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New Westminister, 1859-1871 McDonald, Margaret Lillooet 1947

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I NEW WESTMINSTER,. 1859-1871 by Margaret L i l l o o e t McDonald A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER GF ARTS i n the department of History The Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1947 NEW, WESTMINSTER, 1859-1871 Table of Contents Chapter 1 The Founding of New Westminster Chapter 2 The General Development of New Westminster Chapter 3 The Incorporation of New Westminster and the Work of the Municipal Council The Building of Suburban Roads and Development of the D i s t r i c t around New Westminster Chapter 4 Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 5 P o l i t i c a l History 6 Government I n s t i t u t i o n s at New Westminster 7 Semi-Official I n s t i t u t i o n s 8 Economic Development 9 Education and Religion 10 Social Development Conclusion Pages 1- 53 54-71 72-105 106-130 131-198 199-240 241-278 279-352 353-390 391-430 431-432 Appendix A - Members of Municipal Council Appendix B - Presidents of Municipal Council Appendix C - Street Names Bibliography 433-.437 438 439 440-448 NEW WESTMINSTER 1859 - 1871. This thesis deals with the history of New Westminster from the spring of 1859, when the City was founded, to July, 1871, the date at which British Columbia entered Confederation. As background material, reference has been made to the inception of the colony of British Columbia as a result of the gold rush and its early administration under James Douglas, Governor of both British Columbia and Vancouver Island. A detachment of Royal Engineers was sent out from Great Britain to provide military protection and to perform various civil duties, notably survey work. New Westminster was chosen as the site for the capital of the new colony by Colonel R. C. Moody, Officer Commanding the Royal Engineers. When New Westminster was incorporated in July, 1860, at the request of the inhabitants, control of civic affairs was vested in an elected Municipal Council. An account is given of the Incorporation Act, the composition of the Council, its revenue, expenditure and achievement. A chapter has been devoted to the early development of the City with mention being made of the establishment of the Royal Engineers* camp at Sapperton and the erection of Government offices and the first private buildings and residences in the City. As New Westminster could not develop independently of the surrounding area reference has been made to these adjoining districts. Shortly after the founding of the City agriculture was started on the rich farm lands of the Fraser Valley and the year 1862 saw the be-ginning of the lumbering industry on Burrard Inlet. To connect New Westminster with these farming areas and with the Inlet* a series of trails was constructed from the capital. The early political history of New Westminster is chiefly con-cerned with agitation for responsible government and a resident Governor. New Westminster urged these two reforms because it felt that Governor Douglas and the government officials were sacrificing the City's interests to those of Victoria. A Legislative Council was created in May, 1863, and British Columbia obtained a separate Governor in the person of Sir James Douglas and later Frederick Seymour. Despite strong objection from the people of New Westminster th« two British colonies on the Pacific were united in November, 1866* and in 1868 the capital of the united colony was moved to Victoria. The chapter dealing with political development concludes with an account of the City's attempts to secure compensation for the removal of the capital and its part in the move towards Confederation. The chief government institutions at New Westminster were the Jail, Land Registry Office, Post Office, Assay Office and proposed Mint. A resume is given of the functions of each of these institutions, as well as of the administration of law as i t affected New Westminster, mail service within the colony, the gold escort from the Cariboo mines, and the contribution of the Royal Engineers to the development of the City. A further chapter deals with semi-official institutions? the Hyack Fire Department, the Royal Columbian Hospital, the Library and the three militia units. The economic history of New Westminster i s mainly an account of the chief business establishments, banking f a c i l i t i e s and the development of fishing and lumbering. A summary i s given of trade and commerce at New Westminster, the port of entry for B r i t i s h Columbia, and of port development Including buoying the mouth of the Fraser. Ships calling at New Westminster included steamers which plied regularly between Victoria, New Westminster, Hope and Tale, and ocean-going vessels which made i n f r e -quent c a l l s . Telegraph communication was provided when New Westminster was connected with the line of the California State Telegraph in I865. The next year i t was connected with Quesnel by Western Union l i n e . By I 8 6 3 , New Westminster had a public school under supervision of a citizens' committee. After the f i r s t school ordinance for B r i t i s h Columbia was enacted In I 8 6 9 , control of the school passed into the hands of the Municipal Council acting i n the capacity of a school board. The chapter on education also mentions the various private schools establish-ed in the City and concludes with a history of the work of the Anglican, Roman Catholic, Wesleyan and Presbyterian churches. The section devoted to social development includes an account of the early newspapers, notably the B r i t i s h Columbian, mentions the a c t i v i t i e s of various lodges, societies and associations, and t e l l s of early entertainments, including.May Day celebrations, balls at Government House and the annual celebrations held in honour of Queen Victoria's birthday. In conclusion the thesis reiterates the fact that New Westminster and Victoria were bi t t e r rivals and points out that because of undue government bias towards the island City, New Westminster's development was temporarily discouraged and retarded. 1 The Founding of New Westminster The colony of/British Columbia was forced into being by the discovery of gold. Before 1858, the year the great rush to the Fraser began,the mainland was unorganized territory, inaccessible except by rivers, lakes and Indian t r a i l s . The only white men in the area were employees of the Hudson's Bay Company,, By a license of 1838,the Hudson's Bay Company had the exclusive right of trade with the Indians in this region, known as the Indian Territory or New Caledonia, and they maintained a series of forts for the collection of furs, stretching from Fort Langley on the Lower Fraser to Fort Fork on the Peace. Naturally the Company would not welcome the entry of large numbers of miners into this trading area, and there i s some evidence that the o f f i c i a l s of the Company were for several years aware of the existence of gold and kept the fact a secret. There is a great deal of uncer-tainty as to when and where the f i r s t gold was discovered in British Columbia. Mr. A. C. Anderson, the Collector of Customs at Victoria writes that, despite a l l rumours to the contrary, the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company had no knowledge of the presence of gold on the Fraser u n t i l 1857, when nuggets were obtained from the Indians at the mouth of 2 the Thompson River, 1 It was when the Rudson*s Bay Company in February, 1858, sent nuggets by the Otter to be coined 2 at the San Francisco mint that the rush began. Starting in Apr i l , there was a great exodus from California to the North, "never i n the history of the migrations of men has been seen a 'rush* so sudden and so 3 vast1*. Altogether between 25,000 and 30,000 men l e f t San 4 _ Francisco for the new gold fields during 1858. The great majority of these came by boat to Vancouver Island, and, after landing at Esquimalt or Victoria, crossed over to the Fraser by whatever means were available - Indian canoes, steamers, sailing vessels, hand-made boats, rafts* James Douglas, Governor of Vancouver Island and Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Pacific Coast, was fearful of the effect of a wholesale immigration of foreigners, and on December 28, 1857, although he bad no jurisdiction over the mainland, he issued a proclamation declaring the gold in the Fraser and Thompson River dis-t r i c t s , known as the Couteau Region, to belong to the Crown 1 Anderson, A o C ; History of the North-West Coast, p. 53 2 Howay, FoW. and Scholefield, E.O.S.; British Columbia, vol. 2, p. 14. 3 Brown, Rev. R .CoL.; British Columbia? An Essay, p. 3. 4 Howay, F.W. and Scholefield, E.O.S.; op. c i t . , p. 130. 3 5 and requiring a l l miners to be licensed by the Crown, Writing to Rt. Hon* Henry Labouchere, Secretary of State for the Colonies, on A p r i l 6, 1858, Douglas reported, n . . . there i s no doubt in my mind that sooner or later the intervention of Her Majesty*s Government w i l l 6 be requested to restore and maintain peaee n. On May 8, Douglas reported the rush to the Fraser and questioned the desirability of allowing the free entrance of foreigners to the diggings. Douglas's chief concern was to maintain the monopoly enjoyed by the Hudson^ Bay Company in this area, and on May 8 he issued a proclamation forbidding boats not licensed by the Company to trade with the main-7 land. In July Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, who the previous month had become Secretary of State for the Colonies, re-plied approving Douglas's assumption of authority over the mainland, but reminding the Governor that, although the ' 5 P.P.C. 2398,1858. Correspondence Relative to the  Discovery of Gold in British JAlor tn. Atteribtn Douglas to Labouchere, Dee. 28, 180 7, p. o. 6 Ibid, p. 10. 7 P.P.C. 2476,1859. B. C. Papers. Part 1, p. 12. Douglas to Stanley, May 19, 1859. " 4 Hudson's Bay Company had e x c l u s i v e r i g h t to trade w i t h the India n s , they had no other r i g h t s and t h e r e f o r e could not exclude a l i e n s nor i n t e r f e r e w i t h t r a d i n g . Douglas's 8 proclamation of May 8 was d i s a l l o w e d * In May Douglas v i s i t e d the F r a s e r i n eompany w i t h Capt. Prevost of H.M.S. S a t e l l i t e , one of the s h i p s of the Boundary Commission. He sent an e n t h u s i a s t i c r e p o r t of the gold d i s c o v e r i e s to the C o l o n i a l Secretary hut added t h a t the miners were alarmed by the h o s t i l i t y of the I n d i a n s . I n a despatch to R t . Hon. Lord S t a n l e y , S e c r e t a r y of s t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s , on June 19, 1858, Douglas asked f o r the a s s i t a n c e of a m i l i t a r y f o r c e . I have no doubt that your Lordship w i l l send out a body of troops f o r the s e r v i c e of the Colony and the F r a s e r * s R i v e r D i s t r i c t . The miners have a p p l i e d to me f o r p r o t e c t i o n against the n a t i v e s , and when that i s accorded w i l l have no h e s i t a t i o n i n paying the l i c e n s e duty... As a r e s u l t of Governor Douglas's r e p o r t s , S i r Edward Bulwer L y t t o n introduced i n t o Hie House of Commons, on J u l y 8, 1858, a b i l l x t o provide f o r the government of New Caledonia. Speaking on the seeond reading cf the b i l l , he remarked, ttThus the discovery of gold compels us to do at once, what otherwise we should very soon have done -e r e c t i n t o a colony a d i s t r i c t t h a t appears i n great p a r t 10 eminently s u i t e d f o r a c i v i l i z e d h a b i t a t i o n and c u l t u r e " 8 I b i d , p. 42, L y t t o n to Douglas, J u l y 16, 1858. 9 I b i d , p. 17, Douglas to S t a n l e y , June 19, 1858. 10 Hansard, Y o l . 151, pp 1106-1107. 5 He s a i d that i t was the d e s i r e of the B r i t i s h government " t o add another community of C h r i s t i a n freemen -to those by which Great B r i t a i n c o n f i d e s the reeords of her empire, not to pyramids, and o b e l i s k s , but to S t a t e s and Common-wealths whose h i s t o r y s h a l l be w r i t t e n i n her language* W i l l i a m Ewart Gladstone expressed h i s r e g r e t t h a t " t h i s B i l l began by e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o c i e t y which was not f r e e * . 1 1 I t was proposed to c a l l the new colony "New Caledonia", but when the French objected, because they had a colony cf that name, Queen V i c t o r i a was asked to choose a name and she decided on " B r i t i s h Columbia*. By an a c t which r e c e i v e d r o y a l assent on August 2., 1858, the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia was t o be com-posed of a Governor and a L e g i s l a t u r e , c o n s t i t u t e d when i t was *deemed convenient* by the Queen. The j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the c o u r t s of Upper and Lower Canada over c i v i l and c r i m i n a l cases was repealed so f a r as the new colony was concerned. B r i t i s h Columbia was to i n c l u d e the l a n d l y i n g between the summit of the Rockies on the E a s t , the P a c i f i c Ocean on the West, the Simpson*s R i v e r and F i n l a y branch of the Peace R i v e r on the North and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary on the South. The Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands were to be part of the mainland colony, but Vancouver I s l a n d was to remain a separate colony. I t could be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h B r i t i s h 11 I b i d . p. 1764. 6 Columbia by a joint resolution of the two Houses of the Legislature of Yancouver Island, subject to the approval of 12 Her Majesty. On September 2, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal, James Douglas was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief over the new colony. In addition to the ordinary powers of a Governor, Douglas was given legislative authority to pass such Statutes and Ordinances as he should see f i t , subject only to disallowance by the British Government. The Hudson's Bay Company lost i t s license of exclusive trade with the Indians so far as British Columbia was concerned and the British Government repurchased the Company's rights on "Vancouver Island. James Douglas was required by the Colonial Office to give up a l l connection with the Hudson's Bay Company and with the Puget-Sound Agricultural Company. Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton sent Douglas a series of lengthy and comprehensive despatches i n which he suggested 13 the principles on which the colony was to be governed. The Imperial Government expected the colony to be self-supporting as soon as possible, and Lytton suggested that 12 An Act to Provide for the Government of British Columbia, B. C. Papers, Part 1. 13 B. C. Papers. Part 1, pp 44-76, Lytton to Douglas 7 revenue be r a i s e d by an export t a x on gold, by moderate d u t i e s on beer, wine, s p i r i t s a n d other a r t i c l e s , and by the sale of p u b l i c l a n d . He s a i d t h a t i t was the d e s i r e of the B r i t i s h Government t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and s e l f government should p r e v a i l i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t h a t the e x t r a o r d i n a r y power granted t o the Governor was only a temporary measure. He recommended that Douglas should form a C o u n c i l comprising both B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s and f o r -e i g n e r s , "men whom, i f an e l e c t i v e c o u n c i l were u l t i m a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the colony, the immigrants themselves would be l i k e l y to e l e c t * . The C o l o n i a l Secretary approved the appointment o f the three o f f i c i a l s whose help Douglas needed inadminis-t e r i n g the area around the digg i n g s : - R i c h a r d H i c k s , Revenue O f f i c e r a t Y a l e , George P e r r i e r , J u s t i c e of the Peace a t 14 H i l l ' s Bar, and A. T r a v a i l l o t as Revenue O f f i c e r at L y t t o n . But he reminded Douglas that there should be no s u s p i c i o n of f a v o u r i t i s m to the servants of the Hudson's Bay Company, and he suggested that the Governor should i n f o r m him of any s i t u a t i o n s he needed f i l l e d and men could be c a r e f u l l y chosen i n England. For the present three o f f i c i a l s would be sent out; Wymond 0, Hamley as C o l l e c t o r of Customs; Matthew Begbie, Judge, and Chartres Brew to be 14 I b i d , p. 16, 17 and 20, Douglas to L y t t o n , June 15, 1858. 8 Inspector of Police and to assist in the formation of a 15 police force. Sir Edward also Informed Douglas that Her Majesty proposed sending out an officer of "Qie Royal Engineers and a company of Sappers and Miners. The o f f i c i a l proclamation cf the colony of Bri t i s h Columbia took place at new Fort Langley on November 19, 1858. Governor Douglas, the government o f f i c i a l s and the second detachment of Royal Engineers, who had only recently arrived from England, travelled on H.M.S. Satellite as far as Point Roberts where they transferred to the Hudson*s Bay Company steamers Otter and Beaver. The Otter proceeded to 16 old Fort Langley, Derby, where the Royal Engineers disem-barked and joined the f i r s t detachment already stationed there. The o f f i o i a l s and a body guard of Engineers went by the Beaver on to new Fort Langley for the ceremony. The Victoria Gazette carried an interesting aoeount of the event Yesterday, the birthday of British Columbia, was ushered in by a steady rain, which continued perseveringly throughout the whole day, and in great measure marred the solemnity of the proclamation of the Colony. 15 P.P. H.C. 146,1859. Cfcvil, Military and Ecclesi- astical Appointments In British Columbia. 16 Derby was a 900 acre townsite on the south bank of the Fraser about 28 miles from i t s mouth. New Fort Langley was Zi miles further up the Fraser. 9 On Friday the 19th Instance, His Excellency accompanied by his suite, and received by a guard of honour commanded by Captain Grant, disembarked on the wet, loamy bank under the Fort, and the procession proceeded up the steep bank which leads to the palisade.. Arrived there, a salute of eighteen guns commenced pealing from the Beaver, awakening a l l the echoes of the opposite mountains. In another moment the flag of Britain was floating, or to speak the truth, dripping over the principal entrance. Owing to the unpropitious state of the weather, the meeting which was intended to have been held in the open ai r , was convened in the large room at the principal building. About 100 persons were present. 1 7 Douglas addressed himself to Matthew Begbie and administered to him the oath of office as Chief Justice; and the Judge, in turn, administered the oath to Douglas. The Governor read a proclamation dated November 3, 1858, revoking the grant made to the Hudson's Bay Company of the licence of exolusive trade with the Indians. Following this he issued three proclamations,the f i r s t , announcing the act for the government of British Columbia; the second, indem-nifying the Governor for acts done previous to that date, the third, declaring English law to be i n force in the Colony. It has already been mentioned that i n response to Douglas's urgent request for military protection for the colony Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton had despatched a body of Royal Engineers to the colony. < In writing to Major-General 17 Vic torla Gazette, November 25, 1858, quoted in Howay, F.W. Early History of the Fraser River Mines, pp. 10-12, Introduction. 10 H. Peel, Secretary f o r War on August S, 1858, the C o l o n i a l Secretary outlined the duties and the cost of maintenance of the force* The object for which the Royal Engineers are sent i s not s o l e l y m i l i t a r y . I t w i l l be r e -quired to execute surveys i n those parts of the country which may be considered most e l i g i b l e f o r settlement .... to suggest a s i t e for the seat of Government and f o r a seaport town* This Engineer force w i l l be maintained at the charge of the Imperial Treasury for only a l i m i t e d period, that i f required beyond such period, the Colony W i l l be c a l l e d upon to defray the expense•° In this connection Lytton instructed Governor Douglas that the f i r s t charge upon land sales must be to defray the cost of the Engineers. Colonel Richard Clement Moody was appointed to command the detachment of Royal Engineers and September 23, Lytton sent Douglas a warrant authorizing him to pass Letters Patent under the Public Seal of B r i t i s h Columbia appointing Col. Moody as Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and the following day he wrote that the Queen had appointed Moody to be Lieutenant-Governor. The o f f i c e r s who were to accompany Moody were chosen with special care: each being p a r t i c u l a r l y q u a l i f i e d for some special phase of the work. Capt. J.M. Grant was chosen for genius i n con-str u c t i o n , Capt. R.M. Parsons because of his knowledge of 18 B. C. Papers, Part 1, p. 53, Lytton to Peel, Aug. 3, 1858. 11 19 surveying and Capt. H.R, Luard for m i l i t a r y work. The non-commissioned o f f i c e r s and men were also c a r e f u l l y selected for the type of work which they would be required to do, and included surveyors, architects, draughtsmen, masons, painters, carpenters, blacksmiths, miners and photographers. Moody was given e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s by the 20 Colonial Office as to what his duties would be. I t was emphasized that Douglas was the supreme authority i n the Colony; but that the Governor would be informsd that the duties of the Royal Engineers were s p e c i a l and should not be in t e r f e r e d with* The expenses of the survey party would be paid by the B r i t i s h Government i f there were no funds available i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but the Colony would be r e -quired to make good these advances. n A t the same time i t i s well to understand that Her Majesty's Government count on the Immediate r a i s i n g of large Revenues from the land sales and other resources of the Colony, s u f f i c i e n t to defray from the outset the expenses of the survey and cf a l l others except the s a l a r y of the Governor. t t As to c i v i l duties:-Your f i r s t duty w i l l be to commence the operations necessary for the land sales 19 P.P.C. 2578, B. C. Papers, Part 2, Lytton to Douglas, p. 63-64. ' 20 B. C. Papers, Part 1, p. 55, Merivale to Moody, August 23, 1858. 12 by which the expenses of survey are to be defrayed* You w i l l consult with the Governor as to the choice of sites for a maritime town, probably at the mouth of Fraser rs River and for any more inland* You w i l l not f a i l to regard with a military eye the best position for such towns (and) i f you can at slight cost render the Fraser River navigable to a further extent than i t is at present you w i l l direct your science to that object.^ There was to be no military display and the Royal Engineers were to be used as an armed force only in the case 22 of trouble. Moody was to make a careful study cf the natural resources of the Colony - gold, harbours, fishing, timber, p o s s i b i l i t i e s of agriculture, etc. - and to send reports on these to the Colonial Office. The Royal Engineers travelled to British Columbia in three groups. The f i r s t detachment sailed from South-ampton on September 2, 1858, in the steamer La Platta. It was composed of twenty men, mainly surveyors, under Captain Parsons, who brought with him Douglas*s Commissi on as Governor, which the Queen had signed on her return from the Continent. The second group of twelve men, principally carpenters, under Capt. Grant, embarked fifteen days later. These two groups travelled by way of Panama, arriving at Tiotoria on October 29 and November 8, respectively. 21 B. C. Papers. Part 1, p. 74, Lytton to Moody, October 29, 1808. 22 Ibid, 73. 13 Capt. Grant's party l e f t T i c t o r i a on November 14 and proceeded to Fort Langley aboard the Hudson's Bay Company steamer Beaver. Three days l a t e r they were joined by the second detachment. After the inauguration ceremony, the Royal Engineers remained at Fort Langley and began work on the buildings needed to accommodate the main body. This group, which was under the command of Capt. H.R. Luard, did not reach B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l A p r i l of the following year. It comprised three o f f i c e r s , L t . A.R. Lempriere, L t . H.S. Palmer, Dr. J.V. Seddall, 118 non-commissioned o f f i c e r s and men, thirty-one women and t h i r t y -four c h i l d r e n . Leaving the1*Downs"on October 17, 1858, i n the Clipper ship, Thames C i t y , 557 tons, they made the voyage around the Horn i n 175 days, a r r i v i n g at Esquimalt on A p r i l IE, 1859. Four married men with t h e i r wives and f a m i l i e s , among them Mrs. James Keary and baby son, came on the Euphrates which c a r r i e d the main portion cf the stores and provisions of the detachment and arrived at V i c t o r i a on June 27, 1859. Colonel Moody and family l e f t England October 30, 1858, on the Asia and t r a v e l l i n g by way of Panama reached V i c t o r i a oh Christmas Day i n company with Captain Gosset, Treasurer of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Mr. Cooper, Harbour Master of Esquimalt. Upon his a r r i v a l C o l . Moody was sworn i n as L t . Governor and Commissioner of Crown Lands for B r i t i s h Columbia and as Commander of Her Majesty's 14 land forces i n British Columbia and Vancouver Island, Early in the new year Colonel Moody made his f i r s t v i s i t to the mainland. He visited Langley and found the Engineers under Capt. Grant and Capt. Parsons already engaged in erecting barracks there. Pending completion of these buildings they were living on the Hudson*s Bay Company brigantine Recovery. Moody Intended to begin selecting the site for a capital but news reached him of a serious outbreak among the miners at Yale, and with Capt. Grant and twenty-five cf his men he went up the river to take part in the celebrated *Ned MoGcwan,s War*. On his return he began examining the lower Fraser in order to determine the best location for the capital. Governor Douglas had already chosen Derby as the capital. In a despatch to the Colonial Office on November 3, 1858, he had suggested that the seaport town could be established to best advantage somewhere beyond the wet marshy country which bordered both sides of the Fraser for the f i r s t ten miles. wThat low, wet d i s t r i c t passed, the country pre-sents a new aspect, being more elevated and covered with 23 pines and other forest trees1*. Douglas also suggested, that i f Vancouver Island were incorporated with British Columbia, Esquimalt should be the port of entry for both 23 B. C. Papers. Part 2, p. 19, Douglas to Lytton November 3, 1858. 15 e o l o n i e s and he added that t h i s p l a n was popular w i t h the property h o l d e r s of Vancouver I s l a n d . The s i t e o f Derby covered about nine hundred acres and was bordered on the east by a reserve of ten square m i l e s , belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company. This may account f o r the choice of Derby, although Douglas g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g reason f o r h i s choice;- " I was guided i n choosing Old Langley as the s i t e of a commercial town c h i e f l y by the p a r t i a l i t y d i s p l a y e d f o r that spot by the mercantile 24 community of the country*. He d i d not recommend i t as a seaport as he r e a l i z e d that i t would be u n s u i t a b l e because of i c e on the F r a s e r i n w i n t e r . A p u b l i c auction f o r the l o t s a t Derby was h e l d a t V i c t o r i a on November 25, 26, end 29 under the d i r e c t i o n of the C o l o n i a l Surveyor, Joseph Despard Pemberton, w i t h P. M. Backus as auctioneer. The upset p r i c e of the l o t s was $100, but an average p r i c e of $200 was r e a l i z e d , the h i g h e s t p r i c e f o r a s i n g l e l o t being $725. I n a l l 343 l o t s were sold f o r 25 a t o t a l of $66,405.50. Douglas wrote to S i r Edward Bulwer L y t t o n informing him of the sale and Lytton*s r e p l y i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t has been suggested t o me, that supposing the advantages to be i n other r e s p e c t s equal, i t might have been pr e f e r a b l e to place the town on the banks of the r i v e r which i s f u r t h e s t from 24 P.P.O. 2724, B. C. Papers, P a r t 3, p. 11, Douglas to L y t t o n , May 12, 1859. 25 B. C. Papers, P a r t 2, p.p.37,38, Douglas to L y t t o n , November 29, 1858. 16 the American frontier. I shall be glad to receive for my information any remarks which i t may occur to you to make on this point, although I am quite sensible that the site of the town is a matter on which, from your l o c a l observation, you must be the best judge. On such matters you may now have the advantage of consulting Colonel Moody, an engineering officer of great s k i l l and experience. v Work was immediately begun at Derby on the barracks for the Royal Engineers and tenders were asked for a court house, j a i l , church and parsonage. With the exception of the church, these latter buildings were not built because Colonel Moody decided that Derby was not a suitable site for the capi t a l . Whatever may have been Douglas's motives i n choosing Derby, Colonel Moody's choice was based on detailed study of the l o c a l i t y and careful consideration of the many factors entering into the question. His prime concern was that the site should be one that could be easily defended in case of an American invasion. It i s interesting that both Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton and Colonel Moody should have considered the danger of trouble with the united States. This unjustified fear was a consequence of the boundary controversy which was amicably settled by the Oregon treaty of 1846 but which flared up again b r i e f l y in the San Juan incident of 1859. Even before leaving England Colonel Moody had 26 Ibid, p. 80, Lytton to Douglas, February 11, 1859 17 studied maps of British. Columbia and had formed a very-definite opinion that the capital must be on the north bank of the Fraser* In a letter to Capt, Parsons,Moody had given the following instructions. . . . I think l t would be well for you to draw the attention of the Governor to the circum-stance that military considerations of the very gravest importance (seeing the nearness of the Frontier) enter into the question of determining the site of the Chief - town and also of the one to be l a i d out at the entrance of the River. If i t is absolutely necessary to commence some occupation at the latter place, i t should be confined to the North side and I hope that the Governor .would be able to make i t a temporary tenure. 2 7 Moody*s f i r s t choice was Mary H i l l at the junction of the P i t t , Coquitlam and Fraser Rivers. According to R. E. Gosnell, Moody f i r s t selected n a fine and elevated site near the mouth of the Pitt River in preference to a s t i l l finer site a couple of miles lower down on the right bank" which he named Mary H i l l i n honour of his wife and he ordered Capt. Jack Grant to cut the f i r s t tree on the sit e . He was in the act of swinging his axe to deliver the blow, when he was so mueh impressed with the mistake they were making that he said, 'Colonel, with much submission, I w i l l ask you not to do i t . Will you yourself be pleased to take the responsibility of making the f i r s t cut?'-respectfully giving his reasons. These were of so cogent a nature, one being that the lower site being at the head of tide-water, big ships could come up the Fraser to i t and that i t was easily defensible by a tete du pont on the opposite side 27 Letter Moody to Parsons, September 1, 1858, Moody Correspondence, Provincial Archives. 18 of the river, and similar reasons, that the Colonel was convinced, rowed down the river and ordered the f i r s t out to he delivered on one of the huge cedars with which the h i l l was covered and named the new town 'Queens-borough* Speaking at a dinner tendered the Royal Engineers at the time of their r e c a l l , Col. Moody said, '•The care-fulness with which the site of the Capital of -Qie Colony was selected i s known to you. I would mention, however, 29 how much is due to Capt. Richards of the R. N.tt Lieut. R. C. Mayne gives an interesting account of the choice of the site. He writes that H.M.S. Plumper, which had been surveying the lower r i v e r , had been des-patched to Langley with a party of marines and blue-jackets from H.M.S. Satellite to assist Col. Moody and the Engineers in Ned McGowan's War. Having re-embarked the sailors, they ^proceeded to examine the rive r and i t s north bank a few miles below Langley, and report whether i t would do for the 30 site of the Capital of Brit i s h Columbia". The Plumper anchored almost opposite the site of the present city of New Westminster and Lieut. Mayne and Dr. Campbell landed to examine the ground and report to Col. Moody as to i t s s u i t a b i l i t y . 28 Gosnell, R. E. (Editor), The Year Book of British,  Columbia, 1897, p. 45. 29 British Columbian, November 7, 1863. 30 Mayne, R. C., Four Years i n Br i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island, p. 72" 19 Dr. Campbell and I went to examine a part a l i t t l e north of where the town stands, and so thick was the bush that i t took us two hours to force our way i n rather l e s s than a mile and a h a l f . Where we penetrated i t was com-posed of very t h i c k willow and alder, i n t e r -twined so c l o s e l y that every step of the way had to be broken through, while the ground was cumbered with f a l l e n timber of a larger growth. During t h i s scramble I stumbled upon a large black bear, which seemed to be as much surprised to see me as I was at sight of him, and I dare say equally discomposed. At any rate, he showed no dis p o s i t i o n to c u l t i v a t e my acquaintance; and, as I was some way ahead of my companion and had only one b a r r e l of my gun loaded with small shot, I was not sorry to f i n d that our wax-,seemed to l i e i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s . The s i t e selected by Colonel Moody was a l i t t l e below this thick bush, where the ground was somewhat clearer. In a report from H.M.S. Plumper on January 28, 1859, Colonel Moody gives detailed reasons f o r his r e j e c t i o n of Derby and his choice of Queensborough. Bancroft suggests that one of the reasons Moody refused to approve of Derby was "because Douglas had selected i t , and the Hudson's Bay Company had ten square miles of land i n reserve adjoining RO 33 i t , " but a study of Moody's report shows that h i s decision was based on more mature considerations. Afte r a c a r e f u l study of the question I have now the honour to submit to your consideration that the s i t e which appears to be best adapted Ibid. p. 72. Bancroft, H. H. History of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 414. Bo C. Papers, Part 2, p. 60, Moody to Douglas, January 28, 1859. (Copy of a l e t t e r written by Moody from H. M. S. Plumper. 31 32 33 20 for tne c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia i s about ten miles below the new town of Langley, and on the north bank of the Frazer. I am under the impression i t i s the same or nearly the same si t e to which you did me the honour to d i r e c t my attention as the proper p o s i t i o n for the port of entry. I t i s the f i r s t high ground on the north side a f t e r entering the r i v e r , and i s about twenty miles above the Sand Heads. There i s abundance of room and convenience for every t description of r e q u i s i t e i n a seaport and the c a p i t a l of a great country. There are great f a c i l i t i e s f o r communication by water, as w e l l as by future great trunk railways i n t o the i n t e r i o r . There i s good land for garden ground, i f one may judge by the f o r e s t and r i c h meadow lands surround i t . I t is r a i s e d above the p e r i o d i c a l floods, and yet the low lands (which w i l l be most coveted as commercial s i t e s , docks, quays, etc.) are close adjoining and e a s i l y made available. From the advantageous circumstances of the l o c a l i t y , i t is e a s i l y rendered unapproachable to any enemy. As a m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n i t i s rare to find one so s i n g u l a r l y strong by nature, i n connexion with i t s adaptation as the c a p i t a l of a country, immediately i n front is the broad navigable r i v e r ; on the opposite bank i s a line of r i s i n g ground covering the whole fr o n t . This r i s i n g ground f a l l s towards the f r o n t i e r , and a l l along that base i s swampy land, e a s i l y inun-dated. Upon this r i s i n g ground could be placed a great intrenched camp, with a series of open earthen works e n t i r e l y protecting the c i t y at a distance, en-suring perfect safety from any i n j u r y whatever to the c i t y i t s e l f . On the right flank of the position the c i t y would be protected by two deep channels, i n addition to the r i v e r i t s e l f , and also by widely-extended marshes, which when dyked (as they w i l l be by the farmers) could be e a s i l y inundated. The l e f t flank i s protected at a distance of four miles, by the Fraser, and also by the deep broad r i v e r P i t t ; but in'addition to these two serious obstacles to an enemy i s a commanding h i l l , having the P i t t River close i n front; on this h i l l could be placed a strong work or works, e n t i r e l y covering the l e f t flank. At the rear of the position and distant f i v e miles, i s Burrard's I n l e t , any access to which would be rendered most hazardous, by placing a work on the island which extends across i t . There i s also on that side a range of high ground, from east to west, on which could be placed earthen works and intrenched camp, preventing 9 any advance. * + The short m i l i t a r y defences of the l e a s t c o s t l y d e s c r i p -t i o n , and defended by m i l i t i a f o r c e s , could be q u i c k l y formed (and from time to time increased to any e x t e n t ) , when a n e c e s s i t y arose f o r them, and which would render the s i t e almost u n a s s a i l a b l e . Considering how near the embouchere of the great v a l l e y of the F r a s e r i s to the f r o n t i e r ^ from .ten to f i f t e e n m i l e s , these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are of i n c a l c u l a b l e weight. I t i s a l s o to be considered that p r e c i s e l y as the occupation of t h i s p a r t of the F r a s e r i s occupied i n f o r c e by us (as would n e c e s s a r i l y be, i f a c a p i t a l i n a strong p o s i t i o n be placed t h e r e ) , so c o u l d we the b e t t e r hold possession of the whole country, and compel an enemy's f r o n t to r e t i r e . This p r a c t i c a l l y , i n time of war, would be to cause the f r o n t i e r to recede f u r t h e r south, and enable us w i t h com-pa r a t i v e ease to take the o f f e n s i v e . I would f u r t h e r sub-m i t t h a t , i n any way w i t h our neighbours, our be s t , I may say our only chance of success i n t h i s eountry (owing t o the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of i t s component p a r t s , be an immediate o f f e n s i v e advance. I am so s t r o n g l y impressed w i t h these views as to venture (but, b e l i e v e me, w i t h the utmost deference) to press on your c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t , should i t be determined not to occupy t h i s s i t e i n the man-ner suggested, c o n c e n t r a t i n g there, as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , a condensation of p o l i t i c a l , m i l i t a r y , and commercial i n t -e r e s t s , growing'and i n c r e a s i n g i n f o r c e i n a l l time to come, i t would s e r i o u s l y p e r i l , i f not l o s e , to Great B r i t a i n the possession of the mainland. These views, I apprehend, c o i n c i d e g e n e r a l l y w i t h your own, but i t i s p o s s i b l e they may not have s t r u c k you so f o r c i b l y as they may now that I have sketched out the m i l i t a r y value of the s i t e * In reference to the ada p t a t i o n of the a c t u a l spot i t s e l f f o r a c i t y of magnitude, I might add to what I have al r e a d y s t a t e d i n general terms, t h a t there i s deep water c l o s e a-long an extended l i n e of shore: sea-going v e s s e l s of any burden can moor clo s e to the bank, p l e n t y of water f o r sup-p l y of household purposes, and good drainage* I would wish that the upper l e v e l had not been quite so h i g h , as here-a f t e r i t may cause some expense i n improving the gr a d i e n t s of a few of the s t r e e t s . The main s t r e e t s f o r business, however, and a l l t h a t may be occupied f o r some time to come, w i l l be s a t i s f a c t o r y . I might a l s o add that any l e a d i n g r a i l w a y communications from the i n t e r i o r would pass down the n o r t h side of the r i v e r . P o l i t i c a l l y and commercially t h i s would be necessary. This r e p o r t weuld not be complete unless I added that the s i t e of Langley I s open to the g r a -v e s t o b j e c t i o n s as to the s i t e of a c a p i t a l , or even a town of importance. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to say i t i s on the f r o n -t i e r side of the r i v e r , and no amount of expenditure and s k i l l c o u ld e f f e c t u a l l y r e c t i f y the strong m i l i t a r y objec-t i o n to i t s p o s i t i o n . t 22 February 4 Douglas transmitted Colonel Moody's report to Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton and added that he had authorized the survey and subdivision into building lots of the site recommended in the report. Douglas was the •supreme authority 1* in the Colony, yet although Moody's choice was exceedingly unpopular with him, he did not raise any real objection. It could not have been because he did not have the authority, because Moody had been instructed to co-operate with the Governor i n the choice of the capi-t a l . Douglas, however, must have f e l t that his choice was indefensible i n view of Moody's powerful arguments in favour of Queensborough. Then too, Lytton had suggested that the capital should be placed on the north side of the Fraser. Moreover public opinion favoured Moody's choice and i f the Governor had insisted on Derby, there would have been much criticism that he was putting the interests of the Hudson's Bay Company before those of the Colony. Douglas said l i t t l e , but he did not forget. From the beginning he hated the new capital which was estab-lished in defiance of his wishes and this enmity was an important factor in the early history of New Westminster. The Governor at a l l times favoured Victoria and did every-thing he could to hamper the development of the struggling new town. The Colonial Secretary passed on Moody's report to the Admiralty and the War Office. The latter expressed 23 regret that Colonel Moody didn't enclose a plan or sketch but stated that "so far, however, as can be judged from a written description, the conclusions in this respect seem * 3 4 very sensible and well-judged*. The Admiralty answered that they were not aware of any better spot that could have been selected, but added that i t would be absolutely necessary to station a p i l o t 35 vessel and lightship at the mouth of the Fraser. February 14, 1859, Governor Douglas issued a pro-clamation announcing his intention of laying out the capital of British Columbia on the site chosen by Colonel Moody and sel l i n g the lots at public auction. Following this pro-clamation; work at Derby was stopped and the Royal Engineers were moved to the new capital, which Colonel Moody called Queensborough. The brig, Recovery, with the Royal Engineers aboard, was towed from Langley by the Captain of the Maria for #100, the second week in March. When the main body of the Engineers arrived at Esquimalt on April 12, they were sent on to the capital after a slight delay. The Thames City was chartered only as far as Esquimalt and the Captain would proceed to the mainland only for an extra payment of £1,200. Governor Douglas considered 34 B. C. Papers. Part 2.p. 93, le t t e r from War Office dated April 30, iaS9, enclosure 2 in Despatch 29, Lytton to Douglas, May 24, 1859. 35 Loc. c i t . letter from Admiralty dated May 10, 1859, enclosure 1. 36 Lands and Works Letter Book, Moody to Gosset, March 9, 1859. 24 this charge exorbitant and sent most of the party on board the E l i z a Anderson, commanded by Capt. John Irving for £500. The Beaver and H.M.S. Satellite transported the rest. On April 25, Governor Douglas reported to Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton that a l l the Royal Engineers and Royal Marines had 37 arrived safely at the new capital. As there was asyet no accommodation at the capital, the women and children were lodged in the barracks at Langley. Only a very small part of the camp site at Queensborough had been cleared and only one building erected - a small log hut. Thus the f i r s t task which faced the Royal Engineers when they arrived at Queensborough was that of establishing a camp and providing themselves with at least temporary quarters. While this preliminary work was being started, some of the men were housed on the Hudson's Bay Company brigantine, Recovery, while others were put out in tents. The Engineers soon began clearing the site they had chosen for their camp, on the east side of the present Penitentiary walls. Clearing was a tremendous task, because of the huge growth of cedar, f i r and hemlock, which covered the whole h i l l s i d e . Of the severity of that labour, no one unac-quainted with the d i f f i c u l t y of clearing bush as i t exists in Br i t i s h Columbia oan form any accurate conception. Felling the trees forms but a small part of i t . When they are down, 37 B. C. Papers, Part 2, p. 9, Douglas to Lytton, Apr i l 25, 1859. 25 they are, of course with the scanty resources at the settlers command too large to be re-moved, and they have to be sawn and cut up into blocks handy for removal or burning. That done, the hardest work remains. In forests such as these the roots of the giant trees have been spreading underground for ages, . forming a close and perfect network some eight or ten feet beneath the surface. To dig this mass of interlaced roots would defy thftg strength and patience of ordinary men. Colonel Moody wrote to Douglas soon after arriving at the capital, The thickets are the closest and thorniest I ever came across. The woods are magnificent beyond description, but most vexatious to a surveyor and the f i r s t dwellers in a town* I declare without the least sentimentality, I grieve and mourn the ruthless destruction of these most glorious trees. What_a grand old Park this whole h i l l would make.39 But although d i f f i c u l t to clear, Sapperton - the name the Royal Engineers gave to their camp - was a very beautiful spot. Every contemporary author writes glowingly of i t s beauties. R. C. Mayne describes the view from the camp. tt0n the l e f t , over P i t t Lake, rises the beautiful peaks known as the Golden Ears, to the right of these, the valley of the Fraser can be traced almost as far as Fort Hope; while in the foreground, looking over the buildings of the rising town, level land stretches away into American territory beyond the boundary line as far as Admiralty Island 38 Mayne, op. c i t . , p. 87. 39 Moody Correspondence, Provincial Archives, Moody to Douglas, March 17, 1859. 26 40 and Puget Sound.n The sappers and miners of the Royal Engineers cleared most of the site for the camp themselves but Colonel Moody engaged a group of Kanakas to cut and square timber for log houses. These log houses, the f i r s t build-ings erected at the camp were the barracks for the 41 soldiers. Mr. Hugh Murray told the writer that the f i r s t building erected at the camp was a barracks for the single men and he described i t as a t a l l building with a steeply-pitched roof. It was a single wood room 80x37, "erected with a view of i t s being at some future period used as a 42 church", and was warmed by iron stoves* No accommodation was provided for the married men and a r i o t nearly ensued. A temporary partition was put in the barracks and half of the building was given over to the married men. Work was soon begun on rows of double buildings running straight back from Columbia Street. Colonel Moody's residence was then started. As soon as the camp site was cleared, surveying was begun. A number of different systems of survey have been used in the Fraser Valley. The f i r s t was division 40 Mayne, op. c i t . , p. 88. 41 Lands and Works Letter Book, p. 4, Moody to Grant. 42 S t a t i s t i c a l , Sanitary and Medical Report for 1860 of Army Medical Department, British Columbian, July 1, 1863. • 27 into l o t s , i n which each l o t was surveyed independently"with no base-line established. 43 The Royal Engineers did th e i r work i n this way. y The town l o t s of New Westminster were l a i d out i n blocks numbered 1 to 36, running from the r i v e r to Queen's Avenue. The Royal Engineers made part of the survey but c i v i l i a n s were also used as surveyors. Colonel Moody reported to the Governor i n January, 1859, that i t would be necessary to employ c i v i l surveyors because the members of the survey party were too few i n number to do a l l the work and their peculiar training for c a r e f u l s c i e n t i f i c work must not be wasted. Among the surveyors employed were J . J . Cochrane, D.G.F. Macdonald, Edgar Dewdney and Walter 44 Moberley. Cochrane and Macdonald had been working at Queens-borough with survey par t i e s even before the a r r i v a l of the 45 main body of the engineers. Mr. Moberly was attached to 46 the Lands Department to work under Capt. Grant and Edgar Dewdney was appointed sworn surveyor f o r New Westminster and 47 d i s t r i c t . 43 Draper, W., Pioneer Surveys and Surveyors i n the Fraser Va l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, July, 1941, p. 215 and 217. 44 Lands and Works Department Letter Book 1, January 31, 1859. 45 Royal Engineers Letter Book . 2, p. 18, Moody to Parsons, A p r i l 13, 1859. 46 Lands and Works Department Letter Book 1, March 22, 1859. 47 Moody Correspondence, F. 598, Moody to Douglas, May 19, 1860. 28 A p r i l 1, 1859, Moody reported to the Governor that the survey of Queensborough was progressing as f a s t as the weather would permit. "After personally traversing the ground and devoting a great deal of anxious thought to the subject I have at length adopted a plan which I t r u s t w i l l 48 answer every requirement." This plan was an elaborate l a y -out of avenues, parks, and terraces. The survey of the town from Queen's Avenue to the r i v e r was started from Colonel Moody's plans. The Royal Engineers did the portion from Leopold Place to Arthur Terrace and Lot 4 i n Block 32 ( i . e . from the present Canada Place to the western end of Albert Crescent), Mr. Dewdney did Blocks 7, 29 and 30 and the remainder was done by Mr. Macdonald. Captain Parsons, as Chief survey o f f i c e r , was 49 responsible for laying out the l o t s . The b e a u t i f u l l y executed plan of the c i t y as drawn by Corporal J.B. Launders and Corporal Charles Sinnett i s i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives, . 50 Vic t o r i a . For some of the c l e a r i n g work Colonel Moody employed c i v i l i a n labour. During the winter groups of miners were employed as axemen, but i n the spring Moody found there was a s c a r c i t y of white labour because the men were anxious to 48 Lands and Works Department Letter Book 1, p. 7. 49 Draper, op. c i t , , pp. 217,218. 50 Copy of this map, Board 3, Land Registry O f f i c e , New Westminster. 29 reach the mines and he employed Indians for the rough work. The s i t e of the c a p i t a l presented the same d i f f i -c u l t i e s as that of the camp, but the h i l l s i d e was now mueh steeper and i t was broken by a series of deep ravines. Captain Spaulding told Walter Cheadle, who with Lord Milton was the f i r s t trans-Canada t o u r i s t , that the dense f o r e s t covering the s i t e "cost fortunes to clear away, averaging 51 $3 a stump*. Moody asked for the despatch of the Royal Marines then stationed at Esquimalt, to be used i n c l e a r i n g the ground and cutting the trees into cord-wood. Mr. Bedford, owner of the Enterprise had agreed to buy the wood at $3 a cord. In order to make communication between the camp and the c a p i t a l easier, a t r a i l was cleared to connect the two, running from the Queen's Ravine to the nearest corner of the f i r s t square i n town near the Ravines. In March, just a month after the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t Engineers, Judge Begbie v i s i t e d the new c a p i t a l and described i t i n a l e t t e r to His Excellency. The weather is very much against any pro-ceedings; there i s from six to eight inches of snow a l l over the s i t e of Queensborough, and today i t i s snowing hard. I t i s scarce possible to survey. The men are i n a log hut and the Colonel i n a shake house. The face 51 Milton, W.W.E. and Cheadle, W.B., The North-West  Passage by Land, p. 235. 52 Lands and Works Department Letter Book 1, p. 25. 30 of the country i s being gradually better known, although very l i t t l e c l e a r e d . 5 3 Even before the a r r i v a l of the main body of the Royal Engineers a few traders and s e t t l e r s were already established i n l i t t l e shacks i n the c a p i t a l . P h i l i p Hick.,. a baker, who had supplied the troops at Langley a l l winter, had opened the "Government Bakery t t. Judge Begbie writes of the baker, "I saw him this afternoon i n the snow handing out the bricks out of a scow for making his oven where you would 54 think an oven would never be." T.J.Scott was conducting a saloon having obtained a license from the magistrate at Langley, and Robert Dickinson had opened a butcher shop. The f i r s t merchant i s believed to have been W.J.Armstrong who started a small general store with a stock of goods secured i n V i c t o r i a . His family l i v e d above the store and this was probably the f i r s t s ubstantial "home" any of the c o l o n i s t s possessed* The r e s t of the s e t t l e r s l i v e d i n crude shacks or tents. Mrs. James Kennedy, the f i r s t white woman to come to New Westminster, l i v e d for some months i n a tent erected on the banks of the Fraser near the foot of Mary Street. James Nelson Draper was one of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s 53 Begbie to Douglas, March 12, 1859, quoted i n Howay, History of the Fraser River Mines, p. 47. 54 I b i d . p. 48 31 i n the new c a p i t a l . He represented the V i c t o r i a lumber firm of T.C Jackson and Company, who were agents for the lashing** ton M i l l Company. His son, Mr. William Draper, t o l d the writer that his father used to say that when William Clarkson came to Queensborough, " B i l l " Armstrong and Mr. Draper were sleeping under an old log. Draper put up the f i r s t o f f i c e b u i l d i n g i n the c a p i t a l - at the foot of Mary Street. There had been considerable wrangling over the name of the new c a p i t a l . Colonel Moody suggested "Queenborough". The C o l o n i a l Secretary, W.A.G. Young, thought t h i s was too nearly a paraphrase of V i c t o r i a and, " a f t e r a great inkshed and a long a c r i d correspondence the name was proclaimed to be not Queenborough (Victoria) but Queensborough, which was 55 quite another thing." To s e t t l e the argument, Governor Douglas on February 5, 1859, sent the following request to S i r E. Bulwer Lytton. . . . We are earnestly desirous that Her Majesty should vouchsafe one further proof of her continued regard by s i g n i f y i n g Her w i l l as to the name to be given to the future c a p i t a l . . . I t w i l l be received and esteemed as an e s p e c i a l mark of r o y a l favour were Her Majesty to name the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia, either i n d i r e c t l y , a f t e r Her Royal s e l f , or d i r e c t l y a f t e r His Royal Highness, the Prince Consort, His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales or some member of the Royal Family, so that the c o l o n i s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, separ-ated from friends and kindred in ^ t f f e i r f a r distant home, may be ever g r a t e f u l l y reminded i n the designation of th e i r c a p i t a l of the power 55 Gosnell, op. c i t . , p. 46. 32 that protects their hearths, of the watchful i n t e r e s t that guards th e i r l i b e r t i e s , and o f 5 f i the gentle sway by which they are governed. In May 1859, the following despatch was sent to Governor Douglas, signed by Lord Carnarvon i n the absence of the Secretary of State. n l am commanded to acquaint you that Her Majesty has been graciously pleased to decide that the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l be Galled 'New West-57 minster'.* July 20, 1859, Douglas issued a proclamation announping the change. Previously on June 2, the Governor had announced that from June 15, Queensborough was to be the sole port of entry for a l l vessels entering the Fraser River and for a l l goods imported into B r i t i s h Columbia. A schedule of the tonnage, pilotage and harbour dues to be paid was given, also a l i s t of the duties payable on various 58 imported goods, c h i e f l y s p i r i t s , tobaoco and animals. Tenders were called and work started on the Govern-ment o f f i c e s . March 8, 1859, an advertisement appeared i n the T i c t o r i a Gazette gi v i n g notice that tenders for the erection of Government Buildings at Mary's H i l l , Fraser River, would be received u n t i l March 16. Plans, s p e c i f i -cations and further p a r t i c u l a r s could be obtained by apply-56 B. C. Papers, Part 2, p. 61, Douglas to Lytton, February 5, 1859. 57 B. C. Papers, Part 2, p. 86, Lytton to Douglas, May b, 1859. : — 58 B. C. Papers, Part 3, p. 56, enclosure 4 i n Despatch 25, Douglas to Newcastle, September 13," 185 9. 33 59 i n g at C o l . Moody's house, V i c t o r i a . On March 11, C o l . Moody wrote to Robert Brewsby, e d i t o r of the Gazette, asking him to i n s e r t a n o t i c e that the advertisement of March 7 was c a n c e l l e d and that separate sealed tenders f o r the erec« t i o n of Government B u i l d i n g s at Queensborough, would be re c e i v e d u n t i l March 31 at the O f f i c e of the Lands and Works 60 Department, the Camp, Queensborough. A " L e t t e r from Queenborough" w r i t t e n by the " s p e c i a l t r a v e l l i n g correspondent* of the V i c t o r i a Gazette g i v e s a 61 v i v i d p i c t u r e of the c a p i t a l i n the spring o f 185 9. Queenborough, A p r i l 5, 1859. The undergrowth and f a l l e n t r e e s i n v a r i o u s stages of decomposition, render a walk over the e n t i r e l o c a l i t y somewhat l a b o r i o u s , yet c u r i o s i t y and a desire t o see f o r myself, l e d me f a r up and around beneath the l o f t y spread-ing arms of the f i r , cedar, hemlock and spruce and l e s s r e g u l a r l y b e a u t i f u l though s c a r c e l y l e s s u s e f u l ash, elm, b i r c h , apple, che r r y , maple and e l d e r , w i t h which the s i t e abounds. Some of the timber i s very l a r g e ; one cedar measuring E7 f t . 8 i n . from the ground; another 18 f t . 6 i n . , another E5 f t ; and one spruce EE f t . E i n . I measured the leng t h of one f a l l e n f i r t r e e , cut from the s i t e of the Custom House, which was SEO f e e t i n l e n g t h , f r e e from the stump, which measured 4 f t . 6 i n . i n diameter. Springs of e x c e l l e n t water are abundant along the h i l l s i d e ; and f o r days already have b r i g h t b e a u t i f u l golden and white l i l i e s smiled a g r a t e f u l welcome to the d e l i g h t f u l warmth of the sun. 59 V i c t o r i a Gazette, March 8, 1859. 60 B. C. Lands and Works Department L e t t e r Book 1, p. 7. 61 V i c t o r i a Gazette, A p r i l 7, 1859. 34 The commercial p a r t of the prospective C a p i t a l w i l l present a wharfage f r o n t of a l i t t l e more than a mile i n l e n g t h , and as a road 66 f t i n width i s now being surveyed by the Roya l Engineers, next and along the shore, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of as much wharfage as w i l l be necessary f o r the accommodation of unlading ships w i l l be s u f f i c -i e n t to f u r n i s h a dr'aight of a t l e a s t 25 f t . a t high water on an average. The town i s as yet but l i t t l e improved; 2 grocery s t o r e s , and a few houses and tent s occupied by those employed on the p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and works being the o n l y s t r u c t u r e s a t present e r e c t e d . The Custom House and Treasurer's O f f i c e are i n progress and w i l l , i t i s thought, be completed w i t h i n 2 weeks. A p i e r w i l l be commenced t h i s week i n f r o n t of the Custom House s i t e to extend 20 f e e t beyond the low water mark, a f f o r d i n g wharfage to v e s s e l s drawing from 15 to 20 f e e t of water at low t i d e . A temporary custom house s t a t i o n has been erected at a point a m i l e higher up the r i v e r , opposite and f a c i n g that p o r t i o n of the town s e l e c t e d f o r the s i t e of the barracks and o f f i c e r s * q u a r t e r s . This reserve i s separated from the commercial town by a small running brook, at present crossed by the trunk of a f a l l e n t r e e . At the barracks a store-house i s i n process of e r e c t i o n , one or two temporary b u i l d i n g s having been a l r e a d y b u i l t f o r the accommodation of L i e u t . Governor Moody and hi s s u i t e . The topographical Engineers mess i s on board the Recovery, an American b r i g f o r m e r l y used as a revenue v e s s e l i n the r i v e r , but which i s now anchored a few f e e t o f f shore i n f r o n t o f His E x c e l l e n c y ' s q u a r t e r s . The s i t e of Queenborough already presents many inducements to mechanics, and a portable saw-mill could be advantageously and, p r o f i t a b l y employed f o r a long time to come. Several p a r t i e s are engaged i n the manufacture of cedar s h i n g l e s , which they can f u r n i s h a t $4 to $5 per thousand. A r a r e chance i s o f f e r e d by the c l e a r i n g f o r pub l i c b u i l d i n g s and works, f o r some p a r t i e s to commence the g e t t i n g out of fire-wood f o r the steamer!, as h a l f the labour, on some of i t i s already;;performed, and they could have i t f o r the ha u l i n g o f f . 35 The f i r s t sale of town lots at Queensborough was held by public auction at Victoria on Wednesday, June 15. In a despatch of February 7, 1859, Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton told Governor Douglas why he wished the lots to be sold at auction. The advantage of sale by auction i s that i t forms the best available precaution against parting with land at an inadequate price, and i t conclusively prevents both the occurrence and even the suspicion or imputation of any favouritism or irregularity in the disposal of the public property. Looking, however, to the inestimable advantages of perfect confidence in the purity of land adminis-tration, my own opinion is that sale by auctions i s the best system . • . . °* On February 14, 1859, Douglas issued his proclama-tion, already referred to, in which he set down the con-63 ditions of the sale. One fourth of the lots were to be reserved for sale in the United Kingdom and the British Colonies and i f not disposed of they were to be offered at public auction in British Columbia. The Chief Commissioner was empowered to s e l l by private contract at the upset price any land remaining unsold after i t had been offered at public auction. The river frontage was to be l a i d out in a con-tinuous road which would ultimately be converted into a public wharf - for the present the frontage would be leased for seven years at public auction to the highest bidder. 62 B. C. Papers, Part 2, Lytton to Douglas, February 7, 1859. 63 B. C. Papers, Part 2, pp.65, 66, Douglas to Lytton, 7 § b J U & r y 19 /18 39 . 36 Purchasers of l o t s at Langley were to be allowed to surren-der t h e i r l o t s i n Langley and apply the amount paid on the purchase of l o t s i n the new c a p i t a l . There had been considerable, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the purchasers of Langley l o t s when i t was rumoured that the s i t e of the c a p i t a l was to be changed. The V i c t o r i a Gazette for February 8, 1859, reported a meeting of the purchasers held the previous Saturday at which a committee was appointed to present a p e t i t i o n to the Governor, "com-pl a i n i n g of the uncertainty which e x i s t s i n the public mind with regard to the intentions of the Government as to the 64 new town of Langley. 9 S i r Edward Bulwer Lytton did not. approve of the proposed reservation of l o t s for overseas purchasers. He said i t would only stimulate the a c q u i s i t i o n of l o t s by non-65 resident speculators. May 10, 1859, the V i c t o r i a Gazette carried an advertisement giving notice that the sale of town l o t s would be held on June 1 at the o f f i c e of Mr, Selim Franklin, Auctioneer. Mr. Fr a n k l i n subsequently charged the Govern-66 ment £500 f o r his services. A good many miners came down 64 V i c t o r i a Gazette, February 8, 1859. 65 B. C. Papers, Part 3, p. 86, Lytton to Douglas, May 7, 1859. 66 Douglas Correspondence, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, F. 485, Douglas to Moody, October 28, 1860. 37 from the mines for the sa l e . The auction was started on Wednesday and continued on Thursday, the following 14 blocks being offered, 1, 4, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 24, 25, 29, 30. Of the 318 l o t s offered, 310 were sold; 132 on the f i r s t day and 178 on the second, 8 were unsold and 112 were reserved. The upset price was $100 but the average price 67 was nearly $200. The purchasers were required to make a deposit of twenty-five per cent, the remainder to be paid i n three equal instalments on the f i r s t day of July, August and September of 1859. Colonel Moody i n the o f f i c i a l return presented to His Excellency the Governor, gave the following report of the sale • SALE OF QJJEENSBOROUGH TOWN LOTS Actual amount of sale $89,170.00 Amount of installments r e c T d cash 11,363.75 Di t t o , receivable i n cash 50,863.25 62,227.00 Amount received i n Langley t i t l e s 11,192.00 Ditto receivable i n Langley t i t l e s 15,751.00 $89,170.00 (signed Robert Burnaby) Pro The Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works. B r i t i s h Columbia. 6 8 June 4, 1859. 67 B. C. Papers, Part 3. p* 16, Douglas to Lytton, June 6, 1859. 68 Loc. c i t 38 The highest price for a single l o t was $1,925, which D.G.E.Macdonald paid for Lot 11 i n Block 5. Almost a l l the l o t s i n Blocks 4, 5 and 6 sold f o r over $1,000. Henderson and Burnaby paid $1,700 for Lot 10, Block 5, and Wolff and Simpson paid $1,900 for Lot 7, Block 5. Other prominent purchasers were J.A.R. Homer, Amor de Cosmos, Capt. Cosset, Henry Holbrook, Capt. Grant, Dr. J.S. Helmcken, Walter Moberly and James Yates. The V i c t o r i a Gazette, commenting on the sale says that such prices would have been high i f the land had been cleared but "that such prices should have been obtained for ground upon which considerable amounts must be expended before even temporary habitations can be erected, i s a f a c t going far to demonstrate an-extended and thorough c o n f i -69 dence i n the future of B r i t i s h Columbia". Before the s a l e , Governor Douglas gave permission to the Government o f f i c e r s stationed at Queensborough to purchase l o t s at the upset price on which to b u i l d r e s i -dences* Captain Gosset was granted two l o t s and Messrs. 70 Good, Bushby, Cooper and Begbie one each. On October 5 and 6, surveyed country land around the c a p i t a l was put up for sale with Corporal House of the Royal Engineers acting as Auctioneer. The upset price was 69 V i c t o r i a Gazette, June 4, 1859. 70 Lands and Works Department Letter Book, p. 11, Moody to Gosset, September 26, 1859. 39 ten s h i l l i n g s an acre but only four l o t s were sold. Before the auction, Colonel Moody bought a l o t of four or f i v e acres close to the barracks and about a mile and a half from town with the public park between. At the f i r s t auction Mr. F r a n k l i n promised that the money received from land sales would be used to grade the streets of. the c a p i t a l , and when several months passed with-out this work being done, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n arose. The people of New Westminster f e l t that Governor Douglas had not been f a i r with them. "The purchasers were obliged to tax them-selves a second time and engage i n 'bees 1, as i n old Canada, to get even a small quantity of the s i t e cleared, and to sub-mit to the f e e l i n g of having been deprived and to see V i c t o r i a streets and roads f l o u r i s h while Queensborough had 71 to be content with t r a i l s " . In November the V i c t o r i a Gazette noted that the "bubble had collapsed, avenues were not opened and no owner held a deed to his property at New Westminster." "Nothing occurs there worthy of newspaper record, except what we receive, i n a monthly meteorological report, which j u s t i f i e s the caustic remark of a v i s i t o r i n accounting for the absence of population i n i t s v i c i n i t y , 'There's too l i t t l e 72 s o i l and too much climate to encourage -settlement'." This is one of the f i r s t records of the scorn with 71 Gosnell, Op. c i t . , p. 46 72 V i c t o r i a Gazette, November 12, 1859. 40 which the people of V i c t o r i a regarded the new town r i s i n g on the banks of the Fraser. This scorn soon gave way to fear l e s t New Westminster replace V i c t o r i a as the chief commercial c i t y . Mr. J.D. Pemberton, Surveyor General of Vancouver Island, wrote of New Westminster at this time. No exertions were spared to found the new c a p i t a l with e c l a t and stamp i t with success. Engineers, m i l i t a r y and c i v i l , were f o r months employed i n projecting squares and terraces. At the auction sale i t was announced that i n ce r t a i n quarters, i t s 'West-end1, no shop fronts should be admitted. Majesty i t s e l f was approached to find a name for i t , and i t was c a l l e d i n the colonies 'The Phantom C i t y 1 ... As a town s i t e New Westminster i s decidedly objectionable. Too elevated, expensive to grade and heavily timbered, i t s progress must necessarily be slow; i t s extensive swamps and marshes so close to i t are not an advantage, to say nothing of the music of acres of frogs i n Spring, and the stings of myriads of mos-quitoes i n summer; i t s impregnability may be unquestionable , but i f unfortunately this quality renders i t inaccessible to the mer-chantmen of the P a c i f i c , and to the trade of Puget Sound, what object could an enemy have i n attacking i t ? 7 3 George Hunter Cary, Attorney of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver's Island, wrote to Douglas i n August, 1859, that the l o t holders were threatening to sue the Government to recover the purchase money of the l o t s . A meeting was held, attended by the Governor, Colonel Moody, Judge Begbie, Mr. Cary and the C o l o n i a l Secretary at which time Moody promised that the grading would be commenced immediately. The work 73 Pemberton, J . D., Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, pp. 52-5X 41 was not begun however, and i n November Cary again wrote the Governor informing him that, i n view of the non-fulfillment of the promise, the lot-holders would be j u s t i f i e d i n taking 74 action against the Government. The Attorney-General blamed Colonel Moody for, the f a c t that the streets were not graded, but i n an undated l e t t e r to Governor Douglas, Moody suggested that the l e v e l of the streets be marked. Without undertaking any laborious work of clearing or f e l l i n g or removing timber or stumps, or making any excavation at Queens-borough, i t would be of great u t i l i t y i f the l e v e l were marked at where i t i s proposed that the different streets s h a l l run* This could be done by f i x i n g short posts.... I t would enable the inhabitants to know where ' and how they may b u i l d . At present, a l l im-provement i s paralyzed* No person er e c t i n g a store, etc., can t e l l i n the l e a s t except by the nearest guess whether his store s h a l l con-tinueto-stand as he places i t or w i l l be r e -quired to be raised a foot or to be l e t down 10 f e e t . I f the inhabitants only knew the l e v e l s they would probably do a great deal towards grading the streets themselves. A temporary bridge, two f e l l e d trees with corduroy covered with gravel across the f i r s t ravine at a l l events - probably across the second ravine also - would be very u s e f u l . S t i l l further improvement would i t be i f Columbia Street and a couple of cross streets were graded as well as having the grade marked as above. 7 5 On December 2, 1859, Moody asked the Governor f o r money to remove the underbrush and trees from the streets 74 Howay, Op. C i t . p. 122 75 Undated Letter, Moody to Douglas, P r o v i n c i a l Archives. 42 of the c i t y and His Excellency r e p l i e d four days l a t e r that the finances of the colony were so reduced that they would 76 not permit of this expenditure* That seems to have been the whole trouble - the Treasury could not afford the cost of the grading. Considerable money had already been spent on the new c a p i t a l . The cost of surveying New Westminster to December 31, 1859, was £3,017* 3 s . 6 d*, of which £1,391 8 s. 11 d. was for m i l i t a r y and £1,611 13 s. 7 d. for c i v i l work. Because of the s c a r c i t y of money some of the surveyors and workmen were given land i n payment for 77 th e i r services* Colonel Moody and the Governor seem to have d i s -agreed over the question of the public works to be undertaken at New Westminster. On December 2, 1859, the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works wrote: Hurried designs i n so grave a matter as the grades f o r a Capital of a Country, cannot be too strongly deprecated and I f e e l assured your Excellency w i l l agree with me i n t h i s , the more as i t would now appear that an ex-ceedingly r i g i d adherence i n everything r e l a t i n g to the C i t y of New Westminster, not", however that I myself have found i t to be s o — as far as my personal opinion goes, the Public appear to have been on a l l occasions very reasonable i n the matter. With the regard to the designs for the grades throughout the Town, i t must be constantly borne i n mind that the s i t e i t s e l f was occupied i n reference only to i t s becoming the bona-fide Ca p i t a l of a great and f l o u r i s h i n g Colony, as I have the firmest conviction B. C. w i l l be and that at an early date. 76 Douglas Correspondence, F. 485, Douglas to Moody December 6, 1859. 77 Lands and Works Department Letter, Book 1. 43 The s i t e was not selected f o r , neither are the grades of tte streets designed and , adapted to, a town of subordinate character, l i k e l y to be i n a l l time l i m i t e d i n extent of population and wealths 7^ On December 6 Douglas re p l i e d that cost was the f i r s t consideration, I am Induced to make this remark by the ob-servations contained i n your l e t t e r respecting the C a p i t a l of a great and f l o u r i s h i n g colony, and by your classing New Westminster i n the same category with the great C i t i e s at Home — I would suggest to you that the Colony i t s e l f must f i r s t become great and f l o u r i s h i n g before we can undertake works on a scale of magnifi-cence i n accordance therewith, and that a Town Just l a i d out and not yet disassociated from the primeval f o r e s t cannot be dealt with as a great c i t y that has existed for centuries. What we now want i s a scheme that w i l l render the l o t s at New Westminster available so that a town may be established and a nucleus formed that hereafter may expand in t o a great and f l o u r i s h i n g c i t y , and I would beg you not to attempt any more than t h i s , f o r i f none be essayed I f e e l confident that p o s i t i v e hindrance to development w i l l ensue. I was yesterday waited upon by a deputation of some of the p r i n c i p a l lot-holders i n Columbia St. and forward extract of t h e i r memorial—I agree with them. 7^ The memorial signed by Mr. Henderson, Robert Burnaby, Henry Holbrookj A. T. Bushby, and A. R. Green contained three suggestions. The f i r s t was that "the e x i s t i n g natural l i n e taken on a line p a r a l l e l with Fraser's River i s admirably adapted for warehousing, landing and transporting goods" 78 Moody Correspondence, Moody to Douglas, December 2, 1859. 79 Douglas Correspondence, F. 485, Douglas to Moody, December 6, 1859. 44 and "any important interference with the natural l e v e l of the portion i n front of a l l the high priced l o t s , i s not only unnecessary, but would p o s i t i v e l y render the place l e s s e l i g i b l e f o r commercial purposes'*. The p e t i t i o n e r s also requested that two bridges be b u i l t across the ravine and that the l e v e l Columbia Street wasto be, be indicated so that they oould f i x the foun-dations of t h e i r stores. E a r l y i n the new year the Government took a c t i o n . Tenders were c a l l e d for forming and grading Columbia Street between the Treasury Building and Merchant Square, with two short side branches continuing the l e v e l into Hamley St. and Mary St. No tenders were received and i n March C o l . Moody set a party of Royal Engineers to work building two bridges aeross the ravines on Columbia Street on either side 80 of Lytton Square at a cost of £227. 6. 0. • These two ravines, parts of which can s t i l l be seen today, ran down through V i c t o r i a gardens and crossed Columbia Street on e i t h e r side of Lytton Square. The indignation of the c i t i z e n s of New Westminster was p u b l i c l y manifest at the second sale of town l o t s held in the spring of 1860. The sale was advertised f o r A p r i l 5, at which time there were to be offered at auction those l o t s 80 Moody Correspondence, F. 734, Moody to Douglas, March 20, 1860. 45 which had been reserved f o r sale i n the United Kingdom and the B r i t i s h Colonies. The auction was advertised to be con-ducted by Corporal House from the floyal Engineers, but on the morning of the f i f t h , Mr. Selim F r a n k l i n a r r i v e d from V i c t o r i a with orders from the Governor to conduct the sale. The people of New Westminster resented the appearance of 81 Franklin, whe having on the former sale sold the people". When Mr. Fra n k l i n rose to s t a r t the sale he was shouted down by the people, who created such an uproar that the Auction-eer gave up aft e r v a i n l y trying for h a l f an hour to make himself heard. Colonel Moody then postponed the sale f o r two weeks. A public meeting was held that night i n Mayer and Company*s new building at which time three resolutions were passed by the c i t i z e n s . They deplored the appointment of Franklin and stated that "judging from the absentee o f f i c i a l s who presented themselves at the sale, we should say there i s 82 'something rotten i n Denmark*". They objected to the f a c t that the job of building roads i n the upper country was to be given out by private contract i n V i c t o r i a without public competition. The Governor was indignant at the treatment accorded the Auctioneer; although Colonel Moody suggested that the 81 B r i t i s h Colonist, A p r i l 7, 1860 82 Loc. C i t . 46 blame lay with His Excellency rather than with the people of New Westminster. On the day of the sale he wrote to Douglas explaining what had happened. On March 9 Colonel Moody had sent His Excellency a l e t t e r containing the terms of the sale and the request that they be published i n the Vie tor l a Gazette with any alterations the Governor wished. On March 28 he received a l e t t e r from the Acting C o l o n i a l Secretary saying the l e t t e r had miscarried and the same day he sent a duplicate. The time of the sale drew near, and having r e -ceived no instructions from the Governor, he posted notices at New Westminster announcing the terms of sale and naming Corporal House as auctioneer. The morning of f i f t h of A p r i l , ten minutes before the sale was to begin, Colonel Moody met Mr. Franklin, who presented an order from the Governor authorizing him to a c t as Auctioneer and a copy, of the Gazette showing the altered terms of sale. The Chief Commissioner conferred with Mr. Cary as to whether the former should make an explanation, but they decided to l e t the matter r e s t . Colonel Moody commented, " I t was very clear to me and to a l l disinterested observers that i t was palpably a case of ' B r i t i s h Columbia versus Vancouver Island* many expressions having been vehemently made s i g n i f i c a n t of i t 1 * . 83 Moody Correspondence, Moody to Douglas, A p r i l 5, 1860. 47 Writing to the Governor three weeks l a t e r he also said that i n his opinion, "the meeting was not a disorderly-one i n i t s character, nor were any f e e l i n g s shown by them which, to my mind, could be construed as conveying to anyone the idea that those assembled were or wished to be d i s r e -84 spectful towards the Government"• At Colonel Moody's suggestion Mr. Edgar Dewdney was appointed Auctioneer and the delayed sale took place on May 2. The sum cf $25,665 was r e a l i z e d for thirty-three l o t s . The highest prices for l o t s were $3,925 paid by Meyer and Company for Lot 8, Block 5, and $3,570 for Lot 4, Block 6, by Mr. Thos. Harris. Mr. J . J. Cochrane paid $3,000 for Lot 1, Block 5, and $2,100 for Lot 1, Block 6, while Lot 16, 85 Block 7, was sold to Colonel Moody for $250. Prior to the sale government o f f i c i a l s were given the p r i v i l e g e of purchasing l o t s of no commercial value at , the upset price of $100 a l o t . Messrs. Claudet, Bonsfield, W. E. Cormack, W. Hitchcock and Chas. Bacon took advantage of this p r i v i l e g e , buying l o t s i n Blocks 18, 20, 21 and 24. When Governor Douglas v i s i t e d the c a p i t a l a few days afte r the sale, the people asked that New Westminster be made into a municipality. The request was granted and by a proclamation of July 16, 1860, New Westminster was incor-84 Ibid, A p r i l 24, 1860. 85 B r i t i s h Colonist, May 5, 1860. 48 porated. This meant that the Municipal Council was now responsible for carrying out improvements i n the c i t y . Following the f i r s t sale of town l o t s at Queens-borough, Governor Douglas, on January 4, 1860, issued a Fre-Emption Law which gave any B r i t i s h subject the right to pre-empt and record his claim to a g r i c u l t u r a l land not exceeding one hundred and s i x t y acres. The Pre-Emption Law resulted i n the gradual opening up of the land i n the d i s t r i c t s around New Westminster—a number of l o t s on the south side of the Fraser being soon taken up i n this way. On January 27, 1860, W. R. Spalding, J.P. at New Westminster, was authorized by the Chief Commissioner to s e l l any town l o t s at New Westminster or suburban l o t s which had been or would i n future be offered at public auction and remain unsold. One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g purchases was that of the Bishop of Columbia who i n March bought at upset price a suburban l o t to be l a i d out f o r a Church of England cemetery. Following the two public auctions held i n June, 1859 and May, 1860, other public and private sales were held. In Oetober, 1860, the Municipal Council received information that l o t s were to be sold to government o f f i c i a l s at the up-set price and the Council forwarded a resolution asking that 86 l o t s should not be sold except at public auction. 86 New Westminster Times, October 13, 1860. 49 December 1, 1860, a public auction was conducted by-Edgar Dewdney at which time the waterfrontage was leased. The Government refused to s e l l the waterfront but leased portions of i t for seven years. The rents were very low, the highest being £71 a year. This p r i c e was paid for the Government Pier which was leased to the Vancouver and B. C. Steam Navigation Company (Captain I r v i n g ) . J . T. Scott rented Lytton Square f o r £67 and Henry Holbrook paid £19 and £30 for Lots 1 and 7 i n Block 5 . P. O'Reilly leased Lot 1, Block 6, at £21 a year, and Robt. Dickinson, Lot 2, Block 7, at £20; and i n a l l , a t o t a l r e n t a l of £425. 5 s. a year was r e a l i z e d for the leases. The V i c t o r i a Colonist sa i d the reason the rents were so low was because there had only been a week's notice of the s a l e . The Colonist also complained that justice had not been done to the absentee l o t owners. "When the front l o t s were sold the' purchasers were to have a preference...There i s such a thing as j u s t i c e , but the sharp practice about the waterfront property i n New Westminster induces us to believe that the a r t i c l e i s scarce i n some of 87 the Government departments1*. None of the subsequent sales were so successful as the f i r s t , probably because of the slow progress of the c i t y and the general depression of the colony due to the f a c t that the mines did not l i v e up to expectations and many miners 87 B r i t i s h Colonist, December 4, 1860. 50 l e f t . The land sales for B. C. f o r 1860 were only £10,962 88 as compared with £18,876 for 1859. Colonel Moody wished to continue and survey and p a r t i a l l y c l e a r the c i t y beyond the portion already offered for sale but a r i g i d curtailment of the expenses of the Lands and Works Department and the withdrawal of the Royal Marines because of trouble i n the San Juan Islands had made him abandon his plan. The services of many of the Royal Engi-neers were not available because they were engaged on the roads. Governor Douglas f e l t that enough of the c i t y had already been l a i d out, but Colonel Moody thought i t would be wise to give the public a wider choice of desirable land by further sales. On August 21, 1861, Blocks 34, 35 and 36, ten chains on the north side of Royal Avenue, i . e . between Royal Avenue and Queen's Avenue, which had formerly been reserved, were offered for sale at the order of Colonel Moody. The announcement that this land_ would be sold "was received with strong demonstrations of s a t i s f a c t i o n * . Also offered f o r sale at this time were town l o t s i n Block 19 and suburban l o t s i n 89 Blocks 5, 6, 7 and 8* Of the f i f t y - s i x town l o t s offered 88 P.P.O. 2952, B. 0. Papers, Part 4, pp. 43-45 Fina n c i a l Report of B r i t i s h Columbia for 1860. 89 Suburban blocks 5, 6 and 7 are between Queen's Avenue and F i f t h Avenue. Block 8— t r i a n g l e formed by con-fluence Brunette and Fraser. 51 f o r sale thirty-two were sold a t a t o t a l price of £1,040, £85 being the highest price paid f o r a single l o t . Twenty suburban l o t s were sold out of an offering of 157 and £525 was r e a l i z e d . Twenty-one water frontages were, a l s o offered for lease at this time. Eleven were taken up at a t o t a l annual rent a l of £24. 5 s. The t o t a l r e c e i p t s of the sale were £1,589. 5 s. Purchasers were required to pay a twenty-five per cent, deposit and of this sum, £276. 2. 11 was paid i n 90 cash and the r e s t i n land s c r i p . Needless t o say, the Government and not the Municipal Council received the pro-ceeds from the sale. Another sale of town l o t s was held on J u l y 29, 1862, on the same conditions as the previous s a l e . Twenty-five per oent. of the purchase price had to be paid *on the knock of the hammer* and the balance i n three installments. The l o t s had been cleared at the expense of the Munic i p a l Council and Colonel Moody announced that the cost of clearing would be added to the upset p r i c e . Offered for sale at an upset price of £20 each were l o t s i n Blocks 1, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33. The t o t a l 91 proceeds of the sale were |8,145. 90 Moody Correspondence, Moody to C o l o n i a l Secretary August 24, 1861, and B r i t i s h Columbian, August 28,1861. 91 B r i t i s h Columbian, July 26, 1862, and Ju l y 30, 1862. 52 A land sale of special i n t e r e s t , at which time the suburban Blocks 5, 6 and 7, r e c e n t l y added to the c i t y were sold, was that held on October 1, 1863. This sale was attended by Lord Milton and Walter Cheadle and is described 92 by them. Milton and Cheadle, who were i n New Westminster i n the course of a sight-seeing tour of Canada, c a l l e d upon Colonel Moody at the Camp and found him just on the point of walking over to New Westminster to attend the auction s a l e . rtHe gave a most tempting description of the prospects of New Westminster and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the investment that we were induced to walk back with him and promise to look i n at 93 the s a l e . " The sale was held a t the Court House with Mr. Wadsworth as auctioneer, and on the usual terms of one-quarter down payment and the remainder i n three months. Milton bought seven l o t s of three to nine acres each at prices ranging from £20 to £32. The l o t s were about a half-mile back of the town and Cheadle wrote that he and Milton went with Captain Spalding and Charles Good to look at them "but the fo r e s t was so t h i c k and the marks so 94 i n d i s t i n c t that we could not make them out". 92 B r i t i s h Columbian, October 7, 1863. 93 Milton and Cheadle, Op. c i t . p. 237. 94 Ibid, p. 238. 53 Colonel Moody presumably bought l o t s at t h i s sale also, as a tax sale notice published on July 24, 1867, l i s t s him as owning l o t s i n Blocks 5 and 7. In a l l , about $10,000 95 was r e a l i z e d from the sale. 95 B r i t i s h Columbian, October 7, 1863. CHAPTER 2 THE GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF NEW WESTMINSTER. 54 The summer of 1859 had been spent i n cl e a r i n g the s i t e of the camp, building the barracks, the married men's quarters, o f f i c e s and store-houses. Included i n the group of buildings was a small church, convertible into a school, a h o s p i t a l , an o f f i c e f o r the Lands and Works Department, and a residence for Colonel Moody, Even the flower beds 1 were planted the f i r s t summer. Mrs.. Herring 1 described the camp. The married people's quarters stood i n groups of three; each contained two rooms, and i n one of these was the luxury of a brick open hearth, with an unlimited supply of wood for the fetching. A house had been b u i l t for the Colonel and h i s numerous family, one or two smaller ones for the married o f f i c e r s , a school was also used for church, likewise a chaplain's residence. 2 D.G.F. Macdonald, who acted as a c i v i l i a n surveyor on the s i t e of the new c a p i t a l , f e l t that the money could have been used to better advantage i n building roads. " I t was wasted i n forming extensive fancy walks through the picturesque ravines about the then uninhabited c i t y of New Westminster, i n beautifying a c o s t l y camp and i n other 1 Royal Engineers Letter Book 3, p. 3. 2 Herring, Francis, In The Pathless West, p. 62. 55 useless, f o l l i e s . " The Custom's House and Treasury were erected at New Westminster by the Royal Engineers i n 1859. The former was located on Lot 1, Block 13, at the corner of Columbia and Begbie Streets, and the l a t t e r on Lot 1, Block 14, the corner of Columbia and Mary Streets. The Custom's House cost £540. 4* 0. and an additional £238. 8. 11. was spent on a revenue sta t i o n , presumably constructed on the Govern-ment p i e r . £804. 8. 0. was spent on the Treasury and. the following year an a d d i t i o n a l £1,392. 6. 4. was expended i n 4 making alterations to the b u i l d i n g . The l o t f o r the Treasury was cleared by Mr. William Clarkson before the a r r i v a l of the main body of the Engineers. Mr. Clarkson took payment i n land s c r i p and with i t purchased Suburban Lots 28, 90 and 91, Group 1. A survey o f f i c e and a magistrate's o f f i c e were also b u i l t during 1859. The magistrate's o f f i c e , which included h i s residence, was New Westminster's Post Office a f t e r W. R. Spalding was appointed postmaster. Late i n May, 1860, the Government Assay Office and o f f i c e r s ' quarters were completed at a cost of over £1,000 3 Macdonald, Dune an (i) George Forbes, B r i t i s h Columbia  and Vancouver Island, p. 87. 4 Moody Correspondence, F. 734. 5 Mr. Clarkson's land i s marked on map Board 41A, Land Registry O f f i c e , New Westminster. 56 from a plan drawn by the Royal Engineers* They stood on the si t e of the present Post Office and were attached to the Treasury* A Court House and J a i l were erected at a cost of £278. 4. 8. on part of the block which now contains the Court House, Writing to the Duke of Newcastle i n October, 1860, Governor Douglas described these buildings. nThe public o f f i c e s are p l a i n substantial buildings devoid of ornament and constructed on a scale adapted to our l i m i t e d means; they are nevertheless roomy and commodious, and on the whole 6 not unsuitable to the present business of the colony. n The f i r s t residence i n New Westminster was b u i l t 7 by W. J . Armstrong i n March, 1859. The house was b u i l t from C a l i f o r n i a lumber o r i g i n a l l y destined f o r Derby. When the ship's captain learned that Derby had been abandoned as the c a p i t a l , he took his ship to Queensborough and unloaded the lumber there. Mr. Armstrong b u i l t the house himself with the assistance of his brother, Henry, and John McDonald. Three months l a t e r the V i c t o r i a Gazette reported that several new 8 stores were under construction at Queensborough. When Rev. John Sheepshanks arrived at New Westmin-ster late i n the summer of 1859, he described the town i n the 6 B. C. Papers, Part 4, p. 22, Douglas to Newcastle. 7 B r i t i s h Columbian, A p r i l 29, 1863* 8 V i c t o r i a Gazette, June 23, 1859. 57 following words: On turning a corner of tbe r i v e r , after an hour or two of steady steaming up the stream, at about f i f t e e n miles from the mouth of the r i v e r , the captain, who was standing by my side, said, "There, s i r , that i s your place." I looked up a long stretch of the r i v e r , and . there on the left-hand side I saw a b i t of a clearing i n the dense f o r e s t . Mighty trees were lying about i n confusion, as though a giant with one sweep of h i s mighty arm had mown them down. Many of the trunks had been consumed by f i r e . Their charred remains were seen here and there. The huge stumps of the trees were s t i l l standing i n most places, though i n others they had been eradicated and consumed. And between the prostrate trees and stumps there were a few huts, one small c o l l e c t i o n of wooden stores,' some sheds and tents, giving signs of a population of perhaps 250 people. This clearing continued up r i v e r to the extent of somewhat more .than a quarter of a mile. And the dense pine-forest came down to somewhat le s s than the same distance from the r i v e r ' s bank. This was New Westminster. 9 Rev. Mr. Sheepshanks f i r s t home was a log hut, placed at his disposal by three miners. I t was rather draughty as the wind came i n at the i n t e r s t i c e s between the logs; so I gathered moss and stuffed i t well into the crevices. The f l o o r was only of mud, but I had some boards put down, and put i n a sheet-iron stove with stove pipe. I also for cleanliness sake, had i t l i n e d with c a l i c o . I t i s about ten f e e t long by seven broad, and i s made of pine logs. There i s a square hole cut for a window. There i s no sash i n i t at present, for sashes are rare, but only a piece of c a l i c o , which I draw across the aperture by night and open by day. There are curious l i t t l e dodges for supplying the necessary l i g h t . The man i n the next hut to mine, just lower down the bank, has cut with his 9 Duthie , Rev. D. W., A Bishop i n the Rough, p. 17 58 axe a number of holes i n the walls of his cabin the size and shape of a b o t t l e , and has jammed a number of white, transparent gin-bottles i n t o these holes, so he gets his l i g h t . 1 0 By the spring of 1861 considerable progress had been made. The Colonist of A p r i l 15, 1861, remarked that the work done i n the preceding eighteen months was remarkable. Many stores and residences had been b u i l t , there being 125 to 150 buildings i n a l l . Brick was beginning to be used to some extent and the f i r s t substantial buildings probably date from this time. More durable stores and o f f i c e s were constructed and people who had been l i v i n g i n temporary rtshacks'* now began to build permanent homes. The p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t s and builders engaged i n work at New Westminster were Clarkson and Withrow, T. W. Graham and McLeese, Manson and White, E. B. Holt and John Calder. The largest of the buildings b u i l t i n the winter of 11 1860-61 was a four storey building erected by Mr. P. Hick* on Lot 4, Block 6, at the corner of Columbia Street and Lytton Square. I t was 34 feet by 66 feet, with the long, frontage on Columbia Street fi n i s h e d with a balcony and l a t t i c e work. The f i r s t f l o o r was used for storage, the 10 I b i d . p. 18. 11 I t can be r e a d i l y seen i n the picture on p. 66, Howay, F. W. and S c h o l e f i e l d , E. 0. S* B r i t i s h Columbia, V o l . 2. 59 second and t h i r d were subdivided i n t o stores, while the fourth contained eight rooms, one of them a large public 12 h a l l , running the f u l l length of the building. Mrs* Lawless extended her saloon from the waterfront to Columbia Street and opened a restaurant i n the Hick's Building. Harris and Company b u i l t a f i r e - p r o o f brick ware-house on the lower part of the same l o t as the Hick's building, f a c i n g on Front Street. Later i n the year i t was 13 declared by the Government to be a bonded warehouse. The New Westminster Times of November 24, 1860, said that twenty substantial buildings had been b u i l t i n the preceding s i x weeks and added, "Upwards of twenty sub-s t a n t i a l oabins have been recently put up by the miners who intended remaining i n New Westminster during the winter, and the workmen employed on the s t r e e t s . We have a l s o a large number of Chinese encamped on V i c t o r i a Gardens who w i l l no doubt add to the business of the place so f a r as the con-sumption of r i c e i s concerned". Mr. William Clarkson erected a two storey house on 12 New Westminster Times. November 24, 1860; B r i t i s h Colonist, 0ctoner 23* 1860; March 30, 1861; B r i t i s h Columbian, February 13, 1861. 13 B r i t i s h Columbian, November 14, 1861. 60 Columbia Street, near Ms former residence and proposed to 14 use the new building as a boarding house. Two wharves had already been b u i l t ; the Government Wharf, rented to the Steam Navigation Company, and the Liverpool Wharf. The Government dock had been b u i l t e arly i n 1859 opposite the Custom House by Messrs. Wolfe and 15 Company at a cost of £501. 3. 0. Twenty f e e t i n depth and 125 i n length i t was made by sinking a c r i b of logs and 16 f i l l i n g i t with stones. Late i n 1860, Harris & Company b u i l t the Pioneer Wharf, 350 f e e t i n length, with berths for vessels at both ends. F i f t y f e e t of the wharf was de-pressed below the main structure to accommodate vessels at low t i d e . But there was s t i l l an urgent need far more dock space. The Colonist reported that on December 7, 186 0, there were eight steamers l y i n g opposite the town and only three wharves to accomodate them. 1 7 There were already four churches i n New Westminster. Holy T r i n i t y on V i c t o r i a Gardens had been completed i n Dec-ember, 1860, and a Wesleyan Church had been constructed on r the north-west corner of Mary and Prevost Streets. The Roman Catholics had ereeted two buildings; one on Columbia Street for white people; the other, a l i t t l e f a rther up the 14 Ibid. February 13, 1861.• 15 Lands and Works Department Letter Book 1, p. 50. , 16 V i c t o r i a Gazette, A p r i l 26, 1859. 17 B r i t i s h Colonist, December 13, 1860. 61 h i l l , for Indians, Notable among the new homes were Captain James Cooper's "Splendid V i l l a " on the h i l l above the upper landing and Mr, Bushby's residence a t Leopold Place. Mr, Bushby's was a "very pretty house* i n "gothic cottage style" b u i l t on Lot 11, Block E l , at the extreme eastern l i m i t of the c i t y . Mr. Calder had erected a "large and comfortable" house near the Wesleyan Church and Mr, John Cooper of the Treasury had commenced a "snug cottage" on Columbia Street. Twenty cabins had been b u i l t by miners intending to spend the winter i n New Westminster and by workmen employed on the streets and a 18 large number of Chinese had encamped on V i c t o r i a Gardens, The house b u i l t by Captain Cooper stood on Columbia Street u n t i l the summer of 1939 when i t was demolished. On July 8, 1939, the B r i t i s h Columbian printed a description of the old house: The stud-less walls were b u i l t by n a i l i n g planks to a flimsy frame of corner posts and a top stringer. V e r t i c a l planks were put up f i r s t , then the broad diagonal planks were na i l e d d i r e c t to the inside of the v e r t i c a l s . The diagonals ran i n two directions from the centre of the w a l l . When the wall was up, doors and windows were sawn out. Siding was n a i l e d to the e x t e r i o r . P a r t i t -ions were of the same construction except f o r the siding* Most of the diagonal planks were c l e a r f i r 18 to S4 inches wide. The diagonal sawcuts were several f e e t long. No such planks can be obtained today. The second f l o o r j o i s t s extend the f u l l depth of the house, t h i r t y f e e t , and r e s t on the edges of 18 New Westminster Times, November 24, 1860; B r i t i s h Columbian, February 13, 1861. 62 the plank w a l l s . The i n t e r i o r was covered with l i n e n and then papered. The wreckers had to demolish seven f i r e p l a c e s i n the old house and salvaged enough bricks for three modern bungalows. The bricks from the up-s t a i r s were l e f t resting on the second f l o o r , which indicates the strength of the old w a l l and j o i s t s * Behind one of the mantels, the wreckers, Burden & Sheets, found an old l e t t e r dated 1863 and written from Dublin. Doorways i n the house were p r a c t i c a l l y up to the c e i l i n g . The main flo o r rooms could be opened up to provide a large area f o r entertainment. C i t y old timers* r e c a l l wonderful parties held there i n the e a r l y days. The stairway was one of the "easiest"- ever de-signed with treads 10|- inches and r i s e r s of only 6 inches. Today the run of s t a i r s i n homes may be as bad as eight-inch head and an eight-inch r i s e . The ornamental r a i l i n g was of hard maple and was evidently imported. Colored glass l i g h t s f o r the front door were also imported as well as the o r i g i n a l f i r e b r i c k s . I t was noted that only the window frames and doors were of cedar. The foundation posts were of f i r and are i n amazingly good condition. Another old house, also recently demolished, was b u i l t shortly after the Cooper house by J.A.R. Homer almost next to Captain Cooper's. The lumber for this house was bought i n C a l i f o r n i a and shipped to New Westminster. The ship anchored i n the r i v e r and Indians f e r r i e d the timber ashore and car r i e d i t on their backs up the steep i n c l i n e to 19 the s i t e of the house. Other buildings erected i n 1861 were a two stores-residence on Lytton Square for Mr. Dickinson and a shed for Mr. Dickinson on Harris's new wharf. Across the ravine from 19 Vancouver Daily Province, January 25, 1940. 63 the government buildings, facing Columbia Street, Mr. Burr 20 b u i l t a three storey h o t e l . W. J . Armstrong b u i l t a new residence on the corner of Royal Avenue and Mary Street and a house was erected for Archdeacon Wright at the camp on the 21 l o t next to Captain Grant's quarters. A two storey b u i l d i n g was b u i l t adjoining the Assay o f f i c e to house the 22 exhibits of the I n d u s t r i a l E x h i b i t i o n . January 30, 1862, John Robson wrote of the progress of New Westminster: Notwithstanding a l l her natural d i f f i c u l t i e s and v i r u l e n t and potent attack by her enemies, New Westminster has continued from the f i r s t to make steady, healthy,—and i n proportion to the popu-l a t i o n of the Colony and the business transacted t h e r e i n — r a p i d progress. Three years ago her site was covered with a dense and mighty f o r e s t — indeed at that time the s i t e was not chosen, nor probably dreamed of, save by one man, as the spot f o r a great c i t y — t h e future c a p i t a l of a great Colony. At that period V i c t o r i a had about 3,000 inhabitants and upwards to 500 houses; she had a vast amount of c a p i t a l invested and nearly as many business firms as she possesses today, with the l u c r a t i v e trade of this colony e n t i r e l y i n her f i s t , and none to dispute her rule of i t . Langley was l a i d out and sold and a t h r i v i n g town commenced... .This site was almost unanimously condemned at the time the s e l e c t i o n was made, and the Chief Commissioner was b i t t e r l y lampooned by interested and h i r e l i n g s c r i b b l e r s and l u s t i l y abused by those who had a property interest i n the discarded s i t e of Langley. What are the facts now?...The reaction has come; men have had time for r e f l e c t i o n , and have become 20 B r i t i s h Columbian, October 10, 1861 21 I b i d . December 12, 1861. 22 I b i d . A p r i l 25, 1861. 64 thoroughly convinced of the wisdom of the choice. The great service rendered by our Chief Commiss-ioner i s now appreciated, and he i s reaping the just reward of his labors i n seeing, not only his p o l i c y understood and vindicated by the people, but t h i s c i t y r a p i d l y and surely advancing. The most notable construction work undertaken i n 1862 was the erection of a stone building by Captain M i l l a r d and Mr. J . A. Webster at a cost of about $40,000. I t was erected on Lot 2, Block 6, facing on Columbia Street, where the Canadian Bank of Commerce now stands. I t was the f i r s t stone b u i l d i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia and was described as a "magnificent a f f a i r " , " u n r i v a l l e d by anything of the kind on the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c " . The side and rear walls were of native granite from the P i t t River while the front was of sandstone from Bellingham Bay. The building contained three stores on the ground f l o o r , a large store for the use of Mr. Webster, 23 and two smaller ones. The engine house f o r the Hyack F i r e Company was b u i l t on Columbia Street next to Mr. Burr's hotel, and the Royal Columbian Hospital was erected on the north-east corner of Agnes and Clement Streets. The next large building to be constructed was Henry Holbrook's stone b u i l d i n g erected on Columbia Street i n the summer of 1863. St. Andrew's Church was also b u i l t at this time on the site of the present Sunday School. E a r l y i n 1864, residences were started by Mr. Good, 23 I b i d . A p r i l 27, 1862; May 23, 1862. 65 Mr. Cunningham and Mr. George Clarkson, the l a t t e r * s house to be "one of the handsomest yet erected i n the c i t y " . A "pr e t t y cottage* had been b u i l t by Mr. Rylatt, formerly of the Royal Engineers and Captain Irving had b u i l t a large house on Merivale Street, at a cost of $4,000. Naturally, these were but a few of the many homes erected and numerous small shops were b u i l t as w e l l . However, aft e r the f i r s t burst of a c t i v i t y , progress was very much slower. New Westminster's population dwindled instead of increased and the high hopes which had been entertained for i t s economic future were not to be r e a l i z e d f o r many years. New Westminster was not a " c i t y * i n the proper sense of the word. A f i n e plan of avenues and terraces had been l a i d out on paper by the Royal Engineers, but t h i s develop-ment was slow to materialize and for a considerable time New Westminster was l i t t l e more than a small group of buildings on the steep h i l l s i d e amidst blackened stumps and f a l l e n trees. As l a t e as Confederation the Royal City was a c t u a l l y i n a very rough state of development. Various f a c t o r s con-tributed to t h i s slow progress. B r i t i s h Columbia had been founded as a resu l t of the gold rush and most of those who came to the infant colony were c h i e f l y interested i n making money from the mines or exp l o i t i n g the miners. Many who bought l o t s at New Westminster bought only as a speculation 24 Ib i d . July 23, 1864. P A R K MAP OF NEW WESTMINSTER T O W N L O T 5 A N D P R I N C I P A L B U I L D I N G S I N I 8 6 & S C A L E . A P P R O X I M A T E \ _ y 2 4 INI- : I M I L E 66 and many merchants were interested i n quick p r o f i t s rather than a more permanent business. The proclamation of V i c t o r i a as a free port was a b i t t e r blow to those who had invested at New Westminster i n the expectation that i t would become the chief commercial eentre on the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c . The r i v a l r y of V i c t o r i a hampered New Westminster's progress by drawing trade away from the Fraser River. While New West-minster should have been the l o g i c a l supply centre for the mines, by far the largest number of miners obtained t h e i r provisions and supplies from the large commercial houses i n V i c t o r i a . New Westminster had a b i t t e r struggle for exis-tence i n the early s i x t i e s . As yet there was almost no' a g r i c u l t u r a l or commercial development and the mines were the sole revenue of the colony. With the gradual develop-ment of agriculture and lumbering i n the surrounding d i s -t r i c t s , New Westminster began'to have a firmer foundation for her growth and development. A t h i r d d i f f i c u l t y l a y i n the nature of the s i t e . Clearing and construction work was exceedingly d i f f i c u l t and costly and i n those early years when the revenue of the colony was p i t i f u l l y meagre, progress was of necessity very slow. However, i t seems to be apparent that New Westmin-ster was fortunate i n that she numbered among her e a r l i e s t c i t i z e n s so many men who must have been motivated to some extent by a drawm of seeing New Westminster f l o u r i s h . The majority of New Westminster's ea r l y c i t i z e n s were of B r i t i s h stock. The B r i t i s h Columbian estimated that 50$ of the c i t y ' s population came from the eastern B r i t i s h provinces, 25$ from Great B r i t a i n and the remainder from the U. S. A. and elsewhere. The New Westminsterites were an intensely l o y a l and p a t r i o t i c group and seized upon every occasion to demonstrate their devotion and allegiance to the Crown. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine New Westminster sponsoring such a treacherous document as V i c t o r i a ' s annexation p e t i t i o n . This strong B r i t i s h element was, -no doubt, l a r g e l y respon-sible for New Westminster's strong opposition to the tyranny and i n j u s t i c e s of the Douglas regime and i t s strenuous cam-paign for free and democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s . New Westminster did not intend to submit meekly to despotic Governors, auto-c r a t i c Judges, or vested i n t e r e s t s . Large numbers of miners came to New Westminster during the winter of 1861-62 and about one hundred tents were pitched on the Government gardens and i n vacant l o t s . The B r i t i s h Columbian of May 17, 1862, described the scene; "During these splendid moonlight nights the scene presented by the encampment i s novel and picturesque i n the extreme. The snow-white tent with the blazing f i r e i n front, and, i n some cases, the happy occupants discoursing sweet music''. Indians squatting i n the c i t y were an ever present problem. Being no respectors of vperson they encamped on streets, public squares and vacant l o t s . Numerous repre-sentations were made to the Government by the Municipal 68 Council and by the Grand Jury, and the problem was the sub-ject of frequent e d i t o r i a l s i n the B r i t i s h Columbian. F i n a l l y i n 186E the Governor established a reserve where the Indians were to l i v e . I t was situated on tbs Fraser between the c i t y l i m i t s and Homer's m i l l , i . e . between Twelfth Stree't and Eighteenth Street of today. This l o c a t i o n was c r i t i c i z e d as being too close to the c i t y because of the danger of the out-35 break of an epidemic of small-pox among -the natives. The reserve was established but this did not mean that the Indians moved. Two years l a t e r the Columbian was s t i l l demanding that the Indians be moved from the streets or squares. Some were l i v i n g on private l o t s , leased them by the owners, thus subjecting "decent people ... to the intolerable nuisance of having f i l t h y , degraded, debauched Indians as next door neighbours" and compelling them "to E6 spend sleepless nights on account of their drunken orgies'! A committee of the Municipal Council was appointed to eviqt the Indians l i v i n g on V i c t o r i a Gardens, on the east side of Mary Street. The sit u a t i o n was remedied temporarily but i n July, 1866, there was further complaint because "Siwashes" had been allowed to erect huts on Merchants Square at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Douglas and Columbia Streets. " I t i s almost impossible for any respectable female to pass 25 Ibid. May 21, 1862. 26 Ibid. June 20, 1864. 69 through that l o c a l i t y , drunkenness, f i g h t i n g and open pros-t i t u t i o n being the order of the day". Presumably the Indians remained,for four years l a t e r there were s t i l l com-28 plai n t s about Indians l i v i n g on Merchant Square. There was a small group of Chinese resident i n New Westminster. The B r i t i s h Columbian of February 21, 1861, noted the a r r i v a l of twelve Chinese d i r e c t from China on the Otter and f o r t y Chinese on the Caledonia. I t added that two hundred more Chinese were expected on the next steamer from San Francisco. The majority of these Orientals went up to the mining country but a few remained at the c a p i t a l . By 1869 there were twenty-six males and one female Chinese resident at New Westminster. A Chinese laundry "Hi Sing House11 was established i n 1861. .The o r i g i n a l owner was probably Hi Sing, but i n June,. 1861, i t was purchased by 29 Dong Shoi. Ah Gee operated the Colonial Bakery u n t i l i n 30 o 1866 he sold i t to a compatriate, Ghing Kee. ; I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the exact population of New Westminster. At the end of 1862 i t was judged to be 31 1,800. The population dwindled, c h i e f l y because an end came to bar mining and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of quick riches for 27 Ibid. July 18, 1866. 28 Mainland Guardian, September 10, 1870. 29 f b i d . June 6, 18 61. 30 I b i d . June 6., 1866. . 31 Ibid. December 24, 1862. 70 the i n d i v i d u a l , and i n s i x years' time i t was estimated to 32 . be l e s s than 500. The white population of New Westminster Ci t y and D i s t r i c t was given as 774 i n the 1869 census. I t must be taken into consideration that of this t o t a l number over 250 were engaged in logging camps and m i l l s on Burrard I n l e t . The exact figures given i n the census' of 1869 and 1870 are as follows: -33-Census for New Westminster and D i s t r i c t 18 69 1870 White males 615 891. " females 159 401 Chinese males 26 26 " females 1 1 Colored males 24 34 " females 13 3 838 13 5 6 Persons engaged i n agriculture 137 286 rt " lt manufacture 280 192 « " « trade 49 38 Births - white 25 9 Deaths - « 2 13 Marriages '! 8 87 Number saw-mills 2 3 " g r i s t - m i l l s 1 1 '*. d i s t i l l e r i e s 1 1 Number of acres under c u l t i v a t i o n Wheat 76 328 Barley 53 124 Oats 432 - 425. Peas 79 106 Potatoes 183 136 Garden st u f f 41 107 864 1226 32 Ib i d . May 2, 1869 33 Mainland Guardian, May 6, 1871 1869 71 1870 Number horses 292 .1235 rt horned cattle 2567 4078 tt sheep 7 22 rt pigs 1491 1885 Education Number chi l d r e n - males 224 234 n " - females 224 233 Number at school - males 100 85 n ft ft females 78 75 Number of schools - public 2 3 " tt n private 4 3 Wages Ag r i c u l t u r a l (monthly and board) |20-$35 $30. Domestic do. 15-$30 20-25 Trades (daily) 4.00 4.00 Saving Banks 1 1 Saving Depositors 52 56 Friendly Societies 0 3 CHAPTER 3 72 THE INCORPORATION OF NEW. WESTMINSTER AND THE WORK OF THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. The people of New Westminster asked that the city-should be incorporated c h i e f l y because of Governor Douglas's attitude towards public improvements. Nothing had been done towards grading the streets even though the Government had promised that the money received from the sale of town l o t s would be used for t h i s purpose. When Douglas v i s i t e d the colony shortly a f t e r the second sale of l o t s at New Westmin-ster, on May 2, 1860, he was met by a delegation asking that the c i t y be incorporated. Colonel Moody had already written to the Governor suggesting this'step: " I venture, standing alone perhaps i n my opinion, to state i f your Excellency, obtaining the sanction of the Home Government, formed a Municipal Corporation, even at this e a r l y period of the Colony at New, Westmins ter, and placed a t t h e i r disposal the reserved and f o r f e i t e d town l o t s to derive a municipal revenue from them to be applied to forming and maintaining ' I streets, you would be agreeably surprised at the. r e s u l t " . Douglas agreed to the incorporation and wrote to the C o l o n i a l Office asking permission. The- inhabitants of New Westminster having expressed I Moody Correspondence, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, Moody to Douglas, September 6, 1859. 73 a great desire for incorporation of t h e i r town and the appointment of municipal o f f i c e r s to manage i t s revenues, I consulted t h e i r select committee as to their views, and as to the best means of carrying out their wishes. Their propositions are extremely moderate, embracing c h i e f l y two points, v i z * , the rig h t , of taxing themselves, and of applying the proceeds of such taxes to grading the streets and to the general improvement of the town. A f t e r several interviews, and obtaining the sense of the people at a public meeting with respect to the amount of taxes they wished to r a i s e , and as to whether such taxes should be l e v i e d on ah a r b i -t r a r y valuation or on an actual assessment • of g property, the draft of an Act was passed The C o l o n i a l Secretary acceded to Governor Douglas's request and on July 17, I860,- "The New Westminster Municipal 3 Council Act I860tf was proclaimed. The. Act provided that the c i t y should be divided Into four wards: Ward 1 to include Blocks I* 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 22, 23 and 28; Ward 2 to include Blocks 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17; Ward 3 to include Blocks, 24, 25, 2 6 , 29, 30 and 31; and Ward 4 to include Blocks 18, 19, 20, 21, 27, 32 and 33. Wards 1 and 4 were to e i e c t one cou n c i l l o r each, Ward 2 to e l e c t three and Ward 3 to elect two. A man was e n t i t l e d to vote i n any ward i n which he held property, although he could only have one vote i n each ward. Voting was to be open. To be e l i g i b l e for e l e c t i o n to the Municipal Council a man must-be 2 B. C. Despatches, l e t t e r book i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, p. 75, Douglas to Newcastle j May 23, 1860; B. C. .Papers, Part 4, p. 7. 3 B. C. Papers, Part 4, pp. 16-20, Enclosure i n Despatch 10, Douglas to Newcastle, August 4, 1860. 74 a B r i t i s h subject, over twenty-one years of age, must have l i v e d i n New Westminster at least three months prior to his e l e c t i o n and must own land valued at £50. I n e l i g i b l e for o f f i c e were ministers of any denomination, the' sheriff. and his o f f i c e r s . A member of the Municipal Council was to hold o f f i c e for one year, but i f he or his business partner entered into any contract with the Council he must resign at once. , Nomination Day was to be on August 6, with the e l e c t i o n on the following day. The place of voting was to be decided by the Chief Inspector of Police f o r B. C , who was to act as Returning O f f i c e r . On J u l y 2 5 preceding the e l e c t i o n , the Returning O f f i c e r was to make out a l i s t of q u a l i f i e d voters. Voters must be twenty-one years of age and at the f i r s t e l e c t i o n must be property owners. 'On Nomination Day the Returning O f f i c e r was to nominate persons who came before him or who were nominated by some voter as candidateSi A show of hands was to take place to determine who was elected.- Any candidate could demand a p o l l and, i f necessary, i t was to be held on E l e c t i o n Day between the hours of 11.00 a.m. and 4.00 p.m. Within forty-eight hours after a p o l l had been held, the Returning O f f i c e r was re-quired to give the p o l l books into the custody of a S t i -pendiary Magistrate. Anyone could obtain a copy of the p o l l books for a fee of one s h i l l i n g per f o l i o * •The President of the Municipal Council was to be 75 elected by the Council. Four quarterly meetings were to be .held yearly for the transaction of general business; one to" be held on August 15 and at that meeting the dates of the other three would be decided. Meetings could be held at any other time at the c a l l of the President or of any three members, after three days' notice had been given by posting signs on the doors of the meeting place, the magistrate's court and the Post O f f i c e . The Municipal Council was given the power to pass by-laws pertaining to the regulation of sanitary conditions, regulation of markets, f i r e prevention, prevention and re-moval of nuisances, and the regulation of the introduction of diseased and unhealthy meat. It was empowered to use i t s revenue for the construction and maintenance of streets, bridges, etc., for drainage and sewerage, for the improvement of sanitary conditions and for the c l e a r i n g of l o t s . By-laws must be approved by at l e a s t four c o u n c i l l o r s at a meeting where f i v e were present. They were subject to the approval of the Governor. The Council had the power to mention i n i t s by-laws the penalties to be imposed for their v i o l a t i o n , such penalties not to exceed a fine of £10 or a prison term of three months. The Council could spend up to one-third i t s t o t a l revenue for ordinary expenses. I t was empowered to tax a l l town l o t s and the buildings thereon, except Government 76 property, but not i n excess of £2 on a valuation of £100. I t could levy an additional rate, not to exceed £5 on £100, i f requisitioned by a majority of the ratepayers. An assess-ment r o l l was to be drawn up, l i s t i n g a l l freehold and lease-hold property with the names of the owners. The Council was to appoint an Assessor and to hear appeals from his assessments. If property owners f a i l e d to c l e a r their land, the . Council could, by advertisement i n the Government Gazette and l o c a l newspapers, give them notice to cut down a l l timber and trees except such trees as the Council agreed could be preserved f o r ornament. Failure to heed this notice would result i n the land being, cleared by the Council at the owner's expense. If the owner refused to pay the costs, the magistrate might order the sale of the land. In accordance with the Act, the f i r s t , e l e c t i o n f o r 4 the Municipal Council was held on August 6, 1860. On that day nominations took place before the Returning O f f i c e r , Mr. Justice Brew, at the Court House. A p o l l was held the following day. In Ward 1 Mr. A. H. Manson and Colonel Moody were nominated, each receiving two votes. Mr. J.A.R. Homer objected to Colonel Moody on the ground that he was a non-resident. The Returning O f f i c e r deciding that Colonel Moody was i n e l i g i b l e , Mr. Manson was declared elected: In Ward 2 4. New Westminster. Times, August 8, 1860. 77 si x candidates were nominated. Henry Holbrook received twenty-two votes; J.A.R. Homer, twenty; W. Armstrong, eighteen; J. Ramage, sixteen; W. Clarkson, s i x ; and J . Tomlinson, s i x . The f i r s t three were duly elected. E.Brown with eight votes and Leonard McClure, editor of the Times, with s i x votes were elected i n Ward 3 over J.T. Scott with four votes. In Ward 4 W.E.. Cormack was elected without 5 opposition. Leonard McClure was elected president. The New Westminster Times commented on the e l e c t i o n : "Although the proceedings passed off exceedingly quietly, yet considerable excitement prevailed, and business seemed to be pretty generally suspended throughout the town; It i s to be regrette'd that the ambiguous clause r e l a t i n g to property q u a l i f i c a t i o n was not defined before the nomination, thereby preventing the confusion and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n which prevailed 6 on the matter". The same method of e l e c t i o n was followed i n subse-quent years. On nomination day nominations were received by Hon. Chartres'Brew at the Court House. I f two persons were proposed for a single seat a show of hands was taken and the vote was decided i n favour of the man receiving a majority of "hands". However a p o l l could be demanded pn 5 For a l i s t of the members of the Municipal Council from 1860 to 1871, see Appendix A. 6 New Westminster Times, Loc. c i t 78 behalf of the defeated candidate i n which case an open p o l l was held the following day. The President of the Council was elected by the members at the f i r s t meeting* By October, 1861, i t was found necessary to revise the Incorporation Act and the New Westminster Municipal 7 Council Extension Act was issued by proclamation of the Governor. I t extended the c i t y l i m i t s to include Block 36, added to Ward .1; Block 35, added to Ward 3; and Block 34 added to Ward 4. An additional councillor was to be e l e c -ted in Wards 1 and 4. Blocks 34, 35 and 36, l y i n g between Royal Avenue and Queen's Avenue, had previously been sold 8 at auction on August 21. •, The second New Westminster Municipal Extension 9 Act of 1862 was passed,on the r e q u i s i t i o n of .the inhabi-tants. I t enabled the Municipal Council to borrow money on the security of the c i t y ' s revenue for the construction of streets and other, public works and to impose s p e c i a l taxes for repayment of this money. If a by-law was passed by a majority of the ratepayers i t was lawful for the Council to borrow any sum of money at any rate of inte r e s t and on any terms of repayment* 7 Imperial Blue Books, Proclamation, October 22, 1861. 8 B r i t i s h Columbian* August 29, 18 61. 9 B. C. Despatches, p. 41, Douglas to Newcastle, November 4, 1862* • 79 The following year, the Act was amended f o r the t h i r d time f o r . the purpose of enforcing the municipal regu-l a t i o n s regarding the f e l l i n g and removing of trees and brushwood and thus r e l i e v i n g the danger of f i r e i n dry weather. By a proclamation of September 22, 1863, "suburban blocks 5, 6 and 7 were added to the c i t y . Three additional wards, 5, 6 and 7, were created, each electing one 10 c o u n c i l l o r . Immediately a f t e r i t s inception the Munic i p a l Council began to undertake the task of opening up the streets of the c i t y . Almost a l l the work was done by private con-tra c t after tenders had been p u b l i c l y s o l i c i t e d . During i t s f i r s t year, August 1860 to August 18 61, the Council spent over £1,900 chopping trees, clearing land and grading streets. Among the chief work done before the end of 1860 was chopping A l i c e Gardens, Louisa Gardens, Albert Crescent, Lytton Square and the Government Office Gardens* Mary Street, Douglas Street and Agnes Street were cleared, a star t was made on grading Mary Street and extensive work was done on Columbia , S t r e e t * 1 1 The north-east bridge was re b u i l t at a cost of £74. From January to August 1861 additional streets were cleared: Royal Avenue, Blackwood, Bushby, H a l l , Carnarvon, Spalding and Begbie Streets, V i c t o r i a Gardens, Merchant 10 Ibid,, p. 42, November 23, 1863. 11 See Appendix B for change i n street names. 80 Square and Market Place were cleared, Lytton Square was graded and a road b u i l t to connect Holy T r i n i t y Church with 12 Columbia Street. • The work was done by c i v i l i a n contractors, about twenty of them having men employed i n this work at various times. They included John and Valentine H a l l , John Si McLennan, Dougald McDonald, James Kennedy, L. Withrow, Woodside and Watson, C. G. Major, J . Murray and John Robson. An. e d i t o r i a l i n the B r i t i s h Columbian of August; 1, 1861, commented on the "preeminent success" of the Municipal Council during i t s f i r s t year of existence. "A year ago we. had not a single street graded or even cleared so that a wagon could pass through and two-thirds of the town si t e was covered with a gigantic forest." The paper went on to l i s t the Council's achievements: a l l the timber had been cut down and much burned, Columbia Street had been graded from one end to the other to a width of twenty feet and from the north-west bridge to the Custom House to a width of ninety-nine feet, other streets had been cleared and p a r t i a l l y graded and a cemetery s i t e had been obtained. The Council had set aside cer t a i n l o t s on which public buildings would be erected. Four acres i n the rear of the Government Office Gardens, comprising the block on which the Duke of Connaught High School i s situated, were reserved 12 New Westminster Times, September 20, 1860; B r i t i s h Columbian, January 2,'1862. 81, f o r a P u b l i c Seminary* In each ward l o t s were designated f o r schools: Ward 1, l o t 29, block 22; Ward 2, l o t 10, block 13; Ward 3, l o t 15, block 29 and l o t 18, block 31; Ward 4, l o t 10, block 27 and l o t 1, block 21. Lot 3 i n block 13 was reserved as the s i t e f o r a Town H a l l and l o t 14, block 24, f o r a Mechanics I n s t i t u t e . L o t s were reserved i n each ward f o r the use of the F i r e Department: l o t 21, block 22, i n Ward 1; l o t 3, block 14, i n Ward 2; l o t I , 13 block 30, i n Ward 3, and l o t 14, bl o c k 19, i n Ward 4. Golumbia S t r e e t was the main s t r e e t of the c i t y and a considerable sum of money was spent grading, g r a v e l l i n g and corduroying p a r t s of i t . I n a l l approximately £836 was expended on Golumbia S t r e e t from August, 1860, to August, 14 . 1861. The f i r s t side-walk i n New Westminster was b u i l t i n the summer of 1861 on the upper side of Columbia S t r e e t from the bridge across the ravine near the Treasury to the corner of Begbie S t r e e t . The side-walk, twelve f e e t wide of two-in c h p l a n k i n g , was l a i d at the expense of the owners of the 15 a d j o i n i n g property. Most of the funds'of the C o u n c i l were spent during the f i r s t year on improving the lower p a r t of the c i t y and 13 New Westminster Times, December 1, 1860. 14 B r i t i s h Columbian, op. c i t . 15 I b i d . June 20, 18 61; August 1, 1861. 82 there was some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s p o l i c y . Owners of l o t s outside the business d i s t r i c t f e l t that too l a r g e a p r o p o r t i o n of the c i t y ' s 'revenue was spent on the area bordering Columbia S t r e e t . The f o l l o w i n g f i s c a l year, 1861-1862, a d d i t i o n a l work was done on Douglas, Agnes and Mary S t r e e t s , but the Council's a c t i v i t y was r e s t r i c t e d by a r e d u c t i o n of the Government grant from £1,000 to £200. The Government made a s p e c i a l grant of £150 f o r b u i l d i n g a causeway on E l l i c e S t r e e t and a corduroy roadway was b u i l t on E l l i c e from 16 Columbia to Agnes. The trees were chopped from Queen's Avenue, which was the northern boundary of the c i t y a f t e r the proclamation of the'Extension A c t . In December, 1861, the Governor gave the C o u n c i l c o n t r o l of the work of the chain 17 gang and from that date some use was made of c o n v i c t labour on the s t r e e t s of the c i t y , although most of the work was s t i l l done by p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t o r s . During, the year 1862-1863 work was continued on the s t r e e t s i n the lower part of the town. The c h i e f expenditure was £409. 5. 7. paid on. a c o n t r a c t to f i l l i n the swampy - •• 18 ground at the lower (west) end of Columbia S t r e e t . 16 I b i d . January 23, 1862; August 1, 1863. 17 I b i d . December 19, 1861* 18 I b i d . August 1, 1863. 83' In February, 1863, J . T. Scott was awarded a c o n t r a c t to b u i l d a levee along the r i v e r ' s edge. The levee, twenty-five f e e t wide, covered w i t h t h r e e - i n c h plank, extended from 19 L y t t o n Square to L i v e r p o o l Wharf, a distance of 914 f e e t . The Royal Engineers s t a r t e d work on a roadway along the r i v e r from the Gamp towards the c i t y to connect with Front S t r e e t but with the disbanding of the detachment, work was EO suspended. For the f i s c a l year ending August, 1864, the C o u n c i l had a g r e a t l y increased revenue. A d d i t i o n a l work was done on Royal Avenue, Mary, E l l i c e , Blackwood, Douglas and Columbia S t r e e t s . Front S t r e e t was o f f i c i a l l y opened October E, E l 1863. Tenders were then c a l l e d f o r i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n from L i v e r p o o l Wharf to Douglas S t r e e t , t h i s c o n t r a c t a l s o being EE awarded to J . T. S c o t t . In a l l $5,895 was spent on t h i s 23 waterfront roadway. The most extensive work undertaken was the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a plank road on Richards and Edinburgh S t r e e t s to Queen's Avenue. The c o n t r a c t f o r t h i s road was 24 awarded to S. P. Moody and Company f o r $1S,901. In December, 1863, the Governor gave the C o u n c i l £300 i n land s c r i p and t h i s was used to c l e a r suburban blocks 5, 6, and 7, 19 I b i d . August 15, 1863. 20 I b i d . October 17, 1863. 21 I b i d . October 3, 1863. 22 I b i d . October 14, 1863. 1 23 I b i d . August 5, 1864. 24 Loc. c i t . 84 25 added to the c i t y by the M u n i c i p a l Extension Act of 1863. The C o u n c i l had p r e v i o u s l y asked Colonel Moody to mark the boundaries of the c i t y by p l a c i n g stone p i l l a r s at the 26 outside l i m i t s before h i s departure f o r England. In September, 1863, tenders were c a l l e d f o r con-s t r u c t i n g a sidewalk on Columbia S t r e e t from the Columbia H o t e l , L y t t o n Square, to l o t 12', block 21, the eastern l i m i t s 27 of the c i t y . The work, c o s t i n g $1,225, was paid f o r by a s p e c i a l tax l e v i e d on the owners of the a d j o i n i n g property. L a t e r the same year a sidewalk was b u i l t on the west side of Mary S t r e e t from Front S t r e e t to Royal Avenue and another on the south side of Columbia S t r e e t from l o t 4, block 6, the corner of L y t t o n Square, to Douglas S t r e e t . A t o t a l of $2,563.50 was spent on sidewalks during the f i s c a l year August, 1863, to August, 1864, and t h i s was p a r t l y paid for 28 by a s p e c i a l tax which amounted to $1,971.20. By the s p r i n g of 1864 most of the townsite from Front S t r e e t to Queen's Avenue and from the eastern l i m i t s of the c i t y to E l l i c e S t r e e t had been c l e a r e d . Most of the roads i n t h i s p o r t i o n , i n c l u d i n g Columbia, Hamley, E l l i c e , 25 I b i d . December 26, 1863. 26 Dickinson L e t t e r s , F.464, Dickinson to Moody, October 2, 1863. 27 B r i t i s h Columbian, September 9, 1863. 28 I b i d . August 5, 1864. 85 Blackwood, Mary S t r e e t s , Royal Avenue, Prevost, Pelham, Clement, St. P a t r i c k , C l i n t o n , Bushby, Begbie and Agnes S t r e e t s , had been chopped and c l e a r e d , and many of the s t r e e t s i n the main s e c t i o n of the c i t y had been graded. In many cases when c l e a r i n g was done, t a l l timbers were l e f t standing. The B r i t i s h Columbian was c o n s t a n t l y u r g i n g that the timber along the roads and p u b l i c reserves should be c l e a r e d as i t c o n s t i t u t e d a f i r e hazard. In the issue of June 4, 1864, the paper complained of "a p u b l i c r e s e r v a t i o n of considerable extent l y i n g between Park Lane and the Camp upon which the timber i s s t i l l standing and which w i l l some time or other o r i g i n a t e a ' b i g f i r e ' which may do much damage both east and west." A l i c e Gardens was being c l e a r e d and the timber burned at t h i s time and the Surveyor-General warned the contractors t h a t , as he had re c e i v e d complaints from nearby r e s i d e n t s , the f i r e s would have to be watched day and 29 n i g h t . The M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l was beginning to experience some d i f f i e u l t y - i n g e t t i n g work done and i t became a common p r a c t i c e f o r c o n t r a c t o r s to refuse to undertake c o n t r a c t s a f t e r they had been awarded. "Within one month a c e r t a i n c o n t r a c t on the Royal Avenue was three times awarded to the 30 lowest tender and three times thrown up." F i n a l l y the E9 Lands and Works Department L e t t e r Book, p. 224, Surveyor-General to H a l l and L i n n , May 29, 1864. 30 B r i t i s h Columbian, December 9, 1863. 86 C o u n c i l passed a r e g u l a t i o n that each tender must be accompanied by the name of a responsible c i t i z e n who would guarantee that the co n t r a c t would be accepted. A surety of $50 had to accompany each tender of $500 or l e s s and ten 31 per cent, on c o n t r a c t s over $500. By the end of the f i s c a l year 1864 to 1865 most of the heavy municipal work had been f i n i s h e d arid i t was f e l t that a heavy tax ra t e was no longer necessary. In September, 1865, the Cou n c i l decided to reduce the tax assessment from 32 two to one per cent. C i v i c improvements continued to be undertaken but the work was on a very much smaller s c a l e . - Columbia S t r e e t was always the main thoroughfare of the c i t y but very l i t t l e improvement was made from the time i t was o r i g i n a l l y graded u n t i l 1864. The n e c e s s i t y of grading the lower end of Columbia S t r e e t and of r e p a i r i n g bridges l e d the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l to ask Governor Douglas 33 f o r a grant. The grant was made and Mr. E. A. Sharpe was given a contract f o r $2,400 f o r the p o r t i o n of Columbia 34 S t r e e t be-tween Hamley and Douglas S t r e e t s . The m a j o r i t y of the Council's revenue f o r the year 1864-65 was spent on 35 the west end of Columbia S t r e e t . This part of Columbia 31 I b i d . December 26, 1863. 32 I b i d . September 9, 1865 . 33. I b i d . March 2, 1864. 34 I b i d . November 6, 1864. 35 I b i d . A u g u s t s , 1865. 87 Street was swampy and l i a b l e to flood at high water and a considerable amount of money had to be spent f i l l i n g i t i n and reclaiming i t . An e d i t o r i a l i n the B r i t i s h Columbian at the time of the 1865 Estimates remarked, "That portion of Columbia Street l y i n g north-east of Lytton Square has never had much attention; L i t t l e more than a mere roadway has been made, while the old r i c k e t y bridges which span the two ravines on either side of Lytton Square and which were h a s t i l y thrown across by the Royal Engineers i n 1860 are s t i l l the sole 36 means of crossing." In that year the Colonial Secretary, A. N. Birch, informed the Municipal Council that the Governor intended to place on the estimates a large sum to be devoted to the repairing of the main thoroughfares of the c i t y so that the Council could devote the proceeds of l o c a l taxation to streets of only l o c a l importance. The sum of £2,500 was voted f o r improving New Westminster streets i n the 1865 estimates. On March 23, the Columbian reported that Mr. Turnbull had commenced taking the grades preparatory to getting up specifications for grading Columbia Street east 37 of Lytton Square. Between Columbia Street and the r i v e r was Front Street. One of the f i r s t Municipal Councils entered into an agreement with Coloney Moody by which the Royal Engineers 36 I b i d . March 16 , 1865. 37 Ibid. March 2 3, 1865. 88 would "construct a roadway along the edge of the r i v e r , commencing at this side of the camp and ending at the eastern l i m i t s of the town, the Council on i t s .part agreeing 38 to continue the plank roadway on to that point". The Engineers started work on the road and the Council gave out the contract for i t s portion but Governor Douglas ordered the Engineers to stop and the scheme had to be abandoned. After Douglas's retirement the subject was again broached and the Government agreed to carry out i t s o r i g i n a l under-taking. In December, 18 64, the Municipal Council received a l e t t e r from the Acting Commissioner of Lands and Works asking whether they were prepared to complete Front Street to the c i t y l i m i t s as he was about to construct the road from there to the Camp. The Municipal Council replied that 39 i t was anxious to complete i t s portion. The Government awarded i t s contract to Mr. Holmes and by A p r i l , 1865, this 40 part of the road had been completed. ' The Municipal Council used part of i t s 1865 grant for repairing Front Street which was reported to be i n very bad condition and i n the spring gave the contract for extending Front Street to connect with the Camp Road to Mr. Bonson. The B r i t i s h  Columbian for J u l y 4, 1865, reported that i t was completed 38 I b i d . October 12, 1864. 39 Ibid. December 7, 1864. 40 I b i d . March 23, 18 65; A p r i l 27, 1865. 89 "thereby g i v i n g a continuous plank levee along the e n t i r e f r o n t of the c i t y , and a f f o r d i n g a d e l i g h t f u l panorama of over a mil e i n extent, along the water's edge". In August, 1865, the Government assumed ownership of Front S t r e e t . The M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l claimed that Front S t r e e t and the water l o t s were municipal property but, because the Government refused to, surrender the r i v e r frontage, the Cou n c i l was not w i l l i n g to assume the c o s t of maintaining 41. Front S t r e e t . By the end of 1865, Front S t r e e t and Columbia S t r e e t were i n f a i r l y good c o n d i t i o n and i t was f e l t t h a t the back s t r e e t s should now be f i x e d . Part of the 1865 grant ,had already been spent on Douglas S t r e e t . Further work was done on e x i s t i n g roads and i n grading new ones as money was a v a i l a b l e . In December, 1866, the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l c a l l e d f o r tenders f o r burning o f f S t . John S t r e e t from the e x i s t i n g road on Royal Avenue to Pelham S t r e e t . At the same time the Council asked the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works to all o w the chain gang to do c e r t a i n work at the j u n c t i o n of 42 Douglas and Prevost S t r e e t s . L a t e r i n the same month they voted |50 to r e p a i r Columbia S t r e e t between Douglas S t r e e t and the Plank Road and c a l l e d f o r tenders to grade Agnes 41 I b i d . J u l y 4, 1865; August 12, 1865. 42 I b i d . December 19, 1866. 90 S t r e e t to a width of sixtee n or twenty-four f e e t . During 1867 Columbia S t r e e t was r e p a i r e d and the two o l d bridges across the r a v i n e s on e i t h e r side of Ly t t o n 44 Square were renovated. The next year Agnes S t r e e t was • • 45 re p a i r e d from Douglas to Mary S t r e e t s . On March 8, 1870, the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l published a n o t i c e i n the Mainland Guardian informing the p u b l i c that c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of Front S t r e e t were unsafe. In May the paper reported that the planks i n some places were " p e r f e c t l y rotten'* and that one of Mr. E i c k h o f f 's c h i l d r e n had f a l l e n ' . 46 through and seve r e l y i n j u r e d h i m s e l f . As the Government claimed ownership of the water frontage the c i t y expected the c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s to pay the cost of mai n t a i n i n g Front S t r e e t ; In the autumn of 1870 a deputation of prominent c i t i z e n s waited on Governor Musgrave and an agreement was f i n a l l y reached by which Front S t r e e t was to be r e p a i r e d and kept up by the Government f o r f i v e years at the end of which time i t would be handed over to the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l w i t h 47 the water frontages. In J u l y , 1871, the agreement was r e a f f i r m e d ; the Government promising to r e p a i r Front S t r e e t thoroughly and allo w the Council $850 annually f o r f i v e years 43 I b i d . January 5, 1867. 44 I b i d . November 5, 1867. 45 I b i d . May S3, 1868. 46. Mainland Guardian, May 18, 1870. 47 I b i d . October 8, 1870; October 15, 1870. 91 48 f o r i t s maintenance. In the s p r i n g of 1871 both sides of Columbia S t r e e t 49 were planted w i t h t r e e s . At the same time i t was announced that the sidewalks throughout the c i t y would be l e v e l l e d and 50 new ones constructed wherever needed. The revenue of the M u n i c i p a l Council c o n s i s t e d almost e n t i r e l y of tax c o l l e c t i o n s supplemented by Government grants. The C o u n c i l was c o n t i n u a l l y approaching the Government f o r a grant of funds on the ground that much revenue from the c i t y , to which the Cou n c i l was e n t i t l e d , had gone i n t o the general revenue of the colony. . The money r a i s e d by the s a l e of town l o t s went i n t o the B r i t i s h Columbia Treasury and when the c i t y was incorporated i n 1860 the unsold l o t s were not handed over to the c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s . They remained crown lands and, as they were s o l d , the p r o f i t s ?;ere added to the c o l o n i a l revenue. The t o t a l amount spent by the C o l o n i a l Government at New Westminster to December 30, 1861, was as f o l l o w s : 48 I b i d . J u l y IE, 1871. 49 I b i d . March E, 1871. 50 I b i d . March 9, 1871. 92 51 CIVIL EXPENDITURES S t r e e t s and C l e a r i n g 1859-2 bridges on Columbia St. 1859-clearing and making s t r e e t s 1860-clearing town s i t e 1,778 16 1 2,698 8 9 B u i l d i n g s 1859 - Survey O f f i c e Magistrate's O f f i c e Treasury Custom House Revenue S t a t i o n P i e r , 501 3 0 2,570 1 6 T r a i l s 1859 - P i t t R i v e r , B u r r a r d I n l e t and other T r a i l s 417 . 0 6 417 0 6 8,048 5 8 £ s. d 227 6 0 692 6 8 919 12 8 .,7493 18 8 186 17 0 804 8 0 540 4 0 43 10 10 501 3 0 s. MILITARY EXPENDITURES Camp 1859 8,758 6 7 1860 - H o s p i t a l , married quarters 1,392 6 4 10,150 12 11 North Road 1859 70 0 0 1860 22 7 8 92 7 8 10,243 0 7 51 Moody Correspondence, F. 734. 93 T o t a l at New Westminster £ s. d. C i v i l M i l i t a r y 8,048 5 10,243 0 8 7 18,291 6 3 Of t h i s amount £2,698. 8. 9. was the. t o t a l a c t u a l l y expended on the improvement of the c i t y while the Government had c o l l e c t e d over £25,000 from the sale of l o t s a t New Westminster. However, the Government was not i n a p o s i t i o n to make extensive grants to the c i t y . The revenue from the mines had f a l l e n short of expectations. The I m p e r i a l Government would make no f u r t h e r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the colony and i n f a c t expected B r i t i s h Columbia to repay the s money spent at the time of i t s i n c e p t i o n . When grants were made to the C o u n c i l , warrants were issued by the Government i n favour "of the President who was r e q u i r e d to account monthly to the C o l o n i a l Treasurer. . ' property as l i s t e d on the assessment r o l l . From September, 1860, to September, 1865, the tax assessment was at the maximum rate allowed by the I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act - two per cent* In 1865 the l e v y was reduced to one per cent, and remained at t h i s r a t e u n t i l September, 1869, when i t was increased to The tax l e v y was based on the assessed value of 52 53 one and a h a l f per cent. At the time of Confederation the 52 B r i t i s h Columbian, September 9, 18 65. 53 Mainland Guardian, November 17, 1869. 94 tax l e v y was s t i l l a t that r a t e . A f t e r the tax assessments had been made the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l sat a s a court of r e v i s i o n to hear appeals. The f i r s t assessment r o l l was completed by the middle of September, 1860. The t o t a l assessed value of property i n the c i t y was £43,076, but a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of property y i e l d e d no revenue as i t was e i t h e r Government reserved land or f o r f e i t e d l o t s . The t o t a l taxes were f i x e d at £861. 10. 4. and i t was expected that about £700 of t h i s , 54 • would be c o l l e c t e d . The assessment on i n d i v i d u a l l o t s v a r i e d g r e a t l y , the highest assessments b e i n g i n blocks 4, 5, and 6, where the v a l u a t i o n on a s i n g l e l o t ranged from £450 to £600/ The highest assessment, £600, was f i x e d f o r l o t s 1 and 5'•• to 10, block 5; l o t - 4 , block 6, and l o t 1, block 7. Assessments i n other blocks were as low as £35 f o r 55 one l o t . The C o l o n i s t remarked that "the sapient o f f i c i a l has f i x e d the assessments at two, three, four times the 56 market value". For the year 1860-1861 i n a d d i t i o n to the tax l e v y the C o u n c i l had a grant of £1,000 from the Government. The next year the Government grant was reduced to £800. The tax l e v y f o r t h i s period was £858. 9. 0., being a two per cent. 54 New Westminster Times, September 80, 1860. 55. I b i d . September 80, 1860. 56 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , September 18, 1860. 95 tax on property valued at £42,923. The highest assessment was £600 on Lots 1, 3, and 5 to 11 of Block 5, and Lots 1 to 4 of Block 6. A l l these l o t s fronted on both Columbia and Front Streets and l a y between Lytton Square and Begbie Street. Almost a l l the l o t s along the r i v e r or Columbia Street i n the centre part of the c i t y were assessed at over £100 while most of the l o t s on the back streets were valued 57 at £50. As urgent need was f e l t for additional revenue to undertake necessary c i v i c improvements and a public meeting was held on August 27, 1862, to discuss the question of negotiating a loan. I t was decided that the Council should prepare an estimate of the work to be done and present i t a t 58 a l a t e r meeting. At this second meeting i t was decided, to ask Governor Douglas for $15,000. Douglas refused the re-quest but he did agree to issue a proclamation authorizing the Council to issue debentures as soon as a majority of the 59 ratepayers had sanctioned the loan. In accordance with his promise, the Governor enacted the New Westminster Munici-60 pal Extension Act to which reference has already been made. The Municipal Council prepared to f l o a t a loan of £3,500 by issuing debentures of £100 each bearing i n t e r e s t 57 Assessment R o l l , 1861, B r i t i s h Columbian, November 14, 1861. 58 Ibid. August 30, 1862. 59 I b i d . August 17, 186 2, 60 I b i d . October 15* 1862. 96 at the rate of six per cent, a year, redeemable i n from nine to f i f t e e n years* The c a p i t a l was to be secured on the general revenue of the c i t y and was to be used e x c l u s i v e l y 61 f o r the improvement of s t r e e t s . The debentures were to be redeemable at the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia, either i n London or New Westminster. Unfortunately, however, the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia refused to have anything to do with the loan and the B r i t i s h Columbia Government refused to endorse the 6S debentures, so the whole scheme had to be reconsidered. The Municipal Council was,constantly t r y i n g to get another source of revenue - the rental from the water front-age. In December, 1861, i t was announced that the Government had f i n a l l y promised to put this money at the disposal of the 63 < ' • Council* but i n November, 186E, the Council received a l e t t e r from the Colonial Secretary stating that because of the depressed estate of the c o l o n i a l treasury the Government could only allow the c i t y the revenue as from September, 1862* For the same reason the Government could not reim-burse the c i t y for the money spent by the Council i n c l e a r i n g , . 64 l o t s . Mr. W. E. Cormack. approached the Attorney-General regarding the subject of the r i v e r frontage and the Attorney-61 I b i d . November 19, 1862. 62 I b i d . December 6, 1862. 63 Ibid. December 19, 1861. 64 I b i d . November 26, 1862. General said the Government would grant the Municipal Council the rentals "but that the l o t s could not become the bona f i d e property of the c i t y , having been mortgaged with 65 the general revenue" (of. the colony). In February of the following year Governor Douglas authorized the Treasury to pay the Council £81 as payment for c l e a r i n g the government town l o t s and promised to give 66 the rentals on the water l o t s as soon as possible. The following year the Municipal Council was r e -s t r i c t e d i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s by lack of funds* For the year 18 62-63 the t o t a l revenue was only £1,367. 17. 7; being c h i e f l y £1,052. 4. 3. i n current taxes and £211 given by the ' 67 government for c l e a r i n g l o t s and the cemetery. In December, 1863, the Council c a l l e d for tenders for the purchase of £2,600 i n municipal debentures at six CO per cent, i n t e r e s t , and $13,386.00 was- raised by this loan. Thus during the year 1863-1864 the Council had a gre a t l y i n -creased revenue. Their t o t a l funds amounted to $32,906.25 and included .besides the loan* $7,117.47 i n taxes, $1*971.20 assessment on sidewalks and $5,895, representing the rentals 69 from the water frontage. However almost a l l this amount was spent during 65 I b i d . December 30, 1862. 66 I b i d . February 14, 1863. 67 I b i d . August 1, 186 3. 68 Ibid. December 23, 186 3. 69 I b i d . August 5, 186 4. 98 the current year and i n November, 1864, the Council asked the government for a grant, accompanying their request with a statement of the amount spent by the people of New West-minster i n the c i t y since i t s founding. Amount paid on purchase from Government, $127,332.28 tt n for chopping timber 7,060.00 tt rt * burning 3,058.00 tt l e v i e d i f o r sidewalks 1,970.50 Taxes le v i e d 1860-1861 3*187.76 tt » 1861^1862 • 6,278.41 t» tt 1862-1863 5,233. 33 t» rt 186 3-1864 7,117.47 . 8., 360 .31 tt 9 1864-1865 $170,120.06 The Council explained that i t wished to. spend $11,800 on streets during the year (1864-65) and reminded the Government that the o r i g i n a l purchasers of town l o t s at New Westminster were promised that the money raised by land sales would"be spent on building roads. Of the t o t a l amount reoeived by the Government the Council had been given only $9,277 i n 70 cash and a small amount i n land s c r i p . E a r l y i n 1865 the Municipal Council received a l e t t e r from Honourable A. N. Birch, the Co l o n i a l Secretary, informing the Council that the Government intended to make a grant to the c i t y and the Colon i a l Estimates for 186 5 l i s t e d a grant of £2,500 for the improvement of New Westminster . 71 st r e e t s . 70 Ibid. November 2, 1864, and November 26, 1864. 71 I b i d . March 7, 1865. 99 Unfortunately the statements of the r e c e i p t s and expenditures of the Municipal Council were not published after August, 1864, so no complete data i s available for the period from 1864 - .1871. The tax levy f o r 1864-65 was 72 $8,601. In September, 1865, the tax rate was reduced and the Council's revenue was correspondingly lowered. The taxes 73 for 1866-67 were estimated at $2,300.22. The next f i s c a l year (1867-68) the t o t a l revenue of the Council was $8,441.04, 74 of which $2,645.70 was from tax r e c e i p t s . The Municipal Council was authorized to s e l l l o t s for non-payment of taxes. Notice was posted of l o t owners whose property was i n danger of f o r f e i t u r e and usually the taxes were paid before the date of the sale. One such sale was held on August 10j 1867. Among those l i s t e d as owing taxes was Colonel Moody, who was i n arrears $26.25 on f i v e 75 l o t s i n suburban blocks 5 and 7. The Columbian reported that although only a few l o t s were f o r f e i t e d there was a 76 large attendance at the sale and bidding was s p i r i t e d . Another tax sale was held on March 2 of the following year but most of the l o t s were again redeemed and only about a dozen were offered. The meetings of the Municipal Council were not 72 I b i d . July 18, 1865. 73 I b i d . December 19, 1866. 74 I b i d . August 15, 1868. 75 I b i d . July 24, 1867. 76 I b i d . August 14, 1867. 100 held with any r e g u l a r i t y and on occasions five or s i x weeks elapsed without a meeting being c a l l e d . The • fune tions of the Council, became somewhat paralyzed and uninteresting towards the close of the f i s c a l year as a l l i t s funds had been expended. Ea r l y i n i t s h i s t o r y a minor c r i s i s developed i n the Municipal Council. The Colonist reported that the Council was " s u f f e r i n g from b r o i l s " because some of the l o t holders objected to a large proportion of the c i t y ' s , revenue being spent on Columbia Street. Messrs. Holbrook, Armstrong and Brown refused to attend Council meetings for several months because they were annoyed at a proposal to spend $385 to make a road through Lytton Square. Their objection was based on the f a c t that two of the other c o u n c i l l o r s owned land adjoining the square. Four of the seven members were i n favour of the proposed expenditure but as five members had to be present when a money vote was taken, the three could prevent any a c t i o n by absenting themselves from 77 meetings. F i n a l l y the remaining members of the Council sent a p e t i t i o n to Governor Douglas asking him to amend the Incorporation Act to give the four members, who had been attending meetings, power, to pass the necessary by-laws. His Excellency r e p l i e d that he could do nothing as any 77 I b i d . A p r i l 4, 1861; A p r i l 11, 1861 101 interference on his part would be a v i o l a t i o n of the powers of the Municipal Council. "The proper cure for the e v i l 78 complained of i s public opinion." New Westminster experienced the usual d i f f i c u l t i e s i n finding suitable people to run for public o f f i c e and i n getting voters to the p o l l s . On August 1, 1861, the B r i t i s h  Columbian said, "We regret to learn that some of our best men refuse to allow themselves to be put i n nomination", and on August 3, 1865, the paper commented, " S t o l i d indifference evinced during the past year or two with regard to the selection of c i v i c representatives i s a condition of the public mind which bodes no good to the c i t y " . In February, 1864, the Municipal Council drafted a new c o n s t i t u t i o n and c a l l e d - a meeting of the ratepayers for the purpose of submitting i t s proposal. One of the main changes contemplated was to decrease the number of coun-c i l l o r s from twelve to e i g h t . The Columbian described the meeting as "one of the most disord e r l y gatherings which has ever taken place i n New Westminster". The paper contended that two-thirds of those present were not ratepayers "and yet had the indelicacy to take part i n the proceedings, their ring-leaders, i n the most persistent and indecorous 79 manner, preventing those who had a right from taking part". 78 Ibid. A p r i l 18*. 1861. 79. Ibid. February 15, 1864. 102 . The outcome of the meeting was that as the ratepayers did not approve of the Council's proposal, the constitution remained unchanged. When the Municipal Council began to function, i t s o f f i c e r s included a clerk and a treasurer, ^ o t h paid from c i v i c revenue. During the f i r s t f i s c a l year the clerk re-ceived £137. 10.s., while the treasurer, W. J. Armstrong, 80 was paid £25 for a six month period. The o f f i c e of treas-urer was abolished sometime prior to May 1, 1861, probably at the end of s i x months, and an Honorary Treasurer was 81 appointed. Mr. John Cooper accepted the position and served i n this capacity at least u n t i l September, 186 4, and probably u n t i l his return to England e a r l y i n 186 5. Henry Holbrook was Honorary Treasurer from 1867 to 1869, so appar-ently i t was customary for a member of the Council to act i n that capacity. No record was found of the name of the f i r s t c i t y c l e r k but i n August, 1861, Valentine H a l l was appointed clerk, 82 assessor and c o l l e c t o r , at a salary of £200. H a l l continued to hold these o f f i c e s u n t i l A p r i l , 1864, when he was sus-83 • pended and S. T. T i l l e y was appointed i n his place. In September, 1864, Mr. T i l l e y resigned a l l three appointments 80 Ibid. January 2, 1862. 81 Ibid. May 2 5 1861. 82 I b i d . August 22, 18 61. 83 I b i d . A p r i l 2, 1864. 103 but was reappointed C o l l e c t o r at an annual s a l a r y of $250, while Thomas McMicking was named c l e r k and assessor at $750 84 a year. T i l l e y resigned the next month and McMieking was appointed c o l l e c t o r . Mr. McMi eking was drowned l a t e i n the summer of 1866, while making an unsuccessful attempt to' rescue h i s son from the waters of the F r a s e r about seven miles, below New Westminster. J„ D. S u l l i v a n , W. D. F e r r i s and. W i l l i a m Clarkson a p p l i e d for the deceased's p o s i t i o n , and the l a t t e r being appointed he had to r e s i g n his seat on the C o u n c i l . The f o l l o w i n g August Mr. Cla r k s o n tendered h i s r e s i g n a t i o n , and W. J*. Armstrong, a member of the C o u n c i l , 85 was appointed c l e r k pro tern. The B r i ti s f a Columbian pub-l i s h e d an e d i t o r i a l on August 17, 1867, p r o t e s t i n g the "shabby way" i n which the C o u n c i l had t r e a t e d Mr. C l a r k s o n . I t deplored the "scurvy treatment meted out an o l d , f a i t h f u l and most e f f i c i e n t p u b l i c servant" and s a i d the Council's a c t i o n was d i c t a t e d by " p a l t r y personal spleen". Mr. H. V. Edmonds made a p p l i c a t i o n and was appointed C l e r k , Assessor and C o l l e c t o r at $250 a year. The Columbian complained that no a p p l i c a t i o n s were asked f o r the p o s i t i o n and t h a t the o l d c l e r k had not been given an o p p o r t u n i t y to: apply. "The miserable l i t t l e game was. concocted weeks, nay, months before ever i t was played, and i t was a l l intended to a d m i n i s t e r to 84 I b i d . September 7, 1864. 85 I b i d . August 12, 1867. 104 the revenge of a sadly disappointed aspirant f o r p o l i t i c a l 86 d i s t i n c t i o n , who ropenly and repeatedly vowed vengeance*' , w Mr. Edmonds continued to act as Clerk, Assessor and Collector a t the same salary u n t i l 1870, when he was appoint-87 ed clerk without pay u n t i l other arrangements could be made. The next month he was offered the p o s i t i o n at $350 a year but declined. However, some agreement must have been reached between Mr. Edmonds and the Council as he served as Clerk, Assessor and Collector u n t i l some time a f t e r Confederation. The writer could f i n d no d e f i n i t e information as to where the f i r s t meetings of the Municipal Council were held. The statement of the receipts arid expenditures of the Council for the year ending August 5, 1863, l i s t s £27. 13. 6. as the 88 cost of o f f i c e r e n t a l . By the spring of 186 4, the Council was meeting i n a room i n C. J . M i l l a r d ' s building, the r e n t a l 89 of the room being $235 for eleven months. Captain M i l l a r d ' s building, usually c a l l e d the Webster Building, as i t was p a r t l y owned* by J. A. Webster, was a three-storey stone building completed i n May, 1863, on the present s i t e of The 90 Canadian Bank of Commerce. In March, 186 4, the Clerk was instructed to write Captain M i l l a r d informing him that the room occupied by the Council was u n f i t for use on account of 86 I b i d . August 21, 1867. 87 Mainland Guardian, August 10, 1870. 88 B r i t i s h Columbian, August 1, 1863. 89 I b i d . August 5, 1864. 90 I b i d . May 23, 186 3. 105 of smoke and asking him to make ready as soon as possible 91 the room he had promised on an upper f l o o r . Presumably, this was done i n due course, although no further information was found on this subject. The f i r s t Board of Health at New Westminster was appointed by Chartres Brew i n June, 1863, i t s members being 92 J. T. Scott, W. J. Armstrong and Robert Hannah. In sub-sequent years the three members of the board were appointed by the magistrate on the recommendation of the Municipal Council. Other pioneer members of the Board of Health were William Johnston, H. W. Smith, Dr. A. W. S. Black, William Fisher, John Smeaton, Dr. W. Macnaughton Jones, Hugh 93 McRoberts, James Cunningham and J . Fr a n k l i n . 91 I b i d . March 19,. 186 4. . 92 Ibid. June 13, 186 3. 93 Ibid. September 5, 1866; August 21, 1867; August 19, 1868, and Mainland Guardian, June 18,.1870. CHAPTER 4 106 THE BUILDING OF SUBURBAN ROADS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISTRICT AROUND NEW WESTMINSTER* One of the f i r s t tasks which the Royal Engineers undertook was opening up the land around the c a p i t a l and building essential roads* As e a r l y as. the spring of 1859 Colonel Moody decided that a road should be bui l t from New Westminster to tide water on Burrard I n l e t so that the c i t y could be more e a s i l y defended i n case of attack."*" M i l i t a r y considerations were one of Colonel Moody's chief concerns. To ensure the defence. of New Westminster and the surrounding t e r r i t o r y he had constituted six reserves. The largest of these included the whole south side of the Fraser as f a r as the border, from two miles above the con-fluence of the P i t t and Fraser to s i x miles below New West-minster. There were two naval reserves of 110 acres and 788 acres at Jericho and Point Grey. Both sides of the F i r s t Narrows were constituted as m i l i t a r y reserves: 354 acres of what i s now Stanley Park and 95 0 acres of the north shore opposite the park. One hundred and f i f t y - f i v e acres was set aside as a naval reserve on the south side of the i n l e t 1 Royal Engineers' Letter Book 3, pp. 108-110. 107 (l a t e r known as Granville townsite) and 110 acres near Port Moody at the head of the i n l e t , also became a naval reserve. On the north and south sides of the Second Narrows 190 acres 2 and 127 acres were reserved f o r m i l i t a r y purposes. Work on a t r a i l from New Westminster to the Inlet was started by a group of engineers under Sergeant John McMurphy, a roadway s i x t y - s i x feet wide being surveyed f o r f i v e miles due north from the Camp to reach the I n l e t at a -point some miles west of the present s i t e of Port Moody. Because of the d i r e c t i o n i t was known as the "North Road". The sappers had covered about h a l f the distance to the Inle t when the San Juan incident occurred and the Engineers were despatched to the scene of the trouble. Colonel Moody was i n s i s t e n t that the road should be completed and Douglas agreed. Work on the t r a i l was resumed during the winter of 1859-18 60, some of the work being done by the Engineers themselves and some by c i v i l i a n contractors. The North Road was completed i n the spring of 1861 and the B r i t i s h Columbian reported that Burrard I n l e t was "quite a resort 3 for pleasure seekers*. The road was a c t u a l l y nothing more than, a wide t r a i l , u n t i l i n 1862 a party of sappers chopped 4 the timber from the entire surveyed width. However by the 2 Ibid. p. 156; B.C. Papers, Part 3, p.78, Douglas to Newcastle, December 23, 1859. 3 B r i t i s h Columbian, A p r i l 4, 1861. 4 I b i d . A p r i l 10, 1862. 0 108 next spring i t was declared to be u n f i t for vehicular t r a f f i c . » • On January 4, 1860, Governor Douglas enacted the f i r s t Pre-Emption Act and the Royal Engineers were faced with the task of surveying the suburban lands. They began at Lot 1 on the North Road worked out northward along the road as far as Lot ?, then they surveyed, l o t s around Burnaby Lake, some along the south shore of Burrard Inlet and £ l o t s on the North shore; also from the North Road to the Coquitlam River, south of a li n e drawn east from the south boundary of Lot 5. On the south side of the Fraser they surveyed l o t s 1 to 30 with l i n e s at right angles to the River and Boundary Bay, also l o t s In Langley and C h i l l i w a c k . 5 By the Pre-Emption Act i t was hoped to encourage farmers-to s e t t l e on the f e r t i l e lands around'New Westminster as the food supply of the colony could not meet the demands of the mining camps. The f i r s t Pre-Emption Act provided for the purchase of unsurveyed Crown lands, -not exceeding 160 acres to a single purchaser * The price was not to exceed ten s h i l l i n g s an acre and the purchasers had only to enter into possession of the land and record an application of purchase with the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works. A few days l a t e r a second proclamation made i t possible to purchase surveyed lands at ten s h i l l i n g s an acre • a f t e r - they 5 Draper, William, unpublished motes. 6 Imperial Blue Books, B. C. Proclamation, January 4, 1860. 109 had been offered at public auction. By a proclamation of January 19, 1861, the price of country land was reduced to 4 3,. E d . an acre. Governor Douglas wrote to the Duke of Newcastle on the success of his p o l i c y . The e f f e c t of the Pre-Emption Law i s already observable i n the forest clearings made by s e t t l e r s i n the densely wooded land on the banks of the Fraser River. The cost of c l e a r i n g such land by means of hired labour ranges from £15 to £30 an acre, and i t w i l l consequently never prove an a t t r a c t i v e investment for c a p i t a l , such land cannot be cleared to advantage other-wise than by the actual s e t t l e r investing his own labour i n the formation of a permanent home and property f o r himself and f a m i l y . 9 However Douglas's enthusiasm was not shared by the colonists and the land policy of the administration was the subject of much c r i t i c i s m , c h i e f l y because a g r i c u l t u r a l land was sold without any condition of settlement. "We a l l know that-the present land system of B r i t i s h Columbia is rotten to i t s very centre; that i t encourages the land-shark and discourages the hardy p i o n e e r . " 1 0 As a consequence much of the best a g r i c u l t u r a l land was obtained by non-resident speculators. A considerable amount of land close to New Westminster was taken up by Government o f f i c i a l s ; the r e s u l t 7 Howay, F.W. and Sch o l e f i e l d , E.O.S. B r i t i s h Columbia, V. S, p. 591. 8 Proclamation No. S, January 19, 1861, B.C. Papers, part 4, pp. 71,72. 9 B.C. Papers, part 4, p. 6, Douglas to Newcastle, May 23, 1860. 10 B r i t i s h Columbian, May 9, 1861. 110 of this practice being that bona fide s e t t l e r s were discouraged. Ten years later'the Mainland Guardian complained that "the environs of New Westminster are equally a prey to speculative land-holders and long stretches of magnificent bottom land are lying u n u t i l i z e d because these insatiable cormorants cannot obtain a price commensurate with t h e i r 11 extravagant idea of i t s value", and sa i d that the nearest farm on the P i t t River road was eight miles out because a l l the land closer to town was s t i l l held by speculators. Not the least of the land-grabbing o f f i c i a l s was Colonel Moody himself who obtained land close to the c a p i t a l c h i e f l y on the North Road and around Burnaby Lake. In a l l he "bought" 3,750 acres for which he paid $1.01 to'$2..42-| an " 1? ' • acre. His chief holding was "Mayfield" a 200 or .300 t r a c t on the North Road which,he developed into a model farm. A l e t t e r to the editor of the B r i t i s h Columbian published on May 2, 1861, said i n part -."Colonel Moody has done much for this place and i f he would only wash his hands of. land-sharkism, . . . encourage the man who w i l l improve the land and turn the cold shoulder to the 'land-shark T he would not only be a popular but a useful man i n the colony". 11 Mainland Guardian, June 11, 1870. 12 See Cope, M.C.L., Colonel Moody and the. Royal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Appendix IX, pp. 226-227. I l l On May 38, 1861, Governor Douglas issued a pro-clamation announcing that only bona fide s e t t l e r s would be permitted to take up land under the terms of the Pre-Emption Act of. 1860 and the Country Land Act of 1861 . The con- . dit i o n s of sale were to be occupancy and improvement of the 13 land. The next month the New Westminster Municipal. Council presented a p e t i t i o n to the Governor asking for the establishment of a c e n t r a l l y located la n d - o f f i c e which would f r e e l y give information to would-be s e t t l e r s . At that time persons d e s i r i n g to. r e g i s t e r pre-emptions or to obtain In-, formation about available land were obliged to go to Colonel Moody's o f f i c e at the Camp. Complaint was constantly made that this o f f i c e was too busy with other matters to give 14 much att e n t i o n or encouragement to prospective s e t t l e r s . By the summer of 1861 there were only thirteen farms i n the v i c i n i t y of New-Westminster. The t o t a l acreage under c u l t i v a t i o n on s i x of these holdings was estimated at 15 ' f i f t y acres. S. W. Herring had a ranch across the r i v e r from the c a p i t a l with ten acres planted i n vegetables. He also had a few cows and was probably New Westminster's f i r s t 16 milk dealer. Three other farmers had located on the south 13 B r i t i s h Columbian, June 30, 18 61i 14 Ibid. June 6, 1861 . 15 Ibid. May 9, 1861. 16 I b i d . June 13, 1861. .112 bank of the F r a s e r . Mr.. Armstrong had se v e r a l acres of vegetables and Mr* James Kennedy had c l e a r e d land prepara-t o r y to s e t t i n g our f r u i t t r e e s . Mr.. Armstrong's farm l a y below the c i t y while Mr. Kennedy's holding was at A n n i e v i l l e . Almost opposite New Westminster Mr. Brown had pre-empted 17 land of which ten acres was under c u l t i v a t i o n . On June 4, 1861, Governor Douglas wrote to the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , "The f o r e s t s opposite the town are beginning to y i e l d to the-woodman's e f f o r t s ; and one e n t e r p r i s i n g p r o p r i e t o r , Mr. Brown, has discovered on his ground a l a r g e t r a c t of ex-c e l l e n t land which c e r t a i n l y cannot be surpassed i n p o i n t 1 18 of f e r t i l i t y or q u a l i t y of s o i l " . A Mr. Murphy had a farm on an i s l a n d i n the r i v e r (probably L u l u Island) at t h i s date, but the unfortunate gentleman was murdered by Indians-19 In November, 1861. . ' 17 I b i d . September 5, 1861. 18 B. C. Papers, Pa r t 4, p. 52, Douglas to Newcastle, June 14, 1861. 19 B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 11, 1861; November 9, 1861. Indian P e t e r , aLia.s Kayule , was t r i e d a t the A s s i z e s of November, 1869, f o r the murder of Mr. Murphy. Peter, who had been working for some years at Moody's M i l l , had q u a r r e l l e d w i t h Murphy over wages and had k i l l e d the whiteman. Evidence was given by the p r i s o n e r ' s mother-in-law who had witnessed the murder eight years before and had kept s i l e n t because she was threatened with death i f she divulged what she had seen. The Indian woman s a i d she was growing old and wished to . c l e a r her conscience. Peter was found g u i l t y and sentenced to death. 113 Other e a r l y s e t t l e r s were Capt. McLean on the P i t t River and Mr. S. H. Atkins on the "Quoquitlam". A t r a i l was b u i l t from the Camp to P i t t River i n 1859 by Messrs. William Clarkson and Sparrow and the Royal Engineers pastured their horses on P i t t Meadows. McLean, who started his farm at an e a r l i e r date, had seventy head of c a t t l e , hogs and several horses, while Mr. Atkins had planted vegetables and was pre-20 paring to start an orchard. Mr. Wm. Holmes had pre-empted land and started farming on the North Road along Brunette Creek and Colonel Moody's ''Mayfield* was located further along the r o a d . 2 1 A Mr. Welsh had located along Douglas Road by the 22 spring of 1861 and various other claims had been made i n the v i c i n i t y of Burnaby and Deer Lakes, one of the e a r l i e s t being that of John French. Settlement i n this d i r e c t i o n was hampered by a Government proclamation of October, 1862, which reserved from pre-emption the land on the south side of Burrard Inlet west three miles and to a distance of one mile from the water* Also reserved was a l l the land l y i n g between 23 this reserve and French's holding on the Douglas Road. A'road had been b u i l t by Mr* Ross on the north bank of the. Fraser running from New Westminster towards the Gulf. 20 Ibid. September 26, 1861 21 I b i d . October 10, 18 61. 22 Ibid. S p r i l 4, 1861. 23 Ibid. August 15, 1862; October 15, 1862. 114 I t started from the end of Royal Avenue and continued west-24 ward past Homer's m i l l . By October* 1861, i t was completed for a distance of three miles and along i t Mr. H. A. McKee had pre-empted an "excellent claim of part p r a i r i e and part 25 * < woodland". Further down the r i v e r Mr. Hugh McRoberts had just purchased 1,300 acres of grassland on Sea Island and the mainland with land s c r i p . In A p r i l , 1862* tenders were c a l l e d by the Lands and Works Department for construction . of a ten mile wagon road, eighteen feet wide, as near the North Arm of the Fraser as swampy ground would permit, to be a continuation of the three mile road b u i l t the previous year by Mr. R o s s . 2 6 No record was found of this contract being awarded, but Hugh McRoberts did cut a t r a i l down the north arm as f a r as the Mus que am Indian Reserve, taking payment i n 27 land s c r i p . The cost of the road was given as £720. McRoberts' t r a i l followed c l o s e l y along the route of the e x i s t i n g River Road. A t r a i l had been b u i l t under Government contract by James Kennedy from h i s pre-emption at A n n i e v i l l e . I t followed up the r i v e r as far as Brownsville wharf, opposite New Westminster, and thence on about four miles to connect with the Langley t r a i l . 2 8 In the other d i r e c t i o n i t followed 24 B. C. Despatches, p. 478, Douglas to Newcastle, June 15, 1863; B r i t i s h Columbian, March 14, 1861. 25 B r i t i s h Columbian, October~"10, 1861. 26 I b i d . A p r i l 10, 1862. 27 B. C. Despatches, l o c . c i t . 28 B r i t i s h coiumDian, February 13, 1861. 115 the route now used by the Great Northern Railway, to Oliver Slough, Mud Bay* When Governor Douglas v i s i t e d the c a p i t a l i n the spring of 1861 he wrote the Duke of Newcastle, rt..*the most interesting feature about New Westminster i s the newly formed l i n e of roads*. He mentioned the roads north of the town, expressed the hope that they would lead to settlement and added that "a similar r e s u l t i n promoting e a r l y settlement' i s anticipated from another new line of road which i s being formed on the l e f t bank of the Fraser, commencing a l i t t l e below New Westminster and running i n a southerly d i r e c t i o n 29 towards the f r o n t i e r " . One of the f i r s t country roads constructed was a road to the region, around Burnaby Lake where a number of s e t t l e r s had established claims. To connect this area with the c a p i t a l , plans were made for extending Douglas Street. A contract for continuing i t four and a half miles at £79 a mile was l e t to Sparrow and McDonald who soon abandoned the project. In February, 1861, the contract was re-awarded to Murray and Kelso, but they also were unable to complete i t and went bankrupt. By June tb.ey.had opened i t about four and one-half miles to the stream connecting Deer Lake to Burnaby Lake. In A p r i l of the following year tenders were c a l l e d by Captain Grant of the Lands and Works Department for eon-29 B. C. Papers, Part 4, p* 52, Douglas to Newcastle, June 47 1861\ 116 struction of a wagon road, eighteen feet wide, from six miles'out to a "blazed tree on the South Shore of Burrard - 30 I n l e t , at the Second Narrows". Apparently no tenders were received or, what i s more l i k e l y , the Government decided to defer construction of the road because of lack of money. In December, 1862, the Municipal Council of New Yfestminster sent a . l e t t e r to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works urging completion of the road as f a r as the I n l e t . Nothing was done and the following spring the Council addressed a further appeal to the Government. In reply the Governor said that he could not sanction construction of the road unless the funds were provided from l o c a l taxation. The Municipal Council would not agree to increase the already heavy tax rate although they considered the road a prime necessity. Writing to Colonel Moody, Henry Holbrook, President of the Council, said in-part. .i.we f e e l bound to c a l l His Excellency's attention 'to the f a c t that we have already by a d d i t i o n a l and voluntary taxation, contributed l a r g e l y towards clearing and making the streets of the C i t y , work which i n accordance with the terms expressed at the sale of the s i t e as 'the Capital of the Colony' the Government was bound - to perform out of the proceeds of the said sale; a condition* which up to the present time, the Government have f a i l e d to f u l f i l . We object to any increase i n the burden of taxation borne by the inhabitants of this municipality, and we consider i t our duty to submit to His Excellency that however important i t i s that roads should be 30 B r i t i s h Columbian., A p r i l 10, 1862 31 Ibid. December 20, 1862. 117 made to the mines, i t i s no less important that goods roads should be made by the Government i n the neighbourhood of t h i s C i t y to f a c i l i t a t e the supply of food to i t s inhabitants, who numbered oh the average 1,500 during the past year, and to induce increase to our rural population. We c a l l His Excellency's a t t e n t i o n to the circum-stances that more permanent s e t t l e r s are resident i n this C i t y and D i s t r i c t than are to be found i n a l l other parts of the Colony taken c o l l e c t i v e l y , and we therefore s t i l l urge the construction of the road i n question even i f i t should be found necessary to issue (as has been done for other s i m i l a r works) ,Road Bonds payable with interest at a future date i n l i q u i d a t i o n of the same. 3 2 When Frederic Seymour succeeded James Douglas as Governor the colonists once again petitioned for completion of the roadj and i n October, 1864, J. T. Scott was awarded a contract to improve the e x i s t i n g section above Royal Avenue and continue the road from Burnaby Lake to the i n l e t , 33 a distance of about nine miles. Payment was set at $1,800 a mile. Scott commenced work October 10 with sixty men. Notices were posted advertising for two hundred men, wages to be $35 a month for graders and $40 for axemen, plus board. On November 5, the B r i t i s h Columbian reported that the choppers were f i v e miles out and the graders two, with the former expected to reach the Inlet the following week. • The paper complained that the road was rather winding and that timber and brush had been l e f t i n unsightly heaps on either 32 Letter i n Prov i n c i a l Archives, Holbrook to Moody, June 1, 1863. 33 British,Columbian, October 12, 1864. ( 118 side. In January, 1865, Mr. Scott r e - l e t the remaining 34 three and a half miles of the road i n small sections. By May, 1865, Mr. Scott had completed a rough road from New Westminster to the Inlet,, but at a cost of over $3,000 a mile and he too went i n t o bankruptcy. Mr. Scott drove Governor Seymour and the Colonial Secretary over the road on May 14. "We have no description of the t r i p , but i t requires l i t t l e imagination to r e a l i z e i t s discomfort ... many low, wet places remained that were f a r softer and more miry than the higher ground; .the worst, marshy spots were covered with that t e r r i b l e pioneer material - corduroy. n t J An e d i t o r i a l i n the B r i t i s h Columbian complained that the portion of Douglas Street above Queen's Avenue was almost-impassable, "a mere t r a i l , winding through amongst, the stumps". 3 6 Messrs. Brbuse and Ross, working under Government contract, had i n 18 60 l a i d out a t r a i l from the c a p i t a l to False Creek. The purpose of this route was to enable troops to reach tide-water .there i f ships should be unable to 'go through the F i r s t Narrows because of adverse tides or winds. Although Colonel Moody considered the road of foremost * 34 Ibid. January 4,. 1865. 35 Howay, F.'W., Early Settlement on Burrard I n l e t , ' B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, A p r i l , 1937, pp. 105,106. .36 .Brit i s h . Columbian, March 16, 1865. 119 m i l i t a r y importance Governor Douglas refused to sanction construction u n t i l he received authority from the Secretary 37 of State. The t r a i l started from Douglas Road near the present Fourteenth Avenue and reached False Creek near the spot which now marks the end of the Granville Street Bridge. Colonel Moody wished to continue the t r a i l on to the naval reserve at Jericho but Governor Douglas refused to authorize the expenditure at that time. Yielding to Moody's persuasion Douglas l a t e r gave his consent, and i n February, 1861, the Chief Commissioner c a l l e d for tenders to continue the t r a i l 38 six miles along the shores of False Creek and English Bay but no record was found of this proposed extension being made. The o r i g i n a l t r a i l was merely a narrow path through the f o r e s t and i t soon became overgrown. In 1868 Governor Seymour informed the C o l o n i a l Office that the t r a i l was . 39 impassable. However i n October, 1862, John Morton, . t r a v e l l i n g along this t r a i l with an Indian guide i n search of pottery clay, viewed the land where Vancouver stands today. Morton; his cousin, Sam Brighouse; and William Hailstone bpught 550 acres extending from Burrard I n l e t to English Bay at f l . 0 1 an acre. 37 B. C. Despatches, Douglas to- Newcastle, February 27, 1860. 38 B r i t i s h Columbian, February 21, 1861. 39 B. C. Despatches, Seymour to Buckingham, February 2, 1868. T R A I L S F R O M N E W W E S T M I N S T E R S K E T C H H A P - N O T D R A W N T o S C A L E 120 The B r i t i s h Columbian of A p r i l 18, 1861, recorded that the Governor had promised to b u i l d a road to P i t t R i v e r but that he had f a i l e d to implement h i s promise. However the road was b u i l t by p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t during the w i n t e r of 1861-1862 and p a i d f o r p a r t l y i n land s c r i p . Tenders f o r various sections were awarded to.Messrs. Hodgkinson, H a l l , F u l t o n , David Johnstone, W i l l i a m Clarkson, Woodside and 40 W i l l i a m Ross. The t o t a l cost of the road was £3,867. 0. 8. The road was eight miles long and ran from the Brunette to the P i t t . For some strange reason the p o r t i o n of the road 41 from the Camp to the Brunette was not completed. The f a c t t h a t these roads were b u i l t did not HE an that they were a safe or c e r t a i n means of communication. A c t u a l l y they were not "roads" i n the modern sense of the word. In many cases they were merely paths c l e a r e d through the f o r e s t by f e l l i n g trees and making a crude attempt to l e v e l the ground. Such roads were oft e n rendered impassable e i t h e r by heavy r a i n s which turned the roadway to mud or else by f a l l i n g trees caused by f o r e s t f i r e s or high winds. Other roads were or corduroy c o n s t r u c t i o n - cedar logs e i t h e r covered w i t h e a r t h and gravel or, more u s u a l l y , l e f t exposed. Constant complaints were made about the c o n d i t i o n of the roads, c h i e f l y about the road to Burrard I n l e t as t h i s 40 B. C. Despatches, p.. 478, Douglas to Newcastle, June 15, 1863. 41 B r i t i s h Columbian, June 21, 1862. 121 was the chief, highway of the Lower Mainland. The Brighton Road (Douglas Road) was blocked by f a l l e n trees for weeks 42 during the summer of 1864. I t was again impassable the f o l l o w i n g summer and i n the summer of 1867 i t was i n such a bad st a t e that a p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a r i z e d and presented to the Government demanding that the road be r e p a i r e d . Five men were put to work i n September of that year but t h i s inadequate work-party could make very l i t t l e permanent impression on the road and i n December i t was once again c l o s e d to t r a f f i c , 43 f o r c i n g the stage to cease operation. The B r i t i s h Columbian of December 11 reported the a r r i v a l at Burrard I n l e t of the steamer I s a b e l from V i c t o r i a , w i t h Hon. Capt. Stamp, Dr. Helmcken and Hon. J . W. Trutch. The two l a t t e r gentlemen walked over to New Westminster on the evening of t h e i r a r r i v a l . The Columbian added that the road was i n a deplorable state and "had the Chief Commissioner stuck f a s t i n one of the great mud-holes, e n t i r e l y due to his own negligence, or some-t h i n g worse, the v e r d i c t of the p u b l i c would have been, 'Served him r i g h t . ' " In January the paper reported the road to "our u ^ magnificent outer harbour" was i n good c o n d i t i o n thanks to 44 Jack F r o s t . However once the f r o s t went out of the ground 42 I b i d . August 1, 1865.: 43 I b i d . December 4, 1867. 44 I b i d . January 8, 1868. 122 the road was i n as*bad c o n d i t i o n as ever. The Columbian once more published an e d i t o r i a l about the deplorable con-d i t i o n of the road. "The Government i s not sweet upon the road. But we venture to hope that road-making w i l l not, l i k e 45 k i s s i n g , go by mere favour." In A p r i l the Government did undertake to r e p a i r the Brighton Road, employing a considerable number of men f o r the work, but the improvement was only temporary. . F a l l e n trees blocked the road that summer and the next winter i t was 46 i n such bad c o n d i t i o n as to be again impassable; A road p e t i t i o n was again c i r c u l a t e d , but nothing was done and i n the spring the road was once more closed to t r a f f i c ; Mr. Thomas Spence was authorized to undertake r e p a i r work-but h i s expenditure was l i m i t e d to $2,000, a sum t o t a l l y inadequate 47 f o r the extensive r e p a i r s which were u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d . In the s p r i n g of 18 70 Mr. Spence was again at work r e p a i r i n g the 48 Br i g h t o n Road. He placed corduroy on the road wherever the swampy nature of the ground made that a d v i s a b l e . The l o g s , while g i v i n g the road a more s o l i d foundation, were responsible f o r the death of Dr. A. W. S. Black. Dr. Black was r e t u r n i n g to New Westminster from an emergency c a l l to Burrard I n l e t 45 I b i d . A p r i l 5, 1868. 46 I b i d . December 12, 1868. 47 I b i d . A p r i l 25, 1869. 48 Mainland Guardian, May 11, 1870. 123 when h i s horse s l i p p e d on the corduroy and he was thrown to h i s death. In the e a r l y summer of 1871 the logs were 49 covered. By June, 1864, the t r a i l down the north bank of the 50 Fraser towards the Gulf was declared to be impassable. I t remained i n t h i s condition u n t i l June, 1871, when the Government c a l l e d f o r tenders f o r opening up and corduroying 51. i t f o r si x t e e n m i l e s from New Westminster to B e t t s ' farm. Most of-the North Road was c l o s e d to t r a f f i c from 1863 u n t i l some years a f t e r Confederation. The bridges were allowed to go to r u i n and by 1869 t r a f f i c was possible o n l y 52 as f a r as Brunette Creek. The P i t t R i v e r road had never been extended beyond i t s o r i g i n a l length despite a g i t a t i o n f or i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n . Governor Seymour's prorogation speech of May, 1868, announced that H i s Ex c e l l e n c y thought i t would be pos s i b l e for the Government to survey a l i n e to extend the road from the P i t t to St. Marv's M i s s i o n but that no money was a v a i l a b l e f o r 5-3 immediate c o n s t r u c t i o n of such, a road. In the i s s u e of June 24, 1868, the B r i t i s h Columbian complained that nothing had been done about making the survey and that people were - 49 I b i d . June 7, 1871. 50 B r i t i s h Columbian, June 22, 1864. 51 Mainland Guardian, June 14, 1871. 52 B r i t i s h Columbian, August 26, 1868; Mainland Guardian, October 16, 1869. 53 B r i t i s h Columbian, May 2, 1868. * 124 anxious to know the route of the road so they would know where to loc a t e t h e i r farms. As the False Creek t r a i l had f a l l e n i n t o r u i n , the Brighton Road was the o n l y road to the I n l e t . There was no d i r e c t communication w i t h "Stamp's" M i l l . In the s p r i n g of 1870 a p e t i t i o n signed by many r e s i d e n t s of New Westminster and Burrard I n l e t was sent down to Hon. John Robson, M.L.C., asking him to urge upon the Government the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 54 road to reach Burrard I n l e t at " G r a n v i l l e " . In 1872 the t r a i l was r e c u t but no road was constructed u n t i l the b u i l d i n g of Kingsway. As e a r l y as 1860 the f i r s t s e t t l e r a r r i v e d i n Maple Ridge and there was at an e a r l y date quite a number of 55 s e t t l e r s around Langley. The e a r l i e s t attempts at extensive .farming were made at C h i l l i w a c k and Sumas. In the summer of 1862 the f i r s t s e t t l e r s took up land i n this- area and by 1866, 4,860 acres had been pre-empted there of which 653 56 acres were under c u l t i v a t i o n . The f i r s t s e t t l e r s at C h i l l i w a c k were Thomas Marks and John Barber and at Sumas, Y. Yeddar. In 1866 Messrs. Kipp and Reece, who had a r r i v e d three years p r e v i o u s l y , had an 800 acre farm w i t h 350 acres planted with timothy, hay, t u r n i p s , Indian corn and vegetables. 54 Mainland Guardian, March 2, 1870. 55 B r i t i s h Columbian, November 5, 1862. 56 I b i d . September 19, 1866. 125 They had 340 head of c a t t l e , 20 horses, 220 hogs, 250 fowl and s o l d considerable q u a n t i t i e s of cheese, b u t t e r and eggs. Other e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n the C h i l l i w a c k area were James Bertrand, Reuben Nowell, Henry Cooper, John Blanchard, Matthew Sweetman, Charles Evans, W i l l i a m H a l l and John S h e l f o r d , who also kept a s t o r e . In the Sumass Settlement the Chadsey Brothers were growing s i m i l a r crops and had i n a d d i t i o n 1,700 tobacco p l a n t s . During the summer of 1866 they sold 2,000 pounds of b u t t e r . In the summer of 1868 the Chadseys t r i e d a new experiment i n marketing, taking a team to the Cariboo with 2,500 pounds of f r e s h b u t t e r put up i n two, f i v e and ten 57 pound cans. A l s o i n the Sumas area were W i l l i a m C o l l i n s o n , Lewis Thomas, Thomas York, L. P. Anderson, Crawford and. Wilson, Mr. Boles, J . Burton and James C o d v i l l e . C o d v i l l e also ran a h o t e l and f e r r y at C o d v i l l e ' s l a n d i n g on Nicomen 58 I s l a n d . As has already been mentioned Hugh McRoberts pre-empted la n d near the mouth of the r i v e r i n the spring of 1861. His main h o l d i n g , which was on Sea I s l a n d , he c a l l e d "Rich-59 mondrr. In the f a l l of 1861 he brought 100 head of c a t t l e 60 from Oregon. The stock was pastured a t Sumas during the 57 I b i d . J u l y 25, 1868. 58 I b i d . September 19, 1866. 59 I b i d . September 13, 1862. 60 I b i d . January 16, 1862. 126 winter of 1861-62 and, due to the severity of the weather, 75 c a t t l e died. By the autumn of 1862 McRoberts was reported as having 54 c a t t l e . His t o t a l acreage was estimated at 1,560 acres of which 12 were under c u l t i v a t i o n with 650 f r u i t 61 trees planted on part of the res t . In September, 1862, McRoberts was' joined by h i s nephews, Samuel and Fit z g e r a l d McGleery who pre-empted land on the mainland opposite "Richmond". About 1864 Mr. McRoberts dyked his land and the following year i t produced a crop of wheat. When John Morton and William Hailstone leased their holdings around English Bay and went to C a l i f o r n i a i n 1864, Samuel Brighouse purchased a 697 acre tr a c t on Lulu Island. Four years l a t e r , i n 1868, William D. F e r r i s started farming 62 on the island although he s t i l l maintained a residence at 63 New Westminster. Moody and Company pre-empted 500 acres at Mud Bay 64 65 in 1861 and brought i n cattle from Oregon early the next year. One of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s on the south delta of the Fraser was William Henry Ladner who purchased 640 acres there i n 66 1868. His brother, Thomas E. Ladner, took up land shortly a f t e r . T. E. Ladner's home at New Westminster was destroyed 61 Ibid. September 13, 1862. 62 I b i d . July 29, 1868. 63 Mainland Guardian, September 25, 1869. 64 B r i t i s h Columbian, October 10, 1861. 65 Ibid. January 16, 1862. 66 Ibid. July 29, 1868. 127 by f i r e i n March, 1870, and probably he took up residence on 67 the delta soon after that date. The f i r s t permanent settlement on Burrard Inlet came as a r e s u l t of m i l l s being established there. In 1862 a water power m i l l known as "Pioneer M i l l s " was established on the north shore of the Inlet by T. W. Graham. The m i l l was sold to J . A. Smith and l a t e r to S. P* Moody and the s e t t l e -ment which grew up around i t soon became known as Moodyville. In A p r i l , 1867, a m i l l was put i n operation on the south shore by'the B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island Spar, Lumber and Sawmill Company. The f i r s t manager of this m i l l was Capt. Edward Stamp and consequently i t was usually referred to as "Stamp's M i l l " . (Later i t was known as Hastings M i l l . ) A townsite, l a t e r known as Hastings, had been reserved by the Government i n 1860 or 1861 near the Second Narrows. In 1863 a party of Royal Engineers under .Lance-Corporal George Turner surveyed l o t s along the south shore of Burrard Inlet, west of Second Narrows, and made a complete transverse of the shore l i n e from this reserve around the Inlet and into False Creek. Lance-Corporal Turner started his survey at the townsite reserve and surveyed l o t s 184, 183, 182, and 181 running westward along the I n l e t . Next to l o t 181 was a townsite reserve, then l o t 185, whose western 67 Mainland Guardian, March 9, 1870. 128 boundary was the m i l i t a r y reserve at the F i r s t Narrows (Stanley P a r k ) . Out of part of t h i s second townsite reserve, l o t 196 was created,.and on l o t 196 "Stamp's" m i l l was erected. P a r t of the remainder of t h i s reserve was l a t e r l a i d out as G r a n v i l l e townsite. Lot 185 was pre-empted by H a i l s t o n e , Morton and Brighouse and l o t s 184, 183, 18E and 181 were granted i n 1863 and 1864 to John Graham, Thomas 68 Ranaldson, H. P. P. Crease and Robert Burnaby r e s p e c t i v e l y . Hastings Townsite was at the end of the Douglas Road which was completed i n 1865. Although the townsite was surveyed the land was not of f e r e d f o r s a l e . I t was merely the "end of the road" but soon, at the suggestion of John Robson, e d i t o r of the B r i t i s h Columbian i t came to be c a l l e d " B r i g h t o n " . The Br i g h t o n Hotel was opened i n August, 1865, and t h i s s e c t i o n of Burrard I n l e t became "a f a v o r i t e r e s o r t 69 f o r those who wish a pleasant Buggy-ride". In J u l y , 1867, soon a f t e r Stamp's M i l l commenced operation, Mr. W. R. Lewis s t a r t e d a semi-weekly stage s e r v i c e over the Douglas Road from New Westminster to Br i g h t o n . The stage l e f t the Oro Restaurant, Columbia S t r e e t , every Tuesday and F r i d a y at noon, r e t u r n i n g the same day, the fare being 70 one d o l l a r each way. Although only a semi-weekly s e r v i c e 68 Howay, op* c i t . , pp. 104-105. 69 B r i t i s h Columbian, August 1, 1865; June £7, 1868. 70 I b i d . J u l y 17, 1867. 189 was o r i g i n a l l y planned business was so b r i s k that by October the stage was making the t r i p every day. By the end of h i s f i r s t year i n business Mr. Lewis was running two stages, one of f o u r horses and the other of two. An o p p o s i t i o n stage l i n e operated by John McBean and Company was s t a r t e d i n September, 1868, o f f e r i n g d a i l y s e r v i c e to Brighton, but t h i s 71 company only remained i n operation a l i t t l e over a month. At t h i s time a steam f e r r y , the Sea Foam, was placed i n " 78 ser v i c e between Brighton and Mood y v i l l e . There was no d i r e c t route from Brighton to Stamp's M i l l and i n order to reach the m i l l from the "end of the road" one had to f e r r y over to Moodyville and then cross back over the I n l e t to the m i l l . In March, 1869, Mr. Lewis secured the c o n t r a c t to c a r r y the m a i l between New Westminster and the I n l e t . The same month the Bri g h t o n Hotel was s o l d to M a x i m i l l i e n Michaud 73 who also became postmaster without pay. The A s s i s t a n t Surveyor General of B r i t i s h Columbia, B. M. Pearse, surveyed and l a i d out a townsite at Brighton i n 74 November, 1868. The f o l l o w i n g May t h i s s i t e was gazetted 75 as "Hastings"", and i n August an a u c t i o n sale was conducted 71 I b i d * September 30, 1868; November 7, 1868. 72 I b i d . November 7, 1868. 73 Howay> op. c i t . , p. 108. 74 B r i t i s h Columbian, November 21, 1868. 75' I b i d . May 16, 1869. 130 at the Court House, New Westminster, at which time the town l o t s at Hastings were o f f e r e d f o r s a l e , only seven being purchased. In October, 1867, Jack 'Deighton (Gassy Jack) opened an h o t e l near Stamp's M i l l . The group of b u i l d i n g s which grew up around Stamp's M i l l was known as "Gastown" u n t i l March, 1870, when i t was gazetted as " G r a n v i l l e " . In A p r i l , 1870, G r a n v i l l e l o t s were o f f e r e d at a u c t i o n but only 76 three were s o l d . In the s p r i n g of 1869 t e l e g r a p h communication was e s t a b l i s h e d between New Westminster and M o o d y v i l l e . The l i n e was l a i d by S. P. Moody and Company to connect t h e i r m i l l w i t h 77 • the c i t y . The poles followed the Brig h t o n Road to Burrard 78 I n l e t , where an underwater cable was l a i d under the I n l e t . Mr. Moody allowed the general p u b l i c to use the l i n e . • Telegrams to New Westminster cost, twenty-five cents u n t i l 79 A p r i l 1, 1871, when the p r i c e was r a i s e d to f i f t y c ents. Moodyville was the l a r g e s t and most progressive of the three settlements on Burrard I n l e t . Mr. Joseph Burr had e s t a b l i s h e d a ranch near Moodyville and kept m i l k cows, and Messrs. G. Black and Van Bramer had-imported c a t t l e and 80 e s t a b l i s h e d a stock ranch and but c h e r i n g business. 76 Mainland Guardian, A p r i l 13, 1870. 77 B r i t i s h Columbian, March 16, 186*9. 78 I b i d . A p r i l 25, 1869; May 29, 1869. 79 Howay, op. c i t . , p. 112. 80 B r i t i s h Columbian, August 17, 1867. CHAPTER 5 131 POLITICAL HISTORY The development of the Government of the colony of B r i t i s h Columbia i s inextricably bound up with the history of New Westminster because New Westminster, as the only centre on the mainland with a relatively large, fixed and stable ^population, naturally took the lead in agitation against the Government. Many of the residents of the Cariboo, whose interest in the colony was purely transitory, were very l i t t l e concerned with the Government- or i t s policies so long as their interests were safeguarded. New Westminster provided in a great measure the impetus which led to the establishment of representative institutions in British Columbia-.and i t was the centre of p o l i t i c a l agitation on the mainland until . Confederation. By the Act of Proclamation of 1858 the colony of British Columbia was to have a Legislature consisting-of a Governor and Council or a Governor and Assembly. Governor Douglas was given authority by S.ir^Eiytton to choose an Executive composed of "men,whom, i f an elective council were ultimately established in the colony, the'immigrants them-132 1 s e l v e s would be l i k e l y to e l e c t " . Douglas f a i l e d to c a r r y out Lytton's wish and on February 5, 1859, he wrote the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , " •. . . no Executive has as yet been f o r m a l l y appointed f o r B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l I have c a l l e d to my a s s i s t a n c e Colonel Moody and Judge Begbie as members of that C o u n c i l and we have already met.upon s e v e r a l occasions, to c o n f e r upon the p o l i c y to be pursued and upon va r i o u s measures to be adopted i n 2 connection w i t h the f u t u r e government of the colony". The Executive C o u n c i l was f o r m a l l y appointed on March 1, 3 1859. As e a r l y as J u l y , 1859, the people of New Westminster sent a p e t i t i o n to the Governor a s k i n g f o r the establishment of an Executive C o u n c i l composed of " c h i e f p u b l i c servants and some of the most respectable merchants and r e s i d e n t s " . They complained that: "With the exception of G i b r a l t a r , which i s more a m i l i t a r y f o r t r e s s than a settlement, we b e l i e v e t h a t , i n no other B r i t i s h colony, but 4 B. C , does a Governor r e i g n absolute . . . ." Another grievance of the people of New Westminster was the f a c t that the Government o f f i c i a l s did not r e s i d e i n the mainland colony. The f i r s t c i v i l l i s t for B r i t i s h Columbia 1 Begg, Alexander, H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 225. 2 B. C. Despatches, Douglas to L y t t o n , February 5, 1859. 3 I b i d . March 1, 1859. 4 New Westminster Times, September 24, 1859. 133 l i s t e d e i g h t o f f i c e r s : £1,800 James Douglas - Governor 800 Matthew Begbie - Judge 500 W. A. G. Young - C o l o n i a l Secretary 500 Capt. W. D. Gosset - Treasurer 400 George H. Cary - Attorney-General 500 Chartres Brew - Inspector' of P o l i c e 400 Wymond Hamley - C o l l e c t o r of Customs 400 James Cooper - Harbourmaster Although these o f f i c i a l s were appointed, for the colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, most of them r e s i d e d i n V i c t o r i a * I n f a c t , W. A. G-. Young, who was appointed C o l o n i a l Secretary, held the same p o s i t i o n i n the Colony of Vancouver I s l a n d . The people of New Westminster soon p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the non-residence of the o f f i c i a l s - . On the evening of J u l y IE, 1859, a meeting was held a t Holbrook rs store on Columbia S t r e e t . Mr. Holbrook was appointed Chairman and W. E. Stronach was chosen Sec r e t a r y . The meeting r e s u l t e d i n the formation of a p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y known as the "Reform League" whose purpose was "to a i d i n procuring such laws as w i l l give us an a g r i c u l t u r a l as" w e l l as mining and t r a d i n g p o p u l a t i o n , to reduce the expenditures of the government w i t h i n the mean's of the Colony and thus avoid the enormous 5 debt which i s everyday being accumulated upon us...." At the end of J u l y a delegation from the Reform League composed of Mr. Holbrook and Mr. Armstrong went to V i c t o r i a w i t h a p e t i t i o n to the Governor signed by 130 5 V i c t o r i a Gazette, J u l y 14 ,. 185.9. 134 i residents of New Westminster asking that a more l i b e r a l land p o l i c y be adopted and that Government o f f i c i a l s should l i v e 6 on the mainland. As a msult of this representation the Duke of Newcastle informed the Governor that the o f f i c i a l s must take up residence on the mainland. "This state of things must be put to an end at once and the gentlemen i n question must be warned that they must rep a i r with the l e a s t practicable delay to the scene of their duties, or, i f they 7 decline to do so, must at once resign t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . " Douglas retained the Colonial Secretary and the .Attorney-General, at V i c t o r i a , but Capt i Gosset, the Treasurer, moved to New Westminster i n the autumn of 1860. Although some of the o f f i c i a l s were transferred to the mainland, the people of B r i t i s h Columbia were s t i l l far from s a t i s f i e d with the state of a f f a i r s . The chief reason for their d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n lay i n the person of the Governor. From the beginning Douglas had, by his d i c t a t o r i a l methods, aroused the b i t t e r enmity of the c o l o n i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y that of the people of New Westminster.- In'Hay, 1860, 443 B r i t i s h subjects i n the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia presented Douglas with a p e t i t i o n asking that Her Majesty should remove him from his position as Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia and that a _—• ./ 6 Ibid. July 30, 1859. 7 B. C. Papers, Part' 3, p. 101, Newcastle to Douglas, September 5, 1859. 135 8 representative system of government should be established. At the same time the New Westminster Municipal Council had sent a memorial to Governor Douglas to which he r e p l i e d , "I have not the power to confer Representative I n s t i t u t i o n s 9 upon t h i s colony". This p e t i t i o n was presented e i t h e r just before or just after Douglas had entertained the " e l i t e " of New Westminster to a steamer excursion to the P i t t River but ''neither, the excursion nor the charms of high society (could) seduce the people's party from doing their duty." The Colonist, i n an e d i t o r i a l t i t l e d "Vinegar vs; Molasses" described the Governor's party: The coolest piece of assurance ever, perpetrated i n Bw C. was l a t e l y done at New Westminster.... It appears that His Excellency Governor Douglas wished to "soft sawder" the denizens of Westminster to overlook his two years' misgovernment... .In pursuance of so grand a piece of state p o l i c y , a l l the e l i t e of the c i t y received i n v i t a t i o n s bearing the vice-regal arms to make an excursion on board the steamer Maria to P i t t River... .The excursion was enjoyed and the party returned. No doubt His Excellency thought the Westminsterites had been e f f e c t u a l l y steamboated i n the Yankee sense of the word. It turned out, however, next morning, that some one else was .steamboated, and that a l l the molasses sweets had changed to vinegar. For the people, having done due honor to Her Majesty and being' f u l l of zeal to do. s t i l l greater honor 8 B. C. Despatches, p. 88, Douglas to Newcastle, June 22, 1860. 9 B r i t i s h Columbian, February-28, 1861. 136 presented His Excellency next morning with a p e t i t i o n asking Her Majesty to remove him from the Governorship of B. C., because u n f i t t e d f o r the p o s i t i o n . 10 In forwarding this p e t i t i o n to the Duke of Newcastle, Douglas t o l d the Colonial Secretary that i t could be divided into two parts, "vituperation of the Governor" and an appeal for representative government. The f i r s t part he dismissed l i g h t l y , saying most of the people were content. r To the second charge, he responded that the colony was not 11 yet ready for representative government. In August, the New Westminster Council sent an' address to the Prince of Wales on behalf of New Westminster and the whole of Br i t i s h . Columbia. The subject of the memorial was absentee o f f i c i a l s . The B r i t i s h Colonist commented on the address to His Royal Highness: The New Westminster Council are an eminently p r a c t i c a l people. The future monarch must be used. He must be informed that absolute and absentee governors, secretaries, attorney-generals, and such i l k , are playing truant, and that the only hope of B. C. i s the New Westminster Council and the "heir apparent". We think the end j u s t i f i e s the means • . 12 The Governor General of Canada acknowledged receipt of the address. He •said'he would forward the memorial,to the Prince of Wales, who had already l e f t Canada 10 B r i t i s h Colonist, June 5, 1860. 11 B.- C. De spate he's, l o c . c i t . 12 B r i t i s h Colonist", August 24, 1860. . .137 13 when the p e t i t i o n arrived. Nothing came of e i t h e r of these memorials. Late in 1860, the Town Glerk of New Westminster, Valentine H a l l , acting on the suggestion of Leonard McClure, editor of the New Westminster Times, prepared a p e t i t i o n which was presented to the Municipal Council, suggesting that a convention he c a l l e d , attended by delegates from every d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, to press for a redress of grievances and the establishment of representative government. A meeting was held in Mr. Cormack's store on January 1, 1861, to e l e c t the New Westminster delegates. At thi s meeting i t soon became apparent that a small clique, headed by McClure, was planning to rush through the eleotion of i t s candidates and a resolution was passed, postponing the elections u n t i l the tenth. Nomination day was to be January 8 and a public meeting was to be held that evening to enable the candidates to present their views* Prior to t h i s second meeting a r i v a l group met at Mr. T i l l e y ' s store and nominated five candidates on the "Reform Ticket". Their nominees were: J . T. Scott, a Scotchman, J . A. R. Homer, a Nova Scotian, William Clarkson and E. B. Holt, both Canadians of English b i r t h , and William Holmes, a native of Northern Ireland who had spent many years i n Canada. The opposition or "Government Ticket" 13 Ibid. December 1, 1860. 138 included Messrs. McClure, Henry Holbrook, Armstrong, Cormack and Brouse. The reason this group was so-called was that i t proposed that the object of the Convention should be "to a s s i s t the Governor i n discharge of his arduous duties" while the reform party planned to "obtain a Resident Governor and representative i n s t i t u t i o n s and meantime seek 14 the redress of our most pressing grievances." The r e s u l t s of the " u n o f f i c i a l " e l e c t i o n held on January 10 at Cormack's store were Scott, 186 votes; Holmes, 160; Homer, 158; Clarkson, 115; Holt, 109; Holbrook, 101; McClure, 88; Armstrong, 83; Brouse, 47, and Cormack, 34. The enti r e slate of Reform candidates was returned. The New Westminster Times charged that the reform party had been elected by the foreign vote, but the p o l l book was "thoroughly analysed by responsible and disinterested p a r t i e s " and i t was found that 447 B r i t i s h subjects and 232 foreigners voted for the reform group and 15 235 B r i t i s h and 112 foreigners for the opposition* Invitations to send delegates were forwarded to Hope, Douglas, Yale, Cayoosh ( L i l l o o e t ) , Lytton, Quesnelle Forks, Fort Alexander, Cariboo, Rock Creek and Similkameen, but only the f i r s t two mentioned availed themselves of this opportunity. Donald Chisholm and J . Spencer Thompson were elected at Hope and Duncan Robertson and Thomas Cooper at 14 B r i t i s h Columbian, February 13, 1861. 15 Loc. c i t . .139 Douglas. The " B r i t i s h Columbia Convention" met on February 15 at J . T. Scott's "Pioneer Theatre", Columbia S t r e e t , New Westminster. The entrance to the theatre was decorated w i t h evergreens and placards bearing slogans such as "Free I n s t i t u t i o n s f or B. C.n and " B r i t o n ' s R i g h t s " . The meeting opened w i t h a r o y a l salute, of 21 guns. J . A. R. Homer was e l e c t e d Chairman of the Convention, which continued u n t i l February 21.. \ . ' Of the meeting Governor Douglas remarked, "As the meeting was conducted w i t h p e r f e c t order and good humour, no o f f i c i a l n o t i c e was taken of the meeting, other than would have been given to any p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n got up for the 16 amusement of the people." A d e l e g a t i o n of e i g h t , headed by J . A. R. Homer, was appointed to meet the Governor. Douglas d e c l i n e d to meet them "as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the i n h a b i t a n t s of B r i t i s h Golumbia, but met them as a deputation of Her Majesty's subjects from Douglas,. Hope and New Westminster." The memorial presented to Governor Douglas and forwarded by him to the C o l o n i a l Secretary i n London contained s e v e r a l requests. The two c h i e f demands were for a r e s i d e n t 16 B. C. Despatches, pp. 226-241, Douglas to Newcastle, A p r i l 22, 1861. 17 Loc. c i t . 140 Governor, e n t i r e l y unconnected; wl th Vancouver I s l a n d , and the establishment of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Because the Government o f f i c i a l s were r e s i d i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d , persons d e s i r i n g to do business with the Governor had to go to V i c t o r i a and on t h e i r r e t u r n pay an a d d i t i o n a l one d o l l a r head t a x i Other complaints were a g a i n s t excessive taxes, squandering of money on p u b l i c works- and road c o n t r a c t s without . these c o n t r a c t s being o f f e r e d by •public n o t i c e , f a u l t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c lands, and want of a r e g i s t r y o f f i c e . .The memorialists a l s o contended that V i c t o r i a was being favoured at the expense of B r i t i s h Columbia and that no encouragement was given to s h i p - b u i l d i n g or f o r e i g n trade i n 18 the mainland colony. One of New Westminster's c h i e f o b j e c t i o n s to the Government's p o l i c y was i t s c r e a t i o n of V i c t o r i a as a free p o r t , which r e s u l t e d i n the i s l a n d c i t y becoming the forward-i n g port f o r the e n t i r e mainland; Goods coming into B r i t i s h Columbia were charged a ten per cent, duty i f imported by a dealer, but were al l o w e d ^ i n f r e e of charge f o r an i n d i v i d u a l f o r h i s own use. Thus an i n d i v i d u a l could go to V i c t o r i a and buy goods more cheaply than they could be purchased at New Westminster. N a t u r a l l y , t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t a r i f f , "which i s 19 v a m p i r e - l i k e sucking our l i f e blood," worked a tremendous 18 Loc. c i t . 19 B r i t i s h Columbian, A p r i l 14, 1861. 141 hardship on merchants on the mainland. Douglas, i n forwarding the memorial' to the Duke of Newcastle, denied a l l the c o l o n i s t s ' accusations. He contended that i t would be impossible for the Governor to l i v e at New Westminster. He quoted the po p u l a t i o n of the three towns represented a t the Convention: New Westminster - 164 adult males Hope - 108 adult males Douglas . - 35 adult males Because of small p o p u l a t i o n , the Governor did not favour e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e assembly. The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e ignored the memorial. Another p e t i t i o n was sent i n the f a l l of the same year a f t e r a meetin of the B r i t i s h Columbia Convention at Hope. This second meeting of the Convention opened on September 10 w i t h j . A. R Homer i n the c h a i r , other delegates from New Westminster being W i l l i a m Clarkson and E.. B. H o l t . L y t t o n was represented as w e l l as Douglas and Hope . A memorial was drawn up c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t the memorials of May, 1860, and February, 1861, were s t i l l unanswered, and 20 l i s t i n g the c o l o n i s t s ' grievances. J". A. R.. Homer again headed the de l e g a t i o n which met the - Governor . Douglas forwarded t h e i r memorial to the Duke of Newcastle w i t h t h i s 20 I b i d . September 19, 1861. 142 comment: I have refused to receive them i n their assumed character of "The B r i t i s t Columbia Convention". The term i s associated with revolution and holds out a menace--the subject has an undoubted right to p e t i t i o n his sovereign but the term convention terms something more, i t means coercion. I have no desire to accuse the authors of this memorial of entertaining any malevolent designs, the majority of them being known as quiet, well meaning tradesmen, sincerely attached, I believe, to the I n s t i t u t i o n s of the Colony, but at the same time have not disposed to overlook the f a c t that they may become for seditious purposes, the dupes of a r t f u l men. I have therefore charged the Magistrates to keep an eye over their movements and not to interfere with their proceedings so long as they commit no v i o l a t i o n of the law. 21 The chief requests of the memorialists were, as previously, a.resident Governor and O f f i c i a l s , and representative i n s t i t u t i o n s . They also asked for a public h o s p i t a l , mail service, public schools, a gold escort, land grants to the Episcopal church, and complained of the lack of an o f f i c i a l survey of the colony. Governor Douglas commented on .these requests i n a l e t t e r which he sent, to the Colonial Office i n company with the memorial. He s t i l l did not favour the establishment of representative government and argued that a l l the colonial. o f f i c i a l s except the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-" General and himself were resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia * He •declared that B r i t i s h Columbia could not afford a h o s p i t a l and that schools would be opened when needed.. He remarked 21 B. C. Despatches, p. 300, Douglas to Newcastle, October 8, 1861. 143 that there were already two schools i n New Westminster and that there were few children of school age elsewhere i n the Colony. He contended that there was already mail service to-Douglas, Hope, and Yale, and added that a c o l o n i a l survey would be made when needed; i Three petitions- had now been addressed to the B r i t i s h Government and no reply had been received to any of them. The people of the colony began to doubt that Douglas had forwarded them to the Colonial O f f i c e . Hatred of Governor Douglas and resentment of h i s p o l i c i e s reached almost a fever pitch i n New Westminster. This antipathy i s epitomized in the writings of John Robson, editor of the B r i t i s h Columbian, who poured f o r t h a constant stream, of c r i t i c i s m against the Governor and his tyrannical acts. "We are i n a state of v e r i e s t serfdom . . . and the re s u l t w i l l be one universal burst of long pent-up indignation, which w i l l appal the Imperial, and shatter the 22 Colonial Government." Douglas was c a l l e d the "arch enemy of B r i t i s h Columbia"' and the B r i t i s h Columbian reported that when the Governor v i s i t e d New Westminster on May 10, 1861, and walked through the crowd from the wharf to the Custom House " a l l was as s t i l l as the grave, not the s l i g h t e s t attempt to get 22 B r i t i s h Columbian, May 2, 1861. 144 up a cheer, broke In open the death-like s t i l l n e s s of the 23 scene.'* The paper noted the a r r i v a l of the "Czar" i n A p r i l , 1862, "a f t e r an absence of s i x months and nineteen 24 days from h i s dominions." and shor t l y a f t e r remarked that the people of B r i t i s h Columbia "have borne more p o l i t i c a l wrong and government oppression than can be recorded of any 25 B r i t i s h people during the present century." "Are then the sons of Britons so degenerate and debased that when Russians are being freed they are content 26 to remain serfs i n B; C ? " Governor Douglas, by his very t r a i n i n g with the. Hudson's Bay Company, was used to giving orders and having; them obeyed. John Robson, who came to B r i t i s h Columbia from Ontario, was used to a representative syste'm of govern-ment, and he could not endure subjection to an autocrat. Later, when speaking a t a Confederation meeting held at New Westminster on A p r i l 6, 1868, Robson mentioned the Rebellion of 1837 and said, "I was proud to know that my forefathers were found up on the side of the L o y a l i s t s i n that sanguinary 27 struggle." Many of the pioneer c i t i z e n s of New Westminster were likewise accustomed to a considerable measure of s e l f -23 Ibid. May 16, 1861. 24 Ibid. A p r i l 30, 1862. 25 Ibid. July 9, 1862. 26 I b i d . July 16, 1862. 27 Ibid. A p r i l 8, 1868. 145 government and they balked at Douglas' despotism. The New Westminster Municipal Council c a l l e d a public meeting for July 12j 1862, to consider the "present , condition of the Colony" and to express an "opinion i n regard - 28 to a necessity of a change in i t s government." The meeting was held i n Cunningham and Ashwell's new bu i l d i n g and a committee, composed of Messrs. Homer, Robson, Cormack, Armstrong and Kennedy, was appointed to draft a memorial which was presented at a meeting held on July 15. Copies of the memorial were to be sent through the ordinary channels and also d i r e c t l y to the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker .of the House of Commons and to a group of members of the B r i t i s h parliament: S i r E. Bulwer Lytton, W. S. Lindsay, T. B. H o r s f a l l , J . Laird, J . Bramley Moore, G. Turner, J . Caird and Thomas Baines; To be sure the wishes of the memorialists were thoroughly publicized, the memorial was to be published i n the London Times and the I l l u s t r a t e d London News. A thousand copies were to be printed for c i r c u l a t i o n among the members of the Imperial Parliament. The memorial was sent to the Governor by Mr. John Ramage, president of the Municipal Council. It contained two requests, a governor permanently resident i n the Colony, "free from any private in t e r e s t s in the Colony of Vancouver 28 Ibid. July 12, 1862. 146 Island" and the establishment of responsible government, £9 s i m i l a r to that i n Eastern Canada and the A u s t r a l i a n colonies. . The memorial complained of the " i n s u l t i n g despotism" of the Governor and con tended that " i n accordance with the b i r t h r i g h t of B r i t i s h subjects your Memorialists cannot equitably be subjected to taxation without representation" and "that as B r i t i s h subjects on B r i t i s h s o i l they are e n t i t l e d to the p r i v i l e g e s of freemen, that the enactment of laws by mere proclamation i s not calculated to meet the requirements of the Anglo-Saxon race; neither do they believe i t i s a form of Government that Her Most Excellent Majesty i n Council, and the Imperial Parliament, can expect that B r i t i s h subjects w i l l submit to, without a f e e l i n g of de-30 gradation and of shame." Douglas wrdte the Duke of Newcastle that he had opposed the idea of responsible government at the time of the presentation of the 1861 memorials because of the s c a r c i t y of B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s and the unsettled nature of the population. Although the number of B r i t i s h c o l o n i s t s had increased, he s t i l l did. not advocate responsible government, but he favoured es t a b l i s h i n g a council of f i f t e e n , f i v e of the members to be nominated by the Crown and the remainder to be elected, subject to high property q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for members. The £9 B r i t i s h Colonist, July 2E, 1862. 30 B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 19, 1862. 147 31 Governor was to have the power of veto; . Another public meeting was held a t the Hyack H a l l , New Westminster, e a r l y in October j 1862. The B r i t i s h Columbian reported that "the attendance was large and 32 ; ' respectable." The meeting decided to send a delegate to England to present i t s grievances to the B r i t i s h Government. The chief demand was fo r "those i n s t i t u t i o n s which are the common b i r t h r i g h t of every B r i t i s h subject." Hon. Malcolm Cameron, who had been t r a v e l l i n g i n the colony, was asked to take a p e t i t i o n to England and a committee of Messrs. Holbrook, Homer and Armstrong was appointed to procure funds • for the undertaking. The B r i t i s h Columbian termed this decision to send a personal representative to London "the most important 33 • p o l i t i c a l move ever enacted on the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c " . Hon. Malcolm Cameron had been a member of the Canadian Legislature for twenty-six years and had held such important executive posts as President of the Executive Council, Minister of Agriculture, Commissioner of Public Works and Postmaster General. . The memorial mentioned that four pe titions. had already been s e n t — o n May 26, 1860; February 20, 1861; September 11, 1861; and July 17,=1862—and the col o n i s t s 31 B. C. Despatches, l o c . c i t . -32 B r i t i sh Columbian, October 4, 1862. 33 Ibid. November. 1, 1862. 148 f e l t that they had been t r e a t e d " d i s c o u r t e o u s l y " . Their demands were a r e i t e r a t i o n of the p l e a f o r a r e s i d e n t governor, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e system, and a land p o l i c y which would encourage bona f i d e s e t t l e r s . "They implore Your Majesty to grant them the 'image and t r a n s c r i p t ' of tha t g l o r i o u s c o n s t i t u t i o n , which time has only s u i t e d , tempered, and adapted to the present exigency of the highest and most 34 • enlightened minds of the world." Governor Douglas continued to be the subject of b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m but there was a growing f e e l i n g of hope that the Governor's t y r a n n i c a l regime was drawing to a c l o s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y as o p t i m i s t i c r e p o r t s began to seep back from Hon. Malcolm Cameron in'London. When Hon. Malcolm Cameron a r r i v e d i n England, he found the Imperi a l Government disposed to uni t e the two P a c i f i c c o l o n i e s but he used h i s i n f l u e n c e against such a move and as a r e s u l t the Duke of Newcastle r e l u c t a n t l y agreed to "take steps for p l a c i n g them 35 under d i f f e r e n t governors". On May 26, 1863, the Duke of Newcastle wrote Governor Douglas that he proposed to submit to Her Majesty an Order i n C o u n c i l c o n s t i t u t i n g a L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Speaking i n the House of Commons on J u l y 26 the C o l o n i a l Secretary remarked, "The progress of 34 I b i d . November IS, 1862. 35 P.P.O. 3667; 1866, Papers R e l a t i v e , to the Proposed Union of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d , p. 1. 149 B r i t i s h Columbia was almost without example. The colony was e s t a b l i s h e d only four years ago, and a l r e a d y , i t was s e l f -supporting, and would not, he'believed, ever appear again i n 36 the annual Estimates of the House of Commons." He added that "some blame had been thrown on the Governor, Mr. Douglas but he (the Duke of Newcastle) did not t h i n k i t was a t a l l 37 • deserved." The C o l o n i a l Secretary t o l d the House that complete r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government could not be granted. He proposed t o e s t a b l i s h a L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of f i f t e e n members. One-third of the members would be c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l o n e - t h i r d would be magistrates and o n e - t h i r d would be e l e c t e d . The power of nominating, members was given to the Governor at f i r s t but the Duke of Newcastle reminded Douglas that he wished t h i s power " t o be so e x e r c i s e d as to c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body, capable of making the wishes of the community f e l t , and c a l c u l a t e d to pave the way for a f o r m a l , ' i f not a l a r g e r i n t r o d u c t i o n to 38 the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e element." The L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l was given the proceeds from the sale of Crown lands subject to disallowance by the B r i t i s h Government. "An Act to Provide for the Government of B r i t i s h 36 Hansard, V. 172, p. 50. 37 Loc. c i t . 38 P.P.C» 3667, l o c . c i t . Columbia", June 11, 1863, provided for the establishment of -39 a l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l . In a despatch of J u l y 14, 1863, . the Duke of Newcastle appointed the f o l l o w i n g to be members of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l : The C o l o n i a l Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer i the Commissioner of Lands and Works, and the C o l l e c t o r of Customs. A r a t h e r amusing i n c i d e n t occurred at t h i s juncture The Government had o f f e r e d a p r i z e for the best essay on B r i t i s h Columbia and a f t e r considerable p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n the award had f i n a l l y been given to Rev. R. C. L. Brown.. However, i n p u b l i s h i n g the essay the Government had changed i t s wording. New Westminster took strong e x c e p t i o n to the d e l e t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g passage, "The backward state of the country, the bad c o n d i t i o n of the roads that e x i s t ... . are owing to the m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Government." and the s u b s t i t u t i o n of, "The manner i n which the Government i s c a r r i e d on and the laws administered gives general s a t i s -f a c t i o n . . . the c o l o n i s t s (with the exception of an i n f l u e n t i a l c l i q u e at .New Y/estminster) are s a t i s f i e d ; they have not the wish, as i n the present circumstances they would not have the time, to l e g i s l a t e for themselves." The three judges, whp had been appointed by the Government, were W. E. Cormack, Henry Holbrook and Arch-39 I b i d . p. 3. 151 deacon Wright.- They pr o t e s t e d the Government's a c t i o n i n a l t e r i n g the essay and Archdeacon Wright wrote to W. A. G. Young, a c t i n g C o l o n i a l Secretary, a l e t t e r dated September 11, 1863, which said i n p a r t , T T I t r a v e l l e d from one end of t h i s Colony to.the other, and from New Westminster to A l e x a n d r i a . The common c r y was f o r a r e s i d e n t Governor, separation of the two Colonies, and some form of s e l f Government, and w i t h that c r y I may say every o f f i c i a l i n t h i s c i t y sympathizes." Despite a l l p r o t e s t s and r e c r i m i n a t i o n s the Government took no heed and the essay remained i n the 40 "censored" v e r s i o n . -E l e c t i o n s for the popular members of the C o u n c i l were held i n the f a l l of 1863; In September a c i r c u l a r was sent out by W. A. G. Young, a u t h o r i z i n g the e l e c t i o n of members. B r i t i s h Columbia was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s : 1. ' New Westminster 2. Hope, Yale and L y t t o n 3. Douglas and L i l l o o e t . -4. Cariboo East 5. Cariboo West No'boundaries were set for the d i s t r i c t s and there were no q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r v o t e r s or candidates. Chartres Brew, P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e , n o t i f i e d the 40 B r i t i s h Columbian, September 23, 1863. 152 people of New Westminster to meet at the Court House on October 5 to e l e c t t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . P r i o r to the e l e c t i o n day a-meeting-was h e l d a t Hyack H a l l , on September 29,, and a r e s o l u t i o n was passed asking the Governor to f i x a property q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r v o t e r s . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n advocated by the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l was that v o t e r s must be B r i t i s h subjects who had r e s i d e d i n the d i s t r i c t at l e a s t three months p r i o r to the e l e c t i o n . They were r e q u i r e d to own r e a l estate- to the value of £20, to pay a y e a r l y r e n t a l of £12, or to have been a c t u a l l y s e t t l e d on a pre-emption f o r the three months. To be e l i g i b l e f o r e l e c t i o n , , a man must 41 own land to the value of £500. Those present a t the meeting expressed " t h e i r strongest disapprobation of the i l l i b e r a l . c o n s t i t u t i o n granted to t h i s Oolony by the C o l o n i a l M i n i s t e r , H i s Grace the Duke of Newcastle . . . they r e g r e t to have to r e c o r d t h e i r p r o t e s t ( i n t h i s the Nineteenth Century) again s t a c o n s t i t u t i o n f i t t e d only f o r the L e g i s l a t i o n of s e r f s , and which i s i n s u l t i n g to the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the 42 people of t h i s Colony." A d e l e g a t i o n was appointed which met Governor Douglas and asked him to enforce these r e g u l a t i o n s re the q u a l i f i c a t i o n of v o t e r s but he informed the d e l e g a t i o n t h a t he had no a u t h o r i t y to l i m i t the f r a n c h i s e . The meeting was re-convened on September 30 and * 41 I b i d . September 30, 1863. 42 I b i d . October 3, 1863. 153 Mr. Holbrook, chairman of the deputation, tol d the meeting that Governor Douglas had said that he c o u l d not l i m i t the b a s i s of f r a n c h i s e "but that i f they could not unanimously agree upon a candidate they might r e t u r n two or three, from 43 amongst whom he (the Governor) would s e l e c t j . " -N a t u r a l l y t h i s announcement was greeted with an uproar and the meeting decided to set i t s own q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I t was f i n a l l y agreed that voters must have l i v e d i n the c i t y or d i s t r i c t s i x months and e i t h e r own land to the value of £20 or pay £12 y e a r l y r e n t . J . A. R. Homer, had been prominently mentioned f o r the nomination. His candidacy was urged by R. D i c k i n s o n , W. J . Armstrong, W i l l i a m Clarkson, James Cunningham and Charles Major. When the. e l e c t o r s a r r i v e d at the Court House on October 5, t h i s b u i l d i n g , was found to be too small to accommodate the l a r g e number of v o t e r s and the meeting was moved to Mr. Webster's s t o r e . Mr. Brew .announced that he-would allow the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r v o t i n g to be decided by the meeting. Captain Cooper was e l e c t e d Returning O f f i c e r and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ' , approved a t the meeting of September 30, were adopted. J . A. R. Homer and Henry Holbrook were both nominated and a p o l l was demanded. I t was decided 43 Loc. c i t . 154 to-hold the p o l l u n t i l f i v e o'clock that day and reopen i t from ten to one o'clock the f o l l o w i n g day. The r e s u l t of 44 the e l e c t i o n was Homer, 69 votes, and Holbrook, 58. The B r i t i s h Columbian of October 10, 1863, published a complete l i s t of those who voted for each candidate and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note some of the names on each l i s t . Among Homer's supporters were Charles Major, John Robson, W. J . Armstrong, John Cooper, David Ramage, W. D. F e r r i s , H. McRoberts, James Burr, James M c l l v e e n , Thomas McNeeley, Tom Cunningham, James Cunningham, J . S. C l u t e , Robert D i c k i n s o n , W i l l i a m Holmes, F. G-. Claudet, Robert Wyllie , A. H. Manson and John Murray. These were the more- prominent c i t i z e n s of New Westminster and t h i s l i s t c o n t a i n s the names of almost a l l the members of the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l except Holbrook h i m s e l f . V oting f o r Holbrook were C. E. Pooley, C. R. Drew, James Kennedy, Sam Brighouse, Thomas Waterhouse* Joseph S o r e l , W i l l i a m H a i l -stone and Ebenezer Brown. Henry Holbrook was l a t e r e l e c t e d f o r Douglas-L l l l o o e t and other members e l e c t e d were Robert T. Smith and James Or'r. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e for Cariboo West was not chosen a t that time. The f i r s t s e s sion of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l was 44 I b i d . October 7, 1863. 155 Magis-t r a t e s held'at New Westminster on January 21, 1864. The meetings were conducted i n a former barrack b u i l d i n g at the Royal Engineers Camp at Sapperton. The members of the C o u n c i l were: 1. C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y - A. N. B i r c h C o l o n i a l 2. Attorney-General - H. P. P. Crease O f f i c i a l s 3. C o l l e c t o r of Customs - W. 0. Hamley 4. Treasurer - C. W. Franks 5. Chief Commissioner of Lands'and Works-J. W* Trutch 1. Chartres Brew - Chief Inspector of P o l i c e 2. Peter O ' R e i l l y - Gold Commissioner and Magistrate 3. Edward H. Sanders - Gold Commissioner and Magistrate 4; Henry M. B a l l - Gold Commissioner and Magistrate 5. P h i l i p H. Nind - Gold Commissioner and Ma g i s t r a t e 1. Joshua Attwood Reynolds Homer - New Westminster E l e c t e d 2. Robert T. Smith - Hope, Yale, L y t t o n Members 3. Henry Holbrook - Douglas, L i l l o o e t 4. James Orr - Cariboo East 5. A. W. S. Black - Cariboo West • The proceedings opened with a speech from the Governor and the members were then sworn i n by Judge Begbie. Both the press and the p u b l i c were excluded from the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the C o u n c i l . In h i s opening address Governor Douglas informed the C o u n c i l that the c o l o n i a l debt f o r 1863. was £27,755. Of t h i s £10,700 was the balance . owed to the Impe r i a l Government f o r the b u i l d i n g s at the Royal Engineers Camp, while the remaining £17,055 was general debt* The people o f the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia were 45 45 I b i d ; January 23, 1864. 156 not s a t i s f i e d with the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , as they f e l t that popular r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was not s u f f i c i e n t . They again brought the charge of " t a x a t i o n without r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " . When Governor Seymour l e f t on a v i s i t to England i n the f a l l of 1865, the people of New Westminster presented him with an address asking him to use h i s "powerful i n f l u e n c e " to 46 persuade the B r i t i s h Government' to remedy t h i s d e f e c t . E a r l y i n March, 1864, a great p u b l i c meeting was h e l d at Hyack H a l l to hear the r e p o r t of Leonard McClure, who, as Vancouver I s l a n d delegate, had accompanied the B r i t i s h Columbia delegate, Hon. Malcolm Cameron, to London l a t e ' i n 1862. At the meeting, Messrs. Homer, Armstrong, Clarkson, Kennedy, Manson, Cormack, Dickinson, Hooper and Robson were appointed a committee " f o r the purpose of t a k i n g the necessary steps to obt a i n a more l i b e r a l system of Government, i n place of the present," which ex p i r e s w i t h the 47 c u r r e n t year." On March 14, 1864, Governor Douglas (by then S i r James Douglas) a r r i v e d from V i c t o r i a on the E n t e r p r i s e and took up residence i n the house b u i l t f o r C o l o n e l Moody. The r e s t of the absentee o f f i c i a l s came to New Westminster a t the 48 same time. Governor Douglas remained on the mainland onl y 46 I b i d . September 2, 1865. 47 I b i d . March 16, 1864. 48 Loc. c i t . 157 one month a f t e r which he r e t i r e d - to V i c t o r i a . On A p r i l 8 a A banquet was tendered him by "the c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s , h i s 49 over-zealous and i n j u d i c i o u s f r i e n d s " . The C o l o n i s t reported the banquet as a p u b l i c f u n c t i o n given by the c i t i z e n s of New Westminster. The Columbian s a i d t h i s r e p o r t was " u n f a i r and untrue". I t was a p r i v a t e dinner and only one prominent c i t i z e n of New Westminster was present. There can be no doubt that the people of New Westminster were overjoyed t c see the l a s t of the hated Governor. H i s unp o p u l a r i t y a t the c a p i t a l was without.equal and the people had prayed "as f e r v e n t l y to be f r e e d from h i s i n s u l t i n g despotism as ever d i d I s r a e l i t e f o r deliverance 50 .from Egyptian bondage". Douglas' successor was F r e d e r i c k Seymour who had form e r l y been governor of B r i t i s h Honduras. Governor Seymour reached New Westminster on A p r i l 20. He was asked by the . c i t i z e n s of New Westminster to remain a few days i n V i c t o r i a a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l there as they wished to arrange a ceremony of welcome and to deck the s t r e e t s w i t h arches and other decorations. He was advised that the ceremony would l o s e d i g n i t y i f he landed from a common t r a d i n g v e s s e l among the miners, so he r e q u i s i t i o n e d a gun-boat from Captain Lord G i l f o r d , the Senior Naval O f f i c e r , and made the c r o s s i n g w i t h 49 I b i d . A p r i l 16, 1864. 50 I b i d . June 20, 1863. 158 51 three servants on H.M.S. Forward. Extensive preparations were made a t New Westminster f o r Governor Seymour's a r r i v a l . B u i l d i n g s were decorated w i t h bunting and evergreens and two f i r arches were erected on Columbia S t r e e t . ••When the gun-boat came i n view a l a r g e crowd h u r r i e d down to the.wharf. When he stepped ashore, His E x c e l l e n c y was greeted by the M u n i c i p a l Council who' presented an address of welcome from the c i t i z e n s of New Westminster. The f o l l o w i n g day the Hyacks and the members of the m i l i t i a companies proceeded to Sapperton and es c o r t e d Governor Seymour to town. An o f f i c i a l gathering was h e l d i n f r o n t of the Treasury, with Judge Begbie reading the Governor' 52 commission and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the oath of o f f i c e . L a t e r , Governor Seymour r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l addresses from the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , the M i n i s t e r s and M i s s i o n a r i e s of the Wesleyan M i s s i o n Church, the M i n i s t e r s and o f f i c e bearers of S t . Andrews' Church and the members of the St. Andrew's S o c i e t y . . S h o r t l y a f t e r Governor Seymour's a r r i v a l a d d i t i o n s 53 were made to Government House a t a cost of £865. A. H. Manson was.awarded the c o n t r a c t and John C. White was engaged as a r c h i t e c t and b u i l d i n g - superintendent. 51 B. C. Despatches, p. 80, Seymour to Newcastle, A p r i l 20, 1864. 52 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 25, 1864. 53 Lands and Works L e t t e r Book, p. 226. 159 The North P a c i f i c Times of November 18, 1864, described the•new a d d i t i o n s : "An extensive s u i t e of apart-ments has r e c e n t l y been added to the Government House, i n c l u d i n g a spacious and handsome ball-room, capable of accommodating with ease 200 dancers. A d j o i n i n g t h i s are the supper rooms, e l e g a n t l y and s u b s t a n t i a l l y f u r n i s h e d apart-ments." Extensive improvements were made to the grounds by 54 ' the c h a i n gang. When F r e d e r i c k Seymour assumed the o f f i c e of Governor, the finances of B r i t i s h Columbia were i n a ba'd s t a t e . The new governor l a t e r reported to the C o l o n i a l Secretary that t h i s was due to Douglas 1 enormous expenditures on roads and to h i s c r e a t i o n of "a s t a f f of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s 55 s u f f i c i e n t f o r a p o p u l a t i o n ten times as l a r g e as they have."' He wrote to Rt. Hon. Edward Cardwell: I had not seen even i n the West Indie's so melancholy a p i c t u r e of disappointed hopes as New Westminster presented on my a r r i v a l . . . . Thousands of t r e e s had been f e l l e d to make way f o r the great c i t y expected to r i s e on the magnificent s i t e s e l e c t e d f o r i t . But the- b l i g h t had e a r l y come. Many of the best houses were untenanted. The l a r g e s t h o t e l was to l e t , decay appeared on a l l s i d e s , and the stumps and l o g s of the f a l l e n trees blocked up most of the s t r e e t s . Westminster appeared, to use the miners' expression, played out. ' . 56' 54 B r i t i s h Columbian, October 12, 1864. 55 B. C. Despatches, p. 37, Seymour to Buckingham, June 8, 1868. 56 P.P.O. 3667,. p. 21, Seymour to Cardwell, • March 21, 1865. 160 S h o r t l y a f t e r B r i t i s h Columbia fs:'formation, the-. House of Commons voted the colony £42,998, of which £37,000 57 was the cost 'of sending out the Royal Engineers. The expenditures to February 23, 1859, had amounted to £25,059. 6. 4. and the revenue to £22,924. 1. 5., or an 58 unfavourable balance of £2,315. 4. 11. This e a r l y d e f i c i t was due to the expenses of the Royal Engineers, poor land s a l e s , the enormous cost of roads and evasion of the export duty on gold by miners who smuggled gold across the border. In 1860 the B r i t i s h Government made a f u r t h e r grant 59 60 of £15,000 and the f o l l o w i n g year granted £8, 600. There was considerable o b j e c t i o n i n the House of Commons to these two grants, but Mr. Chichester Fortescue argued, that the 1 greater part of the grant was " f o r a d d i t i o n a l pay to the 61 Ros^al Engineers owing to the high cost of p r o v i s i o n s . " In 1862, Mr. Fortescue again succeeded i n o b t a i n i n g a grant 62 f o r the colony, t h i s time f o r £9,000. At the f i r s t meeting of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n January, 1864, i t was reported that the expenditures f o r 1863 were £192,869 and the revenues £110,000, making a 57 Hansard, v. 155, pp. 522-524. 58 B. C. Papers, Part 3, p. 3, Douglas to L y t t o n , A p r i l 8, 1859. 59 Hansard, v. 160, p. 1363. 60 I b i d . v. 164, p. 1028. 61 Loc. c i t . 62 I b i d . v. 167, p. 496. 161 de f i c i t of £82,869. The deficit was smaller in 1864, but 63 rose again in 1865, the-year of the depression.. By the end of 1865 i t was apparent that the financial status of the colony had reached a very low ebb. Many merchants were bankrupt. When the Bank of British Columbia had f i r s t opened i t was exceedingly generous with i t s credits and loans. Many merchants were themselves able to give l i b e r a l credit and laid in large stocks of goods, purchased on credit, in the belief that the population of the colony would in'erease. Unfortunately the population decreased and when the bank suddenly called in a l l i t s advances, many of its creditors were forced into bankruptcy. There was no sound basis of prosperity for the colony; the peak of gold rush had declined and there were, as yet,' no extensive attempts at agriculture. By the middle of 1868, Governor Seymour reported that his salary was eleven months in arrears, that the colony's bank account was overdrawn, and that the Bank of British Columbia was charging eighteen per cent, interest on 64 - the overdrawn account. The financial depression.of British Columbia and Vancouver Island made their union inevitable.. By 1866, the net indebtedness of British Columbia was over $1,000,000 and 63 Harvey, Arthur, A Stat i s t i c a l Account of-British  Columbia, p. 10. 64 B. C. Despatches, p. 37, Seymour to Buckingham, June 8,- 1868. 162 that of the i s l a n d colony was n e a r l y f300,000, while the cost of the two separate governments amounted to n e a r l y §1,000,000 annually. Vancouver I s l a n d owed the Bank of B r i t i s h North America $79,567 and the bank stopped a l l f u r t h e r c r e d i t to the colony on May 31, 1866. In J u l y the colony had to borrow $90,000 at twelve per cent, i n t e r e s t to repay the bank and have s u f f i c i e n t funds to c a r r y on o r d i n a r y 65 business. From the beginning the idea of union was extremely . ' 6 6 -unpopular i n B r i t i s h Columbia, " . . . you may b l u s t e r , • b u l l y , r e s o l v e , p e t i t i o n , meet, d i s p e r s e , and meet again, 67 w a i l , deplore, even menace, but we w i l l have none of you." As e a r l y as March 7, 1861, the B r i t i s h Columbian had warned, " I f B r i t i s h Columbians do not b e s t i r themselves Hudson's Bay. i n f l u e n c e i n V i c t o r i a and Downing S t r e e t w i l l have us fastened to Vancouver I s l a n d one of these days, and that upon the most ruinous and degrading termsV The memorial sent to the Imperial Government on J u l y 17, 1862, contained a strong p l e a against i n c o r p o r a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia. The-people of New Westminster were b i t t e r l y opposed to. any thought of union. New Westminster and V i c t o r i a had 65 P. P. C. 3667, p. 31, Kennedy to Cardwell, J u l y , 1866. 66 P. P. C. 367, p. 30, Seymour to Cardwell, March 29, 3B65. 67 North P a c i f i c Times, March 8, 1865. 163 been b i t t e r r i v a l s almost from the date of the i n c e p t i o n of the mainland c a p i t a l and an almost constant b l a s t of i n s u l t s were h u r l e d across the Gulf. When the e d i t o r of the V i t o r i a C h r o n i c l e r e f e r r e d to the Fraser as a "stream of l i q u i d mud", John Robson r e p l i e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbian of A p r i l 15, 1863, "We might remind him of a c e r t a i n 'frog pond' d i g n i f i e d by the name of ' V i c t o r i a Harbor', which i s not fortunate enough to possess ' l i q u i d mud' to a s u f f i c i e n t depth to admit or d i n a r y s i z e d v e s s e l s . " Much of New Westminster's h o s t i l i t y was the r e s u l t of the c o n v i c t i o n that i t was being s a c r i f i c e d to the i n t e r e s t s of V i c t o r i a . From the beginning, Governor Douglas used a l l h i s i n f l u e n c e to f o s t e r the i s l a n d c i t y p a r t l y because of h i s personal - i n t e r e s t i n V i c t o r i a and because of h i s potent connection w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company* The Hudson's Bay " c l i q u e " was s t r o n g l y entrenched at V i c t o r i a while i t s i n f l u e n c e a t New Westminster was comparatively l i m i t e d . The young-city s t r u g g l i n g to develop on the banks of the Fraser n a t u r a l l y looked w i t h hatred at i t s favoured r i v a l across the Gul f . The Government's p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l and commercial p o l i c y a l l worked i n favour of the i s l a n d w h i l e New Westminster was d i s c r i m i n a t e d against and hampered a t every t u r n . In March of 1865, the Mun i c i p a l C o u n c i l sent a p e t i t i o n to the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , urging a g a i n s t union, 164 c h i e f l y on the grounds that the mainland colony was j u s t beginning to prosper. Frequent e d i t o r i a l s i n the B r i t i s h Columbian expressed v i o l e n t o p p o s i t i o n to union. One of September 30, 1865, read that c e r t a i n d e s i g n i n g p o l i t i c i a n s were t r y i n g "to betray t h i s colony i n t o the hands of i t s worst enemies, the Hudson's Bay Company, Wharf S t r e e t chapmen, V i c t o r i a l a n d sharks, and t h e i r Adjutants - General, De Cosmos, McClure, and Company." In A p r i l , 1866, the M u n i c i p a l Council sent a memorial to the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y s t a t i n g that the people of B r i t i s h Columbia were opposed to union but adding t h a t , i f union were fo r c e d on the colony, then New Yfestminster should be chosen as the permanent c a p i t a l . The s i t e of t h i s c i t y was, your memorialists b e l i e v e , w i s e l y s e l e c t e d by a commissioner sent out by Her Majesty's Government and s p e c i a l l y charged with that duty; received i t s name d i r e c t from Her Majesty and was o f f i c i a l l y proclaimed as the permanent c a p i t a l by a s t a t u t e law of the Colony. . . . The c a p i t a l could not now be di s t u r b e d without breaking f a i t h w i t h the people, and i n f l i c t i n g gross I n j u s t i c e upon l a r g e - v e s t e d r i g h t s ; . . . . 68 At the time of the r e c e i p t of t h i s memorial, Governor Seymour was absent on a v i s i t t o Europe. Hon. A. N. B i r c h , a c t i n g Governor, reported to the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y that the m a j o r i t y of the i n h a b i t a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia', apart from those l i v i n g i n New Westminster, had 68 P.P.C. 3694, 1866, A Further Despatch R e l a t i v e to the  Proposed Union of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d , p. 2, A p r i l 26, 1866. 165 l i t t l e or no interest in the question of union and he 69 expressed himself in favor of joining the two colonies. The people of Vancouver Island were, on the other hand, most anxious for the union of the colonies and the desire for union became even stronger after the establishment of a Legislative Council in B r i t i s h Columbia, when i t soon became apparent that the Council was extremely hostile to Vancouver Island. The Customs Amendment of 1865 tended to aggravate further the already depressed economic condition of 70 the island colony. Before the passing of this ordinance almost a l l goods brought into British Columbia were tran-shipped from Victoria as that city was a free port and goods were admitted duty free. The. amended ordinance imposed a higher duty on goods shipped to British Columbia from Victoria *han on goods imported direct from any other port. On June 22, 1866, the Legislative Assembly of Vancouver Island presented a memorial to the Secretary for the colonies asking for an immediate legislative union with the. power of taxation and expenditure vested in a strong Legislative 71 Assembly. As early as April, 1864, Hon. Edward Cardwell asked both Governor Kennedy and Governor Seymour for their 69 Ibid. Birch to Cardwell, April 28, 1866. 70 P.P.O. 3852, p i 2, Kennedy to Cardwell, June 15, 1866. 71 Ibid; p., 11, June 22, 1866. 166 72 views on the subject of union. Governor Kennedy reported to the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y on March 21, 1865, that the House of Assembly of Vancouver I s l a n d favoured u n c o n d i t i o n a l union by a m a j o r i t y of eleven to f o u r . At f i r s t Governor Seymour was strenuously opposed to union. He a t t r i b u t e d the colony's depression to the f a c t that i t had been s a c r i f i c e d f o r the gain of V i c t o r i a and i n 1866 he began to see signs that B r i t i s h Columbia was e n t e r i n g a new era of p r o s p e r i t y . In a despatch from P a r i s on February 17, 1866, he expressed strong o p p o s i t i o n to union -on the grounds that B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not want union and 73 that the colony was not depressed. Despite o p p o s i t i o n from the mainland colony, union was i n e v i t a b l e ; Lack of p o p u l a t i o n and the.large indebtedness of the c o l o n i e s meant that union was necessary i f both c o l o n i e s were to become sol v e n t and prosperous. A c c o r d i n g l y , and I m p e r i a l Act u n i t i n g the two c o l o n i e s was passed i n August, 1866, and F r e d e r i c k Seymour was appointed Governor of the u n i t e d colony, B r i t i s h Columbia. Upon h i s r e t u r n from Europe the Governor landed at V i c t o r i a on November 7, 1866, where he "was received w i t h great coldness" and where he 72 P.P.C. 3667, p. 7, Cardwell to Kennedy, A p r i l 30, 1864. 73 P.P.C. 3667, p. 37, Seymour to Cardwell, February 17, 1866. 167 n o t i c e d "a look of extreme depression upon the town and i t s , 7 4 i n h a b i t a n t s . " Three days l a t e r he reached New Westminster where • 75 he was "met with a most l o y a l and g r a t i f y i n g r e c e p t i o n . " Governor and Mrs. Seymour a r r i v e d on the S i r ^ .ames Douglas and when the steamer came i n s i g h t they were greeted by "a r i g h t merry peal from the chime of b e l l s and a s a l u t e from the guns of the Seymour A r t i l l e r y . " The members of the Hyack and m i l i t i a companies, headed by the Hyack "band, marched out to Government House, each man bear i n g a l i g h t e d torch and as the v i c e - r e g a l p a r t y ianded the band played "th a t e x q u i s i t e and appropriate a i r , 'Home Again'". The B r i t i s h Columbian published a v i v i d account of the ensuing c e l e b r a t i o n : The long avenue of humanity, the three Volunteer Companies i n t h e i r v a r i e d uniforms, the Hyack Company i n t h e i r b r i g h t costume, and the l o n g l i n e of c i v i l i a n s , with sever a l "hundred persons forming the background, and j u s t enough of t o r c h -l i g h t to render the scene picturesque, and c a s t a charm over the whole, the view from the r i v e r must have been "charmant" . As soon as the party stepped onto the wharf, where s e v e r a l heads of departments stood ready to re c e i v e them, a cheer ran up the l i n e s and f a i n t l y died away i n the distance w i t h the r o l l of the drums. 76 On November 19 Governor Seymour proclaimed the 74 P.P.C. 3852, Further Papers R e l a t i v e to the Union of  B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d , p. 27, Seymour to Carnarvon, November 20, 1866. 75 I b i d . p. 28. 76 B r i t i s h Columbian, November 14,, 1866. 168 Imperial Act at V i c t o r i a and New Westminster and reported "no enthusiasm or excitement shown i n e i t h e r town." The proclamation was read a t V i c t o r i a by S h e r i f f Adamson. At New Westminster i t was proclaimed at the Treasury B u i l d i n g by J . A. R. Homer, the High S h e r i f f , i n the presence of Chartres Brew, J.P., Charles W. Franks, Treasurer, Henry-P. Pellew Crease, Attorney-General, and Arthur T. Bushby, R e g i s t r a r 77 % General. F o l l o w i n g the reading, the f l a g on the Hyack engine house was run up as a s i g n a l to H.M.S. Sparrow hawk to f i r e a s a l u t e , "but that was the act of the Government, not 78 of the people." F o l l o w i n g union of the c o l o n i e s , the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l c o n s i s t e d of twenty-three members, fo u r t e e n of whom /were appointed, i n c l u d i n g nine . magistrates and f i v e Govern-ment members. Five of the e l e c t e d members were from the mainland and the remaining f o u r from Vancouver I s l a n d . The f i r s t s ession of the new L e g i s l a t i v e Council was opened wi t h a l l due ceremony on January 24, 1867, at Sapper ton. Governor Seymour was met by a guard of honour from the three New Westminster volu n t e e r companies and h i s e x i t was the s i g n a l for a salute of eighteen guns by H.M.S. Malacca, which had anchored i n the r i v e r opposite Government House. The speech from the throne made no mention of the s i t e of the c a p i t a l 77 P.P*C. 3852, p. 30, Seymour to Carnarvon, November 21, 1866. 78 British."Colmnblan, November 21, 1866. 169 but t h i s was the foremost and most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . Governor Seymour was outspoken i n h i s o p i n i o n that New Westminster should be the c a p i t a l of the u n i t e d c o l o n i e s . W h i l e ' i n P a r i s he wrote Hon. Edward Cardwell expressing the view that as Vancouver I s l a n d was seeking union with B r i t i s h Columbia, i t must r e l i n q u i s h a l l c l a i m to the c a p i t a l . I t h i n k , however, that i n seeking union w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver I s l a n d r e l i n q u i s h e s a l l c l a i m to the possession w i t h i n her l i m i t s of the seat of Government. New Westminster has been chosen as the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia, and i t would not be f a i r to the r e l u c t a n t colony to deprive her of the Governor and s t a f f of o f f i c e r s . Both these towns are i n c o n v e n i e n t l y s i t u a t e d on an angle of the vast B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y , but New Westminster, on the mainland, has the advantage over the i s l a n d town. I t i s already the centre of the t e l e g r a p h i c system, and i s i n constant communication w i t h the upper country, whereas the steamers to V i c t o r i a only run twice a week. The seat of Government should be on the mainland; whether i t might not, w i t h advantage, be brought here a f t e r nearer to the gold mines, i s a question f o r the f u t u r e . 79 Seymour pressed the c l a i m of New Westminster before the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . He reminded the C o l o n i a l Secretary t h a t "during the passage of the Act, i t was stated i n both Houses of Parliament that New Westminster should be the seat of general government." He added that (New Westminster i s ) "In my o p i n i o n the most res p e c t a b l e , manly and e n t e r p r i s i n g 79 B. C. Despatches, p. 590, Seymour to Buckingham, J u l y 13, 1867. 170 80 l i t t l e community with which I have ever been acquainted." The C o l o n i a l Secretary r e p l i e d t h a t the B r i t i s h Government d i d not intend the people of New Westminster to understand that the c a p i t a l would never be moved but l e f t the f i n a l choice i n the hands of the Governor. . . . I think i t i s requisite to say that the establishment of New Westminster as the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not, i n my o p i n i o n , involve any pledge on the part of the Government that the s i t e of that c a p i t a l s h a l l never be moved. I t i s , of course, always undesirable to disappoint n a t u r a l expectations, and much co n s i d e r a t i o n may be due to those who are so disappointed. But every land purchaser i n New Westminster or any other l o c a l i t y , must be considered to buy h i s land, subject to the possible changes which the v a r y i n g p o l i t i c a l or commercial i n t e r e s t s of the whole community may from time to time render necessary. I w i l l add that, although I db not p r e s c r i b e to you the choice of one or other c a p i t a l , you w i l l be at l i b e r t y , i n case you should decide i n favour of V i c t o r i a , to quote the a u t h o r i t y of the Home Government i n support of that course. 81 New Westminster's r i g h t s were s t r o n g l y advocated by the B r i t i s h Columbian and i t s f i e r y e d i t o r , John Robson. From the time i t was f i r s t suggested that the c a p i t a l might be moved to V i c t o r i a the Columbian kept up a constant b l a s t 80 P.P.H.C. 483 of 1868, E x t r a c t s of Correspondence  between Governor Kennedy of Vancouver I s l a n d , Governor Seymour of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e on the subject of a S i t e f o r the  C a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 4, Seymour to Buckingham, J u l y 13, 1867. 81 I b i d . Buckingham to Seymour, October 1, 1867. 171 at V i c t o r i a and i t s " g l a r i n g impertinence" i n presuming to be the c a p i t a l . ". . . i t i s not l i k e l y that the B r i t i s h Government, a Government whose ' f a i t h ' has never yet been broken and whose 'honor' has never yet been tarnished, would be g u i l t y of o f f e r i n g at once i t s ' f a i t h and honor' and the e n t i r e fortunes of i t s l o y a l subjects a t New Westminster, a s a c r i f i c e to a band of u n p r i n c i p l e d , d i s l o y a l and i n s a t i a b l e speculators at V i c t o r i a . No, no. The very thought savors 82 of treason." The Royal C i t y ' s c l a i m was based c h i e f l y on the f a c t that i n seeking union Vancouver I s l a n d had r e l i n q u i s h e d a l l c l a i m to the c a p i t a l . Many people who had bought l a n d i n New Westminster had made t h i s investment .on the assumption that New Westminster would always be the c a p i t a l and i t would be a breach of " p u b l i c f a i t h and honour" to move the seat of government. John Robson did not have much f a i t h i n the judgment of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l although he himself was a member of i t . This c r i t i c i s m was based on Robson's opinion that the C o u n c i l was not repr e s e n t a t i v e of the people because people of every race, creed or c o l o u r could vote i f they had been r e s i d e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r three months. "Thus we have seen the f o r e i g n e r , who was but w a i t i n g the a r r i v a l 82 3 r i t i s h Columbian, December 11, 1867 172 of the next .steamer to c a r r y him from the Colony f o r e v e r , step up to the p o l l and record h i s vote, or a drove of Kanakas, who r e q u i r e d a h a l f hour's t u i t i o n and a second t r i a l i n order i n d i s t i n c t l y to a r t i c u l a t e the name of the candidate i n whose i n t e r e s t they had been dragged up, standing upon eaual f o o t i n g with the r e s i d e n t B r i t i s h 83 subject." Meanwhile the claims of V i c t o r i a were v i g o r o u s l y supported by the Hudson's Bay Company, the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Bank of North America, and by v a r i o u s i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n s of Vancouver I s l a n d . The C o l o n i s t dismissed New Westminster as "a pimple on the face of 84 c r e a t i o n " , while on the other hand, the Nanaimo Tribune remarked of V i c t o r i a , "a c r u e l stepmother she has been to 85 us, a c o l d , s e l f i s h , c l o s e - f i s t e d o l d darnel" Dr. Helmcken was quoted as saying, "The day that makes New Westminster 86 the c a p i t a l w i l l make more American c i t i z e n s than B r i t i s h . " S i r James Douglas used h i s i n f l u e n c e on behalf of 87 V i c t o r i a . a n d prompted by a l e t t e r from the former Governor, Dr. Helmcken on March 28, 1867, introduced a r e s o l u t i o n i n t o the L e g i s l a t i v e Council f o r the removal of the c a p i t a l to 83 B r i t i s h Columbian, January 19, 1867. 84 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , September 24, 1866. 85 B r i t i sh Columbian, October 6, 1866. 86 I b i d . January 16, 1867. 87 Sage, W. N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 342; B. C. Despatches, p. 559, Seymour to Carnarvon, March 18, 1867. 173 V i c t o r i a . Governor Seymour had the same day sent a lengthy message to the C o u n c i l , i n which he urged that no immediate a c t i o n should he taken hut reminded the members that i t had been stated i n both Houses of Parliament that New Westminster 88 should be the c a p i t a l of the u n i t e d colony. A ten hour debate was held on March 29 on the subject of the l o c a t i o n of the c a p i t a l and the Helmcken r e s o l u t i o n was c a r r i e d by a vote of t h i r t e e n to e i g h t , w i t h the i s l a n d and o f f i c i a l members supporting i t . Although the Council obviously favoured the change 89 Governor Seymour h e s i t a t e d to make the move. The D a i l y News of V i c t o r i a termed him a " h e a r t l e s s d i c t a t o r " and "worse 90 than a costermonger." Seymour sent the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e a comprehensive expression of h i s views informing the Imperial a u t h o r i t i e s that no Governor would of h i s own fre e w i l l leave Government House a t New Westminster for that at V i c t o r i a and adding t h a t the L e g i s l a t i v e Council could b e t t e r c a r r y on i t s work i n the " l e s s troubled town of New Westminster" than i n the " f e v e r i s h p o l i t i c a l atmosphere of 91 V i c t o r i a . " A tremendous uproar was caused by the p u b l i c a t i o n i n the C o l o n i s t of February 13, 1868, of a l e t t e r r eputedly 88 B r i t i s h Columbian, March 30 , 1867. 89 P.P.H.C. 483, p. 4, Seymour to Buckingham, A p r i l 10, 18 90 B r i t i s h Columbian, A p r i l EO, 1867. 91 P.P.H.C. 483, p. 9, Seymour to Buckingham, December 10, 1867 174 w r i t t e n by Captain Richards, R.N., to Mr. Donald Fraser of V i c t o r i a . The l e t t e r said i n p a r t , . . . I never could understand b u i l d i n g the wooden hovels d i g n i f i e d by the name of c a p i t a l , f i f t e e n m i les w i t h i n the entrance of an i n t r i c a t e r i v e r where only the smallest war s h i p s can enter. . . . by taking away the prestige from V i c t o r i a you w i l l b e n e f i t no one but the few possessors of l a n d i n the imme di a t e neighbourhood of the hovels, and m i l l keep the country back f o r a generation. 92 On February 17 a pub l i c meeting was held at the c a l l of Henry Holbrook, President of the Municipal C o u n c i l , to i n v e s t i g a t e these statements of Captain Richards. Hon. John Robson spoke at some length and introduced a r e s o l u t i o n , which c a r r i e d unanimously, expressing " s u r p r i s e and r e g r e t " that Captain Richards should have " o f f e r e d g r a t u i t o u s i n s u l t 93 , to a l a r g e and respectable B r i t i s h Community." J . T. Scott moved a second r e s o l u t i o n that a committee should be appointed to prepare a memorial to be sent to the Duke of Buckingham p o i n t i n g out the discrepancy between Captain Richards' d e s c r i p t i o n of New Westminster and the Fraser R i v e r i n Vancouver I s l a n d P i l o t and h i s remarks i n the l e t t e r to Mr. Fraser and b r i n g i n g to "the n o t i c e of His Grace the unscrupulous means r e s o r t e d to in-order i f p o s s i b l e to prej u d i c e the question of the Seat of Government, to the 92 B r i t i s h Columbian, February 15, 1868. 93 I b i d . February 19, 1868. 175 great i n j u r y of the general i n t e r e s t s of t h i s colony." The committee appointed f o r t h i s purpose was H. Holbrook, John Robson, W. J . Armstrong, J . T. S c o t t , T. Cunningham, J . S. C l u t e , H. W. Smith, D. Withrow, T. E. Ladner, H. Havelock, W. Clarkson, and W. E i s h e r . When the L e g i s l a t i v e C ouncil reassembled i n the spr i n g of 1868, the question of the s i t e of the c a p i t a l was once again the foremost i s s u e . Governor Seymour i n the speech from the throne remarked, "A Governor must allow 94 himself no personal f e e l i n g s i n a matter of t h i s importance." He added t h a t , ". . . Her Majesty's Government are of the o p i n i o n that i n my Message of the 27th of March, 1867, I took an extreme view as to the extent to. which p u b l i c f a i t h and honour are pledged to the purchasers of land i n New Westminster." On A p r i l 15, the New Westminster Munici p a l C o u n c i l . sent a memorial to Governor Seymour expressing t h e i r reasons f o r urging that the c a p i t a l should remain at New Westminster. The Council had r a i s e d $44,500 i n taxes and borrowed $13,386 by means of debentures which were issued i n 1862 and would soon f a l l due. I f the s i t e of the c a p i t a l were moved to V i c t o r i a , the value of l a n d a t New Westminster would f a l l s harply and the Council would be hard-pressed t o meet i t s 94 I b i d . March 21, 1868. 176 96 obi i ga t i ons. On A p r i l 20, Hon. John Robson, New Westminster's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , was assaulted and beaten by Hon. R. T. Smith. The cause of the a s s a u l t was that Robson had t r i e d to prevent Smith from v o t i n g on A p r i l 2 on the question of the s i t e of the c a p i t a l . Smith, r needless to say, favoured V i c t o r i a and Robson t r i e d to have him barred on the ground that he was bankrupt and therefore must f o r f e i t h i s seat i n the C o u n c i l . Robson was s t r o l l i n g back to town from the L e g i s l a t i v e H a l l a t Sapperton, reading . a copy of the Estimates as he walked along. As he was nearing Mr. Bushby's residence he met Smith, who knocked him to the ground and jumped on him. Smith then commenced to beat Robson w i t h Robson's own walking s t i c k , but stopped the attack when Hon. Mr. Wood and Hon. Dr.. Helmcken appeared on the scene. Smith was a r r e s t e d and on appearing i n 96 magistrate's c o u r t , was f i n e d £5. However, the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l had on A p r i l 2 voted i n favour of moving the c a p i t a l to V i c t o r i a , w i t h 97 Messrs. Crease, Hamley, Robson, Barnard, and B a l l d i s s e n t i n g . In a message read to-the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l on A p r i l 28, 95 I b i d . A p r i l 15, 1868. 96 I b i d . A p r i l 25, 1868; B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u arterly , J u l y , 1940, John Robson versus J . K. Suter, pp. 204-205. 97 P.P.H.C. 483, p. 12, Seymour to Buckingham, May 25, 1868, 177 Governor Seymour announced that he would cause V i c t o r i a to be proclaimed the c a p i t a l on May 24. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate on the reason f o r Governor Seymour's change of a t t i t u d e . There i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s d e c i s i o n . V i c t o r i a contained a l a r g e r s e t t l e d population and was the headquarters of the banks, churches, and the Hudson's Bay Company. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t of Seymour's a f f e c t i o n f o r New Westminster that he wrote the C o l o n i a l Secretary, "In my own heart, I must a l l o w thare was a f e e l i n g i n favour of the manly, r e s p e c t a b l e , l o y a l and e n t e r p r i s i n g community e s t a b l i s h e d on the Hanks of the F r a s e r . " In a l e t t e r w r i t t e n to the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l i n May, 1868, the Governor s a i d i n p a r t , " I w i l l i n g l y bear testimony to the l o y a l t y , good f e e l i n g , s e l f - r e l i a n c e and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of the people of New Westminster, and deeply r e g r e t that I should come to be the instrument of i n f l i c t i n g 99 a temporary'injury upon them." Governor Seymour's good wishes d i d not go f a r towards p l a c a t i n g the people of New Westminster. A p u b l i c meeting was held on A p r i l 29 to secure. r e d r e s s . Three, r e s o l u t i o n s were passed by t h i s meeting. The f i r s t , moved by Ebenezer Brown, was to the e f f e c t that the removal of the c a p i t a l was a " d i r e c t v i o l a t i o n of p u b l i c f a i t h and honor." 98 I b i d . , p.- 22, Seymour to Buckingham,- A p r i l 29, 1868.. 99 B r i t i s h Columbian, May 13, 1868. 178 Mr. J . Calder moved that "the property-holders i n t h i s c i t y have a just r i g h t to compensation." A t h i r d r e s o l u t i o n , moved by Mr. F e r r i s , proposed the establishment of a committee "to draw up a Memorial to Her Most Gracious 100 Majesty the Queen, humbly praying f o r repress and j u s t i c e . " Governor Seymour d i d not escape New Westminster's wrath. The B r i t i s h Columbian published an e d i t o r i a l c a s t i g a t i n g him u n m e r c i f u l l y : " . . . the Governor, i f not a c t u a l l y convicted of double d e a l i n g and treachery of the most e x t r a o r d i n a r y and aggravated character, i s at l e a s t the 101 subject of s u s p i c i o n of the most p a i n f u l nature." On June 6, the Columbian again r e f e r r e d to the Governor's part i n the event, "His E x c e l l e n c y has, whether u n w i l l i n g l y or-not i s , perhaps, known only to himself and h i s s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r , been the instrument i n p e r p e t r a t i n g an act which, f o r c r u e l t y and i n j u s t i c e , w i l l hot e a s i l y f i n d a p a r a l l e l , even i n C o l o n i a l h i s t o r y . " Governor and Mrs. Seymour l e f t New Westminster on board the H.M.S. Sparrowhawk on May 18. The g u b e r n a t o r i a l party had to disembark at Cadboro Bay and t r a v e l overland to "Bleak House" (Cary C a s t l e ) as the Sparrowhawk drew too much IU2 water to be able to enter V i c t o r i a harbour. 100 I b i d . May 2, 1868. 101 I b i d . May 13, 1868. 102 I b i d . May 20, 1868. 179 The Government o f f i c i a l s s c u r r i e d across the Gulf w i t h the "most indecent haste". Most of them went to " V i c t o r i a w i t h i n a week ". . . and i n l e s s than a month s c a r c e l y a vestige of o f f i c i a l d o m remained t o mark- the s i t e of the 'phantom c a p i t a l ' " . Not even a branch of the Lands. and Works Department was l e f t to serve the whole mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. Of t h i s mass'exodus, the Columbian remarked, " I f the o f f i c i a l s can a l l be huddled together on a s m a l l , remote i s l a n d , without detriment to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i t i s p r e t t y c l e a r that they might be scared 103 a l t o g e t h e r . " ' -•New Westminster continued"to press i t s claims f o r redress. Before Governor Seymour's departure for V i c t o r i a , the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l had presented a p e t i t i o n to him asking 104 compensation f o r the removal of the c a p i t a l . J u l y 27, a meeting was c a l l e d by Henry Holbrook, P r e s i d e n t of the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , to consider the question of t a k i n g steps to secure redress from the Imperial Government f o r "the rude-shock caused by the unexpected p e r p e t r a t i o n of such a 105 d i s g r a c e f u l swindle by the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e a u t h o r i t i e s . " The" c h i e f b a s i s of New Westminster's c l a i m f o r compensation was the f a c t that when New Westminster was 103 I b i d . J u l y 1, 1868. 104 I b i d . May 13, 1868. 105 I b i d . August 8, 1868. 180 proclaimed to be the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia, people who --• had bought l o t s a t Langley, i n the expectation t h a t Langley would be the c a p i t a l , were allowed to exchange t h e i r Langley l o t s f o r property,at the c a p i t a l . Langley,had never been proclaimed c a p i t a l of the colony, while New..Westminster had been s p e c i f i c a l l y chosen and o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned f o r that purpose. , People who had inv e s t e d money i n la n d a t New Westminster were s u r e l y e n t i t l e d t a compensation f o r the de p r e c i a t i o n of the value of t h e i r property, as a r e s u l t of the Government's "treachery" . The people of New Westminster were f u r t h e r incensed by the "temerity" of c e r t a i n Government o f f i c i a l s who asked compensation f o r the l o s s e s which they s u s t a i n e d i n having to move from New Westminster to V i c t o r i a . Robert Ker, the Auditor-General; Charles Good, A s s i s t a n t C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ; Alex Calder, Treasury C l e r k ; John Graham, O f f i c e r i n charge at the Treasury; John Westgarth, Inspector of Steamers; a l l asked f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n on ,the grounds that they had spent a considerable amount of time and money i n 'maintaining homes and property a t New Westminster, and that t h e i r holdings were now of g r e a t l y reduced value. Messrs. Hamley, Crease and Bushby a l s o sent a p e t i t i o n to the Government asking 106 compensation f o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the value of t h e i r p r operty. 106 B. C. Despatches, p. 61, Seymour to Buckingham, August 11, 1868. 181 No s a t i s f a c t i o n was obtained from e i t h e r the. C o l o n i a l or the Imperial Government and i n the f a l l , of'1868, the M u n i c i p a l Council sent two f u r t h e r p e t i t i o n s , one to Queen V i c t o r i a and the other to the House of Commons. In forwarding these memorials to the, Duke of Buckingham, Governor Seymour added, "Your Grace i s w e l l aware that the people of the former (New Westminster) have, a t l e a s t t h e i r 107 f a i r share of my s o l i c i t u d e . " Government House at Sapperton was abandoned. The other Government b u i l d i n g s at Sapperton were a l s o deserted and Governor Seymour had to employ a former sapper as care-taker i n order to prevent the Indians from occupying them. The I m p e r i a l Government was s t i l l p r e s s i n g i t s c l a i m that B r i t i s h Columbia should pay f o r the b u i l d i n g s provided f o r the Royal Engineers. On February 2, 1868, Governor Seymour wrote the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y expressing h i s views on t h i s s u b j e c t : Colonel Moody s e l e c t e d a h e a v i l y timbered piece of l a n d a m i l e from the town f o r h i s camp. He employed c i v i l labour to c l e a r i t — t h e expenditure has been u t t e r l y thrown away* as f a r as the colony i s concerned, New Westminster would have been i n a much more prosperous c o n d i t i o n were not the small resources of the c i t i z e n s spread- over two separate town s i t e s a m i l e apart. 108 107 I b i d . , p. 82, Seymour to Buckingham, November 30; 1868. 108 I b i d . , p. 5, Seymour to Buckingham, February 2, 1868. 182 Governor Seymour added that the only b u i l d i n g of any use was Colonel Moody's residence, Government House, and even t h i s was too f a r from town f o r convenience. W i l l i a m F i s h e r , who returned home to England on a t r i p , interviewed E a r l G r a n v i l l e at the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e on J u l y 23 on the subject of compensation f o r New Westminster l o t owners. In the House of Commons, Mr. Rath/bone asked the C o l o n i a l Secretary whether the I m p e r i a l Government was w i l l i n g to accede to the requests contined i n the memorial from the Mu n i c i p a l C o u n c i l asking f o r an enquiry i n t o the change of the s i t e of the c a p i t a l or for compensation for i t s removal. The r e p l y was that i t was a matter for the l o c a l 109 l e g i s l a t u r e to decide. No record was found of any compensation being paid and judging from the composition of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i t i s safe to assume that none was ever made. I t was l a t e r announced t h a t the proposal to reimburse the Government o f f i c i a l s d i d not meet with the 110 approval of the B r i t i s h Government. During Antony Musgrave's term as Governor, he asked the I m p e r i a l Government f o r £400 to buy f u r n i t u r e f o r Government House at New Westminster as he f e l t that i t was de s i r a b l e that the Governor should be i n residen&e on the 111 mainland part of the time. Apparently t h i s request was 109 Mainland Guardian, August 28, 1869; November 13, 1869. 110 I b i d . , February 23, 1870. 111 B. C. Despatches, p. 208, Musgrave to G r a n v i l l e , March 8, 1870. 183 favourably received f o r i n the s p r i n g of 1870, Government House was r e p a i r e d and repainted and a large quantity of 112 f u r n i t u r e was i n s t a l l e d . Hon. J . A. R. Homer represented New Westminster on the L e g i s l a t i v e Counc