Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Fish meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of unidentified growth factors in turkey poult nutrition Hunsaker, Walter George 1952

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1952_A4 H86 F5.pdf [ 4.12MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106724.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106724-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106724-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106724-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106724-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106724-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106724-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106724-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106724.ris

Full Text

FISH MEAL AND DRIED BREWERS' YEAST  AS SPURGES OF UNIDENTIFIED GROWTH FACTORS  IN TURKEY POULT NUTRITION Walter. IG.eoTge Huns alee r, B.S'.A. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of Poultry Husbandry We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates f o r the degree of Master of Science i n Agriculture. Members of the Department of Poultry Husbandry THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLOMBIA September, 1952 ABSTRACT FISH MEAL AND DRIED BREWERS' YEAST  AS SOURCES OF UNIDENTIFIED GROWTH FACTORS  IN TURKEY POULT NUTRITION A series of four feeding tests, involving a t o t a l of 610 poults, was conducted to study f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of uni d e n t i f i e d factors required by turkey poults f o r maximum growth. A corn-soybean o i l meal ration, supplemented with a l l known vitamins, was used as a basal ration. Wheat was substituted f o r corn i n two t e s t s . The poults were reared i n batteries on wire screen f l o o r s f o r the duration of each t e s t . The addition of 5 per cent f i s h meal to the all-vegetable r a t i o n resulted i n an increase i n the rate of growth of poults. Since the basal r a t i o n contained a l l the known vitamins, i t was apparent that f i s h meal contained an uni d e n t i f i e d factor(s) required by poults f o r maximum growth. The degree of response to f i s h meal varied i n the d i f f e r e n t t e s t s . I t i s suggested that the v a r i a t i o n may have been due td a carry-over of the uni d e n t i f i e d factor(s) from the parent stock, which varied with the d i f f e r e n t l o t s of poults used i n the tests. The addition of $ per cent dried brewers' yeast to the all-vegetable basal r a t i o n f a i l e d to produce a growth response i n poults. This would indicate that the uni d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) , postulated to be present i i i dried brewers' yeast, was not required by the poults under the conditions of t h i s exper-iment, nor was i t supplied otherwise by some other ingred-ient i n the ra t i o n . The u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) demonstrated to be present i n f i s h meal did not appear to be present i n dried brewers' yeast. Supplementation of various rations with an a n t i b i o t i c preparation containing aureomycin resulted i n an increase i n the average weights of the male poults, but f a i l e d to pro-duce an increase i n the average weights of the female poults. The degree of response to aureomycin obtained i n the male poults appeared to depend, i n part, on the composition of the ra t i o n fed. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was improved s l i g h t l y when aureomycin was included i n the rat i o n . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the weights of the poults receiving wheat and those fed corn as the cereal part of the diet, although the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was s l i g h t l y better with the corn rations. * The requirement of the poult f o r an un i d e n t i f i e d growth fac t o r present i n f i s h meal has been demonstrated with rations containing either wheat or corn. \ AC KNOWLEDG-MENT I wish to express my gratutude to Professor J". B i e l y , Head of the Department of Poultry Husbandry, f o r his guidance and assistance i n conducting t h i s study, Mrs. B.E. March f o r her assistance i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data and f o r her suggestions i n organ-i z i n g the thesis material, and to Professor E.A. Lloyd, Professor Emeritus of Poultry Husbandry, f o r his personal i n t e r e s t and encouragement. I also wish to express my appreciation to Mr. G. Main and Mr. J. Supeene f o r t h e i r co-operation and assistance i n the care of the poults. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I Introduction 1 II Review of Literature (a) Supplements to Soybean O i l Meal . Diets 3 (b) A n t i b i o t i c s 6 (c) Unidentified Factors 10 I I I Experimental Experiment I 15 Test 1 16 Experiment I I 32 Test 2 33 Test 3 41 Test 4 49 Test 5 59 17 Discussion 69 V Summary 78 VI Bibliography 80 1 I INTRODUCTION The past few years have brought great changes i n the turkey industry. Breeding and feeding practices, methods of processing and marketing, a l l have been improved tremen-dously. These improvements, f o r the most part, have been the d i r e c t r e s u l t of research on the p a r t i c u l a r problems involved. Of a l l these changes, perhaps those i n the f i e l d of n u t r i t i o n have advanced most rapidl y . The discovery of Vitamin B 1 2 , and i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y i n pure form f o r research, enabled poultry s c i e n t i s t s to estab l i s h the nature of one of the factors i n the so-called "animal protein f a c t o r complex." Many reports of growth response to the i n c l u s i o n of f i s h meal and other animal pro-t e i n sources i n an all-vegetable protein r a t i o n have now been explained on the basis of the Vitamin B 1 2 content of these products. Continued research on the "animal protein factor com-plex" led to the discovery of another growth promoting facgor. A group of workers, studying fermentation products as sources of Vitamin B^g, obtained growth responses i n chicks to certain of the fermentation products greater than could be accounted f o r by the presence of Vitamin B 1 2 . Further study established the response to be due to the presence of very small amounts of the a n t i b i o t i c , aureomycin. This discovery created an e n t i r e l y new f i e l d of n u t r i t i o n a l re-search. The discovery of Vitamin B 1 2 a n d t n e a c t i v i t y of a n t i b i o t i c s did not account f o r the growth response obtained with dried whey and dried brewers 1 yeast. Many reports have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t i n g that dried brewers' yeast contains an un i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r required by poults and chioks f o r maximum growth. In addition to t h i s , studies have shown a growth response'in chicks and poults, when a r a t i o n containing adequate Vitamin B12, was further supplemented with f i s h meal or condensed f i s h solubles. These r e s u l t s have indicated that f i s h meal may contain s t i l l other u n i d e n t i f i e d growth f a c t o r s . The study of u n i d e n t i f i e d factors, postulated to be present i n f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast, i s being a c t i v e l y pursued by poultry s c i e n t i s t s today. As part of i t s research program, the Poultry N u t r i t i o n Laboratory of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia has been conducting extensive studies on the value of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of un i d e n t i f i e d factors f o r chicks. Studies with f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast, as sources of unidenti-f i e d factors required by turkey poults f o r maximum growth, are included i n t h i s t h e s i s . 11 REVIEW OF LITERATURE (ia) Supplements to Soybean O i l Meal Diets The use of soybean o i l meal i n chicken and turkey rations has been a common practice f o r a number of years. As f a r back as 1935 studies were conducted on the value of soybean o i l meal as a replacement f o r animal protein sources. Hunter et a l (1) i n 1935 reported, that 50 per cent of the dried milk and 50 per cent of either the meat meal or f i s h meal could be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y replaced by soybean o i l meal i n turkey rations, when the calcium and phosphorus losses were compensated. In 1940, Funk and Kempster (2) showed that soybean o i l meal was more e f f e c t i v e as a protein supple-ment f o r turkey poults than was cotton seed meal or corn gluten meal. The shortage of animal protein sources, during the seoond world war, made i t necessary to reduce the amounts of animal protein i n turkey rations and to f i n d s a t i s f a c t o r y substitutes f o r them. In 1944, Brant et a l (3) and Headly (4) showed that turkeys could be raised quite success-f u l l y on corn-soybean o i l meal rations which were supple-mented with only small amounts of meat meal and f i s h meal. Hammond et a l (5), using B e l t s v i l l e Small White poults, concluded that a vegetable protein d i e t , i n which soybean meal was the chief protein supplement, was p r a c t i c a l as a 4 s t a r t i n g diet f o r poults. F r i t z et a l (6) studied the e f f e c t s of supplementing an all-vegetable protein r a t i o n containing soybean o i l meal, corn, wheat and oats, with f i s h meal and meat scraps. They concluded that the growth of poults, receiving an all-vegetable protein ration, was as good as that of poults receiving rations containing sub-s t a n t i a l quantities of animal protein concentrates. B i r d and co-workers (7) reported an extensive study of supplements to soybean o i l meal diets f o r turkeys. In t h i s study both B e l t s v i l l e Small White and Broad Breasted Bronze poults were used. The basal diets contained up to 40 per cent soybean o i l meal with corn, wheat, oats or barley, alone or i n combinations, Various supplements, such as f i s h meal, meat meal, dried skim milk, dried cow manure and several vitamins, were added to the basal rations. These investigators concluded that turkeys fed 6 per cent f i s h meal, as a supplement to diets i n which soybean o i l meal was the major source of protein, grew more r a p i d l y during the f i r s t s i x weeks of l i f e than did turkeys receiving no animal protein supplements or a supplement of 6 per cent meat meal. A growth response was also noted when 5 per cent dried cow manure* or 0.2 per cent dl-methionine was added to the basal ration. In 1948 Scott et a l (8) also reported that the i n c l u s i o n of f i s h meal i n a high soybean diet increased rate * Later shown to be due to the presence of Vitamin B^2 5 of growth of turkey poults. In 1949 S l i n g r et a l (9) reported that a mixture of animal protein supplements, containing equal parts of f i s h meal, meat meal and buttermilk powder, was an e f f e c t i v e supplement to a diet i n which the sole protein supplement was soybean o i l meal. B i r d and co-workers (10), i n a paper presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Poultry Science Association, 1948, reported that diets containing 6 per cent f i s h meal were superior to those containing soybean meal as the only source of protein. F i s h meal was also superior to meat meal f o r st a r t i n g rations. For many years a great deal of experimental work was conducted to es t a b l i s h the nature of the so-called "animal protein factor" or A.P.F. In 1948 the fac t o r now known as Vitamin B i 2 was i s o l a t e d and p u r i f i e d , Smith (11) and Riches (12). Further work showed that f i s h meal, meat meal, l i v e r meal and other A.P.F. sources contained t h i s new vitamin. In view of t h i s , the supplementary value of f i s h meal and meat meal, as previously encountered by many i n -vestigators, could now be explained i n part by t h e i r Vitamin B 1 2 content, L i l l l e et a l (13). i n 1950 Richardson and Blaylock (14) reported variable r e s u l t s i n the growth response of poults fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with f i s h meal, f i s h solubles or an A.P.F. concentrate. When several t r i a l s were combined, the poults which received f i s h meal or an A.P.F. concentrate were heavier than those which received the f i s h solubles. Patrick (15), i n 1951, compared the supplementary value of f i s h meal and a Vitamin supplement. He reported that the B e l t s v i l l e Small White poults used did not respond to Vitamin B 1 2 supplements. They did respond, however, to supplements of f i s h meal, f i s h solubles and methanol solubles f r a c t i o n of f i s h solubles. P a t r i c k suggested that the f a i l u r e to obtain a response to Vitamin B i 2 , and the response to crude f r a c t i o n containing i t , indicated the presence of another fac t o r required f o r adequate p o u l t , n u t r i t i o n . (b) A n t i b i o t i c s One of the f i r s t reports of the growth stimulating e f f e c t of a n t i b i o t i c s was made by P.R. Moore and co-workers (16) i n 1946. They were studying the effects of certa i n s u l f a drugs and a n t i b i o t i c s on the i n t e s t i n a l f l o r a of chicks. The prime purpose of t h e i r experiment was to study the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of administering a drug, or combination of drugs, which would render and maintain the i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t free of b a c t e r i a l action. Although they f a i l e d i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l purpose, they did observe that c e r t a i n a n t i b i o t i c s , such as sulfasuxidene and streptomycin, when added to the basal ration resulted i n a considerable increase i n weight of 7 the chicks at four weeks. In 1949 Stokstad et a l (17), reported the presence of an a u x i l i a r y growth f a c t o r i n Streptomyces aureofaciens fermentation material. These workers were investigating various sources of Vitamin B 1 2 , and reported growth increases when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with culture mash or a f r a c t i o n of i t , greater than could be accounted f o r by the presence of a known amount or" Vitamin Bi 2« McGinnis et a l (18), and Singsen and Matterson (19) reported a s i m i l a r growth response i n turkey poults when the ra t i o n was supple-mented with the S. aureofaciens fermentation mash. In 1950 Stokstad and Jukes (20) reported that the addition of fermentation products of S. aureofaciens pro-moted growth i n depleted chicks on various diets which were adequately supplied with Vitamin B 1 2 . A s i m i l a r growth response was also produced by the addition of c r y s t a l l i n e aureomycin hydrochloride. Using an all-vegetable protein diet supplemented with Vitamin B 1 2 , Stokstad and Jukes (21) reported a growth response i n turkey poults with the addition of c r y s t a l l i n e aureomycin. The growth promoting e f f e c t of a n t i b i o t i c s was further demonstrated by several workers. In 1950 Robertson (22) reported a 10 per cent increase i n growth of poults at four weeks of age, when streptomycin was added at a l e v e l of 0.008 per cent to a r a t i o n containing animal protein sources. An 8 improvement i n feed e f f i c i e n c y was also noted. McGinnis et a l (23) reported an increase i n growth of poults with the addition of c r y s t a l l i n e aureomycin to a diet containing Vitamin B^2* Almquist and Merrit (24) observed a growth i n -crease i n poults with the addition of aureomycin with no difference i n response due to sex. Davis and Briggs (25) reported a study i n which they compared the growth promoting e f f e c t of several a n t i b i o t i c s . A growth stimulation i n chicks was noted i n most cases when a p r a c t i c a l corn-soybean meal rati o n was supplemented with either aureomycin hydrochloride, procaine p e n i c i l l i n G, bac i t r a c i n or terramycin. Streptomycin was not as active as the other a n t i b i o t i c s . The growth of turkey poults was stimulated with both aureomycin hydrochloride and procaine p e n i c i l l i n G. Both chicks and poults showed an improved feed e f f i c i e n c y . Another comparison of the a c t i v i t y of several a n t i b i o t i c s was reported by McGinnis et a l (26) i n 1951. Turkey poults were used throughout t h i s t e s t . These workers reported that aureomycin, streptomycin, terramycin and p e n i c i l l i n a l l stimulated the growth rate of poults fed a p r a c t i c a l d i e t . Many other reports, such as those by Patrick (27), Branion and H i l l (28), Atkinson and Couch (29) and Sieburth _et a l (30) have further established the growth promoting e f f e c t of a n t i b i o t i c s . 9 i Several reports i n the l i t e r a t u r e have indicated that the response to a n t i b i o t i c s i s dependent, i n part at least, on the composition of the r a t i o n with which i t i s used. Scott eit a l (31) reported a series of experiments i n which a corn-soybean o i l meal r a t i o n was supplemented with various materials. They found that when a ration, which included aureomycin, was supplemented with corn d i s t i l l e r s ' solubles, 5 per cent butyl fermentation products or 2 per cent grass juice, a d e f i n i t e growth response occurred. On the other hand, when a ra t i o n containing aureomycin was further supplemented with dehydrated a l f a l f a meal, defatted l i v e r meal, dried brewers* yeast or dried cereal grass, no growth response occurred. McGinnis (32) reported that f i s h meal, l i v e r L - f r a c t i o n or dried whey produced a greater growth response i n chicks and poults when the ration contained an a n t i b i o t i c than was produced when the ra t i o n did not contain an a n t i b i o t i c . Matterson et a l (33) compared several a n t i b i o t i c s as growth stimulants when included i n an all-vegetable protein r a t i o n supplemented with various materials. Their r e s u l t s indicated that the growth response obtained with a n t i b i o t i c s depended on the composition of the r a t i o n with which i t was used. Matterson and co-workers found that the addition of an a n t i b i o t i c to an all-vegetable protein r a t i o n gave the greatest percentage growth response. The greatest weight, 10 however, was obtained when an all-vegetable protein r a t i o n supplemented with f i s h meal was further supplemented with an a n t i b i o t i c . Berg (34) also reported that the response to an a n t i b i o t i c varied with the type of r a t i o n i n which i t was included. (c) U n i d e n t i f i e d Factors A number of reports have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t i n g the existence of u n i d e n t i f i e d growth factors re-quired by chicks and poults. These reports have been reviewed extensively by Hutchings et a l (35), Rubin and B i r d (36) and Petering et a l (37). The a v a i l a b i l i t y of Vitamin B12 f o r use i n experimental work following i t s i s o l a t i o n In 1948 by Riches at a l (12) and Smith (11), has made possible further progress i n the study of u n i d e n t i f i e d dietary factors required by poults and chicks f o r maximum growth. Several reports since then, by such workers as Ott et a l (38), L i l l i e et a l (39) and Nichol e_t a l (40), have shown that growth responses to such supplements as dried cow manure, condensed f i s h sVlubles, f i s h meal and meat meal could be explained on the basis of t h e i r Vitamin B 1 2 content. Many other workers however, have reported growth response to such supplements as dried whey, dried brewers' yeast and several l i v e r products which could not be attributed u to Vitamin B 1 2 . I n addition to t h i s , growth responses, greater than can be explained on the basis of Vitamin B 1 2 content, have been reported f o r f i s h meal and f i s h solubles. In 1944 H i l l et a l ( 4 1 ) , using White Leghorn male chicks and a p r a c t i c a l chick r a t i o n as a basal ration, re-ported an increase i n weight at 8 weeks when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with dried d i s t i l l e r s 1 solubles, dried brewers 1 yeast or dried whey. They suggested that these supplements contained an unide n t i f i e d factor(s) required by the chick. Novak et a l (42) i n 1947 also presented evidence to indicate the presence of an un i d e n t i f i e d growth f a c t o r i n d i s t i l l e r s ' dried solubles. In 1949 Carlson et a l (43) studied the requirements of chicks f o r u n i d e n t i f i e d factors as found i n f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast. Chicks, on the basal r a t i o n supple-mented with a Vitamin B 1 2 concentrate, weighed 128 grams at 4 weeks. The weights of the chicks were 248, 217 and 253 grams when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with 7.5 per cent dried brewers' yeast, 3 per cent f i s h meal or 7.5 per cent dried brewers' yeast plus 3 per cent f i s h meal respec-t i v e l y . These workers suggested that both f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast contained an un i d e n t i f i e d growth factor(s) required f o r maximum growth of chicks. Combs and Shaffner (44) studied the requirements of B e l t s v i l l e Small White poults f o r u n i d e n t i f i e d factors. A 12 corn-soybean basal r a t i o n was supplemented with either of two Vitamin B 1 2 concentrates. No s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n weight was noted when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with eith e r Vitamin B 1 2 concentrates. A highly s i g n i f i c a n t i n -crease was observed, on the other hand, when the basal r a t i o n containing Vitamin B 1 2 was further supplemented with 5 per cent dried whey and 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast. In a second test, the addition of 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast alone to the basal r a t i o n did not improve the f i f t h week weights s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Addition of 10 per cent dried brewers' yeast did produce a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n growth. The authors concluded that the poults required an unidenti-f i e d factor(s) present i n dried whey and dried brewers' yeast. The growth response observed i n chicks and poults, when certa i n A.P.F. supplements were included i n the ratio n , has been shown to be due not e n t i r e l y to the Vitamin B^ 2 present, but to the presence of an a n t i b i o t i c as well, Stokstad and Jukes (20), Stokstad and Jukes (21) and Whitehall et a l (45). In view of the growth promoting a c t i v i t y of a n t i b i o t i c s , Reed and Couch (46) conducted studies to determine whether the addition of a source of un-i d e n t i f i e d factors i n the form of dried whey would further i n -crease the growth of chicks. They reported, that i n a l l four experiments conducted, the addition of 3 to 5 per cent dried 13 whey produced an increase i n the weight of the chicks. The rations used i n each experiment included an A.P.F. supple-ment containing aureomycin as well as Vitamin B^ 2. Arscott and Combs (47). reported that the addition of f i s h meal, f i s h solubles, dried brewers' yeast or fermen-t a t i o n solubles, to a corn-soybean meal diet adequate i n Vitamin B12, resulted i n a s l i g h t increase i n growth of chicks. This increase i n growth, while not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l cases, was consistent. They concluded that the above supplements contained an unknown factor(s) required by the chick f o r rapid growth. In 1950 Combs e_t a l (48) reported studies on unidenti-f i e d factors. Their results indicated the existence of four u n i d e n t i f i e d factors which promote rapid chick growth. Two of these were d i f f e r e n t forms of Vitamin B12, the other two unknown. Menge et a l (49), i n 1952, presented evidence in d i c a t i n g that two d i s t i n c t u n i d e n t i f i e d factors are re-quired by the chick. One of these was supplied by dried brewers' yeast and l i v e r f r a c t i o n s , the other by dried whey. In 1950 Savage et a l (50) reported evidence to i n -dicate that soybean o i l meal may contain the same unidenti-f i e d factor(s) as l i v e r residue. H i l l and Briggs (51) also demonstrated that soybean o i l meal, and to some extent corn-meal, contributed growth promoting a c t i v i t y to a synthetic diet containing p u r i f i e d soybean protein. On the other 14 hand, McGinnis and co-workers (52) obtained greater growth with a p u r i f i e d soybean protein diet than with a soybean o i l meal diet. In 1951, Patrick (27) compared the supplementary value of f i s h meal and a Vitamin preparation. He ob-served no*increase i n the weight of B e l t s v i l l e White poults when -the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with Vitamin B 1 2 « However, a growth response was observed when the basal rati o n was supplemented with f i s h meal or other f i s h pro-ducts. P a t r i c k concluded that f i s h meal contained a factor(s) i n addition to Vitamin B^2 which was required f o r adequate poult growth. 15 I I I EXPERIMENTAL  Experiment I Introduction The f i r s t test marked the f i r s t time that turkey-poults had been used i n n u t r i t i o n a l experiments at t h i s laboratory. Consequently, i t seemed advisable to obtain some basic data on rate of growth and feed e f f i c i e n c y . The f i r s t experiment, therefore, was conducted to study the rate of growth and feed e f f i c i e n c y of two breeds of turkeys. To provide a basis f o r comparison, a s i m i l a r t e s t was run simultaneously with two breeds of chickens. The poult rat i o n used i n t h i s experiment was formu-lated with a view towa rd producing maximum growth and feed e f f i c i e n c y . Eor t h i s reason, a well f o r t i f i e d , high energy ration, s i m i l a r to the Connecticut b r o i l e r r a t i o n , was chosen. The r a t i o n was well supplemented with natural and c r y s t a l l i n e vitamin sources and with aureomycin. The chick r a t i o n used i n th i s test was very s i m i l a r i n composition to the poult ration. Some changes were necessary however, i n view of the differences i n r e l a t i v e requirements of the chick and the poult f o r cert a i n n u t r i -ents i 16 Test 1  Purpose 1. To study the rate of growth and feed e f f i c i e n c y of Broad Breasted Bronze and B e l t s v i l l e Small White poults of both sexes to 10 weeks of age. 2. To compare the rate of growth and feed e f f i c i e n c y of the two breeds of poults with that of two breeds of chickens to 10 weeks of age. Procedure The f i r s t test was conducted using day old sexed Broad Breasted Bronze and B e l t s v i l l e Small White poults, and White Leghorn and Hampbar* chicks. (Hereafter Broad Breasted Bronze poults w i l l be referred to as Bronze poults and B e l t s v i l l e Small Whites as B e l t s v i l l e poults). The numbers of poults and chicks used were as follows: Bronze males- 50, Bronze females- 50, B e l t s v i l l e males- 51, B e l t s v i l l e females- 51, White Leghorn males- 52, White Leg-horn females- 50, Hampbar males- 51 and Hampbar females- 51. (While the procedure to be outlined here refers specif-i c a l l y to the poults, a s i m i l a r procedure was followed with the chicks and i n a l l subsequent t e s t s ) . *The Hampbars are a breed developed by Professor E.A. Lloyd, Professor Emeritus, of the Department of Poultry Husbandry, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1-7 The poults (and chicks) were wing-handed, weighed and di s t r i b u t e d at random into t h e i r respective l o t s . Each sex of each breed was divided into three l o t s with 16 - 18 birds per l o t . The brooders used were "Hudson" e l e c t r i c a l l y heated battery brooders. The temperature under the hover was ther-mostatically controlled at 95 degrees Fahrenheit f o r the f i r s t week. During the second week the temperature was lowered 5 - 1 0 degrees. Room temperature was held as close to 72 degrees as possible. As the constant temperature and humidity equipment had not been i n s t a l l e d , e l e c t r i c radiant heaters were used to heat the room when necessary and the flo o r s were p e r i o d i c a l l y sprinkled with water. The poults were held i n the heated batteries u n t i l the end of the second week at which time they were transferred to an unheated set of batteries i n the same room. At the end of the fourth week, they were again transferred, t h i s time to a larger set of batteries i n a second room. No addit i o n a l heat was provided In t h i s room. The poults were held i n the second room u n t i l approximately 7 weeks of age and then transferred to s t i l l larger batteries i n a t h i r d room. The birds were fed mash and water ad l i b . During the f i r s t week, several bright marbles were placed on top of the feed to encourage the poults to eat. This procedure was not necessary f o r the chicks. In the f i r s t t e s t , the feed added 18 to the hoppers was weighed and recorded d a i l y . In subsequent tests, however, a supply of feed f o r each l o t was weighed out and stored i n i n d i v i d u a l containers. The amount of feed re-maining at the end of each week was recorded f o r the purpose of c a l c u l a t i n g feed e f f i c i e n c y . A further supply of feed was weighed out and added to each container as required. The com-position of the poult and chick rations i s given i n Table 1. A l l poults received g r i t at weekly inter v a l s f o r the f i r s t 4 weeks and twice weekly thereafter. The average weekly weights f o r both sexes of each breed are given i n Table 2. The weights of each of the t r i p l i c a t e l o t s were pooled i n c a l c u l a t i n g the average weights. Growth curves were plotted from the weight data and are shown i n Figure 1. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n f o r any period was obtained by di v i d i n g t h e . t o t a l feed consumed during that period by the t o t a l gain i n weight f o r the same period. The weight gains and the feed consumption figures were again pooled to calculate the feed e f f i c i e n c y f o r each sex of each breed. Feed e f f i c i e n c y data are given i a l i a b l e 3 and Figure 2. The r e l a t i o n of feed e f f i c i e n c y to weight was plotted and i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 3. 6 19 Results and Discussion The rates of growth of the poults and chicks were c a l -culated using the formula R = W2 - Wi -^00 where W_= i iw j t w£). weight at the beginning of a period and W 2» weight at the end of the same period, Funk (53). The r e s u l t s are given i n Table 4. Using t h i s formula, the rate of growth or gain f o r any period i s expressed as a percentage of the average weight fo r the same period. As was expected, the rate of growth of the turkey poults was considerably greater than that of the chicks. The rate of growth of the poults during the f i r s t week varied from 76.4 per cent to 86.3 per cent. On the other hand, the maximum rate of growth of the chicks during the f i r s t week, shown by the Hampbar males, was only 69.6 per cent. The lowest rate of growth was that of 64.4 per cent shown by the Leghorn females. A study of Table 4 indicated a spread of 10 per cent i n rate of growth during the f i r s t week between the two breeds of poults. However, the spread i n rate of growth between the two breeds of chicks was only 5 per cent. During the second and subsequent weeks the difference i n rates of growth between the poults and chicks became pro-gressively l e s s , with the r e s u l t that by the s i x t h week the rates.of growth,of both sexes of a l l breeds were approximate-l y the same. From the s i x t h week on, the rates of growth 20 from week to week remained approximately the same f o r a l l groups. The growth curves of the turkey poults, Figure 1, were very s i m i l a r i n shape. The spread between the males and females i n both breeds was very s i m i l a r . The difference i n f i n a l weights of the Bronze male and female poults was 700 grams, while the difference between the male and female B e l t s v i l l e poults was 668 grams. I t w i l l be noted that the close s i m i l a r i t y i n the average weekly weights of the Bronze females and B e l t s v i l l e males was maintained throughout the test period. Observation of the data throughout the course of the experiment seemed to indicate a considerable v a r i a t i o n i n the weights of the poults within each sex of each breed. A s t a t i s t i c a l comparison was made of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n weight within each sex of each breed of poults and chicks at 10 weeks of age. The re s u l t s are given i n Table 5. These re-sul t s indicated a greater v a r i a b i l i t y i n the tenth week weights of the B e l t s v i l l e males than i n the B e l t s v i l l e females. A greater v a r i a b i l i t y existed i n the tenth week weights of the Bronze females than i n the weights of the B e l t s v i l l e females as well. The v a r i a b i l i t y was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n both cases. The s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b i l i t y i n weights observed i n t h i s test, however, do not imply that such a v a r i a b i l i t y i s inherent i n the breed. / The -growth curves of the two breeds of chicks were also 21 very s i m i l a r i n shape. A study of Table 2 showed that the average day old and f i r s t week weights of the Hampbar chicks were smaller than those of the Leghorn chicks. By the end of the second week, however, the Hampbar chicks were heavier than the Leghorn chicks. As was also anticipated, the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n of the turkey poults was considerably better than that of the chicks. This was e s p e c i a l l y true during the l a t t e r stages of the test when the feed e f f i c i e n c y of chicks f e l l o f f . The feed e f f i c i e n c y values of the male and female Bronze poults were very s i m i l a r throughout the te s t period. I t w i l l be noted i n Figure 2 that the curves, when feed e f f i c i e n c y was plotted against time, l i e f a i r l y close together. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n f o r both the male and female B e l t s v i l l e poults were poorer than those of the Bronze poults. Again, however, the feed e f f i c i e n c y of the male and female B e l t s v i l l e poults were very s i m i l a r through-out the test period. The slope of the curves i n Figure 2 indicated that the decline i n feed e f f i c i e n c y shown by the B e l t s v i l l e poults was r e l a t i v e l y the same as that shown by the Bronze poults up to 8 weeks of age. At 8 weeks the feed e f f i c i e n c y of both male and female B e l t s v i l l e poults declined sharply. Since the B e l t s v i l l e Whites have a lower mature weight and are slower growing, i t would be expected that the feed e f f i c i e n c y would be lower and would f a l l o f f e a r l i e r 22 than would the feed e f f i c i e n c y of the Broad Breasted Bronze poults. In comparing the feed e f f i c i e n c y of the chicks with that of the poults, Figure 2, i t was noted that the decline i n e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was s i m i l a r f o r both species a f t e r the fourth week, i . e . the slopes of the e f f i c i e n c y curves were very s i m i l a r . The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a -t i o n f o r the chicks declined very sharply from day old to the end of the fourth week. From the fourth week on, the rate of decline was l e s s . On the other hand, the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n shown hy the poults declined at a constant rate from day old to approximately the end of the eighth week. The o v e r a l l feed e f f i c i e n c y , i . e . the t o t a l feed con-sumed divided by the t o t a l gain f o r the test period, are given i n Table 3 . These res u l t s showed more c l e a r l y perhaps the r e l a t i v e feed e f f i c i e n c y of the poults and chicks. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of feed e f f i c i e n c y to weight was, shown i n Figure 3 . By i l l u s t r a t i n g the data i n t h i s manner,, the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t breeds of poults and chicks could be compared on the basis of t h e i r respective weights. A study of Figure 3 indicated a wide va r i a t i o n i n the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n shown by the poults when placed on the same weight basis. This v a r i a t i o n increased as the respective weights increased. For example, i t was noted, that the feed e f f i c i e n c y values at a weight of 23 1000 grams were 1.89, 2.00, 2.18 and 2.33 f o r Bronze males, Bronze females, B e l t s v i l l e males and B e l t s v i l l e females respectively. On the other hand, the feed e f f i c i e n c y values f 0 r the same birds at a weight of 2000 grams were 2.18, 2.32, 2.58 and 3.20 respectively. In the case of the B e l t s v i l l e females, the feed e f f i c i e n c y was determined by extending the curve to the l i n e representing a weight of 2000 grams. The data obtained i n t h i s test indicated the r e l a t i o n -ship ex i s t i n g between rates of growth and e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n . A r e l a t i o n s h i p would be expected, as a bir d with an inherent a b i l i t y to grow at a more rapid rate than another b i r d w i l l , as a r e s u l t , be able to u t i l i z e feed more e f f i c i e n t l y . The Bronze poults .showed the fastest rate of growth as well as the highest e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a -t i o n . The rate of growth of the B e l t s v i l l e poults was less than that of the Bronze poults, and as a r e s u l t the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n of the B e l t s v i l l e poults was less than that of the Bronze. The same re l a t i o n s h i p between rates of growth and feed e f f i c i e n c y was observed among the chicks. The Hampbar chicks possessed an inherent a b i l i t y to grow fast e r than the Leghorn chicks, and therefore were able to u t i l i z e the feed more e f f i c i e n t l y . 24 TABLE 1 Composition of Rations for Test 1 Ingredients Poult Ration % Chick Ration % Ground yellow corn 55.23 58.75 Fish meal 12.G 12.0 Meat meal 10.0 8.0 Soybean o i l meal (solvent) 12.0 12 e0 Liver meal 3.0 3.0 Dried Brewers' yeast 2.0 2.0 Dehydrated oereal grass 2.0 2.0 Iodized salt 0.5 0.5 Choline chloride (25% premix) 0.5 0.25 Steamed bone meal 1.5 -Ground limestone 1.0 1.0 Manganese sulphate 0.025 0.025 Aureomyoin* 0.25 0.25 Feeding o i l (300D - 2250A) 0.25 Riboflavin 0.12 gms 0.08 gms Calcium pantothenate 0.35 gms 0.25 gms Niacin 1.85 gms 0.40 gms Vitamin A supplement** 400,000 I.U. Vitamin D3 supplement*** 60,000 I.C.U. Per Cent Protein 29.5 28.5 * Lederle's nAurofao-An containing 1.8 gms of aureomyoin HCl/lb. ** Vitamin A fish oil (35,100 I.U/gm) *** Dry Vitamin D3 premix (1,651 I.C.u/gm) TABLE 2 Average Weights of Poults and Ghioks i n Test 1 Ave. Weights (gins) ' Day Old 1 wk 2 wks 3 wks 4 wks 5 wks 6 wks 7 wks 8 wks 9 wks 10 wks Bronte Poults Male 5G 126 249 400 689 1007 1347 1857 2319 2797 3288 Female 50 111 213 330 560 803 1087 1428 1794 2187 2588 Beltsville Poults Male 44 107 207 338 551 793 1064 1412 1746 2124 2473 Female 44 99 179 290 441 618 805 1045 1298 1557 1805 Hampbar Chicks Male 36 75 150 236 346 491 661 845 1040 1248 1447 Female 36 75 145 224 319 441 584 729 867 1014 1165 Leghorn Chicks Male 40 79 152 231 334 465 620 763 933 1114 1247 Female 40 78 140 225 313 428 551 670 790 915 1039 TABLE 3 Feed Effioienoy* of Poults and Chicks in Test 1 Overall** _ 2 wks 4 wks 6 wks 8 wks 10 wks F/G Bronze Poults Male 1.54 1.81 1.98 2.25 2.66 2.21 Female 1.60 1.82 2.06 2.27 2.58 2.21 Beltsville Poults 1.64 1.93 2.2.1 2.37 2.88 2.38 Female I . 7 5 2.03 2.27 2.46 '3.05 2.47 Hampbar Chioks Male 1.56 2.33 2.52 2.76 3.19 2.65 Female 1.58 2.43 2.65 2.92 3.30 2.74 Leghorn Chioks Male 1.66 2.33 2.61 2.95 3.86 2.87 Female 1 . 7 2 2.36 2.76 3 . 2 7 3.73 2.94 * Feed Effioienoy _ Total feed consumed during 2 wk period/Total gain for same period ** Overall F/G b Total feed consumed during test period/Total gain for test period TABLE 4 Rate of Growth* of Poults and Chicks i n Test 1 - L wk 2 wks 3 wks 4 wks 5 wks 6 wks 7 wks 8 wks 9 wks 10 wks t Bronze Poults Male 86.3 65.4 46.5 53.0 37.5 28.9 31.8 22.1 18.7 16.1 Female' 75.3 63.0 43.0 51.7 35.6 30.1 27.1 22.7 19.7 16.8 Beltsville Poults Male 82.9 63.7 48.0 47.7 36.0 29.2 28.1 21.2 19.5 15.2 Female . 76.4 57.6 47.2 41.3 33.4 26.3 25.9 21.6 18.1 14.8 Hampbar Chicks Male . 69.6 66.4 44.6 37.8 34.6 29.5 24.4 20.7 18.2 14.8 Female 69.6 63.6 42.7 34.9 32.1 27.9 22.1 17.3 15.6 13.9 Leghorn Chicks Hale 65.0 62,9 41.1 36*4 32.8 28.5 21.3 19.4 17.7 11.3 Female 64.4 56.9 46.4 32.7 31.0 25 el~ 19.5 16.4 14.7 12.7 * The rate of growth was calculated using the formula R s W2 - Wj x 100 where Ify • the weight at ' FW7 WX) the beginning ef the period and W2 - the weight at the end of the same period. 28 TABLE 5 Test of Variance Poults Compared df Variance F-ratio Bronze males Bronze females 44 45 6081.35 5194.52 1 . 90 Bronze males Beltsville males 44 49 6081.35 2649.42 2.30 Beltsville males Beltsville females 49 48 2649.42 1137.60 2.33* Bronze females Beltsville females 45 48 3194.52 1137.60 2.81* * Significant at the 2% level Chicks Compared df Varlanoe F-ratio Hampbar males Hampbar females 40 49 22565.74 13091.42 1.72 Eampbar males Leghorn males 4© 45 22565.74 14567.02 1.55 Leghorn males Leghorn females 43 4 5 14567.02 7833.98 1.86 Hampbar females Leghorn females 49 4 T 13091.42 7833.98 1.67 29 4.0 3-5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1 WHITE LEGHORN KALE 2 WHITE LEGHORN FEKALE 3 HAUPBAR FEMALE 4 HAliPBAR MALE 5 BELTSVILLE WHITE FEJCAliS 6 BELTSVILLE WHITE UA1E 7 B.B.BRONZE 1LALE B.B.BRONZE FEMALE 1-5 6 WEEKS o (Figure 2) PEED EFFICIENCY OF CHICKS AND POULTS IN TEST 1. 4.0 3-5 L 3.0 2.5 J.5 WHITE LEGHORN FEMALE WHITK LEGHORN KALE HAMPBAR FEMALE HAMPBAR MALE 5 B E L T S V I L L E WHITE FEMALE 6 B E L T S V I L L E WHITE MALE B . B . B R O N Z E FEMALE B . B . B R O N Z E MALE -250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 WEIGHT IH GRAMS 2250 2500 2750 I 3000 3250 (Figure 3) FEED E F F I C I E N C Y AS RELATED TO WEIGHT OF CHICKS AND POULTS IN TEST 1. 32 Experiment I I Introduction F i s h meal has been shown to be a good source of Vitamin B12* Some of the growth responses observed i n past experi-ments with f i s h meal may be explained on the basis of the Vitamin B__2 content. Further studies with f i s h meal, however, have shown a growth response i n the presence of adequate Vitamin B 1 2 . These r e s u l t s indicated that f i s h meal may con-t a i n an un i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) required by poults and chicks f o r rapid growth. Moreover, re s u l t s of many experiments have shown that dried brewers' yeast may also contain an unidenti-f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) . The primary object of the second experiment, therefore, was to study f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) required by poults f o r maximum growth. The second experiment consisted of four t e s t s . An a l l -vegetable protein r a t i o n , supplemented with a l l known v i t -amins, was used as a basal ration. By way of obtaining preliminary data on the basal ration, the f i r s t test i n Experiment I I (test 2) included a comparative study of wheat and corn as the cereal grain i n the all-vegetable protein r a t i o n . A further comparison was made i n test 5 by using two basal rations, one wheat and the other corn. In tests 3 and A the supplementary value of f i s h meal and dried brewers' 33 yeast were further studied by including an a n t i b i o t i c pre-paration i n the basal ration. Test 2 Purpose 1. To compare the n u t r i t i v e value of corn and wheat when included i n an all-vegetable protein d i e t . 2. To study the supplementary value of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) re-quired by poults f o r maximum growth. Procedure Day old B e l t s v i l l e female poults were used i n t h i s t e s t . The poults were weighed, wing-banded and d i s t r i b u t e d at random into s i x l o t s with 13 poults per l o t . The general experimental procedure followed was s i m i l a r to that outlined f o r test 1. The basal rations and supplements used are given i n Tables 6 and 7. The basal corn and wheat rations were form-ulated to contain 28 per cent protein. Chemical analysis showed the protein content to be 27.9 and 29.6 per cent f o r the corn and wheat respectively. The f i s h meal and dried brewers* yeast were added to the basal wheat r a t i o n at the 5 per cent l e v e l . The levels of the wheat and soybean o i l 34 meal were modified i n rations T - 4 , T - 5 and T-6 to maintain a t o t a l of approximately 28 per cent protein. The poults were weighed each week. Only the day old, second, fourth, s i x t h and eighth week weights are given i n Table 8. The feed e f f i c i e n c y figures, given i n Table 8, were calculated by div i d i n g the t o t a l feed consumed during the experimental period by the t o t a l gain i n weight f o r the same period. Results The average weight of the poults receiving the corn rat i o n was 1319 grams at the end of the test period. This was an increase of only 83 grams above the average weight of the poults receiving the wheat r a t i o n . A s t i l l smaller difference was noted i n the weights of the poults receiving the corn r a t i o n and the corn plus, wheat r a t i o n . The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n were very s i m i l a r f o r a l l three rations. No increase i n the weight of the poults occurred when the basal wheat r a t i o n was supplemented with 5 per cent f i s h meal. On the other hand, the addition of 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast, or a combination of dried brewers' yeast and f i s h meal, did produce an increase i n the f i n a l average weight. A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the f i n a l weight data (Table 9) showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences. The e f f i c i e n c y 33 of feed u t i l i z a t i o n were very s i m i l a r f o r a l l rations. Supplementing the wheat r a t i o n with f i s h meal appeared to improve the e f f i c i e n c y s l i g h t l y . The results of t e s t 2 indicated that dried brewers' yeast may contain a f a c t o r required by the poults f o r max-imum growth. On the other hand, f i s h meal appeared to be of l i t t l e value as a supplement under the conditions of th i s experiment. Further study of the data, however, indicated that the basal rat i o n may have been d e f i c i e n t i n b i o t i n . Robblee et a l (54) has shown that many p r a c t i c a l poult s t a r t i n g rations are de f i c i e n t i n b i o t i n . Therefore, the growth response obtained by supplementing the basal r a t i o n with dried brewers' yeast may have been due to an increase i n the l e v e l of b i o t i n as supplied by dried brewers' yeast; In view of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , the l e v e l of supplemen-tary b i o t i n included i n the basal r a t i o n was increased i n subsequent te s t s . The growth response obtained by supplementing the basal r a t i o n with both f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast was greater than the growth response obtained by supple-menting the basal r a t i o n with dried brewers' yeast alone. This r e s u l t indicated a growth factor(s) to be present i n the f i s h meal. The response to thi s factor(s) i n the f i s h meal was obtained only a f t e r the deficiency of b i o t i n had been corrected by the inc l u s i o n of the dried brewers' yeast. 36 M o r t a l i t y The t o t a l m o r t a l i t y f o r the tes t period was 6 . 6 per cent. One b i r d i n l o t T - l died during the f i r s t week. Post mortem examination showed unabsorbed yolk to be the cause of death. Two birds i n l o t T - l and one b i r d i n l o t T -2 were k i l l e d during the fourth week due to porosis. One bi r d i n l o t 6 was ac c i d e n t a l l y k i l l e d during the f i f t h week. Conclusions • 1. Corn appeared to be s l i g h t l y better as a supplement to a soybean o i l meal ra t i o n than did wheat as evidenced by an increase i n the average weight of the poults at 8 weeks. This increase i n weight was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A combination of corn and wheat appeared to be better than wheat alone but not as good as corn alone. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n were approx-imately the same f o r a l l three rations. 2. The basal r a t i o n may have been de f i c i e n t i n b i o t i n . 3 . The increase i n weight obtained by the addition of dried brewers' yeast may have been due to the b i o t i n supplied by the dried brewers' yeast. 4. The growth response obtained by supplementing the basal rat i o n with both f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast, over and above that obtained by supplementing the basal ration with dried brewers' yeast alone, may have been due to a factor(s) present i n the f i s h meal. 37 TABLE 6 Composition of Basal Rations for Tests 2, 3, 4 and 5 Ingredients Corn % Ylheat % Ground yellow corn 45.0 Course ground wheat m 47.9 Soybean oil meal (solvent) 48.0 45.1 Iodized salt 0.5 0.5 Ground limestone 1.5 1.5 Steamed bone meal 4.0 4.0 Dl-methionino 0.1 0.1 Choline chloride (257? premix) 0.5 0.5 Manganese sulphate 0.04 0.04 Riboflavin 0.2 gms 0.2 gms Caloium pantothenate 0.6 gms 0.6 gms Niacin 2.25 gms 2.25 gms Thiamin hydrochloride 0.05 gms 0.05 gms Pyridoxine hydrochloride 0.15 gms 0.15 gms Menadione (Vitamin K) Biotin 0.2 gms 0.2 gms 0.0025 gms 0.0025 gms Folio acid 0.05 gms 0.05 gms Vitamin Bj£ 0.001 gms 0.001 gms Inositol g 90.0 gms 90.0 gms Para-aminobeneoio acid 90.0 gms 90.0 gms Alpha-tooopherol , . 1.0 gms 1.0 gm3 Vitamin A supplement . 400,000 I.U. 400,000 I.U. Vitamin Dj supplement 60,000 I.C.U. 60,000 I.C.U. Per Cent Protein 27.9 29.6 1 Increased to 0.01 gms/lOO lbs. in tests 3, 4 and 5 2 Reduced to 45 gms/lOO lbs. in tests 3» 4 and 5 3 Vitamin A fish o i l (35,100 I.u/gm) 4 Dry Vitamin D3 premix (1,651 I.C.u/gm) 38 TABLE 7 Modifioations to the Basal Rations in Tests 2, 3, 4 and 5 Soybean Dried Brewers' Ration Corn Wheat Oil Waal Fish meal Yeast Aureomycin** % % % % % % T - l * 45.0 48.0 mm T-2 23.0 23.0 47.0 - - -T-3* - 47.9 45.1 - - \ T-4 - 52.0 36.0 5.0 mm -T-5 - 48.0 40.0 5.0 -T-6 51.0 32.0 5.0 5.0 ** T-10* 45.0 48.0 Ml mm T - l l 45.0 - 48.0 m vm 0.5 T-12 48.3 - 39.7 5.0 - -T-13 44.3 - 43.7 mm 5.0 -T-14 47.5 - 35.5 5.0 5.0 -T-15 47.5 35.5 5.0 5.0 0.5 T-17* 45.0 48.0 mm T-18 48.3 39.7 5.0 -T-19 44.3 m 43.7 ma 5.0 M l T-20 47.5 - 35.5 5.0 5.0 -T-21 45.0 - 48.0 mm - - 0.5 T-22 48.3 - 39.7 5.0 - 0/5 T-23 44.3 - 43.7 cm 5.0 0.5 T-24 47.5 — 35.5 5.0 5.0 0.5 T-25* 45.0 48.0 a* *o mm T-26 * . 47.9 45.1 - - -T-27 48.3 - 39.7 5.0 mm -T-28 - 52.0 36.0 5.0 - -T-29 44.3 - 43.7 mm 5.0 -T-30 - 48.0 40.0 ta 5.0 mm mm T-31 47.5 - 35.5 5.0 5.0 cm T-32 - 51.0 32.0 5.0 5.0 4 * Basal ration ** Lederle's "Aurofao-A" containing 1.8 gms aureomyoin hydroohloride/lb. TABLE 8 Average Weights and Feed Efficiency of Poults in Test 2 Ration Cereal Supplement Poults/Lot & Mortality Day Old Ave. Weights 2 wks 4 wks (gms) 6 wks 8 wks F / G * T-l Corn None 13 (3) 54 208 460 894 1319 2.71 T-2 Corn Wheat None 13 (1) 52 193 440 876 1305 2.80 T-3 Wheat None 13 (0) 54 181 418 735 1230 2.77 T-4 Wheat Fish meal 13 (0) 55 192 437 793 1236 2.67 T-5 Wheat Dried Brewers* Yeast 13 (0) 54 204 489 849 1310 2.80 T-6 Wheat Fish meal Dried Brewers* Yeast 13 (1) 53 211 504 887 1376 2.74 * F/G S Total feed consumed/Total gain for test period 4P TABLE 9 Analysis of Variance Source of error Sum of Squares df Variance Total Treatment Error 1.548,823 197,455 1,351,368 72 5 67 39,491 20,170 41 Test 3  Introduction The results of tes t 2 indioated that corn was s l i g h t -l y superior to wheat i n promoting poult growth. This t e s t also indicated that a wheat-soybean o i l meal diet supple-mented with 5 per cent dried brewers 1 yeast was superior to a s i m i l a r diet i n which the supplement was 5 per cent f i s h meal. A combination of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast proved to be the most e f f e c t i v e i n promoting poult growth. The basal r a t i o n used i n tes t 2 was supplemented with 0. 0025 grams of b i o t i n per 100 pounds. In view of the re-su l t s obtained i n t h i s test and reports of other i n v e s t i -gators, Robbiee et a l (54), i t appeared that t h i s l e v e l of b i o t i n may not have been s u f f i c i e n t . The l e v e l of b i o t i n was therefore increased to 0.01 grams per 100 pounds f o r t e s t 3. The growth promoting effects of a n t i b i o t i c s have been well established by many investigators. Several reports, however, have indicated that the a c t i v i t y of the a n t i b i o t i c may depend, to some extent, on the composition of the ra t i o n i n which i t i s used. Purpose 1. To study the supplementary value of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of un i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s ' 42 required by poults f o r maximum growth. 2. To study the supplementary value of an a n t i b i o t i c with respect to the composition of the r a t i o n with which i t i s used. Procedure Day old Jersey Buff male poults were used i n t h i s t e s t . The poults were weighed, wing-banded and d i s t r i b u t e d at random into s i x l o t s with 14 poults per l o t . The general experimental procedure followed was s i m i l a r to that out-l i n e d above. The basal r a t i o n used was the same as r a t i o n T - l i n t e s t 2 with the exception that the l e v e l of b i o t i n was increased from 0.0025 grams per 100 pounds to 0.01 grams per 100 pounds. The l e v e l of para-aminobenzoic acid was reduced from 90 to 45 grams per 100 pounds as the lower l e v e l was considered to be adequate. The supplements used i n t h i s test were f i s h meal and/ or dried brewers' yeast. An a n t i b i o t i c preparation was also included i n two of the rations, T - l l and T-15. As i n the previous t e s t , the l e v e l of soybean o i l meal was altered to maintain a t o t a l of 28 per cent protein when the supplements were included. The basal r a t i o n and supplements used are given i n Tables 6 and 7. The poults were weighed each week and the r e s u l t s re-43 s u i t s recorded i n Table 1 0 . The feed e f f i c i e n c y given i n Table 10 was the t o t a l feed consumed divided by the t o t a l gain f o r the test period of 6 weeks. A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the f i n a l average weights was conducted at the conclusion of the experiment. The results of t h i s analysis are given i n Table 1 1 . Results At 6 weeks of age the average weight of the poults receiving the basal corn-soybean o i l meal diet was 870 grams. When the basal was supplemented with 5 per cent f i s h meal, the average weight was 971 grams or an increase of 101 grams. This increase was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 1 1 ) . In t h i s t e s t , the addition of 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast f a i l e d to give a growth response. A combination of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast was no better than f i s h meal alone. The f i n a l average weights of the poults receiving the basal d i e t and the basal diet supplemented with aureomycin were 870 and 969 grams respectively. The addition of the a n t i b i o t i c increased the f i n a l weight of the poults by 99 grams or 1 1 . 3 per cent. This increase was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The increase obtained with the a n t i b i o t i o was almost i d e n t i c a l with that obtained by supplementing the basal diet with f i s h meal. 4 4 The f i n a l average weight of the poults receiving the basal rat i o n supplemented with f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast was 9 7 0 grams. Supplementing t h i s d i e t with aureo-mycin increased the weight to 1 0 6 1 grams or an increase of 9 . 4 per cent. The increase obtained i n t h i s case was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The addition of f i s h meal to the basal r a t i o n re-sulted i n a s l i g h t improvement i n feed e f f i c i e n c y . On the other hand, the addition of dried brewers' yeast to the basal diet resulted i n a comparatively poor feed e f f i c i e n c y . A combination of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast proved to be superior to ei t h e r supplement alone with respect to feed e f f i c i e n c y . The best e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was obtained when the ra t i o n included the a n t i b i o t i c preparation. M o r t a l i t y One poult i n l o t T - l l died during the t h i r d week. Post mortem examination revealed i n t e s t i n a l inflamation and unabsorbed yolk. One poult i n l o t T - 1 4 died during the f i r s t week because of unabsorbed yolk. Two poults were k i l l e d i n l o t T - 1 5 . One was k i l l e d a ccidentally, while the other developed enlarged hocks. Both were removed from the experiment during the f i f t h week. 45 Conclusions 1. The results of t h i s test v e r i f i e d the conclusion reached i n the previous test, namely that the increase obtained i n test 2 when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with dried brewers' yeast waa due to an increase i n the l e v e l of b i o t i n as supplied by the dried brewers* yeast. As . no growth response was obtained i n test 3 when the basal ration was supplemented with dried brewers' yeast, i t would appear that a l e v e l of G.01 grams of b i o t i n per 100 pounds was s u f f i c i e n t under the conditions of t h i s t e s t . In addition, i t would appear that the uni d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) , postulated to be present i n dried brewers' yeast, was not required by the poults under the condi-tions of t h i s t e s t . 2. The addition of 5 per cent f i s h meal to the basal d i e t resulted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n rate of growth. This r e s u l t indicated that f i s h meal may contain a growth factor(s) required by the poults f o r maximum growth. 3. An a n t i b i o t i c supplement containing aureomycin hydro-chloride, when included i n the basal r a t i o n , resulted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n rate of growth. The increase i n rate of growth obtained when aureomycin was included i n the basal r a t i o n , which had been supplemented with both f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast, was not s i g n i f i c a n t . These results would indicate that the response to the 46 a n t i b i o t i c may vary with the composition of the r a t i o n . The results of t h i s test also indicated an improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n when f i s h meal or aureomycin was included i n the rat i o n . TABLE 10 Average Weights and Feed Effioienoy of Poults in Test 3 Ration Supplement Poults/Lot & Mortality Day Old 1 wk Ave. Weights 2 wks 3 wks (gms) 4 wks 5 wks 6 wks F / G * T-10 None. 14 (0) 53 100 165 276 436 620 870 2.16 T - l l Aureomyoin H (1) 55 101 175 306 484 685 969 2.07 T-12 Fish meal 14 (0) 54 101 180 293 478 682 971 2.11 T-13 Dried Brewers* Yeast 14 (0) 54 105 185 288 438 619 868 2.30 T-14 Fish meal Dried Brewers* Yeast H (1) 53 107 181 308 484 693 970 2.08 T-15 Fish meal Dried Brewers' Yeast Aureomycin 14 (2) 53 107 190 332 524 777 1061 2.07 * F/G S Total feed oonsumed/Total gain for test period 48 TABLE 11 Analysis of Variance Source of error Sum of Squares d f Variance Total Treatment Error 1,452,491 344,055 1,108,436 79 5 74 68,811* 14,979 * Significant at p x 0.01 Minimum Significant Difference af p = 0.01 126 at p = 0.05 95 49 Test 4  Introduction The r e s u l t s of tes t 2 indicated that dried brewers' yeast was superior to f i s h meal i n supplementing an a l l -vegetable protein ration. Further study of the data indicated that t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y may have been due to an increase i n the l e v e l of b i o t i n as supplied by the dried brewers' yeast. This assumption was v e r i f i e d i n tes t 3> when as a res u l t of increasing the l e v e l of supplementary b i o t i n , no increase i n weight was obtained with the dried brewers' yeast. In addition, supplementing the basal diet i n test 3 with f i s h meal d i d produce a growth response. I t appeared, therefore, that when the l e v e l of b i o t i n was adequate, f i s h meal was superior to dried brewers' yeast as a supplement to an all-vegetable protein ration. In the previous t e s t , the addition of an a n t i b i o t i c supplement to the basal corn-soybean o i l meal diet and the basal diet plus f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast resulted i n an increase i n the rate of growth of the poults. There was some ind i c a t i o n however, that the response to the a n t i -b i o t i c was dependent i n part on the composition of the diet i n which i t was included. 50 Purpose 1. To continue the study of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast as possible sources of u n i d e n t i f i e d factors. 2. To study the a c t i v i t y of an a n t i b i o t i c with respect to the composition of the r a t i o n i n which i t was included. Procedure Broad Breasted Bronze day old sexed poults were used i n t h i s test. The poults were weighed, wing-banded and d i s -tributed at random into sixteen l o t s with 12 to 16 poults per l o t . The f i r s t eight l o t s were maflie poults receiving rations T-17 to T-24 respectively. The next eight l o t s Were female poults also receiving rations T-27 to T-24 respectively. The number of poults per l o t and sex are given i n Table 12. The basal r a t i o n used i n t h i s test was the same as that used i n the previous t e s t . The supplements used were also the same. In the previous test, the a n t i b i o t i c preparation had been included i n only two rations, the basal and the basal supplemented with f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast. In t h i s t e s t , however, the a n t i b i o t i c preparation was i n -cluded i n a l l four rations, i . e . the basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast, alone and i n combination. The composition of the basal r a t i o n and the supplements used are given i n Tables 6 and 7. The poults were weighed at weekly i n t e r v a l s . The 51 average weekly weights f o r the five-week test period are given i n Table 12. The f i n a l average weights were graphed i n the form of a histogram, Figure 4. Feed e f f i c i e n c y was calculated each week. Only the o v e r a l l feed e f f i c i e n c y i s given i n Table 12. A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the f i n a l weights was con-ducted at the conclusion of the test. As a preliminary, an analysis of variance t e s t was applied to data of each sex, Table 13. This was done to evaluate the difference i n response to the a n t i b i o t i c preparation exhibited by each sex. The data of both sexes were then combined to study the e f f e c t of in t e r a c t i o n , Table 14. Results The addition of f i s h meal to the basal diet produced a highly s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the f i n a l weights of the male poults, but no increase was produced i n the female poults. No growth response was produced i n ei t h e r the male or female l o t s when the basal diet was supplemented with dried brewers' yeast or a combination of dried brewers' yeast and f i s h meal. The f i n a l average weight of the female poults re-ceiving the basal diet was 838 grams, exactly the same as that of the female poults receiving the basal diet plus aureo-mycin. No increase i n weight was observed when the basal 52 plus f i s h meal di e t was supplemented with the a n t i b i o t i c preparation. An increase of approximately 100 grams was observed, on the other hand, when the basal plus dried brewers* yeast d i e t was supplemented with the a n t i b i o t i c . The a n t i b i o t i c preparation also f a i l e d to increase the f i n a l weight of the female poults receiving the basal r a t i o n supplemented with both f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast. A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis showed no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n among the female l o t s i n response to the a n t i b i o t i c supple-ment. On the other hand, the response of the male poults to the a n t i b i o t i c supplement was considerably greater than that of the female poults. A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis showed a highly s i g n i f i c a n t response i n the case of the males. However, the r e l a t i v e increase i n weight obtained by supple-mentation with the a n t i b i o t i c varied. When the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with the a n t i b i o t i c , the increase i n weight of the poults was s i g n i f i c a n t . Supplementing the basal-f i s h meal ra t i o n with the a n t i b i o t i c produced an increase i n the weight of the poults which was not s i g n i f i c a n t . On the other hand, a highly s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n weight was ob-tained by supplementing the basal-dried brewers' yeast rat i o n with the a n t i b i o t i c . A s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n weight was also obtained when the basal plus f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast rat i o n was supplemented with the a n t i b i o t i c . The feed e f f i c i e n c y of the male poults was, i n a l l cases 53 except one, superior to that of the female poults. The Addition of the a n t i b i o t i c improved the feed e f f i c i e n c y s l i g h t l y i n nearly a l l cases. M o r t a l i t y The t o t a l m o r tality f o r t h i s test was 3.3 per cent. Three poults died during the f i r s t week. Post mortem examination revealed unabsorbed yolk to be the cause of death. The remainder of the mortality occurred during the f i f t h week. Two birds that developed porosis and one bi r d that f a i l e d to grow were removed from the experiment. One b i r d was also removed because of a badly broken wing. Conclusions 1. The s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n rate of growth obtained i n the male poults when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with f i s h meal indicated that f i s h meal contained a growth factor(s) required by the poults f o r maximum growth. 2 . The f a i l u r e of dried brewers' yeast to produce a growth response when added to the basal r a t i o n indicated that the u n i d e n t i f i e d growth f a c t o r ( s ) , postulated to be pre-sent i n dried brewers' yeast, was not required by the poults under the conditions of thi s experiment. 54 The degree of response obtained by supplementing the ratio n with an a n t i b i o t i c preparation appeared to depend, i n part on the composition of the rati o n with which i t was used. TABLE 12 Average Weights and Feed Efficiency of Poults in Test 4 Ration Supplement Sex Poults/Lot & Mortality Day Old 1 wk 2 wks 3 wks 4 wks 5 wks F/G* T-17 None M 13 (0) 57 112 212 372 637 872 2.00 F 14 (2) 56 108 195 345 600 838 2.01 T-18 Pish meal M 13 (1) 57 120 237 414 738 1023 1.91 F 14 (1) 58 107 198 343 572 799 2.04 T-19 Dried Brewers1 Yeast M 12 (2) 55 106 209 370 623 877 2.05 F 14 (0) 60 110 208 341 578 797 2.12 T-20 Fish meal M 12 (0) 58 119 229 386 644 906 2.06 Dried Brewers' Yeast F 14 (0) 55 107 198 338 548 793 2.03 T-21 Aureomycin M 12 (0) 58 121 239 415 723 990 1.94 F 14 (o) 57 119 225 381 619 838 2.01 T-22 Fish meal M 12 (0) 60 128 254 452 782 1088 1.84 Aureomycin F 14 (0) 56 115 217 361 591 800 1.93 T-23 Dried Brewers* Yeast M 12 (o) 58 135 258 434 733 1024 1.97 Aureomycin F 13 (1) 57 122 233 388 649 899 2.03 T-24 Fish meal M 12 (o) 67 144 279 450 753 1036 1.98 Dried Brewers* Yeast F 13 (o) 58 121 224 370 605 828 2.11 Aureomycin * F/G B Total feed consumed/Total gain for test period 56 TABLE 13 Males Souroe of Error Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares df Variance Total Treatment Error 1,890,979 598,073 1,292,906 94 7 87 85,439* 14,861 * Significant at p s 0.01 Minimum Significant Difference at p s 0.01 132 at p a 0.05 99 Females Source of Error Sum of Squares df Variance Total Treatment Error 1,302,407 146,978 1,155,429 1 0 5 7 98 20,997 11,790 57 TABLE 14 Analysis of Variance Interaction Source of Error Sum of Squares df Variance Total 4,378,867 200 Supplement 31,363 3 10,454 Sex 1,185,481 1 1,185,481 Antibiotic 357,333 1 357,333 Supplement x Sex 199,693 3 66,564 Supplement x Antibiotio 72,602 3 24,201 Sex x Antibiotic 80,539 1 80,539 Supplement x Sex x Antibiotio 356,355 3 118,785 Error 2,095,501 185 11,327 No significance when Supplement x Sex x Antibiotic was used as the testing error. BASAL FISHMEAL 800 _ 750 I 2 3 4 2 8 1 2 3 4 BASAL DRIED BREWERS' YEAST 2 g 09 1 2 3 4 1 2 '3 4 1 MALE - WITHOUT AUREOMYCIN 2 MALE - WITH AUREOMYCIN 3 FEMALE - WITHOUT AUREOMYCIN 4 FEMALE - WITH AUREOMYCIN (Figure 4) FIFTH WEEK AVERAGE WEIGHTS OF POULTS IN TEST 4. 5-9 Test 5  Introduction A study of the data obtained i n tests 2, 3 and 4 showed the following points: 1. The poults receiving the rations containing corn as the cereal grain were s l i g h t l y heavier than those receiving the rations containing wheat as the cereal grain. The differences i n weight, however, were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 2. The addition of 5 per cent f i s h meal to the a l l -vegetable protein r a t i o n increased the rate of growth of the poults. 3 . The addition of 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast f a i l e d to produce a growth response. Test 4 was conducted to study these points further. Purpose 1. To compare the n u t r i t i o n a l value of corn and wheat when included i n an all-vegetable protein r a t i o n . 2. To continue the study of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast as sources of u n i d e n t i f i e d factors. 60 Procedure Broad Breasted Bronze day old sexed poults were used i n t h i s t e s t . The poults were weighed, wing-banded and dist r i b u t e d at random into sixteen l o t s with 15 poults per l o t . The eight rations were d i s t r i b u t e d so that one male and one female l o t received the same ration. The basal corn rat i o n used i n t h i s t e s t was the same as that used i n the previous t e s t . The basal wheat r a t i o n was the same as r a t i o n T - l used i n test 2. The supplements used were again f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast. The experimental plan i s given i n Table 15. The composition of the rations used i n t h i s test are given i n Tables 6 and 7. The poults were weighed each week. Only the average day old, second, fourth and s i x t h week weights are given i n Table 15. The f i n a l weights were plotted i n the form of a histogram, Figure 5 . The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was calculated by div i d i n g the t o t a l feed consumed by the t o t a l gain f o r the tes t period of 6 weeks. Results are given i n Table 15. The f i n a l weight data were submitted to a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. As a preliminary, the analysis of variance test was applied to the data f o r each sex, Table 16. This was followed by a study of in t e r a c t i o n . The r e s u l t s are given i n Table 17. 61 Results The male poults receiving the diets containing corn were i n a l l instances heavier than those receiving the wheat diets. On the other hand, 2 l o t s of females, T-26 and T-32, receiving wheat rations, were heavier than those re-ceiving the respective corn rations. The differences i n weights of the poults receiving the corn and wheat rations were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The results obtained i n previous tests when a corn-soybean o i l meal d i e t was supplemented with f i s h meal and/ or dried brewers 1 yeast were not e n t i r e l y duplicated i n t h i s t e s t . The f i n a l weights of the male poults receiving the basal corn diet only (T-25) were greater than those of the male poults receiving the basal diet supplemented with either f i s h meal, dried brewers' yeast or a combination of both. A growth response was produced i n the female poults, however, when the basal corn diet (T-25) was supplemented with either of the supplements or a combination of the two. The greatest response i n the female groups was produced when the basal corn diet was supplemented with f i s h meal. The male poults receiving the wheat diets did show an improvement i n rate of growth when the wheat basal r a t i o n was supplemented with 5 per cent f i s h meal, 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast or a combination of both. This was also true of the female poults except those receiving r a t i o n T-30 (wheat basal plus dried brewers' yeast). 62 The average weights of the poults receiving e i t h e r the corn or wheat basal rations supplemented with f i s h meal were, i n most instances, greater than those of the poults receiving the basal diets supplemented with dried brewers' yeast. A combination of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast did not appear to be superior to either alone. A s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data showed a s i g n i f i -cant difference i n the f i n a l average weights of the female l o t s . This was due however, to the r e l a t i v e l y low average weight of the poults i n l o t T-25. The differences between the average weights of the female poults of a l l other l o t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . An analysis of the f i n a l average weights of the male poults showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences. The data f o r males and females were combined and analyzed f o r the e f f e c t of i n t e r a c t i o n . No s t a t i s t i c a l difference was noted except i n the variance due to sex. These results are given i n Tables 16 and 17. A study of the feed e f f i c i e n c y data indicated two re-s u l t s : (1) The feed e f f i c i e n c y of the male poults was s l i g h t -l y superior to that of the female poults i n every case, and (2) the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was s l i g h t l y better when the r a t i o n included corn. M o r t a l i t y The mortality which occurred i n t h i s test was the 63 highest of any t e s t i n t h i s s e r i e s . A t o t a l of 240 poults were started and 219 were l e f t at the conclusion of the t e s t . This was a t o t a l of 8.7 per cent mortality. Approximately 85 per cent of the mortality occurred during the f i r s t two weeks of the t e s t , the remaining during the f i f t h and s i x t h weeks. The cause of m o r t a l i t y could i n no way be attributed to the experimental diets used. Conclusions 1. The average weights of the poults receiving the' corn rations were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those of the poults receiving the wheat rations. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was s l i g h t l y bettier with the corn rations. 2. The addition of 5 per cent f i s h meal to either the corn or wheat ra t i o n f a i l e d to produce a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the rate of growth of the poults. These re s u l t s i n -dicated that the growth factor(s) present i n f i s h meal, as demonstrated i n previous tests, was not required by the poults i n t e s t 4. The f a i l u r e of the poults to res-pond to the addition of f i s h meal i n t e s t 4 may be due to a carry-over of the growth factor(s) from the parent stock. 3. The f a i l u r e of dried brewers' yeast to produce a growth 64 response when used as a supplement to both the corn and wheat rations indicated that the u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) , postulated to be present i n dried brewers' yeast, was not required by the poults under the conditions of t h i s t e s t . TABLE 15 Average Weights and Feed Effioienoy of Poults In Test 5 tat ion Cereal Supplement Sex Poults/Lot & Mortality Ave. Weights (gms) Day Old 2 wks 4 wks 6 wks F / G * T-25 Corn None M 15 (1) 54 224 625 1270 2.03 F 15 (2) 54 184 474 886 2.18 T-26 Wheat None M 15 (0) 56 213 593 1192 , 2.15 F 15 (1) 55 201 543 992 2.22 T-27 Corn Fish meal M 15 (0) 56 224 627 1246 1.97 F 15 (2) 55 200 539 1056 2.08 T-28 Wheat Fish meal M 15 (1) 55 227 605 1235 2.17 F 15 (1). 54 215 547 1034 2.25 T-29 Corn Dried Brewers* Yeast M 15 (1) 56 236 643 1264 2.06 p- 15 (2) 55 208 533 984 2.15 T-30 Wheat Dried Brewers* Yeast M 15 CD- 52 217 599 1189 2.20 7F 15 Co) 53 191 523 981 2.23 T-31 Corn Fish meal M 15 (o) 50 216 608 1232> 2.02 Dried Brewers* Yeast F 15 (4) 53 202 537 1016 2.12 T-32 Wheat Fish meal M 15 (4) 53 217 586 1214 2.20 Dried Brewers* Yeast 15 (1) 54 213 546 1049 2.26 * F/G S Total feed consumed/Total gain for test period 66 TABLE 16 Males Source of Error Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares df Varianoe Total Treatment Error 1,963,211 90,715 1,872,496 111 7 104 12,959 18,005 Females Source of Error Sum of Squares df Varianoe Total Treatment Error 1,766,421 271,654 1,494,767 106 7 99 38,808* 15,099 * Significant at p : 0.01 Minimum Significant Difference at p r 0.01 125 at p = 0.05 94 67 Interaction TABLE 17 Analysis of Varianoe Source of Error Sum of Squares df Varianoe Total Supplement Sex Grain Supplement x Sex Supplement x Grain Sex x Grain Supplement x Sex x Grain Error 6,641,514 106,430 2,911,682 23,864 84,759 22,091 56,125 232,075 3,204,288 218 3 1 1 3 3 1 3 203 35,477 2,911,882* 23,864 28,253 7,364 56,125 77,358 15,785 * Significant at p - 0.01 when Supplement x Sex x Grain was used as the testing error. ( 1 2 3 4 1 MALE - CORN 2 MALE - WHEAT 1 2 3 4. 3 FEMALE - CORN 4 FEMALE - WHEAT (Figure 5) SIXTH WEEK AFERAGE WEIGHTS OF POULTS IN TEST 5. ON 6.9 IV DISCUSSION The results of tests 2 and 5 showed that the average weights of the poults receiving the rations, containing corn as the cereal grain, were s l i g h t l y heavier than those receiving the rations containing wheat. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was also s l i g h t l y better with the corn rations. While the differences i n average weights of the poults were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the results did indicate that corn was s l i g h t l y better as a cereal grain i n an all-vegetable protein diet than was wheat. A search of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed no studies i n which the n u t r i t i v e value of corn and wheat f o r turkey poults was compared. On the other hand, several studies of t h i s nature have been conducted with chicks. Scott et a l (55) reported that corn was superior to wheat when included i n a b r o i l e r ration. Garrick and Roberts (56) found that replacing 20 per cent of the corn with equal parts of wheat bran and wheat middlings i n chick rations reduced growth and feed e f f i c i e n c y . However, B i e l y et a_l (57) have shown that wheat can be used to replace corn i n the Connecticut b r o i l e r ration, provided the l e v e l of the supplementary protein was not reduced. A reduction i n growth occurred when the supplementary protein was reduced to compensate f o r the higher protein content of wheat. 70 The primary purpose of Experiment I I was to determine i f f i s h meal or dried brewers' yeast contain an u n i d e n t i f i e d factor!s) necessary f o r maximum rate of growth i n turkey poults. As noted above, the basal r a t i o n used i n these tests was an all-vegetable protein ration, well f o r t i f i e d with a mixture of vitamins, including 10 micrograms of Vitamin Per pound. The primary protein source was soy-bean o i l meal. In test 2, the addition of 5 per cent f i s h meal to the wheat-soybean o i l meal diet did not increase the average weight of the poults at 8 weeks. Supplementing the wheat ra t i o n with 5 per cent dried brewers* yeast did increase the average weight of the poults at 8 weeks. I t was suspected that t h i s increase was due primarily to an increase i n the l e v e l of b i o t i n as supplied by the dried brewers* yeast. Robblee et a l (54) bas shown that many p r a c t i c a l turkey s t a r t i n g rations are d e f i c i e n t i n b i o t i n . This suspicion was further confirmed by the results obtained when the wheat ratio n was supplemented with both f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast. In t h i s case, the average weight of the poults was 1376 grams, an increase of 66 grams over the weight of the poults receiving the wheat r a t i o n supplemented with dried brewers' yeast only. I f b i o t i n was the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the wheat rati o n , the addition of f i s h meal could not be expected to increase the weight of the poults. When, however, 71 the b i o t i n deficiency was corrected by the addition of dried brewers' yeast, the f i s h meal did produce an increase i n the average weight. In view of the p o s s i b i l i t y that the basal rations were de f i c i e n t i n b i o t i n , the l e v e l of supplementary b i o t i n was increased from 0.0025 to 0.01 grams per 100 pounds i n tests 3, 4 and 5. The r e s u l t s of t h i s procedure further confirmed the suspicion that the basal rations were d e f i c i e n t i n b i o t i n , as the addition of dried brewers' yeast f a i l e d to give a growth response i n any of the subsequent tests. The basal r a t i o n used i n te s t 3 contained corn as the cereal grain. Supplementing the basal r a t i o n with 5 per cent f i s h meal produced a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the weights of the poults at 6 weeks of age. As noted above, the addition of dried brewers' yeast f a i l e d to give a growth response. A combination of f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast produced the same response as f i s h meal alone. The results obtained i n te s t 4 were, to some extent, s i m i l a r to those obtained i n t e s t 3. In t e s t 4, a s i g n i f i -cant increase i n the growth of male poults was noted when the basal corn r a t i o n was supplemented with 5 per cent f i s h meal. The addition of dried brewers' yeast again f a i l e d to produce a growth response. On the other hand, the female poults f a i l e d to respond to f i s h meal or dried brewers' yeast, either alone or i n combination. In test 5, both the male and 72 « female poults f a i l e d to respond to any of the supplements used, The results obtained i n the four tests conducted, while somewhat variable, did show i n three instances an increase i n the weights of the poults when the basal diets were supple-mented with 5 per cent f i s h meal. The increase i n weight was highly s i g n i f i c a n t i n two cases. Several reports have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e to indicate that f i s h meal may be a source of un i d e n t i f i e d v i t -amins. Carlson e_t a l (43), using a p u r i f i e d basal ra t i o n , observed a greater response i n chicks when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with f i s h meal than when supplemented with a Vitamin B^ 2 preparation. These workers concluded that f i s h meal contained an u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) required by the chick i n addition to Vitamin B-_2. In 1941, Patri c k (15) reported studies on supplements f o r high soybean o i l meal rations f o r poults. The supple-mentary value of f i s h meal and other f i s h products were tested along with a Vitamin B 1 2 concentrate. Patrick con-cluded that Vitamin B 1 2 did not account f o r the early rapid growth obtained when f i s h meal or f i s h solubles were i n -cluded i n the ration. He suggested that f i s h meal con-t a i n e d an u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) required f o r maximum poult growth. As noted previously, the basal rations used i n the tests 73 reported here were supplemented with Vitamin i n addition to other vitamins required by the poult. Soybean o i l meal has been shown to promote good poult growth, Funk and Kempster ( 2 ) , Brant _et a l ( 3 ) , Headly et a l (4) and Hammond et a l ( 5 ) . In view of these f a c t s , the response to f i s h meal i n t h i s study indicated the presence of an u n i d e n t i f i e d growth factor(s) required by the poult f o r adequate growth. This conclusion was not v e r i f i e d i n test 5, however, as the results i n t h i s test showed no response to the f i s h meal supplement. The f a i l u r e of the poults i n test 5 to respond to the f i s h meal supplement may have been due to a carry-over of the u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) from the parent stock. As the poults were purchased from commercial sources, no data were available on the breeder rations used. In the studies reported here, dried brewers' yeast was also tested as a source of u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) . Several reports have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n which dried brewers' yeast has been shown to contain an u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) , H i l l j 3 t a l ( 4 1 ) , Carlson eit a l (43), . Combs and Shaffner (44) and Menge et a l ( 4 9 ) . The results of the tests conducted showed no response to the addition of dried brewers' yeast with the exception of test 1. As noted above, however, t h i s response appeared 74 to be due to the b i o t i n supplied by the dried brewers 1 yeast. I t appeared, therefore, that the u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) , postulated to be present i n dried brewers' yeast, was not required by the poults under the conditions of t h i s experiment. This may have been due to a carry-over of the factor(s) from the turkey hen to the poult, or the factor(s) may have been supplied by other ingredients i n the d i e t . Two rations i n tes t 3 were supplemented with an a n t i -b i o t i c preparation containing aureomycin hydrochloride. These were the basal corn r a t i o n and the basal r a t i o n supplemented with f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast. The addition of the a n t i b i o t i c to both rations re-sulted i n an increase i n the weights of the poults at 6 weeks of age. The increase i n weight obtained when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with the a n t i b i o t i c was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and approximately the same as that obtained when the basal r a t i o n was supplemented with f i s h meal. The addition of the a n t i b i o t i c to the basal r a t i o n supplemented with f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast did not produce a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n growth. Many reports have appeared i n ,the l i t e r a t u r e with re-gard to the growth stimulating property of a n t i b i o t i c s . Stokstad and Jukes (21) reported a growth response i n poults with the addition of c r y s t a l l i n e aureomycin. Robertson (22) reported a 10 per cent increase i n growth at 4 weeks of age 75 when streptomycin was added at a l e v e l of 0.008 per cent to a rati o n containing animal protein sources. McGinnis et a l (23) reported an increase i n growth of poults with the addition of c r y s t a l l i n e aureomycin to a ra t i o n containing Vitamin B T h e re s u l t s of test 2 are i n agreement with those reported by the above investigators. In test 4, the a n t i b i o t i c was added to the basal r a t i o n and a l l supplemented rations. The results indicated a difference i n response to the a n t i b i o t i c with respect to sex. The increase i n weight of the male poults was highly s i g n i f i c a n t when the aureomycin was included i n the ra t i o n . On the other hand, l i t t l e or no response was observed i n the female poults. This was i n contrast to the res u l t s of Almquist and Merrit (24). These workers reported no d i f f e r -ence i n the response to an a n t i b i o t i c supplement on the basis of sex. The addition of the a n t i b i o t i c to the basal r a t i o n i n -creased the f i n a l average weight of the male poults by 118 grams or 13.5 per cent. The difference i n f i n a l average weights of the poults receiving the b a s a l - f i s h meal diet and bas a l - f i s h meal diet supplemented with the a n t i b i o t i c was 65 grams, an increase of only 6.3 per cent. An increase of 16.7 per cent i n weight occurred, however, when the basal-dried brewers' yeast r a t i o n was supplemented with the a n t i -b i o t i c , The f i n a l average weight of the male poults receiving 76 the basal r a t i o n supplemented with f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast was 906 grams, while the weight of the poults receiving the same ra t i o n with the a n t i b i o t i c preparation was IO36 grams, a difference of 130 grams or 14.3 per cent. These results indicated a difference i n response to the a n t i b i o t i c between various l o t s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been reported by other investigators. Scott e_t &1 (31) reported that the addition of f i s h solubles, to a r a t i o n containing an a n t i b i o t i c , produced a growth response. The addition of dried brewers' yeast, however, did not produce a growth response. Matterson and co-workers (33) found-that the greatest percentage growth response was obtained when an a l l -vegetable protein d i e t was supplemented with an a n t i b i o t i c . From the results reported here and those of other i n v e s t i -gators, i t would appear that the growth response obtained by supplementing a ra t i o n with an a n t i b i o t i c may depend i n part on the composition of the ration. Supplementation of the rations i n tests 3 and 4 with aureomycin improved the e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n i n nearly every case. The degree of improvement varied with the dif f e r e n t rations. These results are i n agreement with those reported by other workers, such as Atkinson and Couch (29) and Branion and H i l l (28). 77 The results of t h i s study have shown that f i s h meal contains a factor or factors required by turkey poults f o r maximum growth. S i m i l a r findings have been reported by several investigators. While dried brewers* yeast f a i l e d to produce a growth response under the conditions of t h i s t e s t , considerable evidence i s available i n d i c a t i n g that i t , too, contains an u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r ( s ) . In addition to f i s h meal and dried brewers' yeast, other materials such as dried whey, l i v e r f r a c t i o n s and grass juice have been shown to contain u n i d e n t i f i e d growth factors. The i s o l a t i o n and p u r i f i c a t i o n of these u n i d e n t i f i e d factors remain f o r future research. 78 V SUMMARY A series of four t e s t s , involving a t o t a l of 610 poults, was conducted to study f i s h meal and dried brewers* yeast as sources of u n i d e n t i f i e d factors required by turkey poults f o r maximum growth. An all-vegetable protein ration, supple-mented with a l l known vitamins, was used as a basal r a t i o n . Wheat was substituted f o r corn i n two tests. The poults were reared i n batteries on wire screen f l o o r s f o r the duration of each t e s t . 1. The addition of 5 per cent f i s h meal to the all-vegetable protein r a t i o n produced an increase i n the rate of growth of the poults. These results indicated that f i s h meal con-tained an u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) required by poults f o r maximum growth. The degree of response to f i s h meal varied i n the d i f f e r e n t tests. I t i s suggested that there may have been a carry-over of the un i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) from the parent stock. 2. The addition of 5 per cent dried brewers' yeast to the all-vegetable basal r a t i o n f a i l e d to produce a growth res-ponse. This would indicate that the un i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) postulated to be present i n dried brewers' yeast was not required by the poults under the conditions of t h i s exper-iment. 3. ' The u n i d e n t i f i e d factor(s) demonstrated to be present i n f i s h meal was not present i n dried brewers* yeast. 4. Supplementation of various rations with an a n t i b i o t i c pre-paration containing aureomycin produced an increase i n the average weights of the male poults, but f a i l e d to produce an increase i n the average weights of the female poults. The degree of response to aureomycin obtained i n the male poults appeared to depend i n part on the composition of the r a t i o n with which i t was used. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n was improved s l i g h t l y when aureomycin was i n -cluded i n the rat i o n . 5. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the weights of the poults receiving wheat and those fed corn as the cereal part of the diet. The e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a -t i o n was s l i g h t l y better with the corn rations. 79 The requirement of the poult f o r an u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r present i n f i s h meal has been demonstrated with rations containing either wheat or corn. 80 VI BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Hunter, J.E., D.R. Marble and H.C. Khandel, 1935. "Vegetable protein In turkey r a t i o n s . " Penn. State Agr. Sta. Bui. 321. 2. Funk, E.M. and H.L. Kempster, 1940. "The use of veg-etable protein concentrates f o r r a i s i n g turkeys." Univ. of Missouri Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 414. 3 . Brant, A.W., C.I. Draper and R.J. Evans, 1944. "Growing turkeys on rations low i n animal protein." Wash. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 441 4 . Headley, F.B., 1944. "The eff e c t of substituting vegetable protein f o r meat protein i n a r a t i o n f o r growing turkeys." Nevada Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 168 5. Hammond, J . C , S.K. Haynes, S.J. Marsden and H.W. Titus, 1944. "Vegetable, protein diets f o r turkeys." Poultry S c i . 23:105-109 6. F r i t z , J . C , J.L. Halpin and J. Hooper, 1947. "Studies on the n u t r i t i o n a l requirements. of poults." Poultry S c i . 26 :78-82. 7. B i r d , H.R., S.J. Marsden, W.L. Kellogg, 1948. "Supplements f o r soybean meal i n turkey d i e t s . " Poultry S c i . 2 7 : 5 3 - 5 9 . 8. Scott, M.L., G.F. Heuser and L.C Norris, 1948. "Energy, protein and un i d e n t i f i e d vitamins i n poult n u t r i t i o n . " Poultry S c i . 2 7 : 7 7 3 - 7 8 0 . 9 . Slinger, S.J., D.C. H i l l , K.M. Gartley and H.D. Branion, 1949, "Soybean o i l meal and sunflower seed meal i n rations f o r Broad Breasted Bronze turkeys." Poultry S o i . 2 8 : 5 3 4 - 5 4 0 . 10. B i r d , H.R., S.J. Marsden, A.C Groschke and R.J. L i l l i e , 1948, "Reduced requirement f o r the unknown growth factor during the later, stages of growth of chickens and turkeys." Poultry S o i . 27:654. 11. Smith, Lester E., 1948. " P u r i f i c a t i o n of antipernicious factors from l i v e r . " Nature 161: 6 3 8 - 6 3 9 . 81 12. Rickes, E.L., N.G. Brink, E.R. Koniuszy, T.R. Wood and K. F o l k i e r s , 1948. " C r y s t a l l i n e Vitamin B12." Science 107:396-397. 13. L i l l i e , R.J., S.J. Marsden, A.C. Groschke and H.R. Bi r d , 1949. "Relative requirement and source of vitamin B 1 2 f o r turkeys and chickens during the l a t t e r stages of growth." Poultry S c i . 2 8 : 5 4 1 - 5 4 8 . 14. Richardson, L.R. and L.G. Blaylock, 1950. "Supple-ments to soybean and cottonseed meal diets f o r poults and growing turkeys." Poultry S c i . 2 9 : 6 5 1 - 6 5 5 . 15. Patrick, Homer, 1951. "Studies on supplements f o r high soybean o i l meal rations f o r early poult growth." Poultry S c i . 3 0 : 7 0 - 7 1 . 16. Moore, P.R., A. Evenson, T.D. Luckey, E. McCoy, CA. Elvehjem and E.B. Hart, 1946. "Use of s u l f a -suxidine, s t r e p t o t h r i c i n and streptomycin i n nut-r i t i o n a l studies with chicks." J. B i o l . Chem. 165:437-441. ~~ 17. Stokstad, E.L.R., T.H. Jukes, J. Pierce, A.C. Page, J r . , and A.L. Franklin, 1949. "The multiple nature of the animal protein factor." J. B i o l . Chem. 180: 647-654. 18. McGinnis, J . , E.L. Stephenson, B.T. Levadie, J.S. Carver, J.A. G a r i b a l d i , N.S. S h e l l , J.C. Lewis, 1950. "Response of chicks and turkey poults to vitamin B 1 2 supplements produced by fermentation with d i f f e r -ent organisms." Abstract of paper, 116 meeting of  Amer. Chem. Soc: 4 2 a . 19. Singsen, E.P. and L.D. Matterson, 1949. Hew England Feedmans Meeting Conn. Agric. Exp. Stn. Aug:18. 20. Stokstad, E.L.R. and Juckes, T.H., 1950. "Further observations on the animal protein factor." Proc. Soc. Exp. B i o l . Med. 73:523. It Stokstad, E.L.R. and T.H. Juckes, 1950. "Growth promoting e f f e c t of aureomycin on turkey poults, Poultry S c i . 29:611-612. 22. Robertson, E.I., 1950. "The response of poults to animal protein, feed p a r t i c l e size and a n t i b i o t i c s . " Poultry S c i . 29:777. 82 23. McGinnis, J., L.R. Berg, J.R. Stern, R.A. Wilcox and G.E. Bearse, 1950. "The e f f e c t of aureomycin and streptomycin on growth of chicks and turkey poults." Poultry Sci.29:771. 24. Almquist, H.J. and J.B. Merrit, 1951. "The effect of vitamin B12 and c r y s t a l l i n e aureomycin on growth of poults.» Poultry Sci.30:312. 25. Davis, R.L. and G.M. Briggs, 1951. "Studies with a n t i b i o t i c s i n chick and poult s t a r t i n g rations." Poultry Sci.30:767-771. 26. McGinnis, J . , J.R. Stern, R.A. Wilcox and J.S. Carver, 1951. "The ef f e c t of d i f f e r e n t a n t i b i o t i c s on growth of turkey poults." Poultry S c i . 30:492-496. 27. Patrick, Homer, 1951. "Vitamin B 1 2 and a n t i b i o t i c s i n turkey poult n u t r i t i o n . " Poultry S c i . 30:549-551. 28. Branion, H.D. and D.C. H i l l , 1951. "The comparative effect of a n t i b i o t i c s on the growth of poults." Poultry S c i . 30:793-798. 29. Atkinson, R.L. and J.R. Couch, 1952. " C r y s t a l l i n e a n t i b i o t i c s i n the n u t r i t i o n of poults kept on raised screen f l o o r s . " Poultry S c i . 31:115-118. 30. Sieburth, J.McN., J.R. Stern and J. McGinnis, 1952. "The e f f e c t of a n t i b i o t i c s and f e c a l preparations on growth of turkey poults." Poultry S c i . 31:625-627. 31. Scott, H . M . , W.A. G l i s t a and E.A. G a f f i , 1951. "Growth ef f e c t s of certai n supplements added to a corn-soybean o i l meal chick r a t i o n with and without a n t i b i o t i c . " Poultry S c i . 30:930. 32. McGinnis, J., 1951. "What's new i n poultry n u t r i t i o n . " Eeedstuffs 23:40. 33. Matterson, R.D. and E.P. Singsen, 1951. "A comparison of several a n t i b i o t i c s as growth stimulants i n p r a c t i c a l chick s t a r t i n g rations." Conn. Storrs.  Agr. Exp. Bui. 275:20. 34. Berg, L.R., 1951. " A n t i b i o t i c s i n feeds f o r b r o i l e r s . " Wash. State College N u t r i t i o n Conference Apr. 2-3:65. 83 35. Hutchings, B.L. , J.J. Oleson and E.L.R. Stokstad, 1946. "The l a c t o h a c i l l u s casei factor i n the n u t r i t i o n of the chick." J. B i o l . Chem. 163:447-453. 36. Rubin, M. and H.R. Bird , 1946. "A chick growth f a c t o r i n cow manure. I. I t s non-identity with chick growth factors previously described." J. B i o l .  Chem. 163:387-392. 37. Petering, H.G. , J.P. Marvel, C E . Glausier, J r . , and J. Waddel, 1946. "A study of the requirements of White Leghorn chicks f o r new and u n i d e n t i f i e d members of the vitamin B complex." J. B i o l . Chem. 162:477-489. 38. Ott, W.H., E.L. Rickes and T.R. Wood, 1948. " A c t i v i t y of c r y s t a l l i n e vitamin Bi? f o r chick growth. J. B i o l . Chem. 174:1047-1048. 39. L i l l i e , R.J., CA. Denton and H.R. Bi r d , 1948. "Relation of vitamin Bi2 to the growth f a c t o r present i n cow manure." J. B i o l . Chem. 176:1477-1478. 40. Nichol, CA., L.S. D i e t r i c h , W.W. Cravens and CA. Elvehjem, 1949. " A c t i v i t y of vitamin B 1 2 i n the growth of chicks." Proc. Soc. Exp. B i o l . Med. 70:40-42. 41. H i l l , F.W., M.L. Scott, L.C Norris and G.F. Heuser, 1944. "Deficiency of u n i d e n t i f i e d vitamins i n p r a c t i c a l chick rations." Poultry S c i . 23:253-255. 42. Novak, A.F., S.M. Hague and CW. Carrick, 1947. "An uni d e n t i f i e d growth factor i n d i s t i l l e r s ' dried s o l -ubles e s s e n t i a l f o r the chick." Poultry S c i . 26: 604-609. 43. Carlson, CW., R.F. M i l l e r , H.T. Peeler, L.C Norris and G.F. Heuser, 1949. "The complex nature of the animal protein f a c t o r . " Poultry S c i . 28:750-752. 44. Combs, G.F. and C S . Shaffner, 1950. "Further evidence f o r an uni d e n t i f i e d growth f a c t o r required by the poult." Poultry S c i . 29:623-624. 45. Whitehall, A.R., J.J. Olsen and B.L. Hutchings, 1950. "Stimulatory e f f e c t of aureomycin on the growth of chicks." Proc. Soc. Exp. B i o l . Med. 74:11-13. « 84 46. Reed, J.R. J r . , R.L. Atkinson and J.R. Couch, 1951. "Dried whey as a source of un i d e n t i f i e d factors f o r the growing chick." J. N u t r i t i o n 43:501-513. 47. Arscott, G.H. and G.F. Combs, 1950. "Effects on growth of various crude supplements added to corn-soybean meal chick rations adequate i n vitamin B__2." Poultry S c i . 29:746. 48. Combs, G.F. , CW. Carlson, R.F. M i l l e r , H.T. Peeler, L.C Norris and G.F. Heuser, 1950. "Studies of un i d e n t i f i e d growth factors." J. B i o l . Chem. 182: 727-737. 49. Menge, H., G.F. Combs, Peng-Tung Hsu and Mary S. Shorb, 1952. "Unidentified growth factors required by chicks and poults. 1. Studies with chicks using p u r i f i e d d i e t s . " Poultry S c i . 31:237-247. 50. Savage, J.E. , B.L. O'Dell, H.L. Kempster and A.C Hogan, 1950. "The requirement of the chick f o r an un-recognized growth factor." Poultry S o i . 29: 779. 51. H i l l , E.G. and G.M. Briggs, 1950. "Studies on an un-i d e n t i f i e d growth promoting factor i n cereals and other natural products f o r chicks." Poultry S o i . 29: 763. 52. McGinnis, J. , L.R. Berg, J.R. Stern, M.E. Starr, R.A. Wilcox and J.S. Carver, 1952. "Additional evidence f o r an un i d e n t i f i e d growth promoting f a c t o r f o r turkeys and chicks." Poultry S c i . 31:100-106. 53. Funk, E.M., 1943. "The r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of gains i n weight made by male and female Bronze turkeys." Poultry S o i . 22:3-10. 54. Robblee, A.R. and D.R. Clandinin, 1950. "The use of B-vitamins i n p r a c t i c a l turkey s t a r t e r s . " Poultry S c i . 29:777. 55. Scott, H.M. , L.D. Matterson and E.P. Singsen, 1947. " N u t r i t i o n a l factors influencing growth and feed u t i l -i z a t i o n . The eff e c t of the source of carbohydrate." Poultry S c i . 26:554. 35 56. Carrick, CW. and R.E. Roberts, 1947. "Studies on feed e f f i c i e n c y . 1. The r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of corn and wheat products i n chick rations." Poultry S c i . 26:111-117. 57. B i e l y , J., B.E. March, G.L. Inkin and G.T. Eedy, 1951. "Wheat versus corn i n the Connecticut b r o i l e r r a t i o n . " Poultry S c i . 30:593-598. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106724/manifest

Comment

Related Items