UBC Theses and Dissertations

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The secession movement in Western Australia MacKirdy, Kenneth Alexander 1948

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3 THE SECESSION" MOVEMENT IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA ,A- thesis„B;UTDrnittBd in-.-partial f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of A r t s to the Department of H i s t o r y ' The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia • Vancouver, B.C.. by KENNETH A. MACKIRDY B.A. September EOth, 1948 NOTE This copy of the thesis has a second and fu l l e r "Abstract"tshich i s really a rather long, chapter-by-chapter, summary. I t i s lacking M*-copy 2. Library, U.B.C., June 2, 1949. ABSTRACT Both h i s t o r i c a l l y and geographically Western Australia has been separated from the rest of the Australian continent;- Sixteen hundred miles of desert intervene between the settled southwestern t i p of the continent and the main concentration of Australian population i n the south-east. Partly owing to this geographic isolation, the Swan River colony (founded i n 1829) passed the f i r s t sixty years of i t s existence with very l i t t l e intercourse with the more flourishing eastern Australian colonies. It was not u n t i l the goldrush of the 1890"s that the eastern Australians began to display an interest i n the far west. The presence of large numbers of these "T'othersiders" i n the Western Australian goldfields played an important part i n securing the colony's entrance into the new Australian Commonwealth which came into existence on January 1, 1901, The old settlers and the leaders of the colony's responsible government were none too eager to accept the terms of federation, maintaining that, under the proposed constitution, the new states would not have sufficent sources of revenue to meet their obligations, but their objections were over-ruled by the unanimous pro-federation sentiment of the diggers. From the f i r s t Western Australia's peculiar position — a state with a small population and a large, undeveloped area ... resulted in special financial concessions being granted to her. Such concessions mitigated, but did not completely obliterate, the separatist tendencies of the western state. In 1906 a motion was introduced into the state parliament favouring secession from the federal union but nothing came of i t . The War-induced encroachment of the federal government on taxa-tion fields which had formerly been state preserves intensified the i r r i t a t i o n f e l t by state leaders toward the eveiv-increasing powers of the Commonwealth government. Such sentiments were mirrored i n newspaper arti c l e s expounding the theory that the federal bond was preventing Western Australia from realizing her f u l l potentialities. The reports of a number of federally-appointed boards i n the 1920's indicate that, even during these prosperous years, secessionist sentiments were held by a sizeable portion of the state's inhabitants. Nevertheless, i t s was not u n t i l the depression f e l l , with a particularly severe impact on primary-producing Western Australia, that secessionism be-came the dominant factor i n the state's p o l i t i c s . The cause of secession was adopted by the state administration, partly from a desire to use i t as a means of exacting a more generous financial arrangement from the Common-wealth government. A referendum on the question of secession was held con-currently with the state elections i n A p r i l , 1935, Although the state's electorate repudiated the parties sponsoring secession they recorded a two-to-one majority i n favour of the state seceding from the Australian Common-wealth and becoming a self-governing Dominion. The newly elected Labour government redeemed their election pledge to attempt to give effect to the people's mandate, as expressed in the referen-dum results, by sending petitions to the B r i t i s h parliament requesting the passage of legislation which would release the state from the Australian Commonwealth. A joint committee of both houses, appointed to investigate the constitutional propriety of receiving the state's petition, reported that such a request could be entertained only i f i t came from the federal parliament. Following this rebuff from the B r i t i s h parliament the secessionist movement withered and died, leaving behind a better system of deciding on state grants i n Australia, and a noteworthy decision defining the relation-ship of the state and federal governments with the B r i t i s h parliament i n the ever evolving B r i t i s h Commonwealth. ABSTRACT OF THESIS THE SECESSION MOVEMENT IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA OF THE 1930's. Submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of A r t s t o the Department of H i s t o r y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C.. oy KENNETH A. MACKIRDY B.A. October 1948. ABSTRACT OF M.A. THESIS: THE SECESSION l^VEMENT IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA .OF THE 1930's. ©hapter 1. The story of the secession movement i n Western Australia provides a case history of the problems that result from the incorporation of a marginal region into a new federation. Western Australia i s geopgraph-i c a l l y isolated from the rest of the Australian continent. The only section of the-.state which contains a relatively dense population i s the f e r t i l e , well-watered southwestern t i p , known as the "Swanland" from i t s principal river, the Swan. Sixteen hundred miles of inhospitable desert and barren lands separate this region from the main concentration of Australian population i n the more favoured south-eastern and eastern coastlines of the continent. Save for the Swanland the climate of the western state i s either too dry or too hot to attract white settlers. The discovery of ri c h gold deposits i n the Salt ^akes area i n the south central section of the state has resulted i n some settlement i n this inhospitable part of the country, but the bulk of Western Australia's population i s concentrated i n the Swanland, a region whose prosperity i s based on the raising of wheat and wool for export. Although gold continues to play an important part i n the economic l i f e of the state, the richer deposits are being exhausted. The small population of Western Australia and i t s isolation from the rest of the Commonwealth has prevented that area from developing 1 large scale secondary industries which require a relatively large concentration of potential consumers to assure economical operation. The inclusion of the state within the Commonwealth freetrade area, on the other hand, has permitted the large eastern Australian manufacturers to ''dump" their products i n Western Australia to the detriment of the small Western Australian concerns who were attempting to cater to their local market. Chapter 2. The historical development of the western state has further inten-s i f i e d the differences produced by the. facts of geography. The f i r s t Europeans known to have sailed along the shore of Western Australia were . Dutch navigators during the seventeenth century. The barren aspect of the Western Australian coastline discouraged further exploration by these seafarers, most of whom had merely been driven too far south on their voyages to the Indies. It was not u n t i l 1825 that an attempt was made to establish a permanent settlement i n the area which now comprises the state of Western Australia.' The idea behind the decision to attempt a settlement was merely to strengthen British claims to the possession of the entire, continent, and to fore s t a l l any French colonization.schemes i n the western region, suspicions concpning the possibility of which had been aroused by the activity of French explorers along that coast since the last decade of the eighteenth century. % e colonizing party, sent out by Governor Darling of New south Wales, acting under instructions from the Colonial Office* was composed of transported convicts who had been found guilty of minor offences since their arrival i n the Sydney region, to-gether with their military guard. The settlement made by this party i n King George's sound did not prove successful. The colony, i n fact, f a i l e d to even approach'- self sufficiency i n food stuffs. Fredrick's Town, the penal settlement, was abandoned i n 1831 i n order to assist the progress of the second attempt to colonize the region, this time by free -settlers. T-he establishment of the Swan River colony owes much to the enthusiasm of Captain James S t i r l i n g , R.N., who had been impressed by the s u i t a b i l i t y of the Swan River basin for white settlement when he f i r s t explored the river i n March, 1827. Triumphing over the Br i t i s h government's i n i t i a l disinclination to sponsor another colony i n that region, Captain S t i r l i n g was at last appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the new projected colony, and, i n June 1829 arrived off the mouth of the Swan River with the f i r s t boatload of colonists. An early start was made i n laying out the sites of Perth and Fremantle. The history of the colony of Western Australia between 1829rand 1890 i s one of very slow growth. The early settlers were discouraged by the amount of labour necessary to bring the v i r g i n s o i l into cultivation. Reports f i l t e r i n g back "Home" from the dissatisfied pioneers gave the colony a bad name* In spite of the fact that Western Australia had front i t s establishment been designated as a "free colony" to which no transported crimnals were to be sent—hence the abandonment of Fredrick's Town—new settlers by-passed i t i n favour of the more flourishing colonies i n the east of the continent. In a desperate endeavour to recruit the larger labour force which was believed necessary to insure the continuation of the western colony the leading settlers commenced agitation favouring the introduction of penal immigrants into Western Australia. The British government agreed to their requests i n 1849. She following year the f i r s t convicts arrived at the colony's port, Fremantle. The introduction of convicts at that time did help relieve the labour shortage i n the colony, and allowed the government to embark upon some necessary public works projects but i t also further intensified the differences between the western colony and the other British colonies i n Australia who, at the very time Western Australia was f i r s t accepting convicts, were freeing themselves of the blight of criminal transportation. The large monetary grants from the British government which were associated with the penal system prevented Western Australia from taking advantage of the more l i b e r a l system of colonial government outlined by the B r i t i s h Parliament's Act of 1850. Western Australia did not gain representative government u n t i l 1870, two years after the cessation of transportation, \ 7 h i l e the granting of responsible government was delayed u n t i l 1890. The year 1890 not only marked a change in the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the colony but also i n i t s economic well-being. To the promising Yilgarn and Pilbarra goldfields, opened up i n 1888? were added the fab-ulously rich discoveries found around Southern Cross, Coolgardie and Kalgoorlie. Western Australia experienced an influx of gold-seeking adventurers, many of whom came from the exhausted fi e l d s of Victoria. The colony experienced boom times while much of the rest of the con-tinent was i n the throes of a business depression. The new responsible government of the colony, freed from the restriction of London, em-barked on an ambitious program of public works, financed by long term loans. Differences i n attitudes and interests between the new-comers i n the goldfields, the "T'othersiders", and the old agricultural settlers of the Swanland resulted i n a marked antagonism developing between the two groups. Chapter 3. - It was during this period, when the colony was experiencing i t s f i r s t real period of prosperity when the influx of new comers from Eastern Australia had introduced a new element igto the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the colony, that the project for federating a l l the Br i t i s h colonies of -5-Australasia approached the point of f r u i t i o n . S i r John Forrest, the colony's premier during the f u l l span of i t s existence as a self-governing unit, did not view the prospects of the immediate inclusion of Western Australia in the projected federation with favour, since he believed that the Western colony should not surrender any of i t s f i s c a l autonomy to another power u n t i l i t was powerful enough to assure that equitable treatment would be accorded i t within the federation. Nerver-thless Western Australia was represented at a l l the conferences which led up to the drafting of the proposed constitution of a federated Aust-r a l i a as drawn up during 1897-98. In the course of these negotiations the Western Australian delegation headed by Sir John, were able to secure some concessions, the chief of which extended to Western Australia a degree of t a r i f f autonomy for the f i r s t five years of the existence of the Commonwealth, but the Western Australian government was s t i l l not satisfied that the colony's best interests would be served by joining the larger p o l i t i c a l body. The greatest source of opposition to the government's policy and of support for the federal cause was to be found on the goldfields where the miners' emotions were largely governed by sentimental tie s with Eastern Australia from whence most of them had but recently come, and by their antagonism toward the longer settled inhabitants of the Perth area. Sir John had attempted to render the goldfields' sentiment-as harmless as possible by having the colony's delegation to the 1897-98 conventions nominated by the colonial parliament, i n which the gold-fie l d s were badly under represented, rather than by having the panel of delegates chosen by popular election as hadlbeen the practice in the other Australian colonies, and by refraining from submitting the draft constitution to a referendum by the people, as had been done i n the other colonies. The goldfields inhabitants were able to make their views f e l t , however. Between December, 1899 and January 1900 a .Reform League was formed i n the goldfields with the professed purpose of securing the secession of the eastern portion of the colony from the remainder of Western ^ s t r a l i a . i n order that i t might enter the new federation i f the western colony i t s e l f f a i l e d to do so. Western Australia could i l l afford to lose the rich gold-f i e l d s area. When the British Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, therefore, intimated i n a telegram to the acting Lieutenant-Governor of the colony that the Home government might consider the goldfields request for permission to enter the Common-wealth v i a secession the government of Sir John Forrest capitulated. The state government proceeded to prepare for the necessary referen-dum and other formalities which were required to secure Western Australia's entrance into federation as an original state of the Commonwealth, which by royal proclamation was to come into existence on January 1901. Owing to the unanimity of the goldfields'sentiment the result of the referendum was a foregone conclusion. The votes favouring federation numbered 44,800 while those opposed totaled only 19,691, but 24,517 of the 25,109 pro-federation majority was recorded i n the "diggings". The constitution of the new Commonwealth contained the seeds of future conflicts between the states and the federal government which they had established. The question of the definition of -7-the exact boundaries of the division of powers between the federal and state governments was to arise i n Australia as i n a l l other federal states, but the major cause for f r i c t i o n was to be found i n the financial problem. Tlie states had been l e f t with most of the revenue-consuming duties to perform, while their greatest'source of revenue in colonial days, the customs and excise t a r i f f s , had been taken over by the Commonwealth government. Temporary prov-isions had been inserted i n the Constitution to assure the states^ that three-quarters of thejproceeds from the t a r i f f s would be re-turned to them, but no permanent solution had been reached. In operation the constitution developed so that the Commonwealth government, which had unlimited taxing power, was able to extend i t s powers over the states, whose financial obligations were greater than their new revenue-raising capacity, ^his fact of government finance, coupled with j u d i c i a l interpretations of the constitution WA ich also enhanced the Commonwealth's powers, meant that a consti-tution which was designed to leave the residual powers with the states had created a federal government which might attempt to become all-powerful through i t s manipulation of the power of. the purse. Chapter 4. The f i r s t attempt at secession from the Australian Common-wealth occurred five years after the establishment of the Qonstitution at the time when the western state was due to lose the last vestiges of i t s t a r i f f autonomy. On September 26, 1906 a private member of the state Legislative Assembly, F.C. Monger, introduced a re-solution to the effect that the union of Western Australia with the other states of the Gommonwealth had proven detrimental to the best interests of their state and that the time had arrived for placing before the people of Western Australia the question of withdrawing from the union. The resolution was carried i n both houses of the- state parliament. Monger, therefore, went on to introduce a b i l l to provide for a referendum on the question of secession but, since such a b i l l would entail the expenditure of public money, i t was not able to be voted on. The state govern-ment did not adopt the measure, nor did there-seem to be any con-siderable pressure exerted upon them so to do. It might, therefore be considered that this' f i r s t attempt at secession lacked popular support. Some of the speeches supporting the Monger proposal, particularly one by T.Walker, a Labour representative of a gold-f i e l d s * constituencey, are valuable i n suggesting the reluctance f e l t by formerly self^centered p o l i t i c a l units i n surrendering-some power to a larger authority and the fear of some contented -colonials that the growth of loyalty to the new Commonwealth might lessen the loyalty extended to Britain. The speeches also showed that manufacturers of the east had already secured an advantage over their smaller western competitors. L i t t l e was heard of secession i n Western Australia for some time after the failure of the 1906 referendum proposal. Re-cognition of the special d i s a b i l i t i e s of Western Australia by the governments^of the Gommonwealth and of the other states, which took -9-the form of a special annual grant being paid the western state £250,000in the year of i t s i n i t i a t i o n , 1910, being decreased £10,000 each subsequent year, seems to have temporarily reconciled the state to federation. The. outbreak of the war i n 1914 forced domestic affairs into-v the background. It also, however, increased the Commonwealth govern-ment's heed for revenue. As was also the case i n other federal states, tSae central government entered f i e l d s of taxation which had previously been l e f t to the constituent states. The income tax, i n particular, proved an excellent means of channelling a substantial portion of the citizens' income into the coffers of the federal treasury. As early as April, 1918, a member of the Western Australian government was contemplating the possibility of a future bankruptcy of the state as a result of this federal i n -vasion into a state tax preserve and suggesting that such a calamity would lead to popular agitation for either secession or unification. Shortly after the Hon. Sir Hal Colebatch had uttered this pro-phecy i n the state's Legislative Council chamber, another, and even more influential actor i n the separatist movement, published his :•. f i r s t articles advocating Western Australian secession, Alfred Chandler, a native of Victoria who had migrated to the goldfields i n the 1890*s andhad later moved to Perth, where he became editor of a rather sensational weekly •journal, the Sunday Times, published a series of articles i n his paper during the summer of 1918-19 in which he accused the federal government of violating both the sp i r i t ' andvthe l e t t e r of the constitution. Although the Chandler -10-articles evoked a considerable popular response, culuminating i n a mass meeting of Perth citizens i n the Town Hall demanding drastic action, no encouragement was offered to the movement by the p o l i t i -cal leaders of the state. The persuasiveness of the Chandler pen unaided was not able to maintain the public interest i n secession at a high le v e l . The Town Hall demonstration was not repeated. 'Nevertheless the possibility of the state's secession from the federal Commonwealth seems to have been implanted i n the minds of a number of Western Australians. The Western Australian government i t s e l f began to display more interest i n the question of the relationship between the state and the federal government. The State Under Treasurer's Report on •-financial:relations between Western Australia and the Gommonwealth contained an> impressive series of tables which demonstrated to at least E.T. Owen's (the author) satisfaction that the state treasury had lost £8,055,000 as a result of federation between January 1901 and June 1919. He did not suggest secession, however, but merely' that a larger grant be given the state by the federaT..govem-ment. In 1921 the state parliament appointed a joint select committe of both houses to enquire further into the effect of federation on the finances of the state. Witnesses appearing be-fore this committee made more frequent references to secession but s t i l l i t would seem that such a move was not being considered seriously by any appreciable portion of the state's population. It required another newspaper man to stimulate wider interest i n the consideration of secession. During the month of November • ' -11-1922 J.C. Morrison ofv±he editorial staff of the leading Perth daily the West Australian, wrote a series of four articles analysing Western Australia's position under a system of continental free trade within a high protective t a r i f f wall. His articles indicated the most popular line of reasoning used from that time forth by the secessionists. Its principal thenfewas that both the primary and secondary industries of the state were being adversely affected by a Commonwealth t a r i f f that was designed to suit the interests of the more,populous, andothus more influential, eastern states. Western Australia's economy i s based i n raising primary products, chiefly wheat and wool, for export. They have to s e l l these on the competitive world market, but the prodaoers are unable to make their purchases on the same cheap, world market, but are forced by the t a r i f f to patronize the protected manufacturers of Eastern Australia. Talk of the poss i b i l i t y of secession was becoming more common, even i f i t was s t i l l not taken too seriously by many of the speakers. Two Commonwealth-appointed committees bore witness to this fact. In 1922 the Tariff Board was invited by Sir James Mitchell, Western Australia's state premier, to make an extensive study of a l l the state's d i s a b i l i t i e s which might have a serious effect upon the federal connection. The board found that "On a l l sides... there was a unanimous disappointment with the results attendentant upon the operation of Federation upon the State of Western Australia. This disappointment covered a l l degrees of criticism from mild disapproval to a rebellions desire to achieve Secession." -12-The Royal Commission on the effects of federation on the finances of Western A u s t r a l i a — generally known as the Western Australian Disabilities Commission"—was made even more aware of the prevalence of the secession sentiment i n the western state when they held their hearings i n early 1925. A l l three members of the Commission recognized that Western Australian separatism could not be ignored. Two of the commissioners, however, believed that the dissatisfaction with federation could be relieved by a more sympathetic attitude being adopted by the inhabitants of the rest of the country. Only Commissioner Entwistle maintained that secession was the only perm-anent solution for the western state's problems. Disagreement was the dominant feature of the Disability 6ommittee's report. Although a majority of the commissioners recommended a modified t a r i f f autonomy for the state, and the dissenting member suggested a new and additional grant of £375,000 per annum-for twenty-five yearsj-the Commonwealth government proceeded v i r t u a l l y tp ignore the commission's • report. The state was given a £450,000 grant for one year, which included some existing grants, and, when i n 1927 a new state-federal financial agree ment resulted i n a decrease i n the Commonwealth's payments to a l l the state Western Australia was compensated by an additional grant of £300,000 per annum for five years. Such palliative measures did not exorise secessionism from Western Australia. Nevertheless the separatist sentiment had not, during the period of the 1920's, seized the imagination of the mass of the people of the Western state. The conflict remained one between governments over revenue. So long as the individual citizens of the state remained -13-relatively prosperous there was no reason for them to embark upon any scheme to sever the federal connection which, i f not popular, did not prove to be excessively erksome. Separation from the Commonwealth might theoretically be desirable, but so long as the world price for wheat and wool remained firm the producers could afford to pay the additional costs of t a r i f f protection without incurring undue hardships. Chapter 5 Such a period of prosperity prevailed i n Australia u n t i l 1929. To i t was added yet another condition which prevented the west's separatist tendencies from developing into a serious movement* Throughout the period there had been recurrent discussion of the advisability of reviewing and revising the Commonwealth constitution* In every part of the continent the virtues of two alternatives to the existing six-state federal system were being proclaimed by their advocates* The Labour Party adopted the idea of centralization and unification, while the Country Party* the pol-i t i c a l agent of the pastoral and agricultural interests, espoused the cause of the "New States" movement, which aimed to divide the more populous states i n such a manner as to permit the presently submerged agricultural hinterlands to achieve self-expression* Ihile the opportunity remained that some constitutional convention might be held i n which Western Australia's d i s a b i l i t i e s might be lessened or removed, secessio&ism, which thrives on dispair, could not prosper* Unfortunately the promised means of effecting the constitutional revision never materialized. A royal commission was appointed i n 1927 to invest-igate the Constitution and to recommend amendments* In 1929 i t issued i t s report, strongly favouring increasing the powers of the central govern-ment, a recomendation which distant and isolated Western Australia could receive only with misgivings* Since the year 1929 also marked the collapse of the world market for raw materials, including wheat and wool, the stage was now ready for the active secessionist movement* -14-Chapter 6 The impact of the world-wide d e p r e s s i o n was more severe, perhaps, on a primary producing r e g i o n such as Western A u s t r a l i a than on r e g i o n s w i t h a more v a r i e d economy. I n examining the im-portance of the d e p r e s s i o n i n s t i m u l a t i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the s e c e s s i o n i s t movement two separate a t t i t u d e s must be c o n s i d e r e d --t h a t of the primary producer who, h a v i n g l o s t h i s market , i s d e s p e r a t e l y s t r i v i n g t o lower h i s c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n , and i s thus anxious to take advantage of the depressed world p r i c e i n n e c e s s a r y manufactured "products; and t h a t of the members of the s t a t e government, who were confronted w i t h the problem of meeting i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b l i g a t i o n s brought about by the d e p r e s s i o n out of the d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s from the a v a i l a b l e t a x e s . The producers were ready to espouse any cause which would f r e e them from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of the A u s t r a l i a n t a r i f f , the i n s t i t u t i o n which they blamed f o r many of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . The p o l i t i c i a n s were anxious to f i n d some means of p r e s s u r e where-by they c o u l d exact a l a r g e r grant from the Commonwealth government. The A p r i l 1930 e l e c t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n the d e f e a t of Hon. P h i l i p C o l l i e r ' s Labour government and i t s replacement by a N a t i o n a l i s t -Country P a r t y c o a l i t i o n under the p r e m i e r s h i p of S i r "James M i t c h e l l . The new premier, a n a t i v e son of Western A u s t r a l i a , whose p o l i t i c a l r e c o r d back as f a r as h i s support of the 1906 Monger referendum p r o p o s a l seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he had a genuine s e n t i m e n t a l l e a n -i n g toward the i d e a l of s e c e s s i o n , l o s t no time i n h e l p i n g t o r e -i n t r o d u c e the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n as a major p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i n the s t a t e . On the evening of May 23, 1930 a p u b l i c meeting was , h e l d i n P e r t h ' s Bent Memorial H a l l under the chairmanship of S i r James. Speeches were made condemning the harmful e f f e c t s t h a t f e d e r a t i o n had wrought on Western A u s t r a l i a . At the c l o s e of the meeting a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the audience unmistakably expressed a d e s i r e t o attempt t o e f f e c t s e c e s s i o n from the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth. A Dominion League of Western A u s t r a l i a was organized d u r i n g June and J u l y of 1930 under the p r e s i d e n c y of A l f r e d Chandler # ! I t s f i r s t o b j e c t i v e was t o secure the passage through the s t a t e parliament of a b i l l a u t h o r i z i n g the h o l d i n g of a referendum on the q u e s t i o n of the s t a t e ' s s e c e s s i o n from the A u s t r a l i a n f e d e r a t i o n . The League had the support of the s t a t e premier, a l t h o u g h d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i t would appear t h a t S i r James M i t c h e l l was more i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g the s e c e s s i o n i s t a g i t a t i o n as a b a r g a i n i n g p o i n t i n s t r i v i n g t o o b t a i n b e t t e r terms f r o m Canberra than i n a c t u a l l y attempting t o e f f e c t s e c e s s i o n . P o r the f i r s t y ear of i t s e x i s t e n c e the Dominion League co n c e n t r a t e d i n s p r e a d i n g i t s d o c t r i n e throughout the s t a t e and i n e s t a b l i s h -i n g l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t s a c t i v i t i e s were hampered ^ t h Q f a c t t h a t the two l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n d a i l i e s of the s t a t e , the P e r t h West A u s t r a l i a n and the D a i l y News, were bot h opposed t o s e c e s s i o n . The l a r g e r number of the r u r a l papers and the Sunday Times, however, d i d support the League's a c t i v i t i e s . A b i l l p r o v i d i n g f o r the referendum on s e c e s s i o n was f i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s t a t e parliament d u r i n g the 1931 s e s s i o n . I t was opposed by the Labour o p p o s i t i o n on the grounds of econ-omy. Mr. C o l l i e r and h i s supporters maintained t h a t such a v o t e would be a u s e l e s s extravagance, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e i t was doubt--16-f u l whether s e c e s s i o n c o u l d he e f f e c t e d . The h i l l was l o s t when the s e s s i o n ended b e f o r e the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly and the C o u n c i l c o u l d r e a c h an agreement c o n c e r n i n g c e r t a i n C o u n c i l amendments t o the b i l l . The b i l l was r e i n t r o d u c e d the f o l l o w -i n g s e s s i o n . Attempts had been made to meet the Labour c r i t i c i s m of the e a r l i e r p r o j e c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the referendum be h e l d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the f o r t h c o m i n g s t a t e e l e c t i o n s and by i n c l u d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e q u e s t i o n which asked the v o t e r s to s t a t e whether or riot they would approve the summon-i n g of a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n . D u r i n g the i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d c o n d i t i o n s had become more f a v o u r a b l e f o r the s e c e s s i o n i s t s . The Dominion League, under the v i g o u r o u s management of H.K. Watson, the League's p a i d organ-i z e r and chairman, had redoubled the i n t e n s i t y of i t s campaign. An attempt by a Western A u s t r a l i a n member t o have the q u e s t i o n of g r a n t i n g a m o d i f i e d t a r i f f autonomy f o r the western s t a t e debated i n the f e d e r a l parliament was r a t h e r u n d i p l o m a t i c l y f r u s t r a t e d by the Lyons' government. The new Commonwealth government had i n t e r v e n e d i n the o p e r a t i o n of the New South Wales government i n a d i s c o n c e r t i n g manner. The l a b o u r o p p o s t i o n t o the referendum b i l l was f a r l e s s v o c a l i n the 1932 s e s s i o n than i t had been i n the p r e c e d i n g one. Labour The/party was opposed to s e c e s s i o n , but i t was a l s o i n .favour of r e f e r e n d a . I n t h i s case i t appeared t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the the s t a t e th c i t i z e n s d«Bired'l the referendum so, r a t h e r than sur r e n d e r the popular cause e n t i r e l y t o S i r James 1 f o l l o w e r s , the L a b o u r i t e s d e c i d e d t o "Let the people d e c i d e " . The b i l l passed b o t h houses without encountering any s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n -17-On December 30, 1932 i t r e c e i v e d v i c e - r e g a l assemt. Chapter 7 A p r i l 8, 1935 was the date s e t f o r the s t a t e e l e c t i o n s and the referendum. D u r i n g the campaign the s e c e s s i o n i s t v i e w p o i n t was expounded by most of the candidates of the N a t i o n a l i s t and Country P a r t i e s as w e l l as by a number of d i s t i n g u i s h e d speakers sponsored by the Dominion League. The f e d e r a l i s t s were unable t o produce an e q u i v a l e n t l y impressive a r r a y of advocates, s i n c e the Labour c a n d i d a t e s , the n a t u r a l a l l i e s of the f e d e r a l i s t s , remained non-committal. The Commonwealth government attempted t o r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n by d i s p a t c h i n g a f e d e r a l p a r t y headed by the Prime M i n i s t e r t o the s t a t e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the f e d e r a l cause, the i n t e r v e n t i o n of Mr. Lyons and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n t o the c o n t r o v e r s y was r e s e n t e d by many Western A u s t r a l i a n s . H i s v i s i t t o the s t a t e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o s t the f e d e r a l cause a l a r g e number of v o t e s . The temper of the Western A u s t r a l i a n s a t the time was such t h a t no o u t - o f - s t a t e c o u n s e l would be heeded. The r e s u l t s of the e l e c t i o n might on the s u r f a c e appear c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The Labour P a r t y , the p a r t y of p o l i t i c s i l e n c e , whose candidates had promised merely to s t r i v e t o implement the mandate of the people, whatever i t might be, was swept i n t o power, w h i l e , a t the same time, the same v o t e r s s i g n i f i e d t h e i r a p p r o v a l of the p r o j e c t t o attempt t o secure s e c e s s i o n by a v o t e of 138,653 to 70,706. The a l t e r n a t i v e of a c o n v e n t i o n was r e j e c t e d 119,031 to 88,275. Only i n the g o l d f i e l d s d i d f e d e r a t i o n sentiment appear t o be s t r o n g . -18-Chapter 8 The newly e l e c t e d premier, P h i l i p C o l l i e r , q u i t e promptly redeemed h i s s pledge to g i v e e f f e c t t o the mandate of the people. A j o i n t committee of b o t h houses of parliament was appointed to d e l i b e r a t e on ways and means of b e s t a c h i e v i n g s e c e s s i o n . I t was decided to approach the B r i t i s h p a r l iament by means of p e t i t i o n s and address to endeavour to secure the n e c e s s a r y l e g i s l a t i o n from t h a t supreme body which alone c o u l d r e l e a s e Western A u s t r a l i a from the f e d e r a l union e s t a b l i s h e d by the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a  C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t 1900 ( I m p e r i a l ) . A six-man committee, which i n c l u d e d the s t a t e ' s Crown S o l i c i t o r , the Dominion League's Mr. Watson, and the two d e f e a t e d members of the former M i t c h e l l c a b i n e t , was named to draw up the r e q u i r e d documents to be sent to London and t o make any other p r e p a r a t i o n s deemed necessary. While t h i s committee was busy p r e p a r i n g the s e c e s s i o n doc-uments the Commonwealth government proceeded to f u l f i l one pro-mise made p r i o r t o the p o l l i n g date and p a r t i a l l y t o f u l f i l a nother. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s t a t e c l a i m s f o r a s s i s t a n c e from the Commonwealth government was handed over to a n o n - p o l i t i c a l body of q u a l i f i e d e x p e r t s , the Commonwealth Grants Commission, whose commendable work remains as one of the most s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s of the a g i t a t i o n of the p e r i o d . Less s u c c e s s f u l was a conference of premiers h e l d d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f of F e b r u a r y as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the promised c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c onvention. D i f f e r e n c e s between the l e a d e r s of the s t a t e governments and those of the Commonwealth prevented any agreement b e i n g reached r e g a r d i n g p r o j e c t e d amendments t o the Commonwealth c o n s t i t u t i o n . -19-Meanwhile the Western A u s t r a l i a n committee had completed i t s t a s k . The f r u i t of t h e i r l a b o u r s , the address to H i s Majesty and the p e t i t i o n s to the two houses of parliament, t o g e t h e r w i t h a 489 page volume o u t l i n i n g i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l the s t a t e ' s case of g r i e v a n c e s , was submitted to the Western A u s t r a l i a n l e g i s l a t u r e . By the end of May 1933 the s e c e s s i o n documents had been author-i z e d by b o t h houses of the s t a t e p a r liament and the n e c e s s a r y l e g i s l a t i o n had been passed to send a d e l e g a t i o n to London to p r e s s the s t a t e ' s c laims b e f o r e the a u t h o r i t i e s a t Westminster. The Labour government, e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported by b o t h p a r t i e s of the o p p o s i t i o n , had thus redeemed t h e i r promise to attempt t o implement the mandate of the people. Chapter 9 The Commonwealth government was not remaining e n t i r e l y i n -a c t i v e w h i l e the western s t a t e prepared t o s h a t t e r the f e d e r a l u n i o n . A four-man committee was named toward the end of May to prepare a c o u n t e r - c l a i m t o the s t a t e ' s case f o r s e c e s s i o n . The Commonwealth was,therefore,prepared when, a f t e r the Western Aus-t r a l i a n p e t i t i o n s had been submitted t o the two houses of the B r i t i s h p a r l iament on December 15 and 16, 1934, i t was d e c i d e d by those august l e g i s l a t i v e b o d ies t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problem of the p r o p r i e t y of r e c e i v i n g the p e t i t i o n s be d e c i d e d by a s p e c i a l j o i n t committee of b o t h houses. The committee, composed of s i x of the b e s t q u a l i f i e d members then s i t t i n g i n the B r i t i s h parliament to d e a l w i t h a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problem concerning the B r i t i s h Commonwealth, were addressed by B r i t i s h l e g a l c o u n s e l r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r e s t s of the Commonwealth -20-governinent and the Western A u s t r a l i a n s e c e s s i o n d e l e g a t i o n . On May 24, 1935 the committee i s s u e d t h e i r r e p o r t . I n i t they s t a t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h the parliament of the U n i t e d Kingdom had i n law f u l l competence to pass the d e s i r e d l e g i s l a t i o n , and t h a t i t was the o n l y body t h a t had such competence, y e t , under the S t a t u t e of Westminster, the parliament was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y i n -competent t o do so save a t the a d v i c e and w i t h the request of the parliament of the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a . The p e t i t i o n , t h e r e -f o r e , they found not proper to be r e c e i v e d . W i t h the r e f u s a l of the B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t to r e c e i v e the p e t i t i o n the s e c e s s i o n movement i n Western A u s t r a l i a seems to d i s i n t e g r a t e . . Some angry words were u t t e r e d by members of the s e c e s s i o n d e l e g a t i o n immediately a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the r e p o r t , but on the whole the i n h a b i t a n t s of the western s t a t e were not unhappy over the outcome of t h e i r attempt to remove themselves from the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth. Economic con-d i t i o n s were improving. The c i t i z e n s of the s t a t e were no l o n g e r ready to adopt any p o l i c y on the t h e o r y t h a t any change would he a change f o r the b e t t e r . The s t a t e premier, P h i l i p C o l l i e r , was never a s e c e s s i o n i s t a t h e a r t . He appears t o have pla y e d out h i s c ards i n an attempt t o exact the maximum concessions p o s s i b l e f o r h i s s t a t e from the Commonwealth government. When t h a t government showed sign s of a d e s i r e to make c o n c i l i a t o r y gestures immediately a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the B r i t i s h j o i n t committee's r e p o r t C o l l i e r extended h i s f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n . Some suggestions were made, bot h i n the Western A u s t r a l i a n parliament and o u t s i d e of i t , t h a t f u r t h e r attempts should be made to i n v e s t i g a t e other means of a c h i e v i n g s e c e s s i o n , but n o t h i n g came of them. -21-I n s h o r t , c o n d i t i o n s no l o n g e r f a v o u r e d the f o s t e r i n g of s e c e s s i o n sentiment. I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s were more t h r e a t e n -i n g than they had "been i n the e a r l y 1930*8. The s t a t e t r e a s u r y was s l o w l y b e i n g nursed back t o a h e a l t h y c o n d i t i o n . The Common-we a l t h Grants Commission was ev&ilving a new b a s i s f o r the comput-a t i o n of grants to the claimant s t a t e s . No l o n g e r was the amount based on the a l l e g e d l o s s e s i n c u r r e d by the s t a t e through the o p e r a t i o n of the f e d e r a l system, a method which tended t o exager-a t e and to p e r p e t u a t e . a n t i - f e d e r a l f e e l i n g , but r a t h e r was i t to be computed i n such a manner t h a t the poorer s t a t e s would be en-a b l e d to m a i n t a i n t h e i r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a t a l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t t o those of the r i c h e r s t a t e s w i t h o u t b e i n g f o r c e d to tax t h e i r c i t i z e n s more h e a v i l y i n order to do so. The A u s t r a l i a n system of b o u n t i e s and p r o t e c t i o n was thus b e i n g extended to the f i e l d of s t a t e government. Such a method of computation n e c e s s i t a t e d o a more thurough i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s t a t e f i n a n c e s than had p r e v i o u s l y been the case. B l a c k m a i l through s e c e s s i o n t h r e a t s c o n s e q u e n t l y became l e s s e f f e c t i v e as a means of i n c r e a s i n g the s i z e of the g r a n t . I n such an atmosphere the s e c e s s i o n sentiment i n Western Aus-t r a l i a w i t h e r e d . The outbreak of the P a c i f i c war i n December 1941 appears t o have a d m i n i s t e r e d the coup de grace to what remained of i t . The s t r u g g l e d i f f e r e d from the f i r s t World War and from the c o n f l i c t from 1939 to 1941 i n t h a t i t was not fought i n a i d of the Mother Country but i n defence of the n a t i v e A u s t r a l i a n s h o r e s # The c o l o n i a l a t t i t u d e , which had p l a y e d an important p a r t i n the s e c e s s i o n m e n t a l i t y , was d i s c r e d i t e d w i t h the B r i t i s h f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e . A new n a t i o n a l consciousness was born i n the - 2 2 -the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the threatened- i n v a d e r . Chapter 10 T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n seems on the whole to c o n f i r m the judgment passed hy most observers a t the time of the s e c e s s i o n movement. The a g i t a t i o n i n the s t a t e was ohe f o r b e t t e r terms from the Common-we a l t h government. I t most not be f o r g o t t e n , however, t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a d i d have a number of important l e g i t i m a t e g r i e v a n c e s con-c e r n i n g the treatment i t had r e c e i v e d i n f e d e r a t i o n . Nor must the g e n e r a l statement t h a t the l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of Western A u s t r a l i a n s v o t e d f o r s e c e s s i o n merely i n an endeavour t o lodge a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the Commonwealth's treatment of the s t a t e obscure the f a c t t h a t there-were a number of s i n c e r e s e c e s s i o n i s t s among the d i r e c t o r s and f o l l o w e r s of the Dominion League. H i s t o r i c a l l y and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y Western A u s t r a l i a had developed a p a r t from the r e s t of A u s t r a l i a . The i n t e r e s t s of the east and west d i d not always agree, and the weaker west u s u a l l y s u f f e r e d . The s e c e s s i o n i s t s were not u n s u p p l i e d w i t h good reasons f o r u r g i n g t h e i r s t a t e t o secede. The movement l e f t i t s mark on the h i s t o r y of A u s t r a l i a . The Commonwealth Grants Commission might have been e s t a b l i s h e d had t h e r e been no a g i t a t i o n i n the west but the t i m i n g of the announcement of i t s f o r m a t i o n has l i n k e d i t w i t h the s e c e s s i o n i s t campaign. A some-what g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t was c r e a t e d i n the r e s t of A u s t r a l i a concern-i n g the h i t h e r t o i g n o r e d west. F i n a l l y , i t c o n s t i t u t e d a t e s t case which pr o v i d e d the B r i t i s h parliament w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e f i n e the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of the f e d e r a l and s t a t e governments and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the B r i t i s h government under the r e c e n t l y enacted S t a t u t e of Westminster. P r e f a c e . A p r e f a c e i s a most u s e f u l d e v i c e . I t permits the author to w r i t e a few words i n h i s own defence, and, indeed, the a c t i o n of a Canadian who has never been c l o s e r to the A u s t r a l i a n c o n t i n e n t o than the West Coast of Vancouver I s l a n d c h q s i n g to w r i t e on the s e c e s s i o n movement i n Western A u s t r a l i a does seem to r e q u i r e some s o r t of e x p l a n a t i o n . I t might be s a i d , of course , that t h e f e d e r a l system i s a p r o l i f i c b reeder of problems i n the realm of p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s and t h a t the r e c o u n t i n g of a case h i s t o r y of one of the c o n f l i c t s which has a r i s e n out of the d e f i n i t i o n of the proper d i v i s i o n of powers, both p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l , between a s t a t e and the f e d e r a l government can be of some v a l u e i n g a i n i n g a f u l l e r u nderstanding of f e d e r a l i s m as an i n s t i t u t i o n . S i n c e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case under review took p l a c e a t the time when the autonomy of the B r i t i s h Dominions was b e i n g d e f i n e d , and s i n e e an appeal was made t o the Mother of P a r l i a m e n t s , the Western A u s t r a l i a n s e c e s s i o n movement played i t s p a r t i n c l a r ^ y i n g the d e f i n i t i o n by producing a " t e s t case" a t a r a t h e r c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth's e v o l u t i o n , a case which does not seem to be p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l known, but which provoked an e x c e l l e n t statement of t h e j r e l a t i o n s h i p between the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t and the governments of the f e d e r a l Dominions, the s t o r y of the movement should be of equal i n t e r e s t to Canadians and A u s t r a l i a n s . F i n a l l y , h i s t o r y and geography have c o n s p i r e d to produce i n the "westernmost pa r t of b o t h A u s t r a l i a and Canada a group of people who l i k e t o c o n s i d e r themselves s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r fellow-countrymen. A people who are i n t e n s e l y proud of t h e i r own ,landjoo:i*S boundless f u t u r e , and i t s p e r f e c t c l i m a t e , y e t who are r a t h e r j e a l o u s of the more thoroughly developed, r i c h e r , more densely populated E a s t . They are s u s p i c i o u s of the a c t i o n s of the f e d e r a l govern-ment which s i t s i n the i n i q u i t o u s East,, and i s t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t to the c o n t r o l of "E a s t e r n I n t e r e s t s " . The i n h a b i t a n t s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a of both. B r i t i s h ColumMa and Wee t e r n A u s t r a l i a seem t o be as b l i s s f u l l y mnaware of the j e a l o u s y o i n i w h i c h they • are h e l d by the d w e l l e r s i n the l e s s populous spots of t h e i r p r o v i n c e or s t a t e , a s they are aware of t h e i r r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n of the u n j u s t i f i e d attempts a t aggrandizlnent by the larger^netjpD-p o l i t a n areas i n the E a s t . In s h o r t , a l t h o u g h the p a r a l l e l must not be c a r r i e d too f a r , a study of Western A u s t r a l i a might h e l p a B r i t i s h Columbian to see h i m s e l f as others see him. Another purpose to which the pr e f a c e lends i t s e l f i s the p u b l i c acknowledgment by the w r i t e r of t h e a s s i s t a n c e t h a t has been rendered him. F o r the present t h e s i s the l i s t i s l o n g . In a work of t h i s s o r t the primary acknowledgment must i n a l l j u s t i c e be made t o a l l the members of the Depatment of H i s t o r y under whom he has s t u d i e d , and e s p e c i a l l y to P r o f . A.C. Cooke f o r the g e n t l y f i r m manner i n which he ser v e d as F a c u l t y A d v i s o r * f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of' t h i s t h e s i s . The w r i t e r a l s o wishes t o <. ; express h i s g r a t i t u d e f o r the h e l p f u l and c h e e r f u l c o o p e r a t i o n of the s t a f f s of the l i b r a r i e s of the U n i v e r s i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia and Toronto, the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y , and the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , to a l l of whom he must have been considered q u i t e a nuisance. The e f f o r t s of Mr. F.R. C-u l l i c k , the A u s t r a l i a n Trade Commissioner i n Vancouver, and h i e s t a f f , and ISr.- Thomas Dunbabin, P r e s s Attache a t the A u s t r a l i a n High i i i . Commissioner's Office in Ottawa, to supply additional information were deeply appreciated, -as was the receipt of an encouraging letter from H.K. v/atson, IJL.C., Perth, M.X.. Finally the writer wishes to thank a l l those upon whose f r i e n d s h i p he has imposed by i m p r e s s i n g them i n t o s e r v i c e as precis-makers, c a r t o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , and p r o o f r e a d e r s . "Many must be c r e d i t e d f o r s u p p l y i n g good m a t e r i a l , good a d v i c e and other a s s i s t a n c e , but the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n , the r e s u l t s of which appear i n the f o l l o w i n g pages, i s acknowlegged by the w r i t e r . September 20, 1948 A TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE The Geographic and Economic S e t t i n g CHAPTER TWO . T h e . H i s t o r i c a l S e t t i n g CHAPTER THREE F e d e r a t i o n , B e f o r e and A f t e r CHAPTER POUR E a r l y S e c e s s i o n lloves CHAPTER FIVE The Years of P l e n t y CHAPTER SIX The S e c u r i n g of the Referendum CHAPTER SEVEN The Referendum CHAPTER EIGHT Implementing the Mandate of the People CHAPTER NINE To London and Return CHAPTER TEN From whence ... and whither ...? APPENDIX A Maps and Railway Timetable APPENDIX B E x c e r p t s f r o m Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t APPENDIX C Report of t h e - J o i n t Committee APPENDIX D E x c e r p t s from S t a t u t e of Westminster APPENDIX E Grants recommended hy Commonwealth Grants Commission, 1934-1946 BIBLIOGRAPHY THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN SECESSION MOVEMENT CHAPTER ONE The Geographic and Economic Setting. The great example of an attempt at secession from a f e d e r a l system was provided "by the southern states Of the American Union. Since the problems which gave r i s e to t h e i r desire to secede:-the d e f i n i t i o n of the d i v i s i o n of power between the f e d e r a l and state governments, and the c o n f l i c t between regional groups with d i f f e r e n t economic and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s , disguised, at times, as a c o n f l i c t over f e d e r a l f i s c a l p o l i c i e s ? - a r e common to federalism i t s e l f and are not uniquely American, i t i s only natural that s i m i l a r attempts at secession would be made i n other f e d e r a l states. In the period between the two great wars which have marked off the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s century into convenient eras, one of the Australian states, motivated l a r g e l y by a disapproval of the fed e r a l t a r i f f p o l i c y and stimulated i n i t s action, f i n a l l y , by the impact of the Great Depression, attempted to withdraw from the Australian Commonwealth. Thoughtthe causes which provoked the secession attempt were s i m i l a r to those i n the better known American example the r e s t of the Australian story i s d i f f e r e n t . No "battles were fought "Down under" but a number of s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problems were raised and s e t t l e d , while the f a c t was again underlined that r a c i a l homogeneity i n a country does not remove a l l causes of f r i c t i o n . The dream of a nation f o r a continent and a continent f o r a nation was endangered when f a r less than one f i f t e e n t h of the -2-Commonwealth's p o p u l a t i o n t r i e d t o remove almost one t h i r d of i t s a r e a from the union and to e s t a b l i s h a s e p a r a t e "Dominion of Western A u s t r a l i a " . And what i s Western A u s t r a l i a ? A glance a t a p o l i t i c a l map w i l l r e v e a l t h a t c o n t i n e n t a l A u s t r a l i a i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x u n i t s , one of them, the n o r t h - c e n t r a l a r e a , b e i n g c l a s i f l e d as the f e d e r a l t e r r i t o r y of N o r t h e r n A u s t r a l i a , and the o t h e r f i v e b e i n g s t a t e s . S t a r t i n g i n the n o r t h - e a s t we f i n d s e m i - t r o p i c a l , s u g a r - r i c h Queensland, south of which l i e s the o l d e s t , r i c h e s t , and most populous of the s t a t e s , New South Wales, which has, as i t s southern neighbour, i t s c l o s e s t r i v a l , V i c t o r i a ( o f f the coast of which l i e s the s m a l l i s l a n d s t a t e of Tasmania), w h i l e to the west of V i c t o r i a , a l o n g the c o a s t of the Great A u s t r a l i a n B i g h t , i s the a g r i c u l t u r a l s t a t e of South A u s t r a l i a , s h a r i n g i t s c o n t i n e n t a l b o r d e r s w i t h f i v e neighbours, on i t s western f r o n t i e r b e i n g Western A u s t r a l i a , by f a r the l a r g e s t s t a t e i n a r e a i n 3 the u n i o n . On a p o l i t i c a l map a l l t h a t seems t o s e p a r a t e Western A u s t r a l i a f r o m i t s neighbours i s a segment of a l o n g i t u d i n a l m e r i d i a n , i n t h i s case the 129th e a s t of Greenwich, which some e a r l y a d m i n i s t r a t o r had d e c i d e d t o endow w i t h p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f -1 Of the 6,629,839 i n h a b i t a n t s of A u s t r a l i a r e c o r d e d by the 1933 census 438,852 l i v e d i n the s t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a . Com-monwealth Bureau of Census and S t a t i s t i c s , Off i c i a l Year Book of the Commonweal, of A u s t r a l i a . 1944-45, Canberra, g ^ " ™ ^ u 2 The s t a t e ' s a r e a i s 975,920 eq. ^lw\ll'^£j%0^e Commonwealth's 2,974,581 sq. m i l e s , rojnrnomrealth Year Book, 1944-45, p. 29. 3 See maps i n Appendix A. .-3-icance. Such a r t i f i c i a l l y contrived boundaries often suggest real isolation, or, at least, an absence of settlement around the region of the boundary at the time i t was drawn. A map of 4 Australian population density shows that the state's land boundary is s t i l l an uninhabited area. The map shows that there are two areas of relatively dense population on the continent, the larger, more important one being centred around the south-eastern t i p of the continent, extending up the eastern coast into the tropical area of northern Queensland, the smaller one being far off, on the south-western t i p of Western Australia. Rainfall and temperature provide the explanation for this rather strange population distribution. On the whole Australia i s a dry continent. What remains of the well weathered mountains in what i s geologically the oldest of continents follow the coast-line, capturing the r a i n f a l l on the coastal regions, and leaving most <bf the interior an arid desert. An examination of the maps w i l l show that the south-eastern areas nave "been the most favoured. Temperate climate, ample r a i n f a l l , supplemented where necessary by the world's largest artesian basin, and adequate s o i l a l l joined to foster the pastoral and agricultural endeavours of the settlers, while coal and iron deposits feave permitted industrial development to procede in this area, diversifying i t s economy, and stimulating the growth, of the two large cit i e s of Sydney and Melbourne. 4 See map in Appendix A -4-Western Australia has been less favourably endowed. Examples of most of the familiar tropical and temperate climates can "be found within the state's boundaries, but those of an unfruitful character are most generously represented. If a survey of the natural division? of the state were made, starting at i t s north-eastern t i p , the f i r s t to be examined would be the 5 Kimberleys. Since r a i n f a l l i s the major determining factor 6 of Australian settlement the relatively high precipitation enjoyed by this region marks i t out as one worthy of some consideration. Unfortunately not even the highest point of land i n the area, Mount Hann, reaches an elevation of three thous-and feet. Howhere, therefore, does high altitude provide r e l i e f from the heat induced from the low latitude. Moist heat has retarded white settlement in the area. The vegetation of the region is not the thick, jungle growth found further east in the regions of excessive r a i n f a l l . The country, therefore, can be, and is being, used for pasturage* the state fostering the industry with the establishment of a meat packing plant 7 at Wyndham, but the heat and the distance from any markets 5 G r i f f i t h Taylor's twenty natural divisions of Australia, as outlined i n Australia, a study of warm tovironments and their effect on B r i t i s h settlement, London, Methuen, 1940, are being followed here. Hereafter this work w i l l be deferred to as "Taylor, op. c i t . , 1940". See Appendix A for sketch map of the twenty divisions. 6 Erom 20 to over 30 inches. Rainfall map in Appendix A. 7 A settlement that has held the doubtful distinction of being the hottest moist lo c a l i t y where meteorological records had, up to that time, oeen taken. Taylor, T.G., Australia i n  i t s physiographic and economic aspects, Oxford, Clarendon Jtfress, (3rd revised edition) 1919, p. 65. Many Australian aborigines l i v e in the Kimberley area, a large number of them being employed by the pastoralists. has retarded settlement. Broome is the only sizable town i n the region* i t s raison d'etre being a pearling fleet that operates out from this surprisingly non-European community 8 in "White Australia". Although Kimberley was the s i t e ; of the f i r s t Western 9 Australian gold rush It has f a i l e d to develop into an important mining d i s t r i c t . Nevertheless, some mining i s carried on, and 10 • there seems to be some indication of o i l at Fitzroy Biver. South of the Kimberleys, extending over into the Northern Territory and South. Australia is the largest of the natural divisions of the continent, one of fixed dunes and no rivers, resembling Africa's better known Sahara in both appearance and cause. Even the most optimistic Australians are now prepared to c a l l this region a desert. Mineral wealth may l i e buried beneath, i t s burning surface but as yet l i t t l e has been located, while the surface vegetation is too sparse to support a pastoral population. The North West District^of the state, lying west of the " population 8 Prof. Taylor broke down the town's/of 3,000 i n 1923 as 1,200 Japanese (900 of them indentured labourers), 1,500 Koepangers from Timor, and the remaining 300 European; Taylor, op. c i t . . 1940, p. 370. Si r John Kirwan, writing about Broome in 1933 describes Its shrunken population of 2,000 as "four or five hundred Britishers ... and the rest Japanese, Chinese, Kopangers, Pi l i p i n o , Indians Greeks, French, Spanish, aborigines, etc." Broome and i t s Pearls London Times. Apr. 18, 1933, 11:8. The importance of the pearling industry must not be over-emphasized. Pearlshell, rather than pearls, constitute the chief source of revenue. In 1935 87 pearling luggers operated '-out of Western Australia, recovering £45,000 of shell and £2,816 of pearls. Taylor, op. c i t . . 1940, p. 370. 9 The Kimberley goldfield was proclaimed in the Western  Australia Government Gazette. May 19, 1886; Battye, J.S., Western  Australia. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1924, p. 365. 10 Taylor, op. c i t . . 1940, p. 346. -6-d e s e r t and c o n s t i t u t i n g the c o a s t a l r e g i o n south-west of the Kimberleys i s the t h i r d f a i r l y d i s t i n c t p h y s i c a l d i v i s i o n of the p o l i t i c a l u n i t , Western A u s t r a l i a . P r o f . T a y l o r r e f e r s t o the r e g i o n as the " A r i d North-West" s i n c e most of the a r e a can count on l e s s than t e n inches of r a i n per annum. I t s most prominent p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e i s the Hamersley-Ophthalmia P l a t e a u , one of the few s e c t i o n s of the c o n t i n e n t t h a t r i s e s above t h r e e thousand f e e t , w h i l e i t a l s o c o n t a i n s examples of t h a t t y p i c a l A u s t r a l i a n phenomenon, the v a n i s h i n g r i v e r s t h a t render maps d e c e p t i v e . The P i l b a r a g o l d f i e l d on the n o r t h e r n c o a s t and the Murchison i n the s o u t h - e a s t e r n , i n t e r i o r e x t r e m i t y of the d i s t r i c t suggest the importance of goldffiin|ngotOhthis j r e g i o n , where the s l e n d e r p o p u l a t i o n i s comprised of miners, and those employed i n the p a s t o r a l occupations ( "both sheep and c a t t l e ) . A r e g i o n d o t t e d w i t h shallow, s a l t - i n c r u s t e d d e p r e s s i o n s i n which water o c c a s i o n a l l y c o l l e c t s i n u n u s u a l l y damp seasons l i e s t o the south-east of the l a s t d e s c r i b e d a r e a and south-west of the d e s e r t proper. Sparse v e g e t a t i o n between the s a l t pans pr o v i d e s some pastorage, but the r e a l economic v a l u e of the country l i e s i n i t s r i c h m i n e r a l deposi$s« K a l g o o r l i e i s a name t h a t i s s t i l l important i n the world's r o s t e r of m ining towns. The 17,326 i n h a b i t a n t s of the town and i t s suburbs made i t the second l a r g e s t of the s t a t e ' s urban c e n t r e s a t the time 11 of the 1933 census. 11 Commonwealth Year Book. 1944-45, p. 467. K a l g o o r l i e i s not the second l a r g e s t i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the s t a t e , but the c i t y of "Fremantle (pop. 25,224, 1933) which has t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n c l u d e d by the government s t a t i s t i c i a n s as p a r t of Greater P e r t h . A u s t r a l i a n p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s more r e c e n t than 1933 a r e not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , but these f i g u r e s p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e of the s t a t e a t the time when the s e c e s s i o n movement was a t i t s h e i g h t . About twenty m i l e s west of the s t i l l f l o u r i s h i n g K a l g o o r l i e l i e s the d e s e r t e d town of C o o l g a r d i e , b e a r i n g mute testimony to the t r a n s i t o r y nature of m ining p r o s p e r i t y . Even the r i c h e s t of g o l d - b e a r i n g v e i n s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be exhausted, but t h e y w i l l have pl a y e d t h e i r p a r t i n b u i l d i n g up the s t a t e . The mines have p a i d f o r the ambitious Overland G o l d f i e l d s Water Supply t h a t pumps water from Nundaring (east of P e r t h ) 330 m i l e s to the g o l d f i e l d s . and they most c e r t a i n l y hastened the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y s , two e n g i n e e r i n g accomplishments which have i n c i d e n t l y b e n e f i t e d the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s upon whom the country w i l l have to depend, i n 12 the l o n g run, f o r permanent development. South-east of the S a l t l a k e s and south of the d e s e r t , a l o n g the coast of the Great A u s t r a l i a n B i g h t l i e s the ttullarbor r e g i o n , i t s name p r o v i d i n g an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s v e g e t a t i o n , or l a c k t h e r e o f . Although i t s n i n e i n c h annual r a i n f a l l i s r e l i a b l e i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o produce abundant herbage. S i n c e the p o v e r t y of the s u r f a c e growth i s , i n t h i s case, not compensated by r i c h m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s the r e g i o n has remained f a i r l y d e s e r t e d , not even responding to the s t i m u l u s of the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y t h a t runs i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e over i t s 13 p r o f i t l e s s , h i l l e s s c r u s t . The f o r e g o i n g o u t l i n e of f i v e of the s i x n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n s 12 I n 1925-26 the r a i l w a y s used e i g h t p e r c e n t , of the water c a r r i e d over the G o l d f i e l d s Water Supply, the mines twenty-two per c e n t . , and a g r i c u l t u r a l and p a s t o r a l p u r s u i t s the remaining seventy p e r c e n t . . T a y l o r , op. c i t . , 1940, p.234. 13 The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y map shows t h a t the T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y l i n e has n n t i been absolutely'- withbut i h f i u S n c e i n s t i m u l a t i n g s e t t l e m e n t i n the western p o r t i o n of the N u l l a r b o r r e g i o n . See Appendix A. -8-of the s t a t e may have s u p p l i e d a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the • s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n of the r e g i o n . T r o p i c a l heat or i n s u f f i c i e n t r a i n f a l l has rendered almost the e n t i r e c o u n t r y u n s u i t a b l e f o r white s e t t l e m e n t , save i n t h a t r e g i o n where the presence of g o l d has overcome a l l 1 normal b a r r i e r s t o s e t t l e m e n t . Attempts have been made t o repeat the Queensland successes i n growing t r o p i c a l p r oducts, such as sugar and bananas, i n the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s of the s t a t e but no e q u i v a l e n t s o i l was found — none as r i c h as t h a t possessed by the more f o r t u n a t e e a s t e r n s t a t e . Nature was k i n d i n but one spot i n Western A u s t r a l i a . I n the extreme southwestern t i p of the c o n t i n e n t the proper b l e n d of c o n d i t i o n s has o c c u r r e d t o produce a c l i m a t e c l o s e t o the optimum. C a l l e d the "Swanland"1 a f t e r i t s most important r i v e r , the Swan, t h i s f a v o u r e d r e g i o n i s b l e s s e d w i t h a more v a r i e d topography than any of the other s e c t i o n s of the s t a t e . I t s many s h o r t r i v e r s and streams have worn wide, shallow, and f e r t i l e v a l l e y s through the a n c i e n t p e n e p l a i n . B e i n g i n a temperate r e g i o n e n j o y i n g a r e l a t i v e l y heavy r a i n f a l l the c o a s t a l r e g i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y covered w i t h a heavy f o r e s t i n which many eu c a l y p t s abounded, T u r a t , J a r r a h , Wandoo, and K a r r i a l l h a v i n g t h e i r own areas of dominance. T h i s v i r g i n f o r e s t p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r the area's p r o f i t a b l e timber t r a d e , w h i l e an advanced p l a n of f o r e s t management, i n s t i t u t e d by the s t a t e a t a f a i r l y e a r l y date,has been designed t o perpetuate the stands of the commercially s i g n i f i c a n t K a r r i and J a r r a h , o f f e r i n g a s s u r -ance t h a t lumbering, i n Western A u s t r a l i a , may be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h f a r m i n g as a permanent o c c u p a t i o n of the country, and w i l l not -9-have to be placed (as is a l l too often the case) in the same cate-gory as mining. The thirty inch r a i n f a l l is confined to the coastal regions. Here agriculturists hare developed vineyards (around Perth), orange groves (Perth south to Bunbury) and apple orchards (Buribury to well east of King George's Sound) while sheep raising and dairying are carried on in whatever parts of the region the orchardists have l e f t unoccupied. Inland, in those regions where the average r a i n f a l l is less than twenty inches, yet exceeds twelve, conditi6ns?favour the raising of wheat and oats. Over one third of Australia's wheat crop is produced in this 14 ° area, almost a l l of i t being destined for the export market. The region does not lack mineral deposits. ' Gold is not as plentiful as elsewhere in the state, but copper can be mined at Ravensthorpe and t i n at Green Bushes, while the Collie coal fields are of national significance. Federal policies have not favoured the development of the base metal industry in this state, however, so the posperity of the region is based on the two staples, wheat and wool. As might be expectedtby far the largest proportion of the 15 state's population reside in this area. For most practical purposes the term " p o l i t i c a l l y significant Western Australia" 14 The Commonwealth averaged an annual yield of 160,860,487 bushels of wheat during the decade, 1925-35, of which. Western Australia produced an average of 86,084,160 bushels a year. Taylor, op. c i t . . 1940, p. 282. 15 See population density map, Appendix A. -10-can "be equated w i t h Swanland and i t s p e r i p h e r y g o l d f i e l d s . Western A u s t r a l i a i s thus f a r more i s o l a t e d than even the s i m i l a r westernmost p o l i t i c a l u n i t of the Canadian f e d e r a t i o n which, l i k e h e r, was e s t a b l i s h e d f a i r l y i n d e pendently of the e a s t e r n c o l o n i e s w i t h which she e v e n t u a l l y f e d e r a t e d . C e r t a i n other s i m i l a r i t i e s might be noted between Western A u s t r a l i a and B r i t i s h Columbia. In b o t h c o u n t r i e s n a t u r a l f o r c e s have c o n s p i r e d to c o n c e n t r a t e the p o p u l a t i o n i n the extreme south-west. I n each case h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n i s to be found w i t h i n the bounds of the suburban a r e a of i t s l a r g e s t c i t y . B o t h owe much to g o l d mining i n f o s t e r i n g development. There a r e many d i f f e r e n c e s , however. Although l a r g e areas of B r i t i s h Columbia a r e as u n s u i t e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t as jCs.the b u l k of Western A u s t r a l i a , f o r mountain tops a r e as d i f f i c u l t t o c o l o n i z e as d e s e r t s , y e t t h e r e a r e f e r t i l e v a l l e y s i n the i n t e r i o r of the Canadian p r o v i n c e t h a t have shown themselves capable of s u p p o r t i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n . An ampler water supply has rendered i r r i g a t i o n more p r a c t i c a l i n the "Dry B e l t s " of B r i t i s h Columbia than i n A u s t r a l i a , where a h i g h e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e i s combined w i t h v a n i s h i n g l a k e s and r i v e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s o n l y when the two areas a r e compared i n r e l a t i o n t o the r e s t of the c o n t i n e n t s i n which they f o r m p a r t s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s become most apparent. B r i t i s h Columbians a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h the statement t h a t the nocky Mountains s e p a r a t e them from the remainder of Canada. . The N u l l a r b o r P l a i n forms a l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r , but a t l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e a b a r r i e r between the populated Swanland and the remainder of i n h a b i t e d A u s t r a l i a . -11-B r i t i s h Columbia i s n e c e s s a r y to Canada i f the Dominion i s t o have a P a c i f i c o u t l e t . Ample r a i l c onnections M a k i n g :the Coast w i t h the c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n i n the E a s t were, t h e r e -f o r e , hastened t o completion i n Canada, the f e d e r a l government a d m i t t i n g i t s r e s p o n s i h i l i t y i n the matter. Uo s i m i l a r n e c e s s i t y f o r c e d the r e s t of the Commonwealth to f o r g e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s t o t h e i r western outpost. The w e l l populated P a c i f i c s t a t e s of the U.S.A. p r o v i d e B r i t i s h Columbians w i t h neighbours who share w i t h them a common c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . Thus, alt h o u g h i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of Canada, th e y have an o u t l e t t o a wider w o r l d than merely t h e i r own p r o v i n c e . The l e s s than h a l f m i l l i o n V/estern A u s t r a l i a n s , on the other hand, a r e a b s o l u t e l y i s o l a t e d . P e r t h i s f u r t h e r from the c e n t r e of E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n p o p u l a t i o n than i s Auckland, Uew Zealand. While a twenty-four hour t r a i n j o u r n e y east from Vancouver would p i e r c e B r i t i s h . Columbia's mountain b a r r i e r and p l a c e a t r a v e l l e r i n C a l g a r y , the d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e f o r a w e l l populated f a r m i n g community, a t r a i n j o u r n e y from P e r t h of s i m i l a r length/would l e a v e the u n f o r t u n a t e t r a v e l l e r i n the midst of d e s e r t country. Another twenty-two hours of t r a v e l would have t o pass b e f o r e he reached an a r e a of f a i r l y dense 16 s e t t l e m e n t a g a i n , w h i l e h i s Journey would have been i n t e r -r u pted by the t r a n s f e r s brought about by the r a t h e r unique 16 Around P o r t Augusta. See Appendix A l f o r o u t l i n e of the t i m e t a b l e f o r a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l t r a i n j ourney. -12-17 A u s t r a l i a n r a i l gauge system, or l a c k of system. Western A u s t r a l i a ' s i s o l a t i o n f rom the r e s t of the con-t i n e n t r e s u l t e d i n a s i t u a t i o n where the s t a t e was i n the Com*, monwealth hut not of i t . T r a v e l f o r p l e a s u r e i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e between the populous c e n t r e s of the remaining . f i v e s t a t e s . T r a v e l t o or from Western A u s t r a l i a , by r a i l or s h i p , was an adventure l e s s f r e q u e n t l y embarked upon u n l e s s the m o t i v a t i o n of urgent b u s i n e s s p r e s s u r e were p r e s e n t . The d i s t a n c e from the b u l k of the A u s t r a l i a n market has pre -vented any l a r g e s c a l e manufacturing endeavours from b e i n g launched i n the s t a t e . I t s own s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n has even l i m i t e d the amount of l o c a l manufacture t h a t has managed t o s u r v i v e e a s t e r n c o m p e t i t i o n . The s t a t e produced n o t h i n g t h a t was not produced i n the e a s t e r n s t a t e s . The east was no market f o r Western A u s t r a l i a n goods, w h i l e Western A u s t r a l i a n s consumed e a s t e r n p roducts. Not b e i n g a b l e t o s e l l i n the A u s t r a l i a n market the ;B t a t els"; p r o s p e r i t y was c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the f l u c t u a t i o n s of the export market. Wheat and wool, the s t a p l e s of the Commonwealth,assumed an even g r e a t e r importance i n the economy of t h i s i s o l a t e d s t a t e which d i d not have the secondary pro-d u c t i o n t h a t was g i v i n g the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the c o n t i n e n t a more d i v e r s i f i e d economy. T h i s , then, was Western A u s t r a l i a i n the e a r l y 1930«s. 17^\At K a l g o o r l i e the t r a v e l l e r would change fmom the 3 f t . 6 i n . Western A u s t r a l i a S t a t e Railway gauge t o the "Standard Gauge" (4 f t . Qfe i n . ) of the f e d e r a l t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l l i n e . J u s t south of P o r t Augusta, a t P o r t P i r i e J u n c t i o n , the e a s t e r n terminus of the f e d e r a l l i n e , he would a g a i n have to t r a n s f e r onto the South A u s t r a l i a n S t a t e R ailway which, i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the s t a t e , f a v o u r s a 5 f t . 3 i n . gauge. -13-A s t a t e t n a t seemed t o reproduce the problems f a c e d hy a l l of A u s t r a l i a over a g a i n i n a more acute form. J u s t as A u s t r a l i a i s a country l a r g e i n a r e a y e t s m a l l i n p o p u l a t i o n so i t s l a r g e s t s t a t e i s the one w i t h the second s m a l l e s t p o p u l a t i o n . J u s t as A u s t r a l i a had been s t r i v i n g t o p r o t e c t i t s e l f a g a i n s t c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m the more i n d u s t r i a l l y mature c o u n t r i e s so the primary pro-d u c i n g s t a t e o b j e c t e d to the manner i n which i t was b e i n g e x p l o i t e d by the more i n d u s t r i a l l y developed e a s t . J u s t as p o l i t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t A u s t r a l i a eonsls£s of an i s o l a t e d group of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g people c l i n g i n g t o the p e r i p h e r y of the most i n h o s p i t a b l e of c o n t i n e n t s , so the western s t a t e c o n t a i n e d a group of l o y a l B r i t o n s , i s o l a t e d from t h e i r f e l l o w A u s t r a l i a n s by "two thousand m i l e s of sand". I n the l a r g e r sphere, however, the e v o l u t i o n of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l p o l i c y had p e r m i t t e d the Commonwealth to assume s u f f i c i e n t powers t o work out h e r own d e s t i n y . W i t h i n the Commonwealth, the i s o l a t e d s t a t e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the powers a s t a t e possesses were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o cope w i t h the problems t h a t seemed to h i n d e r h e r p r o g r e s s . CHAPTER TWO The H i s t o r i c a l S e t t i n g . In any other c o n t i n e n t hut A u s t r a l i a , which seems to c abound i n apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , i t would appear r a t h e r s t r a n g e t h a t the a r e a which was among the f i r s t v i s i t e d by Europeans would be one of the l a s t s e c t i o n s of the c o u n t r y to a t t r a c t a l a r g e s c a l e f l o w of s e t t l e r s , y e t such was the case i n Western A u s t r a l i a . Queensland's Cape York has the honour of b e i n g the p o i n t where the f i r s t a u t h e n t i c a t e d l a n d f a l l was made by a European 1 on the A u s t r a l i a n c o a s t . Most of the Western A u s t r a l i a n n o r t h e r n and western c o a s t l i n e s were soon s k i r t e d by other Dutch mariners who had s t r a y e d too f a r south In t h e i r voyages t o the I n d i e s . Some of t h e i r names ar e s t i l l p r e s e r v e d i n the maps of the a r e a . D i r k Hartog I s l a n d , o f f the extreme w e s t e r l y t i p of the c o n t i n e n t , records the v i s i t made the r e by the s k i p p e r of the Eendracht i n 1616, w h i l e Leeuwin P o i n t , the c o n t i n e n t ' s south-western e x t r S f t i t y bears the name of the s h i p t h a t , i n 1622, f i r s t p l a c e d the prom-ontory ofl the c h a r t s of the wor^d. The p o v e r t y of the n a t i v e s and the d r e a r y , unpromising a s p e c t of those p o r t i o n s of the c o a s t thus s i g h t e d by the e a r l y mariners 1 By W i l l e m Jansz, i n the Duyfken, 1606, a date which a l s o marks a "famous f i r s t " i n N o r t h American h i s t o r y . 2 W i l l i a m Dampier's c l a s s i o d e s c r i p t i o n of the A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s , made a f t e r h i s f i r s t (or p i r a t i c a l ) v i s i t t o the shores of the f u t u r e s t a t e i n 1688, can always bear r e p e t i t i o n . "The i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s oountry a r e the m i s e r a b l e s t people i n the w o r l d . The Hodmadods of Monomatapa, though a n a s t y people, y e t f o r w ealth are gentlemen to these ... who ... s e t t i n g a s i d e t h e i r human shape ... d i f f e r l i t t l e f rom b r u t e s . " Dampier, W., New Voyage round the World. 3rd ed., London, 1698, as quoted i n B a t t y e , op. c i t . . p. 39. -15-discouraged f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s . I t was not u n t i l a f t e r C a p t a i n Cook's d i s c o v e r i e s of the po so u t h - e a s t e r n c o a s t had d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h a t more pr o m i s i n g a r e a ; n o t, i n f a c t , u n t i l a f t e r the f i r s t i n v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e r s had landed a t Sydney Cove; t h a t the f i r s t f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t s were submitted c o n c e r n i n g any s e c t i o n of Western A u s t r a l i a . The author of the r e p o r t p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g l i n k between the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia and t h a t of A u s t r a l i a ' s 3 western s t a t e . Commander George Vancouver, R.N., was proceeding t o Uootka Sound v i a the Cape of Good Hope aboard H.M.S. D i s - covery when, on August 28, 1791, he put i n t o the f i r s t i n v i t i n g anchorage he had s i g h t e d s i n c e the south-western t i p of A u s t r a l i a had come i n view. As the s h i p was put up i n the harbour f o r about two weeks iq permit the crew t o c a r r y out the then r o u t i n e tasks of r e p a i r i n g , r e n o v a t i n g , and watering, Mr. Menzies, the exped-i t i o n s n a t u r a l i s t , had ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine the abundant p l a n t l i f e of the r e g i o n , thus g i v i n g added s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t of the r e g i o n submitted t o h i s s u p e r i o r s by the s h i p ' s commander. The harbour, named by Com. Vancouver "King George I I I Sound", was to p l a y i t s p a r t i n the h i s t o r y of the y e t unfounded s t a t e , s i n c e i t was t o be the s i g h t of the f i r s t Berious attempt a t European s e t t l e m e n t i n Western A u s t r a l i a . As has been mentioned above, B r i t i s h occupancy of the 3 Vancouver was not r a i s e d t o the rank of C a p t a i n u n t i l August 28, 1794. "Vancouver, George" i n D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography, v o l . XX, p. 96. A u s t r a l i a n c o n t i n e n t o f f i c i a l l y began w i t h the u n f u r l i n g of the Union Jack i n Sydney Cove on January 26, 1798. We need not r e c i t e the reasons which l e d the B r i t i s h Government to i n t r u s t the develop-ment of the c o n t i n e n t to such as made up C a p t a i n P h i l l i p ' s " F i r s t F l e e t " . I t might be noted, however, t h a t c o n v i c t s and t h e i r guards d i d not prove to be the b e s t p o s s i b l e m a t e r i a l w i t h which to b u i l d a colony,.-. The Sydney r e g i o n was not so o v e r l y populated t h a t the K i n g George's Sound e n t e r p r i s e c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of a h e a l t h y s e t t l e m e n t sending f o r t h o f f - s h o o t s . B a t h e r i t might serve as an ea$ly„.egCampli5 of the A u s t r a l i a n d i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o t o l e r a t e n o n - B r i t i s h neighbours. The r a t h e r extravagant use of r e d p r i n t e r ' s i n k on p o l i t i c a l maps should not b l i n d us <t6 the f a c t t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n was f a r from b e i n g a B r i t i s h monopoly. Mention has been made of the e a r l y 4 Dutch d i s c o v e r i e s . D u r i n g the l a s t decade of the e i g h t e e n t h century, and i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h , i n s p i t e of the European war, i t was the F r e n c h who were most a c t i v e i n e x p l o r i n g the western h a l f of the A u s t r a l i a n c o n t i n e n t , as the area's p l a c e names s t i l l hear testimony. By 1825 the s u s p i c i o n s of the B r i t i s h had been aroused by the presence of y e t another F r e n c h e x p e d i t i o n o f f the southern A u s t r a l i a n c o a s t . Rumour had i t t h a t De B o u g a i n v i l l e , the exped-i t i o n ' s l e a d e r , was p l a n n i n g the establishment of a c o l o n y on the western s i d e of the c o n t i n e n t . Even the a c t i v i t i e s of n 4 The use of the name "New H o l l a n d " by the B r i t i s h flW the A u s t r a l i a n c o n t i n e n t u n t i l the middle of the n i n e -t e e n t h century serves as an example of the B r i t i s h acknow-ledgment of Dutch p o i n e e r i n g i n the a r e a . -17-AmeriGan w h a l i n g v e s s e l s were viewed w i t h s u s p i c i o n . I t was e v i d e n t t h a t f o r e i g n governments might not be p r e -pared to r e c o g n i z e the B r i t i s h c l aims t o the e n t i r e c o n t i n e n t so l o n g as they were based merely upon the e x i s t e n c e of c o l o n i e s on i t s s o u t h - e a s t e r n t i p . By March, 1826 The B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was s u f f i c i e n t l y moved to request Governor D a r l i n g of New South V a l e s t o commence p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the establishment of s e t t l e m e n t s a t West P o r t and a t Shark's Bay, the l a t t e r t o be a p e n a l s e t t l e m e n t f o r those r e c o n v i c t e d of minor o f f e n c e s a t Botany 5 Bay. "Later the same month the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y suggested t h a t K i n g George's Sound would prove to be a more s u i t a b l e s i t e f o r 6 the p e n a l s e t t l e m e n t . Governor D a r l i n g hastened to c a r r y out h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s , a l t h o u g h he was of the o p i n i o n t h a t n e i t h e r Shark's Bay nor K i n g Georges Sound was s u i t e d f o r any type of c o l o n i z i n g venturer. N e v e r t h e l e s s , he d i s p a t c h e d a p a r t y under the command of Major Lockyer, a detachment of the 39th Regiment and twenty-four con-v i c t s . They a r r i v e d i n K i n g George's Sound on Christmas Day, 7 . ' - * 1826, and landed the f o l l o w i n g morning. Formal annexation of the 8 e n t i r e t e r r i t o r y of Western A u s t r a l i a was made on January 21, 1827. 5 L o r d B a t h u r s t t o D a r l i n g , Mar. 1, 1826, H i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s of A u s t r a l i a . s e r . I , v o l . x i i , pp. 192-4, quoted i n .sat-eye, op. c i t . , p. 09. 6 B a t h u r s t t o D a r l i n g , March 11, 1826, quoted i n i b i d , p. 60. 7 B a t t y e , op. c i t . , p. 61. The f o u n d i n g of F r e d e r i c k ' s Town was the t o p i c of a t y p i c a l l e t t e r to the London Times w r i t t e n by S i r H a l C o l e b a t c h , Western A u s t r a l i a ' s Agent-General, Aug. 30, 1933, 11:7. 8 Up u n t i l 1825 the commissions of the Governors of New South Wales d e f i n e d t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n r a s extending westward t o 1 the 135th m e r i d i a n . The annexation of B a t h u r s t and M e l v i l l e I s l a n d s i n 1824 by Capt. George Bremar, and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s m a l l c o n v i c t s e t t l e m e n t on the l a t t e r , l e d to the s h i f t -(cont'd p. 18) -18-The Governor's m i s g i v i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the a b i l i t y of the h i n t e r l a n d of K i n g George's Sound t o support a c o l o n y appeared t o be w e l l founded. The c o n v i c t s e t t l e m e n t of F r e d e r i c k ' s Town s t r u g g l e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y to a t t a i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n f o o d supply. But w h i l e t h i s s t o r y of f a i l u r e was b e i n g u n f o l d e d a more promising s e c t i o n of the country was d i s c o v e r e d . I n March, 1827 C a p t a i n James S t i r l i n g , R.H., accompanied by a p a r t y which i n c l u d e d the c o l o n i a l b o t a n i s t , Mr. F r a s e r , s e t out from H.M^S. Success, the s h i p i n which they were check-i n g and supplementing the e a r l i e r F r e n c h surveys a l o n g the western c o a s t , and proceeded i n the s h i p ' s g i g and c u t t e r up the Swan R i v e r . B o t h the commander of the e x p e d i t i o n and the more experienced b o t a n i s t were s t r u c k by the a d a p t i b i l i t y f o r white settlement of the lands waterediby t h i s r i v e r . T h e i r glowing r e p o r t s so impressed Governor D a r l i n g t h a t he forwarded a d i s p a t c h to the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e a d v i s i n g the fmediate establishment of a colony on the Swan. C a p t a i n S t i r l i n g h i m s e l f appeared a t the O f f i c e C o l o n i a l / a n d a t the A d m i r a l t y to press the matter.' The B r i t i s h government, b e i n g l o a t h to i n c u r the a d d i t i o n a l expenses i n h e r e n t i n such an undertaking, were not too f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d toward the i d e a , once they d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the E a s t I n d i a Company c o u l d not be persuaded t o undertake the c o l o n i z i n g v e n t u r e . C a p t a i n S t i r l i n g , however, was not e a s i l y d i s c o u r a g e d . 8 (cont'd) i n g of the Governor's j u r i s d i c t i o n westward to the 129th m e r i d i a n when Gov. D a r l i n g was appointed to the Hew South Wales post i n 1825 i n order to i n c l u d e these n o r t h e r n a c q u i s i t i o n s . S c o t t , E . A Short H i s t o r y of A u s t r a l i a , Oxford, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1928, pp. 97-98. Western A u s t r a l i a , t h e r e f o r e , i s the o n l y s e o t i o n of the present Commonwealth t h a t was not a t some time p a r t of New South Wales. 9 B a t t y e , op. c i t . , p. 68. -19-He was convinced t h a t a B r i t i s h c olony should he founded on the Swan R i v e r . He continued h i s a p p e a l s . Changes i n the B r i t i s h Government, combined w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t an a s s o c i a t i o n of s p e c u l a t o r s might be persuaded t o underwrite the venture f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n r e v e r s a l of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e ' s e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n . F o l l o w i n g A d m i r a l t y i n s t r u c t i o n s Capt. Fremantle i n H .M.S. C h a l l e n g e r , proceeded t o the mouth -of the Swan and on Bay 2, 1829 took p o s s e s s i o n i n the name of h i s B r i t a n n i c Majesty. I n the meantime a s y n d i c a t e had been formed i n England which promised, as was the custom o.f" such groups, to c a r r y out a l a r g e s c a l e c o l o n i z i n g venture i n r e t u r n f o r generous government c o n c e s s i o n s . When the government showed some i n c l i n a t i o n t o be l e s s generous than the s p e c u l a t o r s d e s i r e d on the matter of concessions a l l the members of the s y n d i c a t e 10 except M r . Thomas P e e l withdrew. V i t h the breakup of the s y n d i c a t e the government attempted t o induce s e t t l e r s w i t h some c a p i t a l to ma&eetheir;-new home i n the Swan R i v e r Colony by o f f e r i n g l a r g e grants of l a n d to those who were w i l l i n g to i n v e s t a f a i r sum i n t r a n s p o r t i n g themselves, t h e i r s e r v a n t s , and the necessary equipment and s t o c k to the new l a n d . Capt. S t i r l i n g r e c e i v e d h i s reward f o r h i s p e r s e v e r a n c e by b e i n g appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the colo n y . On June 1, 1829 t h e new Lieutenant-Governor, the other o f f i c i a l s of the 10 A r e l a t i v e of S i r Robert, who was a t t h a t time Home S e c r e t a r y . - 2 0 -colony, and the f i r s t colonists arrived off the mouth of the Swan after a voyage of almost four months from the Old Country in the Parmelia, a vessel of less than fiv e hundred tons. Rough weather prevented a speedy landing on the mainland, hut as soon as that necessary preliminary had been accomplished sites were chosen for the new colony's seat of government in the f e r t i l e up-river area (named "Perth" in honour of the town which the Colonial Secretary represented in the Imperial Parliament) and i t s port, at the mouth of the Swan (called "Fremantle" after the Captain who had taken possession of the area, and had remained to guard the f l a g u n t i l the settlers should arrive.) and arrange-ments l ; " U J t b l r e \ made for the division of land among the settlers. The colony did not prosper in the manner contemplated by. i t s sponsors or i t s founder-governor. Once Again the d i f f i c u l t y of transforming city-l>red Europeans, or even farmers set in their ways and used to different conditions, into pioneers proved almost insurmountable. The glowing pictures conjured up by the enthusiastic Captain S t i r l i n g of a land practically ready for the plow proved badly in need of revision. Much preparation was requiredybefore the s o i l would yield crops. The reports from the disillusioned, untrained settlers, either by letter or by personal testimony from those who had managed to return 11 "Home", gave the colony a bad reputation among prospective colonists. An effort had been made to enhance the attractive-ness of the new colony by declaring i t free from the blight of criminal transportation that had supposedly deterred free 11 The term "Home" has always had a more popular appeal i n Australia than i t has i n Canada. -21-s e t t l e r s from seeking t h e i r new homes i n the eastern section of the continent. In order to oarry out t h i s p o l i c y the f a r from f l o u r i s h i n g convict settlement at King George's Sound was with-drawn i n 1831. Yet, i n spite of the advantage of not having convicts as fellow c o l o n i s t s , s e t t l e r s began to move from the Swan River Settlement to the eastern sections of the continent, while most of the newcomers to A u s t r a l i a passed on to the more prosperous eastern colonies without stopping off at Fremantle. The colony could claim a population of 1,767 whites by the end 12 of 1830 At the close of 1840 i t had only increased to 2,311. Drastic measures had to be taken i f the colony was to be maintained, so, at a time when the eastern colonies were success-f u l l y f r e e i n g themselves from the necessity of accepting transported convicts, Western Australia's leaders began a g i t a t i n g f o r the introduction of penal immigrants into the erstwhile proudly 13 . free colony. A B r i t i s h Order-in-Council was passed on May 1, 1849 nominating Western A u s t r a l i a as a place to which convicts could be sent from the United Kingdom. The a r r i v a l of the f i r s t of these assisted, involuntary immigrants the following year marked a trend towaid f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between Western A u s t r a l i a and the other colonies on the continent. The convicts did supply some of the needed labour force, while the Home government's promise to send out one f r e e s e t t l e r f o r each convict transported f u r t h e r increased 12 Quoted from the S t a t i s t i c a l r e g i s t e r of Western A u s t r a l i a , i n appendix to Battye, op. c i t . . r-13 The f i r s t d e f i n i t e p e t i t i o n f o r convicts was drawn up i n 1834 at Albany, the new settlement on the s i t e of old Frederick's Town. -22-the colony's a l l too sc a n t y p o p u l a t i o n . Moreover, the government works which were undertaken by the c o n v i c t l a b o u r gangs s t i m u l a t e d a f l o w of b a d l y needed c a p i t a l i n t o the co l o n y t h a t had n o t , as y e t , d i s c o v e r e d a s u f f i c i e n t l y remunerative export s t a p l e . Western A u s t r a l i a ' s s t a t u s as a penal colony r e s u l t e d , however, i n r e s t r i c -t i o n s b e i n g p l a c e d on the t r a v e l of her r e s i d e n t s t o the other 14 s e c t i o n s of the c o n t i n e n t and i n h e r i n a b i l i t y t o p r o f i t from the more l i b e r a l method of c o l o n i a l government o u t l i n e d i n the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t ' s A c t of 1850. The col o n y had become f i n a n c i a l l y bound t o the B r i t i s h government. .Western A u s t r a l i a was not to g a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government u n t i l 1870, two y e a r s a f t e r the c e s s a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w h i l e the g r a n t i n g og r e s p o n s i b l e government was delayed u n t i l 1890. Up u n t i l the l a s t decade of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Western A u s t r a l i a might w e l l have been c o n s i d e r e d a n e g l e c t e d a r e a . The g r a n t i n g of r e s p o n s i b l e government took p l a c e i n the s i x t y - f i r s t y e a r of the colony's e x i s t e n c e . At the end of t h a t y e a r , 1890, 15 i t s p o p u l a t i o n was 46, 290. I n 1900 i t was 179,780. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s r a p i d development a f t e r the l o n g years of slow progress can be found i n the d i s c o v e r i e s of r i c h g o l d d e p o s i t s a t C o o l g a r d i e and K a l g o o r l i e d u r i n g 1892 and '93, f o l l o w i n g on the development of the Y i l g a r n f i e l d arouraft Southern Cross and the p r o c l a m a t i o n of the more n o r t h e r l y Murchison g o l d -14 Western A u s t r a l i a b e n e f i t e d from t h i s r e g u l a t i o n d u r i n g the V i c t o r i a g o l d r u s h of the e a r l y 1850's. Were i t not f o r the d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a v i n g , the colony might w e l l have been p r a c t i c -a l l y d e s e r t e d i n a g e n e r a l exodus t o the d i g g i n g s . 15 S t a t i s t i c a l R e g i s t e r , i n B a t t y e , op. c i t . . -23-f i e l d i n 1891. Gold seemed to have waited f o r the g r a n t i n g of r e s p o n s i b l e government before i t made i t s presence known. I t i s t r u e t h a t some gold had been found before the b l e s s i n g s o f r e s p o n s i b l e government had been bestowed upon the colony. Kim-b e r l e y goldf i e l d had been proclaimed i n 1886, and the J l l g a r n and JPilbara f i e l d s i n 1888, but i t was not u n t i l the Coolgardie d i s c o v e r y t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a became the centre of a t t e n t i o n f o r the world's gold-seeking adventurers. The colony's t e n years of r e s p o n s i b l e government were years of u n p a r a l l e l e d p r o s p e r i t y . With the booming g o l d f i e l d s t h i s could h a r d l y have f a i l e d to have been the case. Even before the e f f e c t s of the gold d i s c o v e r i e s were f e l t , however, the government of Mr. (soon S i r ) John F o r r e s t , f r e e d from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e r e s t r i c t i o n s on borrowing, launched an ambitious programme o f p u b l i c works. Such engineering f e a t s as the Fremantle harbour i n s t a l l a t i o n s remain as testimony t o the a c t i v i t y of the colony's s i n g l e r e s p o n s i b l e government. The i n f l u x oil miners soon f o r c e d mosjc of the new develop-ment along l i n e s adapted to the needs of these newcomers. B e t t e r t e l e g r a p h s e r v i c e from tfee i n t e r i o r was demanded by the g o l d -seekers who refused to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the magnificent e f f o r t s t h a t were being made by the government to supply t h e i r wants. To somulate a c t i o n a G o l d f i e l d s N a t i o n a l League was formed which acted as a mouthpiece f o r miner demands. Both the miners and the government seemed agreed that the greatest need f o r the g o l d f i e l d s was an adequate water supply. B o r i n g and conservation were the f i r s t means t r i e d hut they were uns u c c e s s f u l i n meeting the demand. F i n a l l y , i n 1899, the l a s t great undertaking of the -24-independent, r e s p o n s i b l e government of Western A u s t r a l i a was commenced, the G o l d f e l d s Water Supply, a t h i r t y i n c h c a s t i r o n p i p e l i n e which c a r r i e d the water 330 m i l e s from the c o a s t t o the f i e l d s . These yearsj and the r e a l l y remarkable p r o j e c t s completed or commenced d u r i n g them a r e remembered by the Western A u s t r a l i a n s as the g r e a t e s t p e r i o d i n the c o l o n y or s t a t e ' s h i s t o r y . The p a r t p l a y e d by the opening of the g o l d f i e l d s i s sometimes under-r a t e d i n the Western A u s t r a l i a n s * a p p r a i s a l of the e r a , however* The p r o s p e r i t y depended upon g o l d , and g o l d f i e l d s do become exhausted. Western A u s t r a l i a ' s p o s i t i o n i s i n some r e s p e c t s analogous t o t h a t of the Canadian Maritime p r o v i n c e s who entered C o n f e d e r a t i o n atavtime when t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y , based on the wooden s a i l i n g s h i p , was b e i n g undermined by new marine d e v e l -opments, i n the same manner as the Maritimes blamed the the i n i q u i t o u s C o n f e d e r a t i o n f o r a l l t h e i r i l l s so Western A u s t r a l i a was a b l e to use F e d e r a t i o n as a scapegoat f o r a l l h e r l a t e r t r o u b l e s , some, a t l e a s t , of which c o u l d more j u s t l y be a t t r i b u t e d to the d e c l i n e i n g o l d p r o d u c t i o n . But, then, Goldmining and F e d e r a t i o n a r e c l o s e l y bound t o g e t h e r . Many of the miners who spread over the g o l d f i e l d s and many of the newcomers who s w e l l e d the p o p u l a t i o n of P e r t h and Fremantle had come from e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y from V i c t o r i a , a colony hard h i t by d e p r e s s i o n i n the 1890's. The colony of Western A u s t r a l i a was, t h e r e f o r e , b e i n g brought i n t o c o n t a c t , i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t , w i t h other A u s t r a l i a n s f o r the f i r s t time i n i t s h i s t o r y . U n t i l the 1890's the Swan R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t -25-haJi had f a r l e s s t o do w i t h the r e s t of A u s t r a l i a than i t had w i t h the U n i t e d Kingdom, Western A u s t r a l i a ' s h i s t o r y had been t h a t of a r a t h e r backward a g r i c u l t u r a l colony, dependent to a f a r l a r g e r extent than most B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s upon support f r o m Home. As a p e n a l s e t t l e m e n t the c o l o n y b e n e f i t e d from B r i t i s h g r a n t s , but was denjted r e s p o n s i b l e government. The e v e n t u a l g r a n t i n g of r e s p o n s i b l e government, c o i n c i d i n g , as i t d i d , w i t h the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d , brought about the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the c o l o n y i n a l a r g e r A u s t r a l i a n p o l i t i c a l u n i t . CHAPTER THREE F e d e r a t i o n , B e f o r e and A f t e r . F e d e r a t i o n i s never e a s i l y a c h i e v e d . The Swiss, American, German, and Canadian f e d e r a t i o n s came i n t o h e i n g o n l y as a r e s u l t of a g r e a t war, or the immediate t h r e a t , r e a l or imagined, of e x t e r n a l a g g r e s s i o n . However g r u d g i n g l y i t might he granted, the r e a l i z a t i o n must he iffiE&anted i n the minds of a s u f f i c i e n t -number of the l e a d e r s of the p r e v i o u s l y independent s t a t e s t h a t more i s to be gained than l o s t by a s u r r e n d e r of some l o c a l s o v e r e i g n t y t o a new, s u p e r i o r , a u t h o r i t y . . So i t was i n A u s t r a l i a . German and F r e n c h a c t i v i t y i n the P a c i f i c a r e a had served n o t i c e t h a t the p e r i o d of A u s t r a l i a n i s o l a t i o n behind the s h i e l d of the R o y a l Navy was drawing to a c l o s e . The new methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication t h a t were b r i n g i n g the w o r l d too c l o s e to A u s t r a l i a were a l s o c o u n t e r i n g the d i s t a n c e f a c t o r on the c o n t i n e n t . From a p h y s i c a l as w e l l as a mental p o i n t of view, by the 1880's f e d e r a t i o n was becoming p r a c t i c a l f o r a t l e a s t some of the e i g h t l a r g e s t B r i t i s h A u s t r a l a s i a n c o l o n i e s . As has been mentioned b e f o r e , the colony of Western A u s t r a l i a had developed some unique t r a i t s . As the n e g o t i a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g the establishment of the f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n progressed the westernmost colony provided a number of examples of a tendency to do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y from h e r s i s t e r . c o n t i n e n t a l s t a t e s . Her t a r d y a c q u i s i t i o n of r e s p o n s i b l e government prevented Western 1 The A u s t r a l i a n mainland c o l o n i e s of New South Wales,. V i c t o r i a , Queensland, South A u s t r a l i a , and Western A u s t r a l i a , p l u s the nearby i s l a n d of Tasmania, and the more F i j i and New Zealand groups, a l l of which took p a r t a t some time, i n the f e d e r a t i o n d i s c u s s i o n s . A u s t r a l i a from p l a y i n g a l e a d i n g r o l e i n any of the e a r l y f e d e r a t i o n moves. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l t h o u g h debarred f r o m f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by h e r Crown Colony s t a t u s , she had a d e l e g a t e a t the 1881 and 1883 i n t e r c o l o n i a l conferences and j o i n e d the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l of A u s t r a l a s i a , t h a t p r e c u r s o r of t r u e f e d -e r a t i o n t h a t , i n some r e s p e c t s , was the outcome of the c o n f e r e n c e s ' n e g o t i a t i o n s . Again, she was r e p r e s e n t e d a t the Melbourne conference of 1890 and a t the Sydney f e d e r a t i o n convention of the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , but none of the Western A u s t r a l i a n d e l e g a t e s t o o i an a c t i v e p a r t i n the f r a m i n g of the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the p r o j e c t e d f e d e r a t i o n , the c o m p i l a t i o n of which made these meetings memorable i n A u s t r a l i a n h i s t o r y as the f i r s t s t e p s i n 2 the f i n a l , s u c c e s s f u l attempt to u n i t e the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s . The Western A u s t r a l i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , aware of the unfavourable p o s i t i o n of t h e i r c o l ony, which was, at t h a t time, 3 A u s t r a l i a ' s s m a l l e s t i n p o p u l a t i o n and most backward i n develop-ment, were q u i t e s u s p i c i o u s of any too p r e c i p i t o u s move toward f e d e r a t i o n . As e a r l y as the 1890 conference a d e l e g a t e f r o m t h a t colony, S i r James Lee S t e e r e , had s t a t e d t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a c o u l d not a f f o r d t o s a c r i f i c e h e r t a r i f f t o any new, l a r g e r 2 The c o u n c i l s and conferences mentioned i n the above paragraph a r e but a s m a l l number of the s e r i e s of meetings of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the B r i t i s h A u s t r a l a s i a n c o l o n i e s ( f u l l r e p -r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o l o n i e s was r a r e l y a c h i e v e d , d i f f e r e n t c o l o n i e s b e i n g absent, f o r v a r i o u s reasons, a t d i f f e r e n t meetings) attempting to f o r m u l a t e a common A u s t r a l a s i a n p o l i c y on s p e c i f i c problems or to d i s c u s s means of e s t a b l i s h i n g a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . The r a t h e r complicated s t o r y of A u s t r a l i a ' s e a r l y f e d e r a t i o n attmmpts i s b r i e f l y , y e t c l e a r l y s e t out i n the a r t i c l e "Fed-e r a t i o n " i n A u s t r a l i a n E n c y c l o p a e d i a , v o l . 1, pp. 444-452. 3 1890, Western A u s t r a l i a 48,502; Tasmania 144,787. 1900 " " 179,967; " 172,900. 1910 " » 276,832; " 193,803. Commonwealth Year Book, 1939, p. 352. -28-4 a u t h o r i t y . As the decade ware on, and the p r o s p e r i t y induced^ i n the c o l o n y "by the g o l d d i s c o v e r i e s became more more marked, t h i s o p i n i o n was accepted by most of the l e a d e r s of Western A u s t r a l i a ' s now r e s p o n s i b l e government. The d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n of 1891 might have seemed to contempor-a r i e s t o have been merely another a b o r t i v e attempt a t a c h i e v i n g a more widespread A u s t r a l i a n union when i t f a i l e d t o be a c c e n t e d by New South Wales, the s e n i o r c o l o n y whose n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l of A u s t r a l a s i a had a l r e a d y rendered . -i n e f f e c t i v e the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of t h a t none too robust p o l i t i c a l bo©y. The c o n s t i t u t i o n d i d , however, p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r pop-u l a r d i s c u s s i o n of the problems of f e d e r a t i o n . W i t h the d i s c u s s i o n of the problems came a growing support f o r the p r i n c i p l e of f e d e r a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t would not be c o r r e c t t o s t a t e t h a t the growth of popular support was e n t i r e l y a product of a g i t a t i o n f rom the g r a s s r o o t s . The f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s had e n l i s t e d the 5 powerful A u s t r a l i a n N a t i v e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n as an advocate of a wider union, but, more important b o t h i n i t s e f f e c t a t the time and as p a t t e r n f o r f u t u * e a c t i v i t i e s , they sponsored the establishment of the F e d e r a l League. The F e d e r a l League c o n s i s t e d of a number of l o c a l b o d i e s organized throughout th e c o u n t r y which, under the d i r e c t i o n of a c e n t r a l governing a u t h o r i t y , c a r r i e d out propaganda a c t i v i t i e s i n i t s a r e a through a l l the means then a v a i l a b l e , h o l d i n g p u b l i c meetings, i n f l u e n c i n g f n n 4 O f f i c i a l r e c o r d of the A u s t r a l a s i a n F e d e r a t i o n Conference 1900, p. 40, quoted i n B a t t y e , op. c i t . , p. 44J1 S i r James w a s — Speaker of t h e Western A u s t r a l i a n L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. 5 An a s s o c i a t i o n whose composition and aims a r e s i m i l a r t o the N a t i v e Sons' A s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada, and not to those of the N a t i v e Brotherhood. -29-the community "by appeals b e s t known to members of t h a t community* The establishment of such popular a s s o c i a t i o n s , d i s t i n c t from the u s u a l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but designed t o f u r t h e r a p o l i t -i c a l end, combining the advantages of c e n t r a l d i r e c t i o n w i t h the o f t e n n e g l e c t e d b e n e f i t s of a p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d l o c a l e x e c u t i v e , i s not u n i g u e l y A u s t r a l i a n , but they have played a v e r y important p a r t i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of t h a t c o u n t r y . The appeal of the f e d e r a l i s t s t o the people was s u c c e s s f u l . By 1896 p l a n s were b e i n g l a i d f o r another convention, t h i s time w i t h the d e l e g a t e s b e i n g chosen d i r e c t l y by each colony's e l e c t -o r a t e r a t h e r than h a v i n g them appointed by t h e i r governments, as had been the case i n the 1891 meeting. I t was a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a s t a r t e d d o i n g t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y . The colony's Premier, S i r John F o r r e s t , f e a r e d the sentiment of the g o l d f i e l d s * ' p o p u l a t i o n . Most of those on the d i g g i n g s were r e c e n t a r r i v a l s i n Western A u s t r a l i a , by f a r the l a r g e s t number of them coming from s t r o n g l y f e d e r a l i s t V i c t o r i a , and s t i l l h a v i n g s e n t i m e n t a l and f a m i l y t i e s wi$h t h a t colony, w h i l e f i n d i n g l i t t l e i n common w i t h the o l d a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s of the P e r t h d i s t r i c t . F a r from b e i n g i n sympathy w i t h the p r e - g o l d r u s h Western 6 A u s t r a l i a n s , the " ' T o t h e r s i d e r s " c o n s i d e r e d t h a t they had a 6 Both the name and, t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , the treatment and a t t i t u d e of the miners can be compared w i t h t h a t of the "Uit l a n d e r s * 1 i n South A f r i c a . There was no r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . i n A u s t r a l i a , but the r e l a t i v e backwardness ofi the Western A u s t r a l i a n s i n the amenities of c i v i l i z a t i o n (as p r a c t i c e d i n V i c t o r i a ) hightened the s i m i l a r i t y . -30-number of l e g i t i m a t e g r i e v a n c e s c o n c e r n i n g the treatment t h a t was meted out to them hy the o l d s e t t l e r s . The newcomers b e l i e v e d t h a t they, who were d e v e l o p i n g the w e a l t h of the country, p a y i n g taxes, and g e n e r a l l y s h a r i n g the the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c i t i z e n -s h i p , were b e i n g d e p r i v e d , by the gealous c o a s t - d w e l l e r s , of some of the b e n e f i t s t h a t u s u a l l y accompany c i t i z e n s h i p . Hot the l e a s t of these g r i e v a n c e s was the u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the g o l d f i e l d s i n the c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . Thus i t appeared t h a t c h o i c e of the d e l e g a t e s f o r the convention "by p o p u l a r e l e c t i o n would have r e s u l t e d ^ a t l e a s t some anti-governmental, p r o - f e d e r a t i a n g o l d f i e l d s * men a p p e a r i n g as Western A u s t r a l i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . S i r John made sure t h a t t h i s h o r r i b l e p o s s i b i l i t y never m a t e r i a l i z e d . The two houses of t h e c o l o n i a l p a r l i a m e n t met i n j o i n t s e s s i o n to s e l e c t the t e n good men and t r u e who were t o r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of Western A u s t r a l i a a t the A d e l a i d e convention i n March, 1897. They were j o i n e d at. the South Aust-r a l i a n c a p t t a l by the p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d ten-man d e l e g a t i o n s of 7 Hew South Wales, V i c t o r i a , Tasmania, and the h o s t c o l o n y . Out of the d e l i b e r a t i o n s entered i n t o a t t h i s time, and c o n t i n u e d i n e a r l y 1898 a t the Sydney and Melbourne conventions, emerged the 8 A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n under which f e d e r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d . When one c o n s i d e r s t h a t the Western A u s t r a l i a n d e l e g a t e s were f a r from b e i n g esflausiastic s u p p o r t e r s of the f e d e r a l 7 Queensland d i d not take p a r t i n the f e d e r a t i o n negot-i a t i o n s u n t i l l a t e i n 1898, a f t e r the c o n s t i t u t i o n had been d r a f t e d . 8 The more important s e c t i o n s of the A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n have been i n c l u d e d as Appendix B to t h i s t h e s i s . 9 cause, and t h a t , b a s i c a l l y , the q u e s t i o n of f e d e r a t i o n was c e n t r e d m a i n l y around the acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of the pro-p o s a l s by the s e n i o r colony, Few South Wales ( which r e s u l t e d -i n the major d i s c u s s i o n s b e i n g concerned w i t h attempts to r e c o n -c i l e the views of the V i c t o r i a n p r o t e c t i o n i s t s w i t h those of the New South Wales f r e e t r a d e r s ) i t i s remarkable t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a ' s p e c u l i a r problems were g i v e n as much a t t e n t i o n as 10 they were. The problem of revenue c o n s t i t u t e d one of the main t o p i c s of d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g the conventions and has been the m5st ^ f r u i t f u l source of d i s c o n t e n t i n f e d e r a l - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s from the 'consumation of u n i o n on. The c o f f e r s of the c o l o n i a l t r e a s u r i e s had been f i l l e d to a l a r g e e x t e n t by the proceeds of the customs and^excise l e v i e s . Under the c o n s t i t u t i o n the 9 The ardent V i c t o r i a n proponent of f e d e r a t i o n , A l f r e d Deakin, thus c h a r a c t e r i z e d the a t t i t u d e of two of the l e a d i n g Western A u s t r a l i a n d e l e g a t e s ; " F o r r e s t was ... i n s i n c e r e , f o r w h i l e p r e s s i n g f o r s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r West A u s t r a l i a he d i d not e x e r t h i s utmost i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r b e h a l f * ... I t was h i s d e s i r e to pose as a F e d e r a l i s t i n h i s own colony as w e l l as beyond but a t the same time he aimed a t d e l a y i n g the u n i o n of the c o l o n i e s f o r a few y e ars and i n West A u s t r a l i a f o r f i v e or t e n y e a r s , even i f she sftood alone o u t s i d e the F e d e r a t i o n . " Deakin, A, The F e d e r a l  S t o r y . Melbourne, Robertson and M u l l e n s , 1944, p. 98. " ( S i r John Winthrop) Hackett, now r a n k i n g among the most i n f l u e n t i a l men of h i s c o l o n y and w e l l a h l e t o take p a r t i n the d i s c u s s i o n s , was suppressed owing to h i s sense of the l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h e r e was t h a t h i s c o l o n y would as y e t e n t e r i n t o any union." i b i d . , p. 58 I t was f e l t among the l e a d e r s of Western A u s t r a l i a t h a t t h e i r colony r e q u i r e d a few more y e a r s of development, which would n e c e s s i t a t e the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l sources of revenue, b e f o r e i t c o u l d enter i n t o any f e d e r a t i o n as a f u l l y equal p a r t n e r . 10 A p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r Western A u s t r a l i a ' s a b i l i t y to secure concessions might be found i n Mr. Deakin's remark t h a t the Western A u s t r a l i a n d e l e g a t i o n ' s h a b i t of v o t i n g as a b l o c r e s u l t e d i n i t b e i n g the most courted of a l l d e l e g a t i o n s . i b i d . , p. 80. -32-o ont r o i of customs and e x c i s e was to be taken over by the f e d e r a l 11 government, y e t the governmental s e r v i c e s t h a t absorbed most of the revenue f r o m these sources were generously l e f t to the s t a t e s . The f e d e r a l government, t h e r e f o r e , would be c o l l e c t i n g more than i t was expected t o spend, w h i l e ( s i n c e t h a t b e n e f i c e n t i n s t i t u t i o n , the income t a x , had not y e t been g e n e r a l l y adopted) the s t a t e s 1 o b l i g a t i o n s would exceed t h e i r income. The q u e s t i o n of an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the a n t i c i p a t e d excess revenue of the f e d e r a l government posed a s e r i o u s problem. ••[/••The Western A u s t r a l i a n l e g i s l a t u r e made i t c l e a r t h a t a d i v i s i o n of the s u r p l u s on a per c a p i t a b a s i s would not be a c c e p t -a b l e t o that colony, s i n c e i t s revenue from customs and e x c i s e 12 was f a r out of p r o p o r t i o n to i t s p o p u l a t i o n . Some method had to be d e v i s e d whereby the d i s t r i b u t i o n of revenue was connected-, to the s t a t e s 1 c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the Commonwealth's c o f f e r s . Any attempt t o a b i d e "by t h i s p r i n c i p l e would of n e c e s s i t y be r a t h e r complicated and n o t too popul a r i n the Commonwealth, as a whole. One of the m i r a c l e s of the A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n was t h a t the 11 S e c t i o n 86*' See Appendix B. 12 Owing t o the i n f l u x of gold-seekers i n t o the co l o n y Western A u s t r a l i a ' s p o p u l a t i o n showed a f a r l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of a d u l t males than those of the other s e c t i o n s of the c o n t i n e n t . At the t u r n of the cen t u r y such a h i g h m a s c u l i n i t y r a t e would be r e f l e c t e d i n i n c r e a s e d e x c i s e r e c e i p t s from the s a l e of a l c o h o l and. tobacco, the consumption of b o t h these h i g h l y taxed items b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , a t the time, t o be p r e r o g a t i v e s of the "s t r o n g e r sex". T h i s s i t u a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h the buoyant customs r e c e i p t s r e s u l t i n g from goldmining and other developments, was con s i d e r e d t o be of a t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e . The framers of the c o n s t i t u t i o n c l e a r l y expected t h a t i n time the customs and e x c i s e r e c e i p t s from each of the former c o l o n i e s would c l o s e l y approximate the n a t i o n a l average. -33-"Braddon B l o t " , c l a u s e 87 of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , managed t o remain o p e r a t i v e as l o n g as i t d i d . Combined w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s of two subsequent c l a u s e s i t pr o v i d e d t h a t t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the customs and e x c i s e r e c e i p t s would be r e t u r n e d to the c o n t r i b u t i n g 13 s t a t e . Such a c o n c e s s i o n was of g r e a t b e n e f i t to Western A u s t r a l i a but an even g r e a t e r oncwas o b t a i n e d . Under s e c t i o n 95 the c o l o n y was per m i t t e d t o l e v y d u t i e s on l l s p o r t s f rom the o t h e r s t a t e s , such d u t i e s t o be decreased by one f i f t h each y e a r so t h a t , a t the end of f i v e y e a r s the i n t e r s t a t e f r e e t r a d e , which; upon f e d e r a t i o n would p r e v a i l throughout the remaindar of the new n a t i o n , 14 would extend to the western s t a t e a l s o , A referendum on the proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n was taken by the oth e r f o u r p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t a t e s i n June 1898. I t was approved by l a r g e m a j o r i t i e s i n " V i c t o r i a , South A u s t r a l i a , and Tasmania, but the a f f i r m a t i v e v o t e i n Hew South Wales f a i l e d t o r e a c h the f i g u r e s a t by the c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t u r e as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r 15 a p p r o v a l . Hew South Wales 1 importance i n the f e d e r a t i o n movement was then demonstrated by the r e l a t i v e r e a d i n e s s w i t h which the 13 S e c t i o n s 89 and 93,; See Appendix B f o r t e x t . 14 See Appendix B 15 The l e g i s l a t u r e s e t the f i g u r e a t 80,000 a f f i r m a t i v e v o t e s . A n t i - f e d e r a t i o n i s t s had attempted t o s e t i t a t 120,000, an almost i m p o s s i b l e f i g u r e . The r e s u l t s of the 1898 referendum; a f f i r m a t i v e n e g a t i v e m a j o r i t y H . S . V . 71,595 66,228 5,367 V i c t o r i a 100,520 22,099 78,421 South Aust. 35,800 17,320 18,480 Tasmania 11,797 2,716 9,081 F i g u r e s from S c o t t , E . . op c i t . , p. 314. -34-other c o l o n i e s agreed to make s u f f i c i e n t concessions t o the v a n i t y and i n t e r e s t of New South ValesV t o a s s u r e the acceptance , 16 of the c o n s t i t u t i o n hy t h a t colony, w h i l e Western A u s t r a l i a ' s attempts to secure more concessions a t the same co:l.ojr>ial p r e m i e r s ' conference were u n s u c c e s s f u l . The Queensland Premier's presence a t the conference enhanced the p r o s pects of the s u c c e s s f u l con-c l u s i o n of the f e d e r a l movement once the key colony of New South Wales was s a t i s f i e d . The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g seemed t o he t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a would e v e n t u a l l y have to e n t e r , and t h a t , as matters then s t o o d , the acceptance of the amended c o n s t i t u t i o n hy the v o t e r s of the o t h e r s t a t e s was a s s u r e d . F i v e of the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s had r e f e r r e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n V, to t h e i r people hy 1899, and i n each of them i t had been approved. I t was c l e a r t h a t the Western A u s t r a l i a n government would have to make some move. The appointment of a J o i n t S e l e c t Committee of b o t h Houses i s o f t e n a u s e f u l d e v i c e to employ a t j u s t such a ; time as t h i s . Such a committee was named to r e p o r t on the e f f e c t of the proposed d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n on Western A u s t r a l i a . I t s r e p o r t , d o u b t l e s s composed w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of f u r t h e r d e l a y i n g or p r e v e n t i n g the e n t r y of t h e c o l o n y i n t o the f e d e r a t i o n , s t a t e d 16 The c oncessions i n c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n t h a t the permanent c a p i t a l of the Commonwealth should be i n New South Wales, a l t h o u g h Melbourne p r e s s u r e was a b l e to keep i t a t l e a s t one hundred m i l e s away from Sydney."See S e c t i o n 125, Appendix B. 17 The 1899 referendum r e s u l t s ; a f f i r m a t i v e n e g a t i v e m a j o r i t y N.S.W. 107,420 82,741 24,679 V i c t o r i a 152,653 9,805 142,848 South Aust. 65,900 17,953 48,937 Tasmania 13,437 791 12,646 Queensland 38,488 30,996 7,492 S c o t t , E., op. c i t " . , p. 314. V i c t o r i a ' s h e a d s t a r t i n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n made the c i t i z e n s of t h a t s t a t e e n t h u s i a s t i c f e d e r a l i s t s who lobked forward t o a c o n t i n e n t f o r a market f o r t h e i r f a c t o r i e s . -35-18 t h a t a t l e a s t f o u r amendments would he needed t o safeguard Western A u s t r a l i a n i n t e r e s t s . These p a r l i a m e n t a r y manoeuvres merely i n t e n s i f i e d the d e s i r e of the populace to he p e r m i t t e d the same r i g h t as the e l e c t o r s , of the other c o l o n i e s , t h a t of v o t i n g on the c o n s t i t u t i o n as i t then s t o o d . F e d e r a l i s t s and a n t i - f e d e r a l i s t s were u n i t e d i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n of the governmental p o l i c y . Mr. George Leake, Leader of the O p p o s i t i o n i n the Assembly and d e l e g a t e $o the 1897 and 1898 conventions, upon b e i n g e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t of the newly or g a n i z e d F e d e r a l League of t h a t colony, p l a y e d an a c t i v e p a r t i n p r e p a r i n g the League's " B i l l t o the People" p e t i t i o n , b u t , a l t h o u g h c l o s e to twenty-three thousand s i g n a t u r e s were obtained, the p e t i t i o n r e c e i v e d scant acknowledgment when 18 The f o u r ; 1. That the colony should be enabled to d i v i d e i t s e l f i n t o e l e c t o r a t e s f o r the Senate e l e c t i o n s . 2. That the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t should be empowered to a u t h o r i z e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y . 3. That f o r f i v e y e ars a f t e r the a d o p t i o n of the f e d -e r a l t a r i f f Western A u s t r a l i a should be a l l o w e d to impose h e r own customs d u t i e s on i n t e r c o l o n i a l and o t h e r imports. 4 That Western A u s t r a l i a s h o u l d be exempted f o r f i v e y e a r s from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the I n t e r s t a t e Commission. B a t t y e , op. c i t . , p. 447. The f i r s t of these amendments would g i v e Western A u s t r a l i a a c o n c e s s i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t enjoyed by Queensland (Sec. 7, See Appendix B) . The second was, b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r the consumation of f e d e r a t i o n , a f a v o u r i t e p o l i c y of S i r John F o r r e s t , who b e l i e v e d t h a t n a t i o n a l u n i t y c o u l d never be a t t a i n e d without the r a i l w a y . I n s p i t e of S i r John's advocacy, however, Western A u s t r a l i a never d i d o b t a i n r a i l w a y terms s i m i l a r t o those enjoyed by B r i t i s h Columbia. The t h i r d amendment d i f f e r e d from the e x i s t -i n g c o n c e s s i o n i n not i n c l u d i n g the one f i f t h r e d u c t i o n i n the s t a t e customs every y e a r . The l a s t amendment was most i n t e r e s t i n g s i n c e l a t e r the I n t e r s t a t e Commission (Sec. 101, Appendix B$ was regarded as the guardian of the s m a l l s t a t e s ' r i g h t s . -36-19 presented to tlie c o l o n i a l parliament.' Even the p r o p o s a l of the Assembly t o submit the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n and the Western Aus-t r a l i a n proposed amendments to the e l e c t o r a t e was vetoed by the 20 L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . A movement such as A u s t r a l i a n f e d e r a t i o n was not t o be a r r e s t e d hy the coy a c t i o n s of the government of a n o n - e s s e n t i a l c o l o n y . The C o n s t i t u t i o n B i l l , as accepted by the v o t e r s of the othe r f i v e c o l o n i e s , had been forwarded to London. A t the request of the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , Joseph Chamberlain, a f i v e man d e l e g a t i o n , one f r o m each of the p r o j e c t e d " O r i g i n a l S t a t e s " , was chosen t o jour n e y "Home" t o e x p l a i n the p r o v i s i o n s of the B i l l t o the B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s , and to a s s i s t the C o l o n i a l O f f i o e i n s e c u r i n g the passage of the c o n s t i t u t i o n through the Houses of P a r l i a m e n t . The Western A u s t r a l i a n government asked p e r m i s s i o n t o be rep r e s e n t e d as w e l l , and, t h e i r request b e i n g granted by Hr. Chamberlain w i t h the assent of the f i v e i n t e r e s t e d c o l o n i a l governments, they d i s p a t c h e d the c o l o n i a l C h i e f J u s t i c e w i t h orders t o pr e s s f o r one amendment, the a l t e r a t i o n of Clause 95 to permit the c o l o n y t o l e v y undiminished customs and e x c i s e -21 d u t i e s f o r f i v e y e a r s . The London n e g o t i a t i o n s f o l l o w e d l i n e s somewhat s i m i l a r to those of t h i r t y - f i v e y e ars l a t e r , the Western 19 The prayer of the p e t i t i o n was n e g a t i v a t e d by b o t h Houses, Western A u s t r a l i a P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, new s e r i e s , v o l . xv., pp. 2117, 2726, quoted i n Battve..,op. c i Y . , p. 447. 29 i b i d . , P. 447 21 v. supra p. 35, n. 18. A u s t r a l i a n d e l e g a t e a p p e a l i n g to the Mother of P a r l i a m e n t s as the fountain-head of a l l I m p e r i a l l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and the B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s , as w e l l as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the other s t a t e s , u p h o l d i n g the p r i n c i p l e of p r i o r A u s t r a l i a n agreement up6£ a p u r e l y A u s t r a l i a n matter. Western A u s t r a l i a , t h e r e f o r e , d i d not secure the amendment which the c o l o n i a l government d e c l a r e d was the s i n e qua non of t h e i r acceptance of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , y e t the f a c t remains t h a t the oolony d i d enter the f e d e r a t i o n as an o r i g i n a l s t a t e , a l b e i t i n such a t a r d y manner as to preclu d e the colony's name b e i n g 22 mentioned i n the preamble to the c o n s t i t u t i o n . The e n t r y was not an a b s o l u t e l y v o l u n t a r y a c t on the p a r t of the F o r r e s t government. S i n c e the time of the i n s t i t u t i o n of the Canadian-f e d e r a t i o n the B r i t i s h government has shown a s c e r t a i n p r o c l i v i t y toward a s s i s t i n g m a r g i n a l c o l o n i e s i n t o l a r g e r unions t h a t some-times suggests the a c t i o n s of an anxious mother w i t h a b a s h f u l daughter of a c r i t i c a l age. Speaking i n the B r i t i s h House of Commons w h i l e i n t r o d u c i n g the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n B i l l Mr. Chamberlain e x p l a i n e d the adhesion of Western A u s t r a l i a i n the f o l l o w i n g words; n . . . we r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t of our i n q u i r i e s t o S i r John F o r r e s t , the h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d Premier of Western A u s t r a l i a ; and we ventured — alth o u g h I t : wassperhaps h a r d l y our bu s i n e s s — i n the i n t e r e s t , as we b e l i e v e d , of A u s t r a l i a as a whole, and even of Western A u s t r a l i a , t o pr e s s upon him t h a t h i s government should now r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r p o s i t i o n , and i n s p i t e of t h e arrangements of which they complained they should seek t o enter the F e d e r a t i o n as an o r i g i n a l S t a t 22 See Appendix B. 23 Great B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, 4 t h s e r i e s , v o l . 83, London, Her Majesty's S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , 1900, May 14, 1900, p. 57. -38-To a l a r g e extent the s e c e s s i o n movement was based ofi the premises t h a t i t had been none of Mr. Chamberlain's b u s i n e s s and t h a t h i s a c t i o n s had not been i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of Western A u s t r a l i a . I n s h o r t , the method by which the c o l o n y had been induced t o e n t e r f e d e r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t d e s i r i n g to l e a v e . The d i s c o n t e n t of the miners was the A c h i l l e s ' h e e l of the F o r r e s t government. Mention has a l r e a d y been made of the miners' 24 grievances and sympathies. At conferences i n C o o l g a r d i e on Dec-ember 13, 1899 and i n K a l g g o r l i e on January 3, 1900 the miners organized themselves and formulated a p o l i c y by which they hoped to f r e e themselves from the hammering domination of the c o a s t . The f i r s t conference, c o n t a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the g o l d -f i e l d s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Chamber of Mines and (an A u s t r a l i a n touch) l a b o u r unions, a l o n g w i t h other p u b l i c "bodies, formed i t s e l f i n t o a Reform League a f t e r p a s s i n g a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t " T h i s Sonference i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t , as a l l o t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means have been t r i e d and f a i l e d , the o n l y course to r e d r e s s the g r i e v a n c e s of t h e e a s t e r n g o l d f i e l d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the matter of f e d e r a t i o n , i s to take advantage of the power g i v e n under the Con-s t i t u t i o n A c t of 1890, and t o p e t i t i o n the Queen f o r s e p a r a t i o n from the r e s t of the c o l o n y of Western A u s t r a l i a , f o r the establishment of r e s p o n s i b l e govern-ment t h e r e i n , and f o r becoming p a r t of the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth". 5 An even more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body a t the K a l g o o r l i e conference unanimously adopted the proposed p e t i t i o n t o the Queen which a committee, appointed by the C o o l g a r d i e conference, had p r e -2 4 y j supra, p. 23. 2 5 C o o l g a r d i e Miner. 14 D e c , 1899, as quoted i n B a t t y e , op. c i t . . p. 448. -39-2 6 pared d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n i n g t h r e e weeks. The " S e p a r a t i o n or F e d e r a t i o n " movement provided the f e d -e r a l i s t s i n s i d e the colony and out w i t h the necessary t h r e a t w i t h which to coerce the government. Support to the movement was g i v e n hy the e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n newspapers. A London branch of the Reform League was e s t a b l i s h e d . F i n a l l y , on A p r i l 27, 1900 Mr. Chamberlain, as C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , sent h i s f a t e f u l t e l e -gram t o the A c t i n g Lieutenant-Governor of Western A u s t r a l i a . S t a t i n g t h a t the premiers of the f e d e r a t i n g c o l o n i e s were not prepared t o accede t o the Western A u s t r a l i a n requests f o r more co n c e s s i o n s , he p o i n t e d out the v a l u e of the c o l o n y never-t h e l e s s e n t e r i n g as an o r i g i n a l s t a t e ; "Unless Western A u s t r a l i a j o i n s as an o r i g i n a l S t a t e , i t can omiy e n t e r oh the c o n d i t i o n of complete i n t e r c o l o n i a l f r e e - t r a d e . The temporary p r o t e c t i o n o f f e r e d by Clause 95 w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be l o s t ; and l o o k i n g to the present popu-l a t i o n of the colony, d i f f i c u l t y may a l s o be experienced i n s e c u r i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as l a r g e as i t would r e c e i v e as an o r i g i n a l S t a t e , and which would enable the c o l o n y to secure adequate p r o t e c t i o n f o r a l l i t s i n t e r e s t s i n the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t . " ^ 7 He then went on to t u r n the thumbscrews; "Your r e s p o n s i b l e a d v i s e r s w i l l a l s o , of course, take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the e f f e c t of the a g i t a t i o n hy the Fed-e r a l #arty, e s p e c i a l l y on the g o l d f i e l d s , i f Western Aus-t r a l i a does not e n t e r as an o r i g i n a l S t a t e . " I t seems to me, under the circumstances, of the utmost importance to the f u t u r e of Western A u s t r a l i a t o j o i n a t once ... . " 2 7 s 25 W.A. P a r i . Debates, v o l . x v i . , p. 95, quoted i n Western A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t , The Case of the People of Western A u s t r a l i a , P e r t h , W.A., Government P r i n t e r , 1934, p. 23, H e r e a f t e r t h i s book w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as "Case of the PeopleR. T h i s was but one, and the most important one, of a number of telegrams exchanged between the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and the " O f f i c e r A d m i n i s t r a t i n g Western A u s t r a l i a " . S • 26 K a l g o o r l i e Miner, Jan. 4, 1900, quoted i n B a t t y e , op. c i t . , p. 488. The i d e a of the s e c e s s i o n of the g o l d f i e l d s f r o m Western A u s t r a l i a had been r a i s e d b e f o r e , such as a t a meeting h e l d i n E a l g g o r l i e e a r l y i n October, 1895, a t which g o l d f i e l d s grievances were f r e e l y v e n t i l a t e d and the F o r r e s t government ^roundly c a s t i g a t e d . B a t t y e , o p . c i t . , p. 427. Western A u s t r a l i a p r i o r t o the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d was of l i t t l e importance. Having once t a s t e d of the p r o s p e r i t y brought by the g o l d no government c o u l d consent to the l o s s of the r i c h g o l d f i e l d s t e r r i t o j r y and a l l t h a t was connected t h e r e w i t h . S i r John F o r r e s t c a p i t u l a t e d . The c o l o n i a l parliament met on May 17, 1900. "An Act to make p r o v i s i o n f o r the acceptance and enactment of a F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r A u s t r a l a s i a " was i n t r o d u c e d . In moving the second r e a d i n g of the B i l l S i r John p o i n t e d out the importance of the s t e p they were t a k i n g . "... I t h i n k i t i s the o p i n i o n of a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the people of the c o l o n y t h a t the q u e s t i o n i s one which should be s e t t l e d by the v o t e s of the e l e c t o r s ... . F o r a country t o g i v e up i t s autonomy ... i s j u s t about the same as a man g i v i n g up c o n t r o l of h i s b u s i n e s s . ... I t h i n k the q u e s t i o n w i l l be brought home to a l l of us by comparing the Government w i t h a t h i n g which belongs to you a b s o l u t e l y , but which you propose t o hand over to some other people f o r them to j o i n w i t h you i n the management; e n t e r i n g i n t o p a r t n e r s h i p , i n f act£ ... The Commonwealth i s not o n l y f o r today nor tomorrow, but f o r e v e r . I t i s i n d i s s o l u b l e . We a r e going to b i n d o u r s e l v e s to j o i n and never separate a g a i n , u n l e s s of course we are separated by an Act of the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t . That would be the o n l y t h i n g . An Act of the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t c o u l d separate us as i t u n i t e s us. . .. , , 2° W i t h the c a p i t u l a t i o n of the F o r r e s t government by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the n e c e s s a r y l e g i s l a t i o n t o permit a r e f e r -endum i t was a foregone c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a would enter the Commonwealth. The v o t e r s were more l i k e l y to c a s t t h e i r b a l l o t s as t h e i r emotions, not as t h e i r minds, d i c t a t e d ; the o l d s e t t l e r s by t h e i r a n t i p a t h y to the e a s t , the goldminers and other newcomers by t h e i r h a t r e d of the 28 W.A. P a r i . Debates, v o l . x v i . , p. 74, quoted i n Case of the People, . p. 24. -41-c o a s t r a v e l l e r s and t h e i r s e n t i m e n t a l t i e s w i t h the e a s t . I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t "Man does not l i v e by bread a l o n e , b ut main l y 29 by catchwords" and t h a t the F e d e r a l i s t s had the bes t s l o g a n s , "One people, one d e s t i n y " ; " a n i n d i s s o l u b l e u n i o n of i n d e s t r u c t -a b l e s t a t e s ' 1 ; and the f a v o u r i t e , "a n a t i o n f o r a c o n t i n e n t , and a c o n t i n e n t f o r a n a t i o n " . I t was the unanimity of g o l d f i e l d s sentiment, howevery which assured the f e d e r a l i s t s of v i c t o r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the necessary f o r m a l i t i e s which preceded the h o l d i n g of the p o l l prevented Western A u s t r a l i a ' s i n c l u s i o n i n the Commonwealth b e f o r e the I m p e r i a l "Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a  C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t 1900 r e c e i v e d Royal a s s e n t on June 13, 1900. The referendum was h e l d on June 31; i t b e i n g the f i r s t e l e c t i o n i n the colony i n which women were e n t i t l e d t o v o t e . The r e s u l t s showed a more pronounced sentiment i n f a v o u r of f e d e r a t i o n i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a than had been a n t i c i p a t e d , 30 w h i l e the a g r i c u l t u r a l and g o l d f i e l d s areas v o t e d as expected 29 Phrase used by P r o f . E.O.G. Shann b e f o r e R o y a l Com-m i s s i o n on C o n s t i t u t i o n , Nov.16, 1927, Minutes of Evidence quoted i n Case of the fleopl e , p. 423. 30 The referendum r e s u l t s ; Yes No M a j o r i t y - -V. >• P e r t h E l e c t o r a t e s . , ••. 7,008-; ;4,~380. . v2t6.28,. Fremantle E l e c t o r . 4,687 3,141 1,546 Country E l e c t o r a t e s 6,775 10,357 -3,582 G o l d f i e l d s E l e c t o r . 26,330 1,813 24,517 T o t a l s 44,800 19,691 25,109 F i g u r e s from Case of the People, p.26 I t may be seen from the above t a b l e t h a t even without the g o l d f i e l d s v o t e f e d e r a t i o n s t i l l p o l l e d a m a j o r i t y , a l b e i t the v e r y s m a l l one of 592. Even t h i s s m a l l m a j o r i t y c o u l d s t i l l be a t t r i b u t e d to newcomers. There was a l a r g e i n f l u x of E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n s t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas t o take advantage of the p r o s p e r i t y which the g o l d f i e l d s a c t i v i t y had induced t h e r e . S i n c e t h e r e were 96,065 names on the v o t e r s ' r o l l i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t o n l y 64,491 v a l i d v o t e s were c a s t i n the v e r y important referendum. I t c o u l d be t h a t i n t e r e s t d i d not run as h i g h as i s otherwise suggested, or i t might be t h a t the newly e n f r a n c h i s e d v o t e r s d i d not e x e r c i s e t h e i r r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d r i g h t . -42-On August 21, 1900 the two houses of the c o l o n i a l p a r l i a m e n t passed addresses t o Her Majesty i n f o r m i n g h e r t h a t her people-of Western A u s t r a l i a had agreed t o enter i n t o a F e d e r a l Common-wealth w i t h the other A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s . On September 17 the nece s s a r y R o y a l p r o c l a m a t i o n was i s s u e d to b r i n g the new Commonwealth i n t o b e i n g , as the A u s t r a l i a n s d e l i g h t e d i n s a y i n g , "on the f i r s t day of the new ce n t u r y " . S i r John F o r r e s t entered the f i r s t 6ommonwealth government as M i n i s t e r of Defence and was t o serve i n s u c c e s s i v e governments i n i n c r e a s i n g l y s e n i o r posts u n t i l he became a c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r of the Commonwealth and, s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s death i n September, 1918, was r a i s e d to the peerage as f i r s t Baron F o r r e s t of Bun-bury. The l a r g e r f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y had proven k i n d to one who had not been an e n t h u s i a s t i c f e d e r a l i s t . What s o r t of f e d e r a t i o n had Western A u s t r a l i a thus been induced t o j o i n ? The v e r y names of the tw«h houses of the f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t , the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and the Senate, suggest the v e r y important American i n f l u e n c e , which showed i t s e l f more i n the the o r y than i n the mechanics of government. The f a m i l i a r B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y system was r e t a i n e d , but i n the Question of the d i v i s i o n of powers between the c o n s t i t u e n t s t a t e s and the f e d e r a l government American p r a c t i c e had been f o l l o w e d more o f t e n than Canadian, the one extant B r i t i s h attempt a t a working f e d e r a t i o n . The upper house of the b i c a m e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e was designed as a s t a t e s ' house. Each of the o r i g i n a l s t a t e s 31 was to be allowed s i x s e n a t o r s , to be e l e c t e d by popular suffrage 31 S e c t i o n 10. Popular e l e c t i o n of the senators w i t h no p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the v o t e r s has been c a l l e d an i n n o v a t i o n , but t h e r e a r e B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l precedents. f o r a s i x y e a r term of O f f i c e , p r o v i s i o n b e i n g made f o r one h a l f the number to be e l e c t e d every t h i r d y e a r . The membership of the lower house was designed to be as c l o s e l y as p r a c t i c a b l e double t l i a t of the Senate. The membership was to be d i v i d e d . between the s t a t e s on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s , w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t 32 no s t a t e was to h a v e i l e s s than f i v e members i n the House. In keeping w i t h the A u s t r a l i a n t h e o r i e s of d i r e c t dempcracy the maximum l i f e of the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was s e t a t t h r e e r a t h e r than the more u s u a l f i v e years of the modern B r i t i s h t r a d -i t i o n . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r . e l e c t o r s and members ^.5e-::to--be^the same f o r b o t h houses. The l e g i s l a t i v e powers of b o t h houses were a l s o to be the same, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of money b i l l s , which had to o r i g i n a t e i n the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and c o u l d not be amended i n the Senate, a l t h o u g h t h a t body c o u l d send such a b i l l back to the lower house w i t h the request t h a t i t make s p e c i f i e d amendments, a request t h a t the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s may or may not heed. As i s o f t e n the case w i t h second chambers, the n o m i n a l l y equal Senate became a house of secondary importance. I t s v a l u e as a " S t a t e s ' House" d e c l i n e d as soon as i t s members became b e t t e r p a r t y henchmen than they were s t a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Although the c o n s t i t u t i o n c o ntained no mentionoof i t , the com-p o s i t i o n of the government was dependent upon the c o n t r o l of the lower house. The House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , 32 Sec. 24. -44-became the e f f e c t i v e chamber i n the f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t , and Western A u s t r a l i a was never a b l e to r a t e more than the minimum f i v e of i t s s e v e n t y - f i v e members, F o l l o w i n g American precedent the d r a f t e r s of the A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n r e s e r v e d a l l but c e r t a i n c.ftnumerated powers t o the s t a t e s . They d i f f e r e d from the American Founding F a t h e r s by e v o l v i n g two types of enumerated powers; those e x c l u s i v e l y -c v e s t e d i n the f e d e r a l government, d e s c r i b e d but not a l l specifi«-a l l y mentioned i n S e c t i o n 52 of the C o n s t i t u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g , such matters as the l e v y i n g of customs and e x c i s e d u t i e s ; defence; p o s t s , t e l e g r a p h s , and telephones; and n a t u r a l i z a t i o n . By f a r the l a r g e r number of enumerated powers, however, ar e those l i s t e d i n the t h i r t y - n i n e s u b s e c t i o n s of s e c t i o n 51, the concurrent ( . powers, wherein b o t h the s t a t e and f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t s can l e g i s -l a t e , but where, i n the case of c o n f l i c t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , a Com-33 monwealth law renders a s t a t e law i n v a l i d . I ncluded among the powers of l e g i s l a t i o n thus e x e r c i s a b l e by b o t h governments can be found a l l forms of t a x a t i o n save customs and e x c i s e , banking, i n s u r a n c e , bankruptcy, marriage and d i v o r c e , r a i l w a y s , and i n d u s t r i a l a r b i t r a t i o n . As has been s t a t e d b e f o r e , the r e s i d u a l powers belonged to the s t a t e s . The c o n s t i t u t i o n was designed t o p r o t e c t s t a t e s * r i g h t s . C o n s t i t u t i o n s , however, have a way of working out a t v a r i a n c e to the f o u n d e r s ' i n t e n t i o n s . The Commonwealth government had been granted u n l i m i t e d powers f o r the r a i s i n g of revenue, y e t most of the revenue-consuming s e r v i c e s , e d u c a t i o n , mining and 33 A u s t r a l i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , Sec. 110. -45-a g r i c u l t n r a l a s s i s t a n c e , pest c o n t r o l , m e d i c a l and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , and p o l i c i n g , had been l e f t i n the hands of the s t a t e s . The V i c t o r i a n f e d e r a l i s t who was to be t h r i c e Prime M i n i s t e r of A u s t r a l i a c o r r e c t l y read the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s dangerous d i v i s i o n of powers when he wrote, i n a l e t t e r p r i n t e d i n a ,-London newspaper s h o r t l y a f t e r the establishment of the Common-wealth; "As the power of the purse i n Great B r i t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d by degrees the a u t h o r i t y of the Commons i t w i l l u l t i m a t e l y e s t a b l i s h i n A u s t r a l i a the a u t h o r i t y of the Commonwealth. The r i g h t s of self-government of the S t a t e s have been f o n d l y supposed to be safeguarded by the C o n s t i t u t i o n . I t has l e f t them l e g a l l y f r e e , but f i n a n c i a l l y bound to the c h a r i o t wheels of the C e n t r a l Government. T h e i r need w i l l be i t s o p p o r t u n i t y . The l e s s populous w i l l f i r s t succumb; those s m i t t e n by drought or s i m i l a r m i s f o r t u n e w i l l f o l l o w ; and f i n a l l y even the g r e a t e s t and most populous w i l l , however r e l u c t a n t l y , be brought t o h e e l . Our C o n s t i t u t i o n may remain the same, but a v i t a l change w i l l have taken p l a c e i n the r e l a t i o n s between the S t a t e s and the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth w i l l have a c q u i r e d a g e n e r a l c o n t r o l over the S t a t e s , w h i l e every e x t e n s i o n of p o l i t i c a l power w i l l be made by i t s means and go to i n c r e a s e i t s r e l a t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y . H ^ 4 Although the s t a t e s had r e t a i n e d most of the t r a p p i n g s of s o v e r e i g n t y , such as the appointment of the s t a t e governors d i r e c t l y f rom London r a t h e r than through the Commonwealth, Gov-ernor -General i n C o u n c i l , they soon d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Commonwealth government was not so v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the l o w l y Canadian p r o v i n c e s and the Dominion government. F i n a n c e s p l a y an important p a r t i n p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s . 33 Deakin, A . , i n London Morning P o s t , A p r i l 1, 1902, quoted i n Case of the People, p. 81.• -46-As has been mentioned e a r l i e r , a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n f o r the problem of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the excess revenue from the customs and eocoise r e c e i p t s had not been reached by the d r a f t e r s 34 of the c o n s t i t u t i o n . The "Bookkeeping c l a u s e s " were on l y intended to be a temporary expedient.Once f e d e r a t i o n had been achieved i t was hoped t h a t a more s a t i s f a c t o r y method c o u l d be evolved-without endangering the whole p r o j e c t . S i n c e u n i f o r m customs were i n t r o d u c e d on October 9, 1901 the c l a u s e ceased to be a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l guarantee when i t s f i v e y e a r l i f e e x p i r e d on October 8, 1906, l e a v i n g the system a t the mercy of the Com-monwealth p a r l i a m e n t . No change was made u n t i l the p a s s i n g of the Surplus Revenue Act of 1908, which continued the bookkeeping system, but p r o v i d e d t h a t any s u r p l u s of r e c e i p t s over expenditures was to be d i s t r i b u t e d on a per c a p i t a b a s i s . At the same time the f e d e r a l government l e s s e n e d the f i n a n c i a l burden of those s t a t e s t h a t had i n s t i t u t e d i n v a l i d and o l d age pensions by estab-l i s h i n g a nation-wide system. 35 The t e n year term of l i f e f o r the Braddon Clause was draw-i n g t o a c l o s e when the next Surplus Revenue Act, t h a t of 1910, 36 was passed. The terms of S e c t i o n 87 were abandoned. In t h e i r p l a c e the Commonwealth undertook to pay each s t a t e a grant e q ual to 25 s. per head of i t s p o p u l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n a l l Common- •-w e a l t h s u r p l u s revenue was to be divided, on a per c a p i t a b a s i s , 34 S e c t i o n 93, v. supra, p. 33, n. 13 3$ S e c t i o n 87, T» supra, p. 33. 36 An u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt was made t o terminate the c l a u s e s i x months b e f o r e the e x p i r a t i o n of i t s t e n y e a r l i f e span. V. i n f r a , p. 5Q, N . 38. - 4 7 -between the s t a t e s , hut t h i s second p r o v i s i o n never e n r i c h e d the s t a t e s w i t h s i z e a b l e w i n d f a l l s , s i n c e the f e d e r a l t r e a s u r e r soon d i s c o v e r e d t h a t unexpected s u r p l u s e s c o u l d be d i v e r t e d , by means of t r u s t funds, f o r f u t u r e Commonwealth e n t e r p r i s e s . The net r e s u l t of the change of system i n d i s t r i b u t i n g the customs and e x c i s e revenue was a s u b s t a n t i a l cut i n the share a l l o l f e d t o the s t a t e s . The temporary p r o t e c t i o n t h a t S e c t i o n 95 had a f f o r d e d Western A u s t r a l i a had been removed by the end of the f i f t h y e a r a f t e r the i m p o s i t i o n of u n i f o r m customs d u t i e s . S i n c e 1906, t h e r e f o r e , the western s t a t e was a member of the A u s t r a l i a n Z o l l v e r e i n . T h e - f i v e y e a r p a r t i a l r e p r i e v e had been v a l u a b l e . I t had, f o r example, pe r m i t t e d the s t a t e ' s w h e a t - r a i s i n g i n d u s t r y t o become w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Strange as i t may seem, Western A u s t r a l i a , w i t h an a g r i c u l t u r a l community of over seventy y e a r s ' s t a n d i n g , was import-i n g b r e a d s t u f f s from the e a s t e r n s t a t e s a t the time of f e d e r a t i o n . But now, a f t e r October 8, 1906, the p r o t e c t i o n had gone. The f a c t o r s which had made p e r c a p i t a payments u n f a i r i n Western A u s t r a l -i a n eyes d u r i n g the p r e - f e d e r a t i o n n e g o t i a t i o n s were s t i l l p r e s e n t . The m a s c u l i n i t y r a t e was s t i l l w e l l above the n a t i o n a l average. Development work, w i t h the consequent heavy imports, was s t i l l p r o g r e s s i n g apace. The 1910 Sur p l u s Revenue A c t , t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e d t h a t a s p e c i a l payment be made to the s t a t e ; £ 250,000 was p a i d the f i r s t y e a r w i t h each subsequent b e i n g £10,000 l e s s than i t s immediate predecessor. The c o s t of t h i s , and futufce Western A u s t r a l i a n d i s a b i l i t y grants was brought home r a t h e r f o r c i b l y t o the other s t a t e s . One h a l f of the grant f o r each -48-year was to be d e b i t e d , on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s , from the 25 s. per c a p i t a payments of every one of the s i x s t a t e s . V a l i d o b j e c t i o n s c o u l d be r a i s e d a g a i n s t the t h e o r y of per c a p i t a payments. I t was i n the s t a t e s w i t h s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s and lagge areas, mostly undeveloped, t h a t the c o s t of government r a n the h i g h e s t , but i t was the two r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s t a t e s , V i c t o r i a and New South Wales, w i t h t h e i r l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i r w e l l developed h i n t e r l a n d , t h a t reaped the b e n e f i t s of the per c a p i t a system. The system had r e s u l t e d i n the Commonwealth government r e t a i n i n g a l a r g e r share of the revenues which i t c o l l e c t e d f o r i t s own use, y e t , w i t h i n a few years t h a t government was anxious to f r e e themselves f * 0 » the g * e a s i l y m.Quht :i,ngiobliga$igijis 0which a r e i n h e r e n t i n the per c a p i t a system. At the time of f e d e r a t i o n the c o s t of the new government was l i g h t l y d i s m i s s e d . The added t a x a t i o n on each i n d i v i d u a l would be no more "than a l i c e n s e of a dog". The c o s t of the War of 1914-18 rendered a l l such opt4m-i s t i c estimates o b s o l e t e . The Commonwealth government found i t s e l f assuming f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s of a magnitude t h a t were never, contemplated by the d r a f t e r s of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . Customs and e x c i s e no l o n g e r provided s u f f i c i e n t revenue f o r the f e d e r a l government. The f i e l d s of d i r e c t t a x a t i o n , \tfhich had p r e v i o u s l y been l e f t to the s t a t e s , had t o be entered. As was a l s o the case i n a number of other c o u n t r i e s a t the same time, the Commonwealth t r e a s u r e r d i s c o v e r e d the u t i l i t y of the income t a x . By the mid-'Twenties i t bagan t o appear that the Commonwealth government was not going t o be a b l e t o r e a c h an agreement w i t h the s t a t e governments over a s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e f o r the per c a p i t a payments. Conferences were h e l d , b ut the s t a t e t r e a s u r e r s were l o a t h to g i v e up the assured monthly income from the f e d e r a l t r e a s u r y : - i n r e t u r n f o r "concessions" such as a p a r t i a l Commonwealth withdrawal from c e r t a i n f i e l d s of t a x a t i o n . The f e d e r a l government f i n a l l y s o l v e d t h e problem by d i r e c t a c t i o n . In 1926 Dr. E a r l Page, the t r e a s u r e r i n the U a t i o n a l i s t -Country P a r t y c o a l i t i o n government, i n t r o d u c e d a " S t a t e s ' Grants B i l l " i n t o the f e d e r a l parliament which was designed t o c a n c e l the per c a p i t a payments. The f a c t t h a t the Labour P a r t y was i n c o n t r o l of a l l state,.governments a t the time,save t h a t of V i c t o r i a , i n no way l e s s e n e d t h e i r h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n t o the measure. The d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was by no means c o n f i n e d to the p o l i t i c a l opponents of the government. O p p o s i t i o n was f r u i t l e s s . Once the f e d e r a l government was convinced t h a t i t was a dangerous p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e f o r one t a x i n g power to r a i s e money f o r another to spend t h e r e was l i t t l e t h a t the s t a t e governments c o u l d do, save s t r i v e to o b t a i n as f a v o u r a b l e terms as p o s s i b l e from the pox^er t h a t h e l d a l l the good c a r d s . . The S t a t e s ' Grants B i l l had not been pressed through p a r l i a -ment a f t e r i t s 1926 i n t r o d u c t i o n . l^oT8nt^l;';i^>ril^'?1927f v^as -rfctce entered i n the Commonwealth S t a t u t e Books. Three months l a t e r a conference between the f e d e r a l and s t a t e m i n i s t e r s met t o draw up a f i n a n c i a l re-arrangement. The f e d e r a l p o l i c y , as presented a t the conference, was, p e r f o r c e , accepted by the s t a t e s . The per c a p i t a payments were t o be d i s c o n t i n u e d , but the Commonwealth was to continue paying each s t a t e a gran$ the f i s c a l y e a r equal to the per c a p i t a payment of/1926-27.^ The Commonwealth, was to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s t a t e debts, c o n t r i b u t i o n s -50-b e i n g made "by bot h s t a t e and f e d e r a l governments f o r a s i n k i n g f und f o r the c o n s o l i d a t e d debt, and a Loan C o u n c i l , c o n s i s t i n g of one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e farcin the Commonwealth and one from each of the s t a t e governments, was to be set up to c o n t r o l a l l f u t u r e govern-ment borrowing. The F i n a n c i a l Agreement 6 f 1927 was accepted and continued i n e f f e c t f o r the p e r i o d under review. I t s acceptance by the s t a t e s , however, d i d n e c e s s i t a t e an amendment of th© c o n s t i t -u t i o n empowering the Commonwealth to make such agreements. U n l i k e the B r i t i s h Notflih, America A c t , 1867, the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t d i d p r o v i d e machinery f o r the amendment of the. ' 37 c o n s t i t u t i o n o u t l i n e d i n i t . The system, o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 128, although i t seemed simple and f l e x i b l e enough, has i n p r a c t i c e proved to be f a r l e s s amenable t o change than iUie d r a f t e e s had intended. The A u s t r a l i a n v o t e r s have been v e r y r e l u c t a n t to a u t h o r i z e changes i n t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n . Amendments had been submitted to the e l e c t o r s on s i x occasions p r i o r t o the 1928 C o n s t i t u t i o n a l A l t e r a t i o n ( S t a t e Debts) referendum. Only t w i c e , and bot h times concerning r e l a t i v e l y maimportant matters, d i d the v o t e r s approve 38 the suggested amendments. 37 See Appendix B. 38 In 1906 a p r o p o s a l to a l t e r the dates of the p e r i o d i c a l Senate e l e c t i o n s was approved by a l a r g e m a j o r i t y , w h i l e a 1910 proposal? ito permit the Commonwealth government tptake ove'* lany s t a t e debts i n s t e a d of merely those i n e x i s t e n c e p r i o r t o f e d -e r a t i o n was a l s o approved. Another referendum h e l d a t the same time i n 1910 was de f e a t e d , however. Undefc i t s p r o v i s i o n s the Commonwealth government had attempted to secure the t e r m i n a t i o n of the Braddon Clause s i x mc&hs b e f o r e i t s scheduled e x p i r a t i o n and to s u b s t i t u t e t i e 25 s. per c a p i t a payments. Had i t been approved the Commonwealth would not have been a b l e to suspend the 25 s. payments by u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n i n 1927. -51-D i r e c t amendment i s not the o n l y method hy which a c o n s t i t f t-u t i o n can he changed. The F a t h e r s of Canadian F e d e r a t i o n d e s i r e d to e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g c e n t r a l government. They, t h e r e f o r e , granted the r e s i d u a l powers to i t , bestowing upon the p r o v i n c e s o n l y a number of enumerated powers. The d r a f t e r s of the A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n , on the other hand, j e a l o u s of the s o v e r e i g n t y of t h e i r s t a t e s , f o l l o w e d the American p r a c t i c e of l e a v i n g the r e s i d -u a l powers w i t h the s t a t e s . J u d i c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t h r e e c o n s t i t u t i o n s has enhanced the power of the Canadian p r o v i n c e s and the American and A u s t r a l i a n f e d e r a l governments. " I t i s not always the r e s i d u a r y l e g a t e e who comes o f f b e s t under a w i l l . Sometimes s p e c i f i c l e g a t e e s take the b u l k of the e s t a t e and l e a v e 39 him n o t h i n g but the debts Under the p r o v i s i o n s of the A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n i t has been the High Court of A u s t r a l i a r a t h e r than the P r i v y C o u n c i l t h a t has been c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r p r e -40 t a t i o n . As P r o f . Brady has p o i n t e d out, the presence of such d i s t i n g u i s h e d founders of the A u s t r a l i a n f e d e r a t i o n as J u s t i c e s G r i f f i t h , B arton, and 0(Connor on the bench of the High Court p r i o r to 1920 had a profound e f f e c t upon the r u l i n g s handed down by t h a t body. These men were not o n l y a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the d r a f t i n g of the c o n s t i t u t i o n they were c a l l e d upon to i n t e r p r e t , but they were a l s o keen students of comparative 39 Quoted hy Hancock, V.K., A u s t r a l i a , London, Benn ( A u s t r a l i a n ed., 1940) p. 99,. 40 S e c t i o n 74 See Appendix B. 41 Brady, A., Democracy i n the Dominions, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1946, p. 146. -52-f e & e r a l i s m . The American i n f l u e n c e t h a t was so n o t i c e a b l e i n is agom evident the establishment of the f e d e r a t i o n A i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of the f e d e r a l and s t a t e governments. The d o c t r i n e of mutual n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e was c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d . F e d e r a l A r b i t r a t i o n Courts had been empowered t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y between employers and employees. True to the theory of mutual n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n , however, the High Court, i n 1907, r u l e d t h a t a s t a t e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y (the V i c -42 t o r i a n S t a t e Railways i n the case under review ) was not s u b j e c t to the Commonwealth C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t , under which the A r b i t r a t i o n Courts were o p e r a t i n g . S i n c e A u s t r a l i a ' s sparse p o p u l a t i o n has made i t a c o n t i n e n t where the s t a t e has o f t e n been f o r c e d to i n i t i a t e schemes which i n more populous areas would have been c a r r i e d out by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i t became apparent t h a t the d o c t r i n e of mutual non-i n t e r f e r e n c e was soon going to render the e n t i r e system of f e d -e r a l a r b i t r a t i o n i n e f f e c t i v e . The spates were e n t e r i n g i n t o q u i t e a number of f i e l d s of b u s i n e s s , m u l t i p l y i n g the number of s t a t e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s . Western A u s t r a l i a ' s Labour governments, f o r i n s t a n c e , had s e t up s t a t e meat packing works, s t a t e r e t a i l s t o r e s , and a s t a t e steamship l i n e . The High Courts a t t i t u d e toward the powers of. the A r b i t -r a t i o n t r i b u n a l ove£ s t a t e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s i s rendered p a r t i c -43 u l a r y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e i t was a 1920 d e c i s i o n , r e v e r s i n g t h a t 42 Railway S e r v a n t s ' Case (4 C.L.R. 488). 43 The E n g i n e e r s * Case (28 C.L.R.129) The case i s o f t e n c i t e d as "The Amalgamated S o c i e t y of Engineers v s . The A d e l a i d e Steamship Company'^ but the S o c i e t y was c l a i m i n g an award a g a i n s t a number of respondents, i n c l u d i n g the Western A u s t r a l i a n (cont'd on p. 53) -53-of 1907, t h a t marked a d r a s t i c change i n the High C o u r t s attitude toward the c o n s t i t u t i o n . The American approach, w i t h i t s " i m p l i e d p r o h i b i t i o n s " and "immunity of i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s " was abandoned i n f a v o u r of the B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e , which had a l r e a d y been adopted by the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s c oncerning t h e . f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s of the Empire. The Common-weal t h c o n s t i t u t i o n was t o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same manner as any other Act of P a r l i a m e n t . The language Employed was t o be the s o l e guide to the meaning. The d e c i s i o n meant a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n the power of the Commonwealth and a c u r t a i l m e n t of the s t a t e governments' " s o v e r e i g n t y " . D u r i n g the war the f e d e r a l government's a c t i v -i t i e s had, of n e c e s s i t y , been m u l t i p l i e d . How, w i t h the r e t u r n of peace and the hoped-for "normalcy" the s t a t e s had l o s t r a t h e r than gained power. Such were the main p o i n t s of f r i c t i o n which manifested them-s e l v e s i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n governing the f e d e r a l u n i o n i n t o which the i n h a b i t a n t s of /Western A u s t r a l i a had entered w i t h such mixed f e e l i n g s . The f e d e r a l system i s the most d i f f i c u l t p o l i t y to work. I t would seem t h a t f e d e r a l i s m i s a system t h a t should be adopted where di v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s , due to o v e r l y - g r e a t d i s t a n c e s or c o n f l i c t i n g c u l t u r e s , prevent a u n i t a r y form of government. F e d e r a t i o n s have been c o n s i d e r e d a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage on the way t o a c e n t r a l i z e d government, but, i n s o f a r as the f e d e r a l system tends to r e t a i n , and even c u l t i v a t e .Meal p a t r i o t i s m , i t does not h a s t e n the t r a n s -(43, cont'd) S t a t e E n g i n e e r i n g Works, and the Western Aus-t r a l i a n S t a t e M i l l s . The f a c t t h a t the r e v e r s a l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d Western A u s t r a l i a n i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s might have i n t e n s i f i e d the s t a t e governments d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a t the new p o l i c y . -54-i t i o n . The Western A u s t r a l i a n s , at the end of the War, were s t i l l conscious of t h e i r separate i d e n t i t y . They c o u l d f i n d 44 any number of gr i e v a n c e s a g a i n s t the Commonwealth government. The Western A u s t r a l i a n s were aware'that they were B r i t i s h , but they were f a r l e s s aware t h a t they were A u s t r a l i a n s . The C o n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d h a r d l y be h e l d s o l e y t o blame f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n , of. course, y e t a more f o r t u n a t e d i v i s i o n of powers might have i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l awareness. As i t was the s t a t e s r e t a i n e d too much power to permit i t s growth.. I t was the s t a t e s which provided the s e r v i c e s w i t h which the average c i t i z e n came most f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n t a c t , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , education, most s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n . The Commonwealth government, on the other hand, w.as a more d i s t a n t body which c o l l e c t e d taxes, but which, a c c o r d i n g to the s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n , f a i l e d to p r o v i d e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e w i t h s u f f i c i e n t l y generous grants to permit a more ample program of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o be i n i t i a t e d by the more l o c a l body. I f the s e r v i c e s were i n i t i a t e d i t would doubt-l e s s be the s t a t e government which would expect the f u l l c r e d i t . The f i n a n c i a l agreements which had to be drawn up under the 44 The f o l l o w i n g complaints were among those proclaimed by the s e c e s s i o n i s t s i n t h e i r attempts to show t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a had always been the v i c t i m of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The s t a t e ' s per c a p i t a payment (under the 1910 Surplus Revenue A c t ) was c a n c e l l e d f o r those s o l d i e r s who had l e f t the country on a c t i v e s e r v i c e . The Commonwealth government's.action can be j u s t i f i e d , but the c r y was r a i s e d t h a t i t was p e n a l i z i n g p a t r i o t i s m . W.A., the s t a t e to whom the grant was most important, was a l s o the s t a t e which boasted of the h i g h e s t per c a p i t a e n l i s t m e n t i n the armed f o r c e s (another r e s u l t of the h i g h m a s c u l i n i t y r a t e ? ) . The f a c t t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a n troops were t r a i n e d i n , embarked from, and r e t u r n e d to e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a was also:., not f o r g o t t e n . D uring the war the Commonwealth government p r o h i b i t e d the export of g o l d , thereby a c q u i r i n g the output of the mines a t a lower p r i c e than otherwise would have p r e v a i l e d . The W.A. base metal industry,was r u i n e d by a f e d e r a l government order, i s s u e d a f t e r the cessation- of h o s t i l i t i e s , but under wartime powers, pro-h i b i t i n g the export of ore concentrate and r e q u i r i n g s m e l t i n g to . be done a t government smelters i n the e a s t e r n s t a t e s . -55-c o n s t i t u t i o n were c e r t a i n to l e a d to f r i c t i o n a*tween the Sommon-wealth and s t a t e governments. The c o n s t i t u t i o n presupposed a c e r t a i n e q u a l i t y i n the s t a t e s e n t e r i n g the union . I t was ad-mi t t e d t h a t some adjustments would have t o be made f o r the f i r s t few y e a r s , hence the temporary t a r i f f c o n c e s s i o n to Western A u s t r a l i a and the bookkeeping c l a u s e , but i t would seem t h a t the draftsmen of the c o n s t i t u t i o n were e x p e c t i n g t h a t by the time the Braddon c l a u s e e x p i r e d , t e n years a f t e r the i n s t i t u t i o n of u n i f o r m t a r i f f s , any d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the f e d e r a t i n g s t a t e s would have been overcome, and a l l would be p r o s p e r i n g under the b l e s s i n g s of a u n i f o r m t a r i f f and i n t e r s t a t e freetrade» I t was f o r t u n a t e f o r those s t a t e s which d i d not respond t o the aforementioned treatment t h a t provisionnwas made t o r e l i e v e any temporary d i f f i c u l t y i n which the s t a t e might f i n d i t s e l f d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d * "During a p e r i o d of t e n years a f t e r the establishment of the Commonwealth, and t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l P a r l i a m e n t otherwise p r o v i d e s , the P a r l i a m e n t may grant f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o any S t a t e on such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as Pa r l i a m e n t t h i n k s f i t " 4 5 Ten y e a r s , then a l l was to be w e l l . But i t was not u n t i l a f t e r the t e n yea r p e r i o d had e x p i r e d t h a t the c l a u s e was put to r e a l use. E q u a l i t y between the s t a t e s was not b e i n g a c h i e v e d under the c o n s t i t u t i o n , and Western A u s t r a l i a , as one of the l e s s populous s t a t e s , was undergoing p a r t i c u l a r l y severe h a r d s h i p s . #5 S e c t i o n 96 CHAPTER POUR E a r l y S e c e s s i o n Moves. The f i r s t move to t e s t the i n d i s s o l u b i l i t y of the " i n d i s s o l -u b l e union of; i n d e s t r u c t i b l e s t a t e s " occurred i n 1906, about the date t h a t the s t a t e l o s t i t s r i g h t to l e v y i t s own t a r i f f . The approach of t h a t f a t e f u l day might have s t i m u l a t e d the s e c e s s i o n i s t s ' * a c t i o n s . S i n c e the o r i g i n a l p r o v i s i o n f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h a t s h^re of the customs and e x c i s e t h a t the Braddon Clause granted to the s t a t e s e x p i r e d on October 8, 1906 (the same date as the Western A u s t r a l i a n t a a t i f f c oncession) the problem of the f u t u r e d i v i s i o n of the,money was d i s c u s s e d most e a r n e s t l y a t a premiers* conference h e l d e a r l i e r i n the year* A r e s o l u t i o n a d v o c a t i n g per c a p i t a payments b e i n g s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the e x i s t i n g r e t u r n based upon the s t a t e s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n i n e x c i s e and customs was passed by a m a j o r i t y vote of the s t a t e s ' premiers. As such a procedure would mean a c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l l o s s to Western A u s t r a l i a mention of the r e s o l u t i o n was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the Governor's Speech opening the next s e s s i o n of the s t a t e p a r l iament wherein i t was s t a t e d t h a t the proposed a c t i o n "... would be a d i s t i n c t t v i o l a t i o n of one of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of the Commonwealth C o n s t i t u t i o n , and would d e p r i v e the S t a t e of i t s l e g i t i m a t e revenue a f t e r c o n t r i b u t i n g i t s quota to the c o s t 1 of the Commonwealth a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " and concluded w i t h the 1 W.A. P a r i . Debates, June 21, 1906, v o l . x x i x , p. 4, quoted i n Case of the People, p. 376. I t \*as estimated t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the per c a p i t a payments and the method then i n f o r c e would amount to £ 433,000 f o r the then c u r r e n t y e a r . -57-h o p e f u l statement t h a t the government had every c o n f i d e n c e t h a t the Commonwealth, r e c o g n i z i n g the r i g h t s of Western A u s t r a l i a , would d e a l j u s t l y i n the matter. The i n c l u s i o n of such a statement i n the Governor's Speech provided an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l who so desired, t o a t t a c k f e d e r a t i o n . Perhaps encouraged hy the apparent d i s s a t -i s f a c t i o n thus shown to the r e c e n t l y entered f e d e r a t i o n Mr. P.O. Monger, a p r i v a t e member r e p r e s e n t i n g the o l d a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n c y of Yprk, on September 26, i n t r o d u c e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n ; "That the Union of Western A u s t r a l i a , w i t h the other S t a t e s i n the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a , has proved d e t r i m e n t a l t o the bes t i n t e r e s t s of t h i s S t a t e , and t h a t the time has a r r i v e d f o r p l a c i n g b e f o r e the people the qu e s t i o n of withdrawing from such union." The r e s o l u t i o n b e i n g c a r r i e d i n both the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly and the C o u n c i l , Mr. Monger went on to i n t r o d u c e a b i l l t o pro-v i d e f o r a referendum on the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n . S i n c e the b i l l . i n v o l v e d the expe l i i t u r e of p u b l i c funds the Speaker r u l e d that i t c o u l d not proceed past the second r e a d i n g without a message of a u t h o r i z a t i o n from the Governor. The House never r e c e i v e d the r e q u i r e d message. The b i l l was i n t r o d u c e d and read a f i r s t time on November 13 . On the f i f t e e n t h Mr. Monger moved 3 a second r e a d i n g . The debate was then adjourned, and the c l o s e of the s e s s i o n put an end to t h i s , the f i r s t move f a v o u r i n g s e c e s s i o n from the Commonwealth. 2 W.A. P a r i . Debates, v o l . x x i x , p. 1871, quoted i n Case of the Peo-ple.' p. 377. 3 i b i d . , p. 377 - 5 3 -Among the p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i d e l i g h t e of t h i s a b o r t i v e attempt: a t severance was a l o n g speech "by a Labour mem-ber r e p r e s e n t i n g a g o l d f i e l d c o n s t i t u e n c y who, a l t h o u g h he opposed the motion on the grounds t h a t the withdrawal from the f e d e r a t i o n c o u l d not be p r a c t i c a l l y e f f e c t e d , d i d g i v e e x p r e s s i o n to a f e e l i n g of profound d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f e d e r a t i o n as i t then was, p o i n t i n g out the f a r h a p p i e r l o t of Hew Zealand, a colony which had remained a l o o f from the Commonwealth. "Ve are by geography a b s o l u t e l y separated from the E a s t . We cannot, w i t h t h a t s e p a r a t i o n , o b t a i n t h a t sympathy w i t h which t h i s S t a t e should be governed. ... There a r e s t i l l the same o l d J e a l o u s i e s between V i c t o r i a and New South Wales; and i n those f i g h t s t h i s S t a t e i s a b s o l u t e l y f o r g o t t e n . ... We are not worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . What-i s proposed even by S i r John F o r r e s t h i m s e l f i n the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s t r e a t e d l i g h t l y . People sneer a t i t , and we a r e t r e a t e d as a c o u n t r y remote, unknown. ... We have expended our p a t r i o t i s m ; i t i s no longer f o c u s e d w i t h i n the boundaries of Western A u s t r a l i a . We have none of t h a t p a t r i o t i s m f o r o u r s e l v e s now; we cannot d i s c u s s problems of our own; t h a t power of n a t i o n a l l i f e , so t o speak, has been taken from us; we have to r e s t s a t i s f i e d w i t h what our l o r d s and masters do i n the E a s t . ... The P a r l i a m e n t of t h i s great S t a t e , one t h i r d of the whole .Commonwealth, has been reduced to the p o s i t i o n of a mere s h i r e c o u n c i l . ... The greedy merchants of the E a s t can i n s i s t on g i v i n g us s u p p l i e s to our own disadvantage. ... T h i s i s what F e d e r a t i o n means to us, so t h a t we can s t a r t n o t h i n g we can have no i n d u s t r y we must c ;o c o n f i n e o u r s e l v e s p u r e l y to mining and farming." He then concluded on a c o l o n i a l note which, might have been q u i t e j u s t i f i a b l e i n 1906, but which i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t s sentiments were o f t e n repeated almost t h i r t y years' l a t e r . S e c e s s i o n was not a heinous t h i n g , he argued, f o r from whom would they be s e p a r a t i n g ? "Not from t h a t great Motherland which i s the source of our p r o t e c t i o n . We do not d e s i r e t o s e v e r those bounds which u n i t e us h i s t o r i c a l l y w i t h the g r e a t e s t n a t i o n which has y e t appeared i n h i s t o r y . We are l o y a l t o that Empire which -59-would p r o t e c t us as i t now p r o t e c t s New Zealand, and as i t p r o t e c t s the Commonwealth. ... we should not he l e s s a p o t i o n £of the Empire} i f we sepa r a t e d from the Common-weal t h tomorrow. Hay, more ... as b e i n g more dependent , upon the mother country. By b e i n g separated from the F e d e r a l c e n t r e we should l o o k more to t h a t homeland t h a t has been a p a t t e r n of l i b e r t y f o r a l l the wor l d ; a l a n d t h a t has pro-duced the b r a v e s t w a r r i o r s , the f i n e s t poets, the g r e a t e s t s c i e n t i s t s , the n o b l e s t p h i l o s o p h e r s . We do not want to lo o k a t any David Gaunson or Tommy Bent fift V i c t o r i a . We want to l o o k t o B r i t a i n . " 4 While Mr. Walker was s t r e s s i n g the d i s a b i l i t i e s which h i s s t a t e was e x p e r i e n c i n g under f e d e r a t i o n , a s e r i e s which was to be o f t e n r e c i t e d d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e decades, i s o l a t i o n , l a c k of e a s t e r n i n t e r e s t i n Western problems, the i n a b i l i t y of unprotected western i n f a n t i n d u s t r i e s t o s u r v i v e a g a i n s t e s t a b l i s h e d e a s t e r n competitors, and the f a c t t h a t A u s t r a l i a n l o y a l t y r e a l l y c o ntinued t o rank a poor t h i r d t o those claimed by B r i t a i n and the s t a t e , another g o l d f J i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was p o i n t i n g out the i m p r a c t i c a l i t y of any movement faro s e c e s s i o n . The b r i l l i a n t young new At t o r n e y / G e n e r a l , Hon.Norbert Keenan, f o r f o u r years past Mayor of K a l g o q r l i e , informed the house t h a t t h e i r s t a t e had entered i n t o an i n d i s s o l u b l e F e d e r a l Commonwealth, t h a t there was no p r o v i s i o n i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r withdrawal, and t h a t he was a b l e to o f f e r no hope t h a t the 5 I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t would take any a c t i o n to secure t h e i r r e l e a s e . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the s t a t e ' s l o t i n the f e d e r a l union 4 Mr. T. Walker, M.L.A. Kanowria, W.A. P a r i . Debates, Aug. 1, 1906, v o l . x x i x , pp. 748 et seq., quoted i n Case of the People, pp. 396-7. 5 Mr. Keenan's a c t i o n was r e c a l l e d by Hon. E.H. H a r r i s , ' who quoted h i s 1906 speech, W.A. P a r i . Debates, Aug. 30, 1933, p. 617. Mr. Keenan had a r r i v e d i n W.A. i n 1895, coming d i r e c t l y from the U n i t e d Kingdom. He l a t e r changed h i s mind on the ques t i o n of s e c e s s i o n and signed the 1935 s e c e s s i o n p e t i t i o n . V. i n f r a . , p. -60-c o u l d not be too deeply grounded, however. As has been mentioned payments e a r l i e r , per c a p i t a A w e r e i n s t i t u t e d i n 1908. When the l a r g e cut was made i n the g r a n t s , w i t h the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the 25 s. per c a p i t a payment f o r the previous t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the e x c i s e and customs revenues, the western s t a t e r e c e i v e d ample compensation i n the form of an a d d i t i o n a l £250,000 g r a n t . Western A u s t r a l i a responded to t h i s generous treatment by b e i n g the o n l y s t a t e i n which the m a j o r i t y of the v o t e r s r e g i s t e r e d t h e i r a p p r o v a l of two c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment r e f e r e n d a , designed to enhance the Commonwealth government's power, when these were submitted to the people i n 1911. The s t a t e was thus a b l e to e s t a b l i s h a unique r e c o r d of f a v o u r i n g every amendment submitted to a referendum up to 1926, every one of which tended to enhance 6 the power of the Commonwealth government. D u r i n g the war years domestic a f f a i r s were, f o r the f i r s t time, s u b o r d i n a t e d to the more p r e s s i n g e x t e r n a l emergency. The " n i n e t y - e i g h t per cent. B r i t i s h " Commonwealth had i t s severe c o n s c r i p t i o n c r i s i s , but'the homgeneity of the people prevented i t d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a s e c t i o n a l r i f t . The powers assumed by the Commonwealth government under the V a r P r e c a u t i o n s A c t , however, began to i r r i t a t e a t l e a s t the s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s b e f o r e the war was over. Government f i n a n c e s were a t the r o o t of the problem^ Paced w i t h an unprecedented need.for money the Common-weal t h invaded the d i r e c t t a x a t i o n f i e l d s p r e v i o u s l y occupied e x c l u s i v e l y by the s t a t e s , thei^by p r e v e n t i n g the s t a t e l s f u l l e x p l o i t a t i o n of these means of r a i s i n g revenue. A f u l l seven 6 A u s t r a l i a , Report of the R o y a l Commission on the C o n s t i t -u t i o n , Canberra, Government P r i n t e r , 1929, pp. 232-3. * -61-months b e f o r e the s i g n i n g of the A r m i s t i c e , one of the l a t e r l e a d e r s of the s e c e s s i o n i s t movement, H o n . ( l a t e r S i r ) H a l Oolebatch, then C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , o u t l i n e d the c o n d i t i o n of the s t a t e ' s f i n a n c e s to h i s f e l l o w members of the Western A u s t r a l i a n L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , e x p r e s s i n g h i s o p i n i o n t h a t the p o s s i b l e f u t u r e bankruptcy of the s t a t e might l e a d to an a g i t a t i o n among the people f o r e i t h e r s e c e s s i o n or u n i f i c a t i o n . D u r i n g the summer of 1918-19 a f a r more i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e . became an advocate off. s e c e s s i o n . A l f r e d Chandler was born i n -1852 a t Geelong, V i c t o r i a . He entered, or was c a l l e d t o , j o u r n a l i s m e a r l y i n l i f e , s e r v i n g f i r s t w i t h the Hamilton ( V i c . ) S p e c t a t o r . A dapting Horace Greeley's a d v i c e to A u s t r a l i a n c o n d i t i o n s he continued h i s w e s t e r l y progress by moving to A d e l a i d e , (S.A.) i n 1880, w h i l e the c a l l of g o l d brought him to C o o l g a r d i e i n 1894. The y e a r 1908 found him i n P e r t h . He c o u l d go no f u r t h e r west, so he j o i n e d the s t a f f of the Sunday Times a paper which seemed to f o l l o w the more s e n s a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n of B r i t i s h weekend j o u r n a l i s m . The Times atmosphere was c o n g e n i a l to the poet-8 j o u r n a l i s t , who rose r a p i d l y to the post of e d i t o r . A j o u r n a l i s t of the o l d s c h o o l without a cause f o r which t o crusade i s indeed a p a t h e t i c f i g u r e . A l f r e d Chandler c o u l d not be counted among t h e i r number, however, s i n c e he d i s c o v e r e d h i s cause i n the r e c e p t i o n accorded h i s s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s which 7 Speech i n L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , A p r i l 11, 1918, quoted without exact r e f e r e n c e i n Case of the people, p. 379. 8 B i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s used here, and elBewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s taken f r o m Knox, E.G. (ed.) Who's who i n A u s t r a l i a 1933, Melbourne, He r a l d P r e s s , 1933;! -62-appeared i n the Times d u r i n g l a t e 1918 and e a r l y 1919. I n t h i s s e r i e s he accused the Commonwealth government of v i o l a t i n g "both the l e t t e r and the s p i r i t of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , drawing ta.a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of v e r b a l ammunition from the h a rmful e f f e c t s of the Commonwealth government's p o l i c y on the Western 9 A u s t r a l i a n m ining i n d u s t r y as w e l l as from i t s t a x a t i o n p o l i c y . The immediate r e s u l t of Mr. Chandler's j o u r n a l i s t i c e s p o usal ofl s e c e s s i o n was an open meeting of c i t i z e n s a t the P e r t h Town H a l l , but the f e r v o u r of the e n t h u s i a s t s c o u l d not compensate f o r the f a c t t h a t the s t a t e government of the day was not i n f a v o u r of d r a s t i c a c t i o n . In the words of Mr. Chandler h i m s e l f ; "That meeting was e n t h u s i a s t i c i n i t s unanimity f o r d r a s t i c a c t i o n ; but i t s e f f e c t i v e consumation was d e s t r o y e d by a supine Premier, and the p e t r i f i e d p a s s i v i t y of c e r t a i n p o l i t i c i a n s who denounced f e d e r a l bondage, but who had not the courage to advocate the l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n — freedom, or a r e v e r s i o n to the f u l l and p r o g r e s s i v e autonomy which the s t a t e enjoyed 10 b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g the f e d e r a l promises on t h e i r f a c e v a l u e . " The i d e a of s e c e s s i o n seems to have been implanted i n the minds of many Western A u s t r a l i a n s by the Chandler s e r i e s . Thus, i n a r e p o r t prepared by the S t a t e Under T r e a s u r e r , Edgar T. Owen, l a t e r i n 1919 on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t a t e and Common-9 Although the Commonwealth government had adopted a f r a n k l y p r o t e c t i o n i s t t a r i f f p o l i c y as e a r l y as 1908 the t a r i f f d i d not f i g u r e prominently among the g r i e v a n c e s proclaimed i n 1919. 10 R o y a l Commission on the e f f e c t s of f e d e r a t i o n upon the f i n a n c e s of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1925, Minutes of Evidence ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as "W.A. D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission") as quoted i n Case of the People, p. 401. The w r i t e r has not had access to any of the a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by Mr. Chandler. H i s d e s c r i p t i o n of them i s based upon r e f e r e n c e s made by speakers i n the s t a t e parliament and on the minutes of h i s testimony g i v e n b e f o r e the R o y a l Commission on March 9, 1925. There were r e f e r e n c e s to C h a n d l e r - i n s p i r e d s e c e s s i o n meetings i n Round T a b l e , v o l . 9, 1918-19, p. 800. - 6 3 -wealth f i n a n c e s the author, hy means of an impressive s e r i e s of c a l c u l a t i o n s , proved to a t l e a s t h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t the lost s t a t e treasury A£8,055,000 as a r e s u l t of f e d e r a t i o n between 11 January 1901 and June 1919. His suggested remedy, however, was not s e c e s s i o n , but a permanent 11 s. per c a p i t a bonus i n a d d i t i o n to the r e g u l a r 25 s. grant,which would r e p l a c e the d i m i n i s h i n g .12 s p e c i a l grant e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1910. References have been made e a r l i e r i n t h i s essay to the con n e c t i o n between the p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f and the s e c e s s i o n move-ment. I n few c o u n t r i e s i n the wor l d has the the o r y of p r o t e c t i o n been so whole h e a r t e d l y accepted by the g r e a t e r p a r t of the people as has been the case i n A u s t r a l i a . P r o f e s s o r Hancock devotes a chapter of h i s survey volume to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 13 dogma of h i s f e l l o w countrymen. V i c t o r i a had been the s o l e colony to adopt a f r a n k l y p r o t e c t -i o n i s t t a r i f f p o l i c y i n p r e - f e d e r a t i o n days. The other A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s had v a r i o u s grades of revenue t a r i f f , w i t h New South 14 Wales coming c l o s e s t t o the B r i t i s h i d e a l of f r e e t r a d e . i t had "fenen the c o n f l i c t between the p r o t e c t i o n i s t V i c t o r i a and f r e e t r a d e New South Wales t h a t had rendered f e d e r a t i o n n e g o t i a t i o n s so 11 Owen, E.T., R por  on f i n a n c a l r e l a t i o n s between the  S t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a and the Commonwealth, P e r t h , Govern-m nt P r i n t e r , 1919, p. 24. 1 2 i b i d . , p. 29. The s u g g e s t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t i m p l i e d t h a t the d i s a b i l i t i e s of W.A. were of a permanent n a t u r e . 13 Hancock, op. c i t . , Chap. V.. 14 G i l b i n , L.P., "The T a r i f f , i t s c o s t s and e f f e c t s " , i n Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , v o l . 158, Nov., 1931, p. 119. An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t i n view of f u t u r e events can be found i n the statement made by the then A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , Hon. (cont'd, p. 64) -64-d i f f i c u l t . One of the r e s u l t s of the i n c l u s i o n of the Braddon compro-mise i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n was the e n t a i l e d n e c e s s i t y of the f i r s t Commonwealth Government d r a f t i n g a t a r i f f t h a t would produce s u f f i c i e n t revenue to equal the h u l k of the o r d i n a r y r e c e i p t s of the s t a t e s plus t h e i r share of the new Commonwealth 15 expenses. The r e s u l t was a compromise which pl e a s e d n e i t h e r f r e e t r a d e r nor p r o t e c t i o n i s t . I t was the p r o t e c t i o n i s t element who had gained c o n t r o l of the government by the time t h a t the f i r s t r e v i s i o n of the customs t a r i f f r a t e s was c o n s i d e r e d . The T a r i f f of 1908 was marked by i n c r e a s e d r a t e s on almost a l l items w i t h the u s u a l type of l o y a l Dominion p r e f e r e n c e b e i n g shown to the products of the U n i t e d Kingdom. On them the i n c r e a s e v/as s l i g h t l y l e s s s t e e p . F u r t h e r t a r i f f i n c r e a s e s were made i n the c l o s i n g month of 1914, but i t was not u n t i l a f t e r the war t h a t the f u l l impact of p r o t e c t i v i s m was f e l t . P r o t e c t i o n had by t h a t time become the accepted p o l i c y of the e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l 16 p a r t i e s . The customs t a r i f f of 1921 was designed to p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s s t a r t e d d u r i n g the war, w h i l e the Customs T a r i f f ( I n d u s t r i e s P r e s e r v a t i o n ) A c t of the same yea r p e r m i t t e d the i m p o s i t i o n of s p e c i a l a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s to prevent dumping f r o m ot h e r c o u n t r i e s which were a l s o t r y i n g to m a i n t a i n f u l l p r o d u c t i o n 14 (cont'd) T.A.L. Davy, i n the W.A. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly t h a t one of the reasons the g o l d f i e l d s f a v o u r e d f e d e r a t i o n v/as a d e s i r e to escape from the Qolony's p r o t e c t i o n i s t p o l i c y . W.A. P a r i . Debates. Aug. 11, 1931, p. 4353. 15 Customs T a r i f f 1902 (No. 14 of 1902). 16 E g g l e s t o n , F.W., " P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and t h e i r Economics P o l i c i e s " i n American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s v o l . 158, Nov. 1931, pp. 243-250. -65-of t h e i r war-expanded i n d u s t r i e s . I t was i n the atmosphere of r i s i n g t a r i f f s always, seemingly, b e i n g amended upwards, t h a t the r e s t of the Western A u s t r a l i a n s t o r y takes p l a c e . The s t a t e parliament appointed a j o i n t s e l e c t committee of b o t h i t s houses i n 1921 to enquire f u r t h e r i n t o the e f f e c t of f e d e r a t i o n on the f i n a n c e s of the s t a t e . At t h i s time the word " s e c e s s i o n " began to be heard more o f t e n , although as y e t i t was not taken s e r i o u s l y by any a p p r e c i a b l e p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . Speaking i n the Commonwealth upper chamber Sen. Hugh DeLargie (WSAj-0 commented upon the G i l b e r t i a n s p e c t a c l e of a former advocate of the s e c e s s i o n of Albany, i n the south of the s t a t e , from the r e s t of Western A u s t r a l i a g i v i n g evidence f a v o u r i n g s t a t e s e c e s s i o n b e f o r e t h i s committee which had as i t s p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r a gentleman who had i n h i s day 17 advocated the withdrawal of the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of the s t a t e i W i t h the d r a s t i c i n c r e a s e i n the Commonwealth t a r i f f r a t e s i n 1921 i t was only n a t u r a l t h a t an i m a g i n a t i v e newspaperman might decide to w r i t e a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s a n a l y s i n g Western A u s t r a l i a ' s p o s i t i o n under a system of c o n t i n e n t a l f r e e t r a d e w i t h i n a h i g h t a r i f f w a l l . Mr. J.C. M o r r i s o n , of the e d i t o r i a l s t a f f of the l e a d i n g P e r t h d a i l y , the West A u s t r a l i a n , wrote f o u r such a r t i c l e s , which appeared i n h i s paper d u r i n g the month of November, 1922. The a r t i c l e s b l a z e d the t r a i l wor what was to be from t h a t time forward the c h i e f path t r o d by the s e c e s s i o n i s t s . H i s p r i n c i p a l theme was t h a t both the primary and secondary 17 Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a , P a r i . Debates, Oct'. 10, 1922, p. 3430. : ! -66-i n d u s t r i e s of the s t a t e were b e i n g a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by a t a r i f f t h a t was designed to s u i t the i n t e r e s t s of the more populous e a s t e r n s t a t e s . Western A u s t r a l i a ' s economy was based on the p r o d u c t i o n and export of primary products, wheat, wool, and g o l d . "IPrimary producing c o u n t r i e s should s e l l t o manufacturing and get back t h e i r manufactures i n payment; but we a r e compelled t o s e l l i n the cheapest markets i n the w o r l d and buy i n the d e a r e s t , namely the h i g h l y p r o t e c t e d manufacturing S t a t e s of the E a s t ; and f o r the one e s s e n t i a l primary product sugar, which we do not produce, t o buy i n the h i g h l y p r o t e c t e d sugar f i e l d s of -Queensland and New South Wales. We s e l l approximately 90 percent, of our exports "overseas; we buy approximately 48 per cent, of our import requirements from the E a s t , and our ea s t e r n imports are brought to us by the most h i g h l y p r o t e c t e d merchant marine i n the world ... . 1 , 1 8 Mr. M o r r i s o n l a t e r s t a t e d t h a t he had been l e d to w r i t e h i s West A u s t r a l i a n a r t i c l e s a t the i n v i t a t i o n one of the 19 members of the T a r i f f Board, Mr. Her b e r t Brookes. The newly 18 W.A. D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission, Minutes of Evi d e n c e , J.C. M o r r i s o n , Feb. 26, 1925, as quoted i n Case of the People p. 399. As was the case i n Mr. Chandler's a r t i c l e s , the presen t w r i t e r i s b a s i n g h i s d e s c r i p t i o n on second hand i n f o r m a t i o n . The sugar p r o t e c t i o n mentioned i n Mr. Morrison's evidence c o n s t i t u t e d a major W.A. g r i e v a n c e . By pr o c l a m a t i o n dated Sept. 9, 1915 the i m p o r t a t i o n of sugar i n A u s t r a l i a had been banned except by w r i t t e n consent of the m i n i s t e r of customs. The'"White A u s t r a l i a " p o l i c y and p r o t e c t i o n worked'hand i n hand to b u i l d ' u p the sugar f i e l d s of Queensland employing white l a b o u r a t good wages, and to b u i l d up'the^sugar p r i c e i n A u s t r a l i a ' u n t i l , " I n -1932, w i t h a w o r l d . p r i c e of £6 per ton, the p r o t e c t e d A u s t r a l i a n p r i c e was £36 a ton. F o r mbce on the p r o t e c t e d merchant marine,' another r e s u l t of White A u s t r a l i a plus p r o t e c t i o n , ^ , i n f r a - p.- 70. 19 In g i v i n g evidence b e f o r e the D i s a b i l i t i e s . C o m m i s s i o n , Feb. 26, 1925, quoted i n Case of the People, p. 398 The idea? of i.a board of independent and competent i n v e s t -i g a t o r s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d to a d v i s e the government on t a r i f f q u e stions and to prevent abuses i n the p r o t e c t i o n system had been c i r c u l a t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a n p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s s i n c e b e f o r e the War. The T a r i f f Board was not e s t a b l i s h e d , however, u n t i l 1921. I t was to c o n s i s t of f i v e men ( v e r y few of whom had ever had experience i n the type of work expected of them ) to whom (cont'd, p. 67) e s t a b l i s h e d T a r i f f Board d i d indeed make an e x t e n s i v e study- o f Western A u s t r a l i a n c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r 1922 v i s i t to t h a t s t a t e . 20 Working under the i n v i t a t i o n of the s t a t e premier the Board's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were not c o n f i n e d to.matters p e r t a i n i n g to the t a r i f f , but embraced a l l the s t a t e ' s d i s a b i l i t i e s which might have a d e r i o u s e f f e c t upon the f e d e r a l c o n n e c t i o n . The r e s u l t of t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s was p u b l i s h e d i n two r e p o r t s almost two years l a t e r . ^ I t was i n one of these r e p o r t s t h a t the f i r s t acknowledgement by a Commonwealth body of the e x i s t e n c e of a s e c e s s i o n i s t sentiment i n the western s t a t e Can be found. The Board r e p o r t e d t h a t ; "On a l l s i d e s i t was found that 'there was a unanimous disappointment w i t h the r e s u l t s a t t e n d a n t upon the o p e r a t i o n of F e d e r a t i o n upon the S t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a . T h i s disappointment covered a l l degrees of c r i t i c i s m from a m i l d d i s a p p r o v a l to a r e b e l l i o u s d e s i r e to achieve Secession'.' 2 2 Here was but the f i r s t , not the l a s t , r e f e r e n c e to " r e b e l l i o u s 23 S e c e s s i o n " . 19 (cont'd) the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Customs was, by / Act of P a r l i a m e n t o b l i g e d to submit questions i n v o l v i n g the a l t -e r a t i o n of t a r i f f s or b o u n t i e s and any complaints c o n c e r n i n g h i g h p r i c e s r e s u l t i n g from the t a r i f f as w e l l as problems i n v o l v i n g v a l u a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of goods. Ho a c t i o n c o u l d be taken by the M i n i s t e r u n t i l the Board had f i l e d i t s r e p o r t . 20 S i r James M i t c h e l l , prominent i n l a t e r s e c e s s i o n i s t a c t i v i t i e s . 21 "General Report on Western A u s t r a l i a " and "Report on the T a r i f f and i t s i n c i d e n c e on Western A u s t r a l i a " , both appended to 1924 Report of the T a r i f f Board. Hot a v a i l a b l e . 22 "Report on the T a r i f f ... " p. 25, as quoted i n Case  of the People, p. 380. S3 About the same time as the T a r i f f Board was making i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n W.A. there occurred one of the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s of i n t e r e s t i n s e c e s s i o n on the p a r t of an e a s t e r n member of the Commonwealth P a r l i a m e n t . On October 10, 1922 Sen. H.S. P o l l (Queensland) asked h i s f e l l o w senator, Hugh DeLargie whether the c i t i z e n s of h i s s t a t e were s e r i o u s l y t a l k i n g ofi s e c e s s i o n , or whether i t was a sentiment shared by but one or two people. (cont'd, p. 6 8 ) -68-Reports of the T a r i f f Board a r e g i v e n the g r e a t e s t c o n - -s i d e r a t i o n hy the A u s t r a l i a n government. The Board had r e p o r t e d that Western A u s t r a l i a was s u f f e r i n g from d i s a b i l i t i e s . The s t a t e government was r e q u e s t i n g t h a t the f e d e r a l government do something. Those e x c e l l e n t people, the v o t e r s of Western Aust-r a l i a were b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o Mr. Chandler's repeated a s s e r t i o n s i n the Sunday Times t h a t f e d e r a t i o n was not b e n e f i t i n g Western A u s t r a l i a . M otivated i n p a r t a t l e a s t by the c o n s i d e r a t i o n n o f these f a c t s , the Commonwealth government " d i d something". They appointed a R o y a l Commission on the e f f e c t s of f e d e r a t i o n upon the f i n a n c e s of Western A u s t r a l i a , g e n e r a l l y known as the"Western A u s t r a l i a n D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission". The Commission, named toward the end of 1924, was composed of t h r e e men, none of whom were_, connected w i t h Western A u s t r a l i a . The chairman, Hon W.G. Higgs, a former Commonwealth Treasures?, . had represented Queensland c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n the lower House. 24 John E n t w i s t l e was, a p p a r e n t l y , a South A u s t r a l i a n , and Stephen M i l s a Melbourne man.. Western A u s t r a l i a n h e a r i n g commenced i n 23 (cont'd) The Western A u s t r a l i a n admitted t h a t some con-v e r t s had been made to the movement, and proceeded to g i v e h i s reasons f o r the growth of separatism. The honorable Senator was doubtless ^influenced by p e r s o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The newspapers were a t f a u l t . The r e p o r t s of the Commonwealth Parl i a m e n t were models i n b r e v i t y , w h i l e the proceedings of t h e S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e were giv e n i n the f u l l e s t d e t a i l . Commonwealth P a r i . Debates v o l . 101, 10 Oct. 1922, p. 3426. 24 Sen. E.B. Johnston (W.A. ) i n Commonwealth P a r i . Debates 17 Nov., 1931, d e s c r i b e s Mr. E n t w i s t l e as a South A u s t r a l i a n primary producer. He i s not listed'^any of the a v a i l a b l e A u s t r a l i a n Who's who. He i s l i s t e d i n the D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission Report as a J u s t i c e of the Peace. Mr. Thomas Dunbabin,-Press Attache to the A u s t r a l i a n High Commissioner i n Canada, i n a l e t t e r to the author, Aug. 6, 1948, r e g r e t t e d t h a t he co u l d uncover no inform-a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s man who played a s h o r t but v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n the s e c e s s i o n i s t movement, but suggested t h a t he might be ' the same John E n t w i s t l e who r e c e n t l y r e t i r e d from a s e n i o r post i n the Commonwealth Trade and Customs Department. -69-February when, i n the words of P r o f . Hancock, "Round the heads of t h a t Commission t h e r e gathered a c l o u d of w i t n e s s e s who dainned 25 F e d e r a t i o n as a d i s a s t r o u s experiment, a v e r y great mistake". Messrs. M o r r i s o n and Chandler repeated the meat of t h e i r news-paper a r t i c l e s to t h i s s m a l l e r hut more s e l e c t audience. Farmers 26 amd engineers added t h e i r testimony. The f e d e r a l viewpoint was a l s o upheld, of course, hut, s i n c e the commission had "been appointed to i n v e s t i g a t e d i s a b i l i t i e s , Western A u s t r a l i a n s l o y a l l y s t r e s s e d the darker aspects of the s i t u a t i o n . I f d i s -a b i l i t i e s were wanted they would f i n d and present them. The o l d f a m i l i a r grievances were a g a i n a i r e d ; the unequal i n c i d e n c e of the t a r i f f , the entrance of t h e Commonwealth govern-ment i n t a x a t i o n f i e l d s p r e v i o u s l y l e f t to the s t a t e , and the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g of n e g l e c t and i s o l a t i o n . A gain the c o n v i c t i o n was expressed t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r s t a t e were b e i n g ignored a t the f e d e r a l c a p i t a l , where a l a r g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the House 25 Hancock, op. c i t . , p. 89. 26 A.J. Monger, Farmer " F e d e r a t i o n has been on t r i a l f o r 24 years and has proved a d i s a s t r o u s experiment f o r Western A u s t r a l i a . ... With the h i s t o r y of the past i n our minds, I can-not h e l p f e e l i n g t h a t i f l a referendum were taken amongst the people of t h i s s t a t e upon the q u e s t i o n of whether they would p r e -f e r to remain p a r t of the Commonwealth or r e v e r t to t h e i r former s t a t u s as a. s o v e r e i g n S t a t e t h e r e would be an overwhelming vote i n f a v o u r of b r e a k i n g away from the F e d e r a l yoke5.' The v e r y name "Monger" b r i n g s back memories of 1906, but t h i s marfs r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F.C. Monger (v. supra, p. 57) i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . F.C. C l i f t o n , E n g i n e e r , "I d e s i r e t o impress upon you t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s throughout the country a v e r y d i s t i n c t movement t o -wards s e c e s s i o n . H.R. Sleeman, Eng i n e e r , "A s e c t i o n of the people are f o r s e c e s s i o n . A b i g g e r s e c t i o n d e s i r e i t , but b e l i e v e i t i s im-p r a c t i c a b l e . ... i f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s continue the s e c e s s i o n movement w i l l grow i n numbers and f o r c e of f e e l i n g . " W.A. D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission, Minutes of Evidence, as quoted i n Case of the People, pp. 400, 409. -70-of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was r e q u i r e d t o g a i n a t t e n t i o n . Another source of d i s s a t i s f a t i o n , which bad not p r e v i o u s l y been s t r e s s e d was now a l s o i n t r o d u c e d and f a i r l y completely a i r e d b e f o r e the commission. The N a v i g a t i o n Act was c o n s i d e r e d i n the e a s t e r n c o n t i n e n t a l s t a t e s to be but a f u r t h e r refinement of the "White A u s t r a l i a n " p o l i c y , l i m i t i n g the A u s t r a l i a n c o a s t a l t r a d e to s h i p s of B r i t i s h r e g i s t r y and c o n t a i n i n g a s e r i e s of r e g u l a t i o n s concerning the type of crew aad working c o n d i t i o n s which, f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes, d i s q u a l i f i e d other B r i t i s h s h i p s from the t r a d e . The consequent monopoly of the e a s t e r n s h i p p i n g companies and the A u s t r a l i a n Sea-27 men's Union r e s u l t e d i n h i g h f r e i g h t charges which r e a c t e d unfav-ourab l y on the western s t a t e w i t h i t s l o n g c o a s t l i n e w i t h i s o l a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s and i t s dependence, under t a r i f f r e s t r i c t i o n s , upon e a s t e r n manufacturing c e n t r e s . The commission was informed t h a t a manufacturer of a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r a t a po r t t h r e e hundred m i l e s from Fremantle found i t cheaper t o s h i p h i s product to Europe than to the seaport of h i s s t a t e ' s c a p i t a l c i t y and metro-27 The s t a t e government attempted to lower s h i p p i n g charges by e s t a b l i s h i n g a government steamship l i n e t o serve the more i s o l a t e d n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n s of t h e s t a t e , but the venture was not a f i n a n c i a l success. A Western A u s t r a l i a n c o u l d always f i n d a g r i e v a n c e . When the Commonwealth government, r e g o g n i z i n g the s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of the ar e a , i s s u e d permits a l l o w i n g t h r e e c o l o u r e d l a b o u r s h i p s to continue t h e i r c o a s t i n g t r a d e a l o n g the north-west of A u s t r a l i a when the N a v i g a t i o n A c t was f i r s t enforced i n 1921 the Labour mem-ber r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i s t r i c t , Mr. A. Green ( K a l g o o r l i e , a f e d e r a l e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t which embraces a l l but the south-west corner of the s t a t e ) p r o t e s t e d t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a was b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by b e i n g the o n l y p a r t of the Commonwealth t h a t was d e p r i v e d of the b e n e f i t s of the N a v i g a t i o n A c t . Needless to say, the major-i t y of Mr. Green's e l e c t o r s d i d not r e s i d e i n the Nor t h West. Commonwealth P a r i . Debates, v o l . 105, Aug. 23, 1923, p. 3403. 28 p o l i s . - 7 1 -To d i s a g r e e i s human. N e v e r t h e l e s s the degree of d i s a g r e e -ment achieved "by the t h r e e members of the D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission, •was s l i g h t l y greatest than t h a t c o n s i d e r e d proper f o r men i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n . Upon the major p o i n t they were unanimous. Western A u s t r a l i a d i d s u f f e r from c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l d i s a b i l i t i e s which were the outcome of the s t a t e ' s entrance i n t o f e d e r a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n manifested themselves i n the commission-e r s ' attempts to d e f i n e the exact degree of d i s a b i l i t y and t o p r e s c r i b e remedies. A l l r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of the s e c e s s i o n -i s t sentiment-;- Commissioners Higgs and M i l s were i n c l i n e d to b e l i e v e t h a t the causes f o s t e r i n g the s e p a r a t i s t tendencies c o u l d be countered; " I t i s d i f f i c u l t i o a community such as Western A u s t r a l i a , w i t h i t s r e l a t i v e I s o l a t i o n from the Seat of government and a l s o from the other S t a t e s , t o prevent the c r e a t i o n and growth of the b e l i e f t h a t other S t a t e s are somewhat i n d i f f e r e n t to Western A u s t r a l i a ' s p e c u l i a r problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s , i t i s indeed v e r y d e s i r a b l e t h a t a g r e a t e r knowledge of Western A u s t r a l i a should be a t t a i n e d by r e s i d e n t s i n other S t a t e s , and a b l y d i r e c t e d propaganda h a v i n g t h a t o b j e c t i n view should, i n our o p i n i o n , be under-taken. Some reasonable degree of a s s i s t a n c e by the Common-wealth, on the l i n e s i n d i c a t e d i n other s e c t i o n s of t h i s r e p o r t would, i n our o p i n i o n , go f a r to put an end to the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f e d e r a t i o n , s e d u l o u s l y f o s t e r e d by a t l e a s t one Western A u s t r a l i a j o u r n a l of wide c i r c u l a t i o n {Sunday Times)', and. which has obtained such a degree o f ' go. acceptance t h a t i t cannot be d i s m i s s e d as i n s i g n i f i c a n t , " 28 Quoted from Minutes of Evidence by Gisborne, F.A.W., " D i s r u p t i v e tendencies i n the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth" i n Edinburgh Review, v o l . 224, Oct., 1926, p. 253. 29 Quoted from Report by Sen. E.B. Johnston, Commonwealth P a r i . Debates, v o l . 124, May 21, 1930, p. 1922. -72-Commissioner E n t w i s t l e d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h i s m a j o r i t y repoart, stating; "In my o p i n i o n Western A u s t r a l i a should never have entered the F e d e r a t i o n , hut having done so t h e r e i s , I f e e l con-v<• yineed 1 r ipnUytone-complete a n d ' : s a t i s f a c t o r y remedy f o r h e r present d i s a h i l i t i e s , v i z . S e c e s s i o n . I f t h a t event occur-red a l l other recommendations i n t h i s r e p o r t would become unnecessary. As, however, i t cannot be taken f o r granted t h a t s e c e s s i o n would take p l a c e , I have j o i n e d i n recom-mendations h a v i n g the objeet of r e l i e v i n g (at l e a s t t o some extent) the present f i n a n c i a l d i s a b i l i t i e s of the S t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a . " 3 0 T h i s m i n o r i t y r e p o r t was Mr. E n t w i s t l e * s great c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Western A u s t r a l i a n s e c e s s i o n movement. The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t was d e s t i n e d to be f o r g o t t e n , but Mr. E n t w i s t l e * s opening sentence was to be quoted over and over a g a i n by men who seemed to know not the name of the author, but merely the f a c t t h a t he was "am i m p a r t i a l , Commonwealth-appointed e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n " . Whereas Commissioner E n t w i s t l e was i n the m i n o r i t y i n d i a g n o s i n g the s e v e r i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a ' s malady, he c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h the chairman, Mr. Higgs, i n p r e s c r i b i n g a s u i t a b l e remedy. The m a j o r i t y r e p o r t mentioned both an immediate and a more permanent. treatment. Messrs, Higgs and E n t w i s t l e would l i k e t o have seen Western A u s t r a l i a r e i n v e s t e d w i t h i t s c o l o n i a l s o v e r e i g n t y i n customs and e x c i s e matters. F o r t w e n t y - f i v e years the s t a t e would be allowed c o n t r o l of i t s o own customs t a r i f f as i n p r e - f e d e r a t i o n days, w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t goods from the r e s t of A u s t r a l i a would not be s u b j e c t e d to a h i g h e r customs duty than those from elsewhere, w h i l e the e x c i s e 30 Report, as quoted i n W.A., P a r l i a m e n t , Report of the  Committee appointed to prepare a f u r t h e r case on the d i s a b i l i t i e s of Western A u s t r a l i a under F e d e r a t i o n , P e r t h , Government P r i n t e r , 1932, p. 16. -73-t a r i f f was to be granted to the s t a t e u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y f o r an equal p e r i o d of time. The amount t h a t the s t a t e was to pay t o the Commonwealth i n r e t u r n f o r the Commonwealth's continued s e r v i c e s , the co s t of which was expected t o be i n excess of t h e amouAt that Agovernment would continue to r e c e i v e from the probate d u t i e s , income, l a n d , and other taxes which i t would s t i l l be l e v y i n g i n the s t a t e was to be determined by c o n s u l t a t i o n - , between the s t a t e and Commonwealth governments, or, i f t h a t f a i l , to be f i x e d by an a r b i t o r , who was to be a c i t i z e n of the B r i t i s h Empire. U n t i l the nec e s s a r y amendments to e f f e c t such changes were obtained, the m a j o r i t y r e p o r t recommended an annual grant from the Commonwealth government of £450,000 per annum i n a d d i t i o n to the grants a l r e a d y paing p a i d the s t a t e . Commissioner M i l l s t h i s time found h i m s e l f i n a m i n o r i t y , thus g i v i n g him an o p p o r t u n i t y to compose a r e p o r t p o i n t i n g out. that the primary recommendations of h i s two f e l l o w commissioners would p r a c t i c a l l y n u l l i f y f e d e r a t i o n . In h i s o p i n i o n a grant of £375,000 a year f o r t w e n t y - f i v e years would compensate Western A u s t r a l i a f o r h e r f e d e r a l l y induced d i s a b i l i t i e s . The Chairman, Mr. Higgs, had h i s t u r n as s o l o i s t i n recommending t h a t the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of the s t a t e be s u r r e n -dered to the Commonwealth by Western A u s t r a l i a f o r the purpose of i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h the t e r r i t o r y of Northern A u s t r a l i a , as a new s t a t e , which would thus i n c r e a s e the West's 31 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the f e d e r a l c a p i t a l . 31 F a i r l y l e n g t h y quotations from the r e p o t t s of the three commissioners a r e contained i n the w.A. commission s r e p o r t p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d (v. supra, p .72, n.30) -74-There was a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n scheduled f o r 1926. Govern-ments at such times have "been known to wax r a t h e r generous, and the Bruce-Page m i n i s t r y was no e x c e p t i o n . I t had promised to implement the recommendations f o r a monetary grant whlchl might .Se^madei&Bf the Commission. True to i t s word, a Western A u s t r a l i a n Grant B i l l , a u t h o r i z i n g the payment of £450,000 to the s t a t e t r e a s u r y (hut i n c o r p o r a t i n g the r e s i d u e of the d i m i n i s h i n g I C ' U g r a n t ) o f 1910} was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the Commonwealth P a r l i a m e n t on January 20, 1926. The B i l l progressed through the proper stages unhindered "by e x c e s s i v e i n t e r e s t or debate and r e c e i v e d 32 r o y a l a s s e n t as A c t no. 10 of 1926 on March 24. W i t h the e l e c t i o n over, and the the grant h a v i n g p l a y e d i t s p a r t i n m a i n t a i n i n g the N a t i o n a l i s t and Country P a r t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the western S t a t e , the r e t u r n e d govern-, ' ' 33 ment proceeded to i n t r o d u c e the S t a t e s ' Grants B i l l , which, along w i t h i t s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned prime purpose of a b o l i s h i n g the per c a p i t a payments to the v a r i o u s s t a t e s , contained c l a u s e s p r o v i d i n g f o r s p e c i a l payments to Western A u s t r a l i a and Tasmania. Western A u s t r a l i a ' s grant was cutjto £300,000 34 1 per annum but was to extend f o r a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d from J u l y 1, 1926, w h i l e Tasmania, which had a l s o been honoured by an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of i t s f i n a n c e s , i t i t s case by a s i n g l e s e n i o r 33 v. supra, p. 49." 34 One of the g r e a t weaknesses of b o t h the H i g g s - E n t w i s t l e and the M i l l s ' - monetary grant suggestions was the a b s o l u t e ' l a c k of any d e s c r i p t i o n of how the recommended sum was computed. The £450,000 f i g u r e came f a i r l y c l o s e t o the sum mentioned by the s t a t e t r e a s u r e r as the amount l o s t per year by the s t a t e through not c o n t r o l l i n g i t s own customs. -75-c i v i l s e r v a n t , was to r e c e i v e £378,000 per annum f o r two years 35 commencing from the same date. The r e p o r t of the D i s a b i l i t i e s Qommission and i t s p a r t i a l implementation might be used to mark an end of an e r a . A l f r e d Chandler's f o r m a t i o n of the S e c e s s i o n League i n 1925-26 marks,,! the b e g i n n i n g of an organized attempt to secure the secessiomc.of the s t a t e from the Commonwealth by employing the same means t h a t secured f e d e r a t i o n d u r i n g the c l o s i n g y e ars of the n i n e t e e n t h century — by the use of e x t r a - p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . The h i s t o r y of the s t a t e p r i o r t o the f o r m a t i o n of the League r e v e a l s t h a t the s e c e s s i o n sentiment was not (as was l a t e r o f t e n claimed) e n t i r e l y a product of the Great D e p r e s s i o n . The 1906 attempt a t s e c u r i n g a referendum might be d i s m i s s e d as a symptom of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a r i s i n g out of u n f u l f i l l e d hopes on the p a r t of former f e d e r a l i s t s combined w i t h the u n r e c o n c i l e d f e e l i n g s of some a n t i - f e d e r a l i s t s . The f a c t that the s t a t e government's hand was not f o r c e d through repeated-requests f o r 35 The Tanmanian government, l i k e the Western A u s t r a l i a n , had l o n g s u f f e r e d from l a c k of revenue. I n 1912 i t had r e c e i v e d a grant of £95,000, d i m i n i s h i n g by £10,000 per y e a r , s i m i l a r t o the Western A u s t r a l i a n g r ant of 1910. The grant was exhausted i n the f i s c a l y e a r 1921-22. S p e c i a l g r a nts of £85,000 per annum were g i v e n the s t a t e i n the two f i s c a l y e a r s , 1922-23 and 1923-34. In 1924-25 a f u r t h e r a c t was passed g r a n t i n g the i s l a n d s t a t e £85,000 f o r t h a t y e a r w i t h the grant b e i n g decreased by £17,000 f o r each of the f o u r succeeding y e a r s . R o y a l Commission on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , Repofrt, p. 192. The i n c i d e n c e of t h e N a v i g a t i o n A c t and the f e d e r a l t a r i f f were a l s o the two c h i e f d i s a b i l i t i e s claimed by Tasmania, w i t h the emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d i n r e v e r s e order to t h a t used by Western A u s t r a l i a . In s p i t e of the s t a t e ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s , s e c e s s i o n was never c o n s i d e r e d as s e r i o u s l y by the i s l a n d as by the western s t a t e . The b e n e f i t s of f e d e r a t i o n were more apparent i n Tasmania's case. -76-the referendum i n subsequent s e s s i o n s of parliament seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t support f o r th© measure -was not widespread. As l o n g as the p r o d u c t i v i t y , of the g o l d f i e l d s was maintained the w i t h s t a t e had l i t t l e reason t o complain. I t was/the d e c l i n i n g g o l d output, and the attempts, and the attempts, u s u a l l y not too e x p e r t l y undertaken, to i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage i n order b o t h t o open up a new f i e l d of employment f o r the un-employed miners and to induce new s e t t l e r s t h a t the s t a t e ' s i n t e r e s t s and those of the Commonwealth began to c l a s h . T a r i f f c o n t r o l became doubly important. The s t a t e development p o l i c y r e q u i r e d a l a r g e s c a l e source of income, such as the p r e -f e d e r a t i o n customs revenue. The c o n f l i c t of the primary pro- • ducer, dependent upon an overseas market, and the p r o t e c t i o n i s t of the e a s t , where even primary producers had a home market of i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and importance, meant t h a t a t a r i f f made a t P e r t h would be the product of a d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h y from those which were b e i n g drawn up a t Melbourne, the temporary f e d e r a l c a p i t a l . The c o n f l i c t was s t i l l between governments over revenue. Throughout the p e r i o d s u f f i c i e n t r e f e r e n c e s to s e c e s s i o n can be found to i n d i c a t e t h a t a sentiment i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n was f a i r l y widespread throughout the s t a t e . J u s t as l o n g as the i n d i v i d u a l i n h a b i t a n t s of the s t a t e were e n j o y i n g a measure of p e r s o n a l p r o s p e r i t y t h i s l a t e n t sentiment c o u l d not be trans-? formed i n t o the type of a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l crusade t h a t would be necessary to b r i n g about the d r a s t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change which would be embodied i n the a c t u a l s e c e s s i o n of the s t a t e from the Commomtfealthl1 A f a i r l y s a t i s f i e d man might want something but -77-not be ready to make the e f f o r t n ecessary t o o b t a i n i t . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n might a p p l y t o the Western A u s t r a l i a n s l i g h t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Sunday Times d u r i n g the e a r l y 1920's. CHAPTER FIVE The years of p l e n t y . The p e r i o d from 1925 to the g r e a t c r a s h of 1929 c o u l d he c o n s i d e r e d calm and p e a c e f u l when compared w i t h those which immediately preceded or f o l l o w e d i t . Europe, Western A u s t r a l i a ' s g r e a t market,was r e c o v e r i n g from the d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t of the war. The o l d c o n t i n e n t ' s major c o u n t r i e s had "been g r i p p e d "by a mania f o r a t t e m p t i n g to a c h i e v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n f o o d s t u f f s which was i n many ^respects s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Commonwealth's attempts toward complete i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , but B r i t a i n had not succumbed to-the c r a z e , and the other i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s had not as y e t i n c r e a s e d t h e i r domestic y i e l d s u f f i c i e n t l y so as s e r i o u s l y to a f f e c t the Commonwealth's wheat s a l e s abroad. The wool market, $ 0 0 , was f i r m . Consequently the average A u s t r a l i a n was p r o s p e r i n g . S t a t e governments might be poor, but s t a t e c i t i z e n s were not. In s p i t e of t h i s a u r a of p r o s p e r i t y , however, th e r e was a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g i n A u s t r a l i a , t h a t some changes ought to be made i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i h g i ' f o r m of f e d e r a t i o n was by no means c o n f i n e d to Western A u s t r a l i a . In 1 f a c t i t was i n the e a s t e r n s t a t e s t h a t the most heated debates took plac e concerning the p o s s i b l e changes t h a t should be made i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n . Two c o n f l i c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o J t h e s i x -s t a t e f e d e r a l Commonwealth had gained a number of adherents throughout the country. One e n t a i l e d the complete a b o l i t i o n . o f the s t a t e s ' governments, or, a t b e s t , a s e r i o u s c u r t a i l m e n t of t h e i r powers. The most important supporters of t h i s u n i f i c a t i o n s o l u t i o n were t o be found i n the ranks of the Labour P a r t y , a - 7 9 -p a r t y whose c h i e f s t r e n g t h l a y i n the l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l p o p u l a t i o n of Melbourne arid Sydney, areas of gre a t p o p u l a t i o n t h a t .would even more more i n f l u e n t i a l i n the popular assembly of a u n i t a r y government. The' Labour P a r t y had much to g a i n and l i t t l e to l o s e i n a d v o c a t i n g u n i f i c a t i o n . A . f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , w i t h i t s necessary d i v i s i o n of powers, i n c r e a s e d the d i f f i c u l t y of any Labour government, Commonwealth or s t a t e , p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n of the all-embrae'ive s o r t favoured by the ph i l o s o p h y of the p a r t y . I f Labour was to save A u s t r a l i a i t c o u l d do i t more -simply i f i t had t o g a i n c o n t r o l of but one s o v e r e i g n p a r l i a m e n t ( p r e f e r a b l y unicameral;}, r a t h e r than seven Pa r l i a m e n t s each of incomplete s o v e r e i g n t y . The g r e a t o p p o s i t i o n t o the u n i f i c a t i o n s o l u t i o n was to be found i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s . The farmer and p a s t o r a l i s t p r o p r i e t o r s were convinced that the i n d u s t r i a l element was exer-c i s i n g too much i n f l u e n c e over the government a l r e a d y . Any enthusiasm t h a t these men might have f o r the t r a n s f e r of the s e a t of government f r o m the temporary c a p i t a l a t Melbourne t o Canberra 1 P l a n k 1 of the General P l a t f o r m of the Labour P a r t y a t t h i s time r e v e a l s the g e n e r a l tendency toward u n i f i c a t i o n w i t h some concessions t o the Hew S t a t e s movement. Plank 1. Complete A u s t r a l i a n self-government as a B r i t i s h community. Ho I m p e r i a l f e d e r a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on a d v i c e of A u s t r a l i a n M i n i s t e r s only, s u b j e c t t o c o n t r o l of the Common-weal t h P a r l i a m e n t . A l l l e g i s l a t i o n , except such as appears i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h I m p e r i a l t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s t o be assented t o on a d v i c e of A u s t r a l i a n m i n i s t e r s only. Ho f u r t h e r i m p e r i a l orders to be granted i n any circumstances to A u s t r a l i a n c i t i z e n s . The Commonwealth C o n s t i t u t i o n to be amended to pr o v i d e — (a) U n l i m i t e d l e g i s l a t i v e powers f o r the Commonwealth P a r l -iament, and such delegated powers to the S t a t e s or P r o v i n c e s as the Commonwealth Pa r l i a m e n t may determine from time to time. (b) The Commonwealth Parliament t o be v e s t e d w i t h a u t h o r i t y to c r e a t e new S t a t e s or P r o v i n c e s . (c) The Senate to be a b o l i s h e d . (d) The High Court of A u s t r a l i a t o have f i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n a l l A u s t r a l i a n causes. ... Commonwealth Par i . D e b a t e s , 4 Mar.'27 p.146 -80-c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the b e l i e f t h a t a t l e a s t some p h y s i c a l contact between the government and the B i g C i t y I n t e r e s t s was removed. The f e e l i n g of m i s t r u s t at the i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s per se was most i n t e n s e i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d of an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s t a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y Hew South Wales. The s o l u t i o n proposed by those who wished to r e d r e s s the balance of power i n the Commonwealth i n f a v o u r of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s was the c r e a t i o n of new s t a t e s . S t a t e s w i t h l a r g e population-, such as Hew South Wales, were to be d i v i d e d s.q t h a t the p r e s e n t l y submerged elements would have a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n t r o l t h e i r own a f f a i r s to t h e i r own b e s t i n t e r e s t s . As was n a t u r a l f o r the p a r t y designed to express the view-p o i n t of the country p r o p r i e t o r , "Hew S t a t e s " became a s l o g a n of the Country P a r t y , but, as was a l s o n a t u r a l i n a p a r t y t h a t was always e n t e r i n g c o a l i t i o n s i n o p p o s i t i o n to the Labour P a r t y , t h i s " s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t " plank i n i t s p l a t f o r m was never as t i r e -l e s s l y advocated as the comparable u n i f i c a t i o n plank i n the p l a t -form of the unencumbered Labour P a r t y . •Western A u s t r a l i a n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n s con-c e r n i n g the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of the two courses, more governments or a s i n g l e government. H a t u r a l l y , b e i n g as-"isolated,as Ithey wejre from the;/central s e a t of government, u n i f i c a t i o n was not a popular s o l u t i o n f o r the problems of the western s t a t e . F e a r of the growth of u n i t a r y sentiment i n the e a s t e r n s t a t e s , i n f a c t , played an important p a r t i n the s t i m u l a t i o n of the s e c e s s -i o n i s t sentiment i n Western A u s t r a l i a a t a l a t e r date, but when A l f r e d Chandler f i r s t t r i e d to organize the s e c e s s i o n i s t s -81-there was no too marked sentiment i n f a v o u r of tlie " u n i f i c a t i o n i s t s " over the "New S t a t e s " advocates i n the east. Perhaps t h i s v e r y 2 reason might h e l p to e x p l a i n the f a i l u r e of the S e c e s s i o n League. There was no immediate need to escape from the Commonwealth i n order to a v o i d a government c e n t r a l i z e d i n Canberra. C o n s i d e r i n g the amount of p r o - s e c e s s i o n i s t sentiment r e v e a l e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission the f a t e of the League must have been f a r from g r a t i f y i n g f o r i t s founder. Times were too prosperous. I n d i v i d u a l s who might f a v o u r the establishment of a community independent of the Commonwealth were s t i l l not s u f f e r i n g p e r s o n a l l y w i t h i n the f e d e r a l union.. When, i n 1926, .the newly founded League appealed t o the p u b l i c f o r funds Mr. Chandler d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s message had not touched h i s p u b l i c t o the depths of t h e i r pocket books. An u n f r i e n d l y observer l a t e r r e c a l l e d t h a t the appeal n e t t e d a £100 donation from one e n t h u s i a s t and " l e s s than £5 from the 3 r e s t of the S t a t e " . The t i r e l e s s Mr. Chandler had o u t l i n e d the p o l i c i e s of h i s League i n the book, The Case f o r S e c e s s i o n , p u b l i s h e d i n 1926, but, save f o r t h i s one l i t e r a r y monument, the attempt a t organized advocacy of s e c e s s i o n s u f f e r e d the f a t e of one born out of due time. 2 Two p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t should know have not agreed upon a date f o r the f o u n d i n g of the S e c e s s i o n League. The Case of the People mentions the event t a k i n g p l a c e i n 1925, w h i l e the Chandler e n t r y i n Who's who i n A u s t r a l i a , 1953, mentions 1926 as the f o u n d i n g date. The second date would quite.'., l i k e l y be s u p p l i e d by the founder h i m s e l f , yet the Case of the People was approved by Mr. Chandler. 3 Hon. P. C o l l i e r (Premier of W.A. a t the time of the founding of the S e c e s s i o n League) w h i l e t r a c i n g the h i s t o r y of the S e c e s s i o n movement. W.A. P a r i . Debates, Nov. 24, 1931, p. 5415. -82-Secession would be a drastic step. The people of the state who had expressed their dissatisfaction with the oper-ation of the existing constitution to the Disabilities Commission had every reason to believe that an opportunity would soon be presented for them to strive for a redress of grievance. There had been talk in the p o l i t i c a l circles of Australia of the calling of a National Convention to review the Commonwealth Constitution; talk that was both a stimulant to and an outcome of the general discussion of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of some cons tit-:-, , utional change. Hopes for such a convention were shattered when, in a policy speech delivered at Dandenong, "Victoria, on October 5, 1925, the Prime Minister, Hon. S.M. Bruce, announced that his government considered the summoning of a constitutional convention impractical, but suggested that the Commonwealth Parliament be convened in special session for the purpose of reviewing the constitution. The session was never held. Nevertheless i t cannont be said that the Bruce-Page ministry ignored completely the wide-spread feeling that the Commonwealth constitution was in need-of amendment. Certain sound preliminary steps were taken. On August 18, 1927 seven of His Majesty's trusjSy and well beloved ..subjects residing in Australia were commissioned "to inquire into and report upon the powers of the Commonwealth under the Constit-ution and the working of the Constitution since Federation; and to recommend constitutional changes considered to be desirable; •• 4 Australia, Royal Commission on the Constitution,'Report, p. v.. -83-The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the commission, extending over the remainder of 1927, a l l of 1928, and w e l l i n t o 1929, tended to r e t a r d the advocacy of withdrawal from the f e d e r a t i o n when the p o s s i b i l i t y s t i l l remained t h a t the e x i s t i n g p o l i t y might soon he improved upon. Throughout t h i s study of secession the existence of two separate and d i s t i n c t a t t i t u d e s must he recognized. That of the ordinary c i t i z e n of Western A u s t r a l i a , l o a t h , as i s every c i t i z e n , to pay taxes to any a u t h o r i t y , arid c h i e f l y concerned w i t h h i s own p r o s p e r i t y , and t h a t of t h e / s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n , the zealous guardian of the s t a t e ' s prerogatives against the en-croachments of the Commonwealth a u t h o r i t y . Thus, although • d u r i n g the prosperous years the p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s of the s t a t e disrupt were unready to take part i n any movement designed t o A a not uncomfortable s t a t u s quo, s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s d u r i n g the same per i o d were a c q u i r i n g f r e s h grievances aga i n s t the f e d e r a l government. Government f i n a n c e s , which, to a l a r g e extent, means t a x i n g power, again c o n s t i t u t e d the question over which the leaders of the Commonwealth and s t a t e governments chose to disagree. The a t t i t u d e assumed by the Bruce-Page m i n i s t r y concerning the p r e l i m i n a r y Premiers' Conference, the S t a t e s ' 5 Grants B i l l , and the 1927 F i n a n c i a l Agreement was not wne t h a t would c o n c i l i a t e the leaders of the s t a t e s . Mr. Deakin's 6 prophecy of 1902 was coming t r u e . E x e r c i s i n g the power of the 5 v. supra, pp. 49-50. 6 v. supra, p. 45. -84-purse the Commonwealth government, a f t e r f a i l i n g to secure assent to i t s p o l i c y i n the 1926 Premiers' Conference, merely cut o f f the s i t e s ' allowances, i n the form of the per c a p i t a g r a n t s , then g r a c i o u s l y permitted the n e g o t i a t i o n of a new agreement, a f t e r the s t a t e s had "been brought t o see the e r r o r . of t h e i r ways. The t h r e a t i m p l i e d i n the S t a t e s 1 Grants B i l l was f e l t 7 p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Western A u s t r a l i a . Retuimingsf r om the 1926c; Premiers' Conference the Labour premier of the s t a t e p u b l i s h e d a pamphlet i n which he deplored the Commonwealth Government's .tendency to s t r i v e f o r added powers and: came out s t r o n g l y f o r " S t a t e s ' R i g h t s " . "The f e d e r a l Government i s endeavouring to o b t a i n powers which the framers of the C o n s t i t u t i o n e x p l i c i t l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y d e c i d e d i t should not possess... . The S t a t e s must, t h e r e f o r e , s t r e n u o u s l y r e s i s t the proposed f e d e r a l encroachments, because the u l t i m a t e and i n e s c a p -a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e i s the l o s s of the S t a t e ' s s o v e r e i g n powers." 8 The o p p o s i t i o n to the N a t i o n a l i s t - C o u n t r y P a r t y Common-wealth government's p o l i c y was by no means c o n f i n e d to s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s of Labour sympathies. The most outspoken c r i t i c of the f e d e r a l p o l i c y was the N a t i o n a l i s t , S i r James M i t c h e l l , the: then l e a d e r of the s t a t e o p p o s i t i o n . In a speech warmly commended by the premier he s t a t e d j 7 Although a l l t h r e e major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were r e p r e -sented, and most of them were government s u p p o r t e r s , a l l f i v e W.A. members i n the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s opposed the S t a t e s ' Grants B i l l i n 1927. Pour of them voted a g a i n s t i t , and the f i f t h was p a i r e d . Commonwealth P a r i . Debates, v o l . 115, March 10, 1927, p. 309. 8 C o l l i e r , P, Per C a p i t a Payments — C o n s t i t u t i o n A l t e r -a t i o n s — F e d e r a l p r o p o s a l s c r i t i c i s e d by Premier, P e r t h , Govern-ment P r i n t e r , 24 June, 1926, as quoted i n Case of the People, p.412 -85-" I am concerned about the f u t u r e . A f t e r 25 y e a r s * exper-ience of F e d e r a t i o n and f i n d i n g that i t i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y , that i t i s hampering r a t h e r than h e l p i n g us, t h a t n e i t h e r i n the s p i r i t nor i n the l e t t e r i s the C o n s t i t u t i o n obeyed, th a t none of the t h i n g s ifteiwere t o l d would happen has happened, and t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the t h i n g s we were t o l d would not happen have happened, I do not know why we should continue under F e d e r a t i o n u n l e s s we get- a b e t t e r arrange-ment under the C o n s t i t u t i o n . " 9 D u r i n g the same speech an exchange oc c u r r e d between S i r upon James and the premier which c a s t s some l i g h t both^the importance of b u s i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s t o the growth of the s e c e s s i o n i s t s e n t -iment and OR the a t t i t u d e of the s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s . S i r James was r e f e r r i n g to the f a m i l i a r theme t h a t i t was the primary producers of export crops who u l t i m a t e l y pay f o r the A u s t r a l i a n p r o t e c t i o n systemv Hon. S i r JAMES MITCHELL: F o r the farmers t h e r e w i l l be no escape: they \>rill have.to shoulder the f u l l f o r c e of * the F e d e r a l i n d i r e c t tax and the f u l l f o r c e of the d i r e c t t a x a t i o n as w e l l . T h i s , too, i n a country of primary p r o d u c t i o n , not of manufacturing! O b v i o u s l y the primary producers w i l l have t o pay the p i p e r . - The PREMIER: They get b o t h b a r r e l s . Hon. S i r JAMES MITSHELL: ... The Almighty alone knows how the'farmers w i l l shoulder t h i s burden of t a x a t i o n . ... I f the p r i c e -of wheat and wool were t o slump, I do not know what would happen. The PREMIER: That would upset t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s as to our incomes. Hon. S i r JAMES MITCHELL: And i f that happened who would s u f f e r most? THS PREMIER: The S t a t e would go to p i e c e s . 9 J o u r n a l of the P a r l i a m e n t s of the Empire, v o l . 7, 1926, p. 861, speech of J u l y 29. -86-Hon. Sir. JAMES MITCHELL: Of course. We must not take the risk. The PREMIER: I think we would be entitled to go to any length in'resisting i t . Hon. S i r JAMES MITCHELL: ... In my opinion there are two countries in the world suffering today -- China and Australia. China is suffering because there is no govern-ment at a l l . . . . On the other hand, Australia has too much government. ... The State Parliament i s enough. With our population we can attend to our development; yet . 250,-, 000 people were foolish enough to say they wanted another l o r d . " 1 0 "If the price of wheat and wool were to slump ... . The State would go to pieces". .This fact was recognized by many / throughout the years of plenty. The state politicians chafed under the restrictions to their borrowing which were imposed by 11 the Loan Council. The Royal Commission on the Constitution slowly travelled across the country, building up a record of 198 sittings; in one of them hearing Prof. E.O.G. Shann, of ;,; r, the Department of History and Economics of the University of Western Australia, outline his theory that there were two distinct geographic and economic units in Australia and never 12 the twain should have federated. But throughout the period the theme remained the same. As long as good times remained the Western Australian primary producers would not complain too heatedly of the d i s a b i l i t i e s from which, they were suffering, but, 10 W.A. Pari. Debates, vol. 74, July 29, 1926, as quoted in Case of the People, p. 417. 11 v. supra, p. 50 12 Royal Commission on the Constitution, Minutes of  Evidence, Nov. 16, as quoted in Case of the People, pp.-419-26. On March 9 Mr. Chandler had again repeated his assertion that Secession was the only cure for Western Australia's d i f f i c u l t i e s . -87-as Hon. Henry Gregory informed the members of the Commonwealth House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; "Western A u s t r a l i a . i s most emphatic i n i t s statement that there must be a b i g r e d u c t i o n i n the t a r i f f ... i f the p r i c e [of wheat] to the A u s t r a l i a n grower f a l l s to about ,3 s. 6 d. or 3 s. 8d. a b u s h e l , or i f t h e r e i s a bad har-v e s t the c r y f o r s e p a r a t i o n i n Western A u s t r a l i a w i l l be d i f f i c u l t 13 t o stop." Bhen Mr. Edward R i l e y i n t e r r u p t e d Mr. Gregory at t h i s p o i n t w i t h the query, "Does the honorable Member blame the t a r i f f f o r t h a t ? " '.the Western A u s t r a l i a n r e p l i e d w i t h the g e n e r a l statement that,' "Under the t a r i f f and the N a v i g a t i o n Act the people of Western A u s t r a l i a have been robbed l o n g enough by thepeople of 14 Melbourne and Sydney", Western A u s t r a l i a n s might not l o g i c a l l j r be a b l e to blame the t a r i f f f o r a d e c l i n e i n wheat p r i c e s , but such a d e c l i n e would render the producers l e s s a b l e to pay t a r i f f - h e i g h t e n e d p r i c e s f o r t h e i r n e c e s s i t i e s . A d e c l i n e i n the monetary r e t u r n f r o m the s a l e of the s t a t e ' s export crops would produce the 13 Commonwealth "Pari. Debates, v o l . 119, 12 Sept. 1928, p.. 6628. Hon. Henry Gregory, N a t i o n a l i s t member f o r Swan i n the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , was one of the most t i r e l e s s advocates of Western A u s t r a l i a n i n t e r e s t s i n the f e d e r a l c a p i t a l . He and the Country P a r t y member f o r F o r r e s t , Mr. J.H. Prowse, were more t r u l y s t a t e s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s than most of the s e n a t o r s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Gergory, a l o n g w i t h the two most a c t i v e s t a t e s ' r i g h t s advocates among the Western A u s t r a l i a n s enators of the p e r i o d , Hon. E.B. Johnston and Hon. Sar H a l C olebatch, h e l d important o f f i c e s i n the s t a t e government b e f o r e t r a n s f e r r i n g to the f e d e r a l arena. Gregory was a c t i n g premier of W.A. 1910-11 w h i l e S i r H a l was premier d u r i n g 1919. Although Mr. Prowse d i d not enjoy the same e a r l y experience i n s t a t e p o l i t i c s he had served a term i n o f f i c e as Mayor of P e r t h . 14 Commonwealth, P a r i . Debates, v o l . 119, p. 6628. -88-necessary frame of mind.:;among Western A u s t r a l i a n s to a l l o w them to c o n s i d e r the a d o p t i o n of extreme measures to remove t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s . And so the years of p r o s p e r i t y r o l l e d on. The s t a t e ' s t r e a a u r e r r e c e i v e d h i s monthly chegue from the Commonwealth c o v e r i n g the r e q u i s i t e ' q u o t a of the £300,000 per annum s p e c i a l 15 g r a n t . The average e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n was comfofctably unaware t h a t fellow-countrymen i n the f a r west d i d not s u b s c r i b e to the same dogmas as he d i d . S e c e s s i o n t a l k was not taken s e r i o u s l y . Mr. Gregory might i n f o r m the House t h a t , "There i s i n Western A u s t r a l i a a s t r o n g and growing f e e l i n g a g a i n s t f e d e r a t i o n , and I b e l i e v e t h a t i f the q u e s t i o n were submitted to a referendum 16 the m a j o r i t y of the people would vote f o r s e c e s s i o n " or "We J• can b u i l d up a prosperous S t a t e , but we may have to do i t alone, 17 and not as p a r t of the Federation'^ but h i s f e l l o w members were 18 not o v e r l y impressed. The a t t i t u d e of an e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n to the s e c e s s i o n i s t a g i t a t i o n , of a Western A u s t r a l i a n to the 15 v. supra, p. 74. 16 C'wealth, P a r i . Debates, v o l . 114, J u l y 15, 1926, p. 4235. 17 i b i d . , p. 4236. 18 The o n l y member from " T ' o t h e r s i d e " whose i n t e r e s t seems to have been s t i r r e d by the western members' e x p o s i t i o n of the d i s a b i l i t i e s of t h e i r s t a t e was V i c t o r C h a i l e s Thompson, r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e of Hew England, N.S.W., who asked the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Customs f o r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the amount of customs and e x c i s e d u t i e s c o l l e d t e d i n Western A u s t r a l i a f o r the p r e v i o u s two years> the t o t a l of payments, i n c l u d i n g p e r c a p i t a g r a n t s , s p e c i a l s u b s i d i e s , pensions, e t c . , made to' the s t a t e by the Common-weal t h d u r i n g the same period} and the t o t a l i n t e r s t a t e t r a d e of W.A., i n c l u d i n g the p r i n c i p a l items of t r a d e . Commonwealth, P a r i . Debates, q u e s t i o n asked, March 15, 1927, p. 408; answered March 18, 1927, p. 683. -89-same, and of a l a y observer to the evidences of Western A u s t r a l i a n p r o s p e r i t y a re a l l r e v e a l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g exchange of p l e a s a n t -r i e s between Mr. Prowse ( F a s t e s t , W.A.) and the member f o r Wa k e f i e l d , S.A.,1 Mr. J.H. PROWSE: Honorable members a r e aware t h a t t h e r e has been t a l k of s e c e s s i o n i n a t l e a s t one of the S t a t e s . T h i s i s not because the people t h e r e a re a n t i - -•• B r i t i s h or a n t a g o n i s t i c to t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . They ar e as l o y a l as the people i n any other p a r t of the Common-wealth. Mr. R.W. P o s t e r : The s e c e s s i o n t a l k i s a l l "bunkum" Mr. PROWSE: I t may be, but i f i r r i t a t i n g and u n f a i r c o n d i t i o n s a re allowed to continue f o r any l e n g t h of time no one w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n to say t h a t the complaint i s u n r e a l or even "bunkum". Mr. P o s t e r : People are f l o w i n g i n t o Western A u s t r a l i a from every p a r t of the Commonwealth. ... They are v e r y prosperous over i n t h a t S t a t e . Mr. Prowse: Because they a re doing t h e i r proper work. ... I t would be p o s s i b l e to develop t h a t great S t a t e much mre r a p i d l y i f the people t h e r e c o u l d get t h a t £2,00a,000 which they have l o s t through b e i n g compelled under f e d e r a t i o n to tr a d e w i t h the e a s t e r n States"±* Mr Prowse's statement concerning l o y a l t y i s i n d i c a t i v e of the a t t i t u d e observed by the s e c e s s i o n i s t s throughout t h e i r campaign. The s t i l l d i d not want t o l o o k t o A u s t r a l i a . They wanted to look t o B r i t a i n . Mr. P o s t e r ' s r e f e r e n c e to the i n f l u x of p o p u l a t i o n to the s t a t e serves as a reminder t h a t the s t a t e was p r o s p e r i n g i n the f e d e r a t i o n and, alth o u g h i t remained geograph-i c a l l y i s o l a t e d , a goodly p r o p o r t i o n * o f the people of the s t a t e had, a t some time i n t h e i r l i v e s , been i n other p a r t s of the Commonwealth. I n 1927 Jfr. Prowse was not ready to a s s e r t t h a t the t a l k of s e c e s s i o n was not "bunkum". He would merely s t a t e 19 C'wealth Debates, v o l . 115, March 3, 1927, p. 93. -90-t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a was s u f f e r i n g from d i s a b i l i t i e s , which c o u l d , i f not r e l i e v e d , l e a d to a s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n . H i s statement was, two £ears l a t e r , s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the r e p o r t of f o u r independent B r i t i s h b u s i n e s s men who, a t the i n v i t a t i o n of the A u s t r a l i a n government, had made a survey of the economic l i f e of the Common-20 w e a l t h . These a p p a r e n t l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d observers r e p o r t e d t h a t " . . . we have been s t r o n g l y d i s p o s e d t o the view t h a t the combined o p e r a t i o n of the t a r i f f and the A r b i t r a t i o n A c t s has r a i s e d c o s t s t o a l e v e l which has l a i d an e x c e s s i v e and p o s s i b l y even a dangerous l o a d upon the u n s h e l t e r e d primary i n d u s t r i e s which, h a v i n g t o s e l l i n the world's markets, cannot pass on'the burden t o other s e c t i o n s of the A u s t r a l i a n community, and, consequently, as between^ the v a r i o u s S t a t e s , upon those, n o t a b l y Western A u s t r a l i a , South A u s t r a l i a , and Tasmania, which a r e poor i n manufact-ures and a r e p r i n c i p l y concerned w i t h primary p r o d u c t i o n . " To which statement they appended the f o o t n o t e ; "We a r e aware t h a t the d i s a b i l i t i e s under which these S t a t e s s u f f e r are re c o g n i z e d by the Commonwealth Government and t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l s u b s i d i e s a re p a i d by the Commonwealth to Tasmania and Western A u s t r a l i a w h i l e the q u e s t i o n of g r a n t i n g a s i m i l a r s u b s i d y to South A u s t r a l i a i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . These s u b s i d i e s , however, can o n l y be regarded as p a l l i a t i v e s of a system w i t h which t h e r e i s something amiss."21 Such an endorsement from a u t h o r i t i e s o u t s i d e the Common-wealth, combined w i t h s i m i l a r sentiments expressed by the l e a d -20 The B r i t i s h Bconomic M i s s i o n was an outcome of a request made by the A u s t r a l i a n government a t the 1926 I m p e r i a l Conference t h a t the B r i t i s h government name f o u r independent businessmen who, subj e c t to t h e i r a p p r o v a l by the Commonv/ealth government, were to c o n s t i t u t e a committee t o i n v e s t i g a t e the A u s t r a l i a n economic s i t u a t i o n . The committee a r r i v e d i n Fremantle on Sept. 25, 1928 and completed t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and submitted t h e i r r e p o r t to the Commonwealth government by Jan. 7, 1929". 21 Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a , Report of the B r i t i s h Economic M i s s i o n nominated by H i s Majesty's Government i n Great B r i t a i n a t the r e q u e s t ~ o n i i s Majesty's Government i n tne uommonweaiflEE 6f A u s t r a l i a , Canberra, Government-Printer, p p . 13-14. i n g A u s t r a l i a n economists i n t h e i r s e m i - o f f i c i a l r e p o r t , The 22 " A u s t r a l i a n T a r i f f , gave the l u s t r e of expert endorsement t o the s e c e s s i o n i s t s ' c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a was s u f f e r i n g undue h a r d s h i p s because of the p r o t e c t i v e p o l i c i e s of the Commonwealth government. D u r i n g the same yea r the R o y a l Commission on* the' C o n s t i t u t i o n submitted t h e i r r e p o r t , wherein the m a j o r i t y of the commissioners favoured amendments r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d powers b e i n g assumed by the f e d e r a l government, w i t h the s o l e Western A u s t r a l i a n on the commission, S i r H a l Colebatch, b e i n g i t s s i n g l e member s t o u t l y d efending, and even a d v o c a t i n g an e x t e n s i o n of, the powers of the s t a t e s . As the y e a r s of p l e n t y drew to a c l o s e t h e r e appeared to be no chance of r e d r e s s through c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment f o r the grievances of Western A u s t r a l i a . The f i s c a l p o l i c y which was a c c e p t a b l e to the more populous s e c t i o n of. the c o n t i n e n t d i d not s u i t the s t a t e . The stage was s e t f o r a v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n i n Western A u s t r a l i a i f the primary producers found t h a t the w o r l d p r i c e f o r t h e i r products was such t h a t they c o u l d no l o n g e r pay w i t h ease the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s which r e s u l t e d from the s t a t e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Commonwealth. E v e r y t h i n g depended on the w o r l d p r i c e of wheat and wool, and the date was 1929. 22 B r i g d e n , J.H., and o t h e r s , The A u s t r a l i a n T a r i f f , an  economic enquiry, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1929. The study, c a r r i e d on by a s e l e c t group of the l e a d i n g economists of the country, was (Suggested by the Commonwealth IPrime M i n i s t e r . CHAPTER SIX The secmazing of the referendum. The Great Depression's impact was severe throughout the Com-monwealth. The prosperity of the continent had "been "based on easy loan money and a high world price and.demand for wheat and 1 -wool. The statement that a l l Australia was riding on a sheep's x "back was s t i l l at least half right. With the sudden restriction of credit and the drop in the price of raw materials the economy of the entire country was disrupted. The protected industries found that t a r i f f walls could not compensate for the fact that the primary producers, the ultimate consumers of their products, were no longer the possessors of the same purchasing power as had "been the case in the more, fortunate years gone "by. The depression h i t Western Australia with especial severity. The state's r o l l of unemployed could not match that of industrial New South Wales, hut the actual problem faced by producers, dependent upon a world market that had suddenly vanished, was very real. The fears which had been voiced by Sir James Mitchell and by Henry Gregory had become a horrible reality. The price -of wheat had collapsed. However one viewed the situation i t was serious. Never-theless two different viewpoints must be noted. The f i r s t re-action of a producer was that somehow he must maintain his 1 The importance of these elements in Australia's prosper-i t y are f u l l y brought out in Chap. I . , "Basis of Australian Prosperity, 1925-1929", pp. 9-27, in Copland, D., Australia in the World Crisis, 1929-1955. Cambridge, University Press, 1934. - 9 3 -income. I f two or three bushels of g r a i n must be produced to net the same r e t u r n as vtnB p r e v i o u s l y o b tained from the s a l e of one such i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n must be accomplished. When the same o v e r p r o d u c t i o n elsewhere r e s u l t e d i n a w o r l d p r i c e which was below the A u s t r a l i a n c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n he then l o o k e d f o r means of c u t t i n g h i s p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s . One of the most obvious methods of thus e f f e c t i n g cuts i n h i s c o s t s would be by p u r c h a s i n g the manufactured items necessary f o r the o p e r a t i o n of h i s f a r m a t the depressed p r i c e s p r e v a i l i n g on the w o r l d market. The Commonwealth t a r i f f prevented him from so doing. I n k e e p i n g w i t h trends elsewhere the A u s t r a l i a n t a r i f f shot up to p r o t e c t home i n d u s t r y . Other c o u n t r i e s , anxious to s e l l t h e i r goods, began to buy o n l y where they c o u l d s e l l , thus f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t -i n g the o u t l e i s of the Western A u s t r a l i a n producers, and i n c r e a s -the i r r a t a t i o n n f e l t by these producers toward the Commonwealth government and i t s n e f a r i o u s t a r i f f . A d i f f e r e n t problem was f a c e d by :the~_.membefs the s t a t e government. Governments r e q u i r e money i n order to f u n c t i o n . The depressed p r i c e s b e i n g p a i d producers meant t h a t the same pro-ducers were l e s s capable of paying s t a t e t a x a t i o n . The income tax, a primary source of s t a t e revenue, was p a r t i c u l a r l y hard h i t . P r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s prevented s t a t e expenditures b e i n g pared below a c e r t a i n l e v e l w h i l e the same brand of p o l i t i c s prevented tax r a t e s exceeding a g i v e n l e v e l . The most obvious means of making up the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e n p r o j e c t e d expenditure and a n t i c -i p a t e d income was by means of an i n c r e a s e d grant from the Common-wealth government which, up to t h i s date, had always been embarrassed -94? w i t h s u r p l u s revenue. No Commonwealth Prime M i n i s t e r was to f i n d h i m s e l f h e l d so&ely t o "blame f o r the Dep r e s s i o n , as d i d the u n f o r t u n a t e Mr. Hoover, but, as an i n s t i t u t i o n , the Common-weal t h was to pr o v i d e a convenient scapegoat. The A p r i l , 1930, s t a t e e l e c t i o n i n Western A u s t r a l i a r e s u l t e d i n the d e f e a t of the C o l l i e r Labour government — a d e f e a t which 2 c o u l d a t l e a s t i n p a r t be a t t r i b u t e d t o i t s t a x a t i o n p o l i c y — and i t s replacement by a N a t i o n a l i s t - C o u n t r y P a r j y c o a l i t i o n under the l e a d e r s h i p of S i r James M i t c h e l l . S i r James was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of one of the types t h a t predominated i n the s e c e s s i o n i s t movement. He was born i n the s t a t e ( i n 1866), the son of a l a n d h o l d e r . The a t t i t u d e s of the e x t e n s i v e l a n d h o l d e r were whole-heartedly shared by him. D u r i n g h i s f i r s t tenure of o f f i c e as s t a t e premier, 1919-24, he had inaugurated an ambitious scheme of a s s i s t e d immigration and group s e t t l e m e n t of B r i t o n s from the "Homeland1? The b e s j of i n t e n t i o n s were not s u f f i c i e n t to counter the un f o r t u n a t e choice of l a n d and s e t t l e r s which rendered the scheme an exp e n s i v e experiment. H is u p b r i n g i n g and l a t e r t r a i n i n g and experience i n s t a t e government had a l l com-b i n e d to produce a man whose a t t i t u d e s were those s u i t e d to the l e a d i n g of a movement f o r s e c e s s i o n . H i s l o y a l t i e s were to Western A u s t r a l i a , the l a n d of h i s b i r t h and the s t a t e which had o f f e r e d him i t s c h o i c e s t p o l i t i c a l rewards, and to B r i t a i n , "Home". The Commonwealth, the government which p r o t e c t e d i n d u s t r i e s and s u b s i d i z e d the producers of many uneconomical products but pro -2 New Y o r k Times, A p r i l 14, 1930, 14:1. -95-v i d e d only h i n r a n c e s t o the wheat farmer and the p a s t o r a l i s t s , h i s s o r t of people, oould c l a i m hut l i t t l e of h i s a l l e g i a n c e . In p o l i t i c s he bore the " N a t i o n a l i s t " l a b e l , but p o l i t i c a l names must not be accepted i n t h e i r l i t e r a l meaning. S i r James was no A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l i s t . Although h i s e a r l y sympathies were shown by h i s -vote i n 3 f a v o u r of the 1906 S e c e s s i o n Beferendum Motion, no o v e r t s e c e s s -i o n i s t sentiments can be t r a c e d to S i r James d u r i n g h i s 1919-24 prem i e r s h i p . Mention has been made, however, of an e x p r e s s i o n of extreme d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the f e d e r a l bond which he 4 u t t e r e d w h i l e Leader of the O p p o s i t i o n i n 1926. when he was a g a i n c a l l e d t o the p r e m i e r s h i p i n 1930 a t a time when the d e c l i n e i n export p r i c e s t h a t he had f e a r e d had taken p l a c e he l o s t no time i n t a k i n g extreme measures. The Bent Memorial H a l l i n P e r t h was packed on the evening of F r i d a y , May 23, 1930. A meeting was b e i n g h e l d t h e r e under the chairmanship of S i r James M i t c h e l l , the r e c e n t l y e l e c t e d premier, while' other d i s t i n g u i s h e d p u b l i c men, i n c l u d i n g the L o r d Mayor of P e r t h (Alderman A.T. F r a n k l i n ) and Senator P a t r i c k Lynch were on the p l a t f o r m . A f t e r the main speaker of the even-i n g , Hon A r t h u r L o v e k i n , M.L.C., had addressed the c a p a c i t y 3 Case of the People, p. 388 4 V. feh&ga. pp. 85 - 6 . S i r James was eaten more e x p l i c i t i n the matter of s e c e s s i o n i n another statement made on the same date; "There i s n o t h i n g t h a t we can do t h a t we cannot undo iff. we go the r i g h t way to work. I t w i l l be slow b u s i n e s s , and I do not know where we s h a l l f i n d men w i t h s u f f i c i e n t money and l e i s u r e t o devote themselves to undoing the F e d e r a l knot. I should l i k e to see t h i s country f r e e . " . Quoted i n Case of the People, p. 383. -96-audience on the harmful e f f e c t s which f e d e r a t i o n had wrought on the s t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a , s t a t i n g t h a t s e c e s s i o n c o u l d be l e g a l l y and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y accomplished, a r e s o l u t i o n was moved by Mr. R.S. Sampson and seconded by Mr. H.A. G r i f f i t h s , b o t h 5 Countrji P a r t y members i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly; " T h i s p u b l i c meeting of c i t i z e n s of Western A u s t r a l i a pledges i t s e l f to the support of a movement f o r the c r e a t i o n of a Dominion of Western A u s t r a l i a , and urges the government to g i v e the people an o p p o r t u n i t y of d e c i d i n g the i s s u e by referendum." The r e s o l u t i o n c o u l d not be put to the q u e s t i o n , owing to a c l a u s e i n the terms under which the h a l l had been l e a s e d pro--h i b i t i n g p o l i t i c a l meetings. To quote from the newspaper r e p o r t , however, "... but the temper of tbae audience, which applauded every mention of s e c e s s i o n made i t c l e a r t h a t i t would have 6 c a r r i e d by a l a r g e m a j o r i t y . " The time seemed t o b e - r i p e f o r the s e c e s s i o n i s t s to make t h e i r g r e a t d r i v e . The temper of the people, b e w i l d e r e d a t the sudden drop from p r o s p e r i t y i n t o d e p r e s s i o n , had made them ready and w i l l i n g to accept any p r o p o s i t i o n f o r change t h a t was p e r s u a s i v l y put forward. The present s i t u a t i o n c o u l d not be t o l e r a t e d . I t was time f o r a change. At l a s t the s e c e s s i o n i s t s had the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the s t a t e premier. The great o p p o r t u n i t y 5 Mr. Sampson rep r e s e n t e d Swan and Mr. G r i f f i t h s Avon, b o t h f a r m i n g d i s t r i c t s In the south-west. 6 The r e p o r t , as i t appeared i n an unnamed Sydney newspaper of May 26, was read, a p p a r e n t l y i n f u l l , by Sen. J.P.D. Dunn, (tf . S . W . ) i n the Commonwealth Senate Chamber, May 28, 1930, Commonwealth P a r i . Debates, v o l . 124, p. 2191. -97-of Mr. Chandler and h i s f a i t h f l u l d i s c i p l e s was a t hand. True to the A u s t r a l i a n t r a d i t i o n , a league was formed. . By J u l y , 1930 the Dominion League of Western A u s t r a l i a was f u l l y launched, and i t s s l a t e of o f f i c e r s chosen. A l f r e d Chandler, the prophet of s e c e s s i o n , was, of course, i t s p r e s i d e n t , w h i l e A r t h u r L o v e k i n , the main speaker a t the May 23rd r a l l y was v i c e -p r e s i d e n t . The League's most v a l u a b l e a c q u i s i t i o n , however, was a p r e v i o u s l y unknown and comparatively y o u t h f u l man. USs, H.K. Watson was a c l e r k i n the "Federal T a x a t i o n Department a t IPerth when he was h i r e d as p a i d o r g a n i z e r of the new League, b e i n g qiven 6 the e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n of Chairman. Such was h i s energy t h a t from a v e r y e a r l y date i t was he, and not A l f r e d Chandler t h a t was c o n s i d e r e d the h e a r t and s o u l of the s e c e s s i o n movement. There was no doubt i n the minds of the League e x e c u t i v e t h a t they had the support of the premier, f o r not only had he acted as chairman a t the May 23rd r a l l y but, on June 27, 1930 he had w r i t t e n a l o n g l e t t e r t o the Hon. A r t h u r L o v e k i n , then engaged i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the League, i n which he o u t l i n e d h i s a p p r a i s a l of the v a l u e of the new a s s o c i a t i o n . The l e t t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t r e v e a l s two f a c e t s of S i r James' n a t u r e . S e n t i m e n t a l l y he was i n f a v o u r of complete s e c e s s i o n ; as a p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c i a n he was i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g the s e c e s s i o n i s t a g i t a t i o n to secure concessions from the f e d e r a l government. His l e t t e r s t a r t e d w i t h the statement; "The movement f o r s e c e s s i o n i s provoking c o n s i d e r a b l e • i n t e r e s t not only among our own people, but throughout the 6 L e t t e r , Thomas Dunbabin to w r i t e r , August 6, 1948. -98-Commonwealth. Our wish i s to be f r e e of F e d e r a t i o n . If' we cannot get our freedom q u i c k l y , we must s t r i v e as a. f i r s t s t e p to secure a r e d u c t i o n i n F e d e r a l t a x a t i o n , and of t a r i f f d u t i e s , f o r i t i s im p e r a t i v e t h a t immediate r e l i e f be obta i n e d . "... the disadvaxrtages of F e d e r a t i o n a r e too g r e a t t o be supported by the earnings of our people. T h i s y e a r , I have no doubt, F e d e r a l , S t a t e , and l o c a l government t a x a t i o n w i l l absorb a t l e a s t 25 per cent, of the gross p r o d u c t i o n of w e a l t h which, of course, i s f a r too heavy a burden f o r a country l i k e ours. "... . Money, i n s t e a d of becoming cheaper, has become dearer and a t present i s almost unprocurable. " T h i s i s a v e r y s e r i o u s matter f o r a young, primary producing S t a t e v i t a l l y dependent upon l e a n money f o r the development of i t s r e s o u r c e s . I f Western x ^ u s t r a l i a were f r e e to manage i t s own a f f a i r s , as i t d i d f o r a b r i e f t e n , but e x c e e d i n g l y prosperous y e a r s , from 1890-1900, we should have no d i f f i c u l t y i n borrowing the money we need on terms as f a v o u r a b l e as those enjoyed by Hew Zealand. ... " I t v/ould be wise to j o i n w i t h South A u s t r a l i a and Tasmania i n h o l d i n g a conference, which should impress upon the Gommonwealth Government the need f o r . r e t u r n i n g to the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n of F e d e r a t i o n . ... an immediate r e d u c t i o n i n t a x a t i o n , a n d , . p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h a t the Common-weal t h should a b o l i s h any o v e r l a p p i n g of S t a t e a c t i v i t i e s . ... In these d i r e c t i o n s I see a p o s s i b i l i t y of the s m a l l e r S t a t e s s e c u r i n g the r e l i e f of which they stand so b a d l y i n need. " I r e a l i z e t h a t there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e volume of p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r of a s t r a i g h t - o u t f i g h t f o r S e c e s s i o n . Such a f i g h t would e n t a i l a t e r r i f i c amount of work ... but i t would not be an im p o s s i b l e t a s k i f the people i n t e r e s t e d would only come to g e t h e r and share the burden. ... ;: t u T h e r e can be ho t u r n i n g back u n t i l we get sub-s t a n t i a l r e l i e f or freedom. ... In consequence of our hav i n g entered F e d e r a t i o n , our l i v e s a re more or l e s s c o n t r o l l e d by E a s t e r n S t a t e s people, some of whom have never seen Western A u s t r a l i a , and some of whom have s c a r c e l y heard of i t . " I t i s my f e r v e n t hope t h a t the Dominion League of Western A u s t r a l i a w i l l determine upon a d e f i n i t e l i n e of a c t i o n to f i g h t , f i r s t l y f o r immediate s u b s t a n t i a l r e l i e f which i s im p e r a t i v e , and secondly f o r S e c e s s i o n . ... " ... . You may depend upon me to h e l p i n every way p o s s i b l e , but you w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t the d u t i e s of o f f i c e -99-are too e x a c t i n g to permit of my g i v i n g as much time as I c o u l d wish to the movement ,at present."''' S i r James, then, was not an a l l - o u t s e c e s s i o n i s t i n 1930. P r i m a r i l y he seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g the movement f o r b a r g a i n -i n g purposes i n s e c u r i n g l a r g e r grants from Canberra.' Yet h i s l a t e r c o n v e r s i o n to immediate s e c e s s i o n cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n s i n o e r e . The c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d was not unique w i t h Sir.James, but i n few of the c h i e f a c t o r s i n the movement d i d b o t h sentiments appear as genuine as those m o t i v a t i n g the premier. S i r James had l o n g h e l d s e c e s s i o n i s t c o n v i c t i o n s , and, seemingly, even when the more p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s e c u r i n g immediate r e l i e f were occupying h i s a t t e n t i o n , the i d e a l ofl eventual s e p a r a t i o n was never completely ignored. In most of the l e a d e r s of the s e c e s s i o n movement one or the other of these sentiments h e l d a d e f i n i t e ascendency. Most of the e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s of the Dominion League appear to have been s i n c e r e s e c e s s i o n i s t s ' , but much of t h e i r support came from Western Aust-r a l i a n s who e i t h e r were not anxious to remove t h e i r s t a t e from the Commonwealth, or were convinced t h a t such a removal c o u l d not be accomplished i n a p e a c e f u l manner, but who r e c o g n i z e d the v a l u e of an a c t i v e s e c e s s i o n i s t movement as b e i n g u s e f u l i n t h e i r endeavour to secure b e t t e r terms f o r t h e i r s t a t e from the Common-wealth government. 8 As the May r e s o l u t i o n suggested, one of the f i r s t t a sks of the Dominion League was t o secure the passage through the s t a t e 7 M i t c h e l l to L o v e k i n , June 27, 1930, quoted i n f u l l i n ~*~ Case of the People, pp. 385-7. 8 V. supra, p.96. -100-parliament of a b i l l a u t h o r i z i n g the h o l d i n g of a referendum on the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n . P u b l i c o p i n i o n , ' t h e r e f o r e , had to be organized, both to present a widespread demand f o r the referendum and.to secure a f a v o u r a b l e r e s u l t when the b a l l o t s had been c a s t and counted. Speakers and o r g a n i z e r s were sent out from P e r t h ; meetings, w i t h the Union Jack prominently d i s p l a y e d and the N a t i o n a l Anthem e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y sung, were h e l d throughout the country; l o c a l branches of the Dominion League were e s t a b l i s h e d ; members of the d i s t r i c t road boards, the o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bodies i n the l a r g e areas of the s t a t e which had not been m u n i c i p a l l y organized, were p a r t i c u l a r l y canvassed i n the s e a r c h f o r p r o s -e l y t e s . By November of 1930 the League c o n s i d e r e d i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l organized to send a d e p u t a t i o n to S i r James r e q u e s t i n g a e a r l y referendum on s e c e s s i o n . The s e c e s s i o n i s t s were r a t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e i n t h e i r t i m i n g . Mr. S c u l l i n , the L a b o u r i t e who had succeeded to the Prime M i n i s t e r s h i p of the Commonwealth w i t h the d e f e a t of the Bruce-Page m i n i s t r y i n 1929, had, by the end of 1930, been won over by the d e f l a t i o n a r y s c h o o l of A u s t r a l i a n economists i n h i s e f f o r t s to f i g h t the d e p r e s s i o n . Wages, and i n t e r e s t on i n t e r n a l loans 9 were c u t . The A u s t r a l i a n pound sank to £130 5s. f o r £100 S t e r l i n g * The main f e a t u r e s of t h i s d e f l a t i o n a r y program, as adopted by the Conference of s t a t e Premiers, caught the i m a g i n a t i o n of the A u s t r a l i a n people, the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of whom were ready to " g i v e the P r e m i e r s ' P l a n a chance". The d e p r e c i a t i o n of the A u s t r a l i a n 9 With B r i t a i n ' s abandonment of the g o l d standard i n September, 1931 the A u s t r a l i a n pound was pegged at the r a t i o of 125 to 100. -101-pound gave the Western A u s t r a l i a n producers a d e f i n i t e advantage on the B r i t i s h market and the producers» l o y a l t i e s l a y w i t h the p a r t y t h a t c o u l d f i n d markets. The a c t i o n of Mr. S c u l l i n , which was to prove b e n e f i c i a l to h i s country, hut d i s a s t r o u s to h i s government, was not the o n l y e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e o b s t r u c t i n g the Dominion League's e f f o r t s to b r i n g f o r t h two Dominions where but one e x i s t e d b e f o r e . L a t e i n the day some members of the s t a t e parliament began t o r e a l i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a proposed a c t of the B r i t i s h parliament which was intended to g i v e ; s t a t u t o r y ; form to c e r t a i n r e s o l u t i o n s agreed on a t the I m p e r i a l Conference of 1926 and l a t e r c o n f e r e n c e s . On June 3, 1931 the l e a d e r of the government i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , i n answer to a q u e s t i o n , assured the Hon. V. Hamersley (East) that the s t a t e government had p r o t e s t e d " a g a i n s t the i n -c l u s i o n i n the contemplated Act of Westminster of any p r o v i s i o n t h a t may make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r Western A u s t r a l i a to secede 10 f rom the F e d e r a t i o n . " The p r o t e s t mentioned had been sent to.. the Commonwealth Government, a l o n g w i t h p r o t e s t s from other s t a t e s . F a r from i g n o r i n g these p r o t e s t s the Commonwealth government had moved to secure amendments i n the proposed s t a t u t e f a v o u r a b l e to the s t a t e s ' concept of the s o v e r e i g n t y . The Western A u s t r a l i a n s were s t i l l not s a t i s f i e d , however. On J u l y 28 a motion p r o t e s t i n g the passage of the s t a t u t e was i n t r o d u c e d i n the upper house of the s t a t e . The debates i n b o t h houses which f o l l o w e d r e f l e c t e d the f e a r of some of the s e c e s s i o n i s t s t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n would b a r appeal f o r r e d r e s s from the s t a t e s 10 W.A. P a r i . Debates, June #, 1931. -102-11 to the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t . The p r o t e s t was adopted.. I t s t r a n s -m i s s i o n t o London, foreshadowing the method adopted "by the s e c e s s i o n i s t s on t h e i r p e t i t i o n s and address f o r severence, caused the Commonwealth prime m i n i s t e r to complain; "The Pa r l i a m e n t of Western A u s t r a l i a adopted a r e s o l u t i o n i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the proposed S t a t u t e of Westminster and the Commonwealth's f i r s t knowledge of i t was i n a communication from the U n i t e d Kingdom s t a t i n g t h a t i t had been conveyed to the B r i t i s h Government. We had thought that we might have been communicated w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the I m p e r i a l Government." 1^ The s o l o p r o t e s t d i d not e f f e c t any change i n the s t a t u t e , but i t d i d i n d i c a t e the independent a t t i t u d e of the Western A u s t r a l i a n p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s . L a t e r , i n the heat of the s e c e s s i o n campaign, the f e a r s which had been expressed a t t h i s time concerning any p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s on Western A u s t r a l i a n " s o v e r e i g n t y " which might have been imposed, r e i n f o r c e d , or suggested by the I m p e r i a l s t a t u t e were f o r g o t t e n . The Dominion League continued i t s campaign to counter any p r o - f e d e r a l i s t sentiment such as that which might be t r a c e d to the f a v o u r a b l e r e s u l t s of the Premiers' P l a n . On August 4, 1931 the Dominion League h e l d i t s f i r s t s tate-wide convention. P r e s e n t were two hundred del e g a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the f i f t y - f i v e l o c a l branches of the League throughout the s t a t e and from v a r i o u s s t a t e l o c a l governing b o d i e s . B e f o r e d l e s i n g the meeting the convention pledged i t s e l f to continue the campaign " U n t i l the c i t i z e n s of Western A u s t r a l i a , as a u n i t e d body, a s s e r t t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n to save the S t a t e and i t s people by d e c l a r i n g w i t h an overwhelming m a j o r i t y t h e i r d e s i r e f o r complete s e p a r a t i o n H W.A. P a r i . Debates, J u l y 28, 1931, p. 4038. 12 C'wealth P a r i . Debates, ITov. 25, 1931, p. 1884. -103-f rom the c o n t r o l of the Commonwealth, and f o r a r e t u r n to the s t a t u s of a f r e e community i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of n a t i o n s " The r e s o l u t i o n was a c o n f e s s i o n that more e d u c a t i o n a l work was r e q u i r e d b e f o r e the m a j o r i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a n s would permit themselves to be c o n v e r t e d , i n t o s e c e s s i o n i s t s . At l e a s t one o r g a n i z a t i o n had come out s t r o n g l y opposed to the Dominion League's program. 'The A u s t r a l i a n N a t i v e s 14 A s s o c i a t i o n issu#ed a n i n e p o i n t ' d e c l a r a t i o n designed to demon-15 s t r a t e the f u t i l i t y of a referendum on s e c e s s i o n . Nor was the m e t r o p o l i t a n press f a v o u r a b l e to the League. The Sunday Times had continued i t s advocacy of s e c e s s i o n , but the two d a i l y papers of the s t a t e , the P e r t h D a i l y News and West A u s t r a l i a n , r -b o t h of which were a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by out of s t a t e c a p i t a l , were opposed to any severance of the f e d e r a l l i n k . The 13 Proceedings of the Dominion League Convention, 4th  August, 1951. pp. 13-14, as quoted i n Case of the people, "p. 388 14 v. supra, p. 28, n. 5. : The "A.N.A." as i t i s u s u a l l y known, does not seem to have been p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n W.A'.,1 No r e f e r e n c e s have been" found by the w r i t e r of the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n the l a t e r stages of the s e c e s s i o n campaign. 15 The p o i n t s were quoted by Hon. W.D. Johnson (Labour) W.A. P a r i . Debates. Nosr. 25, 1931, p. 5473. They may be summarized as f o l l o w s ; -i . Referendum f u t i l e -- S e c e s s i o n c o u l d be e f f e c t e d only" w i t h a p p r o v a l of the people of the whole of A u s t r a l i a . i i . Referendum x^ould c r e a t e d i s r u p t i o n a t c r i t i c a l p e r i o d . i i i . Abnormal times prevent t a k i n g of d i s p a s s i o n a t e v o t e . i v . N e c e s s i t y of g a t h e r i n g . a u t h e n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n and s t a t i s t i c s b e f o r e referendum. v. Danger of r a i s i n g f a l s e hopes. v i . D u r i n g p e r i o d of n a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n inopportune f o r one s t a t e to press i t s own claims a g a i n s t n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . v i i . S e c e s s i o n a g i t a t i o n might endanger n a t i o n a l c r e d i t v i i i . A g i t a t i o n merely of' a t r a n s i e n t nature — due to world-wide d e p r e s s i o n . i x . Forthcoming (December 1931) f e d e r a l . e l e c t i o n s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y of v o i c i n g o p i n i o n . • -104-r u r a l press was more.favourable. I t was, indeed, w i t h the readers of the r u r a l press t h a t the Dominion League had a l r e a d y s c o r e d i t s f i r s t s u c c e s s e s . The 1931 conventions of the Primary Producers A s s o c i a t i o n and:the'Wheat Growers Union both passed r e s o l u t i o n s f a v o u r i n g the • enactment by the s t a t e parliament of a b i l l to permit the t a k i n g of a referendum on the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n , the former a f t e r a heated debate, the l a t t e r , unanimously. These were the two a s s o c i a t i o n s which r e p r e s e n t e d that s u b s t a n t i a l body of s t a t e c i t i z e n s who s u f f e r e d most from the world-wide d e p r e s s i o n and from the Commonwealth p r o t e c t i o n p o l i c y . The • motion of support voted by the convention of the R e t a i l G r o c e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n might, t h e r e f o r e , be c o n s i d e r e d a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r -commendation of the p e r s u a s i v e powers of the League's speakers, w h i l e , from a p o i n t of view of immediate p o l i t i c a l u t i l i t y , the f a v o u r a b l e r e s o l u t i o n s passed by the M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n and the s t a t e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y i n t h e i r most recent annual conventions must be c o n s i d e r e d most important. And how had these converts been won? The h i g h p o i n t s of .-. the P e r t h campaign had been a l a r g e r a l l y i n the c i t y ' s major t h e a t r e , His Majesty's, an open a i r meeting i n P i e r S t r e e t , and t h r e e luncheon hour addresses "ip the Town H a l l , the l a s t of them b e i n g h e a d l i n e d by a speech from the v e r y a c t i v e Mr. H.K. Watson. Outside the m e t r o p o l i t a n area the League's message had been spread by e v a n g e l i s t s sent out from P e r t h , by sympathetic l o c a l e d i t o r s of l o c a l l y owned papers, and by such a c t i v i t i e s - as those of the Dominion League e n t h u s i a s t s on the Katanning Road Board who had c i r c u l a r i z e d the other road boards u r g i n g t h a t cammon a c t i o n be -105-taken m s e c u r i n g the d e s i r e d s e c e s s i o n referendum. The f i r s t move i n parliament had been made p r i o r to the August 4 convention of the Dominion League. On May 20, 1931 H.W. Mann . ( N a t i o n a l i s t , P e r t h ) , a d m i t t i n g t h a t he d i d so a t the request of the Dominion League, i n t r o d u c e d a r e s o l u t i o n ; "That i n . the o p i n i o n of t h i s House' the Government should i n t r o d u c e a B i l l to enable a referendum of the e l e c t o r s of Western A u s t r a l i a to be taken on the q u e s t i o n : 'Are you i n f a v o u r of Western A u s t r a l i a withdrawing from the c o n t r o l of the Commonwealth Government and assuming f u l l Dominion s t a t u s w i t h i n the B r i t i s h E m p i r e ? * " 1 7 A v o t e was not taken on the r e s o l u t i o n u n t i l August 11, by which time the wording had been changed, at the s u g g e s t i o n of the government, to "Are you i n f a v o u r of Western A u s t r a l i a withdrawing from the F e d e r a t i o n ? " . A number of the members of the Labour o p p o s i t i o n expressed doubt about the a b i l i t y of the s t a t e b e i n g a b l e to withdraw from the Commonwealth, t h e i r doubters' ranks b e i n g J o i n e d by the Hon. T.A.L. Davy, the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l of the M i t c h e l l Government. ' The r e s o l u t i o n , sinee i t toad been i n t r o d u c e d by a p r i v a t e member, was not a government measure. Ne v e r t h e l e s s the v o t i n g (21 to 14 i n f a v o u r of the r e s o l u t i o n ) was a l o n g p a r t y l i n e s , a lthough Hon. Davy d i d f o r s a k e h i s c a b i n e t 18 arid p a r t y c o l l e a g u e s to vote w i t h the Labour o p p o s i t i o n . Governments do not always c o n s i d e r themselves bound by r e s o l -16 The f o r e g o i n g summary of Dominion League a c t i v i t y i s -based on a r e p o r t g i v e n by a c h a r t e r member of the League, Mr." G r i f f i t h s , to h i s f e l l o w M.L.A.'s. W.A. P a r i . Debates, Aug. 5, 1931, p. 4289. 17 i b i d . , May 20, 1931, p. 3015. 18 i b i d . , August 11, 1931, p . 4357. -106-u t i o n s of one house of the l e g i s l a t u r e . However, i n s p i t e of the not i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n of Mr. Davy, the M i t c h e l l 19 government prepared the n e c e s s a r y d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n . S i r James M i t c h e l l i n t r o d u c e d the Referendum B i l l f o r i t s f i r s t r e a d i n g -on November 18, and moved i t s second r e a d i n g the f o l l o w i n g day. The debate on the second r e a d i n g was continued on three days w i t h the Labour members i n t h e i r speeches s t r e s s i n g the expense . 20 t h a t must be i n c u r r e d by t a k i n g such a referendum, and, w i t h t h a t f i n e d i s r e g a r d t o r e a l i t y and l o n g range p a r t y p o l i c y which i s so common to a l l l e g i s l a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n , e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s of the Senate, a body which they were pledged to abolish^: as a S t a t e s ' House, and s u f f i c i e n t guarantee t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a n r i g h t s c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d a t Canberra. While the government members were s t r e s s i n g the d i s t a n c e that separated P e r t h from 19 The M i t c h e l l government might have been i n f l u e n c e d by the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s mentioned by Mr. J". EacCallum Smith (North P e r t h ) who, on October 20, asked the premier whether, i n view of the i m m i n e n t t a c t i o n by the f e d e r a l government to take a referendum on the q u e s t i o n of u n i f i c a t i o n and other c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes, he would s t a t e when he intended to g i v e e f f e c t t o the r e s o l u t i o n r e c e n t l y passed by the house. W.A. P a r i . Debates, Oct. 30, 1931, p. 4611. The u n i f i c a t i o n referendum was never taken, but i t s t h r e a t was v e r y real... 20 The Dominion League had attempted to answer the r a t h e r " n a t u r a l complaint t h a t a referendum would i n v o l v e u n j u s t i f i a b l e expense a t a time when a l l a v a i l a b l e funds should be expended on r e l i e f p r o j e c t s by o f f e r i n g to man the p o l l s w i t h v o l u n t e e r s t a f f from thftir o r g a n i z a t i o n . When the s t a t e ' s c h i e f e l e c t o r a l o f f i c e r (H. Gordon), a p p a r e n t l y w i s h i n g to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n c o n cerning the a v a i l a b i l i t y of low cost l a b o u r , sent out a c i r c u l a r dated Nov. 2 i n which he asked the d i s t r i c t r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r s whether they would be'ready to conduct a p o l l on the q u e s t i o n "Are you i n f a v o u r of Western A u s t r a l i a withdrawing from the F e d e r a t i o n ? " without pay h i s a c t i o n was Questioned by Mr. A. McCallum, deputy l e a d e r of the s t a t e Labour P a r t y . Mr. McCallum was p a r t i c u l a r l y i r r a t a t e d s i n c e such a referendum had not, a t that time, been_dis-eased i n P a r l i a m e n t . Both-the Premier and the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l denied a u t h o r i z i n g the c i r c u l a r . W.A. Debates., Nov.10''31, p. 5120, 21 v. supra, p.'79, n. 1. -107-the e a s t e r n c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e as a good and s u f f i c i e n t reason f o r the s t a t e s e c e d i n g from the Commonwealth, Labour members po i n t e d out Kimberley was as f a r from P e r t h as t h a t c i t y wets from Canberra. The q u e s t i o n was • f i n a l l y put f o r the second r e a d i n g on November 25, w i t h the r e s u l t , on a s t r a i g h t p a r t y d i v i s i o n , b e i n g 2 3 Ayes a g a i n s t 19 Noes. The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l f a i l e d to v o t e . The B i l l went to the upper chamber, the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , a body which, i n Western A u s t r a l i a , was e l e c t e d on a r e s t r i c t e d p r o p e r t y f r a n c h i s e , w i t h s e a t s d i s t r i b u t e d on the -p r i n c i p l e of r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s (those: f u r t h e s t from P e r t h ) d i d not express any great enthusiasm f o r the p r o j e c t e d referendum. So c l o s e was the d i v i s i o n of o p i n i o n i n the C o u n c i l , i n f a c t , t h a t the b i l l passed i t s second r e a d i n g there only by the grace and vote of the 22 p r e s i d e n t . The members of the C o u n c i l performed t h e i r d u t i e s as reviewers of p r o j e c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n by making a number of amendments i n the b i l l . These amendments concerned d e t a i l s of v o t i n g procedure but one was q u i t e important s i n c e i t would have f o r c e d the p o l l to be h e l d w i t h i n s i x months of the date on which the b i l l became law. When, t h e r e f o r e , the C o u n c i l passed the t h i r d r e a d i n g w i t h a v o t e of 14 to 11 on December 3, thus r e t u r n i n g the amended b i l l to the Assembly they were p r e s e n t i n g a problem which would t e s t the genuineness of the p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s ' d e s i r e 22 The December 2 vote was t i e d , 12 ayes, l2noes. The P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l , , s t a t i n g that p e r s o n a l l y he was opposed to the measure, n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n accorddnce w i t h custom, c a s t an "aye" vote i n order to permit the measure to come to a t h i r d r e a d i n g . -108-to have the referendum a c t u a l l y h e l d . December 4 had "been scheduled as the c l o s i n g day of p a r l i a m e n t . Committees were appointed "by "both houses to c o n f e r on the amendments.. The Assembly members c o u l d not see t h e i r way c l e a r to agree on the s i x month time l i m i t , ' so the h i l l was l o s t . The f a t e of the S e c e s s i o n Seferendum B i l l seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the d e s i r e f o r s e c e s s i o n had not, "by the c l o s e of 1931, assumed p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t made i t a p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y f o r mem-bers to p r o f e s s support f o r any measure f a v o u r i n g i t s accomplish-ment. Save f o r the a c t i o n of Mr. Davy the debate was to a lagge extent conducted a l o n g p a r t y l i n e s i n the lower house, w h i l e the g r e a t e r emphasis on r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n the upper chamber i n d i c -ated t h a t the o u t l y i n g s e c t i o n s of the s t a t e were not anxious to 23 come more completely under the c o n t r o l of P e r t h . These f a c t s seem to l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h the c o n d i t i o n s engendered by the d e p r e s s i o n and the a g i t a t i o n sponsored by the Dominion League had r e s u l t e d i n the s t i m u l a t i o n of the h i t h e r t o l a t e n t s e p a r a t i s t tendencies i n a s u f f i c i e n t number of Western A u s t r a l i a n s 23 Hon. H. Seddon, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the North-East i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , proposed an amendment to the referendum b i l l d u r i n g the Dec. 2 debate i n the upper chamber which would have permitted t h a t p o r t i o n of the s t a t e east of 119 E a s t Longitude and a l l the s t a t e n o r t h of the 29 t h p a r a l l e l to remain w i t h i n the Commonwealthif the i n h a b i t a n t s of the a r e a so d e s i r e d . The amendment was d e f e a t e d by the narrow vo t e of 13 to 12. W.A. P a r i . Debates. Dec. 3, 1931, pp. 5664, 5683. Throughout the e n t i r e s e c e s s i o n i s t campaign the advocates of the western s t a t e ' s withdrawal from the i n d i s s o l u b l e f e d e r a l Commonwealth were ever i n s i s t e n t upon m a i n t a i n i n g the i n d i v i s i b l e n ature of the s t a t e i t s e l f . -109-to ma&e s e c e s s i o n a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e , one t h a t had to be rekoned v/ith, by the c l o s e of 1931 the movement had not y e t reached such p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t i t c o u l d not be opposed. I f the s e c e s s i o n f e v e r had been a t the same i n t e n s i t y i n 1931 as i t was to r e a c h i i n 1933 t h e r e would have been no f a i l u r e t o come to an agreement on the s i x month t i m e - l i m i t c l a u s e . The Dominion League was not d i s h e a r t e n e d by teis'initial-f a i l u r e to secure the referendum. I t i n t e n s i f i e d i t s campaign, e n r o l i n g more of the l e a d i n g men of the s t a t e under the League's banner of the Union Jack and the B l a c k Swan. Events elsewhere i n the Commonwealth were tending to improve the f o r t u n e s of the League. There had been a Commonwealth e l e c t i o n i n December, • 1931 i n which Mr. S c u l l i n ' s Labour Government, sad#ly t o r n v/ith d i s s e n t i o n and d e s e r t i o n , was de f e a t e d by the newly organized U n i t e d A u s t r a l i a , l e d by the former Labour l e a d e r , Mr. J.A. Lyons and composed of the o l d N a t i o n a l i s t s and those c o n s e r v a t i v e L a b o u r i t e s who had f o l l o w e d Mr. Lyons i n h i s break w i t h Mr. S c u l l i n . The Lyons government took o f f i c e i n January 1932, and was soon concerning i t s e l f v/ith an a f f a i r which was bound to arouse the i n t e r e s t of Western A u s t r a l i a n s . Mr. J.T. Lang had b u i l t up a s t r o n g s t a t e government and p o l i t i c a l machine i n New South Wales which, u n l i k e many governments, appeared to be weathering the d e p r e s s i o n . A Labour man of r a t h e r r a d i c a l l e a n i n g s , Mr. Lang drew most of h i s support from the i n d u s t r i a l areas of the s t a t e . In A p r i l 1931 he had d e f a u l t e d on the payment of i n t e r e s t on New South Wales government bonds. The Lyons government upon t a k i n g o f f i c e assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - n o -te- pay the i n t e r e s t on the s t a t e - d e f a u l t e d debt, a c t i n g under i t s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the 1927 F i n a n c i a l Agreement. Doubtless encouraged by the Commonwealth government the s t a t e governor accused Mr. Lang of v i o l a t i n g the F i n a n c i a l Agreement and, i n May 1932, removed him from o f f i c e , Host Western A u s t r a l i a n s disapproved of the Lang r e p u d i a t i o n 24 p o l i c y as, indeed, d i d many of the i n h a b i t a n t s of Hew South Wales, but the a c t i o n of the Commonwealth government, assuming what s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s considered to be unexpected and alarming powers by "' f. v i r t u e o o f a f i n a n c i a l agreement, f r i g h t e n e d them f a r more. S t a t e sovereignty was a concept dear to the heart of a s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n . What was l e f t of s t a t e sovereignty was being s o r e l y threatened. While the Commonwealth government was showing i t s strengSSi i n i t s passage of arms w i t h Mr. Lang one of the most a c t i v e of the Dominion League members was making a gesture a t Canberra. On September 15, 1932 Hon Henry Gregory informed the House of Representatives that the working c l a s s d i s t r i c t s of P e r t h were unanimously i n favour of secession; and that the country people of the s t a t e were a l s o overwhelmingly i n favour of the s t a t e parliament t a k i n g some d r a s t i c a c t i o n . He dismissed the value of Commonwealth grants and proposed h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i n the f o l -lowing \words; nWe are adked to accept the dole so that we may continue 24 The a c t i v e d i s t r u s t of the Lang p o l i c y i n the h i n t e r l a n d of Hew South Wales sti m u l a t e d the "New S t a t e s " secession movements i n these areas w i t h the Country ParjBT p l a y i n g a l e a d i n g r o l e . Annual R e g i s t e r , 1931, p. -111-to pro'duce wealth which ... w i l l f i n d i t s way "back to the .eastern manufacturer. I am a s k i n g t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a should have c o n t r o l of i t s own t a r i f f for,.a p e r i o d of 25 y e a r s , but without the r i g h t to impose"" d u t i e s on Commonwealth products. 1* When Mr. Bernard C o i s e r (Wide Bay, Q.) i n t e r j e c t e d , "Western A u s t r a l i a might as w e l l l e a v e the Federation,"" he answered; "Unless something of t h i s k i n d i s done the people of t h a t 2S S t a t e w i l l d e s i r e to leave the F e d e r a t i o n . " The suggested customs' autonomy was f a r l e s s d r a s t i c than t h a t proposed i n the m a j o r i t y recommendations of the 1926 D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission. In h i s s u p p o r t i n g remarks Mr. Gregory made a l l the s t o c k Western A u s t r a l i a n p l e a s ; "What we meed i s a r e d u c t i o n i n the c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n . Hothing e l s e w i l l h e l p s o l v e our d i f f i c u l t i e s . Honorable members must r e c o g n i z e that the West i s i n a p r i m i t i v e c o n d i t i o n compared w i t h the E a s t , which was developed when la b o u r and m a t e r i a l were from s i x t y per cent, to s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent, cheaper than they are today. There are huge areas i n Western A u s t r a l i a w i t h l a t e n t w e a l t h a w a i t i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n . There are tens of thousands of a c r e s of a u r i f e r o u s and other m e t a l l i f e r o u s country which, i f c o s ts of p r o d u c t i o n were l e s s , c.ould be e x p l o i t e d and so g i v e employment to tens of thousands."26 He went on to read telegrams from v a r i o u s o r g a n i s a t i o n s , which were a l s o b a c k i n g the s e c e s s i o n movement, s u p p o r t i n g h i s motion. -Some of these telegrams were so i d e n t i c a l l y phrased t h a t an u n c h a r i t a b l e observer might be tempted to comment t h a t there were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the e n t i r e a f f a i r might v e r y w e l l 25 Commonweallth P a r i . Debates, v o l . 135, Sept. 15, 1932, p. 524. 26 i b i d . , p. 526. -112- , 27 ;e le have been the product of the Dominion League's board of strategy! After the gregory motion was seconded by the other^active Dominion league member in the House, Mr. J.H. Prowse, debat on the motion, was curtailed. After the seconding speech th house turned to the consideration of other matters, with Mr. Lyons promising that the ^introduction of the motion would be made government business. Save for one protest by Mr. Gregory 28 ten days later, nothing more was heard of the motion in the house. The government did not reintroduce i t for, as the Prime Minister pointed out to Mr. Gregory in a memorandum, "I must point out to you that my government could not see i t s way clear to support any motion embodying proposals of this 29 character." The action of the Commonwealth government against the legally constituted government of Ifew South Wales and the example of the lack of consideration shown a Western Australian proposal in the Commonwealth' parliament, -combined with the results of another year's intensified campaigning by the Dominion League, a l l enhanced the chances of the Referendum B i l l meeting with • success when i t was again introduced in the Legislative Assembly on Nov. 16, 1932. This time the b i l l proposed that the refer-27 The f i n a l phrase of the Perth Chamber of Commerce tele--' gram, "... Chamber wishes you success as i t would provide concrete example fallacy Australia's f i s c a l policy" is too similar to that of the Pastoralists' Association of W.A.,"... point out success would provide concrete example fallacy Australia's f i s c a l policy" to he mere coincidence. ~ 28 nnTtimoTTwealth Pari. Debates, vol. 135, Oct.25,'32, p. 1528. 29 Memorandum, Lyons to Gregory, Nov. 22, 1932, as quoted_ by J . H ! Morgan before Joint Committee of both Houses of Parliament, Gt. Britain, H.C. 88/1935, p. 87. -113-endum "be taken on two q u e s t i o n s , whether the v o t e r s were i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n and whether they f a v o u r e d the summoning of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention, the l a t t e r q u e s t i o n h a v i n g a l s o "been i n s e r t e d i n the 1931 h i l l through an amendment proposed "by the l e a d e r of t h e O p p o s i t i o n , Mr. P. C o l l i e r . In an attempt to circumvent the 1931 Labour c r i t i c i s m of the expense t h a t any referendum would i n v o l v e i t was proposed that i t be taken a t the same time as the forthcoming s t a t e p a r l i a m e n t a r y e l e c t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g the p r a c t i c e of f e d e r a l r e f e r e n d a , v o t i n g was to be compulsory. The members of both houses of the s t a t e parliament appeared to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the s t a t e c i t i z e n s now d e s i r e d the referendum. The Labour o p p o s i t i o n was f a r l e s s v o c a l than i n 1931. W i t h the a l t e r n a t i v e q u e s t i o n added, and the o b j e c t i o n of expense removed the Labour members found themselves c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t the referendum was a p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e f a v o u r e d by t h e i r p a r t y p h i l o s o p h y . Although a t r u e adherent to Labour p r i n c i p l e s must oppose s e c e s s i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g the immediate circumstances i t was mueh e a s i e r t o "Let the people d e c i d e " . The b i l l was accepted by the Assembly, p a s s i n g i t s second and t h i r d readings without a d i v i s i o n . On aecember 14 i t was t r a n s m i t t e d t o the C o u n c i l who passed through a l l stages i n t h r e e debates, r e t u r n i n g i t to the Assembly on December 16 w i t h some minor amendments d e a l i n g w i t h the mechanics of t a k i n g the p o l l . On December 21 the Assembly agreed w i t h the C o u n c i l ' s amendments. On December 30 the b i l l , by v i r t u e of v i c e - r e g a l U>Q.S a s s e n t , A t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an Act of the P a r l i a m e n t of Western -114-A u s t r a l i a . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e of the Dominion League had heen ac h i e v e d . The v o t e r s of Western A u s t r a l i a were to he g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y of e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r views on the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n . Those who had supported the Referendum B i l l were not, of course, a l l ardent s e c e s s i o n i s t s . Two r e v e a l i n g statements were made-during the debate on the u n s u c c e s s f u l 1931 b i l l . The Labour l e a d e r , Mr. C o l l i e r , made the remark on November 24, 1931; "One j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s B i l l i s to be found i n the f r e q u e n t .comment, 'Oh, well,-we wont be a b l e to secede, you know, but i f we get a b i g v o t e i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n , i t might make the E a s t e r n S t a t e s people s i t up and take n o t i c e . " ^ I t i s t r u e t h a t a t the time the Labour p a r t y was opposing the b i l l , but t h e r e i s no reason to suspect that the statement d i d • not r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e of a l a r g e number of the b i l l ' s s u p p o r t e r s . Hon. J.M. MacFarlane, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the M e t r o p o l i t a n -Suburban d i s t r i c t i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , f r a n k l y s t a t e d on December 3, 1931; " I am opposed to s e c e s s i o n but I support the i d e a of a referendum. I f a l a r g e vote i s g i v e n i n f a v o u r ofl s e c e s s i o n i t w i l l h e l p us to b r i n g about a b e t t e r c o n s i d -e r a t i o n of the d i s a b i l i t i e s from which we are s u f f e r i n g . ... I b e l i e v e t h a t we can i n time overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s o ccasioned by the extravagant manner i n which the "federation has been run. I a l s o h o l d t h a t the s e c e s s i o n i s t s have good cause f o r t h e i r complaints, The referendum would make the" r e s t of A u s t r a l i a s i t up and take n o t i c e . The other S t a t e s would be g i v e n a l e a d , and we should then have a much b e t t e r s t a t e of a f f a i r s under F e d e r a t i o n . " 3 1 30 W.A. P a r i . Debates, Nov. 24, 1931, p. 5419. 31 i b i d . t Dec. 3, 1931, pp. 5682-83. -115-One noteworthy r e s u l t of t h i s a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of t h i s e who thus opposed s e c e s s i o n was the f e a r t h a t i f the referendum were h e l d the r e s u l t might not "be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n to make i t a good "bargaining p o i n t i n l a t e r n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Commonwealth government. Many good f e d e r a l i s t s , thus, tended to "become a c t i v e campaigners f o r s e c e s s i o n . The term, "good f e d e r a l i s t " , might, of course, he questioned. A reader of the debates cannot h e l p b e i n g s t r u c k by the absence of any A u s t r a l i a n sentiment n e i n g b e t r a y e d by the speakers. L o y a l t y to B r i t a i n c ould always be evoked to t i d e an o r a t o r olzrer the weaker spots of h i s case, but over t h i r t y years of Commonwealth government had f a i l e d to produce any apparent A u s t r a l i a n n a t i o n a l sentiment.• Those who supported the continuance of the f e d e r a l t i e used arguments based on m a t e r i a l i s t i c w e l f a r e . T u r n i n g to the remarks of the a p p a r e n t l y s i n c e r e s e c e s s i o n i s t s , the reader n o t i f i e s t h a t they seemingly experienced g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the — to them -- s e l f - e v i d e n t j u s t i c e of t h e i r cause and the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t might ha'toe to be overcome i f s e c e s s i o n were to.be a c h i e v e d . T h e i r appeal was b e i n g made to a Repression impoverished people, who were 32 not l i a b l e to pause too l o n g i n r e f l e c t i o n or a n a l y s i s . Neverthe-l e s s i t i s strange that, the s e c e s s i o n i s t s c o u l d , u c h a l l e n g e d , p a i n t t h e i r p i c t u r e of the happy Dominion of Western A u s t r a l i a , f l o u r i s h -i n g on i t s export t r a d e , e n j o y i n g the b e n e f i t s of a low, almost 32 Hon. W.H. K i t s o n t o l d h i s f e l l o w C o u n c i l members t h a t he had met a gentleman who, w i t h apparent s i n c e r i t y , maintained that wheat and wool would be f e t c h i n g higher_ p r i c e s on the w o r l d market had the s t a t e remained out of F e d e r a t i o n . W.A. P a r i . Debates, Dec. 2, 1931, p. 5590. -116-f r e e t r a d e , revenue t a r i f f , w h i l e , a t the same time, i t s p r o j e c t e d budget was always computed on the b a s i s of a t a r i f f s i m i l a r to t h a t i n i q u i t o u s Commonwealth l e v y a g a i n s t which they 33 were r e v o l t i n g . The r e s t of A u s t r a l i a d i d not immediately b e g i n to s i t up and take n o t i c e . Perhaps ;"tiie f i r s t person to take the a g i t a t i o n s e r i o u s l y was P r o f . Hancock who, w r i t i n g i n the f i r s t months of the d e p r e s s i o n (1929-30) remarked; "Those Western A u s t r a l i a n s do not t h r e a t e n i d l y ; they would, i n f a c t , secede r a t h e r than submit to a c e n t r a l government e x p l o i t i n g r e m o r s e l e s s l y a l l the r e s o u r c e s i t can l e g a l l y command." 3 4 Pew E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n s were a b l e to take as sympathetic a view of the movement. Senator J.P.D. Dunn, a f t e r r e a d i n g the 35 newspaper r e p o r t of the Kay 23, 1930 r a l l y , quoted the cover-i n g p r o v i s i o n s of the. C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , and the oath of a l l e g i a n c e , and , from these f a c t s reached the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , " I f the people of Western A u s t r a l i a s e r i o u s l y attempt to c u t the p a i n t e r they w i l l be g u i l t y of an a c t of t r e a s o n i n every 36 sense of the word." The f o l l o w i n g day another Labour Senator from Hew South Wales, A. Rae, u n s u c c e s s f u l l y attempted, on a motion of adjournment, to get the Western A u s t r a l i a n Senators .37 to s t a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the matter of s e c e s s i o n . A f t e r t h i s f l u r r y of excitement caused bu the opening r a l l y of the s e c e s s i o n movement proper the i n t e r e s t of ,therest of A u s t r a l i a i n the matter. 33 Such a t a r i f f i s d i s c u s s e d i n Case of t h e People. pp. 462-4. Hon.H. Seddon d i d mention t h a t the s e c e s s i o n i s t s were not s t r e s s i n g the i n c r e a s e d c o s t s and d i f f i c u l t y the new Dominion would encounter m a i n t a i n i n g customs i n s p e c t i o n establishments a l o n g i t s le n g t h y new boundary w i t h the Commonwealth. W.A. P a r i . Debates,-Dec. 15, 1932, pp. 2479-80. 34 Hancock, op. c i t . , p. 105 35 v.supra, p. 96, n.6. 36 C'wealth Debates v o l . 124, p. 2192 3ff i b i d . , p. 2279 -117-su"bsided u n t i l the g r e a t s e c e s s i o n campaign of 1933, i n connection w i t h the A p r i l referendum, brought the matter bade back i n t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . Between May 23, 1930 and December 30, 1932 a p r o j e c t e d r e s o l u t i o n had been converted i n t o a r e a l i t y . P a r t of a hard h i t community had adopted s e c e s s i o n as i t s magical means of r e g a i n i n g p r o s p e r i t y ; another p a r t of the same com-munity had decided to use i t as a means of o b t a i n i n g b e t t e r terms from the Commonwealth Government. One p a r t y , the N a t i o n a l i s t s , had adopted the popular cause of s e c e s s i o n i n the apparent hope of s t r e n g t h i n g t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . The Labour o p p o s i t i o n had found themselves i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . As a p a r t y they were opposed to s e c e s s i o n . As a p a r t y they were i n f a v o u r of r e f e r e n d a . The l a c k of an overwhelming p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the measure allowed them to oppose the f i r s t attempt to secure a referendum on the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n by s t r e s s i n g the expense i n v o l v e d . The success of the Dominion League's a c t i v i t y , a i d e d as i t was by e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s , can be i n d i c -a t e d by the p a r t y ' s change of a t t i t u d e when the b i l l - a g a i n came up f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n 1932. Now they.were prepared to "Let the i) months people d e c i d e . I n the o p ening Aof 1933 many f o r c e s were b e i n g brought to bear on the people i n attempts to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r decision;. CHAPTER SEVEN The Referendum. The s t a t e p a r l i a m e n t a r y e l e c t i o n s and the s e c e s s i o n r e f e r - . endum were "both scheduled f o r A p r i l 8, 1933. With the N a t i o n a l i s t s and Country P a r t y a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g s e c e s s i o n and the Labour P a r t y remaining non-committal on the matter, t h e i r candidates merely p l e d g i n g themselves to implement the peoples' d e c i s i o n , i t ; w o u l d have been a remarkable occurrance i f the n o n - s e c e s s i o n i s t s had not attempted t o organize some s o r t of a s s o c i a t i o n to combat the barrage of s e c e s s i o n i s t propaganda. --• • Under the terms of the S e c e s s i o n Referendum A c t , 1932, the v o t e r s of the s t a t e were to be asked tp separate q u e s t i o n s , each on i t s own b a l l o t paper. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n aroused the major i n t e r e s t , "Are you i n f a v o u r of the s t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a withdrawing from the F e d e r a l Commonwealth e s t a b l i s h e d under the Commonwealth o f - A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t ( I m p e r i a l ) ? " whereas the second was the a l t e r n a t i v e , "Are you i n f a v o u r of a Convention of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of equal number from each of the A u s t r a l i a n S t a t e s b e i n g summoned f o r the purpose of proposing such a l t e r a t i o n s i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Commonwealth as 1 may appear to such Convention t o be necessary?" No Western A u s t r a l i a n would admit that h i s s t a t e s u f f e r e d from no d i s a b i l i t i e s . The l o g i c a l move, t h e r e f o r e , o f ' t h o s e who opposed s e c e s s i o n , was to support the convention. Such a procedure 1 Quoted from copies of b a l l o t s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Case of the People, p. 390 - 1 1 9 -'2 was adopted "by the F e d e r a l League, 1 The F e d e r a l League urged the v o t e r s to c a s t t h e i r b a l l o t s f o r the convention and a g a i n s t s e c e s s i o n w h i l e the Dominion League supported s e c e s s i o n and d i s -counted the v a l u e of a convention. I t i s p e r f e c t l y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a v o t e r might b e l t e v e i t l o g i c a l and d e s i r a b l e to support -b o t h measures, but the marking of both b a l l o t s i n the a f f i r m a t i v e or i n the n e g a t i v e would have to be c o n s i d e r e d as a d i s p l a y of independence. The great mass of the s o v e r e i g n people might be expected to f o l l o w the behest of the Dominion or the F e d e r a l -League, and c a s t a "Yes" and a "Ho" b a l l o t , w h i l e the t h r e a t of a f i n e t h a t accompanied the standard A u s t r a l i a n v o t i n g p r o v i s i o n s was f a i r assurance t h a t the b a l l o t s would a t l e a s t be c a s t . The i n t e n s i v e campaign began i n February, w i t h a s e n a t o r and an ex-senator p l a y i n g important r o l e s i n the Dominion League's opening s a l v o s . S i r H a l Colebatch served as the League's l e a d - o f f h i t t e r . He had r e c e n t l y r e s i g n e d from the Senate, where he had 3 never been comfortable, to accept a g a i n h i s o l d p o s i t i o n as Western A u s t r a l i a n Agent-General i n London. S i r Hal's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the campaign meant a postponement of h i s departure f o r "Home", w h i l e h i s c o l l e a g u e , Senator Edward Bertram Johnston, was f o r c e d to f o r s a k e h i s l e g i s l a t i v e d u t i e s i n Canberra i n order t h a t he 2 The w r i t e r has been a b l e to uncover l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the h i s t o r y or personnel of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . He does not know whether i t had any connection, save the famous name, w i t h the t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y League which had played such an important p a r t i n b r i n g i n g about f e d e r a t i o n . 3 S i r H a l l s t i l l c l u n g to the concept of the Senate b e i n g a "States'House", and was notable by b e i n g i t s only member who d i d not a t t e n d a p a r t y caucus. -120-4 might j o i n i n the more e x c i t i n g f i g h t i n h i s -home state . - D e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t e a r l y background the two men seem to have a r r i v e d a t s i m i l a r views on the matter of s e c e s s i o n . S i r Hal had been born i n 1872 i n South A u s t r a l i a . At the age of s i x t e e n he had entered a newspaper o f f i c e , s e r v i n g w i t h v a r i o u s South A u s t r a l i a n and Hew South Wales' j o u r n a l s between 1888-95. He f o l l o w e d the crowds- to Western A u s t r a l i a , l i k e A l f r e d Chandler and Henry Gregory, becoming e d i t o r of the P e r t h H orning H e r a l d i n 1904. R u r a l j o u r n a l i s m seemed more agreeable to him, however. I n 1905 he became the p r o p r i e t o r of the Hotham A d v e r t i s e r , an a c q u i s i t i o n which he r e t a i n e d throughout the p e r i o d under review. He was,from h i s e a r l i e s t y e ars t h e r e , i n t e r e s t e d i n the p o l i t i c s of h i s adopted s t a t e . He entered the s t a t e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1912 and j o i n e d the c a b i n e t i n 1916, a f t e r the c o l l a p s e of the Labour government. Por a b r i e f p e r i o d i n 1919 p r i o r to S i r James M i t c h e l l ' s f i r s t assumption of the post he served as s t a t e premier. In 1923 he r e s i g n e d from the cabinet and C o u n c i l to accept the post of s t a t e Agent-General i n London, a p o s / i t i o n he o c c u p i e d u n t i l 1927 when he r e t u r n e d to Western A u s t r a l i a to c o n t e s t a senate seat i n the 1928 e l e c t i o n s . 4 The Commonwealth parliament was i n s e s s i o n d u r i n g the whole time tl&at the referendum campaign was i n progress i n W.A.. Were i t not f o r t h i s f a c t Messrs. Gregory and "Prowse would doubt-l e s s have played a more a c t i v e p a r t i n the campaign than they d i d . Sen. P a t r i c k Lynch, whose presence on the speaker's p l a t f o r m had been p a r t i c u l a r l y noted i n the May 23, 1930 s e c e s s i o n meeting i n P e r t h , had been appointed P r e s i d e n t of the Senate a f t e r the U n i t e d A u s t r a l i a P a r t y ' s v i c t o r y i n December, 1931, and was thereby l o s t to the s e c e s s i o n movement as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . -121-His was a c a r e e r of an e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n who had been l u r e d to the western s t a t e by i t s golden w e a l t h . He probably was i n 5 f a v o u r of f e d e r a t i o n a t the t u r n of the century, but h i s i n t e r e s t i n s t a t e p o l i t i c s had converted him to t h i n k p r i m a r i l y of h i s adopted s t a t e . I n many r e s p e c t s h i s s t o r y can be l i k e n e d to t h a t of Henry Gregory, a g o l d - r u s h T 1 o t h e r s i d e r turned s t a t e p a t r i o t . Edward Johnston, on the other hand, c o u l d be l i k e n e d to S i r James M i t c h e l l , a n a t i v e son who never broadened h i s a l l e g i a n c e . He was born i n Western A u s t r a l i a i n 1880. A l t h o u g h the son of the c o l o n i a l and s t a t e Surveyor-General he himself, became a farmer. At the age of t h i r t y - o n e he was e l e c t e d t o the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly f o r W i l l i a m ITarrogin, a c o n s t i t u e n c y which he-.represented s t e a d i l y from 1911-28, b e i n g a l s o deputy l e a d e r of the Country P a r t y f o r t h e l a s t s i x y e a r s . F u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l -rewards seem to have eluded him, a f a c t whicfr might have accounted f o r h i s d e c i s i o n to r e s i g n h i s s t a t e posts i n 1928 and to cam-paign s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a senate s e a t . Although he d i d not f o l l o w S i r Hal's example of r e f r a i n i n g from a t t e n d i n g h i s p a r t y caucus, Senator Johnston proved to be a f a r more v o c a l advocate f o r Western A u s t r a l i a n " r i g h t s " than h i s f e l l o w freshman s e n a t o r . Along w i t h these two doughty w a r r i o r s other a b l e o r a t o r s toured the s t a t e . Speaking under the i n s i g n i a of the Union Jack and B l a c k Swan they viewed w i t h a l a r m the tendencies of the 5 The w r i t e * has been unable to f i n d any r e f e r e n c e to S i r Hal's a t t i t u d e a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c o n j e c t u r e . He was a t l e a s t c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e c e s s i o n as e a r l y as A p r i l 11, 1918, v. supra, pp. 60-61. S e r v i n g on the R o y a l Commission on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , 1927-29 he became the s t o u t advocate of s t a t e s ' r i g h t s w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n . - 1 2 2 -Commonwealth government, and p o i n t e d w i t h h o p e f u l p r i d e to Western A u s t r a l i a of the f u t u r e , f r e e d from the bonds of the Commonwealth t a r i f f , the N a v i g a t i o n A c t , and the Queensland sugar monopoly; f l o u r i s h i n g under the p r o t e c t i o n of the R o y a l Navy, buying i n the cheapest markets of the world, and s e l l i n g i t s wheat, lumber, and wool to a world t h a t was merely w a i t i n g f o r Western A u s t r a l i a to d i s s o c i a t e i t s e l f from the r e s t of the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth b e f o r e i t emerged from the Great Depres-s i o n . In h i s attempts to spread the g o spel of s e c e s s i o n the Dominion League's Chairman, Mr. Watson, was a b l e to emplpy two s o r t s of advocates, the Dominion League's own speakers, and the N a t i o n a l i s t and Country P a r t y c a n d i d a t e s . The N a t i o n a l i s t s e s p e c i a l l y were ardent supporters of s e c e s s i o n . S i r James M i t c h e l l ' s government was s u f f e r i n g from the e f f e c t s of the depressioni'in much the same manner as were governments through-out the world. The s t a t e t r e a s u r y , which had been r u n n i n g a c h r o n i c d e f i c i t even i n the years of p r o s p e r i t y , had been over-whelmed by the demands f o r s p e c i a l r e l i e f p r o j e c t s brought on by d e p r e s s i o n . S i r James' advocacy of s e c e s s i o n had been h i s s o l e popular move, so the N a t i o n a l i s t c a n d i d a t e s , a c u t e l y aware t h a t any attempt to stand on the p a r t y r e c o r d would r e l e g a t e them to the p o s i t i o n of ex-M.L.A.'s by the evening of A p r i l 8 endeavoured to d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n from t h a t s o r r y s u b j e c t by. s t r e s s i n g s e c e s s i o n . The F e d e r a l League was unable to match i t s r i v a l ' s a r r a y of t a l e n t . The Labour P a r t y , the p a r t y of u n i f i c a t i o n , was the n a t u r a l s u pporter of the a n t i - s e c e s s i o n i s t s . The a l t e r n a t i v e referendum q u e s t i o n had been suggested o r i g i n a l l y by Mr. C o l l i e r , -123-but, a s t u t e p o l i t i c i a n t h a t he was, t h a t gentleman had i n s t r u c t e d h i s f o l l o w e r s merely to abide by the d e e i s i o n of the e l e c t o r s . The two m e t r o p o l i t a n d a i l i e s were opposing s e c e s s i o n , but t h e i r e a s t e r n connections made them suspect, g i v i n g them f a r l e s s they i n f l u e n c e than Amight otherwise have e x e r c i s e d . The F e d e r a l i s t s would have to l o o k elsewhere f o r the e f f e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r views. Sen. Wm. C a r r o l l p r o v i d e d some a s s i s t a n c e by w r i t i n g l e t t e r s to the press e x p l a i n i n g t h a t , a l t h o u g h he was aware t h a t the s t a t e was s u f f e r i n g from genuine d i s a b i l i t i e s , he c o u l d not support the s e c e s s i o n movement, s i n c e he c o u l d not see how the s t a t e c o u l d secede; In h i s o p i n i o n a m a j o r i t y vote f o r s e c e s s i o n would be no more e f f e c t i v e than a 6 p r o t e s t and demand f o r a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the- c o n s t i t u t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r . t h e f e d e r a l i s t s , l e t t e r s to the press do not i n f l u e n c e v o t e r s to saiy great extent. E a r l y i n March i t became apparent that the f e d e r a l i s t s were going to get t h e i r " b i g name" speakers. Prime M i n i s t e r Lyons and the Leader of the Government i n the Senate, Western A u s t r a l i a ' s own Sen. S i r George Pearce, were going to l e a d a f e d e r a l i s t speaking t o u r of the s t a t e . The Dominion League d i d not appear to take k i n d l y to the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n read t h e i r show. On March 10 Mr. Prowse Athe f o l l o w i n g t e l e g r a m which he had r e c e i v e d from the Dominion League head o f f i c e to the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . "Hope yjauiwill s t r o n g l y r e s e n t F e d e r a l Government i n t e r f e r i n g s e c e s s i o n referendum. Think i t unwarranted ' 6 Based on the Senator's own e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s a c t i o n , g i v e n i n Senate, June 7, 1233, C'wealth, P a r i . Debates, p. 2137. -124-and unprecedented to attempt to p r e j u d i c e referendum a u t h o r i z e d hy our P a r l i a m e n t . Has F e d e r a l Government authority spend money t h i s purpose?" To which he added h i s own statement; "I hope t h a t the F e d e r a l Government w i l l not attempt to p r e j u d i c e tlie v o t e to he taken i n Western A u s t r a l i a hy any undue i n t e r f e r e n c e . The referendum i s a domestic matter which has been a u t h o r i z e d by b o t h Houses of Parliament 1. 1 7 Such was the a t t i t u d e taken by a i a r g e number of Western A u s t r a l i a n s . The d e c i s i o n to withdraw from the Commonwealth was to be a p u r e l y domestic a f f a i r . Ho i n t e r f e r e n c e would be t o l e r a t e d from the Commonwealth which thus stood to l o s e one t h i r d of i t s ^ area. So s u c c e s s f u l l y d i d the Dominion League expound t h i s d o c t r i n e t h a t the v i s i t of the f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s a c t u a l l y a i d e d the s e c e s s i o n i s t r a t h e r than the f e d e r a l i s t 8 campaign. The F e d e r a l p a r t y , c o n s i s t i n g of the Prime M i n i s t e r , Joseph A Lyons, Senator S i r George Pearce, and Senator. T.C. Brennan ( V i c . ) l e f t the c a p i t a l on March 21. T h e i r o f f i c i a l schedule c a l l e d f o r %the f e d e r a l i s t campaign b e i n g inaugurated w i t h a l a r g e r a l l y i n P e r t h on the twenty-seventh, but the Prime m i n i s t e r began campaign-i n g b e f o r e he even entered the s t a t e . When the p a r t y was p a s s i n g through A d e l a i d e he was, n a t u r a l l y , the t a r g e t f o r many r e p o r t e r s ' q u e r i e s . In answering these he o u t l i n e d h i s views of the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n . The p a r o c h i a l a t t i t u d e 7 Commonwealth P a r i . Debates. March 10, 1933, p. 174. 8 So unpopular was the v i s i t among the great mass of Western A u s t r a l i a n s t h a t i t was commona&ly r e p o r t e d t h a t the s e c e s s i o n i s t s had a s s i s t e d i n paying them to come. Statement of S.W. Munsie, M i n i s t e r of Mines i n C o l l i e r Eabour Government, W.A. P a r i . Debates. J u l y 25, 1933, p. 84. -125-must be abandoned i n f a v o u r of a world v i e w p o i n t . P l a c e d i n the l a r g e r s e t t i n g s e c e s s i o n would be seen to be a tragedy. Events i n Europe and A s i a were f a r from r e a s s u r i n g . . A s o l u t i o n should be found w i t h i n the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth, he s a i d , adding t h a t i f A u s t r a l i a n s surveyed- would a f f a i r s they would r e a l i z e the a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y of s t i c k i n g t o g e t h e r . To these remarks he appended what co u l d be co n s i d e r e d a p e n f e s s i o n of a p e n i t e n t ; He c o n s i d e r e d the Commonwealth as one f a m i l y and i f some members were i n d i f f i c u l t y i t was the duty of the others 9 to a s s i s t them. On h i s way through K a l g o o r l i e (where he had to change t r a i n s ) and on h i s a r r i v a l a t P e r t h the Prime M i n i s t e r was, by v i r t u e of h i s p o s i t i o n , accorded c i v i c r e c e p t i o n s , a t which he warned of 10 the dangers of v o t i n g f o r s e c e s s i o n merely as a p r o t e s t . The r e c e p t i o n s , though c i v i c , were not n e c e s s a r i l y c i v i l . T h i s f a c t was brought more f o r c e f u l l y home i n the i n a u g u r a l r a l l y , h e l d , presumably i n His Majesty's Theatre, on the evening of Monday, March 27. The meeting proved to be one of the most n o i s y and d i s o r d e r l y e x h i b i t i o n s i n the s t a t e ' s h i s t o r y . The Prime M i n i s t e r had d i f f i c u l t y making h i m s e l f heard above .'the uproar of the s e c e s s i o n i s t supporters who were out to howl him down. He promised to pre s s f o r an e a r l y c a l l i n g of a f e d e r a l convention t o r e v i s e the c o n s t i t u t i o n and to d i s c u s s the s t a t e ' s 11 c l a i m of d i s a b i l i t i e s as a primary producer. A s i m i l a r r e c e p t i o n 9 London Times, March 27, 1933, 12:2 South A u s t r a l i a was a l s o demanding b e t t e r terms of the Com-monwealth, a f a c t that i n f l u e n c e d b o t h the r e p o r t e r s ' questions and Mr. Lyons' answers. 10 London Time's, March 28, 1933, 13:4 11 New York Times March 28, 3:4. The New York Times had the u n f o r t u n a t e h a b i t of r e f e r r i n g to Mr. Lyons as the Premier of Western A u s t r a l i a . -126-was accorded him i n other c e n t r e s , w h i l e s c a r c e l y more f r i e n d l y welcomes were grtoen other f e d e r a l i s t speakers, Senators Pearce and Brennan, former Senator W a l t e r K i n g s m i l l (the Western A u s t r a l i a n who had served as l e a d e r of the Labour P a r t y i n the -Senate and, d u r i n g the S c u l l i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , had been p r e s i d e n t lJq <of t h a t body), Hon W.M. Hughes, the wartime Prime M i n i s t e r of the Commonwealth and e a r l y exponent o f the need of a new c o n s t i t u t -i o n a l convention, and Mr. H i l l , the Agent-General f o r South A u s t r a l i a , another s t a t e t h a t was a g i t a t i n g f o r b e t t e r treatment from the Commonwealth. The h o s t i l i t y of the n a t i v e s c o u l d i n p a r t be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i r t h e o r y t h a t the q u e s t i o n of l e a v i n g the Commonwealth was a p r i v a t e a f f a i r which should not be a matter of concern f o r Commonwealth a u t h o r i t i e s , u n l e s s , of course they wished to support s e c e s s i o n . Another reason, which robbed the f e d e r a l -i s t s . o f a s u b s t a n t i a l number of votes which would l o g i c a l l y have been t h e i r s , was the f a c t t h a t a l l the s t a t e s ' d i s t i n g u i s h e d v i s i t o r s , Messrs. Lyons, Brennan, Hughes, and S i r George Pearce (who can be c o n s i d e r e d l i t t l e more than a v i s i t o r ) had a t some time i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r s been a t t a c h e d t o the Labour p a r t y and had l e f t i t , not without p o l i t i c a l advancement f o r themselves. As P r o f . B e a s l e y has w r i t t e n ; "The confirmed Labour v o t e r l o v e s not a renegade, which was the l a b e l he a t t a c h e d t o the v i s i t i n g o r a t o r s ; and he reasoned t h i n g s out to h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t , i f these d e s e r t e r s to the Labour cause thought 12 Mr. Hughes c h a r a c t e r i z e d the s e c e s s i o n movement as "A crude and f u t i l e expedient". Hew York Times, A p r i l 9, 1933, 15:3. -127-f e d e r a t i o n a good t h i n g , i t must have l i t t l e t o recommend i t to^a^genuine Labour man. The v i s i t of the f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s , as a prominent member of the Dominion League afterwards confessed, was regarded as b e i n g worth a t l e a s t 20,000 votes to the cause of s e c e s s i o n . " 1 5 Such was the r e s u l t of the s t a t e Labour P a r t y f a i l i n g to g i v e a l e a d to i t s s u p p o r t e r s . W a l t e r K i n g s m i l l ' s p e r s o n a l appeal was of l i t t l e v a l u e . He was damned from the company he kept on f e d e r a l i s t p l a t f o r m s , and from the f a c t t h a t he was compromised from having h e l d f e d e r a l o f f i c e s . I n t h i s manner the v o t e r s of' the s t a t e were prepared f o r t the referendum. The Dominion League's speakers pained a r o s y word p i c t u r e of the f u t u r e independent Western A u s t r a l i a . Whenever a f e d e r a l i s t attempted to i n t r o d u c e a c e r t a i n note o f , c h i l l i n g r e a l i t y i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n by q u e s t i o n i n g the p r a c t i c a l i t y of t h e i r dreams •of e f f e c t i n g s e c e s s i o n , the h y p e r l o y a l t y of the Dominion League members was l i a b l e to to be offended. Thus, when Mr. Lyons was r e p o r t e d to have made the statement i n Albany t h a t i f a p e t i t i o n f o r s e c e s s i o n were presented to the K i n g "His Majesty, the K i n g , would t e l l Western A u s t r a l i a t h a t a c h a r t e r had been g i v e n to the A u s t r a l i a n people a t the time of f e d e r a t i o n and t h a t B r i t a i n would not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the a f f a i r s of a n a t i o n t h a t had i t s own C o n s t i t u t i o n , " the i n c i d e n t provoked from Senator Johnston the comment t h a t Mr Lyons' remarks, d r a g g i n g the King's name i n t o p a r t y c o n t r o v e r s y , deeply offended the l o y a l people of the s t a t e who regarded i t as a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l outrage; "His Majesty's name u n f a i r l y and d i s l o y a l y 13 B e a s l e y , P.R., "The S e c e s s i o n Movement i n Western A u s t r a l i a " i n The A u s t r a l i a n Q u a r t e r l y , Ho. 29, March, 1936, p. 32. -128-14 brought i n t o d i s p u t e wijfti p o s s i b l e dangerous r e s u l t s . " What can reasoned argument a v a i l a g a i n s t passion? E s p e c i a l l y when the i n c i t e r s of the p a s s i o n were a b l e to draw on the l o n g l i s t of v e r y r e a l g r i e v a n c e s which Western A u s t r a l i a had a c q u i r e d through her t h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the 6onmonwealth and the defenders' of reason were a b l e to confess o n l y t h a t i n the gfcast they had l e f t undone those t h i n g s which they ought to have done, but t h a t they had now seen the e r r o r of t h e i r ways. -As p o l l i n g day drew near, and sweet reason proved u n a v a i l i n g , the Prime M i n i s t e r adopted what co u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a t h r e a t -ening tone. Speaking e a r l y i n A p r i l he i s r e p o r t e d to have s a i d ; " I t should be c l e a r l y understood t h a t w h i l e the Commonwealth i s prepared to t r e a t w i t h Western A u s t r a l i a , as p a r t of the Commonwealth, and t o d i s c u s s such matters as a convention and a means of f i x i n g S t a t e g r a n t s , an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n would a r i s e i f t h e r e were a v o t e i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n and any Government or P a r l i a m e n t of Western A u s t r a l i a should take any steps to put such a d e c i s i o n i n t o e f f e c t . I f , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , such a p o s i t i o n should a r i s e a l l questions a f f e c t i n g Western A u s t r a l i a would have to.be c o n s i d e r e d from a new p o i n t of view, and i t would not be p o s s i b l e to t r e a t the S t a t e on the same f o o t i n g as those which continued to r e c o g n i z e t h e i r dutyes to one another and to the Commonwealth." C o n s i d e r i n g the s t a t e of mind of the Western A u s t r a l i a n v o t e r s , such remarks were not l i k e l y to win f r i e n d s or s u p p o r t e r s . On A p r i l 8, ,1933 the v o t e r s of Western A u s t r a l i a , m i n d f u l of the f i n e which would be i n c u r r e d by t h e i r f a i l u r e to do so, 14 Telegram, Sen. Johnston to Hon. Henry Gregory, as read by l a t t e r i n House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Commonwealth, P a r i .  Debates, A p r i l 4, 1933, p. 789. 15 P e r t h West A u s t r a l i a n . A p r i l 4, 1933, quoted by Sen Johnston, Commonwealth P a r i . Debates. June 15, 1933, p. 2342. Ho i n d i c a t i o n was g i v e n by the Senator concerning the whereabouts of the Prime M i n i s t e r a t the time of making t h i s statement. Mr. Lyons, r e t u r n i n g from h i s W.A. t r i p , was speaking m A d e l a i d e on A p r i l 3, London Times, Apr. 4, 1933. 15:4. . . ' ' -129-v i s i t e d the p o l l s to c a s t t h e i r b a l l o t s f o r the candidates f o r membership i n the s t a t e parliament and f o r the two r e f e r e n d a q u e s t i o n s . The f-esults of the e l e c t i o n would have confirmed Dean S w i f t i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t the Yahoos were devoid of the e x e r c i s e of reason, a l t h o u g h the c o n t r a d i c t o r y sentiments expressed i n the p o l l s ware more apparent than r e a l . S i r James M i t c h e l l and h i s N a t i o n a l i s t s , the most v o c a l advocates of s e c e s s i o n were r e p u d i a t e d by the v o t e r s , S i r James and two of h i s c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s meeting p e r s o n a l d e f e a t . The Country P a r t y , whose p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y added a r i n g of s i n c e r i t y to t h e i r advocacy of s e c e s s i o n t h a t was midsing i n t h a t of many of the N a t i o n a l i s t s , b a r e l y h e l d t h e i r s e a t s , . w h i l e the Labour P a r t y , the p a r t y of p o l i t i c s i l e n c e on the a l l important q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n , added the l o s t N a t i o n a l i s t seats to t h e i r own to sweep i n t o power w i t h a comfortable 16 m a j o r i t y . .While the v o t e r s thus turned from the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s s u p p o r t i n g s e c e s s i o n they n e v e r t h e l e s s recorded a two to one m a j o r i t y i n f a v o u r of t h e i r s t a t e withdrawing from the F e d e r a l Qommonwealth, the t o t a l s b e i n g 138,653 to 70,706 w i t h 7, 931 " i n f o r m a l " b a l l o t s added. The same v o t e r s turned dov/n the 16 The s t a n d i n g of the p a r t i e s b e f o r e and a f t e r the e l e c t i o n ; N a t i o n a l i s t s 15 b e f o r e 8 a f t e r l o s s of 7 Country P a r t y 12 " 12' " no change Labour 23 " 30 " g a i n of 7 New York Times, A p r i l 19, 1933, 9:1. The Times r e p o r t e r suggests t h a t the M i t c h e l l government's wage p o l i c y c o n t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o h i s p a r t y ' s d o w n f a l l , but s i n c e the Labour P a r t y was turned out of fiffice a t the same time i n South A u s t r a l i a the e x p l a n a t i o n of the M i t c h e l l government's d e f e a t b e i n g merely a r e s u l t of the depression-bred d e s i r e on the p a r t of v o t e r s to t u r n the u n f o r t u n a t e incumbents out seems as sound as any. -130-a l t e r n a t i v e of a convention 119,031 to 88, 275^ w i t h a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r number, 9,974, c a s t i n g i n f o r m a l b a l l o t s . Statewide t o t a l s , of course, do n o t t e l l the whole s t o r y . A n examination of the Chief E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r ' s r e t u r n shows t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n f e d e r a l sentiment between the metro-p o l i t a n and a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s on one hand and the goldmining 1 8 a r e a on the other was s t i l l v e r y r e a l . F i v e of the e i g h t e l e c t o r a l id^L-Visioh's i n the goldmining d i s t r i c t r ecorded 19 m a j o r i t i e s opposed to s e c e s s i o n . These and Kimberly, i n the n o r t h , were the o n l y d i s t r i c t s i n the s t a t e to do so. A l l s i x of these p r o - f e d e r a t i o n d i s t r i c t s a l s o r e t u r n e d Labour members. The f o u r n o r t h e r n d i s t r i c t s , where the d i s t a n c e from P e r t h was so great t h a t s e c e s s i o n would only mean government concentrated i n one d i s t a n t p o i n t r a t h e r than b e i n g d i v i d e d between two, showed l e s s enthusiasm f o r s e c e s s i o n than d i d the more de n s e l y populated south-west. The n o r t h e r n d i s t r i c t s : ! c h i e f d i s p l a y of independence • was t h e i r r e c o r d i n g of t o t a l s f a v o u r i n g b o t h s e c e s s i o n and a convention. . . 17 Western A u s t r a l i a , C hief E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r , S t a t i s t i c a l  r e t u r n of the Referendum under the SecessionaReferendum Act,1932, reproduced i n Case of the People, pp. 426-7. "Informal" b a l l o t s are those which were e i t h e r s p o i l t or c a s t blank, a r e s u l t of compulsory v o t i n g . 18 Breakdown by major s t a t e d i v i s i o n s . E n r o l l e d S e c e s s i o n Convention 17 M e t r o p o l i t a n E l e c t o r a l Yes No Yes 17o. D i s t r i c t s ( Greater Perth)123-,:682- 72,037 39,043 ". 48,06.6 61,331 21 A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t s 89,405 57,316 21,319 29,609 48,248 8 Mining and P a s t o r a l 20,880 7,763 9,279 9,271 7,677 4 Northern D i s t r i c t s 3,251 1,537 1,065 1,329 1,275 TOTAL 237,198 3138,653 70,706 88,275 219,031 19 The f i v e were Bou l d e r (Mr. C o l l i e r ' s c o n s t i t u e n c y , which recorded the s t a t e ' s h i g h e s t n e g a t i v e m a j o r i t y , 1,648 to 895) Brown-Hill-rvanhoe, Hannans, E a l g o o r l i e , and Murchison. -131-V o t e r s who e l e c t e d non-Labour members to the l e g i s l a t u r e showed a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r than average i n c l i n a t i o n to support -s e c e s s i o n . The o v e r - a l l percentage vote i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n was 66.23^; i n the twenty e l e c t o r a t e s r e t u r n i n g non-Labour r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t was 69.7%; w h i l e i n those twelve who were f a i t h f u l to the Country P a r t y members proved themselves to be the most ardent s e c e s s i o n i s t s w i t h the percentage b e i n g 73.3, an e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h f i g u r e i n the o l d type of democracy. N e v e r t h e l e s s some Labour seats were a l s o marked w i t h e x c e p t i o n -a l l y l a r g e votes i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n , $he l a r g e s t s e c e s s i o n i s t m a j o r i t y i n the s t a t e b e i n g i n the c o n s t i t u e n c y of the Hon. Alexander Mc Callum, the M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works i n the new 20 C o l l i e r government. In t h i s l a r g e working c l a s s d i s t r i c t , South Premantle, 5,060 voted i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n w h i l e o n l y L826 opposed i t . Such l a r g e s e c e s s i o n m a j o r i t i e s i n Labour c o n s t i t u e n c i e s were e n t i r e l y u n s o l i c i t e d -as f a r as the s u c c e s s f u l candidates were concerned. The c o n s t i t u e n c y of Subiaco, f o r i n s t a n c e , chose John D. Malongy, a man not i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n , i n p r e f e r e n c e to W a l t e r R i c h a r d s o n , the s i t t i n g N a t i o n a l i s t , and an impassioned advocate of s e c e s s i o n , y e t a t the same time voted 3£76 to 2,175 f o r severence of the f e d e r a l t i e s . Of course Mr. Maloney made the u s u a l .Labour promise t h a t he was prepared to 21 support the mandate of the people, whatever i t might be. 20 Thus v e r i f y i n g Mr. Gregory's 1932 statement i n House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , v. supra, p. 110. 21 Mr. Maloney used the campaign-as an i l l u s t r a t i o n and" e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h i s support of s e c e s s i o n measures. W.A. P a r i . Debates, Aug. 29, 1933, p. 594. ~~ -132-S i m i l a r l y the v o t e r s of ITortham p i l e d up a majori&y of 1,364 i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n w h i l e withdrawing t h e i r support from t h e i r former r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , the then premier, S i r James M i t c h e l l , e l e c t i n g h i s Labour opponent, Mr. A.R.G. Hawke i n h i s s t e a d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the s i n c e r e s e c e s s i o n i s t s the o u t s i d e p r e s s r e f u s e d t o take the r e s u l t s of the referendum s e r i o u s l y They p e r s i s t e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g the whole a f f a i r a mere g e s t u r e . Thus, the New York Times commented; "The r e s u l t must be regarded as a p r o t e s t and not as a d e c i s i o n . Many vote d i n the affirmative today who would h e s i t a t e b e f o r e t a k i n g the f i n a l s t e p . I t i s even d o u b t f u l whether the matter w i l l be c a r r i e d any f u r t h e r . w h i l e the f o l l o w i n g Sunday e d i t i o n of the same paper c a r r i e d a s t o r y under a Melbourne dajteline r e p o r t i n g t h a t the r e s t of the c o n t i n e n t was f a r from e x c i t e d over the prospect of the western s t a t e a c t u a l l y s e c e d i n g . The only aprehension apparent concerned the e f f e c t the v o t e might hat>e on the Commonwealth's c r e d i t abroad, though, h a p p i l y no adverse e f f e c t had been, or was d e s t i n e d to be, noted. There was, i n f a c t , softijfear i n informed q u a r t e r s t h a t the g e n e r a l p l a y i n g down of the p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l v a l u e 23 of the vote would unduly minimize i t s importance as a p r o t e s t . Such a r e a c t i o n was not p l e a s i n g to the t r u e s e c e s s i o n i s t . I t was not even u s e f u l f o r those who planned on c a p i t a l i z i n g on the b a r g a i n i n g v a l u e of the referendum r e s u l t . A c c o r d i n g l y a mass meeting was h e l d a t the P e r t h Town H a l l which a f f i r m e d 22 New York Times, Apr. 9, 1933, 1 : 7 . 23'. ' i b i d . , Apr. 16, 1933, IV., 8:4 -133-t h a t ; "This g a t h e r i n g of V e s t A u s t r a l i a n c i t i z e n s assembled to c e l e b r a t e the success of the S e c e s s i o n Referendum Campaign, r e g r e t s the attempts which are b e i n g made i n c e r t a i n q u a r t e r s to m i s i n t e r p r e t the vote i n f a v o u r of S e c e s s i o n . Ve hereby p r o c l a i m t h a t our vote i n f a v o u r of S e c e s s i o n i s no gesture; our vote means t h a t we demand S e c e s s i o n and n o t h i n g but S e c e s s i o n . " 2 4 -'• A p p a r e n t l y Western A u s t r a l i a n s were e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n persuading the r e s t of the n a t i o n t h a t the gun was loaded. I t was indeed d i s c o u r a g i n g . F o r years e n t h u s i a s t s had proclaimed t h a t , given an o p p o r t u n i t y to exp^ss t h e i r views, the mass of Western A u s t r a l i a n s would vote f o r s e c e s s i o n , and the s k e p t i c s had answered, "Bunkum". The o p p o r t u n i t y had a t l a s t been granted,' The mass of Western A u s t r a l i a n s had voted f o r s e c e s s i o n , but the s k e p t i c s were s t i l l uncohvimyed. The same v o t e r s had turned down the a l t e r n a t i v e of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention, but the governments of Mew South Wales and South A u s t r a l i a , a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v i n g t h a t such a convention was what the C i n d e r e l l a S t a t e r e a l l y wanted, accepted.the f e d e r a l government's p r o p o s a l , as 25 o u t l i n e d by Mr. Lyons i n h i s f e d e r a l i s t speeches. How, w i t h the referendum over, the e n t h u s i a s t s of the Dominion League a n x i o u s l y awaited the new premier's a c t i o n to implement h i s promise that the Labour government would do a l l i n i t s power to g i v e e f f e c t to the mandate of the people. 2 4 Case of the People, p. 389. As i s too o f t e n the case i n t h i s otherwise u s e f u l work, no date was g i v e n f o r the meeting. 25 London Times, A p r i l 12, 1933, 11:5. CHAPTER EIGHT Implementing the mandate of the people. The people had spoken. What was the next move? A c c o r d i n g to the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s the o n l y l e g a l s t e p that the s t a t e government c o u l d take was to p e t i t i o n the k i n g and the o n l y R e s u l t of such a p e t i t i o n would.he a r e f u s a l . T h e P e r t h V e s t  M $ t r a l i a f t . . ; e & i t o r i a l i z e d t h a t the r e f e r e n d a r e s u l t s had p l a c e d the :•_ r new s t a t e premier i n a quandary s i n c e he had promised t o g i v e e f f e c t to the m a j o r i t y b d e c i s i o n , which would mean a r e j e c t i o n of Mr. Lyons ov e r t u r e f o r the summoning of a convention, y e t such a convention would he harmless;, and i t s f a i l u r e would l e n d g r e a t e r f o r c e to the s t a t e ' s d e l e g a t i o n i f and when that body appeared 2 i n London. The convention, of course, might r e s u l t i n the r e d r e s s of many of t h e g r i e v a n c e s which had. g i v e n r i s e t o the s e c e s s i o n i s t psychology. Whether or not t h i s would be a d e s i r a b l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s would, of course, depend upon onec.'s a t t i t u d e toward s e c e s s i o n . Those whose prime o b j e c t was an e a s i n g of the l o t of Western A u s t r a l i a would be s a t i s f i e d ; but not so those few to whom"jindependence from the Commonwealth was d e s i r a b l e as a t h i n g i n i t s e l f . While the q u e s t i o n of a convention was thus hanging f i r e , some echoes of the referendum were heard i n the Commonwealth, parliament, w i t h Senators James P a t r i c k Digger Dunn (U.S.W., Senate Labour whip) and T.C. Brennan (of the u n f o r t u n a t e cam-paign team) c a l l i n g E.B. Johnston and h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y 1 London Times, A p r i l 12, 1933, 11:5. 2 i b i d . , A p r i l 11, 1933, p. 13:5. -135-3 c o l l e a g u e s who took p a r t i n the s e c e s s i o n i s t campaign "rebels".. Questions were asked i n the f e d e r a l houses concerning the a c t i o n to be taken to preserve the Commonwealth, but the next move was, o b v i o u s l y , uptto.;Mr.> C o l l i e r , not Mr. Lyons. The f i r s t s e s s i o n of the new s t a t e p a r l i a m e n t opened on J u l y 18, 1933. The ceremony was noteworthy i n that the L i e u -tenant-Governuup, an important o f f i c i a l on t h i s one day of pomp 4 and circumstance, was none other than the d e f e a t e d premier, S i r James M i t c h e l l , who, through unusual circumstances, had been r a i s e d to t h i s e x a l t e d (and, i n h i s case, unremunerative) post a scant seven days e a r l i e r . The r e f e r e n d a r e s u l t s c o n s t i t u t e d the f i r s t i t e m d e a l t w i t h i n the v i c e r e g a l opening speech. A f t e r r e c i t i n g the totalnvoieslicastr.'f or' a n d t a g a i n s t on the two questions S i r James was r e q u i r e d to s t a t e ; "My M i n i s t e r s are g i v i n g c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the b e s t methods t o be adopted i n order to g i v e e f f e c t to the d e c i s i o n of the people. In due course the r e s u l t ^ i l l be submitted f o r f u l l d e l i b e r a t i o n and d e c i s i o n of both h o u s e s . " 5 The c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n by the m i n i s t e r s was l o n g as w e l l as. c a r e f u l . Mr. G r i f f i t h s , the Country P a r t y s t a l w a r t , f e l t 3 On May 25, 1933 Sen. Dunn asked whether i t was the i n t e n t i o n of the M i n i s t e r of Defense to have submitted to the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l the names of the Western A u s t r a l i a n " r e b e l s " f o r a c t i o n under the Crimes A c t " f o r d i s l o y a l t y a g a i n s t His Majesty the King's F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n which they a f f i r m e d on oath i n Canberra t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to uphold." C'wealth, P a r i . Debates, May 25, 1933, p. 1756. Sen. Brennan's a c c u s a t i o n , i b i d . , June 6, 1933, p. 2111, provoked Sen. Johnston's statement of the u l t r a - l o y a l t y of the Dominion League, i b i d . , June 8, 1933, p. 2167. 4 The r a t h e r s t r a i n e d c o n d i t i o n of the s t a t e f i n a n c e s had prevented the appointment of t h a t expensive l u x u r y , a genuine B r i t i s h governor. The u s u a l prodedure a t such times had been the appointment of the s t a t e Chief J u s t i c e as Lieutenant-Governor. 5 W.A. P a r i . Debates » J u l y 18, 1933, p. 2. / / - 1 3 6 -compelled to s t i m u l a t e t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s hy a s k i n g questions 6 of the premier. F i n a l l y , on August 29 Premier C o l l i e r , s t r e s s i n g the non-p a r t y aspect of the s e c e s s i o n referendum r e s u l t s , i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t ; "... f o l l o w i n g the vote f o r s e c e s s i o n recorded by the people of Western A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t should approach the K i n g w i t h a view to g i v i n g e f f e c t t o th a t d e c i s i o n and t h a t a J o i n t Committee of both Houses should be appointed to make recommendations on the p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p s . " ' The r e s o l u t i o n was passed, as was a s i m i l a r one in t r o d u c e d i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l the f o l l o w i n g day, committing the Houses to the view t h a t ; " ... i t i s the i n d i s p u t a b l e duty of the Par l i a m e n t on be h a l f of the people of Western A u s t r a l i a to endeavour by a d u t i f u l address to h i s Majesty and humble a p p l i c a t i o n s of both Houses of the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t to procure such l e g i s l a t i o n by the s a i d I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t as may be necessary to e f f e c t u a t e the withdrawal of the people of the S t a t e fwma. the F e d e r a l Commonwealth, e s t a b l i s h e d under and by p r o v i s i o n of the Commonwealth ofl A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t ( i m p e r i a l ) " 7 Wmth t h e i r acceptance each house appointed t h e i r f i v e members of the committee " . . . t o c o n s i d e r and recommend what a c t i o n s h a l l be taken i n r e l a t i o n to the p r e p a r a t i o n , completion and p r e s e n t a t i o n ..." of the necessary addresses and a p p l i c a t i o n s . As i s the custom on such committees, d e a l i n g w i t h matters of ma'jor importance, an attempt was made to secure r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the views of a l l p a r t i e s . The f i v e Assembly members i n c l u d e d 6 On Aug. 15 and 17, 1933, W.A. P a r i . Debates pp. 345, 420. 7 Jibing, Aug. 29, 1933, p. 590. 8 i b i d . . -137-th. e three p a r t y l e a d e r s , Hon. P h i l i p C o l l i e r , the Premier; Hon. C.G. Latham, number two man of the previous a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and head of the Country P a r t y , l e a d e r of the O p p o s i t i o n s i n c e the A p r i l 8 r e v e r s a l of f o r t u n e ; and Hon. Norbert. Keenan, who had succeeded to the l e a d e r s h i p of the remnants of the N a t i o n a l i s t s 9 ' "' a f t e r the d i s a s t e r of the p o l l s , the 1§06 defender of the concept of the i n d i s s o l u b l e Commonwealth'having, i n h i s l a t e r y e a r s , become 10 "the head and f r o n t of the s e c e s s i o n movement". S i n c e governments a l s o l i k e to have a m a j o r i y of t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s on such committees the two other members from the Assembly were L a b o u r i t e s , A.R.G. Hawke, the v i c t o r over S i r James M i t c h e l l i n Northam, and P.J. W i t h e r s , member f o r Bunbury. The Qouncil's c h o i c e s were r e g i o n a l as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l . Hon. D.M. Drew, C h i e f S e c r e t a r y i n the C o l l i e r government represented the C e n t r a l e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t ; C.P. Baxter, l e a d e r of the House i n the days of the M i t c h e l l a d m i n i s t r a l i o n , though a s e c e s s i o n i s t of s o r t s , was from the goldmining ""East" d i v i s i o n ; W.J.^J-lann s a t f o r the South-West-; J.T. P r a n k l i n , T r e a s u r e r of the Dominion League, r e p r e s e n t e d the M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ; w h i l e A.M. C l y d e s d a l e was c l a s s i f i e d as "Metropolitan-Suburban". I t c o u l d not be s a i d t h a t P a r l i a m e n t was i n t r u s t i n g the p r o j e c t to h o s t i l e hands. Messrs. F r a n k l i n , Keenan, and Latham.were among the most a c t i v e of s e c e s s i o n i s t s . 9 The r i s i n g young man of the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y and l o g i c a l successor to S i r James M i t c h e l l , Hon. T.A.L. Davy, former Rhodes s c h o l a r , A t t o r n e y General, and opponent of s e c e s s i o n , d i e d a t the e a r l y age of f o r t y - t w o on Feb. 18, 1933, a great l o s s to h i s p a r t y , h i s s t a t e and h i s c o u n t r y . 10 Mr. Keenan's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from a f e d e r a l i s t to a s e p a r a t i might have occu r r e d i n the mid '20's, s i n c e he i s r e p o r t e d to have t o l d the 1925 D i s a b i l i t i e s Commission, " I h o l d the v e r y s t r o n g v.. " view t h a t the f a c t t h a t the B r i t i s h Emigre e x i s t s today i s i n one sense due to f e d e r a t i o n ... . (mentions Commonwealth's p a r t I n Great Warj But, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r i d e and v a l u e of f e d e r a t i o n • (cont'd p, 138) -138-The committee d e l i b e r a t e d on ways and means f o r three weeks, a t the end of which time they submitted a r e p o r t recommending t h a t s i x named c i t i z e n s of the s t a t e be appointed as a committee to draw up the necessary papers f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t . A r e s o l u t i o n g i v i n g e f f e c t to t h i s recommendation was passed by the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l on September 20, 1933, and by the Assembly on September 21. The men were f o r m a l l y appointed 11 by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l on October 13, 1933. Mr. J.L. Walker, the Crown S o l i c i t o r of the s t a t e , was named chairman of the committee, which i n c l u d e d the two members of the M i t c h e l l cabinet ( who., l i k e t h e i r l e a d e r , had met personaldef eat i n the A p r i l e l e c t i o n s ; . Hon J . L i n d s a y had been M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works and Labour, w h i l e Hon. J . Scaddan, a, former L a b o u r i t e , had been premier of the s t a t e between 1911 and 1916, a t which date he had l e f t the Labour P a r t y over the c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e , s e r v i n g i n the two M i t c h e l l c a b i n e t s , 1919-24 and 1930-33, as M i n i s t e r of Railways and Mines. The i n d i s p e n s a b l e Mr. H.K. Watson was on the committee, w h i l e i t s number was completed by the i n c l u s i o n of 12 Messrs. C.J. Dudley and A.J. R e i d . 10 (cont'd) i t might be purchased a t too h i g h a p r i c e , and i t may be the view of many i n t h i s S t a t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h they f a v o u r f e d e r a t i o n a n d " ' s t i l l do so, the p r i c e , they are c a l l e d upon to pay f o r i t i s f a r too h i g h . " Quoted by Hon. Henry Gregory, Commonwealth Debates, v o l . 112, Feb. 5, 1926, p. 761. F o r 1906 stand, v. supra, p. 59. 11 H i s t o r y of committee was r e c i t e d by Hon. P. C o l l i e r , W.A. P a r i . Debates, A p r i l 19, 1934, p. 208. 12 The w r i t e r has been unable to unearth any i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the two l a s t mentioned men. T h e i r p a r t , i f any, i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the s t a t e , seems to have been played o f f - s t a g e . -139-None of the committee were members of the parliament which had appointed them. P r a c t i c a l experience i n s t a t e government was represented on i t , however, by Messrs. Scaddan and L i n d s a y . The i n c l u s i o n of the Crown S o l i c i t o r , on the other hand, assured them of a t l e a s t some l e g a l knowledge, and ready access to i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the proper forms and proceedings f o r the a c t i o n contem-p l a t e d , w h i l e Mr. H.K. Watson, through h i s f u l l - t i m e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Dominion League, ought to have proven to be a v e r i t a b l e mine of f a c t s r e l a t i n g to Western A u s t r a l i a n g r i e v a n c e s . In p o l i t i c a l complexion the committee seems to have been N a t i o n a l i s t . The P e o p l e s ' Case was to be composed by members of the p a r t y the 13 people had so r e c e n t l y r e p u d i a t e d . A l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a t t e r f a c t i s t h a t most of the a c t i v e s e c e s s i o n i s t s i n p u b l i c l i f e belonged to t h a t p a r t y and t h a t i t was deemed expedient to have the s e c e s s i o n documents prepared by those who b e l i e v e d , f o r one reason or another, i n the cause. The committee s e t to work, drawing up the p e t i t i o n s t o the two Houses of the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t and the address to the K i n g a c c o r d i n g to the s t y l e and usage d i c t a t e d by l o n g custom. R e a l i z i n g t h a t the members of the B r i t i s h l e g i s l a t i v e houses, burdened, as they were, withbthe cares and w o r r i e s of so much of the world, would a p p r e c i a t e a means of r e f r e s h i n g t h e i r mem-o r i e s w i t h A u s t r a l i a n c o n d i t i o n s , the committee a l s o s e t to work to prepare a statement of Western A u s t r a l i a n grievances 13 F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on Messrs. Dudley and E e i d might n e c e s s i t a t e some r e v i s i o n of t h i s statement. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the i n c l u s i o n of two Mifchell c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s and Mr. Watson, whose p o l i t i c a l sympathies seemed a t t h a t time to l a y w i t h the N a t i o n a l i s t s , meant t h a t a t l e a s t h a l f the committee were supporters of the d e f e a t e d p a r t y . -140-which, when p r i n t e d , c o u l d he d i s t r i b u t e d one to each and every 14 member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Spurred on by . the enthusiasm engendered by an agreeable occupation the committee members had t h e i r r e p o r t ready and submitted tonthe government by March 26, 1934. While the Western A u s t r a l i a n s were thus b e i n g b u s i l y engaged i n t h e i r home s t a t e drawing up the documents which, they maintained, would enable them to secure a d i v o r c e , events stemming from the A p r i l 1933 referendum were b e i n g enacted elsewhere on the c o n t i n -ent. On h i s r e t u r n from h i s unfortunate' campaign t o u r of the western s t a t e the Commonwealth Prime M i n i s t e r , Mr. Lyons ; made an important p u b l i c announcement i n a speech a t A d e l a i d e , S.A., on A p r i l 3. The Commonwealth government, i n an attempt to remove the q u e s t i o n from the realm of p a r t y p o l i t i c s , had decided to s e t up a permanent commission to assess i m p a r t i a l l y the d i s a b i l -i t i e s of Western A u s t r a l i a , South A u s t r a l i a , and Tasmania, 15 i n c u r r e d under F e d e r a t i o n . Such was the genesis of the Common-wealth Grants Commission, one of the r e a l l y c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s u l t s of the s e c e s s i o n a g i t a t i o n . When names of the three commissioners were announced Western A u s t r a l i a n s were g i v e n another o p p o r t u n i t y to p r o c l a i m to the Commonwealth a t l a r g e t h a t they were v i c t i m s of d e l i b e r a t e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Two of the three members of the committee were a c c e p t a b l e , s i n c e t h e i r home s t a t e s were Tasmania and South A u s t r a l i a , and thus, presumably, were sympathetic to 14 T h i s handbook on W.A.fs grievances became the 489 page Case of the People, a most u s e f u l document f o r a h i s t o r i a n , but one. which i t i s - d o u b t f u l whether any p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n managed to wade through. 15 London Times, Apr.4, 1933, 15:4. -141-the p l e a s of the s m a l l s t a t e s . The appointment of Hon. F.W. E g g l e s t o n as chairman d i d not meet w i t h such a f a v o u r a b l e r e c e p t i o n . Few men i n A u s t r a l i a were as q u a l i f i e d as he f o r the p o s i t i o n . A f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t from p u b l i c l i f e , which had i n c l u d e d a p o s i t i o n on the s t a f f of the A u s t r a l i a n d e l e g a t i o n to V e r s a i l l e s i n 1919 and the important c a b i n e t posts of A t t o r n e y -General and S o l i c i t o r / G e n e r a l i n h i s n a t i v e s t a t e of V i c t o r i a between 1924 and 1927, he had combined h i s e a r l i e r academic i n t e r e s t i n economics w i t h h i s p r a c t i c a l experience gained i n a l i f e t i m e of p u b l i c s e r v i c e to engage i n the study of p u b l i c f i n a n c e , h i s c h i e f p u b l i c a t i o n up t o the time of h i s appointment to the commission b e i n g S t a t e S o c i a l i s m i n V i c t o r i a , p u b l i s h e d i n 1932. I t was one of Mr. Egg l e s t o n ' s minor a r t i c l e s , one d e a l i n g w i t h Western A u s t r a l i a and appearing i n the P e r t h D a i l y Hews of December 14, 1932, which aroused the i r e of the Western A u s t r a l i a n s . I t seems t h a t i n t h i s a r t i c l e Mr. E g g l e -s t o n had Joeen r a s h enough to suggest thatmuch, i f not a l l , of the s t a t e ' s d i s a b i l i t i e s were due to f i n a n c i a l mistakes of the 16 s t a t e governments, e s p e c i a l l y the experiments i n s t a t e ownership 17 and the Land Settlement Scheme, and not, i n any way, due ~to f e d e r a t i o n . . Such a d o c t r i n e was;-,", n a t u r a l l y , r a t h e r unpopular i n Western A u s t r a l i a . When i t was announced that the a r c h -h e r e t i c who had expounded t h i s view was t o h o l d the s e n i o r p o s i t i o n on the committee which was to d e c i d e , i n l a r g e measure, 16 v. supra, p. 52. 17 v. supra, p. 94. -142-the s i z e of any f u t u r e grant t h a t the s t a t e ( i f i t remained w i t h i n the Commonwealth) was to r e c e i v e , Western A u s t r a l i a n s exploded. The p r o t e s t was v o i c e d i n the Senate hy E.B. Johnston on 18 June 15, 1933. He s t a t e d t h a t the appointment was c o n s i d e r e d hy most Western A u s t r a l i a n s as a h o s t i l e move, quoting telegrams ( i n c l u d i n g one from the s t a t e premier, Hon. P. C o l l i e r ) and newspaper comments from a l l s i d e s to prove h i s p o i n t . Senators from the other s t a t e s , some of them f r i e n d s of the "accused", others merely more w i d e l y read than Sen. Johnston i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e on p o l i t i c a l economy, rushed to the defense of Eggle?-s t o n , p o i n t i n g out t h a t he had.also s a i d h a r s h t h i n g s ahout t h e i r s t a t e s , and ahout the Commonwealth f i n a n c e s as w e l l ; t h a t he was a man who would judge the case l a i d b e f o r e him i n committee hear-ings without b e i n g p r e j u d i c e d by h i s own p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d views. When the q u e s t i o n of c o n f i r m a t i o n of the chairman's appointment was put to a vote a l l but the Western A u s t r a l i a n s were 19 convinced of h i s s u i t a b i l i t y , the vote b e i n g 26-3. The r e c o r d of Mr. E g g l e s t o n ' s s e r v i c e s on the committee i s proof enough t h a t , on t h i s o c c a s i o n a t l e a s t , the m a j o r i t y was r i g h t . In h i s statement of A p r i l 3, 1933, i n which he made the f i r s t - announcement of the establishment of the Commonwealth Grants Commission, Mr. Lyons a l s o r e i t e r a t e d h i s o f f e r of summon-i n g a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention. In Hew South Wales and ..;'„. 18 C'wealth, P a r i . Debates, June 15, 1933, p. 2340. 19 i b i d . , p. 2360. The t h r e e were Senators P.J. Lynch ( P r e s i d e n t of the Senate), E.B. Johnston, and Wm. C a r r o l l . -143-20 South A u s t r a l i a the s t a t e governments s p e e d i l y accepted the o f f e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s promise was never as f u l l y or as promptly honoured 1 t h a t c o ncerning the grants commission. F u r t h e r c o n s i d -e r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n by the Commonwealth government brought them to the same c o n c l u s i o n as t h a t reached by the Bruce admin-i s t r a t i o n — that a convention,at the g i v e n time and under the . e x i s t i n g circumstances, was not p r a c t i c a l . Mr. Lyons' a l t e r n a t i v e was a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l conference of the Commonwealth and s t a t e premiers. The conference opened i n Melbourne on Feb. 16, 1934. A l l the s t a t e s were re p r e s e n t e d , a l t h o u g h Western A u s t r a l i a ' s Mr. C o l l i e r c h e e r f u l l y announced t h a t h i s presence i n no way p r e -in j u d i c e d the s e p a r a t i s t a c t i v i t i e s ' w h i c h h i s government was engaged a t the time. As soon as the words of welcome had been u t t e r e d the conference degenerated i n t o a c o n f l i c t f o r revenue between the governments of the s t a t e s and the f e d e r a l government. In v a i n d i d Mr. Lyons ap p e a l f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n from the s t a t e premiers, reminding them t h a t the conference was i n the nature of an experiment, s i n c e there was, as y e t , n o - p r o v i s i o n i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r r e v i s i o n by t h i s means; remarking t h a t although the s t a t e s had been a r g u i n g f o r g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l s e -20 London Times, A p r i l 12, 1933, 11:5. 21 Hon. B.S. Stevens, who had succeeded to the premier-' s h i p of New South Wales upon the removal from O f f i c e of Mr. Lang, proved to be the e x c e p t i o n among the s t a t e premiers by l o y a l l y s u p p o r t i n g the Commonwealth government's p o l i c i e s . He e x p l a i n e d h i s p o s i t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t he disapproved^any a l t e r -a t i o n of the system whereby the Commonwealth was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e p u b l i c debt. London Times, Feb. 20, 1934, 13:2. Mr. R.G. Menzies, a t the time A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l and a c t i n g Premier of V i c t o r i a presented the views of t h e other s t a t e s , t h at the Commonwealth should a t l e a s t vacate the income tax f i e l d . -14a-c u r i t y nobody had made-any concrete suggestions as to how Commonwealth l i a b i l i t i e s might be l e s s e n e d ; and r e p r o a c h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r the Western A u s t r a l i a n and Tasmanian r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s f o r c r i t i c i z i n g the Commonwealth government " c o n t r a r y 22 to the harmonious s p i r i t which should p r e v a i l 5 ! The'conference was not a suc c e s s . As Prime M i n i s t e r Lyons p o i n t e d out i n h i s opening speech, the Commonwealth government was t a k i n g the view t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n , -a world wide phenomenon, was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most of the d i s a b i l i t i e s which the s t a t e governments were blaming on f e d e r a l i s m , and, s i n c e i t was of t h i s o p i n i o n , the Commonwealth government wished to a v o i d any danger of a l t e r i n g the c o n s t i t u t i o n permanently to meet the needs of 23 t h i s t r a n s i e n t s i t u a t i o n . • The s t a t e s , on the other hand, were i n t e r e s t e d i n permanent changes. Hot even the South A u s t r a l i a n the premier's t h r e a t o f / p o s s i b l e s e c e s s i o n of h i s s t a t e from the f e d e r a t i o n , however, c o u l d shake the stand of the Commonwealth 24 -. . government. 22 London Times, Feb. 22, 1934, 13:1. 2 3 i b i d . , Feb. 17, 1934, 11:2. .24 Mr. B u t l e r ' s s e c e s s i o n t h r e a t was too o b v i o u s l y a b l u f f to be e f f e c t i v e . The g i s t of h i s statement was t h a t d i s r e g a r d f o r the states^' claims would f o r c e the hand of South A u s t r a l i a s i n c e , i f the s t a t e remained i n the Commonwealth, i t would be f o r c e d t o d e f a u l t . S i n c e South A u s t r a l i a had no i n t e n t i o n of d e f a u l t i n g two a l t e r n a t i v e s presented themselves, s e c e s s i o n and' u n i f i c a t i o n , w i t h the former b e i n g the on l y p r a c t i c a l move. WS then weakened the f o r e g o i n g statement w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , i f no concessions were gained from the conference, he would be f o r c e d to submit the q u e s t i o n of s e c e s s i o n to the South A u s t r a l i a n people, "... i f only to demonstrate to the Commonwealth the v e r y s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n to which S t a t e Governments were reduced". London Times, Feb. 21, 1934, 13:5. -145-B e f o r e i t broke up one c o n s t r u c t i v e agreement was reached which saved the conference from b e i n g branded a complete f a i l u r e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Commonwealth government, V i c t o r i a m New South Wales, and Queensland, dec i d e d to make s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r the l e s s populous s t a t e s i n the form of grants based on the recommendations of the Commonwealth Grants Commission which had been h e a r i n g the submissions of the t h r e e claimant s t a t e s and 25 whose r e p o r t was expected to be presented i n May. Mr. C o l l i e r r e t u r n e d from the Melbourne conference i n time to meet a s p e c i a l s e s s i o n of the s t a t e parliament i n which the s e c e s s i o n i s t s were anxious f o r a c t i o n . On A p r i l 19, 1934 he i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l r e l a t i n g t o " t h e p r e p a r a t i o n , completion, and p r e s e n t a t i o n of a d u t i f u l address to H i s Majesty and humble a p p l i c a t i o n to the House of Lords and ithe-^House of Commons i n the P a r l i a m e n t of the U n i t e d Kingdom i n f u r t h e r a n c e of the d e s i r e of the people of Western A u s t r a l i a t o withdraw from the F e d e r a l Commonwealth e s t a b l i s h e d under the A u s t r a l i a n C o n s t i t -u t i o n Act ( I m p e r i a l ) and f o r other purposes r e l a t e d t h e r e t o . " The b i l l a u t h o r i z e d the form of the address and p e t i t i o n s drawn up by the committee appointed, a u t h o r i z e d and a l l o c a t e d funds f o r the p r i n t i n g of the supplementary document, The Case- of the People  of V/estern A u s t r a l i a , and provided f o r the d i s p a t c h of a d e l e g a t i o n to t r a v e l t o London to present the s e c e s s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s to the proper a u t h o r i t i e s . The debate on t h i s b i l l p r o vided the f i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the members of the V/estern A u s t r a l i a n P a r l i a m e n t to express t h e i r 25 London Times, Feb. 27, 1934, 13:3. -146-views on an aspect of the s e c e s s i o n q u e s t i o n hut i t i s of import-ance to note that the s u b j e c t of s e c e s s i o n i t s e l f c o u l d not be d i s c u s s e d under the terms of the b i l l . D u r i n g the e n t i r e s e c e s s i o n movement of the 1930's the broad and important t o p i c of s e c e s s i o n i t s e l f was never debated on i t s own m e r i t s i n the s t a t e p a r l i a m e n t . IPrior to the referendum parliament was concerned w i t h whether or not the people should be c o n s u l t e d on the s u b j e c t . A f t e r the referendum d i s c u s s i o n n i n parliament was c o n f i n e d t o the means whereby e f f e c t might be g i v e n to the people's mandate. P a r l i a m e n t , i n B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l t heory the s o v e r e i g n body of the s t a t e , had no op p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s the major q u e s t i o n , but merely i m p l i c a t i o n s of that q u e s t i o n . Mr. Speaker's d i l i g e n c e i n f o r c i n g the members to c o n f i n e t h e i r remarks to the s u b j e c t under d i s c u s s i o n c u r t a i l s the i n t e r e s t of most of the 1934 debates, y e t the a t t i t u d e of one man con-c e r n i n g the proper means of implementing the people's mandate does stand out as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy. The Hon. Wm. D a r t n e l l Johnson, M.L.A. f o r G u i l d f o r d - M i d l a n d , a c o n s t i t u e n c y which had voted 3,488 to 2,072 i n f a v o u r of s e c e s s i o n , was a v e t e r a n Labour man, h a v i n g served as a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r i n 1904-05 and 1911-16 and as chairman of the s t a t e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Labour P a r t y c o n t i n u o u s l y s i n c e 1924. He was on f a r from f r i e n d l y terms w i t h Mr. C o l l i e r , who had formed a l l the Labour governments s i n c e 1916. T h i s l a t t e r f a c t might have i n f l u e n c e d h i s a t t i t u d e on the a c t i o n contemplated by the C o l l i e r government. Then, a g a i n , he might merely have been an o l d s c h o o l d o c t r i n a i r e L a b o u r i t e who was more i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s p a r t y remaining c o n s i s t e n t $o the p a r t y plank of u l t i m a t e u n i f i c a t i o n than In i t c a t e r i n g to the -147-t r a n s i e n t whims of the s t a t e e l e c t o r a t e or p l a y i n g f o r concessions from Canberra. Mr. Johnson admitted that the p a r t y was pledged to attempt to implement the people's w i l l , but he r e g r e t t e d t h a t h i s p a r t y should be connected v/ith a n y t h i n g smacking of s e c e s s i o n . He b e l i e v e d that the e l e c t i o n pledge could be redeemed by f o r w a r d i n g a j o i n t r e s o l u t i o n of b o t h houses of the s t a t e p a r l i a m e n t and the r e f e r -endum r e s u l t s through the u s u a l channels to Westminster -- some-t h i n g easy, eheap, and c e r t a i n l y not conducive to producing r e s u l t s . As he t o l d the Assembly on A p r i l 26; ' "Tonight, however, we f i n d t h a t great p a r t y d e g e n e r a t i n g to the extent of p i l o t i n g through P a r l i a m e n t a B i l l of t h i s k i n d . I r e g r e t what i s b e i n g done. I t i s not worthy of the Labour P a r t y . I t i s not up to the standard s e t by the Labour movement of o l d . ... The Labour movement does not approve of l e g i s l a t i o n of t h i s k i n d . I t r e c o g n i z e s the v o i c e of the people, and s t r i v e s to g i v e e x p r e s s i o n to i t , but w i l l not use ah •.expression of the v / i l l of the people i n such a way as to d i s c o u n t a great movement."^ 5 Pew l a b o u r members i n the Assembly were a f f e c t e d by t h i s v o i c e of c o n s c i e n c e . The o p p o s i t i o n had c a p i t u l a t e d . Members 26 W.A. P a r i . Debates, A p r i l 26, 1934, p. 253. Although Mr. Johnson was i n the m i n o r i t y he was not the o n l y member of the s t a t e parliament who accepted the aggument t h a t the s e c e s s i o n p e t i t i o n s had to be accepted i n order to g i v e e f f e c t to the peoplete mandate. Hon. J . J . Holmes (M.L.C. North) v o i c e d a r e f r e s h i n g l y a n t i - d e m p c r a t i c sentiment toward the c l o s e of the debates. An a n t i - f e d e r a l i s t a t the t u r n of the century, he once had to l e a v e h u r r i e d l y through the back door of a h a l l to escape the anger of a p r o - f e d e r a l i s t mob. When t o l d on May 23, 1934 t h a t he should support s e c e s s i o n moves s i n c e they were i n accordance v/ith the expressed w i l l of the people he answered; "That i s j u s t what has caused A u s t r a l i a so much t r o u b l e . The i d e a seems to be t h a t everyone must do what the people want. We d i d what the people wanted when we f e d e r a t e d and now, because the people w i sh i t , we are to endeavour to secede. And we know we cannot secede. S u r e l y we have reached the time when someone should take a stand and say to the people, " I know b e t t e r than you do", i b i d . May 23, 1934, p. 338. T h i s speech was one of the v e r y few which contained a d e f i n i t e - statement t h a t the speaker b e l i e v e d s e c e s s i o n i m p o s s i b l e . -148-of a l l p a r t i e s were s u p p o r t i n g the h i l l . In .the C o u n c i l Hon. J.M. Macfarlane (Met./Suburban) spoke i n support of the second r e a d i n g of the b i l l , w h i l e s t a t i n g that he was s t i l l i n o p p o s i t i o n to s e c e s s i o n and wished that a m i n o r i t y p e t i t i o n c o u l d a l s o be 27 sent a l o n g . Only one p o i n t of concentrated o p p o s i t i o n to s e c e s s i o n remained w i t h i n the s t a t e . In 1934 as i n 1900 the g o l d f i e l d s themselves were s t r o n g f o r f e d e r a t i o n . The a c t u a l numbers of the goldminers had d e c l i n e d as the century progressed, d i l u t i n g t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n the ever growing p o p u l a t i o n of t h e s t a t e , even to the extent of h a v i n g to.share t h e i r e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g number of p a s t o r a l i s t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e was s t i l l f a r from n e g l i g i b l e . The K a l g o o r l i e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l was the most important of the g o l d -f i e l d ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d i e s . The r e s t of the s t a t e , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d not i g n o r e the warning of a motion which they passed on Monday, A p r i l 30, 1934, s h o r t l y a f t e r the nature of the S e c e s s i o n B i l l and the temper of the members of the s t a t e parliament had become apparent. The M u n i c i p a l CouncAl.resolved t h a t ; "... should the Case f o r S e c e s s i o n be presented to the K i n g and b o t h Houses of the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t by p e t i t i o n , address, and p e r s o n a l d e l e g a t i o n , proper r e p -r e s e n t a t i o n be a l s o made showing that the E a s t e r n G o l d f i e l d s p o r t i o n of Western A u s t r a l i a recorded a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y vote a g a i n s t S e c e s s i o n , and i m p l o r i n g H i s Majesty and the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t to leave the g o l d f i e l d s e l e c t o r a t e s , which i n c l u d e s our n a t u r a l seaport, Esperance, and a l s o the t e r r i t o r y through to the South A u s t r a l i a n border, w i t h i n the Commonwealth t e r r i t o r y should S e c e s s i o n be granted the r e s t of the S t a t e . , , < i 8 27 W.A. P a r i . Debates, May 22 , 1934, p. 300. He was l a t e r informed by the government l e a d e r i n the C o u n c i l t h a t the govern-ment had no o b j e c t i o n to a m i n o r i t y p e t i t i o n b e i n g sent, but t h a t the s t a t e was not going to pay f o r i t s p r e p a r a t i o n or t r a n s m i s s i o n . 28 Quoted by Hon. G.B. E l i o t , ( N o r t h - E a s t ) , i b i d . . May 23, 1934, pp. 328-29. -149-Commenting on this motion, the newly elected member of the 29 Legislative Council for the Gold fi e l d s , Hon. G.C. E l i o t , added; "I do not believe in mirables, but i f a miracle were to happen and Secession became .an accomplished fact, a movement would be started on the Goldfields within Twenty-four hours having for i t s object the seceding i::or from the State of Western Australia and linking up with the Commonwealth." 3 0 Such sentiments, of course, were not pleasing to the ear of true Western Australians. Even Hon. J.J. Holmes reacted as a:,true state patriot should when a portion of the state threatened to secede from the seceding state. . "What would happen i f we wfere .to.icut off their water supply?" 31 he asked. The referendum results and the Kalgoorlie Municipal Council Resolution seem to indicate that the goldfields s t i l l cherished federal sympathies. Ho longer could such sympathies be explained away, as they werein 1900, by saying that the inhabitants were newcomers to the state. The resolution i t s e l f hints at a partial explanation in naming Esperance as the natural port of the gold-f i e l d s . The goldfields were just as hostile to exploitation by the big centre of population at the coast as was the Perth area of their exploitation by the s t i l l bigger area in the Eastern States. The state, in the view of the goldminers, had been tardy in opening up Esperance as a port in order that Perth and Fremantie 29He had been elected in a bye-election, March 17, 1934, and thus could be said to represent the most recent views of the public. 30 W.A. Pari. Debates, May 23, 1934, p. 329. 31 i b i d . J Hon. Mr Holmes had his own views on the matter of secession, v. supra, p. 147, n. 26. -150-32 c o u l d b e n e f i t from the g o l d f i e l d ' s t r a d e . Mr. E l i o t ' s speech r e v e a l e d other reasons. Goldmining, u n l i k e wheat farmi n g and the p a s t o r a l occupations, had b e n e f i t t e d from the Commonwealth's system pf p r o t e c t i o n and b o u n t i e s . The Gold Bounty Act then i n f o r c e provided f o r a bounty of 10s. per ounce on g o l d whenever i t s p r i c e f e l l below 110s. per f i n e ounce, w h i l e the Commonwealth Income tax Assessment Act (No 51 of 1924). exempted a l l persons from t a x a t i o n on "income d e r i v e d from the 33 working of a .goldmining property".. As an " e a r l i e r speaker had p o i n t e d out,- the g o l d f i e l d s a r e a had a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i t was cheaper to import meat and f r e s h v egetables on the f e d e r a l l y owned and operated t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y ' l i n e from the e a s t e r n 3& s t a t e s than over the s t a t e l i n e from P e r t h . In s h o r t , the i n t e r e s t s of the g o l d f i e l d s were not i d e n t i c a l w i t h those of the Swanland. Western A u s t r a l i a needed the g o l d f i e l d s , w h i l e the g o l d f i e l d s ' were not so c e r t a i n t h a t they needed the r e s t of the-'s$ate as much as the r e s t of the Commonwealth. The o p p o s i t i o n of the g o l d f i e l d s d i d not d e t e r the s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e . Both o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s had pledged t h e i r support. 32 Dr. B a t t y e l i s t s among the causes of the G o l d f i e l d s -Coast a n i m o s i t y i n 1900, " d i f f e r e n t i a l r a i l w a y f r e i g h t s , h i g h p r o t e c t i v e d u t i e s , and the r e f u s a l to c o n s t r u c t the Esperance r a i l w a y " . Ba$$ye, op. c i t . , -p. 448. The i n c l u s i o n of the com-p l a i n t concerning the p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f i s r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t . Although s e c e s s i o n i s t s condemned the Commonwealth t a r i f f t h e r e was no guarantee t h a t , g i v e n the s l i g h t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y , P e r t h would not go p r o t e c t i o n i s t . 33 W.A. P a r i . Debates. May 23, 1934, p. 327-8. 34 Hon. C.R. W i l l i a m s , (M.L.C., South) Aug. 30, 1933, p. 621. The Western A u s t r a l i a n S t a t e Railways were q u i t e unique on the c o n t i n e n t , s i n c e they provided s e r v i c e a t s l i g h t l y more than c o s t i n s t e a d of f o l l o w i n g the u s u a l A u s t r a l i a n p r a c t i c e of " s e r v i c e a t l e s s than cost"". -151-Few members worried about the reception which the Westminster authorities would give their petition. It is true that Edward Needham (M.L.A., Perth, Labour) correctly prophesied that a committee of the B r i t i s h Parliament would concern themselves primarily v/ith the constitutional question of whether or not 35 the petition contained matter f i t to be dealt wSith. by Parliament, but most members appeared to support the more optimistic attitude of Mr. Victor Doney (William Harrogin) who pointed out the favourable reception given the Burmese delegation when they -presented their petition for separation from the Indian .36 Empire. The Irish of Australia were not as aware of the signif-icance of Dominion status as those who had remained on the "Old Sod" . Skeptics may have smiled, but few openly expressed their disbelief when the leader of the Country Party pledged the support of the opposition to the Secession B i l l with the st i r r i n g words; "However, I feel sure that, when His Majesty the King and the Parliament of Great Britain shall have acceded to the request of the people of Western Australia the sunshine of prosperity w i l l forever beam on the Dominion of Western Australia and that the Imperial authorities w i l l experience no regret at having created this Dominion. On behalf of 35 W.A. Pari. Debates, 24 April 1934, p. 223. 36 ibid., 26 April 1934, p. 233. Hon. W.D. Johnson had taken the unusual step of consulting Prof. 3P.R Beasley (Dean and Proffessor of L a v / , U. of Western Aus-tralia) who had assured him that the contemplated action of the government v/as doomed to failure. Hon. IT. Keenan, Nationalist leader, d i s m i s s e d t h i s o p i n i o n as "a s u g g e s t i o n of some c a u s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h some unoccupied and unknown member of the U n i v e r s i t y s t a f f . " i b i d . . May 1, 1934, p. 256. Mr. F. Alexander, L e c t u r e r i n H i s t o r y , had g i v e n Mr. Latham of the Country P a r t y a more h o p e f u l answer so i t became anrtdent to a l l s s e c e s s i o n i s t s t h a t the q u e s t i o n was more p a r t i c u l a r l y one of h i s t o r y than of law. i b i d . , 24 A p r i l , p. 219. - 1 5 2 -... j the O p p o s i t i o n I a s s u r e the 'GovernmentMof vbur ('whole-h e a r t e d support and of our a s s i s t a n c e t o get t h i s p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n p l a c e d An the s t a t u t e hook." 3' Backed w i t h such support the h i l l was passed hy the Assembly on May 16, 1934, and by the C o u n c i l on May 30. The d e l e g a t i o n t o London was named. None of the p a r t y l e a d e r s were i n c l u d e d , the reason g i v e n b e i n g t h a t , s i n c e t h e m i l l s of- P a r l i a m e n t g r i n d exceeding s l o w l y , such an appointment would mean t h a t they would be f o r c e d to n e g l e c t t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e d u t i e s f o r too l o n g a p e r i o d of time. In f a c t the o n l y member of t h e s t a t e parliament on the d e l e g a t i o n was the wealthy o p p o s i t i o n member f o r N o r t h P e r t h , James MacCallum Smith, v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of t h e Dominion League, managing d i r e c t o r of t h e Sunday Times P u b l i s h i n g Company, deputy chairman of t h e Western A u s t r a l i a n Bank u n t i l i t s amal-gamation i n t h e Bank of New South Wales and s i n c e then deputy chairman of i t s l o c a l a d v i s o r y board, d i r e c t o r of t h e Swan P o r t -l a n d Cement Co., chairman of t h e Cyclone Eence Co., owner of a n'extensive wheat farm at Koorda, p r o p r i e t o r of Pindawa S t a t i o n , and the l a r g e Homebush Stud Parm — i n s h o r t , a man who load every q u a l i f i c a t i o n , save t h a t he was not n a t i v e - b o r n (He was born i n S c o t l a n d ) f o r b e i n g a s e c e s s i o n i s t l e a d e r . Chosen to make the journey w i t h him as the seconAmember o f the d e l e g a t i o n was the Dominion League's own Mr. H.K. Watson. The s t a t e t r e a s u r y had only to pay the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r t h e s e two of the f o u r man d e l e g a t i o n s i n c e t h e other two were a l r e a d y r e s i d e n t s o f London, S i r Hal Colebatch, Agent-General of Western A u s t r a l i a , and Hon. 37 Hon. C.G. Latham, W.A. P a r i . Debates, Apr. 24, 1934, p. 219. -153-Matthew Lewis Moss, a former A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l of the s t a t e (1905) who had r e s i d e d i n London s i n c e 1913, where he served as l e g a l a d v i s o r f o r the Western A u s t r a l i a n government. Such was the d e l e g a t i o n which was to present the address and p e t i t i o n s i n London. The government was c r i t i c i s e d a t the time f o r s e l e c t i n g 38 what many people c o n s i d e r e d to he a mediocre d e l e g a t i o n . Sending the th r e e p a r t y l e a d e r s over to work w i t h S i r H a l would most c e r t a i n l y have demonstrated the s t a t e ' s u n i t e d d e s i r e to achieve s e c e s s i o n hut p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s rendered such a. cho i c e of delegates i m p r a c t i c a l . I f the government wished to a v o i d b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d lukewarm on the matter, however, they should have i n c l u d e d a minor c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r i n the number. ' S l i g h t l y over a year had elapsed s i n c e the v o t e r s of Western A u s t r a l i a had s i g n i f i e d t h e i r a p p r o v a l of s e c e s s i o n . A new system of i n v e s t i g a t i n g had been evolved by the Commonwealth Government. An u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt had been made a t d e c i d i n g upon c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes by a premiers' conference. A Labour government, which was commonly b e l i e v e d to be opposed to s e c e s s i o n , had sponsored a movedfor s e c e s s i o n which had ignored the Commonwealth government e n t i r e l y , a p p e a l i n g d i r e c t l y to London. The s t o r y was r e a c h i n g i t s climax. CHAPTER NINE To London and r e t u r n . I t was evident that Mr. C o l l i e r was making q u i t e a few moves, and th a t i t was time t h a t Mr. Lyons attempt t o counter some of them. The f i r s t s t e p taken hy the Commonwealth govern-ment was summarized i n a London Times s t o r y under a Melbourne, May 27, d a t e l i n e , which s t a t e d t h a t the f e d e r a l government had dec i d e d t o prepare a w r i t t e n case to counter the Western Aus-t r a l i a n one, and t h a t i t would he prepared hy f o u r r e s i d e n t s of Western A u s t r a l i a , two of whom i t named, M.W. Somvferville, the Trades" H a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the s t a t e A r b i t r a t i o n Court, •-. and a Mr. D.J. G i l b e r t , whom the s t o r y i d e n t i f i e d merely as a 1 member of the U n i t e d A u s t r a l i a P a r t y . Thus the Commonwealth camp 2 campaign began w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of the Case f o r Union 1 London Times, Kay 28, 1934, 14:4. 2 A u s t r a l i a , The Case f o r Union, a r e p l y to the Case f o r  the S e c e s s i o n of the S t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a , Canberra, Government P r i n t e r , 1934. A much s m a l l e r hook than the 489 page Case of the People of Western A u s t r a l i a , i t s c h i e f v a l u e l i e s i n i t s demonstration of the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of the s t a t i s t i c s used by the s e c e s s i o n i s t authors (Seemingly f i o u n d s S t e r l i n g and A u s t r a l i a n pounds were used without i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n a l l the export t a b l e s i n the Western A u s t r a l i a n case) and i n demonstrating t h a t the A u s t r a l i a n primary producer was a b l e t o procure a t l e a s t some of h i s needed machinery a t lower p r i c e s than h i s competitors i n the A r g e n t i n e , South A f r i c a , and New Zealand, and a t p r i c e s comparable t o those i n Canada. I t would appear, however, t h a t the A u s t r a l i a n government, experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e n l i s t i n g f o u r s u i t a b l e Western A u s t r a l i a n authors f o r t h e i r case s i n c e i t s t i t l e page c o n t a i n s the names of two d i s t i n g u i s h e d e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n s , S i r Robert Garran and Hon J.K. K e a t i n g a l o n g w i t h those of G i l b e r t and Sommerville. One of the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s on the A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n , S i r Robert had served as s e c r e t a r y on the d r a f t i n g committee of the 1897-98 f e d e r a l . c o n v e n t i o n and had h e l d l e g a l p o s i t i o n s i n the Commonwealth government s i n c e i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , b e i n g S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l from 1917 to h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1931. Hon J.K. K e a t i n g was an ex-Senator from Tasmania. (Cont'd p. 155.) -155-Two days l a t e r the Times r a n another s t o r y on the f e d e r a l governments a c t i o n s . Now a committee was to he s e t up^counter the s e c e s s i o n movement i n Western A u s t r a l i a . Again Messrs. Sommerville and G i l b e r t ' s names appear, to which were-added Western A u s t r a l i a ' s Sen. C a r r o l l and the d i s t i n g u i s h e d c o n s t i t -3 u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , S i r Robert Garran; I t would appear t h a t t h i s committee was g i v e n wider d u t i e s than merely p r e p a r i n g a w r i t t e n case. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Commonwealth s t i l l d i d not seem to be sure of the course i t was i n t e n d i n g to pursue. When, i n October, Mr. N.J.O. Makin (Hindraarsh, S.A.) asked the Commonwealth At t o r n e y - G e n e r a l whether the government intended making a c o u n t e r - c l a i m f o r the Western A u s t r a l i a n case f o r r."..- v ; ; t s e c e s s i o n he was answered; "The honorable member's q u e s t i o n r a i s e s matters of policj'" -which have not as y e t been f i n a l l y determined, byt'the Government, but which w i l l no doub$ be d e c i d e d a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment."^ Much had happened between May and October. A f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n h e l d i n mid-September had d i v e r t e d the government's a t t e n t i o n from other matters. Mr. Lyons had adopted the then s p e c t a c u l a r method of campaigning by a i r , theaby e n a b l i n g him to speak i n a l l of the s t a t e s . Seemingly h i s v i s i t to Western A u s t r a l i a was 2 (cont'd) Mr. G i l b e r t , d e s c r i b e d on the t i t l e page as b e i n g "of P e r t h " , was b o r n and educated i n New South Wales and h e l d important posts i n p r i v a t e ventures i n t h a t s t a t e and v/ith the Commonwealth government. A t o t a l of £362/10/0 were p a i d t o these three men f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s as j o i n t authors of the Case f o r Union.Ho f e e s were p a i d d i r e c t l y t o Mr. Somjdervilifee, who continued to r e c e i v e h i s s a l a r y from the Western A u s t r a l i a n government, the Commonwealth government reimbursing the s t a t e government £145/18/7 f o r t h a t p o r t i o n of time when Mr. S o m e r v i l l e attempted to f r u s t r a t e h i s employers' p o l i c y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Case f o r Union hy the Commonwealth Government i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . Only 35 , 622 copies were sent to the t h r e e s a t i s f i e d s t a t e s , but there were 356,070 copies d i s t r i b -uted i n S.A., and 137,430 i n Tas., almost as i n t e n s i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n as the .248,490 i n W.A. i t s e l f . C'v/ealth Debates Nov. 1, 1934,p.96. 3 London Times, May 29, 1934, 13:3. 4 C'wealth P a r i . Debates, Oct. 23, 1934, p. 41. -156-unmarked by any h o s t i l e demonstrations -such as had been a c c o i d e d 4a him t h e r e the previous March. A change i n the tempertaent of the Western A u s t r a l i a n s might be shown i n the f a c t t h a t two senate candidates who based t h e i r ' campaign on demands f o r s e c e s s i o n had the honour of t r a i l i n g 5 the Senate p o l l . The o l d timers who supported s e c e s s i o n were r e - e l e c t e d , Sen. Johnston, and Messrs. Gregory and Prowse i n the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t was r e p o r t e d from P e r t h that the 6 v/estern s t a t e d i s p l a y e d v e r y l i t t l e enthusiasm i n the e l e c t i o n . In the Commonwealth as a whole the v o t e r s s i g n i f i e d t h e i r a p p r o v a l of Mr. Lyons' p o l i c i e s by g r a n t i n g h i s government another term of o f f i c e . L a t e r i n September, on the t w e n t y - f o u r t h , to be exact, a l a r g e r crowd than u s u a l gathered a t the Fremantle quay to see a s h i p o f f f o r "Home11. On board the Oronsay were H.K. Watson and J . MacCallum Smith, o f f to Londonto p r e s e n t the p e t i t i o n s t o the Houses of P a r l i a m e n t . A l a r g e crowd of Dominion Leagers were down to b i d them success and bon voyage. Mr. E t o l l i e r bade them an o f f i c i a l f a r e w e l l w h i l e the Lieutenant-Governor, S i r James M i t c h e l l , c r e a t e d Mr. Watson King's Messenger f o r the conveying 7 of the p e t i t i o n s and the address to His Majesty. When the Oronsay nosed out t o the west the scene of o p e r a t i o n s 4a L e t t e r from T. Dunbabin, A u s t r a l i a n High Commissioner's O f f i c e to w r i t e r , Aug. 6, 1948. Mr. Dunbabin c i t e s as h i s a u t h o r i t y a f e l l o v s t a f f member l i v i n g i n P e r t h i n 1934. 5 London Times, Sept, 17, 1934, 12:1. 6 i b i d . . P r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of s t o r y (n.5) c a r r i e d under Melbourne d a t e l i n e . 7 i b i d . t Sept. 25, 1934, 13:4. -157-i n the s e c e s s i o n moved w i t h h e r from A u s t r a l i a to London. The Dominions 1 O f f i c e had beennwarned of the approach of the d e l e -g a t i o n . The Western A u s t r a l i a n government had been i n d i r e c t communication w i t h J.H. Thomas* the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r Dominion A f f a i r s . Seldom had a member of the B r i t i s h f a m i l y come home to mother a t a more inopportune time. P r o p o s a l s a r i s i n g f rom the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the Round Table Conferences on I n d i a (1930-32), which had been p u b l i s h e d i n a White Paper of I'larch, 1933, were now t a k i n g on the s t a t u t o r y form which was to evolve i n t o the Govern-ment of I n d i a A c t of 1935. S u r e l y few i n c i d e n t s would be l e s s conducive to the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of Indian b e l i e f i n the d e s i r a b i l i t y of w a i t i n g f o r Dominion s t a t u s as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r independence than t h i s example of a s e c t i o n of a Dominion a p p e a l i n g to the Home Government to i n t e r v e n e , unbidden by the Dominion Government, i n t h a t Dominion's domestic a f f a i r s . The acceptance of t h i s i n v i t a t i o n to commit such a breach of the d o c t r i n e of Dominion autonomy would not induce Hr. De V a l e r a t o repent of h i s widening of the gap between E i r e and the r e s t of the Commonwealth. I f the B r i t i s h government c o n s i d e r e d the Western A u s t r a l i a n p e t i t i o n the South A f r i c a n , Gen. Hertzog's, s u s p i c i o n s of B r i t i s h i n t e n t i o n s , which had been a l l a y e d by the S t a t u t e of Westminster, would be rearoused. The two t r a v e l l i n g members of the s e c e s s i o n d e l e g a t i o n , Messrs. Smith and Watson, a r r i v e d i n London i n the evening of October 26, b e i n g met a t V i c t o r i a s t a t i o n by t h e i r f e l l o w d e l e g a t e , S i r H a l 8 Colebatch. On November 1 the d e l e g a t i o n v i s i t e d Mr. Thomas i n 8 London Times. Oct. 27, 1934, 11:2. -158-the Dominions* O f f i c e , b r i n g i n g w i t h them t h e i r p e t i t i o n s and 9 addresses ( a l o n g w i t h a copy of the Case of the People) Mr. Thomas informed the d e l e g a t i o n t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to B r i t i s h p r a c t i c e , a p e t i t i o n t o one of the Houses of the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t had to "be presented to t h a t House by one of i t s mem-b e r s . The d e l e g a t i o n had entered i n t o the game of c o n t a c t i n g members w i t h z e s t , Hr. Watson p r o v i n g h i m s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y adept a t t h i s aspect of p u b l i c l i f e . S u i t a b l e men to make the p r e s e n t a t i o n s were soon d i s c o v e r e d , and the support of a number of other members had been pledged, should the matter come up i n P a r l i a m e n t . Capt. A d r i a n C. Moreing ( U n i o n i s t , P r e s t o n ) i n t r o d u c e d the P e t i t i o n i n t o the House of Commons on December 10 16, 1934, w h i l e the Marquess of Aberdeen performed a s i m i l a r 11 duty i n the L o r d s . . In making'his p r e s e n t a t i o n the Karquess of Aberdeen remarked t h a t the r i g h t of p e t i t i o n i n g Crown and P a r l i a m e n t f o r r e d r e s s of g rievances had l o n g been acknowledged. N e v e r t h e l e s s the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r War, V i s c o u n t Hailsham, seemed t o - t h i n k t h a t matters of grave c o n s t i t u t i o n a l importance were r a i s e d by t h i s p e t i t i o n . His o p i n i o n appears to have been shared hy the members of the House of Commons S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c P e t -9 Hew York Times, Nov. 2, 1934. The s t o r y s t a t e s t h a t the d e l e g a t i o n members presented the p e t i t i o n s and address to him. The magazine, Time, however, mentions a v i s i t of the d e l e g a t i o n to Buckingham P a l a c e to present the address (Time, Nov.5, 1934,p.17). Mr. J . MacCallum Smith, i n h i s r e p o r t to the Assembly mentions the v i s i t t o Mr. Thomas 1 o f f i c e where, seemingly, the d e l e g a t i o n were i n s t r u c t e d i n B r i t i s h procedure, but i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p e t i t i o n s were not surrendered. The palace, i n c i d e n t was not c l a r i f i e d . W.A. P a r i . Debates. Sept. 4, 1935, p. 517. 10 Hew York Times, Dec. 18, 1934, 5:7. 11 London Times, Dec. 18, 1934, 7:1. -159-i t i o n s , who r e p o r t e d on December 18 t h a t they were u n c e r t a i n whether or not the House should r e c e i v e the Western A u s t r a l i a n p e t i t i o n and recommended t h a t a s p e c i a l s e l e c t committee be 12 appointed to c o n s i d e r the q u e s t i o n of i t s acceptance. S i m i l a r a c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d by the L o r d s , n a t u r a l l y u n f o r t u n a t e c o m p l i c a t i o n s would a r i s e i f one house r e c e i v e d the p e t i t i o n and the other r e j e c t e d i t , so, when i n due time (Jan. 31, 1935), the Lords sent a message t o t h e Commons s t a t i n g t h a t they had r e s o l v e d t h a t i t would be d e s i r a b l e t h a t a J o i n t Committee of bot h Houses be formed to c o n s i d e r the p e t i t i o n of Western A u s t r a l i a , 13 the Commons, a f t e r proper c o n s i d e r a t i o n , ( u n t i l Feb. 4) concurred. Encouraged by the r e c e p t i o n of t h e i r i n i t i a l move the Lords 14 hastened to name t h r e e of t h e i r number to s i t on the committee, and t o t r a n s m i t the i n f o r m a t i o n immediately to the Commons (Feb. 26), 15 who promptly (Feb. 28) s e l e c t e d t h r e e members to s i t w i t h them. The L o r d s , upon b e i n g n o t i f i e d t h a t the members of the committee had been chosen, announced t h a t the f i r s t meeting of the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee of bo t h Houses of P a r l i a m e n t to c o n s i d e r the acceptance of the p e t i t i o n of Western A u s t r a l i a would be h e l d i n the House of Lords Chairman of Committees Committee Room on Maroh 27, 1935; t h r e e months and ten days a f t e r the submission 16 of t h e p e t i t i o n . The wisdom of the Western A u s t r a l i a n government 12U.K., P a r i . Debates, (Commons), 5th s e r i e s , v o l . 296, 18 Dec., 1934, p. 962. 13 i h i d , (Commons) v o l . 297, p p . 533, 916. 1 4 ihid.« (Lords) v o l . 95, p. 1085. 15 i b i d . , (Commons) v o l . 298, p. 1463. 16 i b i d . , ^Commons) v o l . 298, p. 2141. -160-i n not sending key members of parliament on the d e l e g a t i o n appeared to be j u s t i f i e d . How, who were the members of the J o i n t Committee and j u s t what was the p e t i t i o n upon the acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of which they were to pass judgment? I t would have been d i f f i c u l t f o r P a r l i a m e n t to have s e l e c t e d s i x other men who would have r e p r e s e n t e d as w e l l the views of the various, s e c t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n i n the Houses and y e t have possessed the same amount of p e r s o n a l experience i n I m p e r i a l a f f a i r s . The chairman, George Joachim, V i s c o u n t Goschen had, i n h i s younger days, been p r i v a t e S e c r e t a r y to the Governor of Hew. South Wales, and had l a t e r , 1924-29, been Governor of Madras, s e r v i n g as V i c e r o y and a c t i n g Governor-General of I n d i a between June and Hovember, 1929. P h i l i p Henry Iver, Marquis of L o t h i a n , had served h i s c o l o n i a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p as one of "Lord M i l n e r T s k i n d e r g a r t e n " . H i s p r a c t i c a l c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e experience was c o n f i n e d to the A f r i c a n c o n t i n e n t , but h i s connection w i t h the Round Table f r o m i t s e a r l y days had broadened h i s view p o i n t . Robert A l d e r s o n , L o r d Wright, a l i f e t i m e peer, a bencher of the Inner Temple who, a f t e r s e r v i n g as a Judge of King's Bench had j u s t been appointed Master of the R o l l s , p r o v i d e d the j u d i c i a l and exact l e g a l knowledge that was necessary f o r the committee. L o r d Wright's l e g a l knowledge was supplemented by t h a t of the" b e s t known of the Commons' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the committee, the Rt. Hon. Leopold C.M.S. Amery, who was a l s o a b a r r i s t e r of the Inner Temple. Mr. Amery a l s o possessed much p r a c t i c a l experience i n Dominion a f f a i r s , however, b e i n g Dominions' S e c r e t a r y f r : : : i -161-d u r i n g the important years f o r d e f i n i n g Dominion s t a t u s , 1925-29, h a v i n g v i s i t e d a l l the Dominions, and h a v i n g w r i t t e n exten-s i v e l y on I m p e r i a l matters. Mr. Isaac F o o t , N a t i o n a l Labour member f o r Bodmin, Cornwall, was another member of the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n , a s o l i c i t o r . H is experience mn i m p e r i a l a f f a i r s had been gained as a member of the Round Table Conferences on I n d i a and as a member of the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee on I n d i a . The s i x t h member of the committee, W i l l i a m Lunn, the Labour member who re p r e s e n t e d R o t h w e l l i n the House, had been Parliamentary-u n d e r s e c r e t a r y f o r the Dominions' O f f i c e i n the Labour Government, 1929-331, d u r i n g the p e r i o d when the S t a t u t e of WestminSterr.-became law? and Chairman of the Overseas Settlement Committee i n 1929, i n which l a t t e r c a p a c i t y tee would have been i n t r o d u c e d to Western A u s t r a l i a n problems. The p e t i t i o n v/hich these men had to c o n s i d e r was a f a i r l y 17 lengthy document which s t a r t s o f f w i t h a r e c i t a l of the s e c e s s i o n 18 movement, f o l l o w i n g which i t l i s t s a s e r i e s of d i s a b i l i t i e s f rom which the s t a t e i s a l l e g e d t o be s u f f e r i n g ; many of which, the d r a f t e r s of the p e t i t i o n admit, c o u l d be removed by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment, but they d i s m i s s the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g such an amendment s i n c e , they c l a i m , the Commonwealth government i s too ' l o a t h to have i t s powers d i m i n i s h e d . Some d i s a b i l i t i e s l i s t e d c o u l d not be r e c t i f i e d by any such means as a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment, however. Geographic i s o l a t i o n was the b a s i c cause of 17 Reproduced i n f u l l i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Report of  the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee of both Houses of P a r l i a m e n t on  P e t i t i o n of the S t a t e of Western A u s t r a l i a , H.C., .88/1935. 18 Sees. 4-14, H.C. 88/1935, pp. x i i . - x v . -162-many, and a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l cause of such i n t a n g i b l e s as the "non-existence of a "Federal s p i r i t i n the people of E a s t e r n 19 A u s t r a l i a toward the people of Western A u s t r a l i a . " The p e t i t i o n n oticed.and deplored the t r e n d toward c e n t r a l i z e d government i n A u s t r a l i a , and claimed that such a process was the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of what i t c a l l e d the "two fundamentals of the F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n , u n i f o r m t a r i f f s and i n t e r s t a t e f r e e t r a d e . " The d r a f t e r s admitted t h a t the Commonwealth govern-ment had acknowledged the s t a t e ' s d i s a b i l i t i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l g r a n t s , but these were d e s c r i b e d as temporary and i n s u f f i c i e n t . T h i s statement was f o l l o w e d by a key paragraph s t r e s s i n g the t i e s of empire and l i s t i n g , i n t h i r t y - t h r e e s u b s e c t i o n s , the p l i g h t of the primary producers, s u f f e r i n g under the Commonwealth's High t a r i f f p o l i c y . F o l l o w i n g t h i s l i s t of d i s a b i l i t i e s (which"were repeated and enlarged upon in.The Case of the People) came the two f i n a l paragraphs. Paragraph 18 s t a t e d t h a t Western A u s t r a l i a wished to withdraw from the F e d e r a l Union amicably and was w i l l i n g t o assume he r f a i r share of o b l i g a t i o n s . Paragraph 19 was the o n l y s e c t i o n of the p e t i t i o n w i t h which the J o i n t Committee con-20 cerned themselves. In i t the p e t i t i o n e r s prayed w ... t h a t ... ( P a r l i a m e n t ) . . . w i l l f o r t h w i t h , or as soon as reasonably may be, cause to be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s a i d P a r l i a m e n t of the U n i t e d Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and Northern I r e l a n d a B i l l f o r an Act e i t h e r by an amendment of the Commonwealth of A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t or otherwise howsoever to e f f e c t u a t e the withdrawal of the 19 Sec. 15 (e) ( v i . ) p. x v i . 20 See Appendix C f o r Report of J o i n t Committee. -163-people of Western A u s t r a l i a from the F e d e r a l Gommonwealth of A u s t r a l i a ... and to e f f e c t u a t e the r e s t o r a t i o n of Western A u s t r a l i a to i t s former s t a t u s as a separate', and d i s t i n c t s e l f - g o v e r n i n g colony i n the B r i t i s h Empire under i t s present c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . . Which statement was f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s of p r o v i s i o n s , i n the for m of a d r a f t b i l l , t o e f f e c t u a t e the establishment of the Dominion of Western A u s t r a l i a , i n which the new .Dominion assumed a share of the f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s of the Commonwealth, f' i n c l u d i n g a p o r t i o n of the war debt. The p e t i t i o n was dated a t P e r t h , J u l y 25, 1934, and was signed on b e h a l f of the people, of Western A u s t r a l i a by the P r e s i d e n t arid <£he-. C l e r k of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , the Speaker and the C l e r k of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, the Premier, the Leader of t h e Government i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , and the Leaders of the Country P a r t y a n d the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y . Such was the p e t i t i o n which gave r i s e to matters of grave c o n s t i t u t i o n a l importance. The J o i n t Committee h e l d seven meet-ings to d i s c u s s the p e t i t i o n . a n d these matters. That of March 27 was o r g a n i z a t i o n a l . On the t h r e e meetings of A p r i l 3, A p r i l 10 and A p r i l 17 the committee members heard addresses by counsel f o r both the S e c e s s i o n d e l e g a t i o n and the Commonwealth, w h i l e the l a s t t h r e e meetings, those of May 13, May 16, and May 22 vrere h e l d i n camera f o r d e l i b e r a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e i r r e p o r t . Both the s e c e s s i o n d e l e g a t i o n and the Commonwealth.author-i t i e s p r ovided themselveswith f i r s t c l a s s B r i t i s h l e g a l c o u n s e l . The Commonwealth secured the s e r v i c e s of the prominent c o n s t i t -u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , W i l f r e d Greene, K . C , w h i l e the s e c e s s i o n i s t s 21 Sec. 19, H.C., 88/1935, p. x x i v . -164-• -r e t a i n e d , as the head of t h e i r l e g a l "brigade, the l e g a l e d i t o r of the E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , B r i g . Gen. John Hartman Morgan, 22 P r o f e s s o r of C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Lav/, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , London. Mr. Morgan addressed the J o i n t Committee f i r s t ; Although V i s c o u n t Goschen had gone to c o n s i d e r a b l e pains to e x p l a i n to the counsel t h a t the committee was concerned s o l e y w i t h the qu e s t i o n of whether or not the p e t i t i o n was proper to be r e c e i v e d by P a r l i a m e n t Mr. Morgan d i d devote c o n s i d e r a b l e time to t r a c i n g the h i s t o r y of the s e c e s s i o n movement and to ennumerating the d i s a b i l i t i e s -alleged to be s u f f e r e d by Western A u s t r a l i a . The c o u n s e l f o r b o t h s i d e s spent most of t h e i r time attempt-i n g to e x p l a i n the A u s t r a l i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n t o the J o i n t Committee. Both agreed t h a t the amending powers c o n f e r r e d upon the Common-wealth government under sect. 128 of the A u s t r a l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n d i d not extend t o the f i r s t e i g h t c l a u s e s of thetConnaonwealth of A u s t r a l i a C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , and t h e r e f o r e no power but the 23 I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t c o u l d r e l e a s e a s t a t e from the Commonwealth Mr. Green agreed w i t h Mr. Morgan's statement t h a t the S t a t u t e of Westminster only governs the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Commonwealth government and the government of the U n i t e d Kingdom, and not t h a t of the l a t t e r w i t h the governments of the sta t e s , , and t h a t the 22 The Western i l u s t r a l i a n government p a i d t o r e t a i n Mr. Morgan and three j u n i o r counsel a t the expenditure of £695/3/. W.A. P a r i . Debates, Aug. 6, 1935, p. 26. The s e c e s s i o n d e l e g a t i o n a l s o sought the l e g a l a d v i c e of S i r W i l l i a m J o w i t t , the f e e b e i n g p a i d by Messrs. J.M. Smith and -H.K. Watson p e r s o n a l l y , i b i d . , Sept. 4, 1935, p. 519. 23 See Appendix B f o r A u s t r a l i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n . S i r John P o r r e s t had reached the same c o n c l u s i o n concerning the n e c e s s i t y of an a c t of the Im p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t to e f f e c t s e c e s s i o n as e a r l y a s May 17, 1900. v.supra., p. 40 • -165-Commonwealth's f a i l u r e to r a t i f y the S t a t u t e i n no way a f f e c t e d 24 i t s v a l i d i t y . A f t e r a c h i e v i n g t h i s degree of agreement concerning the • S t a t u t e of Westminster counsel on "both s i d e s , amazingly enough, proceeded to ignore i t . The s e c e s s i o n c o u n s e l s t r e s s e d the inde-pendent a c t i o n s of the A u s t r a l i a n s t a t e s and c i t e d other pre-cedents, such as the 1868 p e t i t i o n of Nova S c o t i a f o r amendment 25 of the B.1T.A. Act to permit t h a t p r o v i n c e ' s s e c e s s i o n , Mr. Green, f o r the Commonwealth, attempted to shew, on the other hand, that,' from the 'establishment of F e d e r a t i o n the f e