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Wilderness recreation users - their characteristics, motivations, and opinions : a study of three British… Thorsell, James Westvick 1971

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WILDERNESS RECREATION USERS - THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, MOTIVATIONS, AND OPINIONS: A STUDY OF THREE B R I T I S H COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL PARKS by JAMES WESTVICK THORSELL B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1962 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y S t u d i e s ( R e s o u r c e S c i e n c e ) i n t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f i an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r . s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ^ 7 - ~ W / 7 / ABSTRACT An e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e u s e r c l i e n t e l e . O p i n i o n and b e h a v i o r a l s t u d i e s o f p a r k v i s i t o r s a r e a p r i o r i t y n e e d i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , t h e y a i d i n d e f i n i n g r e s o u r c e q u a l i t y and c o n t r i b u t e t o i m p r o v e d p a r k p l a n n i n g . Names and a d d r e s s e s o f 995 w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n e r s were g a t h e r e d f r o m b a c k c o u n t r y t r a i l r e g i s t e r s i n B owron L a k e , G a r i b a l d i and Mount R o b s o n P r o v i n c i a l P a r k . A n i n e - p a g e m a i l b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c a l l i n g f o r r e s p o n s e t o 92 i t e m s , was r e t u r n e d by 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e g a t h e r e d d a t a o n u s e r and t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , u s e r a s s e s s m e n t o f b e n e f i t s and m o t i v a t i o n s , and u s e r r e a c t i o n t o and e v a l u a t i o n o f management p o l i c i e s and o t h e r v i s i t o r s . The f i r s t phase o f t h e s t u d y a t t e m p t s an e m p i r i c a l d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y camper i n t h r e e c o n t r a s t i n g w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s . As t h e o n l y s u c h s u r v e y u n d e r t a k e n i n . t h i s r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t , a b a s i c c e n s u s i s p r o v i d e d f r o m w h i c h f u t u r e t r e n d s c a n be d e t e c t e d . F i n d i n g s r e i n f o r c e and a r e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h o t h e r u s e r s t u d i e s . The s e c o n d phase o f t h e s t u d y e x p l o r e s v a r i a b l e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e , u s e . On t h e b a s i s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e , u s e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d by t e n i d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s , e i g h t o f w h i c h were i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e . The f i n a l c o n c e r n o f t h e 'study s e e k s a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s t o w i l d e r n e s s p l a n n i n g and management. I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t (1) g r o w t h i n demand f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s o f w i l d e r n e s s w i l l c o n t i n u e ; ( 2 ) p r e s e n t p a r k u s e l e v e l s , i n t h e v i s i t o r s e s t i m a t i o n , a r e a p p r o a c h i n g s a t u r a t i o n ; and ( 3 ) t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s t a k i n g o n a new meaning as t h e p a r k s become more " d e m o c r a t i z e d " and " h u m a n i z e d " . i i WILDERNESS RECREATION USERS - THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, MOTIVATIONS, AND OPINIONS: A STUDY OF THREE BRITISH COLOMBIA PROVINCIAL PARKS TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1. ORIENTATION CHA PTER Page I CONCEPTUAL PROLOGUE - CONSERVATION/PARKS/WILDERNESS 1 C o n s e r v a t i o n as a G u i d i n g P h i l o s o p h y 1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g as a B a s i s f o r 3 C o n s e r v a t i o n Open Space as a Landscape E l e m e n t 5 W i l d e r n e s s i n the R e g i o n a l L a n d s c a p e 9 D e f i n i t i o n 12 I I METHODOLOGICAL PROLOGUE - RECREATION RESEARCH 17 The E x p l o r a t o r y N a t u r e o f R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h 17 P r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d o r " M i s s i o n " R e s e a r c h 19 Summary C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n T o p i c S e l e c t i o n 21 i i i CHAPTER Page III THE PROBLEM OF THE WILDERNESS 2k Wilderness as a Common Property Resource 2k 'Wilderness Research - The American Contribution 29 Wilderness Research - The Canadian Contribution 32 The Research Gap i n General 35 The Research Gap i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Context 38 PART 2 . RESEARCH PROCEDURES IV OBJECTIVES, DESIGN AND ANALYSIS k8 Objectives ^8 Scope and Limitations 5 ' Design 52 Study Plan 55 The Study Areas % Sampling 62 Fleldwork 6k The Questionnaire 65 Analysis 67 i v PART 3. FINDINGS CHAPTER Page V DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WILDERNESS USERS 71 O r i g i n 71 Group C o m p o s i t i o n - Age and Sex E d u c a t i o n 76 Income 78 O c c u p a t i o n 79 E n v i r o n m e n t o f U p b r i n g i n g 80 W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e and I n t r o d u c t i o n 81 V I CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WILDERNESS TRIP 8? P l a n n i n g o f t h e T r i p 87 L e n g t h o f S t a y 89 S i z e and Make-up o f P a r t i e s 90 C o s t o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s T r i p 92 I n v e s t m e n t i n B a c k c o u n t r y E q u i p m e n t 9^ A n n u a l P a t t e r n o f W i l d e r n e s s V i s i t s 95 v CHAPTER Page V I I MOTIVATIONS AND BENEFITS OF THE WILDERNESS 98 EXPERIENCE D i f f i c u l t i e s o f M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h 98 R e a s o n s f o r t h e W i l d e r n e s s V a c a t i o n 1 0 0 B e n e f i t s o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s V a c a t i o n 103 E l e m e n t s o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e 1 0 5 V I I I OPINIONS AND EVALUATIONS OF THE WILDERNESS V I S I T 111 F a c i l i t i e s 111 Management C o n t r o l M e a s u r e s 116 E n t r a n c e F e e s 117 Z o n i n g t h e P a r k s 119 P e r c e p t i o n o f W i l d e r n e s s 120 C r o w d i n g and C a p a c i t y 1 2 1* S a t i s f a c t i o n and R e t u r n 1 30 P e r c e p t i o n o f H a z a r d s 132 A Note on U n s o l i c i t e d Comments 135 v i C H A P T E R Page I X SUMMARY P R O F I L E S O F W I L D E R N E S S U S E R S 137 G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C o n c l u s i o n s 137 V a r i a t i o n s i n U s e r P r o f i l e s 1*+1 V i s i t o r s t o t h e B l a c k T u s k M e a d o w s - 1^3 G a r i b a l d i P a r k V i s i t o r s t o B o w r o n L a k e P a r k 1*+6 V i s i t o r s t o t h e B e r g L a k e A r e a - 1^8 M t . R o b s o n P a r k X V A R I A B L E S A F F E C T I N G U S E 153 I n t r o d u c t i o n 153 R e s p o n s e b y L e n g t h o f S t a y 155 R e s p o n s e b y A g e 164 R e s p o n s e b y O r i g i n 169 R e s p o n s e b y C o m m i t m e n t 177 R e s p o n s e b y P r o f i c i e n c y 182 R e s p o n s e b y L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n 187 R e s p o n s e b y W i l d e r n e s s T r a v e l E x p e r i e n c e 192 R e s p o n s e b y S i z e o f P a r t y 19^ R e s p o n s e b y E n v i r o n m e n t o f U p b r i n g i n g 196 R e s p o n s e b y S e x 1 97 S u m m a r y o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a b l e s 198 v i i CHAPTER Page X I CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF USER STUDY 203 F u t u r e F o r e c a s t 203 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Use C a p a c i t y 205 The W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e i n t h e 208 P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s - A Second Look LITERATURE CITED 222 APPENDIX 232 v i i i L I S T OF TABLES T A B L E P a g e I C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S t u d y A r e a s 57 I I O r i g i n o f - W i l d e r n e s s P a r k U s e r s 72 I I I A g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f W i l d e r n e s s P a r k U s e r s 75 IV C o m p a r i s o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s o f W i l d e r n e s s 77 P a r k U s e r s V I n c o m e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f W i l d e r n e s s P a r k U s e r s 78 V I O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f W i l d e r n e s s P a r k 79 U s e r s V I I E n v i r o n m e n t o f U p b r i n g i n g 80 V I I I W i l d e r n e s s T r a v e l l e r R a t i n g s 82 I X Y e a r s o f W i l d e r n e s s T r a v e l E x p e r i e n c e 82 X "Who o r What I n t r o d u c e d Y o u t o W i l d e r n e s s 8>+ T r a v e l ? " X I "How F a r A h e a d Were Y o u P l a n n i n g T h e T r i p ? " 88 X I I L e n g t h o f S t a y 90 X I I I T o t a l G r o u p S i z e 91 X I V M a k e - u p o f G r o u p s 92 XV T o t a l C o s t o f W i l d e r n e s s T r i p ( P e r P e r s o n ) 93 XVI T o t a l I n v e s t m e n t i n B a c k c o u n t r y E q u i p m e n t 9h ( P e r P e r s o n ) X V I I W i l d e r n e s s T r i p s P e r Y e a r 96 X V I I I A v e r a g e L e n g t h o f W i l d e r n e s s T r i p s ( D a y s ) 96 X I X M o t i v a t i o n s F o r B a c k c o u n t r y T r a v e l 102 i x TABLE Page XX B e n e f i t s o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s T r i p 103 X X I M a i n R e a s o n F o r t h e W i l d e r n e s s T r i p 108 X X I I E x p e r i e n c e M o st V i v i d l y R e c a l l e d 109 X X I I I O p i n i o n s o f B a c k c o u n t r y F a c i l i t i e s 113 XXIV C a m p s i t e P r e f e r e n c e 11'-+ XXV U s e r A s s e s s m e n t o f B a c k c o u n t r y F a c i l i t y 1 15 D e v e l o p m e n t XXVI Management C o n t r o l M e a s u r e s 116 X X V I I S u g g e s t e d E n t r a n c e F e e 118 X X V I I I P e r c e n t o f P a r k C o n s i d e r e d " W i l d e r n e s s " 121 X X I X P o i n t o f W i l d e r n e s s E n t r y 122 .XXX Adequacy o f W i l d e r n e s s Land i n t h e P r o v i n c e 124 XXXI " D i d Y o u Have T r o u b l e F i n d i n g U n o c c u p i e d 125 C a m p s i t e s ? " X X X I I "Were Y o u B o t h e r e d B y C r o w d i n g on Any T r a i l s 126 o r C a m p s i t e s ? " X X X I I I "How Many P e o p l e Do Y o u T h i n k The P a r k C o u l d 126 H o l d ? " XXXIV "What i s t h e A v e r a g e Number o f Groups Y o u C o u l d 128 Meet a Day B e f o r e Y o u B e g i n t o F e e l Crowded?" XXXV "What Do Y o u T h i n k t h e O p t i m a l G roup S i z e i s 128 F o r W i l d e r n e s s T r a v e l ? " XXXVI U s e r C o m p l a i n t s 129 X X X V I I L e v e l o f U s e r S a t i s f a c t i o n 130 X X X V I I I I n t e n t i o n t o R e t u r n " 131 XXXIX Danger R a t i n g s 134 x TABLE Page XL O v e r a l l Danger R a t i n g o f W i l d e r n e s s V i s i t 13I+ X L I W i l d e r n e s s P r o f i c i e n c y - By L e n g t h o f S t a y 1 5 7 X L I I M o t i v a t i o n - By L e n g t h o f S t a y 1 58 X L I I I B e n e f i t s - By L e n g t h o f S t a y 1 58 X L I V F a c i l i t y O p i n i o n s - By L e n g t h o f S t a y 1 5 9 XLV Management O p i n i o n s - B y L e n g t h o f S t a y 1 ° 0 XLVI " D i d Y o u Have Any T r o u b l e F i n d i n g U n o c c u p i e d 1 6 1 C a m p s i t e s ? " - By L e n g t h o f S t a y X L V I I "Were Y o u B o t h e r e d B y C r o w d i n g o n Any T r a i l s 1 6 2 o r C a m p s i t e s ? " - By L e n g t h o f S t a y X L V I I I O v e r a l l Danger R a t i n g - By L e n g t h o f S t a y 1 63' X L I X A n n u a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n - B y Age Group 165 L T r i p C o s t and E q u i p m e n t I n v e s t m e n t - By Age 166 Group L I M o t i v a t i o n - By Age Group 167 L I I U s e r E d u c a t i o n L e v e l s - By O r i g i n 172 L I I I U s e r Income L e v e l s - By O r i g i n 172 L I V U s e r O c c u p a t i o n - By O r i g i n 173 LV U s e r S a t i s f a c t i o n L e v e l s - By O r i g i n L V I M o t i v a t i o n - By O r i g i n 1 7 5 L V I I E v a l u a t i o n o f B e n e f i t s - By O r i g i n 176 L V I I I P r o f i c i e n c y R a t i n g - By Commitment 178 L I X M o t i v a t i o n - By Commitment . 179 LX F a c i l i t y O p i n i o n s - By Commitment 1 8 ° x i TABLE Page L X I Management M e a s u r e s - B y Commitment 180 L X I I O v e r a l l Danger R a t i n g - By Commitment 181 L X I I I Income and E d u c a t i o n L e v e l s - B y P r o f i c i e n c y 182 L X I V C o s t and I n v e s t m e n t - B y P r o f i c i e n c y 184 LXV A n n u a l P a t t e r n o f W i l d e r n e s s Use - By 184 P r o f i c i e n c y L X V I M o t i v a t i o n - By P r o f i c i e n c y 1 8 5 L X V I I B e n e f i t s - B y P r o f i c i e n c y 1 8 6 L X V I I I P r o f i c i e n c y R a t i n g - By E d u c a t i o n 188 L X I X C o s t and I n v e s t m e n t - B y E d u c a t i o n 1 8 9 LXX B e n e f i t s - B y E d u c a t i o n 190 L X X I P r e - P l a n n i n g and L e n g t h o f S t a y - By S i z e 194 o f P a r t y L X X I I M o t i v a t i o n and B e n e f i t s - By S i z e o f P a r t y 195 L X X I I I Summary o f S i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r a c t i o n s 200 x i i L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 . L o c a t i o n o f S t u d y A r e a s 58 2. P a n o r a m i c V i e w o f G a r i b a l d i L a k e 59 ( E l e v . if,816 F e e t ) and B l a c k T u s k Meadow A r e a 3. B e r g L a k e and Mt. R o b s o n (12,972 F e e t ) 60 k. M c L e a r y L a k e , Bowron L a k e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k 61 5. Age and Sex P y r a m i d o f T o t a l Sample 76 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s r e s e a r c h , l i k e any o t h e r , i s a s o c i a l p r o d u c t t o w h i c h many p e r s o n s i n one way o r a n o t h e r have c o n t r i b u t e d . I w i s h t o t h a n k t h e members o f my p r o g r a m c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e and c o u n c i l ; V.S. P e n d a k u r , H.P. O b e r l a n d e r , I . MoT. Cowan, P. B r a d l e y and C.S. R o l l i n g . The s t u d y c o u l d n o t have b e e n done w i t h o u t t h e e x c e l l e n t c o - o p e r a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s B r a n c h , n o t a b l y G eorge Wood i n V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r Bopp and J i m D e l i c a t n i i n G a r i b a l d i and D a v i e D a v i d s o n i n Bowron L a k e s . My t h a n k s t o o a r e e x t e n d e d t o v a r i o u s o u t f i t t e r s a t Bowron L a k e s and Mt. R o b s o n who s u p p l i e d names and a d d r e s s e s o f t h e i r g u e s t s . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k V i c k i Wagner f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o d i n g , R o b i n R u s s e l l f o r much needed g u i d a n c e w i t h c omputer p r o c e s s i n g , M a r i a C a s s i l s f o r e d i t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s , and Ann S a n g s t e r f o r t y p i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t . x i v PART 1. ORIENTATION CHAPTER I CONCEPTUAL PROLOGUE - CONSERVATION/PARKS/WILDERNESS The q u e s t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s f o r mankind ... i s t h e a s c e r t a i n m e n t o f t h e p l a c e w h i c h Man o c c u p i e s i n N a t u r e . T.H. H u x l e y , 1862 C o n s e r v a t i o n as a G u i d i n g P h i l o s o p h y I n t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l a g e , H u x l e y ' s q u e s t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s has assumed a v e r y u r g e n t r e l e v a n c e . Man i s b e l a t e d l y r e c o g n i s i n g t h a t t h e a r t i f i c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t he has c r e a t e d i s f a r f r o m s t a b l e and w e l l i n t e g r a t e d , and t h a t i t i s b e i n g d i r e c t e d on a c o l l i s i o n c o u r s e v i s - a - v i s n a t u r e . The need t o change t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s c o u r s e , so as t o h a r m o n i z e m a n - c o n t r o l l e d s y s t e m s w i t h n a t u r a l - f u n c t i o n i n g o n e s , has o n l y j u s t b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o us as a c o h e r e n t p r o b l e m . I n t h e s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n man and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e p h i l o s o p h y u s u a l l y c i t e d f a l l s u n d e r t h e r u b r i c o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . The 1 n o t e d e c o l o g i s t , Max N i c h o l s o n , has i n d e e d s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n w i l l be t h e b a s i s o f a "New R e n a i s s a n c e " . O t h e r s have s e n s e d t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n , no l o n g e r a s e l e c t p h i l o s o p h y 2 o f a n a e s t h e t i c m i n o r i t y , now has t h e e l e m e n t s o f a f u l l - s c a l e 2 s o c i a l movement . I f one g i v e s w e i g h t t o t h e i m p e t u s o f w o r l d -wide* c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g t h o u g h t l e s s e x p l o i t a t i o n and p o l l u t i o n , t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s may p r o v e c o r r e c t . B u t c o n s e r v a t i o n i s more t h a n a p h i l o s o p h y , a s e n t i m e n t o r a s o c i a l movement. I t i s a l s o a n a c a d e m i c f i e l d o f s t u d y b a s e d on t h e s c i e n c e s t h a t d e a l w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c and e c o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f man's u s e o f r e s o u r c e s . I n t h i s s e n s e , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s a b o r d e r l i n e s c i e n c e w h i c h depends f o r most o f i t s m a t e r i a l s and c o n c e p t s u p o n more s p e c i a l i z e d s c i e n c e s . I t d e s e r v e s i t s d i s t i n c t i o n as a f i e l d o f s t u d y b e c a u s e i t a t t e m p t s t o s y n t h e s i z e and i n t e g r a t e t h e n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . The b a s i c p r e m i s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n , as a f i e l d o f s t u d y , i s t h a t man, a t any p o i n t i n t i m e , has a t h r e e - w a y r e l a t i o n s h i p 3 w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . F i r s t , as a u s e r o f r e s o u r c e s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s a r t i f i c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , he m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r s t h e n a t u r a l h a b i t a t . S e c o n d , as a s e n t i e n t b e i n g , he v a l u e s c e r t a i n o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r r e c r e a t i o n , s c i e n t i f i c and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s n o t r e l a t e d t o m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n s . F i n a l l y , as a n e t h i c a l b e i n g , he r e c o g n i s e s h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a c u s t o d i a n o f a f i t - environment f o r f u t u r e h 5 g e n e r a t i o n s . L e o p o l d e n v i s i o n e d a s i m i l a r c o n c e p t o f t h e man/nature e q u a t i o n i n h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o f a " l a n d e t h i c " . 3 A l t h o u g h i t s g o a l s and t e r m s a r e s t i l l o n l y v a g u e l y d e f i n e d , t h e c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g on c o n s e r v a t i o n goes f a r b e y o n d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t i n g a s i d e o f p a r k s o r c o n c e r n w i t h t h e 6 q u a n t i t y o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e : C o n s e r v a t i o n must be n o t j u s t t h e c l a s s i c c o n s e r v a t i o n o f p r o t e c t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t a c r e a t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f r e s t o r a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n . I t s c o n c e r n i s n o t w i t h n a t u r e a l o n e , b u t w i t h t h e t o t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n man and t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h i m . I t i s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n as q u a l i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r t h i s s t u d y . The p o i n t t h a t n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f o r g a n i s i n g c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n t o a c h i e v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e s e a r c h f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l o p t i m a . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g as t h e B a s i s o f C o n s e r v a t i o n 7 A c c o r d i n g t o L y l e C r a i n e , t o d a y ' s r e a l c h a l l e n g e i n c o n s e r v a t i o n i s " t h e e f f e c t i v e management o f l a r g e s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o m p l e x e s " . I n t h e j a r g o n o f t h e f i e l d t h i s means p l a n n i n g r e g i o n a l l y f o r I n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e u s e . I n s t e p w i t h t h e "new" c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g e x t e n d s beyond a c o n c e r n w i t h l a n d u s e p e r se t o a b r o a d e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e t o t a l l a n d s c a p e f a b r i c . An a d v o c a t e of- t h i s e x t e n s i o n o f 8 i n t e r e s t i s S y l v i a Crowe , who e x p l a i n s : The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e t e r m l a n d s c a p e -p l a n n i n g f o r l a n d p l a n n i n g marks a d e l i b e r a t e w i d e n i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f p l a n n i n g t o i n c l u d e a p p e a r a n c e as w e l l as u s e , p l e a s u r e as w e l l as f e r t i l i t y , and t h e w h o l e c o m p l e x o r g a n i c f a b r i c o f l i f e as w e l l as man's i m m e d i a t e n e e d s . I n t h i s way t h e t o t a l r e g i o n a l l a n d s c a p e becomes a p l a n n e d m a t r i x o f u s e s w i t h a n o p t i m a l mix o f b o t h t h e e x t r i n s i c and m a t e r i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n o n 9 one end o f t h e s c a l e ( t o u s e Wagner's schema - t h e " a r t i f i c i a l " e n v i r o n m e n t ) and t h e i n t r i n s i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e n a t u r a l 10 e n v i r o n m e n t on t h e o t h e r To a c h i e v e s u c h a p l a n n e d m a t r i x , one f u n d a m e n t a l a x i o m must be a c c e p t e d : The d e s i r e d p a t t e r n s o f r e s o u r c e u s e i n t h e r e g i o n a l l a n d s c a p e w i l l n o t o c c u r s p o n t a n e o u s l y o r be g u i d e d by t h e " I n v i s i b l e h a n d " o f t h e m a r k e t . R a t h e r , t h e y must be a c t i v e l y c o n s i d e r e d and p u r s u e d f r o m a c o m p r e h e n s i v e 11 v i e w p o i n t . T h i s a x i o m i s p r o b a b l y t h e c o r e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . We r e c o g n i s e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t i n p r a c t i c e s u c h a g r a n d o i s e schema o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g meets w i t h s t r o n g p r o c e d u r a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e : What i s an o p t i m a l m i x t u r e ? F o r whom? How i s i t measured? What c a n n o t be measured? Where s h o u l d d i f f e r e n t u s e s be l o c a t e d ? What a r e t h e s o c i a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d ? Who b e n e f i t s ? What do we owe t h e f u t u r e ? And s p e c i f i c a l l y , what i s t h e p l a c e o f open space i n t h e r e g i o n a l l a n d s c a p e ? 5 Open Space as a L a n d s c a p e E l e m e n t One e l e m e n t i n t h e l a n d s c a p e f o r w h i c h t h e need f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i s c r i t i c a l i s open s p a c e . P a r t l y b e c a u s e o f i t s i n t a n g i b l e n a t u r e and i n a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d m e a n i n g , open s p a c e i s t h e most v u l n e r a b l e r e s o u r c e i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . I n t h e q u e s t f o r s p a c e t o accommodate g r o w t h , open s p a c e a r e a s a r e u s u a l l y t h e f i r s t t o be d i r e c t e d 12 i n t o a l t e r n a t i v e u s e s . "The c e n t r a l i s s u e " , as K r u t i l l a s u m m a r i z e s , "seems t o be t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e a m e n i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n s p o i l e d n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , f o r w h i c h t h e m a r k e t f a i l s t o make a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n " . Open s p a c e e x i s t s f o r a number o f d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s t h a t g i v e s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e t o t h e r e g i o n . The most common o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s i s p r o v i s i o n o f s p a c e f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f p a r k s . P a r k p l a n n e r s have d e v e l o p e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s t h a t r e c o g n i z e a h i e r a r c h y o f p a r k s 13 m e e t i n g a v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s and r e c r e a t i o n demands . T h u s , we have h y p o t h e t i c a l p a r k s s y s t e m s t h a t r a n g e f r o m c e n t r a l c i t y " v e s t - p o c k e t " p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s t o l a r g e , d i s t a n t , r e s o u r c e -1H b a s e d r e s e r v e s B u t we a r e s t i l l i n s e a r c h o f an a d e q u a t e t e s t a b l e 6 t h e o r y w h i c h w i l l e x p l a i n b e t t e r what p r o c e s s e s c h a r a c t e r i z e s u c h h y p o t h e t i c a l open s p a c e s y s t e m s . Such t h e o r y w o u l d p r o v i d e p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y makers w i t h a g e n e r a l i s e d , c o h e r e n t , and l o g i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r making and j u s t i f y i n g d e c i s i o n s . J u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r open s p a c e p o l i c i e s a r e commonly s t a t e d i n r o m a n t i c , r e l i g i o u s and common s e n s i c a l t e r m s w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r t h e i r l o g i c a l d e r i v a t i o n . E v e n t h e N a t i o n a l 15 P a r k s A c t , a c c o r d i n g t o S h e p a r d , "had t h e i n s u b s t a n t i a t e d o b s c u r e r e f e r e n c e o f a n a c t o f f a i t h w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t t h e o l o g y " The most i n s u b s t a n t i a t e d and t e n u o u s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r open s p a c e i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t man has a n i n n a t e o r g a n i c n eed f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l - t y p e s e r v i c e s o f u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l 16 l a n d s c a p e s . Crowe's comment i s p e r t i n e n t : "Man b e l o n g s t o b o t h t h e w o r l d o f t h e i n t e l l e c t and t o t h e o r g a n i c w o r l d and must, t h e r e f o r e , f i n d an e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h w i l l a l l o w h i m t o f u n c t i o n on b o t h s c a l e s " . I n t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y a s p e c t s o f how we emerged as human b e i n g s t h e r e a r e c l a i m s t h a t "our a n c e s t r y i s f i r m l y r o o t e d i n t h e a n i m a l w o r l d and t o i t s s u b t l e a n t i q u e 17 ways o u r h e a r t s a r e y e t p l e d g e d " . T h e r e i s m o u n t i n g e v i d e n c e , however, t h a t c r o w d i n g and d e p r i v a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e may be d e l e t e r i o u s t o m e n t a l 18 19 h e a l t h . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y , as Gannon n o t e s , t h a t a d i v e r s i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s enhances a d a p t i v e 7 20 c a p a c i t y . L i k e w i s e , S h e p a r d has p r e s e n t e d a r g u m e n t s t h a t s u g g e s t t h e r e a r e d e l a y e d and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f z e r o l e v e l expo'sure t o n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e q u e s t i o n o f man's o r g a n i c need f o r open s p a c e and n a t u r e may he f o r e v e r e s o t e r i c and i s n o t o f d i r e c t c o n c e r n h e r e . What i s e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t and what does p r e s e n t a r e s e a r c h a b l e t o p i c i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f man's s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs f o r open s p a c e as e v i d e n c e d b y t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e p r o v i s i o n and u s e o f t h e s e a r e a s . The b r o a d q u e s t i o n i s : What a r e t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s f o r and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s o f open s p a c e , and how c a n t h e y be e x p r e s s e d and e v a l u a t e d ? A t t h i s p o i n t , i t i s h e l p f u l t o r e c a p i t u l a t e t h e d e d u c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s s t u d y : 1. C o n s e r v a t i o n f o r q u a l i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y and s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e u se i s s u e s . 2. L a n d s c a p e o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g i s t h e o p e r a t i o n a l means t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e optimum e n v i r o n m e n t i s d i r e c t e d . I t s r a t i o n a l e r e s t s on t h e need f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e as w e l l as f o r e a c h e l e m e n t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e f a b r i c . 8 3. Man i s a s e n t i e n t b e i n g who s o c i a l l y d e s i r e s and b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e e x i s t e n c e o f open s p a c e . He may a l s o p o s s e s s a n o r g a n i c o r e v o l u t i o n a r y need f o r t h e s e a r e a s - a t l e a s t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t he does n o t . k. Open s p a c e i s no l o n g e r s o m e t h i n g t h a t p e o p l e s i m p l y go o u t and f i n d . I n s t e a d , a b r o a d r a n g e o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r open s p a c e w i l l p e r s i s t o n l y as a r e s u l t o f c o n s c i o u s p l a n n i n g . Open s p a c e t h u s becomes a p l a n n e d and v a l i d component o f t h e t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t . H y p o t h e t i c a l l y i t e x i s t s i n a h i e r a r c h y o f f o r m s w h i c h p r i m a r i l y p e r f o r m a r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n . 5. The c o n c e r n h e r e i s w i t h man's r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f one e l e m e n t o f t h e open s p a c e s y s t e m - w i l d e r n e s s . T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n g r o u p i n s o c i e t y t h a t s e e k o u t h i g h - q u a l i t y r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s i n l a r g e , u n d i s t u r b e d open s p a c e a r e a s , o f t e n i n t h e f o r m o f w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s . What i s t h e n a t u r e and r e l e v a n c e o f the r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s g a i n e d t h e r e t o modern man? What i s t h e e v o l v i n g n i c h e o f t h e s e a r e a s i n t h e r e g i o n a l l a n d s c a p e ? What v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l i t y o f o u r l a n d s c a p e and o u r c u l t u r e a r e s u g g e s t e d ? 9 W i l d e r n e s s i n t h e R e g i o n a l L a n d s c a p e The i d e a o f p r e s e r v i n g w i l d e r n e s s o r i g i n a t e d w i t h t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e f r o n t i e r i n t h e e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y i n t h e U.S. The s e n t i m e n t t o o k t h e f o r m o f t h e n a t u r a l p a r k movement w h i c h has s u b s e q u e n t l y s p r e a d , w i t h v a r y i n g e m p h a s i s i n f o r m and d e f i n i t i o n , i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y t o o v e r 70 c o u n t r i e s . 21 W i l d e r n e s s has b e e n , as S h e p a r d o b s e r v e s , p r e d o m i n a n t l y a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e new w o r l d c u l t u r e d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e p a s t 100 y e a r s . 22 23 The h i s t o r i a n s Nash and Brown h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t w i l d e r n e s s i s a d y n a m i c c o n c e p t , c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d and c h a n g i n g w i t h t i m e . I t i s now r e c o g n i s e d as a s p e c i a l t y p e o f l a n d u s e t h a t i s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o l a r g e c o u n t r i e s w i t h 2k l o w d e m o g r a p h i c p r e s s u r e . I n o u r s o c i e t y , w i l d e r n e s s has come t o be c o n s i d e r e d a p u b l i c r e s o u r c e i n i t s own r i g h t and a n i n c r e a s i n g l y s c a r c e commodity w i t h c e r t a i n human v a l u e s 25 a s c r i b e d (as i n Zimmerman's d i c t u m : " R e s o u r c e s a r e n o t -t h e y become"). The c u r r e n t a m b i v a l e n c e r e g a r d i n g w i l d e r n e s s i s e v i d e n t i n r e m a r k s made by B.C.'s M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n i n t h a t D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n Our 26 N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e : "The r e a l i t y t h a t man i s no l o n g e r a w i l d e r n e s s d w e l l e r and must o f n e c e s s i t y change i n p a r t t h e n a t u r e o f our l a n d i s b o t h r e c o g n i s e d and a c c e p t e d " . However, 10 t h e M i n i s t e r t h e n a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t : T h e r e i s a need i n man, s t r o n g f e l t i n some, i n o t h e r s b l u r r e d and f a d e d , t o , o n o c c a s i o n , r e a c h b a c k t o w a r d t h e f o u n t a i n o f c r e a t i o n . P e r h a p s i t i s h e r e , among t h e t h i n g s o f n a t u r e , t h a t t h o s e h a l f - f o r g o t t e n c h a n n e l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n c a n be r e - o p e n e d . T h i s i s heady s t u f f , i m p l y i n g t h e same m y s t i c a l 27 s e n t i m e n t t h a t T h o r e a u s p o k e o f , t h a t u r b a n man, a l t h o u g h b u f f e r e d f r o m i t b y h i s a r t i f a c t s , s t i l l n eeds t h e " t o n i c o f w i l d n e s s " . Such p o e t i c and a l m o s t t h e o l o g i c a l s e n t i m e n t s a r e o f l i t t l e h e l p t o t h e r e s o u r c e p l a n n e r who may a g r e e w i t h them b u t needs an e m p i r i c a l b a s e and t h e o r e t i c a l d e r i v a t i o n t o g i v e them r a t i o n a l and d e f e n d a b l e s u b s t a n c e . He d e s i r e s t o know, f o r i n s t a n c e , where and how much w i l d e r n e s s e x i s t s , how and who u s e s i t , and i t s v a l u e s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y . He s e e k s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t o f w i l d e r n e s s as a r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e , t h e r o l e i t p l a y s i n the open s p a c e s y s t e m , and t h e s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s t o t h e l a n d s c a p e p l a n . T h i s s t u d y r e s t s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l o g i c a l l y d e r i v e d t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e b a s e d on sound e m p i r i c a l d a t a i s needed on w h i c h t o b e t t e r d e v e l o p t h i s r a t i o n a l e . The c u r r e n t vague and e m o t i o n a l i d e o l o g y l i m i t s t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f w i l d e r n e s s as a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e . 11 F u r t h e r , what has "been t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h o u g h t o f as t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e may n o t he what i s now p r o v i d e d i n t h e 28 p a r k s . As L o w e n t h a l s u g g e s t s , modern a t a v i s t i c D a n i e l Boones a r e f e w . The c o n t e m p o r a r y w i l d e r n e s s u s e r may be t o o u r b a n - a f f e c t e d t o i n s i s t on t o t a l s o l i t u d e o r t o t a l p u r i t y . 29 How r e a l i s t h e f o l l o w i n g a g e n c y d e s c r i p t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s ? : The w i l d e r n e s s e n v i r o n m e n t i s s u c h t h a t u s e r s c a n e x p e r i e n c e a w i d e r a n g e o f i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e s ; f e e l i n g o f s o l i t u d e , s e n s e o f f r e e d o m , b e a u t y , s p i r i t o f a d v e n t u r e , e x c i t e m e n t , r e f r e s h m e n t , s p i r i t u a l a w a r e n e s s , s e r e n i t y , s e l f r e l i a n c e . My c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t a s t u d y o f t h e human e l e m e n t i n w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n c a n p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e and s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f man's c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s n a t u r e . P a u l 30 Shepard has s u g g e s t e d t h a t : "The s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t o f w i l d e r n e s s r u n s d e e p e r t h a n any o t h e r e n c o u n t e r i n n a t u r e . " T h u s , " ... by s t a n d i n g t o w a r d a z e n i t h i n a s c a l e o f r e s o u r c e s , 31 w i l d e r n e s s g i v e s d e f i n i t i o n t o many o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . " I n t h e h i s t o r i c a l s e n s e , w i l d e r n e s s has a l s o b een a t t h e f o u n t a i n h e a d o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n movement. I n e x p l a i n i n g man's a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , w i l d e r n e s s , t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t benchmark f o r s t u d y o f t h e man/nature e q u a t i o n . 12 D e f i n i t i o n The i d e a o f w i l d e r n e s s i s a d i f f i c u l t o n e , b u t i t i s p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t h a t c l a r i f y i n g i t i s v a l u a b l e . 32 G a r r e t t H a r d i n The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w i l d e r n e s s i s c o m p l i c a t e d b y a p e r s i s t e n t l a c k o f agreement on a sound d e f i n i t i o n . I t i s t h u s n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n by d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y . As a p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h two t y p e s o f w i l d e r n e s s - t h e f r o n t i e r and t h e p r e s e r v e d . F r o n t i e r w i l d e r n e s s i s an u n d i s t u r b e d a r e a o f w i l d l a n d beyond t h e ecumene t h a t as y e t i s n o t p e r m a n e n t l y i n h a b i t e d o r c o m m e r c i a l l y u t i l i z e d by man. Most o f n o r t h e r n Canada c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d w i l d e r n e s s o f t h i s t y p e . F r o n t i e r w i l d e r n e s s has a l w a y s e x i s t e d i n r e m o t e and u n i n h a b i t e d a r e a s , b u t i t i s d e c r e a s i n g i n e x t e n t w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n . The p r o c e s s e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y -p r e s e r v e d w i l d e r n e s s . T h i s i s an u n d i s t u r b e d a r e a o f p u b l i c l a n d t h a t has b e e n s e t a s i d e f o r n o n - c o n s u m p t i v e r e s o u r c e f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d i n g r e c r e a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , n a t u r e and w a t e r s h e d p r o t e c t i o n , w h e r e i n no m e c h a n i z e d t r a v e l i s p e r m i t t e d . The most o b v i o u s examples o f p r e s e r v e d w i l d e r n e s s a r e f o u n d i n our n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . 13 The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e two c o n c e p t s o f w i l d e r n e s s i s t h a t t h e f o r m e r i s a de f a c t o u n d e s i g n a t e d a r e a o f w i l d l a n d , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s a i p s o f a c t o w i l d e r n e s s a r e a w i t h a d e f i n e d and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l a n d u s e f u n c t i o n . F u r t h e r , where man's a t t i t u d e t o f r o n t i e r w i l d e r n e s s has b e e n t o tame, c o n q u e r and s e t t l e , h i s c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e t o p r e s e r v e d w i l d e r n e s s i s t o p r o t e c t , p r e s e r v e and as a v i s i t o r , e n j o y as i t i s . To a v o i d s e m a n t i c a r g u m e n t , t h e t e r m w i l d e r n e s s i s u s e d here- t o r e f e r t o a l l a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s f r o m w h i c h v i s i t o r s a m p les were c o l l e c t e d . The l e s s d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s " w i l d l a n d " and " b a c k c o u n t r y " , a r e u s e d t o r e f e r t o e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f e i t h e r t y p e o f w i l d e r n e s s . W i l d e r n e s s , however, i s n o t so much a t y p e o f l a n d s c a p e as i t i s a c o n g e r i e s o f f e e l i n g s a b o u t man and n a t u r e o f v a r y i n g i m p o r t t o d i f f e r e n t e p o c h s , c u l t u r e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s t h e s i s i s l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h w i l d e r n e s s as a l a n d c o n c e p t t h a n w i t h w i l d e r n e s s as a c o g n i t i v e " f e e l i n g " , i . e . t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f and r e a c t i o n t o w i l d e r n e s s . What c o n s t i t u t e s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e as i n f e r r e d f r o m v i s i t o r r e s p o n s e i s t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f t h i s i n q u i r y . Ik REFERENCES CHAPTER I (1) N i c h o l s o n , E. Max, " C o n s e r v a t i o n and t h e N e x t R e n a i s s a n c e " , A l b r i g h t C o n s e r v a t i o n L e c t u r e s h i p I V , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , M a r c h , 196*+. ( 2 ) See f o r e x a m p l e , G o d d a r d , M.K., "A New C o n s e r v a t i o n F o r an U r b a n A m e r i c a " , i n t h e " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r t i e t h N o r t h A m e r i c a n W i l d l i f e C o n f e r e n c e " 1968, p. k?7-k83, and Means, R.L., "The New C o n s e r v a t i o n " , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . A p r i l , 1969} p. 16. (3) See K e s t e v a n , G.L., "A P o l i c y F o r C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s " , - S c i e n c e . V o l . 160, May 2h, 1968, p. 857-860. (k) F o r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s I d e a f o r l a n d o w n e r s h i p s e e : K a n e , J . , "Our L a n d , N ot Y o u r s " , I n t r o s p e c t . S p e c i a l R e p o r t o f t h e S o c l e t y f o r P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l , B u r n a b y , B.C., 1970. (5) L e o p o l d , A., A Sand C o u n t y A l m a n a c . O x f o r d , L ondon, 19^9. (6) "Message From t h e P r e s i d e n t on N a t u r a l B e a u t y " , H.R. Doc. 78, U.S. S u p t . o f Doc. 1965. (7) C r a i n e , L.E., " S p e c i a l i z a t i o n and P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n " , i n H u f s c h m i d t , M.M., R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g - C h a l l e n g e and P r o s p e c t s . P r a i g e r , N.Y., 1969, p. 56. (8) Crowe, S y l v i a , "The Need f o r L a n d s c a p e P l a n n i n g " , i n Towards a New R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Man and N a t u r e i n Temperate L a n d s . I.U.C.N. New S e r i e s P u b l i c a t i o n No. 8, M o r g e s , 1967, p. Ik. (9) Wagner, P h i l i p , The Human Use o f t h e E a r t h . F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , L o n d o n , 196k. (10) Such a h o l i s t i c f r amework i s p r e s e n t e d by R o b e r t K a t e s , " C o m p r e h e n s i v e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g " , i n H u f s c h m i d t e d . , op. c i t . . p. 69. 15 (11) T h i s p o i n t i s made s t r o n g l y by T w i s s , R.H. and L i t t o n , B. i n " R e s o u r c e Use i n t h e R e g i o n a l L a n d s c a p e " , N a t . R e s . J . V o l . 6, J a n u a r y , 1966, p. 78-81. (12) ' K r u t i l l a , J.V., " C o n s e r v a t i o n R e c o n s i d e r e d " , Am. E c o n . Rev.. S e p t e m b e r , 1967, p . 778. (13) F o r examples on t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l s ee t h e many w r i t i n g s o f M a r i o n C l a w s o n i n c l u d i n g h i s Land and Water F o r R e c r e a t i o n , Rand M c N a l l y , C h i c a g o , 1963• On a n a t i o n a l s c a l e see W.J. H a r t ' s "A Systems A p p r o a c h t o P a r k P l a n n i n g " , I.U.C.N., New S e r i e s , P u b l i c a t i o n No. 4, M o r g e s , 1966. (14) I h a v e r e v i e w e d t h e s e s y s t e m s i n "Open Space f o r t h e U r b a n R e g i o n " , O n t a r i o G e o g r a p h y . V o l . 1, No. 1, 1967. (15) S h e p a r d , P., Man i n t h e L a n d s c a p e . K n o p f , N.Y., 1967, p. 229. (16) Crowe, op. c i t . . p. 16. (17) T h i s r e m a r k c a n be f o u n d i n R o b e r t A r d r e y ' s A f r i c a n G e n e s i s . D e l t a , N.Y., 1 963• (18) Dubos, R., Man A d a p t i n g . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 1965. (19) Gannon, C o l i n A., "Towards a S t r a t e g y f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n i n a W o r l d o f T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change", S o c i o - E c o n . P l a n S c i . . V o l . 3, 1969, p. 159-178. (20) N o t e s f r o m a Lu n c h e o n A d d r e s s by P a u l S h e p a r d , 8 th B i e n n i a l N o r t h w e s t W i l d e r n e s s C o n f e r e n c e , S e a t t l e , A p r i l 4, 1970. (21) S h e p a r d , op. c i t . (22) The most c o m p r e h e n s i v e h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s c o n c e p t i n the U.S. i s R o d e r i c k Nash's W i l d e r n e s s and t h e A m e r i c a n M i n d t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 1967. (23) A C a n a d i a n s o u r c e i s R.C. Brown's "The D o c t r i n e o f U s e f u l n e s s : N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e and N a t i o n a l P a r k P o l i c y i n Canada, 1887 - 1914", i n N e l s o n J.G. and S c a c e , R., ed s . , The C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1968, p. 94-110. 16 (24) See a l s o J e f f r e y , W.W., "The E v o l u t i o n o f W i l d e r n e s s P r e s e r v a t i o n P o l i c y i n t h e U.S.", t e r m p a p e r f o r F S 200, C o l o r a d o S t a t e , 1964, 58 p. (25) Zimmerman, E.W., I n t r o d u c t i o n t o W o r l d R e s o u r c e s t e d . H u n k e r , H.L., H a r p e r and Row, N.Y., 1964. (26) K i e r n a n , K., D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , Our N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e . B.C. Government P u b l i c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , 1970. (27) T h o r e a u , H e n r y D a v i d , W a l d e n and O t h e r W r i t i n g s . Modern L i b r a r y , N.Y., 1950. (28) L o w e n t h a l , D., " D a n i e l Boone i s Dead", N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . A u g u s t , 1968. (29) T h i s s t a t e m e n t f r o m a U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e p o r t i s q u o t e d i n : L a P a g e , W.F., "Some S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n " , J . Of F o r . . 6 1 : 1 , J a n u a r y , 1963, P. 35. (30) S h e p a r d , P., op. c i t . (3-1) ORRRC, W i l d e r n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n - A R e p o r t on R e s o u r c e s . V a l u e s and P r o b l e m s . S t u d y R e p o r t 3 , W a s h i n g t o n , 1962, p. 28. (32) H a r d i n , G a r r e t t , "We Must E a r n A g a i n F o r O u r s e l v e s What We Have I n h e r i t e d " , i n M c C l o s k e y , M., e d . , W i l d e r n e s s -The Edge o f K n o w l e d g e . S i e r r a C l u b , San F r a n c i s c o , 1970, p. 266. 17 CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGICAL PROLOGUE - RECREATION RESEARCH The E x p l o r a t o r y N a t u r e o f R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h O u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s a t p r e s e n t a n amorphous f i e l d and must, t h e r e f o r e , be e x p l o r a t i v e i n i t s a p p r o a c h t o r e s e a r c h , e v e n when t h e r e l e v a n c e o f p r o p o s e d work i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y e v i d e n t . 1 N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s E x p l a n a t i o n as one o f the t h r e e g o a l s o f s c i e n c e i s a t t h e h e a r t o f a l l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . The r o u t e t o f o l l o w t o e x p l a n a t i o n , h o w e v e r , v a r i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s and w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t o r . G e n e r a l l y i n a f i e l d c o n s i s t i n g o f many p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s and l i t t l e p r e v i o u s t h e o r y , a n e x p l o r a t o r y a p p r o a c h i s r e q u i r e d . Such a n a p p r o a c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o l a y t h e groundwork 2 f o r s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o r y . As T a y l o r o b s e r v e s : R e s e a r c h i n t o r e c r e a t i o n by w o r k e r s f r o m many ac a d e m i c b a c k g r o u n d s has b e e n l a r g e l y i n d u c t i v e . The s t u d i e s have b e e n i n what has been d e s c r i b e d as t h e n a t u r a l h i s t o r y s t a g e o f s c i e n c e . I n t h i s p h a s e o f s c i e n c e p e o p l e a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e f a c t o r s and i n s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . T h e r e have b e e n f e w , i f a n y , a t t e m p t s t o move on t o t h e d e d u c t i v e s t a g e o f t h e f i e l d . 18 The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e e v i d e n t . P r i m a r i l y t h e y s t e m f r o m t h e m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d , t h e r e c e n t emergence o f t h e t o p i c as a l e g i t i m a t e f i e l d o f a c a d e m i c i n q u i r y , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a c k o f a p r i o r i p r e m i s e s t h a t c a n be made. H y p o t h e s e s have and c a n be f o r m u l a t e d b u t a r e u s u a l l y o f s u c h l o w o r d e r t o be t r i v i a l . Some w r i t e r s have c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t p r e m a t u r e f o r m u l a t i o n . o f h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h 3 may p r o v e s t u l t i f y i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t r e s e a r c h a t an e a r l y o r e x p l o r a t o r y s t a g e c a n n o t r e l y on s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s o r on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l l i s t o f v a r i a b l e s . R a t h e r , " t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r must immerse h i m s e l f i n t h e d a t a , l e a r n a l l he c a n f r o m as many p e r s p e c t i v e s as p o s s i b l e , and o b t a i n v e r y g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n h r a t h e r t h a n d a t a l i m i t e d t o a r a t h e r n a r r o w f o c u s " . The e p i s t o m o l o g i s t w i l l r i g h t l y p o i n t o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s a p p r o a c h o f i d e n t i f y i n g and c o l l e c t i n g t h e f a c t s i n d e p e n d e n t o f some t h e o r y . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e o r y c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d i n f o r m a l t e r m s i f t h e terms a r e i n e x a c t and d i f f u s e d o r i f t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t i n t h e d e d u c t i v e p r o c e s s . The t e x t f o r t h e o r y must f i r s t be e s t a b l i s h e d . R e l e v a n t t h e o r y f o r some a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n ( f o r example economic e v a l u a t i o n ) i s a v a i l a b l e , b u t no o v e r a l l t h e o r y o f " r e c r e a t i o n a l man" e x i s t s f r o m w h i c h t o d e r i v e c o h e r e n t and t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s . Even c o h e r e n t s t a n d a r d 19 d e f i n i t i o n s o f b a s i c c o n c e p t s i n t h e f i e l d have y e t t o be a c c e p t e d . The f i r s t c o n c e r n i n a n e w l y e m e r g i n g f i e l d i s t h e c o l l e c t i o n , o r d e r i n g and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d a t a and t h e s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . When these g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e u n i f i e d i n t o a t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e n f a c t and t h e o r y c a n be p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d . When t h e r e i s d e a r t h o f s u b s t a n t i v e f a c t and e x p l i c i t t h e o r y t h e r e i s an abundance o f e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h . I n t h i s s e n s e r e s e a r c h on t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n has a l o n g way t o go b e f o r e a c h i e v i n g t h e p r e c i s i o n and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e " h a r d " s c i e n c e s . P r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d o r " M i s s i o n " R e s e a r c h T h e r e i s a p r a g m a t i c b i a s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h t o p i c s t h a t a r e p o l i c y o r p r o b l e m f o c u s e d . A c c o r d i n g t o a r e c e n t r e p o r t f r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s 5 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y C o u n c i l , s u c h r e s e a r c h on c u r r e n t i s s u e s o f p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n c a n c o n t r i b u t e b o t h t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y and t h e community as l o n g as o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s o f i n q u i r y a r e met. T h e r e i s d e b a t e on t h i s as J . K e n n e t h 6 Ha r e c a u t i o n s : "We ( t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s ) * a r e n o t a c t i o n -o r i e n t e d , and on e v e r y campus t h e r e i s a d e a d - w e i g h t o f o p i n i o n t h a t r e g a r d s a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d programs as h o s t i l e t o t h e a c a d e m i c l i f e . . . . " 20 T h i s " h o s t i l i t y " , h o w e v e r , i s l e s s a p p a r e n t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s s u c h as p l a n n i n g , f o r t h e p l a n n e r work's on c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s i n a r e a l w o r l d e n t a i l i n g s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e and s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d o l o g y r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r s o l u t i o n . The w o r l d t o w h i c h t h e p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t i s h e aded i s one c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o b l e m s and n o t o r g a n i s e d a l o n g d i s c i p l i n a r y l i n e s o r c o n f o r m i n g t o g r o s s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and l a w s . The t r a d i t i o n a l d e b a t e b e t w e e n p u r e and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h has 7 p r o v e n c i r c u l a r as l o n g as t h e C o u n c i l ' s c l a u s e : " ... as l o n g as o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s o f i n q u i r y a r e met" i s a d h e r e d t o . My c h o i c e o f a p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d t o p i c i n c o n t r a s t t o a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d y i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d y i s a j o i n t p r o j e c t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y and a Government D e p a r t m e n t . Such a t t e m p t s a t i n t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s e a r c h were s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s i n t h e i r r e c e n t r e v i e w o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n t h e U.S. They recommended t h a t " ... r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d u n d e r a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t e n c o u r a g e the 8 c l o s e c o u p l i n g o f r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y m a k e r s " . The a p p r o a c h t o t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d p r o v e s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s a d v a n t a g e o u s . 21 Summary C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n T o p i c S e l e c t i o n T r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t must be s u p p l e m e n t e d b y b e h a v i o r a l s t u d i e s o f more s u b j e c t i v e i n t e n t i o n a l f a c t o r s s u c h as a t t i t u d e s ... and o f f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e l e s s c l e a r l y s c i e n t i f i c i n f o u n d a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , p l a n n i n g must c o n d u c t a m a j o r e n q u i r y i n t o v a l u e s . I n t h i s t h e p l a n n e r s c a n be g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by s o c i a l s c i e n c e t e c h n i q u e s , b u t t h e r e w i l l r e m a i n a n a r e a o f v a l u e e x p l o r a t i o n w h i c h i s more i n d i r e c t , and w h i c h w i l l depend u p on i n f e r e n c e s f r o m b e h a v i o r t h a t a r e somewhat s u b j e c t i v e . 9 J o h n W. Dyckman The s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m a r e a I have s e l e c t e d has i n i t s e l f v e r y l i m i t e d f o r m a l l y d e v e l o p e d t h e o r y o r e m p i r i c a l b a s e . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , r e s e a r c h must i n good p a r t be d e s c r i p t i v e and s u g g e s t i v e i n n a t u r e . The p r i m a r y g o a l a t t h i s n e o p h y t e s t a g e i s t o d i s t i n g u i s h u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d i d e o l o g y f r o m e m p i r i c a l f a c t . As t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o r y i s a t t h e h e a r t o f a l l e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e i s t o s e e k e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t w i l l i n t u r n s u g g e s t t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s . 10 Weber has a r g u e d t h a t a l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s o c i a l phenomena i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and t h e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h i s means t h a t u n l i k e t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , s o c i a l r e s e a r c h c a n n o t be o b j e c t i v e and i n d e p e n d e n t o f some v a l u e s y s t e m . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t must expend a c r e a t i v e , s y m p a t h e t i c , and i n some 22 measure i n t u i t i v e e f f o r t w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y u t i l i z i n g what c o n t r o l t h e s c i e n t i f i c method c a n g i v e o v e r t h e r e a s o n a b l e n e s s and c o n s i s t e n c y o f s t a t e m e n t s he makes a b o u t " r e a l i t y " . The c r i t e r i a o n w h i c h s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e t o be j u d g e d w i l l t h e n d e m o n s t r a t e i f t h e argument i s s o u n d , t h e t e c h n i q u e s p r o p e r l y u s e d and t h e e x p l a n a t i o n r e a s o n a b l e . As a n e x p l o r a t o r y , p r o b l e m and p l a n n i n g - o r i e n t e d s t u d y , 11 c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a on t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a r e l e v a n t t o p i c were c o n s i d e r e d . The t o p i c s h o u l d : 1. r e l a t e t o a p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m , 2. r e l a t e t o a n i n f l u e n t i a l o r c r i t i c a l p o p u l a t i o n , 3. f i l l a r e s e a r c h gap, h. p e r m i t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o b r o a d e r p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l t h e o r y , 5. s h a r p e n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 6. be amenable t o methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and d a t a a n a l y s i s , and 7. be t i m e l y . The above d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t s o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h and t h e c r i t e r i a f o l l o w e d i n t o p i c s e l e c t i o n has been g i v e n t o e x p l a i n t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h . 23 REFERENCES CHAPTER I I (1) N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s , A P r o g r a m o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h . P u b l i c a t i o n 1727, N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s , W a s h i n g t o n , 1969, p. 9. (2) T a y l o r , G.D. " R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h and G e o g r a p h y " , P a p e r g i v e n t o The C a n a d i a n A s s o c . o f G e o g r a p h e r s , O t t a w a , May, 1967, p. 10. (3) H a r v e y , D., E x p l a n a t i o n i n G e o g r a p h y , A w a l d , L o n d o n , 1970, C h a p t e r 7. (4) " B l a l o c k , H.M., J r . , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , P r e n t i c e H a l l , N.Y., 1970, p. 41 . (5) . S t e i n h a r t , J . S . and C h e r n i a c k , S., "The U n i v e r s i t i e s and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y - Commitment t o P r o b l e m F o c u s e d E d u c a t i o n " , A R e p o r t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y C o u n c i l , S u p t . o f Documents, W a s h i n g t o n , September, 1969. (6) I b i d . . p. 6. (7) I b i d . , p. 4. (8) N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s , op. c i t . . p. 7. (9) Dyckman, J.W., " C i t y P l a n n i n g and t h e T r e a s u r y o f S c i e n c e " , i n E w a l d , W.R., E n v i r o n m e n t F o r Man. I n d i a n a P r e s s , 1968, p. 40. (10) Weber, M., Max Weber on t h e M e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s t e d . S h i l s , E.A., F r e e P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 1949. (11) M i l l e r , D.C., Handbook o f R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and S o c i a l Measurement. McKay, N.Y., 1964. 2h CHAPTER I I I THE PROBLEM OF THE WILDERNESS W i l d e r n e s s as a Common P r o p e r t y R e s o u r c e The p r o b l e m o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s a r i s e s o u t o f t h e n a t u r e o f i t s o c c u r r e n c e as a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e . The t h e o r y o f common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s , d e v e l o p e d by e c o n o m i s t s and b i o l o g i s t s i s t h u s a u s e f u l t o o l i n d i a g n o s i n g t h e p r o b l e m 1 and i n p r e s c r i b i n g s o l u t i o n s . Common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s a r e t h o s e s u c h as a i r , o c e a n f i s h e r i e s and r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e p u b l i c l y owned, and w h i c h c a n be u s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b y more t h a n one i n d i v i d u a l o r economic u n i t . No one u s e r c a n a p p r o p r i a t e s i n g l e r i g h t s o r p r e v e n t o t h e r s f r o m s h a r i n g t h e r e s o u r c e . A t l o w l e v e l s o f use t h e a d d i t i o n a l u s e r o f t h e r e s o u r c e may impose v i r t u a l l y no c o s t on o t h e r s . I n f a c t , as i t i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e r e i s no need f o r e a c h p a r t i c u l a r u s e r t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e c o s t he imposes on o t h e r s when he c h o o s e s t o u s e t h e common r e s o u r c e . B u t as t h e r e s o u r c e i s f i n i t e , a s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t e x i s t s where t h e commons a t t r a c t s more u s e r s t h a n a r e s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y o r a e s t h e t i c a l l y d e s i r e d . T h i s p o i n t o c c u r s when t h e a d d i t i o n a l u s e r c a u s e s o t h e r s t o s u f f e r " d i s u t i l i t i e s " b e c a u s e o f the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o f h i s p r e s e n c e . When t h i s s t a g e i s r e a c h e d an e x t e r n a l i t y o r s p i l l o v e r e f f e c t o c c u r s . What e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s 25 when a r e s o u r c e i s f r e e and open t o a l l i s u n c o n t r o l l e d 2 c o n s u m p t i o n w h i c h l e a d s t o d e p l e t i o n o r what H a r d i n c a l l s " t h e T r a g e d y o f t h e Commons". T h i s t r a g e d y i s m a n i f e s t e d , n o t o n l y i n t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e q u a l i t y b u t a l s o i n added s o c i a l c o s t s o f i n e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n . When t h e u s e r s o f t h e common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e become c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r t o t a l f r e e d o m t o e n t r y must be r e l i n q u i s h e d , t h e u s u a l mechanism i s t o c a l l f o r u n i f i e d management t o l i m i t u s e o f t h e r e s o u r c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s p o i n t o f agreement comes a f t e r t h e i r r e v e r s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d e p l e t i o n have been s u f f e r e d ( e x a m p l e - t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f s e a o t t e r s t o c k s ) o r , as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P a c i f i c Salmon f i s h e r i e s , r e s u l t i n t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e wrong r e s t r i c t i o n s 3 f o r t h e wrong r e a s o n s . What i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e management o f common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s h i t s o u r l a i s s e i f a i r e t r a d i t i o n s b r o a d s i d e and c o n s e q u e n t l y o u r management r e c o r d s h e r e have n o t b e e n good. These a r e p r e c i s e l y t h e c l a s s o f p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e now f a c i n g w i l d e r n e s s p l a n n e r s and managers. The c e n t r a l i s s u e i s t h a t o f any common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e - t h e s p e c t r e o f g r o w i n g demand, r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , f i n i t e s t o c k s , u n l i m i t e d e n t r y , c o n g e s t i o n , d e c l i n e i n q u a l i t y , * a n d l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l mechanisms t o e n s u r e an u n i m p a i r e d y i e l d o f b e n e f i t s . 26 I n t e r m s o f r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y , we have much e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e i d e a o f w i l d e r n e s s as a b o u n d l e s s c o r n u c o p i a i s a myth. S i n c e w i l d e r n e s s has no c l o s e s u b s t i t u t e s , i t i s , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , i r r e p r o d u c i b l e . I t s f u t u r e p l a n n i n g , r e c o g n i s i n g t h e i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y o f d e c i s i o n s i s c r i t i c a l . B e c a u s e o f t h e l o w d e n s i t y o f u s e t h a t c h a r t e r i z e s w i l d e r n e s s , i t i s e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o a b a s i c p r o b l e m o f t h e commons - c o n g e s t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , e f f i c i e n c y , o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t , q u a l i t y , i s s u b j e c t t o d e c l i n e when c e r t a i n u s e l e v e l s a r e r e a c h e d . Such p r o b l e m s as c o n g e s t i o n , d e p l e t i o n and i n e f f i c i e n c y i n w i l d e r n e s s a r e s i m i l a r t o o t h e r common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s . B u t t h e p u b l i c d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n t h e f r o n t i e r f r e e d o m s o f t h e commons as w e l l as t h e i n t a n g i b l e n a t u r e o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s , r e n d e r t h e s o l u t i o n s t o i t s p r o b l e m s more c o m p l e x . F o r i n s t a n c e , we c h o o s e n o t t o m a r k e t w i l d e r n e s s and no t o k e n l i c e n s e f e e i s r e q u i r e d . We do n o t know e v e n how many u s e r s t h e r e a r e n o r t h e o p t i m a l l e v e l s o f u s e . And, our k n o w l e d g e o f t h e b e n e f i t s and v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s i s e v e n more l i m i t e d . I n s p i t e o f t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e i r r e v e r s i b l e e f f e c t s o f w i l d e r n e s s k m i s u s e a r e i n e v i t a b l e i f e n t r y i n some way i s n o t c o n t r o l l e d . 27 I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s f o r e c a s t , r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s w i l l 5 h a v e t o a g r e e w i t h Wagar t h a t : I n c r e a s i n g numbers o f v i s i t o r s make i t l i k e l y t h a t u s e i n many w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s may have t o be l i m i t e d by r a t i o n i n g i f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s a v a i l a b l e t h e r e a r e n o t t o be s t r o n g l y m o d i f i e d . Such r e d t a p e as r e s e r v a t i o n s , f i r e p e r m i t s , and p r e - p l a n n e d i t i n e r a r i e s seem i n e v i t a b l e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y v i o l a t e o u r t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s o f w i l d e r n e s s . However, f o r many a r e a s s u c h p r o c e d u r e s may be p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o f c r o w d i n g , h e a v y damage, o r i n c r e a s e d a r t i f i c i a l i t y . Such " b e a u r a c r a t i z a t i o n " o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s , r e p u l s i v e as i t may a p p e a r , i s a l r e a d y o c c u r r i n g i n t h e D e s o l a t i o n 6 W i l d e r n e s s o f C a l i f o r n i a . T h e r e , i t i s now c o m p u l s o r y t o a p p l y i n a d v a n c e , f u r n i s h i n g c o m p l e t e t r i p i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e a W i l d e r n e s s P e r m i t i s i s s u e d . The p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s h e r e a r e i n t e r e s t i n g . I f p a r k p l a n n e r s do n o t a g r e e w i t h t h i s s e n t i m e n t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f w i l d e r n e s s may be l o s t and many a r e a s w i l l d i s s o l v e i n t o p l a y g r o u n d s f o r mass u s e . I n t h e b r o a d e r p o l i c y s e n s e , w i l d e r n e s s , as t h e h i s t o r i c a l i m p e t u s o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n movement, may a l s o l e a d t h e way t o i t s f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t u n c o n t r o l l e d g r o w t h i n a f i n i t e s y s t e m c a n n o t and i n d e e d w i l l n o t be accommodated. I t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s p l a n n e r s t o p r e s e n t t o us t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a c t i o n b e f o r e we r e a c h u s e s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t s . 28 I f we a c c e p t t h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r p r e v e n t i n g t h e "Tragedy o f t h e Commons" i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s , we now c o n c e r n o u r s ' e l v e s w i t h f i v e e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s o f common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e s : A t what p o i n t s h o u l d u s e he r e s t r i c t e d ? How c a n u s e be r e s t r i c t e d ? To whom s h o u l d i t be r e s t r i c t e d ? How c o u l d c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and management i n c r e a s e t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e r e s o u r c e t o p r o d u c e h i g h q u a l i t y y i e l d s w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a i r m e n t ? How do we a c h i e v e f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n ? And, most i m p o r t a n t , what i s t h e e f f e c t o f s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n s on w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s ? W i t h i n t h e s e b r o a d q u e s t i o n s l i e many f r u i t f u l a r e a s f o r r e s e a r c h , i n c l u d i n g : e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s on t h e i m p a c t o f man i n w i l d e r n e s s , economic s t u d i e s on t h e d o l l a r i m p a c t , o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s and e v a l u a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s , s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b e h a v i o r a l s t u d i e s o f v a l u e s and t h e human e l e m e n t s o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e , g e o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s on t h e s p a t i a l o p e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m s , and p o l i c y and p r o b l e m o r i e n t e d s t u d i e s o f the m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y a s p e c t s o f p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c s , r e g i o n s o r p o p u l a t i o n s . 29 R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e need f o r and p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f 7 w i l d e r n e s s r e s e a r c h , a c c o r d i n g t o L u c a s , i s r e c e n t and u n d e v e l o p e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s : The p o t e n t i a l r e t u r n s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o w i l d e r n e s s p o l i c y -seem l a r g e . D ebate and d i s p u t e w i l l n e v e r be e l i m i n a t e d by r e s e a r c h b u t t h e y c o u l d be f o c u s e d on t h e r e a l l y i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e c h o i c e s . W i l d e r n e s s U s e r R e s e a r c h - The A m e r i c a n C o n t r i b u t i o n The U.S. has made s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g an e m p i r i c a l d a t a b a s e o n w i l d e r n e s s r e s o u r c e s and u s e . I n t h a t c o u n t r y a c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t i o n a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s u r v e y (ORRRC) has l a i d t h e groundwork f o r n a t i o n a l and s t a t e p o l i c i e s f o r a l l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A t u r b u l e n t " t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h " o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y l e d t o t h e W i l d e r n e s s A c t o f 1964 t h a t C o n g r e s s i o n a l l y 9 d e f i n e s W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e U n i o n . The A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e i n s p i t e o f many l e g a l , c u l t u r a l and economic d i f f e r e n c e s , s h o u l d p r o v e v a l u a b l e t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s moving i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 10 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e major ORRRC s t u d y on w i l d e r n e s s t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t n i n e d i s s e r t a t i o n s c o m p l e t e d a t U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g some a s p e c t o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e . The m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y i n t e r e s t i n w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h 30 i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t two o f t h e s e d i s s e r t a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e d i n D e p a r t m e n t s o f F o r e s t r y , two i n N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e C e n t r e s and one e a c h i n D e p a r t m e n t s o f G e o g r a p h y , E c o n o m i c s , P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and E c o l o g y . 11 I n 1953» James P. G i l l i g a n u n d e r t o o k t h e f i r s t m a j o r a c a d e m i c s t u d y o f w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n . H i s "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f P o l i c y and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e P r i m i t i v e and W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s i n t h e W e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s " d e s c r i b e s t h e h i s t o r y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e w i l d l a n d s . A f t e r a t h o r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s , G i l l i g a n u s e s h i s p e r s o n a l a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h w i l d c o u n t r y t o s e t f o r t h t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g w i l d e r n e s s c o n d i t i o n s i n p r e s e r v e d a r e a s . 12 I n 1962, R.C. L u c a s , w o r k i n g w i t h t h e U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , p r o d u c e d "The Q u e t i c o -S u p e r i o r A r e a : R e c r e a t i o n a l Use i n R e l a t i o n t o C a p a c i t y " . T h i s s t u d y was an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n f o c u s i n g on e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n and t h e d i v e r g e n c e i n a s p i r a t i o n s b etween t h e r e s o u r c e manager and t h e u s e r . 13 R. C a t e s ' e x t e n s i v e p o l i c y s t u d y " R e c r e a t i o n and t h e U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e : A S t u d y o f O r g a n i s a t i o n a l R e s p o n s e t o C h a n g i n g Demands" i s v a l u a b l e h i s t o r i c a l l y and p o i n t s o u t how u s e r p r e s s u r e s c a n a f f e c t w i l d e r n e s s l a n d use p o l i c y . 31 14 R o b e r t K. D a v i s o b t a i n e d i n t e r v i e w d a t a t o measure " w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a y " and t o j u d g e t h e e c o nomic v a l u e o f w i l d l a n d i n h i s " V a l u e o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n : An E c o n omic S t u d y o f t h e M a i n e Woods". 15 J . A l a n Wagar made c o n c e p t u a l headway i n h i s " C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f W i l d l a n d s f o r R e c r e a t i o n " . Wagar•s a p p r o a c h , b a s e d on m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r y , i d e n t i f i e d t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f needs t h a t a p p a r e n t l y m o t i v a t e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n and t h e n g r a p h e d t h e manner i n w h i c h management d e c i s i o n s c o u l d a f f e c t t h e s e n e e d s . 16 C u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , R o d e r i c k Nash , t r a c e d t h e A m e r i c a n i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f the w i l d e r n e s s c o n c e p t i n h i s " W i l d e r n e s s and t h e A m e r i c a n M i n d " . Nash's s u b s e q u e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s and t h e C a n a d i a n mind i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n C h a p t e r X o f t h i s s t u d y . I n a s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f u s e r s on t h e r e s o u r c e , 17 B e t t y W i l l a r d c a l i b r a t e d v e g e t a t i v e change on a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l p l o t s . Her " E f f e c t s o f V i s i t o r Use on A l p i n e T u n d r a E c o s y s t e m s i n Rocky M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k " i s one o f t h e few s t u d i e s on t h a t c r i t i c a l t o p i c . A more r e c e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n , and one t h a t w i l l be o f t e n 18 c i t e d , i s J o h n C. Hendee's " R e c r e a t i o n C l i e n t e l e - t h e A t t r i b u t e s o f R e c r e a t i o n i s t s ' P r e f e r e n c e s o f D i f f e r e n t 32 Management A g e n c i e s , Ca r Campgrounds, o r W i l d e r n e s s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t " . Hendee's s t u d y i s a m a n a g e m e n t - o r i e n t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y o f v i s i t o r s t o d e v e l o p e d campground and w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e . O t h e r r e l e v a n t A m e r i c a n c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o w i l d e r n e s s 19, u s e r r e s e a r c h o u t s i d e o f d i s s e r t a t i o n s i n c l u d e work by C a t t o n 20 21 M e r r i a m and Ammons , and Sommarstrom . A l o n g w i t h t h e a bove s t u d i e s , t h e y w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s p r o c e e d s . W i l d e r n e s s U s e r R e s e a r c h - The C a n a d i a n C o n t r i b u t i o n In- Canada we a r e s t i l l a t an e a r l y s t a g e i n d e f i n i n g where we 22 s t a n d v i s - a - v i s w i l d e r n e s s . Nash has s u g g e s t e d t h a t we may l a g as much as 50 y e a r s b e h i n d U.S. t h i n k i n g : The C a n a d i a n p u b l i c ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o and e n t h u s i a s m f o r w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s l a g s a t l e a s t two g e n e r a t i o n s b e h i n d o p i n i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Canada, t h a t i s t o s a y , i s c u r r e n t l y a t a p o s t u r e r e g a r d i n g w i l d e r n e s s t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o c c u p i e d i n t h e l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n gap, t h e f a c t i s t h a t t h e r o l e s t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government i n Canada assume i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n g e n e r a l 23 a r e n o t y e t c l e a r . A l s o , i n a c o u n t r y w i t h a s u p p o s e d abundance o f f r o n t i e r w i l d e r n e s s , t h e need f o r p r e s e r v e d 33 2h w i l d e r n e s s i s n o t as s t r o n g l y f e l t . P i m l o t t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t , b e c a u s e o f t h e s e and o t h e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n the two c o u n t r i e s on w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n c a n n o t be made i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . T h e r e a r e two r e c e n t and r e l e v a n t i n d i c e s o f F e d e r a l i n t e r e s t i n n a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . One i s t h e C a n a d i a n 25 O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S t u d y w h i c h w i l l i n d i c a t e , i n p a r t , how r e l e v a n t t h e ORRRC f i n d i n g s m i g h t be t o Canada. The s e c o n d i s t h e c u r r e n t P u b l i c H e a r i n g P r o g r a m on N a t i o n a l P a r k P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n s i n w h i c h t h e S e r v i c e hopes t o gauge p u b l i c o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p l a c e o f w i l d e r n e s s i n t h e F e d e r a l 26 p a r k s y s t e m . The b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e s e p l a n s h a s , i n p a r t , been b a s e d on t h e a u t h o r ' s s t u d i e s on p a t t e r n s o f w i l d e r n e s s 27 use i n t h e m o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s A t t h e P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , t h r e e p r o v i n c e s - O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - have made p o s i t i v e moves t o w a r d s g i v i n g w i l d e r n e s s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and l e g a l s u b s t a n c e . O n t a r i o has a v e r y l i m i t e d W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s A c t and i s engaged a t p r e s e n t i n an e m o t i o n a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g c a m p a i g n on t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f w i l d e r n e s s and m u l t i p l e u s e i n i t s p r o v i n c i a l 28 p a r k s . The O n t a r i o Lands and F o r e s t s D e p a r t m e n t has a l s o 29 s p o n s o r e d t h e o n l y p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s u r v e y o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s A l b e r t a has e s t a b l i s h e d by O r d e r i n C o u n c i l s e v e r a l W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s and has i n t r o d u c e d a d r a f t o f a W i l d e r n e s s A c t t o t h e 3>h 30 L e g i s l a t u r e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has d e l i m i t e d one and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n a c r e s w i t h i n f o u r p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s as " n a t u r e c o n s e r v a n c y " a r e a s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e a s c a n be a l t e r e d a t any t i m e by C a b i n e t O r d e r i n C o u n c i l , t h e y a r e t h e most h i g h l y p r o t e c t e d l a n d s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . A l o n g w i t h t h e C l a s s 'A' p a r k s t h e y a r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s y s t e m o f p r e s e r v e d w i l d e r n e s s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . D e s p i t e t h i s g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g w i l d e r n e s s i n t h i s c o u n t r y , t h e r e have b e e n f e w s t u d i e s done t h a t p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l d a t a t o g i v e w e i g h t t o d e c i s i o n s on t h e use o f w i l d l a n d s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . O n l y t h r e e M a s t e r s ' t h e s e s and t h r e e B a c h e l o r s ' t h e s e s have b e e n done t h a t r e l a t e t o t h i s t o p i c . 31 P r i d d l e f o l l o w e d t h e work o f L u c a s i n h i s " W i l d e r n e s s 32 P e r c e p t i o n i n A l g o n q u i n P r o v i n c i a l P a r k " , and J u u r a n d has c a r r i e d o u t f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s on d a t a f r o m my e a r l i e r 33 s t u d y on w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s . A j o i n t s t u d y w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o r e s u l t e d i n my " R e c r e a t i o n a l Use o f W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k " w h i c h c o n t a i n s one c h a p t e r on w i l d e r n e s s u s e r r e s e a r c h . 35 B a c h e l o r t h e s e s o f r e l e v a n c e a r e B i r t l e ' s s t u d y o f a 36 r e c r e a t i o n c o n c e p t f o r G a r i b a l d i P a r k , K o t ' s summary o f 37 a c r e a g e changes i n t h e B.C. p a r k s y s t e m and N o b l e ' s e a r l i e r 35 d e s c r i p t i v e work on " F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n Management i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " . O u t s i d e o f t h e s e s , v e r y l i t t l e e l s e has b e e n 38 a c c o m p l i s h e d . T a y l o r ' s c u r s o r y s t u d y o f u s e r s t o t h e B l a c k T usk Meadows i n 1960 w i l l be o f some c o m p a r a t i v e u s e i n t h e a n a l y s i s , as w i l l h i s s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y o f v i s i t o r s 39 t o W e l l s G r a y i n 1959 . The a u t h o r has c o m p l e t e d one f u r t h e r s t u d y w i t h t h e 40 N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e some c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s an e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f b a c k c o u n t r y t r a i l u s e i n B a n f f and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s . O t h e r w i l d e r n e s s 41 42 p l a n n i n g p a p e r s and r e p o r t s , some o f w h i c h a r e r e s t r i c t e d government d o c u m e n t s , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l as t h e a n a l y s i s p r o c e e d s . The R e s e a r c h Gan i n G e n e r a l The l a r g e s t s i n g l e n e c e s s i t y i n A m e r i c a n F o r e s t B i o l o g y I s t h e s t u d y o f man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o f o r e s t l a n d . 43 Hugh Raup A t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s s h o u l d f i n d o u t what p e o p l e r e a l l y want f r o m them and f r o m p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t what i s i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e y c a n p l a n f o r . 44 J o s e p h F i s h e r 36 The ahove two q u o t a t i o n s l e a d i n t o a more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m t h a t i s t h e c o n c e r n o f t h i s t h e s i s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e p r i n c i p l e i s a f f i r m e d t h a t we need a v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d body o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m s o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e u s e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , s t u d y o f w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i t s u n i q u e , a n d , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , l a r g e l y i m m e a s u r a b l e v a l u e s i s needed as a b a s i s f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g t h e p l a c e o f w i l d e r n e s s i n o u r l a n d s c a p e . D e s p i t e t h e i n t a n g i b l e s i n v o l v e d , what c a n be measured s h o u l d be measured t o p r o v i d e us w i t h more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e r i v e d p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s . R e c r e a t i o n management p o l i c i e s must be g r o u n d e d on an e x a m i n a t i o n o f human n e e d s , l a n d c a p a b i l i t i e s , and management p h i l o s o p h i e s . I n d e e d , a s u r v e y o f r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a c o n s e n s u s t h a t r e s e a r c h i s needed most on t h e human e l e m e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . I n a k e y p a p e r p r e s e n t i n g t h e h6 p r i o r i t i e s f o r r e s e a r c h on r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , L u c a s e x p l a i n s t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c p r i o r i t i e s . These i n c l u d e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t human p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e f a s t e r t h a n n a t u r a l s ystems and most e c o l o g i c a l changes a r e a t l e a s t g r a d u a l enough t o p r o v i d e a g r a c e p e r i o d . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e i s l e s s known a b o u t t h e human q u e s t i o n s , and l e s s r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h i s underway on t h e u s e r p r o b l e m s t h a n on t h e b i o l o g i c a l o n e s . A m a j o r r e v i e w o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h by a p a n e l o f t h e N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s s u p p o r t s t h i s a s s e s s m e n t . 37 M o r e o v e r , w i t h p l a n n i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g t r e a t e d as a " b e h a v i o r a l s y s t e m " , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r e a t e s t need i n t h i s f i e l d i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r o f p e o p l e . B e h a v i o r a l and human c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h o u g h c e r t a i n l y n o t a p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g , have become a k e y i n p u t i n t h e 49 p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As R e s o u r c e s F o r The F u t u r e p u t i t : "We a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e human r e s e a r c h f o c u s w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e f i e l d i s c e n t r a l and i n d i s p e n s a b l e " . 50 51 M a r s h and R o s t o n d i s c u s s t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e need f o r r e s e a r c h on t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f r e s o u r c e u s e . I n summary: 1. I n t h e s e a r c h f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y t h e r e i s a need t o u n d e r s t a n d p e o p l e , n o t o n l y d i s c i p l i n e s s u c h as e c o n o m i c s and e c o l o g y . 2. S t u d i e s o f man/environment r e l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f man's m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , has b e e n n e g l e c t e d i n t h e p a s t . 3. I n e x p l a i n i n g t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know why man a c t s i n a c e r t a i n way t o w a r d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , n o t j u s t where and how. 38 k. We a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e s u c c e s s o f p l a n s o r e x p l a i n f a i l u r e s when human f a c t o r s a r e b u i l t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t f s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e s y s t e m may enhance u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e s s e n m a n a g e r i a l p r o b l e m s . 5. S t u d i e s o f man's m e n t a l o u t l o o k s u g g e s t how e d u c a t i o n and media c o u l d be employed t o i m p r o v e m an/environment r e l a t i o n s . The R e s e a r c h Gap i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o n t e x t To r e l a t e t h e p r o b l e m t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s o n t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s have b e e n l i m i t e d 52 t o a c u r s o r y s t u d y made i n 1959 hy T a y l o r and Edwards o f c a r 53 campers t o W e l l s G r a y P r o v i n c i a l P a r k and t o T a y l o r ' s u n p u b l i s h e d s u r v e y o f B l a c k Tusk a r e a u s e r s . S i n c e t h a t t i m e t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s B r a n c h has n o t c o n t i n u e d f u r t h e r p a r k u s e r e s e a r c h . E x c e p t f o r s e v e r a l economic s t u d i e s by P e a r s e , d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s have n o t b e e n p u r s u e d o u t s i d e t h e government s p h e r e . R e c o g n i s i n g t h e need f o r s u c h r e s e a r c h , t h e P a r k s 55 B r a n c h has r e c e n t l y s t a t e d t h a t : W i t h e v e r h e i g h t e n i n g demand on r e s o u r c e s f o r a m u l t i t u d e o f p u r p o s e s , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e B r a n c h w i l l have t o resume b a s i c r e s e a r c h t o e n s u r e v a l i d i t y o f i t s p l a n n i n g and s u b s t a n t i a t e i t s r e q u e s t s f o r use o f r e s o u r c e s . 39 I n t h i s b a s i c s e n s e we need t o know t h e s i m p l e f a c t s o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e i n B.C. - i t s e x t e n t , g r o w t h , u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e m e r g i n g t r e n d s . T h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l s u p p o r t f o r w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . An i n d e x f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e o f t h e r e s i d u a l p o s i t i o n t h a t w i l d e r n e s s i s g i v e n i n t h e r e s o u r c e h i e r a r c h y i s t h e d e c l i n e o f 4.3 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f p a r k l a n d i n t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s . I n r e s p o n s e t o demands f r o m r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n ( e . g . S t r a t h c o n a P a r k ) and h y d r o power ( e . g . Tweedsmuir and Hamber) c o n c e r n s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government has f o u n d i t c o n v e n i e n t t o w i t h d r a w l a n d f r o m e x i s t i n g a c r e a g e s and to e n c o u r a g e m u l t i p l e u se on 56 much o f t h e r e s t . P u b l i c d i s s e n t on t h e s e d e l e t i o n s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , has b e e n s c a t t e r e d , t e n u o u s and b a s e d l a r g e l y o n e m o t i o n . C o n t r o v e r s y , however, i s m o u n t i n g and p u b l i c s u p p o r t 57 i s b ecoming more o r g a n i s e d . I n t h i s s e n s e we need t o u n d e r s t a n d b e t t e r what a r e t h e d i s t i n c t v a l u e s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e d i n t h e p a r k s , who and how many p e o p l e a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g , and what a r e t h e a t t i t u d e s on i t s use and p r e s e r v a t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e t h a t a c r e a g e i s b e i n g w i t h d r a w n , a t t e n d a n c e i s r i s i n g s h a r p l y and c e r t a i n k e y a r e a s a r e un d e r i n t e n s e u s e p r e s s u r e s t h a t t h r e a t e n t o l o w e r t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o r n u l l i f y i t a l t o g e t h e r . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e s e p r e s s u r e s a r e b e i n g g e n e r a t e d a t a t i m e when e n v i r o n m e n t a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s o f g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e and t h e r e i s an i n t e n s i f i e d s e a r c h f o r w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s . S p e a k i n g o f a 58 r e c e n t c l i m b i n G a r i b a l d i P a r k , an A l p i n e C l u b member w r o t e : " G e t t i n g t o t h e t o p i s n o t m e r e l y g o i n g as y o u p l e a s e , b u t i n v o l v e s s t a n d i n g i n l i n e and when y o u r t u r n comes up h u r r y i n g so as n o t t o h o l d up o t h e r s l " L i k e w i s e , a news 59 a c c o u n t o f a t r i p t h r o u g h Bowron P a r k r e a d s : I f e l t crowded o u t i n t h e Bowron i n 1 9 6 9 . T h i r t y - f o u r p e o p l e s t o o d i n t h e r a i n a t one c a m p s i t e g i v i n g us a g h o u l - l i k e welcome b e c a u s e t h e r e were no more t e n t i n g s p a c e s and no one was w i l l i n g t o make room. W i t h t o o many p e o p l e u s i n g i t , t h e w i l d e r n e s s w i l l d i s a p p e a r . H e r e we need t o know j u s t what d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e want f r o m w i l d e r n e s s , what e f f e c t t h e y a r e h a v i n g on t h e r e s o u r c e , t o what e x t e n t u s e r s a r e w i l l i n g t o d i s c i p l i n e t h e i r b e h a v i o r , t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y and r e a c t i o n t o c r o w d i n g , and a b e t t e r i d e a o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h r e s h o l d s o f u s e r c a p a c i t y . 60 I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h Ackerman's s t a t e m e n t t h a t "an i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t o f s c i e n c e i s a h i g h l y d e f i n e d s e n s e o f p r o b l e m " , t h e p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t has been r a t h e r l e n g t h y . I n summary, t h e s e a r e t h e g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t l e d t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m : 1+1 1 . Wilderness as a term and as a land use i s i n an early stage of d e f i n i t i o n i n Canada. 2. Public policy has been based almost exclusively on aesthetics and sentiment. A more e x p l i c i t rationale w i l l be required i f wilderness i s to become a more integral part of the regional landscape. 3. L i t t l e or no research has been done on Canadian wilderness areas (though several studies are available i n the U.S.) and subsequent development of a theory of wilderness recreation is i n an early stage. k. Research on wilderness, i n the context of i t s recreational values to modern society, serves as a benchmark i n understanding the man/nature equation. 5. Because of the common property qualities of the wilderness resource there is a c r i t i c a l need for careful planning and management of wilderness to prevent consumptive use. 6. Concomitantly there i s a great need for research, especially on the social factors which w i l l assist i n providing empirical and conceptual referents for planning and for development of recreation theory i n general. h2 REFERENCES CHAPTER I I I (1) T h r e e examples a r e : H a r d i n , G., "The T r a g e d y o f t h e Commons", S c i e n c e , V o l . 162, December 13? 1968, p. 1 2Lf-3-12^8; C h r i s t y , F.T. J r . , " E f f i c i e n c y i n t h e Use o f M a r i n e R e s o u r c e s " , R e s o u r c e s F o r The F u t u r e R e p r i n t No. h9t September, 196^; and K n e e s e , A.V., " P r o t e c t i n g Our E n v i r o n m e n t and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s i n t h e 1970's", R e s o u r c e s F o r The F u t u r e R e p r i n t No. 88, A u g u s t , 1970. (2) H a r d i n , op. c i t . (3) C r u t c h f i e l d , J.A. and P o n t e c o r v o , G., The P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s : A S t u d y o f I r r a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i o n . 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(8) Hendee, J.C., " R e c r e a t i o n C l i e n t e l e - The A t t r i b u t e s o f R e c r e a t i o n i s t s P r e f e r r i n g D i f f e r e n t Management A g e n c i e s , Car Campgrounds o r W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t " , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1967, p. 23. (9) B r a n d b o r g , S.M., "The J o b Ahead Under t h e W i l d e r n e s s A c t " , The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . R e v i s e d r e p r i n t , M a r c h , 1967. 43 (10) O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n , W i l d e r n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n . S t u d y R e p o r t 3, S u p ' t . o f Documents, Wash., 1962. (11) G i l l i g a n, James P., "The Development o f P o l i c y and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e P r i m i t i v e and W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s i n t h e W e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s " , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U. o f M i c h i g a n , 1953. (12) L u c a s , R o b e r t C , "The Q u e t i c o S u p e r i o r A r e a : R e c r e a t i o n a l Use i n R e l a t i o n To C a p a c i t y " , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U. o f M i n n e s o t a , 1962. (13) C a t e s , R., " R e c r e a t i o n and t h e U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e : A St u d y o f O r g a n i s a t i o n a l R e s p o n s e t o C h a n g i n g Demands", u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , S t a n f o r d U., 1963. 04) D a v i s , R.K., " V a l u e o f Ou t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n : An Ec o n o m i c S t u d y o f t h e Maine Woods", u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , H a r v a r d U., 1963. (15) Wagar, J . A l a n , " C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f W i l d l a n d s F o r R e c r e a t i o n " , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U. o f M i c h i g a n , 1964. (16) Nash, R., " W i l d e r n e s s and the A m e r i c a n M i n d " , Ph.D. t h e s i s , U. o f W i s c o n s i n , 1965, p u b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e same t i t l e by Y a l e U. P r e s s , New Haven, 1967. (17) W i l l a r d , B., " E f f e c t s o f V i s i t o r Use o n A l p i n e T u n d r a E c o s y s t e m s i n R o c k y M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k " , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U. o f C o l o r a d o , 1967. (18) Hendee, J.C., op. c i t . (19) C a t t o n , W.R., " P e o p l e Who H a t e Crowds Don't H a t e P e o p l e " , P a p e r g i v e n t o the F o u r t h C o l o r a d o Open Space C o n f e r e n c e , E s t e s P a r k , O c t . , 1967. (20) M e r r i a m , L.C. and Ammons, R.B., "The W i l d e r n e s s U s e r i n T h r e e Montana A r e a s " , R e s e a r c h R e p o r t , U. o f Montana, n.d. (21) Sommarstrom, A.R., "The Impact o f Human Use on R e c r e a t i o n a l Q u a l i t y " , u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U. o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1966. kk (22) Nash, R., " W i l d e r n e s s and Man i n N o r t h A m e r i c a " , i n N e l s o n , J.G., and S c a c e , R. e d s . , The C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Today and Tomorrow. V. 1, P r o c e e d i n g s o f a C o n f e r e n c e h e l d a t t h e TJ. o f C a l g a r y , 1968, p. 75-(23) T h i s p o i n t i s e m p h a s i z e d i n T u r n e r , R.D., "A C o m p a r i s o n o f N a t i o n a l P a r k P o l i c y i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , u n p u b l i s h e d M.Sc. t h e s i s , U.B.C., 1971. (2k) P i m l o t t , D.H., " W i l d e r n e s s i n Canada", The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . V o l . 3 2 , No. 1 0 3 , Autumn, 1968, p. 5 - 2 1 . (25) K n e t s c h , J . , D e s i g n f o r t h e C a n a d i a n O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S t u d y , u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , O t t a w a , 1967. (26) To d a t e p r o v i s i o n a l m a s t e r p l a n s on e i g h t n a t i o n a l p a r k s h ave b e e n r e l e a s e d by t h e N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h and t h e h e a r i n g s a r e underway. (27) The t h r e e s t u d i e s u s e d were: "A T r a i l Use S u r v e y , B a n f f and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s " , R e c r . R e s . R e p o r t 3 3 , N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , F e b r u a r y , 1968; " M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s - Some A s p e c t s o f W i n t e r Use", R e c r . R e s . R e p o r t 3 8 , May, 1968, and " M o u n t a i n P a r k T r a i l S t u d y -P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , C o n t r a c t R e p o r t t o D e p a r t m e n t o f IAND, O t t a w a , September, 1969. (28) Developments c a n be f o l l o w e d i n i s s u e s o f t h e W i l d l a n d News, n e w s l e t t e r o f t h e A l g o n q u i n W i l d l a n d s L e a g u e , T o r o n t o . (29) G o r d o n L u s t y S u r v e y R e s e a r c h L t d . , "A S t u d y o f V i s i t o r A t t i t u d e s Towards Q u e t i c o P r o v . P a r k " , c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e P a r k s B r a n c h , O n t a r i o Dept. o f Lands and F o r e s t s , T o r o n t o , M a r c h , 1968. (30) A l b e r t a D e p t . o f Lands and F o r e s t s , B i l l 106, "An A c t R e s p e c t i n g W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s " , d r a f t p r o p o s a l t o t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t u r e , 1970. D e v e l o p m e n t s h e r e c a n be f o l l o w e d i n t h e n e w s l e t t e r o f t h e A l b e r t a W i l d e r n e s s As s o c . (31) P r i d d l e , G., W i l d e r n e s s P e r c e p t i o n i n A l g o n q u i n P r o v i n c i a l P a r k , u n p u b l i s h e d M . A . t h e s i s , C l a r k U., 1966. (32) J u u r a n d , P., Unpub. M.A. t h e s i s , U. Western O n t a r i o , 1971. (33) T h o r s e l l , J.W., op. c i t . 45 (34) T h o r s e l l , J.W., " R e c r e a t i o n a l Use i n W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k " , u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U. o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 196?. A l s o p u b l i s h e d as R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e p o r t 24 by t h e N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , O t t a w a , 1968. (35) B i r t l e s , "The L a k e G a r i b a l d i - B l a c k Tusk R e g i o n : A R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t C o n c e p t " , u n p u b l i s h e d S e n i o r Honors E s s a y , U. o f W a t e r l o o , 1967. (36) K o t , R . J . , "An A n a l y s i s o f A c r e a g e and C l a s s Changes i n P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s o f B.C. D u r i n g t h e P e r i o d 1952 t o 1967", u n p u b l i s h e d B.Sc. t h e s i s , U.B.C., 1969. (37) N o b l e , S.H., " F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n Management i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , u n p u b l i s h e d B.S.F. t h e s i s , U.B.C., 1965. (38) T a y l o r , G.D., " V i s i t o r s t o t h e B l a c k Tusk A r e a o f G a r i b a l d i P r o v i n c i a l P a r k " , u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a , F e b . , 1961. (39) T a y l o r , G.D. and E d w a r d s , R.Y., "A S u r v e y o f Summer V i s i t o r s t o W e l l s G r a y P a r k , B.C.", F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . V o l . 36, No. 4, December, 1960. (40) T h o r s e l l , J.W., "A T r a i l Use S u r v e y - B a n f f and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s " , op. c i t . (41) T h o r s e l l , J.W., "The M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s : Some Notes on W i l d e r n e s s U s e", P a r k News. J u n e , 1969. A l s o , " N a t i o n a l P a r k W i l d e r n e s s P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n W e s t e r n Canada", Paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e 8th B i e n n i a l W i l d e r n e s s C o n f e r e n c e , S e a t t l e , A p r i l , 1970. (42) T h o r s e l l , J.W., " M o u n t a i n P a r k T r a i l S t u d y - P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , op. c i t . (43) Raup, H.M., " A m e r i c a n F o r e s t B i o l o g y " , J . o f F o r . . V o l . 65, No. 11, November, 1967, p. 803. (44) F i s h e r , J o s e p h L., " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g : D e t e r m i n i n g The P u b l i c I n t e r e s t " , i n H u f s c h m i d t , M.M., op. c i t . , P. 3. (45) T a y l o r , L e e , " S o c i o l o g y o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s " , p a p e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h e S c i e n c e C o u n c i l o f Canada, C o n f e r e n c e on F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s P r o b l e m s , O t t a w a , J u n e 23, 1969. k6 (k6) L u c a s , R o b e r t C , " R e s e a r c h Needs f o r N a t i o n a l P a r k s " , i n N e l s o n , J.C. and S c a c e , R., op. c i t . . p. 9 0 ^ - 9 3 0 . (k7) N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s , A P r o g r a m o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h , P u b l i c a t i o n , 1 7 2 7 , N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s , W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 6 9 . (hQ) T h i s p o i n t was made by P e r l o f f , H.S. and Wingo, L., i n t h e i r "Urban G r o w t h and t h e P l a n n i n g o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n " , ORRRC S t u d y R e p o r t 2 2 , W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 6 2 . (^•9) R e s o u r c e s F o r t h e F u t u r e , "The Human E l e m e n t i n N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e U se", A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1 9 6 6 , p. 2 . ( 5 0 ) M a r s h , J o h n , " P e r c e p t i o n and A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s , Term Paper f o r Geography 5 8 0 , U. o f C a l g a r y , Nov., 1 9 6 9 . ( 5 1 ) R o s t o n , J . , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s t o O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g " , i n F o s t e r , H.D. and S e w e l l , W.R.D., R e s o u r c e s . R e c r e a t i o n and R e s e a r c h . W e s t e r n G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , V o l . 3 , U. o f V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 0 , p. 31-L+0. ( 5 2 ) T a y l o r , G.D. and E d w a r d s , R.Y., op. c i t . ( 5 3 ) T a y l o r , G.D., op. c i t . ( 5 ^ ) S t u d i e s o f t h e economic e v a l u a t i o n o f r e l a t e d w i l d l a n d a c t i v i t i e s c o - a u t h o r e d by P e t e r H. P e a r s e a r e "Non R e s i d e n t B i g Game H u n t i n g and t h e G u i d i n g I n d u s t r y i n B.C." and "The V a l u e o f t h e K o o t e n a y L a k e S p o r t F i s h e r y " . B o t h a r e s p o n s o r e d and p u b l i s h e d by t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C. n.d. ( 5 5 ) Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , " G e n e r a l S t a t e m e n t on O r g a n i z a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s B r a n c h and F u n c t i o n s By P o s i t i o n s " , C i r c u l a r l e t t e r , V i c t o r i a , J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 6 9 , p. ( 5 6 ) T h i s i s n o t a b l a n k e t c r i t i c i s m - exchanges and a d d i t i o n s have been made t h a t have i n c r e a s e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w i l d e r n e s s p a r k d i s t r i b u t i o n . 4 7 (57) See f o r i n s t a n c e t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e p u b l i c a t i o n s : Greenwood, N.H., "An O u t s i d e V i e w o f W i l d e r n e s s P r e s e r v a t i o n i n B.C.", L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s , V o l . 32, No. 103, Autumn, 1968; Simmons, T., " P o v e r t y o f P l e n t y - C o n s e r v a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , The C o n i f e r . S p r i n g , 1970, and Yoemans, W.C., " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a W i l d e r n e s s " , The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s . V o l . 3*+, No. 112, W i n t e r , 1970-71 , p. 40-4-3. (58) A l p i n e C l u b o f Canada, A v a l a n c h e E c h o s . N e w s l e t t e r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S e c t i o n , V o l . 43, No. 10, O c t o b e r , 1970, p. 3. (59) S t e w a r t , D.K., "Ah, W i l d e r n e s s ( ? ) " , V a n c o u v e r Sun. J a n u a r y 8, 1970, p. 6. ( 6 0 ) Ackerman, E.A., "Where i s a R e s e a r c h F r o n t i e r ? " , A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c . o f G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 53? No. 4, December, 1963, p. 433. PART 2. RESEARCH PROCEDURES CHAPTER IV OBJECTIVES, DESIGN AND ANALYSIS The f i r s t t h i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d i s n o t t h e w i l d e r n e s s b u t t h e human. B e n t o n MacKaye, 1 9 3 9 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S t u d y F o c u s i n g on a sample o f v i s i t o r s t o t h r e e w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s p a r t i a l a n s wers t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , on a d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l : Who u s e s w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s i n B.C.? How i s t h e u s e s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d ? What a r e t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e ? What a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p ? Why a r e t h e y t h e r e ? What a r e t h e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e " e x p e r i e n c e " and o f w i l d e r n e s s as a r e s o u r c e ? How do t h e y r e a c t t o o t h e r u s e s "and u s e r s ? What i s t h e u s e r i n v e s t m e n t i n t i m e and d o l l a r s ? 49 On a c o m p a r a t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l l e v e l : What e m p i r i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s c a n be o b s e r v e d among t h e d i f f e r e n t u s e r g r o u p s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r k s f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f t i m e ? What v a r i a b l e s a p p e a r i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g w i l d e r n e s s u s e ? What e v i d e n c e on t h e v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s c a n be i n f e r r e d f r o m a n a l y s i s o f u s e r d a t a ? What a r e t h e d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s t o p a r k and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g ? What d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c a n be s u g g e s t e d ? Reasons f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e b o t h p r a c t i c a l and a c a d e m i c . F i r s t , t h e s t u d y o f f e r s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e human el e m e n t o f w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . I n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s e n s e an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e t o t a l s y s t e m b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s and u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t h r e e p a r k s s h o u l d p r o v i d e some f u n d a m e n t a l d a t a f o r managing, p l a n n i n g and p i n p o i n t i n g k e y p r o b l e m s and t r e n d s . As i n any t y p e o f p l a n n i n g , t h e p l a n n i n g o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s does n o t s e t o u t w i t h an a b s t r a c t and a r b i t r a r y scheme t h a t i t se e k s t o impose b u t w i t h a sound and t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n a l a r g e r s e n s e t h e s t u d y i s p a r t o f a c o n t i n u i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p l a c e o f man i n n a t u r e and o f t h e r o l e o f 50 wildland recreation i n the ecology of man. Future study on recreation i n natural areas i n intermediate and urban settings w i l l provide comparative data on this theme. Spe c i f i c a l l y , the aims of this study are, on the basis of questionnaire response, to: 1. Develop an empirical p r o f i l e of the contemporary wilderness user i n B r i t i s h Columbia - his demography, opinions, motivations and evaluations. 2. Investigate a broad number of independent variables and identify which ones are important i n explaining the why of wilderness recreational use. 3. Relate findings to policy and planning and suggest areas that warrant further study. This thesis, then, i s an exploratory inquiry to detect regularities and empirical generalizations on the topic of study. No formal approach to hypotheses construction is attempted. Rather, i t is primarily an empirical study with the aim of providing some basic data from which further studies can elaborate and from which future trends can be detected. 51 Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s T h e , t h e s i s examines o n l y one u s e o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s -r e c r e a t i o n . I t i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l i v i n g museum, r e s e a r c h , and r e s e r v o i r f u n c t i o n s o f n a t u r a l a r e a s . Nor w i l l p e o p l e who u s e t h e a r e a s v i c a r i o u s l y o r by " o p t i o n " be i n c l u d e d . F u r t h e r , i t w i l l n o t s t u d y who and why p e o p l e do n o t u s e w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s o r t h o s e u s e r s on n o n - p a r k w i l d l a n d s . R e s u l t s w i l l l a r g e l y be c o n f i n e d t o i n f e r e n c e s drawn f r o m q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a s u p p l e m e n t e d by f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s . L i m i t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n e x p o s i n g a l l d i m e n s i o n s o f any v a r i a b l e must be u n d e r s t o o d as must t h e s o u r c e s o f p o s s i b l e b i a s . O t h e r methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n w h i c h would p r o v i d e more " t r i a n g u l a t i o n p o i n t s i n c o n c e p t u a l 1 2 s p a c e " as s u g g e s t e d by Webb , and by D e n z i n , a r e n o t emplo y e d . As an a r e a s p e c i f i c and judgment sample o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f r e s u l t s t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e c a n n o t be made. F i n a l l y , i n an e r a o f r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s , t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o n l y one p o i n t i n t i m e . 52 D e s i g n o f t h e S t u d y 3 Webb p o i n t s o u t t h a t some 90% o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h i s b a s e d o n i n t e r v i e w s a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . B u t t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e l i m i t s t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n by n o r m a l i n t e r v i e w o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . As t h e h ORRRC W i l d e r n e s s S t u d y R e p o r t n o t e d : " S y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s a r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n a n d , c o n c e r n i n g w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s , i s s t i l l v e r y c r u d e . " M o r e o v e r , a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t s a m p l i n g s i t u a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s i n b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s a r e n o t o n l y w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d s p a t i a l l y a n d t e m p o r a l l y b u t a r e h i g h l y m o b i l e a n d n o t e a s i l y c o n t a c t e d i n t h e f i e l d . T h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s t h a t h a v e b e e n u s e d t o g a t h e r d a t a - s p o t i n t e r v i e w s , unmanned r e g i s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s a n d m a i l b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The p i o n e e r i n g ORRRC s t u d y u s e d t h e d i r e c t i n t e r v i e w o n s i t e i n s e v e n w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . A l m o s t 500 i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o m p l e t e d and f o l l o w e d up b y m a i l - b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n c l u d i n g s a m p l i n g , i n t e r v i e w i n g , v i s i t o r i n c o n v e n i e n c e a n d f i e l d c o n t r o l . A p o s t - v i s i t v a r i a t i o n i s t h e e x i t s a m p l i n g o r t h e " r o a d b l o c k " m e t h o d , where r e c r e a t i o n i s t s a r e i n t e r v i e w e d as t h e y - l e a v e t h e a r e a b y c a r . 5 T h i s method has b e e n u s e d b y L u c a s i n t h e B o u n d a r y W a t e r 6 Canoe a r e a , Cushwa and M c G i n n i s i n G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n N a t i o n a l 7 F o r e s t and by James and H a r p e r i n O c a l a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t and o t h e r s . D i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s i n s a m p l i n g and s e l e c t i n g u s e r s f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p a r k t r a f f i c . The s e c o n d method o f c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on w i l d e r n e s s u s e i s t h e p l a c e m e n t o f unmanned s e l f - r e g i s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s a t 8 s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e b a c k c o u n t r y . Wenger f i r s t u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e N o r t h C a s c a d e s , as 9 d i d t h e a u t h o r i n W a t e r t o n L a k e s , and i n B a n f f and Yoho. The t e c h n i q u e i s v a l u a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g p a t t e r n s o f u s e o v e r w i d e a r e a s b u t has l i m i t s o f d e p t h and p r o b l e m s o f manpower, v a n d a l i s m and n o n - r e s p o n s e . The t h i r d t e c h n i q u e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and t h e one employed i n t h i s s t u d y , i s t h e s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d m a i l b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s t e c h n i q u e has t h e a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g c o n v e n i e n t , r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e , and u n i f o r m . I t i s a l s o l e a s t d i s r u p t i v e and t i m e consuming a n d , when a d m i n i s t e r e d a f t e r t h e u s e r has v i s i t e d t h e s i t e , a l l o w s h i m t i m e t o e v a l u a t e h i s e x p e r i e n c e . 10 11 12 13 B u r t o n , M i l l e r , K o v a c s and F e r r i s s have r e v i e w e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e m a i l b a c k s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e . They a g r e e t h a t t h e one o v e r w h e l m i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h e l o w r e s p o n s e r a t e i n t h o s e t y p e o f s u r v e y s w h i c h l e a d s o f t e n t o s i g n i f i c a n t b i a s i n t h e f i n d i n g s . I f t h i s one major drawback c a n be overcome, t h e m a i l b a c k s u r v e y has much t o commend i t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n on l a r g e samples d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r w i d e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . A h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e i s t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f m a i l s u r v e y s and much t h o u g h t was g i v e n t o ways i n w h i c h t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d . S t u d i e s have shown t h a t even t h e t y p e o f stamp u s e d c a n be i m p o r t a n t . I n a r e p o r t r e v i e w i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e as u s e d i n t h e CORD s t u d y , 1^ K o v a c s o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s : T h e r e a r e a number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e r a t e o f r e s p o n s e i n s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d s u r v e y s . I f s u f f i c i e n t d e g r e e o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u r v e y c a n be a r o u s e d on i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r e s p o n d e n t , and i f t h e s p o n s o r has a h i g h d e g r e e o f s t a n d i n g and p r e s t i g e among t h e p o p u l a t i o n s u r v e y e d , t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e c a n a l s o be e x p e c t e d t o be c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n f a v o u r s t h e b e t t e r e d u c a t e d segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . P a r k u s e r s , on t h e w h o l e , t e n d t o be o f h i g h e r t h a n a v e r a g e economic and e d u c a t i o n s t a t u s , t h e r e f o r e , a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r r a t e w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m s u r v e y i n g t h i s t y p e o f p o p u l a t i o n . The l e n g t h o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n s c a n be c o m p l e t e d a l s o e f f e c t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s r e p l y i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The o n l y m a j o r drawback o f s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w r e t u r n r a t e . T h e r e f o r e , a l l e f f o r t s must be e x t e n d e d t o a r o u s e t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t , t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c o m p l e t i o n and r e t r i e v a l o f t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 55 S t u d y P l a n The a p p r o x i m a t e s e q u e n t i a l s t e p s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t u d y were: 1 . P r e l i m i n a r y c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and p r e p a r a t i o n s o f s t u d y p r o p o s a l . 2 . R e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e . 3 . D i s c u s s i o n w i t h and a p p r o v a l o f B.C. P a r k s B r a n c h . k. F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e t h r e e s ample a r e a s . 5 . D e v e l o p m e n t o f d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 6. P r e t e s t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 7. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e . 8. Development o f method o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . 9. S e l e c t i o n o f s a m p l e . 1 0 . F i n a l i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 1 1 . R e c e p t i o n o f r e s p o n s e . 1 2 . R e f i n e m e n t and r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f s t u d y . 1 3 . F o r m u l a t i o n o f c o d i n g s y s t e m . 1 4 . C o d i n g and k e y p u n c h i n g . 1 5 . D a t a p r o c e s s i n g . 16. D a t a a n a l y s i s . 17. F o r m u l a t i o n o f c o n c l u s i o n s . 1 8 . P r e p a r a t i o n o f f i r s t d r a f t . * 19. P r e p a r a t i o n o f f i n a l d r a f t . 56 S t u d y A r e a s The, a r e a s c h o s e n f o r s t u d y a r e t h r e e o f B.C. 's p r o v i n c i a l w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s - G a r i b a l d i , B owron L a k e s and Mt. R o b s o n . E a c h o f t h e a r e a s a r e o f s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e , a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d by one agency as C l a s s "A" p a r k s , r e p r e s e n t e m e r g i n g p r o b l e m s o f h eavy and o v e r u s e , and a p p e a l t o a v a r i e t y o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s . T h e i r l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y and m a r k e t a r e a s v a r y as do t h e i r t y p e s o f w i l d e r n e s s a t t r a c t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s . The p a r k s were s e l e c t e d p u r p o s e f u l l y w i t h t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n mind so as t o e l i c i t as much v a r i a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e as p o s s i b l e - i f s u c h v a r i a t i o n e x i s t e d . Y e t a common method o f sample s e l e c t i o n was p o s s i b l e . F i g u r e s 1 , 2, 3, and k and T a b l e I g i v e a summary d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h a r e a . 57 TABLE I CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY AREAS C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n Y e a r E s t a b l i s h e d 1 961 1927 1913 S i z e ( A c r e s ) 297,301 486 , 3 8 9 515,747 P a r k C l a s s A A A P h y s i o g r a p h i c R e g i o n C a r i b o u M t s . C o a s t M t s . R o c k y M t s . Pop. W i t h i n 100 M i l e R a d i u s 30,000 1 m i l l i o n 10,000 O v e r n i g h t B a c k c o u n t r y Use 1971 (No. o f p e o p l e ) 4,500 1 ,700 2,000 + B a c k c o u n t r y R o u t e s ( M i l e s ) 73 28 65 C a p i t a l E x p e n d i t u r e (1969-70) $20,800 $8,000 $41 , 3 0 0 Fig. I LOCATION OF STUDY AREAS Mt Robson Provincial Park Jasper V \ B a n f f Kamioops Revelstoke \ N • Kelowna British C oju m bio U. S. A . F i g . 2 - PANORAMIC VIEW OF GARIBALDI LAKE (ELEV. I+,816 FEET) AND BLACK TUSK MEADOW AREA The Lake G a r i b a l d i - B l a c k Tusk a r e a i s a s u b - r e g i o n o f G a r i b a l d i P a r k , c o m p r i s i n g a b o u t t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p a r k a r e a . W i t h i n t h i s a r e a , w h i c h i s a p r o v i n c i a l " n a t u r e c o n s e r v a n c y a r e encompassed t h e o u t s t a n d i n g a t t r a c t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e p a r k i s famous. The s i x s q u a r e m i l e s o f t h e f l o w e r - s t u d d e d B l a c k Tusk Meadows a r e s e t a m i d s t an a r e a o f a c t i v e g l a c i a t i o n , e m e r a l d l a k e s and snow-capped m o u n t a i n peaks r i s i n g t o a l m o s t 9,000 f e e t f r o m s e a l e v e l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a r e a o f f e r s t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e u n i q u e c o n t r a s t i n g r e m n a n t s o f p o s t - t e r t i a r y v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y . The a r e a may be r e a c h e d w i t h i n two h o u r s d r i v i n g t i m e and t h r e e h o u r s h i k i n g t i m e f r o m V a n c o u v e r . Fig. 3 - BERG LAKE AND MT. RGBSON (12,972 FEET) The north face of Mt. Robson, with i t s hanging glaciers cascading into Berg Lake, is one of the most beautiful and impressive sights in B.C. This is the focal point for almost a l l backcountry use in the park. The park consists of Columbia and sub-alpine forests typical of those on the western slopes of the Canadian Rockies, rugged glacier-capped peaks, precipitous canyons, glacier-fed lakes and streams, and a variety of w i l d l i f e including g r i z z l y , caribou, bighorn sheep and mountain goat. The point from which this photo Is taken i s a 16-mile hike from the northern Trans Canada Highway. 61 F i g . k - McLEARY LAKE, BOWRON LAKE PROVINCIAL PARK A r e c t a n g u l a r c h a i n o f t e n l a k e s c o n n e c t e d by s h o r t s t r e a m s and p o r t a g e s i s t h e main f e a t u r e and a t t r a c t i o n o f Bowron P a r k . L y i n g a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 3,000 f e e t , t h i s c h a i n o f l a k e s o f f e r s a u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y i n w e s t e r n Canada f o r a c i r c u i t canoe t r i p t h r o u g h s p e c t a c u l a r m o u n t a i n s c e n e r y . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e p a r k , m o s t l y s p r u c e , h e mlock and c e d a r , r e f l e c t s t h e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e " I n t e r i o r Wet B e l t " . Abundant w i l d l i f e and e x c e l l e n t f i s h i n g complement t h e n a t u r a l p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n s . 62 S a m p l i n g S e l e c t i o n o f a sample o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i s u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h l y d i s p e r s e d and m o b i l e n a t u r e o f t h e u s e r s , 15 Hendee's t e c h n i q u e o f o b t a i n i n g a l a r g e p r o b a b i l i t y s a mple by r e c o r d i n g and t r a c i n g l i c e n s e p l a t e number s a t p a r k i n g l o t s was f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d . B u t b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f f i e l d a s s i s t a n c e and t h e d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d (1500 m i l e s b e tween t h e t h r e e p a r k s ) t h i s was n o t f e a s i b l e . S e l e c t i o n o f t h e sample c o n s i s t e d o f c o l l e c t i n g names and a d d r e s s e s f r o m t r a i l r e g i s t e r s s t a t i o n s o p e r a t e d by t h e P a r k s B r a n c h i n e a c h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s . I t was p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e s e l i s t s t o s e l e c t u s e r s who v e n t u r e d s i x m i l e s o r more i n t o t h e b a c k c o u n t r y , t h e r e f o r e i n s u r i n g a s e l e c t i o n o f o n l y t h o s e u s e r s who p e n e t r a t e d beyond t h e day use t h r e s h o l d and who s p e n t a t l e a s t one n i g h t camping o u t . To a c h i e v e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e s a m p l e , a t a r g e t o f 300-400 names and a d d r e s s e s f r o m e a c h p a r k were s o u g h t . When t h e l i s t s were c o l l e c t e d a t t h e end o f t h e s e a s o n , a t o t a l o f 995 l e g i b l e and c o m p l e t e a d d r e s s e s were c o m p i l e d . I n t o t a l , s i x p r o v i n c e s and t w e n t y - f o u r s t a t e s were r e p r e s e n t e d . The weaknesses o f t h i s t y p e o f q u o t a s a m p l i n g f r o m l i s t s a r e : (1) t h a t t h e r e i s no way o f d e t e r m i n i n g i f t h o s e t h a t s i g n e d t h e r e g i s t e r s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l t h o s e who 6 3 e n t e r e d t h e w i l d e r n e s s and (2) t h a t as i t i s a judgment sample ( I n e f f e c t a sample o f a s a m p l e ) , c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s o n p o s s i b l e e r r o r s must be made and s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e 1 6 a r e l i m i t e d . A s w i t h t h e ORRRC s a m p l i n g method: ... p r e c i s e p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l i n g was n o t p o s s i b l e . The p e r c e n t a g e s p r e s e n t e d f o r e a c h a r e a c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d as s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n b i a s e d e s t i m a t e s w i t h c a l c u l a b l e s a m p l i n g e r r o r s . These f i g u r e s , t h e r e f o r e , must be r e a d w i t h more c a u t i o n t h a n i s g e n e r a l l y t h e c a s e i n s u r v e y s o f b e t t e r known and c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h i s l e s s r i g i d d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e i d e a l i z e d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e e r r o r s do n o t a p p e a r t o be s e r i o u s . The sample i s assumed t o be c l o s e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s u s e r i n e a c h p a r k . I n summary, t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e c h o i c e o f s a m p l i n g method was as f o l l o w s : 1 . I t was r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a d m i n i s t e r . 2. I t was r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e . 3 . I t was f e a s i b l e i n e a c h s t u d y a r e a . I t c o v e r e d a l l t i m e p e r i o d s . I t p r o d u c e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y sample s i z e . 5. 6 . I t was l e a s t d i s r u p t i v e t o t h e u s e r . 64 F l e l d w o r k I n any s o c i a l s u r v e y i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have a c t u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p e o p l e b e i n g s t u d i e d . Over t h e summer a t o t a l o f f i v e weeks were s p e n t i n t h e s t u d y a r e a s and 300 m i l e s o f b a c k c o u n t r y r o u t e s t r a v e l l e d . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e 150 w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s were e n c o u n t e r e d and i n f o r m a l and u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h a b o u t 50 o f t h e s e . A d d i t i o n a l t r i p s t o o t h e r w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s i n t h e p r o v i n c e b r o u g h t t h e t o t a l t o 450 m i l e s t r a v e l l e d , 200 p e o p l e s e e n and 60 p e o p l e " i n t e r v i e w e d " . The f u n c t i o n s o f f l e l d w o r k were: 1. R e c o n a i s s a n c e o f t h e sample a r e a - r e v i e w o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e p a t t e r n s , i n v e n t o r y o f f a c i l i t i e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s o f v i s i t o r i m p a c t , n o t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l u se p r o b l e m s and p r e p a r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s , 2. D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p a r k f i e l d s t a f f and l o c a l o u t f i t t e r s - c o l l e c t i o n o f what u s e d a t a e x i s t e d , e x p l a i n i n g s t u d y and e n s u r i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n . 3. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l o c a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f b a c k c o u n t r y r e g i s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s , and c o l l e c t i o n o f r e g i s t e r s h e e t s . k. D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s . 65 5. P r e t e s t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e - f i v e d ays i n Bowron P a r k i n t e r c e p t i n g and i n t e r v i e w i n g canoe p a r t i e s . I n r e g a r d t o p o i n t f o u r , i t was hoped t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c c h e c k l i s t o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d he c o n s t r u c t e d , h u t f o r a number o f r e a s o n s t h i s p r o v e d d i f f i c u l t . However, a c a t a l o g u e o f t h e o b v i o u s " m i s f i t s " and d e v i a n t c a s e s was k e p t . The o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e h i k e r f r o m P i t t s b u r g , f o r e x a m p l e , met a t m i l e 12 o f t h e Mt. R o b s o n t r a i l c a r r y i n g an e l e c t r i c p l u g - i n t o a s t e r s a y s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x ) The b a s i c r e s e a r c h t o o l o f t h e t h e s i s i s t h e u s e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . As s u c h , i t was o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e t h a t i t be c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o o b t a i n t h e maximum amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n i t s d e f i n e d l i m i t a t i o n s . The s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f t h e m a i l b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e a r e 17 d i s c u s s e d i n most methods t e x t s and w i l l n o t be r e v i e w e d h e r e . A l t h o u g h I p e r s o n a l l y do n o t f a v o u r t h e use o f t h e t e c h n i q u e when o t h e r means o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e p r e s e n t immature s t a t e o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h r e n d e r s the use o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s k e l e t a l framework o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t l a t e r c a n be p u r s u e d by o t h e r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d means. 66 18 As Hendee has a l s o n o t e d , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e i d e a l f o r c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on r e c r e a t i o n u s e r s who g e n e r a l l y have above a v e r a g e e d u c a t i o n and a r e more c o n c e r n e d and l i t e r a t e i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e . F u r t h e r , r e c r e a t i o n i s t s , o f t e n b o t h e r e d when i n t e r v i e w e d on s i t e , u s u a l l y e x h i b i t h i g h r e s p o n s e when g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s p o n d a t t h e i r l e i s u r e . A l t h o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l e n g t h y one, c a l l i n g f o r r e s p o n s e on 91 i t e m s , 20 o f w h i c h were open-ended, an e x c e p t i o n a l 79>5% r e t u r n was r e c o r d e d , w i t h o u t any f o l l o w - u p r e m i n d e r . The h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e i s i n p a r t e x p l a i n e d by h i g h i n v o l v e m e n t and i n t e r e s t o f t h e s a m p l e . H i g h e r r e t u r n s were a l s o s p u r r e d by t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r w h i c h , i n a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f two s p o n s o r s , gave r e a s o n s f o r t h e s t u d y , a s s u r e d a n o n y m i t y , and o f f e r e d t h e i n d u c e m e n t o f r e c e i v i n g a copy o f a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . F u l l y 93% o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e q u e s t e d a r e p o r t o f the f i n d i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e , most q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e s p r i n k l e d w i t h u n s o l i c i t e d comments on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o r on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f p a r k p l a n n i n g . Q u i t e a number appended t y p e d l e t t e r s and a number o f phone c a l l s were r e c e i v e d o f f e r i n g f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a u d i e n c e i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n l e n g t h o r any o t h e r f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e s p o n s e . 67 F i n a l r e t u r n s were as f o l l o w s : P a r k Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l T o t a l S ent k69 328 198 995 T o t a l R e t u r n e d "Not D e l i v e r e d " 21 23 16 60 T o t a l U s e a b l e R e t u r n s 370 223 1 50 7h3 P e r c e n t R e t u r n 82.8 73.1 82.5 79.5 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d t o a l l o w p r e c o d i n g and t o f a c i l i t a t e d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s p r o v e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l s i n c e r e s p o n d e n t s f i l l e d o u t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b o x e s as r e q u e s t e d . T r a n s f e r o f r e s p o n s e s t o F o r t r a n s h e e t s was n o t r e q u i r e d as t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e went d i r e c t l y t o t h e k e y p u n c h e r . A n a l y s i s A c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e r e a l m o f u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e n s o r y and p h y s i c a l l y e x e r t i v e n a t u r e o f w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n , c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i s t o f g u t -l e v e l f e e l i n g s t h a t c a n n o t be c o n s c i o u s l y o r a d e q u a t e l y e x p r e s s e d i n w o r d s , much l e s s a n a l y z e d . The w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s a s u b t l e one w h i c h may a l s o p r o v i d e a s ub-c o n s c i o u s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s b a r e l y aware and n o t c a p a b l e o f a r t i c u l a t i n g . 68 C o m p l i c a t i n g t h i s v a g u e s u b l i m i n a l a s p e c t i s t h e f a c t t h a t c u l t u r e e x e r t s a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e o n wha t t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s t o be a n e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e - he has b e e n c o n d i t i o n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s a r e w o r t h w h i l e . B u t i s h i s image a t r u e one? E v e n i f t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e s e images c o u l d be s e p a r a t e d and i f " s a t i s f a c t i o n " and t h e " r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e " c o u l d be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , t h e y m i g h t n o t be a m e n a b l e 19 t o measurement . T h i s must a l w a y s r e l y o n t h e v e r b a l r e s p o n s e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . R e a l l y , how v a l i d i s t h e o b t r u s i v e m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m e a s u r i n g g u t - l e v e l r e s p o n s e s and t r u e f e e l i n g s ? The a n a l y s i s was t h u s u n d e r t a k e n i n f u l l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e measu red v a r i a b l e s . The method o f a n a l y s i s e m p l o y e d h e r e i s c r o s s -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e l e v e n d i f f e r e n t u s e r g r o u p i n g s ( i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ) a g a i n s t m e a s u r e s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s ( d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ) . A m u l t i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , u s i n g MVTAB, a U . B . C . l i b r a r y p r o g r a m f o r t h e IBM 36O/67 c o m p u t e r , was u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e b e t w e e n v a r i a b l e s was t e s t e d u s i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e 20 s t a t i s t i c and ' T ' t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n means . I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s w h i c h f o l l o w s , a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s n o t e d a r e a t t h e 95% l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 69 REFERENCES CHAPTER I V (1) 'Webb, E . J . e t . a l . , U n o b t r u s i v e M e a s u r e s : N o n r e a c t i v e R e s e a r c h i n t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Rand M c N a l l y , C h i c a g o , 1966. (2) D e n z i n , N.K., The R e s e a r c h A c t - A T h e o r e t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i o l o g i c a l M e t h o d s . A l d i n e , N.Y., 1970. ( 3 ) Webb, E . J . , op. c i t . (k) Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n , W i l d e r n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n . S t u d y R e p o r t 3 , S u p t . o f Documents, Wash., 1962, p. 126. (5) L u c a s , R.C., " W i l d e r n e s s P e r c e p t i o n and Use: The Example o f t h e B o u n d a r y W a t e r s Canoe A r e a " , N a t u r a l R e s . J . , J a n . , 1961+. (6) Cushwa, C.T. and M c G i n n e s , R.H., " F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n . E s t i m a t e s and P r e d i c t i o n s . George W a s h i n g t o n N a t i o n a l F o r e s t . " B u l l , 558, V i r g i n i a P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t . , 1965. (7) James, G.A. and H a r p e r , R.A., " R e c r e a t i o n Use i n t h e O c a l a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t " , F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s . P a p e r , SE-18, 1965. (8) Wenger, W.D., "A T e s t o f Unmanned R e g i s t r a t i o n S t a t i o n s on W i l d e r n e s s T r a i l s " , F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s . Paper PNW-16, 196!+. (9) T h o r s e l l , J.W., " T r a i l Use S u r v e y - B a n f f and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s " , N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e R e c r . R e s . R e p o r t 3 3 , O t t a w a , 1968. (10) B u r t o n , T.L. and Noad, P.A., R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h Methods - A R e v i e w o f R e c e n t S t u d i e s . C e n t e r f o r U r b a n and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , B i r m i n g h a m , O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r No.3 , 1968. 70 (11) M i l l e r , D . C . , H a n d b o o k o f R e s e a r c h D e s i g n a n d S o c i a l M e a s u r e m e n t . M c K a y , N . Y . , 1964. (12) K o v a c s , T . J . , " S e l f A d m i n i s t e r e d P a r k V i s i t o r S u r v e y T e c h n i q u e " , CORD S t u d y , N a t i o n a l P a r k s - P l a n n i n g , O t t a w a , 1970. (13) F e r r i s s , A . L . , " T y p e s o f R e c r e a t i o n S u r v e y s " , i n R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h . A m . A s s o c . f o r H e a l t h , P h y s . E d . a n d R e c r e a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , 1966. ( 1 4 ) K o v a c s , T . J . , o p . c i t . (15) H e n d e e , J . C . , " R e c r e a t i o n C l i e n t e l e - T h e A t t r i b u t e s o f R e c r e a t i o n i s t s P r e f e r r i n g D i f f e r e n t M a n a g e m e n t A g e n c i e s , C a r C a m p g r o u n d s o r W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t " , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . t h e s i s , U. o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1967. (16) . O R R R C , o p . c i t . . p . 127. (17) F o r a g o o d c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w s e e H e n d e e , J . C . , o p . c i t . . C h a p t . V . (18) H e n d e e , J . C . , o p . c i t . (19) T h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e m o r e f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n N e u m a n , E . S . , " E v a l u a t i n g S u b j e c t i v e R e s p o n s e t o t h e R e c r e a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t - A Q u e n a i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s o f D i s s i m i l a r P r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e V i s u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f B e a c h e s " , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . t h e s i s , N o r t h w e s t e r n U . , 1969-(20) T h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f c h i - s q u a r e a n d o t h e r n o n - p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s t o r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s d i s c u s s e d i n B u r c h , Wm. R . J r . , " N a t u r e a s S y m b o l a n d E x p r e s s i o n i n A m e r i c a n S o c i a l L i f e : A S o c i o l o g i c a l E x p l o r a t i o n " , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . t h e s i s , U . o f M i n n e s o t a , 1964, C h a p t . I V . PART 3. FINDINGS CHAPTER V DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WILDERNESS PARK USERS What s u b - g r o u p s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n B.C. p a r k s ? What d i s t i n g u i s h e s them f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ? I s w i l d e r n e s s u s e c u l t u r a l l y s e l e c t i v e ? D a t a were c o l l e c t e d on a number o f d e m o g r a p h i c a t t r i b u t e s o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s : o r i g i n , a ge, s e x , e d u c a t i o n , i n c o m e , o c c u p a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t o f u p b r i n g i n g , p r e v i o u s w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e and w i l d e r n e s s i n t r o d u c t i o n . T h i s b a s i c I n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s w h i c h segments o f s o c i e t y u s e B.C. w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s and c a n be u s e d t o a s s i s t p l a n n e r s and managers i n i n f e r r i n g u s e r e x p e c t a t i o n s and use t r e n d s . O r i g i n What i s t h e d r a w i n g power o f B.C. w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s ? How f a r do p e o p l e t r a v e l t o v i s i t them? As T a b l e I I i n d i c a t e s , e a c h p a r k has a d i f f e r e n t m a r k e t a r e a . 72 TABLE I I ORIGIN OF WILDERNESS PARK USERS O r i g i n Bowron <$) G a r i b a l d i (%) Robson (%) T o t a l (%) B a n f f / Yoho* (%) M e t r o Van., V i c t o r i a O t h e r B.C. 43.9 20.3 86.6 3.6 10.1 2.7 50.0) ) 11.7) - 9.0 A l b e r t a 5.4 0.5 44.0 11.5 31.6 S a s k . , Man. 0.8 0.0 2.0 0.8 3.4 O t h e r Canada 1 .1 4 . 0 5.4 2.8 8.4 Wash., O r e . , C a l i f . . O t h e r West USA 24.7 2.2 4.0 0.5 16.1 4.7 16.7) 2.2) - 20.0 E a s t USA 1.6 0.9 15.4 4.2 21 .8 A v e r a g e - One T r a v e l ( M i l e Way s) 660 230 1 ,000 - -* See T h o r s e l l (1968) These f i g u r e s must be r e a d w i t h c a u t i o n as t h e y r e p r e s e n t o n l y t h o s e who r e g i s t e r e d f o r w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l . S i n c e t h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n on who does n o t r e g i s t e r , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f b i a s . A c h e c k on t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e sample f o r Bowron P a r k shows, however, t h a t t h e sample d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c l o s e t o t h e a c t u a l c a r c o u n t made by p a r k s t a f f . A d a i l y r e c o r d o f l i c e n s e p l a t e s i n t h e p a r k i n g l o t a t Bowron i n 1970 g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n s : 73 C a r R e g i s t r a t i o n (%) U s e r Sample (%) B.C. 66.0 6h.2 O t h e r Canada 9.1 7.3 U.S.A. 2^.9 28.5 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c o u n t s a r e n o t k e p t i n t h e o t h e r two p a r k s , so r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e sa m p l e c a n n o t be s i m i l a r l y c h e c k e d t h e r e . Bowron p a r k r e c e i v e s a l m o s t h a l f o f i t s u se f r o m t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a a r e a , a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t numbers a r e a l s o p r e s e n t f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f B.C. and t h e w e s t e r n c o a s t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s . Mt. Robson P a r k has a more i n t e r n a t i o n a l and d i s t a n t d r a w i n g power t h a t e x t e n d s t o t h e e a s t e r n U.S.A. The r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e m o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k complex l e a d t o t h e p r e d o m i n a n t A l b e r t a and A m e r i c a n u se o f Robson. By c o n t r a s t t o Bowron and R o b s o n , G a r i b a l d i P a r k has a l m o s t an e x c l u s i v e V a n c o u v e r / V i c t o r i a c l i e n t e l e . T h i s has n o t changed s i n c e t h e new Highway made t h e p a r k a c c e s s i b l e by a u t o i n 1966, as T a y l o r ' s 1960 B l a c k Tusk u s e r s u r v e y showed an a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l m a r k e t . I n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e a u t h o r ' s s t u d y o f t r a i l u s e r s i n 1 B a n f f and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n 1967 where f u l l y k7% o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e was by f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s , a l l t h r e e p r o v i n c i a l 7h p a r k s s t u d i e d have more l i m i t e d m a r k e t a r e a s . O n l y Mt. R o b s o n a p p r o a c h e s t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k d i s t r i b u t i o n , d r a w i n g 87% o f i t s user's f r o m o u t s i d e t h e p r o v i n c e and 3 6 % f r o m o u t s i d e Canada. The d a t a d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t p e o p l e a r e w i l l i n g t o t r a v e l g r e a t d i s t a n c e s t o u t i l i z e w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e s o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y do n o t d e t e r m i n e a p a r k ' s c l i e n t e l e . F o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h Robson and Bowron p a r k s a r e t h e same d i s t a n c e f r o m V a n c o u v e r , t h e number o f u s e r s t o Robson f r o m t h a t a r e a i s much l o w e r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e l a c k o f f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s t o G a r i b a l d i P a r k c a n n o t e a s i l y be e x p l a i n e d . O t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h as i n t e r v e n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e r e p u t a t i o n and d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p a r k ' s a t t r a c t i o n s o b v i o u s l y p l a y a r o l e i n v i s i t o r s e l e c t i o n o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e . Group C o m p o s i t i o n - Age and Sex R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o g i v e an age and s e x breakdown o f t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s p a r t y . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s r e p r e s e n t a t o t a l o f 3 , 1 0 8 p e o p l e , 1 , 6 6 6 f r o m Bowron, 881 f r o m G a r i b a l d i and 5 6 5 f r o m Mt. Robson. Of t h i s t o t a l , 70% were male. 75 TABLE I I I AGE DISTRIBUTION OF WILDERNESS PARK USERS Age Groups % o f U s e r s Can. Pop. <$)* 0 - 1 0 4.85 21 .0 1 1 - 2 0 31.52 21 .1 21 - 30 33.55 14.6 31 - 40 13.60 12.3 41 - 50 11.83 11.8 51 t 4 . 59 20.2 * S o u r c e : D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1968, p. 44-5 V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , As o t h e r w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s t u d i e s have f o u n d , w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s a r e m a i n l y young and m i d d l e aged a d u l t s , t h o u g h a l l age groups a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . A v e r a g e age v a r i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y b e t w e e n p a r k s , i n Bowron i t was 27-3 y e a r s , i n G a r i b a l d i 24.1 y e a r s and i n Robson 27.7 y e a r s . As t h e p o p u l a t i o n p y r a m i d shows, use o f w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a young a d u l t male a c t i v i t y . 76 F i g . 5 AGE AND SEX PYRAMID OF TOTAL SAMPLE 5 0 + i+1 •50 31- •1+0 21- -30 10- •20 0- -10 20 15 10 5 o 5 10 15 20 25 Female M a l e The d a t a s u g g e s t l i t t l e p r o s p e c t o f a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f p o t e n t i a l w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s as t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e age b r a c k e t s most i n c l i n e d t o w a r d s t h i s t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g . E d u c a t i o n S t u d i e s o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s have c o n s i s t e n t l y f o u n d t h a t u s e r s a r e a h i g h l y e d u c a t e d g roup - much more so t h a n o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . D a t a h e r e c o n f i r m t h a t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s a r e more t h a n l i k e l y t o have a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , i n f a c t a l m o s t h0% have 17 o r more y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n - t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a p o s t - g r a d u a t e d e g r e e . The a v e r a g e number o f y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d i s 15-3- By c o m p a r i s o n , t h e median y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e male l a b o r f o r c e i n Canada (1966) was 9.6 y e a r s . 77 TABLE IV COMPARISON QF EDUCATIONAL LEVELS OF WILDERNESS PARK USERS Axea High School or l e f f (%) C o l l e g e Grad.(%) P o s t -Grad.(%) N B. C. Parks 1970 32.1 2 3 . 5 4 3 . 7 743 Banff//oho 1967 * 2 7 . 5 41 . 6 31.1 7421 Quetico 1 9 6 7 * * 11.0 33.0 29.0 215 G l a c i e r Peak, Wash. *** 35.0 36.0 29.0 440 Canadian Pop. ( 1961 ) * * * * 94.0 2 .9 -* Students omitted from c a l c u l a t i o n s ** Lusty (1968) *** (Hendee e t . a l . , 1968) **** Source: D.B.S., Census of Canada, 1 9 6 l , B u l l e t i n 1 . 3 - 6 . I t i s a c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g t h a t education, l e v e l s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s t a s t e preferences i n w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n . I n e x p l a i n i n g t h i s , Catton-^ has hypothe s i z e d t h a t w i l d e r n e s s use i s motivated to a s u b s t a n t i a l degree by the i n t e l l e c t u a l p u z z l e s n a t u r e presents t o the v i s i t o r . In e f f e c t , the more ed u c a t i o n the v i s i t o r has, the more r e s p o n s i v e he i s to nature's i n t e l l e c -t u a l c h a l l e n g e s . I f t h i s i s t r u e , and as the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the p o p u l a t i o n i s r i s i n g at a r a p i d r a t e , more people w i l l be moving i n t o c a t e g o r i e s of s o c i e t y which tend t o have backcountry r e c r e a t i o n t a s t e s . 78 Income As t h e f o l l o w i n g income d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e shows, w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s a r e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y drawn f r o m t h e h i g h e r income g r o u p s . W i t h a t o t a l a v e r a g e f a m i l y income o f $12,410 p e r y e a r , w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s a r e w e l l above t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . I h e s ample a v e r a g e r i s e s t o $13,000 when s t u d e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m c a l c u l a t i o n s . TABLE V INCOME DISTRIBUTION OF WILDERNESS PARK USERS Income L e v e l Bowron G a r i b a l d i Robson T o t a l Can. Pop* ($) (%) (%) (%) (%) 0 0 ( 1 9 6 1 ) 0 - 3,000 2.7 7.6 11 .4 5.9 31 .1 3,000-6 ,000 6 . 0 11 .7 10.7 8.6 4 8 . 7 6 ,000-9 ,000 21 .1 26 . 9 8.7 20. it 11.7 9,000-12,000 20.9 20.6 24.2 21.5) 12,000-15,000 1 8 A )- 4 .5 11 .7 10.1 14 . 7 ) 15,000-20,000 12.2 9.4 10.1 10.9) )- 1 .8 20,000 + 15.7 7.2 18.8 13.8) N/A 3.0 4 .9 6 . 0 4 .2 A v e r a g e $13,430 $10,500 $12,830 $12,410 • S o u r c e : P o d o l u k , J.R., Incomes o f C a n a d i a n s . D.B.S. Census Monograph, 1968, p. 127. 79 O c c u p a t i o n C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and income l e v e l s , t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i s skewed t o w a r d s t h e h i g h e r s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e c a t e g o r y i s " M a n a g e r i a l , P r o f e s s i o n a l " (38%) w i t h " S t u d e n t s " i n t h e s e c o n d p o s i t i o n (28%). T h e r e a r e m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t ween p a r k s w i t h G a r i b a l d i h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f s t u d e n t u s e r s . TABLE V I OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF WILDERNESS PARK USERS O c c u p a t i o n Bowron (%) G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l M a n a g e r / P r o f . ho.h 30.5 43.6 38.1 S t u d e n t s 20.1 38.6 32.2 28.1 C o n s t . , Manuf. 10.3 7-2 h.2 8.2 S a l e s , C l e r i c a l 6.5 5.8 2.0 5 A H o u s e w i f e 2.2 2.2 1 .3 2.0 F i s h i n g , F o r e s t r y M i n i n g , F a r m i n g 1.9 1 .k 1 .3 1 .6 R e t i r e d 0.5 0.9 2.0 0.9 O t h e r 18.2 13.5 - 12.8 15.6 8 0 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e r u r a l o c c u p a t i o n s - f i s h i n g , l u m b e r i n g , m i n i n g and f a r m i n g , w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r 9.1% o f employment i n Canada, a r e s t r o n g l y u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d among w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s . O c c u p a t i o n o b v i o u s l y has some f i l t e r i n g 4 e f f e c t o n r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e . Hendee has s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e r u r a l o c c u p a t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l l y b a s e d on e x p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , t h e y may p r o d u c e a t t i t u d e s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o w i l d e r n e s s and s e r v e as a r e t a r d i n g I n f l u e n c e on w i l d e r n e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t o f U p b r i n g i n g I n an a t t e m p t t o u n c o v e r some e a r l y b a c k g r o u n d i n f l u e n c e s on w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d where t h e y were m o s t l y b r o u g h t up - i n a c i t y , town o r r u r a l a r e a . No c l u e s were g i v e n as t o what c o n s t i t u t e d e a c h c a t e g o r y w h i c h l e a v e s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n open t o d e f i n i t i o n . TABLE V I I ENVIRONMENT OF UPBRINGING A r e a R u r a l (%) S m a l l Town (%) C i t y (%) B.C. P a r k s , 1 9 7 0 2 3 . 2 2 3 . 2 5 3 . 3 B a n f f / Y o h o , 1 9 6 7 1 9 - 9 2 4 . 6 5 5 . 4 G l a c i e r P eak, • Wash., 1 9 6 5 * 3 0 . 6 3 8 . 5 3 0 . 9 *Hendee ( 1 9 6 8 ) 81 5 S i m i l a r t o f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e ORRRC w i l d e r n e s s s t u d y , v i s i t o r s t o B.C. w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s t e n d t o he more m e t r o p o l i t a n i n b a c k g r o u n d t h a n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , 6 Hendee's s t u d y o f P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s f o u n d t h a t w i l d e r n e s s u s e i s e q u a l l y common w i t h a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n u p b r i n g i n g as shown i n t h e above T a b l e c a n p a r t i a l l y be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e g r e a t e r e x t e n t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i n Canada - k7% o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n and 29% o f t h e A m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e i n c i t i e s o f 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 o r more. B e c a u s e o f t h e g r o w i n g number o f p e o p l e l i v i n g i n u r b a n s e t t i n g s , i n d i c a t i o n s a r e f o r an i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r w i l d e r n e s s - t y p e r e c r e a t i o n . W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e and I n t r o d u c t i o n R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o r a t e t h e m s e l v e s as w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s as " e x p e r t " , " i n t e r m e d i a t e " o r " n o v i c e " , as w e l l as t o s t a t e how many y e a r s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e t h e y h a v e . The r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s V I I I and I X . 82 TABLE V I I I WILDERNESS TRAVELLER RATINGS R a t i n g B owron(%) G a r i b a l d i { % ) R o b s o n ( % ) T o t a l ( % ) E x p e r t 18 . 7 12.6 26.9 18.5 I n t e r m e d i a t e 68.8 68.6 62.4 67.5 N o v i c e 12.5 18.8 10.7 14.0 TABLE I X YEARS OF WILDERNESS TRAVEL EXPERIENCE Y e a r s B o w r o n ( % ) G a r i b a l d i ( % ) R o b s o n ( % ) T o t a l ( % ) None 13.0 13.9 7.4 12.2 1 - 2 13.3 22.4 15.4 1 6 . 5 3 - 5 18.4 22.0 15-5 20.9 5 - 1 0 22.0 17.9 22.2 20.8 1 0 - 2 0 22.5 14.4 20.8 19.7 20 + 10.8 9.0 8.7 9.9 A v e r a g e 10.0 8.0 8.9 9.2 83 R e s p o n d e n t s 1 r a t i n g s o f t h e m s e l v e s a p p e a r t o have v a l i d i t y as e x p e r t s r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e o f 13.2 y e a r s w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e , i n t e r m e d i a t e s r e p o r t 8.0 y e a r s , and n o v i c e s 2.0 y e a r s . A nswers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s were s u r p r i s i n g i n t h a t v e r y f e w w i l d e r n e s s p a r k u s e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s as " e x p e r t s " ( 18 .5$) . I n f a c t 14$ a d m i t t e d b e i n g c o m p l e t e n o v i c e s and 12$ s a i d t h e y had no p r e v i o u s w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . The f a c t t h a t o n e - h a l f t h e sample had l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a g r e a t amount o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e p a r k s i s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t . I f t h e e x p e r i e n c e was p o s i t i v e we c a n e x p e c t t h e phenomenon o f " l e a r i n g by d o i n g " t o r e i n f o r c e f u t u r e u s e o f w i l d e r n e s s by t h i s l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d g r o u p . D a t a w i l l be p r e s e n t e d l a t e r i n t h i s p a p e r t h a t i n d e e d shows t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e was a h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y one w i t h o n l y 3.4$ s a y i n g t h e y w o u l d n o t r e t u r n t o r e p e a t t h e same t r i p . Once a g a i n t h e d a t a p o i n t s t o f u t u r e g r o w t h o f w i l d e r n e s s c l i e n t e l e . I n r e g a r d t o t h e o t h e r h a l f o f t h e s a m p l e , t h e l o n g e x p e r i e n c e o f a d u l t s s u g g e s t s t h a t w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n p a t t e r n s a r e l i n k e d w i t h c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s and an e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w i l d e r n e s s t y p e r e c r e a t i o n . When a s k e d how t h e y were i n t r o d u c e d t o w i l d e r n e s s , o v e r h a l f r e p o r t e d " p a r e n t s " and " f r i e n d s " . ( Note t h a t " s c h o o l s " a c c o u n t f o r o n l y 1.4$ o f 8h w i l d e r n e s s i n t r o d u c t i o n s . ) On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e d a t a , i t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d w i l d e r n e s s v i s i t a t i o n w i l l o c c t f r as c u r r e n t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s c u l t i v a t e a n o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n w i t h p r i m i t i v e camping t a s t e s . TABLE X "WHO OR WHAT INTRODUCED YOU TO WILDERNESS TRAVEL?" Means T o t a l (%) F r i e n d s 33.1 P a r e n t s 21 .6 O r g a n i z e d Group 16.6 L i t e r a t u r e 11 .2 S c h o o l 1 A O t h e r 15.5 Demographic f a c t o r s a r e t h u s I m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g w i l d e r n e s s use and s e v e r a l o f them w i l l be e x p l o r e d I n more d e t a i l I n C h a p t e r X . The c e n t r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e t a s t e f o r w i l d e r n e s s i s a s o p h i s t i c a t e d one. More s t u d y f o c u s i n g on why t h e s o c i a l l y e l i t e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t e d t o w i l d e r n e s s and what b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e r e a r e among t h e l o w e r s t a t u s g r o u p s a r e n eeded. F o r as 7 C h a r l e s D u d l e y Warner , w r i t i n g i n 1878 commented: The i n s t i n c t o f b a r b a r i s m t h a t l e a d s p e o p l e p e r i o d i c a l l y t o t h r o w away t h e h a b i t s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , and seek t h e f r e e d o m and d i s c o m f o r t o f t h e woods, i s e x p l i c a b l e enough, b u t i t i s n o t e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d why s u c h p a s s i o n s s h o u l d be s t r o n g e s t i n t h o s e who a r e most r e f i n e d and most t r a i n e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l f a s t i d i o u s n e s s . 8 6 REFERENCES CHAPTER V ( 1 ) T h o r s e l l , J.W., "A T r a i l Use S u r v e y - B a n f f and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s " , R e c r . R e s . R e p o r t 3 3 , N a t i o n a l and H i s t o r i c P a r k s B r a n c h , O t t a w a , F e b . , 1 9 6 8 . ( 2 ) S o u r c e : E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f Canada, A n n u a l R e p o r t . O t t a w a , 1 9 6 9 , p. 1 3 0 . ( 3 ) C a t t o n , W.R., " M o t i v a t i o n s o f W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s " , P u l p and P a p e r M a g a z i n e o f Canada". Dec. 1 9 , 1 9 6 9 . (k) Hendee, J.C., " R u r a l - U r b a n D i f f e r e n c e s R e f l e c t e d i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , J . o f L e i s u r e R e s . . V. 1, No. 4 , Autumn, 1 9 6 9 -( 5 ) O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n , W i l d e r n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n . S t u d y R e p o r t 3 , S u p ' t . o f Documents, Wash., 1 9 6 2 . ( 6 ) Hendee, J.C., e t . a l . , " W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t - T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , V a l u e s and Management P r e f e r e n c e s " , F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r PNW-61, 1 9 6 8 . ( 7 ) As q u o t e d i n S m i t h , P . J . , Back t o N a t u r e : The A r c a d i a n M y t h i n U r b a n A m e r i c a . O x f o r d P r e s s , N.Y., 1 9 6 9 , p. 8 . CHAPTER V I CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WILDERNES S N T R I P E s s e n t i a l t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s and t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p i t s e l f . D a t a were g a t h e r e d t o w a r d s p r o v i d i n g a n swers t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : How much p r e p a r a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d ? How l o n g i s t h e t r i p i n terms o f d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d and t i m e s p e n t ? What a r e t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d and t h e amount o f I n v e s t m e n t r e q u i r e d ? What a r e t h e s i z e s and make-up o f g r o u p s and what a r e t h e p a t t e r n s o f a n n u a l use? P l a n n i n g o f t h e T r i p The a n t i c i p a t i o n s t a g e o f t h e t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e i s 1 one t h a t has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e s t u d y . T h i s i s s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t p r i o r e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e s c r e e n i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e o f t r i p have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r management. I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e ( T a b l e X I ) t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p goes on f a r i n a d v a n c e . U s e r s spend an a v e r a g e o f f o u r and o n e - h a l f months o f t h o u g h t and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a t r i p t o Bowron P a r k . B e c a u s e o f t h e p r o x i m i t y and u s e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e a r e a , G a r i b a l d i shows 88 a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n w i t h o n l y 20% s a y i n g t h e y spend more t h a n a month p l a n n i n g t h e i r v i s i t . The p a t t e r n f o r Robson l i e s i n b e t w een t h e s e two e x t r e m e s . (As e x t r e m e v a l u e s c a n d i s t o r t t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e mean, t h e median i s g i v e n i n T a b l e X I f o r c o m p a r i s o n . ) TABLE X I "HOW FAR AHEAD WERE YOU PLANNING THE TRIP? I! P e r i o d B owron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l -(%) (%) (%) (%) L e s s t h a n one week 7.6 37.7 33.6 21 .9 One week - one month 19.0 42.6 27.5 27.8 One - t h r e e months 27.1 9.9 17.5 20.0 T h r e e - s i x months 18.7 4.5 8.1 12.3 S i x - t w e l v e months 17.3 4.0 7.4 11.3 More t h a n a y e a r 9.8 1.4 5.4 6.3 A v e r a g e (weeks) 18.9 5.3 9.9 13.0 M e d i a n (weeks) 7.0 1.9 3.4 4.0 The d a t a d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s use i s based on a s h o r t r u n , i m p u l s i v e d e c i s i o n . T h i s f a c t would n o t s u p p o r t t h e " e s c a p e " t h e o r y o f r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o r where t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t j u s t w i s h e s t o g e t away somewhere w i t h l i t t l e o r no p r e - p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e d . B e c a u s e t h e w i l d e r n e s s 89 t r i p i s demanding i n t e r m s o f a d v a n c e p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e " e s c a p e " m o t i v a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d and e x t e n d e d o v e r a l o n g e r t i m e p e r i o d . I n any c a s e t h e movement t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s , f o r most u s e r s , i s a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d one. L e n g t h o f S t a y L e n g t h o f s t a y o f c o u r s e v a r i e s w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h t h e d e s t i n a t i o n . The Bowron L a k e c i r c u i t o f 73 m i l e s i s done i n a n a v e r a g e o f 7.8 d a y s , w i t h a l m o s t no-one t a k i n g l e s s t h a n 5 d a y s . The minimum 25 m i l e r o u n d t r i p t o B e r g L a k e a t Mt. R o b s o n i s done on an a v e r a g e o f 3.5 days w i t h o n l y % o f t h e sample s p e n d i n g a week o r more i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y . G a r i b a l d i r e c e i v e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y weekend u s e , w i t h an a v e r a g e s t a y o f 2.8 days and w i t h o v e r 80$ o f u s e r s s t a y i n g k days o r l e s s . The l e n g t h o f s t a y h e r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged s i n c e 2 T a y l o r ' s O 9 6 O ) s t u d y on t h e a r e a . 90 TABLE X I I LENGTH OF STAY No. o f Days Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l ($) ($) ($) ($) 1 - 2 1 .1 55.6 27.5 22.8 3 - 4 5.2 29.2 51.7 21 .7 5 - 6 24.4 7.6 15.4 17.5 7 - 8 3 1 A 3.1 4 .0 17.4 9 - 1 0 27.4 2.2 0.7 14 . 4 11 - 12 5.7 0.5 0.0 3.0 13 + 3.3 0.0 0.0 1 .6 A v e r a g e 7.8 2.8 3.5 5.4 S i z e and Make-up o f P a r t i e s T w o - t h i r d s o f w i l d e r n e s s p a r t i e s c o n s i s t o f between two and f o u r p e r s o n s . O n l y 13$ o f t h e sample were i n g r o u p s o f s e v e n o r more and o n l y 6.3$ were t r a v e l l i n g a l o n e . C l e a r l y , w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l i s n e i t h e r a g r o u p n o r i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e b e i n g i n a l i m i t e d s e n s e a s p e c i a l f o r m o f s m a l l g r o u p s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . 91 TABLE X I I I TOTAL GROUP S I Z E No. o f P e o p l e Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l OO 00 (%) OO 1 1 .9 8.5 14.1 6.3 2 37.7 33.2 48.3 38.5 3 - 4 27.4 34.5 16.8 27.4 5 - 6 17.1 12.1 7.4 13.6 7 14.6 10.8 1 2.1 13.0 A v e r a g e 4.5 3.9 3.8 4.2 A d d i t i o n a l d a t a on t h e make-up o f g r o u p s show t h a t one-h a l f t h e sample i s c o m p r i s e d o f some f o r m o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t ( c o u p l e s , f a m i l i e s , f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s ) . Groups o f men, w h i c h i n some c a s e s may be f a m i l y g r o u p s a l s o , a c c o u n t f o r t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e p r o p o r t i o n o f u s e r s (23.6%). 3 The d a t a s u p p o r t s Hendee's f i n d i n g s o f P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s , t h a t t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s t y p i c a l l y s o u g h t i n t h e company o f f a m i l y g r o u p s and s m a l l c l u s t e r s o f c l o s e f r i e n d s . As d a t a l a t e r i n t h i s p a p e r w i l l show, u s e r s t r a v e l l i n g i n s u c h groups do n o t e x p r e s s an a v e r s i o n t o human c o n t a c t as s u c h , b u t o n l y t o t h e mass and t r a n s i t o r y e n c o u n t e r s common t o modern u r b a n l i f e . 92 TABLE XIV MAKE-UP OF GROUPS Make-up Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o bson T o t a l (%) ($) {%) ($) One p e r s o n 1 .9 8.1 12.8 5.9 Group o f men 25.2 23.3 20.1 23.6 Group o f women 0.5 3.1 2.7 1 .8 O r g a n i z e d g r o u p 8.7 6.3 5.4 7.3 C o u p l e s 19.5 17.5 19.5 18.9 F a m i l y g r o u p 20.9 21.5 21 .5 21 .2 F a m i l y and f r i e n d s 11.9 11.7 6.0 10.5 O t h e r 11.1 8.5 11 .4 10.4 C o s t o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s T r i p A l t h o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n "What was t h e t o t a l c o s t o f y o u r t r i p t o t h e p a r k ? " was r a t h e r u n s p e c i f i c , t h e r e s u l t s o f f e r some g e n e r a l f i g u r e s . F o r o n e - h a l f t h e sample and f o r 90$ o f G a r i b a l d i u s e r s , t h e t o t a l c o s t r e p o r t e d was l e s s t h a n $25.00. The a v e r a g e t o t a l c o s t f o r v i s i t i n g Bowron P a r k , w h i c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e t r a v e l c o s t s t o and f r o m t h e p a r k , was $60.00 o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y $7 . 9 0 p e r day. F o r G a r i b a l d i t h e a v e r a g e was $16.00 o r $5.70 p e r day, and a t Robson $50.00 o r $14.00 p e r day. The h i g h e r c o s t a t Robson c a n be e x p l a i n e d by t h e g r e a t e r a v e r a g e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d t o r e a c h t h a t p a r k . 93 TABLE XV TOTAL COST OF WILDERNESS TRIP (PER PERSON) C o s t ($) Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l {%) (%) (%) (%) L e s s t h a n 25 22.8 90.1 58.4 50.2 25 - 50 40.7 3.4 14.8 24.3 51 - 100 24.7 0.0 8.1 13.9 101 - 200 5.4 0.5 8.1 4 .5 201 - 400 2.7 o .5 4.0 2.3 401' + 1.1 0.0 0.7 0.7 A v e r a g e $60.00 $16.00 $50.00 $44.00 E x c e p t f o r a v e r y f ew c a s e s ( o n l y 7% spend o v e r $100.00) t h e w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n , i n s p i t e o f t h e t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s r e q u i r e d , c a n be s a i d t o be a r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e one. U s i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s as g i v e n , and e x t e n d i n g them t o i n c l u d e a l l b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s , a t o t a l o f $270,000 was s p e n t by w i l d e r n e s s campers a t Bowron, $27,200 a t G a r i b a l d i and $100,000 a t Robson . A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t known where o r how t h i s money i s s p e n t , i t i s s t i l l a p p a r e n t t h a t w i l d e r n e s s v i s i t o r s do g e n e r a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e w e a l t h t o t h e economy. 9k I n v e s t m e n t i n B a c k c o u n t r y E q u i p m e n t The h i g h c o s t o f l i g h t w e i g h t camping equipment i s o f t e n c i t e d as a f a c t o r l i m i t i n g w i l d e r n e s s u s e . The u s e r s do i n d e e d have a s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n b a c k c o u n t r y g e a r w i t h an a v e r a g e o f $ 8 2 . 0 0 p e r p e r s o n r e p o r t e d . T h i s m i g h t a c t as a f i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r t o some economic g r o u p s , b u t o n l y t o a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s s a m p l e d h e r e . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m T a b l e XVI t h a t G a r i b a l d i u s e r s have o n l y o n e - h a l f t h e i n v e s t m e n t o f t h o s e i n Robson and Bowron. T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e s h o r t e r s t a y and t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s t u d e n t s who use t h a t p a r k . TABLE XVI TOTAL INVESTMENT I N BACKCOUNTRY EQUIPMENT (PER PERSON) I n v e s t m e n t ($) Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o bson T o t a l (%) (%) C O L e s s t h a n 5 7 . 6 1 3 . 9 6 . 7 9 . 3 5 - 2 5 1 3 . 8 2 5 . 6 1 0 . 1 1 6 . 6 2 6 - 5 0 1 8 . 7 2 3 . 3 1 2 . 8 1 8 . 9 51 - 1 0 0 2 3 . 6 2 0 . 6 2 5 . 5 2 3 . 1 101 - 1 5 0 1 1 . 7 6 . 7 16 . 1 11 .1 151 - 2 0 0 8 . 1 k.O 1 3 . 4 8 . 0 201 + 1 3 . 8 1 .k 9 . k 9 . 2 A v e r a g e $ 9 3 . 0 0 $ 5 1 . 0 0 $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 $ 8 2 . 0 0 9 5 A n n u a l P a t t e r n o f W i l d e r n e s s V i s i t s The t y p i c a l r e s p o n d e n t t a k e s a m e dian o f 4 . 4 w i l d e r n e s s t r i p s p e r y e a r , o f 3 . 7 days d u r a t i o n , f o r a t o t a l o f 1 6 . 3 p a r t i c i p a t i o n days a y e a r . W i l d e r n e s s t r i p s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t S t a t e s , as r e p o r t e d by Hendee ( 1 9 6 8 ) g i v e a s i m i l a r t o t a l 0 4 . 5 man days a n n u a l l y ) b u t a r e s l i g h t l y more f r e q u e n t ( 6 . 3 t r i p s p e r y e a r ) and o f l e s s d u r a t i o n ( 2 . 3 d a y s ) . T h i s i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n v e s t m e n t i n t i m e t o spend on s u c h a n a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e most o f i t o c c u r s i n t h e summer months. As T a b l e s X V I I and X V I I I show, t h e r e a r e m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w een p a r k s , w i t h R o b s on u s e r s b e i n g t h e most a c t i v e (5-7 t r i p s p e r y e a r ) and Bowron u s e r s t h e l e a s t ( 3 . 4 t r i p s p e r y e a r ) . A l m o s t o n e - h a l f t h e sample ( 4 4 . 8 % ) t a k e o n l y one o r two t r i p s a n n u a l l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t I s t h a t f o r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e sample t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e a v e r a g e t r i p i s f o u r days o r l e s s . O n l y 5% of w i l d e r n e s s p a r k u s e r s u n d e r t a k e t r i p s o f more t h a n n i n e days d u r a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r t h e n , t h a t t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w i l d e r n e s s u s e r i n B.C. engages i n f r e q u e n t t r i p s o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n one o r two l o n g t r i p s . T hus, a l t h o u g h l a r g e a r e a s have been s e t a s i d e p a r t i a l l y f o r p e o p l e t o e n j o y e x t e n s i v e v a c a t i o n s i n w i l d l a n d s , most o n l y b r i e f l y p e n e t r a t e t h e o u t e r f r i n g e s . As s t u d i e s o f t h e m o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s 3 have a l s o shown , t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f w i l d e r n e s s p a r k use i s b r i e f , c o n c e n t r a t e d , and a t t h e m a r g i n . 96 TABLE X V I I WILDERNESS TRIPS PER YEAR No. o f T r i p s Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l (%) (%) (%) {%) 1 - 2 57.5 33.2 30.9 44.8 3 - 5 25.2 30.0 28.2 27.3 6 - 9 6.5 19.3 19.5 13.0 10 + 7.9 17.0 20.8 13.2 A v e r a g e 3.4 5.3 5.7 4 .5 -TABLE X V I I I AVERAGE LENGTH OF WILDERNESS TRIPS (DAYS) Days Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l (%) (%) 2 o r l e s s 27.1 51 .6 34.2 35.9 3 - 4 35.2 38.6 48 . 3 38.9 5 - 9 24.9 9.4 12.1 17.7 10 + 7.9 0.0 4.0 4.7 A v e r a g e 4.6 2.8 3.6 3.9 97 REFERENCES CHAPTER VI (1) O'Riordan, T., "Outdoor Recreation Research", i n Resources, Recreation and Research, ed. Foster, H.D. and Sewell, W.R.D., U. Vi c t o r i a , 1970. (2) Taylor, G.D., "Visitors to the Black Tusk Area of Garibaldi Provincial Park", unpub. Report, Prov. Parks Branch, V i c t o r i a , Feb., 1961. (3) For suggestions on correcting this imbalance and encouraging more extensive backcountry use, see: Thorsell, J.W., "The Mountain National Parks - Some Notes on Wilderness Use", Park News. June, 1969. 98 CHAPTER V I I ^MOTIVATIONS AND BENEFITS OF THE -WILDERNESS EXPERIENCE D i f f i c u l t i e s of M o t i v a t i o n Research Because i t i s an i n f e r e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t , the q u e s t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n , or the why o f w i l d e r n e s s use, i s a d i f f i c u l t one. I t i s d i f f i c u l t because o f pre - c o n c e i v e d images o f what w i l d e r n e s s c o n s t i t u t e s , the s u b t l e and s u b - l i m i n a l aspects o f the e x p e r i e n c e , and because of problems of measurement. 1 According t o Leo Marx , the f e e l i n g of w i l d e r n e s s I s e x t r a v a g a n t l y p o r t r a y e d i n l i t e r a t u r e as: "... o f t e n a k i n d of v i s i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e , couched i n a language o f i n t e n s e , 2 extreme, even m y s t i c a l f e e l i n g . " Evans' essay on the evanescent and i d y l l i c b e n e f i t s of w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l i s probably the u l t i m a t e example of the image as c r e a t e d by nature w r i t e r s . But even i f such images of what the user a n t i c i p a t e s from w i l d e r n e s s are r e c o g n i s e d , i s he s t i l l c o n s c i o u s l y aware and able t o v e r b a l i z e h i s t r u e p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n s ? Can these unconscious and g u t - l e v e l f e e l i n g s be adequately probed and expressed? And, f i n a l l y , i s the respondent w i l l i n g to r e v e a l h i s t r u e motives i f they might be r e c o g n i s e d as maudlin 3 or s o c i a l l y suspect? Lapage has c a p s u l i s e d the i s s u e : 99 B e c a u s e o f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n p r o d u c t i v i t y i s a f o r m i d a b l e u n d e r t a k i n g and one w h i c h i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s has o n l y n e b u l o u s r e s u l t s . N o n e t h e l e s s I t r e p r e s e n t s a n i n v e s t i g a t i v e avenue t h a t c a n n o t be a v o i d e d . W i t h t h e s e l i m i t s i n m i n d , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d f o u r i t e m s i n t e n d e d t o p r o b e t h e m o t i v e s and b e n e f i t s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p . F i r s t , a l i s t o f 13 p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t a k i n g a w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n were g i v e n and u s e r s a s k e d t o r a t e them as v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t , n e u t r a l , o r n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . L a t e r i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n o t h e r l i s t o f n i n e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s were g i v e n t o be s i m i l a r l y r a t e d . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a t l e a s t a c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e m o t i v e s f o r g o i n g ( a s p i r a t i o n s ) and t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e ( p e r c e i v e d r e a l i t y ) . Two o t h e r r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s a s k e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o s t a t e (1) t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r h i s t r i p and (2) what one e x p e r i e n c e f r o m t h e t r i p he r e c a l l s most. These q u e s t i o n s a r e c oded and i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t y p o l o g y d i s c u s s e d b e l o w u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g "Elements o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e " . 100 Reasons f o r t h e W i l d e r n e s s V a c a t i o n S t u d i e s o f what r e a s o n s , a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s draw p e o p l e t o w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s commonly show t h a t a h e i r a r c h y o f m o t i v e s e x i s t . I n T a b l e X I X t h e t h r e e most h i g h l y r a t e d c a t e g o r i e s a r e " s e e i n g n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e " , " w i l d e r n e s s c a m p i n g " and " f e e l i n g c l o s e t o n a t u r e " . T h i s c o n f i r m s t h a t w i l d e r n e s s campers i n B.C. p a r k s p l a c e a h i g h v a l u e on u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s , t h o s e w h i c h i n f a c t c a n n o t be d u p l i c a t e d i n o t h e r s e t t i n g s . F o r t h i s t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n t h e r e i s no s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y i n t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e . The s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s m e n t i o n e d - " e x e r c i s e " , " r e l a x i n g " , " p h o t o g r a p h y " and " f i s h i n g " a r e a l l g i v e n r e l a t i v e l y h i g h n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e s . I n f a c t , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s a c t i v i t y o f f i s h i n g i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r e a s o n f o r o n l y o n e - f i f t h o f t h e sample and a l m o s t h a l f (h6.k%) r e p o r t i t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l . The w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s a r e n o t s e e n so much as p l a c e s t o "do t h i n g s " as t h e y a r e t o e x p e r i e n c e and be a p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . Of some s u r p r i s e was t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w r a t i n g o f one o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p e a l s o f w i l d e r n e s s - " s o l i t u d e " - o n l y 62.9% o f t h e sample (and 52% o f G a r i b a l d i u s e r s ) r a t e i t as v e r y k i m p o r t a n t . However, as ORRRC o b s e r v e d , s o l i t u d e does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean b e i n g a l o n e w i t h n a t u r e i n a s m u c h as a s p e c i a l f o r m o f s o l i t u d e c a n be f o u n d i n s m a l l g r oup use o f w i l d e r n e s s 101 where t o t a l v i s i t a t i o n i s n o t e x c e s s i v e . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n on c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , i t a p p e a r s t h a t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s do n o t e x p e c t o r i n s i s t on b e i n g a l o n e w i t h n a t u r e b u t a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o and may even welcome t h e s i g h t o f s m a l l numbers o f o t h e r u s e r s . N e i t h e r a r e p a r k s seen as a p l a c e f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t y -t h e s e c o n d l o w e s t r a t i n g n e x t t o f i s h i n g i s t h e c a t e g o r y " b e i n g w i t h f a m i l y , f r i e n d s " . " V i e w i n g w i l d l i f e " was a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r 8 2 . 4 $ o f Bowron P a r k u s e r s , 6 7 . 8 $ o f Robson u s e r s and 5 4 . 3 $ o f G a r i b a l d i u s e r s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n c o n t r a s t t o a 5 s t u d y o f c a r campers i n t h e B o u n d a r y Waters Canoe A r e a where o n l y 19$ o f v i s i t o r s r a t e d w i l d l i f e as a r e a s o n f o r v i s i t i n g t h e a r e a . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a h i g h e r i n t e r e s t o r a w a r e n e s s o f w i l d l i f e among b a c k c o u n t r y campers t h a n among r o a d s i d e c ampers. L e o p o l d has s t r e s s e d i n h i s Sand C o u n t y Almanac t h e c o n t r a s t v a l u e o f w i l d e r n e s s as an e x c i t i n g t e m p o r a r y a l t e r n a t i v e t o an u r b a n s o c i e t y . T h e r e i s moderate s u p p o r t f o r t h i s i d e a o f w i l d e r n e s s as n o v e l t y - 6 1 . 5 $ r a t e " e x p l o r a t i o n o f a r e a " and j u s t u n d e r h a l f ( 4 7 . 9 $ ) r a t e " d o i n g s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t " as v e r y i m p o r t a n t . 1 0 2 In conclusion, response patterns are p a r a l l e l to findings of other wilderness user studies - v i s i t o r s are drawn to these areas primarily by their naturalness and primitivenes and secondarily by the opportunities they offer for temporary respite, adventure and exploration. TABLE XIX MOTIVATIONS FOR BACKCOUNTRY TRAVEL Reason Very Imp't. Neutral Not Imp't. Seeing natural landscape 9 3 . 3 5 . 4 1 .1 Wilderness camping 81 . 5 11 . 6 6 . 3 Feeling close to nature 81 . 4 1 4 . 7 3 . 6 Escaping from c i v i l i s a t i o n 7 8 . 8 1 6 . 2 4 . 6 Viewing w i l d l i f e 7 0 .1 2 4 . 0 4 . 5 Solitude 6 2 . 9 2 7 . 3 9 . 6 Exploration of area 61 . 5 2 9 . 0 9 . 0 Exercise 5 9 . 8 3 0 . 5 9 . 3 Relaxing 5 8 . 2 2 9 . 6 1 2 . 2 Doing something different 4 7 • 9 3 0 . 9 2 0 . 9 Photography 4 3 . 6 3 3 . 2 2 2 . 8 Be with family, friends 3 3 .1 3 4 . 3 3 2 . 4 Fishing 2 0 . 4 3 2 . 7 4 6 . 4 103 Benefits of the Wilderness Vacation As often voiced concern of wilderness planners i s the need for knowledge of the effects of people on the resource base. A question that i s more d i f f i c u l t to measure and that has received less attention deals with the therapeutic effects of wilderness exposure - or the effect of the resource on people. Table XX presents a summary of the answers to the question: "In what particular ways do you think your t r i p benefited you?" TABLE XX BENEFITS OF THE WILDERNESS TRIP Benefits Very Imp't. Neutral Not Imp't. 00 00 00 Refreshing mentally 87.0 10. 1 2.3 Increased appreciation of nature 80.3 16. 2 2.7 Found solitude, privacy 61 .3 28. 9 8.5 Gave opportunity to r e f l e c t , think 58.2 33. 9 7.4 Improve physical health 57.1 34, 6 7.7 Learned more about s e l f , others 37.9 42. 1 19.2 Learned more about camping 32.7 37. 9 28.6 Was s o c i a l l y entertaining 12.8 31 . 0 55-5 Other 28:3 3. 5 2.3 1 0 4 In the nine item l i s t the two benefits judged very important by almost a l l users were "refreshing mentally" and "increased appreciation of nature". Three benefits given lesser weight but s t i l l judged as very important by over one-half the respondents were "found solitude, privacy", "gave opportunity to r e f l e c t and think" and "improve physical health". These ratings provide strong indications that wilderness, at least i n the eye of the beholder, does function to promote psychic, social and physical health as well as fostering closer rapport with nature. The items "learned more about s e l f , others" and "learned more about camping" were rated very important by approximately one-third of the sample. This suggests some support for the "learning-by-doing" phenomenon which states that the more people participate i n certain forms of recreation the more they w i l l become proficient at and demand f a c i l i t i e s for that recreation. Similarly the fact that very few of the respondents rate these reasons as not important suggests that the use of and benefits from wilderness are i n some degree oriented to personal accomplishment. "Was soc i a l l y entertaining" was the only item that more than half the sample (55.5%) viewed as -"not important". No discrepancies were noted between these ratings of benefits and the previous question on aspirations. For instance, 1 0 5 where 62.9% rated "solitude" as a very important reason for v i s i t i n g wilderness, 61.3% also rated i t as a perceived beneTit (once again the figure for Garibaldi Park is correspondingly lower). A somewhat surprising finding was that no signif i c a n t difference In the assessment of benefits were given between the three different parks, despite differences i n effort expended to v i s i t each. Elements of the Wilderness Experience 6 As Klausner has pointed out, recreation exists i n many different forms which, i n themselves, satisfy more basic but largely undefined and immeasureable human needs. In understanding these needs i t is necessary to f i r s t understand the meaning of the tot a l recreation experience. As the National 7 Academy of Sciences has stressed " ... conceptualization of the component parts of leisure a c t i v i t i e s i s another requirement for a theory of recreation". 8 I t is hypothesized by Klausner that the recreation experience can have meaning to the user i n three possible ways: The relation of man to nature, the sociological relation of man to man and the psychological relation of man to self. A l l three of these dimensions require different recreation settings and, when taken together, comprise the very complicated and 106 multidimensional recreation experience. Such a descriptive model reminds recreation planners and researchers that the tota'lity of recreation i s something much more than the small part of i t that they are concerned with i n a particular study. Moreover, when empirical data i s available on the strengths of the different a c t i v i t y mixes that constitute the experience, then the provision of settings for them w i l l be a more l o g i c a l l y derived and precise operation. In an attempt to explore this construct and weigh these different psychological, social and environmental qualities of the experience, respondents were asked (1) what was the single most important reason for your trip? and (2) what one experience of your t r i p to the park do you r e c a l l most v i v i d l y today? By asking the user to single cut one reason and one experience i t was hoped that the strength of different mixes of the elements of the experience could be, at least crudely, 9 quantified. A study done by Schefer i n the Adirondaks focused on this question and was based on a similar typology. The main finding was that aesthetic (natural) and emotional (psychological) responses were eight to ten times more important to wilderness users than social values. During the coding of the open-ended responses i t became apparent that because of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the wide variety of responses, the results would be inconclusive. 107 I n the f i r s t q u e s t i o n o n l y %% o f a l l answers c o u l d be coded i n t o one o f the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h n o n -r e s p o n s e r a t e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n (lk%) and t h e l a r g e number ( 1 9 . 4 $ ) who gave more t h a n one r e a s o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s themselves had t r o u b l e d e f i n i n g one s i n g l e purpose f o r t h e t r i p . Of those r e s p o n s e s t h a t c o u l d be coded the f o l l o w i n g comments were t y p i c a l . Under the man/nature e n c o u n t e r the common r e s p o n s e s w e r e : "To r e t u r n t o n a t u r e " , "To be o u t d o o r s i n u n s p o i l e d w i l d e r n e s s " , "To see Emperor F a l l s " and "To enjoy n a t u r a l beauty and w i l d l i f e " . Under the man/others e n c o u n t e r t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e s were: "To get away f rom i t a l l " , "To share an e x p e r i e n c e w i t h my s o n " , " F o r our honeymoon", "To b u i l d c h a r a c t e r and d e v e l o p teamwork" and "To get out o f the c i t y f o r a change o f p a c e " . T y p i c a l responses coded under the man/ s e l f d i m e n s i o n i n c l u d e : "To f i n d c h a l l e n g e and a d v e n t u r e " , "To endure p h y s i c a l h a r d s h i p " and "To go f i s h i n g " . T a b l e XXI shows t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s were about e q u a l l y d i v i d e d i n t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a l t h o u g h M t . Robson u s e r s were more n a t u r e - o r i e n t e d and e x p l i c i t i n t h e i r answers t h a n u s e r s i n the o t h e r two p a r k s . The t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t w i l d e r n e s s camping i s m o t i v a t e d e q u a l l y by a s e a r c h f o r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t y , and a d e s i r e f o r a s p e c i a l form o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A t l e a s t , f rom t h i s l i m i t e d d a t a , no one d i m e n s i o n appears d o m i n a n t . 108 TABLE X X I M A I N REASON FOR THE WILDERNESS TRIP Reason Bowron Garibaldi Robson Total (%) (%) (%) (%) Nature 13.3 25.1 30.2 20.2 Social 20.3 16.6 16.8 18.5 Psychological 15.7 16.1 22.8 17.3 Combination 23.6 15.3 15.4 19.4 Unclassifiable 13.3 10.3 4.7 10.7 No answer 13.8 16.6 10.1 13.9 Response to the second question of what one experience is most v i v i d l y remembered produces less nebulous results. Most respondents r e c a l l a feature of the natural landscape such as "Sunset on Robson Glacier", "A bear i n camp", "Seeing three moose i n Bowron marsh" or "The view from the Tusk". The impact of the natural landscape thus has the strongest influence on user r e c a l l of his wilderness t r i p . A significant proportion recalled a particular event, experience, or a c t i v i t y that the respondent himself experienced. Examples are: "Running the chute on the Issac River", "Catching my l i m i t of f i s h " or "Setting up camp i n a thunderstorm", included i n this group were a number of unpleasant recollections involving being attacked by insects, burning a meal i n a campfire, being caught 109 i n a t h u n d e r s t o r m , o r f a l l i n g i n t o a r i v e r . I n r e t r o s p e c t , v i s i t o r s show some r e v e r e n c e f o r e x e r t i o n a l m o s t t o t h e p o i n t 10 o f m a s o c h i s t i c d e l i g h t . P e r h a p s , as L o w e n t h a l has s u g g e s t e d , d i s c o m f o r t s a r e s e e n as p r a i s e w o r t h y as t h e y p r o m o t e i n t i m a c y w i t h n a t u r e . M e m o r i e s o f t h e man/man s o c i a l e n c o u n t e r a r e d e f i n i t e l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e m a n / n a t u r e and m a n / s e l f e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o n l y 2.6% m e n t i o n i n g a s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e as m o s t v i v i d . TABLE X X I I EXPERIENCE MOST V I V I D L Y RECALLED R e a s o n B o w r o n G a r i b a l d i R o b s o n T o t a l (%) (%) (%) (%) N a t u r e 37.4 43.5 45.0 40.8 S o c i a l 2.7 3.1 1 .3 2.6 P s y c h o l o g i c a l 35.0 25.6 27.5 30.6 C o m b i n a t i o n 5.4 5.4 8.1 5.9 U n c l a s s i f i a b l e 9.2 5.4 6.7 7.6 No answer 10.3 17.0 11.4 12.6 1 1 0 REFERENCES CHAPTER VII Marx, Leo, "American Institutions and Ecological Ideals", Science. Vol. 1 7 0 , Nov. 2 7 , 1970, p. 9 5 0 . Evans, G.S., "The Wilderness", i n Nash, R. ed. The C a l l of the Wild. B r a z i l l e r , N.Y., 1 9 7 0 , p. 7 5 - 7 8 . Lapage, Wilbur F., "Some Sociological Aspects of Forest Recreation", J. of For.. 6 1 , 1, Jan., 1 9 6 3 , p. 3 5 . Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Wilderness and Recreation. Study Report 3» Sup't. of Documents, Wash., 1 9 6 2 , p. 3 0 . Lime, David R. and Cushwa, Charles T., 'Wildlife Esthetics and Auto Campers", Forest Service Research Paper NC-32, 1 9 6 9 -Klausner, S.Z., "Recreation as Social Action", i n National Academy of Sciences, A Program for Outdoor Recreation Research, Pub. 1 7 2 7 ? National Academy of Sciences, Wash., 1 9 6 9 -National Academy of Sciences, i b i d . . p. 2 2 . Klausner, S.Z., "Recreation as Social Action" i n National Academy of Sciences, i b i d . , p. 61 - 7 3 . Schefer, E.L., J r . , "Aesthetic and Emotional Experiences Rate High with Northeast Wilderness Hikers", Environ, and Behavior. V . 1 , No. 2 , Dec, 1 9 6 9 , p. 1 8 7 - 1 9 7 . Lowenthal, David, "Daniel Boone is Dead", Natural History, Aug., 1 9 6 8 . 111 CHAPTER V I I I OPINIONS AND EVALUATIONS OF THE WILDERNESS V I S I T T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e m o g r a p h y a n d m o t i v a t i o n s o f u s e r s p r o v i d e s i m p o r t a n t b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l f o r e x p l a i n i n g v i s i t o r b e h a v i o r and e x p e c t a t i o n s . A l s o o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e a c t i o n o f u s e r s t o s u g g e s t e d management p o l i c i e s , f a c i l i t i e s , o t h e r u s e r s and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s r e s o u r c e i t s e l f . I n e s s e n c e , how do u s e r s i n t e r p r e t a n d e v a l u a t e w i l d e r n e s s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d a n d e x p e r i e n c e ? A t o t a l o f 18 q u e s t i o n s p r o b e d u s e r o p i n i o n s a n d e v a l u a t i o n s u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : F a c i l i t i e s , management c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s , e n t r a n c e f e e s , z o n i n g t h e p a r k , p e r c e p t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s , c r o w d i n g and c a p a c i t y , s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d r e t u r n , a n d p e r c e p t i o n o f h a z a r d s . F a c i l i t i e s The d e c i s i o n t o i n t r o d u c e f a c i l i t i e s and i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t o t h e b a c k c o u n t r y i s one w h i c h r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f b o t h s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . A s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l g o a l o f w i l d e r n e s s management i s t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n o f m a n ' s i n f l u e n c e , any e x t r i n s i c d e v e l o p m e n t s c a n e a s i l y o f f e n d u s e r s and l e a d t o d i m i n i s h e d r e t u r n s i n u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . W i l d e r n e s s managers 11 2 i d e a l l y do n o t i n s t a l l c o n v e n i e n c e s t o accommodate r i s i n g numbers o f p a r t i c i p a n t s b u t o n l y t o a c t as h e a l t h , s a f e t y and c o n t r o l measures t h a t s e r v e t o enhance t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f human v a l u e s i n w i l d e r n e s s . S a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , become one o f t h e f i r s t n e c e s s i t i e s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y accompany i n c r e a s e d use o f w i l d e r n e s s . S i n c e changes i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y w i l l a l s o change t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f u s e , management needs t o be aware o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f u s e r s i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r a n t i c i p a t e t h e s e e f f e c t s . To gau^e c l i e n t e l e r e a c t i o n t o f a c i l i t y i n t r o d u c t i o n s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by t h e P a r k s B r a n c h , u s e r s were a s k e d t o r a t e e i g h t p o s s i b l e f a c i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t s as "needed", " n e u t r a l " o r "not needed". The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e X X I I I show g e n e r a l s u p p o r t f o r two f a c i l i t i e s (more t r a i l s and p i t t o i l e t s ) , o p p o s i t i o n t o f i v e (more c a m p s i t e s , b e t t e r t r a i l s , f i r e p l a c e s , i n t e r p r e t i v e s i g n s , and a c c e s s r o a d s ) , and an e ven d i v i s i o n on one ( p r i m i t i v e s h e l t e r s ) . 113 TABLE XXIII OPINIONS OF BACKCOUNTRY FACILITIES F a c i l i t y Needed Neutral Not Needed (%) 00 OO Primitive shelters 33.2 29.8 36.6 More campsites 29.0 26.2 44.1 Better t r a i l s 16.9 21 .7 60.9 More t r a i l s 51 .o 23.9 24.4 Fireplaces 20.4 27.5 51 .6 Pit" t o i l e t s 4o.9 26.7 31 .9 Interpretive signs 23.1 30.6 45.8 Access road 6.3 7.7 85.7 It is interesting that interpretive signs are seen to have no place i n the backcountry. Even though wilderness managers agree that more interpretation i s needed, other means of accomplishing i t (for example, interpretive booklets) are recommended. There is also a strong opposition to making the wilderness more accessible by constructing a road to cut down even the f i r s t two miles of travel distance. In their comments that often accompanied this question respondents appeared to be, not so much against the road i t s e l f , but what the road would bring. 1 1 4 The reactions t o . f a c i l i t y introduction varied on some items between parks. Bowron users strongly requested t r a i l s to alpine areas and sanitary f a c i l i t i e s at campsites. Garibaldi users did not wish to see better t r a i l s (76% said not needed) though a signif i c a n t number at Robson did. This finding suggests caution on the over-engineering of backcountry t r a i l s and more s p e c i f i c a l l y on the t r a i l improvement program in the Black Tusk Meadows. When asked what type of campsites they preferred, most users ( 5 8 . 7 $ ) state that they l i k e to camp alone. Even i n Black Tusk Meadows where campers are limited to group campsites the majority s t i l l wish to camp alone. Just over a third (36%) would choose sites in proximity to others but almost no-one would prefer large organized campgrounds. TABLE XXIV CAMPSITE PREFERENCE Preference Bowron (%) Garibaldi (%) Robson (%) Total (%) Far from other campers 6 2 . 6 4 6 . 6 67 A 58.7 Short distance from others 2 2 . 5 1 8 . 8 1 4 , 8 1 9 . 8 A few others around 1 3 . 3 ~ 2 5.6 1 2.1 1 6 . 7 Large organized campgrounds 0 . 0 0 . 5 0 . 7 0 . 3 No specific preference 1 .6 7 - 6 4 . 7 4.1 1 1 5 In general, wilderness recreationists are against "humanizing" the backcountry - there is only limited demand f o r ' f a c i l i t i e s outside of what is already there. In fact, most users r e f l e c t a desire to "leave i t as i t i s " with 8 1 % agreeing that i n terms of development, the parks are "just 1 about right" (Table XXV). Hendee's finding that "Spartanism" as the strongest factor i n the user conception of wilderness is consistent with the conclusion arrived at here that the style of wilderness camping emphasizes the natural and simple rather than comfort and convenience. At the same time some basic f a c i l i t i e s are accepted as necessary and all-out primitivism holds l i t t l e appeal for most wilderness campers. TABLE XXV USER ASSESSMENT OF BACKCOUNTRY FACILITY DEVELOPMENT State of Devel. Bowron Garibaldi Robson (%) Total (%) Over-developed 7 . 6 1 0 . 3 1 0 . 7 9 . 0 Under-developed 6 . 8 9 . 4 1 4 . 1 9 . 0 Just about right 8 5 . 4 8 0 . 3 7 3 . 2 81 . 4 1 1 6 Management Control Measures None of the eight suggested management measures given i n Table XXVI received the support of more than 3 0 $ of users except for the two special items that pertain s p e c i f i c a l l y to Bowron Park. TABLE XXVI MANAGEMENT CONTROL MEASURES Measure Agree Neutral Disagree ( $ ) ( $ ) ( $ ) Entrance fee 2 9 . 5 2 3 . 1 4 6 . 8 Reservations system 21 .6 21 .9 5 5 . 2 Controlled hunting 1 8 . 6 5 . 8 7 5 . 2 Selective logging 1 1 . 1 2 . 4 8 5 . 8 Rationing use 2 6 . 6 2 9 . 2 4 0 . 6 Restricted campsites 2 5 . 6 21 .2 4 8 . 3 Motor boat patrols* 4 0 . 6 2 6 . 8 3 2 . 3 Restricting group size to six* 6 9 . 1 1 2 . 7 1 8 . 2 * Bowron only As expected, very strong objections were r a i sed on the po s s i b i l i t y of selective logging and hunting i n the parks (hunting i s now permitted only i n Mt. Robson). Nor did users agree with a reservations system, rationing use, or restricted campsites. There was moderate support fcr an entrance fee i n 117 Bowron Park ( 3 9 % agreed) but almost none i n the other two parks. Bowron Park users also agreed with the two special que'stions on l i m i t i n g group size (now i n effect) and p a r t i a l l y with condoning motor boat patrols on the lakes. In rejecting most a l l suggest management controls, few users appear w i l l i n g to give up the t r a d i t i o n a l frontier freedoms of wilderness travel. Although methods of lim i t i n g entry such as rationing use have been seen as inevitable to k ensure each individual access to unspoiled wilderness , implementation of controls would be a major break with the time-honored traditions of free and unlimited access to wilderness. Before such controls are effected or f a c i l i t i e s introduced, an educational program on why such constraints are necessary would have to be undertaken. Entrance Fees Data from the above question show that despite the high economic status of most users, only 3 0 % of the total sample agree with charging an entrance fee. When asked to suggest what a reasonable fee might be, 64% gave answers ranging from $.25 to $ 2 5 . 0 0 with most suggesting a nominal fee of one or two dollars. Willingness to pay an entrance fee seems to be a function of the length of stay i n the park - the average figure suggested 118 for Bowron was $ 5 . 0 0 , for Robson i t was $ 1 . 6 0 and for Garibaldi $ . 7 5 . Extending these average amounts for a l l users over the sea'son, a tota l return of approximately $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 could be realized. Although this is not a large amount i n rel a t i o n to overall administrative costs, i t could be argued that the collection of an entrance fee might improve acceptance of 2 wilderness reserves among other resource users . TABLE XXVII SUGGESTED ENTRANCE FEE Fee ($) Bowron (%) Garibaldi (%) Robson Total (%) Nothing 2 2 . 8 3 9 . 5 2 6 . 9 2 8 . 6 Less than $1 8 . 9 41 . 7 2 8 . 2 2 2 . 7 1 - 2 1 0 . 8 11 . 2 2 0 . 8 1 3 . 0 2-1+ 7 . 6 1 .4 9 . 4 6.1 4 - 6 2 4 . 7 0 . 0 3 . 4 1 3 . 0 6 - 1 0 1 5 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 7 . 8 1 0 - 2 0 2 . 2 0 . 0 0 . 7 2 . 2 20 + 1 .1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 5 No answer 6 . 2 6 . 3 1 0 . 7 7 . 2 Average* $ 5 . 0 0 $-.75 $1 . 6 0 $ 3 . 2 5 * Does not include those who did not suggest a fee. 1 1 9 Zoning the Parks The way i n which people perceive a resource system explains to a considerable extent the ways i n which i t is used. On the basis of the wilderness appeal of the parks, one would expect that users would favour uses that would maintain the park as a natural area. This appears to be the case for when users were asked to assign weights to five possible park uses, the following average percentages were given: Wilderness recreation area 47.0 W i l d l i f e sanctuary 3 6 . 8 S c i e n t i f i c research reserve 11.1 Road access recreation area 2 . 9 Area for future resource development 2 . 2 Total 100.0% Respondents view each of the three parks primarily as wilderness recreation areas and secondarily as w i l d l i f e sanctuaries. The function of wilderness parks for s c i e n t i f i c research i s also accepted i n a small way with a weight of 11.1% given for that use. Once again roads and resource developments are given almost no consideration i n any of the three parks. 1 20 Perception of Wilderness Three questions dealt with the user conception of wilderness i n the parks: What proportion of the park was considered as wilderness, where users thought the wilderness began, and how much wilderness was needed i n the province i n general. The term "wilderness" was not defined. Respondents considered over three-quarters of the area of each park as wilderness (Table XXVIII). With allowances for areas of intensive use and development this i s a close approximation of r e a l i t y . (In future studies the respondent might be asked to mark on a map what areas he does consider as wildernes s.) TABLE XXVIII PERCENT OF PARK CONSIDERED "WILDERNESS" P e r c e n t Bowron G a r i b a l d i Robson T o t a l (%) (%) (%) More than 85 32.5 42.6 39.6 37.0 70 - 84 42.0 33.6 30.2 37.1 5 5 - 6 9 8.9 5.4 4 . 0 6.9 i+O - 54 8.4 4.0 9.4 7.3 25 - 39 1 .6 0 .5 2.0 1 .4 10 -- 24 1 .1 0.5 2.7 1 .2 0 - 9 0 .5 0.0 0.0 0.3 No answer 4.9 13.5 1 2.1 8.9 Average 76.1 81.5 77.0 77.9 The q u e s t i o n o f where u s e r s e n t e r the w i l d e r n e s s was 3 e x p l o r e d by Lucas i n the Q u e t i c o - S u p e r i o r . The main f i n d i n g was t h a t a d e f i n i t e t h r e s h o l d o f w i l d e r n e s s e n t r y was r e a c h e d and t h i s d i f f e r e d by the mode o f t r a v e l o f the u s e r . The 5 c o n c e p t o f such a t h r e s h o l d i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d by P a u l Brooks*. E a r l y i n e v e r y w i l d e r n e s s t r i p t h e r e comes a moment o f awareness, a sudden sense t h a t you a r e t h e r e . I f e l t i t i n t h e Olympics a t the end o f a f i f t e e n - m i l e walk t h r o u g h the r a i n f o r e s t ; i n the Q u e t i c o canoe c o u n t r y when we had put t h r e e or f o u r p o r t a g e s between us and the l a s t s e t t l e m e n t . I t i s as i f , somewhere a l o n g the way, a door has opened s i l e n t l y and you have been i n v i t e d t o come i n . 122 The question was thus asked: "At which point on your t r i p did you fe e l you l e f t c i v i l i z a t i o n behind and entered the "wilderness"?" Table XXIX confirms that people do form a mental picture of a wilderness threshold but there are wide variations i n where i t begins. TABLE XXIX POINT OF WILDERNESS ENTRY Point Bowron (%) Garibaldi (%) Robson (%) Total Just beyond roadhead 1 2.7 25-6 9.4 15.9 Within f i r s t two miles 22.2 3.4 26.9 17.5 2 - 4 miles 9.5 4.0 16.1 9.2 5 - 6 miles 20.0 13.5 4.0 14.8 7 miles or more 24.4 33.2 22.8 26.7 Never 6.8 14.4 16.8 11 .1 No answer 4.3 5.8 4.0 4.7 Median (miles) 5.1 6.0 3.5 5.3 The estimated point of wilderness entry depends in part on the park v i s i t e d . In Garibaldi one-quarter of the respondents said they entered the wilderness just out of the parking l o t but another one-third did not reach i t u n t i l travelling beyond the upper meadows and 14.4% said they never 123 found i t . In Bowron, a l l but 6 . 8 $ entered what they considered the wilderness at some point but the distribution was spread over a l l categories. Mt. Robson users show a similar dispersed distribution but a higher proportion ( 1 6 . 8 $ ) say they never did enter i t . As w i l l be shown i n the section on variables affecting use, this variation i n response can p a r t i a l l y be accounted for by different sizes of groups and lengths of stay of the respondents. As a general conclusion, most users do enter what they consider wilderness after a r e l a t i v e l y short distance of 5*3 miles or less than a day's travel from the roadhead. A third question on wilderness perception concerned the adequacy of wilderness land i n the province. As well as being ambiguous, this question i s perhaps l i k e asking a music lover "how many symphonies do we need?" Very few respondents thought we have enough or too much already and a large number stated they did not know. Inferences from this question are limited. 1 2 4 TABLE XXX ADEQUACY OF WILDERNESS LAND IN THE PROVINCE Response Bowron Garibaldi Robson Total (%) Don't r e a l l y know 29.5 19.7 38.9 28.5 Should have much more 46.3 51 .1 40.3 4 6 . 6 Need just a l i t t l e more 9.2 6.7 10.1 8.6 Enough exists at present 13.0 18.8 10.1 14.3 Too much exists at present 1 .1 2.7 0.0 1 .4 Crowding and Capacity The essential question of concern here i s : How many people can enjoy a wilderness area at one time without destroying the wilderness aspect? How do recreationists perceive other recreationists i n the wilderness environment and to what degree does the presence of other users detract from a quality experience? If the harmony of wilderness camping is imperilled beyond some upper l i m i t , what is that limit? Evaluation of crowding i n any recreation system of course depends on the style of camping and the expectations of the user. As wilderness campers anticipate seeing few others i t must be emphasised that their opinions of crowding and capacity are r e l a t i v e . As human relationships are a basic determinant 125 of user satisfa c t i o n and the recreational "productivity" of the park, a set of six questions were posed to investigate the'user's evaluation of other users and the capacity of the park. In Bowron Park there are strong indications that the psychological carrying capacity has been reached and that use levels are at the saturation point. One-half the sample reported they had at least some trouble finding campsites (Table XXXI) and 54$ said they were bothered by crowding on the lakes or at campsites (Table XXXII). About three-quarters of Bowron users also thought that the optimum use l e v e l has been reached and that the park either can hold no more people (51.0$) or accommodates too many already (2k.7%) (Table XXXIII). TABLE XXXI "DID YOU HAVE ANY TROUBLE FINDING UNOCCUPIED CAMPSITES?" Response Bowron Garibaldi Robson Total ($) ($) ($) ($) Yes - often Q.k 1 2.6 9.4 9.9 Sometimes 41.5 32.7 20.8 34.7 No 49.6 51 .6 68.5 54.0 126 TABLE XXXII "WERE YOU BOTHERED BY CROWDING ON ANY TRAILS OR CAMPSITES?* Response Bowron G a r i b a l d i Robson T o t a l (%) (%) (%) (%) Yes - o f t e n 9 . 8 12.6 10 .7 1 0 . 8 Sometimes 4 5 . 0 38.1 2 2 . 2 3 8 . 3 No 4 5 . 0 48 .4 67.1 5 0 . 5 TABLE XXXIII "HOW MANY PEOPLE DO YOU THINK THE PARK COULD HOLD?" Response Bowron G a r i b a l d i Robson T o t a l (%) (%) (%) (%) About the same as now 5 1 . 0 3 3 . 2 3 0 . 9 41 .6 J u s t a few more 16 . 8 1 7 . 5 3 1 . 5 2 0 . 0 Room f o r t w i c e as many 6 . 8 2 7 . 8 2 0 . 8 15 .9 Too many a l r e a d y 2 4 . 7 16.6 12 .1 19.7 No answer 0 . 8 4 . 9 4 . 7 2 .8 The w i l d e r n e s s o v e r u s e problem i s s l i g h t l y l e s s r e a l i n G a r i b a l d i P ark. Here 45% had some t r o u b l e f i n d i n g c a m p s i t e s , 5-1% were b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g , and 50% thought the park was a t 1 2 7 i t s u s e s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t . E v e n i n M t . R o b s o n , 3 0 $ had some t r o u b l e f i n d i n g c a m p s i t e s , o n e - t h i r d were b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g and'42$ t h o u g h t t h e p a r k had enough o r t o o many v i s i t o r s a t p r e s e n t . C o n c l u d i n g f r o m t h e above t h r e e q u e s t i o n s t h a t p r e s e n t u s e l e v e l s a r e a t o r c l o s e t o s a t u r a t i o n , what l e v e l s o f use a r e a c c e p t a b l e f r o m t h e u s e r v i e w p o i n t ? I n G a r i b a l d i P a r k , where u s e r s have p e r h a p s become c o n d i t i o n e d t o e x p e c t r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e , r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l t o l e r a t e m e e t i n g up t o 6 . 5 g r o u p s p e r day ( T a b l e X X X I V ) . W i t h a s u g g e s t e d optimum group s i z e o f 3 * 5 p e r s o n s ( T a b l e XXXV) t h i s means a b o u t 2 3 p e o p l e p e r d a y . I n Bowron and R o b s o n t h e t o t a l i s l e s s - a b o u t f o u r g r oups o r 14- p e o p l e p e r d a y . V e r y few u s e r s t h u s e x p e c t t o t a l s o l i t u d e on t h e i r t r i p -most r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l a c c e p t m e e t i n g b etween two and f i v e g r o u p s p e r d a y . S i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f u s e r s s u g g e s t e d t h r e e o r f o u r p e r s o n s as an optimum group s i z e w i t h a l m o s t no one w a s h i n g t o t r a v e l a l o n e o r i n groups o f n i n e o r more. W i l d e r n e s s campers t h u s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g a l o w u s e r d e n s i t y i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y . They e n v i s i o n t r a v e l l i n g I n t h e p a r k s i n g r o u p s o f t h r e e o r f o u r and m e e t i n g f o u r o r f i v e o t h e r groups p e r d a y . Answers t o b o t h t h e above q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t a p a r t o f t h e a p p e a l o f w i l d e r n e s s camping l i e s n o t i n t h e a b i l i t y t o e s c a p e p e o p l e e n t i r e l y , b u t r a t h e r t h e chance t o meet a k i n 128 group i n a s e t t i n g t h a t a f f o r d s an ease o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e n o t o f t e n found i n t h e u r b a n s i t u a t i o n . A s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n was made i n t h e above s e c t i o n on m o t i v a t i o n and by B u l t e n a and 6 K l e s s i g . TABLE XXXIV "WHAT IS AN AVERAGE NUMBER OF GROUPS YOU COULD MEET A DAY BEFORE YOU BEGAN TO FEEL CROWDED?" No. o f Groups Bowron (%) G a r i b a l d i (%) Robson T o t a l (%) One o n l y 15.5 4.9 9.4 11 .1 Two - f i v e 67.2 39.5 58.4 57.1 S i x - n i n e 11 .9 32.3 24.8 20.7 Ten or more 3.8 21 .5 6.0 9.6 TABLE XXXV " WHAT DO YOU THINK THE OPTIMAL GROUP IS FOR WILDERNESS TRAVEL?" SIZE S i z e Bowron (%) G a r i b a l d i (%) Robson (%) T o t a l (%) One p e r s o n 0.0 0.9 1 .3 0.5 Two p e o p l e 1 5-2 14.8 26.2 17.3 T h r e e or f o u r 63.7 65.5 63.8 64.2 F i v e - e i g h t 18.4 17.0 6.0 15.5 Nine or more 1 .6 ' 0.9 0.0 1.1 1 29 L a s t l y , as an i n d i c a t o r of u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n to the e f f e c t s o f o t h e r s the q u e s t i o n was a s k e d : "//as t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y b o t h e r e d you about the t r i p ? " The w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n i s not w i t h o u t i t s annoyances -78$ o f u s e r s made some c o m p l a i n t w i t h e v i d e n c e of garbage b e i n g the main c r i t i c i s m i n Robson and Bowron . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n r e g a r d t o the f a c t t h a t where t r i p b e n e f i t s are v e r y dependent on an u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n even the s l i g h t e s t amount o f r u b b i s h or b i o t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n may have a s t r o n g e f f e c t on u s e r s ' assessment o f the q u a l i t y o f the e x p e r i e n c e . Common c o m p l a i n t s g i v e n i n the " O t h e r " c a t e g o r y were h o r s e t r a f f i c i n R o b s o n , a i r c r a f t l a n d i n g s i n G a r i b a l d i and Bowron and bear t r o u b l e s i n Bowron. G e n e r a l l y , c o m p l a i n t s about o t h e r a s e r s and the a f t e r - e f f e c t s o f o t h e r u s e r s outweighed c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t management p o l i c i e s or p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s . TABLE XXXVI USER COMPLAINTS C o m p l a i n t Bowron (%) G a r i b a l d i (%) Robson (fo) T o t a l (fo) N o t h i n g 17.3 30.5 22.8 22.4 B e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r s 10.0 9.1+ 4.0 8.6 E v i d e n c e o f garbage 32.3 15.3 30.2 26.7 Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n 3.5 . 9.4 11 .4 6.9 Lack of f a c i l i t i e s 8.9 9.9 7.4 8.9 Other 27.9 25.6 24.2 26.5 130 S a t i s f a c t i o n and R e t u r n D e s p i t e a d v e r s e u s e r r e a c t i o n t o c r o w d i n g and m i n o r c o m p l a i n t s , 8 7 $ o f r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h e y were " v e r y s a t i s f i e d " w i t h t h e i r p a r k v i s i t . Bowron u s e r s r e p o r t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r f i g u r e w i t h 16$ r e p o r t i n g l e s s t h a n c o m p l e t e s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h when compared t o 7 G i l l e s p i e ' s s t u d y o f u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n where o n l y 4 0 $ r e p o r t c o m p l e t e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . TABLE XXXVII LEVEL OF USER SATISFACTION R a t i n g Bowron G a r i b a l d i R o b s on T o t a l ( $ ) ( $ ) ( $ ) ( $ ) V e r y s a t i s f i e d 8 4 . 0 91 .0 8 8 . 6 8 7 . 0 M i l d l y s a t i s f i e d 9.5 5 . 8 9.4 8 . 4 S l i g h t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d 5 . 2 2 . 7 1 .3 3 - 6 V e r y d i s a p p o i n t e d 1.4 0.5 0.7 0.9 S i n c e a p l e a s a n t r e c a l l w i l l r e i n f o r c e a d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f u s e r s would be e x p e c t e d t o do s o . I n f a c t , a l l b u t 3 . 4 $ o f t h e t o t a l sample s a i d t h e y w i l l d e f i n i t e l y o r p o s s i b l y r e t u r n t o do t h e same t r i p a g a i n . I n d i c a t i o n s o f c o n t i n u i n g f u t u r e demand a r e g i v e n by t h e f a c t t h a t j u s t under o n e - h a l f o f Bowron u s e r s , 71$ o f Robson u s e r s 131 and 91$ of Garibaldi users say they d e f i n i t e l y intend to return. Garibaldi i n particular has developed a lo y a l return clientele who' v i s i t the Black Tusk area frequently to enjoy i t s special attractions. TABLE XXXVIII INTENTION TO RETURN Response Bowron Garibaldi Robson Total (%) (%) (%) (%) Definitely yes 48.8 83.9 71 .1 63.8 Possibly 44.4 1 6.1 28.9 32.8 Unlikely 6.8 0 . 0 0 . 0 3-4 With users expressing high satisfaction levels and an almost unanimous intention to return, i t would appear that c r i t i c a l levels of user satisfaction have not been exceeded. Some caution on this conclusion is suggested i n l i g h t of the previous findings on crowding which found that saturation is at least being approached. Further, i t is common, in retrospect to embellish the experience, suppress the annoyances, and judge the satisfaction l e v e l i n a benevolent way. There is a difference too in what users say they intend to do and what they actually w i l l do. Other means of measuring the d i f f i c u l t concept of user satisfaction and future intention are encouraged. 1 3 2 P e r c e p t i o n o f H a z a r d s A l t h o u g h t h e e l e m e n t s o f danger and m y s t e r y have a l w a y s b e e n p a r t o f t h e i n h e r e n t a p p e a l o f w i l d e r n e s s , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r p a r k managers t o make t h e w i l d e r n e s s s a f e f o r e v e r y b o d y . I n Bowron P a r k f o r i n s t a n c e , a l l p o r t a g e s and c a m p s i t e s a r e m a r k e d , as a r e d a n g e r o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e r i v e r s . U s e r s r e g i s t e r o u t and motor b o a t p a t r o l s c o v e r t h e c i r c u i t r e g u l a r l y . S h e l t e r s and s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a i d a p r o g r a m t o c o n t r o l "garbage b e a r s " i s i n o p e r a t i o n . B u t by r e d u c i n g t o a minimum t h e t h r e a t e n i n g u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l , i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e c h a l l e n g e o f w i l d e r n e s s i s l o s t ? The q u e s t i o n t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d h e r e c o n c e r n s t h e awarene s s o f u s e r s t o c e r t a i n h a z a r d s and t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e amount o f d a n g e r t h e y f a c e on t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s t r i p . U s e r s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a l i s t o f n i n e p o s s i b l e h a z a r d s t h a t t h e y m i g h t have f a c e d on t h e i r t r i p and a s k e d t o r a t e them on a s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m one t o f o u r . The r e s u l t s , as g i v e n i n T a b l e AA.VIA, show t h a t f o u r Items a r e seen as p r e s e n t i n g "no d a n g e r " w h i l e " m inor" o r "moderate" r a t i n g s a r e g i v e n t o t h e o t h e r f i v e . Wo danger i s seen f r o m s t a r v a t i o n , g e t t i n g l o s t , p o l l u t i o n o r i n s e c t s . Some danger i s s e e n f r o m b e a r s and c o u g a r s , f o r e s t f i r e s , e x p o s u r e , s t o r m s and w e a t h e r , and p h y s i c a l i n j u r y , w i t h t h e l a t t e r two b e i n g j u d g e d as t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e d a n g e r s . V e r y few r e s p o n d e n t s j u d g e d any o f 133 the items to be "very d a n g e r o u s " . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f h a z a r d s e x i s t between p a r k s . Most G a r i b a l d i u s e r s c o r r e c t l y see "no d a n g e r " from b e a r s or cougars but do see some p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g l o s t . Bowron u s e r s , t r a v e l l i n g on water, a r e more c o g n i z a n t o f the h a z a r d s o f storms and weather. E x c e p t f o r the h a z a r d s o f b e a r s and p h y s i c a l i n j u r y w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n Robson tend to r a t e a l l dangers lower than the o t h e r two p a r k s . I n summary, most u s e r s see no p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g l o s t or s t a r v i n g or from p o l l u t i o n or i n s e c t s . Some danger i s seen i n u n c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t s o f n a t u r e - storms and weather and p h y s i c a l i n j u r y . On t h e whole b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a r e w e l l i n s u l a t e d from any s e r i o u s t h r e a t s o r h a z a r d s - over 90$ o f u s e r s a s s e s s the o v e r a l l danger i n v o l v e d t o be none or minor ( T a b l e X L ) . These d a t a w i l l be r e l a t e d t o a number o f o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s on the c h a n g i n g meaning o f w i l d e r n e s s i n the parks i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r . 1 3 4 TABLE XXXIX DANGER RATINGS H a z a r d No Danger (%) M i n o r Danger (%) M o d e r a t e Danger ( J ) Dangerous (%) S t a r v a t i o n 8 0 . 0 1 5 . 9 3 . 2 0 . 3 G e t t i n g l o s t 6 7 . 9 2 5 . 4 5 - 9 0 . 7 P o l l u t i o n 6 7 . 4 2 0 . 1 7 . 2 4 . 9 I n s e c t s 5 6 . 4 31 .6 9 - 5 2 . 2 E x p o s u r e 4 6 . 6 3 8 . 7 1 2 . 6 1 . 8 F o r e s t f i r e s 4 4 . 3 3 1 . 2 1 6 . 1 8 . 1 B e a r s c o u g a r s 4 3 . 1 4 2 . 9 1 0 . 2 3 - 1 S-torms, w e a t h e r 21 .6 4 9 . 5 2 4 . 8 3 . 4 P h y s i c a l i n j u r y 1 2 . 8 4 5 . 3 3 3 - 7 7 . 0 TABLE XL OVERALL DANGER RATING OF WILDERNESS V I S I T R a t i n g Bowron (%) G a r i b a l d i (%) Robson (%) T o t a l (%) No danger 1 3 . 3 2 7 . 4 2 0 . 8 1 9 . 0 M i n o r d a n g e r 7 6 . 2 61 . 9 6 7 . 8 7 0 . 2 M o d e r a t e danger 1 0 . 6 1 0 . 3 1 0 . 1 1 0 . 3 V e r y dangerous 0 . 0 0 . 5 1 . 3 0 . 4 1 3 5 A Note on U n s o l i c i t e d Comments A l m o s t two o u t o f t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t s made remarks i n a d d i t i o n t o the normal r e s p o n s e c a l l e d f o r i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These u n s o l i c i t e d comments d e a l t w i t h a g r e a t many t o p i c s , many o f them o f f e r i n g h e l p f u l management s u g g e s t i o n s . (The Parks B r a n c h has r e c o r d e d a l l r e l e v a n t comments from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o f i e l d p e r s o n n e l . ) The u n s o l i c i t e d r e s p o n s e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n f o u r g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : ( 1 ) a m p l i f i c a t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f answers g i v e n on c e r t a i n i t e m s ; ( 2 ) a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s on r e s o u r c e management and park p l a n n i n g ; ( 3 ) complementary remarks on the e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , park s t a f f and t h e s u r v e y ; (k) some a c c u s a t i o n s o f b i a s on some q u e s t i o n s and v a r i o u s i r r e l e v a n t remarks. Almost no-one commented on the l a c k o f any s o p h i s t i c a t e d developments or s e r v i c e s w i t h the v a s t m a j o r i t y i n d i c a t i n g s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the u n s p o i l e d w i l d e r n e s s atmosphere. C o m p l a i n t s were o f t e n e x p r e s s e d a g a i n s t too much development or too many pe o p l e r a t h e r t han about any l a c k o f same. P a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n was e x p r e s s e d f o r any roa d b u i l d i n g p l a n s i n any o f the t h r e e p a r k s . 1 3 6 REFERENCES CHAPTER V I I I H endee, J . C . e t . a l . , " W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t - T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , V a l u e s and Management P r e f e r e n c e s " , F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r PNW-61, 1 9 6 8 . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n has been made by M e r r i a m , L . C . J . , "The Bob M a r s h a l l W i l d e r n e s s A r e a o f Montana - Some S o c i o -Economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , J . o f F o r . , Nov., 1 9 6 4 , p. 7 9 4 . L u c a s , R.C., " R e c r e a t i o n a l C a p a c i t y o f t h e Q u e t i c o -S u p e r i o r A r e a " , F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h Paper L S - 1 5 , S e p t . , 1 9 6 4 . See f o r i n s t a n c e : E d w a r d s , R.Y., "The F u t u r e o f R e c r e a t i o n on W i l d l a n d s " , F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e , J u n e , 1 9 6 8 , p. 2 4 - 2 9 , and Aschman, Homer, " P e o p l e , R e c r e a t i o n , W i l d l a n d s , and W i l d e r n e s s " , L a n d s c a p e , W i n t e r , 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 , p. 4 0 - 4 4 . B r o o k s , P a u l , i n ORRRC, W i l d e r n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n . S t u d y R e p o r t 3 , S u p ' t . o f Documents, Wash., 1 9 6 2 , p. 3 1 . B u l t e n a , G.L., and K l e s s i g , L . L . , " S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Camping: A C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and G u i d e t o S o c i a l R e s e a r c h " , J . o f L e i s u r e R e s . , V . 1 , No. 4 , Autumn, 1 9 6 9 . G i l l e s p i e , G.A., and B r e w e r , D., " E s t i m a t i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n L e v e l s o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i s t s " , J . o f S o i l and Water C o n s . . V . 2 2 , No.6 , Nov., 1 9 6 7 , p . 2 4 7 - 2 4 9 -137 CHAPTER I X SUMMARY PROFILES OF WILDERNESS USERS G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C o n c l u s i o n s The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r s V t o I X . 1 . P e o p l e must and a r e w i l l i n g t o t r a v e l l o n g d i s t a n c e s t o r e a c h w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s . A p a r k ' s c l i e n t e l e i s n o t o n l y a f u n c t i o n o f i t s l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , b u t a l s o t o i t s r e p u t a t i o n , d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , and p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o o t h e r p a r k s . 2. A l t h o u g h a l l age g r o u p s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e use o f w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a young a d u l t male a c t i v i t y . 3 . W i l d e r n e s s u s e r s a r e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y drawn f r o m t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i n c o m e , and o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u ps i n s o c i e t y . They a l s o t e n d t o be more m e t r o p o l i t a n i n b a c k g r o u n d t h a n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . 1 3 8 k. Only a m i n o r i t y o f b a c k c o u n t r y v a c a t i o n e r s i n the p a r k s c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s " e x p e r t " w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s . F o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s , i n t e r e s t i n and use o f these p a r k s has been generated w i t h i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . 5 . The t a s t e f o r w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i s l i n k e d w i t h c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e and an e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n to w i l d e r n e s s a c t i v i t i e s by p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s . The s c h o o l s do n o t a c t as an i n t r o d u c t o r y agent t o w i l d e r n e s s - t y p e r e c r e a t i o n . 6. P l a n n i n g and a n t i c i p a t i o n of the w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n goes on f a r i n advance - the w i l d e r n e s s t r i p i s a w e l l o r g a n i s e d one i n terms o f advance p r e p a r a t i o n . 7. L e n g t h o f s t a y i s a f u n c t i o n o f d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d -few u s e r s take extended b a c k c o u n t r y t r i p s or spend more t ime t h a n n e c e s s a r y t o c o v e r the r e q u i r e d d i s t a n c e . 8. W i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l i s n e i t h e r a group nor an i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s , p a r t i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f between two and f o u r p e r s o n s . The w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s t y p i c a l l y sought i n the company o f f a m i l y groups and s m a l l c l u s t e r s o f c l o s e f r i e n d s . 139 9. The w i l d e r n e s s t r i p i s a r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e one though a s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n equipment i s c a r r i e d . 10. W i l d e r n e s s u s e r s spend c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n the b a c k c o u n t r y on an a n n u a l b a s i s . V e r y few, however, take extended t r i p s w i t h the t y p i c a l t r i p b e i n g f o u r days or l e s s . 11. W i l d e r n e s s campers a r e drawn t o the p a r k s p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r n a t u r a l n e s s and thus p l a c e a h i g h v a l u e on an u n d i s t u r b e d park e n v i r o n m e n t . They appear t o be m o t i v a t e d e q u a l l y by a s e a r c h f o r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t y , and a d e s i r e f o r a s p e c i a l f o r m o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . 12. Respondents e x p r e s s the b e n e f i t s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l i n terms o f p s y c h i c and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and i n g a i n i n g a c l o s e r r a p p o r t w i t h n a t u r e . 13. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r m o t i v e s , w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i s t s a r e a g a i n s t " h u m a n i s i n g " the b a c k c o u n t r y and e x p r e s s o n l y a l i m i t e d demand f o r the b a s i c p r i m i t i v e f a c i l i t i e s t h a t e n a b l e and enhance use. 1 uo U s e r s a r e n o t i n f a v o r o f c o n t r o l s on t h e i r b e h a v i o r and r e j e c t t h e n o t i o n o f c h a r g i n g an e n t r a n c e f e e . The w i l d e r n e s s i s s t i l l r e g a r d e d as a r i g h t and v i e w e d as a "commons" f o r a l l t o e n j o y . W i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i s t s p e r c e i v e t h e p a r k s p r i m a r i l y as a r e a s f o r w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n and s e c o n d a r i l y as w i l d l i f e s a n c t u a r i e s . They would a l s o r e s e r v e s m a l l a r e a s o f t h e p a r k s f o r s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h b u t r e j e c t r o a d a c c e s s and r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t . W i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s do f o r m a m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f a w i l d e r n e s s t h r e s h o l d and e n t e r i t a f t e r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e r o a d h e a d . W i l d e r n e s s u s e r s e n v i s i o n t r a v e l l i n g i n t h e p a r k s i n g r o u p s o f t h r e e o r f o u r and m e e t i n g f o u r o r f i v e o t h e r groups p e r day. T o t a l s o l i t u d e I s n e i t h e r a n t i c i p a t e d n o r d e s i r e d . The p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r p e o p l e i r - a b a s i c d e t e r m i n a n t o f u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and i s r e c o g n i s e d as s u c h by r e s p o n d e n t s . I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t o p t i m a l use l e v e l s have been r e a c h e d and t h a t .the sampled a r e a s o f t h e p a r k s a r e c l o s e t o s a t u r a t i o n . C r i t i c a l l e v e l s o f u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , however, have n o t been exceeded 141 and a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e sample e x p r e s s a d e f i n i t e i n t e n t i o n t o r e t u r n . T r i p a s p i r a t i o n s and p e r c e i v e d r e a l i t y a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i v e r g e n t and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s a r e h i g h . 19. W i l d e r n e s s p a r k v i s i t o r s r e c o g n i s e m i n o r n a t u r a l h a z a r d s b u t a s s e s s v e r y l i t t l e o v e r a l l d a n g e r i n t h e i r t r i p . V a r i a t i o n s i n U s e r P r o f i l e s From t h e p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a summary p r o f i l e o f t h e t y p i c a l w i l d e r n e s s u s e r i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p a r k s , n o t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t o a s k i s w h e t h e r u s e r s i n t h e t h r e e p a r k s a r e a homogenous g r o u p o r i f t h e y 1 d i f f e r f r o m one a n o t h e r . The ORRRC w i l d e r n e s s s t u d y o f t h r e e w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s i n t h e U.S. c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e a p p e a l o f w i l d e r n e s s i s a g e n e r i c one w h i c h i s m o d i f i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y by d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s t h e m s e l v e s . S i m i l a r l y , 2 Hendee n o t e d t h a t t h e s t u d y o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n t h e U.S. by d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s w o r k i n g i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s t u r n s up r e c u r r i n g s i m i l a r themes u n d e r l y i n g i n w i l d e r n e s s use. The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n h e r e a g r e e s t h a t , even though e a c h p a r k p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e t o a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t w i l d e r n e s s c l i e n t e l e , t h e g e n e r i c a p p e a l s o f w i l d e r n e s s and t h e u n d e r l y i n g themes i n d e e d a r e s i m i l a r . 142 E a c h p a r k d o e s , i n f a c t , a f f o r d a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e a n d , i n t a r n , c a t e r s t o a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t g r o u p o f s o c i e t y . T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p a r k s i n t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d e m o g r a p h i c b a c k g r o u n d o f u s e r s and o f t h e o p i n i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e t r i p . B u t e x c e p t f o r c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s t h e v a r i a t i o n s a r e m i n o r and e x p l a i n a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a r e a s t h e m s e l v e s . The b a s i c a p p e a l s o f w i l d e r n e s s and t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e b e n e f i t s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s a r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l b etween t h e t h r e e p a r k s . L i k e w i s e , t h e u s e r w e i g h t i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p o s s i b l e l a n d u s e s w i t h i n t h e p a r k and t h e p l a c e o f w i l d e r n e s s d e m o n s t r a t e s an o v e r a l l agreement on t h e c o n d i t i o n and use o f t h e p a r k s . C e r t a i n v a r i a t i o n s i n u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e i m p o r t a n t enough however t o s u g g e s t t h a t v a r y i n g management s t r a t e g i e s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h p a r k . F u r t h e r , t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s more t h a n one f o r m o f r e c r e a t i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s i s g i v e n s t r o n g s u p p o r t . Not o n l y does t h e e x i s t e n c e o f w i l d e r n e s s p r o v i d e v a r i e t y w i t h i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n s p e c t r u m b u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f w i l d e r n e s s f u r t h e r deepens t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r e s e n t e d . 143 V i s i t o r s t o the B l a c k Tusk Meadows - G a r i b a l d i Park G a r i b a l d i Park i s a day-use or weekend w i l d e r n e s s , o f f e r i n g r e l a t i v e l y easy access and quick escape from the nearby m e t r o p o l i s i n t o an u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l environment. In t h i s sense i t f u n c t i o n s as a c l o s e - i n r e g i o n a l park c a t e r i n g to a l o c a l c l i e n t e l e whose e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r a t l e a s t a q u a s i -w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e are adequately f u l f i l l e d . Because of t h i s p r o x i m i t y to the Lower Mainland r e g i o n , G a r i b a l d i d i s p l a y s many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l o c a l 3 r e c r e a t i o n area as g i v e n by Toscher . G a r i b a l d i has a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of use to t h a t found i n a study of Oregon w i l d e r n e s s area v i s i t o r s where 91$ of users were Oregonians who stayed j u s t f o r the day and r e t u r n e d to t h e i r homes l e s s than 100 4 m i l e s away . A l t h o u g h i t a l s o r e c e i v e s s i g n i f i c a n t day use, G a r i b a l d i p r o v i d e s predominantly o v e r n i g h t use on weekends w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same p r o p o r t i o n of users drawn from w i t h i n the same d i s t a n c e . The G a r i b a l d i user i s not only from the c i t y but has been r a i s e d i n a predominantly urban environment. He i i a r e t u r n user and has spent l e s s than 2 weeks p l a n n i n g h i s v i s i t . He t r a v e l s w i t h a s m a l l group of f r i e n d s and camps out f o r two n i g h t s i n the park. The c o s t of h i s t r i p averages o n l y ^ 1 6 . 0 0 . V i s i t o r s to G a r i b a l d i tend to be drawn from a wider c r o s ^ - s e c t i o n of the socioeconomic c l a s s e s of the l o c a l r e g i o n 1 ¥ + t h a n u s e r ? t o t h e o t h e r two p a r k s . E d u c a t i o n a l and income l e v e l s a r e h i g h b a t s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two p a r k s . Y ounger age g r o u p s a r e f o u n d i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n w i t h " s t u d e n t s " as t h e most common o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . V e r y few u s e r s i n G a r i b a l d i a r e e x p e r i e n c e d w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s ; i n f a c t , a l m o s t one i n f i v e i s a n o v i c e on h i s f i r s t w i l d e r n e s s t r i p . I n t h e s e c a s e s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t G a r i b a l d i p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t o r y t r a i n i n g g round f o r more e x t e n s i v e w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n s . The G a r i b a l d i u s e r i s n o t i n f a v o r o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f any f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e p a r k and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g a t i v e t o w a r d s f u r t h e r i mprovements o f t r a i l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a c c e s s r o a d t o t h e base o f t h e meadows. He I s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o any o f t h e management measures s u g g e s t e d and g i v e s no s u p p o r t f o r t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f an e n t r a n c e f e e t o t h e p a r k . The G a r i b a l d i u s e r c o n s i s t e n t l y v i e w s t h e p a r k as an a r e a f o r w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n and s e c o n d a r i l y a s a w i l d l i f e s a n c t u a r y . H e p e r c e i v e s t h e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p a r k a s b e i n g " w i l d e r n e s s " b u t does n o t f e e l he e n t e r s i t u n t i l he has gone beyond t h e c a m p s i t e a r e a and p a s t t h e t r e e l i n e . He has an even chance o f b e i n g b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g and o f f i n d i n g a c a m p s i t e w i t h no t r o u b l e . Up t o 2 3 p e o p l e p e r day a r e t o l e r a t e d w i t h o u t h i s l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n b e i n g s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d . I n s p i t e o f <^ ome mi n o r c o m p l a i n t s he i s s a t i s f i e d 145 w i t h h i s p a r k v i s i t and c a n d e f i n i t e l y be e x p e c t e d t o r e t u r n I n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . G a r i b a l d i u s e r s see v e r y l i t t l e h a z a r d s i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r i p a l t h o u g h t h e y do r e c o g n i s e m i n o r d a n g e r s i n t h e f o r m o f w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , s t o r m s , and f o r e s t f i r e s . I n r e t r o s p e c t no m a j o r c h a l l e n g e s were p e r c e i v e d . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e a s o n s e x i s t f o r v i s i t i n g t h e a r e a -t h e u s e r i s m o t i v a t e d m o s t l y by a s e a r c h f o r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s w i t h d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t y and k i n group s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a l s o i m p o r t a n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , " s e e i n g n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e " , " f e e l i n g c l o s e t o n a t u r e " , "escape f r o m c i v i l i s a t i o n " and " w i l d e r n e s s c a m p i n g " a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s f o r h i s v i s i t . " V i e w i n g w i l d l i f e " and " s o l i t u d e " a r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t t o G a r i b a l d i u s e r s t h a n t o u s e r s i n o t h e r p a r k s f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s t h a t t h e r e a r e more p e o p l e p r e s e n t and l i t t l e w i l d l i f e i s f o u n d i n t h e a r e a . B e n e f i t s f r o m a t r i p t o G a r i b a l d i P a r k a r e g i v e n p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h and an i n c r e a s e d r a p p o r t w i t h t h e " n a t u r a l " w o r l d . He was n o t l o o k i n g f o r o r e x p e c t i n g t o f i n d " s o l i t u d e " and f e e l s he d i d n o t l e a r n much a b o u t c a m p i n g , h i m s e l f o r o t h e r s on t h e t r i p . His main r e c a l l o f the t r i p i s a f e a t u r e o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s u c h as " t h e a l p i n e f l o r a " o r " t h e v i e w f r o m t h e r u s k " . 1 4 6 V i s i t o r s to Bowron Lakes Park The Bowron Lakes canoe t r i p i s one of the longest and most unique wilderness vacations offered i n the B.C. park system. Its distance from major centres of population and i t s 7^ mile length require a major effort i n organisation, time and special equipment. The uniqueness of i t s physiography, offering the only canoe t r i p of i t s type west of the Quetico draws people from a l l over western North America. Bowron Lakes park thus functions to provide an extended backcountry experience through an- extensive wilderness area by a r e l a t i v e l y uncommon (at least i n western Canada) means of wilderness tra v e l . Almost two out of three users to Bowron Park originate within B r i t i s h Columbia, with most of these coming from the Greater Vancouver area, 500 miles distant. The remainder of users are Americans, primarily from Washington and Ca l i f o r n i a . The typical user spends seven weeks planning the t r i p which he completes i n eight days plus travel time to and from the park. The t r i p requires an expenditure of $60 and an investment i n equipment of just under $100. The user himself i s most l i k e l y a college graduate, Is employed i n a managerial or professional occupation and earns over $13,000 a year. He has, more often than not, been brought up i n a small town or rural environment than i n a c i t y . He has about ten years wilderness travel experience and most often 15+7 rates himself as an "intermediate" wilderness t r a v e l l e r . The v i s i t o r to the Bowron comes for much the same reasons and a c t i v i t i e s as the v i s i t o r to Garibaldi Park with the exception that "solitude" and "viewing w i l d l i f e " are of greater importance to him. These reasons are at least anticipated more i n a t r i p of such length and remoteness. Benefits of the tr i p s however are assessed the same. The Bowron user r e c a l l s i n about equal proportions a feature of the natural environment such as "a sunset on Lanezi Lake" or a personal experience such as "running the Is sac River". This l a s t example i s mentioned by a great number of people as being the most exciting highlight of the t r i p . On the whole very l i t t l e danger i s perceived although "physical injury", "storms and weather" and "bears" are seen as minor hazards. The Bowron user would encourage the development of t r a i l s giving access to alpine areas of the park as well as more sanitary f a c i l i t i e s at campsites. Only one-third disagree with charging an entrance fee and $5«00 i s suggested as a reasonable amount. There i s strong support for the regulation limiting group size to six and only one-third would disagree with rationing use. Less than one-half agree with the existing practice of using motor boats for park patrol. The user i n Bowron Park i s willing to d i s c i p l i n e his behavior, he does recognise the need for some basic f a c i l i t i e s , and he does support 1 4 8 management procedures that w i l l help maintain the wilderness s p i r i t hy controlling use. The Bowron Park user weights the possible uses of the park i n the same manner as users to the other two parks. He simi l a r l y feels the greatest proportion of the park i s "wilderness" and enters i t after the second portage. He Is more often than not bothered by crowding and has some d i f f i c u l t y finding an unoccupied campsite. He w i l l tolerate meeting two to five other groups per day with an average size of-two canoes. He does not think the park can hold any more people at present and generally wishes management to keep the park "as i t i s " . The Bowron user rates his experience as being a very satisfactory one and states there i s strong likelihood that he w i l l return to try i t again. V i s i t o r s to the Berg Lake Area - Mount Robson Park Mount Robson, "The Monarch of the Rockies", i s probably, from the Berg Lake side, the most singularly spectacular peak contained i n any park i n Canada. The reputation of Mt. Robson as the highest peak i n the Canadian Rockies has long attracted a l p i n i s t s , o u t f i t t e r s and backpackers to explore i t s beauties. With the decline of extended packtrain travel i n the mountains and the opening of the northern Trans-Canada Highway through the park, the Berg Lake t r i p has become one of the six or seven favorite backpacking trips i n the Rockies. 149 On the basis of the international origins of i t s users, Mt. Robson could be a national park. A l l but 13$ of i t s users come from outside the province that administers i t . Mt. Robson Park functions as one element of the 9,000 square mile national and provincial park complex that buffers the Alberta/B.C. border. The pattern of use i n Robson i n turn i s not specific or destination oriented as i s the case for Bowron and Garibaldi. Rather, the t r i p to Robson i s part of a package v i s i t (except for some l o c a l Alberta use) to the Canadian Rockies by people on extended vacations through the mountain parks system. The arduous 13 mile distance from the highway to Berg Lake precludes any day v i s i t s to the area. The average user hikes there i n a day, stays over at Berg Lake for two days, and then returns to the roadhead. The median amount of planning involved i s about three weeks and the t r i p cost i s around $50. The typ i c a l user of Robson Park i s a more accomplished and committed user than his counterpart i n Garibaldi or Bowron Parks. Although most users rate themselves as "intermediates", there are twice as many "experts" i n Robson as there are i n Garibaldi. Robson users tend to travel i n smaller groups with the majority of parties made up of just two persons. He has a greater investment i n equipment and takes more wilderness trips per year than users i n either Bowron or Garibaldi. He i s also more definite i n his answer as to why he v i s i t s the park with fewer "unclassifiable" and "no response" answers. Of users i n 150 the three parks the Robson user i s the keenest on "photography" and "solitude" as reasons for the v i s i t . It i s the only park where "fishing" i s almost i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Ihe background characteristics of Robson Park wilderness users are also d i s t i n c t i v e . He has an average of almost 17 years of schooling, the equivalent of a post-graduate degree. "Managers and Professionals" are the most common occupational group with "students" making up most of the remainder. Ihe average family income i s over $12,000 a year. The Robson user is.also more urban i n background than users i n the other two 5 parks which gives support to Catton's proposition that urban backgrounds tend to favor the development of "wilderness purist" attitudes more so than rural ones. Robson users are less w i l l i n g to d i s c i p l i n e their behaviour and do not see the need for any of the management measures suggested. Nor do they wish the development of f a c i l i t i e s although there i s some demand for "more t r a i l s " and "primitive shelters". Robson i s the one park where sanitary f a c i l i t i e s are not provided and most users do not think they should be. Robson users give similar weighting to possible uses of the park although, most l i k e l y because of their higher educational status, they tend to give s l i g h t l y more support for " s c i e n t i f i c " uses. 151 D e s p i t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a r o a d t h r o u g h t h e p a r k , o v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e p a r k i s c o n s i d e r e d as " w i l d e r n e s s " . C i v i l i s a t i o n i s l e f t b e h i n d s o o n e r a t Robson ( w i t h i n two h o u r s h i k i n g t i m e ) t h a n i n Bowron o r G a r i b a l d i t h o u g h a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e y n e v e r l e f t I t . The u s e r i n R o b s o n P a r k d i d n o t have much t r o u b l e f i n d i n g a p l a c e t o camp n o r was he b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g . I n f a c t , o n e - h a l f o f t h e u s e r s t h o u g h t t h e p a r k c o u l d s t i l l a b s o r b more p e o p l e . U s e r s were v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and d e s p i t e t h e d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h t h e p a r k , n o t one r e s p o n d e n t i n d i c a t e d he wou l d n o t r e t u r n t o t h e a r e a a g a i n . REFERENCES CHAPTER IX Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Wilderness and Recreation. Study Report 3 , Sup't. of Documents, Wash., 1962. Hendee, J.C., et. a l . , "Wilderness Users i n the P a c i f i c Northwest - Their Characteristics, Values and Management Preferences", Forest Service Research Paper PNW-61 , 1968. Toscher, S.R., "The Application of Theories of Social Behavior to the Explanation of V a r i a b i l i t y of Use Patterns Within a Recreation Complex", unpub. Ph.D. thesis, U. of Michigan, 1969. Burch, W.R., J r . , and Wenger, W.D., "The Social Characteristics of Participants i n Three Styles of Family Camping", Forest Service Research Paper PNW-4-8, 1967. Catton, W.R., "People Who Hate Crowds Don't Hate People", Paper given to the Fourth Colorado Open Space Conf., Estes Park, Oct., 1967. 153 CHAPTER X VARIABLES AFFECTING USE Introduction Thus f a r , the r e s u l t s o f the survey have been presented on the b a s i s of area v i s i t e d and a d e s c r i p t i v e summary p r o f i l e of the t y p i c a l user given. Each park has been considered as an independent v a r i a b l e i n the a n a l y s i s of the data. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e to manipulate the data to construct other user groupings based on t r i p and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents. The broad concept i s that d i f f e r e n t groups c h a r a c t e r i z e d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and that i f we know what groups use and react to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s we can b e t t e r a n t i c i p a t e the demands made on the 1 resource. As Rosenburg puts i t : In any attempt to systematize environmental needs we t r y and discover d i s t i n c t c ategories of people, whose needs show c e r t a i n common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , groups and sub-groups to whom common planning considerations apply. I t i s thus v i t a l f o r park planners to be aware of the d i f f e r e n t types of response to the park environment among d i f f e r e n t types of users. Moreover, when changes i n group parameters are noted, such as s h i f t s i n the age or occupation st r u c t u r e , the planner w i l l be be t t e r able to a n t i c i p a t e future demand. 15-+ S u c h q u e s t i o n s as t h e f o l l o w i n g may be a s k e d : How does l i f e s t y l e , r e g i o n a l o r i g i n o r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e ? I s e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s p r e d i c t i v e t o some d e g r e e o f u s e r p r e f e r e n c e ? What groups a r e more p e r c e p t i v e o r a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e and how m i g h t t h i s be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? The s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s a n a l y s i s t h e n i s t o examine s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e how p e o p l e r e a c t t o w i l d e r n e s s , t o a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e . To a t t e m p t t h i s , t h e d a t a were a g g r e g a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t e n d i f f e r e n t u s e r g r o u p i n g s , w h i c h were v i e w e d as i n d e p e n d e n t o r p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . By c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s one a t a t i m e , k e e p i n g i n mind t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y may be i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o I d e n t i f y w h i c h ones a r e i m p o r t a n t i n r e d u c i n g v a r i a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e . The d a t a i s c a t e g o r i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s ( p a r k v i s i t e d i s c o n s i d e r e d V]_): V 2 l e n g t h o f s t a y Vy E d u c a t i o n V-^  Age Vy Y e a r s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l V"^  R e g i o n a l o r i g i n Vq T o t a l g r oup s i z e Commitment V^o E n v i r o n m e n t o f u p b r i n g i n g V£ P r o f i c i e n c y V ] ^ Sex A l l t h e s e u s e r c a t e g o r i e s v/ere t h e n c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d a g a i n s t t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s . C h i - s q u a r e t e s t s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e 155 and T-tests of differences between means make i t possible to determine which factors s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence response. The chi'-square s t a t i s t i c i s ideal for this purpose as the primary interest i s i n determining what differences, i f any, there are among different categories of users when compared on the above social and t r i p dimensions. Then, on the basis of the number of significant interactions and the levels of significance, i t i s possible to distinguish which seem to be important indicators i n explaining wilderness recreation use and which do not. Chi-square does not, however, show the quantity of variation attributable to each variable, and thus does not provide an objective basis for ranking the importance of variables. As the concern at this point i s only i n the id e n t i f i c a t i o n of variables, the exact ranking i s not important. Similarly, no attempt i s made here to establish the inter-correlations and relationships among the 11 variables, and each w i l l be considered separately. Response bv Length of Stay How does the length of time a person spends i n the backcountry influence his perception and assessment of the wilderness vacation? Is the experience of camping out just one night and then returning to the city a different one from spending a week or more i n the backcountry? 156 To Investigate variations i n response among those spending different lengths of time i n the parks, the sample was*divided into those staying just one or two days, those staying three to eight days and those staying nine days or more. Caution i n interpretation of differences i s urged, due to the strong influence of park v i s i t e d on length of stay. Those i n the category "nine days or more" are almost a l l Bowron Park users, while those i n tha short stay category are almost a l l from Garibaldi Park. The middle category i s a mixture of users from a l l three parks. Length of stay then i s not independent of the recreation site (V^ ) and appropriate caveats are given where applicable. F i r s t l y , as i s not the case i n Variable 1, the demographic attributes of education, occupation and environment of upbringing do not vary with user decisions on the length of stay. That i s , v i s i t o r s with different occupations, education levels and childhood residence are found i n equal proportions in a l l three length of stay categories. Income levels, however, are related with length of stay, with long stay users reporting higher average incomes ($13,530 vs. $12,640 and $10,910 for medium and short stay users). Income does have some effect on how long the wilderness vacation w i l l l a s t . Though the average number of years of wilderness travel experience i s similar, more long stay users consider themselves "experts" than medium or short stay users (Table XLI). Thus, 157 a b i l i t y and length of stay are also s i g n i f i c a n t l y related. TABLE XLI WILDERNESS PROFICIENCY - BY LENGTH OF STAY Stay (days) Expert Intermediate Novice N (%) (%) 15-4 61 .5 23.1 169 18.8 70.8 10.5 421 21.8 64.8 13.4 142 Those staying for longer periods travel i n larger parties and are proportionately more often with an organised group. Long stay users also report a greater investment i n equipment and a higher average cost for their t r i p . Length of stay also affects the user assessment of his motivations and benefits of wilderness travel. Long stay users give sig n i f i c a n t l y higher ratings for five of the possible reasons for v i s i t i n g the park. The longer the stay the greater were expectations of the following wilderness values: "wilderness camping", "viewing w i l d l i f e " , "fishing", "do something different" and "solitude". At the same time, long stay users rated two reasons as less important: "exercise" and "exploration of area". The lower rating of "exploration" by long stay users i s consistent with the lower rating of that reason by Bowron Park v i s i t o r s . 1 - 2 3 - 8 9 + 158 TABLE XLII MOTIVATION - BY LENGTH OF STAY (% rating "very important") Stay (days) Wilder-ness Camping Fishing View-ing Wild-l i f e Doing Some-thing D i f f e r -ent S o l i -tude Explor-ation of Area Exer-cise 1 - 2 62.1 12.4 58.6 43.8 47.9 66.9 69.8 3 - 8 85.3 18.1 71.5 45.8 66.5 63.9 58.7 9 + 93.7 36.6 83.8 59.2 69.7 50.0 53.5 The longer the stay the higher are three benefits of wilderness travel: "learned more about camping", "learned more about se l f , others" and "solitude". It appears that these benefits are only gained after a certain length of time i n the backcountry and that the "learning-by-doing" process has a definite time dimension. TABLE XLIII BENEFITS - BY LENGTH OF STAY (% rating "very important") Stay Learned More Learned More Solitude (days) About Camping About Self, Others 1 - 2 19.5 29.6 51 .5 3 - 8 34.0 38.0 63.7 9 + 44.4 47.9 65.5 1 5 9 No matter what the length of stay, satisfaction levels are almost i d e n t i c a l . Satisfaction,- of course, i s relat i v e to anticipated rewards which does not mean that the satisfaction derived from a short stay is equal to the satisfaction derived from a long stay. Rather, the conclusion i s that the expectations for each type of t r i p are s a t i s f i e d equally well. Almost every question on f a c i l i t y introductions and management measures varies s i g n i f i c a n t l y with length of stay. Generally, long stay users are more i n favor of more f a c i l i t i e s than short stay users. Those who stay longer support the following f a c i l i t i e s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher proportions: "More campsites", "better t r a i l s " , "more t r a i l s " and "pit t o i l e t s " . At the same time, si g n i f i c a n t l y lower support i s given to "fireplaces" and "interpretive signs". The findings suggest that the longer the stay in the park the greater the demand for basic f a c i l i t i e s . TABLE XLIV FACILITY OPINIONS - BY LENGTH OF STAY (% rating "needed") Stay More Better More Pit Fireplaces Interpretive (days) Campsites T r a i l s T r a i l s Toilets Signs 1 - 2 2 7 . 8 7 . 1 4 4 . 4 3 3 . 7 - 2 5 . 4 2 8 . 4 3 - 8 2 6 . 6 2 0 . 7 4 9 . 2 41.8 19 . 0 2 3 . 3 9 + 3 5 . 9 1 6 . 9 6 4 . 1 4 7 . 9 1 6 . 9 1 6 . 9 1 6 0 A r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o e x i s t s b e t ween l e n g t h o f s t a y and c a m p s i t e p r e f e r e n c e w i t h a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l o n g s t a y u s e r s p r e f e r r i n g t o camp a l o n e (6k,8% v s . 5 0 . 3 $ f o r s h o r t s t a y u s e r s ) . Long s t a y u s e r s w i l l a c c e p t management r e s t r i c t i o n s more r e a d i l y i n r e t u r n f o r a s s u r a n c e s o f a h i g h q u a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e . Fewer l o n g s t a y u s e r s a g r e e w i t h a l l o w i n g " c o n t r o l l e d h u n t i n g " and " s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g " , b u t more a g r e e w i t h a " r e s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m " , " r a t i o n i n g u s e " and an " e n t r a n c e f e e " . The s u g g e s t e d e n t r a n c e f e e by t h e l o n g s t a y u s e r a v e r a g e s $ 5 . 0 0 , f o r t h e medium s t a y u s e r i t i s $ 3.40 and f o r t h e s h o r t s t a y u s e r i t i s $ 0 . 9 0 . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i f an e n t r a n c e f e e i s c h a r g e d i t s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t i n t h e p a r k . TABLE XLV MANAGEMENT OPINIONS - BY LENGTH OF STAY (% s t a t i n g " a g r e e " ) S t a y E n t r a n c e R e s e r v a t i o n R a t i o n i n g C o n t r o l l e d S e l e c t i v e ( d a y s ) Fee System Use H u n t i n g L o g g i n g 1 - 2 1 7.2 1 3 . 0 1 6 . 0 2 4 . 3 1 7 . 8 3 - 8 2 8 . 5 2 0 . 0 2 7 . 6 1 9 . 2 1 0 . 0 9 + 4 8 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 1 0 . 6 5 . 6 U s e r p e r c e p t i o n o f where t h e w i l d e r n e s s i s e n t e r e d v a r i e s w i t h l e n g t h o f s t a y . More s h o r t s t a y u s e r s e n t e r i m m e d i a t e l y 161 (28.4% v s . 10.6% f o r l o n g s t a y u s e r s ) o r n e v e r e n t e r ( 1 6 . 6 % v s . 3.5% o f l o n g s t a y u s e r s ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r b u t t h e l o n g e r t h e s t a y i n the p a r k t h e more d e l a y e d t h e e n t r y p o i n t and t h e g r e a t e r t h e l i k e l i h o o d i t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be r e a c h e d . U s e r p e r c e p t i o n o f c r o w d i n g and c a p a c i t y a l s o d i f f e r a l t h o u g h a g a i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t s i m p l e o n e s . More s h o r t s t a y u s e r s r e p o r t t h e y " o f t e n " have t r o u b l e f i n d i n g c a m p s i t e s and were " o f t e n " b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g , b u t h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f l o n g s t a y u s e r s r e p o r t e d t h e y "sometimes" do. On t h e w h o l e , s h o r t s t a y u s e r s were n o t as b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g o r d i d n o t have as much t r o u b l e f i n d i n g c a m p s i t e s as l o n g s t a y u s e r s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e use t o l e r a n c e f o r t h o s e on s h o r t t r i p s i s h i g h e r t h a n f o r t h o s e on l o n g e r o n e s . TABLE XL V I "DID YOU HAVE ANY TROUBLE FINDING UNOCCUPIED CAMPSITES?" - BY LENGTH OF STAY Yes - O f t e n Sometimes No (%) (%) (%) S t a y ( d a y s ) 1 - 2 3 - 8 9 + 16 . 0 9.5 3.5 30.8 30.4 50.7 49.1 59.4 45.1 162 TABLE XLVII "WERE YOU BOTHERED BY CROWDING ON ANY TRAILS OR CAMPSITES?" - BY LENGTH OF STAY Stay Yes - Often Sometimes No (days) ($) ($) ($) 1 - 2 13.0 32.5 53.3 3 - 8 10.5 36.8 52.5 9 + 7.8 49.3 43.0 That short stay users have a higher use tolerance than long stay users i s suggested i n responses to several other questions on capacity. Short stay users w i l l meet a maximum of 6.6 groups per day (approximately 25 people) before feeling crowded. The corresponding medians for medium and long stay users are 4 .5 and 4 .0 groups per day. More short stay users agree that the parks could hold more people - 54.4$ i n comparison to 32.8$ of medium stay users and only 23.9$ of long stay users. Long stay users are not only less tolerant of other users but they are more sensitive to their effects. While 31.9$ of short stay users reported no complaints, only 21.4$ of medium and 13.4$ of long stay users were not bothered by anything. Specifically, "behavior of others" and "garbage" were the two items that raised approximately twice as many complaints among the long stay users. 163 On t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f d a n g e r s , l o n g s t a y u s e r s gave h i g h e r r a t i n g s t o t h r e e i t e m s : " h e a r s and c o u g a r s " , " s t o r m s and w e a t h e r " and " p h y s i c a l i n j u r y " . Though t h e o v e r a l l d a n g e r r a t i n g i s s t i l l g i v e n as " m i n o r " hy most r e s p o n d e n t s , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more l o n g s t a y u s e r s g i v e a h i g h e r r a t i n g . U s e r s a g r e e t h a t t h e l o n g e r one s t a y s and t h e f u r t h e r one t r a v e l s i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y t h e g r e a t e r a r e t h e h a z a r d s I n v o l v e d . TABLE X L V I I I OVERALL DANGER RATING - BY LENGTH OF STAY S t a y No Danger M i n o r M o d e r a t e V e r y D a n g e r o u s ( d a y s ) (%) (%) (%) (%) 1 - 2 29.0 62.7 7.7 0.6 3 - 8 18.1 70.1 11 .k 0.5 9 + 10.6 79.6 9.9 0.0 I n summary, d e s p i t e t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e n g t h o f s t a y and p a r k v i s i t e d , t h e l e n g t h o f the b a c k c o u n t r y v a c a t i o n does appear t o be an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g w i l d e r n e s s u s e . Long s t a y u s e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y more p r o f i c i e n t i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l , have s t r o n g e r m o t i v a t i o n s , r e c e i v e g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e t r i p , a r e more i n f a v o r o f b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s and v i s i t o r c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s , and a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r u s e r s and t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s e n v i r o n m e n t i n g e n e r a l . More r e s e a r c h on d i f f e r e n c e s between l o n g s t a y and s h o r t s t a y u s e r s i s u r g e d . 1 o4-R e s p o n s e by Age 2 3 As Sessoms and B u r c h have n o t e d , p o s i t i o n i n t h e l i f e c y c l e i s one o f t h e s t r o n g e s t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y has shown t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l l age g r o u p s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a young a d u l t a c t i v i t y . To e x p l o r e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f age o n r e s p o n s e t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e , r e s p o n d e n t s were g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e age c a t e g o r i e s : 10 t o 2 9 y e a r s , 30 t o 4 9 y e a r s , and 50 y e a r s and o l d e r . The r e s u l t s show t h a t age i s i n d e e d an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n r e s p o n s e . F i r s t , as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d , t h e d e m o g r a p h i c b a c k g r o u n d o f e a c h g r o u p v a r i e d . E d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n and income l e v e l s were h i g h e r i n t h e o l d e r age g r o u p s . O n e - h a l f o f t h e y o u n g e r age g r o u p were " s t u d e n t s " w h i l e o v e r o n e - h a l f o f t h e m i d d l e and upper age g r o u p s were "managers and p r o f e s s i o n a l s " . E n v i r o n m e n t o f u p b r i n g i n g does n o t v a r y between age g r o u p s b u t t h e means o f w i l d e r n e s s i n t r o d u c t i o n d o e s . Younger age g r o u p s were more o f t e n i n t r o d u c e d by " p a r e n t s " ( 2 5 . 3 % ) and " f r i e n d s " ( 3 4 . 1 % ) w h i l e o l d e r u s e r s were i n t r o d u c e d more o f t e n by " l i t e r a t u r e " ( 1 8 . 9 % ) and " o t h e r " ( 2 2 . 6 % ) , w h i c h i n most c a s e s was an o c c u p a t i o n a l r e a s o n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i f p e o p l e a r e n o t i n t r o d u c e d t o w i l d e r n e s s e a r l y I n l i f e by p a r e n t s o r ' a c q u a i n t a n c e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a t e r l i f e may be e l i c i t e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s . 165 The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p a l s o v a r i e d by age g r o u p . The y o u n g e r age g r o u p spend much l e s s t i m e p l a n n i n g t h e i r t r i p s w h i c h a r e o f l e s s d u r a t i o n t h a n t h o s e o f t h e o l d e r age g r o u p . The m e d i a n s t a y o f t h e 10-29 age g r o u p was 4 .0 d a y s , w h i l e t h e m i d d l e and o l d e r age g r o u p s s t a y e d 5*5 and 5.4 d a y s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . M e d i a n t i m e s p e n t p l a n n i n g t h e t r i p was 3.8 weeks f o r t h e y o u n g e s t age g r o u p , 11.1 weeks f o r t h e m i d d l e and 14 . 0 weeks f o r t h e o l d e s t . On a n a n n u a l b a s i s y o u n g e r p e o p l e t a k e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t r i p s o f s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n t h a n o l d e r p e o p l e . T h i s may i n p a r t be due t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s as w e l l as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e t r e n d t o more f r e q u e n t b u t s h o r t e r w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n s . TABLE X L I X ANNUAL PARTICIPATION - BY AGE GROUP Age A v e r a g e No. A v e r a g e L e n g t h T o t a l N Group o f W i l d e r n e s s o f W i l d e r n e s s P a r t i c i p a t i o n T r i p s / Y e a r T r i p D a y s / Y e a r 10 - 29 4 .8 3.8 18 396 30 - 49 4.1 3.9 16 281 50 + 2.9 4.6 . 13 53 1 6 6 T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s b e t w e e n g r o u p s on t h e c o s t o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p , b u t s m a l l e r v a r i a t i o n s i n equipment i n v e s t m e n t . TABLE L TRIP COST AND EQUIPMENT INVESTMENT - BY AGE GROUP Age Group A v e r a g e T r i p C o s t A v e r a g e I n v e s t m e n t ($) ($) 1 0 - 29 3 5 . 4 0 84 . 0 0 3 0 - 49 4 9 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 50 + 9 3 . 7 0 7 5 . 0 0 The f a c t t h a t s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n s o f young and o l d r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s as " e x p e r t s " o r " n o v i c e s " s u g g e s t s t h a t w i l d e r n e s s a b i l i t y i s n o t r e l a t e d t o age. A s i d e f r o m t h e s e d e m o g r a p h i c and t r i p d i f f e r e n c e s t h e r e a r e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n m o t i v a t i o n s , o p i n i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s . The m i d d l e age group were more m o t i v a t e d by a s e a r c h f o r " s o l i t u d e " and " b e i n g w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s " t h a n e i t h e r t h e young o r t h e o l d . The e x p l a n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e s e two i t e m s may be due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n t o w i l d e r n e s s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f t h e l i f e c y c l e . N e i t h e r t h e young n o r t h e o l d a r e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and perhaps have l e s s d e s i r e f o r " s o l i t u d e " t h a n t h o s e i n m i d d l e age. 167 M i d d l e - a g e d p e o p l e a r e a l s o more l i k e l y t o be t r a v e l l i n g i n f a m i l y g r o u p s t h a n o t h e r p e o p l e and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y r a t e t h a t m o t i v a t i o n h i g h e r . TABLE L I MOTIVATION - BY AGE GROUP (% r a t i n g " v e r y i m p o r t a n t " ) Age Group S o l i t u d e B e i n g w i t h F a m i l y , F r i e n d s 10 - 29 6 0 . 0 2 6 . 5 30 - 49 7 0 . 8 h2oh 50 +, 4 3 . 4 3 4 . 0 C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r s t a t e d m o t i v e s , d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s show d i f f e r e n t e v a l u a t i o n s o f " s o l i t u d e " as a b e n e f i t o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p . " S o l i t u d e " i s r a t e d as a " v e r y i m p o r t a n t " b e n e f i t by 60.6% o f t h e yo u n g , 65.5% o f t h e m i d d l e -aged and 45.5% o f t h e o l d . The b e n e f i t " l e a r n e d more a b o u t c a m p i n g " was r a t e d as i m p o r t a n t by t h e young (60.7%) i n much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s t h a n t h e m i d d l e - a g e d (31.1%) o r o l d ( 7 . 4 % ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e " l e a r n i n g - b y - d o i n g " p r o c e s s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by age o f r e s p o n d e n t . O p i n i o n s on f a c i l i t i e s and management measures d i f f e r e d 168 o n l y i n mi n o r ways. O l d e r v i s i t o r s gave more s u p p o r t t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f an e n t r y f e e ( a l t h o u g h t h i s may be more r e l a t e d t'o t h e h i g h e r income o f t h i s g r o u p ) and a l s o t h o u g h t s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s were a g r e a t e r need (60.4$ o f t h e o l d a g r e e v s . 33.3$ o f t h e y o u n g ) . The o l d a r e a l s o w i l l i n g t o pay a h i g h e r amount i f an e n t r a n c e f e e i s c h a r g e d . On q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o c r o w d i n g and c a p a c i t y y o u n g e r u s e r s t e n d t o have a l o w e r t h r e s h o l d o f a l l o w a b l e use t h a n o l d e r p e o p l e . P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , more young were b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r age g r o u p s (54.0$, 44.4$ and 34.0$ o f t h e y o u n g , m i d d l e - a g e d and o l d , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . L i k e w i s e , f e w e r p e o p l e i n t h e y o u n g e s t age g r o u p t h o u g h t t h e p a r k s c o u l d h o l d more p e o p l e and a l s o s u g g e s t e d a s m a l l e r optimum s i z e f o r g r o u p t r a v e l . T h u s , a l t h o u g h p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f e w e r o f t h e young seek " s o l i t u d e " on t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s v i s i t , t h e y a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o o r i d e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o o t h e r w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s . T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f h a z a r d s o f th e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p between t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , t h o u g h no e x p l a n a t i o n c a n be o f f e r e d f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . M i d d l e - a g e d v i s i t o r s g i v e h i g h e r danger r a t i n g s t o " p h y s i c a l i n j u r y " , " g e t t i n g l o s t " and " p o l l u t i o n " t h a n t h e o t h e r two age g r o u p s . " E x p o s u r e " i s r a t e d h i g h e r by t h e o l d e r age g r o u p . P e r h a p s young p e o p l e do n o t r e c o g n i s e o r a r e i n d e e d s e e k i n g an e x p e r i e n c e i n v o l v i n g some d a n g e r . 169 I n summary, r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e by d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s shows a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s . B e s i d e s t h e l o g i c a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e s t h e t y p e o f w i l d e r n e s s t r i p a l s o v a r i e d . O l d e r p e o p l e i n v e s t more d o l l a r s and t i m e on t h e i r t r i p t h a n y o u n g e r g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h on an a n n u a l b a s i s t h e young a r e more f r e q u e n t u s e r s . On q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g m o t i v a t i o n and b e n e f i t s and p e r c e p t i o n o f d a n g e r s , y o u n g e r and o l d e r u s e r s show a g r e a t e r a f f i n i t y i n r e s p o n s e t h a n t h o s e o f t h e m i d d l e - a g e d . The s u g g e s t e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s t o w a r d w i l d e r n e s s u se a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s i n the l i f e c y c l e . E x c e p t f o r mi n o r i t e m s , a l l age g r o u p s a g r e e on f a c i l i t y I n t r o d u c t i o n s , management measures and w i l d e r n e s s p e r c e p t i o n . Younger p e o p l e , h o w e v e r , were more s e n s i t i v e t o c r o w d i n g and p l a c e d a l o w e r l i m i t on c a p a c i t y t h a n t h e o l d e r age g r o u p s . Response by O r i g i n k Cowan h a s commented on t h e f r e e d o m w i t h w h i c h t h e c i t i z e n s o f Canada and t h e U.S. s h a r e t h e i r t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e . A t t h e same t i m e he o b s e r v e s t h a t " ... r e c o g n i t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s i s more advanced i n t h e U.S. t h a n i n Canada". D i f f e r e n c e s i n A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n r e a c t i o n t o w i l d e r n e s s a r e e x p e c t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f d i f f e r e n c e s I n t h e c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f e ach c o u n t r y . A m e r i c a n w i l d e r n e s s i d e o l o g y , f o r example, i s imbued a good d e a l more i n t h e l i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l 170 5 t r a d i t i o n s o f t h a t c o u n t r y . I n c o n t r a s t , Canada has had no one r e a l f r o n t i e r , no m a j o r I n d i a n wars and no F r e d e r i c k J a c k s o n T u r n e r t o c h r o n i c l e t h e meaning o f w i l d e r n e s s t o C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m . Nor has t h e r e b een C a n a d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s t o t h e p a s t o r a l r h e t o r i c o f T h o r e a u , Emerson, M u i r , whitman o r B u r r o u g h s . The g e n e r a l C a n a d i a n a t t i t u d e m i g h t be e x p r e s s e d a s : Why make a n i s s u e o f w i l d e r n e s s when t h e r e s t i l l i s p l e n t y o f i t l e f t i n t h e c o u n t r y ? The " n o r t h " i s a l w a y s t h e r e and t h e a c c e s s t o w i l d e r n e s s has a l w a y s been c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e f o r most C a n a d i a n s . No w i l d e r n e s s c u l t , c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t w h i c h l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e W i l d e r n e s s A c t i n t h e U.S., i s e v i d e n t i n Canada. The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t f o r most r e s o u r c e and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s , C a n a d i a n s e x p r e s s l e s s c o n c e r n and show l e s s p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t t h a n do A m e r i c a n s . T h i s may i n p a r t be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t Canada has no s t r o n g v i a b l e e q u i v a l e n t s t o n a t i o n a l c i t i z e n c o n s e r v a t i o n l o b b i e s s u c h as t h e W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y , t h e S i e r r a C l u b o r t h e N a t i o n a l Audubon S o c i e t y . W i t h t h e s e r e a l and s u g g e s t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n h i s t o r y , s t r u c t u r e and a t t i t u d e s between t h e two c o u n t r i e s , one would e x p e c t t h a t Cowan's c o n t e n t i o n has m e r i t . The c o n c e r n h e r e i s t o see wh e t h e r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s i s r e f l e c t e d among w i l d e r n e s s p a r k u s e r s as i t l i k e l y i s f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The sample t h u s i s d i v i d e d by 171 c o u n t r y o f r e s i d e n c e o f the r e s p o n d e n t , o n e - q u a r t e r o f whom ar e A m e r i c a n s , t h e r e s t C a n a d i a n s . C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n u s e r s i n B.C. w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s a r e , o n t h e b a s i s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e , two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s . As w i l l be shown below, the American u s e r i s f r o m a h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s , he i s more e x p e r i e n c e d i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l , he g i v e s g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n t o i t s v a l u e s and b e n e f i t s , he d e v o t e s more i n terms o f time and money on h i s t r i p and he i s more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f cr o w d i n g and o t h e r u s e r s t h a n t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n park u s e r . The c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n , income and o c c u p a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s o f b o t h groups a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s L I I , L I I I and L I V . American v i s i t o r s have 2.4 more y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , an income o f $4,000 more a n n u a l l y and a much g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n i n the " m a n a g e r i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l " o c c u p a t i o n s . S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s , though not as extreme, o c c u r between the g e n e r a l 6 p o p u l a t i o n s o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s . 1 7 2 TABLE L I I USER EDUCATION LEVELS - BY ORIGIN Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g C a n a d i a n s A m e r i c a n s (%) (fo) L e s s t h a n 6 0.2 0.0 6 - 1 0 10.7 1.2 11 - 13 30.8 16.4 14 - 16 24.2 22.8 1 7 - 2 0 27.2 43.3 20 + 6.3 15.2 N 571 171 A v e r a g e 14.8 y e a r s 17.2 y e a r s TABLE L I I I USER INCOME LEVELS - BY ORIGIN A n n u a l Income ($) C a n a d i a n s A m e r i c a n s (%) (%) L e s s t h a n 3,000 6.0 5.9 3,000 - 6,000 9.1 7.6 6,000 - 9,000 24.0 8.8 9,000 - 12,000 23.1 15.2 12,000 - 15,000 14.0 .- 17.0 15,000 - 20,000 9.8 14.6 20,000 + 10.0 23.3 A v e r a g e $11,500 $15,500 173 TABLE L I V USER OCCUPATION - BY ORIGIN O c c u p a t i o n C a n a d i a n s (%) A m e r i c a n s (%) M a n a g e r i a l , P r o f e s s i o n a l 35.4 46.8 S a l e s , C l e r i c a l 6.1 3.5 C o n s t r . , Manuf. 9.3 5.3 F i s h i n g , L u m b e r i n g , M i n i n g , F a r m i n g 1.8 1 .2 H o u s e w i f e 2.3 1.2 S t u d e n t 29.8 22.2 R e t i r e d 0.9 1.2 O t h e r 14.5 18.7 A m e r i c a n v i s i t o r s t o B.C. p a r k s a r e a l s o more e x p e r i e n c e d w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s . A much l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f A m e r i c a n s (33.3% v s . 14.0% o f C a n a d i a n s ) r a t e t h e m s e l v e s as " e x p e r t s " and o n l y h a l f as many c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s " n o v i c e s (7.6% v s . 15.9% o f C a n a d i a n s ) . F u r t h e r , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f C a n a d i a n s (32.6%) r e p o r t l e s s t h a n two y e a r s w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e t h a n A m e r i c a n s (13.2%). A m e r i c a n s t a k e l o n g e r w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n s (6.8 days as compared t o t h e C a n a d i a n a v e r a g e o f 5.0 d a y s ) and i n v e s t more t i m e i n p l a n n i n g f o r them (18.3 weeks v s . 11.4 weeks f o r C a n a d i a n s ) . The A m e r i c a n v i s i t o r spends t h r e e t i m e s as much 1 7 4 money ( $ 9 3 v s . $ 3 1 f o r C a n a d i a n s ) and c a r r i e s w i t h h i m a g r e a t e r i n v e s t m e n t i n b a c k c o u n t r y e q u i pment ( $ 1 0 0 v s . $ 7 6 f o r t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n ) . The t y p i c a l A m e r i c a n i s t h u s w e l l p r e p a r e d f o r t h e t r i p i n ter m s o f e x p e r i e n c e , advance p r e p a r a t i o n and e q u i p m e n t . S a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t w i t h f e w e r A m e r i c a n s r e p o r t i n g t h e y were " v e r y s a t i s f i e d " w i t h t h e i r t r i p . O n l y 7 . 0 $ r e p o r t e d , however, t h a t t h e y would d e f i n i t e l y n o t r e t u r n . TABLE LV USER SATISFACTION LEVELS - BY ORIGIN R a t i n g C a n a d i a n s A m e r i c a n s ($) ($) V e r y s a t i s f i e d 8 8 . 8 8 1 . 9 M i l d l y s a t i s f i e d 6 . 7 1 3 . 5 S l i g h t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d 3 . 9 2 . 9 V e r y d i s a p p o i n t e d 0 . 7 1 . 8 R e g i o n a l o r i g i n o f u s e r s a l s o i n f l u e n c e s t h e s t r e n g t h o f m o t i v a t i o n s and t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f b e n e f i t s o f t h e t r i p . A m e r i c a n s g i v e a l l r e a s o n s f o r v i s i t i n g w i l d e r n e s s e x c e p t " p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e " a h i g h e r r a t i n g . The r e a s o n s r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r o n g e r a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e L V I . 175 TABLE L V I MOTIVATION - BY ORIGIN (% r a t i n g " v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t " ) R e a s o n C a n a d i a n s A m e r i c a n s (%) W i l d e r n e s s Camping 79.5 88.9 F e e l i n g c l o s e t o n a t u r e 79.2 88.3 V i e w i n g w i l d l i f e 68.1 80.1 S o l i t u d e 58.1 78.4 F i s h i n g 18.4 27.5 E x e r c i s e 62.5 50.9 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s , A m e r i c a n s a l s o gave a h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e t r i p . E x c e p t f o r " i m p r o v e d p h y s i c a l h e a l t h " and " s o c i a l l y e n t e r t a i n i n g " a l l b e n e f i t s were r a t e d h i g h e r by A m e r i c a n s , t h o s e g i v e n i n T a b l e L V I I s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o. 176 TABLE L V I I EVALUATION ($ r a t i n OF BENEFITS - BY g " v e r y i m p o r t a n t ORIGIN ") B e n e f i t C a n a d i a n s ($) A m e r i c a n s ($) I n c r e a s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t u r e 8 6 . 0 Gave o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t and t h i n k 5 3 . 9 7 2 . 5 Found s o l i t u d e , p r i v a c y 5 8 . 5 7 0 . 2 C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n o p i n i o n s o n f a c i l i t i e s and management measures a r e s i m i l a r e x c e p t f o r r e s p o n s e on two i t e m s . A m e r i c a n s , a c c u s t o m e d p e r h a p s t o a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f t r a i l s f o u n d i n U.S. p a r k s , g i v e g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o i m p r o v i n g t r a i l c o n d i t i o n s . A m e r i c a n s a r e a l s o more w i l l i n g t o pay an e n t r a n c e f e e - o n l y 2 6 . 3 $ would d i s a g r e e ( v s . 5 3 . 1 $ o f C a n a d i a n s ) . On w e i g h t i n g p o s s i b l e p a r k u s e s and e s t i m a t i n g where t h e w i l d e r n e s s i s e n t e r e d , b o t h g r o u p s g i v e s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e . T w i c e as many A m e r i c a n s , however, c o n s i d e r t h e p a r k s t o be " o v e r d e v e l o p e d " 0 4 . 6 $ v s . 7 . 5$ o f C a n a d i a n s ) . More A m e r i c a n s were b o t h e r e d by c r o w d i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t l y f e w e r A m e r i c a n s ( 2 5 . 7 $ ) b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p a r k has t h e c a p a c i t y t o accommodate more p e o p l e ( v s . 3 9 . 1 $ o f 177 o f C a n a d i a n s ) . A m e r i c a n s p r e f e r m e e t i n g f e w e r g r o u p s p e r day t h a n C a n a d i a n s and seek c a m p s i t e s away f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e i n much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s (70.8% v s . 55*2% o f C a n a d i a n s ) . The A m e r i c a n u s e r t h u s n o t o n l y s e e k s s o l i t u d e on h i s t r i p i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s , b u t a l s o g i v e s a more r i g o r o u s d e f i n i t i o n o f i t . The above e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o f t e n c r i t i c a l image o f t h e A m e r i c a n b a c k c o u n t r y t o u r i s t i s an u n f a i r o n e . A m e r i c a n u s e r s on t h e a v e r a g e a r e an e l i t e g r o u p o f u s e r s b e i n g v e r y aware o f , and i n s e a r c h o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n . They i n v e s t more i n t e r m s o f t i m e and money e x p e n d i t u r e s , d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d and i n t u r n e x p e c t and b e n e f i t more f r o m t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n o p i n i o n s do c o i n c i d e on f a c i l i t i e s , management, p o s s i b l e u s e s and t h e d a n g e r s i n v o l v e d , t h e number o f d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e above i t e m s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e u s e r i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n h i s r e s p o n s e t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . Response by Commitment W i t h i n t h e sample t h e r e a r e t h o s e who seldom t a k e w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n s , t h o s e who o c c a s i o n a l l y t a k e them and t h o s e who t a k e many. W i l d e r n e s s u s e r s c a n t h u s be c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g f r e q u e n c y o f a n n u a l use as an i n d i c a t o r o f commitment. How does t h e i n v e t e r a t e w i l d e r n e s s u s e r d i f f e r f r o m t h e u s e r who p a r t i c i p a t e 1 7 8 i n m o d e r a t i o n o r f r o m t h e u s e r who p a r t i c i p a t e s r a r e l y ? F o r t h i s a n a l y s i s t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p o r t t h a t t h e y t a k e s i x o r more w i l d e r n e s s t r i p s p e r y e a r a r e c o n s i d e r e d f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d , t h o s e t a k i n g t h r e e t o f i v e t r i p s p e r y e a r m o d e r a t e l y c o m m i t t e d , and t h o s e t a k i n g o n l y one o r two t r i p s as n o n -c o m m i t t e d u s e r s . U s e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l commitments show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , income o r e n v i r o n m e n t o f u p b r i n g i n g . The commitment o f a w i l d e r n e s s u s e r a p p e a r s t o be l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e d by h i s d e m o g r a p h i c b a c k g r o u n d . I t w ould be e x p e c t e d t h a t more f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r s have l o n g e r e x p e r i e n c e and a r e more p r o f i c i e n t i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l . T h i s i s t h e c a s e as v e r y f e w h i g h l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r s c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s " n o v i c e s " ( T a b l e L V I I I ) . M e d i a n y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i s 4 . 3 f o r t h e n o n - c o m m i t t e d , 6 . 3 f o r t h e m o d e r a t e l y c o m m i t t e d and 6 . 5 f o r t h e f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d . TABLE L V I I I PROFICIENCY RATING - BY COMMITMENT Commitment E x p e r t I n t e r m e d i a t e N o v i c e N (%) (%) (%) Low 8 . 4 7 0 . 1 2 1 . 4 3 3 2 Moderate 1 9 . 7 7 1 . 9 8 . 4 2 0 3 F i r m 3 5 . 7 5 9 . 7 4 . 6 1 9 6 179 F i r m l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r s r e p o r t a h i g h e r a v e r a g e i n v e s t m e n t i n e q u i p m e n t ($9*+ v s . $70 f o r t h e n o n - c o m m i t t e d ) . S u p p o r t i n g f u r t h e r t h a t f r e q u e n c y o f u s e d o e s g i v e a r e a s o n a b l e m e a s u r e o f c o m m i t m e n t a r e t h e i n t e n t i o n s t o r e t u r n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s - f u l l y 74.0$ o f t h e f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d w i l l d e f i n i t e l y r e t u r n , 6 6 . 5 $ o f t h e m o d e r a t e a n d 5 6 . 6 $ o f t h e n o n -c o m m i t t e d . U s e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l l e v e l s o f c o m m i t m e n t r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e I t e m s o n m o t i v a t i o n s . N o n -c o m m i t t e d u s e r s r a t e " f i s h i n g " a n d " d o i n g s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t " h i g h e r , w h i l e f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r s r a t e " e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e a r e a " a n d " p h o t o g r a p h y " s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r . T h e s e s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r i s m o r e i n q u i s i t i v e a n d s e e k s m o r e i n t h e w a y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e t h a n t h e n o n - c o m m i t t e d u s e r . T h e a s s e s s m e n t o f b e n e f i t s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t v a r y . T A B L E L I X M O T I V A T I O N - B Y C O M M I T M E N T C o m m i t m e n t L o w M o d e r a t e F i r m F i s h i n g ( $ r a t i n g " n o t i m p o r t a n t " ) 4 0 . 7 4 4 . 8 5 8 . 7 D o i n g E x p l o r a t i o n P h o t o g r a p h y S o m e t h i n g o f A r e a D i f f e r e n t ( $ r a t i n g " i m p o r t a n t " ) 5 6 . 0 4 3 . 4 3 7 . 2 5 4 . 8 6 4 . 0 7 3 . 0 3 7 . 6 4 8 . 8 4 7 . 0 180 The g r e a t e r t h e commitment t h e g r e a t e r t h e o b j e c t i o n t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s and management m e a s u r e s . The more oneengages i n w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n t h e l e s s w i l l i n g he i s t o a c c e p t i n t r u s i o n s o r t o d i s c i p l i n e h i s b e h a v i o r . S i g n i f i c a n t l y more f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r s c o n s i d e r t h e p a r k " o v e r d e v e l o p e d " (17.4%) t h a n t h e mo d e r a t e (8.9/0 o r no n - c o m m i t t e d (4.8%) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h o s e w i t h h i g h e r commitment a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o d e v e l o p m e n t . TABLE L X F A C I L I T Y OPINIONS - BY COMMITMENT (% s a y i n g " n o t needed") Commitment More T r a i l s P i t T o i l e t s Road A c c e s Low 19.9 25.0 81.6 M o d e r a t e 25.6 33.5 88.2 F i r m 32.1 4 2 . 9 90.8 TABLE L X I MANAGEMENT MEASURE - BY COMMITMENT (% s a y i n g " d i s a g r e e " ) Commitment E n t r a n c e Fee R e s e r v a t i o n R a t i o n i n g System Use Low 41 . 3 47.6 36.1 M o d e r a t e 47.8 54.2 39.4 F i r m 55.6 69.9 50.0 181 S t r e n g t h o f commitment shows l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o p i n i o n s o n c r o w d i n g and c a p a c i t y . F r e q u e n c y o f use does n o t a p p e a r t o a l t e r v i s i t o r r e a c t i o n t o o t h e r v i s i t o r s . Commitment i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f d a n g e r w i t h t w i c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r s r a t i n g t h e o v e r a l l d a n g e r as n o t e x i s t i n g . TABLE L X I I OVERALL DANGER RATING - BY COMMITMENT Commitment None M i n o r M o d e r a t e V e r y D a n g e r o u s Low 15.4 72.9 11.5 0.3 M o d e r a t e 13.8 76.4 9.4 0.5 F i r m 30.6 58.7 10.2 0.5 I n summary, t h e d a t a does c o n f i r m t h a t f r e q u e n c y o f u s e i s a r e a s o n a b l e measure o f commitment t o w i l d e r n e s s . More u s e r s c l a s s i f i e d as " f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d " a r e " e x p e r t " w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s , have l o n g e r e x p e r i e n c e and d e v o t e more t i m e and money t o t h e a c t i v i t y . D i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n s a r e mi n o r b u t s u g g e s t t h e f i r m l y c o m m i t t e d u s e r i s more p u r i s t i n h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h h i s m o t i v e s may be more r e f i n e d and h i s o p i n i o n s on f a c i l i t i e s more r e s t r i c t i v e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s on t h e u n d e r l y i n g b a s i c q u e s t i o n s o f b e n e f i t s , s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s and c a p a c i t y . Commitment does n o t appear t o be an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e s e m a j o r i t e m s . 182 R e s p o n s e "bv P r o f i c i e n c y What d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a p p a r e n t when u s e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y p r o f i c i e n c y - i . e . n o v i c e , i n t e r m e d i a t e and e x p e r t ? I t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e o p i n i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h e e x p e r t u s e r s w o u l d be more r e f i n e d and more p e r c e p t i v e o f w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s t h a n n o v i c e s . I f t h i s i s s o , t h e v i e w s o f t h i s g r o u p may be g i v e n g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and management, ev e n t h o u g h t h e y a r e i n t h e m i n o r i t y w i t h i n t h e sample. T h e r e a r e f i r s t l y d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e m o g r a p h i c b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . " E x p e r t " u s e r s r e p o r t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and.income l e v e l s . A g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f " n o v i c e s " a r e s t u d e n t s w h i l e f e w e r a r e i n t h e m a n a g e r i a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . TABLE L X I I I INCOME AND EDUCATION LEVELS - BY PROFICIENCY P r o f i c i e n c y A v e r a g e No. o f A v e r a g e A n n u a l N Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g Income ($) E x p e r t I n t e r m e d i a t e N o v i c e 1 6 . 2 15 .2 14 .8 14,130 12,190 11,240 138 501 1 0 4 183 The manner i n w h i c h t h e t h r e e g r o u p s were i n t r o d u c e d t o w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l d i f f e r s i n t h a t " n o v i c e s " were more o f t e n i n t r o d u c e d by " f r i e n d s " (50.0$ v s . 26.8$ o f " e x p e r t s " ) and l e s s o f t e n by " p a r e n t s " (12.5$ v s . 24 .6$ o f " e x p e r t s " ) . T h i s a g a i n s u g g e s t s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s . P r o f i c i e n c y i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t o f u p b r i n g i n g . " E x p e r t " u s e r s a r e l e s s o f t e n b r o u g h t up i n u r b a n a r e a s (44 . 2$ ) t h a n e i t h e r " i n t e r m e d i a t e s " (52.9$) o r " n o v i c e s " (67.3$). W i t h a p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g I n c r e a s i n g l y r a i s e d on a s p h a l t and c o n c r e t e we c a n t h u s e x p e c t f u t u r e competence i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l t o be l o w e r . The l e n g t h o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y t r i p f o r t h e a v e r a g e " e x p e r t " u s e r i s one day l o n g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e a v e r a g e " n o v i c e " u s e r . 'While 37.5$ o f " n o v i c e s " s t a y o n l y one n i g h t i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y o n l y 18.9$ o f " e x p e r t s " do s o . The l e n g t h o f t i m e p l a n n i n g t h e t r i p i s a l s o c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l e s s f o r " n o v i c e s " (8.6 weeks) t h a n f o r " e x p e r t s " (13.5 w e e k s ) . " E x p e r t s " i n t u r n have a g r e a t e r i n v e s t m e n t and a l s o spend more on t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s t r i p . 184 TABLE L X I V COST AND INVESTMENT - BY PROFICIENCY P r o f i c i e n c y A v e r a g e T r i p A v e r a g e I n v e s t m e n t C o s t ($) i n E q u i p m e n t ($) E x p e r t 56.00 112.00 I n t e r m e d i a t e 44.00 80.00 N o v i c e 32.50 50.00 I t w ould be e x p e c t e d t h a t p r o f i c i e n c y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e above measure o f commitment. As T a b l e LXV a f f i r m s , " e x p e r t s " t a k e l o n g e r and more f r e q u e n t t r i p s t h a n t h e o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE LXV ANNUAL PATTERN OF WILDERNESS USE - BY PROFICIENCY P r o f i c i e n c y A v e r a g e No. o f A v e r a g e L e n g t h P a r t i c i p a t i o n W i l d e r n e s s o f W i l d e r n e s s D a y s / Y e a r T r i p s / Y e a r T r i p E x p e r t I n t e r m e d i a t e N o v i c e 6.9 4.2 2.6 4.3 3.9 3.1 30 16 8 185 The " e x p e r t " w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r t h u s i s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e b e g i n n e r i n t h a t he i s f r o m a h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c 'group, has more o f t e n had a town o r r u r a l u p b r i n g i n g , h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s l i n k e d more t o f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d and he I n v e s t s and p a r t i c i p a t e s much more a c t i v e l y t h a n " i n t e r m e d i a t e s " and " n o v i c e s " . W i l d e r n e s s p r o f i c i e n c y a l s o i n f l u e n c e s t h e r e l a t i v e r e c e p t i v i t y t o t h e a p p e a l s o f w i l d e r n e s s . " E x p e r t s " r a t e f i v e r e a s o n s f o r v i s i t i n g w i l d e r n e s s h i g h e r t h a n " n o v i c e s " . The I n f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e p r o f i c i e n c y t h e g r e a t e r t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s . ( I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e and age t h a n a b i l i t y . ) TABLE L X V I MOTIVATION - BY PROFICIENCY (% r a t i n g " v e r y i m p o r t a n t " ) P r o f i c i e n c y F i s h i n g E x p l o r - P h o t o - R e l a x - S o l i t u d e a t i o n g r a p h y a t i o n o f A r e a E x p e r t 21.0 70.3 52.2 60 . 9 72.5 I n t e r m e d i a t e 22.0 61 .7 "+3.9 58.5 6 0 . 9 N o v i c e 1 2.5 50.0 29.8 53.5 59.6 186 " E x p e r t s " r a t e two o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s , " s o l i t u d e " and " t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t and • t h i n k " , as more i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t s t h a n " n o v i c e s " . M e a n w h i l e , " n o v i c e s " , who would be e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n more f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e , g i v e much g r e a t e r w e i g h t t o t h i s b e n e f i t s u g g e s t i n g a g a i n t h a t " l e a r n i n g - b y - d o i n g " a p p l i e s w i t h g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e t o b e g i n n i n g u s e r s . TABLE L X V I I BENEFITS - BY PROFICIENCY ($ r a t i n g as " v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t " ) P r o f i c i e n c y Gave S o l i t u d e L e a r n e d L e a r n e d O p p o r t u n i t y More A b o u t More A b o u t t o R e f l e c t Camping S e l f , O t h e r s and T h i n k E x p e r t s 68.8 65-2 13.8 35-5 I n t e r m e d i a t e 57-3 6 2 . 9 35.1 38.3 N o v i c e 49.0 48.1 45.2 40.4 " E x p e r t " u s e r s a r e s l i g h t l y more d i s c r i m i n a t o r y on f a c i l i t y i n t r o d u c t i o n s and t e n d t o d i s a g r e e more t h a n " n o v i c e s " w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y i n t h e case o f " p r i m i t i v e s h e l t e r s " where 49.3$ o f " e x p e r t s " v e r s u s 29.8$ o f " n o v i c e s " d i s a p p r o v e . A much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f " e x p e r t s " (15.9$) c o n s i d e r t h e p a r k " o v e r d e v e l o p e d " t h a n " i n t e r m e d i a t e s " (8.4$) o r " n o v i c e s " ( 3 . 9 $ ) . P r o f i c i e n c y i s 187 l i k e w i s e r e l a t e d t o c a m p s i t e p r e f e r e n c e w i t h " e x p e r t s " p r e f e r i n g t o camp a l o n e i n h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s t h a n " i n t e r m e d i a t e s " o r " n o v i c e s " (66.7%, 60.9% and 38.3%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S u r p r i s i n g l y , p r o f i c i e n c y does n o t have much i n f l u e n c e on u s e r o p i n i o n s on management m e a s u r e s , c r o w d i n g , s a t i s f a c t i o n o r e v a l u a t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e d a n g e r s and u s e s . P r o f i c i e n c y i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s o n l y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s t r i p and t h e m o t i v a t i o n s and b e n e f i t s o f i t . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f age and a b i l i t y a r e s u g g e s t e d . Response by L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n As s e e n a b o v e , a l t h o u g h a l l e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e sample, t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e t y p i c a l u s e r i s w e l l above t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . The q u e s t i o n o f c o n c e r n h e r e i s : Do h i g h e r e d u c a t e d u s e r s have a d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n t o o r more mature o p i n i o n s o f w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s ? To i n v e s t i g a t e how r e s p o n s e r a t e s v a r y by e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , u s e r s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t h r e e g r o u p s - t h o s e w i t h t e n y e a r s o r l e s s o f s c h o o l i n g , t h o s e w i t h 11 - 16 y e a r s and t h o s e w i t h 17 y e a r s o r more. As e d u c a t i o n , income and o c c u p a t i o n a r e a l l c l o s e l y r e l a t e d d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , d i f f e r e n c e s h e r e a r e e x p e c t e d . Lower e d u c a t i o n g r o u p s r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r a v e r a g e 188 incomes and have p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l o w e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e m a n a g e r i a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . Fewer o f t h e h i g h e r 'educated g r o u p have been r a i s e d i n r u r a l a r e a s . Those i n t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t e d c a t e g o r y have a l o n g e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n and a r e more o f t e n " e x p e r t " u s e r s t h a n t h o s e w i t h f e w e r y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . As n o t e d above, p r o f i c i e n c y i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t . TABLE L X V I I I PROFICIENCY RATING - BY EDUCATION Y e a r s o f E x p e r t I n t e r m e d i a t e N o v i c e N S c h o o l i n g (%) (%) (%) 10 o r l e s s 12.5 68.8 18.8 6k 11 - 16 15.5 69.6 15.0 381 17 o r more 2k.0 6k.0 12.0 292 H i g h e r e d u c a t e d u s e r s a l s o spend more and have a g r e a t e r i n v e s t m e n t i n b a c k c o u n t r y equipment t h a n l o w e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s a l t h o u g h t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p r o f i c i e n c y and income l i m i t s t h e i n f e r e n c e s t h a t c a n be drawn. 189 TABLE L X I X COST AND INVESTMENT - BY EDUCATION Y e a r s o f A v e r a g e T r i p C o s t A v e r a g e I n v e s t m e n t S c h o o l i n g ($) I n E q u i p m e n t ($) 10 o r l e s s 4 0 . 2 5 5 8 . 0 0 11 - 16 37.40 82.40 17 o r more 5 5 . 0 0 8 6 . 5 0 The g r o u p make-up o f h i g h e r e d u c a t e d u s e r s i s much more l i k e l y t o be " c o u p l e s " (25.3% v s . 3.1% o f t h e l o w e r e d u c a t i o n g r o u p ) b u t i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be an " o r g a n i s e d g r o u p " (6.2% v s . 18.8% o f t h e l o w e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p ) . S i z e o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s p a r t y i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r f o r t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o up t h o u g h l e n g t h o f s t a y does n o t d i f f e r . H i g h e r e d u c a t e d u s e r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n " f i s h i n g " and more i n t e r e s t e d i n " s o l i t u d e " as r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s v i s i t . The h i g h e r e d u c a t e d a l s o t e n d t o r a t e t h e r e a s o n s o f " r e l a x a t i o n " , " f e e l i n g c l o s e t o n a t u r e " , " p h o t o g r a p h y " and "see n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e " g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r t h a n 7 l o w e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s . C a t t o n ' s p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t n a t u r e ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e s a p p e a l more t o t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y i s g i v e n some s u p p o r t by t h i s d a t a . " R e f r e s h i n g m e n t a l l y " and " s o l i t u d e " were e v a l u a t e d as g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s o f t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s w h i l e " s o c i a l l y 190 e n t e r t a i n i n g " and " l e a r n e d more a b o u t c a m p i n g " were r a t e d l o w e r . T h i s w o u l d a g a i n i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t C a t t o n ' s p r o p o s i t i o n . TABLE LXX BENEFITS - BY EDUCATION (% r a t i n g " v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t " ) Y e a r s o f R e f r e s h i n g S o l i t u d e S o c i a l l y L e a r n e d More S c h o o l i n g M e n t a l l y E n t e r t a i n i n g A b o u t Camping 10 o r l e s s 76.6 51.6 26.6 43.8 1 1 - 1 6 86.1 6 1 . 2 14 . 2 33.1 17 o r more 91.1 63.4 8.6 29.5 E d u c a t i o n l e v e l a p p e a r s t o have o n l y m i n o r e f f e c t s on f a c i l i t y and management o p i n i o n s . Lower e d u c a t e d g r o u p s g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s u p p o r t t o " i n t e r p r e t i v e s i g n s " w h i l e h i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more a g a i n s t " c o n t r o l l e d h u n t i n g " and " s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g " I n t h e p a r k s . E d u c a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o c a m p s i t e p r e f e r e n c e w i t h h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t e d group p r e f e r i n g c a m p s i t e s away f r o m o t h e r s . E d u c a t i o n i s t h e o n l y one o f 11 v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e p a r k u s e s . The h i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p g i v e s s l i g h t l y more w e i g h t t o " s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h " and s l i g h t l y l e s s w e i g h t t o " f u t u r e 1 91 r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t " t h a n t h o s e i n t h e l o w e s t e d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r y . W i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s t r a v e l l i n g i n s m a l l e r p a r t i e s , p r e f e r i n g i s o l a t e d c a m p s i t e s and s o l i t u d e i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s , i t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n s on c r o w d i n g and c a p a c i t y would a l s o v a r y . H i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s do i n f a c t s e t a l o w e r l i m i t o f g r o u p s p e r day (k.k% v s . 6.2% f o r t h e l o w e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p ) and s u g g e s t a s m a l l e r optimum s i z e f o r w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l ( 3 .5 p e r s o n s v s . k,3 f o r t h e l o w e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p ) . E d u c a t i o n l e v e l a f f e c t s t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f two d a n g e r i t e m s . Lower e d u c a t e d g r o u p s r a t e " i n s e c t s " and " f o r e s t f i r e s " as s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r b u t s t i l l m i n o r h a z a r d s . The above r e s u l t s have shown t h a t e d u c a t i o n l e v e l o f t h e u s e r i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n e x p l a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . H i g h e d u c a t i o n i s n o t o n l y a p r e d i s p o s i n g f a c t o r b u t a f f e c t s r e s p o n s e t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l . H i g h e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s a r e more p r o f i c i e n t i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l , a r e more w i l d e r n e s s " p u r i s t " i n o u t l o o k , and a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r u s e r s t h a n t h o s e w i t h l o w e r e d u c a t i o n . 1 92 Response by W i l d e r n e s s T r a v e l E x p e r i e n c e A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n between y e a r s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e and p r o f i c i e n c y , I t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t l o n g - t i m e u s e r s are a lways " e x p e r t s " o r s h o r t e x p e r i e n c e u s e r s are always " n o v i c e s " . To examine r e s p o n s e p u r e l y on t h e b a s i s o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , u s e r s were c l a s s i f i e d i n f i v e groups a c c o r d i n g t o the l e n g t h o f e x p e r i e n c e t h e y r e p o r t e d . R e s u l t s c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h o s e found f o r p r o f i c i e n c y though the number o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i s n o t as h i g h . Long e x p e r i e n c e u s e r s have h i g h e r Incomes, more e d u c a t i o n and b e l o n g t o t h e " m a n a g e r i a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l " o c c u p a t i o n s i n h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s t h a n do s h o r t e x p e r i e n c e u s e r s . As were " e x p e r t " w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s , l o n g e x p e r i e n c e u s e r s were l e s s u r b a n i n background and were more o f t e n i n t r o d u c e d t o w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l by " p a r e n t s " t h a n were u s e r s w i t h o n l y r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e . C o s t , i n v e s t m e n t i n e q u i p m e n t , l e n g t h o f t r i p , p r e - p l a n n i n g and a n n u a l p a t t e r n o f use were r e p o r t e d l o n g e r or g r e a t e r by those w i t h l o n g e r e x p e r i e n c e i n w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l . There were , however, few d i f f e r e n c e s between groups c o n c e r n i n g the m o t i v a t i o n s and b e n e f i t s o f the v i s i t . Of a l l p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s and b e n e f i t s o n l y the c a t e g o r y " l e a r n e d more about camping" v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between groups w i t h 50.0$ o f those w i t h two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e or l e s s and 20.5$ o f those 193 w i t h t e n y e a r s o r more e x p e r i e n c e r a t i n g i t as " v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t " . E x c e p t f o r t h i s minor i t e m , the s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t p a s t e x p e r i e n c e does n o t a f f e c t m o t i v a t i o n or i n c r e a s e the b e n e f i t s the u s e r o b t a i n s f rom the r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f w i l d l a n d s . As i s p r o f i c i e n c y , y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i s n o t r e l a t e d t o o p i n i o n s on management, e v a l u a t i o n o f c a p a c i t y or assessment o f p o s s i b l e uses and w i l d e r n e s s e n t r y . I n c o n t r a s t t o p r o f i c i e n c y r a t i n g s , w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e does n o t i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n s on f a c i l i t i e s b u t does a f f e c t the e s t i m a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d a n g e r s . Users w i t h s h o r t e x p e r i e n c e tend t o r a t e most dangers h i g h e r t h a n l o n g e x p e r i e n c e u s e r s , e s p e c i a l l y " s t a r v a t i o n " and " i n s e c t s " . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t y e a r s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e i s n o t a s t r o n g an i n f l u e n c e on r e s p o n s e as p r o f i c i e n c y and t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s i n the make-up o f the u s e r account f o r more v a r i a t i o n i n response t h a n s i m p l y p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . 1 94 R e s p o n s e by S i z e o f P a r t y As t h e d a t a have shown, w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l i s n e i t h e r a g r o u p n o r i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e w i t h a n a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e r e p o r t e d o f k.2 p e r s o n s . Though v a r i a t i o n s f r o m t h i s a v e r a g e a r e s m a l l i t c o u l d be t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n o f j u s t a f e w p e r s o n s may be c r i t i c a l enough t o change t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The d a t a was t h u s c a t e g o r i z e d t o e x p l o r e t h e b e h a v i o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n f i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f p a r t y s i z e s . A number o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s a r e f o u n d . L a r g e r g r o u p s spend a l o n g e r t i m e p l a n n i n g t h e t r i p and s t a y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n g e r i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y . No r e a s o n s why l a r g e r g r o u p s s t a y l o n g e r c a n be s u g g e s t e d . TABLE L X X I PRE-PLANNING AND LENGTH OF STAY - BY SIZE OF PARTY Group S i z e P l a n n i n g Time (weeks) A v e r a g e L e n g t h o f S t a y ( d a y s ) N 1 4.1 3 .5 48 2 11 .0 4.1 285 3 - k 1 2.0 6 . 0 204 5 - 6 16.9 6 . 0 101 7 o r more 22.1 6 . 5 96 195 L a r g e r g r o u p s a r e more s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d r a t i n g " b e i n g w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s " and "was s o c i a l l y e n t e r t a i n i n g " as more a s i g n i f i c a n t m o t i v e and b e n e f i t o f t h e t r i p . O t h e r w i s e t h e r e were no n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e m o t i v a t i o n and b e n e f i t q u e s t i o n s . TABLE L X X I I MOTIVATION AND BENEFITS - BY SIZE OF PARTY Group S i z e Be W i t h F a m i l y , F r i e n d s S o c i a l l y E n t e r t a i n i n g (% r a t i n g {% r a t i n g " v e r y i m p o r t a n t " ) " n o t s i g n i f i c a n t " ) 1 14.6 6 4 . 6 2 23.9 6 5 . 6 3 - 4 3 8 . 2 50.O 5 - 6 4 8 . 5 42.6 7 o r more 4 1 . 7 4 4 . 8 L a r g e r g r o u p s a l s o t e n d t o be more f a v o r a b l e t o w a r d s f a c i l i t y i n t r o d u c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y "more c a m p s i t e s " and " p i t t o i l e t s " . L a r g e r g r o u p s a l s o g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s u p p o r t t o an e n t r y f e e and a r e s e r v a t i o n s s y s t e m b u t do n o t a g r e e w i t h l i m i t i n g g r o up s i z e t o s i x p e o p l e . L a r g e r g r o u p s a l s o have a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n o f where t h e w i l d e r n e s s i s e n t e r e d . The median e n t r y p o i n t f o r g r o u p s 1 96 o f f i v e o r more i s 3 .0 m i l e s w h i l e f o r g r o u p s o f f o u r o r l e s s i t i s 6.0 m i l e s . Over 95$ o f r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m l a r g e g r o u p s • e v e n t u a l l y do e n t e r t h e w i l d e r n e s s b u t o n l y 87$ o f t h o s e f r o m s m a l l e r g r o u p s do. As w o u l d be e x p e c t e d , l a r g e r g r o u p s had more t r o u b l e f i n d i n g u n o c c u p i e d c a m p s i t e s and s u g g e s t e d a l a r g e optimum s i z e f o r w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l (5-0 p e r s o n s v s . 2.9 f o r g r o u p s o f h o r l e s s ) . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h i s d a t a t h a t s i z e o f p a r t y has some e f f e c t on u s e r r e s p o n s e t o w i l d e r n e s s . L a r g e r p a r t i e s t a k e l o n g e r t r i p s , a r e more s o c i a l l y i n c l i n e d , a r e more w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e b e h a v i o r and f a c i l i t y i n t r o d u c t i o n s and a r e n o t as " p u r i s t " i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s as a r e t h e s m a l l e r g r o u p s . Response bv E n v i r o n m e n t o f U p b r i n g i n g Does g r o w i n g up i n an u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t make a p e r s o n more u n f e e l i n g a b o u t w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s o r more i n s e n s i t i v e i n h i s 8 w i l d l a n d b e h a v i o r ? Hendee has commented t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n u r b a n o r r u r a l r e s i d e n c e o f u s e r s a r e s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and t h a t t h e o r i e s would be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y b u i l t a r o u n d f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n p a s t r e s i d e n c e o f u s e r s . F i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s s t u d y . a g r e e t h a t v a r i a t i o n i n w i l d e r n e s s o p i n i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f u p b r i n g i n g o f t h e u s e r , r a t h e r t h e y a r e more a p r o d u c t o f o t h e r t r i p and de m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . 197 One d i f f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , t h a t does o c c u r and t h a t may-have i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l • a b i l i t y o f u s e r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s . R e s p o n d e n t s b r o u g h t up I n u r b a n a r e a s r e p o r t e d l e s s w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e t h a n o t h e r s ( 6 . 7 y e a r s v s . 8 . 9 y e a r s f o r t h o s e r a i s e d i n towns and 1 0 . 7 y e a r s f o r t h o s e r a i s e d i n r u r a l a r e a s ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y many more o f t h o s e r a i s e d i n u r b a n a r e a s a r e " n o v i c e s " ( 1 7 . 7 % v s . 6 . 4 % o f r u r a l p e o p l e ) . I t i s t h u s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f u t u r e a b i l i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s w i l l be l o w e r i f t h e t r e n d t o u r b a n i s a t i o n c o n t i n u e s . Response by Sex The f a c t t h a t o n l y 3 0 % o f t h e sample were women i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t w i l d e r n e s s t h a t does n o t a t t r a c t f e m a l e s . However, a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e d a t a show v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s p o n s e between male and f e m a l e w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s . One d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t more women t h a n men r a t e t h e m s e l v e s as " n o v i c e s " ( 2 6 . 9 % v s . 1 2 . 2 % o f men) and have c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y f e w e r y e a r s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e . The o n l y o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s p o n s e o c c u r s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n o f d a n g e r s . Women, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p e r h a p s , g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r d a n g e r r a t i n g s t o f i v e o f t h e n i n e i t e m s l i s t e d . T o t a l amount o f dange r i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d " m i n o r " by b o t h g r o u p s . 198 Summary o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a b l e s One o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t c o u l d be a s c r i b e d t o e l e v e n s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s as f a c t o r s c a u s i n g v a r i a t i o n I n v i s i t o r m o t i v a t i o n , o p i n i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s . I t was f o u n d t h a t a l l o f them had s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h some o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s , some more t h a n o t h e r s . 2 As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , X and T - t e s t s do n o t p r o v i d e an o b j e c t i v e b a s i s f o r r a n k i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v a r i a b l e s . However, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e number o f s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s and t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a i n e d , s i x v a r i a b l e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as s t r o n g i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s , t h r e e a r e o f i n t e r m e d i a t e i m p o r t a n c e and two a r e o f v e r y l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e . Of a l l f a c t o r s " p a r k v i s i t e d " was o b s e r v e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e most t o v a r i a t i o n s i n r e s p o n s e . I n f a c t , a l m o s t e v e r y r e s p o n s e v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by p a r k . T h e r e a r e two s u g g e s t e d r e a s o n s f o r t h i s . F i r s t , e a c h p a r k p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n e l i c i t i n g d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s . S e c o n d l y , e a c h p a r k a t t r a c t s a v i s i t o r g r o u p o f d i f f e r e n t c o m p o s i t i o n . O t h e r i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s a r e l e n g t h o f s t a y , r e g i o n a l o r i g i n , a g e , commitment and e d u c a t i o n l e v e l . W i l d e r n e s s p r o f i c i e n c y , y e a r s o f w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e and s i z e o f p a r t y a r e o f i n t e r m e d i a t e i m p o r t a n c e . E n v i r o n m e n t o f u p b r i n g i n g and sex a r e t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s . 199 From T a b l e L X X I I I i t c a n be o b s e r v e d t h a t f e w o r none o f t h e v a r i a b l e s had any e f f e c t on s e v e r a l o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' i t e m s . A l l u s e r g r o u p i n g s e x c e p t e d u c a t i o n gave t h e same w e i g h t i n g t o t h e d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e uses o f t h e p a r k s . S i m i l a r l y o n l y r e g i o n a l o r i g i n had an e f f e c t upon s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a common u n d e r l y i n g a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e u s e s w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s c a n be p u t t o and t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n s d e r i v e d t h e r e f r o m . TABLE L X X I I I SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT INTERACTIONS Q u e s t i o n n a i r e V-, V 2 V3 V5 V 5 V7 Vs Vq V 1 0 V-j -j R e s p o n s e s P a r k L. o f Age O r i g i n Comm- P r o f - E d u c a - Y e a r s T o t a l U p b r i n g - Sex s t a y i t r a e n t i c i e n c y t i o n e x p e r . s i z e i n g E d u c a t i o n X •/ A X X X X Income X X X .r A X X O c c u p a t i o n X X X X X X X X O r i g i n X X X X X ~\r A X U p b r i n g i n g X X X P r o f i c i e n c y X X X X X X X X W i l d e r n e s s I n t r o . X X X X X W i l d e r n e s s e x p e r . X A X "V A X X X X P r e - p l a n n i n g X X X r A X X L e n g t h o f s t a y X X X ' 7 A J\ X X Make-up X X V X X X X A A S i z e o f p a r t y - \r A X X X T r A C o s t X X X X X X X X I n v e s t m e n t X X X X X r A A X T r i p s p e r y e a r X X X X X Av. l e n g t h r A X X X X X X M o t i v e s X X X X X X B e n e f i t s X X X X X X F a c i l i t i e s X '. r A X X X Management X X X X X E n t r a n c e f e e X X X X X X X X P o s s i b l e uses A (X - when a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t h e i n f l u e n c i n g v a r i a b l e and q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e ) ( T a b l e L X X I I I c o n t i n u e d p.201) TABLE L X X I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT INTERACTIONS Q u e s t i o n n a i r e V-, V 2 V5 V7 Vg V q V 1 0 V 1 1 R e s p o n s e s P a r k L. o f Age O r i g i n Comm- P r o f - E d u c a - Y e a r s T o t a l U p b r i n g - Sex s t a y i t merit i c i e n c y t i o n e x p e r . s i z e i n g % W i l d e r n e s s X X W i l d e r n e s s e n t r y X X X C a m p s i t e p r e f . X X X X X X X X F i n d c a m p s i t e s X X X C r o w d i n g X "V X X P a r k c a p a c i t y X X X X X Groups p e r day X r X X X Optimum s i z e X X X X X X X C o m p l a i n t s X X S a t i s f a c t i o n X R e t u r n X X X X v X Danger s X X X X X O v e r a l l danger X X X (X = when a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t h e i n f l u e n c i n g v a r i a b l e and q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e ) 202 REFERENCES CHAPTER X R o s e n b e r g , G., " C i t y P l a n n i n g T h e o r y and t h e Q u a l i t y o f L i f e " , Am. Behav. S c . . V o l . 9 , No. 4 , Dec., 1 9 6 5 , P. 3 . Sessoms, H. D o u g l a s , "An A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n P a t t e r n s " , 4 2 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 1 2 - 1 1 5 -B u r c h , W.R.J., " W i l d e r n e s s - The L i f e C y c l e and F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n a l C h o i c e " , J . o f F o r . , 6 4, 1 9 6 6 , p. 6 0 6 -610. Cowan, I . McT., " W i l d e r n e s s - C o n c e p t , F u n c t i o n and Management", H o r a c e M. A l b r i g h t C o n s e r v a t i o n L e c t u r e s h i p V I I , B e r k e l e y , A p r i l , 1 9 6 8 , p. 2 6 . Nash, R o d e r i c k , W i l d e r n e s s and t h e A m e r i c a n M i n d , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 1 9 6 7 . F o r g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n c o m p a r i s o n s see B e r t r a m , G.W., "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n t o Economic G r o w t h " , S t a f f S t u d y No. 1 2 , Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, 1 9 6 6 , and P o d o l u k , J.R., "Incomes o f C a n a d i a n s " , D.B.S. Census Monograph, 1 9 6 8 , p. 1 2 8 . C a t t o n , W.R., " M o t i v a t i o n s o f W i l d e r n e s s U s e r s " , P u l p and P a p e r M a g a z i n e o f Canada, D e c , 1 9 , 1 9 6 9 . Hendee, J.C., " R u r a l - U r b a n D i f f e r e n c e s R e f l e c t e d i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , J . o f L e i s u r e R e s . . V. 1 , No. 4 , Autumn, 1 9 6 9 -203 CHAPTER Al CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF USER STUDY A number o f c o n c l u s i o n s o n i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s t h a t have b e e n d i s c u s s e d t h u s f a r have no o v e r a l l meaning i n a p o l i c y c o n t e x t . The c o n c e r n now i s t o l i n k r e c r e a t i o n i s t s 1 a t t r i b u t e s and o p i n i o n s t o p l a n n i n g and management c o n s i d e r a t i o n s e v e n t h o u g h some s u b j e c t i v e c o n c e p t u a l l e a p s a r e r e q u i r e d . The m i s s i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o c o l l e c t , c o n d e n s e , and e x t e n d some o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n t o a r e a s where c o n c l u s i o n s a r e n o t r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i l l be b a s e d o n c o l l e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s as w e l l as t h e a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e d e a l i n g w i t h p a r k u s e r s . F u t u r e F o r e c a s t I n t h e absence o f r e g u l a t o r y mechanisms s u c h as t h e p r i c e s y s t e m t o g u i d e p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s on p a r k s , i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t r e c r e a t i o n "consumers" be p r o v i d e d w i t h some o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e g i s t e r t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s and t h a t t h e s e p r e f e r e n c e s be c l o s e l y m o n i t o r e d . E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e f r o m t h i s s t u d y o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s p r o v i d e some g u i d e l i n e s f o r j u d g i n g f u t u r e demands f o r w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . F i n d i n g s h e r e a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r o j e c t i o n s made i n 20h t h e U.S., w h i c h f o r e c a s t c o n t i n u i n g g e o m e t r i c g r o w t h i n demand 1 f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T o e x p l a i n t h i s g r o w t h t h e f i r s t mechanism t o c o n s i d e r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s . These i n c l u d e : O v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , t h e r u r a l t o u r b a n s h i f t , t h e i n c r e a s e a t b o t h ends o f t h e age s p e c t r u m , t h e r i s e i n e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s , t h e i n c r e a s e i n p e r c a p i t a and e s p e c i a l l y d i s c r e t i o n a r y i n c o m e , t h e i n c r e a s e i n l e i s u r e t i m e , and t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e m o b i l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h more e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r V, w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s as a w h o l e b e l o n g t o t h e h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . As more and more p e o p l e move i n t o t h e s e g r o u p s we c a n e x p e c t c o r r e s p o n d i n g s h i f t s i n t a s t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r w i l d e r n e s s - t y p e r e c r e a t i o n . Not o n l y a r e w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s an i n c r e a s i n g segment o f s o c i e t y , b u t as a p r o d u c t o f a l l t h e above d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s , p e o p l e a r e becoming more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e g e n e r a l q u a l i t y o f th e e n v i r o n m e n t . A r e c e n t " D e l p h i " s t u d y o f S o c i a l F u t u r e s i n 2 A l b e r t a c o n c l u d e d t h a t " e n v i r o n m e n t a l a p p r e c i a t i o n w i l l be s h a r p l y u p g r a d e d d u r i n g t h e n e x t t h r e e d e c a d e s " . I n c r e a s i n g consumer t a s t e s f o r t h e use o f w i l d l a n d s f o r r e c r e a t i o n may be f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t l y b a s e d on a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h i s i n t e n s i f i e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l a w a r e n e s s . A n o t h e r mechanism l e a d i n g t o i n c r e a s e d demand i s t h e " l e a r n i n g - b y - d o i n g " p r o c e s s w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e more p e o p l e a r e exposed t o and b e n e f i t f r o m t h e use o f a r e s o u r c e t h e more 2 0 5 3 t h e y w i l l demand s u c h use . The u s e r s u r v e y does i n d i c a t e t h a t l e a r n i n g - b y - d o i n g i s a p o t e n t f a c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y among •the young and t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d . R e s e a r c h t o u n c o v e r more o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s on t h e demand f u n c t i o n i s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t e d . I n sum, a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h f a c t o r s as t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d , l e a r n i n g - b y - d o i n g , i n c r e a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l a w a r e n e s s , and d e m o g r a p h i c changes i n f a v o r o f w i l d e r n e s s c l i e n t e l e , a l l p o i n t t o a n i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f w i l d l a n d s . How l o n g t h i s t r e n d w i l l c o n t i n u e c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d . O b v i o u s l y , b e c a u s e o f t h e s u p p l y l i m i t s , s u c h booming use c a n n o t c o n t i n u e i n d e f i n i t e l y . C o n g e s t i o n and s a t i a t i o n w i l l u l t i m a t e l y l i m i t g r o w t h i n demand. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Use C a p a c i t y w i t h t h i s f o r e c a s t f o r i n c r e a s e d use o f w i l d e r n e s s , t h e k e y p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m i s one o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f b o t h t h e r e s o u r c e and t h e e x p e r i e n c e . To d e t e r m i n e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s o f p a r k s , s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d on b o t h r e s o u r c e c a p a b i l i t i e s and u s e r p e r c e p t i o n and b e h a v i o r i n t h e manner s u g g e s t e d by h Lime f o r t h e B o u n d a r y w a t e r Canoe A r e a . The p r e m i s e has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t v i s i t o r p e r c e p t i o n o f c r o w d i n g i s a v e r y b a s i c d e t e r m i n a n t o f u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and i s r e c o g n i s e d as s u c h by r e s p o n d e n t s . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f 206 capacity thus i s not simply a matter of what the land dictates hut also what different user groups identify as acceptable 'levels of use. Although resource considerations w i l l often take precedence, It i s conceivable that v i s i t o r s e n s i t i v i t y to crowding could set capacity levels lower than any land capability l e v e l s . As the user survey reveals, despite the fact that 50 percent of v i s i t o r s were bothered by crowding or had d i f f i c u l t y finding campsites, 85 percent report that they do enter wilderness at some point on their t r i p , usually within f i v e miles of the roadhead. It can be inferred, therefore, that the parks, i n the user's judgment, are providing a wilderness experience i n a l l but 15 percent of cases. In the user•s estimation, present use levels do not seriously detract from the quality of the area. There are indications, however, especially i n two of the sample areas, that the psychological use saturation l e v e l i s being approached. Most v i s i t o r s think the park i s incapable of accommodating further increases i n the number of v i s i t o r s . Total use now i s estimated to be close to capacity. The parks appear to be approaching a watershed i n user capacity where a choice w i l l soon have to be made between limiting the number of vi s i t o r s or losing the wilderness environment. The situation i s analagous to the common property 207 p r o b l e m d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e c l e a r . F i r s t , r e c o g n i s i n g t h a t t h e s u p p l y o f n a t u r a l a r e a s i s ' i n e l a s t i c , we c o u l d e s t a b l i s h more p a r k s . A t t h e same t i m e we c o u l d use more e f f e c t i v e l y t h e a r e a s we a l r e a d y h a v e . ( I n G a r i b a l d i f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e a r e l e s s t h a n 30 m i l e s o f a c c e s s t r a i l s and a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r d i s p e r s i n g demand w i t h i n e x i s t i n g p a r k b o u n d a r i e s . ) Second, we c o u l d r e g u l a t e use o f t h e p a r k s t o m a x i m i z e p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and m i n i m i z e s i t e i m p a c t . T h i r d , we c o u l d accommodate e v e r y o n e a t t h e expense o f r e d u c i n g i n d i v i d u a l and r e s o u r c e q u a l i t y . Or, we c o u l d a p p l y more i n t e n s i v e w i l d e r n e s s p l a n n i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g methods, r e c r e a t i o n l a y o u t s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s t o p r o v i d e optimums i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . O b v i o u s l y i t i s t i m e t o a p p l y more e f f e c t i v e l y t h e p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d a r t o f w i l d e r n e s s p l a n n i n g and management. W h i l e v i s i t o r s sense t h i s a p p r o a c h i n g s a t u r a t i o n i n w i l d e r n e s s c a p a c i t y , t h e y do n o t a p p e a r r e a d y t o a c c e p t r e s t r i c t i o n s i n r e t u r n f o r a s s u r a n c e s o f a h i g h q u a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e and s u s t a i n e d r e s o u r c e b a s e . The s u r v e y i n d i c a t e s t h a t u s e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y a g a i n s t a l l major management and d i s c i p l i n a r y m e a s u r e s . I n t h e more h e a v i l y u s e d p a r k s , h owever, r e s i s t a n c e was l o w e r . The w i l d e r n e s s i s s t i l l r e g a r d e d as a commons t h a t s h o u l d be open t o a l l w i t h o u t c h a r g e and w i t h o u t l i m i t s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t b e f o r e any changes and c o n t r o l s on w i l d e r n e s s e n t r y a r e i n t r o d u c e d , i n t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and 208 e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n v i n c e u s e r s t h a t w i l d e r n e s s c a n n o t be i n d e f i n i t e l y r e g a r d e d as a common p r o p e r t y r i g h t . A m a j o r f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e p rograms w i l l be t o c o n v i n c e u s e r s t h a t s a t u r a t i o n w i l l r u i n t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s . G r o w t h and a ccommodation c a n n o t be c o n t i n u a l l y a b s o r b e d i f t h a t s p e c i a l i r r e t r i e v a b l e q u a l i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d . I f some f o r m o f w i l d e r n e s s i s t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e p a r k s , some r e s t r i c t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s a r e i n e v i t a b l e . A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i s e t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s one a r e a i n s o c i e t y where f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e and a c t i o n i s s t i l l e x e r c i s e d . R a t h e r t h a n c a s t an a u t h o r i t a r i a n s p e c t r e on t h e w i l d e r n e s s , l e t us t r e a d s o f t l y and make o n l y t h e a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y moves i n a s i n c o n s p i c u o u s b u t f o r w a r d manner as p o s s i b l e . The W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s - A Second Look Some e v i d e n c e n o t e n t i r e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s now p r e s e n t e d t h a t s u g g e s t s an a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t may be e v o l v i n g i n t o s o m e t h i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h e u r i s t i c i n t o n e and w i l l a t t e m p t a new d e f i n i t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s t o modern man and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s on our w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s y s t e m . 2 0 9 The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t o a sk i s : Was t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e p u r p o r t i n g t o s t u d y t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e • i n a r e a s t h a t were, i n f a c t , a l r e a d y s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n 5 w i l d e r n e s s ? The f o l l o w i n g comment by Sommer o n t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n u n c o v e r i n g t h e r e a l meaning o f n a t u r e t o man l e d t o t h i s more s u b j e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n . H i s comment was: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r s u r v e y a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s a r e l i m i t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t e n d s t o a f f e c t p e o p l e f r o m beyond t h e i r f o c u s o f a w a r e n e s s . E x c e p t i n r a r e i n s t a n c e s , s u c h as s t a n d i n g a w e s t r u c k i n a g r o v e o f m a j e s t i c redwoods o r a l o n g s i d e t h e e t e r n a l c a l e n d a r o f t h e Grand Canyon, p e o p l e do n o t a r t i c u l a t e i n any o r g a n i s e d way how t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a f f e c t s them. W i t h t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i n mind c o n s i d e r a g a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g 6 p u b l i c agency d e s c r i p t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s : The w i l d e r n e s s e n v i r o n m e n t i s s u c h t h a t u s e r s c a n e x p e r i e n c e a wide r a n g e o f i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e s ; f e e l i n g o f s o l i t u d e , sense o f f r e e d o m , r e f r e s h m e n t , s p i r i t u a l a w a r e n e s s , s e r e n i t y , and s e l f r e l i a n c e . S o l i t u d e and s e r e n i t y ? W i t h a l l t h o s e o t h e r p e o p l e ? Freedom? Wit h a l l t h o s e r u l e s and r e s t r i c t i o n s on where t o camp, what t o do w i t h g a r b a g e , and where t o l i g h t f i r e s ? A d v e n t u r e , e x c i t e m e n t and s e l f r e l i a n c e ? W i t h a l l t h o s e p r e p a r e d c a m p s i t e s , danger w a r n i n g s i g n s and p a t r o l b o a t s ? These a r e n o t o n l y d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p t s t o measure b u t a r e r a t h e r i d e a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s as i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e 210 d e v e l o p e d c a m p s i t e s a t B l a c k T u s k Meadows, a t t h e l o d g e a t Mt. Robson R a n c h , o r a t any o f t h e camps o r s h e l t e r s on t h e Bowron • c h a i n . I t seems t h a t a new r e c r e a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s p a r k e x p e r i e n c e , more r e l e v a n t t o t h e u r b a n age i s a p p e a r i n g t h a t does n o t i n c l u d e t o t a l p u r i t y , t o t a l s o l i t u d e , o r d a n g e r . B a c k c o u n t r y t r a v e l l e r s and b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s a r e u b i q u i t o u s w h i l e t h e e l e m e n t s o f f e a r and a d v e n t u r e have b e e n l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d due t o i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s and s a f e t y and c o n v e n i e n c e - o r i e n t e d management p o l i c i e s w h i c h have made t h e w i l d e r n e s s a good d e a l s a f e r t h a n a c i t y s t r e e t . The argument c a n t h u s be made t h a t t h e p a r k s a r e n o t p r e s e r v e s , t h a t t h e y s h o u l d o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d q u a s i - w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s o r a t y p e o f use o f w i l d l a n d d e s i g n e d t o s u i t t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y u n d e r n o u r i s h e d u r b a n p u b l i c . The days o f t h e u n d e f i l e d savage w i l d e r n e s s a r e o v e r -t h e f r o n t i e r no l o n g e r e x i s t s . W i t h t h e a i d o f t h e P a r k s B r a n c h , t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r c r e a t e s f o r h i m s e l f a new w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e , e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h h i s own v e r s i o n o f t h e f r o n t i e r w o r l d . B u t as a l o n g - t i m e o u t f i t t e r a t t h e Bowron L a k e s t o l d me: "Once t h e y made i t a p a r k , t h a t was t h e end o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s . " W i l d e r n e s s , i n i t s o r i g i n a l f r o n t i e r c o n t e x t , i s an outmoded i l l u s o r y c o n c e p t when i t i s a p p l i e d t o t h e b a c k c o u n t r y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s d u r i n g J u l y o r A u g u s t . 211 To s u p p o r t t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s , c o n s i d e r a g a i n t h e a v e r a g e v i s i t o r . R e c o g n i s i n g t h a t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s r a n g e 'from t h e v e r y s e n s i t i v e and d e d i c a t e d w i l d e r n e s s p u r i s t s t o t h e v e r y i n e x p e r i e n c e d c i t y - o r i e n t e d " f u n - s e e k e r s " , t h e m a j o r i t y o f w i l d e r n e s s v i s i t o r s f a l l somewhere between t h e s e e x t r e m e s . The t y p i c a l u s e r , h owever, has b e e n b r o u g h t up and i s l i v i n g i n an u r b a n a r e a and, a l t h o u g h he i s aware o f and i s s e e k i n g c e r t a i n w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s , h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d by t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f 7 h i s r e s i d e n c e . As Winn o b s e r v e s : ... p e o p l e c a n n o t come t o i d e n t i f y w i t h n a t u r e u n l e s s t h e y have grown up w i t h and become a p a r t o f i t . L a c k i n g w i l d e r n e s s o a s e s i n t h e c i t i e s ... u r b a n man i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p any w i d e s p r e a d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s b e a u t y o f t h e f o r e s t . The c o n t e m p o r a r y u s e r d o es n o t t r a v e l by h i m s e l f n o r does he w i s h t o be a l o n e i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y . He i s on a s h o r t e x c u r s i o n w i t h s e l e c t f r i e n d s t o e n j o y p r i m i t i v e t r a v e l and t h e d e l i g h t s o f w a n d e r i n g i n open w i l d c o u n t r y - a s o r t o f r e c r e a t i o n a l " c o n s u m e r s h i p " . He i s n o t t h e r e t o commune w i t h n a t u r e i n t h e sense t h a t T h e r e a u and M u i r t a l k e d o f , n o r i s he t h e r e t o e n c o u n t e r and e x p l o r e n a t u r e i n " a l l h e r moods". R a t h e r , t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y u s e r ' s w i l d e r n e s s v a c a t i o n has become r e c r e a t i o n - o r i e n t e d as much as i t i s n a t u r e - o r i e n t e d . Shepard o f f e r s t h e r e l e v a n t comment t h a t : " P r e s e n t day r e c r e a t i o n , w h i c h i s o f t e n d e f i n e d n e g a t i v e l y as escape f r o m an u n p l e a s a n t 21 2 e n v i r o n m e n t o r b o r i n g r o u t i n e , i s r e p l a c i n g t h e p i l g r i m a g e w h i c h had n a t u r a l wonders as i t s o b j e c t i v e . " Not a s m a l l p a r t • o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s a r e t h e r e b e c a u s e o f a n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o u r b a n d i s a m e n i t i e s . The l o n g i n g f o r n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s i s , i n p a r t , due t o t h e c o n t e m p t u o u s a t t i t u d e we a d o p t t o w a r d u r b a n l i f e . I n two o f t h e sample p a r k s t h e s t a y i s j u s t l o n g enough t o r e a c h t h e d e s t i n a t i o n , r e c o r d t h e image o n f i l m , and r e t u r n t o t h e c a r . The whole t r i p s c a r c e l y a l l o w s t i m e f o r any i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t w i t h o r s t u d y o f n a t u r e . W i l d e r n e s s u s e r s l i k e a t a s t e o f t h e o u t d o o r s b u t o n l y p e n e t r a t e i t and s a v o r i t b r i e f l y a t t h e m a r g i n . The v i s i t o r t o Bowron s t a y s l o n g e r b u t i s a l s o on a s c h e d u l e and has much t h e same e x p e r i e n c e v i s -a - v i s n a t u r e . He b e g i n s h i s t r i p a s s u r e d t h a t t h e r o u t e i s w e l l marked and w i l l p r e s e n t no o b s t a c l e s , t h a t he w i l l u s u a l l y be i n s i g h t o f a n o t h e r p a r t y , and t h a t he w i l l be p r o v i d e d f o r i n c a s e s o f e m e r g e n c i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e m y s t e r y o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l a l w a y s evoke an awe, t h e u s e r s e n s e s v e r y l i t t l e r i s k i n v o l v e d on t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f h i s j o u r n e y . I n u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e t r i p i t i s h e l p f u l t o r e c a l l 9 " B o o r s t i n ' s Law": ... when one r i s k s so l i t t l e o r e x p e r i e n c e s so l i t t l e on t h e v o y a g e , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g t h e r e somehow becomes e m p t i e r and more t r i v i a l . When g e t t i n g t h e r e was more t r o u b l e s o m e , b e i n g t h e r e was more v i v i d . 213 T h u s , modern w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s a r e n o t s o l e l y i n s e a r c h o f n a t u r a l wonders; t h e y a r e t r e n d i n g t o w a r d s new v a l u e s t h a t •might be c l a s s i f i e d as consumer, image, o r u r b a n - o r i e n t e d . W i l d e r n e s s t o u r i s m may be r e p l a c i n g w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l , t h e 10 d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g , as E c k b o n o t e s , t h a t t o u r i s m i s a more h i g h l y o r g a n i s e d movement and a c t i v i t y , o c c u r r i n g i n g r o u p s , and h a v i n g more g e n e r a l i s e d and a b s t r a c t o b j e c t i v e s . "The l a n d s c a p e o f t o u r i s m " , he w r i t e s , " i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i m p a c t o f mass t r a v e l o f u r b a n d w e l l e r s i n s e a r c h o f v a r i e t y , r e l a x a t i o n , o r a n o s t a l g i c q u e s t f o r f a m i l y , e t h n i c , o r c u l t u r a l r o o t s . " The r e c e n t r i s e o f c o n d u c t e d o u t i n g p rograms i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s t r e n d t o w a r d b a c k c o u n t r y t o u r i s m . S u c h o u t i n g s a r e a m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y o f o u t d o o r and c o n s e r v a t i o n c l u b s and a r e d e s i g n e d t o e n a b l e anyone a b l e t o pay the modest f e e t o e n j o y t h e w i l d e r n e s s . The W i l d e r n e s s 11 S o c i e t y ' s "Way t o t h e W i l d e r n e s s " p r o g r a m f e a t u r e s : ... 77 a d v e n t u r o u s o u t i n g s f o r t h e w i l d e r n e s s -tempted v a c a t i o n e r - a c h o i c e s a m p l i n g o f N o r t h A m e r i c a ' s s t i l l m a g n i f i c e n t w i l d e r n e s s h e r i t a g e ... t r i p s a r e p l a n n e d f o r t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d as w e l l as f o r seasoned w i l d e r n e s s e n t h u s i a s t s . C o m p l e t e a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e made f o r you f r o m t h e t i m e y o u a r r i v e ... u n t i l t h e t r i p i s o v e r .... An e x p e r i e n c e d w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s e r v e s as d i r e c t o r o f e a c h t r i p , and a p h y s i c i a n n o r m a l l y i s p r e s e n t t o h e l p y o u w i t h any m e d i c a l p r o b l e m s .... We have n o t s p a r e d any e f f o r t t o g i v e y o u a w o r t h w h i l e and memorable w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . 21 4 E x c e r p t s f r o m t h e q u a l i t y b r o c h u r e o f t h e p o p u l a r 1 2 A m e r i c a n R i v e r T o u r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n d e s c r i b e what t h e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s becoming f o r t h o u s a n d s o f u r b a n A m e r i c a n s : Too o f t e n p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t w i l d e r n e s s i s e n j o y e d o n l y by r u g g e d o u t d o o r s m e n . We f e e l t h a t w i l d e r n e s s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e , r e g a r d l e s s o f age o r l i m i t e d camping e x p e r i e n c e .... By way o f e n s u r i n g a q u a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e f o r y o u , y o u r f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h v a c a t i o n f u n and new l e a r n i n g , ARTA has l i m i t e d r e g u l a r r i v e r t r i p s t o 3 0 p e r s o n s .... Our c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p s a l l o w p e r s o n a l i n t i m a c y w i t h n a t u r e , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a happy s o c i a l f r a m e w o r k .... ARTA boatmen a r e s k i l l e d and i n f o r m a l l e a d e r s , and above a l l , t h e y a r e good company .... The boatmen s e r v e as camp c h e f s and s e l e c t a wide v a r i e t y o f menus t o s u i t e v e r y , t a s t e , f r o m b e e f s t r o g a n o f f t o f r e s h b aked a p p l e p i e . The S i e r r a C l u b , who c o n d u c t o v e r 3 0 0 s u c h o u t i n g t r i p a n n u a l l y , were f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s t o t h e Bowron L a k e s u n t i l l a s y e a r when a maximum p a r t y s i z e r u l e came i n t o e f f e c t . One gr o u p o f t w e n t y met i n t h e p a r k had f l o w n i n t o t h e t h i r d l a k e o f t h e c h a i n t o a v o i d making t h e f i r s t two r a t h e r a r d u o u s p o r t a g e s . A m e d i c a l d o c t o r and a l a w y e r a c c o m p a n i e d t h e g r o u p t o e n s u r e t h e r e were no p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t r o u b l e s . A l s o i n c l u d e d were a cook and a "camp m a s t e r " who " ... I s i n c o m p l e t e c h a r g e o f t h e t r i p . He may r e q u i r e a t r i p member t o l e a v e t h e t r i p a t any t i m e i f , i n h i s s o l e d i s c r e t i o n , he f e e l t h e member's f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e 1 3 t r i p ...." 215 A l o n g w i t h members o f t h e s e a l m o s t e f f o r t l e s s o u t i n g s , t h e mass o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s a r e o n l y • s e c o n d a r i l y s e e k i n g what has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h o u g h t o f as b a s i c w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s , i . e . c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f and communion w i t h n a t u r e and s o l i t u d e . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e and p e r c e p t i o n t h e y condone b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s and r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers o f o t h e r u s e r s . The common d e n o m i n a t o r , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n s u n c h a n g e d : The d e s i r e t o g e t away f r o m c i v i l i z a t i o n and f r o m f o r c e d and I m p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . Modern man's r e t u r n t o n a t u r e , as e v i d e n c e d by the u s e o f t h e s e w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s , i s a c o n v e n i e n t , c o m f o r t a b l e and r i s k -f r e e one - i t does n o t i n v o l v e r e v e r t i n g t o b a r b a r i s m , a l l o u t p r i m i t i v i s m , o r b e i n g a l o n e f o r months i n v a s t p r i s t i n e open s p a c e s . T h e r e c o n t i n u e s t o be an e l i t e p r o p o r t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s , however, w i t h a more a t a v i s t i c o u t l o o k , who do seek i s o l a t i o n i n t h e i r b a c k c o u n t r y v a c a t i o n s . These " D a n i e l B o o n e s " a r e among t h e m i n o r i t y (18$) o f t h e sample who c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s " e x p e r t " w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s . To e s c a p e crowds and i n s u l a t i n g and r e s t r i c t i n g management p o l i c i e s , t h e s e p e o p l e seem t o shun t h e p a r k s and seek o u t t h e h i g h p e a k s , t r a v e l c r o s s - c o u n t r y away f r o m t h e b e a t e n t r a i l s , o r e x p l o r e n o n - p a r k w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . The s u g g e s t i o n i n C h a p t e r X was t h a t as t h e s e w i l d e r n e s s " p u r i s t s " show a d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i n r e s p o n s e , t h e i r v i e w s s h o u l d r e c e i v e added c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n 14 management 21 6 By t h e same t o k e n t h a t t h e v i e w s and b a c k g r o u n d o f t h i s more demanding g r o u p a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , so t o o a r e t h o s e * o f t h e more u r b a n - i n c l i n e d n o v i c e s a t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e s p e c t r u m . I t i s o b v i o u s by f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e many p e o p l e i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y who, i n t e r m s o f m o t i v e s , a r e n o t s e e k i n g t h e w i l d e r n e s s a t m o s p h e r e , o r i n t e r m s o f a b i l i t y and p r e p a r e d n e s s , s h o u l d n o t be. The c o n d i t i o n t h a t b a c k c o u n t r y c a m p s i t e s a r e o f t e n l e f t i n i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r p r e s e n c e - who c a r e s f o r t h e w i l d e r n e s s w o u l d n o t d e s p o i l i t . The management i m p l i c a t i o n s h e r e a r e o b v i o u s b u t a r e as y e t u n e x p l o r e d . I f t h e s e p e o p l e c a n be I n t e r c e p t e d and d i v e r t e d e l s e w h e r e o r e d u c a t e d i n t h e ways o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l , t h e l o a d on t h e w i l d e r n e s s w i l l be g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s seem t o be e v o l v i n g i n a way t o s u i t t h e needs o f t h e mass o f v i s i t o r s t h a t f a l l b etween t h e e x t r e m e s o f t h e above two g r o u p s . W i t h t h e i r modest demands f o r b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s and c o m f o r t s , t h e i r l e s s I n t e n s i v e awareness o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s e n v i r o n m e n t , and t h e i r more l e i s u r e - o r i e n t e d m o t i v e s , a new m o d i f i e d f o r m o f p a r k e n v i r o n m e n t c a n be r e c o g n i s e d . I t i s one t h a t i s n o t w i l d e r n e s s i n i t s o r i g i n a l i d e a l i s t i c s e n s e , b u t a f o r m o f q u a s i - n a t u r a l l e i s u r e r e t r e a t ; i t i s an e n v i r o n m e n t s t r u c t u r e d t o p e r m i t a wide s p e c t r u m o f u r b a n s o c i e t y t o e x p e r i e n c e a s l i g h t l y compromised and humanized v e r s i o n o f t h e p r i m a e v a l . More and more t h e P a r k s B r a n c h i s r e s p o n d i n g as a p e o p l e -217 o r i e n t e d agency and t h e w i l d e r n e s s i n t u r n i s more and more 15 s q u e e z e d i n t o a r e c r e a t i o n a l m o l d . As t h e B r a n c h D i r e c t o r r e c e n t l y a f f i r m e d : I n a s i n g l e s e n t e n c e , t h e p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s i s t o g i v e p e o p l e , and t h i s now means p r e d o m i n a n t l y u r b a n d w e l l e r s , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n j o y h e a l t h f u l r e c r e a t i o n i n as c o m p l e t e as p o s s i b l e a change o f scene f r o m t h a t w h i c h t h e y spend t h e i r day t o day l i v e s . T h i s t r e n d t o t h e " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s o f t h e p a r k s seems c e r t a i n t o c o n t i n u e . As i t d o e s , we c a n e x p e c t more e x t e n s i v e u s e o f t h e p a r k s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n t h e p a t t e r n s o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e . The c r e a t i o n o f Bowron P a r k o n l y t e n y e a r s ago g i v e s e v i d e n c e t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l numbers o f u n i n i t i a t e d p e o p l e w i l l t a k e e x t e n d e d b a c k c o u n t r y v a c a t i o n s when t h e y a r e a s s u r e d o f c e r t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l s o f w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l . The whole c o n c e p t o f t h e G r e a t D i v i d e 16 T r a i l , a 565 m i l e l o n g d i s t a n c e t r a i l c o m p l e t e w i t h c l o s e l y s p a c ed p r i m i t i v e s h e l t e r s t h r o u g h t h e s e v e n R o c k y M o u n t a i n p a r k s , a n t i c i p a t e s t h i s t r e n d and i s j u s t i f i e d on t h i s b a s i s . 17 S i m i l a r t r a i l s have been s u g g e s t e d f o r G a r i b a l d i P a r k and o t h e r a r e a s as w e l l . Such p o l i c i e s t h a t enhance and e n c o u r a g e u se o f w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s by m i d d l e - r a n g e u s e r s c o n t a i n s u b t l e b u t s i g n i f i c a n t l o n g t e r m c o n s e q u e n c e s . We know t h a t changes i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a f f e c t changes i n t h e s o c i a l 218 e n v i r o n m e n t and v i c e v e r s a . I t i s a p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e t h a t by d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h v a l u e s s h o u l d be e m p h a s i s e d i n a g i v e n •area, we c a n p l a n t o meet t h e v a r i e d needs o f t h e d i f f e r e n t u s e r g r o u p s t h a t w i l l come t o t h a t a r e a . I h e outcome o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s on what v a l u e s a r e b e i n g e m p h a s i s e d and c hanges i n t r o d u c e d i s c e r t a i n . I t i s c i t y - b r e d p e o p l e w i t h c i t y - b r e d v a l u e s who w i l l be u s i n g t h e p a r k s and d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e g r e e and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . B e c a u s e o f t h i s f a c t t h e p a r k s seem d e s t i n e d t o p l a y a g r e a t e r r e c r e a t i o n r o l e f o r a w i d e r segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e . H e r e i n l i e s t h e d a n g e r . As has happened I n many p a r t s o f t h e U.S., as t h e p a r k s become more a c c e s s i b l e and commonplace and t h e e l e m e n t s o f d a n g e r and c h a l l e n g e become m i n i m a l , a c e r t a i n i r r e t r i e v a b l e w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t y i s l o s t and t h e p a r k s d e v e l o p s i m p l y i n t o b a c k c o u n t r y r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . The A m e r i c a n r e s p o n s e has b een t o s e p a r a t e t h e p a r k movement f r o m t h e movement f o r w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n , t h e W i l d e r n e s s A c t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . I n a r e a s where r e c r e a t i o n i s a p r e d o m i n a n t l a n d u s e , t h e t e r m " w i l d l a n d " has come t o r e p l a c e " w i l d e r n e s s " as a more r e a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n . I n Canada, however, b e c a u s e o f more l o c a l i s e d r e s o u r c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the p r o s p e c t s o f a s e p a r a t e w i l d e r n e s s movement a r e r e m o t e . Such a movement w i l l have t o e x i s t w i t h i n t h e p a r k s , i n t h e f o r m o f z o n i n g o r d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l . ( I n a l i m i t e d sense s u c h a movement i n t h e f o r m o f e c o l o g i c a l 219 r e s e r v e s i s b e i n g r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e IBP c o m m i t t e e s . ) I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t as demand c o n t i n u e s t o grow ' f o r w i l d e r n e s s - t y p e r e c r e a t i o n , o t h e r b a c k c o u n t r y o r s e m i -w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s o u t s i d e d e s i g n a t e d p a r k s w i t h p r i m i t i v e r e c r e a t i o n as t h e i r p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e w i l l be r e q u i r e d . U n t i l t h e n , c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g r e c o g n i s i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e management must be u n d e r t a k e n . I f i t i s n o t and i f a s u i t a b l e p u b l i c e s t h e t i c f a i l s t o a r i s e , t h e p a r k s w i l l d i s s o l v e i n t o b a c k c o u n t r y p l a y g r o u n d s . P a r k p l a n n e r s i n t h i s c o u n t r y have t h e d u a l ( b u t n o t I n c o n s i s t e n t ) o b j e c t i v e t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t a l t h o u g h w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s have v a l u e s beyond r e c r e a t i o n t h e y m u s t , a t t h e same t i m e , p r o v i d e a more f u n c t i o n a l and r e l e v a n t r e c r e a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y f o r our t i m e . 2 2 0 REFERENCES CHAPTER X I ( 1 ) The h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d i n t h e U.S. shows t h e p e r c a p i t a use o f w i l d e r n e s s has b e e n g r o w i n g a t a r a t e o f a b o u t 1 0 p e r c e n t a n n u a l l y o v e r t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s . S i m i l a r use r e c o r d s f o r s i m i l a r a r e a s i n Canada a r e e i t h e r a b s e n t , s h o r t , i n a c c u r a t e o r e r o t i c , w i t h c hanges f r o m y e a r t o y e a r , d e p e n d i n g how and by whom t h e e s t i m a t e s a r e made. F o r d a t a on t r e n d s i n t h e U.S. see: C l a w s o n , M a r i o n and K n e t s c h , J a c k L., E c o n o m i c s o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 6 6 . ( 2 ) Westrede I n s t i t u t e , S o c i a l F u t u r e s A l b e r t a 1970. 2 0 0 5 , Human R e s o u r c e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton, 1 9 7 0 , p. 5 5 . ( 3 ) K r u t i l l a , J.TJ., " C o n s e r v a t i o n R e c o n s i d e r e d " , Am. E c o n . Rev., 5 7 , 1 9 6 7 , p. 7 7 7 - 7 8 6 . ( 4 ) L i m e , D a v i d W., " R e s e a r c h F o r D e t e r m i n i n g Use C a p a c i t i e s o f t h e B o u n d a r y Waters Canoe A r e a " , N a t u r a l i s t . 21 ( 4 ) , 1 9 7 0 . ( 5 ) Sommer, R., "Man's P r o x i m a t e E n v i r o n m e n t " , J . o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . V o l . X X I I , No. 4 , O c t . , 1 9 6 6 , p. 6 7 . ( 6 ) C o n t a i n e d i n L a page, W.F., "Some S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n " , J , o f F o r . , ( 6 1 ) , 1 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 3 , p. 3 5 . ( 7 ) Winn, I r a J . , " P u b l i c P a r k s and P r i v a t e L i v e s " , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . O c t . , 1 9 6 9 , p. 2 3 . ( 8 ) S h e p a r d , P a u l , Man i n t h e L a n d s c a p e . K n o p f , N.Y., 1 9 6 7 , p. 2 6 0 . ( 9 ) B o o r s t i n , D a n i e l , J . , The Image. Atheneum, N.Y., 1 9 6 2 , p. 9 7 . ( 1 0 ) E c k b o , G a r r e t t , "The L a n d s cape o f T o u r i s m " , L a n d s c a p e . V o l . 1 8 , No. 2 , Summer-Spring, 1 9 6 9 , p. 2 9 . 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Wenger, W.D., "A T e s t o f Unmanned R e g i s t r a t i o n S t a t i o n s on W i l d e r n e s s T r a i l s " , F o r e s t S e r v i c e Res. Paper PNW-1 6, 1 9 6 4 . Westrede I n s t i t u t e , S o c i a l F u t u r e s A l b e r t a 1970, 2 0 0 5 . Human R e s o u r c e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton, 1970. W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y , " W i l d e r n e s s T r i p s 1971", i n s e r t i n The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s , V. 34, No. 11 2 , W i n t e r , 1970-71 . W i l l a r d , B., " E f f e c t s o f V i s i t o r Use on A l p i n e T u n d r a E c o s y s t e m s i n Rocky Mountain N a t i o n a l P a r k " , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U. o f C o l o r a d o , 1 9 6 7 . Winn, I r a J . , " P u b l i c P a r k s and P r i v a t e L i v e s " , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . O c t . , 1 9 6 9 . Wood, G.A., "A Proposed T r a i l System F o r the N o r t h e r n P o r t i o n o f G a r i b a l d i P a r k " , Memorandum to C h i e f , P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P r ov. P a r k s B r a n c h , J a n u a r y 9? 1967« Wood, R.S., " D e s o l a t i o n W i l d e r n e s s " , S i e r r a C l u b B u l l . , March, 1 9 7 1 , P. 4 - 7 . Yoemans, W.C., " B r i t i s h Columbia W i l d e r n e s s " , The L i v i n g W i l d e r n e s s , V o l . 3 4 , No. 1 1 2 , Winter, 19 7 0 - 7 1, p. 4 0 - 4 j . Zimmerman, E.W., I n t r o d u c t i o n to World R e s o u r c e s , ed. Hunker, II. L., Harper and Row, N.Y. , 1 964. A P P E N D I X 232 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION & CONSERVATION School of Community and Parks Branch DEAR VISITOR TO BOWRON LAKES PROVINCIAL PARK: This summer a survey on the human and social aspects of wilderness parks i n B.C. was begun. On the basis of your experience i n v i s i t i n g this park, we are requesting your assistance i n planning for i t s future use. You and your party have been randomly selected to participate i n the survey by completing and returning the enclosed stamped and self-addressed questionnaire. Please note that a l l questionnaire returns w i l l be coded for computor processing and your anonymity i s assured. Since your opinions and evaluation of your wilderness t r i p are so important, we sincerely s o l i c i t your cooperation i n returning the questionnaire as soon as possible. Yours very tru l y , Jim Thorsell, Wilderness Recreation Project P.S. If you are interested i n receiving a summary of the survey results, please print your name and address i n the space below: 233 1 . WILDERNESS USER QUESTIONNAIRE Please place your answers In the boxes where provided i n the right hand column. Try to complete a l l questions. 1. WHEN DID YOU TAKE YOUR TRIP THROUGH BOWRON PARK? 1. 2. 5. 4. June July August September Place one number i n . this box 2. HOW WERE YOU REFERRED TO THIS PARK? 1. Literature 2. Friends 3. Been there before 4. Other 3. WHAT WOULD YOU SAY WAS THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT REASON FOR YOUR TRIP? 4. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU DURING THE TRIP WERE THE FOLLOWING REASONS AND ACTIVITIES? Mark box 1. If very significant 2. If neutral 3. If not significant Wilderness camping Fishing Seeing natural landscape Viewing w i l d l i f e Exercise Doing something different Exploration of the area Photography-Being with family, friends Solitude Feeling close to nature Relaxing Escaping from c i v i l i z a t i o n 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT THE PROVISION OF THE FOLLOWING FACILITIES IN THE BACKCOUNTRY OF THE PARK? Mark box 1. If needed 2. If neutral 3. If not needed Primitive shelters More campsites Better portages Trails to alpine areas Fireplaces P i t t o i l e t s Interpretive signs Road over f i r s t portage DO YOU FEEL THAT IN TERMS OF BACKCOUNTRY FACILITIES THE PARK IS 1. Overdeveloped 2. Underdeveloped 3. Just about right WHAT WOULD BE YOUR REACTION TO THE INTRODUCTION OF THE FOLLOWING MANAGEMENT MEASURES? Mark box 1. If agree 2. If neutral 3. If disagree Entrance fee Reservations system Controlled hunting Selective logging Rationing use Restricted campsites Bi-weekly motor boat patrols Restricting group size to six WHAT WOULD YOU SUGGEST AS A REASONABLE FEE FOR VISITORS DOING THE CIRCUIT? . 9. WHAT PERCENTAGE IMPORTANCE WOULD YOU ASSIGN TO DIFFERENT POSSIBLE USES OF BOWRON PARK? Wil d l i f e sanctuary Wilderness recreation area Road access recreation area S c i e n t i f i c research reserve Area for future resource development 10. WHAT PERCENT OF BOWRON LAKES PARK WOULD YOU CONSIDER AS "WILDERNESS"? 11. AT WHICH POINT ON YOUR TRIP DID YOU FEEL YOU LEFT CIVILIZATION BEHIND AND ENTERED THE "WILDERNESS"? 12. WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THE ADEQUACY OF WILDERNESS LAND IN B.C. IN GENERAL? 1. Don't re a l l y know 2. Should have much more 3. Need just a l i t t l e more 4. Enough exists at present 5. Too much exists at present 13. DID YOU HAVE ANY TROUBLE FINDING UNOCCUPIED CAMPSITES? 1. Yes - often 2. Sometimes 3. No 14. WHERE YOU BOTHERED BY CROWDING ON ANY LAKES OR CAMPSITES? 1. Yes - often 2. Sometimes 3. No 15. HOW MANY PEOPLE DO YOU THINK BOWRON PARK COULD HOLD? 1. Just about the same as now 2. Just a few more 3. Room for at least twice as many 4. Too many already 236 4. 16. WHAT IS AN AVERAGE NUMBER OF GROUFS COULD YOU MEET A DAY BEFORE YOU BEGAN TO FEEL CROWDED? 1. 2. 3. 4. One only-Two - f i v e Six - nine Ten or more 52 17. WHAT DO YOU THINK THE OPTIMAL GROUP SIZE IS FOR WILDERNESS TRAVEL? 1. One person 2. Two people "3. Three or four 4. Five - eight 5. Nine or more 53 18. WHEN CHOOSING BACK COUNTRY CAMPSITES WHICH DO YOU MOST PREFER? . 1. One f a r away from other campers 2. One a short distance from other campers 3. One with a few others around 4. Large organized campgrounds 5. No s p e c i f i c preference 54 19. WAS THERE ANYTHING THAT PARTICULARLY BOTHERED YOU ABOUT THE TRIP? 1. Behaviour of other campers 2. Evidence of garbage 3. Lack of information 4. Lack of f a c i l i t i e s 5. Other 55 20. IN WHAT PARTICULAR WAYS DO YOU THINK YOUR TRIP BENEFITED YOU? Mark box 1. I f very important 2. I f n e u t r a l 3. I f not important Improve p h y s i c a l health Refreshing mentally Gave opportunity to r e f l e c t and think Increased appreciation of nature Was s o c i a l l y entertaining Learned more about camping Learned more about s e l f , others Found s o l i t u d e , privacy Other 56 58 60 62 64 237 5. 21. ON THE WHOLE HOW SATISFIED WERE YOU WITH YOUR TRIP THROUGH THE PARK? 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 2. M i l d l y s a t i s f i e d 3. S l i g h t l y disappointed 4. Very disappointed 65 22. DO YOU THINK THAT YOU WILL RETURN TO DO IT AGAIN? 1. D e f i n i t e l y yes 2. Po s s i b l y 3. U n l i k e l y 66 23. WHAT ONE EXPERIENCE OF YOUR TRIP THROUGH BOWRON PARK DO YOU RECALL MOST VIVIDLY TODAY? 24. WHAT "DANGER RATING" WOULD YOU GIVE TO SOME OF THE POSSIBLE PHYSICAL DANGERS THAT YOU MIGHT HAVE FACED ON YOUR BACKCOUNTRY TRIP? Mark box 1. I f no danger 2. I f minor danger 3. I f moderate danger 4. I f very dangerous Getting l o s t Storms, weather Bears, cougars Starvation P o l l u t i o n Exposure Insects Forest f i r e s P h y s i c a l i n j u r y 68 70 72 74 176 25. WHAT IS YOUR OVERALL RATING OF THE AMOUNT OF "DANGER" INVOLVED ON THIS PARTICULAR WILDERNESS TRIP? 1. None 2. Minor 3. Moderate 4. Very dangerous 26. HOW DO YOU RATE YOURSELF AS A WILDERNESS TRAVELLER? 1. Expert 2. Intermediate 3. Novice 233 6. 27. WHAT IS YOUR AGE? 28. SEX? 1. Male 2. Female 10 29. MARITAL STATUS? 1. Single '2. Married 3. Widowed 4. Divorced 5. Separated 11 30. PLEASE FILL IN THE COMPOSITION OF YOUR GROUP Males Females 0-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 . 41-50 50 + AGE 31. WAS YOUR GROUP MADE UP OF 1. One person 2. Group of men 3. Group of women 4. Organised group 5. Couples 6. Family group 7. Family and fr i e n d s 8. Other 32. HOW LONG WAS YOUR BACKCOUNTRY TRIP? DAYS MILES TRAVELLED 24 33. HOW FAR AHEAD WERE YOU PLANNING THE TRIP? 1. Less than a week 2. One week to a month 3. One to three months 4. Three to s i x months 5. Six to twelve months 6. Twelve months plus 27 34. ON THE AVERAGE, HOW MANY WILDERNESS TRIPS DO YOU MAKE IN A YEAR? 1. One or two tr i p s 2. Three to fi v e 3. Six to nine 4. Ten or more t r i p s 35. WHAT IS THE AVERAGE LENGTH OF A TYPICAL TRIP? 1. Two days or less 2. Three or four days 3. Five to nine days 4. Ten or more days 36. HOW MANY YEARS WILDERNESS TRAVEL EXPERIENCE DO YOU HAVE? 1. None - just beginning 2. One or two years . 3. Three to fi v e years 4. Five to ten years 5. Ten to twenty years 6. More than twenty years 37. WHO.OR WHAT INTRODUCED YOU TO WILDERNESS TRAVEL? 1. Parents 2. School 3. Organised group 4. Friends 5. Literature 6. Other 38. WHERE WERE YOU MOSTLY BROUGHT UP? 1. City 2. Town 3. Rural area 39. APPROXIMATELY WHAT WAS THE TOTAL COST OF YOUR TRIP TO THE PARK? $ PER PERSON 40. WHAT PERSONAL INVESTMENT IN BACKCOUNTRY EQUIPMENT DID YOU HAVE FOR THE TRIP? $ p E g P E R S 0 N 41. HOW MANY YEARS OF FORMAL EDUCATION HAVE YOU COMPLETED? 1. Less than s i x 2. Six to ten 3. Eleven to thi r teen 4. Fourteen to sixteen 5. Seventeen to twenty 6. More than twenty 42. PLEASE INDICATE YOUR TOTAL FAMILY INCOME PER ANNUM: 1. 0-$3,000 2. $3,000 - 6,000 3. $6,000 - 9,000 4. $9,000 - 12,000 5. $12,000- 15,000 6. $15,000- 20,000 7. $20,000 + 43. PLEASE INDICATE YOUR APPROPRIATE OCCUPATION GROUPING: 1. Managerial profess ional 2. Sales , c l e r i c a l 3. Construction, manufacturing 4. F i s h i n g , lumbering, mining, farming 5. Housewife 6. Student 7. Retired 8. Other THANK YOU VERY MUCH. PLEASE USE THE SPACE ON THE REVERSE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL COMMENTS YOU CARE TO MAKE. 

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