UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The woman in the works of Ingeborg Bachmann Redwitz, Eckenbert von 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989 A1 R48.pdf [ 10.29MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106746.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106746-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106746-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106746-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106746-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106746-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106746-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106746-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106746.ris

Full Text

THE  IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE  WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN  by  ECKENBERT v. REDWITZ B.A., M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Germanic Studies  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t-.n the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1989  (cT)  Eckenbert v.  Redwitz, 1989  1*1  National Library of C a n a d a  Bibliotheque nationale du C a n a d a  C a n a d i a n T h e s e s Service  Service des  theses-canadiennes  Ottawa, Canada K1A 0N4  The author has granted an irrevocable none x c l u s i v e l i c e n c e allowing the National Library of C a n a d a to r e p r o d u c e , loan, distribute or sell c o p i e s of his/her t h e s i s b y a n y m e a n s a n d in any form or format, making this t h e s i s available to i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s .  L'auteur a a c c o r d e une l i c e n c e i r r e v o c a b l e et n o n e x c l u s i v e p e r m e t t a n t a la B i b l i o t h e q u e nationale d u C a n a d a d e r e p r o d u i r e , p r e f e r , distribuer ou vendre d e s c o p i e s de s a t h e s e d e q u e l q u e m a n i e r e et s o u s q u e l q u e f o r m e q u e c e s o i t p o u r mettre d e s e x e m p l a i r e s d e c e t t e t h e s e a la d i s p o s i t i o n d e s p e r s o n n e s interessees.  T h e author in his/her substantial otherwise mission.  L'auteur c o n s e r v e la propriete du droit d'auteur qui p r o t e g e s a t h e s e . Ni la t h e s e ni d e s extraits s u b s t a n t i e l s d e c e l l e - c i ne d o i v e n t e t r e imprimes ou autrement reproduits s a n s s o n autorisation.  retains o w n e r s h i p of t h e c o p y r i g h t t h e s i s . Neither the t h e s i s nor e x t r a c t s from it may b e printed or r e p r o d u c e d w i t h o u t his/her per-  ISBN  i  Canada  0-315-55244-1  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  that  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  granted by  the Head of my  Department or  I t i s understood that copying or  publication  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without written  permission.  Department of  Germanic Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  my  ABSTRACT  The female c h a r a c t e r s p l a y a dominant p a r t i n Ingeborg Bachmann's prose w r i t i n g s .  T h i s study attempts f i r s t to determine  the e x i s t e n c e of  a coherent image of the female i n Bachmann's n a r r a t i v e prose and then to analyze i t . In c o n t r a s t w i t h much of contemporary  l i t e r a t u r e , Bachmann's  females show so many " t r a d i t i o n a l ' contours of behaviour and m e n t a l i t y that the q u e s t i o n of a c o n v e n t i o n a l s e x - s p e c i f i c image a r i s e s w i t h the attendant q u e s t i o n as to i t s purpose.  An a n a l y s i s of these c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s r e v e a l s that Bachmann's image of the woman deserves the a p p e l l a t i o n " s e x - s p e c i f i c " but that these " t r a d i t i o n a l " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n f u s e d w i t h new v a l u e s :  the v a l u e s of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , of a s p e c i f i c a l l y  female i d e n t i t y and of a new  and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l freedom.  Thus emotionalism, i r r a t i o n a l i t y and v a n i t y are components of a new  form  of p e r s o n a l development and e x p r e s s i o n that i s l e s s r e s t r i c t i n g and more s e l f — o r i e n t e d than the " t r a d i t i o n a l " image which many c r i t i c s have assumed they r e p r e s e n t . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o v i d e s the key to the s o l u t i o n of a second c r i t i c a l problem i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n :  the female-male  antithesis.  T h i s a n t i t h e s i s o f t e n assumes v i o l e n t dimensions such as i n the theme of the " s i c k male" or the " v i c t i m i z e d " female.  Bachmann d e p i c t s the  "female" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n marked c o n t r a s t to those of the male and lends them moral s i g n i f i c a n c e i n an a n t i t h e t i c a l world of male versus  iii  female, whereby the female and her v a l u e s are assigned a m o r a l l y h i g h e r position.  Here the emotionalism,  i r r a t i o n a l i t y and  non-utilitarian  t h i n k i n g of the female stand i n c o n t r a s t and are deemed s u p e r i o r to the c a l c u l a t e d behaviour,  r a t i o n a l thought  and e f f i c i e n c y of the male.  The  image of the male i s extended to r e p r e s e n t the t e c h n o l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l and inhumane aspect of modern s o c i e t y . transcends nature:  Thus, Bachmann's image a t  times  the male-female i s s u e s and p o i n t s to problems of a u n i v e r s a l  the r e a c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t ever i n c r e a s i n g s t r i c -  tures l a i d down by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , economic and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f modern i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  societies.  F i n a l l y , the theme of p e r s o n a l freedom u n d e r l i e s a l l the p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s , m o t i v a t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s of Bachmann's h e r o i n e s .  I t finds  expression i n the most extreme form of l o n g i n g f o r a s t a t e of being e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g i n any form of l i m i t a t i o n whatsoever: The f a i l u r e of Bachmann's females  i n marriage  the G r e n z u b e r t r i t t .  and f a m i l y l i f e ,  their  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex, are a l l seen to have t h e i r r o o t s i n the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of s o c i a l commitment w i t h t h i s urge f o r p e r s o n a l freedom. Bachmann does not s o l v e the dilemma but t r i e d i n s t e a d to g i v e p o e t i c form to these goals and values and u l t i m a t e attainment of the G r e n z u b e r t r i t t .  to s u s t a i n the hope f o r the  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT PREFACE  v  PART I .  INTRODUCTION  Chapter I.  GENERAL REMARKS A.  The Image of the Woman  B. C.  Previous Research Present T h e s i s 1. The Problem 2. Design of T h e s i s 3. Major Conclusions  PART I I . INVESTIGATION OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN  II.  THE FEMALE CHARACTERS A. B.  C.  S e l e c t i o n of Characters S o c i a l and Environmental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. Age and L i f e - S t a g e 2. E d u c a t i o n a l Background 3. S o c i a l Status and P r o f e s s i o n 4. M a r i t a l and F a m i l i a l Status P s y c h i c and B e h a v i o u r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. V a n i t y 2. Emotionalism 3. Irrationality  iv  1  1  l  i  V  Page III.  A. B. C. D. E. F. VI.  The Role of the The Wife-Role The Role of the The Role of the The Role of the The Role of the  Mother Lover Housewife Professional Outsider 49  THE SOCIAL INTERACTION A. B. C. D.  V.  28  SOCIAL ROLES  Social Social Social Social  Interaction Interaction Interaction Interaction  with with with with  Children Women Men Society  AGENTS AND PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT A.  B. C.  68  Inner Impetus 1. The Search for Individuality and Identity 2. A Quest for Freedom 3. A Yearning for Grenziibertritt Outside Agents Patterns of Development  PART I I I . DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN VI.  A DISCUSSION OF ANTITHETICAL IDEAS AND THEMES A. B. C. D.  Emancipatory versus "Traditional" Concepts The Biographical versus the Text-Immanent View Sex-Specific versus Allgemein menschliche Interpretation Social versus I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c Values  90  vi  Page VII.  AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEME OF FREEDOM A. B. C. D. E.  VIII.  W o r k i n g - D e f i n i t i o n o f the Image o f the Woman Freedom and S o c i a l Environment Freedom and P s y c h i c and B e h a v i o u r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Freedom and Favoured S o c i a l Roles Freedom and I n t e r a c t i o n o f Bachmann's Leading Female Characters with Four S o c i a l Groupings  AN ANALYSIS OF THE FEMALE-MALE ANTITHESIS A. B. C. D.  106  125  The Image of the Male The Male-Female C o n f l i c t The Female as V i c t i m The " S i c k " Male  AN ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTION AND INTENT OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN . . A. B. C. D. E.  Main Purpose The D i d a c t i c Intent The L i t e r a r y Aspect of the Image of the Woman A S o c i a l Intent? The I n t e l l e c t u a l Design o f Bachmann's Image o f the Woman PART IV.  X. XI.  CONCLUSION  A SUMMARY DISCUSSION OF MAJOR INTERPRETATIONS OUR INTERPRETATIONS AND FINDINGS A.  The F a l l  B. C. D. E. F.  The Enslavement The Trap Death Grenziibertritt The Magic of the Woman  FOOTNOTES  203  BIBLIOGRAPHY  231  PREFACE  F i r s t , a statement to  about  the i n t e n t of t h i s study.  The aim i s  examine and to e v a l u a t e the image of the woman i n the w r i t i n g s of  Ingeborg Bachmann.  S p e c i a l emphasis w i l l be g i v e n t o the f o l l o w i n g  questions: Do  the v a r i o u s h e r o i n e s i n c o r p o r a t e common concepts, i d e a s and  a t t i t u d e s toward  l i f e and r e a l i t y ?  I f so, what a r e they and do  they a l l o w one to g e n e r a l i z e and to speak of the female image i n Bachmann's works? Is  t h i s image a " t r a d i t i o n a l " o r "modern" one;  isi t a  .,. . .1 s e x - s p e c i f i c image? Do a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l elements investigation?  i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n  warrant  Can t h e i r use i n t h i s study be j u s t i f i e d ?  I f a coherent image can be e s t a b l i s h e d , then what end o r purpose was i t meant to serve? Does Bachmann envisage a new r o l e f o r women and, i f so, how  i s t h i s r o l e to be defined?  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s hoped, w i l l c o n t r i b u t e some new i n s i g h t s a f a c e t of Bachmann's work which has up t o now r e c e i v e d l i t t l e  about  attention.  S e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s arose d u r i n g the conceptual phase of t h i s study.  The f i r s t  of these was: which methods*were to be used i n the r e a l -  i z a t i o n of the aims of t h i s t h e s i s ?  Would i t be permissable to g e n e r a l i z e  from the analyses of s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s ?  yii  Would not the r e s u l t be  viii a computer-like s t a t i s t i c a l stereotype, derived from various c o l l e c t e d data?  And what were the a l t e r n a t i v e methods for r e a l i z i n g the aims of  t h i s study?  However, one of Ingeborg Bachmann's own remarks on l i t e r a -  ture: Es gibt i n der Kunst keinen F o r t s c h r i t t i n der H o r i z o n t a l e , sondern nur das immer neue AufreiBen einer V e r t i k a l e . . . .  2  helped to influence the author's decision to s e l e c t a method of comparison and of inductive argumentation.  Recurring problems, themes and con-  f l i c t s manifesting themselves i n d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l human s i t u a t i o n s seemed to j u s t i f y a search for common trends and themes.  Bachmann con-  tinues i n the same l e c t u r e on l i t e r a t u r e : Und doch 1st nur Richtung, die durchgehende Manifestation einer Problemkonstante, eine unverwechselbare Wortwelt, Gestaltenwelt und K o n f l l k t w e l t imstande, uns zu veranlassen, einen Dichter a l s unausweichlich zu sehen.3 4  Many c r i t i c s have chosen to apply t h i s view to her own works . ized Frauenbild may  therefore be w e l l j u s t i f i e d .  A general-  E s p e c i a l l y the f i g u r e  of Undine i n Undine geht appears i n i t s e l f already as a compound female image.  The s e l e c t i o n of the main female characters posed another d i f f i -  culty.  Obviously, the elder Frau Jordan i n Das Gebell did not quite f i t  the general pattern of the other Bachmann women. This was not f e l t , however, to be a v a l i d reason to exclude her.  On the contrary, i n t e r e s t i n g  and a d d i t i o n a l points could be added to the Bachmann image of women by an analysis of her story. H. Pausch saw the work even as a "kontrapunktische Erzahlung", which did demonstrate the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l pressures from which other women t r i e d to free themselves."* selection was f i n a l l y chosen:  The following method of  women that dominated a novel, story or  radio play as w e l l as those who functioned i n important secondary r o l e s  IX  were classed as "main f i g u r e s " ; women playing only minor parts such as Mrs. Brown i n Die Zikaden were classed as "secondary f i g u r e s " and seldom6  used f o r the study ; l a s t l y , females representing very i n s i g n i f i c a n t parts i n extent or i n depth such as the Passantin i n E i n Geschaft mit Traumen or s i m i l a r figures appearing i n Bachmann's poetry were classed as peripheral figures and not used f o r the purpose of t h i s study as t h e i r substance was thought too small to j u s t i f y v a l i d statements. One additional problem became evident during the i n v e s t i g a t i v e stage of t h i s study.  That was the existence i n the secondary l i t e r a t u r e  of a f a i r l y widespread stereotype of Ingeborg Bachmann. great poetess but not much else.  She was the  This f i x e d image has produced quite  extensive l i t e r a t u r e on her poetry and less regard of her prose writings which t h i s writer feels to be u n j u s t i f i e d .  Furthermore, many of the  publications, that d i d concern themselves with her prose, do so from a biased point of view, which considers her l y r i c talent a handicap to her sucess as a writer of prose.  PART I.  INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER I -GENERAL REMARKS  A.  The Image of the Woman Why i s the image of the woman i n the l i t e r a t u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r  s o c i e t y worthy of a n a l y s i s ?  F i r s t of a l l i t can show a conception h e l d  by a s o c i e t y or group w i t h i n the s o c i e t y , o r , a t the v e r y l e a s t , an image which i s s t r o n g l y m o d i f i e d by s o c i e t y ' s norms. p o r t r a y s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and environmental  I t usually  conditions actually  to e x i s t or presumed to e x i s t as moral codes.  Secondly,  i n f o r m a t i o n about trends or developments, about changing moral codes, and about attempts consciousness.  found  i t yields s o c i a l and  to change and to i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case w i t h the " F r a u e n l i t e r a t u r "  i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the t w e n t i e t h century which has aroused much d i s c u s s i o n , controversy and even polemics.^  T h i r d l y , i t may help to  answer the widely d i s c u s s e d q u e s t i o n whether form, c r i t e r i a , d e s c r i p t i o n and viewpoints i n t h e l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n of a woman c h a r a c t e r d i f f e r according to the w r i t e r ' s sex. The f o l l o w i n g study hopes to throw new l i g h t on a s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s theme:  namely to advance some thoughts and  c o n c l u s i o n s about the image of the woman developed by Bachmann i n her prose f i c t i o n .  I t i s an image of woman which i s of s p e c i a l  1  2  interest, being one of the few i n the literature of either Germany or Austria which has been created by a woman. B.  Previous Research Studies on the image of the woman i n l i t e r a t u r e are s t i l l i n their  i n i t i a l phase.  Few studies have been done i n the past but their number i s  8 increasing. point.  Most of these approach the topic from a sociological view-  As far as the particular situation of Bachmann i s concerned, the  image of the woman has never received any special attention.  Although  Bachmann's heroines have been discussed i n various interpretations of her stories, plays or novels, the topics so far have been determined by theme, genre, and interpretative approaches that put l i t t l e emphasis on the social p r o f i l e of Bachmann's characters.  The larger specialized studies  to date have preferred to deal with such typical Bachmann topics as "the new  language", Grenzubertritt, or the outsider. Angst-Hurlimann, Beatrice. Moglichen.  Im Widerspiel des Unmoglichen mit dem  Diss. Zurich, 1971. Zurich:  Holschuh, Albrecht.  Examples are:  Juris, 1971.  Utopismus im Werke Ingeborg Bachmanns:  thematische Untersuchung.  Eine  Diss. Princeton, 1974. Princeton  University Press, 1964. Ozer, Irma J.  The Treatment of the Maladjusted Protagonist i n the  Fiction of Ingeborg Bachmann and Christa Wolf. 1986.  Diss. New York,  University Press, 1986.  Within these concepts the s p e c i f i c a l l y "female'* issues have been limited to the themes of love or Grenzubertritt.  There has been scant recognition  of the detailed attention which Bachmann expends on the development of her female characters.  3  C.  Present Thesis  1.  The Problem a)  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the problem In the l i g h t of the above, i t was considered d e f e n s i b l e to devote  a d i s s e r t a t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y t o a study o f the image o f the woman i n Bachmann's works. F i r s t l y , because o f the t o p i c ' s l i t e r a r y , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l e v a n c e , the growing d i s c u s s i o n about o b l i g a t i o n s of woman i n western  the p o s i t i o n , g o a l s , r i g h t s and  s o c i e t i e s , the search f o r new d e f i n i t i o n s  of the female's s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , and l a s t but not l e a s t , the c o n t r o v e r s y created by the v a r i e d , even c o n t r a d i c t o r y programmes of l i b e r a t i o n i s t and f e m i n i s t groups, provided the t o p i c with a d d i t i o n a l p e r t i n e n c e . Secondly, Bachmann's c h a r a c t e r s appeared  to promise more of  i n t e r e s t and r e l e v a n c e f o r such an undertaking than those of other contemporary w r i t e r s i n German.  Not only d i d the c h o i c e of a woman  w r i t e r as the source o f the image to be examined seem a j u s t i f i a b l e one, but Bachmann appeared  to have d i s p l a y e d unique i n t e l l e c t u a l as w e l l as  emotional q u a l i t i e s i n her development of woman c h a r a c t e r s and to have d e a l t with i s s u e s that a r e of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to us today.  Furthermore,  the l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y o f t h e authoress i s f e l t to be s i g n i f i c a n t and i s widely accepted as such.  Likewise, there appears  to be agreement that  the authoress i s r a t h e r moderate i n her views and balanced i n her c o n c l u sions.  The poetess i s a German-language w r i t e r who transcends the  n a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l boundaries of the v a r i o u s German-speaking c o u n t r i e s - the cosmopolitan nature of Bachmann's l i f e and w r i t i n g s l e n d i n g her statements  a more u n i v e r s a l substance and appeal.  A l s o , Bachmann  appeared  4 to be f a s c i n a t e d and moved by the female c h a r a c t e r and i t s concerns; c e r t a i n l y , the woman o c c u p i e s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n her l i t e r a r y work. Furthermore, i t i s the development and substance o f the image i t s e l f that i n t r i g u e s .  There appears to e x i s t no s i m p l i f y i n g c o n s i s t e n c y but  a m u l t i p l i c i t y i n the images of the v a r i o u s "heroines who d i s p l a y t e n s i o n s , c o n f l i c t s , g o a l s and paths of development The q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e arose:  i n very i n d i v i d u a l ways.  what k i n d o f image o f the woman  i s i t that Bachmann o f f e r s and what i s i t s meaning and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t o p i c "woman i n our world today"?  b)  Statement o f the problem The problem then assumed the f o l l o w i n g contours:  nature of the image of the woman i n Bachmann's works? as to speak of "one g e n e r a l image"? posed?  What i s the  May one go so f a r  Of what elements i s t h i s image com-  To what extent has i t been determined by Bachmann's biography?  Does i t c o n t a i n " t r a d i t i o n a l " and/or modern f e m i n i s t elements i n i t s make-up?  A f t e r determining the kind of image, one would enquire about  i t s meaning. content?  What does t h i s image convey?  What, i f any, i s i t s symbolic  Does i t c a r r y a message, does i t i l l u s t r a t e a t h e s i s about  modern woman?  I f so, what a r e i t s arguments  and conclusions?  Noting  the important p o s i t i o n the male appeared to p l a y o p p o s i t e the female i n her works, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p seemed to promise a major c o n t r i b u t i o n to the understanding o f the Bachmann image of the woman. mapped out:  T h e r e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s were  What image - i f one a t a l l - does the male convey i n  Bachmann's works?  I s i t a counter-image to the female, and i f so, what  purpose does i t serve? ship?  2.  What i s the nature o f the male-female r e l a t i o n -  And again, what i s i t s meaning?  Design of Thesis The main body of the t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o a s e c t i o n of t e x t u a l  a n a l y s i s - Chapters II-V;  followed  p r e t a t i o n - Chapters VI-IX.  by a s e c t i o n o f d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r -  The approach was as f o l l o w s :  During the  i n v e s t i g a t i v e phase, t h e c o l l e c t i o n of data and some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and evaluation  of the same were given prominence.  characters  deserved a n a l y s i s , a systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n  of data on the fourteen  h e r o i n e s was begun:  A f t e r determining which  F i r s t l y , the determination  of t h e i r "outer" ( s o c i a l and environmental) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was followed by the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the " i n n e r "  (psychic  and b e h a v i o u r a l )  character-  istics. Next, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r o l e s of the female characters was thought to add important information woman's p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . mother, wife, one  on Bachmann's ideas regarding  The major " t r a d i t i o n a l " female s o c i a l r o l e s o f  l o v e r , and housewife as w e l l as an important contemporary  - the woman as p r o f e s s i o n a l - were i n c l u d e d .  "outsider  a  Added, too, was the  r o l e " as t h i s was thought to be a concept that played an impor-  tant p a r t i n Bachmann's image of the woman. Since not only a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e ' s psychic make-up and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t , but a l s o because epic l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l as dramatic uses the i n t e r a c t i o n s of i t s f i g u r e s to r e v e a l c h a r a c t e r , thought e s s e n t i a l to study the a c t i o n s  of Bachmann's woman  i t was  characters.  Four f i e l d s of i n t e r a c t i o n were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s purpose, two of which  ( i n t e r a c t i o n with c h i l d r e n and w i t h men) were " t r a d i t i o n a l " ones; the other two ( i n t e r a c t i o n with woman and s o c i e t y ) were again suggested by Bachmann's i n t e n s i v e development of these  facets.  The l a s t of the i n v e s t i g a t i v e chapters was devoted  to the  v a r i o u s m o t i v a t i n g agents behind these a c t i o n s and to d e f i n i n g the p a t terns of development i n Bachmann's h e r o i n e s .  The l i n e s o f i n q u i r y were  d i v i d e d i n t o i n n e r and outer m o t i v a t i n g agents w i t h those d e f i n e d as i n n e r occupying the l a r g e r p a r t of the chapter i n accordance w i t h what was f e l t to be t h e i r dominance i n Bachmann's p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The s e c t i o n  on development d i d not need e x t e n s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n as i t soon became c l e a r that as f a r as the development was concerned  i t was p o s s i b l e to  g e n e r a l i z e i n one or only a few b a s i c p a t t e r n s of development. P a r t two of the t h e s i s begins w i t h d i s c u s s i o n of f o u r major questions o f importance the female:  f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Bachmann's image o f  F i r s t l y , the v e r y s t r i k i n g " t r a d i t i o n a l " aspect of Bachmann's  heroines that was noted i n the p r e v i o u s chapters i s d i s c u s s e d . the v a l u e of a b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which appears the case of Bachmann, i s argued. the allgemein menschliche  Secondly,  so tempting i n  The t h i r d theme - s e x - s p e c i f i c versus  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the image of the woman - was  chosen because of great importance  which Bachmann seems to a t t a c h to a  s e x - s p e c i f i c j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the male and female ways o f t h i n k i n g and acting.  L a s t l y , the s o c i a l versus the i n d i v i d u a l theme was chosen  because of the great emphasis and value which Bachmann's heroines p l a c e on i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The  two f o l l o w i n g chapters - V I I and V I I I - have been devoted to  a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the image and each deals with one of two  7  c e n t r a l themes that emerged during the male-female a n t i t h e s i s .  the study:  the theme of freedom  An attempt at a f o r m u l a t i o n  and  of the purpose  of the image of the female i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n i s made i n Chapter followed by a summary chapter e v a l u a t i n g major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  IX  Chapter  XI, f i n a l l y , i s devoted to a comprehensive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o c u s s i n g  on  the Todesarten n o v e l s .  3.  Major  Conclusions  A n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d on Bachmann's female appeared to i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s The  first  male characters  throughout her  c o n c l u s i o n reached was  protagonists  fiction.  that Bachmann's women - and  her  as w e l l - were o u t f i t t e d w i t h most of the s o - c a l l e d  " t y p i c a l s e x - s p e c i f i c " a t t r i b u t e s of t h e i r " t r a d i t i o n a l " s o c i a l r o l e s . The  author's female c h a r a c t e r s  they act i r r a t i o n a l l y and  are, on the whole, v a i n and  emotionally.  In c o n t r a s t , her male  are most o f t e n dominant, have p r o f e s s i o n a l and a c t l o g i c a l l y and  affectionate; characters  t e c h n i c a l i n t e r e s t s ; they  unemotionally.  However, i t was  a l s o noted that these images were not  outdated  9 or conservative  c l i c h e s as some c r i t i c s have i m p l i e d ,  images of a h i g h l y symbolic character  and  male r e p r e s e n t i n g  rather,  s e r v i n g very s p e c i f i c  i n Bachmann's v i s i o n of the human c o n d i t i o n . found to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of two  but,  Both - men  functions  and women- were  c o n f l i c t i n g views of the world,  the world of e f f i c i e n c y , of pragmatism, of r a t i o n a l i t y ,  of u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , of r e s t r a i n t i n every sphere of l i f e , of order, and firmness.  the  purpose  I t soon became obvious that Bachmann - without d i s q u a l i f y i n g  the many achievements brought about by t h i s way  of p e r c e i v i n g and  dealing  with r e a l i t y - saw i n i t a great danger and t h r e a t to the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s or her inner and emotional l i f e .  The male, t h e r e f o r e ,  f r e q u e n t l y i n her f i c t i o n as the symbolic "murderer"  appeared  or at l e a s t as a  p s y c h i c a l l y r e t a r d i n g or i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r f o r the female.  Various  essay fragments of Bachmann c o n t r i b u t e d a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s such as the argument that e x p l o i t a t i o n of human work i s a r e s u l t of the trend  toward  e f f i c i e n c y and u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , thus adding another s o c i a l dimension to the image of the male.  On the other hand, i t was noted that the image of  the woman i n Bachmann s f i c t i o n stood 1  experience and development  f o r emotional development,  f o r the  of the inner and i n d i v i d u a l realms of  p e r s o n a l i t y ; f o r non-determination and n o n - f i x a t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y , f o r l i m i t l e s s expansion i n t o the spheres of emotion. The theme of freedom was found to permeate a l l of Bachmann's female images and has been g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s study.  I t was,  t h e r e f o r e , o f f e r e d as a second major c o n c l u s i o n that almost a l l of the c o n f l i c t s of Bachmann's women are based, a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , on t h e search and l o n g i n g f o r p e r s o n a l freedom. In c o n c l u s i o n , the t h e s i s t r i e s to show that Bachmann's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the female was determined n e i t h e r by " t r a d i t i o n a l " role c l i c h e s nor f e m i n i s t polemics but represented an image - what we c a l l e d an a n t i - E v e image - that o f f e r s paths to s a l v a t i o n f o r men and women. I t i s an image that a s c r i b e s new and deeper meanings to " t y p i c a l l y female" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour - an image that must have appeared even to Bachmann to be somewhat u n a t t a i n a b l e and which, t h e r e f o r e , seeks to gather and r e f l e c t u l t i m a t e goals and values r a t h e r than to f u n c t i o n i n a pedagogic mode.  PART I I .  INVESTIGATION OF THE IMAGE OF THE  WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN  CHAPTER I I THE  A.  FEMALE CHARACTERS  S e l e c t i o n o f Characters In order to be able to give a complex d e f i n i t i o n of the image  of the woman i n the works of Ingeborg Bachmann, one must f i r s t of a l l examine the v a r i o u s aspects of the major female c h a r a c t e r s that appear there.  The f o l l o w i n g f o u r t e e n women have been s e l e c t e d as major  t e r s and w i l l be considered  charac-  collectively:  the n a r r a t o r (Ich) Jennifer Undine Charlotte, Mara Hanna Nadja Beatrix Miranda Elisabeth Gerda " d i e a l t e Frau Jordan", Franziska Franza  i n Malina i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan i n Undine geht i n E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha i n Alles i n Simultan i n Probleme Probleme I n I h r g l t i c k l i c h e n Aug en i n D r e i Wege zum See i n E i n Wildermuth i n Das G e b e l l i n Der F a l l Franza  They w i l l be s t u d i e d i n the context of t h e i r age, t h e i r  stage-of-life,  t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background, t h e i r s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , and t h e i r m a r i t a l and f a m i l i a l s t a t e . data, some p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s , i n t e l l e c t u a l behaviour,  Beside  thes*e  social-environmental  such as v a n i t y , spontaneity, non-  and i n t u i t i o n , w i l l be examined.  9  The r e s u l t i n g  10  p i c t u r e should add some new i n s i g h t s i n t o Ingeborg Bachmann's concept of the female.  B.  S o c i a l and Environmental  1.  Age and L i f e - S t a g e  Characteristics  With r e g a r d to the f i r s t  p o i n t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , that of  age, i t Is i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a l l l e a d i n g women - w i t h the except i o n o f the e l d e r Frau Jordan ^* - are w i t h i n the younger mid-age range 1  of  approximately twenty to f o r t y y e a r s .  11  This i s a very s i g n i f i c a n t  age range, s i n c e i t centres on the t h i r t i e t h year, a most important  turn-  12 ing  p o i n t i n human l i f e  i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n *  are g i v e n d i r e c t l y or may be determined  Although t h e exact ages  i n d i r e c t l y i n o n l y seven  13 instances,  the approximate  age f o r the other female c h a r a c t e r s may be  c l o s e l y estimated on the b a s i s of the d e t a i l e d and o f t e n i n t i m a t e p i c t u r e of  the heroine's behaviour, i n t e r e s t s , thoughts, and emotional  problems.  Character The n a r r a t o r (Ich) i n M a l i n a J e n n i f e r i n Per gute Gott von Manhattan Undine i n Undine geht C h a r l o t t e i n E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha Mara i n E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha Hanna i n A l l e s Nadja i n Simultan B e a t r i x i n Probleme Probleme Miranda i n Ihr g l u c k l i c h e n Augen E l i s a b e t h i n D r e i Wege zum See  c a . 40 23 mature woman (middle age) mature woman (middle age) e a r l y twenties 30 29 20 younger woman 49 (but appears "as i f i n her l a t e t h i r t i e s " ) Gerda i n E i n Wildermuth younger woman "die a l t e Frau Jordan" i n Das G e b e l l 85 F r a n z i s k a i n Das G e b e l l young woman Franza i n Per F a l l Franza * 33 What does t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e to our knowledge of Ingeborg Bachmann's image of woman? F i r s t o f a l l that t h i s image i s a l i m i t e d  11  one, l i m i t e d as f a r as the f u l l range of a human l i f e i s concerned. Experiences, such as g i r l h o o d memories, the complex s e n s a t i o n s of growing  up, the problems of aging, the c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h o l d age, and death,  are  r a r e l y f e l t by Bachmann's female c h a r a c t e r s .  Secondly, i t might  show that the authoress tends to a t t a c h so much importance  to m i d - l i f e  experiences that she devotes h e r s e l f almost e x c l u s i v e l y to them, o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y l e t t i n g h e r women r e f l e c t on past experiences of t h e i r stage o f l i f e . examples.  early  The n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a and Franza i n Der F a l l Franza a r e  One of the major themes i n t h i s context i s the theme of l o v e  and i t s f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex or one's own sex (Ein  S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha).  T h i s emphasis on a l i m i t e d range o f emo-  t i o n a l experiences may a l s o e x p l a i n why age seems f o r Bachmann to be a f u n c t i o n of emotional o r p s y c h i c development r a t h e r than one o f p h y s i c a l time.  E l i s a b e t h r e c a l l s i n D r e i Wege zum See:  Unterschied.  "Zweiundzwanzig Jahre  S i e h a t t e a l s o auch s e i n e Mutter s e i n konnen, obwohl i h r  d i e s e r Gedanke noch n i e gekommen war und auch j e t z t f u r s i e ganz fremd war.  2.  Es war j e d e n f a l l s bedeutungslos, und nur d i e Rechnung war r i c h t i g . " '  E d u c a t i o n a l Background A f u r t h e r component of Bachmann's image o f the woman can be  obtained by a n a l y z i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l background writings.  of the heroines i n her  Although h i n t s about a post-secondary education - mostly of  u n i v e r s i t y type - can be found f o r a t l e a s t s i x of the f o u r t e e n women studied,"^^ Bachmann's women are not t y p i c a l l y from academe.  With the  exception of J e n n i f e r , who s t u d i e s p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e and the f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r i n Malina, who began the study of law but l e f t  university  12  before  i t s completion, t h e i r t r a i n i n g l i e s i n f i e l d s which a r e " t r a d i -  t i o n a l l y " acceptable f o r the female; e.g. C h a r l o t t e i n music, the n a r r a -  16 tor  i n M a l i n a i n w r i t i n g , Nadja i n l i n g u i s t i c s ,  and  p o r t r a i t photography (without  formal  Elisabeth i n journalism  schooling).  Bachmann's women a r e educated but d i s l i k e formal  We can say that  education:  Mara hates  the academy, J e n n i f e r s t u d i e s but "wants to see the world", the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a mocks dry u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e s " ^ and breaks o f f her s t u d i e s s e v e r a l times. Here the. Bachmann image of the woman takes on sharper All  o f the few f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e  occupational  contours.  a c t i v i t i e s o f the l e a d i n g  c h a r a c t e r s a r e w i t h i n the range of c r e a t i v e o r a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s o r professions.  No "emancipated" careers m a t e r i a l i z e even i n the few cases  of a p r e r e q u i s i t e t r a i n i n g as i n the case of the n a r r a t o r  i n Malina, who  18 does not intend to work i n t h e j u d i c i a r y ,  or i n Franza's case, who  19 never does f i n i s h her medical t r a i n i n g . Alongside  t h i s r e j e c t i o n o f a r i d academic p u r s u i t s and a f f i r m a -  t i o n of the c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ,  there emerges a second p o i n t of s i m i -  l a r i t y among Bachmann's l e a d i n g female c h a r a c t e r s . grounds o f Bachmann's heroines of the middle c l a s s .  The s o c i a l back-  a l l f a l l w i t h i n the upper and lower l i m i t s  The only exception  to t h i s again being  the e l d e r  Frau Jordan, whose background resembles most n e a r l y that of the lower working c l a s s , but who i s soon to become a governess to a wealthy f a m i l y ; moreover, she, o f a l l Bachmann's women, attaches  great importance to  20 s o c i a l status.  Furthermore, a l l l e a d i n g women betray  i n d i c t i o n as  w e l l as i n thought a high l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Hanna, F r a n z i s k a , and  13 B e a t r i x with no formal education, show e x t e n s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t and understanding  i n dealing with others:  e.g. Hanna with F i p p s ,  F r a n z i s k a w i t h the e l d e r Frau Jordan, and B e a t r i x w i t h E r i c h . t e l l s s t o r i e s w i t h w i t , charm, and e s p r i t .  Gerda  The f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r  21 i n M a l i n a would seem to be a r e c o g n i z e d authoress,  Charlotte gives  c o n c e r t s , and E l i s a b e t h works w i t h a world-famous a r t Even Miranda,  photographer.  on whose background Bachmann i s r a t h e r s i l e n t ,  attends  the Musikverein and Sunday concerts r e g u l a r l y . In  sum, the c o n c l u s i o n may be j u s t i f i e d  that the e d u c a t i o n a l  background - whether s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned or not, formal or i n f o r m a l seems to p l a c e Bachmann's women l a r g e l y i n the category of i n t e l l i g e n t , more or l e s s l e i s u r e d women o f t e n with s e r v a n t s .  Although some p a r t i -  c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , there are no "working women" of  lower s o c i a l standing. Character  Education  22 The n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a Jennifer Undine Charlotte Mara Hanna Nadja Beatrix Miranda Elisabeth Gerda "die a l t e Frau Jordan" Franziska Franza  Gymnasium, u n i v e r s i t y ' studies p o l i t i c a l sciences advanced e d u c a t i o n a l background s t u d i e d music s t u d i e s at an academy, probably music good e d u c a t i o n a l background, no d e t a i l has "many diplomas" " r e f u s e d to take formal education" no d e t a i l s " g i f t e d and i n t e l l i g e n t " , no c o l l e g e but s e l f educated no d e t a i l s but "good background", a r t i s t i c a l l y inclined l i t t l e education no d e t a i l s , of good background medical education, not completed  14  3.  S o c i a l Status and P r o f e s s i o n The middle c l a s s background  and p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of  Bachmann's women have a l r e a d y been noted.  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the  economic s t a t u s of her h e r o i n e s a l s o r e v e a l s a narrowly c o n v e n t i o n a l p i c t u r e of the middle t o upper-middle  c l a s s C e n t r a l European.  None of  her women l i v e s below the poverty l i n e , although some, e s p e c i a l l y the e l d e r Frau Jordan, are not too w e l l o f f .  Very few a c t u a l l y work f o r  t h e i r l i v i n g ; Nadja does so, and a t times E l i s a b e t h .  At least s i x l i v e  23 o f f t h e i r husband's income,  two have other independent  sources of  income, no s p e c i f i c source of income i s i n d i c a t e d f o r the r e s t .  More  than h a l f of Bachmann's major women c h a r a c t e r s are w e l l o f f , most can a f f o r d to t r a v e l e x t e n s i v e l y , only two - the elder Frau Jordan and B e a t r i x - have f i n a n c i a l problems, poor.  s t i l l both cannot r e a l l y be c a l l e d  Once again, one gains the impression, that most Bachmann h e r o i n e s  e x i s t w i t h i n the middle or upper-middle  class.  The f r e q u e n t l y reappear-  i n g s o c i a l i t e names such as the Jordans, the A l t e n w y l s , Goldmanns, Mandels even v. Karajan, the r e c u r r i n g background  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  h o t e l s and spas, the atmosphere of a s o c i e t y of l e i s u r e , e.g. the Wolfgangsee, I t a l i a n beach r e s o r t s , Cafe Sacher i n Vienna, support  this  24 impression. The second p o i n t , that of p r o f e s s i o n , has been d e a l t w i t h to some extent under the heading of education.  Only two of a l l the l e a d i n g  female c h a r a c t e r s - Nadja and E l i s a b e t h - are p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  Of the  r e s t , no occupation o u t s i d e housework i s noted or, as i n the case of C h a r l o t t e and the f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a , i t i s a c r e a t i v e or a r t i s t i c occupation whose main r a i s o n d'etre i s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n .  It  15  i s a l s o worth n o t i n g , that the reader meets the few "working women" only during t h e i r l e i s u r e time, on v a c a t i o n s but r a r e l y "on the j o b " , although some - e s p e c i a l l y Nadja - speak e x t e n s i v e l y about work.  25  their  Once more i t seems that a r a t h e r " t r a d i t i o n a l " image of the  women gains shape.  The l a c k o f o c c u p a t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  activities  among Bachmann's women might c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e the acceptance  of a  " t r a d i t i o n a l " male-orientated view of the world on the p a r t o f the authoress.  T h i s i s n o t a b l y d i f f e r e n t from the female c h a r a c t e r s  of such contemporary West-German w r i t e r s as K a r i n Struck, Ruth Rehmann, G a b r i e l e Wohmann, n o t to mention such East-German w r i t e r s as C h r i s t a Wolf o r Irmtraud  Morgner.  L i b e r a t i o n through work - one may conclude - i s not a Bachmann theme;  4.  26  27 her heroines t r y to achieve s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n by other means.  M a r i t a l and F a m i l i a l Status A l l o f Bachmann's l e a d i n g women c h a r a c t e r s a r e e i t h e r  or are p a r t n e r s i n d e f e c t i v e marriages. studied here are s i n g l e .  single  E i g h t of the f o u r t e e n women  Among these e i g h t i s one e l d e r l y widow - the  e l d e r Frau Jordan - the r e s t seem to lead a r a t h e r unconventional  life;  s i x have had more than one heterosexual love a f f a i r , some, such as Undine and E l i s a b e t h , have had s e v e r a l .  Nearly a l l the s i n g l e and  s e v e r a l of the married women might even be l a b e l l e d promiscuous.  Some  28 of the s i n g l e women were e i t h e r " n e a r l y " married, unhappily married.  or were once  E l i s a b e t h was married to a homosexual.  Most have  p e r s o n a l i t y problems i n a d j u s t i n g to permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  A l l the  women s t i l l married i n the s t o r i e s o r novels have marriages t h a t  16 are s e v e r e l y damaged. noted t h i s phenomenon.  There are no happy m a r r i a g e s .  A. Weber has  He draws d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s from o u r s ,  29  however,  when he comments:  Keine der P r o t a g o n i s t i n n e n der Bachmann f u h r t eine Ehe. Die I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n " M a l i n a " weifi s i c h zwischen Ivan und M a l i n a , zwei Mannern, d i e I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n " D r e i Wege zum See" h a t v i e l e S t a t i o n e n und B e t t e n h i n t e r s i c h . l i b e r a l 1 im Werk i s t L i e b e a l s f r e i e L i e b e das A u B e r o r d e n t l i c h e . Dauernde Bindung s c h e i n t u n e r t r a g l i c h , K i n d e r eher e i n H i n d e r n i s der L i e b e ( " A l l e s " , " M a l i n a " ) . Manner und Frauen, im Anspruch a u f F r e i h e i t , stehen auch i n der k o n v e n t i o n e l l e n G e s e l l s c h a f t unverbunden nebeneinander, der A u g e n b l i c k der L i e b e e r f u l l t mit G l i i c k , aber j e mehr s i c h das A u f i e r o r d e n t l i c h e i n g l e i c h e r Weise m i t verschiedenen P a r t n e r n w i e d e r h o l t , desto s c h a l e r und abgeschmackter w i r d es ("Drei Wege zum See"). D i e Lust des F l e i s c h e s und d i e Sehnsucht nach Gliick scheinen u n v e r e i n bar und t r e i b e n s i c h w e c h s e l s e i t i g hoch nach B e f r i e d i g u n g . Die I d e n t i t a t der Person i s t i n Frage, d i e S i c h e r h e i t des Lebens.30 What c o n c l u s i o n s may one draw from t h e above?  (The b i o g r a p h i c a l aspect  of t h i s - perhaps the most important p o i n t - w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n 31 a larger context).  F i r s t l y , Ingeborg Bachmann's women see marriage  as an i n f r i n g e m e n t on p e r s o n a l freedom and independence. E l i s a b e t h , Mara and C h a r l o t t e express t h i s p o i n t c l e a r l y .  Undine, Nadja, However,  s i n c e these women must go on s e a r c h i n g f o r l o v e - Undine: "war i c h v e r u r t e i l t zu l i e b e n " - f o r a b s o l u t e l o v e , they a r e i n a dilemma, as they must search f o r t h i s l o v e o u t s i d e the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage o r , i n marrying, s a c r i f i c e t h e i r freedom and independence.  T h i s problem  i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d , s i n c e Ingeborg Bachmann seems t o see m a r r i a g e , w i t h i t s f o r m a l s t r i c t u r e s , a l s o as a hindrance t o the achievement o f a b s o l u t e l o v e . C h a r l o t t e r e f l e c t s on h e r marriage: Wie immer eine Ehe auch gefiihrt w i r d - s i e kann n i c h t w i l l k i i r l i c h g e f i i h r t werden, n i c h t e r f i n d e r i s c h , kann k e i n e Neuerung, Anderung v e r t r a g e n , w e i l Ehe eingehen schon h e i S t , i n i h r e Form eingehen.32  17 A t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t Bachmann's women have i n common i n r e s p e c t to t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s , i s one of psychology.  Bachmann's heroines a r e  emotionally u n s t a b l e as f a r as love i s concerned  and i n t h i s sense, too, 33  may be seen as e x h i b i t i n g " t r a d i t i o n a l " and romantic  female  traits.  They a r e d r i v e n by emotions and most of the time a r e d i s a p p o i n t e d by "mediocre"  and s e l f i s h men.  They d e s p i s e or p i t y  most  men as weaklings,  who a r e not a b l e to operate a t " h i g h e r " l e v e l s of human i n t e r a c t i o n . character  narrator i n Malina Jennifer Und ine Charlotte Mara Hanna Nadja Beatrix Miranda Elisabeth Gerda "die alte Frau Jordan" Franziska Franza  s i n g l e married widowed d i v o r c e d a d u l t e r y n e g a t i v e unhappy experiences with opp. s ex  X X X  X  X  X  lesbian lesbian  X X  X  X  +  X  X  X X X  X X X  X X  X X X  X  +  X X X X  X X X X X X X X  X  X  X X  X X  The c h a r t seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t negative experiences with the opposite sex and unhappiness caused by broken marriages  or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l o v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t y p i c a l of Bachmann's h e r o i n e s . C.  34  Psychic and Behavioural C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In the second  p a r t of t h i s chapter an a n a l y s i s w i l l be attempted  of the b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Ingeborg Bachmann's women and of  18  their  attitude  toward  the  catalogue  of  m a l e and  "typical"  sex-specific  norms  female  of  female  social  characteristics  characteristics  roles.  quoted  by  have been used  The I.  as  following  Plenge  as  a point  of  departure: male  female  versus  schon - b e a u t i f u l korperbezogen - body-conscious eitel - vain schmuckliebend - l o v e of s e l f - a d o r n m e n t anmutig graceful charmant - charming gefiihlshaft - emotional sensibel - sensitive h i n g a b e - und liebesfahig d e v o t e d and l o v i n g z a r t l i c h - tender umsorgend und hegend - c a r i n g and p r o t e c t i v e ^  denkend - r a t i o n a l logisch - logical sachgerichtet - objective produktiv - productive schopferisch - creative geistig - intellectual  1.  Vanity D e r T a g w i r d k o m m e n , a n dem d i e Frauen r o t g o l d e n e Augen haben, r o t g o l d e n e s H a a r , und d i e P o e s i e ihres Geschlechts wird wiederers c h a f f e n w e r d e n . . .^6 It  appears,  that  Ingeborg  Bachmann's h e r o i n e s  " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e and b e h a v i o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s . care  for  externals  appearance. represent  Indeed,  part  of  The  figure  point  well:  " . . .  tiger  waren a l s  den F r i s e u r  such as  und  for  hairstyle,  Ingeborg  cosmetics,  Bachmann's  the  essence  of  womanhood.  of  Beatrix  in  Probleme  und d i e  alles fur  andere,  ihre  They  Kosmetika  „37  try  to  dresses  characters  Probleme  e i n z i g e n AusgabenJ wichtiger  conform w e l l be  beautiful,  and  attractive  these  illustrates  die  ihr  als  Essen auch,  The  coiffure  to  things  this  allerdings waren d i e  salon  of  Rene  wichfur is  19 "the only p l a c e i n the world" where she f e e l s r i g h t a t home."'" narrator r e c a l l s : sie  And  the  "Noch ehe s i e s i c h b e i Frau Yvonne anmeldete, b l i c k t e  schon urn s i c h , i n a l l e S p i e g e l , s i e fand s i c h wieder und  fand i h r  39  w i r k l i c h e s Zuhause."  At the same beauty p a r l o r , B e a t r i x has a nervous  breakdown, because she i s d i s s a t i s f i e d with the b e a u t i c i a n ' s handiwork. In s h o r t , B e a t r i x i s the very r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h a t type of  female,  whose image i s p r e s e n t l y being attacked by many contemporary female w r i t e r s as s o c i a l l y enforced and not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t r u e female identity.  A j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the -following two  q u o t a t i o n s , one  from  Bachmann's Probleme Probleme the other from a c r i t i c a l study on supposedly s e x - s p e c i f i c behaviour w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t : Laut wiirde s i e aber heute einmal zu E r i c h etwas anderes sagen: Ich b i n manchmal r i c h t i g i n mich v e r n a r r t . ^ O Der Frau i s t es dagegen g e s t a t t e t , i h r e n Korper l u s t v o l l zu p f l e g e n , was o f t i n einen i i b e r t r i e b e n e n Narzissmus a u s a r t e t . Von der kosmetischen I n d u s t r i e s t a n d i g a n g e s t a c h e l t , macht s i e aus jedem Make-up f a s t e i n e k u l t i s c h e Handlung. Ihre Schonheit erweist s i c h sogar n i c h t s e l t e n a l s "Attrappe", w e i l der Mann vom AuBeren auf das Innere s c h l i e B t und h i n t e r e i n e r "schonen Larve" einen edlen Charakter v e r m u t e t . ^ 1  Although Nadja does wear jeans and an i l l - f i t t i n g  blouse d u r i n g her  trip  with F r a n k e l , the reader i s t o l d , that her r e a l i d e n t i t y matches the Vogue or Glamour d e s i g n s , that she appeared, "damals im H i l t o n , mit f a l s c h e n Wimpern, e i n e r d e k o r a t i v e n S t o l a und Hand f u r Handkiisse, . . ."  42  einer l e i c h t  den  abgewinkelten  The reader meets many of Bachmann's women,  r e p a i r i n g t h e i r make-up b e f o r e a date, a p p l y i n g eyeshadow and, o f t e n , 43 f a l s e eyelashes. The n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a  confesses:  Am Graben habe i c h mir e i n neues K l e i d gekauft, e i n H a u s k l e i d , das lang i s t , f u r eine Nachmittagsstunde, f u r e i n paar besondere Abende im Haus, i c h wei6, f u r wen, es g e f a l l t mir, w e i l es weich und lang i s t und das v i e l e Zuhausebleiben e r k l a r t , schon heute.  20  Ich mochte aber beim Anprobieren Ivan n i c h t h i e r haben, M a l i n a schon gar n i c h t , i c h kann nur, w e i l M a l i n a n i c h t da i s t , o f t i n den S p i e g e l sehen, i c h mufi mich im K o r r i d o r v o r dem langen S p i e g e l mehrmals drehen, meilenweit, k l a f t e r t i e f , himmelhoch, sagenweit e n t f e r n t von den Mannern. E i n e Stunde lang kann i c h z e i t - und raumlos leben, mit e i n e r t i e f e n B e f r i e d i g u n g , entftihrt i n eine Legende, wo der Geruch e i n e r S e i f e , das P r i c k e l n von Gesichtswassern, das K n i s t e r n von Wasche, das Eintauchen von Quasten i n d i e T i e g e l , der gedankenvolle Zug mit einem K o n t u r e n s t i f t das e i n z i g W i r k l i c h e s i n d . Es e n t s t e h t eine Komposition, eine Frau i s t zu e r s c h a f f e n f u r e i n H a u s k l e i d . Ganz im geheimen w i r d wieder entworfen, was eine Frau i s t , es i s t dann etwas von Anbeginn, m i t e i n e r Aura f u r niemand. Es miissen d i e Haare zwanzigmal gebiirstet, d i e FiiBe gesalbt und d i e Zehennagel l a c k i e r t werden, es miissen d i e Haare von den Beinen und unter den A c h s e l n e n t f e r n t werden, d i e Dusche wird an- und ausgemacht, e i n Korperpuder wolkt im Badezimmer, es wird i n den S p i e g e l gesehen, es i s t immer Sonntag, es wird i n den S p i e g e l gefragt, an der Wand, es konnte schon Sonntag s e i n . ^ 4 Ingeborg Bachmann's women a r e "feminine", conforming i n a l l the above mentioned ways t o " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e behaviour of women: r e s p e c t to t h e i r beauty and always conscious of p h y s i c a l  vain i n appearance.  In other r e s p e c t s , however, they do not conform, as w i l l be demonstrated later.  They are not l i t t l e Noras.  These a r e not r o l e  characteristics  from or to which they a r e t r y i n g to escape, as some c r i t i c s have sug45  gested.  I t should a l s o be noted, that t h e r e a r e moral values o r  value judgements attached t o , and q u a l i t i e s i n f e r r e d , from these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and modes of behaviour.  V a n i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l  stance of the women portrayed by Ingeborg Bachmann.  sub-  Furthermore,  we observe that these s e x - r o l e behaviour t r a i t s appears to be more intense during p e r i o d s of h a p p i n e s s . ^ To sum up:  Ingeborg Bachmann's women show many of the " t r a d i -  t i o n a l " female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which v a n i t y i s thought to be a v e r y  21  t y p i c a l and important  one.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , Bachmann's heroines would  seem to be v e r y feminine i n the " t r a d i t i o n a l " sense. female  T h i s image o f the  i s v e r y much i n c o n t r a s t to the one presented by many contemporary  female authors.  Moreover, t h i s i s the v e r y image many contemporary,  s o c i a l l y engaged authoresses a t t a c k s t r o n g l y as r o l e behaviour  enforced  47 on women by a male dominated s o c i e t y and i t s economic system.  2.  Emotionalism Even more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bachmann's women than p h y s i c a l v a n i t y  i s emotionalism  (enthusiasm,  spontaneous a c t i o n , s e n s i b i l i t y ) .  Frau  Novak's statement  on the n a r r a t o r ' s horoscope i n M a l i n a i s c l a s s i c i n  i t s formulation:  " . . . das Mannliche  und das W e i b l i c h e , der Verstand  und das Gefiihl, d i e P r o d u k t i v i t a t und d i e S e l b s t z e r s t o r u n g t r e t e n auf 48 eine merkwurdige Weise hervor." Malina thus:  And the n a r r a t o r compares h e r s e l f to  "Dieses Gleichgewicht, d i e s e r Gleichmut,  der i n ihm i s t ,  wird mich noch zur Verzweiflung t r e i b e n , w e i l i c h i n a l i e n S i t u a t i o n e n r e a g i e r e , mich an jedem Gefuhlsaufruhr b e t e i l i g e n l a s s e und d i e V e r l u s t e 49 e r l e i d e , d i e M a l m a u n b e t e i l i g t zur Kenntnis nimmt."  The whole of the  f i r s t chapter of Malina " G l i i c k l i c h mit Ivan" i s j u s t such an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a v e r y extreme emotionalism. times i n the three pages 58-60,  The word g l i i c k l i c h appears  eighteen  Helmut HeiBenbiittel, f o r i n s t a n c e , bases  h i s whole i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Malina on the emotional i s s u e , but without the s e x - s p e c i f i c component. of  He sees Malina as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n  Innenwelt"^: Es heifit, daB a l l e s , was g e s c h i l d e r t wird, n i c h t a l s etwas g e s c h i l d e r t wird, was von der E r z a h l e r i n s i n n l i c h wahrgenommen worden i s t , sondern a l s etwas, das B i l d geworden i s t f u r d i e Regungen e i n e r Seele, f u r Emotionen, f u r d i e emotionale  22  V e r m i t t l u n g von Welt und f u r d i e Reibungen und K o n f l i k t e , w e i l d i e ganz auf s i c h s e l b s t k o n z e n t r i e r t e E m o t i o n a l i t a t n i c h t Geniige f i n d e t an dem, woran s i e s i c h entziindet, w e i l s i e i h r e n s e l b s t h e r r l i c h e n Anspruch n i c h t b e f r i e d i g e n kann. Diese Geschichte des inneren, des emotionalen K o n f l i k t s wird i n d r e i Stufen e r z a h l t . K a p i t e l 1, " G l i i c k l i c h mit Ivan" hat d i e Form e i n e r L i e b e s g e s c h i c h t e ; K a p i t e l 2, "Der d r i t t e Mann", r e k a p i t u l i e r t einen Vaterkomplex; K a p i t e l 3, "Von l e t z t e n Dingen", f i i h r t i n s emotionale Verstummen, i n den, so konnte man sagen, Seelentod . . . Was Ingeborg Bachmann e r z a h l t , i s t i n e i n e r neuen V e r s i o n das, was s i e e i n s t im H o r s p i e l vom "Guten Gott von Manhattan" zu sagen v e r s u c h t e . Der gute Gott war dort e i n guter Gott, w e i l er d i e , d i e von E m o t i o n a l i t a t beherrscht wurden, aus dem K o n f l i k t mit dem r e a l e n Leben entriickte. Der Tod der Liebenden war i n der Hingabe an d i e E m o t i o n a l i t a t s e l b s t begriindet.51 Here, the f a c t that Jan does not d i e , that he becomes r i i c k f a l l i g , a l s o seems to lend support  to the view that t h i s  too,, Is e s s e n t i a l l y s e x - s p e c i f i c .  T h i s view i s supported  a d i f f e r e n t context - by H. G. Funke, who p r e t a t i o n e n zum  characteristic, - in  w r i t e s i n the s e r i e s I n t e r -  Deutschunterricht:  N i c h t der Mann, sondern d i e Frau i s t geniigend v o r b e r e i t e t , das Notwendige zu tun, um i h r e Person auszuloschen f u r den U b e r t r i t t i n eine andere E x i s t e n z . . . Die A k t i v i t a t geht von J e n n i f e r aus, s i e i s t d i e Fordernde, der Mann b l e i b t p a s s i v . Das Motiv der s t a r k e r e n P o s i t i o n k l i n g t an und b e s t a t i g t s i c h am Schlufi, wenn J e n n i f e r s K r a f t e iiber d i e des Mannes hinauswachsen und s i e i n der Spur i h r e s endlos gewordenen Gefiihls b i s ans Ende a l l e r Tage (66) g e h t . 5 2  With few exceptions, i t i s the female i n Ingeborg Bachmann's works, who  i s able to experience  and give expression to emotion.  Even more  53 important,  she i s the one who  Very few men  i s able to induce emotion i n the male.  i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n are capable of s h a r i n g emotion; they  have to be l e d by a woman to t h i s experience.  Undine i n Undine geht,  perhaps, i s - i n t h i s respect - the most impressive of a l l of Bachmann' heroines.  Here, emotion fuses  c l e a r l y with such key  aspects  23 of German Romantic l i t e r a t u r e , as the i r r a t i o n a l , the seductiveness and the demonic  :  . . . und horen doch dariiber den Muschelton, d i e Windfanfare, und dann noch einmal, spater, wenn es dunkel i s t i n den Hausern, erheben s i e s i c h h e i m l i c h , o f f n e n d i e Tiir, lauschen den Gang h i n u n t e r , i n den Garten, d i e A l l e e n h i n u n t e r , und nun horen s i e es ganz d e u t l i c h : Den Schmerzton, den Ruf von weither, die g e i s t e r h a f t e Musik. Komm! Komm! Nur einmal komm! Indeed, Bachmann's view o f emotion shows t r a c e s o f Romanticism: the d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s o f passionate love - i n c l u d i n g the d e s t r u c t i o n o f one's s e l f which i s a s s o c i a t e d with extreme Romantic emotion as e a r l y as the legend o f T r i s t a n and I s o l d e .  Since i t i s the nature of pas-  s i o n a t e love - o f Eros - t o consume i t s e l f w i t h d e s i r e , with yearning f o r the i n f i n i t e , f i n a l consummation can be found only i n death, the u l t i m a t e reunion w i t h the i n f i n i t e . T h e von Manhattan i s Bachmann's treatment  r a d i o - p l a y Der gute Gott  of t h i s theme.  A l s o , one may  detect p o i n t s o f analogy between the yearning o f passionate love f o r the i n f i n i t e and Bachmann's G r e n z u b e r t r i t t . The demonic element o f Romantic emotion appears  to r e v e a l i t s e l f i n the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f  Wanda, one of the secondary  female characters i n E i n Wildermuth:  . . . e i n Geschlecht von dunkelhaarigen b l a s s e n Frauen mit triibem groBem B l i c k , k u r z s i c h t i g e n Augen, f a s t ohne Sprache, . . . Wie an das S t a r r e n eines diisteren ernsten Raubvogels e r i n n e r e i c h mich an i h r S t a r r e n und wie an etwas f u r c h t e r l i c h F e i e r l i c h e s , a l s unsere Augen n i c h t mehr w e i t e r konnten und wir miteinander weggingen, ohne e i n Wort, ohne uns zu beriihren. . . . A l s wir i h r Zimmer e r r e i c h t h a t t e n , war i c h f a s t bewufitlos.57 It seems c l e a r  that  Ingeborg Bachmann sees emotion as a p o s i t i v e human  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , d e s p i t e i t s o c c a s i o n i n g unhappiness or s u f f e r i n g f o r the subject.  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f F i p p s ' parents i n A l l e s as two " p e t r i f i e d  people" c a r r i e s negative connotations.  Furthermore,  Bachmann, l i k e the  24 Romantics, f i n d s emotion to be a means of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n c o i n i n g her own term G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t a l s o f o r the c o n d i t i o n of having reached the absol u t e s t a t e of emotion. sity  of "ordered  Yet Bachmann r e a l i z e s a t the same time the neces-  emotion" -  as the good god expresses  Gott von Manhattan - o f emotion without continue as a s o c i a l being.  i t i n Der gute  extremes i n order f o r man to  Bachmann c o n s i d e r s t h i s , however, to be an  i n f e r i o r c o n d i t i o n t o that o f G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t . L a s t l y , c r u e l t y as one extreme form of emotionalism considered.  Here we f i n d only one i n d i c a t i o n of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " view  that women a r e c r u e l : " . . .  should be  the hope of the n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r i n M a l i n a ,  Melanie werde auch an Grausamkeit einmal a l l e anderen Frauen 58  iibertreffen."  However, the a n a l y s i s of the t e x t s does not support a  hypothesis that c r u e l t y i s an e s s e n t i a l element i n the emotional make-up of Bachmann's h e r o i n e s .  On the c o n t r a r y , there seem to be 59  d i s t i n c t l y m a s o c h i s t i c t r a i t s a t work i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h men. T h i s i s i n l i n e w i t h the views of those who emphasize the m a s o c h i s t i c element of female s e x u a l i t y as a counterpart to "male 3.  sadism".  Irrationality A t h i r d major q u a l i t y of the women portrayed by Bachmann i s a  frequent i r r a t i o n a l , i l l o g i c a l and a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l manner of reasoning and behaving.  Thus, many of Bachmann's women f r e q u e n t l y a c t i r r a t i o n -  a l l y and t h e i r thought processes do not conform to the male standards of l o g i c .  Here again - as on previous occasions - one f i n d s " t r a d i -  t i o n a l " a n d " t y p i c a l " female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which t h e i r p r o t a g o n i s t s p r o c l a i m to be s u p e r i o r t o , and more r e a l than those of the male.  25 Gerda f o r i n s t a n c e has her own concept of t r u t h which i n the view of her husband, Judge Wildermuth, c o n f l i c t s w i t h every r u l e of reason and l o g i c .  She c a l l s these c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g v e r s i o n s and  inter-  p r e t a t i o n s of her experiences and thoughts a " d i f f e r e n t and h i g h e r truth": H i e r war i h r d i e Welt genug g e h e i m n i s v o l l zusammengebraut, h i e r konnte s i e zwischen Satzungeheuern d i e Wahrheit zum Kriippel machen. "Es i s t eben eine andere Wahrheit, eine hohere Wahrheit", r i e f s i e aufgebracht. Mir f i e l e n g l e i c h a l l e hoheren Wahrheiten e i n , denen i c h schon begegnet war, hohere und hochste. . . . W e i l i c h nur mit der gemeinen und n i c h t mit der ungemeinen Wahrheit zu tun habe, f r a g t e i c h hinterhaltig. J a , da spreche i c h wohl e i n wahres Wort aus, i c h , der niichterne J u r i s t , der Rechthaber und Zyniker mit meiner trockenen diirren Wahrheit! Wie wahr! Wie wahri^O S i m i l a r l y , Undine accuses men  of u s i n g a u t i l i t a r i a n and h y p o c r i t i c a l  type of l o g i c , which she c a l l s i n f e r i o r to her  own:  Ich habe euch n i e verstanden, wahrend i h r euch von jedem D r i t t e n verstanden wufitet. Ich habe gesagt: Ich v e r s t e h e d i c h n i c h t , v e r s t e h e n i c h t , kann n i c h t v e r s t e h e n ! . . . Denn i c h habe d i e f e i n e P o l i t i k verstanden, eure Ideen, eure Gesinnungen, Meinungen, d i e habe i c h sehr wohl verstanden und noch etwas mehr. Eben darum verstand i c h nicht. Ich habe d i e Konferenzen so vollkommen verstanden, eure Drohungen, Beweisfuhrungen, Verschanzungen, dafi s i e n i c h t mehr zu v e r s t e h e n waren. Und das war es j a , was euch bewegte, d i e U n v e r s t a n d l i c h k e i t a l l dessen. Denn das war eure w i r k l i c h e grofie verborgene Idee von der Welt, und i c h habe eure Idee hervorgezaubert aus euch, eure ^ unpraktische Idee, i n der Z e i t und Tod erschienen. . . . I t i s the female who,  by her " i r r a t i o n a l i t y " , can lead men  - some chos<  few - to t h i s higher l e v e l of understanding, can teach them to apply t h e i r male l o g i c i n a new  context.  There would^seem to be an echo of  the Ewig-Weibliche present here as w e l l as the paradox of timelessness w i t h i n time and of e t e r n a l l i f e w i t h i n m o r t a l e x i s t e n c e . i s r e s o l v e d at t h i s p o i n t by Undine when she r e c a l l s :  T h i s paradox  26  Aber i c h habe euch mit einem B l i c k g e l e h r t , wenn a l l e s vollkommen, h e l l und rasend war - i c h habe euch gesagt: Es i s t der Tod d a r i n . Und: es i s t d i e Z e i t daran. Und z u g l e i c h : Geh, Tod! Und: Steh s t i l l , Z e i t ! Das habe i c h euch gesagt. T h i s t o p i c - the female r e a s o n i n g - re-emerges i n the d i s c u s s i o n s between Ivan and the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a .  Ivan accuses the n a r r a t o r of 63  the  overuse of B e i s p i e l s a t z e and teaches her to avoid them.  the  other hand, uses - a c c o r d i n g to the n a r r a t o r - L e h r s a t z e ; both of  these terms appear to f a l l  Ivan on  i n t o s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s and seem to r e -  enforce the i s s u e , "male" r a t i o n a l i s m and pure, t h e o r e t i c a l l o g i c versus the  "female", r e a l i t y o r i e n t a t e d , i n t u i t i v e way  r a t o r i n M a l i n a r e f l e c t s on t h i s  of t h i n k i n g .  The n a r -  point:  Kopfsatze haben wir v i e l e , haufenweise, wie d i e T e l e f o n s a t z e , wie d i e Schachsatze, wie d i e Satze iiber das ganze Leben. Es f e h l e n uns noch v i e l e Satzgruppen, iiber Gefiihle haben w i r noch keinen e i n z i g e n Satz, w e i l Ivan keinen a u s s p r i c h t , w e i l i c h es n i c h t wage, den e r s t e n Satz d i e s e r A r t zu machen, doch i c h denke nach iiber d i e s e f e m e fehlende Satzgruppe, t r o t z a l l e r guten Satze, d i e w i r schon machen k o n n e n . ^ Ivan sees the n a r r a t o r ' s head as a "Kopf v o l l e r S a l a t und Bohnen und Erbsen, . . . "  6 5  he, too, seems to hold the " t r a d i t i o n a l " view of female  i r r a t i o n a l i s m and c o n f u s i o n of thought. the  I t should a l s o be noted, that  n a r r a t o r loses c o n s t a n t l y i n chess games w i t h Ivan.  T h i s i s of  s i g n i f i c a n c e , i f one c o n s i d e r s chess to be a t e s t of a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g power.  P a r t s of Bruno Scharer's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t o r y A l l e s  appear to support t h i s a n t i t h e s i s i n Bachmann's works: Der Trauerbogen vom Mann zur Frau bezeichnet den Abstand vom Menschen, der dem Leben v e r t r a u t , zu dem, der es i n Frage stellt. Hanna hat s i c h an das Naheliegende gehalten. S i e hat dem Saugling Puderwolken zwischen seine d i c k e n Schenkel gestreut, . . . Doch der Vater f a l l t ins Allgemeine, s i e h t die Fragwiirdigkeit der z u f a l l i g e n E x i s t e n z , . . . und wird unfahig zu handeln. . . . Bestehen b l e i b e n w i r d d i e Trauer, die das Wissen iiber das Leben b e r e i t e t , und s e i n Handeln wird i n ihrem Zeichen stehen.^6  27  Summing up, i t i s c e r t a i n l y no c o i n c i d e n c e , that the female i n Bachmann's works always t h i n k s , argues, reasons and a c t s along c e r t a i n l i n e s which are a n t i t h e t i c a l to those of her male p r o t a g o n i s t .  It i s  u s u a l l y an emotional, and f r e q u e n t l y a seemingly  of  i r r a t i o n a l way  t h i n k i n g , that a r r i v e s , however, i n the end a t a b e t t e r understanding of l i f e .  A l s o , on some occasions, the women are a b l e to induce  this  "higher" form of p e r c e p t i o n i n t h e i r male p a r t n e r s . ^ That t h i s aspect of the image of the female i s a l s o a b a s i c p o i n t i n Ingeborg Bachmann's t h i n k i n g appears  to be supported by a  quote from her a r t i c l e on Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n "Zu einem K a p i t a l der jiingsten P h i l o s o p h i e g e s c h i c h t e " : Ihr a n a l y t i s c h e s Werkzeug, d i e Logik, e r f u h r schon gegen Ende des vergangenen Jahrhunderts eine t i e f g r e i f e n d e Umgestaltung durch d i e Verwendung von Symbolen nach Analogie der Mathematik. . . . Die Mathematik war a l s Zweig der Logik entdeckt. "Die Logik der Welt, d i e d i e Satze der Logik i n den T a u t o l o g i e n z e i g e n , z e i g t d i e Mathematik i n den Gleichungen" (6.22), f o r m u l i e r t W i t t g e n s t e i n . Verstehen wir es r i c h t i g : Wie d i e Zahlen i n der Mathematik n i c h t Gegenstande unserer Erfahrungswelt bedeuten und d i e Geometrie n i c h t den w i r k l i c h e n Raum b e s c h r e i b t , so beschreiben d i e Symbole der Logik n i c h t d i e Gegenstande und deren Beziehungen. Wir ordnen s i e , wenn wir denken, ihnen nur zu. Der Neopositivismus nimmt a l s o e i n e r s e i t s am Empirismus, a n d e r s e i t s an Kant eine empfindliche Korrektur v o r : Die Gesetze der Logik s i n d zwar a p r i o r i , aber i h r e Aussagen s i n d z u g l e i c h l e e r und nichtssagend; das heifit a l s o , da6 auch Kants These, s i e s e i e n s y n t h e t i s c h , unhaltbar i s t . Die e i n z i g e n Satze, d i e s i n n v o l l s i n d und etwas besagen, s i n d Erfahrungssatze, 68 I f we  t r y to c o r r e l a t e the Satze der Logik with what has been developed  i n t h i s study as Bachmann's view of "male t h i n k i n g " , then the Erfahrungssatze based on the sensual experience would represent the female ways of expressing t r u t h .  69  CHAPTER I I I THE  SOCIAL ROLES  This study of Bachmann's major female c h a r a c t e r s w i l l now focus on another aspect  of that complex image, namely the v a r i o u s r o l e s that  these women assume.  S i x female r o l e s , two of which are  relatively  " u n t r a d i t i o n a l " , have been s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r these women. They show Bachmann's heroines  as mothers, wives, l o v e r s , housewives,  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and as o u t s i d e r s .  A.  The Role of the Mother The mother-role - p o p u l a r l y respected  and  as the most important  ancient r o l e of a l l - has r e c e n t l y been subjected  re-examinations.^  An excerpt  to c r i t i c a l  from E t h e l M. A l b e r t ' s "The Unmothered  Woman" i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e : . . . The n o t i o n that women are f i t f o r nothing but motherhood, . . . a l l t h i s and the r e s t that goes with i t sounds oddly f a m i l i a r . A moment's thought w i l l t e l l us that the r a d i c a l Freudian model of the female, f a r from being the l a t e s t t h i n g i n s c i e n c e , i s a f a i t h f u l r e p l i c a of an a n c i e n t , patriarchal tradition. Extending from A s i a to Europe and p a r t of A f r i c a and exported to the New World, i t i s a timehonored a t t i t u d e that dishonours women, no matter what they do or do not do.^ However, t h i s trend w i t h i n the f i e l d of s o c i o l o g y does not f i n d an ext e n s i v e echo i n German l i t e r a t u r e .  True, here one r a r e l y f i n d s the  Miitterchen type as i n the poem "Mein Mutterchen" by A l b e r t  28  Sixtus:  29  Miitterchen hat viel zu tun, darf nicht rasten, darf nicht ruh'n: kochen, backen, waschen, flicken, putzen, scheuern, nah'n und stricken, spat am Abend, friih am Morgen, immer schaffen, immer sorgen. Miitterchen, du bist mein Stern, Miitterchen, ich helf' dir gem' But despite the tendency to find a new role for women there exists 73  a mother image  - even in the writings of writers suggesting a new  role for women - that is presented mostly without the polemic and intensity which pervades many non-fiction tracts on the subject today.  In light of this, the peculiar treatment given to the  mother-role by Bachman is even more remarkable.  There are very-  few mothers among her women: Hanna in Alles and the elder Frau Jordan in Das Gebell.  It seems worth noting that none of Bachmann's  heroines seem to have had a close relationship with their mothers the parental relationships, positive and negative, which occupy them are with father-figures.  Many Bachmann heroines, however, do express  their opinions on motherhood, and in so doing create a somewhat ambivalent image. Undine in Undine geht formulates the most negative opinion on the subject.  She feels that motherhood depends on the will of  men, that children are produced to create a life-purpose for the parents and also for sentimental reasons, and that motherhood is one of the poor substitutes of a mediocre existence for a free and fulfilled l i f e .  There also seems to be an undertone of contempt,  even of frustration and envy, present: Ja, dazu nehmt ihr euch die Frauen auch, damit sie Kinder kriegen, da werdet ihr mild, wenn sie furchtsam und  30 g l u c k l i c h herumgehen mit den Kindern i n ihrem L e i b . Oder i h r v e r b i e t e t euren Frauen, Kinder zu haben, w o l l t ungestort s e i n . . . I h r Betriiger und i h r Betrogenen. Versucht das n i c h t mit mir. M i t mir nicht.74 Although  the whole s t o r y i s a s u s t a i n e d indictment of men, Undine c e r -  t a i n l y i n c l u d e s a l l women who do not share her views i n t h i s  criticism.  Here, c h i l d r e n and motherhood appear to be d e t r i m e n t a l to the freedom and independence of women.  A more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c r i t i c i s m of the  mother-child r e l a t i o n s h i p seems t o be expressed  i n Das G e b e l l . ^  The  e l d e r Frau Jordan favours memories of her f o s t e r - c h i l d K i k i over her own  son.  N e i t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p d e p i c t s the happiness  of motherhood s i n c e  the c h i l d she loves i s not her own and her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her own son a f f o r d s her no r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n .  A. Weber, besides  s e l f - d e c e p t i o n on the part of the e l d e r Frau Jordan,  suggesting  comments:  S i e l i e b t Leo n i c h t , s i e f u r c h t e t i h n , . . . und doch s c h u f t e t s i e f u r seinen A u f s t i e g . S e l b s t b e s t a t i g u n g ? Befriedigung i h r e r Wunsche im Kind? Unterwerfung? Liebesentzug und Mifitrauen stehen zwischen Mutter und Sohn.76 The only other mother-figure  among Bachmann's women, Hanna, i s j u s t as  d e f e c t i v e as the e l d e r Frau Jordan.  Although Hanna appears to be a  good mother i n the conventional sense, her motherhood becomes a tragedy not only because of the a c c i d e n t a l death of her son F i p p s , but a l s o because of h i s e y i l n e s s : dem  "Denn das Bose, wie w i r es nennen, s t e c k t e i n  Kind wie eine E i t e r q u e l l e . The most p o s i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a "mother-child" image i s  the n a r r a t o r i n Malina: . , . Ivan i s t m i t Bela i n s Bad gegangen, Andras strampelt und w i l l zuerst herunter von mir, dann ktiBt er mich p l o t z l i c h auf d i e Nase, i c h kiisse Andras auf die Nase, w i r r e i b e n unsere Nasen aneinander, i c h mochte, daft es n i e a u f h o r t , daB Andras n i c h t genug bekommt, wie i c h n i c h t genug bekomme vom  31  Nasenreiben, . . . Andras drangt s i c h immer f e s t e r an mich, und i c h h a l t e i h n f e s t , er muB mir gehoren, d i e Kinder werden mir ganz gehoren.78 But here, again, i t i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a strange c h i l d . some o f t h i s mother-love  Furthermore,  seems to be motivated by the f a c t that Bela and  Andras are the c h i l d r e n of Ivan, w i t h whom she i s d e s p e r a t e l y i n l o v e . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t may be s t a t e d that the mother-image i s not a dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bachmann's h e r o i n e s .  Where i t does e x i s t , i t  shows d e f e c t s , j u s t as the marriages of her h e r o i n e s have been seen to do.  These l e a d i n g female c h a r a c t e r s have, i n g e n e r a l , no genuine  est i n c h i l d r e n . i s a mother.  inter-  Except f o r Hanna i n A l l e s , none of the younger women  I t would seem that here, too, they are too s e l f i s h .  It  would a l s o seem that motherhood - because of i t s c l o s e t i e s with f a m i l y l i f e and the male - would, i n Bachmann's terms of r e f e r e n c e , i n h i b i t sonal development and independence. B.  per-  79  The Wife-Role Some ground i n t h i s context has been covered a l r e a d y i n Chapter  80 II.  Somewhat more prominent  than the mother-role i s that of the w i f e .  Not counting widows and d i v o r c e e s , one f i n d s s i x married women among the f o u r t e e n c h a r a c t e r s who form the b a s i s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  They are  the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a , C h a r l o t t e , Hanna, Franza, Gerda, and F r a n z i s k a . But l e t us s t a r t the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s r o l e with a r a t h e r  outspoken  statement by the n a r r a t o r i n "Unter Mordern und I r r e n " on married women: . . . dafi d i e Frauen j e t z t zu Hause d i e Betten aufschlugen und s i c h zur Ruhe begaben, w e i l s i e mit der Nacht n i c h t s anzufangen wuBten. BarfuB oder i n P a n t o f f e l n , mit aufgebundenen Haaren und miiden G e s i c h t e r n gingen d i e Frauen zu Hause herum, drehten den Gashahn ab und sahen f u r c h t v o l l unter das Bett und i n d i e Kasten, b e s a n f t i g t e n mit z e r s t r e u t e n Worten d i e Kinder oder setzen s i c h verdrossen ans Radio, urn  32 s i c h dann doch hinzulegen mit Rachegedanken i n der einsamen Wohnung. M i t den Gefiihlen des Opfers lagen d i e Frauen da, mit a u f g e r i s s e n e n Augen i n der Dunkelheit, v o l l Verzweiflung und Bosheit. Sie machten i h r e Rechnungen mit der Ehe, den Jahren und dem W i r t s c h a f t s g e l d , m a n i p u l i e r t e n , v e r f a l s c h t e n und unterschlugen. S c h l i e B l i c h s c h l o s s e n s i e d i e Augen, hangten s i c h an einen Wachtraum, tiberlieBen s i c h b e t r i i g e r i s c h e n wilden Gedanken, b i s s i e e i n s c h l i e f e n mit einem l e t z e n groBen Vorwurf. Und im e r s t e n Traum ermordeten s i e i h r e Manner, l i e B e n s i e sterben an A u t o u n f a l i e n , H e r z a n f a l l e n und Pneumonien; s i e l i e B e n s i e r a s c h oder langsam und elend sterben, j e nach der Grofie des Vorwurfs, und unter geschlossenen z a r t e n L i d e r n t r a t e n ihnen d i e Tranen hervor vor Schmerz und Jammer {iber den Tod i h r e r Manner. Sie weinten urn i h r e ausgefahrenen, a u s g e r i t t e n e n , n i e nach Hause kommenden Manner und beweinten endlich sich selber. S i e waren angekommen b e i i h r e n wahrhaftigsten Tranen.&1 T h i s image of the w i f e i s not f a r from Undine's judgement of wives as beings whose suppression and e x p l o i t a t i o n are of t h e i r own  making.  a d d i t i o n , t h i s q u o t a t i o n seems to i n d i c a t e a murder by thought responds  to the male's murderous a c t i o n and behaviour  In  that c o r -  toward the  female  discussed below under the heading "the female as v i c t i m " . Of a l l Bachmann's women by f a r the most developed that of the n a r r a t o r i n Malina. emancipated behaviour.  I t e x h i b i t s both " t r a d i t i o n a l "  and  Among the " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e behaviours  one  the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e l l 1.  wife-role i s  find  developed:  Dependence The n a r r a t o r depends on Malina not only to p r o v i d e the  f i n a n c e s - though she does get a s m a l l allowance f o r her own  household  use - but  a l s o to manage them: . . . i c h muftte Malina b i t t e n urn das Geld, Ihn anrufen. . . . aber zu guter L e t z t i s t das Kuvert aufgetaucht, es s t e c k t unubersehbar im GroBen Duden, . . . Nie v e r g i B t er etwas, . . . Im rechten Moment l i e g e n d i e Kuverts i n der Kiiche f u r L i n a , auf dem S c h r e i b t i s c h f u r F r a u l e i n J e l l i n e k , i n der a l t e n Kassette i n meinem Schlafzimmer f i n d e n s i c h e i n paar Scheine f u r den F r i s e u r und a l l e paar Monate e i n paar grossere Scheine f u r Schuhe und Wasche und K l e i d e r . . . . Ich  33  weiB n i c h t , auch wenn manchmal k e i n Geld mehr im Haus i s t , wie Malina es immer f e r t i g b r i n g t , uns heide durch diese teuren Z e i t e n zu bringen, d i e Miete wird von ihm p i i n k t l i c h b e z a h l t , meistens auch L i c h t , Wasser, T e l e f o n und Autoversicherung, . . .82 Without Malina she f o r g e t s to feed the c a t , to pay wages, l e t s household stocks dwindle. c u l t problems f o r her and  the s e c r e t a r y her  M a l i n a i s expected  to g i v e a d v i c e .  During  to s o l v e  diffi-  the n a r r a t o r ' s t r i p  the Wolfgangsee, M a l i n a has to rescue her from an embarrassing  2.  full  to  situation.  Respect f o r Husband Another " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a w i f e i s an exagger-  ated r e s p e c t f o r her husband. in  83  C r i t i c s have noted  the M a l i n a - n a r r a t o r r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Sehnsucht, er hat d i e Strenge  84  a p a t r i a r c h a l element  "Er i s t d i e I n k a r n a t i o n der  Vater-  und Vollkommenheit des Wunsch-Vaters,  den  85 man  gleichwohl n i c h t e r t r a g t , "  on M a l i n a .  w r i t e s G. Blocker i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s  M a l i n a sets the r u l e s f o r the t o p i c s of c o n v e r s a t i o n , which  the n a r r a t o r accepts  Cp- 131).  He  i s c r e d i t e d by the n a r r a t o r w i t h a  s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y of comprehension (p. 128), support and d i r e c t i o n  (p. 129).  Although  and  i s c a l l e d upon to p r o v i d e  there are signs of r e b e l l i o n ,  the n a r r a t o r appears to d i s p l a y a rib-of-Adam m e n t a l i t y toward Malina during most of the n o v e l . 3.  Good Housekeeping The housekeeper p a r t of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " w i f e - r o l e appears to be  q u i t e prominent throughout the n o v e l . of  Although .the n a r r a t o r has  a maid and a s e c r e t a r y , she performs t y p i c a l household chores:  t i n g and c l e a r i n g the t a b l e (p. 350), dishes  (p. 82), does her own  the help set-  provides v a r i e d and a p p e t i z i n g  sewing (p. 48).  34  In c o n t r a s t , there are some "emancipated" elements present  in  the w i f e - r o l e of the n a r r a t o r :  1.  P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and I n t e l l e c t u a l i s m These are contemporary trends h i t h e r t o not found to be p a r t of  the " t r a d i t i o n a l " image of the w i f e .  The n a r r a t o r engages her own  secre-  t a r y , she handles - a l b e i t i n a not very b u s i n e s s l i k e f a s h i o n - a l a r g e correspondence, and  deals with r e p o r t e r s  (pp. 48-90, 7 0 f f . , p. 89).  attends p u b l i c l e c t u r e s (p. 7 8), reads e x t e n s i v e l y  (p. 94), and  She  owns a  l a r g e l i b r a r y from which cookbooks are n o t i c e a b l y absent (p. 81).  In  a d d i t i o n , as mentioned above, she i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r .  2.  Independence Proof of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexity of Bachmann's female  characters  i s once again given by such c o n t r a s t i n g q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n  person as dependence and  independence.  cept i s t y p i c a l of Bachmann's heroines. the i n i t i a t i v e i n seeking  Such a modernized two-soul conIn M a l i n a the n a r r a t o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with men-friends.  l o v e r openly and meets him  one  i n Malina's apartment.  She  She  takes keeps her  t r a v e l s alone and  shows, during one p a r t of the n o v e l , a supremely uncommitted a t t i t u d e 86 toward Malina.  Other examples are C h a r l o t t e i n E i n S c h r i t t nach  Gomorrha and E l i s a b e t h i n D r e i Wege zum 3.  Lack of  See.  Family-Orientation  L i k e other Bachmann wives, the n a r r a t o r i n Malina l a c k s interest i n family.  She  no c h i l d r e n of her own;  i s not a part of an extended f a m i l y and, one  can hardly speak even of a  any having  family-nucleus.  35 From t h i s a n a l y s i s of the f i g u r e of the n a r r a t o r i n Malina, f a c t s seem to m a t e r i a l i z e concerning the w i f e - r o l e : s i t e nature of the female  firstly,  the compo-  image, i n c o r p o r a t i n g " t r a d i t i o n a l " and  pated q u a l i t i e s which we have observed  elsewhere,  two  emanci-  emerges here, too.  Secondly, the oppressive and l i m i t i n g nature of any s o c i a l c o n t r a c t or o b l i g a t i o n , here of a man-wife r e l a t i o n s h i p , has been once again d e v e l oped.  The r o l e of the w i f e i s p o r t r a y e d i n t h i s work not i n the emo-  t i o n a l r h e t o r i c of Undine or of the n a r r a t o r of Unter Mordern und  Irren,  but by a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d d e p i c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r . H. H e i s s e n b u t t e l concludes from s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s :  "Im  absoluten H e r r s c h a f t s a n s p r u c h der e m o t i o n a l i s i e r t e n S u b j e k t i v i t a t i s t d i e I n t e g r a t i o n i n den g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Zusammenhang  unmoglich  87 geworden."  S i m i l a r , i f not so e x t e n s i v e l y developed,  the wife-image of the other married c h a r a c t e r s : F r a n z i s k a , and C h a r l o t t e .  elements make up  Gerda, Hanna, Franza,  The s a c r i f i c i a l nature of the w i f e - r o l e , how-  ever, i s somewhat l e s s psychologized than i n M a l i n a or Der F a l l both p a r t s of the c y c l e of novels w i t h the i n d i c a t i v e t i t l e 88 A l s o the means of s o l v i n g t h i s dilemma are d i f f e r e n t . ambivalence  The  Franza,  Todesarten.  continued  of Bachmann's female r o l e - c r e a t i o n s , as f a r as the f a m i l y i s  concerned, has been c r i t i c i z e d by A. Weber i n " D i d a k t i s c h e P e r s p e k t i v e n zum Werk Ingeborg  Bachmanns", as f o l l o w s :  A l l e r d i n g s f e h l t der Sinn f u r d i e Funktion der Ehe, der F a m i l i e , der Kinder - was offenbar zu den Konventionen gehort - es f e h l t deren adaquate D a r s t e l l u n g , j a auch Problematisierung.^9 However, h i s c l a i m of one-sidedness  i n Bachmann's p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s  t o p i c would not seem to be r e l e v a n t as the authoress does not share h i s system of v a l u e s .  36 C.  The Role of the Lover Within  the r o l e - c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of Bachmann's women the one most  f r e q u e n t l y and e x t e n s i v e l y developed i s that of the l o v e r . of Bachmann's women appear i n t h i s r o l e . the r o l e of l o v e r y i e l d s  five  Nearly a l l  A study of Bachmann's women i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which, i n v a r y i n g  t i o n s , make up her image of woman-as-lover.  combina-  F i r s t l y , Bachmann's heroines  can be h i g h l y emotional l o v e r s t r y i n g to experience l i m i t l e s s  passion.  They are vehement l o v e r s with extreme sensual i n t e n s i t y , showing i n t h i s respect, ature.  too, a k i n s h i p w i t h t h e i r counterparts  i n German Romantic L i t e r -  J e n n i f e r exclaims i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan:  mehr tun, mich aufreiBen  "Konnt i c h  f u r d i c h und i n deinen B e s i t z iibergehen, m i t  jeder Faser und wie es s e i n s o i l :  mit Haut und mit Haar."  90  And a short  time l a t e r she whispers to the good God: Ich l i e b e . Und i c h b i n auBer mir. Ich brenne b i s i n meine Eingeweide vor Liebe und verbrenne d i e Z e i t zu Liebe, i n der er h i e r s e i n wird und noch n i c h t h i e r i s t . Ich b i n gesammelt iiber den Augenblick hinaus b i s i n meinen l e t z t e n und l i e b e ihn.91 Undine uses an impressive  metaphor to communicate her s t a t e o f p a s s i o n :  "Dann s i n d a l l e Wasser iiber d i e Ufer g e t r e t e n , d i e F l i i s s e haben s i c h erhoben, d i e Seerosen s i n d g l e i c h hundertweis erbliiht und ertrunken, und das Meer war e i n machtvoller  Seufzer,  es schlug, schlug und rannte und 92  r o l l t e gegen die Erde an, dafi seine Lefzen  t r i e f t e n von weiBem Schaum."  S i m i l a r language may a l s o be found i n Malina.  These l o v e r s aim f o r a  s t a t e of absolute passion and i t i s one of the few themes i n Bachmann's l i t e r a t u r e that has been discussed ture.  e x t e n s i v e l y i n the secondary l i t e r a -  One of the more s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , that of G u n n i l l a  Bergsten, conveys the main p o i n t and may stand as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e majority  of studies on the t o p i c :  f o r the  37 Doch an d i e L i e b e der beiden [ J e n n i f e r und Jan] d a r f k e i n normaler Mafistab angelegt werden, handelt es s i c h h i e r doch um das, was Ingeborg Bachmann an anderer S t e l l e " d i e unmogliche L i e b e " nennt, - eine L i e b e , d i e i n s i c h s e l b s t den Keim zum eigenen Untergang t r a g t , eine L i e b e , d i e i n i h r e r I n t e n s i t a t und F e u r i g k e i t n i c h t nur e i n Loch i n d i e " v e r k r u s t e t e Welt" brennt, sondern s i c h s e l b s t aufzehren muB. S i e s c h l i e B t , nach den Worten des guten Gottes, einen grenziibertretenden, einen anderen Zustand i n s i c h . S i e mache n i c h t nur u n t a u g l i c h f u r das Leben, sondern s e i s c h l e c h t h i n lebensfeindlich. I h r f e h l e n i c h t nur d i e Zukunft, sondern j e g l i c h e Z e i t d i m e n s i o n . S i e s e i n i c h t auf Gemeinschaft und auf F o r t p f l a n z u n g des Lebens a u s g e r i c h t e t , sondern auf r e s t l o s e Einschmelzung und A u s t i l g u n g des Lebens.93 G. Bergsten, too, a r r i v e s a t the c o n c l u s i o n that a normal marriage i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s type of l o v e r .  U n l i k e us, however, she does not  seem to t r a c e the cause f o r t h i s to the n e g a t i v e aspect of marriage (as we w i l l ) , but to the d e s t r u c t i v e nature of a b s o l u t e l o v e . Secondly, one f r e q u e n t l y f i n d s an element of compulsion connected w i t h t h i s type of extreme emotional l o v e .  closely  Bachmann's emotional  l o v e r s seem to be v i c t i m s of an i n e s c a p a b l e f a t e , which they r e c o g n i z e as p a t h o l o g i c a l or d e s t r u c t i v e .  In Der gute Gott von Manhattan  i t i s the  good God and h i s demons, the s q u i r r e l s , that manipulate human l i f e . Compulsion i s c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t e d by J e n n i f e r ' s o u t c r y : . . . E r r e t t e mich!  Von d i r und von mir.  " E r r e t t e mich!  Mach, daB w i r uns n i c h t mehr  94 bekampfen und dafi i c h s t i l l e r werde zu d i r . "  S i m i l a r l y , one  references to compulsion i n Undine geht:  Ja.  abgelegt war, war  "Ja.  finds  Wenn das Gestandnis  i c h v e r u r t e i l t zu l i e b e n ; wenn i c h eines Tages f r e i k a m  95  aus der Liebe, mufite i c h zuriick i n s Wasser gehen, . . . " Strangely enough, l i t t l e mention has been made of t h i s p o i n t i n the secondary l i t -  96  erature on Bachmann.  Marianne Thalmann  heads a s e c t i o n of an a r t i c l e  on r enigf ion i g s the t e Jahr with f " e i ssti vt eu ra ut ri to en i. l t H.zu G.l i Funke, e b e n " without e l a Das b o r a td i reasons o Srithe on the other  38  hand, seems to i n d i c a t e thoughts along these l i n e s i n some of h i s remarks about the r o l e of magic and  enchantment i n the  play:  Die Ambivalenz i h r e r Tier-Mensch-Gestalt [the s q u i r r e l s ] macht zudem den Spielboden bruchig und d u r c h l a s s i g f u r Verzauberungen, die das Stuck wie e i n Netz uberziehen und dessen Knoten von den k o b o l d a r t i g e n We sen gekniipf t werden . . . Sag es niemand. Damit t r e i b e n s i e d i e Liebenden immer w e i t e r zum Ausschlufl der O f f e n t l i c h k e i t und beschleunigen i h r e n Untergang. . . . Urns t e l l t von den Signalen i h r e r AuSenwelt, gefangen i n einem System von M o g l i c h k e i t e n - es_ gab so v i e l e M o g l i c h k e i t e n - w i r d das Paar e i n g e k r e i s t von Stimmen, d i e d i e E x i s t e n z s e i n e r L i e b e attackieren."97 Lack of s e l f c o n t r o l l e d a c t i o n and  a f e e l i n g of s u b j u g a t i o n to  f o r c e s beyond one's c o n t r o l are ideas which seem congruent with  the  symbolism of the s q u i r r e l s B i l l y and  F r a n k i e when they manipulate  wires of the puppets on t h e i r l i t t l e  stage i n C e n t r a l  T h i r d l y , another prominent f e a t u r e  the  Park.  of Bachmann's female l o v e r s i s  that of subjugation to the male which evidences more than a h i n t of masochism: Jennifer: Weil jeder sehen kann, dafi i c h b a l d ganz v e r l o r e n s e i n werde, und fiihlen kann, daS i c h ohne S t o l z b i n und vergehe nach E r n i e d r i g u n g ; daB i c h mich j e t z t h i n r i c h t e n l i e B e von d i r oder wegwerfen wie e i n Zeug nach jedem S p i e l , das du ersinnst.98 A little  later Jennifer  exclaims:  J e n n i f e r langsam, wahrend s i e s i c h auf d i e Knie w i r f t : Oh, das i s t wahr. Nie mehr. Jan e n t s e t z t : Was t u s t du? Tu das n i c h t ? ! Jennifer: Auf den Knien vor d i r l i e g e n und deine FuBe kiissen? Ich werde es immer tun. Und d r e i S c h r i t t e h i n t e r d i r gehen, wo du gehst. E r s t t r i n k e n , wenn du getrunken hast. ^ Essen, wenn du gegessen hast. Wachen, wenn du s c h l a f s t . And  i n the scene Auf  der  StraBe:  39  Jan: Ich s o l l t e d i c h schlagen vor a l i e n Leuten, schlagen werde ich dich . . . Jennifer:  Ja, Ja. S i m i l a r remarks are made by the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a : Gnadengesuch s c h r e i b e n , wie  "Ich werde e i n  d i e V e r u r t e i l t e n , d i e keine Begnadigung zu  erwarten haben."'^"'", or by Anna i n E i n Geschaf t mit Traumen:  "Ich w i l l  n i c h t s , i c h w i l l nur zu Ihren Fuften s i t z e n durfen, Ihre S k l a v i n s e i n ,  "102 Ihre Befehle e r f t i l l e n durfen,  . . .  e r a l l y ignored by c r i t i c s , was Hadecke:  ".  mentioned at l e a s t i n p a s s i n g by  . . eine Zigeunerin  l e s e n , der Hand, i n d i e Jan dariiber beklagt)  T h i s element of masochism, genW.  . . . kann aber aus J e n n i f e r s Hand n i c h t s  (auf J e n n i f e r s Wunsch, auch wenn s i e s i c h  seine Nagel geschlagen hat - vorausdeutendes, an d i e  Kreuzigung erinnerndes  Zeichen,  das n i c h t f r e i von P e i n l i c h k e i t i s t ,  103 zumal J e n n i f e r es l a u t , f a s t m a s o c h i s t i s c h bejammert - und  genieJBt."  A f o u r t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bachmann's l o v e r s i s that of  the  "passive lover".  This p o i n t , too, has been a l l but ignored by the secon-  dary l i t e r a t u r e .  Where love or the l o v e r i s discussed i n Bachmann  r e s e a r c h , they have been discussed only w i t h i n the framework of the emot i o n a l l o v e r along the l i n e s d i s c u s s e d above.  The p a s s i v e l o v e r , however,  would seem to be not only a frequent c h a r a c t e r , but a l s o one of psychological significance.  At l e a s t four of the f o u r t e e n female p r o t a g -  o n i s t s can be p l a c e d , f u l l y or p a r t i a l l y , , i n t h i s category: E l i s a b e t h , and B e a t r i x . t i o n a l - a c t i v e l o v e r and  considerable  Hanna, Nadja,  Some f a l l i n t o both c a t e g o r i e s , that of the emothat of the p a s s i v e l o v e r .  the term "passive l o v e r " ?  What i s meant here by  I t denotes the Bachmann heroine who  w i l l i n g l y i n love making without  emotional  engages  attachment toward the p a r t n e r ,  40  or even, w i t h a f e e l i n g of r e p u l s i o n toward the man. excerpts  w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the  The  following  point:  Nadja: Im Zimmer, a l s er s i e umarmte, begann s i e wieder zu z i t t e r n , w o l l t e n i c h t , konnte n i c h t , s i e f i i r c h t e t e zu e r s t i c k e n oder ihm unter den Handen wegzusterben, aber dann w o l l t e s i e es doch, es war besser, von ihm e r s t i c k t und v e r n i c h t e t zu werden und damit a l l e s zu v e r n i c h t e n , was i n i h r u n h e i l b a r geworden war, s i e kampfte n i c h t mehr, l i e f i es mit s i c h geschehen, s i e b l i e b f u h l l o s l i e g e n , drehte s i c h ohne e i n Wort von ihm weg und s c h l i e f s o f o r t e i n . Elisabeth: . . . sie sei vollig frigide, . . . so konnten d i e s e Manner doch n i c h t wissen, dafl s i e zu ihnen ging, wie man s i c h i n einen O p e r a t i o n s s a a l b e g i b t , urn s i c h den Blinddarm herausnehmen zu l a s s e n , n i c h t gerade beunruhigt, aber auch ohne Enthusiasmus, im V e r t r a u e n darauf, dafi e i n erfahrener C h i r u r g , oder, i n ihrem F a l l , e i n erfahrener Mann, mit e i n e r solchen K l e i n i g k e i t schon f e r t i g wiirde.105 Beatrix: . . . B e a t r i x fand diese Beriihrungen p e i n l i c h , s i e war e i n f a c h zu a l t dafvir. . . . s e i t s i e erwachsen geworden war und s i c h h e f t i g geweigert h a t t e , zu s t u d i e r e n oder i n eine Ausbildung zu gehen, kam s i e n i e mehr auf d i e Idee, s i c h mit einem Mann e i n z u l a s s e n , und i h r e Abneigung gegen d i e s e grauenvolle N o r m a l i t a t , der s i c h a l l e unterwarfen, f i e l zusammen mit der Entdeckung e i n e r P e r v e r s i o n , ihres f e t i s c h i s t i s c h e n Schlafs. j » , . . . . . . . 106 . . . und E r i c h sagte . . . s i e s e i eben eine demi-vierge. L a s t l y , many of Bachmann's l o v e r s d i s p l a y a longing f o r s a f e t y and p r o t e c t i o n , which they seek from t h e i r p a r t n e r s . i n the scene Im F r e i e n are a case i n p o i n t :  "So  Jennifer's replies  b i n i c h beschutzt.  . . .  So b i n i c h g e r e t t e t . . . .  So b i n i c h g e b o r g e n . A n d  C h a r l o t t e des-  cribes a similar feeling:  "Danach h a t t e s i e s i c h wieder g e e i n i g t mit  einem Mann auf Giite, V e r l i e b t h e i t , Wohlwollen, Ftirsorge, Anlehnung, S i c h e r h e i t , Schutz, Treue, a l l e r l e i Achtenswertes, das Entwurf s t e c k e n b l i e b ,  sondern s i c h auch leben l i e S . "  108  dann n i c h t nur However,  she,  im  41  more than J e n n i f e r , sees t h i s as an a n t i - s t a t e to "Ekstase, Rausch T i e f e , 109 Auslleferung,  GenuB."  What then can be summarized about the image of the l o v e r ? of a l l , with the exception  of C h a r l o t t e ' s  c i p a t o r y trends to be d i s c e r n e d .  lesbianism,  there are few  eman-  None of Bachmann's women want to p l a y  a dominant r o l e i n t h e i r love r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a male.  On the  as has been shown, even the extremely emotional l o v e r , such as or the n a r r a t o r  First  i n M a l i n a , r e v e a l s signs of submissiveness.  love and  emotion.  Jennifer  The  i n d i c a t i o n of a wish f o r such emancipation might be discerned ing f o r a permanent s t a t e of u n l i m i t e d  contrary,  sole  i n the  long-  Secondly,  Bachmann's l o v e r s are e i t h e r t r a g i c a l l y ""in l o v e " or i n unhappy r e t r e a t from f a i l e d r o l e s as l o v e - p a r t n e r s . ^ " ^ the n a r r a t o r i n Malina, and,  Examples of the f i r s t are  to some extent, Undine because of the  ent consequence of the attempt to a t t a i n an absolute namely the d e s t r u c t i o n of one's s e l f . other women once i n l o v e .  Jennifer, inher-  love r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  Examples of the l a t t e r are a l l the  F i n a l l y , the image of the l o v e r seems to  be  l e s s i n h e r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y than other role-images; i t would seem to show only the development of v a r i o u s D.  The  f a c e t s of one  role.  Role of the Housewife The most f r e q u e n t l y portrayed  female s o c i a l r o l e i n l i t e r a t u r e has  been the r o l e of the h o u s e w i f e . A . W.  Schlegel's  parody on  "Wiirde der Frauen" provides a humorous d e s c r i p t i o n : Ehret d i e Frauen! Sie s t r i c k e n die* Striimpfe, W o l l i g und warm, zu durchwaten d i e Sumpfe, F l i c k e n z e r r i s s e n e Pantalons aus. Kochen dem Mann die k r a f t i g e n Suppen, Putzen den Kindern d i e n i e d l i c h e n Puppen, Halten mit maBigem Wochengeld Haus. Doch der Mann, der t o l p e l h a f t e , F i n d t am Zarten n i c h t Geschmack,  Schiller's  42  Zum gegorenen G e r s t e n s a f t e Raucht er immerfort Tabak. Brummt wie Baren an der K e t t e , K n u f f t d i e Kinder spat und f r u h , Und dem Weibchen nachts im Bette Kehrt er g l e i c h den Riichen zu. How  and to what extent does Ingeborg  Bachmann develop the image of the  112 homemaker?  Among the many " t r a d i t i o n a l " concepts which make up  the  mosaic of her female c h a r a c t e r s , one f i n d s the emphasis on the r o l e of the housewife  to be a minor one.  Yet there i s s t i l l more space given to  t h i s r o l e than to that of the working women or the s i n g l e mother.  The  reader meets the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a , the e l d e r Frau Jordan, E l i s a b e t h , C h a r l o t t e , and Hanna at times i n the r o l e of the homemaker:  the n a r r a t o r  i n M a l i n a keeps house f o r M a l i n a , i n p a r t f o r her b o y - f r i e n d , the e l d e r Frau Jordan f o r h e r s e l f , E l i s a b e t h f o r her f a t h e r (during those short periods when the reader meets her i n t h i s r o l e ) , C h a r l o t t e keeps house for  her husband, and Hanna f o r husband and c h i l d .  Contrary to the  "tradi-  t i o n a l " r o l e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , however, these are, i n the main, o n l y p a r t time r o l e s and, except f o r Hanna, the r o l e of housewife its  p s y c h o l o g i c a l importance  as w e l l as i n i t s s o c i a l consequences.  most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the homemaking r o l e s t i l l its  i s peripheral i n  appears  to l i e i n  l i m i t i n g e f f e c t on Bachmann's women, p r o v i d i n g an o r d e r l y l i f e  check against emotional  The  and  chaos:  C h a r l o t t e erschrak, memorierte r a s c h i h r e P f l i c h t e n : morgen f r u h Franz abholen, den Wecker s t e l l e n , f r i s c h s e i n , ausges c h l a f e n s e i n , einen e r f r e u t e n Eindruck machen. Es war keine Z e i t mehr zu v e r l i e r e n . Sie f i i l l t e r a s c h zwei Glaser mit Mineralwasser und t r u g s i e i n s Zimmer, r e i c h t e eines dem Madchen, das schweigend austrank und dann, wahrend es das Glas w e g s t e l l t e , briisk sagte: Morgen kommt er a l s o zuriick. The r e c a l l i n g of her d u t i e s as housewife  serves C h a r l o t t e at a c r i t i c a l  moment as p r o t e c t i o n against the growing emotional involvement  with Mara.  43 A few pages l a t e r , the n a r r a t o r  of E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha t e l l s  that C h a r l o t t e , a f t e r her marriage, " . . .  lebte  Ordnung, d i e Franz gehorte,  symbolic act of Mara's demol-  i s h i n g the l i v i n g room has from the norms and  . . ." " 1  LZf  The  ...  i n der  us  hellen  the consequence of f r e e i n g C h a r l o t t e ' s  o b l i g a t i o n s of a good housewife.  I t may  thoughts  be worth n o t -  ing  that when Bachmann's women l e a d married l i v e s ,  and  o r d e r l y home environment; when they l i v e with a l o v e r , they l i v e i n  d i s o r d e r and  adhere to a d a i l y schedule i n which even the meals are  u l a r , at best. ing,  they l i v e i n a c l e a n  In M a l i n a one  the brewing of c o f f e e by  something s e n s i b l e " , to be  irreg-  even f i n d s a l a s t symbolic act of homemakthe n a r r a t o r  on Malina's request to  "do  the t r i g g e r f o r the n a r r a t o r ' s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n .  Again the idea that the homemaker's r o l e i s a l i m i t a t i o n of the f r e e f u l l development of one's s e l f f i n d s support. and  A l s o , the c o u p l i n g  purpose with the world of the male, sustained  j o y f u l preparation  of order  throughout Bachmann's  work, re-emerges i n the r o l e c o n f l i c t s of the homemaker. d e s c r i p t i o n s of the n a r r a t o r ' s  and  The  extensive  of meals f o r Ivan i n  Malina seem to i n d i c a t e that i t i s not homemaking as such which i s d i s t a s t e f u l to Bachmann's women but r a t h e r i t s symbolic f u n c t i o n s gation and  of  obli-  duty together w i t h i t s r e g u l a t i n g e f f e c t on t h e i r f r e e emo-  tional l i f e .  T h i s , too, d i s t i n g u i s h e s Bachmann's image of the women from  the emancipated image of the female i n the works of such contemporaries as Peter Handke, C h r i s t a Wolf, and  F.  The  Role of the The  Irmtraud Morgner.  Professional  career-woman i s not a frequent  Nadja and E l i s a b e t h , and, time professionals.''"''""'  Bachmann heroine.  Only  to an extent, Anna can be c l a s s i f i e d as  Although the text y i e l d s very l i t t l e  two, full-  concrete  44  information i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e i r choice of r o l e s , i t may E l i s a b e t h and Nadja l e f t t h e i r homes at a young age,  be noted that both  had  few  or no emo-  t i o n a l t i e s to t h e i r n a t i v e environment, d i s p l a y e d a strong r e s t l e s s n e s s , a d e s i r e to "get away from i t a l l " , and  to f i n d freedom, personal  identity,  independence. A c l o s e examination of these few  cases, however, seems to i n d i 116  cate that - contrary to the o p i n i o n of many Bachmann c r i t i c s  - a profes-  s i o n a l career i s not a p o s i t i v e act of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n but r a t h e r a r e a c t i o n to a l i m i t i n g environment, or simply  an act of f r u s t r a t i o n :  Elisabeth: A l s s i e nach Wien gegangen war und zu a r b e i t e n a n f i n g , hatte s i e schon das F e r n f i e b e r gehabt," eine l e b h a f t e Ungeduld, und s i e a r b e i t e t e nur so v i e l und auch gut, w e i l s i e h i n a r b e i t e t e auf e i n Wunder, das Wunder, weit wegzukommen, es war zuerst n i c h t einmal k l a r , was aus i h r werden s o l l t e , . . .117 S i e hatte n i c h t s R i c h t i g e s g e l e r n t und dachte h i e und da v e r z w e i f e l t , doch auf d i e U n i v e r s i t a t gehen zu miissen, aber es war schon zu spat f u r s i e . . . Damals wurden z u f a l l i g d i e Weichen g e s t e l l t f u r i h r Leben, . . . Nadja: . . . i c h b i n schon zu lange weg, mit neunzehn b i n i c h weg, i c h spreche n i e mehr deutsch, nur wenn es gebraucht wird, . . .119 . . . s i e wurde hoch b e z a h l t , zu Hause hatte s i e es n i e ausgehalten mit ihrem S e l b s t a n d i g k e i t s d r a n g , es i s t eine so u n g l a u b l i c h anstrengende A r b e i t , aber i c h mag das eben trotzdem, n e i n , h e i r a t e n , n i e , . . .120 B e i i h r ware es f a s t b i s zu e i n e r H e i r a t gekommen, aber kurz davor doch auseinandergegangen, und iiber das Warum hatte s i e j a h r e l a n g nachgedacht, und n i e kam s i e auf den Grund, . . .121 The  element of chance that f r e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e s ' the careers of these  women should a l s o be mentioned, as i t too m i l i t a t e s against the t h e s i s of emancipation.  L a s t l y , a c l o s e look at the verbs and nouns used i n  45  the r e l e v a n t passages, concerning of negative  the c a r e e r s ,  i n d i c a t e s a preponderance  connotations:  Nouns  Adjectives  Verbs  Ungeduld (p. 412) grauenhaft (p. 286) Unruhe (p. 412) unglaublich (Fern) f i e b e r (p. 412) anstrengend (p. 286) oberflachliche n i c h t einmal Kenntnisse (p. 412) k l a r (p. 412) k e i n besonderes Talent  (umher) i r r e n (p. 286) eingehen (p. 412) v e r z w e i f e l t (p. 412) nichts Richtiges g e l e r n t (p. 412)  (p. 412)  These i n d i c a t i o n s and Nadja's thoughts on her i d e n t i t y : weiter  122  s i e s i c h e n t f e r n t e von ihrem Standplatz  ". . . aber j e  [her p l a c e of work], der  wichtiger  f u r s i e war a l s f u r andere e i n Zuhause und von dem e i n S i c h -  Entfernen  daher v i e l h e i k l e r i s t , desto u n s i c h e r e r  war  fiihlte sie sich. Sie  keine s e l b s t s i c h e r e Erscheinung mehr i n e i n e r H a l l e , i n e i n e r Bar,  entworfen von Vogue oder Glamour, . . . f a s t n i c h t s mehr deutete auf i h r e 123 Identitat hin, . . . " p o i n t to a negative  show work as an a t best weak ego support and  image o f the career-woman, a r o l e that emerges as an  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l female s o c i a l r o l e s o f mother and w i f e on the one hand, and f a i l s to p r o v i d e , because of i t s r e s t r i c t i v e nature, the genuine freedom and p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n which Bachmann's women s t r i v e f o r on the other.  The f a c t  that - d e s p i t e the o c c a s i o n a l condemnation o f married l i f e - a l l career women are f r e q u e n t l y occupied  with s p e c u l a t i v e thoughts on l o v e and mar-  r i a g e seems to support the view that the p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e i s not a s u i t able s o l u t i o n to women's problems.  The m a j o r i t y . o f  Bachmann's career  women appear to be f r u s t r a t e d l o v e r s and would-be-wives - v i c t i m s of a " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e image and sexual p r e j u d i c e .  H. Pausch's i n t e r p r e t a -  t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e of Bachmann's heroines,  which he sees as  i s o l a t i v e , i s based upon a d i f f e r e n t l i n e of argument:  46  S i e [Bachmann] opponiert gegen d i e e t a h l i e r t e n s i t t l i c h e n Verhaltensweisen mit dem e i g e n w i l l i g e n I s o l a t i o n s v e r h a l t e n der Hauptfiguren i h r e r Erzahlungen gegeniiber jeder Form der Gemeinschaft. Fur d i e beriihmte F o t o g r a f i n E l i s a b e t h i n D r e i Wege zum See und f u r die Dolmetscherin Nadja i n Simultan i s t d i e I s o l a t i o n , das heiBt der Schutz vor dem n i v e l l i e r e n d e n Z u s r i f f der G e s e l l s c h a f t , der Beruf i n den s i c h beide zuriickziehen. • L  F.  The Role of the Outsider Denn es s i n d noch immer d i e S c h i f f b r u c h i g e n , d i e auf I n s e l n Z u f l u c h t suchen.-'" One  of the seemingly more "modern" elements making up Bachmann's  image of the woman, i s the theme o f the Outsider.  Not only do keywords  such as F l i g h t (e.g. L i e d e r auf der F l u c h t ) , E x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , E x i l e , 127 I s o l a t i o n and Border People  permeate a l l of Ingeborg Bachmann's w r i t -  ings, but n e a r l y a l l o f her female characters i n one form or another.  maintain outsider  positions  This r o l e i s one of the most complex of those  which we s h a l l be i n v e s t i g a t i n g . Undine:  remains d e l i b e r a t e l y o u t s i d e  the norms and conventions  of e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l behavior. Miranda:  destroys her glasses r e p e a t e d l y  to withdraw i n t o an  i l l u s i t i v e world and to d i s t a n c e h e r s e l f from r e a l i t y . Beatrix:  b u i l d s up her own dream-world and r e t i r e s i n t o a s t a t e  of sleep and n a r c i s s i s m . Elisabeth:  f e e l s that she - d e s p i t e an apparently  e x i s t s i n an " a n t i - w o r l d "  active l i f e -  and i s l o s i n g »by degrees 128  personal  r e l a t i o n s h i p to her environment. Nadja:  l i v e s an uncommitted e x i s t e n c e  apart  from any secure bonds,  be i t the i n t e r p e r s o n a l , the n a t i o n a l or the l i n g u i s t i c realm.  47  Charlotte:  "Ich b i n i n k e i n B i l d hineingeboren,  mir nach Abbruch zumute. und  . . . Darum i s t  Darum wiinsche i c h e i n Gegenbild,  i c h wiinsche, es s e l b s t zu e r r i c h t e n .  . . . E r s t den Sprung 129  tun, a l l e s uberspringen, den A u s t r i t t v o l l z i e h e n , Frau Jordan, too, appears  ..."  i n the r o l e of the o u t s i d e r :  "Mifitrauen und N i c h t v e r s t e h e n der Welt, Ausgeschlossensein 130 und Einsamkeit, Horschwache und S e n i l i t a t :  ..."  A search f o r the u n d e r l y i n g causes of t h i s tendency  i n Bachmann's female  c h a r a c t e r s w i l l r e v e a l a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h those of other out131 s i d e r s i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e .  Firstly,  there i s the aspect of  the S p r a c h k r i s e problem which i n v o l v e s - among other things - the c u l t y , even i n a b i l i t y , to communicate w i t h those c l o s e to them 132 the e l d e r Frau Jordan, E l i s a b e t h ) .  to  (Nadja,  Secondly, we f i n d a r e a c t i o n or  p r o t e s t a g a i n s t e s t a b l i s h e d norms and values of s o c i e t y Mara).  diffi-  (Undine, C h a r l o t t e ,  T h i r d l y , there e x i s t s the i n a b i l i t y to f a c e " r e a l i t y " , to adjust  e x i s t i n g s o c i a l conventions  ( B e a t r i x , Miranda,  Jennifer).  And  fourthly,  there i s an inner d r i v e f o r autonomy, a d e s i r e f o r s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n s u b j e c t i v i t y which d i s a l l o w s o c i a l commitments, and, 133 (Undine,  finally,  and  egotism  Charlotte). It  i s s u r p r i s i n g that Bachmann r e s e a r c h has c o n t r i b u t e d very  l i t t l e to t h i s t i m e l y t o p i c .  One  i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on the out-  s i d e r theme has been o f f e r e d by D i e t e r S c h l e n s t e d t : Konkret gefafit, z e i g t d i e Struktur der Erzahlungen . . . den Zusammenbruch i l l u s i o n a r e r Hoffnung: Das erworbene Gut der R e b e l l i o n kann b e i der Einkehr i n d i e b u r g e r l i c h e Weltordnung n i c h t - oder doch nur ahnungsweise - mitgebracht werden. Mit anderen Worten: Ingeborg Bachmann s p i e g e l t das Dilemma des spaten Nonkonformisten, dessen Unbehagen, dessen F l u c h t s c h l i e S l i c h doch zu k e i n e r w i r k l i c h e n Erneuerung f i i h r t , sondern zum V e r z i c h t oder zum V e r r a t s e i n e r r e b e l l i s c h e n Ideen. . . . Das Absonderung e r s t e wesentliche der E r z a h lMoment e r g e s t ader l t e nGeschichten aus i h r e r Welt.134 i s t also d i e  48  Here the author o f f e r s a negative view of Bachmann's o u t s i d e r s that does not seem to be j u s t i f i e d  i n the case of her female p r o t a g o n i s t s , espe-  c i a l l y i n the l i g h t of the subsequent p u b l i c a t i o n of Malina and  Simultan  135 i n which a r e t u r n to a bourgeois  l i f e i s c e r t a i n l y not the r u l e .  Granted, Bachmann's female o u t s i d e r s do not achieve f o r more than b r i e f p e r i o d s — i f a t a l l - the absolute or near absolute s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e most a r e aiming up  for.  However, i n no case do the female c h a r a c t e r s  t h e i r s t r i v i n g and r e t u r n to a "bourgeois"  they continue  existence.  give  On the c o n t r a r y ,  to hope and to search f o r a r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r g o a l s .  The  m a j o r i t y of Bachmann's female o u t s i d e r s become i n c r e a s i n g l y s e l f - r e l i a n t . It  should be added, that Schlenstedt p i c k s the male c h a r a c t e r s of A l l e s ,  and of Das d r e i f i i g s t e Jahr, as major proof f o r h i s p o i n t . his  This aspect of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would c e r t a i n l y be expanded by our a n a l y s i s of the  male, who, because o f h i s pragmatic and r a t i o n a l nature, would s u r e l y fail  i n the attempt to renew the world  ceives i t .  i n the sense that Bachmann con-  CHAPTER IV THE  SOCIAL INTERACTION  Having examined the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e assigns  to her female p r o t a g o n i s t s  s o c i a l r o l e s which Bachmann  and having t e s t e d these a g a i n s t more  " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e s , i n t h i s chapter we w i l l a c t e r i s t i c behaviour p a t t e r n s  t r y to determine the char-  of these women i n i n t e r a c t i o n with  dren, women, men, and, f i n a l l y ,  observations  chil-  w i l l be made on t h e i r  inter  a c t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y i n general.  A.  S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n with C h i l d r e n S e v e r a l questions  how  pose themselves i n t h i s context.  For i n s t a n c e  do Ingeborg Bachmann's women conform to sex-typed behaviour char-  acteristics?  I n p a r t i c u l a r , what i s the extent and q u a l i t y of sex-typed  136 behaviour performance toward c h i l d r e n ? One  may begin a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s t o p i c with any of s e v e r a l  observations.  F i r s t l y , c h i l d r e n q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y ,  play  a small p a r t i n the o b j e c t i v e as w e l l as s u b j e c t i v e l i f e of Ingeborg Bachmann's heroines,  the most e x t e n s i v e l y developed characters  i n this  r e s p e c t are Hanna, the e l d e r Frau Jordan and the n a r r a t o r i n Malina. Secondly, the f u n c t i o n and person of a c h i l d a r e not always i d e n t i c a l ; i n some instances a d u l t men and women, even a d*og, have served as r e c e i v e r s f o r c h i l d - o r i e n t a t e d responses. child substitute:  Mara i s one example of a  "Nur v i e l a l t e r kam s i e [Charlotte] s i c h m i t einemmal  vor, w e i l dieses Geschopf v o r i h r das Kind 49  s p i e l t e , s i c h k l e i n machte  50 und  137 s i e groBer machte . . . "  A l s o , many of the men m  the l i v e s of  Bachmann's women are " g e s c h e i t e r t e E x i s t e n z e n . . . d i e s i e brauchten, 138 139 als Halt. . . . " , men who were l o o k i n g f o r mother s u b s t i t u t e s . This should i n d i c a t e that mother i n s t i n c t s of some of these women were re-channelled, because of the l a c k of c h i l d r e n .  L a s t l y , an examination  of Bachmann's language d e s c r i b i n g c h i l d r e n , seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n general, her c h i l d c h a r a c t e r s do have a negative image and that the e f f e c t i v e response  from t h e i r mothers i s more o f t e n negative than not.  In the case of a woman's r e l a t i o n s h i p to c h i l d r e n other than her own, however, t h i s negative image i s not so t o t a l l y s u s t a i n e d .  Examples o f  t h i s are K i k i , the c h i l d the e l d e r Frau Jordan had to care f o r i n her youth, and Bela and Andras, Ivan's i n Malina i s so fond. serve as a f o i l  c h i l d r e n of whom the n a r r a t o r  I t should a l s o be noted that K i k i appears to  f o r Leo, the e l d e r Frau Jordan's son.  A language c h a r t of negative vocabulary on c h i l d r e n :  140  Fipps  Leo  gelbsvichtig, z e r k n i t t e r t (p. 141) Grimasse (p. 142) r i c h t u n g s l o s b l i c k e n d e Augen (p. 142) Wut (p. 144) dumpfer Kopf (p. 146) grausam (p. 145) Brut (p. 150) das Bose . . . s t e c k t e i n dem Kind wie eine E i t e r q u e l l e (p. 150)  (undankbar) (p. 3 7 5 f f . ) k o m p l i z i e r t e s Kind (p. 375) s p r i c h t a b f a l l i g und boshaft iiber (Verwandte) (p. 378) gemein (p. 389) ( e g o i s t i s c h ) (p. 389) ( k a l t h e r z i g ) (p. 388)  Bela + Andras Lausbuben, F r a t z e n , Banditen, Wechselbalger Z u d r i n g l i c h k e i t (p. 131) maulen (p. 13 3) wut end (p. 13 3) b r i i l l e n (p. 13 3) zertriimmern (p. 14 5) k r a t z e n ( S c h a l l p l a t t e ) (p. 145) M i s t f r a t z e n (p. 147)  (p. 14 4)  51 This chart i n d i c a t e s t h a t , d e s p i t e some p o s i t i v e aspects, the negative  points are by f a r i n excess of these.  the negative  I t a l s o appears that  image i s much more severe i n the female c h a r a c t e r ' s own  c h i l d , as i n Leo's o r F i p p s ' case.  Since the child-image  i n Jugend i n  e i n e r o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Stadt, d e a l i n g with an u n s p e c i f i e d group of c h i l d r e n , does not q u i t e conform to these p a t t e r n s , t h i s could i n d i c a t e a value judgement of Bachmann not so much about the c h i l d per se, but r a t h e r on the mother-child r e l a t i o n s h i p . Nevertheless, elicit  there seems to be no doubt that c h i l d r e n do  some p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s as w e l l as exert p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s on  Bachmann's women.  Because of the b i r t h of F i p p s , Hanna gains  youth"; the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a turbulence,  that go with  a "second  seems to enjoy the o b s t r u c t i v e n e s s and  Ivan's c h i l d r e n ; J e n n i f e r i n Der gute Gott von 141  Manhattan sees c h i l d r e n as a means of h o l d i n g together  a marriage;  a l s o , c h i l d r e n do seem to improve the communicative l e v e l between Bachmann's women and t h e i r p a r t n e r s , 142 i n Malina  and Ivan,  such i s the case w i t h  the n a r r a t o r  the e l d e r Frau Jordan und F r a n z i s k a i n Das  143 Gebell,  and Hanna and her husband m  Alles.  Yet,  as s t a t e d before,  the sum of the appearances of c h i l d r e n adds up to a negative the l i v e s of Bachmann's female c h a r a c t e r s .  factor i n  Gerda, i n E i n Wildermuth,  has an a b o r t i o n , Undine, i n Undine geht, i n t e r p r e t s c h i l d r e n as a means which men put women  i n t o bondage, the n a r r a t o r of Unter Mordern und  I r r e n sees c h i l d r e n as part of the oppressive  environment of a wife."*"^  This c o n c l u s i o n i s supported and complemented by the r e s u l t s of t h i s study on the image of the mother i n Chapter I I I . Some women do d i s p l a y " t y p i c a l " female and maternal r e a c t i o n s  52  toward the c h i l d r e n :  Hanna wants " e i n e ganze Brut'  ,145  and cares i n t e n s e l y  f o r Fipps; the n a r r a t o r i n Malina shows much a f f e c t i o n toward Bela and Andras; the e l d e r Frau Jordan bestows maternal e x h i b i t s maternal  love on K i k i , and E l i s a b e t h  i n s t i n c t s f o r her younger brother Robert;  nevertheless,  the gen e r a l image of Ingeborg Bachmann's heroines i s such that i t does not allow one to speak of a c h i l d - o r i e n t a t e d behaviour maternal nature.  Rudiments o f maternal  or a predominantly  i n s t i n c t s are often directed  toward s u b s t i t u t e o b j e c t s such as men of weak c h a r a c t e r , younger b r o t h e r s , and o l d e r or younger women.  I t seems that the d e f e c t i v e child-mother  r e l a t i o n s h i p of Bachmann's women, too, has i t s r o o t i n the urge of Bachmann's female characters f o r independence and freedom. one's maternal  Directing  i n s t i n c t s toward strange c h i l d r e n or s u b s t i t u t e o b j e c t s  f r e e s one from the b i n d i n g s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n that goes w i t h the care of one's own c h i l d .  B.  S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Women Even more i n s i g h t i n t o Bachmann's image of the woman should be  provided by a study of the i n t e r a c t i o n between women. t h i s context have been found  Three themes i n  to y i e l d very s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  F i r s t l y , the theme of competition and sexual r i v a l r y , secondly, the l e s b i a n theme, and t h i r d l y , "non s e x u a l " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f r e e of e i t h e r of the above elements.  1.  Sexual Competition One  females  and R i v a l r y  of the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among  i n Bachmann's works i s the apparent  l a c k of a s e x - s o l i d a r i t y -  perhaps with the exception of F r a n z i s k a i n Das G e b e l l .  In t h i s r e s p e c t ,  53  one can h a r d l y speak of a " l i b e r a t e d " woman. compete f o r men:  Bachmann's heroines do  S t a s i i n Ihr g l i i c k l i c h e n Augen snatches Miranda's  beloved f r i e n d J o s e f .  In the kafkaesque  chapter "Der d r i t t e Mann" i n  Malina the n a r r a t o r and Melanie engage i n sexual competition over the narrator's father.  The e r o t i c nature of t h i s r i v a l r y i s c l e a r l y  146 expressed by such symbols as the s t a f f . sexual competition.  But one d e t e c t s not only  I n a t l e a s t one i n s t a n c e , women a r e r i v a l s f o r the  p o s s e s s i o n of a c h i l d : Du weifit a l s o n i c h t , dafi Mama und i c h einander gehafit haben, n a t i i r l i c h nur wegen Robert. Denn Mama konnte n i c h t verstehen, dafi eine Sechzehnjahrige, der s i e schon dreimal a l l e s gesagt h a t t e , was man Madchen eben zu sagen hat, s i e p l o t z l i c h a n s c h r i e und f r a g t e , ob denn Robert uberhaupt i h r Kind s e i , e r konnte namlich genauso gut i h r e s , E l i s a b e t h s Kind, s e i n . Bachmann's p r i n c i p a l females, indeed, f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y a c e r t a i n i t y toward each other.  hostil-  S t a s i , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e f l e c t s on her f r i e n d  Miranda: Dumme Gans, denkt S t a s i , . . . Aber das i s t doch sonnenklar d i e s e r a f f i n i e r t e , schlampige, dumme, d i e s e - H i e r f i n d e t S t a s i keine Worte mehr - s i e hat i h n doch vollkommen i n der Hand mit i h r e r H i l f l o s i g k e i t , . . . 1  4  8  In t h i s context, one should a l s o mention the nasty gossip of the s o c i a l i t e women a t the Wolfgangsee i n M a l i n a and Undine's contemptuous monologue on women who are not "of her own k i n d , " (Menschenfrauen).  May we  not conclude, that these are t r a c e s of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " image of the „149 woman?  2.  The Lesbian Theme At f i r s t  s i g h t , the instances of l e s b i a n i s m may seem to m i l i t a t e  against the suggestion made above.  However, a c l o s e r look, e s p e c i a l l y  54  at the more i n t e n s i v e l y developed encounter of C h a r l o t t e  and Mara i n  E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha, i n d i c a t e s motives other than feminine darity.  Charlotte  soli-  intends to make a r o l e change a t Mara's expense:  S i e [Charlotte] schatzte i h r e Beute ab, und d i e war brauchbar, war gut. Sie h a t t e i h r Geschopf gefunden. Es war Schiehtwechsel, und j e t z t konnte s i e d i e Welt iibernehmen, i h r e n Gefahrten benennen, d i e Rechte und P f l i c h t e n f e s t s e t z e n , ^ ^ d i e a l t e n B i l d e r u n g u l t i g machen und das e r s t e neue entwerfen. Sh.e does not l o v e Mara, but wants to c r e a t e an anti-image of woman simul taneously i n Mara and herself."*""^  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, Bachmann speaks  i n t h i s context of o l d and f i x e d images of the woman, namely the images of the " J a g e r i n ,  der groSen Hure, der Samariterin,  der T i e f e und der unter d i e Sterne V e r s e t z t e n 153 that i n both l e s b i a n i n c i d e n t s  ..."  aus Wien verschwunden s i n d , " the n a r r a t o r 154  i s material  152  I t happens, a l s o  one woman uses the other as an o b j e c t  or s u b s t i t u t e , not as another female I n d i v i d u a l .  t i o n s h i p w i t h the young g i r l .  des Lockvogels aus  With "Da a l l e Manner  i n Malina j u s t i f i e s her r e l a -  For Charlotte,  f o r making a new kind o f woman:  on t h e other hand, Mara  "Darum wiinsche i c h e i n  Gegenbild, und i c h wiinsche, es s e l b s t zu e r r i c h t e n . L a s t l y , i t seems that Bachmann attaches a stigma - or accepts the stigma attached by  s o c i e t y - to t h i s type of r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Weg nach Gomorrah, i n d i c a t e s t h i s and Mrs.  The t i t l e of the s t o r y , E i n Breitner's  disappointed  statement that she had considered the f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r 156 be a s a i n t underscores the r e l i g i o u s disapprobation. 3. The "Non-Sexual" R e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n Malina to  T h i r d l y , Bachmann's women would appear a l s o to f u n c t i o n on a  55  l e v e l that i s f r e e of s e x - s t e r e o t y p i n g , i . e . on a p u r e l y human l e v e l of woman-to-woman communication.  While a l l male-female exchange between  Bachmann's c h a r a c t e r s seems to be sex-determined some female-female beyond t h i s range.  or sex-conscious,"'"^''  interchange seems to o f f e r the p o s s i b i l i t y to go C h a r l o t t e has thoughts  along these l i n e s - b e f o r e  her r e l a t i o n s h i p with Mara s l i p s back i n t o the o l d sex-determined p l a y , reversed as i t may  be - when she speaks of the "groSeren  and of freedom from sex-determination and r o l e behaviour. meet o u t s i d e sex—determined may  be p o s s i b l e .  role-  Spielraum"  When women  s i t u a t i o n s , genuine human communication  This i s the case between F r a n z i s k a and the e l d e r Frau  Jordan when a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p develops between the two and F r a n z i s k a l e a r n s about the e v i l c h a r a c t e r of Leo, her husband.  T h i s type of  communication seems to be the only s u c c e s s f u l one among Bachmann's women i n the long run.  C.  S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n with  Men  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that much more width and depth has been given by Ingeborg  Bachmann to the development of man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s  than  to any of the other three c a t e g o r i e s which are t r e a t e d i n t h i s chapter. A l r e a d y , some f a c t o r s of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i r r e l e v a n t context i n other chapters of t h i s study and may,  t h e r e f o r e , be  158 omitted here. now,  As has been f r e q u e n t l y the case i n our survey u n t i l  here again the man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Bachmann's works are  b a s i c a l l y governed by conventional sex-determined  r o l e images:  Ich: Es mufi schon etwas b e i den Primaten und spatestens b e i den Hominiden danebengegangen s e i n . E i n Mann, eine Frau . . . seltsame Worte, seltsamer Wahn! Wer von uns beiden wird summa cum laude bestehen?159  56  These remarks by the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a seem to r e f l e c t not only r e g r e t about these images and doubt about t h e i r r e a l b a s i s , but a l s o the o p i n i o n that a male-female  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s one of c o m p e t i t i o n , of  rivalry.  1.  Role Behaviour of Subjects An understanding of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two  groups  subject  (men and women) c o n t r i b u t e s not only to a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of  the female image, but a l s o i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r any a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l interchange between them.  The n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a recounts some of  these d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r e m o t i o n a l l y i n the n o v e l : D a r i n i s t der Grund dafiir zu suchen, nach dem noch niemand gesucht hat, warum nur d i e Frauen immerzu den Kopf v o l l haben mit i h r e n Gefuhlen und i h r e n Geschichten, mit ihrem Mann oder Ihren Mannern. . . . Fur i h n i s t es j a l e i c h t , wenig an d i e Frauen zu denken, denn s e i n krankes System i s t u n f e h l b a r , er w i e d e r h o l t , er hat s i c h w i e d e r h o l t , er wird s i c h wiederholen. Wenn er gerne d i e FiiBe kiifit, wird er noch f i i n f z i g Frauen d i e FuBe kiissen, warum s o i l er s i c h a l s o b e s c h a f t i g e n i n Gedanken, b e d e n k l i c h wegen eines Geschopfs, das s i c h zur Z e i t g e m von ihm d i e FuBe kiissen l a f i t , so meint er j e d e n f a l l s . Eine Frau muB aber damit f e r t i g werden, dafi j e t z t ausgerechnet i h r e FiiBe an der Reihe s i n d , s i e muB s i c h u n g l a u b l i c h e Gefiihle e r f i n d e n und den ganzen Tag i h r e w i r k l i c h e n Gefiihle i n den erfundenen u n t e r b r i n g e n , einmal damit s i e das mit den FiiBen aushalt, dann vor allem, damit s i e den grbfieren fehlenden Rest a u s h a l t , denn jemand, der so an FiiBen hangt, vernachl a s s i g t sehr v i e l anderes. Uberdies g i b t es noch d i e rucka r t i g e n Umstellungen, von einem Mann zum anderen muB s i c h e i n Frauenkorper a l l e s abgewohnen und wieder an etwas ganz Neues gewohnen. Aber e i n Mann z i e h t mit seinen Gewohnheiten f r i e d l i c h w e i t e r , manchmal hat er eben Gliick damit, meistens keines.160 As t h i s text shows, the p e r s p e c t i v e from which these male-female  rela-  t i o n s h i p s are recounted i s a female one - as i s the case i n the m a j o r i t y of such encounters.  161  A g e n e r a l i z e d p r o f i l e of the emotional tenor  57  of men-women i n t e r a c t i o n i n Bachmann's works may  be p i c t u r e d thus:  female  male  aggressive—passive  aggressive dominant dependent reflective calm, reserved routine sexual adventurous  submissive superior impulsive emotional p e r s o n a l l y engaged sensual loving  I t appears that t h i s p r o f i l e does b a s i c a l l y concur w i t h the " t r a d i t i o n a l " male and female r o l e  2.  images.  Kinds of I n t e r a c t i o n There are nine main types of male-female  i n t e r a c t i o n patterns  d i s c e r n i b l e , which r e c u r throughout Bachmann's s t o r i e s and r a d i o - p l a y s . Firstly,  there i s a d i s t i n c t l y submissive-dominant, o f t e n s a d i s t i c  relationship.  Evidence was  submitted e a r l i e r to show that Bachmann's 16 2  female l o v e r s f r e q u e n t l y e x h i b i t v a r i o u s degrees of submissiveness; furthermore, i t appears that any movement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d by the female and i n most cases r e j e c t e d , or, at best, t o l e r a t e d by the male p a r t n e r : Anna: Herr . . . Herr . . . Ach, Laurenz, Laurenz, das kann i c h n i c h t ertragen, i c h verehre S i e heute noch wie am e r s t e n Tag. Ich l i e b e S i e und S i e verstofien mich. Ich w i l l n i c h t s , i c h w i l l nur zu Ihren Fufien s i t z e n diirfen, Ihre S k l a v i n s e i n , Ihre Befehle e r f v i l l e n diirfen, Ihre S t i r n , h i n t e r der s i c h d i e groBten Gedanken, d i e j e gedacht worden s i n d , denken, sehen diirfen. Ich w i l l n i c h t s , nur das, nur das. VerstoBen Sie-mich n i c h t . Machen S i e zu meiner N a c h f o l g e r i n , wen S i e wollen, l a s s e n S i e mich nur Ihr und Ihnen dienen . . . ach Laurenz.  58  Laurenz: Heute wird g e l a c h t ! Was unterstehen S i e s i c h ? Horen S i e s o f o r t auf zu jammern, i c h l a s s e S i e g u i l l o . . . g u i l l o . . . i c h lasse Sie totenl-^S I t may  w e l l be that t h i s pronounced  tone of submissive f e e l i n g i n  Bachmann's women r e p r e s e n t s the disadvantaged p o s i t i o n they are i n as emotionally i n v o l v e d beings i n s i t u a t i o n s where the male i s l e s s or not 164 at a l l i n v o l v e d e m o t i o n a l l y .  One  important e x c e p t i o n does e x i s t ,  however, and that i s the n a r r a t o r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to her f a t h e r i n 165 Malina.  Here, the i n i t i a t i v e c l e a r l y emanates from the f a t h e r and  evokes h a r d l y any p l e a s u r a b l e response from her: Wir stehen b e i 50 Grad K a l t e , e n t k l e i d e t , vor dem P a l a s t , miissen d i e befohlenen P o s i t i o n e n einnehmen, im Publikum seufzen manche, doch j e d e r denkt, dafi Bardos, der u n s c h u l d i g i s t , m i t s c h u l d i g i s t , w e i l man anfangt, d i e Strome e i s i g e n Wassers iiber uns zu gieBen. Ich hore mich noch wimmern und eine Verwunschung ausstoBen, das l e t z e was i c h wahrnehme, i s t das triumphierende L a c h e l n meines V a t e r s , und s e i n b e f r i e d i g t e s Seufzen i s t das l e t z t e , was i c h hore. Ich kann n i c h t mehr um das Leben von Bardos b i t t e n . Ich werde zu Eis.166 What, then, besides the ominously accentuated s a d i s t i c note, i s d i f f e r e n t about t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ?  F i r s t of a l l ,  i t i s an i n c e s t -  uous r e l a t i o n s h i p , from which the n a r r a t o r seemingly d e r i v e s no sexual pleasure:  "...  i c h werde wieder mit ihm s c h l a f e n , mit den zusam-  mengebissen Zahnen, dem unbewegten Korper."  167  On the other hand the 168  passage might be understood as expressing a d e n i a l mechanism. Furthermore,  t h i s father-image t r i e s to destroy any other developing  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a r r a t o r and her male p a r t n e r s . One could, of course - assuming polyvalence of the father-image 169 as i n d i c a t e d i n the dialogue between the n a r r a t o r and M a l i n a  - specu-  l a t e about t r a n s f e r e n c e of a g u i l t complex, of a sexual and/or incestuous  59  nature, l i f t i n g , thereby, the t o r t u r e scenes i n t o the realm o f p s y c h i a try.  However, the development of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p seems to be too  concrete, to give much support to t h i s  interpretation.  Secondly, reviewing the gruesome element o f the chapter "Der d r i t t e Mann", i t appears  that there e x i s t s an a d d i t i o n a l l e v e l of mean-  i n g , namely, the e s s e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e and oppressive nature of a sex determined man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i n general.  Lastly, considering  the extensive symbolic nature of t h i s chapter, one may d e t e c t a t h i r d , more u n i v e r s a l l e v e l :  e v i l and h e l l — e s p e c i a l l y i n the person o f the  f a t h e r - pursuing man on earth. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the second  However, any attempt  a t an e l a b o r a t e  chapter o f M a l i n a l i e s beyond the scope  of the study. Other father-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e developed  quite d i f f e r -  e n t l y by Ingeborg Bachmann, a f a c t that supports the o p i n i o n that the r e l a t i o n s h i p presented i n t h e second chapter o f M a l i n a extends beyond the personal l e v e l .  An example i s the s t o r y D r e i Wege zum See, where  a p a t e r n a l i s t i c father-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p p r e v a i l s . A t h i r d type of man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p to be found among Bachmann's women i s that of a maternal a t t i t u d e toward men.''"^  Such  i s the case i n B e a t r i x ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p - although d i s g u i s e d by her with E r i c h : . . . danach h a t t e e r s o f o r t B e a t r i x angerufen, seinen " L i c h t b l i c k " , seine "Oase des F r i e d e n s " i n einem v e r p a t z t e n Leben, und er v e r s i c h e r t e i h r , z i t t e r n d noch, aber i n s t a n d i g , daB e r ohne s i e n i c h t mehr weiterkonne, wie sehr er i h r e n Mut und i h r e GefaBtheit bewundere, i h r e Starke und eine Vernunft i n i h r , . . .171  60  In t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , B e a t r i x r e a c t s from a p o s i t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y , having manipulated E r i c h i n t o b e l i e v i n g that he i s needed and important to her.  Whereas E r i c h seeks support and uses her as a  mother-substitute.  In Simultan, Nadja c a l l s Ludwig F r a n k e l a romantic and a c h i l d : und  ". . .  das g e f i e l i h r nun wieder besser a l s i h r e r s t e r Eindruck von ihm, 172  dafl er e i n p r a k t i s c h e r und e r f o l g r e i c h e r Mann s e i n mufite."  Here we  f i n d once more a negative  qualities  reference  which a r e always a s s o c i a t e d  values.  I t should  to e f f i c i e n c y and success,  i n Bachmann's prose w i t h "male" o r i e n t a t e d 173  be noted - as pointed  out p r e v i o u s l y  - that here,  too, women do not t r y to dominate the man, but r a t h e r , as a consequence of the weakness of t h e i r p a r t n e r s ,  they f i n d themselves i n a p o s i t i o n  of s u p e r i o r i t y which makes most of them f e e l q u i t e uncomfortable. Strength  of p e r s o n a l i t y and character p a i r e d w i t h a " t r a d i t i o n a l "  a t t i t u d e of accepting  and expecting  leadership  from the male i n c e r t a i n  areas appear to be p a r t of Bachmann's image of the woman. i s one of Bachmann's heroines  Elisabeth  who laments the l a c k of strong men:  Nur eine Hoffnung d u r f t e und w o l l t e s i e s i c h n i c h t o f f e n l a s s e n , denn wenn s i e i n f a s t d r e i B i g Jahren keinen Mann g e t r o f f e n h a t t e , e i n f a c h keinen . . . der s t a r k war und i h r das Mysterium brachte, auf das s i e gewartet h a t t e , keinen, der w i r k l i c h e i n Mann war und n i c h t e i n S o n d e r l i n g , V e r l o r e n e r , e i n Schwachling oder e i n e r d i e s e r H i l f s b e d i i r f t i g e n , von denen d i e Welt v o l l war, dann gab es den Mann eben n i c h t , . . . Proof that a c e r t a i n sympathy w i t h weak men i s caused more by a surplus of maternal f e e l i n g s than by preference, of male-female interchange:  i s s u p p l i e d by the next type  that of l e a r n i n g .  The l e a r n i n g process -  at times so intense as to warrant the d e s i g n a t i o n  of a "way of s a l v a -  t i o n " - i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bachmann's f i c t i o n .  I t i s particularly  61  obvious between Ivan and  the n a r r a t o r i n Malina, between Jan and J e n n i f e r  i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan, and between T r o t t a and E l i s a b e t h i n D r e i Wege zum  See.  Here, again, the male p a r t n e r appears to occupy i n many  r e s p e c t s a dominant p o s i t i o n ; i t i s the woman, who  has c o n s t a n t l y to r e -  l e a r n , to r e a d j u s t . I t seems t h a t the l e a r n i n g process gone by Bachmann's women c o n s i s t s of at l e a s t two  stages:  through  i t involves,  f i r s t l y , l e a r n i n g from the male about the male and the male view of the world; secondly, a constant readjustment  f o r the woman i n regard to the  s p e c i f i c d e s i r e s and h a b i t s of the male i n q u e s t i o n .  The f a c t , however,  that there i s h a r d l y any r e v e r s e i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h i s type of r e l a t i o n ship could be seen to p l a c e the female i n a s u p e r i o r or advanced p o s i tion.  A f i f t h type of man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p found i n Bachmann's works  i s based on sex alone. Ein  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Wanda w i t h Wildermuth i n  Wildermuth i s a w e l l developed  example of t h i s type, although  sex  can be detected to some degree i n almost any man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n .  In t h i s context, one should name two  additional  areas of i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t dominate the l i f e of Bachmann's female charac176 ters:  love and emotion.  always the female who  In these types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s  s u f f e r s because of the nature of the sexes, s i n c e  - according to Bachmann - i t i s only the female who  i n v o l v e s her h e a r t .  The n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a makes t h i s p o i n t : Sonst machen d i e meisten Manner aber die Frauen u n g l i i c k l i c h , und eine G e g e n s e i t i g k e i t i s t n i c h t da, denn wir haben es mit dem n a t i i r l i c h e n Ungltick, dem unabwendbaren, das von der Krankheit der Manner kommt, zu tun, deretwegen d i e Frauen s o v i e l nachdenken miissen und, kaum angelernt, wieder umlernen miissen, denn wenn man iiber jemand immerzu nachdenken mufi und fur i h n Gefuhle erzeugen mufi, dann wird man r e g e l r e c h t u n g l i i c k l i c h . Das Ungliick verdoppelt, v e r d r e i f a c h t , v e r hundertfacht s i c h mit der Z e i t o b e n d r e i n . ^ ^  62 A f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t realm of man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p art.  A singular  example of t h i s , i s the exchange between Gerda  Wildermuth and Edmund Kaltenbrunner i n E i n Wildermuth. finds a non-egalitarian  relationship.  Here too, one  Kaltenbrunner has Gerda's  admiration f o r h i s poetry and h i s i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e notably  neither  " t y p i c a l l y male" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Kaltenbrunner i s depicted his continual  seems to be  i n obvious c o n t r a s t  search f o r a b s o l u t e s .  of the world -  As a matter of f a c t ,  to Judge Wildermuth with  Bachmann's women are notorious f o r  t h e i r lack of understanding of or i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r partner^.s life.  Gerda*s i n t e r e s t i n Kaltenbrunner may be an exception because of  his " a t y p i c a l " a c t i v i t i e s .  L a s t l y , there i s a d i s t i n c t l y  type of man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p . mit  professional  professional  The reader meets Anna i n E i n Geschaft  Traumen - except d u r i n g the dreams - only during o f f i c e hours,  where she d i s p l a y s Elisabeth's  a truly businesslike  r e l a t i o n s h i p to D u v a l i e r  a t t i t u d e toward a l l men.  i s another example of t h i s k i n d  of r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n which Bachmann's women are l a r g e l y able to act  out-  s i d e t h e i r sex r o l e s , and are measured by a b i l i t y and achievement. Nonetheless, one f i n d s them i n t h i s type of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o on the r e c e i v i n g end.  Even E l i s a b e t h i s - d e s p i t e  her achievements - always  second to D u v a l i e r . Male-female s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n may be represented by the f o l l o w i n g  table:  178  63  male  female A  -«-<  ->  A  A  4  A  In summary:  of i n t e r a c t i o n  submission, masochism dominance, sadism paternalism maternal p r o t e c t i o n learning, salvation sexuality l o v e and emotion a r t and l i t e r a t u r e business, p r o f e s s i o n  h  *  field  The source, male or female, as w e l l as the types of  i n t e r a c t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the graph above, i n d i c a t e that i n general the s t r u c t u r e of a l l male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p s does conform l a r g e l y to " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e expectations.  Secondly, we have found that the  female - though she i s i n most cases dependent and the p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t - may be s a i d to be by r i g h t of greater i n t u i t i o n , discernment, and f a r s i g h t e d n e s s , the s u p e r i o r of the two. F i n a l l y , i t seems that a l l types of man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p  developed by Bachmann, sooner or l a t e r  t u r n out to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the female partner.  I t may a l s o be  pointed out, t h a t there e x i s t no p u r e l y e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , although i s o l a t e d instances can be determined. D.  S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n with The  179  Society  l a s t group s e l e c t e d f o r study i s that of s o c i e t y .  Though  s o c i a l engagement of authors and t h e i r works has been p a r t i c u l a r l y prominent i n post-war German l i t e r a t u r e , Ingeborg Bachmann has been 180 c a l l e d an " i v o r y tower w r i t e r " .  I t was of i n t e r e s t t h e r e f o r e to  review Bachmann's p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l themes i n r e l a t i o n to her female c h a r a c t e r s .  I t has a l s o been found that Bachmann's women  64  assume i n many r e s p e c t s o u t s i d e r r o l e s , y e t i n others engage q u i t e a c t i v e l y i n s o c i a l interchange and a c t i v i t y .  The q u e s t i o n then a r i s e s :  What i s the extent and q u a l i t y of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with s o c i e t y ? There i s no doubt, issues.  One widespread  that Bachmann's women do r e a c t to s o c i a l  form of r e a c t i o n i s escapism as c a r r i e d on by  Miranda i n Ihr g l u c k l i c h e n Augen, where she r e p e a t e d l y destroys or " l o s e s " her g l a s s e s i n order to a v o i d f a c i n g unpleasant s o c i a l  realities:  Mit H i l f e e i n e r winzigen K o r r e k t i o n - der durch d i e Zers t r e u u n g s l i n s e n - mit einem auf d i e Nase g e s t i i l p t e n goldenen B r i l l e n g e s t e l l , kann Miranda i n d i e H o l l e sehen. Dieses Inferno hat n i e aufgehort, f u r s i e an Schrecken zu v e r l i e r e n . Darum s i e h t s i e s i c h , immer auf der Hut, v o r s i c h t i g um . . . eh s i e d i e B r i l l e a u f s e t z t , . . . denn wenn s i e n i c h t a c h t g i b t , kommt i n i h r B l i c k f e l d , was s i e n i e mehr vergessen kann: S i e s i e h t e i n v e r k r u p p e l t e s Kind oder einen Zwerg oder eine Frau mit einem amputierten Arm, doch s o l c h e F i g u r e n sind w i r k l i c h nur d i e g r e l l s t e n , a u f f a l l e n d s t e n i n m i t t e n einer Anhaufung von u n g l i i c k l i c h e n , hamischen, v e r dammten, von Demiitigungen oder Verbrechen beschriebenen G e s i c h t e r n , untraumbaren Visagen. Extensive sleep, another form of withdrawal from i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  soci-  ety, i s used by B e a t r i x i n Probleme Probleme: Zuhause wiirde s i e s i c h r u h i g und g l i i c k l i c h h i n l e g e n , i h r e Haare a u s b r e i t e n , i h r e Fiifie b e t r a c h t e n , denn im Kino gab es s i c h e r wieder einen d i e s e r anstrengenden Filme, mit Mord und T o t s c h l a g und manchmaT sogar K r i e g , und wenn es auch a l l e s g e s t e l l t und erfunden war, dann nahm es s i e doch zu sehr mit, gerade w e i l es i n der W i r k l i c h k e i t anders zuging. The c r i t i c i s m of t h i s type of s o c i a l behaviour intended by Bachmann i s c l e a r l y formulated i n her l e c t u r e on " L i t e r a t u r a l s Utopie":  "Wir  s c h l a f e n j a , sind S c h l a f e r , aus Furcht, uns und unsere Welt wahrnehmen ,,183 zu mussen. However, there i s a l s o evidence of an opposite form of t h i s type of response.  For i n s t a n c e , E l i s a b e t h responds  i n D r e i Wege zum  See to  65  T r o t t a ' s c y n i c a l remarks about r e p o r t i n g on the s u f f e r i n g of the A l g e r i a n war:  " E l i s a b e t h war f a s s u n g s l o s ,  denn s i e h i e l t das f u r das  e i n z i g R i c h t i g e , a l l e s , was s i e t a t e n zu der Z e i t , d i e Leute muBten erfahren,  genau, was dort v o r s i c h ging, und s i e muBten d i e s e B i l d e r  sehen, urn 'wach g e r i i t t e l t ' zu werden." " . . .  184  And l a t e r she adds:  d i e Menschen miissen einmal zur Vernunft kommen.  Dazu werde i c h  185 tun, was i c h kann, wie wenig das auch i s t . "  I t should be noted that  none of Bachmann's women appears as a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y or p o l i t i c i z e s about the s t a t e of the world.  T h i s i s l e f t to men, who, as Undine p o i n t s  out, are much b e t t e r at a n a l y z i n g the s t a t e o f the world: So hat noch niemand von den Menschen^gesprochen, von den Bedingungen, unter denen s i e leben, von i h r e n H o r i g k e i t e n , Giitern, Ideen, von den Menschen auf d i e s e r Erde. Es war r e c h t , so zu sprechen und so v i e l zu bedenken.186 Wherever responsive the personal,  s o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n with s o c i e t y occurs,  i n d i v i d u a l type.  i t i s of  Examples are F r a n z i s k a with her concern  f o r the elder Frau Jordan and the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a who i n c u r s debts to help a r a t h e r dubious e x i l e from B u l g a r i a .  A. Weber found t h e s o c i a l  theme i n Bachmann's s t o r y Das G e b e l l intense enough to note: Exemplarisch also Probleme konnten herausgearbeitet werden: der h i s t o r i s c h - s o z i a l e Rahmen, d i e Mutter-Sohn-Beziehung, der Lebensweg e i n e r Frau, L e i s t u n g auf Kosten des Menschl i c h e n , Wissenschaft auch a l s E h r g e i z , Ruhmsucht und A l i b i , d i e Zerstorung menschlicher Gemeinschaft wie F a m i l i e und Ehe durch d i e Unwahrhaftigkeit, der Egoismus des Menschen, d i e z e n t r a l e Aufgabe der Liebe (auch a l s c a r i t a t i v e r , f r a n z i s k a n i s c h e r Hingabe), v o r allem aber das Problem des A l t e r s und A l t e r n s , des Todes, worauf Schiiler heutzutage, i n e i n e r j u g e n d f i x i e r t e n , hybriden Welt, an einem solchen Modell hinzuweisen waren. Menschlichkeit steht am konkreten F a l l zur Entscheidung, n i c h t Deklarationen.C!3187 This preference  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n by Bachmann's women,  where i t does e x i s t , i s voiced by E l i s a b e t h i n D r e i Wege zum See:  66  Was i n ihnen, s e l b s t i n P h i l i p p e , so verkiimmerte oder i n l e e r e n F o r m l i c h k e i t e n s i c h e r h i e l t , das r e i c h t e noch b e i manchen jungen Leuten f u r einen Liebesausbruch f u r d i e Menschheit, aber es r e i c h t e n i c h t mehr b i s zur nachsten Tur, zu jemand, der, schluchzend oder am Zusammenbrechen, neben ihnen auf der StraBe ging.138 Two observations ought to be added:  firstly,  there can f r e q u e n t l y be  detected a c r i t i c a l view on church and r e l i g i o n i n the context of s o c i a l problems. visit  Nadja, f o r i n s t a n c e , remarks i n Simultan d u r i n g her  to the huge statue of C h r i s t at Maratea:  Als s i e s i c h e n t f e r n t h a t t e , f i i h l t e s i e , s e i t l i c h im Riicken immer noch diese wahnsinnige G e s t a l t , d i e irgend jemand auf die S p i t z e des Felsens getan h a t t e , d i e s e Wahnsinnigen, daB man das z u l i e B , und i n einem armseligen Dorf, das i n jedem Moment i n s Meer stiirzen konnte, wenn man auch nur f e s t a u f t r a t oder eine Bewegung z u v i e l machte, und deswegen bewegte s i e s i c h n i c h t , damit d i e s e r F e l s e n n i c h t h i n u n t e r s t i i r z t e mit ihnen beiden und mit der auflersten Armut dieses Dorfes und den Nachfahren der Sarazenen und a l i e n beladenen Geschichten aus a l i e n muhseligen Zeiten.189 Support f o r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may "Was  i c h i n Rom  a l s o be gained from Bachmann's essay:  sah und horte", where she w r i t e s :  "Noch sorgen d i e  Armen i n i h r e r Behutsamkeit dafiir, daB d i e K i r c h e n i c h t f a l l t , und der 190 sie In the  gegriindet hat, v e r l a f i t s i c h schon auf den S c h r i t t der E n g e l . " t h i s l i g h t , by the way,  i t i s d o u b t f u l , whether Bachmann intended  F r a n c i s c a n a l l u s i o n pointed out above by A. Weber. But there i s a second p o i n t .  There i s , at times, a sense of  r e s i g n a t i o n and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t present i n Bachmann's women when s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are being d i s c u s s e d : Ehe der A l g e r i e n k r i e g zuende war, h a t t e n s i c h E l i s a b e t h und T r o t t a getrennt, und E l i s a b e t h sah, wahrend a l l e anderen langst zur "Tagesordnung" ubergingen, noch bedruckt, was aus der F r e i h e i t schon zu werden drohte, und aus dem neuen A l g e r i e n kam s i e niedergeschlagen zurlick, sagte aber o s t e n t a t i v a l i e n , daB es hochinteressant s e i und schrieb mit v o r s i c h t i g e n Einschrankungen a l l e r l e i P o s i t i v e s , und s i e iiberlas  67 i h r e B i l d t e x t e , stundenlang, ehe s i e s i e abholen l i e B , i h r e n G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t i n die e r s t e Liige, d i e i h r k l a r war, . . . y  L  Needless to say that, because of the scope of t h i s study, other aspects of t h i s t o p i c have been excluded, e.g. the changing a t t i t u d e of Bachmann toward s o c i a l i s s u e s as i t manifests i t s e l f i n e a r l y  poetry  192 and  l a t e r prose w r i t i n g s ;  particular Irren.  or s o c i a l p r o t e s t that ranges o u t s i d e the  a c t i v i t i e s of women, such as i n the s t o r y Unter Mordern und  Summing up t h i s aspect of female s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ,  one may  conclude that many of Bachmann's women do r e a c t t o human c r u e l t y , s u f .  .  193  fering, social i n j u s t i c e ,  either  by t a k i n g a stand or by withdrawing.  Those female characters who do withdraw must s t i l l be c r e d i t e d s o c i a l consciousness; i t i s only t h e i r extremely s e n s i t i v e prevents t h e i r a c t i v e social.  engagement.  with a  nature that  None of them may be c a l l e d  anti-  However, i t seems that t h i s p a r t of t h e i r image i s not a very  pronounced one.  A l s o i t presents i t s e l f  s i o n r a t h e r than one of p o l i t i c a l  i n the guise of human compas-  commitment.  CHAPTER V AGENTS AND  PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT  This l a s t of our i n v e s t i g a t o r y chapters w i l l focus on the quest i o n of development and i t s r e l e v a n c e f o r Ingeborg Bachmann's female characters.  Are they s t a t i c or dynamic f i g u r e s ?  What are t h e i r  agents  of development, t h e i r d r i v e s , d e s i r e s , determinants, m o t i v a t i o n s , t h e i r aims and l i m i t a t i o n s ?  For t h i s purpose,  the f o l l o w i n g agents of develop-  ment have been found to be the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ones f o r a l l characters studied:  a s e a r c h f o r i d e n t i t y ; a quest f o r freedom; a yearning  f o r a G r e n z u b e r t r i t t - a p a s s i n g beyond a l l h i t h e r t o known l i m i t s . second p a r t of t h i s chapter w i l l then be devoted  The  to a d i s c u s s i o n of  e x t e r n a l agents and the extent to which they r e t a r d or advance development .  A.  Inner Impetus  1.  The Search f o r I n d i v i d u a l i t y and  Identity  One o f the s t r o n g e s t of inner d r i v e s m o t i v a t i n g Bachmann's women — as w e l l as some male p r o t a g o n i s t s - i s a search f o r i n d i v i d u a l  identity.  They f e e l thrown i n t o and caught up i n a system of d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n . And  i t i s a g a i n s t t h i s that Bachmann's c h a r a c t e r s almost without  tion rebel.  excep-  The process of t h i s f i x a t i o n and determination of the i n d i -  v i d u a l by some impersonal system shows i t s e l f i n v a r i o u s ways. these i s language  One  itself:  A l l e s i s t eine Frage der Sprache. S i e l a s t e t a l s E r b s c h u l d auf der Welt: wir l e r n e n d i e Sprache unserer Vorfahren und uhernehmen mit i h r d i e B i l d n i s s e , d i e man s i c h von den 68  of  69  Dingen macht. Die Sprache t r i t t uns mit i h r e n f e r t i g e n U r t e i l e n entgegen, und w i r eignen uns s i e an. S i e nimmt i n B e s i t z , was wir aussprechen; unsere Gedanken, unsere Gefiihle s i n d i h r u n t e r t a n : A n d r i i s t e i n Jude und w i r s i n d d i e Andorraner. I s t es moglich, den Menschen vor unserer Sprache, vor unseren f e r t i g e n U r t e i l e n zu bewahren? Fipps hat noch Augenblicke, i n denen er s i c h s e l b s t v e r w a l t e t . A l l e Wege und Wesen s i n d dann g l e i c h , s i n d namenlos, unentschieden. Die Sprache hat h i e r noch n i c h t f e s t g e l e g t , i h r unwiderr u f l i c h e s U r t e i l noch n i c h t ausgesprochen. Doch es w i r d n i c h t moglich s e i n , Fipps v o r i h r zu bewahren, ihm d i e Welt blank zu iibergeben, s p r a c h l o s , bedeutungslos. Wo er der Welt begegnen w i r d , w i r d s i e benannt s e i n . . . . Und kann man eine neue Sprache lernen?194 L i k e Max  F r i s c h ' s c h a r a c t e r s , Bachmann's women s t r i v e to escape prede-  termined and f i x e d p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s such as the sex stereotypes d i s c u s s e d above. of  In order to achieve t h i s , they must f i n d a new  form  language: Aber s i e [ C h a r l o t t e ] wiirde Mara sprechen l e h r e n , langsam, genau und keine Triibung durch d i e i i b l i c h e Sprache zulassen. E r z i e h e n wiirde s i e s i e , anhalten zu etwas, das s i e , friih schon, w e i l s i e k e i n besseres Wort gefunden h a t t e , L o y a l i t a t genannt h a t t e - e i n Fremdwort i n jedem Sinn. S i e bestand auf dem fremden Wort, w e i l s i e noch n i c h t auf dem fremdesten bestehen konnte. Liebe. Da k e i n e r es zu iibersetzen v e r stand. 1 9 5  C h a r l o t t e e x p l i c i t l y condemns the o l d language as a means of s t e r e o t y p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l :  "Immer h a t t e s i e d i e s e Sprache verabscheut,  jeden Stempel, der i h r aufgedriickt wurde und den s i e jemand aufdriicken muSte - den Mordversuch an der W i r k l i c h k e i t . ticism  lies  The reason f o r t h i s  i n Bachmann's philosophy of language, which was  cri-  developed  197 under the i n f l u e n c e of Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n . the  According to h i s theory,  only sentences that express t r u t h are those "describing an i n d i v i d u a l  experience or case.  For example,  Peter i s mortal, or Hans i s mortal.  G e n e r a l i s a t i o n s from these - which any language of convention must make to  serve i t s purpose of general communication - such as:  a l l men  are  7©  mortal, are meaningless.  Likewise Bachmann expresses the view,  that  a l l our g e n e r a l i z i n g statements are not only without v a l u e but f a i l t o do j u s t i c e t o the i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n at hand. v i d u a l t r y i n g to express h i s own  Therefore, each  t r u t h must search f o r a new  indi-  language.  The e x i s t e n t i a l i s t problem u n d e r l y i n g the whole language d i s c u s s i o n i s c l e a r l y expressed by Gerda i n E i n Wildermuth,  when she p o i n t s to the  . . 198 r e l a t i v e n e s s of a l l i n d i v i d u a l statements of t r u t h . C l o s e l y connected w i t h t h i s problem of i d e n t i t y versus  language,  i s the attempt by many of Bachmann's female c h a r a c t e r s to develop or r e t a i n i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n thought.  Here, the p r o f e s s i o n of i n t e r p r e -  ter i n Simultan represents an extreme i n s t a n c e of the s i t u a t i o n which Bachmann's heroines are t r y i n g to f r e e  from  themselves.  . . . s i e r i e b s i c h beide Ohren, wo sonst i h r e Kopfhorer anlagen, i h r e Schaltungen automatisch f u n k t i o n i e r t e n und d i e Sprachbruche s t a t t f a n d e n . Was f u r e i n seltsamer Mechanismus war s i e doch, ohne einen e i n z i g e n Gedanken im Kopf zu haben, l e b t e s i e , eingetaucht i n d i e Satze anderer, und mufite nachtwandlerisch mit g l e i c h e n , aber anderslautenden Satzen s o f o r t nachkommen, s i e konnte aus "machen" to make, f a i r e , f a r e , hacer und d e l a t ' machen, jedes Wort konnte s i e so auf e i n e r R o l l e sechsmal herumdrehen, s i e d u r f t e nur n i c h t denken, dafi machen w i r k l i c h machen, f a i r e f a i r e , f a r e f a r e , d e l a t ' d e l a t ' bedeutete, das konnte i h r e n Kopf unbrauchbar machen, und s i e mufite schon aufpassen, da6 s i e eines Tages n i c h t von den Wortmassen v e r s c h i i t t e t wurde.199 This same urge - i n a wider a p p l i c a t i o n - motivates C h a r l o t t e ' s "Es s o l l t e zu g e l t e n anfangen, was g e l t e n s o l l t e , was  man  defiant:  s i e dachte und meinte, und n i c h t mehr  s i e angehalten h a t t e zu denken und was man i h r  e r l a u b t h a t t e zu l e b e n . "  200  Another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s d r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y and personal i d e n t i t y may be seen i n the preoccupation of many of Bachmann's leading females w i t h s e l f - a n a l y s i s .  Most of the content of the s t o r i e s  71  studied here i s r e f l e c t i v e and i n t r o s p e c t i v e , e i t h e r i n the form o f a stream o f consciousness, by flashbacks (a technique that was s u c c e s s f u l l y adopted  i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f D r e i Wege zum  rather  See f o r  201 television),  or by an a n a l y t i c a l form of prose, r e d e v e l o p i n g and  a n a l y s i n g past events. text:  "So  A. Weber noted t h i s very p o i n t i n another  con-  i s t der Roman 'Malina' d i e handlungsarme S e l b s t r e f l e x i o n  e i n e r S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n , der I c h - E r z a h l e r i n , ebenso von C h a r l o t t e i n 'Ein S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha', von E l i s a b e t h M a t r e i i n 'Drei Wege zum 202 See'."  In Bachmann's works i t i s g e n e r a l l y the mature person that  begins to search f o r an understanding of the s e l f .  The t h i r t y - y e a r o l d  " w i r f t das Netz Erinnerung aus, w i r f t es iiber. s i c h und z i e h t s i c h s e l b s t , Erbeuter und Beute i n einem, iiber d i e Z e i t s c h w e l l e , d i e 203 Ortschwelle, urn zu sehen, wer er war und wer er geworden i s t . " It i s no c o i n c i d e n c e , that the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i n Malina c a l l s h e r s e l f "Ich".  The  s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l nature  discussed by c r i t i c s , one of whom may  of t h i s novel has been widely be quoted as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e :  Der B e g r i f f Innenwelt g i b t e i n i g e n AufschluB iiber den Roman. Innenwelt bezeichnet h i e r n i c h t nur e r z a h l e r i s c h e Innenwelt, a l s o den f i k t i v e n Handlungsraum e i n e r Erzahlung, sondern d i e thematische Basis des Buches: dem erzahlenden Ich wird d i e eigene Innenwelt zum Problem. Die psychoanalytische Erfassung der Auseinandersetzung des Ichs mit der unmittelbaren Umwelt und s i c h s e l b e r umreiflt den epischen Erfahrungsraum. Mit anderen Worten, das Thema des Romans i s t das S i c h - i n - F r a g e S t e l l e n des epischen Ichs, das s i c h aus Griinden. d i e anschlieBend d a r z u s t e l l e n s i n d , s e l b s t a u f g i b t . 2 0 5  However, the thoughts on the I expressed  i n t h i s quotation are b a s i c a l l y  rephrasing of Bachmann's ideas formulated i n her l e c t u r e on  "Das  schreibende Ich": . . . Die e r s t e Veranderung, d i e das Ich e r f a h r e n hat, i s t , daB es s i c h n i c h t mehr i n der Geschichte a u f h a l t , sondern  72  daB s i c h neuerdings d i e Geschichte im Ich a u f h a l t . . . . denn d i e s e s I c h i s t wie s p e z i a l i s i e r t darauf, jede s e i n e r Erfahrungen i n eine Gesamtheit der Erfahrung abzugeben und s i e mit einem sehr gleichmaBigen L i c h t der Erkenntnis zu durchleuchten.206 S i m i l a r l y , one may p l a c e a t l e a s t p a r t of the s t o r i e s Jugend i n e i n e r o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Stadt, E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha, Undine geht and a l l of  the s t o r i e s of Simultan i n the s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l or s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e  category as f a r as the female c h a r a c t e r s are concerned.  I t may w e l l  be that the pronounced l a c k of s o c i a l engagement d i s c u s s e d above f r e e s Bachmann's heroines f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of and r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r essence, e x i s t e n c e , purpose, It  and fundamental motives.  i s hoped that a c l o s e r look at t h i s major m o t i v a t i n g agent  - the search f o r i d e n t i t y - w i l l r e s u l t i n a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r the nature of the image of Bachmann's women. nor p o l i t i c a l  emancipation  Neither s o c i a l  liberation  a r e the primary m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s w i t h i n  207 them.  I t i s i n s t e a d the u n r e l e n t i n g search f o r access to the " i n n e r  self".  Most of Bachmann's c h a r a c t e r s , both male and female, are e q u a l l y  d r i v e n by the urge to experience and to understand f u l l spectrum 2.  t h i s inner s e l f ' s  of f e e l i n g and knowing.  A Quest f o r Freedom Another major d r i v e that motivates Bachmann's women - r e l a t e d  to  that of the quest f o r s e l f - i s a d e s i r e f o r freedom and independence  Freedom i n a l l aspects of l i f e :  freedom from b i n d i n g s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s  freedom from t r a d i t i o n and convention, moral or otherwise; freedom i n thought,  expression and movement; freedom to choose one's own l i f e - s t y l e  A c l o s e r look at t h i s t o p i c shows that here, too, Bachmann deals not  73  with f e m i n i s t i s s u e s , but with the freedom and independence of the individual.  The i s s u e i s r a t h e r that which R a l f Dahrendorf has des-  c r i b e d thus: J e n s e i t s a l l e r P s y c h o l o g i e und S o z i o l o g i e w i r d das A r g e r n i s der G e s e l l s c h a f t f u r den E i n z e l n e n damit zu e i n e r Frage des Spielraums, den das Auge der s e l b s t s e i n Innerstes durchdringenden G e s e l l s c h a f t ihm lafit bzw. den er s i c h zu s c h a f f e n vermag. In ihrem erschreckendsten Aspekt i s t d i e Welt des homo s o c i o l o g i c u s eine "Brave New World" oder e i n "1984" worin a l l e s menschliche V e r h a l t e n berechenbar, v e r l a f i l i c h und standiger K o n t r o l l e unterworfen i s t . 2 0 8 The pronounced  a p o l i t i c a l image of the woman - except f o r the occa-  s i o n a l condemnation  of N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m - developed by the poetess  r e f l e c t s i n t e r e s t i n g and, thus f a r , r a r e l y explored dimensions. Furthermore, i t seems that Dahrendorf's statement i s of p a r t i c u l a r  sig-  n i f i c a n c e i n the l i g h t of the sustained a t t a c k by Bachmann's l e a d i n g female characters on r a t i o n a l i s m and c a l c u l a t e d purpose. Free movement, as a s i n g l e but very prominent i s s u e f o r Bachmann's women, m e r i t s c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n . the  The metaphoric use of  world of water as the element of freedom, of f r e e motion, of  f l u i d i t y which we f i r s t  f i n d i n Undine geht, i s o p e r a t i v e i n other  prose as w e l l as l y r i c works of Ingeborg Bachmann:  Land rational functional fixed tangible trapped determined purposeful reasonable realistic bourgeois male ( i n c l .  Water irrational without purpose fluid intangible free undetermined  Menschenfrauen)  true r e a l i t y U n d i n e - l i k e way of l i f e Undines and l i k e females without g r a v i t y ahistoric  74  For Bachmann's women, water i s the element where: . . . niemand s i c h e i n Nest baut, s i c h e i n Dach a u f z i e h t iiber Balken, s i c h bedeckt mit e i n e r Plane. Nirgendwo s e i n , nirgendwo bleiben.^09 T y p i c a l , too, f o r many female c h a r a c t e r s portrayed by Bachmann i s a l o n g i n g f o r t e r r i t o r i a l freedom.  Nadja and E l i s a b e t h M a t r e i a r e cosmo-  210 politans  without t e r r i t o r i a l attachments:  Daheim war s i e [ E l i s a b e t h ] n i c h t i n diesem Wald, s i e mufite immer wieder neu anfangen, d i e Wanderkarten zu l e s e n , w e i l s i e k e i n Heimweh kannte und es n i e Heimweh war, das s i e nachhause kommen l i e f i , n i c h t s h a t t e s i c h i e v e r k l a r t , sondern s i e kam zuriick, i h r e s Vaters wegen, . . .211 Bachmann's women want to r e d e f i n e and to r e c r e a t e the world, t h e r e f o r e , they d i s c a r d a l l attachments.  A l s o , the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a t a l k s i n the  Miihlbauer i n t e r v i e w about the i r r e l e v a n c e of boundaries and n a t i o n a l loyalties.  T h i s i s a view on e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l i t y that has caused some  c r i t i c s to t r a c e Bachmann's cosmopolitanism to the s u p r a n a t i o n a l i s m of the  212 o l d Habsburg Empire.  To whatever o r i g i n s one may wish to t r a c e  t h i s cosmopolitanism, be they h i s t o r i c , p s y c h i c , or l i t e r a r y (e.g. R i l k e ' s "Weltinnenraum"), i t does appear to be a b a s i c p h y s i c a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the ongoing i n d i v i d u a l development of Bachmann's women. Numerous thoughts, statements and even dreams express t h i s urge f o r t e r r i t o r i a l freedom and independence.  "Gehen w i r weg, weit weg." suggests  213 Mara to C h a r l o t t e .  Two other quotations from the sphere of fantasy  should be added, s i n c e they may be s a i d to be b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d to r e v e a l the innermost d e s i r e s than statements taken from the " r a t i o n a l " sphere: Die P r i n z e s s i n war sehr jung und sehr schon und s i e h a t t e einen Rappen, auf dem s i e a l i e n anderen v o r a u s f l o g . Ihre G e f o l g s l e u t e beredeten und baten s i e , zuriickzubleiben, denn das Land, i n dem s i e waren, an der Donau, war immer i n Gefahr, und Grenzen gab es noch keine, wo spater Raetien, Markomannien, Noricum, Moesien, Dacien, I l l y r i e n und Pannonien waren. Es gab auch noch k e i n C i s und T r a n s l e i t h a n i e n , denn es war immer Volkerwanderung.214  75  And Anna exclaims i n the I I I . Dream of E i n Geschaft mit Traumen: Ich l i e b e d i e grofien weiflen S c h i f f e , i c h l i e b e K l e i d e r aus s i l b e r n e n Fischschuppen und Halsaander aus Tang, i c h l i e b e d i e Wellen, d i e an grofie weifie S c h i f f e schlagen, i c h l i e b e d i e wunderbaren L i e d e r der Matrosen und d i e hohen Mas ten, i n denen s i c h schneeige Wolken verfangen. Ich l i e b e das Heulen der Sirenen und d i e F e m e , auf d i e d i e groBen weifien S c h i f f e Kurs nehmen, und i c h l i e b e das Ufer der Sonne am H o r i z o n t , auf das mich der Wind mit seinen starken Armen heben w i r d , i c h l i e b e d i e U n e n d l i c h k e i t des Meeres . . . Matrosen, macht mir den Weg f r e i , meldet mich dem K a p i t a n ! Ich habe f r e i e F a h r t und e i n Visum f u r d i e U n e n d l i c h k e i t . Bachmann f r e q u e n t l y uses maritime images such as s h i p s , water, ocean, and i s l a n d s , as w e l l as r i v e r s , to i n d i c a t e t e r r i t o r i a l and mental  freedom.  Following the l i n e s of argument developed i n p r e v i o u s chapters of t h i s study, one can summarize, that f o r the sake of freedom and  independence,  Bachmann's women forego, whenever p o s s i b l e , b i n d i n g s o c i a l c o n t r a c t s and 216 o b l i g a t i o n s such as l a r g e f a m i l i e s , c h i l d r e n , and even marriage.  They  try  their  to d i s r e g a r d moral norms and v a l u e s whenever these may  own p e r s o n a l development, principle.  though they do not r e j e c t them as a matter of  L a s t l y , Bachmann p o r t r a y s females who  sphere of freedom f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l ways of l i f e , is  restrict  need and seek a l a r g e although t h i s search  l i m i t e d by c e r t a i n dependencies, e s p e c i a l l y the dependency  opposite sex.  Examples  of t h i s a r e :  on the  the withdrawal of Undine to the  world of water a f t e r every excursion i n t o the "organized" world; the d e s i r e of Nadja to r e t u r n to her own bed - i f need be even to sleep i n a bathtub - during her t r i p w i t h Ludwig F r a n k e l ; the t i n y r e b e l l i o u s c r i e s of the c h i l d r e n f a c i n g the "spiderwebs" of a programmed l i f e i n Jugend i n einer o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Stadt; the escape of B e a t r i x i n t o the f r e e space of sleep and many others.  76  3.  A Yearning f o r G r e n z u b e r t r i t t The  l a s t major agent of development i n Bachmann's heroines  is  the urge f o r the G r e n z u b e r t r i t t or the d e s i r e to pass beyond r a t i o n a l boundaries.  "Denn b e i allem, was  wir manchmal b i s zum  wir  Aufiersten gehen.  tun, denken und Der Wunsch wird  f i i h l e n , mochten i n uns wach, d i e  217 Grenzen zu i i b e r s c h r e i t e n , d i e uns  gesetzt s i n d . "  s t a t e s Bachman i n  her speech when presented w i t h a p r i z e f o r r a d i o - p l a y s blinded.  I t i s a motivating  male characters characters.  from the  war-  f o r c e , that - though d i s c e r n i b l e i n the  too - appears e s p e c i a l l y to impel Bachmann's female  I t i s a l s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the two  previously  discussed  agents of development; we might even say that i t i s an extension  of  these. What e x a c t l y i s t h i s longing f o r a Gr enziib er t r i 11 ?  Various  answers to t h i s question have been o f f e r e d : a)  The  Utopian view  Ingeborg Bachmann's w r i t i n g s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a dominant theme: man's longing f o r das Utopische, which f o r her i s any dream or concept that i s i d e a l and impossible, thus "utopian", be i t e t e r n a l l i f e , t r u e l o v e , the language of t r u t h , or the l i b e r a t i o n from any human l i m i t a t i o n . . . Since das Utopische always remains Utopian and can never become r e a l i t y ( i t i s the c o n t r a d i c t i o n of r e a l i t y ) , man's s t r i v i n g must always end i n d e s p a i r . But Bachmann's w r i t i n g s suggest that man may f r e e himself from the v i c i o u s c i r c l e of hope and d e s p a i r , i f he r e a l i z e s that "Utopia i s not a goal but a d i r e c t i o n , " . . . He must l e a r n to l i v e suspended between r e a l i t y and Utopia; . . .218  b)  The  r e l i g i o u s view  Die C h r i s t u s g e s t a l t i s t e i n Ausdruck f u r den G r e n z u b e r t r i t t , f u r dieses mystische Verschmelzen mit jener anderen groSeren Ordnung, d i e den Namen Gottes tragen mag. . . . Die Mystik i s t e i n Weg, mit dem r e i n e n S e i n , der l i c h t e n Ordnung oder  77  Gott i n Beriihrung zu kommen, d i e Liebe i s t v i e l l e i c h t e i n anderer: . . . Es handelt s i c h dabei um eine Verschmelzung der g l e i c h e n A r t wie d i e i n der Mystik vorkommende, um • • 91 Q etwas im e i g e n t l i c h e n Smne Unaussprechbares. " l  c)  The i r r a t i o n a l , romantic view  Wenn das junge Madchen s c h l i e f i l i c h "durch den F e u e r r e i f e n der Welt" springen, a l s o nach dem E i s auch das Feuer bewaltigen w i l l , so s i n d damit d i e L e i d e n s c h a f t e n gemeint. Auch s i e s o l l e n durchlebt und d u r c h l i t t e n werden - ohne Riicksicht, ohne Grenzen, wie eben iiberhaupt der Drang nach dem Extremen und Absoluten das Merkmal der Bachmannschen Lebenshaltung i s t . Man kann s i c h j a f i i g l i c h fragen, wie dies mit der grofien Intelligenz vereinbar s e i . Doch i s t - wie schon oben angefiihrt wurde - der T r i e b nach "Traum und Rausch", nach dem Gesetzlosen, gerade b e i sehr I n t e l l e k t u e l l e n ubermachtig. Es i s t d i e s e i n ontologisches S e i n s v e r h a l t e n , das nach V e r schwendung, Auflosung, " b i s zur Weifiglut L i e b e n " l e c h z t und dem n i c h t s v e r a c h t l i c h e r i s t a l s das von Undine v e r s p o t t e t e "mit gesparter Jugend i n s A l t e r hasten."220  d)  The motive of f l i g h t  Das Fluchtmotiv a l s o i s t der Ausgangspunkt f u r Hauptthemen, auf d i e w i r h i e r eingingen. F l u c h t bedeutet e i n e r s e i t s Ausbrechen aus der B e d i n g t h e i t der E x i s t e n z , insbesondere aus der B e d i n g t h e i t durch Z e i t und bestehende Sprache. I n zweiter L i n i e i s t F l u c h t aber auch e i n Aufbruch auf etwas zu. Das e r s t e Z i e l , das gleichsam Durchgangsstadium i s t , heiBt F r e i h e i t . 2 2 1  e)  The view of i n d i v i d u a l freedom  In i h r e n Erzahlungen v a r i i e r t Ingeborg Bachmann jenes Ausbrechen aus den Ordnungen auf v e r s c h i e d e n s t e Weise. Das Motiv d i i r f t e im Denken der D i c h t e r i n iiberhaupt t i e f v e r ankert s e i n , es i s t doch a u f f a l l e n d , daB s i e auch i n i h r e n Ansprachen, Vorlesungen und Essays immer wieder darauf zuriickkommt. Ingeborg Bachmann betont, daB d i e E x i s t e n z des Menschen n i e abgeschlossen, n i e beendet .sein s o l l e , sondern f r e i und a l i e n M o g l i c h k e i t e n o f f e n ; er musse wach s e i n , s t e t s b e r e i t , d i e Anrufe zu horen und ihnen zu f o l g e n . Die Voraussetzung dazu, meint s i e , s e i j a i n uns a l i e n angelegt: "Denn b e i allem, was w i r tun, denken und fiihlen, mochten w i r manchmal b i s zum Aufiersten gehen. . . ."222  78  Each of these covers some v a l i d aspect of the concept of Yet, a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n , one  Grenziibertritt.  going beyond the general terms used  by Bachmann ("Innerhalb der Grenzen aber haben wir den B l i c k g e r i c h t e t auf das Vollkommene, das Unmogliche, s e i es der L i e b e , der F r e i h e i t jeder r e i n e n GroBe."), w i l l be attempted a f t e r Todesarten  theme (which we  treat  the a n a l y s i s of  as an a n t i t h e s i s  the  to G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t ) .  The d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t i s v o i c e d by the good "Jede Geschichte  fand i n e i n e r anderen Sprache s t a t t .  W o r t l o s i g k e i t v e r l i e f jede anders.  oder  Auch d i e Z e i t war  God:  Bis i n d i e eine andere, i n  223 d i e jede getaucht war."  He  continues by saying that only the uninformed  see s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the v a r i o u s forms of G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t , of which the only common denominator i s the "Neigung, d i e n a t u r l i c h e n Klammern zu l o s e n , 224 urn dann keinen H a l t mehr i n der Welt zu f i n d e n . " that he r e f e r s here only to the G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t  I t seems  probable  i n the realm of l o v e ,  which - c o n s i d e r i n g a l l other p o s s i b i l i t i e s - would only emphasize the amorphousness of t h i s " u l t i m a t e " way  of e x i s t e n c e .  at t h i s point that n e i t h e r Dionysian, mystic,  So one may  conclude  freedom nor any other  labels  we have i n v e s t i g a t e d apply to a l l or even to many i n s t a n c e s . I t appears that the G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t  theme, too, i s governed by  the s e x - r o l e image s i n c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , the G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t of love and  i n the  realm  emotion i s reserved f o r female characters alone, such as  J e n n i f e r , Undine, and Anna i n E i n Geschaft mit Traumen, whereas t h e i r male partners are more or l e s s c a r r i e d change of consciousness.  along without  On the other hand, the few attempts at a  G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t by male characters are l i m i t e d such as the search f o r t r u t h (by Fipp's  father).  the concomitant  to a " t y p i c a l male" sphere  (by Wildermuth) or "new  educational concept"  79  An examination of the v a r i o u s dramatic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s agent of development  seems to y i e l d three b a s i c p a t t e r n s as i t r e l a t e s  to the female c h a r a c t e r s . Firstly,  a complete G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t leads to the d e s t r u c t i o n of  the p h y s i c a l nature of the a c t i n g c h a r a c t e r  (e.g. J e n n i f e r or Anna),  leads to a climax, a s t a t e o f t i m e l e s s e x i s t e n c e .  Only the female i s  able to experience and to s u s t a i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n , i n both cases during an i n t e n s e love a f f a i r .  I t should be noted that i n the two instances of  a v i o l e n t G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t the heroines are alone during t h i s experience. Lauranz misses the s i n k i n g of Anna's ship i n E i n Geschaft mit Traumen because of the i n t e r r u p t i o n by the s a l e s c l e r k and Jan r e l a x e s i n a bar while J e n n i f e r i s blown apart by the p a r c e l bomb on the 57th f l o o r of the A t l a n t i c H o t e l .  Men, d e s p i t e attempts to do so, are unable to f o l -  low t h e i r l o v e r s i n t o the realm beyond.  Lauranz merely "bought" a  dream and Jan returns to the r a t i o n a l "male" world i n time b e f o r e the transgression.  Depth  (the bottom o f the ocean), as w e l l as h e i g h t (the  skyscraper and the heavens), are the realms beyond. the ocean are Bachmann's topoi f o r l i m i t l e s s This type of development,  Both, but e s p e c i a l l y  freedom.  as shown i n the graph below, u s u a l l y  proceeds by stages and degrees of i n t e n s i t y , and i t may be s a i d to represent the extreme form of Bachmann's image of the woman and the 225 counterpart to the female v i c t i m  of murderous males.  That the des-  t r u c t i o n of the s e l f does not happen to Undine may be explained by the view that she i s not human, that s i n c e she l i v e s i n the realm beyond a l l boundaries, her Grenziibertri11 i s the r e v e r s e of J e n n i f e r ' s o r that of other human beings.  80  Secondly, the d e s i r e of most of Bachmann's heroines f o r passing beyond a l l l i m i t s allows a dynamic development of c h a r a c t e r . are:  Examples  C h a r l o t t e , Mara, Nadja, the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a , and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  Elisabeth. for  Women who develop w i t h i n t h i s p a t t e r n are c o n s t a n t l y searching  the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t .  U s u a l l y they reach one o r  more h i g h p o i n t s i n the realm of l o v e o r emotion d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e , but without a t t a i n i n g a complete G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t .  Some, however, r e s i g n  without abandoning t h i s concept o f a b s o l u t e being.  E l i s a b e t h serves as  an example: Nur eine Hoffnung d u r f t e und w o l l t e s i e n i c h t o f f e n l a s s e n , denn wenn s i e i n f a s t d r e i f i i g Jahren keinen Mann g e t r o f f e n h a t t e , e i n f a c h keinen, der von e i n e r a u s s c h l i e B l i c h e n Bedeutung fiir s i e war, der unausweichlich f u r s i e geworden war, jemand, der s t a r k war und i h r das Mysterium brachte, auf das s i e gewartet h a t t e , . . . dann gab es den Mann eben n i c h t , und solange es d i e s e n Neuen Mann n i c h t gab, konnte man nur f r e u n d l i c h s e i n und gut zueinander, eine W e i l e . z z a  Whatever the f i n a l a t t i t u d e of heroines who are dominated by t h i s search for  Gr enzu'b er t r i 11 may be, they a l l , i n the end, have undergone a  maturing  process. L a s t l y , there e x i s t s a group of women (not represented i n the  graphs below) such as the e l d e r Frau Jordan, F r a n z i s k a , Gerda, and Hanna t o whom the Gr enziib er t r i 11 development dynamic i s not a p p l i c a b l e . T h i s group e x h i b i t s l i t t l e or no emotional development, although development does take p l a c e on other l e v e l s .  We can recognize t h i s  i n the course taken by F r a n z i s k a ' s gradual i n s i g h t i n t o Leo's character.  *  81  In s p e c u l a t i n g on Bachmann's conceptions of the term Grenzubert r i t t , however, i t might be worthwhile  to compare i t with W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s  ideas>of the " l i m i t s of the world" which i s congruent of that which can be expressed.  w i t h the  limits  Bachmann d e f i n e s these ideas i n her  radio-essay "Sagbares und Unsagbares - Die P h i l o s o p h i e Ludwig Wittgensteins"  thus:  "only the r e a l i t y of the world can be expressed  by  language - and t h i s i s the language of s c i e n c e , " and she l e t s her characters continue: 1. SPEECHES. - n a t u r w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e n Satzen namlich 2. SPRECHER - und er W i t t g e n s t e i n erganzt an e i n e r anderen S t e l l e , daB wir obendrein f a h l g s i n d , mit unseren Satzen d i e ganze W i r k l i c h k e i t d a r z u s t e l l e n . 1. SPRECHER Gemeint s i n d immer d i e Wissenschaften, d i e d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t e r f o r s c h e n und s i e i n e i n Darstellungssystem bringen. KRITIKER Was veranlaBt W i t t g e n s t e i n dann aber, von "Grenzen der Welt" zu sprechen? 1. SPRECHER Er geht nun einen S c h r i t t zuriick und sagt, daB wir eines n i c h t d a r s t e l l e n konnen, und zwar das, was  82  unsere Satze, d i e d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t d a r s t e l l e n , mit der W i r k l i c h k e i t gemein haben. 2. SPRECHER Damit beruhrt er e i n ganz merkwiirdiges Phanomen, iiber das wir uns i n der P r a x i s des A l l t a g s , aber auch i n der P r a x i s der Wissenschaft n i e Gedanken machen. Wir s t e l l e n zum B e i s p i e l einen bestimmten Naturvorgang mit dem Satz "es regnet" dar - oder driicken i n den Naturwissenschaften e i n sogenanntes Naturgesetz, etwa d i e F a l l g e s e t z e , durch e i n e Formel aus. Der Satz i n der A l l t a g s s p r a c h e wie d i e mathematische Formel s t e l l e n die W i r k l i c h k e i t dar, obwohl s i e j a n i c h t das g e r i n g s t e mit d i e s e r W i r k l i c h k e i t zu tun haben. S i e s i n d nur Zeichen, d i e etwas bezeichnen, ohne mit dem B e z e i c h neten etwas gemeinsam zu haben. Wie wir dennoch mit d i e s e n Zeichen - unserer Sprache im w e i t e s t e n Sinn o p e r i e r e n konnen - das i s t d i e Frage! 1. SPRECHER Und W i t t g e n s t e i n beantwortet s i e so: es i s t die l o g i s c h e Form, d i e beiden gemeinsam s e i n mufi, w e i l die Satze sonst d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t iiberhaupt n i c h t d a r s t e l l e n konnten. Und d i e l o g i s c h e Form i s t d i e "Grenze", nach der unser K r i t i k e r v o r h i n f r a g t e , denn s i e ermoglicht zwar d i e D a r s t e l l u n g , kann aber s e l b s t n i c h t mehr d a r g e s t e l l t werden. In i h r t r i t t etwas i n Erscheinung, das iiber d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t hinausweist. Es weist i n s o f e r n iiber d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t hinaus, a l s s i c h i n der l o g i s c h e n Form etwas z e i g t , das fiir uns undenkbar i s t , und w e i l es undenkbar i s t , lafit s i c h n i c h t dariiber sprechen. WITTGENSTEIN "Was wir n i c h t denken konnen, das konnen wir n i c h t denken; wir konnen a l s o auch n i c h t sagen, was wir n i c h t denken konnen." 1. SPRECHER So f o r m u l i e r t W i t t g e n s t e i n d i e " G r e n z s i t u a t i o n " , die s i c h fiir d i e Wissenschaft b e i der D a r s t e l l u n g der W i r k l i c h k e i t e r g i b t . . . .227 The essay goes on to say that the Viennese N e o p o s i t i v i s t s do not  reject  the e x i s t e n c e of systems of thoughts or of metaphysical ideas such as God or I d e a l i s m but that we cannot t a l k meaningfully about them as they l i e beyond the l i m i t s of our language cal  capabilities.  theories - men  and t h e r e f o r e beyond our  analyti-  Bachmann concludes that - according to W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s  can only experience (not express or think) the meta-  physical : WITTGENSTEIN "Es g i b t a l l e r d i n g s Unaussprechliches. z e i g t s i c h , es i s t das Mystische.  Dies  83  2. SPRECHER . . . Ja, er meint n i c h t , daB es k e i n e Werte g i b t , daB E t h i k unmoglich i s t oder daB es unmoglich i s t , an Gott zu glauben - er meint nur, daB es streng genommen unmoglich i s t , iiber a l l das zu sprechen. Die Sprache kann nur iiber Tatsachen sprechen und b i l d e t d i e Grenze unserer - meiner und deiner - Welt. Die Entgrenzung der Welt geschieht, wo d i e Sprache n i c h t h i n r e i c h t und daher auch das Denken nicht hinreicht. S i e geschieht, wo s i c h etwas " z e i g t " , und was s i c h z e i g t , i s t das M y s t i s c h e , d i e unaussprechl i c h e Erfahrung 1. SPRECHER Erfahrung n i c h t des E m p i r i k e r s , sondern des Mystikers.228 These ideas may - i n our o p i n i o n - help to e x p l a i n some of Bachmann's thoughts u n d e r l y i n g her concept of G r e n z u b e r t r i t t as w e l l as the male-female a n t i t h e s i s .  One may  equate the realm of d e s c r i p t i v e  language and thought w i t h the world of the male, and that experience that goes beyond  the l i m i t s of language and thought, with the realm  of the female or see i t as the goal f o r which Bachmann's heroines yearn - as G r e n z u b e r t r i t t .  B.  Outside Agents By f a r the most important agent i n f l u e n c i n g the development of  Bachmann's female p r o t a g o n i s t s from the o u t s i d e i s the male.  None of  the prose-works covered i s without at l e a s t one, even the s t o r y of E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha which has only women as main c h a r a c t e r s . as r e t a r d i n g as w e l l as advancing agents of development.  Men act  They are also  used to set up or create s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t f o r the female.  One  may w e l l be j u s t i f i e d i n saying that almost a l l major changes i n the female character development Elizabeth:  are caused or i n i t i a t e d by  men:  ( T r o t t a ) . . . und e r s t a l s s i e T r o t t a i n P a r i s kennenlernte, anderte s i e s i c h so v o l l standig, daB s i e i h r e Wiener Z e i t und i h r V e r h a l t e n dort u n b e g r e i f l i c h fand.  84  . . . w e i l er s i e zum BewuBtsein v i e l e r Dinge brachte, . . . Das A l l e r w i c h t i g s t e war, daB T r o t t a E l i s a b e t h u n s i c h e r machte i n i h r e r A r b e i t . . . . aber zum erstenmal hatte i h r jemand den Boden unter den FiiBen weggezogen, . . .229 (Manes) Einen Tag danach brach s i e p l o t z l i c h zusammen, . . . w e i l i h r e K l a r s i c h t n i c h t s a u s r i c h t e n konnte gegen die Tatsache, . . . daB e i n Mensch, mit dem s i e s i c h schon zusammengehorig gedacht h a t t e , s i e weggeworfen h a t t e , . . . Sie l i t t wie unter e i n e r Amput a t i o n . . . .230 Jennifer:  (Jan) I s t das aus d i r [ J e n n i f e r ] geworden? B i s t du's geworden? Aus einem r o s a r o t e n Madchen mit Tagebiichern, Gutenachtkiissen und Autokiissen, mit Truman und v o l l g e k r i t z e l t e n Heften unter dem Arm, sehr n e t t und wie gef a l l t es I h n e n ? 2 3 1  Miranda:  (Josef) Warum muB i c h [Josef] das tun? und er mochte Miranda kiissen, aber er kann n i c h t , und so denkt er nur, es w i r d noch immer h i n g e r i c h t e t , es i s t e i n e H i n r i c h t u n g , w e i l a l l e s , was i c h t u , eine Untat i s t , d i e Taten s i n d eben Untaten. Miranda hat n i c h t gemerkt, wann d i e Tiir z u g e f a l i e n i s t , . . . Miranda mochte n i c h t mehr leben i n d i e s e r Gerauschhaft, L i c h t - und Dunkelhaft, s i e hat nur noch einen Zugang zur Welt iiber einen drohnenden Kopfschmerz, der i h r d i e Augen zudriickt, die zu lange o f f e n waren. Was hat s i e z u l e t z t bloB gesehen. S i e hat Josef gesehen.232  S i m i l a r l y severe i n f l u e n c e s are  exerted  by men  on most other Bachmann  heroines. What conclusions about Bachmann's image of the woman may t i f i e d by these observations?  F i r s t of a l l , Ingeborg Bachmann  be still  jus-  85  considers  the male to be the most important s i n g l e f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g  the development, m o t i v a t i o n  and actions of women, and to p l a y a s i g n i -  f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e i r various motivating  conflicts.  Secondly, the male - i n h i s  as w e l l as i n h i s r e t a r d i n g f u n c t i o n - causes o r c o n t r i b u t e s  to a maturing process i n the female.  Data s i m i l a r to the f o l l o w i n g 233  c o l l e c t e d on J e n n i f e r by K. Rothmann Bachmann's female  could be gathered f o r most o f  protagonists:  J e n ng ie fs ee rl lii sg t : gesprachig neugierig J e n n i f e r s Wesen e r f a h r t f liichtig eine Umkehrung i n diesen unabhangig Wesenszugen naiv s e l b s t a n d i g , unbefangen, h i l f s b e r e i t , aberglaubisch usw. T h i r d l y , i n many instances  - such as i n the one quoted above i n v o l v i n g  Miranda - the pre-determination of male a c t i o n i s made c l e a r , thus a s s i g n i n g him a f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i n the development of the woman that i s s t r i p p e d of any s e x i s t elements. appears i n a v a r i e t y of r o l e s :  Fourthly,  the male agent of change  as a teacher, as a s a v i o u r ,  as a c r i t i c ,  as a weakling, as a f a t h e r , as a dominant or submissive person. i t appears that  Lastly,  n e a r l y a l l of the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s i n which  Bachmann's women f i n d themselves can be s a i d t o have been brought about, a c t i v e l y or p a s s i v e l y , by men.  C.  Patterns  of Development  Having shown that Bachmann's female protagonists and  developing characters  and having discussed  are dynamic  the major f a c t o r s of  t h i s development or change, i t i s now necessary f o r us to examine those patterns  of development .  I t appears that most follow one b a s i c type of  86  p a t t e r n or, i f the s t o r y covers only a shorter p e r i o d i n t h e i r  lives,  t h i s p e r i o d corresponds to one or more stages w i t h i n t h i s b a s i c p a t t e r n . The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e w i l l  i l l u s t r a t e the b a s i c form i n the e n t i r e t y :  immaturity; youth; growing up i n a f a m i l y and l o c a l environment, dependent:  urge to l e a v e home: =  r e l a t i o n s h i p with rp men, marriage ( d i - <^ vorce, remarriage):  departure, travel:  >  independence; d i s i l lusionment, w i t h men; the search f o r Grenzubertritt:  attainment of a c e r t a i n l e v e l of m a t u r i ty; despite disappointments, retainment of a p o s i t i v e view of l i f e :  ^>  or  v |  ^  dependence, entrapment, death (Todesarten)  w  1  coming to terms £ ]_ t  h  w o r  d  The p a t t e r n can be traced i n i t s e n t i r e t y through the l i v e s of E l i s a b e t h and of Nadja. It  i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i n p a r t s , f o r C h a r l o t t e , Mara, the nar-  r a t o r i n Malina and of most of the o t h e r s . the  "development  I t may  also be noted, that  through the male" stage has been worked out o c c a s i o n a l l y i n  depth by means of a s i n g l e encounter with a male p a r t n e r as i n the case of  B e a t r i x or, more f r e q u e n t l y , by means of many and v a r i e d encounters  w i t h d i f f e r e n t partners as i n the case of E l i s a b e t h , Nadja and  Undine.  Since the c o n c l u s i o n of many of Bachmann s s t o r i e s leaves the herr  oines d i s i l l u s i o n e d with the male, must we a negative development?  then conclude that i t i s b a s i c a l l y  Many c r i t i c s have suggested n i h i l i s m or at best an  a t t i t u d e of r e s i g n a t i o n .  M. T r i e s c h w r i t e s on t h i s p o i n t :  87  The c r i t i c i s m of Miss Bachmann's prose i s meager, and there have been no attempts to determine p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y the d i r e c t i o n i n which the author i s going. One c r i t i c used the term " n i h i l i s m " i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Das d r e i B i g s t e Jahr (H. Beckmann). He used i t i n a p r e v e n t i v e sense, thus e x p r e s s i n g his f e a r that Miss Bachmann might be blamed f o r b e i n g n i h i l istic. Maybe she i s . Her heroes do not accept the world which they judge so h a r s h l y and which i s incompatible w i t h t h e i r own views. They simply r e s i g n themselves and go on l i v i n g i n i t , very quietly. They do not even i n s i s t on t h e i r o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n to a l t e r t h i n g s . I t may be a q u e s t i o n of d e f i n i t i o n whether or not one i s w i l l i n g to term such an a t t i tude n i h i l i s m . ^ J  Is  i t only a q u e s t i o n of d e f i n i t i o n ?  us, f o r two reasons.  One must r e j e c t t h i s l a b e l , i t seems to  F i r s t of. a l l because of the t h e o r e t i c a l statements  on the purpose of l i t e r a t u r e made by Ingeborg Bachmann h e r s e l f .  She  writes i n " L i t e r a t u r a l s Utopie": Und der verandern wollende D i c h t e r , w i e v i e l steht ihm f r e i und w i e v i e l n i c h t ? Das i s t auch d i e Frage. Es g i b t e i n Drama f u r ihn, das e r s t i n unserer Z e i t ganz o f f e n b a r geworden i s t : W e i l er das ganze Ungliick des Menschen und der Welt im Auge hat, scheint es, a l s s a n k t i o n i e r t e er dieses Ungltick, s c h e i n t es, a l s v e r f e h l t e er d i e gewiinschte Wirkung. W e i l er den B l i c k auf das ganze Ungliick v e r s t a t t e t , s c h e i n t zugelassen, daB auch das Veranderbare n i c h t verandert wird.^35 It ought to be l e g i t i m a t e to apply t h i s statement a l s o to her  fiction  and thereby e x p l a i n the seeming presence of r e s i g n a t i o n on the p a r t of the  authoress.  An even more pronounced  credo f o r a commitment to l i f e  i s formulated by Ingeborg Bachmann i n her speech "Die Wahrheit Menschen zumutbar":  "Wer,  wenn n i c h t d i e j e n i g e n unter Ihnen, d i e e i n  schweres Los g e t r o f f e n hat, konnte besser bezeugen, welter r e i c h t a l s unser Ungliick, dafl man, erheben weiB, daB man zu Art  leben vermag."  i s t dem  daB unsere K r a f t  um v i e l e s beraubt, s i c h zu  enttauscht, und das h e i B t , ohne  Tauschung,  She continues: "Ich glaube, daB dem Menschen eine  des S t o l z e s e r l a u b t i s t - der S t o l z dessen, der i n der Dunkelhaft  88  der Welt n i c h t a u f g i b t und n i c h t aufhort, nach dem Rechten zu sehen." C e r t a i n l y no s p i r i t of r e s i g n a t i o n i s to be f e l t here; one might detect a k i n s h i p with S c h i l l e r ' s  even  ideas on human d i g n i t y .  A second and l e s s debatable reason f o r r e j e c t i n g the l a b e l s of n i h i l i s m or r e s i g n a t i o n  i s the r e s u l t o f an examination o f the t e x t s  themselves: Miranda:  Despite the c r u e l t y of the l a s t scene, Miranda's f i n a l words o r thoughts a r e : "Immer das Gute im Auge b e h a l t e n . "  Beatrix:  She overcomes her own emotion i n order to do a favour f o r an o l d woman, as she repeats the empty phrase: "Ja, d i e Manner!"  Undine:  Here, a r e c o n c i l i n g note i s s t r u c k a t the end of a s c a t h i n g a t t a c k on the male. A s l i g h t element o f hope i s expressed a t the end: "Komm. Nur einmal. Komm."  Hanna:  Here too the s t o r y ends on a note o f hope. Hanna emerges slowly from a s t a t e of p e t r i f a c t i o n and s u f f e r i n g .  Nadja:  "Aber im Gehen, a l s s i e schon seine Hand genommen h a t t e , drehte s i e s i c h urn, w e i l i h r das W i c h t i g s t e i n den Sinn kam, und s i e r i e f es dem Jungen zu, der Adorni siegen gesehen h a t t e . Auguri!"  Gerda:  "Den Rest der Z e i t b i s M i t t e r n a c h t s t r i t t e n w i r dann . . . a l s i h r e i n f i e l , dafi s i e mich schonen miisse, . . . prefite Gerda, wie immer, wenn s i e zur Versohnung b e r e i t i s t , h e f t i g meine Hand,  E l i s a b e t h : Again, one f i n d s a new awareness of r e a l i t y , one which concludes on a note of hope: "Es kann mir etwas geschehen, aber es mufi mir n i c h t s geschehen." S i m i l a r conclusions can be noted f o r C h a r l o t t e , F r a n z i s k a and the e l d e r Frau Jordan.  What do these f i n a l passages of each s t o r y show?  Admit-  t e d l y , a s t a t e of i s o l a t i o n , of disappointment, predominates but, notably,  89  there i s also a r e c o g n i t i o n of true r e a l i t y of Ent-tauschung. show that i n the end we are almost always confronted heroine - small as i t may be - which repudiates p l e t e r e s i g n a t i o n on her p a r t .  They a l s o  by an a c t i o n of the  any impression of com-  L a s t l y , they almost always p o i n t to a  ray of hope beyond the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n .  I t may j u s t i f i a b l y be noted  that there has been a p o s i t i v e development of the female characters  who  even i n the d e s t r u c t i v e cases ( i . e . J e n n i f e r ) achieve a s t a t e of s u b l i mation as they a t t a i n freedom from a l l w o r l d l y s t r i c t u r e s .  PART I I I .  DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGE OF  THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN  CHAPTER VI A DISCUSSION OF ANTITHETICAL  IDEAS AND THEMES  During the c o l l e c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of much of the b a s i c data on Bachmann's image of the woman presented i n the previous chapters, s e v e r a l questions posed themselves r e p e a t e d l y and could only be answered on the b a s i s of one p a r t i c u l a r segment of that image. were as f o l l o w s :  The questions  F i r s t l y , does Bachmann's image of the woman f a l l  into  c a t e g o r i e s o f " t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l r o l e " images which some w r i t e r s have c a r r i e d over i n t o the present, or should i t r a t h e r be c l a s s i f i e d as feminist?  Secondly, i s t h i s image b a s i c a l l y determined by personal  experiences and b i a s e s , thus b r i n g i n g w i t h i t d e f i n i t e b i o g r a p h i c a l information?  T h i r d l y , i s i t a s e x - s p e c i f i c image, or i s i t s i n t e n t  allgemein-menschlich,  thereby d i s q u a l i f y i n g , or a t l e a s t modifying, a  s t r i c t l y sex-orientated interpretation? structure?  F o u r t h l y , what i s i t s v a l u e -  Does i t r e s t i n a s o c i a l o r i n d i v i d u a l  context?  These a r e the main questions that have been s e l e c t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter.  The task i s to d i s c u s s them i n an o v e r a l l context  and to q u a l i f y and expand on some of the f i n d i n g s o f f e r e d above.  90  91  A.  Emancipatory versus " T r a d i t i o n a l "  Concepts  As i s apparent from previous chapters, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to d i s c u s s t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i n a simple manner.  Perhaps t h i s ought to be  a commendation f o r the poetess as there a r e c e r t a i n l y no c l i c h e s that u n d e r l i e t h i s image. of  F i r s t of a l l , i t ought to be noted that t h i s image  the woman i s a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g one.  Women a r e the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s , 237  the  p e r s p e c t i v e o f the n a r r a t i v e i s that of the female i n most s t o r i e s  and the problems contemporary shown.  a r e those of the female.  T h i s i s o f t e n not the case i n  l i t e r a t u r e as, f o r i n s t a n c e , the study by L. Koseoglu has  She concludes:  Wie d i e Erorterungen g e z e i g t haben, hat k e i n e r der behandelten Autoren [Diirrenmatt, F r i s c h , Michelsen] d i e Ambition, besondere Frauenprobleme i n den Vordergrund s e i n e r Dramen zu s t e l l e n . Die Probleme der Frauen werden innerhalb der mannlichen Problemk r e i s e abgewickelt. Die Auseinandersetzung der Frauen mit ihrem b i i r g e r l i c h e n A l l t a g i n den Dramen von Hans Giinter M i c h e l s e n konnen n i c h t a l s eine Proklamation an d i e Frauenemanzipation g e l t e n , da h i e r d i e e x i s t e n t i e l l e G r u n d s i t u a t i o n des Menschen als unabanderlich d a r g e s t e l l t wird. Das Z i e l d i e s e r A r b e i t , anhand e i n i g e r r e p r a s e n t a t i v e r B e i s p i e l e die S t e l l u n g der F r a u i n den modernen Dramen zu v e r a n s c h a u l i c h e n , i s t somit e r r e i c h t . Die Tatsache, dafi a l l e d r e i Autoren d i e Frau vorwiegend i n der R o l l e e i n e r Ehefrau zeigen, hat eine k u l t u r h i s t o r i s c h e Bedeutung, d i e wiederum auch aus s o z i o l o g i s c h e r Perspektive untersucht werden s o l l t e . . . .238 Secondly, the image i s inharmonious i n s t r u c t u r e .  The Bachmann heroine  239 shows on one s i d e - as developed above  - a woman, who i n many r e s -  pects e x h i b i t s a very independent nature, who t r i e s to extend h e r s e l f emotionally, d i s r e g a r d s c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i a l norms, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of female s o c i a l r o l e s .  At the same time - again as pointed out  240 above  - there are many  t r a d i t i o n a l feminine  c i a l l y i n the area of behaviour and a t t i t u d e s .  features present, espe-  92  How then can these d i f f e r e n t aspects be r e c o n c i l e d ?  The answer  seems to l i e i n the t h e s i s that Bachmann's image c o n s c i o u s l y r e f l e c t s the dilemma of a modern woman:  Although  inwardly l o n g i n g f o r conven-  t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and r o l e s such as marriage  and home-life, she seems  unable to overcome the urge f o r freedom and independence which becomes a b a r r i e r to her s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o these s t r u c t u r e s and r o l e s . Despite her search f o r l o v e and emotion, she cannot conform to the l i m i t a t i o n s , the " t r a d i t i o n a l " and more acceptable r o l e s which s o c i e t y o f f e r her.  T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y the reason why Bachmann's heroines e i t h e r have  t r o u b l e d marriages why  or u n s u c c e s s f u l l o v e l i v e s .  they do not r e a l l y succeed  I t i s a l s o the reason  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g complete independence o r ,  i f they a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i t i s a t a h i g h cost to t h e i r emotional l i f e .  This i s the dilemma f o r Undine when she says:  Ja. J a . Wenn das Gestandnis abgelegt war, war i c h v e r u r t e i l t zu l i e b e n ; wenn i c h eines Tages freikam aus der L i e b e , mufite i c h zuruck ins Wasser gehen, i n dieses Element, i n dem niemand s i c h e i n Nest baut, s i c h e i n Dach a u f z i e h t iiber Balken, s i c h bedeckt mit e i n e r Plane. . . . und eines Tages s i c h besinnen, wieder auftauchen, durch eine L i c h t u n g gehen, i h n sehen und 'Hans' sagen. M i t dem Anfang beginnen. 'Guten Abend.' 'Guten Abend.' 'Wie weit i s t es zu d i r ? ' 'Weit i s t es, weit.' 'Und weit i s t es zu mir.' Einen E e h l e r immer wiederholen, den einen machen, mit dem man ausgezeichnet ist.241 I t a l s o appears very l i k e l y t h a t , f o r Bachmann, t h i s dilemma i s based on the innate q u a l i t i e s of the female, a f a c t which f u r t h e r d i s t a n c e s us from the more m i l i t a n t l y s t r i d e n t "emanicipated"  image.  In Bachmann's  works, t h i s dilemma i s f u r t h e r complicated by a male, whose image i s s t i l l basically "traditional".  Here, emotionally and p e r s o n a l l y advanced  93 females have to contend w i t h males that a r e f i t t e d f o r t h e i r  "traditional"  r o l e s only. In sum, i t i s c e r t a i n l y s a f e to say that Bachmann's image of the woman does not agree with the commonly accepted female images of today; too many o f the b a s i c needs, d e s i r e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and behaviour p a t t e r n s of " t r a d i t i o n a l " female images have been r e t a i n e d . the exception of the h i g h l y obscure symbolism  Also - with  of the second chapter of  Malina, "Der d r i t t e Mann" - there seems to be no i n d i c a t i o n of a Geschlechterkampf.  As a matter of f a c t , Bachmann's heroines do not  seem to q u e s t i o n the e x i s t e n t i a l nature o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  While - as  s t a t e d above - much of t h e i r thoughts are s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l , and w h i l e they do a c t to make changes and r e j e c t c e r t a i n r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , they r a r e l y q u e s t i o n t h e i r s p e c i f i c a l l y female nature o r r e f l e c t on new concepts concerning the female s t a t u s .  Even vague s p e c u l a t i o n s along these  l i n e s a r e soon abandoned by C h a r l o t t e .  I t may be pointed out, i n con-  c l u s i o n , that Bachmann's "two-soul concept" i n her image of the woman does seem to be more convincing i n the a e s t h e t i c as w e l l as i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l realm than many of the homogenous images o f f e r e d  B.  today.  The B i o g r a p h i c a l versus the Text-immanent View I t i s c e r t a i n l y tempting to work from the premise that much of  the female image developed by Ingeborg Bachmann i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l l y determined.  H. Pausch supports t h i s view as he w r i t e s :  Umibersehbar s i n d auch d i e autobiographischen D e t a i l s . Wie Ingeborg Bachmann i s t d i e H e l d i n des Romans CMalinaD z e l e b r i e r t e S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n . Auch i h r Geburtsort i s t K l a g e n f u r t . D i e dort verbrachten K i n d e r j a h r e werden erwahnt. Ebenso e i n Jurastudium, das Rigorosum am P h i l o s o p h i s c h e n I n s t i t u t der  94  U n i v e r s i t a t Wien. A u s l a n d s a u f e n t h a l t e und Autoren, mit denen s i c h das erzahlende Ich wie Ingeborg Bachmann wahrend des Studiums b e s c h a f t i g t hat: Kant, Locke, L e i b n i z , Hume, d i e V o r s o k r a t i k e r , d i e Wiener L o g i s t i k e r , Freud, Jung . . .242 S i m i l a r conclusions are drawn by A. Weber: "Malina" i s t das Auto-"Psychogramm" e i n e r S c h r i f t s t e l l e r i n . Es l i e g t nahe, weitgehend autobiographische Zuge anzunehmen - zumal einmal Ivans und der I c h - E r z a h l e r i n I n i t i a l e n a l s " i d e n t i s c h " bezeichnet werden und a n d e r e r s e i t s von der I c h E r z a h l e r i n e i n Dr. p h i l . , was d i e A u t o r i n s e l b s t war, abgespalten i s t . . ."243 I t should he added that i n a d d i t i o n Simultan as w e l l as Das d r e i f t i g s t e Jahr  y i e l d many s t r i k i n g p a r e l l e l s between  Bachmann's l i f e and that of her h e r o i n e s :  Elisabeth hails  from  K l a g e n f u r t , most of the p r i n c i p a l women - except the e l d e r Frau - are near Bachmann's age, f a m i l i a r to Ingeborg  Jordan  the s t o r i e s are set i n l o c a t i o n s q u i t e  Bachmann.  Most s t r i k i n g of a l l , Jugend i n e i n e r  o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Stadt c a r r i e s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l notes, though f o r obvious reasons the - presumably- female n a r r a t o r has not been used i n this  study. However, r e f e r e n c e s are made not only to e x t e r n a l p a r a l l e l s but  a l s o to s p e c i f i c i n n e r experiences. of Uwe  Thus, H e i n r i c h B o l l , i n h i s review  Johnson's Eine Reise nach K l a g e n f u r t , r e f e r s to Bachmann as eine 244  Heimatvertriebene, Anschlufl, that may Zahorsky-Suchodolsky  Max  a r e f e r e n c e made to her experience of H i t l e r ' s a l s o h i n t at the e x i l e theme i n her works.  And A.  mentions the shock of Bachmann's s e p a r a t i o n from 2 45  F r i s c h as an element of i n f l u e n c e on the conception of Malina.  Yet, d e s p i t e these arguments, i t i s necessary to examine each case i t s own m e r i t s .  on  Conclusions, such as these drawn by S. Woodtli about  the poem "Die blaue Stunde", appear h i g h l y h y p o t h e t i c a l :  M.  95  Woruber s c h r e i b t denn Ingeborg Bachmann? - In dem Gedicht "Die blaue Stunde" g i b t es e i n e Strophe, d i e schon darum etwas ganz Besonderes d a r s t e l l t , w e i l es d i e e i n z i g e Strophe i n ihrem Gesamtwerk i s t , d i e a u s d r i i c k l i c h einem jungen Madchen i n den Mund gelegt i s t . S i e e n t h a l t denn auch das ganze g e i s t i g e Programm - oder sagen wir bescheidener - d i e ganze Lebenshoffnung der D i c h t e r i n : Ihr Herren, gebt mir das Schwert i n d i e Hand, und Jeanne d'Arc r e t t e t das V a t e r l a n d , Leute, wir b r i n g e n das S c h i f f durchs E i s , i c h h a l t e den Kurs, den k e i n e r mehr weifi. Kauft Anemonen! d r e i Wunsche das Bund, d i e schliefien vorm Hauch eines Wunsches den Mund. Vom hohen Trapez im Z i r k u s z e l t s p r i n g i c h durch den F e u e r r e i f e n der Welt, i c h gebe mich i n d i e Hand meines Herrn, und er s c h i c k t mir gnadig den Abendstern. Wir erkennen i n diesem jungen Madchen unschwer d i e D i c h t e r i n s e l b e r . Die ganze Rede driickt, i n bewuBt j u g e n d l i c h ammafiendem Ton, i h r e B e r e i t s c h a f t zu kiihnen Taten aus. Der Vers von der Jeanne d'Arc bedeutet auBerdem R e b e l l i o n , das Urthema a l l e r D i c h t e r i n n e n s e i t George Sand. Why  i s the question about a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f l u e n c e so important f o r a  study of t h i s nature? c l a i m of contemporary  The reason i s t h a t , i f one were to accept the psychology, c r e a t i v e and n e u r o t i c a c t i v i t i e s are  interdependent and that any c r e a t i v e product i s l i m i t e d , shaped,  dis-  t o r t e d , and determined by the subconscious elements of the author's p e r s o n a l i t y , one should f e e l compelled to i n v e s t i g a t e such i n f l u e n c e s i n order p r o p e r l y to evaluate the c r e a t i v e product.  A short q u o t a t i o n  from L. S. Kubie's extensive study on "Die Wechselwirkungen schopferischen und neurotogenen this  Vorgangen" may  zwischen  summarize h i s t h e s i s on  interdependence: F o l g l i c h hangt d i e K r e a t i v i t a t zwar vom Ablauf der f r e i e n A s s o z i a t i o n ab, welche d i e vorbewuflten analogen Vorgange moglich macht, laBt diese aber g l e i c h z e i t i g durch den E i n f l u B g l e i c h l a u f e n d e r unbewufiter Vorgange e m p f i n d l i c h storen. Dieses unentrinnbare Paradox fiihrt uns nun zum Kern unseres Problems. Ohne f r e i e A s s o z i a t i o n g i b t es  96  keine s c h o p f e r i s c h e T a t i g k e i t ; denn s i e b e f r e i e n das empfindl i c h e , f l i e B e n d e und p l a s t i s c h e vorbewuBte System von der E r s t a r r u n g , d i e am bewuBten Ende des Symbolspektrums a u f t r i t t . G l e i c h z e i t i g aber l i e f e r n s i e es e r s t den Verzerrungen und der R i g i d i t a t aus, die das unbewuBte System verursacht.247 A p p l i e d to the t o p i c of t h i s study, t h i s reasoning may mean that  certain  r e p e t i t i v e trends i n Bachmann's image of the woman, such as a h o s t i l i t y toward marriage and c h i l d b e a r i n g , the r o v i n g , unstable l i f e s t y l e , the complex-laden r e l a t i o n s h i p towards men,  and the longing f o r extremes  ( G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t ) , are the c r e a t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f her own scions c o n f l i c t s , f e a r s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , g u i l t , and/or hate  subcon-  complexes.  However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to pursue such l i n e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n  further,  s i n c e not only would we transgress l i m i t s of human p r i v a c y but a l s o because c o n c l u s i v e and complete evidence i s - at l e a s t at the present s t a t e of Bachmann research - unknown. One p i e c e of i n c o n c l u s i v e evidence, however, w i l l be o f f e r e d at t h i s point f o r d i s c u s s i o n .  In E i n Ort fiir Z u f a l l e , based on her stay  i n a B e r l i n mental i n s t i t u t i o n , Ingeborg Bachmann w r i t e s about a v i s i t to the zoo: . . . Die Manner gehen a l l e i n s Aquarium, d i e Frauen i n s Affenhaus. Die Manner v e r h a r r e n stundenlang vor den F i s c h e n , z u l e t z t vor den k l e i n e n Eidechsen, s i e haben l a u t e r griingoldene Eidechsen im Aug, s a n f t e , s a n f t e s t e , d i e s i e gem mitnehmen mochten, aber d i e Warter k l o p f e n sogar d i e Brusttaschen ab an der Ttir, es i s t n i c h t s zu machen. Die Frauen, a l l e weit voneinander e n t f e r n t und m i B t r a u i s c h gegeneinander, besuchen i h r e besonderen A f f e n . S i e haben einen s i l b e r n e n L o f f e l und einen seidenen Beutel mitgebracht und geben nur ihrem A f f e n den Zucker. Vor Torschlufi e r s t t r e f f e n d i e Manner und Frauen zusammen, i n dem Treibhaus, auf der Briicke, iiber einem angedeuteten FluB. In der s t i c k i g e n H i t z e dosen unten d i e K r o k o d i l e . A l l e s b l i c k t mit immer schwerer werdenden Augen h i n u n t e r , aber d i e K r o k o d i l e geben keine V o r s t e l l u n g und warten ab. J e t z t konnte die Briicke einstiirzen und die Krokodile lebendig machen, aber s i e s t i i r z t  97  n i c h t e i n . Es kann niemand h i n u n t e r f a l i e n , solange keiner a b s i c h t l i c h stofit. Die Temperatur darf n i c h t s t e i g e n , w e i l s i e genau r e g u l i e r t i s t , aber da s t e i g t die Temperatur trotzdem. 248 I f one were to accept t h i s passage as a r e v e a l i n g psychogram of the author, i t could be seen to y i e l d much i n f o r m a t i o n  about Bachmann's view  of the female and e s p e c i a l l y about the man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the d i s t u r b i n g p i c t u r e of men meeting women on top of a shaky bridge  across  249  a crocodile's p i t lizards.  and i n the d e s i r e of the men to grab the gentle  A l s o , the s u s p i c i o u s behaviour of the females towards each  other while each v i s i t s her s p e c i a l ape would almost demand the l a b e l : jealousy. However, there are a l s o other opinions text-immanent i s s u e .  on the b i o g r a p h i c a l versus  R. Wellek and A. Warren note i n Theory of  Literature: Even when a work o f a r t contains elements which can be s u r e l y i d e n t i f i e d as b i o g r a p h i c a l , these elements w i l l be so r e arranged and transformed i n a work that they l o s e a l l t h e i r s p e c i f i c a l l y personal meaning and become simply concrete human m a t e r i a l , i n t e g r a l elements of a work. . . . The whole view that a r t i s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n pure and simple, the t r a n s c r i p t of personal f e e l i n g s and experiences, i s demonstrably f a l s e . . . .250 In view of the foregoing,  t h i s study has r a t h e r s t r e s s e d the t e x t -  immanent view of Bachmann's image of the woman and has only i n i s o l a t e d cases pointed  to b i o g r a p h i c a l p a r a l l e l s though there  seems no doubt  that personal  experiences, f r u s t r a t i o n s , and emotions u n d e r l i e espe-  c i a l l y such s t o r i e s as Undine geht and D r e i Wege zum See. C.  S e x - s p e c i f i c versus Allgemein menschlich I n t e r p r e t a t i o n To what extent Bachmann's image of the woman i s s e x - s p e c i f i c i s  c e r t a i n l y of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r a determination of that image.  98  Not only have c l a s s i c female images such as Maria Stuart or I p h i g e n i e possessed  characters i n which b a s i c a l l y human, n o n - s e x - s p e c i f i c q u a l i -  t i e s predominated, but Hebbel's Maria Magdalena o r Hauptmann's Rose Bernd s t i l l d i s p l a y these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while s t r u g g l i n g with more s e x - s p e c i f i c problems.  But the female image i n l i t e r a t u r e has become  i n c r e a s i n g l y s e x - s p e c i f i c as w r i t e r s turned to p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t e d problems, s i t u a t i o n s , and viewpoints.  female-  251  Three s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t p o i n t s have been chosen f o r the purpose of determining the s e x - s p e c i f i c p r o f i l e of Bachmann's female c h a r a c t r s .  1.  Themes and Problems What are the themes of Bachmann's s t o r i e s and r a d i o p l a y s and  what are the major problems her female characters encounter?  F i r s t , of  course, there i s the love theme, the themes of G r e n z u b e r t r i t t and of escape, of a new workd and language,  of s e l f a n a l y s i s and of freedom.  I t seems that a l l of these f a l l i n t o the allgemein menschiiche  category.  Themes such as woman and i n d u s t r y , sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , woman and s o c i e t y , or woman i n p o l i t i c s are n o t i c e a b l y absent.  A somewhat d i f f e r e n t  situa-  a t i o n , however, obtains i f one surveys the problems with which Bachmann's women are confronted:  how to achieve a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p with  the opposite sex outside marriage  (Undine, E l i s a b e t h , Nadja, the n a r r a -  tor i n M a l i n a ) , m a r i t a l problems ( F r a n z i s k a , Gerda, C h a r l o t t e , E l i s a b e t h ) , or how to adjust as a woman to b a s i c a l l y incompatible males (the n a r r a tor i n Malina, J e n n i f e r , Nadja, B e a t r i x , E l i s a b e t h ) . Malina d e f i n e s t h i s d i f f i c u l t y  The n a r r a t o r i n  thus:  . . . es gibt hochstens Manner, mit denen es v o l l i g hoffnungslos i s t , und e i n i g e , mit denen es n i c h t ganz so hoffnungslos i s t . D a r i n I s t der Grund dafiir zu suchen, nach dem noch niemand gesucht  99  hat, warum nur d i e Frauen immerzu den Kopf v o l l haben mit i h r e n Gefiihlen und i h r e n Geschichten, mit ihrem Mann oder i h r e n Mannern. Das Denken d a r i n nimmt t a t s a c h l i c h den groBten T e i l der Z e i t jeder Frau i n Anspruch. S i e muB aber daran denken, w e i l s i e sonst b u c h s t a b l i c h , ohne i h r n i e erlahmendes Gefiihlst r e i b e n , Gefuhlsantreiben, es niemals mit einem Mann aushalten konnte, der j a e i n Kranker i s t und s i c h kaum mit i h r b e s c h a f t i g t . Here we f i n d the problem couched i n terms which are more d e f i n i t e l y sexspecific.  2.  The Point of View An examination of the viewpoint of Bachmann's h e r o i n e s y i e l d s a  p o s i t i o n which we can d e f i n i t e l y c a l l sex-determined. Nadja: . . . i h r Manner s e i d eine gottverdammte  A few  samples: 253  Bande, . . .  Beatrix: E i n Mann konnte s i c h Dummheit eben l e i s t e n , eine Frau niemals, . . .254 . . . i c h b i n eine Frau, wiirde s i e sagen, denn das war eben der Punkt, auf den es ankam, . . .^55 Undine: 255 Ihr Ungeheuer mit Namen Hans! Charlotte: 257 Die Sprache der Manner war doch so gewesen . . . Die Sprache der Manner, . . . d i e Sprache der Frauen . . .258 The n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a : Sonst machen d i e meisten Manner aber d i e Frauen u n g l i i c k l i c h , und eine G e g e n s e i t i g k e i t i s t n i c h t da, denn w i r haben es mit einem n a t i i r l i c h e n Ungliick, . . . zu tun.259 Elisabeth: . . . und es s o l l t e n d i e Frauen und d i e Manner am besten Abstand h a l t e n , n i c h t s zu tun haben miteinander, . . .260 In view of these and many other s i m i l a r statements one may of  surely  speak  the sex-determined, even s e x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e of Bachmann's women.  100  One  may  even speculate  about an Eve  image i n r e v e r s e  as the n a r r a t o r  Malina r e f l e c t s about the contagiousness of the "male d i s e a s e "  261  in  :  . . . d i e ganze E i n s t e l l u n g des Mannes e i n e r Frau gegenxiber i s t krankhaft, obendrein ganz e i n z i g a r t i g krankhaft, so daB man d i e Manner von i h r e n Krankheiten gar n i e mehr wird b e f r e i e n konnen. Von den Frauen konnte man hochstens sagen, daB s i e mehr oder weniger gezeichnet sind durch d i e Ansteckungen, d i e s i e s i c h zuziehen, . . .262  3.  The E x t e r n a l  Description  L a s t l y , one  could make use  of the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Bachmann's  women to determine the s p e c i f i c s of t h e i r image. authoress s t r e s s ?  The  Which p o i n t s does  catalogue of Bachmann's d e s c r i p t i o n of the  n a l s of her heroines i s v e r y s l i m .  Eyes are the most f r e q u e n t l y  c r i b e d p h y s i c a l d e t a i l , h a i r , which i n general the d e s c r i p t i o n of other p h y s i c a l features  exterdes-  i s blond, f o l l o w s ,  i s rare.  the  Sex-specific  but fea-  tures are r a r e l y mentioned, such as the well-shaped legs of Miranda, 264 or the p h y s i c a l image of Mrs.  Brown.  Other p a r t s are mentioned w i t h -  out apparent d e s c r i p t i v e i n t e n t i o n .  Pleasant  and youth are s t r e s s e d over beauty.  In these r e s p e c t s ,  can h a r d l y be c a l l e d s e x - s p e c i f i c .  and  " a t t r a c t i v e " features then, the image  However, t h i s l a c k of p h y s i c a l des-  c r i p t i o n could a l s o i n d i c a t e a l a c k of s t r e s s on e x t e r n a l s As shown e a r l i e r , we  in  general.  encounter an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n  upon turning to the psychic p r o f i l e of Bachmann's heroines. broadly  263  We  find  " t y p i c a l " female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as beauty-consciousness,  v a n i t y , i r r a t i o n a l i t y , emotionalism, and, orientation.  Here, too, we  to some extent, homelife  can speak of a s e x - s p e c i f i c image.  An a n a l y s i s of s e x - s p e c i f i c aspects of language has because the term "female language" i s s t i l l  too vague and  been omitted  too  specula-  t i v e to be used f o r the purpose of t h i s study, though Bachmann has  used  101  the term " d i e Sprache der Frauen" without f u r t h e r explanation.  An  e s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n of the term "Frau-Sprechen" by L. I r i g a r a y has quoted by M.  inter-  been  Reichart:  In der Syntax des "Frau-Sprechens gabe es weder Subjekt noch Objekt, das 'Eine' ware n i c h t mehr p r i v i l e g i e r t , es gabe a l s o keinen Eigen-Sinn, keine Eigennamen mehr; d i e s e Syntax p r i v i l e g i e r t e eine Nahe, so nah, dafl j e g l i c h e D i s k r i m i n i e r u n g , j e g l i c h e D e f i n i t i o n . . . unmoglich ware".265 In concluding  t h i s p o i n t of the d i s c u s s i o n , one may  s t a t e that Ingeborg  Bachmann's image of the woman Is i n i t s nature very much a s e x - s p e c i f i c one,  but that i n i t s substance i t f r e q u e n t l y goes beyond the l i m i t s of  the purely feminine i n t o a general human realm.  D.  S o c i a l versus I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c Values F i n a l l y , the question  arises:  which value  Ingeborg Bachmann see as r e l e v a n t f o r her women? Bachmann's image an a n t i - s o c i a l one?  system - i f any - does In p a r t i c u l a r , i s  This study has pointed  pronounced o u t s i d e r r o l e s of Bachmann's female characters t h e i r very l i m i t e d s o c i a l engagement; i t has  to the  very  as w e l l as to  a l s o d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n to  the very i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s of the development these women experience.  On the other hand, there are the frequent  pledges by Bachmann  to a s o c i a l commitment on the p a r t of a w r i t e r of l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n "Die Wahrheit i s t dem  Menschen zumutbar", where she  writes:  Der S c h r i f t s t e l l e r - und das i s t i n s e i n e r Natur - i s t mit seinem Wesen auf e i n Du e i n g e r i c h t e t , auf den Menschen, dem er seine Erfahrung vom Menschen zukommen l a s s e n mochte . . . aber insbesondere vom Menschen, der er s e l b e r oder d i e anderen s e i n konnen und wo er s e l b e r und die anderen am meisten Mensch sind.266 We  can conclude that Bachmann i s t r y i n g to communicate, through her  s t o r i e s and  t h e i r characters,  the c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  102  area of t o t a l l y f r e e movement and  the demands of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n :  the greater the s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n the smaller i n d i v i d u a l becomes.  free-space  For example, Nadja r e c o l l e c t s :  . . . Jean P i e r r e , der a l l e s v e r k e h r t gefunden h a t t e , was s i e auch t a t und dachte, der s i e e i n f a c h , ohne j e auf s i e einzugehen, i n e i n i h r fremdes Leben hineinzwingen w o l l t e , i n eine ganz k l e i n e Wbhnung, mit ganz v i e l e n k l e i n e n Kindern, und d o r t hatte er s i e am l i e b s t e n i n einer k l e i n e n Kiiche gesehen oder nachts i n einem a l l e r d i n g s sehr groBen B e t t , i n dem s i e etwas Winziges war, un tout p e t i t chat, un p e t i t p o u l e t , une p e t i t femmelle, . . .267 E l i s a b e t h , on the other hand, consents to marriage to Hugh, a homosexual, a marriage with l i t t l e  s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , because " . . .  j e d e r wiirde 268  s e i n eigenes Leben haben und same reason,  den anderen n i e s t o r e n , . . . "  For  as we have seen, most of Bachmann's women shun any  ductive r o l e s and withdraw from t h e i r n a t i v e f a m i l y s e t t i n g s . c o n f l i c t manifests  reproThis  i t s e l f not only i n the smallest s o c i a l u n i t , the  f a m i l y , but a l s o i n a l a r g e r context. Bachmann's heroines that i s why  the  As a r e s u l t , one  r a r e l y meets  i n s o c i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e or p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s and  they consider themselves o u t s i d e r s and e x i l e s .  c o n s t r i c t i n g of the f r e e space of the i n d i v i d u a l begins groupings of c h i l d r e n .  The  i n the  social  Thus, the n a r r a t o r i n Malina r e c a l l s i n the  Miihlbauer i n t e r v i e w : . . . i c h sehe dann immer g l e i c h solche Anhaufungen, zum B e i s p i e l Kinder auf K i n d e r s p i e l w i e s e n , zugegeben, eine Anhaufung von Kindern i s t fiir mich etwas besonders E n t s e t z l i c h e s , auch ganz u n b e g r e i f l i c h i s t mir, wie Kinder es unter so v i e l e n Kindern aushalten konnen. . . . Kein Kind, das n i c h t ganz und gar schwachsinnig oder bodenlos verdorben i s t , . . . kann s i c h wiinschen, i n einem Kinderhauf en zu leben und d i e Probleme von anderen Kindern zu haben und auBer e i n i g e n Kinderkrankheiten irgend etwas zu t e i l e n mit anderen Kindern, meinetwegen seine Entwicklung. Der A n b l i c k von jeder groBeren ^^q Ansammlung von Kindern i s t doch deswegen schon alarmierend . . .  103  The n a r r a t o r i s speaking out a g a i n s t the determination, the f i x a t i o n , the u t i l i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a s o c i a l context, these are phenomena that Bachmann c r i t i c i s e s through her female p r o t a g o n i s t s .  I t i s also pre-  c i s e l y t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n that " k i l l s " the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a . simple q u e s t i o n :  A very  "Warum s i t z t du dann h i e r herum, a n s t a t t uns  endlich  270 einen K a f f e e zu machen?"  i n i t i a t e s the symbolic break-up of her  identity: Das T e l e f o n l a u t e t , M a l i n a hebt es ab, er s p i e l t mit meiner S o n n e n b r i l l e und z e r b r i c h t s i e , er s p i e l t dann mit einem blauen G l a s w u r f e l , der doch mir gehort. . . . E r s p i e l t aber n i c h t nur, denn er riickt schon meinen Leuchter weg. . . . Er hat meine B r i l l e zerbrochen, er w i r f t s i e i n den Papierkorb, es s i n d meine Augen, er s c h l e u d e r t den blauen Glaswurfel nach, es xst der zwerte S t e m aus emem Traum, . . . / x  Here, a seemingly very i n s i g n i f i c a n t question by Malina t r i g g e r s o f f a d e c i s i v e development. men  I t bares the whole t e r r i b l e r i f t between  and women, between those who  u t i l i z e others and those who  want pure  humanity, between s o c i a l purpose and f i x a t i o n i n " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e s freedom of the t o t a l - i n d i v i d u a l .  and  Malina demonstrates one of the  "Todesarten" of the i n d i v i d u a l . One  other dimension  i s added to t h i s c o n f l i c t by E l i s a b e t h  Matrei as she r e f l e c t s about d i f f e r e n c e s between h e r s e l f and Robert Liz: Es g i b t wieder eine Frau M a t r e i , . . . und s i e wiirden also doch n i c h t aussterben, denn L i z wiirde s i c h e r Kinder wollen, . . . Denn s i e wuiJte nur und auch genau, warum F a m i l i e n wie die Matreis aussterben s o l l t e n , auch dafi dieses Land keine Matreis mehr brauchte, . . . und Robert und s i e s i c h zwar i n die Fremde g e r e t t e t hatten und t a t i g waren wie t a t i g e Menschen i n wichtigen Landern, . . . Aber was s i e zu Fremden machte i i b e r a l l , war i h r e Empfindl i c h k e i t , w e i l s i e von der P e r i p h e r i e kamen und daher i h r G e i s t , i h r Fiihlen und Handeln hoffnungslos diesem G e i s t e r r e i c h von e i n e r r i e s i g e n Ausdehnung gehorten, . . .272  and  104  The  term E m p f i n d l i c h k e i t  - as w e l l as the idea of G r e n z u b e r t r i t t - may-  suggest a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the e x t e n s i v e l y developed theme o f the a r t i s t versus s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n that has occupied Romantics to Thomas Mann.  w r i t e r s from the  I n Bachmann's works the Habsburg Empire  appears to be only a symbol f o r a realm of i n d i v i d u a l f r e e space, f o r a Grenzregion, f o r l i b e r a l m u l t i p l i c i t y and p l u r a l i s m .  Although t h i s  realm i s not s t r i c t l y reserved f o r the female, there seem to be only a few men who e x i s t at times w i t h i n i t and these a r e the ones with whom Bachmann's women have s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Are Bachmann's women then a n t i - s o c i a l ?  Are h e r themes outmoded  273 and unzeitgemafi  as c r i t i c s have suggested?  Some c r i t i c s  such as H.  H e i s s e n b i i t t e l have even seen Malina as the s t o r y o f a neurosis i t condemns the s o c i a l r e a l i t y o f the twentieth  because  century:  Die s o z i a l e W i r k l i c h k e i t , das Objektive s o z i a l bedingter E x i s t e n z , beruhend auf der M o g l i c h k e i t von Auskommen und Zusammenleben von M i l l i a r d e n von Menschen, d i e a l l e von s i c h a l s von einem Ich reden konnen, wird abgelehnt, j a a l s etwas u n v o r s t e l l b a r E k l i g e s ins Negative v e r k e h r t . In d i e s e r E k e l r e a k t i o n gegen d i e Menge G l e i c h b e r e c h t i g t e r s t e c k t der Kern der Neurose. . . . Was Ingeborg Bachman e r z a h l t , i s t eine Krankheitsgeschichte. Bedeutet das Erzahlen E i n s i c h t ? Ja und Nein. E i n s i c h t i n s o f e r n , a l s d i e A u t o r i n i n der R o l l e i h r e r E r z a h l e r i n , mit der s i e nur t e i l w e i s e i d e n t i s c h i s t , s i c h von s i c h wegbewegt und w e i t e r l e b t . Sie hat s i c h iiber d i e Runden gebracht. E i n s i c h t f e h l t , wie schon f r i i h e r , w e i l das, was a l s Psychogramm i n t e r e s s a n t i s t , immer wieder i n L i t e r a t u r u m s t i l i s i e r t wird, w e i l i n k e i n e r Z e i l e der Verlockung zur S e n t i m e n t a l i s i e r u n g widerstanden wird; diese Krankheitsgeschichte wird f u r das Objektive, das Wahre genommen, der s o z i a l e n R e a l i t a t die Schuld zugeschoben. Indem die Geschichte der Neurose ins Literarisch-Sinngebende idealis i e r t wird, e r s c h e i n t die s o z i a l e R e a l i t a t - d e s 20. Jahrhunderts a l s das absolut Falsche, der Tod der I n n e r l i c h k e i t a l s Beweis t r a g i s c h e r Wahrheit. . . .^74 Can  one r e a l l y c a l l the intense s t r u g g l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l to gain or to  r e t a i n some small degree of i n d i v i d u a l freedom neurotic?  Can one c a l l  105  the claim f o r "das Recht von I n d i v i d u a t i o n , von Gefiihls - und Liebensanrecht  . . . umgeben von e n t i n d i v i d u a l i s i e r t e r und b r u t a l i s i e r t e r 276  Literatur  ..."  as K a r l Krolow phrased i t , outmoded?  women at best mere "schone Seelen"?  Are Bachmann's  I t seems that Bachmann's female  characters advance a viewpoint that could c e r t a i n l y never be t i m e l i e r than today.  They are not a n t i - s o c i a l but r e j e c t only one aspect o f con-  temporary s o c i e t y , namely the f a s t growing i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o and e x p l o i t a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l by a b u r e a u c r a t i c  state.  We have seen that the 277  male i s l a r g e l y equated by Bachmann w i t h that s o c i e t y .  We must now  conclude that the s t r u g g l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l freedom i s a very s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of her image of the woman.  CHAPTER V I I AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEME OF FREEDOM  In t h i s chapter a working d e f i n i t i o n of Bachmann's image of the woman w i l l be t e s t e d a g a i n s t the data, analyses, and f i n d i n g s of the f i r s t part of t h i s study. A.  W o r k i n g - D e f i n i t i o n of the Image o f the Woman 1.  The image of Bachmann's women i s b u i l t around a personal  concept o f freedom.  Bachmann's women long f o r freedom and s t r i v e to  a t t a i n the g r e a t e s t amount p o s s i b l e .  They equate freedom w i t h l i f e .  In i t s most extreme form, the G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t , freedom represents an existence devoid o f a l l l i m i t a t i o n s . 2.  Bachmann's women, t h e r e f o r e , r e j e c t a l l forms o f c o n s t r a i n t :  reason and l o g i c because they l i m i t freedom o f thought; the e x i s t i n g language because i t l i m i t s freedom of e x p r e s s i o n , and because i t stereotypes the i n d i v i d u a l ;  commitments, e i t h e r s o c i a l , p e r s o n a l ,  p o l i t i c a l , or moral because they l i m i t the c o n t i n u i n g freedom of choice. 3.  Bachmann's women need freedom i n order to avoid  s i t u a t i o n s that a r e caused when one's options a r e l i m i t e d imposed or otherwise-imposed thought and moral s t r i c t u r e s .  crisis  by s e l f They f e e l  the need f o r freedom to r e a l i z e t h e i r own form of humanitas. 4.  Bachmann's women t r y to analyse, t o comprehend, and then  to r e l y on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y ,  their "Ich". 106  Only by t h i s method of  107  s e l f - a n a l y s i s can they achieve the inner and outer freedom that they need, any outside p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e i s avoided.  I t i s here, at the  turning p o i n t of the s e l f , that the inner and outer worlds of Bachmann's women have t h e i r common p i v o t . 5.  Bachmann's women e x h i b i t elements of the " t r a d i t i o n a l image".  S p e c i f i c a l l y , they r e t a i n those aspects which a l l o w the female g r e a t e r extremes of expression, i . e . i r r a t i o n a l i t y , emotionalism,  self-centred-  ness. 6.  Bachmann's women, however, are not able to avoid s i t u a t i o n s  of p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t , degradation, and s u f f e r i n g o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r s e l f d e s p i t e t h e i r attempts to r e t a i n f r e e choice and a high degree of i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  T h i s happens because they are not a b l e , owing  to t h e i r continued dependence on l o v e , sex, and emotion, to s h i e l d thems e l v e s from the s o c i e t y around them.  In summary:  Bachmann's heroines can be seen as i n c o r p o r a t i n g  p e r s o n a l i t y and l i f e s t r u c t u r e s which w e l l equip them f o r the task of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e x i s t e n c e i n and v i a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e modes of s u r v i v a l f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i n a world based upon the f i n i t e measura b i l i t y of a l l t h i n g s , i n a s o c i e t y dedicated to a n a l y s i n g , l a b e l l i n g , and manipulating i t s members.  B.  Freedom and S o c i a l Environment An a n a l y s i s of the observations and data i n Chapter  a common denominator:  the i s s u e of freedom.  II reveals  One aspect or another of  the theme of freedom dominates, transcends, causes, or e x p l a i n s the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Bachmann's women.  108  We  have noted that almost a l l of Bachmann's female c h a r a c t e r s  are between the ages of twenty and  f o r t y years.  i n which the longing f o r freedom, e s p e c i a l l y i s most f u l l y developed. limited;  In youth and  T h i s i s an age-range  that of p e r s o n a l independence,  i n o l d age  childhood and o l d age would c e r t a i n l y  freedom of choice i s  be l e s s s u i t e d f o r the  development of the theme of p e r s o n a l freedom, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i f i t i s seen,  f o r example, i n the l i g h t of the p h y s i c a l oppression  adolescents  that  have to endure as i n Jugend i n e i n e r o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Stadt. i n the few  f r i n g e cases of youth and o l d age presented  p e r s o n a l independence and  freedom p l a y an important  Yet,  even  by Bachmann,  part.  A case i n  p o i n t i s that of the elder Frau Jordan's attempt to r e t a i n as much independence as p o s s i b l e , d e s p i t e her dependence on the f i n a n c i a l emotional  support  of her  and  son.  More s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s l i n e of argument seem to be  the  conclusions reached regarding the e d u c a t i o n a l background of Bachmann's heroines.  The f a c t that they d i s l i k e formal education can be seen  e f f e c t i v e l y to support  the theme of p e r s o n a l freedom and an  unwillingness  278 to be:  "In spanische  S t i e f e l n eingeschnvirt, . . . "  The  observation  about the i n t e l l e c t u a l niveau of Bachmann's women does not c o n t r a d i c t the f o r e g o i n g , s i n c e i n t e l l i g e n c e  and knowledge are considered  to be  p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r the development of a f r e e p e r s o n a l i t y - an idea already expressed  during the enlightenment by Kant:  "Unmundigkeit  i s t das Unvermogen, s i c h seines Verstandes ohne, Leitung eines anderen zu bedienen." Furthermore, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that most of Bachmann's heroines are not involved i n p r o f e s s i o n a l or o c c u p a t i o n a l  activities,  109 or - i f they a r e employed - they a r e engaged i n jobs that a l l o w a l a r g e degree of i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y - an e s s e n t i a l p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l freedom. pendence and much l e i s u r e t i m e  A c e r t a i n degree of f i n a n c i a l  inde-  (common to Bachmann's women) can be seen  as a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which the authoress presupposes to be necessary f o r the freedom of choice of the i n d i v i d u a l . L a s t l y , the m a r i t a l s t a t u s of the l e a d i n g female c h a r a c t e r s was examined. issue. was  Here, too, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that freedom was the main  Marriage was seen as a hindrance f o r the f r e e i n d i v i d u a l .  shown not only by the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  This  of unmarried or d i v o r c e d  women but a l s o by the attempts and f a i l u r e s of married women to gain i n d i v i d u a l freedom from m a r i t a l r e s t r i c t i o n s through v a r i o u s other s t y l e s , such as l e s b i a n i s m , sided r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  a d u l t e r y , asexual p a r t n e r s h i p s ,  life-  and t h r e e -  The whole m a r i t a l i s s u e i s used by Ingeborg  Bachmann to experiment with and to search f o r a s o l u t i o n to a sexs p e c i f i c dilemma:  the need of women f o r sex,  a f f e c t i o n , and love versus  the o b l i g a t i o n s , r e s t r i c t i o n s , and bonds of a committed r e l a t i o n s h i p o r t r a d i t i o n a l marriage. Summarizing the l i n e s of thought developed above, i t becomes c l e a r that Bachmann regards c e r t a i n s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s to be p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r the attempt to reach a higher degree of freedom and  independence.  also i l l u s t r a t e failures.  But i n t h e i r attempts to secure freedom, her women  the d i f f i c u l t i e s as w e l l as the p o s s i b l e p i t f a l l s and  In no instance are we presented with a simple s o l u t i o n .  A l s o , what does t h i s mean f o r women who are without these p r e - r e q u i s i t e s ? What about i l l n e s s , l a c k of education, poverty, p h y s i c a l oppression, l i m i t i n g s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s such as c h i l d r e n , dependents?  Do these  110 c o n d i t i o n s exclude a woman from independent argument about  the inner world, advanced  self-development?  The  by some c r i t i c s , does not  o f f e r a s o l u t i o n , since the two - inner world and outer world - are interdependent i n Bachmann's works.  C.  Freedom and P s y c h i c and Behavioural C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Although much c r i t i c i s m has been d i r e c t e d a t the s o - c a l l e d  " o l d - f a s h i o n e d " q u a l i t i e s of Bachmann's h e r o i n e s , these " t r a d i t i o n a l " q u a l i t i e s would seem to have an i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n i n Bachmann's development of the image of an independent  and f r e e woman. A l l  three main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s surveyed i n p a r t one of t h i s study v a n i t y , emotionalism, and i r r a t i o n a l i t y - c o n t r i b u t e to a form o f personal development and e x p r e s s i o n that i s l e s s r e s t r i c t e d and more s e l f - o r i e n t a t e d .  1.  Freedom and Feminine V a n i t y What b e t t e r means but female v a n i t y and Ichbezogenheit could  Ingeborg Bachmann have used to i l l u s t r a t e i n d i v i d u a l i s m ? drawn to the statement o f the n a r r a t i v e " I " i n M a l i n a :  A t t e n t i o n was " . . . eine Frau  279 ist  zu e r s c h a f f e n . . . "  ; here the c r e a t i v e o r s e l f - c r e a t i v e aspect  of the concern with one's own body and appearance  i s i n d i c a t i v e of the  a c t i v e r o l e taken by Bachmann's females i n t h e i r development ( i f only i n t h i s case i n the composition of e x t e r n a l s ) , which permits great freedom o f c h o i c e .  This e x p l a i n s , a l s o , why, as was pointed out above,  f o r Bachmann, v a n i t y i s a value not a f a u l t .  V a n i t y and s e l f - o r i e n t a t i o n  are f u r t h e r channels through which Bachmann's leading women f i n d a  Ill  b a s i s of e x i s t e n c e , a p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n themselves.  They are  s e l f - c e n t r e d , f r e e - or t r y i n g to be f r e e - of o u t s i d e p o i n t s of r e f e r ence and, t h e r e f o r e , independent p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  The concern w i t h t h e i r  outer appearance i s to emphasize and to f o s t e r t h e i r independence and i s a p a r a l l e l to the s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l trend of these women, as d i s c u s s e d earlier.  Here, too, one f i n d s an i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between outer and  i n n e r world.  Furthermore, i t becomes once more obvious why  the female  i s Bachmann's choice f o r her p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t r u g g l e to achieve a new mode f o r human l i v i n g . I t i s a l s o apparent that the authoress attaches symbolic value to the s o - c a l l e d  2.  " t r a d i t i o n a l " female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Freedom and Feminine Emotion For Ingeborg Bachmann, one of the most e f f e c t i v e means f o r the  achievement of freedom i s emotion.  Emotion i s a means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ;  i t allows u n l i m i t e d choice of expression as the f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r i n Malina remarks: Mein Du f u r Ivan i s t ungenau, es kann s i c h v e r f a r b e n , verdunkeln, l i c h t e n , es kann sprode, m i l d oder zaghaft werden, unbegrenzt i s t d i e Skala s e i n e r Expressionen, es kann auch ganz a l l e i n , i n groBen I n t e r v a l l e n , gesagt werden und v i e l e Male s i r e n e n h a f t , immer wieder verlockend neu, . . .280 Emotion i s not c a l c u l a b l e because i t takes a unique form i n each person, i n each instance; emotion f r e e s because i t allows the t r a v e r s i n g of borders ( G r e n z u b e r t r i t t ) and of b e h a v i o u r a l norms; i t f r e e s because i t allows one - at l e a s t temporarily - to d i s r e g a r d the l i m i t s of time and death (as i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan, where l o v e r s are not buried but s e t among the s t a r s ) ; not l e a s t , emotion f r e e s the i n d i v i d u a l of g u i l t because of i t s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c nature:  love i s g u i l t l e s s .  281  112  The good God addresses the interdependence of freedom and emotion here symbolized by height f r e q u e n t l y :  "Es g i b t namlich e i n i g e s i n den Hohen, 282  wo d i e Adler n i c h t wohnen.  Freiheit  the l e s s e x c e p t i o n a l people who  ..."  L a t e r on he speaks of  f a l l i n l o v e , as making a "Seitensprung  in die Freiheit". Once again, we seem to have support f o r the c o n c l u s i o n that a modified  " t r a d i t i o n a l " female image, w i t h i t s emotional aspect, s u i t e d the  authoress w e l l f o r her conception of a f r e e 3.  Freedom and  individual.  Irrationality  I r r a t i o n a l i t y i s y e t another means by which Bachmann's heroines attempt to r e a l i z e t h e i r i d e a l of freedom.  The a n t i t h e t i c a l equation  of "female i r r a t i o n a l i t y " versus "male l o g i c " has been d i s c u s s e d extens i v e l y i n Part I. dom  Clearly, i n this respect, i r r a t i o n a l i t y fosters  free-  of thought as i t f r e e s the mind from laws, r u l e s and methods of  t h i n k i n g which, because of t h e i r u n i v e r s a l acceptance, r e q u i r e a conformity to thought p a t t e r n s , thereby s h a c k l i n g the mind. and F r i s c h ' s terms, the same can be s a i d of language.  I n Bachmann's  I r r a t i o n a l thought  i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e and thus o f f e r s freedom of c h o i c e and opens the way f o r more i n d i v i d u a l ways of t h i n k i n g .  E i n Wildermuth  i s a very impressive  demonstration of female reasoning - i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough from a man's 283 p o i n t of view.  Furthermore, i t appears that l o g i c and r a t i o n a l i t y  are used by the male to subjugate and even to "murder" the female. novel Der F a l l Franza i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s p o i n t .  Thus,  i r r a t i o n a l i t y also provides a realm of escape f o r Bachmann's female characters.  The  113  D.  Freedom and Favoured S o c i a l Roles What has our a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l r o l e s of Bachmann's female  characters c o n t r i b u t e d  to the image?  freedom seem to be the dominant i s s u e s .  Once again i n d i v i d u a l i t y and Each one o f the major s o c i a l  r o l e s discussed i s based on s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t between freedom and social obligation.  I t was found that a l l of Bachmann's mother-roles  were unhappy ones and that motherhood was unpopular w i t h Bachmann's women because of the r e s t r i c t i o n s i t put on p e r s o n a l freedom.  However,  Bachmann's o p p o s i t i o n to the mother-role may be a l s o an attempt to r e j e c t a l a b e l f o r the female.  I t was noted above that a l l of Bachmann's 284  females r e j e c t l a b e l l i n g , r o l e expectations, and f i x a t i o n o f i d e n t i t y . Secondly, the mother-role l i m i t s a woman's freedom of choice. may  Here, we  have an explanation f o r the phenomenon that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  Bachmann's women to c h i l d r e n i s best i f the c h i l d r e n are not t h e i r own. The i n n e r - p s y c h i c r e s t r i c t i o n f a c t o r i n these cases i s s m a l l e r , c f . the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a r r a t o r i n Malina and Bela and Andras.  Lastly,  the idea may be present that r a i s i n g a c h i l d means p r e p a r i n g i t f o r and f o r c i n g i t i n t o the r e s t r i c t i v e p a t t e r n s of l i f e . point.  Fipps i s a case i n  This would seem to be the case a l s o i n Jugend i n e i n e r  o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Stadt, i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether we accept o r r e j e c t an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t o r y .  Again, motherhood i s i n  c o n f l i c t with Bachmann's concept of i n d i v i d u a l freedom.  The only attempt  to develop another person's p e r s o n a l i t y - t h i s time on the adult l e v e l C h a r l o t t e ' s attempt to b u i l d "her" c r e a t i o n , namely Mara, consequently fails.  114 The w i f e - r o l e s  of Bachmann's females demonstrate a d d i t i o n a l  c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s regarding that a l l husband f i g u r e s dramatic w r i t i n g s  personal freedom.  I t i s worthwhile  (not lovers) i n Ingeborg Bachmann's prose and  are i n some way f i g u r e s of oppression.  They range from  the rather a u t o c r a t i c ways of Leo Jordan to the v e r y subtle of Malina, i n whom, i n c i d e n t a l l y , some a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l l y c r i t i c s l i k e Adolf wife-figures  noting  Opel detect  a p r o t r a y a l of Max F r i s c h .  superiority  orientated Bachmann's  are meant to show the near i m p o s s i b i l i t y of combining  personal freedom and self-development with marriage and the r e s u l t a n t i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the antagonism of the male and female nature. the nearly and it  i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the n a r r a t o r  a l o v e r ends i n tragedy. i s worth noting  Her p e r s o n a l i t y i s "murdered".  to the s e v e r i t y of f a i l u r e .  The promised "Salve Zukunft" i s l a c k i n g .  Bachmann's women regarding detrimental  i n Malina with a "husband" Once again,  that the degree of i n t e n s i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  roughly proportionate solution.  Even  Bachmann o f f e r s no The ambivalence of  the combination of q u a l i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r or  to a marriage as pointed  out i n Part I o f t h i s study only  serves to emphasize the dilemma of women and to p o i n t once more to the issue of freedom as the determining motive i n Bachmann's females. The  r o l e of lover seems to be the one i n which Bachmann's women  are happiest and most s u c c e s s f u l . as a l t e r n a t i v e to the w i f e - r o l e .  I t appears that the l o v e r must be seen In order to f i n d the maximum amount of  freedom a v a i l a b l e without r e l i n q u i s h i n g love, sex, and a f f e c t i o n a l t o gether, Bachmann's heroines experiment w i t h both r o l e s .  Here, as f a r as  the freedom issue i s concerned, the l o v e r - r o l e has c e r t a i n advantages over that of the wife,  since many of the r e s t r i c t i o n s of marriage are  115  absent.  The i n d i v i d u a l has more access to freedom.  However, l e s s scope  i s a v a i l a b l e f o r the " w i f e l y q u a l i t i e s " , such as longing protection.  f o r l o y a l t y and  The s u c c e s s f u l l o v e r , however, soon faces another problem:  as Bachmann's women t r y to escape the l i m i t a t i o n s of a normative by searching  life,  f o r emotional l o v e , they f i n d , on a t t a i n i n g t h i s l o v e ,  once more t h e i r freedom and p e r s o n a l i t y a r e w i t h e r i n g through submission, through d e - p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n .  that  away - t h i s time  "Vergeh i c h schon?  Und  vergeh i c h n i c h t wegen d i r ? " asks J e n n i f e r i n an advanced stage of d i s i n -  285 t e g r a t i o n of her s e l f .  I t w i l l be granted that t h i s i s a d i f f e r e n t  form o f d e s t r u c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y from those brought about by marriage, s o c i a l norms or i d e n t i t y - t y p i n g , y e t the same b a s i c c o n f l i c t i s present. So i t seems that i t i s not p r i m a r i l y the r e j e c t i o n o f a given  social  order - as most c r i t i c s see i t - that causes the doom o f Bachmann's l o v e r s but r a t h e r the unavoidable d e s t r u c t i o n of the s e l f and t h e i r personal  realm of freedom which i s brought about by any form of intense  emotional attachment.  This was i l l u s t r a t e d also by the v a r i o u s  of submission by the women that were observed e a r l i e r .  degrees  Undine i s always  able to withdraw i n t o her water-world of freedom; J e n n i f e r i s not and perishes. observation  I n t h i s context, too, one f i n d s the explanation  f o r the l a s t  that was noted f o r the l o v e r i n the f i r s t part of t h i s study,  namely the s o - c a l l e d passive  lover.  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems to r e v e a l  an innate h e s i t a t i o n of Bachmann's females to commit themselves to uncond i t i o n a l l o v e , as i t might i n v o l v e the u n c o n d i t i o n a l self.  surrender of the  The f e a r of a l a r g e l y compulsory process beyond one's c o n t r o l -  as was pointed  out - i s c e r t a i n l y present.  I t should be added that some  116  of these p o i n t s do s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h Bachmann's romantic l o v e r s from those of Romantic L i t e r a t u r e . The homemaker r o l e , too, i s transcended wholely and i n a v e r y s u b t l e manner by the theme o f p e r s o n a l freedom.  I t was found that  housework d i d not represent p h y s i c a l oppression f o r Ingeborg Bachmann's women as i t does i n much of the l i b e r a t i o n i s t l i t e r a t u r e . d i d symbolize l i m i t a t i o n f o r a woman; i t symbolized purpose and e f f i c i e n c y .  However, i t  the male world of  F o r C h a r l o t t e i n E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha  homemaking c l e a r l y has a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of order, purpose, p r o t e c t i o n , and l i m i t a t i o n s .  She i s almost m a g i c a l l y confined by the f u r n i s h -  ings o f the apartment r e p r e s e n t i n g her married l i f e . during h i s absence f o r h e r husband Franz.  They are symbols  Some of the f u r n i s h i n g s have  to be destroyed by Mara before she i s able to break out. t o l d t h a t , a f t e r Mara demolishes  The reader i s  the l i v i n g room, "Ihre Gefiihle, i h r e  Gedanken sprangen aus dem gewohnten G l e i s , r a s t e n ohne Bahn i n s F r e i e . 286 Sie l i e B i h r e n Gefiihlen und Gedanken f r e i e n Lauf."  Malina's request  f o r c o f f e e , the brewing of which i s another homemaking a c t i v i t y ,  triggers  o f f severe consequences, namely the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the n a r r a t o r ' s self.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between M a l i n a and the n a r r a t o r had turned i n t o  one of c a l c u l a t e d s o c i a l u t i l i t y .  An i r o n i c note i n the a n t i t h e s i s of  freedom and r e s t r i c t i o n seems to be present a l s o i n the homemaking aspect, inasmuch as Bachmann's women tend to o f f e r t h e i r homemaking a b i l i t i e s to t h e i r l o v e r s without r e a l i z i n g the r e s t r i c t i v e ^ e l e m e n t s that are inherent i n the g i f t .  T h i s i s the case with J e n n i f e r and the n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a  as pointed out i n Chapter I I I .  Once again, Bachmann's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  117  housework i s of a much s u b t l e r nature than i n more emancipatory and polemic w r i t i n g s .  I t i s rather the r o u t i n e , the p u r e l y u t i l i t a r i a n and  the s o c i a l aspects  of t h i s work - or of any s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s - than  i t s oppressive  nature that a r e f e l t to r e s t r i c t the i n d i v i d u a l develop-  ment of a woman. Here, too, the female seems w e l l s u i t e d as a v e h i c l e f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of the problems i n v o l v e d i n the s t r u g g l e of the i n d i v i d u a l against  restriction. An a n a l y s i s of the few p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s of Bachmann's  r e v e a l s once more the search f o r freedom and p e r s o n a l dominant theme.  The negative  women i n reviewing  connotations  heroines  i d e n t i t y to be the  of the terms used by Bachmann's  t h e i r c a r e e r s , the l i m i t e d space given to that t o p i c  as w e l l as the ambivalent e s c a p i s t nature of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e show p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m to be no s o l u t i o n i n the quest to gain a personal i d e n t i t y and freedom. nature,  I t seems that work, even though i t i s o f a c r e a t i v e  as pointed out above, and may help i n the self-developmental  cess, p r o v i d e s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r true i d e n t i t y .  pro-  The l o s s of Nadja's  s e l f - a s s u r a n c e when she i s away from work i n d i c a t e s a t most the a c q u i s i t i o n of a pseudo-identity Simultan.  through her p r o f e s s i o n f o r the heroine o f  I t f o l l o w s that p r o f e s s i o n a l work provides n e i t h e r r e a l f r e e -  dom nor emancipation, but that once more i t s s u b t l y r e s t r i c t i n g  features  are uncovered, e s p e c i a l l y i n view o f the s o c i a l aspect connected with most types of work.  I n the case o f Nadja, the r e s t r i c t i n g element  regarding independent thought i s c l e a r l y pointed out i n the s t o r y .  An  almost anarchic view of freedom i s v o i c e d i n the Miihlbauer i n t e r v i e w by  118  the n a r r a t o r i n Malina. and  Here, any p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y i s seen as s l a v e r y  even to the question about hobbies the n a r r a t o r answers: . . . I c h b i n n i e b e s c h a f t i g t . Eine Beschaftigung, d i e wiirde mich abhalten, i c h v e r l o r e auch noch den k l e i n s t e n t l b e r b l i c k , jeden H i n b l i c k , i c h kann mich absolut n i c h t b e s c h a f t i g e n i n d i e s e r G e s c h a f t i g k e i t rundherum, Sie sehen s i c h e r auch diese wahnwitzige G e s c h a f t i g k e i t i n der Welt und diese i n f e r n a l i s c h e n Gerausche horen S i e doch, d i e von i h r ausgehen. Ich wiirde j a Beschaftigungen v e r b i e t e n l a s s e n , wenn i c h es konnte, aber i c h kann s i e mir nur s e l b e r v e r b i e t e n , . . .287  Another r e s t r i c t i n g f e a t u r e of work r e j e c t e d by Bachmann's women i s the planned and purposeful  aspect of any c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d work, an aspect  that, as was shown e a r l i e r , i s p a r t of the "male" way of l i v i n g . B e a t r i x ' s sleep may a l s o be seen as an anti-work s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e : Nichts a l s s c h l a f e n ! Nur wiirde B e a t r i x s i c h hiiten, das jemand zu sagen, denn s i e hatte schon s e i t e i n i g e r Z e i t b e g r i f f e n , worauf d i e anderen hinauswollten, . . . dafi s i e s i c h namlich entschlieBen s o l l t e , e n d l i c h etwas zu tun, j a unbedingt eine A r b e i t haben miisse, und man mufite diesen Leuten eben e i n wenig entgegenkommen und g e l e g e n t l i c h Andeutungen f a l l e n l a s s e n iiber Zukunftsplane und Interessen.288 The  l a s t r o l e discussed,  that of the o u t s i d e r , i s e x c l u s i v e l y concerned  with the t o p i c of freedom and personal i d e n t i t y .  Whereas the other r o l e s  were l a r g e l y used as t e s t cases w i t h which Bachmann demonstrated the p o s s i b i l i t y or i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g freedom and personal ment i n the context  of various female r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s , the o u t s i d e r  r o l e seems to be an e x i s t e n t i a l one. siders.  develop-  Bachmann's women are by nature out-  T h e i r search f o r personal freedom causes them to see and to  r e j e c t as r e s t r i c t i v e almost any e x i s t i n g convention patterns of thought, behavioural norms, e t c .  such as language,  Here, too, Bachmann does  not h e s i t a t e to show the personal problems and the negative  consequences  involved with the o u t s i d e r p o s i t i o n f o r her female c h a r a c t e r s . weighs h e a v i l y on them.  The r o l e  119  R e l i e f i s sometimes found i n the companionship of other  outsiders  such as i n the case of the f r i e n d s h i p s between T r o t t a and E l i s a b e t h , Mara and  Charlotte.  L a s t l y , i t seems remarkable that most of Bachmann's  female o u t s i d e r s appear to see r e l i e f i n c r e a t i o n of a new type of man - Utopian as the concept may be - r a t h e r than i n withdrawal and escape.  E.  Freedom and I n t e r a c t i o n of Bachmann's Leading Female Characters w i t h Four S o c i a l Groupings An a n a l y s i s of the i n t e r a c t i o n of Bachmann's heroines with  their  human environment shows once again the i s s u e of freedom and personal development as the major m o t i v a t i n g  and determining  factor.  Once more  t h i s t o p i c i s exemplified i n v a r i o u s human s i t u a t i o n s which are espec i a l l y r e l e v a n t f o r the female. The r a t h e r negative p a r t that c h i l d r e n play i n r e l a t i o n to Bachmann's women was e x t e n s i v e l y documented e a r l i e r i n t h i s study; the r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s that are connected w i t h c h i l d r e a r i n g and which Bachmann's women t r y to avoid were d i s c u s s e d . for It  But i t a l s o seems that  Bachmann's females the c h i l d i t s e l f c a r r i e s a stigma of confinement. represents  endless  the f i r s t phase of the l i f e of an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n an  chain of beings.  I t symbolizes - a t l e a s t i n A l l e s - man's  entrance i n t o a pre-determined r o u t i n e of l i f e .  Although the c h i l d i s  not y e t part of a senseless, r e s t r i c t e d and r o u t i n e way of l i f e ,  i t is  being i n i t i a t e d i n t o i t by the a d u l t s as shown i n Jugend i n einer o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Stadt. into t h i s conventional  Hanna i n A l l e s does everything and r o u t i n e l i f e ,  to draw Fipps  because she h e r s e l f i s already  caught up i n i t and, perhaps, because she r e a l i z e s b e t t e r than her husband  120  that Fipps w i l l otherwise be f o r c e d to c a p i t u l a t e . Malina formulates  the p o i n t more extremely:  The n a r r a t o r i n  " . . . eine Anhaufung von  Kindern i s t f u r mich etwas besonders E n t s e t z l i c h e s , auch ganz u n b e g r e i f 289 l i c h i s t mix, wie Kinder es unter so v i e l e n Kindern aushalten konnen." Here, once again, the l i f e of the c h i l d represents an e x i s t e n c e from which Bachmann's females are t r y i n g to escape.  I t may be s a i d that the  c h i l d ' s image i s a r a t h e r t r a g i c one, as i t demonstrates f o r Bachmann's women a s e c u l a r v e r s i o n of Man a f t e r the f a l l . Analysing the observations c o l l e c t e d on the woman-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Bachmann's works, one f i n d s again the theme of personal freedom to be the key to understanding.  The o c c a s i o n a l occurrence  of sexual  r i v a l r y and of competition between Bachmann's women underscores  once  more t h e i r d i s r e g a r d f o r s o c i a l bonds. "Human property" has no p l a c e i n t h e i r conception of personal freedom.  The young E l i s a b e t h i n D r e i Wege zum See y e l l s a t her mother 290  that Robert, her younger brother, could j u s t as w e l l be her c h i l d . Bachmann's women tend to be so s e l f - o r i e n t e d that they respect no outs i d e p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e , be i t of a s o c i a l , moral or b e h a v i o u r a l k i n d . A second p o i n t emerges here i n respect to the antagonism between some of the female c h a r a c t e r s .  Since being sex-oriented, as was pointed out on  d i f f e r e n t occasions above, appears i n the authoress' view as a r e s t r i c t i v e element, i t i s , t h e r e f o r e , only n a t u r a l that Bachmann's women encounter c o n f l i c t s , even more so here than i n any man-woman r e l a t i o n s h i p because of sexual antagonisms.  and ideas submitted  This p o i n t i s r e i n f o r c e d by the m a t e r i a l 291  under the heading "The Non-sexual R e l a t i o n s h i p s " .  Here, f r e e - w i l l e d and s e l f - o r i e n t e d women meet outside any compulsion or  121  r e s t r a i n t s and are,  therefore,  a b l e to communicate s u c c e s s f u l l y .  The  same argument about c o n f l i c t s caused by sex-oriented r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be discerned i n the l e s b i a n p a r t n e r s h i p .  A l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h i s kind  f a i l because they p r o h i b i t p e r s o n a l freedom and i n d i v i d u a l development at l e a s t f o r the j u n i o r p a r t n e r .  Bachmann would seem to r e j e c t the  p o s s i b i l i t y of any true r e a l i z a t i o n of a woman's i d e n t i t y through a lesbian relationship. The most problematic human r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r Bachmann's women i s the female-male r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Bachmann's heroines search f i r s t of a l l  f o r a s o l u t i o n to the c o n f l i c t between a c h i e v i n g  or r e t a i n i n g indepen-  dence on the one hand and of having emotional t i e s w i t h a man on the other.  The c l o s e s t Bachmann's women come to a s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem  i s when they meet a man of s i m i l a r d i s p o s i t i o n . instance, See,  This happens, f o r  between E l i s a b e t h and Franz Joseph T r o t t a i n D r e i Wege zum  and between the n a r r a t o r  and Ivan i n M a l i n a .  Emotional r e l a t i o n -  ships without permanency seem to be the most s u c c e s s f u l heroines.  The dilemma, however, i s never solved  lament t h i s repeatedly.  f o r Bachmann's  and Bachmann's  narrators  The many and v a r i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men  and women i n Bachmann's works i l l u s t r a t e a gamut of combinatory p o s s i b i l i t i e s between d i f f e r e n t types of women and men. s i o n of p e r s o n a l - i d e n t i t y necessity  However, the b a s i c  and free-space versus commitment and the  of g i v i n g up a c e r t a i n degree of freedom u n d e r l i e s  relationships.  ten-  Furthermore, i t seems that i n t h i s case, too,  a l l of these the female-  male a n t i t h e s i s i s symbolic of the c o n f l i c t of the i n d i v i d u a l versus society.  Often, the male represents those elements which Bachmann's  females are t r y i n g to d i s c a r d i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as purpose,  122  reason, pragmatism, o b l i g a t i o n , planning, s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , security, etc. there are females on the periphery  stereotyping  of human beings,  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that  of Bachmann's p l o t s who  themselves w e l l with these male v a l u e s ,  i . e . the s o - c a l l e d Menschenfrauen  i n Undine geht, but none of the l e a d i n g female characters although v e s t i g e s of t h i s m e n t a l i t y degrees.  are present  T h i s f a c t not only u n d e r l i n e s  accommodate  does so,  among them i n v a r i o u s  the complexity of Bachmann's  leading females but suggests a l s o that, because of the negative attached  image  to the former, Bachmann regards those women that search f o r  freedom and  i d e n t i t y as b e t t e r and more advanced p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  A  last  p o i n t ought to be added; the f a c t that many of Bachmann's females d i s p l a y a d i s t i n c t l y submissive a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r l o v e r s does not d i c t the conclusions  of t h i s a n a l y s i s as t h i s i s c l e a r l y intended  an act of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , of emotional i n t e n s i t y . Bachmann's image i s based to a great extent t i c s and  on the idea of c r e a t i n g one's own  extent, means r e a l i z i n g and lead to personal  be  "traditional" characteris-  identity.  T h i s , to a l a r g e  e x p l o i t i n g those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . That they presentation  w e l l be f e l t to express the essence of  The whole t o p i c of Bachmann's female characters  can best be formulated We  on  to  As suggested above,  c o n f l i c t s i s p a r t of Bachmann's r e a l i s t i c  of the woman's image and may world—view.  contra-  and  her  society  as the c o n f l i c t of the i n d i v i d u a l with s o c i e t y .  found i n Chapter I I that Bachmann's women r e f r a i n from expounding  s o c i a l theories or concepts.  The  reason f o r t h i s appears to be  Bachmann r e j e c t s systems where the i n d i v i d u a l i s administered  that  and  inte-  292 grated i n t o the system, l e a v i n g no room f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y . c r a t i c a l l y organized  system and  Bureau-  s o c i e t i e s are d i s l i k e d by Bachmann's  123  women s i n c e they have been worked out by men pragmatism and  with t h e i r u s u a l l o g i c  they leave no room f o r the spontaneity of the  and  individual,  a p o i n t that Nadja makes i n a conversation with F r a n k e l i n Simultan. Bachmann's heroines have a s o c i a l consciousness, political.  but they are  non-  They admire and engage i n i n d i v i d u a l acts of kindness  c h a r i t y and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e .  Thus, Nadja p r a i s e s the p e r s o n a l  and  initiative  of David Lubin i n h e l p i n g to supply a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge to a l l , but  293 she condemns o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the FAO  :  "...  denn immer wenn  jemand auf d i e Welt kommt und etwas Abenteuerliches denkt und  anfangt 294  mit etwas. Neuem, dann kommt i h r daher und verwaltet es zu Tod, Thus, the n a r r a t o r i n Malina gives away a l a r g e sum from B u l g a r i a who cipation  claims to be very s i c k .  and h e l p , not s o c i a l concepts  Bachmann's heroines. dom,  of money to a stranger  I t i s always personal p a r t i -  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , that engage  This i s i n l i n e with t h e i r ideas on personal  which a l s o allows the s i n g l e person  she wishes.  ..."  free-  to withdraw from involvement  if  Miranda, f o r i n s t a n c e , does not appear to be intended as a  negative c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Bachmann's remarks on the extreme s e n s i t i v i t y which causes her to turn away from any gruesome r e a l i t y i n d i c a t e r a t h e r the opposite.  Since Bachmann's women d i s l i k e any c o l l e c t i v e as a r e s t r i c -  t i o n on the i n d i v i d u a l , individual  they would r a t h e r confront or d e a l with  than w i t h an anonymous term l i k e s o c i e t y .  Bachmann's females may  be termed a n t i - s o c i a l or  another  In t h i s sense,  non-political.  Summarizing t h i s chapter, i t w i l l be agreed  that the i s s u e of  personal freedom and i d e n t i t y i s c e r t a i n l y not only the dominant theme of Bachmann's image of the woman but a l s o the key aspect which allows a complete understanding  of t h e i r a c t i o n s , r e a c t i o n s , thoughts,  and  124  motivations.  Although these thoughts and a c t i o n s may  d i f f e r i n various  s i t u a t i o n s i n the s t o r i e s and r a d i o - p l a y s , they can a l l be understood as v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s main theme.  CHAPTER V I I I AN ANALYSIS OF THE  FEMALE-MALE ANTITHESIS  The second major theme that appears to form most of Bachmann's f i c t i o n r e l a t i n g to the female i s that of the male-female c o n f l i c t . I t i s c l o s e l y interwined w i t h the theme of freedom d i s c u s s e d above. I t was  shown e a r l i e r that the male and h i s world represents i n  Bachmann's w r i t i n g s c e r t a i n ways of t h i n k i n g , of behaving And  i t was  and of a c t i n g .  a l s o shown that these stood i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t to the female  and her world.  In t h i s chapter we w i l l t r y to analyse the very complex  theme of the male-female c o n f l i c t .  A.  The Image of the Male I t i s impossible to comprehend c l e a r l y the nature of Bachmann's  image of the woman without devoting a t t e n t i o n to the image of the male and i t s very i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n r e s p e c t to that of the  female.  Analysing the observations o f f e r e d i n the previous chapters, i t becomes evident that the w r i t e r not only endows her male characters with many of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the male such as r a t i o n a l i s m , i n t e l l e c t and l o g i c , but she a l s o expands these i n order to develop counter-image to her females  and  to a l l that they stand f o r .  a clear Thus, the  male c a r r i e s the image of pure reason, c a l c u l a t i o n , l o g i c a l and t i c a l thought,  soberness, pragmatism, unemotional behaviour,  and administering a l l aspects of l i f e , limitation.  analy-  of programing  of f i x a t i o n and order, of  The f a c t that a few of Bachmann's male characters t r y to  125  126  d i s a s s o c i a t e themselves from t h i s concept of "maleness"  does not a l t e r  the b a s i c symbolic image the author develops i n her male c h a r a c t e r s . Even Ivan i n Malina f i t s  t h i s image fundamentally.  i n the few i n s t a n c e s when men  As pointed out b e f o r e ,  do venture towards absolutes or attempt  G r e n z u b e r t r i t t they do t h i s i n the "realm of the male" (e.g. Wildermuth  a  Judge  t r y i n g to f i n d the absolute t r u t h or the f a t h e r of Fipps i n  A l l e s attempting to b u i l d a new man)  and they f a i l to achieve t h e i r goals 295  because  they use "male" p r e c i s i o n of thought and l o g i c a l reasoning. Bachmann's i n t e n t i o n i n developing t h i s image of the male - based  l a r g e l y on a t y p i c a l s e x - s p e c i f i c view - seems to be to i l l u s t r a t e through the male a p a r t i c u l a r type of human being, a very type of man,  to which her women c h a r a c t e r s are opposed.  contemporary In other words,  the male i n Bachmann's prose l a r g e l y represents a conception of man her female characters abhor and are t r y i n g to d i s c a r d .  that  At the same time,  however, the reader i s made aware of a f a s c i n a t i o n f o r some of the male's a b i l i t i e s . — such as great i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts or s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l achievements  - that her females are not able to overcome.  Taking these images as they stand and c o n s i d e r i n g Bachmann's many s t a t e ments i n her f i c t i o n on t h i s t o p i c , the r e c u r r i n g theme of women t r y i n g to f r e e themselves, yet because of t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n to the male f a l l i n g back i n t o dependence, can be taken as Bachmann's analogy f o r the s i t u a t i o n of s t r i v i n g and a s p i r i n g mankind.  The escape i n t o t o t a l  individual-  ism i s hindered by the n e c e s s i t y of having elements of order and tory p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e .  obliga-  The elements of order and r e s t r i c t i o n , r e p r e -  sented by the image of the male, r e v e a l Bachmann's r e a l i z a t i o n that human s o c i e t y i s unable to f u n c t i o n without at l e a s t some of the r e s t r i c t ing f a c t o r s which the male stands f o r .  127  B.  The Male-Female C o n f l i c t The d i f f e r e n c e between the b a s i c male and female image as they  appear i n Ingeborg Bachmann's f i c t i o n has been i n v e s t i g a t e d and  dis-  cussed e x t e n s i v e l y above - the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of reason and l o g i c versus emotion and f e e l i n g .  I t was  a t t r a c t e d to or admired  also noted t h a t i n some cases women were  the male f o r these v e r y q u a l i t i e s .  They w i l l -  i n g l y l e a r n from male p a r t n e r s or induce them to apply t h e i r male t a l e n t s to the world's problems.  Cases i n p o i n t are Malina and Ivan i n the novel  Malina.  by the n a r r a t o r f o r t h e i r a b i l i t i e s to reason  Both are admired  and* i n the case of Malina, f o r h i s a b i l i t y to p l a n and organize. f i n a l s e c t i o n of Undine's monologue p r a i s i n g men and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements  was  for a l l their  quoted e a r l i e r .  The  technical  On the other hand,  the reader i s r e p e a t e d l y confronted with strong a t t a c k s on these "male" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and notes the frequent acclaim of the "female" values of emotion and  anti-rationalism.  Surveying Bachmann's w r i t i n g s with t h i s i n mind, one detects a p a t t e r n that allows the c o n c l u s i o n that the female accepts, sometimes even welcomes, the a p p l i c a t i o n of these "male" a b i l i t i e s i n those areas where they are p r a c t i c a b l e and serve a business or s o c i a l f u n c t i o n but that the male-female c o n f l i c t i s s t r o n g e s t when reason and l o g i c enter i n t o the realm of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , when they are a p p l i e d to the a n a l y s i s of emotion and f e e l i n g .  T h i s c o n f l i c t i s developed  i n one of 296  i t s most grotesque forms i n the u n f i n i s h e d novel Der F a l l Franza F r a n z i s k a (Franza) r e f l e c t s about her unhappy marriage with Leopold Jordan, a very prominent  Viennese p s y c h i a t r i s t , who  h i s t o r y of h i s wife and has attempted  has kept a case-  to analyse and t a b u l a t e her  as  128  innermost f e e l i n g s and emotions with s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n .  Even a k i s s  was cause enough to engage h i s a n a l y t i c a l mind: Das waren englische Kiisse. Jordan, der ohne I n t e r p r e t a t i o n keinen Satz durchgehen l i e B , unterbrach s i e , das i s t a l l e r d i n g s i n t e r e s s a n t , was du da sagst, englische Kiisse, das i s t eine F e h l l e i s t u n g , denn du w i r s t gemeint haben angelische, und s i e sagte h e f t i g , nein, aber n e i n , und er sagte, u n t e r b r i c h mich b i t t e n i c h t immer, und er s t u d i e r t e das k l e i n e Problem und a n a l y s i e r t e i h r e Kiisse, von der s p r a c h l i c h e n S e i t e h e r und dann von der E r l e b n i s s e i t e , . . . Franza l i e f i s i c h , angestrengt zuhorend, a n a l y s i e r e n und unterbrach i h n n i c h t mehr, b i s s i e i h r e englischen Kiisse gewogen, z e r l e g t und p u l v e r i s i e r t , e i n g e t e i l t und untergebracht wuBte, s i e waren nun s a u b e r l i c h und s - t e r i l i s i e r t an den r i c h t i g e n P l a t z i n ihrem Leben und mit dem r i c h t i g e n Stellenwert gekommen.297 Franza f e l t that her whole l i f e was wrecked when she found out that her husband had used her as a t e s t case and had noted down s c i e n t i f i c a l l y every f e e l i n g and emotion. T h i s p o l a r i t y of the sexes seems to e x p l a i n a l s o the p a t t e r n o f male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n t e r a c t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d cated i n the graph i n Chapter IV.  In the emotional areas i t i s u s u a l l y  the female that dominates and leads; and  e a r l i e r and i n d i -  i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  professional  p a t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n s i t i s the male from whom the a c t i o n o r i g i n a t e s . It  also appears that h e r e i n  l i e s one reason f o r the many f a i l e d  marriages and love a f f a i r s i n Bachmann's novels and s t o r i e s .  I t i s the  d i f f e r e n t approach toward love, marriage and human r e l a t i o n s h i p each member brings  i n t o such a r e l a t i o n s h i p .  New i n t h i s  that  presentation  of a b a s i c a l l y " t r a d i t i o n a l " view of male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p seems to be the f a c t that the two o r i e n t a t i o n s f a i l  to complement each other i n the  important spheres of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s but rather are i n c o n f l i c t . both novels, Malina and Der F a l l Franza, of the u n f i n i s h e d  In  c y c l e Todesarten  129 it  i s the male nature and the ideas that i t represents that are respon-  s i b l e f o r the "death" of the heroine. This theme of the "male nature" i s c l o s e l y connected with that of personal freedom which was  discussed i n the previous chapter.  g o r i z a t i o n and a n a l y s i s by t h e i r male counterparts has imprisoning, or s u f f o c a t i n g  Cate-  the e f f e c t of  Bachmann's female v i c t i m s .  Franza's  remarks i n the "Jordanische Z e i t " chapter of the fragmentary  novel  Der F a l l Franza seem to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s : Ich glaube, das i s t es!  Man  y e r e i t e l t den anderen, lahmt  ihn, man zwingt ihm s e i n Wesen ab, dann seine Gedanken, dann seine Gefuhle, dann b r i n g t man i h n urn den Rest von I n s t i n k t , von S e l b s t e r h a l t u n g s t r i e b , dann g i b t man ihm einen T r i t t , wenn er e r l e d i g t i s t . Kein Vieh t u t das, .298 The male, then, by h i s nature seems to be not only a r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r - but even a l e t h a l f a c t o r f o r the  C.  female.  The Female as V i c t i m Bachmann uses the word f a s c i s m repeatedly while d e s c r i b i n g  male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Besides the d e s t r u c t i o n of the female's  freedom and  indivi-  d u a l i t y , besides the s h a t t e r i n g of her n a i v e t e and her f a i t h i n the genuineness  of emotion and f e e l i n g by a n a l y s i n g and examining  them,  299 besides the symbolic murders that husbands commit on t h e i r wives, the reader of Bachmann's p r o s e - f i c t i o n i s made aware of an element of sadism that the male d i s p l a y s i n h i s reactions'. appears  Frequently the male  to enjoy the d e s t r u c t i o n of the woman's d i g n i t y .  Franza, i s again a case i n p o i n t .  Leopold Jordan appears  Der  Fall  to gain  130  p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n by l e a v i n g h i s notes - the a n a l y s i s of h i s w i f e ' s f e e l i n g s - to be found by her: Dann w o l l t e er a l s o das, daB mir zwanzig oder d r e i B i g Jahre Zusammenleben i n Triimmer gehen, i n s o l c h einem Moment. Das w o l l t e er. V e r s t e h s t du. Du sagst Faschismus, das i s t komisch i c h habe das noch n i e gehort a l s Wort f u r e i n p r i v a t e s Verh a l t e n , . . . Ja er i s t hose, auch wenn man heute n i c h t bose sagen darf, nur krank, . . . Wie f u r c h t b a r hat er mich gequalt, aber n i c h t spontan, oder nur s e l t e n , nein, mit Uberlegung, a l l e s war berechnet, T a k t i k , T a k t i k , wie kann man so rechnen?300 Repeatedly, we f i n d the words c a l c u l a t i o n , t a c t i c s , a n a l y s i s , i n t e n t , but a l s o i n t e l l i g e n c e i n these accusations.  The male nature i s e v i l ( i n  Bachmann's view) not only because of i t s i n c l i n a t i o n to analyse f e l l o w humans but because such a n a l y s i s l e a d s to m a n i p u l a t i o n . " O t e l l o " she emphasizes  I n her notes on  t h i s when w r i t i n g about the "negative-hero" Jago:  . . . der negative Held, dessen I n t e l l i g e n z und G r u n d l i c h k e i t iiber d i e MaBen s c h r e c k l i c h s i n d . Nicht s c h u r k i s c h , sondern schrecklich. Sein Credo . . . i s t das konsequenteste Credo, das es f u r den konsequenten Morder g i b t , also f u r den, der I n t e l l i g e n z hat. Er nimmt d i e Menschen, d i e f u r i h n keine s i n d , sondern a n a l y s i e r b a r e Puppen, auseinander, er macht s i e l e i d e n und s c h r e i e n und toten. Die anderen s i n d d i e Menschen, u n z u l a n g l i c h , m i t l e i d e r r e g e n d , krank, dumm, b l i n d , aber Jago i s t erhaben i n s e i n e r F u r c h t b a r k e i t , er versucht d i e anderen zutod. Die Menschen zutodzuversuchen, das i s t n i c h t s c h u r k i s c h , sondern b e s t i a l i s c h , wenn das n i c h t e i n zu g e l i n d e r Ausdruck ware. Es i s t unmenschlich. Man kann Menschen zutodbringen, aber nur e i n Mensch kann das. Und Jago i s t das extremste B e i s p i e l f u r das was e i n Mensch vermag. Das Geheul O t e l l o s , das Sterben Desdemonas, d i e Demiitigungen und Leiden der anderen - das sind s e i n Gewinn. u  x  In Bachmann's world of the male-female the r o l e of the v i c t i m .  c o n f l i c t , the female i s assigned  Her female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o t e c t her from  becoming e v i l h e r s e l f , although, at times, she does contract the "male disease".  But the need f o r companionship  and, most of a l l ,  and p r o t e c t i o n , sexual d e s i r e s ,  the m a r i t a l s t a t e - because here the p o s s i b i l i t y of  131  r e t r e a t i s reduced - p l a c e Bachmann's heroines again and again i n s i t u a t i o n s where they w i l l be v i c t i m i z e d .  By t h e i r nature then, Bachmann's  women become v i c t i m s of the male, by nature the males become - i n t e n t i o n a l l y or otherwise - the " e x e c u t i o n e r s " of the female. t a i n s such thoughts  Josef e n t e r -  as he r e f l e c t s on h i s a f f a i r w i t h Miranda i n I h r  g l i i c k l i c h e n Augen: Wer t u t uns das. a l l e s an? Was tun wir einander an? Warum muB ich. das tun? und e r mochte j a Miranda kiissen, aber er kann n i c h t , und so denkt er nur, es wird noch immer h i n g e r i c h t e t , es i s t e i n e H i n r i c h t u n g , w e i l a l l e s , was i c h tu, eine Untat i s t , d i e Taten s i n d eben Untaten.302 This c o n d i t i o n would appear to be an u n d e r l y i n g impulse behind the s e a r c h of  Bachmann's women f o r communication and meaningful  other women as discussed i n Chapter  IV.  relationships with  The d e v a s t a t i n g r e s u l t s which  male a c t i o n may have on a woman's l i f e would a l s o e x p l a i n the great prominence given to the male by Bachmann i n the l i v e s of her women characters.  D.  The " S i c k " Male The thoughts we have j u s t developed  of  about the nature and f u n c t i o n  the male-female c o n f l i c t i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n allow us to understand  the frequent, very p e c u l i a r , remarks about the "male s i c k n e s s , " some of which were quoted i n the f i r s t  p a r t of t h i s study.  The " s i c k " male i s  one of the concepts of Bachmann that appears to puzzle most readers. C r i t i c s appear to be content with p o i n t i n g out t h i s phenomenon without r e l a t i n g i t to the o v e r a l l concept of Bachmanri"s male-female c h a r a c t e r s . P. Hamm remarks: Obwohl Ingeborg Bachmann a l l e s andere a l s f e m i n i s t i s c h e E m a n z i p a t i o n s l i t e r a t u r im Sinn h a t t e , s p i e l e n doch d i e  132  Manner i n ihrem Werk eine zumeist monstrose R o l l e , s i e s i n d unheilbar k l i n i s c h e F a l l e , Schlager oder Morder. Das beginnt mit dem Kind i n der Erzahlung " A l l e s " , das schon e i n k l e i n e r Morder i s t , und mit der Erinnerung an den Schulbuben, i n "Malina", der dem k l e i n e n Madchen z u r u f t : "Du, du da, komm her, i c h geb d i r etwas", und der dann der i n w i l d e r Freude auf i h n Zulaufenden die Hand i n s Gesicht klatscht: "Da, du, j e t z t hast du es!" Und das s e t z t s i c h f o r t i n den Angsttraumen vom Vater, der schon d i e Frage danach, warum er s c h l a g t , a l s Anlafi fiir neue Schlage nimmt, dem d i e I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n "Malina", der offenbar nur d i e I d e n t i f i k a t i o n mit dem Aggressor b l e i b t , den f u r c h t b a r e n Satz z u r u f t : "Ich hasse d i c h mehr a l s mein Leben!", und den s i e s c h l i e f i l i c h a l s i h r e n Mc5rder i d e n t i f i z i e r t . 3 0 3 Analysing  the r e s u l t s of the s e c t i o n "men as agents of develop-  ment" i t appears that i n general men are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  disillu-  sionment o f the female, f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of her i d e a l i s m , while at the same time they p l a n t the seeds of a new sense of r e a l i s m . that Bachmann assigns  I t appears  to the male a r o l e s i m i l a r to that of Satan i n the  Garden of Eden, whereby the s p e c i f i c a l l y "male" way of thought takes over the f u n c t i o n of "Knowledge." disease" as being  Bachmann repeatedly  contagious f o r the woman.  r e f e r s to the "male-  I t i s t h i s f u n c t i o n i n par-  t i c u l a r that causes Bachmann f r e q u e n t l y to p i c t u r e the male as e v i l and the consequences f o r human r e l a t i o n s h i p and development seem to be Bachmann's j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r so doing. Another aspect  of the "male-sickness" i s c l e a r l y pointed  the f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r i n Malina and has been discussed  out by  above.  It is  the h a b i t of the male to t r e a t a l l women a l i k e because he has made f o r himself a c oncept of "the woman," a h a b i t that i s devastating temporary f r i e n d as w e l l as to h i s l i f e l o n g w i f e . the former because she becomes aware of being  to h i s  I t i s d e s t r u c t i v e to  treated according  to norms  133  which apply to many others; to the l a t t e r because she has become an object of r o u t i n e : . . . die ganze E i n s t e l l u n g des Mannes e i n e r Frau gegemiber i s t krankhaft, obendrein ganz e i n z i g a r t i g krankhaft, so dafi man d i e Manner von i h r e n Krankheiten gar n i e mehr wird b e f r e i e n konnen. . . . e i n Mann zum B e i s p i e l beifit mich i n s Ohrlappchen, aber n i c h t w e i l es mein Ohrlappchen i s t oder w e i l e r , v e r n a r r t i n das Ohrlappchen, unBedingt hineinbeifien muB, sondern e r b e i f i t , w e i l er a l l e anderen Frauen auch i n d i e Ohrlappchen gebissen hat, i n k l e i n e oder grofiere, i n r o t b l a u e , i n b l a s s e i n f i i h l l o s e , i n g e f u h l v o l l e , es i s t v o l l i g g l e i c h , was d i e Ohrlappchen dazu meinen. Du [Malina] muflt zugeben, dafi das e i n f o l g e n r e i c h e r Zwang i s t , wenn man s i c h , ausgeriistet mit einem mehr oder weniger grossen Wissen und e i n e r i n jedem F a l l geringen Anwendungsmoglichkeit dieses Wissens, auf eine Frau stiirzen mufl, womoglich j a h r e l a n g , einmal, das geht j a noch, einmal h a l t das j a jede aus. Das e r k l a r t auch einen insgeheimen dumpfen Verdacht der Manner, denn s i e konnen s i c h n i c h t e i g e n t l i c h v o r s t e l l e n , dafi eine Frau s i c h n a t i i r l i c h ganz anders v e r h a l t e n mufi mit einem kranken Mann, w e i l ihm d i e Verschiedenh e i t e n nur ganz o b e r f l a c h l i c h und a u f i e r l i c h vorschweben, eben d i e j e n i g e n , d i e von Mund zu Mund gehen oder d i e von der Wissenschaft i n e i n verschlimmerndes f a l s c h e s L i c h t geruckt werden. T h i s s i c k n e s s , given so much prominence by Bachmann, appears to be not only the c l i c h e image of the woman that the man has adopted and according to which he t r e a t s women-every woman, but a l s o the source of h i s l a c k of a b i l i t y and d e s i r e to explore and to t r e a t h i s female p a r t ner as an i n d i v i d u a l .  I t seems that i n t h i s case, too, a " t y p i c a l "  female behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - the d e s i r e to be "the only one" - i s defended by Bachmann and r e l a t e d to the search f o r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y and individuality.  Bachmann's n a r r a t o r concludes the argument that s i n c e  the woman does not share the a t t i t u d e of the male, male-female ships cause her harm and unhappiness:  relation-  " . . . Das Ungliick verdoppelt,  v e r d r e i f a c h t , verhundertfacht s i c h mit der Z e i t obendrein."  305  In conclusion, i t seems c l e a r that Bachmann, sees the whole  134  male-female problem not only from a s e x - s p e c i f i c p o i n t of view but a l s o w i t h i n a value system i n which the female i s assigned a p o s i t i o n s u p e r i o r to that of the male.  The male appears to be marked by a kind of " o r i g i n a l  s i n " and, by reason of the inescapable a t t r a c t i o n which she f e e l s f o r him, he i s a b l e to " i n f e c t " her o r worse, commit "symbolic murder" d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y by causing the female's s u i c i d e .  Leo Jordan i n Der  Fall  Franza, M a l i n a i n M a l i n a , and Marek i n Requiem fiir Fanny Goldmann are the most developed examples.  CHAPTER IX AN ANALYSIS OP THE FUNCTION AND INTENT OF THE IMAGE OF THE WOMAN IN THE WORKS OF INGEBORG BACHMANN  A.  Main Purpose Ingeborg Bachmann's female characters appear as working model  images f o r a renewed or b e t t e r form of human e x i s t e n c e , models f o r a b e t t e r man, d i s p l a y i n g or a t l e a s t searching f o r a mode of behaviour and thought which Bachmann considers l a r g e l y to have been l o s t by man i n contemporary s o c i e t y and a model on which she places a great v a l u e .  In  t h i s context her women may be seen as a n t i - , counter-, or a l t e r n a t i v e images to twentieth-century-man, whom she d e p i c t s l a r g e l y i n the guise of the male p r o t a g o n i s t s to her female c h a r a c t e r s .  Her male p r o t a g o n i s t s  d i s p l a y a l l the - i n Bachmann's view - negative and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y behavioural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s of our s o c i e t y :  scepticism  and cynicism, materialism, pure r a t i o n a l i t y and c a l c u l a t i o n ,  selfish-  3 06 ness  and egotism;  i n summary:  a view of the world  that i s l i m i t e d to  a p e r s p e c t i v e of e f f i c i e n c y and r a t i o n a l i t y . The uniqueness, however, of Bachmann's development of t h i s theme i s i t s i n t e g r a t i o n with a s e x - s p e c i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e , with a male-female polarity.  Considering the m a t e r i a l presented  i n the previous  chapters,  i t c e r t a i n l y would not appear to be e i t h e r coincidence or merely a case of "sex s o l i d a r i t y , " that Ingeborg Bachmann almost always chooses the female to be the v e h i c l e f o r such superior character t r a i t s and i d e a l i s t i c 135  136  striving.  In Bachmann's view, which as we have shown p l a c e s great v a l u e  on s o - c a l l e d " t r a d i t i o n a l " female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the woman i s predest i n e d , because of her nature, to f u l f i l best t h i s task of p r o v i d i n g examples of a l t e r n a t i v e s , of a l t e r n a t i v e ways of l i v i n g , f e e l i n g , i n g , s u f f e r i n g , experiencing happiness, of s t r i v i n g f o r freedom and f u l l  lov-  t h i n k i n g , comprehending, a c t i n g ;  "realization."  I t i s to be noted, however, that these " t y p i c a l l y female" a c t e r i s t i c s are viewed from a s p e c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e :  char-  they are not seen as  complementary or even s u b s e r v i e n t to the male nature, but as opposed, even s u p e r i o r to i t , or - i n a wider sense - as an a l t e r n a t i v e to an u n s u c c e s s f u l , male-dominated world.  They are not seen more or l e s s i n  a s o c i o l o g i c a l l i g h t , but are presented i n a context of extreme i n d i v i dualism.  L a s t l y , i t should be added that most of those  characteristics  and modes of behaviour r e t a i n e d were - as shown i n the previous chapters - modified, merged with new  concepts, and f i l l e d with new  meanings:  thus, the yearning f o r l o v e has l o s t much of i t s b i o l o g i c a l and emphasis and gained a new  social  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and emotional dimension;  the  d e s i r e f o r beauty has l o s t much of i t s a i r of v a n i t y and o b l i g a t i o n to a male sense of pleasure but has found new v a l u e as s e l f - c r e a t i v e  expres-  sion. Bachmann, h e r s e l f , remarks on the p o i n t of  "traditional" attitudes:  Z e i t l o s f r e i l i c h sind nur d i e B i l d e r . Das Denken, der Z e i t v e r h a f t e t , v e r f a l l t auch wieder der Z e i t . Aber w e i l es v e r £311t, eben deshalb, mu6 unser Denken neu,sein, wenn es echt s e i n und etwas bewirken w i l l . Es wird uns n i c h t e i n f a l i e n , uns an d i e Ideenwelt der K l a s s i k e r zu klammern oder an d i e einer anderen Epoche, da s i e n i c h t mehr fiir uns maftgeblich s e i n kann; unsere W i r k l i c h k e i t , unsere S t r e i t e sind andere geworden. Wie s t r a h l e n d auch e i n z e l n e Gedanken aus friiherer  137  Z e i t auf uns kommen - wenn wir s i e zu Zeugen r u f e n , so tun w i r es zur Unterstiitzung unserer Gedanken heute. I t i s to some extent because o f the " t r a d i t i o n a l " elements which a r e so apparent  i n her women that some c r i t i c s dismiss t h i s image i n the l a r g e r  context of c r i t i c i s m of her prose as c o n s e r v a t i v e , o l d fashioned and outmoded; and r e f u s e to recognize the change - s l i g h t as i t may f r e quently appear - that these aspects have undergone.  I t i s also  apparent  that Bachmann's image of the female i s an e v o l u t i o n a r y r a t h e r than a r e v o l u t i o n a r y one.  By b u i l d i n g on s o - c a l l e d  " t r a d i t i o n a l " values,  Bachmann avoids reducing her women to mere symbols f o r a c r i s i s i n the values of -modern s o c i e t y .  Her image of the female i s based s o l i d l y on  human and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c v a l u e s , r e a l i z e d  i n some cases,  Utopian i n others, but nonetheless worth s t r i v i n g f o r . women bear no resemblance to Benn's "Verlorenes Ich". not tread the secure ground of t h e i r  remaining  Bachmann's Though they do  Romantic and i d e a l i s t i c  predecessors, they c a r r y on i n t h e i r search f o r personal freedom and the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r inner s e l v e s and never l o s e hope of one day being able to accomplish the G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t .  I t seems that t h i s i s p o s s i b l y  the main j u s t i f i c a t i o n which Ingeborg Bachmann would have presented f o r her female c h a r a c t e r s . We want to give s p e c i a l  a t t e n t i o n to t h i s d i d a c t i c  aspect before  going on to the l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l aspects of the image.  B.  The D i d a c t i c Intent There would appear to be a profound  p e u t i c element i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n .  didactic  and psychothera-  She presents females  i n situa-  t i o n s which encourage the characters to analyse and to r e f l e c t on t h e i r  138  situation. ability  The s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of Bachmann's method here l i e s i n her  to d e p i c t a multitude  of d i f f i c u l t i e s  and complications  that  confront women i n t h e i r search f o r freedom and i d e n t i t y . Bachmann's women have to s u f f e r and to pay emotionally quest f o r personal freedom.  for their  I t seems that f o r Bachmann the c o n f l i c t s  are deepened i n the case of women because of t h e i r more s e n s i t i v e p s y c h i c make-up.  Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n Der gute Gott von Manhattan the c o n f l i c t ,  which confronts both J e n n i f e r as w e l l as Jan, destroys him. and  J e n n i f e r but not  I n areas other than that of love the s u f f e r i n g becomes l e s s acute the s o l u t i o n s a r e c l o s e r a t hand because the c o n f l i c t s are l e s s  intense.  This i s the case with C h a r l o t t e i n E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha.  In not every case, however, i s t h i s d r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l i s m combined with s u f f e r i n g , as the character o f Gerda w i t h her p a r t i c u l a r concept of t r u t h proves - a t r u t h that c o n s t a n t l y changes according t i o n - ( i n E i n Wildermuth).  to each s i t u a -  As a matter of f a c t her i n d i v i d u a l concept  of t r u t h makes her l i f e e a s i e r and puts her i n a p o s i t i o n s u p e r i o r to that of her husband who comes c l o s e to having for Truth.  a breakdown i n h i s  search  But i n no case does Bachmann l e t her women submit to the  obstacles i n t h e i r way or give up t h e i r search f o r freedom and i d e n t i t y ; not even J e n n i f e r , who i s l i t e r a l l y a n n i h i l a t e d by the i n t e n s i t y of her personal c o n f l i c t s .  One c o n c l u s i o n which could be drawn i s that the  purpose of t h i s aspect of Bachmann's image of the women i s to give a r e a l i s t i c d e p i c t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  the s a c r i f i c e s , the personal  problems involved i n a person's and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n a woman's search f o r freedom and i d e n t i t y , rather than to f o s t e r an a t t i t u d e of r e s i g n a t i o n and d i s i l l u s i o n .  139  Secondly, besides the r e a l i s t i c development of much of the personal problems i n v o l v e d with the quest, Bachmann attempts factory solutions.  to f i n d  satis-  Bachmann l e t s her characters search r e a l i s t i c a l l y  f o r s o l u t i o n s , even compromises, and l e t s them f i n d them on o c c a s i o n . Despite the charge of c r i t i c s of utopianism or of t r y i n g to r e c o n c i l e the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , f o r which i n a way  Bachmann h e r s e l f c o n t r i b u t e d much  support through her n o n — l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g s and i n t e r v i e w s , there i s much 308 evidence f o r more than j u s t a " s t r i v i n g f o r U t o p i a . "  Thus, C h a r l o t t e  t r i e s v a r i o u s approaches to reach her goal of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n ; and Nadja both attempt w i t h v a r y i n g degrees  Elisabeth  of success to reach a s a t i s -  f a c t o r y s t a t e of independence, without having to forego a l l i n t e r p e r s o n a l relationships.  The n a r r a t o r i n M a l i n a seems to approach most c l o s e l y  an  i d e a l s i t u a t i o n by r e t a i n i n g l o v e r and husband, w i t h h o l d i n g a f i n a l commitment to e i t h e r .  A l l t h i s i s seen as strengthening the case f o r a  d i d a c t i c i n t e n t i n the Bachmann image of woman, of her female characters as role-models or experimental images, as Entwiirfe. Bachmann repeatedly speaks i n her l i t e r a r y essays of the models, of the Entwiirfe that the w r i t e r ought to o f f e r .  The d i d a c t i c aspect of  a r t i s c l e a r l y expressed by Bachmann i n her "Frankfurt L e c t u r e s " : . . . Was aber moglich i s t , i n der Tat, i s t Veranderung. Und die verandernde Wirkung, die von neuen Werken ausgeht, e r z i e h t uns zu neuer Wahrnehmung, neuem Gefiihl, neuem Bewufitsein. Wenn s i e eine neue M o g l i c h k e i t e r g r e i f t , g i b t die Kunst d i e M o g l i c h k e i t zu erfahren, wo wir stehen oder wo wir stehen s o l l t e n , wie es mit uns b e s t e l l t i s t und wie es mit uns b e s t e l l t sein s o l l t e . Denn i h r e Entwiirf e *entstehen n i c h t im l u f t l e e r e n Raum.309  140  C.  The L i t e r a r y Aspect of the Image of the Woman As was pointed out i n the previous chapters, the main l i t e r a r y  theme of Bachmann's image of the woman i s the quest f o r a t r u l y dual e x i s t e n c e .  indivi-  Surveying the impressive ranks of great names who have  engaged i n these same i s s u e s , one i s not tempted to a s s i g n n o v e l t y to the theme i t s e l f .  The p a r t i c u l a r merit o f Bachmann, however - and presum-  ably her i n t e n t - must be seen i n the f a c t that she presents the themes of freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i s m predominantly under the aspect of woman and her human environment; world.  the female and her world versus the male and h i s  T h i s g i v e s the theme a very p a r t i c u l a r dimension,  especially  s i n c e Ingeborg Bachmann's women i n no way correspond to the o f t e n r a t h e r crude and polemic images found i n the l i t e r a t u r e of emancipation.  They  have t h e i r k i n r a t h e r i n the more feminine images of the female. Another important f e a t u r e of Bachmann's image of the female i s i t s realism.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n r e l a t i o n to the interdepend-  ence of the inner and outer world.  Frequently t h e o r i e s have been  advanced  that most of the c o n f l i c t s developed by Bachmann r e a l l y take p l a c e i n an inner world, i n a Weitinnenraum, and have to be seen e x c l u s i v e l y i n the psychic realm ( c f . M a l i n a ) . This argument i s not convincing f o r two reasons.  Firstly,  Bachman h e r s e l f repeatedly and outspokenly d i s t a n c e d h e r s e l f from what she c a l l e d German metaphysicism: . . . Ungeheuer w i c h t i g war f u r mich dann.ein anderer E i n f l u f i : die Wiener Schule. Man hat schon immer i n Wien einen scharfen Kampf gegen die deutsche Metaphysik gefiihrt: Nieder mit der deutschen Metaphysik, d i e unser Ungliick i s t . ^ l O In the same i n t e r v i e w Bachmann speaks p o i n t e d l y of the "Verfiihrung . . . zum deutschen I r r a t i o n a l d e n k e n . . . " The c l a r i t y of Bachmann's  141  statements on t h i s t o p i c make the chance of coded meanings and a "deeper" sense In her prose w r i t i n g s very u n l i k e l y .  Inner processes  are presented  as such, as i n the case of "The T h i r d Man," i n the second chapter of Malina.  With a w r i t e r l i k e Bachmann, who p l a c e s so much v a l u e on the  exact r e l a t i o n s h i p between thought and language, and a very p r e c i s e language a t that, there i s l i t t l e room l e f t f o r s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a tion. A second argument against the "inner world opment of her female c h a r a c t e r s .  theory" i s the d e v e l -  T h i s development e x h i b i t s an intense 311  interdependence between the p h y s i c a l and the p s y c h i c realm.  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y the case with Bachmann's main theme o f freedom and s e l f realization.  Evidence has been s u p p l i e d i n the previous  chapters  the inner f e e l i n g of being f r e e i s always accompanied by a  that  consciousness  of s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n - small as i t may sometimes be i n a c t u a l i t y - of the female character from her environment.  A l l of Bachmann's women need  p h y s i c a l and s p a t i a l freedom as a p r e r e q u i s i t e to any degree of inner freedom.  Bachmann appears to p o s t u l a t e a t h e s i s of interdependence  between the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c s i t u a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l . c l e a r l y speaks of the deformation Malina.  A l s o , she  of the n a r r a t o r ' s mind and body i n  She must, t h e r e f o r e , expect to be taken l i t e r a l l y whenever she  develops any "outer" c o n f l i c t s .  This does not deny o r i n v a l i d a t e the  f a c t that Bachmann makes use of symbols and metaphors, that she allows much, space to the u n r e a l and to the dream-world. Another p o i n t that i s of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s context i s the u n i t y of Bachmann's image of the woman. presented  Analysing  the f a c t s and observations  i n t h i s study, i t appears that there are great  similarities  142  between the v a r i o u s female c h a r a c t e r s i n background, p e r s o n a l data, y o u t h f u l experience, and environment:  there i s much congruency.  The  f u r t h e r the development of the i n d i v i d u a l woman i s t r a c e d , however, the more d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s that accumulate.  We may conclude that Bachmann's  i n t e n t was r a t h e r to show i n d i v i d u a l responses and r e a c t i o n s to s i m i l a r problems and challenges than to develop completely u n r e l a t e d female characterizations.  Keeping t h i s i n mind, the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of responses  and r e a c t i o n s becomes even more s i g n i f i c a n t .  I t i s the main theme of  freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i s m that t i e s the v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l images together and allows us to speak o f the image of the woman, a common image i n the sense of s i m i l a r l y motivated responses to a common challenge.  Any  author's attempt t o develop a c o l l e c t i v e image would, i n Bachmann's view, stereotype the i n d i v i d u a l . A d i s c u s s i o n o f the l i t e r a r y aspect of Bachmann's image of the woman would be incomplete without a f i n a l look at the p o e t i c form of the authoress' p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The overt nature of Bachmann's r h e t o r i c ,  imagery, and symbolism i n h e r prose, o f t e n the t a r g e t of n e g a t i v e c r i t i cism as opposed to the p o s i t i v e response to her poetry, can, we b e l i e v e , he defended:  Bachmann's " p o e t i c " imagery and d i c t i o n a c t i v e l y support  her main theme of the woman and h e r search f o r personal freedom and i n d i vidualism.  The extensive symbolic development of the male as opposed to  the female has been discussed i n previous chapters.  Of the many a d d i -  t i o n a l m o t i f s that have only been touched upon above, the most f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r r i n g i s water. Water and ocean were found to be the most c o n s i s t e n t l y used metaphors.  They are c l e a r l y used to represent the image of freedom. I t  143  seems that Bachmann s e l e c t e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r substance, water, because of i t s amorphous-quality, unhindered  because i t f a c i l i t a t e s  three dimensional,  movement ( t h i s f i g u r a t i v e p i c t u r e of freedom was  used  exten-  s i v e l y i n the r a d i o - p l a y E i n Geschaft mit Traumen i n the underwater scene during the t h i r d dream), and f i n a l l y ,  because of the image of  l i m i t l e s s n e s s that i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the ocean.  A l l t h i s made  i t very s u i t a b l e f o r use i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of her v i s i o n of freedom. There i s h a r d l y a s i n g l e s t o r y or r a d i o - p l a y where water i s not assigned t h i s r o l e and only few heroines who themselves i n i t .  do not at one  time or another  immerse  Water i s Bachmann's major symbol f o r freedom and  most e x t e n s i v e l y used metaphor i n her n a r r a t i v e prose.  the  This basic  symbolic meaning of water i s enhanced by Bachmann's p e r s i s t e n t use of s o l i d ground as an a n t i t h e t i c a l image r e p r e s e n t i n g the r i g i d  (and  secure)  312 world of the male.  A most e f f e c t i v e example of t h i s use o-f water  imagery i n conjunction with i t s a n t i t h e s i s , t e r r a firma, occurs i n Undine geht, i n one of those e x c e p t i o n a l moments when Undine f e e l s h e r s e l f on the verge of s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplishing  the G r e n z i i b e r t r i t t with a male  lover: Dann sind a l l e Wasser iiber die Ufer getreten, die Fliisse haben s i c h erhoben, die Seerosen s i n d g l e i c h hundertweis erbliiht und ertrunken, und das Meer war e i n machtvoller Seufzer, es schlug, schlug und rannte und r o l l t e gegen die Erde an, daB seine Lefzen t r i e f t e n von weiBem Schaum.^l^  D.  A S o c i a l Intent? Although Bachmann seems nowhere to formulate c l e a r s o c i a l  or to express  sympathy with s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s , one may  theses,  speculate  about the s o c i a l theme present i n the development of her image of the  144 woman.  In t h i s essay "Das Ungliick und d i e G o t t e s l i e b e - Der Weg Simone  Weils" Bachmann points to Simone Weil's r e j e c t i o n of Taylorism, the Ford System or any other r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of human work.  She r e c a l l s  Weil's o p p o s i t i o n to the s o - c a l l e d psychotechnic, the time s t u d i e s of assemblyline work and c a l l s t h i s the p e r f e c t i o n of s l a v e r y : Weil: "In a l i e n anderen Formen der S k l a v e r e i l i e g t d i e S k l a v e r e i i n den Umstanden. Nur h i e r wird s i e i n d i e A r b e i t s e l b s t getragen." Simone Weil bekampft darum auch h e f t i g die Anwendung der Psychotechnik - d i e s i c h damals iibrigens noch i n einem Anfangszustand befand - und meinte, dafi unter der D i k t a t u r i h r e r Berechnungen, etwa iiber einsetzende Ermiidung, Abnehmen der Aufmerksamkeit nach soundsoviel Arbeitsstunden usw., d i e Versklavung p e r f e k t werde.314 The p o s t u l a t e :  " a n a l y t i c a l , r a t i o n a l thought  appears to apply once a g a i n .  = negative  results"  I f we are c o r r e c t i n applying these  ideas to Bachmann's male-female t h e s i s , then we would c e r t a i n l y have to admit at l e a s t a degree of s o c i a l i n t e n t .  T h i s i d e a would a l s o  help to e x p l a i n Bachmann's o c c a s i o n a l reference to the male world and i t s a t t i t u d e s as f a s c i s t .  E.  The I n t e l l e c t u a l Design of Bachmann's Image o f the Woman I t remains to take a f i n a l look at the o v e r a l l  intellectual  design of her image of the woman as i t emerges from t h i s  study.  Bachmann h e r s e l f does not o f f e r much more than a casual remark i n answer to a question of K. Sauerland about the purpose of her choice of women as leading c h a r a c t e r s : . . . und mir i s t e i n g e f a l l e n , dafi friiher immer d i e groBen S c h r i f t s t e l l e r , . . . grofien Wert darauf gelegt haben, . . . die Mores einer Z e i t durch eine Reihe von Frauenportrats zu zeigen. Bei mir stehen zwar die Frauen im M i t t e l p u n k t , aber es i s t n i c h t unwichtig, was rundherum i s t , i h r e Beziehungen zu i h r e r A r b e i t , zu i h r e n Mannern.315  145  She a l s o o f f e r s the r a t h e r vague formula o f the " W l e d e r s p l e l des Unmoglichen mit dem Moglichen".  However, reviewing and summarizing  the observations and conclusions advanced i n the previous we see a complex c o n f l i c t - l a d e n image t a k i n g on f i n a l  chapters,  contours.  Departing from a " t r a d i t i o n a l " male and female r o l e and i d e n t i t y s t r u c t u r e , Bachmann's women have evolved i n t o a s t a t e of modified t i o n a l " substance,  "tradi-  i n f l u e n c e d by and a l l i e d with the new components of an  urge f o r freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  This development has upset the  o r i g i n a l complementation and balance of the male and female s e x - s p e c i f i c i d e n t i t i e s and has l e d to a very problematic r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. The c o n f l i c t s a r i s e from the f a c t that the male partner has l a r g e l y r e t a i n e d h i s o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n , whereas the female has evolved. " t r a d i t i o n a l " female behaviour  forms such as emotionalism  (Because  and thought  pat-  terns such as i r r a t i o n a l i t y had been upgraded i n t o p o s i t i v e and d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s , much of t h e i r o r i g i n a l l y harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p with male opposites has been destroyed.)  their  The added d e s i r e of the woman f o r  freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y has i n t e n s i f i e d t h i s c o n f l i c t u n t i l there a r e now  two worlds i n o p p o s i t i o n .  We can, however, a l s o observe the  continued existence o f the " t r a d i t i o n a l " female image as represented, f o r instance, by the Menschenfrauen i n Undine geht o r the "common" women as i n E i n Requiem f u r Fanny Goldmann.  No n o t i c e a b l e disharmony e x i s t s  between them and t h e i r male p a r t n e r s .  Continuing our a n a l y s i s of the  essence  of Bachmann's heroines, we found, a complex s t r u c t u r e o f opposing  d r i v e s and disagreeing elements.  On one s i d e there was s t i l l  the strong  longing f o r love, a f f e c t i o n , paternalism, and p r o t e c t i o n which now clashed with the urge f o r freedom and the development o f the s e l f on the  146 other.  In the absence of s i m i l a r l y evolved male p a r t n e r s , Bachmann's  heroines are confronted with extremely the male.  d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  Since Bachmann's women are unable  to r e s i s t f o r very long  t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n to men, because of t h e i r r e t e n t i o n of much of t h e i r o r i g i n a l sex-typed  longings and because of t h e i r l i b i d o , they enter i n t o  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with men which turn out at best to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and at worst to end w i t h the d e s t r u c t i o n of the female's  inner e x i s t e n c e .  Hence, Bachmann's heroines p l a c e t h e i r hope i n the p o s s i b l e escape from t h i s c o n d i t i o n , the G r e n z u b e r t r i t t , an existence which i s f r e e of these limitations,  c o n f l i c t s and r e s t r i c t i o n s . t  GRENZUBERTRITT OR DEATH  t DEADLY CONFLICT' ATTRACTION  CONFLICT,  COMPLEMENTING gjj VALUES » M  FREEDOM INDEPENDENCE  PART IV.  CONCLUSION  CHAPTER X A SUMMARY DISCUSSION OF MAJOR INTERPRETATIONS  A f t e r having presented v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s to which our analyses have l e d , we w i l l compare them now to those which d e a l w i t h i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r areas i n Bachmann research.  Noted c r i t i c s  such  as H. Pausch,^"^ E. S u m m e r f i e l d , S . Weigel,^"^ and M. Jurgensen^"'"^ not only o f f e r views on the nature of Bachmann's heroines but a l s o d i s c u s s other aspects of the Todesarten novels. An e v a l u a t i o n of Pausch's e x c e l l e n t a n a l y s i s o f Bachmann's image of  the woman must, i n order to be f a i r , consider the f a c t that i t  appeared  before the p u b l i c a t i o n of the fragments of two of the Todesarten  novels and that i t , t h e r e f o r e , argues  from a more l i m i t e d p o i n t of view.  Nonetheless, Pausch's d i s c u s s i o n of the female characters i n Bachmann's f i c t i o n i s so s u b s t a n t i a l that i t merits c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Pausch's f i r s t  t h e s i s r e s t s on the premise  that s o c i a l  convention  and r o l e e t h i c s subjugate Bachmann's heroines and p r i v i l e g e the male. According to him,  the women i n Simultan r e j e c t and break f r e e of t h e i r  " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e image: In  den fiinf Erzahlungen  des Bandes Simultan wird der Ausbruch  aus der t r a d i t i o n e l l e n R o l l e n e t h i k der Frau i n der G e s e l l s c h a f t n i c h t mehr wie i n E i n S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha p h i l o s o p h i e r e n d untermauert. . . . Hier e n d l i c h werden d i e M o g l i c h k e i t e n e i n e r neuen S i t t l i c h k e i t p r a k t i z i e r t . Abgesehen von Frau Jordan . . . sind fiir a l l e Hauptpersonen SelbstbewuStsein und Unabhangigkeit Grundverhalten.320 147  148  Pausch then explains the absence of s u c c e s s f u l marriages i n the Simultan s t o r i e s by blaming the men's ignorance of the woman's r i g h t to independence and he c r e d i t s the women w i t h a r e b e l l i o u s claim to the p r i v i l e g e s of a man's world: I n einer Welt, i n der der Mann das Recht auf d i e E i g e n s t a n d i g k e i t der Frau noch n i c h t b e g r l f f e n hat, haben auch Ehen keinen Sinn mehr, . . . In d i e s e n Erzahlungen werden d i e von der Welt des Mannes abonnierten P r i v i l e g l e n "simultan", a l s o von beiden Geschlechtern g l e l c h z e i t i g beansprucht. Daher pas sen zu der Slmultandolmetscherln Nadja i n der T i t e l e r z a h l u n g Simultan d i e Eigenschaften eines vom Beruf besessenen Mannes recht gut.321 Here, Pausch's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l convention and " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e  images entrapping the woman, espouses the kind of emancipatory - even f e m i n i s t - l i n e s o f thought which we have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e j e c t e d . Pausch's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ignores, f o r i n s t a n c e , the c r i t i c a l  statements  made by Nadja i n "Simultan" - some of which we have quoted e a r l i e r about such "male" a c t i v i t i e s as r e s e a r c h and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . • Although Pausch d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n q u i t e r i g h t l y to the heroine's d e s i r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , h i s l i n e of approach leads him to underestimate the deeper substance of Bachmann's male-female  antagonism.  By t r a c i n g the  c o n f l i c t to a d e n i a l of self-development, to a s t r a i t j a c k e t of "Rollenzwang" and " S i t t l i c h k e i t s d e n k e n " that i s enforced by the male i n a male-dominated  s o c i e t y , to a p r e f a b r i c a t e d r o l e from which Bachmann's  females t r y to escape, Pausch reduces the i s s u e l a r g e l y to one of s o c i a l and sexual emancipation.  In c o n t r a s t to t h i s , we have t r i e d to show  that there e x i s t s a b a s i c i n c o m p a t a b i l i f y between the male's and the female's world and an a n t a g o n i s t i c form of existence that transcends emancipatory s o c i a l i s s u e s .  Bachmann's heroines can not gain freedom  149  by a t t a i n i n g the p r i v i l e g e s of the male.  Furthermore,  by r e j e c t i n g the  existence of " t r a d i t i o n a l " elements i n Bachmann's image of the female Pausch i s unable to expose the inner dilemma of these women: Im Werk von Ingeborg Bachmann e n d l i c h begegnen wir einem Frauentypus . . . auf den d i e t r a d i t i o n e l l e n R o l l e n l e i t b i l d e r n i c h t mehr anwendbar s i n d . H i e r werden d i e . . . [ t r a d i t i o n e l l e n ] Kategorien der R o l l e n e t h i k der Frau t o t a l n e g i e r t und durchbrochen.322 As a consequence, he f a i l s to e x p l a i n the seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y behaviour of Bachmann's women as i n the case of Undine who repeatedly returns with eager d e s i r e to the world of the male which she has i n d i c t e d so h a r s h l y : Trotz i h r e r S c h a r f s i e h t f u r d i e Logik des Mannes, d i e Undine h e f t i g ablehnt, i s t s i e eine A r t t r a g i s c h e s Wesen, denn nach der Abrechnung b l e i b t i h r nur vorbehalten, d i e g l e i c h e n Fehler erneut zu begehen. "Komm", so r i c h t e t s i c h abschlieBend wieder i h r Ruf an d i e Menschen, "nur einmal. Komm."323 Pausch's second Bachmann's novel Malina.  and more d e t a i l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n deals with He conceives Malina and the n a r r a t o r as two  a n t i t h e t i c a l p a r t s of one person  (the " e p i c I " ) .  These p a r t s are unable  to c o e x i s t because e x t e r n a l moral codes favour Malina but cause the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the n a r r a t o r : Diese B i p o l a r i t a t aber wird von der "Aufienwelt", von dem herrschenden Moralsystem zugunsten der Entscheidung fiir eine Seite unterdruckt. Und eben daran geht auch das I c h i n Malina, wo der Vorstofi gewagt wird,zugrunde.324 Pausch continues by d e s c r i b i n g the n a r r a t o r and - i n a wider context Bachmann's heroines i n general as characters of h y p e r s e n s i b i l i t y w i t h drawing i n t o an inner world, as characters who question t h e i r own existence and admit to a "Verhaltensschwache".  Although, Pausch p o i n t s  q u i t e c o r r e c t l y to the outside f o r c e s a c t i n g upon the n a r r a t o r i n  150  Malina, which he terms "herrschende Moralsysteme"  and which we have defined  as the male world, we d i s a g r e e s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he a c c r e d i t s the n a r r a t o r and the dynamics of the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the characters.  We have e a r l i e r t r i e d to show the great value Bachmann  attaches to the woman's ways of p e r c e i v i n g and e x i s t i n g i n c o n t r a s t to the man's.  Pausch's view o f the n a r r a t o r ("Der h y p e r s e n s i b l e n E r z a h l e r i n  i s t AuBenwelt n i c h t nur gegenstandslos geworden, sondern u n e r t r a g l i c h , 325 und das s e i t der Bekanntschaft mit Ivan."  ) appears to c o n t r a d i c t  s u b s t a n t i a l l y the n a r r a t o r ' s many statements about the r e - g e n e r a t i o n o f her s e l f brought about by Ivan which enables her:  " . . . mit den e r s t e n 326  Worten d i e s e r Welt wieder d i e Ehre zu erweisen, . . . " her outer e x i s t e n c e :  and to r e a s s e r t  " E n d l i c h gehe i c h auch i n meinem F l e i s c h herum,  mit dem Korper, der mir durch eine Verachtung fremd geworden i s t , 327 . . ."  Furthermore, Pausch's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n a r r a t o r ' s c h a r a c t e r  seems to c o n t r a d i c t h i s e a r l i e r view of the l e a d i n g females i n .Bachmann's stories:  "Abgesehen von Frau Jordan . . . sind f u r a l l e 328  Selbstbewufltsein und Unabhangigkeit Grundverhalten."  Hauptpersonen  Although one  might argue here that these women a c t along the l i n e s o f the n a r r a t o r ' s Malina p a r t , i t seems to us that such an argument would be r a t h e r contrived.  We f e e l that our own approach i s a more c o n s i s t e n t a n a l y s i s  of a l l o f Bachmann's h e r o i n e s .  I t may be added that Pausch's  analysis  of a "Verhaltensschwache" on the p a r t o f the n a r r a t o r i n Malina shows l i n e s of analogy to Jordan's a n a l y s i s o f Franza.  There, Bachmann t r i e s  to show that Franza's "abnormal" behaviour - as Jordan sees i t - i s caused by Jordan himself as one of the means by which he " k i l l s " Franza. Likewise the n a r r a t o r ' s p r o g r e s s i v e l y s o l i p s i s t i c behaviour, caused by  151 f e a r j u s t as i n Franza's case, must be seen as induced by Malina and foreshadowing her murder.  Furthermore, much of Pausch's evidence to  prove the "Verhaltensschwache"  of the n a r r a t o r , such as r e j e c t i o n of  the "verordnete Denken", of p l a n n i n g , of r e g u l a r u s e f u l a c t i v i t y , of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and bureaucracy, we have e a r l i e r shown to be part of the v i s i o n of Bachmann's h e r o i n e s :  a v i s i o n of a b e t t e r world based  on  i n d i v i d u a l freedom and an e x i s t e n c e without p r e - d e f i n e d behaviour and male-dominated g o a l s .  In short, Pausch blames the murder on the v i c t i m  r a t h e r than on M a l i n a and the world of the male. because  she does not know how  The n a r r a t o r i s k i l l e d  to s u r v i v e .  Pausch counterbalances h i s concept of a weak and  introverted  n a r r a t o r with that of a strong, supportive Malina and, going beyond he sees Malina " n i c h t nur a l s Gegensatz,  sondern a l s i n t e g r a l e r T e i l  this, des  329 epischen Ichs".  As evidence, he p o i n t s to the many passages on the  "Doppelleben" and to the important statement of the n a r r a t o r :  "Ich b i n  330 auch Malinas Geschopf."  I t would lead us astray to enter here i n t o  a d i s c u s s i o n on s t r u c t u r a l i s s u e s .  We have taken - c o n t r a r y to most  c r i t i c s - what we hope to be a more p e r c e p t i v e approach.  In our view,  Bachmann, i n t h i s passage, d i d not imply a double i d e n t i t y between Malina and the n a r r a t o r but shows the gradual d i s t o r t i o n of part of the narrator's s e l f by Malina.  She also shows the dichotomy  between the  n a r r a t o r ' s true s e l f and Malina's image of the n a r r a t o r ' s s e l f , h i s " c r e a t u r e " which i n important aspects equals Ivan's " c r e a t u r e " as both have t h e i r o r i g i n i n the man's image of the woman. l o v e r s , Malina and Ivan, Bachmann demonstrates woman who  Using two  different  the c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n a  i s equally a t t r a c t e d by a benign, more s e l f p r e s e r v i n g  152  p a r t n e r s h i p and a submissive,  ultimately selfdestructive relationship.  I t i s the n a r r a t o r i n Malina who  e x h i b i t s the t r a g i c nature of Bachmann'  heroines most i m p r e s s i v e l y . A more d e t a i l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Malina than Pausch's i s o f f e r e by E l l e n Summerfield.  Approaching the problem of r e l a t i n g the main  characters through the concept of the " a u f g e l o s t e Romanfigur" she argues Indem Bachmann durch d i e D a r s t e l l u n g der a u f g e l o s t e n F i g u r i h r e Frauenfigur, d i e Hauptgestalt und E r z a h l e r i n des Romans, mit den Personen i h r e r Umwelt verschrankt, s c h a f f t s i e e i n i n der deutschen L i t e r a t u r b i s h e r einmaliges B i l d des modernen Frauenbewufltseins. . . . Am B e i s p i e l i h r e r f i k t i v e n E r z a h l e r i n , . . . s t e l l t Bachmann die menschliche S i t u a t i o n e i n e r runden, v i e l s e i t i g e n t f a l t e t e n F r a u e n p e r s o n l i c h k e i t dar, d i e s i c h gegen Unterdriickung und Unterschatzung a u f l e h n t und s i c h a l s E i n z e l p e r s o n im " K r i e g " mit der T r a d i t i o n b e f i n d e t . Eine Losung i h r e r Problematik i s t der Romandarstellung nach n i c h t moglich.331 Proceeding  f u r t h e r than Pausch, Summerfield i n t e r p r e t s Malina as an  element of male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the n a r r a t o r : Geht man  davon aus, daB Malina e i n T e i l der Ich-Figur i s t ,  k l a r t s i c h i n h a l t l i c h v i e l e s auf. Zunachst l a B t s i c h d i e Z e i t der Begegnung ganz anders verstehen: d i e Begegnungen s t e l l e n dar, daB e i n anderer T e i l i h r e s Selbst s i c h entw i c k e l t und behauptet. Vernunft, S e l b s t a n d i g k e i t und S a c h l i c h k e i t werden b e i d i e s e r Frau e r s t im Lauf der Jahre erworben, b i s s i e zum starken, permanenten T e i l i h r e s Wesens werden.332 At the same time, she r e t a i n s him a l s o as an independent subject by means of the concept of the "aufgeloste F i g u r " which she derives from the t h e s i s that there can not be a separation of inner and existence:  "Malinas E x i s t e n z a l s T e i l der Hauptfigur  outer  s c h l i e B t jedoch 333  n i c h t aus, daB  er auch a l s unabhangiger Mensch zu betrachten i s t . "  With the a i d of the "aufgeloste Romanfigur" the "murder" can then be seen as a withdrawal and  l o s s of the n a r r a t o r ' s feminine  l a y e r - a very  153  " t r a d i t i o n a l " l a y e r of "Hingabebereitschaft, Liebenswiirdigkeit und H i l f s b e r e i t s c h a f t " - and as an emerging of M a l i n a w i t h i n her. expansion  i s necessary f o r her  His  survival.  Durch d i e Risse und Sprunge und e n d l i c h das Verschwinden i n der Wand wird b i l d l i c h d a r g e s t e l l t , was i n d i e s e r Person vorgeht. Ihr I c h - T e i l , der an Ivan gebunden i s t , z i e h t s i c h zuriick, l a B t s i c h verschwinden. Die M a l i n a - S e i t e i h r e r P e r s o n l i c h k e i t b r e i t e t s i c h aus und h e r r s c h t iiber die Person.  ^  However, by i n t r o v e r t i n g the c o n f l i c t and murder i n t h i s manner, Summerfield  dismantles the element of f o r c e , of i n t r u s i o n i n t o ,  and  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f , the n a r r a t o r ' s i d e n t i t y , a l l implied i n Malina and the other Todesarten novels. is lost.  In other words, the meaning of murder  HeiBenbiittel, whose p o s i t i o n i s more extreme than that of  Summerfield,  (he assumes an inner world only) asks q u i t e r i g h t l y :  "Aber wer hat gemordet? . . . Wenn S u b j e k t i v i t a t s t i r b t , a b s t i r b t ,  was 335  i s t das Objektive, das fiir dies Absterben v e r a n t w o r t l i c h s e i n kann?" This view becomes even more problematic when Summerfield,  very  much l i k e Pausch, attaches r a t h e r p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and values to the n a r r a t o r ' s M a l i n a p a r t .  Malina, then, i s seen as the  "ausgleichende, erganzende, v o r s i c h t i g e , niichterne, unabhangige" p a r t of the n a r r a t o r :  "Er i s t d i e r a t i o n a l e , lebensfahige, s e l b s t a n d i g e 336  S e i t e i h r e r Person."  As a consequence, Summerfield  appears  to have  d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g t h i s p o s i t i v e aspect of Malina which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the n a r r a t o r ' s s u r v i v a l to the a c t u a l murder:  "DaB  Malina d i e  Fuhrung iibernimmt, i s t keine p o s i t i v e Losung, sondern wird a l s e i n 337 'Sterben' i n Malina und a l s Mord bezeichnet."  This and the diminuation  of Malina as an a c t i v e agent have caused Summerfield  to a r r i v e at a  much l e s s d e f i n i t e conclusion about the murder and murderer than we have:  154  Die I c h - F i g u r l e b t so lange i n der Umgebung von Mordern, es i s t i h r so v i e l Unmenschliches angetan worden, daB der Mord am Ende n i c h t a l s einzelne Gewalttat zu v e r s t e h e n i s t , sondern a l s Ausdruck des B r u t a l e n und T o d l i c h e n i n den menschlichen Beziehungen. . . . Es i s t k e i n konkreter Mord der i n M a l i n a d a r g e s t e l l t wird. Es geht um d i e A r t , einen anderen zu behandeln, so mit ihm umzugehen, daB es s c h l i e B l i c h s e i n Ende bedeutet. Mord und Selbstmord sind beide d a r i n enthalten.338 S i m i l a r l y , Ivan i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n substance as the n a r r a t o r ' s " L i e b e s p r i n z i p " and as her "Anlage zur Liebe und Hingabe". Summerfield  Although  q u i t e r i g h t l y p o i n t s to the r e s t r a i n i n g e f f e c t of Ivan on  the n a r r a t o r ' s s e l f ("Er erkennt d i e I n d i v i d u a l i t a t der I c h - F i g u r n i c h t an, sondern zwingt s i e i n eine e i n s e i t i g e R o l l e . "  339  ) and assigns him  a r o l e i n the murder ("Ivan i s t j a i h r G e l i e b t e r , aber im gewissen 340 Sinne i s t er auch i h r Morder."  ), she e s s e n t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e s the  breakdown of the Ivan-narrator r e l a t i o n s h i p to disappointed love followed by the n a r r a t o r ' s i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e on her sober and  realistic  Malina p a r t . Thus, by i d e n t i f y i n g M a l i n a and Ivan at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y with the "Ich" character, Summerfield of the female.  Summerfield  a l s o erodes Bachmann's concept of the murder leaves l i t t l e room f o r any s u b s t a n t i a l "Ich"  part of the n a r r a t o r which - as we have shown above - has been e x t e n s i v e l y developed by Bachmann h e r s e l f .  One needs only r e c a l l i n t h i s context  the n a r r a t o r ' s answers i n the Miihlbauer interview.  Throughout  the novel  the n a r r a t o r develops an i n d i v i d u a l substance independent of Malina and Ivan.  We have d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n e a r l i e r to the symbolism of the  n a r r a t o r ' s dressing h e r s e l f and applying extensive make-up under the theme "eine Frau i s t zu e r s c h a f f e n . "  She accounts:  155  Ich mochte aber beim Anprobieren Ivan n i c h t h i e r haben, M a l i n a schon gar n i c h t , i c h kann nur, w e i l Malina n i c h t da i s t , o f t i n den S p i e g e l sehen, i c h muB mich im K o r r i d o r vor dem langen Spiegel mehrmals drehen, meilenweit, k l a f t e r t i e f , himmelhoch, sagenweit e n t f e r n t von den Mannern.341 And, ich  l a t e r i n the same scene, she goes on:  "Einen Augenblick lang war  u n s t e r b l i c h und i c h , i c h war n i c h t da fiir Ivan und habe n i c h t i n  Ivan g e l e b t , . . . "  342  Immortality, i t seems, can here be achieved  only w i t h i n the e x c l u s i v e l y female realm, her true s e l f . It  may  be added that our a n a l y s i s of Summerfield's  concept of  "aufgeloste F i g u r " was not only t r o u b l e d by o c c a s i o n a l vagueness on c r u c i a l p o i n t s such as the exact r e l a t i o n s h i p between the " I c h " and its  Malina and Ivan substances but a l s o by her terminology as i n the  following  passage:  W i c h t i g k e i t sowie V e r s c h i e d e n h e i t der beiden Beziehungen b r i n g t die Ich-Figur zur Sprache, a l s s i e iiber den Gebrauch von Du und Sie s p r i c h t . Obwohl s i e "sonst immer" S i e gebraucht, hat s i e von Anfang an sowohl Malina wie Ivan geduzt. Dies deutet auf keine G l e i c h h e i t oder Ebenbiirtigkeit h i n , denn d i e beiden Du unterscheiden s i c h voneinander, s i e s i n d "durch einen unmeBbaren, unwagbaren Druck auf den Ausdruck verschieden". Die Ich-Figur e r k l a r t w e i t e r : "Mein Du fiir Malina i s t genau und geeignet fiir unsere Gesprache und unsere Auseinandersetzungen. Mein Du fiir Ivan i s t ungenau, es kann s i c h v e r f a r b e n , verdunkeln, l i c h t e n , es kann sprode, m i l d oder zaghaft werden, unbegrenzt i s t d i e Skala seiner Expressionen . . ." Eine a h n l i c h e Bestatigung der G l e i c h w e r t i g k e i t der zwei verschiedenen Mannern [ s i c ] kommt spater im Roman vor, a l s d i e I c h - F i g u r einen Fragebogen aus einer a l t e n Z e i t s c h r i f t a u s f i i l l t . Auf d i e Fragen iiber Manner antwortet Ich ganz anders fiir Ivan a l s fiir Malina, aber s i e bekommen am Ende d i e g l e i c h e Anzahl von Punkten: ". . .am Ende hat Ivan 26 Punkte, Malina auch 26 Punkte, obwohl i c h fiir jeden i n ganz verschiedene Kastchen Kreuze machen muBte. Ich addiere noch einmal. Es b l e i b t b e i 26 Punkten fiir jeden."343 Is  " G l e i c h w e r t i g k e i t " opposed to " G l e i c h h e i t oder Ebenbiirtigkeit"? Although Summerfield's  concept of " a u f g e l o s t e F i g u r "  igue from the p o i n t of view of s t r u c t u r e and may  may  be a convenient  156  device f o r overcoming some of the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e problems of Malina, i t appears to be h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e .  Summerfield impresses the reader  with a wealth of quotations from, and references to, Malina to prove her p o i n t s , yet a c l o s e r a n a l y s i s of her methods o f t e n r e v e a l s a somewhat a r b i t r a r y way  of s e l e c t i n g her evidence.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e example of t h i s :  The f o l l o w i n g i s a  Summerfield argues that the s u r v i v a l  of the n a r r a t o r ' s Malina p a r t can be explained by h i s work at the Army museum.  "DaB Malina f a h i g i s t weiterzuleben, hangt damit zusammen,  daB er d i e Beschaftigung mit dem Kriegswesen zu seinem Beruf machte. . . . E r muB  d i e M i t t e l kennen, deren s i c h d i e Menschen bedienten, um 344  zu iiberleben."  This may  sound reasonable; however, Summerfield  now  f a i l s to apply the same reasoning to the Ivan p a r t i n the n a r r a t o r ' s personality.  Ivan, the n a r r a t o r t e l l s us, works f o r a f i n a n c i a l  i n s t i t u t i o n i n Vienna.  This i s hardly an a c t i v i t y .that can be seen  as symbolic of the " L i e b e s p r i n z i p " or the "Verkorperung i h r e r Anlage zur L i e b e und Hingabe" that Ivan, according to Summerfield, stands for.  This p o i n t should even be more important f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of Ivan since Summerfield contends that Ivan's inner and outer existence are more c l o s e l y fused than Malina's. Another disadvantage of the concept of "aufgelbste F i g u r " as against our own  i s that i t can not be a p p l i e d to most of Bachmann's  other main characters i n c l u d i n g her female p r o t a g o n i s t s .  Summerfield  appears to have d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g f u r t h e r "aufgeloste Figuren". She f i n d s traces of i t i n M o l l (Das d r e l B i g s t e J a h r ) , Hans (Undine geht), Wildermuth ( E i n Wildermuth) and to an even l e s s e r extent i n E l i s a b e t h (Drei Wege zum See), and admits that "In den neuesten  157  Erzahlungen im Band Simultan (1972) s p i e l t d i e aufgeloste besondere R o l l e mehr."  Blick.  keine  345  Summerfield's concept of the "aufgeloste the b a s i s  Figur  F i g u r " also provides  f o r S i g r i d Weigel's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Malina i n "Der schielende  Thesen zur Geschichte w e i b l i c h e r  Schreibpraxis."  Weigel  i n t e r p r e t s Malina and Bachmann's women i n the l a r g e r context of "Frauenliteratur".  She s t a r t s upon the premise that female w r i t e r s  l i v i n g i n a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y and w r i t i n g about women are determined by,  and under the i n f l u e n c e o f , images o f the women that have been  developed by a male c u l t u r e .  Thus, t h e i r view of women i s d i s t o r t e d  by a "male b i a s " : Da d i e k u l t u r e l l e Ordnung von Mannern r e g i e r t wird, aber d i e Frauen i h r dennoch angehoren, benutzen auch diese d i e Normen, deren Objekt s i e s e l b s t s i n d . D.h. die Frau i n der mannlichen Ordnung i s t z u g l e i c h b e t e i l i g t und ausgegrenzt. Fur das Selbstverstandnis der Frau bedeutet das, daB s i e s i c h s e l b s t b e t r a c h t e t , indem s i e s i e h t , dafi und wie s i e betrachtet wird; d.h. i h r e Augen sehen durch d i e B r i l l e des Mannes. (Die Metapher " B r i l l e " i m p l i z i e r t d i e Utopie eines b e f r e i t e n , b r i l l e n l o s e n B l i c k s . ) Wahrend s i e d i e Betrachtung der AufienWelt dem weitschweifenden B l i c k des Mannes iiberlassen hat, i s t s i e f i x i e r t auf eine im musternden B l i c k des Mannes gebrochene Selbst-Betrachtung. Ihr S e l b s t b i l d n i s entsteht i h r so im Z e r r - S p i e g e l des P a t r i a r c h a t s . Auf der Suche nach ihrem eigenen B i l d mufi s i e den Spiegel von den durch mannliche Hand aufgemalten Frauenbildern befreien.346 Weigel l i k e n s the male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p to one between e x p l o i t e r and  the e x p l o i t e d , between c o l o n i z e r and the colonized  eventual authentic female l i t e r a t u r e being created  and sees an  only by a feminine  s e l f that i s f r e e of a l l references to nerms, s o c i a l r o l e s , and c u l t u r e determined by men: Ihre Inhalte und Erzahlformen s i n d n i c h t umstandslos a l s o r i g i n a r e weibliche Ausdrucksformen zu beschreiben, sondern a l s Bewegungsversuche innerhalb der mannlichen Kultur und a l s B e f r e i u n g s s c h r i t t e daraus. Die Anfange einer weiblichen l i t e r a r i s c h e n T r a d i t i o n sind uberwiegend  158 u n - e i g e n t l i c h e Selbstaufierungen von Frauen im doppelten Sinne des Wortes: Aufierungen des u n e i g e n t l i c h e n , anderen Geschlechts und u n - e i g e n t l i c h e , d.h. n i c h t w i r k l i c h eigene Aufierungen. Das Z i e l e i n e r u n v e r s t e l l t e n F r a u e n l i t e r a t u r i s t dann e r r e i c h t , wenn es Frauen moglich s e i n wird, o f f e n t l i c h " i c h " zu sagen, ohne Bezug nehmen zu miissen auf mannliche Bestimmungen i h r e r G e s c h l e c h t s r o l l e . . . . wenn d i e lebende und schreibende Frau i h r e Doppelexistenz im Muster der herrschenden B i l d e r und i n der A n t i z i p a t i o n der b e f r e i t e n Frau iiberwunden hat.347 Applying t h i s i d e a of "Doppelexistenz" (with i t s problem o f love and happiness versus s u r v i v a l and e x i s t e n c e ) and Summerfield's  concept  of " a u f g e l o s t e F i g u r " to Malina, Weigel i n t e r p r e t s the n a r r a t o r ' s c o n f l i c t as a s t r u g g l e between (male) reason and (female) love, e i t h e r one d i s a l l o w i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f a separate, i n d i v i d u a l , female s e l f .  Weigel  assumes that the b a s i c c o n d i t i o n o f today's woman, one which presents a f u s i o n between the male image of womanhood and female i d e n t i t y , makes the c r e a t i o n o f a l i b e r a t e d woman impossible.  I t seems to us that  Weigel's r a t h e r r e s t r i c t e d and m a t e r i a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n of the h i s t o r i c c o n d i t i o n of women ( u t i l i z i n g concepts and terminology of M a r x i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s ) does not do j u s t i c e to Bachmann's image of the woman which we found to be r a t h e r i d e a l i s t i c i n nature. The major d i f f e r e n c e between Weigel's view and our own i s that Weigel not only claims a s p l i t  (gebrochene)  existence f o r the n a r r a t o r  i n Malina (and f o r women w r i t e r s i n general since they too cannot  escape  men's images of women i n a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y ) but a l s o i n s i s t s on c e r t a i n "male" perceptions which ensure the n a r r a t o r ' s " l i b e r a t i o n " . Um s i c h aus der Existenzweise a l s "a'nderes" Geschlecht zu b e f r e i e n , brauchen die Frauen a l l e i h r e Sinne, i h r e n Verstand und i h r Gefiihl. Sie miissen vor allem neue Wahrnehmungs- und A\ifierungsweisen finden. Wahrnehmungen, das sind Sinneseindrucke, die b e - g r e i f e n , u r t e i l e n , a k t i v s i n d ; z.B der B l i c k . ^ 3  8  By r e j e c t i n g any attempts of r a i s i n g the female c u l t u r e to a higher, i d e a l i s t l e v e l as we have done i n our Bachmann i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , Weigel  159  t r i e s to avoid a new  male-female dichotomy r e p l a c i n g the o l d .  It i s for  t h i s reason, that Weigel thinks of the a n t i t h e s i s between men so obvious i n Malina as temporary. holding  I t seems to us that Weigel, by  t h i s view, subordinates l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m to i d e o l o g i c a l and  sociological  doctrines.  Weigel also p o i n t s  to the f r e q u e n t l y voiced  l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , that there "geschlechtsneutrale" and  and women  e x i s t s a gap  feminist  between Bachmann's t h e o r e t i c a l  w r i t i n g i n which the w r i t e r achieves s e l f awareness  change f o r the b e t t e r , and her  characters  c r i t i c i s m by  remain caught i n the web  f i c t i o n a l w r i t i n g , i n which her of t r a d i t i o n .  view, Weigel sees Bachmann as a concealed  Contrary to our  female own  feminist:  Die g e s c h l e c h t s s p e z i f i s c h e K o n k r e t i s i e r u n g n e u t r a l e r l i t e r a t u r k r i t i s c h e r Aussagen auf w e i b l i c h e Erfahrung h i n i n i h r e n l i t e r a r i s c h e n Texten i s t so o f f e n s i c h t l i c h , daB die Schreibweise h i e r a l s f e m i n i s t i s c h e Praxis gedeutet werden kann, d i e i n der Maskierung des t h e o r e t i s c h s i c h a r t i k u l i e r e n d e n Autors dort v o r b e r e i t e t i s t . Weigel concludes her argument on Bachmann's "feminism" very w i s e l y with a questionmark: Die A u t o r i n s e l b s t konnte s i c h noch n i c h t f e m i n i s t i s c h a r t i k u l i e r e n , eine O f f e n t l i c h k e i t fiir verallgemeinernde, programmatisch die S i t u a t i o n von Frauen k r i t i s i e r e n d e Uberlegungen entstand e r s t nach ihrem Tod i n den 70er Jahren. Sie s e l b s t schmuggelte i h r e Ideen, die a l l e Momente a k t u e l l e r f e m i n i s t i s c h e r Theorie und L i t e r a t u r vorwegnehmen, i n zwei B e s t a n d t e i l e aufgespalten, i n der Maskierung g e s c h l e c h t s n e u t r a l e r L i t e r a t u r k r i t i k und im Schutze i h r e r Poesie, an die O f f e n t l i c h k e i t . — E i n e heimliche Feminis t i n wie v i e l e Frauen vor i h r auch?350 Another l i n e of approach to Bachmann—via M.  Jurgensen.  l a n g u a g e — i s taken by  His i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Todesarten novels as  creations c f female neurosis  and  schizophrenia—as  epic  he c a l l s i t — i s  looking at despite a monotonous p a r a t a c t i c a l s t y l e and i n the t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s as the f o l l o w i n g example shows:  repeated  worth  inaccuracy  160 Immer h a t t e s i e diese Sprache verabscheut, jeden Stempel, der i h r aufgedriickt wurde und den s i e jemand aufdriicken muftte—den Mordversuch an der W i r k l i c h k e i t . Aber wenn i h r Reich kam, dann konnte diese Sprache n i c h t mehr g e l t e n , dann r i c h t e t e diese Sprache s i c h s e l b s t . (ebd.) Das Bachmannsche Reich beheimatet s i c h i n e i n e r neuen Sprache, die den Mordversuch an der W i r k l i c h k e i t r i c h t e n wird.^51 Departing Ich." and  "Das  from h i s premises:  Wort weiB n i c h t nur  "In der Sprache bewahrt s i c h  das  zu i d e n t i f i z i e r e n , sondern auch zu  352 vergewaltigen.",  he sees Malina  as an "Ich-Theater"  of the n a r r a t o r .  Thus Malina and Ivan are i n t e r p r e t e d as " p r o t a g o n i s t i s c h e of the n a r r a t o r i n search of her i d e n t i t y .  "Malina  Ich-Variationen"  i s t zugleich als  Erganzung des u n v o l l s t a n d i g e n w e i b l i c h e n Ichs gedacht, a l s . . . 353 komplementare BewuBtseinsgestalt  ..."  According  the woman has no i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y because of her R o l l e n e x i s t e n z " and, liche  to Jurgensen, "gattungshafte  t h e r e f o r e , the n a r r a t o r attempts a "Doppelgeschlecht-  Selbstverwirklichung".  Jurgensen, i n essence, argues that  there  i s a need f o r the male element w i t h i n Bachmann's females so that they may  escape t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d r o l e and  f i n d a s e l f - i d e n t i t y f r e e of  sexual  constraints. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n stands i n c o n t r a s t to our own. opinion, a woman's own a  ( " t r a d i t i o n a l " ) male.  i d e n t i t y i s damaged or destroyed  In  our  i f i t i s r e l a t e d to  The woman f i n d s h e r s e l f then l i v i n g a s o c i a l  r o l e that i s dependent on the male f o r i t s d e f i n i t i o n .  I t i s of  little  s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n t h i s argument, whether the male e x i s t s as an independent subject or as a mental p r o j e c t i o n only.  This i s also the reason why—  as we have shown—the dilemma of Bachmann's heroines  does not  affect  the " t r a d i t i o n a l " female; she already has her p r e s c r i b e d r o l e i d e n t i t y . As soon as the male becomes the point of reference f o r Bachmann's  161 females,  t h e i r formerly i n t a n g i b l e , undefinable,  and magic existence  becomes d e f i n a b l e , p r e d i c t a b l e , causing damage to, or d e s t r u c t i o n o f , their individual identity.  This process  i s often—as  shown e a r l i e r —  accompanied and i n t e n s i f i e d by the woman's attachment to male ways of thinking. In c o n t r a s t to t h i s , Jurgensen's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Todesarten novels may be summarized as death by s e l f p r o j e c t i o n and i s o l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n " S p r a c h v e r l u s t " of the s e l f :  ". . . das s i c h i h r [der  354 G e s e l l s c h a f t ] verweigernde Ich v e r g e w a l t i g t menschliche Beziehungen." Thus the s e l f becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i n n e r o r i e n t e d , thereby and d i e s . "...  Doubtless,  anti-social,  Jurgensen i s c o r r e c t when he s t a t e s that Malina  bezieht s i c h auf e i n doppeltes  Du, auf das g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e und  355 das v e r i n n e r l i c h t e . "  However, h e — l i k e Summerfield and o t h e r s — t a k e s  an anti-Bachmann p o s i t i o n when" he concludes  that the heroine, by  n e g l e c t i n g her s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n place of o r i e n t a t i o n toward her s e l f , causes h e r own " S p r a c h v e r l u s t " and death. of our f i n d i n g s .  This i s the opposite  I t i s s e l f - d e n i a l , part of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e  behaviour of women who must show devotion, love and care f o r others, that c o n t r i b u t e s to the death of Bachmann's heroines. the male view when he counsels  Malina  the n a r r a t o r that she can improve the  world only through her "Du" and not through her "Ich": Ich: (con b r i o ) Siegen! Wer s p r i c h t denn h i e r noch von siegen, wenn das Zeichen v e r l o r e n i s t , i n dem man siegen konnte. Malina: Es heiBt immer noch: siegen. Es wird d i r ohne einen e i n z i g e n K u n s t g r i f f gelingen und ohne Gewalt. Du w i r s t aber auch n i c h t mit deinem Ich siegen, s o n d e r n — Ich:  represents  (allegro) Sondern—siehst  du?  162  Malina:  Du w i r s t es n i c h t mit deinem Ich tun.  Ich:  ( f o r t e ) Was i s t an meinem Ich s c h l e c h t e r a l s an anderen?  Malina:  Nichts. A l l e s . l i c h e s tun. Das  Ich:  (piano) Auch wenn es das U n v e r z e i h l i c h e i s t , w i l l i c h mich immer v e r z e t t e l n , v e r i r r e n v e r lieren.  Malina:  Was du w i l l s t , z a h l t n i c h t mehr. An der r i c h t i g e n S t e l l e hast du n i c h t s mehr zu wollen. Du w i r s t dort so sehr du s e i n , daB du dein Ich aufgeben kannst. Es wird die e r s t e S t e l l e s e i n , auf der die Welt von jemand g e h e i l t ist.356  Denn du kannst nur Vergebi s t das U n v e r z e i h l i c h e .  The n a r r a t o r ' s intended synthesis of the two  ("Ich werde es [das  Ich]  357 l i e b e n wie meinen Nachsten, wie d i c h ! "  ) fails.  The heroines of the  Todesarten novels are not able to s o l v e t h i s dilemma. In h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Requiem f u r Fanny Goldmann, Jurgensen r e t a i n s h i s t h e s i s of "Vergewaltigung verbalism. of  neurosis:  durch Versprachlichung",  He a l s o sees the Todesarten "...  rape by  heroine as being an example  Bachmann . . . i s t . . . mit Fanny Goldmann e i n  Musterportrat w e i b l i c h e r Neurose gelungen. T l  358  He  substantiates this  by p o i n t i n g to Fanny's e a r l y h a t e f u l behaviour: Fanny "hatte eine u n e r t r a g l i c h e . . . Abneigung gegen die k l e i n e Malina," (488) h e i B t es zu Beginn des Romans. Die Griinde f u r diesen zunachst noch milden Hafi werden d e u t l i c h angegeben: "weil s i e a l l e s h a t t e , was Fanny und die anderen n i c h t hatten, das Unerlernbare, Unerreichbare...". (ebd.) Die Anlage zum HaB i s t von Anfang an e i n wesentlicher B e s t a n d t e i l i h r e s Charakters. Fanny b e f i n d e t s i c h " i n dem Zustand der H e l l s i c h t i g k e i t des Hasses." (489) Ihr spaterer l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h e r HaB gegen Anton Marek b r i n g t a l s o — o b b e r e c h t i g t oder n i c h t — k e i n e n Wandel i n i h r e r P e r s o n l i c h k e i t , sondern erweist s i c h nurmehr a l s die Kehrseite i h r e r ebenso l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h e n H o r i g k e i t . (Vgl. "Kurze Z e i t spater war Fanny ihm horig",496) Es mangelt i h r an emotionaler Ausgeglichenheit, s i e l e b t und l i e b t das Extreme.359 A c l o s e t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s , however, y i e l d s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t Fanny Goldmann's f i r s t  contact with a Marek-like  results.  f i g u r e , the young  163  a c t r e s s Malina, r e s u l t s i n her antipathy  and eventual hate toward Malina.  Fanny sees t h i s f e e l i n g as a blemish on h e r inner i n t e g r i t y . Malina not, as Jurgensen suggests,  She hates  because of her t a l e n t s as an a c t r e s s  but because Malina p l a y - a c t s i n love a f f a i r s , plays at being i n love: ". . . und so sagte s i e , i n dem Zustand der H e l l s i c h t i g k e i t des Hasses, 360 diese Person i s t unfahig, jemand zu l i e b e n , . . . "  Thus, i n her  f a l s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the a c t r e s s Malina i s a precursor of Marek. point i s important neurosis.  This  as i t demolishes much of the b a s i s of the theory of  Other evidence  submitted  by Jurgensen on t h i s p o i n t proves  to be j u s t as i n c o n c l u s i v e : Sie hafit K a r i n Krause wie s i e Maria Malina haBt: a l s Ausdruck i h r e r eigenen Niederlage. Die Schabigkeit i h r e s Hasses wird d e u t l i c h genug, auch wenn d i e Aussage streng genommen a l s B e r i c h t der E r z a h l e r i n e r s c h e i n t : er l a g dort mit i h r , e i n e r K a r i n , einem s c h a u e r l i c h e n Namen, der vierundzwanzig Jahre a l t war und seine gemeine Abkunft v e r r i e t , d i e s e r Name, geboren im Jahr 1939, a l s o auf tausendjahrig, wahrend s i e geboren wurde mit einem altmodischen Namen, der hochstens seine a c h t z i g Jahre wahren konnte... (516) Bezeichnenderweise r i c h t e t s i c h i h r e ganze Leidenschaft gegen den Namen, n i c h t d i e P e r s o n l i c h k e i t der anderen Frau."361 K a r i n b e l o n g s — a s we e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d — t o the category  of females which  i s r e p u l s i v e to Bachmann's heroines because of the character of these women which i s adjusted to male expectations. i n t e n s i f i e d by her name with i t s symbolic male aggression and c r u e l t y .  Karin's repulsiveness i s  connection  to fascism, to  Her name does present her as a person.  Throughout Bachmann's prose there e x i s t s a c l o s e name/person i n t e r dependence.  Jurgensen himself quotes the passage:  " . . . i h r Name war  so besamt von seinem Namen, . . . " only one page below the above passage. In t h i s l i g h t h i s statement i s even more s u r p r i s i n g .  164  We may  conclude that none of the c r i t i c s we  the f i r s t part of t h i s chapter of Bachmann's heroines have done.  have discussed i n  sees the seemingly " t r a d i t i o n a l " image  i n i t s i d e a l i s t i c and redeeming f u n c t i o n as  On the contrary, a l l of them i n t e r p r e t i t as one  we  of f a i l u r e  i n various ways. In the second part of t h i s chapter we w i l l discuss  critical  works of the second phase of r e c e p t i o n (zweite Rezeptionswelle)  that  are p e r t i n e n t to Bachmann's women characters. Gabriele B a i l i n Weibliche  Identitat:  Ingeborg Bachmanns  362 "Malina"  sets h e r s e l f the task of analysing the i d e n t i t y problem  of the n a r r a t o r i n Malina.  B a i l commences t h i s a n a l y s i s with  premise that "Ich" has a " N i c h t - I d e n t i t a t " . from the observation  the  She derives t h i s ,  firstly,  that few and vague personal data are o f f e r e d f o r  the n a r r a t o r during the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the dramatis personae,  secondly,  from the argument that the n a r r a t o r l i v e s i n s p a t i a l d i s l o c a t i o n and e x i s t s i n time d i f f u s i o n  ( d i s o r i e n t a t i o n i n space and  time).  Bail  sees the i d e n t i t y problem of the n a r r a t o r as so urgent that the epic I w i l l i n g l y accepts the three men Das  " t r a d i t i o n a l " female s o c i a l r o l e s o f f e r e d her  by  characters i n Malina:  Identitatsproblem  i s t fiir die Ich-Figur so d r i n g l i c h ,  da s i e n i c h t nur den Rollenerwartungen anderer hohe Bedeutung beimifit und s i c h entsprechend v e r h a l t , sondern auch verschiedene Testverfahren zur Identitatsbestimmung heranzieht. . . . Durch das Scheitern solcher Testverfahren wird die Orientierung an den Rollenerwartungen der anderen nur umso d r i n g l i c h e r . 3 6 3 A l l e d r e i Manner erwarten von der Ich-Figur, da6 s i e im Rahmen p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e r Strukturen t r a d i t i o n e l l e Frauenrollen iibernimmt. Die Ich-Figur i s t bemiiht, diesen Erwartungen gerecht zu werden, . . .364 Accordingly, B a i l s t r u c t u r e s her a n a l y s i s t h r e e f o l d : and Malina.  Ivan, the f a t h e r ,  B a i l unnecessarily weakens her a n a l y s i s here by  relating  165  the three men to the Holy T r i n i t y . arguments f o r the f i r s t  Whereas she s t i l l has some convincing  part of the analogy  (Ivan as C h r i s t  figure),  her t e x t u a l evidence f o r the second part becomes very s p e c u l a t i v e (the  f a t h e r as God f a t h e r ) , ". . . mein Vater s t e i g t auf d i e Kanzel  und h a l t seine Sonntagspredigt,  . . . er i s t der grofite  Sonntagsprediger  weit und b r e i t . - . . . i c h . . . benetze meine S t i r n , im Namen des Vaters, . . . " and "Mein Vater i s t zum Theater gegangen.  Gott i s t  365 eine V o r s t e l l u n g " are B a i l ' s only proof.  Turning to the t h i r d part  (Malina as the Holy Ghost), B a i l acknowledges the extremely s p e c u l a t i v e p o s i t i o n she i s i n but continues to operate with the " p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e D r e i e i n i g k e i t " throughout  her a n a l y s i s .  Analog zur Deutung des Vaters a l s G o t t v a t e r - F i g u r und Ivans a l s C h r i s t u s - F i g u r konnte man Malina a l s H e i l i g e - G e i s t - F i g u r apostrophieren. Entsprechende T e x t s t e l l e n erscheinen jedoch nur sporadisch; d i e Konstruktion i s t i n s o f e r n etwas gewagt. Gestiitzt wird s i e aber dadurch, dafi Malina tiberhaupt mit der r e l i g i o s e n M o t i v i k verbunden wird und dadurch, dafi er a l s e i n Aspekt der P e r s o n l i c h k e i t den 'Geist' r e p r a s e n t i e r t , wahrend die Ich-Figur f u r die emotionale Seite s t e h t . ' H e i l i g ' i s t der G e i s t i n s o f e r n , a l s er der Ich-Figur lebensnotwendig s c h e i n t . Wenn man s i c h auf die Gleichsetzung von Malina mit dem H e i l i g e n Geist e i n l a f i t , entsteht e i n i n t e r e s s a n t e s B i l d : jeder der d r e i fur die Ich-Figur wesentlichen Manner verkorpert einen Aspekt der c h r i s t l i c h - p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e n D r e i f a l t i g k e i t . 3 6 6 B a i l ' s analogy becomes even more doubtful as the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s headed "Symbolfigur des K r i e g e s " r e f e r r i n g to Malina and c i t i n g h i s request to the n a r r a t o r to k i l l the statement  Ivan.  Furthermore,  one may question  that a n e c e s s i t y f o r l i f e i s n e c e s s a r i l y "holy".  More important, however, i s B a i l ' s argumentation n a r r a t o r ' s search f o r i d e n t i t y .  regarding the  Since B a i l examines the n a r r a t o r ' s  i d e n t i t y problem and eventual d e s t r u c t i o n with a - b a s i c a l l y feministic  approach:  166  Ingeborg Bachmanns Verdienst i s t es, i n 'Malina' f u r d i e Unterdriickung von Frauen p r a z i s e B i l d e r gefunden zu haben. her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n remains wanting on p o i n t s that were - we c r u c i a l f o r an understanding this:  of Bachmann.  Two  ^  felt  examples w i l l  -  illustrate  During her a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a r r a t o r and  Ivan i n the chapter "Krankheit: encounters  Identitatsbestimmung  durch Ivan",  the seeming paradox of the w i l l i n g acceptance by  Bail  the  n a r r a t o r of Ivan's r o l e demands and norms on the one hand and - as B a i l sees i t - Ivan's aggression and sanctions against her on the other, which e v e n t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e to her " c o l l e c t i v e Murder".  Because  of her approach, B a i l can o f f e r only an i n c o n c l u s i v e explanation to t h i s apparent paradox: AbschlieBend i s t zu fragen, warum d i e Ich-Figur s i c h Ivans Aggressionen, seinem l e h r e r h a f t e n Verhalten, seinen Vorstellungen von ihrem rollenkonformen Verhalten und von i h r e r k u n s t l e r i s c h e n Produktion f a s t widerstandslos u n t e r w i r f t . Eine M o g l i c h k e i t i s t , i n der Ich-Figur eine Masochistin zu sehen. Eine weitere i s t , Ivans Verhalten a l s t y p i s c h anzusehen, d.h., da d i e Ich-Figur b e i jedem anderen G e l i e b t e n mit einem sehr ahnlichen Verhalten k o n f r o n t i e r t ware und s i c h f o l g l i c h anpassen mufi, wenn s i e n i c h t g a n z l i c h auf eine solche Beziehung v e r z i c h t e n mochte. Ich l a s s e h i e r beide Moglichkeiten nebeneinander stehen, da m.E. 'Malina' so angelegt i s t , daB die Leser immer wieder zwischen der einen und der anderen L e s a r t abwagen s o l l e n .  8  Second, as B a i l continues her a n a l y s i s by examining "die k u n s t l e r i s c h e Produktion" of the n a r r a t o r , she quotes the c r u c i a l passage:  "Es 369  entsteht eine Komposition, eine Frau i s t zu e r s c h a f f e n . . . "  Quite  r i g h t l y , B a i l points out the attempt of the n a r r a t o r to define her i d e n t i t y i n f r o n t of the m i r r o r .  But again, her approach prevents  her  from seeing a consistency i n the n a r r a t o r ' s actions - as we have t r i e d to do - and forces her to i n t e r p r e t the r e s t of the passage as  "von  b i t t e r s t e m Sarkasmus", while p o r t r a y i n g the woman before the m i r r o r as  167 370 the "Frauenbild der Kosmetikreklame". In view of B a i l ' s f o l l o w i n g argument about the feminine U t o p i a , t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s even l e s s convincing. Although much of our c r i t i c i s m of Summerfield's a n a l y s i s o f Malina i s r e l e v a n t to B a i l ' s major f i n d i n g s - she r e l i e s to a great extent on Summerfield's arguments - we ought to discuss her conclusions regarding the nature of the "murder".  B a i l a t t r i b u t e s the c o l l a p s e of  the n a r r a t o r to the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the r o l e expectations of the three men with regard to her and to t h e i r ensuing  sanctions:  A l l e d r e i Manner erwarten von der Ich-Figur, dafi s i e im Rahmen p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e r Strukturen t r a d i t i o n e l l e F r a u e n r o l l e n ubernimmt. Die Ich-Figur i s t bemliht, diesen Erwartungen gerecht zu werden, muB jedoch s c h e i t e r n , da d i e Rollenerwartungen einander ausschlieBen. Auf d i e N i c h t - E r f i i i l u n g i h r e r j e w e i l i g e n Rollenerwartungen reagieren d i e Manner mit Sanktionen, d i e s i c h auf d i e Ich-Figur vernichtend auswirken.371 At l e a s t the f i r s t part of thi-s statement may be questioned  because a l l  three r o l e s o f the n a r r a t o r as w e l l as the behaviour patterns of the three men characters are w i t h i n the p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( B a i l speaks here too of the " p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e D r e i e i n i g k e i t " ) .  From t h i s  i t does not f o l l o w that the r o l e expectations are mutually  exclusive;  indeed, one could make a case f o r t h e i r complementary nature. w i l l also appear reasonable  through a comparison of the r o l e s of the  n a r r a t o r that are mentioned by B a i l . f o r Ivan  This  They a r e :  - "perfekte Hausfrau, a t t r a k t i v e G e l i e b t e "  f o r the f a t h e r - "unterwiirfige F r a u e n r o l l e , R o l l e der Tochter" f o r Malina  - (No> r o l e i s given but Malina acts as "Beschiitzer, Vertrauter, rational-iiberlegener Heifer". Therefore, one may assume the n a r r a t o r must be protected and helped.)  168  Furthermore,  a comparison of the r o l e expectations that B a i l  show p a r a l l e l s i n t h e i r  lists  substance:  Der Vater i n 'Malina' f o r d e r t wie der allmachtige Vatergott Ichs Unterordnung unter seine Gewalt. Die i n t e l l e k t u e l l e Autonomie der Ich-Figur, Hauptmoment i h r e s Widerstands gegen den Vater, wird von diesem - soweit es moglich i s t vernichtet.372 Ivan b r i n g t aus anderen Grunden k e i n Verstandnis fiir d i e I n t e l l e k t u a l i t a t der Ich-Figur auf: eine Frau mit I n t e l l i g e n z i s t i n den Regeln seines G e s c h l e c h t e r r o l l e n s p i e l s n i c h t vorgesehen. Aus diesem Grunde i g n o r i e r t er d i e MalinaKomponente.373 Malina i s t der e i n z i g e der d r e i Manner, der d i e i n t e l l e k t u e l l e Autonomie der Ich-Figur u n t e r s t i i t z t und sogar gegen den gewalttatigen Vater v e r t e i d i g t . Er i g n o r i e r t a l l e r d i n g s Ichs emotionale S e i t e , d i e im V e r h a l t n i s zu Ivan h e r v o r t r i t t (S. 87). . . . Zudem u n t e r s t i i t z t er Ichs i n t e l l e k t u e l l e Autonomie nur, solange s i e s i c h s e i n e r A r t des Denkens anpaBt. Sowie d i e Ich-Figur beginnt, i h r Denken und E r i n n e r n auf i h r e emotionale B e t e i l i g u n g aufzubauen und s i c h dadurch von Malinas Denkweise d i s t a n z i e r t , wendet s i c h Malina gegen sie.374 From t h i s i t appears  that the i n t e l l e c t u a l autonomy of the n a r r a t o r i s  the main f a c t o r of antagonism i n each of the r o l e expectations and that here too the t h e s i s of i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s not  supported.  S i m i l a r conclusions on the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a s e l f - d e f i n e d existence f o r the woman i n a male-determined world are drawn by Kurt Bartsch i n "'Schichtwechsel'?  Zur Opposition von  feminin-emotionalen  Anspriichen und maskulin-rationalem Realitatsdenken b e i  Ingeborg  375 Bachmann" Beziehung  as w e l l as i n "'Es war Mord' Anmerkungen zur Mann-Frau376 i n Bachmanns Roman Malina".  He bases h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  on the t h e s i s : Die modellhafte Opposition von m a n n l i c h - r a t i o n a l und w e i b l i c h emotional, das Mifilingen e i n e r I n t e g r a t i o n von Verstand und Gefiihl sowie d i e F i n a l i s i e r u n g , Riickkehr i n d i e gegebenen s o z i a l e n Zwange oder Abtotung, pragen sowohl die H o r s p i e l e a l s auch die erzahlende Prosa von Ingeborg Bachmann, und da n i c h t nur d i e ausgesprochenen Frauengeschichten.377  169  The woman i n a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y i s prevented from f i n d i n g her i d e n t i t y because her r o l e i s defined by  own  men:  C h a r l o t t e i s t e i n B e i s p i e l dafiir, daB d i e Frau i n der Mannergesellschaft s i c h n i c h t s e l b s t d e f i n i e r e n darf, daB s i e n i c h t nur aus dem o f f e n t l i c h e n Diskurs ausgeschlossen, sondern b i s i n i h r e Gefiihlswelt h i n e i n fremdbestimmt ist.378 Furthermore, her r o l e behaviour i s enforced by men  as i n the case of  Ivan: . . . denn er drangt d i e I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n d i e konventionelle F r a u e n r o l l e , . . . Sie hat i n der Beziehung zu Ivan keine Moglichkeit einer E n t f a l t u n g auBerhalb der konventionellen R o l l e der Frau, die d e f i n i e r t i s t durch Hausfrauen- und Mutterp f l i c h t e n sowie sexuelle Verfiigbarkeit. 379 or sanctioned by a (male) s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y  such as the good  God:  Die F i g u r des guten Gotts von Manhattan, Inkarnation des R e a l i t a t s p r i n z i p s und Anwalt der G e s e l l s c h a f t und i h r e r individualitatsbeschrankenden Anforderungen, laBt d i e E k s t a t i k e r i n J e n n i f e r , d i e "den Boden Cder R e a l i t a t H unter den FiiBen" ( I , 312) v e r l o r e n hat, durch seine H e i f e r , d i e Eichhornchen des C e n t r a l Park von New York, mit einer Bombe i n die L u f t sprengen.380 The  attempt to go beyond her r o l e means l o s s of  feminity:  Es geht i n Bachmann's Roman CMalinaH um das grundsatzliche Problem der Frau i n der p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e n , f a s c h i s t i s c h e Ziige tragenden G e s e l l s c h a f t und um den V e r l u s t der W e i b l i c h k e i t , wenn die Frau Anspriiche iiber die von den Mannern d e f i n i e r t e R o l l e hinaus erhebt.381 This i s the case i n the woman's search f o r reason.  Because her  does not allow f o r development of reason she must then give up  role her  emotional demands: . . . e i n e r s e i t s s i e h t d i e herkommliche R o l l e n d e f i n i t i o n der Frau i n der "Liebes" Beziehung r a t i o n a l e Verwirklichung n i c h t vor, andererseits muB d i e Frau, wo s i e , wie d i e I c h - E r z a h l e r i n ohne Malina, d. h. ohne Ratio n i c h t leben kann, auf i h r e weiblichen Gefiihlsanspriiche v e r z i c h t e n . . . ^oz _  This i s also the case i n Charlotte's Gomorrha.  Bartsch c a l l s t h i s :  "Rollentausch" i n E i n S c h r i t t nach  "Ubernahme eines mannlichen  170 383 Existenzmusters . . . " In h i s a n a l y s i s of Malina, Bartsch adds psychic dimension to the m a l e - r a t i o n a l concept since he defines i t here as " k r i t i s c h - k o n t r o l l i e r e n d e Instanz" p e r s o n i f i e d by Malina w i t h i n the n a r r a t o r : Nun, Malina f u n g i e r t a l s k r i t i s c h - k o n t r o l l i e r e n d e Instanz der Selbstbeobachtung, "unter" d i e s i c h das Ich "von Anfang an" ( I I I , 17) g e s t e l l t f i i h l t , a l s eine g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h v e r m i t t e l t e Instanz, d i e d i e w e i b l i c h e I d e n t i t a t s b i l d u n g verhindert.384 Analyzing Bartsch's approach we w i l l d i r e c t c r i t i c i s m at two p o i n t s :  initially  Although a male-female a n t i t h e s i s s i m i l a r to ours i s  used, the a n a l y s i s remains at the s o c i o l o g i c a l l e v e l throughout, t h e r e f o r e - i n our opinion - not being able to penetrate deeper l a y e r s of Bachmann's prose.  In a d d i t i o n , i t appears that o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  and a p p l i c a t i o n of Bartsch's  instrumentation  of the shortcomings of Bartsch's a n a l y s i s . term " m a n n l i c h - r a t i o n a l " i s overextended.  are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some F i r s t , i t seems that the  Bartsch a p p l i e s i t as a  s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y d e f i n i n g r o l e s and norms (Malina i s c a l l e d an auctor, the good God); a s o c i a l f o r c e or c o n s t r a i n t that l i m i t s development ( i t i s represented  individualistic  by the f a t h e r of the n a r r a t o r , Ivan, the  good God); a s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g behaviour ( f o r instance, Ivan or Franz); a psychic f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g behaviour (Malina as Super ego or E l i s a b e t h ' s " v e r i n n e r l i c h t e " r o l e image); l a s t , a p a t t e r n of existence or s u r v i v a l f o r the female (Malina f o r the n a r r a t o r , r o l e change f o r E l i s a b e t h ) . questionable  Thus, the term becomes i n our view very  as a t o o l f o r p r e c i s i o n a n a l y s i s .  Second, the term  appears to contain c o n f l i c t i n g elements - i n the way that Bartsch uses i t - such as (male) " r a t i o " that r e s t r i c t s self-development as w e l l as (female) reason  that Bartsch sees necessary  of the woman  for self-  171  development of the woman.  This appears  to be the reason that he  has  d i f f i c u l t y applying h i s concept to more complex t e x t s such as Malina. For instance, Bartsch describes Ivan as an agent who  prevents  the  n a r r a t o r from f i n d i n g a s e l f - d e f i n e d i d e n t i t y because he f o r c e s her i n t o the conventional r o l e , denies her r a t i o n a l i t y  ( i n Bartsch's terms  represented by M a l i n a ) : Die Hoffnungen auf e i n Leben i n Liebe mit Ivan miissen s i c h zwangslaufig zerschlagen, denn er drangt d i e I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n d i e k o n v e n t i o n e l l e F r a u e n r o l l e , er i g n o r i e r t Malina, das heifit, er s p r i c h t der Frau das Recht auf Ratio ab. . . . Sie hat i n der Beziehung zu Ivan keinen Spielraum, keine M o g l i c h k e i t e i n e r E n t f a l t u n g aufierhalb der k o n v e n t i o n e l l e n R o l l e der Frau, d i e d e f i n i e r t ware durch Hausfrauen- und M u t t e r p f l i c h t e n sowie durch s e x u e l l e Verfiigbarkeit. Die Verwirklichung der Utopie der I n t e g r a t i o n von Verstand und Gefiihl i s t also i n der Beziehung zu Ivan, dem D u r c h s c h n i t t s reprasentanten der b i i r g e r l i c h e n G e s e l l s c h a f t , unmoglich.385 On the other hand, Bartsch defines Malina as a f i g u r a t i o n of the norm demands of the p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y , preventing the n a r r a t o r from developing her  identity:  Malina . . . der o f f e n s i c h t l i c h das r a t i o n a l e Uber-Ich f i g u r i e r t , also jene von Sigmund Freud neben dem Ich und dem Es a l s d r i t t e angenommene psychische Instanz, d i e a l s Ausdruck der V e r i n n e r l i c h u n g der iiber d i e F a m i l i e , i n der p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e n b i i r g e r l i c h e n G e s e l l s c h a f t insbesondere iiber den Vater (daher eine mannliche G e s t a l t ! ) vermitt e l t e n Normanspriiche g i l t und deren Funktion a l s k r i t i s c h k o n t r o l l i e r e n d e Selbstbeobachtung, Ich-Ideal und Gewissen umschreibbar i s t . Nun, Malina f u n g i e r t a l s k r i t i s c h k o n t r o l l i e r e n d e Instanz der Selbstbeobachtung, "unter" d i e s i c h das Ich "von Anfang an" ( I I I , 17) g e s t e l l t f i i h l t , a l s eine g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h v e r m i t t e l t e Instanz, d i e d i e w e i b l i c h e I d e n t i t a t s b i l d u n g verhindert.386 Thus, on the one hand r a t i o  (Malina) i s lienied to the n a r r a t o r preventing  her from overcoming the conventional r o l e , while on the other, p a t r i a r c h a l norms and a c r i t i c a l c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y (Malina) prevent the n a r r a t o r ' s i d e n t i t y development. these d i s c r e p a n c i e s :  Bartsch appears  to be aware of  172  tlber das V e r h a l t n i s zu Ivan beziehungsweise zu Malina sagt d i e I c h - E r z a h l e r i n : "Ivan und i c h : d i e konvergierende Welt. Malina und i c h , w e i l wir eins s i n d : d i e divergierende Welt" ( I I I , 126). Die Auslegung d i e s e r AuBerung i s t n i c h t ganz e i n f a c h : Denn Malina 1st zweifelsohne der m a s k u l i n e - T e i l der gespaltenen P e r s o n l i c h k e i t , aber i s t er auch der v e r l o r e n e der u r s p r i i n g l i c h z w e i g e s c h l e c h t l i c h e n , hermaphroditischen I d e n t i t a t ? Wenn das so ware, wiirde es im Widerspruch stehen zu der F e s t s t e l l u n g , daft das Ich und Ivan konvergieren. Ivan i s t d i e ersehnte Komplementargestalt. Was aber i s t dann Malina? Am SchluB des zweiten K a p i t e l s heiBt es von der das Ich bedrohenden G e s t a l t , d i e zuerst mit dem Vater i d e n t i f i z i e r t wird: "Es i s t mein Morder". Am SchluB des Romans wird der Mord e i n d e u t i g Malina zugeschrieben. In der Verbindung mit i h r e r P r o j e k t i o n s g e s t a l t Ivan hatte d i e E r z a h l e r i n s i c h v e r w i r k l i c h e n konnen, doch hatte das d i e Ausloschung von Malina bedeutet, von dem s i e i n i h r e r Ivan-Zeit sagt: "Nie habe i c h Malina so wenig brauchen konnen" ( I I I , 126). Um aber d i e Selbstbehauptung gegen d i e Widerwartigkeiten der G e s e l l schaft zu gewahrleisten, werden Ivan und d i e auf ihn p r o j i z i e r ten femininen Wiinsche von Malina g e t i l g t , . . .387 I t seems that these problems are caused by Bartsch's i n t e n t i o n to cover Bachmann's depth s t r u c t u r e s by a s o c i o l o g i c a l concept alone - important as i t may  be.  Comparing Bartsch's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to ours, i t w i l l be that by assuming a d i s t i n c t "male" and "female" r a t i o n a l i t y - a  obvious "female"  r a t i o n a l i t y which we have i n t e r p r e t e d as superior to "male" reason  and  which we have analyzed as rooted i n i r r a t i o n a l i t y and i n t u i t i o n - we have not only overcome Bartsch's c o n f l i c t of terminology but also h i s "utopia of i n t e g r a t i o n of reason and emotion" f o r which he o f f e r s very l i t t l e proof, but were able to develop an antagonism of values above that of s o c i a l r o l e s which - as we like.  Furthermore,  we  t r i e d to prove - i s more Bachmann-  f e e l that our concept allows a more in-depth  treatment of Bachmann's characters.  For instance, Bartsch i n d i c a t e s  no d i s t i n c t i o n between the "death" of J e n n i f e r who typischen 'Bachmann-Tod'"  388  " e r l e i d e t einen  and that of other heroines, although  173  J e n n i f e r dies because of extreme emotion and the n a r r a t o r i n Malina " d i e s " , according pattern.  to Bartsch,  as she continues  l i v i n g i n a male i d e n t i t y  C e r t a i n l y , here i s a d i f f e r e n c e of q u a l i t y .  Finally, i t  w i l l be admitted that the a l l - p e r v a d i n g dominance of the "mannlichr a t i o n a l " determinant i n Bartsch's any  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n leaves no room f o r  substance i n Bachmann's female protagonists  we have p l a u s i b y demonstrated above.  - a substance we f e e l  Thus, as a l o g i c a l consequence  of t h i s , Bartsch c l a s s i f i e s a l l of Bachmann's women i n three of wrecked  categories  existences:  Zusammenfas send konnen wir i n Bachmanns Werk d r e i w e i b l i c h e Lebensmuster v o r f i n d e n : 1.  d i e Frau i n der konventionellen R o l l e der Dienerin des Mannes bzw. der F a m i l i e , e i n e r R o l l e , d i e der A u t o r i n a l s "schlimm" und "unwiirdig" g i l t und d i e die I c h - E r z a h l e r i n i n der Beziehung zu Ivan zu s p i e l e n versucht, auf d i e s i e s i c h aber n i c h t reduzieren l a B t . H i e r kann man wohl Franziska/Franza (Gebell, Der F a l l Franza) und die a l t e Frau Jordan (Gebell) sowie d i e " p r i v a t e " Charlotte (Ein S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha) subsumieren;  2.  Undine, die zwar die Klage iiber i h r e S i t u a t i o n erhebt ("Ihr Manner, i h r Ungeheuer!"), die aber - wie auch B e a t r i x (Probleme Probleme) und Miranda (Ihr g l i i c k l i c h e n Augen) - auf Teilnahme am o f f e n t l i c h e n Diskurs v e r z i c h t e t , s i c h zuriickzieht, "geht";  3.  die Frau, d i e s i c h i n der O f f e n t l i c h k e i t durch Ubernahme eines mannlichen Existenzmusters zu v e r w i r k l i c h e n sucht: cum grano s a l i s die " o f f e n t l i c h e " C h a r l o t t e , Nadja (Simultan), E l i s a b e t h (Drei Wege zum See)•  Diesen mehr oder weniger z e r s t o r t e n Existenzen aber steht die noch n i c h t r e a l i s i e r t e Utopie gegeniiber, i n der Verstand und Gefiihl n i c h t mehr d i v e r g i e r t e n . Im Richtungnehmen auf diese Utopie h i n e r s c h e i n t mir Bachmanns Werk vorwartsweisend im Sinne der Frauenbewegung: . . .389 Surely, t h i s would not i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e image development by Bachmann as we t r i e d to prove i t . Bartsch's  a n a l y s i s , however, does not seem  c l e a r on one point of female development.  In h i s t h e s i s statement he  174  d i s t i n g u i s h e s c l e a r l y two conclusions and  radio plays:  to Bachmann's n a r r a t i v e prose  a r e t u r n to s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s or death:  Die modellhafte Opposition von m a n n l i c h - r a t i o n a l und w e i b l i c h emotional, das MiBlingen e i n e r I n t e g r a t i o n von Verstand und Gefuhl sowie d i e F i n a l i s i e r u n g , Ruckkehr i n d i e gegebenen s o z i a l e n Zwange oder Abtotung, pragen sowohl H o r s p i e l e a l s auch die erzahlende Prosa von Ingeborg Bachmann, und da n i c h t nur die ausgesprochenen Frauengeschichten.390 He  then confirms t h i s r e t u r n f o r C h a r l o t t e i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of E i n  S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha: Die Verwirklichung i h r e r Autonomiebestrebungen i n e i n e r l e s b i s c h e n Beziehung beziehungsweise i n einem neuen Sprachgebrauch liefien C h a r l o t t e i n die P o s i t i o n der AuBenseiterin geraten. S i e geht jedoch, . . . nur einen S c h r i t t nach Gomorrha und kehrt zuriick i n d i e s o z i a l e Ordnung.391 However, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Malina,  Bartsch precludes  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of r e t u r n i n general, a f t e r f i n d i n g the n a r r a t o r ' s search f o r i d e n t i t y to be a f a i l u r e : Da fiir Bachmann eine r e g r e s s i v e Festlegung der Frau auf d i e konventionelle R o l l e n i c h t i n Frage kommt, l o s t s i e das Dilemma durch V e r z i c h t auf die weibliche I d e n t i t a t und Orientierung an maskulinen Identifikationsmustern.392 C l a r i t y on t h i s point would be of importance f o r the determination of patterns of development f o r Bachmann's heroines. In contrast to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of B a i l and Bartsch, Reinert central.  Claus  sees the " t r a d i t i o n a l " substance of Bachmann's characters as In the chapter headed "Wie reaktionar i s t Ingeborg Bachmanns 393  Menschenbild?"  he s t a t e s :  INGEBORG BACHMANN v e r t r i t t n i c h t nur i n diesem H o r s p i e l eine Auffassung vom Wesen des Mannlichen und Weiblichen, die a l l e r d i n g s n i c h t i n den von i h r gezogenen Konsequenzen - a l i e n f e m i n i s t i s c h e n Emanzipationsbestrebungen zuwiderlJiuft. Wenn irgendwo, dann l i e B e s i c h i n d i e s e r Frage b e i i h r eine a n t i q u i e r t e Gesinnung nachweisen: Ausgehend von angeblich z e i t l o s e n anthropologischen und b i o l o g i s c h e n Determinanten  175  b l e i b t auch nur d i e M o g l i c h k e i t auBer Betracht, v a r i a b l e s o z i a l e und h i s t o r i s c h e V e r h a l t n i s s e konnten grundlegend das R o l l e n v e r h a l t e n und d i e 'Daseinsthematik' von Mann und Frau pragen. Wenn irgendwo, dann konnte INGEBORG BACHMANNs Hang zum Absoluten und d i e daraus folgende B e r e i t s c h a f t , v o r s c h n e l l zu verallgemeinern, i h r den Zugang fiir notwendige f o r t s c h r i t t l i c h e E i n s i c h t e n v e r s p e r r t haben. . . . so i d e n t i f i z i e r t e s i c h INGEBORG BACHMANN b i s i n s D e t a i l mit den i h r von der t r a d i t i o n e l l e n Psychologie vorgegebenen E i n s i c h t e n i n das ' z e i t l o s e Wesen' der Geschlechter.394 Reinert continues h i s a n a l y s i s by comparing Bachmann's image of man  to  that of L e r s c h and Weininger and by p o i n t i n g to extensive p a r a l l e l s f i n d i n g at l e a s t i n the case of Weininger a d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e on Bachmann: Soweit PHILIPP LERSCH! Es s o i l und kann n i c h t behauptet werden, daB INGEBORG BACHMANN ihn unmittelbar a l s Quelle benutzt habe, . . . e i n d e r a r t i g e r Nachweis ware aber auch n i c h t e r f o r d e r l i c h , denn LERSCHs Ansichten s p i e g e l n nur d i e b i s dahin e r a r b e i t e t e n Erkenntnisse der t r a d i t i o n e l l e n Psychologie wieder. . . . In diesem Zusammenhang zu erwahnen i s t a l l e r d i n g s e i n E i n f l u B , den man gerade b e i e i n e r A u t o r i n am wenigsten erwartet hatte und den d i e BACHMANN auch eher verschwiegen hat, vermutlich, w e i l er i h r mehr und vor allem p e r s o n l i c h e r e Probleme zu losen aufgab: der E i n f l u B des Wiener Philosophen, Psychologen und Anthropologen OTTO WEININGER, . . . 3 9 5  He then sums up: Es kann h i e r n i c h t der Ort s e i n , a u s f i i h r l i c h e r auf d i e ' u n t e r i r d i s c h e n Querverbindungen' einzugehen. Der Hinweis auf WEININGER und der Rekurs auf LERSCH s o l l e n nur v e r d e u t l i c h e n , wie sehr INGEBORG BACHMANNs Menschenbild t r a d i e r t e n Anschauungen e n t s p r i c h t , . . .396 Reinert goes on to j u s t i f y Bachmann's "outdated" image of the sexes by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between t r u t h i n science and i n a r t : Die Unterschiede zwischen Wissenschaft und Kunst gestatten es n i c h t , vom Kunstwerk zu erwarten, daB es d i e j e w e i l s neuesten w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e n Erkenntnisse zu beriicksichtigen und zu v e r a r b e i t e n habe.397 Thus, i n contrast to science, i n a r t h i s t o r i c truths remain of v a l u e : Das B i l d , das LERSCH oder INGEBORG BACHMANN von Mann und Frau entworfen haben, t r i f f t zu i n bezug auf eine heute h i s t o r i s c h gewordene W i r k l i c h k e i t , der diese E i n s i c h t e n entzogen s i n d .  176 Was aber einmal wahr war, das wird wahr b l e i b e n , auch wenn diese Wahrheit i n f o l g e des h i s t o r i s c h e n Wandels i h r e n Wert v e r l i e r e n s o l l t e und n i c h t mehr zur Geltung kommen kann, w e i l d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t n i c h t mehr e x i s t i e r t , innerhalb derer d i e Aussage g i l t . Wo aber unter diesen Voraussetzungen das w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e Werk mit seinem absoluten Wahrheitsanspruch f a l s c h und u b e r f l i i s s i g wird, da vermag s i c h d i e im Kunstwerk verborgene Wahrheit dauerhafter i n Erinnerung zu h a l t e n , . . .398 Therefore, Reinert concludes, Bachmann's image of the woman, though i t i s a h i s t o r i c image, s t i l l has a worthwhile  message:  Gerade wenn der Mensch s i c h i n seinen Wesensmerkmalen a l s h i s t o r i s c h e s Wesen v e r s t e h t , mufi e r s i c h mit s e i n e r Geschichte a l s e i n e r Summe r e a l i s i e r t e r Moglichkeiten des Menschseins auseinandersetzen, um s i c h s e i n e r s e l b s t gewifi zu werden. Und wenn e r E i n s i c h t i n d i e Bedingungen des Menschseins gewinnen w i l l , wird er auf Dichtungen n i c h t v e r z i c h t e n konnen, d i e Erfahrungen g e s t a l t e t haben, i n denen d i e Z u f a l l i g k e i t e n und Besonderheiten i h r e r R e a l i t a t zum Allgemeinen und Typischen, zur Wahrheit v e r d i c h t e t wurden. Darin griindet d i e bleibende A k t u a l i t a t des Kunstwerkes; und i n i h r i s t der Grund dafiir zu suchen, daB INGEBORG BACHMANN i n den l e t z t e n Jahren a l s eine A u t o r i n entdeckt zu werden s c h e i n t , d i e gerade auch i n der Art und Weise, wie s i e d i e R o l l e der Frau im V e r h a l t n i s zum Mann und zur G e s e l l s c h a f t bestimmt, Bedenkenswertes zu sagen hat.399 A comparison of our f i n d i n g s regarding Bachmann's image of the woman to those of Reinert shows that we both agree on the " t r a d i t i o n a l " appearance but d i f f e r on the substance.  Whereas Reinert demonstrates  the " t r a d i t i o n a l " nature, we have analyzed " t r a d i t i o n a l " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that have been newly defined by Bachmann as advanced means of a c h i e v i n g a d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y , independence, freedom, and values superior to those of the male.  Whereas Reinert defines t h i s image as one of a "heute  h i s t o r i s c h gewordenen W i r k l i c h k e i t " , we have defined i t as a state of a c t u a l existence and a concept to s t r i v e f o r . There are several points of c r i t i c i s m of Reinert's f i n d i n g s we ought to present:  F i r s t , the contention that Bachmann's image of the  177  woman does not extend beyond the one of Weininger or Lersch can h a r d l y be sustained i f one goes beyond spot comparisons and compares concepts. As a p o i n t i n case we quote from Weininger's  chapter "Das absolute Weib  hat k e i n I c h " i n Geschlecht und C h a r a k t e r ^ ^ : Dies i s t , i n gewisser Beziehung, e i n Abschlufi der Betrachtung, e i n L e t z t e s , wozu a l l e Analyse des Weibes f i i h r t . Und wenn auch diese Erkenntnis, so kurz und biindig ausgesprochen, hart und unduldsam, paradox und von a l l z u s c h r o f f e r Neuheit s c h e i n t : es i s t , i n e i n e r solchen Sache, von vornherein kaum wahrscheinl i c h , daB der V e r f a s s e r der e r s t e s e i , welcher zu d i e s e r Anschauung gelangt i s t , wenn e r auch s e l b s t a n d i g wieder zu i h r den Weg finden muBte, um das Treffende der friiheren ahnlichen Aussagen zu begreifen.401 Weininger continues by quoting proof f o r t h i s that ranges from the ancient Chinese, ancient philosophers, and church f a t h e r s to modern l i t e r a t u r e and he concludes: Die v e r b r e i t e t e Rede: "das Weib hat keinen Charakter" meint im Grunde auch n i c h t s anderes. P e r s o n l i c h k e i t und I n d i v i d u a l i t y , ( i n t e l l i g i b l e s ) Ich und Seele, W i l l e und ( i n t e l l i g i b l e r ) Charakter - dies a l l e s bezeichnet e i n und dasselbe, das im Bereiche des Menschen nur M zukommt und W f e h l t . Da aber d i e Seele des Menschen der Mikrokosmus i s t , und bedeutende Menschen solche, welche durchaus mit Seele leben, das heiBt i n denen die ganze Welt lebendig i s t , so muB W absolut ungenial veranlagt s e i n . Der Mann hat a l l e s i n s i c h , und mag nur, nach den Worten F i c o s von Mirandola, dies oder jenes i n s i c h besonders begunstigen.4~02 Weininger re-enforces h i s t h e s i s as he argues i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter: Die u n b e g r i f f l i c h e Natur des Weibes i s t aber, n i c h t minder a l s seine geringere BewuBtheit, e i n Beweis dafiir, daB es k e i n I c h besitzt.403 A comparison of Weininger's  statements  on that p o i n t with Bachmann's  emphasis on the i d e n t i t y of her woman characters should s u b s t a n t i a t e our doubts.  Unless perhaps, one assumes a p o s i t i o n of irony i n t h i s  context and argues that, because Bachmann's heroines have no "Ich"  178 they must search f o r one, but even i n t h i s case Bachmann proceeds beyond Weininger. A second point of c r i t i c i s m concerns the conclusions Reinert must draw because of h i s premise. b a s i c a l l y complementing  We may pose the question how  nature of male-female  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p as that  described by Weininger can produce such v i o l e n t and l e t h a l o p p o s i t i o n as that i n the "Todesarten" novels?  As a consequence  of h i s approach,  Reinert reduces the whole "murder" issue to the v i o l e n t nature of death i t s e l f : INGEBORG BACHMANN s e l b s t b e g r e i f t jeden Tod, auch das n a t i i r l i che, physische Absterben, a l s einen Gewaltakt, einen gegen den W i l l e n des Menschen erfolgenden E i n g r i f f von aufien, also a l s eine Hinrichtung, einen Mord, mit dem n i c h t s versohnen kann und der mit keinem Trost zu beschwichtigen i s t . In ihrem Roman 'Malina heifit es: "Ich habe ihm auch noch sagen wollen, was i c h langst b e g r i f f e n habe - dafi man h i e r eben n i c h t s t i r b t , h i e r wird man ermordet." . . . 1  Doch dies i s t nur d i e eine, wenngleich vorherrschende S e i t e des Todes. Hinzu kommt, dafi der Tod v i e l e s mit der unbedingten, e k s t a t i s c h e n Liebe gemein hat: das S t i l l s t e h e n der Z e i t , das F r e i s e i n von den Fesseln des I r d i s c h e n und d i e Entgrenzung des I n d i v i d u e l l e n . Liebe und Tod, Mord und Lust stehen deswegen i n INGEBORG BACHMANNs Werken i n einem befremdlichen, doch von h i e r aus erklarbaren Zusammenhang.404 We would argue here that i t i s Reinert's premise of male and female nature, that makes Bachmann's concept of "death" to him "befremdlich". I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d at t h i s point that i n our f i n d i n g s we stressed the d i f f e r e n c e between the " t r a d i t i o n a l " females such as the i n "Undine geht" who heroines who the s t i l l  "Menschenfrauen"  are i n harmony with t h e i r partners and Bachmann's  are, because of t h e i r advanced nature, i n c o n f l i c t with  " t r a d i t i o n a l " male characters.  Another consequence of  R e i n e r t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Bachmann's characters as p u r e l y  "traditional"  i s that he must focus the c o n f l i c t between i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y ,  179  which he recognizes too, on the man - not the woman, since according to " t r a d i t i o n a l " psychology  (such as Weininger's  and Lersch's) the female  l i v e s i n harmony with her environment: W i l l e und R a t i o n a l i t a t f o r d e r n im Manne das "BewuBtsein der Abgehobenheit seines Ichs von der Umwelt" (S. 79); das g e s t e i g e r t e IchbewuBtsein entfremdet ihn von s e i n e r Umwelt und l a B t ihn den 'Fluch' der I n d i v i d u a t i o n ' (S. 80), d i e Erfahrung des r a d i k a l e n A u f s i c h g e s t e l l t s e i n s erleben. Die Frau dagegen " l e b t , mit dem Manne v e r g l i c h e n , i n Symbiose mit der Umwelt" (S. 80) und verfiigt iiber e i n unbewuBtes, unmittelbares Wissen 'von bestimmten kosmischen Vorgangen' . . .405 Thus, Reinert argues: Samtliche der f e s t s t e l l b a r e n Unterschiede l a s s e n s i c h darauf zuriickfiihren, daB Jan s i c h der Liebe wie allem anderen verstandesmaBig nahert und samtliche Erfahrungen r a t i o n a l abzusichern sucht, bevor er s i c h zu ihnen bekennt; M o t i v a t i o n fiir seine R a t i o n a l i t a t i s t l e t z t l i c h der W i l l e , d i e i n d i v i d u e l l e F r e i h e i t gegeniiber den Zwangen der Umwelt zu behaupten; . . .406 L a s t l y , one may question the strength of Reinert's c o n c l u s i o n regarding the emancipatory  substance of Bachmann's p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  image of man, i n view of h i s extensive a n a l y s i s of t h i s image as representing not only " t r a d i t i o n a l " concepts, but as nowhere extending beyond these  concepts:  Gerade wenn der Mensch s i c h i n seinen Wesensmerkmalen a l s h i s t o r i s c h e s Wesen v e r s t e h t , mufi e r s i c h mit s e i n e r Geschichte a l s e i n e r Summe r e a l i s i e r t e r M o g l i c h k e i t e n des Menschseins auseinandersetzen, urn s i c h seiner s e l b s t gewifi zu werden. Und wenn er E i n s i c h t i n d i e Bedingungen des Menschseins gewinnen w i l l , wird er auf Dichtungen n i c h t v e r z i c h t e n konnen, d i e Erfahrungen g e s t a l t e t haben, i n denen d i e Z u f a l l i g k e i t e n und Besonderheiten i h r e r R e a l i t a t zum Allgemeinen und Typischen, zur Wahrheit v e r d i c h t e t wurden. D a r i n griindet d i e bleibende A k t u a l i t a t des Kunstwerkes; und i n i h r i s t der Grund dafiir zu suchen, daB INGEBORG BACHMANN i n den l e t z t e n Jahren a l s eine A u t o r i n entdeckt zu werden s c h e i n t , d i e gerade auch i n der A r t und Weise, wie s i e d i e R o l l e der Frau im V e r h a l t n i s zum Mann und zur G e s e l l s c h a f t bestimmt, Bedenkenswertes zu sagen hat. S o l l t e s i c h diese Tendenz f o r t s e t z e n und a l s f u n d i e r t erweisen, dann bedeutete d i e s , daB heute i n der von v i e l e n schon a l s r e a k t i o n a r abgeschriebenen BACHMANNschen Konzeption  180  a l l m a h l i c h der emanzipatorische Kern, das A k t u e l l e , das Wahre a l s o , wiederentdeckt wird.^07 Furthermore, whereas we agree with Reinert that Bachmann advances no ideology or s o c i a l program, we would argue that by reducing Bachmann' p r e s e n t a t i o n of the male-female s i t u a t i o n to a h i s t o r i c r e a l i t y and s h i f t i n g the formulation of a p o s s i b l e message to the r e c i p i e n t , Reinert  s t r i p s Bachmann's works of a p r e c i s e and timely statement. A not  i n s i g n i f i c a n t part of the second phase of Bachmann  r e c e p t i o n can be c l a s s i f i e d as p o l i t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , o f t e n combined with a f e m i n i s t i c approach. discusses one aspect  S i g r i d Schmid-Bortenschlager  of Bachmann's image of the woman i n "Frauen a l s  Opfer - G e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e R e a l i t a t und l i t e r a r i s c h e s from a p o l i t i c a l point of view.  Modell."^^  Concluding an a n a l y s i s of Bachmann's  woman characters mainly i n Simultan, she w r i t e s : In Simultan und i n der Romanwelt von Bachmann haben Frauen o f fenbar keine Chance: a l s Ehefrauen, die i h r e Manner bewundern und beschiitzen, werden s i e i i b e r f l i i s s i g wie Miranda, oder l a s t i g , wie Franziska, sobald s i e n i c h t mehr u n k r i t i s c h m i t a r b e i t e t und Jordan bewundert, a l s Mutter werden s i e mit einem l a c h e r l i c h e n Almosen abgeschoben . . . sobald s i e i h r e Funktion e r f i i l l t haben; der Versuch, s i c h v o l l i g auf s i c h s e l b s t zuriickzuziehen, wie b e i B e a t r i x , i s t zum Scheitern v e r u r t e i l t , i s o l i e r t e s Leben i s t n i c h t moglich; lassen s i e s i c h auf den b e r u f l i c h e n Wettkampf e i n , so werden s i e auch h i e r "ausgeniitzt", . . .409 Schmid-Bortenschlager then points to the d i f f i c u l t y of comparing Bachmann's seemingly r e a l male-female dichotomy to her models of s o c i which, she argues, are p a r t l y a b s t r a c t : Die Schwierigkeit der I n t e r p r e t a t i o n dieses scheinbar so eindeutigen Befundes e r g i b t s i c h , wenn man diese Dichotomie Mann/Frau mit den Gesellschaftsmodellen im Werk Bachmanns v e r g l e i c h t . Auch h i e r z e i g t s i c h wieder e i n polares Denken, der h e i l e n Welt Osterreich-Ungarns, der Welt Matreis und Trottas steht die hafiliche Welt der Gegenwart mit ihren Krlegen, Warenhausern, i h r e r Esperanto-Sprache gegeniiber. Doch wird h i e r d e u t l i c h , dafi d i e p o s i t i v e H a l f t e keine r e a l e Schilderung der h i s t o r i s c h e n osterreichisch-ungarischen  181  Monarchie s e i n w i l l , dafi es s i c h h i e r b e i vielmehr um eine symbolische C h i f f r i e r u n g zweiten und d r i t t e n Grades handelt ,410 She  therefore  concludes that Bachmann's male-female p o l a r i t y must  a l s o be taken as a model: A i i n l i c h wie s i c h das G e s e l l s c h a f t s b i l d b e i Bachmann a l s abstraktes Modell erweist, so kann auch d i e P o l a r i s i e r u n g Mann/Vater/Gott/Morder gegen Frau/Tochter/Opfer n i c h t d i r e k t r e a l i s t i s c h und f e m i n l s t i s c h i n t e r p r e t i e r t werden.4H She  concludes by i n t e r p r e t i n g the male-female antagonism as one of  e x p l o i t e r s and e x p l o i t e d w i t h i n  Capitalism:  Bachmann geht es also i n diesen p r i v a t e n Geschichten auch um e i n g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e s Problem. Ihr polares Modell von Opfern und Mordern e n t s p r i c h t wohl am ehesten einer s i m p l i f i z i e r t e n K a p i t a l i s m u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n von Ausbeutern und Ausgebeuteten, i n dem s i c h auch v i e l e der konkret angesprochenen D e t a i l s unterbringen lassen . . .^12 F i n a l l y , Schmid-Bortenschlager d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to the problem of i n t e g r a t i n g Bachmann's frequent and concrete presentations of U t o p i a into her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : Hier z e i g t s i c h a l l e r d i n g s auch d i e Problematik von Bachmanns Werken, d i e s u b t i l und genau menschliche Beziehungen und i h r Scheitern nachzeichnen, s i c h jedoch n i c h t damit begniigen, sondern immer wieder ansetzen zur l i t e r a r i s c h e n Gestaltung einer konkreten Utopie, . . . Der Erzahlband Simultan i s t gegenuber . . . den Horspielen, aber auch noch gegenuber Malina r e i c h e r an r e a l i s t i s c h e n D e t a i l s , konkreten Beobachtungen, direkten Stellungnahmen zu p o l i t i s c h - g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Tendenzen, doch diirfen diese Elemente n i c h t dazu v e r l e i t e n , d i e Texte j e t z t konkretmimetisch zu i n t e r p r e t i e r e n , s i e sind nach wie vor eingespannt i n das symbolische Weltmodell der Ingeborg Bachmann, .413 Comparing the r e s u l t s of our a n a l y s i s Bortenschlager we f i n d agreement on the point  to those of Schmidthat Bachmann's male-  female image can not be i n t e r p r e t e d by a f e m i n i s t i c approach although our  findings are more d e f i n i t e on that point.  A substantial  difference,  182  however, to Schmid-Bortenschlager - and to other I m p e r i a l i s m / C a p i t a l i s m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s - i s , that we have r e j e c t e d the p u r e l y model-like nature of Bachmann's male-female  antagonism.  We have done t h i s by  a n a l y z i n g i t s substance, i t s interdependence and i t s u n i t y with the u n d e r l y i n g conception of the world.  To put i t simply, Schmid-  Bortenschlager ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would allow the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the male-female  antagonism by a white-black or r i c h - p o o r c o n f l i c t without  e f f e c t i n g the substance of her c o n c l u s i o n .  I t w i l l a l s o be obvious,  that our u n i f i e d concept does not encounter the problem SchmidBortenschlager r e f e r s to, because male-female  c o n c r e t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n (the  c o n f l i c t and Bachmann's concept of the world) are seen to  be of one nature.  Besides, one may question Schmid-Bortenschlager's  premise that one h a l f of Bachmann's concept of the world i s to be taken as r e a l , the other not. Summing up the second part of our d i s c u s s i o n of Bachmann c r i t i c i s m regarding the image of the woman, we found an i n c r e a s i n g trend toward a s o c i o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e which i n some aspects may require a reassessment  of e a r l i e r p u r e l y l i t e r a r y  that were dominated by Bachmann's r o l e as l y r i c i s t . comparing  approaches  We a l s o found by  the substance of these conclusions to ours - where there was  disagreement  - that ours o f f e r the more c o n s i s t e n t and c o n c l u s i v e  arguments i n respect to Bachmann's image of the woman i n i t s e n t i r e t y .  CHAPTER XI OUR INTERPRETATIONS AND FINDINGS  I.  TODESARTEN AND THE TRAGIC CONDITION OF THE WOMAN During our a n a l y s i s of the image of the woman i n Bachmann's  prose, we have r e p e a t e d l y drawn a t t e n t i o n to a t r a g i c dilemma i n her e x i s t e n c e and her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h men.  Our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s  theme, e s p e c i a l l y as i t i s developed i n the novels of the Todesarten, i s b u i l t on the two t h e o r i e s developed above:  the search f o r freedom  and personal i d e n t i t y , and the a n t a g o n i s t i c nature of the male.  The  d i s c u s s i o n i s l a r g e l y based on the f i g u r e of Fanny Goldmann i n Requiem f u r Fanny Goldmann who i s seen as an archetype f o r Bachmann's female p r o t a g o n i s t s i n general and the main female characters i n the Todesartencycle i n particular.  A.  The F a l l The question a r i s e s :  longing f o r independence,  why are Bachmann's women, d e s p i t e t h e i r  t h e i r n o n - r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t s , and t h e i r  "counter—male" values, a t t r a c t e d to partners who become t h e i r tormenters and, eventually, t h e i r "murderers"?  jailers,  The answer i s to be  found i n the f a c t that Bachmann's heroines are subject to elements of t h e i r nature that are, and always have been, " t r a d i t i o n a l l y " female, such as longings f o r love, a f f e c t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n , safety, and approval, such longings they f i n d unable to r e s i s t .  183  guidance, Our a n a l y s i s  184  of  the texts has shown t h i s .  A f t e r having e x t e n s i v e l y discussed the  v e s t i g e s of such " t r a d i t i o n a l " female longings i n Bachmann's women and a f t e r having also observed  the " t r a d i t i o n a l " p a t t e r n s of behaviour i n  male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p s , we must conclude that " t r a d i t i o n a l " r o l e behaviour i s the determining f a c t o r i n a l l i n i t i a l  contacts of the  female p r o t a g o n i s t s with t h e i r l e a d i n g partners i n a l l of the three Todesarten n o v e l s .  Fanny Goldmann i s concerned  only about her  appearance as she allows Marek to enter her apartment at n i g h t and 414 q u i c k l y becomes dependent on him:  Fanny ". . . war  . . . ihm h o r i g " .  Franza marries a "father-image" and looks f o r p r o t e c t i o n .  The n a r r a t o r  i n Malina chases a f t e r Malina because she wants a l l her knowledge to 415 come from him; she was In  "...  von Anfang an unter ihn g e s t e l l t " .  a l l of these cases, the male partners also represent " t r a d i t i o n a l "  images: succeeded  master, f a t h e r / p r o t e c t o r , teacher.  i n becoming n o n - " t r a d i t i o n a l " i n those aspects of t h e i r  which d i d not i n v o l v e r e l a t i n g to men, are unable to extend of  love.  Although Bachmann's females  as we have shown e a r l i e r ,  lives they  t h e i r independence i n t o the deeply emotional  realm  Love i s never without dependence, without subordination.  Thus, longing f o r love, i f not discarded, w i l l without  f a i l drive  Bachmann's females i n t o involvement with, and dependence on, the male. There i s a q u a l i t y of determinism with her l o v e r . first  i n the heroine's i n i t i a l meeting  The n a r r a t o r i n Malina, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e f l e c t s on her  contact with Malina:  "...  und i c h muB  f r u h gewufit haben, daB  er mir zum Verhangnis werden mtisse, dafi Malinas P l a t z schon von Malina besetzt war,  ehe er s i c h i n meinem Leben e i n s t e l l t e .  Es i s t mir nur  185  e r s p a r t worden, oder i c h habe es mir aufgespart, zu friih mit zusammenzukommen.A  ihm  force beyond the female's c o n t r o l i s also at  work i n Franza's meeting of Jordan:  Franza " . . .  angeblich ohnmachtig  geworden im Anatomiesaal, oder eine a h n l i c h e romantische Geschichte A17 hatte s i e dem F o s s i l i n d i e Arme g e t r i e b e n , . . . " pretending to f a i n t was  (Of course,  considered to be a " t y p i c a l " and acceptable  form of behaviour amongst " t r a d i t i o n a l " females.)  The r o l e played by a  higher a u t h o r i t y i n Franza's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Jordan i s a l s o expressed at  another p o i n t i n the novel when Bachmann r e f e r s to t h e i r 418  meeting:  "...  durch welchen RatschluB wohl?"  initial  A l e s s obvious  example can be found i n Requiem f u r Fanny Goldmann, where Fanny's meeting of  Marek does not seem to have r i s e n from her own  choice.  Right from  the beginning of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , she appears to have been an object of  fate. A l l of Bachmann's heroines are subject to a t r a g i c q u a l i t y  because of  they are unable to break f r e e of important " t r a d i t i o n a l " elements  t h e i r female nature or make them compatible with t h e i r new  (To make them compatible would be a paradox because  self.  partner-directed  behaviour excludes ego-directed behaviour; i t implies the l o s s of the ego i n the partner.)  This t r a g i c q u a l i t y i s not only r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  l u r i n g the heroine i n t o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l trap but also prevents her from becoming a f u l l y evolved, independent human being, from a c h i e v i n g the G r e n z u b e r t r i t t or from entering the "new One may  world" Bachmann e n v i s i o n s .  also see t h i s t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n i n the wider theme developed by  Bachmann i n the story A l l e s and elsewhere:  man  i s unable to create a  186 "new world" because he cannot escape the t r a d i t i o n s and thought patterns of  the past. Although i t i s the t r a g i c c o n d i t i o n of Bachmann's heroines i n  the Todesarten novels - to a l e s s e r extent of a l l heroines - that d e l i v e r s them to t h e i r male oppressors, they are, however, not without r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e i r own downfall. (a  Franza speaks of an Amnadostrieb  d r i v e that leads a herd to s l a u g h t e r ) , a Bluebeard marriage, but  also o f the female f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the world of the male and a woman's d e s i r e f o r wanting  to know the incomprehensible and i n e x p l i c a b l e nature  of  the male, though such knowledge may prove to be f a t a l .  to  t h e i r p a r t n e r - o r i e n t e d d e s i r e s , to those q u a l i t i e s that are s t i l l  " t r a d i t i o n a l " , Bachmann's heroines submit to the male.  By submitting  By submitting to  the male, they forego, without i n t e n t , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f becoming a "new woman", of a c h i e v i n g i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y and freedom.  As the s e l f  i s being enslaved, i t becomes corrupted and i s f i n a l l y destroyed. first  B.  It i s  subjugated, then robbed of i t s i d e n t i t y , and f i n a l l y trapped.  The Enslavement The f a l l  of Bachmann's heroines, t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n to the male  and h i s world, i n i t i a t e s a process that leads them to a l o s s of judgement, to  s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , to a loss of s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - o r i e n t a t i o n ,  l o s s of values, a d i s t o r t i o n of t h e i r nature, and f i n a l l y to a d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r s e l f . of  their attraction.  enslavement.  Enslavement  Their f a l l  i s the unavoidable consequence  i s a gradual f a l l  from freedom  into  This c o n s t i t u t e s the main development i n a l l three  Todesarten novels.  Franza, i n Der F a l l Franza, becomes aware of the  187  beginnings of her enslavement when she r e f l e c t s on her with  relationship  Jordan: Wann hat es angefangen? Man meint, n i c h t mit dem Anfang, aber z u l e t z t weiB man: im Anfang. Da warnt d i c h e t was und schon h o r s t du n i c h t zu, s c h i e b s t e i n Gefiihl, das ^ du nachher f u r d e i n e r s t e s a u s g i b s t , vor e i n w i r k l i c h e r s t e s .  Again, we are confronted w i t h an a n t i t h e s i s i n Bachmann's women, an a n t i t h e s i s between a " t r a d i t i o n a l " and an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c which causes so many of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s . woman i s d r i v e n to f a l l f o r the man,  orientation,  Although one part of the  the other part s i g n a l s a warning.  This she ignores as her o t h e r - d i r e c t e d f e e l i n g s come to the f o r e . i s important  It  to note - i n the context of our a n a l y s i s above - that  t h i s warning i s a mere f e e l i n g .  Bachmann's women comprehend not by  i n t e l l e c t and reason but by i r r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t s and  intuition.  I n t u i t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of the evolved heroine.  With i t ,  she becomes s e n s i t i v e to the true nature of the male and to the dangerous s i t u a t i o n she f i n d s h e r s e l f i n .  But as her p a r t n e r - d i r e c t e d  f e e l i n g s become stronger, they turn out to be agents of deception. Soon a f t e r her commitment to Marek, Fanny begins to doubt.  She  starts  to d i s t r u s t Marek's l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s and suspects him to be lazy as he makes use of her l i t e r a c y f o r h i s own  gain.  Yet, she h e s i t a t e s to  acknowledge h i s l i t e r a r y deceptions and f i n d s excuses f o r him unmerklich, wurde die Person Marek einem Prozess unterzogen, s i e immer bedeutender, vollkommener und hervorging . . ."^O  fabelhafter,  "... aus  dem  anbetungswiirdiger,  ^ very s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n Franza's  Under the i n f l u e n c e of love and a f f e c t i o n , she ennobles Jordan's and ignores r e a l i t y and the warning given by her "other nature":  case. actions  188  Gewarnt b i s t du. Durch eine Kopfhaltung, durch eine Handbewegung, durch eine Stimme, i n der etwas f a h l i s t , und im nachsten Moment, das kann einen Monat sparer s e i n , bemilhst du d i c h besonders, i n d i e s e r arroganten Bewegung etwas Riihrendes zu entdecken, vermutest eine Geschichte d a h i n t e r , d i e s i c h n i e e i n s t e l l t , eine U n s i c h e r h e i t , d i e n i c h t zutage t r i t t . Du l i e b s t j e t z t d i e Stimme, w e i l du aus i h r Melancholie heraushorst, und wenn s i e aggressiv wird, dann horst du etwas Kiihnes, nun g e f a l l t es d i r schon, der Schwindel i s t vollkommen, du brauchst d i c h n i c h t betrvigen, der Betrug zeugt neuen Betrug. Nichts warnt d i c h mehr, das S i g n a l wird nur einmal gegeben, wenn du mit dem anderen zum erstenmal i n einem Raum b i s t und es d i r b e f i e h l t , hab acht, hab a c h t . ^ ^ l The process of subjugation continues when the woman drops her name, and thereby cuts h e r s e l f o f f from her r o o t s .  She l o s e s her  more important yet, she loses her a b i l i t y f o r discernment  identity;  and  self-  s u f f i c i e n c y ; she becomes depersonalized. . . . du v e r l e r n s t aus dem Unrat das Korn Wahrheit herauszufinden, dazu miifitest du d i c h zu sehr anstrengen, aber du lafit d i r schon aus dem Auto h e l f e n , du t r i n k s t schon einen Kaffee i n e i n e r s t i l l e n Gasse, du l i e g s t schon i n einem Bett i n einem 19. B e z i r k und suchst deine Dokumente zusammen, d e i n Heimatschein i s t e i n g e t r o f f e n und wird d i r abverlangt, der Heimatschein kommt aus deiner Gemeinde, die w i l l s t du h i n t e r d i r l a s s e n , du p r o b i e r s t einen Namen aus, damit du ihn zum erstenmal g l e i c h f l i i s s i g schreiben kannst. Dann verlafit du e i n Standesamt, e i n paar Stunden spater f a l l t eine Wohnungstur h i n t e r d i r zu, jemand hebt d i c h auf, nachdem das Schlofi eingeschnappt i s t , du l a c h s t mit jemand, a l s ware der Welt damit e i n wunderbarer S t r e i c h g e s p i e l t worden mit diesem T i i r z u f a l i e n , dem Namenwechsel, du denkst keinen Augenbllck, er konnte d i r g e s p i e l t worden s e i n und schon e i n i g e n vor d i r . ^ 2 Next, she loses her independence of mind as she abandons her values thoughts  i n order to attach h e r s e l f to the male's t h i n k i n g .  r e c a l l s t h i s loss during her e a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p with  Franza  Jordan:  . . . dafi i c h v i e l l e i c h t den R i t t e r s c h l a g verdienen, mir v e r dienen konnte, erdienen mit . . . Preisgabe meiner Gedanken, die s i c h e r s t zu b i l d e n gehabt hatten. Ich hing mich . . . an seine Gedankenleitung, u n v o r s i c h t i g , i c h hatte mich auch an eine Starkstromleitung werfen konnen, das ware rascher und g l i m p f l i c h e r v e r l a u f e n , e i n e l e k t r i s c h e r U n f a l l , Totalschaden mit Verbrennungen, . . .423  and  189  This need to give up t h i n k i n g , to abandon her own consequence of a d i m i n i s h i n g i d e n t i t y and point of no escape.  the l a s t step toward the  I t i s an act of s e l f - d e n i a l which would only be  harmless to a " t r a d i t i o n a l " woman. The heroine has been reduced dependence.  l a t e n t ideas, i s a  I t i s l e t h a l to Bachmann's heroine. to a s t a t e of h e l p l e s s n e s s  U s u a l l y , the heroine suddenly  and  r e a l i s e s that the means f o r  her f r e e and i n d i v i d u a l existence have been destroyed.  Bachmann uses  f r e q u e n t l y the images of language, sentences,  or l e t t e r s , to demonstrate  the l o s s .  f o r her sentences  has  The n a r r a t o r i n Malina i s searched  them taken away by p o l i c e before she i s put into j a i l .  Franza are reduced  Fanny and  to readers - an image which i n Bachmann's terms  stands f o r existence i n a foreign-designed world - of t h e i r s t o r y , t h e i r own  and  psychoanalysis.  has her dresses designed  Franza r e c e i v e s a "new  by Marek.  life's  s k i n " , Fanny  E a r l i e r , we have discussed  meaning of s e l f - s e l e c t e d dresses i n Malina.  the  The suppression and decay  of a woman's "other nature", the l o s s of her independence, i n d i v i d u a l i t y and her values, her s h i f t toward her " t r a d i t i o n a l " ways, her adjustment to the man's t h i n k i n g , have made her h e l p l e s s and insecure. t y p i c a l of the " t r a d i t i o n a l " female.  We  A l l are  are t o l d that Fanny Goldmann  becomes f e a r f u l and insecure a f t e r meeting Marek.  We  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n Malina and i n Der F a l l Franza.  a l s o note a This helplessness  c o n t r i b u t e s to f a c i l i t a t e the eventual "murder" of the heroine prevents her timely escape.  and  Bachmann's heroines have become subjected  to, and i n f e c t e d by, t h e i r male partners. them also plead f o r help and s a l v a t i o n .  The  same helplessness makes  Only the man  to banish deadly disease and b r i n g s a l v a t i o n :  seems to be able  190 . . . und wenn Fanny etwas wunschte, dann j e d e n f a l l s im Anfang, daB d i e s von i h r genommen werde, da s i e es a l s Krankheit zum Tod erkannte, dafi Toni, s e i t s i e d i e s wuBte, kommen moge, n i c h t mehr, damit noch irgendwas zwischen ihnen g e r e g e l t wiirde, n i c h t mehr fiir eine Rechenschaft, sondern, um das von i h r zu nehmen, i h r d i e Hand aufzulegen, es muBte etwas i n seinem B e s i t z geben ( i n wessen B e s i t z s o n s t ) , das s i e e r l o s e n konnte.424 The women's h e l p l e s s n e s s , t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependence,  denies them  any i n d i v i d u a l freedom.  There i s not only danger from without, from  the man,  t h e i r freedom but danger from w i t h i n .  that undermines  Bachmann's heroines know about t h e i r i n f a t u a t i o n , about t h e i r v o l u n t a r y submission, and they sense the deadly e f f e c t s these have on t h e i r s o u l . Freedom a l s o o f t e n e n t a i l s a l i e n a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n .  We have e a r l i e r  discussed the r o l e of the o u t s i d e r and the theme of s o c i a l commitment and see i n the p a r t n e r - o r i e n t e d urges of Bachmann's females a perhaps subconscious  social  yearning to compensate f o r the sense of a l i e n a t i o n  a t r u l y independent i n d i v i d u a l can f e e l .  Furthermore, there appears  to be an automatic q u a l i t y w i t h i n the chain of cause and e f f e c t which leads the heroine step by step toward her enslavement.  This can  e a s i l y be seen when a n a l y s i n g the development of the heroines i n the Todesarten.  There i s shown to us a f u r t h e r dimension i n the image of  the female.  She becomes a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l and  social  developments during the r i s e of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m s i n t h i s century.  In  Bachmann's w r i t i n g s Fascism, as we have suggested e a r l i e r , i s synonymous with c e r t a i n ways of male behaviour.  C.  The Trap The t r a g i c development  continues as the f e e l i n g of helplessness  changes into the heroine's r e a l i z a t i o n that she i s trapped.  Bachmann  191  depicts t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of entrapment by p a i n t i n g gruesome p i c t u r e s of traps, of which the gaschamber i s the u l t i m a t e Other forms are the p r i s o n c e l l , deadly disease  example.  the l a b y r i n t h , the tomb, the cage, a  l i k e cancer, or a high-voltage  fence of barbed wire.  What has caused t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e e l i n g o f entrapment, t h i s claustrophobia?  For Franza i t i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that her whole emotional  l i f e i s observed, tabulated and analysed. Jordan's notes.  She speaks of the cage of  I n these notes, which contain the a n a l y s i s and  d e s c r i p t i o n of her mind and behaviour, her innermost.being i s imprisoned. Worse, she i s reduced to a c a l c u l a b l e and manipulable object that has to l i v e i n f e a r and t e r r o r .  For Fanny Goldmann, on the other hand, i t  i s the r e c o g n i t i o n that her l i f e ' s intimate experiences and f e e l i n g s are caught and put on d i s p l a y when they are described, marketed i n Marek's book.  exposed and  Such d i s p l a y causes fear and hate i n her,  a hate that she l i k e n s to cancer and a mortal sickness.  I t i s the  r e a l i z a t i o n of having been misused, thrown away, and having her i d e a l s and values  she has held destroyed.  For the n a r r a t o r i n Malina i t i s  the r e a l i z a t i o n that, f o r her, s u r v i v a l i n Malina's or Ivan's world i s impossible;  i n i t , she can not r e t a i n or develop her i d e n t i t y ; her  p e r s o n a l i t y has been reduced to a c a r i c a t u r e . G e n e r a l i z i n g from the i n d i v i d u a l instances, we must conclude that the progressive  reduction of the woman's s e l f , the entrapment of  her ego, by the inner compulsion to f e e l and act i n a " t r a d i t i o n a l " way and by the outer forces imposed on her by her partner f o r her anxiety and f e a r . f o r Bachmann's heroines  i s responsible  I t i s fear which leads into the trap.  Also,  the l o s s of the ego means l o s s of human i d e n t i t y .  192  This explains with the  the repeated animal imagery Bachmann provides  in  connection  trap:  Wie habe i c h mich benommen, wie e i n T i e r , das i n seinem K a f i g auf-und niederrennt, und wenn i c h d i e Stabe hatte durchrennen konnen mit meinem Schadel, ware i c h noch im K a f i g gewesen, i n dem K a f i g seiner Notizen, die mich v e r f o l g t e n , die mir vorausgingen.^25 The  r e a l i z a t i o n of having been trapped i s a sudden one  and i t  appears to be a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the consciousness of Bachmann's women. A l l three heroines  i n the Todesarten speak of a sudden change, a sudden  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t about t h e i r partners values  i n general.  and o f t e n , a l s o , about human  This sudden r e a l i z a t i o n at the climax p r e c i p i t a t e s  the f i n a l development toward d e s t r u c t i o n .  This suddenness can even  be observed i n Bachmann's short n a r r a t i v e Im Himmel und where J u s t i n uses Amelie to s t e a l f o r him.  The  auf Erden  reader i s t o l d  Amelie, a f t e r having been a r r e s t e d , suddenly r e a l i z e s her victimization: mit  "Da  s t i i r z t e die E i n f a l t aus  einem Abgrund des Wissens, der mit  Gefiige i h r e r Beziehungen verschlang."  426  terrible  i h r e n Augen und  einemmal ihn und  that  wechselte  s i e und  das  S i m i l a r words are used to  describe Eanny Goldmann's i n s t i n c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n of her s i t u a t i o n : Wie d i e Ankundigungen von schweren Krankheiten, d i e des Zusammenhangs noch entbehren, wie d i e Ahnungsanfalle vor T o d e s f a l l e n , Absturzen, hatte Fanny etwas zwischen der M i c h a e l e r k i r c h e und der KartenerstraBe a n g e f a l l e n , und s i e hatte diese etwas groBeren Augen, die n i c h t zum Schauen da sind, n i c h t zum Anblicken, zum Begreifen, sondern zum ^ 7 Nichtverstehen, zum Starren, zur F a s s u n g s l o s i g k e i t , . . . At one point toward the end,  the n a r r a t o r i n Malina t e l l s the  "Ivan i s t n i c h t mehr Ivan, i c h sehe ihn an wie  e i n K l i n i k e r , der  Rontgenaufnahme s t u d i e r t , i c h sehe sein S k e l e t t , Flecken Lunge . . .'  reader: eine  i n seiner  A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i s revealed by Franza suddenly  193  r e a l i z i n g Jordan's true c h a r a c t e r : dann ging mir auf, was .  . . und  seine S t r a t e g i e war, er war  dann wuBte i c h , daB  vorging und  "Ja, i c h habe i h n nur angesehen, und  er genoB es,  e i n groBer Stratege,  er genau wuBte, er wuBte, was  . . ."  i n mir  429  Thus, the f e e l i n g of being trapped  represents  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  state of h e l p l e s s n e s s , of f e a r , and the r e c o g n i t i o n that one  cannot  escape since a l l the means f o r such an escape, f o r s u r v i v a l  itself,  have been l o s t or given up D.  voluntarily.  Death Execution, or murder, threatens  a l l of Bachmann's women.  Keywords a s s o c i a t e d with i t appear throughout Bachmann's work: murder, murderer, execution, executioner,  guillotine, torture,  massacre, f a t a l disease, cancer, slaughter, s a c r i f i c e , t e r r o r , gaschamber, graveyard  of daughters.  the Todesarten  Bachmann's metaphors f o r v i o l e n t death i n  novels range from the "white murder" symbolized  wedding dress and  by  the  the wedding to the slaughter of a lamb r e p r e s e n t i n g  Fanny GoIdmann's f a t e . We  have p r e v i o u s l y discussed the d e s t r u c t i o n of the female's  inner i d e n t i t y by the male.  In the Todesarten  novels the heroine i s  e i t h e r k i l l e d by having her mind and behaviour studied, analyzed manipulated (Franza), or by having her inner experiences and marketed (Fanny),  fictionalized  or by being reduced to a f i x e d r o l e , to an  i n f e r i o r being, a c a r i c a t u r e of her former s e l f Malina):  and  (the n a r r a t o r i n  ". . . w e i l i c h zu einer K a r i k a t u r geworden b i n , im Geist 430  und  im F l e i s c h . "  D e s t r u c t i o n may  a l s o be caused by a r e p r e s s i o n  194  of her of  thought, speech, or willpower, as w e l l as by the a n n i h i l a t i o n of s e l f - i d e n t i t y through " l o v e " .  D e s t r u c t i o n , or death, i s a process  d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n that i s t r i g g e r e d and sustained by the male as  w e l l as by the female as we discussed e a r l i e r .  I t i s a l s o sustained  by s t e r e o t y p i n g her, by denying her i n d i v i d u a l i t y , by p r o j e c t i n g a f a l s e image onto h e r s e l f . A f u r t h e r and more devastating way to cause "death" i s to penetrate her i d e n t i t y , k i l l her self-awareness, and her a b i l i t y to express h e r s e l f . her  speech.  from without.  T h i s i s brought about by the d e s t r u c t i o n of her sentences,  I t goes hand i n hand with the d e s t r u c t i o n of her p e r s o n a l i t y A very p o e t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the ways to k i l l ,  through sex, i s given i n Requiem f o r Fanny Goldmann.  namely  A deadly a s s a u l t  on the heroine's s e l f - i d e n t i t y i s made when her name i s swallowed up, consumed, i n the act of sexual love: . . . i h r a l t e r Name Fanny war i n seinem jungen Namen Walter untergegangen, hatte s i c h von ihm iiberwaltigen l a s s e n , er war i n a l l e i h r e Buchstaben eingedrungen, s e i n A hatte mit i h r e n Vokalen s i c h beriihrt, seine Konsonanten s i c h mit i h r e n verschlungen, s i e hatten s i c h befeuchtet, s i c h gedreht i n einander, er hatte i h r e n Namen aufgeweicht, ihn vom F b i s zum Y p s i l o n umarmt, i h r Name war so besamt von seinem Namen, er war auch i n i h r aufgegangen, so hatte s i e gemeint, aber nein, er war es n i c h t , er hatte s i e umbenannt, er nannte s i e Stephanie i n seinem Buch, . . .^31 It but  should be noted here that i t i s not sex i t s e l f which i s d e s t r u c t i v e her d e p e r s o n a l i s a t i o n which accompanies  it.  The n a r r a t o r i n  Bachmann's Malina describes her r e l a t i o n s h i p to Ivan i n very s i m i l a r words.  Here, her i d e n t i t y i s not destroyed:  Wenn Ivan auch gewiB f u r mich erschaffen worden i s t , so kann ich doch n i e a l l e i n auf ihn Anspruch erheben. Denn er i s t gekommen, um d i e Konsonanten wieder f e s t und f a f i l i c h zu machen, um die Vokale wieder zu offnen, damit s i e v o l l tonen, um mir  195  d i e Worte wieder iiber d i e Lippen kommen zu l a s s e n , urn d i e e r s t e n z e r s t o r t e n Zusammenhange w i e d e r h e r z u s t e l l e n und d i e Probleme zu e r l o s e n , und so werde i c h k e i n J o t a von ihm abweichen, i c h werde unsre i d e n t i s c h e n , h e l l k l i n g e n d e n Anfangsbuchstaben, mit denen w i r unsre k l e i n e n Z e t t e l unterzeichnen, aufeinanderstimmen, iibereinanderschreiben, und nach der Vereinigung unserer Namen konnten w i r v o r s i c h t i g anfangen, mit den e r s t e n Worten d i e s e r Welt wieder d i e Ehre zu erweisen, damit s i e wiinschen mufi, s i c h wieder d i e Ehre zu geben, und da w i r d i e Auferstehung wollen und n i c h t d i e Zerstorung, hiiten w i r uns, einander schon o f f e n t l i c h mit den Handen zu beriihren, . . . ^ Both quotations i l l u s t r a t e not only the dilemma of Bachmann's heroines, the need to r e t a i n i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y amidst a passion which i s s e l f consuming, but a l s o the importance of language as a means of s e l f expression and self-awareness.  Although,  we discussed e a r l i e r the  r o l e that w r i t i n g and other c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s p l a y i n Bachmann's novels, and t h e i r importance to the heroines, we should add here that there are two forms of w r i t i n g i n the novels.  Marek, as w e l l as the  n a r r a t o r i n Malina w r i t e , but both do so i n completely and with d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s .  d i f f e r e n t ways  Marek's way of w r i t i n g i s "second hand";  he copies Fanny's experiences.  This i s so because true "male" w r i t i n g  can only be a n a l y t i c , d e s c r i p t i v e and o b j e c t i v e .  Marek i s not able  to produce t r u l y s u b j e c t i v e , c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g , and has a l s o f a i l e d as a playwright.  His w r i t i n g i s , l i k e Jordan's or any other man's w r i t i n g ,  d e s t r u c t i v e to women.  Female w r i t i n g , on the other hand, i f i t has  not been contaminated by male i n f l u e n c e s , i s shown i n Bachmann's prose to be t r u l y c r e a t i v e and to have a s e l f - a s s e r t i v e , inspiring,  life-giving,  effect.  Throughout the Todesarten  we f i n d a connection between sex,  sexual oppression, and a s s a u l t on the woman's i n d i v i d u a l i t y and her  196  "other" nature.  The d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n of Marek i s i n t e n s i f i e d  Bachmann's combining sexual with l i n g u i s t i c imagery. observe  by  Here, one  may  i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of Fanny's name a s t y l i z e d form of c a s t r a t i o n  which a l s o u n d e r l i e s the image of the severed r i n g f i n g e r s of the dead daughters  r i s i n g from t h e i r graves  i n Malina.  Furthermore, the  re-appearing a r c h e t y p a l f a t h e r f i g u r e throughout  Bachmann's  Todesarten  novels, e s p e c i a l l y i n Malina, i s laden w i t h imagery of sexual oppression and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s .  These range from the huge, black, l e e c h - l i k e ,  hoses attached to the gaschamber i n which the n a r r a t o r i n Malina i s locked by her father/murderer, U n i v e r s i t y of Vienna subduing stuck i n Franza's  to the jewel-studded  s t a f f of the  her i n t e l l e c t , or to the p i e c e of apple  throat almost k i l l i n g her, to the t r i p l e meaning of  "aufs Kreuz gelegt".  In the l a s t two  sexual and b i b l i c a l imagery.  images, one n o t i c e s a f u s i o n of  There are throughout  the  Todesarten  novels repeated analogies between sex, sexual oppression, b r u t a l i t y , and the d e s t r u c t i o n of women. The death of the heroine takes on i t s strongest s i g n i f i c a n c e when Fanny Goldmann i s seen as a C h r i s t f i g u r e i n i t s r e l i g i o u s s a c r i f i c i a l setting. the lamb of God,  and  and  The mount of O l i v e s , the sponge with vinegar, the slaughter of the lamb, are used by Bachmann  to convey a s p i r i t u a l dimension.  E a r l i e r we have noted that the  woman's b e t t e r nature could mean s a l v a t i o n f o r both men  and women.  In t h i s respect Bachmann's heroines are the r e c e i v e r s of d i v i n e g i f t s or messages.  They come, as Bachmann phrases  i t , from the "highest  a u t h o r i t y " beyond the image of the almighty father i n Malina:  197  Man durchsucht mich, w e i l i c h ohne BewuBtsein b i n , man w i l l mir den Mund befeuchten, d i e Zunge nassen, damit d i e Satze auf i h r zu f i n d e n s i n d , damit man s i e s i c h e r s t e l l e n kann, aber dann f i n d e t man nur d r e i Steine neben mir und weiB n i c h t , woher s i e gekommen s i n d und was s i e bedeuten. Es sind d r e i harte, leuchtende S t e i n e , d i e mir zugeworfen worden sind von der hochsten Instanz, auf d i e auch mein Vater keinen E i n f l u f i hat, und i c h a l l e i n weiB, welche Botschaft durch jeden S t e i n kommt. Der e r s t e r o t l i c h e S t e i n , i n dem immerzu junge B l i t z e zucken, der i n d i e Z e l l e g e f a l i e n i s t , vom Himmel, sagt: Staunend leben. Der zweite blaue S t e i n , i n dem a l l e Blaus zucken, sagt: Schreiben im Staunen. Und i c h h a l t e schon den d r i t t e n weiBen s t r a h l e n den S t e i n i n der Hand, dessen N i e d e r f a l l e n niemand a u f h a l t e n konnte, auch mein Vater n i c h t , aber da wird es so f i n s t e r i n der Z e l l e , daB d i e Botschaft von dem d r i t t e n S t e i n n i c h t l a u t wird. Der S t e i n i s t n i c h t mehr zu sehen. Ich werde d i e l e t z t e Botschaft nach meiner B e f r e i u n g erfahren.433 The symbolic meaning of the rocks i s complex. l i k e n e s s to Wolfram's h o l y g r a i l was  intended.  Perhaps,  some p o i n t of  In any case, the rocks  do represent the essence of the b e t t e r nature of Bachmann's heroines. The message of the rocks c l e a r l y r e l a t e s to the "magic" and the " p o e t i c " w i t h i n the woman, that d i v i n e spark which the male characters endeavour to k i l l .  During the "murder", Malina, a f t e r breaking the n a r r a t o r ' s  sunglasses (symbol  of her eyes), throws her blue gla