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A photographic test for attitude measurement: a cultural examination of peasant attitudes to agricultural… Gates, Marilyn G. 1972

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c ) 3 2 i A PHOTOGRAPHIC TEST FOR ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT: A CULTURAL EXAMINATION OF PEASANT ATTITUDES TO AGRICULTURAL CHANGE IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO by G. MARILYN GATES B.A. (Honours), U n i v e r s i t y o f S h e f f i e l d , 1965 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make I t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t I s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 17 137 2 ABSTRACT A photographic test for attitude measurement, abbreviated PHOTAM, has been developed and applied i n a case study of attitudes to a g r i c u l t u r a l change i n peasant groups currently undergoing transformation from t r a d i t i o n a l to modern. The aim of this research was to develop a struc-tured c u l t u r a l method for combining the h o l i s t i c i n t u i t i v e insight of anthropological and c u l t u r a l geographical inquiry with the rigour of objective behavioural assessment techniques. This method involves the use of a tes t based on the projective p r i n c i p l e , which bridges the gap between c u l t u r a l and behavioural approaches by establishing a common data source for subjective and objective interpretations set i n the over-a l l c u l t u r a l and regional context. PHOTAM involves 10 steps: (1) preliminary c u l t u r a l geographic reconnaissance to provide an h o l i s t i c empathetic overview of the study area and peasant life-way; (2) selection of attitude categories c r i t i c a l for understanding the given problem; (3) assembly of a series of photographs depicting various aspects of the attitudes selected and for use i n testing i n t e r n a l consistency of responses; (4) selection of sample subjects i n representative groups; (5) standard-ized administration of the tes t photographic set to each subject; (6) translation of tape recorded responses into English and transcription of selected responses i n the o r i g i n a l l a n g u a g e ; (7) c o d i n g o f p r o t o c o l s u s i n g a b i n a r y d e c i s i o n t r e e i n v o l v i n g an a t t i t u d e s c a l e and o t h e r d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n s s u c h as a c t i v e n e s s , c h a n g e - o r i e n t a t i o n and m o d e r n i t y ; (8) s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e p r o f i l e s ; (9) t e s t i n g f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and c o n c e p t u a l v a l i d i t y o f p o s t u l a t e d a t t i t u d e s t r u c t u r e ; (10) ( o p t i o n a l ) c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t e s t i n g and c o m p a r i s o n o f o b t a i n e d a t t i t u d e p r o f i l e s . A sample o f 6 8 s u b j e c t s i n f i v e p e a s a n t g r o u p s p o s s e s s i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h modern i r r i g a t i o n and m e c h a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s r a n g i n g f r o m none up t o two y e a r s , was s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e Mayan Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes r e g i o n s o f n o r t h e r n Campeche, M e x i c o , where a government s p o n s o r e d , i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y f i n a n c e d s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n programme has r e c e n t l y b e en i n i t i a t e d . A s e t o f 21 p h o t o g r a p h s was employed r e p r e s e n t i n g e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e t y p i c a l M e x i c a n oam-pesino. The s u b j e c t s were r e q u e s t e d t o i n v e n t a s t o r y a b o u t e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n t u r n w h i c h f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i t s c o n t e n t and c o n t e x t . The r e s u l t i n g p r o t o c o l s y i e l d e d d a t a c o n c e r n i n g 17 a t t i t u d e s w h i c h were p r o c e s s e d i n 60 c o d i n g c a t e g o r i e s ; more t h a n 40,000 b i n a r y measurements ( s e v e n f o r e a c h a t t i t u d e i d e n t i f i e d ) were t a k e n on t h e r e s p o n s e s . S u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o t o c o l s r e v e a l e d t h a t most o f t h e t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e a s a n t r y e n c o u n t e r e d i v i n the academic l i t e r a t u r e do not apply to the study groups i n Campeche, and suggests that these general conceptions of the peasant sub-culture are outdated, at lea s t as far as modernizing peasants are concerned. Thus, i t seems probable that a t t i t u d i n a l inconsistencies and d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s are more prevalent amongst contemporary peasant s o c i e t i e s than the t r a d i t i o n a l , stable, clearly-defined patterns. I f these out-moded stereotypes are not discarded, costly development programming errors may r e s u l t . Objective evaluation indicated that the i n i t i a l attitudes selected for examination had acceptable conceptual v a l i d i t y , high i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y (with two judges) and reasonable int e r n a l consistency. I t i s also clear that the PHOTAM protocols are amenable to objective coding into a -priori attitude categories which distinguish e f f e c t i v e l y within and between groups. A t t i t u d i n a l differences were most pronounced between the groups of peasants having the longest development project membership compared with the inexperienced groups. The results indicate that PHOTAM i s a r e l i a b l e diagnos-t i c measurement device, capable of penetrating beyond super-f i c i a l opinions into the realm of deeply-felt attitudes. Thus, PHOTAM should prove useful as a tool for c u l t u r a l geographic research, and i n development planning applications where attitudes are often the c r i t i c a l factor i n determining project outcomes. The richness of the response stories c o n f i r m s t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f p r o j e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s e s p e c i a l l y -i n v o l v i n g t h e u s e o f p h o t o g r a p h s , f o r b r e a k i n g down b a r r i e r s t o d e e p c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i l l i t e r a t e p e o p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s e v i d e n t l y c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r c r o s s -c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p e a s a n t a t t i t u d e s . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION . . . 1 Objective . . . . . . . . . 1 Scope of Research . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . 6 I I . A PHOTOGRAPHIC TEST FOR ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT 7 The Attitude Measurement Problem . . . . . 7 A Special problems i n peasant societi e s 11 The Projective as a Cultural Instrument. . 15 Description of PHOTAM 30 I I I . THE REGIONAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT . . . . 47 The Rationale for a Contextual Approach . . . . . . 47 An H i s t o r i c a l Perspective of A g r i -c u l t u r a l Development and Campesino Life-way i n Campeche . . . . . . . . . . . 48 The Changing A g r i c u l t u r a l Context . . . . 6 6 The Small I r r i g a t i o n Programme i n Campeche . . . . . 77 IV. A SUBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF PEASANT ATTITUDES TO AGRICULTURAL CHANGE FROM THE PHOTAM PROTOCOLS . . . . . 90 The Impact of Irrigation* Projects on Campesino Attitudes . . . . 90 Attitudes to Agriculture . . . . . . . . . 92 v i i Chapter Page T r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e 9 2 Nature 101 R e l i g i o n 105 F o l k - t r a d i t i o n s and s k i l l s 109 T r a d i t i o n a l forms of cash employment 113 A u t h o r i t y 116 Landlords 118 Merchants 122 The government: bureaucrats and tec h n o c r a t s 128 I r r i g a t i o n u n i t s and other government development p r o j e c t s 142 Modern a g r i c u l t u r a l techniques and methods 157 C r e d i t . . 166 A t t i t u d e s to Re l a t e d Aspects o f the Campesino Life-way 171 Non-material wants and a s p i r a t i o n s . . 171 Education 171 R e l i g i o n 181 M a t e r i a l wants and a s p i r a t i o n s . . . . 186 Consumer goods 186 L e i s u r e 196 N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l employment and c i t y l i f e 208 Family w e l f a r e 213 P e r c e p t i o n of campesino l i f e - w a y . . . 218 v i i i Chapter Page V. AN OBJECTIVE SUMMARY OF ATTITUDE DATA FROM CODED PHOTAM RESPONSES 225 The Relative Insights of Subjective and Objective Approaches to the Examination of Attitude Data . 225 Description of the Campeche Campesinos' Response Protocols 226 The form and content of the response protocols 226 Problems i n content analysis 231 S t a t i s t i c a l summary of the coded attitude data 234 Stepwise discriminant analysis . . . 237 Factor analysis 246 Interrater r e l i a b i l i t y 243 Internal consistency 256 Summary of coded attitude responses . . 262 Attitudes to agriculture 26 8 Attitudes to related aspects of the campesino life-way 277 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 281 Summary . . . . . 281 Conclusions . 289 Implications 293 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 296 APPENDICES 1 - Sample Protocols 308 2 - Glossary of Spanish Terms Used i n the Text 337 i x LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 A Comparison of the Characteristics of the Sample Settlements 84 2 Summary of Sample Project Information . . . . 85 3 Pomuch Project—Expected Value of F i r s t -Year Crops and Credit Charges 88 4 Group Attitude Means and Standard Deviations 239 5 F Probabi l i t y Matrices Testing Equality of Attitude Means Between Each Pair of Groups 240 6 Reassignment of Subjects to the Group with Largest Probability of Membership . . . . 242 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects Correctly C l a s s i f i e d by Discriminant Analysis 243 8 Matrix of Correlations of Factors with Attitude Variables and F i n a l Communalities 248 9 Chi-Squares and Cramer's V Values from Interrater Contingency Tables 255 10 Photograph-Attitude-Response Matrix for Subjects 22 and 65 259 11 Absolute and Percentage Frequencies of Positive, Negative and Balanced Responses 26 3 12 Percentage Active, Change-Oriented and Modern Responses 265 13 Percentage of Positive and Negative Responses Which are also Active, Active-Change-Oriented, Modern or a Combination of A l l Three 266 X ILLUSTRATIONS I l l u s t r a t i o n Page 1 D e c i s i o n t r e e f o r PHOTAM c o d i n g . . . . 43 2 L o c a t i o n map o f s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n Campeche . 78 3 L o c a t i o n map o f t h e Camino R e a l and Los Chenes 83 4 D i s t a n c e o f sample s u b j e c t s from t h e i r group mean 245 Photographs 1 - 2 1 PHOTAM SET 339 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by a Canada Council Doctoral Fellowship. I would p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to express my thanks to Dr. A.H. Siemens of the Department of Geography for his u n f a i l i n g f a i t h , hope and charity throughout my graduate career. Special thanks are also due to Professor Richard Copley for frequent philosophical arguments and moral support. Doctors John Chapman and Robert North of the Department of Geography, Dr. C y r i l Belshaw of the Department of Anthropology, and Dr. P h i l i p Wagner of the Department of Geography,Simon Fraser University, have a l l provided useful comments and suggestions at various stages of the research. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y grateful to Dr. John C o l l i n s of the Department of Psychology and Academic Planning for his intere s t and good humour throughout lengthy explanations of the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed i n Chapter V. Thanks must also be extended to l a Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos i n Campeche, p a r t i c u l a r l y Ing. V i c t o r Perez Novelo and Ing. Gonzalo Marroquin Verduzco. Especial thanks are due to Ing. Joaquim Repetto Ocampo for his assistance i n the f i e l d and many hours of "development dialogue" and good fellowship. The assistance of Karen Ewing with the cartographic work, and Larry Meyer, V i r g i n i a Green, Susan Nadel and x i i A l F o w l e r i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e p r o g r a m m i n g o p e r a t i o n s I s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r B l a n c a M u r a t o r i o -P o s s e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y U.B.C. f o r h e r c a r e f u l c o d i n g o f t h e p i l o t s a m p l e . F i n a l l y I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e c a m p e s i n o s o f Campeche f o r t h e i r c h e e r f u l c o o p e r a t i o n i n t e s t s and i n t e r -v i e w s , w i t h o u t w h i c h c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s w o u l d o b v i o u s l y h ave b e e n i m p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION O b j e c t i v e The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o develop a s t r u c t u r e d c u l t u r a l method f o r measuring peasant a t t i t u d e s to a g r i c u l t u r a l change, a fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l environment as p a r t o f the o v e r a l l moderniz-a t i o n p r o c e s s . To date most peasant a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h has been undertaken by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s u s i n g a l a r g e l y i n t u i t i v e p e r s o n a l i s t i c approach, which y i e l d s c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t , but i n a l o o s e l y - s t r u c t u r e d format d i s c o u r a g i n g e f f e c t i v e comparison between monographs. Due to t h i s l a c k of c o n s i s t e n t and coherent methodologies, t h e r e have been few attempts a t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison o f peasant a t t i t u d e data. Consequently the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s d e r i v e d from these courageous endeavours to l i k e n apples and oranges are not based on very s u b s t a n t i a l foundations, and are of l i t t l e use to the r a r e development agent who d i p s i n t o t h i s e m p i r i c a l morass f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the peasant c o n d i t i o n to guide him i n h i s p l a n n i n g o f change. On the. o t h e r hand, the r a r e o b j e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s of peasant a t t i t u d e s , although meeting s c i e n t i f i c standards of r i g o u r and r e p l i c a b i l i t y , tend to seem r a t h e r a r i d and l a c k i n g i n c u l t u r a l depth com-2 pared with the richness of ethnographic data. Thus, there i s c l e a r l y a need for a method for peasant attitude measurement which w i l l bridge t h i s cultural-behav-i o u r a l gap while preserving the best features of both sub-jec t i v e and objective approaches. The photographic test for attitude measurement (abbreviated PHOTAM) designed and employed i n this research, attempts to achieve t h i s aim by combining the s e n s i t i v i t y , depth and holism of c u l t u r a l methods with the structure and r e p l i c a b i l i t y of behavioural techniques. The purpose of thi s integrated approach i s to define peasant attitudes to change i n the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l system and associated aspects of the peasant life-way, as expressed by the peasants themselves with reference to t h e i r o v e r a l l c u l t u r a l and regional context. The photographic test designed to measure these attitudes to a g r i c u l t u r a l change i s based on the psychological p r i n c i p l e of projection, which seems to be the mechanism with the most potential for providing both c u l t u r a l understanding and controlled structure, with a minimum of interviewer intervention. PHOTAM consists of a set of 21 photographs each con-taining a s p e c i f i c attitude stimulus r e l a t i n g more or less d i r e c t l y to the a g r i c u l t u r a l change theme. The photographs represent peasants i n readily i d e n t i f i a b l e , c u l t u r a l l y appropriate situations, within the realm of experience of 3 t h e t y p i c a l M e x i c a n aampesino ( 1 ) . The s u b j e c t s were r e q u e s t e d t o i n v e n t a s t o r y a b o u t e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n t u r n , w h i c h f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i t s c o n t e n t and c o n t e x t . The r e s u l t i n g r e s p o n s e p r o t o c o l s were c o d e d i n s t a n d a r d i z e d , r e p r o d u c i b l e c a t e g o r i e s , and a s s e s s e d by b o t h s u b j e c t i v e l i t e r a l a n a l y s i s b a s e d on i n t u i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s t o r i e s , and o b j e c t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o d e d d a t a . I t i s h oped t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e d a t a o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s method w i l l b o t h c o n t r i b u t e t o e m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e a s a n t s , and p r o v e amenable t o r e p l i c a t i o n i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s . A l t h o u g h t h e PHOTAM s e t u s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s e x p r e s s l y d e s i g n e d f o r a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n t o M e x i c a n aampesinos} i t s h o u l d be f e a s i b l e t o a p p l y t h e t e s t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y i f t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t e n t i s h e l d c o n s t a n t , b u t a p p r o p r i a t e c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c p h o t o -g r a p h s a r e s u b s t i t u t e d i n e a c h c o n t e x t . Man's a b i l i t y t o m o d i f y h i s e n v i r o n m e n t i s a c e n t r a l theme o f g e o g r a p h i c i n q u i r y . T h u s , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y g e o g r a p h i c a l as t h e M e x i c a n aampesinos i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n a c c e l e r a t e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n -The S p a n i s h word aampesino l i t e r a l l y means "a man o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . " I t i s commonly us e d t o r e f e r t o p o o r p e a s a n t f a r m e r s w o r k i n g g o v e r n m e n t - g r a n t e d l a n d o r v e r y s m a l l p r i v a t e p l o t s w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s , and f a r m l a b o u r e r s w o r k i n g f o r l a n d o w n e r s . The t e r m aampesino i s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s when r e f e r r i n g t o M e x i c a n p e a s a n t s . 4 ments under the i n f l u e n c e o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l m odernization pro c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , geography i s a c o n t e x t u a l d i s c i p l i n e and i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s have always been aware o f the p o t e n t i a l a i d o f the s u b j e c t matter and methods of other s o c i a l s c i e n c e d i s c i p l i n e s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a deeper l e v e l o f e x p l a n a t i o n of geographic problems. Consequently, c u l t u r a l and b e h a v i o u r a l geographers are becoming i n c r e a s -i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the r o l e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena such as a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s , as key elements i n f u l l y understanding man's c o n s t a n t l y changing and adapting r e l a t i o n s with the environment. T h e r e f o r e , PHOTAM i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r contemporary dynamic c u l t u r a l geographic study, as i t measures a t t i t u d e s t o environmental t r a n s f o r -mation through the agency o f a g r i c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s u s i n g an h o l i s t i c approach to the study o f man-land a d a p t a t i o n i n keeping w i t h geographic t r a d i t i o n . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t PHOTAM w i l l prove to be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r c u l t u r a l study o f a t t i t u d e s , and t h a t i t a l s o has p o t e n t i a l p r a c t i c a l use i n development programming a p p l i c a t i o n s . Scope o f Research The approach employed i n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s p e c i a l l y - d e s i g n e d photographic t e s t f o r a t t i t u d e measure-ment amongst Mexican eampesinos i s h o l i s t i c and i n t e n s i v e r a t h e r than e x t e n s i v e . Thus, the scope o f the t h e s i s i s 5 c o n f i n e d to a m i c r o - l e v e l i n v e s t i g a t i o n r a t h e r than d i r e c t e d a t the mac r o - l e v e l common to survey r e s e a r c h approaches. The i n t e n t i o n i s to t e s t i n depth peasant a t t i t u d e s to one h i g h l y focussed but g l o b a l l y p e r v a s i v e theme, the i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f modern a g r i c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n development p r o j e c t s . Consequently, although the r e l e v a n c e o f PHOTAM as c u r r e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d i s l i m i t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the Mexican c u l t u r a l c ontext, and on a broader thematic l e v e l to the H i s p a n i c realm, i t should prove p o s s i b l e to amend the t e s t f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The t e s t was administered to 68 oampesinos i n f i v e sample groups s e l e c t e d from two areas o f n o r t h e r n Campeche i n the Yucatan P e n i n s u l a . Campeche i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a study o f the impact o f modernization as i t i s one o f the l e a s t developed Mexican s t a t e s . Four of the study groups c o n s i s t e d o f oampesinos who had been members of r e c e n t govern-ment-sponsored sma l l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s f o r v a r y i n g lengths of time ranging from a few weeks t o two y e a r s . The oth e r group ( n o n - i r r i g a t o r s ) served as a b a s e - l i n e sample o f oampesinos who had not r e c e i v e d any a p p r e c i a b l e t e c h n i c a l o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and were almost completely dependent on the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t i v a t i o n system. These f i v e groups were s e l e c t e d from an e s s e n t i a l l y uniform geographic r e g i o n i n terms of p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l and socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s . Thus, the only s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n amongst the oampesinos i n the sample was t h e i r range of experience with modern a g r i c u l t u r a l development. 6 O n l y t h o s e a t t i t u d e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e and c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e aampesino l i f e - w a y were e x a m i n e d . However, t h e measurement o f even t h i s l i m i t e d segment o f t h e o v e r a l l p e a s a n t a t t i t u d e p r o f i l e i s a h i g h l y complex u n d e r t a k i n g y i e l d i n g a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f a t t i t u d e d a t a i n v o l v i n g t h o u s a n d s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o d i n g d e c i s i o n s . The 21 p i c t u r e PHOTAM t e c h n i q u e a p p l i e d t o t h e 6 8 s u b j e c t s f o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f 17 a t t i t u d e s i n 60 c o d i n g c a t e g o r i e s p r o v i d e s n e a r l y o n e - a n d - a - h a l f m i l l i o n p o s s i b l e o u t c o m e s . I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e s t u d y , o v e r 40,000 b i n a r y measurements on n e a r l y 6,000 a t t i t u d e s e l e c t i o n s were t a k e n . R e s e a r c h P r e s e n t a t i o n O n l y t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t arguments s u p p o r t i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f a t t i t u d e measurement i n C h a p t e r I I , f o l l o w e d by t h e e s s e n t i a l b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l on t h e r e g i o n a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i n C h a p t e r I I I , l i t e r a l s t a t e m e n t s f r o m s e l e c t e d aampesinos ' p r o t o c o l s i n C h a p t e r IV, and o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s and s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s i n C h a p t e r V. T h e s e l a s t two c h a p t e r s show t h a t PHOTAM i s e f f e c t i v e b o t h f r o m t h e s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r a l p o i n t o f v i e w and t h e r i g o r o u s o b j e c t i v e s t a n d p o i n t , and t h u s c o n s t i t u t e s a s t r u c t u r e d c u l t u r a l i n s t r u m e n t f o r a t t i t u d e measurement w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t programming. 7 CHAPTER II A PHOTOGRAPHIC TEST FOR ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT This chapter lays a foundation for understanding the problems of attitude measurement, with special emphasis on application of attitude research to c u l t u r a l and peasant studies. Although geographers have only recently become aware of the explanatory potential of attitude surveys, measurement techniques and methods have been widely discussed by a generation of s o c i a l psychologists. A b r i e f review of t h i s progress and some of the remaining problems i s presented below, with especial reference to projective tests as c u l t u r a l instruments for attitude measurement. The con-cluding section of the chapter i s devoted to a description of the specially-designed photographic test for attitude measurement, which forms the basic research t o o l of t h i s thesis. The Attitude Measurement Problem Once pioneering s o c i a l psychologists l i k e Thurstone, L i k e r t and Guttman ( 1 ) showed that attitudes could be ^"L.L. Thurstone, Attitudes Can Be Measured, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 3 3 , 1 9 2 8 , pp. 5 2 9 - 5 5 4 . R. L i k e r t , A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes, Archives of Psychology, No. 1 4 0 , 1 9 3 2 , pp. 4 4 - 5 3 . L. Guttman, A Basis for Scaling Qualitative Data, American Sociological Review, Vol. 9 , 1 9 4 4 , pp. 1 3 9 - 1 5 0 . 8 measured w i t h p r e c i s i o n and r e l i a b i l i t y , d i s p e l l i n g t h e e a r l i e r n o t i o n t h a t t h i s was i m p o s s i b l e , a whole r a n g e o f c o n c e p t u a l and m e n s u r a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h became a p p a r e n t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e a t t i t u d e s a r e m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l and l a r g e l y i n t a n g i b l e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e much more t h a n d i r e c t m e t r i c measurement. The m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i r e c t n a t u r e o f t h e measurement p r o c e s s , w h i c h i n v o l v e s d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s f r o m o v e r t b e h a v i o u r and v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e a t t i t u d e s t i m u l u s . The i n t a n g i b l e n a t u r e o f a t t i t u d e s a l s o c a u s e s many t e s t e r s t o be u n c l e a r as t o what e x a c t l y i s b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d and measured u n d e r t h e b l a n k e t t e r m " a t t i t u d e " . Some r e s e a r c h e r s a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n s u p e r f i c i a l and s h o r t -l i v e d o p i n i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s o r b e l i e f s . O t h e r s a r e more c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e e p - s e a t e d , r e l a t i v e l y permanent v a l u e s , w h i c h a r e s o c i e t a l l y - b a s e d j udgements o f w o r t h . I n t h i s t h e s i s a t t i t u d e s a r e c o n c e i v e d o f as an i n t e r m e d i a t e c l a s s o f o r d e r e d m e n t a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s , w h i c h a r e f a i r l y p e r -s i s t e n t ways o f t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g and r e a c t i n g t o w a r d s o b j e c t s o r e v e n t s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h u s , a t t i t u d e s a r e more c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h u n d e r l y i n g v a l u e s t h a n a r e o p i n i o n s , and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o change as t h e y a r e more c l o s e l y k n i t w i t h i n a g e n e r a l u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e common t o t h e grou p as a wh o l e . I n a d d i t i o n , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o w h o l l y measure a t t i t u d e s w i t h any s i n g l e i n d e x Thus a t t i t u d e t e s t e r s s h o u l d make i t c l e a r w h i c h d i m e n s i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e s u n d e r o b s e r v a t i o n t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n , t h e c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e o r a c t i o n components. T h e s e p r o b l e m s have r e s u l t e d i n some c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between v e r b a l a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r , t h a t i s , t h e low p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h . T h i s h a s l e d t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t r e l a t i o n s between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r , as t o w h e t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s an o b j e c t o r e v e n t i s a m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t o f h i s e n s u i n g b e h a v i o u r . However, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e c o n c e p t u a l p r o b l e m s a r e p a r t l y t h e r e s u l t o f o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g t h e d i r e c t n e s s o f t h e a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r l i n k , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e l a c k o f e x a c t n e s s o f measurement g o a l s d i s c u s s e d above. D e s p i t e t h e s e i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s a l a r g e body o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r a l r e s e a r c h i s p r e s e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a t t i t u d e t h e o r y and measurement. T e s t s and t o o l s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and s c a l i n g a t t i t u d e s h a v e been d e v e l o p e d t o a f a i r l y h i g h d e g r e e o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and a c c u r a c y f o r use i n c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s and s u r v e y s i n v o l v i n g l i t e r a t e " d e v e l o p e d " p o p u l a t i o n s ( 2 ) . 2 F o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o m p i l a t i o n s o f key r e a d i n g s i n t h e f i e l d see M a r t i n F i s h b e i n , e d . , R e a d i n g s i n A t t i t u d e T h e o r y and Measurement, W i l e y , New Y o r k , 1967. Gene F. Summers, A t t i t u d e Measurement, Rand M c N a l l y , C h i c a g o , 1970. 10 These b e h a v i o u r a l methods are g e n e r a l l y h i g h l y - s t r u c t u r e d , non-disguised techniques of which the most well-known, widely used and c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d are a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , such as the Thurstone, L i k e r t and Guttman s c a l e s ( 3 ) . These methods have been t e s t e d o f t e n and r e f i n e d so t h a t t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y i n terms of r e p r o d u c i b l e content c o n s i s t e n c y i s q u i t e h i g h , and they have g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y content v a l i d i t y — t h a t i s , they measure what they are supposed to measure (4). However, p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i n terms of the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i o n s from a given a t t i t u d e i s g e n e r a l l y very low, s i n c e the l i n k s between a t t i t u d e s and behaviour are h i g h l y complex i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y components and environmental or s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as a t t i t u d e s . However, some res e a r c h e r s have obtained moderately good a s s o c i a t i o n s between measured a t t i t u d e s and behaviour p a t t e r n s i n analyses of a t t i t u d e s t o events or s i t u a t i o n s which occur r e p e t i t i v e l y i n h a b i t u a l behaviour ( 5 ) . But i n g e n e r a l ^Thurstone, L i k e t and Guttman, op. c i t . 4 The a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s c a l e s vary c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h r e s p e c t to the f e a t u r e s they emphasize. For example, the L i k e r t s c a l e s t r e s s e s unidimen-s i o n a l i t y , t h a t i s , making sure t h a t a l l items i n the s c a l e measure the same t h i n g ; thus the s c a l e i s very r e l i a b l e and i s u s e f u l f o r s t u d y i n g g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i n g of people with r e -spect to a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e . T h i s s c a l e a l s o has the d i s t i n c t advantage t h a t i t i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s work, f o r example, than the Thurstone s c a l e , which n e c e s s i t a t e s the employment of a l a r g e number of judges i n a s s i g n i n g s c a l e values to the a t t i t u d e items, and might be more ap p r o p r i a t e f o r s t udying group d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s . 11 the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s few such attempts at d i r e c t v a l i d a -t i o n a g a i n s t e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i a . S p e c i a l problems i n peasant s o c i e t i e s An a d d i t i o n a l s e t of problems i s encountered when attempting to apply o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e measuring d e v i c e s to a peasant p o p u l a t i o n i n a d e v e l o p i n g country. Despite t h e i r widespread use amongst "Western" p o p u l a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s c a l e s do not achieve such good r e s u l t s when d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d to peasant p o p u l a t i o n s . Peasants present complex t e c h n i c a l and c u l t u r a l p u z z l e s t o the u n i n i t i a t e d observer. The m a j o r i t y of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s engaged i n peasant r e s e a r c h have perhaps w i s e l y avoided the methodological f r u s t r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o d i f y i n g e x i s t i n g techniques and develop-i n g s p e c i a l t o o l s and approaches f o r s t u d y i n g peasant a t t i t u d e s . Leonard Doob i s a notable e x c e p t i o n , and has obtained some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on E a s t A f r i c a n a t t i t u d e s to modernization with h i s s p e c i a l l y compiled a t t i t u d e s c a l e s (6). V a l u a b l e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l data on a t t i t u d e v a r i -For example, C R . T i t t l e and R.J. H u l l , A t t i t u d e Measurement and P r e d i c t i o n of Behaviour: an e v a l u a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s and measurement techniques, Sociometry, V o l . 30, 1967, pp. 199-213. ^Leonard W. Doob, Sca l e s f o r Assaying P s y c h o l o g i c a l Modernization i n A f r i c a , P u b l i c Opinion Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 31, 1967, pp. 414-421. A l s o Doob, An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Psychology of A c c u l t u r a t i o n , J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology, 1957, V o l . 45, pp. 143-160. a t i o n have a l s o b e en c o l l e c t e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n o f Osgood's s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l , a n o t h e r o b e j c t i v e r a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d t o measure t h e meaning o f c o n c e p t s on s e m a n t i c s c a l e s , b u t s u b s e q u e n t l y f o u n d t o be a r e l i a b l e t e c h n i q u e f o r a t t i t u d e measurement as w e l l ( 7 ) . However b o t h a t t i t u d e s c a l e s and t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l r e q u i r e t h e sample t o have a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f l i t e r a c y and some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h "Western" t e s t s and p r o -c e d u r e s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e r e a s o n a b l e r e s u l t s . Doob's samples f o r example, i n c l u d e u r b a n e l i t e s , s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , and a f a i r l y c o s m o p o l i t e r u r a l s ample. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e t y p i c a l p e a s a n t p o p u l a t i o n i n many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s a t i s f i e s n e i t h e r o f t h e s e p r e r e q u i s i t e s . T h u s , t h e main drawbacks t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e measures o f t h i s n a t u r e i n a p e a s a n t c o n t e x t l i e b o t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e a s a n t r y and i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . They a r e as f o l l o w s . F i r s t a t t i t u d e s c a l e s do n o t s t i m u l a t e t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o p l a c e h i s a t t i t u d e s i n a g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l - b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t e x t , b u t c o n s i d e r t h e a t t i t u d e s i n i s o l a t i o n i n s t e a d o f f r o m an C h a r l e s E . Osgood, C r o s s - C u l t u r a l C o m p a r a b i l i t y i n A t t i t u d e Measurement v i a M u l t i l i n g u a l S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n -t i a l s , pp. 95-107 i n I.D. S t e i n e r and M. F i s h b e i n ( e d s . ) , C u r r e n t S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n ^ 1965. h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . Second, the s c a l e s are l i k e l y to tap only the most immediate, s u p e r f i c i a l a t t i t u d e s and r a r e l y r e v e a l the more l a t e n t and deep-seated ones of which the s u b j e c t h i m s e l f may be unaware. T h i r d l y , the very nature of a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l and the l i k e r e s t r i c t s t h e i r use t o c o n t r o l l e d measurement s i t u a t i o n s where the respondents are motivated t o co-operate and are r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e i n the r e s e a r c h , f o r example u n i v e r s i t y or s c h o o l students, mental p a t i e n t s , members of the armed f o r c e s — a n y k i n d of c a p t i v e audience. I t i s easy to envisage the chaos t h a t would r e s u l t from an attempt to adminster a w r i t t e n a t t i t u d e s c a l e to i l l i t e r a t e , u n p r e d i c t a b l e peasants whose i d e a of h e l p i n g out i s to answer "yes" t o e v e r y t h i n g , and would not have the s l i g h t e s t i d e a how t o d e s c r i m i n a t e between the " s t r o n g l y agrees" and "very s t r o n g l y agrees" on a L i k e r t s c a l e . For these reasons the m a j o r i t y of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s working on peasant a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h have tended to s t i c k t o t r a d i t i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l stand-bys such as non-disguised and f r e q u e n t l y n o n - s t r u c t u r e d open-ended q u e s t i o n i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e approaches, and l i f e h i s t o r y and essay s t u d i e s . While these f r e q u e n t l y y i e l d v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s i g h t s , there i s o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t s ystematic o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n t o compare and c o n t r a s t r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s . How can one compare Lewis 1 Pedro Martinez with Mintz' Worker i n the Cane (8)? Even when the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used are supposedly s t r u c t u r e d and r e l i a b l e schedules of the f i x e d -a l t e r n a t i v e v a r i e t y , two s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s r a r e l y seem to use the same instrument, and i t i s even more d i f f i c u l t to compare the Rogers' and Smith-Inkeles' p r o f i l e s o f i n d i v i d u a l modernity i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s than the Lewis and Mintz s t u d i e s c i t e d above (9). At l e a s t the l i f e h i s t o r y p r o v i d e s an h o l i s t i c , coherent p e r s p e c t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s a t t i t u d e s i n h i s o v e r a l l m i l i e u , which has more r e a d i l y apparent c u l t u r a l meaning than an i s o l a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Another problem faced by a l l a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h e r s , but e s p e c i a l l y those concerned with peasants who are l i k e l y t o be h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e t o any i n t e r e s t expressed by o u t s i d e r s , i s the r e a c t i v e n e s s and o b t r u s i v e n e s s of the a t t i t u d e measurement techniques a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . Of course a l l measures of a t t i t u d e s are i n d i r e c t , but c l e a r l y some are more i n d i r e c t than o t h e r s . A t t i t u d e s c a l e s and i n t e r v i e w Oscar Lewis, Pedro M a r t i n e z . A Mexican Peasant and His Family, Vintage Books, New York, 19"6"4~T Sidney Mintz^ Worker i n the Cane: A Puerto Rican L i f e H i s t o r y , Yale Univ-e r s i t y P r ess, New Haven, 1960. 9 . . . E v e r e t t M. Rogers i n a s s o c i a t i o n with Lynne Svennmg, Modernization Among Peasants, H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1969. David Horton Smith and Alex I n k e l e s , The OM S c a l e : A Comparative Measure of I n d i v i d u a l Modernity, Sociometry, V o l . 29, 1966, pp. 353-377. 15 and q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e s a r e f o r t h e most p a r t e x p l i c i t and d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f t h e s t u d y more o r l e s s o b v i o u s t o t h e s u b j e c t even i n t h e most s u b t l e i n t e r v i e w . I d e a l l y t h e n , i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d be u s e d w h i c h m i n i m i z e t h i s b i a s and "do n o t d e s t r o y t h e n a t u r a l f o r m o f t h e a t t i t u d e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e s c r i b i n g i t . " (10) Thus d i s q u i s e d t e c h n i q u e s a r e l i k e l y t o have h i g h e r v a l i d i t y t h a n d i r e c t measures u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s s i n c e t h e s u b j e c t s may v o l u n t a r i l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e v e a l a t t i t u d e s w h i c h t h e y w o u l d a t t e m p t t o c o n c e a l f o r s o c i a l o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s u n d e r d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s has n o t y e t b e e n s u b s t a n t i a t e d , as e v e n t h o u g h a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f d i s g u i s e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r a t t i t u d e measurement have been d e v e l o p e d , few h a v e been a p p l i e d r e p e a t e d l y and w i d e l y enough i n a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h t o be f u l l y v a l i d a t e d . The P r o j e c t i v e as a C u l t u r a l I n s t r u m e n t The m a j o r i t y o f d i s g u i s e d a t t i t u d e measurement t e c h n i q u e s f a l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s . P r o j e c t i v e s have been w i d e l y a p p l i e d b o t h i n p s y c h o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y , ^ °Donald T. C a m p b e l l , The I n d i r e c t A s s e s s m e n t o f S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s , - P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 47, 1950, pp. 15-38, p. 15. A l s o see Eugene J . Webb e t ' a l . , U n o b t r u s i v e M e a s u r e s : N o n r e a c t i v e R e s e a r c h i n t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Rand M c N a l l y , C h i c a g o , 1966, f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s o t h e r t h a n by t e s t i n g and i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e s . but are probably the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l of a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l measuring instruments. T h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n has been her a l d e d w i t h g r e a t enthusiasm due t o the r i c h n e s s of the response m a t e r i a l provoked by the use o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e d and o v e r t s t i m u l i than i n the o b j e c t i v e measures. However many ob-se r v e r s are s e v e r e l y c r i t i c a l o f the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the f i n d i n g s (11). Sargent expresses t h i s con-t r o v e r s y as f o l l o w s : The v a r i e t y and r i c h n e s s of m a t e r i a l which the pro-j e c t i v e methods pr o v i d e i s a t once the d e l i g h t of the c l i n i c i a n and the d e s p a i r o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t . The r e s e a r c h worker who attempts t o use any of these methods i s immediately impressed both with t h e i r i n f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i n s i g h t , and the seemingly insurmountable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the way of s c i e n t i f i c treatment of the data. (12) Most p r o j e c t i v e techniques were o r i g i n a l l y designed f o r c l i n i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y a n a l y s i s . Thus i n the o r i g i n a l p s y c h o a n a l y t i c context the process o f p r o j e c t i o n as Freud conceived o f i t r e f e r r e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s unconscious a s c r i p t i o n or- t r a n s f e r e n c e of h i s own unacceptable impulses t o persons or o b j e c t s i n h i s outer world. However, t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z t i o n of the p r o j e c t i o n mechanism has been broad-ened t o i n c l u d e i n n e r d i s p o s i t i o n s such as a t t i t u d e s and See f o r example, Anonymous, The b a t t l e over p r o -j e c t i v e techniques, Human O r g a n i z a t i o n Clearinghouse B u l l e t i n , V o l . 3, 1955, pp. 14-19. H. Eysenck, Sense and Nonsense i n Psychology, Penguin, B a l t i m o r e , 1957. 12 H. Sargent, P r o j e c t i v e Methods: T h e i r O r i g i n s , Theory and A p p l i c a t i o n i n P e r s o n a l i t y Research, Psycho-l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . LVI, 1959, pp. 257-293. 17 v a l u e s , which are p r o j e c t e d upon the e x t e r n a l world i n f l u e n c -i n g p e r c e p t i o n and world view when an a p p r o p r i a t e stimulus i s provided (13). Thus the b a s i c i n t e n t of the o r i g i n a l p r o j e c t i v e s was to evoke f a n t a s y responses by p r e s e n t i n g ambiguous o r l o o s e l y - s t r u c t u r e d stimulus m a t e r i a l to the s u b j e c t , who r e v e a l s unconscious or l a t e n t aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y i n h i s response. These t e s t s have s i n c e been a p p l i e d t o a wider range of i s s u e s i n c l u d i n g a t t i t u d e s i n a n o n - c l i n i c a l context, but have s t r a y e d l i t t l e from the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t and format. The t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o j e c t i v e techniques are most comprehensively summarized by Gardner Lindzey's d e f i n i t i o n : . . . A p r o j e c t i v e technique i s an instrument t h a t i s c onsidered e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e to c o v e r t or un-conscious aspects of behaviour, i t permits or encourages a wide v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t responses, i s h i g h l y m u l t i -dimensional, and i t evokes u n u s u a l l y r i c h or profuse response data with a minimum of s u b j e c t awareness con-c e r n i n g the purpose of the t e s t . F u r t h e r , i t i s very o f t e n t r u e t h a t the stimulus m a t e r i a l presented by the p r o j e c t i v e t e s t i s ambiguous, i n t e r p r e t e r s of the t e s t depend on h o l i s t i c a n a l y s i s , the t e s t evokes f a n t a s y responses, and there are no c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t responses t o the t e s t . (14) Thus, a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of p r o j e c t i v e s i s t h a t the more un-s t r u c t u r e d a stimulus i s , the more f r e e , e x t e n s i v e and r e v e a l i n g the s u b j e c t ' s choice and depth of response can be. T h i s i s For a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of p r o j e c t i o n as a c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory and the o r i g i n of p r o j e c t i v e techniques, see Gardner Lindzey, P r o j e c t i v e Techniques and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Research, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1961, pp. 25-38. 18 r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the d i r e c t , o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e measures which have h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d s t i m u l i , l i m i t i n g the su b j e c t c o n s i d e r a b l y i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e n d e r i n g of the response. However, th e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e range i n s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the p r o j e c t i v e c l a s s ; Campbell i d e n t i f i e s a category of " d i s g u i s e d - s t r u c t u r e d " t e s t s which more c l o s e l y approximates the d i r e c t , o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e measures, and a " d i s g u i s e d - n o n - s t r u c t u r e d " category which comprises the more commonly known " t y p i c a l " p r o j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e d by L i n d z e y (15). An even more d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many p r o j e c t i v e s i s t h e i r appropriateness f o r h o l i s t i c a n a l y s i s , f o r s t u d y i n g a t t i t u d e s i n a f u l l b e h a v i o u r a l and c u l t u r a l context, as opposed t o the t y p i c a l o b j e c t i v e instrument which measures a t t i t u d e s more t i g h t l y and p r e c i s e l y but i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . I t i s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c more than any oth e r which has l e d a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and other c u l t u r a l f i e l d workers to s e i z e on p r o j e c t i v e s with enthusiasm and perhaps a touch of r e l i e f . J"°Campbell, op. c i t . , p. 15. Campbell suggests t h a t the development of s t r u c t u r e d , i n d i r e c t a t t i t u d e t e s t s i s important f o r i n c r e a s i n g t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , due to t h e i r l e s s e r degree of dependence on the respondent's v o l u n t a r y s e l f d e s c r i p t i o n . The v a r i o u s t e s t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s category i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n t e s t s , t e s t s i n v o l v i n g e s t i m a t i o n o f group o p i n i o n and s o c i a l norms and t e s t s concerning a b i l i t y t o judge c h a r a c t e r . I b i d . , p. 45. 19 However, the very features which have endeared pro-jectives to students of culture are p r e c i s e l y those at which the behaviouralists turn up t h e i r noses, and " p r o j e c t i v i s t s " have even been accused of r e s i s t i n g o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n and v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r data. Indeed i t i s true that there have been few attempts to empirically v e r i f y projective r e s u l t s , and that there i s usually low c o r r e l a t i o n between attitude measures obtained through the use of projectives and d i r e c t scales designed for the same purpose, sometimes because they may not r e a l l y have been measuring the same thing after a l l . This i s perhaps understandable i n the l i g h t of the looseness of the projective t e s t structures and the richness and variety of the responses, which greatly increase the d i f f i c u l t i e s of analyzing and interpreting the data i n a reasonably r e l i a b l e and r e p l i c a b l e way. However, the protagonists of non-structured projective techniques must devote more e f f o r t to attempting to "objectify the subjective" as Kerlinger put i t (16), and s a t i s f y the basic s c i e n t i f i c c r i t e r i a without losing the richness and depth of insight of t h e i r data. Then projective techniques of attitude measurement might be used as confidently and as openly as any other measures, without the vague aura of mysticism which presently surrounds them at least i n the eyes of the behaviouralists. However, there may always be a few purists who continue to object to the use of projectives Fred N. Kerlinger, Foundations of Behavioural Research, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1967, p. 537. 20 on e t h i c a l g r o u n d s , murmuring a b o u t i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s due t o t h e d i s g u i s e d n a t u r e o f t h e t e s t s . From t h i s b r i e f s u r v e y o f t h e v a r i o u s methods a v a i l -a b l e f o r a t t i t u d e measurement and t h e v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s f o r a s s e s s -i n g a t t i t u d e s a r e l i k e l y t o be more r e l e v a n t and u s e f u l f o r r e s e a r c h e r s l o o k i n g f o r c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t t h a n t h e d i r e c t , o b j e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l methods, p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e y a r e u s e d w i t h g r e a t c a r e and awareness o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p i t f a l l s . However, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e use o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s has b een made i n c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s d i r e c t l y c o n -c e r n e d w i t h a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , most r e s e a r c h e r s h a v i n g p r e f e r r e d t o u s e t h e t i m e - h o n o u r e d and t r u s t w o r t h y d e p t h i n t e r v i e w as p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l e t h n o g r a p h i c method. B e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t s , s e v e r a l g e o g r a p h e r s amongst them, have begun t o u s e a t t i t u d e measurement t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n s t u d i e s ( 1 7 ) , b u t t h e o n l y p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s commonly u s e d have b e e n v a r i o u s m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t ( h e r e -a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e TAT) and t h e s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n F o r example, Roger M. Downs, The C o g n i t i v e S t r u c t u r e o f an U r b a n S h o p p i n g C e n t r e , E n v i r o n m e n t and B e h a v i o u r , V o l . 2, No. 1, pp. 13-39. S. G o l l a n t and I . B u r t o n , The M e aning o f a H a z a r d A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l , G e o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s , A p r i l 1970, V o l . 2, No. 1, pp. 120-134. 21 t e s t (18). However, the emphasis has been on the b e h a v i o u r a l a n a l y s i s of p r e f e r e n c e s and b e l i e f s r a t h e r than the study o f a t t i t u d e s per se. Moreover to date only Saarinen's study of p e r c e p t i o n of drought hazard on the Great P l a i n s , which employs a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e , and s i x cards from Murray's o r i g i n a l TAT schedule together w i t h a f o u r -photograph drought c a r d s e t , has achieved any r e a l depth o f understanding of a t t i t u d e s i n the whole c u l t u r a l - e n v i r o n m e n t a l context of the s u b j e c t s (19). However, l i k e most users of TAT~type t e s t s , Saarinen's emphasis i s on the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e v e a l e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the responses r a t h e r than on the a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . P o s s i b l y the a p p l i c a t i o n of sentence completion and r o l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t e s t s by the group o f geographers i n v o l v e d i n n a t u r a l hazard r e s e a r c h , w i l l a l s o y i e l d c u l t u r a l "^Murray's o r i g i n a l TAT c o n s i s t s of a set of 20 cards, of which"one car d i s blank and nineteen present p i c t u r e s suggesting d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i with v a r y i n g degrees of ambiguity. The s u b j e c t s are requested t o c r e a t e a s t o r y about each p i c t u r e i n t u r n d e s c r i b i n g the content, what the people p i c t u r e d are t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g , what l e d up t o the scene and what w i l l be the outcome. A number of s c o r i n g systems have been developed, but a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s f a r from s t a n d a r d i z e d . See Henry A. Murray, Thematic Apperception T e s t : P i c t u r e s and Manual, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress, Cambridge, 1943. 19 Thomas F r e d e r i c k Saarinen, P e r c e p t i o n of the Drought Hazard on The Great P l a i n s , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper No. 10 6, Chicago, 19 66. Sonnen-f e l d i s another geographer who has used a modified TAT to study landscape p r e f e r e n c e together with the semantic d i f f e r -e n t i a l and q u e s t i o n n a i r e , but the r e s u l t s have l e s s broad c u l t u r a l meaning. J . Sonnenfeld, Geography, P e r c e p t i o n , and the B e h a v i o u r a l Environment, paper presented at D a l l a s AAAS, December 27, 1968, i n Symposium on "The Use of Space, by Animals and Man." i n s i g h t i n t o a t t i t u d e p r o f i l e s , though these t e s t s tend to y i e l d f a r l e s s r i c h and r e v e a l i n g responses t h a t the TAT (20) The bulk of the e n t h u s i a s t i c c u l t u r a l use of pro-j e c t i v e techniques i n anthropology and r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s has been a s s o c i a t e d with the " c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l i t y s c h o o l , which u n f o r t u n a t e l y has gathered a c e r t a i n degree of n o t o r i e t y . T h i s c o n t r o v e r s y has a r i s e n over the s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s themselves and t h e i r r e l i a -b i l i t y when over-used as s i n g l e measures, and from c r i t i c i s m of the s i g n i f i c a n c e and v alue of the r e s u l t i n g p l e t h o r a o f data on modal p e r s o n a l i t i e s and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Kaplan sums up a survey of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l use of p r o j e c t i v e techniques as f o l l o w s : — My judgements about the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l use of p r o -j e c t i v e t e s t s have been very harsh. I have looked f o r the p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n these t e s t s and found them very scant. I have looked at the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r use and found them to be enormous, and have concluded t h a t as these t e s t s are being used and i n t e r p r e t e d a t p r esent, o n l y a modicum of v a l i d i t y and value can be obtained from them. (21) For these reasons p r o j e c t i v e s have f a l l e n i n t o i l l - r e p u t e i n the eyes of some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , whatever the context o f t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . However, the c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l i t y s c h o o l does provide i n d i r e c t i n s i g h t s i n t o the c u l t u r a l bases of a t t i t u d e s , though most of the relevance of t h i s work f o r c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h l i e s i n the lessons t h a t can 20 N a t u r a l Hazard Research, Suggestions f o r T r i a l o f F i e l d Observations on N a t u r a l Hazards, P r e l i m i n a r y E d i t i o n , 1970. 21 B e r t Kaplan, C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Use of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques, i n F r a n c i s L.K. Hsu (ed.), P s y c h o l o g i c a l Anthropology: Approaches to C u l t u r e and P e r s o n a l i t y , Dorsey, Homewood 111., 1961, pp. 235-254. 23 be l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o -j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t h e m s e l v e s , t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s c r o s s -c u l t u r a l a p p l i c a t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n by s u c h p i o n e e r s as Henry w i t h t h e TAT and H a l l o w e l l w i t h t h e R o r s c h a c h ( 2 2 ) . R a t h e r more c o h e r e n t and r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s i n terms o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e c o n t e n t have been o b t a i n e d f r o m t h o s e who have worked s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e f i e l d o f c u l t u r e change and a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Of t h e s e , o t h e r t h a n H a l l o w e l l ' s work on t h e O j i b w a , one o f t h e most u s e f u l s t u d i e s i s S p i n d l e r ' s work on s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n Menomini a c c u l -t u r a t i o n , b o t h r e s e a r c h e r s m a k i n g e x t e n s i v e use o f t h e R o r s c h a c h . More d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h v a l u e change and i t s d e t e r m i n a n t s i s V o g t ' s work on Navaho v e t e r a n s u s i n g TAT t e s t s as w e l l as R o r s c h a c h i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h e x t e n s i v e l i f e h i s t o r i e s ? 2 a I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g number o f u s e f u l a r e a c a s e s t u d i e s , s u c h as Fromm and Macoby's S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i n a M e x i c a n V i l l a g e , w h i c h employs t h e R o r s c h a c h and TAT i n e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s e s b a s e d on p s y c h o -a n a l y t i c t h e o r y ( 2 3 ) . A l s o t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f W.E. Henry, The T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t i n t h e s t u d y o f c u l t u r e - p e r s o n a l i t y r e l a t i o n s , G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y Monographs, V o l . 35, 1947, pp. 3-315. A . I . H a l l o w e l l , C u l t u r e and E x p e r i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1955. The R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t i s p e r h a p s t y p i c a l o f t h e p o p u l a r image o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e s t and has b e e n . e x t e n s i v e l y a p p l i e d . The s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o t e n i n k b l o t s o f d i f f e r e n t shapes and c o l o u r s by r e p o r t i n g what he s e e s o r what t h e f i g u r e s s u g g e s t t o him. A l t h o u g h t h e t e s t has c o n s i d e r a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a l u e t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l meaning i s l e s s c l e a r , and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y have l e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g i t s u s e i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . 2 ^ aE.Z. V o g t , Navaho V e t e r a n s : A Study o f C h a n g i n g V a l u e s , Peabody Museum o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P a p e r s , 1 9 5 1 , V o l . 4 1 . e t h n o g r a p h e r s who have d e v e l o p e d a t e n d e n c y t o r o u t i n e l y t h r o w a R o r s c h a c h o r TAT i n a somewhat h a p h a z a r d manner i n t o t h e i r community s t u d i e s , t h o u g h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t e n r e m a i n s i n d o u b t , and more i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s c a n o f t e n be o b t a i n e d f r o m e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y i t s e l f (24) . Two o f t h e most d i r e c t c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s o f v a l u e s by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e G o l d s c h m i d t and E d g e r t o n ' s p i c t u r e t e c h n i q u e f o r s t u d y i n g Menomini v a l u e s i n r e l a t i o n t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s , and George and L o u i s e S p i n d l e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r I n s t r u m e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s I n v e n t o r y w h i c h i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r e x a m i n i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n d e v e l o p e d amongst t h e C a n a d i a n B l o o d I n d i a n s ( 2 5 ) . The main d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e t e s t s and t h o s e d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i s t h a t t h e y a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o measure v a l u e s w h i c h a r e c u l t u r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l ^ E r i c h Fromm and M i c h a e l Maccoby, S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i n a M e x i c a n V i l l a g e , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1970. A l s o see W.A. L e s s a and M. S p i e g e l m a n , U l i t h i a n p e r s o n -a l i t y as s e e n t h r o u g h e t h n o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s and t h e m a t i c t e s t a n a l y s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y , V o l . 2, 1954, pp. 243-301. 24 See f o r example O s c a r L e w i s , L i f e i n a M e x i c a n V i l l a g e : T e p o z t l a n R e s t u d i e d , U n i v e r s i t y o f XTlihois P r e s s , U r b a n a , 1951. 25 W a l t e r G o l d s c h m x d t and R o b e r t B. E d g e r t o n , A p i c t u r e t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e s t u d y o f v a l u e s , A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , V o l . 63, 1961, pp. 26-47. George and L o u i s e S p i n d l e r , The I n s t r u m e n t a l A c t i v i t i e s I n v e n t o r y : a t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e s t u d y of t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , S o u t h - W e s t e r n J o u r n a l of A n t h r o p o l o g y , V o l . 21, 1965, pp. 1-23. p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics. The S p i n d l e r s used both v i s u a l l y c l e a r drawings and photographs p r o j e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r t e s t , but found t h a t drawings of t y p i c a l scenes i n the s u b j e c t s ' e x p e r i e n t i a l m i l i e u were p r e f e r a b l e to photographs of a c t u a l r e c o g n i z a b l e personnel and l o c a t i o n s which s t i m u l a t e d s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i z e d responses r a t h e r than ge n e r a l v a l u e - r e l a t e d p r o t o c o l s . On the other hand, Goldschmidt and Edgerton would have p r e f e r r e d to use photographs i f they had been a v a i l a b l e , as t h e i r purpose was t o simulate r e a l i t y . C l e a r drawings of value choice s i t u a t i o n s were used i n s t e a d i n the e l e v e n - c a r d t e s t b a t t e r y and the s u b j e c t s were requested to respond t o each card on the b a s i s of what was happening i n the scene and what the persons represented should do. A n a l y s i s of these r e s u l t s showed t h a t i t was e s s e n t i a l t o have the c u l t u r a l d e t a i l s of the stimulus a b s o l u t e l y c o r r e c t and e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e r a t h e r than ambiguous, or the c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n s d i d not y i e l d such c u l t u r a l l y meaningful responses. T h i s review of s t u d i e s u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e techniques f o r c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h shows t h a t d e s p i t e the widespread use of p r o j e c t i v e s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y a n a l y s i s , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has as y e t been p a i d t o the use of p r o j e c t i v e s f o r d i r e c t a t t i t u d e and value measurements. However, the i d e a has been mentioned s e v e r a l times but never f u l l y developed apart from the S p i n d l e r and Edgerton s t u d i e s , d e s p i t e the obvious s u i t a b i l i t y of p r o j e c t i v e technique a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s purpose. T h i s was the impetus f o r the s e l e c t i o n and design of the technique f o r peasant a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h t e s t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The r e s e a r c h goal r e q u i r e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an instrument which would p r i m a r i l y p r o v i d e c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t by s e t t i n g the a t t i t u d e s s t u d i e d i n the context of the Mexican peasant s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . However, the methodology c o n s t r u c t e d was r e q u i r e d t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y s t a n d a r d i z e d to be r e p r o d u c i b l e and r e l i a b l e , and i n a format which c o u l d l a t e r be m o d i f i e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c ontexts. C l e a r l y the only p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a t t i -tude r e s e a r c h i n the peasant f i e l d g iven these r e s e a r c h goals and the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the a r t , was some i n d i r e c t t e s t i n g method which would produce data b e a r i n g some resemblance to the r i c h n e s s and completeness o f the i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w but with s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the s t i m u l i used. In t h i s sense "measurement" i m p l i e s a q u a n t i t a t i v e l y l e s s exact process than i n the a t t i t u d e s c a l i n g techniques, and i s more concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g the broad dimensions, extent, i n t e n s i t y and context of the a t t i t u d e s s t u d i e d , which can then be scored or coded on the b a s i s of a few s p e c i f i e d v a r i a b l e s . Therefore the choice of techniques was l i m i t e d to the range of p r o j e c t i v e s as the o n l y o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e measuring devices meeting these r e s e a r c h c r i t e r i a . The types of responses e l i c i t e d by the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t i v e techniques are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the s t r u c t u r e of the technique and the ambiguity of the stimulus. Thus a 27 h i g h l y a b s t r a c t t e c h n i q u e s u c h as t h e R o r s c h a c h t e n d s t o y i e l d e x t r e m e l y f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e e m o t i o n a l l i f e and i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t , w h i c h a r e p r o -j e c t e d f r o m d e e p l y submerged f e e l i n g s . A p a r t i a l l y ambiguous t e c h n i q u e s u c h as t h e TAT e l i c i t s f e e l i n g s a b o u t s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o r e a l - w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e s , b u t u n l i k e t h e R o r s c h a c h d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n t e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n i t s s t r u c t u r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, t e c h n i q u e s w i t h a v e r y low l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n and a m b i g u i t y and a h i g h d e g r e e o f s t r u c t u r e s u c h as p i c t u r e t e s t s and c l e a r p h o t o g r a p h s w i t h e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e c o n t e n t , s t i m u l a t e r e s p o n s e s w h i c h t e n d t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e f a c t u a l c o n t e n t and p r e c i s e r e c o g n i t i o n o f themes w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e x p o s u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . However, as C o l l i e r s a y s ; F a c t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l a r e a s o f t h e i n -f o r m a n t ' s l i f e c a n t r i g g e r e m o t i o n a l r e v e l a t i o n s o t h e r w i s e w i t h h e l d , can r e l e a s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x -p l o s i o n s and p o w e r f u l s t a t e m e n t s o f v a l u e s . (26) T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e ambiguous f a n t a s y - l a d e n t e c h n i q u e s • s u c h as t h e R o r s c h a c h a r e e v i d e n t l y v e r y e v o c a t i v e o f submerged f e e l i n g s , t h e i r h o l i s m i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a c u l t u r a l one, and t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s i s l i m i t e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s method i s n o t t o e l i c i t f a n t a s y , b u t t o g e n e r a t e d e e p - s e a t e d a t t i t u d e s s e t i n a d e t a i l e d c u l t u r a l m a t r i x o f r e a l - w o r l d c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 2 6 J o h n C o l l i e r , J r . , V i s u a l A n t h r o p o l o g y : P h o t o g r a p h y as a R e s e a r c h Method, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , TJ67, p. 62. 28 C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e t e c h n i q u e u s e d must f i t i n t o t h e low e n d o f t h e a b s t r a c t i o n s p e c t r u m w i t h e x p l i c i t and e a s i l y r e c o g -n i z a b l e c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c s t i m u l i , w h i c h a r e d i r e c t r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . T h u s , p h o t o g r a p h s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e t e s t medium,being t h e c l e a r e s t and r i c h e s t p o s s i b l e v i s u a l images o f r e a l i t y . The i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s p e a s a n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s a p h o t o g r a p h i c t e s t f o r a t t i t u d e measurement (PHOTAM) b a s e d on a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e TAT c o n c e p t . Whereas t h e TAT employs semi-ambiguous d r a w i n g s t o p r o v o k e r e v e a l i n g , i m a g i n a t i v e s t o r y r e s p o n s e s , PHOTAM u s e s c l e a r p h o t o g r a p h s t o s t i m u l a t e c u l t u r a l l y r i c h s t o r i e s a b o u t r e a l - w o r l d p e o p l e and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o t h e r p e o p l e , p l a c e s and e v e n t s i n t h e i r m i l i e u , f r e q u e n t l y r e v e a l i n g d e e p - s e a t e d e m o t i o n a l l y c h a r g e d a t t i t u d e s i n t h e p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h p h o t o g r a p h s have been u s e d q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s s u c h a s J o h n C o l l i e r ' s p h o t o - e s s a y s t h e i r r o l e has u s u a l l y been t o r e c o r d t h e known r a t h e r t h a n t o d i s c o v e r and u n c o v e r t h e unknown ( 2 7 ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r use has been a v o i d e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s , - e s p e c i a l l y t h e TAT, as c l a r i t y o f c o n t e n t i s r e g a r d e d as a d e t e r r e n t t o f a n t a s y , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o j e c t i v e aim. However, s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s ' j o h n C o l l i e r , Jr., P h o t o g r a p h y i n A n t h r o p o l o g y : a r e p o r t on two e x p e r i m e n t s , . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , V o l . 59, 1 9 5 7 , pp. 843-859. 29 i n c l u d i n g Goldschmidt and Edgerton have r e c o g n i z e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r modifying the TAT as a t o o l f o r c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , and the value of photographs as the stimulus f o r t h i s purpose. John C o l l i e r a l s o r e a l i z e s the p o t e n t i a l f o r photographic m o d i f i c a t i o n of the TAT: M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y the TAT concept c o u l d be m o d i f i e d t o a l l o w f o r s i g n i f i c a n t p r o j e c t i v e responses u s i n g photographs. The s h i f t would have to e x p l o i t the l i t e r a l c l e a r understanding of what was p i c t u r e d i n each circumstance. Instead of a m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n t e s t you would have a p r o j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t c o u l d gauge an informant's a t t i t u d e s and a d j u s t -ments t o s t r u c t u r e d experiences w i t h i n h i s c u l t u r e . I t would be a v a l i d t e s t i n g t o o l i n t h a t you co u l d c o n f r o n t any number of n a t i v e s i n the same way wit h e x a c t l y the same probes of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s about t h e i r c u l t u r e . "How do you f e e l ? What pl e a s e s you i n your l i f e ? What upsets you?" (2 8) Thus, photographic p r o j e c t i v e s have many advantages f o r c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h p a r t i c u l a r l y amongst peasant p o p u l a t i o n s . The photographs immediately focus the encounter between res e a r c h e r and peasant, b r i n g i n g the stimulus item t o mind and sharpening r e c a l l i n an h o l i s t i c way t h a t c o u l d never be achieved through d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g . Any s u s p i c i o n o f the i n t e r v i e w e r o f t e n q u i c k l y disappears as the s u b j e c t i s caught up by the p l a y element of the t e s t and f a s c i n a t e d by r e c o g n i z -i n g f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s r e m i n i s c e n t of h i s own l i f e . He him s e l f takes over as the expert, the teacher, the one who has the i n s i d e s t o r y about peasant c u l t u r e and l i f e w a y , whereas the i n t e r v i e w e r i s o n l y an ignorant o u t s i d e r . We C o l l i e r , V i s u a l Anthropology, op. c i t . , p. 63. 30 are able t o see h i s world through h i s eyes r a t h e r than s o l e l y through the o f t e n f a u l t y and i n a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s by the i n t e r v i e w e r . F i n a l l y , on a more pragmatic l e v e l the ease o f s t a n d a r d i z i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a photographic p r o j e c t i v e i s i n v a l u a b l e i n an approach which r e q u i r e s r i g o u r as w e l l as r i c h n e s s i n the data. Thus, t h i s photographic p r o j e c t i v e technique f o r peasant a t t i t u d e measurement i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a c u l t u r a l geographic study such as t h i s , which even more than most a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h demands an h o l i s t i c , r e v e a l i n g approach to the study of man-environment r e l a t i o n s , focussed i n t h i s study on peasant r e a c t i o n s t o change i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l system as expressed i n a p r o f i l e of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i r m i l i e u . D e s c r i p t i o n of PHOTAM The photographic t e s t f o r a t t i t u d e measurement (abbreviated PHOTAM) which was o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , c o n s i s t s o f a s e t of twenty-one photographs each d e p i c t i n g one or more aampesinos i n e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n s , w i t h i n the range of experience o f the t y p i c a l Mexican aampesino (Photograph Numbers 1-21, at end of t e x t ) . An a d d i t i o n a l " n e u t r a l " p i c t u r e i s employed before a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the t e s t as an example while i n s t r u c t i o n s are being d e l i v e r e d . The photographs are presented t o each s u b j e c t i n d i v i d u a l l y under st a n d a r d i z e d 31 c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h the request t h a t he inv e n t a s t o r y about each one i n t u r n t h a t f u l l y d e s c r i b e s t h e i r content and con-t e x t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of each t e s t i s proceeded by the f o l l o w i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n ( t r a n s l a t e d from the Spanish): I am working on a study of the aampesino way of l i f e . Many people would l i k e t o h e l p you but they do not know how, because i t i s hard f o r a person without experience t o understand the way you l i v e and the th i n g s you do. To help me understand these t h i n g s I have here a s e t of photographs showing d i f f e r e n t aspects of aampesino l i f e . I would l i k e you t o look at each p i c t u r e and t e l l me a s t o r y from your imagin-a t i o n about what you see—who the people are, what they are doing, t h i n k i n g or sa y i n g , and what i s going to happen next. T h i s photograph i s an example. One could imagine a s t o r y t o go wit h the p i c t u r e which sounds l i k e t h i s : "Here are two men e a t i n g . I t looks l i k e they are i n a r e s t a u r a n t and not a t home because there are other men s i t t i n g at b i g t a b l e s . I t h i n k t h a t they are aampesinos, but they have a l i t t l e more money than most because you can see t h e i r c l o t h e s are good and they can a f f o r d t o eat i n a r e s t a u r a n t . Perhaps they have been to market i n the morning and have s o l d some crops. A f t e r lunch they w i l l buy some p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s and then go home to t h e i r v i l l a g e . " The t e s t responses are then recorded on a tape r e c o r d e r f o l l o w -in g an e x p l a n a t i o n of the reasons f o r i t s use. A f t e r adminis-t r a t i o n of the t e s t t o a l l s u b j e c t s the p r o t o c o l s are t r a n s l a t e d and coded f o r a t t i t u d e content and d i r e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g a sta n d a r d i z e d o b j e c t i v e procedure. Both c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t i v e and d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l methods are used to analyze and i n t e r p r e t the data. A three-month p r e l i m i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n p e r i o d was spent i n Campeche before the technique could be designed. T h i s was devoted t o i n t e n s i v e l i n g u i s t i c study of l o c a l d i a l e c t and idioms, and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d depth i n t e r v i e w s i n order to i d e n t i f y key a t t i t u d e s which appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d with the changes i n the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l system r e l a t e d to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of government-sponsored small i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s f o r oampesinos. The f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s was based i n p a r t on these depth i n t e r v i e w s and p a r t i a l l y on e v a l u a t i o n of e x i s t i n g case s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The s i x c l u s t e r s of a t t i t u d e s s e l e c t e d f o r t e s t i n g were a t t i t u d e s to t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , a t t i t u d e s to modern a g r i c u l t u r e , a t t i t u d e s t o a u t h o r i t y , a t t i t u d e s t o m a t e r i a l wants and a s p i r a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s to non-material wants and a s p i r a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s to l e i s u r e . These s i x c l u s t e r s are not intended to be hard and f a s t d i v i s i o n s s i n c e they are s t r o n g l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and are a l l d e r i v e d from more general value o r i e n t a t i o n s t o t r a d i t i o n and change, t o work as an a c t i v i t y , t o man's r o l e as an agent of change w i t h i n the environment and t o man's s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h other men. The photographs designed to measure these a t t i t u d e s were taken i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of Mexico, but care was taken t o d e p i c t o n l y s i t u a t i o n s , environments and c u l t u r a l d e t a i l s that would be s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r to Campeche oampesinos not to d i s t r a c t them from t h e i r responses t o the t e s t . Thus, f o r example, the l i c e n s e p l a t e on a t r u c k i n one photograph had to be blocked out when s e v e r a l respondents spotted the o u t - o f - s t a t e r e g i s t r a t i o n , and became so concerned with t h i s d e t a i l t h a t they could not g i v e p r o j e c t i v e responses to the photographic s t i m u l u s . On the other hand, u n l i k e the S p i n d l e r s 1 instrument (29) i n t h i s case i t d i d not matter i f the respondents r e c o g n i z e d the a c t u a l l o c a t i o n o f the photograph, s i n c e s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s were being tapped r a t h e r than broad values and place-and p e r s o n - s p e c i f i c responses were d e s i r a b l e f o r t h i s purpose. Apart from one p i c t u r e showing a secondary-school-aged boy w r i t i n g a t a desk, a l l of the photographs were taken i n unposed s i t u a t i o n s without the s u b j e c t s ' knowledge. About two hundred photo-graphs were taken from which t w e n t y - f i v e were i n i t i a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the t e s t . However, a f t e r t r i a l runs the s e t was reduced t o twenty-one, s i n c e i t was too long to s u s t a i n a t t e n t i o n , and fo u r photographs s t i m u l a t e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t and there was l i t t l e p r o j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l i n the responses (30). The photographs were randomly s h u f f l e d and then administered i n t h i s standard order t o each of the s u b j e c t s . A l l the photographs were designed to tap more than one z y G e o r g e and Loui s e S p i n d l e r , op_. c i t . 30 In a p r o j e c t i v e t e s t of thxs k i n d l a c k of response may sometimes i n d i c a t e t h a t very strong, e m o t i o n a l l y charged a t t i t u d e s are being tapped, which are too strong t o even be expressed. However, i n t h i s case the l a c k of response was c l e a r l y due to the f a c t t h a t the s i t u a t i o n s portrayed had no e s p e c i a l meaning w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l context of the respondents. 34 a t t i t u d e . However, most of the photographs were primarily-aimed a t s t i m u l a t i n g responses to one i n p a r t i c u l a r of the s i x a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r s being examined. The s e t of twenty-one photographs are d i s t r i b u t e d amongst the a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r s as f o l l o w s : (photograph numbers r e f e r to the order of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) 1. A t t i t u d e s to t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e No. 1 A aampesino working alone p r e p a r i n g a milpa i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner (31). A d i g g i n g s t i c k or stave can be seen i n h i s hand. He i s e i t h e r sowing or s t r u g g l i n g to c l e a r the v e g e t a t i o n . No. 18 A aampesino and a woman bent over weeding or t r a n s p l a n t i n g i n a milpa or vegetable p l o t i n the f o r e s t . Maize p l a n t s can be seen i n the foreground and i n the mid-distance. No. 13 An o l d aampesino and a young man d r i v i n g along a country lane i n a wooden pony-cart laden with a few s t i c k s of wood. 2. A t t i t u d e s to modern a g r i c u l t u r e No. 17 A group of aampesinos working together s i f t i n g f e r t i l i z e r by the pump-house of a new i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t . No. 10 Merchants unloading boxes of f r u i t and vegetables from a t r u c k i n a town. No. 16 A b u l l d o z e r and a t r u c k parked i n a newly-made c l e a r i n g i n the f o r e s t . The t r a c t o r has broken down and r e p a i r s are underway. No. 11 A aampesino bent over a p p l y i n g f e r t i l i z e r to a young maize p l a n t . He i s using a s h o r t s t i c k to loosen the s o i l and i s c a r r y i n g the f e r t i l i z e r i n an earthenware pot. 31 The term milpa i s d e r i v e d from an Aztec word, and r e f e r s t o the t r a d i t i o n a l maize f i e l d , which i s a c l e a r i n g i n the f o r e s t , cut and burned f o r c u l t i v a t i n g maize with the t r a d i t i o n a l technique, and s h i f t e d to a new l o c a t i o n every few years. In Campeche the Maya now apply the term i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y t o any t r a d i t i o n a l l y c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d , what-ever the crop. 35 No. 8 A oampesino talking to an engineer or some other government bureaucrat in the mechanized f i e l d of a new i r r i g a t i o n project. Tubes for sprinkler i r r i g a t i o n can be seen i n the fore-ground and mid-distance amongst the maize plants. An e l e c t r i c i t y pole i s v i s i b l e i n the distance. (This picture was also aimed at e l i c i t i n g attitudes to authority). 3. Attitudes to authority No. 8 A oampesino t a l k i n g to an engineer (See above). No. 6 A oampesino taking off his hat to show his respects outside a church. Two beggars are s i t t i n g near the church door. No. 3 A oampesino standing outside a modern o f f i c e b u i l d -ing i n the c i t y . He i s holding his shopping bag in his hand. 4. Attitudes to material wants and aspirations No. 12 Oampesinos s i t t i n g in the street looking i n a shop window at televisions and other e l e c t r i c a l appliances. One has a shopping bag. No. 19 Campesino standing i n the street looking at house-hold e l e c t r i c a l appliances i n a shop window. A motor bike i s parked outside the shop. No. 7 An old oampesino woman bending over to examine p l a s t i c kitchenware i n a market. She i s carrying a basket f u l l of purchases. 5. Attitudes to non-material wants and aspirations No. 5 A youth writing at a desk. He i s wearing a clean white s h i r t and does not look l i k e a oampesino. No. 15 A campesino and a small boy walking along a country lane. The oampesino i s pushing a bicycle laden with fodder. (This picture was also directed to attitudes to t r a d i t i o n a l and modern agriculture). No. 4 A small barefoot oampesino boy walking along a country road carrying a basket f u l l of herbs, vegetables or some produce. No. 20 A man and a woman i n oampesino dress s i t t i n g read-ing on the doorstep of a house i n a town. An older man i s standing next to them waiting for something. 36 6. Attitudes to l e i s u r e No. 2 Campesinos drinking beer and talking i n a grocery shop. Cans of food and other merchandize can be seen i n the background. • No. 14 A group of aampesinos s i t t i n g on the curb outside a cantina, looking as i f they have already had quite a few drinks. No. 9 A youth l y i n g i n a hammock in a t y p i c a l r u s t i c aampesino house reading a magazine or comic book. The lack of shadow shows that i t i s mid-day. No. 21 A aampesino returning home to his v i l l a g e with his burro laden with wood. A group of children are walking along beside him returning from running errands, carrying a basket and fodder. One of the boys i s carrying a f o o t b a l l . Both the aampesino and the children are smiling. Assorted dogs and a boy i n the background r i d i n g a b i c y c l e complete the scene. It w i l l be noted that some themes are represented by more than one picture. Photographs 2 and 14 showing aampesinos who are drinking or who have been drinking, and photographs 12 and 19 depicting aampesinos looking at appliances i n shop windows are two such pairs containing almost i d e n t i c a l s t i m u l i . These have been included deliberately to provide some measure of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the technique and the i n t e r n a l con-sistency of each subject's set of responses. The test was administered to sixty-eight aampesinos i n sample groups i n the Camino Real and Los Chenes regions of North-Central and North-Western Campeche. The subjects were a l l male e j i d a t a r i o s (32) of predominantly Maya stock, a l l An e j i d a t a r i o i s a aampesino who holds usufruct t i t l e to an e j i d a l plot as a consequence of the post-Revolutionary land reform/ involving the breakdown of former large estates in the form of land grants to groups of landless aampesinos. 37 except some of t h e o l d e r p e o p l e b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y b i l i n g u a l . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n as broad a range of e x p e r i e n c e w i t h modern a g r i c u l t u r a l development as p o s s i b l e , samples were tak e n o f f o u r groups o f oampesinos i n v o l v e d i n the r e c e n t government-sponsored s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f t i m e , and from a f i f t h b a s e - l i n e group who had not r e c e i v e d any form of t e c h n i c a l o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and were c o m p l e t e l y dependent on the t r a d i t i o n a l m i l p a system. These f i v e groups were s e l e c t e d w i t h i n a r e g i o n o f f a i r l y u n i f o r m g e o l o g y , topography and h y d r o l o g y , from s m a l l towns w i t h s i m i l a r economic bases and a c c e s s i b i l i t y by major r o a d s , and i n a p o p u l a t i o n c u l t u r a l l y homogeneous ( 3 3 ) . Thus, the o n l y e s s e n t i a l v a r i a t i o n amongst the groups was t h e l e n g t h o f time o f membership i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment p r o j e c t s which ranged from z e r o t o two y e a r s . Due t o t h e problems i n h e r e n t i n s a m p l i n g peasant p o p u l a t i o n s i n s i t u , c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y was a l l o w e d i n d r a wing the samples o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n o r d e r t o compensate f o r b i a s . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h i s s u r v e y was conducted i n the summer months when t h e r e i s l i t t l e a g r i c u l t u r a l work t o be done i n the m i l p a , and t h e oampesinos tend t o range a l l over t h e c o u n t r y s i d e l o o k i n g f o r wage P r o j e c t s were r e j e c t e d from th e sample f o r such reasons as t h e i r r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y and i f they i n -c l u d e d a p p r e c i a b l e numbers o f non-Maya amongst t h e i r members 38 l a b o u r . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y c o u l d not be depended on t o be i n any one p l a c e a t any s p e c i f i e d t i m e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a t t i t u d e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n was not known, so as l a r g e samples as p o s s i b l e were sought t o m i n i m i z e b i a s . A f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y was the r e l u c t a n c e o r r e f u s a l o f a few of t h e aampesinos drawn t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t e s t , f o r such reasons as shame about t h e i r l a c k o f f l u e n c y i n S p a n i s h , a n x i e t y as t o whether they might n ot be a b l e t o p e r f o r m s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , and shyness o r m i s g i v i n g s about t h e i n t e r -v i e w e r . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y t o g e t h e r w i t h the problem t h a t i n s e v e r a l o f t h e i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s sampled o n l y t h e most m o t i v a t e d members had remained a t home and were coming t o work r e g u l a r l y , made random s a m p l i n g from the l i s t o f members a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k . Thus a r e a s o n a b l y s a t i s f a c t o r y f i f t y -p e r c e n t random sample was a c h i e v e d i n two o f t h e sample groups ( P r o j e c t s Pomuch and Hopelchen). Another two groups are e s s e n t i a l l y one hundred p e r c e n t samples o f t h e e f f e c t i v e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h f l u c t u a t e d t o such an e x t e n t t h a t an i n - f i e l d random sample was not f e a s i b l e ( P r o j e c t s N i l c h i -T i n u n and A n t i g u a T i n u n ) . The b a s e - l i n e group o f non-p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the new a g r i c u l t u r a l developments began as a f i f t y - p e r c e n t random sample o f t h e whole group, and ended up as a hundred-percent sample o f the h a l f o f the group t h a t were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e t e s t . However, the o v e r a l l r e s u l t i s a r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f Campeche aampesinos p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the new i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s . 39 I n t h e f o u r p r o j e c t sample g r o u p s t h e t e s t s were c o n d u c t e d i n t h e f i e l d s i n c e t h e oampesinos were a l l w o r k i n g t h e r e t o g e t h e r and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t had t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a l l o w i n g t h e s u b j e c t s t o t a k e t h e t e s t a l o n e and f r e e f r o m i n t e r r u p t i o n s , b u t w i t h t h e r e a s s u r a n c e o f h a v i n g h i s workmates i n s i g h t . I n t e r v i e w -i n g was n o t p r a c t i c a b l e i n t h e s u b j e c t s ' own h o u s e s b e c a u s e t h e p r e s e n c e o f f a m i l y and f r i e n d s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r i n h i b i t i o n s and d i s t o r t e d t e s t r e s p o n s e s . A l s o t h e h u m a n - l i v e s t o c k n o i s e l e v e l had d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s on t h e a u d i b i l i t y l e v e l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w r e c o r d i n g s . I n t h e Pomuch p r o j e c t t h e sh a d e d c u r b o f t h e pump-house made a s u i t a b l e i n t e r v i e w i n g b a s e . F o r t h e o t h e r t h r e e p r o j e c t s t h e t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e f r o n t s e a t o f a V o l k s w a g e n as t h e pump h o u s e s were u n a v a i l a b l e . The b a s e - l i n e sample o f Pomuch Town e j i d a t a r i o s was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e m e e t i n g room o f t h e Comisariado E j i d a l 3 t h e o f f i c i a l e j i d a l h e a d q u a r t e r s , t o w h i c h t h e e j i d a l s e c r e t a r y e n c o u r a g e d t h e s e l e c t e d oampesinos t o r e p o r t e a c h e v e n i n g . I n e a c h sample group c o n d i t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were s t a n d a r d i z e d t h r o u g h o u t , and w i t h e a c h s u b j e c t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p r e c e d e d by t h e i n t r o -d u c t i o n q u o t e d on page 31. The r e s p o n s e p r o t o c o l s were t r a n s l a t e d v e r b a t i m d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e t a p e s . A t t i t u d e c o d i n g was c a r r i e d o u t on t h i s l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n as e x a c t n e s s o f meaning i s more e s s e n t i a l t h a n f l o w i n g p r o s e i n an u n d e r t a k i n g o f t h i s 40 k i n d . The s i x a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r s t e s t e d b y t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were e x p a n d e d i n t o s e v e n t e e n c o d i n g u n i t s i n o r d e r t o make t h e a t t i t u d e c o d i n g as e x p l i c i t and d e t a i l e d as p o s s i b l e . T h e s e a r e : 1. Milpa c u l t i v a t i o n and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k . 2. N a t u r e ( i n c l u d i n g d r o u g h t s , f l o o d s , p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -m ent, r e s o u r c e s , e t c . ) 3. M e r c h a n t s . 4. T r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e ( l a r g e l a n d o w n e r s , f o r e m e n and s u p e r v i s o r s , r i c h men, l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s , e t c . ) 5. F o l k t r a d i t i o n s a n d s k i l l s ( c u l t i v a t i o n m e t h o d s , f o r e s t l o r e , d o m e s t i c s k i l l s , e t c . ) 6. Government b u r e a u c r a t s ( e n g i n e e r s , bank o f f i c i a l s , t h e g o v e r n o r , e t c . ) 7. A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t . 8. I r r i g a t i o n u n i t s and o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t p r o j e c t s . 9. M o d e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s ( f e r t i l i z e r , m a c h i n e s , c o - o p e r a t i v e l a b o u r , e t c . ) 10. E d u c a t i o n a nd t r a i n i n g . 11. R e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s a n d m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g s u p e r s t i t i o n s ) . 12. N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l w ork ( r u r a l and u r b a n ) . 13. M a t e r i a l goods and w a n t s ( a s p i r a t i o n s f o r consumer goods and p e r c e i v e d n e c e s s i t i e s ) . 14. L e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . 15. The c i t y ( p e r c e i v e d r o l e and a t t i t u d e t o urban l i f e - w a y ) . 16. F a m i l y w e l f a r e and l i f e - w a y . 17. Campesino l i f e - w a y and s t a t u s ( s e l f - v i e w o f own i d e n t i t y g r o u p ) . The s t o r y r e s p o n s e s t o each p i c t u r e were coded i n a c o m p l e t e l y random o r d e r t o reduce b i a s . A s t a n d a r d c o d i n g procedure was used f o l l o w i n g t h i s f o r m a t . 1. Read t h r o u g h t h e whole s t o r y . 2. Check statements which are c l e a r l y a t t i t u d i n a l , t h a t i s v a l u e - l a d e n b e l i e f s , o p i n i o n s , assessments and a s p i r a t i o n s . T h i r d p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e may be checked as i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s own a t t i t u d e s . Re-read t h e whole s t o r y c o n t e x t i n o r d e r t o make judgements on statements w i t h l e s s o b v i o u s a t t i t u d e c o n t e n t . 3. A s s i g n a t t i t u d e statements t o t h e c o d i n g u n i t s . One sentence may be a s s i g n e d t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t u n i t s and i s checked s e p a r a t e l y f o r each u n i t i d e n t i f i e d . Check d i r e c t l y on the s t o r y p r o t o c o l whether each statement i s p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e u s i n g b o t h t h e whole s t o r y c o n t e x t and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and c u l t u r a l knowledge i n the judgement. No n e u t r a l statements a r e t o be checked b e i n g r e g a r d e d as i n f o r m a t i o n a l statements w i t h o u t a t t i t u d i n a l c o n t e n t o r weight. Re-read a l l statements judged as n e u t r a l f o r 42 shades of p o s i t i v e or negative meaning. I f one statement c o n s i s t s of both a p o s i t i v e and a negative p a r t each p a r t should be checked s e p a r a t e l y . 4. Prepare summated responses by t a l l y i n g the number o f p o s i t i v e and negative a t t i t u d e statements checked f o r each coding u n i t . Assess the value of each summated response u s i n g the accompanying r u l e . I f 0-20% of the statements are p o s i t i v e assess as — I f 20-40% of the statements are p o s i t i v e assess as -I f 40-60% of the statements are p o s i t i v e assess as Balanced I f 60-80% of the statements are p o s i t i v e assess as + I f 80-100% of the statements are p o s i t i v e assess as ++ Record the number of statements making up each summated response. 5. Using the d e c i s i o n t r e e ( F i g . 1 ) , t r a c e the path to the f i n a l code number and enter the number i n the code-book. Refer back to the s t o r y t e x t to answer the questions on the t r e e . The d e c i s i o n t r e e permits the data t o be handled i n an h o l i s t i c way, as the f i n a l code numbers at the end of the t r e e d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s combinations of s e v e r a l dimensions of the a t t i t u d e s . Thus the data is,, already p a r t i a l l y analyzed by the end of the coding process. The question on the t r e e "Is response a c t i v e ? " r e f e r s to whether the sub j e c t appears to be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , achievement-motivated, and c r e a t i v e F I G . 1 Decision tree for P H O T A M coding Is p o t e n t i a l change In l i f e w a y perce ived w i t h respect to a t t i t u d e object? • v — Is response readi ly i d e n t i f i a b l e as m o d e r n or t r a d i t i o n a l ? If so , then is i t m o d e r n ? C O D E 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 CO w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a t t i t u d e o b j e c t , o r w h e t h e r he seems a p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t , f a t a l i s t i c , l e t h a r g i c o r i n d i f f e r e n t . The " p o t e n t i a l change i n l i f e - w a y " q u e s t i o n r e f e r s t o w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o r p o s s i b i l i t y o f change o r a t t a i n m e n t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . The f i n a l q u e s t i o n r e f e r s t o w hether t h e a t t i t u d e s examined seem t o e x h i b i t modern o r t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r o u t l o o k s , o r r e l a t e t o t h e more modern o r t r a d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f campesino l i f e i n Campeche. A n a t i v e L a t i n A m e r i c a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t w i t h e x t e n s i v e f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e amongst Andean p e a s a n t s was r e q u e s t e d t o a c t as s e c o n d c o d e r on a p i l o t sample c o n s i s t i n g o f t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n some measure o f t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y and i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s c o d i n g s y s t e m . The r e s p o n s e d a t a was s u b j e c t e d t o two t y p e s o f a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t t y p e i s an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s b a s e d on t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c o d i n g method o u t l i n e d above. T h i s d a t a were p r o c e s s e d by t h e " S t a t i s t i c a l P ackage f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) , 1 1 w h i c h i s an i n t e -g r a t e d s y s t e m o f computer programmes w r i t t e n i n F o r t r a n IV f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e d a t a ( 3 3 ) . U s i n g t h i s p ackage t h e u s u a l d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were g e n e r a t e d Norman N i e , D a l e B e n t and H a d l a i H u l l , SPSS S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , M c G r a w - H i l l , New Y o r k , 1970. 45 i n c l u d i n g h i s t o g r a m s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e -r e s p o n s e p r o f i l e s i n t h e sample g r o u p s , c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s and r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t and e a c h g r o u p , and a p h o t o g r a p h a t t i t u d e m a t r i x f o r e a c h s u b j e c t c o n t a i n i n g t h e r e s p o n s e c o d e s . An i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t was a l s o p e r f o r m e d between t h e t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e d a t a e v a l u a t e d by t h e s e c o n d c o d e r , and t h e w r i t e r ' s own p i l o t c o d i n g o f t h e same d a t a . The same t e s t was r u n on t h e w r i t e r ' s p i l o t and f i n a l c o d i n g s o f t h e same d a t a i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s c o d i n g c o n s i s t e n c y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e -s p o n s e s i n f i v e p a i r s o f p h o t o g r a p h s e a c h c o n t a i n i n g s i m i l a r s t i m u l i were compared as a measure o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f e a c h s u b j e c t ' s s e t o f r e s p o n s e s . S t e p w i s e m u l t i v a r i a t e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d as a t e s t o f gro u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s and as a measure o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The s e c o n d t y p e o f a n a l y s i s u s e d was a s u b j e c t i v e l i t e r a l a n a l y s i s b a s e d d i r e c t l y on t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s t o r y r e s p o n s e s t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . Key a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e whole r e s p o n s e s and t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n them. T h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e f o r a t t i t u d e measurement was d e v e l o p e d and t e s t e d i n Campeche d u r i n g two summer f i e l d s e a s o n s . The a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r s IV and V w i l l show t h a t PHOTAM s u c c e e d s i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e r e s e a r c h g o a l o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h would combine c u l t u r a l 46 i n s i g h t w i t h o b j e c t i v e m e asurement o f a t t i t u d e s , w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g d e p t h and s e n s i t i v i t y f o r r i g o u r . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e r e g i o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e aampesino a t t i t u d e p r o f i l e s a r e s t u d i e d . 47 CHAPTER I I I THE REGIONAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT The R a t i o n a l e f o r a C o n t e x t u a l Approach The r e s e a r c h approach employed i n t h i s t h e s i s i s based on t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t knowledge o f n o n - m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e such as a t t i t u d e s and u n d e r l y i n g v a l u e s i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e l i f e - w a y o f human communities and t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o t r a n s f o r m t h e i r environment (1). Thus any c u l t u r a l s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s must be s e t i n t h e broad r e g i o n a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , i f c o h e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e meaning o f a t t i t u d e s i n terms o f t h e i r a c t i o n i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e t o be drawn. A c o n t e x t u a l approach i s e s p e c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Campeche aampesinos ' a t t i t u d e s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l change, f o r the Yucatan Maya are a c l a s s i c example o f a p e o p l e whose d e s t i n i e s are t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n s e p a r a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l environment. The Maya's whole s o c i o - c u l t u r a l system i s bound up w i t h t h e i r d a i l y e f f o r t s t o t r a n s f o r m the environment i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t i a l a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f modern a g r i c u l t u r a l methods i n such a c o n t e x t i n v o l v e s f a r "^NAS-NRC, The S c i e n c e o f Geography, Washington, D.C, 1965, p. 28. 48 more t h a n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t a n g i b l e improvements s u c h as f e r t i l i z e r o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c r e d i t . M o d e r n i z a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e n o t o n l y i n v o l v e s i n c r e a s i n g c a p a c i t y f o r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , b u t a l s o has r e -p e r c u s s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . A c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s b o t h r a d i c a l r e s t r u c -t u r i n g o f a t t i t u d e s d e e p l y r o o t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e c o -l o g i c a l s y s t e m , and t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new m e n t a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e c o n g r u e n t w i t h a "modern" way o f l i f e . T h u s , i n o r d e r t o comprehend t h e c u l t u r a l meaning o f t h i s complex a t t i t u d i n a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e g i o n a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . An H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v elopment and Campesino L i f e - w a y i n Campeche An h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t and oampesino l i f e - w a y i n Campeche i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f t h e p r e s e n t - d a y oampesinos} as i n many r e s p e c t s t h e i r l i v e s have changed l i t t l e s i n c e t h e t i m e o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s , t h e i l l u s t r i o u s a n c i e n t Maya. U n t i l r e c e n t l y s u c h changes w h i c h have t a k e n p l a c e have t e n d e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s r a t h e r t h a n demanding e x t e n s i v e c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n . 49 One theme i n p a r t i c u l a r has been maintained through-out the c e n t u r i e s w i t h unbroken c o n t i n u i t y , the Maya's extensive transformation of the p h y s i c a l environment i n the course of t h e i r occupance of the Yucatan Peninsula. The landscape shows an amazing amount of a l t e r a t i o n at the hands of an a g r i c u l t u r a l people possessing a bare minimum of p r i m i t i v e t o o l s . Everywhere one encounters the testimony of many cen t u r i e s of Maya c i v i l i z a t i o n , from the p r o l i f e r -a t i o n of ancient Maya r u i n s to the almost complete a l t e r a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l v e g e t a l cover through the agency of the slash-and-burn c u l t i v a t i o n demanded by the milpa system and many years of e x p l o i t a t i o n of the f o r e s t s f o r dyes, hard-woods, c h i c l e and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . The p h y s i c a l environment appears to be f a r from h o s p i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r i n g the growth of a f l o u r i s h i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c i v i l i z a t i o n such as th a t developed by the ancient Maya. V i r t u a l l y the whole of the peninsula c o n s i s t s of a k a r s t p l a i n w i t h low r e l i e f f r i n g e d by a very narrow c o a s t a l p l a i n . Consequently there i s no surface water throughout most of the area, and settlement l o c a t i o n i s frequently constrained by the occurrence of oenotes or n a t u r a l w e l l s formed by the c o l l a p s e of the s u r f i c i a l limestone ex-posing subterranean waters (2). Opportunities f o r construc-2Many place names i n the Yucatan Peninsula contain the Maya s u f f i x -ohen, meaning w e l l , or a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o the existence of a eenote: . f o r example, Hopelchen, Dzxbal-chen, Chichen-Itza, Chancenote. 50 t i n g r e s e r v o i r s a r e q u i t e l i m i t e d due t o t h e p o r o u s n a t u r e o f t h e l i m e s t o n e . The w a t e r - s u p p l y p r o b l e m i s compounded by t h e c l i m a t i c r e g i m e , w h i c h i s a h o t , humid s a v a n n a h - t y p e c l i m a t e (Koppen Aw), w i t h l i t t l e t e m p e r a t u r e v a r i a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r and v e r y heavy r a i n f a l l i n t h e summer months f o l l o w e d by a f o u r - o r f i v e - month d r y s e a s o n e x t e n d i n g i n t o s p r i n g ( 3 ) . The d r y p e r i o d i s f r e q u e n t l y h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r i n l e n g t h and e x t r e m e l y wet o r d r y y e a r s a r e common w i t h d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s on t h e c r o p r e t u r n s . I n a d d i t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h t h e a r e a i s o f low r e l i e f , s o i l s a r e s h a l l o w and t h e t e r r a i n i s q u i t e r o u g h b e c a u s e o f t h e r o c k y n a t u r e o f many o f t h e s l o p e s . However, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l f e r t i l i t y and t h e b e s t b l a c k s o i l s , w h i c h a r e h i g h i n o r g a n i c matter/ c an p r o v e v e r y p r o d u c t i v e , a t l e a s t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t c u l t i v a t i o n c y c l e . The v e g e t a t i o n g r a d a t e s f r o m s c r u b b y b u s h i n t h e n o r t h o f th e p e n i n s u l a t o t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t s i n t h e s o u t h . The p a r t o f Campeche w h i c h was s t u d i e d , t h e n o r t h and n o r t h -w e s t e r n p o r t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e , l i e s a b o u t mid-way between t h e s e e x t r e m e s , making c l e a r i n g o f t h e monte (4) o r f o r e s t "^The t e m p e r a t u r e o f e v e r y month i s g r e a t e r t h a n 1 8 ° C , and p r e c i p i t a t i o n a v e r a g e s w e l l o v e r 1000 mm p e r y e a r , 4Campeche aampesinos commonly use t h e t e r m "monte" t o r e f e r t o a l l k i n d s o f f o r e s t and bush, t h o u g h s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g "aaahual" i s t h e name g i v e n t o t h e newer low r o t a t i o n f o r e s t . 51 f o r milpa no easy t a s k . One contemporary Mayan oampesino d e s c r i b e s the e f f e c t of these p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s on the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l system i n Campeche as f o l l o w s : Ah. T h i s i s another milpa. T h i s looks j u s t l i k e mine. I have been p l a n t i n g on t h a t higher l a n d over near the road to Dzibalchen. I t i s very rocky and the s o i l i s not very good, but the v e g e t a t i o n i s e a s i e r to c l e a r . You see there are no r i v e r s here because of t h i s limestone. The c l i m a t e , you would say t h a t the c l i m a t e i s very dry, because much of the year there i s no r a i n . And the r a i n s come l a t e a l l the time and the crops do not get enough water. And then the r e s t of the year i t r a i n s a l l the time and the crops get washed away or t h e r e are d i s e a s e s . Whatever c r i s i s t here i s i n a g r i c u l t u r e we get r i g h t here i n Los Chenes. (5) N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e these d i f f i c u l t i e s the Maya c i v i l i z a t i o n i n the northern p a r t of the P e n i n s u l a t h r i v e d on an apparently p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l base, producing the great ceremonial c i t y - b a s e d t r i b a l groupings such as C h i c h e n - I t z a and Mayapan (6). However, there was l i t t l e t o a t t r a c t the conquerors when they began to occupy the area i n the m i d - s i x t e e n t h century, as the f a b r i c of the Mayan Empire had already begun to weaken, and t r i b a l wars ^Subject 66, a member of the Hopelchen i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n response to photograph No. 18. ^The Yucatan c i t i e s of Coba, Yaxuna and Chichen I t z a were probably founded before the c i t i e s of the Old Empire of the Maya with i t s core area i n the Peten of northern Guatemala, were abandoned between the years 750 and 900 A.D. The f a l l of the l a t t e r has y e t to be adequately e x p l a i n e d , though e c o l o g i c a l reasons such as the d e c l i n e i n s o i l f e r t i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from d e s t r u c t i o n of the f o r e s t through slash-and-burn a g r i c u l t u r e are the most p l a u s i b l e . See E r i c R. Wolf, Sons of the Shaking E a r t h , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1959. 52 r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f Mayapan, t h e d e s p o i l i n g o f o t h e r c i t i e s and t h e permanent d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y among t h e Maya ( 7 ) . The S p a n i a r d s f o u n d no g r e a t s i l v e r o r g o l d m i n e s , o n l y a c o u n t r y s i d e i n w h i c h — " T h e r e i s n o t one p i e c e o f l a n d t h e s i z e o f a hand's span w h i c h has n o t b e en c u l t i v a t e d , " (8) so e x t e n s i v e was t h e mark o f t h e c e n t u r i e s o f Maya o c c u p a n c e . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n q u e s t o f t h e Y u c a t a n t h e Maya d e c l i n e i n t e n s i f i e d , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d u c t i o n i n p o p u l a t i o n due i n p a r t t o s u n d r y i n e f f e c t i v e r e v o l t s and e p i d e m i c s , b u t p e r h a p s m a i n l y r e s u l t i n g f r o m e n n u i i n d u c e d by t h e S p a n i s h d e s i r e f o r t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t o be r e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e S p a n i s h towns so t h a t t h e y c o u l d be t a u g h t C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h u s making i t d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Maya t o c u l t i v a t e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s ( 9 ) . As t i m e p a s s e d t h e s u r v i v i n g Maya s t i l l c l u n g ^ ( c o n t i n u e d ) See R o b e r t R e d f i e l d and A l f o n s o V i l l a R o j a s , Chan Kom, A Maya V i l l a g e , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1962, pp. 18-191 ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d by t h e C a r n e g i e I n s t i t u t e o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1934.) A l s o , E r i c W o l f , Sons o f t h e S h a k i n g E a r t h , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , O r T c a g o , 1959, pp. 104-105. R e d f i e l d and V i l l a R o j a s , op_. e x t . , p. 19. p Las R e l a c i o n e s G e o g r a f i c a s , R e l a c x o n de C a n c a c a b o , CDIAI, XI~7~p. 19 6 , 15 80, q u o t e d i n A l e j a n d r o Moreno T o s c a n o , G e o g r a f i a e c o n o m i c a de M e x i c o ( S i g l o X V I ) , C e n t r o de E s t u d i o s H i s t o r i c o s , Nueva S e r T e 2, E l C o l e g i o de M e x i c o , M e x i c o D.F., 1968, p. 114. I b i d . , p. 110. t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e - w a y t o u c h e d b u t l i t t l e by t h e i m p a c t o f S p a n i s h c u l t u r e , t h e u n c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n i n t e r r u p t e d o n l y by t h e o c c a s i o n a l b l o o d y i n s u r r e c t i o n c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e War o f t h e C a s t e s i n 1847 w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e depopu-l a t i o n o f many I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t s . M e a n w h i l e , t h e haciendas were t h r i v i n g i n t h e more s e t t l e d a r e a s , b a s e d on t h e n o t o r i o u s peon s y s t e m whereby t h e e s t a t e l a b o u r e r s were bound i n p e r p e t u a l d e b t - s e r v i t u d e t o t h e i r l a n d l o r d s o r patrons. T h i s s y s t e m was r e i n f o r c e d i n t h e n o r t h - w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e P e n i n s u l a by t h e "henequen r e v o l u t i o n " w h i c h t o o k p l a c e a r o u n d 18 80. Henequen o r s i s a l had been u s e d by t h e Maya t o make c o r d l o n g b e f o r e t h e c o n q u e s t , b u t a w o r l d m a r k e t was n o t d e v e l o p e d u n t i l t h e demand i n c r e a s e d due i n i t i a l l y t o employment o f t h e f i b r e i n t h e a u t o m a t i c s e l f - b i n d i n g r e a p e r s u s e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( 1 0 ) . L a r g e henequen p l a n t a t i o n s p r o l i f e r a t e d e x -t e n d i n g s o u t h w a r d s i n t o t h e Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes r e g i o n s o f n o r t h e r n Campeche. However, a f t e r 1911, o t h e r c o u n t r i e s began t o grow henequen and M e x i c o ' s s h a r e o f t h e w o r l d m a r k e t s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e d ( 1 1 ) . I n d e e d p r o d u c t i o n was x u C l a u d e B a t a i l l o n , L e s R e g i o n s G e o g r a p h i q u e s au Mexique, I n s t i t u t d es H a u t e s E t u d e s de l ' A m e r i q u e L a t i n e , P a r i s , 1967, S p a n i s h e d i t i o n S i g l o V e i n t i u n o E d i t o r e s , M e x i c o D.F., 1969, pp. 156-157. " ^ P r e s t o n James, L a t i n A m e r i c a , C a s s e l l , London, 1959, pp. 628-629, ( f i r s t e d i t i o n , 1942). a l m o s t d e s t r o y e d by t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e hacienda l a n d s i n t h e d e c a d e s f o l l o w i n g t h e R e v o l u t i o n . The new ejidos were t o o s m a l l f o r e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e e j i d a t a r i o s l a c k e d c a p i t a l and f r e q u e n t l y c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o r e p l a n t t h e l a n d s w i t h a g a v e . R e c e n t government f i n a n c i n g t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f c r e d i t banks has h e l p e d t o r e s u s c i t a t e p r o -d u c t i o n i n t h e c o r e a r e a a r o u n d M e r i d a i n t h e S t a t e o f Y u c a t a n , b u t t h e f i b e r p l a n t s r e m a i n e d i n t h e hands o f t h e o l d p l a n t a t i o n owners who c o n t i n u e d t o e x p l o i t t h e oampesinos u n t i l n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n 1964. However, t h e i n d u s t r y i s s t i l l i n s e r i o u s t r o u b l e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y c o m p e t i n g w i t h t h e l o w - c o s t E a s t A f r i c a n p r o d u c e r s . The r e v i v a l o f henequen p r o d u c t i o n i n Campeche was n o t as c o m p l e t e , t h o u g h p l a n t i n g s have i n c r e a s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s as a r e s u l t o f expanded c r e d i t o p e r a t i o n s . The R e v o l u t i o n o f 1910 t o 1921 i t s e l f had l i t t l e d i r e c t i m p a c t on t h e Y u c a t a n P e n i n s u l a o t h e r t h a n a g e n e r a l atmosphere o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y and u n r e s t , and a c e r t a i n amount o f p i l l a g i n g and m u r d e r i n g by u n s c r u p u l o u s a d v e n t u r e r s t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f t h e t r o u b l e d t i m e s , r e s u l t -i n g i n some m i g r a t i o n t o new l o c a t i o n s by r e f u g e e s . The main i m p a c t o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n as f a r as t h e Campeche oampesinos were c o n c e r n e d was t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e l a r g e e s t a t e s and t h e i r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o l a n d l e s s l a b o u r e r s i n t h e f o r m o f ejidos ( 1 2 ) . However, t h e oampesinos were f r e q u e n t l y a l l o t t e d t h e w o r s t l a n d o f t h e f o r m e r haoiendast and l a c k i n g t h e c a p i t a l t o work them c o m m e r c i a l l y t h e y c o n -t i n u e d w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l milpa s y s t e m o f s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n o f m a i z e . L i t t l e had changed e x c e p t t h a t t h e aampesino no l o n g e r had t o work as a w a g e l e s s peon on t h e haaiendado 's l a n d . I n 1970 one aampesino s a i d : B u t so f a r t h e Campeche aampesino's l i f e has not changed much. We a r e s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g i n much t h e same way as b e f o r e t h e R e v o l u t i o n . (13) The same aampesino t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e s a f t e r t h e R e v o l u t i o n as f o l l o w s : W e l l we were so s t u c k i n t h e mud h e r e t h a t we d i d n ' t e v e n know t h e R e v o l u t i o n was o v e r . One day some men came on h o r s e s t o t h e hacienda and s a i d , "Hey oompanerosi you a r e n o t s l a v e s any more. T h i s i s y o u r l a n d now. 1 The patron had a l r e a d y l e f t t a k -i n g h i s money w i t h him. Now, how c o u l d we a f f o r d t o work h i s l a n d s ? W e l l , we d i d n ' t know what t o do, so we went o v e r t h e r e i n t h e monte n e a r Pomuch t o c u l t i v a t e o u r milpa. T h e r e a r e no r i c h l a n d l o r d s a r o u n d h e r e any more [ p a u s e ] . A l l t h e o l d haaiendados have gone. Most o f them l e f t r i g h t a f t e r t h e R e v o l u t i o n . B u t o v e r by H o p e l c h e n t h e r e a r e some o f t h e same f a m i l i e s who s t i l l own t h e b e s t l a n d . The l a n d a r o u n d h e r e i s n o t good enough f o r any r i c h man t o want. T h a t i s why t h e y gave i t t o u s . (14) x z T h e ejido i s a f o r m o f l a n d t e n u r e o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e breakdown o f t h e l a r g e e s t a t e s i n t h e p o s t - R e v o l u t i o n a r y l a n d r e f o r m , i n w h i c h t h e g r o u p f o r m i n g t h e ejido h o l d s t h e l a n d t i t l e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l members have o n l y u s u f r u c t r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d . The g r o u p o f aampesinos m a k i n g a p p l i c a -t i o n f o r ejidal l a n d must e x c e e d t w e n t y i n number, and e a c h must be o v e r s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age. A r e s i d e n c e p e r i o d o f s i x months must be f u l f i l l e d b e f o r e an a p p l i c a t i o n can be f i l e d . The aampesinos may own s m a l l p i e c e s o f p r o p e r t y i n a d d i t i o n , b u t t h e y must work t h e egidal l a n d t h e m s e l v e s and n o t r e n t i t o u t . See, C o d i g o A g r a r i o de l o s E s t a d o s U n i d o s M e x i c a n o s , A r t i c l e 5 4 , M e d i n a Hermanos, M e x i c o D.F., 1 9 6 5 . S u b j e c t 3 4 , a member o f t h e N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 4 . x ^ I b i d . , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 1 0 . T h u s , t h e r e a l i t i e s o f b e i n g an e j i d a t a v i o i n Campeche t o d a y a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s e c u r e and p r o s p e r o u s p o s i t i o n w h i c h t h e campesino i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y s u p p o s e d t o e n j o y u n d e r t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1917. F o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s many o f t h e oampesinos g i v i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n as ejidatavio a r e m e r e l y s q u a t t e r s who have n o t y e t made o f f i c i a l a p p l i -c a t i o n t o t h e government f o r ejidal r i g h t s , and no o f f i c i a l l i s t o f ejidal members e v e r c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e a c t u a l p e r s o n s w o r k i n g t h e l a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e , and c l a i m s and c o u n t e r - c l a i m s f r e -q u e n t l y r e s u l t i n g i n l e g a l a c t i o n a r e common. I t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s a l a w y e r ' s o f f i c e and t h a t t h e y have come h e r e t o c o n s u l t him, b e c a u s e somebody i s t r y i n g t o t a k e away t h e i r l a n d o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . Y e s , t h i n g s l i k e t h a t o f t e n happen t o oampesinos. U n l e s s somebody t e l l s y ou what y o u r r i g h t s a r e some-one t r i e s t o e x p l o i t y o u . Always somebody t r i e s t o t a k e s o m e t h i n g away f r o m t h e oampesinos. V e r y r a r e l y does anyone t r y t o h e l p u s . Ha! W e l l , t h e y have come t o c o n s u l t t h i s l a w y e r so t h a t t h e y can f i n d o u t what t h e i r r i g h t s a r e and s t a n d up f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The t r o u b l e i s t h a t l a w y e r s c o s t a l o t o f money. (15) » I n b o t h t h e Camino R e a l and Los Chenes t h e r e i s n o t enough good l a n d w i t h i n t h e ejidos t o p r o v i d e good milpas f o r a l l t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h e s e ejidos have been g r a n t e d e x t e n s i o n s o r ampliaciones w h i c h may be many k i l o m e t e r s away f r o m t h e p a r e n t ejido, much t o o f a r away f o r commuting d a i l y t o t h e milpa. Many com m u n i t i e s have been awarded e x t e n s i o n s i n t h e d i s t a n t r a i n f o r e s t s i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t S u b j e c t 41, a member o f t h e A n t i g u a T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h no. 20. 57 o f t h e S t a t e a r o u n d E s c a r c e g a and n e a r t h e Q u i n t a n a Roo b o r d e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e aampesinos who work t h e s e l a n d s have t o l e a v e t h e i r homes f o r many months a t a t i m e i n o r d e r t o c a r e f o r t h e i r milpa. P e r h a p s i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s a l e and r e n t a l o f ejidal_ p l o t s i s s t r i c t l y f o r b i d d e n u n d e r t h e a g r a r i a n code t h e s e p r a c t i c e s a r e q u i t e common i n t h e Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes, and many aampesinos have v i r t u a l l y abandoned milpa c u l t i v a t i o n d e v o t i n g a l l t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o t h e e x t r e m e l y a r d u o u s b u t f i n a n c i a l l y more l u c r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i n g c h i c l e i n t h e f o r e s t s o f t h e i n t e r i o r . S t i l l o t h e r s work as peons o r l a b o u r e r s f o r t h o s e l a n d o w n e r s who c a n a f f o r d t o pay them, and when t h e r e i s no work o r i n t h e s l a c k s e a s o n o f t h e milpa c y c l e t h e y r a n g e a l l o v e r M e x i c o and even i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as m i g r a n t s i n s e a r c h o f c a s h wages. T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e R e v o l u t i o n may have f r e e d t h e aampesinos f r o m one k i n d o f bondage, t h e y a r e s t i l l bound t o t h e p a s t by t h e h i s t o r i c a l l e g a c y o f t h e i r p o v e r t y . T o d a y , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Campeche i s w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d , t h e S t a t e c a p i t a l and a few o t h e r o u t l y i n g s m a l l towns r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o n l y major s e t t l e m e n t a r e a s ( 1 6 ) . S m a l l aampesino v i l l a g e s and h a m l e t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ejidos a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a s where w a t e r s u p p l y i s a v a i l a b l e , t h o u g h s e t t l e m e n t i s no l o n g e r c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f n a t u r a l w e l l s o r oenotes due t o t h e s p r e a d o f modern w e l l - d i g g i n g t e c h n o l o g y . New s e t t l e m e n t s 58 a r e a l s o s p r i n g i n g up a l o n g t h e M e r i d a - M e x i c o r a i l w a y t r a c k and a l o n g t h e h a l f - d o z e n paved r o a d s p r o u d l y c o n s t r u c -t e d by r e c e n t S t a t e g o vernments. The Camino R e a l i s now l i n k e d t o M e r i d a by one o f t h e s e a r t e r i e s f o l l o w i n g a r o u t e w h i c h has e x i s t e d s i n c e t h e C o n q u e s t a t l e a s t . New unpaved r o a d s a r e a l s o b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d t o t h e l a r g e r o f t h e i s o l a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s . A campesino f r o m t h e v i l l a g e o f T i n u n on t h e Camino R e a l d e s c r i b e s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e new highway, w h i c h p r o v i d e s a c o n s i d e r -a b l y s h o r t e r r o u t e f r o m Campeche t o M e r i d a t h a n t h e o l d r o a d t h r o u g h L o s Chenes: You know i t i s n o t v e r y l o n g s i n c e t h e y opened up t h e highway h e r e . T h a t has made a b i g d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e Camino R e a l . I t has been t h e b i g g e s t change I remember. T h e r e was a l w a y s a r o a d t h r o u g h h e r e , b u t i t was v e r y n a r r o w and muddy. Now a l l t h e b i g t r u c k s can p a s s t h r o u g h e a s i l y and t h e r e a r e many b u s e s and c a r s . You c a n t r a v e l e v e r y w h e r e v e r y f a s t now i f y o u have t h e bus f a r e . And t h e t r u c k s c a n go and b r i n g o u t t h e c r o p s . I t i s a g r e a t s t e p f o r -ward f o r t h e Camino R e a l . (17) However, a n o t h e r oampesino f r o m Pomuch, a l i t t l e town a few k i l o m e t e r s a l o n g t h e r o a d t o w a r d s M e r i d a , i s more s c e p t i c a l X b T h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e i n 1965 was 168,219 i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h a d e n s i t y o f 3.74/sq.km., as o p p o s e d t o t h e 1900 f i g u r e o f 86,542 i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h a d e n s i t y o f 1.85/sq.km. The m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e a r e c o n c e n -t r a t e d i n t h e n o r t h e r n , c e n t r a l and c o a s t a l z o n e s , t h e s o u t h e r n and e a s t e r n r e g i o n s b e i n g v i r t u a l l y u n i h a b i t e d a p a r t f r o m s e a s o n a l milperos, f o r e s t e r s and c h i c l e and dye-wood g a t h e r e r s . See M i g u e l Messmacher, C a m p e c h e — A n a l -y s i s E c o n o m i c o - S o c i a l , M e x i c o , 1967, Cuadro No. 1, p. 363. 17 S u b j e c t 36, a member o f t h e N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 16. 59 a b o u t t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t t h e oampesinos w i l l o b t a i n f r o m i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n : R e c e n t l y t h e r e a r e more m o t o r s i n t h i s r e g i o n , more m a c h i n e s — c a r s , t r u c k s , t r a c t o r s , who knows what e l s e ? — a l l b e c a u s e o f t h i s new r o a d . A l i t t l e w h i l e ago t h e r e was n o t a s i n g l e m otor, n o t a s i n g l e r o a d . B u t y ou must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s e a r e n o t t h e oampesinos ' m o t o r s . They b e l o n g t o t h e government o f Campeche. T h i s r o a d i s no b e n e f i t t o u s . The t r a f f i c a l l p a s s e s s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h on i t s way t o M e r i d a . Why s h o u l d t h e y s t o p h e r e ? They a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n u s . B u t i t i s n i c e t o watch t h e t r a f f i c . (18) T h u s , i n many r e s p e c t s Campeche 1s t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y v e n e e r i s v e r y t h i n , and t h e u l t r a - m o d e r n government b u i l d i n g s and s u r r e a l i s t i c p a r k s d e c k e d w i t h a b s t r a c t s t a t u e s and f o u n t a i n s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e c a p i t a l c i t y , a r e somewhat o f an a n a c h r o n i s m i n a S t a t e i n w h i c h t h e b u l k o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y l e a d a s i m i l a r l i f e t o t h a t o f t h e i r p r e - C o n q u e s t a n c e s t o r s i n many r e s p e c t s . He i s a p o o r man t o o . He grew up i n t h e monte j u s t l i k e we d i d , l i k e a n i m a l s — w i t h o u t knowing o r l e a r n -i n g a n y t h i n g . He was i g n o r a n t when he was b o r n and w i l l be i g n o r a n t when he d i e s , [pause] He i s n o t t h i n k i n g a b o u t a n y t h i n g b e c a u s e t h e work i s s e c o n d -n a t u r e t o him, unchanged s i n c e t h e t i m e o f o u r a n c e s t o r s , t h e o l d Maya. N o t h i n g has changed. E v e r y t h i n g i s t h e same. (19) O n l y one b l o c k o f f t h e main highway w i t h i t s b l a z i n g s t r e e t l i g h t s t h e oampesinos s i t a r o u n d f l i c k e r i n g c a n d l e s 1 8 S u b j e c t 13, an egidatario . . l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 16. 1 9 S u b j e c t 4, an e j i d a t a r i o l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 11. 60 o r p a r a f f i n lamps i f t h e y a r e w e a l t h y , i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l Maya r u s t i c h o u s e s w h i c h Wauchope b e l i e v e s have changed v e r y l i t t l e i n s t y l e and c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e l a s t 1900 y e a r s (2 0 ) . Masonry h o u s e s a r e a l u x u r y f o r t h e f o r t u n a t e few. T h e s e Maya h o u s e s a r e n e a r l y r e c t a n g u l a r w i t h r o u n d e d e n d s , and a r e made o f p o l e s t i e d t o g e t h e r w i t h l i a n a s . Sometimes t h e s p a c e s between t h e p o l e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h a mud p l a s t e r t o i n c r e a s e w e a t h e r - p r o o f i n g . U s u a l l y f o u r u p r i g h t p o l e s s u p p o r t t h e p a l m - t h a t c h e d r o o f . The f l o o r s a r e b a r e e a r t h , h a r d - p a c k e d by t h e c o n s t a n t s l a p p i n g o f b a r e f e e t , and a s s i d u o u s l y swept and s p r i n k l e d w i t h w a t e r e v e r y day. The f u r n i s h i n g s a r e few and s i m p l e c o n s i s t i n g o f a b a r e minimum o f h o u s e h o l d u t e n s i l s , hammocks and t h e odd b e nch o r c h a i r . O n l y t h e u b i q u i t o u s t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o and t h e o c c a s i o n a l p l a s t i c b u c k e t a r e e v i d e n c e o f modern t i m e s . A s e p a r a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e h i n d t h e house o f t e n s e r v e s as a k i t c h e n , and t h e r e i s f r e q u e n t l y a coop f o r c h i c k e n s , b u t t h e r e a r e no s h e l t e r s f o r t h e o c c a s i o n a l cow o r p i g . One aampesino i s c l e a r l y d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h h i s p i c t u r e s q u e t r a d i t i o n a l home: T h i s house i s a t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t o f o u r c u l t u r e . They a r e a l l v e r y w e l l when t h e y a r e new, b u t when t h e y a r e o l d t h e y a r e h o v e l s , and a l o t o f a n i m a l s c l i m b up i n t h e r o o f — s p i d e r s , t a r a n t u l a s , s n a k e s and a l o t o f bad t h i n g s . I t i s d a ngerous t o l i v e i n them t h e n . (21) R. Wauchope, House Mounds o f U a x a c t u n , Guatemala, C a r n e g i e I n s t i t u t e o f W a s h i n g t o n , P u F l i c a t i o n 436, W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , 1934, p. 123. The Maya women s t i l l r i s e a t dawn o r even e a r l i e r t o g r i n d c o r n f o r t o r t i l l a s 3 t o f e t c h w a t e r and t o p r e p a r e t h e f i n e c o r n g r u e l atole f o r b r e a k f a s t ( 2 2 ) . The men o f t h e h o u s e h o l d must o f t e n l e a v e home b e f o r e l i g h t i n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e mil-pa w h i c h may be t e n o r t w e l v e k i l o m e t e r s away f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t b e f o r e t h e sun g e t s h o t . They f r e q u e n t l y . r e m a i n t h e r e u n t i l m i d - a f t e r n o o n , w o r k i n g r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e h e a t o f t h e day, e m p l o y i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l methods w h i c h a r e p r o b a b l y v i r t u a l l y t h e same as t h o s e u s e d by t h e a n c i e n t s . T h i s i s t h e way we have f a r m e d s i n c e t h e days o f t h e o l d Maya, y o u know, o u r a n c e s t o r s . (23) The o n l y b r e a k i n t h e w o r k i n g day i s t o p a r t a k e o f pozole3 a p a s t e made f r o m c o o k e d g r o u n d m a i z e , w h i c h i s t h e s t a p l e f o o d a l w a y s t a k e n t o t h e milpa when a v a i l a b l e , where i t i s mixed w i t h w a t e r and consumed as a b e v e r a g e ( 2 4 ) . Mean-w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n a r e s e n t t o s c h o o l i f t h e f a m i l y can a f f o r d n o t t o p u t them t o work i n t h e f i e l d s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f a m i l y income. The women do t h e m a r k e t i n g i f t h e r e 21 S u b j e c t 50, a member o f t h e Pomuch i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 9. 2 2 Atole de masa i s a g r u e l made w i t h v e r y f i n e l y g r o u n d c o r n m i x e d w i t h m i l k o r w a t e r . S a l t i s g e n e r a l l y added, b u t honey o r s u g a r may be u s e d . 2 3 S u b j e c t 25, a member o f t h e N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 11. 2^Pozole i s consumed e i t h e r " s t r a i g h t " w i t h s a l t o r mixed w i t h g r o u n d c a c a o . On f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n s f e r m e n t e d pozolemay be consumed. T h i s i s p r e p a r e d by a l l o w i n g t h e p a s t e t o f e r m e n t on r o l l e d l e a v e s i n t h e h e a t o f t h e sun. 62 i s money o r goods t o e x c h a n g e , and c a r r y o u t t h e i n e v i t a b l e d a i l y wash. T h e i r o n l y new a c t i v i t i e s i n c e n t u r i e s a r e t h e r e c e n t p r a c t i c e o f s e l l i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f l a t sponge c a k e s t o p a s s i n g m o t o r i s t s , and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a few o f t h e most a d v e n t u r o u s i n t h e s e w i n g c l a s s e s o r g a n i z e d by t h e M i s s i o n C u l t u r a l o f t h e M i n i s t r y f o r P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n . P r e p a r i n g t h e c o r n f o r tortillas s t i l l t a k e s up much o f t h e i r t i m e . F i r s t t h e c o r n must be c o o k e d i n l i m e and l e f t t o s t a n d o v e r n i g h t t o s o f t e n i t . Then t h e s o f t g r a i n s known as nixtamal a r e g r o u n d on a metate t o f o r m a c o a r s e - g r a i n e d c e r e a l {masa) w h i c h i s p a t t e d i n t o tortillas t o be c o o k e d on a g r i d d l e . The c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i z e b o t h i n d i e t and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . T h i s f a m i l y ' s d i e t d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t o f t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e C o n q u e s t o n l y i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f N e s c a f e as a t y p i c a l b e v e r a g e : They a r e happy b e c a u s e t h e y a r e g o i n g t o e a t w e l l t o d a y . T h a t i s q u i t e r a r e f o r a campesino f a m i l y . We m o s t l y have j u s t one meal a day a p a r t f r o m t h e pozol we t a k e t o t h e f i e l d s . I n t h e a f t e r n o o n t h e r e i s t o r t i l l a s 3 b e a n s , c h i l e and some v e g e t a b l e p e r h a p s , w i t h c o f f e e and s u g a r i f t h i n g s a r e g o i n g w e l l . And on Sundays t h e r e may be c h i c k e n o r meat stew, and c h o c o l a t e t o d r i n k a t n i g h t . B u t when t h i n g s a r e bad t h e r e i s j u s t c e r e a l m i x e d w i t h w a t e r and w a t e r t o d r i n k . And t h e n y o u r stomach b l o a t s and h u r t s , and y o u f e e l t o o weak t o work p r o p e r l y . (25) S u b j e c t 37, a member o f t h e N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i -g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 21. 63 The men r e t u r n f r o m t h e f i e l d s a t m i d - o r l a t e -a f t e r n o o n and t y p i c a l l y r e s t i n t h e i r hammocks b e f o r e b a t h -i n g , d o n n i n g c l e a n c l o t h e s and e a t i n g t h e main m e a l o f t h e day. P e r s o n a l c l e a n l i n e s s i s one o f t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Maya. The womens' d a z z l i n g h u i p i l s o r e m b r o i d e r e d w h i t e o v e r - b l o u s e s and t h e mens 1 c l e a n w h i t e t r o u s e r s and s h i r t s , make f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e u s i n g t h e wrong w a s h i n g powder. A f t e r d i n n e r comes a s t r o l l t o t h e -plaza i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e v i l l a g e . The plaza o r p a r k as i t i s commonly c a l l e d i n Campeche, i s r e g a r d e d as e s s e n t i a l i n even t h e s m a l l e s t v i l l a g e as a symbol o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and t h e d i g n i f i e d l i f e . A f t e r s p o r t s f o r t h e y o u t h s , r e l a x e d c o n v e r s a t i o n f o r t h e o l d e r men and a few women, and a few b e e r s i n t h e v i l l a g e shop o r oantina f o r t h e more a f f l u e n t men, most o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s r e t u r n t o t h e i r homes a t dusk f o r c o f f e e and c o n v e r s a t i o n . By t e n o ' c l o c k sounds o f a c t i v i t y a r e d y i n g down and c a n d l e s and lamps a r e blown o u t f o r a n o t h e r day. The Campeche Maya t o d a y a r e p o o r b u t r a r e l y s t a r v i n g . T h e i r g e n e r a l h e a l t h i s t y p i c a l o f a p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e semi-humid t r o p i c s , t h a t i s , v i r t u a l l y e v e r y b o d y has amoebas o r even worse h o u s e - g u e s t s , b u t t h e r e a l l y s i c k l y d i e young and t h e l i v i n g a r e r e a s o n a b l y r o b u s t . D o c t o r s and n u r s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a t i t i n e r a n t c l i n i c s , b u t t h e r e i s r a r e l y any money t o buy t h e m e d i c i n e s t h e y p r e s c r i b e . F a m i l i e s a r e s t i l l l a r g e i n o r d e r t o be s u r e o f p r o d u c i n g enough 64 sons t o work good, milpa. F i n a l l y t h e i n h a b i t a n t s a r e c l e a r l y p r o u d o f t h e i r Maya h e r i t a g e and t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r r e g i o n a l c u s t o m s : P e r h a p s t h e y a r e happy b e c a u s e t h e y a r e g o i n g t o have a s p e c i a l meal t o d a y l i k e c h i c k e n pibil. Hm. T h a t sounds good. We e a t t h i n g s l i k e t h a t on f e s t i v a l d a y s . I t i s p e c u l i a r t o " t h i s r e g i o n you know, t h e way we cook, t h e h e r b s we u s e . I t i s v e r y s p e c i a l , j u s t f r o m h e r e . (26) P e r h a p s p r e s e n t - d a y Campeche i s more Maya t h a n t h e S t a t e o f Y u c a t a n , f o r Campeche has alw a y s been a b a c k w a t e r whereas much o f t h e Y u c a t a n became a l m o s t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f henequen p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e r e s t o f t h e S t a t e has become a t o u r i s t s ' and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ' p a r a d i s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, Campeche was on t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e g r e a t a n c i e n t Maya c i v i l i z a t i o n , on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f S p a n i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n a f t e r t h e C o n q u e s t , a s p e c t a t o r o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n , and u n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e S t a t e was e s s e n t i a l l y b y - p a s s e d by t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Due t o t h e swamps o f T a b a s c o and t h e m o u n t a i n s o f C h i a p a s , Campeche has been c u t o f f f r o m M e x i c o C i t y by more t h a n d i s t a n c e . Campeche's n a t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n l i k e t h a t o f t h e Y u c a t a n i s m a r i t i m e , b u t t h e c o a s t l i n e i s i n h o s p i t a b l e w i t h no good n a t u r a l h a r b o u r s due t o o f f - s h o r e s a n d b a r s and r e e f s . E v e n t o d a y T a b a s c o a c t s as an economic i f n o t p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r between Campeche and t h e u p l a n d m a r k e t s , f o r t h e f o r m e r ' s 2 6 S u b j e c t 67, a member o f t h e H o p e l c h e n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No,. 21. e x t e n s i v e c a t t l e r a n c h i n g and p l a n t a t i o n s o f t r o p i c a l f r u i t s , c a c a o and c o p r a make i t u n r e a l i s t i c f o r t h e backward and s c a n t i l y p o p u l a t e d S t a t e o f Campeche t o a t t e m p t t o compete. However, t h e l o n g - s t a n d i n g s h r i m p i n d u s t r y i s t h r i v i n g w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new f r e e z i n g p l a n t s , and t h e f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s a r e a l s o d o i n g w e l l . P e r h a p s more s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h e f a c t t h a t c a t t l e r a i s i n g i s r e c e i v -i n g more a t t e n t i o n now t h a n i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s , and c a t t l e a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o become more i m p o r t a n t i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r o f Campeche. However, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s s t i l l one o f t h e c h i e f o b s t a c l e s i n d e v e l o p i n g t r a d i n g l i n k s w i t h o t h e r r e g i o n s , and a l t h o u g h m a j o r highways and r a i l r o a d s c u t t h r o u g h t h e S t a t e , t h e number o f f e e d e r r o a d s i s q u i t e l i m i t e d . C o n c e r t e d e f f o r t by t h e government t o p r o v i d e i r r i g a t i o n , p o t a b l e w a t e r and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i s p r o g r e s s i n g w e l l , so t h a t t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s b e i n g i m p r o v e d . T h e s e measures p e r se have done l i t t l e t o b r i n g t h e Maya i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . R e a l l y t h e o n l y means o f b r e a k i n g down t h e c a m p e s i n o s ' c e n t u r i e s o f i s o l a t i o n has been t h r o u g h t h e i m p a c t o f mass media e x p o s u r e , p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o s w h i c h many h o u s e h o l d s p o s s e s s , t h o u g h some oampesinos a l s o r e a d newspapers and m a g a z i n e s , and w a t c h t e l e v i s i o n and m o v i e s whenever t h e y g e t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y . Thus a l t h o u g h l i f e - w a y may have changed l i t t l e , t h e r e i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e i n a s p i r a t i o n s and o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . One may h e a r Campeche aampesinos c a r r y i n g on an a n i m a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a b o u t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e A p o l l o XI moonshot o r t h e l a t e s t W o r l d Cup f o o t b a l l r e s u l t s . However, t h i s a p p a r e n t c o s m o p o l i t e -n e s s i s o f t e n o n l y a t h i n f a c a d e as t h e same aampesinos may s t i l l be t h r o w i n g away t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o s when t h e b a t t e r i e s d i e , t h i n k i n g t h e y have r u n o u t o f e l e c t r i c i t y : I f I had a l i t t l e money I wo u l d buy a t r a n s i s t o r . I had one once b u t i t r a n o u t o f t h e e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t came i n s i d e t h e box, so i t i s no u s e now and t h e r e i s no more m u s i c . (27) The C h a n g i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n t e x t I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e M e x i c a n Government has been a t t e m p t i n g t o r a i s e t h e s t a n d a r d and q u a l i t y o f l i v i n g o f t h e aampesinos by i n i t i a t i n g measures d i r e c t e d a t m o d e r n i z i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . I n Campeche t h e main t h r u s t o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t has been i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l o a n s t o q u a l i f i e d aampesinos t h r o u g h t h e agen c y o f t h e Banco de Credito E j i d a l , t h e ejidal c r e d i t bank. A s e c o n d means o f a t t a c k on t h e a g r a r i a n p r o b l e m now i n v o l v i n g a r o u n d f i f t e e n ejidos i n Campeche, i s t h e Plan Uaoional de Obras de Pequena Ivvigacion, a programme o f s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s u n d e r t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e Searetavia de Reaursos Hidrauliaos S u b j e c t 12, an e j i d a t a v i o l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 12. 67 (the M i n i s t r y f o r Water Resources), and w i t h loans from the Inter-7American Development Bank. Given the h i s t o r i c a l development context o u t l i n e d above i t i s c l e a r t h a t such attempts to modernize t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e i n Campeche w i l l i n e v i t a b l y encounter many problems. For a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n v o l v e s f a r more than making c r e d i t a v a i l a b l e or d r i l l i n g a few w e l l s f o r i r r i g a t i o n . These i n n o v a t i o n s must be g r a f t e d onto the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , i n such a way t h a t c o n t i n u i t y and c u l t u r a l c o n s i s t e n c y are maintained and the oampesinos are not caused t o r e e l dazedly with " f u t u r e shock." In a d d i t i o n , the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s must not be d i s m i s s e d as " a l l bad" and w a s t e f u l . They r e p r e s e n t the c u l m i n a t i o n of many years of e c o l o g i c a l adjustment, a f i n e balance achieved through years of coping with a d i f f i c u l t environment. Development agents c o u l d l e a r n a l o t about t r o p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r e b y c l o s e l y o b s e r v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t i v a t i o n systems, and many a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s have f a i l e d through sheer ignorance of environmental c o n d i t i o n s , not to mention a t y p i c a l l a c k of awareness of the c u l t u r a l context of the people who are to be "developed." However, by modern standards a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o duction i n Campeche i s abysmally low, and many campesinos l i v e i n c h r o n i c a l l y poor c o n d i t i o n s , some below su b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s . Although c r e d i t i s now a v a i l a b l e f o r some ejidatarios few milperos a c t u a l l y q u a l i f y f o r loans because they l a c k 68 a c c e p t a b l e a s s e t s and f a v o u r a b l e c r e d i t h i s t o r i e s . To d a t e o n l y a few e j i d a t a r i o s have r e c e i v e d a p p r e c i a b l e amounts o f c r e d i t . T h e s e f o r t u n a t e few a r e t h o s e who have b e e n o r a r e members o f c r e d i t s o c i e t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d s m a l l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s s u c h as t h e p e a n u t and henequen p l a n t a t i o n s , c h i c k e n farms and more r e c e n t l y c a t t l e u n i o n s and t h e s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s . P e r h a p s f o r t u n a t e i s t h e wrong word b e c a u s e a l l o f t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s e x c e p t t h e l a t t e r two, have f a i l e d d i s m a l l y , f l o u n d e r i n g i n a s e a o f b u r e a u c r a t i c i n c o m p e t e n c e and p e a s a n t a c c u s a t i o n s o f c o r r u p t i o n . The campesino members were c o m p l e t e l y a t t h e mercy o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t e r n a l i s m and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o e x p l o i t a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i g n o r a n c e and i n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h modern a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , and o f t e n emerged p e n n i l e s s a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r when t h e c r e d i t was p a i d b a ck. C l e a r l y , t h i s i s n o t an i d e a l f o u n d a t i o n on w h i c h t o a t t e m p t t o b u i l d a m e c h a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l programme i n v o l v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e bank c r e d i t , s u c h as t h a t a t t e m p t e d by t h e s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n programme. T h u s , t h e Banco E j i d a l t h o u g h c r e a t e d t o s t i m u l a t e d e v e l o p m e n t i n ejidos, does n o t have enough c a p i t a l t o f i n a n c e more t h a n a v e r y few e j i d a t a r i o s who a r e engaged i n c u l t i v a t i n g p r o f i t a b l e c a s h - c r o p s , and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y a r e l a t i v e l y good i n v e s t m e n t r i s k . The o n l y i n d i v i d u a l e j i d a t a r i o s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes who were r e c e i v i n g c r e d i t , a p a r t f r o m t h e a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d d e v e l o p m e n t s o c i e t y members, were a h a n d f u l o f men who were f o l l o w i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Maya o c c u p a t i o n o f b e e - k e e p i n g as w e l l as g r o w i n g milpa, and a few e j i d a t a r i o s who a l s o owned s m a l l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h t h e y d e v o t e d t y p i c a l l y t o o r c h a r d s o r v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n s . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f oampesinos i n t h e a r e a have r e c e i v e d n e i t h e r c r e d i t n o r a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n c e o f any k i n d , and a r e s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g a l o n e i n t h e milpa w i t h t h e i r machete and p r e - C o l u m b i a n d i g g i n g s t i c k . The t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e g r o w i n g o f m a i z e i n t h e milpa s y s t e m , a v a r i a n t o f t h e t y p i c a l s l a s h - a n d - b u r n a g r i c u l t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many t r o p i c a l a r e a s . Under t h i s s y s t e m f i e l d s a r e l i t e r a l l y h a c k e d o u t o f t h e f o r e s t w i t h axe and machete. The v e g e t a l d e b r i s i s t h e n b u r n e d o f f l e a v i n g f e r t i l e a s h w h i c h e n r i c h e s t h e s h a l l o w s o i l . The c r o p i s p l a n t e d , weeded and h a r v e s t e d f o r two y e a r s i n s u c c e s s i o n (28). Then t h e oampesino r e p e a t s t h e p r o c e s s i n a d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n , s h i f t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e milpa when t h e s o i l l o s e s i t s f e r t i l i t y and y i e l d s d e c r e a s e . T h i s s y s t e m has p r o v e d q u i t e p r o -2 8 L o n g e r c u l t i v a t i o n p e r i o d s " a r e f r e q u e n t l y employed i n o t h e r t r o p i c a l r e g i o n s where t h e f e r t i l i t y o f t h e b u s h -s o i l does n o t d e c l i n e so s o o n . 70 d u c t i v e f o r t h e Maya o f t h e Y u c a t a n P e n i n s u l a as t h e f o r e s t s o i l i s o f t e n v e r y f e r t i l e d u r i n g t h e b r i e f p e r i o d o f c u l t i v a t i o n , i f t h e bu s h has n o t r e c e n t l y been i n u s e . However, a l t h o u g h t h e S t a t e o f Campeche as a whole has b u t a s p a r s e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e n o r t h e r n and c e n t r a l s e c t i o n s . The a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r o f t h e r e c e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e due t o i m p r o v e d h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t d e c l i n i n g d e a t h r a t e s , h as c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e t o be p l a c e d on t h e bus h c u r r e n t l y employed i n milpa c u l t i v a t i o n i n t h e s e r e g i o n s . The r e s u l t o f t h i s p r e s s u r e i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e low h e i g h t o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n c a u s e d by f o r c e d s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e r o t a t i o n c y c l e , and t h e aampesinos' c o m p l a i n t s o f d e c l i n i n g y i e l d s . T h i s p r o b l e m has been i n t e n s i f i e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n t h e Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f a p e r i o d o f s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s o f h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r p r e c i p i t a t i o n b r i n g i n g a l t e r n a t i n g d r o u g h t s and f l o o d s , w i t h d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s on m a i z e h a r v e s t s . A t t e m p t s have been made t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n by g r a n t i n g t h e a f f l i c t e d ejidos e x t e n s i o n s i n t h e f o r e s t s o f t h e s o u t h - e a s t o f t h e S t a t e where t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l . However, t h i s c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d as a l o n g -r a n g e s o l u t i o n t o t h e aampesinos' a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m s , as even t h e s p a r s e l y - p o p u l a t e d r a i n f o r e s t s a r e n o t u n l i m i t e d and i n e x h a u s t i b l e , and s u b s t a n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s c a n n o t be made un d e r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e x t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n s y s t e m . 71 The t r a d i t i o n a l c y c l e o f m a i z e c u l t i v a t i o n t a k e s a f u l l t w e l v e months, a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e l o n g p e r i o d s d u r i n g t h i s t i m e when t h e r e i s l i t t l e a c t u a l l a b o u r t o be done i n t h e milpa. The a v e r a g e h e c t a r a g e c u l t i v a t e d by Campeche aampesinos i s a b o u t t h r e e h e c t a r e s o r s e v e n t y - f i v e meaates ( 2 9 ) , and t h e t y p i c a l number o f a c t u a l f i e l d - w o r k days e s t i m a t e d t o be n e c e s s a r y i s a b o u t one h u n d r e d and s e v e n t y -f i v e . Many r e s e a r c h e r s a r e d i s t u r b e d by t h e a p p a r e n t l y i d l e one h u n d r e d and n i n e t y r e m a i n i n g d a y s , murmuring a b o u t underemployment and p e a s a n t l a z i n e s s . However, milpa c u l t i v a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y s t r i c t l y a f a m i l y a f f a i r and few can a f f o r d t o h i r e peons t o h e l p o u t d u r i n g t h e b u s y s e a s o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e amount o f l a n d e a c h f a m i l y c a n c u l t i v a t e i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d by t h e amount o f t h e f o r e s t t h e y c a n c l e a r . Thus t h e h o u s e h o l d s w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f male l a b o u r u n i t s w i l l be a b l e t o c l e a r and p l a n t p r o -p o r t i o n a l l y more l a n d , b u t t h r e e o r f o u r h e c t a r e s i s t h e maximum t h a t can be u n d e r t a k e n by t h e t y p i c a l h o u s e h o l d i n t h e t i m e p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e . Anyway, most aampesinos i n t h e Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes l i k e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e " o f f - s e a s o n s " i n t h e milpa t o l o o k f o r employment as l a b o u r e r s f o r l a n d o w n e r s , o r t o go t o t h e s o u t h - e a s t o f t h e S t a t e t o work as chicleros o r w o o d - c u t t e r s , o r t o t a k e any o t h e r 2 9 A meaate e q u a l s a b o u t one t w e n t y - f i f t h o f a h e c t a r e . When t h e f o r e s t i s b e i n g c l e a r e d t h e l a n d i s measured o f f w i t h a s t i c k i n t o meaates, e a c h a s q u a r e o f t w e n t y m e t e r s t o a s i d e . 72 employment w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e them w i t h enough c a s h wages t o buy h o u s e h o l d s u p p l i e s and o t h e r n e c e s s i t i e s . The f i r s t o p e r a t i o n i n milpa c u l t i v a t i o n i s l o c a t i n g t h e f i e l d . Some l a n d s a r e more f e r t i l e t h a n o t h e r s , t h e p r e f e r r e d s i t e s o c c u r r i n g i n a r e a s o f b l a c k s o i l w i t h a t a l l b u s h c o v e r i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e p a t c h has n o t been c u l t i v a t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The v e r y t h i n r e d s o i l i s a v o i d e d i f p o s s i b l e . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e a v a i l a -b i l i t y o f a w a t e r s u p p l y i n t h e v i c i n i t y , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e and milperos must o f t e n c a r r y w a t e r t o t h e f i e l d s . A f t e r s e l e c t i n g h i s f i e l d , t h e oampesino measures i t o u t i n meoates m a r k i n g e a c h c o r n e r w i t h a p i l e o f s t o n e s . T h i s o p e r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y t a k e s a c o u p l e o f d a y s f o r t h e a v e r a g e s e v e n t y - f i v e me oate p l o t . The n e x t s t e p i s t o c u t down t h e v e g e t a t i o n w i t h an ax o r machete. E v e r y t h i n g i s c l e a r e d e x c e p t t h e v e r y t a l l e s t t r e e s and a few palms w h i c h a r e f r e q u e n t l y l e f t s t a n d i n g f o r use i n t h a t c h i n g h o u s e s . F e l l i n g u s u a l l y t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e autumn and e a r l y w i n t e r when t h e t r e e s a r e s a t u r a t e d and e a s y t o c u t . The s m a l l e r growth i s c u t f i r s t and p i l e d up f o r d r y i n g , t h e n t h e h i g h e r t r e e s a r e c u t . On t h e a v e r a g e t h i r t y man-days o f l a b o u r a r e r e q u i r e d f o r s e v e n t y -f i v e mecates o f new milpa, b u t u s u a l l y two men work t o g e t h e r i n t h i s o p e r a t i o n h a l v i n g t h e work t i m e . The b u r n i n g o f t h e p i l e d up v e g e t a t i o n and stumps t a k e s p l a c e i n M a r c h , A p r i l and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f May. D u r i n g 73 t h i s p e r i o d t h e whole c o u n t r y s i d e i s e n v e l o p e d i n a m y s t e r -i o u s h a z e , and t h e s m e l l o f wood smoke i s a l l - p e r v a s i v e . T h i s i s t h e c r i t i c a l p e r i o d f o r t h e milpero. He wants t o l e a v e t h e p i l e s o f v e g e t a l d e b r i s l y i n g i n t h e f i e l d as l o n g as p o s s i b l e t o d r y o u t f u l l y , b u t on t h e o t h e r hand he f e a r s b e i n g c a u g h t by an e a r l y r a i n w i t h h i s f i e l d n o t y e t f i r e d . The p l a n t i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n May and e a r l y June a f t e r t h e r a i n y s e a s o n has begun. A p o i n t e d wooden d i g g i n g s t i c k o r ooa a b o u t f i v e f e e t l o n g i s u s e d . In a n c i e n t t i m e s t h e t i p s o f t h e s e s t i c k s were f i r e - h a r d e n e d , b u t t h e p r e s e n t -day Maya employ i r o n p o i n t s i n s t e a d . W i t h t h i s s t i c k s m a l l h o l e s a b o u t t h r e e i n c h e s deep a r e dug i n rows, one h o l e f o r e a c h h i l l o f c o r n . T h r e e t o s i x k e r n e l s o f s e e d c o r n s a v e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s h a r v e s t a r e d r o p p e d i n e a c h h o l e . A f t e r p l a n t i n g t h e aampesino s t e p s on t h e h o l e s t o c o v e r them up. Sometimes bean o r s q u a s h seeds may be d r o p p e d i n t h e same h o l e s as t h e m a i z e , o r a s e p a r a t e p a r t o f t h e milpa may be s e t a s i d e as a v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n . P l a n t i n g u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s a b o u t n i n e man-days p e r s e v e n t y - f i v e meaates. C a r e o f t h e milpa a f t e r s o w i n g i s o f t e n somewhat h a p h a z a r d . The aampesinos i n t h e Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes s a y t h a t a f i r s t - y e a r milpa must be weeded a t l e a s t once and a s e c o n d - y e a r milpa t w i c e i f r e a s o n a b l y h i g h y i e l d s a r e t o be o b t a i n e d . However, i n p r a c t i c e t h i s recommendation i s n o t s t r i c t l y a d h e r e d to,' e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e aampesino goes o f f t o work i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n . When t h e e a r s a r e r i p e i n t h e e a r l y autumn most oampesinos bend t h e s t a l k s o v e r j u s t b elow t h e e a r so t h a t t h e t i p i s p o i n t i n g t o w a r d s t h e g r o u n d (la dobla). T h i s i s t o keep r a i n f r o m g e t t i n g i n s i d e t h e e a r s and c a u s i n g m o l d , and a l s o t o p r o t e c t t h e g r a i n f r o m p r e -d a t o r y b i r d s . Then t h e maize i s l e f t t o d r y o u t and h a r d e n on t h e s t a l k s u n t i l h a r v e s t t i m e . A c t u a l l y t h e r e i s no f i x e d h a r v e s t p e r i o d i n t h e Camino R e a l and L o s Chenes. A few oampesinos remove t h e i r h a r v e s t f r o m t h e f i e l d s h u s k s and a l l i n e a r l y w i n t e r , and c a r r y t h e c r o p t o t h e i r homes on t h e i r b a c k s t o s t o r e i n a t h a t c h e d s h e l t e r i n t h e compound and use o r s e l l as needed. O t h e r s may l e a v e t h e e a r s on t h e s t a l k s t h r o u g h o u t t h e d r y s e a s o n , g o i n g t o t h e milpa t o b r i n g home enough f o r t h e i r i m m e d i a t e needs f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . S t i l l o t h e r s h a r v e s t t h e e a r s and s t o r e them i n t h a t c h e d s h e l t e r s i n t h e f i e l d , u n t i l t h e f a m i l y comes t o husk and s h e l l t h e c o r n and c a r r y i t i n s a c k s t o t h e v i l l a g e . The m a i z e y i e l d i n t h i s n o r t h e r n r e g i o n o f Campeche seems t o have d e c r e a s e d n o t i c a b l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s due t o u n f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s and s a t u r a t i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s . Most oampesinos r e p o r t r e t u r n s o f l e s s t h a n one oarga o r f o r t y - t w o k i l o s a mecate f r o m a f i r s t - y e a r milpa, whereas t h e y e x p e c t a t l e a s t o n e - t h i r d more g r a i n t h a n t h i s i n good y e a r s . T h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e based on d i r e c t q uestions put to the oampesinos i n the sample and are not n e c e s s a r i l y accurate, s i n c e the Maya's ego i s i n d i v i s i b l y bound up with h i s milpa and questions about h i s crop y i e l d s are comparable to asking a North American about h i s bank balance. However, these estimates are not too d i f f e r e n t from those estimated by R e d f i e l d f o r Chan Kom and Steggerda f o r P i s t e (30), though these were made over t h i r t y years ago f o r settlements over one hundred k i l o m e t e r s f u r t h e r n o r t h i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t c l i m a t i c b e l t and thus are not d i r e c t l y comparable with these Campeche f i g u r e s . The r e a l i t y of the milpa system from the campesino's p o i n t of view i s a constant b a t t l e with environmental u n c e r t a i n t y to produce a crop which i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r h i s household's consumption, with an adequate excess to s e l l i n order to p r o v i d e cash f o r the b a s i c domestic and p e r s o n a l n e c e s s i t i e s . The tragedy of the modern Maya campesino o f Campeche i s not t h a t h i s standard of l i v i n g f r e q u e n t l y f a l l s below t h i s bare s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l , but t h a t h i s a s p i r a t i o n s have r i s e n above those of h i s ancestors to embrace the i n s i d i o u s m a t e r i a l i s m of the o u t s i d e world, with which he i s g a i n i n g e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g c o n t a c t through the v a r i o u s R e d f i e l d and V i l l a Rojas, op. c i t . , pp. 51-53; and M o r r i s Steggerda, Maya Indians of Yucatan, Carnegie I n s t i t u t i o n of Washington, Washxngton, D.C., 1941, pp. 117-125. mass media. P r a y e r s , c u r s e s and f a t a l i s t i c a l l y b l a m i n g t h e "Bad R a i n s " s e n t by t h e o l d pagan gods a r e no l o n g e r enough. The aampesinos have s e e n and h e a r d how t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d l i v e s and now p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as p o o r and u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d i n c o m p a r i s o n . C l e a r l y t h e t i m e i s r i p e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n , f o r t r a c t o r s i n s t e a d o f d i g g i n g s t i c k s , m a r k e t - b a s e d i n t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i o n i n s t e a d o f t h e e x t e n s i v e , s u b s i s t e n c e milpa s y s t e m . T h i s may a l l e v i a t e t h e f r u s t r a t i o n and f u t i l e r u r a l - r u b a n d r i f t w h i c h s e t s i n as t h e aampesinos r e a l i z e how u n a t t a i n a b l e t h e i r dreams a r e u n d e r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s . A g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t must be c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d i n o r d e r t o d i f f u s e modern t e c h n o l o g y g r a d u a l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y t h r o u g h t h e p e a s a n t p o p u l a t i o n , p e r m i t t i n g m e c h a n i z a t i o n and more e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . Such d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e a sound b a s i s f o r d i v e r s i f i e d economic g r o w t h f o r t h e r e g i o n . However, many p r o b l e m s must be overcome b e f o r e t h e s e g o a l s c a n be a c h i e v e d , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f them r e l a t e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n w h i c h M e x i c a n d e v e l o p m e n t t a k e s p l a c e . I f g e n u i n e d e v e l o p m e n t i n v o l v i n g c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n i s t o t a k e p l a c e r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y i n c r e a s i n g e c o n o m i c p r o d u c t i o n , t h e aampesinos must be e n c o u r a g e d t o become i n d e p e n d e n t modern f a r m e r s who make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e t e n d e n c y o f p a s t d e v e l o p m e n t programmes has been t o make t h e aampesinos v i r t u a l employees on t h e i r own l a n d , p a s s i v e d e p e n d e n t s o f t h e banks and government a g e n c i e s who t a k e o v e r c o n t r o l o f p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e s c h e d u l e s and s t r i n g s a t t a c h e d t o p r o v i s i o n o f c r e d i t , m a c h i n e r y and a l l t h e o t h e r p a r a p h e r n -a l i a t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h modern a g r i c u l t u r e . B e a r i n g t h i s i n m i n d l e t us examine t h e g o a l s and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r e c e n t s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n programme i n Campeche. The S m a l l I r r i g a t i o n Programme i n Campeche The Plan Uacional de Obras de Pequena Ivrigaaion began i n 1967 u n d e r t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e S ecvetavZa de Recuvsos H-idraulicos > and i s p a r t i a l l y f i n a n c e d by l o a n s f r o m t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t Bank. T h i s programme aims t o p r o v i d e aampesinos w i t h more s e c u r e l i v e l i h o o d by r a i s i n g c r o p y i e l d s t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m e c h a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e , and r e d u c i n g o u t - m i g r a t i o n and r u r a l - u r b a n d r i f t by s u p p l y i n g ' a means o f employment i n a r e a s where t h e r e i s l i t t l e a t p r e s e n t and l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . F i g . 2 l i s t s t h e f i f t e e n new p r o j e c t s i n Campeche as o f A u g u s t 197 0 and i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . F o u r t e e n o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e where d r o u g h t i s a more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e a c o u p l e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , w h i c h a r e r e n o v a t i o n s f o r e a r l i e r p r o j e c t s i n t r o d u c e d by 78 Fig. 2 Location map of small irrigation projects in Campeche Reaursos Hidvduliaos t h a t have f a l l e n i n t o d i s r e p a i r o v e r t h e y e a r s . A t y p i c a l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t i n t h e new s m a l l i r r i -g a t i o n programme c o n s i s t s o f s i x t y h e c t a r e s o f l a n d s u p p l i e d 31 by a t h o u s a n d gpm c a p a c i t y w e l l w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y o r d i e s e l power pumping, i n v o l v i n g t w e n t y ejidatarios. G e n e r a l l y t h e r e a r e p r o v i s i o n s f o r e x p a n d i n g t h e i r r i g a t e d a r e a t o s e v e r a l h u n d r e d h e c t a r e s i n t h e u n i t w i t h a d d i t i o n a l w e l l s . P o r t a b l e a l u m i n i u m p i p e s w i t h o v e r h e a d s p r i n k l e r s a r e u s e d . D u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n and when r e q u i r e d i n t h e r a i n y s e a s o n t h e s e s p r i n k l e r s and p i p e s a r e moved d a i l y t o y i e l d an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f w a t e r f o r e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n . P r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d p r i o r t o i r r i g a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by c l e a r i n g w i t h a government-owned b u l l d o z e r f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l p a s s e s w i t h a d i s k h arrow. C u l t i v a t i o n i s n o r m a l l y done by hand a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l c l e a r i n g , t h o u g h s m a l l t w e n t y - f i v e h o r s e -power t r a c t o r s were i n t r o d u c e d i n 197 0 b u t a r e t o o s m a l l t o be v e r y e f f e c t i v e . C o n s i d e r a b l e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e b a c k -up i s r e q u i r e d ; an e n g i n e e r i n g a g r o n o m i s t and t e c h n i c i a n s a r e a v a i l a b l e as needed f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t ems i n t o o p e r a t i o n . The i r r i g a t i o n s ystems a r e w e l l p l a n n e d and a m o d e r a t e l y d e t a i l e d f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y p r e c e d e s t h e i n v e s t m e n t . H i g h q u a l i t y m a t e r i a l s a r e u s e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e n g i n e e r i n g works w i t h a d e q u a t e d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e r e l a t i n g t o s u c h 3 1 1 0 0 0 gpm ( g a l l o n s p e r minute)=63 l i t r e s p e r s e c o n d . 80 m a t t e r s as c r o p s e l e c t i o n and r o t a t i o n , f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i -c a t i o n and so on, i s h a n d l e d w e l l c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l i m i t e d p e r s o n n e l a v a i l a b l e . The a g r o n o m i s t i n c h a r g e o f t h e e x t e n s i o n programme has a c h i e v e d r e m a r k a b l y good r a p p o r t w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g oampesinos b u t i s g r e a t l y o v e r -worked. T h i s i s r e g r e t t a b l e as t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t s i s h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e c o n s t a n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f g o v e r n -ment a d v i c e and encouragement e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f e a c h p r o j e c t when many o f t h e oampesinos a r e i n s e c u r e a b o u t a b a n d o n i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l milpa. I n f a c t many o f t h e new p r o j e c t members c o n t i n u e t o c u l t i v a t e milpas as w e l l , u n t i l t h e y g a i n c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i l l n o t s t a r v e u n d e r t h e new r e g i m e . E v e n t u a l l y i t i s hoped t h a t t h e oampesinos w i l l be a b l e t o o p e r a t e t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s on t h e i r own w i t h a minimum o f government s u p e r v i s i o n , b u t t o d a t e none o f t h e p r o j e c t s has r e a c h e d t h i s s t a g e . The oampesinos ' r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Banoo E j i d a l a r e l e s s a m i c a b l e , and t h e i r c r e d i t p o s i t i o n has n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d t o them w h i c h l e a d s t o c o n t i n u a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s on b o t h s i d e s . Members o f t h e i r r i g a t i o n u n i t s must r e p a y a t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r l o a n t o t h e n a t i o n a l government f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n s , b u t have been g r a n t e d a m o r a t o r i u m on payments f o r t h e f i r s t few y e a r s . However, t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e i r bank c r e d i t o b l i g a t i o n s e v e r y y e a r r i g h t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t , l e a d i n g t o c o n s i d e r a b l e h a r d s h i p i f c r o p r e t u r n s a r e n o t as good as 81 e x p e c t e d , t h o u g h t h e Bank i t s e l f i s c o v e r e d by i n s u r a n c e p a i d f o r by t h e aampesinos. W i t h good c r o p r e t u r n s f r o m m a i z e , t h e y c a n meet payments f o r e l e c t r i c i t y and r e p a y c r e d i t f r o m t h e Banco E j i d a l f o r s e e d and f e r t i l i z e r and so on, b u t have l i t t l e l e f t o v e r . The payments f o r t h e s m a l l t r a c t o r s w h i c h a r e f i n a n c e d by a p r i v a t e i mplement company w i t h a g u a r a n t e e f r o m t h e S t a t e government t a k e a f u r t h e r s h a r e o f t h e p r o f i t s . As i t s t a n d s t h i s c r e d i t s i t u a t i o n i s a l m o s t w o r k i n g a g a i n s t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t s as t h e new s o c i e t y member i s f a c e d w i t h s e v e r a l i n i t i a l y e a r s o f u n c e r t a i n t y and h a r d s h i p b e f o r e o u t p u t i n c r e a s e s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o g i v e t h e aampesinos a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n income. However, t h e aampesinos b e n e f i t by r e c e i v i n g f o o d r a t i o n s f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y f o r P u b l i c H e a l t h w h i l e t h e y a r e w o r k i n g on t h e p r o j e c t s , as w e l l as s m a l l c r e d i t payments f o r t h e m a i n j o b s i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n c y c l e . The m a i n b o t t l e n e c k i n t h i s c r e d i t a r r a n g e m e n t i s a l a c k o f b ack-up f i n a n c i n g , w h i c h means t h a t t h e p r o j e c t s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o a t t a i n p l a n n e d l e v e l s o f o u t p u t f o r some t i m e . The b a s i c p r o b l e m i s t h a t c o r n and sorghum w h i c h a r e t h e key i n i t i a l c r o p s grown i n t h e new p r o j e c t s , do n o t p r o d u c e enough r e v e n u e t o p r o v i d e much c a s h p r o f i t . However, c r e d i t r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o i n t r o d u c e h i g h e r - v a l u e d c r o p s on a l a r g e s c a l e as a b a s i s f o r i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k i n g c a p i t a l w i l l have t o be made a v a i l a b l e i n a d d i t i o n 82 t o t h e a l r e a d y l a r g e amount i n f i x e d a s s e t s , b e f o r e o t h e r c r o p s c a n be i n t r o d u c e d on a l a r g e s c a l e . Repayment s c h e d u l e s m i g h t have t o be m o d i f i e d as w e l l , b e c a u s e t h e r e s u l t i n g f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n f o r t h e campesinos w i l l be t o o g r e a t , e v e n w i t h h i g h e r v a l u e d c r o p s . P e r h a p s t h e i n c r e a s e d d e b t c o u l d be " d o n a t e d " by t h e government as p a r t o f t h e i r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme. The f o u r p r o j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y o f p e a s a n t a t t i t u d e s t o t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , a r e t h e Pomuch, T i n u n , A n t i g u a T i n u n and H o p e l c h e n i r r i g a t i o n u n i t s , l o c a t i o n numbers 3, 4, 5, and 8 on F i g . 2. The f i f t h b a s e - l i n e sample g r o u p o f campesinos who were n o t members o f a p r o j e c t , was t a k e n f r o m i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e Barrio B e n i t o J u a r e z , a s u b u r b o f Pomuch Town. The Pomuch and T i n u n p r o j e c t s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e Camino R e a l r e g i o n o f n o r t h e r n Campeche, on o r v e r y c l o s e t o t h e newer Campeche-Merida r o a d w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h e C a r r e t e r a d e l G o l f o s y s t e m l i n k i n g M e x i c o C i t y w i t h t h e G u l f L o w l a n d s . The H o p e l c h e n p r o j e c t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e L o s Chenes r e g i o n i n t h e n o r t h - e a s t o f t h e S t a t e , a b o u t two k i l o m e t e r s f r o m t h e town o f H o p e l c h e n on t h e Campeche r o a d ( F i g . 3 ) . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t h r e e s e t t l e m e n t s f r o m w h i c h t h e samples were drawn f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1. I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e f o u r p r o j e c t s i s summarized i n T a b l e 2. TABLE 1 A Comparison of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample Settlements TINUN (Camino Real) POMUCH (Camino Real) HOPELCHEN (Los Chenes) Campesinos a l l Maya; n e a r l y a l l b i l i n g u a l Small v i l l a g e Large v i l l a g e , not a sub-r e g i o n a l centre Small town, sub-reg i o n a l centre, m u n i c i p a l c a p i t a l P opulation: 724 ( l a t e 1960's) Populat i o n : 3500 ( l a t e 1960's) Po p u l a t i o n : 4500 ( l a t e 1960's) 53 km. from Campeche 68 km. from Campeche 84 km. from Campeche Predominantly milpa system; maize, beans, f r u i t . A l s o henequen Predominantly milpa system; maize, beans, f r u i t . A l s o henequen Predominantly milpa system; maize, beans, f r u i t . A l s o sugar cane Very l i m i t e d opportunity to earn cash income Li m i t e d opportunity to earn cash income Moderate opportunity to earn cash income Many people with l i t t l e education Most people with some education Most people with some education Minimal s e r v i c e s Some s e r v i c e s Considerable s e r v i c e s Primary school Primary school Primary and secondary schools Health centre ( v i s i t i n g doctor) Health centre ( v i s i t i n g doctor) H o s p i t a l Large youth out-migration Some youth out-migration Some youth out-migration CO TABLE 2 Summary of Sample P r o j e c t Information $=Mexican pesos $1 US= $12.50 Mexican NA=Not A v a i l a b l e Tinun Wells 4 and 5 Antigua Tinun Pomuch Hopelchen Distance of p r o j e c t f r o i settlement n 7 km 7 1/2 km 4 1/2 km 2 km Number of members 32 (act u a l 23) 18 (act u a l 9) 28 18 (act u a l 13) Cost of the works $1,522,447.50 $657,462.80 $2,046,367.00 NA Investment per family $47,576.48 $37,800.00 $73,084.50 NA Net i r r i g a t e d area 126.9 has 54 has 160 has 30 has Production: Ac t u a l value $14,100 $26,920 $28,200.00 NA Future value $1,227,570 $414,600 $880,253.80 NA Main crops planned Sesame, maize, banana, beans, mango, vegetables, i r r i g a t e d pasture Maize, beans, potatoes, soya, sesame,sorghum Sesame, maize, sorghum,, beans, peanuts, soya, vegetables, mango, avocado, banana Maize, beans, vegetables, bananas Date of f i r s t crop harvest c. Jan. 1971 Jan. 1971 but s i t e of ol d e r p r o j e c t f o r i r r i g a t e d f r u i t , s i n c e l a t e 1950's Sept. 1970 Sept. 1969 No. of c a t t l e planned 600 CO U l 86 A sample o f e i g h t e e n e j i d a t a r i o s was drawn f r o m t h e b a s e - l i n e g r o u p i n Pomuch Town. Twenty members were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e N i l c h i - T i n u n p r o j e c t , n i n e f r o m t h e A n t i g u a T i n u n p r o j e c t , f o u r t e e n f r o m Pomuch and s e v e n f r o m H o p e l c h e n , making a t o t a l o f s i x t y - e i g h t s u b j e c t s . The H o p e l c h e n aampesinos had t h e most e x p e r i e n c e w i t h modern p r o j e c t a g r i c u l t u r e h a v i n g b een i n v o l v e d f o r a b o u t two y e a r s a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n i n J u l y and A u g u s t o f 1970. The Pomuch members r a n k e d n e x t w i t h one y e a r ' s e x p e r -i e n c e , f o l l o w e d by t h e A n t i g u a T i n u n g r o u p w i t h t h r e e months and t h e N i l c h i - T i n u n p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h b a r e l y one month o f a c t u a l work i n t h e f i e l d , t h o u g h t h e a c t s o f a c c e p t a n c e were s i g n e d s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e . However, t h e A n t i g u a T i n u n p r o j e c t i s a s p e c i a l c a s e as one o f t h e o l d e r p r o j e c t s i n t r o d u c e d by Reaursos Hidrauliaos i n t h e 1950's w i t h c a n a l s f o r i r r i g a t i n g f r u i t t r e e s , w h i c h have f a l l e n i n t o d i s u s e and a r e b e i n g r e h a b i l i t a t e d u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t scheme f o r m e c h a n i z e d c r o p f a r m i n g . Thus, w e l l o v e r h a l f t h e members o f t h i s p r o j e c t had a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f e x p e r i -e n ce as p r o j e c t members h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e t r a p p i n g s o f modern a g r i c u l t u r e s u c h as c r e d i t and e n g i n e e r s , t h o u g h s p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n and m e c h a n i z a t i o n a r e new t o them. D u r i n g t h e 1970 a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e t h e H o p e l c h e n p r o j e c t was r e c e i v i n g c r e d i t f o r t h i r t y h e c t a r e s o f mechan-i z e d m a i z e a t $1,440 ( M e x i c a n pesos) p e r h e c t a r e . I n 1969 a t o t a l o f $46,000 was g r a n t e d o f w h i c h o n l y $26,000 c o u l d i 87 be r e p a i d by t h e s a l e o f t h e c r o p due t o p a r t i a l c r o p l o s s e s . The r e m a i n d e r was c o v e r e d by c r o p i n s u r a n c e , b u t t h e aampesinos r e c e i v e d no c o m p e n s a t i o n . I n 1970 A n t i g u a T i n u n was r e c e i v i n g c r e d i t f o r t h e e x i s t i n g t h i r t y h e c t a r e s o f f r u i t i n t h e o l d p r o j e c t a r e a . Sorghum was p l a n n e d f o r t h e w i n t e r c y c l e i n t h i s u n i t and a l s o i n t h e N i l c h i -T i n u n p r o j e c t . T a b l e 3 shows t h e e x p e c t e d v a l u e o f c r o p r e t u r n s f o r t h e f i r s t c r o p s o f m a i z e and v e g e t a b l e s i n t h e Pomuch p r o j e c t , t o g e t h e r w i t h an o u t l i n e o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g c r e d i t o b l i g a t i o n s and c h a r g e s . To d a t e t h e s e i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s l o o k v e r y i m p r e s s i v e i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e b u s h , w i t h t h e i r n e a t l y c l e a r e d and m e c h a n i z e d f i e l d s , i m p o s i n g pump hou s e s and e q u i p m e n t , and t h e c o n s t a n t b u s t l e o f b u r e a u c r a t i c comings and g o i n g s . However, i t would be r a s h t o assume a s u c c e s s f u l f u t u r e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a a l o n e , b e a r i n g i n mi n d t h e u n f o r t u n a t e h i s t o r y o f p r e v i o u s government d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s i n t h e S t a t e . E v e n t h e p i l o t p r o j e c t o f t h e s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n programme a t N i l c h i i n t h e Camino R e a l had t o be abandoned f o l l o w i n g t h e members' f a i l u r e t o pay t h e i r d e b t s . A s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by Reaursos Hidrauliaos a t t r i b u t e s t h i s f i a s c o l a r g e l y t o i n t r a - g r o u p t e n s i o n s and l a c k o f c o n c e r t e d a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n , due t o p o o r * ( F r o m T a b l e 2) S o u r c e : p r o j e c t f i l e s made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h c o u r t e s y o f La Searetana de Reaursos Ridraulicos, Campeche. 88 TABLE 3 Pomuch P r o j e c t — e x p e c t e d v a l u e o f f i r s t - y e a r c r o p s and * c r e d i t c h a r g e s ( i n $ Mexican) Pomuch f i r s t - y e a r c r o p s on 55 has b e n e f i t t i n g 28 members M a i z e : 50 has . V e g e t a b l e s : 5 has „ E x p e c t e d y i e l d : 1.8 t o n / h a ** E x p e c t e d p r i c e : $800/ton T o t a l v a l u e : $72,000 T o t a l v a l u e : $20,000 T o t a l e x p e c t e d v a l u e = $92,000 C r e d i t o b l i g a t i o n s and c h a r g e s , 1970 ( e s t i m a t e ) Seed and f e r t i l i z e r : $28,000 1 s t o f 3 y e a r l y payments f o r t r a c t o r : $25,000 C h a r g e f o r e l e c t r i c a l hook-up: $5,000 E s t i m a t e d c o s t o f e l e c t r i c i t y f o r f i r s t c r o p : $3,000 T o t a l d e b t = $61,000 (some payments d e f e r r e d ) P r o b a b l e d e f e r r m e n t = $10,000 N e t P r o f i t = $92,000 - $51,000 = $41,000. However t h i s sum i s g i v e n t o t h e members as p e r s o n a l c r e d i t d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g c y c l e , t h u s a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r t h e y w i l l m e r e l y b r e a k e v e n . * S o u r c e , I n g . J o a q u i m R e p e t t o , J e f e de Depto. de _ Pequena I r r i g a c i o n S.R.H., Campeche, p e r s o n a l communication, **CONASUPO, t h e Government M a r k e t i n g agency g u a r a n t e e s $ 9 4 0/ton d r y w e i g h t . 89 e x t e n s i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g ( 3 1 ) . However, f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n shows t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f v e r y p o o r s o i l s t h a t c a n n o t be m e c h a n i z e d , i n d i c a t i v e t h a t t h i s was a p o o r l o c a t i o n f o r a p r o j e c t i n any e v e n t . T h u s , c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a v e r y d i f f e r e n t k i n d f r o m s u p e r f i c i a l e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be u n d e r s t o o d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , b e f o r e t h e r e a l i m p a c t and c h a n c e s o f s u c c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s c a n be e v a l u a t e d . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o l o o k beyond c r e d i t a l l o -c a t i o n s and c r o p p r o j e c t i o n s and examine t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e aampesinos t o t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l change i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l r h y t h m o f t h e i r way o f l i f e . 32Secretaria de Reaursos Ridraulicos, I n v e s t i g a c i o n S o c i a l y D e s a r r o l l o de l a Communidad, E s t u d i o de u n C a s o : N i l c h i , E s t a d o de Campeche, U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , M e r r d a , Y u c a t a n , 1968. 90 CHAPTER IV A SUBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF PEASANT ATTITUDES TO AGRICULTURAL CHANGE FROM THE PHOTAM PROTOCOLS The Impact o f I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s on Campesino A t t i t u d e s A t t i t u d e s t o a f u n d a m e n t a l c o r n e r s t o n e o f a p e o p l e ' s way o f l i f e a r e r a r e l y a s i m p l e homogeneous c l u s t e r o f s i n g l e - f o c u s s e d a t t i t u d e s , b u t f r e q u e n t l y f o r m a complex, d e e p l y - r o o t e d n e t w o r k i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r s . T hus, i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u l l i m p a c t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l milperos o f Campeche, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine more t h a n t h o s e a t t i t u d e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l c hange. The s i x a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r s s e l e c t e d as a p p a r e n t l y b e i n g most r e l a t e d t o t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m i n Campeche t h r o u g h t h e agency o f t h e s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s , were a t t i t u d e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , a u t h o r -i t y , modern a g r i c u l t u r e , n o n - m a t e r i a l wants, m a t e r i a l wants and l e i s u r e . However, t h e s e s i x c l u s t e r s must n o t be r e g a r d e d as d i s c r e t e , h a r d and f a s t d i v i s i o n s , as t h e y a r e s t r o n g l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and t h e component a t t i t u d e s a r e o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . Meshed t o g e t h e r t h e y form an a t t i t u d e complex w h i c h r e v e a l s much a b o u t t h e oampesinos' r e a c t i o n t o t h e new p r o j e c t s , t h e l o n g - t e r m f i n a n c i a l commitments and t h e a s s o c i a t e d t e c h n o c r a t i c i n v a s i o n o f t h e i r remote and t r a n q u i l w o r l d . T h u s , on e x a m i n i n g t h e PHOTAM p r o t o c o l s , t h e mai n q u e s t i o n we must a s k i s what k i n d o f m e n t a l r e a d j u s t m e n t t h e aampesinos have made t o t h i s u p h e a v a l i n a way o f l i f e i n many r e s p e c t s u nchanged s i n c e b e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t ? Have t h e y r e a l l y m o d i f i e d o r abandoned t h e i r t i m e - h o n o u r e d ways o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and r e l a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s , o r a r e t h e y s t r a i n i n g t o h o l d o n t o t h e o l d w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t h e new, l e a d i n g t o a t t i t u d i n a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n between t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e p a s t and a n t i c i p a t i o n m i x e d w i t h f e a r o f t h e unknown f u t u r e ? Have t h e aampesinos a l r e a d y s u c c e e d e d i n a d a p t i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l complex a r o u n d t h e new i n n o v a t i o n s so t h a t t h e y a r e c o n g r u e n t and c u l t u r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t ? Or c a n marked c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and a t t i t u d i n a l d i s s o n a n c e be i d e n t i f i e d i n new s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s ? The e x t e n t o f s u c h c u l t u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l a d a p t a t i o n w i l l o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e t h e permanence o f a d o p t i o n o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s , i n terms o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y have been i n t e r n a l i z e d and s u p p o r t e d by a m o d i f i e d m e n t a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e c o n g r u e n t w i t h new b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . C o n s e -q u e n t l y , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s must be answered b e f o r e t h e a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t o f t h e Campeche s m a l l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s a s an a g e n c y o f r e g i o n a l and c u l t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n c a n be e v a l u a t e d . 92 The a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e PHOTAM s t o r y p r o t o c o l s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r u n d e r two b r o a d h e a d i n g s : a t t i t u d e s t o a g r i c u l t u r e , and a t t i t u d e s and a s p i r a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e oampesinos' l i f e - w a y . The b r o a d h e a d i n g s e a c h subsume t h r e e o f t h e s i x o r i g i n a l a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r s s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , w h i c h i n t u r n a r e b r o k e n down i n t o t h e s e v e n t e e n s u b - c a t e g o r i e s employed on t h e c o d i n g frame ( 1 ) . However, t h e e s s e n t i a l l y h o l i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h i s whole a t t i t u d i n a l - c u l t u r a l complex must be r e - e m p h a s i z e d , and t h e g r o u p i n g s u s e d a r e i n t e n d e d o n l y as an a i d t o c l e a r d i s c u s s i o n . A t t i t u d e s t o A g r i c u l t u r e A t t i t u d e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , a u t h o r i t y and modern a g r i c u l t u r e a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e A t t i t u d e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e l i e f s a b o u t n a t u r e , r e l i g i o n , f o l k - t r a d i t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n a l n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l forms o f employment. V i r t u a l l y a l l t h e s t o r i e s t o l d i n r e s p o n s e t o a t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s t i m u l u s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a p o o r oampesino, s t r u g g l i n g a l o n e i n t h e milpa, s t r i v i n g t o make a l i v i n g See C h a p t e r I I , pp. 40-41. 93 f r o m t h e monte a g a i n s t tremendous o d d s . F r e q u e n t l y t h e t o n e o f t h e s t o r y i s p e s s i m i s t i c and f a t a l i s t i c , and t h e q u a n t i t y o f b l o o d , sweat and t e a r s w h i c h must be shed i n o r d e r t o r a i s e a c r o p u n d e r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . T h e s e f o u r q u o t a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e t h e most common themes d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o milpa c u l t i v a t i o n . E a c h s u b j e c t i m m e d i a t e l y i d e n t i f i e s t h e s t i m u l u s w i t h h i s own c o n d i t i o n i n a b a l d , u n a d o r n e d s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s man works t h e way we a l w a y s have i n o u r milpas, s t r u g g l i n g a l o n g i n t h e monte, f i g h t i n g t o s u r v i v e i n t h e f a c e o f God and n a t u r e . (2) He i s a man j u s t l i k e me, w o r k i n g i n a milpa j u s t l i k e mine. He has no money and n e v e r w i l l have any. (3) T h i s i s a aampesino—he i s a l o n e i n t h e c o u n t r y l i k e me. He i s w o r k i n g a l o n e w i t h o n l y h i s own s t r e n g t h t o r e l y on . . . . Nobody h e l p s him. He would l i k e t o grow some more c r o p s b u t has no t i m e . Anyway, he i s s t r u g g l i n g h e r e f o r n o t h i n g [ p a u s e ] . I mean, he won't make any p r o f i t a t h a r v e s t t i m e . (4) T h i s i s t h e j o b w h i c h u s e s up a l l a man's j u i c e s and l e a v e s him t o o e x h a u s t e d t o w a l k home, (5) ^ S u b j e c t 45, a member o f t h e A n t i g u a T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 12. 3 S u b j e c t 17, an ejidatarz-o l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 1. 4 S u b j e c t 53, a member o f t h e Pomuch i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 1. ^ S u b j e c t 36, a member o f N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 1. 94 Many stories dwell on the dangers and uncertainties of the campesino's profession, and several of the respondents had been crippled through an accident with a machete, or were incapacitated i n some way by an insect bite or sting. The results of these mishaps are made worse by the distance the a f f l i c t e d campesinos must travel i n order to obtain medical care. A couple of campesinos had died from the effects of snake-bite shortly before t h i s study, because they were unable to reach the health centres i n the s e t t l e -ments i n time. Frequently the campesinos just don't bother to see the doctor aft e r a f i e l d accident, as although medical care i s free there i s often no money to spare for medicines. In the campesino's profession there i s a high r i s k of accidents. I t i s very dangerous work. Every day a trunk may f a l l on your body and crush you while you are clearing the monte. Or else you may cut yourself with a machete and the wound becomes poisoned. The forests of the south-east are especially dangerous. There are bad f l i e s there which make you deaf or b l i n d . (6) They are content because they are a r r i v i n g at their house and the hour of working has passed. Because when we go off to work, you never know i f you are going to be b i t t e n by a snake, [pause] Or you may get cut, or pierced by a spine or a trunk. ( 7 ) Another frequent theme i s the campesino's fear of growing old alone with no sons l e f t at home to help with the milpa. This suggests perhaps a change i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Maya extended family network, whereby every family which can 6Subject 31, a member of Nilchi-Tinun i r r i g a t i o n project, i n response to photograph No. 6. 7Subject 29, a member of Nilchi-Tinun i r r i g a t i o n project, i n response to photograph No. 21. p o s s i b l e manage i t f e e l s o b l i g a t e d t o c a r e f o r t h e o l d e r members o f t h e f a m i l y , s e c u r e i n the knowledge t h a t they i n t u r n w i l l be l o o k e d a f t e r i n t h e i r o l d age. He i s a poor aampesino who i s s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t n a t u r e a l o n e i n t h a t p l a c e t o earn h i s l i v i n g . Perhaps he has no sons l e f t t o h e l p him. That i s an event many aampesinos f e a r as they g e t o l d e r . (8) He i s poor and has t o work v e r y h a r d t o e a r n t h e f o o d f o r h i s househo l d . H i s sons a r e a l l grown up and have l e f t him. I t i s r e a l l y bad l u c k t h a t he i s s t i l l a l i v e . (9) However, t h i s theme i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s d i r e c t l y and o b v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h a n o t h e r aampesino w o r r i e s and c o n c e r n s , and tends t o be b u r i e d i n the m i d d l e o f a l o n g e r s t o r y about t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n system. T h i s i s a poor aampesino bent over double i n h i s f i e l d s , t r y i n g t o keep h i s f a m i l y a l i v e . He i s work-i n g i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e as d i d h i s f a t h e r s , and as h i s sons w i l l do. He i s swea t i n g i n the sun. As he works he w o r r i e s because he i s g e t t i n g o l d . He i s a l r e a d y t o o o l d f o r c h i a l e and soon t h e r e w i l l o n l y be t h e milpa l e f t . H i s sons a l l have f a m i l i e s and cannot h e l p him and t h e o l d woman now. He i s a l r e a d y an o l d man w i t h o u t money and n o t h i n g t o hope f o r b ut d e a t h . But t h a t i s a n i c e f i e l d t h e r e ; perhaps he i s w o r k i n g f o r some r i c h l a n d l o r d . N o t h i n g changes much. (10) Of c o u r s e many o f the aampesino 's p r e o c c u p a t i o n s , l i k e t h ose o f any farmer anywhere, a r e concerned w i t h such f a c t o r s as s o i l q u a l i t y , c l i m a t i c i r r e g u l a r i t y , c r o p p l a g u e s and d i s e a s e s and a l l t h e o t h e r myriad u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f t h e S u b j e c t 19, a member of t h e N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n response t o photograph No. 11. S u b j e c t 8, an ejidatavvo l x v r n g i n Pomuch Town, i n response t o photograph No. 11. " ^ S u b j e c t 1, an e j i d a t a r i o l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, i n response t o photograph No. 11. 96 a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e Campeche aampesino w o r r i e s a b o u t t h e v a g a r i e s o f t h e c l i m a t e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a d v e n t o f t h e f i r s t r a i n s w h i c h i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h e young m a i z e s e e d l i n g s , and t h e u n e x p e c t e d o c c u r r e n c e o f r a i n i n t h e s p r i n g b e f o r e t h e b u s h has been b u r n t . T h e s e n o r m a l t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s o f milpa c u l t i v a t i o n have been compounded r e c e n t l y i n t h e Camino R e a l e s p e c i a l l y by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s e v e r a l s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s o f u n u s u a l l y l o n g w i n t e r d r o u g h t s , w h i c h have s e r i o u s l y d i m i n i s h e d t h e aampesinos1 s l i m r e s e r v e s a g a i n s t s t a r v a t i o n . Y e a r a f t e r y e a r t h e r e have been bad c r o p s due t o d r o u g h t s , l a c k o f r a i n and Bad R a i n s (11). B u t b e f o r e t h e Camino R e a l was a l w a y s a good g r a i n r e g i o n , a m a i z e c e n t r e . Now t h e c r o p s a r e v e r y r e d u c e d and t h e aampesino i s s u f f e r i n g h o r r i b l y . We a r e r e a l l y i n m i s e r y now. T h e r e a r e more p e o p l e now t o o I t h i n k , b e c a u s e t h e new r o a d has i n c r e a s e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e l i t t l e towns l i k e t h o s e up t o w a r d s M e r i d a . So t h e l a n d i s g e t t i n g t i r e d t o o . W e l l , i t ' s n a t u r a l , b u t t h e d r o u g h t s a r e n o t . B u t i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e n a t u r a l f e r t i l i z e r s i n t h e s o i l have been e x h a u s t e d by t h e f r e q u e n t u s e . We a r e u n d e r g o i n g a c r i s i s r i g h t now. We must have h e l p . (12) Thus t h e c a u s e o f t h e s e m i s f o r t u n e s i s a t t r i b u t e d by some t o r a t i o n a l " s c i e n t i f i c " r e a s o n s , w h i l e o t h e r s t a k e r e f u g e i n t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r s t i t i o n s t o r e d u c e t h e unknown The more s u p e r s t i t i o u s aampesinos b e l i e v e t h a t r a i n s s e n t by a n g r y r a i n - g o d s w i l l have a l e t h a l e f f e c t on t h e c r o p s b e c a u s e o f a m y s t e r i o u s p o i s o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e d r o p s . 12 S u b j e c t 37, a member o f t h e N i l c h r - T x n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 7. 97 to terms they can understand. The oampesinos also react i n di f f e r e n t ways to the impact of these environmental hard-ships. Some are active and some are passive. Some struggle even harder to scratch a l i v i n g from the s o i l , while others give up and d r i f t with the winds of fate. Some pray or resort to the old Maya r i t u a l s , while non-believers curse. He i s worrying about his crop because the elotes are s t i l l small and need r a i n . Often the rains come too l a t e . You can never t e l l . The old people pray or make magic signs, but what good does that do? We just curse. (13) With the bad luck we have been having recently we don't even have the expectation of getting a crop. We hope, but not too much. But we pray a l o t . [pause] We don't work so hard i n the milpa as we used to. We just put i n the seed l i k e that and wait and see what comes up. I think i t i s because the rains have come too la t e , but my father says God i s angry and sends the Bad Rains to punish us. (14) Many oampesinos go to Campeche and request help from the State Governor himself when a natural calamity strikes and leaves them with no food and no money. The oampesinos tend to regard the Governor as a benevolent friend who w i l l do a l l i n his power to help the poor farmers, and w i l l stand patiently for hours outside the government o f f i c e s waiting for an audience. They may actually receive a l i t t l e money or food on occasions as i t suits the Governor's image to 1 3 S u b j e c t 10, an e j i d a t a v i o l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, in response to photograph No. 11. 1 4 S u b j e c t 33, a member of the Nilchi-Tinun i r r i g a t i o n project, i n response to photograph No. 11. 98 appear t o be the one t r u e f r i e n d o f t h e oampesinos3 w h i l e t h e b u r e a u c r a t s on h i s s t a f f p l a y a c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s s y m p a t h e t i c r o l e . He i s g o i n g t o see h i s government i n Campeche. P r o b a b l y he i s g o i n g t o ask f o r h e l p because h i s cr o p s have f a i l e d o r something, and h i s f a m i l y i s hungry. P e o p l e o f t e n go t o Campeche l i k e t h a t when t h e r e i s a d i s a s t e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s w i t h t h e s e droughts we a r e h a v i n g . But he has t o w a i t h i s t u r n . Perhaps he w i l l n o t be a b l e t o see anybody today and w i l l have t o come back tomorrow. Perhaps t h e y w i l l g i v e him a few pesos, b u t perhaps t h e y w i l l n o t . But i f you need h e l p t h e r e i s nobody, i n r e a l i t y , t o ask e x c e p t t h e Governor h i m s e l f . (15) An i n c r e a s i n g number o f oampesinos have become r e a l l y d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l milpa system. Some have c o m p l e t e l y abandoned t h e i r milpa and range a l l over t h e c o u n t r y - s i d e and even move t o t h e c i t i e s i n s e a r c h o f work. I f t h e r e was more work around here I don't t h i n k anybody would c u l t i v a t e milpa. We would a l l work f o r o t h e r p e o p l e i n s t e a d as l a b o u r e r s . Cash wages a r e b e t t e r t h a n a poor h a r v e s t from your own milpa, no? (16) More and more oampesinos a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e g a r d t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t i v a t i o n methods as w a s t e f u l and h a v i n g no f u t u r e , and a r e demanding modern a g r i c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s such as c r e d i t , f e r t i l i z e r , machinery, i r r i g a t i o n , new roads 1 5 S u b j e c t 27, a member of the N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n response t o photograph No. 11. 1 6 S u b j e c t 34, a member of N i l c h i - T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n response t o photograph No. 3. 99 and t r u c k s t o t a k e t h e i r produce t o market, and h i g h e r p r i c e d c a s h - c r o p s such as c h i l e , f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s . Such a d j e c t i v e s as " d e g r a d i n g " and " u n c i v i l i z e d " are used t o d e s c r i b e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , whereas modern methods a r e " d i g n i f i e d " and " s o f t e r . " There a r e n o t enough t r u c k s and roads i n t h i s , r e g i o n , o n l y t h i s one h e r e . W e l l , t h e r e a r e c o u n t r y l a n e s , b u t the c a r s c a n ' t d r i v e on them, so t h e aampesino must c a r r y t h e h a r v e s t on h i s back l i k e a donkey. That i s h u m i l i a t i n g i s n ' t i t — d e g r a d i n g . I t i s no l i f e f o r a man. I t g i v e s you rheumatism.(17) W e l l , he has no h e l p . You can see he i s w o r k i n g a l o n e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l manner, [pause] He does not produce a n y t h i n g because h i s l a n d s are n o t mechanized, and because he works q u i t e a l o n e , not i n a c r e d i t s o c i e t y . The problem i s t h a t t h i s system i s not v e r y p r o d u c t i v e . I t i s v e r y w a s t e f u l because we j u s t e x p l o i t t h e l a n d . And we have no way t o improve th e s o i l when i t g e t s t i r e d . I t i s work by b r u t e s t r e n g t h a l o n e . W e l l , I t h i n k i t i s n o t c i v i l i z e d . I t i s not r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g t h a t way. He i s v e r y poor and v e r y o l d and i s n ot a b l e t o t r y a n y t h i n g new. Anyway, he does not have th e o p p o r t u n i t y . (18) A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s t o r i e s i n v o l v e l i t t l e more than d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s events and a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e : t h e c u l t i v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , t h e plagues and p e s t s which a f f l i c t t h e c r o p s , t h e need t o h i r e e x t r a l a b o u r e r s d u r i n g t h e busy seasons and t h e shame o f 1 7 S u b j e c t 12, an egidatavio l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, i n response t o photograph No. 16. 1 8 S u b j e c t 56, a member of t h e Pomuch i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n response t o photograph No. 11. 100 b e i n g so p o o r t h a t one must b r i n g one's w i f e t o h e l p i n t h e f i e l d s . M o s t o f t h e s e s t o r i e s e mphasize t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h r i f t and h a r d work i n a r e s p o n s i b l e oampesino's l i f e , and a r e more e v o c a t i v e o f t h e P u r i t a n e t h i c t h a n t h e p o p u l a r image o f a l a z y p e a s a n t l y i n g i n a hammock s u f f e r i n g f r o m a c h r o n i c manana-complex. Many oampesinos a r e t o o l a z y t o do t h e w eeding p r o p e r -l y . And i n my o p i n i o n t h a t i s one o f t h e r e a s o n s why we g e t l o w r e t u r n s a r o u n d h e r e . You d o n ' t g e t good r e t u r n s w i t h o u t h a r d work. T h a t ' s what I a l w a y s s a y . (19) A v e r y few s t o r i e s t e l l a b o u t t h e p l e a s a n t s i d e o f t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l work, o f t h e f r e e d o m o f b e i n g a b l e t o come and go i n t h e c o u n t r y as one w i s h e s , o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e l i f e o f a milpa c u l t i v a t o r . I t i s h a r d work, b u t i t i s a good l i f e f o r a man. (20) The boy l i k e s t o work i n t h e f i e l d s w i t h h i s f a t h e r . He l i k e s t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e c o u n t r y b e t t e r t h a n g o i n g t o s c h o o l where he d o e s n o t l e a r n a n y t h i n g . I n t h e milpa he l e a r n s a b o u t how t o c u l t i v a t e and a l l t h e r i c h e s o f n a t u r e , t h e good p l a n t s and t h e bad, t h e p o i s o n o u s and t h e h a r m l e s s — a l l s o r t s o f u s e f u l t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . (21) In summary, by f a r t h e g r e a t e r number o f t h e oampesinos i n t e r v i e w e d p e r c e i v e milpa c u l t i v a t i o n as an e n d l e s s , monoton-ous s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t n a t u r e ' s u n c e r t a i n t i e s , w h i c h t h e 19 . . . . . S u b j e c t 43, a member o f t h e A n t i g u a T i n u n i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 18. 20 S u b j e c t 62, a member o f t h e H o p e l c h e n I r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t , i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 5. 21 S u b j e c t 18, an e j i d a t a r i o l i v i n g i n Pomuch Town, i n r e s p o n s e t o p h o t o g r a p h No. 15. 101 aampesino must undertake on an empty stomach and w i t h no hope of improved c o n d i t i o n s i n the f u t u r e , though many people express a d e s i r e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l modernization. However, the Campeche aampesinos have a n o t i c a b l e tendency to e m b e l l i s h t h e i r n a r r a t i v e s t o make a good, dramatic s t o r y , and the l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l system, although p e r v a s i v e , may not be q u i t e as i n t e n s e and h e a r t - f e l t as the p r o t o c o l s suggest. He i s a poor o l d man—working without t h i n k i n g , wi