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The deaf and hard-of-hearing child in British Columbia Sinclair, Robert Archibald 1963

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THE DEAF AMD HARD-OF-HEARIWG CHILD IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY ROBERT ARCHIBALD SINCLAIR B.A., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 195^ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFIIMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY AND COLLEGE OF EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, I963 . . . "WE C A N ONLY D I S P E L T H E CLOUDS OF A N X I E T Y B Y T H E P A T I E N T A N D D E T E R M I N E D E F F O R T S OF U S A L L . I T CANNOT B E DONE B Y CONDEMNING T H E P A S T OR B Y C O N T R A C T I N G OUT OF T H E P R E S E N T . N H E R M A J E S T Y T H E Q U E E N , C H R I S T M A S D A Y B R O A D C A S T , 1961 ABSTRACT THE DEAF AID HARD-OF-HEARIWG CHILD IN BRITISH COLUMBIA As the population of B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s diagnostic and educational services increase, so does the number of children known to have hearing impairment. This thesis was written to trace the development of special education for the hearing-impaired within the Province, to outline existing f a c i l i t i e s f o r this education and to indicate trends i n the growth of these f a c i l i t i e s . I t was written also to acknowledge the dedicated work being done i n this area of education and to encourage and stimulate others to enter i t . The method used has been h i s t o r i c a l and descriptive. A thorough study has been made of books, periodicals, reports and l i t e r a t u r e , together with information from correspondence and interviews. Growth of a programme of special education for the hearing-impaired i s traced from the f i r s t organized class i n the Province to the development of a provincial responsi-b i l i t y , thence to the multidiscipline or team approach. No attempt has been made to establish norms or means or to correlate various organizations' achieve ments with the efficiency of t h e i r staff or physical plant. Conclusions reached indicate the nucleus of a programme providing much needed services. With e f f i c i e n t co-ordination and thorough development th i s programme could compare favourably with we11-organized plans outside th i s Province. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. PREFACE Throughout the history of educating the Deaf and Hard-of Hearing there has been a tendency to look for a single method which w i l l be the answer to the manifold problems inherent i n the task. Parents of young Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing children are perhaps the most ardent searchers. They f e e l they would l i k e to be given something definite and positive which can be delivered to them as established truths concerning the future of their children. To many such parents, speech for their c h i l d i s their main goal and by speech they often mean speech l i k e that of a normally hearing c h i l d . I t i s not easy to explain why perfect speech cannot be attained or that, i n the t o t a l picture of the child's growth, attainment of perfect speech i s not even the main goal. His education must be the main goal. The old controversy between proponents of the "pure-oral" and "non-o r a l " methods of educating the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing i s not yet ended, but i t should be. For, as was the case i n the days of religious wars, i t has been beyond the power of one side to wipe the other out of existence. For those who t r u l y understand the f i e l d of education and the deaf c h i l d there i s no controversy, for no one method i s best for a l l children with hearing impairment. Therefore, concerted efforts must be made to examine factors relevant to each child, and to select what appears to be the best course of action i n terms of that particular c h i l d i n his particular circumstances. CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i PEEFACE i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Impaired Hearing Defined: English Definitions 1 American Definitions 2 I I SPEECH AM) HEARING PROGRAMME JOINTLY OPERATED BI THE POLIOMYELITIS AND REHABILITATION FOUNDATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND THE HEALTH CENTRE FOR CHILDREN Background 5 Executive Branches 6 Administrative Body 8 Diagnostic Unit 12 Therapy Unit 15 Medical and C l i n i c a l Approach 18 Pre-School Programme 21 Placement and Liaison 25 F i e l d Services 32 Research 33 Finance 35 I I I A HISTORY OF JERICHO HILL SCHOOL Before 1915 38 Growth from Class to School 39 From Civic to Provincial Operation kO B r i t i s h Columbia School for the Deaf and Blind J+3 C. E. MacDonald Becomes Superintendent , Mi-Metropolitan Health Service Examinations H6 Changes Because of World War I I 7^ Two " F i r s t s " for the School k8 Pre-School Class 50 Future Plans 51 CHAPTER - PAGE IT ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES OF JERICHO HILL SCHOOL Organization and Responsibilities 55 Enrolment 62 Aims and Terms of Admission 65 Location of the School 66 Primary Department 67 Opportunity Classes 68 Intermediate Department 69 Senior Department 70 V i s i t o r s to the School 72 V SOME ASPECTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOLS PROGRAMME FOR THE DEAF AND HARD-OF-HEARING IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF VANCOUVER Vancouver, Burnaby, North and West Vancouver 73 Factors Involved i n Expansion 7^ Admission to Special Classes 75 Growth of Special Classes 80 Teachers and Speech Therapists 8 l Junior High School to College 83 The Multiple-Handicapped Deaf Child 84 Importance of Administration 85 APPENDICES A Staff of the Speech and Hearing Programme, November 1959 86 B Report of a Meeting to Make Recommendations Regarding the Speech and Hearing Programme 87 C Joint Planning Committee F i r s t Established i n 1959 88 D Organization Chart: Speech and Hearing Programme 89 E What a College Education at Gallaudet College Means to a Deaf Student 90 F Organization Chart: Jericho H i l l School 96 G Educational C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Children with Defective Hearing 97 H Pupil History Data: Jericho H i l l School 98 I Application for Admission Data: Jericho H i l l School 103 APPENDICES PAGE J The Manual Alphabet or Finger-Spelling 118 K The Manual Numbers 120 SELECTED GLOSSARY 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY 123 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Children having impaired hearing may be defined i n terms of both their hearing loss and their "... educational and psychological potential".' For some authorities the significant dimension would he the child's a b i l i t y to ta l k . " i n England for example, under the School Health Regulations, children are described as ( l ) deaf, and (2) p a r t i a l l y deaf. The former are those who have no "naturally" acquired speech when they are admitted to school, the l a t t e r are those who have begun to t a l k naturally (however imperfectly) before being admitted to school. According to t h i s scheme children with defective hearing are c l a s s i f i e d i n three grades: Grade 1; Children who are found to have defects of hearing (which i n most cases are amenable to medical treatment) but who do not need hearing aids or special educational treatment. Grade 2: Children who have some naturally acquired a b i l i t y to t a l k but need special educational treatment, on either a part-time or a full-time basis. Many of these children need hearing aids. Grade 3 '• Deaf children who are without naturally acquired speech when admitted to school. Many of these children are not t o t a l l y deaf and can "be helped 1 Hallowell Davis and S. Richard Silverman, Hearing and Deafness, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Incorporated, New York, i960, p. klk. 2 by hearing aids i n learning to t a l k and to speak d i s t i n c t l y . " The time of onset of deafness affects the psychological and education developmental patterns and should be borne i n mind i n c l a s s i f y i n g 1 a c h i l d . The important points on the time-of-onset dimension for the Deaf are the age range from three to fi v e years, and the tine when adulthood i s reached. Children who are deaf before the age of three are not l i k e l y to retain normal patterns of speech and language. Obviously, from the age of three to five years, the l a t e r a c h i l d has lo s t his hearing the more apt he i s to retain natural patterns of communication by speech. In 1937, the Committee on Nomenclature of the Conference of Executives of American Schools for the Deaf recognized the importance of a b i l i t y to speak, a b i l i t y to hear (as shown by the use of th e i r word "functional") and time of onset i n proposing the following c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and definitions: "1. THE DEAF: Those i n whom the sense of hearing i s non-functional for the ordinary purposes of l i f e . This general group i s made up of two di s t i n c t classes based entirely on the time of the loss of hearing. a. The Congenitally Deaf: Those who were born deaf. b. The Adventitiously Deaf: Those who were born with normal hearing but i n whom the sense of hearing becomes nonfunctional later through i l l n e s s or accident. J 2 Ibid., pp. klk-kl[3f cited i n I. R. Ewing and A. W. G. Ewing, Speech and the Deaf Child (Washington, D.C.: The Volta Bureau, 1954). 3 The term deafened i s often used or encountered; i t means the same as adventitiously deaf. 2. THE HARD OF HEARING: Those i n whom the sense of hearing, although defective, i s functional with or without a hearing a i d > Both English and American definitions are given because li t e r a t u r e i n t h i s study involves both. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , definitions and decibel losses used are those of the cited author and are given to augment that individual's point of view. An amount of hearing loss which may be negligible i n an adult may be a great deterrent to a child's psychological and mental growth. Not only the amount of loss but the type of impairment i s important. Hearing impairment i s not a single clear-cut condition for i t has a variety of forms and extents which vary i n the i r effect and amenability to treatment. Further, the child's impairment i s a highly individual matter involving not only physical but psychological ramifications. The r e a l future of the hearing impaired c h i l d begins with the f i r s t suggestion that his hearing i s not complete. This i s usually evidenced by his delay i n speaking or his f a i l u r e to respond to sounds i n the home. Then through r e f e r r a l , the appraisal and treatment of the disorder becomes a problem of medical care. Later, special education w i l l follow for children whose impairment cannot be reversed or kept within marginal l i m i t s . Education i n such cases w i l l range from special seating i n regular classrooms to training i n special schools and i t involves children who are not only hearing-impaired but have one or more additional handicaps. For better or worse the time i s past h Hallowell Davis and S. Richard Silverman, op.cit., p, hi1?. Ewing applies the term to those who lost their hearing before the age of f i v e years, but after having begun to t a l k . Myklebust uses i t to mean profound sensory-neural deafness occurring subsequent to the age at which the use of language i s retained, after approximately fiv e years of age. when work with these cases i s the special province of a particular group The medical, audiologieal, s o c i a l welfare and education branches must function as a team s t r i v i n g constantly to be informed and not only i n t h e i r own d i s c i p l i n e . Speech, speech-reading (lip-reading), writing and reading are used by the Deaf to communicate, as wel l as the manual methods of finger spelling and the use of signs, combined with natural gesture and f a c i a l expression. 5 CHAPTER I I SPEECH AND HEARING PROGRAMME JOINTLY OPERATED BY THE POLIOMYELITIS AND REHABILITATION FOUNDATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND THE HEALTH CENTRE FOR CHILDREN The Speech and Hearing Programme has been i n operation since A p r i l 1950, when i t was set up by Dr. Donald Paterson. However, the beginning i n terms of i t s present organization did not come u n t i l 195^ .> after a tour by Dr. Edith Whetnall, M.C, F.R.C.S. Dr. Whetnall i s Director, Audiology Unit Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London, England and Consultant Aural Surgeon, London County Council School Medical Service. In Vancouver, at Dr. Jean McLennan's behest, she addressed the' pediatricians, ear nose and throat s p e c i a l i s t s , as well as members of the Metropolitan Health Organiza-t i o n and other interested bodies. Her address created renewed interest of the medical profession which resulted i n the formation of the P i l o t Plan i n 195^> under Dr. G-C Robinson, Director of the Health Centre for Children, Outpatient Department. This interest has provided desirable p u b l i c i t y and enthusiasm necessary to develop the P i l o t Plan into the growing Speech and Hearing Programme as we now know i t . From i t s 195^ scope of 12 cases per year the P i l o t Plan operated approximately a year and one-half u n t i l with i t s numbers steadily increasing i t became a service. In 1958, when Dr. D. C. Kendall"'" came from England to become i t s Director*, a t o t a l of 581 children were seen; 1. David C Kendall, Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics. U.B.C., and Director, Speech and Hearing Programme, Ph.D. (Manchester University), M.A. (Cambridge), resigned the Directorship i n 1961, to become Head of the Special Education Department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. the t o t a l number of consultations recorded was 3239> though the actual number exceeds t h i s somewhat, since a number of children were seen by-more than one person on the same day. Between January 1st and July 31st, 1959 > a t o t a l of 507 children were seen; the number of consultations recorded for t h i s period was 3071- These figures mean l i t t l e of them-selves, however, for i t must be remembered that no case takes less than half an hour per consultation; many cases take as much as l j - 2 hours of actual interview and testing. Nor do these figures include any record 2 of the volume of soc i a l service case-work on speech and hearing cases. By November, 1959, the professional staff of the Speech and Hearing Programme was comprised of eleven members. These were the Director, three full-time speech and hearing therapists, three speech therapists (one part-time), two social workers, one kindergarten teacher, one teacher of the Deaf (employed as audiometric assistant). The adminis-t r a t i v e staff comprised one administrative secretary and two stenographers. In a l l , there were fourteen members.3 However, i n addition to the f u l l -time c l i n i c s t a f f , a number of other individuals offer regular consultative service to the c l i n i c i n the areas of paediatrics, otology, neurology and psychiatry; children referred to the c l i n i c are e l i g i b l e for any of the considerable diagnostic resources available within the Health Centre for Children. Perhaps the best source of information concerning the Programme's aims and structure i s found i n the b r i e f to the Royal Commission on Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, submitted by the Health Centre for Children, 2. Speech and Hearing Programme Annual Report, November, 1959; P-3- Appendix A. Vancouver, February 1959- From i t we learn that the Programme i s designed to meet the educational and l i n g u i s t i c needs of the pre-school c h i l d , with increasing emphasis upon early ascertainment and educational treatment of hearing loss. "The program has thus c l e a r l y recognized the hitherto unmet needs of the pre-school population with impaired hearing . Its general aims then are to offer a diagnostic, counselling and educa-t i o n a l treatment programme on speech and hearing problems to two main groups of B r i t i s h Columbia children, those of any age who are f i n a n c i a l l y e l i g i b l e to receive outpatient treatment at the Health Centre and those of pre-school age who, irrespective of f i n a n c i a l e l i g i b i l i t y , are referred to the pre-school hearing programme. The particular functions of the Programme, including a mobile c l i n i c supplied and maintained by the B. C. Kinsmen's Club, but no longer i n use, are: i . To provide a 'screening' service for speech and hearing problems i n outlying areas; i i . To provide a comprehensive diagnostic and assessment service at the Health Centre; i i i . To give counselling and advice about the needs (including the educational needs) of children referred to i t ; i v . To give appropriate therapy to the children who need t h i s ; v. To carry out research; v i . To act as a teaching centre i n the audiological f i e l d . In order that these aims may be carried out, close co-operation i s maintained with individuals, department, and institutions i n the f i e l d s k. Brief to the Royal Commission on Education, p.2. of medicine, education, and public health. Representatives from these areas regularly attend case conferences and discussions. Administration The year 1959; was a decisive year i n terms of analyzing, evaluating, establishing firm executive and administrative direction and planning for the Speech and Hearing Programme. On August 10, 1959, a meeting of the two societies which j o i n t l y operate the Speech and Hearing Programme was held i n the l i b r a r y of the Health Centre for Children at the Vancouver General Hospital.^ These societies are The Poliomyelitis and Rehabilitation Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Health Centre for Children Society. The report of the meeting recommended that the two organizations continue, through t h e i r respective Boards of Directors, to participate j o i n t l y i n the development of the Programme to service the children of B r i t i s h Columbia; that the Programme be under the professional direction of Dr. D. C. Kendall and that said Programme should incorporate the following integrated a c t i v i t i e s : a) A diagnostic service conducted i n the Speech and Hearing C l i n i c of the Health Centre for Children b) A mobile diagnostic service to operate i n outlying communities of the Province i n cooperation with the Public Health Units c) A therapy service conducted on the premises provided by the Foundation d) A therapy service conducted by f i e l d speech therapists i n outlying communities of the Province 5. Appendix B. e) A research programme to he developed under the guidance of an advisory committee whose members w i l l include:^ The Head of the Department of Paediatrics, U.B.C. or his representative The Dean of the Faculty of Education, U.B.C, or his representative The Head of the Department of Psychology, U.B.C, or his representative The Head of the Department of Physics, U.B.C, or his representative The Head of the Department of E l e c t r i c a l Engineering, U.B.C, or his representative The Director of the Speech and Hearing Programme. I t was further decided that any future modifications i n the Programme be referred for p r i o r approval to the Boards of both societies. The fulcrum of the whole Programme was established i n the further recommendation of t h i s same report that a Joint Planning Committee be established to plan and make recommendations to the Boards of the Health Centre for Children and the Foundation regarding the t o t a l Speech and Hearing Programme, the members of the committee to include: The Director of the Speech and Hearing Programme, who could act as Secretary of the Committee The Head of Department of Pediatrics, U.B.C The Director of the Outpatient Department Health Centre for Children 6. Appendix C. The Honorary Treasurer and the Executive Secretary of the Health Centre for Children The Executive Director and one other representative from The B. C. Foundation for Child Care A representative of the Public Health Service to be appointed by the Provincial Health Branch The Administrator appointed to the Health Centre for Children by the Vancouver General Hospital. In the course of discussion other recommendations were made and of these, two are of particular interest here. One i s that arrangements be made to communicate with Public Health Unit Directors to obtain the future programme of the mobile diagnostic service and to obtain t h e i r co-operation for arranging for better communications with the doctors and school teachers i n the areas served by the mobile unit. The other recommendation desires i t be ensured that the Canadian Medical Association B. C. Division, should be kept informed of the plans and programme of the speech and hearing service. In closing t h e i r meeting the members discussed consider-ably the long range, developments of the Programme. The opinion was expressed that some aspects of i t may i n future be accepted as the responsibility of some public body - e.g., Public Health Units or educational authorities. At this point then, through 1959-°0, the Programme was instituted and primarily financed under the Boards of two organi-zations. The responsibility for administering, implementing and making recommendations concerning the aims of these Boards i s vested i n the Joint Planning Committee, t h e i r chief l i a i s o n d i r e c t l y with the Programme being through t h e i r member, the Director of the Speech and Hearing Programme, Dr. D. C. Kendall. Effective July 1, 1961, Dr. Kendall resigned to take up the post of Professor of Special Education i n the Faculty of Education, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, he continues with the Speech and Hearing Programme as Research Consultant. The post of Director of the Programme, at the date of writing i s not f i l l e d , nor i s there yet any announcement of intention to f i l l t h i s vacancy. The duties and importance of this position w i l l be considered l a t e r . I t i s necessary at this point to consider the over-all organization of the Programme as i t existed i n July 1961, and to that effect an organization chart i s appended."'' Note must be made that the posi-t i o n of Director of the Programme i s not shown on the chart, since, of t h i s last reported date, there i s no incumbent and whether the post w i l l exist at a l l i n future i s not ascertainable. From the organization chart can be seen the major divisions of the programme as i t now exists: the two sponsoring or executive bodies leading to the Joint Planning Committee and from them to the Director of the Outpatient Department, from him to the Speech Department Consulting Paediatrician and likewise to the Ear, Nose, Throat and Audiology head., then to their respective 7 Appendix D. consultants and therapists. On the F i e l d Service side the line runs from the Joint Committee to the Supervisor of F i e l d Services, a new position which i s presently awaiting selection of an incumbent, then through to four existing f i e l d areas and on to the two newly proposed f i e l d areas with t h e i r future incumbents. Vancouver services then, e n t a i l the Main Diagnostic Unit, the Main Therapy Unit, the Research Programme, and as co-ordinator, the future Supervisor of F i e l d Services. Services The main Diagnostic Unit " i s housed within the Out-patient Department of.the Health Centre for Children and accordingly i s under the administrative direction of the V.G.H." (Vancouver General Hospital).^ Dr. G.C. Robinson, Director of the Outpatient Department i s administrator, and reference to the organization chart, Appendix D, w i l l i l l u s t r a t e his lines of authority. For complete evaluation of t h e i r t o t a l problem, a l l pre-school, children up to the sixth birthday may be admitted to Out-patient Department, Health Centre for Children, i f t h e i r hearing problems are of su f f i c i e n t degree that special education f a c i l i t i e s , 8 Policy Relating to Joint A c t i v i t i e s Between Health Centre For Children, Speech And Hearing Therapy Unit And Jericho H i l l School. G.C. Robinson, M.D., Medical Director, Outpatient Department, Health Centre For Children. September 23, i960, p. 1. either at Jericho H i l l School or elsewhere i n B. C , may be necessary at any time. These children are usually referred by t h e i r family physicians, the Public Health Department through i t s various Public Health Units, or by Jericho H i l l School. Sometimes parents apply for admission d i r e c t l y to the principal at the Jericho H i l l School and i n these instances the parents are advised to contact the Health Centre for i n i t i a l evaluation at the Diagnostic Unit. This Unit's functions are: (1) to conduct intensive investigation of three main groups of children (a) children of pre-school age with a hearing problem, for a two week period, (b) children of school age with a hearing problem, (c) children with a severe communication problem, for a one week period. Hew cases on these programmes are given one or two week schedules of appointments, according to th e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The other work of the diagnostic unit (apart from research) i s : (2) individual diagnostic examinations, (3) speech c l i n i c s , (k) hearing c l i n i c s . The two last are concerned with the rapid screening assessment of new referrals. Children coming i n are seen f i r s t by a paediatrician and by the Director of the Speech and Hearing C l i n i c or an audio-l o g i c a l tester who give a "crash" assessment of the case and set up a series of appointments. These generally last for one week i n the Diagnostic Unit, then carry on a further week i n the Therapy Unit. Upon completion of the crash assessment, decisions are reported i n the form of a l e t t e r to the referring physician and 9 copies of this l e t t e r are sent to the Health Unit concerned. During the c r i t i c a l week of diagnosis the c h i l d and parent are seen by a paediatrician, otologist, psychologist, audiologist, geneticist soc i a l worker and a speech and hearing therapist. At the end of the week, there i s a conference of the entire diagnostic team where findings are assessed, specific recommendations made and a compre-hensive evaluation given. These are known as the Friday conferences I f the Diagnostic Unit requires any further information on the case, requests for same are sent out following the Friday Conferences. Similarly, i f i t i s desired the child, be seen for further investiga-tion i n other special c l i n i c s , arrangements for r e f e r r a l are made at this time. Parents are then informed of the findings and recommenda tions, and a f i n a l summary i s sent from the Outpatient Department to the referring physician or Health Unit. Copies of this report are also sent to the medical offices for the Jericho H i l l School, the 9 Loc.cit. J Registry for Handicapped Children, and other s o c i a l agencies involved. A memorandum i s sent to the p r i n c i p a l of the Jericho H i l l School stating the name of the c h i l d , his address and the nature of the problem. Following the evaluation i n the Diagnostic Unit of the Outpatient Department each c h i l d i s transferred to the Speech and Hearing Therapy Unit for appropriate i n i t i a t i o n of therapy u n t i l a decision i s reached concerning formal educational planning. The Speech and Hearing Therapy Unit, now under the direc-tion of the Poliomyelitis and Rehabilitation Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, was u n t i l July 1, 1961, under the professional and adminis-tr a t i v e direction of the Director of the Speech and Hearing Programme, formerly Dr. D.C. Kendall. This building, a house located on a street one block from the hospital's Diagnostic Unit, has an enclosed yard equipped as an outdoor play area used by the pre-school children. Though the indoor quarters are rather small, the location could not have been better. Here, there i s nothing of the hospital atmosphere which so often t e r r i f i e s children and frustrates the basic aims of therapy; no long corridors, white uniforms, rows of sick people and anxious relatives; especially no stale medication-vapoured a i r ; none of these concomitants of threat and fear. 10 Ibid., pp. 1-2. 1 6 The main a c t i v i t i e s at this unit are at present: (1) individual therapy with deaf and hard of hearing children, (2) diagnosis and therapy with speech cases, (3) Kindergarten with the pre-school group. Child and parent are then sent to the Therapy Unit for a further week, where they are seen daily "by the Social Worker, Mr. John Brekelmaus, the Speech Therapist, Miss J. Semple, and any other specialists necessary. The Therapy Unit endeavours to advise the parent on elementary home training. These procedures deal primarily with hearing therapy, the success of which may depend upon the human 11 , factors involved. In 19ol a series of ten weekly meetings was held for parents resident i n or near Vancouver, at each of which a different central topic was discussed. In addition, during the week at the Therapy Unit mothers were able to t a l k to the therapist or to the s o c i a l worker while the c h i l d was being tested. The soc i a l worker i s concerned with assessing the family s o c i a l situation as i t relates to the c h i l d . This takes the whole family into account and an effort i s made to ascertain the parental 11 The most comprehensive operative plan employing these methods i s that of the John Tracy C l i n i c , 806 West Adams Blvd., Los Angeles 7, C a l i f o r n i a . They have extensive free pamphlet publications as well as home courses, i n use throughout the world. Some of th e i r pamphlets are i n our public l i b r a r i e s . * The reader i s also referred to Ewing's, Educational Guidance and the Deaf Child, especially Part I I , and to Greenaway's, The Properly Organized Nursery Is The Better Home for the Deaf Child. background, t h e i r views about raising children, how they handle thei r own and how they themselves were brought up. Findings from these interviews show some cases of poor parental acceptance of the child's handicap. The ch i l d i s considered a lo s t cause, the responsibility for whose future l i e s i n the hands of others; hospitals, c l i n i c s , a Provincial r e s i d e n t i a l school; s o c i a l aid and state care for the rest of i t s l i f e . The most common patho-l o g i c a l attitudes toward the c h i l d are direct opposites. On one hand i s overprotection, where the c h i l d gets everything i t wants. The result i s a spoiled c h i l d . On the other hand i s rejection. Perhaps the c h i l d was not wanted i n the f i r s t place. I t can be seen how important the marital situation i s i n the home of a deaf or hard-of-hearing c h i l d . Love, d i s c i p l i n e encouragement and stimulation regarding speech, speech-reading, auditory training and vocabulary building are primary requirements. Emotional dis-turbances and disorders are encountered by the s o c i a l workers at both the Diagnostic Unit and the Therapy Unit. The disturbances are handled by the s o c i a l worker and the disorders are handled by the consulting psychiatrist Treatment for those i n town i s weekly. Those from out of town come to the Unit 3 to h times a year. At home t h e i r public health nurses supervise and report progress. During the child's i n i t i a l two-week diagnostic and therapy period accommodation i s provided for the out-of-town mother and c h i l d , sometimes the father as well i f his presence i s considered advisable, at Easter Seal House. There i s a l i g h t housekeeping suite made available during the two-week assessment period and this w i l l be made available again during the future re-assessment period which may be necessary within a year 12. These factors are discussed i n a most interesting way i n Helen Keller's "Teacher: Anne Sullivan Macy, A Tribute by the Foster Child of Her Mind". See t h i s thesis' bibliography. 18 and one-half or before the c h i l d i s ready to begin the pre-school programme. The family buys i t s own food and prepares i t i n the suite and pays the nominal fee of $2.00 per day. Where the family i s not able to pay th i s amount or i t s transportation costs to and from the City of Vancouver, upon the advice of the s o c i a l worker these amounts are paid by the Poliomyelitis and Eehabilitation Foundation (Kinsmen Club) and the B. C. Society for Crippled Children (Lions' Club). The Kinsmen (Mothers' March, Appeal), make hearing aids available to indigent families i n cases where a hearing aid i s prescribed. The Lions' Club (Easter Seal Campaign) Bunny Buses operate throughout the c i t y and immediate areas to bring children to the pre-school programme and for individual therapy. A charge i s made of 30^ each way, but i n approximately half the 1961 cases the s o c i a l worker's recommendation makes th i s service free to those • 13 who cannot afford to pay. Thus, through medical and c l i n i c a l team approach the c h i l d with impaired hearing has been seen i n the Diagnostic Unit where causes of Ik hearing impairment w i l l have been diagnosed, i t s d e f i n i t i o n and c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n i n i t i a l l y approximated.^ Testing done i n both Therapy and Diagnostic Units helps establish a reasonable i n i t i a l assessment.^ Hearing therapy and speech therapy arising out of hearing loss are begun and continued i n the Therapy Unit, where the speech therapist functions i n co-operation with the consulting paediatrician, both of whom 13- To gain even reasonable cognizance of the number, diversity and location of organizations and services operative i n metropolitan Vancouver i t behooves, the reader to familiarize himself with the small, clearly presented Directory of Health, Welfare and Recreation Services i n Metro-politan Vancouver. Ik. Appendix E. 15. Appendix G. 16. Appendix F. Techniques i n the Assessment of Auditory Acuity. 19 are responsible to the medical doctor i n charge of audiology, and the continuing services of the s o c i a l worker are established. Following these i n i t i a l two-week assessments the c h i l d comes primarily under hearing therapy services and the continuing co-operative work of the soc i a l worker. However, the scope of the s o c i a l workers i s severely handicapped by i n a b i l i t y to leave the Units to v i s i t the home where the most v a l i d assessment of the s o c i a l situation can be made. Legally the two workers are restricted to services within the Units themselves. The hearing therapy functions i n two main areas; pre-school and school age. Pre-school children come to the Therapy Unit once each week from the time they are f i r s t assessed u n t i l such time as they are ready for f i n a l re-assessment and decision concerning the most suitable type of education available to them. This period often begins around the age of 1 year, although one c h i l d began at the age of 5 months and i s now five years old. Children undergoing therapy have been consistent i n keeping t h e i r appointments. Parents have realized the importance of the regular v i s i t s and, except when the family i s away on holiday, or during a specific holiday season the appointments are kept. This speaks well for the Unit's family relationship. Older children making good progress come i n less frequently. Any c h i l d developing a negative attitude toward therapy i s discontinued from appointments u n t i l , through counselling and related techniques, this attitude changes. Each c h i l d i s scheduled for a re-assessment every year or year-and-a-half. This 17- Appendix D includes the entire team; paediatrician, otologist, audiologist, speech -i Q therapist, s o c i a l worker. ° The frequent re-assessment i s of major importance because i t prevents "pigeon-holing" or limited categorization of each c h i l d . Wo f i n a n c i a l e l i g i b i l i t y i s operative for any pre-school child with hearing impairment, which means that a l l such cases which w i l l benefit from these services are e l i g i b l e for treatment without charge. Provincial and Federal grants, B. C. Poliomyelitis Foundation et a l make th i s possible. Since many children are seen continuously by the hearing therapist between re-assessments, the therapists records and reports are submitted to the team i n place of her actual appearance unless s p e c i f i c a l l y requested or desired. Where a case has not been continuous with either or both the therapist and the so c i a l worker the case i s brought back to the Therapy Unit and seen by these particular team members for the re-assessment. Friday conferences and a conference between Dr. H. Moghadam and the parent, following these, comprise the reassessment. This same procedure i s followed for children from other areas throughout B. C , with reports from the individual health units and physicians being considered i n formulation of the re-assessment when the child and parent are i n Vancouver. I t i s desirable that out-of-town children return to the Vancouver centre every three to four months after i n i t i a l assessment, i f t h i s i s at a l l possible. In far outlying cases t h i s i s not possible and i t i s more nearly the year to year-and-a-half period which elapses between re-assessments at the Vancouver centre. For those with more reasonable access to Vancouver the average time lapse i s s i x to eight months. 18. Glossary 21 Pre-school Programme Children i n the greater Vancouver area are seen by the therapist once each week and i n the younger age group from two years to five years of age they participate i n the kindergarten programme whieh operates eleven months of the year, being discontinued for the month of August. I t i s considered the regular school closing, July and August, i s too long for the children to be without therapy but the one month period does allow for family holidays together. The pre-school group programme actually began early i n 1957, with Miss J. Semple, trained teacher of regular classes and speech therapist. She had four children as a group for one hour, Tuesday and Thursday mornings from 10:00 - 11:00, meeting i n the Diagnostic Unit of the hospital. Because of limited space there, no free movement a c t i v i t i e s could be undertaken, only group and table games. In September, 1959? Mrs. D. Carter, trained kindergarten s p e c i a l i s t , took over the nursery school, enrolled sixteen children and moved out of the hospital setting to somewhat larger quarters over a bank at 4-35 West Broadway. These quarters were made available by the B. C. Polio Foundation and although they provided no outside f a c i l i t i e s at a l l , they were a con-siderable improvement over the hospital's space. The enrolment grew to 25 children, organized i n groups of approximately 8, coming i n morning or afternoon sessions three times a week. The children were, as they are today, transported by the Bunny Buses, operated by the B. C. Society for Crippled Children. Valuable help was and i s given by volunteers from the Junior League of Vancouver i n the actual running of the programme. A loop induction group hearing aid, the f i r s t to be used i n Western 22 Canada was i n s t a l l e d i n the classroom, i n 1959, from a National Health Grant i n 1958. Mrs. Carter also did special observation cases for Dr. Kendall, two mornings a week during t h i s period. In March, i960, the Foundation provided the present s i t e of the Therapy Unit at 2838 Heather Street. The pre-school or kindergarten programme i s licens to handle up to 10 children per class but the Unit considers 6 children the maximum under one teacher. From September i960 to the end of August 1961 Mrs. Carter averaged 2k children who were grouped as far as possible with compatible hearing losses, i n k groups of' 6 children each. One group was an observa-t i o n group where hearing loss was either suspected or else was combined with other factors, e.g., a u t i s t i c children and retarded children. There were three groups. Group A, was the younger profoundly and severely deaf,20 a group of s i x , aged 3 and k years. They came i n the morning from 9"-30 u n t i l 11:30, on Mondays, Tuesdays and Thursdays. Group B, ' aged hj? to 6 years, came Monday, Tuesday and Thursday afternoon from 1:30 u n t i l 3:30, and were l i k e Group A, profoundly and severely deaf. The Group C, came Wednesday and Friday morning, 9:30 - 11:30, and were the PI PP moderately or s l i g h t l y ' hard of hearing. I t must be noted that these categories of hearing loss are simply descriptions of what may be found and that children within these categories w i l l range considerably i n t h e i r 19- License #1715> issued July 1961, by the Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions, Dept. of Social Welfare, 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C. 20. See Appendix H: Educational C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Children with Defective Hearing. 21. Loc. c i t . 22. Appendices G and H 2 3 comprehension and a b i l i t y i n language written, read or spoken. This variation i s due not only to d i f f e r i n g losses of hearing but also to a l l of the environmental and physical variants which affect personal and educational development i n any c h i l d . The degree of hearing loss as well as' i t s type i s important, as i s the child's a b i l i t y to use i t s residual hearing, by no means s t a t i c c r i t e r i a solely upon which to consider any c h i l d . The inter-involvement of a l l these factors must be considered when assessing and re-assessing the c h i l d as i t grows older. Early diagnosis and continuous re-assessment on th i s basis are the primary aims of the Speech and Hearing Programme, and the paramount concern i s the soci a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d . In summary, the pre-school play groups or kindergarten can be considered as consisting on an average of four groups of six children, with two groups attending three times a week, one group twice a week and one group once a week for approximately two hours at a time, were started i n A p r i l 1959 with the following objectives:-1. To provide a normal pre-school programme which would enable hard-of-hearing children to soc i a l i z e , gain s e l f confidence and to enjoy and become s k i l f u l at the various a c t i v i t i e s and occu-pations . 2 . To use th i s play situation as a setting for stimulating spon-taneous speech and thereby building up vocabularly. This i s more l i k e l y to come about when the c h i l d i s relaxed as i s more l i k e l y i n this atmosphere than i n a more formal setting. 3 . To work with and advise parents on behaviour problems etc. and, whenever possible, to give the parents an opportunity of seeing t h e i r children i n relation to other children. 2h k. To keep close l i a i s o n with the Social Worker, Speech Therapist and Director of the Programme. The constant expansion, re-assessment, recommendation, direction and planning so evident i n the Speech and Hearing Programme are excellent indications of a development which should become one of the finest i n North America and certainly be unparalleled anywhere i n Canada. In most cases the Programme's changes have been wise and t h i s •may be noted i n the following recommendations of the kindergarten teacher i n July 1961, for future planning of the work at her l e v e l . I t i s recommended that i n the near future there should be greater segregation of the children. The following categories are suggested; Group A. Profoundly Deaf (Where gestures and inevitably poorer speech should not be copied by the p a r t i a l l y deaf children) These children to be taught by a qualified pre-school teacher-of-the-deaf. This may present d i f f i c u l t i e s as i t would involve the Province of B.C. i n taking over the responsibility for the education of the profoundly deaf at a younger age. As i t i s essential to start the child's specialized training before fi v e years of age, i t i s suggested that t h i s t r a i n i n g should start at the two-year age l e v e l . F a i l i n g t h i s , this group would have to remain at the Therapy Unit, but i t should be separate from the other groups. Group B. The P a r t i a l l y Deaf This group, whose future education w i l l probably be i n the regular schools, can be taught by a qualified pre-school teacher, either i n the Therapy Unit or i n the Public Schools, with continued support from the Speech Therapist and the Director of the Speech and Hearing Programme. Administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s may arise here as these children w i l l not a l l be residents of Vancouver. Ideally, t h i s group should have approximately 50fo of hearing pre-school children i n t h e i r group as association with hearing children increases speech communication for the p a r t i a l l y deaf c h i l d at a much faster rate. 25 Group C. Observation Group This group should be expressly f o r the c h i l d with a suspected speech or hearing handicap combined with other d i f f i c u l t i e s often expressed i n f a i r l y severe behaviour patterns such as extreme aloof-ness, etc. I f placed i n Groups A or B, they are a disturbing influence. I t i s not l o g i c a l to expect the c h i l d with "multiple d i s a b i l i t i e s " to j o i n i n with these other groups and socialize, etc. This c h i l d needs a period on his/her own with not more than one or two others, where she can, through free a c t i v i t i e s , work out her own problems at her own l e v e l , with the teacher giving undivided attention to the child's needs. I t i s debatable as to which type of building would best suit this group. I t needs to be where doctors, soc i a l workers, psychiatrists, etc., could observe the c h i l d . A two-way screen window would be help-f u l . After a sufficient period of observation, which would vary with each c h i l d , a recommendation could then be made as to which c l i n i c or school therapy could best be carried out. "A teacher who has had some previous experience with normal children and who i s f l e x i b l e i n outlook would be desirable for t h i s group. Placement Not -until t h e i r 5th year of age are the children at the Unit assessed i n terms of th e i r educational beginnings after they leave. Vancouver children leave between the ages of 5 and 6, depending upon t h e i r progress and upon what f a c i l i t i e s are open to them at the time. They w i l l then enter: 1) regular kindergartens or f i r s t grades i n t h e i r home area 2) the hard-of-hearing class for grade 1, at the Queen Alexandra School 3) Jericho H i l l School's primary di v i s i o n . Children from outside Vancouver have at present two alternatives. They are to go to numbers 1 or 3, of the above. Vancouver children entering regular classrooms from the Unit have the advantage of continuing t h e i r therapy 26 with the Unit therapist and she likewise v i s i t s t h e i r schools on an average of three to four times a year to work with the c h i l d , teacher and parent together. The key to t h i s triangle i s the parent or parents. They have played an important role i n the success of the present programme. Success varies i n accordance with the parents 1 willingness and a b i l i t y to co-operate. The children i n public schools now range from Grade 3 down. The following speech therapist,'s report for July 196l, i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r dispersal, progress and factors involved. REPORT OH ORIGINAL FIVE CHILDREN IN REGUIAR SCHOOLS. JULY/61 The f i v e children written up i n the i960 report a l l completed successfully t h e i r Grade Two work and were promoted to Grade Three i n t h e i r respective schools. One boy passed as one of the top three students of his grade, and received a book as a prize from his teacher. These children adjusted more easily to Grade Two work, and as the year progressed, each showed a more rapid acceleration i n acquisition of knowledge, a more adequate use of the auditory and l i p reading f a c i l i t i e s , increased language s k i l l s , both o r a l , and written, and improved speech production, closer to the norm. Interesting was the fact that those with severe losses were "A" students i n spelling and phonics. The most pleasing aspect of a l l was that each was a normally adjusted c h i l d i n his natural environ-ment. OTHER CHIIDREN BEGINNING SCHOOL, I961 There began two g i r l s i n Grade One t h i s year. The f i r s t g i r l had a severe b i l a t e r a l hearing loss, and the other g i r l , a severe loss i n high frequencies. The f i r s t had a poor three-week period of adjusting to the school at f i r s t , but after that she was a good student, made excellent use of her hearing and l i p reading, learned readily, and participated i n class a c t i v i t i e s and became one with her classmates. She had an understanding and sympathetic teacher, who had an interest i n her problem. Mother and teacher consulted regularly. With such f u l l co-operation by a l l , the c h i l d was able to complete successfully her Grade One work, and i n September w i l l begin Grade Two. The other g i r l had less pre-school training (ten months), was older (eight years), . was of average a b i l i t y , but immature s o c i a l l y and overprotected by parents. She had a sympathetic, but perfec-t i o n i s t i c teacher, who demanded too much from herself, and the ch i l d . Child coped well at f i r s t but she could not keep up the 27 pace. She acquired much knowledge and increased comprehension but not enough to complete her Grade One work. As a result i t has been recommended that she be transferred to the hard-of-hearing class i n Vancouver. As yet t h i s has not been completed. One boy was i n Grade One, but he was not followed i n school. He attended the Speech and Hearing Therapy Unit f a i r l y regularly for speech therapy. He had developed speech, but i t was very defective. He wore a hearing aid. He was a very immature boy, lacked self-motivation. There was co n f l i c t i n the home over handling the boy. Though his speech showed some improvement, and he adjusted reasonably well i n school, he was unable to complete Grade One work. He has enough a b i l i t y and hearing to complete the work i f he becomes motivated to t r y harder. A t h i r d g i r l appeared to have a hearing loss, and wore an aid. She also was aphasic and had language incapacity. She started i n Grade One i n September i960. She was seen once at school, but she attended the c l i n i c regularly for therapy. Speech production per se was good. Arithmetic gave considerable d i f f i c u l t y , but she gradually acquired the concepts. Her teacher showed a tendency towards impatience with a slow acquisition of knowledge. Reading was excellent, as i t has been with a l l these children with hearing problems. The c h i l d lost confidence and floundered towards the end of the term. However, her previous work had been good enough to j u s t i f y her promotion to Grade Two. Child's language i s developing at a reasonably increased rate. CHILDREN ATTENDING KINDERGARTEN, 1961 There were three children, two g i r l s and a boy, who attended regular kindergarten i n their respective home areas; one l i v e s i n the Upper Fraser Valley. They adjusted well to these situations. Enough speech developed and i t was recommended that these children begin Grade One i n the regular school i n September I96I. Another boy i n the Interior w i l l be given a chance to t r y Grade One i n the regular school, i f the l o c a l authorities agree. He i s not ready for i t : he has very l i t t l e speech developed. But, because of the family situation, t h i s was recommended. The case i s to be reviewed at the end of t h i s year. Another g i r l w i l l enter a special Grade One class i n an i n t e r i o r c i t y on a t r i a l basis. She has developed more speech, but i s too l i t t l e prepared to be given more than t h i s . The case w i l l be reviewed i n the spring of 1962. In the l a t t e r two cases one does not anticipate too much. Success w i l l l i k e l y be unattainable i n one year. J . Semple Speech and Hearing Therapist 28 Liaison I f the policy outlined by Dr. G. C. Robinson, i n his d i r e c t i v e 2 ^ i s followed, and acted upon as i t relates to the Speech and Hearing C l i n i c , the Registry for Handicapped Children and the Jericho H i l l School, there would appear to be no reason why l i a i s o n co-operation and eventual'transfer of children should not work smoothly. This presumes, of course, that the administrative incumbents and a l l personnel concerned i n each of these areas has, or takes consistently, the necessary time and attention to implement the intent of the directive. The policy provides for co-operative and i n -formative measures between the Units and J.H.S. on each l e v e l . The following excerpts from the directive are pertinent. Pre-School Hearing Programme A. Speech and Hearing Diagnostic Unit When the comprehensive evaluation has been completed, a f i n a l summary of the Outpatient Department findings i s sent to the referring physician or Health Unit and copies of th i s report also are sent to the School Medical Officer for the Jericho H i l l School, the Registry for Handicapped Children, and other soc i a l agencies involved. A memo-randum i s sent to the p r i n c i p a l of the Jericho H i l l School stating the name of the c h i l d , his address and the nature of the problem. B. Speech and Hearing Therapy Unit This unit under the administrative direction of the B.C. Foundation for Child Care, Poliomyelitis and Rehabilitation and at the present time i s under the professional and administrative direction of Dr. David Kendall. (a) Periodic conferences are held at the Therapy Unit and a f i n a l conference should precede the child's transfer from the Therapy Unit to either the Jericho H i l l School or other school. This conference should be preceded by review studies by a paedia-t r i c i a n and as indicated by representatives from Social Service, 2k Policy Relating to Joint A c t i v i t i e s Between Health Centre for Children, Speech and Hearing Therapy Unit and Jericho H i l l School, G. C. Robinson, M.D. Medical Director, Outpatient Department, Health Centre for Children, September 23, I960. 29 Psychology, Dentistry, and Audiometry. I t i s the responsibility of the Director of the Therapy Unit to i n i t i a t e such studies by advising the Chief Clerk i n the Health Centre for Children, Outpatient Depart-ment of the need for such appointments. (b) The Therapy Unit s t a f f w i l l hold periodic meetings with the P r i n c i p a l and School Medical Officer of the Jericho H i l l School to review prospective transfers to either the Jericho H i l l School or to other schools i n B.C. These conferences w i l l precede the f i n a l evaluation prior to t h e i r discharge. -(c) I t i s the responsibility of the Administrative Assistant i n the Therapy Unit to inform the Public Health Nurse i n the Out-patient Department of decisions to transfer children either to the Jericho H i l l School or to other schools. In this way the f i n a l medical report, containing Medical, Speech and Hearing and Social Services summaries, i s directed to the appropriate School Medical Officer, from the Outpatient Department of the Health Centre for Children. In the event that a child i s to be transferred d i r e c t l y to the regular school i n the Metropolitan area, the f i n a l report should be sent to the Senior Medical Officer of Health, Metro-politan Health Committee. JERICHO HILL SCHOOL 1. Evaluation Programme (a) New admissions not previously registered i n the Pre-school Hearing Programme at the Health Centre Children of school age enrolled at the Jericho H i l l School and not previously registered i n the Pre-school Hearing Programme at the Health Centre for Children, may be referred to the Outpatient Depart-ment for i n i t i a l evaluation only i f they are e l i g i b l e for Outpatient care. There are very few such children admitted to the Jericho H i l l School each year and they usually derive from other comparable schools throughout Canada. The Jericho H i l l School w i l l submit a l i s t of a l l such e l i g i b l e school children who require evaluation at the Outpatient Department at the beginning of each school year. The requests for t h i s evaluation should be submitted to the Medical Director of the Outpatient Department of H.C.C. on the regular PH 32 forms. (b) Re-Evaluation of children previously registered i n the Pre-School Hearing Programme at the Health Centre for Children Likewise any requests for follow-up studies on school-age children attending the Jericho H i l l School who were formerly registered 30 at H.C.C. should be made i n writing to the Medical Director, Outpatient Department. Re-evaluation i s only available for children who are f i n a n c i a l l y e l i g i b l e i n the O.P.D. In the event of border-line situations, special consideration w i l l be given to requests f o r study. The school report should be included with the request f o r evaluation i n both instances. 2. Jericho H i l l School, Medical Care Services (a) Children enrolled at the Jericho H i l l School who are el i g i b l e for Outpatient Care can be referred to the Outpatient Department for investigation and treatment of a medical i l l n e s s unrelated to the i r auditory problems. I t Is requested that the Nurse Matron phone the Appointment Desk i n the Outpatient Department to obtain these appointments (Local 2kk6) and send a l e t t e r of re f e r r a l with the escort (PH 32 i n duplicate), explaining the medical problem. A report w i l l be returned to the School Medical Officer i n care of S.M.O., M.H.C. (b) Children at the Jericho H i l l School who are not e l i g i b l e for Outpatient care, cannot obtain their medical care at the Health Centre for Children, Outpatient Department. These, then, are informative measures set forth i n regard to a l l children entering the Speech and Hearing Programme or entering Jericho H i l l School for the f i r s t time, and the further measures to f a c i l i t a t e diagnosis, therapy, and i n the case of some children, programming for later entry into Jericho H i l l School. Members of the Speech and Hearing team hold conferences each Friday. When such conferences include discussion of children who are possible entrants to J.H.S., Dr. C. E. MacDonald attends as well. In the school year 1960-61 Dr. MacDonald has attended approximately a dozen of these conferences. The spring conferences require his presence most frequently because that i s when plans for f a l l enrolments come under consideration. An example of the type and number of transfers can be seen i n t h i s abbreviated summary of possible candidates for Jericho H i l l School decided upon i n November I960. The following i s a l i s t of candidates for the f a l l term of 1 9 6 l . 31 1. Those who should start i n January, 1961 Four children - one of these l i k e l y but not yet assessed, one - mother doubtful. 2. Those who should start at Easter One c h i l d . 3. Those who should start i n September, 1961 Eight children - one for review, one more l i k e l y regular school, one probable six-year-old and one, i f ready, from V i c t o r i a . k. Those who need assessment Four children - one of these unlikely to enrol, one coming again i n A p r i l , one depending upon parents' decision after re-assessment w i l l probably enrol i n special class. 5. Those d e f i n i t e l y "No" Twelve children - one of these for regular kindergarten, two l i k e l y after review, one for School for Mentally Retarded, one C.P. case. 6. Those d e f i n i t e l y "Yes" Sine children, four of whom are deaf and bl i n d . The Speech and Hearing c l i n i c continues to serve as a screening c l i n i c for entrants to the School for the-Deaf at Jericho H i l l and a close relationship with the school has been maintained. 32 Field Services Information derived from (a) the operation of the f i e l d therapy services i n four areas, (b) mobile c l i n i c operations, and (c) reports and requests from health units not presently served by f i e l d or t r a v e l l i n g programmes suggests that there i s a growing concern about the number of children (p a r t i c u l a r l y those of school age) with speech d i f f i c u l t i e s . This concern i s linked with the fact that there i s usually nobody available qualified to assess these problems, or to advise about treatment. I t i s p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to make an accurate calculation of the number of children i n the province who require assessment, or the proportion of cases recommended for assessment who require treatment. A conservative estimate would put the number of school-age children l i k e l y to be referred for assessment at 3% of the school population. Our i n f o r -mation suggests that approximately one t h i r d of these cases (or 1$ of the school population) i s l i k e l y to need follow-up of some kind, such as counselling or therapy. 25 To provide t h i s t r a v e l l i n g or mobile assessment to those areas of the province not presently covered by existing f a c i l i t i e s the position of Supervisor of Fie l d Services has recently been established, though not yet f i l l e d . As the organization chart, Appendix B, shows he w i l l be responsible to the Joint Committee and responsible for the four present Units and for the two proposed t r a v e l l i n g Units. The Supervisor's responsibilities w i l l e n t a i l (a) the professional supervision of the work of the f i e l d therapists, including those therapists carrying out the t r a v e l l i n g operations. 25. Recommendations re F i e l d Therapy and Mobile C l i n i c s . D-C. Kendall, Ph.D. Director, Speech and Hearing Programme, July 21, i960. 33 (b) active l i a i s o n with the Provincial Department of Health and the Medical Directors of Public Health Units over the opera-ti o n of programmes carried out i n the l o c a l areas. (c) responsibility to the Joint Committee for the e f f i c i e n t management and operation of the t r a v e l l i n g and f i e l d therapy services. The two t r a v e l l i n g therapists, working under the supervisor w i l l provide t h i s mobile assessment and counselling service to those areas i n the Province not presently covered. They w i l l provide mobile assessment and counselling service to those areas i n the Province not presently covered by any of the existing f a c i l i t i e s . On the basis of the estimates suggested i n #2, the services of at least two full-time speech therapists would be required. Provision of two therapists would: (a) v i s i t every population centre once a year; (b) carry out a screening assessment of the three percent of the school population l i k e l y to be referred; (c) give a more detailed assessment of the 1$ of the school population l i k e l y to require f u l l e r investigation; (d) give b r i e f counselling where this i s indicated. Research Without research, no programme of any sort can hope to function adequately i n terms of i t s t o t a l f i e l d . A programme may begin as a limited response to concerted demands and may from time to time ascertain where i t i s , how i t presently constitutes i t s e l f , where i t has been, how i t got there, but i n only a few instances just exactly why. No future 3^ can be reasonably planned without i t s basis i n a sound, many-faceted, continuous programme of research. We a l l use the term "dead", as i n a dead group, a dead place to work or a dead c i t y . The expression means exactly what i t implies, a condition without the spark of l i f e which brings change for the good and the positive sense of an improving and promising future. Mere increase i n size without an accompanying change i n scope i s usually deadening. With t h i s i n mind we now consider the research going on i n the Speech and Hearing Programme. Direction of research w i l l remain with Dr. D. C. Kendall, as he moves to the University and the office of Director w i l l l i k e l y be discontinued and a new, expanded form of organi-zation w i l l absorb i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In the 1959 b r i e f to Royal Commission on Education, i t was stated that a number of projects have been started i n connection with the Speech and Hearing Programme. Two student projects ("hearing i n new-borns"; "vestibular function i n c h i l d -ren") were completed during 1959; these were valuable preliminary studies which, i t i s proposed, w i l l be followed up during the next year. Work on a hearing aid project - exploring automatic volume compression - has begun, as has a second project on a speech frequency compression system. Both of these projects are being carried out i n collaboration with staff members i n the Department of E l e c t r i c a l Engineering of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. A more elaborate and extensive research i s planned, which w i l l incorporate a detailed and broadly based study of 150 consecu-tive referrals to the pre-school hearing programme. This study - auditory disorders i n children of pre-school age i n B r i t i s h Columbia - i s Intended to provide physical, audiological and aetiological data about what i s 35 v i r t u a l l y a whole population of children with auditory d i s a b i l i t i e s . In connection with t h i s study, a genetic investigation of children with auditory disorders has already been started with the collaboration of the Department of Neurological Research. I t i s hoped that the part-time services of a fellow i n Paediatrics and a full-time Research Assistant w i l l be available under the National Health Research Grants for these studies. In July, 196l the work on auditory disorders i n children of pre-.school age i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the work on a frequency compression system for use with deaf children, are s t i l l i n progress on the approximated three-year basis. The part-time services of a fellow i n Paediatrics were obtained i n the person of Dr.. Elizabeth Johnson working under an honorarium u n t i l July, I 9 6 I . The position i s vacant at present. The services of a full-time Research Assistant have been obtained and the present incumbent i s Miss Doris Bergbush. Finance Financing the Speech and Hearing Programme f a l l s upon three main groups.^ The budget for the period September 1, i960 to December 31, I96I i s s l i g h t l y over $121,000, with the following breakdown: B.C. Child Care and Polio Foundation $ 91,000 National Health Grants 30,000 Vancouver General Hospital 23^ The $91,000 i s deployed i n direct f i n a n c i a l support of salaries, building and supplies. Additional indirect f i n a n c i a l support i s provided by the 26 Figures and disbursement can be obtained from the Health Centre for Children, Vancouver, B.C., Financial Statements, i960, published under Gunderson Stokes Walton and Co. Chartered Accountants, Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Penticton. 36 Polio and Rehabilitation Foundation of B.C., and the B.C. Society for Crippled Children, i n Easter Seal House accommodation, t r a v e l assistance, Bunny Bus transportation and f i n a n c i a l assistance i n part or f u l l for hearing aids and ear moulds. In terms of non-visible support, the free services of medical consultants at the Vancouver General Hospital, the University of B.C., and the consultant services of other organizations must be considered. Financial recommendations of August 10, i960 included the following That the major sources of financing continue to be the B.C. Foundation for Child Care and the National Department of Health, the l a t t e r to be requested to continue i t s present support and to provide additional grants for f i e l d services. I t i s proposed that the Vancouver General Hospital and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia continue to provide p a r t i a l support to the particular a c t i v i t i e s of the programme which come under thei r direct administration. I t i s recommended that discussions take place immediately with education authori-t i e s with a view to having a teacher of the Deaf financed from this source. That discussions should commence th i s year with a view to f i e l d services ultimately becoming the responsibility of public health and/or education and that, during the three-year evalua-t i o n period, public health grants to augment the B.C. Foundation's grant for the f i e l d programme should be requested, to assist t h i s year with financing of the salaries of the supervisor and one t r a v e l l i n g therapist and with t r a v e l costs. That research and investigative a c t i v i t i e s should continue according to the present programme which i s mainly financed through National Health Grants. This account has been concerned only with the hearing therapy part, the larger part, of the Speech and Hearing Programme. The programme has been i n operation since 1950, with i t s present form of organization 27 Summary of Report and Recommendations on Programme and Budget from the Joint Planning Committee of the Speech and Hearing Programme Jointly Operated by the B.C. Foundation for Child Care and the Health Centre for Children. August 10, i 9 6 0 . 37 dating from 195^ • From 1958 to 196l the post of Director was held by Dr. D. C. Kendall, who resigned to become Head of the Special Education Department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s unlikely that the post of Director w i l l be f i l l e d again. With the increase i n size and scope of the programme, future reorganization w i l l l i k e l y result i n the function of that post being distributed as shown on the organization chart, Appendix D. The general aims of the Programme are to offer thorough diag-nostic, counselling and pre-school educational treatment to any pre-school c h i l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia who has a speech and hearing problem. The same f a c i l i t i e s are available likewise to B r i t i s h Columbia children of any age who are f i n a n c i a l l y e l i g i b l e to receive outpatient treatment at the Health Centre. Provision i s made through counselling and team consultation, to place each c h i l d into the school programme most appropriate to his capabilities and to the location of his home. This may f i n d him enrolled in a regular school classroom, i n a special classroom i n a regular school, or i n a special school as a day pupil or as a residential pupil. Boys' P n d u s t f i a l S c h o o l , i ^ i o o West". ^Avfc. As i t - n p h P n r p r J n h o u t . i g o a. AbpnWIy T i n t I n n n a f h P Y ifc w n c , b u i l t , ft*, t h p O f p t o r i r h vLnIksf\e. J h a v e r p t h p P n Yn'idnut'. Ibwcif, n l o w f l y i s n l n t - e ^ p l r t C P T g Q f h e d n f t e T p a c i n g nIrmy VnmtQrf^then r ime t p . t T a i l r n t h e f o r e s t , n - n r l m n h m u m n OVPT r m r r r - r o w catMUYQU r o a d c t o s s m n t h p . S W a - m p T i Q W t h p l o v * p n * t c a i ^ f l v e , j u s r w p c r o f A i m n T ? n ^ , . T h p - c p m a s d e e ^ h P n f O-TifL c 'n 'ug a t i -n t h e f o r P . s r : - n e r r f b L j . w h i r h ^ u f i n q n WYIJ S i ; T r m i P . Y S m r i e t r r n e s cmiykt f i t f e a - n d . c f e a t - p c J . T n i . c h s m f t k e . . I t w a s v e f i j - r t m o f . T t i s T n i j - t t c o H t r t i o n t h a t t h e n e a t e s t s t i e f c t C n t w n s a t K i U i l c i - n c ^ E a c h . I d o i . k fhp ^ A v f w a s n a m e d , I n O c t o b e r l o a t h e s c h o o l w a s m o v e d fa B i s c o , C o o M i i H n - m • H . R B Y a n k i T L , S u p t 0 / h r t t h s c h o o l s . L a t P T i t h e c a m . S c h o o l jot t h e H e a f , S c h o o l f rvr - t h p - B l m c L j Q - n d iS -now(/f j5>) c d l P d ' • • T e r l r h c H i l l S c h o o l " . . _ P h o t o f y r p * e n t P d t T i n f - ' C j S ^ k j lTiis«; frinh*! N / B l f l W R y S i W e s t l ^ f l v t City fttthirtt ^ til T h e T e a s o n . t w o s h»Ut"out iATomt&ie i ) ' ' w a s t h e t e m o l r e f a c m H i s o l a t i o n , - t o k e e p t h e . b a c L — K r » j S n w a y f - o m t e m p t a t i o n ; n U n Vt- W f l * h i g h f ind. d ^ > n t W p P f l « . t W Q S a , h o l l P W Y . I W U f l j a . Photograph and details courtesy of the Vancouver City Archives. 38 CHAPTER I I I A HISTORY OF JERICHO HILL SCHOOL The chronicle of B r i t i s h Columbia's School for the Deaf and the Blind i s a record of the effort and achievement which has taken place during the last f i f t y years. Prior to l°dA the child with a serious auditory handicap was sent to the School for the Deaf i n Winnipeg, Manitoba, at an annual fee of three hundred dollars. The necessity for a class or classes i n Vancouver had not been overlooked, but the Vancouver School Board "had never been able to obtain the sanction and fi n a n c i a l support of the Department of Education, for such work"."'' However, during l ° i 4 , the combined effects of several actions resulted i n a change for deaf children of Vancouver. The annual fee for out-of-province pupils at the Winnipeg School for the Deaf was raised to five hundred do l l a r s . With the prospect of considerably higher expenses because of t h i s , the Vancouver School Board became interested i n starting special classes for the Deaf. Mrs. W.H. Maclnnes, a teacher of the Deaf, formerly i n C i n c i n a t t i , Ohio, impressed a member of the Board by her account of such classes, run on oral lines and operating as an integral part of the system of education. Sympathetic also to the complaints of 1 Board of School Trustees Vancouver City Schools Thirteenth Annual Report, December 31, 1915, PP- 13-l^-2 Loc.cit. 39 -.-Vancouver parents, who expressed strong opposition to sending t h e i r children as far away as Winnipeg, the Board arranged a meeting at which the p o s s i b i l i t y of providing l o c a l service was discussed.3 As a result, a day class of eight deaf children ranging i n age from five to sixteen years was opened i n Mount Pleasant School, on 8th Avenue East, i n Vancouver. Taught by Miss Mabel Bigney from Halifax, Nova Scotia, the class commenced i n March, 1915- In September Miss Bigney unable to return because of i l l health, was replaced by Mrs. W.H. Maclnnes who continued u n t i l Mr. F.W. Hobson, a trained teacher, arrived from England to become pr i n c i p a l i n January, 19l6. The position and attitude of the School Board with regard to the establishment of t h i s class and i t s early functioning can be ascertained from the report of December 1915• We had at t h i s time i n the c i t y at least eight deaf and dumb children of school age. To educate them i n Winnipeg would cost the Province $4,000 for fees and a considerable sum for t r a v e l l i n g expenses besides. Moreover, the parents were i n most cases unwilling to send t h e i r children away i f at a l l possible to educate them at home. Your committee, convinced that the teaching would be well done i n our schools, again took the matter up with the Department of Education and received i n February permission to proceed with the work, together with a promise of the usual monthly government grant of $38.35 for the teacher of this class, thus placing t h i s branch of school work on the same fin a n c i a l basis as our ordinary day school work. With the sanction of the Board, your committee appointed Miss Mabel Bigney, an experienced, expert oral teacher, to take charge of this work on the f i r s t day of March. 3 W.H. Maclnnes, information from letter s written by Mrs. Maclnnes, Vancouver, B.C., September, 1947* ho After close observation of the management of t h i s class for ten months, we are convinced that the Board was f u l l y j u s t i f i e d i n opening i t , as the progress made by these pupils has been most satisfactory. The cost of operation has been small - $383-50 paid by the Provincial Government, and $4-19.75 t>y the c i t y . In short, the operation of t h i s class has already effected a saving of over $2,500. These figures speak for themselves. In 19l6 the Annual Report states, "Attendance i n the oral class inaugurated last year has increased from eight to eleven, thus necessitating the appointment of an additional instructor i n t h i s work". The Report for 1917, indicated an enrolment of seventeen children and others seeking admission. The School Board, having found i t necessary to appoint two assistant teachers during that year, hinted at provincial aid. "This work, also, should not r i g h t f u l l y f a l l upon the shoulders of the School Board, and i t i s to be hoped that before long a provincial i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be provided for the purpose of carrying i t on" The 1918 Report notes that, i n spite of increasing d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining adequate accommodation, the classes for the Deaf and the Blind with four teachers, under t h e i r p r i n c i p a l , Mr. Hobson, had been established i n Braemar School on Broadway West. The following observation indicates the feeling of the Board at that time. Again, another type of unfortunate l i t t l e ones i s being cared for to the best of our a b i l i t y , and the ultimate expense to the state being lessened by just so much, as i s the difference between an adult of certain economic value as against one who i s a t o t a l economic loss. There i s also to be considered the personal happiness and contentment of the individual so trained.' k Board of School Trustees Thirteenth Annual Report, l o c . c i t . 5 Board of School Trustees Vancouver City Schools Fourteenth Annual Report, December 31, 19l6, p. 17-6 Board of School Trustees Vancouver City Schools Fifteenth Annual Report, December 31, 1917, P- 20. 7 Board of School Trustees Vancouver City School Sixteenth Annual Report, December 31, 1918, p. 17-hi I t i s interesting to note that Miss M.N. Blake recalls the old Braemar School as a "big brown house on Broadway, i n the 1200 block". Too, Mr. S.H. Lawrence, l a t e r p r i n c i p a l , saw the building as "a large dwelling house on 9th Avenue, three blocks east of Granville". He states that classes ... continued there u n t i l near the end of 1919, when the Victorian Order of Nurses needed the building and the l i t t l e school for the Deaf had to move out. After the Christmas holidays we secured quarters i n one of the buildings which had been temporarily erected where Kitsilano High School i s now.9 The Vancouver School Board Report of 1919, on page 17, under the heading "Defective Children", indicates: The Provincial Government has been urged to take over the care of the b l i n d and deaf children, since these come from a l l parts of the province, and therefore should not be a charge upon the c i t y . This matter i s s t i l l under consideration and i n the meantime the School Board i s conducting the schools under increasing d i f f i c u l t i e s with regard to proper accommodation. Page 28, reveals: Conditions i n the Oral School and the School f o r the Blind are highly unsatisfactory. The Oral Classes cannot find a temporary home i n the Kitsilano High School building f o r longer than a single term. In the Board's 1920 Report we read: I t i s a pleasure to be able to announce that at last the Deaf-Oral School has been taken over by the Government. This does not mean that students coming from Vancouver are cared for by the Government free of charge, as we pay $100. per c h i l d per 8 Mabel N. Blake, Information received during an interview, July ,196o. 9 S.H. Lawrence, Information from Letters written by Mr. Lawrence, Vancouver, B. C, September 19^7-42 year, but i t does save the c i t y some small amount of money and this Committee much work. Then again i t i s a step along the road to real State care, which should be given to a l l those unforunates not possessing ordinary powers 1 0 Further, on page 18 of the same report, i s stated; Arrangements were made with the Government and Point Grey School Board for the use of a school i n Point Grey, i n which to accommodate the Deaf-Oral School, which at the early part of the year was being carried on i n the KItsilano High School. These rooms were eventually required for High School purposes.H In 1920, under Mr. S.H. Lawrence, formerly of the Halifax School for the Deaf, a new school was opened. Located i n a building i n the v i c i n i t y of 25th Avenue and Oak Street, i t was the f i r s t of i t s kind to function under the Provincial Government. U n t i l 1920, deaf children from outside the Vancouver school d i s t r i c t had gone to Winnipeg. Although i t i s possible that one or two may have been admitted to the Vancouver class, the Vancouver School 12 Board's Report for 1919 indicates no policy regarding children not resident i n the d i s t r i c t . However, with the advent of provincial responsibility i n this f i e l d , deaf children anywhere i n B r i t i s h Columbia became e l i g i b l e for admission to the school at 25th Avenue and Oak Street. As there were no dormitory f a c i l i t i e s , children from outside Vancouver were placed i n foster homes during the school year. There was great d i f f i c u l t y i n finding suitable homes u n t i l , i n 1922, the Boys' Industrial School was relocated and i t s former premises at 4-100 West 4th Avenue were allocated 10 Board of School Trustees Vancouver City Schools Eighteenth Annual Report, December 31, 1920, p. 12. 11 Ibid., P. 18. 12 Board of School Trustees Vancouver City Schools Seventeenth Annual Report, December 31, 1919-43 to the School for the Deaf. The same year the Provincial Government assumed responsibility for the education of blind children. These were moved to the same campus and the whole became known as the B r i t i s h Columbia School for the Deaf and the Blind. There was a great deal of parental c r i t i c i s m of the placing of the deaf and blind children i n the Boys' Industrial School. The main objection seemed to be that what was not good enough for the boys could:not be considered good enough for the Deaf and the Blind. However, Mr. Lawrence explained that with renovations and changes the school would be made suitable. He also pointed out that although the building had not quite met the needs of the Boys' School i t s size and potential were adequate for the requirements of the Deaf and the Blind. I t should be noted here that the superintendent, as he i s now known, of such a school, has a vastly greater responsibility than his counterpart i n a public school. He has very l i t t l e free time. Planning maintenance, every facet of school organization-are his continuing charg and because of t h i s i t i s customary for him to l i v e on campus. In the early days a convenient pattern of organization was evolved i n the new schools i n the East, and spread across the United States and Canada, the husband-and-wife team. Started i n t h i s area by Robert J . Staines i n 184-9 i n his V i c t o r i a school i t was followed i n 1854 by Edward Cridge, l a t e r the f i r s t inspector of schools.^ Under Mr. Lawrence at the School for the Deaf and the Blind, Mrs. Lawrence 14 CE. P h i l l i p s , The Development of Education i n Canada, pp. 158-59-Mi-was appointed matron, her duties consisting of the supervision of a l l household s t a f f . Some teachers also acted as house supervisors after school hours. Miss Blake recalls that during a strenuous eighteen months of combined duties "the school engineer had to help me bathe the boys". In a report of Mr. Lawrence's to the Provincial Department of Education 1929-30, concern i s voiced over vocational training. This has been a constant factor ever since. The subject of vocational training has occupied a good deal of my thought during the year. In a small school l i k e t h i s one hardly feels warranted i n recommending equipment and full-time employment of teachers for trade-teaching such as the older and larger schools of t h i s nature have. I t would l i k e l y prove a costly venture and serve but a small number of pupils.l6 The same c r i t i c a l situation obtains i n school today - the d i f f i c u l t y of providing a variety of trade courses for a small number of students. This need i s now being met to some extent since Jericho H i l l students with a satisfactory attainment at the grade ten l e v e l may be recommended for admission to Vancouver Vocational or Technical Institutes. The l a t t e r schools w i l l from time to time at th e i r discretion admit Jericho H i l l students below the grade ten l e v e l . In January 1935, S.H. Lawrence retired and Dr. CE. MacDonald came from New Jersey to become p r i n c i p a l . I t i s of interest here that Mr. Lawrence had taught Dr. MacDonald's mother when she was a student at the Halifax school. Dr. MacDonald*s father too was a teacher there. 15 Blake, l o c . c i t . 16 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Public Schools Report, 1929-30, p. Q . . 3 8 . 45 This general setting Is reminiscent of the Alexander Graham Bell-Mabel Hubbard story. Similar details are characteristic of the background of many prominent men and women i n the f i e l d of Deaf education i n North America. In his notes for an address to the deaf alumni of Jericho H i l l School Dr. MacDonald mentions that after almost a half century of being involved with the education of the Deaf, he had by that time been for about twenty years p r i n c i p a l of t h i s school with an enrolment of around ninety and a s t a f f of t h i r t y f i v e . Recalling his early days at Jericho H i l l he remarks, Miss Blake who had recently been trained at Clarke School, Northampton, Massachusetts, was appointed Vice-Principal and Mrs. Tyler became Matron. Mrs. MacDonald took charge of the o f f i c e , voluntary work which had continued for the next twenty years. Mr. Smalley, l a t e r k i l l e d i n action i n World War I I was the f i r s t appointed supervisor of boys. The gym which had been closed for several preceding years for economy reasons was opened for basketball. Equipment was provided by the Vancouver Central Lions' Club.17 By 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 the School for the Deaf and the Blind Industrial Art programme l i s t e d fourteen courses: Carpentry and Joinery, Cabinet Making Draughting, E l e c t r i c i t y , Household Mechanics, Shoe Repairing, Barbering, 1 A Farming, A r t , Weaving, Typing, Cooking, Sewing and Beauty Culture. In the following year three more courses were added: Upholstery and 19 Furniture Finishing, Leathercraft and Art Needlework. y 17 C E . MacDonald, Notes from an address to the Deaf Department Parent Teacher Association, 1 9 5 7 , p . l . 18 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 , P. I 6 7 . 1 9 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 , p. J 6 2 . 46 The 1938-39 Annual Report mentions the f i r s t Metropolitan Health Service examinations at the school. Through the co-operation of the Metropolitan Health Service, ten children were immunized against smallpox, and every child in the school received a careful physical examination. When deemed desirable more frequent or specialized examinations have been made.20 In the same school year a rotating plan affecting the upper classes was put into operation. Results were very satisfactory as evidenced by higher levels of student interest and achievement. The course of studies was also revised in part; ... in order to give greater emphasis to the reading and language needs of deaf students. Reading and language are more than mere subjects for those in a world of silence. They are v i t a l l y important means of communication between themselves and the hearing worid.21 With the addition of Cosmetology,^ the Industrial Arts Programme listed nineteen courses. World events in 1940-4l from Dunkirk to the declaration of war on Japan had far reaching effects. In Canada, as elsewhere the increased demand for labour provided opportunities for most school leavers wishing to enter industry. Ex-students of Jericho H i l l School, many of whom replaced workers called to the colours, were no exception, and became very satisfactory employees. 20 British Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1938-39, P- H 66. 21 British Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1939-40, p. B 72. 22 Public Schools Report, loc.cit. 47 When Japanese-Canadian communities were removed from B r i t i s h Columbia coastal areas the deaf pupils were evacuated to supplement mi l i t a r y accommodation needed here and because ... feeling deep concern for the safety of our children who were housed i n the buildings near the Jericho A i r Base, the Minister of Education took steps early t h i s spring to have the school moved to a new location. After considerable study, i t was f i n a l l y decided to take over the old Borstal School i n Burnaby on A p r i l 1st. The new location gave accommodation for the out-of-town children for the dura-t i o n . 23 The removal necessitated hours of commuting by public transport for the many day students, faculty, house-parents, nurse-matron and her s t a f f . Due to these circumstances, ... permission was granted by the Vancouver School Board for the establishment of a day class i n the Lord Tennyson School. Experience has shown that i t w i l l be necessary for us to maintain one or more classes i n c i t y centres as long as the resident school remains i n i t s present location. 2^ -Reorganization of the. academic department, reassignment of teachers, and suspension of a l l vocational classes became necessary. In spring 1945? after months of preparation a pre-primary day class for deaf infants and th e i r mothers was opened at the School for the Deaf and the Blind. In charge of Miss Norah Townsend, a trained teacher from the Primary Deaf Department, this class too was located i n Lord Tennyson School. 23 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1941-42, p. B 78. 24 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1942-43, p. B 84. 48 The results achieved exceeded our most optimistic expectations. While t h i s i s the f i r s t class of th i s kind to be established i n the Dominion of Canada, i t i s hoped before long, resident accommodation w i l l be available to afford the same opportunities to a l l aurally and v i s u a l l y handicapped children of the province.25 On December 1st, 1945 part of the Jericho buildings were re-turned to the School for the Deaf and the Blind. These included the of f i c e , Superintendent's l i v i n g quarters and s i x classrooms i n the annex which were h a s t i l y made ready for occupancy after the Christmas holidays. In the spring of 1946 the pre-primary class came to the school from Lord Tennyson and four senior classes came from the Burnaby quarters. Becuase the R.C.A.F. retained the use of the kitchen and dining-hall buildings u n t i l the end of that school year, these students had to commute between Jericho and t h e i r Burnaby quarters. Mot u n t i l the end of March 1947 were the Borstal quarters i n Burnaby vacated, and the School for the Deaf and the Blind again i n f u l l operation at Jericho. Dr. MacDonald stated regarding qualified teachers of the Deaf and house-parents or supervisors: I t remains almost impossible to secure trained teachers i n Canada for our work. However, we have two young B r i t i s h Columbia women i n training centres i n the United States for our s t a f f next f a l l . I t i s hoped that before long a l l our teachers w i l l have had the required special tr a i n i n g . Half the members of our childrens 1 supervisory s t a f f have enrolled for Summer Session classes i n Physical Education. This i s the f i r s t step i n our programme to establish pro-fessional standards for our supervisors .26 25 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1944-45, P- Y 108. 26 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1946-47, p. I 105-49 Two former R.C.A.F. buildings, a mess h a l l and dormitory building and about eighteen acres of adjoining land were transferred to the use of the school to provide for i t s annually increased enrolment.27,28 In the summer of 1949, the School for the Deaf and the Blind 29 added another f i r s t i n Canada y to i t s endeavours when i t established summer courses on the campus for teachers, supervisors or house-parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Forty-two teachers, i n -cluding those from other schools i n Canada and the United States atten-ded the courses given by the Summer School of Education, of the Department of Education, V i c t o r i a . There was no fee for attendance at these courses and renowned teachers i n the f i e l d were brought i n to give them. There were no Canadian instructors. Miss Mary New and Miss Mildred Groht from the Lexington Avenue School for the Deaf, Hew York City, gave courses i n Speech and Language. The programme was so successful that i t was repeated i n the summer of 1950. I t ran from July 3 to August 4, when Miss Josephine Bennett and Miss Beatrice Hodgins also from Lexington Avenue School gave the courses. A t o t a l of thirty-nine Canadians and Americans took the courses. Credits earned by those at the B.C. School for the Deaf and the Blind were applied toward higher c e r t i -31 f i c a t i o n with the Provincial Department of Education. 27 Loc.cit. 28 See Table I 29 "Teachers Learning to Train Deaf", The Vancouver Daily Province, July 23, 1949, P- 43. 30 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1949-50, p. 0 104. 31 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1950-51, P- K 105. 50 During the school year 1950-51? eight pre-school-age children and three others received home training through correspondence courses prepared by Miss Helen Woodward, Vice-Principal of the Deaf Department of the B. C School for the Deaf and the Blind. During the spring of 1952, a committee of doctors and educators held monthly meetings at the school, under the chairmanship of Dr. Reba W i l l i t s , the school's medical health o f f i c e r at that time. Their purpose was to study problems relat i n g to pre-school training of deaf children, adequate care and training for those hard of hearing, and a speech therapy pro-gramme .^ ^ A panel of specialists was devised and a new procedure adapted for the purpose of reviewing borderline cases already attending the school, and for screening potential entrants. The panel, headed by the Superintendent, consisted of a paediatrician, an otologist, an opthalmologist, an audiometrist, a psychologist and a psychiatrist. The Association of Parents of Deaf Children was formed i n 1953? "by a group of parents who had deaf or hard-of-hearing children attending day classes at the school. A few teachers joined the association. Its meetings were held off campus. By February, 195^? a formal Parent Teacher Association functioning within the Provincial organization was chartered. While most members of the Association of Parents also belonged to the Parent Teacher Association, i t was not u n t i l 1959> that the former group disbanded. 32 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1951-52, p. N 110. 51 In the early spring of 195^? an Advisory Committee was established at the school.33 A year l a t e r , - i n the spring of 1955? the Department of Educa-t i o n approved a change of name from the "School for the Deaf and the Blind" to "Jericho H i l l School".3^ The Deaf Department P.T.A. and the Blind Department P.T.A. wanted the change because they f e l t the old , name conveyed too much the ideas of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and custodial care. During the school year 195^-55? Jericho H i l l School operated a t h i r d classroom i n the Vancouver c i t y schools. Thus a single class was now operating i n Lord Kitchener, S i r William Dawson and Model Schools. The class at Lord Kitchener moved to Trafalgar School i n 196l, because of the new grade seven changes resulting from implementing the Chant Commission recommendations. In 1955-56, ten c i t y deaf children from three to five years of age were given special instruction with t h e i r mothers twice weekly during the school year, and home instruction was sent to three out-of-town parents. During t h i s same school year, the Advisory Committee recom-mended, and the Department of Education approved that e l i g i b l e students be enrolled i n the three off-campus intermediate classes for a period of two years.3^ Prior to th i s some students i n these "outside" classes had remained from three to fi v e years. 33 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1953-54, p. 0 99-34 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1954-55? P- EE 114. 35 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1955-56, p. FP 130. 52 The school year 1956-57? saw arrangements completed whereby not only screening but also training of both hard-of-hearing and deaf children of pre-school age was to be undertaken at the Health Centre for Children. This arrangement began i n September 1957? after which, the 36 age for admission to Jericho H i l l School was raised to f i v e years. A summer schoolloan scholarship was made available to teachers and resident instructors of our Bli n d Department, limited to $500. a year. This provides f i n a n c i a l assistance of $100. each to fiv e persons, with 75 per eent repayable within a year. Similar consideration may be given for a year's training course. This i s a new scholarship offered to members of our s t a f f by the l o c a l chapter of the P i Beta Phi Sorority.3 7 Teachers of the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing are not e l i g i b l e to apply for th i s loan. In I958 an accident insurance plan was introduced. To parents of day pupils the yearly premium was set at $ 3 . and to parents of resident children at $7 .3^ j n the following year, 1959? completion of Grade IX was established as the minimum requirement for a graduation academic diploma. A vocational c e r t i f i c a t e may now be awarded on com-pletion of the elementary programme of studies plus satisfactory com-pletion of an approved vocational course at Vancouver Vocational Institute or the like.3 9 This same year, on the recommendation of the Superintendent, the Advisory Committee decided to recommence pre-school instruction for "severely Hard-of-Hearing and deaf 4-year olds at Jericho 36 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Public Schools Report, 1956- 57? P. X 57-37 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Public Schools Report, 1957- 58, p. ¥ 59-38 Ibid., p. W 58. 39 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Public Schools Report, 1958- 59, p. Z 64. 53 H i l l School. For the past several years t h i s instruction had been pro-vided at the Children's Health Centre".^ Current planning provides that children i n the pre-kindergarten age group, to approximately five years of age, should remain with the Children's Health Centre for diagnosis and therapy. Following that age children capable of attempting the work w i l l be placed i n kindergarten i n t h e i r own d i s t r i c t schools. Those whose school d i s t r i c t s have no kindergarten programme w i l l come to the Jericho H i l l pre-school class. S i m i l a r l y , children deemed unlikely to progress i n regular kindergartens w i l l likewise come to Jericho H i l l . In June 1961, two senior deaf pupils successfully wrote the regular B r i t i s h Columbia Social Studies 30 examination. In A p r i l , 1962 the same two boys sat the entrance examinations for Gallaudet College i n Washington D. C. They were both successful and were enrolled i n the fresh-man class i n September of that year. They were Jericho H i l l ' s f i r s t students to attend the only college for the Deaf i n the w o r l d ^ and reach-ing an unusually high standard did not require the customary preparation year at college before commencing the Bachelor of Arts programme. Appendix E i s of interest here as i t i s the expression of an Ontario deaf student's own assessment of his programme and an evaluation of post graduate p o s s i b i l i t i e s . During the school year of 1961-62 the Provincial Government announced future plans for the construction of, i n the f i r s t stage, a new kO Ibid. 1+1 Gallaudet College, Kendall Green, Washington 2, D. C. 54 dormitory building for boys, followed by a unit of classrooms including a l i b r a r y and an audio-visual room. Projects for further consideration include a dining h a l l , an auditorium, a g i r l s ' dormitory and a gymnasium to adjoin the present swimming pool and bowling a l l e y . Designs for a vocational building have also been discussed. Its function would be to t r a i n not only senior students at Jericho H i l l School, but also other young deaf men and women who could p r o f i t by attending. Further details are unavailable at t h i s time, but i t i s thought that Saskatchewan and Alberta may wish to participate at some la t e r date. This p o s s i b i l i t y of inter-provincial co-operation opens a future of progress undreamed of f i f t y years ago. Arising, i n 1915? from the growing need to provide adequate education l o c a l l y for a small number of handicapped children, the f i r s t successful endeavour has increased and prospered despite inevitable d i f f i c u l t i e s , reaching i t s culmination to date i n the 1962 plans which should make Jericho H i l l School one of the finest of i t s kind. . 55 CHAPTER IV ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICES OF JERICHO HILL SCHOOL Jericho H i l l School, financed by the Provincial Government, provides complete resid e n t i a l and educational f a c i l i t i e s for deaf and hard-of-hearing children i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l food, lodging and laundry are provided. Wolf Cubs, Boy Scouts, Brownies and G i r l Guides, Sunday School, Bunny Bus transportation, a t h l e t i c equipment, l i b r a r y books, g i f t s , grants and some individual hearing aids f o r underprivileged pupils are provided by other organizations and interested individuals. There are three main groups of pupils: r e s i d e n t i a l pupils who l i v e at the school, with the exception of summer and other long holidays; weekly boarders, who return home most weekends; pupils who commute daily. Parents of re s i d e n t i a l pupils are required to provide transportation. Special holiday fares are obtainable for resident pupils on the railways, Greyhound buses and some coastal steamships. The fare provides a return tic k e t for the one-way price. Parents are urged to register t h e i r c h i l d with the Metropolitan Health Services' dental c l i n i c . The registration fee of $3-00 per year provides for day and resident pupils, dental services including extrac-tions, porcelain or s i l v e r f i l l i n g s and prophylaxis from the school c l i n i c . 5 6 In the case of resident pupil i l l n e s s a v i s i t i n g paediatrician i s called as the situation warrants. Medical and drug costs are referred to. parents, so i t i s important that families inform the School concerning thei r Medical Services Association or other coverage. Where a family has"not established residence for government hospitalization purposes, parents are required to subscribe to an acceptable hospital insurance plan or be prepared to assume responsibility for hospital costs. An accident insurance plan i s available, covering day and r e s i -dent pupils. The I 9 6 I - 6 2 premiums were $ 1 . 5 0 per year for day pupils providing coverage from home to school and back and during any supervised school a c t i v i t y on or off campus. The rate for resident pupils was $ 5 - 0 0 . Individual f i n a n c i a l records are kept of a l l money received for pupils' normal personal needs. Parents of each resident pupil are required to send the family allowance plus an additional amount depending upon the individual requirements of the c h i l d . The Department of National Health and Welfare stipulates that i n order to continue to receive family allowances each family must spend a minimum of $ 3 5 - 0 0 , plus the amount of the allowance each month for each resident c h i l d . This amount can be spent on clothing, shoe repairs, dental and medical services, children's weekly allowances, t r a v e l and a l l other normal expenditures. For instance, should the purchase of eye glasses, special dental work, or major repairs to individual hearing aids be necessary, the expense of these can be counted towards the minimum required expendi-ture . The School i s required to submit reports twice each year on the amount of clothing, cash and the l i k e received from parents for each resident ch i l d . An agreement exists between the Provincial Government Department of Education and the School Boards of Greater Vancouver D i s t r i c t s whereby assistance allowance may be given to parents of day pupils. Those l i v i n g within three miles of Jericho H i l l School, or the "outside" classes are e l i g i b l e to receive 50^ for each day of attendance. Those l i v i n g beyond the three-mile l i m i t are e l i g i b l e to receive a maximum allowance of $1.00 for each day's attendance. These provisions include pre-school children as well. Regulations governing the transportation allowance plan state: (a) The election of the parents (as between resident or day enrolment) as of September 1st of each year, w i l l remain i n effect throughout the school year - September to June - unless written request f o r a change i s made f o r v a l i d reasons and approved by the Advisory Committee of Jericho H i l l School. (b) Allowance cheques w i l l be paid through the Jericho H i l l School office to the parent or guardian signing the Transportation Enrolment Form. (c) Payments w i l l be made on or before November 15th, March 15th, May 15th and July 15th for the preceding two-months period. (d) Any complaints by parents regarding the allowance rate adopted must be made to the Advisory Committee i n writing. Parents must advise the Superintendent's office of any change of address as quickly as possible, p a r t i c u l a r l y where i t concerns the daily mileage rate. This i s extremely important. The school does not assume any responsibility f o r , or exercise any control over, buses or transportation arrangements. Informa-t i o n may be obtained with regard to the available f a c i l i t i e s through the Transportation Chairman of your P.T.A. or Easter Seal Society (Bunny Bus), TRinity 9-5221. A l l pupils eat t h e i r noon meal at the School without charge. The scope and functions of th i s Committee are: to consider recommendations and opinions of the Superintendent on matters pertaining 1 Handbook of Information for Parents, Jericho H i l l School, p. 10. 58 to the School; to consider major complaints, which are referred to them by the Superintendent; to act as an advisory council to the Deputy Minister of Education and through him to the Department of Education, p upon matters of policy concerning the School. Reference to the Appendices for the School's organization plan w i l l show a l l major divisions. Dr. J . F. K. English, Deputy Minister of Education, administers the major functions of the Department of Education. The Advisory Committee of the School consists of six members. They are "appointed for an indefinite period by the Department of Education. The present members are Dr. ¥. A. Plenderleith, Co-ordinator of Services, Department of Education, Dr. C. E. MacDonald, Superintendent, Jericho H i l l School, Col. J . N. Burnett, D i s t r i c t Superintendent of Richmond Schools, F. M. Wallace, Inspector, of Vancouver Schools, Mr. D. McEwen, President of the Deaf Department Parent-Teacher Association and Mr. J . Mercer, President of the Blind Department Parent-Teacher Association Jericho H i l l School. The presidents of these Associations are Committee members during thei r terms i n o f f i c e . The Chief Inspector of Schools for B r i t i s h Columbia, Mr. E. E. Hyndman, i s Inspector for Jericho H i l l School. The major duties of the Superintendent are: to administer Jericho H i l l School; to plan and direct the educational programme, the techniques used and the extra-curricular programme conducted by the supervisors, insuring i t s correlation with,educational policy; to exercise general supervision of the health services programme, integrating 2 Minutes of the Advisory Committee Meeting, Jericho H i l l School, February 24, 1954. 59 the services of a l l agencies; to supervise the general functions of the business administration and maintenance s t a f f ; to promote and maintain good relationships with industry, the churches and general public; and assist senior students i n securing suitable vocational training or employment.3 Integration of the functions of the various departments i s main-tained through directing staff conferences, monthly teachers' meetings and supervisors' meetings. The directing staff normally brought into conference includes; the Vice-Principal, P r i n c i p a l ... Nurse-Matron, Chief Recreational Instructor and Business Manager.^" The Vice-Principal functions under the general direction of the Superintendent to: supervise teachers and instructors, arranging schedules, rules and regulations pertaining to them, and to assist i n their training when necessary; to supervise classes, co-ordinating t h e i r programmes of studies; to ensure, at a l l times during school hours, the maintenance of student d i s c i p l i n e ; to supervise and maintain a school l i b r a r y plan, a student testing programme and records of students' academic achievement; to prepare requisition l i s t s of text books, class-room and other equipment, ensuring the i r proper use and care; to assist i n the conducting parent-teacher programmes, i n l i a i s o n with a l l p u b l i c i t y media, and i n any other public relations a c t i v i t i e s . 5 The Chief Recreational Instructor, under general direction of the Superintendent, conducts an extra-curricular programme for students, 3 Organization Plan, Suties and Responsibilities of Senior Staff, p. 3-k Loc.cit. 5 Ibid., p. k. 6o which promotes t h e i r interest i n sports and recreational a c t i v i t i e s ; directs the supervisory s t a f f , and coaches volunteer assistants involved i n the programme; takes charge of a l l equipment involved and arranges schedules for the supervisory staff The term "supervisory s t a f f " refers to the dormitory supervisors or house-parents who care for the children when classes are not i n session. During the school year 1961-62, there were fourteen supervisors. The Business Manager acting under general supervision of the Superintendent interviews applicants f o r positions on the s t a f f . His other administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s include: maintaining personnel records, monthly payrolls, f i n a n c i a l statements, annual estimates, requisitions and vouchers for purchases and services, stock records and required inventories. He collects extra-provincial student fees, and maintains children's incidental and special accounts. He also prepares family allowance reports, and supervises duties of the D i e t i t i a n and of the building maintenance staff.7 The Hurse-Matron under the general supervision of the Super-intendent provides nursing care for a l l sick children i n the School c l i n i c and infirmary; gives audiometric and v i s u a l t e s t s , and arranges escorts for children's v i s i t s to s p e c i a l i s t s ; checks and buys clothing for resident children; and supervises the health and welfare aspects of supervisors' duties; supervises housekeeping staf f , and directs the g duties of nurses, aides and ward assistants. 6 I b i d . , p. 5-7 Ibid., p. 6. 8 Ibid., p. 7-61 The D i e t i t i a n , functioning under the direct supervision of the Business Manager, has specific r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which include: the devising of varied breakfast, lunch and dinner menus, i n accordance with Canadian Council on Nutrition principles; the supervising of the prepara-t i o n and service of these meals, the maintaining of cleanliness and sanitation of a l l f a c i l i t i e s involved; the providing of weekly supplies of food for the hospital and other s t a f f s , the preparing of special meals for diabetic and other students on dietary r e s t r i c t i o n , the contracting of food purchases on a quarterly, monthly and weekly basis and the pre-paring of work schedules for a l l the staffs concerned.^ The Coordinator of Medical Services functions under general supervision of the Director of Medical Services, Vancouver Metropolitan Health Services to: supervise a l l public health aspects of the school, and advise upon operation of the School c l i n i c and infirmary; preside, as Chairman of the Screening Panel of sp e c i a l i s t s , on new admissions; correlate medical services i n problem cases. This function i s currently performed by Dr. Jean McLennan,^ who i s not a member of the staff. Pupils come from a l l over the Province. In 1962, the School enrolled one l6-year-old B r i t i s h Columbia student who had never been to school before. This p u p i l , s o c i a l l y mature, readily accepted by the others and interested i n school work, i s making good progress. At present there are also three Eskimo children from Baffin Island. I t has been d i f f i c u l t to locate the family of one of these each June and again i n September since they l i v e quite nomadically. 9 C. E. MacDonald, Information received i n an interview, September, 1962. 10 C. E. MacDonald, op.cit•, p. 8. 62 Table 1 and Chart 1 show past and present enrolment while Table 2 shows expected enrolment. Pupils may enter the Jericho H i l l Pre-school at the age of 5 years plus, and may remain i n the Sehool u n t i l the age of 18. Provision i s made for a l l over t h i s age who show continued progress to remain u n t i l graduation or u n t i l the age of 21. The estimated annual cost per pupil i n 196I-62 was $ l 6 7 5 . i : L Reference to Table 1 and Graph 1 shows School growth while Table 2 provides estimated enrolments for 1963-64 and 1968-69. 11 C. E. MacDonald, figures provided during an interview, September, 1962. 6 3 Table 1 Jericho H i l l School Deaf Department Day and Resident Pupil Enrolment Figures from B r i t i s h Columbia Public Schools Reports, 1 9 5 2 - 6 2 School Year Day Pupils Residents Total Enrolment Page Ho. 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 3 1 8 7 1 1 8 N 1 1 0 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 3 2 9 6 1 2 8 P 1 0 8 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 3 2 9 4 1 2 6 0 9 8 1 9 5 4 - 5 5 42 9 6 1 3 8 EE 114 1 9 5 5 - 5 6 4 7 1 0 0 147 FF 1 3 0 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 5 9 9 4 1 5 3 X 5 7 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 7 2 9 5 1 6 7 w 5 9 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 7 5 9 9 1 7 4 z 6 3 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 8 8 9 6 1 8 1 + X 9 5 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 9 1 1 0 2 1 9 3 z 9 2 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 8 8 1 0 5 1 9 3 * * C. E. MacDonald, figures provided during an interview, September, 1 9 6 2 . JS7/ SJ' Table 2 65 Estimated Future Enrolment Jericho H i l l School Deaf Department School year S t a t i s t i c a l estimates Estimated B.C. public school population 1963-6^ 223 360,000 1968-69 2kQ too,000 These estimates were arrived at by the Superintendent of the School and the Director, Division of Tests, Standards and Research, Department of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. They are based upon a rat i o of 62 deaf and severely hard-of-hearing children per 100,000 school children i n the Province. The statement of Aims and Philosophy of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia as set fo r t h i n the Department of Education's Programme of Studies, applies i n the broad sense to general and special education al i k e . By the application of special methods and techniques, Jericho H i l l School ... seeks to achieve the same ultimate aims for certain groups of exceptional children as does any other school following the regular programme. These aims include the attainment of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , good human relationships, economic efficiency and c i v i c responsibility. 12 C. E. MacDonald, l o c . c i t . 66 I t i s understandable, of course, that there should be some variations i n the objectives of school subjects as between regular and special school programmes. Furthermore, i t i s understandable that there should be differences i n teaching, techniques and procedures. Such variations are essential i n order to minimize the physical handicap of these exceptional children and to achieve maximum individual development .-^ 3 The School i s not a charitable or custodial i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s dedicated to training " ... the mind, the heart and the hands of c h i l d -ren ... with l i t t l e or no hearing"^ and provides special instruction for children unable to make reasonable progress i n the regular public school situations. The ultimate aim of the Schools i s to accept only students capable of advancement by the special instruction provided. At present, most students at the School are i n that category. Those who are not, enter Jericho H i l l School because other f a c i l i t i e s for thei r education are unavailable. The multi-discipline or team approach used i n screening appli-cants for admission has been discussed i n Chapters I I and I I I . Reference to the Appendices w i l l provide detailed information concerning the pro-cedure . The location of the School i n the Province's largest centre of population has numerous advantages. Specialists are available i n the many professions and centres providing necessary f a c i l i t i e s involved i n diagnosing, treating and educating the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Table 1 shows the large proportion who are day pupils. 13 Jericho H i l l School - Our Aims and Philosophy, p. 1. Ik Ibid., p. 2. 67 I t i s possible for the students to v i s i t and learn for themselves much about the industry and l o c a l occupations of this area. Thus do employers have the opportunity to meet the students, some of whom may become their employees. F i n a l l y , i t must be noted that the Deaf gravitate to the large c i t i e s not only fo r reasons of employment but also for s o c i a l reasons. I t has been said the Deaf are the greatest v i s i t o r s i n the world, which simply means they w i l l t r a v e l miles to be with others who are Deaf. Here, associations such as the Vancouver Association of the Deaf, the Jericho H i l l School Alumni Association, the Jericho H i l l School Parent-Teacher Association, the League for the Hard of Hearing and the Vancouver School Board night classes i n Speech-Reading and Language provide opportunities f o r discussion of mutual problems, self-improvement and soc i a l gathering. New pupils are enrolled at the age of 5 years, or over, and usually enter the Kindergarten class. From there they progress through Grade 1, Grade 1-1/2, Grade 2, leaving the Primary Department at approxi-mately Grade 2-1/2 and i n a few instances, Grade 3« Their stay has been four years i n the case of the better pupils. Others may require an additional year. The method used throughout, except i n two special classes, i s the oral method. The teacher talks and uses the blackboard. The pupils, who receive Speech, Speech-Reading and Auditory training using group and individual hearing aids, reply o r a l l y and i n writing much as any c h i l d i n the early years at any primary school. No manual methods are used i n school and the children are encouraged to use only speech and speech-reading during play time. However, no repressive measures 68 are employed which may i n h i b i t free expression by the children among themselves on the playgrounds. The direct experiences of the children are used as the basis f o r teaching. Speech, Speech-Reading and Reading are a l l taught with the intent of producing connected language both spoken and written. No matter what subject i s being taught at what grade l e v e l , t h i s goal i s always present. As the Ewings so often said, "Thursday's c h i l d has a long way to go", and correct language i s his greatest asset. There are also two ungraded "opportunity" classes, the aim of which i s to accommodate students who cannot keep up with regular programmes. These children are slow learners, often having additional physical handicaps. In the two opportunity classes the teachers use finger-spelling and conventional signs to supplement Speech, Speech-Reading and written language, and the pupils reply i n the same fashion. The pace i s slow. Patience, understanding and constant review of elementary principles are required i n great quantity to achieve progress. The teacher.'in one of these classes i s deaf. Her work through the years has won admiration and respect from a l l who are aware of i t . Boatner, present Superintendent of the West Hartford School for the Deaf, the f i r s t of many such units established i n the United States, and which opened i n West Hartford, Connecticut i n 1817, says: Many slow-learning deaf children have developed into self-supporting, happy, well adjusted citizens under the kindly tutelage of the deaf teacher. „ In my estimation t h i s i s often a f a r greater accomplishment than the sending of some bright student to college. I t i s interesting to note i n t h i s connection that very l i t t l e attention has been paid by the theorists to the slow-learning deaf c h i l d and yet we have many of them just as there are many slow-learning children i n the public schools. We do not solve their problems by ignoring them and here again the deaf teacher has made a s o l i d contribution i n an area where the majority of hearing teachers would not care to labor. I t says also that the deaf teacher has an understanding of the deaf c h i l d which i n some respects surpasses that which the most earnest and sym-pathetic hearing teacher can achieve, and that " ... today approximately one out of f i v e teachers i n our re s i d e n t i a l schools i s a deaf teacher"."^ The need for research i n the area of the slow-learning deaf c h i l d was also brought forward by Dr. George Leshin, hearing conservation 1A supervisor, Oregon State Board of Health, Salem. Dr. Boatner's opinion concerning the role of deaf teachers of the Deaf i s shared by Dr. Graunkee, i n his report concerning counselling and vocational planning, when he says, "Deaf teachers seem to have a greater insight into t h e i r problems and are better obeyed by deaf youth".^ In I96I-62, the Primary Department at Jericho H i l l had 95 pupils and 9 teachers. The Intermediate Department takes the children from the Primary, and i n I96I-62 comprised k teachers and 39 pupils. The slow learners go to Intermediate classes on the Jericho H i l l campus, there being such class 16 Edmund B. Boatner, Deaf Teachers of the Deaf, Report of the 35th Meeting of the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, 1952, p. 308. 17 Ibid., p. 309. 18 George Leshin, Slow-Learning Deaf Child - Evaluation and Research, Report of the kOth Meeting of the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, 1962, p. 202. 19 Lloyd W. Graunkee, Counselling and Vocational Planning op.cit., p. 206. 70 at that time. The other pupils go to the three "outside" classrooms mentioned i n Chapter I I I . Each of these classrooms has a trained teacher of the Deaf and i s located i n one of three Vancouver Public Schools. There were 29 children i n these classes. The "outside" classes send t h e i r pupils into the regular hearing classes for A r t , Shop and Home Economics, Physical Education and Assembly. The pupils are encouraged to associate to whatever extent they wish with the hearing children during these periods and during free time, the aim of t h i s being to promote as much integration as possible. The degree of integration and i t s success depends largely on the school administrators and teachers involved. Their understanding, l i a i s o n and co-operation i s essential. The fact that the children are out i n public schools cannot, of i t s e l f , assure satisfactory integration. Of course, the attitude of the c h i l d , his proficiency i n speech and speech-reading, written language and reading s k i l l s are of prime importance. However, a desirable com-bination of attitude and a b i l i t y are required for success i n any such integrated programme. Children usually remain i n the "outside" classes for a period of up to six years, being two years with each of the three teachers involved and progressing from Grade 3 to Grade 6 or 7- In some cases proficient students can go higher i n these six years, though i t i s not usual. Provision i s made to return to Intermediate or Senior classes within Jericho H i l l , for those pupils who do not gain s u f f i c i e n t l y i n the "outside" programme. The Senior Department i n 1961-62 had 5 teachers and 56 pupils. One of these teachers i s deaf. Courses taught are Speech, Language, 71 Reading, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Typing, Home Economics for the g i r l s , Shop and Industrial Arts for the boys. The programme provides for both day and resident students, courses i n Physical Education, Arts and Crafts, and a recreational schedule for swimming and bowling teams, school parties, dances, mixers for v i s i t i n g students from other high schools and s a i l i n g instruction on a ketch b u i l d by senior boys i n the i r shop train i n g . When the new Vocational building and the new Industrial Arts building are completed, a f u l l commercial course, including office duplicating procedures, w i l l be available to g i r l s and boys, allowing them to proceed to the l i m i t of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . Training i n laundry, dry cleaning and power sewing w i l l be provided, also courses i n occupations such as the work of bus boy, dishwasher, kitchen assistant and cook. Instruction i n e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical repair, t o o l maintenance and repair and key making w i l l be offered, as well as courses i n horticulture such as ra i s i n g , bedding and planting flowers and shrubs and the growing and care of lawns. Jericho H i l l o f f i c e s , a c t i v i t i e s and grounds w i l l provide a source of on-the-job training during various phases of the programme. A full-time vocational and employment counsellor w i l l also jo i n the st a f f . The new vocational programme should meet, i n large measure, OA p i Op the recommendations made for t h i s educational area. > ' 20 Recommendations to the Royal Commission on Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Submitted by Parents of Jericho H i l l School P.T.A., Deaf Department, January, 1959? PP« 5-6. 21 Recommendations to the Royal Commission on Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Submitted by the Teachers of Jericho H i l l School, Deaf Department, January, 1959? p. 2. 22 Report of the Royal Commission on Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, i960, pp. 2kO-hl. 72 Throughout the school year there are three Parents' Days when parents, relatives and friends may v i s i t classes. Two single rooms and one suite are located on campus, i n Lawrence H a l l , for the use of parents from out of town when they wish to stay overnight. These rooms are used chiefly by parents of new entrants and parents who cannot come for the regular Parents' Days. Numerous other v i s i t s to the School are made by medical, educa-t i o n a l and other interested groups. Religious a f f i l i a t i o n s are maintained with various denominations and a Deaf Fellowship group meets regularly upon a non-sectarian basis. The administration of an establishment such as Jericho H i l l School i s , of necessity, complicated. With careful planning, maximum co-operation from each staff member and the new buildings and programme outlined, the School can offer a highly comprehensive programme for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing students from f i v e to twenty-one years of age. 73 CHAPTER V SOME ASPECTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOLS PROGRAMME FOR THE DEAF AND HARD-OF-HEARING IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF VANCOUVER The function of the Vancouver School Board's Special Committee Number 15 i s to explore requests f o r establishment of a school for children with severe physical d i s a b i l i t i e s . On October 29, i960, the Committee met to consider the matter of establishing within the l o c a l system, a class f o r children with hearing d i f f i c u l t i e s . " ^ Its members were f i v e Trustees: Mr. Frederick G. Hoyme, Mrs. John Quinell, Mrs. 0 . M. McLean, Mr. Frederick N. A. Rowell and Mr. John Henderson. The Committee, noting previous discussions and professional opinions concerning the topic, recommended that a class for children with hearing d i f f i c u l t i e s be estab-lished to meet the immediate needs of pupils i n Grades I and I I . This was subject to approval of the Department of Education. Approximately f i f t e e n was considered a suitable enrolment, admittance would be on a voluntary basis, and " ... an experienced, sympathetic primary teacher should be assigned to the class rather than having a teacher trained to o teach deaf children". The programme opened i n September i960, i n a classroom at Queen Alexandra Elementary School. I t was under the immediate supervision of 1 Report of Special Committee Number 15, to the Management Committee, Board of School Trustees, Vancouver, B.C., September 6, i960, p. 1. 2 Ibid. Ik the p r i n c i p a l there, hut was organized on special lines devised by those i n charge of the Speech and Hearing Programme. In September 1 9 6 1 , the services of a trained and experienced teacher of the deaf and hard-of-hearing were obtained for the class. In September 1 9 6 2 , a Special Glass for hearing-impaired children was opened by the Burnaby School Board. I t does not have a trained teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. I t i s known that the School Boards of North Vancouver and West Vancouver have been considering the matter of forming their own special classes for hearing-impaired children within those d i s t r i c t s . I t i s evident that public schools' systems i n the metropolitan Vancouver area may eventually provide services for the i r hearing-impaired children. Therefore, i t i s well to consider the major aspects of such programmes i n the public schools. In tracing the development of education i n Canada, P h i l l i p s notes: "The d i f f i c u l t y everywhere i n Canada, was to provide adequate school accommodation without encouraging the building of too many small schools, i n deference to the narrow preferences of l o c a l democracy."3 Addition to the number of schools i n the aggregate i s no sign of advancing education and i n fact can be quite the reverse. P h i l l i p s advances t h i s point with particular examples, then offers: "The tendency of this increase i n the larger towns i s usually very great and nothing but the restraining power of the Board can keep such places from being deluged with a 3 C. E. P h i l l i p s , The Development of Education i n Canada, p. 190. 75 multitude of petty r i v a l schools and the Province from being saddled with many thousands of dollars ,.. expense. Nor are the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s e ntirely free from the tendency i n question. There i t has i t s o r i g i n i n dissensions among the inhabitants who seek to escape the ... effects by ... estab-l i s h i n g additional schools. These fledglings are necessarily poor a f f a i r s , and are a l l the more to be deprecated that one of the f i r s t and worse effects of them i s to reduce the schools from which they have swarmed, to the same low l e v e l with them-selves."^ Although the foregoing referred to the early growth of education i n Canada, i t s main points have bearing i n reference to t h i s period of early growth i n public-school classes f o r the hearing-impaired i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s essential that duplication of services be avoided and that the equipment and procedures used i n these classes be of a high professional and specialized standard. I t follows that admission to the classes be upon clearly estab-lished bases. These bases should be arrived at from a thorough study of current l i t e r a t u r e and of at least three successfully established programmes of a similar nature, two of which must be i n North America. Each pro-gramme studied should involve pre-school to high school levels and should show definite provision and procedure for students leaving the schools for further education, training or placement. Any screening committee functioning i n terms of these bases should have the services of a qualified and well experienced teacher of the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing. Such a teacher must have first-hand knowledge of various approaches used i n educating the Deaf. The committee must bear i n mind i t s purpose i n screening concerns the educational future of the c h i l d and i t w i l l need the counsel of such a teacher. Parents w i l l have questions concerning k Loc.cit. 76 many aspects of educating the Deaf and the committee should be i n a position to provide unbiased information. In the i n i t i a l stages of such a programme the number of classes i s l i k e l y to be small and thei r enrolments should be limited to homogenous grouping. This w i l l exclude children who can progress i n regular class-rooms, provided they receive some special attention or t u i t i o n within or outside the regular school programme. I t must always exclude children .who cannot progress at a reasonable rate within the special classes, even though such pupils may l i v e within the d i s t r i c t s of the various schools involved. These classes would be the "t r a n s i t i o n a l " type, whose students would work toward eventual placement i n hearing classes. Students not going to full-time regular classes would form regular special classes where they would receive basic courses by the special class teacher and would go out to regular classes i n the school for Physical Education, Shop and Home Economics courses. Where practicable, some of these students might also take t h e i r Mathematics courses with the regular classes and, of course, a l l students would attend general school functions such as assemblies, sports-meets and so forth. This i s the present system of the Jericho H i l l "outside" classes. A reciprocal arrangement between the Province and the participa-ting School Boards would permit e l i g i b l e students from Jericho H i l l School to enter the programme as wel l , thus making available a combination of f a c i l i t i e s from kindergarten to high school and vocational levels. Frequent evaluation of progress and adjustment would determine to which classes and schools the students would be best suited. 77 Any decision to transfer a very deaf c h i l d from the slower-paced programme of a school for the Deaf to the highly competitive programme of regular classrooms i s always very important. Dr. Clarence O'Connor, Superintendent of the Lexington School for the Deaf i n New York City, undertook a study of f i f t y pupils who were transferred from Lexington to classes for the normally hearing between 195^ and 1957- The primary objectives i n the study were to determine the degree of adjustment i n integrated programmes and the factors influencing success or f a i l u r e . Eighteen transfers were selected for intensive study. The pr i n c i p a l and the teacher i n the school each c h i l d was attending as well as the pupil's parents were interviewed, and each of the eighteen pupils was given: the Psychometric Test (WISC), a Standard Pure Tone Audiometry Test, the Stanford Achievement Test, and the Personality Inventory (Brunschwig) Test. Dr. O'Connor presents his results i n the following manner: "1. The Stanford Achievement Tests given to the 18 pupils showed that they generally divided into two groups as far as achievement i s concerned. Twelve i n Group A were close to the norm f o r t h e i r age l e v e l , being only approximately four months behind regular children on the average. However, six of these 12 were achieving better than average for hearing children. Six i n Group B averaged about three and a half years behind children of the i r particular age l e v e l . 2. Both parents and teachers tended to overrate the pupil's academic achievement i n comparison to scores obtained on the Stanford t e s t s , the ratings of parents being even more optimistic than the teachers'. 3. Generally, those i n Group A had higher I.Q.'s than those i n B. The range for nine of the 12 i n A was 120-132. k. Those i n Group A generally had more useful hearing than those i n Group B, the average speech range loss for the former being 79 db compared with 85 db for Group B. 78 5. Parent, teacher and pupil interviews and the Brunschwig personality inventory revealed i n general that pupils i n Group A were more w i l l f u l , tenacious, attentive and had outgoing person-a l i t i e s , while those i n Group B tend toward being followers and daydreamers, lacking self-confidence and i n i t i a t i v e . 6. Those doing best i n both groups were with teachers who had adjusted the program to meet the needs of the hearing-handi-capped members of the class, such as speaking more slowly, .writing more often, arranging for classmate help, and other change s. 7- The presence i n the school of a counselor for the hearing-handicapped resulted i n higher achievement and better soci a l adjustment for the hearing-handicapped pupils i n attendance. What we learned from our intensive study of these 18 pupils tended to reinforce the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of deaf children moving through an educational program geared to the normally hearing. The se are: 1. That, with very few exceptions children who begin l i f e with an average speech-range hearing loss of 60-70 db or more cannot successfully or comfortably integrate educationally with hearing children at the age of five or s i x . They neied the specialized program of a school for the deaf for a number of years, at least, i n order to acquire f a c i l i t y i n the use of language, without which they would be hopelessly lost i n regular classes. 2. That the percentage of pupils i n a school for the deaf who are l o g i c a l candidates for ultimate educational integration i n classes for the hearing i s small. The vast majority w i l l need the benefit of the specialized program of the school for the deaf throughout t h e i r entire educational career. 3 . That no pupil should be transferred to regular classes u n t i l he has developed communication a b i l i t y that w i l l make i t possible for him to meet the severe competitive conditions he w i l l experience therein. This means that, i n general, he w i l l not be ready for such transfer before the age of eight or nine. k. That a careful assessment of the following factors that w i l l affect the success of his ultimate integration be made for each pupil for whom a transfer to regular classes i s being considered: (a) His Age We have found that the majority of our pupils who are ready for integration do not reach this point before the age of eight or nine. I f they have been through our nursery and preschool classes and i f a l l other factors are favorable, they may then be mature enough to meet the challenge of the new regime. 7 9 (b) His Communication A b i l i t y At best a hearing-handicapped c h i l d moving from a school for the deaf to regular classes w i l l be f a r behind hearing c h i l d -ren i n his a b i l i t y to use and understand language. He should, however, have a b i l i t y to communicate expressively through speech and writing, and receptively through reading and lip-reading supported by the most effective possible use of his residual hearing with sufficient s k i l l to be able to articulate with and become an e f f e c t i v e l y functioning member of the regular class. If his use of language i s not securely established, even within narrow l i m i t s when compared to his hearing peers, then he i s not ready for transfer. His reading l e v e l should be at least at the national norm for his age. (c) His Intelligence This i s one of the most c r i t i c a l factors for successful integration. Children with marginal a b i l i t y and a r e l a t i v e l y severe hearing loss have l i t t l e chance of achieving s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n regular classes. This w i l l be d i f f i c u l t enough for those with better than average a b i l i t y . Accordingly, he should have an I.Q. of 110 or over. (d) His Personality Make-Up The hearing-handicapped c h i l d frequently must take a lo t of emotional buffing-about i n regular classes. He must be prepared f o r repeated even though only temporary f a i l u r e through not always understanding what i s being discussed. He must also be prepared f o r unintended neglect at times on the part of his teacher or soc i a l rejection by his classmates. The tougher his emotional f i b r e the more successfully he may over-ride these road blocks. A timid, sensitive, hearing-handicapped youngster who lacks confidence or does not have the strength to fight back may be emotionally chopped to pieces i n an integrated situation to the extent that he may f i n d himself more segregated i n the so-called "normal" program than he was i n the so-called "abnormal special school segregation" program from which he was "liberated". (e) The Program to Which He W i l l Be Transferred The degree to which the staff i n the pupil's future regular program i s oriented to the special needs of a hearing-handicapped pupil i s vastly important. The capacity of a teacher to make simple management adjustments i n the pupil's classroom environment and program w i l l affect his entire achievement pattern. (f) His Parents The d i f f e r e n t i a l that frequently i s the most important factor influencing successful integration i s the pupil's parents. 80 How well are they oriented to the problems he w i l l face and to his overall needs? How much help and guidance can they be r e l i e d upon to give t h e i r c h i l d at home? The answers to these questions are important i n arr i v i n g at a decision concerning transfer. (g) Guidance and Follow-Up Once the decision has been made to transfer a pupil to a regular class, conferences should be set up with the parents and the staff of the school to which he w i l l be transferred. The creation of a favorable educational, s o c i a l , and emotional climate for the pupil i s essential. Similar followup con-ferences should be arranged after the pupil has been transferred. One f i n a l word concerning this question. As appealing as integration may be to parents who have every right to hope that some day th e i r deaf c h i l d might attend his neighborhood school with his hearing brothers and si s t e r s , i t might be that such a program i s not l o g i c a l for him. If so, thi s should be accepted r e a l i s t i c a l l y . More than that, i f a transfer i s t r i e d and the c h i l d i s not adjusting s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , parents should have the courage and wisdom to return the c h i l d to the school for the deaf. Above a l l , continue to seek the counsel of those who also love your c h i l d and who hold dear to the i r hearts his happiness and well being.5" Dr. O'Connor's study concerned the very deaf c h i l d on transfer to regular hearing classes. I t did not consider the similar c h i l d on trans-fer to the "outside" classes. I t i s thought by Jericho H i l l authorities that the B r i t i s h Columbia combination of res i d e n t i a l school f a c i l i t i e s and "outside" classes i n the regular hearing schools i s unique i n North America. This writer has found i n pertinent l i t e r a t u r e no indication of any similar programme i n any other English-speaking country, although i t may be possible i n Holland, the Soviet Union or some other European country. • The public school programme of special classes i s already i n operation and w i l l grow to provide services i n three major directions: remedial work i n speech and speech-reading for students enrolled i n 5 Clarence D. O'Connor, Parents Newsletter, June i960. 81 full-time hearing classes; preparatory work i n communicating a b i l i t i e s and regular subjects for children enrolled i n t r a n s i t i o n a l classes; preparatory work i n communication a b i l i t i e s as outlined i n O'Connor's section k (b) and directed toward providing a sound knowledge of the curriculum subjects appropriate to the grade l e v e l being undertaken, for students enrolled i n the regular special classes. This t h i r d group should be the most f l e x i b l e and i t i s with t h i s group that the values of communication and interpretation within the hearing environment w i l l have to be considered i n terms of academic progress. The junior-high or high-school pupil must be able to progress reasonably at the academic l e v e l . The demands of class and homework make serious i n -roads into his time, less of which i s available for corrective speech and speech-reading. In the upper grades the a b i l i t y to progress academically and vocationally must take precedence. Teachers for students i n the f i r s t group can be public school teachers without special training, although a teacher specializing i n primary methods or experienced i n a branch of special education would bring understanding and certain basic approaches to the class. Such teachers should require two considerations. They should have the advice and ser-vices of a peripatetic speech-therapist or teacher of the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing and they should be allowed to count each hearing-impaired student the equivalent to four or fiv e hearing students for enrolment purposes. Teachers for the second and t h i r d groups should always be trained and experienced teachers of the Deaf. The B r i t i s h Columbia 82 Speech and Hearing Association which i s composed "both of speech-therapists and teachers of the Deaf and meets regularly i n Vancouver, i s well experienced i n these two approaches and i n th e i r application to special education. The difference i n functions of the speech-therapist and the teacher of the Deaf was studied by the Association and has been expressed by the Alexander Graham B e l l Association for the Deaf to Miss Winnifred Cory, of the B r i t i s h Columbia Speech and Hearing Association i n t h i s manner: "We have searched i n vain for o f f i c i a l definitions of speech therapist, audiologist, and teacher of the deaf. Many authors have outlined the functions of one or the other, but to our know-ledge no o f f i c i a l job descriptions are available. However the l i t e r a t u r e certainly makes i t clear that there i s a r e a l difference between the teacher of the deaf and the therapist. The positions are not interchangeable. I f there are teachers of the deaf i n your new association, there should d e f i n i t e l y be a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for them. Perhaps the best way to go about i t would be to check the basic require-ments of one or two colleges concerning these positions. You can also check the c e r t i f i c a t i o n requirements of the conference of Executives of American Schools for the deaf, for teachers of the deaf, and the requirements of the American Speech and Hearing Assn. for c e r t i f i c a t i o n of speech and hearing therapists. The very fact that there are different c e r t i f i c a t i o n groups would indicate that there are differences i n the positions--and there are. The average speech therapist i s not required to learn to teach to deaf children-a handicap as great or greater than the absence of speech. Neither i s the average therapist required to do practice wOrk with deaf children. This i s not required by the average college, and i s not required for c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I think i t i s not necessary for me to t e l l you the difference among children who are educationally deaf, and those who have a useful measure of hearing for speech. The problems are not the same and neither are the teaching methods. There i s a certain overlapping i n the area of speech and auditory t r a i n i n g , but the difference outweighs t h i s . The speech therapist, on the other hand, i s trained to correct speech defects such as stutte*ring, and t h i s training i s not required of the teacher of the deaf. Primarily the therapist i s a teacher trained to work i n the public school system or i n a c l i n i c , with children who need 83 special help. In most cases these children are capable of taking t h e i r academic work i n the regular classroom while receiving special help at other times. She has not been trained to work with deaf children who must be placed i n special schools or classes and whose language, speech and other handicaps prevent them from taking academic work i n the regular classrooms. You might receive further help from such books as: Hirsh: The Measurement of Hearing; Irwin: Speech and Hearing Therapy; and Strang: Hearing Therapy for Children. I t i s my sincere hope that your association w i l l not attempt to c l a s s i f y teachers of the deaf as speech and/or hearing therapists. I t would be an injustice to a l l three groups."; 7 " In programming for the hearing-impaired there i s a tendency to concentrate on the early years, which are extremely, important, but to neglect the f i n a l years of education and indeed various aspects of adult l i f e i n t h i s group. Foregoing discussion indicates possible approaches to high-school education and Chapter IV has mentioned Gallaudet College. Apart from the very small number of deaf and hard-of-hearing students who attend regular un i v e r s i t i e s , another group remains to be considered. In the autumn of 1961, the California School for the Deaf (Riverside) and the Riversid.e Board of Education Inaugurated a class for deaf students at Riverside City College, a junior college i n that c i t y . A qualified teacher of the Deaf who can interpret manually was added to the college staff. He interprets the basic English, History and Health courses required for the college c e r t i f i c a t e and acts as l i a i s o n between 6 Letter to W. C. Cory from Alice Dunlap, Executive Secretary, Alexander Graham B e l l Association for the Deaf, Incorporated, dated February 26, 1957-7 See also W. C. Cory, Education of the Deaf i n Canada, Appendix C. 84 the deaf students and t h e i r vocational instructors. There i s a ra t i o of one special instructor for each ten deaf students, which r a t i o w i l l be maintained as the programme grows. The design of the programme i s for those who can benefit from further education but who w i l l take vocational majors i n the two-year college. "Deaf students who can benefit from a l i b e r a l arts program i n a four-year college w i l l continue to be encouraged p to go to Gallaudet College. In t h i s thesis no discussion w i l l be given to proposals to estab-l i s h a particular school for children with various severe physical handicaps as such consideration of i t s e l f requires exhaustive study. However, the California School for the Deaf (Riverside) contemplates building a $1,706,000 addition for the diagnosis and education of children who have other handicaps as well as deafness. I t would consist of twenty classroom buildings, six cottage-type dormitories, an o f f i c e - c l i n i c , a multi-purpose building and a dining room addition.9 There i s no doubt that i n B r i t i s h Columbia hearing-impaired children with additional handi-caps are i n great need and there i s evidence of an increase i n their numbers. This group may be divided into six categories: the aphasic and deaf; the mentally retarded and deaf; the brain injured and deaf; the deaf-blind; and the cerebral palsied and deaf. Special classes, their personnel, techniques and l i a i s o n , no matter how well they function, cannot produce effectiv e l y without 8 California School for the Deaf (Riverside), The California Palms, Vol. 6, Wo. 5, P- 2. 9 Ibid. 85 e f f i c i e n t and sympathetic administration. The attitude of the principals of Individual schools and those with whom they co-operate plays an impor-tant role. In no case should a special class he placed i n a school whose prin c i p a l f e e l s , for whatever reasons, out of sympathy with the project or unable to give to i t a f a i r apportionment of his time and understanding. Special class supervisors must have sufficient time, understanding and the physical plant necessary to thei r duties and a l l levels i n the f i e l d of special education should be co-ordinated at the Department of Education l e v e l , for the entire Province. 86 APPENDIX A NOVEMBER 1959 STAFF OF THE SPEECH AND HEARING PROGRAMME Professional Dire ctor Speech and Hearing Therapist, with special responsibility for work with deaf and hard of hearing children Speech and Hearing Therapist, with special responsibility for diagnostic speech assessment Speech and Hearing Therapist, F i e l d Service Speech Therapist, F i e l d Service Speech Therapist, F i e l d Service Speech Therapist, F i e l d Service Teacher i n charge of pre-school programme Social "Worker, Health Centre for Children Social Worker, Health Centre for Children (resigned November Ik, 1959) Audiometric Assistant David C. Kendall, Ph.D. Miss Jean Semple Miss Dorothy Washington Miss Joan Busse Mrs. Florence V i d a l Mrs. E l f r i d a Webb Mrs. Annie Clarke Mrs. Diana Carter Mr. J . Brekelmans Mrs. E. Hayward Miss F. Wilson Administrative Administrative Secretary Stenographer Stenographer Mrs. Joan Brehaut Miss Veronica M. Allan Miss Freda Venables 1 Appendix, Speech and Hearing Programme Annual Report, November 1959-87 APPENDIX B REPORT OF A MEETING HELD TO MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE SPEECH AND HEARING PROGRAMME Members Present Dr. M. D. Young, A Paediatrician-in-Chief, Health Centre for Children, Chairman, Dean J . F. McCreary, Faculty of Medicine, University of B. C. Mr. L. King, Executive Director, B. C. Foundation for Child Care Mr. R. B. MacKay, Honorary Treasurer, Health Centre for Children Mr. G. Ruddick, Assistant Director, Vancouver General Hospital Dr. G. C Robinson, Director, Health Centre for Children, Out-patient Department Dr. D. C. Kendall, Director, Speech and Hearing Programme Dr. J . M. Teasdale, Department of Paediatrics, Health Centre for Children Mrs. J . Thomson, Executive Secretary, Health Centre for Children (Dr. G. R. J . E l l i o t t , Assistant Provincial Health Officer, was unable to attend but had presented his opinions.) August 10, 1959 88 APPENDIX C JOINT PLANNING COMMITTEE FIRST ESTABLISHED IN AUGUST, 1959, WAS CONSTITUTED AS FOLLOWS 1. The Head of the Department of Paediatrics, U.B.C. (Chairman) 2. The Director of the Speech and Hearing Programme (Secretary) 3- The Executive Director and one other representative, B. C. Federation for Child Care k. A representative of Public Health Service, Provincial Health Branch 5. A representative of the Administration of The Vancouver General Hospital 6. The Director of the Outpatient Department, H.C.C. 7. The Honorary Treasurer and the Executive Secretary, H.C.C."L 1 Summary of Report and Recommendations on Programme and Budget From the Joint Planning Committee of the Speech and Hearing Programme J o i n t l y Operated by the B. C. Foundation for Child Care and Health Centre.for Children. P.2. •5 -0 ?• 55 1 s. -5 jo M *** •svj« T 7 T X * ^ NJ 3 5s:» ^  1 I* « * I- (S * •§ 1 5 § f s i * ? I ! 5S a. 3 5. I | ft 1 90 APPENDIX E WHAT A COLLEGE EDUCATION AT GALLAUDET COLLEGE MEANS TO A DEAF STUDENT This speech was given by Marshall Wick at the second Biennial Convention of the Ontario Parents' Counsel for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing on June 30, 1962 In. Brantford, Ontario. Marshall Wick i s t o t a l l y deaf and graduated from Gallaudet College i n June of th i s year with a Bachelor of Science degree. Marshall lost his hearing at the age of eight i n an automobile accident. He attended the Ontario School f o r the Deaf i n B e l l e v i l l e , Ontario and also the Whitby High School. He then went on.to Gallaudet where he maintained an average of over 80 per cent through four years of college. He won the award for academic achievement i n his graduating year and was also mentioned i n "Who's Who i n American Colleges". In September he w i l l attend the American (Hearing) University i n Washington to work for his Master's degree i n Business Administration. He was awarded an $1800. Fellowship to t h i s college and has been granted the necessary balance by the Rehabilitation Department of the Ontario Government on the petition of Mr. L. H. Parker of the Canadian Hearing Society. No one i s better qualified to speak on the above subject and we are sure that t h i s speech w i l l be an inspiration and revelation to everyone who reads i t . For those who heard i t given i t had even greater value. Madam Chairman, Parents and Friends, I r e c a l l the story of a speaker who appeared with several bandages on his face and spoke on and on without mentioning them. After 91 he was finished someone approached him and asked him why he had the bandages on his face. "Oh!", he said, "When I was concentrating on my speech t h i s morning while I was shaving I cut my face." "Well", the man snapped back - "You should have concentrated on your face and cut your speechJ , 111 When I saw a copy of the program which allowed me a whole half hour, I t o l d myself that the audience was i n for a treat. I t would be next to impossible to speak anywhere near that time on so limited a topic as "What a College Education Means to Me" because as i n any personal experience some factors are so deep that they cannot be expressed i n words, So with apologies to the program chairman, I have enlarged the topic to "What a College Education at Gallaudet College means to a Deaf Student". F i r s t , as to anyone ... whether deaf or hearing ... a college degree represents a feeling of f u l f i l l m e n t and achievement. With i t comes a feeling of pride and dignity which must neither be underestimated nor over-estimated as they have t h e i r r i g h t f u l place as with anything else ... the "Golden Mean" i s the word for i t . A college degree does not e n t i t l e someone to respect and admiration for these must be earned, but i t does open the door of opportunity to help one on one's way to getting them. That, basically, i s how anyone should consider higher education ... as a stepping stone available ... but we s t i l l must climb i t after we graduate. The job and our place i n l i f e i s not waiting for us when we leave, we must look f o r i t ! As an example of opportunity ... I looked i n the Want Ads 92 of the newspapers and. came up with the following information ... jobs, available to me, a s k i l l e d printer, had I never gone to college ... Seven, not a l l i n the pr i n t i n g trade of course. Jobs available to me as a college graduate i n business administration along with printing experience and t r a i n i n g ... Twenty-Nine. The most important thing here i s not the number of jobs but the quality of them. Perhaps a printing job would, at f i r s t , pay better than some of the other jobs but i n the long run i t i s doubtful. But money not being the most important thing i n l i f e , l e t ' s consider the job conditions and standing. With a college degree, I am able to enter the PROFESSIONAL f i e l d and enjoy the additional status t h i s carries with i t . In these days when the college degrees at the Bachelor's l e v e l are becoming common-place, as college enrollments increase, i t i s even more important to deaf people to have a college degree. This i s fast becoming the age of automation. Printing Is one of the best jobs which deaf men with training can obtain. But those l i k e myself who have kept abreast with recent developments i n the trade can show cause for alarm. In the recent report from the Printing Industry of America automation was a key topic. Automation i n the teletypesetters and photo composition are ALREADY here. The former does linotyping by tape and the l a t t e r has put the s k i l l e d compositor out of work as an office g i r l can work i t . The printer of the NEAR future w i l l be the one with a deep knowledge of chemical engineering as offset lithography takes over more of the market with i t s recent developments. 93 The industry Is holding those who are presently working, teaching them new methods and re-training them for new jobs. This i s through union pressure which requires union shops to retain the positions of present employees but does not extend to h i r i n g of new ones. Most of us are aware of the large number of deaf printers, but unless the new crops of those taking pr i n t i n g receive deeper and more intense tra i n i n g they s,re going to f i n d i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to obtain jobs In the future. Perhaps a college education with con-centration on chemical engineering i s a solution to t h i s . Every parent with a son taking printing would do w e l l to consider t h i s and whether the boy i s capable of going on to college. But, I digress^ l e t t h i s , a topic with which I am aware, serve as an example of why today as f a r as obtaining employment i s concerned, obtaining a college education Is even more important than ever before. This applies not only to printing but to every other f i e l d as well. Office workers are out of jobs when computers come i n but we must remember that new jobs are created. But these require higher educational backgrounds. Take the computors I just mentioned, for example, ... they require programmers to feed them. Several of my friends from Gallaudet have entered t h i s f i e l d i n the past three years ... with beginning salaries of up to $6000. a year2 Well,this about covers what a college education means to me, and we can begin now with what a college education at GALLA.UDET means to a deaf student, myself included. F i r s t , as could be expected from a l i b e r a l arts college, i t has given us the opportunity of expanding our knowledge of the 9k world i n which we l i v e . "We have been exposed to a wide area of studies. I t i s true that other colleges have the same courses of study but they do not have the same environment. At Gallaudet we l i v e and mix and study with fellow deaf students and compete with them ... We Have Motivation. Talent without motivation i s inert and of l i t t l e use to the world. There must be a DESIRE to excel. High individual performance depends to some extent on the capacity of the society or i n s t i t u t e to evoke i t . As we leave Gallaudet, we w i l l put to use what we have learned there. I speak not of book learning, for few of us w i l l apply what we have learned from texts. I speak of learning to use our minds, learning to accept responsibility, learning to be good mixers, and most important, learning our place i n l i f e . We learn that our deafness does not make us second class citizens and we must prove i t . Being among fellow deaf students, a l l sharing similar ideals and communication method, i s a stimulating experience. Further, the teachers, using the sign language gave us the opportunity to grasp deep or lengthy lectures quickly and as easily as a hearing person. There i s no compromising with those who are poor lip-readers and those who are good ones. There i s one fast pace which offers the challenge to keep up with i t . Gallaudet offers an inspiration i n that i t accepts the fact that I am deaf. I quote the following from a part of my graduation address: "I have no regrets that I am deaf but this does not mean that I consider myself normal. Because no deaf person i s . No one i s going to make me a cheap imitation of a normal hearing person. I am deaf. I have 95 limitations and I f u l l y recognize them. What I can do I w i l l t r y to do well; what I cannot do because of my limitations, I w i l l not do. So be i t . However, recognizing our limitations i s not enough ... we must make the best use of our ca p a b i l i t i e s . In order to compete i n job advance-ment with those people with normal hearing we must be better prepared." What better preparation i s there than a college degree from Gallaudet, where we can develop an a l l around personality through participation In a l l phases of college l i f e . Deaf students have succeeded and w i l l continue to succeed at other colleges scholastically but I t i s very doubtful that any have done better elsewhere than they could at Gallaudet, i n learning to be good mixers and to shoulder individual and community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I might add here the fact that a quarter of the teachers themselves are deaf and. that this i n i t s e l f i s a motivation and inspiration to other deaf students to likewise succeed. So you can a l l see that a college education means much more than a better job and prestige ... I t means a new outlook on l i f e with a broader understanding of everyday a f f a i r s . As I said at graduation ... there i s so much to be thankful for and to remember. So while the song has ended, the melody lingers on. o N K N 1 97 APPENDIX G EDUCATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF CHILDREN WITH DEFECTIVE HEARING Hearing Loss for Pare Tones Profound (average hearing loss 90 decibels over speech range i n better ear) Severe (average hearing loss 60 - 89 decibels) Linguistic Status Ranging from children with no i n -t e l l i g i b l e speech and l i t t l e or no comprehension of oral speech to children with good lipreading a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g i b l e speech -usually defective i n a r t i c u l a t i o n and voice quality. Some may be able to discriminate vowel and other speech sounds through aided hearing. Ranging from children with l i t t l e or no i n t e l l i g i b l e speech and poor comprehension of oral speech to children with good speech compre-hension (generally using lipreading and aided hearing) and fluent, well-inflected speech. 98 Hearing Loss for Pure Tones I I I . Moderate (average bearing loss k$ - 59 decibels) IV. Slight (average bearing loss 15 - kk decibels) V. May vary (15 decibels - t o t a l deafness) Linguistic Status Ranging from children with grossly ' defective speech and marked d i f f i -culty i n speech comprehension to children with p r a c t i c a l l y normal speech and generally adequate speech comprehension. Ranging from children with defective speech and d i f f i c u l t y i n speech comprehension to children with normal speech and speech comprehen-sion. Language development affected also by second d i s a b i l i t y , e.g. mental retardation, brain injury, emotional disturbance.1 1 Brief to the Royal Commission on Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, submitted by the Health Centre for Children; Vancouver, 1959, p. 6. APPENDIX H JERICHO HILL SCHOOL PUPIL HISTORY DATA 99 PUPIL HISTORY Record Sheet 1. Name . B i r t h Date: Year — .Month... .Day 2. Postal address: Telephone 3. Father: Country of B i r t h Address: Occupation: Schooling: (e.g. grade completed, etc.) k. Mother: Country of B i r t h Address: .Occupation: Schooling: .Occupation before marriage: 5. Guardian: Country of b i r t h : Address: Occupation: Schooling: 6. Relatives at home: Brothers? older....younger....Sisters? older... younger....Other relatives (give relation) 7- How many brothers, sisters: Are i n school?....Are at work? Have been or are i n the armed forces? Are unemployed? Completed elementary school? High School? Completed vocational training (state nature) 8. Family background. (a) Well-educated Well read, but lack of formal education Poorly educated I l l i t e r a t e (b) Wealthy Well-to-do Self-supporting Poor (c) Soc i a l l y prominent....Average soc i a l status ....Low Social l e v e l (d) Length of residence i n community... (e) Other significant facts 100 Physical Record 1. Height:...ft...in. W e i g h t l b . Overweight...lb. Underweight — lb . 2. Family physician: Address. 3. Last general physical examination by above: h. Last general physical examination at school: 5. Contagious diseases (check): Mumps Scarlet fever.....Measles Whooping-cough.... .Others ( l i s t ) 6. Physical defects 7. Major surgical operations:.............. 8. Serious i n j u r i e s : 9 . Hearing: Normal Defective Vision: Good Poor......Needs glasses Tonsils: Normal Diseased..... .Removed Adenoids: Normal Diseased..... .Removed Teeth: Good condition Need attention Nutrition: Good Poor ( i f poor, action taken) Speech: Normal ..Defective (describe) Posture: Erect Stooped Bodily movements: Average....Quick....Slow....Graceful... .Awkward.... 10. Make a note of any i l l n e s s which has kept pupil home one month or more 101 A c t i v i t y Record 1. Student's hobbies: 2. Does any school club or a c t i v i t y incorporate one of these hobbies?.... 3- Club membership: In school Outside of school k. Favourite sports: Played at school. Outside of school 5- Lessons outside of school (e.g. music):... Time per day spent i n practising 6. Any other leisure-time interest:.. 7- Evidence of leadership: Offices held ( i n clubs or class, etc.)..... Other 8. Special a b i l i t i e s noted: Musical....artistic....verbal....mechanical... dramatic....social... .other Home Duties, Work Record 1. Regular duties at home 2. Allowance received? How much? How spent? 3 . After-school or Saturday employment:. k. Vacation jobs during past year 102 5. From your own experience with the pupil's reaction to tasks he has had to perform, indicate his l i k e s and d i s l i k e s : Likes very much Immaterial Does not l i k e Working with others Working by himself Working with objects (machines, tools, etc.) Working with ideas (solving problems) Working with his hands Working at tasks with variety Working at repetitive tasks. 103 PERSONALITY Note: Rate the pupil on the following scale for his age and grade. Place a check (v) at the point on the scale that best represents your considered opinion. On each scale there are nine points from which you must select the one that seems to f i t the case. The descriptive terms above each scale are for your assistance i n reaching a decision. 1. Dependability, Responsibility Unreliable Needs some supervision May be depended upon 2. Industry Slack-aims to get by Steady worker Eager worker 3- I n i t i a t i v e Inert Occasionally o r i g i n a l Resourceful k. Co-operation, S o c i a b i l i t y Poor worker i n group Able to work with others Works well with others 5. Emotional Control Excitable Usually well-balanced Superior nature for age Apathetic 6. Courtesy Illmannered, boorish Average for age Courteous, well-mannered 7- Poise Awkward, uncertain Poised under normal condit. Easy confidence 8. Appearance Untidy Clean, neat Well-groomed 9- Personality ( t o t a l effect) Lacking Average Superior APPENDIX I APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION DATA 104 Jericho H i l l School, Date 4100 West Fourth Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. Dear Dr. RE: CHILD OF: ADDRESS: The above c h i l d has been placed on the l i s t for admission to th i s School. Would i t be possible for the family to have medical examinations by the following specialists prior to admission: (1) paediatrician, (2) otologist, (3) audiometrist, (4) ophthalmologist, (5) psychiatrist and psychologist. I f t h i s c h i l d i s under care of a family doctor, we would appreciate a report from him. I t i s also possible that he would wish to arrange the specialist©'examinations. In some d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia the services of the Travelling C l i n i c of the Children's Hospital and the Child Guidance C l i n i c are available. I f the family i s f i n a n c i a l l y unable to do t h i s , could any arrangements be made to have the c h i l d brought to Vancouver before entrance to school for these examinations? I f they are not f i n a n c i a l l y e l i g i b l e for outpatient service at one of the hospitals and are medically indigent, a group of l o c a l doctors have volunteered t h e i r services for these examinations. The enclosed forms are to be completed by the respective special-i s t s examining the c h i l d i . e . , Ear Examination (including audiogram and audiometrist's report) Eye Examination Paediatrician - Use the medical form of the School f o r the Deaf Psychiatrist and Psychologist - no special form The information desired relates to educability, probable adjustment i n school and general social behaviour. I f there are emotional problems, any information regarding them and suggestions regarding their management at the School, would be appreciated. Outside the Greater Vancouver Metropolitan area the application form and the social history are prepared by the l o c a l Social Welfare Branch. If only some of these examinations are available l o c a l l y , arrangements could be made to have the remainder done i n Vancouver. I f any of the above examinations have been done recently, the reports of them would suffice for the immediate present. Yours t r u l y , School Medical Officer JERICHO HILL SCHOOL APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION 105 1. Name of applicant i n f u l l 2. Place and date of b i r t h ...Month Year 3. Is the applicant deaf or blind?....... Total or pa r t i a l ? k. At what age did condition occur? State cause, i f known 5 . Has applicant any other defect? Is applicant of normal mentality?. 6. Is applicant able to dress and eat without assistance? 7. Does applicant wet or s o i l the bed? ....Day clothing? 8. Have the applicant's (ears) (eyes) been examined by a specialist? 9. By whom? When? 10. What does the specialist say of the case? 11. Has the applicant had any of the following and at what ages (approx.): Mumps Whooping-cough Chicken-pox Measles Smallpox Scarlet fever Diphtheria Epilepsy Convulsions Infantile paralysis T o n s i l l i t i s Tuberculosis Rubella Typhoid Pneumonia 12. Any other illnesses? 13. Any injuries? Ik. Any operations? .., 15. Has applicant been successfully vaccinated? When? 16. Are any others i n the family deaf or blind?.. 17. Does tuberculosis exist i n the family? 18. To what religious denomination does applicant belong?... 19. Name and address of parents... 106 PERSONAL HISTORY DEVELOPMENT 1. Mother's health, mental and physical, during pregnancy...... 2. Natural or instrumental b i r t h Labour 3» Name of attending physician..... k. Weight at b i r t h Breast or bottle fed 5. Age weaned D i f f i c u l t i e s of weaning 6. Age teething Walking .Talking 7. Has physical and mental development been apparently normal?. HABITS 1. Eating.... (Regularity of meals, amount, fussiness, any reaction to food) 2. Sleeping (Hours, regularity, disturbed, peaceful, etc.) 3 • Elimination. (i n f a n t i l e habits and training - any enuresis or constipation -how treated) k. Other habits (Thumb sucking, n a i l b i t i n g , masturbation, t i c s and habit spasms, stuttering, etc.) 5. Education •' (Age when started school, teacher's opinion) 6. Interests *• (Religion, clubs, sports, other a c t i v i t i e s ) 7. Personality (child's estimate of himself) (His wishes, daydreams, and remote ambitions) 8. Expenditure of energy • (Lively or inactive, sluggish or lazy, talkative or quiet) 9 . Habits of a c t i v i t y • (Systematic, definite, consistent, e f f i c i e n t , p r a c t i c a l , or the reverse) 107 FAMILY HISTORY 1. What i s the general attitude of family toward applicant? .2. Were the parents related before marriage? 3. Are any members of the family serious behaviour problems?..... k. Father ( i f dead, give cause of death) ..Race Name Place and date of b i r t h , Religion Education Health .Occupation Efficiency Habits : Alcohol? Drugs? Personal t r a i t s .Nervous or mental i l l n e s s 5. Mother ( i f dead, give cause of death and date)... Race Maiden name Place and date of b i r t h Religion Education. Health Habits : Alcohol?. Drugs?. Personal t r a i t s Nervous or mental i l l n e s s 6. Siblings ( i n order of b i r t h , including s t i l l - b i r t h s , - causes of deaths) Name Date of b i r t h School grade Behaviour Health 7. Please state monthly family income (or yearly i f seasonally employed)... 8. Is family covered by medical insurance? 9 . Could parents be expected to pay transportation of applicant to Vancouver 10. Could parents be expected to provide necessary clothing from time to time ? 11. Could parents be expected to provide money for minor incidental expenses? (Date) (Name of investigator) 108 MEDICAL REPORT (To be f i l l e d In by a registered physician) 1. Child' s name Date of examination.... 2. Height f t i n . Weight l b . 3.- Skin k. Glands (specify goitre) 5. Teeth 6. Tonsils 7» Nasal breathing. 8. Hearing: R L by 9. Vision: R L (with or without glasses?).... 10. Lungs 11. Heart 12. Pulse rate 13. Nervous system Ik. Extremit ie s 15. Kahn Smear 16. Urinalysis; Clear......Ac Alk S.G......Alb Sug....... 17 • Remarks 18. In your opinion, i s the applicant too deaf or too b l i n d to make sati s -factory progress i n the public school system? 19. This i s to c e r t i f y that I have examined.. and, to the best of. my knowledge, believe him (or her) to be of normal mentality and free from any disease or vice which would render his (or her) residence with other children undesirable. (indicate means of testing employed) (Name) Signature M.D. 109 JERICHO HILL SCHOOL Name Age Date EYE EXAMINATION RIGHT LEFT Eye condition Vision without glasses Vision with glasses Movement Pupil reaction................ Conjunction. .Cornea . I r i s Media Fundus Peripheral f i e l d s Refraction of benefit ? Is sight l i k e l y to improve, f a i l , or remain as at present? Recommended treatment * Is I t advisable that sight be used as far as possible at school?. Would gymnasium work be harmful?..... • Recommended date of re-examination • For Deaf or Hard of Hearing children only: In your opinion i s there suf-f i c i e n t impairment of vision to interfere with the a b i l i t y to lip-read? 110 JERICHO HILL SCHOOL 4100 West 4th Ave., Vancouver 8 , B.C. Name Age Date EAR EXAMINATION RIGHT LEFT Drum. Discharge CV WV A i r Conduction CV ..WV. 512 .1024 2043 Bone Conduction 512 1021+ 2048 with masking (ATTACH AUDIOGRAM) Type Deafness: Conductive Perceptive Probable cause of deafness .Duration. Is condition l i k e l y to improve? F a i l ? Remain as at present? Is i t advisable that earphones be used as far as possible at school? Should periods of such stimulation be limited?.. Unlimited?.. Tonsils and adenoids . .Nasopharynx. Nasal condition Allergy Sinuses 1. Regular School with Speech Therapy Treatment recommended: 2. School for the Deaf 3- Pre-school 4. Other recommendations Recommended date of re-examination. Please return to the school medical of f i c e r , M . D . I l l PRE-SCHOOL REGISTRATION FORM Please f i l l i n and return: (Boy Name of Child Date of b i r t h Sex ( G i r l Surname Given names Day Month Year Address Telephone Place of b i r t h Name of father (in f u l l ) Occupation Racial origin Name of mother ( i n f u l l ) Occupation..... .Racial o r i g i n Parent's place of work Address .Phone No Person w i l l i n g to assume responsibility for c h i l d ( i n absence of parent) i n case of accident or i l l n e s s during school hours -Name ...»...... Addre s s Phone Number of children i n family Ages of children.... Did c h i l d attend a Child Health Centre? I f so, which one? HISTORY - Please give dates c h i l d has had:-Chickenpox Sc. Fever Asthma Measles .Wh. Cough Diabetes Mumps .Pneumonia Eczema. Rubella .Rheumatism. Epilepsy. Any other i l l n e s s , accidents or operations Any Problems (Yes or No): Developmental. Emotional Behaviour Feeding Tuberculosis i n family Has c h i l d defective hearing? Immunization - please give date completed Series Reinforcing Diphtheria Toxoid Tetanus Toxoid Wh. Cough Vaccine Other Smallpox Vaccination - Primary Revacc'n BCG (For Tuberculosis) - Primary Revacc'n Dates of last Chest X-ray Result Tuberculin test Neg Pos. Defective sight? Signature of Parent METROPOLITAN HEALTH COMMITTEE - DIVISION OF CHILD WELFARE SPECIAL FORM REGARDING TEE CAUSES OF DEAFNESS 113 Name .Date of b i r t h Address .Sex..... .Diagnosis , Father's names .Address Mother's names Address Address at onset of deafness Person interviewed .Interviewer. Other possible sources of information ( i e . physician, parent, etc.) FAMILY HISTORY Health of father Of mother No. Preg ..... No. of children l i v i n g . No. of children dead No. of miscarriages... FAMILIAL DISEASES T.B Rheumatism V.D Allergy. .Diabetes Others Nervous diseases: Kidney • Deafness i n either father or mother or other children? (Give date of onset) Deafness i n Immediate family or remote relatives? (Give date of onset) Other speech delay or speech defects on either side of the family? HISTORY OF HEARING LOSS ONSET 1. Was the c h i l d deaf at birth? 2. At what age was suspicion f i r s t aroused? 3. What was the reason for suspicion?.. •; 4. Did hearing seem normal i n the f i r s t year and then become decreased i n the second or t h i r d year? 5- I f deafness came on after two years, was acquired speech lost? Ilk PROGRESS OF DEAFNESS 1. Deafness: Better? ..Worse? Same? RESIDUAL HEARING 1'. What does he hear without hearing aid? Bells Whistle Drums What noise s ? 2. At what distance does he hear words or sentences? 3- Does he notice change of radio programs or volume of sound or music? k. Does c h i l d make a lo t of noise playing with toys, etc? 5- Does c h i l d give much continued attention to noise-making toys as whistles, drums, etc?.. 6. How can his attention he attracted when absorbed i n play? SPEECH DEVELOPMENT 1. Did the c h i l d make the usual babbling sounds as a baby? 2. Did these sounds continue after age of one year? 3. I f continued i s sound of voice f l a t or inflected? k. Any words or sentences? 5. Is patient's speech understandable to those outside the family? Without ge sture s ? 6. Has loss of hearing affected speech?.... 7. Does the c h i l d watch speaker's face when listening? 8. Does c h i l d respond to speech without:-(a) seeing speaker's face? (b) seeing gestures? (c) knowing the clue of tune, place, etc? 115 - 3 -HISTORY OF BIRTH MP DEVELOPMENT INTRAUTERINE FACTORS Did mother, during pregnancy, have:- (Give stage of pregnancy) 1. German Measles? 2. Any drugs? (Name, i.e. A s p i r i n , Quinine, etc.) 3- Vaccination? State primary or revacc h. Any other illnesses during pregnancy? 5 • Maternal diabete s ? 6. Are there any other congenital malformations i n th i s child? NATAL FACTORS 1. Blood groups; Mother... Father (a) Any miscarriages or s t i l l births? (b) D i f f i c u l t i e s with other children during neonatal period?.. (c) Any children jaundiced at b i r t h or did they require blood transfusions?. (d) Central nervous system disease i n other children? 2. Birth injury: (a) Was the baby premature?.. B i r t h weight (b) Duration of labour • •• (c) Normal birth ? . . Caesarean? Instrumental? (d) Any known injury at birth?. — (e) Was oxygen necessary at birth? (f) Was there d i f f i c u l t y with breathing? 116 - k -POST-NATAL HISTORY General (Give age) 1. Meningitis 11. Rubella 2. Influenza 12. Tuberculosis 3. Encephalitis 13- Convulsions k. Scarlet Fever Ik. Operations 5. Mumps 15. Allergies 6. Chicken Pox l6. Any prolonged hospitalization. 7. Whooping Cough 17- Head injury 8. Diphtheria.... 18. Unconscious 9. Measles 19- Epilepsy • 10. Poliomyelitis Any other i l l n e s s ? • Drugs Sulphas Streptomycin Dihydro Streptomycin • Poisoning: Lead • Carbon Monoxide Carbon Tetrachloride E.N.T. Any o t i t i s media? Earache? Snore at night? Sleep with mouth open? Frequent sore throat? Blocked nose ? Swollen glands ? .Nasal discharge? DEVELOPMENT At what age did c h i l d s i t alone ?.... At what age did c h i l d walk alone ?... Does the chi l d : (a) Prefer right or l e f t hand?. (b) Have a normal gait? , 117 - 5 -(c) Lose balance easily or seem awkward and incoordinated?.. (d) Have d i f f i c u l t y chewing or swallowing? Behaviour d i f f i c u l t i e s : 1 C. J. Springer, Talking with the Deaf, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., Thos. J. Moran's and Sons, Incorporated, 1961. 119 N O P Q <* R s <r T t u V w i X i Y 1 z 120 1 C. J . Springer, Talking with the Deaf, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Thos. J . Moran's and Sons incorporated, 1961, p. l6h. 121 SELECTED GLOSSARY1 Aphasia: loss or impairment of the a b i l i t y to use language because of lesions i n the brain. Audiogram: a graphic record of the hearing of an individual tested by the pure-tone audiometer. I t records the intensities of successively higher pure tones which he i s just barely able to hear i n a quiet environment; i n other words, his threshold acuity. The audiogram here shown indicates the significance of hearing loss as measured i n deci-bels. (Reproduced by courtesy of the American Hearing Society from Orientation Training for Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors, American Hearing Society, 195°.) Audiologist: a specialist i n the nonmedical evaluation, h a b i l i -t a t l o n , and rehabilitation of those whose language and speech disorders (communicative disorders) center i n whole or i n part i n the hearing functions. Audiology*. the science of hearing. The term i s designed to co-ordinate the separate professional s k i l l s which contribute to the study, treatment, and rehabilitation of persons with impaired hearing. Audiometer: a precision instrument for measuring hearing acuity. Measurement by th i s means i s called audiometry and the person trained i n the use of the audiometer i s called an audiometrist (or hearing tester). Auditory: pertaining to the sense of hearing. 122 Auditory training: a means of educating or reeducating the residual hearing to interpret (identify, understand) meaningful auditory patterns. The person must learn or relearn to use any remnant of hearing he has. Amplification of sound by group and individual hearing aids assists t h i s learning process. Decibel: a unit for measuring the difference between the per-ceived intensity or loudness of a certain sound and that of a standard sound. I t i s abbreviated as db. Frequency: when applied to sound, designates the property which can be measured as cycles per second by physical means. The number of vibrations per second of a sound wave determines the pitch of the heard tone. The intact human auditory mechanism i s capable of perceiving tones between 15 and 15,000 cycles per second. Hearing loss: the measure of an individual's hearing deficiency as compared with the so-called normal ear. I t i s measured, for different frequencies, i n terms of just-perceptible stimuli and recorded (absolutely) i n decibels or (relatively) as a percentage of normal acuity. Pure-tone audiometer: an audiometer (see above) which tests hearing acuity for pure tones. The tones emitted are set i n steps at octave or semi-octave intervals and usually range from 125 to 12,000 cycles per second (cps), depending on the Instrument. The most important speech sounds occur i n the region of octaves 512, 1024, and 2048. Residual hearing: the hearing s t i l l retained by a hearing-impaired person. 1 Edna S. Levine, The Psychology of Deafness, New York, Columbia University Press, 19&T. 123 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Baker, Harry J . , and others. Education of Exceptional Children. Chicago, I l l i n o i s , U.S.A., University of Chicago Press, 1950. Baker, Harry J. Introduction to Exceptional Children. 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Address to the Deaf Department Parent Teacher Association. 1957. MacDonald, C. E. Jericho H i l l School, Vancouver, B.C., Organization Plan, Duties and Responsibilities of Senior Staff. I954T" Maclnnes, W. N. Information from Letters Written by Mrs. Maclnnes. Vancouver, B.C., Spetember 1947. Unpublished Sources I37 Robinson, G. C. Policy Relating to Joint A c t i v i t i e s between Health Centre for Children, Speech and Hearing Therapy Unit and Jericho H i l l School, September 2 3 , I960. Scarfe, N. V. Letter from the Dean, College of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, to the Superintendent, Jericho H i l l School, establishing policy concerning credits from other approved universities. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l 2 , 1 9 5 7 . S i n c l a i r , Robert A. Case Study of a Pupil Deafened at Age Nine Years. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, Unpublished Paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 7 -S i n c l a i r , Robert A. Discussion of a Statement by the Minister of Education Entitled "Aims of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia". Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished Paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956". Summary of Report and Recommendations on Programme and Budget. From the Joint Planning Committee of the Speech and Hearing Programme j o i n t l y operated by the B.C. Foundation for Child Care and the Health Centre for Children, August 1 0 , i 9 6 0 . Varwig, Renate J . F. Family Contributions i n Pre-School Treatment of the Hearing-Handicapped Child. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, Unpublished M.S.W. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, i 9 6 0 . Whitson, A. P. An Evaluation of a Plan of Organization f o r a Speech and Hearing Conservation Program for Putnam County Tennessee. Unpublished Thesis, University of Tennessee, 1 9 5 ^ > Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A. Wick, Marshall. What a College Education at Gallaudet College Means to a Deaf Student" Copy of a speech delivered to the Second Biennial Convention of the Ontario Parents' Counsel for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, June 3 0 , I962. Personal Enquiry Blake, Mabel N. Information Received from an Interview. Vancouver, B.C., July i 9 6 0 . Donald, Maureen. Information from an Interview, A p r i l 1 9 6 2 . MacDonald, C. E. Information Received from Interviews. September and December 1 9 6 2 . Mclntire, Wayne F. Letter from San Fernando Valley State College i n Los Angeles, to the Superintendent, Jericho H i l l School, announcing a Master's Degree programme i n Administration and Supervision, open to experienced candidates who have demonstrated a potential for leadership roles i n work with the Deaf. Northridge, California, San Fernando Valley State College, May 5 , 1 9 6 1 . 

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