h a v e t o g i v e un  mentary a d d i t i o n te h i s already desire  life,  a very  nwocrocosm, " t h e  he  the  new  demands much o f L y d i a ' s  and  occupied  0  freed.  mother,  elsewhere  She  became  s o u l , l o v i n g from her  than an own  c e n t r e . "' ® J  Lawrence b e a u t i f u l l y love  of  after  Tom  her  and  Lydia  parents  on  arc  sura.aaripes their  "reborn"  little to  the r e s u l t d-ugh t e r ,  a new  and  of  the  particularly  greater  fs (~\  capacity little  love.  Ursula,  from her and  of  and  parents  stability.  In c o n t r a s t to L e t t i e the  the  aa^  C r i c h . c h i l d r e n , Anna has  capacity to  e s t a b l i s h her  Cyril, received own  yea.ee  74 i u i n a ' s s o u l was p u t a t peace between them. She l o o k e d f r o m one t o t h e o t h e r , and she saw them e s t a b l i s h e d t o h e r s a f e t y , and she v/as free. She p l a y e d b e t - c c t h e p i l l a r o f f i r e and t h e p i l l a r o f c l o t i i n c o n f i d e n c e , h a v i n g t h e a s s u r a n c e on h e r j i t hand m d t h e a s s u r a n c e on h e r l e f t . was no l o n g e r c a l l e d upon t o u p h o l d w i t h h e r c n i l d . i s h -night t h e b r o k e n end o f t h e a r c h . H e r f a t h e r end h e r m o t h e r now met t o t h e s p a n o f t h e h e a v e n s , and s h e , t h e c h i l d , was„£ree t o p l a y i n t h e s p a c e b e n e a t h , between.'' :  w  Although, i n l a t e r many c o n f l i c t s ,  life  i n her marriage to a i l l ,  the capacity f o r s t a b i l i t y  by h e r parents a l w a y s remains w i t h her.  Anna h a s  given to her  Although the  r a i n b o w never spans t h e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h e r husband and h e r s e l f , s h e as an i n d i v i d u a l does c a t c h a g l i m p s e 62 of the rainbow.  75 FOOTNOTES 1. B. I I . L a w r e n c e , "We Weed One A n o t h e r , " I n The P o s t h u m o u s P a p e r s o f 3 . B. L a w r e n c e , e d . . E. B. (London: W i l l i a m Weinemami L t d . , 1 9 5 6 ) , P . 193.  Phoenix: BcBonaTd  2. D. I I . L a w r e n c e , The W h i t e P e a c o c k ( L o n d o n : Duckw o r t h and C o . , 1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 51-2. ^"subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l ) . 3. p. 66., 4.. p . 66.. 5., p . 127. 6. p. 161. 7. p. 67. 8. v. 4 3 . 9. p. 443. 10., p . 469. 11., F r i e d a Heinemann L t d . ,  L a w r e n c e , Not I , But 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 57.  t h e "Wind. ( L o n d o n :  12. D. B. L a w r e n c e , The W h i t e B e a c o c k , (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n 13.. p . 446. 14. p. 4-61.. 15. p. 475ff. 16.. p . 478. 17. p. 416.. 18. p. 423.  p p . 4.19-420 of the n o v e l ) .  19.. D. E. L a w r e n c e , S o n s a n d L o v e r s (New Work: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 14. (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l ) . 20. pp. 59-40. 21. p • 1aa . Bi. p. bY. 23. P. 16k. 24. p. 312. 25. c. 351. 26. P. 376. 27. P. 385. £8. p. 398. 29. PP. 411-412. 30. p. 420. 31. p . 42. C . 32. D. P. L a w r e n c c , The Wainbow ( M i d d l e s e x : B o o k s ^ L t d T * 1*949), p . 2 1 3 . (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t h i s edition, of t h i s n o v e l ) . r  to  76 FOOTNOTES 0*3  *):•  34. 35. 36. 37. 38«.  (cent.) p •' p. p. p. pp... p•  ^ S 0' • 220. 225. 226. 225-226. 2ij6 •  • 40. pp.- 222-3. 41. pp. 223-4. 42. p. 224. 43., p. 267. 44.. D. II. Lawrence, Pomen i n Love ( K i d a i e s e x : Peng u i n Books L t d . , 1.960), pp. 293-295. (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l ) . 45. P. 412. 415. 46. P . 47. P415. 48. p. 242. O -~2 • 49. P50. p. 234. 51.. p. 245. 52. p. 245. 53. p. 377.. 54. P28. 55. ?• 378. 56.,. D. I i . L a w r e n c e , The Painhew, p. 59.  page r e f e r e n c e s  t o t h i s e d i t i o n , of t h i s  57. n . GS. 58. B. 81. 59., pp. 83-84. 60.. po. 94-96 61. n. 97. 62. p. 195..  (subsequent  novel).  CHAPTER V "THE NATURAL FLOW OF COMMON SYMPATHY BETWEEN MEN AND MEN" I n t h e l o v e - d e a t h r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e man and woman, death f r e q u e n t l y takes the form o f a d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l response between the i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s d e s t r u c t i o n i s caused by a c i v i l i z a t i o n which has l o s t the v a l u e of S e l f h o o d through a c u l t u r e l i m i t e d by C h r i s t i a n i t y . I n d i v i d u a l s cannot f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t o f the S e l f i n the man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p and t u r n t o " s u b s t i t u t e " l o v e r s f o r f u l f i l l m e n t . Lawrence f e e l s t h a t t h e spontaneous response between man and woman i s of primary importance, but t h a t i t s h o u l d be complemented by the response o f man to man. I n an a r t i c l e "The S t a t e of Funk" p u b l i s h e d i n 1929, he w r i t e s : "But our c i v i l i z a t i o n , w i t h t h e h o r r i b l e f e a r and funk and r e p r e s s i o n and b u l l y i n g has almost destroyed t h e n a t u r a l f l o w o f common sympathy between men and men, men and women. And i t i s t h i s t h a t I want t o restore into l i f e : j u s t t h e n a t u r a l warm f l o w of common sympathy between man and man, man and woman." Lawrence has a deep l o n g i n g t o r e s t o r e a communion between man and man. He f e e l s t h a t t h i s communion i s necessary f o r the " h e a l t h and happiness" o f the man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p . Mrs. C a t h e r i n e C a r s w e l l , a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d of Lawrence, s t a t e s the f o l l o w i n g : [Lawrenc^ c h e r i s h e d the deep l o n g i n g t o see r e v i v e d a communion between man and man which should not l a c k i t s p h y s i c a l symbols. He even h e l d t h a t our modern d e n i a l o f t h i s communion i n a l l but i d e a was l a r g e l y t h e cause o f our modern p e r v e r s i o n s . To recover t r u e potency, and before t h e r e c o u l d be h e a l t h and happiness between man and woman, he b e l i e v e d that there must be a renewal o f t h e sacredness between man and man. 2  For Lawrence, t h i s "communion between man and man" i s 3  not a homosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n F a n t a s i a of the Unconscious he makes t h i s very c l e a r :  78  I n t h i s new p o l a r i t y , t h i s new c i r c u i t o f " p a s s i o n between comrades and c o - w o r k e r s , i s t h i s a l s o sexual? I t i s a v i v i d c i r c u i t of polarized passion. I s i t hence sex? It i s not. Because what a r e t h e p o l e s o f p o s i t i v e c o n n e c t i o n ? — t h e u p p e r , busy p o l e s . What i s t h e dynamic c o n t a c t ? — a u n i s o n i n s p i r i t , i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and p u r e comndnjLing i n one g r e a t work. A m i n g l i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a s s i o n i n t o one g r e a t p u r p o s e . Now t h i s i s a l s o a g r a n d consummation f o r men, t h i s m i n g l i n g o f many w i t h one g r e a t i m p a s s i o n e d purpose. But i s t h i s s e x ? Knowing what sex i s - can we c a l l t h i s o t h e r a l s o sex? We cannot.4 Having  declared the  "communion" between man  and man  as  n o t homosexual, Lawrence goes on t o e x p l a i n what t h e pose o f s u c h men He  f o r the  a friendship i s .  Man  must u n i t e w i t h  pur-  other  "great purposive a c t i v i t y " of b u i l d i n g a  c l a i m s , "Me  world.  have got t o g e t back t o t h e g r e a t p u r p o s e  5 o f mankind, a p a s s i o n a t e u n i s o n making a w o r l d . " is  t h e p i o n e e r ; he must j o i n w i t h o t h e r men  t h e Unknown. this yet  As  to explore  comrades, t h e y must work t o g e t h e r f o r  great purpose.  Each man  maintains  h i s Selfhood;  a t t h e same t i m e he makes an " h o n o u r a b l e "  surrender  of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y fi  t o become "one  w i t h men.  t h i s c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y with  men  In f a c t ,  determines  "when man  Man  i n a u n i t e d body"  the completeness of h i s S e l f  l o s e s h i s deep sense  other  fulfillment:  of purposive,  creative  7  a c t i v i t y , he  feels  l o s t , and  is lost."  Man  must have  t h i s a c t i v i t y t o complement h i s l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  with  t h e woman, f o r "when he makes the s e x u a l consummation  the  supreme consummation, even i n h i s s e c r e t s o u l , he f a l l s into  the b e g i n n i n g o f d e s p a i r . "  do b o t h : and to his  A man  accept h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  must be a b l e t o  i n the world of  answer t o t h e woman's "deep s e x u a l c a l l . "  men  Refusing  a c c e p t t h e " p u r p o s i v e a c t i v i t y " o f t h e male w o r l d c a p a c i t y t o s a t i s f y t h e woman.  ^  limits  79 I n The illustrates  White P e a c o c k and Sons and L o v e r s , " t h e n a t u r a l warm f l o w  o f common sympathy  between man and m a n , " the "communion" between the t h e r e p e u t i c  value  of i t .  The  them, and  " p h y s i c a l symbols"  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p are p r e s e n t e d .  I n The  a l t h o u g h t h e man-man r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not directly,  Lawrence  Rainbow,  illustrated  Lawrence does show t h e f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t  when a man f a i l s  of  t o u n i t e w i t h o t h e r men f o r the  results great  p u r p o s e o f m a n k i n d ; h i s l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e woman is  threatened.  Then i n Women i n L o v e , Lawrence shows how  the n a t u r a l flow f l o w between  between man and man c a n complement  t h e man and woman; on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  the the  d e n i a l o f r e s p o n s e t o t h e f l o w between man and man l i m i t s t h e man i n h i s  capacity  to  s u s t a i n t h e f l o w between  and t h e woman, and a d e s t r u c t i o n t a k e s I n The White P e a c o c k , S a x t o n and C y r i l tive  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between and most  o f a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s shown i n t h e n o v e l .  much o f h i s t i m e a t  the Saxton farm.  small  Together  i n the h a y f i e l d s ,  t o o k a f o r k and s c a t t e r e d  construc-  Cyril  t h e y m i l k t h e cows,  as t h e y  George  George and he  and do o t h e r farm c h o r e s .  on t h e i r work t o g e t h e r "I  place.  B e a r d s a l l i s t h e warmest  experiences.  himself  share  work  Cyril  comments  s p r e a d manure on the  t h e manure a l o n g t h e  spends  fields:  hollows,  and t h u s we w o r k e d , w i t h a wide f i e l d between u s , y e t n e a r i n t h e sense says to C y r i l ,  of i n t i m a c y . "  "George i s  very  L a t e r George s mother  so g l a d when y o u ' r e i n t h e  field—  10 he d o e s n ' t c a r e how l o n g t h e day There i s  is."  a deep h o n e s t y between t h e two men.  George cannot  trust  Cyril.  w i l l always g i v e him an h o n e s t  Cyril  although i t  Lettie,  Whereas  he c a n always t r u s t h e r b r o t h e r  may be a p a i n f u l o n e .  answer,  When George asks him  why L e t t i e has t u r n e d to L e s l i e , C y r i l  tells  George  that  h a d he n o t been so p r o u d and a f r a i d o f r e j e c t i o n he might have had h e r . she i s  L a t e r when George l e a r n s from L e t t i e  about t o marry L e s l i e ,  the dejected  that  George t u r n s  to  C y r i l f o r h e l p . C y r i l takes George t o t h e l o f t and g e n t l y c o n s o l e s him u n t i l he f a l l s a s l e e p . A f t e r George's marriage t o Meg, t h e men c o n t i n u e t o keep i n touch. At the end o f t h e n o v e l , t h e d e t e r i o r a t e d George, once a g a i n c o m p l e t e l y honest w i t h C y r i l , s a y s , "The sooner I c l e a r out, the b e t t e r . " The f r i e n d s h i p between t h e two men a l s o has a p h y s i c a l dimension. A f t e r they have had a swim t o g e t h e r , as they a r e r u b b i n g themselves d r y , they comment on each o t h e r s ' b o d i e s . George begins t o rub C y r i l : 1 1  He saw I had f o r g o t t e n t o continue ray r u b b i n g , and l a u g h i n g he took h o l d of me and began t o rub me b r i s k l y , as i f I were a c h i l d , o r r a t h e r , a woman he l o v e d and d i d not f e a r . I l e f t m y s e l f q u i t e l i m p l y i n h i s hands, and t o get a b e t t e r g r i p o f me, he put h i s arm round me and p r e s s e d me a g a i n s t him, and the sweetness of the touch o f our naked bodies one a g a i n s t the other was superb. I t s a t i s f i e d i n some measure t h e vague, i n d e c i p h e r a b l e y e a r n i n g of my s o u l ; and i t was t h e same w i t h him. when he rubbed me a l l warm, he l e t me go, and we looked a t each other w i t h eyes o f s t i l l l a u g h t e r , and our l o v e was p e r f e c t f o r a moment, more p e r f e c t than any l o v e I have known s i n c e e i t h e r _ f o r man o r woman.^ 2  T h i s i s t h e o n l y r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the novel t h a t i s p r e sented as e n t i r e l y wholesome. This f r i e n d s h i p i s unmarred by d e l i b e r a t e f o r c e or r e s t r a i n t ; i t i s e n t i r e l y spontaneous. I n Sons and Lovers, Lawrence b r i e f l y shows the d e v e l oping f r i e n d s h i p between P a u l Morel and Miriam's b r o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Edgar. As i n The White" Peacock, where the f r i e n d s h i p of George and C y r i l developed along w i t h t h e f r i e n d s h i p of L e t t i e and George, and Emily and C y r i l , so i n Sons and Lovers the f r i e n d s h i p between P a u l and Edgar develops as P a u l l e a r n s t o know Miriam. The boys s i n g t o g e t h e r and share t r i v i a l i t i e s . They hoe t h e  81  t u r n i p s , m i l k the cows, and l i e i n the hay. "Paul l o v e d them d e a r l y , and they him." As C y r i l had a t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t upon George, so Edgar has on P a u l . Then he [Pau| o f t e n avoided her and went w i t h Edgar. Miriam and her b r o t h e r were n a t u r a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c . Edgar was a r a t i o n a l i s t , who was c u r i o u s , and had s o r t of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t i n l i f e . I t was a great b i t t e r n e s s to Miriam t o see h e r s e l f deserted b y P a u l f o r Edgar, who seemed so much lower. But the youth was v e r y happy w i t h her e l d e r b r o t h e r . ^ 4  I n The Rainbow, W i l l and Anna, d u r i n g the f i r s t days of t h e i r marriage, l i v e e n t i r e l y i n a world of t h e i r own. Then Anna i s ready to r e t u r n again to the o u t s i d e w o r l d . She p l a n s a t e a p a r t y . W i l l f e e l s threatened. Anna i s g i v i n g a p a r t of h e r s e l f to the world of women, and w i l l f e e l s l e f t out. He has no man t o whom to t u r n . While she i s busy c l e a n i n g the house and p r e p a r i n g f o r the p a r t y , he "hangs around" f e e l i n g m i s e r a b l e . She r e s e n t s him f o r t h i s and t e l l s him to f i n d something to do. 15  But h i s work  seems p u r p o s e l e s s to him. Much l a t e r , a f t e r years of f r i c t i o n a l , v i o l e n t l o v e w i t h Anna, w i l l i s reborn to a new S e l f . He i s set f r e e t o a new l i f e : 1 6  G r a d u a l l y , Brangwen began to f i n d h i m s e l f f r e e t o a t t e n d t o the o u t s i d e l i f e as w e l l . H i s i n t i m a t e l i f e was so v i o l e n t l y a c t i v e , t h a t i t set another man i n him f r e e . And t h i s new man turned w i t h i n t e r e s t to p u b l i c l i f e , to see what p a r t he could take i n i t . This would g i v e him scope f o r new a c t i v i t y , a c t i v i t y of a k i n d f o r which he was now c r e a t e d and r e l e a s e d . He wanted t o be unanimous w i t h the whole of purposive mankind.-'-' Thus h i s sexual l i f e w i t h Anna and h i s l i f e w i t h mankind are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . As he becomes f r e e i n one, he a l s o gains a freedom to develop i n the o t h e r .  Skrebensky, however, never achieves a freedom. H i s a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e n a t i o n i s not a "purposive a c t i v i t y . " Skrebensky has l o s t t h e S e l f h o o d as he has committed hims e l f t o an a b s t r a c t i d e a . He never f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t i n serving the nation. No h i g h e s t good of t h e community, however, would g i v e him t h e v i t a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f h i s s o u l . He knew t h i s . But he d i d not c o n s i d e r the s o u l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u f f i c i e n t l y important. He b e l i e v e d a man was important i n so f a r as he r e p r e s e n t e d a l l h u m a n i t y . 18  There i s a s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e between Skrebensky's b e l i e f t h a t "man was important i n so f a r as he r e p r e s e n t e d a l l humanity" and Lawrence's b e l i e f t h a t man must have a "deep sense o f p u r p o s i v e , c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y " t o u n i t e w i t h other men t o b u i l d the w o r l d . I n the former t h e S e l f h o o d becomes meaningless; i n the l a t t e r t h e S e l f i s maintained. I n Skrebensky's case, t h e woman recogn i z e s h i s "deadness" and d e c l a r e s him "impotent;" W i l l , on t h e other hand, gains a new freedom w i t h t h e woman and t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . whereas the man-man r e l a t i o n s h i p i n The Uhite Peacock and Sons and Lovers demonstrates the " n a t u r a l f l o w o f common sympathy between man and man," the man-man r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Women i n Love demonstrates the r e f u s a l o f complete commitment. B i r k i n s t r u g g l e s t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p w i t h G e r a l d , and t h e r e are moments when the two men do respond warmly t o one _another. But a g a i n " and a g a i n , G e r a l d r e f u s e s t o t a l commitment, and l a t e r B i r k i n f e e l s t h a t Gerald's r e f u s a l i s somehow l i n k e d t o h i s f a i l u r e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the woman. As the n o v e l opens, Lawrence comments as f o l l o w s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between B i r k i n and G e r a l d : "They had not t h e f a i n t e s t b e l i e f i n deep r e l a t i o n s h i p between men  83  and men, and t h e i r d i s b e l i e f prevented any development of t h e i r p o w e r f u l but suppressed f r i e n d l i n e s s . *' While a t H a l l i d a y ' s i n London and l a t e r a t Breadalby, t h e two men develop a c l o s e r f r i e n d s h i p . G e r a l d comes t o B i r k i n s room b e f o r e r e t i r i n g and t h e two men have a h e a r t - t o h e a r t c o n v e r s a t i o n . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , one n o t i c e s an honesty s i m i l a r t o t h a t between C y r i l and George. As 19  1  G e r a l d l e a v e s f o r h i s room "he l a i d h i s hand a f f e c t i o n 20  a t e l y on t h e o t h e r man's shoulder and went away." In times o f d i s a s t e r , G e r a l d t u r n s t o B i r k i n . A f t e r t h e drowning of G e r a l d ' s s i s t e r , Diana, when B i r k i n i n v i t e s him t o come t o h i s p l a c e , G e r a l d remarks: 'Thanks v e r y much, R u p e r t — I s h a l l be g l a d t o come tomorrow, i f t h a t ' 1 1 do. You understand, don't you? I want t o see t h i s j o b through. But I'11 come tomorrow r i g h t enough. Oh, I'd r a t h e r come and have a chat w i t h you t h a n — than* do a n y t h i n g e l s e , I v e r i l y b e l i e v e . Yes, I would. You mean a l o t t o me, Rupert, more than you know.'21 L a t e r when B i r k i n i s i l l , G e r a l d v i s i t s him. At t h i s p o i n t , one a p p r e c i a t e s G e r a l d f o r he seems t o take the i n i t i a t i v e i n the f r i e n d s h i p . "Gerald r e a l l y l o v e d B i r k i n , though he never q u i t e b e l i e v e d i n him. . . . I t was always G e r a l d who was p r o t e c t i v e , o f f e r i n g the warm 22  s h e l t e r of h i s p h y s i c a l strength." Then B i r k i n r e a l i z e s the p o t e n t i a l i t y of a deep l o v e i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p , and from t h e r e on, he takes t h e l e a d . Suddenly he saw h i m s e l f confronted w i t h another p r o b l e m — t h e problem o f l o v e and e t e r n a l conj u n c t i o n between two men. Of course t h i s was n e c e s s a r y — i t had been a n e c e s s i t y i n s i d e h i m s e l f a l l h i s l i f e — t o l o v e a man p u r e l y and f u l l y . Of course he had been l o v i n g G e r a l d a l l a l o n g , and a l l along denying i t . 2  3  Now B i r k i n i s ready to swear a " B l u t b r u d e r s c h a f t " w i t h G e r a l d . B i r k i n e x p l a i n s the oath: "'we ought to swear to l o v e each o t h e r , you and I , i m p l i c i t l y , and p e r f e c t l y , f i n a l l y , w i t h o u t any p o s s i b i l i t y of going back on i t . " ' I t i s not a " s l o p p y emotionalism" he i s r e q u e s t i n g , but "an impersonal u n i o n t h a t l e a v e s one f r e e . " Suddenly, G e r a l d , who up to t h i s p o i n t has a p p r e c i a t e d the f r i e n d s h i p , f e e l s t h a t he cannot accept t h i s i n t i m a t e o f f e r . 2  He  excuses h i m s e l f by s a y i n g : 26  " Ve'11 l e a v e i t t i l l 1  4  I  understand i t b e t t e r . ' " But, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , G e r a l d w i l l never be a b l e t o understand i t b e t t e r . B i r k i n r e a l i z e s t h i s and he i s annoyed. " I t was the i n s i s t e n c e on the l i m i t a t i o n which so bored B i r k i n i n G e r a l d . G e r a l d c o u l d never f l y away from h i m s e l f , i n r e a l i n d i f f e r e n t g a i e t y . 07  H e had a c l o g , a s o r t of monomania." H i s monomania i s the s t r o n g w i l l which he must e x e r t on o t h e r s to reduce them t o the pure a b s t r a c t i o n of Matter. The " B l u t b r u d e r s c h a f t " demands a g i v i n g of one's S e l f and a r e c o g n i z i n g of the o t h e r ' s S e l f . This G e r a l d w i l l never be able t o do. B i r k i n i s d i s a p p o i n t e d . H e had had the great dream 28  of making "another separate w o r l d " w i t h G e r a l d , and G e r a l d does not accept h i s o f f e r . In the " G l a d i a t o r i a l " c h a p t e r , the two men w r e s t l e t o g e t h e r ; i t seems to be a wholesome experience f o r both of them. A f t e r both are p h y s i c a l l y exhausted and i n a h a l f - e o n s c i o u s s t a t e , G e r a l d p l a c e s h i s hand over B i r k i n ' s . B i r k i n responds w i t h a s t r o n g , warm c l a s p to Gerald's sudden and unconscious g e s t u r e . Then G e r a l d , as he becomes conscious of what i s happening, withdraws h i s hand. G e r a l d r e a l i z e s the p o t e n t i a l of B i r k i n ' s o f f e r and i t s e f f e c t s on h i s c a p a c i t y f o r l o v i n g a woman. H e r e a l i z e s , t o o , t h a t h i s r e f u s a l to "make any pure r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h any other s o u l " s p e l l s eventual doom f o r him.  85 The other way was to accept Rupert's offer of a l l i a n c e , to enter into the bond of pure trust and love with the other man, and then subsequently with the woman. If he pledged himself with the man he would later be able to pledge himself with the woman: not merely i n legal marriage, but i n absolute, mystic marriage. 29  Yet Gerald refuses the offer. Later, i n the last chapter, Birkin feels that Gerald suffers his t e r r i b l e i s o l a t i o n , i s o l a t i o n from everyone, both man and woman, because of his refusal to accept the "offer of alliance." As he views the dead body, Birkin c r i e s , " 1 didn't want i t 1  3 0  to be l i k e t h i s — I didn't want i t to be l i k e t h i s . ' " To Ursula's question as to what difference i t would have made had Gerald responded to Birkin's love, he answers, '"It wouldL It wouldL' " Birkin remembered how once Gerald had clutched his hand with a warm, momentaneous grip of f i n a l love. For one second—then l e t go again, l e t go f o r ever. I f he had kept true to that clasp, death would not have mattered. Those who die, and dying s t i l l can love, s t i l l believe, do not die. They l i v e s t i l l i n the beloved. Gerald might s t i l l have been l i v i n g i n the s p i r i t with Birkin, even after death. He might have l i v e d with his friend, a further l i f e . * 0  Thus Gerald's death i s much more awful because of his tragic i s o l a t i o n . Gerald, "the denier," he who denied l i f e to others and reduced them to "Matter," has now denied l i f e to himself and reduced himself to "cold, 32 mute Matter."  86 FOOTNOTES 1. D. H. Lawrence, "The S t a t e of Funk," i n Sex, L i t e r a t u r e and C e n s o r s h i p , Harry T. Moore, ed. (New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1935), p. 66. 2. Harry T. Moore, D. H, Lawrence H i s L i f e and Works (New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1951), p. 142, (Moore, at t h i s p o i n t , i s q u o t i n g Mrs. C a r s w e l l ) . 3«. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note the words, "For Lawrence." I r e a l i z e t h a t most present-day p s y c h o l o g i s t s would term the " p h y s i c a l symbols" of the C y r i l - G e o r g e and G e r a l d B i r k i n r e l a t i o n as homosexual, or at l e a s t as h a v i n g homos e x u a l t e n d a n c i e s . Lawrence, however, would p r o b a b l y say t h a t anyone who terms such r e l a t i o n s h i p s as homosexual i s s u f f e r i n g from the "modern p e r v e r s i o n " o f sex (see p r e v i o u s q u o t a t i o n ) . For Lawrence, a wholesome man-man r e l a t i o n s h i p " s h o u l d not l a c k i t s p h y s i c a l symbols." 4. D. H. Lawrence, F a n t a s i a of the Unconscious (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1923), p. 98. 5. I b i d . , p. 99. 6. T h i s may seem l i k e a c o n t r a d i c t i o n of terms: on page s i x of t h i s paper, the S e l f was d e f i n e d as "the d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l i t y of man, h i s s u b j e c t i v e b e i n g ; " here the i n d i v i d u a l m a i n t a i n s the S e l f , y e t at the same time makes an "honourable" surrender of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The important word i s "honourable." The S e l f can be s u r rendered and m a i n t a i n e d at the same time; the one can complement the o t h e r , and the i n d i v i d u a l need never become a s e l f l e s s creature. 7. D. H. Lawrence, F a n t a s i a of the Unconscious, p. 98. 8. I b i d . , p. 98., 9. D. H. Lawrence, The White Peacock (London: Duckworth and co., 1921), p. 334, (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l ) . 10. p. 343. 11. p, 496. 12. pp. 340-41. 13. D. H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers (New York: V i k i n g P r e s s , 1958), p. 149. 14. I b i d . , p. 157. 15. D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow ( M i d d l e s e x : Books L t d . , 1949) , pp. 150-2.  The  Penguin  87 Footnotes  (eont.)  16.. T h i s i s not a c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of W i l l g i v e n i n t h e second chapter o f t h i s paper. The f a c t s t i l l remains t h a t although W i l l i s r e b o r n t o a new S e l f , i t i s a f e e b l e , weak S e l f e s p e c i a l l y when compared to t h e m a g n i f i c e n t Selves o f Tom and L y d i a and l a t e r U r s u l a and B i r k i n . W i l l , by comparison, w i l l always have a v e r y l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y f o r "freedom." 17.. D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow, p. 238. 18. I b i d . , p. 328. 19. D. H. Lawrence, Women i n Love (Middlesex: Peng u i n Books L t d . , 1960), p. 37, ^subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s e d i t i o n o f t h i s n o v e l ) . 20. p. 107 21. 211 • p. 226 23. p. 231 24. P. 25. p. 232 26. P« 232 27. P. 233 28. P- 230 29. 398 30. 539 31. P- 540 32. p.. 540  CHAPTER VI THE DESTRUCTIVE AND CREATIVE ELEMENTS OF THE MAN-WOMAN RELATIONSHIP I n Lawrence's n o v e l s , because of t h e c o r r u p t c u l t u r e , the l o v e between man and woman i s u s u a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e : a form o f death occurs f o r e i t h e r the man o r woman, o r b o t h . However, sometimes t h e d e s t r u c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by a r e b i r t h t o a new and g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r c r e a t i v e l o v e : the d e s t r u c t i o n i s a p u r g a t i o n through which the i n d i v i d u a l becomes f r e e f o r h i s l a t e n t c r e a t i v i t y t o develop. I t i s my i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s chapter t o examine t h e d e s t r u c t i v e and c r e a t i v e elements o f the v a r i o u s manwoman r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Lawrence's f o u r n o v e l s , t o t r a c e the movement towards death o f some i n d i v i d u a l s as they are destroyed by the wrong k i n d o f l o v e , and f i n a l l y t o show the r e b i r t h o f others t o a c a p a c i t y f o r a new, . creative love. I n The White Peacock, a l l the man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i n some way d e s t r u c t i v e , and none of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s become capable o f a r e b i r t h t o a new c r e a t i v i t y . Annable i s destroyed by Lady C r y s t a b e l , the s p i r i t u a l l o v e r who h u m i l i a t e s h i s body and "pretends" t o l o v e him; he i s f u r t h e r destroyed by h i s second w i f e , who "breeds w e l l " and makes him i n t o a "good a n i m a l . H i s p r e m o n i t i o n of death when he says t o C y r i l , " ' I f e e l somehow, as i f I were a t an end t o o , ' " becomes a r e a l i t y a few days l a t e r when he i s crushed t o death by f a l l i n g r o c k s . H i s p h y s i c a l d e a t h i s symbolic o f h i s p a i n f u l p s y c h o l o g i c a l death caused by t h e c r u e l " r o c k s , " Lady C r y s t a b e l ' s s p i r i t u a l l o v e , t h a t crushes h i s p r i d e f o r three long years. Mr. B e a r d s a l l , l i k e Annable, i s destroyed by h i s w i f e . Because o f h e r , he i s denied the r i g h t f u l l o v e of both h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n . He, t o o , d i e s . Both Annable and Mr. B e a r d s a l l ' s d e s t r u c t i o n s foreshadow what w i l l happen t o George. George i s destroyed by L e t t i e , who, l i k e Lady C r y s t a b e l , t e a s i n g l y encourages h i s l o v e ,  yet r e f u s e s t o commit h e r s e l f t o t a l l y t o him. George i s s i m i l a r t o t h e "poor, young man" who Lady C r y s t a b e l imagines f o r t h e f a b r i c a t e d o b i t u a r y of Annable. Then, s i m i l a r t o Annable's case, George's d e s t r u c t i o n continues i n h i s marriage t o Meg, who, l i k e Annable's second w i f e , "breeds w e l l . " Meg, another Mrs. B e a r d s a l l , t u r n s from her husband t o f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n h e r c h i l d r e n and l a t e r antagonizes them a g a i n s t t h e i r f a t h e r . George, another Mr. B e a r d s a l l , d e t e r i o r a t e s because o f heavy d r i n k i n g and i n t h e end i s f a s t moving towards death. H i s psychol o g i c a l death has occurred long before when he was " k i l l e d by L e t t i e and Meg's f a l s e l o v e s . I n t h e case o f a l l t h r e e men, t h e woman seems t o be t h e d e s t r o y e r . Lawrence c o u l d , however, be i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n weakness i n t h e man t h a t warrants a d e s t r u c t i o n . Annable seems t o l a c k t h e moral courage t o defy h i s w i f e ; i n s t e a d he leaves her. Similarly, Mr. B e a r d s a l l takes the easy way out: he leaves h i s w i f e . George i s , as C y r i l says, a f r a i d of r e j e c t i o n by L e t t i e , so he never d i r e c t l y asks h e r t o marry him u n t i l i t i s too l a t e . I n Sons and L o v e r s , P a u l Morel's t h r e e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e mainly d e s t r u c t i v e , although they may have some temporary c r e a t i v e elements i n them. Paul's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s mother has been examined i n a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , and t h e c o n c l u s i o n was reached t h a t i n the end P a u l was destroyed by t h e bond w i t h h i s mother. Although he does not j o i n h i s dead mother through a p h y s i c a l death, i n s p i r i t he i s s t i l l as c l o s e l y bound t o h e r as ever he was when she was a l i v e . With h e r s t r o n g attachment, she makes him i n c a p a b l e of l o v i n g another woman f o r any long p e r i o d o f time. H i s second l o v e r , Miriam, a l s o d e s t r o y s a p a r t o f him. Her s p i r i t u a l l o v e has a l r e a d y been examined i n t h e chapter d e a l i n g w i t h t h e church, and  the conclusion was that her s a c r i f i c i a l love k i l l e d a part of the " l i f e flame" within Paul. Paul's r e l a t i o n ship with his third lover, Clara, has both destructive and creative elements. when their love finds consummation out i n the f i e l d s with the peewits screaming nearby, i t i s a creative experience for Paul: And soon the struggle went down i n his soul, and he forgot. But then Clara was not there ibr him, only a woman, warm, something he loved and almost worshipped, there i n the dark. But i t was not Clara, and she submitted to him. The naked hunger and i n e v i t a b i l i t y of his loving her, something strong and blind and ruthless i n i t s primitiveness, made the hour almost t e r r i b l e to her. She knew how stark and alone he was, and she f e l t i t was great that he came to her; and she took him simply because his need was bigger either than her or him, and her soul was s t i l l within her. She did this for him i n his need, even i f he l e f t her, f o r she loved him. 7  4  Through this experience he can free himself of feelings of g u i l t that he had when he was with Miriam. It i s a l i f e - g i v i n g experience for them both: "They fj?aul and Clara]could l e t themselves be carried by l i f e , and they f e l t a sort of peace each i n the other. There was a v e r i f i c a t i o n which they had had together. Nothing could n u l l i f y i t , nothing could take i t away; i t was almost 5  their belief i n l i f e . " However, what began as -a creative love soon deteriorates into a destructive one. Clara i s not t o t a l l y s a t i s f i e d ; she wants to possess him i n the day-time as well as at night. Love-making during the day s t i f l e s Paul; he wants to l i v e for himself and by himself part of the time. Furthermore, he realizes that he does not love her as a person, but loves only the "woman" i n her. Their love-making soon becomes a repetitive act that  91  t h r i v e s on s e n s a t i o n alone.  Clara "trusted altogether  6  to t h e p a s s i o n . " But t h e p a s s i o n eannot be s u s t a i n e d , and t h e love-making becomes mechanical. G r a d u a l l y they began t o i n t r o d u c e n o v e l t i e s , to g e t back some of t h e f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . They would be near, almost dangerously near t o the r i v e r , so t h a t t h e b l a c k water r a n not f a r from h i s f a c e , and i t gave a l i t t l e t h r i l l ; or they l o v e d sometimes i n a l i t t l e h o l l o w below t h e fence of the path where people were p a s s i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y , on t h e edge o f t h e town, and they heard f o o t s t e p s coming, almost f e l t the v i b r a t i o n o f t h e t r e a d , and they heard what t h e passersby s a i d — s t r a n g e l i t t l e t h i n g s t h a t were never intended t o be heard. A nearness o f death, symbolized by the b l a c k water, becomes a p a r t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . They have t o f e e l t h e urge towards death, t h e urge t o d e s t r o y and be d e s t r o y e d , b e f o r e t h e i r emotions a r e aroused s u f f i c i e n t l y t o c a r r y them through t h e s e x u a l a c t . I n t h e end, C l a r a l e a v e s him to r e t u r n t o h e r former husband, of whom she says, "he 8  l o v e d me a thousand times b e t t e r than ever you do." Thus j u s t as the l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n The White' Peacock are d e s t r u c t i v e , so a l s o a r e P a u l ' s three l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Sons and Lovers i n some way d e s t r u c t i v e . P a u l i s d e s t r o y e d , i n p a r t , by t h e s p i r i t u a l l o v e o f Miriam, the O e d i p a l l o v e f o r h i s mother, and t h e p u r e l y p h y s i c a l l o v e o f C l a r a . Because P a u l has a great c a p a c i t y f o r l i f e , he i s n o t , t o be sure, completely destroyed. But i n t h e end he i s s t i l l f l o u n d e r i n g around s e a r c h i n g f o r fulfillment. In The Rainbow, Lawrence examines both the d e s t r u c t i v e and c r e a t i v e elements o f l o v e i n t h e man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e three generations of Brangwens. Of the t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e f i r s t a t t a i n s t h e h i g h e s t degree o f f u l f i l l m e n t . I n the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , Tom v  Brangwen m a r r i e s t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c P o l i s h widow, L y d i a Lensky. Lawrence b e a u t i f u l l y d e s c r i b e s t h e i r marriage consummation: And he l e t h i m s e l f go from past and f u t u r e , was reduced t o t h e moment w i t h h e r . I n which he took h e r and was w i t h h e r and there was n o t h i n g beyond, they were together i n an e l e mental embrace beyond t h e i r s u p e r f i c i a l f o r eignness. 9  When they a r e a p a r t , they a r e u n c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f one another; when they a r e t o g e t h e r , they f o r g e t t h e past and the f u t u r e f o r o n l y t h e present matters. Although they have t h e i r moments o f d e s t r u c t i o n , i n t h e end o f each such o c c a s i o n they become capable of a g r e a t e r awareness. "He walked about f o r days s t i f f e n e d w i t h r e s i s t a n c e t o h e r , s t i f f w i t h a w i l l t o d e s t r o y h e r as she was. Then suddenly, out of nowhere, t h e r e was connexion between them a g a i n . . . . She was sure t o come a t l a s t and touch him. Then he b u r s t i n t o flame f o r h e r , and l o s t h i m s e l f . " When L y d i a i s pregnant, Tom k e e n l y f e e l s t h e estrangement between them, but he turns t o t h e outdoors f o r r e l e a s e : "Then he worked and was happy, h i s eyes s h i n i n g , h i s cheeks f l u s h e d . And t h e z e s t o f l i f e was s t r o n g i n h i m . " A f t e r t h e c h i l d i s born, L y d i a , although s t i l l r e s e r v i n g the g r e a t e r p a r t o f h e r l o v e f o r Tom, now devotes p a r t of i t t o h e r baby. Tom has to l e a r n "the b i t t e r l e s s o n , to abate h i m s e l f , t o take l e s s than he wanted." 1  1 1  She came t o him a g a i n , and, h i s h e a r t d e l i r i o u s i n d e l i g h t and r e a d i n e s s , he took h e r . And i t was almost as b e f o r e . Perhaps i t was q u i t e as b e f o r e . At any r a t e , i t made him know p e r f e c t i o n , i t establ i s h e d i n him a c o n s t a n t , e t e r n a l knowledge. But i t d i e d down before he wanted i t t o die down. She was f i n i s h e d , she c o u l d take  93 no more. And he was not exhausted, he wanted to go on. But i t could not he. So he had to begin the h i t t e r lesson, to abate himself, to take less than he wanted. ^ 1  B r i e f l y , Tom considers going to Cossethay to look for another woman. Although he says nothing to this effect, Lydia senses his intention. They begin to accuse one another, and one anticipates a break i n their love r e lationship. However, the outcome of the "destructive" quarrel i s a purgation and a rebirth to a much deeper love. Blind and destroyed, he pressed forward, nearer, nearer, nearer, to receive the consummation of himself, be reeeived within the darkness which should swallow him and y i e l d him up to himself. If he could come r e a l l y within the blazing kernel of darkness, i f he r e a l l y could be destroyed, burnt away t i l l he l i t with her i n _ one consummation, that were supreme, supreme. lo  They are reborn to a new and deeper unconscious and conscious awareness of one another. "It was the baptism 14  to another l i f e . " I t no longer matters that Lydia i s a foreigner, that she had had another husband, that Anna i s not Tom's c h i l d . They are two independent individuals; they do not have to be consciously aware of one another. "He went his way, as before, she went her way, to the rest of the world there seemed no change. But to the two of them there was the perpetual wonder of transfiguration." In the second generation, Will* and Anna s relationship serves as a drastic contrast to Tom and Lydia's. Tom and Lydia progress i n mutual creative love, whereas Will and Anna progress i n mutual destructive love. In the end, Anna finds a very limited fulfillment i n c h i l d bearing. And he finds some fulfillment i n serving mankind. 1  .  94  Both s e t t l e down to a somewhat mediocre e x i s t e n c e i n c o n t r a s t to the m a g n i f i c e n t l i f e of Tom and L y d i a . Even b e f o r e t h e i r marriage, when they are out i n the c o r n f i e l d s s e t t i n g up the sheaves, W i l l and Anna can never e s t a b l i s h the r i g h t rhythm. She i s always ahead of him. T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p : she w i l l always be ahead of him f o r he l a c k s the independence t o take the i n i t i a t i v e . During the f i r s t days of t h e i r m a r r i a g e , they shut out the r e s t of the w o r l d and l i v e o n l y t o themselves. Then when Anna i s ready to r e t u r n t o the o u t s i d e w o r l d , W i l l ' s f e a r s b e g i n . He i s a f r a i d he w i l l l o s e her and t h e r e f o r e wants to possess her a l l the time. U n l i k e Tom, who f i n d s r e l e a s e i n h i s work, W i l l f i n d s t h a t he cannot work on h i s Adam and Eve p a n e l when he f e e l s unsure of h i s w i f e . A f t e r t h e i r q u a r r e l s , W i l l and Anna, l i k e Tom and L y d i a , comet t o g e t h e r a g a i n i n "acquiescence and submission, and 16  tremulous wonder of consummation." But, u n l i k e Tom and L y d i a , t h e r e i s l i t t l e growth i n understanding between W i l l and Anna. F u r t h e r c o n f l i c t s a r i s e and new b a t t l e s are f o u g h t . "So i t went on c o n t i n u a l l y , the r e c u r r e n c e of l o v e and c o n f l i c t between them. One day i t seemed as i f e v e r y t h i n g was s h a t t e r e d ; a l l l i f e s p o i l e d , r u i n e d , d e s o l a t e d and l a i d waste. The next day i t was a l l marvel17  lous again, j u s t marvellous." At times, Anna f e e l s t h a t he i s t r y i n g t o f o r c e h i s w i l l upon h e r , and she does not want t o be b u l l i e d . W i l l , at the same t i m e , f e e l s t h a t he wants to d e s t r o y Anna w i t h h i s " b i t t e r - c o r r o s i v e l o v e " so he can possess her completely. During her pregnancy, the f i g h t s become more i n t e n s e , and she r e j e c t s him more and more. " H o r r i b l e i n extreme were these n o c t u r n a l combats, when a l l the w o r l d was asleep and they two were a l o n e , alone i n the w o r l d and r e p e l l i n g each o t h e r . I t was h a r d l y to be borne." She f i n a l l y destroys him: he d i e s a form of death and experiences a f e e b l e r e b i r t h .  95 He was born for a second time, born at last unto himself, out of the vast body of humanity. Now at l a s t he had a separate identity, he existed i n so far as he had relations with another being. Now he had an absolute s e l f — as well as a relative s e l f . But i t was a very dumb, weak, helpless s e l f , a crawling nursling. He went about very quiet, and i n a way, submissive. 19 One realizes how weak he i s i n that he continues to use the church as a security. Later he turns to his c h i l d , Ursula, for support. Actually, very l i t t l e growth has taken place within him: "He was unready f o r f u l f i l l m e n t . Something undeveloped i n him limited him, there was a darkness i n him which he could not unfold, which would  20  never unfold i n him." The most distinct contrast between the relationships of the two generations i s seen i n the episodes where the men contemplate taking another woman. When Tom considered going to Cossethay, the outcome of the resulting quarrel between Tom and Lydia was a purgation for them; for Anna and W i l l , the outcome i s a further and more violent destruction and only a very limited purgation. After Will returns from Nottingham, where he has had an unsuccessful l i t t l e romance with a young g i r l , Anna senses that he i s looking for a new romance. She prepares herself to meet him at his own l e v e l : "they abandoned i n one motion the moral position, each was seeking g r a t i f i c a t i o n pure and simple." "There was no tenderness, no love between them any more, only the maddening, sensuous lust for discovery and the insatiable, exorbitant g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n 2 2  the sensual beauties of her body." Their lust takes on a form of fetishism: He would say during the daytime: 'Tonight I shall know the l i t t l e hollow under her ankle, where the blue vein crosses'. . . . He would  96  have f o r f e i t e d a n y t h i n g , a n y t h i n g , r a t h e r than f o r g o h i s r i g h t even t o t h e i n s t e p of h e r f o o t , and t h e p l a c e from which the toes r a d i a t e d o u t , t h e l i t t l e miraculous white p l a i n from which r a n t h e l i t t l e h i l l o c k s of t h e toes and the f o l d e d , d i m p l i n g h o l l o w s between the t o e s . He f e l t he would r a t h e r d i e than f o r f e i t t h i s . 2 3  As t h e y e a r s go by, W i l l and Anna e s t a b l i s h some form o f peace. T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p has caused a d e s t r u c t i o n , a l i m i t e d p u r g a t i o n . She f i n d s a l i m i t e d f u l f i l l m e n t i n h e r c h i l d r e n , and he gains a measure o f Selfhood i n h i s work a t t h e s c h o o l . W i l l , l i k e the men i n The White Peacock, l a c k s t h a t q u a l i t y o f masculine independence t h a t i s so necessary i n the man-woman l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Anna cannot r e s p e c t h i s l a c k o f a u t h o r i t y and l e a d e r s h i p . Thus she has t o f i n d her f u l f i l l m e n t i n her c h i l d r e n . In the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n , U r s u l a experiences both d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s and c r e a t i v e n e s s i n her r e l a t i o n w i t h Skrebensky. The f i r s t major d e s t r u c t i o n occurs on t h e n i g h t o f h e r Uncle Fred's wedding. As U r s u l a and Skrebensky are dancing, they f e e l t h e l o c k i n g o f t h e i r w i l l s : " i t was h i s w i l l and her w i l l l o c k e d i n a t r a n c e o f motion, two w i l l s l o c k e d i n one motion, yet never f u s i n g , never y i e l d i n g one t o t h e o t h e r . " The urge t o k i l l comes upon h e r ; she wants t o d e s t r o y him because she cannot r e s p e c t h i s denied S e l f . "A. strange rage f i l l e d h e r , a rage t o t e a r t h i n g s asunder.  Her hands f e l t d e s t r u c 25 t i v e , l i k e metal blades o f d e s t r u c t i o n . " When they are out i n t h e s t a c k y a r d , Skrebensky wants t o d e s t r o y h e r ; y e t a c t u a l l y he i s b e i n g destroyed. I t becomes a deadly s t r u g g l e : "yet o b s t i n a t e l y , a l l h i s f l e s h burning and c o r r o d i n g , as i f he were invaded by some consuming, s c a t h i n g p o i s o n ; s t i l l he p e r s i s t e d , t h i n k i n g a t l a s t he might overcome h e r . Even, i n h i s f r e n z y , he sought f o r h e r mouth, though i t was l i k e p u t t i n g h i s f a c e i n t o 26 some awful death." U r s u l a "was there f i e r c e , c o r r o s i v e ,  97  s e e t h i n g w i t h h i s d e s t r u c t i o n , s e e t h i n g l i k e some c r u e l , c o r r o s i v e s a l t around the l a s t substance o f h i s b e i n g , 27  d e s t r o y i n g him, d e s t r o y i n g him i n the k i s s . " Later that evening she wants t o caress him back t o l i f e , b u t he i s "dead." The o r d e a l has a l s o l e f t i t s mark on her: "there was a wound o f sorrow, she had h u r t h e r s e l f , as i f she had b r u i s e d h e r s e l f , i n a n n i h i l a t i n g h i m . " This then i s t h e i r f i r s t major d e s t r u c t i o n o f one another. A f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s , when U r s u l a i s a t c o l l e g e , Skrebensky a g a i n comes t o v i s i t h e r . At f i r s t t h e i r r e d i s c o v e r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p seems a c r e a t i v e one. When t h e i r 2 8  09  l o v e f i n d s consummation i n the outdoors, one i s reminded of C l a r a and P a u l s wholesome s e x u a l experience out i n the f i e l d s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r sexual consummation, . U r s u l a and Skrebensky f e e l s t r o n g , whole, and unashamed. But then g r a d u a l l y she a g a i n l o s e s h e r r e s p e c t f o r him and d e c l a r e s him a weakling w i t h h i s S e l f g i v e n away i n a p r e t e n t i o u s s e r v i c e t o t h e n a t i o n . As a s e l f l e s s c r e a t u r e , he i s unable t o s u s t a i n a l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U r s u l a . They b e g i n t o hate one another, and he i s des t r o y e d more and more. With each s e x u a l experience comes a f u r t h e r death. I t a l l c o n t a i n e d a developing germ o f death. A f t e r each c o n t a c t , h e r anguished d e s i r e f o r him o r f o r t h a t which she never had from him was s t r o n g e r , h e r l o v e was more hopeless. After each c o n t a c t h i s mad dependence on her was deepened, h i s hope o f s t a n d i n g s t r o n g and t a k i n g her i n h i s own s t r e n g t h was weakened. He f e l t h i m s e l f a mere a t t r i b u t e of h e r . 1  3 0  When U r s u l a says she w i l l not marry him, he begins t o c r y . I t i s a very h u m i l i a t i n g scene; h i s m a s c u l i n i t y s u f f e r s badly. F i n a l l y she consoles him as a mother would a s m a l l c h i l d .  98 They t r y t o make t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p work. They go o f f t o g e t h e r t o Rouen and l a t e r t o her f r i e n d ' s c o t t a g e . U r s u l a f e e l s r e s t r i c t e d i n the c o t t a g e so she f o r c e s Skrebensky t o make l o v e t o her i n the outdoors on the downs. L i k e C l a r a i n Sons and Lovers, U r s u l a hopes the outdoors w i l l add s e n s a t i o n t o t h e i r s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e , which has d e t e r i o r a t e d t o a mere mechanical, r e p e t i t i v e act. I n the end, n o t h i n g seems t o h e l p ; Skrebensky has been " k i l l e d " too many t i m e s . H u m i l i a t e d , destroyed, he l e a v e s q u i c k l y f o r I n d i a and w i t h i n two weeks marries someone e l s e . U r s u l a , t o o , experiences a death. For days she walks about as i n a t r a n c e . Then one day when she i s w a l k i n g through the woods, she i s overtaken by a sudden shower. She seeks s h e l t e r under an oak t r e e . Here she has a t r a u matic experience as a band of w i l d horses come stampeding upon h e r . S c a r c e l y m i s s i n g h e r , they thunder p a s t . The horses c r a s h i n g upon her symbolize her death. At the same t i m e , the beauty of the a n i m a l s , t h e i r s t r e n g t h and t h e i r g r a c e f u l n e s s , g i v e her a tremendous d e s i r e f o r a new and 31 beautiful l i f e . She d i e s t o the "dead:" Skrebensky,  32  h e r mother and f a t h e r , the c o l l e g e , and her f a l s e f r i e n d s . She d i e s to e v e r y t h i n g t h a t belongs to a C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e t h a t denies the S e l f . She f e e l s she i s r e b o r n as a "naked, 33  c l e a r k e r n e l t h r u s t i n g f o r t h the c l e a r , powerful shoot." "Soon she would have her r o o t f i x e d i n a new Day, her nakedness would take i t s e l f the bed of a new sky and a  34 new a i r , t h i s o l d decaying, f i b r o u s husk would have gone." At the end, through her r e b i r t h , she becomes capable of a v i s i o n of hope f o r the f u t u r e : "she saw i n the rainbow the e a r t h ' s new a r c h i t e c t u r e , the o l d , b r i t t l e c o r r u p t i o n of houses and f a c t o r i e s swept away, the w o r l d b u i l t up i n a l i v i n g f a b r i c of T r u t h , f i t t i n g to the o v e r - a r c h i n g heaven." In her v i s i o n the " s o r d i d " men c a s t o f f t h e i r "horny c o v e r i n g o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n " and become new, c l e a n 35  99  b o d i e s . The weak, s e l f - d e n i e d Skrebensky i s gone; w i t h a new hope U r s u l a w a i t s f o r h e r new man, a "Son of God." In Women i n Love, Lawrence examines m a i n l y two manwoman r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To show t h e development o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , he f r e q u e n t l y s e t s two episodes s i d e by s i d e , or i n c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , i n which he shows t h e one c o u p l e , B i r k i n and U r s u l a , as they move towards c r e a t i v e death, and t h e other c o u p l e , G e r a l d and Gudrun, as they move towards d e s t r u c t i v e death. One o f t h e f i r s t important episodes takes p l a c e i n the "Classroom" chapter where B i r k i n , t h e s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r , watches U r s u l a t e a c h and Hermione, the " K u l t u r t r a g e r , " happens t o come a l o n g . During t h e i n c i d e n t B i r k i n a c q u a i n t s the r e a d e r s w i t h h i s p h i l o s o p h y , s a y i n g t o Hermione i n d e f i a n c e o f h e r c r a v i n g f o r a b s t r a c t knowledge: "'You've got t o l e a r n t o be, before you can come i n t o being . . . we have a c o n c e i t o f o u r s e l v e s . . . . We'd r a t h e r d i e than g i v e up our l i t t l e s e l f - r i g h t e o u s s e l f - o p i n i o n a t e d s e l f - w i l l . " ^ Having acquainted t h e reader w i t h B i r k i n ' s p h i l o s o p h y , Lawrence, i n t h e " D i v e r " c h a p t e r , r e v e a l s G e r a l d ' s nature through U r s u l a ' s remark: "'He'11 have 1  to  3  d i e soon, when he's made every p o s s i b l e improvement, y 37 ' and t h e r e w i l l be n o t h i n g more t o improve.'" In this scene, he i s r e c o g n i z e d as t h e C a i n - f i g u r e w i t h a "prim38 i t i v e desire for k i l l i n g . " I n t h e two i n c i d e n t s , B i r k i n ' s emphasis on "being" i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Gerald's s t r o n g w i l l e d , i m p u l s i v e emphasis on "doing" even though i t l e a d s to d e s t r o y i n g . In t h e "Totem" and "Breadalby" chapters a second set o f episodes occurs which f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t s B i r k i n and G e r a l d . I n the "Breadalby" chapter, B i r k i n , who has been h e l d bound f o r years i n Hermione's c l u t c h e s , attempts to f r e e h i m s e l f . He r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p has reached the p o i n t where one must destroy the o t h e r . Hermione f e a r s she w i l l l o s e him, and i n h e r d e s p e r a t i o n  100 to possess him t o t a l l y , she t r i e s t o k i l l him w i t h a paper w e i g h t . Although she o n l y i n j u r e s him p h y s i c a l l y , he d i e s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l death. He d i e s to her s p i r i t u a l c r a v i n g s , f r e e s h i m s e l f and i s reborn to g i v e h i m s e l f to a c r e a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U r s u l a . I n "Totem" G e r a l d , t o o , i s t e m p o r a r i l y caught by M i n e t t e , and he has t o f r e e h i m s e l f of her. A f t e r a few p a s s i o n a t e n i g h t s d u r i n g which G e r a l d destroys M i n e t t e , and f u r t h e r s h i s own d e s t r u c t i o n , he becomes t i r e d of her and she, i n t u r n , becomes "hard and c o l d , l i k e a f l i n t k n i f e " towards him. Both are g l a d to get r i d of one another. G e r a l d i s now f r e e and ready t o t u r n t o Gudrun, who, i r o n i c a l l y , i s b a s i c a l l y l i k e M i n e t t e . I n c o n t r a s t to B i r k i n , G e r a l d has not experienced a r e b i r t h : he has merely f r e e d h i m s e l f from one woman, so t h a t he i s ready t o exert h i s power over another one. He does not r e a l i z e t h a t w i t h the next woman h i s power w i l l not h o l d good. Two succeeding juxtaposed episodes, "An I s l a n d " and "Goal-dust," f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t the men and a l s o the two women. As U r s u l a watches B i r k i n f i x the punt and l a t e r as they row t o the i s l a n d , the s t i l l n e s s and peace of the surroundings seem to prompt B i r k i n to make h i s statement about l o v e on t h i s o c c a s i o n : I don't b e l i e v e i n l o v e at a l l — t h a t i s any more than I b e l i e v e i n h a t e , or i n g r i e f . Love i s one of the emotions l i k e a l l the o t h e r s — and so i t i s a l l r i g h t w h i l s t you f e e l i t . But I can't see how i t becomes an a b s o l u t e . I t i s j u s t a p a r t of human r e l a t i o n s h i p , no more. And i t i s o n l y p a r t of any human r e l a t i o n s h i p . And why one should be r e q u i r e d always t o f e e l i t , any more than one always f e e l s sorrow or d i s t a n t j o y s I cannot c o n c e i v e . Love i s n ' t a d e s i d e r a t u m — i t i s an emotion you f e e l or you don't f e e l , a c c o r d i n g t o c i r c u m s t a n c e . 40  B i r k i n i s s t r i v i n g f o r something "beyond l o v e , " a somet h i n g t h a t w i l l b r i n g the s t i l l n e s s , peace, and freedom  101 he e x p e r i e n c e s i n the n a t u r a l surroundings. Ursula r e c o g n i z e s t h i s although she cannot understand and accept it, Gudrun, on the other hand, e s t a b l i s h e s a bond, "a s o r t of d i a b o l i c freemasonry," w i t h G e r a l d as he e x e r c i s e s h i s w i l l over the h o r s e , i n the "Coal-dust" episode, by f o r c i n g i t t o stand s t i l l as the t r a i n rushes by. G e r a l d d i s r e g a r d s t h e b l e e d i n g animal; h i s main o b j e c t i v e i s t o demonstrate h i s power, which f o r c e s s u b j e c t i o n of the o t h e r at any c o s t . The " w i l l to power" i s what a t t r a c t s Gudrun. T h i s " W i l l e zur M a c h t , " which i n a c t u a l i t y i s the w i l l to d e s t r o y , the urge to k i l l , i n each o f them i s what a t t r a c t s them to one another and l a t e r d e s t r o y s them. B i r k i n s concept of "beyond l o v e " and G e r a l d s emphasis on the p o w e r f u l w i l l are f u r t h e r expounded i n the "Mino" and "Rabbit" c h a p t e r s . I n each c h a p t e r , Lawrence uses an animal image to i l l u s t r a t e the i d e a s . B i r k i n has been t e l l i n g U r s u l a , who i s having t e a w i t h him i n h i s new f l a t , t h a t "we want to delude o u r s e l v e s t h a t l o v e i s the r o o t . I t i s n ' t . I t i s o n l y the branches. The r o o t i s beyond l o v e , a naked k i n d o f i s o l a t i o n , an i s o l a t e d me, t h a t does not meet and mingle and never can. . . . t h e r e i s a beyond, i n you, i n me, which i s f u r t h e r 42 than l o v e . " B i r k i n speaks of "an e q u i l i b r i u m , a pure balance of two s i n g l e b e i n g s — a s the s t a r s balance each other." " Then they watch the c a t , Mino, as he a t t r a c t s the a t t e n t i o n of a female c a t and e s t a b l i s h e s an agreement w i t h her. B i r k i n c o n t r a s t s t h i s w i t h the way G e r a l d f o r c e s the horse to submit t o h i s power:, '"with the Mino, i t i s the d e s i r e t o b r i n g t h i s female c a t i n t o a pure s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m , a transcendent and a b i d i n g r a p p o r t w i t h the s i n g l e male. Whereas without him, as you see, she i s a 44 mere s t r a y , a f l u f f y s p o r a d i c b i t of chaos." The i n t e r a c t i o n of the two c a t s demonstrates f o r B i r k i n the "law of c r e a t i o n , " t h a t i s , the e s t a b l i s h i n g o f a "pure balance 41  1  4  5  1  102 of two s i n g l e b e i n g s . " The animal i n c i d e n t i n the "Rabbit" c h a p t e r shows not o n l y Gerald's and Gudrun s c h a r a c t e r s but a l s o what happens when two s t r o n g f o r c e s meet. The "demonic?' i n the r a b b i t i s f o r c e d to become s u b j e c t t o the "demonic" i n G e r a l d . When G e r a l d h i t s the r a b b i t and i t g i v e s an " u n e a r t h l y abhorrent scream," G e r a l d and Gudrun experience a "mutual h e l l i s h r e c o g n i t i o n " and a league "abhorrent t o them both" i s formed. G e r a l d has c r u e l l y shown h i s power; at the same time he has r e c o g n i z e d Gudrun's " s u l l e n p a s s i o n f o r c r u e l t y " and Gudrun knows t h a t she has been r e v e a l e d . A g a i n , as i n the horse scene, the urge to k i l l , the a t t r a c t i o n to death, i s r e v e a l e d i n both of them. The i n c i d e n t concludes w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n between G e r a l d and Gudrun: 1  'God be p r a i s e d we aren't r a b b i t s , ' she s a i d i n a h i g h , s h r i l l v o i c e . The s m i l e i n t e n s i f i e d a l i t t l e on h i s f a c e . 'Not r a b b i t s ? ' he s a i d , l o o k i n g at her f i x e d l y . S l o w l y her f a c e r e l a x e d i n t o a s m i l e of obscene recognition. Ah, G e r a l d , ' she s a i d i n a s t r o n g , slow almost man-like way. ' — A l l t h a t , and more.* Her eyes looked up at him w i t h shocking nonchalance. 1  4 5  Lawrence f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t s the two r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the "Moony" and " I n d u s t r i a l Magnate" c h a p t e r s . In "Moony," B i r k i n , t h i n k i n g he i s unobserved, i s throwing stones at the white r e f l e c t i o n of the moon i n the water; he curses i t and smashes i t i n t o fragments o n l y t o see i t come t o g e t h e r a g a i n on the s u r f a c e of the l a k e . The c r i t i c Graham Hough s t a t e s t h a t "the moon i s the white goddess, the p r i m a l woman image, 'das ewig w e i b l i c h e ' , by whom B i r k i n i s haunted." Here then i s B i r k i n t r y i n g to come to terms w i t h what U r s u l a , as "das ewig w e i b l i c h e , " means to him. He i s t r y i n g to f r e e h i m s e l f from the type of l o v e which she by her very n a t u r e , as the " e t e r n a l l y 46  woman", i s affirming. This i s what he i s trying to shatter. He doesn't want to have his w i l l magically lured and bound to her. At the same time, he does not want to force his w i l l upon her. "'I want us to be together without bothering about o u r s e l v e s — t o be r e a l l y together because we are together, as i f i t were a phenomenon, not a thing we have 47  to maintain by our own e f f o r t . ' He doesn't want the relationship to be an exertion of the w i l l , but a being content without desire and insistence: "to be together M  48  i n happy s t i l l n e s s . " Gerald Crich, as the "Industrial Magnate," wants the very opposite: he wants to exert his w i l l . In f a c t , his w i l l i s to be the absolute. He succeeds i n reducing everything to pure Matter. But although Gerald's w i l l brings great improvements at the i n d u s t r i a l l e v e l , i t does not give hira personal satisfaction. The chapter concludes with the statement that 49  "he knew there was no equilibrium." Gerald i s s t i l l searching for something to f i l l the craving within him. The destruction of the individual at the industrial level by Gerald's w i l l has not s a t i s f i e d him; he must seek to destroy the individual at the personal l e v e l , or find a renewal, something to satisfy the craving within him. Perhaps the best contrast of the two relationships i s shown i n the chapters i n which each of the couples' sexual love finds consummation. "Excurse" begins with an argument as Ursula and Birkin attempt to "work out" their relationship. Lawrence seems to be suggesting that an argument between lovers i s , perhaps, periodically necessary; i t i s an outward demonstration of a v i t a l "polarity." It i s because of the argument that they can come to an understanding which i s a release f o r both of them. After the argument, their union i s flooded with "rich peace, satisfaction." It i s a profound sexual experience, "deeper than the phallic source."  104 She had thought there was no source deeper than the p h a l l i c source. And now, behold, from t h e s m i t t e n rock o f t h e man's body, from t h e marvell o u s f l a n k s and t h i g h s , deeper, f u r t h e r i n mystery than t h e p h a l l i c source, came t h e f l o o d s of i n e f f a b l e darkness and i n e f f a b l e riches. ^ 5  They would g i v e each o t h e r t h i s s t a r - e q u i l i b rium which alone i s freedom. . . . She had h e r d e s i r e f u l f i l l e d . He had h i s d e s i r e f u l f i l l e d . For she was t o him what he was t o h e r , t h e immemorial magnificance o f m y s t i c , p a l p a b l e , r e a l otherness.51 For both t h e immediate r e s u l t o f t h e i r s e x u a l communion xs a " n i g h t o f unbroken s l e e p . " I n t h e morning they remember t h e "magnificence o f t h e n i g h t " w i t h an almost h o l y and s a c r e d wonder. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e "Death and Love" chapter d e s c r i b e s t h e deadly consummation o f t h e other c o u p l e . Whereas B i r k i n and U r s u l a ' s l o v e f i n d s consummation i n t h e p e a c e f u l s t i l l n e s s o f n a t u r e , G e r a l d and Gudrun's takes p l a c e i n h e r room. G e r a l d b r i n g s w i t h him the c l a y from h i s dead f a t h e r ' s grave. J u s t as the c l a y c l i n g s t o h i s shoes and i s conveyed t o Gudrun's room so death and d e s t r u c t i o n i s conveyed from h i s body t o h e r s . "He had come f o r v i n d i c a t i o n . . . . And she, s u b j e c t , r e c e i v e d him as a v e s s e l f i l l e d w i t h h i s b i t t e r p o t i o n o f death. She had no power a t t h i s c r i s i s t o r e s i s t . The t e r r i b l e f r i c t i o n a l v i o l e n c e o f death k i l l e d h e r , and she r e c e i v e d i t i s an e c s t a s y o f s u b j e c t i o n , i n throes 53 of a c u t e , v i o l e n t s e n s a t i o n . " I t i s a warm and r i c h experience f o r him; i t i s a d e s t r o y i n g experience f o r h e r . He f a l l s i n t o a "sleep o f complete exhaustion and r e s t o r a t i o n ; " she f e e l s l i k e screaming i n torment because she i s " i s o l a t e d " from him. Wearied and exhausted she w a i t s f o r t h e l o n g , t o r t u r e d hours of the n i g h t t o pass. The s e x u a l experience w i t h G e r a l d has not brought r e l e a s e  105  f o r Gudrun; she w a i t s f o r t h e morning t o b r i n g her r e l e a s e . A great" weight f a l l s from h e r when he f i n a l l y l e a v e s . When t h e two couples a r e i n the Northern mountains, G e r a l d and Gudrun's d e s t r u c t i o n reaches a c l i m a x . They are determined t o "kiCj" one another. I n t h e end, G e r a l d i s k i l l e d . Gudrun continues a d e a t h - i n - l i f e e x i s t e n c e . Both a r e extremely t r a g i c f i g u r e s . G e r a l d , who f o r c e s the " c o n v u l s i o n o f death" t o r u n through e v e r y t h i n g t h a t comes w i t h i n h i s powerful w i l l , i s f i n a l l y destroyed by someone who has a s i m i l a r urge t o k i l l . F o r G e r a l d , death b r i n g s r e l e a s e . Gudrun, on t h e other hand, has t o cont i n u e s u f f e r i n g as she l i s t e n s t o "the t e r r i b l e c l o c k w i t h i t s e t e r n a l t i c k - t o c k " and t h i n k s o f t h e "mechani54  c a l s u c c e s s i o n o f day f o l l o w i n g day, day f o l l o w i n g day." The c l o c k t h a t t i c k e d away t h e t o r t u r o u s hours during her f i r s t n i g h t w i t h G e r a l d w i l l continue t o t i c k away the e q u a l l y t o r t u r o u s and meaningless hours o f the n i g h t s she w i l l spend w i t h t h e f u t u r e L o e r k e - f i g u r e s , "the l i t t l e u l t i m a t e c r e a t u r e s , " t h a t happen t o come along when one d e s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p comes t o an end and another begins. Although t h e end of G e r a l d and Gudrun i s t r a g i c , the b a s i c cause o f t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e l o v e i s e q u a l l y t r a g i c f o r i t w i l l continue d e s t r o y i n g f u t u r e Gerald and Gudrun f i g u r e s . The cause i s rooted i n the " r o t t e n " c i v i l i z a t i o n i n which the C h r i s t i a n v i s i o n has emphasized denying the S e l f and committing a f a l s i f i e d S e l f t o an i d e a , an a b s t r a c t i o n . Mr. C r i c h , the C h r i s t i a n s o c i a l i s t , has denied the S e l f t o worship t h e "mindless Godhead o f humanity;" h i s son, the I n d u s t r i a l Magnate, has a l s o d e n i e d the S e l f t o commit h i m s e l f t o t h e a b s t r a c t i o n , t h e machine. I n both cases, t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t Selfhood has been destroyed. The S e l f o f the workers has a l s o been destroyed. G e r a l d has reduced everything t o Matter. Then i n t h e man-woman love r e l a t i o n s h i p , i r o n i c a l l y , t h e " s t r o n g " man r e v e a l s h i m s e l f as t h e weakling. He has 55  106 exhausted h i s e n e r g i e s on t h e a b s t r a c t i o n s . With t h e workmen, he i s t h e seemingly powerful l e a d e r ; w i t h t h e woman, he i s c l e a r l y h u m i l i a t e d because he cannot m a i n t a i n l e a d e r s h i p . Thus t h e "male" i s destroyed by the woman. For B i r k i n and U r s u l a , t h e experience i n t h e North becomes one o f v i s i o n . They become aware o f a new dimens i o n of t h e i r love r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n t h e i r c r e a t i v e love t h e r e can be a wholesome d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s . U r s u l a r e c o g n i z e s i n h e r s e l f a simultaneous a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n towards B i r k i n . C l e a r b e f o r e h e r eyes, as i n a v i s i o n , she c o u l d see t h e s a r d o n i c l i c e n t i o u s mockery o f h i s eyes, he moved towards h e r w i t h a s u b t l e , a n i m a l , i n d i f f e r e n t approach. . . . F o r a moment she r e v o l t e d , i t was h o r r i b l e . . . . And y e t she was f a s c i n a t e d . . . . He was so a t t r a c t i v e and so r e p u l s i v e a t once. . . . she gave way, he might do as he would. H i s l i c e n t i o u s n e s s was r e p u l s i v e l y a t t r a c t i v e . But he was s e l f - r e s p o n s i b l e , she would see what i t was. They might do as they l i k e d — t h i s she • r e a l i z e d as she went t o s l e e p . . . . How good i t was t o be r e a l l y shameful I There would be no shameful t h i n g she had not experienced. Yet she was unabashed, she was h e r s e l f . Why not? She was f r e e , when she knew e v e r y t h i n g , and no dark shameful t h i n g s were denied h e r . " 5  T h i s new dimension g i v e s them a new freedom. T h e i r l o v e i s n o t r e s t r i c t i v e ; i n c o n t r a s t , i t g i v e s them a freedom t o do as they l i k e . And i n t h e N o r t h l a n d , they experience s t i l l another awareness. They r e c o g n i z e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i r l o v e . A f t e r s e v e r a l days i n t h e Northern mountains, U r s u l a says t o B i r k i n : " ' I hate the snow, and the unnaturalness o f i t , 57  the u n n a t u r a l f e e l i n g s i t makes everybody have.'" She wants t o l e a v e because she f e e l s t h a t the surroundings a r e too t h r e a t e n i n g t o t h e i r l o v e . B i r k i n f e e l s a s i m i l a r t h r e a t , and he i s saddened by t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e i r  l o v e has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . 58  107 At the same time, the experience  b r i n g s them to a new awareness:  an acceptance o f each  other with t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with the imperfect,  and a calm and g l a d hope f o r the f u t u r e .  They were never quite together, at the same moment, one was always a l i t t l e l e f t out. Nevertheless she was glad i n hope, g l o r i o u s and f r e e , f u l l of l i f e and l i b e r t y . And he was s t i l l and s o f t and p a t i e n t , f o r the t i m e . 5 y  108 FOOTNOTES 1. D. H. Lawrence, The White Peacock (London: Duckworth and Co., 1921), p. 231, (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s novel.) 2. p. 231. 3. p. 231. 4. D. H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers (New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1958), p. 353, (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l . ) 5. p. 354. 6. p. 364. 7. p. 364. 8. p. 383. 9. D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow (Middlesex: Penguin Books L t d . , 1949), p. 59, (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t h i s e d i t i o n of 10.. P. 62. 11. P. 73. 12. PP. 82-8 13. P95. 14. p . 95. 15. P. 96. 16. ?• 156. 17.. P» 167. 18. P. 189. 19. P. 190. 20. P- 210. 21. p. 235. 22. p . 236. 23623. p p . 24. p . 318. 2 5 - P« 319. 26. ?• 321. 27. ?• 322. 324. 28. p . 29. 451. 30. P' 463. 31. Lawrence, F a n t a s i a of the Unconscious D. H. Lav» 31. D. (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1923), pp. 154-5. 32. D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow, p . 4S3, (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n of t h i s n o v e l . ) 33. p. 493. 34. p. 493. 35. p. 496.  109 36. D . H . Lawrence, Women i n Love (Middlesex: Penguin Books L t d . , 1960), p. 48, (subsequent page 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 43. 44. 45.  53. 54. 89. 143. 167. 162. 164. P. 167. pp. 273-4.  P. P. p. p. P. P« P.  46. Graham Hough, The Darl Duckworth and Co. L t d . , 1956), 47. D . H . Lawrence, Women (subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t o novel.) 48.. P. 284. 49. P. 262. 50. p. 354. 51. PP- 360-1. 52. p. 361. 53. p. 388. 54. PP. 522—3. 55. P. 242. 56. pp. 463-4. 57. p. 489. 58. p. 490. 59. p. 490.  29.  Gerald  pp. 281-2,  CONCLUSION I f one c o u l d summarize i n one word Lawrence's conc e p t i o n o f t h e b a s i c cause o f death i n t h e l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e man and woman, man and man, and the parent and c h i l d , t h e word would be s e l f - d e n i a l ; a denial of one's own s e l f and t h e s e l f of t h e other person. The C h r i s t i a n - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r e f o s t e r s a people who have d e s t r o y e d t h e i r d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s , who have l o s t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y through a denying o f t h e S e l f . Stephen Spender, a Lawrence c r i t i c , s t a t e s : Our death i s a l o s s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . I n a mechanized age, an age of mass p r o d u c t i o n , t h i s k i n d o f death haunts l i f e . Y e t , as Lawrence very c l e a r l y saw, t h e a s s e r t i o n o f one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y , the i n s i s t e n c e o f o n e s w i l l i s not t h e answer of l i f e t o t h i s modern form o f death. The answer i s , i n f a c t , i n a l i f e t h a t i s deeper than i n d i v i d u a l i t y ; t h a t has no a s s e r t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i t y t h a t can be taken away from i t . I n s h o r t , i t i s not death t h a t m a t t e r s , but t h e r e a l i t y o f death. The d e a t h l y aspect of our c i v i l i z a t i o n i s not a r e a l death a t a l l : i t i s an u n r e a l i t y which makes l i f e i n t o a ghost. Real d y i n g i s p r e f e r a b l e t o t h i s . The importance, t h e n , o f Lawrence as a -J r e v o l u t i o n a r y and a p r e a c h e r , i s t h a t he i n s i s t e d on r e a l and l i v i n g v a l u e s : r e a l l i f e , r e a l s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e , r e a l death. A l l ideas of l o v e and honour c o u l d be s a c r i f i c e d t o the realities 1  Most o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n Lawrence's novels exemplify t h i s form o f death, t h e " l o s s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . " I n The White Peacock, George's p h y s i c a l death i s symbolic of h i s slow p s y c h o l o g i c a l death, h i s l o s s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Mr. B e a r d s a l l and t h e gamekeeper a l s o d i e : They a r e destroyed by t h e " u n r e a l i t y " of t h e " s p i r i t u a l " l o v e r s , t h e i r wives. The " r e a l and l i v i n g v a l u e s " t h a t Lawrence s t r e s s e s are f o r e i g n t o both the men and the women. I n Sons and L o v e r s , P a u l and Miriam do not have a " r e a l s e x u a l exp e r i e n c e " ; they can o n l y " s a c r i f i c e " themselves. Mrs.  in M o r e l , s e a r c h i n g f o r a way t o r e g a i n h e r l o s t i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t u r n s t o h e r c h i l d r e n , and both she and they s u f f e r a f u r t h e r l o s s . I n The Rainbow t h e r e i s both t h e death through " l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y " and the " r e a l death" which r e s u l t s i n a r e b i r t h . W i l l and Anna experience b o t h t o a l i m i t e d degree. Through t h e i r " l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y " they a t f i r s t d e s t r o y one another. Through t h e i r " r e a l s e x u a l experience" they a r e r e b o r n , although o n l y i n a l i m i t e d way, t o a c a p a c i t y f o r " r e a l l i f e . " U r s u l a and Skrebensky a l s o d e s t r o y one another: Skrebensky c o n t i n u e s a l i f e - i n - d e a t h e x i s t e n c e , "the u n r e a l i t y which makes l i f e a ghost;" U r s u l a i s reborn t o " r e a l and l i v i n g v a l u e s . " I n Women i n Love, G e r a l d , determined t h a t "the a s s e r t i o n o f one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f one's w i l l ' i s t h e answer t o l i f e , f o r c e s s u b j e c t i o n on animals and people. But he d i s c o v e r s i t i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y answer; he, t h e w e a k l i n g , i s destroyed i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Gudrun, another person w i t h a " l o s t " i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Birkin and U r s u l a , i n c o n t r a s t t o G e r a l d and Gudrun, begin t o experience " r e a l l i f e ; " " a l l ideas of l o v e " are replaced by " r e a l i t y . " They d i s c o v e r , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , "the answer of l i f e . " 1  I n h i s essay "The Study of Thomas Hardy," Lawrence d e f i n e s t h i s "answer o f l i f e "  thus:  The f i n a l aim of every l i v i n g t h i n g , c r e a t u r e , o r b e i n g i s t h e f u l l achievement of i t s e l f . This accomplished, i t w i l l produce what i t w i l l produce, i t w i l l bear t h e f r u i t o f i t s n a t u r e . Not the f r u i t , however, but the f l o w e r i s the c u l m i n a t i o n and c l i m a x , the degree t o be s t r i v e n f o r . Not t h e work I s h a l l produce, but the r e a l Me I s h a l l a c h i e v e , t h a t i s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; of t h e complete Me w i l l come the complete f r u i t of me, t h e work, the c h i l d r e n . 2  I n The White Peacock, no one a t t a i n s "the f u l l achievement," the " r e a l Me." George Saxton, Mr. B e a r d s a l l , t h e game-  112 keeper, and even C y r i l B e a r d s a l l f a i l ; a l l a r e , i n some way, d e s t r o y e d c r e a t u r e s . The women, Mrs. B e a r d s a l l , L e t t i e , and even Meg, t o o , f a i l t o a t t a i n t h e " r e a l Me." They may t h i n k t h e y f i n d a p a r t i a l "achievement" i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but t h i s achievement i s merely a s u b s t i t u t e . I n Sons and L o v e r s , Lawrence a g a i n shows h i s readers persons who have not achieved t h e " r e a l Me." Mr. and Mrs. Morel f a i l ; t h e i r s i s a mutual d e s t r u c t i o n . P a u l and Miriam f a i l i n t h e i r " s a c r i f i c i a l " l o v e . P a u l s u f f e r s f u r t h e r l o s s through h i s attachment t o h i s mother. I n the end he i s s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r "the answer." I n The Rainbow, L y d i a seems, although i n a l i m i t e d way and f o r a p a r t i c u l a r g e n e r a t i o n , t o have "the answer." Through her c a p a c i t y f o r a b e a u t i f u l spontaneous response, she can g i v e "the answer" t o Tom. They a t t a i n , f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , "the f u l l achievement," t h e " f l o w e r " which then " w i l l bear t h e f r u i t o f i t s n a t u r e . " The rainbow spans t h e i r l i v e s . The granddaughter U s r u l a seems to have t h e c a p a c i t y f o r i n s t i n c t i v e l i f e t h a t her grandmother had. Although her p a r e n t s , W i l l and Anna, achieve o n l y a l i m i t e d "not Me," U r s u l a a f t e r being destroyed by Skrebensky i s r e b o r n t o a c r e a t i v e , spontaneous l i f e w i t h a c a p a c i t y f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e t r u e S e l f . I n Women i n Love, she and B i r k i n , i n c o n t r a s t t o Gudrun and G e r a l d , exp e r i e n c e c r e a t i v e d e s t r u c t i o n . They r i d themselves of a l l " i d e a s " o f l o v e . The " r e a l and l i v i n g v a l u e s " a r e important t o them. They aim f o r the " f u l l achievement." Thus f o r Lawrence, although t h e C h r i s t i a n - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r e f o s t e r s a "denied S e l f " r e s u l t i n g i n d e s t r u c t i v e death, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g t h e " r e a l Me," the a l l - i m p o r t a n t S e l f h o o d , i s p r e s e n t . The response o f t h e "whole" man t o " r e a l l i f e , r e a l s e x u a l experience, r e a l death" b r i n g s " f u l l achievement." "Of t h e complete Me w i l l come t h e complete f r u i t o f me:" t h e c r e a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the parent and c h i l d , t h e "purposive a c t i v i t y " of men, and t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t l o v e between t h e man and woman.  113  FOOTNOTES 1. Stephen Spender, The D e s t r u c t i v e Element (London: Jonathan Cape, 1935), p. 180. 2. D. H. Lawrence, "Study of Thomas Hardy/" i n Phoen i x The Posthumous Papers of D. H. Lawrence, ed. E . D. McDonald (London: VrillxamHeinemann L t d . , 1 9 3 6 ) , p. 4 0 3 .  114  SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY P r i m a r y Sources Lawrence, D. H. F a n t a s i a of the Unconscious. W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1923.  London:  ; . L e t t e r s of D. H. Lawrence, ed. Aldous Huxley. New York: V i k i n g P r e s s , 1934. . Phoenix: D, H. Lawrence. ed. V i k i n g P r e s s , 1936.  The Posthumous Papers of E. D. McDonald. New York:  , . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s and the Unconscious. New York: Thomas S e l t z e r , 1923. . R e f l e c t i o n s on the Death of a Porcupine and Other Essays. P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Centaur P r e s s , 1925. . Sex, L i t e r a t u r e and Censorship. ed. Harry T. MooreT New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1953. Sons and Lovers. V i k i n g P r e s s , 1958. ature.  New York:  The  . S t u d i e s i n C l a s s i c American L i t e r New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1964..  . The Rainbow. Books L t d . , 1949.  Middlesex:  Penguin  . The T r e s p a s s e r . London: and Co., 1912.  Duckworth  The White Peacock. worth and Go., 1921.  London:  . Twilight i n Italy. Heinemann L t d . , 1956.  London:  . Women i n Love. Books L t d . , 1960.  Middlesex:  DuckWilliam Penguin  Secondary Sources Beebe  Maurice. "Lawrence's Sacred Fount: The A r t i s t theme of Sons and Lovers". Texas S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e and Language, V o l . IV, U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1962-63, pp. 539-552.  115 Bramley, J . A. "D. H. Lawrence's S t e r n e s t C r i t i c " . TJj£ H i b b e r t J o u r n a l , L X I I I (1964-65), 109-111. Chamberlain, Robert L. "Pussum, M i n e t t e and the A f r i c o - N o r d i c Symbol i n Lawrence's Women i n Love." PMLA, LXXVIII (1963), 407-4167" D a l e s k i , II. M. The Forked Flame. and F a b e r , 1965. Draper, Ronald P. D. H . Lawrence. P u b l i s h e r s , Inc.,~1964.  London:  Faber  New York:  Twayne  E n g e l b e r g , Edward. "Escape from the C i r c l e s o f Experi e n c e : D. H. Lawrence's The Rainbow as a Modern Bildungsroman". PMLA, LXXVIII (1963), 103-113. F o r d , George H . Double Measure A Study of the Novels and S t o r i e s o f D. H . Lawrence. N e V T o r k : Holt, R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1965.. Freeman, Mary. D. H . Lawrence A B a s i c Study of H i s Ideas. G a i n e s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a P r e s s , 1955. Goodheart, Eugene. The Utopian V i s i o n of D. H . Lawrence. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1963. Hoffman, F r e d e r i c k J . and Harry T. Mare, ed. Achievement o f D. H . Lawrence. Norman: s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1953. Hough, Graham. The Dark Sun. and Co. L t d . , 1956..  London:  The Univer-  Buckworth  K a z i n , A l f r e d . "Sons, Lovers and Mothers" P a r t i s a n Review, V o l . XXIX, No. 3, New York: American Committee f o r C u l t u r a l Freedom, pp. 373-385. K i n g s m i l l , Hugh. L i f e of D. H . Lawrence. Dodge P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1938.  New York:  Lawrence, F r i e d a . Not I , But' the Wind. W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1935.  London:  L e a v i s , F. R. D. H . Lawrence. Windus, 1957.  Chatto and  London:  Moore, H a r r y T. ed. A D. II. Lawrence M i s c e l l a n y , Carbonale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959.  116 . New York:  The L i f e and Works of D. H. Lawrence. Twayne Publishers, Inc., 195l7  Moynahan, J u l i a n . The Deed of L i f e . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963. Murry, Middleton J . D. H. Lawrence: Son of Woman. London: Jonathan Cape, Thirty Bedford Square, 1931. Roberts, Warren. A Bibliography of D. H. Lawrence. Soho Square, London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1963. Sagar, Keith. The Art of D. H. Lawrence. University Press, 1966. ~  Cambridge:  Sale, Roger. "D. h . Lawrence, 1912-1916". The Massachusetts Review, University of Massachusetts, 1965, pp. 467-480. Spender, Stephen. The Destructive Element. London: Jonathan Cape, 1935, pp. 176-186. Spilka, Mark. ed. D. H. Lawrence. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963.  New Jersey:  . The Love Ethic of D . H. Lawrence. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1955. Stanford, Raney. "Thomas Hardy and Lawrence's The White Peacock". Modern F i c t i o n Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, Purdue University, 1959, pp. 19-28. Tedlock, E. W. D. H. Lawrence A r t i s t and Rebel. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1963.. Vivas, Eliseo. D. H. Lawrence The Failure and the Triumph of Art. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1960. tfidmer, Kingsley. The Art of Perversity. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1962.  

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