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The relation of the adjustment of the individual to his sociometric status in the classroom Kay, Eleanor Irene. 1949

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^ 1 T H E R E L A T I O N O P T H E A D J U S T M E N T O F T H E I N D I V I D U A L T O H I S S O C I O M E T R I C S T A T U S I N T H E C L A S S R O O M b 7 o •'/ .-JJkd' ELEANOR IRENE KAY u 7 / A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY THEOTIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1949 ABSTRACT The r e l a t i o n of the adjustment of the in d i v i d u a l to h i s sociometric status i n the classroom. By Eleanor Irene Kay. Since the sociometric technique was devised as a measure of inter-personal r e l a t i o n s , mantf studies have been tinder-taken, i n which the technique was used. Frequently the s o c i -ometeric score of an i n d i v i d u a l or hi s "sociometric status" has been used to evaluate him, p a r t i c u l a r l y among those not too f a m i l i a r with the t e s t . Among those interested i n mental hygiene, there has been a si m i l a r tendency to consider sociome-t r i c tests as measures of adjustment. This study was under-taken i n an attempt to determine whether such assumptions were j u s t i f i a b l e . Two Grade III and two Grade VII classes, and one large group of Grade XI students from three schools i n a "middle c l a s s " area of Vancouver were used as subjects. The Soci-ometric Test, Form A, of the National Committee f o r Mental Hygiene (Canada) was administered by the writer, followed immediately by the appropriate series of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality, Form A. x x 'The sociometry percentage scores were correlated with the t o t a l Adjustment scores, and with the Self Adjustment and Social Adjustment scores f o r each grade. In addition, separate correlations were run between Total Adjustment scores and sociometry percentage scores for boys and f o r g i r l s i n each grade. The extreme groups on the sociometric test were determined f o r each grade and the sign i f i c a n c e -of the differences between the means on the personality test computed. S i m i l a r l y personality test scores of mutual friends and non-friends on the sociometric test were compared, and the significance of differences obtained. F i n a l l y , graphs were employed to i l l u s t r a t e the range of sociometric scores f o r the well-adjusted, moderately well-adjusted and poorly adjusted groups i n each grade, according to the r e s u l t s on the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality. The r e s u l t s obtained, without exception, indicated a lack of relationship between the adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s sociometric status i n the classroom. Consequently, the evaluation of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s adjustment on the basis of h i s sociometric score appears to be u n j u s t i f i a b l e , and should be avoided. TABLE OF CONTENTS I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Evolution of the problem 3 Hypotheses 4 IX HISTORICAL BACKGROUND £ The sociometric technique 5 Studies of the factors determining sociometric status 7 II I PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTING DATA 14 Sampling technique 14 Measuring instruments 16 Administration of tests 18 IV TREATMENT OF DATA 21 S t a t i s t i c a l techniques 21 Tabulating sociometric scores 21 Weights assigned to the choices on the sociometric t e s t 23 Conversion of raw sociometric scores to percentage values 23 Review of available data" 25 Correlation of sociometric status and adjustment 26 Determination of differences In adjustment scores o f extreme sociometric groups 26 Comparison of the adjustment scores of mutual friends and non-friends 29 Graphic presentation of scores 30 Target depictions 31 V RESULTS ' 32 Correlations 32 Comparison o f adjustment scores of extreme Sociometric groups 3 3 Comparison of adjustment scores of 3 4 mutual friends with non-friends Constancy of the r e s u l t s from one grade l e v e l to another' 35 Results read from the graphs 36 VI INTERPRETATION AND BlSCUSSIOir 45 VII CONCLUSIONS 50 VIII BIBLIOGRAPHY 51 APPENDICES Appendix I The Sociometric Test Appendix I I Instructions f o r using the Sociometric Test Appendix I I I Sample tabulating chart f o r sociometric scores Appendix IV Sociometric target diagrams 1. 'The r e l a t i o n o f t h e adjustment o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s i n the c l a s s r o o m  I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM Fundamental to the c oncept o f c u l t u r e i s t h e u n i t o f t h e group. W i t h i n t h e main c o n s t e l l a t i o n , - sub-groups o f v a r y i n g s t r u c t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n are found. I n o u r Western European c i v i l i z a t i o n , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s have a t t e m p t e d b y d e v i o u s methods to d e t e r m i n e such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f groups as s t r u c t u r e , degree o f c o h e s i o n , c l e a v a g e s amd p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t r a c -t i o n and r e p u l s i o n * A r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t t e c h n i q u e f o r such s t u d y ^ i s t h e " s p o n t a n e i t y t e s t , " d e v i s e d by Moreno ( 2 2 ) , the name o f w h i c h was l a t e r changed t o " s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t . " By means o f a s i m p l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o determine the members w i t h i n a group w i t h whom v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s would p r e f e r to a s s o c i a t e under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . From the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s o f the number o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d by each i n d i v i d u a l , o r the number o f p e o p l e c h o o s i n g . h i m may be c a l c u l a t e d , and hence, the group s t r u c t u r e w i t h i t s i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t e s o r s t a r s , determined,-The "group s t a t u s " o f any i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e group can be denoted n u m e r i c a l l y b y means o f t h e s c o r e he r e c e i v e s , o r by a diagrammatic d e p i c t i o n o f the group, w i t h c h o i c e s r e p r e s e n t e d by arrows f r o m the chooser t o t h e chosen. W i t h the g r o w i n g emphasis on, and employment o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s i n group r e s e a r c h and p r a c t -i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , numerous hy p o t h e s e s have been s e t f o r t h and i n f e r e n c e s made. B a s i c to a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f the advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s o f s o c i o m e t r y i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t r e s u l t s and v a r i o u s p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g group b e h a v i o r . One o f the e s s e n t i a l and p r i m a r y s t u d i e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , f r o m the p o i n t o f v i e w b f t h e worker i n m e n t a l h y g i e n e , i s the r e l a t i o n o f s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s to the a d j u s t m e n t . o f the i n d i v i d u a l . I t would be presumptuous t o assume w i t h o u t v e r i f i c a t i o n t h a t any r e l a t i o n s h i p f o u n d between a d j u s t -ment and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s would be c o n s t a n t , no m a t t e r what the group. However, the c l a s s r o o m as one o f the p r i m a r y and most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the sub-groups o f o u r c u l t u r e , i s b a s i c to any i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d * By t h e use o f Moreno's t e c h n i q u e , t h e w r i t e r examined the group s t r u c t u r e o f a few Vancouver c l a s s e s w h i c h formed a sample o f s c h o o l p u p i l s employed i n s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f group, o r s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s t o a d j u s t m e n t . 3. E v o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m : D u r i n g a s e r i e s o f i n f o r m a l l e c t u r e s i n the f i e l d o f s o c i o m e t r y , p r e s e n t e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , i n November, 1946, Mary L. Northway (29) d e l i v e r e d a l e c t u r e e n t i t l e d , "A common m i s c o n c e p t i o n r e g a r d i n g s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s " . At t h a t time it...was emphasized t h a t the l a y p u b l i c who were a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s , f o r example t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s , t r a n s f e r r e d t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d v a l u e o f p r e s t i g e o r p o p u l a r i t y to s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t was more d e s i r a b l e t o o b t a i n a h i g h s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e t h a n a low one. Northway c a u t i o n e d t h e workers i n t h e f i e l d o f the dangers o f a c c e p t i n g such a v i e w . I t o c c u r r e d t o the w r i t e r , upon r e a d i n g Northway's l e c t u r e , t h a t a l t h o u g h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l d i d not p l a c e such a v a l u e upon p o p u l a r i t y , he d i d v a l u e m e n t a l h e a l t h o r good a d j u s t -ment. T h e r e f o r e the q u e s t i o n a r o s e r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and a d j u s t m e n t . I f such a r e l a t i o n s h i p were f o u n d to e x i s t , t h e r e would t h e n be a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r the commonly h e l d view t h a t h i g h s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s a r e d e s i r a b l e . I t was t h e r e f o r e p r o p o s e d to examine c l a s s -room groups i n an attempt to determine the degree o f such a r e l a t i o n s h i p . At the same time a r e l a t e d p r o b l e m was 4. i n v e s t i g a t e d , namely t h e - r e l a t i o n o f m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s ' to a d j u s t m e n t . Upon f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n , a n o t h e r p r o b l e m was r e c o g n i z e d . I t seemd h a r d l y j u s t i f i a b l e to assume t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and a d j u s t -ment would n e c e s s a r i l y r e m a i n c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t a l l age l e v e l s . As a r e s u l t , the f i e l d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n was e n l a r g e d i n . or der t o embrace those ages between w h i c h o b v i o u s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l changes, i n t h e i n d -i v i d u a l and the group, had been o b s e r v e d t o t a k e p l a c e . These p e r i o d s i n c l u d e d c h i l d h o o d , time o f puberty,- and l a t e r a d o l e s c e n c e . Hypotheses:. From, the e v o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m , the hypotheses' t o be t e s t e d a r e s t a t e d as f o l l o w : 1. That s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s i n the c l a s s r o o m b e a r s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to a d j u s t m e n t , as measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y . 2. Grhat no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between the adjustment o f m u t u a l f r i e n d s and n o n - f r i e n d s . 3. That t h e l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e . s o c i o m e t r i c measures and a d j u s t m e n t p e r s i s t s f r o m one grade l e v e l to a n o t h e r . 5. I I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e : S i n c e the time o f Moreno's (22) e x p o s i t i o n o f the s o c i o m e t r i c a p p r o a c h , w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f "Who s h a l l s u r v i v e " , workers i n t he s o c i a l s c i e n c e s have employed and expanded h i s t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h e many f a c e t s o f group i n t e r r e l a t i o n s . Some, such as Schauer (34) who o b s e r -ved a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l community, and Loomis (20) who examined the g r o u p i n g i n a Spa n i s h - A m e r i c a n v i l l a g e , a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the f i e l d because o f the d i r e c t a p p l i -c a b i l i t y of the t e c h n i q u e s i n . t h e s t u d y o f p r e s e n t s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . Others such as B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ( 5 ) , C r i s w e l l ( 9 ) , F o r s y t h and Kat z (10) and Moreno and Je n n i n g s (24) see the advantages o f su c h t e c h n i q u e s , b u t r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s , have a t t e m p t e d t o remedy t h e s e . These s t a t i s t i c s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under the h e a d i n g o f "Treatment o f d a t a " , A t h i r d group i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g the r a n g e o f p o s s i b i l i t y i n the use o f s o c i o m e t r y . Examples o f the • e x t e n t o f a p p l i c a t i o n i n the f i e l d a r e seen i n r e p o r t s such as t h a t o f R i c h a r d s o n (32) on.the use of t h e t e c h n i q u e s i n the t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , o r ex p e r i m e n t s c a r r i e d on by J e n n i n g s (16) on the v a r i a t i o n s f o u n d i n the s o c i a l atom a f t e r use o f t h e method a t dl£feren£t times, C l a r i f y i n g the t e r m " s o c i a l atom", i t may be d e f i n e d as- the s t r u c t u r e o f a group a t a g i v e n t i m e , and i n c l u d e s the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e g roup, c l e a v a g e s , degree o f c o h e s i o n , e t c , K e r s t e t t e r and S a r g e n t (18) employed s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s i n the c l a s s r o o m and were a b l e , b y r e - s e a t i n g and s t u d y g r o u p s , t o i n c o r p o r a t e an a n t i - s o c i a l gang-.-o f f i v e boys i n t o t h e group. I n t h e same v e i n , Moreno and J e n n i n g s (23) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e to a l t e r group s t r u c t u r e by t r a i n i n g o u t c a s t s to be l e a d e r s i h such s i t u a t i o n s as i n t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f o c c u p i e d a r e a s , and suggest t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g be p u t to good use i n f o s t e r i n g t h e d e m o c r a t i c way o f l i f e , A r e p o r t by I n f i e l d ( 1 5 ) , i l l u s t r a t e s the use o f the n e g a t i v e ' s i d e o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t s i n the f o r m a t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e groups. He f o u n d t h a t the most v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from German r e f u g e e s i n New Y o r k , w h i l e s t r u c t u r i n g a c o m p a t i b l e community, was a statement o f t h o s e p e r s o n s w i t h whom the i n d i v i d u a l s would n o t l i k e t o l i v e . F i n a l l y , B a r k e r ( l ) s t u d i e d the degree o f s i m i l a r i t y f o u n d i n s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g s o f a group o f c l a s s - m a t e s upon f i r s t i n s p e c t i o n o f e a c h o t h e r , and a f t e r t h i f c t y - s i x c l a s s m e e t i n g s . H i s r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t 55% chose the same seat-mates and 63% r a t e d t hemselves s i m i l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f how each o t h e r member would r a t e them. 7. S t u d i e s o f the factbors d e t e r m i n i n g s o c i o m e t r i c  s t a t u s z R e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the p r o b l e m under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s - s t u d y , are numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s s u g g e s t i n g t h o s e f a c t o r s most a f f e c t i n g s o c i o m e t r i c • / • c h o i c e s . I n h e r book, " L e a d e r s h i p a i i d I s o l a t i o n " , J e n n i n g s (17) c o n c l u d e s t h a t those a c c e p t a b l e and non-a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n the group a c h i e v e such s t a t u s , n o t because o f common p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , b u t because o f s u c c e s s o r l a c k o f s u c c e s s s i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s s u g gests t h a t l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s would be found between a d j u s t m e n t , as p o r t r a y e d i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s , b u t t h a t a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s and adjustment i s more l i k e l y . On t h e o t h e r hand, Cologne ( 8 ) , s t u d y -i n g a s e l f - h e l p community c e n t r e , f o u n d t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s d i d a f f e c t c h o i c e s , b u t t h a t t h e y were secondary to the knowledge and a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n r e s p e c t to. l i k e l i h o o d o f c h o i c e as co-workers on work p r o j e c t s . V r e e l a n d ( 3 6 ) , a f t e r t e s t i n g twenty-one c o l l e g e f r a t e r n i t i e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a f f e c t e d c h o i c e s , (for he f o u n d t h a t s t a r s , t h a t i s , t h o s e p e r s o n s toward whom many members o f t h e group a r e a t t r a c t e d , t e n d e d to be chosen from upper c l a s s m e n , w h i l e i s o l a t e s were among the newcomers to the group. However, a c c o r d i n g to Morgan ( 2 5 ) , s t u d y i n g c h i l d r e n i n a war boom community, the r e c e n c y o f a r r i v a l i n the group as s u c h , s. does n o t a f f e c t c h o i c e s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f a group o f young b o y s . a t a summer camp, by Hunt and Solomon (14) y i e l d e d the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p r e v i o u s camp e x p e r i e n c e , a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , g e n e r o s i t y , p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , o r d e r l i n e s s o f a c t i v i t y and l a c k o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s . However, the r e l a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t o r s to g e n e r a l adjustment 'was n o t d e t e r m i n e d . C o r r o b o r a t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f J e n n i n g s and Cologne, i n the camp s e t t i n g , Northway (27) c o n c l u d e d t h a t suceess i n d i r e c t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the p o s s e s s i o n o f s k i l l s were f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c h o i c e s among a group o f g i r l s . I n a s t u d y o f t w e n t y - t h r e e n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n from three, to f i v e y e a r s o f age, F i i a n k e l (11) found l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s and chrono-l o g i c a l age, i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o r . a t t e n d a n c e . She d i s c o v e r e d however, t h a t a l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n who h a d f r e q u e n t e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t s and were h a b i t u a l l y d i s c i p l i n a r y .non-Sonformists were more o f t e n named as p l a y - m a t e s , t h e y were not chosen, i n a c t u a l p l a y s i t u a t i o n s . Two c o n c l u s i o n s might t e n t a t i v e l y be drawn from t h i s f i n d i n g . a, S o c i o m e t r i c t e s t s a p p a r e n t l y do n o t measure the s i t u a t i o n w h i c h a c t u a l l y e x i s t s w i t h i n the group, b. N u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t e n d to make " u n r e a l " c h o i c e s f o r p l a y m a t e s . 9. I n the grade s c h o o l s e t t i n g , L i n e and G r i f f i n ( 2 1 ) , i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r r e c e s s i v e c h i l d r e , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n d e f i n e d by them as "shy" were i n the l o w e s t q u a r t e r on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t , b u t t h a t t h e r e were c h i l d r e n i n t h i s q u a r t e r who were n o t shy. S i m i l a r l y , H i l l ( 1 3 ) , i n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p u p i l s f a l l i n g below the average a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e , f o u n d th&t a l l the shy c h i l d r e n and o n l y two o f the non-shy c h i l d r e n were i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Loeb (19) r e v e a l e d t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g low on the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t were o f two t y p e s , t h o s e who were r e s e r v e d and c o n s i d e r e d non-problems by t h e i r t e a c h e r s , and p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n , a g g r e s s i v e , and a c t i v e l y d i s l i k e d by t h e i r c l a s s - m a t e s . She d i s c o v e r e d , i n a d d i t i o n , a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between tho s e c h i l d r e n whose achievement r a n k e d above t h e i r a b i l i t y and t h o s e r e c e i v i n g a l a r g e number o f c h o i c e s on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t . I n a r e v i e w o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n the p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , Northway (23) f o r m u l a t e d the t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t • a "A chil'ds s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o the degree and d i r e c t i o n o f h i s o u t g o i n g energy".. Prom t h e s e Toronto s t u d i e s the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n might be made t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the c h i l d r e n w i t h c l i n i c a l l y d e f i n d p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r , d i s o r d e r s a r e among those chosen l e a s t o f t e n , by t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s , b u t t h a t , some c h i l d r e n whcappEar w e l l a d j u s t e d , a l t h o u g h n o t s o c i a l l y a c t i v e , are a l s o i n t h i s group. ' 10. . • • P o t a s h i n (31) r e p o r t s , i n a s t u d y o f f r i e n d s i n the s e n i o r c l a s s e s o f an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , t h a t f r i e n d s t e n d to be s i m i l a r i n h e i g h t , i n t e l l i g e n c e and economic s t a t u s , b u t t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s i s n o t h i g h . She d i s c o v e r e d two t y p e s o f f r i e n d s h i p s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a group. Quoting d i r e c t l y , t h e y a r e : 1, The c l o s e d c l i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r t n e r s who are v e r y much a l i k e i n s o c i a l s t a t u s and c o n t a c t s , and who are o f t e n the most p r o m i n e n t members o f t h e c l a s s , 2, The l e s s r e s t r i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r t n e r s -s h a r i n g fewer s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s b u t w i t h w i d e r c o n t a c t s e l s e w h e r e , Bonney ( 3 ) , a f t e r a s t u d y o f f i v e p o p u l a r and f i v e u n p o p u l a r c h i l d r e n f rom a group o f 150 i n the el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f Denton, Texas, o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g t r a i t s as b e i n g c o n n e c t e d w i t h group a c c e p t a b i l i t y : p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , and v i g o r , c o n f o r m i t y and group : i > . i : e n t i f i c a t i o n , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l , a r o u s i n g a d m i r a t i o n , s o c i a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , a d a p t a b i l i t y and t o l e r a n c e , d e p e n d a b i l i t y , dependence on o t h e r s f o r a s s i s t a n c e and e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t , p r o v i d i n g new e x p e r i e n c e f o r o t h e r s , s o c i a l s e r v i c e m o t i v a -t i o n and an a t t i t u d e o f good w i l l t o ward others*- The same • w r i t e r , i n a r e v i e w o f f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o mu t u a l f r i e n d -s h i p s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , s econdary s c h o o l and c o l l e g e , f o u n d a s m a l l b u t c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s and 11. s o c i o e c o n o m i c background and a s l i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a t the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and c o l l e g e l e v e l s . She employed the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , and found l i t t l e a s s o c i a t i o n between s c o r e s and f r i e n d s h i p f o r m a t i o n . I n the h i g h s c h o o l s however, s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l development as d e p i c t e d by the B e l l ' Adjustment I n v e n t o r y appeared t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o f r i e n d s h i p s c o r e s . S i n c e , however, d i f f e r e n t t e s t s were u s e d a t the two l e v e l s , any c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d must be e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f the p o s s i b l e e r r o r i n c u r r e d by t h i s method, Bonney o b t a i n e d h e r h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s . i n t h i s s t u d y between s c o r e s o f m u t u a l f r i e n d s , on a s c a l e o f h e r own d e s i g n to measure the a b i l i t y to w i n f r i e n d s , A s t u d y by Bonney (4) o f grade IV p u p i l s d i s c l o s e d t h a t s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a d j u s t m e n t , as measured by the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n -a l i t y , y i e l d e d a r o f .49 -.06, When s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s u b - s e c t i o n s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s were+.31 ± .07 andf.43 ± .06 f o r S e l f Adjustment and S o c i a l Adjustment r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p appears r a t h e r h i g h i n comparison to the t r e n d o f the r e p o r t s c i t e d , and perhaps may be a c c o u n t e d f o r by the f a c t t h a t o n l y one grade l e v e l was compared. Bonney h e r s e l f i n t h e r e f e r e n c e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d (2) r e p o r t s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between C a l i f o r n i a 12. s c o r e s and mu t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s a t the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , Northway (29) f o u n d t h a t n i n e shy i n d i v i d u a l s were among the t w e n t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n c l i n i c a l l y examined who had the l o w e s t s c o r e s on s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t s . This l a y s Bonney's r e s u l t s open to q u e s t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when Northway f u r t h e r defines- "shy": "The shy c h i l d , w h i l e h e s -i t a n t i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e w h i c h p u t him "on the s p o t " , had o f t e n man?jr v i t a l i n t e r e s t s and seemed to e n j o y l i f e r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . He had good i n s i g h t and h i s d i f f i c u l t y was l i m i t e d t o one a r e a , . t d i r e c t s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i s c l a s s r o o m group". Then i t would seem t h a t , w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n e r a l a d j u s t -ment, a t l e a s t one group r e c e i v i n g low s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s s h o u l d n o t r e c e i v e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y low s c o r e s on a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t . # The w r i t e r was u n a b l e t o d i s c o v e r a s p e c i f i c s t u d y r e p o r t e d i n the i i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e d a c o n s t a n c y o r l a c k o f c o n s t a n c y i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between adjustment and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s , t h r o u g h o u t s e v e r a l : .age l e v e l s . Bonney's s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f mutual f r i e n d s and adjustment shows a l a c k ' o f such a c o n s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , but on the o t h e r hand, i n the Toronto s t u d i e s o f r e c e s s i v i s m , the c o n n e c t i o n between shyness o r r e c e s s i v i s m and c l a s s r o o m s t a t u s a p p a r e n t l y r e mained unchanged, a t l e a s t from grades f i v e t o e i g h t i n c l u s i v e . 13. I n r e v i e w , many w r i t e r s have s u g g e s t e d t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e to be r e l a t e d to s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s i n v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s * A tendency t o d i s p r o v e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p r e v a l e n t . The c o n n e c t i o n between a b s o l u t e s t a t u s and c l i n i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d degrees o f maladjustment appears c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h s e v e r a l grade l e v e l s . 14. I l l PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTING DATA Sampling; t e c h n i q u e : As was p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , i t was p r o p o s e d to i n v e s t i g a t e i n t h i s s t u d y the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and a d j u s t m e n t , and mu t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s and a d j u s t m e n t , a t v a r y i n g age l e v e l s . Groups who were s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h one an o t h e r to make d e c i s i o n s i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c h o i c e o f companion f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , were o b t a i n e d f rom grades I I I , V I I , and X I o f t h r e e Vancouver s c h o o l s . I n these g r a d e s , p u p i l s a v e r a g e d e i g h t , t w e l v e and s i x t e e n y e a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c h i l d h o o d , approximate time o f p u b e r t y , and l a t e r a d o l e s c e n c e . The common h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p u b e r t y b r i n g s on. e m o t i o n a l d i s t r u b a n c e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h e i t h e r a p h y s i c a l b a s i s or a c u l t u r a l one, sug g e s t e d t h a t b o t h group s t r u c t u r e and adjustment might change a t t h i s t i m e . As a r e s u l t , the t h r e e l e v e l s s i g n i f i e d p e r i o d s o f r e l a t i v e a d j u s t m e n t , u p h e a v a l , and adjustment once a g a i n . The groups were l i m i t e d to t h e same s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y i n o r d e r t o n u l l i f y t he e f f e c t o f any s o c i o e c o n o m i c d i f f -e r e n c e s . C o n f i r m a t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y o f such a p r e c a u t i o n i s borne o u t i n a s t u d y by Morgan ( 2 5 ) , who d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c h i l d r e n i n a war boom community were a f f e c t e d by the l e v e l o f the f a t h e r ' s income, a l t h o u g h r e c e n c y o f a r r i v a l seemed to h a v e l i t t l e 15. r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s c o r e s . The p r i n c i p a l s o f two p r i m a r y s c h o o l s and one l a r g e secondary s c h o o l i n a m i d d l e c l a s s a r e a were approached by t h e d i r e c t o r o f the T e s t s and Measurement Bureau o f the Vancouver B o a r d of Education.. The w r i t e r i n t u r n c o n t a c t e d these p r i n c i p a l s and a r r a n g e d f o r a c l a s s r o o m p e r i o d f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s o c i o m e t r i c and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t f o r each g r a d e , b o t h t e s t s being, a d m i n i s t e r e d i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e by the w r i t e r . The t e s t s were g i v e n to one grade I I I and one grade V I I c l a s s i n each o f the p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , and i n the h i g h s c h o o l , to one group o f grade X I p u p i l s e q u a l i n numbers t o two c l a s s e s i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s . The numbers i n each c l a s s and p r o p o r t i o n o f boys and g i r l s i s g i v e n i n Table I . TABLE I Numb er 1 o f boys and g i r l s t e s t e d i n each c l a s s r o o m . BOYS GIRLS B&G Grade I I I - P r i m a r y S c h o o l I 14 18 . 32 P r i m a r y S c h o o l I I 19 15 34 T o t a l 33 33 66 Grade V I I - P r i m a r y S c h o o l I 19 18 37 P r i m a r y S c h o o l I I 24 10 34 T o t a l 43 28 71 Grade X I - Secondary S c h o o l 36 43 79 T o t a l 112 104 216 16. A c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t y was e n c o u n t e r e d a t the grade X I l e v e l because o f t h e o p t i o n p l a n o f the secon-da r y s c h o o l . As the s c h o o l was a l a r g e one, i t was not p r a c t i c a b l e t o i n c l u d e a l l o f grade X I i n the t e s t i n g . As a r e s u l t t h e r e was the p r o b l e m , i n c h o o s i n g any two c l a s s e s f o r t e s t i n g , o f some p u p i l s b e i n g a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e . That i s , one c l a s s m i g h t perhaps be the o n l y one t h a t a p u p i l a t t e n d e d w i t h the o t h e r members o f the c l a s s , a nd so t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p u p i l w o u l d be a l m o s t a s t r a n g e r to t h e o t h e r s . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , w h i c h were compulsory, w o u l d have fewer d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s s o r t , and, as a r e s u l t , the p u p i l s o f such c l a s s e s were employed as s u b j e c t s . As a second p r e c a u t i o n a r y measure, t h e s e c l a s s e s were t e s t e d a t the same t i m e , i n one room, and the p u p i l s g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y o f c h o o s i n g anyone i n the room, i n o r d e r t o be c l o s e r t o t h e t o t a l grade X I sample, i n w h i c h t h e o r e . t i c a l T y / , everyone would have the same o p p o r t u n i t y o f knowing the same number o f p e o p l e . M easuring I n s t r u m e n t s : The s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t o f the N a t i o n a l Committee f o r Mental Hygiene (Canada), Form A was employed, and t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f Northway and P o t a s h i n (30) f o l l o w e d . A sample o f the t e s t i s g i v e n i n App-e n d i x I and the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n Appendix I I . A l t h o u g h many typ e s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e would have e l i c t e d s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e s from the p u p i l s , and s c o r e s c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d on t h e i r b a s e s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d a d v i s a b l e t o 17. employ a t e s t w h i c h had a l r e a d y been found u s e f u l i n the c l a s s r o o m and had been " s t a n d a r d i z e d " on a s i z a b l e number o f c a s e s . The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y was u s e d as a measure o f adjustment. T h i s i s a s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e . $© the r i g h t o f the q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the subject's a c t i v i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s i s p r i n t e d "yes" and "no", one o f w h i c h the s u b j e c t i s i n s t r u c t e d to c i r c l e . The t e s t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s , S e l f Adjustment and S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t , the s c o r e s o f w h i c h , when t o t a l l e d , make up t h e T o t a l Adjustment. A p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g s u c h a t e s t was t h e age range f o r w h i c h i t was a p p l i c a b l e , f o r d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d between r e s u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t grades c o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h any degree o f assurance i f more t h a n one t e s t o f adjustment were i n v o l v e d . A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s were employed, namely the Primary, I n t e r m e d i a t e and Secondary S e r i e s , t h i s was c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e t o a n o t h e r t e s t , f o r t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s were c o n s t r u c t e d by the same a u t h o r s w i t h the same o b j e c t i v e s i n view and t h e same f o u n d a t i o n on which to b u i l d . The m a t t e r o f v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t e s t i s q u e s t i o n e d by C a t t e l l ( 7 ) , i n r e s p e c t to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s by means o f t h e s u b - s e c t i o n s o f the t e s t , b u t ;.he acknowledges the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e t e s t in. r e s e a r c h where 18. group average d i f f e r e n c e s a r e b e i n g computed. The a u t h o r s , Ttexppe, C l a r k and T i e g s ( 3 5 ) , c i t e f o u r v a l i d a t i o n c r i t e r i a employed i n s e l e c t i o n o f the ite m s <5f the t e s t . Q u o t i n g d i r e ' o t i y n t h e y a r e : (a) Judgments o f t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e . (b) The r e a c t i o n s o f p u p i l s , e x p r e s s i n g the e x t e n t t o which t h e y f e l t competent and w i l l i n g t o g i v e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . (c) A s t u d y o f the e x t e n t <bo w h i c h p u p i l r e s p o n s e s and t e a c h e r a p p r a i s a l s a g r e e d . (d) A s t u d y o f the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f items b y means of. t h e b i - s e r i a l r t e c h n i q u e . The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y , c o r r e c t e d by the Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a , and r e p o r t e d by t h e a u t h o r s was as f o l l o w s : T o t a l Adjustment. ' .922 S e c . l S e l f Adjustment .893 Sec. 2. S o c i a l Adjustment .873 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T e s t s : The two t e s t s were admin-i s t e r e d i n the p r i m a r y s c h o o l grades i n mid-December. I t was presumed t h a t i n t h e t h r e e and one h a l f months p r e c e d i n g t h i s t i m e , the c h i l d r e n had had s u f f i c i e n t c o n t a c t w i t h one an o t h e r t o be a b l e t o choose from among t h e i r c l a s s mates, i n d i v i d u a l s as companions f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . T h e - t e s t s were g i v e n to the grade SI. group a f t e r C h r i s t m a s . . 1 9 . The s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t was d i s t r i b u t e d f i r s t , and the i n s t r u c t i o n s o f Northway and P o t a s h i n (30) f o l l o w e d . I n Moreno's (22) s t u d i e s as w e l l as i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s to t h i s , t e s t , t h e c h i l d r e n were t o l d t h a t the r e s u l t s were to be u s e d to h e l p the s c h o o l f orm groups f o r a c t i v i t i e s . W h i l e w o r k i n g i n the camp, s e t t i n g , however, Northway (2V) • i n f o r m e d h e r s u b j e c t s t h a t t h e y were p a r t o f a s t u d y , and the w r i t e r decided, t o f o l l o w the l a t t e r p l a n , as. the s c h o o l was n o t g o i n g to make use o f t h e r e s u l t s * C o n sequently i t was s t a t e d t h a t they were h e l p i n g i n a s t u d y which-was b e i n g c a r r i e d on a t u n i v e r s i t y , and t h a t the w r i t e r was t h e o n l y p e r s o n who would see t h e i r answers. They were aware t h a t t h e w r i t e r was a s t r a n g e r to them, and were i n f o r m e d t h a t n e i t h e r t h e i r c l a s s - m a t e s nor t h e i r t e a c h e r s would see t h e i r p a p e r s o r be t o l d o f t h e i r answers. The C a l i f o r n i a T est o f P e r s o n a l i t y was d i s t r i b u t e d i m m e d i a t e l y upon c o m p l e t i o n o f the S o c i o m e t r i c t e s t . I n the case o f the grade I I I c l a s s e s , i n accordance w i t h s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e , the p u p i l s r e a d t h e i r own t e s t b l a n k s w h i l e the w r i t e r r e a d each q u e s t i o n a l o u d , and t h e n l e f t time f o r t h e c h i l d r e n to c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e word t o the r i g h t o f t h e q u e s t i o n . I n a l l c a s e s , r a p p o r t appeared to be q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and b o t h p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s were c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e and s u g g e s t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f the t e s t i t e m s were a p p a r e n t l y answered w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n on the p a r t o f the p u p i l s . 20. W i t h the g r a d e V I I c l a s s e s , however, t h e r e ' w e r e c e r t a i n o b j e c t i o n s to some q u e s t i o n s on the p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t on the grounds t h a t (a) To answer one way sounded c o n c e i t e d * (b) To answer t h e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g how o t h e r p e o p l e f e l t about them, was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e freedom w i t h w h i c h t h e y asked questions' o f the w r i t e r i n d i c a t e d a l a c k o f s e l f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , w h i c h , p r e s u m a b l y , e n a b l e d them to t a k e the t e s t w i t h o u t i n h i b i t i n g e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n * 21. IV TREATMENT OP DATA A lack of r e l a t i o n s h i p between sociometric status •and adjustment, and between mutual friendships and adjust-ment was postulated and set f o r t h i n the hypotheses. In doing so, i t was assumed that such relationships were measurable through analysis of the data derived from the tests employed. As a r e s u l t the scores were analyzed i n the various ways amenable to s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and conclusions reached on t h e i r bases. S t a t i s t i c a l Techniques: Two techniques were employed i n measuring the degree of rela t i o n s h i p between sociometric status and adjustment, and a further technique used to determine whether a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p existed between friendships and adjustment. They consisted of the following: a. Correlations, (Pearson r ) , which were computed between sociometric and adjustment scores. b. Mean t o t a l adjustment scores calculated f o r the extreme groups on the sociometric test i n each grade, and the si g n i f i c a n c e of the difference between the extreme groups assessed. c. Mean t o t a l adjustment scores of mutual friends - compared to the means of non-friends i n each grade. The significance of the difference was evaluated. Tabulating sociometric scores: The tabulating method for the sociometric test was si m i l a r to that suggested by Northway and Potashin ( 3 b ) . 22. Appendix I I I i l l u s t r a t e s a sample t a b u l a t i n g c h a r t i d e n t i c a l w i t h the t y p e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Down t h e l e f t s i d e o f the c h a r t were p r i n t e d , i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , t the names o f the c h o o s e r s , and a c r o s s the top o f the c h a r t the names of t h o s e chosen,' The p e r s o n s chosen b y any i n d i v i d u a l were t h e n t a l l i e d i n t h e row o p p o s i t e the c h o o s e r ' s name, and t h e c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d b y each p e r s o n were t o t a l l e d by summing the t a l l i e s i n the columns under the name o f t h e chosen. Each q u e s t i o n was t a l l i e d and t o t a l l e d i n a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r o f p e n c i l , so t h a t d i f f -e r e n t i a t i o n between q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be made, where necessary-I t i s p o s s i b l e t o compute s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s , and t h u s , s t a t u s , i n two ways, by d e t e r m i n i n g the number o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d by each i n d i v i d u a l , o r the number o f p e r s o n s c h o o s i n g him. The f o r m e r method was employed, f o l l o w i n g a r e p o r t by B r o n f e n h r e n n e r ( 5 ) . I n a s t u d y o f s i x s e p a r a t e s o c i a l g roups, t o t a l l i n g 151 at the t i m e . o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the f i r s t q u e s t i o n -n a i r e and 133 d u r i n g a l a t e r t e s t , he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , "When the two raw s c o r e s made by each c h i l d are compared, i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t the number o f d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s i s a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n s m a l l e r t h a n t h e number o f c h o i c e s and t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e becomes more pronounced f o r h i g h e r . s c o r e v a l u e s . I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d f u r t h e r t h a t n o t o n l y do the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f chance o c c u r r e n c e d i f f e r , b u t t h a t v a l u e s i n excess o f chance e x p e c t a n c y are f o u n d f a r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y among p e r s o n s s c o r e s than c h o i c e s c o r e s . . . Y e t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y enough, the c o r r e l -a t i o n between the number o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d by each c h i l d and the number of d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n by whom th o s e c h o i c e s were made was above+ .95-.02 i n t h r e e o f the s i x groups and above + .90 i n a l l o f them.... The c h o i c e thus becomes t h e 23 more s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f s o c i a l s t a t u s " . No r e c o r d was k e p t o f the names o f t h o s e chosen from o u t s i d e o f the c l a s s ( p e r m i s s i b l e i n q u e s t i o n ) 4 ) 6 f t h o s e absent fromithe c l a s s a t the time o f t e s t i n g , as p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s o f these p e o p l e were n o t a v a i l a b l e , and t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s and a d j u s t m e n t c o u l d n o t be computed. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e number o f c h o i c e s g o i n g o u t s i d e o f the group i n c r e a s e d w i t h age,, p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i n g the w i d e r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s o f the o l d e r c h i l d r e n . Weights a s s i g n e d t o t h e c h o i c e s on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t : I n h e r . s t u d y o f a summer camp group, Northway (27) a s s i g n e d v a r y i n g w e i g h t s t o t h e t h r e e c h o i c e s , b u t t h i s p r a c t i c e has s i n c e been a t t a c k e d by B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (5)« He w r i t e s , as followsB< " S e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s prompted the, p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r to d i s p e n s e w i t h a w e i g h t i n g p r o c e d u r e : (1) To determine t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e between a f i r s t , second, t h i r d , e t c . , c h o i c e i s a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m , (2) The a s s i g n i n g o f a r b i t r a r y a p r i o r i v a l u e s i s a q u e s t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c e , (o) The s e t t i n g up o f the analogous chance s i t u a t i o n i s much c o m p l i c a t e d by the a d o p t i o n o f a w e i g h t i n g scheme. (4) . I n any p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m , such as a case s t u d y , the d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f c h o i c e s i s i n any event a d v i s a b l e " . As a r e s u l t , i t was d e c i d e d t o omit any w e i g h t i n g t e c h n i q u e i n t h i s s t u d y . C o n v e r s i o n o f raw s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s t o  p e r c e n t a g e v a l u e s : Two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s prompted the w r i t e r t o abandon the use o f raw s c o r e s on the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t i n the c o m p u t a t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . .24. The f i r s t was t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the number o f p u p i l s i n the two c l a s s e s i n each o f grades I I I and V I I , which were takenaas u n i t a r y grade groups i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s . The second was t h e . d i f f e r e n c e i n the numbers o f boys and " g i r l s i n some o f the c l a s s e s . I n b o t h cases the p r o b l e m was to f i n d a means o f p l a c i n g the s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e o f each i n d i v i d u a l on a comparable basis' w i t h the s c o r e s o f o t h e r members o f h i s grade. A d e c i d e d sex c l e a v a g e was n o t e d i n a l l c l a s s e s , t h a t i s , few boys chose g i r l s o r g i r l s , b o y s . T h e r e f o r e i t w o u l d have been a d i s t o r t i o n o f the r e s u l t s i f a raw s c o r e o f a Grade V I I boy, i n a c l a s s o f t w e n t y - f o u r boys and t e n g i r l s , had been c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l to the same s c o r e r e c e i v e d by a g i r l i n t h a t c l a s s , f o r the t o t a l number o f c h o i c e s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e boy to r e c e i v e f r o m b o y s , on one q u e s t i o n , would have been t w e n t y - t h r e e , w h i l e t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e f o r t h e . g i r l t o r e c e i v e f r o m g i r l s would have been nime. The same s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l e d w i t h the two c l a s s e s o f the one grade. I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o c a l c u l a t e p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s . The means o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s was as f o l l o w s : 1. A s c e r t a i n the number o f boys f i l l i n g i n the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t f o rm i n the c l a s s r o o m . 2. Compute the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e number o f c h o i c e s any boy c o u l d r e c e i v e f r o m the boys i n h i s c l a s s , i . e . 4 ( N - 1 ) , when t h e r e a r e f o u r q u e s t i o n s on the form. 25. 3. Compute on a percentage basis, the actual number of choices received i n r e l a t i o n to the number possible. 4. Determine percentage scores for the g i r l s s i m i l a r l y , and for the other classes. It was recognized that the r e s u l t s would not be wholly accurate, as a few boys received choices from g i r l s , and g i r l s from boys, but the Inter-sex choices were so scattered and few that i t was assumed that these would have no appreciable e f f e c t upon the r e s u l t s . Review of available data: Before undertaking a more detailed i n d i v i d u a l study of the technique employed i n the analysis of the data, i t seems advisable, i n order to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n to review the sources of information at the disposal of the writer. Percentage sociometric scores were available f o r each i n d i v i d u a l i n the three grades. The s i g n i f i c a n t l y high and low scores i n each group (.02 l e v e l of confidence) were separated f o r comparison with respect to adjustment. Individuals having mutual friends were separated from non-friends i n order to compare adjustment scores. F i n a l l y , Total Adjustment scores on the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality were available f o r each person, as well as Self Adjustment scores and Social Adjustment scores. 26. C o r r e l a t i o n o f s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and  a d j u s t m e n t : When the p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s had been computed, a l l the p e r s o n s i n the grade were grouped as a whole, and a c o r r e l a t i o n ( P e a r s o n p) worked between h. T o t a l - A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s and s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s f o r boys and f o r g i r l s f o r each g r a d e , a. T o t a l Adjustment s c o r e s and s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s f o r each g r a d e , c. S e l f Adjustment s c o r e s and s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s f o r each grade. d. S o c i a l Adjustment s c o r e s and s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s f o r each g r a d e . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n adjustment s c o r e s  o f extreme s o c i o m e t r i c g r o u p s ; The s e p a r a t i o n o f the extreme groups on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t f o l l o w e d B r o n f e n b r e n n e r s (5) t e c h n i q u e . He p o i n t s out t h a t i n s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t i n g as i n any o t h e r f i e l d , "the q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d : to what e x t e n t are the r e s u l t s o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t i n g . s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ; o r , to s t a t e the p r o b l e m i n somewhat more mundane terms, to what e x t e n t i s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h o i c e s o b t a i n e d i n a s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t a t a l l d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t w h i c h would be s e c u r e d by h a v i n g b l i n d f o l d e d s u b j e c t s draw names from a h a t " . He t h e n p r o c e e d s t o i l l u s t r a t e , b y means o f the b i n o m i a l , a t e c h n i q u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t any g i v e n number o f c h o i c e s would have been a l l o t t e d t o a p e r s o n p u r e l y as a r e s u l t o f chance f a c t o r s . T h i s method has t h e advantage over o t h e r s o f t a k i n g i n t o .account the number o f p e r s o n s i n the group, the number o f c r i t e r i a ( q u e s t i o n s ) i n v o l v e d , and the number o f c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e . He d i s c u s s e s t h e v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a p p r o x i m a t i n g the expanded b i n o m i a l , i n orde? to a v o i d the t e d i o u s work i n v o l v e d i n expanding the b i n o m i a l when the group i s l a r g e , and d e c i d e s i n f a v o u r o f C a r v e r ' s a p p r o x i m a t i o n by means o f the P e a r s o n Type I I I F u n c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s method, the mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and skewness o f the b i n o m i a l a re c a l c u l a t e d , and each o b t a i n e d f r e q u e n c y e x p r e s s e d as a d e v i a t i o n f rom t h e mean. S f a n d a r d u n i t s o f s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s can t h e n be o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g the d e v i a t i o n s by' the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f the b i n o m i a l . -These s t a n d a r d u n i t s a r e t a k e n as a b s c i s s a l v a l u e s under the Type I I I curve o f the a p p r o p r i a t e , skewness, and {fcjhe a r e a under the curve o b t a i n e d by means o f t a b l e s . F o r the l a t t e r s t e p , B r o n f e n b r e n n e r s u g g e s t s the use o f S a l v o s a ' s (23) "Tables o f Pearson's Type I I I F u n c t i o n , " as t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f chance o c c u r r e n c e o f any d e v i a t i o n f rom t h e b i n o m i a l mean may t h e n , be r e a d d i r e c t l y . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r s e t s the .02 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y as b e i n g the a r b i t r a r y l i m i t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus, t h e extreme groups on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t were t h o s e r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t e r number o f c h o i c e s t h e in would be e x p e c t e d to o c c u r by chance two t i m e s i n one hundred, and .those r e c e i v i n g fdwer • c h o i c e s t h a n would be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r by chance two t i m e s i n one hundred. 28. Through f u r t h e r s t u d y , w o r k i n g w i t h a c t u a l g r o u p s , B r o n f e n b r e n n e r r e v e a l e d t # a t , " P r o v i d e d the number o f c r i t e r i a and c h o i c e s a l l o t t e d a r e h e l d c o n s t a n t from group to group, l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e d by v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e ,?nd any g i v e n s c o r e below the upper l i m i t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e r e p r e s e n t s about the same d e v i a t i o n f rom chance e x p e c t a n c y . C o n s e q u e n t l y w i t h i n t h e i n d i c a t e d l i m i t s , w i t h groups v a r y i n g from t e n t o f i f t y ... the r a w s t a t u s s c o r e a f f o r d s a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e i n d e x o f s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s " , B r o n f e n b r e n n e r p r o v i d e s a t a b l e i n h i s r e p o r t g i v i n g t h e e x p e c t e d raw s c o r e v a l u e s , and upper and l o w e r l i m i t s ( c r i t i c a l s c o r e s ) w h i c h may be u t i l i z e d f o r v a r i o u s numbers o f c r i t e r i a ard a l l o t t e d c h o i c e s . Prom t h i s t a b l e (5 % pf 68}, the l i m i t s f o r the extreme groups were o b t a i n e d . Because c h o i c e s were a l l o w e d t o go o u t s i d e o f the c l a s s r o o m , i n q u e s t i o n 4 o f the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t , the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f rom t h i s , q u e s t i o n twefrtei o m i t t e d from th e raw s c o r e t o t a l o f each i n d i v i d u a l , i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f the work. The r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g so were as f o l l o w s : 1» As B r o n f e n b r e n n e r 1 s t e c h n i q u e i s b ased upon chance ex p e c t a n c y , i t w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d be chosen f r o m w i t h i n the group r a t h e r t h a n f rom o u t s i d e , and t h e n ±h-c o r p o r a t e t h e r e s u l t i n t o the' t o t a l s c o r e . 29. 2. S i n c e the p r o p o r t i o n o f c h o i c e s g o i n g o u t s i d e the group v a r i e d f r om one grade l e v e l t o a n o t h e r , the c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s e grades would n o t he a c c u r a t e w i t h the i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n . As sex c l e a v a g e was almost c o m p l e t e , t h e boys and g i r l s o f each c l a s s were c o n s i d e r e d as groups i n t h e m s e l v e s . A f t e r . t h e extremes were s e p a r a t e d f o r each o f t h e s e g r o u p s , t h e y were t h e n grouped as two extreme groups f o r each g r a d e , and t h e means, d i f f e r e n c e s e t c . , computed. The extreme s c o r e s d i d n o t number more th a n t w e n t y - s i x i n any one s e c t i o n , so s t e p - i n t e r v a l s o f one were employed. • The f o r m u l a u s e d t o compute the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f each o f t h e extreme, d i s t r i b u t i o n s was <T- yj t h a t i s , c a l c u l a t i o n f r om o r i g i n a l s c o r e s by the Short Method, (12/, p.63,). Comparison o f the, adjustment s c o r e s o f m u t u a l  f r i e n d s and n o n - f r i e n d s ; For the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , m u t u a l f r i e n d s were d e f i n e d as t h o s e , p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g c h o i c e s f rom i n d i v i d u a l s whom.they have c h o s e n , f o r . e a c h p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i o n . No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made between f i r s t , second o r t h i r d c h o i c e s . That i s , an i n d i v i d u a l c h o o s i n g as h i s f i r s t c h o i c e someone who chose him as a t h i r d c h o i c e , would s t i l l be s c o r e d as a m u t u a l - f r i e n d . 30. However, i f he chose someone on the f i r s t q u e s t i o n and was chosen by t h a t p e r s o n on the t h i r d , t h e y would n o t be c o n s i d e r e d mutual f r i e n d s * At each grade l e v e l , the i n d i v i d u a l s who had no mu t u a l f r i e n d s i n t h e group, i n any q u e s t i o n , were t a k e n as one group, while, those h a v i n g such f r i e n d s h i p s composed the o t h e r . T h e i r mean t o t a l a djustment s c o r e s were t h e n computed and the d i f f e r e n c e s , and s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f the d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d . The s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the tv/o means i n co-npa^ing externe groups i n s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s , and m u t u a l f r i e n d s w i t h n o n - f r i e n d s , on the b a s i s o f adjustment s c o r e s , was computed b y employing the f o r m u l a The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e , e x p r e s s e d by t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i o (CR) was e v a l u a t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o F i s h e r ' s t a b l e o f t , a t the .05 and .01 l e v e l s o f c o n f i d e n c e , w i t h degrees o f freedom ( N r l ) (N-l)*, T h i s method was. employed i n v i e w o f the s m a l l samples a v a i l a b l e a t t h e extremes. G r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s c o r e s i I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t to any o b t a i n e d c o n s t a n c y o r p r o g r e s s i p n from one grade l e v e l t o a n o t h e r , f r e q u e n c y * d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f p e r c e n t a g e s o c i o m e t r y s c o r e s were p l o t t e d f o r each grade. By means o f t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s i t was p o s s i b l e to s t u d y n o t o n l y the shape o f the c u r v e , b u t the degree o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n a t each l e v e l , and any changes w h i c h o c c u r r e d . A second group o f graphs were p l o t t e d o f the s o c i o m e t r i c score's o f the w e l l a d j u s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , the p o o r l y a d j u s t e d and the moderatrely w e l l a d j u s t e d at each grade l e v e l . Through e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a b r o a d e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s was p o s s i b l e , f o r , i n s t e a d o f s t u d y i n g the adjustment o f i n d i v i d u a l s o f a g i v e n s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s as was done i n the former s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , the s t a t u s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r y i n g degrees o f adjustment was a b s e r v e d . The d e f i n i t i o n o f 7 V e l l a d j u s t e d " , " m o d e r a t e l y w e l l a d j u s t e d " and " p o o r l y a d j u s t e d " was a r e l a t i v e one^each d e n o t i n g one t h i r d o f the grade's adjustment s c o r e s . T a r g e t d e p i c t i o n s : As an i l l u s t r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , t a r g e t c h a r t s were drawn o f the s t a t u s and some o f the c h o i c e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n each c l a s s r o o m . (See Appendix HI). The t a r g e t method was f i r s t d e v i s e d by Northway ( 2 6 ) , whereby the q u a r t i l e p o i n t s o f - a group ' i'of s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s were de t e r m i n e d , and t h e s e s e r v e d as the' d i v i d i n g r i n g s o f a t a r g e t w i t h the p e r s o n s i n the h i g h e s t q u a r t e r i n the c e n t r e and the l o w e s t q u a r t e r i n the o u t s i d e a r e a . B r o n f enbrenner (6) has m o d i f i e d t h i s so t h a t p e r s o n s W i t h s c o r e s h i g h e r t h a n .02 p r o b a b i l i t y are i n the c e n t r e and t h o s e w i t h l o w e r than-..02 p r o b a b i l i t y are i n the on t h e o u t s i d e . T h i s l a t t e r method has been employed i n t h i s s t u d y to c o r r e s p o n d to t h e extreme groups d e t e r m i n e d by B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s t a b l e . The i n d i v i d u a l s were numbered, f o r use on the diagrams, from the p e r s o n r e c e i v i n g the g r e a t e s t number o f c h o i c e s (#l) to the one r e c e i v i n g ' t h e s m a l l e s t . 32 V RESULTS C o r r e l a t i o n s : The c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d between s c o r e s on the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s i n the t h r e e grades a r e f o u n d i n Table I I . TABLE I I O b t a i n e d C o r r e l a t i o n s betwean--Sociometric Scores and Scores on the C a l i f o r n i a T est o f P e r s o n a l i t y . 'Scores Compared Grade I I I Grade V I I Grade X I i T o t a l Adjustment & S o c i o -:rnetry P e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s ,0.44 i .073 .003 j Boys 1 G i r l s T o t a l Adjustment & S o c i o -metry P e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s .209 -.203 i B o y s ' G i r l s -.062 .045 B o y s ' G i r l s ! .002 -.027 S e l f Adjustment & S o c i o -metry P e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s -.005 .1.058 .007 S o c i a l Adjustment & S o c i o -metry P e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s .066 . .073 .018 R e f e r e n c e to Table 49 " C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a t the b% and 1% l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , " i n G a r r e t t ( 1 2 ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t none o f these c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e b% l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . 33. When the T o t a l Adjustment s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the s o c i o m e t r y p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s f o r the boys and g i r l s separa-feLy i n Grade I I I , the o n l y r ' s above -" .100 were o b t a i n e d . These were -J-.209 f o r t h e b o y s , and — . 2 0 3 f o r t he g i r l s , n e i t h e r of w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t . The e x t r e m e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e are s i g n i f i c a n t as such, however, f o r th e y c o n f i r m each o t h e r , b o t h w i t h i n the same g r a d e , and from one grade l e v e l t o a n o t her. A consistensyv/whihh may be o b s e r v e d i n Table I I i s the g r e a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d , i n each g r a d e , o f the S o c i a l Adjustment s c o r e s , o^er. t h e S e l f Adjustment s c o r e s , when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s . A l t h o u g h the i n c r e m e n t i s s m a l l , a t r e n d seems i n d i c a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to d i r e c t i o n . A s i m i l a r tendency was d i s c o v e r e d by Bonney (4) who o b t a i n e d r o f -f.31 when she c o r r e l a t e d S e l f A d j ustment, s c o r e s w i t h s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s , and r o f -/-.43 when S o c i a l Adjustment s c o r e s were so r e l a t e d ^ i n a Grade IV 61ass. Comparison o f adjustment s c o r e s o f extreme  s o c i o m e t r i c groups : The r e s u l t s o f a comparison o f the T o t a l Adjustment s c o r e s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h s c o r e r s on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n t l y low s c o r e r s , i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h , i n eve r y c a s e , the mean C a l i f o r n i a s c o r e o f thos e w i t h h i g h s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s was above t h a t o f t h o s e w i t h low s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s , t h e " d i f f e r e n c e s were s m a l l and the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s so s m a l l t h a t t h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no r e a s o n f o r r e j e c t i n g t h e • h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e h i g h and low s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s , 34 were drawn from t h e same p o p u l a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o adju s t m e n t . T a b u l a t i o n o f the s e l a t t e r r e s u l t s i s found i n T a ble I I I . TABLE I I I Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s " , d i f f e r e n c e s , s t a n d a r d e r r o r s o f , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the means and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s on the C a l i f o r n i a T est o f P e r s o n a l i t y , o f h i g h and low s c o r e r s on the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t . ' *  GRADE I I I . GRADE V I I .GRADE X I .High s c o r e r s Low s c o r e r s H i g h s c o r e r s Low s c o r e r s High s c o r e r s Low s c o r e r s M. 70.15 147 144.2 138.75 137.8 S.D. 9.9 11.7 12.3 16.17 17.14 - 13.35 D. 1.25 2.8 . 95 S* E. 3.67 6.37 ;7.46 C.R. .27 .44 .127 T h i s second f i n d i n g c o n f i r m s the f i r s t , and t h e r e f o r e , i t seems l e s s l i k e l y t h a t the l a c k o f apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be caused by f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Comparison o f adjustment s c o r e s o f mutual f r i e n d s w i t h n o n - f r i e n d s : When the mean T o t a l Adjustment s c o r e s o f the mutual f r i e n d s were compared,those o f n o n - f r i e n d s were found to be l o w e r , • 3®. but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so. We have no grounds, therefore f o r r e j e c t i n g the hypothesis that mutual friends and non-frien&si^ are simply random samples drawn from the same population with regard to adjustment. Table TV indicates the results obtained. TABLE IV Means, standard deviations, differences between the means, standard errors of the differences between the means and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s on the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality of mutual friends and non-friends on the sociometric test. GRADE I I I GRADE VII GRADE XI Friends Non-friends Friends. Non-friends Friends Non-Friends M 7 0 . 9 6 68.15 141.92 141 137.64 129.75 S.D. 10.65 10.8 17.3 16.58 16.95 14.34 D. 2.81 .92 7.89 S.B. 3.3 7.1 8.55 3.R. .85 .13 • .92 Constancy of the results from one grade l e v e l to another; The outstanding conclusion reached a f t e r studying the results along the horizontal l i n e s of Table I I , i s the marked lack of any progression from one grade to another. Although the correlations of Total Adjustment scores with percentage sociometry soores at each l e v e l were post ti<tB, the greatest degree of relationship i s 36. found in the middle group;; (Grade VII). A breakdown of boys and girls at each grade level reveals the greatest correlation coefficient for boys in Grade- III, and the least in Grade VII, i.e. the other extreme to the boys and girls together* In no grade, are a l l the coefficients positive, or negative, but in a l l of the grades the correlation coefficients of sociometric scores with Total Adjustment and Social Adjustment are positive* Examination of Table III reveals that the greatest difference in mean adjustment scores of the extreme sociometric groups occurs at Grade VII and that this difference is the most significant, although, even in this case, the CR is not large enough to allow us to t&lieve that the groups represent different populations« Table IV indicates that the greatest difference occurring between adjustment scores of mutual friends and non-friends is in Grade XI, and that this is also the most significant difference found. This is contrary to the results of Table III with respect to extreme sociometric groups, as in the case of mutual friends and nonnfriends, the least significant difference between adjustment scores is i n Grade VII# However, because the differences are not significant in any instance we cannot draw conclusions from the differences in the results obtained from grade to grade, and can state . merely that no trend can be seen from one grade level to another« Results read from the graphs? Examination of the distribution of percentage sociometry scores for the three. 40. grades indicates that, in each instance, a greater number of persons receive few choices than many. However a trend can be seen from Grade III, through Grade VII to Grade XI» In Grade III a much greater frequency <•.? pertained aft the mode (at the low end of the scale) than in Grades VII and XI, i.e. the higher the grade, the lower the frequency of the mode interval. At the lowest grade, the decline in frequency from the mode interval was rapid, forming a relatively well marked J curve. For the Grade .. r VII group, the slope was more gradual, and i a Grade XI, even more so. The graphs illustrating the percentage sociometric scores for the three groups, divided according to degree of adjustment in each grade, exhibit illuminating results. In a l l three grades, a. large proportion of the poorly adjusted individuals are at the low end of the sociometric scale, and in no instance, does anyone from this group receive the highest sociometric score* m the two upper g^fdess however, some of those scoring low in adjustment are apparently fairlyssuccessful in their social contacts«. The moderately-wa.il adjusted groups, especially in Grade III and VII invlude a greater proportion of individuals with relatively high sociometric scores. In the two higher grades they include those persons with the highest sociometric scores* Finally, the well adjusted group, while including many individuals who received high sociometric scores, also included many who received low scores, although, never as many as in the poorly adjusted group. 44. Generalizing, i t might be said, that the well adjusted individuals are not necessarily those most, often chosen by their classmates, but that the poorly adjusted are seldom chosen to any great extant* 45. VI INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION The consistent finding of no statistically significant relationship between sociometric status and adjustment, for a l l grades, both in terms of correlation, and extreme groups, affirms •the hypothesis that no relationship exists. This consistency is also seen in the lack of a significant difference between adjustment scores of mutual friends and non*-friends* The third hypothesis is similarly affirmed, as a result of this consistency. Although the sample was limited to three schools and three grades, in one community, the complete lack of except^ ion to the trend of results greatly increases the probability of finding such a relationship in other groups* Generalizing from this- study, i t may then be considered justifiable to agree with Northway in cautioning those who work with sociometric techniques, against evaluating status in the group or even mutual friendship in a specific group as all-important requirements. Success in direct social contact is a valuable asset, and is generally; contended to be part of the many facets making up total individual adjustipent* Nevertheless, the personal attributes which enter into the degree of success attained in attracting members of the group, seems hardly a soumd basis for evaluating individual worth* The results of this study confirm the fallacy in the above argument from the point of view of mental hygiene» A cautionary note is perhaps advisable, however, with respect to, too wide an interpretation of the results obtained* 46. It is recognized that there are decided limitations to the measure of adjustment used in the study* namely the California Test of Personality* Although i t was chosen primarily because of the wide age range i t included* in the various series* in contra-diction to any other "group test available for the research* certain drawbacks were at the same time recognized* As is the case with any self rating scale^ the validity of the test is related to the degree of insight which the individual has into his own activities* although many of the questions have been mi "camouflaged11 in an attempt to obtain a greater degree of honesty* In addition to the question of insight*levels of interpretation are possible* For example* the subject could reply the way he thought he really acted* the way he thought he should act, or the way he thought his parents or teacher thought he should act* It is recognized that* often* persons clinically diagnosed as "psychopathic*" will rate themselves as extremely well adjusted on a self-rating scale* Measures such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory have attempted to remedy this situation* However* the MMPI is not suitable for children, and so could not be employed in this study* The similarity of the distribution of personality scores in the three grades to the norms* points to the validity of the test results in this,setting*, This is further emphasized by the consistency of the results obtained* The similarity between the findings in this study using the California Test of Personality and the clinical studies in Toronto is a further factor pointing to the usefulness of the instrument usedf 47. as a measure of adjustment* The frequency distribution of sociometric scores drawn up at each grade level supplied additional information regarding the shape of the curves at the elementary and secondary school levels* Northway (28) reports that Leonard and Martin discovered that scores corresponded to a J curve in the nursery school setting* That i s , that many children received a few choices, but the very few children received a great many choices* Examination of the graphs in this study indicates that while the latter part of the distribution in each case roughly follows a J, that the higher the grade level, the less steep the slope* This was noted to a lesser degree, in the number of cases included at the extreme sociometric groups at each level* In grade III, twenty-3ix cases f e l l below the ,02 level while only eight were in the high group* The proportions in grade VII were twelve high to ten low* In grade XI, the ratio was eight high to fourteen low* However, the reverse trend in this case could be attributed to the fact that the grade XI members did not know the other members of the group so well* With respect to mutual friendships, the same trend is noticed* . At the Grade III level there were the greatest number of non-friends and in Grade XI the least* This would appear to show a definite increase in socialization with age* That i s , the finding of fewer people with extremely low scores in the higher j grades seems to indicate a lack of social sensitivity among thecyounger children, which gradually develops with age* Thus the children who, in nursery school, choose the same companion for many activities, in primary and scondary school have learned to 48. differentiate those with whom they wopld prefer to do specific tasks* The plotting ot the sociometric scores of the three groups of persons with similar adjustment scores in each grade, facilitated the broadening of the interpretation derived from the former analysis* The correlation of adjustment and sociometric scores* permitted only a hazy idea of the relationship which j actually existed, and the reader was forced to be content in obtaining an overall picture* Similarly* i t was conceivable* in comparing mean adjustment scores of the extreme groups on the sociometric test, that a bimodal curve, might be present in the case of one group and a unimodal curve for the other* In this case* a similar mean might s t i l l be obtained for the;l-two,groups* However, by means of the graphs, such vagueness, was overcome, for actual relationships were then able to be deduced* As a consequence j- as stated under the heading of "Results" the generalization was made that the poorly adjusted individuals usually received few choices from their classmates but that the well adjusted individuals did not necessarily receive many choices*, The target charts or sociograms (See Appendix IV) illustrating the structure of each group tested, offer a~>diagram-matic indication of the attractions, repulsions, "stars" and "isolates" within the group* An interesting comparison can be made, for instance, between the two grade VII classes* In Primary School I, there are eight isolates* who are chosen by no one as tfreir f i r s t choices, and five of whom choose as their f i r s t choices individuals who are stars* The individual scoring highest in the 49. group receives f i v e f i r s t choices, none of whom he recip r o -cates. Such a picture i l l u s t r a t e s a r e l a t i v e lack of group integration. On the other hand, i n Primary School I I , there are fewer i s o l a t e s , a l l of whom are more r e a l i s t i c , that Is they choose as companions those people more c l o s e l y re l a t e d to them with respect to sociometric status. One member of the outer r i n g receives two choices. The high-est scorer i n t h i s group, while not reciprocating any of those who chose him, i s linked to thirteen people i n the group through the f i v e choices he receives and the person he chooses. This group appears then to have a higher degree of integration, than the corresponding class i n Primary School I. By means of such charts, the worker i n the f i e l d i s able to grasp more r e a d i l y and quickly the speci-f i c aspect i n which he i s Interested, but since i t was not the purpose of t h i s study to examine the facets of group structure, i l l u s t r a t i v e charts were considered s u f f i c i e n t diagrammatic evidence, of the use which can be made of such charts. 50. VII CONCLUSIONS In view of the findings in this study, the hypothesis that no significant relationship exists between sociometric status and adjustment as measured by the California Teat of Personality was affirmed* Similarly, the second hypothesis that no significant difference exists between adjustment scores of mutual friends and non-friends is affirmed, as i s the third hypothesis that the lack of relationship between sociometric measures and adjustment, persists at varying age levels* As a result, the common tendency to evaluate individuals in the light of their sociometric scores, appears to be without foundation with respect to the adequacy of the individual's adjustment* Consequently, caution must be taken, particularly on the part of workers in mental hygiene, to avoid using sociometric measures as tests of adjustment, and to limit the interpretation o£ sociometric results to an indications of degree *of: s o c i a l i z a t i o n , or to other factors which have been proved to be related to scores in a particular setting* 51 V I I I B I B L I O G R A P H Y (1) B a r k e r , R.G. The s o c i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of. s t r a n g e r s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s . S o c i o m e t r y 1942, 5, 169-179. (2) Bonney, M.E. A s o c i o m e t r i c s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f some f a c t o r s to m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s on the e l e m e n t a r y , secondary and c o l l e g e l e v e l s . S o c i o m e t r y , 1946, 9, 23L-47. (3) Bonney, M.E. P o p u l a r and u n p o p u l a r c h i l d r e n J a s o c i o -m e t r i c study. S o c i o m e t r y Monogr. 1947, No. 9. Pp.80. (4) Bonney, M.E. The c o n s t a n c y o f s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to t e a c h e r judgments of s o c i a l s u c e e s s , and to p e r s o n a l i t y s e l f - r a t i n g s . S o c i o m e t r y , 1943, 6, 409-424. (5) B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. A c o n s t a n t frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i o m e t r i c r e s e a r c h . S o c i o m e t r y , 1943, 6, 363, 397. P a r t I I . Experiment and i n f e r e n c e . S o c i o m e t r y , 1944, 7, p. 45. (6) B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. The g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o c i o m e t r i c d a t a . S o c i o m e t r y , 1944, 7, 283-289. (7) C a t t e l l , R.B. Review o f C a l i f o r n i a t e s t o f p e r s o n -a l i t y . M e n t a l Measurements Year Book. A r l i n g t o n , Va. : Gryphon P r e s s , 1945, p.61. (8) Cologne, R. E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h SD c i o m e t r i c p r o c -edure i n a s e l f - h e l p community c e n t r e . S o c i o m e t r y , 1943, 6, 26-67. (9) C r i s w e l l , J.H. S o c i o m e t r i c measurement and chance. S o c i o m e t r y , 1944, 7, 415-421. (10) F o r s y t h , E., & K a t z , L. A m a t r i x approach to t h e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i o m e t r i c d a t a : p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t . S o c i o m e t r y , 1946, 9, 340-349. (11) F r a n k e l , E.B. A s t u d y o f methods o f measuring and f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . B u l l . Can. P s y c h o l . Assn. 1944, 4, 56-57. (12) G a r r e t t , H.E. S t a t i s t i c s I n p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : Longmans, Green, 1947, p.63, 207, 464 & 466. 52. (13) H i l l , P.M. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f p s y c h o m e t r i c p e r f o r m a n c e , s c h o o l achievement, f a m i l y back-ground, i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s o f shy and normal c h i l d r e n . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s . U n i v . o f To r o n t o , 1941. (14) Hunt, J . McV., & Solomon, R.L. The s t a b i l i t y and some c o r r e l a t e s o f g r o u p - s t a t u s i n a summer camp group o f young boys. Amer. P s y c h o l . , 1942, 55, 33-45. (15) I n f i e l d , H.P. R e s e a r c h n o t e on the n e g a t i v e v a l u e o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t s i n c o - o p e r a t i v e group f o r m a t i o n . S o c i o m e t r y , 1944, 7, p.433. (16) J e n n i n g s , H.H. E x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e on the s o c i a l atom a t two time p o i n t s . S o c i o m e t r y , 1942, 5, 135-145. (17) J e n n i n g s , H.H. L e a d e r s h i p and i s o l a t i o n ; A s t u d y o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . New Y o r k : Longmans, Green, 1943 Pp. 240. (18) K e r s t e t t e r , L.M., & S a r g e n t , J . Re-assignment t h e r a p y i n the c l a s s r o o m . S o c i o m e t r y , 1940, 3, 293-306. (19) Loeb, N. The e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i -cance o f s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y and. i t s a p p r a i s a l i n an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s e t t i n g . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s . U n i v . o f T o r o n t o , 1941. (20) Loomis, C P . I n f o r m a l g r o u p i n g s i n a S p a n i s h -American v i l l a g e . S o c i o m e t r y , 1941, 4, 36-61 ; (21) L i n e , W., & G r i f f i n , J.D. Re f e r e n c e t o s t u d i e s i n r e c e s s i v i s m by Northway,- M.L. S t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i o m e t r y . U n i v . o f T o r o n t o , 1946, p.14. (22) Moreno, J.L. Who s h a l l s u r v i v e ? Washington: Nervous and M e n t a l D i s e a s e P u b l i s h i n g Co.; 1934, Pp. 435. (23) Moreno, J.L., & J e n n i n g s , H.H. S o c i o m e t r i c methods o f g r o u p i n g and r e g r o u p i n g w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a u t h o r i t a t i v e and d e m o c r a t i c methods o f g r o u p i n g . S o c i o m e t r y , 1944, 7, 397-414. (24) Moreno, J.L., & J e n n i n g s , H.H. S t a t i s t i c s o f s o c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . S o c i o m e t r y , 1938, 1, 342-374. 53, Morgan, H. Gerthon. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c h i l d r e n i n ' a war-boom community. J . educ. Res., 1946, 40, 271-286. Northway, M. L. A method for d e p i c t i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d by s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t i n g . S o c i o m e t r y , 1940, 3. Northway, M.L. A p p r a i s a l o f t h e s o c i a l d e v e l o p -ment o f c h i l d r e n a t a summer camp. U n i v . o f Toronto S t u d i e s , P s y c h o l o g y S e r i e s , V o l . V, 1940, p.57. Northway M.L. Children's s o c i a l development: a summary o f the Toronto S t u d i e s . B u l l . Can. P s y c h o l . A s s n . , 1943, 3, p.4.' Northway, M.L., e t a l . S t u d i e s i n the f i e l d o f s o c i o m e t r y . Univ. o f Tor o n t o , 1946, p. 14-15,34. Northway, M.L., & P o t a s h i n R. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r u s i n g the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t . U n i v . o f T o r o n t o , Mimeograph, 1945, Pp.6. P o t a s h i n , R. A s t u d y o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f g r a d e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n : f r i e n d s and n o n - f r i e n d s . B u l l , Can. P s y c h o l . Assn., 1944, 4, 57-58. R i c h a r d s o n , J . E. The use o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s i n the t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h . Paper b e f o r e Educ. S e c t . , B r i t . . P s y c h o l . S o c , London, Oct. 23, 1948. S a l v o s a , L.R. T a b l e s o f Pearson's type I I I f u n c t i o n Ann. math. S t a t i s t . 1930, 1.. • Schauer, G. S o c i a l adjustment i n a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l community. S o c i o m e t r y , 1946, 9, p. 144. Thorpe, L.P., C l a r k , IV.W. & T i e g s , E.W. Manual o f d i r e c t i o n s , C a l i f o r n i a t e s t o f p e r s o n a l i t y , C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1942, p, 2 u 4, V r e e l a n d , F.M. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n the c o l l e g e f r a t e r n i t y . S o c i o m e t r y , 142, 5, 151-162, A P P E N D I X I S o c i o m e t r i c T e s t . N a t i o n a l Committe f o r Me n t a l Hygiene (Canada), Form A. 1. Suppose you were to move to an o t h e r classromm. Which boys o r g i r l s from t h i s c l a s s r o o m would you l i k e b e s t t o go w i t h you? ' 1. ' • 2. 3 . 2, Which boys o r g i r l s o f the c l a s s r o o m w o u l d you l i k e to p l a y w i t h d u r i n g r e c e s s ? 1. 2. 3 . 5. What do you l i k e d o i n g b e s t i n s c h o o l ? 1. 2. 3 . 4. What do you l i k e d o i n g b e s t o u t o f s c h o o l ? 1. 2. 3s. Name : ^.ddcaas: Age : S c h o o l : C l a s s r o o m : D a t e : A P P E N D I X I I NATIONAL COMMUTE FOR MENTAL HYGIENE (CANADA) I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r u s i n g the S o c i o m e t r i c Test M.L. Northway R. P o t a s h i n T h i s t e s t i s d e s i g n e d t o asee.iPti-te the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a group and to measure the s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e o f a member o f a group r e l a t i v e to the s o c i a l a c c e p t ance o f o t h e r members o f the same group* T h i s form (A) o f the t e s t i s made up o f the q u e s t i o n s which have been f o u n d adequate f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and i s e s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r use i n grades 4 to 9. I t c o n s i s t s o f f o u r q u e s t i o n s which ask t h e c h i l d ' to s t a t e w i t h whom he p r e f e r s t o a s s o c i a t e under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s * DIRECTIONS FOR GIVING TEST Each c h i l d i s g i v e n a copy o f the t e s t w h i c h i s p l a c e d f a c e down on h i s desk. The i n s t r u c t o r says "To-day we want you to answer some q u e s t i o n s . . These q u e s t i o n s are n o t an e x a m i n a t i o n o r a t e s t and t h e r e are no r i g h t o r wrong answers. They ask you to w r i t e w h i c h boys and g i r l s you l i k e t o work and p l a y w i t h b e s t . T h i s w i l l h e l p the s c h o o l t o make up groups o f boys and g i r l s t o do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . " "Now t u r n o v e r the p a p e r s . You w i l l see t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t one asks rSuppose  you were t o move to a n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m . Which boys o r  g i r l s from t h i s c l a s s r o o m would you l i k e b e s t t o go w i t h  y o u ? 1 Be sure t o p u t down your f i r s t t h r e e c h o i c e s . . F i r s t t h e p e r s o n whom you would l i k e b e s t to go w i t h y o u , t h e n y o u r s e c o n d c h o i c e and the n y o ur t h i r d . " "The second q u e s t i o n asks *'Which boys o r g i r l s  o f the c l a s s r o o m would you l i k e to p l a y v / i t h d u r i n g r e c e s s ? ' Think o f t h e boys and g i r l s you would l i k e and w r i t e y o u r f i r s t , second and t h i r d c h o i c e . " "On q u e s t i o n t h r e e you are a s k e d 'What you l i k e  d o i n g b e s t i n s c h o o l ? ' When you have d e c i d e d , w r i t e down what i t i s , and t h e n w r i t e the name of the boys and g i r l s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m you would l i k e to do i t w i t h y o u . " " Q u e s t i o n f o u r a s k s 'What you l i k e to do b e s t  out o f s c h o o l ? 1 W r i t e what you l i k e b e s t , and the n t h i n k o f t he boys and g i r l s you l i k e t o have do t h i s w i t h you. I n ans w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n you may p u t the names o f boys o r g i r l s i n o t h e r rooms i n t h i s s c h o o l , o r i n o t h e r s c h o o l s , i f t h e y a r e the ones you would r e a l l y choose." "Some o f the boys and g i r l s who b e l o n g t o t h i s c l a s s r o o m a re away to-day. However you know t h e i r names and i f t h e y a r e the p e o p l e you wou l d choose you may p u t t h e i r names down." "You may p u t the same name t o more t h a n one q u e s t i o n i f you would r e a l l y choose the same p e r s o n each t i m e . 1 1 "Be sure t o w r i t e the l a s t names as w e l l as the f i r s t name o f the boys and g i r l s you choose." ( I n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o w r i t e t h e names o f the c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s a l p h a b e t i c a l l y on the b l a c k -b o a r d . ) "Any q u e s t i o n s ? " "Now b e g i n f i l l i n g i n your answers." Give t h e c h i l d r e n a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f time to answer. Do n o t s p e l l c h i l d r e n ' s names out t o the c l a s b u t t e l l t he c h i l d r e n t o s p e l l t he hames the way t h e y t h i n k t h e y sound. When t h e y are f i n i s h e d be s u r e the c h i l d r e n f i l l i n the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d a t the bottom o f the s h e e t : Name, a d d r e s s , age, s c h o o l , c l a s s r o o m , date A P P E N D I J C I I I A sample t a b u l a t i n g c h a r t s i m i l a r to t h o s e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s the c h o i c e s o f a group o f 3 boys and 5 g i r l s w i t h f o u r c r i t e r i a and t h r e e c h o i c e s a l l o t t e d . IS in > w> 0 «S3' >^ C 0 •a -»>» -M^LCAN r f\N oge*/% J. «•» Mb ^» ffo-vtees B. *m Lee P. - -— •mm -- - -t // t / /7 /3 nit. *3 Q 5* V. o V A P P E N D I X IV S o c i o m e t r i c t a r g e t diagrams o f a s e c t i o n o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t he i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s g r o u p s . O G i r l « — i — > Mutual Choice • F i r s t c h o i c e s on the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n  o f members o f Grade I I I o f P r i m a r y  S c h o o l I . S t a t u s o f the members i s d e r i v e d f rom the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a . Legend: A Boy O G i r l 4 f — ^ M u t u a l C h o i c e F i r s t c h o i c e s on the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n  o f members o f Grade I I I o f P r i m a r y  S c h o o l I I . S t a t u s o f the members i s d e r i v e d f r o m the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a * Legend: A Boy O G i r l < 1 — * Mutual Choice F i r s t c h o i c e s on t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n  o f members o f Grade V I I o f P r i m a r y  S c h o o l I . S t a t u s o f the.members i s d e r i v e d f r o m the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a * •Legend: A Boy O G i r l « ( - ^ M u t u a l Choice Pl-pg-h 1 r.hoir.es on th e , f i r s t c r i t e r i o n  o f rriftmbers o f Grade V I I o f P r i m a r y  S c h o o l II. Status of the members i s derived from the raw score values of choices received on three c r i t e r i a . Legend: A Boy O G i r l i — i — * M u t u a l C h o i c e . F i r s t c h o i c e s on t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n  o f member's o f a group o f grade X I  E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n one secondary s c h o o l . 'Status o f the members i s d e r i v e d f r o m the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a . 

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