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The effects of certain micronutrients on seed production by legumes, particularly double-cut red clover… Phillips, Arthur Harold 1952

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THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN MICRONUTRIENTS ON SEED PRODUCTION BY LEGUMES, PARTICULARLY DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (Trifoli u m  pratense), AND POLE BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by ARTHUR HAROLD PHILLIPS, B.S.A. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of Master of Science i n Agriculture. Members of the Department of THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1952 - i -ABSTRACT The inconstancy of legume seed set has been recog-nized for some time, but the basic factors responsible f o r t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y have remained somewhat of a mystery. The l i t e r a t u r e on the subject i s quite extensive and contains a d i v e r s i t y of opinions. Oddly enough the role of micronutri-ents seems scarcely to have been considered as a possible basic factor i n legume seed setting-. A study therefore has been made of the effects cer-t a i n elements have on legume seed y i e l d s . The addition of lime to plots provided with molybdenum or phosphate ?on an acid clay s o i l i n the Fraser Valley of B r i t i s h Columbia, with 900-1200 P.P.M. available calcium, mark-edly increased red clover seed y i e l d s . Without lime, the only response was obtained from additions of phosphate and potash. The addition of nitrogen to p l o t s , on s i m i l a r s o i l , which received molybdenum, sulphur, and phosphate resulted i n markedly increased seed yi e l d s of double-cut red clover over the control. Without nitrogen there was a g r e a t e r response on t h i s s o i l to additions of phosphate, molybdenum and sulphur. The response to molybdenum wasmuch greater, i n both seed and forage, where plants were not provided with combined nitrogen, but where they lar g e l y depended on symbiotic nitrogen f i x a t i o n f o r t h e i r nitrogen supply. The increased y i e l d from sulphur - i l -l s a ttributable to this element having an i n d i r e c t e f f e c t upon legumes through i t s direct' action, or e f f e c t , upon the nitrogen f i x i n g organisms. Pole beans grown on a sandy loam s o i l with a pH 5«5 and 900 P.P.M. "available" calcium, produced more seed following applications of phosphate. The response was noted at several leve l s of lime and nitrogen. Molybdenum with lime, and s u l -phur with nitrogen also Improved seed y i e l d s . On a clay s o i l with a pH 4 . 8 and 500 P.P.M. "available calcium" the addition of lime increased a l l seed y i e l d s regardless of other t r e a t -ments. The only other treatment to show a uniform and greatly increased seed y i e l d , was an application of boron. On thi s clay s o i l pole bean plots receiving nitrogen outyielded the "no nitrogen" p l o t s , but only phosphate, or potash, i n combina-t i o n with nitrogen showed much higher yields than the check. An experiment with double-cut red clover on a sandy loam s o i l with pH 5*5 and 900 P.P.M. "available" calcium showed a d i r e c t response to nitrogen regardless of the micronutrients added. On this s o i l boron with molybdenum gave higher seed •s yields than boron or molybdenum alone. These results were eon-firmed by a greenhouse experiment using s i l i c a sand. TABLE OF.CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i INTRODUCTION .... I REVIEW OF LITERATURE • V EXPERIMENT 1 1 Materials and methods 1 Results 2 EXPERIMENT 2 8 Materials and methods .... 8 Results 9 EXPERIMENT 3 - • • 13 Materials and methods 13 Results 14 EXPERIMENT 4 18 Materials and methods ' 18 Results 19 EXPERIMENT 5 .22 Materials and methods - 22 Results 2? TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued Page EXPERIMENT 6 27 Materials and methods 27 Results 27 EXPERIMENT, >7 ' •• 31 • Materials and methods 31 Results 31 EXPERIMENT 8 32 Materials and methods 32 Results 34 EXPERIMENT 9 • - • 38 Materials and methods 38 Results ; 42 o DISCUSSION 52 SUMMARY 60 LITERATURE CITED 63 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g . Page 4. PLATE 1 43 Plants receiving complete micronutrients plus nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and calcium, and plants receiving same treat-ment without nitrogen. 5- PLATE II , 44 Plants receiving only the micronutrient horon, plus nitrogen, phosphate, potash and calcium, and plants receiving same treatment without nitrogen. 6. PLATE III 45 Plants receiving only the micronutrient molybdenum plus nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and calcium, and plants receiving same treatment without nitrogen. 7. PLATE IV 46 Plants receiving the micronutrients boron and molybdenum plus nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and calcium, and plants receiving the same treatment without nitrogen. 8. PLATE V ' 47 Plants receiving nitrogen, phosphate, pot-ash and calcium but no micronutrients, and plants receiving only potash, phosphate and calcium. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his sincere thanks to Dr.V.C.Brink, Associate Professor of the Department of Agronomy, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for his invaluable assistance, and d i r e c t i o n , i n the planning and execution of the experimental work and manu-s c r i p t . The writer also wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. G. G. Moe, Head of the Department of Agronomy, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for his encouragement of the completion of this work; to Mr. A.P.Tzogoeff, Canada Department of A g r i c u l - . ture, S o i l Survey, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for t r a n s l a t i o n of Russian l i t e r a t u r e , and some s o i l analyses; to Mr. H. Reynolds, seed grower of Ladner, B r i t i s h Columbia, for his co-operation i n allowing me to use a red clover f i e l d for an experiment; and to Mr. D. Routley, senior student i n the Department of Agronomy, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for the spectographic analyses on ashed red clover plants to test for molybdenum. I INTRODUCTION Legume seeds play a v i t a l role i n our way of l i f e as large amounts are used each year i n planting extensive acreages of tame hay and pasture. These hay and pasture acreages are basic to l i v e s t o c k farming and dairying which have attained, so important a place i n our modern food re-quirements. The 1950 production, i n Canada, of the four p r i n c i p a l legume seed crops, that i s , a l f a l f a (Medicago s a t i v a ) , red clover (Trifo l i u m pratense), sweet clover (Melilotus sup), and alsi k e clover (Trifolium hybridurn), amounted to 40,909,000 pounds. Consumption of the same legume seeds i n the United States for the three crop years 1939-1942 averaged 210,163,000 pounds per year. In Canada we have large areas i n legumes which are grown for seed. However, seed yields i n some l o c a l i t i e s have s t e a d i l y declined for a number of years, and seasonal f l u c t u a -tions cannot be held e n t i r e l y responsible f o r t h i s trend. During the past ten years I have observed a l s i k e seed crops i n the Prince George - Vanderhoof d i s t r i c t , of Northern B r i t i s h Columbia, gradually deteriorate i n acre y i e l d s . Red clover seed crops i n the Fraser Valley have not been heavy the l a s t few years, as formerly, although the t o t a l acreage remains about the same. The fact that at least h a l f of the 1951 estimated 50,000 acres of a l f a l f a f o r seed i n the Peace River II region was cut for hay, or not harvested because of lack of podding, warrants explanation. The White Fox area of Northern Saskatchewan grew tremendous a l f a l f a seed crops u n t i l 1939, when yiel d s began to drop sharply. Even when good stands were secured the a l f a l f a pods sometimes f a i l e d to set, with the res u l t that many growers gave up a l f a l f a seed and went into other legumes and grain. The Brooks d i s t r i c t of Alberta i s another a l f a l f a l o c a l i t y which produced good seed crops a few years ago, while to-day very l i t t l e seed i s grown. In Ontario legume seed yi e l d s have declined so sharply i n recent years, that the Ontario Crop Improvement Association appointed a spec-i a l committee to investigate the problem and a considerable sum of money has been allocated for this purpose. This inconstancy and decline of legume seed production has been recognized f o r a long time, but there s t i l l i s consid-erable controversy over the basic factors responsible for this drop. Among investigators there i s a wide d i v e r s i t y of opinion as to the factors which influence, or control, seed set. S o i l f e r t i l i t y ; genetic composition; f e r t i l i z e r treatments; p o l l i -nation; and climatic factors such as temperature, humidity, and r a i n f a l l have received most attention i n the past. It has been known from almost the beginning of the present century that a number of chemical elements e s s e n t i a l fo r plant growth are required i n very minute quantities; there-fore they have been referred to as trace or minor elements. However, from the standpoint of t h e i r importance to growing plants they should be considered major elements as much as those u t i l i z e d i n larger quantities, and the preferred terminology i n English-speaking countries i s now "micro-nutrients". (3) In recent years research work has been re-ported i n the United States, England, A u s t r a l i a , France, Germany and Russia which shows that c e r t a i n micronutrients, under some s o i l conditions enhance the seed set of a l f a l f a , red clover, and beans. In Canada, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the In-vestigations r e l a t i v e to micronutrients pertain to t h e i r e f f e c t on the vegetative parts of plants rather than the reproductive organs. Grower in t e r e s t has increased to the point where a solution to the problem of legume seed setting must be found. In order to ascertain what e f f e c t c e r t a i n macro and micronutrients might have on seed setting i n legumes a number of investigations were i n i t i a t e d i n 1950 using double-cut red clover, Rhizoma a l f a l f a , Blue Lake pole beans and the following elements; boron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, sulphur, phosphorus and potash. These elements were applied si n g l y with and without calcium, with and with-out nitrogen. In 1951? only double-cut red clover was used i n a l l the experiments. The f i r s t experiment involved the macro-nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and calcium i n various combinations with boron, molybdenum, boron plus molybdenum, and most of the micronutrients. Plants on one half of the - IV -plots were inoculated with a suitable s t r a i n of Rhizobium immediately before planting, and the other h a l f were not inoculated. A greenhouse experiment using s i l i c a sand was carried out i n conjunction with th i s f i e l d t e s t . Although the experiments were primarily concerned with the effects of boron and molybdenum on seed setting i n legumes, the micronutrients manganese, copper, and zinc enter into c e r t a i n experiments i n an a n c i l l a r y way. V REVIEW OF LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e on micronutrients i s very voluminous therefore t h i s review i s confined to legumes. For general bibliographies of the l i t e r a t u r e on micronutrients one i s referred to Brenchley (16, 17), G i l b e r t (30), Wallace (62), and W i l l i s (64). In recent years the micronutrients to which we have directed our attention, namely boron, molybdenum, manganese, copper, and zinc, have been recognized as essential elements to be added to the c l a s s i c a l l i s t of ten elements (6) . Arnon (4) states the following are c r i t e r i a of e s s e n t i a l i t y : (a) i f the element i s d e f i c i e n t i t i s impossible for the plant to make f u l l growth and complete the reproductive cycle; (b) the element cannot be replaced by any other f o r these functions; (c) i t s action on the plant must be d i r e c t . The e s s e n t i a l i t y of boron was proved without any doubt by Sommer (56, 53). Its importance in'plant n u t r i t i o n i s f i r m l y established (16, 17) and many species are known to suffer i f the boron supply i s inadequate. Most legumes have a comparatively high requirement for boron and often low boron supply i n the s o i l has been responsible for low y i e l d s , or even f a i l u r e of many legume crops (32, 44). Drake et a l (25) and others (37? 41) presented conclusive evidence that boron starvation results when the balance between calcium and boron VI become unfavorable, the necessary r a t i o for healthy growth varying with d i f f e r e n t species. I f the balance i s upset by a small intake of calcium, such as occurs on acid s o i l s , the plants w i l l have a low tolerance of boron, whereas on strongly acid s o i l s that contain a small quantity of available calcium small additions of borax applied to the s o i l may cause boron i n j u r y to the plant. On a l k a l i n e or overlimed s o i l s , plants require more boron than on acid s o i l s because of the excess calcium the plants absorb from these s o i l s . Lime, because i t influences pH of a s o i l , has a marked e f f e c t upon the solu-b i l i t y of the micro elements (65). The most favorable calcium-boron r a t i o for d i f f e r e n t kinds of plants w i l l vary. Boron and calcium are e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n the Intensive metabolic processes which are confined to the meristemic regions (53)» and recent work by Lipman (38) has shown considerable u t i l i z a -t i o n of boron by the reproductive organs of the plant. Powers (48) observed that sulphur increased the effectiveness of boron on Oregon s o i l s . In 1936, investigators i n Nova Scotia (43) found that a l f a l f a growing i n parts of a f i e l d where boron had been prev-i o u s l y applied to turnips developed more seed, and seed pods, than that i n the rest of the f i e l d . D'lakova (20) reported f e r t i l i z e r containing boron speeded up the growth and develop-ment of a l f a l f a and also increased the y i e l d of seed. Dmitriev (23) found boron deficiency produces w i l t i n g at the growth VII points and therefore decreases reproduction and seed production. He established that a boron ap p l i c a t i o n on a limed podzol s o i l produced a very favorable e f f e c t on the development of the rep-roductive organs of red clover, increasing blossoming and also markedly increasing seed y e i l d s . Sokolov (55) and Bo&ko (14) observed on podzol s o i l s an increased seed y i e l d of leguminous plants when much lime was introduced together with boron. A l f a l f a which received 20 pounds of borax per acre i n the win-te r of 1941 set a heavy crop of seed, while that which received no borax set no seed (45). Naftel (42) noted 0.3 P.P.M. boron was most e f f e c t i v e i n developing crimson clover heads and t o t a l plant y i e l d s . Hutchison and Cocke (34) applied 10 to 15 pounds of borax per acre, on boron d e f i c i e n t s o i l s , and stimulated a l f a l f a seed production as well as increasing the thickness and duration of the stand. Midgeley (41) increased seed yields 35 times by applying 30 pounds of borax per acre to 7 f i e l d plots of a l f a l f a located on both sandy and clay s o i l s . Wester and McGruder (63) reported boron greatly increased the y i e l d of dry lima beans on Elsinbow sandy loam s o i l . Molybdenum as an esse n t i a l element for higher, plants w a s c - f i r s t proven by Arnon and Stout (5) i n 1939? and confirmed by Piper (46) i n 1940. There are some observations to suggest that molybdenum i s not i n v a r i a b l y supplied by s o i l s to plants i n amounts s u f f i c i e n t to meet the f u l l p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs of the crop (33). Ter Meulen (60) examined many plant tissues and always found molybdenum present ranging from 0.01 mg per VIII k i l o to 9 mg per k i l o with the higher value being character-i s t i c of seeds of leguminous plants. This was confirmed by Bertrand (9) who found legumes e s p e c i a l l y r i c h i n molybdenum. The germ of the bean had 53 mg i n contrast to 2 mg for the combined catyledons and entugments. Bobko and Sawina (12) i n experiments with peas grown i n water, sand, and s o i l media found no r e g u l a r i t y i n nodule development, but i n the sand they noted no nodules were formed i n the absence of molyb-denum whereas large numbers were present when thi s element was added to the medium. Bortels (15) observed molybdenum greatly increased the nitrogen content of leguminous crops which was confirmed by Anderson and Spencer (2) who reported marked increases i n both y i e l d and percentage nitrogen of subterranean clover where no combined nitrogen was provided. Molybdenum i s d i r e c t l y concerned with symbriotic nitrogen f i x a t i o n i n clovers (2, 15 3 35? 36, 61). Different strains of azobacter show a ten to t h i r t y f o l d increase i n nitrogen f i x a t i o n , with optimum amounts of molybdenum. The range i n concentration i s from 1 P.P.M., the highest l e v e l , to .00001 E.P.M. In leguminous plants, the molybdenumsupply tends to be concentrated i n the root nodules i f the supply i s low, very l i t t l e being passed into the roots and s t i l l less into the tops (16). S i g n i f i c a n t increases i n a l f a l f a y i e l d were obtained by Evans and Purvis (28) from a p p l i c a t i o n of 1 pound sodium molybdate (Na 2 MoO^HgO) per acre i n four of s i x f i e l d t r i a l s . IX This treatment resulted i n increased molybdenum uptake i n a l l tests and increased nitrogen content of a l f a l f a i n four of the s i x t e s t s . Dmitriev (24) reported a po s i t i v e e f f e c t of molybdenum on seed y i e l d of red clover when i t was applied simultaneously with boron i n the presenceof lime and PK. The y i e l d with molybdenum and boron was greater than with boron alone. The quantity of CaO must be equivalent to once or twice the hydrolytic a c i d i t y of the s o i l . Lime increases the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of s o i l molybdenum ( 7 ) . Evans (27) observed a l f a l f a plants grown on s o i l s with a pH value of 4.3 made very l i t t l e growth with or without molybdenum, but on s o i l s withsa pH 5.5 produced very s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d increases from molybdenum treatment. At higher pH values responses were less pronounced. Total molybdenum i n liming materials ranged from 1 . 6 to 3.8 P.P.M. but none of this was water soluble. He concluded s o l -uble molybdenum i n a normal ap p l i c a t i o n of lime, or potash, or nitrogen f e r t i l i z e r s would not meet the requirements of legumes. In 1922 MeHargue (40) found c e r t a i n plants, but as fa r as could be determined no legumes, deprived of manganese made a stunted growth and did not produce seed while check plants receiving manganese were normal. This was confirmed by Samuel and Piper (52) i n water culture experiments when i t was noted at the early seedling stage manganese becomes necess-ary to plants and remains necessary u n t i l a la t e stage i n growth. Bishop ( 1 1 ) also showed by c a r e f u l l y controlled plant growth experiments, that manganese i s essential for plant development. X There i s evidence that i t has a part i n enzymic action and i n nitrogen and carbon a s s i m i l a t i o n (1). The a v a i l a b i l i t y of manganese to plants i s often complicated by the presence of other elements. Manganese deficiency may be brought on by overliming a s o i l having-a low content of active- manganese-and the deficiency can be corrected by manganous sa l t s and acid forming materials such as sulphur, or by increasing the -concentration of phosphates. G i l b e r t and Pember (31) observed when small amounts of manganese and boron were- added to d i s -t i l l e d water solutions there was increased root and top growth with red clover. The e s s e n t i a l i t y of copper i n plant n u t r i t i o n was not proven u n t i l quite recently (57)• Copper deficiency occurs p a r t i c u l a r l y i n peat, and i n s o i l s with a very high humus content, and i n very sandy s o i l s with a low humus con-tent. With sandy s o i l s there appears to be an actual lack of copper since a response i s obtained by ap p l i c a t i o n of a .:• small amount of the s a l t while i n the high humus content s o i l s the copper present i s apparently tied up by the organic matter for large amounts of copper sulphate can be added with-out harm. Lipman and MacKinney (39) found the barley plant was unable to produce seed without a small quantity of copper. Piper (47) observed, i n one of the few references to the effects of legumes, subterranean clover made very l i t t l e growth i n the absence of copper. Many of the plants died, withering suddenly without developing any other s p e c i f i c symp^ ' toms. Growth was healthy and seed production normal i n the XI presence of 100 ug copper per 1. In the cultures. The necessity of zinc as a plant nutrient was estab-lis h e d i n 1926 by Sommer and Lipman (58). Zinc appears to be present i n a l l s o i l s i n minute quantities but conditions i n some of these s o i l s appear to make i t unavailable or nearly so. As the pH r i s e s i t becomes less available and the c r i t i -c a l point ranges from pH 6. to 6 .5. Camp (19) states on some sandy s o i l s zinc deficiency may be due to cropping out of naturally available zinc and f a i l u r e to replace i t through f e r t i l i z a t i o n , while on heavier s o i l s i t i s often tied up by organic compounds. Reed (49) reported pea plants grown i n nutrient cultures produced no seed i n the presence of 0.005 P.P.M. zinc, while i n 0.02 P.P.M. a s i g n i f i c a n t number of seeds were produced, and at higher concentration seed production was materially enhanced. The germination of peas* produced by plants grown i n cultures containing d i f f e r e n t amounts of zinc showed that no viable seeds were obtained when zinc was omitted, indicating zinc i s e s s e n t i a l for reproductive processes culmin-ating i n seed production. Skoog (54) found zinc was ,necessary for the complete l i f e cycle of plants. When no zinc was added to peas and beans growth proceeded to a c e r t a i n point but not enough for seeds to develop. He observed the production of auxin i s c l o s e l y associated with the presence of zinc. - 1 -THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN MICRONUTRIENTS ON SEED PRODUCTION BY LEGUMES, PARTICULARLY DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (Trifoli u m  pratense), AND POLE BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Experiment 1. To determine t h e e f f e c t of several elements at two l e v e l s o f a p p l i c a t i o n j with and without lime, on seed and forage yields when applied to an established stand of double-cut red clover. Materials and methods. Nine treatments, three r e p l i c a t i o n s , two le v e l s of app l i c a t i o n , with and without lime, of a randomized design were l a i d out, with plots 4 x 12 feet, on an established double-cut red clover f i e l d at the Reynolds farm, Ladner, B r i t i s h Columbia, on June 9> 1950. The s o i l i s a Ladner clay with a pH of 4 . 8 . The hay had been cut and taken o f f the f i e l d June 8. The following f e r t i l i z e r s - , used singly , were broadcast at the rates indicated. Medium High (lbs per acre) (lbs per acre) Borax Manganous sulphate Zinc sulphate Copper sulphate Ammonium molybdate Sulphur, flowers of Superphosphate 18$ Muriate of potash 60% Hydrated lime 30 150 15 90 450 45 37.5 107.5 12 150 450 36 450 450 1350 1350 3,ooo The clover was harvested on October 15th and plants from each plot were thoroughly dried before weighing and threshing. - 2 -Results: TABLE I. THE OVERALL RESPONSES OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS ON SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS WHEN APPLIED TO DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME AND RATES OF APPLICATION) (MEAN YIELDS) Treatment Seed Dry forage (gms) (oz) Check 39.03 30.66 Manganous sulphate 34.20 28.95 Zinc sulphate 35.87 29.33 Borax 36.07 29.83 Copper sulphate 36.25 29.87 Sulphur, flowers of 36.89 30.41 Muriate of potash 36.92 30.41 . Ammonium molybdate 37.92 30.66 Superphosphate 4-7.60 34.25 M.S.D.Seed - 6.9 gms. M.S.D.FORAGE-5.^oz . TABLE 2. EFFECTS OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, ON SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER. (IRRESPECTIVE OF RATES OF APPLICATION) (MEAN YIELDS), Treatment With lime Seed Dry Forage ( 0 2 ) . , Withou lime With lime Without lime Check Manganous sulphat Zinc sulphate Borax Copper sulphate S ulp hur, f1owe r s of Muriate of potash Ammonium molyb-date Superphosphate ^7-78 33.38 36.35 37.26 36.73 35.23 .31.76 40.68 44 .60 40.28 35.03 35.40 34.88 35.76 38.33 42 .08 35.16 -m,nm «i 111 28.16 27.75 26.91 26.41 30.58 25.83 27.33 30.75 35-00 33-15 30.16 31.75 33.25 29.16 35.00 33.50 30.58 - 3 -TABLE 3 : - E F F E C T S OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS AT TWO L E V E L S OF APPLICATION, ON SEED AND FORAGE Y I E L D S OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER ( I R R E S P E C T I V E OF LIME APPLICATION) (MEAN Y I E L D S ) TREATMENT SEED (gms) DRY FORAGE (oz) Medium rate High rate Medium rate High rate :heck 40>75 37.31 32.66 28.66 fenganous sulphate 34.95 33.46 27.33 30.58 Sine sulphate 33.76 37.98 30.58 28.08 Borax 34.71 37.43 26.00 33.66 Hopper sulphate 33.81 3 8 . 6 8 35.66 34.08 3 u l p h u r , flowers of 34.38 39.40 30.75 3 0 . 0 8 i u r i a t e of potash 36.70 37.15 31.41 29.41 Ammonium molybdate 37.10 38.75 32.41 28.91 Superphosphate 45.20 50 . 0 1 32.50 36.00 F i G * X ' l ^ S ™ ™ G T H E CONTRAST IN EFFECTS OF MEDIUM AND M ^ M T E S ° F P L I C A T I O N OF BORON,MOLYBDENUMT MANGANESE, ZINC, COPPER, SULPHUR, PHOSPHORUS, AND POTASH ON SEED Y I E L D S OF DOUBLE CUT RED CLOVER (I R R E S P E C T I V E OF L I M E ) . - 4 -F i g . 2. ILLUSTRATING THE CONTRAST- IN EFFECTS OF BORON, MOLYB-DENUM, MANGANESE, ZINC, COPPER, SULPHUR, PHOSPHORUS, AND POTASH, WHEN APPLIED SINGLY, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME ONSSEED YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (IRRESPECTIVE OF APPLICATION RATES) TABLE 4: - REPLICATE MEAN YIELD FOR SEED AND DRY FORAGE (EXPERIMENT I ) DRY BLOCK SEED FORAGE (gms) (oz) 1 39.60 3l.oo 2 40.80 31.25 3 33.20 29.22 M.S.D.Seed - 4.02 gms. M.S.D.Forage -3.18 oz TABLE 5: - MEAN SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS FOR LIME AND -NO LIME PLOTS, WITH MEDIUM AND HIGH NUTRIENT APPLICATIONS . (EXPERIMENT 1) TREATMENT SEED F O R A G E (gms) (oz) Lime-Med.nutrients 34.34 27-97 Lime-High " 39.83 29.51 No Lime Med " 39.29 31.87 No Lime High" 37.98 32.59 M.S.D.Seed - 16.59 gms. M.S.D.Dry Forage - 9.90 oz. TABLE 6: - MEAN SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS FOR EACH TREATMENT IN EACH REPLICATE, IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME, OR RATE OF APPLICATION. (EXPERIMENT I) TREATMENT Block 1. Block 2. Block 3. Seed Forag 5 Seed Forage Seed Forage (gms) (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) dry .. dry . r dry Check 41.30 31.12 44.17 34.50 31.62 26.37 Borax 31.62 26.27 40.90 30.50 35.70 32.62 Manganous sulphate 32.55 25.62 .40.52 33.25- 29.55 28.00 Zinc sulphate 39.75 27.75 36.85 31.12 31-00 29.12 Copper sulphate 39.42 29.25 40.62 29.25 28.70 31.12. Ammonium molybdate 36.87 34.75 38.97 29.25 37.92 28.00 Sulphur,flowers of 45.90 36.25 35.60 30.50 29.17 24.50 Superphosphate (lS%) 51.12 36.00 52.27 34.62 39.40 32.12 Muriate of potash 3-7-85 31.87 37.32 28.25 35.60 31.12 M.S.D.Seed - 7.40 gms. M.S.D.Forage - 3»31 oz TABLE 7: - MEAN SEED AND FORAGE; YIELDS, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, AT MEDIUM AND HIGH LEVELS OF APPLICATION OF NUTRIENTS IN EACH REPLICATE, IRRESPECTIVE OF ELEMENTS (EXPT.I). TREATMENT Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Seed Forage Seed Forage Seed Forage (gms). (oz) (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) dry dry dry Lime - Med. Nutri- •25.83 28.55 38.75 27.0.5 38.44 28.33 ents Lime - High " 39.55 27.77 ; 47.33 36.83 32.61 23.83 No Lime - Med." 46.36 34.50 , 44.34 33.16 27.17 27.94 No Lime-High " 46.64 32.50 32.78 27.94 34.53 36.66 M.S.D.Seed - 7.68 gms. . M.S.D.Dry Forage - 6.86 oz - 6 -TABLE 8: - MEAN SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, AT MEDIUM AND HIGH LEVELS OF APPLICATION FOR EACH NUTRIENT. (EXPERIMENT I) Lime- medium Lime -- high No Lime-Med. No Lime-high Seed Forage Seed Forage Seed Forage Seed Forage * (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) Zheck 33.43 25-50 42.10 30.83 48.03 39.83 32.53 26.50 Borax 37-90 24.50 36.63 28.33 31.53 27.50 38.23 39.00 Wanganous sulphate 32.13 29.13 34.60 26.33 37.40 25.50 32.30 34.83 Sine sulphate 33.00 29.13 39-70 24.63 34.53 32.00 36.23 31.50 Uopper 34.26 sulphate 25-83 39.20 35.33 33.03 25.50 38.13 32.83 Ammonium molybdate 42.03 32.83 39-33 28.66 32.13 32.00 38.13 29.10 Sulphur 26.13 38.83 38.23 34.63 flowers of 29.93 40.53 25-50 35.33 Superphos-phate 37-40 30-30 51.80 39.66 53.00 34.66 48.23 32.33 iHuriate of potash 28.93 28.33 34.60 26.33 44.46 34.50 39.70 32.50 TABLE 9: - GENERAL ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SEED YIELDS (EXPT.I) Degrees of Sum of Mean F.Calc F @ P=.0? iDUUnL/fi freedom squares ,Square Replicates (R) 2 ' 1205.9 602.90 8.9 ** 3.63 Treatments (T) 8 1438.61 179-82 2.65 * 2.59 RxT,Error (a) 16 1083.6 67.70 Lime-levels (LI) 3 494.98 164.99 n.s. Replicates 2 1205.9 602.90 n.s. LlxR,Error (6) 6 3774.8 629.1 Lime-levels 3 494.8 164,. 99 2.36 2.79 Treatments 8 1438.61 179.8 2 .57* 2.13 Replicates 2 1205.9 602.9 8.92#* 3.18 LlxT 24 1522.2 63.4 n.s LlxR 6 3774.8 627.4 8.99** 2.29 T x R 16 IO83.6 67.7 n.s. LlxTxR,Error (c) 48 3354.8 69.89 * S i g n i f i c a n t , P ^ 0.05 «Highly S i g n i f i c a n t , P ^ 0.01 - 7 -TABLE 10: - GENERAL ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR FORAGE YIELDS. (EXPERIMENT 1) SOURCE Degrees of Sum of Mean F.Calc F@P-.05 freedom squares Square Replicates (R) 2 88.02 44.01 n.s. Treatments (T), 8 224.43 28 .05 n.s. RxT, Error (a) 16 719.82 44.98 Lime-levels (LI) 3 366.25 122.08 n.s. Replicates 2 88.02 44.01 n.s. LlxR,Error (b) 6 1341.15 223.52 Lime-levels 3 366.25 122.08 2.18 2.79 Treatments 8 224.43 28.05 n.s. Replicates 2 88.02 44.01 n.s. LlxT 24 1090.98 45.45. n.s. LlxR 6 1341.15 223.52 4.00* 2.99 TxR 16 719.82 44.98 n.s. LlxTxR,Error (c) 48 2680.35 55.84 * S i g n i f i c a n t , P ^ 0.05 An analysis of the data indicates the following: (a) Lime was of no p a r t i c u l a r benefit i n increasing the o v e r a l l seed y i e l d s , on this s o i l , as the unlimed plots yielded an average of 38.64 gms. of seed, while the limed plots averaged 37.08 gms. In forage, the limed plots averaged 28.75 gms. while the unlimed yielded an average of 32.23 gms. (b) Plots which received high applications of nutrients were s l i g h t l y higher y i e l d i n g , for both seed and forage, than the plots receiving medium applications of nutrients. (c) The highly s i g n i f i c a n t difference between r e p l i c a t e s for seed yields points to considerable s o i l v a r i a t i o n (Table 4), e s p e c i a l l y i n one r e p l i c a t e . (d) Superphosphate s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased seed y i e l d s , but not forage. Application of the other nutrients appeared to have a depressing e f f e c t , as these plots were a l l lower y i e l d i n g than the check (Tables 6 and 8 ) , except lime with molybdenum. ' (e) The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of lime-levels between r e p l i -cates indicates a rather uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of lime. (Tables 9 and 10). - 8 -Experiment 2. To determine the effects of several elements at two levels of application, with and without nitrogen, on seed and forage y i e l d s , when applied to an established stand of double-cut red clover. Materials and methods: Details the same as f o r experiment 1 except nitrogen, i n the form of ammonium n i t r a t e ( n i t r a p i l l s 3 2 $ ) was applied at the rate of 300 lbs per acre instead of hy-drated lime. The experiment was conducted on an adjacent plot i n the same f i e l d as experiment 1. The clover was harvested on October 1 5 t h , and plants from each plot were thoroughly dried before weighing and threshing. Results: TABLE 11: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN, TREAT-MENTS, OR LEVELS) REPLICATE Seed (gms) Dry Forage (oz) 1 5 8 . 3 7 3 8 . 8 3 2 6 0 . 0 7 41.22 3 59.01 41 . 7 5 M.S.D.Seed - 4 . 5 3 gms. M.S.D.Dry Forage - 1 . 9 5 oz. - 9 -' TABLE 12: - THE OVERALL RESPONSES OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS ON SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS, WHEN APPLIED TO DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN AND RATES OF APPLICATION) (MEAN YIELDS.) TREATMENT Seed (gms) Dry Forag (oz) Check 55.49 3 9 . 4 1 Borax 4 8 . 9 6 35.83 Manganous s u l -, 4 0 . 8 3 phate 53.20 Zinc sulphate 55.48 3 9 . 4 3 Copper sulphate 57-76 41 .08 Ammonium molyb-43.I6 date 66.92 Sulphur, flow-65.17 41.25 ers of Superphosphate 71.02 4 4 . 4 1 Muriate of potash 58 .60 4 0 . 0 0 M.S.D.Seed - 7.84 gms. M.S.D.Dry Forage-5.49 oz. TABLE 1 3 r - REPLICATE MEAN SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER WHEN SEVERAL NUTRIENTS APPLIED. (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN OR RATES OF APPLICATION^ TREATMENT REPLICATE 1 REPLICATE 2 REPLICATE 3 seed dry :, Seed Dry Seed Dry Forage Forage Forage (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) :heck 48.80 36.50 56.45 40.50 61.25 4-1.25 Borax 49.70 35.00 49.85 34.50 47.35 38.00 . manganous 56.47 41.75 sulphate 54.22 4-0.50 40.25 48.90 Sine " 56.45 39.25 55.47 39.55 54.52 39.50 Hopper"; 62.70 39.00 56.85 42.00 53.75 42.25 Ammonium 65.IO molybdate 68.65 43.00 67.02 43.25 43.25 Sulphur f l . o f 61.10 39.25 72.07 43.50 62.3^ 41.00 Superphosphate 66.05 43.50 73.37 45.50 n M 44.25 Muriate of 57.70 33.50 ^3.12 42.00 65.00 44.50 potash M.S.D.- Seed 10.72 gms. M.S.D. Dry Forage - 9.65 oz. - 10 -TABLE 14: - MEAN SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS MADE. (IRRES-PECTIVE OF NUTRIENT) TREATMENT Seed Dry Forage (gms) (oz) Nitrogen -56.83 36.14 Med. nutrients Nitrogen -56.50 High nutrients 37.85 No Nitrogen - 63 - 93 Med. nutrients 42.03 No Nitrogen High nutrients 59.42 46.37 M.S.D.Seed-12.22gms. M.S.D.Dry Forage -5.85oz. TABLE 15: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER, WITH 'AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS MADE. (IRRESPECTIVE OF NUTRIENT) TREATMENT REPLICATE 1 REPLICATE 2 REPLICATE 3 Seed d ry Seed dry Seed dry forage forage forage (•ems) ( oz) (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) Nitrogen -31.66 64.52 medium nutr: 48.66 57.30 38.22 38.55 Uitrogen-High 55.62 58.66 nutrients 55.01; 34 .44 41.77 37-33 No nitrogen -67.65 56.56 Med. nutr: 43.88 67.57 39.77 42.44 Jo nitrogen -56.42 48.66 High nutr: 62.15 45.33 59*81 45.13 M.S.D.Seed - 7.21 gms. M.S.D.Dry Forage - 6.43 oz. - 11 -TABLE 16: - THE EFFECT OF EACH NUTRIENT IN EXPERIMENT 2 , AT MEDIUM AND HIGH LEVELS OF APPLICATION, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, ON SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER. (MEAN YIELDS.) MEDIUM APPLICATION HIGH APPLICATION TREATMENT l i t r o g e n No Nitrogen Nitrogen No Nitrogen ' Seed dry Seed dry Seed dry Seed dry Forage Forage Forage Forage (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) (gms) (oz) !gms) (oz) Check 61.10 3 9 . 0 0 51.63 33.33 46.20 35.33 63.03 50.00 Borax 44.93 29.33 46.43 38.00 54.13 36.33 50.36 39.00 Manganous sulphate 52.56 41.00 56.30 41.33 60.03 43.33 43.90 37-66 Zinc » 57.53 3 8 . 0 0 56.13 41.33 62.40 40.00 45.86 38.40 Copper " 53,73. 34.00 60.53 4.Q ..66 59:63 43.33 57.16 46.33 Ammonium molybdate 62.93 35.00 8 0 . 7 3 5 0 . 0 0 59.40 3 6 . 0 0 64.63 51.66 Sulphur 59.06 35.66 flowers of 72.3} 43.00 59-80 35.33 69.50 51.00 Superphosph: 63.66 37.66 86.06 49-33 54.93 35.33 79.43 5?.33 Muriate of potash 55.96 35.66 65.23 41.33 51.96 35.66 61.26 40.66 M.S.D.Seed - 12.48 oz. M.S.D.Dry__Forage911.11oz No Nitrogen No .Nitrogen 3» 00 io 3o to i-o Forage Yield (oz) Forage Yield (oz) F i g . 3. ILLUSTRATING THE INCREASE IN SEED AND FORAGE..YIELDS WITH MOLYBDENUM, SULPHUR, .AND SUPERPHOSPHATE, AT MEDIUM AND HIGH RATES OF APPLICATION, OVER CHECK WITHOUT NITROGEN - 12 -TABLE 17: - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SEED YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER EXPERIMENT 2. SOURCE Degrees Sum of Mean IF. Calc F.@ t=.05 U v \J X I V -i-J of freedom Squares Squares Replicates (R) 2 52.60 , 26.30 n.s. Treatments (T) 8 4870.71 608.73 7.37,* 2.59 RxT^Error (a) 16 1320.84 82.55 Nitrogen-leve l s (Nl) 3 954.78 318.26 n.s. Replicates 2 52.60 26.30 n.s. NlxR,Error(b) 6 2039.48 339.91 Nitrogen Levels 3 954.78 318.26 5.09** 2.79 Treatments 8 4870.71 608.73 9.74** 2.13 Replicates 2 52.60 26.30 n.s. Nl x T 24 4065.80 169-40 2.71** 1.74 Nl x R 6 2039.48 339.91 5.44** 2.29 R x T 16 1320.84 82.55 1.32 1.85 NlxRxT,Error 48 2999.51 62.48 . <e) * S i g n i f i c a n t , p ^ 0 . 0 5 -** Highly S i g n i f i c a n t p ^  0.01 TABLE 18:- ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER. EXPERIMENT 2. SOURCE Degrees Sum of Mean F.eal F @ t=.05 of freedom Squares Square Replicates (R) 2 174.15 87.07 5.59* 3.63 Treatments (T) 8 572.47 71.55 4.59** 2.59 RxT.Error (a) 16 249.08 15.56 Nitrogen-6.89* 4.76 levels (Nl) 3 1696.11 565.37 Replicates 2 174.15 87.07 1.06 5.14 Nl x R,Error(b) 6 492.31 82.05 Nitrogen l e v e l s 3 1696.11 565.37 11.51* 2.79 Treatments 8 572.47 71.55 1.45 2.13 Replicates' 2 174.15 87.07 1.77 3.18 Nl xT. 24 1604.39 66.84 1.36 1.74 Nl x R 6 492.31 82.05 I . 6 7 2.29 R x T 16 249.08 , 15.56, n.s. NlxRxT,Error (c ) 48 2356.17 : 49.08 * S i g n i f i c a n t P^ 0 . 0 5 ** Highly S i g n i f i c a n t P^O .01 - 1 2 a -From the data i n this experiment the following observations are noted: (a) The application of nitrogen did not increase the over-a l l seed and dry forage y i e l d s . Plots receiving no nitrogen yielded an average of 61.69 gms. seed, and 44.11 oz of dry forage, while the plots receiving nitrogen only averaged 56.66 gms. seed, and 37'00 oz. dry forage. (b'^)There was a s i g n i f i c a n t response from those plots receiving ammonium molybdate, sulphur, and superphos-phate; they were consistently higher i n y i e l d than the checks both i n seed and dry forage. (Tables 12 and 13). (c) The s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n re p l i c a t e s for dry f o r -age points to some s o i l v a r i a t i o n , although t h i s was not apparent i n seed yields (Table 11). (d) The highly s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of no nitrogen and l e v e l s of app l i c a t i o n indicates a decided response on seed yields with a medium app l i c a t i o n of nutrients, and on dry forage yields with a high application of nutrients. (Tables 14, 15, and 16.) - 13 -Experiment 3* - To determine the effects of several elements, at two lev e l s of application, with and without lime, on seed yields of Blue Lake pole beans, (Phaseolus vulgar-i s L.) when grown on Alderwood sandy loam s o i l . Materials and methods. Nine treatments, three r e p l i c a t i o n s , two l e v e l s of app l i c a t i o n , of a randomized design were l a i d out, with plots 4 x 12 feet, on the University of B r i t i s h Columbia farm, May 8, 1950. This i s a sandy loam s o i l with a pH of 5.5 and 900 P.P.M. available calcium. Hydrated lime was applied to one-half of the plots on May 9« at the rate of 2000 pounds per acre. The seed was sown i n two rows on each plot - with a space of one foot between rows. Ten days a f t e r sowing the seed the following f e r t i l i z e r s , : used singly, were applied at the rates indicated i n a trench 3 inches deep between rows. Medium High (lbs per acre) (lbs per acre) Manganous sulphate 100 Zinc sulphate 10 Copper sulphate 25 Sulphur, flowers of 100 Superphosphate 18$ 300 Muriate of potash '60$ 300 Ammonium molybdate Borax 900 When the seed had germinated plants were thinned to 20 per p l o t . Plants were harvested on October 15th. - 14 -Results: TABLE 19: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME, TREATMENTS, OR LEVELS) REPLICATE SEED (oz) 1 3.28 2 5.00 3 5.78 TABLE 20 : - THE OVERALL RESPONSES OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS ON SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME, OR LEVELS). (LIEAN YIELDS PER PLOT.) TREATMENT SEED (oz) Check 5.25 Borax 3.68 Manganous Sul-phate 3.45 Zinc " 3.89 Copper " 3.37 Ammonium molyb-date 4.25 Sulphur, flox^ers of 4.95 Superphosphate 9.06 Muriate of potash 4 .29 TABLE 21: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT WHEN SEVERAL NUTRIENTS APPLIED (IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME OR LEVELS) TREATMENT Replicate 1 Seed (oz) Replicate 2 Seed (oz) Replicate Seed (oz) 3 Check 4.43 6.62 4.68 Borax 1.75 4.00 5.31 Manganous sulphate 1.87 2.56 5.93 continued - 15 -TABLE 2 1 : - continued TREATMENT Replicate 1 Replicate 2 Replicate 3 Seed (oz) Seed (oz). Seed (oz) Zinc sulphate 2.56 3.37 5.75 Copper sulphate 2.68 2.81 4.62 Ammonium molybdate 3.00 4 .00 5.75 Sulphur, flowers of 2 .68 6 .06 6.12 Superphosphate 7-75 9.68 9-75 Ifiuriate of potash 2.81 £.93 4 .12 TABLE 22: - MEAN SEED YIELD PERPLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE MADE. (IRRESPECTIVE OF NUTRIENT). TREATMENT SEED (oz) Lime - med: nutrients Lime - high nutrients No lime - med. nutr: No lime - high nutr: 5.28 3.92 5.?5 I . 8 0 TABLE 23: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE MADE (IRRESPECTIVE OFNUTRIENT). TREATMENT Replicate 1 Seed (oz) Replicate 2 Seed (oz) Replicate 3 Seed (oz) Lime - Medium .66 5.33 9.86 nutrients Lime - high 4.19 6.41 1.16 nutrients No lime - med: 4.58 7.50 5.77 nutrients No lime - high 3 . 6 9 ' .77 6.33 nutrients - 16 -TABLE 24:- THE EFFECT GF EACH NUTRIENT IN EXPERIMENT 3 , AT MEDIUM AND HIGH LEVELS GF APPLICATION, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, ONi:SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (MEAN YIELDS PER PLOT IN OZ.) Lime No Lime TREATMENT Medium High Medium High Check 4.66 5.91 7-25 3.16 Borax 4.33 2.16 5.41 2.83 Manganous s u l -phate 4 .58 2.00 4.16 3.08 Zinc 4.91 2.50 5.08 3.25 Copper "-• 4.16 1.83 5.00 2.50 Ammonium molyb-date " 5.50 3.75 4.33 3.41 Sulphur, Flow- 6.08 ers of 4.41 5.91 3.41 Superphosphate 8.7? 9.41 9.75 Muriate of potash 4.75 3.33 6.66 2.41 Because of very poor seed yields due to dry condit-ions during the growing season, and an unusually wet period at the time of harvesting, the analysis of variance was not com-pleted. However, from the mean seed yi e l d s the following observations are noted: (a) The difference i n seed yi e l d s between plots receiving hydrated lime (4.6 oz), and those not receiving i t (4 .77 oz) was very small and therefore i t would appear no benefit was derived, on t h i s s o i l , from applying lime. (b) The r e p l i c a t e means indicate some s o i l v a r i a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y one r e p l i c a t e which i s considerably lower - 1 7 -y i e l d i n g than the others (Table 1 9 ) . (c) Prom the treatment t o t a l s (Tables 2 0 and 2 1 ) , i t can be stated that only phosphate was of benefit as these plots outyielded the check i n the o v e r a l l response, and i n each r e p l i c a t e . (d) Where no lime was added, and only medium a p p l i c a t i o n of nutrients provided, the greatest response was ob-tained — both i n to t a l s (Table 2 2 ) , and i n re p l i c a t e s (Table 2 1 ) . (e) There were no interactions observed — the phosphate plots were uniformly high y i e l d i n g , with or without lime, and at medium or high a p p l i c a t i o n l e v e l s . - 18 -Experiment 4: - To determine the effects of several elements, at two l e v e l s of ap p l i c a t i o n , with and without nitrogen, on seed yields of Blue Lake pole beans, (Phaseolus vulgaris L) when grown on Alderwood sandy loam s o i l . Materials and methods Details the same as f o r Experiment 3 , except ammonium n i t r a t e , i n the form of n i t r a p i l l s , 32$ N, wasused i n -stead of hydrated lime. This was applied to one h a l f the plots at the rate-of 200 pounds per acre. The experiment was carried out on an adjacent p l o t , i n the same f i e l d as Experiment 3« Results: TABLE 25: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS. (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN, TREATMENTS OR LEVELS) REPLICATE SEED (oz) 1 3.19 2 4 .31 3 3.75 - 19 -TABLE 26s - THE OVERALL RESPONSES OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS ON SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS. (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN, OR LEVELS). (MEAN YIELDS PER PLOT). TREATMENT SEED (oz.) Check 4.22 Borax 2.02 Manganous sulphate 2.37 Zinc sulphate 2.83 Copper sulphate 2.27 Ammonium molybdate 3.00 Sulphur, flowers of 4.35 Superphosphate 9.79 Muriate of potash 3.10 TABLE 27: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT WHEN SEVERAL NUTRIENTS APPLIED (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN OR LEVELS) TREATMENT Replicate 1 Seed (oz) Replicate 2 Seed (oz) Replicate 3 Seed (oz) Check 3.68 5.12 3.87 Borax 1.31 2.43 2.31 Manganous sulphate 1.43 2.50 3.18 Zinc sulphate 2.62 2.50 3.37 Copper sulphate 2.43 1.43 2.93 Ammonium molybdate 2.75 3.43 2.81 Sulphur, Flowers of 2.62 7.12 3.31 Superphosphate 7.37 10.50 9.25 Muriate of potash 2.25 4.31 2.7* TABLE 28: - MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE MADE. (IRRESPECTIVE OF NUTRIENT) TREATMENT SEED (oz) Nitrogen-med: nutrients 2.70 Nitrogen-high " 3.58 No nitrogen-med: " 4.70 No nitrogen-high " 4.11 - 20 -TABLE 29: - REPLICATE•MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE. MADE (IRRES-PECTIVE OF NUTRIENT). TREATMENT ' j Replicate 1 Seed (oz) Replicate 2 Seed (oz) Replicate 3 Seed (oz) Nitrogen - Med: 2.61 nutrients 2 . 4 7 3.02 Nitrogen - High . 3.69 nutrients 2.80 4 . 2 5 No nitrogen - Med: nutrients 6.00 4.19 No Nitrogen - High nutrients 3-58 4 . 2 2 4 . 5 2 TABLE 3 0 : - THE EFFECT OF EACH NUTRIENT IN EXPERIMENT 4 AT MEDIUM AND,HIGH LEVELS OF APPLICATION, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, ON SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (MEAN YIELDS PER PLOT IN OUNCES). TREATMENT NITROGEN NO NITROGEN Medium High Medium high Check 3.16, o3.08 5.00 5.66 Borax 1 .75 1.66 2.33 2.33 Manganous sulphate 1.66 1 .50 3.83 2.50 Zinc sulphate 2.08 1.91 3.91 3.41 Copper sulphate 1 .50 1 .58 3.58 2.41 Ammonium molybdate 1.41 2.66 4 .50 3.41 Sulphur, flowers of 2.66 4.16 6 .08 4 .50 Superphosphate 7-58 13.41 8.41 9-75 Muriate of potash 2.50: 2.25 4 .66 3.00 This data was not analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y due to the same reasons as stated i n Experiment 35 namely, the extremely poor seed yi e l d s because of very dry conditions during the - 21 -growing season, and an unusually wet period at harvest time. From the mean seed yields the following observations are noted. (a) The application of nitrogen did not appear to benefit i n the o v e r a l l response as t h o s e p l o t s not receiving nitrogen were s l i g h t l y higher y i e l d i n g (4.40 oz), than those to which nitrogen was applied (3.14 oz). (b) The s o i l v a r i a t i o n i n this experiment i s also i n d i c a -ted by the difference i n r e p l i c a t e means (Table 25). (c) Is In Experiment 3 the phosphate plots outyielded a l l others, being more than twice the mean y i e l d of check p l o t s . A l l the micronutrients except sulphur had a depressing e f f e c t (Tables 26 and 27) . (d) In the o v e r a l l response no nitrogen, and medium a p p l i -cation of nutrients gave the highest mean seed yields Table 29) . (e) From Table 30, i t i s noted that there was an i n t e r -action with nitrogen and high application of phosphate. - 22 -Experiment 5 s - To determine the effects of several elements, at two lev e l s of ap p l i c a t i o n , with and without lime, on seed yields of Blue Lake pole beans, (Phaseolus vulgaris L) when grown on Ladner clay s o i l . Materials and methods Nine treatments, three r e p l i c a t i o n s , two lev e l s of application, of a randomized design were l a i d out, with plots 4 x 12 feet, on the Logan farm, Marine Drive, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, on May 12 1950. This i s a clay s o i l with a pH of 4.82 and 500 P.P.M. available calcium. Hydrated lime was applied to one-half the plots on May 13 at the rate of 2000 pounds per acre. The seed was sown i n two rows on each plot - with a space of one foot between rows. On May 20, f i v e days a f t e r sowing the seed, the following f e r t i l i z e r s , used si n g l y , were applied at the rates indicated i n a trench 3 inches deep between rows. Medium High (lbs per acre)(lbs per acre) Borax 20 60 Manganous sulphate 100 300 Zinc sulphate 10 30 Copper sulphate 25 75 Ammonium molybdate 8 24 Sulphur, flovers of 100 300 Superphosphate 18% 300 900 Muriate of potash, 60% 300 900 When the seed had germinated plants were thinned to 20 per p l o t . Plants were harvested October 25th. - 23 -Results TABLE 31: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME, TREATMENTS, OR LEVELS) REPLICATE SEED (oz) 1 12.12 2 10.77 3 8,34 TABLE 32: - THE OVERALL RESPONSES OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS ON SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME, OR LEVELS) (MEAN YIELDS PER PLOT) TREATMENT SEED (oz) Check 10.04 Borax 13.04 Manganese sulphate 10.1^ Zinc sulphate 10.39 Copper sulphate 10.43 Ammonium molybdate 9.62 Sulphur, flowers of 10.37 Superphosphate 10.64 Muriate, of potash 9.81 24 -TABLE 33: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT WHEN SEVERAL NUTRIENTS APPLIED (IRRESPECTIVE OF LIME OR LEVELS) TREATMENT Replicate 1 Seed (oz) Replicate 2 Seed (oz) Replicate . Seed (oz) Check 11.00 :' 10.56 8.56 Borax 13-37 13-12. 12.62 Manganous sulphate 10.7^ 9.81 9.93 Zinc sulphate 12.75 9.37 9.06 Copper sulphate 12.56 10.43 8.31 Ammonium molybdate 12.00 10.00 6.87 Sulphur, flowers of 12.18 11.12 7.81 Superphosphate 12.56 11.81 7.56 Muriate of potash 11.93 10.67 6.81 TABLE 34: - MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE MADE.(IRRESPECTIVE OF NUTRIENTS) TREATMENT SEED (oz) Lime - medium nutrients 12.00 Lime - high nutrients 10.14 No lime - med. nutrients 7.31 No lime - high nutrients 12.54 - 2 5 -TABLE 35: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED' YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE MADE (IRRESPECTIVE OF NUTRIENT) TREATMENT Replicate 1 Seed (oz) Replicate 2 Seed (oz) Replicate 3 Seed (oz) Lime - medium nutrients Lime - high > nutrients No lime - med: nutrients No lime - high nutrients 15.38 13.33 6.83 12.94 12.38 10.27 8.27 12.13 6.83 6.83 12.55 TABLE 36: - THE EFFECT OF EACH NUTRIENT IN EXPERIMENTS 5, AT MEDIUM AND HIGH LEVELS OF APPLICATION, WITH AND WITHOUT LIME, ONf: SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (MEAN YIELDS PER PLOT IN OUNCES) Lime No Lime TREATMENT Medium high nedlum high Check 11.83 10.58 6.75 11.00 Borax 14.66 12.83 ?.83 15.16 Manganous sulphate 9.50 10.00 6.16 15.00 Zinc sulphate 11.00 11.66 5.41 13.50 Copper sulphate 12.16 10.41 9.41 9.75 Ammonium molybdate 13.08 10.08 5.00 10.33 Sulphur, flowers of 11.50 8.83 6.66 14.50 Superphosphate 11,33 9.25 9.50 12.50 Muriate of potash 13.00 8.00 7.08 11.16 The data i n this experiment was not analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y because of very dry weather during the growing season, and - 26 -extremely wet weather at harvest time r e s u l t i n g i n very poor seed y i e l d s . From the mean seed yie l d s the following i s noted: (a) The application of lime benefited the crop on t h i s acid s o i l ; lime plots yielded 11.07 oz, while unlimed gave 9.91 oz. (b) The high application of nutrients, 11.34 oz, also out-yielded the medium nutrients, 9.66 oz. (c) The application of borax proved b e n e f i c i a l as these plots were higher y i e l d i n g than any other treatment. (Tables 32 and 33). No other treatments were consis-t e n t l y higher i n y i e l d than the checks. (d) No interactions were observed - the borax reacted uniformly i n a l l r e p l i c a t e s , although s l i g h t l y superior i n the limed p l o t s . - 27 -Experiment 6 - To determine the effects of several elements at two level s of ap p l i c a t i o n , with and without n i t r o -gen, on seed y i e l d s of Blue Lake pole beans, (Phaseo-lus vulgaris L.) when grown on Ladner clay s o i l Materials and methods Details the same as for Experiment 5» except that ammonium n i t r a t e , i n the form of n i t r a p i l l s , 32$ N. was used instead of hydrated lime. This was applied to one-half the plots at the rate of 200 pounds per acre. The experiment was carried out on an adjacent p l o t , i n the same f i e l d as Experiment 5» Results TABLE 37J - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN, TREATMENTS, OR LEVELS). REPLICATE SEED (oz) 1 7.20 2 6.89 3 6.68 - 28 -TABLE 3 8 : - THE OVERALL RESPONSES OF SEVERAL ELEMENTS ON SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN OR LEVELS) (MEAN YIELDS PER PLOT). TREATMENT SEED (oz) Check 6,93 Borax 6.18 Manganous sulphate 6 . 3 5 Zinc sulphate 6 . 8 5 Copper sulphate 6.52 Ammonium molybdate 6.12 Sulphur, flowers of 6.58 Superphosphate 8.66 Muriate of potash 8.12 TABLE 39: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT WHEN SEVERAL NUTRIENTS APPLIED (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN DRV LEVELS) TREATMENT Replicate 1 seed (oz) Replicate 2 seed (oz) Replicate .3 seed (oz) Check Borax Manganous sulphate Zinc sulphate Copper sulphate Ammonium molybdate. Sulphur, flowers of Superphosphate Muriate of potash I 7.12 6.75 7.06 6.50 7.00 7.00 6.62 9.00 7TM 6.56 6.50 6.37 6.75 6.50 5.87 6.75 8 ^ 2 7.12 5.28 5.62 7.31 6.06 5.50 6.37 8.62 B7IB" - 29 -TABLE 40: - MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICA-TIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE MADE (IRRESPECTIVE OF NUTRIENT) TREATMENT I SEED (oz) Nitrogen - med: nutrients 7.23 Nitrogen - high nutrients 8 .59 No nitrogen - med: nutrients 6 . 9 4 No nitrogen - high nutrients ~ 4 . 9 2 TABLE 41: - REPLICATE MEAN SEED YIELDS PER PLOT OF BLUE LAKE BEANS, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, WHEN MEDIUM AND HIGH APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS WERE MADE. (IRRES-PECTIVE OF NUTRIENT). TREATMENT Replicate 1 Replicate 2 Replicate 3 Seed (oz) Seed (oz) Seed (oz) Nitrogen - medium nutrients 5.80 6 . 8 8 8 . 9 4 Nitrogen - high nutrients 10.66 8.61 6 . ? 0 No nitrogen - med: nutrients 7.30 7.14 6 . 3 8 No nitrogen - high 4 . 8 8 nutrients 4 . 9 4 4 . 9 4 - 30 -TABLE 42: - THE EFFECT OF EACH NUTRIENT IN EXPERIMENT - 6, AT MEDIUM AND HIGH LEVELS OF APPLICATION, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, ON SEED YIELDS OF BLUE LAKE BEANS. (MEAN YIELDS PER PLOT IN OZ.) TREATMENT NITROGEN NITROGEN Medium High Medium High Check 6.91 8.58 6.66 5.58 Borax 6.33 7.41 6.16 4.83 Manganous s u l -phate 7.00 7.83 6.83 3.75 Zinc sulphate 7-75 7.66 7.58 4.41 Copper sulphate 7.16 7.83 6.50 4.58 Ammonium molyb-date 5.50 8.66 6.50 3.83 Sulphur, flowers of 6.66 7.91 6.75 5.00 , Superphosphate 9.00, 10.83 7-83 7.00 Muriate of i potash 8.91 9-58 7.66 5.33 From the seed yie l d s i t would appear that the plots receiving nitrogen outyielded the "no nitrogen" p l o t s , but only phosphate, or potash* i n combination with n i -trogen showed much higher yields than the check. - 31 -Experiment 7* - To determine the effects of several elements at two le v e l s of ap p l i c a t i o n , with hydrated lime and nitrogen, without hydrated lime and nitrogen, on seed yields of Rhizoma a l f a l f a (Medicago f a l c a t a  x M. sativa) when grown on Alderwood sandy loam s o i l . Materials and methods Details the same as f o r Experiments 5 and 6, except Rhizoma a l f a l f a was used. Plants were dug up from the main f i e l d , University of B r i t i s h Columbia farm, on August 20. 1950, and single clones were trans-planted i n the garden f i e l d . There were two rows of plants i n each p l o t , one foot apart, twelve plants per p l o t . Results: A l l the plants w i n t e r - k i l l e d due to the fact that they were under water during January and February. - 32 -Experiment 8. To determine the e f f e c t of boron, boron plus molybdenum, molybdenum alone, and a complete micronutrient mixture, with and without nitrogen, on seed and forage yi e l d s when applied to one year old double-cut red clover plants. Materials and methods Five treatments, four replications,- with and without nitrogen, of a randomized s p l i t plot design were l a i d out, with plots 3 x 8 feet on the University of B. C. farm, May 27, 1951. One year old double-cut red clo -ver plants were taken from a University f i e l d , inocu-lated with a suitable s t r a i n of Rhizobium, and planted, 12 plants per p l o t , on June 2nd. A trench, 3 inches deep, was made down the centre.of each plot , between the two rows of plants, and the following f e r t i l i z e r s were added at the rates indicated: Nitrogen was applied to one half the plots, i n the form of ammonium n i t r a t e , at the rate of 200 l b s . per acre. The plots receiving borax had 20 lbs per acre added. The amount per plot was so small, 9.92 gms., that i t was mixed with one quarter pound of s i l i c a sand before applying. Where molybdenum was applied i t was put on Superphosphate (18$) Muriate of potash (60%) Hydrated lime 300 lbs per acre 300 lbs per acre 2000 lbs per acre. - 33 -i n the form of ammonium molybdate, at the rate of 8 lbs per acre, i n the same manner as f o r borax. The mixture of borax and molybdenum consisted of 20 lbs borax plus 8 lbs ammonium molybdate per acre, applied i n a si m i l a r manner. The complete micronutrient mixture was made up of borax (9*92 gms), manganous sulphate (49.97 gms), zinc sulphate (4.81 gms), copper sulphate (12.40 gms), and ammonium molybdate (3*91 gms) per plot to those receiving t h i s mixture. Plants were harvested October 27th. The s o i l i s a sandy loam with a, pH 5 .5 , and 900 P.P.M. available calcium. - 3 4 -Results TABLE 4 3 : - THE EFFECTS OF BORON, MOLYBDENUM, BORON PLUS' MOLYBDENUM, AND A COMPLETE MICRONUTRIENT MIX-TURE ON SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER. (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN OR INOCULUM.) (MEAN YIELDS) TREATMENT Seed (gms) Dry Forage (oz) Check 24.82 16.68 Borax 30.80 19.81 Ammonium molybdate 29.90 21.25 Borax-* Ammonium molybdate 34.22 22.37 Complete micro 20.87 nutrients 32.22 M.S.D.Seed'- 4.83 gms. M.S.D.Forage 4.79 oz. TABLE 44: - THE EFFECTS OF BORON, MOLYBDENUM, BORON PLUS MOLYBDENUM, AND A COMPLETE MICRONUTRIENT MIX-TURE, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, ON SEED AND FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER. (IRRESPECTIVE OF INOCULUM) (MEAN YIELDS). TREATMENT Seed (gms) Dry Forage. )ZS ) . With Nitrogen Without nitrogen With nitrogen Without nitrogen Check Borax Ammonium molybdate Borax plus Ammonium molybdate Complete micro-nutrients 27.71 32.42 3 2-; 2 5 36.45 34.67 21.92 29.15 27 .55 32.00 29.77 20.37 20.87 21.75 23 .87 22.00 17.00 18.75 20.75 20.87 19.75 Averages 32.70 28 .07 21.77 19.42 M.S.D.Seed - O.63 gms. M.S.D.Forage - 1.80 oz. - 35 -TABLE 45: - MEAN BLOCK YIELD OF SEED AND DRY FORAGE (EXPT: 8) BLOCK SEED (gms) DRY FORAGE (oz) 1 24.83 17.15 2. 35-03 23.15 3 . 29.95 22.50 4. 31.76 19.60 M.S.D.Seed - 2.3.8 gms. M.S.D.Forage - 1.80 oz. TABLE 46: - THE EFFECTS OF BORON, MOLYBDENUM, BORON PLUS MOLYBDENUM, AND A COMPLETE MICRONUTRIENT MIX-TURE, ON SEED AND DRY FORAGE YIELDS IN BLOCKS (EXPERIMENT 8 ) . (MEAN YIELDS). TREATMENT Block 1 Block 2. Block 3 Block 4 Seed Forage Seed Forage Seed Forage Seed For: (gms) (oz; (gms) (oz! (gms) (oz) (gs) (oz) Z heck 18.2 13.7 24.6 20.7 29.5 22.7 26.9 17.5 Borax 19.5 14 .5 32.0 24.0 40 .6 23.0 31.0 17.7 Ammonium molybdate 28.5 20.7 32.3 23.0 34.4 20.2 30.2 21.0 Borax Ammon ium molyb: 31.9 21.5 34.4 23.2 13_-.o 21.7 37-5 23.0 Complete 26.4 Micronutr: 25.9 15.2 24 .7 37-5 24 .7 33-1 18.7 TABLE 47: - THE MEAN SEED AND DRY. FORAGE YIELDS OF RED CLOVER ON INOCULATED AND NON-INOCULATED PLOTS, IRRESPECT-IVE OF TREATMENTS.: (EXPERIMENT 8 ) . TREATMENT. Seed : (gms) )ry Forage (oz) inoculated non-inocu-lated 30.85 29.93 21.05 20.15 Since there i s no "error" for inoculum and because there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t inter.action~o£ '.inoculum' and any 'treatment* or 'block 1, the four sub-plots are considered as 'blocks' or 'replicates', and the analysis i s shewh.ln Table. TABLE 48: - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SEED YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER. (EXPERIMENT 8 ) . SOURCE Degrees of freedom Sum of Squares Mean square F. Calc F'@ B=.05 Blocks (B) Treatments (I) BxT.,Error (a) 3 4 12 559.15 395.51 .27.3.00 186.38 98.80 22.70 8.21** 4.35 * n.s. 3.49 3.26 Nitrogen (N) NxT.,Error (b) 1 4 213.91 6.64 213.91 1.66 128.25** n.s. 7.71 NxB NxBxT,Erro r(c) 3 12 .51 551.4 .17 46.0 n.s. ^ S i g n i f i c a n t , P ^ 0.05 **Highly S i g n i f i c a n t , P^O .01 TABLE 49: - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR DRY FORAGE YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (EXPERIMENT 8.) SOURCE )egrees of freedom-Sum of Squares Mean Squares F. Calc F @ t=.05 Blocks (B) Treatments (T) BxT,Error (a) 's 4 12 207.15 63 .41 152.04 69.05 15.85 12.67 ... 5 .44 * 1.25 4 .50 3.49 3.26 2.69 Nitrogen (N) NxT,Error (b) 1 4 55.22. 6 .72 55.22 1.68 32.80 ** n.s. 7 .71 NxB NxBxT,Error (c .:„3v • ) 12 33.93 33.13 11.31 2.76 4.10 * 3.49 * S i g n i f i c a n t , P ^ 0.05 **Highly S i g n i f i c a n t , P ^ O . 0 1 - 37 -(a) In t h i s experiment the inoculation was probably unsuccess-f u l because the difference between means of the a r t i f i c i a l l y inoculated p l o t s , and those not inoculated was very small, Table 47. A l l interactions involving inoculation were non-s i g n i f i c a n t therefore the four sub-plots were treated as r e p l i -cates. (b) The F. t e s t , Tables 48 and 49 indicates s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n seed and forage yields for blocks, which points to very considerable s o i l variations over t h e p l o t . (c) I t can be stated with confidence as shown by Tables 43, and 46 that a l l treatments outyielded the check, and boron plus molybdenum probably gives higher yields than boron or molybdenum applied alone. (d) Nitrogen uniformly increased seed yi e l d s on a l l p l o t s , Table 44. (e) No s i g n i f i c a n t interactions were observed. The treatment responses tended to vary on the d i f f e r e n t treatments somewhat, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Direct responses to nitrogen were ob-tained regardless of d i f f e r e n t micronutrient additions, and the nitrogen reacted uniformly on a l l blocks. - 38 -EXPERIMENT 9* -To determine the effects of boron, molybdenum, boron plus molybdenum, a complete micronutrient solution, with and without nitrogen, on seed yields of double-cut red clover, (Trif o l i u m pratense) when grown i n s i l i c a sand. Materials and methods On June 1st. 1951? one year old double-cut red clover plants were transplanted from the garden f i e l d , Uni-v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, to 8 inch glazed earthen-ware pots i n the greenhouse. These pots were f i l l e d with washed s i l i c a sand. Plants were selected of the same size and root development — two plants being placed i n each pot af t e r inoculation with a suitable s t r a i n of Rhizobium. Plants were watered with d i s -t i l l e d water, and when established were clipped back on June 7« The two nutrient solutions used were made up as follows: 1. Shive three-salt solution No. R 5 C 2 49.01 gm. potassium phosphate (KH2PO4) i n 1 l i t r e 24.56 gm. calcium n i t r a t e (Ca(N03)2 4H 20) i n 1 l i t r e 73.95 gm. magnesium sulphate (MgS0 47H 20) i n 1 l i t r e f i f t y ml. of each of these stock solutions plus'4 mg. f e r r i c phosphate (Fe 2(P0 4)^9H 20) and water to make 1 l i t r e . - 39 -2. 49.01 gm. potassium phosphate (KH 2P0 4) i n 1 l i t r e 4.46 gm. calcium sulphate (CaS0 42H 20) i n 1 l i t r e 73.95 gm. magnesium sulphate (MgS0 47H 20) i n 1 l i t r e f i f t y ml. of KH 2P0 4, and MgS04 7H20, stock solutions and 200 ml. of CaS04 2H20 stock s o l u t i o n , plus 4mg. f e r r i c phosphate (FegCSO^)^ 9H20 and water to make 1 l i t r e . The micronutrient stock solutions were made as follows: 1. Complete 0.10 gm. Manganous chloride Mn C12 4H 20) 0.10 gm. Ammonium molybdate (NH4)^ MOy0244H 0) .05 gm. Zinc chloride (Zn C l 2 2H 20) 0.10 gm. Boric acid (H-^BO^) .005 gm. Cupric chloride (CuCl 2 2H 20) plus water to make 1 l i t r e . 2. Boron 0.10 H^BO^ plus water to make 1 l i t r e 3. Molybdenum 0.10 gm. (NH 4)6 Moy0 244H 20) plus water to make 1 l i t r e 4. Boron plus molybdenum 0.10 gm. B0^ 0.10 gm. NH4)£ MOr 70 2 4 4H20 plus water to make 1 l i t r e . - 4 0 -Pots 1 to 15 received number 1 nutrient solution, and the micronutrients as shown below, and pots 16 to 30 received number 2 nutrient solution and the micronutrients indicated. Pot l l 6, 1-1 — P. K, Ca, N plus complete micronutrients Pot 2, 7, 12 - - P, K, Ca, N plus Bo. Pot 3, 8, 13 — P, K, Ca, N plus Mo. Pot 4, 9, 14 — P, K, Ca, N plus Bo and Mo Pot 5, 10, 15 — • P, K, Ca, N Pot 16 , 21, 26 - P, K, Ca plus complete micronutrients Pot 17 , 22, 27 - P, K, Ca plus Bo Pot 18 , 23, 28 - Pt K, Ca plus Mo Pot 19 , 24, 29 - P, K, Ca plus Bo and Mo Pot 20 , 25, 30 - P, K, Ca. Enamel plates were placed under each pot so as to ret a i n a l l the nutrient s o l u t i o n . On June 8 one l i t r e of the respective nutrient solutions was applied to each pot, as above, with 10 ml of the indicated micronutrient solution added to each l i t r e . This application was too strong so the plants only received d i s t i l l e d water u n t i l they recovered. The following quantities of solution were applied on the dates indicated, and the plants received d i s t i l l e d water regularly. June 14 — 500 ml. nutrient solutions plus 5 ml. micronutrients June 18 — 500 ml. •» •» " 5 ml. " June 23 - - 200 ml. " » " 5 ml. " - 4 1 -July- 5 — 1 0 0 ml. nutrient solutions plus 5 ml. July 1 1 — 1 0 0 ml. '* . n 5 ml. July 1 4 - - 1 0 0 ml. " •i 5 ml. July 22 — 1 0 0 ml. " •• 5 ml. July 25 — 1 0 0 ml. " „ 5 ml. July 3 1 — 1 0 0 ml. " „ 5 ml. August 8 ~ 1 0 0 ml. „ 5 ml. August 1 4 — 1 0 0 ml. " .. 5 ml. Plants of pots 1 - 15 were harvested on September 15, and of pots 16 - 30 on September 2 9 . The seed was threshed by hand. On December 8 , 19515 2 gram composite samples, of the r e p l i -cates, were ashed i n order to make a spectographic analysis for molybdenum. - 42 -Results: POT 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TABLE 50: - BLOOMING " i •  ! DATES AND OBSERVATIONS P N G R 0 W T H 0 F DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER PLANTS GROWN IN POTS I N SILICA SAND... TREATMENT TIME OF BLOOM P,K,Ca,N plus com-plete P,K,Ca,N plus Bo P,K,Ca,N plus Mo P,K,Ca,N plus Bo and, Mo P,K,Ca,N P,K,Ca,N plus com-plete P,K,Ca,N plus Bo P,K',Ca,N plus Mo P,K,Ca,N plus Bo and Mo P,K,Ca,N P,K,Ca,N plus complete P,K,Ca,N plus Bo P,K,Ca,N. plus Bo and Mo P,K,Ca,N plus Bo and Mo P,K,Ca,N July 11 June 24 July 11 July 3 Aug. 14 July 11 July 11 June 30 July 4 Aug. 14 July 3 July 14 July 22 June 30. July 11 OBSERVATIONS Healthy Healthy -.POT • ] .16 Edge of leaves red-,f 1® dish brown July 11 Healthy profuse ; bloom Leaves and stems reddish brown Healthy ' Healthy Reddish brown edge•„ on leaves Aug. 7 :'; Healthy. Profuse ^ ' Bloom Edge of leaves red-dish brown July 11'-' Slight red tinge to some leaves July 11 Healthy Very red:brown 19 20 "j 21 24 tinge leaves Aug 7. ,28 Healthy profuse ;/ bloom ;\ Reddish brown most leaves Aug. 7» if. TREATMENT TIME OF BLOOM OBSERVATIONS P,K,Ca plus com-plete P,K,Ca plus Bo P,K,Ca plus Mo P,K,Ca plus Bo and Mo P,K,Ca P,K,Ca plus com-plete P,K,Ca plus Bo P,K,Ca plus Mo P,K,Ca plus Bo and Mo .2.5 P,K,Ca 2.6j P,K,Ca plus com-. plete 27 P,K,Ca plus Bo P,K,Ca plus Mo 29 P,K,Ca plus Bo .:• • and Mo 30 P,K,Ca No bloom L i t t l e growth y e l -low mottling Aug. 5 L i t t l e growth but healthy Aug. 7 Aug. 5 Reddish tinge to stems and leaves No bloom Reddish tinge to leaves Sept. 1 July 19 L i t t l e growth Not healthy Aug. 5 Very l i t t l e growth Aug.. 14 Leaves a copper red Sept. 1 No bloom Reddish tinge to stems Aug. 7 Aug. 14 Healthy but not much growth Aug. 5 Very l i t t l e growth plants not healthy Aug. 14 Spindly plants not healthy Aug. 1 July 19 L i t t l e growth s l i g h t red tinge No bloom Plants not healthy 1 poor growth July 14 Healthy but only f a i r growth Aug. 5 Very poor growth PLATE I F i g . 4 - PLANTS IN (1) RECEIVED COMPLETE MICRONUTRIENTS PLUS NITROGEN, PHOSPHATE, POTASH, AND CALCIUM, WHILE PLANTS IN Q.6) RECEIVED THE SAME TREATMENT WITHOUT NITRO-GEN. NOTE THE BLOOM IN (1) PLATE II F i g . 5 PLANTS IN (2) RECEIVED ONLY THE MICRONUTRIENT BORON, PLUS NITROGEN, PHOSPHATE, POTASH, AND CALCIUM, WHILE PLANTS IN (17) HAD THE SAME TREATMENT WITHOUT NITROGEN PLATE III F i g . 6: - PLANTS IN (3) RECEIVED ONLY THE MICRONUTRIENT MOLYBDENUM PLUS NITROGEN, PHOSPHATE, POTASH, AND CALCIUM, WHILE PLANTS IN (18) RECEIVED THE SAME TREATMENT WITHOUT NITRO-GEN NOTE GREATER GROWTH AND MORE BLOOM IN (3). VERY FEW SEEDS WERE PRODUCED IH EITHER INSTANCE PLATE IV F i g . 7: - PLANTS IN (4) RECEIVED THE MICRONUTRIENTS BORON AND MOLYBDENUM PLUS NITROGEN, PHOSPHATE, POTASH, AND CALCIUM, WHILE PLANTS IN (19) RECEIVED THE SAME TREAT-MENT WITHOUT NITROGEN. NOTE THE PROFUSE BLOOM IN (4). PLATE V F i g . 8s - PLANTS IN (5) RECEIVED NITROGEN, PHOSPHATE, POTASH AND CALCIUM BUT NO MICRO-NUTRIENTS, WHILE PLANTS IN (20) ONLY RECEIVED POTASH, PHOSPHATE AND CALCIUM. TABLE 51: EFFECTS OF BORON, MOLYBDENUM, BORON PLUS MOLYBDENUM, AND A COMPLETE MICRO-NUTRIENT SOLUTION ON SEED YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER WHEN GROWN IN SILICA SAND — P, K, Ca, N, BASIC TREATMENT POTS 1-15; P, K, Ca POTS 16-30. POT TREATMENT NUMBER OF BLOSSOMS. NUMBER OF SEEDS POT TREATMENT NUMBER OF BLOSSOMS NUMBER OF SEEDS 1 Complete micro: 10 232 16 Complete Micro: 0 0 2 Bo 6 182 17 Bo 12 86 3 Mo 7 0 18 Mo 2 14 4 Bo plus Mo 16 385 19 Bo plus Mo 0 0 5 No Micro: 3 0 20 No micro 3 0 6 Complete micro: 10 73 21 Complete micro: 8 250 7 Bo 6 100 22 Bo 3 0 8 Mo 5 39 23 Mo 0 0 9 Bo plus Mo 21 554 24 Bo plus Mo 15 120 10 No Micro: 1 0 25 No micro: 11 10 11 Complete micro: 33 401 26 Complete micro 29 348 12 Bo 22 351 27 Bo 1 18 r 13 Mo 4 0 28 Mo 0 0 14 Bo plus Mo 25 464 29 Bo plus Mo 17 119 15 No micro: .6 7 30 No micro: 2 0 - 49 -TABLE 52: - WEIGHT OF ASH FROM 2 GRAM COMPOSITE SAMPLES OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER LEAVES AND STEMS AND RESULTS OF SPECTRO-GRAPHS ANALYSIS FOR MOLYBDENUM POTS - — TREATMENT WEIGHT OF ASH (MG) SPECTROGRAPHS TEST. 1,6,11 P,K,Ca,N com-plete micro 395 Medium-strong 2,7,12 P,K,Ca,N Bo 1 260 Trace 3 , 8 , 1 3 P,K,Ca,N Mo . 312 Strong-V.strong 4 , 9 , 1 4 5,10,15 P,K,Ca,N Bo and Mo P,K,Ca,N 267 459 Strong Trace-weak 16,21,26 P,K,Ca com-plete micro: 290 Strong 1 7 , 2 2 , 2 7 P,K,Ca Bo 337 Trace 1 8 , 2 3 , 2 8 P,K,Ca Mo 342 Strong 1 9 , 2 4 , 2 9 P,K,Ca Bo and Mo 392 Strong 20 ,25,30 P,K,Ca j 295 Weak V. strong - 6 . 8 P.P.M. Strong - 3 . 3 P.P.M. Medium - 1.7 P.P.M. Weak-trace- below 1 .7 P.P.M - 50 -TABLE 53S - THE OVERALL RESPONSES OF BORON, MOLYBDENUM, BORON PLUS MOLYBDENUM, AND A COMPLETE MICRONUTRIENT SOL-UTION ON SEED YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER (IRRESPECTIVE OF NITROGEN) (MEAN YIELDS) TREATMENT SEEDS Check 2 . 8 Molybdenum 8 . 8 Boron- 122.8 Complete micronutrients 217-3 Boron plus molybdenum 273.6 TABLE 54s - THE EFFECTS OF BORON, MOLYBDENUM, BORON-PLUS MOLYB-DENUM, AND A COMPLETE MICRONUTRIENT SOLUTION, WITH AND WITHOUT NITROGEN, ON SEED YIELDS OF DOUBLE-CUT RED CLOVER. (MEAN YIELDS). SEEDS TREATMENT , WITH NITROGEN WITHOUT NITROGEN Check • 2 .3 3.3 Molybd enum 13.0 4 . 6 Boron 211.0 3 4 . 6 Complete micronutrients • 235-3 199.3 Boron plus molybdenum 467.6 79.0 - 51 -(a) The data i n t h i s experiment was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed because of responses from plants which did not receive nitrogen. Some of these plants produced seeds i n orte rep-l i c a t e , and not i n another, r e s u l t i n g i n large r e p l i c a t e differences.. This may have been due to the fact that some nodules might havebeen accidentally knocked o f f c e r t a i n plants when transplanting. The data- can be analyzed s t a t -i s t i c a l l y with rather long transformation figures, but i t i s quite obvious from a subjective examination of the r e s u l t s that nitrogen i s necessary i n greenhouse- pot exper-iments with s i l i c a sand i n order to obtain s a t i s f a c t o r y growth (Tables 54and 55). Themean yiel d s for nitrogen pots was 185 seeds, while no nitrogen pots only averaged 64 seeds. A highly s i g n i f i c a n t response- was obtained from boron, plus molybdenum, with nitrogen. This treatment gave very much higher yields than when either of these micronutrients produced some bloom, but the seed yi e l d s were poor. (Table 51). A l l treatments outyielded the c o n t r o l . (b) /were applied alone (Table 54). Molybdenumj with nitrogen, - 52 -DISCUSSION Seed yields from plots of double-cut red clover grown on a clay s o i l at Ladner, B r i t i s h Columbia, with a pH of 4.8, and 900-1200 P.P.M. "available" calcium, were not increased by applications of boron, zinc, manganese, potash, sulphur, or copper. When lime was applied, only the plots receiving molybdenum, or phosphate, decidedly outyielded the check i n seed y i e l d s , while on the unlimed plots potash and phosphate were of benefit. Forage yie l d s were increased by applications of phosphate and molybdenum with lime, while on the unlimed plots only sulphur, phosphate and potash appeared to benefit. These results are i n agreement with those of Wolf (65), who reported that when an acid s o i l i s limed the amounts of " a v a i l -able" manganese, zinc, copper, and boron are greatly reduced. Molybdenum-on the limed plots decidedly increased seed y i e l d s ; an apparent relationship then, exists to the observations of Bertrand (9) who found that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of molybdenum to plants generally increases as the hydrogen ion concentration i n the s o i l decreases. The marked increase i n seed yie l d s from the ap p l i c a t i o n of phosphate i s quite generally observed when this nutrient i s - 53 -applied to crops grown on low pH or acid s o i l s . However, Wolf (65) states that the practice can be overdone and excess phosphates may "lock up" micronutrients such as copper, mangan-ese, and zinc, but this i s not very common except on the l i g h t s o i l s which already contain comparatively small amountsof the elements. Large amounts of phosphorus are often needed on acid s o i l s to "inactivate" the excessive amounts of manganese that become available under such conditions. Bear and Wallace (7) found the l i b e r a l use of liming materials well i n advance of the ap p l i c a t i o n of phosphate resulted i n les s loss of a v a i l -a b i l i t y of the applied phosphorus, and more of the s o i l ' s natural supply of the element released for crop use. -On Ladner s o i l , of t h i s experiment, r e l a t i v e l y heavy applications of phosphates i n advance of seeding would seem to be desirable. In a second experiment on the Ladner s o i l ( i b i d ) , medium and high applications of molybdenum, sulphur, and phos-phate s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased seed yields over the check p l o t s , with and without nitrogen; the "no nitrogen" plots outyielded those to which nitrogen was applied. The addition of nitrogen resulted i n greater seed y i e l d s on the manganese, zinc, and copper treated plots compared with the control, but th i s was not the case without nitrogen; here these micronutrients had a depressing e f f e c t . Boron depressed y i e l d s of seed, and forage, i n a l l instances. Without nitrogen, molybdenum, sulphur, phos-phates, and potash increased forage y i e l d s , while the addition _ 54 -of nitrogen only benefited the manganese, copper, and zinc treated p l o t s . The seed and forage y i e l d interactions i n this exper-iment, involving molybdenum, sulphur, and combined nitrogen are s i m i l a r to those reported by Anderson and Spencer (2) i n A u s t r a l i a . These workers found that molybdenum increased the forage y i e l d of clover by increasing symbiotic nitrogen f i x a -t i o n ; i f however, combined' nitrogen was made available to the plants, molybdenum additions did not increase y i e l d s . They (2) also reported that sulphate (and our results probably sup-port the contention) has an*indirect e f f e c t upon legumes through i t s d i r e c t action or e f f e c t upon the nitrogen-fixing organisms. Increase i n red clover forage yields due to sulphur i s associa-ted, they believe, with an increase i n both the size and number of nodules. Clover * d e f i c i e n t i n sulphur, did not grow s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y when provided with combined nitrogen. This i s i n contrast with the e f f e c t of molybdenum on clover supplied with combined nitrogen, v i z . above. Powers (48) too found legumes growing on Oregon s o i l s containing s u f f i c i e n t sulphur showed a larger number of nodules per plant,than legumes growing on a s o i l more or less d e f i c i e n t i n the element. He attributed t h i s stimulatory effect to the action of the sulphate on the legume bacteria. Sulphur also retarded the uptake of calcium by the plant and prevented the calcium-boron r a t i o from becoming unfavorable (25.). - 55 -Phosphate applications i n this experiment v e r i f i e d t h e r e s u l t s of experiment 1 by showing a marked increase i n seed y i e l d s . Potash also somewhat increased forage y i e l d s . In two experiments, with pole beans at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia farm, s i m i l a r i n design and treatment, to those discussed above, marked increases i n seed yields were obtained from additions of phosphate. The increases were ob-tained whether the phosphate applications were or were not accompanied by additions of nitrogen or lime. In these exper-iments also molybdenum, with lime associated, and sulphur i n combination with nitrogen, increased seed y i e l d s , but addition of other micronutrients had a depressing e f f e c t . In general the results are not unlike those obtained i n the f i r s t d i s -cussed experiments on the Ladner s o i l i n spite of the fact that the "Alderwood" s o i l at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia farm has a sandy texture, a pH of 5.5 and 900 P.P.M. "available" calcium. Pole beans were also grown on a Ladner clay s o i l with a pH 4 .8 and only 500 P.P.M. "available" calcium. They respon-ded markedly to an appl i c a t i o n of lime i r r e s p e c t i v e of micro-nutrient additions. A d d i t i o n a l l y , a uniform and greatly increased seed y i e l d was obtained with applications of boron. This would indicate that both calcium and boron are needed on this s o i l f o r high y i e l d s . Jones and Scarseth (37) reported plants w i l l take up varying quantities of calcium and boron depending upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of these elements i n the s o i l . - 56 -From plant analyses i t has been found that each plant species has a s p e c i f i c need for calcium and boron, but the range varies greatly for d i f f e r e n t kinds of crops. The plant w i l l make a normal growth only when a certa i n balance i n the intake of c a l -cium and boron e x i s t s . (37) I f the balance i s upset by a small intake of calcium, such as occurs on acid s o i l s , the plant has a low tolerance for boron. Gn thi s s o i l , when the elements-were applied with nitrogen, greater yi e l d s of bean seed were obtained than without nitrogen. Only applications of potash or phosphate, i n combination with nitrogen, appreciably outyielded the check. In anexperiment l a i d out on a sandy loam s o i l of pH5«5, and 900 P . P . M . available calcium, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia farm, double-cut red clover showed a d i r e c t response to nitrogen regardless of the micronutrients added. With a basic application of phosphate,potash, and calcium to i a l l p l o t s , treatments of boron, molybdenum, boron i n combina-t i o n with molybdenum, and a complete micronutrient mixture a l l outyielded the control. Boron and molybdenum together gave higher yields than boron, or molybdenum alone. These, results were confirmed by a greenhouse experiment using s i l i c a sand, with a Shive three-salt nutrient solution, i n d i c a t i n g i t was not possible to obtain s a t i s f a c t o r y growth without nitrogen. Even with nitrogen, boron and molybdenum used singly ?produced a small amount of seed. Dmitriev ( 2 1 ) found on podzol s o i l s molybdenum alone may be useless or a c t i v e l y harmful to the - 57 -y i e l d of clover, but y i e l d and general development of plants were improved when boron and lime were added to the molybdenum, the optimum amount of the l a t t e r element being 1 to 5 mg. per kg. of s o i l . A spectrographic analysis of theashed leaves and stems from thegreenhouse experiment indicated that the uptake of molybdenum was, more or l e s s , i n d i r e c t proportion to the amount applied. Traces i n the ash of plants which received no molybdenum was possible due to impurities:in the chemicals employed and the fact that some molybdenum would occur i n one year old plants. Jensen and Betty (35) reported where molyb-denum supply i s low i t tends to be concentrated i n the root nodules of legumes, r e l a t i v e l y small amounts being passed into the roots and s t i l l l ess into the tops. Dmitriev (23) found a boron application to a limed podzol s o i l i n greenhouse pot experiments, produced a very favorable e f f e c t on the devel-opment of the reproductive organs of double-cut red clover, and increased blossoming at the same time. In the greenhouse ex-periment with s i l i c a sand, th i s was found to be not true with boron alone. With boron i n combination with molybdenum and a nutrient solution of phosphate, potash, nitrogen, and calcium a marked Increase-in blossoming and seed se t t i n g was observed. The amount of boron and molybdenum applied was equivalent to 1 P.P.M. i n the nutrient s o l u t i o n . There are numerous complexities involved i n micro-nutrient studies. In many cases the need of micronutrients -58 -.can be l a i d to mineral imbalance rather than actual d e f i c i e n -c i e s . Wolf (65) believes the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of agriculture, with the growing of several crops per year on the same land, has greatly increased the removal of micronutrients from the s o i l . He also states that the p u r i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l chemicals used as f e r t i l i z e r s today, and the lack of organic matter applied to the s o i l are r e s u l t i n g i n a micronutrient content which i s often too low for crop needs. Some of the salient features derived from the l i t e r -ature review, and experimentation, lead one to believe: 1. The indiscriminate use of micronutrients i s probably unwise; putative evidence for the f a c t that not infrequently y i e l d s may be depressed. 2. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n with calcium and molybdenum can occur on Fraser Valley s o i l s . These i n t e r -actions are intimately associated with nitrogen f i x a t i o n , and nitrogen metabolism of the leguminous plant, and more or less d i r e c t l y with seed y i e l d . 3. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t interactions of molybdenum and boron can occur on Fraser V a l l e y s o i l s . These, too, are intimately associated with nitrogen metabolism as well as seed y i e l d . 4. Combined nitrogen, applied as f e r t i l i z e r , may increase seed and forage y i e l d s . Molybdenum and boron may to some extent, probably, by meeting the needs of nitrogen.fixing - 59 -organisms, i n combination, reduce the need f o r combined nitrogen by legumes. 5. Phosphate may likewise be a l i m i t i n g factor i n seed production, though probably not d i r e c t l y associated with the boron, molybdenum, calcium, nitrogen and nitrogen f i x a t i o n complex. 6. Interactions s a t i s f a c t o r y for high forage y i e l d may not be most sa t i s f a c t o r y f o r seed y i e l d . 7. On many fraser V a l l e y farms legume seed f i e l d s would benefit from applications of phosphate, molybdenum, and boron. - 60 -SUMMARY The inconstancy of legume seed set has been recog-nized for some time, but the basic factors responsible- for t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y have remained somewhat of a mystery. The l i t e r a t u r e on the subject i s quite extensive and contains a d i v e r s i t y of opinions. Oddly enough the rol e of micronutrients seems scarcely to have been considered as a possible basic factor i n legume seed s e t t i n g . A study therefore has been made of the effects cer-t a i n elements have on legume seed y i e l d s . The addition of lime to plots provided with molybdenum or phosphate, on an acid clay s o i l i n the Fraser V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia, with 900-1200 P.P.M. available calcium, mark-edly increased red clover seed y i e l d s . Without lime, the only response was obtained from additions of phosphate and potash. The addition of nitrogen to pl o t s , on simi l a r s o i l , which received molybdenum, sulphur, and phosphate resulted i n markedly increased seed yie l d s of double-cut red clover over the control. Without nitrogen there was a greater response on this s o i l to additions of phosphate, molybdenum and sulphur. The response to molybdenum was much greater, i n both seed and forage, where plants were not provided with combined nitrogen, but where they l a r g e l y depended on symbiotic nitrogen f i x a t i o n f o r t h e i r nitrogen supply. The increased y i e l d from sulphur - 61 -i s a ttributable to this element having an i n d i r e c t e f f e c t upon legumes through i t s d i r e c t action, or e f f e c t , upon the nitrogen f i x i n g organisms. Pole beans grown on a sandy loam s o i l with a pH 5*5 and 900 P.P.M."available" calcium, produced moreseed following applications of phosphate. The response-was noted at several l e v e l s of lime and nitrogen. Molybdenum with lime, and s u l -phur with nitrogen also improved seed y i e l d s . On a clay s o i l with a pH 4 .8 and 500 P.P.M. "available calcium" the addition of lime increased a l l seed yields regardless of other t r e a t -ments. The only other treatment to show a uniform and greatly increased seed y i e l d , was an application of boron. On t h i s clay s o i l pole bean plots receiving nitrogen outyielded the "no nitrogen" p l o t s , but only phosphate, or potash, i n combina-t i o n with nitrogen showed much higher yi e l d s than the check. An experiment with double-cut red clover on a sandy loam s o i l with pH 5*5 and 900 P.P.M.".available" calcium showed a d i r e c t response to nitrogen regardless of the micronutrients added. On t h i s s o i l boron with molybdenum gave higher seed-yie l d s than boron or molybdenum alone. These results were con-firmed by a greenhouse experiment using s i l i c a sand. From the l i t e r a t u r e review and experimentation, i t would seem the following points are brought out: 1. Indiscriminate use of micronutrients i s probably unwise. - 62 -2. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n with calcium and molybdenum can occur on Fraser V a l l e y s o i l s . These interactions are intimately associated with nitrogen f i x a t i o n , and nitrogen metabolism-of the leguminous plant, and more or less d i r e c t l y with seed y i e l d . 3. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t interactions of molybdenum and boron can occur on Fraser V a l l e y s o i l s . These, too, are intimately associated with nitrogen metabolism as well as seed y i e l d . 4 . Combined nitrogen, applied as f e r t i l i z e r , may increase seed and forage y i e l d s . Molybdenum and boron may to some extent, probably by meeting the needs of nitrogen f i x i n g organisms, In combination, reduce the need for combined nitrogen by legumes. 5. Phosphate may likewise be a l i m i t i n g factor i n seed production, though probably not d i r e c t l y associated with the boron, molybdenum, calcium, nitrogen and n i t r o -gen f i x a t i o n complex. 6. Interactions s a t i s f a c t o r y for high forage y i e l d may not be most s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r seed y i e l d . 7. On many Fraser V a l l e y farms legume seed f i e l d s would benefit from applications of phosphate, molybdenum, and boron. - 63 -LITERATURE CITED 1. Albrecht, W. A., and Smith, N.C. Calcium i n r e l a t i o n to phosphorus u t i l i z a t i o n by some legumes and non-legumes. Proc. S o i l Science Soc. Amer. 4:260-65. 1939. 2. Anderson, A.J., and Spencer, D. Moylbdenum i n nitrogen metabolism of legumes and non-legumes. Australian Jour, of S c i e n t i f i c Research, Series B. B i o l o g i c a l Sciences V o l . 3 . No. 4 . 415-430. 1950. 3 . Arnon, D.I. A memorandum regarding nomenclature. Trace elements i n Plant Physiology. The Chronica Botanica Company Vol 3 . 1950. 4. C r i t e r i a of e s s e n t i a l i t y of inorganic micronutrients for plants with special reference to molybdenum. Trace Elements i n Plant Physiology. The Chronica Botanica Company Vol 1: 31-39? 1950. 5. and Stout, P.R. Molybdenum as an es s e n t i a l element for higher plants. Plant Physiol. 14(3) 599-602 1939. 6. Bear, Firman E.- The minor element problem. Better Crops with Plant Food 14-18, 44, 45 1950. 7. and Wallace, Arthur. A l f a l f a , i t s mineral require-ments and chemical composition. N.J.Agric. Exp. Sta. Bui. 748 1950. 8. Bertrand, D. Contribution a l'etude de l a d i f f u s i o n die molybdene des vegetaux. B u l l . Soc. Chem. B i o l . 21: 874 1939-9. The d i f f u s i o n of molybdenum i n plants. Compt. rend 208, 2024-6. Bibliographyj-of References to the Literature on the Minor Elements and t h e i r Relation to Plant and Animal Nu t r i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate 1940. 10. . and Lazare, S i l b e r s t e r n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of boron i n d i f f e r e n t parts of seed. Ann. Agron 14, 257-260 1944. 11. Bishop, W. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of manganese i n plants and i t s importance to plant metabolism. Australian Journ. Exp. B i o l , and Med. Science 5 (2) 125-141. 1928 :. - 64 -LITERATURE CITED continued 12. Bobko, E.V. and Savvina, A.G. Role of molybdenum i n plant development. Compt. Rend. Acad. S c i . U.S.S.R. 29: 507-509 1940. Bibliography of References to the l i t e r a t u r e on the Minor Elements and th e i r Relation to Plant and Animal Nu t r i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate Ed. Bureau 1942. 13. and Ts e r l i n g , V.V. The eff e c t of boron on reproduc-t i o n i n plants. Botanicheskii Zhurnal. U.S.S.R. Journ. Bot. U.S.S.R. 23(1) 3-11. 1938. Photocopy. University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A. 14. Present state of knowledge regarding the ap p l i c a t i o n of micro f e r t i l i z e r s . Khem. S o t s i a l . Zemled. No. 12: 21-29 1939. Bibliography of References to the Literature on the Minor Elements' and th e i r Relation to Plant and. Animal Nu t r i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate Co. 1941. 15. Bortels, H. Uber die Wirkung von molybdien und vanadium dungungen auf leguminosen. Arch. Microbiol 8:13-26 1937. 16. Brenchley, W.E. The esse n t i a l nature of ce r t a i n minor elements for plant n u t r i t i o n . Bot. Rev. 13 (4) 169-193 1947. 17. Minor elements i n plant growth. Bio. Rev. Cambridge P h i l . Soc. 18. 159-171 1943. 18. Bruneteau, L. and Bruneteau J . The action of boron on beans. Rev. path, vegetale^entomol. agr. France 26 155-159 1939. Bibliography of References to the Literature on the Minor Elements and th e i r Relations to plant and Animal Nutr i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate Ed. Bureau 1942. 19. Camp, A.F. Zinc as a nutrient i n plant growth. S o i l Sc. Co. 157-64 1945. 20. D'lakova, E.V. The eff e c t of boron on the seed y i e l d of lucernes Selek. I. semen. 12:26-29 1938. Herbage Abs. 9(2) 859. 1939. 21. Dmitriev, K.A. The; e f f e c t of molybdenum on the seed y i e l d of red clover. Khem. S o t s i a l Zemled No. 10 1938 pp. 80-81 I.B.S. S c i . 2 p. 83. - 6 5 -LITERATURE CITED continued 22. Dmitriev, K.A. A new method for increasing the y i e l d of red clover seed. Problems Animal Husbandry U.S.S.R. 7(5)182-185 1938. Bibliography of References to the Literature on the Minor Elements and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to Plant and Animal Nu t r i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate Ed. Bureau. 1940. 23. Influence of boron on the generative organs and the r a i s i n g of seed production of red clover. Dokl. Akad. Skh. Nauk. No. 8 19-24 1939. Photo-copy National Research Council, Ottawa, Ont. 24. The effect of molybdenum on plants. Chemisation S o c i a l i s t i c Agr. 7 No. 10 80-81 1938. B i b l i o -graphy of References to the Literature on the Minor elements and t h e i r Relation to Plant and Animal Nu t r i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate Ed. Bureau. 1940. 25. Drake, M., Seeling D.H.,'and Scarseth, G.D. Calcium-boron r a t i o as an important factor i n c o n t r o l l i n g the boron starvation of plants. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 33- 454-462 1941.. 26. Dunklee, D.E. and Midgley, A.R. Need and use of boron for a l f a l f a . Vermont Agri. Exp. Sta. Bui. 501 1-24 1943. 27. Evans, H.J. The importance of molybdenum i n f e r t i l i z e r . Abstract of Thesis submitted i n June 1950 i n par-t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the. requirements for the PhD. degree at Rutgers University, N.B., New Jersey. 9 28. and Purvis, E.R. Molybdenum status of some New Jersey s o i l s with respect to a l f a l f a production. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 43:70-71 1951. 29. Fujimoto, Guchi, and Sherman, G.D. Molybdenum content of t y p i c a l s o i l s and plants of the Hawaiian Islands. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 43:424-429. 1951. 30. G i l b e r t , F.A. Mineral Nutrition, of Plants and Animals Univ. of Oklahoma Press. 1950. 31. G i l b e r t , B.E. and Pember, F.A. The s e n s i t i v i t y of red clover to small amounts of boron and manganese. Plant Physio. 6(4)727-729 1937. - 66 -LITERATURE GITED continued 32. Gizzard, A.L. and Matthews, E.M. The e f f e c t of boron on seed production of a l f a l f a . Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 34:365-268 1942. 33• Hoagland, D.R. Molybdenum i n r e l a t i o n to plant growth. S o i l Science 60(2) 119-123 1945. 34. Hutcheson, T.B. and Cocke, R.P. Ef f e c t s of boron on y i e l d and duration of a l f a l f a . V i r g i n i a A g r i . • Exp. Sta. Bui. 336 1941. 35. Jensen, H.L. and Betty, R.C. Nitrogen f i x a t i o n i n le g -uminous plants. Proc. Linnean Soc. of New South Wales 68:1-8 1943. 36. Jensen, H.L. Nitrogen f i x a t i o n i n leguminous plants and the ef f e c t of molybdenum on symbiotic nitrogen f i x a t i o n . Proc. Linnean Soc. of New South Wales 70 203-210 1945. 37* Jones, H.E. and Scarseth, CD. The calcium-boron balance i n plants as related to boron needs. S o i l Science 57:15-24 1944. 38. Lipman, C.B. Aspects of inorganic metabolism i n plants. Ann. Rev. Biochem 9:491-508 . 1940. 39« and MacKinney, G. Proof of t h e L e s s e n t i a l nature of copper of higher green plants. Plant Physio. 6 No. 3 . 593-599. 1931. 40. McHargue, J.S. The: role of manganese i n plants. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 44:1592-1598 1922. 41. Midgley, A.R. Eff e c t of lime and organic matter on boron f i x a t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y i n s o i l s . Vermont Agr. Exp. Sta. 54th Ann. Rept. 1940-41. 42. Naftel, J.A. Recent studies on boron i n s o i l s . Amer. Fert. 89: 5-8,24,26. 1938. 43. Anonymous. Boron and seed production. Nova Scotia Dept. of Agric. Ext. Service News. 1936. 44. Piland, J.R., Ireland, C.F., and Reisenauer, H.M. The importance of borax i n legume seed production i n the South. S o i l Science 57:75-84 1944. - 67 -LITERATURE CITED continued 45. Piland J.R., and Ireland C.F. Application of borax produces seed set i n a l f a l f a . Journ. Amer. Soc. Agron. 33(10)938-939 1941. 46. Piper, C.S. Molybdenum as an ess e n t i a l for plant growth. Jour. Australian Inst. Agr. Science 6:162-164 1940. 47* Investigations on copper deficiency i n plants. Jour. A g r l . Science 32(2) 143-178 1942. 48. Powers, W.L. Boron a minor plant nutrient. Northwest Science 16(1) 19-22 1942. 49. Reed, H.S. The r e l a t i o n of zinc to seed production. Jour. Agr. Research 64. 635-644 1942. 50. Relation of an e s s e n t i a l micro-element to seed production i n peas. Growth 6 No. 4. 391-398 1942. 51. Reeve, E. and Shive, J.W. Potassium-boron and calcium-boron relationships i n plant n u t r i t i o n . S o i l Science 57:1-13 1944. 52. Samuel, G and Piper, C.S. Manganese i s an ess e n t i a l element for plant growth. Ann. Appl. B i o l . 16 No. 4. 493-524 1929. 53« Shive, J.W. Boron i n olant l i f e - a'brief h i s t o r i c a l review. S o i l Science 60(1) 41-51 1945. 54. Skoog, Folke Relationships between zinc and auxin i n the growth of higher plants. Amer. Jour. Botany 27:939-951 1940. 55« Sokolov, A.V. Boron compounds used as f e r t i l i z e r s . B u l l . Acad. S c i . U.S.S.R. 280-281, 1938. B i b l i o -graphy of References to the Literature on the Minor Elements and th e i r Relation to Plant and Animal Nu t r i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate Ed. Bureau. 1940. 56. Sommer, A.L. The search for elements e s s e n t i a l i n only small amounts for plant growth. Science 66:482-484 1927. 57. Copper as an e s s e n t i a l for plant growth. Plant Physiol. 6:339=345. 1931. - 68 -LITERATURE CITED continued 58. Sommer, and Lipman, C.B. Evidence on the indispensable nature of zinc and boron f o r higher plants. Plant Physiol. 231-249 1926. 59« Stewart, Ivan, and Bear, Firman. Ladino clover, Its mineral requirements and chemical composition. N.J. Agr. Exp.Sta. Bui. 750 1951 60. Ter. Meulen, H. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Molybdenum. Nature 130:966 1932. 61. Vinogradov*, K.G. Presence of molybdenum i n leguminosae. Doklady. Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. 40. 26-29 B i b l i o -graphy of References to the Literature on the Minor Elements and t h e i r Relation to Plant and Animal Nu t r i t i o n . Chilean Nitrate Ed. Bureau. 1943. 62. Wallace, T. Trace Elements i n Plant Physiology. The Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, Mass. 1950. 63. Wester, R.E. and MacGruder, R. The ef f e c t of boron on plant growth and dry seed y i e l d i n lima bean. Amer. Soc. of Hort. Science 38: 472-474 1941. 64. W i l l i s , L.G. Bibliography of References to the L i t e r a -ture on the Minor Elements and Their Relation to Plant and Animal Nu t r i t i o n . (Chilean Nitrate Educa-t i o n a l Bureau, Inc. New York. 1935, 1936, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. 65. Wolf, Benjamin Neglected plant food elements. Better Crops With Plant Food. 9-16 June-July 1951. 

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