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Probation services for the girl delinquent : an evaluation of casework treatment in an involuntary setting… Grace, Alice Mary 1951

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Oft PROBATION SERVICES FOR THE GIRL DELINQUENT An Evaluation of Casework Treatment in an Involuntary Setting Based on a Representative Group of Cases Appearing Before the Vancouver Juvenile Court by ALICE MART GRACE t Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Ifork 1951 The University of British Columbia A B S T R A C T This study was undertaken to evaluate probation as a method of individual casework treatment for delinquent girls and to show the need for the integration of a l l community services working with the problem of juvenile delinquency. Case material for the study was obtained from the Vancouver Juvenile Court, and many of the cases were selected on the basis of personal knowledge. A general study was made of 197 girls appearing before the Court from 1947 to 1950, and fifty probation eases were selected for detailed study. The fi f t y cases were analyzed and rated in regard to the degree of Improvement shown during the probation period. It was found that a sufficient number of common factors existed in the backgrounds of the fift y girls to compile a schedule which, i s proposed as a guide of diagnostic criteria, giving indications of the kinds of cases which are good risks for probation. It i s apparent that case work is not effective in a l l cases and that probation must be used selectively, with planned use of community resources* ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Mr. Gordon C. Stevens, Chief Probation Officer, Vancouver Juvenile and Family Courts, for the privilege of using case material and historical documents from the agency and for his help in the organisation and presentation of this study. My appreciation i s also expressed to Mr. Joseph R. Keys, Assistant Superintendent, Juvenile Detention Home, who provided current reading material and shared his thinking about the integration of probation and detention services. My sincere thanks are given to Dr. Leonard C. Marsh of the School of Social Work, University of British Columbia for his excellent suggestions and direction. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. Chapter 1. The Background of Probation and Introduction to the Case Study 6 Early days. Recent years. The organization of the Court today. The reason for this study. Scope of the study. Description of method. Chapter 2. Contemporary Services and the Mechanics of the Court 14 Referrals. Detention. Pre-Court investigation. The Court hearing. Disposition. Selective use of probation. Cooperation with other agencies and community services. Chapter 3. Delinquents and Probationers 28 A. The delinquents: Complaints under which the girls appeared in Court. Dispositions made by the Court. Where the girls lived. B. The probationers: Referrals and i n i t i a l complaints. Problems present at referral. Age and school grade reached. Home background. Summary. Chapter 4. Probation as a Method of Treatment 41 The application of casework principles in a Court setting. The role of the probation officer. The terms of probation. The use of the Child Guidance Clinic in treatment. The use of the Detention Home in treatment.! Illustrations of probation in practice. A summary of diagnostic indications. Chapter 5. An Evaluation of Probation 64 Rating movement in individual cases. Limitations of probation. Conclusion. Appendices: 69 A. Outline of Case Analysis B. Tables MAPS IN THE TEXT Map 1. Home addresses of 168 girls living in Vancouver 32 Map 2. Home addresses of 50 girls living in Vancouver selected for 37 detailed study. Map 3. Relationship between the home addresses of the 50 girls and 38 the places where delinquency occurred. - 5 -PROBATION SERVICES FOR DELINQUENT GIRLS 6. Chapter 1; The Background of Probation and Introduction to the Case Study The Juvenile Court in Vancouver was established i n June, 1910, with o f f i c e s , court room and Detention Home i n a converted house on the northeast corner of 10th Avenue and Pine S t r e e t . The Court functioned under the Juvenile Delinquents Act which was passed by the Dominion Government i n 1 1908, (revised i n 1929). The Dominion Act does not s p e c i f i c a l l y provide f o r Juvenile Courts, so that t h i s necessitated the passing of a Juvenile Court 2 Act by B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1908, (revised 1918 and 1936). During the f i r s t twelve years the Court was i n operation, c h i l d r e n up to and in c l u d i n g the age of sixteen years appeared before the Court, and i n 1922, B r i t i s h Columbia was the f i r s t province i n Canada to r a i s e the age to eighteen years. A perusal of e a r l y annual reports reveals that the f i r s t probation o f f i c e r s of the Juvenile Court i n Vancouver were i n c l i n e d to emphasise the moral aspect of t h e i r work and spoke of the "reclamation of 3 delinquents". There was a sincere anri u n t i r i n g e f f o r t made by the early judges and s t a f f to i n t e r e s t the public i n the objectives of t h e i r work. A la y committee of l o c a l c i t i z e n s acted i n an advisory capacity to the Chief Probation O f f i c e r who discussed cases with the committee and asked f o r t h e i r recommendations regarding d i s p o s i t i o n s and future plans f o r the ch i l d r e n appearing before the Court. The young people appearing before the Juvenile Court i n the e a r l y days were r e f e r r e d f o r the same i n i t i a l reasons as those appearing today, and from the b r i e f d e s c r i p t i v e notes of e a r l y cases, seem to have come fiom s i m i l a r environments. From the Second Year-End Report of 1911, 1 The Juvenile Delinquents Act, 1929. 2 The Juvenile Courts Act, R.S. 192Ai c.55, s . l . -Second Year-End Report of the Juvenile Court and Detention Home, p. 7 . - 2 - 7. which was the first year that probation was used for girls in Vancouver, (the previous year a l l girls cases had been settled out of Court), we learn that the f i r s t girl probationer appeared before the Court on a complaint of vagrancy. She was fifteen years 6f age, had not been in trouble before, was of Protestant religion and had lived in Vancouver for seven years at the time she appeared in Court. Her mother was deceased and her father is described as being of "good character". She was in good physical and mental condition, and came from "good" home conditions. Her probation period lasted four months and during that time, she visited the probation officer once and he visited her at home six times. The first girls' probation officer for the Juvenile Court of Vancouver was appointed in 1912, "to act as overseer to the girls while 1 detained, and to visit them in their homes when on probation". In the Fourth Year-End Report of 193 , the comment is made in regard to the visiting of girls in their own homes by the probation officer that, "A great amount of good is accomplished in this way, as she (the probation officer) comes into contact with both the girl and her mother and is often able to help them to legislate in their home affairs which also helps to regulate the delinquency 2 and the cause at the same time". Recent Years In 1931, the Juvenile Court and Detention Home was moved to it s present location at 2625 Yale Street, Vancouver. In 1935, the first trained probation officers were appointed to the staff of the Juvenile Court in Vancouver. These were male probation officers who worked only with boys. There was no trained girls' probation officer until 194-9. Prior to these dates, the probation was carried out by people with special aptitude for 1 Third Year-End Report of the Juvenile Court and Detention Home, p.19. 2 Fourth Year-End Report of the Juvenile Court and Detention Home, p.23. working with youngsters in difficulties. They generally had previous related work experience in 'teen-age group activities, but did not have formal social work training. Some of these untrained probation officers are on the present staff, and have always done an admirable job, often struggling with large case-loads and limited resources. Since the appointment of the present Chief Probation Officer in 1945, there has been a large increase in staff, and whenever possible, trained social workers, preferably with two years graduate training, have been employed as probation officers. Good probation practice requires qualified staff, small case-loads and competent supervision of workers under skilled direction. The Juvenile Court of Vancouver fi r s t used the Social Serviee Index on a consulting basis in 1936, but did not register cases until 1945. There was a legal difference of opinion concerning the interpretation of a section of the Criminal Code of Canada about divulging information in regard to juvenile delinquents, which had to be overcome before the Index was used in i ts fullest capacity. The services of the Child Guidance Clinic were first used by the Juvenile Court in 1936, when arrangements were made for the examination of a boy appearing before the Court on a delinquency complaint, to assist the Court in defining treatment plans. A discussion of the use of Clinic services will appear in a later chapter. The Juvenile Detention Home, which has always been directly attached to the Court, served more or less a purely custodial function until February, 1950, when the present Assistant Superintendent of the Detention Home was appointed. This was the first time that the Chief Probation Officer had an opportunity to delegate responsibility for Detention Home care. Since the appointment of the Assistant Superintendent, excellent progress has been made in the establishment of a well-organized programme, increased numbers and quality of staff, (two recently appointed Detention Home Supervisors have been qualified social workers), with emphasis on the treatment job of detention in relation to the total work of the Court. How detention and probation services work together for the young offender will be shown later. In the final analysis the progress of any Juvenile Court rests on the level of thinking of its Judge. If the Judge does not basically accept the principle of treatment in place of punishment as an antidote to delinquency, a l l efforts of probation and detention will be of no avail. There is no room for prejadice in working with juvenile delinquency. A l l personal opinions, political views and emotional thinking must be put aside i f the delinquent i s to be treated fairly. The Judge of necessity needs to rely on the recommendations of his probation staff, who spend many hours gathering informa-tion and analyzing the particular situation before the case comes to Court. Vancouver is fortunate to have its present Juvenile Court Judge, who has earned an enviable reputation for his wise and careful handling of juvenile cases. The Organization of the Court Today There are two Judges serving the Juvenile and Family Court today. The senior Judge sits one afternoon a week for cases appearing under the Juvenile Delinquents Act and one afternoon a week for Family Court cases taken under public prosecution. The second Judge sits one afternoon a week for cases appearing under the Protection of Children Act, which are presented by the Children's Aid Societies, and one afternoon a week for Family Court cases taken under private prosecution. The Chief Probation Officer acts in three capacities! Chief Probation Officer for the Juvenile and Family Courts, Superintendent of the Detention Home and Clerk of the Court. The Deputy Chief Probation Officer i s also a Deputy Clerk of the Court and casework supervisor for the Juvenile Court probation staff. There are two women Juvenile Court Probation Officers and five men. - 5 - 10 As mentioned above, the Assistant Superintendent of the Detention Home carries out the delegated responsibility of operating the Detention Home programme. He has a staff of four full-time women supervisors, four relief women supervisors, five full-time men supervisors and six relief men supervisors. The Detention Home Supervisors work on the basis of three a y eight hour shifts a day, hence the need for/large number of relief supervisors. There is also a full-time school teacher, and a part-time home economics instructor. There is a full-time nurse and the City Doctor visits two days a week and is always on call. There is one full-time cook and one relief cook, one full-time maintenance man and one relief maintenance man. In the Family Court, there is a casework supervisor and three social workers, with provision in the current budget for a fourth social worker. In addition, there is also a probation officer for work with adults. The clerical staff of the Juvenile and Family Court consists of the Clerk in Court who is also the office manager, one cashier, one court stenographer, four clerk-stenographers, one clerk and one clerk-typist. The Juvenile Detention Home has one clerk-stenographer. Stenographic facilities available to the probation staff are not always adequate to meet the need for process type of recording; however, the general level of recording has improved with the addition of trained personnel. The Reason for This Study The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate probation as a method of case work treatment, to determine whether people, in this thesis 'teen age girls, are helped to achieve more personally satisfying lives after the experience of probation, and i f they are helped, how is the change accomplished. In probation, as in all social work, one of the most important factors in the case work method of treatment is the use that can be made of the client-worker relationship. Recognizing that this factor is difficult to measure 11. - 6 -and evaluate scientifically, i t is the intention of this study to examine and analyze the client-worker relationship as quantitatively as possible. On the strength, understanding and use of this relationship hinges the success or failure of probation as a method of preventing juvenile delinquency. The first probation officers did not have professional social work training, fin important reason for writing this thesis is to determine whether the application of case-work principles makes a difference in doing the job of probation. Do the acquired skills of the social worker, applied to delinquency, increase the success of probation work? If the first probationer could appear today, would she find the approach and substance of probation different to her experiences of 1911? These are questions to be answered i f the client-worker relationship as a factor in resolving the problems of individual probationers is to he evaluated. Although annual reports are fairly consistently available from 1910 to 1945* there has been no research done in regard to this question. The establishment of the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia on a post-graduate basis has led the way in opening the doors to the necessary task of research in the field of probation. At present there are two additional studies on the subject of probation in the process of completion, that of Jack Griffiths entitled, "A Review of Probation and  Parole Provisions in Greater Vancouver", and that of William Jackson, "Criteria of Selection in the Adult Probation Prorramme". Scope of the Study Probation must be used on a selective basis by the Court i f i t is going to be a successful method of treating delinquency. There appear to be roughly three groups of young offenders coming to the attention of the Court? the incidental offender, the unsettled first offender and the seriously disturbed repeating offender. Probation is best suited for the middle group, although there are certain times when i t can be and is used beneficially for a l l three groups. The case selection for this study is based primarily on the middle group, to demonstrate the use of probation for the most hopeful cases. It is necessary to discuss a l l three groups in the next chapter before passing to detailed discussion of cases which moved from being unsettled first offenders to seriously disturbed repeating offenders. It must be emphasized that a great many cases coming to the attention of the Court are considered wthe bottom of the barrel* as far as treatment possibilities are concerned. Many have run the gamut of other agencies prior to referral, (as will be shovm later in detail). Therefore the limitations of what casework can accomplish with this group are apparent from the beginning. Al] the cases selected for detailed study are taken from the files of the Vancouver Juvenile Court, and as many as possible are of personal knowledge. Description of Method The selection of case material for this study is based on an analysis of the total number of girls' cases appearing before the Vancouver Juvenile Court from September, 1947, to August, 1950. The total number of girls appearing on complaints during this period was 197. A brief study was made of the total group in regard to the age, the complaint, the home address, and the disposition. For detailed study, a group of fift y cases was selected, where the disposition made by the Court was to place the girls on probation to a duly appointed probation officer of the Court. The basis of selection of the fif t y cases was at first planned on a random sampling method from the total number from the 197 with the described disposition; however, this method did not prove to be as valuable as had been anticipated because of the limitations of material available in some of the case histories. Selection was therefore based on a representative group of cases from each of the three years covered in the preliminary study, using as many cases as possible where psychiatric diagnosis had been obtained. In these cases there has been prepared a complete social history for the purpose of the psychiatric examination, and thus information regarding development and background tends to be more detailed tan those cases where there has been no psychiatric examination. Of the fifty girls selected, thirty-four had been examined at the Child Guidance Clinic. To make the detailed study as representative as possible, fifteen cases were selected from 1947-48, eighteen from 1948-49, and seven-teen from 1949-50. Personal knowledge was also a criterion of selection for the years 1949-50. Of the cases selected, none of the 1947-48 cases were known personally, seven of the 1948-49 cases were and fifteen of the 1949-50. A further criterion was the length of time the girl had been on probation, and an effort has been made to select cases where this period was at least six months. Five cases were included in the f i f t y where probation had been terminated before the end of a six months' period, as i t was felt that the short term therapy was also a significant factor in certain instances which should be brought into the total study. Committal to the Girls' Industrial School was also a criterion. In order to make the group as inclusive as possible, ten cases where probationers had spent some time in the School were also among the fift y selected. This is a higher percentage than the number of girls committed to the School from the total group placed on probationj however, some of the most intensive work was done with these ten, and i t was considered that they would be illustrative of problem cases, referred to above as the seriously disturbed repeating offender. An outline of the analysis used in regard to the fift y cases studied in detail will be found in the Appendix. 14. Chapter 'SLx Contemporary Services and the Mechanics of Court Referrals In Vancouver, when sisteen year old Beverley L. is picked up by the police in a state of intoxication in a downtown lane, she is escorted by the police, including a policewoman, to the Juvenile Detention Home where she is admitted. A complaint is laid in writing by the police to the effect that Beverley was intoxicated, and giving the circumstances under which she was apprehended. A complaint is therefore a statement in writing outlining the alleged delinquency of the juvenile. Whoever brings the complaint before the Court that the child did commit a delinquency, must set out the facts in writing on what is known locally as a "complaint sheet", or is technically known as a complaint in the first instance. From that first complaint sheet is drawn up a document called an information and complaint to be read at the Court hearing. Most of the complaints come directly to the Deputy Chief Probation Officer of the Juvenile Court through the police department, social agencies, schools, attendance officers, parents or private citizens. As the individual' probation officer becomes known in the community, complaints are sometimes referred directly to him through schools, parents and agencies. In the main, however, because of the legal aspects of the laying of the complaint which has to be sworn to under oath, referrals are channelled to the individual probation officer through the Deputy Chief Probation Officer, who is also the casework supervisor for the probation staff. In regard to girls, the chief complaints bringing them to the attention of the Vancouver Juvenile Court are: sexual immorality, incorrigi-bility, theft, vagrancy, intoxication, and truancy. The classification of the total complaints and sources of referral for the period under study, September, 1947 to August, 1950, will be discussed later. Detention What happens to sixteen-year-old Beverley when she arrives at - 2 - 15 the Detention Home? The police notify parents of an apprehension before the child is brought to the Detention Home, or will do so as soon as the parents can be reached. Beverley will be met at the door by an understanding, kindly supervisor, who has a warm, outgoing personality and gives the impression of stability. As the supervisor issues clothing and shows Beverley to her room, she may in a conversational way elic i t statistical information, and talk about the Detention Home programme. Beverley's reception will depend on her general condition. If her equilibrium has not been restored before she arrives at the Home, she will be assisted to bed in order to recuperate, and the chat can wait until she feels better. Detention care is an integral part of the total treatment process. It has a dual purposes todetain children for Court when necessary,, and to act as an observation and short-term treatment center for disturbed children appearing before the Court. From the moment the youngster enters the door of the Detention Home, impressions are beginning to form in her mind about the adults with whom she will come in contact and whether or not she can trust them. This is vitally important to the future work of the probation officer, as even though a good relationship may be established between the girl and the officer at the onset, the lasting results may be weakened by the indifferent or rejecting manner of a Detention Home staff member. At the Vancouver Juvenile Court, weekly staff conferences about the girls in the Detention Home are held with Probation and Detention staff, in order that knowledge in regard to individuals may be shared and methods of treatment made as consistent as possible. Also, Detention Home programme can be adapted to meet individual needs through careful combined planning. For the past year, Detention Home supervisors have been recording daily observations regarding individual youngsters, which are most helpful - 3 - 16. to the probation staff, as they provide a close, intimate picture of the girl in her day-to-day living which would be impossible for the probation officer to obtain. Such recording has proved invaluable in compiling social histories, further psychiatric diagnosis, and ailing casework treatment. Because of the importance of relation between detention and probation, this will be discussed in a later chapter. Pre-Court Investigation If Beverley has been admitted late at night she will come to the attention of the probation officer the ensuing day. The complaint of intoxica-tion has been laid by the police and she i s to appear in the Juvenile Court the next Thursday. The probation officer i s asked to make a pre-court investigation in regard to Beverley and the circumstances surrounding her difficulties, in order that: 1. i t can be determined whether Detention Home care i s required until the Court bearing 2. a recommendation based on investigation can b e made to the Court to assist in her disposition. Not a l l children required to appear in Court need Detention Home care. Some do not come to the Detention Home at a l l , but are notified of the Court hearing by summons, served by the probation officer. Those who are admitted to Detention are screened as quickly as possible to determine whether custodial care i s indicated. The policy at present applying to detaining children in the Vancouver Juvenile Detention Home, against whom 1 a complaint has been laid, has been summarized in the following terms: •a) (It is necessary to detain) children whose behaviour is so serious that parents or guardians cannot control the child so as to prevent a repitition of delinquent or dangerous acts. This decision i s usually made by the Probation Department following the interviewing of the child, his parents and a l l those agencies or organizations that might have had contact with the child. 1 y^ffletter, • f f l W f JuT«41? Detention Hornet August Mt 1 9 5 9 * 17 wb) (It may be necessary to retain the youth) for the child's protection from the community or his parents. This is particularly true in the case of sex delinquents when the com-munity is up in arms, also in the case of parents who are so upset by the child's behaviour that they would be unable to control themselves i f the child returned to their home." Following a preliminary investigation of Beverley's circumstances, i t is apparent she belongs to the first group. The probation officer's first meeting with Beverley may take place in her office or, i f she is a rather disturbed g i r l , in Beverley's room in the Detention Home. It may be found that Beverley is a sulky, frightened youngster, who is masking her insecurity with a "hard-boiled" exterior. The probation officer learns that Beverley isneither working nor going to school. Her father is deceased and her mother is employed as a cleaning woman by the day. Beverley and her mother share a small housekeeping room and there seems to be no tome l i f e . Beverley talks bitterly of her bleak environment and disparagingly of her mother, of whom she seems ashamed and yet afraid. She admits defiantly that her main object in l i f e is "to have fun", and that she likes drinking. The liquor was given to her by two sailors whom she met in a cafe. She remembers drinking with them in the cafe and later In a hotel room, but does not recall how she came to be alone in a lane where the police apprehended her. In a first interview the probation officer may not go much further; however, the main objective is to help Beverley feel that the probation officer is someone who i s on her side and will try to do a l l she can to see her through her present difficulties. The probation officer clears with the social service index and finds a recent registration from a family agency. Checking with them reveals that Mrs. L., Beverley's mother, req\iested their help in coping with her behaviour several months ago and that Beverley has not kept appointments with their worker, Mrs. L. has been reluctant to consider laying a complaint of incorrigibility against Beverley because of her own guilt feelings surrounding her inability to cope with Beverley and provide an adequate home l i f e . The 5 18 probation officer telephones Mrs. L. and arranges to see her as soon as possible. There is a mixture of anxiety and relief in her voice when she realizes that Beverley has come to the attention of the Court. Further interviews with Beverley and Mrs. L. reveal that Beverley's difficulties are of long standing and that a careful study will need to be made, with possible psychiatric consultation, before a competent diagnosis and recommendation for treatment can be made to the Court. The probation officer considers that Beverley is a gi r l who for her own pro-tection should remain in the Detention Home at least until the Court hearing. Prior to the Court hearing, depending partly on the time avail-able, the probation officer makes as complete a study as possible of a l l pertinent factors, 'including the child's story regarding the complaint, home l i f e , school adjustment, work experience (if any), health, and contact with other agencies. This information is made available to the Judge through the Deputy Chief Probation Officer prior to the Court hearing. In certain difficult cases the probation officer himself may consult with the Judge prior to the Court hearing; however, i t is the opinion of the writer that more use could be made of this direct contact despite the time limitations. The Court Hearing It is essential for the probation officer to give the youngster a clear picture of what to expect in the Court room prior to the hearing i f tension is going to be reduced. It may even be helpful to draw a diagram of the Court room and explain to the child exactly who is in the room and why they are there. The Juvenile Court hearing is closed to the public. The following persons may be present at the individual hearings: the alleged delinquent child, the Judge, the Deputy Chief Probation Officer, the Court Clerk, the Court stenographer, the probation officer, or the social worker concerned with the case, or both, the parents, and possible witnesses (who are present only when giving evidence). - 6 - 19. The atmosphere in the Vancouver Juvenile Court is a fairly formal one. The Judge sits at a desk raised six inches above the Court room floor and the youngster stands before him as the complaint is read to him by the Court Clerk, A more informal setting where a l l individuals concerned sat around a table would be conducive to a relaxed feeling and would help parents and children to participate more freely in discussion. The need for a more informal atmosphere is recognized; however, i f the court i s to achieve this objective, more time for individual hearings is required. Unfortunately, the Judge sits only one afternoon a week for juvenile cases and may have a l i s t of thirty or forty cases to hear during the space of two hours. When the complaint is read to the child, she is asked i f she admits or disputes the alleged delinquency. Usually, youngsters admit the complaint and i t ispssible for the Judge to make a finding of delinquency without hearing evidence. Generally, even though the youngster admits the delinquency, the Judge will call on police officers or other witnesses to give him some of the surrounding circumstances. The Judge will ask the child and the parents i f they have anything to say. He will also refer to reports from the probation officer, written and verbal. All these things assist him in making a disposition. Beverley's reaction to the court hearing is perhaps typical of the insecure adolescent trying to act nonchalant in the face of the unknown. Just prior to the hearing she may admit in a whisper to the probation officer, "Gee, I'm scared", looking for needed reassurance. In Court; Beverley readily admits the complaint alleging intoxication. She is a l i t t l e overawed by her surroundings and her first appearance in Court, although she tries to look indifferent as she flips back her hair with her hand. She has nothing to say and neither has her mother, a tiny bird-like woman, who seems embarrassed and upset by Beverley's quick glaring look at her when the Judge asks i f she has anything to add to the hearing. - 7 - 20. D i s p o s i t i o n The Judge has wide powers of d i s p o s i t i o n under the Juvenile Delinquents Act. I t w i l l be shown l a t e r that the d i s p o s i t i o n s used most frequently i n the g i r l s ' cases i n the Juvenile Court i n Vancouver are proba-t i o n , committal to the G i r l s ' I n d B t r i s l School, " d i s p o s i t i o n suspended", and complaint withdrawn. The Judge may consider that he has s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the i n d i v i d u a l case to make a decision on outcome of the hearing the f i r s t time the c h i l d appears before him. On the other hand, as indicated i n the report of h i s probation o f f i c e r , he may decide t o adjourn the matter f o r a week or two t o enable the o f f i c e r to make a further study of the s i t u a t i o n , with the possible examination of the c h i l d at the Child Guidance C l i n i c . The Vancouver Juvenile Court has no s t a f f p s y c h i a t r i s t but has the use of the P r o v i n c i a l Child Guidance C l i n i c services one day a week, (two f u l l examina-tions) , with some ad d i t i o n a l time for case conferences and in d i v i d u a l p s y c h i a t r i c treatment. The service rendered by the C l i n i c i s excellent; and as much as time and s t a f f w i l l allow, i s now expanding from being formerly only diagnostic to treatment service. I f the Judge decides to adjourn h i s d i s p o s i t i o n of Beverley's case ^or one week t h i s will, enable the probation o f f i c e r to arrange f o r her to be examined at the Child Guidance C l i n i c . In the meantime, she i s to remain i n the Detention Home, i n order that she may have the continued pro-t e c t i o n of the secure environment, and trained observation of her behaviour i n group l i v i n g can be noted. This arrangement also permits d a i l y contact with the probation o f f i c e r , who i s going to need to know Beverley as well as she can. The Judge speaks k i n d l y to Reverley, explaining to her what the arrangement i s and how everyone i s t r y i n g to be as h e l p f u l to her as they can. He asks her i f she w i l l mind staying i n the Detention Home f o r a while longer, - 8 -21. and with a shrug Beverley remarks that she guesses i t is better than going home. After Court, the probation officer will have a further interview with Mrs. L. and Beverley, interpreting to them the meaning of the Judge's decision and the function of the Child Guidance Clinic in relation to helping the Judge make the best decision he can for Beverley's future. Selective Use of Probation As indicated in the previous chapter, for the purpose of this study, our main concern is with the middle group of the three groupings of offenders, namely, the unsettled first offender. To reiterate, probation must be selective to be effective. The middle group was selected as i t is at least reasonable to take the treatment approach with them. A description of the three groups illxrstrated by typical cases will help to distinguish them: The incidental offender is the youngster who is appearing before the Court for the first time, and when the situation is investigated, the probation officer finds that there seems to be l i t t l e cause for concern about the child's ability to get along well at home, and at school or at work. The following instance may serve as an example? Barbara, age thirteen, is summonsed to appear in Juvenile Court on a complaint of assault. She is alleged to have struck and pushed around another g i r l , Jane, age fifteen. Jane's mother has come to Court and laid the complaint, although every effort has been made to dissuade her from doing so, in order that the matter might be settled on an out-of-court basis; however, the complaint cannot be refused. Jane's mother is an over-protective, rather neurotic woman, who i s resentful of Barbara and her family, new neighbours in the district. She considers them "rough and ready", and thinks they are encouraging an undesirable class of young people to frequent the neighbourhood. There was apparently some name calling between the girls, and Barbara readily admits shoving Jane around. Investigation prior to Court reveals that Barbara is a freckled-faced, red-haired, peppery g i r l , bright in 22. school, captain of the softball team, the pride of the family, an only girl with three older brothers. Jane, an only child, is embarrassed by her mother's actions in taking the matter to Court. She thinks Barbara is rude and i l l -mannered and regrets having entered into an argument with her. Jane's mother (and possibly Jane) is actually the probation officer's client here in a casework sense, yet Barbara is the one who technically must be tried for delinquency. Interviews with Barbara and her parents, prior to Court, reveal a good relationship between family members, and the probation officer sees no need for further contact following the Court appearance. It may be, however, that in this instance, the probation officer is unable to make any progress with Jane's mother as she is hostile about the way the Judge handled the case in Court. He warns Barbara about how her actions might have caused serious injury to Jane and speaks to Jane's mother about her lack of neighbourliness. He then suspends disposition, meaning that even though he has found Barbara delinquent, nothing further will be done about i t . The cited case may seem a fairly simple one, but i t serves to illustrate the kind of situation where further services for the child found delinquent are not required. Incidental offenders sometimes appear before the Court in a group. For example, six grade eight girls from the same class are summonsed to appear in Court on a complaint of theft under $25.00. Each girl admits shoplifting a 'kerchief from a suburban fifteen cent store. Investigation of the circumstances of a l l six girls reveal one girl to have been the leader of the venture. The five other girls have been in no previous difficulty at school or home and seem to have reacted on the spur of the moment, under the influence of the sixth g i r l , and the pressure of the total group's decision to try something daring. (To be called "chicken" is the height of 'teen-age insult, and may be the last word in persuading a 10 -youngster to try anything from shoplifting to first sexual intercourse or drugs). The study of Helen, age fourteen, "the sixth g i r l " , leads to the middle group, the unsettled first offender. The term "first offender" is used in the legal sense, meaning the first time the child has appeared in Court on a complaint. Pre-court investigation reveals that Helen has been taking things for the past three years, namely, change from her mother's purse, money from neighbours when she was baby-sitting, and once a lipstick . from a department store, on which occasion she was warned by the management and the lipstick returned with no complaint laid. Home l i f e seems unsettled, Helen's parents are living apart and her father is not providing for the support of Helen and her older sister, age sixteen. Helen's mother works, expecting Helen and her sister to do most of the shopping and housework after school. Helen is jealous of the privileges allowed her sister in regard to hours and boy friends because she is older, and there is constant quarrelling between them. At school, Helen's grades are going down and there have been some unexplained absences lately. With her friends, Helen is a leader, and shows aggressive tendencies in her club affiliation at the local neighbourhood house. Helen might be called typical of the middle group, with many of the danger signals present in her history. (She did in fact later become an unmarried mother). Beverley, the girl who provided the illustration earlier, also falls into this category. Clearly, these girls need the continued treatment service that probation can give, i f they are to keep out of trouble, get along better with oth^r people, and find satisfaction in more acceptable ways. The third group, the seriously disturbed repeating offenders, are the headaches of the probation officer, and may be extremely damaging - 11 -t o themselves and to society. These children are not only the f a i l u r e s of probation, but have l i v e l y been the d i f f i c u l t problems of parents, schools end agencies f o r several years. In t h i s croup are included the neurotic, psychopathic, and very occasionally, psychotic adolescents. Tomboy Frankie, age sixteen, comes to the attention of the Court following a complaint of i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y l a i d by her mother, Mrs. K. P r i o r toooming to the Court, Frankie has been a private patient at the Child Guidance C l i n i c and, u n t i l a year ago when she ended the contact h e r s e l f , was r e c e i v i n g casework treatment from a p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker at the C l i n i c on a weekly b a s i s . Frankie avoided appointments; and, as her behaviour continued to be uncontrolled, the C l i n i c advised Mrs, K. to consider l a y i n g a complaint of i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y . Frankie proves to be an a t t r a c t i v e , dark-haired g i r l , with a p i x i e - l i k e mischievous charm that seems to lead her in t o a l o t of trouble. There i s a long h i s t o r y of truancy, l a t e hours, absences from home a l l night or for several days at a time, and arguments with her mother. Mrs. K. i s a widow who l o s t her husband when Frankie was t h i r t e e n . Frankie was very close t o her father and helped to nurse him during the long i l l n e s s preceding h i s death. There i s an older brother i n the family whom Mrs. K. has always favoured, and leans on more and more since Mr. K. died. Before Mrs. K. procedes with a complaint, Frankie runs away from home on a new escapade, and with the help of the p o l i c e i s picked up a few days l a t e r at 5 a.m. i n an a l l - n i g h t restaurant on the "skidroad". She i s brought to the Detention Home and Mrs. K. lays the complaint to bring the matter to the attention of the Court. Several i n t e r -views are held with Frankie, Mrs. K. snd the brother, and the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i s consulted before a d i s p o s i t i o n i s made. Close supervision of Frankie i n her own home has never been t r i e d , and she has not been i n touch with a caseworker f o r ayear. Frankie expresses a strong desire to go home to t r y again, and the family seem anxious and w i l l i n g to cooperate, She i s 1 2 therefore released from detention to her own home on probation tn the Court. Probation e f f o r t s to help Frankie l e a r n to c o n t r o l her behaviour do not seem to produce r e s u l t s . Frankie i s not interested i n returning to school, makes l i t t l e e f f o r t to find employment on her own, and does not follow up the suggestions of the probation o f f i c e r i n regard to available jobs, Mrs, K, i s aggressive with Frankie, berates her f o r having caused her mother the shame of going to Court, and keeps threatening her with the probation o f f i c e r ' s name, despite warnings against such a c t i o n s . Within a month, Frankie has staved away from home three times, and i s f i n a l l y brought to the Detention Home again by the p o l i c e , having been picked up i n the company of well-known drug addicts. Through fur t h e r consultation with the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c and the Children's Aid Society, i t i s agreed that f o s t e r home placement i n the home of f o s t e r parents experienced i n copinc with d i f f i c u l t 'teen-age g i r l s should be t r i e d i n view of Mrs. K's apparent r e j e c t i o n of Frankie and lack of understanding of treatment required. Following the return to Court, Frankie i s placed on continued probation under the supervision of the Children's Aid Society. One week a f t e r f o s t e r home placement, Frankie i s again staying out a l l night and returning to the f o s t e r home drunk. Tt i s apparent i n cases such as Frankie's that probation i s no longer meeting her need. Here is a disturbance which i s deep-rooted, where be new patterns of behaviour w i l l have to/established slowly. We need to know more about Frankie before we can help her, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School i s indicated with continued p s y c h i a t r i c and case work treatment. To do an e f f e c t i v e job, the probation o f f i c e r must have a small case load. T h i r t y probationers r e q u i r i n g continuous help i s a maximum number i f r e s u l t s are to be obtained. Moreover, diagnostic s k i l l needs to 13 26. be sharp i f the probation officer is not to get overloaded with cases where probation is not needed and those where probation will not work. Cooperation with Other Agencies and Community Services The Juvenile Court works closely with other agencies in the community, particularly the Child Guidance Clinic, the Children's Aid Societies the Family Welfare Bureau and the Industrial Schools. As the cases illustrate much of the work is carried out on a cooperative basis, and often the focal point is the case conference at the Child Guidance Clinic. Here a l l con-cerned meet to discuss treatment plans with the psychiatrist and other members of the Clinic staff. The group work agency is also important in probation work. If there has been group affiliation prior to the child's referral to the Court, direct information from the group leader can be of great value to the probation officer to assist in assessing the total picture of the situation. The group work agency is also valuable as a resource, to help youngsters participate in acceptable activities with members of their own age and similar interests. Cooperative work and a good relationship between the police and the probation officer are also essential. There is naturally close contact as the largest number of referrals come from the police department and information must be shared. The probation officer needs to show the value of probation as a method of preventing further delinquency to the police department as well, and should share some of the planning for treatment with them. The Morality Division, the Missing Persons Bureau and the Police Women's Division of the Vancouver Police Force have given excellent co-operation in the work with girls. Visits to school personnel are also continuous, i f the probation officer is going to help individual youngsters and interpret Juvenile Court - H -services generally. In Vancouver, the school counsellors particularly are key people who have been most helpful in probation work with girls. School principals and teachers frequently take time from busy schedules to discuss at length proposed planning for probationers, and will often itend Child Guidance Clinic to share their knowledge of the child. A good relationship with employment services and individual employers i s another essential factor in the probation officer's job. This involves careful explanation of the objectives and methods of probation. In girls' probation work in Vancouver, there is an almost daily contact between the probation officers and two women members of the Youth Division of the National Employment Service, who have been most responsive in using a l l resources at their disposal to place probationers in suitable jobs. Clearly, the probation officer needs to be able to get along well with a l l the individual members of a wide-spread team, as she has a difficult case to present. Her case, for whom she is enlisting help and understanding, is usually an emotionally disturbed child who is going to test a l l the strength and ingenuity of the adults with whom she comes in contact. Later chapters in this study will illustrate how a l l services can work together as a team for the best possible results. 28. Chapter 3s Delinquents and Probationers In the three years 1947-1950, nearly 200 girls appeared before the Vancouver Juvenile Court, excluding those appearing under the "bicycle by-law". The fact that there were two women probation officers on the staff during the period September, 1949 to August, 1950 probably accounts for the increased number of cases, as more referrals were made with the additional services available. It is not a general indication of increased juvenile delinquency among girls in Vancouver, but indicates that more cases came to the attention of the Court as standards and methods of treatment improved. Number of Cases Period Girls September, 1947 to August, 1948 59 September, 1948 to August, 1949 60 September, 1949 to August, 1950 _78 197 Under the Juvenile Delinquents Act, "child" means any boy or girl apparently or actually under the age of sixteen years, and in British 0 Columbia the age has been raised to eighteen years. (Table 1.) Three girls aged eighteen appeared before the Court during the defined three year period. One girl had been brought back to the Court as an unsatisfactory probationer, having been placed on probation prior to the age of eighteen yearsj one girl was transferred to the Magistrate's Court to be dealt with as an adultj and as the third girl's age had not been determined at the time of her apprehension, the complaint of sexual immorality was subsequently dismissed when her correct age was discovered. The main group of girls is in the fourteen to seventeen age group, and when computed arithmetically, the median age comes to 15.435. Complaints Under Which the Girls Appeared in Court The breakdown of complaints under which the oirls appeared in Court, # - ? - 29. covering the three year period f o r the IP1? cages, i s given in d e t a i l i n Table 2. (Note that the mimber of complaints i s higher than the number of g i r l s appearing before the Court, as some g i r l s appeared on more than one complaint during the year, or at the same time). The complaint i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n thst i t i s the immediate cause of the g i r l appearing before the Court, but i n i t s e l f , of course, i s no in d i c a t i o n to the degree of disturbance of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o account for the increase i n sexual immorality complaints i n the years 1948 to 1950, over 1947 to 194#> This d i f f e r e n c e c^uld be due to several reasons, f o r example: changes i n personnel and p o l i c y i n the P o l i c e Department, and improved working r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the P o l i c e and the Court. Changes i n p o l i c y could also account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n the Vagrancy A complaint ("was a loose, i d l e , d i s o r d e r l y person or vagrant, who, not having any v i s i b l e means of subsistence was found wandering abroad and not g i v i n g a good 1 account of h e r s e l f " ) , as i n 1947 to 1948 twelve such complaints were l a i d , and i n 1949 to 1950, only one. For example, re c e n t l y a new p o l i c y was introduced i n t o the Juvenile Detention Home to the e f f e c t that no transient c h i l d could be detained without a complaint. The new p o l i c y may Increase vagrancy complaints, or may point out the need f o r temporary s h e l t e r i n such cases to be provided by c h i l d welfare a u t h o r i t i e s . The incidence of t h e f t complaints are i n t e r e s t i n g i n that t h e f t s over f.25.00 decreased, and t h e f t s under f?5.00 increased during the three year period. I t i s doubtful whether s i g n i f i c a n t conclusions can be drawn from such f i g u r e s , other than the trend toward petty s h o p l i f t i n g seemed t o take a jump i n the year 1949 to 1950. The figure of twenty-two complaints does not give the t o t a l p i c t u r e , as many times stores did not proceed with complaints 1 Criminal Code of Canada - 3 - 30. during this period. The children were warned by the police and usually returned home to be dealt with by their parents. Sometimes referrals would be made to the Court by the police in such cases on an out-of-court basis, meaning that no complaint is laid. The situation may be investigated by a probation officer and carried on a voluntary basis with the girl and her family, or possibly referred by the Court to the voluntary agency most suited to the needs of the individual g i r l . Dispositions Made by the Court A variety of dispositions are made by the Judge in the cases brought to the Court on the complaints described above, (Table 3). The highest incidence of disposition is probation, either directly to a probation officer of the Court or to a social agency. In cases where the girl is placed on probation to a social agency, the specific social worker has the same powers as a probation officer of the Court, and is considered to be a voluntary probation officer for that particular case. The term, probation generally, means that the girl is placed on probation to the Court without any active supervision. Actually, in practice, this disposition is of l i t t l e value, other than i f the girl or her parents feel they need help from the Court in the future, they can return for assistance without having to wait for a new complaint. Also, the girl can be brought back as an unsatisfactory probationer, the same as in the case of a girl placed on probation directly to a probation officer or agency social worker. The advantage is that the girl may feel she has been given the opportunity to prove herself on her own. This form of disposition is often used in regard to the group of incidental offenders described in Chapter Two. The disposition probation generally under the supervision of an agency, allows the agency worker to remain in the picture with the client without acting as a probation officer, but know ing that the authority of the Court is in the background i f - 4 - • n# i t s use will be helpful in casework treatment. (The use of authority in probation will be discussed latec) The disposition, supervision of an agency, means actually that the disposition has been suspended and that the active supervision of the agency will continue. The term, disposition suspended, means that <=ven though the girl has been found delinquent, nothing further will be done about i t by the Court, (see Chapter Two case illustration, Barbara). If a girl appears before the Court a second time, when the disposition was suspended at the first appearance, the Judge can make a new disposition taking into consideration both offences. Dismissed means that after hearing the evidence the Judge makes no finding of delinquency. Struck off, withdrawn, and not proceeded with, are similar terms used to describe dispositions which are made before any evidence is heard. The disposition, time in custody, is one which hardly seems applicable to juveniles, as i t sounds like a criminal ®ntence. It is based on a strictly legal interpretation, meaning that the girl has paid her debt to society by spending so many days in the Detention Home. Adjourned sine die means that the case has been adjourned indefinitely. It is almost the same as a suspended disposition, but the Court may pick i t up at any time and deal with i t . For example, i t has been used with a transient g i r l appearing on a complaint of vagrancy who is returned home to another province. If she comes back to this area without permission and is picked up, the Judge can make a new disposition on the original complaint. It is apparent from this explanation, which has touched only briefly on the wide variety of dispositions possible under Section 20 of the Juvenile Delinquents Act, that the powers of the Judge are very broad and may readily be adapted to meet the treatment needs of the individual. - 5 - 33. Where the Girls Lived The home addresses of 168 girls from the total group of 197 were plotted on a sketch map of Vancouver (Map l ) . The homes of twenty-nine girls appearing before the Court during this period were outside the area of Greater Vancouver. It is apparent from the Map that there are certain areas of concentration where the number of delinquent girls is directly related to the density of population and economic standard of the district. L.J. Carr, in his book, "Delinquency Control", refers to such districts as "areas of disadvantage", the most prominent of which is described as, "the transitional zone, or deteriorated area adjacent to the main business center 1 of a growing city". The concentration of cases in Vancouver in the East End, West End, Downtown and Kitsilano areas illustrate his point. It is also significant to note the general scatter of cases over the Fraser and South Vancouver areas, as opposed to the almost complete absence of cases west of False Creek and south of Sixteenth Avenue. The Probationers; Referrals and Initial Complaints In order to make a more thorough study of probation, fift y cases were selected from the 197 for analysis. Thirty-seven of the fifty girls selected for detailed study were referred to the Court by the Vancouver Police Department, which, as stated previously, is the main source of Court referrals (Table 4). This means that the majority of girls referred to the Court for casework services, at first identify the Court and the probation officer with lav enforcement. Therefore first contact with the Detention Home staff and the first interview with the probation officer are of vital importance. Although probation operates within a legal setting, unless the girl feels at the onset that the onus to change her behaviour rests with her. i t will not 1 Carr, Lowell Juilliard, "Delinquency Control", Harper Brothers, New York. 1?40; P-43. work. Many of the g i r l s have an embittered a t t i t u d e toward authority, p a r t i c u l a r l y the P o l i c e Department, and always r e f e r to them as "shamas" and "goons". Their a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t e s a projection of the adolescent desire f o r complete personal freedom, and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are a natural o u t l e t f o r an expression of h o s t i l i t y against a l l adults, i n c l u d i n g parents and teachers, with whom the g i r l s have probably never achieved adequate r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There w i l l be further discussion i n Chapter Four regarding the methods used by the probation o f f i c e r to e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e a r l y i n the oase. In most instances of the f i f t y cases studied, the probation o f f i c e r did achieve a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p with the g i r l from the beginning and was able to get across to her the need f o r her a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n probation. As stated e a r l i e r i n t h i s Chapter, the complaint i s no i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of disturbance of the i n d i v i d u a l . Tt i s the l e g a l means of bringing the g i r l to the attention of the Court and thus making treatment services a v a i l a b l e to her. Table 5 shows the complaints on which the f i f t y g i r l s f i r s t appeared i n Court. I t i s f a i r l y representative of the complaints of the t o t a l group (Table 2 ), i n that i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and sexual immorality show the highest incidence. Problems Present at Referral There were many common problems symptomatic of behaviour d i f f i -c u l t i e s present at the time of r e f e r r a l amonp: the f i f t y selected cases (Table 6). Escaping an unhappy home s i t u a t i o n by running away has the highest incidence. Twenty-nine g i r l s were staying away from home without parental permission f o r periods varying i n length from one night to eight weeks, Were do the g i r l s go when they are away from home? The majority hang around downtown s t r e e t s , s i t t i n g i n a l l - n i g h t cafes and spending the days a t the movies. Some go on h i t c h - h i k i n g t r i p s out of the c i t y . Others pick up men, staying i n auto courts, cheap hotels and rooming-houses. An exceptional case i s the g i r l who hid i n the bush near her home f o r two days a f r a i d to face her 35 mother because of her consistent l a t e hours. Late hours are a common symptom of the f i f t y cases, and should, be a warning signal t o parents of possible future d i f f i c u l t i e s . Many parents i n these cases had no idea where t h e i r daughters were spending t h e i r time away from home and sometimes reported that 1 ate hours had been a problem f o r one and two years before the g i r l came to the a t t e n t i o n of the Court, One mother was shocked to l e a r n , following the apprehension of her daughter i n a s t r i p poker game on a complaint of sexual immorality, that the g i r l had been known f o r a year as "Drunken Sarah", and that she was proud of her nickname. The mother l a t e r admitted that Sarah had been coming home as l a t e as three and four a.m. several nights a week f o r the past year, and that she had been unaware of Sarah's a c t i v i t i e s . Parents need to be interested i n the a c t i v i t i e s and companions of t h e i r 'teen-age children i f such incidents are to be prevented. The problem of undesirable companions also shows high incidence. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to define what i s meant by the word "undesirable" i n t h i s context. Parents of g i r l s often objected to t h e i r choice of companions, blaming the g i r l ' s delinquency on poor as s o c i a t i o n s . School teachers and group leaders referred to groups of g i r l s who seemed to create trouble when they are together. The p o l i c e recognized several g i r l s as being members of d i s t r i c t gang organizations, Usually the g i r l s were a sort of female a u x i l i a r y to a boys' gang and often these gangs were hig h l y organized i n regard to drinking p a r t i e s , sexual immorality and petty t h e f t . In 1949 when gang groups were at t h e i r peak strength i n Vancouver, g i r l s from two r i v a l gangs clashed i n open f i g h t i n g i n c i t y s t r e e t s . Poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the g i r l and her family, sexual immorality, no school attendance and no employment also show a high incidence among the f i f t y cases. - 8 - 36 Age and School Grade Reached The average age of the fif t y girls selected is exactly the same as that of the total group - 15.4. The largest number of girls reached grade nine and left school at the age of fifteen (Tables 7 and 8). It is interest-ing to compare the average age of the girls and the school leaving age show-ing the highest incidence, both fifteen years. According to a report in a Vancouver newspaper, the average school leaving age in B.C. is now 17.8 1 years, the highest in Canada. This indicates that the probationers left school earlier than the boys and girls in the general population. Note in Table 7 that three girls were in Grade 10 and five girls were in Grade 11 at the time of referral to the Court, showing that some of the girls had a reasonably good education. In many of the f i f t y cases, parents gave the girls l i t t l e or no encouragement to remain in school, and in at least ten cases where girls had left school prior to referral, they returned to high school or continued their education through vocational and night school courses, after they were placed on probation. Home Background In analyzing any group of delinquency cases, i t is generally found that there is a high percentage of homes broken by death and marital difficulties, and this study is no exception (Table 9). In only ten cases were both natural parents of the girls living together without noted marital difficulty, demonstrating the disturbed home backgrounds of the youngsters. The home addresses of the fif t y selected girls were also plotted on a map of Vancouver (Map 2). If you compare Map 1 with Map 2, i t is apparent that case selection was fairly representative in most areas, excepting the West End district. This lack of representation in the West 1 Vancouver News-Herald. January 10. 1949. 9 39. End is believed due to a large number of petty shoplifting cases in that area, several of which were carried on probation, but tended to be in the incidental offender group and were therefore not selected for detailed study. The relationship between the home addresses of the girls and the places where the delinquency occurred, (ie: at the time of the first complaint) presents a typical picture, indicating that most youngsters got into d i f f i -culties in the downtown area, travelling some distance from home (Map 3). Note the trend toward Bumaby and New ¥estminster, showing the incidence of delinquency occurring on the fringe of the City, usually in auto courts between Vancouver and New Westminster, An estimate of physical home conditions of the fif t y probationers is as follows: Good 9 Fair 20 Poor 8 Very Poor 6 Unknown (ie: not recorded) 7 50 Illustrations of the four classes from personal observations will help to explain the basis on which this judgment has been made: Good: Mary, age fifteen years, lives with her parents and one brother in a comfortable, well-furnished, seven-roomed house in the South Vancouver area. She has her own room and free use of the recreation room in the basement. Fair: Jean, age seventeen years, lives with her mother in a small two room apartment in a Fairview rooming-house. Jean sleeps in an alcove off the kitchen and her mother occupies the chesterfield. The rooms are clean and fairly attractive, but seem crowded, and Jean hesitates to bring friends home because her mother is usually entertaining her boy-friend. - 10 -40 Poor: V i o l e t , age s i x t e e n y e a r s , and h e r f a t h e r l i v e i n a d i l a p i d a t e d f o u r room c o t t a g e o f f K i n g s w a y , The rooms a r e d i r t y , t h e f u r n i t u r e i s shabby and t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s c h e e r l e s s . V i o l e t and h e r f a t h e r spend most o f t h e i r t i m e away f rom home, e a t i n g t h e i r m e a l s s e p a r a t e l y i n r e s t a u r a n t s , and r e t u r n -i n g o n l y t o s l e e p . V e r y P o o r : P a t s y , age f i f t e e n y e a r s , l i v e s w i t h h e r p a r e n t s and e i g h t y o u n g e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , i n t h r e e cramped rooms o f a n o l d H i n d u t e n e m e n t . The rooms seem l i t t e r e d w i t h c h i l d r e n , d i r t y c l o t h e s and s c r a p s o f f o o d . The f u r n i s h i n g s a r e m a k e s h i f t b u n k s and b o x e s . The b a t h r o o m i s s h a r e d b y f o u r t e e n p e o p l e and t h e t u b l o o k s a s t h o u g h no one w o u l d u s e i t . Summary: A c o m p o s i t e p i c t u r e , e m b r a c i n g t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o b a t i o n e r s i s p e r h a p s t h e most e f f e c t i v e k i n d o f summary. Our p r o b a t i o n e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e C o u r t b y t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t on a c o m p l a i n t o f s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y , and was p i c k e d u p i n a downtown h o t e l r o o m . She h a s b e e n a b s e n t f r o m home on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g t h e p a s t few m o n t h s , and d u r i n g t h e l a s t y e a r h a s b e e n k e e p i n g l a t e h o u r s . She r e c e n t l y l e f t s c h o o l i n Grade 9 and i s n o t y e t w o r k i n g . She i s f i f t e e n y e a r s o f age and h a s n o p l a n s f o r h e r i m m e d i a t e f u t u r e . H e r p a r e n t s a r e s e p a r a t e d and h e r home c o n d i t i o n s a r e f a i r . I s she a p r o m i s i n g c l i e n t t o w o r k w i t h f r o m t h e c a s e w o r k s t a n d -p o i n t ? How p r o b a t i o n can be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o o u r t y p i c a l p r o b a t i o n e r as a method of c a s e w o r k t r e a t m e n t i s t h e n e x t s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n . 41. m Chapter 4t Probation as a Method of Treatment The Application of Casework Principles in a Court Setting Casework principles are the same whether applied in a voluntary or an involuntary setting. Unless the probationer wants to help herself, no disposition made by the Court is going to bring about a change in her behaviour. The probation officer is there to help the probationer realize the necessity for a change to take place in her behaviour and attitudes. In order to bring this about the probation officer must be able to help the probationer realize i t is more satisfying to behave in a socially accept-able way and assist her to achieve this objective. This is a challenging task when cur typical probationer is a disturbed adolescent g i r l who comes from a troubled environment and is experiencing a l l the conflict of those difficult years between childhood and adulthood. The casework process involves the adjustment of the individual probationer to her environment, and the probation officer needs to have an understanding of both the individual and the environment to achieve any measure of success. Hence the need for careful pre-court investigation and diagnosis before the disposition is made in Court. Some authorities consider that casework cannot be carried on within an authoritative setting, and that the treatment function of probation should be removed to other social agencies. The answer to this viewpoint is that thinking in the correctional field is now in terms of treatment of individual personality difficulties, not the punishment of individuals for specific offences. Casework can be adapted to the conditions of the Court setting without changing the basic principles. The Role of the Probation Officer The probation officer has a dual responsibility, to the Court and to the probationer. In facing the first responsibility, the probation officer is required to carry out the order of the Court in regard to the individual probationer, and has a responsibility to show the Court how probation services can best be used in the interests of the individual. This is achieved through the recommendations made in the pre-court report and through the discriminate use of subsequent court appearances helpful to the treatment plan of the individual. The second responsibility i s to help the probationer achieve a better adjustment to l i f e . In working with 'teen-age girls, the probation officer is a friend and counsellor, and at the same time, represents to the probationer the delegated responsibility of the Court. The kind of relation-ship the probation officer makes with a probationer is an individual matter; however, there are basic techniques applicable to a l l cases. Work with the 'teen-ager requires a subtle casualness of manner on the part of the probation officer, who needs to be friendly and interested towards the probationer, not obviously probing into problems, and never morally judgmental. As stated in Chapter Two, the probationer must feel that the probation officer is on her side and will try to do a l l she can to help resolve the difficulties. Prior to coming to the Court, the probationer has had many contacts with adults In authority and will identify the probation officer with them. The pro bationer may project her antisocial feelings about persons in authority towards the probation officer. Perhaps the probationer has never had a satisfying relationship with a parent or teacher and is unable to form a positive relationship with the probation officer. She may respond only in answer to direct questions, with hostility expressed passively in an outward manner of placidity, or expressed actively in an antagonistic, negative lack of co-operation. One gi r l may identify the probation officer with her wish for an 43. - 3 -ideal mother figure, verbalizing her feelings to the extent that she will wistfully ask the probation officer, "Could I be your l i t t l e girl? Would you like to adopt me?". In such a case, i t is apparent that the girl has a strong need to be dependent and the situation will require careful handling i f the probation officer i s going to help her grow up. If the probation officer has personal needs to be a mother figure, i t i s unlikely that she will be able to make the best use of this kind of transference. Sometimes the probation officer is an older sister in the eyes of the probationer, and may be regarded with hero worship by the probationer, symbolizing the ideal feminine goal for the probationer to achieve. It is occasionally apparent when the transference takes this form that the probationer will show great concern about getting the probation officer into trouble i f she does not behave well. Probationers will place the probation officer in many roles depending on their individual level of psychosexual development. The probation officer must have the necessary skills to recognize the meaning of the various kinds of relationships formed by the probationers and through wise use of them, assist the girls to meet their emotional needs. The Terms of Probation Generally, with a reasonably hopeful case, probation is fi r s t tried with the probationer remaining in her own home. Following the Court hearing when the disposition is made, a carefully planned interview is held with the probationer as soon as possible. Usually this i s arranged directly following the Court hearing, or i f time will not permit, the next day. It is essential that the probation officer have a separate interview with the gir l apart from her parents, i f the best understanding is to be reached. An individual interview with the probationer, one with her parent or parents, followed by a joint interview with a l l persons concerned is most helpful. 44. - U -The joint interview provides the opportunity for a clear understanding by a l l concerned of the purpose of probation and the probation plan. If a clear understanding between the g i r l , the parents and the probation officer is not effected, the entire Court experience may produce a more difficult situation than existed before the referral. I l l three have a part to play in the treatment process. A simple illustration of the difficulty that can arise on an environmental level, would be a difference in understanding between the parents and the g i r l in regard to the hours she is to keep while on probation. Family arguments can result over such probation terms unless they have been clearly worked out to the satisfaction of a l l three partici-pants. It i s helpful for everyone concerned i f a simple plan of probation goals i s worked out as soon as possible after the Court hearing. The Judge occasionally may set certain terms of probation to be carried out under the supervision of the probation officer; however, generally this arrangement has been instigated by the recommendation of the probation officer in the Court report. When a gir l is first placed on probation, the Judge usually sets a specific date for the next Court hearing when he will review her progress. This i s helpful in determining goals of probation, and i f no date has been set by the Judge for review, i t i s advisable for the probation officer and the probationer to work out a date when progress will be reviewed. The Judge of the Juvenile Court in Vancouver does not place girls on probation for a specific period of time; however, i t i s helpful to the probationer i f she knows that she is working towards a definite goal, possibly three months away, when the probation officer and the probationer will review progress together. When this method is used, the probation officer will often find that when the probation i s reviewed, the girl herself 4 5 . - 5 -is able to verbalize her recognition of the fact that she is not yet ready to have probation suspended. Probation terms are worked out between the probationer, her parents and the probation officer in regard to the hours she keeps, school attendance, regular employment, and home behaviour and responsibilities. Sometimes controls have to be set up in regard to certain factors such as regular appointments with the probation officer, undesirable places the probationer goes, drinking, or the handling of the pay cheque. It does not work to make these terms arbitrary. If the probationer cannot see the need for them and regards them as rules to be broken i f she can get away with i t , nothing will be accomplished. Concerning friends and companions of the probationer, the probation officer can point out the dangers of associating with certain individuals or groups, but to arbitrarily superimpose controls over friend-ships does not work. Some courts require that the probation terms be set down in writing to be signed like a contract by the probationer. This can be helpful or damaging depending on the individual g i r l . The probation officer may ask i f the probationer would like to have the terms in writing and sometimes the g i r l will prefer i t this way, even drawing them up herself. One efficient young lady typed out three copies, one for the probation officer, one for her parents and one for herself, so that in her mind there would be no doubts about the understanding reached. The active participation of the probationer is essential in working out the terms and goals of probation. In the first interview following the probation disposition, i t i s wise to ask the probationer what her under-standing of probation i s , and what she thinks should be the terms. The majority of youngsters will rally to the opportunity to participate actively in working out their unsatisfactory patterns of behaviour. Some times a girl may have a strong need to punish herself, which is easily recognizable when, for example, she sets such rigid hours for herself that she is allowed no time for personal freedom. Often 'teen-agers will welcome a definite and resonable understanding with their parents in regard to such things as hours and home responsibilities. Probationers are no exception, as they, too, feel more secure within certain defined and acceptable limitations. For example, one probationer was expected to do the shopping for groceries and prepare the dinner after school, as both parents were working. She was also expected, vaguely, to tidy up the house. Every night her mother found such fault with what she had done or not done, that the evening meal was a miserable event. When the mother was helped to realize the girl's confusion and encouraged to leave a daily note for her outlining what she wanted the girl to do, (with a few pleases and thank-yous), a great part of this difficulty was eliminated. Parents tend to treat 'teen-agers as small children who cannot take any responsibility, or as full-fledged adults, mature enough to meet adult responsibilities. The 'teen-ager i s neither a child nor an adult, and needs to be allowed to feel dependent at certain times, and at other times, permitted to make his own decisions in an adult way. The probation terms are the frame work within which the probation officer works. They provide a tangible understanding for the probationer, and give the probation offieer something definite to work within when coping with the broader aspects of the casework treatment, helping the probationer to resolve emotional difficulties. The undesirable behaviour patterns are only symptomatic of inner disturbance* Probation works through the combined operation of dealing with environmental changes in the probationer's daily living, and releasing and resolving inner needs and tensions, through frequent interviews. At the onset of probation, depending on the degree of individual disturbance, i t i s wise to fix a weekly appointment i f time will permit. Sometimes these appointments are at the office, but i f a thorough knowledge of the probationer i s to be gained, interviews away from the office setting are essential. These may take place in the probationer's home, in the coffee shop after work, in the car while driving the probationer to Clinic or job appointments. Parents must be included every step of the way and need to have a clear understanding of the probation plan, the probation goals, the role of the probation officer, and their own part in treatment. In many instances, the parents may try to place the probation officer in a punishing, authorita-tive role, perhaps shelving their own responsibility for the probationer's behaviour. It i s much simpler for some parents, when their wheedling, fifteen-year-old daughter begs to be allowed to go to a certain dance which has been placed out of bounds, to t e l l the probationer to telephone the probation officer, rather than face the necessity for parental firmness at certain times in regard to the probation terms which have been agreed upon. On the other hand, the parents may identify with the g i r l against the Court which they regard as authoritative. Parents may cover up the girl's behaviour until i t becomes so seriously disturbed that a new offenee is committed. The probationer should feel that the parents are not going to threaten her with reporting her behaviour to the probation officer every time she steps out of line. This can be so damaging to the relationship between the probationer and the probation officer that a working relationship is lost. It is helpful to have frequent join interviews with the parents and the probationer in order that a high level of understanding and trust may be sustained. - 8 -48. The Use of the Child Guidance Clinic In Treatment How the Child Guidance Clinic enters the treatment picture in the work of the Juvenile Court has been described in Chapter Two. Also, in the description of method about the selection of the fift y cases for detailed study, i t was stated that thirty-four girls in this group had been examined at the Clinic. It i s necessary to elaborate these statements and explain the use of the Clinic both on a consultative and treatment basis by the probation officer, i f a complete description of the function of the Clinic in this context i s to be given. Following the i n i t i a l investigation and social study of the circum-stances and personality difficulties of a particular g i r l , the probation officer may decide that the use of the Clinic i s indicated i f she is going to be able to make an effective recommendation to the Court about treatment plans. An examination at the Clinic clearly becomes necessary when the possibility of the g i r l returning to her own home on probation has been considered and rejected as an impossible situation in which to continue treatment. In another instance, probation at home may be tried and the disturbed behaviour continue, indicating that another plan of treatment, possibly away from home might be tried. Illustrations of both these situations have been previously given in the cases of Beverley and Frankie. Beverley was examined at the Child Guidance Clinic following her first appearance in Court, when the hearing was adjourned, pending further investigation by the probation officer. Beverley was remanded in custody to the Detention Home. Prior to the examination, the probation officer compiles a social history, outlining the circumstances of the present situation, and giving a clear and detailed picture of Beverley's background. Careful inter-pretation i s given to Beverley and her mother about the purpose of the examination and what to expect when the visit to the Clinic takes place. At the Clinic, Beverley is given a physical examination and psycho-logical tests. She has an interview with the psychiatrist, who also talks with Mrs. L. Later in the day, a conference is held with the psychiatrist, Clinic staff, the probation officer, and a social worker from a placement agency, who has been asked to attend in the event that planning for Beverley away from home will be necessary. Examination shows that Beverley i s in good health; her teeth are poor and in urgent need of attention; she suffers from some facial acne. The psychologist notes that Beverley was tense and i l l at ease during the tests and demonstrated nervous mannerisms, twisting her hair and tapping her feet. Intellectually, she is high in the average group of general intelligence. The psychiatrist comments that Beverley has nothing in common with her mother, whom he describes as, "A gentle, ineffectual and unaware person, who has been unable to compensate for the gross disturbance of family life". He considers that Beverley's disturbance has been profound and notes that there has been marked depravity in her behaviour. Guided by the psychologist1 findings, he states that Beverley has the capacity to learn a skilled trade and retain employment. He notes Beverley's interest in art and urges that i t be encouraged. A general discussion between a l l concerned takes place and the final joint recommendation i s as follows: Since Beverley is averse to returning to her mother who i s incapable of coping with her behaviour, and prefers to live in a hostel with other girls rather than a foster home, an effort will be made by the social worker from the placement agency to arrange for Beverley to try living in their girls' receiving home. The recommendation is discussed with Beverley and Mrs. L. by the probation officer, jointly and separately. Beverley i s eager and willing to give placement a t r i a l ; Mrs. L. agrees a l i t t l e less enthusiastically, as i t is hard for her to accept m 10 m the realization that she cannot meet the present situation. The recommenda-tion from the Clinic i s presented to the Judge at the next Court hearing, and he follows i t through in his disposition, by placing Beverley on probation under the supervision of the placement agency. Consultative discussions are subsequently held between the psychia-tr i s t , the agency social worker, and the probation officer to effect the best application of the recommendation. Exploration by the social worker reveals that there i s a naive group of girls in the receiving home at present, and that i t would not be to their advantage or Beverley's to place her there. Arrangements are later made to give Beverley a try in a foster home as the only possible alternative, as there is no 'teen-age working girls home in Vancouver. Subsequent interviews take place with Mrs. L. and Beverley, and careful transfer of relationship from the probation officer to the social worker i s gradually achieved. The implementation of Clinic services in the case of Frankie is not as simple nor as typical. Frankie had been a private patient of the Clinic prior to referral to the Court, and the Clinic had previously recog-nized the depth of her disturbance. The Clinic was consulted every step of the way, through treatment interviews with the psychiatrist arranged for Frankie by the probation officer, and through many consultative conferences between the psychiatrist and the probation officer. When the recommendation was brought forward from the Clinic to the Court that committal of Frankie to the Girls' Industrial School should be tried as a treatment resource, the recommendation was the culmination of a series of examinations and conferences. - 11 51. The Use of the Detention Home in Treatment Chapter Two describes in a general way the place of the Detention Home in the over-all picture of Juvenile Court services. Mention was made of the sharing of information about children in custody between Detention Home supervisors and probation officers through weekly conferences. What are the results of these discussions, and how are they integrated into the total treatment plan for the individual girl? The probation officer, through her investigation of the environmental circumstances and personality problems of the g i r l in custody, has a responsibility to share her knowledge with the Detention Home supervisors i f a l l efforts for rehabilitation are to be purposefully directed. On the other hand, the individual Detention Home supervisors know a different side of the girl's behaviour and personality patterns through intimate, daily observations which they, too, must share. Often the information from the Detention Home supervisors and that from the probation officer coincide to facilitate better diagnosis and strengthen treatment proposals. After the knowledge has been pooled, a plan of consistent treatment is agreed upon, to be carried out by the probation officer and Detention Home staff in a l l dealings with the individual g i r l . The Child Guidance Clinic may be consulted about the plan of treatment in detention, particularly in the case of a disturbed g i r l , and a Detention Home staff member is present at the Clinic conference. Whenever possible, the Detention Home supervisor attending the conference i s the one with whom the girl has most closely related. This can best be illustrated by the following example: Doreen, age fourteen years, i s a dark-haired, unruly girl given to abusive language and uncontrolled outbursts of temper. She tries to gain her own way by being over-aggressive and demanding, or wheedling and "cute0, - 12 -effecting baby-talk when using the latter means of striving for her wishes. She has used both these approaches with the probation officer and with Detention Home supervisors. Any treatment designed to help Doreen achieve more maturity while in detention must be consistent by a l l staff members in contact with her. It i s recognized that release and acceptance of her hostility i s necessary because of the extremely damaging home situation to which she has been exposed. Her aggressive behaviour will need to be controlled to the extent that she will not undermine the total group, and i f she i s abusive to staff within the group, a period of isolation in her own room where she can release her feelings towards a staff member may be tried. There is nothing so disarming to a hostile 'teen-ager as making the surprising discovery that none of the adults with whom she comes in contact are going to fight back. She will be given encouragement in active participation in sports, and i t is hoped that some of her hostility can be released through team games, in which Detention Home supervisors and the probation officer will participate. The dependent, babyish aspect of her personality will also be met in a consistent way by trying to show Doreen that her need sometimes to be like a l i t t l e g i r l is understood; however, praise and encouragement will be given, by the Detention Home supervisors and the probation officer, when she behaves and talks in a manner more befitting her age. The Detention Home supervisors will encourage Doreen*s participation in the programme planning and the activities of the busy, detention day. The probation officer will also participate in any way she can in the activities, time permitting, in order that she may gain a clearer insight into meeting Doreen's difficulties, to help her during detention and after release. When the time comes for further consultation with the psychiatrist, the probation officer and the Detention Home supervisor with whom Doreen - 13 -has the best relationship can write their report together, to the advantage of a l l concerned. This illustration has shown in one case how probation and detention services can work together on a treatment level. If mzximum benefit is to be obtained from these services, constant sharing of knowledge and collabora-tion on treatment planning about individual children i s essential. The use of the Detention Home as an observation and treatment centre for disturbed delinquents is a new service for the Juvenile Court and related social agencies in Vancouver. It is a great step forward in the promotion of the case work approach to juvenile delinquency. Illustrations of Probation in Practice In the light of what has been said about probation as a method of treatment, the following two cases, briefly described, will serve to illustrate a typical success and a typical failure, selected from the group of f i f t y cases. A successful example: Jean M., age sixteen years, was referred to the Juvenile Court by the City Police on a complaint of theft over $25.00, and brought to the Detention Home. Jean and a younger g i r l , Violet, who was admitted to the Detention Home at the same time on a similar complaint, had each taken a coat from a downtown department store. The girls were brought to the Court on a Thursday about noon, and consequently, there was only two hours to investigate their circumstances prior to the Court hearing. They were subsequently remanded in custody and the investigation by the probation officer proceeded. Jean had been born out of wedlock, and her mother had married, (not the putative father), when Jean was eight years of age. Prior to Mrs. M.'s marriage, Jean had been placed in a series of boarding homes, sometimes living with her mother and sometimes apart from her* - H -Mrs. M. proved to be a difficult person who was extremely rejecting of Jean, and had strong guilt feelings surrounding the experience of being an unmarried mother, A few months prior to referral, she had found that Jean's presence around the home was so arousing of guilt, that quarrels ensued and Mrs. M. ordered Jean to leave. When Jean got into difficulties, Mr8 . M. seemed strangely satisfied and wanted Jean punished to the fullest extent of the law. She would not enter into any discussion with the probation officer to consider alternatives to committal to the Girls' Industrial School. Mrs. M. was possessive towards her husband and her younger daughter, age seven years, a child of her marriage. Mr. M. seemed afraid to take an active part in any planning for Jean and in no way considered Jean his responsibility. After Jean had left home, she obtained waitress jobs in various restaurants, and occasionally had to call on the family for help between jobs, which they gave grudgingly. She picked fairly good places to board for the most part, and tried to attend night school regularly. At the time of referral, her circumstances were most unsatisfactory. She was not working, had no money, and was loath to ask the family for financial help. She was living temporarily with Violet, the g i r l also involved in the escapade. (Violet's home circumstances were described in Chapter Three, page 10). Jean had become involved, through her association with Violet, in the activities of a 'teen-age gang, and both girls admitted trying the shoplifting because they had heard i t discussed by other gang members. Jean knew she was rejected by her mother and had feelings of hatred towards her, mixed with a strong desire for her love. She liked her younger half-sister, but was jealous of the child having the love of both natural parents. Arrangements were made for Jean to be examined at the Child Guidance - 15 -C l i n i c Mrs. M* did not want to cooperate in giving information for the social history, nor did she attend the Clinic. When this matter was discussed with her she reluctantly admitted that she was attending a psychiatrist who she felt was doing her no good, and that she had no faith in the probation officer's use of such a resource. She did give permission for the probation officer to consult her psychiatrist. He advised that Mrs. M. was suffering from delusions of persecution and that he believed she had paranoids! trends. He considered that her mental state was becoming worse and that committal to a mental hospital was indicated in the future. The Child Guidance Clinic found Jean to be in good health, and low in the average group of general intelligence. She was despairing about her situation and understandably showed poor self and social adjustment. The Clinic recommended that she be placed in a foster home with kindly foster parents, and that she work outside the home. Jean was thought to be cooperative and related easily to the Clinic staff. Jean felt unhappy in the Detention Home, which, at that time, offered l i t t l e in the way of programme. As i t appeared that there would be some delay in obtaining a suitable foster home, on the further advice of the Clinic, Jean was temporarily placed in a guest home for elderly people in a good residential section of the city, as a general helper. The place-ment was investigated by the probation officers however, Jean obtained the Job on her own. The manager of the guest home proved to be a motherly, pleasant person, who treated Jean more like a daughter than an employee. Jean responded to her kindness immediately, and enjoyed her work with the elderly-guests, who considered her their special friend, and soon collected money to buy her a small radio for her room. Jean kept regular appointments with the probation officer on her weekly afternoon off. Sometimes the appointments would take place at the 16 56. office, and other times there would be walks In the park, or shopping trips to help select her new wardrobe. At first Jean seemed to want to keep the talks on an environmental level, describing her work, a recent movie, or her latest boyfriend. Gradually as her acceptance and trust of the probation officer developed, she began to discuss her fears that she might be i l l e g i t i -mate, and for this reason her mother could not love her. The probation officer was able to help relieve Jean's fears about the illegitimacy and interpret to her something of the difficulties her mother had faced in being an unmarried mother. Jean began to understand her mother's personality and attitude towards her. She began to lose the feelings of hatred which she had so vehemently expressed at fir s t , and yet did not push for acceptance by her mother now that she had more understanding. Although her mother told her that she would have nothing more to do with her following the Court hearing, Jean kept up a contact with the family by remembering them at birthdays and Christmas, and occasionally telephoned her half-sister, after she found that her mother would hang up rather than talk to her. She realized that there was no point in pressing the relationship when i t disturbed her mother, yet longed to feel a sense of belonging to her own family. Jean began to realize gradually that her mother was not a normal person, and that she would have to accept her own position in the light of the total situation. As Jean was contented with her job and her employer wassatisfied with the arrangement, the original plan of foster home placement was given up, and Jean remained at the guest house. Gradually, Jean's need for the probation officer diminished and contact ended by mutual agreement thirteen months later, with the suspension of probation. Jean knows that she can turn to the Court for assistance, and a few months ago, telephoned to discuss Mrs. M.'s mental health, as i t was apparent that Mrs. M . needed institutional - 17 -57. treatment. Jean was able to discuss this problem in a mature, objective way, without reactivating her old unhappy feelings. Jean is now employed as a clerk in a leading jewellry store, is happy in her independence, and does not blame her mother for the past. No case i s ever completely successful. In this instance, Jean made an excellent adjustment despite the unfortunate family conditions. Perhaps the probation officer should have tried harder to bring Mrs. M. and Jean closer together; however, i t was recognized near the beginning that Mrs. M. was mentally i l l and that she had no faith in the probation officer's methods. Even though Jean and her mother were not reconciled, Jean accepted her own background, and understood the reasons for her own and her mother's feelings and behaviour. An example of failure: A less successful probation case, which could be called a failure because of repeated delinquency and frustrated treatment plans, is that of Catherine R., age fifteen years at referral. Catherine also came to the attention of the Court through a complaint of theft over $25.00, laid by the City Police. Catherine, too, was in the comapny of a g i r l friend, Rose, at the time of the theft. Each g i r l had taken a skirt and sweater from a small clothing store, by concealing them in paper shopping bags in the fitting room and walking out of the store. Catherine was in grade nine at a commercial high school at the time of referral. Checking with the principal, the probation officer learned that there had been some truancy and that her marks had deteriorated during the past few months. Catherine was restless and wanted to leave school to go to work like her friend, Rose, who could now buy pretty clothes. The skirts and sweaters the girls had taken were for Catherine, although investigation revealed that she was as well dressed as her classmates. Catherine's father had died in an accident just prior to her birth. Her mother had married again when Catherine was six years of age, and later - 18 -separated from her second husband. Catherine had one older brother, who was working steadily and contributing a large share of his earnings to the house-hold. Mrs. R. worked part-time as a stenographer and had two boarders in the home. The family occupied a large, old house, with a well-kept garden. The home was clean and oomfortably furnished, and Catherine had her own room. Mrs. R. was a pleasant, rather ineffectual young woman, who was most concerned over Catherine's behaviour, and anxious to cooperate in every way she could with the Court. She seemed to be a serious person, and Catherine complained that she did not feel free to confide in her. Catherine, who thought her mother led a dull l i f e , was constantly looking for excitement outside the home, keeping late hours, and attending public dances with older girls whom her mother considered an undesirable influence. Catherine was released from the Detention Home a few hours after her admission, as the probation officer did not think she needed custodial care, both Catherine and her mother wanted the return home, and regular school attendance was a necessity. Catherine was placed on probation at the second court hearing. A plan was worked out about hours, school attendance clothing, and spending money. Catherine was encouraged to be friends with girls in her school class and joined the local neighbourhood house. Through close work between the probation officer and the school, Catherine's attendance and marks improved rapidly, and she was promoted to grade ten at the end of the term. Although her family wished her to continue school, Catherine struck a bargain with them and the probation officer, that i f she could obtain a satisfactory, permanent job during the summer holidays, she would be permitted to leave. Catherine, who has an Intelligence Quotient of 112, and good initiative, soon obtained an excellent stenographic position earning more money than her mother. She did not return to school the following - 19 -September, and as her behaviour seemed to have settled down, and the job was meeting her needs for a new interest and more spending money, probation was suspended after five months. It was soon apparent that the basic difficulties had not been touched by the probation officer. By the following Christmas, Catherine was beginning to drift back to her former friends and on one occasion, stayed out a l l night without reasonable explanation. During the Christmas season, Catherine and Rose left home without permission, gave up their jobs, and were hiding-out in a downtown rooming-house for three weeks before they were located. Catherine was again admitted to the Detention Home and Mrs. R. was encouraged to lay a complaint of incorrigibility in order that the matter could be reviewed in Court, with probation reinstated. The probation officer noticed a great change in Catherine's appearance and manner. She had dyed her hair, wore heavy makeup, seemed tough and defiant. At f i r s t , while in detention, Catherine blamed her mother for her difficulties, saying that Mrs. R. did not understand her, was trying to keep her a l i t t l e g i r l , and did not give her the freedom and status which Catherine thought should come with being self-supporting. These feelings were gradually worked through with Catherine, and careful plans were made with the family towards her return heme. Catherine willingly went home on probation, but within two weeks left again. She was apprehended by the police, and returned to the Detention Home on a complaint of being an unsatisfactory probationer, laid by the probation officer. Deterioration was more marked than before and a Child Guidance Clinic examination was arranged. At the Clinic, Catherine was found to be in good health and of average intelligence. The reasons for her hostility toward her mother were - 20 -60 not outstanding. Her accusations of nagging by her mother seemed unfounded. The psychiatrist recommended that consideration be given to placing Catherine in the home of her maternal grandmother, who had come forward to the Court to offer her help. The grandmother attended the Clinic and impressed a l l concerned as a wise and affectionate person, who might have a more stabilizing influence on Catherine than Mrs. R. The Court released Catherine to the care of her grandmother on continued probation for a t r i a l period of one month. Again, at fi r s t , a l l went well, with Catherine making a sincere effort to obtain employment, keep reasonable hours, and regular appointments with the probation officer. Catherine and the probation officer had always had a good relationship, although at times Catherine tended to be flippant; she identified the probation officer with her mother, because the probation officer was trying to assist her to achieve certain standards of behaviour, and occasionally had to place limitations on her activities. Unfortunately, Catherine's good behaviour with her grandmother was not sustained, and before the t r i a l period was up, she had run away again. When she was returned to the Detention Home, she admitted for the first time that she was unable to control her behaviour, but could not explain why, other than to say she felt restless a l l the time and craved the excitement of cafes and dancehalls. During her last runaway, Catherine had picked up two young men in a cafe and had gone to live with them. The three pooled their resources and Catherine planned to keep house for the boys. Although she denied any sexual immorality and the probation officer believed her statement, the two young men were charged with contributing to her delinquency. Catherine's case poses a problem at this point. Should committal to the Girls' Industrial School be considered in view of the fact that she - 21 -61. admits no control? In Catherine's case, her family rallied to her aid, and through their efforts and the continued consultation with the Child Guidance Clinic, arrangements were made for Catherine to live with relatives in a small town. The Court gave favourable consideration to this plan, as i t was hoped that Catherine might be able to find stability away from the attractions of the city. At last report, Catherine had been steadily employed for three months, and appeared to have regained her footing. Catherine's problems seem to have been treated on an environmental level. Every effort was made by the Child Guidance Clinic and the probation officer to determine the causation of her personality disorder without success. Probation did not work because an adequate diagnosis of the problem was never achieved, and therefore treatment plans were not made on a solid basis. A Summary of Diagnostic Indications The two cases described above are neither the worst nor the best of the f i f t y probationers selected for detailed study. There are always exceptions in casework, for example, the psychopath who inherently cannot respond to this method of treatment, or the feeble-minded g i r l who i s unable to meet the level of behaviour of her own age group. However, i t i s possible to isolate factors invariably found in case studies to determine what kind of cases constitute good and poor probation risks. Significant items are found in information pertaining to early history, intelligence, and school records. Vital factors, determining the opportunity to use casework, are the probationer's ability to use relationship with an adult constructively, the probationer's desire for improvement and the attitude of the probationer's family. A good probation risk anticipates average intelligence, a reasonably secure home situation in early years, a positive recognition by the girl and - 22 -her parents of the Court* s function, and realization that a l l concerned will have an active part in rehabilitation, A poor probation risk i s indicated when the g i r l is of limited intelligence, has strong feelings of parental rejection carried over to relationships with other adults, and no recognition by the girl or her family of the Court as a treatment agency. It i s obvious from the extract that the possibilities of improvement, as indicated in the next chapter, are closely linked with these factors. 23 -63. Diagnostic Criteria Early History Good Probation Risks •-t ( Parents living together j during the girl's early j years; g i r l felt wanted by j both parents Poor Probation Risks infancy and early years spent in boarding-homes; rejection by one or both parents from infancy Intelligence and School Records average group of general intelligence; regular school attendance and sense of achievement about school low intelligence; frequent change of school; no feeling of satisfaction from school experience Ability to Use Relation-ship with an Adult regard the Court and the Probation officer as helpful to present situation and future adjustment; recognize that the probation officer can assist to resolve emotional difficulties as well as environmental bitter attitude towards a l l adults* exemplified by hatred of parents* teachers* police; regard the Court and probation officer as purely authoritative Desire for Improvement recognition that satisfactions no desire to change present from continuation of present behaviour will be negative; wish for a more positive experience behaviour; desire for immediate gratification of wants Attitude of Family recognition that the family has a part to play in re-habilitation; realization that the fault may l i e within the family situation; desire to change for the benefit of the g i r l rejection of the g i r l because of the delinquent behaviour; regard the Court as purely authorita-tive; over-protective of the girl 64. Chapter 5: An Evaluation of Probation The casework method of treatment is difficult to measure and evaluate scientifically. There is no arbitrarily defined success or failure, and each ease has to be considered in the light of i t s individual strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, i t is reasonable for an experienced person to make a judgment. This has been done for each of the f i f t y cases. Definite Improvement — — —10 Partial Improvement-—————19 No Improvement- — — — — 7 Regression— — —— - 1 1 No Treatment A t t e m p t e d — - — — — 3 50 Five degrees of progress or regression have been distinguished, and further description of cases in each class in the rating scale will help to clarify the way in which the estimated movement has been judged. 1 . Definite Improvement: The case of Jean M. outlined in Chapter Four falls into this category. The girls in this group were more settled in their behaviour, were working towards a constructive goal, and generally showed a more mature attitude than they did prior to their probation experience. 2. Partial Improvement: These girls showed more vacillation than the girls in group one, in establishing new patterns of behaviour. They had many recurrences of original problems, but generally were con-8idred to be showing improvement. Some of them appeared before the Court again following the original disposition: however, their total probation experience can be considered as one which moved in a positive direction* 3. No Improvement: Although the girls in this group were not committed to institutions, they did not show improvement in their behaviour while on probation. The case of Catherine R. in Chapter Four i s an illustration of this group* A l l six of the cases in the group were considered difficult. Two of the girls have been diagnosed as psychopathic. 4* Regressions Eleven cases in this group may seem a high number: however, as i t was explained in the fi r s t chapter, a higher per-centage of cases was selected where girls had been committed to the Girls' Industrial School than the number committed from the total group placed on probation. A l l eleven girls in this group were committed to an institution, ten to the Girls' Industrial School and one to Oakalla. 5. No Treatment Attempted: In three cases, i t was considered that probation had been carried out on an authoritative, "check-up" basis, and that i t would not be feasible to estimate the progress the girls made as the emotional component had not been explored. The total of twenty-nine cases showing improvement may seem to be a low figure. It is not reasonable to conclude from this study that probation works in 58% of the cases. The weighting of Girls' Industrial School cases would eliminate the possibility of using the above figures as a general estimate of the success or failure of probation. The cases selected did not include incidental delinquents. The majority were cases requiring intensive treatment, revealed by the fact that thirty-four of the f i f t y girls attended the Child Guidance Clinic. Limitations of Probation It has been stated that the girls appearing before the Juvenile Court, for the most part, are difficult, "problem" cases. It was found that seventeen of the f i f t y cases were active with a casework agency at the time of referral: twenty-four had been known to other social agencies, (in eight of these cases, intensive casework had been concentrated on the girl); and nine cases were not previously known to any social agency. The fact i s that a l l too many of the girls who are the subject of this study are constitutionally unable to change behaviour patterns, or else the social situation in which they live, may be too emotionally disturbing to effect change. The probation officer i s limited in resources to help such individuals. There is great need for a study of the place of the foster home in the treatment of delinquent girls. Finding foster homes equipped to meet the needs of disturbed adolescents is a difficult task and a notably unrewarding one. At present, there are no working girls homes in Vancouver, where girls like Beverley, (see Chapter Four, page 10), can learn to live within a group situation, under supervision, and yet not lose contact with the community. This kind of programme presents a challenge to some interested lay group for further consideration and study. The probation officer could use more of the excellent Child Guidance Clinic services. Many girls need deeper treatment than lies within the scope, training and capabilities of the probation officer. An increase in the number of improved cases would result from additional psychiatric treatment and consultative services. In many cases, where the disturbance i s severe, the probation officer needs to work under constant psychiatric direction i f the required psychotherapy is to be carried out. Eventually, i t i s hoped that a psychiatrist will be added to the staff of the Juvenile Court to assist in the treatment of disturbed children, in detention and probation areas. The limitation of time is a very real factor. The Judge sits only one afternoon a week for cases appearing under the Juvenile Delinquents Act and has a crowded Court l i s t . The Juvenile and Family Court, with i t s present programme of holding Court hearings four afternoons a week, and the need for more available time in a l l phases of the Court work, is fast approach-ing the stage of development where a full-time Judge is a necessity. The 67. - U -probation officer also feels the pressure of the volume of work. Casework with probationers needs to be intensive and highly skilled, requiring weekly and sometimes twice weekly appointments, with disturbed children. It is not unusual for the probation officer to spend half a day with one probationer in an effort to work out some suitable plan. With the pressures of thirty cases requiring constant attention, the probation officer finds that she may work long after office hours to do a complete job. The girl who i s employed during the day has to be seen after work; and close contact with parents, which is an essential part of probation, often calls for evening visits. Then there is always the unexpected emergency with such volatile clients, who need the probation officer's sustained help i f their trust is to be maintained. The confused runaway, who telephones the probation officer at eleven p.m., refusing to go home and needing immediate help i f further delinquent behaviour is to be prevented, needs the probation officer then, not at nine a.m. the next day, when she may have already experienced her fir s t evening of prostitution. Conclusion ^his study clearly demonstrates that probation i s a treatment job, requiring the services of skilled and trained caseworkers. Probation applies basic casework principles to the problems of disturbed individuals whose symptom of disturbance i s delinquent behaviour. It i s , in effect, a specialized approach within the broad field of social casework, and is building up its own techniques and body of knowledge, in the same sense that the psychiatric social worker develops special skills to deal with the mentally i l l , and the medical social worker with the physically i l l . Thus the probation officer could be called a correctional social worker. Throughout this study i t has been demonstrated that the probation officer works in close cooperation with other agencies, and is dependent on their help for successful work. The delinquent needs consistent and careful handling, from the time of apprehension to the suspension of probation. A l l people dealing with the delinquent need to share the basic belief in the value of a common approach to the problem i f a more effective correla-tion of efforts i s to be attained. APPENDIX A Outline of Cage Analysis  Birthdate: Age at Referral: in years and months Referred by: Known to other Agencies: active? Religion: Denomination: active? Status: whether the g i r l is legitimate, illegitimate, adopted; position in the family in regard to siblings Parents: age, marital status, occupation, and significant factors in regard to health, personality, relationship to the g i r l Siblings: age, sex, relationship to the g i r l , delinquent? Complaint: on which the g i r l appeared in court at the time of referral; subsequent complaints School: whether the girl was attending and i f so what grade; i f she had left, at what grade and at what age. I.Q.'s were noted where available, also significant factors regarding school adjustment Employment: whether the g i r l was working, and what kind of employment; whether she could hold a steady job Home: location; physical standard rated as good, fair, poor, very poor Problems at Referral: as indicated by the g i r l , parents, probation officer and other sources Child Guidance Clinic: date of examination intelligence physical psychological psychiatric: diagnosis ) prognosis ) where available recommendations) follow-up examinations, consultations and treatment Probation: date started date suspended ( i f terminated) terms of probation relationship with the probation officer: g i r l , family goal8 of achievement Evaluation: (at time of last contact) no improvement definite improvement regression partial improvement no treatment attempted APPENDIX B Table 1. Ages of the Girls 70. AGE I 1947-1948 ] 1948-1949 1 1949-1950 1 9 1 10 1 3 I 1 2 5 2 | 13 7 3 j 14 i 5 ; 9 I L 15 10 12 ! 16 j—•- -> 11 18 ! 17 14 15 2 [ . 1 iTotal i 59 | 60 3 8 8 23 16 20 78 ..I.  Total 1 1 3 10 18 22 45 45 49 3 197 71. Complaint Sexual Immorality Incorrigibility Theft under #25.00 Vagrancy "A" Unsatisfactory Probationer Forgery False Fire Alarm State of Intoxication in a _ Public Place Assault Theft over #25.00 Theft from Person Truancy Obtaining Money Under False ,.„... .......Pretenses Government Liquor Act Breaking and Entering Vagrancy "I" Minor in Beer Parlor Robbery with Violence Section 71 Criminal Code of Canada Retaining Stolen Property Possession of Liquor ; Drugs in Possession I TOTAL eirls appeared in Court 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50 Total | 11 27 ; 27 65 10 9 14 33 7 6 22 35 12 9 1 22 '!"" 6' j • 5 7 18 " 3 ; J 2 r i 7~3 ' | " 5 1 3 13 \ ~ 2 i 1 3 10 7 T "I"""" 18 i 1 ~1 1 5 2 2 9 2 1 } 3 * " ; 1 ~ i .^ ......V. . ~. +•""*-!  " ' 3 t 1 r""""z ! i j 1 • \ - • •• •• i " ' ' — I i .... „,. .^.^....^ ""1 ; ' I • f" T .i. • 1 2 ~ ^ r~~2 77 I 79 ! 89 \ 245 Dispositions j 1947-48 Probation (Probation Department, j 19 , Juvenile Court) , _ .. . \ Probation continued (Juvenile Court) 6 Probation generally i 3 Probation generally, supervision Children's Aid Society Probation generally, supervision Catholic CAS Probation John Howard Society Probation Burnaby Social Welfare Branch Probation generally, supervision North Vancouver SWB i Probation generally, supervision j _ „ Abbptsfqr4,...,Slffi. ....]. I Probation generally, supervision j [ New West SWB _ _ [ | Probation suspended, supervision Children's Aid Society ; jProbation continued, supervision 1 Children's Aid Society ^Probation continued, supervi s i o n J ' 1 | Catholic CAS ^  _ ^  _ _ : _ ; Probation" generally^super^sion " " " r City Social Service Dept. i Probation generally, supervision Prince Rupert SWB lWUhdrawn" ' 7 7 . ' 7 . 7 " 5 Committed t o G i r l s ' Industrial School ! 8 [Released to Children's Aid'''Socieiy'"''" 3" ; Released to Catholic CAS" "[_'77 ;Ti£Iia¥ecfto' relative "'" ^ nSusplinded s e ^ e n c e " " \ 1 " Committal Children1' s Aid Society (Protection of Children Act) 1 j^?^MMi^^3^x"rrr-i^."- zzzzzzzz '.'~'z\' 2 \ Transferred to Magistrates Court | 6 jDismissed '"" 7 " 7 7 Z " " 7 " ' " " ' " j ' 3 > Struck off ' " 1 FineZZZZ.Z . I Z....ZZZ.ZZ... ' ". 7 Z..ZX ^Jlme i n custody ^ i B e l e a s e ^ " 7 " 7 1 7 '^isppsiWon^suspended : 1 Released supervision Child Welfare Division 1 iReleased supervision CWD, Alberta "Adjourned Sine Die Disposition suspended, supervision Family } [ Welfare Bureau __ i _ _ j , Supervision New Westminster Police Dept. ^Supervision New Westminster SWB ! TOTAL ;• 77 73. Table k» Source of Referrals Children's Aid Society — 2 Vancouver City Police — — — — — — 3 7 School Counsellor — — — — — — — 3 Attendance O f f i c e r — — — — — — — — 2 P a r e n t s — — — — — — — — — — — 2 School P r i n c i p a l — — — — — — 1 Child Guidance Clinic- — — — 1 Family Welfare B u r e a u — — — — — — — — 1 Family Court ( A d u l t ) — — — — — _ i 50 Table 5. First Complaint Incorrigibility — — — — — — 1 4 Vagrancy " A — — — — — — — — 3 Truancy — — - - - — - - — — — — — 3 Sexual I m m o r a l i t y — — — — — — — 1 2 Theft Over $25.00—- — — — — 7 Theft Under $25.00 — 7 State of Intoxication in a Public Place— 2 Breaking and Entering, Robbery with Violence-— 1 Obtaining Money Under False Pretences— 1 50 Table 6. Problems at Referral Incidence 1. Away from home for periods ranging from overnight to eight weeks (without parental permission). - — — — — — — — — — — 29 2. Late hours — — — - — — — — — — - — - - — — - — — — — — — — — 19 3. Not employed and not attending school — — — — — — — — — 17 L. Sexual immorality — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 20 5. Physical defect or poor health — — — — - 9 6. Unable to keep a steady job — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 8 7. Stealing (continued p r o b l e m ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - — — — — — — 9 8. Gang a s s o c i a t i o n s - - - - - — — - - - — - - - — - - - - — — — — — — 6 9. Poor family relationships (between g i r l and f a m i l y ) — — — — 21 10. Truancy — — — — — — — — — 8 11. Undesirable companions — — — — — — — — — — — — — 23 12. Resentful of a u t h o r i t y — — — — — — — — — — — 7 13. D i f f i c u l t i e s at school — — — — — 11 14. Restlessness and craving for excitement — — — — — — — — 11 15. Strong desire for personal f r e e d o m - - - — - — — — — — — 7 16. Drinking — — — - — _ . — — — — — — 6 17. Nail biting — L 18. Financial i n s e c u r i t y - - - — - - — — - - - - — — — — — — — —- 8 19. Limited intelligence — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3 75. Table 7 . School Grade Reached S t i l l Attending — — 9 Special C l a s s — — — — — — — — — — — 2 Grade 6 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 Grade 7 — 6 Grade 8 — — — — — — — — — —- 8 Grade 9 — 1 5 Grade 1 0 — — — — — 3 Grade 1 1 — 5 5 0 Table 8. Age on Leaving School S t i l l Attending 9 Age 1 2 1 Age 1 3 1 Age U 1 2 Age 1 5 — — — — . — . 1 4 Age 1 6 — — — — — — — — — — — — 1 0 Age 1 7 3 5 0 Table 9. Marital Status of the Parents Parents Living Together — — — — — — — — 1 0 Parents Living Together (Marital D i f f i c u l t i e s ) — 6 Parents Separated — - — — — — — — — — — 8 Parents Separated (Mother living Common-Law)—— 3 Mother Deserted (Father living Common-Law) 1 Parents Living Common-Law Now separated — — — 1 Adopting Parents Living Together — — — — — 1 Adopting Parents Living Together (Marital Diff.)- 1 Widow — 5 Father Deceased Mother Remarried - — - — — — — — 4 Father Deceased Mother Remarried and Separated— 2 W i d o w e r - - - — — — — — — — — — — — 1 D i v o r c e d - - - — - — — — — — — — — — — 2 Divorced Mother Remarried —........ 2 Divorced Both Parents Living Common-Law — — — — 1 Child Illegitimate Mother married — — - — . . . . . . 2 5 0 


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