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Safeguarding child placement : a study of the work of the screened intake committee in St. Paul, Minnesota 1951

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SAFEGUARDING CHILD PLACEMENT L£ 9 ft7 /9 57 #S Oof l A Study of the Work of the Screened Intake Committee XU, Pftttl* Minnesota by ENID MABEL HECKELS Thesis Submitted in Part ia l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the School of Social Work 1951 The University of Br i t i sh Columbia ABSTRACT This study examines the services rendered "by a committee composed of representatives of the Saint Paul case work agencies. These agencies were foraed i n 19^1 to coordinate the placement of c h i l d r e n outside t h e i r own homes, and to safeguard t h e i r welfare. The study has three purposes: f i r s t , to preserve i n available form h i s t o r i c a l information about the development of ' Screened Intake' i n the C i t y of Saint Paul; second, to review the purposes and functions of the Committee; and t h i r d , to evaluate the extent to which i t i n t e - grated and implemented the complementary p r i n c i p l e s of human r i g h t s and human needs of the family cases which were presented to the Com- mittee f o r 'Screening.' Material was c o l l e c t e d from a manual of minutes as recorded by the Screened Intake Committee from before i t s inauguration i n 19*+1 to 19^8; by personal interviews with the Sxecutive Director of the Family Service of Saint Paul and chairinan of the Screened Intake Com- mittee; and from others active on t h i s Committee. F i f t y i n d i v i d u a l cases were read. These were summaries prepared by case workers for presentation to the Committee. Spot checks were made of formal case records. From an appraisal of t h i s work, i t i s evident that many worthwhile changes i n the s o c i a l welfare programme for c h i l d r e n were accomplished. The Committee was responsible for a considerable de- crease i n the tota l number of c h i l d r e n being cared f o r outside t h e i r own homes - both for the State of Minnesota and more p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the C i t y of Saint Paul. It was also responsible for eliminating the p r e c i p i t a t e f o s t e r home placement of c h i l d r e n . It c l e a r l y defined r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the s o c i a l agencies concerned, and was an assurance to the community that the welfare of both parents and children would be protected by s o c i a l agencies during the placement period. Althoogh the study ind i c a t e d that the s o c i a l case work agencies i n Saint Paul con- tinued to be somewhat unaware of the emotional components of the family s i t u a t i o n s , i n general the Screened Intake Committee performed valuable TO rk and the p r i n c i p l e s i t has established deserve continuous consider- a t i o n i n the future. TABLE OF (X)NTSMTS Chapter 1* Evaluation of Screened Intake General problems of c h i l d placement* The s i t u a t i o n i n Saint Paul. A survey committee (193S). Setting up of the Screened Intake Committee. Some basic p r i n c i p l e s * Chapter 2. Concerted Action between Family and Children's Agencies. Lack of community c o n t r o l . E x i s t i n g sources of r e f e r r a l . F a c i l i t i e s f o r wider c o n t r o l s . A suggested plan. Chapter 3» The Screened Intake Committee; Functions and Procedure Basic case summary. O r i g i n a l presentation of a case. Review of cases pr e v i o u s l y presented. Special kinds of placements. Chapter U» C r i t e r i a f o r the Study "Case work" and " c h i l d welfare" defined. Seven years of Screened Intake Committee work. Sele c t i o n of a sample. Schedule and c r i t e r i a u t i l i z e d to examine the sanple. Chapter 5- C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Families Major reasons for presentation of cases. Problems presented by the f i f t y cases. Family status. F i r s t presentation of case to the "Screened Intake Committee. Cases presented f o r court j u r i s d i c t i o n . Chapter 6. Case Experience Reviewed Quali t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between agency and c l i e n t . Plans proposed by the agencies to the Screened Intake Committee. Awareness of underlying problems, by agencies and the Screened Intake Committee. Evaluation of . diagnosis and treatment made by agencies and Screened Intake Committee. C l a r i f i c a t i o n of clients.problems through case work assistance, Chapter 7* Strengths and Weaknesses Decrease i n t o t a l c h i l d population under agency care. C l a r i f i c a t i o n and co-ordination of agencies', functions. Value of presentation of written Screened Intake summary. Consideration of the t o t a l family s i t u a t i o n . Assurance of a good diagnosis regarding the family s i t u a t i o n . Continuing treatment plan. Appendices: A. Porm'used for Case Analysis B . Summary f o r Screened Intake C. Bibliography TafffiTrS IN THS TEXT Page Table 1. LiBt of the total problems presented by- sample cases Hi Table 2. Marital status of parents of children considered by the Committee, 19U2-13US. . U3 Table 3» Cause of parental inadequacy. . . . Table H. Number of children in agency foster homes in Saint Paul, Minnesota, in 1339-19U2. . 62 CHAPTER I EVOLUTION OF SCKSENED INTAKE General Problems of C h i l d Placement It i s recognised generally that most s o c i a l behaviour and adjust- ment problems of i n d i v i d u a l s represent, i n the l a s t analysis, problem f a m i l i e s . Many of our s o c i a l services, nevertheless, have been established to deal with end-products of f a m i l i e s with s o c i a l problems, rather than with t o t a l family s i t u a t i o n s of which i n d i v i d u a l s are a part.. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n regard to c h i l d placement. The range and the complexity of the problems con- f r o n t i n g s o c i a l agencies which must place c h i l d r e n away from t h e i r own homes are considerable. This i s w e l l exemplified by the findi n g s of the Screened Intake Committee formed i n Saint Paul i n 19*+1, with which the present study i s concerned. To have to grow up (or l i v e ) i n a home other than h i s own i s a traumatic experience f o r any c h i l d , not only because of the new adjustments necessary but also because of the inevitable c r i s i s which have preceded and necessitated placement. In a d d i t i o n to the problems thus presented to the c h i l d , there are al s o complicating int e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the c h i l d and the parent or parents, and between both of these and the f o s t e r parents. Furthermore, grandparents and other r e l a t i v e s often play a more active r o l e . Because of these f a c t o r s i t i s an accepted case work p r i n c i p l e that the best place f o r the care, guidance, and control of the c h i l d during his years of immaturity and dependence i s i n h i s own home with h i s own parents. Thus, family agencies throughout the country are endeavouring. to strengthen marriage. As Dorothy Hutchinson says, "the best c h i l d welfare i s a happy marriage." Since the c h i l d i s the medium through which c i v i l i z e d l i f e i s c a r r i e d on from one generation to the next, his well-being becomes a primary 1 concern of organized society. When circumstances threaten the a b i l i t y of the family to provide s a t i s f a c t o r y conditions f o r the upbringing of the c h i l d , the f i r s t question to be explored should be the nBans by which the parents can be a s s i s t e d i n the task of the proper rearing of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Moreover, good c h i l d placement endeavours to help a c h i l d adjust i n t o a home best suited to h i s needs. This i s not an easy task, as generally there i s a s c a r c i t y of good f o s t e r homes. Sometimes a home i s found which does b r i n g happiness to the c h i l d , but more often a c h i l d moves from home to home through no f a u l t of h i s own. Throughout the country we are grossly l a c k i n g i n proper treatment f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n - e s p e c i a l l y f o r those c h i l d r e n who must leave t h e i r own homes. We are not so ready as formerly to decide i n favour of placement. Hence, modern s o c i a l p r a c t i c e concentrates i t s major e f f o r t s upon measures c a l c u l a t e d to conserve the home. When, unfortunately, i t happens that for some s u f f i c i e n t reason a c h i l d must be cared for away from h i s own home, the most reasonable view i s that he must be offered something which i s better than what he has or which w i l l be of treatment help to him. Prom the standpoint of a family agency many chil d r e n are staying i n care because not enough pre-placement planning has been done with the c h i l d , h i s parents, and perhaps grandparents. Then, a f t e r the c h i l d i s placed, the parents are not a s u f f i c i e n t part of the plan to work toward having the c h i l d return home or to release him f o r more permanent placement plans. Agencies where l e g a l guardianship does not exi s t must cope with the problem <f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n one place and l o v i n g i n another. Considering these f a c t o r s , those persons i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l welfare of Saint Paul f e m i l i e s , r e a l i z e d that i t was extremely important far a community to have an o v e r a l l p i c t ure of i t s welfare services f o r safeguarding the placement of c h i l d r e n . 3 The Situation in Saint Paul Prior to the time the present study was made (19^-9), the cost of child care in Saint Paul indicated that the greatest increases in the costs of care and in the size of the case loads were taking place in the private child-caring agencies. A major reason for the large increase in the case loads of the private child care agencies was that the public agBncy, f i r s t a separate board, and later a department of the County Welfare Board, seldom accepted children unless they were committed by the Juvenile Court. In situations where it was apparent the horns would never be re-established but in which i t would not be feasible or advisable to commit, the children were referred usually to private agencies. Thus, this left the private agencies with the major responsibility for long-term care. This situation was in contrast to the majority of other states. The United States 3ureau of the Census on January 1, 1933. indicated Minnesota as having an exception- ally high number of children Tinder agency care outside their own homes. Thus, those responsible for community planning in this City realized that seme means had to be evolved in order that community plans for caring for children outside their own homes would be so organized that there would be a coordination of the services provided by the case work agencie s. They realized too, the importance of making available facilities for complete social diagnosis, and arranging for follow-up treatment with the family after placement of the child. They were anxious to provide the community with some pagranme which would ensure the citizens in the community that those families needing child care plans would receive help. They thought this could be accomplished with a good social case work programme, including a clarification of the scope of agency programmes and of their relationships to each other. Such a programme would assist families and children in a more normal total ad jus im nt and would ensure that the agencies along with the f a m i l i e s would make the best plans possible f o r both chiEren and parents. A Survey Committee (1938) Accordingly, a special committee was formed i n 193S to study and explore the f i e l d of services to c h i l d r e n i n Saint Paul, and to re-examine c a r e f u l l y the p o l i c i e s and procedures of t h e i r agencies. The members of the committee represented both the children's and family agencies. At the time of i t s formation, the Committee's opinions v a r i e d from expressed b e l i e f that, the f a c i l i t i e s f o r handling problems p e r t a i n i n g to c h i l d r e n were reasonably adequate, to the b e l i e f that a new agency should be formed f o r protection work with c h i l d r e n . There was, however, a general agreement among Committee members that a r e a l need existed f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of agency intake p o l i c i e s , that there should be.a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the; d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y be- tween the various agencies, and that ways and means should be found for r a i s - ing the entire l e v e l of protective work done with c h i l d r e n . A survey indicated that agencies were taking too large a number of c h i l d r e n into care outside t h e i r homes. Conversely, they were providing too l i t t l e case work treatment for the f a m i l i e s while t h e i r c h i l d r e n were placed away from hone. Very often, the family agencies would close t h e i r cases a f t e r the c h i l d was placed without consulting the children's agencies. This would leave the Children's Agencies to cope not only with the f i n a n c i a l costs but also with the problem of what to do with the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r " l o s t " families. On the other hand, the Children's Agencies would often provide a " s p e c i a l i z e d " case work treatment of selected i n d i v i d u a l s with challenging problems without proper attention to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s family s i t u a t i o n . In many instancee, t h i s allowed the basic family s i t u a t i o n to get fax beyond the point where successful treatment was possible and caused other members within the family to become "problems." The 1938 study- also i n d i c a t e d there was confusion regarding intake p o l i c i e s and programs of various case work agencies* Requests f o r placement of c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and f o r hoarding homes were coming d i r e c t l y from parents and through s p e c i a l i z e d agencies. As a r e s u l t , a number of diverse "family case work" programmes began to develop. These programmes were unrelated to one another and operated from d i f f e r e n t point s of view. There was a tendency f o r each of these agencies to work out the best deal or bargain they could make with each of ; the other agencies. For the most part, these agencies were always on the defensive with one another. They were unable to accept c r i t i c i s m and were constantly a a f r a i d of l o s s of p o s i t i o n and prestige* Strong personal f e e l i n g s among agency s t a f f members also played a dominant role as to which agency should accept the children f o r placement. Informal group conferences as to the best plans for the c h i l d and family were h e l d only f a r cases involved i n Court action. Although there are many strengths i n conferences of t h i s nature, the study pointed out that, because of the very i n f o r m a l i t y , the l a c k of authority, the ever-changing personnel and the l i m i t e d scope of the conferences, not a great deal was accomplished. S e t t i n g Up of the Screened Intake Committee This 1932 study and subsequent studies, however, indicated a great need f o r the strengthening of treatment services f o r f a m i l i e s and other services f o r t r e a t i n g the problems of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. The need was fu r t h e r increased by reason of World War'II. With the coming of war and i t s subsequent aftermath, i t was g e n e r a l l y recognized that tbs problems of personal and family s o c i a l adjustment were l i k e l y to assume even greater proportions due to the rap i d changes i n the circumstances of the family. It was therefore i n t h i s area that i t was important f o r Saint Paul to put i t s house i n order, so that i t s basic services might be organized to deal e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y with 6 the d i f f i c u l t i e s with which i t s families would he confronted. To assure an effective service and treatment programme, a com- munity program was needed for over-all diagnostic and treatment case work services. It was not, however, u n t i l the year 19 -̂1, that a specific organi- sation - the Screened Intske Committee was formed in an effort to accomplish this. This Committee was a working committee formed as a result of the study by the Council of Social Agencies. It was composed of seven persons in execu- tive or supervisory positions. Each of the public and private family and child care agencies in the community was represented; as was the Child Guidance Cl i n i c . While i n the beginning there was no o f f i c i a l representation from the Probation Office, there was a close working relationship with that agency. This lack of representation was due to a shortage of Staff i n the Department. Family Service - the principal non-sectarian fanily agency - was asked to furnish a professional secretary and stenographic services for the committee. Some Basic Principles There are several basic principles which must be considered in develop- ing plans for caring for children outside their own homes. Foremost among these principles is considering the family as a basic unit of society and the natural setting for any child. As Fern Lcwry says, "the home i s the co-ordinating and 1 integrating force in the child's experience." Efforts to aid children which ignore this principle are unsound, and are not true expressions of child welfare 2 work. It is also an accepted case work principle that most children should grow up in a fanily with a father and mother and preferably with brothers and sisters. For the f i r s t few years of l i f e the c h i l d i s completely dependent upon these people. His entire time is spent with them. His physical care 1. Lowry, Fern - Readings In Social Case Work 1920-19^8. Published for the Hew York School of Social Work by Columbia Press, lew York, 1939 Page 595 2. Social Statistics, Supplement to the Child, June 19^5i PP 5-12 and most of h i s emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n s come from them. It i s within the£e early formative years - p a r t i c u l a r l y the years from one to six - that the fundamental a t t i t u d e s and ways of reacting to other people are developed. In other words, everything a person experiences i n l i f e i s colored and interpreted through the medium of h i s or her experiences of l i v i n g within a family group. I t has "been well established also that s o c i a l problems such as delinquency, domestic i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , c h i l d neglect, alcoholism, emotional i n s t a b i l i t y , etc., u s u a l l y have t h e i r roots i n the t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , and that the person i n d i f f i c u l t y r a r e l y can be treated su c c e s s f u l l y with- out a consideration of h i s t o t a l family s i t u a t i o n . It follows, therefore, that special c h i l d welfare programs, such as f o s t e r home care, i n which the c h i l d i s separated from h i s parents, should be used only as a l a s t resort. Foster home programs should serve as special treatment f a c i l i t i e s during the time a t o t a l treatment programme i s being developed f o r the f a m i l y unit i n d i f f i c u l t y . During the c h i l d ' s placement period the generic case work agencies should endeavour to avoid the break- down of the c h i l d ' s family. In order to do t h i s there must be a focusing of the community's resources upon the prevention of the family's d i s t r e s s and upon treatment of the breakdown. This can be accomplished only through a close working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the generic and s p e c i a l i z e d case work agencies. E f f o r t should be made to a s s i s t the f a m i l y not only to gain more confidence i n i t s e l f but also an a b i l i t y to cope with th e i r problems and with t h e i r needs. If abnormal behaviour i s manifested by a c h i l d , the e n t i r e f a n i l y should be considered as a problem. The "family" and " c h i l d " should be looked upon as interdependent, f o r the f u t i l i t y of p l a c i n g a changed c h i l d back into an unchanged environment has been recognized f o r some years. Programs for"long-term care should he u t i l i z e d only where the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n has became so serious or permanently broken that i t i s necessary to remove the children permanently from t h e i r own homes In order to protect t h e i r welfare. If f a m i l i e s are not to be broken up unnecessarily, there must be a close working r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d - c a r i n g agencies and the family service agencies or departments whose function i t i s to protect the home from d i s a s t e r . Because the family agency i s a generic case work agency, i t has the opportunity to know the family'and i t s problems as a c o n s t e l l a t i o n . It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important that such agencies be able to recognize those q u a l i t i e s which, even i n a poor home, may contribute to a c h i l d ' s well-being b e t t e r than those which can be provided i n a f o s t e r home. Moreover, to treat s u c c e s s f u l l y and prevent family breakdown, ( and thus arrest the increase i n numbers and costs of caring f o r c h i l d r e n outside t h e i r own homes), i t i s e s s e n t i a l that there be a plan f o r the early i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems and d i r e c t i n g of f a m i l i e s to proper treatment f a c i l i t i e s . Unless there i s an orderly community plan and u n i f i e d a ction between the s o c i a l welfare agencies, no single agency can accomplish much i n the way of a preventative program or a constructive c h i l d care program within the community. Pr i o r to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee i n 1 9 ^ 1 , Minnesota had a greater number of c h i l d r e n i n care outside their own homes than had many of the other American states. This condition was of great concern to those people, i n Saint Paul who were interested in the welfare of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Moreover, these people r e a l i z e d that the f a c i l i - t i e s which were i n existence were very inadequate to meet the needs of children whether they were i n or out of t h e i r own homes. Because t h e i r concern was so keen, a committee composed of representatives from the Children's and Family agencies i n Saint Paul, was formed i n 193S to study these conditions. The study' they made pointed out the great need f o r a c l a r i f i - c a t i o n of agency inteke p o l i c i e s , and a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the various agencies, as w e l l as a great need to r a i s e the standard of case work done with both the c h i l d r e n and their parents. The study committee r e a l i z e d t h i s could only be accomplished by the development of a t o t a l treatment program f o r the family i n d i f f i c u l t y as a u n i t . They r e a l i z e d too, that to accomplish t h i s , a l l the s o c i a l welfare agencies within the City of Saint Paul must cooperate i n the de- velopment of such a program f o r no agency alone could accomplish either a good preventative or a constructive c h i l d care program. The methods follow- ed a f t e r the formation of the new Committee are examined i n subsequent chapters. CHAPTER II CONCERTED ACTION BETWEEN FAMILY AND CHILDREN'S AGENCIES Lack of Community Control At the time of the formation of the Screened Intake Committee there were few controls, other than those by i n d i v i d u a l agencies, on the flow of children to the c h i l d caring agencies. The controls which were i n existence were spotty and not an i n t e g r a l part of the community socia l welfare programme. Most of them were l e f t to the judgment of i n d i v i d u a l agencies working throtigh t h e i r intake departments. There were, however, a few exceptions. One exception was the c o n t r o l on the number of c h i l d r e n sent by courts to children's agencies. In Saint Paul, the Juvenile Court was part of the D i s t r i c t Court. Any one of the seven D i s t r i c t Court Judges were l i k e l y to be assigned to Juvenife Court. In other words, i t was a r o t a t i n g system. For the past ten or eleven years, one or two judges were persuaded to take this assignment on a f a i r l y permanent b a s i s , so that f o r a l l intents and purposes there was just one Juvenile Court Judge. That, however, need not be the s i t u a t i o n i n the future. It was learned long ago that the r e l a t i o n s h i p with Juvenile Court was much better i f the number of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l workers appearing before the Court on matters of c h i l d neglect, dependency, and delinquency were l i m i t e d . Family Service, therefore, which also had a Legal Aid Department, had one s t a f f member who represented a number of agencies - both c h i l d r e n and family - i n Juvenile Court. The Bureau of Catholic C h a r i t i e s had i t s Court Worker and the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n of the County Welfare Board also had i t s Court Worker, Thus only one of three persons presented material to Juvenile Court. In t h i s way various judges became acquainted with the representing agencies, and i n turn, 10 m persons representing agencies became acquainted with the points of view and 1 philosophy of the Judges. A second e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l was that of a Case Committee whose f u n c t i o n i t was to control the assignment of cases to social agencies. This control was e f f e c t i v e i n that there was some assurance individual'.agencies were not being assigned too many cases and were handling cases appropriate to their f u n c t i o n . This procedure, however, had two major weaknesses. F i r s t , there was no w e l l prepared diagnostic approach to the cases being considered by the Committee, s econdly, there was l i t t l e c o ntrol over treatment of the f a m i l y p r i o r to place- ment and while the c h i l d was being cared for outside i t s own home. U n t i l 1935» with the exception of the flow of c h i l d r e n through the courts to the c h i l d r e n ' s agencies, the few controls were l a r g e l y within the government of each agency and i t s i n d i v i d u a l departments. In t h i s year there developed a control of a l i m i t e d nature. This c o n t r o l r e s t r i c t e d the number of c h i l d r e n being a l l o c a t e d to the Lutheran agencies. For instance, the Lutheran Children's Friend Society would only accept Lutheran c h i l d r e n who were suitable f o r adoption. A l i t t l e l a t e r the Department of Education established a l i a i s o n person whose function was to work as a mediary or routing agency between the schools and s o c i a l agencies. This l a t t e r control developed from the Federal Children's Bureau Research Project (Community Service f o r Children). For several years t h i s control was maintained and financed by the Community Chest. Shortly a f t e r t h i s , Children's Service, and l a t e r - t h e County Welfare Board, contributed one worker as a l i a i s o n person. These were r e a l l y i n d i r e c t • c o n t r o l s as they were not set up p r i m a r i l y with the idea of dealing w i t h the 1. The Probation O f f i c e i n Saint Paul has never handled u n o f f i c i a l cases. In other words, i t confines i t s work to adjudicated cases of delinquency. It does not handle c h i l d neglect or dependency cases, except to receive support payments on order of the Court. In f a c t , by state law the le g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r neglected and dependent children r e s t s with the County Welfare Board. Since the Probation O f f i c e does not handle u n o f f i c i a l cases, i t does not make preliminary i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . In other words, the need f o r some r e f e r r a l procedures always has been i n the p i c t u r e . 12 problem of the flow of c h i l d r e n to the c h i l d c a r i n g agencies. To some extent the case conferences c a l l e d by the Child Guidance C l i n i c , Community Service for.Children, and other agencies also served as c o n t r o l s . In these instances the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a l l i n g the conferences rested with the i n d i v i d u a l agency - i f not with the i n d i v i d u a l worker. Beyond these controls the only other checks on the flow of c h i l d r e n i n t o the c h i l d c a r i n g agencies p r i o r to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee seemed to be the intake p o l i c i e s of the agencies. These p o l i c i e s , however, were sub- j e c t to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and understanding of good case work procedure by the intake s t a f f . Thus, a standard procedure or method of control on the flow of c h i l d r e n into the c h i l d caring agencies was not always ensured. E x i s t i n g Sources of Referral The p r i n c i p a l sources of r e f e r r a l to the c h i l d caring agencies i n Saint Paul are l i s t e d as follows without reference to the number of r e f e r r a l s during any given period of time; the Ramsey County Welfare Board -'Service and R e l i e f Department; the Ramsey County Welfare Board - A i d to Dependent Children; p r i v a t e family case work agencies; schools; C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c ; Juvenile Court; Probation O f f i c e ; Probate "Court; Police through Juvenile Court; Community Service f o r Children; churches by r e f e r r a l ; personal a p p l i c a t i o n by parents, parent, r e l a t i v e s , or guardians. At t h i s time the c h i l d care resources of the community of Saint Paul were the Children's Service Incorporated; the Ramsey County Welfare Board - the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n ; the Bureau of Catholic C h a r i t i e s - the Children's Depart- ment; Minnesota Children's Home Society; Lutheran C h i l d Care agencies; several Minneapolis C h i l d Care Agencies (e.g. Sheltering Arms and the Lutheran Receiv- ing Home); State I n s t i t u t i o n s . 13 Prom these agencies i t was possible to obtain permanent care of c h i l d r e n i n boarding homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s through voluntary commitaEnt or placement. Short time care i n boarding homes was u s u a l l y considered to be under three years but could be as long as f i v e to ten years. This type of placement and that of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care was g e n e r a l l y voluntary or by court a c t i o n . Placement of c h i l d r e n i n boarding homes or i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r purposes of s p e c i a l i z e d study and treatment; housekeeping services f o r care of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes; supervision of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes and adoption services could be obtained from the aforementioned c h i l d care services i n a d d i t i o n to the c h i l d welfare services as the law s p e c i f i c a l l y assigns to the p u b l i c agency and i n s t i t u t i o n s * F a c i l i t i e s For Wider Controls Saint Paul had a number of agencies already i n existence f o r the care and treatment of family problems. For instance - Family Service of Saint Paul; the Bureau of. Catholic ^Charities (Family Department); the Saint P a i l Jewish 1 Family Service; Service and R e l i e f ; and A i d to Dependent Children Departments of the Ramsey County Welfare Board. In ad d i t i o n to the c h i l d care agencies, there were good s p e c i a l i z e d agencies to a s s i s t i n treatment. For example; the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Juvenile Court, Probation O f f i c e , settlements, children' centers, boy and g i r l programmes, churches, schools, and health agencies. With these f a c i l i t i e s already available a l l that was required was a comprehensive p i f o r routing i n r e l a t i o n to diagnosis of need and an o v e r a l l treatment plan f o r f a m i l i e s in d i f f i c u l t y . The addition of t h i s comprehensive plan would be to c o n t r o l more e f f e c t i v e l y the flow of c h i l d r e n to the c h i l d c a r i n g agencies where they would receive proper treatment and care. 1 . The Saint Paul Jevvish Family Service did not have a separate family depart- ment . 1U A Suggested Plan The Committee r e a l i z e d that the number of agencies which were providing s p e c i a l i z e d services to c h i l d r e n should be r e l a t e d to a diagnosis of the total family s i t u a t i o n and that there should be a plan of diagnosis and treatment f o r meeting the t o t a l family needs. It was thought that such a diagnosis and plan would bring s p e c i a l i z e d treatment agencies into play at a time and i n a way which would produce the most e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s . In order that this could be accomplished i t was suggested that a Case A l l o c a t i o n Committee be established. This Committee was to be repre- sentative of the various s o c i a l agencies of the community. This Committee l a t e r became known as the Screened Intake Committee. It was to be small enough to function e f f e c t i v e l y as a working committee. Each of the following agencies was to have one representative - either the executive or a supervisor: the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n of the Ramsey County Welfare Board; the Bureau of Catholic C h a r i t i e s ; General. Assistance and Categorical Aids Department of the C h i l d Welfare Board; the Jewish Family .Service; the Children Service Incorporate; the Family Service Association; the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c and Probation O f f i c e ; the American Red Cross was to be permitted to b r i n g cases before the Committee without r e f e r r i n g them to anotha: agency. Health agencies and other s o c i a l agencies l i k e l y to make r e f e r r a l s from time to time which would involve the question of removal of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r own homes were requested to make such r e f e r r a l s to a family agency. It was planned that the Committee would meet every Monday afternoon and every Wednesday morning to review by appointment a l l cases where i t was contemplated that c h i l d r e n would be removed from t h e i r own homes. The Committee was t o have a f u l l time p a i d secretary whose duties would be to c o l l e c t the necessary h i s t o r i e s , c a l l meetings, keep minutes of each conference and f u r n i s h agencies concerned with copies of the Committee's recommendations. 15 It was thought advisable that the. person serving as secretary of the Committee should he a professional person serving as secretary and should be furnished by the Family Service because of the manner i n which the Juvenile Court functioned i n Saint Paul, It was also thought advisable that the Screened Intake Committee should not serve as a standing committee f o r the Countil of S o c i a l Agencies due to the difference of t h e i r functions, The Screened Intake Committee was a working committee - a committee which dealt with the day by day problems of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents. On the other hand, tbs Countil of S o c i a l Agencies was a p o l i c y , f a c t f i n d i n g advisory and over a l l planning agency. Because the Screened Intake Committee was a working committee deal- ing almost e n t i r e l y with problems around the rendering of services with p a r t i c u l a r cases, i t was thought that i t could f u n c t i o n best i f i t was d i r e c t l y responsible to the p a r t i c u l a r agencies concerned with the day by day care and s e r v i c i n g of c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s . It therefore was agreed that when matters i n v o l v i n g over a l l community planning and other functions normally assumed by the Countil that the Screened Intake Committee would r e f e r such matters to the Council of Social Agencies with such f i n d i n g s as i t had accumulated in i t s normal work. When the Screened Intake Committee was inaugurated there were few co n t r o l s on the a l l o c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n to c h i l d care agencies. The c o n t r o l s i n existence were spotty and not an i n t e g r a l part of the community s o c i a l welfare programme. However, there were a s u f f i c i e n t number of f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Accordingly, the Screened Intake Committee, composed of representatives of the various s o c i a l agencies i n the community, was e s t a b l i s h e d i n l ° A l . This committee was responsible f o r approving the placement of c h i l d r e n away from t h e i r own homes. The agencies assigned the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of supervising the c h i l d and the f a m i l i e s were determined by the Screened Intake i n r e l a t i o n to diagnosis of need and an o v e r a l l treatment plan f o r the f a m i l i e s i n d i f f i c u l t y . GMPTER III FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURE OP THE SCREENED INTAKE COMMITTEE The functions of the Screened Intake Committee as set f o r t h and compiled i n the Screened Intake Manual were est a b l i s h e d to make c e r t a i n there would be a continuing treatment plan f o r the f a m i l y as a u n i t , instead of d i v i d i n g the actual treatment of the problems of any one i n d i v i d u a l i n the f a m i l y . From time to time the functions were revised and reviewed. One of. the major functions of the Screened Intake Committee was to review cases presented by agencies which recommended removal of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r own homes either through court action or voluntary placement. The Committee was responsible f o r making c e r t a i n that treatment resources of the community were being used to the best advantage, and that c h i l d r e n were not being removed from t h e i r homes except af t e r w e l l thought out plans. If the Committee thought removal of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r homes would be unwise,.it suggested other steps which might be taken to keep the c h i l d r e n i n their own homes. The Committee also determined which Children's Agency was most appropriate to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the care of c h i l d r e n f o r whom place- ment was necessary. If two or more agencies were active with.one case, the Committee determined the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the agencies and the method by which the c h i l d r e n were to be removed from t h e i r homes, that i s . whether removal would be by court action or voluntary placement. After the commitment of c h i l d r e n to care, the Committee frequently reviewed the s i t u a t i o n to assure that the agencies active with the c h i l d and the f a m i l y were working toward the e a r l i e s t possible return of the c h i l d to h i s or her own home; or that permanent plans f o r the care and welfare of the c h i l d r e n were being made as soon as pos s i b l e . Moreover, the frequent reviews 16 17 of the cases enabled the Committee to consider major changes i n agency plans which i t had previously approved, and to make c e r t a i n the agencies were continuing to plan f o r the c h i l d r e n i n care* Frequently further exploration i n d i c a t e d the a d v i s a b i l i t y of making permanent plans for c h i l d r e n who were o r i g i n a l l y admitted f o r only a temporary period of care. By means of i t s regular meetings the Screened Intake Committee endeavoured to lay the foundation f o r better inter-agency p o l i c i e s thereby s t a r t i n g and continuing the process of team work between the agencies and t h e i r respective s t a f f s i n the i n t e r e s t s of better service to those f a m i l i e s and children r e q u i r i n g assistance. Only when s p e c i f i c planning and organi- zation problems r e l a t i n g to the care and treatment of c h i l d r e n arose d i d the Screened Intake Committee substitute f o r the Council of Social Agencies. Such a plan as outlined i n the foregoing c a r r i e s with i t the under- standing that no agency may close a case which i s under consideration or pending review by the Committee without f i r s t d i s c u s s i n g the reasons f o r c l o s i n g with the Committee. A l l appointments were made through the Secretary of the Committee. The Secretary then n o t i f i e d the agency as to the date and approximate time the case was to be presented, The case worker could suggest the names of other agency representatives or persons who were interes t e d i n the case and who might have information to contribute toward the case presentation. Those persons most l i k e l y to be c a l l e d upon were teachers and ministers. Bepresen- t a t i o n at the meetings of t h i s Committee, however, were generally l i m i t e d to the executive, the supervisor and the worker from each agency presenting the case. Since the worker was acquainted with the family she should'be able to explain the s i t u a t i o n f u l l y without having outside people attending the •Screening.' If the attendance at the Committee becomes too large the meet- ings become unwieldy. The Secretary was al so responsible for n o t i f y i n g tie se persons as to the date and time of the conference. IS Basic Case Summary Typed summaries of cases to be presented to the Committee for the f i r s t time had to be presented to the Secretary p r i o r to the actual date of presentation. Written summaries were requested i n order to a s s i s t the case worker to organize her material; to give the Committee members a record of pertinent information; to.expedite presentation and to develop a body of w r i t t e n material from which constructive f i n d i n g s could be made. For each summary seven copies were requested i n order that each member of the Committee could have one to study i n advance of the case discussion. Such a procedure enabled the Committee to be better prepared to carry out the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s placed upon them. Furthermore, i t expedited the work of the Committee and saved the case worker delay. It also gave the case worker and Supervisor an"opportunity to review the summary before presen- t a t i o n . The basic summary out l i n e as f i r s t devised by a sub-committee of the Screened Intake Committee was as follows: I Complete i d e n t i f y i n g information. II R e g i s t r a t i o n s . I l l Reasons f o r reference and proposed plan: a statement of the immediate present s i t u a t i o n and problem leading up to r e f e r r a l . IV Description of each member of the family, i n c l u d i n g school record, psychological t e s t s , habits, work h i s t o r y , per- s o n a l i t y t e s t s and conduct, i n t e r e s t s * marriages and divorce, court record, r e l i g i o n behaviour and emotional problems, attitude toward the family agency, toward problem and toward proposed plan. 19 V Report of agency contact with the family, i n c l u d i n g 1 , home conditions, f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , property, r e l a t i v e s . Later t h i s outline was set up i n such a way that the f i r s t page could he adapted f o r use i n a l l r e f e r r a l s , thus eliminating the need to prepare f u r t h e r s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s . The information on t h i s page was kept separate from the basic h i s t o r y . In w r i t i n g the basic h i s t o r y , the form of the outline, including major headings, v/as presented. The information, "material to be included," under the headings was l i s t e d i n numerical form, but i n the w r i t i n g of the summary i t was to be wri t t e n i n paragraph form without numbers or marginal headings. For the most part the outline i s self-explanatory. M a r i t a l History, however, was included under both parents i n order to take care of previous or subsequent marriages. If a step-parent was or had played an important r o l e i n the f s m i l y s i t u a t i o n , material regarding t h i s parent was to be included under a separate heading, and was to cover the same information as required under "father" and "mother." Under Family Relationship, i f a boarding home placement was indicated, the Committee required that the summary include information as to how the ch i l d r e n f e l t toward one another. This was requested i n order .that they could determine better whether the chil d r e n should be placed i n separate or the same boarding homes. O r i g i n a l Presentation of a Case An agency planning to bring a case before the Screening Committee had to c a l l the Secretary of the Committee f o r an appointment. At t h i s time the Secretary had to be given as complete i d e n t i f y i n g information as was p o s s i b l e . 1. See Appendix. 20 The case worker then discussed with the Secretary the advisa- b i l i t y of n o t i f y i n g other agency representatives or persons interested i n the case as to the date and time of appointment* Before an appointment was made f o r the presentation of a case i t was important that the case worker and Supervisor of the act i v e agency were i n agreement that a given case he brought to the Committee. A l l possible sources of information were to have been f u l l y explored before r e f e r r a l was made, I f two case working agencies were active with one case they decided i n conference which agency was to make.the r e f e r r a l to the Committee. In some situations i t was advisable for the Family Agency to discuss with the Children's Agency proposed plans and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of placement before the case was presented to the Committee, At the presentation of the. case the case worker had to be prepared to give a b r i e f resume of the agency'3 plans f o r the family. Minutes of each conference were kept by the Secretary. Each agency was then furnished with copies of the minutes and the Committee's recommendations. If other agencies were registered the Secretary made a report of them. Before a placement was made c l i e n t s and others i n t e r e s t e d i n a case generally were not informed that the case was f i r s t presented to the Screened Intake Committee, Students could attend meetings of the Committee but they had to have a know ledge of the p a r t i c u l a r cases being presented. The agency bringing the student was to know the case and to have had the student read the material available regarding the case. Review of Cases Previously Presented It was the duty of the Secretary of the Screened Intake Committee to send a notice i n t r i p l i c a t e to the agency representative on the Committee t h i r t y days before the date set for a review to advise the agency as to the date set f o r the review. The agency representative i n turn sent a copy of the 21 n o t i c e to the case worker or supervisor who within two weeks advised the Secretary of the Committee as to whether or not the case would be ready f o r review on the date s p e c i f i e d * I f the agency was ready to review the case, the Secretary then set a d e f i n i t e date and time for a review of the case presentation. If the case was not ready to be reviewed the case worker requested a continuance stating the reasons for such a request. The case worker could request a review of the case at any time - regardless of the review date as set by the Committee at the time of presen- t a t i o n . Generally such reviews were requested at points i?hen a marked change i n plan was necessary or when a re-assignment of agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were being contemplated. If more than one agency was active with the case the information could be combined and one summary j o i n t l y prepared and then submitted for review. At other times, each agency could prepare and submit t h e i r own summary f o r review by the Committee. Again, these reviews were generally requested when a marked change i n plan was necessary. The suggested outline f o r a review was as follows: a. Id e n t i f y i n g information. b. Reason f o r review and points of discussion desired. c. Recommendations of previous meeting of the Committee. d. Present s i t u a t i o n . As was done for the o r i g i n a l presentation of the case, the case worker had to be prepared to give a b r i e f verbal resume of the h i s t o r y of the case. If the Pamily Agency and Children's Agency decided that the ch i l d r e n and the family were ready to be reunited, the Secretary of the Committee was advised as to t h e i r return by a w r i t t e n report. I f c h i l d r e n were removed from a boarding home or i n s t i t u t i o n by the parents against the advice of the agencies 22 i n t e r e s t e d , the case had to be returned to the Committee f o r review. Special Kinds of Placements There were four situations where placement of c h i l d r e n was permissible before agency presentation of the placement plans to the Screened Intake Committee, a) An emergency placement. This placement was defined by the Screened Intake Committee as any instance occurring on a Sunday, a holiday, or a f t e r regular working hotirs, which would necessitate placement of c h i l d r e n 1 outside their own home. If emergency placements occurred on Sundays, h o l i - days or a f t e r working hours, the case workers could c a l l the Executive Secretary of the Ramsey County Welfare Board; the Supervisor of the East D i s t r i c t of the Ramsey County Welfare Board; or the L i a i s o n O f f i c e . Before making an emergency placement, the case workers f i r s t had to have made c e r t a i n that r e l a t i v e s or members of the f a m i l i e s were unable to care for the c h i l d r e n u n t i l more permanent plans f o r the children could be made by the agency. In a l l the emergency situations requiring placements the case worker of the Family Agency requested the Executive or Supervisor of h i s or her agency serving on the Screened Intake Committe, to contact the placement agency. The Supervisor or Executive making the contact reported the place- ment to the Secretary of the Screened Intake Committee. In a l l such emergen- cy placements the Ramsey County Welfare Board cases were r e f e r r e d to the Ramsey County C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n ; the Family Service cases to the Children's Service or the Bureau of Catholic C h a r i t i e s Family Department cases were r e - to t h e i r own Children's Department. i During emergency placements the Family Agency was responsible for p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d r e n with the necessary c l o t h i n g and arranging for physical examinations before placement. Whenever possible permits f o r medical care 1. Screened Intake Manual. 23 during the placement were to he obtained from the parents or guardians by the agency making or requesting placement. The Family Agency requesting emergency placement was b i l l e d the f u l l cost of care for the children u n t i l the case was accepted by the Children's Agency through the medium of the Screened Intake Committee* The agency requesting placement had to notify the Institution as to whether relatives could be allowed to v i s i t the children during the emergency period. As soon as possL.hle after the placement was made, namely on Monday afternoon or Wednesday morning, an appointment for presentation of the case to the Screened Intake Committee was made by the agency case worker. b) Short time placements. These were placements of less than four weeks duration. Placements such as these did not need to be presented to the Committee, but had to be reported to the Secretary of the Committee before placement was made. The same procedure as that for emergency placements was followed. By acceptance of short time cases for care the Children 1 s Agency assumed financial responsibility for care at the time of placement. If the children were not returned to their home at the end of the four week period, the Secretary of the Committee automatically was responsible for making an appointment for a presentation of the case to the Committee. cj Independent placements. Whenever a child was placed in a boarding home independently, that i s , by the parents or guardians without consent of an agency, the placement was referred to the Family Agency. An investigation was then made of the child's own family situation with a view to deciding whether this was an appropriate case for boarding home placement. If the investigation by the Family Agency indicated that placement was neces- sary the case was then presented to the Screened Intake Committee. The case was discussed and a decision was made regarding which children's agency could 2U accept the case f o r supervision of the c h i l d wh i l e i n boarding care. This agency was then responsible f o r the l i c e n s i n g of the independent boarding home, i f i t was sui t a b l e , or making other plans f o r placement. d) Cases i n which the Secretary could represent the Committee: A s i t u a t i o n could a r i s e i n which i t was apparent that place- ment was the only plan p o s s i b l e . In a s i t u a t i o n of t h i s type a summary was sent to the Secretary of the Committee. The Secretary could then approve the proposed plans or make a recommendation on behalf of the Committee. At a l a t e r date, however, the Secretary had to. report t h i s recommendation to the Committee. Thus, a formal presentation to the Committee by the agency was avoided. The functions of the Screened Intake Committee were established t o , f i r s t : make c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n were not being removed from their own homes without well thought out plans, and, second: as an assurance of a continuing treatment plan f o r the family as a u n i t . Foster home placements without the approval of the Screened Intake Committee could be made only when placements were on an emergency basis; made p r i v a t e l y by the parents or guardians, or f o r l e s s than four weeks. For the presentation of a case the Committee requested as complete sumnaries of the family s i t u a t i o n s as were "possible. Minutes of each conference were kept by the Committee Secretary. Although the date f o r review was determined at the time of case presentation , reviews could be requested at any time. Agencies assigned the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of working with the family and children received copies of the Committee's recommendations and a notice of the date f o r review. CHAPTER IV CRITERIA PQR THE STUDY The Screened Intake Committee evolved from a process of community organization. The problems with which social work deals are the problems which people find in the actual process of adjustment to each other or to any aspect of their social environment. In other words, they are problems of relationships. Accordingly, complete evaluation as to whether or not •Screened Intake1 was f u l f i l l i n g i t s function of maintaining a h i ^ i standard of generic case work practices can not be achieved without a complete under- standing of the philosophy, objectives, skills, and methods of social work practices and of community organization. By maintaining a high standard of generic case work practices the agencies are able more adequately to assist families and individuals to develop their inherent capacities to the best of their ability, and to provide an opportunity for individuals to lead person- ally satisfying and socially useful lives. "Casework" and "Child Welfare" Defined. Social case work as practiced today evolved out of a slowly grow- ing awareness of the necessity of realizing the importance and value of each individual. Each individual is a unique personality. He has his own feelings, his own emotions, and reacts in his own individualized way to a particular situation. It follows therefore that since no two individuals react in exactly the same way to a particular situation, instances of similar kinds of trouble or problems can not be treated in the same manner. Mary S. Eichmond provided the fi r s t definition of social case work. "Social case work", she demonstrated, "consists of those processes which develop personality through adjustments consciously effected individual by individual, between men and their social environment^" This definition describes social 1. Richmond, Mary S., What is Social Case Work? Hew York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1922, page 2bS. 25 26 case work as a d e f i n i t e method: "adjastments consciously e f f e c t e d . . . between men and t h e i r s o c i a l environment." Also, i t measures so c i a l case work i n terms of the r e s u l t obtained - "the development of p e r s o n a l i t y . " In the l i g h t of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , s o c i a l case work may be seen as a process which develops an i n d i v i d u - a l ' s personality by helping him make better s o c i a l adjustments. Since Mary Richmond's day we have come to r e a l i z e even more f u l l y what i s involved i n the process of helping the i n d i v i d u a l make these adjustments. S o c i a l case work i s s t i l l thought of as a way of helping, but the philosophy and p r a c t i c e as formulated i n What i s Social Oase Work? has changed i n many respects, as has the present conception of what i s involved i n s o c i a l case work. Today, the main emphasis i s no longer placed upon "making the c l i e n t s over," persuad- ing them to change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , or to achieve s p e c i f i c goals as set by the workers. The So c i a l Worker endeavours to accept people as they are and to r e a l i z e they have a r i g h t to manage the i r own l i v e s . Thus, the aims of the s o c i a l case worker are twofold: 1) to provide services f o r people which w i l l best meet t h e i r immediate need and safeguard t h e i r a b i l i t y and t h e i r right to help themselves; 2) to restore the i n d i v i d u a l to social functioning, or to help him develop t h i s capacity, i n order that he may "achieve at one and the same 1 time h i s own and society's betterment." In other words, case work i s a process rooted i n a two-person r e l a t i o n s h i p - a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c l i e n t and the professional worker or t h e r a p i s t . By t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p pressures f e l t by the c l i e n t are r e l i e v e d by c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the d i s t u r b i n g problem, by the g i v i n g of i n s i g h t into the c l i e n t ' s own role i n i t , by a change i n the environment, by the supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p of the therapist - by any or a l l of these means, so that the c l i e n t i s freed to l i v e a happier, more s a t i s f y i n g and growth experi- encing l i f e . In short, case work i s u t i l i z e d whenever people have impaired ca p a c i t y to organize the ordinary a f f a i r s of l i f e , or lack s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n t h e i r ordinary s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 1. Richmond, Mary 1., Hie Long View, Hew York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1930* 27 These forces in the practice of generic case work are unified and integrated by a number of basic principles and concepts. They have l i t t l e value, however, i f the worker does not take cognizance that the problems as presented by the clients are both individual and social, and that an under- standing of the family i s important in understanding the individual. Above a l l , the worker must have an awareness of himself and an ab i l i t y to discipline himself in relation to his own problems - as well as a strong warmth of feeling toward and understanding of the child. Miss Pern Lowry refers to these feelings as the "vitamin content" of social work. Without sach feelings, she maintains, the techniques of social case work practice w i l l lose their significance and become ineffective. During the past quarter of a century, the Proceedings of the three White House Conferences i n 1901, 1919, and 1930 have become increasingly aware of the connotations of the term "child welfare," The connotations of this term have been reflecting a strong trend toward an emphasis upon the inter-relation- ship of a l l conditions which affect the l i f e of a child and upon a consequent need for coordinating a l l forces designed to promote the well-being of the "whole child , " The keynote in a l l these conferences was the preservation of the home and the. caring for children within the home. The problem of deling adequately with the needs of children, however, has not yet been met. Thus, the sine quo non at the formation of the Screened Intake Committee was that of securing adequate legislation for the protection of a l l children as well as toward good, over-all constructive child caring methods and a social welfare programme. In America parents have the primary responsibility for their children. To give the children a strong sense of security - emotional as well as economic - the parents must be competent and able to care for them adequately. Hence, the 28 emphasis of the s o c i a l agencies has been to stimulate the parent's potential adequacy. They attempt to do t h i s by appropriate case work treatment to enable the parents t o change, and more nearly reach t h e i r highest leve l of functioning as parents. Sometimes, however, the authority of. the agency and the s k i l l of the s o c i a l case worker are not s u f f i c i e n t to protect the c h i l d . Some parents cannot move toward change without coming into court. Through the years some of the courts have included i n t h e i r conception of abuse and neglect - not events alone - but dangerous conditions and environment. The d e f i n i t i o n of neglect, however, varies g r e a t l y i n d i f f e r e n t states. According to the statutes of the Minnesota law a c h i l d i s considered by the court to be neglected only when he has been abandoned by both parents; when l i v i n g with v i c i o u s or disreputable persons; treated c r u e l l y or neglected by parents or guardians; or given inade- 1 quate medical care when parents are able to secure such care, Moreover, i n Minnesota before a c h i l d can r e a l l y be considered neglected he must be adjudged neglected by the Court. It can r e a d i l y be seen, therefore, that the existence of many cases of c r u e l t y and neglect, such as parental r e j e c t i o n and emotional neglect and c r u e l t y , are s t i l l d i f f i c u l t to prove i n the state of Minnesota. Feeble mindedness, in s a n i t y , i n c a r c e r a t i o n of parent or parents, divorce and death of parent or parents, a c h i l d w i l f u l l y kept oit of school, and a c h i l d sexually abused by some member of the household, are s t i l l d i f f i c u l t to prove as s i t u a t i o n s of neglect. Although i t has been the experience of s o c i a l case workers that i t i s better a c h i l d be cared f o r i n h i s own home, i t may often be necessary to remove the c h i l d from the parental home. A few years ago, i f such action were necessary a f o s t e r care placement was considered to be the answer to such a problem. Foster care i s the term used to designate the care of chil d r e n reared ~ Report and Recommendations of the Committee to Study C h i l d Neglect i n Saint Paul. A p r i l 1938. 29 away from the natural family - in institutions, or in foster homes. Originally foster care was in the nature of custodial care which generally extended for the duration of childhood. Since this concept of child care there has been a significant develop- ment in the understanding of the fundamental needs of children. In recent years there i s an increasing awareness on the part of social workers that foster care can never be a completely satisfactory substitute for a child's own home because of the strong emotional ties a child feels for his parents and because of a child's need for secure belonging. Therefore, the greatest value of foster care is the part it can play in helping parents to do something about the social and emotion- al problems that made the separation necessary in order to reestablish a home for their children. In cases where the parent cannot give his child a home, foster care can sometimes enable the parents to free the child for permanent placement. Selection of a Sample A total of 73^ cases were presented to the Screened Intake Committee during the first seven years of its existence. For the purpose of this study f i f t y cases were chosen. This universe was achieved by selecting cases which had been presented to the Committee during two quarters of each year since the inauguration of the Committee. The quarters selected were March, April, May and August, September, and October. These quarters were selected as the universe with the guidance of the Secretary of the Committee. During the first quarters of the seven years eighty five cases were selected. Seventy six cases were selected for the second quarters of the same period of time. Generally four cases were selected at random for each quarter for each year. The following table illustrates the method of case selection: 30 YEAR MARCH APRIL MAY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 19^2 U 5 U U u 19U3 k U U U u 19HU k 3 u 19^5 k u 1 u 19 U6 k . k u 14 u u 19U7 k 1+ 2 u 19^8 k h 1+ 6 u u It w i l l be noted there were a few exceptions to the method of case selection. Five cases were selected from the month of April I9U2 as this was the total number of cases presented to the Committee for that month. No cases were presented to the Screened Intake Committee during August I 9 U 2 . Since the number of cases presented for 'Screening' during this month was always small the total number of cases were l i s t e d i n the case sample. These l 6 l cases were then tabulated according to the agencies presenting them for Screening during these quarters. The tabulation was as follows: 1 1. Ramsey County Welfare Board . . . 58 cases 2. Bureau of Catholic Charities . . 33 cases 3 . Family Service 23 cases U. Children's Service. . . . . . . . 18 cases 5» Child Welfare Division l 6 cases 6. Probation Office , 8 cases 7. Child Guidance Clinic 6 cases 8. Jewish Welfare Association. . . . 2 cases 9 . Co-ordinating Center 1 case 10. Department of Education . . . . . 1 case 11. Lutheran Children's Friend Society 1 case Since f i f t y cases was considered to be an adequate saaple, the f i r s t case far each agency was checked, the following two cases missed and the fourth case checked. Agencies such as tie Probation Office, the Jewish Welfare Association, the Co-ordinating Center, the Lutheran Welfare, the Lutheran Children's Friend Society and the Child Guidance Clinic, which pre- sented only a few cases were not included in this computation. The net result was a sample of f i f t y cases. These f i f t y cases were then retabulated accord- ing to the agency making the original presentation to the Screened Intake 1. Selby 31 cases. East 27 cases. 31 Committee. This tabulation gave Family Service a total of sixteen cases the Child Welfare Division four cases, the Children's Service a total of two cases, the Bureau of Catholic Charities six cases, and the Ramsey County Welfare Board — including the two districts, Sel.by and East - a total of twenty two cases. In order to determine whether the material as presented in the summaries was adequate, a spot check was made of the original cases from Family Service and the Bureau of Catholic Charities. Both the Child Welfare Division and the County Welfare Board were contacted regarding several of their cases to determine whether or not the situation was the ssrie as last entered on the Screened Intake Committee's Summary. In a l l instances, there was no notable change in the situation nor was any further information obtained after reading the case records. It follows, therefore, that the summaries of tlie cases selected provided an adequate foundation upon which to assess and evaluate the function and programme of the Screened Intake Committee. Schedule and Criteria Utilized to Examine the Sample. To carry out the present study, information regarding each of the 1 f i f t y cases was recorded as completely as possible on a standard schedule. The f i r s t page of the schedule listed the members of the natural family, includ- ing a l l illegitimate children who were a part of the fsaily group; their sex; birth date; amount of education received; and intelligence factors. If two or more different intelligence quotients were given, each quotient was listed in chronological order. The nationality and religion and place or peaces of employment of the parents with dates were also listed. Number U was used to record the registrations as tabulated by the Central Registration Bureau. At the top of this schedule the name of the agency presenting the case to the 'Screening' committee was indicated. The second page of the outline recorded the name of the family agency to remain active, and the agency handling the placement of the children. If the agency originally active with the family 1. Appendix. I 32 t r a n s f e r r e d the case to another agency, the name of the l a t t e r agency was recorded* The t h i r d page. A resume of the recommendations as made by the Screened Intake Committee at the o r i g i n a l and subsequent presentations of the case to t h i s committee was recorded on page 3 of the schedule, Reasons f o r placement of children - whether the placement was made according to the wishes of the parents, or by Court Order, were l i s t e d on page H. If .a case was presented to the Court but placement of the ch i l d r e n was not ordered t h i s was a].so recorded. The f i n a n c i a l aspects were tabulated. For example, whether or not the court ordered the parents to contribute toward the support of the children; i f they, contributed the t o t a l amount or a p a r t i a l amount; and whether the agency working with the family c o n t r i b u t e d ' f i n a n c i a l success. Number IS gave the marital status of the natural parents. Names and dates of c h i l d r e n returned home were recorded on page 5* Whether the return was with or against the recommendations of the agencies a c t i v e with the family and the ch i l d r e n was also recorded, Number 23 was for the tabulation of the central problems within each case s i t u a t i o n . A t o t a l of seventy one problems were l i s t e d . These problems were tabulated from the ninety eight problems as l i s t e d on the Problem and Service Sheets used to evaluate a l l cases p e r i o d i c a l l y within the Family Service Agency of Saint Paul. These seventy one problems were-grouped under s i x headings: l ) Economic; 2) Employment; 3) Family Relationships; U) Physical Health; 5) Mental Health; 6) S o c i a l and Environmental. Number 2U was an evaluation of the treatment plan f o r the family. Three headings were used for t h i s evaluation: a) no improvement, b) p a r t i a l improvement, c) d e f i n i t e improvement. The date and reason the case was closed, whether the closing was planned with the c l i e n t and who v/as responsible f o r making the decision - the agency, the Committee, or the c l i e n t , was indicated on page 6, number 25. 33 An evaluation of the case work process was recorded by number 2S. Included i n t h i s evaluation were comments on t h i s process, plus comments upon the seven basic p r i n c i p a l s of s o c i a l case work which were generally accepted as being fundamental to s o c i a l case work p r a c t i c e . These p r i n c i p l e s were as f o l l o w s : 1. Recognition of the needs of the individual» A recognition of the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l should be a case worker's primary concern. The case worker should endeavour to a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l to meet the needs which have brought him to the agency. Attempts to meet these causes would have to take i n t o consideration t h e i r multiple roots. Mrs. L (Case 10) exemplifies t h i s : A f t e r the desertion of her husband, Mrs. L's children were admitted to care. At this time Mrs. L. was so emotionally disturbed she was unable to administer to any of their needs. Mrs. L., through case work treatment, was helped - l i t t l e by l i t t l e - to enjoy the freedom she had missed as a 'teen ager.' (Mrs. L. was married at the age of sixteen.) As i t was important f o r Mrs. L. to give the children g i f t s , the agency, with the approval of the Screened Intake Committee, decreased the monthly payments i n order that she might do so. At no time was Mrs. L. pressed by e i t h e r the agency or the screening committee to take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than that f o r which she was ready« 2. Recognition that i n d i v i d u a l personal needs and r e a l i t y or environmental needs are i n t e r - r e l a t e d . If the case worker was to help the i n d i v i d u a l or the f a m i l y to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y within the environment, he should r e a l i z e that the c l i e n t ' s needs were derived l a r g e l y from two sources - • f i r s t , the impoverishment of the environment, and secondly, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s capacity to use the environment. The worker might help the c l i e n t to discern more c l e a r l y the nature of the world i n which lie l i v e d . By means of the worker's support and reenforcement the c l i e n t would be better able to use h i s own powers more e f f e c t i v e l y so that he would be able to handle h i s own problens more adequately. 3U The worker should he sensitive to the c l i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s , and. should know how the c l i e n t f e l t through empathy. If the worker was able to have respect and acceptance f o r others as they were, and as p o t e n t i a l l y they could be, a medium was induced between the worker ani the c l i e n t . This enabled the worker to do not only educational c o u n s e l l i n g but also treatment. Without t h i s f e e l i n g of r e l a t i o n s h i p , change was not l i k e l y to take place, nor would constructive attitudes and patterns of behaviour be modified. For example: Mrs. E. was fond of her eldest c h i l d - a daughter - but she had a deep-seated f e e l i n g of r e j e c t i o n for her son. This l a d reminded her of her husband with whom she had been unhappy and from whom she was d i - vorced. Mrs. E. was helped to understand her f e e l - ings toward her son and to work them through to a f e e l i n g of acceptance. Three years from the date of the f i r s t presentation, Mrs. E. of her own accord, requested he be returned home. 3. Becognition of the ri g h t of self-determination. Each i n d i v i d u a l has a right to make h i s own l i f e i n h i s own way. It was only when the c l i e n t v i o l a t e d the precepts of society that he f o r f e i t e d his r i g h t to decide what services or help he wished from the agency - e s p e c i a l l y when the welfare of c h i l d r e n was to be considered. Thus, Mr. F was "psycho-neurotic and an i n f e r i o r type." Mrs. F. was neither p h y s i c a l l y nor mentally able to care f o r the home and c h i l d r e n . Mr. F. refused to clean the house to make i t habitable. The children were badly neglected. Screened Intake Committee v e r i f i e d the agency's plan f o r commitment of the chil d r e n through Juvenile Court. This case i l l u s t r a t e d a s i t u a t i o n where the parents were no longer able to determine the welfare of t h e i r c h i l d r e n but they retained t h e i r 'right of self-determination' for t h e i r own behaviour. U. Puroosiveness of the individual | rs behaviour i s the dynamic whidh determines behaviour. Workers should endeavour to a s s i s t the c l i e n t i n such a way that he might function more rather than l e s s 35 productively in the future. The client must he helped to meet his needs in relation to his individual maximum capacity - not only on h i s own behalf, not only in his role in the family, but as a citizen of the community. The follow- ing extract (Case 2k) illustrates this: Previous to agency contact Mr. M's work record had been poor. On innumerable occasions he had been sentenced to the work house for child abandonment and non-support. His marriage to Mrs. M. was his third. It too was a 'forced' marriage. Mrs. M. was mentally depressed and discouraged with her marriage. She requested placement of her two boys as she f e l t their care was too much for her. Arrange- ments were made for the care of the children .until Mrs. M. became more rested. In this situation the Ms were helped to reestablish their home - .each taking an equal part of the responsibility. The children were then returned home. At the end of the agency contact the Ms as a family unit were able to function more capably than ever before. 5 « Recognition of the client's capacity or incapacity for change. If an individual was to be helped to achieve his individual goal the individual's certain limitations and capacities must be taken into consideration. Only by directing the client's concern and a c t i v i t i e s toward the underlying d i f f i c u l t i e s could the worker help the client to become more mature and to make more progress within the situation. Also, by doing so, the worker could help the individual to define his reality more clearly and to accept i t with less tension. He could help the client to see his situation in a new per- spective and to crystallize or c l a r i f y the issues confronting him - but - the ultimate responsibility for effecting a change within a person had to come from the person himself - not from the worker. For example: Mrs. S* s parents were divorced. Care of the two children was too much for Mrs. S. The relation- ship between Mrs. S. and her mother was strained and tense and was reacting upon the children. Boarding home placements were made for the children. They were later placed for adoption with maternal grandmother. 36 In t h i s instance Mrs. S. was capable of change only i n respect to he r s e l f - her personal appearance, clothing, etc., bat she was unable to ever assume complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of her c h i l d r e n . Both the agency and the Screened Intake Committee were accepting of the growth of Mrs. S. i n respect to h e r s e l f . They helped her accept the w i l l i n g n e s s of her parents to care f o r her c h i l d r e n despite the f a c t that her parents had always been fundamentally r e j e c t i n g of her as a c h i l d . * 6. Recognition for the necessity of sustaining an interest i n the c l i e n t . According to t h i s , p r i n c i p l e , the s o c i a l case worker must have an a b i l i t y to sustain an i n t e r e s t and carry through with the a c t i v i t i e s i n which he plans to help the i n d i v i d u a l . The case worker should go only as slowly or r a p i d l y as the c l i e n t was able for each c l i e n t has not only an i n d i v i d u a l i s e d goal, but an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d pace by which he might achieve this. g oal. Had an in t e r e s t not been sustained i n the cases under agency supervision, many of the c l i e n t s would not have been able to work through to a s o l u t i o n of t h e i r f e e l i n g s or problems and thereby become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . 7. Recognition of the necessity f o r reviewing the i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n as a whole. Each case worker should be able to view the case s i t u a t i o n as a whole and to frequently review the entire s i t u a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to each i n d i v i d u a l within i t . Furthermore, the case worker should be able to be aware of the known f a c t s i n r e l a t i o n to the unknown; to see psychological f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n to r e a l i t y f a c t o r s . By doing so the worker should be able to r e t a i n a freedom and f l e x i b i l i t y i n making a diagnosis of each s i t u a t i o n . These f a c t o r s had to be constantly borne i n mind when reviewing s i t u a t i o n s for l i f e forces are never s t a t i c - movement i s always toward or away from the res o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s or problem s i t u a t i o n s . 37 The soundness of the recommendations and plans for treatment a c t i v i t i e s as were made or endorsed by the Screened Intake Committee to the presenting agencies depended l a r g e l y upon the extent of an understanding of these seven "basic p r i n c i p l e s . The reader's evaluation of the case record, (Number 2 9 ) , included comments on how the Screened Intake Committee helped the presenting agencies to better help the c l i e n t ; ways i n which the parents and children d i d not gain and the reader's comments as to why there was no gain on the part of the c l i e n t s . , To evaluate the work of the Screened Intake Committee the philosophy and objectives of S o c i a l Case Work pra c t i c e s were delineated and a universe f o r an evaluation selected, From 19 -̂1 to 19^8, 73^ cases were presented to the Screened Intake Committee. A sample of 50 cases was selected. Agencies included i n the' study were Family Service, C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , Children's Service, Bureau of Catho l i c C h a r i t i e s and Ramsey County Welfare Board. Infor- mation regarding each of the f i f t y cases was recorded on a standard schedule. Included i n the schedule was the reader's evaluation of the case record and an evaluation of the case record and an evaluation of the case work processes according to the seven basic s o c i a l case work p r i n c i p l e s. The soundness of the Screened Intake Committee's recommendations and treatment plans were evaluated according to an understanding of these seven basic p r i n c i p l e s . CHAPTER V CHARACTERISTICS 0? THE FAMILIES During the period under study an an a l y s i s of the f i f t y cases' review- ed by the Screened Intake Committee indicated-that a t o t a l of two hundred and f i v e c h i l d r e n were involved. A t o t a l of f o r t y two cases were presented to the Screened Intake Committee f o r the f i r s t time. Eight cases which had previously been before the Committee were presented for review, a) Public Agencies: The public agencies presented a t o t a l of twenty seven cases which involved one hundred and twenty eight children to the Screened Intake Committee. Of t h i s t o t a l the Ramsey County Welfare Board pre- sented a t o t a l of twenty two cases which involved one hundred and f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n . Five cases involving t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n were presented by the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n . Twenty s i x of the twenty seven cases were being presented f o r review during the period evaluated. Only one case involved an independent placement. There were no emergency placements. Ten of' the one hundred and twenty eight c h i l d r e n were i n t h e i r own homes at the time of the f i r s t case presentation to the Committee, They came from fourteen f a m i l i e s . Four cases involved s i x c h i l d r e n i n the family who were l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s while the other seventeen c h i l d r e n remained at home. In ten cases the children were placed when the case was presented to the Committee f o r the f i r s t time. In f i v e of these cases twelve children v/ere placed i n boarding homes. In one case s i x children i n the family were placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . In another case two of the c h i l d r e n were placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n while two of t h e i r s i b l i n g s were placed i n a boarding home and f i v e children remained at home. There was one case where one c h i l d was placed i n a c h i l d c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n while one s i b l i n g was placed' i n a boarding home and the t h i r d c h i l d was placed with r e l a t i v e s . In another case involving four children one c h i l d 3S 39 was placed i n a boarding home and one c h i l d with r e l a t i v e s while two children reroaine d at home » b) Privat e Agencies: A t o t a l of twenty three cases involving seventy seven c h i l d r e n were presented to the Screened Intake Committee by the pr i v a t e agencies* Family Service, the Bureau of Catholic C h a r i t i e s and Children's Service composed t h i s group. The f i r s t agency presented sixteen cases i n v o l v i n g f o r t y eight c h i l d r e n ; the second agency presented s i x cases i n v o l v i n g twenty eight children while the l a t t e r agency presented one case i n v o l v i n g only one c h i l d . Seventeen of these twenty three cases were new cases. Six were presented to the Committee for review. At the time of presentation there were only two f a m i l i e s with f i v e c h i l d r e n who were placed i n boarding homes. Three cases i n v o l v i n g four c h i l d r e n were l i s t e d as emergency placements. Of these seventy seven c h i l d r e n a l l but f i v e c h i l d r e n were i n their own homes at the time of the f i r s t presentation. These f i v e i c h i l d r e n had previously been placed i n boarding homes p r i o r to the inaugu- r a t i o n of the Screened Intake Committee. Major Seasons for Presentation of Cases: Six major reasons why the f i f t y cases were presented o r i g i n a l l y to the Screened Intake Committee are tabulated as follows: Major Reasons Percentage Of Cases Total 100 ' Neglect and dependency 50 I l l n e s s of mother lk Employment of mother 12 Behaviour of ch i l d r e n 12 Desertion 8 Death of mother U This table i n d i c a t e d that neglect and dependency was a major f a c t o r f o r an agency to present a case for the consideration of the Screened Intake Committee. Other f a c t o r s - such as i l l n e s s , employment of mother, death of mother, desertion of one or both parents and behaviour of c h i l d r e n together t o t a l l e d as much as d i d the sum t o t a l of case presented to the 'Screening'Committee for neglect and dependency. Second in importance to neglect and dependency were f a c t o r s pertaining to the mother. These f a c t o r s t o t a l l e d t h i r t y per cent. Only four per cent of the f i f t y cases were presented due to the deceasement of the mother. Twelve per,cent of the cases were presented to t i e Committee f o r sanctioning of proposed plans or assistance with case work treatment plans f o r c h i l d r e n who were severe behaviour problems within t h e i r own homes and j e t were not p h y s i c a l l y neglected. Problems Presented by the F i f t y Cases; A t o t a l of seventy one problems were l i s t e d under seven headings; (a) Economic, (b) Employment, (c) Family Relationships, (d) Physical Health, (ej Mental Health, (f) Social and Environmental and (gj Legal Problems. The majority of these seventy one problems were d i s t r i b u t e d i n the area of 'Family Relationships' and 'Social and Environmental Relationships.' Two reasons for t h i s seemed to be: f i r s t , these areas contained the largest number of problems and, secondly, most of the cases were presented f o r placement because of problems within the fami l y area or within the s o c i a l and environmental areas* In a few instances c h i l d r e n were placed due to mental or physical health' f a c t o r s pertaining to their parents, but seldom were these f a c t o r s the sole cause f o r placement. The problems which occurred most frequently are tabulated on the f o l l o w i n g page according to the number of times they occurred. Although 'neglect and dependency,'• i l l n e s s of mother,' were the major causes f o r the Screening presentation i n every instance there were a number of other problems w i t h i n the family case which necessitated c a r e f u l consideration by the Screened Intake Committee. Since there are more 'problems" than "cases" the percentages t o t a l l e d more than one hundred. Ui Table 1. L i s t of Total Problems Presentsd by the Sample Cases. D e s c r i p t i o n of Description of Problem No. Percentage Problem on Schedule 36 -The need for help with problems of t r a i n i n g and development of Children 16 32 20 - D i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between husband and wife lU 2S 21 - D i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between lU 28 parent and c h i l d 2H 59 ' -School problem involving family s i t u a t i o n 12 65 -Juvenile Delinquency 12 2U 2 -Problem of f i n a n c i a l planning and home management complicated and/or caused by i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotion- 11 22 66 a l d i f f i c u l t y - I r r e g u l a r school attendance 10 20 6 i -Problems i n r e l a t i o n to housing 9 18 a f f e c t i n g family l i f e lU 70 -Probation or parole 7 26 - D i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e l a t i v e s 7 lk 5 - F i n a n c i a l need due to lack of support from head of family 5 10 17 -Working mother needing advice and assistance i n making c h i l d care plans 5 10 37 -Employment of mother causing d i f f i - c u l t y i n family 5 10 Most of these headings are self-explanatory. Problem f i f t y nine - a school problem inv o l v i n g the family s i t u a t i o n , however, included any s i t u a t i o n of school f a i l u r e , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e t t i n g along with teachers or other children or other school problems when they appear to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the home s i t u a t i o n , such as f i n a n c i a l stringency. This problem also included a t t i t u d e s of parents toward school adjustment or education; c o n f l i c t s i n f s m i l y r e l a t i o n - ships a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s adjustment at school. It w i l l be noted that d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between husband and wife (problem 20) and. d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent and c h i l d (problem 21) occurred an equal number of times. This would indicate that g e n e r a l l y when there was marital f r i c t i o n , home re l a t i o n s h i p s were unstable, c h i l d r e n were unable to derive a sense of s e c u r i t y from t h e i r parents. Hence, problem twenty one occurred with marked frequency. Since problems f i f t y nine - ' school problem involving f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n ' and problem s i x t y f i v e - ' j u v e n i l e delinquency' occurred frequently,' attention should be given to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s the c h i l d has with h i s parents. Problems f i v e , seventeen, and t h i r t y seven also occurred an equal number of times. These three problems pertained to f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to l a c k of support from the father - often making i t necessary f o r the mother to seek employment. When the mother was employed and out of the home, the major part of the time d i f f i c u l t i e s within the family seem more l i k e l y to a r i s e . Problems which occurred i n l e s s than t e n per cent of the cases were not tabulated. Problem f i f t y eight - 'emotional i n s t a b i l i t y a f f e c t i n g personal and family adjustment' was considered by the w r i t e r to be an unsatisfactory c o d i f i c a t i o n as i t would seem to be a c a t c h - a l l f or a great v a r i e t y of problems. At the time of w r i t i n g t h i s problem was being broken down into a number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Accordingly, problem f i f t y eight was not tabulated. The f o l l o w i n g case (Case 22) i s an example of how a family situation could contain a number of problems although the p r e c i p i t a t i n g factor i n the 'Screening' presentation was a t t r i b u t e d to 'neglect and dependency.' The Browns, parents of nine c h i l d r e n , were so emotionally immature they were unable to meet the needs of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . There was considerable marital f r i c t i o n between the parents - problem l U . Children came i n r a p i d succession but seldom did Mrs. B. receive adequate medical attention, Their housing was inadequate due to the number of c h i l d r e n and low income. Mr. B. was employed spasmodically due to emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . Children, showed behaviour problems at home, at school, and within the community. During the. period t h i s case was a c t i v e with the presenting agency f i v e problems weire l i s t e d under 1 Economic Problems'; eight problems were l i s t e d under 'Family Relationships'; f i v e problems under 'Physical Health'; and four problems under ' S o c i a l and Environmental Relationships' - making a t o t a l of twenty two problems f o r t h i s one f a m i l y . 3̂ 'Although, 'neglect and dependency* was generally considered to he physical neglect the Screened Intake Committee realized the importance of emotional neglect which is illustrated by Mr. A. (Case 30). Mr. A five years after the death of his wife married his housekeeper. By his first marriage Mr. A had nine children. Prior to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee the children had been placed in boarding homes. Although neither the children nor the step-mother were accepting of one another, the father was requesting their return as he thought their up- keep would be less expensive than in boarding homes* Situations where the children who did not receive sufficient love and affection developed a number of behaviour problems is exemplified by the 6 cMldren (Case 5). The three G children - a l l of whom were of school age - arrived from Europe - unheralded - to live with distant relatives. The relatives considered their care to be an exasperation and expense. They ruled the children with a militanthand minus a supplementation of love. The children became severe behaviour problems. Thus, it was readily discernible that the need for child placement due to factors other than employment of mother occurred with marked frequency. Family Status; The family status curing the time the f i f t y cases were active with the social agencies is indicated by the following table: Table 2. Marital Status of Parents of Children Considered by the Committee. 19^2-19^8. Status Families Children F. C. of Cases Forced marriage 19 67 32 Bemarri&ge mother k 10 7 father U 9 7 both parents 1 . k 2 Carried 2S 90 US Divorced 17 2S Separated intermittently 2 k 3 permanently k 11 7 through incarcer- ation of father 2 7 Desertion mother k 6 father 3 5 BROKEN Families 32. 15 52 TOTAL 6 0 1 105 100 1. Total for this table is more than total number of cases status an-olied to some families. because more than one Although it may not he significant, in thirty two per cent of the cases studied the marriages were 'forced' while in sixteen per cent of the cases the children had to adjust to one or two new parents. While this is not an unduplicated account, in these two aspects of social breakdown there were ninety children involved. If a "normal marriage" means two parents voluntarily deciding upon marriage and maintaining a hoae, then there are here twenty eight families not true to this theory. In nineteen family situations the parents were 'forced' to marry. There were nine instances where the children had to adjust to new parents becoming part of the family. If part of the assumption of a stable marriage consists of two parents remaining together and assuming responsibility toward parenthood, there are thirty two cases in which this was not true as the parents were divorced, separated, or one or more of the parents had deserted. Table 3* Cause of Barental Inadequacy j Affecting Causes Cause Mother Father Number p. c. Parent Absent Death 5 1 6 12 Military Service - 11 11 22 Imprisonment - 2 2 u Illness 7 2 9 IS Mental Incompetency lU Feeble-minded k 3 7 (diagnosed but not committed) Feeble-minded 2 2 s (committed)) Mental Illness k 1 5 10 (committed) Alcoholism Ik Diagnosed alcoholic 1 7 Heavy drinker 1 5 *1 12 Total 2k 33 571 Ilk S t i l l assuming a stable lu&rriage to be one where the parents volun- mate, remain together, establishing a home and assuming responsibility for children, Table 3 indicated that three major factors: l) Absence 2)Mental incompe- 1. Total for this table is;more than total number of cases because more than one U5 tency and 3) Alcoholism on the part of one or both parents prevented the children experiencing a happy family relationship. In a few families more than one of these factors was pertinent in the cause of parental inadequacy. There were twelve cases where the mother was either deceased or too i l l to care for the children and eleven cases where enlistment in the armed services compelled the father to be absent from home. Since we assume that a normal family consists of two parents sharing responsibility for the raising of their children, the sole responsibility was often too much for the one parent to carry alone. Together, the other two factors - mental incompetency and alcoholisn - exceeded the 'absence of one or both parents' by only ten per cent. First Presentation of Case to the Screened Intake Committee When the cases were first presented to the Screened Intake Committee the children were in their own homes in sixty two per cent of the cases. In thirty eight per cent of the cases the children had been placed prior to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee. In the first instance there were one hundred and thirty eight children and in the second instance there were sixty four child ren. It was not necessary for Screened Intake to consider plans for thirteen children as satisfactory arrangements for their care had previously been made by the parents, relatives or guardians. Cases Presented for Court Jurisdiction In seventy per cent of the cases presented to the Screened Intake Committee the latter recommended that the caees be presented to Juvenile Court for approval of the decisions as made by this screening committee. The public agencies presented seventeen cases and the private agencies presented eighteen cases for court presentation. Only twelve of these thirty five families had been known previously to Juvenile Court. Of these thirty five cases the Court U6 recommended that the children in four families should continue to live in their own homes. These four families involved a total of fourteen children. Plans were not considered for two children who were placed with relatives and for one child who was placed in a hoarding home. Thus, this court recommendation involved only ten children. Ninety nine children from twenty three families were ordered by court to remain out of their own homes in boarding homos, institutions, etc. Nineteen children from the twenty three families were not presented for Court jurisdiction as to the Committee's plans. In eight families the court ordered temporary placements for nineteen children. Prom two of these eight families one child from each family continue to live away from home in the care of relatives and another child frora one of these two families continued to live in a boarding home. Thus, the court took into consideration the welfare of one hundred and forty three children. The welfare of twelve children from these thirty five families, (nine from one fanily, two from another family and one from a third family) were not considered for court presentation by the Committee as satisfactory plans had been made previously for them or they were adjusting adequately within their own homes. Thirty per cent of the cases were not presented for Court jurisdiction (fifteen cases). Only five of the cases presented to the Screened Intake Com- mittee by private agencies were not presented to Court. In seven of these fifteen families the Screened Inta'ke Committee recommended that the children remain in their own home. A total of twenty eight children were involved in this decision. The Bureau of Catholic Charities presented two of these cases, involving three children to the Committee to request the children be placed out. of their own home. In both instances the Committee advised that mere case work be done with the family. The Ramsey County Welfare Board presented five cases, involving twenty eight children to the Committee, which suggested the children continue to live in their am home, either because the home situation had changed or because there was not sufficient evidence to ask for Court U7 j u r i s d i c t i o n of. the chi l d r e n . Two of these c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g v/ith r e l a t i v e s and one was to remain out of h i s home. In three cases six children were to remain out of the home i n d e f i n i t e l y and two of these six c h i l d r e n were to continue l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s . In two, cases presented by the Ramsey County Welfare Board the Committee approved of an independent placement made by a f a t h e r a f t e r the death of h i s wife and of the replacement of three children who had been placed unsuccessfully by a county other than Ramsey County. Five cases involving eleven children were placed only temporarily with the Committee's appro val„ An a n a l y s i s of the case sample presented to the Screened Intake Committee during 19UI to 19HS i n d i c a t e d that the Committee considered plans f o r two hundred and f i v e c h i l d r e n . Forty two cases were presented to the Committee for the f i r s t time. Sight cases were presented f o r review. Twenty seven cases i n v o l v i n g one hundred and twenty eight children were presented by the public agencies - Ramsey County Welfare Board and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n . Twenty three cases involving twenty seven c h i l d r e n were presented by the p r i v a t e agencies - Family Service, Children Service and Bureau of Catholic C h a r i t i e s . The study indicated there were six major reasons causing an agency to present a case to the Screened Intake Committee. Factors - such as i l l n e s s , employment of mother, death of mother, desertion of one or both parents and behaviour of c h i l d r e n - together t o t a l l e d as much as did the sum t o t a l of cases presented to the Screened Intake Committee f o r neglect and dependency. The majority of problems were d i s t r i b u t e d i n the area of 'Family Relationships and ' S o c i a l and Environmental Relationships.' The study also pointed out that generally when there was marital f r i c t i o n , home r e l a t i o n s h i p s were unstable, and children were unable to derive a sense of security from t h e i r parents. US When the cases were f i r s t presented to the Screened Intake Committee c h i l d r e n were i n t h e i r own homes i n s i x t y two per cent of the cases. In t h i r t y eight per cent of the cases the children had "been placed p r i o r to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee. The Committee recommended that seventy per cent of the cases be presented to Juvenile Court f o r approval of the Committee's recommendations. This involved the welfare of one hundred and f o r t y three c h i l d r e n . t CHAPTER 71 REVI57J AMD EVALUATION 07 IXPE?J7:NCE Pri o r to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee, there was no clear demarcation of functions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the social agencies ..in Saint Paul. They were accustomed to bargaining with one another as to their r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the welfare of a family. Because of the anxiety of some agencies to have a high case-load count thei r relationship with the family was often poor and of too short duration to work through any plans whereby the children might remain i n the home. With the inauguration of the Screened Intake Committee such conditions were remedied greatly. The Committee's request f o r a written 'plan of treatment' and 'evaluation of the family situation' served as a check to the precipitate placement of children. Quality of Agencies' Relationship with Clients The quality of the agencies' relationship with c l i e n t s was of para- mount importance i n helping parents and children work through the i r problems. In t h i r t y s i x per cent of the cases the agencies had a "good" relationship with the c l i e n t s . A "good" relationship was defined as a relationship where the c l i e n t s f e l t free to discuss the i r problems with the case worker and to arrive at a workable agreement or solution of t h e i r problems. Case nuafber three ex- emplifies how the presenting agency was able to overcome the mother's h o s t i l i t y toward them and thereby establish a good relationship which enabled the mother to become active on her problems,.eventually establishing herself with her family: Father was i n the Army. Mother was nineteen years of ag©;and immature emotionally. She had always r i v a l e d her elder sister and f e l t unloved and unwanted by her mother. Her marriage was forced and unstable. Her relationship with men was free and questionable. She l e f t he?" small daughter alone f o r long periods of time. The presenting agency considered the neglect o f the c h i l d to result more from k3 50 a confusion on the part of a c h i l d mother, who was at a l o s s as to what to do f o r and with a baby, rather than from any conscious neglect. The agency presented the case to the. Screening Committee'for approval of temporary placement plans f o r the c h i l d i n order to do intensive case work with the mother. The request was granted. The c h i l d was l a t e r returned home and the case was closed. In f o r t y eight per cent of the cases studied the r e l a t i o n s h i p be- tween the c l i e n t and the agency was " F a i r . " Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p was defined as one where the working r e l a t i o n s h i p on an o v e r - a l l basis was one of cooper- a t i o n but upon many occasions the c l i e n t s were r e s e n t f u l of agency contact. For example, the f o l l o w i n g extract (Case 18) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s : Father and mother were quarantined f o r six months as p o s i t i v e d i p t h e r i a c a r r i e r s . The source of i n f e c t i o n could not be located. Parents consented - r e l u c t a n t l y - to placement plans for t h e i r seven year old son - a problem c h i l d - as they were unable to make sa t i s f a c t o r y plans f o r him. When their source of i n f e c t i o n cleared they refused further case work assistance. S i t u a t i o n s similar to Case Number 18 were c l a s s i f i e d as " f a i r " as were s i t u - a t i o n s where the r e l a t i o n s h i p was " p a r t i a l l y " good. A "partially" !'good r e l a t i o n - ship was one i n which there was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with one parent and a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p with the other parent. This type of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the Bs (Case U5). When the Browns and t h e i r eight children were f i r s t r e f e r r e d to the agency both parents were antagonistic to agency assistance. The home.conditions were de- plorable; the c h i l d r e n were badly neglected. By the time Mr. B. was inducted i n t o the Army he was eager to cooperate with the agency. He requested that case work supervision be continued with h i s family during h i s absence and t h a t h i s Army allotment be budgetted with Mrs. B. Mrs. 3. repudiated agency assistance, making i t necessary to commit the c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g case (Case 31) i l l u s t r a t e s a "poor" r e l a t i o n s h i p - a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which the parents were both antagonistic or not.w i l l i n g to make any e f f e c t i v e changes within themselves or the environment which weald 51 make i t p o s s i b l e for t h e i r c h i l d r e n to remain i n the h c u B permanently or to be returnedhome. The Lees had been known to social agencies for twenty years. A f t e r twenty years of marriage they were d i - vorced. Custody of the c h i l d r e n was given Mrs, Lee. Mr. Lee was ordered by court to support the c h i l d r e n 9 His payments were irregular'and i n s u f f i c i e n t . Mrs. Lee was immature emotionally and did not "believe" i n k i l l - ing myself for the c h i l d r e n . " The presenting agency requested approval of placement plans for Bob whom Mrs. Lee was unable to manage. The Screened Intake Committee sanctioned t h i s plan but recommended more case work be done with the f a m i l y before p l a c - ing the two eldest c h i l d r e n . Mrs. Lee was not interested and four years l a t e r they were placed. In only sixteen per cent of the cases studied was the r e l a t i o n s h i p with the parents "poor." Plans Proposed by the Agencies to the Screened Intake Committee In si x t y eight per cent of the cases presented to the Committee, the plans proposed by the presenting agencies were endorsed by the Committees These plans involved a t o t a l of one hundred and thirteen c h i l d r e n . In eighteen per cent of the cases which involved the welfare of f o r t y c h i l d r e n the plans as proposed to the Committee by the presenting agencies were not endorsed. In four per cent of the cases the Committee advised further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n before sanctioning placement. A f t e r further investigation of the family s i t u a t i o n the agencies' proposed plans were sanctioned. A t o t a l of nine c h i l d r e n were involved i n these s i t u a t i o n s . In other instances i t would seem that the workers had not given s u f f i c i e n t thought as to the best plans f o r the c h i l d r e n and the family as a unit p r i o r to the Screening presen- t a t i o n . For example:(Case Uo). Mr. M was i n the Army. Mother requested placement of c h i l d i n order to work, Agency.proposed boarding home care of the c h i l d . Screened Intake Committee recommended furthe r case work with the mother before authorizing the se "plans. 52 Again. - (Case 7) Both parents were of low i n t e l l i g e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , the mother was emotionally unstable. She was diagnosed as having "post parturn psychosis." She was unable to achieve any semblance of control over the children-par- t i c u l a r l y over the behavior of her eldest c h i l d , Hobert. Agency'proposed boarding home or i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. Screened Intake recommended intensive case work treatment with Robert's parents. If case work was unsuccessful the case was to be reviewed. In t h i s instance the Committee took into consideration the motivations of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour. The Committee r e a l i z e d that within each i n d i - v i d u a l there are c e r t a i n strengths and f o r c e s , i f , when discovered and released, are able to attack whatever virus i s a f f e c t i n g one's l i f e . Only two cases were presented to the Committee with no outlined p l an. This type of case i s exemplified by the As (Case 30). page U3. Three cases were presented with tentative plans but mainly to obtain the Committee's recommendations as to the best case work plans f o r the c h i l d r e n . Together these f i v e cases t o t a l l e d ten per cent of the cases presented to the Committee f o r i t s opinion as to the best case work plans f o r the c h i l d r e n . Awareness of Underlying Problems by Agencies and the Screened Intake Committee By means of empathy the case worker should be s e n s i t i v e to the f e e l i n g s of the c l i e n t and thereby be able to help the c l i e n t toward more constructive a t t i t u d e s and behaviour. Therefore, the agencies and the Screened Intake Committee had to recognize not only the needs basic to the emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c l i e n t but also the r e a l i t y or environmental needs which were i n t e r r e l a t e d to the c l i e n t ' s emotional needs. In eighty four per cent of the cases the agencies were aware of the c l i e n t ' s underlying problems and t h e i r basic needs. Mrs. L, (Case 10) i l l u s t r a t e s how both the agency and the Screened Intake Committee gave consideration to the needs of the c l i e n t . Again, the following case (Case 37) i l l u s t r a t e s how both the agency and the Screened Intake Committee took into consideration not only 5 3 the p hysical needs of the children but also t h e i r concern about the ch i l d r e n 1 s emotional needs being met by the f o s t e r parents. Mother deserted her husband and three small children-. Father made private boarding home arrangements for these c h i l d r e n . He paid ' t h e i r board r e g u l a r l y and v i s i t e d weekly* The fa t h e r was s a t i s f i e d with the care, the c h i l d r e n were re c e i v i n g but the agency f e l t there was considerable question about the treatment the c h i l d r e n were r e c e i v i n g i n t h i s home* The agency also questioned whether the ch i l d r e n were r e c e i v i n g poor moral t r a i n i n g . The Screened Intake Committee sanctionsd replacement plans for the c h i l d r e n . In twelve per cent of the cases the ' Screened Intake Committee did not help the presenting agencies have more awareness of the underlying problems w i t h i n the family s i t u a t i o n nor the c l i e n t ' s needs as a whole. This i s exempli- f i e d by Mr. F. (Case U ) , Mr, F., a Negro, was divorced. Mrs. F's whereabouts were unknown. Mr. 1, requested Foster home placement of h i s pre-school daughter. Screened Intake Committee recommended.a Parent-Child-Boarding-Home arrangement. Accommodation for a Negro fathe r and c h i l d was exceed- i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to f i n d . Mr. F. was given l i t t l e a ssistance. The accommodation he found proved inade- quate. The c h i l d eventually manifested severe overt behaviour problems. Mr. F. again f i n a l l y requested hi s daughter be placed i n a boarding school. This plan was sanctioned by both the agency and Screened Intake Committee. Throughout the enti r e four years t h i s case was active the agency took a passive attitude toward Mr. F. and h i s problems. Mr. F. was l e f t to assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r providing adequate accommodation, care and supervision f o r h i s daughter. Had the Screened Intake Committee been more cognizant of the needs and problems of both Mr. F. and his daughtQr i t would have pointed o-<± to the presenting agency the need for more case work assistance. Furthermore, i t would have recommended that the agency continue to give Mr.-F's daughter case work treatment during the boarding school placement. In the remaining four per cent of the cases there were no major problems wit h i n the family as a unit or within the i n d i v i d u a l members of the fam i l y . In one s i t u a t i o n the case was tee r e l y r e f e r r e d to the Screened Intake Committee for approval of a private boarding home placement made by a widower for the care of h i s son. The c h i l d had adjusted n i c e l y to the home and the f a t h e r maintained c l o s e d contact with hinu Evaluation of Diagnosis and Treatment Made by Agencies and Screened Intake Committee In s i x t y four per cent of the cases the diagnosis proposed by the presenting agencies and sanctioned by the Screened Intake Committee were evaluated as "good." In a l l these cases the presenting agency was successful i n r e l a t i n g the treatment plans proposed by the committee to the diagnosis. Case Number 10 c i t e d e a r l i e r i l l u s t r a t e d the f l e x i b i l i t y of the Screened Intake Committee and the agencies i n t h e i r treatment plans. Mrs. L (Case 27) i l l u s t r a t e s also t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y . Mrs. L, a widowed mother with two sna i l c h i l d r e n was having considerable d i f f i c u l t y making suitable arrange- ments for the care of her children while she worked. She requested placement of her youngest c h i l d but made suitable plans for the care of the eldest c h i l d . During the placement period the mother accepted case work t r e a t - ment, and several years l a t e r remarried and took her c h i l d back. In t h i s case Mrs. L. was unable to accept case work treatment from, a family agency. Arrangements were made accordingly for her to have regular case work interviews from a c h i l d c a r i n g agency. At the end of the case work treatment Mrs. L. had been helped to work through her personal c o n f l i c t s so she could remarry and re e s t a b l i s h her home. She was able to al s o better accept the c h i l d placed and to care for her more tenderly. In eighteen per cent of the cases studied the recommendations proposed by the Screened Intake Committee were at variance with those suggested by the presenting agency. Of this percentage, the jjlans proposed 55 by the public agencies were a l t e r e d i n ten per cent, of the cases, l i g h t per cent of the plans proposed by the private agencies were a l t e r e d . This i s exemplified by the Smiths (Case 12), Both Mr. and Mrs. Smith drank heavil y . Their m a r i t a l l i f e was stormy a Mrs. Smith misspent money given her for the care of the c h i l d r e n ; l e f t them with incompetent help; allowed them to become i n f e s t e d with vermin. Mr. ,Smith requested mother be removed from the horns. Agency planned to secure a housekeeper. Screened Intake Com- mittee recommended the c h i l d r e n be placed with both parents being ordered to contribute toward the support of the c h i l d r e n . In t h i s case the Committee f e l t that a housekeeper would not be s a t i s f a c t o r y . Mr, Smith was a heavy drinker and h i s f e e l i n g toward Mrs. Smith was so ambivalent that placement plans were considered by the Committee to be the b e t t e r for the c h i l d r e n . In a number of instances the Committee seconded the proposals made by the agencies that the c h i l d r e n be committed to care. In these cases the parents were e i t h e r not amenable to case work or were not accessible f o r case work treatment. In eight per cent of the cases presented to the Screening Committe the Committee d i d not sharpen the case work s k i l l s of the presenting agencies that they were able to help with treatment plans. In two cases within t h i s category the s o c i a l summaries were tco inadequate f o r the Committee to have a f u l l understanding of the s i t u a t i o n . For example(Case 3 5 ) . Mrs. P, d i e d l e a v i n g Mr. P. to caye for three c h i l d r e n . Various c h i l d care plans were made. Mr. P. subjected the children to see considerable immoral behaviour, drinking, etc. Conditions for the ch i l d r e n became so poor i t was necessary to make permanent plans for them. Because the a c t i v e agency was slow to recognize that Mr. P. had an alcoholic p e r s o n a l i t y ; that he was insecure b a s i c a l l y and that he found the r e a l i t y of l i f e much more d i f f i c u l t to face without Mrs. P. the Screened Intake Committe was unable to recommend placement plans f o r the c h i l d r e n at an e a r l i e r date. 56 In f o u r per cent of the cases the Screened Intake Committee recommended the presenting agencies do further case work treatment before agreeing with the agencies' plans that the children should be placed. In Case Number 9 both the agency and the Screened Intake Committee r e a l i z e d that the father's needs were due to l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , p h y s i c a l handicaps, and a childhood f i l l e d with emotional and physical deprivation. These f a c t o r s were taken into consideration and considerable e f f o r t was made to help the parents use t h e i r own perrogatives more e f f e c t i v e l y . Some of t h e i r responsi- b i l i t i e s were taken temporarily from them i n order that t h e i r strengths would not be taxed too h e a v i l y . A l l attempts to a s s i s t them f a i l e d , however, and i t f i n a l l y became necessary to request court commitment of the children. The remaining six per cent of the cases were presented to the Committee f o r sanctioning of temporary placements due to i l l n e s s on the part of one or both parents; f o r l i c e n s i n g of p r i v a t e boarding home arrangements, etc., and l i t t l e or no case work treatment was recommended i n these s i t u a t i o n s . C l a r i f i c a t i o n of C l i e n t ' s Problems Through Case Work Assistance The case work a c t i v i t i e s i n f o r t y s i x per cent of the cases pre- sented to the Screened Intake Committee were better directed toward under- l y i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s within the c l i e n t or issues within the c l i e n t ' s s i t u a t i o n was c l a r i f i e d . In one s i t u a t i o n the Committee f e l t that the presenting agency's case work and plans f o r f u r t h e r case work treatment were such that i t would not be necessary for the agency to return the case to the Committee f o r a fu r t h e r review unless the agency wished to do so. In the following s i t u a t i o n (Case 17) the parents were anxious t o e f f e c t changes within themselves so that they would have a better understand- ing of how to help t h e i r son work through h i s problems and to make their f a m i l y as a unit become happier. 57 Both Mr. and Mrs. H. were of low average mental a b i l i t y . During the depression Mr. H. worked at odd. jobs. Since 19H2 he has worked s t e a d i l y . Mrs. H1 s personal appear- ance i s no longer slovenly and she i s now a s a t i s f a c t o r y housekeeper. She was helped to accept case work assistance so that she was able to understand better her son who was a severe behaviour problem. Although placement plans had been considered for t h i s l a d i t was not necessary to place him. as the agency was able to carry through case wo rk suggestions proposed by the Screened Intake Committee, In fourteen per cent of the cases studied the agencies and the Screened Intake Committee agreed that there should be no fur t h e r attempts to give case work assistance to the parents. In these cases the parents were neither i n t e r e s t e d i n c l a r i f y i n g their problems nor i n a f f e c t i n g any change within themselves or t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g case (Case 6) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s t h e s i s , Father died while employed. Mother was l e f t with s i x children f o r whom she refused, to provide care or set up housekeeping. She was antagonistic toward agency assistance. The presenting agency proposed the c h i l d r e n be placed i n boarding homes and the mother ordered by court to pay for the board of the c h i l d r e n since she had s u f f i c i e n t income to do so. In s i x per cent of the cases studied the Screened Intake Committee d i d not a s s i s t the agencies i n case work treatment with the c l i e n t s . The changes which were a f f e c t e d or the suggestions made regarding the welfare of the children involved were i n i t i a t e d by the c l i e n t s themselves, fc'r, F's s i t u a t i o n (Case Number U) previously c i t e d , i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s statement as does the following s i t u a t i o n with Mr. and Mrs, C. (Case U3) During t h e i r marriage both Mr. and Mrs. C were ir r e s p o n s i b l e and negligent of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n v/ere u n d i s c i p l i n e d and poorly fed. They were placed i n boarding homes for a three year period during which time the parents remarried, They showed no i n t e r e s t i n the children but when the agency approached them about adoption plans for the c h i l d r e n both parents were anxious to have the c h i l d r e n returned to them. During her marriage to Mr. C , Mrs. C. was so dependent upon her father and h i s decisions that she was unable to accept case work assistance from an agency. Mr. C. was immature and a l c o h o l i c . It was through their subsequent marriages • 5S that they were able to take an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n and to be concerned about th e i r welfare when permanent plans for the c h i l d r e n were to be consider- ed. E a r l i e r attempts by the agency to help them take an i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d r e n were unsuccessful. In twenty two per cent of the cases the Screened Intake Committee was not able to increase the case work s k i l l s of the presenting agencies to better help the c l i e n t s c l a r i f y t h e i r problems. Since the c l i e n t s were e i t h e r unable or u n w i l l i n g to understand the cause of t h e i r problems they were unable to take any action on them. This i s exemplified by the following extract, (Case U 9 ) , U n t i l Mr. and Mrs. F, separated there was considerable marital f r i c t i o n . They were both d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n their two children of pre-school age. They both drank heavily. After t h e i r separation Mr. F. did not support e i t h e r the c h i l d r e n or Mrs. E. Mrs. P. neglected the c h i l d r e n and there was some question of her using drugs. At the end of a two year placement, permanent plans for the children were necessary as Mrs. P. had deteriorated to such an extent and the father was not i n t e r e s t e d i n them. A court order was made for Mr. F. to contribute toward the support of the c h i l d r e n . It was recommended by the Screened Intake Committee that the agency not attempt any case work treatment with e i t h e r of the parents. Several instances occurred i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n where the Screened Intake Committee might have been more cognizant of the needs of the f a m i l y as a unit had the agency presented the case i n more d e t a i l to the Committee. For example: Mr. and Mrs. C. (Case 23) were divorced after nine years of married l i f e . Mrs. C, was given custody of the three ch i l d r e n . Mrs. C. was emotionally unstable and had. a number of c o n f l i c t s with her own parents to work through before she could be a good mother. The maternal grandmother was unable to d i s c i p l i n e the c h i l d r e n and the mother was f e a r f u l they would get into trouble during' the summer vacation i f they were not better supervised. The c h i l d r e n were placed for the vacation period. Three years l a t e r the mother returned to the agency for further placement plans of the c h i l d r e n . The eldest c h i l d had stolen money and the two younger chi l d r e n had been i n - volved i n a sex offense. Boarding home plans were made for the 59 eldest c h i l d while case work assistance was given the mother and two younger c h i l d r e n . If the presenting agency had recognised the needs of the mother and their i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p to the environment i t would have presented the case i n more d e t a i l and requested continued supervision i n the home. Three years l a t e r the c h i l d r e n were manifesting overt behaviour problems which the agency could not overlook. Had case work assistance been given t h i s family e a r l i e r these problems might have been prevented. In only two per cent of the cases presented to Juvenile Court were the plans as proposed by the presenting agency sanctioned by the Screened Intake Committee repudiated. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the following case, (Case 1 1 ) . Parents were divorced. Mother l e f t the ch i l d r e n alone and did not provide for them adequately. Agency suggested the children be placed i n boarding homes. Screened Intake Com- mittee sanctioned these proposals. Juvenile Court suggested the f a m i l y be placed under supervision of a family agency, assistance be given the mother with budgetting; case to be presented to Juvenile Court i f mother f a i l e d to cooperate. Results: home conditions improved considerably. The remaining ten per cent of the cases were presented to the Committee as a matter of routine - to sanction the l i c e n s i n g of private f o s t e r home placements due to i l l n e s s on the part of one or both parents. Also, i n t h i s category were included situations where i t was too early to determine whether or not the c l i e n t s would be helped or where one or both of the parents were not accessible f o r case work treatment. That the Screened Intake Committee was responsible for the s o c i a l agencies within Saint Paul, g i v i n g more thoughtful consideration to the general welfare of children, i s shown by an appraisal of the case sample tendered to the Screened Intake Committee during the years 19^2 to 19^-S, No longer were s o c i a l agencies able to discontinue case work treatment with the parents of c h i l d r e n a f t e r the c h i l d r e n were placed outside t h e i r own homes. So Since placement of c h i l d r e n was l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to emotional i n s t a b i l i t y or inadequacy between the parents, the Committee thought i t advisable to recommend that seventy per cent of the cases be presented to Court. The Committee was of the opinion that the granting of a court order sanctioned a maintenance of agency contact l e g a l l y with the f a m i l i e s a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n were placed. In these situations the parents were unable to understand and accept t h e i r natural r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the placement plans. Although court orders did not achieve t h i s purpose they d i d give-the agencies a r i g h t to attempt to make the placement experience as constructive as possible f o r the c h i l d r e n . Moreover, court orders granted the agencies some co n t r o l over the parents i n regard to their contacts with the c h i l d r e n . In only t h i r t y per cent of the cases studied the Committee d i d not recommend a pr e s e n t a t i o n before Juvenile Court. In these situations the Committee took the view that the parents were able to understand t h e i r natural r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the placement plans. In a d d i t i o n to rendering c e r t a i n agency contact with both parents and c h i l d r e n a f t e r a c h i l d was placed from h i s or her own home, the c o n s t i - t u t i o n of the Screened Intake Committee was an assurance to the community that placement plans would be c a r e f u l l y thought through. Thus, the Screened Intake Committee was an a t t e s t i n g that the welfare of both the parents and the c h i l d r e n would be r e t a i n e d b j the agencies during the placement period. In only fourteen per cent of the case sample did the Committee f i n d i t necessary to recommend either a plan for further case work with the f a m i l i e s before r a t i f y i n g the o r i g i n a l agency plans or a plan divergent to that proposed by the presenting agencies. The f i n d i n g s of the case sample manifested that the Committee also e i t h e r c l a r i f i e d pertinent issues within the f a n i l y s i t u a t i o n or secured better d i r e c t i o n of the case work a c t i v i t i e s of the present ing agencies. If Si the agencies d i d not agree with the Committee's recommendations they, and the Committee, accordingly analyzed f u l l y the case work plans as they r e l a t e d to the diagnosis. As a r e s u l t of such discussions, not only d i d the agencies become more s k i l l f u l i n r e l a t i n g treatment plans to the welfare of the f a m i l i e s , but they also became more able i n recognizing the needs basic to the emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c l i e n t . There were instances, however, where the parents seemed to be not amenable to case work treatment or else were un w i l l i n g to accept i t . Thus, i n fourteen per cent of the case sample, the Committee recommended a curtailment by the agencies of further case work treatment with the parents of the ch i l d r e n i n placement. CHAPTER VII STRENGTHS ANI- WEAKNESSES P r i o r to the inauguration of the Screened Intake Committee i n I3U1, records from the Community Chest and Council indicated that Minnesota 1 had a high r a t i o of i t s t o t a l c h i l d population in care under agency auspices. This r a t i o was one of the highest i n the United States. In Saint Paul the percentage of c h i l d r e n being cared f o r outside t h e i r own homes was p a r t i c u - l a r l y high. The following table shows the number of children/per year i n Saint Paul which were placed i n f o s t e r hones under agency supervision - both p u b l i c and private - from 1939 to 19Ug. Table U. Number of Children i n Agency Foster Homes i n Saint Paul, Minnesota , i n I939-I9US. Monthly Averages ; Year 1939 19U0 19U2 19^3 19UU 19U5 19U6 19U7 !3hL Public Agency W 53H 660 650 620 610 533 Private Agency 991 967 U56 UoU 3S5 336 UlO U13 U61 Total 1U50 1501 1166 10S9 10U5 1056 1030 1023 10UU This t a b l e indicates that a f t e r the Committee was founded the number of c h i l d r e n placed i n agency f o s t e r homes was reduced. Decrease i n the Total C h i l d Population under Agency Care: From the above table i t was noted that i n 1939 &nd I9U0 - two years p r i o r to the formation of the Screened Intake Committee - the number of c h i l d r e n under the supervision of p r i v a t e c h i l d c a r i n g agencies greatly exceeded the number of c h i l d r e n under the supervision of public c h i l d c a r i n g agencies. In 1339 the number of children on hand on the f i r s t day of the year was U59 c h i l d r e n f o r the public agencies and 331 c h i l d r e n f o r the private agencies - a t o t a l of IU50 c h i l d r e n . On the 1. Community Chest and Council Records. ?. There i s no data available f o r the year lQUl. S t a t i s t i c s for 1333 were computed on January-1 , and I9U0 s t a t i s t i c s were c l o u t e d December 31 62 l a s t day of IShO the public agencies had -J$\ c h i l d r e n under t h e i r supervision while the private agencies Lad 9^7 c h i l d r e n under t h e i r supervision. Thus, there was an increase of three and one t h i r d per cent of the number of c h i l d r e n being cared f o r by s o c i a l agencies w i t h i n one year. While the figures i n t h i s table were not gathered on the same basi s from I9U1 on they are v a l i d i n that they ind i c a t e d the change i n the c h i l d placement trend since the inauguration of the Screened Intake Committee. At the end of 19U2, only two years a f t e r the inauguration of the Screened Intake Committee, the number of c h i l d r e n admitted to care had decreased by twenty two per cent. Moreover, the Screened Intske Coamittee was responsible f o r trans- f e r r i n g the guardianship of c h i l d r e n f o r whom long term placement plans seemed i n d i c a t e d from the p r i v a t e agencies to the p u b l i c agencies. Thus, the p r i v a t e non-sectarian agencies were no longer being pressed to accept cases f o r which they r i g h t f u l l y were not responsible. From 13U2 to I9US there was a general l e v e l l i n g o f f of the number of c h i l d r e n i n care. From 1939 to 19^8 the t o t a l number of c l d l d r e n under agency auspices decreased by twenty eight per cent. Since the inauguration of the Screened Intake Committee the number of c h i l d r e n cared f o r by private agencies decreased by f i f t y three and one h a l f per cent while the number of c h i l d r e n e cared f o r by public agencies decreased by twenty seven per cent. Although i t can be assumed that the Screened Intake Committee was l a r g e l y responsible for the decrease i n the large number of c h i l d r e n being cared f o r outside t h e i r own homes, other f a c t o r s - such as the parent-child-boarding horse programme, the f o s t e r day care and nursery school programmes a l s o contributed to the decrease of the number of c h i l d r e n i n care. C l a r i f i c a t i o n and Co-ordination of Agencies* Functions: As the functions of the Screened Intake Committee were delineated and the programme developed, a c l e a r l y d e fined but f l e x i b l e p o l i c y regarding the method of r e f e r r i n g children f o r care 6U from one agency to another was evolved. Previously, r e f e r r a l s had been done l a r g e l y by a system of "bargaining" between the agencies. By t h i s system the agencies gave l i t t l e consideration to the adequacy of t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s for working with the f a m i l i e s or the children during the placement of the c h i l d r e n . With the establishment of the Screened Intake Committee the need for agencies to continue to "bargain" f o r cases was eliminated and a means was provided whereby the s o c i a l case work agencies could meet at a regular time and place to discuss with freedom and.impartiality those cases where placement of one or more c h i l d r e n i n the family seemed indicated. By means of the Screened Intake Committee the agencies were able to a r r i v e at an impartial decision as to which agency was best able to provide case work treatment f o r each p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . Value of Presentation of Written Screened Intake Summary: The written s o c i a l h i s t o r y outline presented to the Screened Intake Committee by the s o c i a l case work agencies included a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y of the family and the problems within the family. Although the summaries were supplemented by verbal presentations, the opinion of the members of the Screened Intake Committee was that written summaries were more e f f e c t i v e than verbal presentations, f o r three reasons: 1) The Committee was able to have the family h i s t o r y i n a concise, co-ordinated form before and during the presentation of the case, 2) The Committee was enabled to focus be t t e r the d i s - cussion on the most relevant points, 3) The record helped prevent the s i t u a t i o n from being "colored" by the worker's f e e l i n g s . The f i n d i n g s from the Case Study ind i c a t e d that the summaries generally i n - cluded recommendations r e l a t i n g to the placement of c h i l d r e n . Plans for case work treatment, however, were seldom given i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l by the pre- senting agencies. Consideration of the Total Family Situat i o n : Recognizing the family i s the basis upon which our society i s b u i l t , the Screened Intake Committee was 65 l a r g e l y responsible for enabling the s o c i a l work agencies to take more cognizance of the problems manifested by the family as a c o n s t e l l a t i o n and to bring these basic f a c t o r s into sharper focus. Since representatives from a number of s o c i a l work agencies constituted the 'Screening committee, the committee brought a much, broader experience to the thinking through of the famil y problems and encouraged more d e f i n i t e proposals and decisions for case work treatment. Assurance of a Good Diagnosis Regarding the Family Situation: With the f o r - mat! on of the Screened Intake Committee came an elimination of vague agree- ments which had been made so frequently during the l e s s formal agency confer- ences. The secretary of the Committee summarized the decisions made or approved by the Committee at the close of each case d i s c u s s i o n . Later, typed . copies were sent to the responsible agencies. This c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the case work plans enabled the agencies working with the c h i l d r e n and the fami l y to take a c t i o n immediately and to function more e f f e c t i v e l y . Many times, however, the members of the Screened Intake Committee were of the opinion they were handicapped i n achieving an adequate diagnosis or i n making v a l i d recommendations f o r both the family and the ch i l d r e n at the time of the f i r s t case presentation to the Committee. The Case Study a t t r i b u t e d t h i s d i f f i c u l t y to three f a c t o r s : a) Inadequate information and thought regarding the family situation: A l l too often summaries presented to the Screened Intake Committee were not completely representative of the e n t i r e family s i t u a t i o n . The presenting agencies were not s u f f i c i e n t l y apprised of the clients'and t h e i r problems. Thus, they were unable to give a complete and accurate d e l i n e a t i o n of the f a m i l y pattern of l i v i n g . ^ Lack of i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the children: Frequently the Screened Intake Summaries were sketchy when they pertained to the personality 66 and development of the c h i l d . Generally, the age of the c h i l d and a minimum health h i s t o r y was given. There were few or no comments about the child's p h y s i c a l appearance; whether he was large or small f o r h i s age; whether he had health problems, a l l e r g i e s , the age at which he had various childhood i l l n e s s ; fore example, whooping cough, tonsilectomy, etc., and the dates of h i s immunizations. Almost without exception the summaries should have stated whether the c h i l d was t o i l e t t r a i n e d and i f so, at what age; the age at which he learned to walk; to talk, and whether he had any food f a n c i e s . Material as to h i s adjustment to both adults and chi l d r e n should have been included i n the s o c i a l summaries. How did he relate to children and to adults? Was he overly active, shy, secretive, aggressive, b u l l y i n g , f e a r - f u l , etc? How d i d he get along with c h i l d r e n at school? What was his school grade and school performance? How d i d he get along with h i s si b l i n g s ? How d i d he react to strangers? Had he been away from home before? Was the c h i l d prepared f o r a f o s t e r home? Were h i s parents prepared? What was the parent's a t t i t u d e toward the c h i l d , the f o s t e r home, the v i s i t i n g arrangements? Because l i t t l e information was given sometimes to the emotional f e e l i n g of the ch i l d r e n toward their parents and s i b l i n g s , i t was often necessary for a c h i l d to have to be returned home because h i s emotional t i e s to his parents were so strong. If the Screened Intake Committee was to make wise decisions they must know the sa l i e n t f a c t o r s about the c h i l d . c) Precedence of material aspects over emotional aspects; This d e f i c i e n c y i n the Screened Intake summaries was also a t t r i b u t e d to a lack of i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the emotional f a c t o r s involved i n placement plans f o r each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . So often the presenting agencies considered only whether the c h i l d r e n were being neglected p h y s i c a l l y . The Case Study indicated they tended to disregard the importance of the parents' f e e l i n g s toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Moreover, occasionally the agencies tended to give precedence to 67 monetary values rather than to case work p r i n c i p l e s . A l l too often " t e l l i n g the c l i e n t what he ought, to do" as well as "telling- him what the agency would do i f he didn't do d i f f e r e n t l y " was evident i n the Screening summaries. Continuing Treatment Plan: Both before and a f t e r the formation of the Screened Intake Committee there was considerable f e e l i n g on the part of those intere s t e d and concerned i n the welfare of children w i t h i n t h i s com- munity that the public agencies were not doing as e f f e c t i v e work as the private agencies i n the c h i l d placement f i e l d . The Screened Intake Committee en- dorsed the plans i n t h i r t y s i x per cent of the cases as they were presented by the p u b l i c agencies. In only ten per cent of the cases d i d the Committee advocate plans other than those presented by the public agencies. Of the plans presented to the Committee by the p r i v a t e agencies t h i r t y two per cent were endorsed at the o r i g i n a l presentation. This study therefore indicated there was no appreciable difference i n the case work plans between the private and p u b l i c agencies. With the ensurance of a continued plan of treatment v i a periodic interviews by the Screened Intake Committee of the t o t a l family s i t u a t i o n the p r o b a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n remaining i n care outside their own homes longer than necessary was prevented. Hot only d i d these reviewals make the agencies more aware of the basic f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n to the treatment of the family and i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d s i t u a t i o n s but helped the agencies become increasingly conscious of the c h i l d and the needs of the c h i l d . Moreover, the committee was an assurance to the community that agency contact would be continued with f a m i l i e s during the placement of children from their own homes. The f i n d i n g s of the Case.Study, however, in d i c a t e d there was s t i l l considerable need f o r improvement i n t h i s area but no longer was a s o c i a l case work agency able to close a case a f t e r the placement of children v/ithout reporting i t , unless the c h i l d r e n were committed permanently to the care of the Director of Social Welfare. 6S Canol u s i on; Although the s o c i a l case work agencies i n Saint Paul continued to he somewhat unaware of the emotional components of the f a n i l y s i t u a t i o n , i t i s evident from the preceding h i s t o r y and evaluation of the case sample pre- sented to the Screened Intake Committee that the Committee accomplished many worthwhile changes f o r the s o c i a l welfare programme during the years I9U1 to 194'8. One of the paramount accomplishments was that the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n being cared f o r outside t h e i r own homes was now markedly lower, both f o r the State of Minnesota and more p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the Ci t y of Saint P a u l 9 Moreover, no longer were agencies able to continue to "bargain" as to which agency would be responsible f o r case work plans and treatment for c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s * The decisions made or approved by the Screened Intake Committee v/ere c r y s t a l l i z e d so that agencies working with c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s were able, to take a c t i o n immediately and to function more e f f e c t i v e l y . With the elimination of the "bargaining" system, the Screened Intake Committee was responsible f o r also preventing the non-sectarian agencies from being pressed to accept cases f o r which they r i g h t f u l l y were not responsible. Prom 1939 to 19US the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n under agency care decreased by twenty eight per cent - i n d i c a t i n g there had been a general l e v e l l i n g off of the number of c h i l d r e n i n care« Although there continued to be considerable opinion on the part of people i n t e r e s t e d i n the welfare of children within Saint Paul that the p u b l i c agencies were not doing as e f f e c t i v e case work as the private agencies i n the c h i l d placement f i e l d , the present study in d i c a t e s there was l i t t l e difference i n the evaluation of the case work plans presented- to the Committee by either the p u b l i c or p r i v a t e agencies. At the time of w r i t i n g , however, there v/ere few case work agencies i n Saint Paul s t a f f e d with f u l l y q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l case workers and supervisors. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the public agencies. U n t i l t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s remedied, the need for the Screened Intake Committee 65 w i l l continue. Although the purpose of the Committee'was not to act i n a supervisory capacity, agencies are s t i l l b ringing cases to the Committee f o r suggestions as to the best plans f o r the famil y . Perhaps when the agency supervisors are better able to f u l f i l l t h e i r functions adequately, t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l not a r i s e . But i t i s evident .in general that the Screened Intake Committee has performed valuable work, and that the p r i n c i - p l e s i t has est a b l i s h e d deserve continuous consideration i n the f u t u r e . 7* SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY P r i n c i p l e s of Social Work Cannon, Mary Antoinette, and K l e i n , P h i l i p , S o c i a l Case Work - An 'Outline for Teaching, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1933. Hamilton, Gordon, P r i n c i p l e s of Soc i a l Case Work Recording. New York, Columbia University Press, 19U6. Hamilton, Gordon, So c i a l Case Recording. New York, Columbia University Press, 1936* Hamilton, Gordon, Theory and Pra c t i c e of Social Oase Work. New York, Univ e r s i t y Press, 19^0, H o l l i s , Florence, S o c i a l Case Work i n Pra c t i c e , New York, Family Welfare Association of America, 1939* Lowry, Fern, Readings i n Social Case Work. New York, Columbia University Press, 1939. Richmond, Mary E., Soci a l Diagnosis. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1917. Richmond, Maiy E., What i s Social Case Work? New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1922. Richmond, Mary E., The Long View. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1930* Robinson, V i r g i n i a P., A Changing: Psychology i n Social Case Work. Chapel H i l l , U n iversity of North Carolina Press, 1930, Robinson, V i r g i n i a P., Training For S k i l l i n So c i a l Case Work. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 19H2, The Family and C h i l d Placement Day, Florence R., "Changing Prac t i c e s i n Chi l d Welfare Treatment."March 1937- Garrott, Annette, "Case Work Treatment of a C h i l d . " Family Welfare Associ- a t i o n of America, 19^-1. Gartland, Ruth, "The C h i l d , the Parent, and the Agency." XVIII, May 1337, 75-80. , Kasanin M.D., J . , "A Cr i t i q u e of Some of the Newer Trends i n C h i l d Welfare. " A p r i l 1935. McCord, Eli z a b e t h , "The Part of the Worker i n the Community's Acceptance of Social Work.11 Hamilton, Gordon, "The Underlying Philosophy of So c i a l Case Work," The Family, XXII, July, 19U1, 139-147; also Proceedings of the National Conference of Soci a l Work, 1941, 237-253, 1l Lowry, Fern, "Current Concepts i n Social Case Work P r a c t i c e . " • Social Service Review, September 1938, 365-373; December 1938, 571-597. "Placing of Children i n F a m i l i e s . " Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, Pu b l i c a t i o n No. 89 , 1938. "Relationships i n Short Contact Interviewing." (Collected Papers), Reynolds, Bertha, June 1933; McGregor, Madeline L., May 1934. National Association f o r Traveler's A i d and Transient Service. "Report of the Committee on Family and Children's Work." A Sub-Committee of the Committee on Relations within the Social Case Work F i e l d , Family Welfare Association of America;.-.New York, May I9UU, "Report and Recommendations .of the Committee to Study C h i l d Neglect i n Saint F a i l . " A p r i l 1938. "Social Case Work, Generic and S p e c i f i c . " M i l f o r d Conference Report, 1929. American Association of Social Workers. Towle, Charlotte, "Social Case Work i n Modern Society." The Soc i a l Service Review, June 19^6. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111. Towle, Charlotte, "The Underlying S k i l l s of Case Work Today." Social Service Review, X?,September, 1941, U56-U7I; also Proceedings of the National Conference of Soc i a l Work, I9U1, 254-266. A r t i c l e s and Pamphlets: "The A.B.C. of Foster Family Care f o r Children." Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 2 l 6 , United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington 1936* " D i f f e r e n t i a l Approach i n Case Work Treatment." Family Welfare Association of America, 1936« "Foster H ome Care for Dependent Children." Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 136 (Revised) United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington 1929. Screened Intake Committee's Manual, Family Service, Saint Paul, Minnesota. S t a t i s t i c s from Community Chest and Council, Saint Paul, Minnesota. Appendice A. Forms Used for Case Analysis SCREENED INTAKE COMMITTEE ANALYSIS OF CASES February, 19^9 1. Family Name. 2. Agency Presenting Case to S.I. 3 . NAME SEX BIP.TH DATE ' ™ f C J EDUCATION k. C.R.B. Registrations ; P a . (wo 4 | 1 Father. 5. Nationality: Mother. Father. 6. Religion: Mother. father; EMPLOYMENT Mother: PLACE DATE TYPE PLACE DATE TYPE i ; m i n T e n Monnrnm^nr Name eci riacgg , Recommendation flri f i n a l ' Rmri Age r Sex Placement Placement Agency Date of Placement 1 i • _ 1 1 . Name of Family Agency to remain a c t i v e Change a f t e r f i r s t -presentation ,,... 1 2 . Agencies handling -placement, . , , , 1 3 . Kinds o f Placement Made - use dates Name Boarding Home I n s t i t u t i o i 1 R e l a t i v e Adoption Home PaC.B.H. Adjustment t V, DATE OP REVIEWS 1st 3rd 5th 6th i 7th 8 th i 9th 2nd 4th L i 10th RECOMMENDATIONS Original Presentation 1st Review 2nd Review 3rd Review 4th Review 5th Review 6th Review 7th Review 8th Review To remain in own home To be placed with relatives To be placed by agency To be committed: Ini tial To be returned t.n n «m Vinmfi P . CoB.Ho Placement Emergency place- ment; care to be continued. To be presented Parents to con- tribute to •t T6 remain in Casework with family To obtain more info. re. family 7 ' ~ $ - Ik. Reasons f o r Placement: C h i l d Neglect C h i l d Dependency C h i l d Delinquency , Bad or No Housing Ph y s i c a l I l l n e s s of Parent (s) Mental I l l n e s s of Parent (s) Absence of Father from Home Both Parents Working Mother Working, Father Not Working and Out of Home For Treatment of Social Ad- justment and Behavior Prob p Mother Disi n t e r e s t e d 15. Voluntary Placement Court Order , Court A c t i o n hut no Placement Ordered A, . I f court order, state amount per B. Were l i m i t s (time) d e f i n i t e l y set • 16. Did parent or parents contribute to support of c h i l d r e n placed out of home? Yes . No u A. Total cost, f o r care of Children B. T o t a l amount ordered by court C. Part of either (A) or (B) 17. F i n a n c i a l Assistance Given. Yes _____ No A. Appropriately ... ,.. . Inappropriately Adequate . Inadequate B. Given on a planned basis C. Used p o s i t i v e l y by c l i e n t 18. Give marital status of natural parents i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to each c h i l d . A. ( ) married ( ) separated ( ) divorced B. ( ) i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d ** ^ •* 19. C h i l d Returned Home: Name Age Sex Date Returned Agency consent against Agency recommendation Other Agency Supervision i j 20. Whereabouts of c h i l d r e n Name Date Place 21» Diagnosis S i t u a t i o n Made Made Ag'c; r SIC Good F a i r Poor 1. Family 2, Treatment 22. Interpretation to Client Good F a i r Poor 23-. C e n t r d Problem Year A B C D E F G 19^2 19^3. ?9*J4 19*5 I 1 19^6 i 1 19^7 24. Success of Plan of Treatment A. No improvement B. P a r t i a l Improvement C. D e f i n i t e Improvement 25. Closing: \ A. Date E. Reason C Planned with client? D. Division made by: Agency S.I.C. Client S. Results: Good. . , ... Pair. Poor None Counseling and/or Child Welfare Service given in Relation to: A. Total family situation: Yes No , Good Pair , , Poor ,. , B. Individual child under care:Yes No Good Pair.. . . Poor c. Children under care: Yes No Good Fpir . , Poor , , „, 27. Specialized services within agency given: A. List type — — Clearly defined as , Agency function, B, Did client use services offered? Yes , No , . 28. Case Work Process: A. ' Was acceptance of case appropriate to agency function? Yes — No. Explain i f Not. ,. B. Did agency use clear diagnostic thinking? V/ere problems seen as largely social? Psychological! Environmental? Emotional?_ C. Was agency successful in relating treatment to? Diagnosis S.I.C.'s recommendation^. D„ Was agency aware of underlying problems? Yes N& S. Was q u a l i t y of agency's r e l a t i o n s h i p with c l i e n t gradual? Fair? Poor? Why? . . F. Did c l i e n t frequently break appointments? Yes No. Beasons „ . . , G. Was agency p l a n f u l ? Yes No_ How?_ H. E. Comments on Case Work Process. I. Was pace too rapid?, 29. Reader's Evaluation of Case: by the Screened Intake Committee A. Gains to c l i e n t % t ! r b V g W % t e t i ^ % e W c % % l ) Was c l i e n t able to c l a r i f y h i s problems through case work help? Yes No How? , 2) Was c l i e n t able to be a c t i v e on his problems? Yes , No 3 ) Did an improvement i n a t t i t u d e result toward family?. . - Job?. S o c i a l Relations? Gther? (Specify)., __. None? h) Was the environment improved? Yes No (Specify) Did client feel he had been helped? Ye is •. No . Explain. Reader's comments on gains to- client: Ways in which client did not gain: Reader's Comments on why client did not gain: Appendice 3 SUMMARY FOR SCREENED INTAKE IDENTIFYING INFORMATION: F u l l name. birthdate.s and -present addresses: Father Mother ( i n c l , mdn. name) .. Children RELIGION: REASON FOR REFERR8L: PROPOSED PLAN: REGISTRATIONS: Agency Case Worker Date INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF BASIC SUMMARY The attached ou t l i n e i s the basic summary to be used f o r r e f e r r a l s to a l l agencies and to Screened Intake. The f i r s t page of the ou t l i n e i s set up to meet the needs of the Screened Intake and may be adapted f o r use i n a l l r e f e r r a l s . The information on t h i s page should be kept separate from the basic h i s t o r y . Eight copies of the complete o u t l i n e are needed f o r Screened Intake. In writing the basic h i s t o r y , the form of the outline i s to be maintained and a l l underlined headings are to be used. The information, "material i -tb .be included", under the headings has been l i s t e d i n numerical form f o r your convenience but should be written i n paragraph form without numbers or marginal headings. A l l information asked f o r may not be a v a i l a b l e but i f an e f f o r t has been made to obtain i t , please i n d i c a t e . The outline i s self-explanatory i n most respects but the following points may need c l a r i f i c a t i o n : M a r ital History has been included under both mother and father, and should not be repeated but t h i s space has been provided under each parent to take care of previous or subsequent marriages. If a stepparent i B or has played an important r o l e i n the family s i t u a t i o n , material regarding t h i s parent should be included under a separate heading and cover the same information as required under father - mother. Under Family Relationship, i f boarding home placement i s indicated, i t w i l l be important to know how the ch i l d r e n f e e l toward one another i n order to determine whether they should be placed i n separate or the same boarding homes. BASIC SUMMARY FAMILY HISTORY: Father: (Material to he included) Mother: (Same as above) Children: (Material to be included) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 . 9. 10. 11. 12. 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8 . 9. 10. 11. 12. Name ~ place and date of b i r t h . ( v e r i f i e d ) N a t i o n a l i t y R e l i g i o n and church a f f i l i a t i o n Health School h i s t o r y including any speci a l t r a i n i n g Mental tests - date and type of test Occupation and work h i s t o r y P e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l adjustment including childhood and ear l y family r e l a t i o n s h i p s M a r i t a l h i s t o r y ( v e r i f i e d ) . I n s t i t u t i o n a l and court h i s t o r y Date and cause of d.eath A d d i t i o n a l pertinent information Name - place and date of b i r t h ( v e r i f i e d ) R eligion, baptism, confirmation and church a f f i l i a t i o n P hysical development and health School h i s t o r y including present grade placement Mental te s t s - date and type of test I n s t i t u t i o n a l and court h i s t o r y Occupation and work h i s t o r y P e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l adjustment Independent or supervised placement s out side of own home Ma r i t a l h i s t o r y ( v e r i f i e d ) Date and cause of death A d d i t i o n a l pertinent information THE HOME: Physical Aspects: 1. Type of community 2. Description of house including number of rooms, sleeping arrangements and household equipment. THE HOME: (continued) F i n a n c i a l and Economic Status: Family Relationships; 1. Equity i n home or re n t a l 2. Family Income 1, A t t i t u d e of various members toward one another 2, A t t i t u d e of various members toward present s i t u a t i o n and the ToroiDosed -plan RELATIVES; Paternal: . 1 . F u l l names and present addresses 2, Any pertinent information r e - garding i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s Maternal: 1. F u l l names and present addresses 2. Any pertinent information r e - garding i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n - ships AGENCY'S CONTACT WITH THE FAMILY; To include length of time family has been known to agency with emphasis on evaluation of the work that has been attempted and. any plans that have been considered i n co-operation with other agencies. Agency; Case Worker; Date.:

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