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Canadian shipping in the British Columbia coastal trade Schuthe, George Macdonald 1950-12-31

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CANADIAN SHIPPING IN THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COASTAL TRADE "by GEORGE MACDGNALD SCHUTHE A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l 1 F u l f i l m e n t , o f tne Requirements f o r the Degree of THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A P R I L , 1950 Th© U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1950. CANADIAN SHIPPING IN THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COASTING- TRADE by George^ Macdonald Schuthe (ABSTRACT) Withiir: the l a s t one hundred" and t h i r t y years, the c o a s t i n g tirade of B r i t i s h Columbia has passed through fo u r more or l e s s d i s t i n c t s t a g e r of development: the era of the e a r l y t r a d i n g monopolist, the Hudson Bay Company; the r i s e of the s m a l l - s c a l e shipowner; the growth o f corporate s h i p p i n g e n t e r p r i s e ; and, i n the f i r s t h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century, the predominating i n f l u e n c e o f the n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y companies, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Canadian P a c i f i c . Fast passenger steamers are u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with B r i t i s h Columbia coast shipping, and yet, the more p r o s a i c tug boats, tankers, and f i s h packers, i f l e s s spectacular, are j u s t as important to the economy of the province. Coasting steamers as cargo c a r r i e r s are, i n f a c t , i n process of being e c l i p s e d by scows and barges, which, i n the s h e l t e r e d waters of the coast, are more cheaply operated than s e l f - p r o p e l l e d f r e i g h t i n g v e s s e l s . The routes of heav i e s t t r a f f i c on the coast are - 2 - those s e r v i n g the areas o f densest p o p u l a t i o n on the lower mainland and c e n t r a l and southern Vancouver I s l a n d . Indus t r i a l communities, dependent on water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , are, nevert h e l e s s , s c a t t e r e d along the e n t i r e coast l i n e . As employment i s o f t e n seasonal, and labour, t r a n s i e n t , f l e x i b l e s h i p p i n g s e r v i c e s are e s s e n t i a l . Year-round operations on some routes are p o s s i b l e only because government s u b s i d i e s are provided. The h i g h l y seasonal t o u r i s t trade u t i l i z e s passenger f a c i l i t i e s to c a p a c i t y f o r not more than three months of the year. F i n d i n g r e t u r n cargoes f o r t h e i r v e s s e l s i s as much a problem f o r the steamship companies as f o r the owners o f scows and barges. In general, c o a s t a l l i n e r s are the c a r r i e r s of general cargo shipped from d i s t r i b u t i n g p o i n t s ; scows and barges, of bulk commodities shipped to p r o c e s s i n g centres. T r a f f i c trends p o i n t to an expanding volume of cargo shipped i n c o a s t i n g trade, w i t h unrigged v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g an i n c r e a s i n g percentage of the t o t a l tonnage. While passenger ship t r a f f i c has d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y from i t s war-time peak, p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of competition' from a i r l i n e s , f a s t new steamers, equipped w i t h automobile decks, o f f e r an inducement to t r a v e l by sea and promise to r e t a i n the bulk of passenger t r a f f i c f o r the ships. The geography of the coast e l i m i n a t e s any th r e a t of new and serious - 3 - competition from r a i l w a y and highway t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . High construction-! and o p e r a t i n g costs have been the c h i e f concern of the coast s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y s i n c e the second world war. Costs have more than doubled since 1939, but r a t e s and f a r e s have not increased p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . In consequence, steamship operations, with few exceptions, have been u n p r o f i t a b l e , and on routes r e c e i v i n g government a s s i s t a n c e , s u b s i d i e s have sky-rocketed. In the circum stances, the s t a b i l i t y of the r a t e s t r u c t u r e i s to be a t t r i b u t e d to the str o n g p o s i t i o n of the r a i l w a y companies i n coast shipping, and to the government's subsidy p o l i c y . * * •* TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page Preface 1 1 Historical Background 1 The Earliest Traders The Hudson Bay Company Local Shipping Enterprise, 1858-1883 The G-rowth of Steamship Corporations, 1883-1901 2 The Three Major Coast Steamship Lines 2 4 The Canadian Pacific Railway's British Columbia Coast Steamship Service The Union Steamship Company of British Columbia Canadian National Steamships: (Pacific Coast Service) 3 Other Coast Shipping Enterprises of the Twentieth Century 42 4 Fish Packers, Tankers, and Tow Boats 54 5 The Evolution:of Canadian Coasting Trade Legislation and Some Aspects of the Effect of Coasting Laws 64 6 The Extent and Nature of the Coasting Trade 72 7 Freight Rates and Fares 90 8 The Cost of Providing Coastal Shipping Service 108 9 Competitive Elements in Coast Trans portation 123 10 Operating Results and Government Aid 141 11 Conclusions 151 Appendix-; British Columbia- Coast Steam ship Fleets of the Twentiet-h Century 15S. BlMlOgraphy 163 L I S T OF TABLES Table Page 1 Snipgr Built: i n Canadian and in Non-Canadian: Shipyards and Serving i n the British Col umbia Coasting Trade 71 2 Arrivals at: and Departures from British Col umbia Ports of Vessels- in- Coas-ting Service, 194? and 1948 73 3 Arrivalsrat and Departures from British Col umbia Ports of TUgs, other than Foreign- going Tugs-, 1947 and 1948 74 4 Population of the British Columbia Coast T$ 55 Coastal Passenger T r a f f i c , Port of Vancouver 82 6 Cargo Loaded at Vancouver by Canadian Ves sels In:Coastal Trader 1949 84 7 Cargo Landed at Vancouver1 by Canadian Ves sels in Coastal Trade, 1949 85 8 Extracts^ from Canadian National Steamships' Freight Tariffs 95 9 Firsti: Class One Way Passenger Fares on Four B.C. Coast Routes, I915-I949 100 10 Minimum First: Class Alaska Cruise Fares, 1918-1949 103 11 Size of Crew Carried in Representative Types of British Columbia Coast Vessels- 109 12 Comparison ofOew Labour Costs, 1939-1949 110 ly Prices of Nine Passenger-Cargo Vessels Built; for British Columbia Coastal Service 120 I# Canadian Merchant. Vessels, other than Tugs, of 200 Net; Register Tone~ and Over i n Ser vice: on the British Columbia Coast, 1928" - 1938 - 1948 15 S&own and Barges of 10 Net: Register Tons- and Over i n Service on the British Columbia Coast, hy Age Groups 139 IS Distribution of Canadian Government:. Subsid ies to West Coast*: Services, 1892-1950 146 17 Canadian Government Subsidies for West Coast Services, 1925-1950 149 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page- 1 Passengers Loaded and Landed at: Vancouver Monthly by Vessels lm Coastal Trader (Bar Diagram) 83 2 Three-year Moving Average Trend Fitted to the-'. IKunher of Passengers Embarked and Disembarked at Vancouver in Coastal Service. 88 3 Three-year Moving Average Trend Fitted to the Tonnage: of Cargo Loaded and Landed at Vancouver In: Domestic Trade 8 9 Evolution! of Control of Coast Steamship- Operations^ by the Canadian Pacific Rail- 125 Growth; of the- Scow and Barge? Flee*.. Relative to the Self-propelled Fleet: in British Columbia Coasting Service CANADIAN SHIPPING IN THE BRITISH COLOMBIA COASTAL TRADE Supplement ERRATUM Table 3 on page 74. The t i t l e should be amended t o read: DEPARTURES FROM BRITISH COLOMBIA PORTS OP TUGS, OTHER THAN FOREIGN-GOING TOGS 1947 AND 1948 ADDENDUM For comparison with t a b l e s 6 and 7, on pages 84 and 85, the fol lowing t a b l e s are appended: A . Cargo Loaded a t Vancouver by Canadian Vessels i n Coastal Trade, 1950 B . Cargo Landed a t Vancouver by Canadian Vessels i n Coastal Trade, 1950 February, 1951. - 1 - P R E F A C E British Columbia coast shipping invites the attention of students of Canadian economics and history, for- surprisingly l i t t l e research; has: been devoted to the? subject. Tlhere: exists: now a: real danger that material of potential significance to future, studies will he lost Irrecoverably unless efforts are; soon directed towards the collection and retention.of documents that, i f s t i l l extant, must lie hidden and nigh: forgotten! m musty trunks aaid boxes:. To shipowners, mundane business activities are merely of passing interest; the significance of the contribution "being made to regional economic development: is: rarely appreciated. Hence, superseded tariffs are burned, traffic statistics go unrecorded, and, when: operations cease, records are often destroyed. Only thirty years-ago, "Captain! Cuttle'1, columnist: in Harbour and Shipping, complained that"up to the: present time the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners do not ©ven: know what tonnage of merchandise, local or coastwise:, passes over our wharves — all they have la- an approximate guess mad© from: vagu©^  returns-.11 TH© writer makes no pretension to dealing - II - exhaustively with amy phas« of British Columbia coast; shipping im th© essay that follows:. Historical aspects of the subject are considered In some: detail in? an attampt, to discover the pat term of growth of the: Industry. Special attention is devoted to the effect of sharply rising costs i i r the past dee ads. Unpublished" statistics have beeni examined to confirm? the writer' a- suspicions concerning the? importance of scows? and harg®?s: 1m coast transpor.tatlona. geographical?features of the coast are taken for granted. NO attempt'has been made to describe? structural and i mechanical characteristics?of coasting steamers, although i t is conceded that improved design and the sdoptioa of feree efficient methods- of handling cargo would certainly result in? economies of operation?. MM ther has the question oC" labour:"- unions- baenn glv«ni more than passing mentiom, for their ihfluence: ih coast shipping i s too recent to justify conclusions arrived at; through retrospect ion. ffies term:"coasting trade", for which there i s , In Canada; no precise-definition^ ise taken to Include the? whole of, the coast: from: Mexico to southeast era Alaska, a l l of which li e s within the "home? trade" area. Emphasis is placed, however, oa? the section? from? Paget. Sound' to Hynn Canal", wherein the majority of Canadian coastal vessels operate. i i i - While: my own experience i n coast: shipping since 1937 has-, I hope, helped i n a re a l i s t i c approach: to my subject, I gratefully/acknowledge the generous- assistance of many persons intimately connected with the industry i n British: Columbia. Almost a l l those upom whom I called for information were gracious^ and helpful. Some; confident t l a l material that came to my attention could not., of course;, be reproduced, although it: served to aid my under standing of several mat tern. Thanks- are especially the to: Mr. J. M. Alderson, of the Passenger Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway; Mrs. j\ w. Allardyce, daughter of the late Captain: Duncan Mackenzie; Mr. Gf. F. Bullock^ secretary of the Canadian Merchant Service Guild; Mr. H." W. Cameron, secretary of the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange; Mr. Patrick Donovan, of: the G.P.R.'s Public Relations Offlee; Mr. J . Fenner, formerly with-the; Canadian-Mexican Pacific Steamship Company; Mr. L. B. G©re, of Young and Gore Tugboat: Company, Limited; Mr. N. R. lacking, former Marine Editor of the Vancouver Dally Province; , Mr. W. Hately, until recently General Freight Agent!, in: British Columbia for the Canadian National R a i l  ways; Mr. J. C. Hector, of the Griffiths Steamship:Company; Captain: J. A. Heenan, Director, and other officers of the: Subsidies Division, Canadian Maritime Commission.; Mr. W. B. McLaren; naval architect; Captain Nell MaeLean:, retired master mariner of Canadian National Steamships; Mr. Gf. A. MaoMlllan, Superintendent, of Canadian National Steamships:; Mr. K. Middleton, Manager of Dodwell and Company, Vancouver; Mr. CT. E. Vlnc.en.tt, of the Bervin St@amsh.ip/Company; and Mr. Mex<: Wood, of FritisnCOlumbla Steamships, Limited. G. M . S. Vancouver and Ottawa-- 11 - CANADIAN 5 SHIPPING- IF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COASTAL TRADE CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A. The? Earliest. Traders? T&m commercial1 value? ihi the Camfeon market, of saa^ otrcfcier fiirs> reported plentiful on? the northwest* coast of North America?, directly inspired trading voyages to the? new land. Captain James? Cbok, who visited the Pacific Coast during the spring and summer of 1778, wrote? ini hl&= account of the voyages THee fwr of theses amlaals (ff©a=-ott®rs) ... i'» certainiy softer: aad finer than that of any others we know of; and therefore, the disoovery of this part of the continent: of North America, where? so valuable3 an article? of: commerce? may he^  mete, with, cannot be a matter of; indifference. 1 Although Cook did not, live -to witness the profitable sale? in China of the furs brought from? America, Captalm James King, completing the narrative of the voyage* recounted; COok and Kin®, A Voyage?- to the^ Pacific Ocearo. v. 2, p. 2961 - 2^- Tfie whole amount: of the value, in: specie and goods} that was- got from the furs-, i n both ships;, I am confident, did not f a l l short of two thousand pounds: sterling .... When ... it: is remembered, that the furs-were;, at; f i r s t , collected' without: our having any idea of their real value;; that: the greatest part had been worn by the: Indians; from whomi we purchased1 them* that they were: afterward preserved with, l i t t l e : car@i and frequently used for bed clothes-, and other purposes* during our: cruize to the north; and that, probably, we; had never got: the f u l l : v/alue for them: i n China-? the advantages-that might be-derived from-a voyage- to that part:of: the- A&ericani coast:, undertakeni with commercial views;, appear to me of a-degree of importance sufficient to: c a l l for the: attention of the Public:. The rage w i t i i i which:our seamen: were: possessed to returna to Ctook's? RlVer, and, by another cargo ofi skins, to:make? their: fortunes, at one time, was not far snort of mutiny; and I must own, I could not: help ;indulging: myself, ins a- project .... : The report of a lucrative trade awaiting exploitation spurred enterprising merchants; and adven turers to outfit expeditions-to the Northwest: Coast. Beginning, with the arrival at; NOotka: in August, 1785, of: a-small brig, fromi Macao under Captain James Hanna> a processiom of trading vessels came from; Bombay, London, and Boston: seeking furs; some: vessels trading under licence? of the East India; and South Sesp monopolies-, and others, though British!, exhibiting the colours of Austria: and Portugal in; order to make tBnable their trading: position! im the Pacific. One of the adventurers:, Captain Ihld, v.3> p.*57; John Mearesi who had spent the winter of 1786-7 collecting finrs inoPrince William SOund, brought two vessels to NOotka So?und in 1788, established harmonious^ ; relations with the native chiefs, and traded on the coast between 45° 30' and1 60° north latitude. Meanwhile:, Meares: left his: shipwrights: at NQotkato construct: the "NOrth-rWest America*, ""being the first bottbrni ever hullt and launched in; this part of the? globe;. * ^ The small v/essel was, in May, 1789, seized by /as Spanish frigate, the: incident precipitating am Admiralty decision to commission an eocpedition under Captain George Vancouver for the purpose of-safeguarding British trading interests and surveying the coast north; of 30°. United States trading vessels:, the^ first of which had entered the; sea^-otter trade at NOotka- in 1788, came; im Increasing numbers to the Northwest Coast: in: succeeding years. The historian Begg notes! Ifial801, which was the: most flourishing period of the trade, fifteen: United States: vessels were engaged trading on the west coast, hut only one? British; During this year the United. States vessels "brought 18,000 skins to China; 4 Americanipredominance was largely the result of the East 5 Meares-; Voyages, cited: in Bancroft, History of British Columbia, p.€>, n. ^ Begg, History of British Columbian p.851. . 4. - India Company' s monopoly in the? Pacific, a hindrance to th© participation of British adventurers:? lm the China market for furs; The: American position? was al l hut: consolidated with the establishment: of Fort Astoria by the: Pacific Fur: Company at: the mouth of the Columbia River when:the War of 1812 brought to a temporary halt Americani activities on? the coast. However, the North-West. Company of.Montreal, finding i t impossible: to: utilize British supply ships that came around the Horn: from. England to carry furs to the. restricted Canton market, was forced to turn to American carriers. F. The midsoni Bay Company The: amalgamation of - the NOrth-rWest Company and the Hudson Bay Company In? 1821 began? a? new era ih: the development of the Pacific Coast. A small schooner, built in 1826" at Fort Vancouver, om the Columbia, to trade along the coast was joined In: the following year by: the brigan- tine "Cadboro", from:England^ and several other sailing vessels were subsequently added to the coast fleet. Wind- propelled vessels, however, were?, owing to the hazardous coastline with treacherous river bars, narrow passes, and swift currents, Inadequate for maintaining service with desirable regularity. By 1834, the steam packet had proved itself In; British coastal shipping, and the "Royal William" had crossed the Atlantic. It: was not surprising^ therefore, that the Hudson Bay Company should have ordered a steamship for the Northwest Coast. On May 2, 1835, the steamer "Beaver" was launched at the yard of Green, Wigram, and Green, in Blaekwall. Two thirty-five: horsepower engines, constructed by Boulton and Watt^ turned side paddles to give the l i t t l e vessel s t r i a l speed of 9 f knots. The "Beaver", accompanied by the barque "Col umbia", arrived under sail at Fort Vancouver on April 1 0 , 1836. By the beginning of summer the steamer was in coast service, burning wood im her fires, carrying supplies northward to the company stations at Fort Langley and Fort Simpson and to Sitka, base of the Russian American Fur Company, with whom trade agreements had been effected. Fort McLOughlin, on Mllbanke Sound, Fort Stikeen, and Fort Tako became ports of call in the next few years, company business then employing four sailing vessels and the new steamer exclusively in coast trade. Although financial losses borne by the company were, at fi r s t , heavy, an effective monopoly was established which was "to clear the shore forever of Boston ships and BostOED men." ^ 5 Bancroft, History of British .Columbia:, p*60. - 6 - In-order to lessen dependence on remote sources: of agricultural supplies, the Hudson-Bay Company encouraged farming-at; Fort-Vancouver and, more particularly, at the head of Puget Sound where, at Fort Nisqually, the Puget Sound Agricultural Company was: established in 1839• Thence forward, local flour, butter, potatoes, beef, mutton, and pork made- up: ar large share of food cargoes:. By 1843, the: increasing pressure of American settlement between the Columbia:River and Puget Sound had forced" the Hudson: Bay Company to s©ek a: new depot for coastal" operations; The- harbour of Camosuni, at the southern end of: Vancouver: Island, was selected after much deliberation, and a fort established there. Supply ships-from England began to s a i l directly to Fort Victoria: (as the new base was:named in 1845") rather than to Fort Vancouver, and, with the Oregon; Treaty of 1846", the latter post lost Its significance ii i company affairs. The California gold rush provided a " f i l l i p - f o r the growth of Fort Victoria, American coasting vessels from San Francisco finding It profitable? to carry miners' supplies from: the Hudson^ Bay Company's post. While for some time coal was?known to exist on Vancouver Island, not until 1 1B49 did the Hudson: Bay Company s^ ee f i t to combine mining with i t s fur trading operations. Then, efforts were made to extract: merchantable coal at - 7 - Beaver Harbour, where Fort Rupert was established. Greater success rewarded operations at Nanaimo Harbour; in May of 1853 the first; f u l l cargo was: shipped out to San Francisco. The growing scarcity of prime furs: directed the company to exploit:not; only mineral resources, but also the abundance; of the sea. Fort Langley, at the middle of the century, was packing two thousand barrels of salted Fraser River salmon lit a season. in 1852, 'the company ordered from Greenes yard at Blackwall a:second steamer for the Pacific Coast. Despite Admiralty scepticism, screw, rather than side-wheel, pro pulsion was- decided upon— at tribute to the company's prescience. Reaching Victoria i n June, 1853, the new steamship MOtterM joined the coast fleet, i n subsequent years making occasional trips south to San Francisco with consignments of cranberries; and produce from) Fort Dangley and coal1 from:Nanaimo. Jealously guarding its- commercial monopoly, the Hudson Bay Company forestalled all local competition for nearly a'decade after the formation, i n 1849, of the colony of Vancouver Island.^ The gold rush to the Fraser River °" Denys Nelson1 cites an Instance of Hudson Fay Company tactics in: dealing with competitors: Captain: James Cooper, an Englishman^ entered the service of the Company in: 1B44, and commanded the hark ^ Columbia" at; one period. Owing to i l l - 8 - In 1858 brought to an; end the existing comfortable order. Thousands of gold-hungry passengers from California were landed from? American: ships at Victoria to find transportation hy steamer, canoe, or skiff to Hope. Because the two company steamers "Beaver" and "Otter", operating between Victoria and Fort Langley, were unequal to the demands made upon, them for passage, and the Americans were threatening to,by-pass Victoria by cutting a pack t r a i l from; Bellingham: Bay to the Fraser Canyon, Governor Douglas decided to health he: l e f t the sea and started farming on a large scale on Vancouver Island, taking up land at; Metchosinj, He brought orak. an irom vessel from England im seetionsr, which were "assembled" at Victoria; and, with Thomas Blsnkhorm as- partner, proposed trading with the Indians^. In 1852 the partners came up the Fraser to the Katsey Indians, now Hammond, and bought cranberries and potatoes for the San FrancisGO market. Cranberries were plentiful invtihe Delta, and Cooper purchased a barrel for 75^, to be sold later for §1.00 a? gallon. Cooper had, however, relied upon being able to procure his barrels; so necessary for this purpose, at Fort Langley, where they were made extensively for the salmon industry. He estimated that the cost to the company would be about: 30^ eachi. The company, however, strongly disapproved of the stranger poaching upon; their preserves, and would only s e l l 100 barrels for $3.00 each cash. Douglas" furthermore sent orders to Langley to purchase a l l further berries so that no such mattier would occur again. Nelson, Fort Langley. 1827-1927, A Century of Settlement, pp.19,20. - 9 - license, on terms favourable to the company, United States vessels to supplement existing transportation services. The influx of thirty thousand miners into the Hudson Bay Company's preserve: resulted i n the revocation: of exclusive trading rights and the formation of the colony of British: Columbia. American:shallow-draft steamers came virtually to dominate the river carrying trade, for the deeper draft: "Otter" was unable to navigats the channel above Fort: Langley^ As excitement on the Fraser subsided:, Americani steamers withdrew, leaving the river trade to local competitors, particularly the British Columbia and Victoria Steam Navigation:Company. The third steamer to join the Hudson: Bay Company's coast fleet, the "Labouchere", arrived at Esquimalt. from England ini January, 1859, and was placed in the service of the northern:posts. After considerable agitation for a British flag steamer to rum between Victoria and San Franeisco, the "Labouchere" was awarded a subsidy of f1,500 a tri p to carry passengers and mail between the two ports. Unfor tunately, on:her second t r i p , In April, 1866, she struck: a reef after leaving San Francisco Bay and sank. From 1863 to 1870 the "Beaver" was out: of company service, engaged in-coast survey work for the Imperial Government. Her place on: the northern coast run was taken by the: "Otter" while the passenger and cargo service betLweem Victoria and New Westminster was carried on by the side- wheeler "Enterprise", purchased early in: 1B6"2 from American owners. In:1874, after a short time im the Victoria and Nanaimo passenger trade, the " l i t t l e black steamer", as the "Beaver" was: affectionately known, ended her career under HudsomBay Company colours, being disposed of to a Victoria firm for towing duties. In order to meet the aggressive competition of Irving's Pioneer Line* which had purchased the "Wilsom G-. Hunt" for Victoria— Fraser River service, the Hudson; Bay Company acquired the American sidewheeler "Olympia" in; 1878, transferred her to British registry, and, a few months later, renamed her "Princess Louise". Under threat of ruinous competition^ the company and Irving came to an agreement;, to quote "through" rates between Victoria and up-river points;. Hudson; Bay Company ships were left to maintain; the Victoria - New Westminster route and Irving's sternwheelers operated above the Queen City. On through traffic, freights were apportioned two-thirds to Irving and one-third to the company. Despite the settlement* small independent steamers, running directly betweenVictoria and Yale and thus obviating the necessity of trans-shipping at: New Westminster, forced a- more satisfactory compactt. As a result, the HudsomBay - 11 - Gompany's coast shipping business and the Pioneer Line: were merged in January, 1883, to form the Canadian Pacific Navigation:Company. C; Lfccal Shipping Enterprise, 1858-1883 The Fraser gold rush attracted from American coastal trade the Pacific Mail5 Steamship Company's steamer "Surprise" and John T. Wright's "Sea Bird", followed by a number of other-United States craft. More significantly, the lure of fortune brought to the colony of Vancouver Island a number of enterprising shipmasters who were destined to play reading parts In the development of coast- shipping. Such men:were: Captains Alexander Murray, William Moore, William Irving, and James Warren. Captain:Murray entered the Victoria - Fraser River tirade in January, 1859, as master and part owner of the s terawhe el er "Governor Douglas:", built, at Victoria for the Victoria Steam Navigation Company. The same group of promoters, under the name of British Columbia Steam Navigation:Company, took delivery a few months later of a; sister ship, the "Colonel Moody", which they placed in service omthe Fraser between New Westminster and Hope. Ah audacious attempt to secure from:the governor of the colony the exclusive right to navigate the river having 12 - proved fruitless, the syndicate engaged in;intensive rate- cutting struggles with its American and Hudson Bay Company rivals and with a new competitor, Captain William Moore, whose shallow-draft sternwheeler "Henrietta" had the advantage of being able to steam up-river as far as Yale:. Captain Hurray, in i860, disposed of his share in: the Victoria and British Columbia Navigation Company, as the syndicate became known, to Captain William Irving. Two years later, the company was bought;out:by Captain John Wright, Jr., to operate i n conjunction with the American vessel "Eliza Anderson" on: the Gulf of Georgia route. Ruinous competition, however, forced him off-the river late in:1863. Meanwhile,- Gaptaim'Irving had returned to the Fraser with a new sternwheeler, the "Reliance", which proved i t s e l f a:popular vessel and a profitable investment. The "Henrietta" was-taken over by the partnership of Captains Charres Millard and Asbury Insley, who operated her with the "Hope" and "Caledonia". ^  Captain Moore^ returning to the Fraser with the "Flying Dutchman" asfter a period of remunerative trafficking on the Stikine River, was joined' by Captain Insley in:a venture to build and operate; the blg: sternwheeler "Alexandra". Yet another competitor was The "Caledonia" was actually the f i r s t steamship: built in the colony of Vancouver Island, having been launched for San Francisco speculators on September 8", 185B. - 13 - the? Port Douglas Steam Navigation Company's fast: steamer "Lillooeif1, im service to Yale. Reflecting subsiding Cariboo:mining fervor, the year 1864 brought-Moore, Millard, and the "Lillooef s" owners to bankruptcy. Only the indomitable Irving among Fraser steamboatmen survived the financial reverses of the middle '610's, even: going ahead by builoling: the "Onward" to joim his successful "Reliance". Captain-; John Fleming, late of the Port Douglas Steam Navigation Company, was able eventually to recover the "Lillooet" and return her to service. In an effort to break into the American monopoly in the carrying; trade between Victoria and Sin Francisco, a;British passenger and cargo steamer, the "Forwood", arrived on the coast in; the spring of 1859. Her owners, disheartened, withdrew her at the end of the summer when she had failed to realize their financial expectations. The first screw-propelled steamship built on Vancouver Island, the "Emily Harris", took the water early in 1861 and served for a decade as a general cargo carrier around the Gulf of Georgia. She was mainly occupied in; the transport of cattle from New Westminster to Victoria and coal from the Nanaimo mines, newly acquired from; the Hudson Bay Company. Apart from freighting, she engaged In towing when opportunity presented. Exploitation;of the forest resources was gathering momentum during the '60'a, demanding vessels not only for towing duties but also for supplying the; sawmills. Stamp and Company, at; Alberni, acquired two steamers, the "Diana" and the "Thames", for their coast shipping requirements. On Burrard Inlet:, Stamp's company, the British Columbia and Vancouver Island Spar, Lumber, and Sawmill Company, operated the sldewheeler "Isabel". The coal mines, too, were expanding production!and securing vessels to serve their coast shipping needs. The Vancouver Island Coal Mining and Land Company in\lB63~ brought: fromi England the "Fideliter", a small collier fitted to carry passengers, and placed her on: the Nanaimo - Victoria; and Nanaimo - New Westminster routes. After two years' service the vessel sank following a collision! with the "Alexandra". In 1865> the government screw steamer "Sir James Douglas" went into operation, transporting settlers' effects on the Vancouver Island coast and relieving on mall and passenger routes when not otherwise engaged on her regular duties under the colonial administration; The report, nine years later, of the British Columbia Agent for the Department of Marine and Fisheries bears witness to her rigorous employment The vessel under the British Columbia Government was badly used. She had been running for some years - 15 - out of repair, each year adding to the ultimate expense of placing her i n good order, until finally by the breaking of her shaft she was rendered in her then present condition; useless for any service. 8 The 1870's brought to an end the recession of trade on,the Fraser, besides diverting attention; to other rivers of the northern coast. Captain Fleming, in failing health, was succeeded by Captain Otis Parsons as operator of the "Lillooet" and the rebuilt: "Hope". When Captain William Irving died suddenly In 1872, his son, Captain: John Irving, s t i l l l i t t l e more than a youth, assumed his father's business responsibilities; Hoping to profit from the gold excitement; in: the Cassiar, young Irving ordered the stern- wheeler "Glenora" and took her to Wrangel^ at the mouth of the Stikine River. Parsons followed with the "Hope", and Captain:Moor6j in 1875:, with his new acquisition, the "Ger trude". In the struggle for monopoly that ensued, Irving took over the assets of Captain Parsons, including the new steamer "Royal City", and built another "Reliance". Moore was triumphant on the Stikine.? Irving emerged with; only the Hudson Bay Company opposing him.in the Fraser River trade. As usual, such victories were short-lived. The lucrative business presented by construction of the Canadian ° Canada, Department of Marine and Fisheries, Seventh Annual Report, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1874, Ottawa, MacLean, Roger and Company, 1875. - 16 - P a c i f i c Railway from Yale to Kamloops revived fierce competition among the r i v a l steamship interests. Irving, to prepare for anticipated heavy t r a f f i c , purchased an American sidewheeler, the "Wilson. G-. Hunt", for the Gulf run, thereby forcing the Hudson Bay Company into a co-operative agreement to share the p r o f i t s of "through" t r a f f i c between V i c t o r i a and points above lew Westminster. Inevitably, Captain: Moore reappeared to contest the Fraser River monopoly, placing his sternwheeler "Western Slope" on the V i c t o r i a - Few Westminster - Yale route* Irving countered by resuming the V i c t o r i a service i n spite of his profit-sharing obligations to the Hudson Bay Company, adding the fine steamers "William Irving" and "Elizabeth J. Irving" to his Pioneer Line, fhe loss of the l a t t e r ship-in 1881 nearly ruined Irving. Financial assistance enabled him to carry on and to replace his burnt ship with the "R. P. Rithet", named after a prominent V i c t o r i a businessman who had interested himself i n the Line. The determined competition proved too much for Moore:, and his ship passed into the hands of his creditors. While none of the few attempts by B r i t i s h vessels to break into the V i c t o r i a - San Francisco passenger and cargo trade was successful, B r i t i s h s a i l i n g c r a f t frequently were engaged i n the carriage of coal from Nanaimo to the - 17 - California market. Seventeen colliers were so employed in;l865. Local Vancouver Island and mainland coasting voyages were made largely by sailing schooners. A schooner, the "D. L. Clinch", In December, 1859, sailing from New Westminster to San Francisco, carried the first export cargo, consisting of cabinet wood and cranberries, from the colony of British Columbia. The famous old "Beaver" reappeared in 1874, towing and freighting for Stafford, Saunders, Morton and Company, and in this capacity was often employed attending deep-sea- vessels at Victoria and Nanaimo harbours. The next year, a former British gunboat, the "Grappler", converted for the mercantile service, went on the Victoria - Wrangel route, linking up with Captain Moore's Stikine River steamers. Two of the smaller steamships that appeared in the late *70's and became well-known in British Columbia waters were the "Woodside", which operated between Sooke and Victoria, and the "Skidegate", launched as a cannery tender for the Queen Charlotte Islands; Joseph Spratt in 1875 acquired the oddly-named "Cariboo and Fly", a rebuilt sidewheeler that had been employed as a towboat and freighter around Victoria. With the "Wilson G-. Hunt", bought in 1881 from the Pioneer Line, and the "Maude", Spratt operated the East Coast Line, - 18 - s e r v i n g V i c t o r i a , Hanaimo, and Comox. Another V i c t o r i a o r g a n i z a t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia Merchants L i n e , operated by Captain James B. Warren and Joseph Boscowitz, a f u r merchant, brought from England the steamer "Sardonyx" and placed her f o r a few years on a semi-monthly schedule between V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, New Westminster and San Francisco. The Merchants Line f l e e t also included the new steamer "Barbara Boscowitz", running up-coast to Skeena, Naas, and S t i k i n e R iver p o i n t s , and a number of steam schooners, a v a i l a b l e f o r general f r e i g h t i n g . D. The Growth of Steamship Corporations, 1883-1901 The agreement between the Pioneer Line and the Hudson Bay Company to apportion r e c e i p t s on "through" t r a f f i c between V i c t o r i a and u p - r i v e r points on the Fraser was proving l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y , f i n a n c i a l l y , to the Line's backers. Meanwhile, Captain I r v i n g ' s connections, both business and s o c i a l , w i t h o f f i c i a l s of the t r a d i n g company were becoming more and more c l o s e l y k n i t . I n 1882 he married the daughter of the c h i e f f a c t o r at V i c t o r i a . E a r l y i n 1883, he negotiated s u c c e s s f u l l y the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the Hudson Bay Company's shipping i n t e r e s t s with h i s Pioneer Line and, at the age of twenty-nine, became general manager of the new c o r p o r a t i o n , the Canadian P a c i f i c Navigation Company. Dir e c t o r s of the newly-formed or g a n i z a t i o n Included, - 19 - besides Irving, Alexander Munro (Irving's father-in-law) and William Charles, of the Hudson Bay Company; Robert P. Rithet, J.P. (Irving's brother-in-law), a Victoria importer; and Robert Dunsmulr, Vancouver Island capitalist. Prominent shareholders were Captain William Spring, well-known in the. fishing industry; Peter McQuade, a Victoria ship chandler; and M. W. Tyrwhitt Drake, barrister at law. The company was incorporated on January 6, 1883, with capital stock of #500,000. The combined fleet brought under one house flag the following vessels: "R. P. Rithet", "William Irving", "Reliance", and "Western Slope", from the Pioneer Line; "Princess Louise", "Enterprise", and "Otter", from the Hudson Bay Company; "Maude" and "Wilson Gf. Hunt", from Spratt's East Coast Line; and the "Gertrude", acquired from the British Columbia Merchants Line. Within a few months, the fast sidewheeler "Yosemite" was purchased in San Francisco from the Central Pacific Railroad and placed on the Victoria - New Westminster route. Three main services from Victoria were offered: the Fraser River route: sailings daily with connections to the interior; the East Coast route: tri-weekly sailings for Nanaimo and way points; and the Northern route: twice-monthly depar tures for ports between Alert Bay and Wrangel. Opposition on the Victoria - Nanaimo route came - 20 - in 1884 with the formation of the Peoples Steam Navigation Company, hacked by prominent Island citizens, among them •- John H. Turner, later provincial Minister of Finance. The company acquired an old United States sidewheeler, the "Amelia", and placed her under the British flag in competition with the MR. P. Rithet" on the East Coast route. The rate war that ensued ended when the Canadian Pacific Navigation Company agreed to withdraw its steamer in return for a grant of one-quarter of the gross earnings of the service. However, completion of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway in 1886, and competition from the powerful Dunsmuir organization, adversely affected the fortunes of the Peoples Company. In 1889, the "Amelia" was disposed of to the Canadian Pacific Navigation Company and retired from service soon afterward. Meanwhile, Turner, Beeton and Company, agents for the Peoples Steam Navigation Company, acquired the steamer "Rainbow", originally built in 1884 for Captain Moore under the name "Teaser", and operated her on the east coast of Vancouver Island. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway to Burrard Inlet designated Vancouver as Canada's Pacific gate way, ending Victoria's cherished hope of becoming the terminus of the transcontinental System. Ready to take advantage of the traffic created by the railroad, the 21 - Canadian Pacific Navigation Company inaugurated steamship services connecting with the C.P.R. trains. Modern passenger vessels were ordered: the "Premier" from San Francisco builders for Puget Sound trade, and the twin-screw "Islander" from a Glasgow shipyard for the Vancouver - Vic toria route, as well as for occasional voyages to Alaska. While American eoastal navigation laws made i t expedient to operate the "Premier" under United States registry, the vessel, after a serious collision in Puget Sound, came under British registry as the "Charmer" in 1894. To provide, connections with the Columbia River and with northern British Columbia, the veteran "Sardonyx" was purchased and operated until her loss in 1890. Replacing her, Commodore Irving acquired the "Danube", a British steamer brought to the coast under charter to the Canadian Pacific Railway. For the west coast of Vancouver Island, where the demand for transportation'; was-increasing, the company offered three sailings a month from Victoria to Barkley Sound points, using, at different times, the steamers "Maude", "Willapa", and "Tees". The Gulf Islands, too, were given regular steamer service. Robert Dunsmuir, the leading figure in Vancouver Island capitalistic enterprise, in 1888 purchased Stamp's old sidewheeler, the "Isabel", and entered her im service - 22 - in. conjunction-! with the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. In 1892 she was succeeded by the new wooden steamer "Joan" on the Victoria - Comox route. The service was expanded i n 1896 with the acquisition of the "City of Nanaimo", which, for five years, had been operated between Nanaimo, Vancouver, and the Fraser River by the Mainland and Nanaimo Steam Navigation Company, Limited, of New Westminster. Thirty mills were occupied in.1889 in sawing nearly forty-four million feet of logs cut from the forests of Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, and the lower main land of British Columbia. Expansion of the industry to the. virgin forests of the northern coast was inevitable. With a view to serving the scattered logging camps, the Union Steamship Company of British Columbia, Limited, was organ ized. Of the company1s early passenger steamers, the "Cutch" was entered in competition with Captain William. Rogers' steamer "Robert Dunsmuir", the "City of Nanaimo", and the "Rainbow", on the Vancouver - Nanaimo route, while the "Comox" furnished a weekly service to settlements northwest of Vancouver along a hundred miles of coastline;. Besides i t s regular cargo and passenger trade, the Union Steamship Company advertised excursion; trips and engaged in general towing. The Klondyke gold rush awakened shipping interest, in Victoria and Vancouver in the summer of 1897. In the - 23 - van of Canadian ships attracted to the boom trade was the Union:freighter "Capilano" which, with her sister ship "Coquitlam", carried the bulk of early Vancouver t r a f f i c . The Canadian Pacific Navigation Company assigned the "Islander*1, "Danube", and "Tees" to the Alaska service, operating from Victoria to Wrangel, Juneau, Skagway, and Dyea. F. C. Davidge and Company, Victoria shipping agents, chartered the c o l l i e r "Bristol", fitted her with bunks for passengers and stalls for horses, and placed her on the Alaska run. The Canadian Pacific Railway, which had, so far, remained out of competitive coastal shipping, diverted i t s ocean steamers "Tartar" and "Athenian" into the southeast Alaska trade in:1898. Another large British steamer, the "Ningchow", went on the northern route under charter to Evans, Coleman and Evans, shipping agents of Vancouver. Both the Canadian Pacific Navigation Company and the Union Steam ship Company expanded their participation, in the trade, the former adding the newly-acquired "Amur" and the "Princess Louise", the latter, the "Cutch". The volume of Klondyk® tr a f f i c reached i t s peak early i n 1898 and began rapidly to f a l l off by the end of the year. Nevertheless, completion of the railway between Skagway and Whitehorse in.1900 justified the continuation;of regular steamship service. - 24 - CHAPTER 2". THE THREE MAJOR COAST STEAMSHIP LINES A. The Canadian Pacific Railway's British Columbia Coast Steamship Service Commodore Irving had gone north in.1899 to pioneer new steamboating frontiers. He "probably did more than any other In. solving the problems of transpor tation to the Yukon and both he: and his ships became as well and popularly known in,the north as In; the waters of British Columbia ...." ^  For several years, despite; the acknowledged hostility of "Victoria interests who supported the locally-owned Canadian Pacific Navigation Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway had contemplated establishing its own coastal steamship-line; to connect at Vancouver with the railroad. Finally, the railway company succeeded In negotiations to purchase the entire fleet of fourteen: steamers of the Canadian Pacific Navigation Company, and In January, 1901, the change was effected with Captain J. W. Troup's appointment as manager. Imits first summer of operations, the new organization; suffered th© loss of the wIs^ander,, i n northern Howay^  British Columbia, v. 4, p.1079. 25 - •waters, a set-back to the Alaska service alleviated only by the timely acquisition of the steamer "Hating", later known as the "Princess May". The; main routes served in: early years by the company's vessels were: Vancouver to Victoria: and Seattle:; 4Victoria to Ahousetu, Cape Scott:, and way points; Vancouver to Alert Bay, Rivers Inlet, Kama, Skeena River and Naas River points; Vancouver to Queen Charlotte Islands points; and Vancouver to Skagway, and way points. Until 1905 the "R. P. Rlthet" ran between Victoria and Mew Westminster, connecting with the "Transfer" and "Beaver" for Fraser River settlements. Fromthe beginning, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company undertook a progressive policy of expanding i t s British Columbia Coast Steamship Service through the purchase of modern, specialized steamers. First of a line of charac teristic three-funnelled passenger vessels, the "Princess Victoria" arrived from her Tyneside builders i n 1903 to begin an accelerated schedule of sailings: between-Vancouver, Vic toria, and Seattle. Five years later, the larger "Princess Charlotte" was: built:on: the Clyde for the same triangle route. TWO of the early wooden steamers built locally for the company, the "Princess Beatrice" and the "Princess Royal", operated for a quarter of a century in coastal trade, the former originally on the Victoria: and Puget Sound route and later on the north coast route, and the latter to Puget Sound and the west coast of Vancouver Island. The purchase of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway in 1905: transferred the Dunsmulr steamers, maintaining Vic toria - Oomox; and Nanaimo - Vancouver connections, to Canadian Paeiflc colours. Both the "Joan" and the "City of. Nanaimo", wooden vessels, were operated for a few years by their new owners and then sold to the Terminal Steam Navigation Company. A handy cargo vessel, the "Princess Ena", was built: in. England for the company in 1907 to permit greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the coastal carrying trade:. Whereas express passenger vessels were necessarily held to a rigid schedule that allowed l i t t l e time to be spent alongside in: ports of c a l l , the new freighter was: able to cater more especially to the needs of shippers, particularly where bulk cargoes were involved. Between 1910 and the commencement of war, six more passenger ships were purchased for Canadian Pacific coastal service, reflecting the optimistic outlook that accompanied the growth of British: Columbia:' s population^ industries, and tourist trade. These vessels: were the "Princess Adelaide" and "Princess Alice", sister ships - 27 - intended for night trips between Vancouver and Victoria; the "Princess Mary", to operate from Vancouver to Nanaimo, UniomBay, and Comox; the "Princess Sophia", for the Alaska route; the turbiner "Princess Patricia", for. twice-daily service between Vancouver and Nanaimo; and the "Princess Maquinna", to serve the West Coast of Vancouver Island. Two other fast steamers on:order in Great Britain were diverted into Admiralty;employment at the outbreak of hostilities. Except:for the addition of the l i t t l e wooden steamer "Island Princess" to replace the "Queen City" in,Gulf service, war brought expansion of the Canadian Pacific coastal fleet to a temporary halt* The disastrous sinking of the "Princess Sophia" In Lynn Canal in October, 1918, left: the eompany without, adequate tonnage for the Alaska route at a time when steel shortages and a backlog of orders at United Kingdom shipyards made i t virtually impossible to obtain a suitable: replace ment. Eventually, Wallace's yard at North Vancouver con tracted to build a vessel, and launched the staunch "Princess Louise" In the summer of 1921. Soaring costs of steel ship construction stood in: the way of further expansion:, of the coast fleet along general pre-war plans until 1925, when the magnificent ttirbine steamers -"Princess Kathleen" and "Princess Marguerite" were launched on the Clyde for the Vancouver - Victoria - Seattle triangle route. - 28 - The Increasing popularity of automobile travel Introduced problems that could be properly solved only with new vessels of special design to permit the ferrying of large numbers of motor cars. As a preliminary measure, the wooden diesel ferry "Motor Princess" was placed In service between Bellingham and Sidney i n 1923 with accommodation for about three dozen cars. In: 1926, she was transferred to the Vancouver - Nanaimo route where she operated with the "Princess Patricia". Two years later, the new turbine steamer "Princess Blaine", provided with an automobile deck, supplanted the "princess Patricia" and relegated the car ferry to the summer trade between Steveston and Sidney. Of the old steamers, the "Princess Victoria" lent herself to adaptation as an automobile carrier, and as such was to become an unsuspected boon:to her owners in the '40's. Industrial development on the west coast of Van couver Island, particularly with regard to the fisheries and logging, made i t possible for the: Canadian Pacific Railway to employ a two thousand ton cargo ship, the "Nootka", fitted with fish o i l tanks having a capacity of 170,000 gallons, i n coast service commencing in. 1927. Besides-, the summer tourist tr a f f i c justified the addition in,1929 of the "Prin cess NOrah", a new passenger vessel, to operate on the route popularized by the "Princess Maquinna". The last new acquisitions before the depressed *30's were two stBamers - 29 - for the over-night trip between Vancouver and Victoria, the "Princess Joan? and "Princess Elizabeth". By 1935, the British Columbia Coast Steamship Service's operational fleet consisted of thirteen passenger vessels of an average age of fifteen years and an aggregate gross tonnage of 4:6,302. For comfort and speed, the ships were comparable: with any coastal vessels im the world. As a result; of depression! and war, however, the passenger fleet.in the summer of 1948, s t i l l numbering thirteen ships (of 43,725 gross tons), had advanced to an average age of twenty-nine years. The: veteran; "princess Victoria", after relegation to the inglorious role: of floating hotel at the Canadian Pacific Railway's holiday resort.at Newcastle Island, was once again participating in; the Vancouver - Nanaimo trade to meet emergency demands. Of the two fine ships; requisitioned by the British Admiralty In: 1941, thaj "Princess Marguerite" became a war casualty; the "Princess Kathleen'? re-entered coast service in; 1947 after extensive r e f i t t i n g . Desperately in need of tonnage to replace its worn-out steamers, the company was faced, as in. 1919, with a high cost market:for new construction; Delay, however, was out of the question, and in: 1946 contracts were let for two turbo-electric vessels, the '.'Princess Marguerite" and the "Princess Patricia", to be built at Fairfield's, Glasgow, for the triangle route. Both ships were placed i n operation - 50 - in 19^9, relieving the company of the need to retain the old steamers "Princess Adelaide", "Princess Alice", and "Princess Charlotte", which were subsequently sold to Greek buyers. Anew steamer, especially designed' to accommodate automobiles, Is*at present.under construction; i n the United Kingdom to meet.the ever-Increasing t r a f f i c on the Vancouver - Nanaimo router. About f i f t y - f i v e ports of ca l l are regularly served by Canadian Pacific "Princess" liners on the following; routes: (1) the Triangle Route;: Vancouver, Victoria, and Seattle; (2) Vancouver - Nanaimo; (3) Vancouver - Gulf Islands; (4) Vancouver - Westview - Comox; (5) Victoria and the west coast of Vancouver Island; (6) Vancouver - Ocean Palls - Prince Rupert - southeastern Alaska; and (7) Stevestom - Sidney: car ferry service in; the summer season only. B. The Union Steamship Company of British Columbia The Union Steamship Company of British Columbia, Limited, was formed in!l889 from a consolidation of the Burrard's inlet- Towing Company and the Moodyville) Ferry Company. Captain William Webster, manager of the new organization, brought from Bombay the company's original coastal passenger steamer, "Cutch", and entered her i n Vancouver - Nanaimo service. A year later, i n 1891, a - 31 - young marine engineer, Henry Darling, son of the consulting engineer for the Union Steamship Company of Mew Zealand, arrived at Vancouver to superintend the assembly of three steel steamships brought in sections' from Great Britain; These were the "Comox'1, "Capilano", and "Coquitlam". Darling in 1894 became manager of the company, retaining the position: until 1901. Because competition!from established steamers proved the Nanaimo service an unprofitable: undertaking, the: "Cutch" wasr withdrawn;f roan the route lm 1896. Meanwhile the "Comox" was- carrying passengers and cargo to coastal settlements north of Burrard Inlet, and the "Capilano" and "Coquitlam" were trading to the north coast: wherever business warranted. The Yukon gold rush, providing more tr a f f i c than the Union;Steamship Company could with Its small fleet handle,1 led to the acquisition of the "Cassiar", a converted wooden schooner. Opposition;in the lower mainland coastal trade developed at the turn of the century with the formation, by Captain; J. A. Gates, of the Terminal Steam Navigation Company, operating the "Defiance", the "Britannia", and later the "Baramba" to Bowen Island, Gibson's Landing, Britannia Mines, and other points. The "Haddy Hanson" (renamed "Sechelt" when the Sechelt Navigation Company was incorporated in 1907) shared traffic to west Howe Sound. Union vessels consequently discontinued calls at Gibson's in . l 9 G 4 ; service was maintained to Texada Island, Alert Bay, Rivers Inlet and intermediate points, and later extended, with the aid of a mail subsidy, to Observatory Inlet and Portland Canal. In.1911, J. H. Welsford and Company, Liverpool shipowners, gained control of both the Union Steamship Com- pany and the Boscowitz? Steamship Company of Victoria, fhe latter company, incorporated in 1899, had grown:out of the British Columbia Merchants Line. At the time of i t s sale, the Boscowitz; fleet, engaging in northern British Columbia trade, consisted of two ships, a new twin-screw steamer, the "Venture**, second of that name In; the company's history, and a thirty-year-old iron^hulled steamer, the "Vadso". Both vessels were merged into the Union Steamship Company's operations and employed in the cargo and passenger service of the logging camps, fish canneries, and mining developments on the coast. Plans of the Union Steamship Company to diversify i t s interests by catering to excursionists were initiated In 1914 with the purchase of the passenger steamer "Melmore", War, however, intervened1; but In 1917 the company bought out the A l l Red Linei whose yachts "Selma" and "Santa Maria" had for a number of years carried passengers to coast holiday resorts between Vancouver and Powell River. The sister ships - 33 - were renamed "Chaaina" and "Chilco" (later "Lady Pam"), respectively. After the war, a new "Capilano" was bui l t , especially for the Selma Park service of her owners. Taking over the Terminal Steam Navigation Company's assets in 1920, the Union Steamship Company obtained the Howe Sound resort on:Bowen Island that was subsequently developed into a popular vacation centre. The Terminal Company had been operating the "Bowena", formerly the "City of Nanaimo", since 1912, and the "Ballena", formerly the "Joan", since 1914. Fire damaged the latter steamer shortly before the company changed hands; the "Bowena" went under Union colours as the "Cheam". Budding competition from the Howe Sound Navigation Company was nipped i n 1923 with the purchase of the company's Seaside Park steamer "Lady Evelyn", f i r s t of the Union "Lady" vessels. Three day-excursion ships were brought out from England in: the next two years: the "Lady Alexandra", "Lady Cecilia", and "Lady Cynthia". To augment its coastal cargo shipping business, the Union Steamship Company i n 1918 purchased the freighter "British Columbia" from:the Coastwise Steamship and Barge; Company, altering the vessel's name to "Chilllwack". The company bought the locally-owned freighter "Chilkoot" In; the following year. Improved passenger and cargo service to Prince Rupert, Stewart, and other northern British Columbia ports was instituted with the arrival on the coast of the "Car- dena" i n 1923 and the "Catala" in 1925 — Scottish-built, twin*screw steamers of about fifteen hundred gross tons. In 1927, the "Chilliwack" was retired from service and her name transferred to her successor, a freighter formerly registered as the "Ardgarvel". Thereafter, no new bottoms were added until the small diesel motor vessel "Lady Rose" joined the Union ifleet: in 1937. The general business recession of the '30's, coupled with the death of the Union! Steamship Company's active president, R. A. Welsford, led the British owners to dispose of their interest in the enterprise in. January, 1938, to a group of "Vancouver businessmen that: included M. J. K. Allen, E. E. Buckerfield, F. H. Clendenning, Captain W. M. Crawford, Gordon Parrel, B. W. Fleck, W. H. Malkin, W. H . Murrin, and W. C. Woodward. The Canadian Paeif1c Railway Company, through its subsidiary, the Con solidate! Mining and Smslting Company, at the time acquired a minority interest in the steamships company and is now understood to hold a majority of the shares. Twelve ships, as well as the company's wharves and resort properties, were involved in; the transfer of ownership. In the autumn of 1939,- the Union; Steamship Com pany took over the freighting business of Frank Waterhouse and Company of Canada, whose steamers "Northholm", "East-- 3 5 - holm", and "Southholm" had for many years engaged in coast trade. 1 0 Mine ships, including chartered craft, made up the Waterhouse fleet. In 1943, the "Gray", previously owned by the Consolidated Whaling Corporation, was purchased for Waterhouse operation, the B. C. Cement Company's "Island King" was added in; 1945, and in; 1946 Union Steamships placed a new cargo vessel of the China coaster type, the "Chilkoot", in the service of the subsidiary company. When Canadian National Steamships withdrew from, the subsidized Queen Charlotte Islands trade in the summer of 1940, the Union Steamship Company bought the veteran steamers "Prince Charles" and "Prince John", renaming them "Camosun" 1 1 and "Cassiar", respectively, and operating them during the war years to the north coast and the Islands. New tonnage for the passenger - cargo routes became available in 1946 with the purchase of three Castle class corvettes and their conversion; into modern coast liners. Southeastern Alaska, i t was hoped, would furnish sufficient tirade to justify the extension of the northern route into American waters, but the highly seasonal business failed to reach sufficient volume to warrant maintenance of an inter national service. Speculative plans to convert a number of 10 i j i n e MH©rthhOlm" foundered off Cape Scott in January, 1943, with the loss of fifteen lives. 11 The "Camosun" was sold to Israeli interests i n 1945. - 3 6 - other former naval vessels that the company had acquired were abandoned in the light of post-war operating experience. One hundred and seventeen ports of c a l l are, at present, included in scheduled sailings of Union - Water- house vessels on;the following routes from Vancouver: Prince Rupert, Alice Arm, and Stewart; Prince Rupert and Queen Charlotte Islands; Port; Hardy, Ocean Falls, and Bella Coola; Knight Inlet and Allison Harbour; Westview and Stuart Island; Sechelt and Pender Harbour; West Howe Sound; East Howe Sound; Ehglewood, Quatsino Sound, and Port Alice; Campbell River, Englewood, and Knight Inlet; Woodfibre, Britannia Beach, and Port Mellon; Gibson's, Gulf Coast, and Wastview. C. Canadian National Steamships (Paeifie Coast Service) While construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway t© its terminus near the mouth of the Skeena River was stimulating coast freighting, a rush of real estate speculators and enterprising tradespeople to the north coast was, at the same time, giving impetus to passenger t r a f f i c . In 1909, Mackenzie Brothers, Limited, of Vancouver, adver tised excursions in the steamer "Rupert City" to Prince Rupert, "giving intending buyers .of lots an opportunity of /12 looking over the townsite" for a return fare of twenty dollars. Route 1 Route 2 Route 3 Route 5 Route 6 Route 6A Route? 7 Route 8 Route: 10 Route 11 Route 11A Route 12 1 2 Vancouver Daily Province, May 3, 1909, p.4. - 37 - Well In advance of the arrival of the f i r s t train at Prince Rupert i n 1914, the Grand Trunk Pacific Coast Steamship Company was organized, with Captain C. H. Nichol son as manager, orders were placed on the Tyne for two modern express steamers to provide a link "between the r a i l  road and the centres of population of the lower mainland, Vancouver Island, and Puget Sound. The company also pur chased the: British coaster "Bruno" t o : f u l f i l a mail contract awarded for a regular service between Prince Rupert and the QueemCharlotte Islands. Until the vessel, after r e f i t t i n g , went into operation i n 1910 as the "prince Albert", the Grand Trunk Pacific, in order to qualify for the: mail sub sidy, operated Mackenzie Brothers' steamer "Henriette" under a: charter negotiated in November, 1909. Early i n 1910, Mackenzie Brothers, LlmitBd, agreed to withdraw from; business- as-competitors0of the new steamship company with the under standing that Captain Duncan Mackenzie would be given command of one of the new eoastal liners. Captain; Simon:Mackenzie afterwards superintended the conversion:of the British; coaster "Amethyst" to the passenger and cargo ship: "Prince John". On jane- 12, 1910, the three-funnelled, twin-screw steamer "Prince Rupert" inaugurated the Grand Trunk Pacific's -service from: Seattle, Victoria, and Vancouver to Prince Rupert: and Stewart. Twice-weekly sellings began - 38 - in July with the arrival of a sister ship, the "prince George". Service was extended to Skagway during the summer months from 19l6r to 1918. Fusion with the Canadian National System brought the Grand Trunk-Pacific Coast Steamship Company, for the sake of economy, under the management early i n 1923 of B» C; Keeiey of the Canadian Government Merchant Marine.. The C.G.M.M. had, in the summer of 1921, begun a service between British Columbia and California, using steamships oof the 3,900 deadweight ton "Canadian Rover" class. Paper from Ocean Falls and occasional small shipments: of lumber were carried south; salt, o i l , hardwoods, and general cargo were brought back from San Pedro and San Francisco. The vessels found additional employment of a seasonal nature freighting t i n plate to the northern canneries and pilchard o i l 1 from the west coast of Vancouver Island. Too many voyages: on: the California route were made simply with "bal last and stores" to be profitable, unfortunately, and in~ 1929 the service was discontinued. The-two Grand Trunk Pacific express liners were, after discontinuing calls at Victoria and Seattle in11923, maintaining a tri-weekly schedule from Vancouver to the-northern coast while the "Prince John" served the Queen Charlotte Islands. The thirty-year-old "Prince Albert", with many years of active operation:ahead, was sold at the end of 1923 to new owners - 39 - who employed her im the contraband liquor trade off the California coast. Heevy northward movements of logging equipment and cannery supplies made apparent the need for additional tonnage to supplement the "Prince John". As a temporary measure, the Consolidated Whaling Corporation's freighter "Gray" was operated on time charter in the summer of 1924. In the following year, the Scottish coaster "St. Margaret" was purchased, renamed the "Prince Charles-", and entered on the: morthernBrltish Columbia: and Queen Charlottes: routes Though not an ideal ship for the Islands trade, she served the company for fifteen:years. The motorship:"Hurry On", owned by Hobbs Brothers, Limited, was chartered to supplement the regular Canadian National coast vessels i n the summer of 1928. Next year, a small German-built freighter, the "Aktion", was brought to the coast to engage, as the "Prince William", in a short lived service out of Prince Rupert to Skeena and Naas River canneries and to the Queen Charlotte Islands. Sir Henry Thornton? s plan for developing the Canadian National Systemi envisaged a fleet of fast, luxurious passenger liners running between Vancouver, Victoria, and Seattle. Giving effect-to the scheme, three palatial vessels, the "Prince Henry", "Prince David", and "Prince Robert", came to the coast to begin service i n 1930. It was- soon; 40 - obvious: that the volume of t r a f f i c , particularly in depres sion years, would not justify competition with, the established British Columbia Coast Steamship Service of the Canadian Pacific, and the new ships were withdrawn; from the route after a year's unprofitable- operation:. The "Prince Robert", although lacking cargo capacity and fitted with turbine; machinery that was not entirely suitable for leisurely steaming, remained arunit of the company's coast fleet, making summer cruises:to Alaska until the war, when she was requisitioned by the Royal Canadian Navy to serve as: an auxiliary cruiser. By the summer of 1940, only the "Prince Rupert" and "Prince George" remained under the Canadian National flag on the coast. The "Prince William", after years of Inactivity, had gone to the Armour Towing and Salvage Com pany; the "Prince Charles" and "Prince John", to the Union. Steamship Company. A further reduction of the fleet resul ted from the total loss by burning of the "prince George-" at Ketchikan in 1945. The name was reassigned, however, to a new, larger vessel designed especially for the Alaska trade, completed by Yarrows, Limited, of Victoria, 1m 1948. Ports of call in: the company's present year-round service out of Vancouver are Westview, Ocean Falls, Prince- Rupert, and Ketchikan. Northbound cargoes consist of general merchandise; southbound, largely of frozen; fish, - 41 - carried in refrigerated space, and paper. During the summer season:, ten-^day Alaska cruises to Skagway, with calls at ports en route, attract capacity loads of American tourists. - 42 - CHAPTER y OTHER COAST SHIPPING- ENTERPRISES OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY Snips exist for trade, and not trade for ships. Ships, like banks and other financial institutions, have an important place i n assisting trade, but they are to be thought of primarily as the hand maids of trade. They serve the demand-and-supply function, by transferring commodity surpluses, and mail, and passengers, from one place to another. The development of logging, mining, commercial fishing, and subsidiary industries created a need for shipping services that encouraged the formation of relatively small freighting companies early in the twentieth century. Mackenzie Brothers, Limited,, the Burrard Steamship Company, and the Lincoln Steamship Company, of Vancouver, and Leeming Brothers, Limited, of Victoria, were representative of owners who entered the coasting trade with small, wooden, screw-propelled vessels, some of which are s t i l l to be found in operation; Another firm, the Coast Steamship Company, Limited, incorporated in 1 9 0 6 , passed through the v i c i s  situdes of more than thirty years of British Columbia and Puget Sound freighting before igoing out of business. Owner ship of the company changed hands i n 1 9 2 2 . Eventually the 1 3 Mears, Eliot G., Maritime Trade of Western United States, p.447. - 43 - last two remaining vesselsv the "Coaster" and the "Matsqul", were disposed of In: 1937. The operations of the Coast Steamship Company in: it s : early years were typical. Two small vessels, the "Fingal" and the "Clansman", carried groceries and cannery supplies to the Fraser River, return ing to Vancouver with canned salmon: and feed. In season, the ships packed salt herring from Nanaimo to Vancouver and to Puget Sound ports. The "Celtic" and a larger steamer, the "British Columbia", followed the northern route to Prince Rupert and Ketchikan, carrying coal, groceries, and cannery supplies and bringing back canned salmon. Also in 1906, Captain: T. H. Worsnop organized the Canadian-Mexican Pacific Steamship Line to connect southern British Columbia ports with the Pacific terminus: of the Tehuantepec Railroad. Aided by Canadian and Mexican sub sidies, the steamship line operated the vessels "Lonsdale" and "Georgia" under a working agreement with their managers, the firm of G. T. Symons; London. Cargoes from Europe, trans-shipped by r a i l from the Gulf of Mexico to Sallna Cruz, were freighted to Vancouver, Victoria, and New West minster. Southbound, the Canadian-Mexican Pacific Line carried coal inn bulk"from Union; Bay to Mazratlan and Mam- zanlllo for delivery to the Southern Pacific Railroad at Tucson, Arizona^ When, as" was the custom for a brief period each year, the Mexican Government waived the t a r i f f to - 44 - permit the importation of a necessary quantity of grainy cargoes of sacked wheat were shipped. Both the "Lonsdale" and the "Georgia" accommodated passengers between Mexican* ports. Backed financially by E, H. Heaps, of Vancouver, Captain*Worsnop incorporated his line asthe Canadian-Mexican Pacific Steamship Company, Limited. In 1912, however, J. H. Welsford and Company, of Liverpool, bought out the local interests, intending to operate- the line^ im conjunction with their newly-acquired Union Steamship Company of British Columbia. The two Symons steamers l e f t on voyages to japan under charter, and service to Mexico was not resumed. S i l t  ing of the harbour at Salina Cruz-, the 1914-18 war, and the opening of the Panama Canal ended hopes of re-establishing the Mexican trade route. More recently, attempts by Park Steamships, Limited:, and by Johnson Waltorn Steamships to operate a British Columbia:- Mexico line have Indicated l i t t l e improvement in the outlook for the success of such a service. At about the time that Captain Worsnop was initiating his venture, a Scottish shipping man, William Eadie, started the Northern Steamship Company of British Columbia, offering a coastal freighting service from Van couver to the west coast of Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte?Islands, and northern British Columbia. Three steamers, the "British Empire", "Cetriana", and "Petriana" were brought to Vancouver and operated until the early years of the f i r s t world war, the last remaining on the coast.as the Consolidated Whaling Corporation's tender "Gray". In 1912; Captain:James Griffiths l2t", an enter prising Pacific Coast tow boat operator and a pioneer i n the use of ocean-going barges;, formed the Coastwise Steamship and Barge Company, Limited, as a Canadian unit i n the trans portation' system; he and his sons controlled. From 1914 to 1935, when the Granby Company was exploiting i t s Hidden. Creek properties; Coastwise vessels were employed very largely im the service of the; mining and smelting company; freighting copper concentrates from Anyox to the smelter at Tacoma or to Vancouver for r a i l trans-shipment east. I n addition to its working agreement with the Granby Company, the steamship company contracted to carry ore and concen trates from Britannia Mines, at the head of Howe SOund, and from Premier Gold Mine, in the Portland Canal d i s t r i c t . The Canadian Pacific steamer "Amur", well known on the northern coast, was the f i r s t acquisition of the Coastwise Steamship and Barge Company. Three years later, the "British Columbia" was purchased from the Coast Steamship See Kelly, L. V., "Old Red-head", Vancouver Dally Province (Magazine Section), October 23, 1943, p v3. - 46 - Company and operated until her sale to the union Steamship Company i n 1918. Her place was taken by the small steamer "Marmion". In 1920, a wooden steamship constructed during the War, the "Anyox", joined the fleet. Ah American vessel, the "El Abeto", formerly engaged in carrying export lumber shipments from.the Queen Charlotte Islands, was transferred to Canadian registry and brought under the Coastwise flag as the "Griffco" in 1922. The company's largest steamer, the "Mogul", of nearly three thousand gross tons, entered the ore trade in the following year. When the old "Amur" came to grief in 1924, she was replaced by a larger vessel of the same name. Finally, the company acquired the Canadian Government Merchant Marine steamship "Canadian Rover" in a deal executed by the Kingsley Navigation Company ih: 1929. Under Coastwise colours she became the "Bornite". To supplement the carrying capacity of his cargo steamers, Captain Griffiths operated a number of barges, including the "Baroda", "Riversdale", and "Lord Templetown" — the last two, steel hulls of more than two thousand gross tons. After 1919, the tug "Tartar" was employed handling scows at Anyox. Besides the southbound tr a f f i c in concentrates, coal tar was freighted from Anyox to Barnet, where i t was: used in the production: of roofing materials. Northbound, - 47 - coal from Cassidy (loaded at Blaney) and Union. Bay, lime from Blabber Bay, and machinery and general merchandise from Vancouver made up usual cargoes. The pulp and paper mill at Ocean Palls received coal shipments for some years, until the plant:was converted to o i l fuel. With the slump of the '30's, the Coastwise Steam ship and Barge Company began the reduction of i t s fleet, disposing of the "Anyox" to the Pacific Salvage Company, the "Marmiom" to the Kelley Logging Company, and the "Mogul" to Japanese buyers. Following the termination of the Granby Company's operations at Anyox:, the "BOrnite", too, was sold to Japan* Finally, i n 1946', when the last of its steamers l e f t British Columbia waters, the Coastwise organisation ceased for a time to function in the capacity of shipowner, although in;1949 i t resumed barge operations. Frank Waterhouse and Company, old-established operators of ocean vessels out of Seattle, interested them selves in. the British Columbia and Puget Sound trade i n 1917. In the following year, the company took over three Canadian steamers fromCaptain Lincoln Rogers and his associates: the "Eastholm", "Selkirk", and "Westham". A new steel steamship,; the "Robert H. Merrick", was added to the fleet in 1924, and a motor vessel, the "Arran Firth", i n 1925. The names of both vessels were changed in 1929, that of the former to "Northholm", and of the latter, to "Watco". At - 48 - the same time, the Waterhouse organization bought from, the Kingsley Navigation Company the two-hundred-foot freighter "E. D. Kingsley", which thenceforth became the "Southholm", replacing the twenty-year-old "Westham". Additional tonnage: was from time to time taken on charter to meet requirements. Waterhouse vessels served most of the industrial settlements of British Columbia, including the west,coast of Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlottes, and the mainland coast north to Stewart. A substantial carrying trade was also conducted with Puget SCund ports. In 1939, the Union Steamship Company acquired control of Prank Waterhouse and Company of Canada, integrating the freighting company's operations with i t s own established passenger and cargo services. Some of British Columbia's Industrial corporations, aiming at vertical development, have organized their own subsidiary shipping services. Examples are to be found not only in the lumber industry, where a corporation such as the MaeMillan organization: may control every stage of handling and processing from the f e l l i n g of the tree to the delivery of the manufactured product abroad, but also to a degree i n fishing and mining, and in the cement industry. The British x5 A MaeMillan subsidiary, the Canadian Transport Com pany, has owned and operated tugs, barges, and deep-sea cargo steamships. - 49 - Columbia Cement Company, succeeding the Vancouver Portland Cement Company in 1919, took over the steamer "Matsqui" to carry the firm's product from i t s Tod Inlet and Bamberton. plants. Four motor vessels were subsequently acquired: the "Laurel Whelan'% "Teco", "island King", and "Shean" — the. latter, an interesting early example of welded (rather than conventional riveted) construction. When, in recent years, barges seriously challenged self-propelled freighters in cement transport, the British Columbia Cement Company dis posed of i t s ships. A subsidiary of the Pacific Lime Company, the Kingsley Navigation Company, Limited, incorporated in 1918, began by operating the former Canadian Pacific steamer "Queen City" from Texada Island. In the following year, the com pany built the steamship "E. D. Kingsley" for the purpose of extending its service to United States ports. The new vessel, placed on an eighteen-day round tri p schedule between British Columbia and California ports, made i t possible to conduct a general freighting business, offering cargo space to shippers. The Kingsley Navigation: Company in 1924 met com petition from the Canadian Government Merchant Marine by purchasing the "Rochelie", f i t t i n g her with tanks for carrying Subsequently reduced to a barge, the "Queen City" burned in 1921 while in tow from Blubber Bay to Ocean Falls with a cargo of lime. - 50 - bulk o i l , and operating her with the "E. D. Kingsley". When the G.Gf.M.M. retired from the California trade in 1929, the Kingsley Line took over the three government freighters, retaining two, the "Canadian Coaster", renamed "Kingsley", and the "Canadian Observer", renamed "Rosebank", in service to San Francisco Bay and San Pedro. The smaller "E. D. Kingsley", having become surplus, was sold to Frank Water- house and Company of Canada. Besides handling Pacific Lime Company cargoes from Blubber Bay, Kingsley vessels carried lumber, laths, shingles, canned salmon, scrap iron and general cargo on southbound voyages, o i l and a variety of merchandise on the return trips. The recession of trade in the '30's proved the California route oversupplied with tonnage, a situation which the Kingsley Navigation Company attempted to solve, f i r s t of a l l , by entering the "Rosebank" in intercoastal service, and eventually, by selling the "Rochelie" in 1938. The remaining vessels were relinquished to foreign buyers at war-inflated prices — the "Kingsley" in 194-3, and the "Rosebank" in 19^6. Dodwell and Company, a British organization, had in 1912 incorporated an American subsidiary, The Border Line Transportation Company, to engage in the Puget Sound and British Columbia trade out of Seattle. As a result of the legislative restrictions imposed on foreign-flag ships - 51 - operating In Canadian waters, The Border Line Navigation Company was formed in 1929 in British Columbia to run a Canadian steamer, the "Border Queen". In 1934- a second vessel, the "Chilkoot", was purchased from the Union Steam ship Company and named "Border Prince". Ports of c a l l from Puget Sound to Prince Rupert were included in: the service offered jointly by the Dodwell subsidiaries, with cargoes comprised chiefly of newsprint, salt herring, and, from Fraser River mills, lumber and shingles for trans-shipment to American:ihtercoastal lines. After retiring the "Border Queen" in 1936, The Border Line Navigation: Company continued to operate i t s remaining vessel until 1943, when the uncer tainty of income in view of rising labour costs and govern ment rate-fixing practices led the company to realize on the "Border Prince's" enhanced market value.. Of the smaller companies, operating a single vessel, the Gait Steamship Company and the Bervin Steamship Company have been noteworthy. John G-alt, formerly of the Northern: Steamship and Union Steamship Companies, acquired the wooden steamer "Salvor" in 1924 and began an independent freighting service north to Rivers Inlet and Skeena and Naas River points. C. D. Vincent, following the loss of the "Trader", the vessel with which he started1out as a shipowner, Joined in 1923 with the versatile shipbuilder and master mariner, Captain A. Berquist, in; purchasing the Union Steamship - 52 - Company's freighter "Coquitlam", which thereupon-became- the "Bervin". For the small traders, salt herring from Galiano Island,. Read Island, and other loading places, for delivery at Vancouver and Seattle, formerly constituted the most important winter cargo. In summer, salt and supplies-were taken to the canneries. Cement, coal, paper, and — until scows attracted the business — lime, were commonly laden. Shipments of farm produce from the Fraser River provided freights up to the late '20'a, when highway truckers cap tured the trade. As an Instance of the prodigious quantities of cargo handled in busy seasons by small coasters, the 120- foot "Bervin" once freighted 6,500 tons of merchandise In the course of a single month. Three Vancouver companies— British Columbia Steamships, Limited, organized i n 1942 by E. B.* Clark and Captain H. Terry, Gulf Lines, Limited, begun;in 1946 by T. M LePage and A. J. Jukes', and Marine Express Lines, Limited, started in; 1947 by Captain J. A. Macdonell — have established themselves in;promising post-war trades. British Columbia Steamships, with two coast freighters, the "Island Prince" and "Alaska Prince", initiated a service to Haines, on Lynn Canal, for shippers of cargo to Alaska and Yukon: destinations. Shipments transferred to motor trucks at Haines could be taken 157 miles to Champagne, Yukon Territory, and thence over the Alaska Highway to destinations as remote as Fairbanks- and Anchorage. Gfulf Lines, using converted naval vessels, f i l l a need for a fast, frequent passenger service between Vancouver, Westview, Texada Island, and other Strait of Georgia settlements, and Marine Express Lines operate the "jervis Express" between Vancouver and Jervis Inleti. - 54 - CHAPTER 4 FISH PACKERS, TANKERS, AND TOW BOATS Coastal vessels built especially for the trans port of specific commodities- include fis h carriers .and o i l tankers. By far the greatest number of wooden:vessels- constructed in British Columbia shipyards has been for the fishing industry. While seine boats, forty to seventy-five feet in: length, used In:the salmon; herring, pilchard, and hallbuti fisheries, are adaptable for towing and freighting, f i s h packers, larger and faster than seine boats, generally ply between the fishing grounds and the packing and distributing centres: with cargoes of up to a hundred tons of freshly-caught fish; Speed and seaworthiness are essen t i a l qualities of the craft. After 1923, when the Anglo British Columbia Packing Company installed a three-cylinder diesel in the "Laurel Leaf", the internal combustion o i l engine was rapidly adopted" by the industry for packers and, in many cases, for seine boats, too. British Columbia's o i l requirements have been met very considerably by imports of crude o i l from: Calif ornia and, to a lesser extent, from Peru and Mexico. At the Burrard Inlet:refineries, coastal tankers load gasoline: and various grades of o i l for up-coast destin> atiOns. Marine depots established at convenient:points supply fishing, freighting, and pleasure vessels. The? largest:fleet of tankers Im the British Columbia coast trade— that owned by the Imperial Oil Shipping Company, Limited — had i t s inception i n 1922 with the arrival of the "Imperial" from Halifax, i n 1926' and 1927, three vessels were added: the "Fuelite", formerly owned by the Vancouver Dredging and Salvage Company, the new motor vessel "Marvolite", and the "Nanaimolite". Notableaddit ions in 1938 and 1939 were the "Beeceelite" and a new "imperial" — each in ; i t s turn the largest all-welded sea going craft ever built in;Canada. Under a new system of naming Imperial vessels, the "imperial", "Beeceelite", and "Marvolite" became, in 19^7, the "imperial Vancouver", "imperial Nanaimo", and "Imperial Namu", respectively. Ships of the Imperial Oil ocean; tanker fleet have, since the f i r s t world war, supplied the company's loco refinery with crude o i l fromSan Pedro and Talara. Some of the better-known ships- in the trade have been the "Trontollte", "Albertolite", "Mina Brea", "OntariOlite", and "Imperial Edmonton", the; last, a type T2 motor tanker. The Standard Oil Company of British Columbia im 1937 brought the motor tanker "Pico" from California and has since operated her in coastal trade as the "Standard Service". The British American Oil Company, when i t took over the properties of the Union; Oil Company of Canada, - 5£ - acquired the "Unacana", well-known on-the ooast since 1929, and renamed her the "Britamerican". The Shell Oil Company of British Columbia has distributed i t s products since 1947 in the "Western-Shell" and, before that, in: the "Shellco", now named the "Burnaco", Home Oil products are carried i n the "Dinamac". Thus the coast tanker fleet consists almost entirely of private carriers, freighting only the cargo of the vessels' owners. Early tow boats on; the British Columbia coast, owned generally by sawmill companies, were used to assist sailing vessels to and from loading ports. The master of a Swedish bark reported in; 1868 that "steam tugs, when desired, can be obtained at Victoria or Burrard Inlet at from $300 to $400 for towage to the mills and back to Vic toria." Increasing lumbar and coal exports: provided ample work for the available tug boat;fleet, even engaging the once-elegant steamer "Beaver" in towing employment for part of her varied career. For the most part, however, tow boats were specialized craft, staunchly constructed for rigorous service. One such vessel, the "Etta White;", brought to Burrard Inlet by the Moodyville Sawmills i n 1875, was i n 16 Stevens, R. W., Stowage of Cargo, London, 1869, cited in?Harbour and Shipping, vol. 25, no. 10, October, 1942, p.3^2V - 57 - service until destroyed "by fire in 1920; another, the "Alert", formerly of the Hastings-Mill fleet, has seen sixty years of operation. The commercial firm of Evans, Coleman and Evans in: 1889 acquired the steam tug "Tepic" for its? marine department, using her primarily to tow barges laden with coal from Nanaimo. In the same year, the Union: Steamship Company of British Columbia brought together the tugs "Leonora", "Senator", and "Skldegate" as the nucleus of a proposed fleetI of vessels intended to serve the expanding lumber industry. When,it became necessary to convey logs some dis tance from coastal f e l l i n g operations to sawmills, rafts, towed by steam tugs, provided the most economical form of transport. The pioneer of salt water rafting, Captain H. R. Robertson, turned his attention to the Pacific North west in the 1890's, achieving a modest degree of success inndeveloping.log rafts that could withstand Pacific swells. His method of building a raft: within a floating cradle was adopted for the Improved Benson raft, formerly used in: the long haul" from-Washington: and Oregon to California. In the protected waters of British Columbia, simple? flat rafts, made up of sections i n which the logs are contained between, boom sticks held apart by cross sticks, suffice for the usual short haul. If the weather deteriorates, rafts can - 58/ - be taken;into a convenient: harbour and, in a l l likelihood, moored to the shore. ^ Operations i n the Queen Charlotte Islands, on the other hand, demand a raft that is sturdy- enough for the Hecate Straits crossing and more readily constructed than the Benson type. Otis Gf. Davis, superin tendent of the British Canadian Timber Company at Port Renfrew, in 1909 found the answer.1® By eliminating the cradle (which, i n salt water, was subject to the ravages of marine borers) he designed a raft that, built with limited f a c i l i t i e s in sheltered bays and Inlets, would stand up to the rough seas that might: be met. on: a relatively short trip>ih open:water. ^ Davis took out patents on his invention in:the United States in 1913 and in Canada in 1919. ^ Popular refuges offering shelter from storms include Port Harvey, Port Neville, Bllnkinsop Bay, Mermaid Bay, Stillwater, Blind Bay, Pender Harbour, Secret. Gove, Halfmoon Bay, Halkett Bay, and Snug Cove. ^ "Retired Inventor States He's 'Practical' Logger", The Daily Colonist (Natural Resources Supplement), December 127~1948 7 pT^K ^ In the construction of a modern Davis raft, boom sticks, chained end to end, are strung out for a distance of from 480 to 560 feet: in two rows held nearly 80 feet apart by swifters, or cross logs. Between the boom.sticks and parallel to them, logs of assorted lengths are placed in such a way as not to leave a distinct lateral joint In the floor. Interlacing wire cables are run over and under the logs to form a secure mat. More logs are then rolled on;to the floor, gradually submerging i t to a depth of from 15 to 24 feet/. Finally, top wires are drawn taut, to - 59 - An improved raft, proof against the severs winter storms of the west coast of Vancouver Island, was developed in 19^5 by J . G. Gibson for the Kyuquot; to Port Mellon: towing route. The Gibson raft not only is remarkably sea worthy, but also has the advantages of being assembled economically and, on arrival at a destination, of being reduced quickly to a flat boom. 2 0 An alternative to rafting has been to transport logs in carriers that were adapted originally from the hulls of old Sailing vessels. Captain Walter Wingate of the British-Pacific Transport Company brought the f i r s t , big bind the raft firmly together. Towing wires from both sides, carried to a bridle on;the tug, further tend to prevent the raft from spreading apart. As much as four million-board feet of logs in two or three such rafts may compose the tow of a single powerful tug boat. 20 j n developing his patented raft, Gibson experimented, f i r s t of a l l , with reinforced Davis rafts, using wire straps to impart the additional strength. In 1945, he evolved a bottom in two sections that could be parted and removed from the completed raft. Master wires were laid across the mat formed by the two 40 feet by 160 feet sections. Up to 600,000 f.b.m. of logs were then loaded on the mat, after which the wires were carried around the raft, drawntaut, and clamped. The two sections of the mat could easily be released from the completed raft, ready for future use. In the i n i t i a l three year period of their employment, more than a hundred of the Gibson- type rafts were towed in open water without loss. See "Gibson Rafts Stand Winter Storms and Keep Logs Moving to Sawmills", Forest and M i l l , vol.2, no.19, October 15, 1948, pp.1,4. - 60 - log barge, the MBingamon", to British Columbia in 1924. Soon afterward, Captain B. L. Johnson enthusiastically adopted log barges, acquiring the "Drumrock" and the "Puako" for his Hecate Straits Towing Company. On the west coast of Vancouver Island, the Canadian Transport Company's power ful steam tugs "Towmac" and "Logmac" were, until recently, towing landing barges which had been converted to carry about 600,000 board feet of logs. 2 1 Until about 1900, British Columbia tow boats burned wood, the crews often having to chop their own fuel from the forests at settlements like Gibson's, Sechelt, and Lund. Coal next supplanted wood as the usual method of generating steam until the introduction of o i l burners in 1911 offered an improved method of regulating steam pressure. Diesel tugs, f i r s t represented i n 1923 by Captain J. A. Gates' "Radio" and th© Young and Gore tow boat "Sea Wave", were rapidly adopted once the economical internal combustion engine had proved its dependability to lumbermen. Nowadays, approximately eighty per cent of th© British Columbia towing fleet is diesel-powered, and almost a l l new construction for the industry uses diesels. The general aim has been to in s t a l l engines capable of supplying the maximum power d L Western Business and Industry, vol.22, no.6, June, 1948, p.106. - 61 - possible in a hull of a given size. Industrial development made tow boating more than a mere adjunct of the lumbering business. Cargoes that could be transported efficiently in barges and scows came to include finished lumber and shingles, coal, sand and gravel, hog fuel, cement, lime, f e r t i l i z e r , paper, o i l , and gasoline. Typical barges have a capacity of from one hun dred to four hundred tons. Some have special superstruc tures to protect-cargoes from the weather; others are floating steel tanks designed to take liquids in bulk. Barges are classified by marine underwriting societies and are surveyed annually to assure their seaworthiness. The tow boat industry has been peculiarly charac terised by periods of amalgamation and consolidation. By way of example: the Progressive Steamboat Company, founded in 1906, and the C. S. Thicke Towing Company were absorbed in 1920 into the B.W.B. Navigation Company, later known as the Blue,Band Navigation Company. B.C. Mills Tug and Barge Company acquired the fleet in 1931, and fifteen years later sold out to the M. R. C l i f f Tugboat Company. In another instance, Evans, Coleman and Evans in 1925 sold their float ing equipment to the Pacific Tug and Barge Company, which merged in 1926 with Cdyle Towing Company, Hecate Straits Towing Company, and the British Pacific Barge Company to form the Pacific (Coyle) Navigation Company, Limited — a - 62 - two million dollar corporation. In the following year, the fleet of the Dominion Tug and Barge Company, which had absorbed the International Towing Company (itself a merger of Gilkey Brothers, Greer and Christie, and the Czar Towing Company), came under Pacific (Coyle) operation. At present, more than f i f t y British Columbia com panies operate over two hundred and f i f t y tugs of a l l types, from boom boats to ocean-going vessels. Major tow boating companies include subsidiaries of large industrial firms as well as independent enterprises. In the f i r s t group are: Badwater Towing Company, Limited, a subsidiary of Pacific M i l l s , Limited; Canadian Transport Company, a subsidiary of H. R. MaeMillan Export Company; Canadian Tugboat Company, Limited, of New Westminster, a subsidiary of Canadian Western Lumber Company, Limited; Gilley Brothers, Limited, of New Westminster, a sub sidiary of Evans, Coleman, and Gilley Brothers, Limited; and KIngcome Navigation Company, Limited, a subsidiary of the Powell River Company. Representative of the second group are: C. H. Gates and Sons, Limited; Coastal Towing Company, Limited; M. R. C l i f f Tugboat Company, Limited; Gulf of Georgia Towing Company, Limited;- Harbour Towing Company, Limited; Island Tug and Barge Company, Limited, of Victoria; Marpole Towing Company, Limited; Nanaimo Towing Company, Limited; Pacific (Coyle) Navigation Company, Limited; Stone Brothers, Limited, of Port Alberni; - 63 - Straits Towing and Salvage Company, Limited; Vancouver Barge Transportation, Limited; Vancouver Tug Boat Company, Limited; Victoria Tug Company, Limited; Westminster Tug Boats, Limited; and Young and Gfore Tugboat Company, Limited. - 64 - CHAPTER 5 THE EVOLUTION OF CANADIAN COASTING TRADE LEGISLATION AND SOME ASPECTS OF THE EFFECT OF COASTING LAWS In the year that Vancouver I s l a n d became a colony o f Great B r i t a i n , the B r i t i s h N a v i g a t i o n Laws, which had l i m i t e d the c a r r y i n g trade between one colony of the Empire and another, to B r i t i s h , shipping, were r e  pealed. The c o a s t i n g trade between ports o f a colony remained cl o s e d to f o r e i g n s h i p p i n g although p r o v i s i o n was: made to admit f o r e i g n v e s s e l s upon an address to the Crown by the l e g i s l a t u r e of the colony concerned. From a p r a c t i c a l standpoint, the r e s t r i c t i o n s on f o r e i g n s h i p p i n g had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on the coasts o f Van couver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, except i n the years of the F r a s e r R i v e r gold rush. Sufferances were i s s u e d by the C o l o n i a l Governor i n 1858 and 1859 to authorize a pp number of American steamers to engage i n the r i v e r trade. B r i t i s h Columbia, which since 1866 had con s i s t e d o f a-union of the mainland colony and Vancouver I s l a n d , entered the Canadian Confederation; i n 1871. Matters of n a v i g a t i o n and shipping i n the new province 2 2 For an account of American steamers on the Fraser River, vide Hacking, N. Hi-', "Steamboat. 'Round the Bend", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, vol.8, no.4, October, 1944, pp.255-280. - 65 - were thereupon: transferred to the Parliament of Canada, in accordance with section 91, subsection 10 of the British North America Act. By the Merchant Shipping (Colonial) Act, 1869, the restrictions that excluded foreign ships from carrying goods and passengers between ports in the Dominion: of Canada were to have ceased two "years after the proclamation of the Act. Canada, however, took early action to pass an Act for amending the law relating to the Coasting Trade and Merchant Shipping in British possessions, providing for the continued exclusion from the coasting trade of Canada of shipping of a l l foreign.countries that did not offer reciprocal coasting privileges to British vessels. The Act. was obviously intended to exclude-American ships, in view of the un- deviating policy of the United States since 1817 of reserv ing the domestic trade to national shipping. None of the nine countries authorized by order-in-counc11 to enter the Canadian coastal trade actually became a threat to British shipping on the Dominion' s~ west: coast. The Imperial1 Merchant Shipping Act: of 1894, part XIV, section 736, which reiterated, in so far as- Canada was concerned, that the legislature of a British possession might, by any act or ordinance, regulate its own coasting trade, added the stipulation that any such act or ordinance should treat a l l British ships- (including - 66 - the- ships: of any other British possession) in exactly the same manner as ships of the British possession- in which i t had been passed:. In 1902, an Act respecting the Coasting Trade of Canada ruled specifically that no goods or passengers- were to be carried by/ water from one part of Canada to another except in British ships. The act required, fur thermore, that a foreign-built: British ship?, whether regis tered in Canada or elsewhere, must f i r s t obtain a licence from the Minister of Customs upon?payment of a duty of twenty-five per cent on the fair value of the ship before engaging in the coasting trade of Canada. In the Revised Statutes of 1906", these provisions-were embodied in part XVI of chapter 113, which took the t i t l e of the Canada Shipping Act. Few British ships registered outside Canada actually engaged in the British Columbia coasting trade from the time of the f i r s t world war. The Canadian Pacific steamer "Princess Victoria", originally of London registry, was- transferred to the Victoria; register soon; after the war; the Grand Trunk Pacific liners "Prince George" and "Prince Rupert" went from Newcastle to Prince Rupert registry with their acquisition by Canadian National Steam ships. The only noteworthy example of a British vessel registered outside the Dominion and operating regularly - 67 - in the British Columbia coasting trade in the 1930's was the Union Oil Company's tanker "Unacana", of London, now the "Britamerican", of Vancouver. Only minor amendments- to coasting legislation were Introduced between 190&- and the drafting of the Revised Statutes of 1927, at which: time the laws governing the coasting trade of Canada appeared as part XVI of chap ter 186. The most important., new section, as far as British Columbia was concerned, permitted the free entry into the coasting trade of foreign-built ships that had been acquired by British nationals as prizes of war or as reparations: and placed on British registry. Obstacles remaining i n the way of Canada's legislative autonomy In matters relating to merchant ship ping were removed in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster. In the same year,> Canada was: a party to the British Common wealth Merchant Shipping Agreement, article 11 of which states-: "While each part of the British Commonwealth may regulate its own coasting trade, i t is agreed that any laws: or regulations from time to time in. force for that purpose shall treat a l l ships registered in the British Commonwealth in exactly the same manner as ships registered in that part." Thus, vessels from any part of the Common wealth are free to enter the coasting trade of British - 68 - Columbia on terms no less favourable than those enjoyed by ships of Canadian registry, though there is l i t t l e evidence that advantage has been taken of the opportunity. Legislation:at present governing the coasting trade of Canada is embodied in part XIII of the Canada Shipping Act, 1934 (24-25 Geo. V, 1934, c.44). i t restates the requirement that foreign-built; British ships be licensed by the Minister of National Revenue before engaging in the coasting trade of Canada, rules that no ship other than a British ship shall transport goods or passengers from one place in Canada to another place in Canada either directly or by way of a foreign port, and empowers the Governor in Council to suspend coastal laws" for the purpose of admit ting ships- of any foreign country into the coasting trade of Canada. In appropriate circumstances, a foreign ship has been admitted by order-in-council into the British Columbia coasting trade. For instance, in view of the acute seasonal shortage of suitable; British vessels'to carry fish o i l in bulk from up-coast reduction plants to r a i l head at Vancouver, coastal laws were waived to allow the United States tanker "Argo" to operate between Canadian ports for four months in the winter of 1948-49, and for another period of three months- commencing in November, 1949. - 69 - When foreign-built vessels of B r i t i s h registry- are licensed to engage i n the Canadian coasting trade they are f i r s t assessed a duty of twenty-five per cent ad valorem on the appraised value, i n accordance with provisions of the Canada Shipping Act. Should, however, a foreign-flag vessel he admitted to the coastal trade for a specified period of time only, duty and taxes are assessed by the Customs Division of the Department of National Revenue on a proportionate basis:, assuming the l i f e of the imported vessel to be ten years. Accordingly, customs duty at twenty-five per cent i s assessed on l/ l 2 0 t h of the appraised value of the vessel for each month, or portion of a month, that the ship operates i n the coasting trade. Sales tax, at eight per cent, i s charged on the gross amount thus computed. It would appear that the Canada Shipping Act safeguards the interests of the owners and crews of B r i t  i s h - b u i l t and British-registered coasters hy preventing foreign competition i n the domestic trades while, at the same time, affording a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y by admitting foreign ships to the coastal trade when; beyond doubt., additional tonnage i s urgently needed. Where Canadian coasting trade l e g i s l a t i o n is: c r i t i c i z e d i s In i t s not l i m i t i n g coasting privileges to ships-built i n Canada. - 70 - The United States, i t may be pointed out, has for many years limited her coastal trade to American-built vessels, and Australia has recently taken steps to restrict her domestic trade to Australian-built vessels. 2 ^ Only about one-third of the passenger and cargo vessels and tankers participat ing in the B r i t i s h Columbia coasting trade are Canadian- b u i l t , although a few others received extensive refits in Canada. (See Table 1, page 71.) Because shipbuilding costs- are at least twenty- five per cent lower- In the: United Kingdom than in Canada 2^", any action? taken to limit the coasting trade of Canada to Canadian-built ships must: necessarily increase the operating costs to the extent: of the extra provision required for writing off the capital cost of the vessel. While the Canadian shipbuilding industry and allied trades would benefit: from: orders placed for new vessels, the additional burden of expense placed on the shipowner would have to be met either by increased fares and freight rates or by subsidies. 23 Australia, Shipping; Act, 194-9, s.30. 2 ^ Canada, Second Report of the Canadian Maritime Commission, p.39. Sterling devaluation has further i n  creased the difference in costs. * - 71 - TABLE 1 SHIPS BUILT IN CANADIAN AND IN NON-CANADIAN SHIPYARDS AND SERVING IN THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COASTING TRADE DECEMBER 31, 194-9 Passenger and Cargo Ships and Tankers, by Age Groups . " Excluding Vessels under 200 Gross Tons AGE PASSENGER-CARGO CARGO ONLY TANKERS ~ CAN. ' NON-CAN. CAN. NON-CAN. CAN. NON: Less than 10 years 11 to 20 years 21 to 30 years 2 5 * 1 1 2 6 - 1 Over 30 i 6 # 6 2 years lT 19 7 * Includes 3 vessels extensively refitted in Canada. # Includes 3 vessels extensively refitted in Canada. - 72 - CHAPTER 6 THE EXTENT AND NATURE OF THE COASTING TRADE Snipping services i n British Columbia have developed primarily i n response: to the needs of, settlement -and industry along, the indented and island-studded coast line; First among such; needs; was a steamship link: with a source, of supplies:; and a market. Consequently, when the; province was: admitted into the Dominion of Canada i n 1871, provision was made for "an efficient mail service;, fort nightly, by steam communication between Victoria and San Francisco, and twice a-week:between;Victoria and Olympia; the: vessels to be- adapted for the conveyance of freight and passengers." 25 Some years later, with the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Vancouver succeeded American; cities- as the entrepot: for B r i t i s h Columbia coast trade, and to the present: day has furnished a nucleus: for the economic l i f e of the province. Most of the commerce of the Canadian west coast funnels through Vancouver: the major industries: of the coast are directed from there, labour is recruited there, provisions and equipment:are supplied from there; Naturally enough, then, shipping 25 schedule to the Order of Her Majesty i n Council Admitting British Columbia into the Union, May 16, 1871, British North America Act and Amendments, p.80. - 73 - TABLE 2R ARRIVALS AT AND DEPARTURES FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS OF VESSELS IN COASTING SERVICE 194-7 and 1948 Excluding. Foreign-going V e s s e l s PORT 1947 NUMBER !° 1948 NUMBER /o Vancouver 42,661 50.0 43,884 49.0 V i c t o r i a 6,841 8.0 8,381 9.3 Nanaimo 6,689 7.8 8,483 9.4 Powell R i v e r 7,494 8.8 7,903 8.8 New Westminster 5,292 6.2 5,818 6.5 Prince Rupert 3,712 4.3 3,379 3.7 Other Por t s 12,690 14.9 11,968 13.3 85,379 100.0 89,816 100.0 Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report, 1947, 1948, Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa. - 74 - TABLE j ARRIVALS A T AND DEPARTURES FROM B R I T I S H COLUMBIA PORTS OF TUGS, OTHER THAN FQREIGN-G-OINGr TUGS 3.947 and 1948 PORT 1947 1948 NUMBER % NUMBER Vancouver 7,587 58.4 8,093 57.2 V i c t o r i a 1,132 8.7 1,195 8.4 Nanaimo 910 7.0 1,243 8.8 Powell R i v e r 1,162 8.9 1,184 8.4 New Westminster 1,042 8.0 1,245 8.8 Other Ports 1,160 9.0 1,188 8.4 12,993 100.0 14,148 100.0 Source: Canada, Dominion:Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report, 1947, 1948, Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa. - 75 - services are concentrated there, as Tables 2 and 3 on: pages 73 and 7 4 affirm. While Vancouver is the predominant: dis tribution ;centre, Victoria, Nanaimo, and Prince Rupert: are secondary entrepots, serving, respectively, the southern: part and west.coast of Vancouver Island, central Vancouver Island, and northern British Columbia. The population pattern of the coastal regions-of British Columbia, one of the factors that might he expected to bear some relation to the volume of t r a f f i c developed in: the coasting trade:, exhibits a-concentration of more than sixty per cent of the total coast population In;the two districts:; of Vancouver and Victoria. (See Table 4: on page 7 6 . ) Less than four per cent are to bB found outside the lower mainland and Vancouver island regions. Thus i t is readily understandable that passenger and general cargo tra f f i c on:the Vancouver - Nanaimo and Vancouver - Victoria routes should move i n considerably greater volume than on the northern British Columbia routes. Industrial location is- another factor influencing the establishment of shipping services. Sites may be determined on the basis-of such considerations as! proximity to sources of raw materials- or to cheap-and plentiful waterpower rather than nearness; to markets. When the= location involves large; expenditures i n providing plant and fixed capital equipment, there is every reason for - 76 - TABLE 4 POPULATION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST By Regions and P r i n c i p a l D i s t r i c t s REGION DISTRICT REGIONAL POPULATION 1946 DISTRICT POPULATION 1947, e s t . LOWER MAINLAND New Westminster North Vancouver Vancouver VANCOUVER ISLAND A l b e r n i Nanaimo V i c t o r i a CENTRAL MAINLAND COAST Ocean F a l l s Powell R i v e r NORTHWESTERN COAST AND QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS Pri n c e Rupert Queen C h a r l o t t e Stewart 593,992 177,766 15,276 14,522 139,700 32,520 379,850 14,800 18,700 111,350 3,200 7,800 10,700 1,600 1,300 TOTAL COAST POPULATION 801,556 Source: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Trade and Industry, Regional I n d u s t r i a l Index of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1948. - 77 - the growth of a relatively permanent settlement around the establishment. Such towns as-Ocean Falls, Port Alice, and Woodfibre, depending on newsprint, pulp, and paper manufac turing, ChemalnuSi on;sawmill operations, and Britannia Beach, on copper mining, developed In this way. When the industry prospers, the town thrives; should, for any reason, the plant f a i l , the dependent community disperses. Swanson Bay and Anyox are examples of once-active settle ments now reduced to "ghost" towns. Logging and fishing are usually associated with- purely temporary settlement, often involving the use of floating camps that can be towed away when an area is logged out-or when the fishing season ends. The imperman- ence of such communities demands f l e x i b i l i t y in the trans portation system serving them. Large scale logging operations, scattered along most of the coast, are to be found particularly in the vicinity of: Howe Sound, Jervis Inlet, Biate Inlet, Knight Inlet, Nanaimo, Comox, Campbell River, Johnstone and Queen Charlotte Straits, Port Renfrew, Barkley Sound and the Alberni Canal, Clayoquot Sound, Tahsir Inlet, Zeballos Arm, Kyuquot Sound, Quatsino Sound, Burke and Dean Chan nels, Douglas Channel, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Skeena and Naas Rivers. From these operations, logs - 73 - can be rafted or carried in barges to sawmills on the Fraser River and at Vancouver, Victoria, Cowichan Bay, Chemainus, Nanaimo, and Port Alberni, or to pulp and paper plants at Woodfibre, Port Mellon, Powell River, Nanaimo, Duncan Bay, Port Alice, Port Alberni, Ocean Falls, and Watson Island. Operations of plants, canneries, and stations in the fishing industry are seasonal in nature, commencing usually in April in the northern and central regions of the British Columbia coast, June on the southern coast, and July on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and con tinuing until October. Reduction plants have a winter operating season as well, and cold storage plants, located at Kildonan, Klemtu, Butedale, and Prince Rupert, are i n service throughout the year. Stations, reduction plants, and canneries are located near to the fishing grounds — at the estuaries of the Fraser, Skeena, and Naas Rivers; in the northern part of the Strait of Georgia; at Alert Bay, Knight Inlet, Smith Inlet, Rivers Inlet, Namu, Bella Bella, Klemtu, and Butedale; on the west coast of Van couver Island, around Berkley, Clayoquot, Nootka, and Quatsino Sounds; and, to a limited extent, on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Intensive mining operations usually result in a more permanent type of settlement than either logging - 79 - or fishing. Coal is shipped from Nanaimo and Union Bay, copper from Britannia Beach, and limestone from quarries on Texada Island. Gold is mined at Zeballoa and at Tul- sequah, on the Taku River, and gold and silver at a number of mining properties in the Observatory Inlet - Portland Canal area. Around these operations, c i t i e s , towns and villages have become established, creating a steady demand for shipping services. Except for some pulp and paper mills, already mentioned, an explosives plant on James Island, and a cement works at Bamberton, on Saanich Inlet, large manufac turing industries are concentrated in the cities of the lower mainland and Vancouver Island, near to the chief markets. As virtually none of the scattered small indus t r i a l communities on the coast is self-sufficient in the necessities of l i f e , food, clothing, and household furnish ings, as well as tools and equipment, must be brought i n from the commercial supply centres. Regular steamer ser vice lis available to more than a hundred and sixty ports of c a l l ; yet, there are many settlements that must depend upon? fi s h packers, tug boats, or launches for their trans portation needs. Subsidized vessels furnish dependable, i f infrequent, service to points i n most districts where? there is human habitation. While the volume of actual or potential tr a f f i c alone would not justify calls at - 80 - many steamer landings, the Canadian Government, by providing subsidies, has recognized an obligation, to make reasonable transportation f a c i l i t i e s available to sparsely-settled areas, Published statistics of the British Columbia coasting trade are, unfortunately, inadequate for purposes of a detailed study of tr a f f i c movements. Neither the Shipping Report, prepared annually by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, nor the Annual Report of the National Har bours Board presents information in such a way that special characteristics of the coast trades can be distinguished, fhe former publication shows details of foreign trade, but not domestic, cargo movements; the latter, to the extent that i t refers to British Columbia, merely summarizes the trade of Vancouver Harbour. It was found, however, that daily l i s t s of a l l vessels moving in an out of Vancouver Harbour, showing the tonnage of cargo and number of passen gers landed and loaded, are prepared for the Information of th© National Harbours Board at Ottawa. From l i s t s for the year 194-9, made available to the writer, i t has been possible to select the entries' relating to Canadian vessels inacoastal trade and to compile monthly statistics of passenger traffic and of cargo movements i n self-propelled ships, scows and barges, and log rafts. These are shown - 81 - in;Tables: 5, 6, and 7. On the evidence that Vancouver is the focal point for the British Columbia coast trade, It may be assumed that characteristics of coast shipping illustrated by these tables are f a i r l y representative of the British Columbia coasting trade as a; whole.. Table.5, page 82, and Figure: 1, page 83, showing the aggregate passenger t r a f f i c carried in 1949 to and from Vancouver in vessels:of the British Columbia Coast Steamship Service, Union Steamships, Gulf Lines, Canadian National Steamships, Marine Express Lines, Tymac Launch Service, Harbour Navigation Company, Howe^  Sound Lines, and Hamiltair, Limited, clearly exhibit a seasonal pattern!, reflecting tourist and holiday travel and movements of transient labour. During the summer months i t IS: normal practice for the steamship companies to employ a l l avail able passenger vessels and to speed up schedules for maximum utilization of transportation f a c i l i t i e s . After Labour Day, which may be regarded as- marking the end of the tourist season, some units of the coast fleet are with drawn from service and tight schedules are relaxed until mid-June brings about a resurgence of heavy passenger t r a f f i c . Tables 6 and 7, on .pages 84 and 85, attest to the fact that barges and scows secure a preponderance of the bulk cargo shipped in the coasting trade, with the - 8 2 - e 5 COASTAL PASSENGER TRAFFIC Port of Vancouver, 194-9 Month January February March April May june.- July August: September October November December Passengers Loaded 39,223 29,877 42,237 56,230 64,290 89,750 146,980 116", 290 83,333 54,460 39,603 48,877 Passengers Landed 34,102 28,232 38,974 54,943 56,945 75,022 145,195 119,426 81,929 50,712 40,266 51,986 Total Passengers 73,325 58,109 81,211 111,173 121,235 164,772 292,175 235,716 165,262 105,172 79,869 100,863 1949 811,150 777,732 1,588,882 Source: National Harbours Board, Ottawa. Thousand Passengers PASSENGERS LOADED AND 'LMDSD AT VANCOUVER MONTHLY BY VESSELS IN COASTAL TRADE 19 4 9 C 00 ® I H JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JON JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Source: National Harbours Board, Ottawa, - 84 - Table 6 CARGO LOADED AT VANCOUVER BY CANADIAN VESSELS IN COASTAL TRADE 19 4 9 (Area.: Columbia River to Lynn Canal) TONS OP 2,000 POUNDS JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER YEAR PASSENGER AND CARGO SHIPS General Cargo 19,427 14,897 19,075 19,539 21,227 24, 738 24,178 21,363 20,130 20,811 16,740 17,683 239,808 BARGES AND SCOWS (excl. Transfers) General Cargo 4,682 4,869 5,353 5, 562 6,207 7,003 5,340 6,397 5,948 5,575 4,909 3,855 65,700 Hog Fuel -5,180 4,646 8,220 6,160 9,390 8,050 6,910 7,310 6,450 11,250 9,640 9,920 93,126 Lumber and Piling 1, 852 1,136 971 2,506 723 1,432 558 1,024 899 396 1,683 920 14,100 Sulphur 1,150 180 964 2,487 1,993 6,774 Waste Paper 850 890 451 150 200 175 375 200 3,291 Rook, Sand and Gravel 9,279 16,926 21,915 3,923 8,286 13,186 14,459 1,848 2,962 983 93,767 Coal and Coke 524 404 400 305 300 430 2,363 Steel and Scrap 550 1,176 1,726 TRANSFER BARGES General Cargo 27,084 27,429 22,493 38,463 26,724 30,205 32,200 30,969 35,438 33,590 29,223 27,82.5 361,643 TOTAL DRY CARGO, BARGES 39,948 38,930 47,756 69,797 66,374 54,276 53,818 61,433 63,794 53,139 49,092 44,133 642,490 OIL TANKERS (SHIPS) Oil, Gasoline, etc. 27,958 32,701 31,461 27,496 29,266 35,396 25,324 27,796 25,075 33,605 19,715 32,072 347,865 TANK BARGES Oil, Gasoline, etc. 10, 633 10,019 12,256 12,099 12,145 11,335 10,688 10,663 12,692 13,389 13,514 8,725 138,158 Creosote Oil 354 350 350 350 352 1,756 TOTAL TANKER CARGO 38,591 43,074 43,717 39,595 41,761 46,731 36,362 38,459 37,767 47,344 33,229 41,149 487,779 LOG TOWS (Rafts) 7,440 8, 765 16,116 9,240 6,880 5,400 6,960 7,900 13,000 9,680 15,480 4,380 111,241 TOTAL OUTWARD CARGO 105,406 105,666 126,664 138,171 136,242 131,145 121,318 129,155 134,691 130,974 114, 541 107,345 1,481,318 Sources National Harbours Board, Ottawa. : - 85 - Table 7 CARGO LANDED AT VANCOUVER BY CANADIAN VESSELS IN COASTAL TRADE 19 4 9 (Area- Columbia River to Lynn Canal) TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS PASSENGER AND CARGO SHIPS General Cargo Paper FISH PACKERS AND FISHING VESSELS Fish, Fishmeal, etc. TOTAL DRY CARGO, SHIPS BARGES AND SCOWS (excl. Transfers) General Cargo Pulp and Paper Coal Lumber and Piling Rook, Sand and Gravel Cement Lime Pyrites, Ore, Concentrates Fish Scrap, Slag, Bricks TRANSFER BARGES JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBEE i OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER YEAR 8,415 7,333 8,280 9,871 9,155 10,429 11,588 15,152 9,155 11,773 12,204 14,746 128,099 720 374 195 225 225 360 380 300 258 575 270 240 4,122 1,185 3,564 853 522 1,784 982 1,724 3,488 3,174 4,036 2,807 1,598 2:5,717 10,318 11,271 9,328 10,618 11,164 11,771 13,692 18,940 12,587 16,384 15,281 16,584 157,938 2,021 1,995 2,835 2,564 3,256 2,477 : 2^ 639 3,808 4,913 2,648 2,455 2,789 34,400 17,055 17,532 16,355 15,544 15, 012 17,714 15,461 14,898 15, 549 17,051 14,194 15,031 191,396 16,963 13,775 14,933 13,359 12,218 10, 098 10,382 19,251 15,955 17,351 16,405 15,782 176,472 14,260 5,761 10,991 14,278 10,132 21,004 8,186 14,247 14,347 18,165 9,877 23,451 164,699 13,036 15,191 44,927 33,137 60,496 47,733 27,974 50,623 46,419 47,698 38, 090 32,173 457,497 2,829 4,298 11,066 12,994 14,455 14,453 13,150 17,152 12,433 9,938 8,735 4,977 126,480 840 770 709 1,192 1,273 487 419 1,139 953 1,204 288 856 10,130 625 1,180 1, 054 1,100 Z, 020 2,413 1,000 9,392 1,406 780 2,186 300 350 737 250 1,403 1,211 1,292 840 735 683 750 8,551 General Cargo 50,243 46,330 38,004 56,690 43,066 42,252 50,204 51,822 43,791 41,039 49,245 48,109 560,795 TOTAL DRY CARGO, BARGES 117,547 106,627 140, 557 150,008 162,491 158,483 130,807 175,186 157,115 156,707 141,702 144,918 1,742,148 OIL TANKERS (SHIPS) Oil, Gasoline, etc. Empty Oil Drums 2,210 33 3,977 . 31 1,627 73 479 81 713 67 692 184 2,125 121 2, 915 205 1, 519 130 962 157 1,891 98 984 195 20,094 1,375 TOTAL TANKER CARGO 2,243 4, 008 1,700 560 780 876 2,246 3,120 1,649 1,119 1,989 1,179 21,469 LOG TOWS (Rafts) 97,836 64,400 59,300 72,638 106,891 109,885 106,862 100,980 91,863 88,440 95,815 66,420 1,061,330 TOTAL INWARD CARGO 227,944 186,306 210,885 233,824 281,526 281,015 253,607 298,226 263,214 262,650 254,787 229,101 2,982,885 Sources National Harbours Board, Ottawa. ' Table A (Supplementary) CARGO LOADED AT VANCOUVER BY CANADIAN VESSELS IN COASTAL TRADE 1 9 5 Q (Ar«a: Columbia River to Lynn Canal) TONS OF 2 , 0 0 0 POUNDS OIL TANKERS (SHIPS) Oil, Gasoline, etc. TANK BARGES Oil, Gasoline, etc. Creosote Oil TOTAL TANKER CARGO LOG TOWS (Rafts) TOTAL OUTWARD CARGO JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL WkY PASSENGER AND CARGO SHIPS General Cargo 1 4 , 5 9 9 1 3 , 9 7 3 1 6 , 6 3 4 2 1 , 3 0 8 2 3 , 0 1 6 BARGES AND SCOWS (exol. Transfers) General Cargo 4 , 6 0 6 4 , 3 1 8 5 , 6 4 7 7 , 0 0 8 7 , 2 2 4 Hog Fuel 5 , 9 4 0 7 , 3 6 0 7 , 2 9 0 1 0 , 3 7 0 1 1 , 8 4 0 Lumber and Piling 6 8 0 4 0 8 1 , 7 3 3 1 , 6 0 9 2 , 9 5 0 Sulphur 5 8 0 8 7 5 1 , 6 0 5 Waste paper 1 3 4 2 8 4 1 2 6 2:50 Rock, Sand and Gravel 4 , 5 1 3 1 5 , 9 7 3 7 , 2 2 3 2 , 1 9 5 Coal and Coke 4 2 4 4 0 6 1 , 0 2 1 4 3 2 Ore and Concentrates Asphalt 9 0 0 TRANSFER BARGES General Cargo 2 1 , 7 4 9 1 9 , 2 4 1 2 5 , 5 3 0 2 8 , 9 1 9 2 4 , 8 5 9 TOTAL DRY CARGO, BARGES 3 4 , 1 1 3 37,121 5 7 , 4 7 8 5 8 , 1 9 2 4 9 , 3 1 8 JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER YEAR 2 1 , 5 7 1 2 2 , 5 0 0 6 , 5 5 3 8 , £ 7 9 1 0 , 1 8 3 8 , 8 1 7 1 3 , 6 6 0 1 1 , 0 0 0 1 0 , 9 9 0 1 1 , 8 3 0 1 , 9 2 8 1 , 3 9 1 6 4 1 9 9 4 2 , 6 7 0 1 7 4 7 6 8 1 2 3 8 0 0 1 4 , 2 5 8 1 0 , 8 4 7 3 , 7 8 9 1 3 , 7 3 8 1 , 9 7 8 3 , 4 2 6 8 7 1 8 , 0 5 4 1 1 , 5 2 . 0 1 , 2 9 9 2 , 0 5 0 3 1 4 6 , 9 7 4 4 4 6 9 , 0 3 5 1 0 , 6 9 1 4 , 3 6 3 6 4 3 3 0 3 8 , 0 8 2 7 , 5 6 4 9 4 9 3 5 8 7 £ 5 2 9 , 4 2 1 3 1 , 1 2 0 2 9 , 1 3 4 2 1 0 2 7 , 1 6 1 3 4 , 5 6 5 3 6 , 7 3 4 2 8 , 8 9 3 6 7 , 9 7 2 ; 6 9 , 5 0 1 5 5 , 7 3 1 6 3 , 5 5 0 6 5 , 2 2 2 6 1 , 7 6 9 4 6 , 5 7 1 2:50,481 8 7 , 8 0 6 1 2 0 , 0 5 5 1 8 , 9 4 5 7 , 7 8 0 3 , 9 7 4 8 0 , 5 3 8 2 , 2 8 3 6 , 7 2 1 1 , 1 1 0 5 5 7 , 3 2 6 6 6 6 , 5 3 8 2 6 , 6 4 8 2 4 , 8 7 5 2 2 , 2 1 4 2 3 , 9 0 8 2 3 , 1 0 0 3 2 , 3 1 4 3 0 , 5 1 9 2 4 , 0 3 8 1 7 , 8 4 2 4 4 , 0 2 4 3 2 , 2 6 2 2 9 , 4 8 3 3 3 1 , 2 2 7 1 1 , 3 9 5 1 5 , 9 9 3 1 4 , 5 3 2 3 6 5 16,909 2 2 8 1 5 , 7 0 7 3 5 5 1 3 , 4 9 4 2 0 , 8 3 8 1 5 , 6 9 6 3 7 3 14,9Z9 3 5 2 1 5 , 3 3 8 1 7 , 0 6 0 3 4 9 1 4 , 9 7 9 1 8 6 , 8 7 0 2 , 0 2 2 3 8 , 0 4 3 5 2 0 4 0 , 8 6 8 c Q f t n 3 7 , 1 1 1 •z /ton 4 1 , 0 4 5 6 , 0 7 3 3 9 , 1 6 2 ; 4 5 , 8 0 8 5 1 , 3 5 7 4 0 , 1 0 7 3 3 , 1 2 3 5 9 , 3 6 2 : 4 9 , 6 7 1 4 4 , 4 6 2 5 2 0 , 1 1 9 o, you 5 , 7 6 0 4 , 1 2 2 4 , 5 5 6 8,92.0 7 , 4 4 0 1 1 , 9 6 0 7 , 5 2 0 5 , 2 0 0 7 1 , 5 1 1 - » - . j v v | M ^ / v I J . j V J L J . 87,275 9^22 « * , « . IJ^SU U T ^ jjjjui 152^41 1 2 6 ^ «,.!„ 1 6 1 , 9 2 6 u 8 > 7 3 3 1 > 5 0 8 ( S 4 9 Sources National Harbours Board, Ottawa. Table B {Supplementary) CARGO LANDED AT VANCOUVER BY CANADIAN VESSELS IN CCASTAS. TRAPS 19 5 0 (Areft'i Columbia River to Lynn Canal) TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER YEAR PASSENGER AND CARGO SHIPS General Cargo 9, 815 8,632 10,935 12,471 14,441 15,963 19,474 22,891 15,237 15,660 16,139 15,916 177,574 Paper 612 550 620 610 1,184 605 345 285 836 545 480 500 7,172 FISH PACKERS AND FISHING VESSELS Fish, Fishmeal, etc. 1,165 2,139 415 379 1,679 1,324 2,521 3,068 2,907 2,454 3,594 1,184 22,829 TOTAL DRY CARGO, SHIPS 11,592 11,321 11,970 13,460 17,304 17,892 22,340 26,244 18,980 18,659 20,213 17,600 207,575 BARGES AND SCOWS (axel. Transfers) General Cargo 1, 662 2,482 3,309 3,409 3, 212 4,178 3,812 6,136 5,337 3,946 4,758 5,681 47,922 Pulp and Paper 14,476 13,422 15,605 15,398 13,911 13,787 16,209 17,330 16,419 23,903 23,695 17,112 201,267 Coal 15,332 21,147 14,119 19,192 17, 855 22,112 13,614 18,900 16,835 15,373 17,326 16, 527 208,332 Lumber and Piling 16,276 15,820 17,357 16,202 15,052 23,697 19,042 18,058 11,851 17,995 19,675 14,824 205,849 Rook, Sand and Gravel 2,161 21,398 * 51,056 29,062 69,470 52,883 43,643 51,280 41,563 49,111 45,955 34,217 491,799 Cement 1,491 2,977 9,655 11,739 14,952 13, 671 10,379 19,117 15,737 14,869 8,898 4, 616 128,101 Lime 489 786 844 1,410 1,454 761 1,076 1,197 416 825 836 731 10,825 Pyrites, Ore, Concentrates 825 2,550 2,620 1,970 524 4,044 1,750 3,388 4, 000 2,740 3,500 27,911 Scrap, Slag, Bricks 420 1,521 500 546 250 1,200 1,600 683 1,436 1,000 550 9,706 TRANSFER BARGES General Cargo 43,084 27,884 34,178 53 , 540 40,938 49,484 52 i683 60*779 48,223 64,671 68,650 67,774 611,888 TOTAL DRY CARGO, BARGES 95, 796 108,886 150,264 152,422 177,914 184,867 161,658 196,147 160,452 196,129 193,533 165,532 1,943,600 OIL TANKERS (SHIPS) Oil, Gasoline, etc. 3,693 4,243 842 717 1,423 927 1,461 2, 512 1,508 929 2, 518 753 21,526 Empty Oil Drums 84 65 137 121 200 213 97 87 97 145 67 156 1,469 TANK BARGES Oil, Gasoline, etc. 465 50 460 1,112 1,982 4,069 TOTAL TANKER CARGO 3,777 4,308 979 838" 2,088 1,190 2,018 2, 599 1, 605 1,074 3,697 2,891 27,064 LOG TOTS (Rafts) 45,342 61,876 66,000 91,898 91,428 109,944 104,918 97,088 107,306 84,908 111,352 90,461 1,062,521 TOTAL INWARD CARGO 156,507 186,391 229,213 258,618 288,734 313,893 290,934 322,078 288,343 300,770 328,795 276,484 3,240,760 Source: National Harbours Board, Ottawa. - 86'- result that the total tonnage of dry cargo carried by unrigged vessels is approximately six times that moved hy self-propelled ships?. The; situation is reversed for tank vessels: employed i n the transport: of gasollirat, fuel o i l , and other petroleum products^ Without taking into account the importation of some half million tons of o i l from California in;Canadian ocean-type tank steamers, ships:: In the coastal trade move about two and a half times: as: muchv. liq u i d cargo as do barges:. It w i l l also be noted that the movement of dry cargo outward from Vancouver i n ships: is greater in ton nage by about fifty-two per cent than: the inward movement, and, moreover, that shipments from Vancouver consist chiefly of general cargo; that is:, high class:merchandise such::as; fresh provisions;, canned goods, clothing, furnit ure, and machinery. Cargoes brought Inward in ships are in large part the products: of the fisheries, the paper mills, the metal mines, and returned empty containers such as gasc cylinders, beer kegs, and bottles; In contrast, the tonnage of cargo moved inward to Vancouver by barges and scows exeeeds the outward move ment by about one hundred and seventy-one per cent. Mostly, the cargoes carried in unrigged vessels are low and medium class commodities, such as sand and gravel, coal, lumber, hog fuel, and cement. Newsprint, too, i s , nowadays, trans-- 87 - ported almost exclusively in "barges and scows im the coastal trade. A seasonal pattern.for cargo t r a f f i c is by no means as clearly defined as for passenger t r a f f i c , and dogmatic conclusions-cannot be formed from.the study of one. year's stat i s t i c s . However, there are indications that coast shipping Is least active in the early part of the year and becomes very brisk in late summer, when the canneries and fish processing plants are Im f u l l production. Trends of British Columbia coast passenger and cargo t r a f f i c , computed by the method of three-year moving averages over a period of seventeen years, are shown im Figures 2 and 3, respectively (pages 88 and 89). They illustrate a remarkable growth In the volume of tr a f f i c alongside which there was no corresponding increase in the capacity of the self-propelled steamship fleet:. (See Table 14, page I36' , and Figure 5, page 137 .) The ex planation therefore must be in the greater utilization-; of passenger space i n the coast steamers, particularly on: the routes of relatively dense tra f f i c between Vancouver and Vancouver Island, and in.the development of the scow and barge fleet;. Sources: Annual Reports of the Harbour Commissioners of Vancouver (1932 - Annual Reports of the R a t i o n a l Harbours Board (1936 - 1948). 1935); M i l l i o n Tons 5 THREE-YEAR MOVING AVERAGE TREND FITTED TO THE TONNAGE OF CARGO LOADED AND LANDED AT VANCOUVER IN DOMESTIC TRADE 1932 - 1948 T 3 H *1 CR C CD 00 2 h- 1932 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 1940 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Sources: Annual Reports of the Harbour Commissioners of Vancouver (1932 - 1935); Annual Reports of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board (1936 - 1948). - 90 - CHAPTER 7 FREIGHT RATES AND FARES Freight rates and passenger fares in the; British Columbia: coast trades are determined by the companies pro- Tiding the coastal transportation:services and, except.on; subsidized routes, are not subject, to government regulation. While The Transport Act, 1938 provides for the control of domestic shipping by the Board of Transport Commissioners of Canada, ships engaged in the transport of goods or passengers between ports or places in-British Columbia receive specific exemption under subsection 4 of section 12 of the Act. Where subsidies are paid for shipping ser vices, the Canadian Maritime: Commission reserves the right; to approve the contractor's t a r i f f . AS a practical measure intended to maintain the stability of the rate structure, the chief shipping lines engaged in;coastal trade^ agree to notify one another of any intention to change a rate i n force and to discuss any proposed change. The B.C. Coastwise Operators' Association; is the medium: for the exchange of such information. Rates are, in consequence, with few exceptions uniform among competing lines offering equivalent; services. Though they are not bound to a common t a r i f f , the members of the 91 - Association appear to recognize the need for broad co operation in order to guard against unprofitable rate: warfare. Independent owners of small freighters, too, are guided by the tarif f s published by members of the B.C. Coastwise Operators' Association and generally adhere to the established rates. Rates between ports not served by the coastal liners are based on: t a r i f f rates for comparable distances. Only when the peak tr a f f i c season is drawing to a close is there evidence of rate cutting in attempts to secure the last cargoes. Over the past twenty-five years there were no substantial changes in the general level of coast freight rates until September, 194-7, when ceilings imposed by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board in October, 194-1, were l i f t e d . On September 22, 194-7, a blanket increase of thirty per cent on existing rates was put i n force. A further increase, involving a re-examination of the whole ta r i f f structure, took effect from June 11, 194-8, with nonr- uniform upward adjustments of rates on: most commodities. To arrive at an accurate appreciation of the rise in coastal freight rates over the past decade, one must make a detailed comparison of the published tariffs now in-force with those that are superseded. In many cases, services that formerly were included in: the ship's 92 - charge, are now shown-! as separate charges. The basis of measurement; too, has, in the ease of a number of commod i t i e s , been changed. As an illustration of the increase in freight charges i m B r i t i s h Columbia coast: shipping In recent years, there follows: an examination of. represent ative tar i f f s issued fay Canadian National Steamships. First of a l l , i t must be noted that, in addition to the actual amount accruing to the ship as freight, there are levies made onoargo passing over wharves at such: ports as Vancouver, Victoria, and Prince Rupert. These levies, called wharfage charges, are assessed on general merchan dise at the rate of 50$ a ton, weight or measure (2,000 pounds or 4© cubic fee*), whichever Is greater. A minimum charge per shipment is specified, the minimum for domestic coastal cargo having been increased on January 1, 1949, from 15^ to 20^. Secondly, charges are made for handling cargo between the. ship's slings? and the wharf at such ports as Vancouver, Victoria, and Prince Rupert. These handling charges are applied on general merchandise at the; rate of |1 a ton; weight or measure (2,000 pounds or 40 cubic feet), whichever is greater, with ar minimum charge per shipment of 15$. Prior to June 11, 1948, the handling charge was at the rate of 90$ BE ton, with & minimum of 10^ on ship ments over f i f t y pounds in weight and no charge for ship*-- 93 - ments up to f i f t y pounds; A third levy, Vancouver cargo rates — the pur pose of which is to finance the services of the Harbour Master's department and to aid in maintaining a signal station and a fire boat in the Port: of Vancouver — was Introduced by the Vancouver Harbour Commission in: 1920 and is f now collected by the National Harbours Board. In 1924, cargo rates on general merchandise were raised from.10^ to their present level of 15c/ per ton, with a minimum charge of 5# on; a shipment1. When cargo requires cold storage in. transit, the commodity charge applied by the ship is increased by f i f t y per cent for providing refrigeration service. Wharfage and handling charges may or may not be included im the ship's charge quoted Im the t a r i f f s . In general, in tarif f s in use before June 11, 1948, wharfage and handling were hidden; im the ship' s= charge;; the t a r i f f in force from that date shows wharfage and handling as^  separate: chargesi Cargo rates and, when they apply, cold storage charges are invariably treated as additional char ges. With these qualifications-in mind, one may, for comparative purposes, extract the rates quoted for similar commodities in CNSS Tariff #10 and CNSS Tariff #20. The former, issued on December 20-, 1926, and effective from. January 1, 1927, although modified from time to time by - 94 - supplements, remained in force until superseded by the latter, Issued on June 10, 1948, and effective the follow ing day, (See Table 8, page 95.) Consider, now, the freight charges, f i r s t , on a shipment of 100 pounds of general merchandise, and second, on a shipment: of one ton. of general merchandise, from Van couver to Prince Rupert: CNSS CNSS: TARIFF TARIFF #10 #20 I I 1. 100 pounds of general merchandise shipped from Vancouver to Prince Rupert Tariff rate, minimum shipment .75 .85 Wharfage, Vancouver - .20 Handling, Vancouver - ,15 Wharfage, Prince Rupert - .20 Handling, Prince Rupert - .15 N.H.B. Cargo Rates, Vancouver .05 .05 .80 1.60 2. 2,000 pounds: of general merchandise shipped from Vancouver to Prince Rupert; Tariff rate 8.25 9.50 Wharfage, Vancouver - .50 Handling, Vancouver - 1.00 Wharfage, Prince Rupert - .50 Handling, Prince Rupert - 1.00 N.H.B. Cargo Rates, Vancouver .15 .15 8.40 12; 65 The above examples-show that the: charges for shipping 100 pounds of general merchandise from Vancouver - 95 - Table 8 EXTRACTS FROM CANADIAN NATIONAL STEAMSHIPS' FREIGHT TARIFFS COMMODITY Between VANCOUVER and VICTORIA Minimum shipment General merchandise n.o.s. per 100 pounds per ton, weight or measurement F r u i t and vegetables o..r.d.& d. per 100 pounds Lumber, common or dressed, not exceeding 30 f e e t i n l e n g t h per 1,000 f.b.m. Between VANCOUVER and PRINCE RUPERT Minimum shipment General merchandise n.o.s. per ton, weight or measurement Cans, empty, i n cartons per 40 cubic f e e t Coal, bulk, from Union Bay, Nanaimo, Ladysmith, i n l o t s up to 100 tons per torn of 2,240 pounds per ton of 2,000 pounds F i s h , f r e s h , i n i c e o.r.d.4 d. 24,000 pounds or over, per 100 pounds per 2,000 pounds S a l t , i n boxes, sacks, or b a r r e l s 30,000 pounds or over, per 100 pounds per ton^ weight or measurement Between VANCOUVER and OCEAN FALLS Minimum shipment General merchandise n.o.s. per ton; weight or measurement Between VANCOUVER and STEWART Minimum shipment General merchandise n.o.s. per ton, weight or measurement Between VICTORIA and UCLUELET General merchandise n.o.s. per ton, weight or measurement CNSS CNSS TARIFF TARIFF #10 1 .65 .80 .25 6.00 .37* .45 6.00 10.00 .75 .85 8.25 9.50 4.00 5.00 4.00 6.50 .50 15.00 .25 5.00 .50 .65 6.50 8.50 .65 .85 8.50 10.50 5.50 7.50 * 96' - to Prince Rupert have increased by one hundred per cent: and for shipping a ton* by just over f i f t y per cent. (It may be shown that the percentage increase i n shipping charges declines from one; hundred per cent to just; over f i f t y per cent as the shipments are increased from 185 to 800 pounds.) Next,, consider the; freight: charges applicable on two shipments of general merchandise, the f i r s t of 100 pounds and the second of one ton;, from Vancouver to Ocean; Falls: CNSS CNSS TARIFF TARIFF #10 #20 1. 100 pounds of general merchandise;: shipped from Vancouver to Ocean Falls Tariff ratei minimum shipment: .50 .65 Wharfage, Vancouver - .20 Handling, Vancouver - .15 N.H.B. Cargo Rates, Vancouver .05 .05 Tii iToi 2. 2,000 pounds of general merchandise shipped from Vancouver to Ocean Falls Tariff rate 6.50 ' 8.50 Wharfage, Vancouver - .50 Handling* Vancouver - 1.00 N.H.B. Cargo Rates, Vancouver .15 .15 6.65 10.15 The examples indicate a~tariff increase on minimum shipments from Vancouver to Ocean Falls of ninety-- 97 - one.per cent, and on shipments of a ton of general merchan dise, of nearly fifty-three per cent. (The percentage i n  crease, i t may be shown, declines from ninety-one: per cent: to just under fiftyfthree per cent as the shipments are increased from 155 to 800 pounds.) It will he: noted that no provision IS-made for wharfage and handling at destin ation, and, in fact; the shipping company's t a r i f f does not list.top-wharfage charges that are levied by the; local wharfinger against the consignee of goods landed at Ocean Falls. Thestariff charges-on shipments of one ton;of general merchandise on representative British Columbia coast routes may he summarized as follows: CNSS CNSS PER CENT ROUTE TARIFF TARIFF INCREASE #10 #20 VANCOUVER - VICTORIA 1 5.15 1 9.15 % 77.6 B; VANCOUVER- PRINCE RUPERT 8.40 12.65 50.6 c. VANCOUVER - OCEAN FALLS 6^.65 10.15 52.6 D. VANCOUVER - STEWART 8.65 12.15 40.5 E. VICTORIA - UCLUELET 5.50 9.00 63.6 As in;the case of Ocean Falls, top-wharfage is not Included in; the. shipping company's rates for cargo landed at Stewart and Ucluelet. At ports where the Government of Canada maintains piers, the local wharfinger is authorized to col lect the; top-wharfage; charges shown in the Schedule to the - 98 - Regulations.for the Use and Management of Government Wharves in Panada. Because the charges vary considerably for different goods within the category of general merchandise, i t is not: practicable: in the foregoing summary to show wharfage: charges at ports other than those for which a rate; is listed i n the shipping company's t a r i f f . The mean of the percentage increases i n t a r i f f charges on: shipments of general merchandise on the five routes-selected above is fifty-seven. I f , then, the extracts from: GISS Tariff #10 and CNSS Tariff #20 are taken as representing coast shipping rates in 1939 and 194-9, respectively, the rise i n the; level of freight rates cannot be regarded as excessive. By way of comparison, during the same period the index of general wholesale prices advanced by one hundred and seven per cent (from 75.4- to 156.6) and the: index of the cost of living i n Canada by Government Harbours and Piers Act, Regulations- for the Use and Management of Government: Wharves in Canada, P.C. 5244, October 18, 194-9. Typical rates listed in Part Second of the Schedule are: Beef, per 100 pounds- | 0.02 Beer, bottled, per dozem 0.005 Butter, per 100 pounds 0.02 Fish, fresh: Free Grain.of a l l kinds except; oats, per bu. 0.0025 Salt, per ton * 0.10 Minimum charge per entry 0.05 - 99 - sixty per cent (from 101.5; to 162.1). 2? Whether the freight rate increases were justified will become more apparent following an examination of revenues and operating costs. Passenger fares on; most of the routes served by British Columbia coastal vessels remained virtually un-r changed from 1923until 1946. (See Table 9, page 100.) In recent years, however, the rising costs of furnishing water transportation services have raised fares to un> precedented high levels. On; most of the long trips, where meals-and berth are included inn the cost of passage, fares have advanced by one-third to one-half since 1946r; on the short trips, by one-quarter to one-third. The; stability of the rate structure is a result, of the dominance; of the coast transportation industry by three major steamship --lines-: Canadian Pacific B, C:. Coast Steamship Service, Union Steamships, Limited, and Canadian National Steamships, each with a large capital investment in vessels and terminal f a c i l i t i e s . For forty years there has:not been a rate war of any significance. The early days of coast passenger service, on the other hand, were punctuated with rate warfare as r i v a l steamship; owners 27 Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Prices and Price, Indexes, October, 1949. - 1 0 0 - Table: 9 FIRST GLASS OWE WAY PASSENGER FARES ON FOUR B.C. GOAST ROUTES 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 4 9 Between VANCOUVER and; NANAIMO . VICTORIA PRINCE RUPERT SKAGWAY 1 9 1 5 1 9 1 6 1 9 1 7 1 9 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 9 2 0 1 9 2 1 1 9 2 2 1 9 2 3 1 9 2 4 1 9 2 5 1 9 2 6 1 9 2 7 1 9 2 8 1 9 2 9 1 9 3 0 1 9 3 1 1 9 3 2 1 9 3 3 1 9 3 4 1 9 3 5 1 9 3 6 1 9 3 7 1 9 3 8 1 9 3 9 1 9 4 0 1 9 4 1 1 9 4 2 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 4 1 9 4 5 1946 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 Sources 1.75 1.50 2.00 I 2 . 5 0 2.75 2 . 5 0 1.65 I 1.90 2.75 3 . 0 0 3.45 18.00 20.00 21.00 I 26.00 2 4 . 0 0 26.40 30.00 31.50 36.25 3 0 . 0 0 3 5 . 0 0 I 3 7 . 5 0 4 0 . 0 0 4 5 . 0 0 3 7 . 5 0 4 0 . 0 0 4 2 . 5 0 4 5 . 0 0 4 7 . 5 0 5 2 . 5 0 I 5 9 . 7 0 5 8 . 8 6 5 9 . 5 0 6 3 ^ 0 Canadian Pacific and Canadian National tariffs - 101 - sought to fores one another out of business. Ninety years- ago, fares from Victoria to Hope fluctuated between twenty- five cents and ten dollars; from Victoria to New West minster, between f i f t y cents and six dollars. Occasionally, in desperation, a steamboat owner would advertize passage in his vessel gratis. Sixty-five years ago> during another burst of rivalry, one; could for twenty-five cents take steamer passage from Victoria to Nanaimo. The last rate skirmish occurred i n 1908 when. the; Canadian Pacific began a service to Seattle inn opposition to the established American lins£> the Inland Navigation Company. Fares between Victoria and Seattle and between Vancouver and Seattle dropped to twenty-five cents in what the companies declared was a "fight to the finish." Differences were reconciled, nevertheless, and passenger fares restored to remunerative levels. 2 8 It wiir be noted i n Table 9 that fares for the international voyage between Vancouver and Skagway have fluctuated to a greater extent than those for domestic coasting trips. The explanation l i e s , in large measure, with the existence of American competition from Seattle. Apart from the limited number of Canadian passengers travel- 2 8 Jenkins, R. A. V., "Seattle- and Return for 50 Cents", Victoria Daily Times, July 10, 1948, p.3. - 102 - ling by way of- Wrangell, Juneau, and Skagway to and from northern British Columbia and the Yukom Territory, passen ger tra f f i c in: the southeastern Alaska trade is entirely American, and im order that a share of the American tra f f i c w i l l be attracted to the Canadian lines, the fare via Vancouver must necessarily be competitive with the fare by American steamer i n direct service between-Seattle and Alaskan ports. Alaskan travellers who use the Canadian lines usually complete the trip to the United States by train or steamer from Vancouver to Seattle. Alaska cruises organized by Canadian steamship companies in the summer months are extremely popular with American tourists. According to an estimate by the United States Maritime Commission, Canadian vessels carried fifty-three per cent of the southeastern Alaska tourist t r a f f i c in 1934, fifty-eight per cent in 1935, sixty-two per cent in 1936, sixty-four per cent in 1937, and sixty- nine per cent in 1938. 2 ^ Cruise fares are calculated on the basis of- twice the normal one way fare between Van couver and Skagway, with additional charges for "premium" accommodation and for side trips. Alaska cruise fares listed in the passenger tariffs of the Grand Trunk Pacific 29 United States of America, Economic Survey of Coast wise and Intercoastal Shipping, United States Maritime Commission, 1939, p.21. - 103 - Steamship Company and. its successor, Canadian National Steamships, from 1918 to 1949 are shown in Table 10, below. Table 10 MINIMUM FIRST CLASS ALASKA CRUISE FARE 1918 TO 1949 NEW PRINCE GEORGE CRUISE SEASONS PRINCE GEORGE PRINCE RUPERT PRINCE HENRY PRINCE ROBERT 1918 | 75.00 1925-1929 90.00 1930-1932 90.00 | 90.00 1933 90.00 1934 80.00 1935 85.00 100.00 1936 90.00 110.00 1937 90.00 115.00 1938-1939 95.00 115.00 1940-1941 105.00 1948-1949 |160.00 A steady upward trend is apparent, deviating only in the depression years 1934 and 1935. While the general principle in setting rates is to charge what the traffic will bear, the popularity of the Canadian cruise ships among American tourists would seem to indicate that fares are not at a level to discourage travel. Normally, in British Columbia coast shipping practice, thirty-day round trip fares are computed on the basis of twice the one way fare less ten per cent, although on a number of routes no reduction is authorized on round - 104 - trip tickets. Week-end fares, allowing a reduction of from fifteen to twenty-five per cent on the round trip fare, are available on such routes as Vancouver - Nanaimo, Vancouver - Victoria, Vancouver - Seattle, and Victoria - Seattle. Special excursion fares are offered from time to time, too. As long ago as 1899, the Canadian Pacific Navigation Com pany announced Dominion Day trips between Vancouver and Victoria at a round tri p rate of $1.50. Mackenzie Brothers, Limited, operators of the "Rupert City", in 1909 ran excur sions from Vancouver to Prince Rupert for $20, return. Almost any holiday became the oocasion for excursion trips, the cheap fares assuring capacity shiploads. For men who must travel at the lowest possible cost, the coast steamers generally provide "deck" passage at fares of less than half the f i r s t class rate. Meals and bed linen are not included and the accommodation is usually of an extremely low standard. Bunks are available in a common sleeping room and inexpensive meals, served up with a minimum of ceremony, may be purchased. In coast steamers that are equipped to handle automobiles, passengers may bring their cars as "baggage" at excess baggage rates. On one day in 1939, four hundred and three automobiles were carried between Vancouver and Nanaimo, and the average dally tr a f f i c for the year in vessels of the British Columbia Coast. Steamship- Service - 1D55 - was on© hundred, and ninety cars. 30 sample rates, in effect from October 1, 1948, are as-follows-: Between: ONE WAY AUTOMOBILE RATES VANCOUVER Wheel-base Measurement; a n d Up to 110" Over 110" • I NANAIMO J, 50 4.50 VICTORIA 4.00 5.00 SEATTLE 6.05 7.20 It is not proposed to treat in detail the subject of the rate structure in the towing industry, but; merely to ,outline briefly the development of the present system of assessing charges-. 31 Before the f i r s t world war, rates were a matter for negotiation: between the parties to an agreement to provide towing services. In 1918, however, a Royal Commission, with Mr. W. E. Burns as chairman, inves tigated certain- issues in dispute between the Canadian Merchant Service Guild, representing coastal steamship and tOw boat officers, and the employing companies-, and recom mended a number of improvements in working conditions. The tow boat owners thereupon.organized their own: assoc iation (the B.C. Tow Boat Owners' Association) for the 3° Stockdlll, C. E., "The British Columbia Coastal Service: Some Historical Facts and Figures", Canadian Pacific Staff Bulletin^ December 5, 1940. 31 The material of this paragraph is based chiefly on an address by J. A. Lindsay, "Rate Structure in the - 106 - purpose o f s e c u r i n g co-operation i n r e g u l a r i z i n g not only wage s c a l e s and co n d i t i o n s of employment but also s e r v i c e r a t e s . Though e f f o r t s to standardize r a t e s during the 1920's were i n e f f e c t u a l , the a d v e r s i t i e s of the e a r l y ' 3 0'r l e f t owners l e s s i n c l i n e d to e x e r c i s e independence. In; 1934, a schedule of r a t e s between zones, each ten miles square, l a i d out on a cha r t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia coast, was put i n f o r c e . For some commodities r a t e s were quoted to i n c l u d e both scow and towing charges:. In: 1937, the: zone system was modified, and b a s i c r a t e s were a p p l i e d to three zones:, v i z . ; t h i r t y - f i v e miles: and under, t h i r t y - s i x to seventy miles, and over seventy m i l e s . For example, the: loaded scow r a t e was $2.00 a mile i n : the f i r s t zone, $1.75 a mile i n : the second, and $1.33 1/3 in;the t h i r d . Mileage r a t e s v a r i e d , depending on whether scows were moved l i g h t or loaded, and whether employment was one way or round t r i p . A d d i t i o n a l scows In;tandem were charged s i x t y per cent of s i n g l e scow r a t e s . Where t r i p - r a t e s were not appropriate, tugs could be h i r e d on an hourly or d a i l y basis', the d a i l y r a t e b e i n g twelve times the hourly r a t e . For such cases, r a t e s were graduated f o r nine c a t e g o r i e s of tow boats Towboat ind u s t r y " , reported i n Harbour and Shipping, Novem ber, 1941, pp.362-365, and the Canadian Merchant Service g u i l d Annual f o r 1941, pp.17, 26. - 107 - classed according to the vessels* power. Rate revisions in 1940 and 1941 brought increases of about ten per cent, and, following the removal of wartime controls in September, 1947, further increases of thirty-two per cent for log towing and twenty per cent for scows were put in effect to compensate for higher operating costs. Barge lines, offering scheduled services as common carriers, do not.adhere to the rate system described in the foregoing paragraph but instead publish competitive ta r i f f s similar to those issued by the steamship lines. - 108 - CHAPTER 8 THE COST OF PROVIDING- COASTAL SHIPPING SERVICE In: tine e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u b je-ct: that occupies the p r e s e n t chapter, the t o t a l expenses i n v o l v e d i n oper a t i n g a steamship are grouped as f o l l o w s : A. Running expenses 1. Wages and b e n e f i t s ' p a i d to crews 2. Fuel 3. P r o v i s i o n s : and stores 4. Maintenance and r e p a i r s 5. Stevedoring 6. Insurance: B:; Overhead expenses 1. Management. 2. Maintenance of terminals 3. I n t e r e s t and d e p r e e i a t i o n i Wages; together with overtime and v a c a t i o n pay, w i l l u s u a l l y account f o r between t h i r t y and f o r t y per cent of the t o t a l running expenses of medium-size and l a r g e steamers o p e r a t i n g i n the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t i n g trade. The number of m e n l a i a crew w i l l depend, of course, o n th©-- s i z e of the ship, the complexity of the machinery o n b o a r d , the amount of passenger accommodation, and the nature of the s e r v i c e performed by the v e s s e l . An i n d i c a t i o n o f the s i z e o f crew f o r d i f f e r e n t types-of c o a s t v e s s e l s i s g i v e n i n Table 11, on page 109. - 109 - Table: 11 SIZE OF CREW CARRIED IK REPRESENTATIVE TYPES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST VESSELS Vessel Gross Service Crew Tonnage Catala 1,476 Pas senge r-c argo 54 CMlcc-tiir 1,837 Passenger-cargo 52 Chilkoot: 1,356 Cargo 25 George McGregor 101 Towing 7 Imperi al Vancouver 1,512 Oil tanker 20 Lady Cecilia? 944 Day passenger 33 Prince Rupert 3,379 Passenger-cargo 98 Princess Kathleen: 5i>908 Passenger-cargo 108 Princess Louise 4,032- Passenger-cargo 106 Southholm 1,029 Cargo 22 Progressively improving basic pay scales, i n  creased pay for overtime, and additional paid Holidays have, since 1939, more than-doubled the wages- expense borne by the: companies-. Table 12; on: page 110, presents^ a comparison: of the manning scale and basic rates of pay in force in 1939 and 1949 in; a typical coastal steamer with cabin accommodation for approximately two hundred passengers. It is r apparent that formerly low-paid crew members, such as messmem, porters, and dishwashers;, have gained relatively greater basic pay increases than have officers and more senior personnel. Trade unions, able to take advantage of the fact that the high level of - 110 - Table 12 COMPARISON OF GREW LABOUR COSTS 1939 - 1949 ss PRINCE RUPERT RATING NO. 1939 WAGES RATE # TOTAL 1 Master 1 As agreed First Officer 1 170.00 170.00 Second Officer 1 150.00 150.09 Third Officer 1 110.00 110.00 Quartermaster 3 75.00 225.00 Lookoutman 3 70.00 210.00 Dayman 2 70.00 140.00 Watchman 1 75.00 75.00 Winchman 1 75.00 75.00 Stevedore 1 70.00 70.00 Deckhand 6 ' 65.00 390.00 Chief Engineer 1 235.00 235.00 Second Engineer 1 170.00 170.00 Third Engineer 1 150.00 150.00 Fourth Engineer 1 140.00 140.00 Junior Engineer 5 115.00 345.00 Oiler 3 80.00 240.00 Fireman 6 70.00 420.00 Storekeeper 1 80.00 80.00 Chief Steward 1 145.00 145.00 Second Steward 1 105.00 105.00 Storekeeper 1 80.00 80.00 Night Saloonsman 1 55.00 55.00 2nd Night Saloonsman 1 55.00 55.00 Linenkeeper 1 55.00 55.00 Steerage Steward 1 55.00 55.00 Stewardess 1 80.00 80.00 Saloonsman 1 55.00 55.00 Walter and B.R. 13 55.00 715.00 Bellman 1 55.00 55.00 Janitor 1 45.00 45.00 Messmsn 4 40.00 160.00 Porter 6 40.00 240.00 Bellboy 3 25.00 75.00 Chief Cook 1 119.45 119.45 Second Cook 1 75.00 75.00 Assistant Cook 1 60.00 60.00 laker 1 75.00 75.00 Night Cook — Butcher 1 75.00 75.00 Pantryman 1 55 • 55 55.55 Dishwasher 3 40.00 120.00 Purser 1 170.00 170.00 First Assistant Purser 1 110.00 110.00 Second Ass't. Purser 1 90.00 90.00 Third Assistant Purser 1 80.00 80.00 Radio Officer 1 75.00 75.00 Barber 1 .25 .25 Beautician 1 .25 .25 News Agent 1 .25 92 6,475.75 1949 WAGES . PER CENT NO. RATE I TOTAL f INCREAS 4, 1 As agreed 7° 1 257.00 257.00 51.2 1 224.00 224.00 49.3 2 180.00 360.00 63.6 3 144.00 432.00 92.0 3 139.00 417.00 98.6 3 139.00 417.00 98.6 1 144.00 144.00 92.0 1 144.00 144.00 92.0 1 139.00 139.00 98.5 5 134.00 670.00 106.2 1 310,00 310.00 31.9 1 246.00 246.00 44.7 1 224.00 224.00 45.3 1 213.00 213.00 ' 52 • 1 3 190.00 570.00 65.2 3 149.00 447.00 86.3 6 139.00 834.00 98.6 1 149.00 149.00 86.3 1 255.00 235.00 62.1 1 185.00 185.00 76.2 1 163.00 163.00 103.8 1 153.16 153.16 178.5 1 144.33 144.33 162.4 1 153.16 153.16 178.5 1 148.16 148.16 169.4 1 138.41 138.41 73.0 1 148.16 • 148.16 169.4 17 148.16 2,518.72 169.4 1 148.16 148.16 169.4 1 138.16 138.16 207.0 3 133.16 599.48 232,9 5 126.57 652.85 216^ .4 1 218.00 218.00 82.5 1 178.16 178.16 137.5 3 163.16 489.48 171.8 1 178.16 178.16 137.5 1 168.16 168.16 1 178.16 178.16 137.5 1 163.16 163.16 193.7 6 143.16 858.96 257.9 1 246.00 246.00 44.7 1 226.50 226.50 105.9 1 174.00 174.00 93.3 1 147.00 147.00 83.8 1 141.00 141.00 88.0 1 • 25 .25 1 .25 • 25 1 * 25 .25 98 14, 870.24 129.6 DALLY COST (exclusive of Master's salary, crew's overtime, et cetera): 1939: $212.90 1949: #488.88 - I l l - employment! after the war l e f t only a small pool of labour on which the companies could draw to f i l l menial positions afloat, succeeded in their demands for higher pay and better working conditions. Unfortunately, some anomalous situations have resulted; for instance, radio officers, who are: poorly organized in the: coast ships, are receiving lower wages than most members of the catering staffs. While the payroll account in respect of basic wages has, for a coasting ship such as the "Prince Rupert", grown to two hundred and thirty per cent of what i t was in 1939, the Increase has-been much less than for Canadian1 ocean-going ships. Rates of pay which, before the second world war, were lower In the deep-sea than in the coast, trades were, in 194-9, considerably higher, as a few exam ples wi l l indicate; Gana&'i an Oc ean- B.C. Co as t al Going Vessel Vessel 1939 1949 1939 1949 First Officer $135.00 $285.00 $170.00 $257.00 Chief Engineer 190.00 400.00 235:. 00 310.00 Ordinary Seaman: 37.50 150.00 65.00 134.00 Fireman, 55.00 170.00 70.00 139.00 Messman: 37.50 160.00 40.00 133.16 A comparison:of overtime rates i n 1939 and 1949 la apt to be misleading owing to the many variations that have taken place in the: rate schedule and In the service 11Z conditions. It is a safe conclusion; however, that changes in rates and working conditions have been in. favour of the crewsr and have added to the running costs of the vessels'. Other benefits enjoyed by crews include vacations on pay, payments i n lieu of holidays, and contributions to the Workmen's Compensation Board, a l l of which are; reflected in labour costs. The. second item to be considered in examining the running costs of a vessel is fuel. A l l but: a few of the: ships: in: the: British Columbia coastal trade are Steamers, burning o i l fuel — a fact that may seem strange when good bunker coal is available on Vancouver island. However, with bunker fuel o i l at: about $13.50 per ton and coal at $11.00 per ton, trimmed, o i l is the more econom ical fuel. In the f i r s t place, i t may be assumed that two tons of bunker o i l wi l l develop approximately the same power as three tons of coal. Furthermore, o i l fuel is cleaner than coal, can be loaded more conveniently, and takes up less useful space in the ship; The smaller fire room crew needed gives o i l a further advantage over coal. The trend from coal to o i l fuel actually began before the f i r s t world war, the Grand Trunk Pacific Steam ship Company having converted the "Prince George" and "Prince Rupert" In 1912. Soon-after the war, the use of o i l fuel became general In coast steamers. - 113 - Fuel o i l expense^is usually from fifteen to twenty per cent of the total running expense of a coast steamer. The advance^ in the price of o i l since 1939 i s , therefore, of major significance to the shipping companies. Bunker MGW fuel o i l cost $1.01 a barrel at Vancouver before the war. In 194-3, the price had risen to $1.52; in.1946, to $1.92; in 1947, to $2.50; and i n 1948, to $3.05. By September, 1949, it:had declined to $2.08, but: was s t i l l more than double the 1939 price. Small shipsc, particularly those of under a thousand horse>-power, are more economically operated with diesel than with steam engines; Not' only is the i n i t i a l cost of suitable diesel engines: lower than the cost of reciprocating engines for small vessels, but the fuel cost per horse-power is also less. Besides, fewer men:are needed on; the engine room;staff when internal combustion engines are used. Offsetting, to some; extent, the desir able features of diesel propulsion is one important limit ation: the-diesel engine is a precision machine requiring expensive periodical overhauls i f peak performance is to be maintained, and immediate attention to faults that may develop. Since the early 1920' a-, diesels have proven economical and reliable in coastal cargo vessels-, ferries, tankers, tugboats, and f i s h packers, and they are the- logical choice when machinery is being selected for new - 114 - vessels of up to, say, fifteen Hundred gross tons. Provisions and stores constitute- the third item, of running costs, making up about ten per cent of the total running expense of coastal cargo ships, and around twenty per cent i n the case of passenger vessels. Victuals- for crew and passengers, deck stores', such as cordage, painty and canvas, engine room stores used in maintaining the propulsion and auxiliary machinery, and steward's stores, including linen, crockery, table-ware, galley utensils, and other articles required i n the catering department, are constantly expended in the operation, of a ship and must be replaced. The cost of supplying food and consumable: stores has more than doubled since 1939, i f one regards the Dominion Bureau of Statistics' index of general wholesale prices (1926 = 100, 1939 a 75.4, October, 1949 = 157.1) as a valid Indicator. Maintenance and repairs^ are the. fourth item to consider. Ordinary maintenance is performed by a ship^s crew, or by shore personnel: who carry out their work i n port.without delaying the vessel. Major repairs that can be deferred are normally performed when the ship, can bee withdrawn:from service and turned over to a shipyard. Extensive quadrennial surveys', Undertaken i n order to pre serve the vessel's classification: with registration societies, must be provided for. The cost of repairs and - 115 - maintenance, depending to a considerable extent o n the age and c o n d i t i o n of the ship:, as w e l l as on various u n c a l c u l - able f a c t o r s , w i l l u s u a l l y amount to approximately e i g h t per cent of running c o s t s . Charging out r a t e s f o r s h i p  yard l a b o u r have increased from seventy to one hundred and f i f t y per cent since 1939, and f o r equipment, ra t e s have In: soma cases doubled. 3 2 Stevedoring expense, the f i f t h item, i s respon-- s i b l e for. about, ten per cent of running costs — more, f o r cargo v e s s e l s ; and somewhat l e s s , f o r passenger v e s s e l s . Depending upomthe nature of the cargo handled, stevedoring c o s t s f o r l o a d i n g may r u n to as much as $2.50 a ton, and f o r d i s c h a r g i n g , to $2.00. Some owners of small v e s s e l s , whose crews formerly loaded and discharged the cargo c a r r i e d , a l l e g e t hat union success i n r e s e r v i n g cargo handling to longshoremen has slowed the turn-around i n port, thus adding to o p e r a t i n g expense. Increased costs s i n c e 1939 are, nevertheless, p r i m a r i l y the r e f l e c t i o n of b a s i c wage i n  creases f o r stevedores from 90$ an hour, the pre-war r a t e , to $1.35 an hour, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s p e c i a l commodity bonus of 10^ an hour, and time and one-half f o r overtime i n s t e a d of time and o n e - t h i r d . 32 T a r i f f of Shipyard Charges, Burrard Dry Dock Company, June 1, 1937, and T a r i f f of Shipyard Charges, B.C. Ship b u i l d e r s ' Federation, November 1, 1948. - 116 - Insurance expense is the last item to be con sidered under running costs. It may be subdivided into hull and machinery insurance, covering marine risk, and protection and indemnity insurance, covering l i a b i l i t y for injury and loss of l i f e . Premiums will depend upon the insured value of the vessel, i t s trading limits, and the underwriter's views of the experience record of the owners. In at least one instance, a coast shipping company has set: up i t s own insurance fund to cover marine risk. Insurance expense is usually f i f t e e n per cent or less of the total running costs of B r i t i s h Columbia coasting steamers. Management expenses, as part of overhead, vary widely with the nature of the shipping service offered by a company. The: Canadian Pacific and Canadian National coast steamship lines have not only their own passenger, freight, and general offices, but also the f a c i l i t i e s of nation-wide transportation systems upon which to draw. Small companies may direct their operations simply from an unpretentious office in_ Vancouver and, when necessary, appoint: agents for their vessels at ports of c a l l . Regard less of the size of the: enterprise, i t iS' certain: that the cost of management has- risen since 1939 In step with wages, office supplies; and rents. - 117 - Tlx© maintenance of terminals is an important item of expense for those companies whose operations require the provision of private wharves, freight, sheds, and passenger depots;; At the smaller ports-, public wharves, at which side-wharfage: charges may be levied on: the ships-using them, are normally adequate. interest;and depreciation charges are a large item of overhead expense for most shipowners. The f i r s t will depend, of course; upon the method of financing the purchase of.a ship; the second, upon: the capital cost and the age to which i t is considered that a ship may fas usefully operated. Under the Income War Tax Act-. 33) authority is vested in the Minister of National Revenue to allow a deduc tion from taxable income in respect of depreciation. Six per cent is the rate ordinarily allowed for ships. An extra allowance of thirteen per cent was permitted i n the case of ships purchased from the War Assets Corporation^ the extra depreciation to be-taken: only i n the fiscal year in which the- ship was-acquired. In addition, depreciation at double the rate normally allowed i n respect of ships purchased from the War Assets Corporation:or built in 33 R . S . 1927, c.97, a.5(a); and 19^7, c.63, s.6(l)(n)(ii). - 118 - Canadian shipyards "between November 10, 194-4, and December 31, 1949, was authorized by orders-in-council. The Canadian Vessel Construction Assistance Act, passed in 1949, extends the depreciation allowance to whatever amount an owner may elect of the capital cost of a vessel on which construction was commenced after January 1, 1949, up; to a maximum of thirty-three and one-third per cent in any taxation year. Regardless of the depreciation policy a shipowner may adopt for income; taxation purposes, he will usually write off the- capital cost: of a new ship-at a rate of from four to six per cent on the assumption that the vessel will have a useful l i f e of from sixteen years and eight months to twenty-five years. At the end of that time, the ship;; will appear on the books at its estimated scrap value. Depreciation charges:for ships purchased at inflated prices are a heavy drain on the earnings of a steamship-company. However undesirable i t may be. to buy ships at peak prices, steamship lines are nevertheless obliged to furnish adequate accommodation for the traffic offering i f they are to retain public goodwill. The major steamship companies in British Columbia found themselves, 34 p 4o. 8640, November 10, 1944; P.C. 1449, April 16, 1946; and P.C: 2487, June 24, 1947. - 119 - In 194-5, with fleets sorely depleted through government requisition for war service, marine loss, and obsolescence. With no alternative but to acquire new tonnage, they have necessarily burdened themselves for many years with the responsibility of providing extraordinarily large deprec iation reserves, fable 13, on page 120, presents some examples of prices of vessels built for British Columbia coastal passenger-cargo service, illustrating the relatively high cost of construction after each of the world wars. Shipping companies are, understandably, loath to disclose the details of their operating costs and, for that reason, particulars of actual cases may not be used in the analysis which follows. However, in resorting to hypothet ica l cases the writer believes.that the example below shows fa i r l y accurately the rise in costs relative to freight rates and fares and the difficulty experienced with a new steamer, built at inflated prices, in showing a profit indeed, i n breaking even — on its operations. Steamer A, valued at one million dollars, furnish ed a weekly passenger and cargo service between Vancouver and Prince Rupert in 1939, making forty-eight trips in the year and laying up for annual overhaul for four weeks. Steamer B, which replaced Steamer A after the second world war, is a new vessel costing three million dollars. Her cargo capacity, four hundred and f i f t y tons, and her 120 - Table 13 PRICES OF NINE PASSENGER-CARGO VESSELS BUILT FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA COASTAL SERVICE 1921 - 194-9 YEAR NAME OF GROSS REPORTED PRICE BUILT VESSEL TONNAGE PRICE GROSS 1921 Princess Louise- 4,032 fl,400,000* 1347 1924 Princess Kathleen 5,908 1,280,866* 217 1925 Princess-' Marguerite 5,875 1,258,889* 214 1928 Princess Elaine 2,125 639,539* 301 1928 Princess Norah 2,731 633,559* 232 1930 Princess Elizabeth 5,251 1,128,944* 215 1930 Prince Robert 6,892 2,193,375* 318 1948 Prince George^ 53,812 3,098,000# 4,000,000** 533 1949 Princess Marguerite 5,911 678 Notes: Canada, Report of the Royal Commission to inquire into Railways and Transportation in Canada, 1931-2, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1932, p.26. % • Disclosed by R. C. Vaughan, C.M.G., Chairman and President, Canadian National Railways, in an address at the launching of the Prince George at Esquimalt, October 6, 1947. ** At the launching of the Princess Marguerite at Govan, May 26, 1948, Captain R. W. McMurray, Managing Director of Canadian Pacific Steamships, Limited, said: "Take the ship which was launched to-day for example; she has been built to replace the original Princess Marguerite, built in 1924, and torpedoed and sunk In 1942. The new ship wi l l have the same tonnage and horsepower as her predecessor, but her cost will be almost exactly four times as much." Allowing for the lower value of the pound sterling in 1948, the price in dollars of the new ship would appear to be in the neighbourhood of four millions. - 121 accommodation for two hundred passengers are about the same as those of her predecessor. She carries on the same schedule with the same size of crew. Comparative daily operating costs for the two ships, each of which was a unit of a fleet of coast steamers operated by the "Coast Passenger and Freighting Company", are shown hereunder. "COAST PASSENGER AND FREIGHTING COMPANY" VESSEL A VESSEL B 1939 194-9 I $ Running Expenses Wages and overtime 260 600 Fuel 185 - 370 Provisions and stores 145 300 Maintenance and repairs 75 150 Stevedoring 165 250 Insurance 110 330 Total Running Expenses . 940 2,000 Overhead Expenses Management 20 30 Maintenance of terminals 75 100 Interest and depreciation 260 800 Total Daily Costs 1,295 2,930 If steamer A carried an average cargo of three hundred and f i f t y tons at the 1939 rate of $8.25 a ton, and two hundred and ninety passengers at the 1939 fare of $24, revenues would balance expenditures for the year's operation of the vessel. That i s : - 122 - Total expenses for 1939: (365 x $1,295) = I 472,675 Total revenues: for 1939: 350 tons-® $8.25 = $2,887.50 x 48 = $ 138,600 290 passengers @ $24 = 334,080 $ 472,680 With the same amount of cargo and same number of passengers carried i n Steamer B' at the 1949 level of rates and fares, the results are very different: Total expenses for 1949: (365 x $2,930) = §1,069,450 Total revenues" for 1949: 350 tons @ $12.50 = $4,375 x 48 a $' 210,000 290 passengers: @ $36.25 = $10,512.50 x 48 = 504,600 | 714,600 Whereas Steamer A , in 1939, broke even^ Steamer B, carrying the equivalent In cargo and passengers in 1949, recorded a loss-of $354,850 (or just over $972 per day). If the foregoing analysis-has a reasonable measure of validity,.it explains how reduced opportunities for the profitable operation of steamers on several of the coast routes are having the effect, of depriving coastal communities of frequent liner service, or requiring govern ment . subsidization of essential services, and, at the s^ame time, of providing opportunities for cheaper barge operat ions . - 123 - CHAPTER 9 COMPETITIVE ELEMENTS IN7COAST TRANSPORTATION The operators of steamship s e r v i c e s i n the B r i t i s h - Columbia c o a s t a l trades must n e c e s s a r i l y have regard f o r a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l competition from other media of tr a n s  p o r t a t i o n by sea, land, and a i r . Except i n the lower main land and southern Vancouver I s l a n d d i s t r i c t s of the coast, r a i l w a y and motor tru c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have not s e r i o u s l y threatened steamship operations, but on many routes scows and barges are s e c u r i n g cargo and a i r l i n e s a r e ' a t t r a c t i n g passenger t r a f f i c that formerly went to the steamship com panies . Competition between the steamship owners them se l v e s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r r i e d on with vigour, has tended to disappear as strong companies absorbed t h e i r weaker r i v a l s In the: s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l . Because few p r i v a t e Inve s t o r sr. a f t e r examining the r e c o r d o f B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g were prepared to r i s k the heavy c a p i t a l investment i m ships?, wharves, f r e i g h t sheds, and passenger terminals needed" f o r a modern passenger-cargo l i n e , steam ship operations: have come almost completely under the c o n t r o l of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company. Only Canadian N a t i o n a l Steamships and a few minor companies now remain 124 - outside the Canadian Pacific orbit. The evolution:of control by the Canadian Pacific over a major portion of the coast shipping Industry is:illustrated graphically In Figure 4, on page 125:. The last important clash between the Canadian National and the Canadian Pacific steamship lines took place in 1930, when the government-owned line, inspired by Sir Henry Thornton, endeavoured to compete directly with the Canadian Pacific in the "Tri-City Service" between Vancouver, Victoria, and Seattle. In commenting upon the; unsuccessful venture, the Duff Commission- in: 1931-2 wrote: It is Impossible^ to believe that any public interest was served by this duplication of coastal services. Any success that might-have come to the Canadian National could only have been largely at the^ expense of the Canadian Pacific. The Canadian National was: at some disadvantage in not. having a service of steamships under its own control, but this situation could have been met; had the managements of the two systems-been, willing to enter into a working arrangement. This- is another instance where a willingness to co operate would have avoided a sacrifice of funds and obviated the heavy losses- which f e l l upon both systems. 35 Since- 1931, the Canadian;Pacific has had prac t i c a l l y a free hand in the steamer trades of Vancouver 35 Canada, Report of the Royal Commission: to inquire into Railways and Transportation in Canada; 1931-2, p.27. - 125 - Figure 4 CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY (B.C C.S.) 1 9 5 Q UNION STEAMSHIPS HOWE SOUND NAVIGATION CO. I ALL RED LINE CANADIAN PACIFIC NAVIGATION CO. •H a •p •H u PQ •P <D % fl-l H <D H O +> § | ESQUIMALT AND NANAIMO RAILWAY 1940 FRANK WATERHOUSE AND CO. OF CANADA LTD. 1930 I TERMINAL STEAM NAVIGATION CO. =j= LINCOLN STEAMSHIP CO. 1920 I BOSCOWITZ STEAMSHIP CO. 1910 1900 EVOLUTION OF CONTROL OF COAST STEAMSHIP OPERATIONS BY THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY - 126 - Island. Union Steamships-, calling at small communities, logging camps, and canneries- of the coast north of Van couver furnishes servicesc that supplement, rather than compete with, the mail services .of the railway companies4 steamers to the larger eoast ports. One of the few remain*- ing competitive operations-was eliminated in 1948 when the Canadian Pacific discontinued the run between Vancouver and Prince Rupert. Duplication of services cannot be entirely avoided, for ships> though bound for different final destinations", must necessarily travel up-coast along much the same routes. Schedules can be arranged, never theless, to permit calls at ports en route to be made on different days of the week. The growth of communities within eighty miles-of Vancouver and their need for improved transportation ser vice with the metropolis have encouraged the formation since 1945 of several new shipping enterprises-, among them, Gulf Lines, Limited. These aggressive new companies, starting out modestly, though practically, with surplus naval craft, refitted for passengers or cargo, are pro viding the long-established shipping lines-, particularly Union Steamships, Limited, with serious- competition, whether such companies as Gulf Lines w i l l , in,the long run^ survive and perhaps - expand into major transportation; - 12? - systems will depend upon.their ability to operate e f f i c  iently, their success in retaining the goodwill they have already created, and, i t must be admitted, the policy adopted towards them by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Experience of the past would seem to indicate that, sooner or later, the small coast lines gravitate towards the more powerful capital interests. Early In the present century, the threat of r a i l and highway competition to water transportation services was very real. Steamer operations along the east coast of Vancouver Island between Victoria and Nanaimo came to an end in 1905 after a losing struggle with the Esquimalt.and Nanaimo Railway. On the lower mainland, small freighters engaged in the trade between Vancouver and Fraser River points were forced to withdraw when the Vancouver and Lulu Island Railway was completed in 1903 and the British Colum bia Electric Railway Company's New Westminster line was opened in 1911. Yet, while railway and motor truck trans portation succeeded water transportation on several routes in the past, the likelihood that a railroad or highway will be constructed along the coastline from Vancouver to Prince Rupert is exceedingly remote. The shortest r a i l route from Vancouver to Prince Rupert, by Canadian National via Red Pass Junction, covers more than twice the distance - 128 - of the coast steamer route. Even with the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n R a i l r o a d extended to Pr i n c e George, the distance by r a i l between Vancouver and P r i n c e Rupert w i l l be seventy per cent greater than by steamer. Only a small proportion: of t o t a l coastwise t r a f f i c — part of that, say, which o r i g i n a t e s i n or i s de s t i n e d f o r the B u l k l e y V a l l e y r e g i o n — w i l l l i k e l y he a f f e c t e d by prospective r a i l competition. By highways 1, 2, and 16, P r i n c e Rupert can be reached by automotive t r a n s p o r t from Vancouver, but the route, v i a L y t t o n and Pr i n c e George, i s c i r c u i t o u s and long, and t h e r e f o r e not s e r i o u s l y competitive with the steamer route. The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that the Alaska Highway may a t t r a c t p o t e n t i a l c r u i s e t r a f f i c from the Canadian P a c i f i c and Canadian N a t i o n a l steamship l i n e s . On the other hand, there i s every reason to b e l i e v e that the road w i l l develop t o u r i s t I n t e r e s t and that passengers t r a v e l  l i n g i n one d i r e c t i o n by bus:or p r i v a t e car w i l l choose to make the r e t u r n t r i p by steamer. Steamship t r a v e l may, i n t h i s manner, be stimulated. A greater t h r e a t to steamship operators i s presented by the development of a i r l i n e s . Scheduled a i r s e r v i c e s , now a v a i l a b l e to many of the coast p o r t s , and non-scheduled s e r v i c e s , to others, are o f f e r e d at fare's u s u a l l y only a quarter to a t h i r d greater than f o r steam-- 129 - ship passage. Routes flown hy the air lines on a schedule basis in competition with steamship services include the- following: Canadian Pacific Air Lines Vancouver - Port Hardy - Sandspit - Prince Rupert. Queen Charlotte Air Lines Vancouver - Nanaimo - Comox. Vancouver - Powell River - Minstrel Island - Alert Bay - Sullivan Bay. Vancouver - Tahsis - Ceepeecee - Chamiss Bay - Zeballos. Trans-Canada Air Lines Vancouver - Victoria - Seattle. United Air Lines Vancouver - Seattle. Flights are made on the longer trips daily, except on Sum- day, and on the shorter routes, several times a day, as traf f i c conditions warrant. The advantages of air line- transportation l i e in the frequency of service and the speed of travel that are normally possible. For these, the passenger is willing to pay a slightly higher fare. For instance, six flights a week are scheduled from Vancouver to Prince Rupert, and four steamer sailings. The trip by air takes five and a quarter hours? by sea, from thirty-seven to forty-two hours, depending upon the route followed. The fare by plane is $44.85; by ship, f36.25. Statistics supplied by the Air Transport Board - 130 - and by th© N a t i o n a l Harbours Board provide a rough i n d i c  a t i o n of. the e f f e c t of a i r l i n e s competition with steam ship s e r v i c e s . For the : month of September, 1948, f l i g h t s between Vancouver and twelve, ports on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast c a r r i e d 14,791 passengers. During the same month, 173,233 passengers a r r i v e d at, or departed from, Vancouver i n c o a s t a l steamers. A i r l i n e s , then, appeared to be t a k i n g about e i g h t per cent.of the t o t a l c o a s t a l passenger t r a f f i c . J u s t as the a i r l i n e s are a t t r a c t i n g passenger t r a f f i c t h a t formerly went by steamer, scows and barges are s trong contenders f o r much of the cargo business. New evidence of the f a c t i s contained i n the announcement of the award to Coastwise Steamship and Barge Company of a con t r a c t to tr a n s p o r t f i f t e e n thousand tons of l i q u i d c a u s t i c and c h l o r i n e chemicals annually by barge from Tacoma t o the r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d pulp m i l l of the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company, near Prince Rupert. ^6 ^ 3 i s , the ac t u a l tonnage c a r r i e d by barges and scows i n B r i t i s h Columbia coast operations i s consider a b l y greater tham that f r e i g h t e d by steamers, and, indeed, the geography of the coast favours the s u c c e s s f u l use of unrigged v e s s e l s . 36 Harbour and Shipping, October, 1949, p.568. - 131 - L y i n g o f f the southern B r i t i s h Columbia mainland between;40° 19' and 50° 52' north l a t i t u d e , Vancouver I s l a n d provides c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g with s h e l t e r e d navigable waters from Juan de Puca S t r a i t to Queen C h a r l o t t e S t r a i t . Further north, a chain of smaller i s l a n d s forms s h e l t e r e d channels to the A l a s k a boundary, l e a v i n g only twenty-seven miles i n Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound, e i g h t miles i n Milbanke Sound, and approximately t h i r t y miles i n Chatham Sound open to the ocean^ Between Vancouver and Prince Rupert, eighty-nine per cent, and between Vancouver and Ocean F a l l s , ninety-one per cent of the " i n s i d e passage" i s In water s h e l t e r e d from the open seas Thus pr o t e c t e d from heavy P a c i f i c seas and s w e l l s , tugboats w i t h scows, barges, and l o g r a f t s are able to compete e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h s e l f - p r o p e l l e d cargo ships. The economies of tug and scow operations a r i s e from the r e l a t i v e l y low c a p i t a l c ost of f l o a t i n g equipment, the small crew r e q u i r e d to man the v e s s e l s , and the f l e x  i b i l i t y p o s s i b l e by v i r t u e of the f a c t that the cargo c a r r i e r i s separable-from i t s p r o p u l s i o n u n i t . In recent years, the War Assets Corporation has had f o r d i s p o s a l d i e s e l tugs of four hundred horse-power, s u i t a b l e f o r general towing, at o n e - f i f t h of t h e i r war-time p r i c e to the government of |125,000. Ninety-foot.wooden scows may be reckoned to cost about |7,000 each. At such p r i c e s , d e p r e c i a t i o n charges are not the formidable l o a d that the purchaser of s e l f -- 132 - p r o p e l l e d cargo tonnage must be prepared to c a r r y . Further more, the s i m p l i c i t y and s t u r d i n e s s of tugs and scows, and the absence; of a u x i l i a r y machinery, help to keep down r e p a i r and overhaul c o s t s . A crew of-seven mem— approximately h a l f the number r e q u i r e d i n a small c o a s t i n g f r e i g h t e r — i s adequate f o r a tug of the kind r e f e r r e d to, and, as no crew i s needed i n scows, wages and v i c t u a l l i n g expense are h e l d to a minimum. Because the tug i s r e l i e v e d of the n e c e s s i t y of remaining i n harbour while scows are being loaded or discharged, the crew can be. u s e f u l l y employed f o r a g r e a t e r p a r t of the timer. Having d e l i v e r e d i t s scow or scows to t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , a tug, u n l i k e a cargo ship, which i s immobilized d u r i n g the handling of cargo, i s f r e e to per form other assignments. Compared with ships, barges and scows are l e s s seaworthy and l e s s capable of f u r n i s h i n g f a s t , r e g u l a r s e r v i c e . T h e i r usual l a c k of d e r r i c k s and winches makes them dependent upon harbour equipment f o r l o a d i n g and d i s  charging and, i n that way, l i m i t s the scope of t h e i r use f u l n e s s . T h e i r l a c k of p r o p e l l i n g machinery, too, c a n r e s u l t i n delays while tugs are being sought to s h i f t them from t h e i r berths. There i s a s i m i l a r i t y between the type of com p e t i t i o n o f f e r e d by scow and barge operations to s e l f - p r o p e l l e d ships and by motor trucks to railways, although - 133 - the., p a r a l l e l should not be c a r r i e d too f a r . For one thing, a r e l a t i v e l y small investment w i l l put a tug and scow oper a t o r i n business i n the same manner that possession of a v e h i c l e makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r a t r u c k e r to ha>ul f r e i g h t f o r gain. Then, too, as highways may give access to p o i n t s not served by r a i l r o a d , scows can o f t e n be taken to places where ships-would f i n d i t impossible to handle cargo. I t i s not unusual, f o r Instance, f o r a scow to be run i n t o shallow water or i n t e n t i o n a l l y beached to f a c i l i t a t e cargo handling, whereas, without the a i d of l i g h t e r s , a s h i p r e q u i r e s a wharf wi t h an ample depth of water alongside. Again, as the scow operator i s not concerned with a number of the r u l e s p r e s c r i b e d f o r steamship operation, such, f o r example, as those d e a l i n g with l o a d l i n e s , he enjoys advan tages much the same as those of the t r u c k e r over the r a i l  road I n freedom from s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t may be noted that c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of commodity lend themselves e s p e c i a l l y to t r u c k i n g i n land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and to . f r e i g h t i n g by scow i n water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Here the s i m i l a r  i t i e s end. B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t i n g v e s s e l s are, u n l i k e the railways, under no o b l i g a t i o n to a c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y to maintain unremunerative- s e r v i c e s , to submit t a r i f f s f o r approval, or to r e f r a i n ; f r o m . d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between shippers. Barges and scows are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d f o r the c a r r i a g e of homogeneous commodities shipped i n bulk. Cargoes - 134 - of sand and g r a v e l e n t e r i n g Vancouver Harbour from H i l l s i d e , the F r a s e r Banks, and the North Arm,average more than twelve hundred tons d a i l y . Goal i s shipped by barge and scow from Nanaimo and Union Bay; cement, from Bamberton; lime from Blubber Bay and Fit z h u g h Sound. Large covered barges and scows c a r r y more than f i v e hundred tons of newsprint and paper a day to Vancouver from Ocean F a l l s and Powell River. Pulp from the m i l l s and concentrates from; the mines of Howe Sound, as w e l l as lumber and t i e s from V i c t o r i a , Chemainus, and Nanaimo, move to coast d e s t i n a t i o n s i n barges and scows. R e f r i g e r a t e d barges are used f o r f i s h cargoes; tank barges, f o r o i l . I n exposed waters, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f f the west coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d , the hulks of o l d s a i l i n g v e s s e l s and naval l a n d i n g c r a f t are used as l o g - c a r r y i n g barges. Securing r e t u r n cargoes i s as much a problem f o r the operator of barges and scows as: f o r the owner of s e l f - p r o p e l l e d eoasters, f o r the unrigged v e s s e l s f i n d employment almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n b r i n g i n g bulky raw m a t e r i a l s to Indus t r i a l centres and the ships, i n c a r r y i n g supplies from the c i t i e s to o u t l y i n g camps and communities. The economic development of B r i t i s h Columbia •— urban concentration In the southwest and t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d and o f t e n impermanent settlement northward along the coast -- precludes any r e a l success i n b a l a n c i n g inward and outward cargoes. One-way f r e i g h t i n g charges must, th e r e f o r e , cover the expense of a - 135 - round voyage. Covered barges i n the newsprint trades are able to secure a p r o p o r t i o n of general cargo on t h e i r r e t u r n t r i p s to the paper m i l l towns. Nevertheless, shippers tend to continue t h e i r support of the m a i l and passenger steamers i n order to r e t a i n the b e n e f i t s of the s e r v i c e s the r e g u l a r l i n e r s provide. Apart from general merchandise, trucks, and machinery, outward cargoes c a r r i e d i n barges and scows from the lower mainland include hog f u e l , s a l t , sulphur, and waste paper. Hog f u e l , i n p a r t i c u l a r , moves i n a consider able volume to Chemalnus, Powell River, Port Mellon, Wood- f i b r e , and the F r a s e r River, more than two hundred and f i f t y tons, on the average, l e a v i n g Vancouver d a i l y . The competitive advantages o f barge and scow operations have l e d to the displacement of s e l f - p r o p e l l e d coasters from most of the bulk cargo trades around the Gulf of Georgia and to the r i s e of barge l i n e s as competitors i n the general cargo trades of southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Among dry cargo v e s s e l s measuring between 200 and 1,200 net tons, the aggregate tonnage of barges and scows increased by s i x t y - e i g h t per cent i n a twenty year period (1928 to 1948) while the aggregate tonnage of s e l f - p r o p e l l e d f r e i g h t  ers d e c l i n e d by ei g h t y per cent.„ (See Table 14 on page 136.) Vancouver Barge Transportation, L i m i t e d , operates common c a r r i e r s e r v i c e s between Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , - 136 - Table 14 CANADIAN MERCHANT VESSELS, OTHER THAN TUGS, OF 200 NET REGISTER TONS AND OVER IN SERVICE ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST 1928 - 1938 - 1948 1928 1938 1948 NO. TONS NO. TONS NO. TONS SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS Passenger-cargo 30 31,329 26 38,479 26 36,589 Dry Cargo 27 25,415 17 13,174 9 5,083 Tank 2 505 2 621 5 2,783 59 57,249 45 52,274 40 44,455 SCOWS AND BARGES 200 - 1,200 Tons Dry Cargo 176 52,595 217 65,691 310 88,317 Tank 1 206 7 2,226 9 2,759 Over 1,200 Tons Dry Cargo 12 24,032 14 31,274 8 14,610 Tank - - - - 1 3,824 189 76,833 238 99,191 328 109,510 TOTALS 248 134,082 283 151,465 368. 153,965 Source: Canada, Department of Transport, L i s t of Vessels on the R e g i s t r y Books of the Dominion of Canada, f o r the years 1928, 1938, 1948, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . - 137 - F i g u r e 5 GROWTH OF THE SCOW AND BARGE FLEET RELATIVE TO THE SELF-PROPELLED FLEET IN BRITISH COLUMBIA COASTING SERVICE 1928 - 1938 - 19^8 (Vessels of 200 Net Reg. Tons and Over, Excluding Tugs) 1 000 TONS 12! 10d— 75H 25 - Self-propelled Vessels in Red Scows and Barges in Green 5CH 1928 • 1938 1948 Source: Canada, Department of Transport, List of Vessels on the Registry Books of the Dominion of Canada, for the years 1928, 1938, 1948, Ottawa, King's Printer. - 138 - Cowichan Bay, Chemainus, Nanaimo, Courtenay, Gibson's Landing, Westvlew, and Texada I s l a n d , employing scows of from 130 to 450 r e g i s t e r tons on a thrice-weekly schedule, r e c e i v i n g cargo f o r prepaid or c o l l e c t shipment up to a h a l f hour before s a i l i n g time. The company has i t s own wharves at Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, and Courtenay; at other p o i n t s i t uses the" government wharves. S p e c i a l use i s made- of unrigged v e s s e l s by the r a i l w a y companies, who employ l a r g e " t r a n s f e r " barges f i t t e d with t r a c k s to f e r r y r a i l r o a d f r e i g h t cars across the Gulf of Georgia and between Vancouver and the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n terminal at Squamish. The use of t r a n s f e r s saves time and reduces expense by e l i m i n a t i n g the handling oper ations Involved i n the trans-shipment of goods from car to v e s s e l and again to car. Canadian P a c i f i c t r a n s f e r barges operate from Vancouver to Nanoose Bay and Ladysmith? Canadian N a t i o n a l , from Port Mann to Cowichan Bay. The Canadian L i s t of Shipping shows:more than nine hundred barges-and scows i n s e r v i c e on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. (See Table 15 on page 139.) Two-thirds: of the number are twenty years o l d and over. R e f l e c t i n g the slowed-down i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y of the '3"0's, very l i t t l e scow c o n s t r u c t i o n took place between 1930 and 1939. The war then brought about renewed b u i l d i n g i n l o c a l yards and also r e s u l t e d In the importation of scows from the - 139 - Table 15 SCOWS AND BARGES OF 10 NET REGISTER TONS AND OVER IN SERVICE ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST BY AGE GROUPS (As at September 30, 1949) NUMBER OF SCOWS AND BARGES AGE 10 to 199 Tons 200 to 1,200 Tons Over 1,200 Tons Less than 10 years 129 117 3 10 to 19 years 23 34 - 20 to 29 years 263 121 1 3 0 to 39 years 121 48 _ 40 to 49 years 30 13 2 50 years and over 2 1 4 TOTALS 568 334 10 Source: Canada, Department of Transport, L i s t of Shipping, and Supplements 1, 2, and 3, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1949. - 140 - United S t a t e s . The future-development of.the B r i t i s h Columbia scow f l e e t may w e l l he f o r e c a s t by the: trend among New York operators to rep l a c e wooden with all-welded s t e e l v e s s e l s . According to reports-, s t e e l scows-measuring 120 f e e t by 32 f e e t by 9-| f e e t , b u i l t by the-Dravo Corporation f o r the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western R a i l r o a d Company, cost: l e s s to maintain, have? greater reserve buoyancy, and o f f e r l e s s towing r e s i s t a n c e than wooden scows-. 37 37 "Wooden Vesse l s Replaced by A l l Welded S t e e l C r a f t " , Harbour and Shipping, October, 1949, P.575. - 141 - CHAPTER 10 OPERATING- RESULTS AND GOVERNMENT AID I t la-not: a mis?-statement to say that the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t a l passenger and cargo sh i p p i n g i s an account?of f a i l u r e s : r a t h e r than-successes. Company a f t e r company has: acquired ships-, endeavoured to operate them p r o f i t a b l y , and e v e n t u a l l y disposed of them to — f o r the time being, stronger -- competitors. In r e c e n t times, o n l y the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway's B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Steamship Ser v i c e h a s - r e t a i n e d i t s i d e n t i t y as a: company c o n t r o l l e d i n Canada-over a-period approaching f i f t y years of continuous operations^. Consolidated f i n a n c i a l statements made p u b l i c by the major steamship companies are s i n g u l a r l y uninformative. In them, r e s u l t s of steamship-operations are u s u a l l y so combined with the returns from railway, o r - e s t a t e , oper a t i o n s as to be i n e x t r i c a b l e . Nevertheless, there i s ample evidence that the coast s h i p p i n g business i s not; p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c r a t i v e . For the past three years, the Union Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia, Limited, whose s u b s i d i a r i e s i n c l u d e Union Steamships, Limited, and Frank Waterhouse and Company of Canada, Limited", has operated at a l o s s ranging - 14:2 - from $51,051 for the year ended January 3 1 , 1949, to $142,984 for the^year ended January 31, 1947. The com pany' s position at the end of the fiscal year in January, 1949, was such that current assets were only two-thirds of current l i a b i l i t i e s an obviously unsound condition. That the- operations of Canadian National Steam ships-have also been unprofitable in recent years may he concluded" from statements made in evidence before the Sessional Committee on Railways and Shipping Owned, Oper ated and Controlled by the Government. On March 29, 1949, Mr. T. H." Cooper, Vice-president and Comptroller of Canadian National Railways;, was asked" what profit and loss there had been with respect to the steamers "Prince George" and "Prince Rupert". Mr. Cooper: I can t e l l you that. The operation of the Pacific Steamship Company (sic) resulted In a loss of: $137,707. Mr. Fulton: How does that compare in general with the record of previous years? Mr. Cooper: In 1947 the loss was $95,000. The operation of the S.S. Prince Rupert resulted in: a loss: of $167,000. The operation of the S.S. Prince George showed" a profit of $89,000; and the dock at Vancouver resulted in a loss"of $59,000; and, that makes up the net; of $137,000. Mr. Fultonr The only one which showed a profit; was the new ship,* the Prince George? 38 The Union Steamship Company of British Columbia, Limited, Report and Financial Statement for the year ended January 31, 1949. - 143 - Mr. Cooper: Yes, the new v e s s e l showed, a p r o f i t . Mr. F u l t o n : And the other one i s an old" ship? Mr. Cooper: Yes, but i t i s s t i l l doing a p r e t t y f a i r Job. Mr. F u l t o n : And might I ask you, Mr. Cooper, when you say the P r i n c e George showed a p r o f i t , Is t h a t an o p e r a t i n g p r o f i t , or does that take; in; the purchase p r i c e — i s i t an o v e r - a l l r e t u r n on the Investment i n the v e s s e l or just an o p e r a t i n g p r o f i t ? Mr. Cooper: No, i t i s an o p e r a t i n g p r o f i t . I t i n c l u d e s d e p r e c i a t i o n but not i n t e r e s t . 39 I f i n t e r e s t at f o u r per cent were to have been charged on the investment i n the "Prince George", no p r o f i t would have been shown on her operation. Evidence before the Standing Committee on R a i l  ways and Shipping i n previous years f u r t h e r d i s c l o s e s Canadian N a t i o n a l experience of u n p r o f i t a b l e operations. On March 19, 194-0, f o r example, Mr. S. J . Hungerford, P r e s i d e n t of the Canadian N a t i o n a l System, stated, "The 'Prince Charles' and the 'Prince John' were engaged i n the Vancouver - Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s e r v i c e , as you know. That was a h i g h l y u n p r o f i t a b l e s e r v i c e . We were l o s i n g a l o t of money, notwithstanding the subsidy (of |12,000 a y e a r ) . ...We were l o s i n g somewhere in- the neighbourhood of f40,000 a year on, that s e r v i c e . " 4 0 And on May 21, 39 Canada, S e s s i o n a l Committee on Railways- and Shipping, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, Tuesday, March 29, 1949, p.94. 4 ^ Canada, Standing Committee on Railways and Shipping, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, March 19, 1940, p.47. - 144 - 1941, Mr. Cooper, asked i f the "Prince Robert" and "Prince David" had ever made any money, r e p l i e d , "They were not p r o f i t a b l e to the r a i l w a y . " ^ 1 The Canadian P a c i f i c , too, has found that not a l l i t s coast steamship operations were remunerative undertakings. With revenue from i t s Vancouver - Ocean F a l l s - P r i n c e Rupert s e r v i c e i n s u f f i c i e n t to cover expenses, the company i n October, 1948, withdrew i t s steamer from the route, c i t i n g h i g h wages and f u e l costs as the two p r i n c i p a l ho f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e . Steamship subsidy s t a t i s t i c s also a t t e s t to the f a c t t h a t a number of coast s e r v i c e s would be unable, on the b a s i s o f the revenue t r a f f i c they produce, to operate without f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . For many years, the Canadian Government has^ c o n t r i b u t e d pecuniary a i d to assure that e s s e n t i a l steamship s e r v i c e s would be a v a i l a b l e to o u t l y i n g communities and industries'. Since 1892, when the Department, of Trade and Commerce undertook the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s u b s i d i e s and subventions, sums' t o t a l l i n g 5.7 m i l l i o n d o l  l a r s have been p a i d i n d i r e c t a s sistance to west' coast M Canada, Standing Committee on Railways and Shipping, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, May 21, 1941, p.135. ^ 2 "Princess Adelaide to End 38 Years of Operation", Vancouver D a i l y Province, September 16, 1948, p.36'. - 145 - steamship l i n e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s amount i s shown, i n Table 16 on page 146. The Steamship Subsidies S t a b i l i z a t i o n Fund, out of which $1,474,546 was p a i d i n a d d i t i o n a l s u b s i d i e s to west coast s e r v i c e s i n the p e r i o d from 1942 to 1948, r e q u i r e s a b r i e f explanation. E a r l y In 1942 i t became apparent that, with f r e i g h t rates and passenger fa r e s " f r o z e n " by the Wartime P r i c e s and Trade Board, s u b s i d i e s would have to be increased to reimburse c o n t r a c t i n g com panies f o r increased f u e l costs, war r i s k insurance, and war bonuses paid to crews of v e s s e l s . Instead of r a i s i n g the amounts of c o n t r a c t u a l subsidy payments, the govern ment provided, by o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l 4 ^ , f o r the e s t a b l i s h  ment of a fund to be used to compensate owners f o r t h e i r e x t r a expenditures consequent upon the existence of a s t a t e of war. The continued n a t i o n a l emergency a f t e r the war made necessary the extension of a u t h o r i t y to pay a d d i t i o n a l s u b s i d i e s , even though war bonuses had, at that time, been: inc o r p o r a t e d i n wages. 4 4 Following the l i f t i n g of the c e i l i n g on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n charges on September 15, 1947, 4 5 P.O. 5653, J u l y 2, 1942. 4 4 P.O. 3020, J u l y 25, 1946, and P.O. 2082, June 6, 1947. DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES TO WEST COAST SERVICES 1892 - 1950 1. B r i t i s h Columbia and Mexico 2. Port Essington and Queen Charlotte Is lands 3. Vancouver and Howe Sound 4. Vancouver and Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Prince Rupert and Queen Charlotte Islands Vancouver, Northern B r i t i s h Columbia and Queen Charlotte Islands Subsidies S t a b i l i z a t i o n Fund 5. V i c t o r i a and San Francisco 6. V i c t o r i a and West Coast of Vancouver Is land Subsidies S t a b i l i z a t i o n Fund 7. V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and Comox 8. V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and Skagway Subsidies S t a b i l i z a t i o n Fund 1907-1913 1905-1906 1903-1932 1896-1947 1909-1947 1892-1925 1902-1950 1943-1948 1892-1894 1902-1948 1943-1944 686,240 636,823 1947-1950 1,152,000 1942-1948 1,135,555 549,429 217,106 702,157 121,885 | 307,289 500 52,269 3,610,618 143,169 766,535 142 824,042 $5,704,564 H3 Si & H ON Source: Subsidies D i v i s i o n , Canadian Maritime Commission. - 147 - payments from the fund terminated on January 31, 1948. ^ 5 The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s h i p p i n g s u b s i d i e s i n 1947 became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a branch of the Canadian M a r i  time Commission, whose duty i t i s : to examine a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r government a i d , to make recommendations f o r c o n t r a c t s , and to supervise the performance of s e r v i c e s for which a s s i s  tance i s provided. Before a subsidy i s awarded, the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the proposed s e r v i c e and the a b i l i t y of the: a p p l i c a n t to perform are c a r e f u l l y considered. Once the e s s e n t i a l i t y and the minimum;requirements of a s e r v i c e are e s t a b l i s h e d , the adequacy of the intended v e s s e l and the suggested sc a l e of r a t e s and f a r e s are i n v e s t i g a t e d . F i n a l l y , a reasonable subsidy, intended to cover the expected d e f i c i t i n f u r n i s h i n g the c o n t r a c t u a l s e r v i c e , i s agreed upon. Oper a t i n g r e s u l t s are kept under review and the experience a p p l i e d to subsequent renewals of the c o n t r a c t . While the Commission's o f f i c i a l s are guided by a "formula" governing subsidy awards, of n e c e s s i t y much depends upon, personal judgment. Complexities i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s u b s i d i e s on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast r e s u l t from the f a c t that the two companies i n r e c e i p t of government a i d operate non- *5 P.C. 4732, November 19, 1947. - 148 - s u b s i d i z e d as w e l l as s u b s i d i z e d s e r v i c e s . Some costs, such, as expenses of management, are common:to a i l operations conducted by a company, and yet a p o r t i o n of these costs must be charged to the s u b s i d i z e d s e r v i c e . The amount char ged i s , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , o n l y an i n t e l l i g e n t estimate, and i f the proper charge i s - i n f a c t exceeded i t follows that the subsidy more than: reimburses the c o n t r a c t o r f o r the costs he a c t u a l l y i n c u r s . He i s then able to apply a part of the grant; to his- unsubsidized, and perhaps competing, s e r v i c e s . Another complexity a r i s e s when an unsubsidized steamer attempts:-to capture the p r o f i t a b l e share of t r a f f i c on; a s u b s i d i z e d route, l e a v i n g the c o n t r a c t i n g v e s s e l with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r r y i n g the l e s s remunerative cargo. Only a system o f l i c e n s i n g c o a s t i n g v e s s e l s f o r s p e c i f i c trades can c o r r e c t such a s i t u a t i o n . Subsidy payments to west coast l i n e s over the past twenty-five years are shown i n Table 17, on page 149. I t w i l l be noted that, except on the: V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, and Skagway route, s u b s i d i z e d s e r v i c e s have r e q u i r e d con s i d e r a b l y more f i n a n c i a l a i d since the second world war than In pre-war years. Subsidies are, i n . f a c t , i n d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a i d to re s i d e n t s o f the more i s o l a t e d sections; of the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. By and la r g e , war has not: increased the af f l u e n c e of the Inhabitants of remote commun i t i e s to the extent that they can shoulder the f u l l burden - 149 - Table 17 CANADIAN GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES FOR WEST COAST SERVICES 1925 - 1950 YEAR VICTORIA VANCOUVER AND SKAGWAY VICTORIA AND WEST COAST VANCOUVER ISLAND VANCOUVER AND HOWE SOUND VANCOUVER AND NORTHERN B.C. PRINCE RUPERT AND Q.C.I. 1925/26 1926/27 1927/28 1928/29 1929/30 1930/31 1931/32 1932/33 1933/34 1934/35 1935/36 1936/37 1937/38 1938/39 1939/40 1940/41 1941/42 1942/43 1943/44 1944/45 1945/46 1946/47 1947/48 1948/49 1949/50 25,000 25,000 24,107 25,000 25,892 25,000 25,000 12,500 12,500 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 131,885* 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 12,000 11,250 11,250 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 82,152* 48,468* 52,684* 39,351* 44,452* 70,000 60,000 5,000 6,250 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 4,000 24,800 31,000 24,800 24,800 24,800 24,800 19,640 18,600 18,600 ,18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 97,693* 80,714* 114,082 193, 333, 759, 388, 345, 20, 21, 21, 21, 21, 21, 16, 15, 15, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 22, 48, 73, 69, 641* 427* 655* 000 000 596 000 000 000 000 000 800 447 447 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 757* 929* 659* (•* i n c l u d i n g S t a b i l i z a t i o n Fund payments) Source: Subsidies D i v i s i o n , Canadian Maritime Commission. — 150 - of h i g h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n : c o s t s , and consequently the Canadian Government has been c a l l e d upon to bear a pro p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e r share than formerly. Corresponding s i t u a t i o n s e x i s t i n other c o u n t r i e s : i n Great B r i t a i n , f o r example, where, before the war, an annual grant of -&60,000 was adequate f o r maintaining s e r v i c e s i n the Western Highlands and Islands of Scotland, but i n 194-9 •L240,000 was r e q u i r e d . 4 ^ 4 6 F a i r p l a y , March 24, 1949, p.760. - 151 - CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSIONS Four more or l e s s d i s t i n c t stages are e v i d e n t i n the development of B r i t i s h Columbia coast steamship trans- . p o r t a t i o n . Though the stages overlap, approximate t u r n i n g p o i n t s are r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . Commencing with an era when the Hudson Bay Company exer c i s e d , under a r o y a l c h a r t e r , an absolute t r a d i n g monopoly, coast t r a n s p o r t a t i o n moved w i t h the F r a s e r R i v e r gold rush Into a p e r i o d of i n t e n s e l y competitive, s m a l l - s c a l e s h i p p i n g e n t e r p r i s e c a r r i e d on by i n d i v i d u a l 1 p r o p r i e t o r s and p a r t n e r s h i p s . There followed, l o g i c a l l y , the growth of steamship corpor ations — d a t i n g from, say, the formation of the Canadian P a c i f i c N a vigation Company — as settlement., i n d u s t r i a l expansion, and r a i l communication with the r e s t of the North American continent increased the flow of water-borne passenger and cargo t r a f f i c . Since 1901, the entry of the n a t i o n a l railway companies i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia shipping has l e d to t h e i r v i r t u a l domination of passenger and cargo l i n e r services.; In p a r t i c u l a r , the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l  way stands out at the h a l f century as the major force i n . c o a s t a l steamship operations, with a near-monopoly i n most of the e s t a b l i s h e d l i n e r trades. S t i l l f o r the most part - 1 5 2 - i n the stage of competitive corporate, e n t e r p r i s e are the se c t i o n s of the s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y concerned with the oper a t i o n of o i l tankers, f i s h packers, tow boats, and scows and barges. T r a f f i c i s , as one would suspect, heaviest i n the regions of the lower mainland and Vancouver I s l a n d wherein n i n e t y - s i x per cent of the coast p o p u l a t i o n i s con cen t r a t e d . While the main a r t e r i e s of trade extend from Vancouver to c e n t r a l and southern Vancouver Island, many settlements, dependent on r e g u l a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s with the c h i e f d i s t r i b u t i o n centres, are widely s c a t t e r e d along the coast. I n d u s t r i a l operations, e s p e c i a l l y f i s h packing, canning, and processing, are o f t e n seasonal, and labour i s t r a n s i e n t . Revenue t r a f f i c developed i n most remote com munities would not be enough to j u s t i f y year-round steamship c a l l s , and only because s u b s i d i e s are provided are r e g u l a r s e r v i c e s p o s s i b l e . The t o u r i s t trade imparts a pronounced seasonal p a t t e r n to passenger t r a f f i c on the coast, t r a v e l i n the months of J u l y and August accounting f o r approximately one- t h i r d of the annual passenger movement. F a c i l i t i e s are taxed during the summer but ships must be l a i d up f o r l a c k of employment, earning nothing, d u r i n g the rest, o f the year. The u t i l i z a t i o n o f cargo c a p a c i t y in . ships and unrigged v e s s e l s presents an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t . An i d e a l - 153 - s h i p p i n g operation.would provide f u l l cargoes f o r both outward and inward voyages i n order to maximize revenue. Such a s i t u a t i o n i s seldom r e a l i z e d . C o astal l i n e r s nor mally f r e i g h t g eneral merchandise from the larg e d i s t r i b  u t i n g ports and want f o r r e t u r n cargoes; scows and barges c a r r y bulk commodities i n one d i r e c t i o n and go back empty. Petroleum products, moved i n tank ships as w e l l as in; barges, are one-way cargoes. , Despite the fac t , that the steamers o b t a i n a share of f i s h and paper cargoes, the f i s h packers, cans, c o l l a p s e d c r a t e s , and s a l t , and the newsprint barges, a certain:amount of general cargo to c o n t r i b u t e to the revenue of round voyages, the problem of unused c a p a c i t y has yet found no adequate s o l u t i o n . T r a f f i c trends, though not an i n f a l l i b l e guide to the f u t u r e , i n d i c a t e the continued growth of cargo ship ping. Scows and barges, now c a r r y i n g i n the aggregate about s i x times as much: dry cargo tonnage as s e l f - p r o p e l l e d ships, w i l l probably secure an even l a r g e r share of future business. A i r l i n e s competition may be p a r t l y the cause of the s l i g h t d e c l i n e of steamship passenger t r a f f i c from i t s wartime peak, but.future prospects f o r the steamers are not clouded. For one thin g , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new automobile f e r r i e s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t response to the- demand f o r passenger f a c i l i t i e s to meet modern needs. - 154 - The g r e a t e s t problem f a c i n g the c o a s t a l steamship companies since the second world war has been the sharp r i s e i n the cost of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e . Operating expenses have more than doubled i n a decade. T o t a l running and overhead costs f o r a new s h i p may now be: two and a quarter times as much a s : f o r a s i m i l a r s h i p i n 1939. Revenues have not increased p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y : on f i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e routes the f r e i g h t r a t e f o r s h i p p i n g a ton. of general mer chandise averages f i f t y - s e v e n per cent higher than i n 1939; on four r e p r e s e n t a t i v e routes f i r s t c l a s s passenger fa r e s are up an average of t h i r t y - t h r e e per cent In ten years. Unrigged v e s s e l s , operated more cheaply than cargo ships, are making steady inroads i n t o coast shipping. Many of the bulk cargo trades i n which ships formerly par t i c i p a t e d — cement, lime, newsprint, f o r instance — are now served almost e x c l u s i v e l y by barges and scows. While the barge and scow f l e e t expands, the number and tonnage of cargo and passenger-cargo ships shows a steady d e c l i n e . L i t t l e f o r e s i g h t and long-term economic planning are r e f l e c t e d by the sporadic growth of coast s h i p p i n g f l e e t s . During the 1930*s, f o r example, p r a c t i c a l l y no orders were placed f o r new v e s s e l s , In s p i t e of the f a c t that t r a f f i c trends were sloping'upward. New c o n s t r u c t i o n i s l a r g e l y governed by current demands f o r tonnage, and, - 155 - consequently, there has "been a tendency to b u i l d v e s s e l s d u r i n g periods o f h i g h costs r a t h e r than i n times of sl a c k  ened a c t i v i t y when c o n s t r u c t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y cheap. As a r e s u l t , operations are too o f t e n burdened with unduly h i g h overhead c o s t s . Improvement might w e l l come about through the implementation, j u s t i f i e d by the Canadian Government's i n t e r e s t i n s u b s i d i z e d s e r v i c e s , of a p o l i c y of s t a t e encouragement or d i r e c t i o n to assure the o r d e r l y and t i m e l y replacement o f outmoded v e s s e l s . - 156 - APPENDIX PARTICULARS OF THE CHIEF BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST FLEETS OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY PERIOD OF „. i r_. rt_ _____ YEAR TTrim--_ W T A U CROSS SERVICE N M E 0 F S H I P BUILT LENGTH BEAM T 0 K K A G E 1929-1936 Border Queen 1913 201 .1 41.0 934 (ex Rosalie?Mahony) 1934 -1943 Border Prince 1919 172 .6 3 0 . 2 710 (ex Chilkoot) Boseowitz Steamship Company 1899 -1905 Barbara Boseowitz 1883 1 2 0 . 0 ' 22.0 270 1905 -1909 Venture 1902 153.4 3 6 . 2 812 1908-1911 Vadso (ex Bordeaux) 1881 191 .2 28 .7 908 1910 -1911 Venture 1910 180 .4 3 2 . 1 1,011 British Columbia Cement Company, , Limited 1918 -1924 Matsqui 1911 82.3 2 1 . 0 113 1920 -1923 Laurel Whelan 1917 240.5 43.9 1,357 1920 -1939 Teco 1918 1 1 7 . 0 23.4 * 194 1924 -1935 Shean (ex Caria) 1920 15:0.0 2 3 . 8 420 1929 -1945 Island King 1920 1 6 5 . 1 28.2 591 (ex Columba, Granit) British Columbia Steamships, Limited 1942 - Island Prince 1908 123 .5 , 2 8 . 8 416' (ex Salvor, Leebre) 1 9 4 3 - Alaska Prince 1919 172.6 30 . 2 710 (ex Border Prince, Chilkoot) - 157 - PERIOD OF SERVICE NAME OF SHIP YEAR BUILT LENGTH BEAM GROSS TONNAGE Canadian-Mexican P a c i f i c Steamship Company, L i m i t e d 1907-1912 Georgia 1889 335.0 40.2 2,797 (ex Regina Elena, Sikh) 1907-1912 Lonsdale 1889 340.0 41.0 3,171 (ex V i l l e du Havre) Canadian N a t i o n a l Steamships, Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Steamshi Company, and Canadian Government Mer chant Marine 1910-1916 Hen r l e t t e 1874/1905 160.0 30.0 762 1910-1923 Prince A l b e r t 1892 232.0 30.0 1,015 (ex Bruno) 1910- Prince Rupert 1910 306.7 42.2 3,379 1910-1945 Prince George 1910 306.7 42.2" 3,372 1911-1940 Prince John 1910 185.3 29.6: 905 (ex Amethyst) 1921-1928 Canadian Farmer 1920 251.0 43.6 2,410 1921-1929 Canadian Observer 1920 251.0 '43.6 2,410 1921-1929 Canadian Rover 1920 251.0 43.6" 2,422 1924-1929 Canadian Coaster 1921 251.0 43.6 2,422 1928-1928 Canadian Ranger 1918 400.4 52.3 5,752 1925-1940 Prince Charles 1907 241.7 33.1 1,344 (ex St.Margaret, 0 h i e f t a i n ) 1929-1940 Pri n c e W i l l i a m 1915 177.0 24.0 409 (ex Aktion) 1930-1931 Prince Henry 1930 366.4 57.1 6,893 1931-1931 Prince David 1930 366.4 57.1 6,892 1931-1939 Prince Robert - 1930 366.4 57.1 6,892 1948- Prince George 1948 350.0 52.0 5,812 Canadian P a c i f i c Railway (B.C , Coast Steamship Service) 1901-1903 Maude 1872 113.5 21.0 175 1901-1906" Yosemite 1862 282.3 34.8 1,525 1901-1909 R. P. R i t h e t 1882 177.0 33.6 1,012 1901-1916 Prin c e s s Louise 1869 180.0 30.0 932 (ex: Olympia) 1901-1931 Otter „ 1900 128.0 24.5 366 - 158 - PERIOD OF SERVICE . NAME OF SHIP -XEAR BUILT LENGTH BEAM GROSS TONNAGE 1901-1901 Is l a n d e r 1888 240.0 42.0 1,495 1901-1905 Danube 1889 215.6' 27.7 887 1901-1935 Charmer (ex Premier) 1886 200.0 42.0 1,044 1901-1909 Tr a n s f e r 1893 122.0 24 . 5 264 1901-1925 Tees, 1893 165.0 26.0 679 1901-1902 Wi l l a p a 1882/1889 136.0 22 . 0 373 (ex General M i l e s ) 1901-1917 Queen C i t y 1894 116.0 27.0 391 1901-1919 Beaver 1898 140.0 28.0 545 1901-1913 Amur 1890 216.0 28.1 907 1901-1919 P r i n c e s s May 1888 249.0 33.2 1,708 (ex Hating, Nlngchow, Arthur, Cass) 1902- P r i n c e s s V i c t o r i a 1 9 0 3 / 1 9 3 0 300.0 57.6' 3,167 1903-1928 P r i n c e s s B e a t r i c e 1903 193.4 37.4 1,290 1905-1912 C i t y of Nanaimo 1891 159.0 32.0 821 1905-1914 Joan 1892 176.8 . 30.0 869 1907-1932 Pr i n c e s s Ena 1907 195.1 38.2 1,368 1907-1932 Pri n c e s s Royal 1907 228.0 40.0 1,997 1908-1949 Pr i n c e s s C h a r l o t t e 1908 330.0 46.7 3,925 1910-1949 P r i n c e s s Adelaide 1910 290.5 46.1 1,910 1910- P r i n c e s s Mary 1910/1914 248.4 40 . 1 2,155 I 9 I I - I 9 4 9 P r i n c e s s A l i c e 1911 290.6 46.1 1,904 1912-1918 Pri n c e s s Sophia 1911 245.2 44 . 1 2 , 3 2 0 1912-1937 Prin c e s s P a t r i c i a 1902 270.0 32.1 1,158 (ex Queen Alexandra) 1913- P r i n c e s s Maquinna 1913 232.5 38.0 1,777 1918-1930 Is l a n d P r i n c e s s 1913 116.2 23.1 339 1921- P r i n c e s s Louise 1921 317.2 48 . 1 4,032 1923- Motor P r i n c e s s 1923 153.0 43.5 1,243 1924- P r i n c e s s -Kathleen 1924/1947 350.1 60.I 5,908 1925-1942 Pri n c e s s Marguerite 1925 350 . 1 60 . 1 5,875 1926- Nootka 1919 251.3 43.9 2 , 0 6 9 (ex Emperor of Port McNichol, Canadian Adventurer) 1928- Princess E l a i n e 1928 291.4 48 . 1 2 , 0 2 7 1928- P r i n c e s s Norah 1928 250.1 48.1 2 , 7 3 1 1930- P r i n c e s s E l 1 2 a b e t h 1930 353.3 52.1 5 , 2 5 1 1930- Princess Joan 1930 3 5 3 . 3 52.1 5 . 2 5 1 1949- Princess Marguerite 1948 359.5 56.2 5 , 9 1 1 1949- P r i n c e s s P a t r i c i a 1949 359.5 5 6 . 2 5,911 - 159 - PERIOD OF SERVIOS NAME OF SHIP YEAR GROSS BUILT L ^ { ' m f r „ TONNAGE Coast Steamship Company, L i m i t e d and Coast Steamship Company, (1922) L i m i t e d 1906-1919 F i n g a l 1895 85.0 19.1 91 1906-1930 Clansman 1899 82.0 17.2 72 1907-1932 C e l t i c 1907 89.4 24.5 239 1915-1916' B r i t i s h Columbia 1903 170.1 27.1 557 (ex Onyx) 1916-1937 Coaster 1916 94.0 21.0 149 1924-1937 Matsqui 1911 82 .3 21.0 113 Coastwise Steamship and Barge Company, L i m i t e d 1913-1924 Amur 1890 216.0 28.1 907 1916-1918 B r i t i s h Columbia 1903 170.1 27.1 557 (ex Onyx) 1916-1918 Henrie t t e 1874/1905 l60.0 30.0 762 1918-1931 Marmion 1893 140.0 24.0 324 1920-1930 Anyox 1917 193.4 39.7 1,267 1922-1946 G r i f f c o (ex E l Abeto) 1920 220.0 40.1 1,426 1923-1933 Mogul 1896 310.0 44.0 2,935 (ex Kingtor, Caesar) 1924-1945 Amur (ex J.H.Plummer) 1903 246.4: 36.6 1,643 1929-1937 Bornite 1920 251.0 43.6 2,422 (ex Canadian Rover) Frank Waterhouse and Company o f Canada, L i m i t e d 1918- Eastholm 1913 93.0 24.3 197 1918-1929 Westham 1909 85.3 22.0 199 1918-1934 S e l k i r k 1898 95.6" 24.0 142 1929- Southholm 1919 200.0 32.0 1,029 (ex E.D.Kingsley) 1924-1943 Northholm 1924 150.2 25.2 447 (ex Robert H. Merrick) 1925-1934 Watco (ex Arran F i r t h ) 1921 138.3 23.3 342 1942-1948 Gray (ex Petriana) 1909 182.7 27.9 707 1945- Is l a n d King 1920 165.1 28.2 591 (ex Columba, Granit) - 160 - P S E R v ? C E F ™ E ° F S H I P lui^ T LENGTH M M K TS&E Gulf L i n e s , L i m i t e d 1946- Gulf Wing 1944 107.6 17.9 103 1946-1947 Gulf Stream 1915 146.0 22.9 336 (ex HMCS Wolf, Bluewater) 1948- Gulf Mariner 1942 155.9 28.0 609 (ex HMCS Truro) Imperial O i l Shipping Company, L i m i t e d 1922-1939 Imperial (Impoco) 1898 200.0 32.0 796 1926- Imperial Namu 1926 90.0 19.0 131 (ex M a r v o l i t e ) 1926-1934 F u e l i t e 1909 145.5 27.6 376 (ex Hercules No. 7) 1927-1939 Nanalmollte 1926 170.0 31.2 513 (ex Toedjoe) 1938- Imperial Nanaimo 1937 120.0 27.0 400 (ex B e e c e e l i t e ) 1939- Imperial Vancouver 1938 230.0 39.8 1,512 (ex Imperial) KlnRsley Navigation Comoany, Li m i t e d 1917-1920 Queen C i t y 1894 116". 0 27.0 357 1919-1929 E. D. Ki n g s l e y 1919 200.0 32.0 1,029 1924-1938 Rochelie 1913 241.0 36'. 0 1,487 1929-1946 Rosebank 1920 251.0 43.6" 2,410 (ex Canadian Observer) 1929-1943 K i n g s l e y 1921 251.0 43.6 2,422 (ex Canadian COaster) Mackenzie_ Brothers,, L i m i t e d 1895-1906' F l n g a l 1895 85.0 19.1 91 1895-1906 S t a f f a 1893 81.5 15.3 51 1899-1906 Clansman 1899 82.0 17.2 72 1906'-1910 Henriette 1874/1905 160.0 30.0 762 1909-1910 Rupert C i t y 1886 310.3 38.1 2,898 (ex Powhatan) - 161 - PERIOD OF NAME OF SHIP YEAR GROSS SERVICE BUILT LENGTH BEAM I9NNAG3 Northern Steamship Company of Br11iah _Co1umb1a 1908-1914 C e t r i a n a ( e x Norway) 1891 203.0 30.1 939 1908-1912 P e t r i a n a 1909 182.7 27.9 707 1912-1914 B r i t i s h Empire 1902 167.5 26.6 576 L i n c o l n Rogers and A s s o c i a t e s (Burrard Steamship Company, L i n c o l n Steamship Company) 1907-1913 Ophir 1907 91.4 24.0 212 1909-1918 Weatham 1909 85... 3 *2. ^  199 1910-1918 S e l k i r k 1898 95.6 24.7 142 1913-1918 Eastholm ^) 93.0 24.3 197 Terminal Steam Navigation.Company^ L i m i t e d 1902-1910 Defiance . 1897 62.0 16.0 101 1902-1919 B r i t a n n i a 1902 104.8 '22.4 326 1909-1917 Baramba ( e x R.P.Rithet) 1882 177.0 33.6 1,012 1914-1920 B a l l e n a (ex Joan) 1892 176.8 30.0 869 1912-1920 Bowena 1891 159.0 32.0 821 (ex C i t y of Nanaimo) Union.: Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia 1890-1900 Cutch 1884 180.0 23.0 365 1891-1920 Comox 1891 101.0 18.1 101 1891-1915 Capilano 1892 120.0 22.2 231 1892-1903 Coquitlam 1892 120.0 22.0 256 1901-1925 C a s s i a r 1890/1901 120.6 29.0 597 (ex J.R.McDonald) 1905-1936 Camosun 1905 192.7 35.2 1,369 1908-1925 Cowichan 1908 157.1 32.1 962 1910-1943 Cheakamus 1910 145.3 28.1 689 (ex Cheslakee) 1911-1949 Chelohsin 1911 175.5 35.1 1,134 1911-1914 Vadso (ex Bordeaux) 1881 191.2 28.7 908 1911-1946 Venture .. 1910 180.4 32.1 1,011 1914-1916 Melmore 1892 156.2 25.8 424 1917-1925 Chasina 1881 141.8 22.1 259 (ex Selma, Santa C e c i l i a ) - 162 - PERIOD OF _OT„ YEAR I r m m T I GROSS SERVICE NAME OF SHIP BUILT LENGTH BEAM TONNAGE 1917-1948 Lady Pam 1383 154.0 22.0 309 (ex Ghilco, Santa Maria) 1919-1927 C h i l l i w a c k 1903 170.7 27.1 557 (ex B r i t i s h Columbia, Onyx) 1920-1949 Capilano . 1920 135.0 26,9 374 1920-1934 C h l l k o o t 1919 172.6 30.2 756 1920-1926 Che am 1891 159.0 32.0 821 (ex Bowena, C i t y of Nanaimo) 1923-1936 Lady Evelyn 1901 189.0 26.1 582 (ex Deerhound) 1923- Card'ena 1923 226.8 37.1 1,559 1924- Lady Alexandra 1924 225.4 40.1 1,396 1924-1943 Comox 1924 54.0 15.5 54 1925- Lady C e c i l i a 1919/1925 219.5 28.6 944 (ex Swindon) 1925- Lady Cynthia 1919/1925 219.3 28.6 950 (ex Barnstaple) 1926- C a t a l a 1925 217.5 37.1 1,476 1927- C h l l l i w a c k 1917 200.2 30.2 934 (ex Ardgarvel) 1937- Lady Rose 1937 100.7 21.1 199 (ex Lady S y l v i a ) 1940- C a s s i a r 1910 185.3 29.6" 905 (ex Prince John, Amethyst) 1940-1945 Camosun 1907 241.7 33.1 1,344 (ex Prince Charles, St.Margaret, C h i e f t a i n ) 1946- Coquitlam 1943/1946 235.8 36.6 1,833 (ex HMCS Leaside) 1946- Camosun 1943/1946 235.7 36.6 1,835. (ex HMCS St.Thomas) 1946- Ch i l k o o t 1946 <2-X> ^  1 36.7 1,336 1947- C h i l c o t i n 1943/1947 235.7 36.6 1,837 (ex HMCS Hespeler) * * * - 163 - BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and S p e c i a l A r t i c l e s 1. Bancroft, H. H., H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. San F r a n c i s c o , The H i s t o r y Company, 1887. (The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, vol,3 2 . ) 2. 3egg, Alexander, H i s t o r y of _Brltlsh iColumbia, Toronto, W i l l i a m Briggs, 1894. 3. Boam, H. J. , B r i t i s h Columbia: Its- H i s t o r y , People,. Commerce, I n d u s t r i e s , and Re sources," London, S e l l s , 1912. 4. Bo wen, F. C , H i s t o r y of the Canadian P a c i f i c L ine, London, Sampson, Low, Marston and Company, 1929. 5. Brown, N. C., Logging,, - .. Transport at I on, New, York, Wiley, 1936. 6. Cook, James, and King, James, A Voyage to the P a c i f i c Ocean, London:, Strahan, 1784, 3 v o l s . 7. Evenson, W. T., "Ocean Log Rafts as Constructed i n the P a c i f i c Northwest", West Coast Lumberman, v o l . 5.0, pp. 28,29, J u l y 15, 1935. 8. "G-lbson Rafts Stand Winter Storms and Keep Logs Moving to Sawmills", Forest and M i l l , vol.2, pp.1,4, Oct. 15, 1948. 9. Hacking, N. R., E a r l y Maritime H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934. [Graduating essay f o r the Degree of Bachelor of A r t s i n the Department of H i s t o r y . ) 10. Hacking, N. R., "Steamboat 'Round the Bend", B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, vol.8, pp.255-280, October, 19447 11. Hacking, N. R., "Steamboatlng on.: the Fraser In the S i x t i e s " , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, vol.10, pp.1-41, January, 1946. - 164 - 12. Hacking, N. R.,"Steamboat -Days, 1870-1883", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , vol . 1 1 , op.o*9~-lll, A p r i l , 19477 13. Hamilton; J. H., "The Beaver", Western Shores, Vancouver, Progress P u b l i s h i n g Company7 1933, c.10. 14. Hopkins, J . C., ed., Canada - An Encyclopaedia of the Country. Toronto, L i n s c o t t , 1898, vol.3 , op. 307,308. 15. Howay, F. W., and S c h o l e f i e l d , E. 0. S., B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present, Vancouver, Clarke, 19l4, ~4"oTs . 16. Jenkins, R. A. V., " S e a t t l e and Return f o r 50 Cents", V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, J u l y 10, 1948, p.3. 17. K e l l y , L. V., "B.C. Towboat Industry B u i l t by S k i l l , Courage", Vancouver D a i l y Province, March 25, 1948, P.44. 18. K e l l y , L. V., "Old Red-head", Vancouver D a l l y Province Magazine Section; October 23, 19437 p.3. 19. Leiterman, D. S., Trade Unionism in; the Canadian Merchant Navy, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1947. (Graduating essay f o r the Degree of Bachelor of A r t s i n the Department of Economics, P o l i t i c a l Science and Sociology.) 20. Lower, J. A., "The Construction of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway i n B r i t i s h Columbia", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, J u l y , 1946. 21. McKelvie, B. A., Maqulnna the Magnificent, Vancouver, Uhe Vancouver D a i l y Province, 1946. 22. McLeod, Norman, " B r i t i s h Columbia's Pioneer Navi gators" , Sea Lore, Vancouver, v o l . 1 , pp.55-57, September, 1935. 23. Mears, E. G. , Maritime Trade of Western United'...States, Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1935. ' - 165 - 24. Nelson, D., For t Langley, 1827-1929, A Century'of Settlement, Vancouver, A r t , H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927. 25. Patton, M. J . , "Shipping and Canals", i n Shortt, A., and Doughty, A. G., eds., Canada and I t s Provinces, Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Company, 19l4, vol.10. 26. " R e t i r e d Inventor States He's P r a c t i c a l Logger", The D a l l y C o l o n i s t , Natural Resources Supplement, V i c t o r i a , December 12, 1948, p.4. 27. S t o c k d i l l , C. E., "The B r i t i s h Columbia Coastal S e r v i c e : Some H i s t o r i c a l Facts and Figures", Canadian P a c i f i c S t a f f B u l l e t i n , December 5, 1940. 28. Wright, E. W., ed., Lewis and Dryden's Marine H i s t o r y of the P a c i f i c Northwest, Portland, Lewis and Dryden, 1895. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s 29. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Trade and Industry, Regional I n d u s t r i a l Index of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1948. 30. Canada, Annual Reports of the Department of Marine and F i s h e r i e s (and succeeding Departments), commencing 1868, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . 31. Canada, Annual Reports of the National Harbours Board, 1936 to 1948, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . 32. Canada, B r i t i s h North America Act and Amendments, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1938. 33. Canada, Department of F i s h e r i e s , Department•of Transport, L i s t of Vessels on the R e g i s t r y Books of the Dominion of Canada, annual, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . 34. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , P r i c e s and P r i c e Indexes, October, 1949, Ottawa. 35. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report, annual, Ottawa. - 166 - Canada, Report of the Royal Commission to Inquire i n t o Railways and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Canada, 1931-2, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1932. Canada, Second Report of the Canadian Maritime Commission, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 19^97 Canada, S e s s i o n a l Committee on Railways and Shipping Owned Operated and C o n t r o l l e d by the Government, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, annual, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . United States of America, United States Maritime Commission, Economic Survey of Coastwise and I n t e r - o o a s t a l Shipping, March 15, 1939. Vancouver, Annual Reports of the Harbour Commissioners of Vancouver, 1920 to 1935. Year Books and P e r i o d i c a l s A.B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber Trade D i r e c t o r y , Vancouver, Progress P u b l i s h i n g Company, 19^8. B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y f o r the years 1882-83, V i c t o r i a , Williams, 1882. B r i t i s h Columbia Journal of Commerce Year Book, annual, Vancouver. Canadian Navigators' Federation Year Book, annual, Vancouver, 1920 to 1922. Canadian Merchant Service G u i l d Year Book, annual, Vancouver, 1923 to 194-7" The D a l l y C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a . ( F i l e s i n the Provin c i a l L i b r a r y , V i c t o r i a , B.C.) Guide to the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 1877-8, V i c t o r i a , Hibben, 1877. Harbour and Shipping, monthly, Vancouver. ( F i l e s i n the L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.) - 167 - 49. Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia Gazetteer and D i r e c t o r y f o r 1964, Vancouver~Hendei"soirr~1^04. 50. Henderson's Vancouver D i r e c t o r y f o r 191Q, Vancouver, Henderson, 1910. 51. Lloyd's R e g i s t e r , annual, London, Lloyd's Register. 52. The Vancouver D a i l y Province, Vancouver. ( F i l e s i n the o f f i c e s of the company, Vancouver.) 53. Western Business and Industry, monthly, Vancouver. 


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