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The effect of various levels of potassium fertilizers on the yield and the nutrient value of carrots… McNeill, Ronald James 1952

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THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS IEVELS OF POTASSIUM~ FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD AND THE NUTRIENT VALUE OF CARROTS AND RADISHES fey Ronald James McNeill, B.S.A.  A thesis submitted i n partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science i n Agriculture i n the Department of Horticulture (Plant Nutrition)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture  Members of the Department of Horticulture The University of British Columbia A p r i l 1952  ABSTRACT THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD AND THE NUTRIENT' VALUE OF CARROTS AND RADISHES by Ronald. James McNeill, B.S.A. The welfare of mankind i s intimately bound up with the welfare of soils and plants as a l l of man's food comes, i n the, f i r s t instance, from plants. Much research has been done to increase yields but l i t t l e i s known of the nutrient values of plants. Since l i t t l e i s known about potassium's effect on the nutrient value of plants, and because carrots have a high Vitamin A precursor content and radishes have a higher Vitamin C content, the author decided to determine what level of potash f e r t i l i z a t i o n should be applied for optimum nutrient value i n carrots and radishes. His decisions were, that while the addition of potash to land containing sufficient readily available potassium appears to tend to reduce yields, i t does increase the mineral content of the produce.  I t also increases the total sugar up to a point  after which i t inhibits the carbohydrate formation. The author also found that additional potassium has no effect on the nitrogen content and, while i t has no significant effect on the Vitamin A content i t does have a very definite upward trend to produce more with the increases of potassium applied. The addition of potash increases the trend to produce more Vitamin C to the extent that high and very high levels of potassium applications become significant. The author found that correlation exists between the application of potassium and the protective nutrient value i n plants.  ACKNDWEDGMENT  The writer wishes to thank sincerely Dr. G.H. Harris, Professor, Department of Horticulture, University of British Coltxaibia, for his advice i n the setting up of this experiment; for his assistance i n getting the analytical work done, and for his helpful suggestions i n planning and preparing this thesis. Sincere thanks are given also to Dr. A.P. Barss, Professor and Head of the Department of Horticulture, University of British Columbia, for his constant and kindly help and guidance. Thanks are also due to Dr. CA. Hornby, Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, University of British Columbia, for h i s careful explanation of various s t a t i s t i c a l methods; to Mr. Robert J. Edgar, Laboratory Instructor (1952), Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, f o r h i s very valuable assistance with the analytical work on the radishes, and to Mr. Willard Mohr, Laboratory Instructor, Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, for his' assistance with the analytical work on the carrots.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Introduction  1  Review of Literature  3i  Materials and Methods  7  Carrots  7  Radishes  . . . . .  .  10  Analytical and Statistical Methods  12  Results Carrots  14 . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Radishes  . . .  14 23  Discussion  27  Summary  37  Literature Cited  38  Appendix  42  -1  -  INTRDDUCTION  The author has always taken a keen interest i n the growing and handling of l i v i n g plants and animals.  I t was not u n t i l some six  years ago that the opportunity arose to attend the University of British Columbia and to make a more intensive study of these interests. With the passing of each successive university year a greater realization has grown upon the writer of| the fact that the welfare of mankind i s intimately bound up with the welfare of soils and plants. A l l of man's food comes i n the f i r s t instance from plants. Our milk, f i s h , poultry and eggs arise from plant substances and the beef rancher i s i n reality the manager and owner of the factory where plants are converted into more palatable forms for human use. Dairy products, leafy vegetables and vitamin-rich foods are well known to be fundamental for health but they s t i l l tend to be lew i n the average diet as compared with diets that meet all-round nutritive needs.  This i s particularly noticeable i n hie diets of  low-income groups i n a l l highly industrialized countries.  I t has been  said that a means must be found to bring these essential foods within the reach of everyone but how this i s to be done i s not yet apparent. The suggestion that a surplus of these protective foods might place them within the means of a l l induced the growers or producers to instigate research directed towards increasing yields, and much has been accomplished along these lines.  - 2 -  Although authorities agree that potassium as well as nitrogen and phosphorus i s of the greatest importance to plant growth, l i t t l e i s known about i t s nutrient effect on plants.  This fact led the  author to investigate how the nutrient value of plants would be affected by potassium. In order to make the experiments as simple as possible carrots QDaucus carota) having a high vitamin A precursor content, and radishes (Raphanus sativus) with a high vitamin C content, were chosen. The object of these experiments was to determine what level of potash f e r t i l i z a t i o n should be applied for optimum nutrient value i n carrots and radishes, and to ascertain i t s effect on total yield and on top and root growth.  -  3  REVIEW OP LITERATURE  It i s known that carrots and radishes, i n keeping with many other plants, require large amounts of potassium.  The bulk of the  potassium absorbed by a plant ordinarily moves into i t i n the earlier stages of i t s l i f e history, unlike a l l of the other ash constituents required by plants i n appreciable amounts, potassium i s not definitely known to be built into organic compounds of fundamental physiological significance. salts.  I t occurs i n plants almost solely as soluble inorganic  Potassium salts of organic adds also occur i n plant c e l l s .  In spite of this fact potassium i s an indispensable element and cannot be completely replaced even by such chemically similar elements as sodium or lithium. The young and active regions of plants, especially buds, young leaves, root t i p s , etc. are always rich i n potassium. Older tissues i n which relatively few l i v i n g c e l l s remain contain relatively l i t t l e potassium.  Internal redistribution of this element  occurs readily and continuously during the l i f e history of the plant. The exact physiological role of potassium i n plants i s largely unknown. Since i t i s apparently not used i n any necessary plant c e l l constituent i t s role i s probably a regulatory or catalytic one. possible that i t may influence enzymatic activity.  It i s  Certain results of  a deficiency of potassium upon plant metabolism are recognized.  Dolan  and Christopher recognize that potassium appears to be necessary for (a) carbon dioxide assimilation, (b) the synthesis of simple sugars and starch, (c) translocation of carbohydrates, (d) nitrate reduction i n  -  the plant, (e) meristomatic activity, and (f) normal c e l l division; while, on the other hand, i n some cases i t (a) delays maturity, (b) decreases total dry weight, and (c) depresses total yield. (13) The potassium ion i s usually the most abundant univalent cation i n plant c e l l s , and undoubtedly exerts important effects upon such phenomena as the permeability of the cytoplasmic membranes and the hydration of the protoplasm. Much has been learned about the effects of various f e r t i l i z e r s on the yield of both f r u i t trees and vegetables. I t has been found that persistent increase i n the amount of potash may depress yield due to nutrient unbalance, and that increased yields are dependent on the harmonic balance of nutrients. (13, 17)  The balancing role has been  attributed to potash. It has also been found that the plant content of any single element may be largely influenced by the application of some other element to the s o i l .  A number of cases have been reported where  nutrient element deficiency symptoms have been increased i n severity by the use of chemical f e r t i l i z e r . (10) Comparatively l i t t l e has been done to determine the effect of f e r t i l i z e r s on the food value of crops. Perhaps this has been the direct result of pressure from the producer since he i s primarily interested i n increased yields and the consequent increased returns rather than the actual nutritional value of his crop. Potassium i s found both i n the organic matter and i n the mineral matter of soils but occurs chiefly i n the mineral matter and  becomes available to the plants by solution i n the s o i l water. A l l s o i l s , except mucks and peats, contain relatively large amounts of "total" potassium, but the amount available to the plants i n any one s o i l may be low, especially i n sandy soils. A limiting quantity of potassium i n the s o i l causes marked disturbances i n plants, but, unless the potassium supply i s very low the effects are not clearly v i s i b l e , and may be confused with other nutrient deficiencies.  Potash starvation reduces the vigor of the  plant and makes i t more susceptible to attack by insects and disease. It i s known that a plant i s capable of absorbing a nutrient to the best advantage at certain optimal levels, and that f o r any given nutrient the c r i t i c a l level may be defined as that range of concentration at which the growth of the plant i s restricted i n comparison to that of plants growing at a higher nutrient level.  (18)  Few vegetable crops use more than ninety pounds of available potash per acre and where more than this value i s supplied i t i s probable that a reserve of potassium i s built up. (17)  An average  crop of snap beans removes from sixteen to twenty pounds of available potash from each acre and beans have been found to f a i l to respond to additional potassium and yields were actually reduced i n direct proportion to increases i n the amount of available potash supplied. However, Cain drew the conclusion that leaf injury normally attributed to a deficiency of magnesium might actually be the toxic effect produced by an excess of potassium. (9)  Dunbar and Anthony  found that potassium had a blocking effect on nitrogen.  (14)  (17)  Jenkins found a decided decrease i n the yield of snap beans from plots which had received potash applications and concluded that on some soils the addition of potash was of doubtful value.  (17)  Dolan and Christopher found that high potash applications very significantly increased the yield of celery but the yield of tomatoes was similar with both h i ^ i and low applications of potash. (13) Jenkins showed that potassium reduces yields (17) and Dolan and Christopher state that i t usually gives the least response of any of the three major plant nutrients. (13)  I f this i s true, i t would  appear desirable to determine whether the lower yields would be offset by a higher nutrient value of the produce.  MATERIALS AND METHODS  Carrots A 5x5 Latin Square was l a i d out i n the front yard of the author's home i n the spring of 1950, on land which had previously been lawn but which had become very run down. This "burned out" lawn had patches of bare s o i l and was over-run with couch grass (Agropyron repens), r i b grass (Plantago lanceolata) and a l l the assorted weeds generally found on waste land.  This yard had been dug over, screened,  and raked some two months previous to the laying out of this experiment and great care was taken to remove a l l the root pieces of the couch grass. The s o i l was a red, sandy loam only two feet deep, overlaid on an impermeable blue clay hardpan. about pH 6.0.  The reaction of this s o i l was  As a basic treatment 5-10-0 f e r t i l i z e r was broadcast at  the rate of 1000 pounds per acre on May 17, 1950 and raked l i g h t l y into the top s o i l before the seed was planted. This was to compensate for any s o i l deficiency that mi$it have existed. To get the exact ratio of f e r t i l i z e r required for this experiment, several lots of f e r t i l i z e r were made up from ammonium nitrate (33$ nitrogen), superphosphate (19$ phosphoric acid), and muriate of potash (50$ potassium). The treatments were designated A, B, C, D, and E and were made up as shown on the following Table 1 :-  Table 1 F e r t i l i z e r Application Showing Potassium Treatment Treatment Designation  % Nitrogen  $ Phosphorous  % Potassium  Potassium Level  A  5  10  0  Nil  B  5  10  3  Low  C  5  10  5  D  5  10  10  High  E  5  10  20  Very high  Medium  Seed of the Imperator variety of carrot was sown i n rows 12 inches apart.  On June 18, 1950, when the f i r s t true leaves were  appearing, the young plants were dusted with benzene hexachloride (.5$ Gamma Isomer) at the rate of 1 pound f o r every 200 feet of row as a deterrent against the Carrot Rust F l y (Psila rosae).  This dusting  was repeated on September 1, 1950, to catch the third brood of the Carrot Rust Fly which was then emerging. The crop was harvested on November 4 and 5, 1950.  The tops  and roots were twisted apart and weighed immediately to give an estimation of total yield and top/root ratio.  A representative sample  was then chosen at random and taken to the University of British Columbia for nutrient analysis.  Figure 1  Layout of Plots i n the Form of a Latin Square  25'  :  :  I  !  0  DI  ;[  EI  :  AI  :  1  CI  \  !  A2  :!  B2  i  E2  .!  D2  1  C.3  ':  A3  !  !  B3  !  E3  !  B4  :  c4  |  D4  !  A4  :  B 1  2  D3  E4  !  f  !  !  :  A 5  :  E5  :  D5  :  C 5  ; !  1  B5  5' 1  - 10 -  MATERIALS AND METHODS  Radishes In early December 1951, s o i l was transported-from- the site of the previous experiment to the greenhouse at the University of British Columbia where i t was placed i n 30 eight-inch pots. of this s o i l was 6.1.  The pH  A 5-10-0 f e r t i l i z e r was broadcast on the pots  at the rate of 1000 pounds per acre as a basic treatment and the pots received the varying amounts of potassium as planned f o r i n this experiment.  The f e r t i l i z e r s were raked l i g h t l y i n the top half-inch  of s o i l and the pots were watered. Then, f o r an additional control, six pots were f i l l e d with John Innes greenhouse s o i l and added to the experiment so that the whole was carried out i n six randomized blocks. This s o i l also had a reaction of pH 6.1.  See Appendix for composition of this s o i l .  Approximately 20 seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus) were sown i n each pot on December 20, 1951.  Because of the general lack of  light during January and early February,, the plants became etiolated. At the beginning of February they began to show signs of "damping off", and approximately one inch of clean sand mixed with a small amount of Arasan was put into each pot to combat this disease and to support the plants.  On the week-end of March 21 to March 24,  1952, the greenhouse was allowed to become extremely hot.  -11 -  Figure 2  Arrangement of Radish Pots on the Greenhouse Bench.  — East  West — >  IV  I  III  K 20  K K K K K K K K 3 5 3 10 20 10 5 0  K 10  K 0  ^  K ^ 0 d  X  K 5  ^ 0  1  K K 3 20  VI  ^ J  ±  II  K K K K 0 20 5 0  K K K K K 3 10 5 3 20  „ d  l  0  K  T J  1  K 20 T  K K K K 10 10 5 3  The peak of the greenhouse roof, which extends from north to south, ran directly across the center of this bench.  - 12  MATERIALS AND METHODS  Analytical and Statistical Methods Immediately upon harvesting, the carrots were weighed to obtain the fresh weights for the yield data. The tops were twisted off and the roots and the tops were again weighed separately i n order to determine the top/root ratio.  A representative sample was chosen  at random and transported to the Plant Nutrition Laboratory of the University of British Columbia where the remaining determinations were carried out. A sample was weighed and dried at 50° C. and reweighed f o r the percentage dry matter.  This sample was then ashed at 600° C. and  reweighed for percentage ash over dry matter. Another sample was pulped and juiced, and an aliquot was used to determine conductivity by means of a "Solu-bridge" conductivity meter.  Further aliquots were used to determine total sugars by means  of the Brix Spindle and Refractcmeter. Nitrogen was determined on the fresh material by the Kjeldahl method A.O.A.C. (2) Carotinoids were determined by Booth's method. (6)  This i s  essentially a cold extraction method using a petroleum ether-acetone mixture and a colorimetric estimation of carotinoids with a 0.02$ potassium dichromate as a reference standard.  The radish yield data was obtained from the fresh weights,  - 13 -  however dry weights were used to obtain top/root ratio becauseof the condition which the plants were i n due, largely, to the overheated condition of the greenhouse on the week-end of March 21 to March 24, 1952. The Vitamin C content of the radishes was determined on the roots by the method of Bessey and King. (5)  Nitrogen was determined  on the dry material by the Kjeldahl method A.O.A.C., and the t o t a l sugars were determined by the Lane and Eynon method A.O.A.C. (2)  A l l s t a t i s t i c a l methods used by the author were those of Paterson. (21)  The data on the carrots has been considerably  reworked since f i r s t accumulatedand particular attention has been paid to the various trends which appear i n this work.  RESULTS Carrots On harvesting, the carrot tops and roots from each of the plots were weighed immediately.  They were then taken to the Plant Nutrition  Laboratory at the University of British Columbia where the remaining determinations were carried out.  Complete results are shown below. Table 2  The Effects of Treatments on a l l Factors Analysed (5 replications) Factor  Reps  A nil  B a>  Treatment C 5  D 10  E 20  (1)  7.20  5.90  11.71  8.10  11.71  (2)  8.76  8.60  10.40  13.10  9.74  (3)  11.54  11.29  8.60  7.94  13.51  (4)  17.07  9.66  10.81  9.43  10.81  (5)  12.85  18.91  9.91  9.43  12.20  Top/Root Ratio  (1)  .2500  .2777  .2587  .2222  .1958  (2)  .1666  .2381  .2440  .2312 •  .2353  (Fresh Weight)  (3)  .2500  .2173  .2380  .2577  .2121  (4)  .2296  .1778  .2348  .2413  .1893  (5)  .1783  .1428  .2066  .2671  .2214  Dry Weight  (1)  14.625  13.700  13.725  14.500  13.975  (percentage Fresh Weight)  (2)  13.750  14.400  14.250  14.275  13.550  (3)  13.675  15.075  15.525  15.625  13.650  (4)  13.000  13.425  15.225  13.575  14.025  (5)  12.825  13.925  13.075  15.525  14.025  Yield of Roots per acre (tons)  - 15 -  RESULTS Table 2  (cent)  A nil  B  3  Treatment C 5  (1)  9.075  10.238  10.198  13.185  13.057  (2)  9.824  12.132  10.965  10.621  12.951  (3)  11.402  11.269  13.022;  11.469  13.415  (4)  9.873  8.757  11.495  11.119*  12.892*  (5)  8.494  9.894  8.300  13.802  11.276  Conductivity  (1)  .180  .160  .176  .160  .192  (per cent NaOH)  (2)  .180  .168  .156  .172  .200  (3)  .176  ".144  .160  .160  . .168  (4)  .192  .112  .148  .132  ".128  (5)  .172  .160  .132  .172  .172  Total Sugar  (1)  9.7  9.3  10.2  11.0  10.1  (Refractameter percentage Fresh Weight)  (2)  7.8  9.7  9.0  10.9  10.1  (3)  7.1  10.1  11.5  11.1  (4)  7.8  7.7  9.3  (5)  8.2  9.6  Total Sugar  (1)  10.4  (Brix Spindle percentage Fresh Weight)  (2)  Factor  Ash Weight (percentage Dry Weight)  Reps  -  E 20  D 10  -  "  8.8  9.1  8.3  9.0  10.0  10.9  12.0  12.8  14.3  12.4  8.8  11.2  11.2  13.2  12.8  (3)  7.2  12.8  14.8  14.4  12.0  (4)  9.6  10.4  11.6  12.0  11.2  (5)  10.4  12.4  " 12.0  12.4  13.6  - 16 -  Table 2 (cont)  Reps  Factor  A nil  B 3  Treatment C 5  D 10  E 20  Nitrogen  (1)  .2122  .1809  .2313  .1905  .2047  (percentage Fresh weight)  (2)  .1985  .2182  .2345  .2390  .1917  (3)  .2398  .2383  .2431  .2143  .2039  (4)  .2571  .2102  .2066  .1861  .1933  (5)  .1953  .2321  .1972  .2734  .1974  (1)  45.7  51.4  44.1  57.9  49.3  (2)  39.4  44.5  38.3  41.4  52.6  (3)  29.6  42.4  47.3  51.9  43.1  (4)  30.3  36.7  44.9  48.9  43.0  (5)  42.0  41.4  45.7  36.6  55.3  Carotinoid Pigments  (1)  6.7734*  5.5968  6.7416  7.3140  10.0170  (mg/loo gm juice)  (2)  2.9256  5.1198  6.5508  8.8404  7.6320  (3)  7.3776  7.2504  7.5048  7.6320  7.4412  (4)  7.8864  6.6144  8.5860  7.9500  6.9960  (5)  8.9040  10.4940  6.7416  8.0772  7.7592  Carbohydrate/ Nitrogen Ratio  «• Calculated by averaging other four replications. The above complete data i s summarized below.  - 17 -  Table 3 The Effect of Treatments on Yield  Average Yield Tons/Acre  A  B  Treatments C D  11.48  10.87  10.28  E  9.60  11.59  Gen Mean  Sig.Dif. 5$  10.76  1.85  Percent Mean  106.7  101.0  95.5  89.2  107.7  100.0  17.2  From the above i t can be seen that both the control (no potash Treatment A) and the 20$ potash treatment (E) gave a higher yield than the 10$ potash treatment (D). There was no difference due to the other treatments.  Table 4 The Effect of Treatments on Top/Root Ratio  A  B  Treatments C  D  E  Gen Mean  Sig.Dif. 5$  Average Per Plot .  .215  .211  .236  .243  .211  .223  0.051  Percent General Mean  96.24  94.36  105.87  109.22  94.40  100.0  23.01  There was no significant difference i n the top/root ratio due to treatments. However, i t would appear that as a result of both treatments C and D there was a tendency for root growth to be reduced relative to top growth.  - 18 -  Table 5 The Effect of Treatments on Total Minerals as Reflected i n the Ash Weight  A  B  Mean Ash Weight (on dry weight)  9.734  10.458  Percent General Mean  87.30  93.30  Treatments C  Gen. Mean  5$ S.D.  D  E  10.796  12.039  12.718  11.149 2.414  96.33  107.98  114.07  100.00 21.65  The very high (20$) treatments significantly increased the ash weight i n comparison to the control treatment.  There was a tendency for  the ash content to be progressively increased with increasing levels of potash. Table 6 The Effect of Treatments on Minerals as Determined by Conductivity  A Mean Conductivity Percent General Mean  B  Treatments C  (per cent NaOH)  D  E  .180  .149  .154  .159  .172  110.42  91.41  94.47  97.54  105.52  Gen. Mean .163  5$ S.D. .028  100.00 17.17  The addition of 3$ potassium depressed the minerals i n the roots when compared to the mineral content of the roots from the control treatment.  There i s a tendency, however, f o r the minerals to increase  with increasing levels of potash, but the increases were lower than the control treatment.  - 19 -  Table 7 The Effect of Treatments on Dry Weight  Average Per Plot Percent General Mean  A  B  13.575  14.105  96.16  99.91  Treatments C  Gen  S.D.  Mean  5$  D  E  14.360  14.700  13.845  14.117  1.184  101.72  104.13  98.07  100.00  8.38  The several levels of potassium had no significant effect upon the dry matter produced i n the roots.  There was a tendency for the dry  matter to increase with increasing potash up to the 10$ level of application with a decrease i n dry matter with the very high (20$) application. Table 8 The Effect of Treatment on Total Sugar as Shown by the Refractometer -  Treatments b  Mean Total Sugars (percentage fresh weight) Percent General Mean  c  D  ££.  e  8.1  9.3  9.8  10.4  9.6  85.80  98.51  103.81  110.16  101.69  c  §:  9.44  n  1.83  100.00 19.38  The total sugar was higher i n the carrots which received the high application (10$) of potassium when compared to the control treatment. There was an apparent trend towards increased sugar with increasing amounts of potash up to the 10$ level, with a decrease of sugar at the 20$ level.  -20  Table 9 The Effect of Treatment on Total Sugar as Shown by the Brix Spindle  B  Treatments C  9.3  11.8  12.5  13.3  12.4  11.86 2.83  78.41  99.49  105.39  112.14  104.55  100.00 23.86  A Mean Total Sugars (percentage fresh weight Percent General Mean  D  E  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  The total sugar as measured by Brix Spindle was significantly higher i n the carrots receiving 5$, 10$ and 20$ potassium when compared to the control treatment.  There was an apparent trend towards increased  sugar with increasing amounts of potash up to the 10$ level, with a decrease of sugar at the 20$ level.  Table 10 The Effect of Treatment on Nitrogen (Percentage Fresh Weight)  A Mean Nitrogen Percent General Mean  .221  B .216  Treatments C  D  E  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  .222  .221  .198  .216 .034  102.31 100.13 103.20  102.36  91.92  100.00 15.63  The potassium treatments did not significantly affect the nitrogen.  However, there was an apparent tendency for a lower nitrogen  content i n the roots of the carrots under the very high (20$) potash treatment when compared with the control treatment.  -  -  21  -  Table 11 The Effect of Treatment on Carbohydrate/Nitrogen Ratio (Total Sugar by Refractometer)  Mean Carbohydrate/ Nitrogen Ratio Percent General Mean  A  B  Treatments C  D  E  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  37.40  43.28  44.06  47.34  . 48.66  * 44.15  9.39  -  •  107.22  110.21  84.71  98.02  99.79  • 100.00 21.26  The high and very high levels of potassium (10% and 20% respectively) gave a higher carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio when compared with the control treatment (no potash).  There was an apparent tendency for  higher carbohydrate/nitrogen ratios with increasing increments of potash.  Table 12 The Effect of Treatments on Carotinoid Pigments (mg/lOO gm juice)  A .  Treatments C  B .  .  D  E  Mean Carotinoid Pigments  .  6.773  7.015  7.225  7.963  7.969  Percent General Mean  91.66  94.93  97.77  107.76  107.85  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  . 7.389  2.074  100.00 28.07  There was no significant effect which could be attributed to the potassium treatments.  There was, however, an apparent trend towards  higher carotinoid concentrations with increasing amounts of potassium.  - 22 -  Table 13 Summarized Table of Values i n Order of Yield f o r the Average for Each of the Various Treatments.  Yield Tons  Treatment  T/R Ratio  Treatment  % Dry Weight  Treatment  11.59  E  .244  D  14.700  D  11.48  A  .236  C  14.360  C  10.87  B  .215  A  14.105  B  10.28  C  • .211  E  13.845  E  9.60  D  .211  B  13.575  A  Total Sugar  Treatment  Total Sugar  Treatment  Cond.  Treat ment  10.4  D  13.3  D  .180  A  9.8  C  12.5  C  .172  E  9.6  E  12.4  E  .159  D  9.3  B  11.8  B  .154  C  8.1  A  9.3  A  .148  B  Carotene  Treatment  Ash weight  Treatment  Nitrogen  Treat, ment  7.969  E  12.718  E  .223  C  7.962  D  12.039  D  .221  D  7.225  C  10.796  C  .221  A  7.015  B  10.458  B  .216  B  6.773  A  9.734  A  .198  E  - 2a -  RESULTS Radishes The radishes were taken from the greenhouse to the Plant Nutrition Laboratory where these determinations were carried out. Complete results are shown below. Table 14 The Effects of Treatments on a l l Factors Analysed (6 replications) Factor Weight of Harvest (gms/pot)  j.l.  A nil  B 3  Treatments C 5  D 10  E 20  (1)  80.00  11.90  33.54  33.11  30.03  49.08  (2)  73.40  32.60  72.40  44.00  51.40  43.70  (3)  58.96  23.59  20.95  22.27*  2.30  32.22  (4)  178.45  30.75  30.00  47.84  33.00  18.30  25.28  24.90  43.95 '  24.45  19.28  Reps  (5)  44.56 '  (6)  44.25  1.40  47.14  12.84 .  16.44  25.90  Top/Root Ratio  (1)  3.190  3.142  2.689  2.828  1.804  1.618  (Dry Weight)  (2)  9.264  3.643  2.939  12.118  8.931  6.074  (3)  2.897  3.419  5.501  7.280* 13.733  2.265  (4)  1.164  4.363  7.372  4.471  2.259  9.206  (5)  7.015  6.672  6.174  9.909  9.410  6.109  (6)  4.658  4.247  2.800  4.812  3.444  5.787  (1)  2.077  2.565  2.140  2.895 "  2.911  4.689  (2)  3.210  1.888  2.203  3.084 .  2.093  2.549  (3)  4.327  2.612  3.210  3.344*  1.253  5.004  (4)  2.392  2.596  2.801  2.376  1.228  2.226  (5)  1.810  2.596  2.423  2.282  2.832  1.747  (6)  3.792  1.281  3.462  2.219  2.612  2.565  Total Nitrogen (percentage Dry Weight)  - 24 -  Table 14 (cent) Reps  Factor Vitamin "C"  1  Invert Sugar  #  J.I.  A  nil  B 3  Treatments C 5  D 10  E 20  (1)  9.60  7.47  22.51  16.66  21.56  14.96  (2)  13.36  8.09  13.46  13.08  14.26  18.98  (3)  12.17  12.07  16.84  14.62*  15.46  19.70  (4)  17.60  11.11  23.37  11.40  18.97  18.97  (5)  18.63  15.06  11.17  11.03  24.96  16.19  (6)  23.14  9.28  8.93  21.33  6.73  14.33  (1)  15.666  5.000  6.366  10.152  9.138  7.835  (2)  9.460  5.356  15.596  12.746  5.250  14.806  (3)  13.113  6.934  12.353  13.587* 10.135  11.693  (4)  14.568  10.920  13.826  16.260  13.000  8.519  (5)  13.926  4.965  8.960  12.186  3.500  7.720  (6)  7.000  7.815  11.677  11.797  15.346  10.953  Found by Paterson's Missing Plot Technique  (21)  The above complete data i s summarized i n the following tables.  Table 15 The Effect of Treatments on Weight of Harvest  Average Yield gms/pot Percent General Mean  Treatments C D  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  A  B  79.94  20.92  38.16  34.00 * 26.27  31.41  38.45 28.17  207.90  54.40  99.24  88.42  81.69  100.00 73.26  J.I.  68.32  E  There was no significant difference i n harvest due to treatments. But the second control (J.I.) was highly significant over the f i r s t control (A.), and a l l potassium treatments (B, C, D and E).  - 25 -  Table 16 The Effect of Treatments on Top/Root Ratio  J.I.  A  B  Treatments C  D  E  6.903  6.597  5.176  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  Average Per Plot  4.698  4.248  4.579  Percent General Mean  90.95  82.24  88.65 133.64 127.72 100.21 100.00 65.53  5.165 3.385  There was no significant difference i n the top/root ratio due to treatments. However, there was a tendency for root growth to be reduced relative to top growth i n treatments C and D.  Table 17 The Effect of Treatments on Total Nitrogen (Percentage Dry Weight) J.I. Mean Nitrogen (percentage Dry Weight) Percent General Mean  2.935  110.88  A  2.256  2.707  Treatments B O  2.700  85.22 102.26 102.00  D  2.155  E  3.130  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  2.647  1.018  81.41 118.24 100.00  38.45  There was no significant difference i n nitrogen due to treatments. However, i t would appear that there was a tendency for the 3$, 5$ and 20% levels of treatment to increase the nitrogen but this tendency was broken at the 10% treatment level.  - 26  Table 18 The Effect of Treatments on Vitamin "C" Treatments Average mgs/100 gms  15.75  Percent General Mean  103.55  10.60  16.05  14.69  69.69 105.52  c T>  r  16.99  17.19  15.21 6.058  96.58 111.70 113.01 100.00 39.82  The high (D) and very high (E) levels of potassium were significant over control (A) but no treatment was significant over the second control (J.I.).  The trend toward greater Vitamin "C" increases  through potassium levels 3, 10 and 20, but at the 5$ i s down.  Table 19 The Effect of Treatments on Invert Sugar  J.I. Average Yield Invert Sugar mgs/100 gms Percent General Mean  12.289  A  B  Treatments C  D  6.832 11.463 12.788 9.395  E  Gen Mean  S.D. 5$  10.254 10.504 3.729  116.99  65.04 109.12  121.74  89.44  97.61 100.00 35.50  The 3$ and 5$ treatments (B and C) were significantly higher than the control treatment (A). The second control (I.I.) was significantly higher than the f i r s t control (A). A tendency was apparent for the trend to increase with the low (B) and medium (C) treatments and then to drop off with treatments D and E.  - 27 -  DISCUSSION  Much of the results obtained from the radish section of these experiments would seem to be at variance with the results obtained 1  from the carrot experiment.  I t might be well to remember that Dolan  and Christopher (13) obtained very different results with crops of celery, tomatoes and peppers.  High potash very significantly  increased the yield of celery but not of tomatoes and reduced the yield of peppers.  Jenkins (17) states that beans failed to show an  increase i n yield from any of the potassium treatments and actually reduced yields occurred i n direct proportion to the increases i n the amount of available potash supply. Jenkins concluded that the difference i n yield was due to the toxic effects of potassium salts and, further, that on some soils the addition of potash was of doubtful value as f a r as yield was concerned.  Boswell and Beattie (7)  state that Schermerhorn, Robbins and others showed that the shape of the sweetpotato root as well as the yield was very markedly influenced by differences i n potash supply. However, Boswell and Beattie conducted their own experiment i n another part of the Atlantic . Coastal area and concluded that increasing the potash content had no important effect on total yield, yield of top grade, or on the shape of sweetpotatoes. Carolus (11) found that either liming or manuring increased the effectiveness of potash f e r t i l i z a t i o n .  - 28 -  Painter, Drossdoff, and Brown (20) state that the source of potassium had no influence on the potassium content of tung tree leaves grown on a fine, sandy loam. They also make the statement that the potassium content of the leaves was lowered by increasing the amount of nitrogen supplied. Dunbar and Anthony (14) found that potassium had a blocking effect on nitrogen. Lilleland (19) states that there can be l i t t l e doubt that the potassium had gotten into the plant from a s o i l i n which the potassium content had been raised materially. The above findings indicate what widely divergent results have been obtained by others from different crops.  Yield Under the conditions of this experiment the carrots showed that the no potash treatment (A.) and the w r y high potash treatment (B) were both significantly higher than the high potash treatment (D). There was no difference due to the other treatments. From the radish data i t may be seen that the second control ( j . l ) was highly significant i n relation to the f i r s t control (A.) and a l l treatments (B, C, D and E). There was no significance between the control (A) and any potash treatment (B, C, D and E). It i s assumed that these results reflect the moisture holding capacity of John Innes greenhouse s o i l compared with the moisture  - 29 -  holding capacity of s o i l from the author's f r a i t yard. John Innes greenhouse s o i l contains one part i n four by bulk of peat, which i s recognized as a useful s o i l adjunct because of i t s water holding capacity.  This additional water holding capacity undoubtedly was of  great benefit to the radish plants which tended to dry out i n the pots between waterings during the latter stages of their development. It appears to the author from the results of his experiments and i n the scope of his experiments, that the application of potash has a tendency to reduce yield when applied to a s o i l which has a sufficient supply of readily available potassium. However, he i s reminded that high levels of potassium have frequently been suggested to increase the resistance of plants to disease, and that there may be the possibility of ahigher nutrient value being produced i n vegetable crops which w i l l offset this tendency to reduced yields.  Top/Root Ratio No significant difference was found i n the top/root ratio due to the treatments. I t appeared that there was a tendency for root growth to be reduced relative to top growth i n both radishes and carrots at the 3% and 10% levels of potassium treatment.  This would  seem to contradict the findings of Waugh and Cullinan (26) who make the statement that neither cultural treatments nor potassium application seem to have a significant effect on nitrogen content, but would agree with the findings of several other investigators (20, 14).  - 30 -  Total Minerals as Reflected i n Ash Weight and i n Conductivity Owing to the time of year and other conditions beyond the author's control there was insufficient material harvested from the radish experiment to make ash and conductivity determinations.  In the carrot experiment the very high potassium treatment 03) significantly increased the ash weight i n comparison to the control treatment (A). There was a tendency for the ash content to be progressively increased with increasing levels of potash.  This  would seem to coincide with the findings of Cain who states that i n one-year-old Mcintosh apple trees as the potassium supply was increased, the dry weight, stem elongation and the potash content increased ... (9).  Cain drew the interesting conclusion from his  experiment that leaf injury normally attributed to a deficiency of magnesium might actually be the toxic effect produced by an excess of potassium. In the conductivity determinations the addition of 3$ potassium (B) significantly depressed the minerals i n the roots when compared to the mineral content of the roots from the control treatment (A).  Carolus states that the plant content of any single  cation may be as largely influenced by the application of some other cation to the s o i l as by the addition of the one determined. (10) From this i t would appear that there was sufficient available potassium i n the s o i l for the plant's normal growth, and that this addition was sufficient to affect the calcium, magnesium and possibly  - 31  other mineral contents of the plant. The tendency i s again noted for the minerals to increase with increasing levels of potash, but even at the very high (20$) treatment level these increases were lower than the control treatment.  Dry Weight Because of conditions beyond the author's control, the radish crop had become partially cooked about a week before harvest. The wilted and dried tops precluded any attempt to obtain a dry weight as a percentage of the fresh weight.  In the carrots the several levels of potassium had no significant effect upon the dry matter produced i n the roots. However, there was again a tendency for the dry matter to increase with increasing potash up to the 10$ level of application, with a decrease i n dry matter from the very high (20$) application.  This  agrees with Cain's statement (9) that the growth response to potassium i s slightly greater i n height than i n dry weight, indicating a primary response i n stem elongation.  Cain also states that both  calcium and magnesium decrease sharply with increasing potassium but not i n exact chemically equivalent amounts.  Total Sugar Total sugar found i n the carrots by both the Brix Spindle and  - 32 -  the Refractometer had the same seemingly apparent trends. The Brix Spindle results were significantly higher i n the carrots receiving 3%, 10% and 20% potassium (C, D and E) when compared to the control treatment (A), while the Refractcmeter only showed the 10% application (D) to be significantly higher than the control treatment (A). However, Lilleland (19) found that the sugar content of the flesh of f r u i t was not altered by relatively large applications of potash and he states that undoubtedly other factors than potash influence the sugar content of prunes; and that size of crop and climatic conditions must be considered. S t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the effects of treatments on invert sugar i n radishes showed only the 3$ and 3% treatments (B and C) as significantly higher than the control treatment (A). The second control (J.I) was significantly higher than the f i r s t control (A). There was an apparent trend towards increased sugar with increasing amounts of potash to about the 10% level.  From that point  on, the decrease i n sugar was rather marked i n both carrots and radishes, which appears to show that potassium acts i n some favorable way i n aiding the formation of sugars up to this point.  Total Nitrogen Potassium treatments did not significantly affect the nitrogen content of either crop. However, there was an apparent tendency for a lower nitrogen content i n the roots of both radishes  - 33 -  and carrots under the very high (20$) potash treatment when compared with the control treatment.  The fact that the tendency was broken at the  10$ treatment level i n the radishes might be l a i d to experimental error.  Carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio In the carrots the high and very high levels of potassium (10$ and 20$ respectively) gave a significantly higher carbohydrate/ nitrogen ratio when compared with the control treatment (no potash). There was an apparent tendency for higher carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio with increasing increments of potash.  No determinations of carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio were made on the radishes since the potassium treatments had no significant effect on the nitrogen content.  Carotinoid Pigments There was no significant effect which could be attributed to the potassium treatments.  There was, however, an apparent trend  towards higher carotinoid concentrations with increasing amounts of potassium, i n the carrots.  Radishes, having a white flesh and red skin, showed none of the orange pigmentation characteristic of the carotinoid pigments i n  - 34 -  their edible portion or roots and consequently were not tested. They are shown as containing no Vitamin A precursor i n the "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics" (Hodgman, Charles D.  16), but  carotene i s found i n a l l green tissues and undoubtedly the presence of this pigment could be demonstrated i n radish leaves. However, radish leaves are not used as a food for man and therefore this determination would be outside the scope of this thesis. The apparent trend towards higher carotinoid concentration with increasing amounts of potassium suggests to the author that further correlation studies should be made on this subject and would prove extremely interesting to the researcher engaged i n this work.  Vitamin C Radishes alone were tested for Vitamin C. The high CD) and the very high (B) levels of potassium were significant over the control (A) but no treatment was significant over the second control  (J.I.) Radishes are listed as good sources of Vitamin C i n the "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics" (Hodgson, Charles D.  16), and are  listed as containing an average of 26 milligrams per 100 grams of the edible portion i n "Elements of Food Biochemistry" (Peterson, et a l . 22). The author assumes that approximately one-half of the potassium which enters a plant's roots comes from the s o i l water and the balance i s taken up by "solid phase feeding". On this assumption  - 35 -  rests the explanation f o r 1he fact that two of the treatments were significant over the control (A) but that no treatment was significant over the second control (J.I.). As explained before, the John Innes greenhouse s o i l contains one part i n four of peat which i s noted for i t s high water-holding capacity and this would account for the average higher moisture content noticed i n the (J.I.) control.  Yet, apparently, the lessened chance  of these plants wilting from a lack of moisture did not affect them advantageously i n their a b i l i t y to obtain a greater amount of potassium. The over-all trend appears to be towards greater Vitamin C content as the potassium levels rise.  However, not one of the pots of  radishes reached the content of Vitamin C as given i n Peterson et a l (22) and thus i t would appear that the upward trend occasioned by the addition of potash had not, under the conditions of this experiment, reached the optimum level of potassium for the production of Vitamin C.  This theory does not allow for the low light-intensity and the  short day duration of light which existed i n the months of January and February 1952, and which undoubtedly had a bearing on the plants' manufacture of Vitamin C, but i t does satisfactorily explain the fact of seme treatments being significant over control A but not over control J.I. Here again there i s a trend towards higher vitamin content which differs only from the carotene trend i n that i t i s increasing at a greater rate and thus breaks into the levels of significance sooner. As mentioned above, the author believes that further intensive studies  -36  -  should be made on the correlation between the potassium level and the vitamin content of plants.  In the layman's language we might say that the addition of potash to a s o i l i n which the potassium i s not readily available for the plants to use, would increase yields; but the addition of potash to s o i l which would release i t i n sufficient quantities far normal plant growth, would appear to reduce the yield. However, the addition of potash to s o i l increases the mineral content of the crop grown and increases the total sugar content up to the maximum, but further applications have an inhibiting effect on the carbohydrate. While Vitamin A i s not increased i n carrots, Vitamin C i s definitely increased i n radishes by increased applications of potassium. research.  There appears to be a huge f i e l d open here f o r further  SUMMARY  The effect of varying levels of potassium f e r t i l i z e r i s :-  1.  On land containing potassium readily available for plants, additional potassium appears to have a tendency to reduce yields.  2.  Additional potassium appears to increase the mineral content.  3.  Additional potassium has no effect on the nitrogen content.  4.  Additional potassium increases the total sugars up to a point after which i t inhibits the formation of carbohydrate.  5.  Additional potassium has no effect on Vitamin A content but a very definite upward trend follows the increasing levels of potassium applied.  6.  Additional potassium increases the trend to produce more Vitamin C to the extent that high and very high levels of potassium applications become significant.  - 38 -  LITERATURE CITED  1  Anderson, W.S.  The influence of potash on grade and shape of  Triumph sweetpotatoes i n Mississippi. Soc. Hort. S c i . 35: 709-711 2  1937  Association of O f f i c i a l Agricultural Chemists Tentative Methods of Analysis Washington, D.C.  3  Baker, Clarence E.  Proc. Amer.  O f f i c i a l and  6th ed.  1945  The effectiveness of some organic mulches  i n correcting potassium deficiency i n peach trees on a sandy s o i l . 1-11 4  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 51:  1948  Beach, George, and August Mussenbrock.  Effect of nitrogen  and potash f e r t i l i z e r s on Patrician carnations i n soil. 5  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 52: 487-489  Bessey, D.A. and King, C.G.  1948  The distribution of Vitamin C i n  plant and animal tissues, and i t s determination. J. Biol. Chem. 103: 687-698 6  Booth, V.H.  Simplified technique far estimation of total  carotinoids i n carrots 194-195 7  1933  J . Soc. Chem. Ind.  64:  1945  Boswell, Victor R., and J.H. Beattie.  Grade and shape of  sweetpotatoes i n response to potash i n South Carolina.  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 34: 451-454  1936 8  Brown, G.B.  The effect of maturity and storage on the carotene  content of carrot varieties. Sci. 50: 347-352  1947  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort.  - 39 -  9  Gain, John C.  Some interrelationships between ealcium,  magnesium and potassium i n one-year-old Mcintosh apple trees grown i n sand culture. Hort. Sci. 51: 10  Carolus, R.L.  1-11  1948  The relation of potassium, calcium and sodium  to magnesium deficiency. 33: 11  Carolus, R.L.  595-599  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i .  1935  Calcium and potassium relationships i n tomatoes  and spinach. 281-285 12  Proc. Amer. Soc.  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 44:  1949-50  Culbert, John R., and E.I. Wilde.  The effect of various  amounts of potassium on the production and growth of Better Times roses under glass. Hort. Sci. 52: 13  Dolan, D.D.,  528-535  and E.P. Christopher.  Proc. Amer. Soc.  1948 Effect of modified  f e r t i l i z e r ratio on yield of vegetables. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 53: 14  Dunbar, CO.,  and R.D. Anthony.  402-406  1949  Two cases of potassium  deficiency i n peach orchards i n South Central Pennsylvania. 320-325 15  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 35:  1937  Frear, D.E.H., R.D. Anthony, A.L. Haskins, and F.N. Hewetson. Potassium content of various parts of the peach tree and their correlation with potassium f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 52:  16  Hodgman, Charles D. 20th ed  ed  61-74  1948  Handbook of Chemistry and Physics  Chemical Rubber Publishing Company  Cleveland, Ohio  1514-1536  1948  - 40 -  17  Jenkins, J . Mitchell Jr. of snap beans. 471-472  18  Kitchen, H.B.  Ed  Some effects of potassium on yields Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 34?  1936 Diagnostic Techniques for Soils and Crops,  American Potash Institute 19  Lilleland, 0.  Washington, D.C.  1948  Does potassium increase the sugar content of  prunes?  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 27:  15-17  1930 20  Painter, John H., Matthew Drosdoff, and Ralph T. Brown. Responses of bearing tung trees on Red Bay fine sandy loam to potassium and nitrogen. Soc. Hort. S c i . 52:  21  Paterson, D.D.  1948  Statistical Technique i n Agricultural  Research  1st ed.  New York-and London 22  19-24  Proc. Amer.  McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1939  Peterson, William H., John T. Skinner and Frank M. Strong Elements of Food Biochemistry  Prentice-flall, Inc.,  New York - 1946 23  Sitton, Benjamin G.  Response of bearing tung trees to nitrogen,  phosphorus, and potassium f e r t i l i z e r s . Soc. Hart. Sci. 52: 24  Spurway, C.H.  S o i l Testing  (3rd Revision)  25-38  Proc. Amer.  1948  Technical Bulletin 132  June 1944  Michigan State College  Agricultural Experiment Station, East- Lansing, Michigan 25.  p. 12  U.S. Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C.  Circular No. 750  July 1946  - 41 -  26.  Wander, I.W., and J.H. Gourley.  A study of lateral movement  of potassium and phosphorus i n an orchard s o i l . Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 46: 305-306 27  Waugh, J.G. and P.P. Cullinan.  1945  The nitrogen, phosphorus, and  potassium content of peach leaves as influenced by s o i l treatments. 38:  13-16  1941  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i .  APPENDIX  Composition of John Innes Greenhouse S o i l  By bulk  -  3 parts peat 2 parts sand 7 parts loam  By weight  -  3 oz chalk per bushel 4 oz John Innes Base per bushel  John Innes Base  By weight  -  2 Hoof and Horn  -  13$ Nitrogen 2 Superphosphate Lime  -  16$ Phosphorus 1 KSOo  -  48$ Potassium  - 43 -  Calculations for Significance of Top/Root Ratio The following i s derived from data talcing an assumed mean of .2400.  -  .+ . -  1  B I  n  in  2 +  D  .0377 .0178 C  A  .0040 .0734  D  C  ,  -  3  E  .0442 B  .0622  .0052  .0617  A  -.0530  E  .0186  -.1740  .0187  E  D  E  .0227  .0279  D  A  C  B  .0013 .0104  D  .0271 .0334  -.0142  -.0495  1 Treatment totals  .01  .0088  .0972  -.1256  A  =  B  =  - .1255 - .1463  C =  .0179  + .0195  D E  -  .1461  +  +  C  B  C  5  A  A  B  -  +  .0047  E  V  4  .0019  .01  .0507  -.  +  .0177 .0020  IV  Total  Row Totals  Columns  Row.  0040  o  .0848  .0249  .1272  .1838 Grand total  -.4163  - 44: -  An Analysis of Data of the Latin Square The data was multiplied by 10000 to remove decimals. (1) Total S.S.  142129 + 31684 + 195364 + 10000 + 34969 + 1600 + 538756 + 361 + 2209 + 7744 + 31329 + 400 + 10000 + 51529 + 77841 + 257049 + 386884 + 2704 + 169 + 10816 + 380689 + 34596 + 73441 + 111556 + 944784 =  (2) Row S.S.  3,338,603 - (CP.) 693204 -  2,645,499  1600 + 719104 + 62001 + 1612900 + 3385600 = 1016241 5 -,- (C.F.) 693204 =  (3) Column S.S.  .  323,037  280900 + 3027600 + 20164 . g + 245025 + 1587600  =  1032258 - 693204 =  (4) Treatment S.S. =  339,054  1575000 + 2161600 + 32041 + 38025 +2134500 g  1188255 - 693204 =  495,051  (5) Error S.S. Total S.S. - (Row S.S. + Column S.S. + Treatment S.S.) =  Error S.S.  2645499 - (323037 + 339054 + 495051) =  l;488,357  - 45 -  Analysis of Variance  Factor  S.S.  Beg. of Freedom  Total  2645499  24  Row  323037  4  80759  0.65  Column  339054  4  84763  0.69  Treatment  495051  4  123763  0.99  1488357  12  124029  Error  Variance  F calc  L.S.D. Treatment means  v/  error variance x n  2  x  t t  124029 x  2  x  .05  2.306  514. Divide by 10 «\  4  to replace decimal  L.S.D. = 0.0514  <  n =  >  8  =  2-  306  

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