UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The woman in the works of Ingeborg Bachmann Redwitz, Eckenbert von 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989 A1 R48.pdf [ 10.29MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106746.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106746-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106746-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106746-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106746-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106746-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106746-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106746-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106746.ris

Full Text

THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN by ECKENBERT v. REDWITZ B.A., M.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Germanic Studies We accept this thesis as conforming t-.n the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1989 (cT) Eckenbert v. Redwitz, 1989 1*1 National Library Bibliotheque nationale of C a n a d a du C a n a d a Canadian Theses Service Service des theses-canadiennes Ottawa, Canada K1A 0N4 The author has granted an irrevocable non-exclusive licence allowing the National Library of Canada to reproduce, loan, distribute or sell c o p i e s of his/her thesis by any means and in any form or format, making this thesis available to interested persons. L'auteur a a c c o r d e une licence irrevocable et non exclusive permettant a la Bibliotheque nationale du C anada de reproduire, prefer, distribuer ou vendre des c o p i e s de s a these de quelque maniere et sous quelque forme que c e soit pour mettre d e s exemplaires de cette these a la disposition des personnes i n t e r e s s e e s . The author retains ownership of the copyright in his/her t h e s i s . Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without his/her per-mission. L'auteur conserve la propriete du droit d'auteur qui protege s a these. Ni la these ni des extraits substantiels de celle-ci ne doivent etre imprimes ou autrement reproduits sans son autorisation. ISBN 0-315-55244-1 i Canada In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Germanic Studies The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT The female characters play a dominant part i n Ingeborg Bachmann's prose writings. This study attempts f i r s t to determine the existence of a coherent image of the female i n Bachmann's narrative prose and then to analyze i t . In contrast with much of contemporary l i t e r a t u r e , Bachmann's females show so many "traditional' contours of behaviour and mentality that the question of a conventional sex-specific image arises with the attendant question as to i t s purpose. An analysis of these character-i s t i c s reveals that Bachmann's image of the woman deserves the appel-l a t i o n "sex-specific" but that these "traditional" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are infused with new values: the values of individualism, of a s p e c i f i c a l l y female i d e n t i t y and of a new and p a r t i c u l a r l y intense personal freedom. Thus emotionalism, i r r a t i o n a l i t y and vanity are components of a new form of personal development and expression that i s less r e s t r i c t i n g and more self—oriented than the " t r a d i t i o n a l " image which many c r i t i c s have assumed they represent. This interpretation provides the key to the solution of a second c r i t i c a l problem i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n : the female-male antithesis. This antithesis often assumes v i o l e n t dimensions such as i n the theme of the "si c k male" or the "victimized" female. Bachmann depicts the "female" characteristics i n marked contrast to those of the male and lends them moral significance i n an a n t i t h e t i c a l world of male versus i i i female, whereby the female and her values are assigned a morally higher position. Here the emotionalism, i r r a t i o n a l i t y and n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n thinking of the female stand i n contrast and are deemed superior to the calculated behaviour, r a t i o n a l thought and e f f i c i e n c y of the male. The image of the male i s extended to represent the technological, r a t i o n a l and inhumane aspect of modern society. Thus, Bachmann's image at times transcends the male-female issues and points to problems of a universal nature: the reaction of the i n d i v i d u a l against ever increasing s t r i c -tures l a i d down by administrative, economic and s o c i a l structures of modern i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s . F i n a l l y , the theme of personal freedom underlies a l l the personal c o n f l i c t s , motivations and aspirations of Bachmann's heroines. I t finds expression i n the most extreme form of longing for a state of being en t i r e l y lacking i n any form of l i m i t a t i o n whatsoever: the Grenzubertritt. The f a i l u r e of Bachmann's females i n marriage and family l i f e , t h e i r unsatisfactory relationships with the opposite sex, are a l l seen to have their roots i n the incompatibility of s o c i a l commitment with this urge for personal freedom. Bachmann does not solve the dilemma but t r i e d instead to give poetic form to these goals and values and to sustain the hope for the ultimate attainment of the Grenzubertritt. CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT 1 1 PREFACE v l i PART I. INTRODUCTION Chapter I. GENERAL REMARKS A. The Image of the Woman B. Previous Research C. Present Thesis 1. The Problem 2. Design of Thesis 3. Major Conclusions PART I I . INVESTIGATION OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN II. THE FEMALE CHARACTERS A. Selection of Characters B. S o c i a l and Environmental Characteristics 1. Age and Life-Stage 2. Educational Background 3. Social Status and Profession 4. Marital and F a m i l i a l Status C. Psychic and Behavioural Characteristics 1. Vanity 2. Emotionalism 3. I r r a t i o n a l i t y i v V Page III. SOCIAL ROLES 28 A. The Role of the Mother B. The Wife-Role C. The Role of the Lover D. The Role of the Housewife E. The Role of the Professional F. The Role of the Outsider VI. THE SOCIAL INTERACTION 49 A. Social Interaction with Children B. Social Interaction with Women C. Social Interaction with Men D. Social Interaction with Society V. AGENTS AND PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT 68 A. Inner Impetus 1. The Search for Individuality and Identity 2. A Quest for Freedom 3. A Yearning for Grenziibertritt B. Outside Agents C. Patterns of Development PART III. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN VI. A DISCUSSION OF ANTITHETICAL IDEAS AND THEMES 90 A. Emancipatory versus "Traditional" Concepts B. The Biographical versus the Text-Immanent View C. Sex-Specific versus Allgemein menschliche Interpretation D. Social versus Individualistic Values v i Page VII. AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEME OF FREEDOM 106 A. Working-Definition of the Image of the Woman B. Freedom and Social Environment C. Freedom and Psychic and Behavioural Characteristics D. Freedom and Favoured Social Roles E. Freedom and Interaction of Bachmann's Leading Female Characters with Four Social Groupings VIII. AN ANALYSIS OF THE FEMALE-MALE ANTITHESIS 125 A. The Image of the Male B. The Male-Female C o n f l i c t C. The Female as Victim D. The "Sick" Male AN ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTION AND INTENT OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN . . A. Main Purpose B. The Didactic Intent C. The Lite r a r y Aspect of the Image of the Woman D. A Social Intent? E. The In t e l l e c t u a l Design of Bachmann's Image of the Woman PART IV. CONCLUSION X. A SUMMARY DISCUSSION OF MAJOR INTERPRETATIONS XI. OUR INTERPRETATIONS AND FINDINGS A. The F a l l B. The Enslavement C. The Trap D. Death E. Grenziibertritt F. The Magic of the Woman FOOTNOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY 203 231 PREFACE F i r s t , a statement about the intent of th i s study. The aim i s to examine and to evaluate the image of the woman i n the writings of Ingeborg Bachmann. Special emphasis w i l l be given to the following questions: Do the various heroines incorporate common concepts, ideas and attitudes toward l i f e and r e a l i t y ? I f so, what are they and do they allow one to generalize and to speak of the female image i n Bachmann's works? Is this image a " t r a d i t i o n a l " or "modern" one; i s i t a .,. . .1 sex-specific image? Do autobiographical elements i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n warrant investigation? Can their use i n this study be j u s t i f i e d ? If a coherent image can be established, then what end or purpose was i t meant to serve? Does Bachmann envisage a new ro l e for women and, i f so, how i s this role to be defined? The investigation, i t i s hoped, w i l l contribute some new insights about a facet of Bachmann's work which has up to now received l i t t l e attention. Several d i f f i c u l t i e s arose during the conceptual phase of this study. The f i r s t of these was: which methods*were to be used i n the r e a l -i z a t i o n of the aims of this thesis? Would i t be permissable to generalize from the analyses of several i n d i v i d u a l characters? Would not the result be y i i v i i i a computer-like s t a t i s t i c a l stereotype, derived from various collected data? And what were the alternative methods for r e a l i z i n g the aims of this study? However, one of Ingeborg Bachmann's own remarks on l i t e r a -ture: Es gibt i n der Kunst keinen Fortschritt i n der Horizontale, 2 sondern nur das immer neue AufreiBen einer Vertikale. . . . helped to influence the author's decision to select a method of compari-son and of inductive argumentation. Recurring problems, themes and con-f l i c t s manifesting themselves i n different individual human situations seemed to j u s t i f y a search for common trends and themes. Bachmann con-tinues i n the same lecture on l i t e r a t u r e : Und doch 1st nur Richtung, die durchgehende Manifestation einer Problemkonstante, eine unverwechselbare Wortwelt, Gestaltenwelt und Konfllktwelt imstande, uns zu veranlassen, einen Dichter als unausweichlich zu sehen.3 4 Many c r i t i c s have chosen to apply this view to her own works . A general-ized Frauenbild may therefore be well j u s t i f i e d . Especially the figure of Undine i n Undine geht appears i n i t s e l f already as a compound female image. The selection of the main female characters posed another d i f f i -culty. Obviously, the elder Frau Jordan i n Das Gebell did not quite f i t the general pattern of the other Bachmann women. This was not f e l t , how-ever, to be a v a l i d reason to exclude her. On the contrary, interesting and additional points could be added to the Bachmann image of women by an analysis of her story. H. Pausch saw the work even as a "kontrapunktische Erzahlung", which did demonstrate the effects of social pressures from which other women tried to free themselves."* The following method of selection was f i n a l l y chosen: women that dominated a novel, story or radio play as well as those who functioned i n important secondary roles IX were classed as "main figures"; women playing only minor parts such as Mrs. Brown in Die Zikaden were classed as "secondary figures" and seldom-6 used for the study ; l a s t l y , females representing very insignificant parts i n extent or i n depth such as the Passantin i n Ein Geschaft mit Traumen or similar figures appearing i n Bachmann's poetry were classed as peripheral figures and not used for the purpose of this study as their substance was thought too small to j u s t i f y v a l i d statements. One additional problem became evident during the investigative stage of this study. That was the existence i n the secondary lit e r a t u r e of a f a i r l y widespread stereotype of Ingeborg Bachmann. She was the great poetess but not much else. This fixed image has produced quite extensive literature on her poetry and less regard of her prose writings which this writer feels to be unjustified. Furthermore, many of the publications, that did concern themselves with her prose, do so from a biased point of view, which considers her l y r i c talent a handicap to her sucess as a writer of prose. PART I. INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I -GENERAL REMARKS A. The Image of the Woman Why i s the image of the woman i n the l i t e r a t u r e of a pa r t i c u l a r society worthy of analysis? F i r s t of a l l i t can show a conception held by a society or group within the society, or, at the very l e a s t , an image which i s strongly modified by society's norms. I t usually portrays characteristics and environmental conditions actually found to exist or presumed to exist as moral codes. Secondly, i t y i e l d s information about trends or developments, about changing s o c i a l and moral codes, and about attempts to change and to influence s o c i a l consciousness. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case with the "Frauenliteratur" i n the l a t t e r part of the twentieth century which has aroused much discussion, controversy and even polemics.^ Thirdly, i t may help to answer the widely discussed question whether form, c r i t e r i a , description and viewpoints i n the l i t e r a r y creation of a woman character d i f f e r according to the writer's sex. The following study hopes to throw new l i g h t on a s p e c i f i c contribution to this theme: namely to advance some thoughts and conclusions about the image of the woman developed by Bachmann i n her prose f i c t i o n . I t i s an image of woman which i s of special 1 2 interest, being one of the few in the literature of either Germany or Austria which has been created by a woman. B. Previous Research Studies on the image of the woman in literature are s t i l l in their i n i t i a l phase. Few studies have been done in the past but their number is 8 increasing. Most of these approach the topic from a sociological view-point. As far as the particular situation of Bachmann is concerned, the image of the woman has never received any special attention. Although Bachmann's heroines have been discussed in various interpretations of her stories, plays or novels, the topics so far have been determined by theme, genre, and interpretative approaches that put l i t t l e emphasis on the social profile of Bachmann's characters. The larger specialized studies to date have preferred to deal with such typical Bachmann topics as "the new language", Grenzubertritt, or the outsider. Examples are: Angst-Hurlimann, Beatrice. Im Widerspiel des Unmoglichen mit dem Moglichen. Diss. Zurich, 1971. Zurich: Juris, 1971. Holschuh, Albrecht. Utopismus im Werke Ingeborg Bachmanns: Eine thematische Untersuchung. Diss. Princeton, 1974. Princeton University Press, 1964. Ozer, Irma J. The Treatment of the Maladjusted Protagonist in the Fiction of Ingeborg Bachmann and Christa Wolf. Diss. New York, 1986. University Press, 1986. Within these concepts the specifically "female'* issues have been limited to the themes of love or Grenzubertritt. There has been scant recognition of the detailed attention which Bachmann expends on the development of her female characters. 3 C. Present Thesis 1. The Problem a) Introduction to the problem In the l i g h t of the above, i t was considered defensible to devote a dis s e r t a t i o n exclusively to a study of the image of the woman i n Bachmann's works. F i r s t l y , because of the topic's l i t e r a r y , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l relevance, the growing discussion about the position, goals, r i g h t s and obligations of woman i n western s o c i e t i e s , the search for new d e f i n i t i o n s of the female's s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , and l a s t but not le a s t , the controversy created by the varied, even contradictory programmes of l i b e r a t i o n i s t and feminist groups, provided the topic with additional pertinence. Secondly, Bachmann's characters appeared to promise more of interest and relevance for such an undertaking than those of other contemporary writers i n German. Not only did the choice of a woman writer as the source of the image to be examined seem a j u s t i f i a b l e one, but Bachmann appeared to have displayed unique i n t e l l e c t u a l as well as emotional q u a l i t i e s i n her development of woman characters and to have dealt with issues that are of special interest to us today. Furthermore, the l i t e r a r y quality of the authoress i s f e l t to be s i g n i f i c a n t and i s widely accepted as such. Likewise, there appears to be agreement that the authoress i s rather moderate i n her views and balanced i n her conclu-sions. The poetess i s a German-language writer who transcends the national and c u l t u r a l boundaries of the various German-speaking countries - the cosmopolitan nature of Bachmann's l i f e and writings lending her statements a more universal substance and appeal. Also, Bachmann appeared 4 to be fascinated and moved by the female character and i t s concerns; cer t a i n l y , the woman occupies a central p o s i t i o n i n her l i t e r a r y work. Furthermore, i t i s the development and substance of the image i t s e l f that intrigues. There appears to exist no simplifying consistency but a m u l t i p l i c i t y i n the images of the various "heroines who display tensions, c o n f l i c t s , goals and paths of development i n very in d i v i d u a l ways. The question therefore arose: what kind of image of the woman i s i t that Bachmann offers and what i s i t s meaning and i t s contribution to the topic "woman i n our world today"? b) Statement of the problem The problem then assumed the following contours: What i s the nature of the image of the woman i n Bachmann's works? May one go so far as to speak of "one general image"? Of what elements i s this image com-posed? To what extent has i t been determined by Bachmann's biography? Does i t contain " t r a d i t i o n a l " and/or modern feminist elements i n i t s make-up? After determining the kind of image, one would enquire about i t s meaning. What does this image convey? What, i f any, i s i t s symbolic content? Does i t carry a message, does i t i l l u s t r a t e a thesis about modern woman? I f so, what are i t s arguments and conclusions? Noting the important position the male appeared to play opposite the female i n her works, an investigation and analysis of the male-female relationship seemed to promise a major contribution to the understanding of the Bachmann image of the woman. Therefore, the following directions were mapped out: What image - i f one at a l l - does the male convey i n Bachmann's works? Is i t a counter-image to the female, and i f so, what purpose does i t serve? What i s the nature of the male-female r e l a t i o n -ship? And again, what i s i t s meaning? 2. Design of Thesis The main body of the thesis i s divided into a section of textual analysis - Chapters II-V; followed by a section of discussion and i n t e r -pretation - Chapters VI-IX. The approach was as follows: During the investigative phase, the c o l l e c t i o n of data and some generalization and evaluation of the same were given prominence. After determining which characters deserved analysis, a systematic investigation and c o l l e c t i o n of data on the fourteen heroines was begun: F i r s t l y , the determination of their "outer" ( s o c i a l and environmental) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was followed by the investigation of the "inner" (psychic and behavioural) character-i s t i c s . Next, an investigation of the roles of the female characters was thought to add important information on Bachmann's ideas regarding a woman's place i n society. The major " t r a d i t i o n a l " female s o c i a l roles of mother, wife, lover, and housewife as well as an important contemporary one - the woman as professional - were included. Added, too, was the "outsider r o l e " as this was thought to be a concept that played an impor-tant part i n Bachmann's image of the woman. Since not only a l i t e r a r y figure's psychic make-up and s o c i a l position i s s i g n i f i c a n t , but also because epic l i t e r a t u r e as well as dramatic uses the interactions of i t s figures to reveal character, i t was thought essential to study the actions of Bachmann's woman characters. Four f i e l d s of interaction were selected for this purpose, two of which (interaction with children and with men) were " t r a d i t i o n a l " ones; the other two (interaction with woman and society) were again suggested by Bachmann's intensive development of these facets. The l a s t of the investigative chapters was devoted to the various motivating agents behind these actions and to defining the pat-terns of development i n Bachmann's heroines. The l i n e s of inquiry were divided into inner and outer motivating agents with those defined as inner occupying the larger part of the chapter i n accordance with what was f e l t to be their dominance i n Bachmann's presentation. The section on development did not need extensive subdivision as i t soon became clear that as far as the development was concerned i t was possible to generalize i n one or only a few basic patterns of development. Part two of the thesis begins with discussion of four major questions of importance for the interpretation of Bachmann's image of the female: F i r s t l y , the very s t r i k i n g " t r a d i t i o n a l " aspect of Bachmann's heroines that was noted i n the previous chapters i s discussed. Secondly, the value of a biographical interpretation, which appears so tempting i n the case of Bachmann, i s argued. The third theme - sex-specific versus the allgemein menschliche interpretation of the image of the woman - was chosen because of great importance which Bachmann seems to attach to a sex-specific juxtaposition of the male and female ways of thinking and acting. Lastly, the s o c i a l versus the individual theme was chosen because of the great emphasis and value which Bachmann's heroines place on i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The two following chapters - VII and VIII - have been devoted to analysis and interpretation of the image and each deals with one of two 7 central themes that emerged during the study: the theme of freedom and the male-female antithesis. An attempt at a formulation of the purpose of the image of the female i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n i s made i n Chapter IX followed by a summary chapter evaluating major interpretations. Chapter XI, f i n a l l y , i s devoted to a comprehensive interpretation focussing on the Todesarten novels. 3. Major Conclusions Analysis of the data collected on Bachmann's female protagonists appeared to indicate certain patterns throughout her f i c t i o n . The f i r s t conclusion reached was that Bachmann's women - and her male characters as well - were o u t f i t t e d with most of the so-called " t y p i c a l sex-specific" attributes of their " t r a d i t i o n a l " s o c i a l r oles. The author's female characters are, on the whole, vain and affectionate; they act i r r a t i o n a l l y and emotionally. In contrast, her male characters are most often dominant, have professional and technical interests; they act l o g i c a l l y and unemotionally. However, i t was also noted that these images were not outdated 9 or conservative cliches as some c r i t i c s have implied, but, rather, images of a highly symbolic character and serving very s p e c i f i c functions i n Bachmann's v i s i o n of the human condition. Both - men and women- were found to be representative of two c o n f l i c t i n g views of the world, the male representing the world of e f f i c i e n c y , of pragmatism, of r a t i o n a l i t y , of u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , of r e s t r a i n t i n every sphere of l i f e , of order, purpose and firmness. I t soon became obvious that Bachmann - without disqualifying the many achievements brought about by this way of perceiving and dealing with r e a l i t y - saw i n i t a great danger and threat to the i n d i v i d u a l and his or her inner and emotional l i f e . The male, therefore, appeared frequently i n her f i c t i o n as the symbolic "murderer" or at least as a psychically retarding or i n h i b i t i n g factor for the female. Various essay fragments of Bachmann contributed additional insights such as the argument that exploitation of human work i s a re s u l t of the trend toward e f f i c i e n c y and u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , thus adding another s o c i a l dimension to the image of the male. On the other hand, i t was noted that the image of the woman i n Bachmann1 s f i c t i o n stood for emotional development, for the experience and development of the inner and in d i v i d u a l realms of personality; for non-determination and non-fixation of the personality, for l i m i t l e s s expansion into the spheres of emotion. The theme of freedom was found to permeate a l l of Bachmann's female images and has been given much attention i n this study. I t was, therefore, offered as a second major conclusion that almost a l l of the co n f l i c t s of Bachmann's women are based, at least p a r t i a l l y , on the search and longing for personal freedom. In conclusion, the thesis t r i e s to show that Bachmann's characterization of the female was determined neither by " t r a d i t i o n a l " role cliches nor feminist polemics but represented an image - what we called an anti-Eve image - that offers paths to salvation for men and women. It i s an image that ascribes new and deeper meanings to " t y p i c a l l y female" characteristics and behaviour - an image that must have appeared even to Bachmann to be somewhat unattainable and which, therefore, seeks to gather and r e f l e c t ultimate goals and values rather than to function i n a pedagogic mode. PART I I . INVESTIGATION OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN CHAPTER II THE FEMALE CHARACTERS A. Selection of Characters In order to be able to give a complex d e f i n i t i o n of the image of the woman i n the works of Ingeborg Bachmann, one must f i r s t of a l l examine the various aspects of the major female characters that appear there. The following fourteen women have been selected as major charac-ters and w i l l be considered c o l l e c t i v e l y : the narrator (Ich) i n Malina Jennifer i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan Undine i n Undine geht Charlotte, Mara i n Ein Sc h r i t t nach Gomorrha Hanna i n Al l e s Nadja i n Simultan Beatrix i n Probleme Probleme Miranda In Ihr glticklichen Aug en Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See Gerda i n Ein Wildermuth "die a l t e Frau Jordan", Franziska i n Das Gebell Franza i n Der F a l l Franza They w i l l be studied i n the context of their age, their s t a g e - o f - l i f e , their educational background, their s o c i a l and professional status, and their marital and f a m i l i a l state. Beside thes*e social-environmental data, some psychological t r a i t s , such as vanity, spontaneity, non-i n t e l l e c t u a l behaviour, and i n t u i t i o n , w i l l be examined. The resulting 9 10 picture should add some new insights into Ingeborg Bachmann's concept of the female. B. Social and Environmental Characteristics 1. Age and Life-Stage With regard to the f i r s t point of this investigation, that of age, i t Is interesting to note that a l l leading women - with the excep-tion of the elder Frau Jordan1^* - are within the younger mid-age range 11 of approximately twenty to for t y years. This i s a very s i g n i f i c a n t age range, since i t centres on the t h i r t i e t h year, a most important turn-12 ing point i n human l i f e i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n * Although the exact ages are given d i r e c t l y or may be determined i n d i r e c t l y i n only seven 13 instances, the approximate age for the other female characters may be closely estimated on the basis of the detailed and often intimate picture of the heroine's behaviour, interests, thoughts, and emotional problems. Character The narrator (Ich) i n Malina ca. 40 Jennifer i n Per gute Gott von Manhattan 23 Undine i n Undine geht mature woman (middle age) Charlotte i n Ein S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha mature woman (middle age) Mara i n Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha early twenties Hanna i n A l l e s 30 Nadja i n Simultan 29 Beatrix i n Probleme Probleme 20 Miranda i n Ihr glucklichen Augen younger woman Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See 49 (but appears "as i f in her lat e t h i r t i e s " ) Gerda i n Ein Wildermuth younger woman "die a l t e Frau Jordan" i n Das Gebell 85 Franziska i n Das Gebell young woman Franza i n Per F a l l Franza * 33 What does this observation contribute to our knowledge of Ingeborg Bachmann's image of woman? F i r s t of a l l that this image i s a limited 11 one, limited as far as the f u l l range of a human l i f e i s concerned. Experiences, such as girlhood memories, the complex sensations of grow-ing up, the problems of aging, the confrontation with old age, and death, are rarely f e l t by Bachmann's female characters. Secondly, i t might show that the authoress tends to attach so much importance to m i d - l i f e experiences that she devotes herself almost exclusively to them, only occasionally l e t t i n g her women r e f l e c t on past experiences of their early stage of l i f e . The narrator i n Malina and Franza i n Der F a l l Franza are examples. One of the major themes i n this context i s the theme of love and i t s function i n relations with the opposite sex or one's own sex (Ein S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha). This emphasis on a limited range of emo-ti o n a l experiences may also explain why age seems for Bachmann to be a function of emotional or psychic development rather than one of physical time. Elisabeth r e c a l l s i n Drei Wege zum See: "Zweiundzwanzig Jahre Unterschied. Sie hatte also auch seine Mutter sein konnen, obwohl i h r dieser Gedanke noch nie gekommen war und auch j e t z t fur sie ganz fremd war. Es war jedenfalls bedeutungslos, und nur die Rechnung war r i c h t i g . " ' 2. Educational Background A further component of Bachmann's image of the woman can be obtained by analyzing the educational background of the heroines i n her writings. Although hints about a post-secondary education - mostly of university type - can be found for at least s i x of the fourteen women studied,"^^ Bachmann's women are not t y p i c a l l y from academe. With the exception of Jennifer, who studies p o l i t i c a l science and the first-person narrator i n Malina, who began the study of law but l e f t university 12 before i t s completion, their training l i e s i n f i e l d s which are " t r a d i -t i o n a l l y " acceptable for the female; e.g. Charlotte i n music, the narra-16 tor i n Malina i n writing, Nadja i n l i n g u i s t i c s , Elisabeth i n journalism and p o r t r a i t photography (without formal schooling). We can say that Bachmann's women are educated but d i s l i k e formal education: Mara hates the academy, Jennifer studies but "wants to see the world", the narrator i n Malina mocks dry university lectures"^ and breaks off her studies several times. Here the. Bachmann image of the woman takes on sharper contours. A l l of the few f u l l or part-time occupational a c t i v i t i e s of the leading characters are within the range of creative or a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s or professions. No "emancipated" careers materialize even i n the few cases of a prerequisite training as i n the case of the narrator i n Malina, who 18 does not intend to work i n the j u d i c i a r y , or i n Franza's case, who 19 never does f i n i s h her medical training. Alongside this r e j e c t i o n of ari d academic pursuits and affirma-tion of the creative a c t i v i t i e s , there emerges a second point of simi-l a r i t y among Bachmann's leading female characters. The s o c i a l back-grounds of Bachmann's heroines a l l f a l l within the upper and lower l i m i t s of the middle class. The only exception to this again being the elder Frau Jordan, whose background resembles most nearly that of the lower working class, but who i s soon to become a governess to a wealthy family; moreover, she, of a l l Bachmann's women, attaches great importance to 20 s o c i a l status. Furthermore, a l l leading women betray i n di c t i o n as well as i n thought a high l e v e l of in t e l l i g e n c e . Hanna, Franziska, and 13 Beatrix with no formal education, show extensive psychological insight and understanding i n dealing with others: e.g. Hanna with Fipps, Franziska with the elder Frau Jordan, and Beatrix with Eri c h . Gerda t e l l s stories with wit, charm, and es p r i t . The fir s t - p e r s o n narrator 21 i n Malina would seem to be a recognized authoress, Charlotte gives concerts, and Elisabeth works with a world-famous art photographer. Even Miranda, on whose background Bachmann i s rather s i l e n t , attends the Musikverein and Sunday concerts regularly. In sum, the conclusion may be j u s t i f i e d that the educational background - whether s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned or not, formal or informal seems to place Bachmann's women largely i n the category of i n t e l l i g e n t , more or less leisured women often with servants. Although some p a r t i -cipate a c t i v e l y i n creative a c t i v i t i e s , there are no "working women" of lower s o c i a l standing. Character Education 22 The narrator i n Malina Gymnasium, university Jennifer ' studies p o l i t i c a l sciences Undine advanced educational background Charlotte studied music Mara studies at an academy, probably music Hanna good educational background, no d e t a i l Nadja has "many diplomas" Beatrix "refused to take formal education" Miranda no deta i l s Elisabeth " g i f t e d and i n t e l l i g e n t " , no college but s e l f educated Gerda no d e t a i l s but "good background", a r t i s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d "die alte Frau Jordan" l i t t l e education Franziska no d e t a i l s , of good background Franza medical education, not completed 14 3. Social Status and Profession The middle class background and professional a c t i v i t i e s of Bachmann's women have already been noted. The investigation of the economic status of her heroines also reveals a narrowly conventional picture of the middle to upper-middle class Central European. None of her women l i v e s below the poverty l i n e , although some, especially the elder Frau Jordan, are not too well o f f . Very few actually work for their l i v i n g ; Nadja does so, and at times Elisabeth. At least s i x l i v e 23 off their husband's income, two have other independent sources of income, no s p e c i f i c source of income i s indicated for the rest. More than half of Bachmann's major women characters are well o f f , most can afford to travel extensively, only two - the elder Frau Jordan and Beatrix - have f i n a n c i a l problems, s t i l l both cannot r e a l l y be called poor. Once again, one gains the impression, that most Bachmann heroines exist within the middle or upper-middle class. The frequently reappear-ing s o c i a l i t e names such as the Jordans, the Altenwyls, Goldmanns, Mandels even v. Karajan, the recurring background of international hotels and spas, the atmosphere of a society of l e i s u r e , e.g. the Wolfgangsee, I t a l i a n beach resorts, Cafe Sacher i n Vienna, support this 24 impression. The second point, that of profession, has been dealt with to some extent under the heading of education. Only two of a l l the leading female characters - Nadja and Elisabeth - are professionals. Of the rest, no occupation outside housework i s noted or, as i n the case of Charlotte and the first-person narrator i n Malina, i t i s a creative or a r t i s t i c occupation whose main raison d'etre i s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . It 15 i s also worth noting, that the reader meets the few "working women" 25 only during their leisure time, on vacations but rarely "on the job", although some - especially Nadja - speak extensively about their work. Once more i t seems that a rather " t r a d i t i o n a l " image of the women gains shape. The lack of occupational or professional a c t i v i t i e s among Bachmann's women might certainly indicate the acceptance of a " t r a d i t i o n a l " male-orientated view of the world on the part of the authoress. This i s notably d i f f e r e n t from the female characters of such contemporary West-German writers as Karin Struck, Ruth Rehmann, Gabriele Wohmann, not to mention such East-German writers as Christa Wolf or Irmtraud Morgner. Liberation through work - one may conclude - i s not a Bachmann 26 27 theme; her heroines try to achieve s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n by other means. 4. Marital and Fami l i a l Status A l l of Bachmann's leading women characters are either single or are partners i n defective marriages. Eight of the fourteen women studied here are single. Among these eight i s one elderly widow - the elder Frau Jordan - the rest seem to lead a rather unconventional l i f e ; six have had more than one heterosexual love a f f a i r , some, such as Undine and Elisabeth, have had several. Nearly a l l the single and several of the married women might even be labelled promiscuous. Some 28 of the single women were either "nearly" married, or were once unhappily married. Elisabeth was married to a homosexual. Most have personality problems i n adjusting to permanent relationships. A l l the women s t i l l married i n the stories or novels have marriages that 16 are severely damaged. There are no happy marriages. A. Weber has noted t h i s phenomenon. He draws d i f f e r e n t conclusions from ours, 29 however, when he comments: Keine der Protagonistinnen der Bachmann fuhr t eine Ehe. Die I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n "Malina" weifi s i c h zwischen Ivan und Malina, zwei Mannern, die I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n "Drei Wege zum See" hat v i e l e Stationen und Betten h i n t e r s i c h . l i b e r a l 1 im Werk i s t Liebe a l s f r e i e Liebe das AuBerordentliche. Dauernde Bindung scheint u n e r t r a g l i c h , Kinder eher e i n Hindernis der Liebe ("Alles", "Malina"). Manner und Frauen, im Anspruch auf F r e i h e i t , stehen auch i n der konventionellen G e s e l l s c h a f t unverbunden nebeneinander, der Augenblick der Liebe e r f u l l t mit Gliick, aber j e mehr s i c h das Aufierordentliche i n g l e i c h e r Weise mit verschiedenen Partnern wiederholt, desto schaler und abgeschmackter wird es ("Drei Wege zum See"). Die Lust des F l e i s c h e s und die Sehnsucht nach Gliick scheinen unverein-bar und t r e i b e n s i c h w e c h s e l s e i t i g hoch nach Befriedigung. Die I d e n t i t a t der Person i s t i n Frage, die S i c h e r h e i t des Lebens.30 What conclusions may one draw from the above? (The b i o g r a p h i c a l aspect of t h i s - perhaps the most important point - w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n 31 a l a r g e r context). F i r s t l y , Ingeborg Bachmann's women see marriage as an infringement on personal freedom and independence. Undine, Nadja, E l i s a b e t h , Mara and Charlotte express t h i s point c l e a r l y . However, since these women must go on searching f o r love - Undine: "war i c h v e r u r t e i l t zu lieben" - for absolute love, they are i n a dilemma, as they must search for t h i s love outside the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage or, i n marrying, s a c r i f i c e t h e i r freedom and independence. This problem i s f u r t h e r complicated, since Ingeborg Bachmann seems to see marriage, with i t s formal s t r i c t u r e s , also as a hindrance to the achievement of absolute love. Charlotte r e f l e c t s on her marriage: Wie immer eine Ehe auch gefiihrt wird - s i e kann n i c h t w i l l k i i r l i c h gefiihrt werden, nicht e r f i n d e r i s c h , kann keine Neuerung, Anderung vertragen, w e i l Ehe eingehen schon h e i S t , i n ih r e Form eingehen.32 17 A third c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that Bachmann's women have i n common i n respect to their marital status, i s one of psychology. Bachmann's heroines are emotionally unstable as far as love i s concerned and i n this sense, too, 33 may be seen as exhibiting " t r a d i t i o n a l " and romantic female t r a i t s . They are driven by emotions and most of the time are disappointed by "mediocre" and s e l f i s h men. They despise or pi t y most men as weaklings, who are not able to operate at "higher" levels of human interaction. character single married widowed divorced adultery negative unhappy exper-iences with opp. s ex narrator i n Malina X X X Jennifer X X Und ine X X X Charlotte X lesbian X Mara X lesbian X X Hanna X + X X Nadja X X X X Beatrix X X X X Miranda X X X Elisabeth X X X X Gerda X + X "die a l t e Frau Jordan" X X X Franziska X X X Franza X X X The chart seems to indicate that negative experiences with the opposite sex and unhappiness caused by broken marriages or unsatisfactory love 34 relationships are ty p i c a l of Bachmann's heroines. C. Psychic and Behavioural Characteristics In the second part of this chapter an analysis w i l l be attempted of the behavioural characteristics of Ingeborg Bachmann's women and of 18 t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e n o r m s o f f e m a l e s o c i a l r o l e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g c a t a l o g u e o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s q u o t e d b y I . P l e n g e a s " t y p i c a l " s e x - s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a v e b e e n u s e d a s a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e : f e m a l e m a l e v e r s u s d e n k e n d - r a t i o n a l l o g i s c h - l o g i c a l s a c h g e r i c h t e t - o b j e c t i v e p r o d u k t i v - p r o d u c t i v e s c h o p f e r i s c h - c r e a t i v e g e i s t i g - i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h o n - b e a u t i f u l k o r p e r b e z o g e n - b o d y - c o n s c i o u s e i t e l - v a i n s c h m u c k l i e b e n d - l o v e o f s e l f - a d o r n m e n t a n m u t i g - g r a c e f u l c h a r m a n t - c h a r m i n g g e f i i h l s h a f t - e m o t i o n a l s e n s i b e l - s e n s i t i v e h i n g a b e - u n d l i e b e s f a h i g -d e v o t e d a n d l o v i n g z a r t l i c h - t e n d e r u m s o r g e n d u n d h e g e n d - c a r i n g and p r o t e c t i v e ^ 1. V a n i t y D e r T a g w i r d kommen, a n dem d i e F r a u e n r o t g o l d e n e A u g e n h a b e n , r o t g o l d e n e s H a a r , u nd d i e P o e s i e i h r e s G e s c h l e c h t s w i r d w i e d e r e r -s c h a f f e n w e r d e n . . .^6 I t a p p e a r s , t h a t I n g e b o r g B a c h m a n n ' s h e r o i n e s c o n f o r m w e l l t o " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e a n d b e h a v i o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e y t r y t o b e b e a u t i f u l , c a r e f o r e x t e r n a l s s u c h a s h a i r s t y l e , c o s m e t i c s , d r e s s e s a n d a t t r a c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e . I n d e e d , f o r I n g e b o r g B a c h m a n n ' s c h a r a c t e r s t h e s e t h i n g s r e p r e s e n t p a r t o f t h e e s s e n c e o f womanhood . T h e f i g u r e o f B e a t r i x i n P r o b l e m e P r o b l e m e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t w e l l : " . . . u nd d i e e i n z i g e n A u s g a b e n J d i e i h r a l l e r d i n g s w i c h -t i g e r w a r e n a l s a l l e s a n d e r e , w i c h t i g e r a l s E s s e n a u c h , w a r e n d i e f u r d e n F r i s e u r u n d f u r i h r e K o s m e t i k a „37 The c o i f f u r e s a l o n o f Rene i s 19 "the only place in the world" where she feels r i g h t at home."'" And the narrator r e c a l l s : "Noch ehe s i e sich bei Frau Yvonne anmeldete, b l i c k t e sie schon urn s i c h , i n a l l e Spiegel, s i e fand sich wieder und fand ihr 39 wirkliches Zuhause." At the same beauty parlor, Beatrix has a nervous breakdown, because she i s d i s s a t i s f i e d with the beautician's handiwork. In short, Beatrix i s the very representative of that type of female, whose image i s presently being attacked by many contemporary female writers as s o c i a l l y enforced and not representative of true female ident i t y . A juxtaposition of the -following two quotations, one from Bachmann's Probleme Probleme the other from a c r i t i c a l study on sup-posedly sex-specific behaviour w i l l i l l u s t r a t e this point: Laut wiirde s i e aber heute einmal zu E r i c h etwas anderes sagen: Ich bin manchmal r i c h t i g i n mich vernarrt.^O Der Frau i s t es dagegen gestattet, ihren Korper l u s t v o l l zu pflegen, was oft i n einen iibertriebenen Narzissmus ausartet. Von der kosmetischen Industrie standig angestachelt, macht s i e aus jedem Make-up fast eine kultische Handlung. Ihre Schonheit erweist sich sogar nicht selten als "Attrappe", weil der Mann vom AuBeren auf das Innere schlieBt und hinter einer "schonen Larve" einen edlen Charakter vermutet. 1^ Although Nadja does wear jeans and an i l l - f i t t i n g blouse during her t r i p with Frankel, the reader i s told, that her r e a l i d e n t i t y matches the Vogue or Glamour designs, that she appeared, "damals im Hilton, mit den falschen Wimpern, einer dekorativen Stola und einer l e i c h t abgewinkelten 42 Hand fur Handkiisse, . . ." The reader meets many of Bachmann's women, repairing their make-up before a date, applying eyeshadow and, often, 43 false eyelashes. The narrator i n Malina confesses: Am Graben habe ich mir ein neues Kleid gekauft, ein Hauskleid, das lang i s t , fur eine Nachmittagsstunde, fur ein paar besondere Abende im Haus, ich wei6, fur wen, es g e f a l l t mir, weil es weich und lang i s t und das v i e l e Zuhausebleiben er k l a r t , schon heute. 20 Ich mochte aber beim Anprobieren Ivan nicht hier haben, Malina schon gar nicht, ich kann nur, weil Malina nicht da i s t , oft in den Spiegel sehen, ich mufi mich im Korridor vor dem langen Spiegel mehrmals drehen, meilenweit, k l a f t e r t i e f , himmelhoch, sagenweit entfernt von den Mannern. Eine Stunde lang kann ich z e i t - und raumlos leben, mit einer t i e f e n Befriedigung, entftihrt i n eine Legende, wo der Geruch einer Seife, das Prickeln von Gesichtswassern, das Knistern von Wasche, das Eintauchen von Quasten i n die Tiegel, der gedankenvolle Zug mit einem Konturenstift das einzig Wirkliche sind. Es entsteht eine Komposition, eine Frau i s t zu erschaffen fur ein Hauskleid. Ganz im geheimen wird wieder entworfen, was eine Frau i s t , es i s t dann etwas von Anbeginn, mit einer Aura fur niemand. Es miissen die Haare zwanzigmal gebiirstet, die FiiBe gesalbt und die Zehennagel l a c k i e r t werden, es miissen die Haare von den Beinen und unter den Achseln entfernt werden, die Dusche wird an- und ausgemacht, ein Korperpuder wolkt im Badezimmer, es wird i n den Spiegel gesehen, es i s t immer Sonntag, es wird i n den Spiegel gefragt, an der Wand, es konnte schon Sonntag sein.^4 Ingeborg Bachmann's women are "feminine", conforming i n a l l the above mentioned ways to " t r a d i t i o n a l " role behaviour of women: vain i n respect to their beauty and always conscious of physical appearance. In other respects, however, they do not conform, as w i l l be demonstrated l a t e r . They are not l i t t l e Noras. These are not role characteristics from or to which they are trying to escape, as some c r i t i c s have sug-45 gested. It should also be noted, that there are moral values or value judgements attached to, and qua l i t i e s inferred, from these characteristics and modes of behaviour. Vanity i s an essential sub-stance of the women portrayed by Ingeborg Bachmann. Furthermore, we observe that these sex-role behaviour t r a i t s appears to be more intense during periods of happiness.^ To sum up: Ingeborg Bachmann's women show many of the " t r a d i -t i o n a l " female characteristics of which vanity i s thought to be a very 21 t y p i c a l and important one. In this respect, Bachmann's heroines would seem to be very feminine i n the " t r a d i t i o n a l " sense. This image of the female i s very much i n contrast to the one presented by many contemporary female authors. Moreover, this i s the very image many contemporary, s o c i a l l y engaged authoresses attack strongly as ro l e behaviour enforced 47 on women by a male dominated society and i t s economic system. 2. Emotionalism Even more ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bachmann's women than physical vanity i s emotionalism (enthusiasm, spontaneous action, s e n s i b i l i t y ) . Frau Novak's statement on the narrator's horoscope i n Malina i s c l a s s i c i n i t s formulation: " . . . das Mannliche und das Weibliche, der Verstand und das Gefiihl, die Produktivitat und die Selbstzerstorung treten auf 48 eine merkwurdige Weise hervor." And the narrator compares herself to Malina thus: "Dieses Gleichgewicht, dieser Gleichmut, der i n ihm i s t , wird mich noch zur Verzweiflung treiben, weil ich i n a l i e n Situationen reagiere, mich an jedem Gefuhlsaufruhr b e t e i l i g e n lasse und die Verluste 49 erleide, die Malma unbeteiligt zur Kenntnis nimmt." The whole of the f i r s t chapter of Malina "Gliicklich mit Ivan" i s just such an i l l u s t r a -tion of a very extreme emotionalism. The word gl i i c k l i c h appears eighteen times i n the three pages 58-60, Helmut HeiBenbiittel, for instance, bases his whole interpretation of Malina on the emotional issue, but without the sex-specific component. He sees Malina as a psychological description of Innenwelt"^: Es heifit, daB a l l e s , was geschildert wird, nicht als etwas geschildert wird, was von der Erzahlerin s i n n l i c h wahrgenommen worden i s t , sondern als etwas, das B i l d geworden i s t fur die Regungen einer Seele, fur Emotionen, fur die emotionale 22 Vermittlung von Welt und fur die Reibungen und Konflikte, weil die ganz auf sich selbst konzentrierte Emotionalitat nicht Geniige findet an dem, woran sie sich entziindet, weil sie ihren selbstherrlichen Anspruch nicht befriedigen kann. Diese Geschichte des inneren, des emotionalen Konflikts wird i n drei Stufen erzahlt. Kapitel 1, "Gliicklich mit Ivan" hat die Form einer Liebesgeschichte; Kapitel 2, "Der d r i t t e Mann", r e k a p i t u l i e r t einen Vaterkomplex; Kapitel 3, "Von letzten Dingen", fiihrt ins emotionale Verstummen, i n den, so konnte man sagen, Seelentod . . . Was Ingeborg Bachmann erzahlt, i s t i n einer neuen Version das, was sie einst im Horspiel vom "Guten Gott von Manhattan" zu sagen versuchte. Der gute Gott war dort ein guter Gott, weil er die, die von Emotionalitat beherrscht wurden, aus dem K o n f l i k t mit dem realen Leben entriickte. Der Tod der Liebenden war i n der Hingabe an die Emotionalitat selbst begriindet.51 Here, the fact that Jan does not die, that he becomes r i i c k f a l l i g , also seems to lend support to the view that this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , too,, Is e s s e n t i a l l y sex-specific. This view i s supported - i n a d i f f e r e n t context - by H. G. Funke, who writes i n the series Inter-pretationen zum Deutschunterricht: Nicht der Mann, sondern die Frau i s t geniigend vorbereitet, das Notwendige zu tun, um ihre Person auszuloschen fur den U b e r t r i t t i n eine andere Existenz . . . Die A k t i v i t a t geht von Jennifer aus, s i e i s t die Fordernde, der Mann b l e i b t passiv. Das Motiv der starkeren Position k l i n g t an und bestatigt sich am Schlufi, wenn Jennifers Krafte iiber die des Mannes hinauswachsen und sie i n der Spur ihres endlos gewordenen Gefiihls bis ans Ende a l l e r Tage (66) geht. 5 2 With few exceptions, i t i s the female i n Ingeborg Bachmann's works, who i s able to experience and give expression to emotion. Even more 53 important, she i s the one who i s able to induce emotion i n the male. Very few men i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n are capable of sharing emotion; they have to be led by a woman to this experience. Undine i n Undine geht, perhaps, i s - i n this respect - the most impressive of a l l of Bachmann' heroines. Here, emotion fuses c l e a r l y with such key aspects 23 of German Romantic l i t e r a t u r e , as the i r r a t i o n a l , the seductiveness and the demonic : . . . und horen doch dariiber den Muschelton, die Windfanfare, und dann noch einmal, spater, wenn es dunkel i s t i n den Hausern, erheben s i e sich heimlich, offnen die Tiir, lauschen den Gang hinunter, i n den Garten, die Alleen hinunter, und nun horen s i e es ganz deutlich: Den Schmerzton, den Ruf von weither, die geisterhafte Musik. Komm! Komm! Nur einmal komm! Indeed, Bachmann's view of emotion shows traces of Romanticism: the destructiveness of passionate love - including the destruction of one's self which i s associated with extreme Romantic emotion as early as the legend of Tristan and Isolde. Since i t i s the nature of pas-sionate love - of Eros - to consume i t s e l f with desire, with yearning for the i n f i n i t e , f i n a l consummation can be found only i n death, the ultimate reunion with the i n f i n i t e . T h e radio-play Der gute Gott von Manhattan i s Bachmann's treatment of this theme. Also, one may detect points of analogy between the yearning of passionate love for the i n f i n i t e and Bachmann's Grenzubertritt. The demonic element of Romantic emotion appears to reveal i t s e l f i n the characterization of Wanda, one of the secondary female characters i n Ein Wildermuth: . . . ein Geschlecht von dunkelhaarigen blassen Frauen mit triibem groBem Bli c k , kurzsichtigen Augen, fast ohne Sprache, . . . Wie an das Starren eines diisteren ernsten Raubvogels erinnere ich mich an ihr Starren und wie an etwas furchter-l i c h F e i e r l i c h e s , als unsere Augen nicht mehr weiter konnten und wir miteinander weggingen, ohne ein Wort, ohne uns zu beriihren. . . . Als wir ihr Zimmer erreicht hatten, war ich fast bewufitlos .57 It seems clear that Ingeborg Bachmann sees emotion as a positive human chara c t e r i s t i c , despite i t s occasioning unhappiness or suffering for the subject. The description of Fipps' parents i n Al l e s as two " p e t r i f i e d people" carries negative connotations. Furthermore, Bachmann, l i k e the 24 Romantics, finds emotion to be a means of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n coining her own term Grenziibertritt also for the condition of having reached the abso-lute state of emotion. Yet Bachmann realizes at the same time the neces-s i t y of "ordered emotion" - as the good god expresses i t i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan - of emotion without extremes i n order for man to continue as a s o c i a l being. Bachmann considers t h i s , however, to be an i n f e r i o r condition to that of Grenziibertritt. Lastly, cruelty as one extreme form of emotionalism should be considered. Here we fi n d only one ind i c a t i o n of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " view that women are cruel: the hope of the narrator's father i n Malina, " . . . Melanie werde auch an Grausamkeit einmal a l l e anderen Frauen 58 iibertreffen." However, the analysis of the texts does not support a hypothesis that cruelty i s an essential element i n the emotional make-up of Bachmann's heroines. On the contrary, there seem to be 59 d i s t i n c t l y masochistic t r a i t s at work i n their interaction with men. This i s i n l i n e with the views of those who emphasize the masochistic element of female sexuality as a counterpart to "male sadism". 3. I r r a t i o n a l i t y A t h i r d major quality of the women portrayed by Bachmann i s a frequent i r r a t i o n a l , i l l o g i c a l and a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l manner of reasoning and behaving. Thus, many of Bachmann's women frequently act i r r a t i o n -a l l y and their thought processes do not conform to the male standards of l o g i c . Here again - as on previous occasions - one finds " t r a d i -tional"and " t y p i c a l " female characteristics which their protagonists proclaim to be superior to, and more r e a l than those of the male. 25 Gerda for instance has her own concept of truth which i n the view of her husband, Judge Wildermuth, c o n f l i c t s with every rule of reason and l o g i c . She c a l l s these constantly s h i f t i n g versions and i n t e r -pretations of her experiences and thoughts a " d i f f e r e n t and higher truth": Hier war ihr die Welt genug geheimnisvoll zusammengebraut, hier konnte sie zwischen Satzungeheuern die Wahrheit zum Kriippel machen. "Es i s t eben eine andere Wahrheit, eine hohere Wahrheit", r i e f sie aufgebracht. Mir f i e l e n gleich a l l e hoheren Wahrheiten ein, denen ich schon begegnet war, hohere und hochste. . . . Weil i c h nur mit der gemeinen und nicht mit der ungemeinen Wahrheit zu tun habe, fragte i c h h i n t e r h a l t i g . Ja, da spreche ich wohl ein wahres Wort aus, ich, der niichterne J u r i s t , der Rechthaber und Zyniker mit meiner trockenen diirren Wahrheit! Wie wahr! Wie wahri^O Simil a r l y , Undine accuses men of using a u t i l i t a r i a n and h y p o c r i t i c a l type of l o g i c , which she c a l l s i n f e r i o r to her own: Ich habe euch nie verstanden, wahrend ihr euch von jedem Dritten verstanden wufitet. Ich habe gesagt: Ich verstehe dich nicht, verstehe nicht, kann nicht verstehen! . . . Denn ich habe die feine P o l i t i k verstanden, eure Ideen, eure Gesinnungen, Meinungen, die habe ich sehr wohl verstanden und noch etwas mehr. Eben darum verstand ich nicht. Ich habe die Konferenzen so vollkommen verstanden, eure Drohungen, Beweisfuhrungen, Verschanzungen, dafi sie nicht mehr zu verstehen waren. Und das war es j a , was euch bewegte, die Unverstandlichkeit a l l dessen. Denn das war eure wirkliche grofie verborgene Idee von der Welt, und ich habe eure Idee hervorgezaubert aus euch, eure ^ unpraktische Idee, i n der Zeit und Tod erschienen. . . . It i s the female who, by her " i r r a t i o n a l i t y " , can lead men - some chos< few - to this higher l e v e l of understanding, can teach them to apply their male lo g i c i n a new context. There would^seem to be an echo of the Ewig-Weibliche present here as well as the paradox of timelessness within time and of eternal l i f e within mortal existence. This paradox i s resolved at this point by Undine when she r e c a l l s : 26 Aber i c h habe euch mit einem B l i c k gelehrt, wenn a l l e s vollkommen, h e l l und rasend war - ich habe euch gesagt: Es i s t der Tod darin. Und: es i s t die Zeit daran. Und zugleich: Geh, Tod! Und: Steh s t i l l , Z e i t ! Das habe ich euch gesagt. This topic - the female reasoning - re-emerges i n the discussions between Ivan and the narrator i n Malina. Ivan accuses the narrator of 63 the overuse of Beispielsatze and teaches her to avoid them. Ivan on the other hand, uses - according to the narrator - Lehrsatze; both of these terms appear to f a l l into s p e c i f i c categories and seem to re-enforce the issue, "male" rationalism and pure, theoretical logic versus the "female", r e a l i t y orientated, i n t u i t i v e way of thinking. The nar-rator i n Malina r e f l e c t s on this point: Kopfsatze haben wir v i e l e , haufenweise, wie die Telefonsatze, wie die Schachsatze, wie die Satze iiber das ganze Leben. Es fehlen uns noch v i e l e Satzgruppen, iiber Gefiihle haben wir noch keinen einzigen Satz, weil Ivan keinen ausspricht, weil ich es nicht wage, den ersten Satz dieser Art zu machen, doch ich denke nach iiber diese feme fehlende Satzgruppe, trotz a l l e r guten Satze, die wir schon machen konnen.^ Ivan sees the narrator's head as a "Kopf v o l l e r Salat und Bohnen und Erbsen, . . . " 6 5 he, too, seems to hold the " t r a d i t i o n a l " view of female ir r a t i o n a l i s m and confusion of thought. I t should also be noted, that the narrator loses constantly i n chess games with Ivan. This i s of significance, i f one considers chess to be a test of abstract reasoning-power. Parts of Bruno Scharer's interpretation of the story A l l e s appear to support this antithesis i n Bachmann's works: Der Trauerbogen vom Mann zur Frau bezeichnet den Abstand vom Menschen, der dem Leben vertraut, zu dem, der es i n Frage s t e l l t . Hanna hat sich an das Naheliegende gehalten. Sie hat dem Saugling Puderwolken zwischen seine dicken Schenkel gestreut, . . . Doch der Vater f a l l t ins Allgemeine, sieht die Fragwiirdigkeit der z u f a l l i g e n Existenz, . . . und wird unfahig zu handeln. . . . Bestehen bleiben wird die Trauer, die das Wissen iiber das Leben bereitet, und sein Handeln wird in ihrem Zeichen stehen.^6 27 Summing up, i t i s certainly no coincidence, that the female i n Bachmann's works always thinks, argues, reasons and acts along c e r t a i n lines which are a n t i t h e t i c a l to those of her male protagonist. I t i s usually an emotional, and frequently a seemingly i r r a t i o n a l way of thinking, that arrives, however, i n the end at a better understanding of l i f e . Also, on some occasions, the women are able to induce this "higher" form of perception i n their male p a r t n e r s . ^ That this aspect of the image of the female i s also a basic point i n Ingeborg Bachmann's thinking appears to be supported by a quote from her a r t i c l e on Ludwig Wittgenstein "Zu einem Kapital der jiingsten Philosophiegeschichte": Ihr analytisches Werkzeug, die Logik, erfuhr schon gegen Ende des vergangenen Jahrhunderts eine tiefgreifende Umgestaltung durch die Verwendung von Symbolen nach Analogie der Mathematik. . . . Die Mathematik war als Zweig der Logik entdeckt. "Die Logik der Welt, die die Satze der Logik i n den Tautologien zeigen, zeigt die Mathematik i n den Gleichungen" (6.22), formuliert Wittgenstein. Verstehen wir es r i c h t i g : Wie die Zahlen in der Mathematik nicht Gegenstande unserer Erfahrungswelt bedeuten und die Geometrie nicht den wirklichen Raum beschreibt, so beschreiben die Symbole der Logik nicht die Gegenstande und deren Beziehungen. Wir ordnen sie, wenn wir denken, ihnen nur zu. Der Neopositivismus nimmt also einerseits am Empirismus, anderseits an Kant eine empfindliche Korrektur vor: Die Gesetze der Logik sind zwar a p r i o r i , aber ihre Aussagen sind zugleich leer und nichtssagend; das heifit also, da6 auch Kants These, sie seien synthetisch, unhaltbar i s t . Die einzigen Satze, die sinnvoll sind und etwas besagen, sind Erfahrungssatze, 68 If we try to correlate the Satze der Logik with what has been developed in this study as Bachmann's view of "male thinking", then the Erfahrungssatze based on the sensual experience would represent the 69 female ways of expressing truth. CHAPTER III THE SOCIAL ROLES This study of Bachmann's major female characters w i l l now focus on another aspect of that complex image, namely the various roles that these women assume. Six female r o l e s , two of which are r e l a t i v e l y "untraditional", have been selected as representative for these women. They show Bachmann's heroines as mothers, wives, lovers, housewives, professionals and as outsiders. A. The Role of the Mother The mother-role - popularly respected as the most important and ancient r o l e of a l l - has recently been subjected to c r i t i c a l re-examinations.^ An excerpt from Ethel M. Albert's "The Unmothered Woman" i s representative: . . . The notion that women are f i t for nothing but mother-hood, . . . a l l this and the rest that goes with i t sounds oddly familiar. A moment's thought w i l l t e l l us that the r a d i c a l Freudian model of the female, far from being the la t e s t thing i n science, i s a f a i t h f u l r e p l i c a of an ancient, patriarchal t r a d i t i o n . Extending from Asia to Europe and part of A f r i c a and exported to the New World, i t i s a time-honored attitude that dishonours women, no matter what they do or do not do.^ However, th i s trend within the f i e l d of sociology does not find an ex-tensive echo i n German l i t e r a t u r e . True, here one rarely finds the Miitterchen type as i n the poem "Mein Mutterchen" by Albert Sixtus: 28 29 Miitterchen hat viel zu tun, darf nicht rasten, darf nicht ruh'n: kochen, backen, waschen, flicken, putzen, scheuern, nah'n und stricken, spat am Abend, friih am Morgen, immer schaffen, immer sorgen. Miitterchen, du bist mein Stern, Miitterchen, ich helf' dir gem' But despite the tendency to find a new role for women there exists 73 a mother image - even in the writings of writers suggesting a new role for women - that is presented mostly without the polemic and intensity which pervades many non-fiction tracts on the subject today. In light of this, the peculiar treatment given to the mother-role by Bachman is even more remarkable. There are very-few mothers among her women: Hanna in Alles and the elder Frau Jordan in Das Gebell. It seems worth noting that none of Bachmann's heroines seem to have had a close relationship with their mothers -the parental relationships, positive and negative, which occupy them are with father-figures. Many Bachmann heroines, however, do express their opinions on motherhood, and in so doing create a somewhat ambivalent image. Undine in Undine geht formulates the most negative opinion on the subject. She feels that motherhood depends on the will of men, that children are produced to create a life-purpose for the parents and also for sentimental reasons, and that motherhood is one of the poor substitutes of a mediocre existence for a free and fulfilled l i fe . There also seems to be an undertone of contempt, even of frustration and envy, present: Ja, dazu nehmt ihr euch die Frauen auch, damit sie Kinder kriegen, da werdet ihr mild, wenn sie furchtsam und 30 glucklich herumgehen mit den Kindern i n ihrem Leib. Oder ihr verbietet euren Frauen, Kinder zu haben, wollt ungestort sein . . . Ihr Betriiger und ihr Betrogenen. Versucht das nicht mit mir. Mit mir nicht.74 Although the whole story i s a sustained indictment of men, Undine cer-t a i n l y includes a l l women who do not share her views i n this c r i t i c i s m . Here, children and motherhood appear to be detrimental to the freedom and independence of women. A more sophisticated c r i t i c i s m of the mother-child relationship seems to be expressed i n Das G e b e l l . ^ The elder Frau Jordan favours memories of her f o s t e r - c h i l d K i k i over her own son. Neither relationship depicts the happiness of motherhood since the c h i l d she loves i s not her own and her relationship with her own son affords her no rea l s a t i s f a c t i o n . A. Weber, besides suggesting self-deception on the part of the elder Frau Jordan, comments: Sie l i e b t Leo nicht, sie furchtet ihn, . . . und doch schuftet sie fur seinen Aufstieg. Selbstbestatigung? Befriedigung ihrer Wunsche im Kind? Unterwerfung? Liebesentzug und Mifitrauen stehen zwischen Mutter und Sohn.76 The only other mother-figure among Bachmann's women, Hanna, i s just as defective as the elder Frau Jordan. Although Hanna appears to be a good mother i n the conventional sense, her motherhood becomes a tragedy not only because of the accidental death of her son Fipps, but also because of his eyilness: "Denn das Bose, wie wir es nennen, steckte i n dem Kind wie eine Eiterquelle. The most positive representation of a "mother-child" image is the narrator i n Malina: . , . Ivan i s t mit Bela ins Bad gegangen, Andras strampelt und w i l l zuerst herunter von mir, dann ktiBt er mich p l o t z l i c h auf die Nase, ich kiisse Andras auf die Nase, wir reiben unsere Nasen aneinander, ich mochte, daft es nie aufhort, daB Andras nicht genug bekommt, wie ich nicht genug bekomme vom 31 Nasenreiben, . . . Andras drangt sich immer fester an mich, und ich halte ihn fes t , er muB mir gehoren, die Kinder werden mir ganz gehoren.78 But here, again, i t i s a relationship with a strange c h i l d . Furthermore, some of this mother-love seems to be motivated by the fact that Bela and Andras are the children of Ivan, with whom she i s desperately i n love. In conclusion, i t may be stated that the mother-image i s not a dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bachmann's heroines. Where i t does exist, i t shows defects, just as the marriages of her heroines have been seen to do. These leading female characters have, i n general, no genuine i n t e r -est i n children. Except for Hanna i n A l l e s , none of the younger women i s a mother. It would seem that here, too, they are too s e l f i s h . It would also seem that motherhood - because of i t s close t i e s with family l i f e and the male - would, i n Bachmann's terms of reference, i n h i b i t per-79 sonal development and independence. B. The Wife-Role Some ground i n this context has been covered already i n Chapter 80 I I . Somewhat more prominent than the mother-role i s that of the wife. Not counting widows and divorcees, one finds six married women among the fourteen characters who form the basis of this investigation. They are the narrator i n Malina, Charlotte, Hanna, Franza, Gerda, and Franziska. But l e t us start the discussion of this role with a rather outspoken statement by the narrator i n "Unter Mordern und Irren" on married women: . . . dafi die Frauen j e t z t zu Hause die Betten aufschlugen und sich zur Ruhe begaben, weil sie mit der Nacht nichts anzufangen wuBten. BarfuB oder i n Pantoffeln, mit aufgebundenen Haaren und miiden Gesichtern gingen die Frauen zu Hause herum, drehten den Gashahn ab und sahen f u r c h t v o l l unter das Bett und i n die Kasten, besanftigten mit zerstreuten Worten die Kinder oder setzen sich verdrossen ans Radio, urn 32 s i c h dann doch hinzulegen mit Rachegedanken i n der einsamen Wohnung. Mit den Gefiihlen des Opfers lagen die Frauen da, mit aufgerissenen Augen i n der Dunkelheit, v o l l Verzweiflung und Bosheit. Sie machten ihre Rechnungen mit der Ehe, den Jahren und dem Wirtschaftsgeld, manipulierten, verfalschten und unterschlugen. SchlieBlich schlossen s i e die Augen, hangten sich an einen Wachtraum, tiberlieBen sich betriigerischen wilden Gedanken, bis s i e einschliefen mit einem letzen groBen Vorwurf. Und im ersten Traum ermordeten sie ihre Manner, lieBen sie sterben an Autounfalien, Herzanfallen und Pneumonien; sie lieBen sie rasch oder langsam und elend sterben, je nach der Grofie des Vorwurfs, und unter geschlossenen zarten Lidern traten ihnen die Tranen hervor vor Schmerz und Jammer {iber den Tod ihrer Manner. Sie weinten urn ihre ausgefahrenen, ausgerittenen, nie nach Hause kommenden Manner und beweinten endlich sich selber. Sie waren angekommen bei ihren wahrhaftigsten Tranen.&1 This image of the wife i s not far from Undine's judgement of wives as beings whose suppression and exploitation are of their own making. In addition, this quotation seems to indicate a murder by thought that cor-responds to the male's murderous action and behaviour toward the female discussed below under the heading "the female as victim". Of a l l Bachmann's women by far the most developed wife-role i s that of the narrator i n Malina. I t exhibits both " t r a d i t i o n a l " and emancipated behaviour. Among the " t r a d i t i o n a l " role behaviours one find the following characteristics well developed: 1. Dependence The narrator depends on Malina not only to provide the household finances - though she does get a small allowance for her own use - but also to manage them: . . . i c h muftte Malina b i t t e n urn das Geld, Ihn anrufen. . . . aber zu guter Letzt i s t das Kuvert aufgetaucht, es steckt unubersehbar im GroBen Duden, . . . Nie vergiBt er etwas, . . . Im rechten Moment liegen die Kuverts i n der Kiiche fur Lina, auf dem Schreibtisch fur Fraulein J e l l i n e k , i n der alten Kassette in meinem Schlafzimmer finden sich ein paar Scheine fur den Friseur und a l l e paar Monate ein paar gros-sere Scheine fur Schuhe und Wasche und Kleider. . . . Ich 33 weiB nicht, auch wenn manchmal kein Geld mehr im Haus i s t , wie Malina es immer f e r t i g b r i n g t , uns heide durch diese teuren Zeiten zu bringen, die Miete wird von ihm piinktlich bezahlt, meistens auch Licht, Wasser, Telefon und Autoversicherung, . . .82 Without Malina she forgets to feed the cat, to pay the secretary her f u l l wages, l e t s household stocks dwindle. Malina i s expected to solve d i f f i -c ult problems for her and to give advice. During the narrator's t r i p to the Wolfgangsee, Malina has to rescue her from an embarrassing s i t u a t i o n . 2. Respect for Husband Another "traditional" role c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a wife i s an exagger-83 ated respect for her husband. C r i t i c s have noted a pa t r i a r c h a l element 84 i n the Malina-narrator relationship. "Er i s t die Inkarnation der Vater-Sehnsucht, er hat die Strenge und Vollkommenheit des Wunsch-Vaters, den 8 5 man gleichwohl nicht ertragt," writes G. Blocker i n his observations on Malina. Malina sets the rules for the topics of conversation, which the narrator accepts Cp- 131). He i s credited by the narrator with a superior a b i l i t y of comprehension (p. 128), and i s ca l l e d upon to provide support and d i r e c t i o n (p. 129). Although there are signs of r e b e l l i o n , the narrator appears to display a rib-of-Adam mentality toward Malina during most of the novel. 3. Good Housekeeping The housekeeper part of the "traditional" wife-role appears to be quite prominent throughout the novel. Although .the narrator has the help of a maid and a secretary, she performs t y p i c a l household chores: set-ting and clearing the table (p. 350), provides varied and appetizing dishes (p. 82), does her own sewing (p. 48). 34 In contrast, there are some "emancipated" elements present i n the wife-role of the narrator: 1. Professionalism and Intellectualism These are contemporary trends hitherto not found to be part of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " image of the wife. The narrator engages her own secre-tary, she handles - a l b e i t i n a not very businesslike fashion - a large correspondence, and deals with reporters (pp. 48-90, 70ff., p. 89). She attends public lectures (p. 7 8), reads extensively (p. 94), and owns a large l i b r a r y from which cookbooks are noticeably absent (p. 81). In addition, as mentioned above, she i s a professional writer. 2. Independence Proof of the psychological complexity of Bachmann's female characters i s once again given by such contrasting q u a l i t i e s within one person as dependence and independence. Such a modernized two-soul con-cept i s t y p i c a l of Bachmann's heroines. In Malina the narrator takes the i n i t i a t i v e i n seeking relationships with men-friends. She keeps her lover openly and meets him i n Malina's apartment. She travels alone and shows, during one part of the novel, a supremely uncommitted attitude 86 toward Malina. Other examples are Charlotte i n Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha and Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See. 3. Lack of Family-Orientation Like other Bachmann wives, the narrator i n Malina lacks any interest i n family. She i s not a part of an extended family and, having no children of her own; one can hardly speak even of a family-nucleus. 35 From this analysis of the figure of the narrator i n Malina, two facts seem to materialize concerning the wife-role: f i r s t l y , the compo-s i t e nature of the female image, incorporating " t r a d i t i o n a l " and emanci-pated q u a l i t i e s which we have observed elsewhere, emerges here, too. Secondly, the oppressive and l i m i t i n g nature of any s o c i a l contract or obligation, here of a man-wife relationship, has been once again devel-oped. The r o l e of the wife i s portrayed i n this work not i n the emo-ti o n a l rhetoric of Undine or of the narrator of Unter Mordern und Irren, but by a more sophisticated depiction of character. H. Heissenbuttel concludes from similar observations: "Im absoluten Herrschaftsanspruch der emotionalisierten Subjektivitat i s t die Integration i n den gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhang unmoglich 87 geworden." Similar, i f not so extensively developed, elements make up the wife-image of the other married characters: Gerda, Hanna, Franza, Franziska, and Charlotte. The s a c r i f i c i a l nature of the wife-role, how-ever, i s somewhat less psychologized than i n Malina or Der F a l l Franza, both parts of the cycle of novels with the ind i c a t i v e t i t l e Todesarten. 88 Also the means of solving this dilemma are d i f f e r e n t . The continued ambivalence of Bachmann's female role-creations, as far as the family i s concerned, has been c r i t i c i z e d by A. Weber i n "Didaktische Perspektiven zum Werk Ingeborg Bachmanns", as follows: Allerdings f e h l t der Sinn fur die Funktion der Ehe, der Familie, der Kinder - was offenbar zu den Konventionen gehort - es fe h l t deren adaquate Darstellung, ja auch Problematisierung.^9 However, his claim of one-sidedness i n Bachmann's presentation of this topic would not seem to be relevant as the authoress does not share his system of values. 36 C. The Role of the Lover Within the role-configurations of Bachmann's women the one most frequently and extensively developed i s that of the lover. Nearly a l l of Bachmann's women appear i n this r o l e . A study of Bachmann's women i n the role of lover y i e l d s f i v e characteristics which, i n varying combina-tions, make up her image of woman-as-lover. F i r s t l y , Bachmann's heroines can be highly emotional lovers trying to experience l i m i t l e s s passion. They are vehement lovers with extreme sensual intensity, showing i n this respect, too, a kinship with their counterparts i n German Romantic L i t e r -ature. Jennifer exclaims i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan: "Konnt ich mehr tun, mich aufreiBen fur dich und i n deinen Besitz iibergehen, mit 90 jeder Faser und wie es sein s o i l : mit Haut und mit Haar." And a short time l a t e r she whispers to the good God: Ich liebe. Und ich bin auBer mir. Ich brenne bis i n meine Eingeweide vor Liebe und verbrenne die Zeit zu Liebe, i n der er hier sein wird und noch nicht hier i s t . Ich bin gesam-melt iiber den Augenblick hinaus bis i n meinen letzten und liebe ihn.91 Undine uses an impressive metaphor to communicate her state of passion: "Dann sind a l l e Wasser iiber die Ufer getreten, die Fliisse haben sich erhoben, die Seerosen sind gleich hundertweis erbliiht und ertrunken, und das Meer war ein machtvoller Seufzer, es schlug, schlug und rannte und 92 r o l l t e gegen die Erde an, dafi seine Lefzen t r i e f t e n von weiBem Schaum." Similar language may also be found i n Malina. These lovers aim for a state of absolute passion and i t i s one of the few themes i n Bachmann's l i t e r a t u r e that has been discussed extensively i n the secondary l i t e r a -ture. One of the more substantial contributions, that of Gunnilla Bergsten, conveys the main point and may stand as representative for the majority of studies on the topic: 37 Doch an die Liebe der beiden [Jennifer und Jan] darf kein normaler Mafistab angelegt werden, handelt es sich hier doch um das, was Ingeborg Bachmann an anderer S t e l l e "die unmogliche Liebe" nennt, - eine Liebe, die i n sich selbst den Keim zum eigenen Untergang tragt, eine Liebe, die i n ihrer Intensitat und Feurigkeit nicht nur ein Loch i n die "verkrustete Welt" brennt, sondern sich selbst aufzehren muB. Sie schlieBt, nach den Worten des guten Gottes, einen grenziibertretenden, einen anderen Zustand i n si c h . Sie mache nicht nur untauglich fur das Leben, sondern sei schlechthin lebensfeindlich. Ihr fehle nicht nur die Zukunft, sondern jegliche Zeitdimension. Sie sei nicht auf Gemeinschaft und auf Fortpflanzung des Lebens ausgerichtet, sondern auf restlose Einschmelzung und Austilgung des Lebens.93 G. Bergsten, too, arrives at the conclusion that a normal marriage i s impossible for this type of lover. Unlike us, however, she does not seem to trace the cause for this to the negative aspect of marriage (as we w i l l ) , but to the destructive nature of absolute love. Secondly, one frequently finds an element of compulsion closely connected with this type of extreme emotional love. Bachmann's emotional lovers seem to be victims of an inescapable fate, which they recognize as pathological or destructive. In Der gute Gott von Manhattan i t i s the good God and his demons, the s q u i r r e l s , that manipulate human l i f e . Compulsion i s ce r t a i n l y r e f l e c t e d by Jennifer's outcry: "Errette mich! . . . Errette mich! Von d i r und von mir. Mach, daB wir uns nicht mehr 94 bekampfen und dafi ich s t i l l e r werde zu d i r . " Similarly, one finds references to compulsion i n Undine geht: "Ja. Ja. Wenn das Gestandnis abgelegt war, war i c h v e r u r t e i l t zu lieben; wenn ich eines Tages freikam 95 aus der Liebe, mufite i c h zuriick ins Wasser gehen, . . . " Strangely enough, l i t t l e mention has been made of this point i n the secondary l i t -96 erature on Bachmann. Marianne Thalmann heads a section of an a r t i c l e on Das dreifiigste Jahr with "Sie i s t v e r u r t e i l t zu lieben" without elaborating on the reasons for the situation. H. G. Funke, on the other 38 hand, seems to indicate thoughts along these l i n e s i n some of his remarks about the role of magic and enchantment i n the play: Die Ambivalenz ihrer Tier-Mensch-Gestalt [the squirrels] macht zudem den Spielboden bruchig und durchlassig fur Verzauberungen, die das Stuck wie ein Netz uberziehen und dessen Knoten von den koboldartigen We sen gekniipf t werden . . . Sag es niemand. Damit treiben sie die Liebenden immer weiter zum Ausschlufl der Off e n t l i c h k e i t und beschleunigen ihren Untergang. . . . Urns t e l l t von den Signalen ihrer AuSenwelt, gefangen i n einem System von Moglichkeiten - es_ gab so v i e l e Moglichkeiten - wird das Paar eingekreist von Stimmen, die die Existenz seiner Liebe attackieren."97 Lack of s e l f controlled action and a f e e l i n g of subjugation to forces beyond one's control are ideas which seem congruent with the symbolism of the squirrels B i l l y and Frankie when they manipulate the wires of the puppets on t h e i r l i t t l e stage i n Central Park. Thirdly, another prominent feature of Bachmann's female lovers i s that of subjugation to the male which evidences more than a hint of maso-chism: Jennifer: Weil jeder sehen kann, dafi ich bald ganz verloren sein werde, und fiihlen kann, daS ich ohne Stolz bin und vergehe nach Erniedrigung; daB ich mich j e t z t hinrichten lieBe von d i r oder wegwerfen wie ein Zeug nach jedem Spi e l , das du ersinnst.98 A l i t t l e l a t e r Jennifer exclaims: Jennifer langsam, wahrend sie sich auf die Knie w i r f t : Oh, das i s t wahr. Nie mehr. Jan entsetzt: Was tust du? Tu das nicht?! Jennifer: Auf den Knien vor d i r liegen und deine FuBe kiissen? Ich werde es immer tun. Und drei Schritte hinter d i r gehen, wo du gehst. Erst trinken, wenn du getrunken hast. ^ Essen, wenn du gegessen hast. Wachen, wenn du schlafst. And i n the scene Auf der StraBe: 39 Jan: Ich s o l l t e dich schlagen vor a l i e n Leuten, schlagen werde ich dich . . . Jennifer: Ja, Ja. Similar remarks are made by the narrator i n Malina: "Ich werde ein Gnadengesuch schreiben, wie die Verurteilten, die keine Begnadigung zu erwarten haben."'^"'", or by Anna i n Ein Geschaf t mit Traumen: "Ich w i l l nichts, i c h w i l l nur zu Ihren Fuften sitzen durfen, Ihre Sklavin sein, "102 Ihre Befehle erf t i l l e n durfen, . . . This element of masochism, gen-e r a l l y ignored by c r i t i c s , was mentioned at least i n passing by W. Hadecke: ". . . eine Zigeunerin . . . kann aber aus Jennifers Hand nichts lesen, der Hand, i n die Jan (auf Jennifers Wunsch, auch wenn sie sich dariiber beklagt) seine Nagel geschlagen hat - vorausdeutendes, an die Kreuzigung erinnerndes Zeichen, das nicht f r e i von P e i n l i c h k e i t i s t , 103 zumal Jennifer es laut, fast masochistisch bejammert - und genieJBt." A fourth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bachmann's lovers i s that of the "passive lover". This point, too, has been a l l but ignored by the secon-dary l i t e r a t u r e . Where love or the lover i s discussed i n Bachmann research, they have been discussed only within the framework of the emo-tio n a l lover along the l i n e s discussed above. The passive lover, however, would seem to be not only a frequent character, but also one of considerable psychological significance. At least four of the fourteen female protag-onists can be placed, f u l l y or partially,, i n this category: Hanna, Nadja, Elisabeth, and Beatrix. Some f a l l into both categories, that of the emo-tional-active lover and that of the passive lover. What i s meant here by the term "passive lover"? I t denotes the Bachmann heroine who engages w i l l i n g l y i n love making without emotional attachment toward the partner, 40 or even, with a f e e l i n g of repulsion toward the man. The following excerpts w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the point: Nadja: Im Zimmer, als er sie umarmte, begann s i e wieder zu z i t t e r n , wollte nicht, konnte nicht, sie fiirchtete zu ersticken oder ihm unter den Handen wegzusterben, aber dann wollte sie es doch, es war besser, von ihm e r s t i c k t und vernichtet zu werden und damit a l l e s zu vernichten, was i n ihr unheilbar geworden war, sie kampfte nicht mehr, l i e f i es mit sich geschehen, sie blieb fuhllos liegen, drehte sich ohne ein Wort von ihm weg und s c h l i e f sofort ein. Elisabeth: . . . s i e s e i v o l l i g f r i g i d e , . . . so konnten diese Manner doch nicht wissen, dafl sie zu ihnen ging, wie man sich i n einen Operationssaal begibt, urn sich den Blinddarm herausnehmen zu lassen, nicht gerade beunruhigt, aber auch ohne Enthusiasmus, im Vertrauen darauf, dafi ein erfahrener Chirurg, oder, i n ihrem F a l l , ein erfahrener Mann, mit einer solchen K l e i n i g k e i t schon f e r t i g wiirde.105 Beatrix: . . . Beatrix fand diese Beriihrungen p e i n l i c h , sie war einfach zu a l t dafvir. . . . s e i t sie erwachsen geworden war und sich h e f t i g geweigert hatte, zu studieren oder i n eine Ausbildung zu gehen, kam sie nie mehr auf die Idee, sich mit einem Mann einzulassen, und ihre Abneigung gegen diese grauenvolle Normalitat, der sich a l l e unter-warfen, f i e l zusammen mit der Entdeckung einer Perversion, ihres f e t i s c h i s t i s c h e n Schlafs. j » , . . . . . . . 106 . . . und Erich sagte . . . sie sei eben eine demi-vierge. Lastly, many of Bachmann's lovers display a longing for safety and protection, which they seek from their partners. Jennifer's replies i n the scene Im Freien are a case i n point: "So bin i c h beschutzt. . . . So bin ich gerettet. . . . So bin ich g e b o r g e n . A n d Charlotte des-cribes a similar f e e l i n g : "Danach hatte sie sich wieder geeinigt mit einem Mann auf Giite, V e r l i e b t h e i t , Wohlwollen, Ftirsorge, Anlehnung, Sicherheit, Schutz, Treue, a l l e r l e i Achtenswertes, das dann nicht nur im 108 Entwurf steckenblieb, sondern sich auch leben l i e S . " However, she, 41 more than Jennifer, sees this as an anti-state to "Ekstase, Rausch Tiefe, 109 Auslleferung, GenuB." What then can be summarized about the image of the lover? F i r s t of a l l , with the exception of Charlotte's lesbianism, there are few eman-cipatory trends to be discerned. None of Bachmann's women want to play a dominant r o l e i n their love relationship with a male. On the contrary, as has been shown, even the extremely emotional lover, such as Jennifer or the narrator i n Malina, reveals signs of submissiveness. The sole indication of a wish for such emancipation might be discerned i n the long-ing for a permanent state of unlimited love and emotion. Secondly, Bachmann's lovers are either t r a g i c a l l y ""in love" or i n unhappy retreat from f a i l e d roles as love-partners.^"^ Examples of the f i r s t are Jennifer, the narrator i n Malina, and, to some extent, Undine because of the inher-ent consequence of the attempt to a t t a i n an absolute love relationship, namely the destruction of one's s e l f . Examples of the l a t t e r are a l l the other women once i n love. F i n a l l y , the image of the lover seems to be less inherently contradictory than other role-images; i t would seem to show only the development of various facets of one r o l e . D. The Role of the Housewife The most frequently portrayed female s o c i a l role i n l i t e r a t u r e has been the role of the h o u s e w i f e . A . W. Schlegel's parody on S c h i l l e r ' s "Wiirde der Frauen" provides a humorous description: Ehret die Frauen! Sie stricken die* Striimpfe, Wollig und warm, zu durchwaten die Sumpfe, Flicken zerrissene Pantalons aus. Kochen dem Mann die kraftigen Suppen, Putzen den Kindern die niedlichen Puppen, Halten mit maBigem Wochengeld Haus. Doch der Mann, der tolpelhafte, Findt am Zarten nicht Geschmack, 42 Zum gegorenen Gerstensafte Raucht er immerfort Tabak. Brummt wie Baren an der Kette, Knufft die Kinder spat und fruh, Und dem Weibchen nachts im Bette Kehrt er gleich den Riichen zu. How and to what extent does Ingeborg Bachmann develop the image of the 112 homemaker? Among the many " t r a d i t i o n a l " concepts which make up the mosaic of her female characters, one finds the emphasis on the role of the housewife to be a minor one. Yet there i s s t i l l more space given to this role than to that of the working women or the single mother. The reader meets the narrator i n Malina, the elder Frau Jordan, Elisabeth, Charlotte, and Hanna at times i n the role of the homemaker: the narrator in Malina keeps house for Malina, i n part for her boy-friend, the elder Frau Jordan for herself, Elisabeth for her father (during those short periods when the reader meets her i n this r o l e ) , Charlotte keeps house for her husband, and Hanna for husband and c h i l d . Contrary to the " t r a d i -t i o n a l " role presentations, however, these are, i n the main, only part-time roles and, except for Hanna, the role of housewife i s peripheral i n i t s psychological importance as well as i n i t s soci a l consequences. The most si g n i f i c a n t aspect of the homemaking role s t i l l appears to l i e i n i t s l i m i t i n g effect on Bachmann's women, providing an orderly l i f e and check against emotional chaos: Charlotte erschrak, memorierte rasch ihre P f l i c h t e n : morgen fruh Franz abholen, den Wecker s t e l l e n , f r i s c h sein, ausge-schlafen sein, einen erfreuten Eindruck machen. Es war keine Zeit mehr zu verlieren. Sie f i i l l t e rasch zwei Glaser mit Mineralwasser und trug sie ins Zimmer, reichte eines dem Madchen, das schweigend austrank und dann, wahrend es das Glas wegstellte, briisk sagte: Morgen kommt er also zuriick. The r e c a l l i n g of her duties as housewife serves Charlotte at a c r i t i c a l moment as protection against the growing emotional involvement with Mara. 43 A few pages l a t e r , the narrator of Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha t e l l s us that Charlotte, after her marriage, " . . . lebte . . . i n der hellen Ordnung, die Franz gehorte, . . ."1"LZf The symbolic act of Mara's demol-ishing the l i v i n g room has the consequence of freeing Charlotte's thoughts from the norms and obligations of a good housewife. It may be worth not-ing that when Bachmann's women lead married l i v e s , they l i v e i n a clean and orderly home environment; when they l i v e with a lover, they l i v e i n disorder and adhere to a d a i l y schedule i n which even the meals are i r r e g -ular, at best. In Malina one even finds a l a s t symbolic act of homemak-ing, the brewing of coffee by the narrator on Malina's request to "do something sensible", to be the trigger for the narrator's disintegration. Again the idea that the homemaker's role i s a l i m i t a t i o n of the free and f u l l development of one's s e l f finds support. Also, the coupling of order and purpose with the world of the male, sustained throughout Bachmann's work, re-emerges i n the role c o n f l i c t s of the homemaker. The extensive descriptions of the narrator's j o y f u l preparation of meals for Ivan i n Malina seem to indicate that i t i s not homemaking as such which i s d i s -t a s t e f u l to Bachmann's women but rather i t s symbolic functions of o b l i -gation and duty together with i t s regulating effect on their free emo-tiona l l i f e . This, too, distinguishes Bachmann's image of the women from the emancipated image of the female i n the works of such contemporaries as Peter Handke, Christa Wolf, and Irmtraud Morgner. F. The Role of the Professional The career-woman i s not a frequent Bachmann heroine. Only two, Nadja and Elisabeth, and, to an extent, Anna can be c l a s s i f i e d as f u l l -time professionals.''"''""' Although the text yields very l i t t l e concrete 44 information illuminating their choice of roles, i t may be noted that both Elisabeth and Nadja l e f t their homes at a young age, had few or no emo-tio n a l t i e s to their native environment, displayed a strong restlessness, a desire to "get away from i t a l l " , to f i n d freedom, personal ide n t i t y , and independence. A close examination of these few cases, however, seems to i n d i -116 cate that - contrary to the opinion of many Bachmann c r i t i c s - a profes-sional career i s not a positive act of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n but rather a reaction to a l i m i t i n g environment, or simply an act of f r u s t r a t i o n : Elisabeth: Als sie nach Wien gegangen war und zu arbeiten anfing, hatte sie schon das Fernfieber gehabt," eine lebhafte Ungeduld, und sie arbeitete nur so v i e l und auch gut, weil sie hinarbeitete auf ein Wunder, das Wunder, weit wegzukommen, es war zuerst nicht einmal k l a r , was aus i h r werden s o l l t e , . . .117 Sie hatte nichts Richtiges gelernt und dachte hie und da verzweifelt, doch auf die Universitat gehen zu miissen, aber es war schon zu spat fur sie . . . Damals wurden z u f a l l i g die Weichen g e s t e l l t fur i h r Leben, . . . Nadja: . . . i c h bin schon zu lange weg, mit neunzehn bin i c h weg, ich spreche nie mehr deutsch, nur wenn es gebraucht wird, . . .119 . . . sie wurde hoch bezahlt, zu Hause hatte sie es nie ausgehalten mit ihrem Selbstandigkeitsdrang, es i s t eine so unglaublich anstrengende Arbeit, aber ich mag das eben trotzdem, nein, heiraten, nie, . . .120 Bei i h r ware es fast bis zu einer Heirat gekommen, aber kurz davor doch auseinandergegangen, und iiber das Warum hatte sie jahrelang nachgedacht, und nie kam sie auf den Grund, . . .121 The element of chance that frequently influences' the careers of these women should also be mentioned, as i t too militates against the thesis of emancipation. Lastly, a close look at the verbs and nouns used i n 45 the relevant passages, concerning the careers, indicates a preponderance of negative connotations: 122 Nouns Adjectives Verbs Ungeduld (p. 412) grauenhaft (p. 286) (umher) i r r e n (p. 286) Unruhe (p. 412) unglaublich eingehen (p. 412) (Fern) fieber (p. 412) anstrengend (p. 286) verzweifelt (p. 412) oberflachliche nicht einmal nichts Richtiges Kenntnisse (p. 412) k l a r (p. 412) gelernt (p. 412) kein besonderes Talent (p. 412) These indications and Nadja's thoughts on her id e n t i t y : ". . . aber je weiter sie sich entfernte von ihrem Standplatz [her place of work], der wichtiger fur sie war als fur andere ein Zuhause und von dem ein Sich-Entfernen daher v i e l heikler i s t , desto unsicherer fiihlte s i e sich. Sie war keine selbstsichere Erscheinung mehr i n einer Halle, i n einer Bar, entworfen von Vogue oder Glamour, . . . fast nichts mehr deutete auf ihre 123 Identitat hin, . . . " show work as an at best weak ego support and point to a negative image of the career-woman, a role that emerges as an unsatisfactory substitute for the t r a d i t i o n a l female s o c i a l roles of mother and wife on the one hand, and f a i l s to provide, because of i t s r e s t r i c t i v e nature, the genuine freedom and p o s s i b i l i t y for the s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n which Bachmann's women s t r i v e for on the other. The fact that - despite the occasional condemnation of married l i f e - a l l career women are frequently occupied with speculative thoughts on love and mar-riage seems to support the view that the professional role i s not a s u i t -able solution to women's problems. The majority.of Bachmann's career women appear to be frustrated lovers and would-be-wives - victims of a " t r a d i t i o n a l " role image and sexual prejudice. H. Pausch's interpreta-tion of the professional role of Bachmann's heroines, which he sees as i s o l a t i v e , i s based upon a different l i n e of argument: 46 Sie [Bachmann] opponiert gegen die etahlierten s i t t l i c h e n Verhaltensweisen mit dem eigenwilligen Isolationsverhalten der Hauptfiguren ihrer Erzahlungen gegeniiber jeder Form der Gemeinschaft. Fur die beriihmte Fotografin Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See und fur die Dolmetscherin Nadja i n Simultan i s t die Isolation, das heiBt der Schutz vor dem nivellierenden Z u s r i f f der Gesellschaft, der Beruf i n den sich beide zuriickziehen. •L F. The Role of the Outsider Denn es sind noch immer die Schiffbruchigen, die auf Inseln Zuflucht suchen.-'" One of the seemingly more "modern" elements making up Bachmann's image of the woman, i s the theme of the Outsider. Not only do keywords such as F l i g h t (e.g. Lieder auf der Flucht), E x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , E x i l e , 127 Isolation and Border People permeate a l l of Ingeborg Bachmann's writ-ings, but nearly a l l of her female characters maintain outsider positions i n one form or another. This r o l e i s one of the most complex of those which we s h a l l be investigating. Undine: remains deliberately outside the norms and conventions of established s o c i a l behavior. Miranda: destroys her glasses repeatedly to withdraw into an i l l u s i t i v e world and to distance herself from r e a l i t y . Beatrix: builds up her own dream-world and r e t i r e s into a state of sleep and narcissism. Elisabeth: feels that she - despite an apparently active l i f e -exists i n an "anti-world" and i s losing »by degrees personal 128 relationship to her environment. Nadja: l i v e s an uncommitted existence apart from any secure bonds, be i t the interpersonal, the national or the l i n g u i s t i c realm. 47 Charlotte: "Ich bin i n kein B i l d hineingeboren, . . . Darum i s t mir nach Abbruch zumute. Darum wiinsche i c h ein Gegenbild, und ich wiinsche, es selbst zu errichten. . . . Erst den Sprung 129 tun, a l l e s uberspringen, den A u s t r i t t vollziehen, . . . " Frau Jordan, too, appears i n the role of the outsider: "Mifitrauen und Nichtverstehen der Welt, Ausgeschlossensein 130 und Einsamkeit, Horschwache und S e n i l i t a t : . . . " A search for the underlying causes of this tendency i n Bachmann's female characters w i l l reveal a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s with those of other out-131 siders i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e . F i r s t l y , there i s the aspect of the Sprachkrise problem which involves - among other things - the d i f f i -culty, even i n a b i l i t y , to communicate with those close to them (Nadja, 132 the elder Frau Jordan, Elisabeth). Secondly, we f i n d a reaction or protest against established norms and values of society (Undine, Charlotte, Mara). Thirdly, there exists the i n a b i l i t y to face " r e a l i t y " , to adjust to existing s o c i a l conventions (Beatrix, Miranda, Jennifer). And fourthly, there i s an inner drive for autonomy, a desire for s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and subjectivity which disallow s o c i a l commitments, and, f i n a l l y , egotism 133 (Undine, Charlotte). It i s surprising that Bachmann research has contributed very l i t t l e to this timely topic. One interesting interpretation on the out-sider theme has been offered by Dieter Schlenstedt: Konkret gefafit, zeigt die Struktur der Erzahlungen . . . den Zusammenbruch i l l u s i o n a r e r Hoffnung: Das erworbene Gut der Rebellion kann bei der Einkehr i n die burgerliche Weltordnung nicht - oder doch nur ahnungsweise - mitgebracht werden. Mit anderen Worten: Ingeborg Bachmann spiegelt das Dilemma des spaten Nonkonformisten, dessen Unbehagen, dessen Flucht s c h l i e S l i c h doch zu keiner wirklichen Erneuerung fiihrt, sondern zum Verzicht oder zum Verrat seiner rebellischen Ideen. . . . Das erste wesentliche Moment der Geschichten i s t also die Absonderung d r Erzahlergestalten aus hrer Welt.134 48 Here the author offers a negative view of Bachmann's outsiders that does not seem to be j u s t i f i e d i n the case of her female protagonists, espe-c i a l l y i n the l i g h t of the subsequent publication of Malina and Simultan 135 i n which a return to a bourgeois l i f e i s ce r t a i n l y not the r u l e . Granted, Bachmann's female outsiders do not achieve for more than b r i e f periods — i f at a l l - the absolute or near absolute state of existence most are aiming f o r . However, i n no case do the female characters give up their s t r i v i n g and return to a "bourgeois" existence. On the contrary, they continue to hope and to search for a r e a l i z a t i o n of their goals. The majority of Bachmann's female outsiders become increasingly s e l f - r e l i a n t . It should be added, that Schlenstedt picks the male characters of A l l e s , and of Das dreifiigste Jahr, as major proof for his point. This aspect of his interpretation would certainly be expanded by our analysis of the male, who, because of his pragmatic and rational nature, would surely f a i l i n the attempt to renew the world i n the sense that Bachmann con-ceives i t . CHAPTER IV THE SOCIAL INTERACTION Having examined the representative s o c i a l roles which Bachmann assigns to her female protagonists and having tested these against more " t r a d i t i o n a l " r oles, i n this chapter we w i l l try to determine the char-a c t e r i s t i c behaviour patterns of these women i n interaction with c h i l -dren, women, men, and, f i n a l l y , observations w i l l be made on their inter action with society i n general. A. Social Interaction with Children Several questions pose themselves i n this context. For instance how do Ingeborg Bachmann's women conform to sex-typed behaviour char-a c t e r i s t i c s ? In p a r t i c u l a r , what i s the extent and quality of sex-typed 136 behaviour performance toward children? One may begin a discussion of this topic with any of several observations. F i r s t l y , children quantitatively and q u a l i t a t i v e l y , play a small part i n the objective as well as subjective l i f e of Ingeborg Bachmann's heroines, the most extensively developed characters i n this respect are Hanna, the elder Frau Jordan and the narrator i n Malina. Secondly, the function and person of a ch i l d are not always i d e n t i c a l ; i n some instances adult men and women, even a d*og, have served as receivers for child-orientated responses. Mara i s one example of a child substitute: "Nur v i e l a l t e r kam sie [Charlotte] sich mit einemmal vor, weil dieses Geschopf vor ihr das Kind s p i e l t e , sich k l e i n machte 49 50 137 und sie groBer machte . . . " Also, many of the men m the live s of Bachmann's women are "gescheiterte Existenzen . . . die sie brauchten, 138 139 als Halt. . . . " , men who were looking for mother substitutes. This should indicate that mother i n s t i n c t s of some of these women were re-channelled, because of the lack of children. Lastly, an examination of Bachmann's language describing children, seems to indicate that, i n general, her c h i l d characters do have a negative image and that the eff e c t i v e response from their mothers i s more often negative than not. In the case of a woman's relationship to children other than her own, however, this negative image i s not so t o t a l l y sustained. Examples of this are K i k i , the c h i l d the elder Frau Jordan had to care for i n her youth, and Bela and Andras, Ivan's children of whom the narrator i n Malina i s so fond. It should also be noted that K i k i appears to serve as a f o i l for Leo, the elder Frau Jordan's son. 140 A language chart of negative vocabulary on children: Fipps Leo gelbsvichtig, zerknittert (p. 141) (undankbar) (p. 375ff.) Grimasse (p. 142) kompliziertes Kind (p. 375) richtungslos blickende Augen (p. 142) spricht a b f a l l i g und boshaft iiber Wut (p. 144) (Verwandte) (p. 378) dumpfer Kopf (p. 146) gemein (p. 389) grausam (p. 145) (egoistisch) (p. 389) Brut (p. 150) (kaltherzig) (p. 388) das Bose . . . steckte i n dem Kind wie eine Eiterquelle (p. 150) Bela + Andras Lausbuben, Fratzen, Banditen, Wechselbalger (p. 14 4) Zudringlichkeit (p. 131) maulen (p. 13 3) wut end (p. 13 3) briillen (p. 13 3) zertriimmern (p. 14 5) kratzen (Schallplatte) (p. 145) Mistfratzen (p. 147) 51 This chart indicates that, despite some positive aspects, the negative points are by far i n excess of these. It also appears that the negative image i s much more severe i n the female character's own chi l d , as i n Leo's or Fipps' case. Since the child-image i n Jugend i n einer osterreichischen Stadt, dealing with an unspecified group of children, does not quite conform to these patterns, this could indicate a value judgement of Bachmann not so much about the c h i l d per se, but rather on the mother-child relationship. Nevertheless, there seems to be no doubt that children do e l i c i t some positive reactions as well as exert positive influences on Bachmann's women. Because of the b i r t h of Fipps, Hanna gains a "second youth"; the narrator i n Malina seems to enjoy the obstructiveness and turbulence, that go with Ivan's children; Jennifer i n Der gute Gott von 141 Manhattan sees children as a means of holding together a marriage; also, children do seem to improve the communicative level between Bachmann's women and their partners, such i s the case with the narrator 142 in Malina and Ivan, the elder Frau Jordan und Franziska i n Das 143 Gebell, and Hanna and her husband m A l l e s . Yet, as stated before, the sum of the appearances of children adds up to a negative factor i n the lives of Bachmann's female characters. Gerda, i n Ein Wildermuth, has an abortion, Undine, in Undine geht, interprets children as a means which men put women into bondage, the narrator of Unter Mordern und Irren sees children as part of the oppressive environment of a wife."*"^ This conclusion i s supported and complemented by the results of this study on the image of the mother i n Chapter III. Some women do display " t y p i c a l " female and maternal reactions 52 ,145 toward the children: Hanna wants "eine ganze Brut' and cares intensely for Fipps; the narrator i n Malina shows much affe c t i o n toward Bela and Andras; the elder Frau Jordan bestows maternal love on K i k i , and Elisabeth exhibits maternal i n s t i n c t s for her younger brother Robert; nevertheless, the general image of Ingeborg Bachmann's heroines i s such that i t does not allow one to speak of a child-orientated behaviour or a predominantly maternal nature. Rudiments of maternal i n s t i n c t s are often directed toward substitute objects such as men of weak character, younger brothers, and older or younger women. I t seems that the defective child-mother relationship of Bachmann's women, too, has i t s root i n the urge of Bachmann's female characters for independence and freedom. Directing one's maternal i n s t i n c t s toward strange children or substitute objects frees one from the binding s o c i a l obligation that goes with the care of one's own c h i l d . B. Social Interaction with Women Even more insight into Bachmann's image of the woman should be provided by a study of the interaction between women. Three themes i n this context have been found to y i e l d very s i g n i f i c a n t information. F i r s t l y , the theme of competition and sexual r i v a l r y , secondly, the lesbian theme, and th i r d l y , "non sexual" relationships, free of either of the above elements. 1. Sexual Competition and Rivalry One of the most s t r i k i n g features of s o c i a l interaction among females i n Bachmann's works i s the apparent lack of a sex-solidarity -perhaps with the exception of Franziska i n Das Gebell. In this respect, 53 one can hardly speak of a "lib e r a t e d " woman. Bachmann's heroines do compete for men: Stasi i n Ihr gliicklichen Augen snatches Miranda's beloved friend Josef. In the kafkaesque chapter "Der d r i t t e Mann" i n Malina the narrator and Melanie engage i n sexual competition over the narrator's father. The erotic nature of this r i v a l r y i s c l e a r l y 146 expressed by such symbols as the s t a f f . But one detects not only sexual competition. In at least one instance, women are r i v a l s for the possession of a c h i l d : Du weifit also nicht, dafi Mama und ich einander gehafit haben, nati i r l i c h nur wegen Robert. Denn Mama konnte nicht verstehen, dafi eine Sechzehnjahrige, der sie schon dreimal a l l e s gesagt hatte, was man Madchen eben zu sagen hat, sie p l o t z l i c h anschrie und fragte, ob denn Robert uberhaupt ihr Kind s e i , er konnte namlich genauso gut ihres, Elisabeths Kind, sein. Bachmann's p r i n c i p a l females, indeed, frequently display a certain h o s t i l -i t y toward each other. S t a s i , for instance, r e f l e c t s on her friend Miranda: Dumme Gans, denkt Stasi , . . . Aber das i s t doch sonnenklar diese r a f f i n i e r t e , schlampige, dumme, diese - Hier findet Stasi keine Worte mehr - s i e hat ihn doch vollkommen i n der Hand mit ihrer H i l f l o s i g k e i t , . . . 1 4 8 In this context, one should also mention the nasty gossip of the s o c i a l -i t e women at the Wolfgangsee i n Malina and Undine's contemptuous mono-logue on women who are not "of her own kind," (Menschenfrauen). May we not conclude, that these are traces of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " image of the „149 woman? 2. The Lesbian Theme At f i r s t sight, the instances of lesbianism may seem to m i l i t a t e against the suggestion made above. However, a closer look, especially 54 at the more intensively developed encounter of Charlotte and Mara i n Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha, indicates motives other than feminine s o l i -darity. Charlotte intends to make a role change at Mara's expense: Sie [Charlotte] schatzte ihre Beute ab, und die war brauchbar, war gut. Sie hatte i h r Geschopf gefunden. Es war Schiehtwechsel, und j e t z t konnte sie die Welt iibernehmen, ihren Gefahrten benennen, die Rechte und P f l i c h t e n f e s t s e t z e n , ^ ^ die alten Bilder ungultig machen und das erste neue entwerfen. Sh.e does not love Mara, but wants to create an anti-image of woman simul taneously i n Mara and herself."*""^ Interestingly enough, Bachmann speaks in this context of old and fixed images of the woman, namely the images of the "Jagerin, der groSen Hure, der Samariterin, des Lockvogels aus 152 der Tiefe und der unter die Sterne Versetzten . . . " It happens, also 153 that i n both lesbian incidents one woman uses the other as an object or substitute, not as another female Individual. With "Da a l l e Manner aus Wien verschwunden sind," the narrator i n Malina j u s t i f i e s her r e l a -154 tionship with the young g i r l . For Charlotte, on the other hand, Mara i s material for making a new kind of woman: "Darum wiinsche i c h ein Gegenbild, und i c h wiinsche, es selbst zu e r r i c h t e n . L a s t l y , i t seems that Bachmann attaches a stigma - or accepts the stigma attached by society - to this type of relationship. The t i t l e of the story, Ein Weg nach Gomorrah, indicates this and Mrs. Breitner's disappointed statement that she had considered the first-person narrator i n Malina to 156 be a saint underscores the religious disapprobation. 3. The "Non-Sexual" Relationships Thirdly, Bachmann's women would appear also to function on a 55 l e v e l that i s free of sex-stereotyping, i . e . on a purely human l e v e l of woman-to-woman communication. While a l l male-female exchange between Bachmann's characters seems to be sex-determined or sex-conscious,"'"^'' some female-female interchange seems to offer the p o s s i b i l i t y to go beyond this range. Charlotte has thoughts along these l i n e s - before her relationship with Mara s l i p s back into the old sex-determined r o l e -play, reversed as i t may be - when she speaks of the "groSeren Spielraum" and of freedom from sex-determination and role behaviour. When women meet outside sex—determined situations, genuine human communication may be possible. This i s the case between Franziska and the elder Frau Jordan when a close relationship develops between the two and Franziska learns about the e v i l character of Leo, her husband. This type of communication seems to be the only successful one among Bachmann's women i n the long run. C. Social Interaction with Men It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that much more width and depth has been given by Ingeborg Bachmann to the development of man-woman relationships than to any of the other three categories which are treated i n this chapter. Already, some factors of this relationship have been discussed i n their relevant context i n other chapters of this study and may, therefore, be 158 omitted here. As has been frequently the case i n our survey u n t i l now, here again the man-woman relationships i n Bachmann's works are b a s i c a l l y governed by conventional sex-determined role images: Ich: Es mufi schon etwas bei den Primaten und spatestens bei den Hominiden danebengegangen sein. Ein Mann, eine Frau . . . seltsame Worte, seltsamer Wahn! Wer von uns beiden wird summa cum laude bestehen?159 56 These remarks by the narrator i n Malina seem to r e f l e c t not only regret about these images and doubt about their r e a l basis, but also the opinion that a male-female relationship i s one of competition, of r i v a l r y . 1. Role Behaviour of Subjects An understanding of the differences between the two subject groups (men and women) contributes not only to a clearer picture of the female image, but also i s a prerequisite for any analysis of s o c i a l interchange between them. The narrator i n Malina recounts some of these differences rather emotionally i n the novel: Darin i s t der Grund dafiir zu suchen, nach dem noch niemand gesucht hat, warum nur die Frauen immerzu den Kopf v o l l haben mit ihren Gefuhlen und ihren Geschichten, mit ihrem Mann oder Ihren Mannern. . . . Fur ihn i s t es j a l e i c h t , wenig an die Frauen zu denken, denn sein krankes System i s t unfehlbar, er wiederholt, er hat sich wiederholt, er wird sich wiederholen. Wenn er gerne die FiiBe kiifit, wird er noch fiinfzig Frauen die FuBe kiissen, warum s o i l er sich also beschaftigen i n Gedanken, bedenklich wegen eines Geschopfs, das sich zur Zeit gem von ihm die FuBe kiissen lafit, so meint er jedenfalls. Eine Frau muB aber damit f e r t i g werden, dafi j e t z t ausgerechnet ihre FiiBe an der Reihe sind, sie muB sich unglaubliche Gefiihle erfinden und den ganzen Tag ihre wirklichen Gefiihle i n den erfundenen unterbringen, einmal damit sie das mit den FiiBen aushalt, dann vor allem, damit sie den grbfieren fehlenden Rest aushalt, denn jemand, der so an FiiBen hangt, vernach-l a s s i g t sehr v i e l anderes. Uberdies gibt es noch die ruck-artigen Umstellungen, von einem Mann zum anderen muB sich ein Frauenkorper a l l e s abgewohnen und wieder an etwas ganz Neues gewohnen. Aber ein Mann zieht mit seinen Gewohnheiten f r i e d l i c h weiter, manchmal hat er eben Gliick damit, meistens keines.160 As this text shows, the perspective from which these male-female r e l a -tionships are recounted i s a female one - as i s the case i n the majority 161 of such encounters. A generalized p r o f i l e of the emotional tenor 57 of men-women interaction i n Bachmann's works may be pictured thus: It appears that this p r o f i l e does b a s i c a l l y concur with the " t r a d i t i o n a l " male and female role images. 2. Kinds of Interaction There are nine main types of male-female interaction patterns discernible, which recur throughout Bachmann's stories and radio-plays. F i r s t l y , there i s a d i s t i n c t l y submissive-dominant, often s a d i s t i c relationship. Evidence was submitted e a r l i e r to show that Bachmann's 16 2 female lovers frequently exhibit various degrees of submissiveness; furthermore, i t appears that any movement i n this d i r e c t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d by the female and i n most cases rejected, or, at best, tolerated by the male partner: Herr . . . Herr . . . Ach, Laurenz, Laurenz, das kann ich nicht ertragen, i c h verehre Sie heute noch wie am ersten Tag. Ich liebe Sie und Sie verstofien mich. Ich w i l l nichts, ich w i l l nur zu Ihren Fufien sitzen diirfen, Ihre Sklavin sein, Ihre Befehle erfvillen diirfen, Ihre S t i r n , hinter der sich die groBten Gedanken, die je gedacht worden sind, denken, sehen diirfen. Ich w i l l nichts, nur das, nur das. VerstoBen Sie-mich nicht. Machen Sie zu meiner Nachfolgerin, wen Sie wollen, lassen Sie mich nur Ihr und Ihnen dienen . . . ach Laurenz. female male a g g r e s s i v e — p a s s i v e submissive superior impulsive emotional personally engaged sensual loving aggressive dominant dependent r e f l e c t i v e calm, reserved routine sexual adventurous Anna: 58 Laurenz: Heute wird gelacht! Was unterstehen Sie sich? Horen Sie sofort auf zu jammern, ich lasse Sie g u i l l o . . . g u i l l o . . . ich lasse Sie totenl-^S It may well be that this pronounced tone of submissive fee l i n g i n Bachmann's women represents the disadvantaged position they are i n as emotionally involved beings i n situations where the male i s less or not 164 at a l l involved emotionally. One important exception does exist, however, and that i s the narrator's relationship to her father i n 165 Malina. Here, the i n i t i a t i v e c l e a r l y emanates from the father and evokes hardly any pleasurable response from her: Wir stehen bei 50 Grad Kalte, entkleidet, vor dem Palast, miissen die befohlenen Positionen einnehmen, im Publikum seufzen manche, doch jeder denkt, dafi Bardos, der unschuldig i s t , mitschuldig i s t , weil man anfangt, die Strome eisigen Wassers iiber uns zu gieBen. Ich hore mich noch wimmern und eine Verwunschung ausstoBen, das letze was ich wahrnehme, i s t das triumphierende Lacheln meines Vaters, und sein befriedigtes Seufzen i s t das l e t z t e , was i c h hore. Ich kann nicht mehr um das Leben von Bardos b i t t e n . Ich werde zu Eis.166 What, then, besides the ominously accentuated s a d i s t i c note, i s different about this relationship? F i r s t of a l l , i t i s an incest-uous relationship, from which the narrator seemingly derives no sexual pleasure: " . . . ich werde wieder mit ihm schlafen, mit den zusam-167 mengebissen Zahnen, dem unbewegten Korper." On the other hand the 168 passage might be understood as expressing a denial mechanism. Furthermore, this father-image t r i e s to destroy any other developing relationship between the narrator and her male partners. One could, of course - assuming polyvalence of the father-image 169 as indicated i n the dialogue between the narrator and Malina - specu-late about transference of a g u i l t complex, of a sexual and/or incestuous 59 nature, l i f t i n g , thereby, the torture scenes into the realm of psychia-try. However, the development of this relationship seems to be too concrete, to give much support to this interpretation. Secondly, reviewing the gruesome element of the chapter "Der d r i t t e Mann", i t appears that there exists an additional l e v e l of mean-ing, namely, the essentially destructive and oppressive nature of a sex determined man-woman relationship i n general. Lastly, considering the extensive symbolic nature of this chapter, one may detect a t h i r d , more universal l e v e l : e v i l and h e l l — especially i n the person of the father - pursuing man on earth. However, any attempt at an elaborate interpretation of the second chapter of Malina l i e s beyond the scope of the study. Other father-daughter relationships are developed quite d i f f e r -ently by Ingeborg Bachmann, a fact that supports the opinion that the relationship presented i n the second chapter of Malina extends beyond the personal l e v e l . An example i s the story Drei Wege zum See, where a p a t e r n a l i s t i c father-daughter relationship prevails. A third type of man-woman relationship to be found among Bachmann's women i s that of a maternal attitude toward men.''"^  Such i s the case i n Beatrix's relationship - although disguised by her -with Erich: . . . danach hatte er sofort Beatrix angerufen, seinen "L i c h t b l i c k " , seine "Oase des Friedens" i n einem verpatzten Leben, und er versicherte i h r , zitternd noch, aber instandig, daB er ohne sie nicht mehr weiterkonne, wie sehr er ihren Mut und ihre GefaBtheit bewundere, ihre Starke und eine Vernunft i n ihr, . . .171 60 In this relationship, Beatrix reacts from a position of superiority, having manipulated Erich into believing that he i s needed and important to her. Whereas Erich seeks support and uses her as a mother-substitute. In Simultan, Nadja c a l l s Ludwig Frankel a romantic and a c h i l d : ". . . und das g e f i e l ihr nun wieder besser als i h r erster Eindruck von ihm, 172 dafl er ein praktischer und erfolgreicher Mann sein mufite." Here we find once more a negative reference to ef f i c i e n c y and success, q u a l i t i e s which are always associated i n Bachmann's prose with "male" orientated 173 values. I t should be noted - as pointed out previously - that here, too, women do not try to dominate the man, but rather, as a consequence of the weakness of their partners, they f i n d themselves i n a position of superiority which makes most of them f e e l quite uncomfortable. Strength of personality and character paired with a " t r a d i t i o n a l " attitude of accepting and expecting leadership from the male i n certain areas appear to be part of Bachmann's image of the woman. Elisabeth i s one of Bachmann's heroines who laments the lack of strong men: Nur eine Hoffnung durfte und wollte s i e s i c h nicht offen lassen, denn wenn sie i n fast dreiBig Jahren keinen Mann getroffen hatte, einfach keinen . . . der stark war und ihr das Mysterium brachte, auf das s i e gewartet hatte, keinen, der w i r k l i c h ein Mann war und nicht ein Sonderling, Verlorener, ein Schwachling oder einer dieser Hilfsbediirf-tigen, von denen die Welt v o l l war, dann gab es den Mann eben nicht, . . . Proof that a certain sympathy with weak men i s caused more by a surplus of maternal feelings than by preference, i s supplied by the next type of male-female interchange: that of learning. The learning process -at times so intense as to warrant the designation of a "way of salva-tion" - i s a characteristic of Bachmann's f i c t i o n . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y 61 obvious between Ivan and the narrator i n Malina, between Jan and Jennifer i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan, and between Trotta and Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See. Here, again, the male partner appears to occupy i n many respects a dominant position; i t i s the woman, who has constantly to re-learn, to r e a d j u s t . I t seems that the learning process gone through by Bachmann's women consists of at least two stages: i t involves, f i r s t l y , learning from the male about the male and the male view of the world; secondly, a constant readjustment for the woman i n regard to the s p e c i f i c desires and habits of the male i n question. The f a c t , however, that there i s hardly any reverse interaction i n this type of r e l a t i o n -ship could be seen to place the female i n a superior or advanced p o s i -tion. A f i f t h type of man-woman relationship found i n Bachmann's works i s based on sex alone. The relationship of Wanda with Wildermuth i n Ein Wildermuth i s a well developed example of this type, although sex can be detected to some degree i n almost any man-woman relationship i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n . In this context, one should name two additional areas of interaction that dominate the l i f e of Bachmann's female charac-176 ters: love and emotion. In these types of relationships, i t i s always the female who suffers because of the nature of the sexes, since - according to Bachmann - i t i s only the female who involves her heart. The narrator i n Malina makes this point: Sonst machen die meisten Manner aber die Frauen ungliicklich, und eine Gegenseitigkeit i s t nicht da, denn wir haben es mit dem natiirlichen Ungltick, dem unabwendbaren, das von der Krankheit der Manner kommt, zu tun, deretwegen die Frauen soviel nachdenken miissen und, kaum angelernt, wieder umlernen miissen, denn wenn man iiber jemand immerzu nachdenken mufi und fur ihn Gefuhle erzeugen mufi, dann wird man regelrecht ungliicklich. Das Ungliick verdoppelt, verdreifacht, ver-hundertfacht sich mit der Zeit obendrein.^^ 62 A further d i s t i n c t realm of man-woman relationship seems to be art. A singular example of t h i s , is the exchange between Gerda Wildermuth and Edmund Kaltenbrunner i n Ein Wildermuth. Here too, one finds a non-egalitarian relationship. Kaltenbrunner has Gerda's admiration for his poetry and his individual perspective of the world -notably neither " t y p i c a l l y male" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As a matter of fact, Kaltenbrunner i s depicted i n obvious contrast to Judge Wildermuth with his continual search for absolutes. Bachmann's women are notorious for thei r lack of understanding of or interest i n their partner^.s professional l i f e . Gerda*s interest i n Kaltenbrunner may be an exception because of his " a t y p i c a l " a c t i v i t i e s . Lastly, there i s a d i s t i n c t l y professional type of man-woman relationship. The reader meets Anna i n Ein Geschaft mit Traumen - except during the dreams - only during o f f i c e hours, where she displays a t r u l y businesslike attitude toward a l l men. Elisabeth's relationship to Duvalier i s another example of this kind of relationship, i n which Bachmann's women are largely able to act out-side t h e i r sex roles, and are measured by a b i l i t y and achievement. Nonetheless, one finds them i n this type of so c i a l interaction also on the receiving end. Even Elisabeth i s - despite her achievements - always second to Duvalier. Male-female soci a l interaction i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n may be 178 represented by the following table: 63 f i e l d of inter a c t i o n submission, masochism dominance, sadism paternalism maternal protection learning, salvation sexuality love and emotion art and l i t e r a t u r e business, profession In summary: The source, male or female, as well as the types of interactions i l l u s t r a t e d i n the graph above, indicate that i n general the structure of a l l male-female relationships does conform largely to " t r a d i t i o n a l " role expectations. Secondly, we have found that the female - though she i s i n most cases dependent and the passive recipient - may be said to be by ri g h t of greater i n t u i t i o n , discernment, and farsightedness, the superior of the two. F i n a l l y , i t seems that a l l types of man-woman relationship developed by Bachmann, sooner or lat e r turn out to be unsatisfactory for the female partner. I t may also be pointed out, that there exist no purely exploitative relationships, 179 although isolated instances can be determined. D. Social Interaction with Society The l a s t group selected for study i s that of society. Though s o c i a l engagement of authors and their works has been p a r t i c u l a r l y prominent i n post-war German l i t e r a t u r e , Ingeborg Bachmann has been 180 called an "ivory tower writer". It was of interest therefore to review Bachmann's presentation of s o c i a l themes i n r e l a t i o n to her female characters. It has also been found that Bachmann's women male female -«-< A h * -> A 4 A A 64 assume i n many respects outsider roles, yet i n others engage quite activ e l y i n s o c i a l interchange and a c t i v i t y . The question then a r i s e s : What i s the extent and quality of their interaction with society? There i s no doubt, that Bachmann's women do react to s o c i a l issues. One widespread form of reaction i s escapism as carried on by Miranda i n Ihr glucklichen Augen, where she repeatedly destroys or "loses" her glasses i n order to avoid facing unpleasant s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s : Mit H i l f e einer winzigen Korrektion - der durch die Zer-streuungslinsen - mit einem auf die Nase gestiilpten goldenen B r i l l e n g e s t e l l , kann Miranda i n die Holle sehen. Dieses Inferno hat nie aufgehort, fur sie an Schrecken zu v e r l i e r e n . Darum sieht sie sich, immer auf der Hut, v o r s i c h t i g um . . . eh sie die B r i l l e aufsetzt, . . . denn wenn sie nicht achtgibt, kommt i n ihr B l i c k f e l d , was sie nie mehr vergessen kann: Sie sieht ein verkruppeltes Kind oder einen Zwerg oder eine Frau mit einem amputierten Arm, doch solche Figuren sind w i r k l i c h nur die g r e l l s t e n , auffallendsten i n mitten einer Anhaufung von ungliicklichen, hamischen, ver-dammten, von Demiitigungen oder Verbrechen beschriebenen Gesichtern, untraumbaren Visagen. Extensive sleep, another form of withdrawal from interaction with s o c i -ety, i s used by Beatrix i n Probleme Probleme: Zuhause wiirde sie sich ruhig und gliicklich hinlegen, ihre Haare ausbreiten, ihre Fiifie betrachten, denn im Kino gab es sicher wieder einen dieser anstrengenden Filme, mit Mord und Totschlag und manchmaT sogar Krieg, und wenn es auch a l l e s g e s t e l l t und erfunden war, dann nahm es sie doch zu sehr mit, gerade weil es i n der Wirklichkeit anders zuging. The c r i t i c i s m of this type of soci a l behaviour intended by Bachmann i s cl e a r l y formulated i n her lecture on "Literatur als Utopie": "Wir schlafen j a , sind Schlafer, aus Furcht, uns und unsere Welt wahrnehmen ,,183 zu mussen. However, there i s also evidence of an opposite form of this type of response. For instance, Elisabeth responds in Drei Wege zum See to 65 Trotta's cynical remarks about reporting on the suffering of the Algerian war: "Elisabeth war fassungslos, denn sie h i e l t das fur das einzig Richtige, a l l e s , was sie taten zu der Zeit, die Leute muBten erfahren, genau, was dort vor sich ging, und sie muBten diese Bilder 184 sehen, urn 'wach geri i t t e l t ' zu werden." And lat e r she adds: " . . . die Menschen miissen einmal zur Vernunft kommen. Dazu werde i c h 185 tun, was ich kann, wie wenig das auch i s t . " It should be noted that none of Bachmann's women appears as a socia l revolutionary or p o l i t i c i z e s about the state of the world. This i s l e f t to men, who, as Undine points out, are much better at analyzing the state of the world: So hat noch niemand von den Menschen^gesprochen, von den Bedingungen, unter denen sie leben, von ihren Horigkeiten, Giitern, Ideen, von den Menschen auf dieser Erde. Es war recht, so zu sprechen und so v i e l zu bedenken.186 Wherever responsive soc i a l Interaction with society occurs, i t i s of the personal, individual type. Examples are Franziska with her concern for the elder Frau Jordan and the narrator i n Malina who incurs debts to help a rather dubious exile from Bulgaria. A. Weber found the so c i a l theme i n Bachmann's story Das Gebell intense enough to note: Exemplarisch also Probleme konnten herausgearbeitet werden: der historisch-soziale Rahmen, die Mutter-Sohn-Beziehung, der Lebensweg einer Frau, Leistung auf Kosten des Mensch-lichen, Wissenschaft auch als Ehrgeiz, Ruhmsucht und A l i b i , die Zerstorung menschlicher Gemeinschaft wie Familie und Ehe durch die Unwahrhaftigkeit, der Egoismus des Menschen, die zentrale Aufgabe der Liebe (auch als c a r i t a t i v e r , fran-ziskanischer Hingabe), vor allem aber das Problem des Alters und Alterns, des Todes, worauf Schiiler heutzutage, i n einer jugendfixierten, hybriden Welt, an einem solchen Modell hinzuweisen waren. Menschlichkeit steht am konkreten F a l l zur Entscheidung, nicht Deklarationen.C!3187 This preference for individual social interaction by Bachmann's women, where i t does exist, i s voiced by Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See: 66 Was i n ihnen, selbst i n Philippe, so verkiimmerte oder i n leeren Formlichkeiten sich e r h i e l t , das reichte noch bei manchen jungen Leuten fur einen Liebesausbruch fur die Menschheit, aber es reichte nicht mehr bis zur nachsten Tur, zu jemand, der, schluchzend oder am Zusammenbrechen, neben ihnen auf der StraBe ging.138 Two observations ought to be added: f i r s t l y , there can frequently be detected a c r i t i c a l view on church and r e l i g i o n i n the context of so c i a l problems. Nadja, for instance, remarks i n Simultan during her v i s i t to the huge statue of Christ at Maratea: Als sie sich entfernt hatte, fiihlte s i e , s e i t l i c h im Riicken immer noch diese wahnsinnige Gestalt, die irgend jemand auf die Spitze des Felsens getan hatte, diese Wahnsinnigen, daB man das zulieB, und i n einem armseligen Dorf, das i n jedem Moment ins Meer stiirzen konnte, wenn man auch nur fest auftrat oder eine Bewegung zuviel machte, und deswegen bewegte sie sich nicht, damit dieser Felsen nicht hinunter-stiirzte mit ihnen beiden und mit der auflersten Armut dieses Dorfes und den Nachfahren der Sarazenen und a l i e n beladenen Geschichten aus a l i e n muhseligen Zeiten.189 Support for this observation may also be gained from Bachmann's essay: "Was ich i n Rom sah und horte", where she writes: "Noch sorgen die Armen i n ihrer Behutsamkeit dafiir, daB die Kirche nicht f a l l t , und der 190 sie gegriindet hat, verlafit sich schon auf den Schritt der Engel." In this l i g h t , by the way, i t i s doubtful, whether Bachmann intended the Franciscan a l l u s i o n pointed out above by A. Weber. But there is a second point. There i s , at times, a sense of resignation and disillusionment present i n Bachmann's women when s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are being discussed: Ehe der Algerienkrieg zuende war, hatten sich Elisabeth und Trotta getrennt, und Elisabeth sah, wahrend a l l e anderen langst zur "Tagesordnung" ubergingen, noch bedruckt, was aus der F r eiheit schon zu werden drohte, und aus dem neuen Algerien kam sie niedergeschlagen zurlick, sagte aber ostenta-t i v a l i e n , daB es hochinteressant sei und schrieb mit vor-sichtigen Einschrankungen a l l e r l e i Positives, und sie iiberlas 67 ihre Bildtexte, stundenlang, ehe sie sie abholen l i e B , ihren Grenziibertritt i n die erste Liige, die ihr klar war, . . . y L Needless to say that, because of the scope of this study, other aspects of this topic have been excluded, e.g. the changing attitude of Bachmann toward s o c i a l issues as i t manifests i t s e l f i n early poetry 192 and later prose writings; or s o c i a l protest that ranges outside the parti c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of women, such as i n the story Unter Mordern und Irren. Summing up this aspect of female s o c i a l interaction, one may conclude that many of Bachmann's women do react to human cruelty, suf-. . 193 fering, s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e , either by taking a stand or by withdrawing. Those female characters who do withdraw must s t i l l be credited with a so c i a l consciousness; i t i s only their extremely sensitive nature that prevents their active engagement. None of them may be call e d a n t i -s o c i a l . However, i t seems that this part of their image i s not a very pronounced one. Also i t presents i t s e l f i n the guise of human compas-sion rather than one of p o l i t i c a l commitment. CHAPTER V AGENTS AND PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT This l a s t of our investigatory chapters w i l l focus on the ques-tion of development and i t s relevance for Ingeborg Bachmann's female characters. Are they s t a t i c or dynamic figures? What are their agents of development, their drives, desires, determinants, motivations, their aims and limitations? For this purpose, the following agents of develop-ment have been found to be the most representative ones for a l l charac-ters studied: a search for identity; a quest for freedom; a yearning for a Grenzubertritt - a passing beyond a l l hitherto known l i m i t s . The second part of this chapter w i l l then be devoted to a discussion of external agents and the extent to which they retard or advance develop-ment . A. Inner Impetus 1. The Search for Individuality and Identity One of the strongest of inner drives motivating Bachmann's women — as well as some male protagonists - i s a search for individual identity. They f e e l thrown into and caught up in a system of depersonalization. And i t i s against this that Bachmann's characters almost without excep-tion rebel. The process of this f i x a t i o n and determination of the i n d i -vidual by some impersonal system shows i t s e l f i n various ways. One of these i s language i t s e l f : A l l e s i s t eine Frage der Sprache. Sie l a s t e t als Erbschuld auf der Welt: wir lernen die Sprache unserer Vorfahren und uhernehmen mit ihr die Bildnisse, die man sich von den 68 69 Dingen macht. Die Sprache t r i t t uns mit ihren fertigen Urteilen entgegen, und wir eignen uns sie an. Sie nimmt i n Besitz, was wir aussprechen; unsere Gedanken, unsere Gefiihle sind ihr untertan: Andri i s t ein Jude und wir sind die Andorraner. Ist es moglich, den Menschen vor unserer Sprache, vor unseren fertigen U r t e i l e n zu bewahren? Fipps hat noch Augenblicke, i n denen er sich selbst verwaltet. A l l e Wege und Wesen sind dann gleich, sind namenlos, unentschieden. Die Sprache hat hier noch nicht festgelegt, i h r unwider-rufliches U r t e i l noch nicht ausgesprochen. Doch es wird nicht moglich sein, Fipps vor ihr zu bewahren, ihm die Welt blank zu iibergeben, sprachlos, bedeutungslos. Wo er der Welt begegnen wird, wird sie benannt sein. . . . Und kann man eine neue Sprache lernen?194 Like Max Frisch's characters, Bachmann's women s t r i v e to escape prede-termined and fixed personality patterns such as the sex stereotypes discussed above. In order to achieve t h i s , they must find a new form of language: Aber s i e [Charlotte] wiirde Mara sprechen lehren, langsam, genau und keine Triibung durch die iibliche Sprache zulassen. Erziehen wiirde s ie s i e , anhalten zu etwas, das s i e , friih schon, weil sie kein besseres Wort gefunden hatte, Loyalitat genannt hatte - ein Fremdwort i n jedem Sinn. Sie bestand auf dem fremden Wort, weil s ie noch nicht auf dem fremdesten bestehen konnte. Liebe. Da keiner es zu iibersetzen ver-s t a n d . 1 9 5 Charlotte e x p l i c i t l y condemns the old language as a means of stereo-typing the i n d i v i d u a l : "Immer hatte sie diese Sprache verabscheut, jeden Stempel, der ihr aufgedriickt wurde und den sie jemand aufdriicken muSte - den Mordversuch an der Wirklichkeit. The reason for this c r i -ticism l i e s i n Bachmann's philosophy of language, which was developed 197 under the influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein. According to his theory, the only sentences that express truth are those "describing an individual experience or case. For example, Peter i s mortal, or Hans i s mortal. Generalisations from these - which any language of convention must make to serve i t s purpose of general communication - such as: a l l men are 7© mortal, are meaningless. Likewise Bachmann expresses the view, that a l l our generalizing statements are not only without value but f a i l t o do j u s t i c e t o the individual situation at hand. Therefore, each i n d i -vidual trying to express his own truth must search for a new language. The e x i s t e n t i a l i s t problem underlying the whole language discussion i s cl e a r l y expressed by Gerda i n Ein Wildermuth, when she points to the . . 198 relativeness of a l l individual statements of truth. Closely connected with this problem of i d e n t i t y versus language, is the attempt by many of Bachmann's female characters to develop or reta i n i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n thought. Here, the profession of interpre-ter i n Simultan represents an extreme instance of the s i t u a t i o n from which Bachmann's heroines are trying to free themselves. . . . sie rieb sich beide Ohren, wo sonst ihre Kopfhorer anlagen, ihre Schaltungen automatisch funktionierten und die Sprachbruche stattfanden. Was fur ein seltsamer Mechanismus war sie doch, ohne einen einzigen Gedanken im Kopf zu haben, lebte s i e , eingetaucht i n die Satze anderer, und mufite nacht-wandlerisch mit gleichen, aber anderslautenden Satzen sofort nachkommen, sie konnte aus "machen" to make, f a i r e , fare, hacer und delat' machen, jedes Wort konnte sie so auf einer Rolle sechsmal herumdrehen, sie durfte nur nicht denken, dafi machen wir k l i c h machen, f a i r e f a i r e , fare fare, delat' delat' bedeutete, das konnte ihren Kopf unbrauchbar machen, und sie mufite schon aufpassen, da6 sie eines Tages nicht von den Wortmassen verschiittet wurde.199 This same urge - i n a wider application - motivates Charlotte's defiant: "Es s o l l t e zu gelten anfangen, was sie dachte und meinte, und nicht mehr gelten s o l l t e , was man sie angehalten hatte zu denken und was man ihr 200 erlaubt hatte zu leben." Another manifestation of this drive for i n d i v i d u a l i t y and per-sonal identity may be seen i n the preoccupation of many of Bachmann's leading females with sel f - a n a l y s i s . Most of the content of the stories 71 studied here i s r e f l e c t i v e and introspective, either i n the form o f a stream o f consciousness, by flashbacks (a technique that was rather successfully adopted i n the dramatization o f Drei Wege zum See for 201 t e l e v i s i o n ) , or by an a n a l y t i c a l form of prose, redeveloping and analysing past events. A. Weber noted this very point i n another con-text: "So i s t der Roman 'Malina' die handlungsarme Selbstreflexion einer S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n , der Ich-Erzahlerin, ebenso von Charlotte i n 'Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha', von Elisabeth Matrei i n 'Drei Wege zum 202 See'." In Bachmann's works i t i s generally the mature person that begins to search for an understanding of the s e l f . The thirty-year old "wirft das Netz Erinnerung aus, w i r f t es iiber. s i c h und zieht si c h selbst, Erbeuter und Beute i n einem, iiber die Zeitschwelle, die 203 Ortschwelle, urn zu sehen, wer er war und wer er geworden i s t . " It is no coincidence, that the leading character i n Malina c a l l s herself "Ich". The s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l nature of this novel has been widely discussed by c r i t i c s , one of whom may be quoted as representative: Der Begriff Innenwelt gibt einigen AufschluB iiber den Roman. Innenwelt bezeichnet hier nicht nur erzahlerische Innenwelt, also den f i k t i v e n Handlungsraum einer Erzahlung, sondern die thematische Basis des Buches: dem erzahlenden Ich wird die eigene Innenwelt zum Problem. Die psychoanalytische Erfassung der Auseinandersetzung des Ichs mit der unmittelbaren Umwelt und sich selber umreiflt den epischen Erfahrungsraum. Mit anderen Worten, das Thema des Romans i s t das Sich-in-Frage-Stellen des epischen Ichs, das sich aus Griinden. die anschlieBend darzustellen sind, selbst a u f g i b t . 2 0 5 However, the thoughts on the I expressed i n this quotation are b a s i c a l l y rephrasing of Bachmann's ideas formulated i n her lecture on "Das schreibende Ich": . . . Die erste Veranderung, die das Ich erfahren hat, i s t , daB es sich nicht mehr in der Geschichte aufhalt, sondern 72 daB sich neuerdings die Geschichte im Ich aufhalt. . . . denn dieses Ich i s t wie s p e z i a l i s i e r t darauf, jede seiner Erfahrungen i n eine Gesamtheit der Erfahrung abzugeben und si e mit einem sehr gleichmaBigen Licht der Erkenntnis zu durchleuchten.206 Similarly, one may place at least part of the stories Jugend i n einer osterreichischen Stadt, Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha, Undine geht and a l l of the stories of Simultan i n the s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l or s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e category as far as the female characters are concerned. I t may well be that the pronounced lack of s o c i a l engagement discussed above frees Bachmann's heroines for the investigation of and r e f l e c t i o n on their essence, existence, purpose, and fundamental motives. It i s hoped that a closer look at this major motivating agent - the search for identity - w i l l result i n additional evidence for the nature of the image of Bachmann's women. Neither s o c i a l l i b e r a t i o n nor p o l i t i c a l emancipation are the primary motivating forces within 207 them. I t i s instead the unrelenting search for access to the "inner s e l f " . Most of Bachmann's characters, both male and female, are equally driven by the urge to experience and to understand this inner s e l f ' s f u l l spectrum of feeling and knowing. 2. A Quest for Freedom Another major drive that motivates Bachmann's women - related to that of the quest for s e l f - i s a desire for freedom and independence Freedom i n a l l aspects of l i f e : freedom from binding s o c i a l obligations freedom from t r a d i t i o n and convention, moral or otherwise; freedom i n thought, expression and movement; freedom to choose one's own l i f e - s t y l e A closer look at this topic shows that here, too, Bachmann deals not 73 with feminist issues, but with the freedom and independence of the indivi d u a l . The issue i s rather that which Ralf Dahrendorf has des-cribed thus: Jenseits a l l e r Psychologie und Soziologie wird das Argernis der Gesellschaft fur den Einzelnen damit zu einer Frage des Spielraums, den das Auge der selbst sein Innerstes durch-dringenden Gesellschaft ihm lafit bzw. den er sich zu schaffen vermag. In ihrem erschreckendsten Aspekt i s t die Welt des homo sociologicus eine "Brave New World" oder ein "1984" worin a l l e s menschliche Verhalten berechenbar, ver-la f i l i c h und standiger Kontrolle unterworfen ist.208 The pronounced a p o l i t i c a l image of the woman - except for the occa-sional condemnation of National Socialism - developed by the poetess r e f l e c t s interesting and, thus f a r , rarely explored dimensions. Furthermore, i t seems that Dahrendorf's statement i s of part i c u l a r s i g -nificance i n the l i g h t of the sustained attack by Bachmann's leading female characters on rationalism and calculated purpose. Bachmann's women, merits closer attention. The metaphoric use of the world of water as the element of freedom, of free motion, of f l u i d i t y which we f i r s t find i n Undine geht, i s operative i n other prose as well as l y r i c works of Ingeborg Bachmann: Free movement, as a single but very prominent issue for Land Water ra t i o n a l i r r a t i o n a l without purpose functional fixed f l u i d intangible free undetermined tangible trapped determined purposeful reasonable r e a l i s t i c bourgeois true r e a l i t y Undine-like way of l i f e Undines and l i k e females without gravity ahistoric male ( i n c l . Menschenfrauen) 74 For Bachmann's women, water i s the element where: . . . niemand s i c h ein Nest baut, sich ein Dach aufzieht iiber Balken, sich bedeckt mit einer Plane. Nirgendwo sein, nirgendwo bleiben.^09 Typical, too, for many female characters portrayed by Bachmann i s a longing for t e r r i t o r i a l freedom. Nadja and Elisabeth Matrei are cosmo-210 politans without t e r r i t o r i a l attachments: Daheim war s i e [Elisabeth] nicht i n diesem Wald, s i e mufite immer wieder neu anfangen, die Wanderkarten zu lesen, weil sie kein Heimweh kannte und es nie Heimweh war, das sie nachhause kommen l i e f i , nichts hatte sich ie verklart, sondern sie kam zuriick, ihres Vaters wegen, . . .211 Bachmann's women want to redefine and to recreate the world, therefore, they discard a l l attachments. Also, the narrator i n Malina talks i n the Miihlbauer interview about the irrelevance of boundaries and national l o y a l t i e s . This i s a view on e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l i t y that has caused some c r i t i c s to trace Bachmann's cosmopolitanism to the supranationalism of the 212 old Habsburg Empire. To whatever origins one may wish to trace this cosmopolitanism, be they h i s t o r i c , psychic, or l i t e r a r y (e.g. Rilke's "Weltinnenraum"), i t does appear to be a basic physical prere-qu i s i t e for the ongoing ind i v i d u a l development of Bachmann's women. Numerous thoughts, statements and even dreams express this urge for ter-r i t o r i a l freedom and independence. "Gehen wir weg, weit weg." suggests 213 Mara to Charlotte. Two other quotations from the sphere of fantasy should be added, since they may be said to be better q u a l i f i e d to reveal the innermost desires than statements taken from the " r a t i o n a l " sphere: Die Prinzessin war sehr jung und sehr schon und sie hatte einen Rappen, auf dem sie a l i e n anderen vorausflog. Ihre Gefolgsleute beredeten und baten sie, zuriickzubleiben, denn das Land, i n dem sie waren, an der Donau, war immer i n Gefahr, und Grenzen gab es noch keine, wo spater Raetien, Markomannien, Noricum, Moesien, Dacien, I l l y r i e n und Pannonien waren. Es gab auch noch kein C i s -und Transleithanien, denn es war immer Volkerwanderung.214 75 And Anna exclaims i n the I I I . Dream of Ein Geschaft mit Traumen: Ich liebe die grofien weiflen Schiffe, i c h liebe Kleider aus silbernen Fischschuppen und Halsaander aus Tang, i c h liebe die Wellen, die an grofie weifie Schiffe schlagen, ich liebe die wunderbaren Lieder der Matrosen und die hohen Mas ten, i n denen sich schneeige Wolken verfangen. Ich liebe das Heulen der Sirenen und die Feme, auf die die groBen weifien Schiffe Kurs nehmen, und ich liebe das Ufer der Sonne am Horizont, auf das mich der Wind mit seinen starken Armen heben wird, ich liebe die Unendlichkeit des Meeres . . . Matrosen, macht mir den Weg f r e i , meldet mich dem Kapitan! Ich habe f r e i e Fahrt und ein Visum fur die Unendlichkeit. Bachmann frequently uses maritime images such as ships, water, ocean, and islands, as well as r i v e r s , to indicate t e r r i t o r i a l and mental freedom. Following the l i n e s of argument developed i n previous chapters of this study, one can summarize, that for the sake of freedom and independence, Bachmann's women forego, whenever possible, binding s o c i a l contracts and 216 obligations such as large families, children, and even marriage. They try to disregard moral norms and values whenever these may r e s t r i c t their own personal development, though they do not rej e c t them as a matter of p r i n c i p l e . Lastly, Bachmann portrays females who need and seek a large sphere of freedom for their personal ways of l i f e , although this search i s limited by certain dependencies, especially the dependency on the opposite sex. Examples of this are: the withdrawal of Undine to the world of water after every excursion into the "organized" world; the desire of Nadja to return to her own bed - i f need be even to sleep i n a bathtub - during her t r i p with Ludwig Frankel; the tiny rebellious cries of the children facing the "spiderwebs" of a programmed l i f e i n Jugend i n einer osterreichischen Stadt; the escape of Beatrix into the free space of sleep and many others. 76 3. A Yearning for Grenzubertritt The l a s t major agent of development i n Bachmann's heroines i s the urge for the Grenzubertritt or the desire to pass beyond r a t i o n a l boundaries. "Denn bei allem, was wir tun, denken und fiihlen, mochten wir manchmal bis zum Aufiersten gehen. Der Wunsch wird i n uns wach, die 217 Grenzen zu iiberschreiten, die uns gesetzt sind." states Bachman i n her speech when presented with a prize for radio-plays from the war-blinded. I t i s a motivating force, that - though discernible i n the male characters too - appears especially to impel Bachmann's female characters. I t i s also closely related to the two previously discussed agents of development; we might even say that i t i s an extension of these. What exactly i s this longing for a Gr enziib er t r i 11 ? Various answers to this question have been offered: a) The Utopian view Ingeborg Bachmann's writings are characterized by a dominant theme: man's longing for das Utopische, which for her i s any dream or concept that i s i d e a l and impossible, thus "utopian", be i t eternal l i f e , true love, the language of truth, or the l i b e r a t i o n from any human l i m i t a t i o n . . . Since das Utopische always remains Utopian and can never become r e a l i t y ( i t i s the contradiction of r e a l i t y ) , man's s t r i v i n g must always end i n despair. But Bachmann's writings suggest that man may free himself from the vicious c i r c l e of hope and despair, i f he r e a l i z e s that "Utopia i s not a goal but a d i r e c t i o n , " . . . He must learn to l i v e suspended between r e a l i t y and Utopia; . . .218 b) The r e l i g i o u s view Die Christusgestalt i s t ein Ausdruck fur den Grenzubertritt, fur dieses mystische Verschmelzen mit jener anderen groSeren Ordnung, die den Namen Gottes tragen mag. . . . Die Mystik i s t ein Weg, mit dem reinen Sein, der l i c h t e n Ordnung oder 77 Gott i n Beriihrung zu kommen, die Liebe i s t v i e l l e i c h t ein anderer: . . . Es handelt sich dabei um eine Verschmelzung der gleichen Art wie die i n der Mystik vorkommende, um • • 91 Q etwas im eigentlichen Smne Unaussprechbares. l " c) The i r r a t i o n a l , romantic view Wenn das junge Madchen s c h l i e f i l i c h "durch den Feuerreifen der Welt" springen, also nach dem Eis auch das Feuer bewaltigen w i l l , so sind damit die Leidenschaften gemeint. Auch sie sollen durchlebt und durchlitten werden - ohne Riicksicht, ohne Grenzen, wie eben iiberhaupt der Drang nach dem Extremen und Absoluten das Merkmal der Bachmannschen Lebenshaltung i s t . Man kann sich j a fi i g l i c h fragen, wie dies mit der grofien Intelligenz vereinbar s e i . Doch i s t - wie schon oben ange-fiihrt wurde - der Trieb nach "Traum und Rausch", nach dem Gesetzlosen, gerade bei sehr In t e l l e k t u e l l e n ubermachtig. Es i s t dies ein ontologisches Seinsverhalten, das nach Ver-schwendung, Auflosung, "bis zur Weifiglut Lieben" lechzt und dem nichts verachtlicher i s t als das von Undine verspottete "mit gesparter Jugend ins Alt e r hasten."220 d) The motive of f l i g h t Das Fluchtmotiv also i s t der Ausgangspunkt fur Hauptthemen, auf die wir hier eingingen. Flucht bedeutet einerseits Ausbrechen aus der Bedingtheit der Existenz, insbesondere aus der Bedingtheit durch Zeit und bestehende Sprache. In zweiter L i n i e i s t Flucht aber auch ein Aufbruch auf etwas zu. Das erste Z i e l , das gleichsam Durchgangsstadium i s t , heiBt Freiheit.221 e) The view of individual freedom In ihren Erzahlungen v a r i i e r t Ingeborg Bachmann jenes Aus-brechen aus den Ordnungen auf verschiedenste Weise. Das Motiv diirfte im Denken der Dichterin iiberhaupt t i e f ver-ankert sein, es i s t doch auffallend, daB sie auch i n ihren Ansprachen, Vorlesungen und Essays immer wieder darauf zuriickkommt. Ingeborg Bachmann betont, daB die Existenz des Menschen nie abgeschlossen, nie beendet .sein s o l l e , sondern f r e i und a l i e n Moglichkeiten offen; er musse wach sein, stets bereit, die Anrufe zu horen und ihnen zu folgen. Die Voraussetzung dazu, meint s i e , sei j a i n uns a l i e n angelegt: "Denn bei allem, was wir tun, denken und fiihlen, mochten wir manchmal bis zum Aufiersten gehen. . . ."222 78 Each of these covers some v a l i d aspect of the concept of Grenziibertritt. Yet, a more precise d e f i n i t i o n , one going beyond the general terms used by Bachmann ("Innerhalb der Grenzen aber haben wir den B l i c k gerichtet auf das Vollkommene, das Unmogliche, s e i es der Liebe, der F r e i h e i t oder jeder reinen GroBe."), w i l l be attempted after the analysis of the Todesarten theme (which we treat as an antithesis to Grenziibertritt) . The d i f f i c u l t y i n defining Grenziibertritt i s voiced by the good God: "Jede Geschichte fand i n einer anderen Sprache s t a t t . Bis i n die Wortlosigkeit v e r l i e f jede anders. Auch die Zeit war eine andere, i n 223 die jede getaucht war." He continues by saying that only the uninformed see s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the various forms of Grenziibertritt, of which the only common denominator i s the "Neigung, die naturlichen Klammern zu losen, 224 urn dann keinen Halt mehr i n der Welt zu finden." It seems probable that he refers here only to the Grenziibertritt i n the realm of love, which - considering a l l other p o s s i b i l i t i e s - would only emphasize the amorphousness of this "ultimate" way of existence. So one may conclude at this point that neither Dionysian, mystic, freedom nor any other labels we have investigated apply to a l l or even to many instances. It appears that the Grenziibertritt theme, too, i s governed by the sex-role image since, for instance, the Grenziibertritt i n the realm of love and emotion i s reserved for female characters alone, such as Jennifer, Undine, and Anna i n Ein Geschaft mit Traumen, whereas their male partners are more or less carried along without the concomitant change of consciousness. On the other hand, the few attempts at a Grenziibertritt by male characters are limited to a " t y p i c a l male" sphere such as the search for truth (by Wildermuth) or "new educational concept" (by Fipp's father). 79 An examination of the various dramatic manifestations of this agent of development seems to y i e l d three basic patterns as i t relates to the female characters. F i r s t l y , a complete Grenziibertritt leads to the destruction of the physical nature of the acting character (e.g. Jennifer or Anna), leads to a climax, a state of timeless existence. Only the female i s able to experience and to sustain this condition, i n both cases during an intense love a f f a i r . I t should be noted that i n the two instances of a violent Grenziibertritt the heroines are alone during this experience. Lauranz misses the sinking of Anna's ship i n Ein Geschaft mit Traumen because of the interruption by the sales clerk and Jan relaxes i n a bar while Jennifer i s blown apart by the parcel bomb on the 57th floo r of the A t l a n t i c Hotel. Men, despite attempts to do so, are unable to f o l -low their lovers into the realm beyond. Lauranz merely "bought" a dream and Jan returns to the ra t i o n a l "male" world i n time before the transgression. Depth (the bottom of the ocean), as well as height (the skyscraper and the heavens), are the realms beyond. Both, but especially the ocean are Bachmann's topoi for l i m i t l e s s freedom. This type of development, as shown i n the graph below, usually proceeds by stages and degrees of intensity, and i t may be said to represent the extreme form of Bachmann's image of the woman and the 225 counterpart to the female victim of murderous males. That the des-truction of the self does not happen to Undine may be explained by the view that she i s not human, that since she l i v e s i n the realm beyond a l l boundaries, her Grenziibertri11 i s the reverse of Jennifer's or that of other human beings. 80 Secondly, the desire of most of Bachmann's heroines for passing beyond a l l l i m i t s allows a dynamic development of character. Examples are: Charlotte, Mara, Nadja, the narrator i n Malina, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Elisabeth. Women who develop within this pattern are constantly searching for the r e a l i z a t i o n of their Grenziibertritt. Usually they reach one or more high points i n the realm of love or emotion during their l i f e , but without attaining a complete Grenziibertritt. Some, however, resign without abandoning this concept of absolute being. Elisabeth serves as an example: Nur eine Hoffnung durfte und wollte sie nicht offen lassen, denn wenn s i e i n fast dreifiig Jahren keinen Mann getroffen hatte, einfach keinen, der von einer ausschlieBlichen Bedeu-tung fiir s i e war, der unausweichlich fur sie geworden war, jemand, der stark war und ihr das Mysterium brachte, auf das sie gewartet hatte, . . . dann gab es den Mann eben nicht, und solange es diesen Neuen Mann nicht gab, konnte man nur freundlich sein und gut zueinander, eine W e i l e . z z a Whatever the f i n a l attitude of heroines who are dominated by this search for Gr enzu'b er t r i 11 may be, they a l l , i n the end, have undergone a maturing process. Lastly, there exists a group of women (not represented i n the graphs below) such as the elder Frau Jordan, Franziska, Gerda, and Hanna to whom the Gr enziib er t r i 11 development dynamic i s not applicable. This group exhibits l i t t l e or no emotional development, although development does take place on other l e v e l s . We can recognize this i n the course taken by Franziska's gradual insight into Leo's character. * 81 In speculating on Bachmann's conceptions of the term Grenzuber-t r i t t , however, i t might be worthwhile to compare i t with Wittgenstein's ideas>of the " l i m i t s of the world" which is congruent with the l i m i t s of that which can be expressed. Bachmann defines these ideas i n her radio-essay "Sagbares und Unsagbares - Die Philosophie Ludwig Wittgen-steins" thus: "only the r e a l i t y of the world can be expressed by language - and this i s the language of science," and she l e t s her characters continue: 1. SPEECHES. - naturwissenschaftlichen Satzen namlich -2. SPRECHER - und er Wittgenstein erganzt an einer anderen St e l l e , daB wir obendrein fahlg sind, mit unseren Satzen die ganze Wirklichkeit darzustellen. 1. SPRECHER Gemeint sind immer die Wissenschaften, die die Wirklichkeit erforschen und sie i n ein Dar-stellungssystem bringen. KRITIKER Was veranlaBt Wittgenstein dann aber, von "Grenzen der Welt" zu sprechen? 1. SPRECHER Er geht nun einen Schritt zuriick und sagt, daB wir eines nicht darstellen konnen, und zwar das, was 82 unsere Satze, die die Wirklichkeit darstellen, mit der Wirklichkeit gemein haben. 2. SPRECHER Damit beruhrt er ein ganz merkwiirdiges Phanomen, iiber das wir uns i n der Praxis des A l l t a g s , aber auch in der Praxis der Wissenschaft nie Gedanken machen. Wir s t e l l e n zum B e i s p i e l einen bestimmten Naturvorgang mit dem Satz "es regnet" dar - oder driicken i n den Naturwissenschaften ein sogenanntes Naturgesetz, etwa die Fallgesetze, durch eine Formel aus. Der Satz i n der Alltagssprache wie die mathematische Formel s t e l l e n die Wirklichkeit dar, obwohl sie j a nicht das geringste mit dieser Wirklichkeit zu tun haben. Sie sind nur Zeichen, die etwas bezeichnen, ohne mit dem Bezeich-neten etwas gemeinsam zu haben. Wie wir dennoch mit diesen Zeichen - unserer Sprache im weitesten Sinn -operieren konnen - das i s t die Frage! 1. SPRECHER Und Wittgenstein beantwortet sie so: es i s t die logische Form, die beiden gemeinsam sein mufi, weil die Satze sonst die Wirklichkeit iiberhaupt nicht darstellen konnten. Und die logische Form i s t die "Grenze", nach der unser K r i t i k e r vorhin fragte, denn sie ermoglicht zwar die Darstellung, kann aber selbst nicht mehr dargestellt werden. In ihr t r i t t etwas i n Erscheinung, das iiber die Wirklichkeit hinausweist. Es weist insofern iiber die Wirklichkeit hinaus, als sich i n der logischen Form etwas zeigt, das fiir uns undenkbar i s t , und weil es undenkbar i s t , lafit sich nicht dariiber sprechen. WITTGENSTEIN "Was wir nicht denken konnen, das konnen wir nicht denken; wir konnen also auch nicht sagen, was wir nicht denken konnen." 1. SPRECHER So formuliert Wittgenstein die "Grenzsituation", die sich fiir die Wissenschaft bei der Darstellung der Wirklichkeit ergibt. . . .227 The essay goes on to say that the Viennese Neopositivists do not reject the existence of systems of thoughts or of metaphysical ideas such as God or Idealism but that we cannot talk meaningfully about them as they l i e beyond the limi t s of our language and therefore beyond our a n a l y t i -cal c a p a b i l i t i e s . Bachmann concludes that - according to Wittgenstein's theories - men can only experience (not express or think) the meta-physical : WITTGENSTEIN "Es gibt allerdings Unaussprechliches. Dies zeigt sich, es i s t das Mystische. 83 2. SPRECHER . . . Ja, er meint nicht, daB es keine Werte gibt, daB Ethik unmoglich i s t oder daB es unmoglich i s t , an Gott zu glauben - er meint nur, daB es streng genommen unmoglich i s t , iiber a l l das zu sprechen. Die Sprache kann nur iiber Tatsachen sprechen und b i l d e t die Grenze unserer - meiner und deiner - Welt. Die Entgrenzung der Welt geschieht, wo die Sprache nicht hinreicht und daher auch das Denken nicht hinreicht. Sie geschieht, wo sich etwas "zeigt", und was sich zeigt, i s t das Mystische, die unaussprech-lich e Erfahrung -1. SPRECHER Erfahrung nicht des Empirikers, sondern des Mystikers.228 These ideas may - i n our opinion - help to explain some of Bachmann's thoughts underlying her concept of Grenzubertritt as well as the male-female antithesis. One may equate the realm of descriptive language and thought with the world of the male, and that experience that goes beyond the l i m i t s of language and thought, with the realm of the female or see i t as the goal for which Bachmann's heroines yearn - as Grenzubertritt. B. Outside Agents By far the most important agent influencing the development of Bachmann's female protagonists from the outside i s the male. None of the prose-works covered i s without at least one, even the story of Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha which has only women as main characters. Men act as retarding as well as advancing agents of development. They are also used to set up or create situations of c o n f l i c t for the female. One may well be j u s t i f i e d i n saying that almost a l l major changes in the female character development are caused or i n i t i a t e d by men: Elizabeth: (Trotta) . . . und erst als sie Trotta i n Paris kennenlernte, anderte sie sich so v o l l -standig, daB sie ihre Wiener Zeit und ihr Verhalten dort unbegreiflich fand. 84 . . . weil er sie zum BewuBtsein v i e l e r Dinge brachte, . . . Das Allerwichtigste war, daB Trotta Elisabeth unsicher machte i n ihrer Arbeit. . . . aber zum erstenmal hat-te i h r jemand den Boden unter den FiiBen weggezogen, . . .229 (Manes) Einen Tag danach brach sie p l o t z -l i c h zusammen, . . . weil ihre Klar-sicht nichts ausrichten konnte gegen die Tatsache, . . . daB ein Mensch, mit dem sie sich schon zusammengehorig gedacht hatte, sie weggeworfen hatte, . . . Sie l i t t wie unter einer Ampu-tation. . . .230 Jennifer: (Jan) Ist das aus d i r [Jennifer] geworden? Bis t du's geworden? Aus einem rosaroten Madchen mit Tagebiichern, Gutenachtkiissen und Autokiissen, mit Truman und v o l l g e k r i t z e l t e n Heften unter dem Arm, sehr nett und wie ge-f a l l t es Ihnen? 2 3 1 Miranda: (Josef) Warum muB ich [Josef] das tun? und er mochte Miranda kiissen, aber er kann nicht, und so denkt er nur, es wird noch immer hingerichtet, es i s t eine Hinrichtung, weil a l l e s , was ich tu, eine Untat i s t , die Taten sind eben Untaten. Miranda hat nicht gemerkt, wann die Tiir zugefalien i s t , . . . Miranda mochte nicht mehr leben i n dieser Gerauschhaft, Li c h t - und Dunkelhaft, sie hat nur noch einen Zugang zur Welt iiber einen drohnenden Kopf-schmerz, der ihr die Augen zudriickt, die zu lange offen waren. Was hat sie zuletzt bloB gesehen. Sie hat Josef gesehen.232 Similarly severe influences are exerted by men on most other Bachmann heroines. What conclusions about Bachmann's image of the woman may be jus-t i f i e d by these observations? F i r s t of a l l , Ingeborg Bachmann s t i l l 85 considers the male to be the most important single factor influencing the development, motivation and actions of women, and to play a s i g n i -ficant role i n their various c o n f l i c t s . Secondly, the male - i n his motivating as well as i n his retarding function - causes or contributes to a maturing process i n the female. Data similar to the following 233 collected on Jennifer by K. Rothmann could be gathered for most of Bachmann's female protagonists: Jennifer i s t : selbstandig, unbefangen, h i l f s b e r e i t , aberglaubisch usw. Thirdly, i n many instances - such as i n the one quoted above involving Miranda - the pre-determination of male action is made clear, thus assigning him a functional role i n the development of the woman that i s stripped of any sexist elements. Fourthly, the male agent of change appears i n a variety of roles: as a teacher, as a saviour, as a c r i t i c , as a weakling, as a father, as a dominant or submissive person. Lastly, i t appears that nearly a l l of the c o n f l i c t situations i n which Bachmann's women find themselves can be said to have been brought about, actively or passively, by men. C. Patterns of Development Having shown that Bachmann's female protagonists are dynamic and developing characters and having discussed the major factors of this development or change, i t i s now necessary for us to examine those patterns of development . It appears that most follow one basic type of ge s e l l i g gesprachig neugierig f li i c h t i g Jennifers Wesen erfahrt eine Umkehrung i n diesen Wesenszugen unabhangig naiv 86 pattern or, i f the story covers only a shorter period i n their l i v e s , this period corresponds to one or more stages within this basic pattern. The following outline w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the basic form in the entirety: immaturity; youth; growing up i n a family and l o c a l environment, dependent: urge to leave home: = relationship with rp men, marriage ( d i - <^ departure, vorce, remarriage): t r a v e l : independence; d i s i l - attainment of a cer-> lusionment, with men; tain l e v e l of maturi-or the search for Grenz- ty; despite disappoint-u b e r t r i t t : ^> ments, retainment of a positive view of l i f e : v 1 | ^ dependence, coming to terms entrapment, w £ t h w o r ] _ d death (Todesarten) The pattern can be traced i n i t s entirety through the l i v e s of Elisabeth and of Nadja. It is representative, i n parts, for Charlotte, Mara, the nar-rator i n Malina and of most of the others. It may also be noted, that the "development through the male" stage has been worked out occasionally i n depth by means of a single encounter with a male partner as i n the case of Beatrix or, more frequently, by means of many and varied encounters with different partners as in the case of Elisabeth, Nadja and Undine. Since the conclusion of many of Bachmannrs stories leaves the her-oines d i s i l l u s i o n e d with the male, must we then conclude that i t i s b a s i c a l l y a negative development? Many c r i t i c s have suggested n i h i l i s m or at best an attitude of resignation. M. Triesch writes on this point: 87 The c r i t i c i s m of Miss Bachmann's prose i s meager, and there have been no attempts to determine philosophically the dir e c -tion i n which the author i s going. One c r i t i c used the term " n i h i l i s m " i n his discussion of Das dreiBigste Jahr (H. Beckmann). He used i t in a preventive sense, thus expressing his fear that Miss Bachmann might be blamed for being n i h i l -i s t i c . Maybe she i s . Her heroes do not accept the world which they judge so harshly and which i s incompatible with their own views. They simply resign themselves and go on l i v i n g i n i t , very quietly. They do not even i n s i s t on their o r i g i n a l intention to a l t e r things. It may be a question of d e f i n i t i o n whether or not one i s w i l l i n g to term such an a t t i -tude n i h i l i s m . J ^ Is i t only a question of definition? One must reject this l a b e l , i t seems to us, for two reasons. F i r s t of. a l l because of the theoretical statements on the purpose of l i t e r a t u r e made by Ingeborg Bachmann herself. She writes i n "Literatur als Utopie": Und der verandern wollende Dichter, wieviel steht ihm f r e i und wieviel nicht? Das i s t auch die Frage. Es gibt ein Drama fur ihn, das erst i n unserer Zeit ganz offenbar geworden i s t : Weil er das ganze Ungliick des Menschen und der Welt im Auge hat, scheint es, als sanktionierte er dieses Ungltick, scheint es, als verfehlte er die gewiinschte Wirkung. Weil er den B l i c k auf das ganze Ungliick verstattet, scheint zugelassen, daB auch das Veranderbare nicht verandert wird.^35 It ought to be legitimate to apply this statement also to her f i c t i o n and thereby explain the seeming presence of resignation on the part of the authoress. An even more pronounced credo for a commitment to l i f e i s formulated by Ingeborg Bachmann i n her speech "Die Wahrheit i s t dem Menschen zumutbar": "Wer, wenn nicht diejenigen unter Ihnen, die ein schweres Los getroffen hat, konnte besser bezeugen, daB unsere Kraft welter reicht als unser Ungliick, dafl man, um vi e l e s beraubt, sich zu erheben weiB, daB man enttauscht, und das heiBt, ohne Tauschung, zu leben vermag." She continues: "Ich glaube, daB dem Menschen eine Art des Stolzes erlaubt i s t - der Stolz dessen, der i n der Dunkelhaft 88 der Welt nicht aufgibt und nicht aufhort, nach dem Rechten zu sehen." Certainly no s p i r i t of resignation is to be f e l t here; one might even detect a kinship with S c h i l l e r ' s ideas on human dignity. A second and less debatable reason for rejecting the labels of ni h i l i s m or resignation i s the res u l t of an examination of the texts themselves: Miranda: Despite the cruelty of the la s t scene, Miranda's f i n a l words or thoughts are: "Immer das Gute im Auge behalten." Beatrix: She overcomes her own emotion i n order to do a favour for an old woman, as she repeats the empty phrase: "Ja, die Manner!" Undine: Here, a reconciling note i s struck at the end of a scathing attack on the male. A s l i g h t ele-ment of hope i s expressed at the end: "Komm. Nur einmal. Komm." Hanna: Here too the story ends on a note of hope. Hanna emerges slowly from a state of p e t r i -faction and suffering. Nadja: "Aber im Gehen, als sie schon seine Hand genommen hatte, drehte sie sich urn, weil ihr das Wichtigste i n den Sinn kam, und s i e r i e f es dem Jungen zu, der Adorni siegen gesehen hatte. Auguri!" Gerda: "Den Rest der Zeit bis Mitternacht s t r i t t e n wir dann . . . als ihr e i n f i e l , dafi s i e mich schonen miisse, . . . prefite Gerda, wie immer, wenn sie zur Versohnung bereit i s t , h e f t i g meine Hand, Elisabeth: Again, one finds a new awareness of r e a l i t y , one which concludes on a note of hope: "Es kann mir etwas geschehen, aber es mufi mir nichts geschehen." Similar conclusions can be noted for Charlotte, Franziska and the elder Frau Jordan. What do these f i n a l passages of each story show? Admit-tedly, a state of is o l a t i o n , of disappointment, predominates but, notably, 89 there i s also a recognition of true r e a l i t y of Ent-tauschung. They also show that i n the end we are almost always confronted by an action of the heroine - small as i t may be - which repudiates any impression of com-plete resignation on her part. Lastly, they almost always point to a ray of hope beyond the existing s i t u a t i o n . It may j u s t i f i a b l y be noted that there has been a positive development of the female characters who even i n the destructive cases ( i . e . Jennifer) achieve a state of s u b l i -mation as they a t t a i n freedom from a l l worldly s t r i c t u r e s . PART III . DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN CHAPTER VI A DISCUSSION OF ANTITHETICAL IDEAS AND THEMES During the c o l l e c t i o n and evaluation of much of the basic data on Bachmann's image of the woman presented i n the previous chapters, several questions posed themselves repeatedly and could only be answered on the basis of one particular segment of that image. The questions were as follows: F i r s t l y , does Bachmann's image of the woman f a l l into categories of " t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l r o l e " images which some writers have carried over into the present, or should i t rather be c l a s s i f i e d as feminist? Secondly, i s this image b a s i c a l l y determined by personal experiences and biases, thus bringing with i t d e f i n i t e biographical information? Thirdly, i s i t a sex-specific image, or i s i t s intent allgemein-menschlich, thereby disqualifying, or at least modifying, a s t r i c t l y sex-orientated interpretation? Fourthly, what i s i t s value-structure? Does i t rest i n a s o c i a l or individual context? These are the main questions that have been selected for discus-sion i n this chapter. The task i s to discuss them i n an ove r a l l context and to qualify and expand on some of the findings offered above. 90 91 A. Emancipatory versus "T r a d i t i o n a l " Concepts As i s apparent from previous chapters, i t i s not possible to discuss this alternative i n a simple manner. Perhaps this ought to be a commendation for the poetess as there are certainly no cliches that underlie this image. F i r s t of a l l , i t ought to be noted that t h i s image of the woman i s a self-supporting one. Women are the leading characters, 237 the perspective of the narrative i s that of the female i n most stories and the problems are those of the female. This i s often not the case i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e as, for instance, the study by L. Koseoglu has shown. She concludes: Wie die Erorterungen gezeigt haben, hat keiner der behandelten Autoren [Diirrenmatt, Frisch, Michelsen] die Ambition, besondere Frauenprobleme i n den Vordergrund seiner Dramen zu s t e l l e n . Die Probleme der Frauen werden innerhalb der mannlichen Problem-kreise abgewickelt. Die Auseinandersetzung der Frauen mit ihrem biirgerlichen A l l t a g i n den Dramen von Hans Giinter Michelsen konnen nicht als eine Proklamation an die Frauenemanzipation gelten, da hier die e x i s t e n t i e l l e Grundsituation des Menschen als unabanderlich dargestellt wird. Das Z i e l dieser Arbeit, anhand einiger reprasentativer Beispiele die Stellung der Frau i n den modernen Dramen zu veranschaulichen, i s t somit erreicht. Die Tatsache, dafi a l l e drei Autoren die Frau vorwiegend i n der Rolle einer Ehefrau zeigen, hat eine kultur-historische Bedeutung, die wiederum auch aus soziologischer Perspektive untersucht werden s o l l t e . . . .238 Secondly, the image i s inharmonious i n structure. The Bachmann heroine 239 shows on one side - as developed above - a woman, who i n many res-pects exhibits a very independent nature, who t r i e s to extend herself emotionally, disregards conventional s o c i a l norms, especially i n the f i e l d of female s o c i a l roles. At the same time - again as pointed out 240 above - there are many t r a d i t i o n a l feminine features present, espe-c i a l l y i n the area of behaviour and attitudes. 92 How then can these d i f f e r e n t aspects be reconciled? The answer seems to l i e i n the thesis that Bachmann's image consciously r e f l e c t s the dilemma of a modern woman: Although inwardly longing for conven-ti o n a l structures and roles such as marriage and home-life, she seems unable to overcome the urge for freedom and independence which becomes a barrier to her successful integration into these structures and roles. Despite her search for love and emotion, she cannot conform to the l i m i -tations, the " t r a d i t i o n a l " and more acceptable roles which society offer her. This i s obviously the reason why Bachmann's heroines either have troubled marriages or unsuccessful love l i v e s . I t i s also the reason why they do not r e a l l y succeed i n establishing complete independence or, i f they are successful i n this respect, i t i s at a high cost to their emotional l i f e . This i s the dilemma for Undine when she says: Ja. Ja. Wenn das Gestandnis abgelegt war, war ich v e r u r t e i l t zu lieben; wenn ich eines Tages freikam aus der Liebe, mufite ich zuruck ins Wasser gehen, i n dieses Element, i n dem niemand sich ein Nest baut, sich ein Dach aufzieht iiber Balken, sich bedeckt mit einer Plane. . . . und eines Tages sich besinnen, wieder auftauchen, durch eine Lichtung gehen, ihn sehen und 'Hans' sagen. Mit dem Anfang beginnen. 'Guten Abend.' 'Guten Abend.' 'Wie weit i s t es zu di r ? ' 'Weit i s t es, weit.' 'Und weit i s t es zu mir.' Einen Eehler immer wiederholen, den einen machen, mit dem man ausgezeichnet ist.241 It also appears very l i k e l y that, for Bachmann, this dilemma i s based on the innate qu a l i t i e s of the female, a fact which further distances us from the more m i l i t a n t l y strident "emanicipated" image. In Bachmann's works, this dilemma i s further complicated by a male, whose image i s s t i l l b a s i c a l l y " t r a d i t i o n a l " . Here, emotionally and personally advanced 93 females have to contend with males that are f i t t e d for their " t r a d i t i o n a l " roles only. In sum, i t i s certainly safe to say that Bachmann's image of the woman does not agree with the commonly accepted female images of today; too many of the basic needs, desires, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and behaviour patterns of " t r a d i t i o n a l " female images have been retained. Also - with the exception of the highly obscure symbolism of the second chapter of Malina, "Der d r i t t e Mann" - there seems to be no indication of a Geschlechterkampf. As a matter of fact, Bachmann's heroines do not seem to question the e x i s t e n t i a l nature of their s i t u a t i o n . While - as stated above - much of their thoughts are s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l , and while they do act to make changes and reject certain role expectations, they rarely question their s p e c i f i c a l l y female nature or r e f l e c t on new con-cepts concerning the female status. Even vague speculations along these lin e s are soon abandoned by Charlotte. I t may be pointed out, i n con-clusion, that Bachmann's "two-soul concept" i n her image of the woman does seem to be more convincing i n the aesthetic as well as i n the psychological realm than many of the homogenous images offered today. B. The Biographical versus the Text-immanent View It i s certainly tempting to work from the premise that much of the female image developed by Ingeborg Bachmann i s autobiographically determined. H. Pausch supports this view as he writes: Umibersehbar sind auch die autobiographischen Details. Wie Ingeborg Bachmann i s t die Heldin des Romans CMalinaD zelebrierte S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n . Auch i h r Geburtsort i s t Klagenfurt. Die dort verbrachten Kinderjahre werden erwahnt. Ebenso ein Jurastudium, das Rigorosum am Philosophischen In s t i t u t der 94 Universitat Wien. Auslandsaufenthalte und Autoren, mit denen sich das erzahlende Ich wie Ingeborg Bachmann wahrend des Studiums beschaftigt hat: Kant, Locke, Leibniz, Hume, die Vorsokratiker, die Wiener Logistiker, Freud, Jung . . .242 Similar conclusions are drawn by A. Weber: "Malina" i s t das Auto-"Psychogramm" einer S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n . Es l i e g t nahe, weitgehend autobiographische Zuge anzunehmen - zumal einmal Ivans und der Ich-Erzahlerin I n i t i a l e n als "identisch" bezeichnet werden und andererseits von der Ich-Erzahlerin ein Dr. p h i l . , was die Autorin selbst war, abgespalten i s t . . ."243 It should he added that i n addition Simultan as well as Das dreiftigste Jahr y i e l d many s t r i k i n g p a r e l l e l s between Bachmann's l i f e and that of her heroines: Elisabeth h a i l s from Klagenfurt, most of the p r i n c i p a l women - except the elder Frau Jordan - are near Bachmann's age, the stories are set i n locations quite familiar to Ingeborg Bachmann. Most s t r i k i n g of a l l , Jugend i n einer osterreichischen Stadt carries autobiographical notes, though for obvious reasons the - presumably- female narrator has not been used i n this study. However, references are made not only to external p a r a l l e l s but also to s p e c i f i c inner experiences. Thus, Heinrich Boll, i n his review of Uwe Johnson's Eine Reise nach Klagenfurt, refers to Bachmann as eine 244 Heimatvertriebene, a reference made to her experience of H i t l e r ' s Anschlufl, that may also hint at the exile theme i n her works. And A. M. Zahorsky-Suchodolsky mentions the shock of Bachmann's separation from 2 45 Max Frisch as an element of influence on the conception of Malina. Yet, despite these arguments, i t i s necessary to examine each case on i t s own merits. Conclusions, such as these drawn by S. Woodtli about the poem "Die blaue Stunde", appear highly hypothetical: 95 Woruber schreibt denn Ingeborg Bachmann? - In dem Gedicht "Die blaue Stunde" gibt es eine Strophe, die schon darum etwas ganz Besonderes d a r s t e l l t , weil es die einzige Strophe i n ihrem Gesamtwerk i s t , die ausdriicklich einem jungen Madchen in den Mund gelegt i s t . Sie enthalt denn auch das ganze geistige Programm - oder sagen wir bescheidener - die ganze Lebenshoff-nung der Dichterin: Ihr Herren, gebt mir das Schwert i n die Hand, und Jeanne d'Arc ret t e t das Vaterland, Leute, wir bringen das Schiff durchs E i s , ich halte den Kurs, den keiner mehr weifi. Kauft Anemonen! drei Wunsche das Bund, die schliefien vorm Hauch eines Wunsches den Mund. Vom hohen Trapez im Zirkuszelt spring i c h durch den Feuerreifen der Welt, ich gebe mich i n die Hand meines Herrn, und er schickt mir gnadig den Abendstern. Wir erkennen i n diesem jungen Madchen unschwer die Dichterin selber. Die ganze Rede driickt, i n bewuBt jugendlich-ammafiendem Ton, ihre Bereitschaft zu kiihnen Taten aus. Der Vers von der Jeanne d'Arc bedeutet auBerdem Rebellion, das Urthema a l l e r Dichterinnen s e i t George Sand. Why i s the question about autobiographical influence so important for a study of this nature? The reason i s that, i f one were to accept the claim of contemporary psychology, creative and neurotic a c t i v i t i e s are interdependent and that any creative product i s limited, shaped, d i s -torted, and determined by the subconscious elements of the author's personality, one should fe e l compelled to investigate such influences in order properly to evaluate the creative product. A short quotation from L. S. Kubie's extensive study on "Die Wechselwirkungen zwischen schopferischen und neurotogenen Vorgangen" may summarize his thesis on this interdependence: F o l g l i c h hangt die K r e a t i v i t a t zwar vom Ablauf der fre i e n Assoziation ab, welche die vorbewuflten analogen Vorgange moglich macht, laBt diese aber g l e i c h z e i t i g durch den EinfluB gleichlaufender unbewufiter Vorgange empfindlich storen. Dieses unentrinnbare Paradox fiihrt uns nun zum Kern unseres Problems. Ohne f r e i e Assoziation gibt es 96 keine schopferische Tatigkeit; denn sie befreien das empfind-li c h e , flieBende und plastische vorbewuBte System von der Erstarrung, die am bewuBten Ende des Symbolspektrums a u f t r i t t . G l e i c h z e i t i g aber l i e f e r n sie es erst den Verzerrungen und der R i g i d i t a t aus, die das unbewuBte System verursacht.247 Applied to the topic of this study, this reasoning may mean that certain r e p e t i t i v e trends i n Bachmann's image of the woman, such as a h o s t i l i t y toward marriage and childbearing, the roving, unstable l i f e s t y l e , the complex-laden relationship towards men, and the longing for extremes (Grenziibertritt), are the creative manifestations of her own subcon-scions c o n f l i c t s , fears, frustrations, g u i l t , and/or hate complexes. However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to pursue such lines of investigation further, since not only would we transgress l i m i t s of human privacy but also because conclusive and complete evidence i s - at least at the present state of Bachmann research - unknown. One piece of inconclusive evidence, however, w i l l be offered at this point for discussion. In Ein Ort fiir Zufalle, based on her stay i n a B e r l i n mental i n s t i t u t i o n , Ingeborg Bachmann writes about a v i s i t to the zoo: . . . Die Manner gehen a l l e ins Aquarium, die Frauen ins Affenhaus. Die Manner verharren stundenlang vor den Fischen, zuletzt vor den kleinen Eidechsen, sie haben lauter griingol-dene Eidechsen im Aug, sanfte, sanfteste, die sie gem mitnehmen mochten, aber die Warter klopfen sogar die Brusttaschen ab an der Ttir, es i s t nichts zu machen. Die Frauen, a l l e weit voneinander entfernt und miBtrauisch gegeneinander, besuchen ihre besonderen Affen. Sie haben einen silbernen L o f f e l und einen seidenen Beutel mitgebracht und geben nur ihrem Affen den Zucker. Vor Torschlufi erst treffen die Manner und Frauen zusammen, i n dem Treibhaus, auf der Briicke, iiber einem angedeuteten FluB. In der stickigen Hitze dosen unten die Krokodile. Alles b l i c k t mit immer schwerer werdenden Augen hinunter, aber die Krokodile geben keine Vorstellung und warten ab. Jetzt konnte die Briicke einstiirzen und die Krokodile lebendig machen, aber sie stiirzt 97 nicht ein. Es kann niemand hinunterfalien, solange keiner ab s i c h t l i c h stofit. Die Temperatur darf nicht steigen, weil sie genau r e g u l i e r t i s t , aber da steig t die Temperatur trotzdem. 248 If one were to accept this passage as a revealing psychogram of the author, i t could be seen to y i e l d much information about Bachmann's view of the female and especially about the man-woman relationship i n the disturbing picture of men meeting women on top of a shaky bridge across 249 a crocodile's p i t and i n the desire of the men to grab the gentle l i z a r d s . Also, the suspicious behaviour of the females towards each other while each v i s i t s her special ape would almost demand the l a b e l : jealousy. However, there are also other opinions on the biographical versus text-immanent issue. R. Wellek and A. Warren note i n Theory of Literature: Even when a work of art contains elements which can be surely i d e n t i f i e d as biographical, these elements w i l l be so re-arranged and transformed i n a work that they lose a l l their s p e c i f i c a l l y personal meaning and become simply concrete human material, integral elements of a work. . . . The whole view that art i s self-expression pure and simple, the transcript of personal feelings and experiences, i s demonstrably f a l s e . . . .250 In view of the foregoing, this study has rather stressed the text-immanent view of Bachmann's image of the woman and has only i n isolated cases pointed to biographical p a r a l l e l s though there seems no doubt that personal experiences, frustrations, and emotions underlie espe-c i a l l y such stories as Undine geht and Drei Wege zum See. C. Sex-specific versus Allgemein menschlich Interpretation To what extent Bachmann's image of the woman i s sex-specific i s certainly of particular interest for a determination of that image. 98 Not only have c l a s s i c female images such as Maria Stuart or Iphigenie possessed characters i n which b a s i c a l l y human, non-sex-specific q u a l i -tie s predominated, but Hebbel's Maria Magdalena or Hauptmann's Rose Bernd s t i l l display these characteristics while struggling with more sex-specific problems. But the female image i n l i t e r a t u r e has become increasingly sex-specific as writers turned to particular female-251 oriented problems, situations, and viewpoints. Three si g n i f i c a n t test points have been chosen for the purpose of determining the sex-specific p r o f i l e of Bachmann's female charactrs. 1. Themes and Problems What are the themes of Bachmann's stories and radioplays and what are the major problems her female characters encounter? F i r s t , of course, there i s the love theme, the themes of Grenzubertritt and of escape, of a new workd and language, of self analysis and of freedom. It seems that a l l of these f a l l into the allgemein menschiiche category. Themes such as woman and industry, sex discrimination, woman and society, or woman in p o l i t i c s are noticeably absent. A somewhat different situa-ation, however, obtains i f one surveys the problems with which Bachmann's women are confronted: how to achieve a satisfactory relationship with the opposite sex outside marriage (Undine, Elisabeth, Nadja, the narra-tor in Malina), marital problems (Franziska, Gerda, Charlotte, Elisabeth), or how to adjust as a woman to basically incompatible males (the narra-tor in Malina, Jennifer, Nadja, Beatrix, Elisabeth). The narrator i n Malina defines this d i f f i c u l t y thus: . . . es gibt hochstens Manner, mit denen es v o l l i g hoffnungslos i s t , und einige, mit denen es nicht ganz so hoffnungslos i s t . Darin Ist der Grund dafiir zu suchen, nach dem noch niemand gesucht 99 hat, warum nur die Frauen immerzu den Kopf v o l l haben mit ihren Gefiihlen und ihren Geschichten, mit ihrem Mann oder ihren Mannern. Das Denken darin nimmt tatsachlich den groBten T e i l der Zeit jeder Frau i n Anspruch. Sie muB aber daran denken, weil sie sonst buchstablich, ohne ihr nie erlahmendes Gefiihls-treiben, Gefuhlsantreiben, es niemals mit einem Mann aushalten konnte, der ja ein Kranker i s t und sich kaum mit ihr beschaftigt. Here we find the problem couched i n terms which are more d e f i n i t e l y sex-s p e c i f i c . 2. The Point of View An examination of the viewpoint of Bachmann's heroines yields a position which we can d e f i n i t e l y c a l l sex-determined. A few samples: Nadja: 253 . . . ihr Manner seid eine gottverdammte Bande, . . . Beatrix: Ein Mann konnte sich Dummheit eben l e i s t e n , eine Frau niemals, . . .254 . . . i c h bin eine Frau, wiirde sie sagen, denn das war eben der Punkt, auf den es ankam, . . .^55 Undine: 255 Ihr Ungeheuer mit Namen Hans! Charlotte: 257 Die Sprache der Manner war doch so gewesen . . . Die Sprache der Manner, . . . die Sprache der Frauen . . .258 The narrator i n Malina: Sonst machen die meisten Manner aber die Frauen ungliicklich, und eine Gegenseitigkeit i s t nicht da, denn wir haben es mit einem natiirlichen Ungliick, . . . zu tun.259 Elisabeth: . . . und es s o l l t e n die Frauen und die Manner am besten Abstand halten, nichts zu tun haben miteinander, . . .260 In view of these and many other similar statements one may surely speak of the sex-determined, even sexist perspective of Bachmann's women. 100 One may even speculate about an Eve image i n reverse as the narrator i n 261 Malina r e f l e c t s about the contagiousness of the "male disease" : . . . die ganze Einstellung des Mannes einer Frau gegenxiber i s t krankhaft, obendrein ganz e i n z i g a r t i g krankhaft, so daB man die Manner von ihren Krankheiten gar nie mehr wird befreien konnen. Von den Frauen konnte man hochstens sagen, daB sie mehr oder weniger gezeichnet sind durch die Ansteckungen, die sie sich zuziehen, . . .262 3. The External Description Lastly, one could make use of the characterization of Bachmann's women to determine the specifics of their image. Which points does the authoress stress? The catalogue of Bachmann's description of the exter-nals of her heroines i s very slim. Eyes are the most frequently des-cribed physical d e t a i l , hair, which i n general i s blond, follows, but the description of other physical features i s rare. Sex-specific fea-263 tures are rarely mentioned, such as the well-shaped legs of Miranda, 264 or the physical image of Mrs. Brown. Other parts are mentioned with-out apparent descriptive intention. Pleasant and " a t t r a c t i v e " features and youth are stressed over beauty. In these respects, then, the image can hardly be called sex-specific. However, this lack of physical des-c r i p t i o n could also indicate a lack of stress on externals in general. As shown e a r l i e r , we encounter an e n t i r e l y different si tu at io n upon turning to the psychic p r o f i l e of Bachmann's heroines. We find broadly " t y p i c a l " female characteristics such as beauty-consciousness, vanity, i r r a t i o n a l i t y , emotionalism, and, to some extent, homelife orientation. Here, too, we can speak of a sex-specific image. An analysis of sex-specific aspects of language has been omitted because the term "female language" i s s t i l l too vague and too specula-tive to be used for the purpose of this study, though Bachmann has used 101 the term "die Sprache der Frauen" without further explanation. An i n t e r -esting d e f i n i t i o n of the term "Frau-Sprechen" by L. Irigaray has been quoted by M. Reichart: In der Syntax des "Frau-Sprechens gabe es weder Subjekt noch Objekt, das 'Eine' ware nicht mehr p r i v i l e g i e r t , es gabe also keinen Eigen-Sinn, keine Eigennamen mehr; diese Syntax p r i v i l e g i e r t e eine Nahe, so nah, dafl jegliche Diskriminierung, jegliche D e f i n i t i o n . . . unmoglich ware".265 In concluding this point of the discussion, one may state that Ingeborg Bachmann's image of the woman Is i n i t s nature very much a sex-specific one, but that i n i t s substance i t frequently goes beyond the l i m i t s of the purely feminine into a general human realm. D. Social versus I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c Values F i n a l l y , the question arises: which value system - i f any - does Ingeborg Bachmann see as relevant for her women? In p a r t i c u l a r , i s Bachmann's image an a n t i - s o c i a l one? This study has pointed to the very pronounced outsider roles of Bachmann's female characters as well as to their very limited s o c i a l engagement; i t has also directed attention to the very i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s of the development these women exper-ience. On the other hand, there are the frequent pledges by Bachmann to a s o c i a l commitment on the part of a writer of l i t e r a t u r e , especially i n "Die Wahrheit i s t dem Menschen zumutbar", where she writes: Der S c h r i f t s t e l l e r - und das i s t i n seiner Natur - i s t mit seinem Wesen auf ein Du eingerichtet, auf den Menschen, dem er seine Erfahrung vom Menschen zukommen lassen mochte . . . aber insbesondere vom Menschen, der er selber oder die anderen sein konnen und wo er selber und die anderen am meisten Mensch sind.266 We can conclude that Bachmann i s trying to communicate, through her stories and their characters, the c o n f l i c t between the individual's 102 area of t o t a l l y free movement and the demands of s o c i a l integration: the greater the s o c i a l integration the smaller individual free-space becomes. For example, Nadja r e c o l l e c t s : . . . Jean Pierre, der a l l e s verkehrt gefunden hatte, was s i e auch tat und dachte, der sie einfach, ohne je auf s i e einzugehen, i n ein ihr fremdes Leben hineinzwingen wollte, i n eine ganz kleine Wbhnung, mit ganz v i e l e n kleinen Kindern, und dort hatte er sie am liebsten i n einer kleinen Kiiche gesehen oder nachts i n einem allerdings sehr groBen Bett, i n dem sie etwas Winziges war, un tout p e t i t chat, un p e t i t poulet, une p e t i t femmelle, . . .267 Elisabeth, on the other hand, consents to marriage to Hugh, a homosexual, a marriage with l i t t l e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , because " . . . jeder wiirde 268 sein eigenes Leben haben und den anderen nie storen, . . . " For the same reason, as we have seen, most of Bachmann's women shun any repro-ductive roles and withdraw from their native family settings. This c o n f l i c t manifests i t s e l f not only i n the smallest s o c i a l unit, the family, but also i n a larger context. As a r e s u l t , one rarely meets Bachmann's heroines in s o c i a l l y productive or professional roles and that i s why they consider themselves outsiders and e x i l e s . The constricting of the free space of the individual begins i n the social groupings of children. Thus, the narrator in Malina r e c a l l s i n the Miihlbauer interview: . . . ich sehe dann immer gleich solche Anhaufungen, zum Beispiel Kinder auf Kinderspielwiesen, zugegeben, eine Anhaufung von Kindern i s t fiir mich etwas besonders Entsetz-liches, auch ganz unbegreiflich i s t mir, wie Kinder es unter so vielen Kindern aushalten konnen. . . . Kein Kind, das nicht ganz und gar schwachsinnig oder bodenlos verdorben i s t , . . . kann sich wiinschen, i n einem Kinderhauf en zu leben und die Probleme von anderen Kindern zu haben und auBer einigen Kinderkrankheiten irgend etwas zu t e i l e n mit anderen Kindern, meinetwegen seine Entwicklung. Der Anblick von jeder groBeren ^^q Ansammlung von Kindern i s t doch deswegen schon alarmierend . . . 103 The narrator i s speaking out against the determination, the f i x a t i o n , the u t i l i z a t i o n of the individual i n a s o c i a l context, these are phenomena that Bachmann c r i t i c i s e s through her female protagonists. It i s also pre-c i s e l y this u t i l i z a t i o n that " k i l l s " the narrator i n Malina. A very simple question: "Warum s i t z t du dann hier herum, anstatt uns endlich 270 einen Kaffee zu machen?" i n i t i a t e s the symbolic break-up of her iden t i t y : Das Telefon lautet, Malina hebt es ab, er s p i e l t mit meiner Sonnenbrille und zerbricht s i e , er s p i e l t dann mit einem blauen Glaswurfel, der doch mir gehort. . . . Er s p i e l t aber nicht nur, denn er riickt schon meinen Leuchter weg. . . . Er hat meine B r i l l e zerbrochen, er w i r f t sie i n den Papierkorb, es sind meine Augen, er schleudert den blauen Glaswurfel nach, es xst der zwerte Stem aus emem Traum, . . . / x Here, a seemingly very i n s i g n i f i c a n t question by Malina triggers off a decisive development. It bares the whole t e r r i b l e r i f t between men and women, between those who u t i l i z e others and those who want pure humanity, between so c i a l purpose and f i x a t i o n i n " t r a d i t i o n a l " roles and freedom of the t o t a l - i n d i v i d u a l . Malina demonstrates one of the "Todesarten" of the ind i v i d u a l . One other dimension i s added to this c o n f l i c t by Elisabeth Matrei as she r e f l e c t s about differences between herself and Robert and L i z : Es gibt wieder eine Frau Matrei, . . . und sie wiirden also doch nicht aussterben, denn L i z wiirde sicher Kinder wollen, . . . Denn sie wuiJte nur und auch genau, warum Familien wie die Matreis aussterben sol l t e n , auch dafi dieses Land keine Matreis mehr brauchte, . . . und Robert und sie sich zwar i n die Fremde gerettet hatten und t a t i g waren wie tatige Menschen i n wichtigen Landern, . . . Aber was sie zu Fremden machte ii b e r a l l , war ihre Empfind-l i c h k e i t , weil sie von der Peripherie kamen und daher ihr Geist, ihr Fiihlen und Handeln hoffnungslos diesem Geister-reich von einer riesigen Ausdehnung gehorten, . . .272 104 The term Empfindlichkeit - as well as the idea of Grenzubertritt - may-suggest a relationship with the extensively developed theme of the a r t i s t versus soci a l obligation that has occupied writers from the Romantics to Thomas Mann. In Bachmann's works the Habsburg Empire appears to be only a symbol for a realm of individual free space, for a Grenzregion, for l i b e r a l m u l t i p l i c i t y and pluralism. Although this realm i s not s t r i c t l y reserved for the female, there seem to be only a few men who exist at times within i t and these are the ones with whom Bachmann's women have satisfactory relationships. Are Bachmann's women then anti-social? Are her themes outmoded 273 and unzeitgemafi as c r i t i c s have suggested? Some c r i t i c s such as H. Heissenbiittel have even seen Malina as the story of a neurosis because i t condemns the socia l r e a l i t y of the twentieth century: Die soziale Wirklichkeit, das Objektive s o z i a l bedingter Existenz, beruhend auf der Moglichkeit von Auskommen und Zusammenleben von Mi l l i a r d e n von Menschen, die a l l e von sich als von einem Ich reden konnen, wird abgelehnt, j a als etwas unvorstellbar Ekliges ins Negative verkehrt. In dieser Ekelreaktion gegen die Menge Gleichberechtigter steckt der Kern der Neurose. . . . Was Ingeborg Bachman erzahlt, i s t eine Krankheitsgeschichte. Bedeutet das Erzahlen Einsicht? Ja und Nein. Einsicht insofern, als die Autorin i n der Rolle ihrer Erzahlerin, mit der sie nur teilweise identisch i s t , sich von sich wegbewegt und weiterlebt. Sie hat sich iiber die Runden gebracht. Einsicht f e h l t , wie schon friiher, weil das, was als Psychogramm interessant i s t , immer wieder i n Literatur u m s t i l i s i e r t wird, weil i n keiner Zeile der Ver-lockung zur Sentimentalisierung widerstanden wird; diese Krankheitsgeschichte wird fur das Objektive, das Wahre genommen, der sozialen Realitat die Schuld zugeschoben. Indem die Geschichte der Neurose ins Literarisch-Sinngebende i d e a l i -s i e r t wird, erscheint die soziale Realitat-des 20. Jahrhunderts als das absolut Falsche, der Tod der Innerlichkeit als Beweis tragischer Wahrheit. . . .^74 Can one r e a l l y c a l l the intense struggle of the individual to gain or to retain some small degree of individual freedom neurotic? Can one c a l l 105 the claim for "das Recht von Individuation, von Gefiihls - und Liebensan-recht . . . umgeben von e n t i n d i v i d u a l i s i e r t e r und b r u t a l i s i e r t e r 276 Literatur . . . " as Karl Krolow phrased i t , outmoded? Are Bachmann's women at best mere "schone Seelen"? It seems that Bachmann's female characters advance a viewpoint that could certainly never be timelier than today. They are not a n t i - s o c i a l but reject only one aspect of con-temporary society, namely the fast growing integration into and exploita-t i o n of the individual by a bureaucratic state. We have seen that the 277 male i s largely equated by Bachmann with that society. We must now conclude that the struggle for individual freedom i s a very substantial part of her image of the woman. CHAPTER VII AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEME OF FREEDOM In this chapter a working d e f i n i t i o n of Bachmann's image of the woman w i l l be tested against the data, analyses, and findings of the f i r s t part of this study. A. Working-Definition of the Image of the Woman 1. The image of Bachmann's women i s b u i l t around a personal concept of freedom. Bachmann's women long for freedom and s t r i v e to attain the greatest amount possible. They equate freedom with l i f e . In i t s most extreme form, the Grenziibertritt, freedom represents an existence devoid of a l l l i m i t a t i o n s . 2. Bachmann's women, therefore, reject a l l forms of constraint: reason and log i c because they l i m i t freedom of thought; the existing language because i t l i m i t s freedom of expression, and because i t stereotypes the individual; commitments, either s o c i a l , personal, p o l i t i c a l , or moral because they l i m i t the continuing freedom of choice. 3. Bachmann's women need freedom i n order to avoid c r i s i s situations that are caused when one's options are limited by s e l f -imposed or otherwise-imposed thought and moral s t r i c t u r e s . They f e e l the need for freedom to r e a l i z e their own form of humanitas. 4. Bachmann's women try to analyse, to comprehend, and then to r e l y on their i n d i v i d u a l i t y , their "Ich". Only by this method of 106 107 sel f - a n a l y s i s can they achieve the inner and outer freedom that they need, any outside point of reference i s avoided. I t i s here, at the turning point of the s e l f , that the inner and outer worlds of Bachmann's women have their common pivot. 5. Bachmann's women exhibit elements of the " t r a d i t i o n a l image". S p e c i f i c a l l y , they retain those aspects which allow the female greater extremes of expression, i . e . i r r a t i o n a l i t y , emotionalism, self-centred-ness. 6. Bachmann's women, however, are not able to avoid situations of personal c o n f l i c t , degradation, and suffering or the destruction of their s e l f despite their attempts to re t a i n free choice and a high degree of i n d i v i d u a l i t y . This happens because they are not able, owing to their continued dependence on love, sex, and emotion, to shield them-selves from the society around them. In summary: Bachmann's heroines can be seen as incorporating personality and l i f e structures which well equip them for the task of investigating the existence i n and v i a b i l i t y of alternative modes of survival for the individual i n a world based upon the f i n i t e measur-a b i l i t y of a l l things, i n a society dedicated to analysing, l a b e l l i n g , and manipulating i t s members. B. Freedom and Social Environment An analysis of the observations and data i n Chapter II reveals a common denominator: the issue of freedom. One aspect or another of the theme of freedom dominates, transcends, causes, or explains the various characteristics of Bachmann's women. 108 We have noted that almost a l l of Bachmann's female characters are between the ages of twenty and forty years. This i s an age-range i n which the longing for freedom, especially that of personal independence, i s most f u l l y developed. In youth and i n old age freedom of choice i s limited; childhood and old age would certainly be less suited for the development of the theme of personal freedom, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t i s seen, for example, i n the l i g h t of the physical oppression that adolescents have to endure as i n Jugend i n einer osterreichischen Stadt. Yet, even i n the few fringe cases of youth and old age presented by Bachmann, personal independence and freedom play an important part. A case i n point i s that of the elder Frau Jordan's attempt to re t a i n as much independence as possible, despite her dependence on the f i n a n c i a l and emotional support of her son. More s i g n i f i c a n t i n this l i n e of argument seem to be the conclusions reached regarding the educational background of Bachmann's heroines. The fact that they d i s l i k e formal education can be seen e f f e c t i v e l y to support the theme of personal freedom and an unwillingness 278 to be: "In spanische S t i e f e l n eingeschnvirt, . . . " The observation about the i n t e l l e c t u a l niveau of Bachmann's women does not contradict the foregoing, since in t e l l i g e n c e and knowledge are considered to be pre-requisites for the development of a free personality - an idea already expressed during the enlightenment by Kant: "Unmundigkeit i s t das Unvermogen, sich seines Verstandes ohne, Leitung eines anderen zu bedienen." Furthermore, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that most of Bachmann's heroines are not involved i n professional or occupational a c t i v i t i e s , 109 or - i f they are employed - they are engaged i n jobs that allow a large degree of individual c r e a t i v i t y - an essential pre-requisite for the re a l i z a t i o n of individual freedom. A certain degree of f i n a n c i a l inde-pendence and much leisuretime (common to Bachmann's women) can be seen as additional conditions which the authoress presupposes to be neces-sary for the freedom of choice of the in d i v i d u a l . Lastly, the marital status of the leading female characters was examined. Here, too, the results indicated that freedom was the main issue. Marriage was seen as a hindrance for the free i n d i v i d u a l . This was shown not only by the large proportion of unmarried or divorced women but also by the attempts and f a i l u r e s of married women to gain in d i v i d u a l freedom from marital r e s t r i c t i o n s through various other l i f e -s t y l e s , such as lesbianism, adultery, asexual partnerships, and three-sided relationships. The whole marital issue i s used by Ingeborg Bachmann to experiment with and to search for a solution to a sex-sp e c i f i c dilemma: the need of women for sex, a f f e c t i o n , and love versus the obligations, r e s t r i c t i o n s , and bonds of a committed relationship or t r a d i t i o n a l marriage. Summarizing the lin e s of thought developed above, i t becomes clear that Bachmann regards certain s o c i a l and physical conditions to be pre-requisites for the attempt to reach a higher degree of freedom and independence. But i n their attempts to secure freedom, her women also i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s as well as the possible p i t f a l l s and fa i l u r e s . In no instance are we presented with a simple solution. Also, what does this mean for women who are without these pre-requisites? What about i l l n e s s , lack of education, poverty, physical oppression, l i m i t i n g s o c i a l obligations such as children, dependents? Do these 110 conditions exclude a woman from independent self-development? The argument about the inner world, advanced by some c r i t i c s , does not offer a solution, since the two - inner world and outer world - are interdependent i n Bachmann's works. C. Freedom and Psychic and Behavioural Characteristics Although much c r i t i c i s m has been directed at the so-called "old-fashioned" q u a l i t i e s of Bachmann's heroines, these " t r a d i t i o n a l " q u a l i t i e s would seem to have an integral function i n Bachmann's development of the image of an independent and free woman. A l l three main characteristics surveyed i n part one of this study -vanity, emotionalism, and i r r a t i o n a l i t y - contribute to a form of personal development and expression that i s less r e s t r i c t e d and more self-orientated. 1. Freedom and Feminine Vanity What better means but female vanity and Ichbezogenheit could Ingeborg Bachmann have used to i l l u s t r a t e individualism? Attention was drawn to the statement of the narrative " I " i n Malina: " . . . eine Frau 279 i s t zu erschaffen . . . " ; here the creative or self-creative aspect of the concern with one's own body and appearance i s indicative of the active role taken by Bachmann's females i n their development ( i f only in this case i n the composition of externals), which permits great freedom of choice. This explains, also, why, as was pointed out above, for Bachmann, vanity i s a value not a f a u l t . Vanity and self - o r i e n t a t i o n are further channels through which Bachmann's leading women find a I l l basis of existence, a point of reference within themselves. They are self-centred, free - or trying to be free - of outside points of r e f e r -ence and, therefore, independent personalities. The concern with their outer appearance i s to emphasize and to foster their independence and i s a p a r a l l e l to the s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l trend of these women, as discussed e a r l i e r . Here, too, one finds an inter-relationship between outer and inner world. Furthermore, i t becomes once more obvious why the female i s Bachmann's choice f or her presentation of the struggle to achieve a new mode for human l i v i n g . I t i s also apparent that the authoress attaches symbolic value to the so-called " t r a d i t i o n a l " female ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. Freedom and Feminine Emotion For Ingeborg Bachmann, one of the most eff e c t i v e means for the achievement of freedom i s emotion. Emotion i s a means of self-expression; i t allows unlimited choice of expression as the first-person narrator i n Malina remarks: Mein Du fur Ivan i s t ungenau, es kann sich verfarben, verdunkeln, lichten, es kann sprode, mild oder zaghaft werden, unbegrenzt i s t die Skala seiner Expressionen, es kann auch ganz a l l e i n , i n groBen Intervallen, gesagt werden und v i e l e Male sirenenhaft, immer wieder verlockend neu, . . .280 Emotion i s not calculable because i t takes a unique form i n each person, i n each instance; emotion frees because i t allows the traversing of borders (Grenzubertritt) and of behavioural norms; i t frees because i t allows one - at least temporarily - to disregard the l i m i t s of time and death (as i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan, where lovers are not buried but set among the stars); not least, emotion frees the individual of 281 g u i l t because of i t s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c nature: love i s g u i l t l e s s . 112 The good God addresses the interdependence of freedom and emotion here symbolized by height frequently: "Es gibt namlich einiges i n den Hohen, 282 wo die Adler nicht wohnen. F r e i h e i t . . . " Later on he speaks of the less exceptional people who f a l l i n love, as making a "Seitensprung i n die F r e i h e i t " . Once again, we seem to have support for the conclusion that a modified " t r a d i t i o n a l " female image, with i t s emotional aspect, suited the authoress well for her conception of a free i n d i v i d u a l . 3. Freedom and I r r a t i o n a l i t y I r r a t i o n a l i t y i s yet another means by which Bachmann's heroines attempt to r e a l i z e their i d e a l of freedom. The a n t i t h e t i c a l equation of "female i r r a t i o n a l i t y " versus "male l o g i c " has been discussed exten-si v e l y i n Part I. Clearly, i n this respect, i r r a t i o n a l i t y fosters free-dom of thought as i t frees the mind from laws, rules and methods of thinking which, because of their universal acceptance, require a con-formity to thought patterns, thereby shackling the mind. In Bachmann's and Frisch's terms, the same can be said of language. I r r a t i o n a l thought i s unpredictable and thus offers freedom of choice and opens the way for more individual ways of thinking. Ein Wildermuth i s a very impressive demonstration of female reasoning - interestingly enough from a man's 283 point of view. Furthermore, i t appears that logic and r a t i o n a l i t y are used by the male to subjugate and even to "murder" the female. The novel Der F a l l Franza i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of this point. Thus, i r r a t i o n a l i t y also provides a realm of escape for Bachmann's female characters. 113 D. Freedom and Favoured Social Roles What has our analysis of the s o c i a l roles of Bachmann's female characters contributed to the image? Once again i n d i v i d u a l i t y and freedom seem to be the dominant issues. Each one of the major s o c i a l roles discussed i s based on situations of c o n f l i c t between freedom and so c i a l obligation. It was found that a l l of Bachmann's mother-roles were unhappy ones and that motherhood was unpopular with Bachmann's women because of the r e s t r i c t i o n s i t put on personal freedom. However, Bachmann's opposition to the mother-role may be also an attempt to reject a label for the female. I t was noted above that a l l of Bachmann's 284 females reject l a b e l l i n g , role expectations, and f i x a t i o n of ident i t y . Secondly, the mother-role l i m i t s a woman's freedom of choice. Here, we may have an explanation for the phenomenon that the relationship of Bachmann's women to children i s best i f the children are not their own. The inner-psychic r e s t r i c t i o n factor i n these cases i s smaller, cf. the relationship between the narrator i n Malina and Bela and Andras. Lastly, the idea may be present that r a i s i n g a ch i l d means preparing i t for and forcing i t into the r e s t r i c t i v e patterns of l i f e . Fipps i s a case i n point. This would seem to be the case also i n Jugend i n einer osterreichischen Stadt, irrespective of whether we accept or reject an autobiographical interpretation of the story. Again, motherhood i s i n co n f l i c t with Bachmann's concept of individual freedom. The only attempt to develop another person's personality - this time on the adult l e v e l -Charlotte's attempt to build "her" creation, namely Mara, consequently f a i l s . 114 The wife-roles of Bachmann's females demonstrate additional c o n f l i c t situations regarding personal freedom. It i s worthwhile noting that a l l husband figures (not lovers) i n Ingeborg Bachmann's prose and dramatic writings are i n some way figures of oppression. They range from the rather autocratic ways of Leo Jordan to the very subtle superiority of Malina, i n whom, incidentally, some autobiographically orientated c r i t i c s l i k e Adolf Opel detect a protrayal of Max Frisch. Bachmann's wife-figures are meant to show the near impossibility of combining personal freedom and self-development with marriage and the resultant i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the antagonism of the male and female nature. Even the nearly ideal relationship of the narrator i n Malina with a "husband" and a lover ends i n tragedy. Her personality i s "murdered". Once again, i t i s worth noting that the degree of intensity of the relationship i s roughly proportionate to the severity of f a i l u r e . Bachmann offers no solution. The promised "Salve Zukunft" i s lacking. The ambivalence of Bachmann's women regarding the combination of qualities suitable for or detrimental to a marriage as pointed out i n Part I of this study only serves to emphasize the dilemma of women and to point once more to the issue of freedom as the determining motive i n Bachmann's females. The role of lover seems to be the one i n which Bachmann's women are happiest and most successful. It appears that the lover must be seen as alternative to the wife-role. In order to find the maximum amount of freedom available without relinquishing love, sex, and affection a l t o -gether, Bachmann's heroines experiment with both roles. Here, as far as the freedom issue i s concerned, the lover-role has certain advantages over that of the wife, since many of the re s t r i c t i o n s of marriage are 115 absent. The individual has more access to freedom. However, less scope i s available for the "wifely q u a l i t i e s " , such as longing for lo y a l t y and protection. The successful lover, however, soon faces another problem: as Bachmann's women try to escape the limitations of a normative l i f e , by searching for emotional love, they f i n d , on attaining this love, that once more their freedom and personality are withering away - this time through submission, through de-personalization. "Vergeh i c h schon? Und vergeh i c h nicht wegen d i r ? " asks Jennifer i n an advanced stage of d i s i n -285 tegration of her s e l f . I t w i l l be granted that this i s a dif f e r e n t form of destruction of personality from those brought about by marriage, so c i a l norms or identity-typing, yet the same basic c o n f l i c t i s present. So i t seems that i t i s not primarily the rejection of a given s o c i a l order - as most c r i t i c s see i t - that causes the doom of Bachmann's lovers but rather the unavoidable destruction of the s e l f and their personal realm of freedom which i s brought about by any form of intense emotional attachment. This was i l l u s t r a t e d also by the various degrees of submission by the women that were observed e a r l i e r . Undine i s always able to withdraw into her water-world of freedom; Jennifer i s not and perishes. In this context, too, one finds the explanation for the l a s t observation that was noted for the lover i n the f i r s t part of this study, namely the so-called passive lover. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems to reveal an innate hesitation of Bachmann's females to commit themselves to uncon-d i t i o n a l love, as i t might involve the unconditional surrender of the se l f . The fear of a largely compulsory process beyond one's control -as was pointed out - i s certainly present. I t should be added that some 116 of these points do substantially distinguish Bachmann's romantic lovers from those of Romantic Literature. The homemaker rol e , too, i s transcended wholely and i n a very subtle manner by the theme of personal freedom. I t was found that housework did not represent physical oppression for Ingeborg Bachmann's women as i t does i n much of the l i b e r a t i o n i s t l i t e r a t u r e . However, i t did symbolize l i m i t a t i o n for a woman; i t symbolized the male world of purpose and eff i c i e n c y . For Charlotte i n Ein S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha homemaking cl e a r l y has a l l the characteristics of order, purpose, protec-tion, and limit a t i o n s . She i s almost magically confined by the furnish-ings of the apartment representing her married l i f e . They are symbols during h i s absence for her husband Franz. Some of the furnishings have to be destroyed by Mara before she i s able to break out. The reader i s told that, after Mara demolishes the l i v i n g room, "Ihre Gefiihle, ihre Gedanken sprangen aus dem gewohnten Gleis, rasten ohne Bahn ins Freie. 286 Sie lieB ihren Gefiihlen und Gedanken frei e n Lauf." Malina's request for coffee, the brewing of which i s another homemaking a c t i v i t y , triggers off severe consequences, namely the disintegration of the narrator's s e l f . The relationship between Malina and the narrator had turned into one of calculated s o c i a l u t i l i t y . An i r o n i c note i n the antithesis of freedom and r e s t r i c t i o n seems to be present also i n the homemaking aspect, inasmuch as Bachmann's women tend to offer their homemaking a b i l i t i e s to their lovers without r e a l i z i n g the restrictive^elements that are inherent i n the g i f t . This i s the case with Jennifer and the narrator i n Malina as pointed out i n Chapter III. Once again, Bachmann's interpretation of 117 housework i s of a much subtler nature than i n more emancipatory and polemic writings. It i s rather the routine, the purely u t i l i t a r i a n and the s o c i a l aspects of this work - or of any similar a c t i v i t i e s - than i t s oppressive nature that are f e l t to r e s t r i c t the individual develop-ment of a woman. Here, too, the female seems well suited as a vehicle for the description of the problems involved i n the struggle of the individual against r e s t r i c t i o n . An analysis of the few professional roles of Bachmann's heroines reveals once more the search for freedom and personal identi t y to be the dominant theme. The negative connotations of the terms used by Bachmann's women i n reviewing their careers, the limited space given to that topic as well as the ambivalent escapist nature of their professional l i f e show professionalism to be no solution i n the quest to gain a personal identi t y and freedom. I t seems that work, even though i t i s of a creative nature, as pointed out above, and may help i n the self-developmental pro-cess, provides no substitute for true ide n t i t y . The loss of Nadja's self-assurance when she i s away from work indicates at most the acqui-s i t i o n of a pseudo-identity through her profession for the heroine of Simultan. It follows that professional work provides neither r e a l free-dom nor emancipation, but that once more i t s subtly r e s t r i c t i n g features are uncovered, especially i n view of the s o c i a l aspect connected with most types of work. In the case of Nadja, the r e s t r i c t i n g element regarding independent thought i s c l e a r l y pointed out i n the story. An almost anarchic view of freedom i s voiced i n the Miihlbauer interview by 118 the narrator i n Malina. Here, any purposeful a c t i v i t y i s seen as slavery and even to the question about hobbies the narrator answers: . . . Ich bin nie beschaftigt. Eine Beschaftigung, die wiirde mich abhalten, i c h verlore auch noch den kleinsten tlberblick, jeden Hinblick, i c h kann mich absolut nicht beschaftigen i n dieser Geschaftigkeit rundherum, Sie sehen sicher auch diese wahnwitzige Geschaftigkeit i n der Welt und diese infernalischen Gerausche horen Sie doch, die von ihr ausgehen. Ich wiirde j a Beschaftigungen verbieten lassen, wenn i c h es konnte, aber i c h kann sie mir nur selber verbieten, . . .287 Another r e s t r i c t i n g feature of work rejected by Bachmann's women i s the planned and purposeful aspect of any career-oriented work, an aspect that, as was shown e a r l i e r , i s part of the "male" way of l i v i n g . Beatrix's sleep may also be seen as an anti-work state of existence: Nichts als schlafen! Nur wiirde Beatrix sich hiiten, das jemand zu sagen, denn sie hatte schon s e i t einiger Zeit begriffen, worauf die anderen hinauswollten, . . . dafi sie sich namlich entschlieBen s o l l t e , endlich etwas zu tun, j a unbedingt eine Arbeit haben miisse, und man mufite diesen Leuten eben ein wenig entgegenkommen und gelegentlich Andeutungen f a l l e n lassen iiber Zukunftsplane und Interessen.288 The last role discussed, that of the outsider, i s exclusively concerned with the topic of freedom and personal id e n t i t y . Whereas the other roles were largely used as test cases with which Bachmann demonstrated the p o s s i b i l i t y or impossibility of achieving freedom and personal develop-ment i n the context of various female roles and a c t i v i t i e s , the outsider role seems to be an ex i s t e n t i a l one. Bachmann's women are by nature out-siders. Their search for personal freedom causes them to see and to reject as r e s t r i c t i v e almost any existing convention such as language, patterns of thought, behavioural norms, etc. Here, too, Bachmann does not hesitate to show the personal problems and the negative consequences involved with the outsider position for her female characters. The role weighs heavily on them. 119 Relief i s sometimes found i n the companionship of other outsiders such as i n the case of the friendships between Trotta and Elisabeth, Mara and Charlotte. Lastly, i t seems remarkable that most of Bachmann's female outsiders appear to see r e l i e f i n creation of a new type of man - Utopian as the concept may be - rather than i n withdrawal and escape. E. Freedom and Interaction of Bachmann's Leading Female Characters with Four Social Groupings An analysis of the interaction of Bachmann's heroines with their human environment shows once again the issue of freedom and personal development as the major motivating and determining factor. Once more this topic i s exemplified i n various human situations which are espe-c i a l l y relevant for the female. The rather negative part that children play i n r e l a t i o n to Bachmann's women was extensively documented e a r l i e r i n this study; the r e s t r i c t i n g factors that are connected with c h i l d rearing and which Bachmann's women try to avoid were discussed. But i t also seems that for Bachmann's females the ch i l d i t s e l f carries a stigma of confinement. It represents the f i r s t phase of the l i f e of an individual within an endless chain of beings. I t symbolizes - at least i n Alles - man's entrance into a pre-determined routine of l i f e . Although the c h i l d i s not yet part of a senseless, r e s t r i c t e d and routine way of l i f e , i t i s being i n i t i a t e d into i t by the adults as shown i n Jugend i n einer osterreichischen Stadt. Hanna in Alles does everything to draw Fipps into this conventional and routine l i f e , because she herself i s already caught up in i t and, perhaps, because she realizes better than her husband 120 that Fipps w i l l otherwise be forced to capitulate. The narrator i n Malina formulates the point more extremely: " . . . eine Anhaufung von Kindern i s t fur mich etwas besonders Entsetzliches, auch ganz unbegreif-289 l i c h i s t mix, wie Kinder es unter so vielen Kindern aushalten konnen." Here, once again, the l i f e of the c h i l d represents an existence from which Bachmann's females are trying to escape. It may be said that the child's image i s a rather tragic one, as i t demonstrates for Bachmann's women a secular version of Man after the f a l l . Analysing the observations collected on the woman-woman r e l a t i o n -ships i n Bachmann's works, one finds again the theme of personal freedom to be the key to understanding. The occasional occurrence of sexual r i v a l r y and of competition between Bachmann's women underscores once more their disregard for s o c i a l bonds. "Human property" has no place i n their conception of personal freedom. The young Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See y e l l s at her mother 290 that Robert, her younger brother, could just as well be her c h i l d . Bachmann's women tend to be so self-oriented that they respect no out-side point of reference, be i t of a s o c i a l , moral or behavioural kind. A second point emerges here i n respect to the antagonism between some of the female characters. Since being sex-oriented, as was pointed out on different occasions above, appears i n the authoress' view as a r e s t r i c -tive element, i t i s , therefore, only natural that Bachmann's women encounter c o n f l i c t s , even more so here than i n any man-woman relationship because of sexual antagonisms. This point i s reinforced by the material 291 and ideas submitted under the heading "The Non-sexual Relationships". Here, free-willed and self-oriented women meet outside any compulsion or 121 restraints and are, therefore, able to communicate successfully. The same argument about c o n f l i c t s caused by sex-oriented relationships can be discerned i n the lesbian partnership. A l l relationships of this kind f a i l because they prohibit personal freedom and individual development at least for the junior partner. Bachmann would seem to reject the p o s s i b i l i t y of any true r e a l i z a t i o n of a woman's identity through a lesbian relationship. The most problematic human relationship for Bachmann's women i s the female-male relationship. Bachmann's heroines search f i r s t of a l l for a solution to the c o n f l i c t between achieving or retaining indepen-dence on the one hand and of having emotional t i e s with a man on the other. The closest Bachmann's women come to a solution to this problem i s when they meet a man of similar disposition. This happens, for instance, between Elisabeth and Franz Joseph Trotta i n Drei Wege zum See, and between the narrator and Ivan i n Malina. Emotional r e l a t i o n -ships without permanency seem to be the most successful for Bachmann's heroines. The dilemma, however, i s never solved and Bachmann's narrators lament this repeatedly. The many and varied relationships between men and women i n Bachmann's works i l l u s t r a t e a gamut of combinatory p o s s i b i l -i t i e s between different types of women and men. However, the basic ten-sion of personal-identity and free-space versus commitment and the necessity of giving up a certain degree of freedom underlies a l l of these relationships. Furthermore, i t seems that i n this case, too, the female-male antithesis i s symbolic of the c o n f l i c t of the individual versus society. Often, the male represents those elements which Bachmann's females are trying to discard i n human relationships, such as purpose, 122 reason, pragmatism, obligation, planning, stereotyping of human beings, s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , security, etc. I t i s interesting to note that there are females on the periphery of Bachmann's plots who accommodate themselves well with these male values, i . e . the so-called Menschenfrauen i n Undine geht, but none of the leading female characters does so, although vestiges of this mentality are present among them i n various degrees. This fact not only underlines the complexity of Bachmann's leading females but suggests also that, because of the negative image attached to the former, Bachmann regards those women that search for freedom and identity as better and more advanced personalities. A l a s t point ought to be added; the fact that many of Bachmann's females display a d i s t i n c t l y submissive attitude towards their lovers does not contra-dict the conclusions of this analysis as this i s c l e a r l y intended to be an act of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , of emotional intensity. As suggested above, Bachmann's image i s based to a great extent on " t r a d i t i o n a l " characteris-t i c s and on the idea of creating one's own identity. This, to a large extent, means r e a l i z i n g and exploiting those characteristics. That they lead to personal c o n f l i c t s i s part of Bachmann's r e a l i s t i c presentation of the woman's image and may well be f e l t to express the essence of her world—view. The whole topic of Bachmann's female characters and society can best be formulated as the c o n f l i c t of the individual with society. We found i n Chapter II that Bachmann's women r e f r a i n from expounding s o c i a l theories or concepts. The reason for this appears to be that Bachmann rejects systems where the individual i s administered and int e -292 grated into the system, leaving no room for i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Bureau-c r a t i c a l l y organized system and societies are disliked by Bachmann's 123 women since they have been worked out by men with their usual l o g i c and pragmatism and they leave no room for the spontaneity of the ind i v i d u a l , a point that Nadja makes i n a conversation with Frankel i n Simultan. Bachmann's heroines have a s o c i a l consciousness, but they are non-p o l i t i c a l . They admire and engage i n individual acts of kindness and charity and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . Thus, Nadja praises the personal i n i t i a t i v e of David Lubin i n helping to supply a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge to a l l , but 293 she condemns organizations such as the FAO : " . . . denn immer wenn jemand auf die Welt kommt und etwas Abenteuerliches denkt und anfangt 294 mit etwas. Neuem, dann kommt ihr daher und verwaltet es zu Tod, . . . " Thus, the narrator i n Malina gives away a large sum of money to a stranger from Bulgaria who claims to be very sick. It i s always personal p a r t i -cipation and help, not s o c i a l concepts and organizations, that engage Bachmann's heroines. This i s i n l i n e with their ideas on personal free-dom, which also allows the single person to withdraw from involvement i f she wishes. Miranda, for instance, does not appear to be intended as a negative characterization. Bachmann's remarks on the extreme s e n s i t i v i t y which causes her to turn away from any gruesome r e a l i t y indicate rather the opposite. Since Bachmann's women d i s l i k e any c o l l e c t i v e as a r e s t r i c -tion on the individual, they would rather confront or deal with another individual than with an anonymous term l i k e society. In this sense, Bachmann's females may be termed a n t i - s o c i a l or n o n - p o l i t i c a l . Summarizing this chapter, i t w i l l be agreed that the issue of personal freedom and identity i s certainly not only the dominant theme of Bachmann's image of the woman but also the key aspect which allows a complete understanding of their actions, reactions, thoughts, and 124 motivations. Although these thoughts and actions may d i f f e r i n various situations i n the stories and radio-plays, they can a l l be understood as variations on this main theme. CHAPTER VIII AN ANALYSIS OF THE FEMALE-MALE ANTITHESIS The second major theme that appears to form most of Bachmann's f i c t i o n r e l a t i n g to the female i s that of the male-female c o n f l i c t . I t i s closely interwined with the theme of freedom discussed above. It was shown e a r l i e r that the male and his world represents i n Bachmann's writings certain ways of thinking, of behaving and of acting. And i t was also shown that these stood i n stark contrast to the female and her world. In this chapter we w i l l try to analyse the very complex theme of the male-female c o n f l i c t . A. The Image of the Male It i s impossible to comprehend c l e a r l y the nature of Bachmann's image of the woman without devoting attention to the image of the male and i t s very i n f l u e n t i a l position i n respect to that of the female. Analysing the observations offered i n the previous chapters, i t becomes evident that the writer not only endows her male characters with many of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " characteristics of the male such as rationalism, i n t e l -l e c t and lo g i c , but she also expands these i n order to develop a clear counter-image to her females and to a l l that they stand for. Thus, the male carries the image of pure reason, calculation, l o g i c a l and analy-t i c a l thought, soberness, pragmatism, unemotional behaviour, of programing and administering a l l aspects of l i f e , of f i x a t i o n and order, of lim i t a t i o n . The fact that a few of Bachmann's male characters try to 125 126 disassociate themselves from this concept of "maleness" does not al t e r the basic symbolic image the author develops i n her male characters. Even Ivan i n Malina f i t s this image fundamentally. As pointed out before, i n the few instances when men do venture towards absolutes or attempt a Grenzubertritt they do this i n the "realm of the male" (e.g. Judge Wildermuth trying to find the absolute truth or the father of Fipps i n Alle s attempting to build a new man) and they f a i l to achieve th e i r goals 295 because they use "male" precision of thought and l o g i c a l reasoning. Bachmann's intention i n developing this image of the male - based largely on a t y p i c a l sex-specific view - seems to be to i l l u s t r a t e through the male a particular type of human being, a very contemporary type of man, to which her women characters are opposed. In other words, the male i n Bachmann's prose largely represents a conception of man that her female characters abhor and are trying to discard. At the same time, however, the reader i s made aware of a fascination for some of the male's a b i l i t i e s . — such as great i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts or s c i e n t i f i c and technical achievements - that her females are not able to overcome. Taking these images as they stand and considering Bachmann's many state-ments i n her f i c t i o n on this topic, the recurring theme of women trying to free themselves, yet because of their attraction to the male f a l l i n g back into dependence, can be taken as Bachmann's analogy for the s i t u a -tion of s t r i v i n g and aspiring mankind. The escape into t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l -ism i s hindered by the necessity of having elements of order and obliga-tory points of reference. The elements of order and r e s t r i c t i o n , repre-sented by the image of the male, reveal Bachmann's r e a l i z a t i o n that human society i s unable to function without at least some of the r e s t r i c t -ing factors which the male stands for. 127 B. The Male-Female Conflict The difference between the basic male and female image as they appear i n Ingeborg Bachmann's f i c t i o n has been investigated and d i s -cussed extensively above - the juxtaposition of reason and l o g i c versus emotion and feeling. I t was also noted that i n some cases women were attracted to or admired the male for these very q u a l i t i e s . They w i l l -ingly learn from male partners or induce them to apply their male talents to the world's problems. Cases i n point are Malina and Ivan i n the novel Malina. Both are admired by the narrator for their a b i l i t i e s to reason and* i n the case of Malina, for his a b i l i t y to plan and organize. The f i n a l section of Undine's monologue praising men for a l l their technical and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements was quoted e a r l i e r . On the other hand, the reader i s repeatedly confronted with strong attacks on these "male" characteristics and notes the frequent acclaim of the "female" values of emotion and anti-rationalism. Surveying Bachmann's writings with this i n mind, one detects a pattern that allows the conclusion that the female accepts, sometimes even welcomes, the application of these "male" a b i l i t i e s i n those areas where they are practicable and serve a business or s o c i a l function but that the male-female c o n f l i c t i s strongest when reason and l o g i c enter into the realm of interpersonal relations, when they are applied to the analysis of emotion and feeling. This c o n f l i c t i s developed i n one of 296 i t s most grotesque forms in the unfinished novel Der F a l l Franza as Franziska (Franza) r e f l e c t s about her unhappy marriage with Leopold Jordan, a very prominent Viennese psychiatrist, who has kept a case-history of his wife and has attempted to analyse and tabulate her 128 innermost feelings and emotions with s c i e n t i f i c precision. Even a kiss was cause enough to engage his a n a l y t i c a l mind: Das waren englische Kiisse. Jordan, der ohne Interpretation keinen Satz durchgehen l i e B , unterbrach si e , das i s t allerdings interessant, was du da sagst, englische Kiisse, das i s t eine Fehlleistung, denn du wirst gemeint haben angelische, und sie sagte h e f t i g , nein, aber nein, und er sagte, unterbrich mich b i t t e nicht immer, und er studierte das kleine Problem und analysierte ihre Kiisse, von der sprachlichen Seite her und dann von der Erlebnisseite, . . . Franza l i e f i sich, angestrengt zuhorend, analysieren und unterbrach ihn nicht mehr, bis sie ihre englischen Kiisse gewogen, zerlegt und p u l v e r i s i e r t , e i n g e t e i l t und untergebracht wuBte, sie waren nun sauberlich und s - t e r i l i s i e r t an den richtigen Platz i n ihrem Leben und mit dem richtigen Stellenwert gekommen.297 Franza f e l t that her whole l i f e was wrecked when she found out that her husband had used her as a test case and had noted down s c i e n t i f i c a l l y every feeling and emotion. This p o l a r i t y of the sexes seems to explain also the pattern of male-female relationship and interaction investigated e a r l i e r and i n d i -cated i n the graph i n Chapter IV. In the emotional areas i t i s usually the female that dominates and leads; i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l , professional and paternal situations i t i s the male from whom the action originates. It also appears that herein l i e s one reason for the many f a i l e d marriages and love a f f a i r s i n Bachmann's novels and stories. I t i s the different approach toward love, marriage and human relationship that each member brings into such a relationship. New i n this presentation of a bas i c a l l y " t r a d i t i o n a l " view of male-female relationship seems to be the fact that the two orientations f a i l to complement each other i n the important spheres of human relationships but rather are i n c o n f l i c t . In both novels, Malina and Der F a l l Franza, of the unfinished cycle Todesarten 129 i t i s the male nature and the ideas that i t represents that are respon-sib l e for the "death" of the heroine. This theme of the "male nature" i s closely connected with that of personal freedom which was discussed i n the previous chapter. Cate-gorization and analysis by their male counterparts has the effect of imprisoning, or suffocating Bachmann's female victims. Franza's remarks i n the "Jordanische Z e i t " chapter of the fragmentary novel Der F a l l Franza seem to substantiate t h i s : Ich glaube, das i s t es! Man y e r e i t e l t den anderen, lahmt ihn, man zwingt ihm sein Wesen ab, dann seine Gedanken, dann seine Gefuhle, dann bringt man ihn urn den Rest von Instinkt, von Selbsterhaltungstrieb, dann gibt man ihm einen T r i t t , wenn er erledigt i s t . Kein Vieh tut das, .298 The male, then, by his nature seems to be not only a r e s t r i c t i n g factor - but even a l e t h a l factor for the female. C. The Female as Victim Bachmann uses the word fascism repeatedly while describing male-female relationships. Besides the destruction of the female's freedom and i n d i v i -duality, besides the shattering of her naivete and her f a i t h i n the genuineness of emotion and feeling by analysing and examining them, 299 besides the symbolic murders that husbands commit on their wives, the reader of Bachmann's prose-fiction i s made aware of an element of sadism that the male displays i n his reactions'. Frequently the male appears to enjoy the destruction of the woman's dignity. Der F a l l Franza, is again a case i n point. Leopold Jordan appears to gain 130 personal s a t i s f a c t i o n by leaving his notes - the analysis of his wife's feelings - to be found by her: Dann wollte er also das, daB mir zwanzig oder dreiBig Jahre Zusammenleben in Triimmer gehen, i n solch einem Moment. Das wollte er. Verstehst du. Du sagst Faschismus, das i s t komisch ich habe das noch nie gehort als Wort fur ein privates Ver-halten, . . . Ja er i s t hose, auch wenn man heute nicht bose sagen darf, nur krank, . . . Wie furchtbar hat er mich gequalt, aber nicht spontan, oder nur selten, nein, mit Uberlegung, a l l e s war berechnet, Taktik, Taktik, wie kann man so rechnen?300 Repeatedly, we find the words calculation, t a c t i c s , analysis, intent, but also intelligence i n these accusations. The male nature i s e v i l (in Bachmann's view) not only because of i t s i n c l i n a t i o n to analyse fellow humans but because such analysis leads to manipulation. In her notes on "Otello" she emphasizes this when writing about the "negative-hero" Jago: . . . der negative Held, dessen Intelligenz und Grundlichkeit iiber die MaBen schrecklich sind. Nicht schurkisch, sondern schrecklich. Sein Credo . . . i s t das konsequenteste Credo, das es fur den konsequenten Morder gibt, also fur den, der Intelligenz hat. Er nimmt die Menschen, die fur ihn keine sind, sondern analysierbare Puppen, auseinander, er macht sie leiden und schreien und toten. Die anderen sind die Menschen, unzulanglich, mitleiderregend, krank, dumm, blind, aber Jago i s t erhaben i n seiner Furchtbarkeit, er versucht die anderen zutod. Die Menschen zutodzuversuchen, das i s t nicht schurkisch, sondern b e s t i a l i s c h , wenn das nicht ein zu gelinder Ausdruck ware. Es i s t unmenschlich. Man kann Menschen zutodbringen, aber nur ein Mensch kann das. Und Jago i s t das extremste Beispiel fur das was ein Mensch vermag. Das Geheul Otellos, das Sterben Desdemonas, die Demiitigungen und Leiden der anderen - das sind sein Gewinn. u x In Bachmann's world of the male-female c o n f l i c t , the female i s assigned the role of the victim. Her female characteristics protect her from becoming e v i l herself, although, at times, she does contract the "male disease". But the need for companionship and protection, sexual desires, and, most of a l l , the marital state - because here the p o s s i b i l i t y of 131 retreat i s reduced - place Bachmann's heroines again and again i n s i t u a -tions where they w i l l be victimized. By their nature then, Bachmann's women become victims of the male, by nature the males become - inten-t i o n a l l y or otherwise - the "executioners" of the female. Josef enter-tains such thoughts as he r e f l e c t s on his a f f a i r with Miranda i n Ihr gliicklichen Augen: Wer tut uns das. a l l e s an? Was tun wir einander an? Warum muB ich. das tun? und er mochte ja Miranda kiissen, aber er kann nicht, und so denkt er nur, es wird noch immer hingerichtet, es i s t eine Hinrichtung, weil a l l e s , was i c h tu, eine Untat i s t , die Taten sind eben Untaten.302 This condition would appear to be an underlying impulse behind the search of Bachmann's women for communication and meaningful relationships with other women as discussed i n Chapter IV. The devastating results which male action may have on a woman's l i f e would also explain the great prominence given to the male by Bachmann i n the l i v e s of her women char-acters. D. The "Sick" Male The thoughts we have just developed about the nature and function of the male-female c o n f l i c t i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n allow us to understand the frequent, very peculiar, remarks about the "male sickness," some of which were quoted i n the f i r s t part of this study. The "sick" male i s one of the concepts of Bachmann that appears to puzzle most readers. C r i t i c s appear to be content with pointing out this phenomenon without re l a t i n g i t to the overall concept of Bachmanri"s male-female characters. P. Hamm remarks: Obwohl Ingeborg Bachmann a l l e s andere als feministische Emanzipationsliteratur im Sinn hatte, spielen doch die 132 Manner i n ihrem Werk eine zumeist monstrose Rolle, sie sind unheilbar klinische F a l l e , Schlager oder Morder. Das beginnt mit dem Kind i n der Erzahlung " A l l e s " , das schon ein kleiner Morder i s t , und mit der Erinnerung an den Schulbuben, i n "Malina", der dem kleinen Madchen zuruft: "Du, du da, komm her, i c h geb d i r etwas", und der dann der in wilder Freude auf ihn Zulaufenden die Hand ins Gesicht klatscht: "Da, du, j e t z t hast du es!" Und das setzt sich fort i n den Angsttraumen vom Vater, der schon die Frage danach, warum er schlagt, als Anlafi fiir neue Schlage nimmt, dem die Ich-Erzahlerin i n "Malina", der offenbar nur die Identifikation mit dem Aggressor b l e i b t , den furchtbaren Satz zuruft: "Ich hasse dich mehr a l s mein Leben!", und den sie s c h l i e f i l i c h als ihren Mc5rder i d e n t i f i z i e r t . 3 0 3 Analysing the r e s u l t s of the section "men as agents of develop-ment" i t appears that i n general men are responsible for the d i s i l l u -sionment of the female, for the destruction of her idealism, while at the same time they plant the seeds of a new sense of realism. It appears that Bachmann assigns to the male a role similar to that of Satan i n the Garden of Eden, whereby the s p e c i f i c a l l y "male" way of thought takes over the function of "Knowledge." Bachmann repeatedly refers to the "male-disease" as being contagious for the woman. It i s this function i n par-t i c u l a r that causes Bachmann frequently to picture the male as e v i l and the consequences for human relationship and development seem to be Bachmann's j u s t i f i c a t i o n for so doing. Another aspect of the "male-sickness" i s clea r l y pointed out by the first-person narrator i n Malina and has been discussed above. It i s the habit of the male to treat a l l women alike because he has made for himself a c oncept of "the woman," a habit that i s devastating to his temporary friend as well as to his l i f e l o n g wife. It i s destructive to the former because she becomes aware of being treated according to norms 133 which apply to many others; to the l a t t e r because she has become an object of routine: . . . die ganze Einstellung des Mannes einer Frau gegemiber i s t krankhaft, obendrein ganz ei n z i g a r t i g krankhaft, so dafi man die Manner von ihren Krankheiten gar nie mehr wird befreien konnen. . . . ein Mann zum Beis p i e l beifit mich ins Ohrlappchen, aber nicht weil es mein Ohrlappchen i s t oder weil er, vernarrt i n das Ohrlappchen, unBedingt hineinbeifien muB, sondern er beifit, weil er a l l e anderen Frauen auch i n die Ohrlappchen gebissen hat, i n kleine oder grofiere, i n rotblaue, i n blasse i n fiihllose, i n gefuhlvolle, es i s t v o l l i g gleich, was die Ohrlappchen dazu meinen. Du [Malina] muflt zugeben, dafi das ein folgenreicher Zwang i s t , wenn man sich, ausgeriistet mit einem mehr oder weniger grossen Wissen und einer i n jedem F a l l geringen Anwendungsmoglichkeit dieses Wissens, auf eine Frau stiirzen mufl, womoglich jahrelang, einmal, das geht j a noch, einmal halt das ja jede aus. Das erklart auch einen insgeheimen dumpfen Verdacht der Manner, denn sie konnen sich nicht eigent-l i c h vorstellen, dafi eine Frau sich n a t i i r l i c h ganz anders ver-halten mufi mit einem kranken Mann, weil ihm die Verschieden-heiten nur ganz oberflachlich und aufierlich vorschweben, eben diejenigen, die von Mund zu Mund gehen oder die von der Wissen-schaft i n ein verschlimmerndes falsches Licht geruckt werden. This sickness, given so much prominence by Bachmann, appears to be not only the cliche image of the woman that the man has adopted and according to which he treats women-every woman, but also the source of his lack of a b i l i t y and desire to explore and to treat his female part-ner as an individual. I t seems that i n this case, too, a " t y p i c a l " female behaviour characteristic - the desire to be "the only one" - i s defended by Bachmann and related to the search for personal identity and ind i v i d u a l i t y . Bachmann's narrator concludes the argument that since the woman does not share the attitude of the male, male-female r e l a t i o n -ships cause her harm and unhappiness: " . . . Das Ungliick verdoppelt, 305 verdreifacht, verhundertfacht sich mit der Zeit obendrein." In conclusion, i t seems clear that Bachmann, sees the whole 134 male-female problem not only from a sex-specific point of view but also within a value system in which the female i s assigned a position superior to that of the male. The male appears to be marked by a kind of " o r i g i n a l s i n " and, by reason of the inescapable attraction which she feels for him, he i s able to " i n f e c t " her or worse, commit "symbolic murder" d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y by causing the female's suicide. Leo Jordan i n Der F a l l Franza, Malina i n Malina, and Marek i n Requiem fiir Fanny Goldmann are the most developed examples. CHAPTER IX AN ANALYSIS OP THE FUNCTION AND INTENT OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN A. Main Purpose Ingeborg Bachmann's female characters appear as working model images for a renewed or better form of human existence, models for a better man, displaying or at least searching for a mode of behaviour and thought which Bachmann considers largely to have been l o s t by man i n contemporary society and a model on which she places a great value. In this context her women may be seen as a n t i - , counter-, or alternative images to twentieth-century-man, whom she depicts largely i n the guise of the male protagonists to her female characters. Her male protagonists display a l l the - i n Bachmann's view - negative and unsatisfactory behavioural characteristics and attitudes of our society: scepticism and cynicism, materialism, pure r a t i o n a l i t y and calculation, s e l f i s h -3 06 ness and egotism; i n summary: a view of the world that i s limited to a perspective of efficiency and r a t i o n a l i t y . The uniqueness, however, of Bachmann's development of this theme i s i t s integration with a sex-specific perspective, with a male-female polarity. Considering the material presented i n the previous chapters, i t certainly would not appear to be either coincidence or merely a case of "sex s o l i d a r i t y , " that Ingeborg Bachmann almost always chooses the female to be the vehicle for such superior character t r a i t s and i d e a l i s t i c 135 136 s t r i v i n g . In Bachmann's view, which as we have shown places great value on so-called " t r a d i t i o n a l " female cha r a c t e r i s t i c s , the woman i s predes-tined, because of her nature, to f u l f i l best this task of providing examples of alternatives, of alternative ways of l i v i n g , feeling, lov-ing, suffering, experiencing happiness, thinking, comprehending, acting; of s t r i v i n g for freedom and f u l l " r e a l i z a t i o n . " I t i s to be noted, however, that these " t y p i c a l l y female" char-a c t e r i s t i c s are viewed from a special perspective: they are not seen as complementary or even subservient to the male nature, but as opposed, even superior to i t , or - i n a wider sense - as an alternative to an unsuccessful, male-dominated world. They are not seen more or less i n a soci o l o g i c a l l i g h t , but are presented i n a context of extreme i n d i v i -dualism. Lastly, i t should be added that most of those characteristics and modes of behaviour retained were - as shown i n the previous chapters - modified, merged with new concepts, and f i l l e d with new meanings: thus, the yearning for love has l o s t much of i t s b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l emphasis and gained a new i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and emotional dimension; the desire for beauty has lost much of i t s a i r of vanity and obligation to a male sense of pleasure but has found new value as s e l f - c r e a t i v e expres-sion. Bachmann, herself, remarks on the point of " t r a d i t i o n a l " attitudes: Zeitlos f r e i l i c h sind nur die Bilder. Das Denken, der Zeit verhaftet, v e r f a l l t auch wieder der Zeit. Aber weil es ver-£311t, eben deshalb, mu6 unser Denken neu,sein, wenn es echt sein und etwas bewirken w i l l . Es wird uns nicht e i n f a l i e n , uns an die Ideenwelt der Klassiker zu klammern oder an die einer anderen Epoche, da sie nicht mehr fiir uns maftgeblich sein kann; unsere Wirklichkeit, unsere Streite sind andere geworden. Wie strahlend auch einzelne Gedanken aus friiherer 137 Zeit auf uns kommen - wenn wir sie zu Zeugen rufen, so tun wir es zur Unterstiitzung unserer Gedanken heute. It i s to some extent because of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " elements which are so apparent i n her women that some c r i t i c s dismiss this image i n the larger context of c r i t i c i s m of her prose as conservative, old fashioned and outmoded; and refuse to recognize the change - s l i g h t as i t may f r e -quently appear - that these aspects have undergone. I t i s also apparent that Bachmann's image of the female i s an evolutionary rather than a revolutionary one. By building on so-called " t r a d i t i o n a l " values, Bachmann avoids reducing her women to mere symbols for a c r i s i s i n the values of -modern society. Her image of the female i s based s o l i d l y on human and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c values, realized i n some cases, remaining Utopian i n others, but nonetheless worth s t r i v i n g for. Bachmann's women bear no resemblance to Benn's "Verlorenes Ich". Though they do not tread the secure ground of their Romantic and i d e a l i s t i c predecessors, they carry on i n their search for personal freedom and the real i z a t i o n of their inner selves and never lose hope of one day being able to accomplish the Grenziibertritt. It seems that this i s possibly the main j u s t i f i c a t i o n which Ingeborg Bachmann would have presented for her female characters. We want to give special attention to this didactic aspect before going on to the l i t e r a r y and social aspects of the image. B. The Didactic Intent There would appear to be a profound didactic and psychothera-peutic element i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n . She presents females i n sit u a -tions which encourage the characters to analyse and to r e f l e c t on their 138 situation. The sophistication of Bachmann's method here l i e s i n her a b i l i t y to depict a multitude of d i f f i c u l t i e s and complications that confront women in their search for freedom and ident i t y . Bachmann's women have to suffer and to pay emotionally for their quest for personal freedom. It seems that for Bachmann the c o n f l i c t s are deepened i n the case of women because of their more sensitive psychic make-up. Thus, for instance, i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan the c o n f l i c t , which confronts both Jennifer as well as Jan, destroys Jennifer but not him. In areas other than that of love the suffering becomes less acute and the solutions are closer at hand because the c o n f l i c t s are less intense. This i s the case with Charlotte i n Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha. In not every case, however, i s this drive for individualism combined with suffering, as the character of Gerda with her particular concept of truth proves - a truth that constantly changes according to each s i t u a -tion - (in Ein Wildermuth). As a matter of fact her individual concept of truth makes her l i f e easier and puts her i n a position superior to that of her husband who comes close to having a breakdown in his search for Truth. But i n no case does Bachmann l e t her women submit to the obstacles i n their way or give up their search for freedom and identity; not even Jennifer, who i s l i t e r a l l y annihilated by the intensity of her personal c o n f l i c t s . One conclusion which could be drawn i s that the purpose of this aspect of Bachmann's image of the women i s to give a r e a l i s t i c depiction of the d i f f i c u l t i e s , the s a c r i f i c e s , the personal problems involved i n a person's and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n a woman's search for freedom and identity, rather than to foster an attitude of resignation and d i s i l l u s i o n . 139 Secondly, besides the r e a l i s t i c development of much of the per-sonal problems involved with the quest, Bachmann attempts to find s a t i s -factory solutions. Bachmann l e t s her characters search r e a l i s t i c a l l y for solutions, even compromises, and l e t s them find them on occasion. Despite the charge of c r i t i c s of utopianism or of trying to reconcile the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , for which i n a way Bachmann herself contributed much support through her non—literary writings and interviews, there i s much 308 evidence for more than just a " s t r i v i n g for Utopia." Thus, Charlotte t r i e s various approaches to reach her goal of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n ; Elisabeth and Nadja both attempt with varying degrees of success to reach a s a t i s -factory state of independence, without having to forego a l l interpersonal relationships. The narrator i n Malina seems to approach most closely an ideal situation by retaining lover and husband, withholding a f i n a l commitment to either. A l l this i s seen as strengthening the case for a didactic intent i n the Bachmann image of woman, of her female characters as role-models or experimental images, as Entwiirfe. Bachmann repeatedly speaks i n her l i t e r a r y essays of the models, of the Entwiirfe that the writer ought to offer. The didactic aspect of art i s c l e a r l y expressed by Bachmann i n her "Frankfurt Lectures": . . . Was aber moglich i s t , i n der Tat, i s t Veranderung. Und die verandernde Wirkung, die von neuen Werken ausgeht, erzieht uns zu neuer Wahrnehmung, neuem Gefiihl, neuem Bewufitsein. Wenn sie eine neue Moglichkeit e r g r e i f t , gibt die Kunst die Moglichkeit zu erfahren, wo wir stehen oder wo wir stehen sollten, wie es mit uns b e s t e l l t i s t und wie es mit uns b e s t e l l t sein s o l l t e . Denn ihre Entwiirf e *entstehen nicht im luftleeren Raum.309 140 C. The Literary Aspect of the Image of the Woman As was pointed out i n the previous chapters, the main l i t e r a r y theme of Bachmann's image of the woman i s the quest for a truly i n d i v i -dual existence. Surveying the impressive ranks of great names who have engaged i n these same issues, one i s not tempted to assign novelty to the theme i t s e l f . The part i c u l a r merit of Bachmann, however - and presum-ably her intent - must be seen i n the fact that she presents the themes of freedom and individualism predominantly under the aspect of woman and her human environment; the female and her world versus the male and his world. This gives the theme a very particular dimension, especially since Ingeborg Bachmann's women i n no way correspond to the often rather crude and polemic images found i n the l i t e r a t u r e of emancipation. They have their kin rather i n the more feminine images of the female. Another important feature of Bachmann's image of the female i s i t s realism. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n r e l a t i o n to the interdepend-ence of the inner and outer world. Frequently theories have been advanced that most of the c o n f l i c t s developed by Bachmann r e a l l y take place i n an inner world, i n a Weitinnenraum, and have to be seen exclusively i n the psychic realm (cf. Malina). This argument i s not convincing for two reasons. F i r s t l y , Bachman herself repeatedly and outspokenly distanced herself from what she called German metaphysicism: . . . Ungeheuer wichtig war fur mich dann.ein anderer Einflufi: die Wiener Schule. Man hat schon immer i n Wien einen scharfen Kampf gegen die deutsche Metaphysik gefiihrt: Nieder mit der deutschen Metaphysik, die unser Ungliick i s t . ^ l O In the same interview Bachmann speaks pointedly of the "Verfiihrung . . . zum deutschen Irrationaldenken . . . " The c l a r i t y of Bachmann's 141 statements on this topic make the chance of coded meanings and a "deeper" sense In her prose writings very unlikely. Inner processes are presented as such, as in the case of "The Third Man," in the second chapter of Malina. With a writer l i k e Bachmann, who places so much value on the exact relationship between thought and language, and a very precise language at that, there i s l i t t l e room l e f t for speculative interpreta-tion. A second argument against the "inner world theory" i s the devel-opment of her female characters. This development exhibits an intense 311 interdependence between the physical and the psychic realm. This i s pa r t i c u l a r l y the case with Bachmann's main theme of freedom and s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n . Evidence has been supplied i n the previous chapters that the inner feeling of being free i s always accompanied by a consciousness of s p a t i a l separation - small as i t may sometimes be i n actu a l i t y - of the female character from her environment. A l l of Bachmann's women need physical and s p a t i a l freedom as a prerequisite to any degree of inner freedom. Bachmann appears to postulate a thesis of interdependence between the physical and psychic situation of an individual. Also, she clearly speaks of the deformation of the narrator's mind and body i n Malina. She must, therefore, expect to be taken l i t e r a l l y whenever she develops any "outer" c o n f l i c t s . This does not deny or invalidate the fact that Bachmann makes use of symbols and metaphors, that she allows much, space to the unreal and to the dream-world. Another point that i s of interest i n this context i s the unity of Bachmann's image of the woman. Analysing the facts and observations presented i n this study, i t appears that there are great s i m i l a r i t i e s 142 between the various female characters i n background, personal data, youthful experience, and environment: there i s much congruency. The further the development of the individual woman i s traced, however, the more d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s that accumulate. We may conclude that Bachmann's intent was rather to show individual responses and reactions to similar problems and challenges than to develop completely unrelated female characterizations. Keeping this i n mind, the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of responses and reactions becomes even more s i g n i f i c a n t . It i s the main theme of freedom and individualism that t i e s the various individual images toge-ther and allows us to speak of the image of the woman, a common image i n the sense of si m i l a r l y motivated responses to a common challenge. Any author's attempt to develop a c o l l e c t i v e image would, i n Bachmann's view, stereotype the individual. A discussion of the l i t e r a r y aspect of Bachmann's image of the woman would be incomplete without a f i n a l look at the poetic form of the authoress' presentation. The overt nature of Bachmann's rhetoric, imagery, and symbolism i n her prose, often the target of negative c r i t i -cism as opposed to the positive response to her poetry, can, we believe, he defended: Bachmann's "poetic" imagery and dict i o n actively support her main theme of the woman and her search for personal freedom and i n d i -vidualism. The extensive symbolic development of the male as opposed to the female has been discussed i n previous chapters. Of the many addi-ti o n a l motifs that have only been touched upon above, the most frequently recurring i s water. Water and ocean were found to be the most consistently used meta-phors. They are cle a r l y used to represent the image of freedom. I t 143 seems that Bachmann selected this particular substance, water, because of i t s amorphous-quality, because i t f a c i l i t a t e s three dimensional, unhindered movement (this figurative picture of freedom was used exten-sivel y i n the radio-play Ein Geschaft mit Traumen in the underwater scene during the third dream), and f i n a l l y , because of the image of limitlessness that i s usually associated with the ocean. A l l this made i t very suitable for use in the presentation of her v i s i o n of freedom. There i s hardly a single story or radio-play where water i s not assigned this role and only few heroines who do not at one time or another immerse themselves i n i t . Water i s Bachmann's major symbol for freedom and the most extensively used metaphor i n her narrative prose. This basic symbolic meaning of water i s enhanced by Bachmann's persistent use of s o l i d ground as an a n t i t h e t i c a l image representing the r i g i d (and secure) 312 world of the male. A most effective example of this use o-f water imagery i n conjunction with i t s antithesis, terra firma, occurs i n Undine geht, i n one of those exceptional moments when Undine feels herself on the verge of successfully accomplishing the Grenziibertritt with a male lover: Dann sind a l l e Wasser iiber die Ufer getreten, die Fliisse haben sich erhoben, die Seerosen sind gleich hundertweis erbliiht und ertrunken, und das Meer war ein machtvoller Seufzer, es schlug, schlug und rannte und r o l l t e gegen die Erde an, daB seine Lefzen t r i e f t e n von weiBem Schaum.^l^ D. A Social Intent? Although Bachmann seems nowhere to formulate clear social theses, or to express sympathy with s o c i a l i s t ideologies, one may speculate about the social theme present in the development of her image of the 144 woman. In this essay "Das Ungliick und die Gottesliebe - Der Weg Simone Weils" Bachmann points to Simone Weil's rejection of Taylorism, the Ford System or any other r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of human work. She r e c a l l s Weil's opposition to the so-called psychotechnic, the time studies of assemblyline work and c a l l s this the perfection of slavery: Weil: "In alien anderen Formen der Sklaverei l i e g t die Sklaverei i n den Umstanden. Nur hier wird sie i n die Arbeit selbst getragen." Simone Weil bekampft darum auch he f t i g die Anwendung der Psychotechnik - die sich damals iibrigens noch i n einem Anfangszustand befand - und meinte, dafi unter der Diktatur ihrer Berechnungen, etwa iiber einsetzende Ermiidung, Abnehmen der Aufmerksamkeit nach soundsoviel Arbeitsstunden usw., die Versklavung perfekt werde.314 The postulate: " a n a l y t i c a l , rational thought = negative r e s u l t s " appears to apply once again. If we are correct i n applying these ideas to Bachmann's male-female thesis, then we would certainly have to admit at least a degree of socia l intent. This idea would also help to explain Bachmann's occasional reference to the male world and i t s attitudes as f a s c i s t . E. The Int e l l e c t u a l Design of Bachmann's Image of the Woman It remains to take a f i n a l look at the overall i n t e l l e c t u a l design of her image of the woman as i t emerges from this study. Bachmann herself does not offer much more than a casual remark i n answer to a question of K. Sauerland about the purpose of her choice of women as leading characters: . . . und mir i s t eingefallen, dafi friiher immer die groBen S c h r i f t s t e l l e r , . . . grofien Wert darauf gelegt haben, . . . die Mores einer Zeit durch eine Reihe von Frauenportrats zu zeigen. Bei mir stehen zwar die Frauen im Mittelpunkt, aber es i s t nicht unwichtig, was rundherum i s t , ihre Beziehungen zu ihrer Arbeit, zu ihren Mannern.315 145 She also offers the rather vague formula of the "Wledersplel des Unmoglichen mit dem Moglichen". However, reviewing and summarizing the observations and conclusions advanced i n the previous chapters, we see a complex conflict-laden image taking on f i n a l contours. Departing from a " t r a d i t i o n a l " male and female role and identity structure, Bachmann's women have evolved into a state of modified " t r a d i -t i o n a l " substance, influenced by and a l l i e d with the new components of an urge for freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . This development has upset the or i g i n a l complementation and balance of the male and female sex-specific i d e n t i t i e s and has led to a very problematic relationship between them. The c o n f l i c t s arise from the fact that the male partner has largely retained his o r i g i n a l condition, whereas the female has evolved. (Because " t r a d i t i o n a l " female behaviour forms such as emotionalism and thought pat-terns such as i r r a t i o n a l i t y had been upgraded into positive and desirable q u a l i t i e s , much of their o r i g i n a l l y harmonious relationship with their male opposites has been destroyed.) The added desire of the woman for freedom and in d i v i d u a l i t y has int e n s i f i e d this c o n f l i c t u n t i l there are now two worlds i n opposition. We can, however, also observe the continued existence of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " female image as represented, for instance, by the Menschenfrauen i n Undine geht or the "common" women as i n Ein Requiem fur Fanny Goldmann. No noticeable disharmony exists between them and their male partners. Continuing our analysis of the essence of Bachmann's heroines, we found, a complex structure of opposing drives and disagreeing elements. On one side there was s t i l l the strong longing for love, affection, paternalism, and protection which now clashed with the urge for freedom and the development of the self on the 146 other. In the absence of s i m i l a r l y evolved male partners, Bachmann's heroines are confronted with extremely d i f f i c u l t relationships with the male. Since Bachmann's women are unable to r e s i s t for very long their attraction to men, because of their retention of much of their o r i g i n a l sex-typed longings and because of their l i b i d o , they enter into relationships with men which turn out at best to be unsatisfactory and at worst to end with the destruction of the female's inner existence. Hence, Bachmann's heroines place their hope in the possible escape from this condition, the Grenzubertritt, an existence which i s free of these limitations, c o n f l i c t s and r e s t r i c t i o n s . t GRENZUBERTRITT OR DEATH t DEADLY CONFLICT' ATTRACTION CONFLICT, COMPLEMENTING gjj VALUES » M FREEDOM INDEPENDENCE PART IV. CONCLUSION CHAPTER X A SUMMARY DISCUSSION OF MAJOR INTERPRETATIONS After having presented various interpretations to which our analyses have led, we w i l l compare them now to those which deal with i d e n t i c a l or similar areas i n Bachmann research. Noted c r i t i c s such as H. Pausch,^"^ E. S u m m e r f i e l d , S . Weigel,^"^ and M. Jurgensen^"'"^ not only offer views on the nature of Bachmann's heroines but also discuss other aspects of the Todesarten novels. An evaluation of Pausch's excellent analysis of Bachmann's image of the woman must, i n order to be f a i r , consider the fact that i t appeared before the publication of the fragments of two of the Todesarten novels and that i t , therefore, argues from a more limited point of view. Nonetheless, Pausch's discussion of the female characters i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n i s so substantial that i t merits consideration. Pausch's f i r s t thesis rests on the premise that s o c i a l convention and role ethics subjugate Bachmann's heroines and pri v i l e g e the male. According to him, the women i n Simultan reject and break free of their " t r a d i t i o n a l " role image: In den fiinf Erzahlungen des Bandes Simultan wird der Ausbruch aus der trad i t i o n e l l e n Rollenethik der Frau i n der Gesellschaft nicht mehr wie in Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha philosophierend untermauert. . . . Hier endlich werden die Moglichkeiten einer neuen S i t t l i c h k e i t p r a k t i z i e r t . Abgesehen von Frau Jordan . . . sind fiir a l l e Hauptpersonen SelbstbewuStsein und Unabhangigkeit Grundverhalten.320 147 148 Pausch then explains the absence of successful marriages i n the Simultan stories by blaming the men's ignorance of the woman's right to independence and he credits the women with a rebellious claim to the privileges of a man's world: In einer Welt, i n der der Mann das Recht auf die Eigenstandigkeit der Frau noch nicht begrlffen hat, haben auch Ehen keinen Sinn mehr, . . . In diesen Erzahlungen werden die von der Welt des Mannes abonnierten P r i v i l e g l e n "simultan", also von beiden Geschlechtern g l e l c h z e i t i g beansprucht. Daher pas sen zu der Slmultandolmetscherln Nadja i n der Titelerzahlung Simultan die Eigenschaften eines vom Beruf besessenen Mannes recht gut.321 Here, Pausch's interpretation of s o c i a l convention and " t r a d i t i o n a l " role images entrapping the woman, espouses the kind of emancipatory - even feminist - lines of thought which we have consistently rejected. Pausch's interpretation ignores, for instance, the c r i t i c a l statements made by Nadja i n "Simultan" - some of which we have quoted e a r l i e r -about such "male" a c t i v i t i e s as research and administration. • Although Pausch directs attention quite r i g h t l y to the heroine's desire for in d i v i d u a l i t y , h i s l i n e of approach leads him to underestimate the deeper substance of Bachmann's male-female antagonism. By tracing the co n f l i c t to a denial of self-development, to a s t r a i t jacket of "Rollenzwang" and "Sittlichkeitsdenken" that i s enforced by the male in a male-dominated society, to a prefabricated role from which Bachmann's females try to escape, Pausch reduces the issue largely to one of s o c i a l and sexual emancipation. In contrast to this , we have tried to show that there exists a basic incompatabilify between the male's and the female's world and an antagonistic form of existence that transcends emancipatory s o c i a l issues. Bachmann's heroines can not gain freedom 149 by attaining the privileges of the male. Furthermore, by rejecting the existence of " t r a d i t i o n a l " elements i n Bachmann's image of the female Pausch i s unable to expose the inner dilemma of these women: Im Werk von Ingeborg Bachmann endlich begegnen wir einem Frauentypus . . . auf den die t r a d i t i o n e l l e n R o l l e n l e i t b i l d e r nicht mehr anwendbar sind. Hier werden die . . .[traditionellen] Kategorien der Rollenethik der Frau t o t a l negiert und durch-brochen.322 As a consequence, he f a i l s to explain the seemingly contradictory behaviour of Bachmann's women as i n the case of Undine who repeatedly returns with eager desire to the world of the male which she has indicted so harshly: Trotz ihrer Scharfsieht fur die Logik des Mannes, die Undine heftig ablehnt, i s t sie eine Art tragisches Wesen, denn nach der Abrechnung bleibt ihr nur vorbehalten, die gleichen Fehler erneut zu begehen. "Komm", so ric h t e t sich abschlieBend wieder ihr Ruf an die Menschen, "nur einmal. Komm."323 Pausch's second and more detailed interpretation deals with Bachmann's novel Malina. He conceives Malina and the narrator as two ant i t h e t i c a l parts of one person (the "epic I"). These parts are unable to coexist because external moral codes favour Malina but cause the disintegration of the narrator: Diese Bi p o l a r i t a t aber wird von der "Aufienwelt", von dem herrschenden Moralsystem zugunsten der Entscheidung fiir eine Seite unterdruckt. Und eben daran geht auch das Ich in Malina, wo der Vorstofi gewagt wird,zugrunde.324 Pausch continues by describing the narrator and - i n a wider context -Bachmann's heroines i n general as characters of hypersensibility with-drawing into an inner world, as characters who question their own existence and admit to a "Verhaltensschwache". Although, Pausch points quite correctly to the outside forces acting upon the narrator i n 150 Malina, which he terms "herrschende Moralsysteme" and which we have defined as the male world, we disagree substantially with the characteristics he accredits the narrator and the dynamics of the interaction of the characters. We have e a r l i e r t r i e d to show the great value Bachmann attaches to the woman's ways of perceiving and existing i n contrast to the man's. Pausch's view of the narrator ("Der hypersensiblen Erzahlerin i s t AuBenwelt nicht nur gegenstandslos geworden, sondern unertraglich, 325 und das seit der Bekanntschaft mit Ivan." ) appears to contradict substantially the narrator's many statements about the re-generation of her self brought about by Ivan which enables her: " . . . mit den ersten 326 Worten dieser Welt wieder die Ehre zu erweisen, . . . " and to reassert her outer existence: "Endlich gehe ich auch i n meinem Fl e i s c h herum, mit dem Korper, der mir durch eine Verachtung fremd geworden i s t , 327 . . ." Furthermore, Pausch's interpretation of the narrator's character seems to contradict his e a r l i e r view of the leading females in .Bachmann's stories: "Abgesehen von Frau Jordan . . . sind fur a l l e Hauptpersonen 328 Selbstbewufltsein und Unabhangigkeit Grundverhalten." Although one might argue here that these women act along the lines of the narrator's Malina part, i t seems to us that such an argument would be rather contrived. We f e e l that our own approach i s a more consistent analysis of a l l of Bachmann's heroines. It may be added that Pausch's analysis of a "Verhaltensschwache" on the part of the narrator i n Malina shows lines of analogy to Jordan's analysis of Franza. There, Bachmann t r i e s to show that Franza's "abnormal" behaviour - as Jordan sees i t - i s caused by Jordan himself as one of the means by which he " k i l l s " Franza. Likewise the narrator's progressively s o l i p s i s t i c behaviour, caused by 151 fear just as i n Franza's case, must be seen as induced by Malina and foreshadowing her murder. Furthermore, much of Pausch's evidence to prove the "Verhaltensschwache" of the narrator, such as rejection of the "verordnete Denken", of planning, of regular useful a c t i v i t y , of administration and bureaucracy, we have e a r l i e r shown to be part of the v i s i o n of Bachmann's heroines: a v i s i o n of a better world based on individual freedom and an existence without pre-defined behaviour and male-dominated goals. In short, Pausch blames the murder on the victim rather than on Malina and the world of the male. The narrator i s k i l l e d because she does not know how to survive. Pausch counterbalances his concept of a weak and introverted narrator with that of a strong, supportive Malina and, going beyond thi s , he sees Malina "nicht nur als Gegensatz, sondern als integraler T e i l des 329 epischen Ichs". As evidence, he points to the many passages on the "Doppelleben" and to the important statement of the narrator: "Ich bin 330 auch Malinas Geschopf." It would lead us astray to enter here into a discussion on structural issues. We have taken - contrary to most c r i t i c s - what we hope to be a more perceptive approach. In our view, Bachmann, i n this passage, did not imply a double identity between Malina and the narrator but shows the gradual dis t o r t i o n of part of the narrator's s e l f by Malina. She also shows the dichotomy between the narrator's true self and Malina's image of the narrator's s e l f , his "creature" which i n important aspects equals Ivan's "creature" as both have their origin i n the man's image of the woman. Using two different lovers, Malina and Ivan, Bachmann demonstrates the c o n f l i c t s within a woman who i s equally attracted by a benign, more selfpreserving 152 partnership and a submissive, ultimately selfdestructive relationship. It i s the narrator i n Malina who exhibits the tragic nature of Bachmann' heroines most impressively. A more detailed interpretation of Malina than Pausch's i s offere by El l e n Summerfield. Approaching the problem of r e l a t i n g the main characters through the concept of the "aufgeloste Romanfigur" she argues Indem Bachmann durch die Darstellung der aufgelosten Figur ihre Frauenfigur, die Hauptgestalt und Erzahlerin des Romans, mit den Personen ihrer Umwelt verschrankt, schafft sie ein in der deutschen Literatur bisher einmaliges B i l d des modernen Frauenbe-wufltseins. . . . Am Beispiel ihrer f i k t i v e n Erzahlerin, . . . s t e l l t Bachmann die menschliche Situation einer runden, v i e l s e i t i g entfalteten Frauenpersonlichkeit dar, die sich gegen Unterdriickung und Unterschatzung auflehnt und sich als Einzelperson im "Krieg" mit der Tradition befindet. Eine Losung ihrer Problematik i s t der Romandarstellung nach nicht moglich.331 Proceeding further than Pausch, Summerfield interprets Malina as an element of male characteristics within the narrator: Geht man davon aus, daB Malina ein T e i l der Ich-Figur i s t , k l a r t sich i n h a l t l i c h vieles auf. Zunachst laBt sich die Zeit der Begegnung ganz anders verstehen: die Begegnungen st e l l e n dar, daB ein anderer T e i l ihres Selbst sich ent-wickelt und behauptet. Vernunft, Selbstandigkeit und Sachlichkeit werden bei dieser Frau erst im Lauf der Jahre erworben, bis sie zum starken, permanenten T e i l ihres Wesens werden.332 At the same time, she retains him also as an independent subject by means of the concept of the "aufgeloste Figur" which she derives from the thesis that there can not be a separation of inner and outer existence: "Malinas Existenz als T e i l der Hauptfigur schlieBt jedoch 333 nicht aus, daB er auch als unabhangiger Mensch zu betrachten i s t . " With the aid of the "aufgeloste Romanfigur" the "murder" can then be seen as a withdrawal and loss of the narrator's feminine layer - a very 153 " t r a d i t i o n a l " layer of "Hingabebereitschaft, Liebenswiirdigkeit und H i l f s b e r e i t s c h a f t " - and as an emerging of Malina within her. His expansion is necessary for her survival. Durch die Risse und Sprunge und endlich das Verschwinden in der Wand wird b i l d l i c h dargestellt, was i n dieser Person vorgeht. Ihr Ich-Teil, der an Ivan gebunden i s t , zieht sich zuriick, laBt sich verschwinden. Die Malina-Seite ihrer ^ Personlichkeit b r e i t e t sich aus und herrscht iiber die Person. However, by introverting the c o n f l i c t and murder i n this manner, Summerfield dismantles the element of force, of intrusion into, and the destruction of, the narrator's identity, a l l implied in Malina and the other Todesarten novels. In other words, the meaning of murder i s l o s t . HeiBenbiittel, whose position is more extreme than that of Summerfield, (he assumes an inner world only) asks quite r i g h t l y : "Aber wer hat gemordet? . . . Wenn Subjektivitat s t i r b t , abstirbt, was 335 i s t das Objektive, das fiir dies Absterben verantwortlich sein kann?" This view becomes even more problematic when Summerfield, very much l i k e Pausch, attaches rather positive characteristics and values to the narrator's Malina part. Malina, then, i s seen as the "ausgleichende, erganzende, vorsichtige, niichterne, unabhangige" part of the narrator: "Er i s t die rationale, lebensfahige, selbstandige 336 Seite ihrer Person." As a consequence, Summerfield appears to have d i f f i c u l t y i n rel a t i n g this positive aspect of Malina which i s responsible for the narrator's survival to the actual murder: "DaB Malina die Fuhrung iibernimmt, i s t keine positive Losung, sondern wird als ein 337 'Sterben' in Malina und als Mord bezeichnet." This and the diminuation of Malina as an active agent have caused Summerfield to arrive at a much less definite conclusion about the murder and murderer than we have: 154 Die Ich-Figur lebt so lange i n der Umgebung von Mordern, es i s t i hr so v i e l Unmenschliches angetan worden, daB der Mord am Ende nicht als einzelne Gewalttat zu verstehen i s t , sondern als Ausdruck des Brutalen und Todlichen i n den menschlichen Beziehungen. . . . Es i s t kein konkreter Mord der i n Malina dargestellt wird. Es geht um die Art, einen anderen zu behandeln, so mit ihm umzugehen, daB es s c h l i e B l i c h sein Ende bedeutet. Mord und Selbstmord sind beide darin enthalten.338 Similarly, Ivan i s interpreted i n substance as the narrator's "Liebesprinzip" and as her "Anlage zur Liebe und Hingabe". Although Summerfield quite r i g h t l y points to the restraining effect of Ivan on the narrator's s e l f ("Er erkennt die Individualitat der Ich-Figur nicht 339 an, sondern zwingt sie in eine einseitige Rolle." ) and assigns him a role i n the murder ("Ivan i s t j a ihr Geliebter, aber im gewissen 340 Sinne i s t er auch ihr Morder." ), she essentially attributes the breakdown of the Ivan-narrator relationship to disappointed love followed by the narrator's increasing reliance on her sober and r e a l i s t i c Malina part. Thus, by identifying Malina and Ivan at least p a r t i a l l y with the "Ich" character, Summerfield also erodes Bachmann's concept of the murder of the female. Summerfield leaves l i t t l e room for any substantial "Ich" part of the narrator which - as we have shown above - has been extensively developed by Bachmann herself. One needs only r e c a l l i n this context the narrator's answers i n the Miihlbauer interview. Throughout the novel the narrator develops an individual substance independent of Malina and Ivan. We have directed attention e a r l i e r to the symbolism of the narrator's dressing herself and applying extensive make-up under the theme "eine Frau i s t zu erschaffen." She accounts: 155 Ich mochte aber beim Anprobieren Ivan nicht hier haben, Malina schon gar nicht, i c h kann nur, weil Malina nicht da i s t , oft in den Spiegel sehen, ich muB mich im Korridor vor dem langen Spiegel mehrmals drehen, meilenweit, k l a f t e r t i e f , himmelhoch, sagenweit entfernt von den Mannern.341 And, later i n the same scene, she goes on: "Einen Augenblick lang war ic h unsterblich und ich, i c h war nicht da fiir Ivan und habe nicht i n 342 Ivan gelebt, . . . " Immortality, i t seems, can here be achieved only within the exclusively female realm, her true s e l f . It may be added that our analysis of Summerfield's concept of "aufgeloste Figur" was not only troubled by occasional vagueness on cr u c i a l points such as the exact relationship between the "Ich" and i t s Malina and Ivan substances but also by her terminology as in the following passage: Wichtigkeit sowie Verschiedenheit der beiden Beziehungen bringt die Ich-Figur zur Sprache, als sie iiber den Gebrauch von Du und Sie spricht. Obwohl sie "sonst immer" Sie gebraucht, hat sie von Anfang an sowohl Malina wie Ivan geduzt. Dies deutet auf keine Gleichheit oder Ebenbiirtigkeit hin, denn die beiden Du unterscheiden sich voneinander, sie sind "durch einen unmeBbaren, unwagbaren Druck auf den Ausdruck verschieden". Die Ich-Figur erklart weiter: "Mein Du fiir Malina i s t genau und geeignet fiir unsere Gesprache und unsere Auseinandersetzungen. Mein Du fiir Ivan i s t ungenau, es kann sich verfarben, verdunkeln, lichten, es kann sprode, mild oder zaghaft werden, unbegrenzt i s t die Skala seiner Expressionen . . ." Eine ahnliche Bestatigung der Gleichwertigkeit der zwei verschiedenen Mannern [sic] kommt spater im Roman vor, als die Ich-Figur einen Fragebogen aus einer alten Z e i t s c h r i f t a u s f i i l l t . Auf die Fragen iiber Manner antwortet Ich ganz anders fiir Ivan als fiir Malina, aber sie bekommen am Ende die gleiche Anzahl von Punkten: ". . .am Ende hat Ivan 26 Punkte, Malina auch 26 Punkte, obwohl ich fiir jeden in ganz verschiedene Kastchen Kreuze machen muBte. Ich addiere noch einmal. Es bleibt bei 26 Punkten fiir jeden."343 Is "Gleichwertigkeit" opposed to "Gleichheit oder Ebenbiirtigkeit"? Although Summerfield's concept of "aufgeloste Figur" may igue from the point of view of structure and may be a convenient 1 5 6 device for overcoming some of the interpretative problems of Malina, i t appears to be highly speculative. Summerfield impresses the reader with a wealth of quotations from, and references to, Malina to prove her points, yet a closer analysis of her methods often reveals a somewhat arbitrary way of selecting her evidence. The following i s a representative example of t h i s : Summerfield argues that the survival of the narrator's Malina part can be explained by his work at the Army museum. "DaB Malina fahig i s t weiterzuleben, hangt damit zusammen, daB er die Beschaftigung mit dem Kriegswesen zu seinem Beruf machte. . . . Er muB die M i t t e l kennen, deren sich die Menschen bedienten, um 344 zu iiberleben." This may sound reasonable; however, Summerfield now f a i l s to apply the same reasoning to the Ivan part in the narrator's personality. Ivan, the narrator t e l l s us, works for a f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n Vienna. This i s hardly an a c t i v i t y .that can be seen as symbolic of the "Liebesprinzip" or the "Verkorperung ihrer Anlage zur Liebe und Hingabe" that Ivan, according to Summerfield, stands for. This point should even be more important for the interpretation of Ivan since Summerfield contends that Ivan's inner and outer existence are more closely fused than Malina's. Another disadvantage of the concept of "aufgelbste Figur" as against our own is that i t can not be applied to most of Bachmann's other main characters including her female protagonists. Summerfield appears to have d i f f i c u l t y i n finding further "aufgeloste Figuren". She finds traces of i t in Moll (Das drelBigste Jahr), Hans (Undine geht), Wildermuth (Ein Wildermuth) and to an even lesser extent i n Elisabeth (Drei Wege zum See), and admits that "In den neuesten 157 Erzahlungen im Band Simultan (1972) s p i e l t die aufgeloste Figur keine 345 besondere Rolle mehr." Summerfield's concept of the "aufgeloste Figur" also provides the basis for S i g r i d Weigel's interpretation of Malina i n "Der schielende Blick. Thesen zur Geschichte weiblicher Schreibpraxis." Weigel interprets Malina and Bachmann's women i n the larger context of "Frauenliteratur". She starts upon the premise that female writers l i v i n g i n a patriarchal society and writing about women are determined by, and under the influence of, images of the women that have been developed by a male culture. Thus, their view of women i s distorted by a "male bias": Da die k u l t u r e l l e Ordnung von Mannern regiert wird, aber die Frauen ihr dennoch angehoren, benutzen auch diese die Normen, deren Objekt sie selbst sind. D.h. die Frau in der mannlichen Ordnung i s t zugleich b e t e i l i g t und ausgegrenzt. Fur das Selbstverstandnis der Frau bedeutet das, daB sie sich selbst betrachtet, indem sie sieht, dafi und wie sie betrachtet wird; d.h. ihre Augen sehen durch die B r i l l e des Mannes. (Die Metapher " B r i l l e " i m p l i z i e r t die Utopie eines befreiten, b r i l l e n l o s e n Blicks.) Wahrend sie die Betrachtung der Aufien-Welt dem weitschweifenden Blick des Mannes iiberlassen hat, i s t sie f i x i e r t auf eine im musternden Blick des Mannes gebrochene Selbst-Betrachtung. Ihr Selbstbildnis entsteht ihr so im Zerr-Spiegel des Patriarchats. Auf der Suche nach ihrem eigenen B i l d mufi sie den Spiegel von den durch mannliche Hand aufgemalten Frauenbildern befreien.346 Weigel likens the male-female relationship to one between exploiter and the exploited, between colonizer and the colonized and sees an eventual authentic female l i t e r a t u r e being created only by a feminine self that i s free of a l l references to nerms, s o c i a l roles, and culture determined by men: Ihre Inhalte und Erzahlformen sind nicht umstandslos als originare weibliche Ausdrucksformen zu beschreiben, sondern als Bewegungsversu-che innerhalb der mannlichen Kultur und als Befreiungsschritte daraus. Die Anfange einer weiblichen l i t e r a r i s c h e n Tradition sind uberwiegend 158 un-eigentliche Selbstaufierungen von Frauen im doppelten Sinne des Wortes: Aufierungen des uneigentlichen, anderen Geschlechts und un-eigentliche, d.h. nicht wirklich eigene Aufierungen. Das Z i e l einer unverstellten Frauenliteratur i s t dann erreicht, wenn es Frauen moglich sein wird, o f f e n t l i c h " i c h " zu sagen, ohne Bezug nehmen zu miissen auf mannliche Bestimmungen ihrer Geschlechtsrolle. . . . wenn die lebende und schreibende Frau ihre Doppelexistenz im Muster der herrschenden Bilder und i n der Antizipation der befreiten Frau iiberwunden hat.347 Applying this idea of "Doppelexistenz" (with i t s problem of love and happiness versus survival and existence) and Summerfield's concept of "aufgeloste Figur" to Malina, Weigel interprets the narrator's c o n f l i c t as a struggle between (male) reason and (female) love, either one disallowing the existence of a separate, individual, female s e l f . Weigel assumes that the basic condition of today's woman, one which presents a fusion between the male image of womanhood and female identity, makes the creation of a liberated woman impossible. I t seems to us that Weigel's rather r e s t r i c t e d and m a t e r i a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n of the h i s t o r i c condition of women ( u t i l i z i n g concepts and terminology of Marxist class analysis) does not do justice to Bachmann's image of the woman which we found to be rather i d e a l i s t i c i n nature. The major difference between Weigel's view and our own i s that Weigel not only claims a s p l i t (gebrochene) existence for the narrator in Malina (and for women writers i n general since they too cannot escape men's images of women i n a patriarchal society) but also i n s i s t s on certain "male" perceptions which ensure the narrator's " l i b e r a t i o n " . Um sich aus der Existenzweise als "a'nderes" Geschlecht zu befreien, brauchen die Frauen a l l e ihre Sinne, ihren Verstand und ihr Gefiihl. Sie miissen vor allem neue Wahrnehmungs- und A\ifierungsweisen finden. Wahrnehmungen, das sind Sinneseindrucke, die be-greifen, urteilen, aktiv sind; z.B der B l i c k . 3 ^ 8 By rejecting any attempts of raising the female culture to a higher, i d e a l i s t level as we have done i n our Bachmann interpretations, Weigel 159 t r i e s to avoid a new male-female dichotomy replacing the old. It i s for this reason, that Weigel thinks of the antithesis between men and women so obvious i n Malina as temporary. It seems to us that Weigel, by holding this view, subordinates l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m to ideological and soci o l o g i c a l doctrines. Weigel also points to the frequently voiced c r i t i c i s m by feminist l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , that there exists a gap between Bachmann's theoretical "geschlechtsneutrale" writing i n which the writer achieves s e l f awareness and change for the better, and her f i c t i o n a l writing, i n which her female characters remain caught i n the web of t r a d i t i o n . Contrary to our own view, Weigel sees Bachmann as a concealed feminist: Die geschlechtsspezifische Konkretisierung neutraler l i t e r a t u r k r i t i s c h e r Aussagen auf weibliche Erfahrung hin i n ihren l i t e r a r i s c h e n Texten i s t so o f f e n s i c h t l i c h , daB die Schreibweise hier als feministische Praxis gedeutet werden kann, die in der Maskierung des theoretisch sich artikulierenden Autors dort vorbereitet i s t . Weigel concludes her argument on Bachmann's "feminism" very wisely with a questionmark: Die Autorin selbst konnte sich noch nicht feministisch a r t i k u l i e r e n , eine Offentlichkeit fiir verallgemeinernde, programmatisch die Situation von Frauen kritisierende Uberlegungen entstand erst nach ihrem Tod in den 70er Jahren. Sie selbst schmuggelte ihre Ideen, die a l l e Momente aktueller feministischer Theorie und Literatur vorwegnehmen, in zwei Bestandteile aufgespalten, in der Maskierung geschlechtsneutraler L i t e r a t u r k r i t i k und im Schutze ihrer Poesie, an die O f f e n t l i c h k e i t . — E i n e heimliche Femini-s t i n wie v i e l e Frauen vor ihr auch?350 Another l i n e of approach to Bachmann—via language—is taken by M. Jurgensen. His interpretation of the Todesarten novels as epic creations cf female neurosis and schizophrenia—as he c a l l s i t — i s worth looking at despite a monotonous paratactical style and repeated inaccuracy i n the textual analysis as the following example shows: 160 Immer hatte sie diese Sprache verabscheut, jeden Stempel, der ihr aufgedriickt wurde und den sie jemand aufdriicken muftte—den Mordversuch an der Wirklichkeit. Aber wenn ihr Reich kam, dann konnte diese Sprache nicht mehr gelten, dann richtete diese Sprache sich selbst. (ebd.) Das Bachmannsche Reich beheimatet sich i n einer neuen Sprache, die den Mordversuch an der Wirklichkeit richten wird.^51 Departing from his premises: "In der Sprache bewahrt sich das Ich." and "Das Wort weiB nicht nur zu i d e n t i f i z i e r e n , sondern auch zu 352 vergewaltigen.", he sees Malina as an "Ich-Theater" of the narrator. Thus Malina and Ivan are interpreted as "protagonistische Ich-Variationen" of the narrator i n search of her id e n t i t y . "Malina i s t zugleich als Erganzung des unvollstandigen weiblichen Ichs gedacht, als . . . 353 komplementare BewuBtseinsgestalt . . . " According to Jurgensen, the woman has no individual identity because of her "gattungshafte Rollenexistenz" and, therefore, the narrator attempts a "Doppelgeschlecht-liche Selbstverwirklichung". Jurgensen, in essence, argues that there i s a need for the male element within Bachmann's females so that they may escape their prescribed role and find a s e l f - i d e n t i t y free of sexual constraints. This interpretation stands i n contrast to our own. In our opinion, a woman's own identity i s damaged or destroyed i f i t i s related to a ("traditional") male. The woman finds herself then l i v i n g a social role that i s dependent on the male for i t s d e f i n i t i o n . It i s of l i t t l e significance, i n this argument, whether the male exists as an independent subject or as a mental projection only. This i s also the reason why— as we have shown—the dilemma of Bachmann's heroines does not affect the " t r a d i t i o n a l " female; she already has her prescribed role identity. As soon as the male becomes the point of reference for Bachmann's 161 females, their formerly intangible, undefinable, and magic existence becomes definable, predictable, causing damage to, or destruction of, their individual identity. This process i s oft e n — a s shown e a r l i e r — accompanied and in t e n s i f i e d by the woman's attachment to male ways of thinking. In contrast to this , Jurgensen's interpretation of the Todesarten novels may be summarized as death by s e l f projection and i s o l a t i o n resulting i n "Sprachverlust" of the s e l f : ". . . das sich ihr [der 354 Gesellschaft] verweigernde Ich vergewaltigt menschliche Beziehungen." Thus the s e l f becomes increasingly inner oriented, thereby a n t i - s o c i a l , and dies. Doubtless, Jurgensen i s correct when he states that Malina " . . . bezieht sich auf ein doppeltes Du, auf das gesellschaftliche und 355 das verinnerlichte." However, h e — l i k e Summerfield and others—takes an anti-Bachmann position when" he concludes that the heroine, by neglecting her s o c i a l orientation i n place of orientation toward her se l f , causes her own "Sprachverlust" and death. This i s the opposite of our findings. It i s se l f - d e n i a l , part of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " role behaviour of women who must show devotion, love and care for others, that contributes to the death of Bachmann's heroines. Malina represents the male view when he counsels the narrator that she can improve the world only through her "Du" and not through her "Ich": Ich: (con brio) Siegen! Wer spricht denn hier noch von siegen, wenn das Zeichen verloren i s t , i n dem man siegen konnte. Malina: Es heiBt immer noch: siegen. Es wird d i r ohne einen einzigen Kunstgriff gelingen und ohne Gewalt. Du wirst aber auch nicht mit deinem Ich siegen, sondern— Ich: (allegro) Sondern—siehst du? 162 Malina: Du wirst es nicht mit deinem Ich tun. Ich: (forte) Was i s t an meinem Ich schlechter als an anderen? Malina: Nichts. A l l e s . Denn du kannst nur Vergeb-liches tun. Das i s t das Unverzeihliche. Ich: (piano) Auch wenn es das Unverzeihliche i s t , w i l l ich mich immer verzetteln, verirren ver-l i e r e n . Malina: Was du w i l l s t , zahlt nicht mehr. An der r i c h -tigen S t e l l e hast du nichts mehr zu wollen. Du wirst dort so sehr du sein, daB du dein Ich auf-geben kannst. Es wird die erste Ste l l e sein, auf der die Welt von jemand geheilt ist.356 The narrator's intended synthesis of the two ("Ich werde es [das Ich] 357 lieben wie meinen Nachsten, wie dich!" ) f a i l s . The heroines of the Todesarten novels are not able to solve this dilemma. In his interpretation of Requiem fur Fanny Goldmann, Jurgensen retains his thesis of "Vergewaltigung durch Versprachlichung", rape by verbalism. He also sees the Todesarten heroine as being an example of neurosis: " . . . Bachmann . . . i s t . . . mit Fanny Goldmann ein by pointing to Fanny's early hateful behaviour: Fanny "hatte eine unertragliche . . . Abneigung gegen die kleine Malina," (488) heiBt es zu Beginn des Romans. Die Griinde fur diesen zunachst noch milden Hafi werden deutlich angegeben: "weil sie alles hatte, was Fanny und die anderen nicht hatten, das Unerlernbare, Unerreichbare...". (ebd.) Die Anlage zum HaB i s t von Anfang an ein wesentlicher Bestandteil ihres Charakters. Fanny befindet sich " i n dem Zustand der H e l l s i c h t i g k e i t des Hasses." (489) Ihr spaterer leidenschaftlicher HaB gegen Anton Marek bringt also—ob berechtigt oder nicht—keinen Wandel in ihrer Personlichkeit, sondern erweist sich nurmehr als die Kehrseite ihrer ebenso leidenschaftlichen Horigkeit. (Vgl. "Kurze Zeit spater war Fanny ihm horig",496) Es mangelt ihr an emotionaler Ausgeglichenheit, sie lebt und l i e b t das Extreme.359 A close textual analysis, however, yields quite different results. Musterportrat weiblicher Neurose gelungen. T l 358 He substantiates this Fanny Goldmann's f i r s t contact with a Marek-like figure, the young 163 actress Malina, results i n her antipathy and eventual hate toward Malina. Fanny sees this f e e l i n g as a blemish on her inner i n t e g r i t y . She hates Malina not, as Jurgensen suggests, because of her talents as an actress but because Malina play-acts i n love a f f a i r s , plays at being i n love: ". . . und so sagte sie, i n dem Zustand der H e l l s i c h t i g k e i t des Hasses, 360 diese Person i s t unfahig, jemand zu lieben, . . . " Thus, i n her false relationships, the actress Malina i s a precursor of Marek. This point i s important as i t demolishes much of the basis of the theory of neurosis. Other evidence submitted by Jurgensen on this point proves to be just as inconclusive: Sie hafit Karin Krause wie sie Maria Malina haBt: als Ausdruck ihrer eigenen Niederlage. Die Schabigkeit ihres Hasses wird deutlich genug, auch wenn die Aussage streng genommen als Bericht der Erzahlerin erscheint: er lag dort mit ihr, einer Karin, einem schauerlichen Namen, der vierundzwanzig Jahre a l t war und seine gemeine Abkunft v e r r i e t , dieser Name, geboren im Jahr 1939, also auf tausendjahrig, wahrend sie geboren wurde mit einem altmodischen Namen, der hochstens seine achtzig Jahre wahren konnte... (516) Bezeichnenderweise ri c h t e t sich ihre ganze Leidenschaft gegen den Namen, nicht die Personlichkeit der anderen Frau."361 Karin belongs—as we e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d — t o the category of females which is repulsive to Bachmann's heroines because of the character of these women which i s adjusted to male expectations. Karin's repulsiveness i s int e n s i f i e d by her name with i t s symbolic connection to fascism, to male aggression and cruelty. Her name does present her as a person. Throughout Bachmann's prose there exists a close name/person in t e r -dependence. Jurgensen himself quotes the passage: " . . . ihr Name war so besamt von seinem Namen, . . . " only one page below the above passage. In this l i g h t his statement is even more surprising. 164 We may conclude that none of the c r i t i c s we have discussed i n the f i r s t part of this chapter sees the seemingly " t r a d i t i o n a l " image of Bachmann's heroines in i t s i d e a l i s t i c and redeeming function as we have done. On the contrary, a l l of them interpret i t as one of f a i l u r e in various ways. In the second part of this chapter we w i l l discuss c r i t i c a l works of the second phase of reception (zweite Rezeptionswelle) that are pertinent to Bachmann's women characters. Gabriele B a i l i n Weibliche Identitat: Ingeborg Bachmanns 362 "Malina" sets herself the task of analysing the identity problem of the narrator in Malina. B a i l commences this analysis with the premise that "Ich" has a "Nicht-Identitat". She derives th i s , f i r s t l y , from the observation that few and vague personal data are offered for the narrator during the introduction of the dramatis personae, secondly, from the argument that the narrator l i v e s i n spatial dislocation and exists in time diffusion (disorientation i n space and time). B a i l sees the identity problem of the narrator as so urgent that the epic I w i l l i n g l y accepts " t r a d i t i o n a l " female social roles offered her by the three men characters in Malina: Das Identitatsproblem i s t fiir die Ich-Figur so dringlich, da sie nicht nur den Rollenerwartungen anderer hohe Bedeutung beimifit und sich entsprechend verhalt, sondern auch verschiedene Testverfahren zur Identitatsbestimmung heranzieht. . . . Durch das Scheitern solcher Testverfahren wird die Orientierung an den Rollenerwartungen der anderen nur umso dringlicher.363 A l l e drei Manner erwarten von der Ich-Figur, da6 sie im Rahmen patriarchalischer Strukturen t r a d i t i o n e l l e Frauenrollen iibernimmt. Die Ich-Figur i s t bemiiht, diesen Erwartungen gerecht zu werden, . . .364 Accordingly, B a i l structures her analysis threefold: Ivan, the father, and Malina. Bail unnecessarily weakens her analysis here by relating 165 the three men to the Holy T r i n i t y . Whereas she s t i l l has some convincing arguments for the f i r s t part of the analogy (Ivan as Christ figure), her textual evidence for the second part becomes very speculative (the father as God father), ". . . mein Vater steigt auf die Kanzel und halt seine Sonntagspredigt, . . . er i s t der grofite Sonntagsprediger weit und b r e i t . - . . . ich . . . benetze meine Stirn, im Namen des Vaters, . . . " and "Mein Vater i s t zum Theater gegangen. Gott i s t 365 eine Vorstellung" are Bail's only proof. Turning to the third part (Malina as the Holy Ghost), B a i l acknowledges the extremely speculative position she i s in but continues to operate with the "patriarchalische Dreieinigkeit" throughout her analysis. Analog zur Deutung des Vaters als Gottvater-Figur und Ivans als Christus-Figur konnte man Malina als Heilige-Geist-Figur apostrophieren. Entsprechende Textstellen erscheinen jedoch nur sporadisch; die Konstruktion i s t insofern etwas gewagt. Gestiitzt wird sie aber dadurch, dafi Malina tiberhaupt mit der religiosen Motivik verbunden wird und dadurch, dafi er als ein Aspekt der Personlichkeit den 'Geist' reprasentiert, wahrend die Ich-Figur fur die emotionale Seite steht. 'Heilig' i s t der Geist insofern, als er der Ich-Figur lebensnotwendig scheint. Wenn man sich auf die Gleichsetzung von Malina mit dem Heiligen Geist einlafit, entsteht ein interessantes B i l d : jeder der drei fur die Ich-Figur wesentlichen Manner verkorpert einen Aspekt der christlich-patriarchalischen Dreifaltigkeit.366 Bail's analogy becomes even more doubtful as the following section i s headed "Symbolfigur des Krieges" referring to Malina and c i t i n g his request to the narrator to k i l l Ivan. Furthermore, one may question the statement that a necessity for l i f e i s necessarily "holy". More important, however, i s Bail's argumentation regarding the narrator's search for identity. Since Bail examines the narrator's identity problem and eventual destruction with a - basically -feministic approach: 166 Ingeborg Bachmanns Verdienst i s t es, i n 'Malina' fur die ^ Unterdriickung von Frauen prazise Bilder gefunden zu haben. her interpretation remains wanting on points that were - we f e l t -c r u c i a l for an understanding of Bachmann. Two examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s : During her analysis of the relationship between the narrator and Ivan i n the chapter "Krankheit: Identitatsbestimmung durch Ivan", B a i l encounters the seeming paradox of the w i l l i n g acceptance by the narrator of Ivan's role demands and norms on the one hand and - as B a i l sees i t - Ivan's aggression and sanctions against her on the other, which eventually contribute to her " c o l l e c t i v e Murder". Because of her approach, B a i l can offer only an inconclusive explanation to this apparent paradox: AbschlieBend i s t zu fragen, warum die Ich-Figur sich Ivans Aggressionen, seinem lehrerhaften Verhalten, seinen Vorstellungen von ihrem rollenkonformen Verhalten und von ihrer kunstlerischen Produktion fast widerstandslos unterwirft. Eine Moglichkeit i s t , i n der Ich-Figur eine Masochistin zu sehen. Eine weitere i s t , Ivans Verhalten als typisch anzusehen, d.h., da die Ich-Figur bei jedem anderen Geliebten mit einem sehr ahnlichen Verhalten konfrontiert ware und sich f o l g l i c h anpassen mufi, wenn sie nicht ganzlich auf eine solche Beziehung verzichten mochte. Ich lasse hier beide Moglichkeiten nebeneinander stehen, da m.E. 'Malina' so angelegt i s t , daB die Leser immer wieder zwischen der einen und der anderen Lesart abwagen sollen. 8 Second, as B a i l continues her analysis by examining "die kunstlerische Produktion" of the narrator, she quotes the cru c i a l passage: "Es 369 entsteht eine Komposition, eine Frau i s t zu erschaffen . . . " Quite r i g h t l y , Bail points out the attempt of the narrator to define her identity in front of the mirror. But again, her approach prevents her from seeing a consistency in the narrator's actions - as we have tri e d to do - and forces her to interpret the rest of the passage as "von bitterstem Sarkasmus", while portraying the woman before the mirror as 167 370 the "Frauenbild der Kosmetikreklame". In view of Bail's following argument about the feminine U t o p i a , this interpretation i s even less convincing. Although much of our c r i t i c i s m of Summerfield's analysis of Malina i s relevant to Bail's major findings - she r e l i e s to a great extent on Summerfield's arguments - we ought to discuss her conclusions regarding the nature of the "murder". B a i l attributes the collapse of the narrator to the incompatibility of the role expectations of the three men with regard to her and to their ensuing sanctions: A l l e drei Manner erwarten von der Ich-Figur, dafi sie im Rahmen patriarchalischer Strukturen t r a d i t i o n e l l e Frauenrollen ubernimmt. Die Ich-Figur i s t bemliht, diesen Erwartungen gerecht zu werden, muB jedoch scheitern, da die Rollenerwartungen einander ausschlieBen. Auf die Nicht-Erfiiilung ihrer jeweiligen Rollenerwartungen reagieren die Manner mit Sanktionen, die sich auf die Ich-Figur vernichtend auswirken.371 At least the f i r s t part of thi-s statement may be questioned because a l l three roles of the narrator as well as the behaviour patterns of the three men characters are within the patriarchal social structure (Bail speaks here too of the "patriarchalische Dreieinigkeit"). From this i t does not follow that the role expectations are mutually exclusive; indeed, one could make a case for their complementary nature. This w i l l also appear reasonable through a comparison of the roles of the narrator that are mentioned by B a i l . They are: for Ivan - "perfekte Hausfrau, attraktive Geliebte" for the father - "unterwiirfige Frauenrolle, Rolle der Tochter" for Malina - (No> role i s given but Malina acts as "Beschiitzer, Vertrauter, rational-iiberlegener Heifer". Therefore, one may assume the narrator must be protected and helped.) 168 Furthermore, a comparison of the role expectations that B a i l l i s t s show p a r a l l e l s i n their substance: Der Vater i n 'Malina' fordert wie der allmachtige Vatergott Ichs Unterordnung unter seine Gewalt. Die i n t e l l e k t u e l l e Autonomie der Ich-Figur, Hauptmoment ihres Widerstands gegen den Vater, wird von diesem - soweit es moglich i s t -vernichtet.372 Ivan bringt aus anderen Grunden kein Verstandnis fiir die I n t e l l e k t u a l i t a t der Ich-Figur auf: eine Frau mit Intelligenz i s t i n den Regeln seines Geschlechterrollenspiels nicht vorgesehen. Aus diesem Grunde ignoriert er die Malina-Komponente.373 Malina i s t der einzige der drei Manner, der die i n t e l l e k t u e l l e Autonomie der Ich-Figur unterstiitzt und sogar gegen den gewalttatigen Vater verteidigt. Er ignoriert allerdings Ichs emotionale Seite, die im Verhaltnis zu Ivan h e r v o r t r i t t (S. 87). . . . Zudem unterstiitzt er Ichs i n t e l l e k t u e l l e Autonomie nur, solange sie sich seiner Art des Denkens anpaBt. Sowie die Ich-Figur beginnt, ihr Denken und Erinnern auf ihre emotionale Beteiligung aufzubauen und sich dadurch von Malinas Denkweise distanziert, wendet sich Malina gegen sie.374 From this i t appears that the i n t e l l e c t u a l autonomy of the narrator i s the main factor of antagonism i n each of the role expectations and that here too the thesis of incompatibility i s not supported. Similar conclusions on the impossibility of a self-defined existence for the woman in a male-determined world are drawn by Kurt Bartsch in "'Schichtwechsel'? Zur Opposition von feminin-emotionalen Anspriichen und maskulin-rationalem Realitatsdenken bei Ingeborg 375 Bachmann" as well as i n "'Es war Mord' Anmerkungen zur Mann-Frau-376 Beziehung in Bachmanns Roman Malina". He bases his interpretation on the thesis: Die modellhafte Opposition von mannlich-rational und weiblich-emotional, das Mifilingen einer Integration von Verstand und Gefiihl sowie die Finalisierung, Riickkehr i n die gegebenen sozialen Zwange oder Abtotung, pragen sowohl die Horspiele als auch die erzahlende Prosa von Ingeborg Bachmann, und da nicht nur die ausgesprochenen Frauengeschichten.377 169 The woman in a patriarchal society i s prevented from finding her own identity because her role i s defined by men: Charlotte i s t ein Beispiel dafiir, daB die Frau in der Mannergesellschaft sich nicht selbst definieren darf, daB sie nicht nur aus dem offentlichen Diskurs ausgeschlossen, sondern bis i n ihre Gefiihlswelt hinein fremdbestimmt ist.378 Furthermore, her role behaviour i s enforced by men as i n the case of Ivan: . . . denn er drangt die Ich-Erzahlerin i n die konventionelle Frauenrolle, . . . Sie hat in der Beziehung zu Ivan keine Moglichkeit einer Entfaltung auBerhalb der konventionellen Rolle der Frau, die d e f i n i e r t i s t durch Hausfrauen- und Mutter-pflichten sowie sexuelle Verfiigbarkeit. 379 or sanctioned by a (male) social authority such as the good God: Die Figur des guten Gotts von Manhattan, Inkarnation des Realitatsprinzips und Anwalt der Gesellschaft und ihrer individualitatsbeschrankenden Anforderungen, laBt die Ekstatikerin Jennifer, die "den Boden Cder RealitatH unter den FiiBen" (I, 312) verloren hat, durch seine Heifer, die Eichhornchen des Central Park von New York, mit einer Bombe in die Luft sprengen.380 The attempt to go beyond her role means loss of feminity: Es geht in Bachmann's Roman CMalinaH um das grundsatzliche Problem der Frau in der patriarchalischen, faschistische Ziige tragenden Gesellschaft und um den Verlust der Weiblichkeit, wenn die Frau Anspriiche iiber die von den Mannern definierte Rolle hinaus erhebt.381 This i s the case in the woman's search for reason. Because her role does not allow for development of reason she must then give up her emotional demands: . . . einerseits sieht die herkommliche Rollendefinition der Frau in der "Liebes" _Beziehung rationale Verwirklichung nicht vor, andererseits muB die Frau, wo sie, wie die Ich-Erzahlerin ohne Malina, d. h. ohne Ratio nicht leben kann, auf ihre weiblichen Gefiihlsanspriiche verzichten . . . ^ oz This i s also the case in Charlotte's "Rollentausch" in Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha. Bartsch c a l l s t h i s : "Ubernahme eines mannlichen 170 383 Existenzmusters . . . " In his analysis of Malina, Bartsch adds psychic dimension to the male-rational concept since he defines i t here as "kritisch-kontrollierende Instanz" personified by Malina within the narrator: Nun, Malina fungiert als kritisch-kontrollierende Instanz der Selbstbeobachtung, "unter" die sich das Ich "von Anfang an" (III, 17) ge s t e l l t f i i h l t , als eine g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h vermittelte Instanz, die die weibliche Identitatsbildung verhindert.384 Analyzing Bartsch's approach we w i l l direct c r i t i c i s m i n i t i a l l y at two points: Although a male-female antithesis similar to ours i s used, the analysis remains at the sociological le v e l throughout, therefore - in our opinion - not being able to penetrate deeper layers of Bachmann's prose. In addition, i t appears that operationalization and application of Bartsch's instrumentation are responsible for some of the shortcomings of Bartsch's analysis. F i r s t , i t seems that the term "mannlich-rational" i s overextended. Bartsch applies i t as a social authority defining roles and norms (Malina is called an auctor, the good God); a social force or constraint that limi t s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c development ( i t i s represented by the father of the narrator, Ivan, the good God); a soc i a l i z a t i o n factor influencing behaviour (for instance, Ivan or Franz); a psychic factor controlling behaviour (Malina as Super ego or Elisabeth's "verinnerlichte" role image); l a s t , a pattern of existence or survival for the female (Malina for the narrator, role change for Elisabeth). Thus, the term becomes in our view very questionable as a tool for precision analysis. Second, the term appears to contain co n f l i c t i n g elements - in the way that Bartsch uses i t - such as (male) " r a t i o " that r e s t r i c t s self-development of the woman as well as (female) reason that Bartsch sees necessary for s e l f -171 development of the woman. This appears to be the reason that he has d i f f i c u l t y applying his concept to more complex texts such as Malina. For instance, Bartsch describes Ivan as an agent who prevents the narrator from finding a self-defined identity because he forces her into the conventional role, denies her r a t i o n a l i t y (in Bartsch's terms represented by Malina): Die Hoffnungen auf ein Leben i n Liebe mit Ivan miissen sich zwangslaufig zerschlagen, denn er drangt die Ich-Erzahlerin in die konventionelle Frauenrolle, er ignoriert Malina, das heifit, er spricht der Frau das Recht auf Ratio ab. . . . Sie hat i n der Beziehung zu Ivan keinen Spielraum, keine Moglichkeit einer Entfaltung aufierhalb der konventionellen Rolle der Frau, die d e f i n i e r t ware durch Hausfrauen- und Mutterpflichten sowie durch sexuelle Verfiigbarkeit. Die Verwirklichung der Utopie der Integration von Verstand und Gefiihl i s t also in der Beziehung zu Ivan, dem Durchschnitts-reprasentanten der biirgerlichen Gesellschaft, unmoglich.385 On the other hand, Bartsch defines Malina as a figuration of the norm demands of the patriarchal society, preventing the narrator from developing her identity: Malina . . . der o f f e n s i c h t l i c h das rationale Uber-Ich f i g u r i e r t , also jene von Sigmund Freud neben dem Ich und dem Es als d r i t t e angenommene psychische Instanz, die als Ausdruck der Verinnerlichung der iiber die Familie, i n der patriarchalischen biirgerlichen Gesellschaft insbesondere iiber den Vater (daher eine mannliche Gestalt!) vermit-telten Normanspriiche g i l t und deren Funktion als k r i t i s c h -kontrollierende Selbstbeobachtung, Ich-Ideal und Gewissen umschreibbar i s t . Nun, Malina fungiert als k r i t i s c h -kontrollierende Instanz der Selbstbeobachtung, "unter" die sich das Ich "von Anfang an" (III, 17) g e s t e l l t f i i h l t , als eine gesellschaftlich vermittelte Instanz, die die weibliche Identitatsbildung verhindert.386 Thus, on the one hand ratio (Malina) i s lienied to the narrator preventing her from overcoming the conventional role, while on the other, patriarchal norms and a c r i t i c a l control authority (Malina) prevent the narrator's identity development. Bartsch appears to be aware of these discrepancies: 172 tlber das Verhaltnis zu Ivan beziehungsweise zu Malina sagt die Ich-Erzahlerin: "Ivan und i c h : die konvergierende Welt. Malina und ich, weil wir eins sind: die divergierende Welt" (III, 126). Die Auslegung dieser AuBerung i s t nicht ganz einfach: Denn Malina 1st zweifelsohne der maskuline-Teil der gespaltenen Personlichkeit, aber i s t er auch der verlorene der urspriinglich zweigeschlechtlichen, hermaphroditischen Identitat? Wenn das so ware, wiirde es im Widerspruch stehen zu der Feststellung, daft das Ich und Ivan konvergieren. Ivan i s t die ersehnte Komplementargestalt. Was aber i s t dann Malina? Am SchluB des zweiten Kapitels heiBt es von der das Ich bedrohenden Gestalt, die zuerst mit dem Vater i d e n t i f i z i e r t wird: "Es i s t mein Morder". Am SchluB des Romans wird der Mord eindeutig Malina zugeschrieben. In der Verbindung mit ihrer Projektionsgestalt Ivan hatte die Erzahlerin sich verwirklichen konnen, doch hatte das die Ausloschung von Malina bedeutet, von dem sie i n ihrer Ivan-Zeit sagt: "Nie habe ich Malina so wenig brauchen konnen" (III, 126). Um aber die Selbstbehauptung gegen die Widerwartigkeiten der Gesell-schaft zu gewahrleisten, werden Ivan und die auf ihn p r o j i z i e r -ten femininen Wiinsche von Malina g e t i l g t , . . .387 It seems that these problems are caused by Bartsch's intention to cover Bachmann's depth structures by a sociological concept alone - important as i t may be. Comparing Bartsch's interpretation to ours, i t w i l l be obvious that by assuming a d i s t i n c t "male" and "female" r a t i o n a l i t y - a "female" r a t i o n a l i t y which we have interpreted as superior to "male" reason and which we have analyzed as rooted in i r r a t i o n a l i t y and i n t u i t i o n - we have not only overcome Bartsch's c o n f l i c t of terminology but also his "utopia of integration of reason and emotion" for which he offers very l i t t l e proof, but were able to develop an antagonism of values above that of social roles which - as we tr i e d to prove - i s more Bachmann-l i k e . Furthermore, we feel that our concept allows a more in-depth treatment of Bachmann's characters. For instance, Bartsch indicates no d i s t i n c t i o n between the "death" of Jennifer who "erleidet einen 388 typischen 'Bachmann-Tod'" and that of other heroines, although 173 Jennifer dies because of extreme emotion and the narrator i n Malina "dies", according to Bartsch, as she continues l i v i n g i n a male identity pattern. Certainly, here i s a difference of quality. F i n a l l y , i t w i l l be admitted that the all-pervading dominance of the "mannlich-r a t i o n a l " determinant i n Bartsch's interpretation leaves no room for any substance i n Bachmann's female protagonists - a substance we f e e l we have plausiby demonstrated above. Thus, as a l o g i c a l consequence of t h i s , Bartsch c l a s s i f i e s a l l of Bachmann's women in three categories of wrecked existences: Zusammenfas send konnen wir i n Bachmanns Werk drei weibliche Le-bensmuster vorfinden: 1. die Frau i n der konventionellen Rolle der Dienerin des Mannes bzw. der Familie, einer Rolle, die der Autorin als "schlimm" und "unwiirdig" g i l t und die die Ich-Erzahlerin i n der Beziehung zu Ivan zu spielen versucht, auf die sie sich aber nicht reduzieren laBt. Hier kann man wohl Franziska/Franza (Gebell, Der F a l l Franza) und die alte Frau Jordan (Gebell) sowie die "private" Charlotte (Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha) subsumieren; 2. Undine, die zwar die Klage iiber ihre Situation erhebt ("Ihr Manner, ihr Ungeheuer!"), die aber - wie auch Beatrix (Probleme Probleme) und Miranda (Ihr gliicklichen Augen) - auf Teilnahme am offentlichen Diskurs verzichtet, sich zuriickzieht, "geht"; 3. die Frau, die sich i n der Offentlichkeit durch Ubernahme eines mannlichen Existenzmusters zu verwirklichen sucht: cum grano s a l i s die "offentliche" Charlotte, Nadja (Simultan), Elisabeth (Drei Wege zum See)• Diesen mehr oder weniger zerstorten Existenzen aber steht die noch nicht r e a l i s i e r t e Utopie gegeniiber, i n der Verstand und Gefiihl nicht mehr divergierten. Im Richtungnehmen auf diese Utopie hin erscheint mir Bachmanns Werk vorwartsweisend im Sinne der Frauenbewegung: . . .389 Surely, this would not indicate a positive image development by Bachmann as we tri e d to prove i t . Bartsch's analysis, however, does not seem clear on one point of female development. In his thesis statement he 174 distinguishes c l e a r l y two conclusions to Bachmann's narrative prose and radio plays: a return to socia l constraints or death: Die modellhafte Opposition von mannlich-rational und weiblich-emotional, das MiBlingen einer Integration von Verstand und Gefuhl sowie die Finalisierung, Ruckkehr i n die gegebenen sozialen Zwange oder Abtotung, pragen sowohl Horspiele als auch die erzahlende Prosa von Ingeborg Bachmann, und da nicht nur die ausgesprochenen Frauengeschichten.390 He then confirms this return for Charlotte i n his discussion of Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha: Die Verwirklichung ihrer Autonomiebestrebungen i n einer lesbischen Beziehung beziehungsweise i n einem neuen Sprachgebrauch liefien Charlotte i n die Position der AuBenseiterin geraten. Sie geht jedoch, . . . nur einen Schritt nach Gomorrha und kehrt zuriick i n die soziale Ordnung.391 However, i n his discussion of Malina, Bartsch precludes the p o s s i b i l i t y of return i n general, after finding the narrator's search for identity to be a f a i l u r e : Da fiir Bachmann eine regressive Festlegung der Frau auf die konventionelle Rolle nicht in Frage kommt, lost sie das Dilemma durch Verzicht auf die weibliche Identitat und Orientierung an maskulinen Identifikationsmustern.392 C l a r i t y on this point would be of importance for the determination of patterns of development for Bachmann's heroines. In contrast to the interpretations of Bail and Bartsch, Claus Reinert sees the " t r a d i t i o n a l " substance of Bachmann's characters as central. In the chapter headed "Wie reaktionar i s t Ingeborg Bachmanns 393 Menschenbild?" he states: INGEBORG BACHMANN v e r t r i t t nicht nur in diesem Horspiel eine Auffassung vom Wesen des Mannlichen und Weiblichen, die -allerdings nicht i n den von ihr gezogenen Konsequenzen - alien feministischen Emanzipationsbestrebungen zuwiderlJiuft. Wenn irgendwo, dann lieBe sich i n dieser Frage bei ihr eine antiquierte Gesinnung nachweisen: Ausgehend von angeblich zeitlosen anthropologischen und biologischen Determinanten 175 bleibt auch nur die Moglichkeit auBer Betracht, variable soziale und historische Verhaltnisse konnten grundlegend das Rollenverhalten und die 'Daseinsthematik' von Mann und Frau pragen. Wenn irgendwo, dann konnte INGEBORG BACHMANNs Hang zum Absoluten und die daraus folgende Bereitschaft, vorschnell zu verallgemeinern, ihr den Zugang fiir notwendige f o r t s c h r i t t l i c h e Einsichten versperrt haben. . . . so i d e n t i f i z i e r t e sich INGEBORG BACHMANN bis ins Detail mit den ihr von der t r a d i t i o n e l l e n Psychologie vorgegebenen Einsichten i n das 'zeitlose Wesen' der Geschlechter.394 Reinert continues his analysis by comparing Bachmann's image of man to that of Lersch and Weininger and by pointing to extensive p a r a l l e l s finding at least i n the case of Weininger a de f i n i t e influence on Bachmann: Soweit PHILIPP LERSCH! Es s o i l und kann nicht behauptet werden, daB INGEBORG BACHMANN ihn unmittelbar als Quelle benutzt habe, . . . ein derartiger Nachweis ware aber auch nicht erforderlich, denn LERSCHs Ansichten spiegeln nur die bis dahin erarbeiteten Erkenntnisse der t r a d i t i o n e l l e n Psychologie wieder. . . . In diesem Zusammenhang zu erwahnen i s t allerdings ein EinfluB, den man gerade bei einer Autorin am wenigsten erwartet hatte und den die BACHMANN auch eher verschwiegen hat, vermutlich, weil er ihr mehr und vor allem personlichere Probleme zu losen aufgab: der EinfluB des Wiener Philosophen, Psychologen und Anthropologen OTTO WEININGER, . . . 3 9 5 He then sums up: Es kann hier nicht der Ort sein, ausfiihrlicher auf die 'unterirdischen Querverbindungen' einzugehen. Der Hinweis auf WEININGER und der Rekurs auf LERSCH sollen nur verdeutlichen, wie sehr INGEBORG BACHMANNs Menschenbild tradierten Anschauungen entspricht, . . .396 Reinert goes on to j u s t i f y Bachmann's "outdated" image of the sexes by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between truth i n science and in art: Die Unterschiede zwischen Wissenschaft und Kunst gestatten es nicht, vom Kunstwerk zu erwarten, daB es die jeweils neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse zu beriicksichtigen und zu verarbeiten habe.397 Thus, in contrast to science, in art h i s t o r i c truths remain of value: Das B i l d , das LERSCH oder INGEBORG BACHMANN von Mann und Frau entworfen haben, t r i f f t zu in bezug auf eine heute historisch gewordene Wirklichkeit, der diese Einsichten entzogen sind. 176 Was aber einmal wahr war, das wird wahr bleiben, auch wenn diese Wahrheit infolge des historischen Wandels ihren Wert verlieren s o l l t e und nicht mehr zur Geltung kommen kann, weil die Wirklichkeit nicht mehr e x i s t i e r t , innerhalb derer die Aussage g i l t . Wo aber unter diesen Voraussetzungen das wissenschaftliche Werk mit seinem absoluten Wahrheits-anspruch falsch und uberfliissig wird, da vermag sich die im Kunstwerk verborgene Wahrheit dauerhafter i n Erinnerung zu halten, . . .398 Therefore, Reinert concludes, Bachmann's image of the woman, though i t i s a h i s t o r i c image, s t i l l has a worthwhile message: Gerade wenn der Mensch sich i n seinen Wesensmerkmalen als historisches Wesen versteht, mufi er sich mit seiner Geschichte als einer Summe r e a l i s i e r t e r Moglichkeiten des Menschseins auseinandersetzen, um sich seiner selbst gewifi zu werden. Und wenn er Einsicht i n die Bedingungen des Menschseins gewinnen w i l l , wird er auf Dichtungen nicht verzichten konnen, die Erfahrungen gestaltet haben, i n denen die Zufalligkeiten und Besonderheiten ihrer Realitat zum Allgemeinen und Typischen, zur Wahrheit verdichtet wurden. Darin griindet die bleibende Aktualitat des Kunstwerkes; und in ihr i s t der Grund dafiir zu suchen, daB INGEBORG BACHMANN i n den letzten Jahren als eine Autorin entdeckt zu werden scheint, die gerade auch i n der Art und Weise, wie sie die Rolle der Frau im Verhaltnis zum Mann und zur Gesellschaft bestimmt, Bedenkenswertes zu sagen hat.399 A comparison of our findings regarding Bachmann's image of the woman to those of Reinert shows that we both agree on the " t r a d i t i o n a l " appearance but d i f f e r on the substance. Whereas Reinert demonstrates the " t r a d i t i o n a l " nature, we have analyzed " t r a d i t i o n a l " characteristics that have been newly defined by Bachmann as advanced means of achieving a d i s t i n c t identity, independence, freedom, and values superior to those of the male. Whereas Reinert defines this image as one of a "heute historisch gewordenen Wirklichkeit", we have defined i t as a state of actual existence and a concept to strive for. There are several points of c r i t i c i s m of Reinert's findings we ought to present: F i r s t , the contention that Bachmann's image of the 177 woman does not extend beyond the one of Weininger or Lersch can hardly be sustained i f one goes beyond spot comparisons and compares concepts. As a point i n case we quote from Weininger's chapter "Das absolute Weib hat kein Ich" i n Geschlecht und Charakter^^: Dies i s t , i n gewisser Beziehung, ein Abschlufi der Betrachtung, ein Letztes, wozu a l l e Analyse des Weibes fiihrt. Und wenn auch diese Erkenntnis, so kurz und biindig ausgesprochen, hart und unduldsam, paradox und von a l l z u schroffer Neuheit scheint: es i s t , i n einer solchen Sache, von vornherein kaum wahrschein-l i c h , daB der Verfasser der erste s e i , welcher zu dieser Anschauung gelangt i s t , wenn er auch selbstandig wieder zu ihr den Weg finden muBte, um das Treffende der friiheren ahnlichen Aussagen zu begreifen.401 Weininger continues by quoting proof for this that ranges from the ancient Chinese, ancient philosophers, and church fathers to modern li t e r a t u r e and he concludes: Die verbreitete Rede: "das Weib hat keinen Charakter" meint im Grunde auch nichts anderes. Personlichkeit und I n d i v i d u a l i t y , ( i n t e l l i g i b l e s ) Ich und Seele, Wille und ( i n t e l l i g i b l e r ) Charakter - dies al l e s bezeichnet ein und dasselbe, das im Bereiche des Menschen nur M zukommt und W fe h l t . Da aber die Seele des Menschen der Mikrokosmus i s t , und be-deutende Menschen solche, welche durchaus mit Seele leben, das heiBt in denen die ganze Welt lebendig i s t , so muB W absolut ungenial veranlagt sein. Der Mann hat alle s i n sich, und mag nur, nach den Worten Ficos von Mirandola, dies oder jenes i n sich besonders begunstigen.4~02 Weininger re-enforces his thesis as he argues i n the following chapter: Die unbegriffliche Natur des Weibes i s t aber, nicht minder als seine geringere BewuBtheit, ein Beweis dafiir, daB es kein Ich besitzt.403 A comparison of Weininger's statements on that point with Bachmann's emphasis on the identity of her woman characters should substantiate our doubts. Unless perhaps, one assumes a position of irony i n this context and argues that, because Bachmann's heroines have no "Ich" 178 they must search for one, but even in this case Bachmann proceeds beyond Weininger. A second point of c r i t i c i s m concerns the conclusions Reinert must draw because of his premise. We may pose the question how a bas i c a l l y complementing nature of male-female relationship as that described by Weininger can produce such violent and lethal opposition as that in the "Todesarten" novels? As a consequence of his approach, Reinert reduces the whole "murder" issue to the violent nature of death i t s e l f : INGEBORG BACHMANN selbst begreift jeden Tod, auch das n a t i i r l i -che, physische Absterben, als einen Gewaltakt, einen gegen den Willen des Menschen erfolgenden E i n g r i f f von aufien, also als eine Hinrichtung, einen Mord, mit dem nichts versohnen kann und der mit keinem Trost zu beschwichtigen i s t . In ihrem Roman 'Malina 1 heifit es: "Ich habe ihm auch noch sagen wollen, was ich langst begriffen habe - dafi man hier eben nicht s t i r b t , hier wird man ermordet." . . . Doch dies i s t nur die eine, wenngleich vorherrschende Seite des Todes. Hinzu kommt, dafi der Tod vieles mit der unbedingten, ekstatischen Liebe gemein hat: das Stillstehen der Zeit, das Freisein von den Fesseln des Irdischen und die Entgrenzung des Individuellen. Liebe und Tod, Mord und Lust stehen deswegen in INGEBORG BACHMANNs Werken i n einem befremdlichen, doch von hier aus erklarbaren Zusammenhang.404 We would argue here that i t i s Reinert's premise of male and female nature, that makes Bachmann's concept of "death" to him "befremdlich". It w i l l be recalled at this point that in our findings we stressed the difference between the " t r a d i t i o n a l " females such as the "Menschenfrauen" in "Undine geht" who are in harmony with their partners and Bachmann's heroines who are, because of their advanced nature, i n c o n f l i c t with the s t i l l " t r a d i t i o n a l " male characters. Another consequence of Reinert's interpretation of Bachmann's characters as purely " t r a d i t i o n a l " is that he must focus the c o n f l i c t between individual and society, 179 which he recognizes too, on the man - not the woman, since according to " t r a d i t i o n a l " psychology (such as Weininger's and Lersch's) the female l i v e s i n harmony with her environment: Wille und Rationalitat fordern im Manne das "BewuBtsein der Ab-gehobenheit seines Ichs von der Umwelt" (S. 79); das gesteigerte IchbewuBtsein entfremdet ihn von seiner Umwelt und laBt ihn den 'Fluch' der Individuation' (S. 80), die Erfahrung des radikalen Aufsichgestelltseins erleben. Die Frau dagegen "lebt, mit dem Manne verglichen, i n Symbiose mit der Umwelt" (S. 80) und verfiigt iiber ein unbewuBtes, unmittelbares Wissen 'von bestimmten kosmischen Vorgangen' . . .405 Thus, Reinert argues: Samtliche der feststellbaren Unterschiede lassen sich darauf zuriickfiihren, daB Jan sich der Liebe wie allem anderen verstandesmaBig nahert und samtliche Erfahrungen rational abzusichern sucht, bevor er sich zu ihnen bekennt; Motivation fiir seine Rationalitat i s t l e t z t l i c h der Wille, die i n d i v i -duelle Freiheit gegeniiber den Zwangen der Umwelt zu behaupten; . . .406 Lastly, one may question the strength of Reinert's conclusion regarding the emancipatory substance of Bachmann's presentation of the image of man, in view of his extensive analysis of this image as representing not only " t r a d i t i o n a l " concepts, but as nowhere extending beyond these concepts: Gerade wenn der Mensch sich i n seinen Wesensmerkmalen als historisches Wesen versteht, mufi er sich mit seiner Geschichte als einer Summe r e a l i s i e r t e r Moglichkeiten des Menschseins auseinandersetzen, urn sich seiner selbst gewifi zu werden. Und wenn er Einsicht in die Bedingungen des Menschseins gewinnen w i l l , wird er auf Dichtungen nicht verzichten konnen, die Erfahrungen gestaltet haben, i n denen die Zufalligkeiten und Besonderheiten ihrer Realitat zum Allgemeinen und Typischen, zur Wahrheit verdichtet wurden. Darin griindet die bleibende Aktualitat des Kunstwerkes; und in ihr i s t der Grund dafiir zu suchen, daB INGEBORG BACHMANN i n den letzten Jahren als eine Autorin entdeckt zu werden scheint, die gerade auch i n der Art und Weise, wie sie die Rolle der Frau im Verhaltnis zum Mann und zur Gesellschaft bestimmt, Bedenkenswertes zu sagen hat. Sollte sich diese Tendenz fortsetzen und als fundiert erweisen, dann bedeutete dies, daB heute i n der von vielen schon als reaktionar abgeschriebenen BACHMANNschen Konzeption 180 allmahlich der emanzipatorische Kern, das Aktuelle, das Wahre also, wiederentdeckt wird.^07 Furthermore, whereas we agree with Reinert that Bachmann advances no ideology or social program, we would argue that by reducing Bachmann' presentation of the male-female situation to a h i s t o r i c r e a l i t y and shi f t i n g the formulation of a possible message to the recipient, Reinert strips Bachmann's works of a precise and timely statement. A not insign i f i c a n t part of the second phase of Bachmann reception can be c l a s s i f i e d as p o l i t i c a l interpretations, often combined with a feministic approach. Sigrid Schmid-Bortenschlager discusses one aspect of Bachmann's image of the woman i n "Frauen als Opfer - Gesellschaftliche Realitat und lit e r a r i s c h e s Modell."^^ from a p o l i t i c a l point of view. Concluding an analysis of Bachmann's woman characters mainly i n Simultan, she writes: In Simultan und in der Romanwelt von Bachmann haben Frauen of-fenbar keine Chance: als Ehefrauen, die ihre Manner bewundern und beschiitzen, werden sie iiberfliissig wie Miranda, oder l a s t i g , wie Franziska, sobald sie nicht mehr unkritisch mitarbeitet und Jordan bewundert, als Mutter werden sie mit einem lacherlichen Almosen abgeschoben . . . sobald sie ihre Funktion e r f i i l l t haben; der Versuch, sich v o l l i g auf sich selbst zuriickzuziehen, wie bei Beatrix, i s t zum Scheitern v e r u r t e i l t , i s o l i e r t e s Leben i s t nicht moglich; lassen sie sich auf den beruflichen Wettkampf ein, so werden sie auch hier "ausgeniitzt", . . .409 Schmid-Bortenschlager then points to the d i f f i c u l t y of comparing Bachmann's seemingly real male-female dichotomy to her models of soci which, she argues, are partly abstract: Die Schwierigkeit der Interpretation dieses scheinbar so eindeutigen Befundes ergibt sich, wenn man diese Dichotomie Mann/Frau mit den Gesellschaftsmodellen im Werk Bachmanns vergleicht. Auch hier zeigt sich wieder ein polares Denken, der heilen Welt Osterreich-Ungarns, der Welt Matreis und Trottas steht die hafiliche Welt der Gegenwart mit ihren Krlegen, Warenhausern, ihrer Esperanto-Sprache gegeniiber. Doch wird hier deutlich, dafi die positive Halfte keine reale Schilderung der historischen osterreichisch-ungarischen 181 Monarchie sein w i l l , dafi es sich hierbei vielmehr um eine symbolische Chiffrierung zweiten und dritten Grades handelt ,410 She therefore concludes that Bachmann's male-female p o l a r i t y must also be taken as a model: Aiinlich wie sich das Gesellschaftsbild bei Bachmann als abstraktes Modell erweist, so kann auch die Polarisierung Mann/Vater/Gott/Morder gegen Frau/Tochter/Opfer nicht direkt r e a l i s t i s c h und feminlstisch i n t e r p r e t i e r t werden.4H She concludes by interpreting the male-female antagonism as one of exploiters and exploited within Capitalism: Bachmann geht es also i n diesen privaten Geschichten auch um ein gesellschaftliches Problem. Ihr polares Modell von Opfern und Mordern entspricht wohl am ehesten einer s i m p l i f i z i e r t e n Kapitalismusinterpretation von Ausbeutern und Ausgebeuteten, i n dem sich auch v i e l e der konkret angesprochenen Details unterbringen lassen . . .^12 F i n a l l y , Schmid-Bortenschlager directs attention to the problem of integrating Bachmann's frequent and concrete presentations of Uto p i a into her interpretation: Hier zeigt sich allerdings auch die Problematik von Bachmanns Werken, die subtil und genau menschliche Beziehungen und ihr Scheitern nachzeichnen, sich jedoch nicht damit begniigen, sondern immer wieder ansetzen zur lit e r a r i s c h e n Gestaltung einer konkreten Utopie, . . . Der Erzahlband Simultan i s t gegenuber . . . den Horspielen, aber auch noch gegenuber Malina reicher an realistischen Details, konkreten Beobachtungen, direkten Stellungnahmen zu politisch-gesellschaftlichen Tendenzen, doch diirfen diese Elemente nicht dazu verleiten, die Texte j e t z t konkret-mimetisch zu interpretieren, sie sind nach wie vor einge-spannt in das symbolische Weltmodell der Ingeborg Bachmann, .413 Comparing the results of our analysis to those of Schmid-Bortenschlager we find agreement on the point that Bachmann's male-female image can not be interpreted by a feministic approach although our findings are more definite on that point. A substantial difference, 182 however, to Schmid-Bortenschlager - and to other Imperialism/Capitalism interpretations - i s , that we have rejected the purely model-like nature of Bachmann's male-female antagonism. We have done this by analyzing i t s substance, i t s interdependence and i t s unity with the underlying conception of the world. To put i t simply, Schmid-Bortenschlager ' s interpretation would allow the substitution of the male-female antagonism by a white-black or rich-poor c o n f l i c t without effecting the substance of her conclusion. I t w i l l also be obvious, that our unified concept does not encounter the problem Schmid-Bortenschlager refers to, because concretion and abstraction (the male-female c o n f l i c t and Bachmann's concept of the world) are seen to be of one nature. Besides, one may question Schmid-Bortenschlager's premise that one half of Bachmann's concept of the world i s to be taken as re a l , the other not. Summing up the second part of our discussion of Bachmann c r i t i c i s m regarding the image of the woman, we found an increasing trend toward a sociological and p o l i t i c a l perspective which i n some aspects may require a reassessment of ea r l i e r purely l i t e r a r y approaches that were dominated by Bachmann's role as l y r i c i s t . We also found by comparing the substance of these conclusions to ours - where there was disagreement - that ours offer the more consistent and conclusive arguments i n respect to Bachmann's image of the woman in i t s entirety. CHAPTER XI OUR INTERPRETATIONS AND FINDINGS I. TODESARTEN AND THE TRAGIC CONDITION OF THE WOMAN During our analysis of the image of the woman i n Bachmann's prose, we have repeatedly drawn attention to a tragic dilemma i n her existence and her relationship with men. Our interpretation of this theme, especially as i t i s developed in the novels of the Todesarten, i s b u i l t on the two theories developed above: the search for freedom and personal identity, and the antagonistic nature of the male. The discussion i s largely based on the figure of Fanny Goldmann i n Requiem fur Fanny Goldmann who i s seen as an archetype for Bachmann's female protagonists i n general and the main female characters i n the Todesarten-cycle i n p a r t i c u l a r . A. The F a l l The question arises: why are Bachmann's women, despite their longing for independence, their non-rational insights, and their "counter—male" values, attracted to partners who become their j a i l e r s , tormenters and, eventually, their "murderers"? The answer is to be found i n the fact that Bachmann's heroines are subject to elements of their nature that are, and always have been, " t r a d i t i o n a l l y " female, such as longings for love, affection, protection, safety, guidance, and approval, such longings they find unable to r e s i s t . Our analysis 183 184 of the texts has shown thi s . After having extensively discussed the vestiges of such " t r a d i t i o n a l " female longings i n Bachmann's women and after having also observed the " t r a d i t i o n a l " patterns of behaviour in male-female relationships, we must conclude that " t r a d i t i o n a l " role behaviour i s the determining factor i n a l l i n i t i a l contacts of the female protagonists with their leading partners i n a l l of the three Todesarten novels. Fanny Goldmann i s concerned only about her appearance as she allows Marek to enter her apartment at night and 414 quickly becomes dependent on him: Fanny ". . . war . . . ihm horig". Franza marries a "father-image" and looks for protection. The narrator in Malina chases after Malina because she wants a l l her knowledge to 415 come from him; she was " . . . von Anfang an unter ihn g e s t e l l t " . In a l l of these cases, the male partners also represent " t r a d i t i o n a l " images: master, father/protector, teacher. Although Bachmann's females succeeded i n becoming non-"traditional" i n those aspects of their l i v e s which did not involve r e l a t i n g to men, as we have shown e a r l i e r , they are unable to extend their independence into the deeply emotional realm of love. Love i s never without dependence, without subordination. Thus, longing for love, i f not discarded, w i l l without f a i l drive Bachmann's females into involvement with, and dependence on, the male. There is a quality of determinism in the heroine's i n i t i a l meeting with her lover. The narrator i n Malina, for instance, r e f l e c t s on her f i r s t contact with Malina: " . . . und i c h muB fruh gewufit haben, daB er mir zum Verhangnis werden mtisse, dafi Malinas Platz schon von Malina besetzt war, ehe er sich in meinem Leben e i n s t e l l t e . Es i s t mir nur 185 erspart worden, oder ich habe es mir aufgespart, zu friih mit ihm zusammenzukommen.A force beyond the female's control i s also at work i n Franza's meeting of Jordan: Franza " . . . angeblich ohnmachtig geworden im Anatomiesaal, oder eine ahnliche romantische Geschichte A17 hatte sie dem F o s s i l i n die Arme getrieben, . . . " (Of course, pretending to f a i n t was considered to be a " t y p i c a l " and acceptable form of behaviour amongst " t r a d i t i o n a l " females.) The r o l e played by a higher authority i n Franza's relationship with Jordan i s also expressed at another point in the novel when Bachmann refers to their i n i t i a l 418 meeting: " . . . durch welchen RatschluB wohl?" A less obvious example can be found i n Requiem fur Fanny Goldmann, where Fanny's meeting of Marek does not seem to have risen from her own choice. Right from the beginning of this relationship, she appears to have been an object of fate. A l l of Bachmann's heroines are subject to a tragic quality because they are unable to break free of important " t r a d i t i o n a l " elements of their female nature or make them compatible with their new s e l f . (To make them compatible would be a paradox because partner-directed behaviour excludes ego-directed behaviour; i t implies the loss of the ego in the partner.) This tragic quality is not only responsible for luring the heroine into a psychological trap but also prevents her from becoming a f u l l y evolved, independent human being, from achieving the Grenzubertritt or from entering the "new world" Bachmann envisions. One may also see this tragic situation i n the wider theme developed by Bachmann i n the story Alles and elsewhere: man i s unable to create a 186 "new world" because he cannot escape the traditions and thought patterns of the past. Although i t is the tragic condition of Bachmann's heroines in the Todesarten novels - to a lesser extent of a l l heroines - that delivers them to their male oppressors, they are, however, not without re s p o n s i b i l i t y i n their own downfall. Franza speaks of an Amnadostrieb (a drive that leads a herd to slaughter), a Bluebeard marriage, but also of the female fascination for the world of the male and a woman's desire for wanting to know the incomprehensible and inexplicable nature of the male, though such knowledge may prove to be f a t a l . By submitting to their partner-oriented desires, to those q u a l i t i e s that are s t i l l " t r a d i t i o n a l " , Bachmann's heroines submit to the male. By submitting to the male, they forego, without intent, the p o s s i b i l i t y of becoming a "new woman", of achieving individual identity and freedom. As the self i s being enslaved, i t becomes corrupted and i s f i n a l l y destroyed. It i s f i r s t subjugated, then robbed of i t s identity, and f i n a l l y trapped. B. The Enslavement The f a l l of Bachmann's heroines, their attraction to the male and his world, i n i t i a t e s a process that leads them to a loss of judgement, to self-deception, to a loss of self-reliance and self-orientation, loss of values, a dist o r t i o n of their nature, and f i n a l l y to a destruction of their s e l f . Enslavement is the unavoidable consequence of their attraction. Their f a l l i s a gradual f a l l from freedom into enslavement. This constitutes the main development i n a l l three Todesarten novels. Franza, in Der F a l l Franza, becomes aware of the 187 beginnings of her enslavement when she r e f l e c t s on her relationship with Jordan: Wann hat es angefangen? Man meint, nicht mit dem An-fang, aber zuletzt weiB man: im Anfang. Da warnt dich et-was und schon horst du nicht zu, schiebst ein Gefiihl, das ^ du nachher fur dein erstes ausgibst, vor ein wirklich erstes. Again, we are confronted with an antithesis i n Bachmann's women, an antithesis between a " t r a d i t i o n a l " and an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c orientation, which causes so many of their c o n f l i c t s . Although one part of the woman i s driven to f a l l for the man, the other part signals a warning. This she ignores as her other-directed feelings come to the fore. It i s important to note - i n the context of our analysis above - that this warning i s a mere feeling. Bachmann's women comprehend not by i n t e l l e c t and reason but by i r r a t i o n a l insights and i n t u i t i o n . Intuition i s an essential quality of the evolved heroine. With i t , she becomes sensitive to the true nature of the male and to the dangerous situation she finds herself i n . But as her partner-directed feelings become stronger, they turn out to be agents of deception. Soon after her commitment to Marek, Fanny begins to doubt. She starts to distrust Marek's l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s and suspects him to be lazy as he makes use of her l i t e r a c y for his own gain. Yet, she hesitates to acknowledge his l i t e r a r y deceptions and finds excuses for him " . . . unmerklich, wurde die Person Marek einem Prozess unterzogen, aus dem sie immer bedeutender, vollkommener und fabelhafter, anbetungswiirdiger, hervorging . . ."^O ^ very similar situation exists i n Franza's case. Under the influence of love and affection, she ennobles Jordan's actions and ignores r e a l i t y and the warning given by her "other nature": 188 Gewarnt b i s t du. Durch eine Kopfhaltung, durch eine Handbewegung, durch eine Stimme, in der etwas fahl i s t , und im nachsten Moment, das kann einen Monat sparer sein, bemilhst du dich besonders, in dieser arroganten Bewegung etwas Riihrendes zu entdecken, vermutest eine Geschichte dahinter, die sich nie e i n s t e l l t , eine Unsicherheit, die nicht zutage t r i t t . Du l i e b s t j e t z t die Stimme, weil du aus ihr Melancholie heraushorst, und wenn sie aggressiv wird, dann horst du etwas Kiihnes, nun g e f a l l t es d i r schon, der Schwindel i s t vollkommen, du brauchst dich nicht betrvigen, der Betrug zeugt neuen Betrug. Nichts warnt dich mehr, das Signal wird nur einmal gegeben, wenn du mit dem anderen zum erstenmal i n einem Raum b i s t und es d i r be f i e h l t , hab acht, hab acht.^^l The process of subjugation continues when the woman drops her name, and thereby cuts herself off from her roots. She loses her identity; more important yet, she loses her a b i l i t y for discernment and s e l f -sufficiency; she becomes depersonalized. . . . du verlernst aus dem Unrat das Korn Wahrheit herauszufinden, dazu miifitest du dich zu sehr anstrengen, aber du lafit d i r schon aus dem Auto helfen, du trinkst schon einen Kaffee in einer s t i l l e n Gasse, du l i e g s t schon in einem Bett i n einem 19. Bezirk und suchst deine Dokumente zusammen, dein Heimatschein i s t eingetroffen und wird dir abverlangt, der Heimatschein kommt aus deiner Gemeinde, die w i l l s t du hinter d i r lassen, du probierst einen Namen aus, damit du ihn zum erstenmal gleich f l i i s s i g schreiben kannst. Dann verlafit du ein Standesamt, ein paar Stunden spater f a l l t eine Wohnungstur hinter d i r zu, jemand hebt dich auf, nachdem das Schlofi eingeschnappt i s t , du lachst mit jemand, als ware der Welt damit ein wunderbarer Streich gespielt worden mit diesem Tiirzufalien, dem Namenwechsel, du denkst keinen Augenbllck, er konnte d i r gespielt worden sein und schon einigen vor d i r . ^ 2 Next, she loses her independence of mind as she abandons her values and thoughts i n order to attach herself to the male's thinking. Franza rec a l l s this loss during her early relationship with Jordan: . . . dafi i c h v i e l l e i c h t den Ritterschlag verdienen, mir ver-dienen konnte, erdienen mit . . . Preisgabe meiner Gedanken, die sich erst zu bilden gehabt hatten. Ich hing mich . . . an seine Gedankenleitung, unvorsichtig, ich hatte mich auch an eine Starkstromleitung werfen konnen, das ware rascher und glimpflicher verlaufen, ein elektrischer Unfall, Totalschaden mit Verbrennungen, . . .423 189 This need to give up thinking, to abandon her own latent ideas, i s a consequence of a diminishing identity and the l a s t step toward the point of no escape. I t i s an act of self-denial which would only be harmless to a " t r a d i t i o n a l " woman. It i s l e t h a l to Bachmann's heroine. The heroine has been reduced to a state of helplessness and dependence. Usually, the heroine suddenly realises that the means for her free and individual existence have been destroyed. Bachmann uses frequently the images of language, sentences, or l e t t e r s , to demonstrate the loss. The narrator in Malina i s searched for her sentences and has them taken away by police before she i s put into j a i l . Fanny and Franza are reduced to readers - an image which i n Bachmann's terms stands for existence i n a foreign-designed world - of their l i f e ' s story, their own psychoanalysis. Franza receives a "new skin", Fanny has her dresses designed by Marek. E a r l i e r , we have discussed the meaning of self-selected dresses i n Malina. The suppression and decay of a woman's "other nature", the loss of her independence, i n d i v i d u a l i t y and her values, her s h i f t toward her " t r a d i t i o n a l " ways, her adjustment to the man's thinking, have made her helpless and insecure. A l l are typical of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " female. We are told that Fanny Goldmann becomes fe a r f u l and insecure after meeting Marek. We also note a similar situation in Malina and in Der F a l l Franza. This helplessness contributes to f a c i l i t a t e the eventual "murder" of the heroine and prevents her timely escape. Bachmann's heroines have become subjected to, and infected by, their male partners. The same helplessness makes them also plead for help and salvation. Only the man seems to be able to banish deadly disease and bring salvation: 190 . . . und wenn Fanny etwas wunschte, dann jedenfalls im An-fang, daB dies von ihr genommen werde, da sie es als Krankheit zum Tod erkannte, dafi Toni, seit sie dies wuBte, kommen moge, nicht mehr, damit noch irgendwas zwischen ihnen geregelt wiirde, nicht mehr fiir eine Rechenschaft, sondern, um das von ihr zu nehmen, ihr die Hand aufzulegen, es muBte etwas i n seinem Besitz geben (in wessen Besitz sonst), das sie erlosen konnte.424 The women's helplessness, their psychological dependence, denies them any individual freedom. There i s not only danger from without, from the man, that undermines their freedom but danger from within. Bachmann's heroines know about their infatuation, about their voluntary submission, and they sense the deadly effects these have on th e i r soul. Freedom also often entails alienation and i s o l a t i o n . We have e a r l i e r discussed the role of the outsider and the theme of s o c i a l commitment and see in the partner-oriented urges of Bachmann's females a perhaps subconscious social yearning to compensate for the sense of alienation a truly independent individual can f e e l . Furthermore, there appears to be an automatic quality within the chain of cause and effect which leads the heroine step by step toward her enslavement. This can easil y be seen when analysing the development of the heroines in the Todesarten. There i s shown to us a further dimension in the image of the female. She becomes a representation of p o l i t i c a l and social developments during the r i s e of totalitarianisms i n this century. In Bachmann's writings Fascism, as we have suggested e a r l i e r , i s synonymous with certain ways of male behaviour. C. The Trap The tragic development continues as the feeling of helplessness changes into the heroine's r e a l i z a t i o n that she is trapped. Bachmann 191 depicts this psychological condition of entrapment by painting gruesome pictures of traps, of which the gaschamber i s the ultimate example. Other forms are the prison c e l l , the labyrinth, the tomb, the cage, a deadly disease l i k e cancer, or a high-voltage fence of barbed wire. What has caused this psychological feeling of entrapment, this claustrophobia? For Franza i t i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that her whole emotional l i f e i s observed, tabulated and analysed. She speaks of the cage of Jordan's notes. In these notes, which contain the analysis and description of her mind and behaviour, her innermost.being is imprisoned. Worse, she i s reduced to a calculable and manipulable object that has to l i v e i n fear and terror. For Fanny Goldmann, on the other hand, i t i s the recognition that her l i f e ' s intimate experiences and feelings are caught and put on display when they are described, exposed and marketed i n Marek's book. Such display causes fear and hate i n her, a hate that she likens to cancer and a mortal sickness. It i s the re a l i z a t i o n of having been misused, thrown away, and having her ideals and values she has held destroyed. For the narrator i n Malina i t i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that, for her, survival i n Malina's or Ivan's world is impossible; i n i t , she can not retain or develop her identity; her personality has been reduced to a caricature. Generalizing from the individual instances, we must conclude that the progressive reduction of the woman's se l f , the entrapment of her ego, by the inner compulsion to feel and act in a " t r a d i t i o n a l " way and by the outer forces imposed on her by her partner is responsible for her anxiety and fear. It is fear which leads into the trap. Also, for Bachmann's heroines the loss of the ego means loss of human identity. 192 This explains the repeated animal imagery Bachmann provides i n connection with the trap: Wie habe ich mich benommen, wie ein Tier, das in seinem Kafig auf-und niederrennt, und wenn ich die Stabe hatte durchrennen konnen mit meinem Schadel, ware i c h noch im Kafig gewesen, i n dem Kafig seiner Notizen, die mich verfolgten, die mir vorausgingen.^25 The r e a l i z a t i o n of having been trapped i s a sudden one and i t appears to be a turning point i n the consciousness of Bachmann's women. A l l three heroines in the Todesarten speak of a sudden change, a sudden disillusionment about their partners and often, also, about human values i n general. This sudden r e a l i z a t i o n at the climax precipitates the f i n a l development toward destruction. This suddenness can even be observed i n Bachmann's short narrative Im Himmel und auf Erden where Justin uses Amelie to steal for him. The reader i s told that Amelie, after having been arrested, suddenly realizes her t e r r i b l e victimization: "Da stiirzte die E i n f a l t aus ihren Augen und wechselte mit einem Abgrund des Wissens, der mit einemmal ihn und sie und das 426 Gefiige ihrer Beziehungen verschlang." Similar words are used to describe Eanny Goldmann's in s t i n c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n of her situation: Wie die Ankundigungen von schweren Krankheiten, die des Zusammenhangs noch entbehren, wie die Ahnungsanfalle vor Todesfallen, Absturzen, hatte Fanny etwas zwischen der Michaelerkirche und der KartenerstraBe angefallen, und sie hatte diese etwas groBeren Augen, die nicht zum Schauen da sind, nicht zum Anblicken, zum Begreifen, sondern zum ^ 7 Nichtverstehen, zum Starren, zur Fassungslosigkeit, . . . At one point toward the end, the narrator i n Malina t e l l s the reader: "Ivan i s t nicht mehr Ivan, ich sehe ihn an wie ein K l i n i k e r , der eine Rontgenaufnahme studiert, ich sehe sein Skelett, Flecken in seiner Lunge . . .' A similar situation is revealed by Franza suddenly 193 r e a l i z i n g Jordan's true character: "Ja, ich habe ihn nur angesehen, und dann ging mir auf, was seine Strategie war, er war ein groBer Stratege, . . . und dann wuBte ich, daB er genau wuBte, er wuBte, was i n mir 429 vorging und er genoB es, . . ." Thus, the feeling of being trapped represents the psychological state of helplessness, of fear, and the recognition that one cannot escape since a l l the means for such an escape, for survival i t s e l f , have been l o s t or given up voluntarily. D. Death Execution, or murder, threatens a l l of Bachmann's women. Keywords associated with i t appear throughout Bachmann's work: murder, murderer, execution, executioner, g u i l l o t i n e , torture, massacre, fatal disease, cancer, slaughter, s a c r i f i c e , terror, gaschamber, graveyard of daughters. Bachmann's metaphors for violent death in the Todesarten novels range from the "white murder" symbolized by the wedding dress and the wedding to the slaughter of a lamb representing Fanny GoIdmann's fate. We have previously discussed the destruction of the female's inner identity by the male. In the Todesarten novels the heroine i s either k i l l e d by having her mind and behaviour studied, analyzed and manipulated (Franza), or by having her inner experiences f i c t i o n a l i z e d and marketed (Fanny), or by being reduced to a fixed role, to an i n f e r i o r being, a caricature of her former self (the narrator in Malina): ". . . weil ich zu einer Karikatur geworden bin, im Geist 430 und im F l e i s c h . " Destruction may also be caused by a repression 194 of thought, speech, or willpower, as well as by the annihilation of her s e l f - i d e n t i t y through "love". Destruction, or death, i s a process of depersonalization that i s triggered and sustained by the male as well as by the female as we discussed e a r l i e r . It i s also sustained by stereotyping her, by denying her in d i v i d u a l i t y , by projecting a false image onto herself. A further and more devastating way to cause "death" i s to penetrate her identity, k i l l her self-awareness, and her a b i l i t y to express herself. This i s brought about by the destruction of her sentences, her speech. It goes hand in hand with the destruction of her personality from without. A very poetic presentation of the ways to k i l l , namely through sex, i s given i n Requiem for Fanny Goldmann. A deadly assault on the heroine's s e l f - i d e n t i t y i s made when her name is swallowed up, consumed, i n the act of sexual love: . . . i h r a l t e r Name Fanny war i n seinem jungen Namen Walter untergegangen, hatte sich von ihm iiberwaltigen lassen, er war i n a l l e ihre Buchstaben eingedrungen, sein A hatte mit ihren Vokalen sich beriihrt, seine Konsonanten sich mit ihren verschlungen, sie hatten sich befeuchtet, sich gedreht i n -einander, er hatte ihren Namen aufgeweicht, ihn vom F bis zum Ypsilon umarmt, ihr Name war so besamt von seinem Namen, er war auch i n ihr aufgegangen, so hatte sie gemeint, aber nein, er war es nicht, er hatte sie umbenannt, er nannte sie Stephanie i n seinem Buch, . . .^31 It should be noted here that i t i s not sex i t s e l f which is destructive but her depersonalisation which accompanies i t . The narrator i n Bachmann's Malina describes her relationship to Ivan in very similar words. Here, her identity i s not destroyed: Wenn Ivan auch gewiB fur mich erschaffen worden i s t , so kann ich doch nie a l l e i n auf ihn Anspruch erheben. Denn er i s t gekommen, um die Konsonanten wieder fest und fafilich zu machen, um die Vokale wieder zu offnen, damit sie v o l l tonen, um mir 195 die Worte wieder iiber die Lippen kommen zu lassen, urn die ersten zerstorten Zusammenhange wiederherzustellen und die Probleme zu erlosen, und so werde ich kein Jota von ihm abweichen, ich werde unsre identischen, hellklingenden Anfangsbuchstaben, mit denen wir unsre kleinen Zettel unterzeichnen, aufeinanderstimmen, iibereinanderschreiben, und nach der Vereinigung unserer Namen konnten wir vor s i c h t i g anfangen, mit den ersten Worten dieser Welt wieder die Ehre zu erweisen, damit sie wiinschen mufi, sich wieder die Ehre zu geben, und da wir die Auferstehung wollen und nicht die Zerstorung, hiiten wir uns, einander schon o f f e n t l i c h mit den Handen zu beriihren, . . . ^ Both quotations i l l u s t r a t e not only the dilemma of Bachmann's heroines, the need to retain individual identity amidst a passion which i s s e l f -consuming, but also the importance of language as a means of s e l f -expression and self-awareness. Although, we discussed e a r l i e r the role that writing and other creative a c t i v i t i e s play i n Bachmann's novels, and their importance to the heroines, we should add here that there are two forms of writing i n the novels. Marek, as well as the narrator i n Malina write, but both do so in completely different ways and with different effects. Marek's way of writing i s "second hand"; he copies Fanny's experiences. This i s so because true "male" writing can only be analytic, descriptive and objective. Marek i s not able to produce truly subjective, creative writing, and has also f a i l e d as a playwright. His writing i s , l i k e Jordan's or any other man's writing, destructive to women. Female writing, on the other hand, i f i t has not been contaminated by male influences, i s shown in Bachmann's prose to be truly creative and to have a self-assertive, l i f e - g i v i n g , inspiring, effect. Throughout the Todesarten we find a connection between sex, sexual oppression, and assault on the woman's indi v i d u a l i t y and her 196 "other" nature. The destructive action of Marek i s i n t e n s i f i e d by Bachmann's combining sexual with l i n g u i s t i c imagery. Here, one may observe in the destruction of Fanny's name a s t y l i z e d form of castration which also underlies the image of the severed ring fingers of the dead daughters r i s i n g from their graves i n Malina. Furthermore, the re-appearing archetypal father figure throughout Bachmann's Todesarten novels, especially i n Malina, i s laden with imagery of sexual oppression and destructiveness. These range from the huge, black, leech-like, hoses attached to the gaschamber i n which the narrator in Malina i s locked by her father/murderer, to the jewel-studded st a f f of the University of Vienna subduing her i n t e l l e c t , or to the piece of apple stuck i n Franza's throat almost k i l l i n g her, to the t r i p l e meaning of "aufs Kreuz gelegt". In the l a s t two images, one notices a fusion of sexual and b i b l i c a l imagery. There are throughout the Todesarten novels repeated analogies between sex, sexual oppression, b r u t a l i t y , and the destruction of women. The death of the heroine takes on i t s strongest significance when Fanny Goldmann i s seen as a Christ figure in i t s religious and s a c r i f i c i a l setting. The mount of Olives, the sponge with vinegar, the lamb of God, and the slaughter of the lamb, are used by Bachmann to convey a s p i r i t u a l dimension. E a r l i e r we have noted that the woman's better nature could mean salvation for both men and women. In this respect Bachmann's heroines are the receivers of divine g i f t s or messages. They come, as Bachmann phrases i t , from the "highest authority" beyond the image of the almighty father in Malina: 197 Man durchsucht mich, weil ich ohne BewuBtsein bin, man w i l l mir den Mund befeuchten, die Zunge nassen, damit die Satze auf ihr zu finden sind, damit man sie si c h e r s t e l l e n kann, aber dann findet man nur drei Steine neben mir und weiB nicht, woher sie gekommen sind und was sie bedeuten. Es sind drei harte, leuchtende Steine, die mir zugeworfen worden sind von der hochsten Instanz, auf die auch mein Vater keinen Einflufi hat, und ich a l l e i n weiB, welche Botschaft durch jeden Stein kommt. Der erste r o t l i c h e Stein, i n dem immerzu junge B l i t z e zucken, der i n die Zelle gefalien i s t , vom Himmel, sagt: Staunend leben. Der zwei-te blaue Stein, in dem a l l e Blaus zucken, sagt: Schreiben im Staunen. Und ich halte schon den dr i t t e n weiBen strahlen-den Stein i n der Hand, dessen Niederfallen niemand aufhalten konnte, auch mein Vater nicht, aber da wird es so f i n s t e r i n der Zelle, daB die Botschaft von dem dr i t t e n Stein nicht laut wird. Der Stein i s t nicht mehr zu sehen. Ich werde die letzte Botschaft nach meiner Befreiung erfahren.433 The symbolic meaning of the rocks i s complex. Perhaps, some point of likeness to Wolfram's holy g r a i l was intended. In any case, the rocks do represent the essence of the better nature of Bachmann's heroines. The message of the rocks c l e a r l y relates to the "magic" and the "poetic" within the woman, that divine spark which the male characters endeavour to k i l l . During the "murder", Malina, after breaking the narrator's sunglasses (symbol of her eyes), throws her blue glass cube into the wastepaper basket. Here i t is a cube, not a rock, but the reference to the above passage is clear. Number and colour both are the same. The cube repesents the "divine" part of a woman's nature, that which i s destroyed. Returning to the Christ image of Fanny Goldmann, we now perceive i t as part of a religious symbolism that encompasses the anti-Eve image as well as a divine message: Bachmann's heroines as the daughters and messengers of God are meant to humanize a world deformed by the male, are k i l l e d , and s a c r i f i c e d . Their "sentences" are taken from them; they are prevented from spreading the divine 198 message; they are silenced. Bachmann's rather savage image of Marek's consuming Fanny's fles h and blood re-enforces the idea of a most "unholy" communion. E. Grenziibertritt We have now reached the leve l at which Bachmann's concept of Grenziibertritt becomes clear. I t i s the antithesis to death. Although, during the f i r s t stages of development everything seems to lead toward death, opposing forces are simultaneously at work. This time, Bachmann's heroines act out of their "other" nature. Although they f a l l i n love, they are able to retain their d i s t i n c t character. In Der gute Gott von Manhattan, Jan i s unable to take possession of Jennifer, although he t r i e s . Attempting to discover a l l her secrets, he says: JAN: Aber werde ich hinter a l l e kommen? - Oh, es wird mich Eifersucht heimsuchen und nicht freigeben, eh ich die okkul-ten Farben innen kenne und die geheimen Gange durch Z e l l -kammern, das ausgeschiittete Salz im Geweb, Larven und Lampione darin, Mosaikboden mit den Darstellungen ver-sunkener Mythen. Schwammwerk und Mark. Die ganze verschwenderisehe Anlage, die du b i s t , und die ohne Ruhm vergehen s o i l . JAN: Dann i s t wenig Zeit auf der Welt. Denn wenn all e s ent-deckt und verformelt i s t , wird die Lasur deiner geschmeidi-gen Augen und die blonde Haarsteppe auf deiner Haut von mir noch nicht begriffen sein. Wenn all e s gewuSt, geschaf-fen und wieder zerstort sein wird, werde ich noch verfiihrt werden im Labyrinth deiner Blicke. Und es wird mich das Schluchzen, das deinen Atemweg heraufkommt, bestiirzen wie nichts sonst. ^34 This time, the man t r i e s to understand the woman not through analysis but through his emotions. And because he f a i l s (and knows that he w i l l f a i l again) the woman i s saved. Her emotional t e r r i t o r y i s foreign to him. A very similar development takes place in Ein Geschaft mit 199 Traumen. Here, Anna, although she appears to love Lauranz, rejects her lover's offer of protection and seeks eternal freedom at the bottom of the sea. Her reaction to her male partner i s the opposite of that of those heroines who end by being murdered. In both of these cases of Grenziibertritt, the men retreat; they are unable, or unwilling, to follow their lovers into the realm of emotion and freedom. They are unable to confine the women, subjugate them, or comprehend them unlike men in the Todesarten. To Anna and Jennifer, "death" also happens, but i t presents i t s e l f i n a different manner. In Grenziibertritt i t i s the "physical" part of the woman's se l f which dies, and i t is her ex i s t e n t i a l "other" nature which survives i n eternity. Therein l i e s Bachmann's concept of immortality; there i s no b e l i e f i n tra d i t i o n a l Christian a f t e r l i f e . As to the image of the woman, Bachmann's treatment of her i n Grenziibertritt can be seen as a counterpart to her treatment i n Todesarten. Both f i t the overall male-female antithesis. F. The Magic of the Woman Many different d i a l e c t i c views of the world have been developed throughout history. But Ingeborg Bachmann presents i n her male-female antithesis a d i a l e c t i c view i n s p e c i f i c a l l y sexual images, actions, c o n f l i c t s , and processes. This makes her image of the woman so unique. It far transcends mere issues of emancipation. Thus, the Todesarten cycle ought to be seen as a l i t e r a r y presentation of the interaction between two co n f l i c t i n g worlds. Attraction and repulsion are their dynamics; harmonious coexistence i s impossible. Bachmann, 200 despite presenting also the positive sides of the male world, leaves no doubt i n the reader's mind with whom her hopes and sympathies l i e . What i s i t that the k i l l e r s aim for? What i s i t that they wish to destroy? One finds the answers i n the heroines' own words: "das andere i n mir", "mein Lachen, meine Z a r t l i c h k e i t , mein Freuenkonnen, mein Mitleiden, Helfenkonnen, meine Animalitat, mein Strahlen", "die Magie", "die Poesie". These q u a l i t i e s are the target since men do not only lack them but completely oppose them. The protagonist's w i l l to destroy these q u a l i t i e s and those who possess them i s part of Bachmann's d i a l e c t i c . She sees a world i n which women participate i n a magical, beautiful, ideal state of existence which i s destroyed by the man's skeptical, unemotional nature and his w i l l to power. The woman becomes his victim. She i s destroyed. She is Christ on the cross s a c r i f i c e d to man's e v i l nature, to his oppression, to the war and death he brings upon the world. The theses of the "inner world", of "female emancipation", of the "aufgeloste Figur", and of female "neurosis" discussed i n the previous chapter, are representative of most scholarly interpretations of Bachmann's works. The major difference between these interpretations and our own i s that these c r i t i c s assume that there i s , for Bachmann, the p o s s i b i l i t y of a harmonious existence between man and woman, while we do not. They trace Bachmann's sexual d i a l e c t i c to an imbalance of a normally harmonious order, an imbalance brought about by either a suppression of equal rights (S. Weigel) or a lack of understanding and 435 love (R. Endres). An imbalance can also be caused by an outsider, 201 by female psychological disorders, by "Verinnerlichung" which i s seen to be a n t i - s o c i a l , auto-erotic, and decadent, and to be leading to suicide (M. Jurgensen). Last but not least, Bachmann's c o n f l i c t s are seen i n reference to Musil and his o r i g i n a l male/female unity, or else interpreted as an inner projection of "Doppelgeschlechtlichkeit" or "Doppelleben" (H. Pausch, E. Summerfield). I t appears to us, however, that Bachmann does not see the f e a s i b i l i t y of a male/female state of harmony on this earth because of a fundamental antagonism between the two sexes. A synthesis of emotion and i n t e l l e c t , of f a i t h and knowledge, of good and e v i l , would be a paradox; harmony would be impossible between such opposite spheres. Bachmann accepts the "Rifi durch die Welt", a world divided by irreconcilable opposites, as r e a l i t y , but she also envisions the magical dawning of a new world i n which a new womanhood w i l l emerge reversing the f a l l of mankind: Ein Tag wird kommen, an dem die Erauen rotgoldene Au-gen haben, rotgoldenes Haar, und die Poesie ihres Ge-schlechts wird wiedererschaffen werden . . .436 The new woman w i l l bring about a more loving and humane world: Ein Tag wird kommen, an dem die Menschen rotgoldene Augen und siderische Stimmen haben, an dem ihre Hande begabt sein werden fur die Liebe, und die Poesie ihres Geschlechts wird wiedererschaffen sein . . .437 The magical powers of the woman w i l l dominate the world, a world free of male "progress". The new woman w i l l usher i n the golden age: . . . und ihre Hande werden begabt sein fur die Giite, sie werden nach den hochsten a l l e r Giiter mit ihren schuld-losen Handen greifen, denn sie sollen nicht ewig, denn es sollen die Menschen nicht ewig, sie werden nicht ewig war ten miissen . . . 202 Ein Tag wird kommen, an dem unsere Hauser f a l l e n , die Autos werden zu Schrott geworden sein, von den Flug-zeugen und von den Raketen werden wir h e f r e i t sein, den Verzicht l e i s t e n auf die Erflndung des Rads und der Kernspaltung, der frische Wind wird niederkommen von den blauen HugeIn und unsere Brust weiten, wir werden tot sein und atmen, es wird das ganze Leben sein. In den Wusten wird das Wasser versiegen, wir werden wieder i n die Wiiste konnen und die Offenbarungen schauen, die Savannen und die Gewasser i n ihrer Rein-heit werden uns einladen, die Diamanten werden im Ge-stein bleiben und uns al i e n leuchten, der Urwald wird uns aus dem Nachtwald unserer Gedanken ubernehmen, wir werden aufhoren, zu denken und zu leiden, es wird die Erlosung sein. 38 Yet within this very poetic v i s i o n , Bachmann offers no concrete ideas about the future. Her Utopia, l i k e many others, exists i n the misty vagueness of the poetic imagination. This i s not a flaw. Bachmann intends her v i s i o n to serve not as a blueprint but as a beacon, warning and guiding towards a future which we are approaching through the constant "Interplay of the unattainable with the possible". FOOTNOTES •""The term " t r a d i t i o n a l " describing aspects of the soc i a l role image of the woman discussed in this study w i l l be based on two foundations. F i r s t , i t w i l l be used i n i t s s o c i o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n as given i n : Horrocks, John E., and Jackson, Dorothy W. Self and Role: A Theory of Self-Process and Role Behavior. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1972, pp. 106-107. H i s t o r i c a l l y , roles have been defined as positions or status arrangements existing i n s o c i a l l y structured organizations. Divisions of labor within these organi-zations provide d i f f e r e n t i a l structures, for example, levels of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and obligation. By allocating status to structural conditions, roles provide a neces-sary hierarchy for maintenance and perpetuation of a s o c i a l organization. Individuals become members of a social group through the assumption and performance of ascribed and s o c i a l l y acceptable aspired roles. Tradi-t i o n a l l y , an individual's self-meaning was defined, derived, and interpreted by his gradual adoption of roles required for adaptat ion to the social system. Thus, the h i s t o r i c a l approach to understanding the development of s e l f was to focus upon overt position and status behaviors as producers of an individual's identity concepts. According to this approach, each individual develops a social identity which i s his self-meaning. Such i d e n t i -ties develop by appropriate performance of behaviors required by the "generalized others" (Mead, 1934). The individual becomes adaptive to his society by r e f l e c t i n g a mirror image of s e l f (Cooley, 1922) by his increasing approximations of becoming what his roles demand and others expect. Second, i t w i l l be applied in our analysis in the same way as many of the c r i t i c a l studies on Bachmann's works have with the same implica-tions done. The following examples are given for reference: Rita Jo Horsley: . . . she [Charlotte] is blind to the fact that she would be perpetuating the t r a d i t i o n a l masculine and feminine roles through her exchange of the subordinate position for that of the oppressor. (p. 278) 203 204 . . . the story c r i t i c i s e s the oppressiveness of the tra d i t i o n a l female experience in heterosexual relations, . . . (p. 279) . . . Charlotte has already departed from more t r a d i -tional roles of housewife and mother, . . . (p. 279) "Ingeborg Bachmann's Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha . . ." In: Amsterdamer Beitrage zur Neueren Germanistik, Heft 10 (1980), pp. 277-293. Holger Pausch: Diese Tatsache a l l e i n ware wohl kaum beachtenswert, wenn sich ihr CBachmannsD Frauenbild nicht erheblich von dem trad i t i o n e l l e n i n der Literatur unterschiede. (p. 64) In den fiinf Erzahlungen des Bandes Simultan wird der Ausbruch aus der tra d i t i o n e l l e n Rollenethik der Frau i n der Gesellschaft nicht mehr . . . philosophierend untermauert. (p. 68) Ingeborg Bachmann. Berlin: Colloquium, 1975. Gabriele B a i l : A l l e drei Manner erwarten von der Ich-Figur, dafi sie im Rahmen patriarchalischer Strukturen t r a d i t i o n e l l e Frauenrollen ubernimmt. (p. 55) Weibliche Identitat: Ingeborg Bachmanns "Malina". Gottingen: Edition Herodot, 1984. Claus Reinert: Der Hinweis auf Weininger und der Rekurs auf Lersch sollen nur verdeutlichen, wie sehr Ingeborg Bachmanns Menschenbild tradierten Anschauungen entspricht, . . . (p. 213) Unzumutbare Wahrheiten?: Einfiihrung i n Ingeborg Bachmanns Horspiel "Der gute Gott von Manhattan". Bonn: Bouvier, 1983. The term " t r a d i t i o n a l " or "tr a d i t i o n a l role image" w i l l be used by us to describe characteristics, behaviour,"norms and forms of status found during the analysis of Bachmann's woman characters that are or appear to be p a r t i a l l y or wholly identical or comparable to those of the late nineteenth century bourgeois social role of the woman. The term sex-specific denotes that a characteristic, a form of behavior, an attribute, a disease, etc., i s di s t i n c t to one sex only. This term 205 i s frequently used i n the l i t e r a r y analysis and c r i t i c i s m of Bachmann's women characters and to a lesser extent also for her men characters. It i s usually used to denote a form of thinking and behaving that i s attributed by Bachmann to one sex only. In t h i s sense, i t w i l l be used i n our analysis also. As the term i s used i n i t s general denotation, we are not setting i t i n quotation marks. 2 Ingeborg Bachmann, 'Literatur als Utopie," i n Ingeborg Bachmann, eine Einfuhrung (Munich: Piper, 1963), p. 17. 3 Literatur als Utopie," p. 15. 4 For instance: Holger Pausch, Ingeborg Bachmann (Berlin: Colloquium, 1975), pp. 40-41. ^Pausch, Ingeborg Bachmann, p. 74. ^Although Anna plays rather a major part, she has been c l a s s i f i e d as secondary because she shows very l i t t l e character development; also the radio play i s a very early work (1952) not showing yet a l l the typical Bachmann features of the female character. 7M. Jurgensen, ed., Frauenliteratur: Autorinnen -Perspektiven - Konzepte (Munich: dtv, 1985). g Some of the more recent publications and dissertations which proved useful for this paper were: Koseoglu, Lale. Die Stellung der Frauenfiguren i n den Dramen von Friedrich Diirrenmatt, Max Frisch und Hans Giinter Michelsen bis 1968. Diss. Hamburg, 1974. Hamburg: n. p., 1974. Me r r i f i e l d , Doris Fulda. Das B i l d der Frau bei Max Frisch. Freiburg: Universitatsverlag, 1971. Silberman, Alphons, and Kriiger, Udo Michael. Abseits der Wirklichkeit. Das Frauenbild i n deutschen Lesebiichern. Koln: Wissenschaft und P o l i t i k , 1971. Vieth, Adolf Rudolf. Die Stellung der Frau i n den Werken von Frank Wedekind. Diss. Wien, 1939~ Wien: n. p., 1939. 206 9 Compare: H. Pausch, Ingeborg Bachmann, p. 76. ^°0ne may argue whether the elder Frau Jordan or rather Franziska i s the leading character of this story. However, almost a l l secondary female characters are also within this age range. ^''"Although Elisabeth i n Drei Wege zum See i s forty-nine, the reader i s told that her appearance i s that of a woman i n her late t h i r t i e s . 12 Compare: Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 94. 13 . . . In the case of Jennifer, Hanna, Nadja, Beatrix, Elisabeth, the elder Frau Jordan and Franza. 14 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 398. "''^ The narrator i n Malina, Jennifer, Charlotte, Mara, Nadja and Franza. 16 In Bachmann's terms of reference, preoccupation with language f a l l s i n the arti s t i c - c r e a t i v e - a e s t h e t i c realm. "^Bachmann, Werke, III , p. 18. 18 Bachmann, Werke, III, pp. 89-90. 19 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 346 f f . 20 One may consider here her concern regarding the Akademiker. 21 Based on the Mxihlbauer interview and on her correspondence. 22 . . . Law, the Rigorosum m philosophy, The University of Vienna. 23 The narrator m Malma, Charlotte, Hanna, Gerda, Franziska and Franza. 24 The question, whether this milieu i s one of the causes for the desire of Bachmann's women to seek li b e r a t i o n - as has been suggested by some c r i t i c s - w i l l be discussed later on. 207 25 . • An exception here may be noted m the case of Anna m E u i Geschaft mit Traumen, though she i s not considered to be a leading character for the purpose of this study. This radio play i s a very early work and i s in many ways not characteristic of Bachmann's later writings. 26 Nadja appears to be the only example where some form of independence i s gained through work. Compare: Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 286. 27 Compare i n this context also Chapter III, The Role of the Professional. 28 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 287. 29 Chapters VII and VIII. 30 Albrecht Weber, "Didaktische Perspektiven zum Werk Ingeborg Bachmanns," in Interpretationen zu Ingeborg Bachmann, ed. by R. Hirschenauer and A. Weber (Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1976), pp. 28-29. It ought to be noted that Weber's conclusions are not supported by this study and that his term das Aufierordentliche would make sense only as meaning the irregular, the unconventional as i t i s precisely the Aufierordentliche, i.e. perfect love, which Bachmann's women do not find. 31 Compare Chapter VI, The biographical versus the text-immanent view of the image of the female. 32 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 203. 33 In this context attention i s drawn to the "dream" aspect of love which w i l l be discussed later on. Examples are: Ein Geschaft mit Traumen and the tales of the Princes of Kagran i n Malina. 3 A Explanation to the chart (column "adultery") lesbian means lesbian inclinations or experiences + means i n f i d e l i t y committed by the husband x means adultery committed by wife or by single g i r l with married man 35 I l l i s Plenge, Die Emanzipation des Mannes (Stuttgart: A. Bonz, 1969), p. 42. The translation i s given by the author of this study. Plenge goes on to attack this image as biased and based neither on biolo g i c a l nor psychological facts. 208 "^Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 136. ^^Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 330. 38 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 330. 39 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 332. Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 340. I. Plenge , Die Emanzipation . . ., p. 12. ^Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 306. ^^Bachmann, Werke, I l l , pp. 31, 62; I, p. 248 44 Bachmann, Werke, III, pp. 135--136. 45 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 57 f f . 46 E.g.: The first-person narrator i n Malina. 47 Compare: Betty Eriedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York: Norton, 1963). M. H. Garskof, ed., Roles Women Play: Readings Toward Women's Liberation (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1973). Jutta Menschik, ed., Grundlagentexte zur Emanzipation der Frau (Koln: Pahl-Rugenstein, 1976). J. Menschik, E. Leopold, Gretchens rote Schwestern. Frauen i n der DDR (Frankfurt a.M.: Fischer, 1974). 48 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 248. 49 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 249. "^For a discussion of the thesis of Innenwelt see Chapter IX. '^'"W. H. F r i t z and H. Heissenbuttel, "Uber Ingeborg Bachmanns Roman 'Malina,'" Text und K r i t i k 6 (1971), pp. 25-26. 52 H. G. Funke, Ingeborg Bachmann , zwei Horspiele (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1969), pp. 62-63. 209 53 The exception being the so-called Menschenfrauen m Undine geht. "^Compare for instance the figure of the Waldweib in Tieck's Der Runenberg. "^Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 255. "^Denis de Rougemont, L'Amour et 1*Occident (1939), t r . as Passion and Society by M. Belgion i n a revised edition (London, 1956) ~*^Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 244-245. 58 Bachmann, Werke, II I , p. 211. 59 Compare Chapter IV below. 60 Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 246-247. '^'"Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 257. 6 2 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 258. 6 3 Bachmann, Werke, III, pp. 40-41. 64 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 48. 65 Bachmann, Werke, II I , p. 48. 66 "Ingeborg Bachmanns Erzahlung 'Alles,'" Muttersprache, 72 (1962), p. 326. 6 7 Compare Chapter III below. ^Frankfurter Hefte, 7 (1953), p. 10. 69 Compare also Bachmann's radio-essay "Sagbares und Unsagbares - Die Philosophie Ludwig Wittgensteins" discussed i n Chapter V. ^ I t ought to be noted, that s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l theories influence such discussions frequently. Note also i n this context the graph below. 210 M. H. Garskof, ed., Roles Women Play: Readings Toward Women's Liberation (Belmont: Brooks/Cole Publ. Co., Inc., 1973), p. 27. Quoted in the reader Die Silberfracht (Frankfurt/M.: Hirschgraben, 1967), p. 87. ' "^Compare among others: Heinrich B o l l , Haus ohne Hilter (Frankfurt/M.: U l l s t e i n , 1974). 74 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 256. 75 Compare the following chapter for a discussion on interaction with children. 76 Albrecht Weber, "Das Gebell," i n Interpretationen zu Ingeborg Bachmann, ed. R. Hirschenauer and A. Weber (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1975), p. 116. ^Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 150. 78 Bachmann, Werke, III , p. 147. 79 . . . . Compare the parent-image i n Jug end i n emer osterreichischen Stadt; see also Chapter VI below for a discussion on biographic elements i n Bachmann's characterizations of women. 80 See the section on the marital status i n Chapter II. 81 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 160. 82 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 110. 83 Although the marital status i s not quite clear, Malina may certainly be considered at least a common law mate. The opinion of some c r i t i c s , seeing Malina as an al t e r ego of the narrator, should not invalidate the observations within this study. 84 Pa r t i c u l a r l y i n respect to Chapter II , "Der Dritte Mann," of Malina. Giinter Blocker, "Auf der Suche nach dem Vater," Merkur, 25 (1971), p. 396. 211 86 A discussion of the complex psychic relationship between Malina and the narrator, especially regarding the third chapter, would transgress the topic of this chapter. 87 W. H. F r i t z and H. Heissenbiittel, "Malina," p. 26. 88 In this context see also Chapter IV, V. p. 29. p. 65. 9 1 77 p. 77. 92 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 259. 93 Gunilla Bergsten, "Liebe als Grenzubertritt: Eine Studie iiber Ingeborg Bachmanns Horspiel 'Der gute Gott von Manhattan,'" in Deutsche Weltliteratur, von Goethe bis Ingeborg Bachmann, Festgabe fur J. Allan Pfeffer, ed. Klaus W. Jonas (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1972), p. 281. 9 4 « p. 55. 95 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 254. 96 "Eine Undine aus Klagenfurt," Die Welt, 180 (6. August 1974), p. 13. 97 I. Bachmann, zwei Horspiele, p. 56. 98 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 302. 99 p. 321. p. 301. ^°''"Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 148. 102 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 205. 103 "Die Horspiele der Ingeborg Bachmann," Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1971), p. 43. 212 104 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 312. Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 414. 1 0 6Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 327-328. 1 0 7Bachmann, Werke, I, pp. 291-292. 108 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 206. 109 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 206. ^^Quoted i n : K. H. Bonner, ed., Die Geschlechterrolle, (Munich: Nymphenburger Vlg., 1973), pp. 9-10. I l l Note the chart under the section "marital and f a m i l i a l status." 112 Compare also the section "The Wife-Role" above. 113 Bachmann, Werke, II , p. 188. 114 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 200. "^Compare the sections on education and profession i n Chapter II above. ''"''"^ Pausch, p. 74. ^^Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 412. 118 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 412. 119 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 285. 120 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 286. 121 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 287. 122 A l l page numbers m this chart refer to Werke, II. 123 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 294. 213 12 A Compare: Naomi Weisstein, "Psychology Constructs the Female, or the Fantasy L i f e of the Male Psychologist," i n Roles Women Play: Readings Toward Women's Liberation, ed. M. H. Garskof (Belmont, Cal.: Brooks/Cole, 1973), pp. 68-83. 125 H. Pausch, p. 74. 126 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 222. 127_ Grenzganger. 128 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 447. 129 Bachmann, Werke, I I , pp. 211-212. 130 Weber, Das Gebell, p. 122. 131 Compare i n this context contemporary outsiders such as Edgar Wibeau and Holden C a u l f i e l d . 132 For the understanding of Bachmann's ideas on Sprachkrise Wittgenstein i s of seminal importance. Compare i n this context the paragraph of Wittgenstein's "Sprachlosigkeit" below i n Chapter V. 133 Compare David Riesman, The Lonely Crowd (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958), esp. the chapters on autonomy. X 3*-f "Falle und Flucht," Neue deutsche Literatur, 9, H. 1 (1961), pp. 110-111. 135 Compare "Patterns of Development," Chapter V below. 136 Compare i n this context the section on the role of the mother i n Chapter III. 137 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 199. 138 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 400. 139 Compare the section "Interaction with Men" i n this chapter. 140 Page numbers refer to the corresponding stories; words i n brackets are paraphrases, not direct quotations. 214 141 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 310. 142 Bachmann, Werke, I I I , p. 131. 143 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 375. 144 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 160. 145 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 150. 146 Bachmann, Werke, I I I , p. 187. ''"'^ Bachmann, Werke, I I , pp. 442-443. ''"^Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 367. 149 Arthur Schopenhauer, Parerga und Paralipomena, "iiber die Weiber," Chapter 27, v o l . 2 (Wiesbaden: 1961), p. 650 f f . ^°Bachmann, Werke, II , p. 211. ''""'"'"Compare: B. Angst-Hiirlimann, Im Widerspiel des Unmoglichen mit dem Moglichen, Diss. Zurich 1971 (Zurich: Juris, 1971), pp. 53-59. 152 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 211. 153 The other one i s related i n Werke, I I I , p. 216. 154 Bachmann, Werke, I I I , p. 216. ^^^Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 212. 156 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 217. •*"~^ For this topic see the section below: Social Interaction with Men. 158 Compare the section on the roles of the wife, the lover, and the housewife. 159 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 351. 215 160 Bachmann, Werke, III, pp. 270-271. 161 This is the case i n Malina, Simultan, Probleme, Probleme, Drei Wege zum See, Ihr gliicklichen Augen, Ein Schritt nach Gomorrha, Undine geht. 162 Compare the section on the role of the lover above. 16 3 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 203. 164 . . . . . Compare xn this context the sa d i s t i c attitude of Jordan discussed i n Chapter VIII. 165 Bachmann, Werke, II I , pp. 174-175. 1 6 6Bachmann, Werke, II I , pp. 211-212. 16 7 Bachmann, Werke, II I , p. 212. "'"^In psychology rejection can be seen as a perverted form of acceptance. 169 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 232. "'"^Compare the section on interaction with children above. ^"'"Bachmann, Werke, I I , pp. 325-326. 172 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 304. 173 Compare the section on the role of the lover above. 174 Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 449-450. Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 272. ''"^Compare the section on the role of the lover i n Chapter III above. ''"^ B^achmann, Werke, III, p. 272. 216 178 Arrows indicate direction: half arrow = weak interaction, f u l l arrow = strong interaction, double arrow = very strong interaction; asterics indicate source of interaction; the sequence of the categories of interaction i s that used i n the text. 179 For instance i n : Im Himmel und auf Erden, m Werke, II, pp. 15-19. 180 H. Stadler, K. Dickopf, Litera t u r , Fischer Kolleg 8 (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1973), S. 105. 181 Bachmann, Werke, I I , pp. 355-356. 182 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 344. 183 I. Bachmann, "Literatur als Utopie," i n : Ingeborg Bachmann, Eine Einfiihrung (Munich: Piper, 1963), p. 20. ''"^Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 417. 185 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 419. 186 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 262. 187 A. Weber, "Das Gebell," i n : Interpretationen zu Ingeborg Bachmann, ed. R. Hirschenauer und A. Weber (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1976), p. 124. 188 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 429. 189 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 510. 190 Bachmann, Werke, IV, p. 29. 1 9 1Bachmann, Werke, I I , pp. 420-421. 192 Compare D. Schlenstedt, " F a l l B und Flucht. Die ersten Erzahlungen von Ingeborg Bachmann," Neue Deutsche Literatur, 9 (1961) H. 1, pp. 109-114. 193 Compare Elisabeth's reaction to the war in Algeria: Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 416-417. 217 194 B. Scharer, "Ingeborg Bachmanns Erzahlung 'A l l e s , ' " Mutter-sprache, 72 (1962), p. 324. 195 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 209. 196 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 208. 197 See: Tractatus logico-philosophicus. 198 Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 247-250. 199 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 295. ^°Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 200. 201 Film by Michael Haneke, AKD (German TV), June 8th, 1977. 202 "Didaktische Perspektiven zum Werk Ingeborg Bachmanns," in Interpretationen zu Ingeborg Bachmann, p. 30. 203 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 94. 204 Compare Chapter IV for biographic aspects. 2 0 5 H . Pausch, pp. 77-78. 2 0 6Bachmann, Werke, IV, p. 230. 207 For this type of search for female identity compare: H. D. Heistriivers, " B i l d und Rolle der Frau in unserer patriarchalischen Gesellschaft," Der Deutschunterricht, 5 (1972), pp. 94-118. 208 Ralf Dahrendorf, Homo Sociologicus. Ein Versuch zur Geschichte, Bedeutung und K r i t i k der Kategorie der sozialen Rolle (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1965), p. 46. 209 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 254. 210 Compare the paragraphs above on the roles of the professional and the outsider. 211 Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 411-412. 218 212 A. M. Zahorsky-Suchodolski, "Anti-Mythos i n der oster-reichischen Literatur: Ingeborg Bachmann," Literatur und K r i t i k , 99 (1975), pp. 523-528. 213 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 189. ^"^Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 63. 215 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 206. Compare the symbolism of water discussed above. 216 Compare the paragraph on Interaction with Society. 217 Bachmann, Werke, IV, p. 276. 218 Albrecht Holschuh, "Utopismus im Werk Ingeborg Bachmanns: Eine thematische Untersuchung," Dissertation Abstracts, 25 (1965), p. 6627 (Princeton). 219 G. Bergsten, "Liebe als Grenziibertritt: . . ."pp. 284-285. 220 Susanna Woodtli, "Ingeborg Bachmann." Reformatio. Zeit-s c h r i f t fiir evangelische Kultur und P o l i t i k , J. 14, H. 2 (1965), pp. 110-111. 221 Angst-Hiirlimann, Im Widerspiel des Unmoglichen . . ., p. 99. 222 Ingrid Aichinger, "Im Widerspiel des Moglichen mit dem Unmoglichen. Das Werk der osterreichischen Dichterin Ingeborg Bachmann," Osterreich i n Geschichte und Literatur, 12 (1968), pp. 211-212. 223 Bachmann, Werke, I, pp. 317-318. 224 Bachmann, Werke, I, pp. 317-318. 225 Ursula Ziebarth, Hexenspeise, .(Pfullingen: Neske, 1976), pp. 383-388. 226 Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 449-450. 227 Bachmann, Werke, IV, pp. 108-109. 219 Bachmann, Werke, IV, pp. 118-119. 229 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 415. 230 Bachmann, Werke, p. 438. 231 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 306. 232 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 370. 233 K. Rothmann, "Ingeborg Bachmann, Der gute Gott von Manhattan," Lehrpraktische Analysen, 37 (1973), p. 8. 234 Manfred Triesch, "Truth, Love, and the Death of Language in Ingeborg Bachmann's Stories," Books Abroad, 39 No. 4 (1965), p. 392. Since this date there have been some publications on Bachmann's philosophy. 235 I. Bachmann, Eine Emfiihrung, p. 19. 236 Bachmann, Werke, IV, p. 277. 237 It has been argued, that even the males i n the few male-orientated stories reveal a predominantly female point of view. 238 Lale Koseoglu, Die Stellung der Frauenfiguren i n den Dramen von Friedrlch Durrenmatt, Max Frisch und Hans Giinter Michelsen bis 1968, Diss. Hamburg 1974 (Hamburg, 1974), pp. 180-181. 239 Chapters III, IV. 240 Chapters II, I II. 241 Bachmann, Werke, II, pp. 254-255. 242 Pausch, Bachmann, pp. 76-77. 243 Weber, Didaktische Perspektiven, p. 15. 2 4 4H. B o l l , "Spurensicherung," Die Welt, 23. Nov. 1974, Litera t u r b l a t t . 220 245 A. M. Zahorsky-Suchodolsky, "Anti-Mythos," p. 526. 246 S. Woodtli, "Ingeborg Bachmann," pp. 107-108. 247 Alexander Mitcherlich, ed., Psycho-Pathographien, I, S c h r i f t -s t e l l e r und Psychoanalyse (Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 1972), p. 5. 248 I. Bachmann, Ein Ort fur Zufalle (Berlin: K. Wagenbach, 1973), pp. 55-56. 249 Also Melanie, a sex r i v a l for the narrator i n Malina, appears as a crocodile. 250 R. Wellek and A. Warren, Theory of Literature (New York: Harcourt, 1956), p. 78. 251 Compare among others: I. Morgner, Christa Wolf and G. Wohmann. 252 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 270. 253 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 305. 254 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 331. 255 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 345. 256 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 253. 257 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 198. 258 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 208. 259 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 272. 260 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 450. 261 Speculate, because i n other instances the man has appeared in a saving role. Compare also Chapter VIII, "the 'sick' male." 262 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 269. 26 3 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 360. 221 264 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 251. 2 6 5 Manuela Reichert, "Frau-Sprechen," Die Zeit 29. J u l i 1977, p. 35. 266 Bachmann, Werke, IV, pp. 275-276. 26 7 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 302. 268 Bachmann, Werke, I I , p. 431. 269 Bachmann, Werke, II I , p. 91. 270 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 333. 271 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 336. 272 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 399. 273 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 76. 274 W. H. F r i t z , H. Heissenbiittel, "tiber Ingeborg Bachmanns Roman 'Malina,'" pp. 26-27. 275 Karl Krolow i n Der Tagesspiegel quoted from flap of Malina. 276 W. H. F r i t z , H. Heissenbiittel, "tlber Ingeborg Bachmanns Roman 'Malina,'" p. 27. 277 Compare i n this context Chapter VIII, "The Male-Female Co n f l i c t . " 278 Mein teurer Freund, ich rat Euch drum Zuerst Collegium Logicum. Da wird der Geist Euch wohl dressiert, In spanische S t i e f e l eingeschniirt, Faust I, Studierzimmer, 1910-1914. ? 7 9 See Chapter II, "Vanity." 2 80 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 127. 222 281 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 318. 282 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 303. 283 Perhaps one may in this context suggest a relationship to the fool and asylum themes that are especially popular i n recent l i t e r a t u r e , where frequently the insane or i r r a t i o n a l person expresses the truth, where men escape from the enforced thought patterns of the outer world. In any case, there i s no doubt, that Bachmann's heroines despise existing reason and logic which they associate with the male, as r e s t r i c t i v e and that they plead for a new way of thinking which would require a new language. Compare also the stream of consciousness. 284 Compare i n this context: Lore Toman, "Bachmanns 'Malina' und Frischs 'Gantenbein': Zwei Seiten des gleichen Lebens," Literatur und K r i t i k , 115 (June, 1977), pp. 274-278. 285 Bachmann, Werke, I, p. 316. 2 86 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 198. 287 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 92. 288 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 319. 289 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 91. 290 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 443. 291 See Chapter IV. 292 This i s a theme by the way, that has been popular with Austrian writers, e.g., Kafka's Vor dem Gesetz. 293 . . Food and Agriculture Organization. 294 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 305. 295 Compare in Chapter V the section "A yearning for a Grenzubertritt." 223 296 I. Bachmann, Der F a l l Franza, i n Werke, ed. by Christine Koschel, Inge von Weidenbaum, Clemens Minister (Munich, Zurich: Piper & Co., 1978), III. 297 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 384. 298 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 410. 299 Compare the context of the cycle of novels headed Todesar ^°°Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 404. 301 Bachmann, Werke, IV, pp. 344-345. 302 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 370. 303 Peter Hamm, "Der Kiinstler als Martyrer," Der Spiegel, 23 (1978), p. 196. 304 Bachmann, Werke, II I , p. 269. 305 Bachmann, Werke, II I , p. 272. 306 Selfishness i n i t s m a t e r i a l i s t i c and exploitative sense. Bachmann's women, however, were found to be s e l f i s h inothe sense of seeking and demanding self-development and i n r e s i s t i n g s o c i a l integration. C f . Chapter IV. 307 Bachmann, "Literatur als Utopie," i n : Bachmann, Eine Einfiihrung, p. 16. 308 Compare on this topic: A. Holschuh, Utopismus im Werk Ingeborg Bachmanns, Diss. Princeton 1964. 3 0 9Bachmann, Werke, IV, pp. 195-196. 310 Karol Sauerland, "Interview mit Ingeborg Bachmann," Literatur und K r i t i k , 86-87 (1974), p. 364. 311 Compare Chapter V, "Patterns of Development." 312 Compare "a quest for freedom" in Chapter V above. 224 313 Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 259. 314 Bachmann, Werke, IV, pp. 138-139. 315 Karol Sauerland, "Interview mit I. Bachmann," p. 366. 316 Holger Pausch, Ingeborg Bachmann (Hamburg: Colloquium, 1975). 317 El l e n Summerfield, Ingeborg Bachmann (Bonn: Bouvier, 1976) 318 Inge Stephan and Sigrid Weigel, Die verborgene Frau, Sechs Beitrage zu einer feministischen Literaturwissenschaft (Berlin: Argument, 1983). 319 Manfred Jurgensen, Ingeborg Bachmann. Die Neue Sprache (Bern: Lang, 1981). 320 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 68. 321 Pausch, Bachmann, pp. 68-69. 322 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 65. 323 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 67. 324 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 88. 325 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 79. 326 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 32. 327 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 36. 328 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 68. 329 Pausch, Bachmann, p. 84. 330 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 104. 331 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 2. 225 332 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 48. 333 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 57. 334 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 54. 335 W. H. F r i t z and H. Heissenbiittel, "trber Ingeborg Bachmanns Roman 'Malina,'" p. 26. ^"^Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 49. 337 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 55. 338 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 44. 339 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 12. Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 41. "^ ''"Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 135. 3 4 2Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 136. 3 A 3 Summerfield, Bachmann, pp. 18-19. 344 Summerfield, Bachmann, pp. 54-55. 345 Summerfield, Bachmann, p. 77. Stephan and Weigel, Die verborgene Frau, p. 85. Stephan and Weigel, Die verborgene Frau, p. 87. 348 Stephan and Weigel, Die verborgene Frau, p. 111. 349 Stephan and Weigel, Die verborgene Frau, p. 128. 350 Stephan and Weigel, Die verborgene Frau, p. 130. 351 Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 14. 226 352 Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 9. 353 Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 6 6 . o r / Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 6 7 . 355 Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 6 9 . 3 5 6Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 3 1 3 . 357 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 3 1 3 . o c o Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 1 0 4 . 359 Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 1 0 5 . 3 6 0Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 4 8 9 . 361 Jurgensen, Bachmann, p. 1 0 5 . 362 "Gabriele B a i l , Weibliche Identitat: Ingeborg Bachmanns "Malina" (Gottingen: Edition Herodot, 1 9 8 4 ) . 363„ B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, 3 6 6 B . . B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, 3 7 L u - i B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, 227 372 B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, p. 55. 373 B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, p. 56. 374 B a i l , Weibliche Identitat, p. 56. 375 Kurt Bartsch, "'Schichtwechsel'? Zur Opposition von feminin-emotionalen Anspriichen und maskulin-rationalem Realitatsdenken bei Ingeborg Bachmann," in Frauenliteratur, ed. Manfred Jurgensen (Munich: dtv, 1985), pp. 76-89. 376 Kurt Bartsch, '"Es war Mord' Anmerkungen zur Mann-Frau-Beziehung in Bachmanns Roman Malina," i n Acta Neophilologica, 17 (Ljubljana, 1984), pp. 71-76. 377 Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 78. 378 Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 78. Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 85. Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", pp. 77-78. 381 Bartsch, Anmerkungen, p. 75. 382 Bartsch, Anmerkungen, p. 76. 383 Bartsch, Anmerkungen, p. 76. O O A Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 88. 385 Bartsch, Anmerkungen, p. 73. 3 8 6 B a r t s c h , "Schichtwechsel", pp. 87-88. o 0 7 Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 87. 3 8 8 B a r t s c h , "Schichtwechsel", p. 77. Bartsch, Anmerkungen, p. 76. 228 390 Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 78. 391 Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 80. 3Q 0 ^Bartsch, "Schichtwechsel", p. 88. 393 Claus Reinert, Unzumutbare Wahrheiten?: Einfiihrung i n Ingeborg Bachmanns Horspiel "Der gute Gott von Manhattan" (Bonn: Bouvier, 1983), pp. 209-216. 394 Reinert, Einfiihrung, p. 209. 395 Reinert, Einfiihrung, p. 212. 396 Reinert, Einfiihrung, p. 213. 39 7 Reinert, Einfiihrung, p. 215. 39 8 Remert, Einfiihrung, p. 215. 399 Reinert, Einfiihrung, p. 216. ^ O 0 0 t t o Weininger, "Geschlecht und Charakter," i n Die Geschlechterrolle, ed. H. Bonner (Munich: Nymphenburger, 1973), pp. 47-79. 401 weininger, Geschlecht, pp. 47-48. 40 9 Weininger, Geschlecht, p. 49. ^^Weininger, Geschlecht, p. 52. ^^ R e i n e r t , Einfiihrung, p. 43. 405 Reinert, Einfiihrung, p. 210. ^^R e i n e r t , Einfiihrung, p. 36. 407 Reinert, Einfiihrung, p. 216. "^^Sigrid Schmid-Bortenschlager, "Frauen als Opfer - gesellschaftliche Realitat und lite r a r i s c h e s Modell," in Der dunkle Schatten, dem ich schon seit Anfang folge, ed. Hans Holler (Vienna, Munich: Locker, 1982), pp. 229 409 Schmid-Bortenschlager, Frauen, p. 92. 410 Schmid-Bortenschlager, Frauen, p. 92. 411 Schmid-Bortenschlager, Frauen, p. 93. 412 Schmid-Bortenschlager, Frauen, p. 93. 413 Schmid-Bortenschlager, Frauen, pp. 93-94. 414 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 496. 415 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 17. 416 Bachmann, Werke, III, pp. 17-18. 417 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 346. 418 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 344. 419 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 401. 420 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 497. 421 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 401. 422 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 402. 423 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 400. 424 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 513. 425 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 407. 42^Bachmann, Werke, II, p. 18. 427 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 506. 4 2 8Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 314. 429 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 411. 230 430 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 331. 431 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 516. 432 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 32. 433 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 230. 434 Bachmann, Werke, I, pp. 315-316. 435 Ria Endres, "Zur Dichtung Ingeborg Bachmanns," Neue Rundschau, 4 (1981), pp. 71-97. 436 Bachmann, Werke, III, p. 136. 437 Bachmann, Werke, II I , p. 138. 438 Bachmann, Werke, III, pp. 138-141. LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED Primary Literature Books Das dreifiigste Jahr. Erzahlungen. Munich: Piper, 1961. Der gute Gott von Manhattan. Horspiel. Munich: Piper, 1958. Per gute Gott von Manhattan - Die Zikaden. Zwei Horspiele. Munich: DTV, 1963. Der Tag des Friedens. Munich: Piper, 1976. Pie Horspiele. Ein Geschaft mit Traumen, Die Zikaden, Der gute Gott von Manhattan. Munich: Piper, 1976. Ein Ort fiir Zufalle. B e r l i n : Wagenbach, 1965. Gedichte, Erzahlungen, Horspiel, Essays. Munich: Piper, 1964. Malina. Roman. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1971. Malina. Roman. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1974. Meistererzahlungen. Vienna: Kremayr & Scheriau, 1974. Simultan. Neue Erzahlungen. Munich: Piper, 1972. Simultan. Neue Erzahlungen. Munich: DTV, 1974. Undine geht, Erzahlungen. Leipzig: Reclam, 1973. Werke. Ed. Christine Koschel, Inge von Weidenbaum, Clemens Minister. 4 vols. Munich: Piper, 1978. 231 232 Essays and Lectures "Die Wahrheit i s t dem Menschen zumutbar," Ansprache zur Verleihung des Horspielpreises der Kriegsblinden. Der Kriegsblinde, X, 15. A p r i l 1959, pp. 1-2. "Ins tausendjahrige Reich - Zu Robert Musils Roman Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften," Akzente, I, Heft 1, 1954, pp. 50-53. "Literatur als Utopie," three excerpts from lectures at the University of Frankfurt, Der Deutschunterricht, August 1960, pp. 47-48, September 1960, pp. 67-68, October 1960, pp. 65-66. "Ludwig Wittgenstein - Zu einem Kapitel der jungsten L i t e r a t u r -geschichte," Frankfurter Hefte, Heft 7, 1953, pp. 540-545, also reprinted i n Ludwig Wittgenstein, Sehriften, Beiheft. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1960, pp. 7-15. "Musik und Dichtung," Musica Viva. Munich: Nymphenburger Verlags-handlung, 1959, pp. 163-166. Miscellaneous Prosepieces "Die blinden Passagiere," Jahresring 55/56. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, 1955, pp. 30-36. "Musik," Jahresring 56/57. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, 1956, pp. 217-227. "Was ich i n Rom sah und horte," Akzente II , Heft I (1955), pp. 39-43. Secondary and General Literature Aichinger, Ingrid. "Im Widerspiel des Moglichen mit dem Unmoglichen." Osterreich i n Geschichte und Literatur, XII (1968), 207-227. Angst-Hiirlimann, Beatrice. Im Widerspiel des Unmoglichen mit dem Moglichen. Zum Problem der Sprache bei Ingeborg Bachmann. Diss. Zurich, 1971. Zurich: J u r i s , 1971. B a i l , Gabriele. Weibliche Identitat: Ingeborg Bachmanns "Malina". Gottingen: Edition Herodot, 1984. Bartsch, Kurt. "'Schichtwechsel'? Zur Opposition von feminin-emotionalen Anspruchen und maskulin-rationalem Realitatsdenken bei Ingeborg Bachmann." Frauenliteratur. Edited.by Manfred Jurgensen. Munich: dtv, 1985, 76-89. 233 Bartsch, Kurt. '"Es war Mord' Anmerkungen zur Mann-Frau-Beziehung i n Bachmanns Roman Malina." Acta Neophilologica, 17 Ljubljana (1984), 71-76. Becker, J., and Wondratschek, W. "War das Horspiel der Fiinfziger Jahre reaktionar? Eine Kontroverse am Beispiel von Ingeborg Bachmanns 'Der gute Gott von Manhattan.'" Merkur, 24 (1970), 190-194. Behrmann, A. "Metapher im Kontext. Zu einigen Gedichten von Ingeborg Bachmann und Johannes Bobrowski." Der Deutschunterricht, Jg. 20 (1968), H. 4, 28. Bender, H. "tjber Ingeborg Bachmann." Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1971), 1-9. Bender, W. "Ingeborg Bachmann." Deutsche Literatur s e i t 1945. Edited by D. Weber. Stuttgart: Kroner, 1970, 556-573. Benn, M. B. "Poetry and the endangered World: Notes on a Poem by Ingeborg Bachmann (Freies G e l e i t ) . " German L i f e and Letters, 1963/64, 204-215. 1965, 61-67. Bergsten, Gunilla. "Liebe als Grenziibertritt: Eine Studie iiber Ingeborg Bachmanns Horspiel Der Gute Gott von Manhattan." Deutsche Weltliteratur, von Goethe bis Ingeborg Bachmann. Festgabe for J. Allan Pfeffer. Edited by Klaus W. Jonas. Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1972, 277-289. Blocker, G. "Auf der Suche nach dem Vater." Merkur, 25 (1971), 395-398. . "Ein vorbildliches Horspiel." Die Zeit, 42 (1958), 8. . "Ingeborg Bachmann." Wort in der Zeit, 1 (1956), 34-37. . "Ingeborg Bachmanns Selbstgesprache." Merkur, 26 (1972), 1038-1040. . "Nur die Bilder bleiben." Merkur, 163 (1961), 882-886. Brandt, Reinhard. "Zu Ingeborg Bachmanns 'Anrufung des GroBen Baren.'" Hefte fur Dichtung und Ubertragung, (July, 1961), 28-31. Conrady, P. "Fragwiirdige Lobrednerei. Anmerkungen zur Bachmann-K r i t i k . " Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1971), 48-55. Daiber, Hans. "Ingeborg Bachmann." S c h r i f t s t e l l e r der Gegenwart. Edited by K. Nonneman. Munich: Langen-Miiller, 1963, 28-32. Deschner, Karlheinz. "Ingeborg Bachmann." Talente, Dichter, Dilettanten. Wiesbaden: Limes, 1964. Die Geschlechterrolle. Ed. Karl H. Bonner. Munich: Numphenburger Vlg., 1973. 234 Doppler, Alfred. "Die Sprachauffassung Ingeborg Bachmanns." Neophilologus, XLVII (1963), 277-285. Duwe, Wilhelm. Deutsche Dichtung des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. 1962 301-304. : Edfeldt, Johannes. "Ingeborg Bachmann." Utblick. Stockholm: Bonnier; 1958, 64-71. Enke, Heinz. "Ingeborg Bachmann." Hessenjournal, 2 (1959), 11. Fechter, Paul. Geschichte der deutschen Literatur. Bearbeitet von Lothar Tank und Wilhelm Jacobs. Vol. II. 1960, 402-423. Fehl, Peter. Sprachskepsis und Sprachhoffnung im Werk Ingeborg. Diss. Mainz, 1970. Mainz: n.p., 1970. Fehse, W i l l i , "ingeborg Bachmann." Von Goethe bis Grass: Biographische Portrats zur Literatur. By W. Fehse. B i e l e f e l d : Gieseking, 1963, 223-226. Fischerova, Viola, "ingeborg Bachmanns 'Der gute Gott von Manhattan' - ein Mythos?" Literatur und K r i t i k , 115 (June, 1977), 279-290. F r i t z , W. H., and Heissenbiittel, H. "tiber Ingeborg Bachmanns Roman 'Malina.'" Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1971), 21-27. Funke, Horst-Giinter. Ingeborg Bachmann. Zwei Horspiele. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1969. Gajek, Bernhard. "Ingeborg Bachmann: 'Einmal mufi das Fest j a kommen.'" Moderne Lyrik als Ausdruck r e l i g i o s e r Erfahrung. Evangelisches Forum. Edited by Evangelische Akademie Tutzing. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1964, 78-82. Gerstenlauer, W. "Undines Widerkehr. Fouque - Giraudoux - Ingeborg Bachmann." Die neueren Sprachen, 5 (1970), 514-527. Gortz, F. J. "Zur Lyrik Ingeborg Bachmanns." Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1971), 28-38. Gruenter, R. "Ingeborg Bachmann 'Lieder von einer Insel. "' Doppelinterpretationen. Edited by H. Domin, Frankfurt, 1966, 165-168. Gsteiger, M. "Der Schwache i s t i n die Feuerzonen geriickt." In: M. Gsteiger. Poesie und K r i t i k . Bern, 1967, 82-86. Hadecke, W. "Die Horspiele Ingeborg Bachmanns." Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1971), 39-47. 235 Hartling, Peter. "Ubereinkunft i n der Metapher." Der Monat 156 (1961), 56-62. ' Hannover, E. "Moderne Liebeslyrik im Unterricht." Der Deutschunter-r i c h t , 4 (1965), 54. Hartlaub, Geno. "Das Schizoid der Welt." Frankfurter Hefte, 26 (1972), 561-562. Hartung, Rudolf. "Vom Vers zur Prosa: Zu Ingeborg Bachmanns 'Das dreifiigste Jahr. "' Der Monat, 13 (1961), 78-82. Jens, Walter. "iiber das Gedicht 'Anrufung des GroBen Baren.'" In: W. Jens. "Marginalien zur modernen Literatur - Drei Inter-pretationen." Martin Heidegger zum 70. Geburtstag. Fe s t s c h r i f t . Pfullingen: Neske, 1959, 229-231. . "Zwei Meisterwerke i n schwacher Umgebung: Ingeborg Bachmanns Prosa muB an hochsten Anspruchen gemessen werden." Die Zeit, 37 (1961), 8. Johnson, Uwe. Eine Reise nach Klagenfurt. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1974. Kaiser, Joachim. "Ingeborg Bachmann." In: Ingeborg Bachmann: Eine Einfiihrung. Munich: R. Piper, 1968, 7-12. , and Rasch, Wolfdietrich. "Ingeborg Bachmanns Werk und Interpretation." Universitas, 7 (1964), 699-706. Kesten, H. "An Ingeborg Bachmann." Neue Rundschau, (1975), 50-53. Kielinger, Thomas. "Die Frau ohne Eigenschaften." Die Welt, 19. Oct. 1972, Welt des Buches III. Krautkramer, H. W. "Die Rolle von Gerausch und Musik innerhalb des Wortkunstwerkes Horspiel." Der Deutschunterricht, 6 (1965), 117 f f . , (Die Zikaden, p. 127). Krolow, Karl. "Erklar mir, Liebe." In: K. Krolow. Aspekte zeitgenossischer deutscher Lyrik. Giitersloh: G. Mohn, 1961, 61-65. . '"Erklar mir, Liebe': Zu einem Liebesgedicht Ingeborg Bachmanns." Welt und Wort, 17 (1962), 275. Kiigler, H. "Ingeborg Bachmann 'Anrufung des GroBen Baren.'" In: J. Bauer, et a l . Lyrik i n t e r p r e t i e r t . Hannover, 1972, 210-213. . "Ingeborg Bachmann 'Schatten Rosen Schatten.'" In: J . Bauer, et a l . Lyrik i n t e r p r e t i e r t . Hannover, 1972, 229-232. 236 Langer, Norbert. "Ingeborg Bachmann." In: N. Langer. Dichter aus Osterreich. Wien, 1958, 7-13. Limbach, A. "Ingeborg Bachmann." Die c h r i s t l i c h e Frau, 1 (I960), 30-31. Lyon, James K. "'Nature.' Its idea and use in the poetic imagery of Ingeborg Bachmann, Paul Celan, and Karl Krolow." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1962. . "The poetry of Ingeborg Bachmann. A primeval impulse i n the modern wasteland." German L i f e and Letters, 17 (1963/64), 206-215. Mauser, Wolfram. "Ingeborg Bachmanns 'Landnahme.'" Sprachkunst (Euphorion), I, 3 (1970), 191-206. Mayer, Peter. "Zeit zum Schweigen." Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1971), 10-17. Michaelis, Rolf. "Totenklage, Uwe Johnson iiber Ingeborg Bachmann." Die Zeit, Sept. 13, 1966, 12. Miiller, Joachim. "Ingeborg Bachmann, Paul Celan und Hans Magnus Enzensberger - ein lyrisches Triptychon." Universitas, 20 (1965), 241-254. Neis, Edgar. "Ingeborg Bachmann: A l l e s . " In: E. Neis. Inter-pretationen, VIII. H o l l f e l d " Bange, n.d., 8-12. Opel, Adolf. "'Der F a l l Franza' - Wiederaufnahme eines Verfahrens." Literatur und K r i t i k , Sept./Oct. (1986), 207-208, 291-297. Ozer, Irma Jacqueline. "The Treatment of the Maladjusted Protagonist in the F i c t i o n of Ingeborg Bachmann and Christa Wolf." DAI, Oct. (1986). Pausch, Holger. Ingeborg Bachmann. Berlin: Colloquium, 1975. Plenge, I l l i s . Die Emanzipation des Mannes. Stuttgart: Bonz, 1969. Probst, Gerhard F. "Zur Symbolik und Kompositionstechnik bei Ingeborg Bachmann." Modern Austrian Literature, 3 (J970), 19-35. Raeber, Kuno. "Begegnungen mit Ingeborg Bachmann." Das Schonste, 1 (1963), 52-54. Rasch, Wolfdietrich. "Eine Interpretation: 'Anrufung des Grofien Baren. "' In: Ingeborg Bachmann: Eine Einfiihrung, no editor. Munich: Piper, 1968, 31-38. _, and Kaiser, Joachim. "Ingeborg Bachmanns Werk und Inter-pretation, " I ^ v ^ r j i t a s , Jg. 19 (1964), 699-706. 237 Reinert, Claus. Unzumutbare Wahrheiten?: Einfiihrung i n Ingeborg Bachmanns Horspiel "Per gute Gott von Manhattan". Bonn: Bouvier, 1983, 209-216. Rendi, A l o i s i o . "II trentesimo anno." Tempo Presente, 8 (1961), 629. Rhode, Werner. "Mufi man mit den Wolfen heulen? Ingeborg Bachmanns kiihne Rebellion." Weser Kurier, 272 (1961), 16. Roles Women Play: Readings Toward Women's Liberation. Ed. M. H. Garskof. Belmont: Brooks/Cole, 1971. Rothmann, Kurt. "Ingeborg Bachmann. Per gute Gott von Manhattan." Lehrpraktische Analysen, 37 (1973), 2-17. Sauerland, Karol. "Interview mit Ingeborg Bachmann." Literatur und K r i t i k , 86/87 (1974), 363-367. Scharer, B. "Ingeborg Bachmanns Erzahlung 'Alles.'" Muttersprache, 72 (1962), 321-326. Schlenstedt, Pieter. "Falle und Flucht. Pie ersten Erzahlungen von Ingeborg Bachmann." Neue Deutsche Literatur, 9 (1961), 109-114. Schlotthaus, Werner. "Ingeborg Bachmann's poem 'Mein Vogel': An analysis of modern poetic metaphor." Modern Language Quarterly, 2 (1961), 181-191. Schmid-Bortenschlager, Sigrid. "Frauen als Opfer - gesellschaftliche Realitat und lit e r a r i s c h e s Modell." Der dunkle Schatten, dem ich schon s e i t Anfang folge. Edited by Hans Holler. Vienna, Munich: Locker, 1982, 85-95. Schonwiese, Ernst. "Die osterreichische Lyrik der Gegenwart." Etudes Germaniques, 4 (1958), 333-347. Schoolfield, George C. "Ingeborg Bachmann." Essays on Contemporary German Literature. Edited by B. Keith-Smith. London: 0. Wolff, 1966, 187-212. Schwedhelm, Karl. "Ingeborg Bachmann: Das dreifiigste Jahr. Das kleine Buch der hundert Biicher. Edited by Dieter Lattman. 9 (1961), 45-46. Shone, Kokichi. "Die Krise im Lyrischen und der Prosa. Eine Skizze iiber Ingeborg Bachmann." Doitsu Bungaku, 34 (1965), 73-83. Summerfield, E l l e n . Ingeborg Bachmann. Die Auflosung der Figur i n ihrem Roman "Malina". Bonn: Bouvier, 1976. 238 Text und K r i t i k . Nr. 6. Ingeborg Bachmann. Ed. Heinz Ludwig Arnold. Munich: Boorberg, 1971. Thalmann, Marianne. "Eine Undine aus Klagenfurt." Die Welt, 180 (1974) , 13. Toman, Lore. "Bachmanns 'Malina' und Frischs 'Gantenbein.'" Literatur und K r i t i k , 115 (June, 1977), 274-290. Triesch, Manfred. "Truth, Love, and the Death of Language i n Ingeborg Bachmann's Stories." Books Abroad, 39 (1965), 389-394. Wallmann, Jurgen P. "Privates Weltereignis der Ingeborg Bachmann." Mannheimer Morgen, 12 Mar. 1971, p. 35. Weber, Albrecht. "Das Gebell." In: Interpretationen zu Ingeborg Bachmann. Edited by R. Hirschenauer and Albrecht Weber. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1967, 110-124. Weber, Werner. "Der gute Gott von Manhattan." In: Ingeborg Bachmann: Eine Einfiihrung. Munich: Piper, 1968, 39-43. . "Ingeborg Bachmann." In: W. Weber. Tagebuch eines Lesers. Freiburg: Walter, 1965, 183-196. . "Rede auf die Preistragerin." Deutsche Akademie fiir Sprache und Dichtung. Jahrbuch 1964. Heidelberg-Darmstadt: Schneider, 1965, 157-169. Wolf, Christa. "Die zumutbare Wahrheit. Prosa der Ingeborg Bachmann." Frankfurter Hefte, 27 (1972), 744-751. Wondratschek, Wolf. "Die utopische Idee. Zur Person Ingeborg Bachmanns." Text und K r i t i k , 6 (1964), 8-12. , and Becker, J. "War das Horspiel der fiinfziger Jahre reaktionar?" Merkur, 24 (1970), 190-194. Woodtli, Susanna. "Ingeborg Bachmann." Reformatio. Z e i t s c h r i f t fiir evangelische Kultur und P o l i t i k , 14 (1965), 105-113. Zahorsky-Suchodolsky, A. M. "Anti-Mythos i n der osterreichischen Literatur: Ingeborg Bachmann." Literatur und K r i t i k , 99 (1975) , 523-528. Ziebarth, Ursula. Hexenspeise. Pfullingen: Neske, 1976, 381-389. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106746/manifest

Comment

Related Items