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The relation of the adjustment of the individual to his sociometric status in the classroom Kay, Eleanor Irene. 1949

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^  T H E  1  R E L A T I O N  A D J U S T M E N T TO  H I S IN  OF  OP  T H E  T H E  I N D I V I D U A L  S O C I O M E T R I C T H E  S T A T U S  C L A S S R O O M  b  o •'/ .-JJkd'  7  ELEANOR IRENE KAY  u  7 /  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY  THEOTIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1949  ABSTRACT The r e l a t i o n of the adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s sociometric status i n the classroom. By Eleanor Irene Kay. Since the s o c i o m e t r i c technique was d e v i s e d as a measure of  i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , mantf s t u d i e s have been  taken, i n which the technique was used. ometeric  tinder-  F r e q u e n t l y the s o c i -  score o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r h i s " s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s "  has been used to evaluate him, p a r t i c u l a r l y among those n o t too f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e s t . hygiene,  Among those i n t e r e s t e d i n mental  t h e r e has been a s i m i l a r tendency to c o n s i d e r sociome-  t r i c t e s t s as measures o f adjustment.  This study was under-  taken i n an attempt to determine whether such assumptions were j u s t i f i a b l e . Two Grade I I I and two Grade V I I c l a s s e s , and one l a r g e group o f Grade XI students from three schools i n a c l a s s " area o f Vancouver were used as s u b j e c t s .  "middle  The S o c i -  ometric Test, Form A, o f the N a t i o n a l Committee f o r Mental Hygiene (Canada) was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the w r i t e r , f o l l o w e d immediately of  by the a p p r o p r i a t e s e r i e s o f the C a l i f o r n i a Test  P e r s o n a l i t y , Form A.  x x  'The sociometry percentage  scores were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  the t o t a l Adjustment s c o r e s , and w i t h the S e l f Adjustment and S o c i a l Adjustment scores f o r each grade.  In a d d i t i o n ,  separate c o r r e l a t i o n s were r u n between T o t a l Adjustment scores and sociometry percentage g i r l s i n each grade. t e s t were determined  scores f o r boys and f o r  The extreme groups on the s o c i o m e t r i c f o r each grade and the s i g n i f i c a n c e -  o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means on the p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t computed.  S i m i l a r l y p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t scores o f mutual f r i e n d s  and n o n - f r i e n d s  on the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t were compared, and  s i g n i f i c a n c e of differences obtained.  F i n a l l y , graphs were  employed to i l l u s t r a t e the range o f s o c i o m e t r i c  scores f o r the  w e l l - a d j u s t e d , moderately w e l l - a d j u s t e d and p o o r l y groups i n each grade, a c c o r d i n g  the  to the r e s u l t s on  adjusted the  C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the h i s sociometric  without e x c e p t i o n ,  indicated a lack  adjustment o f the i n d i v i d u a l and  s t a t u s i n the classroom.  Consequently,  the  e v a l u a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s adjustment on the b a s i s o f h i s sociometric avoided.  score appears to be u n j u s t i f i a b l e , and  should  be  TABLE OF CONTENTS  I  IX  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  E v o l u t i o n o f the problem  3  Hypotheses  4  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The  £  s o c i o m e t r i c technique  Studies o f the f a c t o r s  5  determining  sociometric status III  IV  7  PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTING DATA  14  Sampling technique  14  Measuring instruments  16  Administration o f tests  18  TREATMENT OF DATA  21  S t a t i s t i c a l techniques Tabulating  sociometric  Weights a s s i g n e d  21 scores  21  to the c h o i c e s on  the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t  23  Conversion o f raw s o c i o m e t r i c scores to percentage values  23  Review o f a v a i l a b l e data"  25  Correlation o f sociometric and adjustment  status 26  Determination o f d i f f e r e n c e s I n adjustment s c o r e s o f extreme s o c i o m e t r i c groups  26  Comparison o f the adjustment s c o r e s of  V  mutual f r i e n d s and n o n - f r i e n d s  29  Graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s c o r e s  30  Target d e p i c t i o n s  31  RESULTS '  32  Correlations  32  Comparison o f adjustment s c o r e s o f extreme S o c i o m e t r i c groups  33  Comparison o f adjustment scores of  34  mutual f r i e n d s w i t h n o n - f r i e n d s Constancy o f the r e s u l t s from one grade l e v e l to a n o t h e r '  35  R e s u l t s r e a d from the graphs  36  VI  INTERPRETATION AND BlSCUSSIOir  45  VII  CONCLUSIONS  50  V I I I BIBLIOGRAPHY  51  APPENDICES Appendix I  The S o c i o m e t r i c T e s t  Appendix  II  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r using the S o c i o m e t r i c  Appendix I I I  Test  Sample t a b u l a t i n g c h a r t f o r s o c i o m e t r i c scores  Appendix IV  S o c i o m e t r i c t a r g e t diagrams  1. 'The r e l a t i o n o f t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l to h i s s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s i n the classroom  I  STATEMENT OP  THE  PROBLEM  Fundamental to the concept o f c u l t u r e i s the o f the group. of varying  W i t h i n the main c o n s t e l l a t i o n , -  s t r u c t u r e and  composition  Western European c i v i l i z a t i o n , s c i e n t i s t s have attempted by  devious  s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g r o u p s as of cohesion,  cleavages  amd  sub-groups  are found.  s o c i a l and  unit  In  our  political  methods to  determine  s t r u c t u r e , degree  patterns of individual  attrac-  t i o n and r e p u l s i o n * A r e l a t i v e l y recent  technique  "spontaneity  t e s t , " d e v i s e d by  o f w h i c h was  l a t e r changed to  means o f a s i m p l e  Moreno  f o r such s t u d y ^ i s ( 2 2 ) , t h e name  "sociometric test."  By  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to  d e t e r m i n e t h e members w i t h i n a g r o u p w i t h whom v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s would p r e f e r to a s s o c i a t e under c e r t a i n conditions.  From t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , n u m e r i c a l  o f t h e number o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d b y  each  o r t h e number o f p e o p l e c h o o s i n g . h i m may and h e n c e , t h e group s t r u c t u r e w i t h isolates or stars, The  s c o r e he  individual, be c a l c u l a t e d ,  i t s individual  determined,-  "group s t a t u s " o f any  t h e g r o u p c a n be  scores  individual within  d e n o t e d n u m e r i c a l l y b y means o f  r e c e i v e s , o r by  the  a diagrammatic d e p i c t i o n o f  the  the group, w i t h c h o i c e s chooser to the  represented  by  arrows from  chosen.  W i t h the g r o w i n g emphasis on, of sociometric ical  ing  techniques  and  employment  i n group r e s e a r c h  and  s i t u a t i o n s , numerous h y p o t h e s e s h a v e b e e n  f o r t h and  i n f e r e n c e s made.  o f the  the  a d v a n t a g e s and  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f the  Basic  practset  to a c l e a r understand-  limitations of  sociometry  is  degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between  t e s t r e s u l t s and  various pertinent factors influencing  group b e h a v i o r .  One  o f the  e s s e n t i a l and  primary  s t u d i e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , f r o m the p o i n t o f v i e w b f worker i n mental h y g i e n e , i s the r e l a t i o n o f s t a t u s to the  adjustment.of the  ment and  sociometric  what t h e g r o u p .  s t a t u s w o u l d be  However, t h e  c u l t u r e , i s b a s i c t o any By  the use  without  r e l a t i o n s h i p found between constant,  classroom  p r i m a r y and m o s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e our  sociometric  individual.  I t w o u l d b e p r e s u m p t u o u s t o assume v e r i f i c a t i o n t h a t any  the  as one  adjust-  no  matter  of  the  sub-groups  investigation in this  o f Moreno's t e c h n i q u e ,  e x a m i n e d t h e g r o u p s t r u c t u r e o f a few  of field*  the w r i t e r  Vancouver  classes  w h i c h formed a sample o f s c h o o l p u p i l s employed i n studying to  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f group, or  adjustment.  sociometric  status  3. E v o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m : During a s e r i e s o f i n f o r m a l l e c t u r e s i n the f i e l d  of sociometry,  a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , i n November, Mary L. N o r t h w a y "A  (29)  delivered a lecture  common m i s c o n c e p t i o n  regarding  were a c q u a i n t e d  example t e a c h e r s  with sociometric  and p a r e n t s ,  1946, entitled,  sociometric  A t t h a t t i m e it...was e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e who  techniques,  t r a n s f e r r e d the  They c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t was  obtain a high  sociometric  Northway c a u t i o n e d  score  It occurred  ment.  the  t o the  w r i t e r , upon  reading  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y such a value  upon  d i d value m e n t a l h e a l t h o r good  Therefore  the  question  arose regarding  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c  s t a t u s and  sociometric  exist,  scores  for  the  are  t h e r e f o r e p r o p o s e d to examine c l a s s -  r o o m g r o u p s i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a relationship.  the  a psychological foundation  commonly h e l d v i e w t h a t h i g h I t was  adjust-  adjustment.  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p were f o u n d to  t h e r e w o u l d t h e n be  desirable.  one.  such a view.  i n d i v i d u a l d i d not p l a c e  If  sociometric  more d e s i r a b l e t o  than a low  Northway's l e c t u r e , t h a t a l t h o u g h  p o p u l a r i t y , he  for  culturally  the workers i n the f i e l d of  dangers o f a c c e p t i n g  oriented  scores".  lay public  d e f i n e d v a l u e o f p r e s t i g e o r p o p u l a r i t y to scores.  presented  At the  degree o f  same t i m e a r e l a t e d p r o b l e m  such was  4. i n v e s t i g a t e d , namely t h e - r e l a t i o n o f mutual to  friendships'  adjustment. Upon f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n , a n o t h e r p r o b l e m  recognized. the  I t seemd h a r d l y  j u s t i f i a b l e t o assume  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c  status  and  was that  adjust-  ment w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y r e m a i n c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t a l l age  levels.  As a r e s u l t , t h e f i e l d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n  was  e n l a r g e d i n . or d e r t o embrace t h o s e a g e s b e t w e e n  which obvious p h y s i c a l  and  s o c i a l changes,  i n the i n d -  i v i d u a l and the group, had been o b s e r v e d t o t a k e These p e r i o d s i n c l u d e d later  childhood,  t i m e o f puberty,- and  adolescence. H y p o t h e s e s : . From, t h e e v o l u t i o n  the  h y p o t h e s e s ' t o be 1.  place.  t e s t e d are stated  That s o c i o m e t r i c no  status  o f the as  problem,  follow:  i n the c l a s s r o o m b e a r s  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to adjustment,  measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f 2. Grhat no  significant difference  adjustment o f mutual  as  Personality.  e x i s t s between the  f r i e n d s and  non-friends.  3. T h a t t h e l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e .sociometric  measures and a d j u s t m e n t p e r s i s t s  one g r a d e l e v e l t o a n o t h e r .  from  5. II The Moreno's  HISTORICAL  BACKGROUND  s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e : Since the time o f  (22) e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e s o c i o m e t r i c  w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f "Who s h a l l i n the s o c i a l  approach,  survive",  workers  s c i e n c e s have employed and expanded h i s  techniques i n t h e i r interrelations.  s t u d y o f t h e many f a c e t s o f g r o u p  Some, s u c h a s S c h a u e r  ( 3 4 ) who o b s e r -  ved a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l community, and Loomis  ( 2 0 ) who  examined the g r o u p i n g i n a Spanish-American  village,  are i n t e r e s t e d i n the f i e l d because  o f the direct  appli-  c a b i l i t y of the techniques in.the study o f present s p e c i f i c problems.  Others such as B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ( 5 ) ,  Criswell  ( 9 ) , F o r s y t h and Katz  Jennings  (24) see the advantages  but recognizing their  A t h i r d group  o f such techniques,  statistical  a t t e m p t e d t o remedy t h e s e . d i s c u s s e d under  ( 1 0 ) a n d Moreno a n d  shortcomings, have  These s t a t i s t i c s w i l l b e  t h e h e a d i n g o f "Treatment  o f data",  i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g the range o f  p o s s i b i l i t y i n the use o f sociometry. e x t e n t o f a p p l i c a t i o n i n the f i e l d  Examples o f t h e •  a r e seen i n r e p o r t s  such as t h a t o f R i c h a r d s o n (32) o n . t h e u s e o f t h e techniques i n the t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , o r experiments c a r r i e d on by Jennings  (16) on t h e v a r i a t i o n s  found  i n t h e s o c i a l atom a f t e r u s e o f t h e m e t h o d a t dl£feren£t times,  C l a r i f y i n g the d e f i n e d as- the i n c l u d e s the  s t r u c t u r e o f a group at a g i v e n  degree o f c o h e s i o n ,  K e r s t e t t e r and  and  study  i n the  Sargent  classroom  (23)  and the  etc,  employed  sociometric re-seating  an a n t i - s o c i a l gang-.-  In the  discovered  a l t e r group s t r u c t u r e by ih  (18)  groups, to incorporate  Jennings  time,  and w e r e a b l e , b y  o f f i v e boys i n t o the group. and  be  i n t e r a c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n  group, cleavages,  techniques  t e r m " s o c i a l a t o m " , i t may  same v e i n , Moreno  t h a t i t was  p o s s i b l e to  training outcasts  t o be  leaders  s u c h s i t u a t i o n s as i n t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f o c c u p i e d  and  s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g be p u t  f o s t e r i n g the  d e m o c r a t i c way  A r e p o r t by  of  Infield  to good use  groups.  information obtained while  He  in  life,  (15), i l l u s t r a t e s  the negative' s i d e o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t s i n the co-operative  f o u n d t h a t the most  the use  c o m m u n i t y , was  of  valuable  a  York, statement  o f t h o s e p e r s o n s w i t h whom t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d n o t to  of  formation  f r o m German r e f u g e e s i n New  s t r u c t u r i n g a compatible  areas,  like  live. Finally,  Barker  ( l ) s t u d i e d the  degree o f  found i n s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g s of a group of upon f i r s t  i n s p e c t i o n of each other,  c l a s s meetings.  His r e s u l t s revealed  same s e a t - m a t e s and regard rate  to t h e i r  them.  63%  and  class-mates  after thifcty-six  t h a t 55%  chose  r a t e d themselves s i m i l a r l y  conception  o f how  similarity  the  in  e a c h o t h e r member w o u l d  7.  status z  Studies  of the  Related  specifically  consideration suggesting choices.  factbors d e t e r m i n i n g t o the  sociometric  problem under  i n t h i s - s t u d y , a r e numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  t h o s e f a c t o r s most a f f e c t i n g s o c i o m e t r i c  • / •  In her book, "Leadership aiid I s o l a t i o n " ,  Jennings  (17)  acceptable  concludes that those acceptable  and  w i t h i n the group a c h i e v e such s t a t u s ,  b e c a u s e o f common p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , b u t  nonnot  because  of  success or l a c k o f successs i n personal i n t e r a c t i o n . This  suggests that l i t t l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s would  f o u n d b e t w e e n a d j u s t m e n t , as p o r t r a y e d traits,  and  sociometric  s t a t u s , but  in personality  that a p o s i t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s and i s more l i k e l y . ing  On  the other  hand, Cologne  a s e l f - h e l p community c e n t r e ,  traits  d i d a f f e c t choices, but  to the  k n o w l e d g e and  respect  ability  adjustment (8), study-  found that p e r s o n a l i t y  t h a t t h e y were  of the  to. l i k e l i h o o d o f c h o i c e  as  be  secondary  individual in co-workers on  work  projects. Vreeland fraternities traits  (36), a f t e r t e s t i n g twenty-one  concluded that f a c t o r s other  affected choices,  (for he  college  than p e r s o n a l i t y  found that s t a r s , that i s ,  t h o s e p e r s o n s t o w a r d whom many members o f t h e g r o u p  are  a t t r a c t e d , t e n d e d t o be  while  chosen from upper classmen,  i s o l a t e s w e r e among t h e newcomers t o t h e g r o u p . according  to Morgan ( 2 5 ) , s t u d y i n g  community, the r e c e n c y o f  However,  c h i l d r e n i n a war  a r r i v a l i n t h e g r o u p as  boom  such,  s. does n o t a f f e c t  choices.  E x a m i n a t i o n o f a g r o u p o f y o u n g b o y s . a t a summer camp, b y Hunt a n d S o l o m o n ( 1 4 ) y i e l d e d t h e  conclusion  t h a t p r e v i o u s camp e x p e r i e n c e , a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , generosity,  physical  attractiveness, orderliness of  a c t i v i t y and l a c k o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y were correlated with of  sociometric  status.  significantly  However, t h e r e l a t i o n  t h e s e f a c t o r s t o g e n e r a l a d j u s t m e n t 'was n o t d e t e r m i n e d .  Corroborating  t h e f i n d i n g s o f Jennings and Cologne, i n the  camp s e t t i n g , N o r t h w a y ( 2 7 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t  suceess i n direct  s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f s k i l l s were f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c h o i c e s among a g r o u p o f g i r l s . In a study o f twenty-three nursery  school  c h i l d r e n from three, t o f i v e y e a r s o f age, F i i a n k e l (11) found l i t t l e logical  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s and chrono-  age, i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s  She d i s c o v e r e d  however, t h a t  or.attendance.  a l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n who h a d  f r e q u e n t e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t s a n d were h a b i t u a l l y d i s c i p l i n a r y . n o n - S o n f o r m i s t s w e r e more o f t e n named a s p l a y - m a t e s , t h e y were n o t chosen, i n a c t u a l p l a y Two c o n c l u s i o n s  situations.  m i g h t t e n t a t i v e l y be drawn f r o m t h i s  finding. a,  Sociometric  t e s t s a p p a r e n t l y do n o t m e a s u r e t h e  s i t u a t i o n which a c t u a l l y e x i s t s w i t h i n the group, b.  Nursery school for  playmates.  c h i l d r e n t e n d t o make  "unreal"  choices  9.  In (21), all  the grade s c h o o l s e t t i n g ,  in their  search for r e c e s s i v e c h i l d r e ,  c h i l d r e n d e f i n e d by  q u a r t e r on  them as  (13), i n examination  Griffin  discovered  "shy" were i n the  the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t , but  c h i l d r e n i n t h i s q u a r t e r who Hill  L i n e and  that there  were n o t  shy.  that  lowest  were  Similarly,  o f the p u p i l s f a l l i n g  the average a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e , found th&t  below  a l l the  shy  c h i l d r e n and o n l y two  o f the n o n - s h y c h i l d r e n w e r e i n t h i s  category.  r e v e a l e d t h a t those  low  on  Loeb  (19)  t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t w e r e o f two  w e r e r e s e r v e d and  their  types, those  c o n s i d e r e d non-problems by  a n d p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n , a g g r e s s i v e , and by  children scoring  class-mates.  She  their  actively  teachers,  disliked  discovered, i n addition, a  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between those  c h i l d r e n whose  achievement ranked  and  above t h e i r a b i l i t y  a l a r g e number o f c h o i c e s on In  a review o f these  Northway a  the  those r e c e i v i n g  the s o c i o m e t r i c  s t u d i e s i n the p r i m a r y  (23) f o r m u l a t e d  test. schools,  tentative hypothesis  "A chil'ds s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e  and  d i r e c t i o n of h i s outgoing Prom t h e s e  who  that • degree  energy"..  Toronto s t u d i e s the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  m i g h t b e made t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h clinically among t h o s e that,  d e f i n d p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r , d i s o r d e r s chosen l e a s t o f t e n , by  t h e i r classmates,  some c h i l d r e n whcappEar w e l l a d j u s t e d ,  n o t s o c i a l l y a c t i v e , are a l s o i n t h i s  group.  are but  although  ' 10. Potashin the  . • •  (31) r e p o r t s , i n a s t u d y o f f r i e n d s i n  s e n i o r c l a s s e s o f an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , t h a t f r i e n d s  tend to be s i m i l a r i n h e i g h t ,  i n t e l l i g e n c e and e c o n o m i c  s t a t u s , b u t that the r e l i a b i l i t y high.  She d i s c o v e r e d  o f the r e s u l t s i s n o t  two t y p e s o f f r i e n d s h i p s  existing  w i t h i n a group. Quoting d i r e c t l y , 1,  they a r e :  The c l o s e d c l i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r t n e r s a r e v e r y much a l i k e and  who  i n s o c i a l s t a t u s and c o n t a c t s ,  who a r e o f t e n t h e most p r o m i n e n t members o f  the c l a s s , 2,  The l e s s r e s t r i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r t n e r s s h a r i n g fewer s o c i a l experiences contacts Bonney  but with  wider  elsewhere, ( 3 ) , a f t e r a study o f f i v e popular  and  f i v e u n p o p u l a r c h i l d r e n f r o m a g r o u p o f 150 i n t h e elementary schools t r a i t s as b e i n g  o f Denton, Texas, o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g  c o n n e c t e d w i t h group a c c e p t a b i l i t y : p h y s i c a l  h e a l t h , and v i g o r , conformity emotional  stability  aggressiveness,  and group  :  and c o n t r o l , a r o u s i n g  i>.i entification, :  admiration,  a d a p t a b i l i t y and t o l e r a n c e ,  dependence on o t h e r s  f o rassistance  p r o v i d i n g new e x p e r i e n c e  f o rothers,  t i o n a n d an a t t i t u d e o f g o o d w i l l •writer, i n a review  social  dependability,  and e m o t i o n a l  support,  s o c i a l service motiva-  toward others*-  o f f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to mutual  ships i n elementary school, secondary school  The same friend-  and c o l l e g e ,  f o u n d a s m a l l b u t c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c o r e s and  11. s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d and occupational college  i n t e r e s t s at  l e v e l s . She  Personality  i n the  a  the  slight relationship secondary school  employed the  a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s and  and  friendship  I n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s h o w e v e r , s o c i a l and  found  little  formation.  emotional  depicted  a p p e a r e d t o be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to f r i e n d s h i p  any  B e l l ' Adjustment  Inventory  h o w e v e r , d i f f e r e n t t e s t s were u s e d a t t h e  conclusion  possible her  the  of  d e v e l o p m e n t as  Since,  by  and  C a l i f o r n i a Test  elementary schools,  r e a c h e d must be  e r r o r i n c u r r e d by  to  scores.  two  levels,  e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f  t h i s method,  the  Bonney o b t a i n e d  h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s . i n t h i s study between scores  m u t u a l f r i e n d s , on  a scale of her  the  friends,  ability  to win  A s t u d y by disclosed that  Bonney  own  d e s i g n to measure  (4) o f g r a d e I V  sociometric  of  pupils  s c o r e s when c o r r e l a t e d  with  a d j u s t m e n t , as m e a s u r e d b y  the  Person-  a l i t y , yielded a r of  -.06,  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the  .49  appears r a t h e r  t r e n d o f the  reports  the  fact that only  Bonney h e r s e l f i n the reports  no  andf.43 ±  .06  for  one  p e r h a p s may  be  g r a d e l e v e l was  reference previously  Self  This  h i g h i n c o m p a r i s o n to  c i t e d , and  scores  C a l i f o r n i a Test,  S o c i a l Adjustment r e s p e c t i v e l y .  relationship  by  When s o c i o m e t r i c  s u b - s e c t i o n s of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were+.31 ± .07  A d j u s t m e n t and  for  C a l i f o r n i a Test of  the  accounted compared.  cited  (2)  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between C a l i f o r n i a  12. scores  and mutual f r i e n d s h i p s a t t h e elementary  school  level, Northway  (29) f o u n d t h a t n i n e  w e r e among t h e t w e n t y - f o u r who h a d t h e l o w e s t  shy i n d i v i d u a l s  children clinically  scores  on sociometric  l a y s B o n n e y ' s r e s u l t s o p e n to q u e s t i o n  examined  tests.  This  e s p e c i a l l y when  N o r t h w a y f u r t h e r d e f i n e s - " s h y " : "The s h y c h i l d , w h i l e  hes-  i t a n t i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , , e s p e c i a l l y those which p u t him  "on t h e s p o t " , h a d o f t e n man?jr v i t a l  seemed t o e n j o y l i f e  reasonably  well.  i n t e r e s t s and He h a d g o o d  i n s i g h t a n d h i s d i f f i c u l t y was l i m i t e d t o one a r e a , . t d i r e c t s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i s classroom Then i t w o u l d seem t h a t , w i t h r e g a r d  group".  to general  adjust-  m e n t , a t l e a s t one g r o u p r e c e i v i n g l o w s o c i o m e t r i c should not receive correspondingly personality test. The study  low s c o r e s  scores  on a  #  w r i t e r was u n a b l e t o d i s c o v e r a s p e c i f i c  reported  i n the i i t e r a t u r e which i l l u s t r a t e d  a  constancy o r l a c k o f constancy i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between adjustment and s o c i o m e t r i c .age l e v e l s .  Bonney's study  s t a t u s , throughout s e v e r a l : concerning  mutual f r i e n d s and adjustment constant  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  shows a l a c k ' o f s u c h a  r e l a t i o n s h i p , but on the other hand, i nthe  Toronto s t u d i e s o f r e c e s s i v i s m , the connection shyness o r r e c e s s i v i s m and classroom  status  between  apparently  remained unchanged, a t l e a s t from grades f i v e t o e i g h t inclusive.  13. I n r e v i e w , many w r i t e r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e t o be r e l a t e d t o s t a t u s and m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s i n v a r i o u s  sociometric  settings*  A t e n d e n c y t o d i s p r o v e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as in their relationship  i s prevalent.  outstanding  The c o n n e c t i o n  between a b s o l u t e s t a t u s and c l i n i c a l l y  determined  degrees o f maladjustment appears c o n s t a n t through s e v e r a l grade  levels.  14. Ill Sampling; it  PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTING DATA technique:  As was p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d ,  was p r o p o s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e i n t h i s  study the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and adjustment, f r i e n d s h i p s and adjustment,  and mutual  a t v a r y i n g age l e v e l s .  G r o u p s who w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h one another  t o make d e c i s i o n s i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c h o i c e o f  companion f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , were o b t a i n e d  from  grades I I I , V I I , and X I o f t h r e e Vancouver s c h o o l s .  In  these grades, p u p i l s averaged e i g h t , twelve and s i x t e e n y e a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c h i l d h o o d , approximate time adolescence. emotional  o f puberty,  The common h y p o t h e s i s  and l a t e r  t h a t p u b e r t y b r i n g s on.  d i s t r u b a n c e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h  a p h y s i c a l b a s i s or a c u l t u r a l one, suggested  either that  group s t r u c t u r e and a d j u s t m e n t might change a t t h i s As a r e s u l t , relative  the three l e v e l s  adjustment,  upheaval,  both time.  signified periods of and adjustment once a g a i n .  The g r o u p s w e r e l i m i t e d t o t h e same s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y i n order to n u l l i f y erences.  t h e e f f e c t o f any socioeconomic  diff-  C o n f i r m a t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y o f such a  p r e c a u t i o n i s b o r n e o u t i n a s t u d y b y Morgan  ( 2 5 ) , who  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c h i l d r e n i n a w a r boom c o m m u n i t y w e r e a f f e c t e d b y t h e l e v e l o f t h e f a t h e r ' s income, a l t h o u g h recency o f a r r i v a l  seemed t o h v e a  little  15. relationship  to scores.  The p r i n c i p a l s o f two p r i m a r y s c h o o l s a n d one l a r g e secondary approached  school i n a middle  c l a s s a r e a were  by t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e T e s t s and Measurement  Bureau o f the Vancouver Board of Education.. in  The w r i t e r  t u r n c o n t a c t e d these p r i n c i p a l s and a r r a n g e d f o r a  classroom p e r i o d f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a sociometric and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t f o r e a c h g r a d e , b o t h t e s t s b e i n g , a d m i n i s t e r e d i n every i n s t a n c e by the w r i t e r . The t e s t s w e r e g i v e n t o one g r a d e grade  I I I and one  V I I c l a s s i n each o f the p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , and i n  t h e h i g h s c h o o l , t o one g r o u p o f g r a d e X I p u p i l s e q u a l i n n u m b e r s t o two c l a s s e s i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s . i n each in  The n u m b e r s  c l a s s and p r o p o r t i o n o f boys and g i r l s  i s given  Table I . TABLE I  Numb e r o f b o y s a n d g i r l s 1  t e s t e d i n each classroom. BOYS  Grade X I  B&G  14  18  . 32  Primary School I I  19  15  34  Total  33  33  66  19  18  37  Primary School I I  24  10  34  Total  43  28  71  36  43  79  112  104  216  Grade I I I - P r i m a r y S c h o o l  Grade V I I  GIRLS  - Primary School  - Secondary Total  I  I  School  16. A c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t y was e n c o u n t e r e d a t t h e grade X I l e v e l because o f t h e o p t i o n p l a n o f the secondary  school.  As t h e s c h o o l  was a l a r g e o n e , i t was n o t  p r a c t i c a b l e t o i n c l u d e a l l o f grade X I i n the t e s t i n g . As  a r e s u l t t h e r e was t h e p r o b l e m , i n c h o o s i n g  c l a s s e s f o r t e s t i n g , o f some p u p i l s b e i n g  at a  a n y two disadvantage.  T h a t i s , one c l a s s m i g h t p e r h a p s be t h e o n l y one t h a t a p u p i l attended  w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e c l a s s , a n d  so t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p u p i l w o u l d be a l m o s t a s t r a n g e r t o t h e others.  I t was d e c i d e d  t h a t E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , w h i c h were  compulsory, w o u l d have fewer disadvantages and, as  as a r e s u l t ,  subjects.  sort,  t h e p u p i l s o f such c l a s s e s were employed  As a s e c o n d p r e c a u t i o n a r y m e a s u r e , t h e s e  w e r e t e s t e d a t t h e same t i m e ,  classes  i n o n e room, a n d t h e p u p i l s  given the opportunity of choosing order  of this  anyone i n t h e room, i n  t o be c l o s e r t o t h e t o t a l g r a d e X I s a m p l e , i n w h i c h  t h e o r e . t i c a l T y / , e v e r y o n e w o u l d h a v e t h e same o p p o r t u n i t y o f k n o w i n g t h e same number o f p e o p l e . Measuring Instruments:  The s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t o f  the N a t i o n a l Committee f o r M e n t a l H y g i e n e  (Canada), Form  A was e m p l o y e d , a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f N o r t h w a y a n d Potashin endix  (30) f o l l o w e d .  A s a m p l e o f t h e t e s t i s g i v e n i n App-  I and t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n Appendix I I .  many t y p e s  o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e would have e l i c t e d  responses from the p u p i l s , and scores obtained  Although similar  c o u l d have been  o n t h e i r b a s e s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d  advisable to  17. employ a t e s t w h i c h h a d a l r e a d y been found u s e f u l i n the  c l a s s r o o m and h a d been " s t a n d a r d i z e d " on a  sizable  number o f c a s e s . The  C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y  measure o f adjustment.  This i s a s e l f - r a t i n g  $© t h e r i g h t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g activities  and a t t i t u d e s  i sprinted  o f which the s u b j e c t i s i n s t r u c t e d is  divided  was u s e d a s a  i n t o two s e c t i o n s ,  scale.  t o the subject's  " y e s " a n d "no", o n e to c i r c l e .  The  test  S e l f Adjustment and  S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t , t h e s c o r e s o f w h i c h , when t o t a l l e d , make up t h e T o t a l  Adjustment.  A primary consideration  i n selecting  such a t e s t  was t h e age r a n g e f o r w h i c h i t was a p p l i c a b l e , f o r differences  found between r e s u l t s  c o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d  i n different  w i t h any degree  i f more t h a n o n e t e s t o f a d j u s t m e n t w e r e  grades  o f assurance involved.  A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s were employed, namely the Primary, I n t e r m e d i a t e and Secondary S e r i e s , considered preferable  this  was  to another t e s t , f o r the various  l e v e l s were c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e same a u t h o r s w i t h t h e same objectives  i n v i e w a n d t h e same f o u n d a t i o n o n w h i c h t o  build. The by  matter o f v a l i d i t y o f t h i s test i s questioned  C a t t e l l (7), i n respect  to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of individual  r e s u l t s b y means o f t h e s u b - s e c t i o n s o f t h e t e s t , b u t .he ;  acknowledges t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e t e s t in. r e s e a r c h where  18. group average d i f f e r e n c e s a r e b e i n g a u t h o r s , Ttexppe, C l a r k a n d T i e g s  computed.  (35), c i t e  The  four  v a l i d a t i o n c r i t e r i a employed i n s e l e c t i o n o f t h e items <5f t h e t e s t .  Quoting  dire'otiynthey a r e :  (a) Judgments o f t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s their relative validity (b) The r e a c t i o n s o f p u p i l s , which they f e l t correct  regarding  and s i g n i f i c a n c e . e x p r e s s i n g the e x t e n t t o  competent a n d w i l l i n g  responses.  ( c ) A s t u d y o f t h e e x t e n t <bo w h i c h p u p i l and  to give  responses  teacher a p p r a i s a l s agreed.  (d) A s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i v e means of. t h e b i - s e r i a l r The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f items b y technique.  split-half reliability,  c o r r e c t e d by the  Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a , a n d r e p o r t e d b y t h e a u t h o r s as  was  follows: T o t a l Adjustment. '  .922  S e c . l S e l f Adjustment  .893  Sec.  2. S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t .873  Administration of Tests: i s t e r e d i n the primary  The two t e s t s w e r e a d m i n -  s c h o o l g r a d e s i n mid-December.  was p r e s u m e d t h a t i n t h e t h r e e a n d one h a l f m o n t h s this  time, the c h i l d r e n had had s u f f i c i e n t  another  preceding  c o n t a c t w i t h one  t o b e a b l e t o c h o o s e f r o m among t h e i r  class  i n d i v i d u a l s as companions f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . w e r e g i v e n t o t h e g r a d e SI. g r o u p a f t e r  It  Christmas.  mates, The-tests  .19. The s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t was d i s t r i b u t e d f i r s t , the  i n s t r u c t i o n s o f Northway and P o t a s h i n  I n Moreno's  t h e c h i l d r e n were t o l d t h a t the r e s u l t s  to be u s e d t o h e l p While working  and  (30) f o l l o w e d .  (22) s t u d i e s as w e l l as i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s  to t h i s , t e s t ,  informed  and  were  the s c h o o l form groups f o r a c t i v i t i e s .  i n t h e camp, s e t t i n g , h o w e v e r , N o r t h w a y ( 2 V ) •  h e r s u b j e c t s t h a t t h e y were p a r t o f a  study,  t h e w r i t e r decided, t o f o l l o w the l a t t e r p l a n , as. t h e  s c h o o l was n o t g o i n g  t o make u s e o f t h e r e s u l t s *  C o n s e q u e n t l y i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e h e l p i n g i n a study which-was b e i n g  c a r r i e d o n a t u n i v e r s i t y , and t h a t  the w r i t e r was t h e o n l y p e r s o n who w o u l d s e e t h e i r  answers.  They w e r e aware t h a t t h e w r i t e r was a s t r a n g e r t o t h e m , and were i n f o r m e d  that n e i t h e r t h e i r class-mates  nor t h e i r  t e a c h e r s w o u l d s e e t h e i r p a p e r s o r be t o l d o f t h e i r The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y was immediately  upon c o m p l e t i o n  o f the Sociometric  distributed test.  In the case o f the grade I I I c l a s s e s , i n accordance standard procedure,  t h e p u p i l s r e a d t h e i r own t e s t  w h i l e the w r i t e r r e a d each q u e s t i o n a l o u d , and t h e n time  f o r the c h i l d r e n to c i r c l e  answers.  with blanks left  the a p p r o p r i a t e word t o  the r i g h t o f t h e q u e s t i o n . I n a l l c a s e s , r a p p o r t a p p e a r e d to be q u i c k l y established, in their  and b o t h p u p i l s a n d t e a c h e r s w e r e  a t t i t u d e and s u g g e s t i o n s .  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e  t e s t i t e m s were a p p a r e n t l y a n s w e r e d w i t h o u t on the p a r t o f the p u p i l s .  co-operative  hesitation  20. With  the g r a d e V I I c l a s s e s , however,  c e r t a i n o b j e c t i o n s t o some q u e s t i o n s o n t e s t on  there'were  the p e r s o n a l i t y  the g r o u n d s t h a t  (a) To a n s w e r one  way  sounded c o n c e i t e d *  (b) To a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g how felt  a b o u t them, was  other  people  impossible without c o n s u l t a t i o n  with others. Nevertheless  the freedom w i t h which they asked  o f the w r i t e r i n d i c a t e d a l a c k o f s e l f which, presumably, enabled i n h i b i t i n g emotional  consciousness,  them t o t a k e t h e  tension*  questions'  test  without  21. IV TREATMENT OP DATA A l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c •and adjustment, and between mutual f r i e n d s h i p s and ment was p o s t u l a t e d doing so, i t was measurable  and s e t f o r t h i n the hypotheses.  In  through a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a d e r i v e d from the As a r e s u l t the scores were a n a l y z e d i n  ways amenable to s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  and c o n c l u s i o n s  reached on t h e i r bases.  S t a t i s t i c a l Techniques: employed  adjust-  assumed t h a t such r e l a t i o n s h i p s were  t e s t s employed. the v a r i o u s  status  Two  t e c h n i q u e s were  i n measuring the degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between  sociometric  s t a t u s and adjustment, and a f u r t h e r technique  used to determine whether a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between f r i e n d s h i p s and adjustment.  They c o n s i s t e d  o f the f o l l o w i n g : a. C o r r e l a t i o n s , sociometric  (Pearson r ) , which were computed between  and adjustment  scores.  b. Mean t o t a l adjustment scores  c a l c u l a t e d f o r the  extreme groups on the s o c i o m e t r i c  t e s t i n each grade,  and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the extreme groups a s s e s s e d . c. Mean t o t a l adjustment scores  o f mutual  friends  - compared to the means o f n o n - f r i e n d s i n each grade. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e was e v a l u a t e d . Tabulating  sociometric  method f o r the s o c i o m e t r i c  scores:  t e s t was  suggested by Northway and Potashin  The  tabulating  s i m i l a r to t h a t (3b).  22. Appendix I I I i l l u s t r a t e s  a sample  tabulating chart  i d e n t i c a l w i t h the type u s e d i n t h i s s i d e o f the  t h e names o f t h o s e  and a c r o s s  c h o s e n , ' The  i n d i v i d u a l were t h e n name, and  tallied  the top o f the  persons chosen by  i n t h e row  opposite  the choices r e c e i v e d by  w e r e t o t a l l e d b y summing t h e t h e name o f t h e c h o s e n .  tallies  E a c h q u e s t i o n was  e r e n t i a t i o n between q u e s t i o n s  c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d by persons choosing  ways, by  any the  each p e r s o n  tallied so  that  c o u l d be made, w h e r e  and diffnecessary-  determining  and  t h e number o f  e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , o r t h e number o f  him.  f o l l o w i n g a r e p o r t by  The  f o r m e r m e t h o d was  Bronfenhrenner  In  a study of s i x separate  at  the t i m e . o f 133  t  chart  i s p o s s i b l e t o compute s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s ,  t h u s , s t a t u s , i n two  n a i r e and  left  i n the columns under  totalled i n a different colour of pencil,  It  Down t h e  c h a r t were p r i n t e d , i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r ,  t h e names o f t h e c h o o s e r s ,  chooser's  study.  employed,  (5).  s o c i a l groups, t o t a l l i n g  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the f i r s t during a l a t e r  t e s t , he  151  question-  discovered that,  "When t h e two raw s c o r e s made b y e a c h c h i l d a r e c o m p a r e d , i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t the number o f d i f f e r e n t persons i s almost without exception s m a l l e r t h a n t h e number o f c h o i c e s a n d t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e becomes more p r o n o u n c e d f o r h i g h e r . score v a l u e s . I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d f u r t h e r t h a t n o t o n l y do the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f chance o c c u r r e n c e d i f f e r , b u t t h a t v a l u e s i n excess o f chance e x p e c t a n c y are f o u n d f a r l e s s f r e q u e n t l y among p e r s o n s s c o r e s t h a n c h o i c e s c o r e s . . . Y e t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y e n o u g h , the c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e number o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d b y e a c h c h i l d and t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n b y whom t h o s e c h o i c e s w e r e made was a b o v e + . 9 5 .02 i n t h r e e o f t h e s i x g r o u p s and above + .90 i n a l l o f them.... The c h o i c e t h u s becomes t h e  23  more s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f s o c i a l  status".  No r e c o r d was k e p t o f t h e names o f t h o s e chosen from o u t s i d e o f the c l a s s ( p e r m i s s i b l e i n question)4) 6f those  absent fromithe c l a s s a t the time o f t e s t i n g ,  as p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s o f t h e s e p e o p l e w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , and  t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r  scores  sociometric  a n d a d j u s t m e n t c o u l d n o t be computed.  It is  i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e number o f c h o i c e s  going  o u t s i d e o f t h e g r o u p i n c r e a s e d w i t h age,, p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i n g the w i d e r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s o f the o l d e r c h i l d r e n . Weights assigned sociometric test: Northway  t o t h e choices on t h e  In her.study  (27) a s s i g n e d  o f a summer camp g r o u p ,  varying weights to the three  c h o i c e s , b u t t h i s p r a c t i c e has s i n c e been a t t a c k e d by Bronfenbrenner  (5)«  He w r i t e s , a s f o l l o w s B <  " S e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o m p t e d the, p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r to dispense with a weighting p r o c e d u r e : ( 1 ) To d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e between a f i r s t , second, t h i r d , e t c . , c h o i c e i s a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m , (2) The a s s i g n i n g o f a r b i t r a r y a p r i o r i v a l u e s i s a q u e s t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c e , ( o ) The s e t t i n g up o f t h e a n a l o g o u s c h a n c e s i t u a t i o n i s much c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e a d o p t i o n o f a w e i g h t i n g scheme. ( 4 ) . I n any p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m , such as a case s t u d y , the d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f c h o i c e s i s i n any event advisable". As a r e s u l t , i t was d e c i d e d technique  i n this Conversion  percentage values:  t o o m i t any w e i g h t i n g  study. o f raw s o c i o m e t r i c scores t o Two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o m p t e d t h e  w r i t e r t o abandon t h e u s e o f raw s c o r e s on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t i n the computation o f c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients.  .24.  The  f i r s t was t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e number o f p u p i l s i n  the  two c l a s s e s  i n each o f grades I I I and V I I ,  which  were t a k e n a a s u n i t a r y g r a d e g r o u p s i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s . The  s e c o n d was t h e . d i f f e r e n c e  "girls  i n t h e numbers o f b o y s a n d  i n some o f t h e c l a s s e s .  I n b o t h cases the problem  was t o f i n d a means o f p l a c i n g t h e s o c i o m e t r i c  score o f  each i n d i v i d u a l on a comparable basis' w i t h the scores o f o t h e r members o f h i s g r a d e .  A d e c i d e d s e x c l e a v a g e was  n o t e d i n a l l c l a s s e s , t h a t i s , few boys chose or g i r l s , boys.  Therefore i t would have been a  d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s i f a raw s c o r e boy,  girls  o f a Grade V I I  i n a c l a s s o f t w e n t y - f o u r boys and t e n g i r l s , h a d  been considered  e q u a l t o t h e same s c o r e  received by a g i r l  i n t h a t c l a s s , f o r t h e t o t a l number o f c h o i c e s for  t h e b o y t o r e c e i v e f r o m b o y s , o n one  w o u l d have been t w e n t y - t h r e e , w h i l e  possible  question,  the t o t a l  possible  for  t h e . g i r l to receive from g i r l s  The  same s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l e d w i t h t h e two c l a s s e s  o f t h e one g r a d e . percentage scores. percentage scores 1.  decided to c a l c u l a t e  The means o f d e t e r m i n i n g  these  was a s f o l l o w s :  A s c e r t a i n t h e number o f b o y s f i l l i n g sociometric  2.  I t was t h e r e f o r e  would have been nime.  i n the  t e s t form i n the classroom.  Compute t h e l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e number o f any b o y c o u l d r e c e i v e i.e. form.  choices  from the boys i n h i s c l a s s ,  4 ( N - 1 ) , when t h e r e  are four questions  on the  25. 3. Compute on a percentage of  b a s i s , the a c t u a l number  c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d i n r e l a t i o n to the number  possible. 4. Determine percentage  s c o r e s f o r the g i r l s  similarly,  and f o r the o t h e r c l a s s e s . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the r e s u l t s would not be w h o l l y a c c u r a t e , as a few boys r e c e i v e d choices from g i r l s , and g i r l s from boys, but the I n t e r - s e x c h o i c e s were so s c a t t e r e d and few t h a t i t was assumed t h a t these would have no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t upon the r e s u l t s . Review o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a :  Before  undertaking  a more d e t a i l e d i n d i v i d u a l study o f the technique employed i n the a n a l y s i s o f the data, i t seems a d v i s a b l e , i n order to c l a r i f y of  the s i t u a t i o n to review the sources  i n f o r m a t i o n a t the d i s p o s a l o f the w r i t e r . Percentage  s o c i o m e t r i c scores were a v a i l a b l e f o r  each i n d i v i d u a l i n the three grades. h i g h and low scores i n each group  The s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (.02 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e )  were separated f o r comparison w i t h r e s p e c t to adjustment. I n d i v i d u a l s having mutual f r i e n d s were s e p a r a t e d from n o n - f r i e n d s i n o r d e r to compare adjustment s c o r e s . Finally, of  T o t a l Adjustment s c o r e s on the C a l i f o r n i a Test  P e r s o n a l i t y were a v a i l a b l e f o r each person, as w e l l as  S e l f Adjustment scores and S o c i a l Adjustment s c o r e s .  26. Correlation of sociometric status adjustment:  and  When t h e p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s h a d b e e n c o m p u t e d ,  all  t h e p e r s o n s i n t h e g r a d e were g r o u p e d as a w h o l e ,  and  a correlation h.  (Pearson  Total-Adjustment f o r b o y s and  p) w o r k e d b e t w e e n  scores  for girls  and  sociometric  scores  f o r each grade,  a. T o t a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s  and  sociometric  scores  f o r each grade, c. S e l f A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s  and  sociometric  scores  f o r each grade. d. S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s  and  sociometric  scores  f o r each grade. Determination  of d i f f e r e n c e s i n adjustment  o f extreme s o c i o m e t r i c g r o u p s ; e x t r e m e g r o u p s on  the  He p o i n t s o u t  as i n any  field,  extent  are  separation of  the  sociometric test followed Bronfenbrenners  (5) t e c h n i q u e . other  The  scores  "the  that i n sociometric  testing  q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d : to what  the r e s u l t s o f s o c i o m e t r i c  testing.statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t ; o r , t o s t a t e t h e p r o b l e m i n somewhat more mundane t e r m s , t o w h a t e x t e n t obtained  i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  i n a sociometric t e s t at a l l d i f f e r e n t from  w h i c h w o u l d be  secured  by h a v i n g  draw names f r o m a h a t " .  He  then proceeds to for  g i v e n number o f  illustrate,  determining choices  h a v e b e e n a l l o t t e d t o a p e r s o n p u r e l y as a r e s u l t chance f a c t o r s .  T h i s method has  that  blindfolded subjects  b y means o f t h e b i n o m i a l , a t e c h n i q u e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t any  choices  the  would of  advantage over  others  o f t a k i n g i n t o .account group,  t h e number o f p e r s o n s  t h e number o f c r i t e r i a  i nthe  ( q u e s t i o n s ) i n v o l v e d , and  t h e number o f c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e .  He d i s c u s s e s t h e v a r i o u s  t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e expanded b i n o m i a l , i n orde? t o a v o i d t h e t e d i o u s w o r k i n v o l v e d i n e x p a n d i n g t h e b i n o m i a l when t h e g r o u p i s l a r g e , a n d d e c i d e s i n f a v o u r o f C a r v e r ' s a p p r o x i m a t i o n b y means o f t h e P e a r s o n Type I I I F u n c t i o n .  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s m e t h o d , t h e mean,  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and skewness o f t h e b i n o m i a l a r e c a l c u l a t e d , and each o b t a i n e d f r e q u e n c y e x p r e s s e d as a d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e mean.  Sfandard u n i t s o f sociometric  s t a t u s c a n t h e n be o b t a i n e d b y d i v i d i n g t h e d e v i a t i o n s by' t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e b i n o m i a l .  -These s t a n d a r d  u n i t s a r e t a k e n a s a b s c i s s a l v a l u e s u n d e r t h e Type I I I c u r v e o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e , s k e w n e s s , a n d {fcjhe a r e a u n d e r t h e c u r v e o b t a i n e d b y means o f t a b l e s . Bronfenbrenner  suggests  "Tables o f Pearson's  For the l a t t e r  step,  t h e use o f S a l v o s a ' s (23)  Type I I I F u n c t i o n , " a s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y  o f chance o c c u r r e n c e o f any d e v i a t i o n from t h e b i n o m i a l mean may t h e n , be r e a d d i r e c t l y . .02  Bronfenbrenner  sets the  l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y as b e i n g t h e a r b i t r a r y l i m i t o f  significance.  Thus, t h e extreme groups on t h e  s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t were t h o s e r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t e r number o f c h o i c e s t h e in w o u l d two  be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r b y chance  t i m e s i n one h u n d r e d , a n d .those r e c e i v i n g f d w e r •  c h o i c e s t h a n w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r b y c h a n c e two t i m e s i n one h u n d r e d .  28.  Through f u r t h e r s t u d y , working groups,  Bronfenbrenner  revealed t#at,  number o f c r i t e r i a a n d  with actual  "Provided  the  choices a l l o t t e d are h e l d  from group to group, l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e are i n f l u e n c e d by  variation i n size  ,?nd any g i v e n  little  score  below the upper l i m i t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e r e p r e s e n t s t h e same d e v i a t i o n f r o m c h a n c e e x p e c t a n c y .  constant  about  Consequently  w i t h i n the i n d i c a t e d l i m i t s , w i t h groups v a r y i n g from ten to f i f t y fairly reliable Bronfenbrenner the expected (critical  ...  a  status score a f f o r d s a  index of s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s " , provides a table i n his report giving  raw  s c o r e v a l u e s , and upper and  s c o r e s ) w h i c h may  numbers o f c r i t e r i a table  the r w  f  limits  be u t i l i z e d f o r v a r i o u s  ard a l l o t t e d c h o i c e s .  (5 % p 68}, t h e l i m i t s  lower  f o r the  Prom  this  extreme groups  were o b t a i n e d . B e c a u s e c h o i c e s w e r e a l l o w e d t o go o u t s i d e o f the classroom,  i n q u e s t i o n 4 o f the  sociometric test,  t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h i s , q u e s t i o n twefrtei o m i t t e d t h e raw  score t o t a l o f each i n d i v i d u a l , i n t h i s s e c t i o n  o f the work. 1»  from  The  reasons  As B r o n f e n b r e n n e r s  expectancy,  1  i t w o u l d be  f o r doing technique  extremely  so were as  i s based upon chance  difficult  t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d be  to a s c e r t a i n chosen from  w i t h i n the group r a t h e r t h a n f r o m o u t s i d e , and corporate the r e s u l t i n t o  the' t o t a l  follows:  score.  then  ±h-  29. 2. S i n c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c h o i c e s g o i n g o u t s i d e the  g r o u p v a r i e d f r o m one g r a d e l e v e l  the  c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s e g r a d e s w o u l d n o t he  accurate w i t h the i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s As s e x c l e a v a g e was  to another,  question.  almost complete, the boys  and g i r l s o f e a c h c l a s s were c o n s i d e r e d as g r o u p s i n themselves. of  A f t e r . t h e extremes were s e p a r a t e d f o r each  t h e s e g r o u p s , t h e y w e r e t h e n g r o u p e d a s two  extreme  g r o u p s f o r e a c h g r a d e , a n d t h e means, d i f f e r e n c e s e t c . , computed. The e x t r e m e s c o r e s d i d n o t number more t h a n t w e n t y - s i x i n a n y one  s e c t i o n , so s t e p - i n t e r v a l s o f one  w e r e e m p l o y e d . • The f o r m u l a u s e d t o compute t h e  standard  d e v i a t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e extreme, d i s t r i b u t i o n s was that i s , Method,  c a l c u l a t i o n from o r i g i n a l  <T-  scores by the Short  (12/, p.63,). C o m p a r i s o n o f the, a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s o f m u t u a l  f r i e n d s and n o n - f r i e n d s ;  For the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y ,  m u t u a l f r i e n d s w e r e d e f i n e d as t h o s e , p e r s o n s  receiving  c h o i c e s f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s whom.they h a v e c h o s e n , f o r . e a c h particular  criterion.  between f i r s t ,  No  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made  second or t h i r d choices.  i n d i v i d u a l c h o o s i n g as h i s f i r s t  That i s ,  c h o i c e someone  an who  c h o s e h i m as a t h i r d c h o i c e , w o u l d s t i l l be s c o r e d as a mutual-friend.  yj  30. H o w e v e r , i f he c h o s e someone o n t h e f i r s t  question  and was c h o s e n b y t h a t p e r s o n o n t h e t h i r d , would n o t be c o n s i d e r e d m u t u a l f r i e n d s * level,  At each grade  t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who h a d no m u t u a l f r i e n d s i n t h e  g r o u p , i n a n y q u e s t i o n , were t a k e n those having  as one g r o u p , w h i l e ,  s u c h f r i e n d s h i p s composed t h e o t h e r .  T h e i r mean t o t a l and  they  a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s were t h e n  computed  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , and s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f the d i f f e r e n c e s  obtained. The  standard  e r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e between  t h e tv/o means i n co-npa^ing  externe g r o u p s i n s o c i o m e t r i c  s t a t u s , a n d m u t u a l f r i e n d s w i t h n o n - f r i e n d s , on t h e b a s i s o f a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s , was c o m p u t e d b y e m p l o y i n g the formula  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e  d i f f e r e n c e , expressed  by t h e c r i t i c a l  evaluated by reference .05  ratio  (CR) was  to Fisher's table o f t , at the  a n d .01 l e v e l s o f c o n f i d e n c e , w i t h d e g r e e s o f  freedom  (N l) r  (N-l)*,  T h i s m e t h o d was. e m p l o y e d i n v i e w  o f t h e s m a l l samples a v a i l a b l e a t t h e extremes. Graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n o f scores i facilitate  In order to  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s o c i o m e t r i c  p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o any o b t a i n e d  constancy  p r o g r e s s i p n f r o m one g r a d e l e v e l t o a n o t h e r , *d i s t r i b u t i o n s of percentage sociometry p l o t t e d f o r each grade.  or  frequency  scores  By means o f t h e s e  scores,  were  distributions  i t was p o s s i b l e t o s t u d y n o t o n l y t h e shape o f t h e c u r v e , but  t h e degree o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n a t each l e v e l , and any  changes w h i c h  occurred.  A s e c o n d group o f g r a p h s were p l o t t e d o f s o c i o m e t r i c score's o f t h e w e l l t h e p o o r l y a d j u s t e d and at each grade l e v e l .  the moderatrely  individuals, well  Through e x a m i n a t i o n  d i s t r i b u t i o n s a broader possible,  adjusted  the  adjusted  of  these  interpretation of results  was  f o r , i n s t e a d o f s t u d y i n g the adjustment  i n d i v i d u a l s o f a g i v e n s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s as was the former s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis,  the  statuses  of done i n  of  i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f a d j u s t m e n t was The  d e f i n i t i o n o f V e l l adjusted","moderately  one  well  7  a d j u s t e d " and denoting  abserved.  " p o o r l y a d j u s t e d " was  a r e l a t i v e one^each  t h i r d o f the grade's adjustment  Target  depictions :  scores.  As an i l l u s t r a t i v e  technique,  t a r g e t c h a r t s w e r e drawn o f t h e s t a t u s and some o f t h e o f the i n d i v i d u a l s The  i n each classroom.  t a r g e t m e t h o d was  first  (See A p p e n d i x HI).  d e v i s e d by Northway  w h e r e b y t h e q u a r t i l e p o i n t s o f - a group'i'of s c o r e s were d e t e r m i n e d , rings in  the c e n t r e and  the lowest  sociometric  s e r v e d as  the' d i v i d i n g  those  with lower  the o u t s i d e .  q u a r t e r i n the o u t s i d e  .02 p r o b a b i l i t y a r e i n t h e  area.  centre  than-..02 p r o b a b i l i t y a r e i n t h e  T h i s l a t t e r method has been employed  i n t h i s study to correspond  to the extreme groups  d e t e r m i n e d by B r o n f e n b r e n n e r ' s were numbered, f o r use receiving  quarter  (6) h a s m o d i f i e d t h i s so t h a t p e r s o n s  With scores higher than  on  these  (26),  o f a t a r g e t w i t h the p e r s o n s i n the h i g h e s t  Bronf enbrenner  and  and  choices  on  table.  The  the d i a g r a m s , f r o m the  t h e g r e a t e s t number o f c h o i c e s  receiving'the smallest.  individuals person  ( # l ) t o the  one  32  V  RESULTS  Correlations :  The c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d  between s c o r e s on the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y sociometric  scores i n the three grades  and  are found i n  Table I I . TABLE I I Obtained C o r r e l a t i o n s betwean--Sociometric Scores Scores on the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y .  'Scores Compared iTotal rnetry i j Total metry :  Grade I I I  Adjustment & S o c i o Percentage scores  Grade V I I Grade X I  .073  ,0.44 Boys  1  Adjustment & S o c i o Percentage scores .209  and  Girls  Boys'Girls  -.203  -.062  .045 !  .003 Boys'Girls .002  -.027  i  S e l f Adjustment & S o c i o metry Percentage scores  -.005  .1.058  .007  .066  . .073  .018  S o c i a l Adjustment & S o c i o metry Percentage scores  Reference  t o T a b l e 49  "Correlation  coefficients  a t t h e b% a n d 1% l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , " i n G a r r e t t ( 1 2 ) , indicates is  t h a t none o f t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e b% l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  33. When t h e T o t a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d with the sociometry girls  separa-feLy  were o b t a i n e d . for  the g i r l s ,  extremely are  percentage scores  f o r the boys and  i n G r a d e I I I , t h e o n l y r ' s above These were  -" .100  -J-.209 f o r t h e b o y s , a n d — . 2 0 3  n e i t h e r o f w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t .  low c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d  i n every  s i g n i f i c a n t as s u c h , however, f o r t h e y  The  instance  confirm  each  o t h e r , b o t h w i t h i n t h e same g r a d e , a n d f r o m one g r a d e to  another.  A consistensyv/whihh  II  i s the g r e a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d ,  level  may b e o b s e r v e d i n T a b l e i n each grade, o f  t h e S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s , o^er. t h e S e l f A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s , when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s o c i o m e t r i c Although  scores.  t h e i n c r e m e n t i s s m a l l , a t r e n d seems i n d i c a t e d  with respect  to d i r e c t i o n .  d i s c o v e r e d b y Bonney  A s i m i l a r t e n d e n c y was  ( 4 ) who o b t a i n e d r o f -f.31 when she  c o r r e l a t e d S e l f Adjustment, scores  with sociometric  scores,  a n d r o f -/-.43 when S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s w e r e so r e l a t e d ^ in  a Grade I V 61ass. Comparison o f a d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s o f extreme  s o c i o m e t r i c groups :  The r e s u l t s o f a c o m p a r i s o n o f  the T o t a l Adjustment scores o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  high  scorers on t h e s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n t l y low  scorers, i n d i c a t e that although,  mean C a l i f o r n i a s c o r e o f t h o s e was a b o v e t h a t o f t h o s e  i n every  with high  case, the  sociometric  status  with low sociometric scores, the"  d i f f e r e n c e s were s m a l l a n d t h e c r i t i c a l  ratios  so s m a l l  t h a t t h e r e w a s v i r t u a l l y no r e a s o n f o r r e j e c t i n g t h e • hypothesis  that the h i g h and low s o c i o m e t r i c  scores,  34 w e r e drawn f r o m t h e same p o p u l a t i o n adjustment.  Tabulation  with regard to  o f these l a t t e r r e s u l t s i s found  i n Table I I I .  TABLE I I I Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s " , d i f f e r e n c e s , s t a n d a r d e r r o r s o f , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e means a n d c r i t i c a l r a t i o s o n the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y , o f h i g h and low s c o r e r s on the s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t . ' *  GRADE I I I .High scorers  Low scorers  M.  70.15  S.D.  .GRADE X I  . GRADE V I I  9.9  11.7  High scorers  Low scorers  147  1.25  2.8  S* E.  3.67  6.37  C.R.  .27  .44  it  second f i n d i n g confirms  seems l e s s l i k e l y  137.8 -  13.35 . 95  ;7.46 .127  the f i r s t ,  and t h e r e f o r e ,  that the l a c k o f apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p  c o u l d be caused by f a c t o r s other  than those under i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Comparison o f adjustment scores non-friends:  17.14  16.17  12.3  Low scorers  138.75  144.2  D.  This  High scorers  o f mutual f r i e n d s with  When t h e mean T o t a l A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s  f r i e n d s were compared,those o f n o n - f r i e n d s  o f the mutual  were f o u n d t o b e  lower,  • 3®. but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so.  We have no grounds, t h e r e f o r e  f o r r e j e c t i n g the hypothesis that mutual f r i e n d s and nonfrien&si^ are simply random samples drawn from the same population w i t h regard t o adjustment.  Table TV i n d i c a t e s  the r e s u l t s obtained.  TABLE IV  Means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e means, standard errors o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s on the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y of mutual f r i e n d s and non-friends on the sociometric t e s t .  Friends Non-f r i e n d s M  70.96  S.D. 10.65  D. S.B. 3.R.  GRADE X I  GRADE V I I  GRADE I I I  68.15 10.8  Friends. Non-friends  Friends  Non-Friends  141.92  137.64  129.75  16.95  14.34  141 16.58  17.3  2.81 3.3 .85  .92  7.89  7.1 .13  8.55 •  .92  Constancy of the r e s u l t s from one grade l e v e l t o another; The outstanding c o n c l u s i o n reached a f t e r studying t h e r e s u l t s along the h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s o f Table I I , i s the marked l a c k o f any progression from one grade t o another.  Although the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f T o t a l  Adjustment scores w i t h percentage sociometry soores a t each l e v e l were post ti<tB, the greatest degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  36.  found i n the middle group;; (Grade VII).  A breakdown of boys  and girls at each grade level reveals the greatest correlation coefficient for boys i n Grade- III, and the least i n Grade VII, i.e. the other extreme to the boys and girls together*  In no  grade, are a l l the coefficients positive, or negative, but i n a l l of the grades the correlation coefficients of sociometric scores with Total Adjustment and Social Adjustment are positive* Examination of Table III reveals that the greatest difference i n mean adjustment scores of the extreme sociometric groups occurs at Grade VII and that this difference i s the most significant, although, even i n this case, the CR i s not large enough to allow us to t&lieve that the groups represent different populations« Table IV indicates that the greatest difference occurring between adjustment scores of mutual friends and non-friends i s i n Grade XI, and that this i s also the most significant difference found. This i s contrary to the results of Table III with respect to extreme sociometric groups, as i n the case of mutual friends and nonnfriends, the least significant difference between adjustment scores i s i n Grade VII#  However, because the differences are not significant  i n any instance we cannot draw conclusions from the differences in  the results obtained from grade to grade, and can state .  merely that no trend can be seen from one  grade level to another«  Results read from the graphs? Examination of the distribution of percentage sociometry scores for the three.  40. grades indicates that, i n each instance, a greater number of persons receive few choices than many. However a trend can be seen from Grade III, through Grade VII to Grade XI» In Grade III a much greater frequency <•.? pertained aft the mode (at the low end of the scale) than i n Grades VII and XI, i . e . the higher the grade, the lower the frequency of the mode interval.  At the lowest  grade, the decline i n frequency from the mode interval was rapid, forming a relatively well marked J curve.  For the Grade .. r  VII group, the slope was more gradual, and i a Grade XI, even more so. The graphs illustrating the percentage sociometric scores for the three groups, divided according to degree of adjustment i n each grade, exhibit illuminating results.  In a l l three grades,  a. large proportion of the poorly adjusted individuals are at the low end of the sociometric scale, and i n no instance, does anyone from this group receive the highest sociometric score*  m the  two upper g^fdess however, some of those scoring low i n adjustment are apparently fairlyssuccessful i n their social contacts«. The moderately-wa.il adjusted groups, especially i n Grade III and VII invlude a greater proportion of individuals with relatively high sociometric scores.  In the two higher  grades they include those persons with the highest sociometric scores* Finally, the well adjusted group, while including many individuals who received high sociometric scores, also included many who received low scores, although, never as many as i n the poorly adjusted group.  44. Generalizing, i t might be said, that the well adjusted individuals are not necessarily those most, often chosen by their classmates, but that the poorly adjusted are seldom chosen to any great extant*  45.  VI INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION The consistent finding of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship between sociometric status and adjustment, for a l l grades, both i n terms of correlation, and extreme groups, affirms •the hypothesis that no relationship exists. This consistency i s also seen i n the lack of a significant difference between adjustment scores of mutual friends and non*friends*  The third hypothesis i s similarly affirmed, as a result  of this consistency.  Although the sample was limited to three  schools and three grades, i n one community, the complete lack of except^ ion to the trend of results greatly increases the probability of finding such a relationship i n other groups* Generalizing from this- study, i t may then be considered justifiable to agree with Northway i n cautioning those who work with sociometric techniques, against evaluating status i n the group or even mutual friendship i n a specific group as all-important requirements. Success i n direct social contact i s a valuable asset, and i s generally; contended to be part of the many facets making up total individual adjustipent*  Nevertheless, the personal  attributes which enter into the degree of success attained i n attracting members of the group, seems hardly a soumd basis for evaluating individual worth*  The results of this study confirm  the fallacy i n the above argument from the point of view of mental hygiene» A cautionary note i s perhaps advisable, however, with respect to, too wide an interpretation of the results obtained*  46. It i s recognized that there are decided limitations to the measure of adjustment used i n the study* Personality*  namely the California Test of  Although i t was chosen primarily because of the  wide age range i t included* i n the various series* i n contradiction to any other "group test available for the research* certain  drawbacks were at the same time recognized*  As i s the  case with any self rating scale^ the validity of the test i s related to the degree of insight which the individual has into his own activities* although many of the questions have been mi  "camouflaged i n an attempt to obtain a greater degree of honesty* 11  In addition to the question of insight*levels of interpretation are possible* For example* the subject could reply the way he thought he really acted* the way he thought he should act, or the way he thought his parents or teacher thought he should act* I t i s recognized that* often* persons c l i n i c a l l y diagnosed as "psychopathic*" w i l l rate themselves as extremely well adjusted on a self-rating scale*  Measures such as the Minnesota  Multiphasic Personality Inventory have attempted to remedy this situation*  However*  the MMPI i s not suitable for children, and  so could not be employed i n this study* The  similarity of the distribution of personality scores  in the three grades to the norms* points to the v a l i d i t y of the test results i n this,setting*,  This i s further emphasized by the  consistency of the results obtained* The similarity between the findings i n this study u s i n g the California Test of Personality and the c l i n i c a l studies i n Toronto i s a further factor pointing to the usefulness of the instrument usedf  47. as a measure of adjustment* The frequency distribution of sociometric scores drawn up at each grade level supplied additional information regarding the shape of the curves at the elementary and secondary school levels* Northway (28) reports that Leonard and Martin discovered that scores corresponded to a J curve i n the nursery school setting*  That i s , that many children received a few choices,  but the very few children received a great many choices* Examination  of the graphs i n this study indicates that while the  latter part of the distribution i n each case roughly follows a J, that the higher the grade level, the less steep the slope* This was noted to a lesser degree, i n the number of cases included at the extreme sociometric groups at each level* In grade III, twenty-3ix cases f e l l below the ,02 level while only eight were i n the high group* grade VII were twelve high to ten low* eight high to fourteen low*  The proportions i n  In grade XI, the ratio was  However, the reverse trend i n this  case could be attributed to the fact that the grade XI members did not know the other members of the group so well* With respect to mutual friendships, the same trend i s noticed* . At the Grade III level there were the greatest number of non-friends and i n Grade XI the least*  This would appear to show  a definite increase i n socialization with age* That i s , the finding of fewer people with extremely low scores i n the higher j grades seems to indicate a lack of social sensitivity among thecyounger children, which gradually develops with age* children who,  Thus the  i n nursery school, choose the same companion for many  activities, in primary and scondary school have learned to  48. differentiate those with whom they wopld prefer to do specific tasks* The plotting ot the sociometric scores of the three groups of persons with similar adjustment scores in each grade, facilitated the broadening of the interpretation derived from the former analysis* The correlation of adjustment and sociometric scores* permitted only a hazy idea of the relationship which j  actually existed, and the reader was forced to be content i n obtaining an overall picture* Similarly* i t was conceivable* in comparing mean adjustment scores of the extreme groups on the sociometric test, that a bimodal curve, might be present i n the case of one group and a unimodal curve for the other*  In this case* a  similar mean might s t i l l be obtained for the;l-two,groups* However, by means of the graphs, such vagueness, was overcome, for actual relationships were then able to be deduced* As a consequence j-  as stated under the heading of "Results" the  generalization was made that the poorly adjusted individuals usually received few choices from their classmates but that the well adjusted individuals did not necessarily receive many choices*, The target charts or sociograms (See Appendix IV) illustrating the structure of each group tested, offer a~>diagrammatic indication of the attractions, repulsions, "stars" and "isolates" within the group*  An interesting comparison can be made, for  instance, between the two grade VII classes*  In Primary School  I, there are eight isolates* who are chosen by no one as tfreir f i r s t choices, and five of whom choose as their f i r s t choices individuals who are stars* The individual scoring highest i n the  49. group r e c e i v e s f i v e f i r s t c h o i c e s , none o f whom he r e c i p r o cates.  Such a p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t e s a r e l a t i v e l a c k o f group  integration. On the o t h e r hand, i n Primary School  I I , there  are fewer i s o l a t e s , a l l o f whom a r e more r e a l i s t i c ,  that  Is they choose a s companions those people more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to them w i t h r e s p e c t  to s o c i o m e t r i c  status.  member o f t h e o u t e r r i n g r e c e i v e s two c h o i c e s .  One  The h i g h -  e s t s c o r e r i n t h i s group, while n o t r e c i p r o c a t i n g any o f those who chose him, i s l i n k e d to t h i r t e e n people i n the group through the f i v e c h o i c e s he r e c e i v e s he chooses.  and the person  This group appears then t o have a h i g h e r  degree o f i n t e g r a t i o n , than t h e corresponding  class i n  Primary School I . By means o f such c h a r t s , the worker i n t h e f i e l d i s a b l e to g r a s p more r e a d i l y and q u i c k l y t h e s p e c i f i c aspect  i n which he i s I n t e r e s t e d , b u t s i n c e i t was n o t  the purpose o f t h i s study to examine the f a c e t s o f group s t r u c t u r e , i l l u s t r a t i v e c h a r t s were c o n s i d e r e d diagrammatic evidence, such c h a r t s .  sufficient  o f the use which can be made o f  50. VII  CONCLUSIONS  In view of the findings i n this study, the hypothesis that no significant relationship exists between sociometric status and adjustment as measured by the California Teat of Personality was affirmed*  Similarly, the second hypothesis that no  significant difference exists between adjustment scores of mutual friends and non-friends is affirmed, as i s the third hypothesis that the lack of relationship between sociometric measures and adjustment, persists at varying age levels* As a result, the common tendency to evaluate individuals i n the light of their sociometric scores, appears to be without foundation with respect to the adequacy of the individual's adjustment*  Consequently, caution must be taken, particularly  on the part of workers in mental hygiene, to avoid using sociometric measures as tests of adjustment, and to limit the interpretation o£ sociometric results to an indications of degree *of: s o c i a l i z a t i o n , or to other factors which have been proved to be related to scores in a particular setting*  51 VIII  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  (1)  B a r k e r , R.G. The s o c i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f . s t r a n g e r s a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s . S o c i o m e t r y 1 9 4 2 , 5, 1 6 9 - 1 7 9 .  (2)  B o n n e y , M.E. A s o c i o m e t r i c s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f some f a c t o r s t o m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s o n the e l e m e n t a r y , secondary and c o l l e g e l e v e l s . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 6 , 9, 23L-47.  (3)  B o n n e y , M.E. P o p u l a r a n d u n p o p u l a r c h i l d r e n J a s o c i o m e t r i c study. S o c i o m e t r y Monogr. 1 9 4 7 , No. 9. P p . 8 0 .  (4)  B o n n e y , M.E. The c o n s t a n c y o f s o c i o m e t r i c s c o r e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t e a c h e r judgments o f s o c i a l s u c e e s s , and t o p e r s o n a l i t y s e l f - r a t i n g s . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 3 , 6, 4 0 9 - 4 2 4 .  (5)  B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. A c o n s t a n t f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i o m e t r i c r e s e a r c h . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 3 , 6, 3 6 3 , 397. P a r t I I . E x p e r i m e n t and i n f e r e n c e . S o c i o m e t r y , 1944, 7, p . 4 5 .  (6)  B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. The g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f sociometric data. S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 4 , 7, 2 8 3 - 2 8 9 .  (7)  C a t t e l l , R.B. R e v i e w o f C a l i f o r n i a t e s t o f p e r s o n ality. M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r Book. A r l i n g t o n , Va. : G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1 9 4 5 , p . 6 1 .  (8)  C o l o g n e , R. E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h SD c i o m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e i n a s e l f - h e l p community c e n t r e . Sociometry, 1 9 4 3 , 6, 2 6 - 6 7 .  (9)  C r i s w e l l , J.H. S o c i o m e t r i c measurement S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 4 , 7, 415-421.  (10)  F o r s y t h , E., & K a t z , L. A m a t r i x a p p r o a c h t o t h e analysis of sociometric data: preliminary report. S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 6 , 9, 3 4 0 - 3 4 9 .  (11)  F r a n k e l , E.B. A s t u d y o f m e t h o d s o f m e a s u r i n g a n d f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . B u l l . Can. P s y c h o l . A s s n . 1944, 4, 5 6 - 5 7 .  (12)  G a r r e t t , H.E. S t a t i s t i c s I n p s y c h o l o g y a n d e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : Longmans, G r e e n , 1 9 4 7 , p . 6 3 , 2 0 7 , 464 & 466.  and  chance.  52.  (13)  H i l l , P.M. A comparative study o f psychometric performance, s c h o o l achievement, f a m i l y background, i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s o f shy and normal c h i l d r e n . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s . Univ. o f Toronto, 1941.  (14)  H u n t , J . McV., & S o l o m o n , R.L. The s t a b i l i t y a n d some c o r r e l a t e s o f g r o u p - s t a t u s i n a summer camp group o f young boys. Amer. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 4 2 , 5 5 , 33-45.  (15)  I n f i e l d , H.P. R e s e a r c h n o t e o n t h e n e g a t i v e v a l u e o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t s i n c o - o p e r a t i v e group f o r m a t i o n . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 4 , 7, p . 4 3 3 .  (16)  J e n n i n g s , H.H. Experimental evidence on the s o c i a l a t o m a t two t i m e p o i n t s . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 2 , 5, 135-145.  (17)  J e n n i n g s , H.H. L e a d e r s h i p and i s o l a t i o n ; A study of personality i n inter-personal relations. New Y o r k : Longmans, G r e e n , 1 9 4 3 P p . 2 4 0 .  (18)  K e r s t e t t e r , L.M., & S a r g e n t , J . R e - a s s i g n m e n t therapy i n the classroom. S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 0 , 3, 293-306.  (19)  L o e b , N. The e d u c a t i o n a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y and. i t s a p p r a i s a l i n an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s e t t i n g . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s . Univ. o f Toronto, 1941.  (20)  Loomis, C P . I n f o r m a l groupings i n a SpanishAmerican v i l l a g e . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 1 , 4, 3 6 - 6 1  ;  (21)  L i n e , W., & G r i f f i n , J.D. R e f e r e n c e t o s t u d i e s i n r e c e s s i v i s m b y Northway,- M.L. S t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d of sociometry. Univ. o f Toronto, 1946, p.14.  (22)  M o r e n o , J . L . Who s h a l l s u r v i v e ? W a s h i n g t o n : N e r v o u s a n d M e n t a l D i s e a s e P u b l i s h i n g Co.; 1 9 3 4 , Pp. 4 3 5 .  (23)  M o r e n o , J . L . , & J e n n i n g s , H.H. S o c i o m e t r i c m e t h o d s o f grouping and r e g r o u p i n g w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a u t h o r i t a t i v e and d e m o c r a t i c methods o f g r o u p i n g . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 4 , 7, 397-414.  (24)  M o r e n o , J . L . , & J e n n i n g s , H.H. S t a t i s t i c s o f s o c i a l configurations. S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 3 8 , 1, 342-374.  53, M o r g a n , H. G e r t h o n . S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c h i l d r e n i n ' a war-boom c o m m u n i t y . J . e d u c . Res., 1946, 40, 271-286. N o r t h w a y , M. L. A method f o r d e p i c t i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s obtained by sociometric t e s t i n g . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 0 , 3. N o r t h w a y , M.L. A p p r a i s a l of the s o c i a l development o f c h i l d r e n a t a summer camp. U n i v . o f T o r o n t o S t u d i e s , P s y c h o l o g y S e r i e s , V o l . V, 1 9 4 0 , p.57. N o r t h w a y M.L. Children's s o c i a l development: a summary o f t h e T o r o n t o S t u d i e s . B u l l . Can. P s y c h o l . A s s n . , 1 9 4 3 , 3, p.4.' N o r t h w a y , M.L., e t a l . S t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f sociometry. U n i v . o f T o r o n t o , 1946, p. 14-15,34. N o r t h w a y , M.L., & P o t a s h i n R. Instructionsf o r using the sociometric t e s t . Univ. o f Toronto, Mimeograph, 1945, Pp.6. P o t a s h i n , R. A s t u d y o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f grade-school c h i l d r e n : f r i e n d s and n o n - f r i e n d s . B u l l , Can. P s y c h o l . A s s n . , 1 9 4 4 , 4, 5 7 - 5 8 . R i c h a r d s o n , J . E. The u s e o f s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h . Paper b e f o r e Educ. S e c t . , B r i t . . P s y c h o l . S o c , London, Oct. 23, 1948. S a l v o s a , L.R. Tables o f Pearson's type Ann. m a t h . S t a t i s t . 1 9 3 0 , 1.. •  I I I function  S c h a u e r , G. S o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l community. S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 4 6 , 9, p . 1 4 4 . T h o r p e , L . P . , C l a r k , IV.W. & T i e g s , E.W. Manual o f directions, California test of personality, C a l i f o r n i a T e s t B u r e a u , 1 9 4 2 , p , 2 u 4, V r e e l a n d , F.M. S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n the college fraternity. S o c i o m e t r y , 1 4 2 , 5, 1 5 1 - 1 6 2 ,  A P P E N D I X  I  S o c i o m e t r i c T e s t . N a t i o n a l Committe f o r M e n t a l H y g i e n e ( C a n a d a ) , F o r m A. 1.  S u p p o s e y o u w e r e t o move t o a n o t h e r c l a s s r o m m . W h i c h b o y s o r g i r l s f r o m t h i s c l a s s r o o m w o u l d y o u l i k e b e s t t o go w i t h you? ' 1.  '  •  2. 3.  2,  Which boys o r g i r l s o f the c l a s s r o o m would y o u l i k e t o play with during recess? 1. 2. 3.  5.  What do y o u l i k e  doing best i n school?  1. 2. 3.  4.  What do y o u l i k e  doing best out of school?  1. 2. 3s.  Name : ^.ddcaas: Age : Classroom:  School: Date:  A P P E N D I X  II  NATIONAL COMMUTE FOR MENTAL HYGIENE (CANADA) Instructions f o r using the Sociometric  Test  M.L. N o r t h w a y R. P o t a s h i n This relationships acceptance o f acceptance o f  t e s t i s d e s i g n e d t o asee.iPti-te t h e s o c i a l w i t h i n a group and t o measure t h e s o c i a l a member o f a g r o u p r e l a t i v e t o t h e s o c i a l o t h e r members o f t h e same g r o u p *  T h i s f o r m (A) o f t h e t e s t i s made up o f t h e q u e s t i o n s which have been found adequate f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and i s e s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r use i n grades 4 t o 9. I t c o n s i s t s o f f o u r questions which ask t h e c h i l d ' t o s t a t e w i t h whom he p r e f e r s t o a s s o c i a t e u n d e r c e r t a i n circumstances* DIRECTIONS FOR GIVING TEST Each c h i l d i s g i v e n a copy o f t h e t e s t w h i c h i s p l a c e d f a c e down o n h i s d e s k . The i n s t r u c t o r s a y s "To-day we want y o u t o a n s w e r some q u e s t i o n s . . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e n o t a n e x a m i n a t i o n o r a t e s t a n d t h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s . They ask y o u t o w r i t e w h i c h boys and g i r l s y o u l i k e t o work and p l a y w i t h b e s t . T h i s w i l l h e l p t h e s c h o o l t o make up g r o u p s o f b o y s a n d g i r l s t o do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . " "Now t u r n o v e r t h e p a p e r s . You w i l l see t h a t there are four questions. The f i r s t o n e a s k s S u p p o s e y o u w e r e t o move t o a n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m . Which boys o r g i r l s f r o m t h i s c l a s s r o o m w o u l d y o u l i k e b e s t t o go w i t h you? Be s u r e t o p u t down y o u r f i r s t t h r e e c h o i c e s . . F i r s t t h e p e r s o n whom y o u w o u l d l i k e b e s t t o go w i t h you, then yoursecond choice and then your t h i r d . " r  1  "The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n a s k s *'Which b o y s o r g i r l s o f the c l a s s r o o m would you l i k e to p l a y v/ith d u r i n g r e c e s s ? ' Think o f t h e boys and g i r l s y o u would l i k e and w r i t e y o u r f i r s t , second and t h i r d c h o i c e . " "On q u e s t i o n t h r e e y o u a r e a s k e d 'What y o u l i k e d o i n g b e s t i n s c h o o l ? ' When y o u h a v e d e c i d e d , w r i t e down what i t i s , a n d t h e n w r i t e t h e name o f t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m y o u w o u l d l i k e t o do i t w i t h y o u . "  " Q u e s t i o n f o u r a s k s 'What y o u l i k e t o do b e s t out o f s c h o o l ? W r i t e what y o u l i k e b e s t , and t h e n t h i n k o f t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s y o u l i k e t o h a v e do t h i s w i t h you. I n a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n y o u may p u t t h e names o f b o y s o r g i r l s i n o t h e r rooms i n t h i s s c h o o l , o r i n o t h e r s c h o o l s , i f t h e y a r e t h e ones y o u w o u l d r e a l l y choose." 1  "Some o f t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s who b e l o n g t o t h i s c l a s s r o o m a r e away t o - d a y . However y o u know t h e i r names and i f t h e y a r e t h e p e o p l e y o u w o u l d c h o o s e y o u may p u t t h e i r names down." "You may p u t t h e same name t o more t h a n one q u e s t i o n i f y o u w o u l d r e a l l y c h o o s e t h e same p e r s o n e a c h time. 1 1  "Be s u r e t o w r i t e t h e l a s t names a s w e l l a s t h e f i r s t name o f t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s y o u c h o o s e . " (In order t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o w r i t e t h e names of the c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s a l p h a b e t i c a l l y on the b l a c k board. ) "Any  questions?"  "Now b e g i n f i l l i n g  i n your a n s w e r s . "  G i v e t h e c h i l d r e n a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f t i m e to answer. Do n o t s p e l l c h i l d r e n ' s names o u t t o t h e c l a s b u t t e l l t h e c h i l d r e n t o s p e l l t h e hames t h e way t h e y t h i n k t h e y sound. When t h e y a r e f i n i s h e d be s u r e t h e c h i l d r e n f i l l i n the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d a t the bottom o f t h e s h e e t : Name, a d d r e s s , a g e , s c h o o l , c l a s s r o o m , d a t e  A P P E N D I J C  III  A sample t a b u l a t i n g c h a r t s i m i l a r used i n t h i s study.  to those  This i l l u s t r a t e s the c h o i c e s o f a group o f 3 boys and 5 g i r l s w i t h f o u r c r i t e r i a and three choices allotted.  >  in IS  «S3'  C 0  •a  0  w>  >^  -»>»  *3 Q  r  M^LCAN  5*  «•»  f\N oge*/% J. V. o V  ffo-vtees Lee  Mb  B.  ^»  *m  -  P.  —  -  -  •mm  -  -  -  nit. t  //  t  /  /7  /3  A P P E N D I X  IV  S o c i o m e t r i c t a r g e t diagrams o f a section of results obtained i n the i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s groups.  O  Girl  « — i — > Mutual  Choice  • F i r s t c h o i c e s on t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n o f members o f Grade I I I o f P r i m a r y School I . S t a t u s o f t h e members i s d e r i v e d f r o m the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a .  Legend:  A O 4  Boy Girl f—^Mutual  Choice  F i r s t choices on the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n o f members o f G r a d e I I I o f P r i m a r y School I I . S t a t u s o f t h e members i s d e r i v e d f r o m the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a *  Legend:  <  A  Boy  O  Girl 1 — * Mutual  Choice  F i r s t c h o i c e s on t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n o f members o f G r a d e V I I o f P r i m a r y School I . S t a t u s o f the.members i s d e r i v e d f r o m the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a *  •Legend:  «  A  Boy  O  Girl  (-^Mutual Choice Pl-pg-h r.hoir.es on t h e , f i r s t c r i t e r i o n o f rriftmbers o f G r a d e V I I o f P r i m a r y School II. 1  Status o f the members i s d e r i v e d from the raw score values o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on three c r i t e r i a .  Legend:  A O  Boy Girl  i—i—*Mutual  Choice  . F i r s t c h o i c e s on t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n o f member's o f a g r o u p o f g r a d e X I E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n one s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . ' S t a t u s o f t h e members i s d e r i v e d f r o m the raw s c o r e v a l u e s o f c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d on t h r e e c r i t e r i a .  

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