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Safeguarding child placement : a study of the work of the screened intake committee in St. Paul, Minnesota Heckels, Enid Mabel 1951

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L£ 9 ft7 /9 57 #S Oof  l  SAFEGUARDING CHILD PLACEMENT A Study of the Work of the Screened Intake Committee XU, Pftttl* Minnesota  by  ENID MABEL HECKELS  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the School of Social Work  1951  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT  T h i s study examines the s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d "by a committee composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Saint P a u l case work a g e n c i e s . These a g e n c i e s were f o r a e d i n 19^1 to c o o r d i n a t e the placement o f c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e t h e i r own homes, and to safeguard t h e i r w e l f a r e . The study has t h r e e purposes: f i r s t , to p r e s e r v e i n a v a i l a b l e f o r m h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the development of ' Screened Intake' i n the C i t y of Saint P a u l ; second, to review the purposes and f u n c t i o n s of the Committee; and t h i r d , to e v a l u a t e the e x t e n t t o which i t i n t e g r a t e d and implemented the complementary p r i n c i p l e s o f human r i g h t s and human needs o f the f a m i l y c a s e s w h i c h were p r e s e n t e d to the Comm i t t e e f o r 'Screening.' M a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d from a manual o f minutes as r e c o r d e d by the Screened Intake Committee f r o m b e f o r e i t s i n a u g u r a t i o n i n 19*+1 to 19^8; by p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the S x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the F a m i l y S e r v i c e o f S a i n t Paul and chairinan o f the Screened Intake Comm i t t e e ; and from o t h e r s a c t i v e on t h i s Committee. F i f t y i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s were r e a d . These were summaries p r e p a r e d by case workers f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Committee. Spot checks were made of f o r m a l case records. From an a p p r a i s a l of t h i s work, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t many worthwhile changes i n the s o c i a l w e l f a r e programme f o r c h i l d r e n were accomplished. The Committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e dec r e a s e i n the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n b e i n g c a r e d f o r o u t s i d e t h e i r own homes - b o t h f o r the S t a t e of M i n n e s o t a and more p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the C i t y of S a i n t P a u l . I t was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e l i m i n a t i n g the p r e c i p i t a t e f o s t e r home placement o f c h i l d r e n . It c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the s o c i a l a g e n c i e s concerned, and was an a s s u r a n c e to the community that the w e l f a r e of b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n would be p r o t e c t e d by s o c i a l a g e n c i e s d u r i n g the placement p e r i o d . Althoogh the study i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s o c i a l case work a g e n c i e s i n S a i n t P a u l cont i n u e d t o be somewhat unaware of the emotional components of the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s , i n g e n e r a l the Screened Intake Committee performed v a l u a b l e TO r k and t h e p r i n c i p l e s i t has e s t a b l i s h e d deserve continuous c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the f u t u r e .  TABLE OF (X)NTSMTS  Chapter 1*  E v a l u a t i o n of Screened Intake  General problems o f c h i l d placement* The s i t u a t i o n i n S a i n t P a u l . A survey committee (193S). S e t t i n g up of the Screened Intake Committee. Some basic principles* Chapter 2.  C o n c e r t e d A c t i o n between F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s A g e n c i e s .  Lack of community c o n t r o l . E x i s t i n g sources of r e f e r r a l . f o r w i d e r c o n t r o l s . A suggested p l a n . Chapter 3»  The  Screened Intake Committee;  F u n c t i o n s and Procedure  B a s i c case summary. O r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c a s e . p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d . S p e c i a l k i n d s o f placements. Chapter U»  Facilities  Review of cases  C r i t e r i a f o r the Study  "Case work" and " c h i l d w e l f a r e " d e f i n e d . Seven y e a r s o f Screened Intake Committee work. S e l e c t i o n of a sample. Schedule and c r i t e r i a u t i l i z e d t o examine the s a n p l e . Chapter 5-  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F a m i l i e s  Major r e a s o n s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n of c a s e s . Problems p r e s e n t e d by the f i f t y c a s e s . F a m i l y s t a t u s . F i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f case to the "Screened Intake Committee. Cases p r e s e n t e d f o r c o u r t j u r i s d i c t i o n . Chapter 6.  Case E x p e r i e n c e Reviewed  Q u a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between agency and c l i e n t . P l a n s proposed by the a g e n c i e s to the Screened Intake Committee. Awareness of u n d e r l y i n g problems, by a g e n c i e s and the Screened Intake Committee. E v a l u a t i o n of . d i a g n o s i s and treatment made by a g e n c i e s and Screened Intake Committee. C l a r i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t s . p r o b l e m s through case work a s s i s t a n c e , Chapter 7*  S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses  Decrease i n t o t a l c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n under agency c a r e . C l a r i f i c a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of agencies', f u n c t i o n s . Value of p r e s e n t a t i o n of w r i t t e n S c r e e n e d Intake summary. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . Assurance of a good d i a g n o s i s r e g a r d i n g the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . C o n t i n u i n g treatment p l a n .  Appendices: A. B. C.  Porm'used f o r Case A n a l y s i s Summary f o r Screened Intake Bibliography  TafffiTrS IN THS TEXT Table 1. LiBt of the total problems presented bysample cases Table 2 .  Hi  Marital status of parents of children considered by the Committee, 19U2-13US. .  Table 3»  Page  U3  Cause of parental inadequacy. . . .  Table H. Number of children in agency foster homes in Saint Paul, Minnesota, in 1339-19U2. .  62  CHAPTER I EVOLUTION OF SCKSENED INTAKE  General Problems of C h i l d Placement I t i s r e c o g n i s e d g e n e r a l l y t h a t most s o c i a l behaviour  and a d j u s t -  ment problems of i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , problem Many of our s o c i a l end-products  s e r v i c e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , have been e s t a b l i s h e d t o d e a l w i t h  of f a m i l i e s with s o c i a l problems,  s i t u a t i o n s of w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a p a r t . . r e g a r d to c h i l d placement.  The range  r a t h e r than w i t h t o t a l f a m i l y  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n  and the c o m p l e x i t y of t h e problems con-  f r o n t i n g s o c i a l a g e n c i e s which must p l a c e c h i l d r e n away from t h e i r are c o n s i d e r a b l e .  families.  This i s well  own homes  e x e m p l i f i e d by the f i n d i n g s o f t h e Screened  Intake Committee formed i n Saint P a u l i n 19*+1, w i t h which the present is  study  concerned. To have to grow up ( o r l i v e ) i n a home other t h a n h i s own i s a  t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r any c h i l d , not o n l y because o f t h e new n e c e s s a r y but a l s o because of the i n e v i t a b l e n e c e s s i t a t e d placement.  adjustments  c r i s i s w h i c h have preceded and  I n a d d i t i o n t o the problems thus p r e s e n t e d to the  c h i l d , t h e r e are a l s o c o m p l i c a t i n g int e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h i l d and the parent o r p a r e n t s , and between b o t h of t h e s e and the f o s t e r p a r e n t s . Furthermore,  grandparents  and other r e l a t i v e s o f t e n p l a y a more a c t i v e  Because of these f a c t o r s i t i s an a c c e p t e d case work p r i n c i p l e  role.  that the best  p l a c e f o r the c a r e , guidance, and c o n t r o l of t h e c h i l d d u r i n g h i s y e a r s o f immaturity  and dependence i s i n h i s own home w i t h h i s own p a r e n t s .  f a m i l y a g e n c i e s throughout  Thus,  t h e c o u n t r y a r e endeavouring. to s t r e n g t h e n marriage.  As Dorothy H u t c h i n s o n says, "the best c h i l d w e l f a r e i s a happy m a r r i a g e . " Since the c h i l d i s the medium through which c i v i l i z e d l i f e i s c a r r i e d on f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n t o the next, h i s w e l l - b e i n g becomes a primary  1  concern  of o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t y .  When c i r c u m s t a n c e s  t h r e a t e n the a b i l i t y o f  the f a m i l y to p r o v i d e s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r the u p b r i n g i n g of the c h i l d , the f i r s t  q u e s t i o n to be e x p l o r e d should be t h e nBans by which t h e  p a r e n t s can be a s s i s t e d i n the t a s k o f the proper  r e a r i n g of t h e i r  children.  Moreover, good c h i l d placement endeavours to h e l p a c h i l d a d j u s t i n t o a home best  s u i t e d t o h i s needs.  T h i s i s n o t a n easy t a s k , as g e n e r a l l y there i s a  s c a r c i t y of good f o s t e r homes. happiness no f a u l t  Sometimes a home i s found w h i c h does b r i n g  t o the c h i l d , but more o f t e n a c h i l d moves from home to home through of h i s own. Throughout the c o u n t r y we a r e g r o s s l y l a c k i n g i n proper  treatment  f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n - e s p e c i a l l y f o r those c h i l d r e n who must l e a v e t h e i r own  homes.  We a r e not so ready as f o r m e r l y to d e c i d e i n f a v o u r  o f placement.  Hence, modern s o c i a l p r a c t i c e c o n c e n t r a t e s i t s major e f f o r t s upon measures c a l c u l a t e d t o conserve  the home.  When, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t happens that f o r  some s u f f i c i e n t  reason a c h i l d must be c a r e d f o r away f r o m h i s own home, the  most reasonable  view i s that he must be o f f e r e d something which i s b e t t e r t h a n  what he has or which w i l l  be of treatment  h e l p t o him.  Prom t h e s t a n d p o i n t of a f a m i l y agency many c h i l d r e n a r e s t a y i n g i n c a r e because not enough pre-placement p l a n n i n g h a s been done w i t h the h i s p a r e n t s , and perhaps grandparents. parents  are not a s u f f i c i e n t  Then, a f t e r the c h i l d  child,  i s p l a c e d , the  p a r t o f the p l a n t o work toward h a v i n g the  r e t u r n home or t o r e l e a s e him f o r more permanent placement p l a n s .  child  Agencies  where l e g a l g u a r d i a n s h i p does n o t e x i s t must cope w i t h the problem <f c h i l d r e n living persons  i n one p l a c e a n d l o v i n g i n another.  those  i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l w e l f a r e of S a i n t Paul f e m i l i e s , r e a l i z e d that  i t was extremely welfare  C o n s i d e r i n g these f a c t o r s ,  important  f a r a community t o have an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of i t s  s e r v i c e s f o r s a f e g u a r d i n g the placement of c h i l d r e n .  3 The Situation in Saint Paul Prior to the time the present study was made (19^-9), the cost of child care in Saint Paul indicated that the greatest increases in the costs of care and in the size of the case loads were taking place in the private child-caring agencies.  A major reason for the large increase in  the case loads of the private c h i l d care agencies was that the public agBncy, f i r s t a separate board, and later a department of the County Welfare Board, seldom accepted children unless they were committed by the Juvenile Court. In situations where it was apparent the horns would never be re-established but in which i t would not be feasible or advisable to commit, the children were referred usually to private agencies.  Thus, this left the private  agencies with the major responsibility for long-term care. was in contrast to the majority of other states. of the Census on January 1, 1933.  This situation  The United States 3ureau  indicated Minnesota as having an exception-  a l l y high number of children Tinder agency care outside their own homes. Thus, those responsible for community planning in this City realized that seme means had to be evolved in order that community plans for caring for children outside their own homes would be so organized that there would be a coordination of the services provided by the case work agencie s.  They realized  too, the importance of making available f a c i l i t i e s for complete social diagnosis, and arranging for follow-up treatment with the family after placement of the child.  They were anxious to provide the community with some pagranme which  would ensure the citizens in the community that those families needing child care plans would receive help.  They thought this could be accomplished with  a good social case work programme, including a clarification of the scope of agency programmes and of their relationships to each other.  Such a programme  would assist families and children in a more normal total ad jus im nt and would  ensure  t h a t the a g e n c i e s a l o n g with the f a m i l i e s would make the b e s t p l a n s  p o s s i b l e f o r b o t h c h i E r e n and p a r e n t s .  A Survey  Committee (1938) A c c o r d i n g l y , a s p e c i a l committee was  e x p l o r e the f i e l d  formed i n 193S  t o study  of s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n S a i n t P a u l , and to re-examine  c a r e f u l l y the p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s  of t h e i r a g e n c i e s .  The  members of the  committee r e p r e s e n t e d b o t h the c h i l d r e n ' s and f a m i l y a g e n c i e s . of  and  At the  time  i t s f o r m a t i o n , the Committee's o p i n i o n s v a r i e d from e x p r e s s e d b e l i e f that,  the f a c i l i t i e s f o r h a n d l i n g problems adequate, t o the b e l i e f t h a t a new work w i t h c h i l d r e n .  There was,  p e r t a i n i n g to c h i l d r e n were r e a s o n a b l y  agency s h o u l d be formed f o r p r o t e c t i o n  however, a g e n e r a l agreement among Committee  members t h a t a r e a l need e x i s t e d f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of agency i n t a k e p o l i c i e s , t h a t t h e r e should be.a  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the; d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  be-  tween the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , and t h a t ways and means should be found f o r r a i s ing  the e n t i r e l e v e l  of p r o t e c t i v e work done w i t h  children.  A survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t a g e n c i e s were t a k i n g too l a r g e a number of c h i l d r e n i n t o c a r e o u t s i d e t h e i r homes. l i t t l e case work treatment away from hone. the c h i l d was  Very  C o n v e r s e l y , they were p r o v i d i n g too  f o r the f a m i l i e s w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d  o f t e n , the f a m i l y agencies would c l o s e t h e i r cases  p l a c e d without  l e a v e the C h i l d r e n ' s Agencies  c o n s u l t i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s a g e n c i e s .  the o t h e r hand, the C h i l d r e n ' s Agencies would o f t e n p r o v i d e a  case work treatment  T h i s would  to cope not o n l y w i t h the f i n a n c i a l c o s t s but  a l s o w i t h the problem of what t o do w i t h the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r On  after  " l o s t " families. "specialized"  of s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h c h a l l e n g i n g problems without  p r o p e r a t t e n t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n .  In many i n s t a n c e e ,  t h i s a l l o w e d the b a s i c f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n t o get f a x beyond the p o i n t where s u c c e s s f u l treatment to  become  was  "problems."  p o s s i b l e and caused o t h e r members w i t h i n the f a m i l y  The  1938 study- a l s o i n d i c a t e d there was c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g i n t a k e  p o l i c i e s and programs of v a r i o u s case work a g e n c i e s *  Requests f o r placement  of c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and f o r h o a r d i n g homes were coming d i r e c t l y p a r e n t s and through  specialized agencies.  As a r e s u l t , a number o f d i v e r s e  " f a m i l y case work" programmes began to develop. t o one another  from  These programmes were u n r e l a t e d  and o p e r a t e d from d i f f e r e n t point s of view.  There was a  tendency  f o r each of these a g e n c i e s to work out the best d e a l or b a r g a i n they c o u l d make w i t h each o f the o t h e r a g e n c i e s . ;  on the d e f e n s i v e w i t h one another.  F o r the most p a r t , these a g e n c i e s were always They were unable  t o accept c r i t i c i s m and  were c o n s t a n t l y a a f r a i d of l o s s of p o s i t i o n and p r e s t i g e * Strong p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s among agency s t a f f members a l s o p l a y e d a dominant r o l e as t o which agency s h o u l d accept t h e c h i l d r e n f o r placement. Informal group c o n f e r e n c e s as t o the b e s t p l a n s f o r the c h i l d and f a m i l y were h e l d o n l y f a r cases i n v o l v e d i n Court  action.  Although  there are many s t r e n g t h s  i n c o n f e r e n c e s o f t h i s nature, t h e study p o i n t e d out t h a t , because of the v e r y informality,  the l a c k o f a u t h o r i t y , the ever-changing p e r s o n n e l  scope o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e s , not a g r e a t deal was  S e t t i n g Up of t h e Screened T h i s 1932  and the l i m i t e d  accomplished.  Intake Committee  study and subsequent  need f o r the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of treatment  s t u d i e s , however, i n d i c a t e d a great s e r v i c e s f o r f a m i l i e s and other s e r v i c e s  f o r t r e a t i n g t h e problems of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r i n c r e a s e d by reason o f W o r l d War'II.  own homes.  The need was f u r t h e r  W i t h the coming of war and i t s subsequent  a f t e r m a t h , i t was g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d that tbs problems o f p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y s o c i a l adjustment  were l i k e l y to assume even g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s due t o the  r a p i d changes i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s  o f the f a m i l y .  I t was t h e r e f o r e i n t h i s  a r e a t h a t i t was important f o r S a i n t Paul to put i t s house i n o r d e r , so t h a t i t s b a s i c s e r v i c e s might be o r g a n i z e d to d e a l e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h  6 the d i f f i c u l t i e s with which i t s f a m i l i e s would he confronted. To assure an e f f e c t i v e service and treatment programme, a community program was needed for o v e r - a l l diagnostic and treatment case work services.  It was not, however, u n t i l the year 19^-1, that a s p e c i f i c organi-  sation - the Screened Intske Committee was formed i n an e f f o r t to accomplish this.  This Committee was a working committee formed as a r e s u l t of the study  by the Council of Social Agencies. t i v e or supervisory positions.  It was composed of seven persons i n execu-  Each of the public and private family and c h i l d  care agencies i n the community was represented; as was the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . While i n the beginning there was no o f f i c i a l representation from the Probation O f f i c e , there was a close working relationship with that agency.  This l a c k of  representation was due to a shortage of Staff i n the Department.  Family Service -  the p r i n c i p a l non-sectarian f a n i l y agency - was asked to furnish a professional secretary and stenographic services f o r the committee. Some Basic P r i n c i p l e s There are several basic p r i n c i p l e s which must be considered i n developing plans f o r caring f o r children outside their own homes.  Foremost among these  p r i n c i p l e s i s considering the family as a basic unit of society and the natural setting f o r any c h i l d .  As Fern Lcwry says, "the home i s the co-ordinating and  1 integrating force i n the child's experience."  E f f o r t s to aid children which  ignore t h i s p r i n c i p l e are unsound, and are not true expressions of c h i l d welfare  2  work. It i s also an accepted case work p r i n c i p l e that most children should grow up i n a f a n i l y with a father and mother and preferably with brothers and sisters.  For the f i r s t few years of l i f e the c h i l d i s completely dependent  upon these people.  1. 2.  His entire time i s spent with them.  His physical care  Lowry, Fern - Readings In Social Case Work 1920-19^8. Published for the Hew York School of Social Work by Columbia Press, lew York, 1939 Page 595 Social S t a t i s t i c s , Supplement to the Child, June 19^5i PP 5-12  and most of h i s emotional  s a t i s f a c t i o n s come from them.  e a r l y f o r m a t i v e y e a r s - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e y e a r s from one  I t i s w i t h i n the£e to s i x - t h a t the  fundamental a t t i t u d e s and ways of r e a c t i n g to other p e o p l e a r e I n o t h e r words, e v e r y t h i n g a p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c e s i n l i f e  developed.  i s c o l o r e d and  i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h the medium o f h i s or her e x p e r i e n c e s of l i v i n g w i t h i n a f a m i l y group. I t has "been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d a l s o t h a t s o c i a l problems such as d e l i n q u e n c y , domestic  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , c h i l d n e g l e c t , a l c o h o l i s m , emotional  i n s t a b i l i t y , e t c . , u s u a l l y have t h e i r r o o t s i n the t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , and t h a t the p e r s o n i n d i f f i c u l t y r a r e l y can be t r e a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h out a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of h i s t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . I t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , that s p e c i a l c h i l d w e l f a r e programs,  such  as f o s t e r home c a r e , i n which the c h i l d i s s e p a r a t e d from h i s p a r e n t s , be u s e d o n l y as a l a s t treatment  resort.  F o s t e r home programs should serve a s  should  special  f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g the time a t o t a l treatment programme i s b e i n g  d e v e l o p e d f o r the f a m i l y u n i t  in difficulty.  During the c h i l d ' s placement  p e r i o d the g e n e r i c c a s e work a g e n c i e s should endeavour to a v o i d the down o f the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y .  break-  In o r d e r to do t h i s t h e r e must be a f o c u s i n g  of the community's r e s o u r c e s upon the p r e v e n t i o n of the f a m i l y ' s d i s t r e s s and upon treatment  o f the breakdown.  T h i s can be accomplished  a c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the g e n e r i c and agencies.  Effort  should be made to a s s i s t  only  through  s p e c i a l i z e d case work  the f a m i l y not  o n l y to g a i n more  c o n f i d e n c e i n i t s e l f but a l s o an a b i l i t y to cope w i t h t h e i r problems a n d w i t h t h e i r needs. entire fanily  I f abnormal behaviour  i s m a n i f e s t e d by a c h i l d , the  should be c o n s i d e r e d as a problem.  The  " f a m i l y " and  s h o u l d be l o o k e d upon as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , f o r the f u t i l i t y  "child"  of p l a c i n g a  changed c h i l d back i n t o an unchanged environment has been r e c o g n i z e d f o r  some y e a r s .  Programs f o r " l o n g - t e r m care should he u t i l i z e d o n l y where t h e  f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n has became so s e r i o u s o r permanently broken t h a t i t i s necessary to  to remove the c h i l d r e n permanently from t h e i r own  homes I n order  protect their welfare. I f f a m i l i e s a r e not to be broken up u n n e c e s s a r i l y , there must  be  a c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d - c a r i n g agencies and the f a m i l y s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s or departments whose f u n c t i o n i t i s to p r o t e c t the home from d i s a s t e r . has the It  Because the f a m i l y agency i s a g e n e r i c case work agency, i t  o p p o r t u n i t y to know the f a m i l y ' a n d  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important  i t s problems as a c o n s t e l l a t i o n .  that such a g e n c i e s be a b l e to r e c o g n i z e  q u a l i t i e s which, even i n a poor home, may  c o n t r i b u t e to a c h i l d ' s w e l l - b e i n g  b e t t e r than those which can be p r o v i d e d i n a f o s t e r home. s u c c e s s f u l l y and prevent  those  f a m i l y breakdown, ( and  Moreover, to t r e a t  thus a r r e s t the i n c r e a s e i n  numbers and c o s t s of c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e t h e i r own  homes), i t i s  e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e r e be a p l a n f o r the e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f problems and d i r e c t i n g of f a m i l i e s to proper o r d e r l y community p l a n no  treatment  facilities.  Unless  t h e r e i s an  and u n i f i e d a c t i o n between the s o c i a l w e l f a r e  s i n g l e agency can accomplish  much i n the way  agencies,  of a p r e v e n t a t i v e program o r  a c o n s t r u c t i v e c h i l d c a r e program w i t h i n the community. P r i o r to the f o r m a t i o n of  the Screened  Intake  Committee i n 1 9 ^ 1 ,  M i n n e s o t a had a g r e a t e r number of c h i l d r e n i n care o u t s i d e t h e i r than had many o f the o t h e r American s t a t e s . concern  to those people, i n Saint P a u l who  c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  T h i s c o n d i t i o n was  homes  of great  were i n t e r e s t e d i n the w e l f a r e of  Moreover, these p e o p l e r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e  t i e s which were i n e x i s t e n c e were very inadequate whether they were i n or out  own  of t h e i r own  homes.  facili-  t o meet t h e needs of c h i l d r e n Because t h e i r concern was  k e e n , a committee composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the C h i l d r e n ' s and  so  Family  i n S a i n t Paul, was formed i n 193S  agencies  to study  these c o n d i t i o n s .  The study' they made p o i n t e d out t h e g r e a t need f o r a c a t i o n of agency i n t e k e p o l i c i e s , and a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , raise  the standard  parents. the  The study  development  as a u n i t . welfare  o f the d i v i s i o n of  a s w e l l as a great need t o  o f case work done with both the c h i l d r e n and committee r e a l i z e d  their  t h i s c o u l d o n l y be accomplished by  of a t o t a l treatment program f o r the f a m i l y i n d i f f i c u l t y  They r e a l i z e d  too, t h a t to a c c o m p l i s h  agencies w i t h i n the C i t y  t h i s , a l l the s o c i a l  of S a i n t Paul must cooperate i n the de-  velopment o f such a program f o r no agency alone c o u l d accomplish good p r e v e n t a t i v e or a c o n s t r u c t i v e c h i l d care program. ed a f t e r the f o r m a t i o n chapters.  clarifi-  of the new  Committee  either  a  The methods f o l l o w -  are examined i n subsequent  CHAPTER I I CONCERTED ACTION BETWEEN FAMILY AND  CHILDREN'S AGENCIES  Lack of Community C o n t r o l At the time t h e r e were few flow  of the f o r m a t i o n o f the Screened  c o n t r o l s , other than  Intake  Committee  those by i n d i v i d u a l a g e n c i e s ,  of c h i l d r e n to the c h i l d c a r i n g agencies.  The  on the  c o n t r o l s which were  i n e x i s t e n c e were s p o t t y and not a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of the community w e l f a r e programme.  Most of them were l e f t  to the judgment o f  social  individual  a g e n c i e s working throtigh t h e i r i n t a k e departments. There were, however, a few  exceptions.  One  e x c e p t i o n was  the  c o n t r o l on the number of c h i l d r e n sent by c o u r t s t o c h i l d r e n ' s a g e n c i e s . S a i n t P a u l , the J u v e n i l e Court was the  seven D i s t r i c t  or two  basis,  a r o t a t i n g system.  l o n g ago  Any  one  of  For the past ten o r e l e v e n y e a r s ,  judges were persuaded to t a k e t h i s assignment on a f a i r l y permanent  so that f o r a l l i n t e n t s and purposes t h e r e was  Judge.  Court.  Court Judges were l i k e l y to be a s s i g n e d to Juvenife C o u r t .  I n other words, i t was one  p a r t of the D i s t r i c t  In  j u s t one J u v e n i l e  That, however, need not be the s i t u a t i o n i n the f u t u r e . t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h J u v e n i l e Court was  number of d i f f e r e n t  I t was  learned  much b e t t e r i f the  s o c i a l workers a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e the  c h i l d n e g l e c t , dependency, and  Court  Court  d e l i n q u e n c y were l i m i t e d .  t h e r e f o r e , which a l s o had a L e g a l A i d Department, had one  on matters  of  Family Service, s t a f f member  who  r e p r e s e n t e d a number of agencies - b o t h c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y - i n J u v e n i l e Court.  The Bureau of C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s had i t s Court Worker and  Welfare  D i v i s i o n of  o n l y one  the County Welfare  of t h r e e persons  Board a l s o had  Child  i t s Court Worker,  p r e s e n t e d m a t e r i a l to J u v e n i l e C o u r t .  v a r i o u s judges became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the r e p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s ,  10  the  In t h i s  Thus way  and i n t u r n ,  m p e r s o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the p o i n t s of view and  1 p h i l o s o p h y of the Judges. A second i t was  e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l was  t h a t of a Case Committee whose f u n c t i o n  t o c o n t r o l the assignment of cases to  e f f e c t i v e i n t h a t t h e r e was  some assurance  social agencies.  This control  was  i n d i v i d u a l ' . a g e n c i e s were not b e i n g  a s s i g n e d too many c a s e s and were h a n d l i n g cases a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r  function.  T h i s procedure,  no w e l l  however, had two  major weaknesses.  First,  t h e r e was  p r e p a r e d d i a g n o s t i c approach to the c a s e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by the  Committee,  s e c o n d l y , t h e r e was  little  control  ment and w h i l e the c h i l d was  over treatment  of the f a m i l y p r i o r to p l a c e -  b e i n g c a r e d f o r o u t s i d e i t s own  home.  U n t i l 1935» w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the f l o w o f c h i l d r e n through  the  c o u r t s t o the c h i l d r e n ' s agencies, the few c o n t r o l s were l a r g e l y w i t h i n the government  of each agency and i t s i n d i v i d u a l departments.  d e v e l o p e d a c o n t r o l of a l i m i t e d n a t u r e . of  T h i s c o n t r o l r e s t r i c t e d the number  c h i l d r e n b e i n g a l l o c a t e d t o the Lutheran  Lutheran  In t h i s y e a r t h e r e  agencies.  For i n s t a n c e , the  C h i l d r e n ' s F r i e n d S o c i e t y would o n l y a c c e p t Lutheran c h i l d r e n who  suitable f o r adoption.  A little  l a t e r the Department  a l i a i s o n p e r s o n whose f u n c t i o n was  were  of E d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d  t o work as a mediary o r r o u t i n g agency  between t h e s c h o o l s and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s .  T h i s l a t t e r c o n t r o l developed  from  the F e d e r a l C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t (Community S e r v i c e f o r C h i l d r e n ) . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h i s c o n t r o l was Chest.  m a i n t a i n e d and f i n a n c e d by the Community  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e , and l a t e r - t h e County  B o a r d , c o n t r i b u t e d one worker as a l i a i s o n p e r s o n . c o n t r o l s as they were not  Welfare  These were r e a l l y i n d i r e c t •  set up p r i m a r i l y w i t h the i d e a o f d e a l i n g w i t h the  1. The P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e i n S a i n t P a u l has never handled u n o f f i c i a l c a s e s . In o t h e r words, i t c o n f i n e s i t s work t o a d j u d i c a t e d c a s e s of d e l i n q u e n c y . I t does not handle c h i l d n e g l e c t o r dependency cases, except to r e c e i v e support payments on order of the C o u r t . In f a c t , by s t a t e law the l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n e g l e c t e d and dependent c h i l d r e n r e s t s w i t h the County Welfare Board. S i n c e the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e does not handle u n o f f i c i a l c a s e s , i t does not make p r e l i m i n a r y investigations. In o t h e r words, the need f o r some r e f e r r a l procedures always has been i n the p i c t u r e .  12 p r o b l e m of the f l o w of c h i l d r e n to the c h i l d c a r i n g a g e n c i e s . To some e x t e n t the case c o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d by the C h i l d C l i n i c , Community S e r v i c e f o r . C h i l d r e n , and controls.  In these i n s t a n c e s the  other a g e n c i e s a l s o  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a l l i n g the  Guidance  served as conferences  r e s t e d w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l agency - i f not w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l worker. t h e s e c o n t r o l s the o n l y other checks  on the f l o w of c h i l d r e n i n t o the  c a r i n g a g e n c i e s p r i o r t o the f o r m a t i o n of the Screened t o be  the i n t a k e p o l i c i e s of the a g e n c i e s .  j e c t to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g intake  staff.  Thus, a standard procedure  Intake Committee seemed  of good case work procedure  by the  o r method o f c o n t r o l on the f l o w of not always  ensured.  of R e f e r r a l  The p r i n c i p a l Saint  child  These p o l i c i e s , however, were sub-  c h i l d r e n i n t o the c h i l d c a r i n g a g e n c i e s was  E x i s t i n g Sources  Beyond  sources of r e f e r r a l to the c h i l d c a r i n g a g e n c i e s i n  P a u l are l i s t e d a s f o l l o w s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the number of r e f e r r a l s  d u r i n g any g i v e n p e r i o d of time;  the Ramsey County Welfare  Board - ' S e r v i c e and  R e l i e f Department; t h e Ramsey County Welfare Board - A i d t o Dependent C h i l d r e n ; p r i v a t e f a m i l y case work a g e n c i e s ; C o u r t ; P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e ; Probate  s c h o o l s ; C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c ; J u v e n i l e  "Court; P o l i c e through J u v e n i l e Court;  Community S e r v i c e f o r C h i l d r e n ; churches by r e f e r r a l ; p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n  by  parents, parent, r e l a t i v e s , or guardians. At t h i s time  the c h i l d c a r e r e s o u r c e s of the community of Saint P a u l  were the C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e I n c o r p o r a t e d ; the Ramsey County Welfare C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n ; ment; M i n n e s o t a  the Bureau of C a t h o l i c  C h a r i t i e s - the C h i l d r e n ' s Depart-  C h i l d r e n ' s Home S o c i e t y ; L u t h e r a n C h i l d Care a g e n c i e s ; s e v e r a l  M i n n e a p o l i s C h i l d Care Agencies i n g Home); State  Board - the  Institutions.  ( e . g . S h e l t e r i n g Arms and the Lutheran  Receiv-  13 Prom t h e s e a g e n c i e s i t was  p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n permanent care of  c h i l d r e n i n b o a r d i n g homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s through v o l u n t a r y placement.  Short time  care i n boarding homes was  commitaEnt or  u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be  under t h r e e y e a r s but c o u l d be as l o n g as f i v e to ten y e a r s .  T h i s type of  placement and t h a t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e was g e n e r a l l y v o l u n t a r y o r by c o u r t action. of  Placement of c h i l d r e n i n b o a r d i n g homes or i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r purposes  s p e c i a l i z e d study and treatment;  housekeeping  s e r v i c e s f o r c a r e of c h i l d r e n  i n t h e i r own homes; s u p e r v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own s e r v i c e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from the aforementioned a d d i t i o n t o the c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s as the law public  agency and  homes and  c h i l d care  adoption  services i n the  s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n s to  institutions*  F a c i l i t i e s F o r Wider C o n t r o l s S a i n t P a u l h a d a number of a g e n c i e s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e f o r the c a r e and treatment  o f f a m i l y problems.  F o r i n s t a n c e - F a m i l y S e r v i c e of S a i n t Paul;  the Bureau of. C a t h o l i c ^ C h a r i t i e s ( F a m i l y Department); the  Saint P a i l  Jewish  1 F a m i l y S e r v i c e ; S e r v i c e and R e l i e f ; and A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n Departments of the Ramsey County Welfare B o a r d .  In a d d i t i o n to the c h i l d c a r e a g e n c i e s ,  t h e r e were good s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s t o a s s i s t  i n treatment.  F o r example;  the  C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , J u v e n i l e C o u r t , P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e , s e t t l e m e n t s , c h i l d r e n ' c e n t e r s , boy and g i r l  programmes, churches,  these f a c i l i t i e s already a v a i l a b l e  s c h o o l s , and h e a l t h a g e n c i e s . With  a l l that was  f o r r o u t i n g i n r e l a t i o n to d i a g n o s i s of need and f a m i l i e s in  difficulty.  The  a comprehensive p i  an o v e r a l l treatment  plan f o r  a d d i t i o n of t h i s comprehensive p l a n would be  c o n t r o l more e f f e c t i v e l y the f l o w of c h i l d r e n to where they would r e c e i v e proper 1.  r e q u i r e d was  treatment  the child caring  to  agencies  and c a r e .  The S a i n t P a u l Jevvish F a m i l y S e r v i c e d i d not have a separate f a m i l y d e p a r t ment .  1U A Suggested P l a n The providing  Committee r e a l i z e d t h a t the number o f a g e n c i e s w h i c h were  s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n should  of the t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and treatment f o r meeting the diagnosis time and  that  a p l a n of d i a g n o s i s  I t was  thought t h a t  various  established.  at  s o c i a l a g e n c i e s of the  community.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e - e i t h e r the  to be  This  I t was  enough to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y as a working committee. t o have one  suggested t h a t  T h i s Committee was  l a t e r became known a s the Screened Intake Committee.  the  and  such a  s p e c i a l i z e d treatment a g e n c i e s i n t o play  t h i s c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d i t was  Case A l l o c a t i o n Committee be  a g e n c i e s was  diagnosis  a  w h i c h would produce the most e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s .  In order  s e n t a t i v e of the  s h o u l d be  t o t a l f a m i l y needs.  and p l a n w o u l d b r i n g i n a way  that there  be r e l a t e d to a  repre-  Committee  to be  small  Each o f the  executive  a  or a  following supervisor:  C h i l d W e l f a r e D i v i s i o n of the Ramsey County Welfare Board; the Bureau of  C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s ; General. A s s i s t a n c e C h i l d Welfare Board;  without  question  Cross was  Children Service  the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c  t o be p e r m i t t e d  r e f e r r i n g them to anotha: agency.  agencies l i k e l y  C a t e g o r i c a l A i d s Department of  the Jewish F a m i l y .Service; the  the F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n ; the American Red  and  and  Health  a g e n c i e s and  Incorporate;  Probation  to b r i n g c a s e s b e f o r e the other  Office;  Committee social  to make r e f e r r a l s from time to time w h i c h would i n v o l v e  of removal of c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r own  the  the  homes were r e q u e s t e d to make  such r e f e r r a l s to a f a m i l y agency. I t was and  p l a n n e d that the  Committee would meet e v e r y Monday  afternoon  e v e r y Wednesday morning to review by appointment a l l cases where i t  c o n t e m p l a t e d that c h i l d r e n would be removed from t h e i r own Committee was collect  the  homes.  was  The  t o have a f u l l time p a i d s e c r e t a r y whose d u t i e s would be  to  necessary h i s t o r i e s , c a l l meetings, keep minutes of each c o n f e r e n c e  and f u r n i s h a g e n c i e s concerned w i t h c o p i e s of the  Committee's recommendations.  15  I t was  thought  a d v i s a b l e that the. p e r s o n s e r v i n g as s e c r e t a r y o f the  Committee  s h o u l d he a p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s e r v i n g as s e c r e t a r y and s h o u l d be f u r n i s h e d by the F a m i l y S e r v i c e because of the manner i n w h i c h the J u v e n i l e Court functioned i n Saint Paul,  I t was  a l s o thought  a d v i s a b l e t h a t the  Screened  Intake Committee s h o u l d not serve as a standing committee f o r the C o u n t i l of S o c i a l Agencies due  to the d i f f e r e n c e of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s ,  The  Screened  Intake  Committee was a working committee - a committee which d e a l t with the day day problems of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s . S o c i a l Agencies was agency. ing  by  On the o t h e r hand, tbs C o u n t i l of  a p o l i c y , f a c t f i n d i n g a d v i s o r y and over a l l p l a n n i n g  Because the Screened Intake Committee was  a working committee d e a l -  almost e n t i r e l y w i t h problems around the r e n d e r i n g of s e r v i c e s w i t h  p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s , i t was thought  t h a t i t c o u l d f u n c t i o n best i f i t was  directly  r e s p o n s i b l e to the p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c i e s concerned w i t h t h e day by day care and s e r v i c i n g of c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s .  I t t h e r e f o r e was a g r e e d t h a t when m a t t e r s  i n v o l v i n g over a l l community p l a n n i n g and other f u n c t i o n s n o r m a l l y assumed by the C o u n t i l t h a t the Screened Intake Committee would r e f e r  such matters to the  C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies w i t h such f i n d i n g s a s i t had accumulated  in i t s  normal work. When the Screened Intake  Committee was  i n a u g u r a t e d t h e r e were few  c o n t r o l s on the a l l o c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n to c h i l d care a g e n c i e s .  The  i n e x i s t e n c e were s p o t t y and not an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the community w e l f a r e programme.  However, t h e r e were a s u f f i c i e n t  a v a i l a b l e to remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  controls social  number of f a c i l i t i e s  A c c o r d i n g l y , the Screened Intake Committee,  composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the v a r i o u s s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n the community, established in l ° A l .  T h i s committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p r o v i n g the homes.  The  a g e n c i e s a s s i g n e d the  placement  of  c h i l d r e n away from t h e i r own  of  s u p e r v i s i n g the c h i l d and the f a m i l i e s were determined by the Screened  i n r e l a t i o n to d i a g n o s i s of need and an o v e r a l l treatment in  difficulty.  was  responsibility  p l a n f o r the  Intake  families  GMPTER I I I FUNCTIONS AND  PROCEDURE OP THE  SCREENED INTAKE COMMITTEE  The f u n c t i o n s of t h e Screened Intake Committee as set f o r t h and c o m p i l e d i n the Screened Intake Manual were e s t a b l i s h e d to make c e r t a i n t h e r e would be a c o n t i n u i n g treatment p l a n f o r the f a m i l y as a u n i t , i n s t e a d of d i v i d i n g the a c t u a l treatment o f the problems family.  of any one i n d i v i d u a l i n the  From time to time the f u n c t i o n s were r e v i s e d and One  reviewed.  of. the major f u n c t i o n s of the Screened Intake Committee was  review c a s e s p r e s e n t e d by a g e n c i e s which recommended removal their  of c h i l d r e n f r o m  own homes e i t h e r through c o u r t a c t i o n or v o l u n t a r y placement.  Committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making c e r t a i n that community were b e i n g u s e d to the b e s t advantage,  removal  The  treatment r e s o u r c e s of the and that c h i l d r e n were not  b e i n g removed from t h e i r homes except a f t e r w e l l thought out p l a n s . Committee thought  to  I f the  of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r homes would be unwise,.it  s u g g e s t e d o t h e r s t e p s which might  be taken to keep the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r  own  homes. The  Committee a l s o determined which C h i l d r e n ' s Agency was  most  a p p r o p r i a t e t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c a r e of c h i l d r e n f o r whom p l a c e ment was  necessary.  I f two  or more a g e n c i e s were a c t i v e with.one  case, the  Committee determined the d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the a g e n c i e s and the method by which the c h i l d r e n were to be removed from t h e i r homes, that i s . whether removal would be by c o u r t a c t i o n or v o l u n t a r y placement. A f t e r the commitment of c h i l d r e n to c a r e , the  Committee f r e q u e n t l y  r e v i e w e d the s i t u a t i o n to assure that the a g e n c i e s a c t i v e w i t h the c h i l d the f a m i l y were w o r k i n g toward the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e h i s o r her own  and  r e t u r n of the c h i l d t o  home; o r that permanent plans f o r the care and welfare of the  c h i l d r e n were b e i n g made a s soon as p o s s i b l e .  16  Moreover,  the f r e q u e n t reviews  17 of the cases e n a b l e d  the  Committee to c o n s i d e r major changes i n agency plans  which i t had p r e v i o u s l y approved, and  t o make c e r t a i n the a g e n c i e s were  c o n t i n u i n g to p l a n f o r the c h i l d r e n i n care*  Frequently further exploration  i n d i c a t e d the a d v i s a b i l i t y of making permanent p l a n s o r i g i n a l l y admitted  f o r o n l y a temporary p e r i o d of  By means of i t s r e g u l a r meetings the  f o r c h i l d r e n who  care.  Screened Intake  Committee  endeavoured to l a y the f o u n d a t i o n f o r b e t t e r i n t e r - a g e n c y p o l i c i e s s t a r t i n g and their and  c o n t i n u i n g the p r o c e s s  thereby  of team work between the a g e n c i e s  and  r e s p e c t i v e s t a f f s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of b e t t e r s e r v i c e to those f a m i l i e s  children requiring assistance.  Only when s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g and  z a t i o n problems r e l a t i n g to the care Screened Intake  standing  Committee s u b s t i t u t e f o r the  that no agency may  C o u n c i l of S o c i a l  f o r e g o i n g c a r r i e s w i t h i t the under-  f i r s t d i s c u s s i n g the r e a s o n s f o r  Committee.  All  appointments were made through the  Secretary  then n o t i f i e d the agency as to the  case was  Agencies.  c l o s e a case which i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n or  p e n d i n g review by the Committee without c l o s i n g w i t h the  organi-  and treatment o f c h i l d r e n arose d i d the  Such a p l a n as o u t l i n e d i n the  The  were  t o be p r e s e n t e d ,  The  Secretary  of the  Committee.  date and approximate time  the  case worker c o u l d suggest the names of other  agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or persons who  were i n t e r e s t e d i n the  case and  who  might have i n f o r m a t i o n t o c o n t r i b u t e toward the case p r e s e n t a t i o n .  Those  p e r s o n s most l i k e l y t o be  Bepresen-  c a l l e d upon were t e a c h e r s and m i n i s t e r s .  t a t i o n at the meetings of t h i s Committee, however, were g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d to the e x e c u t i v e , the case.  Since  e x p l a i n the •Screening.'  s u p e r v i s o r and the worker from e a c h agency p r e s e n t i n g  the worker was  acquainted  s i t u a t i o n f u l l y without  having  I f the attendance at the  i n g s become unwieldy.  The  p e r s o n s as to the date and  w i t h the f a m i l y she  outside people attending  to  the  Committee becomes too l a r g e the meet-  S e c r e t a r y was time of the  should'be able  the  a l so r e s p o n s i b l e f o r n o t i f y i n g t i e se conference.  IS  Basic  Case Summary Typed summaries of cases to be p r e s e n t e d to the  first  time had  t o be p r e s e n t e d to the  presentation.  Written  worker t o organize  summaries were r e q u e s t e d i n order  to.expedite  the  S e c r e t a r y p r i o r to the a c t u a l date of  her m a t e r i a l ; to g i v e the  pertinent information;  Committee f o r  to a s s i s t the  case  Committee members a r e c o r d  presentation  of  and t o develop a body of  w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l f r o m which c o n s t r u c t i v e f i n d i n g s c o u l d be made. For each summary seven c o p i e s were r e q u e s t e d i n order member of the Committee c o u l d have one discussion. c a r r y out  that each  to study i n advance of the  case  Such a procedure e n a b l e d the Committee to be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d to  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l a c e d upon them.  the work of the Committee and case worker and  Supervisor  saved the  Furthermore, i t  case worker d e l a y .  a n " o p p o r t u n i t y to review the  expedited  I t a l s o gave  summary before  the  presen-  tation. The  b a s i c summary o u t l i n e as f i r s t  S c r e e n e d Intake Committee was I II Ill  as f o l l o w s :  Complete i d e n t i f y i n g  information.  Registrations. Reasons f o r r e f e r e n c e  and p r o p o s e d p l a n : a statement of  the  s i t u a t i o n and problem l e a d i n g  to IV  d e v i s e d by a sub-committee o f  immediate p r e s e n t  up  referral.  D e s c r i p t i o n of  each member of the f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g  school  r e c o r d , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , h a b i t s , work h i s t o r y , p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s and d i v o r c e , court  conduct, i n t e r e s t s * m a r r i a g e s  r e c o r d , r e l i g i o n behaviour and  and  emotional  problems, a t t i t u d e toward the f a m i l y agency, toward problem and  toward proposed p l a n .  the  19 V  Report o f agency contact w i t h t h e f a m i l y ,  including  1 , home c o n d i t i o n s , f i n a n c i a l  s i t u a t i o n , property,  relatives.  L a t e r t h i s o u t l i n e was s e t up i n such a way that the f i r s t page c o u l d he adapted f o r use i n a l l r e f e r r a l s , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g t h e need t o prepare f u r t h e r s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n  on t h i s page was kept  separate from the b a s i c h i s t o r y . In w r i t i n g the b a s i c h i s t o r y , the form of the o u t l i n e , i n c l u d i n g major h e a d i n g s , v/as p r e s e n t e d .  The i n f o r m a t i o n ,  "material  t o be i n c l u d e d , "  under t h e h e a d i n g s was l i s t e d i n n u m e r i c a l form, but i n t h e w r i t i n g of the summary i t was t o be w r i t t e n i n paragraph f o r m without numbers or marginal headings. For  the most p a r t the o u t l i n e i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y .  however, was i n c l u d e d under b o t h p a r e n t s i n order subsequent m a r r i a g e s . in  I f a step-parent  the f s m i l y s i t u a t i o n , material  t o take c a r e  was or h a d p l a y e d  regarding  Marital History,  an important r o l e  t h i s p a r e n t was t o be i n c l u d e d  u n d e r a separate heading, and was t o c o v e r t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n under  Committee r e q u i r e d that  children f e l t  i f a b o a r d i n g home placement was i n d i c a t e d ,  the summary i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n  toward one another.  they  i n separate or  same b o a r d i n g homes.  Original Presentation  o f a Case  An agency p l a n n i n g had  to c a l l  the  Secretary  the S e c r e t a r y  t o b r i n g a case b e f o r e  the S c r e e n i n g  of the Committee f o r an appointment.  See Appendix.  Committee  At t h i s time  had t o be g i v e n as complete i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  possible.  1.  as t o how the  T h i s was r e q u e s t e d i n o r d e r .that  c o u l d determine b e t t e r whether the c h i l d r e n should be p l a c e d the  as required  " f a t h e r " and "mother." Under F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p ,  the  of p r e v i o u s o r  as was  20  The case worker then d i s c u s s e d w i t h the S e c r e t a r y the a d v i s a b i l i t y of n o t i f y i n g  o t h e r agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or persons  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  case as to the date and time o f appointment* B e f o r e an appointment  was made f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a case  i t was important t h a t t h e case worker and S u p e r v i s o r of the a c t i v e agency were i n agreement  that a g i v e n case he brought  to the Committee.  A l l possible  s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n were t o have been f u l l y e x p l o r e d b e f o r e r e f e r r a l was made, in  I f two case working  a g e n c i e s were a c t i v e w i t h one case they d e c i d e d  c o n f e r e n c e which agency was t o make.the r e f e r r a l  t o the Committee.  In  some s i t u a t i o n s i t was a d v i s a b l e f o r the F a m i l y Agency t o d i s c u s s w i t h the C h i l d r e n ' s Agency proposed p l a n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of placement  b e f o r e the  case was p r e s e n t e d t o the Committee, At to  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the. case the case worker had t o be p r e p a r e d  g i v e a b r i e f resume o f the agency'3 p l a n s f o r the f a m i l y .  c o n f e r e n c e were kept by t h e S e c r e t a r y .  Minutes of each  Each agency was t h e n f u r n i s h e d w i t h  c o p i e s of the minutes and t h e Committee's recommendations.  I f other a g e n c i e s  were r e g i s t e r e d the S e c r e t a r y made a r e p o r t of them. B e f o r e a placement  was made c l i e n t s and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n a  case g e n e r a l l y were not informed t h a t the case was f i r s t S c r e e n e d Intake Committee,  p r e s e n t e d to the  Students c o u l d a t t e n d meetings  o f the Committee  but t h e y h a d t o have a know ledge o f the p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d .  The  agency b r i n g i n g the student was t o know the case and t o have h a d the student r e a d the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g the c a s e .  Review o f Cases P r e v i o u s l y P r e s e n t e d I t was t h e duty o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the Screened Intake to  Committee  send a n o t i c e i n t r i p l i c a t e to the agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Committee  thirty date  days b e f o r e the date s e t f o r a review t o a d v i s e the agency as t o the  set f o r the review.  The agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t u r n sent a copy of t h e  21  n o t i c e to the case worker or s u p e r v i s o r who  w i t h i n two weeks a d v i s e d the  S e c r e t a r y of the Committee as to whether or not the case w o u l d be ready f o r r e v i e w on the date s p e c i f i e d *  I f the agency was  ready t o review the case,  the S e c r e t a r y then set a d e f i n i t e date and time f o r a review of the presentation.  I f t h e case was  not  case  ready t o be reviewed the case worker  r e q u e s t e d a c o n t i n u a n c e s t a t i n g the reasons f o r such a r e q u e s t . The case worker c o u l d request a review of the case at any time r e g a r d l e s s of the review date as set by the Committee at the time tation.  n e c e s s a r y o r when a re-assignment  of agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were  contemplated. I f more than  one agency was  c o u l d be combined and one review.  a c t i v e w i t h the case the i n f o r m a t i o n  summary j o i n t l y p r e p a r e d and t h e n s u b m i t t e d f o r  At o t h e r t i m e s , each agency c o u l d p r e p a r e and  summary f o r review by the Committee.  a review was  submit t h e i r  own  Again, these reviews were g e n e r a l l y  r e q u e s t e d when a marked change i n p l a n was n e c e s s a r y . for  of presen-  G e n e r a l l y such reviews were r e q u e s t e d a t p o i n t s i?hen a marked change  i n p l a n was being  -  The  suggested o u t l i n e  as f o l l o w s : a.  Identifying information.  b.  Reason f o r review and p o i n t s of d i s c u s s i o n d e s i r e d .  c.  Recommendations of p r e v i o u s meeting of the  d.  Present  As was  Committee.  situation.  done f o r the o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c a s e , the case  worker had to be p r e p a r e d t o g i v e a b r i e f v e r b a l resume of the h i s t o r y of the case. I f the P a m i l y Agency and C h i l d r e n ' s Agency d e c i d e d t h a t  the c h i l d r e n  and the f a m i l y were ready t o be r e u n i t e d , the S e c r e t a r y of the Committee a d v i s e d as t o t h e i r r e t u r n by a w r i t t e n r e p o r t .  was  I f c h i l d r e n were removed from  a b o a r d i n g home or i n s t i t u t i o n by the p a r e n t s a g a i n s t the a d v i c e of the  agencies  22  i n t e r e s t e d , the case had t o be r e t u r n e d to the Committee f o r r e v i e w .  S p e c i a l K i n d s of  Placements  There were f o u r s i t u a t i o n s where placement  of c h i l d r e n  p e r m i s s i b l e b e f o r e agency p r e s e n t a t i o n of the placement  was  p l a n s to the  Screened Intake Committee, a)  An emergency placement.  T h i s placement  was  d e f i n e d by the  S c r e e n e d Intake Committee as any i n s t a n c e o c c u r r i n g on a Sunday, a h o l i d a y , or  a f t e r r e g u l a r working hotirs, which would n e c e s s i t a t e placement  of c h i l d r e n  1 outside their  own  home.  I f emergency placements  o c c u r r e d on Sundays, h o l i -  days o r a f t e r working hours, the case workers c o u l d c a l l  the E x e c u t i v e  S e c r e t a r y of the Ramsey County W e l f a r e Board; the S u p e r v i s o r of the East District  o f the Ramsey County W e l f a r e Board; or the L i a i s o n O f f i c e .  Before  making an emergency placement, the case workers f i r s t had to have made c e r t a i n t h a t r e l a t i v e s o r members of the f a m i l i e s were unable  to c a r e f o r the c h i l d r e n  u n t i l more permanent p l a n s f o r the c h i l d r e n c o u l d be made by t h e  agency.  In a l l the emergency s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g placements the case worker of t h e F a m i l y Agency r e q u e s t e d the E x e c u t i v e o r S u p e r v i s o r o f h i s or h e r agency agency.  s e r v i n g on the Screened Intake Committe, t o c o n t a c t the  The  S u p e r v i s o r or E x e c u t i v e making the c o n t a c t r e p o r t e d the p l a c e -  ment t o the S e c r e t a r y of the Screened Intake Committee. cy  placements  Ramsey  their  County  own  I n a l l such emergen-  the Ramsey County W e l f a r e Board c a s e s were r e f e r r e d t o the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n ; the F a m i l y S e r v i c e c a s e s to the Children's  S e r v i c e or the Bureau to  placement  of C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s F a m i l y Department cases were r e -  C h i l d r e n ' s Department.  i D u r i n g emergency placements the F a m i l y Agency was  responsible for  p r o v i d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h the necessary c l o t h i n g and a r r a n g i n g f o r p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s b e f o r e placement. 1.  Screened Intake Manual.  Whenever p o s s i b l e p e r m i t s f o r medical care  23  during the placement were to he obtained from the parents or guardians by the agency making or requesting placement.  The Family Agency requesting emergency  placement was b i l l e d the f u l l cost of care f o r the children u n t i l the case was accepted by the Children's Agency through the medium of the Screened Intake Committee* The agency requesting placement had to notify the I n s t i t u t i o n as to whether r e l a t i v e s could be allowed to v i s i t the children during the emergency period.  As soon as possL.hle after the placement was made, namely on Monday  afternoon or Wednesday morning, an appointment for presentation of the case to the Screened Intake Committee was made by the agency case worker. b) weeks duration.  Short time placements.  These were placements of less than four  Placements such as these did not need to be presented to the  Committee, but had to be reported to the Secretary of the Committee before placement was made.  The same procedure as that f o r emergency placements was  followed. By acceptance of short time cases f o r care the Children s Agency 1  assumed f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r care at the time of placement.  If the  c h i l d r e n were not returned to their home at the end of the four week period, the Secretary of the Committee automatically was responsible f o r making an appointment for a presentation of the case to the Committee. cj  Independent placements.  Whenever a child was placed i n a  boarding home independently, that i s , by the parents or guardians without consent of an agency, the placement was referred to the Family Agency.  An  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was then made of the c h i l d ' s own family situation with a view to deciding whether t h i s was an appropriate case f o r boarding home placement. If the investigation by the Family Agency indicated that placement was necessary the case was then presented to the Screened Intake Committee.  The case  was discussed and a decision was made regarding which children's agency could  2U  accept  the case f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of the c h i l d wh i l e  i n boarding  care.  agency was then r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l i c e n s i n g of the independent  This  boarding  home, i f i t was s u i t a b l e , or making other p l a n s f o r placement. d)  Cases i n which the S e c r e t a r y c o u l d r e p r e s e n t the Committee: A s i t u a t i o n c o u l d a r i s e i n w h i c h i t was apparent t h a t p l a c e -  ment was t h e o n l y p l a n p o s s i b l e . sent t o the S e c r e t a r y  In a s i t u a t i o n of t h i s type  of the Committee.  a summary was  The S e c r e t a r y c o u l d then approve the  p r o p o s e d p l a n s or make a recommendation on b e h a l f of t h e Committee.  At a  l a t e r date, however, the S e c r e t a r y had to. r e p o r t t h i s recommendation to the Committee.  Thus, a formal p r e s e n t a t i o n to t h e Committee by the agency was  avoided. The to, f i r s t : without  f u n c t i o n s of t h e Screened Intake  make c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n were not being  w e l l thought out p l a n s , and, second:  treatment p l a n f o r the f a m i l y as a u n i t . approval  of the Screened Intake  Committee were e s t a b l i s h e d removed from t h e i r own homes  a s an assurance of a c o n t i n u i n g  F o s t e r home placements without the  Committee c o u l d be made o n l y when placements  were on an emergency b a s i s ; made p r i v a t e l y by the p a r e n t s  or guardians,  or f o r  l e s s t h a n f o u r weeks. For the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a case t h e Committee r e q u e s t e d sumnaries of the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s as were " p o s s i b l e . were kept by the Committee S e c r e t a r y .  M i n u t e s of each  conference  Although t h e date f o r review was determined  at the time of case p r e s e n t a t i o n , reviews c o u l d be r e q u e s t e d Agencies assigned  as complete  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of working w i t h  at any time.  the f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n  r e c e i v e d c o p i e s of the Committee's recommendations and a n o t i c e of the date f o r review.  CHAPTER IV CRITERIA PQR THE STUDY The Screened Intake Committee evolved from a process of community organization.  The problems with which social work deals are the problems  which people find in the actual process of adjustment to each other or to any aspect of their social environment. of relationships.  In other words, they are problems  Accordingly, complete evaluation as to whether or not  •Screened Intake was f u l f i l l i n g i t s function of maintaining a h i ^ i standard 1  of generic case work practices can not be achieved without a complete understanding of the philosophy, objectives, s k i l l s , and methods of social work practices and of community organization.  By maintaining a high standard of  generic case work practices the agencies are able more adequately to assist families and individuals to develop their inherent capacities to the best of their ability, and to provide an opportunity for individuals to lead persona l l y satisfying and socially useful lives. "Casework" and "Child Welfare" Defined. Social case work as practiced today evolved out of a slowly growing awareness of the necessity of realizing the importance and value of each individual. his  Each individual i s a unique personality.  He has his own feelings,  own emotions, and reacts in his own individualized way to a particular  situation.  It follows therefore that since no two individuals react in exactly  the same way to a particular situation, instances of similar kinds of trouble or problems can not be treated i n the same manner. Mary S. Eichmond provided the f i r s t definition of social case work. "Social case work", she demonstrated, "consists of those processes which develop personality through adjustments consciously effected individual by individual, between men and their social environment^" 1.  This definition describes social  Richmond, Mary S., What is Social Case Work? Foundation, 1922, page 2bS. 25  Hew York, Russell Sage  26  case work as a d e f i n i t e method: "adjastments c o n s c i o u s l y e f f e c t e d . . . between men of  and t h e i r s o c i a l environment." the r e s u l t  definition, al's  A l s o , i t measures s o c i a l case work i n terms  o b t a i n e d - "the development of p e r s o n a l i t y . "  s o c i a l case work may  personality  be  In the l i g h t  seen as a p r o c e s s which d e v e l o p s an  by h e l p i n g him make b e t t e r s o c i a l  of  this  individu-  adjustments.  Since Mary Richmond's day we have come to r e a l i z e even more f u l l y what i s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s of h e l p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l make these S o c i a l case work i s s t i l l  thought of as a way  of h e l p i n g , but  adjustments.  the p h i l o s o p h y and  p r a c t i c e as f o r m u l a t e d i n What i s S o c i a l Oase Work? has changed i n many r e s p e c t s , as has the p r e s e n t c o n c e p t i o n of what i s i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l case work. Today, t h e main emphasis i s no l o n g e r p l a c e d upon "making the c l i e n t s o v e r , " p e r s u a d ing  them to change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , or t o a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c g o a l s as set by t h e  workers. realize  The  S o c i a l Worker endeavours  they have a r i g h t to manage t h e i r own  s o c i a l case worker a r e t w o f o l d : 1) b e s t meet t h e i r h e l p themselves; him  to accept people as they are and t o lives.  Thus, t h e aims of the  to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r people w h i c h w i l l  immediate need and s a f e g u a r d t h e i r a b i l i t y and t h e i r r i g h t  to  2) to r e s t o r e the i n d i v i d u a l t o s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , or to h e l p  develop t h i s c a p a c i t y , i n o r d e r t h a t he may  "achieve at one and the same  1 time h i s own  and s o c i e t y ' s b e t t e r m e n t . "  r o o t e d i n a two-person  r e l a t i o n s h i p - a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c l i e n t and  p r o f e s s i o n a l worker or t h e r a p i s t . client of  In o t h e r words, case work i s a p r o c e s s  By t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p p r e s s u r e s f e l t by the  are r e l i e v e d by c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the d i s t u r b i n g problem,  insight  i n t o the c l i e n t ' s own  the  r o l e i n i t , by a change i n the  by the g i v i n g environment,  by the s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the t h e r a p i s t - by any o r a l l of these means, so t h a t the c l i e n t encing l i f e .  i s f r e e d to l i v e a h a p p i e r , more s a t i s f y i n g and growth  In s h o r t , case work i s u t i l i z e d whenever people have i m p a i r e d  c a p a c i t y to o r g a n i z e the o r d i n a r y a f f a i r s of l i f e , t h e i r ordinary s o c i a l  1.  experi-  Richmond, Mary  1.,  or l a c k s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n  relationships, Hie Long View, Hew  York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation,  1930*  27  These forces i n the practice of generic case work are u n i f i e d and integrated by a number of basic p r i n c i p l e s and concepts.  They have l i t t l e  value, however, i f the worker does not take cognizance that the problems as presented by the c l i e n t s are both individual and s o c i a l , and that an understanding of the family i s important i n understanding the i n d i v i d u a l .  Above  a l l , the worker must have an awareness of himself and an a b i l i t y to d i s c i p l i n e himself i n r e l a t i o n to his own problems - as w e l l as a strong warmth of f e e l i n g toward and understanding of the c h i l d .  Miss Pern Lowry refers to these f e e l i n g s  as the "vitamin content" of s o c i a l work.  Without  sach f e e l i n g s , she maintains,  the techniques of s o c i a l case work practice w i l l lose their significance and become i n e f f e c t i v e .  During the past quarter of a century, the Proceedings of the three White House Conferences i n 1901, 1919, and 1930 have become increasingly aware of  the connotations of the term "child welfare,"  The connotations of this term  have been r e f l e c t i n g a strong trend toward an emphasis upon the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n ship of a l l conditions which affect the l i f e of a c h i l d and upon a consequent need for coordinating a l l forces designed to promote the well-being of the "whole c h i l d , "  The keynote i n a l l these conferences was the preservation of  the home and the. caring for children within the home.  The problem of deling  adequately with the needs of children, however, has not yet been met. Thus, the sine quo non at the formation of the Screened Intake Committee was that of securing adequate l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the protection of a l l children as well as toward good, o v e r - a l l constructive c h i l d caring methods and a s o c i a l welfare programme. In America parents have the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for their children. To give the children a strong sense of security - emotional as well as economic the parents must be competent and able to care f o r them adequately.  Hence, the  28  emphasis of the s o c i a l a g e n c i e s has been to s t i m u l a t e the p a r e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l adequacy.  They attempt  to do t h i s by a p p r o p r i a t e case work treatment  t h e p a r e n t s t o change, and more n e a r l y reach t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l  t o enable  of f u n c t i o n i n g  as p a r e n t s . Sometimes, however, the a u t h o r i t y of. the agency and the s k i l l s o c i a l case worker a r e not s u f f i c i e n t move toward change without  t o p r o t e c t the c h i l d .  coming i n t o c o u r t .  of the  Some p a r e n t s  cannot  Through t h e y e a r s some o f the  c o u r t s have i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of abuse and n e g l e c t - not events alone  - but dangerous c o n d i t i o n s and environment.  however, v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n d i f f e r e n t Minnesota  states.  The d e f i n i t i o n o f n e g l e c t ,  A c c o r d i n g to the s t a t u t e s of the  law a c h i l d i s c o n s i d e r e d by the c o u r t t o be n e g l e c t e d o n l y when he  has been abandoned by b o t h p a r e n t s ; when l i v i n g w i t h v i c i o u s or d i s r e p u t a b l e persons;  t r e a t e d c r u e l l y or n e g l e c t e d by p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n s ;  or given  inade-  1 quate m e d i c a l care when p a r e n t s a r e able to secure such c a r e , Minnesota  b e f o r e a c h i l d c a n r e a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d n e g l e c t e d he must be adjudged  n e g l e c t e d by the Court. of  Moreover, i n  I t can r e a d i l y be seen, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the e x i s t e n c e  many cases of c r u e l t y and n e g l e c t , such a s p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n and emotional  n e g l e c t and c r u e l t y , a r e s t i l l  d i f f i c u l t to prove  i n the s t a t e o f Minnesota.  F e e b l e mindedness, i n s a n i t y , i n c a r c e r a t i o n of parent  or p a r e n t s , d i v o r c e and  death o f p a r e n t or p a r e n t s , a c h i l d w i l f u l l y k e p t oit of s c h o o l , and a c h i l d s e x u a l l y abused by some member o f t h e household,  are s t i l l  difficult  t o prove  as s i t u a t i o n s of n e g l e c t . Although is  i t has been the e x p e r i e n c e of s o c i a l case workers that i t  b e t t e r a c h i l d be c a r e d f o r i n h i s own home, i t may o f t e n be necessary to  remove the c h i l d f r o m  the p a r e n t a l home.  A few y e a r s ago, i f such a c t i o n were  n e c e s s a r y a f o s t e r c a r e placement was c o n s i d e r e d to be the answer t o such a problem. ~  F o s t e r c a r e i s the term u s e d to designate the care o f c h i l d r e n r e a r e d  Report and Recommendations o f t h e Committee t o Study C h i l d N e g l e c t i n S a i n t P a u l . A p r i l 1938.  29  away from the natural family - in institutions, or in foster homes. Originally foster care was in the nature of custodial care which generally extended for the duration of childhood. Since this concept of child care there has been a significant development i n the understanding of the fundamental needs of children.  In recent years  there i s an increasing awareness on the part of social workers that foster care can never be a completely satisfactory substitute for a child's own home because of the strong emotional ties a child feels for his parents and because of a child's need for secure belonging. Therefore, the greatest value of foster care i s the part i t can play in helping parents to do something about the social and emotional problems that made the separation necessary in order to reestablish a home for their children.  In cases where the parent cannot give his child a home, foster  care can sometimes enable the parents to free the child for permanent placement. Selection of a Sample A total of 73^ cases were presented to the Screened Intake Committee during the f i r s t seven years of i t s existence. For the purpose of this study f i f t y cases were chosen.  This universe was achieved by selecting cases which  had been presented to the Committee during two quarters of each year since the inauguration of the Committee.  The quarters selected were March, April, May  and August, September, and October.  These quarters were selected as the  universe with the guidance of the Secretary of the Committee. During the f i r s t quarters of the seven years eighty five cases were selected.  Seventy six cases were selected for the second quarters of the same  period of time.  Generally four cases were selected at random for each quarter  for each year. The following table illustrates the method of case selection:  30  YEAR  MARCH  19^2 19U3 19HU  U k k k k . k k  19^5 19 U6 19U7 19^8  APRIL 5  U  MAY  AUGUST  U U  U  U 3 1  u  k 1+ h  OCTOBER  SEPTEMBER  u  u u  u  14  u u  1+  2 6  u  u u u  It w i l l be noted there were a few exceptions to the method of case selection.  Five cases were selected from the month of A p r i l  I9U2  as  this was the total number of cases presented to the Committee for that month. No cases were presented to the Screened Intake Committee during August  I9U2.  Since the number of cases presented for 'Screening' during t h i s month was always small the total number of cases were l i s t e d i n the case sample. These l 6 l cases were then tabulated according to the agencies presenting them f o r Screening during these quarters. The tabulation was as follows: 1  1. 2. 3. U. 5» 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  Ramsey County Welfare Board . . . 58 cases Bureau of Catholic Charities . . 33 cases Family Service 23 cases Children's Service. . . . . . . . 18 cases Child Welfare Division l 6 cases Probation Office , 8 cases Child Guidance Clinic 6 cases Jewish Welfare Association. . . . 2 cases Co-ordinating Center 1 case Department of Education . . . . . 1 case  11.  Lutheran Children's Friend Society 1 case  Since f i f t y cases was considered to be an adequate saaple, the f i r s t case far each agency was checked, the following two cases missed and the fourth case checked.  Agencies such as tie Probation Office, the Jewish  Welfare Association, the Co-ordinating Center, the Lutheran Welfare, the Lutheran Children's Friend Society and the Child Guidance C l i n i c , which presented only a few cases were not included i n this computation.  The net result  was a sample of f i f t y cases. These f i f t y cases were then retabulated according to the agency making the original presentation to the Screened Intake 1.  Selby 31 cases. East 27 cases.  31  Committee.  This tabulation gave Family Service a total of sixteen cases the  Child Welfare Division four cases, the Children's Service a total of two cases, the Bureau of Catholic Charities six cases, and the Ramsey County Welfare Board — including the two districts, Sel.by and East - a total of twenty two cases. In order to determine whether the material as presented in the summaries was adequate, a spot check was made of the original cases from Family Service and the Bureau of Catholic Charities.  Both the Child Welfare  Division and the County Welfare Board were contacted regarding several of their cases to determine whether or not the situation was the ssrie as last entered on the Screened Intake Committee's  Summary. In a l l instances, there was no  notable change i n the situation nor was any further information obtained after reading the case records.  It follows, therefore, that the summaries of tlie  cases selected provided an adequate foundation upon which to assess and evaluate the function and programme of the Screened Intake Committee. Schedule and Criteria Utilized to Examine the Sample. To carry out the present study, information regarding each of the 1 f i f t y cases was recorded as completely as possible on a standard schedule. The f i r s t page of the schedule listed the members of the natural family, including a l l illegitimate children who were a part of the fsaily group; their sex; birth date; amount of education received; and intelligence factors.  If two or  more different intelligence quotients were given, each quotient was l i s t e d in chronological order.  The nationality and religion and place or peaces of  employment of the parents with dates were also listed.  Number U was used to  record the registrations as tabulated by the Central Registration Bureau. At the top of this schedule the name of the agency presenting the case to the 'Screening' committee was indicated.  The second page of the outline  recorded the name of the family agency to remain active, and the agency handling the placement of the children. 1.  Appendix.  If the agency originally active with the family  I  32  t r a n s f e r r e d the case to another  agency, the name of the l a t t e r agency was  recorded* The Screened  t h i r d page.  Intake  A resume of the recommendations as made by the  Committee at the o r i g i n a l and subsequent  p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the  case to t h i s committee was r e c o r d e d on page 3 o f the schedule, Reasons f o r placement made a c c o r d i n g to t h e wishes on page H. was  of c h i l d r e n - whether the placement  was  of t h e p a r e n t s , or by Court Order, were l i s t e d  I f .a case was p r e s e n t e d to the Court but placement  n o t o r d e r e d t h i s was a].so r e c o r d e d .  of the c h i l d r e n  The f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s were t a b u l a t e d .  F o r example, whether or not the c o u r t o r d e r e d the p a r e n t s to c o n t r i b u t e toward the  support of t h e c h i l d r e n ; i f they, c o n t r i b u t e d the t o t a l amount or a p a r t i a l  amount; and whether the agency w o r k i n g w i t h the f a m i l y c o n t r i b u t e d ' f i n a n c i a l success.  Number IS gave the m a r i t a l  s t a t u s o f the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s .  Names and dates of c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d home were r e c o r d e d on page 5* Whether the r e t u r n was w i t h o r a g a i n s t the recommendations of t h e a g e n c i e s a c t i v e w i t h the f a m i l y and the c h i l d r e n was a l s o recorded, the  Number 23 was f o r  t a b u l a t i o n of t h e c e n t r a l problems w i t h i n each case s i t u a t i o n .  seventy one problems were l i s t e d .  A t o t a l of  These problems were t a b u l a t e d from the  n i n e t y e i g h t problems a s l i s t e d on the Problem and S e r v i c e Sheets u s e d to e v a l u a t e a l l c a s e s p e r i o d i c a l l y w i t h i n the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency of Saint Paul.  These seventy one problems were-grouped under s i x h e a d i n g s : l ) Economic;  2) Employment; 3) 6) for  F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s ; U) P h y s i c a l H e a l t h ; 5) Mental  S o c i a l and E n v i r o n m e n t a l . the f a m i l y .  b) p a r t i a l  Number 2U was an e v a l u a t i o n of the treatment  plan  Three headings were u s e d f o r t h i s e v a l u a t i o n : a) no improvement,  improvement, c) d e f i n i t e The  Health;  improvement.  date and reason the case was c l o s e d , whether the c l o s i n g was  p l a n n e d w i t h the c l i e n t  and who v/as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making the d e c i s i o n - the  agency, the Committee, o r the c l i e n t , was i n d i c a t e d on page 6, number 25.  33  An e v a l u a t i o n of the case work p r o c e s s was  2S.  r e c o r d e d by number  I n c l u d e d i n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n were comments on t h i s p r o c e s s , p l u s comments upon the  seven b a s i c p r i n c i p a l s o f s o c i a l  as b e i n g fundamental  case work which were g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d  t o s o c i a l case work p r a c t i c e .  These p r i n c i p l e s were as  follows: 1. of  R e c o g n i t i o n of the needs of the  individual»  A recognition  the needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l should be a case worker's p r i m a r y concern.  The  case worker should endeavour to a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l to meet the needs which have brought him  to the agency.  Attempts  to meet these causes would have to  take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n their multiple roots.  Mrs. L (Case 10)  exemplifies  this: A f t e r t h e d e s e r t i o n of h e r husband, Mrs. L's c h i l d r e n were admitted to c a r e . At t h i s time Mrs. L. was so e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d she was unable to a d m i n i s t e r to any of t h e i r needs. Mrs. L., through case work treatment, was h e l p e d - l i t t l e by l i t t l e - to enjoy the freedom she had m i s s e d as a 'teen ager.' (Mrs. L. was m a r r i e d a t the age of s i x t e e n . ) As i t was important f o r Mrs. L. to g i v e the c h i l d r e n g i f t s , the agency, with the a p p r o v a l of the Screened Intake Committee, d e c r e a s e d the monthly payments i n order t h a t she might do s o . A t no time was Mrs. L. p r e s s e d by e i t h e r the agency o r the s c r e e n i n g committee to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than t h a t f o r which she was ready« 2. environmental individual he  R e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l needs and r e a l i t y or  needs a r e i n t e r - r e l a t e d .  I f the case worker was  o r the f a m i l y to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n the  should r e a l i z e that  environment,  the c l i e n t ' s needs were d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from two  • f i r s t , the impoverishment  of the environment,  c a p a c i t y to use t h e environment.  and  secondly, the  worker's support and reenforcement  to d i s c e r n  By means of the  the c l i e n t would be b e t t e r able to use h i s  powers more e f f e c t i v e l y so that he would be able t o handle h i s own  more a d e q u a t e l y .  sources -  individual's  The worker might h e l p the c l i e n t  more c l e a r l y the n a t u r e of the w o r l d i n w h i c h lie l i v e d .  own  to h e l p the  problens  3  U  The worker should he s e n s i t i v e t o the c l i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s , and. s h o u l d know how t h e c l i e n t f e l t have r e s p e c t and acceptance  through empathy.  I f the worker was able t o  f o r o t h e r s as they were, and a s p o t e n t i a l l y they  c o u l d be, a medium was induced between the worker a n i t h e c l i e n t . enabled  the worker t o do n o t o n l y e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g but  Without  t h i s f e e l i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p , change was n o t l i k e l y t o take p l a c e ,  nor w o u l d c o n s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s and p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o u r  also  This treatment.  be m o d i f i e d . F o r  example: Mrs. E. was f o n d of h e r e l d e s t c h i l d - a daughter but she h a d a deep-seated f e e l i n g of r e j e c t i o n f o r her son. T h i s l a d reminded her of her husband w i t h whom she h a d been unhappy and f r o m whom she was d i v o r c e d . Mrs. E. was h e l p e d to u n d e r s t a n d her f e e l i n g s toward h e r son and t o work them through t o a f e e l i n g of acceptance. Three y e a r s from the date of t h e f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n , Mrs. E. of h e r own a c c o r d , r e q u e s t e d he be r e t u r n e d home. 3.  B e c o g n i t i o n of t h e r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  i n d i v i d u a l has a r i g h t when the c l i e n t to  to make h i s own l i f e  i n h i s own way.  Each  I t was only  v i o l a t e d the p r e c e p t s of s o c i e t y that he f o r f e i t e d h i s r i g h t  d e c i d e what s e r v i c e s o r h e l p he wished from the agency - e s p e c i a l l y when  the w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n was t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  Thus,  Mr. F was "psycho-neurotic and an i n f e r i o r t y p e . " Mrs. F. was n e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y nor m e n t a l l y able to c a r e f o r the home a n d c h i l d r e n . Mr. F. r e f u s e d to c l e a n the house to make i t h a b i t a b l e . The c h i l d r e n were b a d l y n e g l e c t e d . Screened Intake Committee v e r i f i e d the agency's p l a n f o r commitment of the c h i l d r e n through J u v e n i l e Court. T h i s case  i l l u s t r a t e d a s i t u a t i o n where the p a r e n t s were no l o n g e r able t o  determine t h e w e l f a r e of t h e i r c h i l d r e n but t h e y r e t a i n e d t h e i r  ' r i g h t of  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' f o r t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r . U.  Puroosiveness  dynamic whidh determines the c l i e n t  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s behaviour  behaviour.  |r  i s the  Workers s h o u l d endeavour t o a s s i s t  i n such a way that he might f u n c t i o n more r a t h e r than  less  35 productively i n the future.  The c l i e n t must he helped to meet h i s needs i n  r e l a t i o n to h i s individual maximum capacity - not only on h i s own behalf, not only i n h i s role i n the family, but as a c i t i z e n of the community.  The follow-  ing extract (Case 2k) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s : Previous to agency contact Mr. M's work record had been poor. On innumerable occasions he had been sentenced to the work house f o r c h i l d abandonment and non-support. His marriage to Mrs. M. was his t h i r d . It too was a 'forced' marriage. Mrs. M. was mentally depressed and discouraged with her marriage. She requested placement of her two boys as she f e l t t h e i r care was too much for her. Arrangements were made f o r the care of the children .until Mrs. M. became more rested. In t h i s situation the Ms were helped to r e e s t a b l i s h t h e i r home - .each taking an equal part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The c h i l d r e n were then returned home.  At the end of the agency contact the Ms as a family unit were able to function more capably than ever before. 5« change.  Recognition of the c l i e n t ' s capacity or incapacity for  If an individual was to be helped to achieve h i s i n d i v i d u a l goal the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s c e r t a i n limitations and capacities must be taken into consideration. Only by directing the c l i e n t ' s concern and a c t i v i t i e s toward the underlying d i f f i c u l t i e s could the worker help the client to become more mature and to make more progress within the s i t u a t i o n .  Also, by doing so, the worker could  help the individual to define h i s r e a l i t y more c l e a r l y and to accept i t with l e s s tension.  He could help the c l i e n t to see his situation i n a new per-  spective and to c r y s t a l l i z e or c l a r i f y the issues confronting him - but - the ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e f f e c t i n g a change within a person had to come from the person himself - not from the worker.  For example:  Mrs. S* s parents were divorced. Care of the two children was too much for Mrs. S. The r e l a t i o n ship between Mrs. S. and her mother was strained and tense and was reacting upon the children. Boarding home placements were made f o r the children. They were l a t e r placed for adoption with maternal grandmother.  36  In t h i s  i n s t a n c e Mrs.  S. was  capable  of change o n l y i n r e s p e c t to h e r s e l f  h e r p e r s o n a l appearance, c l o t h i n g , e t c . , bat she was complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c a r e of her c h i l d r e n . the Screened  Intake  unable  to  ever assume  Both the agency and  Committee were a c c e p t i n g o f the growth of Mrs.  r e s p e c t to h e r s e l f .  They h e l p e d h e r accept  -  S. i n  the w i l l i n g n e s s of h e r p a r e n t s  to c a r e f o r her c h i l d r e n d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t her p a r e n t s had always been fundamentally  r e j e c t i n g of her as a c h i l d . 6.  i n the c l i e n t .  *  R e c o g n i t i o n f o r the n e c e s s i t y of s u s t a i n i n g an  interest  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s , p r i n c i p l e , the s o c i a l case worker must have  an a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n an i n t e r e s t and  c a r r y through w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s i n  w h i c h he p l a n s to h e l p the i n d i v i d u a l . s l o w l y or r a p i d l y as the c l i e n t was  The  case worker should go o n l y as  a b l e f o r each c l i e n t has not  i n d i v i d u a l i s e d g o a l , but an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d pace by which he might  o n l y an achieve  this. goal. Had  an i n t e r e s t not been s u s t a i n e d i n the c a s e s under agency  s u p e r v i s i o n , many of the c l i e n t s would not have been a b l e to work through  to  a s o l u t i o n of t h e i r f e e l i n g s or problems and thereby become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . 7.  R e c o g n i t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y f o r r e v i e w i n g the  s i t u a t i o n as a whole.  individual  Each case worker should be a b l e to view the case  s i t u a t i o n as a whole a n d to f r e q u e n t l y review the e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to each i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n i t .  Furthermore,  the case worker should be able t o  be aware of the known f a c t s i n r e l a t i o n to the unknown; to  see p s y c h o l o g i c a l  f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n to r e a l i t y f a c t o r s .  By doing  a b l e to r e t a i n a freedom and f l e x i b i l i t y  i n making a d i a g n o s i s o f each  situation.  These f a c t o r s had t o be  situations for l i f e away from the  so the worker should be  c o n s t a n t l y borne i n mind when reviewing  f o r c e s a r e never s t a t i c - movement i s always toward or  r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s or problem  situations.  37  The  soundness of the recommendations and p l a n s f o r treatment  a c t i v i t i e s as were made or endorsed by the Screened Intake  Committee t o the  p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s depended l a r g e l y upon the e x t e n t o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  t h e s e seven "basic p r i n c i p l e s . The  r e a d e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n of the case r e c o r d , (Number  i n c l u d e d comments on how  the Screened  Intake Committee h e l p e d the p r e s e n t i n g  a g e n c i e s to b e t t e r h e l p the c l i e n t ; ways i n which the p a r e n t s and d i d not g a i n and part  29),  the r e a d e r ' s comments as to why  t h e r e was  children  no g a i n on the  of the c l i e n t s .  , To e v a l u a t e the work of the Screened  Intake Committee the p h i l o s o p h y  and o b j e c t i v e s of S o c i a l Case Work p r a c t i c e s were d e l i n e a t e d and a u n i v e r s e f o r an e v a l u a t i o n s e l e c t e d ,  From 19^-1  the Screened Intake Committee.  to 19^8,  73^ c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d to  A sample of 50 cases was  selected.  Agencies  i n c l u d e d i n the' study were F a m i l y S e r v i c e , C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e , Bureau o f C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s and Ramsey County Welfare Board. m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g each of t h e f i f t y I n c l u d e d i n the schedule was  cases was  r e c o r d e d on a  Infor-  standard s c h e d u l e .  the r e a d e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n of the case r e c o r d and  an e v a l u a t i o n of the case r e c o r d and a c c o r d i n g t o the seven b a s i c s o c i a l  an e v a l u a t i o n o f the case work p r o c e s s e s case work p r i n c i p l e s.  The soundness o f  the Screened Intake Committee's recommendations and treatment e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of these  seven b a s i c  plans were principles.  CHAPTER V 0?  CHARACTERISTICS  THE FAMILIES  D u r i n g the p e r i o d under study an a n a l y s i s o f the f i f t y cases' reviewed by the Screened Intake Committee i n d i c a t e d - t h a t a t o t a l five  c h i l d r e n were i n v o l v e d .  Screened  A total  o f two hundred and  of f o r t y two c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d t o the  Intake Committee f o r the f i r s t  time.  E i g h t cases w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y  been b e f o r e the Committee were p r e s e n t e d f o r review,  a) twenty  Public Agencies:  sented a t o t a l children.  Of t h i s  t o t a l the Ramsey County Welfare Board p r e -  of twenty two c a s e s which i n v o l v e d one hundred and f i f t e e n  F i v e c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d by the C h i l d  Welfare D i v i s i o n .  Twenty s i x o f the twenty  review d u r i n g the p e r i o d e v a l u a t e d .  placement. twenty  a g e n c i e s p r e s e n t e d a t o t a l of  seven c a s e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d one hundred and twenty e i g h t c h i l d r e n to t h e  Screened Intake Committee.  for  The p u b l i c  seven cases were b e i n g p r e s e n t e d  Only one case i n v o l v e d an  There were no emergency placements.  eight c h i l d r e n were i n t h e i r  p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Committee,  independent  Ten of' the one hundred and  own homes a t the time of the f i r s t  They came from f o u r t e e n f a m i l i e s .  Four  case cases  i n v o l v e d s i x c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y who were l i v i n g w i t h r e l a t i v e s w h i l e the o t h e r seventeen c h i l d r e n remained  a t home.  In t e n cases the c h i l d r e n were  p l a c e d when the case was p r e s e n t e d to the Committee f o r the f i r s t  time.  five  o f these c a s e s twelve c h i l d r e n v/ere p l a c e d i n b o a r d i n g homes.  case  s i x children  i n the f a m i l y were p l a c e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n .  In  In one  I n another  case two of the c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n w h i l e two of t h e i r s i b l i n g s were p l a c e d i n a b o a r d i n g home and f i v e c h i l d r e n remained There was one case where one c h i l d was p l a c e d i n a c h i l d c a r i n g while  institution  one s i b l i n g was placed' i n a b o a r d i n g home and the t h i r d c h i l d  placed with r e l a t i v e s .  I n a n o t h e r case i n v o l v i n g f o u r c h i l d r e n one  3S  a t home.  was child  39  was  p l a c e d i n a b o a r d i n g home and one c h i l d w i t h r e l a t i v e s w h i l e two c h i l d r e n  reroaine d a t home » b) seventy  P r i v a t e Agencies:  A total  of twenty three cases  seven c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d t o the Screened  p r i v a t e agencies*  involving  Intake Committee by the  F a m i l y S e r v i c e , the Bureau o f C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s and  C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e composed t h i s group. cases i n v o l v i n g f o r t y e i g h t c h i l d r e n ;  The f i r s t  agency p r e s e n t e d  sixteen  the second agency p r e s e n t e d s i x c a s e s  i n v o l v i n g twenty e i g h t c h i l d r e n w h i l e t h e l a t t e r agency p r e s e n t e d one case i n v o l v i n g o n l y one c h i l d . cases.  Seventeen  of these twenty three c a s e s were new  S i x were p r e s e n t e d to the Committee f o r review.  At the time of  p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e r e were o n l y two f a m i l i e s w i t h f i v e c h i l d r e n who were p l a c e d i n b o a r d i n g homes.  Three cases i n v o l v i n g f o u r c h i l d r e n were l i s t e d a s  emergency placements.  Of these seventy seven c h i l d r e n a l l but f i v e  were i n t h e i r own homes a t the time  of the f i r s t  presentation.  children  These f i v e  i  c h i l d r e n had p r e v i o u s l y been p l a c e d i n b o a r d i n g homes p r i o r t o the inaugur a t i o n of the Screened  Intake  Committee.  Major Seasons f o r P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Cases: Six  major reasons why the f i f t y c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d o r i g i n a l l y t o  the Screened Intake Committee a r e t a b u l a t e d a s f o l l o w s : Major Reasons  Percentage  Total ' N e g l e c t and dependency I l l n e s s of mother Employment of mother Behaviour of c h i l d r e n Desertion Death of mother  Of Cases  100 50 lk 12 12 8 U  T h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t n e g l e c t and dependency was a major f a c t o r f o r an agency to p r e s e n t a case f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Screened Other f a c t o r s - such a s i l l n e s s ,  Intake  Committee.  employment o f mother, death o f mother, desertion  of  one  or both p a r e n t s and behaviour of c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r t o t a l l e d as much  as d i d the sum  total  of case p r e s e n t e d to the 'Screening'Committee  n e g l e c t and dependency.  Second i n importance  f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to the mother.  for  to n e g l e c t and dependency were  These f a c t o r s t o t a l l e d t h i r t y p e r c e n t .  Only f o u r per cent o f the f i f t y c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d due to the deceasement of  the mother.  Twelve p e r , c e n t of the cases were p r e s e n t e d to t i e Committee  for  s a n c t i o n i n g of proposed p l a n s or a s s i s t a n c e w i t h case work treatment  for  c h i l d r e n who  were severe behaviour problems w i t h i n t h e i r own  plans  homes and j e t  were not p h y s i c a l l y n e g l e c t e d .  Problems P r e s e n t e d by the F i f t y A total  Cases;  of seventy one problems were l i s t e d under seven  headings;  (a) Economic, (b) Employment, ( c ) F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s , (d) P h y s i c a l H e a l t h , (ej  Mental H e a l t h , ( f ) S o c i a l and Environmental  and (gj Legal Problems.  The  m a j o r i t y o f these seventy one problems were d i s t r i b u t e d i n the a r e a o f 'Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s ' and ' S o c i a l and Environmental t h i s seemed to be: f i r s t , and,  Relationships.'  Two  reasons f o r  these a r e a s c o n t a i n e d the l a r g e s t number of problems  s e c o n d l y , most of the cases were p r e s e n t e d f o r placement  because of  p r o b l e m s w i t h i n the f a m i l y a r e a or w i t h i n the s o c i a l and environmental areas* In  a few  i n s t a n c e s c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d due  f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to t h e i r p a r e n t s , but  to mental  or p h y s i c a l  health'  seldom were these f a c t o r s t h e s o l e  cause f o r placement. The problems which o c c u r r e d most f r e q u e n t l y are t a b u l a t e d on the f o l l o w i n g page a c c o r d i n g to the number of times they o c c u r r e d .  Although  ' n e g l e c t and dependency,'• i l l n e s s o f mother,' were the major causes f o r the S c r e e n i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n i n every i n s t a n c e t h e r e were a number o f o t h e r problems w i t h i n the f a m i l y case which n e c e s s i t a t e d c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the I n t a k e Committee.  Screened  Since t h e r e are more 'problems" than " c a s e s " t h e percentages  t o t a l l e d more t h a n one  hundred.  Ui  Table 1.  List  of T o t a l Problems P r e s e n t s d by the  D e s c r i p t i o n of Problem on Schedule  36 20 21  '  59 65 2  66 6i  70 26  5 17  37  D e s c r i p t i o n of Problem  Sample  Cases.  No.  Percentage  -The need f o r h e l p w i t h problems of 16 t r a i n i n g and development of C h i l d r e n - D i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between lU husband and w i f e - D i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between lU p a r e n t and c h i l d 12 - S c h o o l problem i n v o l v i n g f a m i l y situation - J u v e n i l e Delinquency 12 -Problem of f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g and 11 home management c o m p l i c a t e d and/or caused by i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional difficulty - I r r e g u l a r s c h o o l attendance 10 -Problems i n r e l a t i o n t o h o u s i n g 9 affecting family l i f e - P r o b a t i o n or p a r o l e 7 - D i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to 7 relatives - F i n a n c i a l need due to l a c k o f 5 support from head of f a m i l y -Working mother n e e d i n g advice and a s s i s t a n c e i n making c h i l d c a r e plans 5 -Employment of mother c a u s i n g d i f f i 5 culty in family  Most of these headings  are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . Problem f i f t y  32 2S 28  2H  2U 22  20 18  lU lk  10 10 10 nine - a school  p r o b l e m i n v o l v i n g the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , however, i n c l u d e d any  s i t u a t i o n of  s c h o o l f a i l u r e , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h t e a c h e r s or other c h i l d r e n or  o t h e r s c h o o l problems when they appear to be  situation, of  such a s f i n a n c i a l  stringency.  p a r e n t s toward school adjustment  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the home  T h i s problem a l s o i n c l u d e d a t t i t u d e s  or e d u c a t i o n ; c o n f l i c t s i n f s m i l y  s h i p s a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s adjustment  relation-  at school.  It w i l l be noted t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between husband and w i f e (problem 20) (problem  21)  and. d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent and  o c c u r r e d an equal number of t i m e s .  g e n e r a l l y when there was c h i l d r e n were unable  child  T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t  m a r i t a l f r i c t i o n , home r e l a t i o n s h i p s were u n s t a b l e ,  to d e r i v e a sense  o f s e c u r i t y from t h e i r p a r e n t s .  Hence,  p r o b l e m twenty one nine  o c c u r r e d w i t h marked f r e q u e n c y .  - ' school problem i n v o l v i n g f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n '  ' j u v e n i l e delinquency' the  Problems f i v e , number o f times.  l a c k of support  and problem  fifty  sixty five  -  o c c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y , ' a t t e n t i o n should be g i v e n to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s the c h i l d has w i t h h i s  equal  Since problems  parents.  seventeen, and t h i r t y  seven a l s o o c c u r r e d  an  These three problems p e r t a i n e d to f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o  f r o m the f a t h e r - o f t e n making i t necessary f o r the mother  to seek employment.  When the mother was  employed and  out  of the home, the  major p a r t of the time d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n the f a m i l y seem more l i k e l y  to  arise. Problems which o c c u r r e d not  tabulated.  Problem f i f t y  and f a m i l y adjustment' was  i n l e s s than t e n per cent  of the cases were  e i g h t - 'emotional i n s t a b i l i t y a f f e c t i n g p e r s o n a l  considered  by the w r i t e r to be an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  c o d i f i c a t i o n as i t would seem to be a c a t c h - a l l f o r a great v a r i e t y of problems. At  the  time of w r i t i n g t h i s problem was  classifications. The could contain 'Screening'  b e i n g broken down i n t o a number of  A c c o r d i n g l y , problem f i f t y  f o l l o w i n g case (Case 22)  e i g h t was  not  tabulated.  i s a n example of how  a f a m i l y situation  a number of problems a l t h o u g h the p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r i n the  p r e s e n t a t i o n was  a t t r i b u t e d to 'neglect  and  dependency.'  The Browns, p a r e n t s of nine c h i l d r e n , were so e m o t i o n a l l y immature t h e y were u n a b l e to meet the needs of t h e i r children. There was c o n s i d e r a b l e m a r i t a l f r i c t i o n between the p a r e n t s - problem l U . C h i l d r e n came i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n but seldom d i d Mrs. B. r e c e i v e adequate medical a t t e n t i o n , T h e i r h o u s i n g was inadequate due to the number of c h i l d r e n and low income. Mr. B. was employed s p a s m o d i c a l l y due t o emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . Children, showed behaviour problems at home, a t s c h o o l , and w i t h i n the community. D u r i n g the. p e r i o d t h i s case was weire l i s t e d under  1  a c t i v e with the p r e s e n t i n g  Economic Problems'; e i g h t problems were l i s t e d under  R e l a t i o n s h i p s ' ; f i v e problems under ' P h y s i c a l H e a l t h ' ;  t h i s one  family.  'Family  and f o u r problems under  ' S o c i a l and Environmental R e l a t i o n s h i p s ' - making a t o t a l for  agency f i v e problems  o f twenty two  problems  ^3 'Although, 'neglect and dependency* was generally considered to he physical neglect the Screened Intake Committee realized the importance of emotional neglect which i s illustrated by Mr. A. (Case 30). Mr. A five years after the death of his wife married his housekeeper. By his f i r s t marriage Mr. A had nine children. Prior to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee the children had been placed in boarding homes. Although neither the children nor the step-mother were accepting of one another, the father was requesting their return as he thought their upkeep would be less expensive than in boarding homes* Situations where the children who did not receive sufficient love and affection developed a number of behaviour problems i s exemplified by the 6 cMldren (Case 5 ) . The three G children - a l l of whom were of school age - arrived from Europe - unheralded - to live with distant relatives. The relatives considered their care to be an exasperation and expense. They ruled the children with a militanthand minus a supplementation of love. The children became severe behaviour problems. Thus, i t was readily discernible that the need for child placement due to factors other than employment of mother occurred with marked frequency. Family Status; The family status curing the time the f i f t y cases were active with the social agencies is indicated by the following table: Table 2. Marital Status of Parents of Children Considered by the Committee. 19^2-19^8. Children Families F. C. of Cases Status Forced marriage 32 67 19 Bemarri&ge mother k 10 7 father 7 9 U 2 1 both parents . k US 2S 90 Carried 2S Divorced 17 Separated intermittently 2 k 3 11 permanently k 7 through incarcer7 2 ation of father Desertion mother k 6 father 3 5 52 BROKEN Families 32. 15 100 105 60 TOTAL 1  1. Total for this table i s more than total number of cases because more than one status an-olied to some families.  Although i t may not he significant, in thirty two per cent of the cases studied the marriages were 'forced' while in sixteen per cent of the cases the children had to adjust to one or two new parents.  While this is  not an unduplicated account, in these two aspects of social breakdown there were ninety children involved. If a "normal marriage" means two parents voluntarily deciding upon marriage and maintaining a hoae, then there are here twenty eight families not true to this theory. to marry.  In nineteen family situations the parents were 'forced'  There were nine instances where the children had to adjust to new  parents becoming part of the family. If part of the assumption of a stable marriage consists of two parents remaining together and assuming responsibility toward parenthood, there are thirty two cases in which this was not true as the parents were divorced, separated, or one or more of the parents had deserted. Table 3*  Cause of Barental Inadequacy  j Affecting Mother Father Cause Parent Absent Death 1 5 11 Military Service 2 Imprisonment 2 Illness 7 Mental Incompetency Feeble-minded k 3 (diagnosed but not committed) 2 2 Feeble-minded (committed)) k 1 Mental Illness (committed) Alcoholism 1 Diagnosed alcoholic 1 Heavy drinker 5 2k Total 33  --  Causes Number p. c. 6 11 2 9  12 22  7  lU  u  IS  s 5  10  7  Ik 12 Ilk  *1 571  S t i l l assuming a stable lu&rriage to be one where the parents volunmate, remain together, establishing a home and assuming responsibility for children, Table 3 indicated that three major factors: l ) Absence 2)Mental incompe1. Total for this table is;more than total number of cases because more than one  U5  tency and 3) Alcoholism on the part of one or both parents prevented the children experiencing a happy family relationship.  In a few families more  than one of these factors was pertinent in the cause of parental inadequacy. There were twelve cases where the mother was either deceased or too i l l to care for the children and eleven cases where enlistment in the armed services compelled the father to be absent from home. Since we assume that a normal family consists of two parents sharing responsibility for the raising of their children, the sole responsibility was often too much for the one parent to carry alone.  Together, the other two factors - mental incompetency and  alcoholisn - exceeded the 'absence of one or both parents' by only ten per cent. First Presentation of Case to the Screened Intake Committee When the cases were f i r s t presented to the Screened Intake Committee the children were i n their own homes in sixty two per cent of the cases.  In  thirty eight per cent of the cases the children had been placed prior to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee.  In the f i r s t instance there were  one hundred and thirty eight children and in the second instance there were sixty four child ren.  It was not necessary for Screened Intake to consider  plans for thirteen children as satisfactory arrangements for their care had previously been made by the parents, relatives or guardians. Cases Presented for Court Jurisdiction In seventy per cent of the cases presented to the Screened Intake Committee the latter recommended that the caees be presented to Juvenile Court for approval of the decisions as made by this screening committee.  The public  agencies presented seventeen cases and the private agencies presented eighteen cases for court presentation. Only twelve of these thirty five families had been known previously to Juvenile Court. Of these thirty five cases the Court  U6  recommended that the children in four families should continue to live in their own homes. These four families involved a total of fourteen children. Plans were not considered for two children who were placed with relatives and for one child who was placed in a hoarding home. Thus, this court recommendation involved only ten children.  Ninety nine children from twenty three families  were ordered by court to remain out of their own homes in boarding homos, institutions, etc. Nineteen children from the twenty three families were not presented for Court jurisdiction as to the Committee's plans.  In eight families  the court ordered temporary placements for nineteen children.  Prom two of these  eight families one child from each family continue to live away from home in the care of relatives and another child frora one of these two families continued to live in a boarding home. Thus, the court took into consideration the welfare of one hundred and forty three children.  The welfare of twelve children from  these thirty five families, (nine from one fanily, two from another family and one from a third family) were not considered for court presentation by the Committee as satisfactory plans had been made previously for them or they were adjusting adequately within their own homes. Thirty per cent of the cases were not presented for Court jurisdiction (fifteen cases). Only five of the cases presented to the Screened Intake Committee by private agencies were not presented to Court.  In seven of these  fifteen families the Screened Inta'ke Committee recommended that the children remain in their own home. A total of twenty eight children were involved in this decision.  The Bureau of Catholic Charities presented two of these cases,  involving three children to the Committee to request the children be placed out. of their own home. In both instances the Committee advised that mere case work be done with the family. The Ramsey County Welfare Board presented five cases, involving twenty eight children to the Committee, which suggested the children continue to live in their am home, either because the home situation had changed or because there was not sufficient evidence to ask for Court  U7 j u r i s d i c t i o n of. the c h i l d r e n . and  one was  remain  to remain  Two  out of h i s home.  In three c a s e s s i x c h i l d r e n were to  out of the home i n d e f i n i t e l y and two  continue l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s . Welfare  of these c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g v/ith r e l a t i v e s  of these  s i x c h i l d r e n were t o  In two, c a s e s p r e s e n t e d by the Ramsey County  Board the Committee approved  of an independent  placement  f a t h e r a f t e r the death of h i s w i f e and of the replacement who  made by  a  of t h r e e c h i l d r e n  had been p l a c e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y by a county o t h e r than Ramsey County.  Five  c a s e s i n v o l v i n g e l e v e n c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h the Committee's appro val„ An a n a l y s i s of the case Committee d u r i n g 19UI f o r two  to 19HS  Intake  i n d i c a t e d that the Committee c o n s i d e r e d p l a n s  hundred and f i v e c h i l d r e n .  Committee f o r the f i r s t  sample p r e s e n t e d to the Screened  time.  F o r t y two  c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d to the  S i g h t cases were p r e s e n t e d f o r review.  Twenty  seven c a s e s i n v o l v i n g one hundred and twenty e i g h t c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d by the p u b l i c  a g e n c i e s - Ramsey County Welfare Board and C h i l d Welfare  Division.  Twenty t h r e e c a s e s i n v o l v i n g twenty seven c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d by the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s - F a m i l y S e r v i c e , C h i l d r e n S e r v i c e and Bureau of  Catholic  Charities. The  s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h e r e were s i x major reasons c a u s i n g an agency  to p r e s e n t a case to the Screened Intake employment  Committee.  F a c t o r s - such as  of mother, death of mother, d e s e r t i o n of one  illness,  or both p a r e n t s and  b e h a v i o u r of c h i l d r e n - together t o t a l l e d as much a s d i d the sum  total  c a s e s p r e s e n t e d to the Screened  dependency.  Intake  Committee f o r n e g l e c t and  of  The m a j o r i t y of problems were d i s t r i b u t e d i n the a r e a of 'Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s and  ' S o c i a l and Environmental R e l a t i o n s h i p s . ' The  study a l s o p o i n t e d out that g e n e r a l l y when t h e r e was  marital  f r i c t i o n , home r e l a t i o n s h i p s were u n s t a b l e , and c h i l d r e n were unable to d e r i v e a sense  o f s e c u r i t y from t h e i r p a r e n t s .  US  When the cases were f i r s t Committee cases. prior  p r e s e n t e d to the Screened  Intake  c h i l d r e n were i n t h e i r own homes i n s i x t y two p e r c e n t o f the  In t h i r t y  e i g h t per cent o f the cases the c h i l d r e n had "been p l a c e d  to the f o r m a t i o n of the Screened Intake  recommended t h a t  Committee.  The  Committee  seventy per cent of the c a s e s be p r e s e n t e d to J u v e n i l e  Court f o r a p p r o v a l o f the Committee's recommendations. w e l f a r e of one hundred and f o r t y t h r e e c h i l d r e n .  T h i s i n v o l v e d the  t CHAPTER 71 REVI57J AMD EVALUATION 07 IXPE?J7:NCE P r i o r to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee, there no c l e a r demarcation of functions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the s o c i a l ..in Saint P a u l .  was agencies  They were accustomed to bargaining w i t h one another as to t h e i r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the welfare of a f a m i l y .  Because of the anxiety of some  agencies to have a high case-load count t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the family was often poor and of too short duration to work through any plans whereby the c h i l d r e n might remain i n the home. With the inauguration of the Screened Intake Committee such c o n d i t i o n s were remedied g r e a t l y . 'plan of treatment'  The Committee's request f o r a w r i t t e n  and 'evaluation of the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n ' served as a check  to the p r e c i p i t a t e placement of c h i l d r e n . Q u a l i t y of Agencies'  Relationship with Clients  The q u a l i t y of the agencies' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l i e n t s was of paramount importance i n h e l p i n g parents and c h i l d r e n work through t h e i r problems. In t h i r t y s i x per cent of the cases the agencies had a "good" r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c l i e n t s .  A "good" r e l a t i o n s h i p was defined as a r e l a t i o n s h i p where the  c l i e n t s f e l t free to discuss t h e i r problems with the case worker and to a r r i v e at a workable agreement or s o l u t i o n of t h e i r problems. e m p l i f i e s how  Case nuafber three ex-  the presenting agency was able to overcome the mother's h o s t i l i t y  toward them and thereby e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p which enabled the mother to become a c t i v e on her problems,.eventually  e s t a b l i s h i n g h e r s e l f w i t h her  family: Father was i n the Army. Mother was nineteen years of ag©;and immature emotionally. She had always r i v a l e d her elder s i s t e r and f e l t unloved and unwanted by her mother. Her marriage was forced and unstable. Her r e l a t i o n s h i p with men was free and questionable. She l e f t he?" small daughter alone f o r long periods of time. The presenting agency considered the neglect o f the c h i l d to r e s u l t more from k  3  50  a c o n f u s i o n on t h e p a r t of a c h i l d mother, who was a t a l o s s as to what to do f o r and w i t h a baby, r a t h e r than f r o m any c o n s c i o u s n e g l e c t . p r e s e n t e d the case  The agency  to the. S c r e e n i n g Committee'for a p p r o v a l of temporary  placement p l a n s f o r the c h i l d i n o r d e r to do i n t e n s i v e case work w i t h the mother.  The r e q u e s t was g r a n t e d .  The c h i l d was l a t e r r e t u r n e d home and the  case was c l o s e d . In f o r t y e i g h t p e r cent tween the c l i e n t  o f the c a s e s s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  and t h e agency was  "Fair."  Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p was d e f i n e d  as one where the working r e l a t i o n s h i p on an o v e r - a l l b a s i s was one of coopera t i o n but upon many o c c a s i o n s the c l i e n t s were r e s e n t f u l o f agency c o n t a c t . F o r example, t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t (Case 18) i l l u s t r a t e s  this:  F a t h e r and mother were q u a r a n t i n e d f o r s i x months as positive diptheria carriers. The source o f i n f e c t i o n c o u l d not be l o c a t e d . P a r e n t s consented - r e l u c t a n t l y to placement p l a n s f o r t h e i r seven y e a r o l d son - a problem c h i l d - as they were unable t o make s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n s f o r him. When t h e i r source of i n f e c t i o n c l e a r e d t h e y r e f u s e d f u r t h e r case work a s s i s t a n c e . Situations  s i m i l a r to Case Number 18 were c l a s s i f i e d as " f a i r " as were s i t u -  a t i o n s where the r e l a t i o n s h i p was  " p a r t i a l l y " good.  A "partially" 'good !  relation-  s h i p was one i n w h i c h t h e r e was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one parent and a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the other p a r e n t .  This type of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  i l l u s t r a t e d by the Bs (Case U5). When t h e Browns and t h e i r e i g h t c h i l d r e n were f i r s t r e f e r r e d to the agency both p a r e n t s were a n t a g o n i s t i c to agency a s s i s t a n c e . The home.conditions were dep l o r a b l e ; the c h i l d r e n were b a d l y n e g l e c t e d . By the time Mr. B. was i n d u c t e d i n t o the Army he was eager to cooperate w i t h the agency. He r e q u e s t e d t h a t case work s u p e r v i s i o n be c o n t i n u e d w i t h h i s f a m i l y d u r i n g h i s absence and t h a t h i s Army a l l o t m e n t be budgetted w i t h M r s . B. Mrs. 3. r e p u d i a t e d agency a s s i s t a n c e , making i t necessary t o commit t h e c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g case (Case  31)  i l l u s t r a t e s a "poor" r e l a t i o n s h i p -  a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which the p a r e n t s were b o t h a n t a g o n i s t i c or n o t . w i l l i n g t o make any e f f e c t i v e changes w i t h i n themselves  o r the environment which weald  51 make i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n to remain i n the be  h c u B  permanently or t o  returnedhome. The Lees had been known to s o c i a l a g e n c i e s f o r twenty y e a r s . A f t e r twenty y e a r s of marriage they were d i vorced. Custody of the c h i l d r e n was g i v e n Mrs, Lee. Mr. Lee was o r d e r e d by c o u r t to support the c h i l d r e n H i s payments were i r r e g u l a r ' a n d i n s u f f i c i e n t . Mrs. Lee was immature e m o t i o n a l l y and d i d not " b e l i e v e " i n k i l l i n g myself f o r the c h i l d r e n . " 9  The Mrs.  p r e s e n t i n g agency r e q u e s t e d a p p r o v a l o f placement p l a n s f o r Bob whom Lee was  unable  to manage.  The  Screened  Intake  Committee s a n c t i o n e d  t h i s p l a n but recommended more case work be done w i t h the f a m i l y b e f o r e p l a c i n g the two  eldest children.  l a t e r they were p l a c e d .  Mrs.  not i n t e r e s t e d and f o u r y e a r s  In o n l y s i x t e e n per cent of the cases s t u d i e d was  the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p a r e n t s  P l a n s Proposed  Lee was  "poor."  by the A g e n c i e s to the Screened  Intake  Committee  In s i x t y e i g h t p e r cent o f the c a s e s p r e s e n t e d to the the p l a n s proposed  Committee,  by the p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s were endorsed by the  These p l a n s i n v o l v e d a t o t a l  o f one  hundred and t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n .  Committees In eighteen  per cent  o f the c a s e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d the w e l f a r e of f o r t y c h i l d r e n the p l a n s as  proposed  to the Committee by the p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s were not endorsed.  four  per cent  of the cases the Committee a d v i s e d f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e s a n c t i o n i n g placement.  After further  investigation  of the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n the a g e n c i e s ' proposed p l a n s were s a n c t i o n e d . of nine  c h i l d r e n were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e  situations.  would seem that the workers had not g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t  For example:(Case  A  total  In other i n s t a n c e s i t thought  p l a n s f o r the c h i l d r e n and the f a m i l y as a u n i t p r i o r to the tation.  In  as to the best Screening presen-  Uo).  Mr. M was i n the Army. Mother r e q u e s t e d placement of c h i l d i n order to work, Agency.proposed b o a r d i n g home care of the c h i l d . Screened Intake Committee recommended f u r t h e r case work w i t h the mother before a u t h o r i z i n g the se "plans.  52 Again. - (Case  7) Both p a r e n t s were of low i n t e l l i g e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , the mother was e m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e . She was diagnosed as h a v i n g "post parturn p s y c h o s i s . " She was unable t o a c h i e v e any semblance of c o n t r o l over the c h i l d r e n - p a r t i c u l a r l y over the behavior of h e r e l d e s t c h i l d , Hobert. Agency'proposed b o a r d i n g home or i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. Screened Intake recommended i n t e n s i v e case work treatment w i t h Robert's p a r e n t s . I f case work was u n s u c c e s s f u l the case was t o be reviewed.  In t h i s i n s t a n c e the Committee t o o k i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the m o t i v a t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r .  The  Committee r e a l i z e d that w i t h i n each  indi-  v i d u a l t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n s t r e n g t h s and f o r c e s , i f , when d i s c o v e r e d and r e l e a s e d , are able to a t t a c k whatever v i r u s i s a f f e c t i n g one's Only two plan. Three  life.  c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d to the Committee w i t h no (Case 30).  T h i s type o f case i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the As  outlined  page U3.  c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h t e n t a t i v e plans but m a i n l y t o o b t a i n the  Committee's recommendations as to the best case work p l a n s f o r the Together  children.  these f i v e c a s e s t o t a l l e d t e n p e r cent o f the cases p r e s e n t e d to the  Committee f o r i t s o p i n i o n as t o the best case work p l a n s f o r the  Awareness of U n d e r l y i n g Problems by Agencies and the Screened  children.  Intake Committee  By means of empathy the case worker should be s e n s i t i v e to the f e e l i n g s of the c l i e n t  and thereby be able t o h e l p the c l i e n t  c o n s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . Screened  toward more  T h e r e f o r e , the a g e n c i e s and the  Intake Committee had to r e c o g n i z e not o n l y the needs b a s i c to the  e m o t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c l i e n t  but a l s o the r e a l i t y or environmental  needs which were i n t e r r e l a t e d to the c l i e n t ' s emotional needs.  In e i g h t y f o u r  p e r cent o f the c a s e s the a g e n c i e s were aware of the c l i e n t ' s u n d e r l y i n g problems and t h e i r b a s i c needs. agency and the Screened the c l i e n t .  Mrs.  i l l u s t r a t e s how  both  the  Intake Committee gave c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the needs of  A g a i n , the f o l l o w i n g case  agency and the Screened  L, (Case 10)  Intake  (Case 37)  i l l u s t r a t e s how  both the  Committee took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n not o n l y  53  the  p h y s i c a l needs o f the c h i l d r e n but a l s o t h e i r concern about the c h i l d r e n s 1  e m o t i o n a l needs b e i n g met by the f o s t e r p a r e n t s . Mother d e s e r t e d her husband and three s m a l l children-. F a t h e r made p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g home arrangements f o r these c h i l d r e n . He p a i d ' t h e i r board r e g u l a r l y and v i s i t e d weekly* The f a t h e r was s a t i s f i e d w i t h the care, the c h i l d r e n were r e c e i v i n g but the agency f e l t  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e q u e s t i o n about  were r e c e i v i n g i n t h i s home* were r e c e i v i n g poor moral  The agency  training.  t h e treatment the c h i l d r e n  a l s o q u e s t i o n e d whether the c h i l d r e n  The Screened Intake Committee s a n c t i o n s d  replacement p l a n s f o r the c h i l d r e n . In not  twelve p e r cent of the c a s e s the ' Screened Intake Committee d i d  h e l p the p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s have more awareness of the u n d e r l y i n g problems  w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n nor the c l i e n t ' s needs a s a whole.  This i s exempli-  f i e d by Mr. F . (Case U ) , Mr, F., a Negro, was d i v o r c e d . Mrs. F's whereabouts were unknown. Mr. 1, r e q u e s t e d F o s t e r home placement of h i s p r e - s c h o o l daughter. Screened Intake Committee recommended.a Parent-Child-Boarding-Home arrangement. Accommodation f o r a Negro fathe r and c h i l d was exceedi n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d . Mr. F. was g i v e n l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e . The accommodation he found p r o v e d i n a d e quate. The c h i l d e v e n t u a l l y m a n i f e s t e d severe o v e r t behaviour problems. Mr. F. a g a i n f i n a l l y r e q u e s t e d h i s daughter be p l a c e d i n a b o a r d i n g s c h o o l . This p l a n was s a n c t i o n e d by both t h e agency and Screened Intake Committee. Throughout  the e n t i r e f o u r y e a r s t h i s case was a c t i v e the agency  p a s s i v e a t t i t u d e toward Mr. F. and h i s problems.  Mr. F. was l e f t  took a t o assume  f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g adequate accommodation, c a r e and s u p e r v i s i o n for  h i s daughter.  needs and problems the  Had the Screened Intake Committee been more cognizant o f the of b o t h Mr. F. and h i s daughtQr i t would have p o i n t e d o-<± t o  p r e s e n t i n g agency the need f o r more case work a s s i s t a n c e .  would have recommended that the agency  Furthermore, i t  continue to g i v e Mr.-F's daughter  work treatment d u r i n g the b o a r d i n g s c h o o l placement.  case  In the remaining f o u r p e r cent of the c a s e s t h e r e were no major problems w i t h i n the f a m i l y as a u n i t family.  or w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l members of the  I n one s i t u a t i o n the case was tee r e l y r e f e r r e d t o the Screened  Committee f o r approval of a p r i v a t e boarding home placement for  Intake  made by a widower  t h e c a r e o f h i s son. The c h i l d had a d j u s t e d n i c e l y to the home and the  f a t h e r m a i n t a i n e d c l o s e d c o n t a c t w i t h hinu  E v a l u a t i o n of D i a g n o s i s and Treatment Committee In  Made by A g e n c i e s and Screened  Intake  s i x t y f o u r per cent of the cases the d i a g n o s i s proposed by the  p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s and s a n c t i o n e d by the Screened Intake Committee were e v a l u a t e d as "good."  I n a l l t h e s e c a s e s the p r e s e n t i n g agency was s u c c e s s f u l  i n r e l a t i n g t h e treatment  p l a n s proposed by the committee t o the d i a g n o s i s .  Case Number 10 c i t e d e a r l i e r i l l u s t r a t e d the f l e x i b i l i t y Intake  of the Screened  Committee and the a g e n c i e s i n t h e i r treatment p l a n s .  i l l u s t r a t e s also this  Mrs. L (Case  27)  flexibility.  Mrs. L , a widowed mother w i t h two s n a i l c h i l d r e n was h a v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y making s u i t a b l e arrangements f o r the care o f her c h i l d r e n w h i l e she worked. She r e q u e s t e d placement of h e r youngest c h i l d but made s u i t a b l e plans f o r the care of the e l d e s t c h i l d . During the placement p e r i o d the mother a c c e p t e d case work t r e a t ment, and s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r r e m a r r i e d and t o o k her c h i l d back. In  t h i s case Mrs. L . was unable  agency.  t o a c c e p t case work treatment from, a f a m i l y  Arrangements were made a c c o r d i n g l y f o r h e r t o have r e g u l a r case  work i n t e r v i e w s from a c h i l d c a r i n g agency.  A t the end o f the case work  treatment Mrs. L. h a d been h e l p e d to work through her p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s so she c o u l d remarry and r e e s t a b l i s h h e r home. accept  She was able to a l s o b e t t e r  the c h i l d p l a c e d and to c a r e f o r her more t e n d e r l y . In  e i g h t e e n per cent of the cases s t u d i e d the recommendations  p r o p o s e d by the Screened Intake Committee were a t v a r i a n c e w i t h those s u g g e s t e d by the p r e s e n t i n g agency.  Of t h i s percentage,  the jjlans  proposed  55  by t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s were a l t e r e d i n ten p e r c e n t , of the c a s e s , p e r cent  light  of the p l a n s proposed by the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s were a l t e r e d .  i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the Smiths (Case  This  12),  Both Mr. and Mrs. Smith drank h e a v i l y . T h e i r m a r i t a l l i f e was stormy Mrs. Smith misspent money g i v e n h e r f o r the c a r e of the c h i l d r e n ; l e f t them w i t h incompetent h e l p ; a l l o w e d them to become i n f e s t e d w i t h vermin. Mr. ,Smith r e q u e s t e d mother be removed from the horns. Agency p l a n n e d to secure a housekeeper. Screened Intake Comm i t t e e recommended the c h i l d r e n be p l a c e d with both p a r e n t s b e i n g o r d e r e d to c o n t r i b u t e toward the support of the c h i l d r e n . a  In  t h i s case the Committee f e l t  Mr,  Smith was  ambivalent  t h a t a housekeeper would not be  a heavy d r i n k e r and  h i s f e e l i n g toward Mrs.  satisfactory.  Smith was  so  t h a t placement p l a n s were c o n s i d e r e d by the Committee to be  b e t t e r f o r the  the  children.  In a number of i n s t a n c e s the Committee seconded the p r o p o s a l s made by the a g e n c i e s that the c h i l d r e n be committed t o c a r e .  In these  cases  the p a r e n t s were e i t h e r not amenable t o case work or were not a c c e s s i b l e f o r case work  treatment. In  e i g h t p e r cent  the Committee d i d not  sharpen  of the c a s e s p r e s e n t e d to the S c r e e n i n g Committe the case work s k i l l s  t h a t t h e y were a b l e to h e l p w i t h treatment c a t e g o r y the s o c i a l full  understanding  plans.  summaries were tco inadequate of the s i t u a t i o n .  of the p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s In two  cases w i t h i n t h i s  f o r the Committee t o have a  For example(Case  35).  Mrs. P, d i e d l e a v i n g Mr. P. to caye f o r t h r e e c h i l d r e n . V a r i o u s c h i l d care p l a n s were made. Mr. P. s u b j e c t e d the c h i l d r e n to see c o n s i d e r a b l e immoral behaviour, d r i n k i n g , etc. C o n d i t i o n s f o r the c h i l d r e n became so poor i t was necessary to make permanent p l a n s f o r them. Because the a c t i v e agency was  slow to r e c o g n i z e t h a t Mr. P. had an  alcoholic  p e r s o n a l i t y ; t h a t he was  i n s e c u r e b a s i c a l l y and t h a t he f o u n d the r e a l i t y  life  to f a c e without Mrs.  was  much more d i f f i c u l t unable  P.  the  Screened  Intake  of  Committe  to recommend placement p l a n s f o r the c h i l d r e n at an e a r l i e r  date.  56  In f o u r per cent of t h e cases the Screened Intake Committee recommended the p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s do f u r t h e r case work treatment  before  a g r e e i n g w i t h the agencies' p l a n s t h a t the c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be p l a c e d . Case Number 9 both the agency and the Screened Intake Committee that  the f a t h e r ' s needs were due  In  realized  t o l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , p h y s i c a l handicaps,  and a c h i l d h o o d f i l l e d w i t h emotional  and p h y s i c a l  deprivation.  These f a c t o r s  were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n and c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was made to h e l p the p a r e n t s use t h e i r own p e r r o g a t i v e s more e f f e c t i v e l y .  Some of t h e i r  b i l i t i e s were taken t e m p o r a r i l y from them i n o r d e r t h a t t h e i r not be t a x e d too h e a v i l y . it  A l l attempts t o a s s i s t  them f a i l e d , however,  one  etc.,  and  children.  remaining s i x p e r cent of the cases were p r e s e n t e d to the  Committee f o r s a n c t i o n i n g of temporary of  s t r e n g t h s would  f i n a l l y became n e c e s s a r y to r e q u e s t c o u r t commitment of the The  responsi-  or both p a r e n t s ; f o r l i c e n s i n g and l i t t l e  placements  due  to i l l n e s s on the  of p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g home  or no case work treatment was  part  arrangements,  recommended i n these  situations.  C l a r i f i c a t i o n of C l i e n t ' s Problems Through Case Work A s s i s t a n c e The case work a c t i v i t i e s i n f o r t y s i x per cent of the c a s e s p r e s e n t e d t o the Screened Intake Committee were b e t t e r d i r e c t e d toward l y i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n the c l i e n t was  clarified.  agency's it for  In one  or i s s u e s w i t h i n the c l i e n t ' s  s i t u a t i o n the Committee f e l t  situation  the p r e s e n t i n g  case work and p l a n s f o r f u r t h e r case work treatment were such that  would not be n e c e s s a r y f o r the agency to r e t u r n the case to the a f u r t h e r review u n l e s s the agency wished t o do In the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n (Case 17)  e f f e c t changes w i t h i n themselves ing  that  under-  of how  to h e l p t h e i r  f a m i l y as a u n i t  Committee  so.  the p a r e n t s were anxious t o  so t h a t they would have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d -  son work through h i s problems and t o make t h e i r  become h a p p i e r .  57 Both Mr. and Mrs. H. were of low average mental a b i l i t y . D u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n Mr. H. worked a t odd. jobs. Since 19H2 he has worked s t e a d i l y . Mrs. H s p e r s o n a l appearance i s no l o n g e r s l o v e n l y and she i s now a s a t i s f a c t o r y housekeeper. She was h e l p e d to a c c e p t case work a s s i s t a n c e so that she was able to understand b e t t e r h e r son who was a severe behaviour problem. Although placement p l a n s had been c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h i s l a d i t was not necessary to p l a c e him. a s the agency was able to c a r r y t h r o u g h case wo rk suggestions proposed by the Screened Intake Committee, 1  In f o u r t e e n per cent of t h e cases s t u d i e d the a g e n c i e s and the Screened  Intake Committee agreed t h a t t h e r e should be no f u r t h e r  to g i v e case work a s s i s t a n c e to the p a r e n t s .  In these c a s e s the p a r e n t s  were n e i t h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e i r problems nor change w i t h i n themselves i l l u s t r a t e s this  or t h e i r  attempts  situations.  in affecting  any  The f o l l o w i n g case (Case  6)  thesis,  F a t h e r d i e d while employed. Mother was l e f t w i t h s i x c h i l d r e n f o r whom she refused, to p r o v i d e c a r e or s e t up housekeeping. She was a n t a g o n i s t i c toward agency assistance. The p r e s e n t i n g agency p r o p o s e d the c h i l d r e n be p l a c e d i n b o a r d i n g homes and the mother o r d e r e d by c o u r t to pay f o r the b o a r d of the c h i l d r e n s i n c e she had s u f f i c i e n t income t o do so. In s i x p e r cent o f the  cases s t u d i e d the Screened  d i d not a s s i s t the a g e n c i e s i n case work treatment  Intake  Committee  w i t h the c l i e n t s .  The  changes which were a f f e c t e d o r t h e s u g g e s t i o n s made r e g a r d i n g the w e l f a r e of the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d were i n i t i a t e d by the c l i e n t s themselves, fc'r, F's s i t u a t i o n (Case Number U) p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d , does the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h Mr.  i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s statement  and Mrs,  C.  (Case  as  U3)  During t h e i r marriage both Mr. and Mrs. C were i r r e s p o n s i b l e and n e g l i g e n t of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n v/ere u n d i s c i p l i n e d and p o o r l y f e d . They were p l a c e d i n b o a r d i n g homes f o r a t h r e e year p e r i o d during which time the p a r e n t s r e m a r r i e d , They showed no i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d r e n but when the agency approached them about a d o p t i o n p l a n s f o r the c h i l d r e n b o t h p a r e n t s were anxious to have the c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d to them. D u r i n g her marriage h i s decisions that Mr.  C. was  to Mr. C ,  Mrs.  she was unable  immature and a l c o h o l i c .  C. was  so dependent upon her f a t h e r  and  to accept case work a s s i s t a n c e f r o m an agency. I t was  through t h e i r  subsequent  marriages  •  that  t h e y were able  5S  to take an i n t e r e s t  i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n and  to be  concerned  about t h e i r w e l f a r e when permanent p l a n s f o r the c h i l d r e n were t o be c o n s i d e r ed.  E a r l i e r attempts by the agency to h e l p them take an i n t e r e s t  i n the  c h i l d r e n were u n s u c c e s s f u l . In twenty two per cent was  of the cases  the Screened  Intake  Committee  not a b l e to i n c r e a s e the case work s k i l l s of the p r e s e n t i n g agencies  b e t t e r h e l p the c l i e n t s c l a r i f y unable  or u n w i l l i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d  to take (Case  t h e i r problems.  any a c t i o n on them.  to  Since the c l i e n t s were e i t h e r  the cause of t h e i r problems they were  unable  T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t ,  U9), U n t i l Mr. and Mrs. F, s e p a r a t e d t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e marital f r i c t i o n . They were both d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r two c h i l d r e n of p r e - s c h o o l age. They b o t h drank h e a v i l y . A f t e r t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n Mr. F. d i d not support e i t h e r the c h i l d r e n o r Mrs. E. Mrs. P. n e g l e c t e d the c h i l d r e n and there was some q u e s t i o n of her u s i n g d r u g s . At the end of a two y e a r placement, permanent p l a n s f o r the c h i l d r e n were n e c e s s a r y as Mrs. P. had d e t e r i o r a t e d t o such an extent and the f a t h e r was not i n t e r e s t e d i n them.  A c o u r t order was  made f o r Mr.  children.  recommended by the  I t was  agency not attempt any  F. to c o n t r i b u t e toward the Screened  case work treatment  Intake  support  of  the  Committee t h a t the  w i t h e i t h e r of the  parents.  S e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o c c u r r e d i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n where the Screened  Intake  Committee might have been more c o g n i z a n t of the needs of  the f a m i l y as a u n i t had Committee.  For  the agency p r e s e n t e d the case i n more d e t a i l to the  example:  Mr. and Mrs. C. (Case 23) were d i v o r c e d a f t e r nine y e a r s of married l i f e . Mrs. C, was given c u s t o d y of the t h r e e c h i l d r e n . Mrs. C. was e m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e and had. a number of c o n f l i c t s with her own p a r e n t s to work through b e f o r e she c o u l d be a good mother. The maternal grandmother was unable t o d i s c i p l i n e the c h i l d r e n and the mother was f e a r f u l they would get i n t o t r o u b l e during' the summer v a c a t i o n i f they were not b e t t e r s u p e r v i s e d . The c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d f o r the v a c a t i o n p e r i o d . Three y e a r s l a t e r the mother r e t u r n e d to the agency f o r f u r t h e r placement p l a n s of the c h i l d r e n . The e l d e s t c h i l d had s t o l e n money and the two younger c h i l d r e n had been i n v o l v e d i n a sex o f f e n s e . Boarding home p l a n s were made f o r the  59  e l d e s t c h i l d w h i l e case work a s s i s t a n c e was g i v e n the mother and two younger c h i l d r e n . I f the p r e s e n t i n g agency had r e c o g n i s e d the needs o f the mother and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the environment  i t would have p r e s e n t e d the case i n  more d e t a i l and requested c o n t i n u e d s u p e r v i s i o n i n the home.  Three  years  l a t e r t h e c h i l d r e n were m a n i f e s t i n g o v e r t behaviour problems which the agency c o u l d not o v e r l o o k . earlier  Had case work a s s i s t a n c e been g i v e n t h i s f a m i l y  these problems might have been p r e v e n t e d . In o n l y two per cent of the c a s e s p r e s e n t e d t o J u v e n i l e Court  were t h e p l a n s as proposed by the p r e s e n t i n g agency s a n c t i o n e d by the Screened  Intake Committee r e p u d i a t e d .  T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g  c a s e , (Case 1 1 ) . P a r e n t s were d i v o r c e d . Mother l e f t the c h i l d r e n alone and d i d not p r o v i d e f o r them a d e q u a t e l y . Agency suggested the c h i l d r e n be p l a c e d i n b o a r d i n g homes. Screened Intake Comm i t t e e s a n c t i o n e d these p r o p o s a l s . J u v e n i l e Court suggested the f a m i l y be p l a c e d under s u p e r v i s i o n of a f a m i l y agency, a s s i s t a n c e be g i v e n the mother w i t h b u d g e t t i n g ; case t o be p r e s e n t e d t o J u v e n i l e Court i f mother f a i l e d to c o o p e r a t e . R e s u l t s : home c o n d i t i o n s improved c o n s i d e r a b l y . The r e m a i n i n g t e n p e r cent of the c a s e s were p r e s e n t e d t o the Committee a s a matter f o s t e r home placements  of r o u t i n e - to s a n c t i o n t h e l i c e n s i n g of p r i v a t e due to i l l n e s s on the p a r t of one o r both p a r e n t s .  A l s o , i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were i n c l u d e d s i t u a t i o n s where i t was t o o e a r l y to determine whether or not the c l i e n t s would be h e l p e d or where one or both o f the p a r e n t s were not a c c e s s i b l e f o r case work treatment. That the Screened Intake  Committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e  s o c i a l a g e n c i e s w i t h i n Saint P a u l , g i v i n g more t h o u g h t f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n ,  i s shown by an a p p r a i s a l o f the case  sample t e n dered to the Screened Intake Committee d u r i n g the y e a r s 19^2 to 19^-S, No l o n g e r were s o c i a l a g e n c i e s able to d i s c o n t i n u e case work treatment  with  the p a r e n t s of c h i l d r e n a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d o u t s i d e t h e i r own homes.  So  Since placement of c h i l d r e n was instability  or inadequacy  l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o emotional  between the p a r e n t s , the  Committee thought i t  a d v i s a b l e t o recommend t h a t seventy per cent of the cases be p r e s e n t e d to Court.  The  Committee was  of the o p i n i o n t h a t the g r a n t i n g of a c o u r t o r d e r  s a n c t i o n e d a maintenance of agency c o n t a c t l e g a l l y w i t h the f a m i l i e s a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d . understand  and accept  In t h e s e  s i t u a t i o n s the p a r e n t s were unable  t h e i r n a t u r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the placement p l a n s .  A l t h o u g h c o u r t o r d e r s d i d not a c h i e v e t h i s purpose they d i d g i v e - t h e a r i g h t to attempt  to  agencies  t o make the placement e x p e r i e n c e as c o n s t r u c t i v e a s  p o s s i b l e f o r the c h i l d r e n .  Moreover, court o r d e r s g r a n t e d the a g e n c i e s some  c o n t r o l over the p a r e n t s i n r e g a r d to t h e i r c o n t a c t s w i t h the c h i l d r e n . o n l y t h i r t y per cent  In  of the c a s e s s t u d i e d the Committee d i d not recommend a  p r e s e n t a t i o n b e f o r e J u v e n i l e Court.  In these  s i t u a t i o n s the Committee  the view t h a t the p a r e n t s were able t o understand  took  their natural responsibility  i n the placement p l a n s . In a d d i t i o n to r e n d e r i n g c e r t a i n agency c o n t a c t w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n a f t e r a c h i l d was t u t i o n of the Screened  p l a c e d from h i s or her own home, the  Intake Committee was  placement p l a n s would be c a r e f u l l y thought Committee was  an assurance through.  consti-  to the community t h a t  Thus, the Screened  an a t t e s t i n g t h a t the w e l f a r e of b o t h the p a r e n t s and  Intake  the  c h i l d r e n would be r e t a i n e d b j the a g e n c i e s d u r i n g the placement p e r i o d . o n l y f o u r t e e n p e r cent  o f the case  In  sample d i d the Committee f i n d i t necessary  to recommend e i t h e r a p l a n f o r f u r t h e r case work w i t h the f a m i l i e s before r a t i f y i n g the o r i g i n a l agency p l a n s or a p l a n d i v e r g e n t to t h a t proposed  by  the p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s . The f i n d i n g s o f the case sample m a n i f e s t e d that the Committee a l s o e i t h e r c l a r i f i e d p e r t i n e n t i s s u e s w i t h i n the f a n i l y s i t u a t i o n or b e t t e r d i r e c t i o n of the case work a c t i v i t i e s of  secured  the present i n g a g e n c i e s .  If  Si the a g e n c i e s d i d n o t agree w i t h the Committee's recommendations they, and the Committee, a c c o r d i n g l y a n a l y z e d f u l l y the case work p l a n s a s they r e l a t e d to the d i a g n o s i s .  As a r e s u l t o f such d i s c u s s i o n s , not o n l y  d i d the a g e n c i e s become more s k i l l f u l w e l f a r e o f the f a m i l i e s ,  i n r e l a t i n g treatment  p l a n s to the  but t h e y a l s o became more able i n r e c o g n i z i n g the  needs b a s i c t o the emotional  s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c l i e n t .  There were instances,  however, where the p a r e n t s seemed t o be not amenable to case work treatment o r e l s e were u n w i l l i n g to accept i t . Thus, i n f o u r t e e n p e r cent  o f the case  sample, the Committee recommended a c u r t a i l m e n t by the a g e n c i e s of f u r t h e r case work treatment w i t h the p a r e n t s of the c h i l d r e n  i n placement.  CHAPTER VII STRENGTHS ANI- WEAKNESSES  P r i o r to I3U1,  the  r e c o r d s from the  inauguration  of the  Community Chest and  Screened Intake Committee i n  Council  indicated that  Minnesota  1 had  a high ratio  This  r a t i o was  of i t s t o t a l c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n  one  of  the h i g h e s t  i n the  i n care under agency a u s p i c e s .  United States.  percentage of c h i l d r e n b e i n g c a r e d f o r outside l a r l y high. Saint  The  following  t a b l e shows the  Paul which were p l a c e d  p u b l i c and  to  year i n  19Ug.  W  ;  Agency  991 967 U56 UoU 3S5 336 UlO  53H 660 650 620 610  !3hL  U61  533  Total 1U50  1501 1166 10S9 10U5 1056 1030 1023 10UU  U13  i n d i c a t e s that a f t e r the Committee was  founded the  number of  c h i l d r e n placed  i n agency f o s t e r homes was  Decrease i n the  T o t a l C h i l d P o p u l a t i o n under Agency Care: From the  t a b l e i t was of the  n o t e d that  i n 1939  &nd  reduced.  I9U0 - two  y e a r s p r i o r to the  supervision  of p u b l i c c h i l d c a r i n g a g e n c i e s .  on hand on the f i r s t  day  and  331  1.  Community Chest and  ?.  above formation  Screened Intake Committee - the number o f c h i l d r e n under the  of p r i v a t e c h i l d c a r i n g a g e n c i e s g r e a t l y exceeded the the  particu-  Number of C h i l d r e n i n Agency F o s t e r Homes i n S a i n t P a u l , Minnesota , i n I939-I9US.  1939 19U0 19U2 19^3 19UU 19U5 19U6 19U7  This table  number of c h i l d r e n / p e r  Monthly Averages Private P u b l i c Agency  Year  homes was  c h i l d r e n f o r the  There i s no  the  i n f o s t e r hones under agency s u p e r v i s i o n - both  p r i v a t e - from 1939 Table U.  t h e i r own  In S a i n t Paul  of the  year was  U59  number of  In 1339  the  c h i l d r e n f o r the  supervision  c h i l d r e n under  number of public  p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s - a t o t a l of IU50 c h i l d r e n . Council  agencies On  the  Records.  d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r the  computed on J a n u a r y - 1 , and  children  year l Q U l .  S t a t i s t i c s f o r 1333  I9U0 s t a t i s t i c s were c l o u t e d  62  December  were 31  last  of IShO the p u b l i c a g e n c i e s had -J$\ c h i l d r e n under t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n  day  w h i l e the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s Lad 9^7  c h i l d r e n under t h e i r  there was  one t h i r d p e r cent  an i n c r e a s e of t h r e e and  c h i l d r e n being c a r e d f o r by s o c i a l a g e n c i e s w i t h i n one  supervision.  of the number of year.  While the f i g u r e s i n t h i s t a b l e were not g a t h e r e d f r o m I9U1  the end o f 19U2, Committee, the per  cent.  ferring  on the  same b a s i s  on they are v a l i d i n t h a t they i n d i c a t e d the change i n the  placement t r e n d s i n c e the i n a u g u r a t i o n of the o n l y two  Screened  Intake  y e a r s a f t e r the i n a u g u r a t i o n of the  number of c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d  Moreover, the Screened  Thus,  child  Committee. Screened  to care had d e c r e a s e d  At  Intake  by twenty  two  Intske Coamittee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s -  the g u a r d i a n s h i p of c h i l d r e n f o r whom l o n g term placement p l a n s seemed  i n d i c a t e d f r o m the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s  t o the p u b l i c a g e n c i e s .  n o n - s e c t a r i a n a g e n c i e s were no l o n g e r being p r e s s e d to accept  Thus, the p r i v a t e cases f o r which  t h e y r i g h t f u l l y were not r e s p o n s i b l e . From 13U2 children i n care.  to I9US there was  From 1939  to 19^8  the t o t a l number of c l d l d r e n under agency  a u s p i c e s d e c r e a s e d by twenty e i g h t per Screened  Intake  a g e n e r a l l e v e l l i n g o f f o f the number of  cent.  S i n c e the i n a u g u r a t i o n of  the  Committee the number of c h i l d r e n c a r e d f o r by p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s  d e c r e a s e d by f i f t y t h r e e and  one h a l f p e r cent w h i l e the number o f c h i l d r e n  e  c a r e d f o r by p u b l i c a g e n c i e s d e c r e a s e d by twenty seven p e r c e n t . can be assumed t h a t the Screened the decrease  Intake  Committee was  Although i t  l a r g e l y responsible for  i n the l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n b e i n g c a r e d f o r o u t s i d e t h e i r  own  homes, other f a c t o r s - such as the p a r e n t - c h i l d - b o a r d i n g horse programme, the f o s t e r day care and n u r s e r y  s c h o o l programmes a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the  decrease  o f the number of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . C l a r i f i c a t i o n and Screened  Intake  C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f Agencies*  Committee were d e l i n e a t e d and  d e f i n e d but f l e x i b l e  F u n c t i o n s : As the f u n c t i o n s of the programme developed,  the  a clearly  p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the method of r e f e r r i n g c h i l d r e n f o r care  6U f r o m one  agency to another was  l a r g e l y by a system a g e n c i e s gave l i t t l e  of  evolved.  P r e v i o u s l y , r e f e r r a l s had been done  " b a r g a i n i n g " between the a g e n c i e s .  By t h i s system  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the adequacy o f t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s f o r  w o r k i n g w i t h the f a m i l i e s or the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the placement W i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of the  Screened  to continue t o " b a r g a i n " f o r c a s e s was  of the  children.  Intake Committee the need f o r a g e n c i e s e l i m i n a t e d and a means was  provided  whereby the s o c i a l case work a g e n c i e s c o u l d meet a t a r e g u l a r time and p l a c e t o d i s c u s s w i t h freedom a n d . i m p a r t i a l i t y those cases where placement more c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y seemed i n d i c a t e d .  By means of the Screened  Committee the a g e n c i e s were a b l e t o a r r i v e a t an i m p a r t i a l which agency was  of one  or  Intake  d e c i s i o n as to  b e s t a b l e to p r o v i d e case work treatment f o r each  particular  situation. Value  of P r e s e n t a t i o n of W r i t t e n Screened Intake  h i s t o r y o u t l i n e p r e s e n t e d to the Screened  Summary:  The w r i t t e n s o c i a l  Intake Committee by the  social  case  work a g e n c i e s i n c l u d e d a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y and the problems w i t h i n the f a m i l y .  A l t h o u g h the  summaries were supplemented by v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s ,  the o p i n i o n of t h e members of the  Screened Intake  Committee was  that w r i t t e n  summaries were more e f f e c t i v e than v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : 1)  2) 3)  The  The Committee was a b l e to have the f a m i l y h i s t o r y i n a c o n c i s e , c o - o r d i n a t e d form b e f o r e and d u r i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c a s e , The Committee was e n a b l e d to f o c u s b e t t e r the d i s c u s s i o n on the most r e l e v a n t p o i n t s , The r e c o r d h e l p e d p r e v e n t the s i t u a t i o n from b e i n g " c o l o r e d " by the worker's f e e l i n g s .  f i n d i n g s from the Case Study  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  c l u d e d recommendations r e l a t i n g t o t h e placement  summaries g e n e r a l l y i n -  of c h i l d r e n .  P l a n s f o r case  work treatment, however, were seldom g i v e n i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l by the p r e senting agencies. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the T o t a l F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n : R e c o g n i z i n g the f a m i l y i s the b a s i s upon which our s o c i e t y i s b u i l t ,  the Screened  Intake Committee  was  65 l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n a b l i n g the  s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s to t a k e more  c o g n i z a n c e of the problems m a n i f e s t e d by the f a m i l y as a c o n s t e l l a t i o n and to b r i n g these b a s i c f a c t o r s i n t o sharper f o c u s .  Since r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  a number o f s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s c o n s t i t u t e d the ' S c r e e n i n g committee, the committee brought a much, broader f a m i l y problems and  experience to the t h i n k i n g  through of the  encouraged more d e f i n i t e p r o p o s a l s and d e c i s i o n s f o r case  work treatment. Assurance  o f a Good D i a g n o s i s R e g a r d i n g  the F a m i l y S i t u a t i o n :  With the f o r -  mat! on of the Screened Intake Committee came an e l i m i n a t i o n of vague a g r e e ments which had been made so f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g the l e s s f o r m a l agency c o n f e r ences.  The  s e c r e t a r y of the Committee summarized the d e c i s i o n s made or  approved by the Committee at the c l o s e of each case d i s c u s s i o n . c o p i e s were sent t o t h e r e s p o n s i b l e a g e n c i e s .  Later, typed .  T h i s c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the  case work p l a n s e n a b l e d the a g e n c i e s working w i t h the c h i l d r e n  and the f a m i l y  to take a c t i o n immediately and to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y . Many times, however, the members of the Screened Intake were of the o p i n i o n they were handicapped  Committee  i n a c h i e v i n g an adequate d i a g n o s i s  or i n making v a l i d recommendations f o r both the f a m i l y and  the c h i l d r e n at  the time of the f i r s t  The  case p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Committee.  Case Study  a t t r i b u t e d t h i s d i f f i c u l t y to t h r e e f a c t o r s : a) All  Inadequate  i n f o r m a t i o n and thought  r e g a r d i n g the f a m i l y situation:  too o f t e n summaries p r e s e n t e d to the Screened Intake Committee were not  c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e n t i r e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n .  The p r e s e n t i n g  a g e n c i e s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y a p p r i s e d of the c l i e n t s ' a n d t h e i r Thus, they were unable f a m i l y p a t t e r n of ^  to g i v e a complete  problems.  and a c c u r a t e d e l i n e a t i o n of the  living. L a c k of i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n :  F r e q u e n t l y the  S c r e e n e d Intake Summaries were sketchy when they p e r t a i n e d to the p e r s o n a l i t y  66  and  development of t h e c h i l d .  h e a l t h h i s t o r y was g i v e n .  G e n e r a l l y , the age of the c h i l d and a minimum  There were few or no comments about the c h i l d ' s  p h y s i c a l appearance; whether he was l a r g e or s m a l l f o r h i s age; whether he had h e a l t h problems, a l l e r g i e s , the age a t w h i c h he h a d v a r i o u s c h i l d h o o d i l l n e s s ; f o r e example, whooping cough, t o n s i l e c t o m y , e t c . , and the dates of h i s immunizations.  Almost w i t h o u t  whether the c h i l d was t o i l e t he  e x c e p t i o n the summaries s h o u l d have s t a t e d  t r a i n e d and i f so, at what age; the age a t w h i c h  l e a r n e d to walk; t o t a l k , and whether he had any f o o d f a n c i e s . M a t e r i a l a s to h i s adjustment to both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n  have been i n c l u d e d i n the s o c i a l to a d u l t s ? ful,  etc?  summaries.  Was he o v e r l y a c t i v e ,  How d i d he r e l a t e to c h i l d r e n and  shy, s e c r e t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , b u l l y i n g ,  How d i d he get a l o n g w i t h c h i l d r e n a t school?  grade and s c h o o l performance? d i d he r e a c t to s t r a n g e r s ? p r e p a r e d f o r a f o s t e r home?  should  What was h i s s c h o o l  How d i d he get a l o n g w i t h h i s s i b l i n g s ?  Had he been away from home before? Were h i s p a r e n t s prepared?  fear-  How  Was the c h i l d  What was the p a r e n t ' s  a t t i t u d e toward the c h i l d , the f o s t e r home, the v i s i t i n g arrangements? Because little  i n f o r m a t i o n was g i v e n sometimes t o the emotional f e e l i n g o f the c h i l d r e n  toward t h e i r p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s ,  i t was o f t e n n e c e s s a r y f o r a c h i l d to have  to be r e t u r n e d home because h i s emotional I f the Screened  Intake  t i e s t o h i s p a r e n t s were so s t r o n g .  Committee was to make wise d e c i s i o n s they must know t h e  s a l i e n t f a c t o r s about the c h i l d . c)  Precedence o f m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s over emotional a s p e c t s ;  d e f i c i e n c y i n the Screened  Intake  i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of t h e emotional each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d .  summaries was a l s o a t t r i b u t e d to a l a c k o f f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n placement p l a n s f o r  So o f t e n the p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s c o n s i d e r e d o n l y whether  the c h i l d r e n were b e i n g n e g l e c t e d p h y s i c a l l y . tended  This  The Case Study i n d i c a t e d they  to d i s r e g a r d the importance of the p a r e n t s ' f e e l i n g s toward t h e i r  children.  Moreover, o c c a s i o n a l l y the agencies tended to g i v e precedence to  67 monetary v a l u e s r a t h e r than to case work p r i n c i p l e s . the c l i e n t what he do  C o n t i n u i n g Treatment P l a n :  those  Intake  "telling  ought, to do" as w e l l as " t e l l i n g - him what the agency would  i f he d i d n ' t do d i f f e r e n t l y " was  Screened  A l l too o f t e n  e v i d e n t i n the  Screening  summaries.  Both b e f o r e and a f t e r the f o r m a t i o n of the  Committee there was  i n t e r e s t e d and concerned  c o n s i d e r a b l e f e e l i n g on the p a r t of  i n the w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h i s com-  munity that the p u b l i c a g e n c i e s were not doing as e f f e c t i v e work as the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i n the c h i l d placement f i e l d . d o r s e d the p l a n s i n t h i r t y by the p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . advocate  The  Screened  Intake Committee en-  s i x per cent of the cases a s they were p r e s e n t e d  In o n l y t e n per cent of the c a s e s d i d the Committee  p l a n s other than those p r e s e n t e d by the p u b l i c a g e n c i e s .  p r e s e n t e d to the Committee by the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s t h i r t y two endorsed was  a t the o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n .  per cent were  T h i s study t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e d t h e r e  no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the case work p l a n s between the p r i v a t e  public  and  agencies. With the ensurance  i n t e r v i e w s by the  Screened  o f a c o n t i n u e d p l a n of treatment  Intake  p r o b a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n remaining n e c e s s a r y was  prevented.  Hot  Committee of the  individual  child  i n care o u t s i d e t h e i r own  an assurance  homes longer  than  o n l y d i d these r e v i e w a l s make the a g e n c i e s more of the f a m i l y and  s i t u a t i o n s but h e l p e d the a g e n c i e s become  c o n s c i o u s of the c h i l d and  via periodic  t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n the  aware of the b a s i c f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n to the treatment  was  Of the p l a n s  the needs of the c h i l d .  increasingly  Moreover, the  committee  to the community t h a t agency c o n t a c t would be c o n t i n u e d w i t h  f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the placement  of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r  of the Case.Study, however, i n d i c a t e d there was improvement i n t h i s a r e a but no l o n g e r was  still  own  homes.  The  findings  c o n s i d e r a b l e need f o r  a s o c i a l case work agency able t o  c l o s e a case a f t e r the placement of c h i l d r e n v/ithout r e p o r t i n g i t , u n l e s s the c h i l d r e n were committed permanently to the care of t h e D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Welfare.  6S Canol u s i on; Although the s o c i a l case work a g e n c i e s i n S a i n t P a u l c o n t i n u e d to he  somewhat unaware of the emotional components of the f a n i l y  situation, i t  i s e v i d e n t from the p r e c e d i n g h i s t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n of the case sample p r e s e n t e d to the Screened Intake Committee that the Committee accomplished many w o r t h w h i l e changes f o r the s o c i a l w e l f a r e programme d u r i n g the y e a r s I9U1 194'8.  One  of the paramount accomplishments  was  that  c h i l d r e n b e i n g c a r e d f o r o u t s i d e t h e i r own homes was  to  the t o t a l number of now  markedly  lower, both  f o r the State of M i n n e s o t a and more p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the C i t y of Saint P a u l  9  Moreover, no l o n g e r were a g e n c i e s a b l e to continue to " b a r g a i n " as to which agency would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r case work p l a n s and c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s *  treatment f o r  The d e c i s i o n s made or approved by the Screened  Committee v/ere c r y s t a l l i z e d so t h a t agencies working w i t h c h i l d r e n and  Intake families  were able, to take a c t i o n immediately and to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y . the e l i m i n a t i o n of the  With  " b a r g a i n i n g " system, the Screened Intake Committee  was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l s o p r e v e n t i n g the n o n - s e c t a r i a n a g e n c i e s from b e i n g p r e s s e d to accept cases f o r which they r i g h t f u l l y were not r e s p o n s i b l e . to 19US  the t o t a l  Prom  number of c h i l d r e n under agency c a r e d e c r e a s e d by  1939  twenty  e i g h t per cent - i n d i c a t i n g there had been a g e n e r a l l e v e l l i n g o f f of the number of c h i l d r e n i n care« Although t h e r e c o n t i n u e d to be c o n s i d e r a b l e o p i n i o n on the p a r t of p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n w i t h i n S a i n t P a u l t h a t the p u b l i c a g e n c i e s were not d o i n g as e f f e c t i v e case work as the p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i n the c h i l d placement  field,  the present study i n d i c a t e s there was  little  difference  i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the case work p l a n s presented- to the Committee by e i t h e r the p u b l i c or p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s .  At the time o f w r i t i n g , however, there v/ere  few case work a g e n c i e s i n Saint P a u l s t a f f e d w i t h f u l l y workers Until  and s u p e r v i s o r s .  this  T h i s was  s i t u a t i o n i s remedied,  qualified social  case  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f the p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . the need f o r the Screened Intake  Committee  65 will a  continue.  supervisory  for  A l t h o u g h the purpose of the Committee'was not to a c t i n c a p a c i t y , a g e n c i e s are s t i l l b r i n g i n g cases t o the Committee  s u g g e s t i o n s as t o the best p l a n s f o r the f a m i l y .  agency s u p e r v i s o r s this  situation will  are b e t t e r a b l e not a r i s e .  to f u l f i l l  Perhaps when the  their functions  But i t i s e v i d e n t .in general  Screened Intake Committee has performed valuable  adequately, t h a t the  work, and t h a t the p r i n c i -  p l e s i t has e s t a b l i s h e d deserve continuous c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n the f u t u r e .  7* SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  P r i n c i p l e s of S o c i a l Work Cannon, Mary A n t o i n e t t e , and K l e i n , P h i l i p , S o c i a l Case Work - An 'Outline f o r T e a c h i n g , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 . H a m i l t o n , Gordon, P r i n c i p l e s of S o c i a l Case Work R e c o r d i n g . New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19U6. H a m i l t o n , Gordon, S o c i a l Case P r e s s , 1936*  R e c o r d i n g . New York, Columbia  H a m i l t o n , Gordon, Theory and P r a c t i c e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19^0,  University  of S o c i a l Oase Work. New York,  H o l l i s , F l o r e n c e , S o c i a l Case Work i n P r a c t i c e , New York, F a m i l y Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n of America, 1939* Lowry, F e r n , Readings i n S o c i a l Case Work. Press, 1939. Richmond, Mary E . , S o c i a l D i a g n o s i s .  New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y  New York, R u s s e l l  Sage F o u n d a t i o n ,  1917. Richmond, Maiy E . , What i s S o c i a l Case Work? Foundation, 1922. Richmond, Mary E . , The Long View.  New York, R u s s e l l  New York, R u s s e l l  Sage  Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1930*  R o b i n s o n , V i r g i n i a P., A Changing: Psychology i n S o c i a l Case Work. Chapel H i l l , U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 , R o b i n s o n , V i r g i n i a P., T r a i n i n g F o r S k i l l i n S o c i a l Case Work. U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 19H2,  The F a m i l y and C h i l d Placement Day,  F l o r e n c e R., "Changing P r a c t i c e s  G a r r o t t , A n n e t t e , "Case Work Treatment a t i o n of America, 19^-1.  i n C h i l d W e l f a r e Treatment."March 1937of a C h i l d . "  F a m i l y Welfare A s s o c i -  G a r t l a n d , Ruth, "The C h i l d , the P a r e n t , and the Agency." 75-80. ,  X V I I I , May 1337,  K a s a n i n M.D., J . , "A C r i t i q u e o f Some of the Newer Trends i n C h i l d W e l f a r e . " A p r i l 1935. McCord, E l i z a b e t h , "The Part of the Worker i n the Community's Acceptance of S o c i a l Work. 11  H a m i l t o n , Gordon, "The U n d e r l y i n g P h i l o s o p h y of S o c i a l Case Work," The F a m i l y , XXII, J u l y , 19U1, 139-147; a l s o P r o c e e d i n g s of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1 9 4 1 , 2 3 7 - 2 5 3 ,  1l  Lowry, F e r n , "Current Concepts i n S o c i a l Case Work P r a c t i c e . " • S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review, September 1938, 3 6 5 - 3 7 3 ; December 1 9 3 8 , 571-597. " P l a c i n g o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s . " Canadian Welfare P u b l i c a t i o n No. 8 9 , 1 9 3 8 .  C o u n c i l , Ottawa,  " R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Short Contact I n t e r v i e w i n g . " ( C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s ) , Reynolds, B e r t h a , June 1 9 3 3 ; McGregor, M a d e l i n e L., May 1 9 3 4 . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r T r a v e l e r ' s A i d and T r a n s i e n t S e r v i c e . "Report of the Committee on F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Work." A Sub-Committee of t h e Committee on R e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the S o c i a l Case Work F i e l d , F a m i l y Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n of America;.-.New York, May I 9 U U , "Report and Recommendations .of the Committee t o Study C h i l d Neglect Fail." A p r i l 1938. "Social  i n Saint  Case Work, Generic a n d S p e c i f i c . " M i l f o r d Conference Report, American A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers.  1929.  Towle, C h a r l o t t e , " S o c i a l Case Work i n Modern S o c i e t y . " The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review, June 19^6. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 111. Towle, C h a r l o t t e , "The U n d e r l y i n g S k i l l s of Case Work Today." S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review, X?,September, 1941, U56-U7I; a l s o P r o c e e d i n g s of the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, I 9 U 1 , 2 5 4 - 2 6 6 .  A r t i c l e s a n d Pamphlets: "The  A.B.C. of F o s t e r F a m i l y Care f o r C h i l d r e n . " Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 2 l 6 , U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington 1936*  " D i f f e r e n t i a l Approach i n Case Work Treatment." America, 1936« " F o s t e r H ome Care f o r Dependent C h i l d r e n . " (Revised) U n i t e d  States  F a m i l y Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n of  Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 136  Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington 1929.  Screened Intake Committee's Manual, F a m i l y S e r v i c e , Saint P a u l , M i n n e s o t a . S t a t i s t i c s from Community Chest and C o u n c i l , Saint  Paul, Minnesota.  Appendice A.  Forms Used for Case Analysis  SCREENED INTAKE COMMITTEE ANALYSIS OF CASES February, 19^9  1.  Family Name.  3.  NAME  2. SEX  BIP.TH DATE  ' ™ f  C  J  Agency Presenting Case to S.I.  EDUCATION  k.  C.R.B. Registrations  ;Pa.  (wo 4 |  1  5.  Father. Nationality: Mother.  6.  Religion:  Father. Mother.  EMPLOYMENT Mother:  father;  PLACE  DATE  TYPE  PLACE  DATE  TYPE  i ; m i nT e n  Name  Monnrnm^nr  eci r i a c g g , Recommendation Age flri f i n a l ' Rmri r  Sex  Placement  Placement Agency  Date o f Placement  1 i •  _ 11.  Name o f F a m i l y Agency to remain a c t i v e Change a f t e r f i r s t -presentation ,,...  12.  A g e n c i e s h a n d l i n g -placement,  13.  K i n d s o f Placement Made - use d a t e s  Name  Boarding Home  ., ,  ,  Adoption I n s t i t u t i o i 1 R e l a t i v e Home  PaC.B.H.  Adjustment  t  V,  1st 2nd  DATE OP REVIEWS  RECOMMENDATIONS  Original Presentation  To remain i n own home To be placed with relatives To be placed by agency To be committed: Ini t i a l To be returned t.n  n «m Vinmfi  P . CoB.Ho  Placement Emergency placement; care to be continued. To be presented Parents to contribute to T6 remain i n Casework with family To obtain more info. re. family  •t  3rd 4th 1st Review  2nd Review  5thi 6thL 3rd Review  7thi 8 thi 4th Review  5th Review  9th 10th 6th Review  7th Review  8th Review  7' ~ $Ik.  Reasons f o r Placement:  ,  15.  16.  C h i l d Neglect  Absence o f F a t h e r from Home  C h i l d Dependency  Both P a r e n t s Working  C h i l d Delinquency  Mother Working, Father Not Working and Out o f Home  Bad o r No Housing P h y s i c a l I l l n e s s o f Parent (s)  For Treatment o f S o c i a l Adjustment and B e h a v i o r P r o b  Mental  Mother D i s i n t e r e s t e d  I l l n e s s o f Parent ( s )  V o l u n t a r y Placement  Court Order ,  A, .  I f c o u r t o r d e r , s t a t e amount  B.  Were l i m i t s  •  D i d parent o r p a r e n t s c o n t r i b u t e t o support o f c h i l d r e n p l a c e d out o f home? .  u  No  A.  T o t a l cost, f o r care o f C h i l d r e n  B.  T o t a l amount o r d e r e d by c o u r t  C.  Part o f either  (A) o r (B)  F i n a n c i a l Assistance Given. A.  18.  Ordered  per  (time) d e f i n i t e l y set  Yes  17.  Court A c t i o n hut no Placement  Appropriately Adequate  Yes _____ ... ,.. . .  B.  G i v e n on a p l a n n e d b a s i s  C.  Used p o s i t i v e l y by c l i e n t  No  Inappropriately Inadequate  Give m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f n a t u r a l p a r e n t s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each A.  (  ) married  B.  (  ) illegitimate  ( child  )  separated  (  child.  ) divorced  p  ** ^ •*  19.  C h i l d R e t u r n e d Home: Age Sex  Name  Date Returned  Agency consent a g a i n s t Agency recommendation  Other Agency Supervision  i  j  20.  Whereabouts o f c h i l d r e n  Name  Date  21»  Place  Diagnosis  Situation  Made Made Ag'c; r SIC Good F a i r Poor  1. F a m i l y 2, Treatment 22.  Interpretation Good  23-.  to Client  Fair  Poor  C e n t r d Problem 24.  Year  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  Success o f P l a n o f Treatment A.  No improvement  19^2  B.  Partial  19^3.  C.  Definite  ?9*J4 19*5 19^6 19^7  I 1 i 1  Improvement Improvement  25.  Closing: \  A.  Date  E.  Reason  C  Planned with client?  D.  Division made by:  S.  Results:  Agency  Client  S.I.C.  Good. . , ... Pair.  None  Poor  Counseling and/or Child Welfare Service given in Relation to:  27.  A.  Total family situation:  Yes  No  , Good  B.  Individual child under care:Yes  No  Good  Pair.. . . Poor  c.  Children under care:  No  Good  Fpir  Yes  , , Poor ,. ,  . , Poor , , „,  Specialized services within agency given: A.  List type  — — ,  B,  28.  Pair  Did client use services offered?  Clearly defined as Agency function, Yes ,  No , .  Case Work Process: A. ' Was acceptance of case appropriate to agency function? Explain i f Not. ,.  B.  Did agency use clear diagnostic thinking? V/ere problems seen as largely social? Environmental? Emotional?_  C.  Was agency successful in relating treatment to? Diagnosis S.I.C.'s recommendation^.  D„  Was agency aware of underlying problems? Yes N&  Yes  —  No.  Psychological!  S.  Was q u a l i t y o f agency's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l i e n t g r a d u a l ? Fair? Poor? Why? . .  F.  Did client Beasons  G.  Was agency p l a n f u l ?  frequently  break appointments? „ ..,  Yes  No_  Yes  No.  How?_  H. E.  Comments on Case Work P r o c e s s .  I.  29.  Was pace too rapid?,  Reader's E v a l u a t i o n A.  Gains t o c l i e n t  o f Case: by the Screened Intake Committee %t!rbVgW%teti^%eWc%%  l)  Was c l i e n t Yes  2)  Ws  3)  D i d an improvement i n a t t i t u d e r e s u l t toward family?. . Social Relations? Gther? (Specify)., __. None?  h)  Was t h e environment improved?  a  a b l e t o c l a r i f y h i s problems t h r o u g h case work help? No How? ,  c l i e n t a b l e t o be a c t i v e  on h i s problems?  Yes  No  Yes ,  (Specify)  No Job?.  Did client feel he had been helped? Ye is •.  Reader's comments on gains to- client:  Ways in which client did not gain:  Reader's Comments on why client did not gain:  No .  Explain.  Appendice 3 SUMMARY FOR SCREENED INTAKE  IDENTIFYING INFORMATION: F u l l name. birthdate.s and -present  addresses:  Father Mother ( i n c l , mdn. name) .. Children  RELIGION:  REASON FOR REFERR8L:  PROPOSED PLAN:  REGISTRATIONS:  Agency Case Worker Date  INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF BASIC SUMMARY  The a t t a c h e d o u t l i n e i s the b a s i c summary t o be used f o r r e f e r r a l s to a l l a g e n c i e s and t o Screened Intake. The f i r s t page o f the o u t l i n e i s s e t up t o meet the needs o f the Screened Intake and may be adapted f o r use i n a l l r e f e r r a l s . The i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s page should be kept separate from the b a s i c h i s t o r y . E i g h t c o p i e s of the complete o u t l i n e a r e needed f o r Screened Intake. In w r i t i n g t h e b a s i c h i s t o r y , the form o f t h e o u t l i n e i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d and a l l u n d e r l i n e d headings a r e t o be used. The i n f o r m a t i o n , " m a t e r i a l t b .be i n c l u d e d " , under t h e headings has been l i s t e d i n n u m e r i c a l form f o r your convenience but should be w r i t t e n i n paragraph form without numbers or m a r g i n a l h e a d i n g s . i-  A l l i n f o r m a t i o n asked f o r may not be a v a i l a b l e but i f an e f f o r t has been made t o o b t a i n i t , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e . The o u t l i n e i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y i n most r e s p e c t s but the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s may need clarification: M a r i t a l H i s t o r y has been i n c l u d e d under b o t h mother and f a t h e r , and should not be r e p e a t e d but t h i s space has been p r o v i d e d under each p a r e n t t o take care o f p r e v i o u s or subsequent m a r r i a g e s . I f a s t e p p a r e n t i B or has p l a y e d an important r o l e i n the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g t h i s parent s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d under a separate heading and cover the same i n f o r m a t i o n a s r e q u i r e d under f a t h e r - mother. Under F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p , i f b o a r d i n g home placement i s i n d i c a t e d , i t w i l l be important t o know how the c h i l d r e n f e e l toward one another i n order t o determine whether they should be p l a c e d i n separate or the same b o a r d i n g homes.  BASIC SUMMARY FAMILY HISTORY: Father: (Material  t o he i n c l u d e d )  1. 2. 3. 4.  5. 6.  7.  8.  9. 10. 11. 12.  Name ~ p l a c e a n d date o f b i r t h . (verified) Nationality R e l i g i o n and church a f f i l i a t i o n Health School h i s t o r y i n c l u d i n g any special training Mental t e s t s - date and type o f test O c c u p a t i o n and work h i s t o r y P e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l adjustment i n c l u d i n g c h i l d h o o d and e a r l y family relationships Marital history (verified). I n s t i t u t i o n a l and c o u r t h i s t o r y Date and cause o f d.eath Additional pertinent information  Mother: (Same as above) Children: (Material  t o be i n c l u d e d )  1. 2. 3.  5. 6.  7. 8.  9. 10. 11. 12.  Name - p l a c e and date of b i r t h (verified) R e l i g i o n , baptism, c o n f i r m a t i o n and church a f f i l i a t i o n P h y s i c a l development and h e a l t h School h i s t o r y i n c l u d i n g present grade placement Mental t e s t s - date and type of test I n s t i t u t i o n a l and c o u r t h i s t o r y O c c u p a t i o n and work h i s t o r y P e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l adjustment Independent or s u p e r v i s e d placement s out side o f own home Marital history (verified) Date and cause o f death Additional pertinent information  THE HOME: Physical  Aspects:  1. 2.  Type of community D e s c r i p t i o n of house i n c l u d i n g number o f rooms, s l e e p i n g arrangements and household equipment.  THE HOME: ( c o n t i n u e d ) F i n a n c i a l and Economic S t a t u s :  Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s ;  1. 2.  E q u i t y i n home or r e n t a l F a m i l y Income  1,  A t t i t u d e o f v a r i o u s members toward one another A t t i t u d e o f v a r i o u s members toward present s i t u a t i o n and the ToroiDosed -plan  2,  RELATIVES; Paternal:  . 1 . 2,  Maternal:  1. 2.  AGENCY'S  F u l l names and p r e s e n t addresses Any p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e garding inter-family relationships F u l l names and p r e s e n t addresses Any p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e garding i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n ships  CONTACT WITH THE FAMILY;  To i n c l u d e l e n g t h o f time f a m i l y has been known t o agency w i t h emphasis on e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e work t h a t has been attempted and. any p l a n s t h a t have been c o n s i d e r e d i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  Agency; Case Worker; Date.:  

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