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How foster children turn out : a follow-up study of former foster children over twenty-one, and the effects… Langdale, Arthur Leslie 1951

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lift  HOW  POSTER CHILDREN TURN  4<r  OUT  A F o l l o w - u p S t u d y o f Former F o s t e r C h i l d r e n Over Twenty-one, a n d the E f f e c t s o f F o s t e r Home C a r e 1  by Arthur L e s l i e  Langdale  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e Department o f S o c i a l Work  1951  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  ABSTRACT This i s one of the f i r s t complete follbw-up studies made i n Vancouver of the progress of a sample group of foster c h i l d r e n , a l l of whom at the date of the survey had reached the age of twenty-one. The development of each of the cases i s traced chronolo g i c a l l y from the time the c h i l d f i r s t entered a foster home, or was known to the Children*s A i d Society, Although the research material i s mainly confined to the Children's A i d Society case records the p r i n c i p l e s of foster home placement which are Illuminated may be regarded as applicable to the general f i e l d of c h i l d welfare. Current enquiries, including some i n t e r views, are incorporated i n the study to supplement the material of the case records. The development history for each person (men and women) i s analyzed according to family background, health, education, employment, behaviour and personality factors. The Wetzel g r i d is employed to make more comparable the varied health data. The q u a l i t a t i v e material i s also converted to more quantitative measurement by ratings assigned to each of the above-mentioned five-fold classifications. The t o t a l l e d numerical ratings give a composite (1951) evaluation which is compared with a preliminary r a t i n g , the result of a previous survey of s o c i a l adjustment (or maladjustment) i n 1948.' The r e s u l t s of the study indicate, broadly, that former foster children become part of the lower-middle class i n the population s t r a t a . The extent of t h e i r emotional maturity Influences considerably the l e v e l of formal education which they a t t a i n , and i t , i n turn, determines the type of employment they obtain. The outcome of the placement efforts Includes both successes and f a i l u r e s , but the majority of former foster children appear to make a successful adjustment i n society. I t i s evident, however, that the a b i l i t y of foster c h i l d r e n to become successful i n l i f e depends upon how w e l l they take root i n a foster home and assimilate the p r i n c i p l e s of satisfactory l i v i n g . The f a i l u r e s are c l e a r l y traceable to the influences of poor l i v i n g standards at an early age. The f a i l u r e s also reveal the deficiencies of c h i l d welfare practice, and the reasons why better results are not being attained for the time and money expended. Pressure of work and lack of adequate resources are among the reasons for the f a i l u r e to obtain a better y i e l d of successful c i t i z e n s from children who need foster homes i n early l i f e .  TABLE OP CONTENTS List  iv  of Tables  Chapter Poster  1  Children  E v a l u a t i n g r e s u l t s o f f o s t e r home placement. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society. D i f f i c u l t i e s o f measuring personality. P h y s i c a l measurements. Ihy f o s t e r c h i l d r e n a r e p r o b l e m s II.  F a m i l y Backgrounds  .  .  .  .  10  The age f o s t e r c h i l d r e n a r e p l a c e d i n homes. Reasons t h e y a r e removed f r o m t h e i r own homes. F a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o f a m i l y breakdown. Examples. S e a r c h f o r t h e i r own p a r e n t s . Illegitimacy. Ratings. III.  Physical  Health  27  S t a n d a r d s o f measurement. Heightage-weight d a t a . Wetzel Grid. C o r r e l a t i o n between h e a l t h a n d f i n a l adjustment. I n f l u e n c e o f h e a l t h on adjustment r a t i n g . Examples. Ratings. IV.  E d u c a t i o n a n d Employment  .  .  .  39  S c h o o l l e a v i n g grades and ages. Intelligence Quotients. Correlation between e m o t i o n a l adjustment and school progress. Ratings. V.  B e h a v i o u r and P e r s o n a l i t y  .  .  .  49  Wetzel G r i d , and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n between b e h a v i o u r and a d j u s t m e n t rating. Examples. Ratings. VI.  The  A d o p t e d Homes .  .  •.  .  .  Age f o s t e r c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes. Results of early placement. Examples. Number o f homes a n d s u p e r v i s o r s . Urban and r u r a l homes. Reasons f o r removing c h i l d r e n from f o s t e r homes. Impermanence. o f f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t s .  58  Table  of  Contents  (Continued)  Chapter VII.  Page How  Foster  Children  Turn  Out  S c i e n t i f i c method. An experiment. Composite and P r e l i m i n a r y adjustment r a t i n g s . Examples of present day p r o g r e s s . N a r r a t i v e method. • VIII.  •  78  Agency r e c o r d s . V i c i t i n g the natural family. Behaviour of f o s t e r children. Reasons f o r s u c c e s s e s and failures. U n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r a c t i c e s i n casework. The f o s t e r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p . « .  95  Other  Bibliography  Implications  124  List  of  Tables  Table 1.  g.  3.  4.  5.  Page Age a t F i r s t Placement i n F o s t e r Homes o f a G r o u p o f F o s t e r Children  10  Per cent, Children  24  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e W e i g h t s o f CAS C h i l d r e n Compared t o M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Average Height-Age-Weight Tables  28  Normal Ages by Grades o f C h i l d r e n i n V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l s Compared t o A g e s b y G r a d e s C o m p l e t e d o f CAS Children  39  Grades Left  6.  7.  8.  of I l l e g i t i m a c y of Foster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  i n Which  the Foster  School  Ages a t Which School  Children  .Foster  Children  Ages a t Which F o s t e r C h i l d r e n F i r s t P l a c e d i n F o s t e r Homes Number Foster Had  41 Left 41 Were 59  o f S u p e r v i s o r s a n d Number o f Homes t h a t t h e F o s t e r Children 62  7  List  of  Appendices  Appendix.  Page  A  Family Background  B  An example of the W e t z e l G r i d C h a r t showing t h e Growth Curve of t h e D e v e l o p m e n t a l P r o g r e s s of a T y p i c a l F o s t e r C h i l d . . . .  115  S t a t i s t i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n of Foster Children  116  Evaluation Children  118  C  D  E  F  Rating  Information .  of  .  114  Foster  (a) L e t t e r f r o m a Former Ward in Jail (b) R e p l y t o F o r m e r ward's l e t t e r from the Welfare Agency . . . . .  121  Employment, L o c a t i o n and F a m i l y S t a t u s of Former F o s t e r C h i l d r e n  122  119  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The w r i t e r assistance  wishes t o acknowledge t h e of the f o l l o w i n g persons:  M i s s D o r o t h y Coombe, f o r m a k i n g t h e r e c o r d s of t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y available to the writer, Mrs. C h a r l o t t e E. C o r n w a l l and Mr. John L. Sanders f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l suggestions, the o f f i c e o f the Bureau of Measurements o f t h e Vancouver School B o a r d which supplied u s e f u l information. The w r i t e r e s p e c i a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e h e l p o f D r . L e o n a r d C. M a r s h , who c a r e f u l l y r e v i s e d t h e t e x t a n d made other important contributions. S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e a l s o due t o M i s s M. L i l i a n W i l s o n a n d M i s s B. W i l s o n f o r t h e i r assistance i n t y p i n g , a n d t o my w i f e f o r h e r continued encouragement a n d valuable help.  f  HOW POSTER CHILDREN TURN OUT  Chapter  A  child,  important i n mind,  all  the w r i t e r  selecting  homes  can  of  community.  the  The results  learn  used  in this  of  who  their The  minor  known  1948.  This  were  for  variety  1.  a  dependent  Hereafter  of  has  children, and  thesis  been  has  for a  of  typical  the Children's children  home c a r e  own  citizens  the  group  parents.  the  their  to evaluate  of  involved  become u s e f u l  substitute  foster  children  judgment of  on  children.  aware  deprived  down r o o t s  of  been  of  The  mater-  A i d Society of various f o r a l l or  of back-  part  life.  in this who  s t u d y were  became  those of  twenty-one  excluded adopted children  convenience only.  girls  study  f o r good  of forty-two  i n need  CAS  this  and  need  study i s from  to the group  and  requiring  used  to focus  the writer  i n which  years  records  wards  for  were  thought  supervising  Vancouver-*- c a s e r e c o r d s grounds  this  of p l a c i n g  homes,  most  With  f o r dependent  home p l a c e m e n t  children  and  home p l a c e m e n t  theme f o r t h i s  dependent  i n the world. endeavoured  to put  of f o s t e r  Children  i s today the greatest  responsibility  homes,  ial  has  of f o s t e r  in foster  tremendous in  age,  h i s experience  ages  Foster  responsibility  the r e s u l t s During  of any  I  These children  twenty-five who  needed  of reasons, i n c l u d i n g abbreviated  t o CAS  a l l the  during  the y e a r  and' -.waisc  ehosen  boys  and  seventeen  substitute  physical,  parents  mental,  for convenience.  and  2.  moral neglect.  Examples of social adjustment ranging from  success to f a i l u r e were included i n t h i s group.  Moreover,  they included examples of children from large and small families,  some reared in c i t i e s , and others In country d i s t r i c t s .  Their range of i n t e l l i g e n c e varied from moron to above average. The length of time i n foster home care varied from s i x to twenty years, thus providing an excellent range for studying foster home placements at the various stages of development of the child.  Thus a preliminary survey of this group, as described  above, indicated that there was an excellent variety of examples of the problems of foster home placement.  There are about  t h i r t y or forty wards of the CAS who become twenty-one each year, so i t was f e l t that a span of one year yieldedaa s u f f i c ient number and variety of cases for the subject material of t h i s study. The CAS is a private agency incorporated under the ''Protection of Children Act" (1901) of B r i t i s h Columbia, delegated to care for and protect neglected and dependent Protestant children i n the City of Vancouver.  Such children  were cared for in an orphanage u n t i l 1927 when the B. C. Child Welfare Survey Committee recommended the use of foster homes, investigated and supervised by the CAS under written agreement. For administrative purposes, wards and non-wards.  children are c l a s s i f i e d as  The former group are children committed  by a Family or Juvenile Court to the care and custody of the CAS, which thereby becomes the l e g a l guardian u n t i l they reach the age of twenty-one years or u n t i l the order of wardship is  3. rescinded  by  parent,  intending to  is  temporarily or  i n  foster  B r i t i s h  apprehended  who  may  i n  CAS  for  foster  studied this  make home  a  are  children  responsible  care  at  were  the  for  whom  plan.  request  the  They of  a  are  parent  ists  is  a  delegate  home  i n  may  direct  Superintendent  custody  placement.  this  of  category  children  turned  finding  a  To  analyze  their  mean  that  failures was  ress  and/or  and  came  of  delivery  Child  of  the  from  of  Welfare,  guardianship  Fourteen  ation  i n  foster  child  is  these  for  record  these  writer  to  the  children  outlying  was  to  parts  to  of  and  of  discover  how  experienced  evaluating  when t h e y  became  y o u t h — w o u l d go to  children,  developed  as  of the  d i f f i c u l t y  their of  progress.  age  a  versatile  some r e c o r d s  method  a  the  was  Since  of  progevalu-  were  method fact  there  method  which  and  i n  chronological  obvious  and  would  unequal  children  time,  recognizing  personality,  devise  the  some b e t t e r foster  these  unstudied.  emphasize  these  personscient-  i n behaviour--thelr successes  Moreover,  i n f o r m a t i o n of  of  factors  sociologists  writer  method  Since  individual had  the  varying lengths  cases. an  out,  interest  essential.  homes  progress  of  qualitative  attempting  achievements  particular  was  in  c h i l d h o o d and  some  the  challenges  satisfactory  fluctuations  of  of  measuring  Therefore,  in  sive  the  problem which  a l i k e .  foster  the  to  court  province.  a l i t y  ing  Columbia, a  child  turn,  A method  it  Non-wards  relative. Within  an  court.  of  are  of  that  each two  a l i k e ,  recording  exten-  often  no  study-  lacking  i n  4. others. trouble from On  F o r example, usually  which  the pertinent  record  behaviour tical  each  pertaining  case  record  from  and assembled  and family  these  headings  the d a t a .  do  Chapter  studied  feel  about  what their  and  subject  in  the last  physical  Chapter  III.  with  average  data  are also  the relevant  collected under  only  from  the followeducation  The reason  which  foster  f o r using  i n assembling  why  parents  i n this  effects  of this  Height a n d weight  f o r the Wetzel  the interpretations  from  Grid  How  necessity for next,  chapter i s i l l e g i t children.  of c h i l d r e n  records a r e used  tables.  foster  sprang.  i s discussed  on f o s t e r  group  children  they needed  and the rude  of n o t belonging'  weight-height-age  these  circumstances they  t o be s t u d i e d  health  used  from  to determine  and i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l  examples,  Imprac-  and p e r s o n a l i t y ,  relationships.  social  The ' f e e l i n g  The  proved  health,  was f o r c o n v e n i e n c e  i n order  separation?  imacy  chronologically  I I the backgrounds  care and from  they  a n d was n o  and quantity of  p r o g r e s s was  behaviour  from  '  came w e r e home  home  Finally,  physical  extracted.  obtained  a schedule  i n the type  backgrounds,  intelligence,  particular  with  the records.  home p l a c e m e n t s ,  In  i n one f o s t e r  to the child's  family  employment,  t o b e a n a l y z e d was  An experiment  available  i n frequent  on b e h a v i o u r  d a t a was q u i c k l y  of the difference  ing headings: and  the required  problem.  information material  material  o f a b o y who l i v e d  because  o f a b o y who was  contained extensive information  t h e o t h e r hand,  the  the record  i s studied a n d compared  The h e i g h t a n d weight Chart.  the Wetzel  For specific Grid  Charts are  confirmed  by the recorded data.  2 A Wetzel individual and or  case  weight, comment  Grid  that  i s added  a useful related  on e a c h  i s then  curve  superimposed between  IV i n c l u d e s  both  a t which  these children  they  attained  are studied  adjustment Behaviour examples  discussed, In  placements at  which  is  followed  these  were  first  Grid  t o base  becomes  the inter-  follow.  school  and t h e grades  to their  are studied  The which  employment a n d  from  the Wetzel  and l e n g t h  placed  i n Chapter  and the results children,  of f o s t e r  i n foster  B.  with  the ages This  of foster  children  supervisors  of placements  home  homes.  o f the impermanence  and foster  charts a r e  together with  of changing  V.  the records.  and the reasons f o r removing  The e f f e c t s  See Appendix  data,  and the dev-  the Wetzel  which  and discussed  by a discussion  mentioned. 2.  Thus  foster  accumulated  these factors  confirmed from  V I t h e number  are studied  foster  Each  evaluation.  children  discussed, other  on t h i s  i n relation  and the findings  homes.  left  of interpretations  home p l a c e m e n t s  dates.  diagnosis  e d u c a t i o n a n d employment.  and personality  Chapter  i . e . ,the height  Any m e d i c a l  of the chapters which  ages  Some  Grid.  can be s t u d i e d .  material  sheet f o r each  information,  standard of comparison upon  Chapter  their  a s a work  at the appropriate  the relationship  elopmental  i s used  a n d t h e minimum  i s plotted  home p l a c e m e n t so  chart  from  are also  siblings,  p a r e n t s ' own c h i l d r e n a r e  6.  In  Chapter  chapters result  V I I t h e e v a l u a t i o n s of each  are given numerical  i s an approximate  on  the individual  of  development.  explained showing  ratings  total  response  The adjustment  in relation  where t h e r e  to that  and t o t a l l e d .  adjustment  to l i f e  of the p r e v i o u s  evaluation,  situations  of f o s t e r  of people  are deficiencies  The  i n a l l phases  children  from  based  i s then  normal  i n the l i v e s  homes,  of these  children. As cases  i t is.impractical  individually,  throughout The together aspects tioned  in and  to illustrate  are used  the points being discussed.  Several  suggestions f o r other study  which m e r i t  related  further  studies.  r e s e a r c h a r e men-  but not investigated. kind  o f problems  h i s thoughts, unable  a hundred  him because with  school  i s broken  boys  another  bully  A b o y who  away f r o m  b o y whom  they  and the classroom  i n foster  i s often  also  This  He  children? seems  lost  the classroom,  on h i s s t u d i e s . and f i g h t s .  into  i s abused  miles  foster  i n school.  he k i c k s  are responsible.  be found  a r e t h e r e among  t o daydream  to concentrate  corner  A  cases  with  a boy i s noticed  might  of s p e c i f i c  VIII,  of t h i s  dislike  two  examples  of the f o r t y - t w o  conclusions d e r i v e d a r e d i s c u s s e d In.Chapter  What Often  the text  t o d i s c u s s each  The o t h e r He i s l e f t  shun.  i n the  One m o r n i n g t h e  i sdefaced.  i s one t y p e  children  T h e same  of behaviour  which  children.  the product  a t home may  of parental  revert  almost  mistreatment. t o the animal  7. i i i t r y i n g to hand, out s i m i l a r punishment t o h i s f e l l o w s .  He  somehow comes to f e e l that the whole world i s a g a i n s t him, and t h a t the primary r u l e  of l i f e  i s t o beat  What makes a c h i l d a problem?  or be beaten.  I t i s a known f a c t t h a t i n  many s u b t l e ways, even without d i r e c t p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t , young c h i l d r e n a r e a f f e c t e d by the words, thoughts and f e e l i n g s of their parents.  The mind o f a c h i l d i s l i k e a sponge. I t  l a c k s any power of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , but has u n l i m i t e d powers of  assimilation.  The emotional nature may sense what the  mind o f t e n cannot grasp.  Deep impressions e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g  the p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s a r e most d i f f i c u l t f o r the c h i l d to overcome, l a r g e l y because they a r e b u r i e d i n the subconscious mind. L a t e r the c h i l d i s incapable of r e a l i z i n g why he r e a c t s as he does t o c e r t a i n r e c u r r i n g experiences i n l i f e . or  Wrong thoughts  ideas sown i n a c h i l d ' s mind before he i s o l d enough t o  d i s c r i m i n a t e good from bad, continue t o e x i s t w i t h i n him and to cause mental g r i e f . was he knows how.  He responds  If  s i t u a t i o n s the only  A c h i l d i s a m i r r o r o f h i s p a r e n t s , and  mimics t h e i r behaviour. he responds  to l i f e  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t  t o b r u t a l treatment a t home by abusing h i s playmates.  i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n should grow up In t h e i r  own homes why take them away from  t h e i r parents?  By knowing  the s i t u a t i o n s which create the need f o r f o s t e r home  placement  one can b e s t understand why i t i s necessary i n s p e c i f i c ces,  f o r the CAS to enter i n t o the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n .  instan-  One can  then r e c o g n i z e the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of these c h i l d r e n and d i s c e r n what i s r e q u i r e d to r e p a i r the damage.  8. As  a t r a i l of blood p o i n t s  problems p o i n t  t o a wounded man, so behaviour  t o a poor home s i t u a t i o n .  Is i t p o s s i b l e f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n to overcome the handicap of b e i n g separated from t h e i r p a r e n t s ?  Although  a l l f o s t e r c h i l d r e n have to meet abnormal c o n d i t i o n s ,  they  can be s a i d t o achieve m a t u r i t y when a l l t h e i r needs have been met.  T h i s brings  up the q u e s t i o n of whether f o s t e r  c h i l d r e n can achieve s e l f r e l i a n c e at a l l . thought i n mind that the w r i t e r  I t is with this  i s endeavouring t o show how  f a r wardship i s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the problems that c h i l d r e n have. ficiency.  foster  Their b a s i c handicap i s a p e r s o n a l i t y de-  What wardship c o n t r i b u t e s  to t h e i r l i v e s i s a  measure o f t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r p e r s o n a l a d a p t a t i o n t o the problems of every day l i f e .  This study endeavours to  assess the f a c t o r s which h e l p e d or h i n d e r e d the p e r s o n a l i t y development. Environment i s one f a c t o r which has a powerful i n f l u ence on the development o£ the human p e r s o n a l i t y . a long-standing difference  of o p i n i o n  among s o c i o l o g i s t s as  to whether environment or h e r e d i t y has the greater on p e r s o n a l i t y .  There i s  influence  In any case, i t i s c o r r e c t t o say that  they  both p l a y an important r o l e i n the l i v e s of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . Foster  c h i l d r e n a r e human beings who have" a • l i m p i n g  development" i n the sense that h e r e d i t y created  and environment have  c e r t a i n handicaps which slow down t h e i r p h y s i c a l ,  mental and emotional growth.  P h y s i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s can be  a i d e d by medical s c i e n c e , and mental d e f i c i e n c i e s by a  p r o t e c t e d environment.  Emotional d e f i c i e n c i e s can be supp-  lemented by p s y c h i a t r i c  treatment and casework.  purpose  of t h i s study t o show how  parents can mould the l i v e s the r e s u l t s are g r a t i f y i n g ; Ing.  I t i s the  the i n f l u e n c e of f o s t e r  of f o s t e r  children.  occasionally  The next few chapters i n d i c a t e  why.  Sometimes  they are d i s c o u r a g  Chapter II  Family Backgrounds  It is becoming increasingly clear that family background information is important i n evaluating any person's c a p a b i l i t y for s o c i a l adjustment, contacts.  or i n fact, any aspect of his  social  It was found i n this p a r t i c u l a r study that this  information i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the case of foster  children, be-  cause i t i s depraved family conditions which create the need for foster home' placements. People frequently think of foster  children as pre-school  age orphaned younsters who need a'mother and a father.  Table I  shows that this i s an incorrect assumption. TABLE I AGE AT FIRST PLACEMENT IN FOSTER HOMES OF A GROUP OF FOSTER CHILDREN Age Under 5 5-10 10 - 13 13 - 15  Boys 6 5 10 4 25  Girls 5 2 5 5 17  Total 11 7 15 9 42  P.C, 26% 16% 35% 23% 100%  Table I indicates that only one-quarter of the children who spent a l l or part of t h e i r minor years i n foster home care were under five years of age when they f i r s t home.  entered a foster  Since seventy-four per cent, of the children of this  group were over f i v e years old when f i r s t  committed to the  CAS i t appeared that any evaluation of their adjustment i n society should include some mention of the family background. 10  11. I n the f i e l d  of c h i l d w e l f a r e i t i s an accepted  t h a t the best home f o r a c h i l d parents.  principle  should be the home of h i s  However, some p a r e n t s a r e i n c a p a b l e o f r a i s i n g  ren successfully.  Some people  child-  continue t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  parents even when a s s i s t a n c e i s o f f e r e d them to make t h e i r homes a b e t t e r environment f o r growing c h i l d r e n .  These are the un-  s u i t a b l e guardians whose c h i l d r e n must be removed from t h e i r poor i n f l u e n c e i n  order t h a t they may have an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  wholesome development. must be taken i n  S o c i e t y i s convinced t h a t t h i s  step  s p e c i f i c cases b e c a u s e . i t i s now r e a l i z e d  how important the experiences o f childhood are i n forming the pattern of l a t e r adult The  life.  c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study were removed from t h e i r p a r e n t s '  homes f o r many and v a r i e d reasons.  In not a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e  was there o n l y one reason mentioned f o r committing the CAS.  I n the case o f O l i v e ,  3  a c h i l d to  f o r example, a f a m i l y s o c i a l  agency r e f e r r e d her f a m i l y t o the CAS because the mother was dead and the f a t h e r was an a l c o h o l i c .  He o c c a s i o n a l l y neg-  l e c t e d h i s f a m i l y o f f i v e c h i l d r e n and l e f t  them alone f o r  s e v e r a l days a t a time. S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e were s e v e r a l reasons why, i n Sidney»s case, h i s s f a m i l y l i f e became necessary officer felt  had d e t e r i o r a t e d t o t h e . p o i n t where i t  to seek a f o s t e r home f o r him.  t h a t he was i n need o f b e t t e r care when i t was  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the mother of the f a m i l y o f three 3.  A probation  children  A l l names used are e n t i r e l y f i c t i t i o u s and are used o n l y f o r r e a d i n g f l u e n c y , and convenience i n i d e n t i f y i n g s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s t o the same case.  12. was  dead and  the step-mother had  deserted  of h i s degenerated mental c o n d i t i o n . t r a t e the combination of reasons why  her husband because  These two  examples  c h i l d r e n had  illus-  to be removed  from t h e i r p a r e n t a l homes. There were s e v e r a l other i t necessary to provide  c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s which made  these c h i l d r e n w i t h f o s t e r home c a r e .  These included economic reasons such as p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t desertion. was  or  I t i s important to note, however, t h a t not one  removed f o r economic Myrna's case was  reasons  child  alone.  an example of c h i l d r e n having t o be removed  from t h e i r p a r e n t s because o f economic c o n d i t i o n s .  She  was  one  o f a f a m i l y of seven c h i l d r e n whose mother had been dead f o r s e v e r a l months.  Their f a t h e r was  r e n adequate p h y s i c a l care and i n the  family.  incapable  there was  considerable  They were badly n e g l e c t e d  able c o n d i t i o n s .  T h e i r home was  of g i v i n g the  and  child-  sickness  l i v e d under  deplor-  a one-room shack i n the moun-  t a i n s behind C h i l l i w a c k . Other f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d to the breakdown of  the  f a m i l y were of a moral nature, such as c o h a b i t i n g , p r o s t i t u t i o n , j a i l sentences and s e v e r a l examples. who  l i v e d on  citated. The  He  illegitimacy. She  was  one  of  of a f m i l y of e i g h t c h i l d r e n  Mothers' Allowance because the f a t h e r was  incapa-  l e f t the f a m i l y when the mother began c o h a b i t i n g .  home c o n d i t i o n s  grew p r o g r e s s i v e l y worse as the mother con-  t i n u e d her promiscuous l i f e . beyond her  one  Nancy's case was  The  c h i l d r e n were d e f i a n t  and  c o n t r o l when they were taken i n t o f o s t e r home care.  The mother's example was  such a poor i n f l u e n c e t h a t Nancy  13.  eventually  c o p i e d h e r m o t h e r ' s ha " b i t s .  T e d ' s m o t h e r was s e n t e n c e d the  c h i l d r e n h a d t o be p l a c e d  father  deserted  mother.  served  As a r e s u l t  i n a f o s t e r home b e c a u s e t h e  d u r i n g which time  Ted h a d n o t  he was a t home w i t h  L a t e r , he t o o succumbed t o the i n f l u e n c e o f i l l e g a l  practices. and  f o r fraud.  the f a m i l y who were on r e l i e f .  been t o s c h o o l f o r a year his  to j a i l  L i k e h i s m o t h e r , he w r o t e s e v e r a l w o r t h l e s s jail  cheques  sentences.  C e r t a i n o t h e r c a u s e s f o r r e m o v i n g c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r homes were o f a n e m o t i o n a l  nature  such  as d i v o r c e , step-parent  s h i p s , a l c o h o l i s m , and "incapable*? p a r e n t s . she  a n d h e r s i s t e r were t a k e n  I n Joan's  t o a f o s t e r home b e c a u s e  case, their  p a r e n t s were d i v o r c e d a n d t h e i r m o t h e r , who h a d c u s t o d y girls,  o f the  was m u r d e r e d .  I s a a c 's f a t h e r was a " b u r n e d - o u t " war v e t e r a n who to  relation'  n a r c o t i c a d d i c t i o n and a l c o h o l .  was s u b j e c t e d t o i n s u f f e r a b l e l a w h u s b a n d who r e s e n t e d existed  f o r s e v e r a l years  succumbed  F o l l o w i n g h i s death  Isaac  v i o l e n c e f r o m h i s m o t h e r ' s commonr  h a v i n g h i m i n t h e home.  This condition  b e f o r e I s a a c was removed f r o m h i s home.  P e a r l ' s home was a n example o f low m o r a l  standards.  Her  m o t h e r was a h a l f - b r e e d I n d i a n and h e r f a t h e r was  Scottish.  B o t h p a r e n t s were h a b i t u a l d r u n k a r d s .  prostituted  and  encouraged t h e t h r e e o l d e s t g i r l s  The m o t h e r to  follow suit.  example was t o o s t r o n g f o r P e a r l t o e v a d e . returned  t o the n o r t h country  Peter's  She l a t e r  a n d became a p r o s t i t u t e .  f a t h e r was a b u s i v e  c h i l d r e n and spent  This  of h i s wife  and f a m i l y o f f o u r  h i s r e l i e f money o n l i q u o r .  H i s m o t h e r was  14.  a rather i n e f f e c t i v e , incapable person.  It was not surprising  to l e a r n , therefore, that Peter's case turned out to be one of the worst adjustments of t h i s study. In addition to the above reasons for removing children from their families, there were less obvious reasons such as mental r e j e c t i o n of the c h i l d , and deteriorated family r e l a t i o n s . The case of Mervin was an example of r e j e c t i o n . month old he was later.  When he was one  adopted by people who were divorced three years  The father remarried and Mervin was shunted back and  forth between father and mother.  By the time he was ten years  o l d , Mervin's relationship with h i s step-mother was intolerable and he became i n c o r r i g i b l e . It was because of family r e l a t i o n s that Grace became separated from her family.  Her father arranged for his two g i r l s  to be sent to a foster home because he and h i s wife disagreed and were incompatible. These examples i l l u s t r a t e the intolerable physical and emotional conditions which existed among these families and necessitated the removal of the children who were being subjected to immoral influences.  In some cases, of course, the  conditions continued so long that the children became unduly influenced by parental example, and some of them l a t e r succumbed to a depreciated way of l i f e .  Again i t i s emphasized that  there was always a combination of several factors i n each case which caused family breakdown. A l l methods of grouping these reasons for family breakdown for study were unsatisfactory because of the fact that no case  15.  was exclusively i n any one category.  The best method of eval-  uating family backgrounds was found to be a table indicating the incidence by cases of the various reasons for which these children were separated from their parents. In each case a l l the factors contributing to the breakdown of a normal family relationship were recorded from the family case h i s t o r y .  Some examples have been used i n the previous  illustrations.  One point was scored opposite each case for  every reason mentioned i n the family record.  This method i s to  be regarded only as an approximation because frequently recorded information was l a c k i n g .  For the purpose of this r a t i n g , any  permanent separation of a parent from the family group, whether due to death or i l l health, was considered to be a factor cont r i b u t i n g to the emotional impact upon the c h i l d .  This assump-  t i o n i s based on the fact that the loss of either parent from the family has a psychological effect upon the c h i l d .  In  certain instances where both parents were the cause of the family breakdown, such as divorce, or death of both mother and father, two points were scored under the same reason.  Similarly, i t  was considered to be an additional rejection of the child when r e l a t i v e s l a t e r relinquished r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for h i s care.  This  l a t t e r point is based on the premise that other members of a normal family group usually offer some plan for the children when catastrophe s t r i k e s .  Usually there is something quite  r a d i c a l l y wrong with families whose children have to be reared outside t h e i r own family c i r c l e .  16.  The death of one or both parents as part of the reason for family breakdown occurred eighteen times or i n forty-two per cent, of a l l the c a s e s . 4  Physical and emotional neglect  which was the second largest reason, occurred f i f t e e n times or i n t h i r t y - f i v e per cent, of the cases.  There were eleven cases  of desertion and eleven families on r e l i e f .  In eight of those  families on r e l i e f neglect was also involved.  It is frequently  supposed that children who become dependent through the death of t h e i r parents are from good homes.  This i s not necessarily  true,  and i s proved by the fact that of the eighteen cases i n which children were removed because of death i n the family, ten were involved i n neglect and desertion. I t i s a known fact that separation of a c h i l d from his parents i s a traumatic experience for him even i n the cases where parents have abused t h e i r children.  Usually, a c h i l d is more  fearful of the unknown,than of l i f e as he knows i t .  It  is  therefore n a t u r a l , that a child should find the separation from h i s parents less threatening than the t e r r i f y i n g experience of being taken to an unknown future i n a foster home.  Perhaps the  c h i l d i s used to being l e f t alone and has learned to fend for himself, so that he i s not as upset at f i r s t over the loss of his parents as he is about his uncertain future.  Moreover,  children who have been taken away from home frequently do not begin to long for their family immediately following their separation.  Usually i t i s a matter of some days before the  f u l l effects of t h i s severed relationship i s noticed. 4.  See Appendix A.  It was  17.  d i f f i c u l t to f i n d examples of the effects on these children of being separated from their parents,  because the records of an  e a r l i e r date v/ere not as extensive as those which are kept now. There was l i t t l e information available about the c h i l d r e n ' s reactions to their f i r s t few days i n their f i r s t  foster hone .  There was more information about t h e i r attitudes towards t h e i r new parents at a l a t e r date i n their progress.  It  appeared  that many of the children found t h e i r f i r s t introduction to foster home placement to be a t e r r i f y i n g experience. supervisor v i s i t e d soon after  When the  the c h i l d was placed i n his  foster  home, however, the foster mother usually reported that the c h i l d had settled down and seemed to be more familiar with his new environment. Since this thesis is a progressive  study of the development  of these children, i t was decided that their reactions to t h e i r own families as they grew older should be included i n t h i s d i s cussion of family r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For example, A l l a n had been i n his f i r s t  foster home only a  few months when i t was recorded that he and his brother bought t h e i r foster mother flowers for Mother's Day, because they had no mother of t h e i r own.  They rarely mentioned their own mother,  but said they would likeeto v i s i t the cemetery. A l i c e and her s i s t e r s had been i n their f i r s t  foster home  about six months when their father was permitted to v i s i t them. A l i c e was unruly and disobedient after her father's v i s i t .  He  promised the children that he would take them home i n s i x months. Sometime l a t e r , A l i c e was undecided about seeing her father,  so  18.  no v i s i t was arranged the next time he requested one.  Apparently  A l i c e had no further contact with her father although she v i s i t e d her brothers and s i s t e r s occasionally.  When she was nineteen  her record stated that she wanted to forget her family and had not mentioned any of them for some time.  However, the following  year A l i c e renewed her contacts with her s i s t e r s and brothers. Of t h i s group of forty-two foster  children only five of  them had no contact whatsoever with any known r e l a t i v e s .  However,  i n two cases John and Nat each l i v e d i n a foster home for twenty years, which indicates that their foster parents took the place of natural r e l a t i v e s . their parents were.  The other three have never learned who In fact, Ronald's case deserves special  mention here. Before he became twenty-one, Ronald returned to the CAS and demanded to know his parents' names.  He sought any clue  that would lead him i n his search for his unknown parents.  He  was resentful and v i n d i c t i v e towards them for having brought him into the world.  It was i n t e r e s t i n g to see that a l l f i v e  of these children whose r e l a t i v e s were unknown turned out w e l l . Twenty-eight children had some contact, either by v i s i t or l e t t e r , with at least one parent, and nine others were i n touch with grandparents,  uncles or s i b l i n g s .  Attitudes of  the children towards their parents varied from indifference to distrust,  depending upon the i n d i v i d u a l case.  It was d i f f i c u l t  to obtain any s i g n i f i c a n t information from this data because of the variety of family circumstances.  However, i t was quite  obvious that family t i e s are an extremely important consideration  19. i n the l i f e of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . f o s t e r f a m i l y , but  parents.  This y e a r n i n g was to the CAS  become adapted to a  they s t i l l have an i n s t i n c t i v e urge to f i n d  out more about t h e i r  ned  They may  i n May  emphasized i n Isaac's  case when he r e t u r -  of 19 51 r e q u e s t i n g h i s b i r t h  certificate.  He  asked f o r any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s parents.  it  appeared t h a t he had  a l r e a d y made an exhaustive  However,  survey  of  r e c o r d s i n the town of h i s b i r t h p l a c e i n an attempt to g a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n about"them.  He was  u n s u c c e s s f u l i n f o l l o w i n g leads  of people i n the community. In a s i m i l a r way, success. who  He was  Edward's search f o r h i s mother met  s i x t e e n before he knew he had a h a l f - b r o t h e r  t o l d him about h i s mother.  a search on h i s own  Four years l a t e r Edward launched  for h i s mother but was  i n f o r m a t i o n u n t i l he approached the CAS prison.  I t was  with  a heart-touching  unable to l o c a t e  any  and l e a r n e d she was  scene when he met  in  h i s mother  s e v e r a l years l a t e r i n the p r i s o n l i b r a r y . P e t e r ' s case i s another example of a c o n t i n u i n g hunt f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s f a m i l y .  Because h i s l e t t e r expressed  a t t i t u d e so w e l l , i t i s quoted i n Appendix E,  I t i s not  p r i s i n g t h a t P e t e r expressed  i s without  family. homes.  the f e e l i n g t h a t he  his sura  He never adjusted w e l l i n any o f h i s e i g h t f o s t e r The l o n g e s t he  seven months. l o n g e s t he  He was  stayed i n any home was i n another home f o r two  two  t h a t no one  d i d not want t o do.  could make him  and  y e a r s , and  stayed i n any o f the o t h e r s i x homes was  His a t t i t u d e was  years  the  two months.  do anything  At f i f t e e n he became l a z y and had  t h a t he no  20. sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  He bragged  to h i s f o s t e r mother  by telephone t h a t the p o l i c e were r i g h t on h i s t a i l . not  It is  s u r p r i s i n g that P e t e r has such an a t t i t u d e when h i s  background i s e x p l a i n e d .  family  When he was t e n years o l d a p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r r e f e r r e d the CAS t o these four  c h i l d r e n because the  f a t h e r was s e r v i n g a sentence of one month f o r a s s a u l t i n g h i s w i f e and the mother was i n h o s p i t a l .  Father spent h i s  relief  money on l i q u o r and was abusive o f h i s wife and c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y P e t e r , t h e e l d e s t one.  Their mother v/as a r a t h e r  i n c a p a b l e p e r s o n , and the c h i l d r e n were o f t e n badly n e g l e c t e d . At one time P e t e r ' s I.Q,. was recorded as 76 and on another o c c a s i o n a s 59.  I t i s therefore  understandable t h a t because  of h i s low i n t e l l i g e n c e he i s unable to accept the f a c t that hiw  own f a m i l y l i f e  was so d e t e r i o r a t e d  that he s t a r t e d h i s  f o s t e r home experience w i t h a great handicap. I.Q,.  With such a low  r a t i n g and t e n years exposure t o the f a m i l y background j u s t  described  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether s e m i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l care or  even more i n t e n s i v e p s y c h i a t r i c help ( i f i t had been a v a i l a b l e ) would have helped him become a w e l l - a d j u s t e d  individual.  However, had the resources been a v a i l a b l e f o r more i n t e n s i v e work than was accomplished, h e m i g h t have had a b e t t e r tude towards s o c i e t y It  today and might never have gone to j a i l .  must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t because of the years of exposure o f  some o f these f o s t e r c h i l d r e n t o deplorable and  atti-  family  conditions  t h e l a c k o f adequate c o r r e c t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , they were  doomed t o i n e v i t a b l e  failure.  21.  Perhaps another factor influencing Peter's attitude i s the fact that people frequently tend to forget over a period of years many of the sordid experiences of early l i f e and to remember the more pleasant ones.  Moreover, some of the fearful  ex-  periences of childhood become permanently impressed on the subconscious mind of a c h i l d .  This l a s t fact would account for  Peter's v i v i d r e c o l l e c t i o n of his rude separation from his parents. time.  Probably i t was never c l e a r l y explained to him at Undoubtedly Peter now has an i l l u s i o n of his  that  father  caused either by the long separation during which time he has forgotten  many of his father's abuses, or by a prolonged c h i l d i s h  fantasy of the,type of man he would have wanted for a father. Another case is mentioned here because i t i l l u s t r a t e s a foster c h i l d ' s natural reaction to return to his parents when the situation i n his foster home becomes more than he can t o l e r ate.  George at fourteen, ran to his parents from his  first  foster home apparently because he was not getting enough to  eat.  A month l a t e r he ran away from his second foster home because he was being b u l l i e d by the other boys there.  He did not want  to return there because he f e l t discriminated against by the other boys.  However, he did return to the foster home, only  to run home again to h i s father for two days a week l a t e r . This time the supervisor had to have police protection to get George away from his father who was v i o l e n t l y opposed to the boy leaving his home.  George was then given a chance to start  afresh i n a new foster home, but i n five days he rah away again because the boys talked about his bed  wetting.  He seemed very  28.  sensitive and unable to take foster home placement. a month  However,  l a t e r he asked to v i s i t his own mother instead of  running away.  Three months l a t e r he again succumbed to family  t i e s and did not return to h i s foster home when he was allowed to v i s i t his family.  when his supervisor returned him George  cried and was uncommunicative.  Gradually he learned to v i s i t  h i s parents and return to his foster home by himself.  He  seemed much happier and settled when he knew he had a definite and regular time to v i s i t his family. trates how foster  This example i l l u s -  children need definite reassurance of t h e i r  family's circumstances,  and how they can adjust to foster home  placement when they are confident that they are s t i l l accepted by t h e i r k i n f o l k .  The foster  children who seem to have the  most d i f f i c u l t time i n l i f e t r y i n g to j u s t i f y t h e i r  confused  relationships with people are those children whose parents do not want them.  When t h e i r own' families have nothing to do  with them, and they begin to r e a l i z e that there i s no permanence or security i n being moved from one foster home to another, foster  children gradually develop that insidious  feeling of not belonging to anyone.  This attitude,  together  with i t s accompanying state of mind, which is best described as the lack of a f e e l i n g of personal worth, probably accounts for more hardship and deterioration of human l i f e than any other psychological factor affecting foster  children.  The case of A l i c e i s an example of the f e e l i n g of not belonging to anyone.  As A l i c e expressed i t i n her own words,  "It i s just l i k e being bought and s o l d .  If foster parents  23. do not l i k e a c h i l d , they turn him i n and buy another.  You  do not think of us as children; we are just machines." Another excellent example of the feeling of being cut a d r i f t i s expressed by Peter i n h i s own words when he sought information about himself while serving a sentence i n j a i l .  Peter mentioned  i n his l e t t e r that separation from his parents was not a pleasant experience and i t made him " f e e l l i k e a bad penny which belongs to no one;" family.  He questioned why he was not permitted to see his  There i s evidence i n his record that he and his mother  v i s i t e d once i n the CAS office and seven times when she was permitted to v i s i t him i n the foster home. Of course no two cases are similar i n a l l respects. therefore impossible to apply a general rule that foster  It  is  child-  ren should maintain their contacts with their own f a m i l i e s . The evidence is that i n some cases (George's, for example) i s an advantage to permit a foster regular i n t e r v a l s .  it  c h i l d to see his family at  In Peter's case i t would be impossible to  say just what the effect  of periodic v i s i t s would have been.  There i s the evidence that his mother professed an interest i n him at least seven times while he was i n foster homes.  However,  there i s no information to indicate that her interest i n him continued beyond 1942.  In f a c t , when the Court returned Peter  to her at that time she found that he was too d i f f i c u l t to handle, and asked that he be recommitted to the CAS. Apparently this act accounts for some of his f e e l i n g of being isolated from his family.  Except for a vagrancy charge the following year,  his whereabouts were unknown for seven years u n t i l he turned up in a Prairie j a i l .  24. One fact was noticed throughout this study i n r e l a t i o n to foster children v i s i t i n g their own f a m i l i e s .  In almost every  instance, following a c h i l d ' s v i s i t with his family, the foster parents reported a definite period of disturbance. t h i s agitation took the form of unsatisfactory  Occasionally  behaviour; some-  times i t was a milder form of resistance to the foster parents. For example, Donald always seemed excited, aggravating and craving action when he returned to his foster home after v i s i t i n g his s i s t e r .  She encouraged his rough behaviour, perhaps because  she knew i t would annoy h i s foster parents.  Later Donald defied  his foster parents by staying away overnight without permission. This escapade followed  a v i s i t to his family.  Illegitimacy i s the f i n a l section of t h i s study of family backgrounds affecting the mental attitude of foster c h i l d r e n . TABLE 2 PER CENT. OF ILLEGITIMACY OF FOSTER CHILDREN  No. Legit. Illegit.  15 10  Boys % total 60% 40%  No.  Girls % total  No.  Both % total  13 4  76% 24%  28 14  66% 34%  Table 2 indicates that 14 c h i l d r e n , or 34% of this group, were i l l e g i t i m a t e . wedlock, only  Of these fourteen children born out of  five of them knew a father person i n their own  home (before they experienced foster home placement).  For  example, K e i t h ' s mother, a f u l l - b l o o d Indian, l e f t the boy's father and l i v e d i n another common-law relationship with a half-breed.  £5o  Inez's case was a similar example.  This part-Indian g i r l  was eleven years old when placed i n a foster home:  before  that  time she grew up i n a family where the mother and legal father remained together u n t i l 1939 and then separated.  Her " r e a l  father" was unknown. Another five children have no idea who t h e i r father was. John was adopted before he became twenty-one, and Nat has l i v e d i n the same foster home for over twenty years.  S i m i l a r l y , Hilda  has l i v e d i n the same foster home since she was' four years o l d . Ronald, l i k e H i l d a , had four foster homes before becoming permanently settled at the age of three.  Oscar is the one example  of this group of five i l l e g i t i m a t e children who did not make an excellent  adjustment.  Ronald's case is a good example of how a foster  c h i l d , who  f e l t he was helplessly a d r i f t i n l i f e , was affected by the knowledge that he was i l l e g i t i m a t e .  He was a credit to his  parents and had a sensible attitude towards l i f e .  foster  He was well  respected i n the merchant navy but i n 1946 he was quite depressed about not being promoted.  He r e a l i z e d that his lack of educ-  ation was his handicap. Ronald came to the CAS and demanded a l l the information there was about him, and said that he was going away, never to return, because of an argument with his foster  father.  His  supervisor had a two-hour talk with him during which he aired his g r i e f s about l i f e .  He said he f e l t unwanted.  He was  very v i n d i c t i v e about his family, especially his father, and was searching for any clue that would help him locate his  26,  relatives.  His s u p e r v i s o r explained  have been m a r r i e d , but could t r a c e  not  t h a t there were no c l u e s by which he  her.  At the height that plant.  of h i s g r i e f , Ronald exclaimed:  I t d i d not ask  neither did I."  He  would never use  "Look at  to be brought i n t o the world -  s a i d t h a t he hated h i s f a m i l y name and  i t again.  not r e g i s t e r e d and he He was  t h a t h i s mother may  He was  upset because h i s b i r t h  c o u l d not o b t a i n a b i r t h  was  certificate.  determined to f i n d h i s mother and. wanted .the  information  about her repeated many times while he hunted f o r c l u e s . was  some time before  he  calmed down and h i s s u p e r v i s o r  e x p l a i n t h a t i t d i d not matter about h i s parents now; was  the success he would make of h i s own  counted.  life  that  It  could that i t  really  In h i s p u r s u i t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , Ronald went to  the  Superintendent o f C h i l d Welfare, hoping to o b t a i n more i n f o r mation about h i s f a m i l y . Ronald's case i n d i c a t e s how  revengeful  f o s t e r c h i l d r e n can  become over the h u m i l i a t i o n of t h e i r i l l e g i t i m a c y . t r a s t there are the  cases of John and Nat who  By  con-  were accepted i n t o  t h e i r f o s t e r homes as i n f a n t s , grew up as p a r t of t h e i r f o s t e r f a m i l i e s , and were not t r o u b l e d by t h e i r f a m i l y background. In c o n c l u s i o n ,  these examples I n d i c a t e how  determinant f a m i l y background i n f o r m a t i o n f u t u r e p r o g r e s s of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . t h a t c h i l d r e n who g e n e r a l l y had individuals.  had  important a  i s i n a f f e c t i n g the  I t was  quite  noticeable  a b e t t e r f a m i l y l i f e p r i o r to committment  a good chance of becoming s o c i a l l y w e l l  adjusted  T h e i r f o s t e r home experiences enhanced t h e i r  o p p o r t u n i t i e s "to be  good  citizens.  Chapter  III  Physical Health.  Adequate p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i s one  determinant  dual's c a p a b i l i t y f o r e a r n i n g h i s own way  of an  indivi-  i n society.  Bearing  i n mind t h a t each of the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study s t a r t e d with some degree of handicap,  life  one would expect d e v i a t i o n s from  the normal r a t e o f development.  A l s o , i t i s a known f a c t t h a t  many c h i l d r e n whose r e a r i n g begins under c o n d i t i o n s of n e g l e c t , respond  to c a r e f u l d i e t and proper p h y s i c a l c a r e .  Therefore,  assuming t h a t f o s t e r home care p r o v i d e s b e t t e r a t t e n t i o n than these c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d i n t h e i r own  homes i n most cases,  one  would expect many c h i l d r e n to show improved p h y s i c a l development.  The r e s u l t s of t h i s study  many of these c h i l d r e n who  showed t h a t the h e a l t h o f  s u f f e r e d from p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t (as  d i s c u s s e d i n the previous chapter) improved w i t h f o s t e r home care.  On the other hand, sometimes there was  shown i n physique  even where there was  care, f o r reasons  to be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .  no  improvement  a p p a r e n t l y good p h y s i c a l  I n the course of t h i s study i t became necessary to  develop  a standard of measurement for comparing the p h y s i c a l adjustment o f each c h i l d i n r e l a t i o n to the group, and w i t h i t a q u e s t i o n of- d e f i n i t i o n arose.  What i s p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ?  p h y s i c a l w e l l being o f the i n d i v i d u a l . p h y s i c a l w e l l b e i n g of a c h i l d ? i l l n e s s and the p r e v e n t i o n and The  I t i s the  What then, Is the  I t i s the absence of p h y s i c a l cure of d i s e a s e and i l l  health.  number of e n t r i e s on the medical r e c o r d i n d i c a t e d the  extent t o which medical a t t e n t i o n was  necessary, and was  f o r e , an i n d i c a t i o n of poor h e a l t h .  Conversely, good h e a l t h  27  there-  28. was  i n d i c a t e d "by an absence of medical diagnoses arid t r e a t -  ments.  I n a d d i t i o n , the m e d i c a l r e c o r d s contained a wealth  of conglomerate i n f o r m a t i o n which e x p l a i n e d the p h y s i c a l p r o gress of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , but f o r the purposes of comp a r i s o n w i t h other c h i l d r e n , was u s e l e s s data. The o n l y p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n of the m e d i c a l r e c o r d by which the p r o g r e s s o f each c h i l d could be measured and compared, was  the h e i g h t and weight, r e c o r d e d a t each m e d i c a l exam-  ination.  Average height-age-weight c h a r t s were experimented  w i t h as these seemed to be the o n l y comparable d a t a . C e r t a i n r e s u l t s were obtained from u s i n g these d a t a . weight and h e i g h t o f each c h i l d was  The  compared to the normal  weight o f the p o p u l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by average w e i g h t - h e i g h t * 5 age t a b l e s f o r boys and g i r l s  .  The r e s u l t of t h i s com-  p a r i s o n i n Table 3 r e v e a l e d t h a t the boys were more i n c l i n e d to be underweight than t h e g i r l s when compared to the average o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  The h e i g h t and weight r e c o r d s seemed t o  f a l l into four categories:  overweight, average weight, under-  weight, and one i n d i c a t i n g a change i n weight, e i t h e r a l o s s or a g a i n .  I t appeared that h a l f o f the boys were  TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF THE WEIGHTS OF FORTY-TWO CAS CHILDREN COMPARED TO METROPOLITAN HEALTH AVERAGE WEIGHT-HEIGHT-AGE TABLES Overweight  5.  Average  Underweight  M  F  B  M  F  B  M  F  B  7  10  17  5  1  6  13  6  19  M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee Average T a b l e s , f o r Boys and G i r l s .  Weight-Height-Age.  29.  underweight  a t some time i n t h e i r f o s t e r home experience as  compared to o n l y o n e - t h i r d  o f the g i r l s .  Some of the  children  l o s t weight when they went to a f o s t e r home while o t h e r s gained, so t h i s was  no i n d i c a t i o n of the e f f e c t of moving t o a new  However, i t was  r e a l i z e d that t h i s method o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  l i m i t s above and below an average to determine underweight  was  unsatisfactory  the d i f f e r e n c e i n p h y s i q u e s . l o s s to an obese boy o f weight  home.  overweight  and  because i t f a i l e d to r e c o g n i z e O b v i o u s l y , a t e n per cent, weight  i s l e s s alarming than a f i v e per cent, l o s s  to a t h i n c h i l d .  I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Wetzel G r i d method of p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  measuring  development i n c h i l d r e n showed  t h a t i t has been acknowledged w i d e l y as a r e l i a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p h y s i c a l growth.  I t has been used  exten-  s i v e l y t o prove t h a t "growth i s the best measurement of  health  there i s , and growth f a i l u r e i s caused by p h y s i o l o g i c a l and psychological  defects..."  Since the Wetzel method has been t e s t e d and proved  effec-  t i v e i n r e v e a l i n g emotional tensions i n c h i l d r e n , i t can be assumed t h a t the p h y s i c a l and emotional f a c t o r s i n these ren  (who  are more upset than the average)  c l e a r l y i n t h e i r Wetzel c h a r t s .  should be  child-  illustrated  Therefore, a f a i r l y  regular  Wetzel curve would be an i n d i c a t i o n of good progress i n the f o s t e r home. Each o f these cases was p l o t t e d  on a Wetzel  although i t s data covered a d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h c h i l d , depending  chart,  of time f o r each  upon the number of years t h a t he was  i n foster  30* home c a r e .  Since no two c h i l d r e n were i n care f o r the same  l e n g t h o f time there was no c o n s i s t e n t standard f o r comparison. U s u a l l y t h e r e were not enough d a t a .  However, i t was p o s s i b l e  to c l a s s i f y a l l of the group (except i n the one case i n which there were i n s u f f i c i e n t data) a c c o r d i n g to t h r e e g e n e r a l trends i n which the developmental  curve showed over the years  an improvement, a d e c l i n e , or a steady development. showed an improvement i n physique,  either E i g h t cases  and s i x shov/ed a l o s s .  development was steady i n twenty-seven cases.  The  Thus o n l y f o u r -  teen p e r cent, o f the cases showed a g e n e r a l t r e n d i n which development d e c l i n e d d u r i n g f o s t e r home c a r e .  I t seemed t h e r e 1  f o r e , t h a t e i g h t y - s i x p e r cent, of t h i s group of f o s t e r  child-  r e n r e c e i v e d enough b e n e f i t from f o s t e r home care t h a t t h e i r p h y s i c a l and emotional time.  development improved over a p e r i o d o f  I t i s emphasized here t h a t t h i s was o n l y a t r e n d i n the  developmental  curve, and t h a t there were many i n d i v i d u a l  fluc-  t u a t i o n s from the g e n e r a l t r e n d . When the Wetzel g r i d c h a r t s were compared w i t h the f i n a l adjustment r a t i n g s of Chapter V I I , i t was found t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , the c h i l d r e n w i t h the best adjustments had the most r e g u l a r developmental  curves on t h e i r c h a r t s .  S i m i l a r l y , those w i t h  the p o o r e s t adjustments were the group w i t h the most i r r e g u l a r developmental The  first  curves. two examples i l l u s t r a t e the good c o r r e l a t i o n  between the Wetzel c h a r t and the adjustment r a t i n g .  A plotted  curve on a Wetzel g r i d which continues d i r e c t l y w i t h i n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d physique  channel i s normal development.  Charles  31. had one  of the best adjustment e v a l u a t i o n s  Wetzel c h a r t curve was  of the group.  almost exact r e p r o d u c t i o n  of the  l i n e s which i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s development progressed tently.  I t turned  channel  consis-  out t h a t he had a good school r e c o r d  an e x c e l l e n t work h i s t o r y which t a l l i e d  with h i s g r i d  His  and  chart.  Moreover, h i s medical r e c o r d s u b s t a n t i a t e d the f a c t t h a t he always been i n good h e a l t h .  The  had  r e c o r d s of three other boys  showed a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of good c o r r e l a t i o n between s u c c e s s f u l adjustment and Joan had  a fairly  c o n s i s t e n t developmental  the b e s t g r i d c h a r t of the g i r l s  development and s i m i l a r l y the her adjustment.  She  has  an a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y and  of the most o u t s t a n d i n g  home adjustment because she was I t proved t h a t Joan had  showing normal  f a c t s i n her case s u b s t a n t i a t e d  e x c e l l e n t work record before her m a r r i a g e . to be one  curve.  had  an  This case proved  examples of a good f o s t e r  married  from her f o s t e r home.  "put down r o o t s " i n her f o s t e r home  and become p a r t of t h e i r  family.  S i m i l a r l y , her medical r e c o r d  i n d i c a t e d only good h e a l t h . By to be  c o n t r a s t , there were a few  cases i n which t h e r e  seemed  no obvious c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r adjustment or p h y s i -  c a l h e a l t h and  the Wetzel c h a r t .  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  that heights  One  reason f o r t h i s l a c k of  and weights were not  recorded  f r e q u e n t l y enough to g i v e an accurate representaticn.of developmental curve. occurred  Obviously,  the  changes i n h e a l t h c o u l d have  during t h a t time which would have i n d i c a t e d d e v i a t i o n s  on the Wetzel chart i f there had been more data.  Also c e r t a i n  medical c o n d i t i o n s , .such as acute a p p e n d i c i t i s , probably  do  not  .32.  '  affect a c h i l d ' s personality or physical development enough to register, a weight l o s s .  Thus, i f there were no loss of weight  during a short i l l n e s s i t would not he revealed on the Wetzel chart.  Conversely, when deviations shown on the grid chart  had no p a r a l l e l i n the medical record at the appropriate date, i t may have been because of a lack of  information i n the records.  However, most of the cases corresponded f a i r l y consistently i n t h e i r deviations from the normal with the general comments on the medical records.  Where the medical record indicated  consistently good health, the Wetzel chart usually showed uniform normal development.  In some cases i n which the grid chart  showed some deviation from normal development, there was a corresponding notation on the medical record. For example, Samuel's Wetzel chart showed a definite recession i n physique development.  His medical record revealed  that he was "underweight....of small s t a t u r e . . . . n o t  robust."  S i m i l a r l y , Nat's Wetzel curve showed a zig-zag pattern but of only a minor deviation.  His medical record indicated that h i s  "nervous habits" disappeared and his school work improved when glasses were prescribed for his poor eyesight. Another two cases i l l u s t r a t e d c l e a r l y that the abnormal deviations on their Wetzel chart were caused by a health condition.  During 1942 and 1943 Mervin's chart shov/ed a s t r i k i n g  increase i n physique development over several channels, but i t was d e f i n i t e l y established that this was due to an abnormal weight increase.  Whether he was compensating for lack of  affection by overeating, or whether his•excessive weight was  33. due to a p i t u i t a r y condition could not be d e f i n i t e l y from his record.  established  This information was confirmed by h i s health  record i n which i t was recorded that i n 1943 he showed an abnormal increase i n weight and was eating too heavily.  In 1942  his weight was 147 pounds and a year l a t e r i t was 178. Isaac was i n one farm home during most of the time that he was i n foster  care.  His Wetzel chart showed an abnormal i n -  crease i n development from 1937 to 1940.  However, his weight  l a t e r returned to normal f o r his physique when his health record showed that he was on a supervised diet for a p i t u i t a r y condition.  Later, his Wetzel curve increased abnormally again.  This exaggerated curve indicated that Isaac was excessively  stout.  It was no surprise to this writer therefore to find that he was short and stout when he returned to the CAS i n May, 1951, to obtain information for h i s b i r t h  certificate.  I t is quite obvious, therefore, that with only a few exceptions, the Wetzel grid chart i s a good indicator of a c h i l d ' s progress, especially because i t allows for individual growth.  Moreover, the cases herein described proved conclu-  s i v e l y that children develop at different rates of speed. The writer experimented with an adjustment r a t i n g which i s described more f u l l y i n Chapter V I I .  Each case was assigned  g  a numerical rating for health  i n which one point represented  those cases with the poorest medical h i s t o r i e s and physical conditions.  For example, Ruby contracted tuberculosis and was  confined to her bed for months. 6.  I t was f e l t therefore, that  The health rating for each case i s tabulated i n Appendix D.  34. her h e a l t h  condition merited only  B o b , who had a l w a y s rating  of  four  enjoyed  one p o i n t .  robust h e a l t h ,  the  final  apparent.  adjustment  Although  c o i n c i d e d w i t h the exceptions. i n the t o have  good  sleep  specific  cases i s  for  examples  to  health, not  of his  Ruby's affected  health  evaluations,  but  they  because  quite  ratings there  were  all  were low  considered  evaluation,  but  he h a d a s e r i e s t o be  a hypertonic  study  a robust  he  of  boy.  t y p e who needed more  w h i c h was  source  a s i m i l a r case  h e r adjustment  to  say  rating.  in  certain their  always f e l t  very  by  diplegia.  cerebral  and c a p i t a l i z e d  He e x p e c t e d quite  on  t o do l e s s  work  irresponsible.  of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y  i n whch a p h y s i c a l  society.  to  adjustment  i n determining  caused  c r i p p l e d a n d he became the  incorrect  health  example,  sympathy.  been  is  physical  from a s i m i l a r a f f l i c t i o n  may have was  for  it  on the  important  Ted,  lameness  that  influence  extremely  to a r o u s e  he was  affliction  t r e n d s were  poorest  considered  proved that  society.  Thomas s u f f e r e d  because  compared  D o n a l d , and K e i t h were  ratings,  from t h i s  the  lameness  health  normal boy.  However,  his  the  Peter,  h e a l t h had a d e c i s i v e  conscious  certain  J o h n had a good a d j u s t m e n t  and was  appeared  adjustment  a  f o r h e a l t h were  adjustment  d e s c r i b e d him as  than the It  that  poorest  o n l y one p o i n t  doctor  given  health.  medical ailments His  i n general  of adjustment  By c o n t r a s t , rated  rating  For example,  list  was  contrast,  points.  When t h e s e n u m e r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s with  In  His  difficulty.  disability  She made e x c e l l e n t  progress  35«  until  she  erous, felt  contracted  excitable  she  fluence  was  tuberculosis.  and h e a d s t r o n g .  being neglected  At  dependency  a later  was  noticed that  was  the  academic  i n the  another  employable  was  isolation  she  she  both  en-  disease.  development  of  health  these  children  c a n be  it  o o u l d be u s e d .  Disregarding emotional  employment,  employed r e g u l a r l y  her  noticed that  the  definition.  of  obstrep-  became a d i s t u r b i n g i n -  standard of  qualifications for  y o u t h who i s  It  and f e a r e d  stage  Because  a n d she  in hospital routine.  joyed her  Then she became  o n e may a s s u m e considered  to  It  or that  have  a  good  health. Under was  the  available  By c o n t r a s t , physical  employable for  i f  d e f i n i t i o n of  any k i n d  the  type  of work would rate  o f w o r k he  of  other  children in this  Again Ruby's able Her  for case  also  ently rating  high i n  c o u l d manage  adjustment.  because  the  c o u l d be her of  three  health three  is  she  underwent  since  while  as  this  She  On t h e  on the learned  a girl  his  rating,  compared  that  who was  treatment  rated  begun,  now h a s other  to  for  unemploy-  tuberculosis.  she  a  o n l y one  p r o b a b l y now f a m i l y and  i n foster  contracted  and underwent  over  point her  appar-  hand, P e a r l had a  p e r i o d she was  aide,  of  h e a l t h r a t i n g can change  s t u d y was  points.  a nurses  of  A l t h o u g h she  good.  based  The w r i t e r h a s employed  an example  years.  time  d i s a b i l i t y was  who  study.  i l l u s t r a t e s how-the  several  health at  rating  c a s e was  two y e a r s w h i l e  a period of for  a person  d i s a b i l i t y was r e s t r i c t e d h e . w o u l d h a v e a l o w e r  d e p e n d i n g u p o n how r e s t r i c t i n g h i s that  health,  health  home  care.  tuberculosis  treatment  for  a  3,6.  year i n a sanitarium.  Thus her health r a t i n g at age twenty-three  could not possibly be considered as high as i t was when she enjoyed good health.  However, i t was decided that i t was not  necessary to make such an adjustment to the ratings, since this s i t u a t i o n occurred i n only the above two cases. The cases of Keith and Peter i l l u s t r a t e one other conclusion derived from this study of physical health.  Although they were  both healthy a l l the time they were i n foster home care, t h e i r behaviour records indicated that a good health record does not guarantee freedom from delinquency.  Both of them have been i n  the penitentiary. Several factors were observed i n this study of the health of foster  children.  One g i r l and two boys were lame.  In the  cases of Tom and Ted i t was f e l t that their lameness d e f i n i t e l y affected their adjustment, but there was no information to i n d i cate that P e a r l ' s attitude towards society was influenced. However, a l l three of them grew up to have a poor adjustment to society. There were only two cases of serious disease during foster home placement, and the recoveries of Pearl and Ruby from tuberculosis have been discussed.  Nancy appeared to have over-  come a s y s t o l i c heart murmur without d i f f i c u l t y , and Olive had regular biannual checkups for complications from rheumatic fever.  She had contracted that disease before she went to a  foster home. I t appeared that these children a l l received regular medical attention, on the average of at least twice a year,  37.  and more often, where necessary.  Samuel l o s t a finger i n  an i n d u s t r i a l accident, and Leonard had two toes amputated when his feet were f r o s t b i t t e n .  Four g i r l s and five boys  had special f i t t i n g s for shoes, and six g i r l s and four boys had glasses.  One g i r l was treated for a s p e c i f i c disease.  Six boys and two g i r l s had skin diseases when they were f i r s t placed i n foster homes.  Isaac, for example, had i t c h ,  a rash, and scabies when he was taken away from h i s parents. Charles showed signs of old r i c k e t s when he f i r s t entered a foster home.  Lois also had ringworm and scabies i n her f i r s t  foster home.  These cases were examples of physical neglect  which improved during foster home care.  With the exception  of Ronald, whose eczema recurred frequently, a l l the cases responded to proper treatment and care. Only eight children received medical attention after the seventeenth birthday, but possibly t h i s information was not recorded.  It was noticed that most youths and young  women objected to attending CAS medical c l i n i c s :  no doubt  that i s the primary reason why there was l i t t l e medical information beyond the seventeenth birthday. Enuresis was more prevalent among the boys than the girls.  Only one g i r l had this trouble while eight boys  suffered the embarassment of enuresis. doctor termed i t  'purely p s y c h o l o g i c a l ' .  In one case the Twice i t was  found to occur up to the age of f i f t e e n . A l i c e ' s immature behaviour resulted i n a health problem. She had an abortion while she was i n a foster home.  Oddly  38.  enough, she a p p l i e d t o the CAS i n May, 1951, t o become an adopting or f o s t e r mother because her d o c t o r t o l d her t h a t she would never be able t o have any c h i l d r e n of her own. Grace a l s o had an a b o r t i o n when she was n i n e t e e n .  Nancy  became a mother a t f o u r t e e n and P e a r l a t twenty-one.  The  remainder o f t h i s group o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n seem to have enjoyed good h e a l t h i f one o v e r l o o k s the more common i l l n e s s e s t h a t are u s u a l l y t r e a t e d a t home. There were o n l y two examples where t h e r e appeared to be no improvement i n physique even where there was a p p a r e n t l y good p h y s i c a l care;  John and D o r i s never were r o b u s t c h i l d -  ren and seemed t o be s u b j e c t t o frequent i l l n e s s e s .  These  These two c h i l d r e n needed more medical a t t e n t i o n than the others. I t was o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o segregate p u r e l y m e d i c a l s i c k n e s s from emotional i l l n e s s .  The f a c t t h a t d o c t o r s  b e l i e v e many i l l n e s s e s t o be psychosomatic made i t a l l the more obvious t h a t the Wetzel method, which showed how emotiona l f a c t o r s a f f e c t e d the p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f these c h i l d r e n , was  the most l o g i c a l way of measuring t h e i r adjustment.  Chapter 17  E d u c a t i o n and Employment  The l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n which a youth a t t a i n s today genera l l y determines the type o f employment he can hope to o b t a i n tomorrow.  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d that f o s t e r c h i l d r e n are h a n d i -  capped i n t h e i r s t a r t i n l i f e t o an e x t e n t depending upon how w e l l they a d j u s t t o a f o s t e r home.  For t h i s reason one would expect  t h i s group t o have some examples of r e t a r d e d s c h o o l p r o g r e s s . The ages and grades a t which t h i s group o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n  left  s c h o o l were compared t o the normal ages by grades o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver s c h o o l s , TABLE 4. NORMAL AGES BY GRADES OF CHILDREN IN VANCOUVER SCHOOLS COMPARED TO AGES BY GRADES COMPLETED OF CAS CHILDREN. Normal age by Grades i n Vancouver Schools Grade  Number o f Sample Group By Ages i n Each Grade.  Ag e  Grade  .Age  No,  V  10 - 11  V  15  1  VI  11 - 12  VI  15  2  VII  12 - 13  VII  13 - 16  4  VIII  13 - 14  VIII  15 - 16  5  IX  14 - 15  IX  14 - 15 16 - 18  5 6  X  IS - 16  X  16 17 - 19  5 6  XI  16 - 17  XI  16 - 17  3  XII  17 - 18  XII  17 - 18  5  39  40. Table 4 shows that up to the end of Grade VIII a l l the CAS children with  one exception were behind the average of the  population for their ages and grades.  However, this i s to be  expected when t h e i r Intelligence Quotients* are considered. Mervin, with an I.Q,. of sixty-eight, completed Grade V art f i f t e e n . Peter and Oscar were considerably behind the normal age for t h e i r grades, but t h e i r I. Q .'s respectively.  were only f i f t y - n i n e and sixty  Both Peter and Oscar were considered to have  unsatisfactory adjustments  as the former was i n j a i l and the  l a t t e r a vagrant.  On the other hand, Mervin was consdered to  be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  adjusted to society (within his l i m i t a t i o n s )  as he has been employed steadily since 1948 as farm f help.  That  two of these boys were unable to find suitable employment i n d i cates the lack of community f a c i l i t i e s for t h i s type of children who need  careful i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and protected employment.  They need special consideration because they lack t h e c a b i l i t y to compete i n employment with more i n t e l l i g e n t and better educated people.  In Mervin's case, he was able to find protected employ-  ment where he did not have to compete with anyone else. Even i n high school (except for Grade XII) half the children were older than the normal age for their grade.  foster It  was only i n Grade XEI that a l l the CAS children who reached that grade equalled the normal age.  This r e s u l t can be accounted  for by the fact that children with the happiest home l i f e have the best chance of attaining good results  i n school work.  course this cannot be said to apply i n every case.  Of  There are  exceptions to t h i s rule because some of the children with the *  Hereafter abbreviated to I.Q,.  41. best a b i l i t y do not take f u l l  advantage of i t as they do not  apply themselves.  This l a s t fact i s especially common among  foster c h i l d r e n .  They find from experience that the quickest  way to avoid supervision of their l i v e s i s to become f i n a n c i a l l y independent.  Hence there i s great desire among foster children  to leave school early. Generally speaking,  i t was found that foster children did  not reach as high grades i n school for their age as average students of the population.  However, the tendency was quite ob-  vious, that the higher the grade, the greater the number of foster children vhose ages were equal to the normal age for t h e i r grade.  The grades i n which the foster children l e f t  school are  tabulated i n Table 5 and the ages at which they ceased education, i n Table 6. TABLE 5.  TABLE 6.  GRADES IN WHICH THE FOSTER CHILDREN LEFT SCHOOL Grade  Boys  Girls  V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII  1 2 3 3 8 5 1 2 25  0 0 1 1 3 6 2 3 17  Total 1 2 4 4 11 11 3 5 42  AGES AT WHICH THE FOSTER CHILDREN LEFT SCHOOL Age yrs. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  Boys  Girls  Total  ~0 1 10 7 4 3 0  1 1 3 3 4 4 1  1 2 13 10 8 7 1  25  17  42  Table 5 showed that 64% of 16 of the boys reached Grade IX or better before leaving school, as compared with 82% or 14 of the g i r l s .  Of the group who reached Grade X or better  before  leaving school, there were 64% of the g i r l s , as compared with  42. thirty-two per cent, of the hoys.  The data therefore indicate  that the g i r l s were i n c l i n e d to a t t a i n a higher l e v e l of education than the boys.  This same tendency was borne out i n  Table 6 where at l e g a l school-leaving age of f i f t e e n  years,  forty-four per cent, or eleven of the boys had l e f t school, as compared with only t h i r t y per cent, or five of the g i r l s .  At  age sixteen this r a t i o had greatly increased to seventy-two per cent or eighteen of the boys, as compared with only forty-seven per cent or eight of the g i r l s .  The reason for the g i r l s  staying i n school longer than the boys is probably due to a more determined attitude of the boys to achieve independence. Moreover, i t i s easier for boys to go out into the world and find employment than i t i s for g i r l s .  This .seemssto be one  explanation why so many boys l e f t at the l e g a l school-leaving age of f i f t e e n years.  Employment conditions were another  reason why so many boys l e f t school at this age.  The boys of  this study became f i f t e e n during 1942 when the shipyards were i n f u l l production and boys of almost any age could get wellpaid jobs.  This exodus of fifteen-year-old boys to the ship-  yards and the boats was c l e a r l y indicated i n their employment records.  The lack of a substantial allowance for  foster  children at a time when t h e i r companions were making high wages i n wartime jobs was no doubt the cause of dissention. There were several significant factors which were noticed frequently i n these records.  As a class apart, foster  children  were usually described as inattentive daydreamers with d u l l , vacant expressions.  Often they were described as lacking i n  43.  persistence,  and more than one teacher remarked that they were  capable of doing better work. It appears to be a significant t r a i t of foster that they do not measure up to standard performance.  children On the  other hand, what appears to be "limping progress" for some of these foster  children a c t u a l l y was the best performance of which  they were capable at that p a r t i c u l a r time.  Teachers recognize  the c o r r e l a t i o n which exists between emotional disturbances and school progress.  By investigating the academic achievement i t  was possible to determine where there were emotional s t r a i n s . A l l a n ' s case was the best example of the relationship between emotional adjustment and school progress.  He was  "persevering, co-operative, amiable, appreciate, personality". class.  with a pleasing  At this time he ranked second and t h i r d i n h i s  Later his school results became worse although he per-  sisted i n doing homework conscientiously.  Following t h i s  it  appeared that he reached the peak of his performance i n his l a s t year of high school but was' unable to continue with his good progress because he was employed i n the evenings. One observation resulting from t h i s study of educational achievement was that delinquency and maladjustment were not confined to the lowest l e v e l of achievement.  P e a r l , for  example, had the best educational rating for the g i r l s , but the second lowest adjustment r a t i n g .  On the other hand, the  high scholastic attainment of Grace, Kathy, and A l l a n was quite consistent with t h e i r good adjustment  evaluations.  44.  I t was  n o t i c e d t h a t g e n e r a l l y the p r o p o r t i o n of good.  adjustments to poor ones i n c r e a s e d as the s c h o o l grades became 7 . higher  .  There was  the group who  a g r e a t e r number of poor adjustments among  only reached  Grade V I I than there was  i n the  group which a c h i e v e d a Grade X e d u c a t i o n . The  e d u c a t i o n a l r a t i n g s a l s o served as a good check on the  adjustment r a t i n g s because i t i s known t h a t , among i n d i v i d u a l s of  equal i n t e l l i g e n c e , the best a d j u s t e d and most mature ones  tend to remain i n s c h o o l l o n g e r than the maladjusted The  l a t t e r group f a i l s  to achieve as h i g h an academic  as the happy c h i l d r e n ; consequently, discouraged and leave s c h o o l .  .  group, standard  they become more e a s i l y '  Since employment i s the n a t u r a l sequence to e d u c a t i o n , i t was  felt  t h a t they c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d i n the same chapter, t o -  gether w i t h the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s .  The  intelligence  r a t i n g p a r t l y governs the p o t e n t i a l academic achievement the p o s s i b l e f i e l d man  w i t h a low  of employment.  I t i s recognized that a  i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g has l i t t l e  t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l standing.  and  chance of  ob-  :  The I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients were not a v a i l a b l e i n e l e v e n cases, so i t was evaluation. h i g h e s t I.Q. ninety-five. I t was  impossible to r a t e them f o r the adjustment  The lowest recorded I.Q. was r e c o r d e d i n the group was  The median  the was  C e l i a , Inez and Sidney had the h i g h e s t I.Q.'s.  r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Inez, with an I.Q.  such a poor adjustment. by an  120.  f i f t y - n i n e and  emotional  conflict.  7. See Appendix C.  of 119,  This f a c t i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was  had caused  45. The purpose of foster home care i s to have each c h i l d become a well-adjusted, his own l i v e l i h o o d .  independent person, capable of earning  The 1948 employment, or the last-known  employment i n each case i s tabulated and compared with the employment i n 1951 where this information was a v a i l a b l e . It was previously indicated that CAS children did not reach as high grades of school as the average children of the population.  The l o g i c a l sequence of this fact is that CAS c h i l d -  ren could not be expected to a t t a i n high standards of achievement i n professional,  s c i e n t i f i c , or i n t e l l e c t u a l  occupations.  The information from the case records confirmed t h i s statement conclusively.  With one exception, a l l the cases studied had  occupations which could be c l a s s i f i e d  as unskilled labour, such  as tugboat hand, c l e r k , wrapper, farmhand, or swamper.  Some  of the group, however, took further academic or trade t r a i n i n g to obtain positions  such as telephone operator,  stenographer,  dental technician, cook, sheet metal worker, e l e c t r i c i a n , or practical  nurse.  Bob was the one exception who attained professional  standing.  He served i n the United States Navy during the recent war (because of h i s dual citizenship) and elected to study e l e c t r i c a l engineering following his discharge. education before  He had only a Grade IX  enlisting.  Employment ratings from one to four points were given each 9  case to be used i n the evaluation r a t i n g chart . 8. 9.  See Appendix F . See Appendix D.  The length of  46. time a t a job and the m o b i l i t y of employment were both d i s c u s s e d . It  can be assumed c o r r e c t l y i n  some cases t h a t a boy who  s e v e r a l jobs i n a few months had a poor work r e c o r d . for  example, had s i x d i f f e r e n t  Peter,  jobs i n f o u r months, r a n g i n g  from t r u c k d r i v e r to m i l l h a n d and swamper. his  had  At one  time i n  career Oscar had f i v e d i f f e r e n t jobs i n three months.  However, t h i s method of r a t i n g employment was the f o l l o w i n g reason.  not accurate f o r  By counting the number of employment  changes a boy had, one would assume he had a poor work h i s t o r y i f he had  s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t jobs, even though he e v e n t u a l l y  s e t t l e d i n one where he had a s a t i s f a c t o r y employment r e c o r d . George, f o r example, had  ten d i f f e r e n t jobs i n f o u r years before  he f i n a l l y obtained a permanent job i n a smelter where he been working f o r four y e a r s . married. 100. had  He l e f t  He  i s now  has  s e t t l e d and h a p p i l y  s c h o o l i n Grade IX and had  an I.Q.  of about  To say t h a t he had a poor employment h i s t o r y because he e l e v e n d i f f e r e n t jobs would be s l i g h t l y i n a c c u r a t e . C h a r l e s was  different  another  example of a boy who  tried several  jobs before s e t t l i n g down to l e a r n a t r a d e .  He  worked i n the shipyards and on the c o a s t a l boats before s e r v i n g i n the Merchant NaVy. as a b u t c h e r . of  S i n c e 1947  he has been working s t e a d i l y  He completed the e i g h t h grade and had an  I.Q.  103. On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e were s e v e r a l examples of boys  had e x c e l l e n t work r e c o r d s from the time they l e f t 1946 his  school.  A l l a n a p p r e n t i c e d to an e l e c t r i c a l f i r m when he m a t r i c u l a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l .  is s t i l l  He has an I.Q.  employed s u c c e s s f u l l y at the same j o b .  who In  completed of 100  and  John i s another example of a successful employment.  adjustment i n  He has been working i n a dental laboratory since  he l e f t school i n 1944 i n Grade IX.  His I.Q,. v/as eighty-seven.  S i m i l a r l y , Nat, who had an I.<<<,. of seventy-eight,  left  school i n Grade IX to apprentice as a sheet metal worker.  He  has been employed steadily by the same f i r m , except for the time he served i n the R . C . A . P . As would be expected, i t was noticed that the cases with the poorest s o c i a l adjustment had the most sporadic work records. Oscar i s an example of a boy with one of the poorest behaviour adjustments  and employment r a t i n g s .  Grade VI at f i f t e e n , with an 1.^.  After he l e f t school i n  of s i x t y , he t r i e d a farm job  but soon l e f t that because, i n his estimation, he was not r e ceiving enough pay. a lumber yard.  He was f i r e d after working three days i n  He then worked a short time on the coastal boats  and l a t e r quit a job i n the shipyards "because of the n o i s e " . He l e f t a job i n a packing plant after three days, for no apparent reason.  Then at another farm job, he was f i r e d after two  days because he quarrelled with the farmer.  When i n the  Merchant Navy he skipped his ship, and for a period of two years there was no information about his employment.  Later,  he worked for a few days as a messenger boy, and then apparently vanished, u n t i l A p r i l 1949, when he was seen working as a waiter i n a downtown cafe. In a d d i t i o n , i t was noticeable that the cases with the poorest work records usually evaded supervision and for t h i s reason the history v/as often incomplete.  Frequently only  48.  the b a r e s t mention o f employment was made on the r e c o r d . Perhaps  i t was the r e s u l t  of a chance meeting  CAS worker on the s t r e e t .  of a boy and a  Sometimes they were r e p o r t s r e -  c e i v e d from former f o s t e r mothers, who had been i n touch w i t h the f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . on  Thus there were many gaps i n the data  employment, e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a t e r , teens and among those  w i t h s p o r a d i c work r e c o r d s . Although t h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t there seems l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n a t t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l occup a t i o n s or e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s , t h i s f a c t should not d i s c r e d i t them as a group.  I t i s to t h e i r  c r e d i t t h a t they a r e able  to surmount t h e i r many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the competitive s t r u g g l e to keep themselves g a i n f u l l y employed.  S o c i e t y has to have  l e a d e r s who come from t h a t group of the p o p u l a t i o n which i s b o u n t i f u l l y endowed, but i t a l s o needs an average  class of  men and women who work on the tugs and boats, i n the woods, a t f a c t o r y t a b l e s and telephone switchboards, and i n our homes.  Chapter  It  bad .  experience  the "product  practice  life  respond proper some  that  as they moral  that  physical  care.  foster  Therefore children  and that  as  Average.behaviour  successes  twenty-one  that  years  Wetzel  time  yielded  every  are natural t o absorb subjected at  endeavour Child a fair  tempered  to  retaliate  welfare  people  chance,  will  with  affection  i t i s t o be e x p e c t e d  refers  approximate  and  that  average  of bad  to the usual  behaviour  difficulties  experiences during h i s f i r s t  I t i s t h e sum  and bad—by  who i s  n e g l e c t , i t i sn o t  given  might  person  of  total  which most  people  of a l l the learn  to  live  i n society.  The this  been  t h e r e w o u l d be examples  of life..  experiences—good usefully  Having  guidance,  child  desire  treatment.  any c h i l d ,  behaviour  and  upset  Children  and emotional  to understanding  of these  see i t .  are "just  the reaction  an Insatiable  with, s i m i l a r  however,  well.  i s often  some f o s t e r , c h i l d r e n  society  believe,  CAS c h i l d r e n  a particular  They have  home t o p h y s i c a l ,  against  that  this  with  Personality  of p a r e n t a l mistreatment.  imitators.  surprising  and  supposed  However,  M  individual  and  Behaviour  i s frequently  naturally  born  V  a  adjustment  with  charts of these the focus  wealth  specifically  on b e h a v i o u r .  o f conglomerate  to society.  cases  data  were  Each  49  chapters  again,  of these  relating  Information which  t o one o f t h e o t h e r  reviewed  cases  t o the person's  d i d n o t seem found  i t s way  to apply to  this  50.  category.  I t became more than a d i s c u s s i o n of behaviour  because i t i n v o l v e d r e a c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l . Thus i t seemed n a t u r a l t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y should be mentioned i n conjunction The  w i t h behaviour because of t h e i r  interdependence.  c o r r e l a t i o n between the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l of  r e c o r d and  the g r a p h i c  representation  obvious i n the m a j o r i t y  of the Wetzel chart  was  quite  was  d i f f e r e n t enough from a l l the r e s t to prevent  fication, dually. not  i t was  decided  of cases.  that they s h o u l d be  Since  each case classi-  studied  indivi-  However, the behaviour of most of t h i s group  too d i f f e r e n t from t h a t  population.  of the average youth of  was  the  F o r convenience, t h e r e f o r e , only the more  extreme cases of behaviour and p e r s o n a l i t y are in  the  discussed  detail. The  f o l l o w i n g three examples i n d i c a t e how  behaviour can be  closely  i n t e r p r e t e d from the Wetzel c h a r t .  Inez  showed e x c e p t i o n a l l y good progress on her Wetzel chart f o r the f i r s t  two y e a r s t h a t she was  i n f o s t e r home care.  Her  p h y s i c a l h e a l t h improved c o n s i s t e n t l y and her behaviour quite  was  s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r almost a year u n t i l she began "keeping  company w i t h rowdy g i r l s who she became Impudent and of hand.  are r u i n i n g her".  cheeky and  was  At  fourteen,  gradually getting  At t h i s stage on her Wetzel c h a r t , her  out  develop-  mental curve dropped p r e c i p i t o u s l y , i n d i c a t i n g that some emotional f a c t o r was  u p s e t t i n g t h i s g i r l ' s progress.  of her r e c o r d r e v e a l e d i n t e r e s t e d i n her work.  that she was She  poor i n school and  caused c o n s i d e r a b l e  A  search not  trouble  by  51.  s t a y i n g out dances.  l a t e at n i g h t s and  However, one  evident  going  without p e r m i s s i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r which was  i n her r e c o r d was  breeds, and She  she  emphatically  continued  appearance.  spoke d i s p a r a g i n g l y of h a l f -  denied  that she was  quarterbreed.  t o be a d i s c i p l i n a r y problem, p l a y e d  from business at  that  tt,  quite  t h a t Inez had much d i f f i c u l t y  r e c o n c i l i n g the f a c t t h a t she had an Indian Her r e c o r d s t a t e d  to  s c h o o l , and e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n e d  ,h  truant  to her  father  Ashcroft. A l i c e was  progress  another d i s t u r b e d g i r l whose f l u c t u a t i o n s i n  were c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d by her Wetzel c h a r t .  developmental curve showed a gradual came i n t o f o s t e r home care at age f a l l u n t i l her disobedient, tive.  She  stealing.  s i s t e r was  Her  d e c l i n e when she  eleven.  first  I t continued  removed from t h i s home.  Alice  quarrelsome, s e l f i s h , stubborn, w i l d and  fought  w i t h her s i s t e r and was  A f t e r the date t h a t her  At t h i s  behaviour improved when her example o f f r i c t i o n than A l i c e , and  was  destruc-  involved i n petty  s i s t e r was  removed from  her home, A l i c e ' s developmental curve r e t u r n e d channel of p r o g r e s s .  to  to i t s normal  time the r e c o r d s t a t e d that her  s i s t e r was  moved.  i n the home because her  T h i s was  s i s t e r was  the e f f e c t on her development was  an brighter  c l e a r l y shown  on the Wetzel c h a r t . A l i c e progressed  w e l l f o r f o u r years u n t i l  she began to  get p e c u l i a r ideas about h e r s e l f , t h i n k i n g she was from other  g i r l s , and f e a r i n g she was  different  being watched.  At  time her developmental curve on her Wetzel chart dropped  this  52. sharply, said  Indicating another  she f e l t  cause were  bad  worthless  observation.  S h e was t a k e n When  from h e r record  curve  with  family  Wetzel  only  information his  clearly  relationships.-  admitted  resented  Thus  the  considered  pregnant, information  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from t h e  showed a c o n s i s t e n t  recession.  Following  curbs  to Ontario  while  on h i s  i n search  f o s t e r home The  behaviour  h e was u p s e t  He  he m s later,  vented h i s  returned  chart  i n a f o s t e r home. supervision Thus  to  w h e n h e was showed  of development.  a n d evaded  with  about  to h i s family,  h i s Wetzel  of h i s father.  progress  with  However, He by  running  i t appeared  h i s own f a m i l y  that  than hed i d  care.  following could  time  level  he remained freedom  coincided  visit  A year  care,  h i s former  a  developmental  mean a n d l a z y .  At this  t o f o s t e r home  again  This  i n d i c a t i n g that  animals.  L e o n a r d made b e t t e r in  illegitimately  herself.  disobedient,  he h a d regained  dropped  away  She  t o a p s y c h i a t r i c ward f o r  became  own m o t h e r a t a g e t h i r t e e n .  that it  twice  upon  chart  on h i s r e c o r d  anger by i n j u r i n g  again  from h e r f o s t e r  t o h e r s e l f as "one of the Aid's  confirmed  one s h o r t  became d e f i a n t ,  his  Her I.Q.'s  case'.  chart.  Leonard's  he  she later  Alice  of h e r s e l f he-  the d i s c i p l i n e .  and r e f e r r e d  performed an abortion  Wetzel  disturbance.  S h e r a n away  she d i d n o t l i k e  children.*  she  'borderline  and s e v e n t y - f i v e .  home b e c a u s e herself  emotional  s h e w o u l d n e v e r make a n y t h i n g  s h e knew s h e was a sixty  -  four  cases  a r e other  examples  be c l o s e l y i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m  i n which  the fluctuations  53.  on  the  Wetzel g r i d .  anxious  t o do  thr  r u l e s and  the  first  well  At  fourteen,  i n her  f o s t e r home.  regulations  year, although  begin working.  Her  and she  was  Wetzel chart  i t declined  record  showed t h a t  attacks and  sharply  of nausea.  refused  worried  and  Her  to r e t u r n . disgusted  a b i d e d by a l l  happy and  contented f o r  to leave  indicated a  firstryear  this  time she  record She  i n her  was  showed t h a t  a l s o admitted  with her  school  and  progressively  e i g h t months l a t e r .  during  pathetically  She  agitated  i n c r e a s e d development f o r the but  F r a n c e s was  f o s t e r home,  Her  health  susceptible she  left  that  she  to  school was  mother's b e h a v i o u r .  Discour-  aged o v e r l o s i n g her  job, Frances took t h r i t y - e i g h t a s p i r i n  tablets  f o s t e r mother a  " i I  am  and  left  her  so ashamed o f m y s e l f  l o v e you  very  clearly Celia  Frances'  from her  was  decrease  record  showed  i n her that  began l i v i n g an rooms. fact  She  that  too  or  die...  much to h a v e c o u l d be  read;  you  translated  chart.  developmental gradually  showed q u i t e  Following  a rather  c u r v e a t age  l o s t her  immoral l i f e , e n t e r t a i n i n g  a start-  seventeen,  personal  esteem  sailors  The  b o a s t e d a b o u t i t seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  she  T h a t V e r n o n was  b o a s t e d about  her, and  in hotel i t .  blamed s o c i e t y f o r her  home was  Wetzel  development.  she  i f I live  emotional upset  became a p r o s t i t u t e and  she  care  a n o t h e r g i r l whose r e c o r d  v a r i a t i o n from normal ling  not  much... I t would h u r t  ashamed of me" . quite  I do  s u i c i d e n o t e which  predicament.  having d i f f i c u l t y  obvious from h i s r e c o r d .  He  adjusting had  to  a foster  t e n f o s t e r homes i n  54.  four  years.  condition two  His  adjustment  r e s u l t i n g from  a  of  his  f o s t e r mothers  pitied  him  too  to  avoid  decline  work.  At  the  and  clothes  asked  and  destroyed  to  time  his  obvious settle  irritable,  his  school  down  in a  tools  information  foster  Wetzel  destroyed  chart  showed  that  violent  temper and  domineering  over  However, a s  her  Wetzel  improved  the  next  in  improvement taking is  factory". into  a  foster the  and  to her  piano  Moreover,  her  Wetzel  chart  same  years, Her  so  lacked  was  useful  sweater.  spiteful  He  temper.  was  not  former  when  was  her  and to  in  It  able  develop-  record  quarrelsome,  curve  there  was  recorded  attitude confirm  that  part  in a  progress of  that  married.  selfish,  progressively  resentment said  said  disobedient."  stated  took  She she  data  decline  time as  record  lessons  behaviour  a  objectionable,  new  r e b e l l i o u s and  attitude.  f o s t e r mother  homes h e r  sharp  developmental  two  he  o l d but  Vernon  foster parents...her  cooperative  become a  sister,  in behaviour.  singing  devoted  her  the  a  at  a  showed  home.  i n 1939  "had  a  that  mental progress she  his  and  lameness  chart that  that  health  his  rude,  for a in  felt  for his  indicated  defiant,  crippled  I t was  Wetzel  teacher  foster' father! s this  his  record  He  a  c a p i t a l i z e d on  that  spiteful".  from  Grace's  he  by  injury.  overcompensated  i n development, h i s  indifferent  complicated  spinal  much, b e c a u s e  becoming " d i f f i c u l t ,  was  was  the  she  After changed this  is  an  "she  was  concert... satisGAS  turned  herself three again,  would  more but  information.  55. Although Pearl's  Wetzel  interesting and  the  girl She  was  the  records.  half-breed  a background reserved, she  she  was  did not At  was  same  She  and  satisfied,  The  following  refused  she  later,  ments mean  so much  her  and  mother  is  incapable  to  family  life...a  described  and  eventually  or  s u l l e n and  new  She bad  as  had  an  unhappy  girl,  and  She  saying  record. She  she  often a  "Compli-  to  adjust  misunderstood*.  disobedient,  pregnant.  about  herself...  feeling  defied  happy,  complex.  worried  within  lacked  openly  illegitimately  mother.  seemed  finding i t difficult  became f l a g r a n t l y  became  foster  inferiority  i t is pathetic.  "dumb,"  unco-  family.  i n her  of  indicated  behaviour  became more to her  showed  criticism,  Her  f o s t e r home s h e  noticed  tempered.  record  with".  the  was  chart  d e f i a n t mood,  to  s t i l l  r e t i c e n t type  herself  worth.  belligerent  live  comm-  she  resenting  eat  morbid...is  type.  rural  Wetzel  speak  to her  spitfire in a  chart  training.  offended,  sister...she feels  and  her  to  were  no  because  she  she  and  her  belonged  although  a  progress,  to  in her  comments  easily  gradually  in a ever  the liked  that  easily  difficult  left  felt  time  was  living,  well  developmental  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and  never  and  make f r i e n d s  the  moody, a n d  she  immoral  She  sensitive girl,  becoming  Some t i m e  and  of  accepted  in her  "she  personal  another  of  Eventually  She  c a s e was  on  information  operative.  had  years  the  change  was  her  four  c o r r e l a t i o n between  a  sullen,  nevertheless  only  the  hot-headed.  that  chart,  available for  of  Although  a  were  example  with  unity,  data  of  hostile,  supervision Pearl's  variable  56. emotions  were w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d b y her Wetzel  L o i s ' case was another example of c l o s e between behaviour and the Wetzel g r i d . when she went to her f i r s t  chart. correlation  She was f o u r t e e n  f o s t e r home, w i t h her two s i s t e r s .  They a l l l i k e d t h e i r new home and L o i s was happy, f r i e n d l y and i n good h e a l t h . At  Her behaviour was q u i t e  satisfactory.  a l a t e r date, however, there was an obvious drop i n the  developmental  curve of h e r Wetzel chart which c o u l d not be  r e c o n c i l e d as a h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n .  A study o f h e r behaviour  and p e r s o n a l i t y r e c o r d shov/ed that i n f i v e months she had become'"more d i f f i c u l t . . .having temper tantrums. . .using bad l a n g u a g e . . . c o n t i n u a l l y g e t t i n g the other g i r l s i n t r o u b l e " . . Two months l a t e r , the s i t u a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y became unbearable, so the f o s t e r mother requested she be removed because of h e r behaviour.  Her o l d e r s i s t e r i n f l u e n c e d her to s i d e a g a i n s t  the f o s t e r mother. A f t e r she had been separated from h e r s i s t e r s ,  Lois  made, b e t t e r p r o g r e s s i n a new f o s t e r home where she "developed and matured since she has been on her own".  Her f o s t e r mother  was p l e a s e d w i t h h e r p r o g r e s s , and i n two years she was d e s c r i b e d as "a n i c e g i r l w i t h an even-tempered, b r i g h t and happy dis p o s i t i o n . " '  By t h i s time her developmental  had r e c o v e r e d to the o r i g i n a l physique surpassed i t . in  channel and' e v e n t u a l l y  T h i s was one '.example i n which a dramatic change  the Wetzel g r i d showed that  f o s t e r home.  curve  tills  o h i l d was not happy i n her  T h i s f a c t was confirmed by. h e r behaviour r e c o r d .  Moreover, she d i d not r e c o v e r h e r normal  development u n t i l she  57. was  separated from  her  her  own  foster  i n another  indicated the  on h e r  sisters  Wetzel  information i n her The  obvious the  above  Wetzel  chart  were  between  and  the  the. r e a d e r m i g h t  chapter  deals  recording on  the  of  mation  of  In  deal  sciously,  of  to  this  fact  than t o be and  i n the  that  the  be  said  that  Bad  the  are u s u a l l y  was  this the  behaviour, worker more  as  infor-  Children  do  behaviour  more  homes.  therefor-6 ready  they  feel  however,  that  any  actually  difficult  c o n s c i o u s l y or  n o t want  of to  They are c o n s t a n t l y  f o r help  because  kids'.  record.  speaking,  there  of  children,  his feelings,  on  records.  they  other  curve  the s o c i a l  that  like  remains,  other  lacking.  so  by  was  problems,  generally  normal  are  there  impression  those from  troubles,  verbalize  like  type  i n which  involved  situation,  confidence.  their  The  i n the  the  was  problem,  confirmed  developmental  that,  good b e h a v i o u r  children,  striving  their  out  on  record.  with behaviour  c o n c l u s i o n , i t can  with  the  emotional  clearly  cases  have  other hand, u s u a l l y  a mediator  foster  to point  was  t o g r o w up  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  exclusively  wishes  allowed  This  behaviour  Because  writer  home.  chart,  examples  correlation  and  i f one  to t e l l  they child,  cannot i f he  welcomes a  unconcan  gain  social  workers  trust  anyone.  can  chance  be  helped  'to  be  Chapter VI.  The  The Adopted Homes.  most advantageous environment i n which to guide a  c h i l d t o m a t u r i t y i s w i t h h i s own f a m i l y . the  When t h i s  second hest s e t t i n g i s a good f o s t e r home.  fails,  The i d e a l  f o s t e r home i s one i n which a man and w i f e , w i t h wholesome relationships  between them, o f f e r a f o s t e r c h i l d a p l a c e i n  t h e i r home, while r e s p e c t i n g his natural  family.  the f a c t t h a t he i s s t i l l p a r t o f  F o s t e r parents need t o be t o l e r a n t ,  s a c r i f i c i n g people who r e a l i z e that requires  expression.  foster children's  self-  hostility  I t i s a wise f o s t e r p a r e n t who can d i r e c t  a c h i l d ' s resentment i n harmless a c t i v i t y . However, i n the quest f o r f o s t e r parents, i t i s not the e x c e p t i o n a l people who a r e sought.  Rather, the search i s f o r  o r d i n a r y people who can g i v e someone e l s e ' s  c h i l d a normal,  happy home l i f e . One  method of measuring the success of t r a n s p l a n t i n g  foster  c h i l d r e n i s by the l e n g t h of time they remain i n t h e i r f o s t e r homes.  The a p p a l l i n g  number of f o s t e r homes which some c h i l d -  r e n have had i s a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n o f the d i f f i c u l t y they encountered i n l i v i n g i n a f o s t e r f a m i l y .  The l e n g t h o f  f o s t e r home placements o f t h i s group o f f o s t e r  children  from twenty years i n one home i n t h e case o f Nat,  varied  t o a number  of placements o f l e s s than a week's d u r a t i o n f o r A l i c e and Oscar. 10.  See Appendix C. 58  59. For the purposes of this study, a foster home placement was considered to be exclusive of Receiving Home placements or other i n s t i t u t i o n s such as an orphanage or Detention Home. A foster home placement implies that an agreement has been reached between the agency through i t s representative,  on behalf of the  foster c h i l d , and the foster parents to board the c h i l d on a temporary or permanent b a s i s .  This arrangement can be termin-  ated when either party gives due notice. TABLE 7. / AGE AT WHICH FORTY-TWO FOSTER CHILDREN WERE FIRST PLACED IN FOSTER HOMES Aee  Boys  Girls  Both  -1 - 2 -3 -4 -:/5  3 1 2 0 0  0 2 1 1 1  3 3 3 1 1  5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10  0 1 0 2 2  0 0 1 0 1  0 1 1 2 3  10 - 11 11 - 12 12-13 13 - 14 14 - 15 Totals  3 4 3 2 2 25  1 2 2 1 4 17  4  0 1 2 3 4  6  5 3  6  42  Table 7 indicates that almost one-quarter of this .group of foster  children were thirteen years or over when f i r s t  placed i n a foster home, and f i f t y - e i g h t per cent, were ten years or over.  It i s quite obvious that children over ten  years have behaviour patterns that are d e f i n i t e l y  established  and based on the example they experience i n their own homes.  60.  It i s not s u r p r i s i n g , therefore, that children  subjected  to the s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e s of poor f a m i l y l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e i r f i r s t few years o f l i f e higher  find  i t difficult  standards o f a f o s t e r home.  Charles,  f o r example, was f o u r t e e n when he began having  d i f f i c u l t y over keeping l a t e hours. home i n as many y e a r s . "he  to accept the  This was h i s t h i r d f o s t e r  I t was recorded  that he had s a i d ,  d i d n ' t know what was the matter with h i m s e l f ,  but he was  never i n a f o s t e r home where he f e l t he was r e a l l y  liked."  By c o n t r a s t , Frank's case was an example o f a boy who was placed  i n a s e m i - r u r a l f o s t e r home a t the age of one year where.  he was t r e a t e d as one o f t h e f a m i l y . and he  They were  thoughtful  i n t e l l i g e n t f o s t e r p a r e n t s who kept h i s confidence grew up i n t h e i r home.  Grade X t o a p p r e n t i c e  He l e f t  as an  while  school a t seventeen i n  electrician.  e x c e l l e n t employment r e c o r d and returned  Frank had an to h i s f o s t e r home  a f t e r s e r v i n g i n the army. Nat  i s another boy who has l i v e d i n one f o s t e r home since  he was a few months o l d . for  an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p  He l e f t s c h o o l a t s i x t e e n i n Grade X  as a sheet metal worker.  an e x c e l l e n t employment r e c o r d , and returned  He a l s o had  to h i s f o s t e r  home a f t e r s e r v i n g i n the a i r f o r c e . S i m i l a r l y , H a r o l d , when he was f i v e , was p l a c e d  i na  f o s t e r home i n which he grew up as p a r t of t h a t f a m i l y  until  he began working a t seventeen. These examples show what b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s can be achieved by p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes at an e a r l y age so t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s can be developed i n a h e a l t h y manner.  61, I t has been the experience exceptions  1  i  of the w r i t e r t h a t there are  to t h i s r u l e as i l l u s t r a t e d by Oscar's case.  He  was a few months o l d when he was taken to h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home. to  Three times i n h i s f i r s t  h i s mother.  three years he was r e t u r n e d  To h i s c r e d i t , Oscar d i d stay i n one f o s t e r  home f o r e i g h t years, but he had a l r e a d y had nine placements i n the f i r s t  f i v e years of h i s l i f e .  f i f t e e n f o s t e r homes i n twenty y e a r s .  A l t o g e t h e r he l i v e d i n I t i s l i t t l e wonder,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t he became a d r i f t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y when he had a low I.Q,. of s i x t y and l e f t  s c h o o l a t f i f t e e n i n Grade V I .  There were many examples o f c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes a t a l a t e r age who found i t d i f f i c u l t f o s t e r homes.  to adjust to t h e i r  F o r example, Peter was taken to h i s f i r s t  f o s t e r home when he was t e n years o l d .  A f t e r he had outworn  e i g h t f o s t e r homes i n f i v e y e a r s , i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he was a r r e s t e d f o r vagrancy.  P e t e r was another boy w i t h a  low I.Q,. ( v a r y i n g from f i f t y - n i n e to s e v e n t y - s i x ) who  left  school at f i f t e e n i n Grade V. An e x c e p t i o n a l example o f a d i f f i c u l t ment was the case o f A l i c e .  She was e l e v e n years o l d when  the f a m i l y was p l a c e d together next nine years  f o s t e r home a d j u s t -  i n a f o s t e r home, but i n the  she had f o u r t e e n d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r homes.'  Perhaps the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e f e a t u r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s these  c h i l d r e n had i n a d j u s t i n g to f o s t e r homes  was the impermanent nature  of so many of the placements.  It  was n o t i c e d how f r e q u e n t l y a c h i l d was p l a c e d i n a home pending a permanent p l a n .  Sometimes a temporary home became a  62. permanent one, provided the c h i l d conformed family's way of l i f e .  to the foster  More often, however, a c h i l d who had  to be removed from a home (usually because of a behaviour problem) was given refuge by a generous foster mother u n t i l his supervisor  could locate a new home for him.  Frequently i t  proved to be a home not especially adapted to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the stranded c h i l d .  It might have been a new a p p l i -  cation for foster children, or the f i r s t  l i k e l y vacancy  available. TABLE 8. NUMBER OF SUPERVISORS, AND NUMBER OF FOSTER HOMES THAT FORTY-TWO FOSTER CHILDREN HAD Number of Supervisors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 - 19  Number, of Children 0 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 1 3 9 42  Number of Foster Homes 1 2 3 • 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 16  Number of Children 2 5 7 8 10 2 4 1 0 1 1 1 42"  Table 8, showing the number of foster homes .each c h i l d had, d e f i n i t e l y indicates a need for deliberation and careful planning before uprooting a c h i l d from his family c i r c l e and depositing him i n the strange surroundings of another home. No gardener would expect a young tree to weather several transplantings;  yet Oscar was moved from one home to another ten  63.  d i f f e r e n t times i n the f i r s t f i v e years o f h i s l i f e . little It  It i s  wonder t h a t he turned out u n s u c c e s s f u l l y . i s a recognized fact that i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to f i n d  s u i t a b l e f o s t e r homes f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n , but what a tragedy i t i s t h a t more c h i l d r e n who are brought  i n t o f o s t e r home  care are not permanently planned f o r a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s e p a r a t i o n from t h e i r p a r e n t s . of  The d i f f i c u l t y  lies,  course, i n the p a r e n t s ' fundamental r i g h t to take t h e  c h i l d back, p r o v i d e d they can p l a n adequately f o r him. I n some cases i t i s a d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n f o r c h i l d w e l f a r e a u t h o r i t i e s to agree on; to  whether a c h i l d should be r e t u r n e d  h i s n a t u r a l parents or i f he would be b e t t e r o f f i n a  f o s t e r home.  I n some i n s t a n c e s , there i s no d e f i n i t e answer,  because no human being has the power to f o r e s e e the f u t u r e circumstances  o f any f a m i l y .  I t i s unfortunate t h a t the  i m p e r c e p t i b l e nature of the human p e r s o n a l i t y makes the success of a f o s t e r home placement a matter  of chance.  A  s u p e r v i s o r can make e x t r a p r e p a r a t i o n s before p l a c i n g a c h i l d by l e t t i n g him v i s i t  the new f o s t e r parents before he i s  taken t o h i s new home.  Both the f o s t e r c h i l d and h i s new  parents can be strengthened and supported by casework.  It i s  i m p o s s i b l e to p r e d i c t , however, how w e l l a c h i l d w i l l a d j u s t in  any home.  Even the most i n t e n s i v e casework s e r v i c e can  never make a s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placement where a c h i l d i s not r e a l l y l o v e d .  As one f o s t e r f a t h e r expressed i t ,  "Some c h i l d r e n are more l o v a b l e than o t h e r s , and being human, we cannot help but l i k e them more, no matter  how much we t r y  64.  to treat them a l i k e " .  Furthermore, children can i n s t i n c t -  i v e l y f e e l when they are not wanted. P e a r l , for example, said she never r e a l l y f e l t a part of any foster family;  that preferences were always made  to foster parents' own children.  However, she might have  f e l t that way i n spite of her foster parents• attempt to help her become a part of t h e i r family because of her own feeling of inadequacy. A l i c e ' s reaction to some of her foster homes has already been mentioned.  She said i t was l i k e being bought and s o l d ;  that foster parents would not hesitate to return a c h i l d ,  and  that people treated foster children l i k e machines. One deficiency of c h i l d welfare i s the fact that so frequently disturbed children have to be placed i n foster homes when they are not ready to become part of a foster family.  This d i f f i c u l t y arises from the dearth of resources  of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l type where upset children can learn gradu a l l y to trust people again and make normal relationships with them.  The need for special care for a boy of seventeen  who put powdered disinfectant i n the flour bin and substituted urine for applejuice is quite obvious, especially when he consumed the food himself without objection. There seemed to be no special significance to the fact that eighteen of the group had urban homes only, while three of them l i v e d only i n country homes. had both urban and r u r a l foster homes.  Exactly h a l f the group The writer did not  investigate further to discover i f country homes were more  65.  successful  than c i t y homes, because that information i s not  within the scope of this study. Of the group of eleven children who were placed i n foster homes before the age of f i v e , there was a s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l i n t h e i r developmental progress. noticeable that, writh two exceptions,  It was p a r t i c u l a r l y  the records showed that  they had been i n one foster home for an average of ten years or more.  Oscar's early history has already been discussed.  The other exception was Edna, who had s i x foster homes i n seven years.  She was twenty months old when f i r s t placed i n  a foster home, and had to be removed dur to i l l n e s s of the foster mother. The number of supervisors  each c h i l d had, indicated a  large turnover i n the s o c i a l work s t a f f .  Imagine the bewilder-  ed reaction of a c h i l d who has a new caseworker every year. Foster children soon develop the f e e l i n g that nobody cares for them when supervisors  are changed so frequently.  The import-  ance of the same person working with a c h i l d to maintain a relationship of trust and confidence for a number of years cannot be emphasized enough.  Only one g i r l and fourteen boys  had one s o c i a l worker for more than two years. children had a new case worker every few months.  Some of the The foster  parents also expressed t h e i r regret over the number of changes in staff. Pearl said her supervisors were too young, and they never had time to l i s t e n to her.  She f e l t she had too many super-  visors and had just got used to one and f e l t she could trust  66. her, when a new worker a r r i v e d .  It has been the experience  of the writer that i t takes months to work up a relationship with a c h i l d i n the country d i s t r i c t s because of the t r a v e l l i n g time consumed i n managing the caseload.  A l s o , i t i s an unfor-  tunate s i t u a t i o n , but apparently an unavoidable one, that i n experienced workers have to be sent out i n the f i e l d to work with disturbed children who desperately need the professional s k i l l of the more experienced personnel i n c h i l d welfare. The reasons for which foster homes were many and varied.  children were removed from  Most frequently, of course,  it  involved a behaviour problem of varying degree of seriousness. Sometimes i t was because foster parents were too l e n i e n t ; occasionally i t was for stealing or sexual misbehaviour. Quite frequently i t was because the foster parents were fed up with the constant struggle to control the normal teen-age desire for emancipation from adult supervision. because of temper tantrums.  Often i t was  Sometimes replacements had to be  made to prevent the c h i l d ' s natural family from i n t e r f e r i n g and causing trouble i n the foster home, and occasionally was because the foster  c h i l d f a i l e d to conform to the  parents' exacting standards.  it  foster  Too often, i t seemed, many c h i l d -  ren were removed from foster homes.for t r i v i a l reasons, and, unfortunately, a large number of replacements were made to accommodate the foster parents,  apparently with l i t t l e or no  attempt being made to discover the cause of the d i f f i c u l t y . Irreparable harm can be done to foster  children when they are  moved from a home without being consulted or without having  67.  a proper explanation  o f why t h e y h a d t o l e a v e .  Welfare  w o r k e r s know t h a t , a l l t o o o f t e n , when p r e s s u r e home becomes t o o g r e a t , t h e f i r s t  i n a foster  source of r e l i e f  s i t u a t i o n i s t o remove t h e f o s t e r c h i l d .  to the  The impermanence  o f f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t s was i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g examples. Several  t i m e s a h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n i n t h e f o s t e r home was  the reason f o r a c h i l d being n e v e r a l l o w t h e i r own c h i l d  removed.  Foster parents  would  t o be r e m o v e d f r o m t h e f a m i l y  b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s , b u t t h e y do n o t h e s i t a t e t o a s k t h a t a f o s t e r c h i l d be removed.  U s u a l l y some p l a n c a n b e a r r a n g e d  as a t e m p o r a r y e x p e d i e n t u n t i l in the  the i l l n e s s i s over.  Obviously,  t h e case where t h e f o s t e r mother had a n e r v o u s breakdown, f o s t e r c h i l d was b e t t e r o f f i n a n o t h e r home, b u t i n a  number o f cases,- i t seemed t h a t a m i n o r i l l n e s s was u s e d a s an e x c u s e t o g e t r i d o f t h e f o s t e r Pregnancy, f o r instance, remove a f o s t e r c h i l d , has  t o care  child is  an  i s , o f course,  taken a c h i l d  intelligent  still Not  a s a r e a s o n f o r g i v i n g up a f o s t e r  an u n f o r g i v a b l e  f o r this  instance, a doctor  reason to  a s w e l l a s t h e new c h i l d .  f a r b e t t e r o f f o u t o f s u c h a home.  having one  profit  seemed h a r d l y a f a i r  f o r , ' i n h e r own f a m i l y a m o t h e r  f o r the others  enough f i n a n c i a l  child.  offence,  although  The f a u l t  a child  lies i n  purpose i n the f i r s t place.  In  recommended t h a t a c h i l d be removed t o  f o s t e r m o t h e r a n d t h a t no k n o w l e d g e o f h i s  h i s t o r y be g i v e n h e r , w h i c h w o u l d p r e j u d i c e t h e f o s t e r  parents.  A b a b y -boy was r e m o v e d f r o m two d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r homes b e c a u s e  68.  i n one  case, the f o s t e r mother's daughter  d i s l i k e d h i s appear-  ance, and, secondly, because of the shape of h i s head. w r i t e r has seen t h i s c h i l d , now past year.  He  The  grown to manhood, w i t h i n the  i s a normal l o o k i n g man.  S u r e l y some i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n c o u l d have been g i v e n t h a t f o s t e r mother to e x p l a i n that babies w i t h oddly-shaped  heads u s u a l l y grow up to be  normal l o o k i n g .  removed because he was  child.  On two  One boy was  not a white  o c c a s i o n s c h i l d r e n were moved because the f o s t e r  mothers concerned were a t odds w i t h t h e i r case workers.  It  seems u n f a i r t h a t a c h i l d ' s chances f o r a home should be j e o p a r d i z e d by a c l a s h o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s . S e v e r a l times accommodation was removing a boy.  s t a t e d as the r e a s o n f o r  A v i s i t i n g r e l a t i v e moved i n , perhaps  a r i l y , and the f o s t e r c h i l d was  g i v e n up.  One  tempor-  questions  the f a m i l y could not "double up" f o r a temporary  why  p e r i o d or  make some s p e c i a l arrangements f o r accommodation.  Sometimes f o s t e r  p a r e n t s changed t h e i r p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e and had to give up foster child. boy was  Others took t h e i r f o s t e r c h i l d with them.  removed  T.B. t e s t .  their One  because the f o s t e r f a t h e r r e f u s e d to take a  Normally, t h i s matter should be attended to before  the c h i l d i s p l a c e d i n the home.  I n 1933,  one  six-year old  boy had t o be moved because of a new r u l i n g i n North Vancouver requiring s p e c i a l school fees f o r non-residents. I t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n develop the t h a t they do not belong anywhere when they are moved from home to another w i t h t h i s type o f excuse.  feeling one  Whether these reasons  were the o n l y cause f o r removal o f the c h i l d r e n or whether there  69. were  other underlying motives,  special  attention  to  they  indicate  the  c o n t i n u e d permanent f o s t e r  need  for  home p l a n n i n g .  The c a s e o f V i c t o r seemed t o be a g l a r i n g example moving a boy f o r a t r i v i a l r e a s o n . of  t h i r t e e n when he was  liked were  his  new home and h i s  s o r r y to see  making e x c e l l e n t as  an A d v e n t i s t  this  irony  him  i n this  Adventist  i n t r o d u c e d to  foster  progress.  parents  CAS f e l t  that  development  is  again without  to  theeworker  When t h e w h o l e three  story  is  l a t e r placements  at  off  i n his  it  is  to  the  first  definitely  foster  say how l o n g the home w o u l d have  c o u l d have  of  Indian  that  :  up h i s  volved m u l t i p l e placements  first  success  been  home.  these  tell.  of avoided  Naturally,  of h i s  c o n t i n u e d , but  been s u c c e s s f u l  where  they  background?  a series  adjustment it  is  cases  that  i f more u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  used.  O t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h was u n c o v e r e d i n t h i s  same home a s h i s  The  home where  c o u l d have  studying  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c a s e w o r k h a d b e e n  the  s e c o n d home  i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o  seems  remain i n h i s  seen i n the p r o c e s s  many p l a c e m e n t s  time, it  first  of his.  i n as many y e a r s  he h a d b e e n a l l o w e d t o to  that  reviewed,  if  impossible  with  a home. kept  listed  anyway.  l i k e d h i m and a c c e p t e d h i m i n s p i t e course,  was  he was  should continue of h i s  He  They  home:;where he  t h a t V i c t o r never  Would he have b e e n b e t t e r  Of  he  home.  l i k e d him.  the people  and V i c t o r . w a s  practices  a foster  He was removed b e c a u s e  Two months l a t e r  sold out,  V i c t o r was a n I n d i a n l a d  t a k e n away f r o m t h i s  and t h e  religion.  (a farm)  first  of  a foster  b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s .  study  in-  c h i l d was p l a c e d The o r d e r  in  in  70. which each c h i l d was horn i n r e l a t i o n to h i s s i b l i n g s was recorded.  The i n f o r m a t i o n , as f a r as i t was pursued  here,  showed t h a t g e n e r a l l y placements w i t h s i b l i n g s do not work out very w e l l over a long p e r i o d of time. Thirty-two boys and g i r l s of t h i s f a m i l y of two o r more.  study were p a r t of a  However, a l l of the c h i l d r e n  f a m i l y were not n e c e s s a r i l y  p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes.  of a (Often  o l d e r s i b l i n g s were never brought i n t o f o s t e r home care because they were able t o look a f t e r themselves.) S i x t e e n c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes, together w i t h one or more b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s .  Of t h i s group, only three  boys had t h e i r b r o t h e r s l i v i n g w i t h them a l l the time  they were  i n f o s t e r homes, and two g i r l s had t h e i r s i s t e r s l i v i n g  with  them. Frank and h i s b r o t h e r had two d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r Wally and.his b r o t h e r had f o u r homes.  homes, and  Joan and her s i s t e r had  three d i f f e r e n t homes before s e t t l i n g down i n t h e i r However, Grace and h e r s i s t e r had seven  different  fourth. foster  homes.  I t was found t h a t these three boys who l i v e d i n f o s t e r homes w i t h t h e i r b r o t h e r s , and these two g i r l s who l i v e d w i t h t h e i r s i s t e r s , a l l turned out s u c c e s s f u l l y .  However, t h i s was  too s m a l l a sample from which t o draw any g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . In the case o f the other eleven examples o f c h i l d r e n  who  were p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes w i t h t h e i r b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s , every one was separated from them a t some time.  Allan, for  example, was e i g h t when he and h i s younger b r o t h e r were placed i n  a f o s t e r home t o g e t h e r .  Three years l a t e r  first they  71.  were "both moved because of the foster mother's i l l health. In their new home the relationship between them became strained. Perhaps Allan blamed his brother for being the cause of their removal, for the record describes him as being "deceitful to his brother and getting him blamed for Allan's misbehaviour". Two years later his brother was moved to another foster home and Allan's attitude changed.  He became more "persevering,  co-operative, amiable and reasonable.  His behaviour was exem-  plary and he was considered to be one of the finest boys ever." He became very conscientious about his school work.  Allan was  considered to be one of the most successful boys i n this study. It is quite possible that a more intensive investigation of his relationship with his brother would indicate that an i n tense sibling rivalry was relieved when his brother was moved, and Allan could  receive a l l the attention  of his foster  parents. When Bob was eleven, he was placed with his brother in a rural foster home.  A month later, his brother was removed from  this home because, together, they were too wearing on the foster parents who were lenient and not strong disciplinarians.  Still  another month later, his foster parents reported that he was much easier to manage since his brother had been moved. Celia was nine when she and her sister went to their f i r s t foster home together.  They got along well and were no problem.  Celia was brighter and more attractive than her sister and outshone her in many ways.  They had to leave this home because  the foster mother was seriously i l l .  In their second home,  72.  C e l i a was  described  f o s t e r mother separated lacking  from her  i n the  picture. give  no  spoiled.  longer  sister.  record,  Two  and  had  to  new  be  first  parents f a i l e d  helps  one  to  complete  f o s t e r m o t h e r was recognition  to give her,  and  able  to  to make up she  the  for  t h r i v e d on i t .  s e c o n d f o s t e r m o t h e r , f o r some unknown r e a s o n , d i d n o t  could  not  continue t h i s  to  expect.  by  delinquent  The  L o i s was placed  r e s u l t was  L o i s was  t h i r t e e n when, w i t h h e r To  easily  i n f l u e n c e d by  separated  she  was  new  f o s t e r mother r e p o r t e d she  has  sisters.  from her  b e e n on h e r  never been g i v e n a m b i t i o n or  got  her  copied  sisters,  own."  attention  from her  reader w i l l  above c a s e s ,  was  had  was  first  friendly She  sisters sisters  she  and  had  into  temper  trouble.  to side  against  Eight  and  f o l l o w i n g month  the  months  "developed  and  I t appears t h a t L o i s by  herself.  always been  Probably, with intensive  separated The  learned  them.  t h a t L o i s had  and  she  her  older  a chance t o grow up  initiative  sisters,  She  later her  matured had  had  little  d e p e n d e n t upon  c a s e work, she  b e e n g i v e n more s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , w h i c h she being  to g a i n  became d i f f i c u l t .  l a n g u a g e , and  f o s t e r m o t h e r , and  two  begin with  i n f i v e months she  she  since  that C e l i a strove  or  behaviour,  t a n t r u m s , u s e d bad  their  c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h C e l i a had  i n a f o s t e r home.  happy, but  the  she  this  Although f u r t h e r d e t a i l s are  C e l i a a b u n d a n t a t t e n t i o n and own  months l a t e r ,  handle her,  to c o n j e c t u r e  A p p a r e n t l y her  what h e r Her  could  as  could  her  have  needed, w i t h o u t  sisters.  recognize  as w e l l as  the  the  d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t i n  s i m i l a r i t y which p r e v a i l s  73. throughout which  is  cases.  a l l of  the  root  The  above  emotionally is  not  of  essentially  illustrate  stand  that  careful  handling with, normal c h i l d r e n . threat  in  strongest  l e a r n to  It  is  far  more  s i b l i n g s * need  Two f a c t s One w a s was  that  that  in  this  them had t o  behaviour  almost  the  child  is  the  family.  Rather,  of  his  rival  his mother's  intensive  casework  c h i l d r e n need  share  their In  the  with their of  for  love above  a foster the  care  to  of  at  the  examples they  of were  development.  i n the  can  parents  foster  of  onset  foster  learn  to  above  examples.  of  the  other  I n the  be h e l p e d  to  and he must  fact  separation. fact  home a new  curb h i s  that  (at baby  jealousy  same w a y , realize learn  with that  to  siblings.  children placed  b o r d e r i n g the Edna's  his  these  and the  sight  learn to  attention.  child  to  moved f r o m h i s  and a t t e n t i o n w i t h h i s  siblings,  personality  he has  for  improved after  lose  not  share  a  attention.  separated,  surely  under normal circumstances)  in  all  be  d i s c u s s i o n should not  a normal family  least  development  parental  that  introduction of  difficult  particularly noticeable  a l l of  their  However,  were  for  requires  recognized  to  children with a limping personality their  is  home w i t h whom h e h a s  'affections.  development  Sibling  the  parents*  child's  these  i n s t i n c t s which It  these  siblings  is  i n the  accept  that  life  new b a b y  a  clearly  conflict  of  recognition.  is  biggest  one  personality  rivalry  the  same  competition of  attention.and  n a t u r e *s  the  i n every  c h i l d r e n , whose  for parental of  is  difficulties  examples  cannot  one  It  the  deprived  normal,  striving  them.  c a s e was  in  adolescent the  one  homes stage  exception.  74.  She was twenty months o l d when she and. her brother were placed i n a f o s t e r home.  S i x months l a t e r she v/as moved to a second  home because of her f o s t e r mother's i l l n e s s and d o c t o r ' s orders. I n her new home her development appeared to be normal, although somewhat slow.  Edna was jealous of her f o s t e r  sister.  However, having grown up i n t h i s home as part of the f a m i l y she knew no other mother and b e l i e v e d t h i s to be her r e a l mother. She was removed from the home when she was seven years o l d , but ran back to t h i s f o s t e r mother.  Perhaps i t was not the  best home f o r Edna because the f o s t e r mother v/as domineering and f e l t she was being gracious i n making a home f o r h e r . S t i l l , Edna had a deep emotional a f f e c t i o n f o r her f o s t e r mother, and t h i s was the only home she knew.  A f t e r several  years of struggle for adolescent freedom from p a r e n t a l r e s t r a i n t , Edna, at nineteen years, considered her f o s t e r mother's daughter to be her r e a l s i s t e r . .  They became inseparable companions.  At some time during her p s y c h o l o g i c a l development Edna was helped to r e a l i z e that she was part of a f a m i l y , and must share her p a r e n t a l a t t e n t i o n w i t h her f o s t e r  sister.  This l a s t example was one of several cases which suggested other r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , s u c h as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  foster  c h i l d r e n and the f o s t e r parents ' own c h i l d r e n as w e l l as other foster children. H a r o l d ' s f o s t e r home was an example of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y treatment.  Neighbours complained that Harold was forced to  eat h i s meals separately from the r e s t of the f a m i l y , and that he had to work hard mowing the lawn with the f o s t e r parents '  75. own  son w a t c h i n g him.  frequently and  that  left  their  On  the  They c o m p l a i n e d  Harold son  other  alone  had  that  a t home w h i l e  the  parents'  t o be  This  adjustments of  the  Frank returned  to t h i s  was  study.  I t was  for  a girl  Doris  as  a companion t o  George was getting along  He  could  boys i n the  o f the  an  in  not  their  other  the  own  and  was  daughter.  used who  the  moved.  In  family  the  difficulty same home. other  a somewhat s i m i l a r  his f i r s t  constantly  b i c k e r i n g and  f i g h t i n g w i t h E d w a r d , who  f o s t e r home b e c a u s e he was  way, was  already  same f o s t e r home when Thomas moved i n .  In both of already  i n the  these l a s t  two  home when t h e  examples, t h e r e  boy  moved i n .  him.  M o r e o v e r , a boy  foster  family  threatens children  to  has  i s bound t o f e e l  gained  i n the  plan  an  a foster  home t o  accepted place  r e s e n t f u l o f a newcomer  invade h i s p o s i t i o n .  i n a f o s t e r home a r e  consideration home.  who  was  I t w o u l d be  n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n among c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y " i n t h e  the  applied  name.  f r o m the  removed f r o m  this  that  Eventually,  experienced  received  best  relation-  They  Thomas was  in  the  a good  foster children in  b u l l y i n g he  home, so he  of  war.  foster child.  example o f a boy  with  stand  family,  in a  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  their  school.  foster  one  a n o t h e r example o f  f a m i l y and  became p a r t  the  f o s t e r home a f t e r t h e  D o r i s * f o s t e r home was s h i p between the  considered  to  grew up  like  sons.-  walked  h i s brother  f o s t e r home where t h e y were ,both t r e a t e d own  family  t h e y were away,  a b i c y c l e , while Harold  h a n d , F r a n k and  foster  given  It i s often l i t t l e or  no  the  child  a challenge i n his who  case  that  preparation  f o r p l a c i n g another f o s t e r c h i l d  in  or  76. One  of  the  worst  too-common p r a c t i c e can  be  he  found; them moved  boy  too  because  boisterous widowed "she  many  to  be  the  care  age  boys.  who  can  the  is  course,  sustained One  of  when a  necessitates  of  out  of  can  hand  Like  new  than  foster  city  the  life.  foster  that  they  parents  be  boys  re-  foster  to  on  can  behaviour  give  teen-  parents  scarce,  parents  shoe,  It  restless,  woefully  the  do".  foster  four  in a  parents  active,  foster  until  lived  foster  with  boy,  woman who  are  enduring  his  strain  exceptional  they  of  a  know what  hungry,  but  one  another  where  are  from  much o f  didn't  two  there  in  too  case  most  after  asked  removed  the. o l d  she  frequently  deciding  foster  parent  a move,  when a  children  in his  company,  and  crowding  problem which  usually  the  can  and stand  problems  for  a  time.  a. d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m . widow  be  became  supervising  is  is  behaviour.  to  need,  i f the  home p l a c e m e n t s child  rough  than  this  length more  together,  children  Of  doubtful  strain  for  boys  more  famously  out  kept  to  along  brought  exceptional  f u l f i l l  foster  country,  mother.  so  i n more  the  had  CAS  teen-aged  foster  proper  it  Oscar  had  seems  their  the  home p l a c e m e n t s  in  boisterous  Similarly, homes b e c a u s e  got  lonely  was  of  foster  conveniently.  became  another  in  squeezing  example, Donald  home, b u t When  of  accommodated  For  errors  but In  manage  whether dies.  the the  father's  of  case  alone,  i t is The  loss  but  arises  a  of  loss  of  foster younger  is  of  necessary  teen-agers  influence  out  a  foster to  move  foster  father  mother  creates  children, frequently  lacking.  a  a get  77. In cases  summary,  are  regard now  examples  for  to  a  whose  welfare  that  many  of  responsibility and  together  flow the  of  to  of  the  them they  of  i n are  children  i n  child. the  They  of  i t  to  is  foster  dire  need of  of  show  lack  are  the  for  learning  homes  and  mistakes process  pressure help  agencies  is  of a  an  The  those  for  foster  people  numerous  children  to  ever-increasing  tremendous  offering  of  emphasized  These  obvious., to  parents The  these  human b e i n g s .  are  search  that  which  future.  part  errors  f a c i l i t i e s  service.  indicate  practice,  these  assist  to  transplanting  harmoniously.  existing  placement  careless  progress:  for  children  on  of  repeating  new s k i l l ,  reasons  live  the  avoid  constitute of  the^writer wishes  foster  strain home  Chapter V I I  How F o s t e r C h i l d r e n Turn Out  There are two methods a v a i l a b l e t o assess the progress of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  One p l a n i s t o use a n u m e r i c a l r a t i n g  and the other Is t o d e s c r i b e the development of these cases i n n a r r a t i v e form with a s h o r t summary of the present s t a t u s . Both of these methods have been f o l l o w e d . T o t a l Adjustment E v a l u a t i o n I t was p r e v i o u s l y mentioned difficult  that the. w r i t e r found i t  to develop a method of e v a l u a t i n g the h e t e r o -  geneous m a t e r i a l i n the agency r e c o r d s .  Two methods were  f o l l o w e d (termed h e r e i n "preliminary"* and "composite"). p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n was a temporary the adjustment  of these cases.-  The  expedient t o a s s e s s  I t was p u r e l y a q u a l i t a t i v e ,  s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , based s o l e l y on the w r i t e r ' s opinion of each case a f t e r r e a d i n g a l l the case h i s t o r i e s .  The  p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n was made i n 1948 b e f o r e the r e c o r d s were a n a l y z e d . The most s a t i s f a c t o r y method of a r r i v i n g a t a composite e v a l u a t i o n was t o compare the backgrounds, and behaviour of every case.  h e a l t h , education  However, even t h i s method was  complicated by the f a c t t h a t each c h i l d i s an i n d i v i d u a l person, and as such, cannot be compared t o any other one i n the world.  An a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n of these cases t h e r e f o r e  was not p o s s i b l e f o r t h r e e reasons. 78  79.  One was the lack of information on the records.  Another  reason was the fact that as human p e r s o n a l i t i e s , each of the cases had i n d i v i d u a l differences which complicated any attempt to measure them.  The l a s t reason that i t was imposs-  i b l e to evaluate these cases accurately i s that t h i s study was made from recorded information, without the aid of personality questionnaires or personal interviews.  Several  foster mothers f e l t that these people would not wish to be interviewed.  Moreover, after having personal experience i n  supervising foster c h i l d r e n , the writer decided i t would be inadvisable to interrogate the subjects of t h i s study. Most of them are s t r i v i n g to be as much l i k e other people as possible.  They do not wish to be reminded of the fact  that they were once foster children.  For those who wished  to volunteer information about themselves i t was a different matter.  The writer got several expressions of opinion from  foster parents of the c h i l d r e n ' s reactions to foster home care, and equally as important, their present attitude towards the experience.  This i s the reason that the writer  confined this study primarily to the written material of the case record although the impressions of foster parents helped i n the evaluations. The preliminary evaluation was c l a s s i f i e d as good, satisfactory,  unsatisfactory and bad.  Naturally, some cases  f i t t e d their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n accurately while others were borderline cases which probably could have been assigned to either category.  80. However,  the  extremes  of  good  and  bad  were  scale  to  f a i r l y  well  defined. The posite  writer  devised  evaluation.  aspects  were  evaluated  rating  After  valued  for  a  the  cases  numerically.  education  TABLE  were  For  according  develop  to  analyzed,  example,  the  the  scale  comcertain  the  cases  of  Table  of  each  were  9.  9.  EDUCATION R A T I N G S C A L E FOR THE COMPOSITE EVALUATION Grade  Obtained  Points  V  0  VI VII VIII IX X XI  1 2 3 3 4 4  XII The  health,  behaviour  were  converted  from  their The  was  to  s l i g h t l y  of  the  overall  of  the  ingrained  committing The  children  were  formed  the  zontal  totals  employment  merit  values i n  converting  evaluation  the  whole  background  child's  family  background  the the  the  from  their  care  the  of  parents,  used  of  i n  for  an  and  group. information  important  had  reasons  of  the  these I I .  evaluation  weight because  on  CAS were  Chapter the  judged  progress,  the  the  frequency  discussion were  carried  incidence  taken  cases  to  case  points,  foster  a  gave  by  family  four  of  then  the  to  data  c h i l d r e n to  of  up  relation the  totals  basis  histories  This  influence  Therefore,  these  v e r t i c a l  and  different.  in  personality.  5  numberical  individual  method  Given  his for  totalled.  reasons  the  results The  hori-  rating  81. scale.  In  death, or  and  both  certain divorce,  parents  were  recorded,  only  one.  died. ren, i f  he  had  on  the  these  obtained  each  i n the  were  value  chart  family  her  against  nothing else case  each  child's  dependency;  composite  education  and that ! ! •  had  both  one  -whether or  parents  where  parents  one  two  to  points  deserted  or  both  deserted  predicament  one  the  or  parents  the  child-  child  than  inverse they  case  points rated  some  her  nine  he  for  seven  parents  points  by  that  was  family  composite Celia  family  others  example,  i n her  on the  her  (nine)  Pearl,  rated  the  converted  figure  recorded  she  factor  otherwise  be  Conversely,  wrong with f u l l  to  of  zero  Although  a  had  highest  the  that  r e l a t i o n to  had  only  points were  rating  on  both  the dead,  background. i n this  which  contributed  would  not  have  category to  the  needed  foster  care. The  from  so  rated  because  home  In  scale.  case  i n  the  was  her,  there  no  a  background.  rating  Obviously,  both  scale,  from  case  composite was  were  unfavourable  so  points  of  determine  Therefore  applied  desertion,  parent.  rating  background,  two  one  group.'1""''  nine  under  where  neglect,  to  upon whether  more  totals  adjustment  as  necessary  reasoning  considered  subtracting  there  same  only  such  responsible.  instance,  lost  Since  was  depending  one  was  i t  were  The  In i t  instances,  the  and  i n most See  employment,  rating  compared  evaluations  i n  with  each the  cases  Appendix A .  for  behaviour  respective  family background, and  personality  chapter  were  preliminary evaluation.  there  was  a  f a i r l y  close  obtained  then It  health,  totalled  was  found  approximation  82.  between the w r i t e r ' s preliminary evaluation and the r e s u l t s of the composite r a t i n g .  This served as a r e l i a b l e check  on the preliminary estimate. There v/ere several instances,  however, i n which the  writer 's judgment o f these evaluations v/as obviously i n e r r o r . I n the case of A l i c e , f o r example, her behaviour was rather extraordinary i n the l a t e r years that she was i n foster  homes.  The fact that she had an abortion was considered to be unsatisfactory behaviour.  Hence she received a low behaviour r a t i n g .  However, i t was learned i n May o f 19 51 that she had applied by l e t t e r to the CAS either to adopt a c h i l d or to become a foster mother.  She has been married t o a logger for three years and  apparently they have made a comfortable home for  themselves.  It would seem that A l i c e ' s present adjustment to society would be worth a higher r a t i n g than that of Peter who was known to be i n the penitentiary one year This study of foster of foster  ago.  home placements covers that period  children's l i v e s during which there was information  on the records.  The period of observation thus covers the  time they f i r s t went to foster homes u n t i l supervision was relaxed, either because they were working and no longer needed i t , or because they purposely avoided i t . after  In most cases,  the eighteenth year, information was sketchy and usually  based on news learned from foster parents.  Their l o c a t i o n  and employment were l i s t e d as of 1948 and another attempt was made to tabulate employment and l o c a t i o n i n 1951.  There  83,  was  even  group few  less  whose  years.  parents  boys or  whereabouts  have  However the  reports  of  those  who  Among  those  who w e r e  and  had  four  g i r l s  remained  parents  of  children  this  turned  responsible or  information available  two  children  children  there  u n t i l  group  were  out  and  ' s t i l l  are  turn  was  l i t t l e  of  noticed,  by  a  homes foster  'their*  foster  'honest, that  former  describe  numberical  one  foster  i n many ways  to  eight  The  however,  their  immature  is  were,  foster  way  them as  that  encouraging.  married.  the  past  foster  there  their  were  the  most  1951,  available  One way  for from  were  i n  described  two m e t h o d s out.  s t i l l  admitted a  i n  they  unsatisfactory  unknown  traced  proud  It  the  received  traced  who w e r e  mothers  were  There  c o u l d be  c i t i z e n s ' .  foster  been  on  '.  how  foster  evaluation  13. which  has  been  narrative It of  the  One  other  and  It while law 1950 13.  case, i n  she  with  a  i t  was  the  i n  a  learned F  method  which  find  recent  i n f o r m a t i o n on  of  Cariboo  them are a l l  i n  to  1950,  are  Myrna  foster  home.  was  are  known  that  that  other  cases,  Peter,  and  The  the  whereabouts  Chinese  Appdx.E &  to  of  reported  was  of  D o n a l d , was  present was  previously.  Fourteen  exception  ranch  his  possible  people.  with  law's  description  v/as  these  described  follows.  legally  twenty  married,  and  gainfully  employed.  be  brother-in-  on h i s  but  has  a  left  there  since,  unknown. had  an  Later  suspected  she  is  married  i l l e g i t i m a t e she  lived  i n  child common-  of  prostituting.  In  an  American naval  yard  84. employee Is  no  her  and  i n f o r m a t i o n as  husband  wealthy,  is  She  engagement  then  She  following  year  six  tuberculosis  she  she  she  was  Ruby  was  married  this had from  However,  complaint been her  family.  no  as  Apparently  he  1948.  has  of  felt  but  there  succeeeded,  man  from  a  w  and  child  that  she  had  as  ward  to  v/ork  R u b y was  to  the  evict  that  specific  him.  lived  together  a  She  received  store  later  clerk.  her  land-  neglecting  her  l a n d l o r d was them,  and  has  been  a l l  is  not  well  are  using  that  i t  husband  The  contracted  time  that her  a  by  aid. as  twenty-  their  contracted  had  a  became  ended  they  that  sister,  she  Two y e a r s  CAS t h a t  she  had  and  return  Since  and  since  seaman,  him,  excuse  neglect.  brother  i n  was  an  a  worked  to  the  i t  time  learned  able  to  type  illegitimate  married  and  child.  to  an  from having  complained  marriage  sensible  learned  had  when  a  d i f f i c u l t  treatment  lord  be  engaged  later  months  to  their  While  family.  a  because  disease.  for  had  Bremer t o n , V/ashington.  how w e l l  reputed  has  v/as  i n  to  respectable  Pearl one.  l i v i n g  v/as  there learned  i n  having  Ruby's  marital  d i f f i c u l t i e s . Alice's  progress  considerable psychiatric law  of  one  abortion years.  is  extremely  d i f f i c u l t y i n many observation.  of  her  former  upon h e r s e l f . Suddenly  She  interesting.  foster  became  foster  pregnant  mothers,  Her whereabouts  i n . M a y 1951,  homes  she  and were  applied  to  and by  She  caused  needed the  performed  son-ina n  unknown f o r the  CAS  to  three  85,  become an adopting or foster mother.  Her doctor told her  that she would never be able to have any children of her own.  The l a t e s t information, none the l e s s , i s that she  i s married to a logger and i s l i v i n g on Vancouver Island. Kathy's h i s t o r y i s not completely up to date.  In  1949 she applied for f i n a n c i a l assistance to complete her Senior Matriculation course and planned to return to her work as a p r a c t i c a l nurse.  She i s hoping to get her degree i n  nursing l a t e r . Charles* former foster mother advised that he i s  still  employed as a butcher, and apparently he l i v e s the normal existence of a t y p i c a l young bachelor. was of the opinion that  His foster mother  'her' boys would be resentful of an  enquiry about their foster home l i f e . Edward has apparently turned to a mining occupation as he was d i s s a t i s f i e d with his former job of dining-car steward* His former foster mother has not heard from him for two years, but said that he i s apparently getting along w e l l .  He appears  to be a responsible boy, and was working at Britannia Mines before he went to Premier.  She s a i d ,  "He got i n with a  funny crowd of young people and we d i d n ' t hear from him for a long tima u n t i l one day he met Dad i n town.  Edward s a i d ,  'Gee, Dad, I've been a s t i n k e r . ' " His former foster mother was of the opinion that Edward's attitude would be that he has nothing against the CAS.  Edward communicates  occasionally  with this foster home which he considers to be his permanent home*  86. Harold has been promoted to mate, and i s s t i l l with the tugboats.  He has worked for several different companies but  at the same type of job ever since he l e f t school. s i n g l e , has never seen any of his r e l a t i v e s ,  He i s  and l i v e s  at  the home of his former foster parents when he i s i n town. He has occasionally expressed his gratitude to his mother for the good home she gave him.  foster  She reminded him  that she could not have helped him without the assistance of the CAS.  Harold acknowledged that but s a i d ,  my r e a l mother."  "You have been  His foster mother describes him as  "Quite  a responsible boy with a clean character, who has done well for h i m s e l f . "  He i s a credit to both the CAS and his  foster  mother* John i s an example of a foster exceptionally w e l l .  c h i l d who has done  He has l i v e d i n the same foster home  since he was four years o l d .  He i s s t i l l employed as a  dental mechanic and has followed t h i s trade since he l e f t school.  He has been married more than a year and has no  family.  John and his wife are both working and are buying  the home next door to his foster parents*.  He has always  used the foster family *s name and was l e g a l l y adopted just before he becaome twenty-one.  His foster  father said that  John neither l i k e d going to the CAS for clothes, nor wanted anything to do with the agency or i t s representatives.  However  John*s attitude has changed since he has seen how other handicapped foster  children benefit from another foster home.  87. Doris i s another example of a c h i l d who has been i n her foster home since she was seven years o l d .  She became a  telephone operator when she l e f t school and i s now a supervisor.  Doris uses the foster family's name; they describe  her as "an a t t r a c t i v e looking young l a d y . "  Her foster  parents are proud of her, and f e e l that they r e a l l y brought her up without assistance from the CAS. independent and responsible,  She i s very  Doris never expresses her  attitude towards the CAS, although her foster mother said that Doris did not resent contact with the Agency.  She  corresponds with her only known r e l a t i v e , an uncle, i n . Alberta. Olive i s s t i l l working i n the telephone exchange at the same job she started with v/hen she l e f t  school.  She is  engaged to be married soon, and at present shares a small apartment with three other g i r l s . Edna was a clerk before she was married i n 1948. she applied to the CAS to become a foster mother.  In 1950  She  volunteered the information that she was a former CAS ward and said she had always been happy i n her foster home.  It  was learned that Edna had taken Inez's i l l e g i t i m a t e baby on a private boarding b a s i s .  Inez was considered to be quite  incapable of caring for her daughter properly, and Edna wanted to adopt her. Edna advised the CAS that Inez had placed the baby i n two different boarding homes (privately) before Edna and her husband took her.  Edna further reported that Inez was  88*  working at various waitress jobs, but was afraid Edna would keep the baby f o r delinquent payments.  Apparently Inez was  quite intoxicated when Edna returned the baby to her.  Edna  had heard rumours that Inez had l e f t her baby i n the care of a Chinese boy on one occasion.  In the winter of 1950-1951  Inez applied for s o c i a l assistance for herself and the baby while she was l i v i n g i n the i n t e r i o r . back i n Vancouver.  A month l a t e r she was  I t was reported on both occasions  that  she was neglecting the baby badly. Inez i s an example of a g i r l who obviously did not benefit from her experience of foster home placement.  Her  recent behavious of p r o s t i t u t i n g follows much the same pattern as that of her mother. Mervin i s a boy of low mentality who has remained at the same foster home since 1943 where he i s a farm hand. he has not been charged for any offence,  Although  the p o l i c e quest-  ioned him regarding h i s practice of poisoning the food i n his foster home.  I t was only because h i s employer vouched  for h i s behaviour that he was not charged. Joan, a telephone operator, was married i n 1948 and two of the CAS representatives  attended the wedding, which was  held from her foster parents' home.  Her husband earns a  comfortable income, and they now have two c h i l d r e n .  Her  foster mother described her as a nice g i r l who has always t r i e d to do the r i g h t t h i n g . good attitude toward the CAS.  She i s reported to have a  89. V i c t o r i s an I n d i a n who i s m a r r i e d and has one c h i l d . He i s a fisherman and i s b u i l d i n g h i s own home on a reservation.  He i s r e p o r t e d to be g e t t i n g a l o n g w e l l i n  the community where he l i v e s , up the c o a s t . Ronald has had c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y i n h i s own mind.  When he r e t u r n e d t o h i s  former f o s t e r home f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e i n t h e Merchant Navy, he became t e r r i b l y depressed w i t h h i s p l a c e i n l i f e .  He  was upset about h i s i l l e g i t i m a c y and not knowing who h i s parents were. live  He bought h i m s e l f a house and planned t o  there a l l by h i m s e l f .  However, he has s i n c e m a r r i e d ,  become e s t a b l i s h e d i n a m i l l , Is  still  and s e t t l e d down although he  subject to periods of depression.  A c c o r d i n g to h e r f o s t e r mother, H i l d a has turned out well.  She worked as a telephone o p e r a t o r u n t i l she became  twenty-one and m a r r i e d . corresponds  She now has a young daughter, and  r e g u l a r l y with her former f o s t e r mother on the  progress o f h e r f a m i l y .  H i l d a changed her name to t h a t o f  her f o s t e r p a r e n t s l o n g b e f o r e she was m a r r i e d , and a c c o r d i n g to  the f o s t e r mother, hated the CAS.  A p p a r e n t l y she was most  unhappy about having t o go t o the r e g u l a r medical  clinics.  She now r e a l i z e s however, what a h e l p the CAS was t o h e r . Her f o s t e r mother r e p o r t e d t h a t H i l d a i s s t i l l young f o r her age, and q u i t e immature.  She now l i v e s i n New Zealand  where her husband's people a r e . Grace's f o s t e r mother v/as l a v i s h i n her p r a i s e o f t h i s g i r l ' s progress.  She i s s t i l l  l i v i n g v/ith her f o s t e r mother  90. and  i s a secretary.  described nothing toward to  as a  He  which  home,  writer  met t h r e e  Isaac  the only  his birth  worked  with  and  i s preparing  town.  Isaac  relatives, attitude never  from was  an uncle  home,  been  was  made y o u f e e l  sometimes  foster  school.  working  mother  terms  taken  away  at  living  he  a charity  He  when he  came t o  h i s only  that h i s He  ever  and t o o k  said  he  o f f charity  felt  Isaac  patient."  running  said  Isaac  and s a i d  clinic.  like  He  h i m away  forget i t .  t h e CaS m e d i c a l that  seventeen  from h i s parents.  s o m e o n e came could  He h a s  papers.  with  confided  one o f t h e c l i n i c s . like  t o marry.  one o f r e s e n t m e n t .  about  he  i n 1951  t o t h e GAS  started  He  t h a t he  disturbed him to attend  attending  homes  whom t h e  a s he p l a n n e d  on good  the day t h a t  it  than  praises her  study  f o r h i s engineer's  t h e C A S was  concerned  so upset  suggestions  foster  s i n c e he l e f t  and aunt.  and doubted  extremely  Grace  i n this  s i n c e he  he h a d b e e n  recalls  ago.  have  of h i s attitude  indecent  He r e t u r n e d  h i s former  has never  toward  name, i s  She w i l l  o f some p o o r  subject  to write  with  knew why  clearly  years  a railroad  several promotions  stayed  girl.  some  certificate  had  usually  h e r own  like.  has i n t e r v i e w e d .  obtain  made  but i s critical  was  uses  h e r f a t h e r now b e c a u s e  she d i d n o t Isaac  who  responsible  apparently  h e r when t h e y  foster  to  lovely,  t o do w i t h her.  Grace,  that  He  that  said  away  rather  " I t just  91. These of  oases  foster  They  are  children a  studied  are  short  v/ho  sample  i n this  a  of  h  vc  half  thesis.  and  i n f o r m a t i o n about  cases a  is  good  not  make.  f i n a l  of  turned  out  which  implies  to  be  one they  as  Joan, John,  that  and  of  some  society.  ones  back  "/are  of  the  are  a l l  of  and  those  those  transients  the  forty-two  Edward,  Doris  serves  as  foster  v/ho  v/ho  more  the G * &  to  adjustment  afoul  of  other  people.  the  evaluating indicated  However  a  remember  came  came and  from  from  a  Ronald,  foster  adjusted  by law In  this  way  lower-middle class  of  home  they of  of  the  to  are  of  more  society  terminology to  mores  of  l i v i n g .  this  group  earning  that  respect similar  population.  the to  there  "satisfactorily extent  what  who  is  are  honest  or  they  who  This  an  family  this  than  the  of  and  implies  learned  i n  are  applies  standard  It  there  social  capable  boarding. have  this  daily  maintaining a  and  the  children  are  adjustments  adjusted  that  the  the  that  i n using  respectable  those  either  own way  of  conform to  called  their  the  be  progress  mentioned sample  examples  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  must  satisfactorily l i v i n g  type  as  to  them gets  the  i n  n u m b e r v/ho  unsuccessful  above  present  place  original  the  children  maladjusted.  commonly  of  such  their  information for  are  results  foster  adjusted" to  There  the  Evaluation  The group  of  beginning such  General  are  available,  backgrounds,  humble  the  recent  cross-section  children good  because  Although  of  They happen  ones  records.  taken  the  successful l i t t l e  summary  paying  have  not  rights  any  run  of  cross-section  92.  I t i s certain however, that foster  children f a i l  measure up to accepted standards emotionally. language, they are  to  In factory  'seconds f or imperfects, or substandards  i n their emotional maturity.  In t h e i r construction, the  o r i g i n a l ingredients have been of unsatisfactory  quality,  and they have been d i s t o r t e d , twisted, and bent out of proper shape by incompetent, ignorant, or vicious manufacturing processes.  I t would be an invaluable follow-up  to the present thesis to study the emotional adjustments i n the marriages of these foster  children.  Three g i r l s out of one t o t a l were considered to be poorly adjusted because they were p r o s t i t u t e s ,  and three boys were  regarded as bad adjustments because they had been i n $ a i l « Another s i x children were considered to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y adjusted,  but to a lesser degree, because they wandered about  as vagrants, and were frequently unemployed.  This l a t t e r  group was not considered to be as badly adjusted however, because they were never found g u i l t y of any trespass of the law. Another fact which must be borne i n mind when an evaluation i s attempted i s that they were a l l deprived of their natural home l i f e . abnormal s i t u a t i o n s .  A l l foster children have to meet  This means that t h e i r development  has been deprived and i t was measured i n the evaluation on family backgrounds.  Thus the extent to which foster h&me  9 3 .  placement has been a substitute for t h e i r handicap, i s a measure of the success of the agency's program. Where i t i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  conceit of the average man  that he i s at least a l i t t l e superior to the average man, i t i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c humility of these foster children that they are i n f e r i o r to the average man.  Their struggle  l i e s i n their unrelenting attempt to be l i k e 'normal people ' . On the other hand, a foster  c h i l d who may have a one-  sided development and certain emotional weaknesses may have excellent a b i l i t y i n certain d i r e c t i o n s .  His may not be a  well-rounded personality, yet he may have great capacity for s o c i a l adjustments i n certain l i n e s . Part of the progress of c i v i l i z a t i o n i s greater freedom for everyone, tempered by good human judgment and s e l f c o n t r o l . The r i g h t foster parents can give a foster  c h i l d this t r a i n i n g .  I t has been noticed that children of normal homes are often mischievous while they are growing up.  This seems to be part  of the experience of l i v i n g and they usually turn out to be r e l i a b l e and dependable c i t i z e n s .  Moreover, somewhere i n the  growing-up process they learn to develop a new sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as they mature.  Many foster  children have done  as much. How do foster  children turn out? The r e s u l t s of  home placement are what one would expect. among them.  Fortunately, they are fewest.  ones among them too.  foster  There are bad ones There are good  But i t seems that the majority of  foster  94. children turn out to be average working-class people who have survived a rather brutal experience with an amazing degree of success considering the humble origins of some of them.  They are not well-adjusted people, to be sure.  They s t i l l have emotional deficiencies which show up i n their behaviour and attitudes,  but the fact i s that most of  t h i s group of foster children turned out to be a class of people who can be considered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ' a d j u s t e d  to  society. It can be said that, disregarding heredity, a foster ohild w i l l turn out s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  i f given a chance.  In the matter of environment i t can be said that  foster  parents are dealing v/ith the most wonderful p o t e n t i a l i t y i n the world  a child.  They can make him or break him.  Chapter VIII  Other Implications  The r e s u l t s of this study affecting the l i v e s of these individuals have now been completed.  There are  several other implications r e l a t i n g more to p o l i c y and experience with foster  children, and the work of the  CAS which also deserve mention. Better Records It was noticed that there was a great deal of discrepancy i n the recorded information of the CAS f i l e s . There are, of course, several reasons for t h i s .  One of  them i s that no two people have the same work habits* there were sometimes fourteen different people  Since  responsible  for the upkeep of these records, there i s l i t t l e doubt that there would be considerable v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r methods of recording.  I t was noticed p a r t i c u l a r l y , that often  when there was an exaggerated change on the developmental curve of the Wetzel chart, there was l i t t l e or no accompanying information i n the d i c t a t i o n .  I t would have  been of great help to the writer to have had more facts with which to substantiate the changes i n development which the Wetzel charts recorded. More Information I t i s recognized that the Wetzel chart was used herein i n reverse to i t s recommended usage.  I t should be  plotted r e g u l a r l y as a c h i l d grows i n order to 95  register  96.  changes i n development.  In t h i s study, the Wetzel charts  were plotted after the foster children were grown up. Because i n many cases, there were no data on record, i t made that p a r t i c u l a r part of the study meaningless and a number of excellent examples of variations i n the developmental curve had to be discarded. In many cases there were no remarks whatsoever on the records to explain a c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e s . Moreover, several times there was no mention of the reasons for some of the children's behaviour.  The writer knows from experience that  CAS recording has improved i n recent years.  One other fact  which should be mentioned i s that people do not always say what they mean.  For example, i t was found that  foster  parents sometimes coloured the s i t u a t i o n for the benefit of the supervisor: occasionally the facts were found to be distorted and frequently they were untrue. The Wetzel method was found to be the best way of evaluating physical and emotional factors developmental pattern.  i n the c h i l d ' s  It revealed that some children  have more e r r a t i c progress records than others, and i t was possible to i l l u s t r a t e i n some cases why this i s so.  The  children who were ready or able to accept foster home placement as a substitute for t h e i r own inadequate family l i f e , usually showed a consistently good health record. Of course, there were exceptions which proved that some children with good health records were not successful i n  97.  t h e i r f o s t e r homes.  I t was n o t i c e d , too, t h a t f o s t e r  c h i l d r e n with poor h e a l t h h i s t o r i e s u s u a l l y d i d not have the b e s t adjustments.  I t appeared t h a t about f o u r out  of f i v e c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d enough b e n e f i t from f o s t e r home care that t h e i r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n p r o g r e s s e d a t about the normal r a t e o f growth development. Should The F o s t e r C h i l d Be T o l d About H i s F a m i l y H i s t o r y . On the q u e s t i o n  o f whether background  should be g i v e n t o o r w i t h h e l d  information  from f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , the  v e r d i c t o f experience seems to be that i t i s b e t t e r t o t e l l them.  Children n a t u r a l l y question  their  family  h i s t o r y , and f o r them to be denied i n f o r m a t i o n , most harmful t o t h e i r emotional development.  can be  To deny a  c h i l d h i s r i g h t t o know about h i s f a m i l y may make him f e e l worthless, cares  as i f he were a drudge i n s o c i e t y whom no one  to mention.  I t was n o t i c e d how o f t e n throughout  this  study the o l d e r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n expressed the f e e l i n g t h a t the CAS was w i t h h o l d i n g  information  from them.  I t i s certain  that f o s t e r c h i l d r e n b u i l d up f a n t a s i e s i n t h e i r mind about t h e i r absent p a r e n t s . destroy  I t can be harmful t o a c h i l d to  these i l l u s i o n s by t e l l i n g him h i s mother was a  p r o s t i t u t e , or h i s f a t h e r a 'no-good'. Ronald went through a t e r r i b l e regarding  h i s parentage.  I t was c e r t a i n t h a t  emotional upset i n h i s mind  The f a c t that no one would  (or could) t e l l him who h i s f a t h e r was, made him extremely h o s t i l e and s e l f - d e p r e c a t i n g .  The important t h i n g which  98, can on  make  a tremendous  d i f f e r e n c e to the c h i l d ' s  learning of h i s family history  this  information  understanding child's  practice  criticism  i s one w h i c h  and  do  of current  to consider  As s e v e r a l youngsters anything,  the other child's  hand  the case  welfare I n many  the feelings  so a p t l y  you just  planning  given  o f Prank  reaction to cooperation.  when h i s s u p e r v i s o r a n d f o s t e r  was  child  of  expressed  go  ahead  it."  On  their  strengthen the  too frequently.  made  a s k us about  sympathetic,  Planning  occurs  i s no a t t e m p t  "You never  by a  I f  worth.  another  it,  foster  of personal  children.  i ti s told.  he o r s h e c a n o f t e n  I n The  there  foster  to the child  The C h i l d  S t i l l  cases  person,  feeling  Including  i s given  i s how  reaction  t o accommodate  a ch' n e e t o e x p r e s s  parents another  illustrated  a  He w a s d e l i g h t e d included him i n  foster  h i s preference  child,  and he  f o r a boy he  liked. Sometimes school into was  or  to f i n d  that  t h e home.  right  of this  return  to a child  study,  method  i s s t i l l  to an explanation  o f moving  practiced. of plans  a new often  been  children  Foster  which  from  being  omitted with  children  affect  child there  o f why h e was  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n may h a v e  but this  no w a r n i n g  hones,  the s u p e r v i s o r has brought  explanation  Of course  record,  i n foster  I n the records  no a p p a r e n t  moved. the  youngsters  them.  from  little have  a  99. Moving  Children  In  addition,  another.  parents he  It  are  borirded  and  any  so  they  which  in  moving  that  a  It family feeling  poor  the  study  thrt  their  effect  on  way.  carefully  that  several  foster  mother  children i f  Another  c h i l d r e n so  Instead,  more  frequently  emphasis  should  with  foster  parents  and  the  root  of  problem  and  helping  the  they  d i f f i c u l t y  parents  home when h e e x h i b i t s  their  to  harmful,  often accommodates f o s t e r  CAS  from  problem.  these  With  Natural  Family  was  noticed  also,  upset that  their  just  more  a  children  a be  child  devoted  i n  them  over-  i t .  V i s i t s  do  the  child  discovering  that  has  this  being u s e d i n t h i s  co-operating  come  It  i n  feeling  from moving  fact  behaviour to  are  arises  is the  are  foster  money f r o m t h e m i s  p r a c t i c e should be  noticed  the  that  Permitting foster  make  this  I t was  mad. '  them.  can  of  expressed  'money  feel  people  suspicion  children  gives them the f e e l i n g  often  exploiting  investigated.  was  which  d i f f i c u l t i e s  f r o m t h e p r a c t i c e o f m o v i n g c h i l d r e n f r o m one h o m e  created to  are o t h e r  there  as  children i n they  did  parents they  foster  homes.  were  They  to  their  often  paying  need  to  their  for  this  c h i l d r e n as be  to  the  homes.  obey  board  Apparently the  visits  foster  have t o  not  liked.  interpretation  how  It  natural was  foster  them,  so  practice to  encouraged  why to  they  their parents  they  could  requires are  realize  i n that  •  100. that  t h e i r p a r e n t s d i d what t h e y c o u l d  them p u r p o s e l y .  Foster children's  to understand that cannot f u l f i l l . returns own in  own  they s h o u l d not  I t i s not  d i d not  neglect  parents also  need  make p r o m i s e s w h i c h  surprising th-t a foster  t o a home i n a h o s t i l e s p i r i t  m o t h e r o r f a t h e r has  hut  child  of r e s i s t a n c e  promised to  'take h i m  they  when h i s  home a g a i n  three months.'  Foster Parents One  practice  is that he  w h i c h many f o s t e r p a r e n t s a r e  of threatening  d o e s n ' t "behave.  chance.  d o n ' t b e h a v e , and  c^n  a foster  homes. this.  made i n t h e The  "To  placing  He  part  be  moved i f  The  He  t o do  of the  Aid."  such is  t h e r e have been such  p e o p l e who  a specialized Part  to the  children in  foster  condemned., h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e  of l e a r n i n g  skill.  that  himself.  of p l a c i n g  i n f o s t e r homes nre  home,placements are  do  away."  i n a home where  wanted t h e r e .  behaves  be  " I f you  said,  supervisor  t a k e you  I ' l l send you  i s not  practice  C A S need n o t  children  j u d g m e n t and  say,  admitted that  e r r i s human."  M i s t a k e s are  come and  child find  l o n g as he  I t must "be f r a n k l y nistakes  will  known t o  a trio s p h e r e p r e v a i l s ?  b e i n g b o a r d e d as  villi  'phone y o u r  p a c k y o u r h a g s , and  What s e c u r i t y c a n an  I will  she  A n o t h e r f o s t e r p a r e n t was a g a i n , you  t h - t he  of  S e v e r a l t i m e s a f o s t e r p a r e n t has  "This i s your l a s t i f you  a child  guilty  not  are  responsible  of for  omnipotent.  a good j o b ,  job r e q u i r i n g r e a s o n f o r the  and  foster  tact, mistakes  101.  whioh are being made i n c h i l d welfare i s caused by the pressure on the caseworker.  The caseloads are too large  for the s o c i a l workers to do effective work.  They are  doing a tremendous job to be sure, but their work could be more effective  i f there were smaller caseloads.  The CAS i s becoming too large and cumbersome for the specialized job i t should be doing.  The work of the private  agency should be confined to pioneer experimental work i n the f i e l d of temporary wardship.  The larger f i e l d of  permanent wardship should become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l government. The Chance Factor In Foster Home Placements In the practice of placing children i n foster homes, i t was noticed that i t i s impossible to f o r e t e l l how any placement w i l l work out.  There i s always the element of  chance e x i s t i n g even i n the serious business of placing a c h i l d i n a foster home. temporary arrangement.  It i s a p i t y that i t i s such a Placing children i n a foster home  should not be done haphazardly, as i t often i s , pressure of work and the lack of proper  due to  facilities.  The Permanent Foster Home I t was quite obvious from this study that the most successful  foster  children are those who were considered part  of the family and had l i t t l e contact with the CAS.  It was  d e f i n i t e l y noticed that the less f e e l i n g there was of belonging to the agency, the better were t h e i r chances of success.  108.  It seems therefore,  that the more often children can be  placed i n a good foster home at a tender age and helped to take root i n that family, the more successful foster home program.  w i l l be the  They should be allowed to become an  integral part of the foster family with a minimum of control from the CAS.  Nothing i s more strongly confirmed than  this f a c t , i n the present  study.  Evaluation I t was noticed that some children with the poorest family background h i s t o r i e s turned out s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , given good foster home care.  By contrast,  if  i t was noticed  that others with better family background turned out p o o r l y * . I f some evaluations seemed distorted i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r rank i n the composite r a t i n g , i t was probably because some of them were over-valued.  For example, the writer probably  gave Inez too high a rating for family background or education. This would explain why Inez's case appeared to be out of place when the preliminary r a t i n g and the composite ratings were compared. F i n a l l y i t may be asked, how v a l i d i s this measurement of the success of foster  c h i l d r e n ' s adjustments?  I t i s only  an approximation, and i s based on the opinion of the w r i t e r . I t i s not a s c i e n t i f i c analysis, method.  but i t i s an experimental  One must take into consideration that there might  always be other influences outside the foster home which affect his adjustment at any time, and that every foster  child  103. i s subject to environmental influences at school and at play.  Again, i t i s emphasized that t h i s composite scale  i s not e n t i r e l y accurate because of the middle group of cases whose ratings  could very well be challenged.  It  i s safe to say, that the extreme cases - the best ones and the poorest ones - are accurately evaluated.  Indeed  the r a t i n g scale, seems to be a good approximation of the t o t a l evaluations of each of these cases i n r e l a t i o n to the whole group.  At least this study showed that an  arbitrary evaluation based on the preliminary survey of .••»»  the case h i s t o r i e s was subject to change.  It was shown i n  the case of A l i c e , how the w r i t e r ' s assessment was inaccurate. The preliminary estimate was less accurate than the method of measuring adjustments  by using separate evaluation  ratings for family backgrounds, health, behaviour and employment.  The f i r s t method obtained by reading the case  h i s t o r i e s and then, c l a s s i f y i n g them as good, unsatisfactory,  or bad.  satisfactory,  Naturally this method i s subject  to personal prejudice. Although i t was d i f f i c u l t to describe accurately an evaluation of the whole middle group, because of the individual differences  of personality, i t was,  nevertheless,  possible to give definite indications of the extremes. were a few good adjustments, a few unsatisfactory adjustments  There  only a small number of bad ones,  ones, and a large number of  i n the group under study.  satisfactory  However, many of these  104. •satisfactory'  adjustments  the  general  population  are  a  great  number  of  had  foster  home  never he  the  a  best  probably  adjusted  no  worse  their  families.  would  have  not  had It  was  children  considered least  i t  showed  was  a  was  of  and  any  in  of  this  were  of  that  and  they  not  are  from  that  i f  have  may  they  they  accurate  is  described people  Therefore, is  the e x t r e m e  i n  the  had  cent  were i f  every  described  of  be  bound  group  the  writer's  But  i t  measured to  be  'standard  of  ' d i f f i c u l t i e s  experience  the b e h a v i o u r cases  not  At  the  case.  this  the  there i s  of  Probably  from  were  situations.  therefore  as  foster  seventeen  l i f e  behaviour.  ri' tions  These v a r i a t i o n s  i t  of  information could  v  most  children,  cases  twelve  progress  evaluation  which  exclusive  that  say  not  successes  foster  i n most  with there  who  separated  probable  75 p e r  was  study.  quite  to  which  the  world  children  never  to  —  l i v i n g . '  the  hand,  community, but  adjustments  t h e m was  There  is  other  Foster  the  off  say  standard  accurately,  out  to  good  that  and  i t  satisfactory  out  behaviour'  i n  compared  care.  pointed  judgmental.  i n  worse  possible  certain  evaluation  lot  home  be  people  experience.  people  possible  to  immature  people  On t h e  t h a n many who were  a  showed  immature  society.  Moreover,  been  foster  of  are  i n by  everyday examples  normal of  this  behaviour.  through-  development middle  group,  105. Impulsive Behaviour P a t t e r n s The most s t r i k i n g t h i n g about c h i l d r e n i s the i m p u l s i v e way problems of l i f e .  the behaviour of f o s t e r  i n which they r e a c t t o the  T h e i r e r r a t i c behaviour can be t r a c e d t o a  shallow p e r s o n a l i t y which i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of immature people.  Because they f a i l  to mature d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d , they  never l e a r n t o f a c e the r e a l l i f e them.  s i t u a t i o n s which confront  G e n e r a l l y speaking, c h i l d r e n vtfxo come from normal  homes can withstand the s t r a i n of more t r o u b l e than  can at  foster children.  U s u a l l y these c h i l d r e n are not c l e v e r  I n v e n t i n g excuses  i n order to evade punishment f o r t h e i r  misdemeanours; i n s t e a d , they r u n away. f o s t e r c h i l d r e n never did,  seem to remember why  out,  they a c t e d as they  because most of t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e i r behaviour i s  unconscious.  Because of t h i s unconscious m o t i v a t i o n , they  become i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s predicaments they are found out. they know b e s t . However, i t was this  When found  u n t i l eventually  These c h i l d r e n are i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k  They l e a r n the h a r d way by s u r p r i s i n g how  experience.  many of the men  and women of  study admitted the f a c t that they l e a r n by experience. There were numerous examples of i m p u l s i v e behaviour,  but one o u t s t a n d i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n was was  the case of Donald.  l i v i n g i n a f o s t e r home i n the P r a s e r V a l l e y .  One  He  day he  was p e r m i t t e d t o go to Vancouver t o v i s i t h i s own f a m i l y . When he was  p u r c h a s i n g h i s t r a i n t i c k e t to r e t u r n to h i s  f o s t e r home he "happened" t o have the exact amount of the f a r e to  Kamloops, so he took the t r a i n  there.  He had p r e v i o u s l y  106. invented s e v e r a l untrue to take him  s t o r i e s t h a t h i s teacher was  t o Kamloops i n the summer t o work i f the CAS  grant p e r m i s s i o n .  Donald wanted to l e a v e because he was  d i f f i c u l t y a t school and  i n h i s f o s t e r home.  Kamloops because he c o u l d not have h i s own CAS  willing  c h i l d r e n are behaviour  I t has been n o t i c e d how  They seek s u b s t i t u t e  c l o t h i n g which i s s t i l l  d e p r i v e them of  often foster  desires s a t i s f i e d .  f r e q u e n t l y ask f o r new  He ran away t o  way.  s a t i s f a c t i o n s by s t r i k i n g back a t people who  ask to have t h e i r own  having  problems because many of t h e i r  p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s remain u n f u l f i l l e d .  t h e i r wants.  would  children  For example, they  c l o t h i n g to r e p l a c e s l i g h t l y used i n good c o n d i t i o n .  They seem p r e -  occupied w i t h g e t t i n g the t h i n g s they want, and when t h e i r wishes are not  s a t i s f i e d promptly,  g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n other ways.  The  they demand immediate reason t h a t f o s t e r  children  take t h i s a t t i t u d e i s because t h e y f e e l they do not belong to anyone who want.  c a r e s enough about them to g i v e them the t h i n g s they  I t i s t h i s l a c k of f e e l i n g of p e r s o n a l worth which makes  f o s t e r c h i l d r e n f e e l they a r e i n c a p a b l e of a c h i e v i n g a n y t h i n g worth w h i l e .  F e e l i n g they are unable  t o accomplish as much as  other c h i l d r e n , f o s t e r c h i l d r e n s t r i v e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i n other f i e l d s , usually delinquencies.  This i s the only way  they  can  excell. I t i s to be expected  t h a t there would be some f a i l u r e s  among f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , such as Nancy, P e t e r and  Inez.  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t most of the f a i l u r e s were c h i l d r e n of groups.  It  was  two  They were those of the poorest f a m i l y backgrounds  and  107. those who were teen-aged  when they were p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes.  Probably these c h i l d r e n would have been f a i l u r e s r e g a r d l e s s of whether they had been g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y of f o s t e r home p l a c e ment.  C e r t a i n l y , Inez would have been a f a i l u r e anyway because  she experienced sexual d e l i n q u e n c i e s b e f o r e she was ever plaeed i n a f o s t e r home.  The f a c t that most of the other c h i l d r e n  showed a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment  i n t h e i r homes Is an i n d i c a t i o n  of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the CAS program. Perhaps the best i n d i c a t i o n o f the success of f o s t e r home placement i s t o ask; "What would have been the a l t e r n a t i v e to f o s t e r home c a r e f o r these dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n ? " What would the r e s u l t s have been i f ,  f o r example, they had been  allowed t o remain i n p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n homes amid immoral ences?  The f a i l u r e s a r e the answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n .  influ-  They d i d  not r e c e i v e h e l p soon enough. Successes The w r i t e r was a b l e t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l r e p o r t s on the c u r r e n t progress of twenty of these former f o s t e r The adjustments  children.  a t age twenty-one were c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t , 14  i n some cases, from those of three y e a r s l a t e r . them turned out b e t t e r than was expected.  S e v e r a l of  For example, the case  of A l i c e was one i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a g i r l whose behaviour i n a f o s t e r home f o r e t o l d a d i f f i c u l t f u t u r e .  while  Remarkably, her  behaviour changed b e f o r e she s e t t l e d down and m a r r i e d . We can have h i g h hopes f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i f they t u r n out as w e l l as normal c h i l d r e n do when they l e a r n t o accept adult r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  I t i s t r u e t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n mature  108. d u r i n g the ""bridge p e r i o d " between teenage and adulthood, p a r t i c u l a r l y between e i g h t e e n and twenty-one.  There i s no  reason t o be t o o p e s s i m i s t i c about f o s t e r c h i l d r e n when they turn out as w e l l as A l l a n or John. Contact with the Agency Many former wards even r e t u r n e d t o say they now r e a l i z e how f o r t u n a t e i t was that they were looked a f t e r by the CAS although they were unable  t o r e c o g n i z e any value i n b e i n g  removed from t h e i r parents a t the time.  Isaac was an example  of a boy who r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d t o the CAS t o express h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n because they d i d n o t l e t him have a sum of money which belonged  t o him, b u t i n s t e a d , i n v e s t e d i t i n bonds.  He  was g r a t e f u l t h a t he was not given i t when he was twenty-one because he s a i d he c e r t a i n l y would have wasted i t .  He was  able t o have a l a r g e sum of money t o s t a r t h i s m a r r i e d Peter, on the other hand, was an example of a boy who  life. expressed  resentment of t h e CAS f o r having taken him away from h i s p a r e n t s , and i t appeared t h a t he was never s a t i s f i e d w i t h the treatment he r e c e i v e d . Failures The  CAS program was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n s e v e r a l cases.  was one of these. home.  Oscar  He was a baby when he was taken to h i s f i r s t  He a p p a r e n t l y had every o p p o r t u n i t y to be a success,  but he f i n a l l y  turned out a vagrant.  Was the CAS to blame f o r  this f a i l u r e ?  When one remembers t h a t h i s mother exerted her  p r e r o g a t i v e t o take h e r c h i l d back t h r e e times, and t h r e e  times  he was taken back t o a f o s t e r home, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t  109. h i s h i s t o r y of m u l t i p l e  placements f o r e t o l d a d i f f i c u l t  adjustment t o s o c i e t y .  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d that moving c h i l d r e n  from one f o s t e r home to another i s poor p r a c t i c e .  What  choice has the CAS which has no orphanage or " s p e c i a l k i n d of f o s t e r home'' which i s i n v a r i a b l y r e q u e s t e d f o r problem  child-  ren?  The worker has l i t t l e choice b u t t o p l a c e a d i f f i c u l t  child  i n the o n l y f o s t e r home that w i l l  take him.  I t may not  be the type o f home that he needs, but he can n o t be l e f t on the  street. It  seems to t h i s w r i t e r  that the need f o r more under-  standing f o s t e r p a r e n t s t o h e l p one problem c h i l d i s imperative.  I t has been h i s experience t h a t  to f i n d s p e c i a l homes f o r d i f f i c u l t  i t i s so d i f f i c u l t  children, that  u s u a l l y have t o be p l a c e d i n a home w i t h s e v e r a l  they  other  e m o t i o n a l l y u p s e t c h i l d r e n , each of whom needs i n d i v i d u a l treatment. for  Many of the cases i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e the need  a r e s i d e n t i a l treatment centre t o prepare e m o t i o n a l l y  disturbed  children to l i v e  again i n a f o s t e r home.  Moving  c h i l d r e n from one home to another because of t h e i r behaviour problems i s not the answer. This writer far  i s convinced that  i n the use of f o s t e r homes.  the pendulum has swung too  There a r e t o o many c h i l d r e n  b e i n g placed I n f o s t e r homes today who should never be there. Leaving several  e m o t i o n a l l y upset c h i l d r e n i n one f o s t e r home  without adequate treatment I s bound t o c r e a t e  trouble.  It is  c e r t a i n that c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes a r e not g e t t i n g adequate casework treatment because of the s i z e of the c a s e l o a d s and  110. time-consuming d e t a i l work. worker i s f o r c e d  she i s unable t o devote enough time to  the c h i l d r e n .  This writer  i s convinced that  wasted i n s u p e r v i s i n g  t o o much e f f o r t i s being  e m o t i o n a l l y upset c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r  homes by * l o n g - d i s t a n c e " methods. out  district  to spend so much time t r a v e l l i n g and a r r a n g i n g  medical a t t e n t i o n , that interviewing  F o r example, the country  Foster  c h i l d r e n are turning  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , but a g r e a t e r percentage o f s u c c e s s f u l l y  adjusted f o s t e r children could  be a c h i e v e d i f they had the  advantage of a r e s i d e n t i a l treatment centre.  F o s t e r homes  should be used f o r c h i l d r e n who can be c o n s i d e r e d to be i n reasonably good mental h e a l t h .  The e m o t i o n a l l y  disturbed  c h i l d r e n should have the advantage o f a treatment The  i d e a l method of h e l p i n g  centre.  emotionally upset  children  i s t o have s o c i a l workers, both male and female, i n r e s i d e n c e with the c h i l d r e n and under p s y c h i a t r i c s u p e r v i s i o n . c h i l d r e n need someone whom they can t r u s t j depend upon a t any hour of the day or n i g h t j restore  t h e i r t r u s t i n people.  c h i l d r e n down;  Upset  someone they can someone who can  Everyone has l e t these f o s t e r  why should they suddenly t r u s t a s o c i a l worker  who i s never a v a i l a b l e when they need her? a mother-substitute;  others require  Some c h i l d r e n need  a father-substitute.  This r e l a t i o n s h i p can never be e s t a b l i s h e d by a s o c i a l worker who v i s i t s the c h i l d r e n  occasionally.  Psychiatric  c e n t r e s f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n are needed d e s p e r a t e l y .  treatment Only when  these resources are made a v a i l a b l e t o these e m o t i o n a l l y ed c h i l d r e n w i l l  the c h i l d welfare program be improved.  disturb  111. The F o s t e r Family The f o s t e r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p i s unique because the GAS r e t a i n s c e r t a i n g u a r d i a n s h i p r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and shares some of i t (under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s ) w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s . In the matter  of d i s c i p l i n e , f o r example, i t i s a parent's  r i g h t , and indeed, i t should be h i s duty, t o take a p p r o p r i a t e measures when a c h i l d p l a y s t r u a n t from  school.  Being f o s t e r  parents i s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n .  They cannot, or  perhaps,  should not, impose p h y s i c a l punishment upon another  person's  child.  Much of the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h f o s t e r  a r i s e s when they r e a l i z e  children  t h i s f a c t , and l e a r n t o take advantage  of i t . The F o s t e r C h i l d r e n I t i s through no f a u l t of t h e i r own t h a t f o s t e r become i n v o l v e d i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n of dependency. regarded as " d i f f e r e n t "  children  They were  i n school a few years ago.  Other  youngsters t a l k e d about them and p o i n t e d them out when t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s v i s i t e d the s c h o o l s . felt  In a d d i t i o n , many of them  that they c o u l d n o t t a l k about t h e i r parents w i t h p r i d e  as the other c h i l d r e n d i d . parents a t a l l ,  Others c o u l d n o t t a l k about t h e i r  because they never knew them.  A few y e a r s ago, CAS c h i l d r e n were those with the poorest c l o t h e s i n the classroom.  Fortunately this  improved i n the past t h r e e y e a r s .  s i t u a t i o n has  More money has been made  a v a i l a b l e f o r b e t t e r q u a l i t y c l o t h i n g , and w i t h the i n t u o d u c t i o n of a voucher system, f o s t e r c h i l d r e n can now choose t h e i r own c l o t h i n g .  112. These conditions have been improved over the f i f t y years that the CAS has been serving t h i s community.  There i s  still  a tremendous job to be done i n educating the public for more understanding.  There is s t i l l a wall of public prejudice  which has yet to be broken down. In conclusion, the writer wishes to emphasize that i t important for everyone dealing with foster  is  children to r e a l i z e  that they are a l l human beings who are not responsible for their p i t i f u l condition i n l i f e .  It i s not t h e i r f a u l t  they are unwanted and uncared for c h i l d r e n .  that  Their predicament  i s caused by circumstances completely beyond t h e i r control. We should never forget choice.  that they are not foster  children by  eh  Appendices  115  Appendix A F a m i l y Background Information  o  ^ ® * H ©  Allan Cathy Joan Grace Doris Walter Victor Ronald Nat Olive Samuel Isaac Wally John Edward Edna Celia Frank Charles Harold Inez Betty Hilda Sidney Lois Bob George Thomas Alice Mervin Frances Vernon Oscar Keith Ruby Donald Leonard Myrna Ted Peter Pearl Nancy  r  ft  co  co  CD  a  CO 43 .H CJ CO O +3 CD CD CD U M (3 1 r H c D P i A J fcD CO 3 O CD CD ^ -H  Pi  o  s n o c o 1  W H Xi od 4 3 4 3 Cd fl CD CD  n s 1  1  1 1  1  1  2  1 1 1  1  1  1 1  8  1  1 1 1  2 2  2 2 2 2 2  1  1  1 1  8 1 1  D H  1  1  1  1 1  1 1 1  1 1  1 1  1 1  1  1  1 1 1  1 1  1  1  1 1  1 1  1 1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  «  1  2  3 3  2  1  5 4  1  1 1  1  1 1  1 1  1 1 1  4 4 3 5 6  7  1 1  114  2  1  1 1  2  4 3 34 3  6  1  2  1  1 1  1  8  1  1 1  1 1  1 1  1  1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1  X  6 6  1 1  1 2  1 1  1  2  1  1  1  H  cd +f O  3 3 3 2 3 4 4  1 1 1  O  H O T ^  2  1  2  1 1 2 1  PU t-a «  1  .  A*  2  1  CJ CD  1 1  2  2 2  1  1  2  1 1  2  o  += CD  CD •H i—1 •H cd CD +5 -r • r~ o O ^ *4- H • HC d cdA * m f n t j O PFkj cd op cd yd CD cd ft CD ft CD o > Q <H C3 D rH > •H H +3 »H C H ^ fl CO H M  1  1  1  cd  1 1  1  a  CD  +3  1  2  1-  W)  O  o •H •P  «H M +3 > CH 43 H O - H h U - H• H 43 43T3 , o CD D 43 C c d C c d Xi^ ! cCO o HH 43 o rH i d .C} 43 O •«H H <D,C> O Cd f-l Cd cd f-i Ha  1« 1  1 1  co CD  o  Fa  $3  u  •H  CO  CD  H ca  cd 43  6 6  6 5 5 5 2  5 6  i  8  7 5 3  6  7 6 5 5 7 6  6  7 5 6 6 5 6  7 4 5 3 5 5 6  4 3  2  3 3 3 4 4 4 7 4 3 1  8  4 6  6  3  9 7  0 2  Appendix B An Example o f the Wetzel G r i d Chart Showing the Growth Curve o f the Developmental Progress of a  CD  EP GH IJ  KL  denotes the channel system which determines body shape or physique. A4 i s obese; A 3 & A2 a r e husky, s t r o n g or athletic; A l , M and B i are average c h i l d r e n of good physical status; Bg i s t h i n or f a i r ; B 3 i s very t h i n or borderline; B4 i s extreme t h i n n e s s or poor p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . Thus Leonard was a husky, s t r o n g , a t h l e t i c type of boy. denotes the age f i e l d showing the l e v e l of growth Leonard reached between h i s e l e v e n t h and f i f t e e n t h y e a r s . denotes the normal p a t t e r n l i n e s of the p o p u l a t i o n with which Leonard's developmental curve can be compared. denotes L e o n a r d ' s developmental growth l i n e from J u l y 1957 (7.37) t o December 1941 (12.41). The developmental l i n e i n d i c a t e s a growth r e t a r d a t i o n between March 1940 (3.40) and June 1940 (6.40) and shows how h i s growth i n c r e a s e d between June 1940 (6.40) and February 1941 (2.41) d u r i n g which time he had been d i s c h a r g e d from the CAS and was l i v i n g with h i s mother. Leonard was r e a d m i t t e d to the CAS i n A p r i l 1941 f o l l o w i n g which h i s developmental showed another d e c l i n e . T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s that Leonard made b e t t e r progress i n growth while he was with h i s mother than he d i d while i n f o s t e r homes. i s h i s developmental l i n e ( I J ) p r o j e c t e d onto the age (EF) showing h i s erow+.h • n r n o - r . o a c . ~+. ~ , —  field  Appendix C S t a t i s t i c a l Information of Female Foster Children  9 Name  Child  p* CD  O hi tr po o p. O CD  1— 1  o o B  •cJ  H CD  t-< CD M>  ct  CQ!> O CKJ J3" CD  o o t* r-J CD H> ct  <0 M O ct c+ CD H* M CD H  P H* ctCUs CD CD  c+  £Cp S°3 CD H  O  <! t-b H" Ol  o  CQ  H O CO .  o  CD O & H> CD  £ ct to  ,p 4 CO  CM  0 J>  8*  O ct  3  CD  ct p . 53* CQ  Kj  P" CD  O  P  P  H CQ  CD CD  c; o H • p H  W  O  CD  g  o  0)  O H>  4 O a • P 1  P"  W O  CD CQ  O  H»  w  CO O p*  oo • CD  & «* CD  to  o  o  p  CO  o CO  tc  ct CD  H  ct  hs  CD P<  H  CD  it M  of  P  03 Q  01  Cathy Joan Grace Doris Olive Idna Celia Inez Betty Hilda Lois Alice Frances Ruby Myrna Pearl Nancy  XII IX XI X XII X XI VIII IX X IX VII VII XI  XII X XI X XII IX X XII IX X X IX VIII X VIII XI VII  18* 114; 103 5 16 8 17 119 10 17 14 18 7 16 78; 73; 72 17 16 <98; 110; 120; 107 13 13 17* " * 119 10 14 13 19 59; 73; 80 15 18 83; 94 11 17 60; 75 6 15 103; 100; 94 4 18 11 15 88 6 16 11 13 99 6  5 5 10 4 8 11 10 9 2 3 7 24 5 12 15 7 10  12* 12 3* 5  'i* 11* 1 2 14* 11 14* 7* 14 13 13  8 9 12 16 6 19* 11 9 20 19 6* 10 6* 13* 7 8 8  1 _  1 1 1 _  —  1 3 5 1 1  4 3 9 3 5 6 6 5 2 3 4 8 3 4 3 5  5 4 9 3 7 6 7 6 1 3 4 16 3 w 7 5 4 6  c-  c E  cC+  C-  S t a t i s t i c a l Information o f Male F o s t e r C h i l d r e n O Q O 4  Name  *(-»d CD ft CD  c+  of  CD  S3*P o PCD. o M tCD "< H>  H  CQ {t> O OQ S3" CD  o c+  o o f H CD  P  1  c+  CD H* CD M  H* 3 c+  Hi  c+  0CD*3  c+  nc  Child  ft  CQ Q  o 4  t/3  £ o (— o fd • p • CD o CD O 4 o < ! H» 2 H> CD H'  TO CD  1  CO  o 4  P  K! CD  P  4  CQ H *  ct  Ct Ct  CO  CQ  CD P-  CD  Allan Walter Victor Ronald Nat Samuel Isaac Wally John Edward Frank Charles Harold Sidney Boh George Thomas Mervin Vernon Oscar Keith Donald Leonard Ted Peter  XII XI VI VI IX IX IX VIII VIII VIII IX VIII XI IX IX VIII VIII V IX VI VIII VIII IX V  XII XII VII VII X IX X VIII IX IX X VIII XI IX X IX IX VI X VI IX VIII VII IX V  18 18  16-1 15 16 17 17* 16 16 15 17 15 17* 15 16 15 15 15 16 15 16 15 14 18 15  99; 107 99 100;  9 1 ; 90 78 82  87 94; 101 102; 104; 103 111; 106 118; 117; 112 9 0 ; 9 3 ; 97 92; 110; 102 102; 110 68; 7 2 93 60 97 91 86; 8 7 ; 76 7 6 ; 59  12 3 5 15 13 9 7 4 19 16 16 10 15 7 o  4 3 8 8 16 9 5 8 9 10  !> &  6 2 4 6 1 5 4 4 5 3 2 10 4 5 6 5 4 3 12 18 8 4 4 3 9  8* 8f 13*  8 months  2  12 8 j ; 9i» 14*  6 months 1  2*  11 6* 7*; 1 4 * 11* 13* 13 10 12  9 months 10 l l i 10 12* 9*  H * CD CD ( K  ct  H»  £3"  o O P H>  w o o 3 • CD  o o • CD  CO  CO  4  P  H  a  S3  o o 3 • CD  CQ  o  S3*  o 1— 1  p  3  4  o •4  o CO ct  p  4  CO  CD CD CO 4  3"  5 2 4 5 1 5 3 4 5 3 2 8 2 5 5 4 4 2 10 15 4 3 3 2 8  CD  CD  12* 7* 7* 20 18* 8* 12 6 20* 20 18 11 14* 7 9* 7 8 10* 9 20^ 10 9 10 8* 11  1  -3 -2 1 1  1 1  -  1 1  -2 1 3 3 2 3  -6  I n d i c a t e s two admissions because they were r e t u r n e d t o f a m i l y and l a t e r re-admitted t o the CAS.  4 2 1 ' 5 1 3 2 3 5 3 1 7 2 3 4 4 3  -9 7 1 1  — 2  2  E  D C 0-  C C+ CC-  CD D-  Appendix D Evaluation Rating of Foster Children  5 5 4 5 4 5 2 2 4 5 3 4  2  3 3 3 4 4 2 5 5 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 0 2 4 1 3 4 2 2 2 3 1 5 2  d* 4 4 2 3 4 3 4 4  2  4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 1 3 2 3 3 1 4 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1  Health  o  H  4 4 4 4 2 3 4 3 3  2  2 2 4 1 3 2 4 3 4 2 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 1 3 4 1 4 3 3 1 3 1 1  6 6 6 7 6 5 6 7 6 6 7 5 6 6 5 6 7 4 5 3 5 5 6 4 3 2 3 3 3 5 4 4 7 4 3 1 2 4 5 3 0 2  o >  iH  cd .d pq 4 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1  ** unsatisfactory  * satisfactory 118  Average  4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 1  1  •P P:  Total  good Allan Cathy *satis. Joan good Grace satis. Doris good Walter good Victor good Ronald good Nat good Olive satis. Samuel good Isaac good Wally satis. John good Edward good Edna good Celia satis. Frank good Charles good Harold good Inez **unsatis. Betty satis. Hilda satis. Sidney satis. Lois satis. Bob good George satis. Thomas good Alice unsatis. Mervin satis. Frances unsatis. Vernon unsatis. Oscar unsatis. Keith bad Ruby satis. Donald unsatis. Leonard unsatis. Myrna bad Ted unsatis. Peter unsatis. Pearl bad Nancy bad  Education  Child  Rating  of  Classification  Name  Family Background  Composite Evaluation Factors  Preliminary  23 23 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 15 15 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 12 11 11 11 11 10 9 7  4.3 4.3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3 3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2 1.4 1.2  Appendix S  a. L e t t e r from a former ward, i n j a i l • i would l i k e some i n f o r m a t i o n which you h o l d concerni n g my mother and f a t h e r ' s p a s t from the date 1933.... " i t i s very h a r d f o r me t o w r i t e t h i s l e t t e r but I hope you w i l l know what I want and how I f e e l about i t . I was separated from my p a r e n t s i n 1933 or 34 and I have n o t seen my f a t h e r s i n c e that date. I f you h o l d any i n f o r m a t i o n of h i s whereabouts I would l i k e you t o t e l l me. I have been t o l d he Is dead, but I can't b e l i e v e i t . I can f i n d my mother. Why I ask f o r a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n which you may be a b l e t o g i v e me, I s t h a t they seem l i k e s t r a n g e r s t o me. I have never been happy a t any time knowing I would be sepa r a t e d from them, e s p e c i a l l y my f a t h e r . That i s why I was so h a r d t o h a n d l e w h i l e I wae i n the CAS. T h i s i s n o t a very good experience t o go through. I t makes me f e e l l i k e a bad penny which belongs to no one. * I have nothing a g a i n s t the CAS but I do h o l d them r e s p o n s i b l e f o r keeping me away from my parents l i k e they d i d , so I would n o t be a b l e to keep t r a c k o f them or know anything about them. As f a r as my mother i s concerned, I do n o t t h i n k she i s my mother, because I remember t h i n g s when I was younger, and I do n o t remember seeing h e r u n t i l I was f i v e years o l d . I t may not be the r i g h t t h i n g t o say, b u t what e l s e am I t o t h i n k ? Could i t be p o s s i b l e f o r you t o answer these questions f o r me? Why was my f a t h e r sent t o j a i l and what was he c o n v i c ted of and how long was h i s sentence? What was t h e I l l n e s s of my mother and why d i d she go t o the h o s p i t a l and what was she t r e a t e d f o r ? Why was I not a l l o w e d t o see my f a t h e r and mother? Y o u may ask why I don't t h i n k she i s my mother. When I was put i n ( t h e CAS) and she and my a t e p - f a t h e r came she d i d not seem or t r e a t me l i k e a mother. Any time I asked about her past and my f a t h e r ' s and why I was put i n the CAS she r e f u s e d to t a l k about i t and i t d i d not seem l i k e home. I c o u l d not get a l o n g w i t h my s t e p - f a t h e r . I t was l i k e l i v i n g in a s t r a n g e r ' s house. That i s why I ask f o r any i n f o r m a t i o n you can g i v e me. I don't know a n y t h i n g about them, only h e r name. Of my f a t h e r , I know l e s s . You can n o t blame me f o r f e e l i n g that t h e CAS I s r e s p o n s i b l e . I know i f my f a t h e r knew where I was and what k i n d of l i f e I have had, that he would do a l l i n h i s power to h e l p me, beoause he i s b u i l t that way. I know he would never f o r g e t me, n o t l i k e my mother d i d . My f a t h e r never should have been sent to j a i l because there never was a crooked bone i n h i s body, as f a r as I can remember him. I am sure you have i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g my p a r e n t s , before I went i n t o the CAS and i f you have I would l i k e you to t e l l me a l l you can. I know my mother's o c c u p a t i o n b e f o r e M  n  119  Appendix S (Continued) she was married and anything you can t e l l me would not hurt me more than t h a t , but I am deeply interested i n what she was treated for In the h o s p i t a l . "Please do not think I am f e e l i n g sorry for myself because I am not. I have long passed that stage. But I w i l l say this much. I f i t had not been for the CAS and t h e i r ways of working and putting a c h i l d i n home to home l i k e a f o o t b a l l l i k e I was, and (not?) giving me the things I should of had, I would not be l i k e I am today. You cannot blame any c h i l d who w i l l not do as she or he is t o l d , i f they cannot see t h e i r parents. Nobody can bring up children better than the parents. "The CAS has always wondered what was wrong with me, and that is one of the reasons. It grows hate, and I s t i l l carry i t , and I cannot help i t . This may seem f o o l i s h but i t is a l l true. I say many a boy in this kind of place ( j a i l ) who was i n the CAS. A l l i t i s , i s the lack of bringing up, not t o l d the right things l i k e parents would t e l l their c h i l d ren. I have heard many people talk about me i n and the f i r s t thing they w i l l say i s that I never had a home and I don't know what one looks l i k e . "The CAS may have done a l l they could for me and many others, but a l o t of use i t was, laoking t r a i n i n g and bringing up. Do not think that because I am i n here, I do not work, because I do. I have the best recommendations any man can get. But what made me do the things I did? That I can't answer. I have always had money to get by on. You can only judge a person by the way he was brought up. *Please do not ignore t h i s l e t t e r . I would l i k e you to write me and give me a l l the information you can about my parents' past, and why I was not allowed to see them. I know you hold a l o t of information about them and myself. I do think I have a right to know. " I have t r i e d to f i n d out other places but nobody can answer my questions so you are my only hope. You have more power to check i n the f i l e s of courts than I have. That is why I ask you to check up on my father and mother. I do hope you w i l l do a l l you can because I hold you responsible for not l e t t i n g me keep i n touch with them so that I would know them instead of feeling l i k e a stranger. There i s no need in keeping children away from their parents when they are not happy away from them. I can say that the CAS can do a l o t more for the c h i l d r e n than what they are doing. Why make children f e e l the way I do—like they belong to nobody? There Is nothing better for children than their parents. It a l l makes me very mad when I think of the experience I have gone through, but you can't blame me for that." 120  Appendix 1 (Continued) b. Reply to the l e t t e r , from a welfare agency. "We are glad to give you a l l the information we have on you and your family. Your very frank and sincere expression of your feelings has helped us greatly to r e a l l y understand how much any information we can give or can get w i l l mean to you. We always f e e l very badly too, when we learn from young adults l i k e y o u r s e l f , who were once in our care, that things have turned out badly, but only when we know can we see our mistakes i n the past and learn how to avoid them in the future. That is why we are glad you d i d have enough courage and good sense to write us as f u l l y as you d i d . "You are quite right when you say, "You can only judge a person by the way he was brought up*. We agree also that as a general rule "nobody can bring up children better than the parents*. Prom our old f i l e , your parents, especially your mother, t r i e d very hard to care f o r you, your two younger s i s t e r s and younger brother. Because of hard times —and conditions were extremely bad i n the Thirties—they had to go on r e l i e f . Your mother was worn out managing on very l i t t l e and bearing children. (There were apparently many miscarriages i n addition to the b i r t h s of four c h i l d r e n ) . Your father, too, n a t u r a l l y became very discouraged and then he would leave home for a while. Perhaps he was only looking for decent Jobs, but after many desertions, he l e f t never to return. The last record we have of your father was i n when he was l i v i n g supposedly somewhere i n -. "Our record shows you were eleven then and therefore you may remember both your parents quite w e l l , especially your father. You w i l l also remember some of the r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t times a l l of you had. You apparently blamed your mother for most of the unhappiness even then, and because of t h i s you soon got out of her control. The r e s u l t was that you were made a ward of CAS on — . You were in several foster homes, from some of which you ran away, and f i n a l l y , i n — y o u were sent to your mother. Prom there i n about a year's time It would appear that you ran away again. We have no further information about you after t h a t . "There is no reference to any term i n j a i l , but there i s reference to a court charge which was l a i d because of nonsupport of wife and c h i l d r e n . Your mother was i l l i n the Home when you were placed i n the care of the CAS. The f i l e does not say what the i l l n e s s was. "We hope that the above Information w i l l help you to sort out i n your mind reasons for the unhappy situation at the time of your placement with the CAS. Our social worker who saw your mother then, and l a t e r , thought that she had done as well as any mother could have done under the circumstances. We regret most sincerely that your l o t as a c h i l d was so unhappy, but we hope that once you have received more of the facts about your family's unfortunate circumstances at that time, you w i l l f e e l more encouraged and s e t t l e d . " 121  Appendix F Employment, L o c a t i o n and F a m i l y S t a t u s of Former F o s t e r C h i l d r e n  (Female)  1948  p ct  cog ctp  P 4 c+HSet cop  Ofe5  |3-g H*B Hcf piCB  4 4 CD  Cathy Joan Grace Doris Olive Edna Celia Inez Betty Hilda Lois Alice Frances Ruby Myrna Pearl Nancy c/I  S M S S  s  M S c/1  S M M S S M S S  c/1  m a t e r n i t y nurse telephone o p e r a t o r stenographer telephone operator telephone o p e r a t o r clerk stenographer stenographer cashier telephone o p e r a t o r (unknown) store clerk u (unknown) housewife clerk ward a i d housewife  common-law w i f e  Vancouver New Westminster Vancouver N o r t h Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver  M  0  S S  1 0  M  4  c/1  M  l  Vancouver  M  Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver P r i n c e George  M M  I I  M  I I  0  c/1  O O o  e: P  ct  ion  o p ct H* O  ion  Case  o  Lo  of  Lo  c t CO CD 4 c t HC ct CQ p  Oc  cog  Name  1951  o p ct  o 0  (unknown) housewife New Westminster secretary Vancouver t e l . s u p e r v i s o r North Vane. t e l . operator Vancouver (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) housewife New Zealand (unknown) housewife Nanaimo (unknown) housewife Vancouver housewife Bremerton housewife Vancouver (unknown)  unable t o have any c h i l d r e n o f her own  Employment, Location and Family Status of Former Foster Children (Male)  1948 Name of Case  cog  co 4 ctpD  C+H-  n ct CO P H  1951  O o o P >d P  o  ct p  P 4  o P  ct H* O 0  -  ct HO  O O O  ctH-  S ct  CO p H  Pi® 44 CD P" O  P  ct H" O 0  O O  P  ct HO 0  P"  Allan Walter Victor Ronald Nat Samuel Isaac Wally John Edward Frank Charles Harold Sidney Robert George Thomas Mervin Vernon Oscar Keith Donald Leonard Ted Peter  S S S S S S  electrician farmhand fisherman merchant navysheet metal worker steward on boats CPR trainman farmhand dental technician dining car steward electrician1 butcher tugboat hand U.S.Navy U.S.Navy labourer millhand farmhand auto worker 1 labourer labourer labourer labourer _ unemployed*^ labourer  s s s s s s s s s  M M S  s s s s s s s  1  apprenticing  Vancouver Langley B e l l a Coola Van co uver (home) Vancouver Vancouver (rooms) North Bend Lulu Island Vancouver CPR New Westminster Vancouver Vancouver (home) U.S.Navy U.S.Navy Trail Burnaby Barnston Island Vancouver transient transient transient transient Vancouver Vancouver 2  M M  1 0  M S M S  0 0 0 0  S  0 0  M M M S  ?  i 0  s  1  s  0  s  on probation  *>  (unknown) (unknown) fisherman Bella Coola millworker Vancouver (unknown) (unknown) fireman, CPR Revelstoke millhand (1949) Stillwater dental t e c h ' n . Vancouver miner Premier (unknown) butcher Vancouver tugboat mate Vancouver (unknown) (electrical San Francisco engineer miner Trail fuel dealer North Vane ' r . farmhand Barnston Island (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) i n j a i l (1950) Saskatchewan  Iffy  Selected Bibliography Books B a y l o r , E d i t h M. H. and Monachesi, E l i o D. Rehab i l l t a t i on of C h i l d r e n : The Theory a n d Practice o f C h i l d Placement, Harper and B r o s . , New Y o r k , 1939 H e a l y , Wm. e t a l . R e c o n s t r u c t i n g B e h a v i o u r i n Y o u t h , (Judge Baker F o u n d a t i o n P u b l i c a t i o n No. 5) New Y o r k , A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1931 T h e i s , Sophie van Senden. How F o s t e r C h i l d r e n Turn Out, S t a t e C h a r i t i e s A i d A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1924 T h u r s t o n , Henry W. The Dependent C h i l d , P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1930  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y  Pamphlets I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Use o f t h e Wetzel G r i d : Unhappy C h i l d r e n F a i l t o Grow, "What's New* P u b l i c a t i o n , No. 1 3 3 , March 1949, p u b l . by A b b o t t L a b o r a t o r i e s , Chicago Growth Measurement, A U s e f u l Guide t o H e a l t h and D i s e a s e i n C h i l d h o o d : A s y n o p s i s of t h e W e t z e l G r i d Technique f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e Q u a l i t y o f p h y s i c a l Growth and Development i n P r e - S e h o o l and i n S c h o o l C h i l d r e n , R e p r i n t e d from "What's New*, November 1946, p u b l . by Abbott L a b o r a t o r i e s , Chicago C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America P u b l i c a t i o n s : Browning, L u c i e K. F o s t e r Home Care f o r t h e N e g l e c t e d C h i l d who i s C a l l e d a D e l i n q u e n t , B u l l e t i n 1 8 : 1-2; 6-7, A p r i l 1969 C l o t h i e r , F l o r e n c e , M.D. Problems i n t h e Placement of I l l e g i t i m a t e C h i l d r e n ^ B u l l e t i n 2 0 : I^S; W, March 1941 H u t c h i n s o n , Dorothy. S u p e r v i s i o n of F o s t e r Homes, B u l l e t i n 2 1 : 5-7; 14-15,—October 1942 Lippman, Hyman S. F o s t e r Home Placement o f Older C h i l d r e n , (Processed) M a r i s , M a d e l i n e . The Agency's P a r t i n H e l p i n g A d o l e s c e n t s t o Assume R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ^ C h i l d Care and P r o t e c t i o n Supplement, A p r i l 1942, pp. 27-30 124  Bibliography (Continued)  Nicholson, Marian B. Therapy with Placed Children, C h i l d Care and Protection Supplement, A p r i l 1942, pp. 51-34 Stravsky, Wm. H. For Every Child the Care He Needs, B u l l e t i n 20: IT, October 1941 Davis, Kathleen O'Brien, M.D. Case Work i n Treatment of the Separated C h i l d , Proceedings of the T h i r t i e t h National Conference of Catholic C h a r i t i e s , 1944, pp. 62-67 Garrett, Annette, Case Work Treatment of a C h i l d , Family Welfare Association of America, New York, 1941 May, A l i c e R. Case Work Services for Children In Foster Care: Case Work Aspects or intake, Proceedings or the T h i r t i e t h National Conference of Catholic C h a r i t i e s , 1944, pp. 57-61 Roe, Anne and Burks, Barbara. Adult Adjustment of Foster Children of Alcoholic and Psychotic Parentage and the influence or the Foster Home, Yale University, New Haven, 1945 Sayles, Mary B u e l l . Families,  Substitute Parents, a Study of Foster commonweaitn Fund, New York, 1936  Publications of "The Family 11 : Blethen, Emma C. Foster Home Program for Unmarried Mothers, V o l . i>3; pp. 291-296,—December 1942 Goldfarb, William. A Psychologist's Services in a Child - Placing Agency, V o l . 22; pp. 122-128, June 1941 Hutchinson, Dorothy, The Request f o r Placement Has Meaning, V o l . 25! pp. 128-132, June 1944 Hutchinson, Dorothy, The Parent-Child Relationship As a Factor in Child placement, Vol. 27;—p£7 47-  51, April 1946  Lippman, Hyman S., Newer Trends in Child placement, V o l . 21; pp. 323-328, February 1941 ' portnoy, Deborah S. Foster Mother,  F i r s t Interview with a Prospective Vol": 21;—pp. 266-277, Dec. 1940— 125  Bibliography  (Continued)  P u b l i c a t i o n s of "The American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y * : Cowan, Edwlna A. and S t o u t , Eva. A Comparative Study of the Adjustment Made by F o s t e r C h i l d r e n A f t e r Complete and P a r t i a l Breaks i n Continuity o f fecme Environment, American O r t h o p s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , Mew York, 'Vol. 9; pp. 350-338, A p r i l 1939 Deming, J u l i a , M.D. F o s t e r Home and Group Placement, American O r t h o p s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, V o l . 10; pp. 586-594, J u l y 1940 Gardner, G. E. Ambivalence as a F a c t o r i n ^ome P l a c e ment F a i l u r e ^ American O r t h o p s y c h i a t r i c Association, New York, V o l . 12; pp. 135-159, January 1942 P u b l i c a t i o n s of "Mental Hygiene": Cowan, Edwlna A. Some Emotional Problems B e s e t t i n g the L i v e s of F o s t e r C h i l d r e n , Vol. 22; pp.  454-458,  J u l y 1958  Howard, Frank M. I n s t i t u t i o n or F o s t e r Home?, V o l . 30; pp. 92-lOTJ January iy46 Wires, E m i l y M. The F o s t e r C h i l d and S e p a r a t i o n , V o l . 30; pp. 250-256, A p r i l 19*46 Bender, L a u r e t t a , M.D.  Life,  There i s No S u b s t i t u t e f o r F a m i l y  " C h i l d Study*,  Vol. 23; pp. 74-76,—§6,  S p r i n g 1946, C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, P r i n t e r , Washington, D. C.  Government  Blades, L. B. Why F o s t e r Homes F a i l , Survey Midmonthly, V o l . 771 pp. 324-326, November 1941 Bulvey, Mary B. The C h i l d and t h e Case Worker, V o l . 25! pp. 8 2 - 8 5 , February 1945  Probation,  Chambers, 0. R. A Method of Measuring the Emotional M a t u r i t y of C h i l d r e n , P e d i a t r i c s Seminar & J o u r n a l o f Gene r a l Psychology, V o l . 52; pp. 657-647, 1925 Matthews, E. A Study o f Emotional S t a b i l i t y In C h i l d r e n , J o u r n a l o r Delinquency, V o l . 8; p. 1-40, l9~25 T a i t , J e s s i e , F o s t e r Home Care f o r C h i l d r e n , Annals of the American Academy or P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , C h i l d r e n i n a Depression Decade ( P h i l a d e l p h i a ) , V o l . 212; pp. 179-185, November 1940 126  Bibliography  (Continued)  T a i t , J e s s i e . S o c i a l Case Work with C h i l d r e n : Studies i n S t r u c t u r e and Process^ J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Work Process, V o l . 3 , TJc". 16, December 1939 (Pennsylvania School of S o c i a l Work, P h i l a d e l p h i a ) Walker, Wilma. C h i l d Welfare Case Records, Chicago Press, 1937  U n i v e r s i t y of  Wildy, L o i s . Current Trends i n F o s t e r - P a r e n t Education, S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review (Chicago) V o l . 16; pp. 463-476, September 1942 The P l a c i n g of C h i l d r e n I n F a m i l i e s , League of Nations A d v i s o r y Committee on S o c i a l Questions, Geneva, 1938, Columbia U i i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I n t e r N a t i o n a l Documents S e r v i c e , New York To F o s t e r Parents, About F o s t e r C h i l d r e n , New York Committee on Mental Hygiene, 1944 Some P r a c t i c e s i n Home F i n d i n g , C h i l d Welfare League of America, 1942 (Second E d i t i o n ) H e a l t h Program f o r C h i l d r e n i n F o s t e r Care, c h i l d Welfare League or America, (Pamphlet) December, 1945 ( T h i r d E d i t i o n )  127  

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