UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of the Detroit adjustment inventory McAulay, John David Ewen 1947

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An E v a l u a t i o n o f The D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory  John David E. McAulay A T h e s i s submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f Master o f A r t s In the Department of Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h April,  1947.  Columbia  ACKN 0 WLEDGEMENTS To a s c e r t a i n the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f H a r r y J . Baker's D e t r o i t Adjustment  I n v e n t o r y " T e l l i n g What I Do" has  been t h e main problem o f t h i s t h e s i s .  Dr. F.T. T y l e r , d f the  Department o f .education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Golumbia gave c o n s t a n t and f r i e n d l y encouragement, a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e . Mr. Douglas Kenny, who was d o i n g a s i m i l a r s t u d y on the C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y , was most c o - o p e r a t i v e .  Mr. A.  Wales, c h i e f guidance o f f i c e r a t K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l was o b l i g i n g and h e l p f u l .  To these three men I  w i s h t o extend my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n and thanks. I w i s h a l s o t o r e c o g n i z e t h e ready and f r i e n d l y , coo p e r a t i o n g i v e n by those t e a c h e r s concerned a t K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School, i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the i n v e n t o r y t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s , i n f i l l i n g out the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g c h a r t , and i n a l l o w i n g me t o have i n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l dents.  stu-  Plan of Thesis Acknowledgements. Chapter I .  Statement o f the Problems.  Chapter I I . A. B. 0.  The Measurement of P e r s o n a l i t y . D e f i n i t i o n s of P e r s o n a l i t y B r i e f H i s t o r y of P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t i n g R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of some P e r s o n a l i t y Tests.  Chapter I I I . The D e t r o i t Adjustment I n v e n t o r y A, Nature of I n v e n t o r y B. 'The Teacher's Handbook, c o n t e n t s and e v a l u a t i o n Chapter IV. A. B.  'The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the D e t r o i t Adjustment I n v e n t o r y . isiase of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i f f i c u l t i e s found by s t u d e n t s  Chapter v. A. B.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and R e l i a b i l i t y G e n e r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the S c o r e s R e l i a b i l i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory  Chapter V I . A.  Validity V a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment i n v e n t o r y based on t h e c r i t e r i a of a R a t i n g Jicale c o n s t r u c t e d from the inventory Item v a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t A d j u s t ment I n v e n t o r y  B.  Chapter V I I . A. Use of the Remedial S u g g e s t i o n s i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e n low s c o r e boys Chapter  VIII.Conclusion A. G e n e r a l Comment B. Weakness of the I n v e n t o r y C. S t r e n g t h of the I n v e n t o r y  Bibliography Appendix  In Evaluation of The D e t r o i t Adjustment  Inventory  by' John David E. McAulay Abstract of A T h e s i s submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f Master o f A r t s In the Department of Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h April,  1947.  Columbia  -I- •  An A n a l y s i s of the D e t r o i t Adjustment  Inventory  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was t o determine the r e l i a b i l i t y and the v a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory, i n g What I Do* by Harry  J . Baker, as a d e v i c e f o r a s s i s t i n g  t e a c h e r s and s o c i a l workers i n t h e i r guidance The  "Tell-  programme.  i n v e n t o r y c o n s i s t s of 120 items d i v i d e d i n t o twenty-  f o u r t o p i e s . .For each of the one hundred items  there a r e f i v e  choices o f answers, f o r which numerical values from one to f i v e are a s s i g n e d .  The p u p i l s e l e c t s the response which most n e a r l y  d e s c r i b e s h i s s i t u a t i o n and draws a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r of t h a t c h o i c e .  The t o p i c s i n c l u d e H e a l t h , S l e e p i n g - E a t i n g ,  S e l f Care, H a b i t s , Worries,  F e a r s , Anger, P i t y , ciood Mixer,  I n f e r i o r - S u p e r i o r , Optimism-Pessimism, W i l l Power, Home S t a t u s , Home Atmosphere, Home A t t i t u d e s , Growing Up, S c h o o l s , manship, M o r a l s , Delinquency, and  vocations.  f r i e n d s , A c t i n g Tour P a r t , Hobbies  A Record Blank i s s u p p l i e d f o r determining the  score from the i n v e n t o r y . The  Sports-  The maximum score i s 600,  Inventory was given t o 111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n Grade  3EI a t I C i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l , Vancouver, d u r i n g November, 1946.  S i x t y - t h r e e o f the boys were r e t e s t e d i n  e a r l y January, 1947. i n the November  The ten boys who made the lowest  scores  t e s t i n g were given guidance d u r i n g February and  March and were g i v e n the Inventory a g a i n i n A p r i l , 1947. As a b a s i s f o r the t h e s i s c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n s o f persona l i t y were d i s c u s s e d , and a b r i e f h i s t o r y of p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t i n g was g i v e n .  The c o n c l u s i o n was reached  t h a t the popular  demand f o r some form of p e r s o n a l i t y measurement has f l o o d e d the  -2-  market w i t h t e s t s which have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y evaluated.. The  Teachers  analyzed.  The  Handbook f o r the  Inventory was  critically  As a manual s u i t a b l e f o r guidance and  Interpretation i t y , and  r  i t was  statistical  found wanting norms, v a l i d i t y ,  reliabil-  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t o p i c s , were not  Handbook g i v e s only an t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n  given.  o f the  inven-  tory. The  inventory  language and  i s e a s i l y administered and  interpretation d i f f i c u l t i e s  s t u d e n t s , but  scored.  Some  were r e p o r t e d  by  gene rally,/.-they seemed to enjoy doing the  the  in-  ventory. Means and and  p e r c e n t i l e norms were secured f o r each t o p i c  f o r t o t a l scores,  454.51 f o r g i r l s ,  ihe mean score f o r boys was  on the November t e s t i n g .  between the means i s not  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  decided, however to t r e a t the  two  The features  5/o l e v e l .  63 boys was  d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the  ings was  difference  sexes s e p a r a t e l y .  January t e s t i n g the mean score f o r the The  'Ihe  456.85 and  f i r s t and  It On  was  the  458.41. second t e s t -  not s i g n i f i c a n t . extent to which the of p e r s o n a l i t y was  r e l a t i o n s between s e l e c t e d r e l a t i o n s were not Test-retest both t o p i c s and t o r y based on t o p i c s , the  t o p i c s were measuring separate determined by topics.  The  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  reliability  majority  of the  cor-  lf> l e v e l .  c o e f f i c i e n t s were determined f o r  t o t a l scores.  t o t a l scores was  reliability  computing i n t e r c o r -  The  reliability  found to be  .74.  o f the  inven-  jTor the  c o e f f i c i e n t v a r i e d from .13  to  .97.  3-  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e s t scores and t e a c h e r ' s judgments on f o u r t o p i c s and t o t a l adjustment  were determined  the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , p h i c o e f f i c i e n t s and Pearson's s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were  found  r . Few  found.  Item v a l i d i t y was determined niques.  by  by means of c h i - s q u a r e t e c h -  F i f t y - t w o of the one hundred and twenty items were  to d i s c r i m i n a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the 27 boys who  made the h i g h e s t s c o r e s and the 27 who made the lowest on the November  scores  testing.  Interviews were h e l d with the t e n boys who made the lowest  t o t a l s c o r e s on the November and January  testings.  In  these i n t e r v i e w s the remedial suggestions which Baker has p r e pared f o r each of h i s twenty-four  A personal  t o p i c s were used.  v a l i d a t i o n of those t o p i c s on which the s t u d e n t s had made low -  scores was made.  I n the m a j o r i t y of cases low t o p i c  were v a l i d a t e d by t h i s i n t e r v i e w .  scores  The t e n boys were g i v e n the  i n v e n t o r y a g a i n i n e a r l y A p r i l and i t was found  s i x had scores  above the 30th p e r c e n t i l e which had been s e t as the lower l i m i t f o r adjustment.  The i n t e r v i e w s with these ten boys were  recorded. The D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory i s n o t v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y as a means of d i a g n o s i n g and t r e a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y problems o f high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s .  I t has some value as a b a s i s f o r be-  g i n n i n g a d i s c u s s i o n on the g e n e r a l problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the student. validity. only.  The i n v e n t o r y has low i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  The r e l i a b i l i t y  i s sufficient  f o r group  guidance  CHAPTER I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS.  -1-  CHAPTER I. In h i s a r t i c l e on p e r s o n a l i t y and  TraxlerV  r e p o r t e d that up to 1944  character  the D e t r o i t Adjustment  Inventory had not been e x t e n s i v e l y e v a l u a t e d . search of the l i t e r a t u r e has s t u d i e s of the i n v e n t o r y .  A. c a r e f u l  f a i l e d to r e v e a l any  The  Teachers  Handbook  1  f o r use w i t h the t e s t , does not give any v a l i d i t y , item v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , tween t o p i c s , or norms.  tests,  recent prepared  i n f o r m a t i o n about  intercorrelations  In another p u b l i c a t i o n T r a x l e r  be2 ,  p o i n t e d out t h a t while t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e a c t i v i t y i n the field  of t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n , there i s l i t t l e  towards a p p r a i s i n g the v a l u e s of new  evaluative devices.  claims t h a t the r e a l r e s e a r c h on a t e s t and t a t i o n must f o l l o w the p u b l i c a t i o n of the The  research directed  i t s interpre-  test.  q u e s t i o n of the value of the D e t r o i t Inventory  be l e g i t i m a t e l y raised"/: and  the present  He  may  study r e p o r t s the  r e s u l t s of a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the i n v e n t o r y .  The  re-  p o r t i n c l u d e s the r e s u l t s of i n t e r v i e w s with s e v e r a l boya who  had  low  scores on the t e s t .  Information on  w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n the form of t e s t - r e t e s t f o r both t o p i c s and  t o t a l scores.  t o p i c s a r e measuring separate  The  reliability  correlations,  extent  to which the  f e a t u r e s of p e r s o n a l i t y was  determined by computing i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between s e l e c t e d 1. T r a x l e r , A.E. Current C o n s t r u c t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of Pers o n a l i t y and Character Tests,. Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1944. 2. T r a x l e r , A.E. I n d i v i d u a l E v a l u a t i o n , New D i r e c t i o n s f o r Measurement and Guidance (A Symposium) Y o l . I l l , August, 1944,. p. 33.  -2-  topics.  'Hie r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t scores and  judgments are r e p o r t e d .  teacher s r  Item, v a l i d i t e r s were determined  means of chi-square techniques.  P e r c e n t i l e norms w i l l  by  be  presented f o r each t o p i c and f o r t o t a l s c o r e s . Interviews were g i v e n to the t e n boys who e s t scores on both  the November and  January  made the low-  testing.  In  these i n t e r v i e w s the remedial suggestions which Baker has pared f o r each of h i s twenty-four  t o p i c s were used.  pre-  A per-  s o n a l v a l i d a t i o n of those t o p i c s on which the students had made low s c o r e s was  attempted.  The ten boys were g i v e n the  inventory again i n e a r l y A p r i l ,  t o l e a r n i f the use  r e m e d i a l suggestions had r a i s e d  t h e i r scores.  The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a , as advocated plied i n evaluating this 1.  of the  by Adams, were ap-  Inventory.  Does the t e s t i n c l u d e items which the i n d i v i d u a l would  be i n c l i n e d to answer u n t r u t h f u l l y , or i f he answered t r u t h f u l l y , would be o b v i o u s l y d e t r i m e n t a l to him? 2.  I s the range of scores on t h i s t e s t s u f f i c i e n t l y great  t h a t a c l e a r - c u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between, h i g h and low i s obtained?  Needless  to say the s c o r e s should be  scorea  distributed  a l o n g a normal curve. 3.  I s the t e s t e a s i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d - p r e f e r a b l y with a min-  imum of s u p e r v i s i o n ? 4.  Is the s c o r i n g simply and e a s i l y done?  .5.  Does the t e s t meet the g e n e r a l needs of s c h o o l  guidance?  3. Adams, C.R. "A New Measure of P e r s o n a l i t y * , J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology. 1941, Yol.25, p.141-151.  CHAPTER I I THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY.  -3-  ^.Chapter I I . D e f i n i t i o n of P e r s o n a l i t y The word p e r s o n a l i t y , was d e r i v e d from the L a t i n exp r e s s i o n "persona" and had r e f e r e n c e t o speaking through a. f a l s e f a c e or mask.  I t was used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a t r i -  c a l performers who r e v e a l e d themselves o n l y through speech and actions.^" iTrom t h i s r o o t the word has taken on many conn o t a t i o n s and meanings.  In f a c t g o i n g through the l i t e r a t u r e  on the s u b j e c t , one f i n d s as many d e f i n i t i o n s of p e r s o n a l i t y o  as there a r e a u t h o r i t i e s .  U i e n psychology was a branch of  p h i l o s o p h y and before s o - c a l l e d  " p s y c h i c " concepts were a c -  corded o b j e c t i v e study and treatment, p e r s o n a l i t y was n a t u r a l l y regarded as something the development  s p i r i t u a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l .  With,  of psychology as a s c i e n c e i n i t s own r i g h t  under Wundt, p e r s o n a l i t y became synonymous w i t h the "stream of i d e a s , f e e l i n g s and emotions"'which  a r e s a i d to flow  through c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 2. The c u r r e n t views o f p e r s o n a l i t y are twoi  F i r s t the  popular and unacademic one, perpetuated by the a u t h o r s of " s u c c e s s " books or c o p y - w r i t e r s f o r c o s m e t i c s , that the s c i n t i l l a t i n g and i m p r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y i s secured by u s i n g those soaps most f r e q u e n t l y a d v e r t i s e d and wearing those 1. Thorpe, L.P. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Foundations of P e r s o n a l i t y . New York, McGraw, H i l l Book Co., 1938, Page 5. 2. Garrett, and Schneck - P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t s , Methods and Results.. Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1933, Page 18..  -4-  0  c l o t h e s most r e c e n t l y f a s h i o n e d . unscientific.  Secondly there  This view i s d i s m i s s e d  i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  as  per-  haps more o b j e c t i v e view of p e r s o n a l i t y which i s measurable and understandable and fic  study.  t h e r e f o r e a proper s u b j e c t f o r  I t i s t h i s view which concerns the a u t h o r i t i e s .  G r i f f i n , Laycock and as the sum  ft  t o t a l of the  a t t i t u d e s and everything  scienti-  the  L i n e have d e s c r i b e d  personality  individual's characteristics, habits,  p e r s i s t e n t tendencies.*® This means that almost c h i l d does o r i s able  h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and  to do i s a f u n c t i o n  of  i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s everyday b e h a v i o r .  Huram d e f i n e s p e r s o n a l i t y as  rt  the  e n t i r e f a b r i c of an  indivi-  duals a t t r i b u t e s . * * He goes on to say that a l t h o u g h i t i s pos4  s i b l e t o analyze p e r s o n a l i t y i n v a r i o u s ways, the. minimum cons i d e r a t i o n would be  to say t h a t i t i n c l u d e s d i s p o s i t i o n or  temperament, i n t e l l i g e n c e , s k i l l , a p t i t u d e , i n t e r e s t s and p h y s i c a l make up. other and  A l l of these c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e r a c t w i t h each  with the environment.  panied by much s t r a i n and be maladjusted or not harmonious and adjusted  I f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s accom-  c o n f l i c t , the i n d i v i d u a l i s s a i d t o  i n t e g r a t e d ; but  i f this interaction i s  t r a n q u i l , the i n d i v i d u a l i s s a i d to be  or i n t e g r a t e d .  Baker says that " p e r s o n a l i t y  sents: the a b i l i t y or l a c k of a b i l i t y  to meet with and  3. G r i f f i n , Laycock, and Line - Mental Hygiene. New American Book Company, 1938, Page 47.  well reprereact  York,  4. Humm, D.G. P e r s o n a l i t y and Adjustment, J o u r n a l of Psychology. Yol.13, 1942, P.109.  to  -5-  other i n d i v i d u a l s . "  5  However, Thorpe has s t a t e d t h a t p e r s o n -  a l i t y i s synonymous with the i d e a of the organism!c  function-  i n g o f the t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l , i n c l u d i n g a l l h i s v a r i o u s a l l y separated a s p e c t s such as i n t e l l e c t , emotionalized  character,  verb-  drive,  a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , s o c i a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l  appearance as w e l l as h i s g e n e r a l  social effectiveness.  Thus i t can be seen that d e f i n i t e knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the u l t i m a t e  b a s i s and s t r u c t u r e of p e r s o n a l i t y has not y e t  been adequately e s t a b l i s h e d .  True, many suggestions: have been  o f f e r e d concerning; the n a t u r e of p e r s o n a l i t y but our knowledge is s t i l l  c o n f l i c t i n g and " i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c • *  l o g i s t s r e a d i l y admit t h a t t h e i r s c i e n c e chartered  I n f a c t , psycho-  has by no means  i n a t h o r o u g h l y o b j e c t i v e way t h e . r e a l nature of  personality* • However c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from the above d e f i n i t i o n s of p e r s o n a l i t y .  I t i s suggested t h a t the c o r r e c t  approach to a d e f i n i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y l i e s i n the analysis, of those responses which determine " i n d i v i d u a l i t y " - t h a t q u a l i t y of b e i n g unique and d i f f e r e n t i n the eyes of o t h e r s . S t r i c t l y speaking, p e r s o n a l i t y i s a q u a l i t y or a t t r i b u t e of behavior.  There i s no " p e r s o n a l i t y " hidden i n s i d e the body  whicS.determines i t s r e a c t i o n s .  Personality  i s a descriptive  term f o r forms or k i n d s of response, and i s based upon a 5. Baker, H.J. I n t e g r a t i o n of Character and P e r s o n a l i t y Nat. JSdi Assn. Proc., 1940, p*634. 6.. Thorpe - opvC.it;.  page 534.  *  -6-  system of h a b i t s , l a r g e l y made up a d j u s t i n g to c o n f l i c t  situations.  of non-adaptive ways o f P e r s o n a l i t y must be  con-  s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to a c e r t a i n standard of c u l t u r e or  civil-  i z a t i o n , Because p e r s o n a l i t y i s such an extremely complex phenomenon composed of r e a c t i o n s to c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s which vary w i d e l y from person to person^and i n v o l v i n g h a b i t s which are i n t e g r a t e d i n d i f f e r i n g ways, some p s y c h o l o g i s t s s t a t e d that p e r s o n a l i t y cannot be a n a l y z e d .  have  Their view i s  t h a t we must study "the p e r s o n a l i t y as a whole" r a t h e r try  to break i t up  i n t o i t s component p a r t s .  While there  c e r t a i n arguments i n f a v o r of t h i s p o i n t of view, the of evidence and 7 personality. his  l o g i c seems t o f a v o r the  I t i s on  Adjustment  t h i s l a t t e r theory  are  majority  a n a l y t i c approach to that Baker has  built  Inventory.  Thus the study of p e r s o n a l i t y leaves pressions; f i r s t , second, how  than  how  little  the  following  im-  i s known about human p e r s o n a l i t y ;  v a s t l y important i s the knowledge we  do have;  t h i r d , how  complex are the f a c t o r s t h a t c o n d i t i o n p e r s o n a l i t y ;  f o u r t h , how  wide i s the range of v a r i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s ; and  fifth,  how  Ei.dfe i s the o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r study i n t h i s  field.  Historical Since be  Freud dramatized the p o i n t  the study of how  that psychology might  the i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t s h i m s e l f  r a t h e r than the study of how  he a c q u i r e s  to s o c i e t y ,  knowledge, psycho-  l o g i s t s have progressed - r a p i d l y i n the d e f i n i t i o n and  measure-  7. Stagner Boss. Current trends i n research upon c h a r a c t e r and. p e r s o n a l i t y . Character and P e r s o n a l i t y , Vol.VII,1938, P.163.  ment of p e r s o n a l i t y ,  Galton was  s c i e n t i f i c methods and  of c h a r a c t e r  measurement of p e r s o n a l i t y has o b s e r v i n g the person's a c t u a l and  s o r t of a " p e r s o n a l i t y  stages.  does not  S i n c e h i s time t h i s  conduct; of s e c u r i n g  Thus the  scaling.  or t r a i t s and  He  others'  the i n d i v i d u a l , some  psychologist  d i v i d e s the  approxiperson-  secures e s t i m a t e s o f g e n e r a l  trends through much samplying of a great  of these t r a i t s ^ o r " s p e c i f i c s " . a s s u m i n g  The  development  taken three d i s t i n d t forms; of  standard."  p i c t u r e s the p e r s o n a l i t y  o f the one  assumption i s made that an  number  that the. sum-total  tested. individual's personality  f l u c t u a t e from time to time, under s i m i l a r  conditions  Norms f o r p e r s o n a l i t y measurement are  thus secured with  provisions  i n various  that  that there i s a uniformity  these norms should not  study  advocated r a t i n g complex  a common v a r i a b l e which, though rough and  a l i t y into sections  that  to the  A l l three methods must use  mate, p e r m i t s q u a n t i t a t i v e  personality  applied  of d i r e c t l y q u e s t i o n i n g  concerning h i s b e h a v i o r .  postulates  He  to propose  e s t a b l i s h i n g norms f o r the  at i t s s u c c e s s i v e  o p i n i o n s about him;  first  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n be  o f p e r s o n a l forms of behaviour. human q u a l i t i e s and  the  change and  the  s o c i a l groups  t h a t , although  secured  i n a classroom atmosphere they w i l l c o r r e l a t e with l i f e  sit-  uations. A s e l e c t e d p a r t of p e r s o n a l i t y , c a l l e d a t r a i t , may personality  be measured, but  personality  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate  the  i n t o t r a i t s , and measure them as i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s .  During the past twenty-seven years, many  standardized  -8-  t e s t s have been made i n an e f f o r t to measure p e r s o n a l i t y . These, t e s t s , u s u a l l y of the pencil-and-paper  questionnaire  type* p u r p o r t  to measure one or more " s p e c i f i c s ' * of the  personality'.  They assume many t i t l e s ,  ing  the more modern seem-  to be i n v e n t o r y . Personality  Tests.  The Kent-Rosanoff A s s o c i a t i o n Test of 1910 p u r p o r t s t o d i s c o v e r emotional  complexes through a l i s t  of one hundred  stimulus words t o which the s u b j e c t responds by speaking the f i r s t word he t h i n k s of a f t e r each word i s pronounced.  The  r e p l i e s o f a 1000 normal persons have been s t a n d a r d i z e d and the s u b j e c t ' s responses a r e compared to these i n an e f f o r t to d i s c o v e r complexes. But  the more common p r a c t i c e i n p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t i n g was  to submit a s e r i e s  of questions asking, the s u b j e c t t o evaluate  h i s own ;. symptoms and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . R.S.  Woodsworth. i n 1917 devised the f i r s t  ality was  On t h i s  important  t e s t f o r use i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s Army.  to d i s c o v e r emotional  principle, person-  I t s purpose  and n e u r o t i c tendencies and mala-  djustments of World War I r e c r u i t s .  Mathews, u s i n g a group  of d r a f t e d men as h i s s u b j e c t s found a s p l i t - h a l f  coefficient  of r e l i a b i l i t y  o f .90 f o r t h i s t e s t .  Psychoneurotic  Inventory  of r e l i a b i l i t y  o f .667 by the s p l i t - h a l f method, u s i n g 280  boys as h i s s u b j e c t s , ing a coefficient  After revising  this  i n 1923, Mathews found a c o e f f i c i e n t  tfause  r e v i s e d the t e s t i n 1927, s e c u r -  of r e l i a b i l i t y  o f .845 on a r e t e s t o f 58  Howard studenta.®* Woodworth's t e s t was used as a model f o r 8. Symonds, P.M. Diagnosing P e r s o n a l i t y and Conduct, London, The Century Co. 1938, P. 154..  0  -9-  the I n v e n t o r i e s o f L a i r d i n 1935,  G h a s s e l l i n 1928,  i n 192 9, and  A l l use  Bernreuter I n 1932.  Thurstone  q u e s t i o n s to which  the s u b j e c t responds by a yes, no or a q u e s t i o n mark. Presseys JC-0 S e r i e s of 1920 dislikes.  The  i n t e n d s to measure l i k e s  i n d i v i d u a l t a k i n g the t e s t c r o s s e s out  words, from a l i s t  of 600,  secured, one idiosyncracy. those  of g e n e r a l a f f e c t i v i t y , and Durea compared responses  of non-delinquent  those  which are most unpleasant  and e n c i r c l e s those which a r e most p l e a s a n t .  boys and  more worried over "death" and  found  Two  and  to him  s c o r e s are  the other of p e r s o n a l ' of d e l i n q u e n t with  the d e l i n q u e n t s were  " s i n " , more a t t r a c t e d by "movie  s t a r " , " j o y r i d i n g , " "tap dancing" and  "candy" and more apt to  admire wealthy, handsome and w e l l - d r e s s e d  people.  9  The Downey I n d i v i d u a l W i l l Temperament Test of 1922 the Downey Group Test of W i l l Temperament supposedly  and  measure  - temperament through handwriting measured-by r e s p o n s i v e n e s s changing of  c o n d i t i o n s of m o t i v a t i o n .  s c o r e s represent  a c t i v i t y , a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , w i l f u l n e s s and 10  r e l i a b i l i t i e s r e p o r t e d by very  tenacity.  Jones f o r the l a s t two  speed  The  t e s t s were  low. In 1928  ing  The  to  A l l p o r t and  Vernon developed  ascendance and...submission.  to which one  a s c a l e f o r measur-  This t e s t i n d i c a t e s the  dominates o t h e r s or i s dominated by them  extent  through  9. Viatson, G. P e r s o n a l i t y and Character Measurement, He view of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. V o l . V I I I , No.3, 1938, r.273 ^  10. Jones, V. c h a r a c t e r .Education, He view of Educational. Hesearch, V o l . V I I I , Wo. 3, Feb. 1938, P.13. '  -lu-  re sponses t o .-.thirty-three problem s i t u a t i o n s .  A l l p o r t him-  s e l f r e p o r t s a r e l i a b i l i t y of .78 by the t e s t - r e t e s t method and a v a l i d i t y of .586 based on r a t i n g s .  1 1  The B e r n r e u t e r P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory, ular  i s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed  s t i l l w i d e l y pop-  t o measure s i x p e r s o n a l i t y  t r a i t s : neurotic tendencies, s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y , i n t r o v e r s i o n e x t r o v e r s i o n , dominance-submission, confidence and s o c i a b i l i t y . So popular was t h i s t e s t a t i t s i n c e p t i o n that in. the year 1935  Fenton and Wallace r e p o r t e d , i n a survey of twenty-  e i g h t c h i l d guidance c l i n i c t h a t the b u l k of c l i n i c a l  centers i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  instruments  s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r represented  i n the f i e l d of p e r -  e d i t i o n s or s p e c i a l s c o r i p  ing methods i n i t i a t e d f r o m . t h i s t e s t .  In the years since  1  the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s Inventory, numerous s t u d i e s have been made of i t . Among; the f i n d i n g s i s the f a c t that the n e u r o t i c tendency and i n t r o v e r s i o n and e x t r o v e r s i o n scores c o r r e l a t e so h i g h l y as t o be p r a c t i c a l l y  identical.  The  as r e p o r t e d .,  r e l i a b i l i t y f o r each p a r t of the Inventory,  by Flanagan, Inventory's  has been found, to be around .85: C o n c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y the evidence  i s somewhat  conflicting  but tends towards discouragement a c c o r d i n g to Stagner.13 11. A l l p o r t , G.W. A Test of Ascendance-Submission, J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. V o l . XXIII, No. .2, 1928, P. 133. 12.  Olson, W.C. General Survey o f the F i e l d o f Character and P e r s o n a l i t y Measurement; Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Vol.V, No. 3, June 1935, P. 24X.  13. Remmers and Gage. E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n . New York, Harper & B r o t h e r s , 194.3, f . 357.. '  -11- .  The B a t i n g S c a l e The  second technique o f measuring p e r s o n a l i t y i s by  the r a t i n g s c a l e , i n which one i n d i v i d u a l makes a q u a n t i t a t i v e estimate o f the q u a l i t i e s of another. types of r a t i n g s c a l e s .  There a r e two main  The rank-order  s c a l e compares two  or more i n d i v i d u a l s i n r e l a t i o n one t o the other - one i s judged b e t t e r o r worse than the other; t h e r e i s no e s t a b l i s h e d norm from which t o begin.  On the o t h e r hand the s c o r i n g  s c a l e uses d e f i n i t e i n t e r v a l s of judgment.  This was the  type used i n the P e r s o n a l i t y Rating; S c a l e ( d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h i n Chapter  ¥1) based on the D e t r o i t Inventory.  best known r a t i n g s c a l e f o r t e a c h e r s  r  The  use i s the Behaviour 14  R a t i n g Schedules  by haggerty,  p u b l i s h e d i n 19£8,  Olsen and Wiekmani..  t h i s r a t i n g s c a l e p u r p o r t s to diagnose  problem tendencies i n c h i l d r e n . t e s t was found  First  The t o t a l score on t h i s  to have a r e l i a b i l i t y  o f .86 based on. s p l i t -  h a l v e s , and a t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n of .76.  A similar  r a t i n g s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n i s by C o r n e l l , Coxe and O r l e a n s . More Recent Tests of P e r s o n a l i t y During the past f i f t e e n y e a r s , a m u l t i t u d e a l i t y t e s t s has f l o o d e d the market.  Many, under the c r i t i c a l  a n a l y s i s of the a u t h o r i t i e s , have proved seem to have c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e .  of p e r s o n -  worthless.  But some  E n j o y i n g p o p u l a r i t y with  B e r n f e u t e r ' s P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory has been B e l l ' s Adjustment 14.  Olsen, W.C. Problem Tendencies U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930, P.60.  i n Children., M i n n e a p o l i s ,  -IEInventory, p u b l i s h e d i n 1934, which measures an i n d i v i d u a l s adjustment t o home, h e a l t h , s o c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and emotional situations.  Based on E58 c o l l e g e freshmen and j u n i o r s ,  the r e l i a b i l i t y , o f the t o t a l adjustment score i s r e p o r t e d tobe  .93 while the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the f o u r subscores  from .80 to .891 V a l i d a t i o n  range  o f the i n v e n t o r y was found  to be  s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r i n d i v i d u a l items i n terms o f t h e i r power t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between i n d i v i d u a l s i n the upper and lower t e e n p e r c e n t of t o t a l s c o r e s . s c o r e s was a l s o found  fif-  V a l i d a t i o n of the separate sub-  s a t i s f a c t o r y i n terms o f power to d i s -  c r i m i n a t e between groups of i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d by c o u n s e l o r s as w e l l a d j u s t e d and p o o r l y a d j u s t e d . Link., i n 1936, p u b l i s h e d h i s P e r s o n a l i t y Quotient  Test  which y i e l d s an o v e r - a l l score f o r p e r s o n a l i t y and separate, scores f o r s o c i a l i n i t i a t i v e ,  s e l f determination,  economic  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and adjustment t o the o p p o s i t e sex* odd-even r e l i a b i l i t i e s  (1936 e d i t i o n ) c o r r e c t e d by the 15  Spearman-Brown formula a r e from .73 t o .88. and  The  cishorpe, C l a r k e  TIegs i n 1938, p u b l i s h e d the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Person-  a l i t y which was planned  t o measure p e r s o n a l adjustment and  s o c i a l adjustment o f p u p i l s i n Grades IV - IX.  The s p l i t -  h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y stepped up by the Spearman-Brown formula i s .93.  On the b a s i s of a new method of s t u d y i n g p e r s o n a l i t y ,  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , G u i l f o r d , i n the same year, developed :  15.  an  i  T r a x l e r , A.E. Current C o n s t r u c t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of Pers o n a l i t y and Character T e s t s . Chapter V, Review of .e.duca t i o n a l Research. V o l . X I , No. 1, 1941, P. 57.  -13-  i n v e n t o r y f o r f i v e f a c t o r s which he c a l l e d S, s o c i a l  intro-  v e r s i o n ; T', t h i n k i n g i n t r o v e r s i o n ; D,. d e p r e s s i o n ; C, c y c l o i d "'tendencies; and R, rhathymia o r happy-go-lucky. reliability  Two s e t s o f  c o r r e l a t i o n s which had been c o r r e c t e d by the Spear-  man-Brown formula were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h .  The lowest  c o e f f i c i e n t was .84 and the h i g h e s t was .94.  correlation  Washburne, a l s o  i n 1938, p u b l i s h e d h i s S o c i a l Adjustment Inventory  for diag-  n o s i s i n c l i n i c s ^ a n d c o u n s e l i n g i n secondary s c h o o l s and c o l leges. In 1941 Adams and bepley p u b l i s h e d the "Personal  Audit"  which measures nine aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y ; s o c i a b i l i t y or . extroversion, suggestibility, i r r i t a b i l i t y , or a l i b i tendency, a n x i e t y or fear-tendency, c o n f l i c t , personal tolerance, f l e x i b i l i t y thought i n t e n s i t y or worry over unsolved man-Brown r e l i a b i l i t i e s  rationalization sexual  emotional  of a t t i t u d e s and problems.  The Spear-  of a l l p a r t s are r e p o r t e d as .90 or  above, and the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s of the p a r t s are r e p o r t e d t o 16 be low by the authors, who thus c l a i m t h a t the t e s t measures nine r e l a t i v e l y independent p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s .  B a r l e y and  McNamara p u b l i s h e d i n 1941, The Minnesota P e r s o n a l i t y S c a l e which has separate forms f o r men and women and i s designed to measure morale, s o c i a l adjustment, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , i t y and economic conservatism.  emotional-  L i t t l e work has been done on  the v a l i d i t y of t h i s t e s t , but the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between 16, Adams, C R . A New Measure of P e r s o n a l i t y , J o u r n a l of Applied,Psychology. Vol.£5, A p r i l , 1941. P. 141-51.  -14-  the t r a i t s were found to he very s m a l l - the h i g h e s t .24.  The  being  r e l i a b i l i t i e s of a l i p a r t s by the s p l i t - h a l f method  17 i s r e p o r t e d as .87 The  or above.  C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y was  i n f o u r s e r i e s i n 1943  by T i e g s , C l a r k e and  made a v a i l a b l e Thorpe.  There i s  af Primary S e r i e s f o r Grades VI14K, a Secondary a e r i e s f o r Grades IX-XIT and an A d u l t S e r i e s f o r Grade V I I to the a d u l t level?-  8  T h i s t e s t r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to p r o v i d e a group  t e s t to a i d the teacher  i n d e a l i n g with  o f p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment and b a t t e r y has ment and  social effectiveness.  two main p a r t s designed  s o c i a l adjustment.  the u n i v e r s a l problem Each  to measure s e l f - a d j u s t -  Ihe authors  found a c o r r e l a t i o n  between these  two  f i c i e n t l y low  to emphasize the d e s i r a b i l i t y of studying  student  s e c t i o n s of .54, which they  from the standpoint  adjustment. from .60  to  The  claim, i s suf-  of both s e l f adjustment and  the social •  r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the component t e s t s v a r y  .87 and  thus are s u f f i c i e n t l y high to i d e n t i f y  the  areas i n which p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t as a p o i n t of departure, i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s The  split-half reliabilities  of each of the  two main p a r t s  of the t o t a l adjustment score were found to be i n the borhood o f The  themselves.  neigh-  .9 f o l l o w i n g • chart compares some of the b e t t e r known  17. B u h l e r , c h a r l o t t e . "Guidance u o n t r i b u t e s P l a y Therapy", ' C h i l d Study. Vol.18. Summer 1941, P.115-16 18^  and  T i e g s , js.ur., Clark,, W . W . & Thorpe,. L.P. The u a l i f f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Vol.35, October 1941, P. 102-108. —  -15-  p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s and i n v e n t o r i e s as to r e l i a b i l i t y - a n d 19 ' ' validity.  19.  known  Adapted from Symonds, P.M. "Diagnosing P e r s o n a l i t y and Conduct, New York, The century Co., 1931, P.154.  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of c e r t a i n P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t s  Test  Reported by  Group Tested  Wo. of items  Method of Reliability  116  Split, halves  .90  75  Split halves  . 667  CoefficValidity i e n t of Reliability V  Woodworth Mathews Psychoneuro t i c Inventory  drafted men  Woodworth- Mathews Ma thews Questionnaire  280 boys 12,13, 14 y r s . old  Woodworth Cady Cady Questionnaire  60 Boys 13 & 14 y r s .  Correla.55. t i o n with duplicate form  Woodworth House House Quesl ionnaire  58 Har99 vard S t u dents  Retest  Colgate Personal. Inventory  Conklin  164 C o l lege Students  53  Split ,72 h a l v e s co rec ted by SpearmanBrown  -Mart son Gonklin Introversion-Extroversion  352 C o l lege Students  40  Split .92 h a l v e s co r e c t e d by SpearmanBrown  Harper Test o f Social Attitudes  Harper  PresseyXO Test  EvlcGeoch Sc Whitely  Under71 graduates in c i t y training school  Split halves  Split half method  . 5 1 5 * 1663  .79  •  .817  .8  .46 ( c o r r e l a t i o n between Pressey X0 t e s t and Intelligence and s c h o o l marks).  -17-  Test  Reported by  Group Tested  Method No, of Reof items l i a b i l ity  Thurstone M.V.Crook 5£ C o l lege Personali t y Schedgirls ule Brown. F. Brown Personali t y Inventory  77 c l i n i c - 176. a l l y diagnosed n e u r o t i c boys & £00 normal boys. 8-15' y e a r s .  test & retest  .56  t e s t &. retest.  .81.92  181 Students 7 Humm-Wad- Humm,. D.G, swo r t h Humm, K.A. comTemperamen' i ponents Scale  B e l l Adjus- i - Keys,Y. ment Invenand tory Guilford, M..S.  lOOOHigh 110 school freshmen and sophomore s t u dents  Coefficient of V a l i d i t y Reliability  •»  __  .76(criterion-other students r a t ings)  f.85*.005 f o r whole group and .94 .003 f o r i n dividual cases(criterion-pairs of technicana did r a t i n g s ) .34( c r i t e r i a teachers ratings.  -18-  1.  The f i r s t  eight mentioned t e s t s and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s  mere taken from Symonds, P.M. D i a g n o s i n g P e r s o n a l i t y and Conduct. New York, The Century Co. 1931„ P. 154. 2.  CroOke, M.V. A E e t e s t with the Thurstone P e r s o n a l i t y  Schedule. 3-.  J o u r n a l . G e n e t i c Psychology. 1943, To.28,P.111-120.  Brown, F. An experimental study o f the v a l i d i t y and  r e l i a b i l i t y of the Brown P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory f o r c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of Psychology. 1944, Vol,17, P.75-89. 4*  Humm, D.S, and Humm, K.A. V a l i d i t y  Temperament-Scale,  of theHumm-Wadsworth  J o u r n a l o f Psychology. 1944. V o l . 1 8 , Page  55-64. 5*  V. Keys, and M.S. G u i l f o r d .  The V a l i d i t y o f c e r t a i n  adjustment i n v e n t o r i e s i n p r e d i c t i n g problem b e h a v i o r . nal  of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. 1937. Vo.28, pp.641-655.  i  Jour-  CHAPTER I I I .  The D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory a. Mature of Inventory b. The Manual of d i r e c t i o n s , contents and e v a l u a t i o n .  19-  Chapter I I I . The  author of the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory has, f o r  many years b e e n . D i r e c t o r of the P s y c h o l o g i c a l C l i n i c f o r the D e t r o i t P u b l i c S c h o o l s , and  thus has had a r i c h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h and a c t i v e experience with maladjusted dents.  Before p u b l i s h i n g t h i s i n v e n t o r y , Baker used  stu-  i t for  three years i n the D e t r o i t P s y c h o l o g i c a l C l i n i c , t e s t i n g some 3000 cases p r i o r to c l i n i c a l treatment. does he give any  Nowhere i n h i s w r i t i n g s  s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of the i n v e n t o r y .  In  the Teacher's Handbook he g i v e s two  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s c o r e s ,  "**one f o r s i x t y - o n e behaviour and one  f o r twenty-seven non-be-  . haviour eases,  1  He  claims that the D e t r o i t Adjustment  saves, c o n s i d e r a b l e time  Inventory  i n acquiring personal information  about & • p u p i l . Nature of the  Inventory  The D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory asks f i v e q u e s t i o n s i n each of 24 areas of adjustment.  The  student responds  q u e s t i o n by s e l e c t i n g from f i v e c h o i c e s the  to each  one which most  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s h i s a t t i t u d e or s i t u a t i o n .  A score i s ob-  t a i n e d by a s s i g n i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s from 5 f o r what i s cons i d e r e d to be the i d e a l response f a c t o r y response.  The  t o 1 f o r the very u n s a t i s -  responses are arranged  i n a chance order  so t h a t s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n g i v e s no clue as t o the of a response.  desirability  T h i s overcomes the danger of a student  develop-  1. Baker, H.J. Handbook f o r D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory, Bloomington. P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1942, P.5..  -20-  ing  a "motor s e t * i n responding t o the q u e s t i o n s .  ing  examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the nature of the i n v e n t o r y . (a) my pimples  The f o l l o w -  (acne), bother me a l o t .  (b) I hate having to s l e e p two i n a bed. (c) It  I sometimes get r e a l angry about i t . should be noted t h a t t h e items pose  specific  problems,,  and t h a t the wording i s i n simple, p o p u l a r s t y l e , o f t e n ungrammatical. person  even  "Frequent use i s made of pronouns i n the f i r s t  singular.  The Inventory d e a l s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g areas of adjustment i n the o r d e r i n d i c a t e d : h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l s t a t u s and d a i l y ing;  w o r r i e s , f e a r s , anger and p i t y ;  liv-  introversion-extrover-  s i o n , i n f e r i o r i t y - s u p e r i o r i t y , optimism-pessimism  and w i l l -  power; home status,, atmosphere, a t t i t u d e s and r e a c t i o n s w h i l e growing up and breaking away from home t i e s ; the s c h o o l , sportsmanship, morals and delinquency; f r i e n d s , m a s c u l i n i t y f e m i n i t y , hobbies and v o c a t i o n a l that the f i r s t  -outlook.  Baker  believes  three t o p i c s c o n s t i t u t e a n a t u r a l and easy  i n t r o d u c t i o n to s e l f - a n a l y s i s . The Teacher's Handbook The "Teacher's Handbook f o r the D e t r o i t Adjustment I n v e n t o r y , " which i s p r o v i d e d with the Inventpry, does not meet the  standards s e t by  the  requirements under  Jackson and Ferguson.  2  Baker does meet  'general i n s t r u c t i o n s . * He g i v e s t h e  2. Jackson, K.W.B., Ferguson, G.A. " S t u d i e s on the R e l i a b i l i t y of T e s t s ? B u l l e t i n No. 12 of the Department o f Educat i o n Research, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y off Toronto P r e s s , 1941  21-  purpose of the t e s t - "to i n t e r p r e t the problems of j u n i o r senior high may  school p u p i l s * *  be used i n two  The  ways; f i r s t ,  and  test i s self-administering as a means of d i a g n o s i n g  and  and  t r e a t i n g the problems of a s m a l l percentage o f students >who are markedly maladjusted i n c i t i z e n s h i p , p e r s o n a l i t y and  other  portant  Secondly,  the  f a c t o r s not measured by i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s .  t e s t may  im-  be used as a t e a c h i n g a i d i n courses e n t i t l e d  p r a c t i c a l psychology, b e t t e r c i t i z e n s h i p , understanding o n e s f  s e l f and i t y and  h i s n e i g h b o r s , and  s i m i l a r t i t l e s d e a l i n g with commun-  s e l f understanding.  The  s o c i a l workers, p s y c h o l o g i s t s , to e x e r c i s e much t a c t and  author a d v i s e s  and  o t h e r s who  use h i s  inventory  diplomacy, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e a l i n g  w i t h cases of extreme maladjustment. under no  teachers,  circumstances should  He  also advises  that  t h i s m a t e r i a l be used as open  or v e i l e d t h r e a t s to p u p i l s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or  disciplinary  purposes. Baker admits that the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory i s not a s u b s t i t u t e f o r c a r e f u l i n t e n s i v e case work by p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s or s o c i a l workers. i s intended  qualified  The  test  to serve as an important a i d i n d i s c o v e r i n g  i n t o the problems which p u p i l s encounter, and  leads  i t o f f e r s an  economy of time i n l o c a l i z i n g the problems which c h a r a c t e r i z e certain pupils. The  manual g i v e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the  of the Inventory, how to be  i t i s to be administered  and  nature  how"it i s  scored. Under the  section S t a t i s t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  Results,  -22-  the  following distribution  etc.,  of scores i s g i v e n by l * s , 2*s,  f o r s i x t y - o n e behaviour and twenty-seven non-behaviour  cases; Bakers Manual Behaviour Cases Responses  Average No.  Weight  l*s  9  X  1  9  2»s  12  X  2  24  3 s  29  X  3.  m  4's  29  X  4  116  5 s  .. 41  X  5  205.  Totals  120  r  r  441  Non-Behaviour Responses .  Average No.  Gases Weight  Weighted Scores  1  3  X  2  14  24  X  3  72  4»s  27  X  4  108.  5»s  59  X  5  29.5  l s r  3  2's  7  3*s  Totals For  Weighted Scores  . X  492  120  comparison w i t h the above dat0~the f o l l o w i n g d i s -  t r i b u t i o n of scores by l s , 2*s e t c . f o r the 27 h i g h e s t and r  the  27 lowest scores of the boys on the November t e s t i n g a t  K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l was made. ,  -23-  Kitsilano Low Responses  Testing  27 Scores  Average No,  Weight  Weighted Scores  l's  9  1  9  2»s  14  2  28  3's  31  3  93  4's  35  4  140  5's  31  5  155" 425  Totalis  120  Responses  High 27 Scores Average, No. Weight  Weighted Scores  l's  2  1  2  2's  7  2  14  3's  24  3  72  4's  36  4  144  5's  51  5-  255  120  Totals  487  B a k e r s t o t a l scores were computed f o r a group of s i x t y r  one maladjusted hoys, who were  e n r o l l e d i n c l a s s e s f o r such  maladjustments and f o r a group of twenty-seven boys and  girls  who were r a t e d as above average or v e r y i d e a l by t h e i r t e a c h e r . The a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e between the average scores of the groups was  6.1  times the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e .  Comparing  the r e s u l t s of the K i t s i l a n o t e s t i n g with  those of the manual, the same average number of l ' s f o r the 27 low scores was  secured as f o r the maladjusted cases;  In  -24- ~  each case Baker.  the t o t a l weighted score i s below that r e p o r t e d by-  The d i f f e r e n c e between the t o t a l weighted s c o r e s of  the 27 low and  the 27 h i g h case i s 62.  Baker's d i f f e r e n c e  between the t o t a l weighted score of behavious cases and behaviour  cases was  o n l y 51.  Thus Baker's two  non-  groups seem to  be much more homogeneous than were the h i g h and  low  groups a t  Kitsilano. The  s e c t i o n on s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s  by d i s c u s s i n g the problem of how might be expected low  concluded  mentally retarded p u p i l s  to answer the i n v e n t o r y .  P u p i l s with  a  I.Qj. tend to have d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a d i n g the items, p a r t -  i c u l a r l y those cases below a mental age° of ten years and I.Q,,  of 75, a l t h o u g h i t i s not t r u e of a l l of them.  types of m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d p u p i l s w i t h low 20 or more l ' s , are found  t e s t but have g e n e r a l f e e l i n g s i n inadequacy and  t o r y , nor  of i t s t o p i c s .  Other  s c o r e s , such as  to have read'and understood  The manual does not give the r e l i a b i l i t y  an  the  inferiority.  of the whole i n v e n -  The v a l i d i t y of the i n v e n t o r y , item  v a l i d i t i e s , i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the s u b t e s t s and norms, are not g i v e n .  No  s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n v e n t o r y i s  given i n the.manual. Baker does d e a l with the q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e s u l t s , which again i s r a t h e r incomplete He g i v e s t h r e e reasons why •inventory h o n e s t l y ,  and  nonstatistical.  students a r e l i k e l y to answer h i s  F i r s t the i n s t r u c t i o n s are worded i n such  a manner t h a t the p u p i l i s not c e r t a i n j u s t how viewer a l r e a d y knows about him.  Secondly,  he  much the  inter-  claims there i s  -25-  a l a r g e amount of i n h e r e n t honesty i n the great m a j o r i t y of . people and i t tends t o be p r a c t i s e d when people g e n i u n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g t o b r i n g about standing.  seem t o be a b e t t e r under-  T h i r d l y , the items a r e worded i n such d e f i n i t e  p e r s o n a l ways that the p u p i l s f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t the a p p r o p r i a t e answer f o r them.  and  to a v o i d g i v i n g  To s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s  last  p o i n t , s i x t e e n problem boys were g i v e n the i n v e n t o r y and were asked  to take i t a g a i n about  asked  to mark the i d e a l answer-rather  t r u e of them.  two weeks l a t e r when t h e y were, than the one that  was  Only f o u r of the s i x t e e n boys were a b l e t o keep  the i d e a l i n mind, and these f o u r r a i s e d t h e i r t o t a l s c o r e s one hundred p o i n t s o r more. i d e a l score but a f t e r a few the m a t e r i a l was  The other twelve began with  the  items the' suggestive n a t u r e of  such t h a t they l a p s e d back i n t o the  which a p p l i e d to them, thus o b t a i n i n g almost  ratings  i d e n t i c a l scores.  Baker s t a t e s that these f a c t s were, confirmed by t h e i r  tea-  cher through i n d i v i d u a l , q u e s t i o n i n g . The Manual i s concluded by a s e c t i o n on the "Use -  of  Re-  m e d i a l Suggestions with I n d i v i d u a l P u p i l s . " '  Baker has  prepared  remedial suggestions (see Appendix) f o r each  one of the twenty-  f o u r t o p i c s , with separate ones f o r boys and g i r l s on the twenty-second your part."'  t o p i c of m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y , and He g i v e s a few suggestions f o r t h e i r  "acting use.  These r e m e d i a l s u g g e s t i o n s were used i n our i n t e r v i e w s with the t e n boys who  made low  scores.  A f t e r two  of these  boys had looked over the r e m e d i a l suggestions f o r those o  in-which they had made p a r t i c u l a r l y low  topics  scores we asked f o r  -26  comments.  "Kinda u s e l e s s " s a i d one, "Reads l i k e a Sunday  School t e a c h e r ' s pep t a l k , " commented the o t h e r .  However, we  d i d f i n d these suggestions v a l u a b l e as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . U s i n g them as the b a s i s , q u e s t i o n s were composed which were used during the i n t e r v i e w .  As an example, on the t o p i c " F e a r s "  the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were formulated. 1. Are you a f r a i d o f persons o r of t h i n g s ? f r i g h t e n you? 2. As a c h i l d , were you a f r a i d of the  Do your  thoughts  dark?  3. Have you f e a r of your p a r e n t s ? of strange persons? of your teachers? of f e l l o w - s t u d e n t s ? • 4. Are you a f r a i d  to speak i n c l a s s ?  5. Do you ever f e e l s i l l y  or f o o l i s h over your f e a r s ?  6. Do your f e a r s come upon you suddenly or are t h e y t i n u a l l y with you? 7. Are you a f r a i d  con-  of the f u t u r e ?  8. Do your f e a r s become l a r g e r , the more you t h i n k about, them? 9. Do you ever attempt to r e a s o n w i t h y o u r s e l f or t a l k with y o u r s e l f about your f e a r s ? 10. Have you ever attempted  t o conquer your f e a r s ?  More w i l l be s a i d concerning these Remedial Suggestions s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with guidance and case h i s t o r i e s .  i n the  Baker  sug-  gested that the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory with the remedial suggestions c o u l d be used i n c e r t a i n high s c h o o l groups i n courses d e a l i n g with c i t i z e n s h i p , p e r s o n a l adjustment,  the  psychology of everyday l i v i n g , or s i m i l a r  success  titles.  The  of any such course depends very l a r g e l y upon the type of t e a cher and the understanding which e x i s t s between t h i s teacher and the p u p i l s .  -27-  « The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n must be that f o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n v e n t o r y the'handbook i s , i n the main, of l i t t l e  value.  CHAPTER  17  The Administration: of the D e t r o i t Ad ,jus tment Invent ory  •28-  Chapter IV The D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory " T e l l i n g What I Do -, n  was administered t o 111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n Grade X I at K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l , Vancouver, B. 0. d u r i n g November, 1946. January, 1947.  S i x t y - t h r e e of the boys were, r e t e s t e d d u r i n g The mean age of the g i r l s was 16 y e a r s 5 mon-  ths and o f the boys 16 yearso«5months.  The t e n boys who made  the lowest average  marks on the two t e s t i n g s were i n t e r v i e w e d  and given guidance  d u r i n g February and March, 1947, Baker's,  remedial  suggestions b e i n g the b a s i s f o r t h i s work.  boys were g i v e n the Inventory a g a i n on the f i r s t 1947.  The t e n  of A p r i l ,  Table I g i v e s c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c s on the s u b j e c t s t e s t e d . Table I . K i t s i l a n o S e n i o r - J u n i o r High S c h o o l T e s t i n g .  Date  No. of cases  Sex  Nov.4.6: g i r l s  91  Mean O.A.  Mean I.O..  16 y.5 m.  Mean Invent o r v Score  111.5  454.51  16 y.6.5m. 109.3-  456.85  Nov.46  boys  111  Jan. 47  boys  63  16 y.8 m.  108.  458.41  A p r l l 4 7 boys.  10  16 y.7 nu  103.  429.7  The  guidance  t e a c h e r s who a d m i n i s t e r e d the i n v e n t o r y  r e p o r t e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the g i r l s ^ e e m e d t o enjoy responding to the problems.  Our own o b s e r v a t i o n s while  administering  the t e s t t o two d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , coiifTfmed  this report.  There was no scowling or heaving  the i n v e n t o r y was being done. i n the guidance  of s i g h s while  The t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  room, which c o n t a i n s l o n g t a b l e s and the o r ^  -29-  dinary lecture-room  chairs.  The students were p l a c e d f o u r to  f i v e f e e t a p a r t , s i x to a t a b l e , three to a side so that there would be no i n t e r f e r e n c e one with the other.  The t e s t i s so  s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y t h a t f u l l y three q u a r t e r s of the c l a s s had begun work before the d i r e c t i o n s had been f u l l y d i s c u s s e d . student  had d i f f i c u l t y  Students  i n understanding  No  what was t o be done.  were asked to check t h e i r papers to see that  they answered each q u e s t i o n .  Still  i t was found  missed s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s , columns or even pages. who had done t h i s , e x p l a i n e d he had rushed  that some had One student  through the inven-.  t o r y , because there seemed so much to do i n one p e r i o d .  Baker  c l a i m s , i n h i s handbook, t h i r t y or f o r t y minutes i s s u f f i c i e n t to complete the t e s t .  About thirty:.percent of. the c l a s s  fin-  i s h e d w i t h i n the time l i m i t , t h e remainder, e s p e c i a l l y the g i r l s , r e q u i r i n g about f i f t y - f i v e minutes. Many students p o i n t e d out d i f f i c u l t i e s i n answering some of the q u e s t i o n s , the p r i n c i p a l complaint t h a t s u i t s me i s n ' t h e r e . "  This was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of item  64 (about f a t h e r o r s t e p - f a t h e r working). as another  being: "The statement  S i x students added  c h o i c e , " I haven't a f a t h e r or s t e p - f a t h e r , " while  f i v e students f a i l e d  to answer the q u e s t i o n , presumably because  they had no f a t h e r .  Four students  objected to i t e m 62  (about  owning our home) c l a i m i n g , "our home has been p a i d f o r ever, since I can remember.  Which one w i l l I put the c i r c l e  around?"  They d i s l i k e d choice B, " I t i s p a i d f o r or n e a r l y a l l , " the " n e a r l y a l l " making the choice' u n d e s i r a b l e f o r them. i n s t r u c t e d however, t o e n c i r c l e . B.  They were  Two students asked of item  -30-  66  (about h o l i d a y p a r t i e s and b i r t h d a y p a r t i e s ) "Does t h i s  q u e s t i o n r e f e r to myself or my  parents?"  at the b e g i n n i n g of each c h o i c e confused (at home we to how  are — )  two  The pronoun them.  In item  (about  between A  guess I l i k e  teasing l i t t l e  to tease them).  (about  He was The  He was  we  (about going to dances). "My  observed.  t h a t there was more  same student enquired of  Which one  or two)  and B (I don't  Four  students s a i d of t o p i c  parents won't allow me  s h a l l I answer?"  to  They were t o l d  .These c r i t i c i s m s came from the two  to  c l a s s e s which  The number, p o s s i b l y , would have been g r e a t l y  i n c r e a s e d i f the o t h e r f i v e c l a s s e s a l s o had had and comments noted. topics.  the  t o l d A meant a more d e f i n i t e  and e s t a b l i s h e d f r i e n d s h i p than B.  e n c i r c l e A.  c h i l d r e n ) what d i f f e r e n c e  told  (I have only one  seem to have h a r d l y any).  dance a t a l l .  student  the number of f r i e n d s I have) what was  d i f f e r e n c e between A  115  One  (I. t r y hard not to tease them) and D (I  d e s i r e to tease i n A than i n D. item 103  as  They were t o l d  t o t h i n k of these terms as meaning "average"'.  there was  70  students claimed they were confused  many times " o f t e n and u s u a l l y " meant.  asked of item 97  "we"  their  questions  Students made three^;criticisms: of the  F i r s t , some c h o i c e s a r e too much a l i k e - the degree  of d i f f e r e n c e between them i s n e i t h e r s u f f i c i e n t , nor  clear.  Secondly, the answer which the student f e e l s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r him i s not i n c l u d e d . seldom, sometimes, and e x p l i c i t f o r Grade X I The  T h i r d l y , the adverbs,  often, probably,  q u i t e a r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y exact  nor  students.  s c o r i n g of the i n v e n t o r y i s q u i t e simple  and  straight-  -31-  forward.  A Record Blank - S c o r i n g Key  inventory.  One  i s p r o v i d e d f o r each  reads the l e t t e r s which the p u p i l s e n c i r c l e d  and then e n c i r c l e s t h i s l e t t e r beside the a p p r o p r i a t e on the Record Blank. "E  n  For example, i f f o r the f i r s t  has been e n c i r c l e d , the l e t t e r -"E" found  marked "3" would be u n d e r l i n e d .  item  an  i n the column  On item number 105,  s c o r e r must mark a c c o r d i n g to the age  phrase  the  of p u p i l given a t the  top of the f r o n t page of h i s i n v e n t o r y ; i f 14 years of age  or  younger, the items i n t h a t l i n e had to be c o n s i d e r e d , and i f 15 years of age used.  or o l d e r , then the l i n e f o r that age must  F o r items 106  t o 110,  i n c l u s i v e , there are  s c o r i n g keys f o r boys and g i r l s . a c c o r d i n g to age.  Again  of the f i v e p r i n t e d c h o i c e s .  students who  separate i s scored  I f a p u p i l had w r i t t e n i n on any  s i x t h item and l a b e l l e d i t "F", i t was n e a r l y one  item 115  scored to f i t most For example,  p l e t e d , the number of responses 2,3,4^5, were counted.  those step-  rating.  A f t e r the score made on the Record Blank had  at  topic a  added to t o p i c 64 " I have no f a t h e r nor  f a t h e r , " were g i v e n "1" as a  i n the  been com-  columns numbered 1,  These were added and  the  the end of each column on Page 4 of the Record  recorded  Blank.  scores. *  these f i v e columns must t o t a l 120,  s i n c e there a r e 120  The  sum  1  of each column was  The  sum  These sums were the p u p i l s "simple  i n the Inventory.  now  scores i n items  multiplied  by i t s weighted score to determine the ""weighted s c o r e each column..  be  11  These weighted s c o r e s were recorded i n the  i n the upper r i g h t - h a n d corner of the f i r s t page of the  for box Record  •32-  Blank.  These weighted s c o r e s were added to o b t a i n the  weighted s c o r e , and r e c o r d e d i n the space p r o v i d e d . imum weighted score i s 120.  total  The min-  The maximum weighted.score i s  600. I t would be much more convenient to have the items on the  Record Blank, arranged on the f o u r pages, so t h a t the  s c o r e r can t u r n a page of the Record Blank a t the same time that he must t u r n a page of the Inventory.  In t o p i c s XXI  ( F r i e n d s ) and X X I I I (Hobbies) where the s c o r e depends upon age, i t might be w e l l to have items 105 and 115 marked more distinctly.  In Topic XXII  ( A c t i n g your p a r t ) , where there are  separate s e c t i o n s f o r boys and g i r l s , "Girl",  and  i n the margin, should be more d e f i n i t e l y marked.  Item 107, i n the g i r l s the  the words "Boy"  sectJLon of " A c t i n g your P a r t " on  Record Blank and S c o r i n g Key  ° i n column 4 s h o u l d be  has a p r i n t e r s e r r o r - "C"  "\E">  i  Chapter  T.  1. General I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the 2. He l i a b i l i t y  Scores.  of the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory.  Sex D i f f e r e n c e s The D e t r o i t Adjustment  Inventory was  administered t o  111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n Grade X I a t K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l , Vancouver, B. C. i n November 1946. on to an a n a l y s i s of the i n v e n t o r y , i t was  Before  going  necessary t o d e t e r -  mine i f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the boys and g i r l s were s m a l l enough to j u s t i f y t r e a t i n g them as members o f the same p o p u l a tion.  C e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c s f o r the two  sexes are shown i n  Table I I . Table I I . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s on the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory feex  S.E.Mean  vfedian Mean  N. Range  S.D. ' S.E.s.d.  111. 515-368  459  456,9  2.46  25.8  1.76  Female 91 532-380  457  454.5;  2.87  27.2  a.  Male  From the t a b l e i t may  be seen t h a t the boys scored  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n the g i r l s . d i f f e r e n c e was  determined  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s  by means of the t r a t i o , the  ratio  of the d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s to the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e s . Using the  formula  <rft  (frT  givis-  1.7.x.  (TeJ.-H erente  - A.-^7  = VZ'K^+JLftJ*-  In t h i s case t h e r e are degrees  =  =  £'7*  (111 p l u s 91 mjjnus.!:, 2} or  of freedom so t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i s not  at the 5^> l e v e l .  STe may  t h e r e f o r e t r e a t the  two  200  significant sexes  as  -34-  members of the same p o p u l a t i o n i f so d e s i r e d .  However, i t  was decided t o t r e a t the sexes s e p a r a t e l y . The 1947,  i n v e n t o r y was r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d to 63 boys i n January,  Table I I I compares c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c s f o r the two ad-  ministrations. Table I I I * Comparison of Boys* Test-Hetest Data Range  Median Mean  63.  515-368  459.37  459 •  3.59  88.75  2.6  63  520-347  460.  458.4  3.80  30,4  2.7  Date  K  JNOV.  Jan*  There i s v e r y l i t t l e scores.  SE. Mean  S.D. SE. sd  d i f f e r e n c e between the two mean  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e was determined  means of t r a t i o .  by  S i n c e there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the  November and January  s c o r e s , the standard e r r o r o f the d i f -  f e r e n c e between the means was determined  by the formula.  In t h i s ease there a r e {63 p l u s 63 minus 2) or 124 degrees  of freedom so t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i s not s i g n i f i c a n t  a t the 5 /b l e v e l . c  fiercentile  Scores  In h i s handbook, Baker g i v e s no norms f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g raw  scores on h i s i n v e n t o r y except the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f weighted  responses f o r s i x t y - o n e behaviour and twenty-seven non-beh a v i o u r cases.  For purposes  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c e r t a i n  t i l e v a l u e s of rfitfp s c o r e s are i n d i c a t e d i n Ta^le IV.  percenThese  -35  are based on the data obtained from the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t . Table IV P e r c e n t i l e Scores by Sex Percentile  RdwScpre Boys.  Girls  99  514  504.  90  487  487  80  478-  479.  70  469  • 472  60  462.  465.  50  457  458  40  445  45S  30  439  445  20  433  435.  10  416  426  375  385  1.  Baker r e p o r t e d t h a t the mean score of h i s b e h a v i o u r problem boys was 440, corresponding approximately to the 30th p e r c e n t i l e of the present sample of boys. Table V p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c s f o r each t o p i c  based  on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Inventory to the 111 boys i n November and the 63 boys i n  January.  TABLE V S t a t i s t i c s f o r Boys by Topics Topie  November T e s t i n g | M: PEo ' SD PE • 1 20.00 178*3 '•.'OH M  1.  Health  2.  S l e e p i n g E a t i n g J 20.50  January T e s t i n g SD M 20.51 .18  2.1 *  .17 2.60  .13  20.21 .18  2.22.  17.63  .16 2.40  .11  17.96 .23  2.74  4. , H a b i t s  20.00  .17 2.70  ,ia  20.44 .21  2.52.  5.  Worries  18 ..88  .18 2.30  .11  19.19 .7  2.14  6.  Fears  18.71  .16 2.5£  .12  17.87 .21  2, 52-  7.  Anger  18.40  .17 2.70  .13  18.53 .25  2.92  8.  Pity  19.70  .14 2.18  ,09  17.89 .28  3.30  9.  Good Mixer  19.70  .23 3.58  .16  20.06 .27  3.16  •10. I n f e r i o r - S u p e r io: '16.80  .14 2.20  ,1  16.88 .18  2.18  l l . O p t i m i s m - F e s s imi si 118*45  .15 2.42.  .11  18.78 .21  2.46  12. W i l l Power  17.50  .18 2.82  .14  16.85 .23  2.7  13. Home S t a t u s  21.00  .16 2.42  .11  21.13 .19  2.28  14. Home Atmosphere  20.30  .17 2.74  .13  19.93 .21.  2.5  15. Home A t t i t u d e s  19.50  .20 3.12.  .15  18.56 .16  1.94  16. Growing Up  18.47  .16 2.44.  .11  18.38 .25  3.02  17. Schools  16.70  .16 2.44  .11  16.89 .2  2.36 ,  18. Sportsmanship  20.25  .15 2.42  .11  19.68 .2  2.4  19. Morals  19.65  .13 2.00  .09  20.15 .15  1.84  20. Delinquency  21.20  .05 1.83  .08  21.6  21. F r i e n d s  21.50  .18 2.32  .11  19.33 .22  2.6  22. A c t i n g four P a r t 19.15  .14 2.24  .1.  18.79 .21  2.52  23. Hobbies  16.73  .20 2.98  .14  16.69 .25  2.98  24. V o c a t i o n s  20.90  .20 2.92  .14  19.96 .28  3.36  3.  i  S e l f Care  •  1  :  .2  2.44  -37-  From the table i t may be seen that the lowest mean scores are found  i n the t o p i c s " s c h o o l s " and "hobbies".  mean scores a r e approximately  These  two t h i r d s o f the maximum pos-  s i b l e score of 25, suggesting that there i s probably  insuffic-  i e n t d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power w i t h i n the v a r i o u s t o p i c s .  The  v a r i a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the v a r i o u s t o p i c s a r e very except  comparable  i n two or three i n s t a n c e s , namely t o p i c s 1,9,15 and 20.  Table Y l p r e s e n t s s i m i l a r data f o r the g i r l s .  -38-  " TABLE VI S t a t i s t i c s f o r G i r l s by T o p i c s "  M  Topic  SD  PE  18.9  .16  2*38  .12  21  .17  2.4  .13  18.5  .2  2.8  .14  nabits  17.75  .21  3.02  .IS  5.  Worries  17.63  .16  2.28  •11  6.  Fears  15.5  .18  2.64  .13.  7.  Anger  17.7  .16.  2.3  .12  8,  Pity  19.5  .17  2.38  .12  9.  Good Mixer  20.33  .19  2.70  .14  10.  Inf e r i or-Sup e r i or  16.3  .19  2. 66  .13  11.  up t imi sm-Pe s simi sm 18.27  .2.  2.8  .14  .2  2.76  .14  1.  Health  2,  Sleeping  3.  Self  4.  Eating  Care  12 .\Till Power 1  17.62  13. Home S t a t u s  21.23  .18  2.58  .13  14. Home Atmosphere  21.02  .21.  2. 92  .15  15. Home A t t i t u d e s  18.61  .23  3.24  .16  16.  Growing Up  18.06  .22  3.06  .15  17.  Schools  17.3  .2  2.76  .14  18. Sportsmanship ,  20.97  117  2.5  .13  19. Morals  20.58  .16  2.32  .12  20. Delinquency  21.4  .06  1.98  .1  21. F r i e n d s  21.47  .17  2.38  .13  22. A c t i n g your P a r t  15.  .22  3.01  .15  23. Hobbies  15.56  .22  2.98  .15  20.9  .2  2.84  .14  24.  Vocations  Page'38 A 1 db le„ V / / T Jh ~t e r c o ^ t - e l d t IOY\ Topics  i  \  PEr . t>4  PEr  \  i  P r  \  i  T e . ^ . ^  -  PEr  -x\  W7 PEr  N  PEr  ««7*  V PEr •o4S9 *  PEr  \  . e>S  PEr • ar? .JU4  ; • °£>~  PEr  \  -X? PEr  PEr ' a 4  PEr  PEr •<>7*-  •cf P E r •*7*  pE-r  PEr  P£r  P E r  PEr  • i f f ?  ?  £  •/? PEr  iPEr  7  PEr  11 . 13 PEr -«7*  .44 P E r  . /S~ PBr  •  Nov.  PEr •oS"4  -../•< P E r r  a .XI PEr  •OS'S  >  c  7- ,  • ©£~ .// PEr PEr  1- X X J V  C K Ayi-  •a  •«? P E r  PEr .a ^  ' «7*r •«6PEr  P£r  -.a 4 PEr. .-©7*  •  "=>7*  PEr  •  per •cf>-J  P£r  PEr  •4(1/^  \  r  P£r • o r f •>f PEr  PEr .<s4^  PEr  •X6~  \ a<5 4 PEr , 0 6f>~  -H-i PEr . a 4  \  . o4 PEr  P 5 r  PFr  \  • « 7 +  PEr  PEr  ' //  -  5  -  PCr • of*,  PEr ' J P E r  •// • <*  ?Er  •  PEr  X  PEr  P E r « 7 * -  -A.T P E r  -08 PEr  i  P E r .  i  d  «7f  -  P E r •<?-*-7 ' 3 PEr  -•  •  • /  PEr  • is•P>K»  PEr ,07*  PEr •  \  P E r  •  T  4 P E r •<J  • J-Z.  P F r  1 Bo  J  I, H e a l t h JL, S l e e p i n g  3  Se. K  E«A"t|>\rf  g  - . 4 « ^  y 6  A V\^er Pifcy  C^ye.  H- H a b i t s M Opt»vnis>r> fessiv¥\iiyx\ I7  ie5>  .5" W o w  V/i'U P a w e r ,  Coy  v-  I ^"t-  1 0 Y\  S  not  S i o vi 1 4" 1 ciiv\~t o  Schocl S Spcsyt.&>»\<l.Yvskip  <it.  1 % l e v e . |,  -^3 H o b b i e s VoCdtl'anS  •or £  *  PEr•-7*.  -fx. PEw -<s 4  -39-  The  lowest mean score i s found  f o r t o p i c 22,  " A c t i n g your  Part"', a v e r a g i n g 60 per cent of the p o s s i b l e s c o r e .  There  seems to be s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n mean s c o r e s f o r g i r l s than f o r boys. 4,15,16 and  Greatest v a r i a b i l i t y  i s found i n t o p i c s  22. C o r r e l a t i o n s between T o p i c s  I t was  decided to compute the c o r r e l a t i o n s between  certain  t o p i c s which by reason of t h e i r t i t l e s or s i m i l a r i t y of content might be expected t o show some r e l a t i o n s h i p .  I t would be  de-  s i r a b l e to compute a l l the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s but f o r v a r i o u s reasons t h i s was  not f e a s i b l e f o r the present study. . The  cor-  r e l a t i o n s that were computed are shown i n Table V I I . Very few of the c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t at the Ifi l e v e l which r e q u i r e s r t o b e . 2 5 f o r boys and  .27 f o r the  girls.  I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t the l a r g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r each sex i s between "morals" not be unexpected.  and "delinquency".  Authorities  s o c i o l o g y s t a t e that morals  and delinquency are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . data are concerned  T h i s should  As f a r as the  i t seems that t o a marked degree the v a r -  i o u s t o p i c s are, i n the main, unique measures of Internal The  boys  1  available  adjustment.  Consistency  scores on the f i r s t  twelve  t o p i c s were c o r -  r e l a t e d with those on the l a s t twelve, g i v i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s of .68 and  .71 f o r the November and  January  data  respectively.  1. L a n d i s , Carney. Modern S o c i e t y and. Mental Disease., York, i'arrar and R i n e h a r t , 1938, P.103.  New  -40-  I t would seem that there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n the Inventory tween the t o p i c s . siderably  d e s p i t e the low  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s found  Indeed, these i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s are con-  i n c r e a s e d i f they are c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n s . Reliability  The  reliabilities  '  .  f o r t o t a l and t o p i c  by computing the c o r r e l a t i o n s boys who  be-  between the  answered the Inventory  on two  s c o r e s were scores of the  obtained 63  d i f f e r e n t occasions.  t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the t o t a l scores was  .74.  The  For  61 degrees of freedom, a c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the l /6 v  l e v e l i f i t i s at l e a s t .325. for  The  reliability  coefficient  the t o t a l scores i s , then, s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from  zero, but  i t f a l l s f a r short of the r e l i a b i l i t y  i n d i v i d u a l d i a g n o s i s , n a m e l y , 9 4 suggested b e s t , the t o t a l score i s s u i t a b l e Table V I I I p r e s e n t s i e n t f o r each t o p i c . be considered  Any  by  required for Kelly. -At 2  f o r group guidance.  the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t l a r g e r than  coeffic-  .325  i s to  s i g n i f i c a n t at the one percent l e v e l *  2. K e l l y , T.L. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l Measurements, Yonkers, World Book Co., 1927, r. 210-211.  -41-  TABLE V I I I f o r Tfcpl.cs. •  Topic  • C fox  1.  Health  .13  2.  Sleeping Eating  .44  3.  self  .78  4.  Habits  .63  5.  Worries  .63  6.  Fears  .58  7.  Anger  .40  8.  Pity  .81  9.  Good Mixer  .77  10.  Inferior-Superior  .69  11.  Optimism-Pessimism'  .45  Care  Power  .42  13. Home a t a t us  .87  14. Home Atmosphere  .54  15. Home A t t i t u d e s  .97  Growing Up  .53  12. W i l l  16.  17. Schools  .62  18. Sportsmanship  .50  19. Morals  .52  20*  Delinquency  .56  21. F r i e n d s  .56  22. A c t i n g your P a r t  .66  23. Hobbies  .55  24. Vocations  .68  -42-  The from .13  great range i n r e l i a b i l i t y - c o e f f i c i e n t s ^ v a r y i n g to .97,  i s of some i n t e r e s t .  h e a l t h i s probably of  to be expected.  The  The  t o p i c 15, Home A t t i t u d e s , suggests  low  reliability  very h i g h  reliability,  that here i s one  adjustment i n which students are somewhat s t a b l e . a g a i n , to be expected,  area of  This i s ,  s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of them have had  s i x t e e n or seventeen years i n the home, d u r i n g which time developed i t was  r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e d u r i n g those  they  years.  that, the s c o r e s on the t o p i c s are  much too u n r e l i a b l e to c o n s t i t u t e the ^ a s i s of a r e m e d i a l  not  some  a c o n s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r home, assuming  I t must be concluded  gram.  of  The  reliability  pro-  of the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory i s  suitable for individual diagnosis.  I t can be used f o r  group guidance o n l y . Frequency of Well A d j u s t e d Topic Scores Table ted  t o p i c s c o r e s , Bor both The  to  IX g i v e s the frequency  Maladjusted  o f w e l l a d j u s t e d and  maladjus-  sexes, November T e s t i n g .  range of a w e l l a d j u s t e d  be 22-25, and  and  score was  of a p o o r l y a d j u s t e d score  a^cbfctrarTly'' taken 0-13.  -43-  TABLE IX Frequency o f Topic Scores of s t u d e n t s C l a s s i f i e d as Well-Adjusted and as Maladjusted" Topi® .  Adjusted S c o r e s I :..Maladjus ted  fell  .22-35.  frequency Girls Boys  0- L3  1  Scores  freqi nency Girls Boys  II I  1..  Health  27  12  0  0  2.  S l e e p i n g oc E a t i n g  38  46  2  0  3.  S e l f Care  7  1.9  6  3  4.  Habits  37  9  2  7  5.  Worries  14.  a  1  7  6..  Fears  7  1  3  19  7.  Anger  14  13  4  10  8.  Pity  23-  29  5  2.  9.  Good Mixer  37  37  5.  1  5.  10  10  5  6.  11  1  6 -  10.  I n f e r i or-Superior  1  11.  Opt imi sm-Pe ssimism.  a  12*  W i l l Power  i  13.  Home S t a t u s  52  48  O  2.  14.  Home Atmosphere.  43.  47  4  5  15.  Home A t t i t u d e s  18  1.8  6  6  16.  Growing up  14  8  2  3  17.  Schools  a  5  9  4  18.  Sportsmanship  35  28 .  1.  2  19.  Morals  17  34  O  0 .  20.  Delinquency  54  60  0  0  21.  Friends  61  52.  22.  A c t i n g Tour P a r t  16  •  23. 24,.  Hobbies. Vocations  :  L  4 '42 ."  47  .  3 8'  0 •  •  0  1.  21  • • .23 4  23 0  From the t a b l e i t appears that both sexes are w e l l adj u s t e d i n Home S t a t u s , Home Atmosphere, v o c a t i o n s , Good Mixer, Sportsmanship and F r i e n d s .  The l a r g e number o f students hav-  ing  scores from 22-25 on the l a s t f o u r t o p i c s suggests  the  students a r e s o c i a l l y w e l l a d j u s t e d .  Both sexes a r e poor-  l y a d j u s t e d i n Hobbies;; t h i s might i n d i c a t e that Hobby should be g i v e n more emphasis. with  that  Clubs  There a r e more g i r l s than boys  scores of 0-13 i n the t o p i c s Fears and A c t i n g your F a r t . 0  However,, the t o p i c A c t i n g l o u r r a r t , f o r the g i r l s , constructed.  i s poorly  I f a g i r l marks item No. 107 "About r e a d i n g the  s p o r t i n g page"" with A, " I always read i t , " she i s given a credit of  of 1,. On the other hand i n items 109 and 110,  a credit  5 i s g i v e n to the g i r l who reads the f a s h i o n page every day  and who reads o n l y love  stories.  CHAPTER VI V a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment I n v e n t o r y based on the c r i t e r i a of a R a t i n g S c a l e cons t r u c t e d from the Inventory. Item v a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment ventory.  In-  -45-  Yalidity A Test i s u s u a l l y considered t o be v a l i d  i f i t measures  what i t p u r p o r t s to measure, and t h i s i s o f t e n determined c o r r e l a t i n g t e s t scores with some o u t s i d e c r i t e r i o n . p r e s e n t study an attempt to determine v a l i d i t y was  I t was,  r a t e 200  of course,  teacher s r  impossible to ask t e a c h e r s to  students on each of the 24 t o p i c s e v a l u a t e d by  inventory.  I t was  students on " s e l f  decided t o ask  Qare", "good mixer," " w i l l power", and  a f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e was to a s s i s t  prepared  For t h i s purpose  together w i t h  the teacher to make the r a t i n g s .  defined.  A suitable,, d e s c r i p t i v e phrase  was  purposes. state-  Inventory.  Ratings were obtained f o r 10 g i r l s , and boys f o r the November and January  was  used a t  d e s c r i p t i v e phrases were p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the  ments-found i n the t o p i c s of the  directions  Each t o p i c  the proper p l a c e on the graph, as a guide f o r r a t i n g The  this  teachers to r a t e c e r t a i n  " s c h o o l s " as w e l l as f o r t o t a l adjustment.  first  In the  made by  c o r r e l a t i n g scores on the Adjustment Inventory w i t h ratings.  by  f o r 52 and  25  testings respectively.  I s there any r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher*"s r a t i n g s and Inventory  scores?  An answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n was  by means of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . 2x2-fold d i s t r i b u t i o n .  words, i t was  sought  data were, t a b u l a t e d i n a  The h y p o t h e s i s was  no r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s and the sums of the rows and  The  first  made t h a t there  was  r a t i n g s , not assuming t h a t  columns were c o n s t a n t .  In other  assumed that the frequency i n each e l l was  q u a r t e r of the t o t a l number of cases.  The p r o b a b i l i t y o f  one  t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n a r i s i n g by chance was then determined. v a l u e s of X  2  The  and P are shown i n t a b l e X. Table  X  P r o b a b i l i t y of a R e l a t i o n s h i p between I n ventory scores and Teachers' r a t i n g s on Selected Topics Boys Topic  Nov. X.2  xa  p.  Girls Jan. JT  X2  P  T o t a l Adjustment 8.112.  .05  1,375  .27  . 10.000  ,01  S e l f Care!  .012  .93  .812  .47  .484  .50  Good Mixer  .080  .75  .290  .65  1.521  .2.5-  W i l l Power  3.920-'  ,06  .470  .52  1.521  ,.25  School  1.597;  .2.5  6.243  .02  1.521  ,25  Study of the t a b l e r e v e a l s t h a t i n o n l y one case i s the chance l e s s than 2 i n 100 that the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i f f e r e n t from what might be expected  by chance, i . e . , i n 14 o f 15 i n -  s t a n c e s , the p r o p o r t i o n of easejs i n the d e l l s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from what might be found by chance. cannot r e j e c t the h y p o t h e s i s  Hence; we  that there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p  between r a t i n g s and s c o r e s . D e s p i t e the f a c t that the h y p o t h e s i s  of a l a c k of r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between scores and r a t i n g s could n o t be r e j e c t e d , i t was decided  t o compute Pearsons r s between these v a r i a b l e s f o r e  each t o p i c f o r which r a t i n g s were a v a i l a b l e . shown i n Table X I .  The r e s u l t s are.  -47-  Tabie  XI  C o r r e l a t i o n between E a t i n g Scores Scores  andInventory Girls  Boys Jan. •'  Nov. Topic  N  R.  N  . R  Nov. R  N.  Total Mjustmehl  32  .10  £5,  .48  10  .11  S e l f Care  30  .33  25  .10  10  .25  Good Mixer  52,  .01  £5.  .27  10  .31  10  ; .02 ' -.23  W i l l Power Schools  \  30  -.19  25  sa  .29  £5  .33  10  .45 .  25  .51  10  r required f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at • 32 V/o l e v e 1  .77  From, t h i s t a b l e i t becomes q u i t e apparent t h a t i t i s unl i k e l y t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n , between t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s and i n ventory  scores i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from z e r o .  words there i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d that teachers and w i l l agree on the adjustment for  inventory  off students i n the t o p i c s chosen  study. I t may  be, however, that t e a c h e r s and  i n v e n t o r y would  agree on the students c l a s s i f i e d o n l y as a d j u s t e d and ed,  In other  T O determine t h i s the p h i c o e f f i c i e n t was  maladjust-  computed f o r  each of the t o p i c s u s i n g a score of 13 on the i n v e n t o r y and  of .  2£ on the r a t i n g s c a l e as the d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t s i n p r e p a r i n g the dichotomy between adjustment and maladjustment. u l t s are shown i n Table  XII  The  res-  -48-  Table X I I -Phi C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r R a t i n g Scores & Inventory Scores Boys  Girls  NOV.  Jan.  NOV.  ~r  ~T~  General Adjustment  .22  .49  .39  Self  Care.  ;52  .25  1.00  Good Mixer  -.05  -.11  .39  W i l l Power  .oa  .18  .2a  Schools  .35;  .14  .39  Value of required for significance at 1% l e v e l  .43  .52  .82  Boys Topic  A comparison  i  of the r e s u l t s of Table X I and Table X I I i n -  d i c a t e t h a t teachers do not agree any more c l o s e l y with the Inventory when the students are simply grouped  into adjusted  and maladjusted than when a more r e f i n e d s c o r i n g technique i s used.  The p e r f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the case o f " s e l f c a r e " f o r  g i r l s was probably due to the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n s , a l l but one g i r l s c o r i n g above 13 on the Inventory. Baker a p p a r e n t l y recommends i n h i s handbook that problems be s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t o t a l s c o r e s . prpblem, then, was to determine  the v a l i d i t y of each  behaviour The next item,  uging t o t a l scores as t h e - c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g w e l l - a d j u s t ed and p o o r l y a d j u s t e d s u b j e c t s .  On the b a s i s of the November  t e s t i n g the 27 boys with the h i g h e s t scores and the 27 w i t h the lowest scores were s e l e c t e d .  r  The number o f students i n each  group responding i n s p e c i f i e d ways was  determined.  Here X2 was  used t o a s c e r t a i n whether the two  groups  d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r responses to each item. a l t e r n a t i v e answers f o r each item are allowed. of any g i v e n column the formula  To secure  ,  1  Five  .'•'l^ot  (aK. - a l K ) r "^s&s ./ '  note,  2  i  used  1  a+a-L  X  •  "  where a and a ^ are any p a i r of obtained cQlumn-^entries^-^rdr-N and The gives X  are the corresponding t o t a l s . ^  sum 2  of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the f i v e columns by is N-*-  f o r the  item.  The following,example  shows how  1  3  Lower 27 cases  3  A l t e r n a t i v e Z * l / d (3 x 27 1^3  21 3  (0 x £ 7 -  - O x  21x  27}  s  •  «  2187 0 2187  •*  Table X I I I g i v e s the v a l u e s o f X  level.  2  0  4374  &  above 9 and F must be below .01  2  s  a  27 }  Total  = 4374 7aa  m  2  3 x 27J  A l t e r n a t i v e 5 " 1/3  (3 x 27  2.7  - 3 x 27)  -  2  secured f o r Item I .  27  a 21  A l t e r n a t i v e 4 « l/4a(21x 27  X  was  2  A l t e r n a t i ves. Total 2 3 4  Upper 27 cases  Alternative 3 •  X  2  and of P>; X  . 2  must be  f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the  5%  The average i n v e n t o r y s c o r e s f o r each item f o r each  group are g i v e n . 1. G a r r e t t , ri..E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n , New York, Longmann's, Green and uo., 1944. if. 386. 2.  I b i d P.379.  -50-  'i'able X I I I P r o b a b i l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between c r i t e r i o n groups f o r each item. Inventory Score Item  High 27 Average  Low 27 Average  X*  P  Comment  1  3.89  3,67  6.  .23.  2  4.78  4,33  4.83  .30  3  4.33  4.33  . 1.23  .83  4  '3.85  3.44  2.95  .60  5  3,82.  3.5  4.15  • 40  6  4.66.  3.74  5.98  .20  7  4.4  3.63  5.96  .27  8  4.44  3,6  9.97  .04  Significant  9  4.48  3,63  11.2.9*  .03  Significant  10  4.19  3.56  7,02  .13  11  3.78  2.93  13.31  .01  12  3.22  2.74  4.11  .30  13  3.15  2.88:  7.19  .10  14  4.  3.55  3.68  .50  15  4.5  3.33  17.29  16  4.  3.55  6.33  *.15  17  4.52  2.52  7.33  .12.  18  3.74  3.74  0.  19  3.41  2.88  6.38  .11  20  4.81  4.81  2.22  .70  21  4.3.  3,92.  5.16  .20  22  4.26  4.15  1.55  .80  '  Significant  .005  1.00  Significant  »  1  Item. . -  Inventory Score Low High . 27 27 Average Average 3.48  23 j 24  2.63  X  2  11.65  Significant r  .001  Significant  8.29  .07  Significant  4.44  1.04  .90  3.85  4.21  .40  20 '.21  4,44  3.74  26  4.48  27  3.48  28  .02.  Comment  I  3.41  25  P  3.44  1  i  . 4.  2.92.  19.33 4.55.  .001  Significant  29  3,66  3.51  30  2.92  1.74  20.91  .001  Significant  31  3.85  3.26  15.66  .001  Significant  32  4.3  3.7  7.43  .10  Significant  33  3.59  2,81  4.31  ,4  34  4.26  3.63  8.102  .07  35  3.7  3.85  1.18  ,85  36  4.92  4.15  26.33  37  4.22  3.74  5.05  38  4.52:  3.63  12.21  .015  . Significant  39  3.63  3.15  14.14  .001  Significant  40  3.88  3.15  10,1  .04  Significant  41  4.  3.37  8.86  .07  Significant  42  4.63  3.77  10.59 .  .03  Significant  43.  4.66  3.5  10.9  .03  Significant  44.  4.6  3.22  18.02  .001  Significant  45  4.  3.03  12.2  .001  Significant  46  4.18  3.52  1.4.12.  .001  Significant  47  3.3  3.2.  4.73  .30  Significant  .40  .001.  Significant  Significant  .25  ?  -Sai n vent or y Score Item  .  High 27 Average  Low 27 (Average  X  P  2  Comment  48 .  3.07  2.85  7.1.4  .10  Significant  49  3.77  3.04  13.09  .01  Significant  50  3,59  3.  7.18  .10  51  3.63  2.96  7,84  .10  3.5a  3.19  .50  10.36  .03  Significant  12.96  .001  Significant  .05  Significant  52  | .  3.81  53  3.44  2.6  54  4.3  3.6  55  4.52  4. -  1  8.04i i  56  3.52  3.15  4.8  57  3.48  2.92  8.75  .30  !  j1  .07  Significant  58  4.08  3.6  5.17;  .20  59  4.  2.8  10.64*  .03  60  3.8  3.4  4.66J  .3  61  4.8  4.7  .92]  62  4.66  4.44  2.415  .60  63  4.17  3.63  7.28!  .10  64  4.74  3.17 .  5.39  .25  65  4.03  4.17  2.22  .70  66.  3.74  2.59  16.31  67  4.55  4.07  3.58  .50  68  4.41  3.55  9.5  ,05  69  4.77  4,59  2.16  .70  70  4.37  3.55  9.89  .05  Significant  71.  3.11  2.48  9.09  .05  Significant  72  3.11.  2.81  5.05  .25  Significant  .93  .001  Significant  Significant  -53-  Item  Inventory Score LOW High 27 27 Average Average  X  2  ?  pomment  Significant  73  4.22  3.18  9.6  .04  74  4.81  4.22  4.78  .30  75  4.48  3.74  7.78  .10  76  3.66  3.96  2.77  .60  77  3.26  3.22  7.07  .10  78  3.66  . 3.22  4.86  .30  79  3.81  3.11  5.38  • 25  80  4.11  3,41  6.96  .17  81  3.44  3.  13.03  .01  82  3.55  3.27  8.07  " .07  83  2.04  1.88  2.46  .60  84  4.11  3.63  4.87  .30  85  4.44  4.  4.68  .30  .86  4,77  4.4  4.85  .30  87  4,37  4.15  3.61.  .40  88  4.52  4.4  5.19  .25  89  3.7  3.  13.93  .01  Significant  90  4.2  3.55  10.01  .04  Significant  91  4.1.  3.37  1.31  .81.  92  3,. 7 4  3.55  1.5  .85  93  4.7  4.6  3.33  .5  94  4.77  4.3  14.24  95  3.7  3.26  96  4.  97  4.  -  Significant  ,001  Significant  9.59  .05  Significant  3.3  9.69  .05  Significant  3.  9.99  .03  Significant  litem  Inventory Score Mign Low 27 27 Average Average  X  2  P  • Comment  98  4.52  4.33  8.67  .08  99  4.77  4.52  2.54  .60  100  5.  4.9  1.02  .90  101  4.48  4.11  3.76  .40.  102  4.11  3.78  8.51  .08  Significant  103  4.78  3.78  10.22  .03  Significant  104  4.88  3.37  11,72  ,02  Significant  105  4.37  4.37  10.26  .04  Significant  106  3.41  3.18  6.9  .15  107  3.88  3.48  16 .59  .001  108  4.66  4.66  4.62  .45  109 '  3.71  3.88  3.46  .40  110  3.59  1.33  .85  111  3.  2.55  2.33  .75  112  2.52  2.41  .88  .93  113  3.88  3.18  5.89  .20  114  4.11  3.52  4.8  *30  115  4.3  3.  13.08  .01  Significant  116  3.77  2.92  9.56  ,04  . Significant  117  4. 26  4.37  2. 52.  .60  118  4.41  4.07  11.11  119  4.63  3.81  6.71  .15  120  4.48  - 3.703  9.59  .04  •  3.81  ..  .015  Significant  Significant  Significant  Significant  Table XIV g i v e s the number of s i g n i f i c a n t  items f o r each  topic. Table XIV Number of S i g n i f i c a n t Topic  items f o r eaoh  topic  Ivumber o f Significant 0  Health Sleeping Eating  a  Self  2  Care  Habits  0  Worries  3  Fears  a  Anger  3  Pity  •  4  Mixer  5  Infe r i or-Sup er i or  4  Optimism-Pessimism  3  W i l l Power  a  Good  Mome  Status  0  Home Atmosphere  3  Home A t t i t u d e s  a  Growing Op  0  Schools  l  Sportsmanship  a  Morals. .  a  Delinquency  3 '  Friends  4  A c t i n g Tour Part:  1  Items  Table X r_V(continued) Topic Hobbies Vocations Total  Number o f S i g n i f i c a n t Items ,  1 3 52  A l l f i v e items of the t o p i c "Good M i x e r " were v a l i d . a t . the 59b l e v e l or b e t t e r .  F i f t y - ^ w o items out o f a t o t a l o f  1.20 d i s t i n g u i s h between the a d j u s t e d and maladjusted, i . e . 43$> of the items a r e v a l i d a t the' 5% l e v e l o r b e t t e r .  Hart-  3 mann. suggests that a good i n v e n t o r y must have a t l e a s t 60% of i t s items v a l i d .  3. Hartmann, vf.S. The D i f f e r e n t i a l V a l i d i t y of items i n a L i b e r a l i s m - Conservatism Test, J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l ogy, Vol.9, 1938, F.71*  CHAPTER V I I Use of the Remedial s u g g e s t i o n s i n i n t e r v i e w s with ten low score boys.  - 5 7 -  OHAPTER VTI The work done on t h i s s e c t i o n o f guidance and i n t e r views was found most i n t e r e s t i n g and v a l u a b l e .  Each Tuesday  a f t e r n o o n , d u r i n g February and March, was spent a t K i t s i l a n o High School doing t h i s p e r s o n n e l work,  Mr. Wales k i n d l y - "  donated h i s o f f i c e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s . P r e p a r a t i o n s were made f o r the i n t e r v i e w . t o p i c s were noted  and Baker's Remedial Suggestions  p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c s were s t u d i e d . in  C h a p t e r 3 ) based on these  A. l i s t  (discussed  suggestions was p r e p a r e d . T  his  f o r those  of q u e s t i o n s  attempt was made t o secure each s t u d e n t s of  The low scored  An  I.Q., the r e s u l t s  any a p t i t u d e o r other p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t he might have  taken;  s c h o l a s t i c r e c o r d , a p i c t u r e of h i s home environment and a  g e n e r a l comment on the student as g i v e n by h i s room teacher and  the guidance  staff.  When the student was c a l l e d to the o f f i c e we spoke t o him by name and i n t r o d u c e d o u r s e l v e s .  A g e n e r a l remark on  the weather or on some c u r r e n t s c h o o l a c t i v i t y was made i n an attempt to s e t the student a t ease.  The i n t e r v i e w was  begun by p r e s e n t i n g a copy o f the Inventory and asking the student  i f he remembered doing i t . We e x p l a i n e d how the i n -  v e n t o r y was scored.  We d i d not, d u r i n g any of the i n t e r v i e w ,  t e l l the student whether h i s t o t a l i n v e n t o r y score was h i g h or low. We discussed', f i r s t ,  those  three or f o u r t o p i c s on  which the student had made h i s h i g h e s t t o p i c s c o r e s . the i n t e r v i e w was turned t o those  Then  t o p i c s on which the student  -58-  has made low. s c o r e s . for  Those q u e s t i o n s which had been prepared  t h a t t o p i c were asked.  But no i n t e r v i e w took a r e g u l a r  course - the student, i n many cases took charge and l e d the way.  Often we found the prepared q u e s t i o n s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  and had t o use our own i n i t i a t i v e . felt  I n those cases where we  t h e r e was maladjustment, we attempted  to e x p l a i n why the  student should change h i s s o c i a l h a b i t s o r o u t l o o k o r a t t i tude,  We attempted,  a l s o , t o s t a t e a c£fcrinite p o i n t of view  and t o e n l i g h t e n the student.  We t o o o f t e n f e l l m i s e r a b l y  s h o r t of s e t standards, because of the l a c k o f r e q u i r e d exp e r i e n c e and knowledge. .Notes were made on the student imm e d i a t e l y the i n t e r v i e w was over.  -59-  The Case of D. S. D.S, entered the o f f i c e w i t h a pleasant  smile.  He shook  hands and sat down on the edge of the c h a i r , p l a y i n g n e r v o u s l y with h i s books. beside him. him..  He was asked t o p l a c e them on the empty c h a i r  The s c o r i n g of the i n v e n t o r y was e x p l a i n e d t o  He was t o l d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g s a i d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w  was t o be t r e a t e d as p r i v a t e and c o n f i d e n t i a l i n the sense t h a t i t would n o t a f f e c t h i s s c h o o l o r p e r s o n a l r e c o r d . U.S. and  had made the boys* lowest  score on both the November  January t e s t i n g - 368 on the f i r s t  second.  t e s t i n g and 347 on the  He made a score of 13 o r l e s s on f i v e t o p i c s .  A  score o f 11 on the t o p i c of Jfea'rs, a score of 13 on Anger, a score o f 11 on w i l l Power, a score of 10 on Growing Up and a score of 9 on Home A t t i t u d e s .  These scores were from the  November T e s t i n g , but they were c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y low on the January T e s t i n g . A s l i g h t boy, h i s s k i n somewhat blemished i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e i n appearance*  with acne, D.S. His glasses  were loose and s l i p p e d down h i s nose; h i s h a i r , c u t r a t h e r s h o r t , l a c k e d a t t e n t i o n ; h i s n a i l s showed s i g n s of b i t i n g ; h i s t r o u s e r s badly needed p r e s s i n g and h i s s h i r t was open at the t h r o a t .  Of Jewish parentage, D.S. has r e s i d e d i n Vancouver  since the summer of 1946. He has a comparatively  U n t i l then he l i v e d i n Winnipeg.  h i g h I.Q/.  H i s teachers report'that  he causes no t r o u b l e i n the classroom work.  and does f a i r l y good  He i s 17 years 2 months i n age.  Pear i s a dominant  f a c t o r i n the p e r s o n a l i t y maladjustment o f D.S.  He i s a f r a i d  -60-  of  the f u t u r e , of t h i n g s , of events, o f people.  He  is afraid  he w i l l not be allowed to e n t e r a Oanadian u n i v e r s i t y because he i s Jewish.  He l i e s awake f o r hours a f t e r he has gone to  bed, going over e v e r y t h i n g that has happened during the  day,  e v a l u a t i n g a l l t h a t he has s a i d and done, s u g g e s t i n g c r i t i c i s m s and improvements.  He has a f e a r of the dark.  Often he  feels  an arm reaching out f o r him when he must go i n t o the darkened vegetable  room of t h e basement.  At n i g h t , a f t e r h i s bed. lamp  has been switched o f f he can hear heavy f o o t s t e p s approaching his  bed,,  iie i s a f r a i d  of people.  He  sometimes wishes he  could d i s a p p e a r when the t e a c h e r or a f e l l o w student speaks to him.  He goes to s c h o o l by a d i f f e r e n t r o u t e each morning  not o n l y because he d i s l i k e s r o u t i n e , but a l s o because he might meet or pass the same persons  on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s .  i s a f r a i d they might speak to him.  At the very.thought  He  of  having to answer a q u e s t i o n i n c l a s s he breaks out i n t o a sweat. On the t o p i c "Anger", D.S. "he gets mad  had l i t t l e  i n s i d e , " ?ftien asked what about he e x p l a i n e d he  never became angry a t people o n l y with God so much s u f f e r i n g and misery i n the world. D.S.  becomes angry when he D.S.  to say, o t h e r than  and Fate who  allow  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  t h i n k s about the p e r s e c u t e d Jews.  e x p l a i n e d that he had o f t e n h e l d a l i g h t e d match  between h i s f i n g e r s and attempted  to c o n c e n t r a t e on the  flame  u n t i l i t began to burn h i s f i n g e r s , but always h i s mind would wander.  He  thus proved  to h i m s e l f that he has no w i l l power.  On the t o p i c " W i l l Power", D.S,  made a score of 11,  In the  -61-  home h i s s i s t e r , some s i x years o l d e r than h i m s e l f , and h i s father  D O S S  him and, as he says " t r y t o wake him up." H i s  mother takes h i s p a r t . competent.  In e v e r y t h i n g he does he f e e l s i n -  He l i k e s t o w r i t e hut r e s e n t s c r i t i c i s m of h i s  work, and no matter how o f t e n he has c o r r e c t e d and gone over his  essay o r peem he never f e e l s i t i s good enough.  he could accomplish t h i n g s i f he were pushed. begin a n y t h i n g on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e .  He can never  He would l i k e  i n t o s c h o o l d r a m a t i c s , i f some one would make him. it  He knows  t o go He f i n d s  impossible t o concentrate on h i s l e s s o n s - wants to e a t  a p p l e s , go t o the bathroom, t i n k e r w i t h the r a d i o - a n y t h i n g but study.  A t other times he can pour over a t e x t book f o r  hours a t a time  ( o f t e n f i v e hours  read a word o r t u r n a page.  a t a s t r e t c h ) and never  H e can, a t such times, p r o j e c t  h i m s e l f t o K i t s i l a n o Beach or climb Grouse Mountain o r be a Mountie i n the Yukon. but gave i t up. i t won't l a s t .  He began to c o l l e c t stamps as a hobby  He i s now i n t e r e s t e d i n photography but f e e l s Two summers ago he had a d i s h washing job i n  a c a f e , but he f e l t one of the w a i t r e s s e s was being blamed by the boss (who seemed t o f a v o r him) f o r h i s mistakes and e r r o r s , so he q u i t . . In one sense, he f e e l s that h i s teachers leave him alone t o o much; t h a t he i s as s t u p i d and needs as much a t t e n t i o n as the lower h a l f o f the c l a s s .  He doesn't  b e l i e v e he i s as b r i g h t as the t e a c h e r s t h i n k he i s . On the t o p i c , "Growing up," D.S. e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had no i d e a whatsoever o f what he was going to do with h i s l i f e . had thought he would l i k e to e n t e r Medicine but f e l t  He  the Med-  -62-  i c a l F a c u l t i e s of Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d Jews,  Too,  f e e l s he  he might choose J o u r n a l i s m  Composition c l a s s e s .  mother o f t e n speaks to him s i s t e r , too, t r e a t him and  as a c a r e e r , hut  i s n ' t good enough as he i s not a top  E n g l i s h and  go to sea as he  He  again  student i n h i s  "hates'* chemistry.  i n "baby-talk."  as a baby.  against  D.S.  His  H i s f a t h e r arid  would l i k e . t o t r a v e l  i s f a s c i n a t e d by s h i p s and  the ocean, but  h i s p a r e n t s won't hear of h i s l e a v i n g home. The  home a t t i t u d e o f D.S.,  often quarrel.  H i s f a t h e r and  does or suggests.  and  he  him  to be any  and h i s  sister  "On  he  from these two  o f t e n "squashes h i s  but  plans."  the whole my  father  considerate."  i s essentially a fatalist.  way  He  s i s t e r b e l i t t l e everything  has no d e s i r e to leave home.  and mother a r e . k i n d and D.S.  good.  H i s mother p r o t e c t s him  at the same time dominates him Yet D.S.  i s not  i s because God, intended  him  He  b e l i e v e s he  to be  so and  d i f f e r e n t He would change him.  He  i s the  i f God  wanted  believes  allowed s i x m i l l i o n Jews to be murdered i n Europe d u r i n g  God the  past decade f o r a purpose - namely so P a l e s t i n e w i l l be more quickly liberated.  He  would l i k e  c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y , who make him  accomplish something.  to have a f r i e n d of  would push and  D.S. teacher  has had  has no f r i e n d , and  must be exchanged. o n l y two  a l l h i s o l d f e a r s and  but as soon as he worries  return.  At  acquaintances.  l o n g t a l k s w i t h the s c h o o l ' s  and h i s doctor  and  He wouldn't want t h i s f r i e n d  to become so c l o s e t h a t confidences the moment D.S.  l e a d him  strong  guidance  l e a v e s t h e i r presence  At the moment he i s  r e a d i n g Dale Carnegie's f l u e n c e People",  book "How  t o Win F r i e n d s and I n -  but f e e l s t h a t i f you have w i l l , power  there  i s no use r e a d i n g i t , and i f you haven't t h e r e i s no use reading i t anywayJ. T h i s i n t e r v i e w began a t one t h i r t y and l a s t e d u n t i l ten minutes a f t e r t h r e e .  Baker's sheets  were gone over and d i s c u s s e d with  of r e m e d i a l  suggestions  D.S.  Conclusions 1.  This i n t e r v i e w c e r t a i n l y v a l i d a t e d the low t o p i c  scores of D.S.'s i n v e n t o r y . 2.  I t was suggested to the guidance t e a c h e r t h a t D.S.  be r e f e r r e d to -the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Clinic/  -64-  The  Case of T.W.  T.W. i s a t a l l boy, dark h a i r e d , dark eyed and c l e a r , o l i v e eomplexioned. been through  He shook hands and s a t down a s i f he had  t h i s whole i n t e r v i e w i n g b u s i n e s s b e f o r e and was  s l i g h t l y bored.  T.W. i s 16 years, 7 months of age. H i s I.G>  i s s l i g h t l y above the average of h i s grade.  He made a mark  o f 383 on the November Inventory t e s t i n g and a mark of 396 on the January  testing.  On s e v e r a l t o p i c s , "Good Mixer,  Inferior-  S u p e r i o r , W i l l Power, and Home A t t i t u d e s , " he made a score o f 13.  On the t o p i c "Growing Up" he made a score of 9, on "Hobbies"  a score of 12, on "Optimism-Pessimism"', a score of 12 and on "Vocations"' a score of 9. lowest  l e s h a l l here d i s c u s s h i s three  t o p i c s c o r e s ; Growing Up, Hobbies and V o c a t i o n s .  In the matter of Growing Up, T.W. b e l i e v e d he wasn't being allowed t o grow up.  He i s an only c h i l d .  The Mother  dominates the home and i s e v i d e n t l y the a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y . She a l l o w s her son no freedom.  He must.-report  home immediate-  l y a f t e r s c h o o l ; he does chores u n t i l supper and then spends the evening i n study under h i s mother's s u p e r v i s i o n .  T.W.  would l i k e to a t t e n d s c h o o l dances and p a r t i e s but h i s mother won't g i v e h e r p e r m i s s i o n ,  F r i d a y n i g h t s T.W. works i n a  bowling a l l e y and turns h i s earnings over t o h i s mother. H i s mother nags him c o n t i n u a l l y , at home i s c r i t i c i z e d .  e v e r y t h i n g he suggests o r says  We would t h i n k t h a t under such  d i t i o n s T.W. should have made lower  con-  scores than he d i d on the  t o p i c s , "Home S t a t u s " , "Home Atmosphere" and "Home A t t i t u d e s . " As regards to the t o p i c Hobbies, T.W. admitted  he has no  time f o r such, as he i s always busy a t home.  He d i d p l a y  foot-  b a l l f o r a time but dropped out o f the game s h o r t l y a f t e r he i n j u r e d his. knee.  He began to c o l l e c t  stamps but h i s mother  was c o n t i n u a l l y i n s t r u c t i n g him as to how  the stamps should  be arranged, what stamps he should exchange so he l o s t i n terest. On the t o p i c of v o c a t i o n s , T.W.  s a i d he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n  Mechanical E n g i n e e r i n g , but he t h i n k s he w i l l be unable to attend U n i v e r s i t y .  There has been much s i c k n e s s i n the f a m i l y ;  h i s f a t h e r i s a t t e m p t i n g to buy t h e i r home, thus f a m i l y ances are not good.  T.W.  fin-  l i k e s a r t i n s c h o o l but f e e l s there  i s no f u t u r e i n i t and t h a t the o t h e r f e l l o w s i n the c l a s s do b e t t e r work than he does.  This summer he would l i k e to work  i n a lumber camp, managed by h i s u n c l e , but h i s mother won't hear of him l e a v i n g home.  He once suggested g e t t i n g a job on  one of the C.P.R, boats f o r the summer, but h i s mother, h e a r i n g of i t ,  took one of her s p e l l s so he never made the sug-  gestion again.  H i s mother had t o work very hard when she was  young, consequently she doesn't want her son to go out i n t o the world too soon.  T.W.  has never been away from home and  f e e l s he would l i k e to have t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . secure an a l l closes. 411  He hopes to  day j o b i n Safeways f o r the summer once s c h o o l  However, he would l i k e to have an " a f t e r f o u r " j o b .  h i s f r i e n d s have jobs and he f e e l s i n f e r i o r  f r i e n d s never seem t o pay any a t t e n t i o n to him.  to them.  His '  Too, i f he  had an a f t e r s c h o o l job he would be able to get away from home more and escape some of the b i c k e r i n g and arguments t h e r e *  -66-  T.W. kept r e p e a t i n g "my mother i s not easy on me. me do t h i n g s correctly.'* „  during  She makes  The f a t h e r was i n the a i r f o r c e  the war but T.W. has no i n t e r e s t i n aero-mechanics.  Conclusion As we have noted above, i'.W.'s whole maladjustment problem seems to be i n the home, and y e t on these average s c o r e s . low  t o p i c s he made  We doubt whether he should have made such a  score on Growing up i n t h a t he has a strong d e s i r e t o be  on h i s own, and t o secure h i s independence. Vocations, permitted.  T.W.  Too, on the t o p i c  knows what he would l i k e t o d o . i f f i n a n c e s  Vde would say t h a t the t o p i c s Good Mixer,  Inferior-  S u p e r i o r and W i l l Power on which T.W. made a score o f 13, had been r a t e d  correctly.  The maladjustment i n the home seems t o be the main cause f o r T.W.'s low i n v e n t o r y  score.  •  The  Case of B.E.  We encountered much d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w with B.E. as on three s u c c e s s i v e "Guidance days" he was .absent from s c h o o l .  B.E. i s 16 y e a r s , 6 months of age and has  an I.Q. o f 115 ( O t i s Gamma). looked  the t y p i c a l a t h l e t e .  manner r a t h e r s u r p r i s e d u s .  Broad shouldered, muscular, he A pleasant, bright, f r i e n d l y His f i r s t  s c o r e , from the Nov-  ember t e s t i n g was only 394, but on the second t e s t i n g i t was 419.  H i s low t o p i c s were - I n f e r i o r - S u p e r i o r 1 2 ; Home A t -  mosphere 12, Home A t t i t u d e s 10, and Hobbies 11. Both B.E.*s f a t h e r and mother were dead. his  He l i v e s with  grandmother, who, he admits s p o i l s him and a l l o w s him to  do e x a c t l y as he p l e a s e s . has  An Aunt i s h i s guardian  the f i n a l say on any of h i s a c t i v i t i e s .  B.E.  and she  As an example,  had made f u l l arrangements to work i n a lumber camp l a s t  summer, but h i s aunt h e a r i n g of i t , s a i d "thumbs down" and he remained i n the c i t y .  She won't give h e r p e r m i s s i o n f o r him  to  summer.  work on a boat t h i s  B.E.  Other than  this  complaint  seemed to be q u i t e s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s home and i t s arrange  ments.  He has h i s own room, a comfortable  bed, i s f e d w e l l ,  i s given s u f f i c i e n t spending money and complete freedom. B.E. and  belongs to three s c h o o l c l u b s , the Fro-Rec. Club,  the H i - Y i ,  i n photography. girl  He c o l l e c t s swing r e c o r d s and i s i n t e r e s t e d He knows q u i t e a gang of k i d s , has three  f r i e n d s and attends many dances and parties.-  on the School's  He p l a y s  grass hockey and f o o t b a l l teams.  We asked B.E. i f he remembered being i l l or worried o r  -aB-  excited We  at the f i r s t t e s t i n g .  He s a i d he d i d n ' t t h i n k so.  see no maladjustment, u n l e s s our support was poor, i n  B.E.'s low scored t o p i c s .  The home may not be normal, but  B.E. seemed p e r f e c t l y s a t i s f i e d with the arrangement.  9  The We  found  Case of  i t difficult  I.D.  to secure good support with  I.D.  He answered questions and gave i n f o r m a t i o n i n r a t h e r a c y n i c a l tone.  He  seemed t o weight e v e r y t h i n g he  a f r a i d he would say too much.  We  felt  s a i d c a r e f u l l y as i f  t h a t the boy had some  maladjustment but was  determined he wouldn't r e v e a l i t , At  times he was  to be  inclined  s u r l y and  acted l i k e a s p o i l e d  '  child. Short but broad, I.D. mop  of u n r u l y h a i r .  made a score of 398  He  has r a t h e r b l u n t f e a t u r e s with  i s 16 y e a r s , 5 months of age.  a  He  on the November t e s t i n g with a score of  13 on the t o p i c " S l e e p i n g and E a t i n g , " a score of 13 on  the  t o p i c "(Pity,"' a score of 13. on the t o p i c " I n f e r i o r - S u p e r i o r " , a score of 13 on the t o p i c "Optimism-Pessimism," a score 12 on the t o p i c "Home Atmosphere" and topic "Vocations."  We  a score of 11 on  of  the  s h a l l here d i s c u s s the l a s t two men-  tioned topics only. On  the t o p i c "Home Atmosphere"" we  maladjustment,  I,D.  along f a i r l y w e l l . wants to do.  Except  has two  H i s p a r e n t s u s u a l l y l e t him  do what he  they i n s i s t he. be home by midnight  n i c e l y s t a r t e d at t h a t time,  any.  o l d e r s i s t e r s w i t h whom he gets <,  he i s at a p a r t y or dance, but  I.D.  f a i l e d to find  since most p a r t i e s are  says I.D.,  has a job a f t e r s c h o o l and  he  only  d o e s n t go at a l l ,  on Saturdays  ed t o spend h i s money as he p l e a s e s .  when  r  and he  i s allow-  I f he needs anything  which he h i m s e l f can't a f f o r d h i s p a r e n t s u s u a l l y secure i t f o r him.  He has h i s own  room i n the basement and  a  comfort-  -7Q-  able bed on which to s l e e p . food.  He admits he i s f u s s y about h i s  H i s mother has the r e p u t a t i o n  of being  a good cook.  On the t o p i c V o c a t i o n s we found that I.D. has d e f i n i t e l y no  o b j e c t i v e nor p l a n s  why.  f o r the f u t u r e , but we could not. l e a r n  H i s Dad owns a t r a n s f e r b u s i n e s s and J.D. d r i v e s one of  the t r u c k s d u r i n g into partnership  the summer.  The f a t h e r wants I.D. t o go  with him a f t e r he has completed Grade X I I ,  but I.D. has f l a t l y s a i d "No." too heavy and rough,  He d i s l i k e s the work as i t i s  I.D. has no d e s i r e to go to U n i v e r s i t y .  He has not heard of o r seen any v o c a t i o n  that appeals to him.  At one time he was very fond of S o c i a l S t u d i e s  but now he  j u s t "hates i t " ' because he has a d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r .  He enjoys  Commercial A r t but o n l y secures C*s i n i t so he f e e l s he has no a b i l i t y  i n that f i e l d .  A t the moment he i s t a k i n g  l e s s o n s so t h a t he w i l l know how to defend h i m s e l f , he never has the d e s i r e to h u r t h i s opponent. people "who make cracks a t h i m . At t h i s p o i n t the f i n a l b e l l  w  boxing  although  He d i s l i k e s ,  Things o f t e n get him down.  rang and we had t o c l o s e the  interview. Conclusion. We b e l i e v e I.D.'s score on Home Atmosphere i s p o s s i b l y too low, but on the t o p i c Vocations we found h i s score ffalid.  On the whole, however, we found the i n t e r v i e w  unsatisfactory.  quite rather  71-  The M.G.  slouched i n t o a c h a i r and r a n h i s f i n g e r s  his hair.  Although  c l e a n , i&.G. was  c a r e f u l l y dressed. and  Case of IVL.G-.  by no means n e a t l y or  His o v e r a l l t r o u s e r s were without  the bottoms had been r o l l e d up h a l f way  H i s s h i r t was  through  open at the t h r o a t and  crease  to h i s knees.  c h e s t ; one  sleeve  was  r o l l e d h i g h e r than the o t h e r ; h i s h a i r had not been combed all  day.  M.G,  low I.Q.  i s 17 y e a r s , 7 months i n age.  He has r a t h e r a  and h i s t e a c h e r s r e p o r t that he i s n e i t h e r over-  i n d u s t r i o u s nor o v e r - c o - o p e r a t i v e .  He made a score of  on the November t e s t i n g and o f 424 On the t o p i c " S e l f Care", M.G.  on the January  testing.  made a score of 11, on  t o p i c "Good M i x e r " a score of 11, on the t o p i c  408  the  "Inferior-  S u p e r i o r " a score o f 13 and on the t o p i c " W i l l Power" he made a score of 13.  These were h i s low  M.G. 's p e r s o n a l appearance was h i s low  l i k e s wearing a tie.. mother whenever she times she had  always be  ill  He  He  admitted  that  i n c l o t h e s nor g i r l s , and  dis-  claimed he always had a row with h i s  i n s i s t e d he dress up f o r company.  to remind him. to take a b a t h .  the Pro-Bee. Club.  He  s u f f i c i e n t to v a l i d a t e  score on the t o p i c " S e l f Care."  he i s not a t a l l i n t e r e s t e d  M.G.  topic scores.  He  belongs  He enjoys t h i s c l u b because he  "rough and  ready" while  Someto  cam  there.  d i s l i k e s p a r t i e s and very seldom goes to a movie.  s t a y s away from down town as much as p o s s i b l e as he a t ease i n a crowd.  passes a whole day  He hasn't any  i n s c h o o l without  feels  c l o s e f r i e n d s and  speaking  t o anyone.  often  -7S-  M.G.  has  two  b r o t h e r s and he  l i k e s to work with them on a  boat i n the basement of t h e i r home. one boat a l r e a d y .  He  attempts to boss him.  quarrels with h i s older brother M.G.  Mechanics but i s not allowed boat.  Ihe b r o t h e r s have made who  i s i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Motor to work on the motor of the.  H i s b r o t h e r s t e l l him what he can and  cannot do i n  i t s construction. M.G.  doesn't belong  to any  school club.  He  j o i n e d the  Pro-Eec. to b u i l d up h i s muscles not f o r the s o c i a l a c t ivities.-  S e m i - c l a s s i c a l music and photography are h i s o n l y i  i n t e r e s t s outside of motor mechanics.  M.G.  claims he has  d i f f i c u l t y studying the s u b j e c t s he l i k e s , but  on  he d i s l i k e s he f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t to c o n c e n t r a t e .  no  subjects M.G.  plans  on s e c u r i n g a High School l e a v i n g diploma. Conclusion The and  Inventory c e r t a i n l y v a l i d a t e d the t o p i c s " S e l f  "Good M i x e r " i n regards  to M.G.  The boy  i s probably  l a c k i n g i n w i l l power and has a f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y cause o f the dominance of h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r s , but we t h i n k him e x c e s s i v e l y maladjusted traits.  •  i n these  Care"  two  be-  didn't  l a s t named  -73-  The  Case of  N.G,  The Guidance teachers were s u r p r i s e d to l e a r n that had made one ing.  He  of the ten lowest scores on the Inventory  i s a t e a c h e r ' s son.  He has had  N..G. test-  some s o r t of p o i s o n  i n h i s blood and f o r some time has not been w e l l , but h i s t e a c h e r s d i d not t h i n k of him as having any maladjustment i n personality.  "He  causes no t r o u b l e i n h i s c l a s s e s , i s co-  o p e r a t i v e , s t u d i o u s and normal i n every way,"* we were t o l d , i i i s t o t a l score was the January  424  testing.  on the November t e s t i n g and  He made low  "Anger" a score of 13 and slim,, blonde  boy, was  i n h i s response. o f 121 N.G. He  He  s c o r e s on two  " P i t y " a score ,of IE.  easy  441  on  topics N.G.  a  to t a l k t o ; most n a t u r a l and  i s 16 y e a r s , 9 months of age and  tall, direct  has an.  ( O t i s Gamma};.  admitted  s u r p r i s e a t being c a l l e d i n t o the  office.  c l a i m s he never l o s e s h i s temper - h i s mother has o f t e n  s a i d she wishes the younger b r o t h e r were as good natured i s M.S.  With t h i s younger b r o t h e r , N.G.  f a i r l y well.  He  doesn't  i f k i c k e d i n the s h i n s by an  i t by as an a c c i d e n t .  M.G,'s seore on the t o p i c  "Anger" was  On the t o p i c " P i t y " , N.u. o l d people and c r i p p l e s . f o r , " he remarked.  says he g e t s a l o n g  l o s e h i s temper when p l a y i n g games,  t r y s t o abide by the r u l e s and opponent, passes  as  s a i d he  We too  concluded  that  low.  does f e e l s o r r y f o r  "They seem so l o n e l y and  uncared  Sometimes he h e l p s an o l d l a d y o f f the  s t r e e t c a r or t o c a r r y h e r p a r c e l s a c r o s s the s t r e e t , but  too  -7:4-  o f t e n N.G.  f e e l s he does not put h i s sympathy i n t o action,.  When o l d e r he would l i k e to j o i n some o r g a n i z a t i o n .where he could a i d the b l i n d  and  incapable.  Conclusion. We  concluded that N.G.  was p o s s i b l y over  conscientious  i n answering of the Inventory and that on the whole, h i s t o t a l score was  too low.  -75-  The D.H.  Case of  D.H.  made a t o t a l score of 421  on the Inventory,  His  low t o p i c s were " S l e e p i n g " and " E a t i n g " with a score of " S e l f Care" with a score of 12 and 12.  D.H.  "Schools" with a score of  i s 16 years, 2 months of age.  o f h i m s e l f i n the i n t e r v i e w .  13,  He  seemed c o n f i d e n t  His appearance was  neat  and  clean. D.H, to bed  f e e l s he doesn't get enough s l e e p , i n that he  too l a t e a t n i g h t and  newspapers before s c h o o l . has become used."  then a r i s e s e a r l y to  He  goes  deliver  s l e e p s on a c o t to which  His room f a c e s the f r o n t  "he  of the house  and  there i s e v i d e n t l y heavy t r a f f i c along the road which passes by h i s home.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n seems to v a l i d a t e h i s  score on the t o p i c " S l e e p i n g " .  D.H.  low  claims he has no t r o u b l e  with h i s food - " u s u a l l y eats l i k e a horse. " 1  On  the t o p i c  a f f i r m e d h i s low  "Schools" the t e a c h e r s we score.  D.H.. admitted  interviewed  he d i d n ' t do enough  homework or s t u d y i n g - o n l y about an hour a n i g h t .  He  feels  t h a t h i s course  i s too heavy t h i s year, t h a t he has taken  many s u b j e c t s .  He  ematics and these  i s having d i f f i c u l t y with French, Math-  Chemistry.  f o r next year.  He  wishes he had l e f t  one  or two  to our  The  score on t h i s t o p i c was  a  thus v a l i d a t e d  satisfaction.  However we low.  low  of  When asked i f he p a i d a t t e n t i o n i n  class,, he answered "sometimes - a f t e r I *ve g i v e n myself talking to."  too  b e l i e v e D.H.'s score on " S e l f Care" i s t o o  He worked i n a lumber camp l a s t summer and with  the  money earned lie bought some " c l a s s y c l o t h e s . "  He l i k e s t o  dress up and "enjoys a good shower a f t e r a heavy workout."' He s a i d he wants to keep h i m s e l f f i t because on l e a v i n g high  s c h o o l he i n t e n d s to j o i n the American Army.  s i d e r e d D.H's appearance average,  We con-  -77-  The B.K.  is a tall,  Case of  B.K.  dark, w e l l b u i l t youth with an open  countenance and a p l e a s i n g manner. of  He  i s 17 y e a r s , 2 months  age and made a t o t a l score on the Inventory of 423.  His  low t o p i c s were " S e l f Care", a score of 13, " F e a r s " a score of  11 and "Home. A t t i t u d e s " ' a score of 12.  from h i s teachers was,  "an average  D i s c u s s i n g the t o p i c  The g e n e r a l comment  student."  " S e l f Care" with B.K.,  that h i s s c o r e , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r , case, was  he  valid.  doesn't care p a r t i c u l a r l y about h i s c l o t h e s or h i s B.K.  agreed He appearance.  belongs to the sea cadets, p l a y s rugby f o o t b a l l , does  some boxing a t the Y.M.C.A. and f o r the Navy.  He  those a c t i v i t i e s which a r e rough and  doesn't mind  b e i n g knocked about.  ready and  enjoys  He wears a t i e as seldom as p o s s i b l e ,  and admitted, r a t h e r r e l e e t a n t l y , that at times h i s mother has r e f u s e d t o serve him h i s meal u n t i l h i s hands were more "thoroughly washed. The t o p i c " F e a r s " was  B.K. »s lowest s c o r e .  t h a t a t the time he took the Inventory he was his  teeth.  He  t o l d us.  worried  about  He has had a l o t o f t r o u b l e with them, and f o r  over a year has v i s i t e d the d e n t i s t every day.  So o f t e n  were h i s gums f r o z e n that they f i n a l l y ' became immune to the freezing. he s h i v e r s .  Every time B.E. B.K.  t h i n k s of a d r i l l  or a d e n t i s t  doesn't appear t o be the type that might  be obsessed by p h y s i c a l f e a r s i n t h a t he boxes and hard p h y s i c a l games. persons or t h i n g s .  enjoys  He c o u l d n ' t r e c a l l ever having; f e a r of  He doesn't b e l i e v e he  i s e a s i l y upset or  -78-  o f a. nervous temperament.  He blaned h i s low score f o r t h i s  t o p i c on the d e n t i s t ! In the home, B.K. t o l d us there has been some t r o u b l e . The  f a t h e r has been i l l f o r some y e a r s and i s d i f f i c u l t t o  s a t i s f y and p l e a s e .  As a r e s u l t of the f a t h e r ' s  sickness  there have been f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , although a t t h e moment two o l d e r b r o t h e r s and An  doing quite well,  a r e managing the f a t h e r ' s b u s i n e s s  B.K. i s the youngest i n the f a m i l y .  o l d e r b r o t h e r and s i s t e r attempt to boss him. He and h i s  mother are"good p a l s " - b u t B.K. doesn't t h i n k he g e t s so w e l l with h i s f a t h e r .  along  B.K. has never had the d e s i r e t o  leave' home. B.K. was s u r p r i s e d he d i d n ' t make a lower score t o p i c "Anger" (on which he made a score  o f 16), as he has a  r e p u t a t i o n f o r v i o l e n t temper which he l o s e s e a s i l y . f e l l o w s don't l i k e  on the  to box: w i t h him f o r that  reason.  Some However,  he doesn't h o l d a grudge. Conclusion. We would say that on the t o p i c s " S e l f Care"* and"Home A t t i t u d e " , B.K. made a v a l i d on " F e a r s " too low.  score, but we t h i n k h i s  score  -79-  The J.W.  i s 16 y e a r s , 10 months of age.  score -of 422 testing.  on the November t e s t i n g and  His low  of 13, and I.Q.  Case of J . I . He made a 425  t o p i c s were "Good Mixer",  "Hobbies" with a score o f 11. complaints  on the  January  with a sotsre  He has an average  5  and we heard no  total  concerning h i s s c h o o l work,  from h i s t e a c h e r s . In regards to the  t o p i c "Good Mixer"',  not wanted i n t h i s s c h o o l .  f e e l s he i s  His home i s a s m a l l town i n the  i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e and, was  J.W.  there b e i n g no high s c h o o l he  sent to Vancouver to complete h i s e d u c a t i o n .  everybody i n h i s home town and attends p a r t i e s and  He knows social  g a t h e r i n g s when there, but here i n Vancouver, he has found difficult age.  to make f r i e n d s and become one  of a crowd h i s  Some times he f e e l s as i f he were g e t t i n g i n t o  s c h o o l s p i r i t but then a t other times he  it  own  the  seems to be a com-  plete outsider.  He e n j o y s  s p o r t s but doesn't p l a y as many  games here as he  d i d a t home because he f e e l s the other boys  don't want him.  He t h i n k s the s c h o o l too b i g - too many  teachers - too many p u p i l s . J.W.  boards with f r i e n d s c l o s e to the s c h o o l .  f r i e n d s are very k i n d to him, allow him  are not  c o n s i d e r a b l e freedom.  These  s t r i c t with him  He hasn't  developed  and a hobby  because he doesn't f e e l f r e e enough to "mess about"' i n h i s boarding house. movies.  J.W.  might develop  He  claims h i s o n l y hobby i s going t o the  enquired  i f we  could suggest  h i s hands as he would l i k e  any hobby which  t o become a surgeon.  -aa-  we  suggested  working w i t h c l a y , and m o d e l l i n g ,  the v i o l i n or the p i a n o ,  or t a k i n g up  or any hobby which demands p a t i e n t ,  a c c u r a t e , f i n e f i n g e r work. Conclusion. We  concluded  that J'.W. s low 1  i a c k of adjustment to the l i f e big school.  score was  the r e s u l t  of a boarding house and  of a  -81-  The  Case of S.M.  S.M. i s 16 y e a r s , 4 months of age and has an I.Q. of 110 ( O t i s Gamma).  He has an average I.Q. and h i s s c h o l a s t i c  achievement i s i n t h e t e n t h p e r c e n t i l e . H i s t o t a l  score on  the November t e s t i n g was 427 and on the January t e s t i n g 431. H i s low t o p i c was "Hobbies" with a score of 12. S.M. i s a new student  to the s c h o o l , h i s f a m i l y having  r e c e n t l y moved from P r i n c e Rupert.  He has an o l d e r  brother  (on whom the f a m i l y seem t o l a v i s h a l l t h e i r a t t e n t i o n ) attending u n i v e r s i t y .  I t was t o allow t h i s o l d e r  brother  to attend U n i v e r s i t y that the f a m i l y moved t o Vancouver. S.M. d i s l i k e s t h i s c i t y and h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , both f o r t h e same reason - "they're too b i g , " s a i d S.M. much more c l e v e r than I am."  "My b r o t h e r i s  S.M. doesn't know what he wants  to do - he f e e l s he i s n ' t s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e v e r to go to U n i v e r s i t y and he hasn*t  heard  i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d him. that might appeal t o him.  o r seen of any job t h a t p a r t -  He has no hobby and knows of none s e v e r a l were suggested  i n t e r v i e w but S.M. d i d not p r o f e s s i n t e r e s t  during the  i n any of them.  Conclusion. S.M.'s maladjustment seems t o center about h i s o l d e r brother.  H i s scores on the "Home" t o p i c were  comparatively  high - a score of 19 on "Home s t a t u s " , a score of 16 on "Home A t t i t u d e s " and a score of 16 on "Growing Up," so t h a t h i s maladjustment i s not i n d i c a t e d here. however, seems v a l i d .  H i s low score on Hobbies,  -82-  General  c o n c l u s i o n on  On the whole we found  that low  ated .by a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , with and t h a t , i n g e n e r a l a t o t a l low  Interview  t o p i c scores were v a l i d the student  concerned,  score on the Inventory  caused by some s e r i o u s maladjustment u s u a l l y found home.  was  i n the  We would thus agree with Baker's statement i n h i s  Manual that the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory a b a s i s or source  of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n t e r v i e w s with p s y c h i a t -  r i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s and Too,  can be used as  seven out  guidance  of the  teachers.  ten students who  were i n t e r v i e w e d  were newcomers t o the s c h o o l , u s u a l l y from s m a l l towns i n the i n t e r i o r those  or a l o n g the  students who  number of years had 1.  coast.  either:  Learned to a d j u s t themselves to the t a k i n g of such or,  they had been e x p e r t l y guided  s c h o o l ' s Guidance S t a f f , 3.  that  had been i n attendance at the s c h o o l f o r a  i n v e n t o r i e s through the grades, 2.  Thus we would suggest  and  a d v i s e d by  or  they had become s u f f i c i e n t l y a d j u s t e d to the  of a l a r g e s c h o o l and  the  a big city  a f f e c t i n g t h e i r t o t a l score was  life  so t h a t no maladjustment, d i s c l o s e d by the  Inventory.  Perhaps i t might f o l l o w t h a t more personnel, work be done with newer  students.  -83-  Table XV g i v e s the scores of the November, January and A p r i l t e s t i n g s of the t e n boys who were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g February  and March.  The l a s t three columns show the number of  t o p i c s which were d i s c u s s e d with each case and  the average mark o f these  i n the. i n t e r v i e w j  t o p i c s on the November and the  April testings. Table XV Scores o f Interviewed Inventory Case  iaalad.justed Cases Topics  Score  Nov. Jan. April Test ina T e s t i n g T e s t i n g  No.  Discussed  Average Mark, ... • April November  D.S.  36.8 •  347  351  5  10  9  -T.I.'  383  396.  410  3  10.  15  B.ifi.  394  419  431  2  11  16  I.D.  398  410  3  12  17  408  424  418  2  12  15  N.G.  424  441  447  2  12  18  D.H.  421  430  3  12  15  B.K.  423  459  2.  12  16  J.W,  422.  425  492  :  2  12  19  G.M.  427  431.  449  1  1&  14.  A.M.  40-6. 8  411.9  429.7  11*5  15.4  M.G.  I t can be seen from Table XV that the mean score i n creased with each t e s t i n g .  Only D.S. made a lower.score i n  A p r i l than he d i d i n November.  Two o f h i s t o p i c s , which were  d i s c u s s e d i n the i n t e r v i e w , had lower s c o r e s , namely, "Fears",  -84-  changed from 11 to 8, and "Home A t t i t u d e s " from 9 to 7. s i x cases the A p r i l  scores were s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h that  ^'ranked w e l l above 425, which had been chosen as the limit for One may  In they  lower  adjustment. conclude that the remedial suggestions were of  value t o those students who  had low adjustment  s c o r e s , or t h a t  the students had become c o n d i t i o n e d t o the Inventory and c i r c l e d those responses which seemed t o represent adjustment.  en-  satisfactory  CHAPTER V I I I . Conclusion..  -85-  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was t o determine the r e l i a b i l i t y and the v a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment " T e l l i n g What I Do" by  Inventory,  xiarry J . Baker, as a device f o r  a s s i s t i n g teachers and s o c i a l workers i n t h e i r guidance  pro-  gramme . The  i n v e n t o r y c o n s i s t s of 120 items d i v i d e d i n t o twenty-  four topics.  For each of the one hundred items there are  f i v e c h o i c e s of answera, f o r which numerical v a l u e s from one  to f i v e are assigned.  The p u p i l s e l e c t s the response  which most n e a r l y d e s c r i b e s h i s s i t u a t i o n and draws a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r of that c h o i c e .  The t o p i c s i n c l u d e H e a l t h ,  S l e e p i n g - E a t i n g , S e l f Care, H a b i t s , Worries, P i t y , Good Mixer,  F e a r s , Anger,  I n f e r i o r - S u p e r i o r , Optimism-Pessimism, W i l l  Power, Home S t a t u s , Home Atmosphere, Home A t t i t u d e s , Growing Up,  S c h o o l s , Sportsmanship, M o r a l s , Delinquency,  A c t i n g Your P a r t , Hobbies and V o c a t i o n s .  Friends,  A Record Blank i s  s u p p l i e d f o r determining the score from the i n v e n t o r y . ' The maximum score i s 600. The  Inventory was given to 111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n  Grade X I a t K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l , Vancouver, d u r i n g November, 1946. S i x t y - t h r e e of the boys were r e tested lowest  i n e a r l y January,  1947. The ten boys who made the  s c o r e s i n the November t e s t i n g were g i v e n  guidance  d u r i n g February and March and were g i v e n the Inventory i n A p r i l , 1947,  again  -86-  As a b a s i s  f o r the  t h e s i s c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n s of person-  a l i t y were discussed,, and ing was  given.  The  a brief history  c o n c l u s i o n was  of p e r s o n a l i t y  reached that  demand f o r some form of p e r s o n a l i t y  test-  the  popular  measurement has  flooded  the market w i t h t e s t s which have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y e v a l u a t e d . The analyzed.  Teachers' Handbook f o r the As  a manual s u i t a b l e  interpretation i t y , and The  i t was  Inventory was  critically  f o r guidance and  statistical  found wanting norms, v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l -  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t o p i c s , were not  Handbook g i v e s o n l y an  theoretical discussion  given.  of the  inven-  tory. The  i n v e n t o r y i s e a s i l y administered and  language and  scored.  Some  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s were r e p o r t e d by  students,, but  generally,  they seemed to e n j o y doing the  the  in-  ventory. Means and and  percentile  f o r t o t a l scores.  norms were secured f o r each  The  mean score f o r boys was  456.85  454.51 f o r g i r l s , on the November t e s t i n g .  The  between the means i s not  5$ l e v e l .  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  decided, however to t r e a t the  two  The  difference  ings was The  not  63 boys was  between the means of the  f i r s t and  and  difference  sexes s e p a r a t e l y .  January t e s t i n g the mean score f o r the  topic  It On  was  the  458.41.. second t e s t -  significant.  e x t e n t t o which the  f e a t u r e s of p e r s o n a l i t y  was  r e l a t i o n s between s e l e c t e d r e l a t i o n s were not  t o p i c s were measuring s e p a r a t e determined by computing  topics.  The  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  intercor-  m a j o r i t y of the  1% l e v e l .  cor-  -87-  Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t s were determined f o r  both t o p i c s and t o t a l s c o r e s . t o r y based  The r e l i a b i l i t y  on t o t a l s c o r e s was found  the r e l i a b i l i t y  of the i n v e n -  to be ;74.  c o e f f i c i e n t v a r i e d from  F o r the t o p i c s ,  .13 to .97.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e s t scores and t e a c h e r ' s judgments on f o u r t o p i c s and t o t a l adjustment  were determined by  the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , p h i c o e f f i c i e n t s and Pearson's s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were  found.  Item v a l i d i t y was determined niques.  r . Few  by means o f c h i - s q u a r e ' t e c h -  F i f t y - t w o of the one hundred and twenty items were  found t o d i s c r i m i n a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the 27 boys who made the h i g h e s t scores and the 27 who made the lowest on the November  scores  testing.  Interviews were h e l d w i t h the t e n boys who made the lowest  t o t a l scores: on the November and January t e s t i n g s .  In  these i n t e r v i e w s the r e m e d i a l suggestions which Baker has p r e pared f o r each of h i s twenty-four  t o p i c s were used.  A personal  v a l i d a t i o n of those t o p i c s on which the students had made low. scores, was made.  I n the m a j o r i t y o f cases low t o p i c  were v a l i d a t e d by t h i s i n t e r v i e w .  scores  The ten boys were given the  i n v e n t o r y a g a i n i n e a r l y A p r i l and i t was found s i x had scores above the 30th p e r c e n t i l e whidh had been s e t as the lower l i m i t f o r adjustment.  The i n t e r v i e w s with these ten boys were  recorded. The D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory  i s n o t very  satisfactory  as a means o f d i a g n o s i n g and t r e a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y problems of high school students.  I t has some value as a b a s i s f o r be-  -88-  g i n n i n g a d i s c u s s i o n on the g e n e r a l problems and of the student, validity. only.  difficulties  Ihe i n v e n t o r y has low i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  The r e l i a b i l i t y  i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r group guidance  B I B L  I 0 G R A P H  Y  B I B L I 0 GR  A P H Y  Books A l l p o r t , Gordon W. Personality, a Psychological t a t i o n . New York, Henry, H o l t and Co. 1937  Interpre-  A v e r i l l , L.A. The Hygiene of I n s t r u c t i o n . - A Study of the Mental H e a l t h of ,the S c h o o l C h i l d . New York, M i f f l i n Go. 1928. Baker, H.J". C h a r a c t e r i s t i c D i f f e r e n c e s i n B r i g h t and D o l l P u p i l s . Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1926. Baker, H.J. Introduction to Exceptional Children. The Macmillan Co. 1944.  New  York,  Buros, Oscar. E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l and P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t s of 1935. 1954 and 1935V New Brunswick. N.Y. S c h o o l o r Edu c a t i o n , Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y , 1936, Buros, Oscar K. E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l and P e r s o n a l i t y A c t s of 1956, New Brunswick, N.Y. S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n , Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y . 1937. Buros, Oscar K. Brunswick, N.Y.  The 1938 Mental Measurements Yearbook, Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1938.  Burnham, W.H. The Wholesome P e r s o n a l i t y . ton & Co. 1932.  New  New  York, B.Apple-  Dunlop, J.W. & K u r t z , A.K. Handbook o f S t a t i s t i c a l Nomographs Tables and Formulas. New York* World Book Company. 19327 Freeman, Frank, N. Mental T e s t s . Chapter .Till Tests of Personality Traits. Boston Houghton M i f f l i n Co. 1926. G a r r e t t , Henry E. & Schneck, M.R. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Tests.Methods and R e s u l t s . New York. Harper & B r o t h e r s . 1933. G r i f f i n , J.D. Mental Hygiene - A Manual f o r Teachers. New York, American Book Co, 1940, Lee, J,M. & Lee, D.M. A Guide to Measurement i n Secondary Schools. New York, D. Appleton - Century Company, 1936, Murray, H, & e t a l . Explorations i n Personality. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938.  New  York,  Rueh, G.M. & Stoddard, G.D. Tests & Measurements i n H i g h S c h o o l I n s t r u c t i o n . Chieago, World Book Co, 1927.  Stagner, R. Psychology of Personality, New H i l l Book Co, 1937,  iork.  Symonds, P.M. Diagnosing Personality and Conduct, The Century Co, 1938.  McGrawLondon,  Symonds, Pereival M. Diagnosing Personality and Conduct. New York, The Century Go. 1931. Thorpe, L.P. Psychological Foundations of Personality. York, McGraw-Hill. 1938. Traxler, J L . E . 1945.  Techniques of Guidance.  New  New  York, Harper.  William & Hahn. Introduction to High School Counselling. London, Mc.Graw-Hill Book Co. 1940. Williamson & Darby, Student Personnel Work, McGraw-Hill Book Co* 1937, Williamson, E.G. How to Counsel Students. H i l l Book Co. Inc. 1939.  New  York,  New York, McGraw-  Periodicals Abernethy, E.M. "Further Data on Personality and Family P o s i t i o n s , " Journal of Psychology. Vol.10,1940, pp.303-307 Adams, C.R. *A New Measure of Personality." Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.25, 1941, pp.l41-15L. 1  A l l e n , Eleanor, A. "Temperamental Tests," B r i t i s h Journal Medical Psychology. Vol.7, 1927, pp,394-^446. A l l p o r t , G.W. "Concepts of T r a i t and Personality." l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . Vol.24, 1927, pp.284-293. A l l p o r t , G.W. Expression."  Psycho-  "The Neurotic Personality and T r a i t s of S e l f Journal of S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.1, 1930,  Bain, R. " S t a b i l i t y i n Questionnaire Response.* Journal of -Soc1ology. Vol.37,1931, pp.445-453.-  American  Baker, Harry J . Chairman. "Tests of Personality and Character Review of Educational Research. Vol.11, Number 3, 1932, pp.183-270, Baker, H.J. "Integration of Characters and Personality," National Educational Association. 1940, pp,631-8.  B e r n r e u t e r , Robert G. "The Theory and C o n s t r u c t i o n of the P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory."- J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology, Yol.4, 1933 pp.387-405. Burks, Barbara S. " P e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s r e l a t i o n to measurement." J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.7,1936,pp.140-150. B r i t t o n , D.A, "Classroom guidance of p u p i l s e x h i b i t i n g behavior problems." Elementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l . Vol.92, Jan.1945, pp.245-286. Brown, P. "An e x p e r i m e n t a l study of the v a l i d i t y t o r e l i a b i l i t y of the Brown P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory f o r C h i l d r e n . * J o u r n a l of Psychology. Vol.17, 1944, pp.75-89. C l a r k , W.A. & Smith, S.F. " F u r t h e r evidence on the v a l i d i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s . " J o u r n a l of e d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. Vol.33, 1942, pp.81-91. C a t t e l l , . R.B. "The d e s c r i p t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y . 1. Foundation of t r a i t measurement. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review. Vol.50, 1943, p.p.559-94. D a r l e y , J.G. & Anderson, G.V. " A p p l i c a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r measurement." Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. V o l . 14, 1944, pp. 67-80. , Dysinger, D.W. "A c r i t i c i s m of the Humn-Wadsworth temperament s c a l e . " J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.34, 1939, pp.73-83, !  Flanagan, John C, " T e c h n i c a l A s p e c t s of m u l t i - t r a i t t e s t s . " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. Vol.XXVI, 1935, pp.641-51. Frank, Benjamin, " S t a b i l i t y of q u e s t i o n n a i r e response." J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.XXX, 1935, pp;320-324. G a r r e t t , BYE. and Schneek, N.R. "A study of the d i s c r i m i n a t i v e value of the woodworth P e r s o n a l Data Sheet." J o u r n a l of General Psychology. V o l . 1 , 1928,. pp.459-471. H a r r i s , D.B. & D a b e l s t e i n , D.H. "A study o f the M o l l e r and Bmyhttnan. P e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y . " J o u r n a l of .Educational Psychology. Vol.XSIX, 1938, pp.279-86. :  Harvey, 0.L, "Concerning the Thurstone P e r s o n a l i t y Schedule;" J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.Ill,1932,pp.240-51. Humm, D,G. "Dysinger's c r i t i q u e of the Humns-Wadsworth temperament s c a l e . " J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.34,1939,pp.402-403. -  Horseh, A.C. & D a v i s , R.A. " T o p i c a l summaries o f c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e mental hygiene and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s * " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y . V o l . XL, 1935, pp.646-658., Humm, D.G. & Humm, K.A. " V a l i d i t y o f the Humm-iadsworth Temperament S c a l e T ^ w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e f f e c t s o f s u b j e c t s ' response; b i a s . " Journal, of Psychology, Vol.18, 1944, pp.55,-64. Humm, D,G. " P e r s o n a l i t y and adjustment." chology. Vol,13, 1943, pp.109-134.  Journal  of Psy-  K e l l y , JS.L. & M i l e s , C a t h e r i n e 0. & Terman L t d . " A b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e one's score i n a t y p i c a l p e n c i l and^paper t e s t o f personality." C h a r a c t e r and P e r s o n a l i t y . Vol.1., 1935-36, pp. 206-215. . Kuznetzs, George M. "An a n a l y s i s of B e r n r e u t e r s P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory." P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . Vol.XXXI, 1934,, pp.585. Keys, V. & G u i l f o r d , Margaret, S. "The v a l i d i t y of c e r t a i n adjustment i n v e n t o r i e s i n p r e d i c t i n g problem b e h a v i o r . " J o u r n a l o f " e d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, Vol.28, 1937, pp.641-655. Kirkpatrick, C "A c r i t i c a l note on the s t a t i s t i c a l study of p e r s o n a l i t y r e a c t i o n s . " J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and s o c i a l Psychology. Vol.28, 1933, pp.168^171. Layman, Emma, M. "An item a n a l y s i s of the adjustment questionnaire." J o u r n a l o f Psychology, Vol.10, 1940,pp.87106. L a n d l s , 'G., £ubin, J , and Katz, S.E. " E m p i r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of three p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment i n v e n t o r i e s . " Journal of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. Vol.26, 1935, pp.321-^330. L a s l e t t , H.H. and Bennett, E l i s a b e t h . "A comparison o f scores on two measures of p e r s o n a l i t y , " - J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol,28, 1934, pp.459-461, M a i l e r , J.B. "Character and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . " i c a l B u l l i t e n . • V o l . XXXI, 1934, pp,501-24.  Psycholog-  Manson, G.iS.A. " B i b l i o g r a p h y o f the a n a l y s i s and. measurement of human p e r s o n a l i t y up t o 1926." N a t i o n a l aesearch Council. 1926, No. 72. McClotchy, v.K. "A t h e o r e t i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l study o f the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t , o r i g i n a l l y as h e r e i n d e f i n e d . " Journal of Abnormal and s o c i a l Psychology, Vol.23, pp.379-3H2TT92B. McQuitty, L.L.- " C o n d i t i o n a f f e c t i n g the v a l i d i t y of persona l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s . " I l l S o c i a l Psychology, Vol.15,1942, pp.33-52.  May, M.A. , "Problems i n measuring c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y . " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology. V o l . 3 , 1932, pp.131-145. May, M., Hartshorne, H. and Welty, Ruth E. " P e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r t e s t s . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . Vol.24,1927, pp.418-435. Moore, H. and S t e e l e , I s a b e l . "Personality tests." Journal of Abnormal and . S o c i a l Psychology. V01.29, 1934,pp.45-52. M u l l e r , J.B. "Character and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . " l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . V o l . XXXII, 1935, pp.500-23. -  Psycho-  Olson, W.C.. "Measures of c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y through c o n v e r s a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n . " Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. V o l . 5 , 1935, pp,273-290. Panpurt, M.J. "A study of the Woodworth P s y c h o n e u r o t i c i n v e n t o r y with a suggested r e v i s i o n . " J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.25, 193Q, pp.335-352. P i n t n e r , Rudolph and F o r l a n o , George. " V a l i d a t i o n of Persona l i t y t e s t s by o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p u p i l s . " ' J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. Vol.XXX., 1939, pp.25-32. . Remmers, E.W,, W h i s t l e r , L. and Duvala, T.H. " N e u r o t i c i n d i c a t i o n a t the a d o l e s c e n t l e v e l . " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Psychology. V o l . 9 , 1938, pp.17-24. Snyder, W.V. "A survey o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n the measurement of p e r s o n a l i t y , a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s of a d o l e s c e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f General Psychology. Vol.25, 1941, pp.403-420.. Spencer, D. "The frankness of s u b j e c t s on p e r s o n a l i t y measures." J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. Vol.2.9, 1938, pp. 26-35. Stagner, Ross. " V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y ^ of the B e r n r e u t e r P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y , " J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o o i a l Psychology. V o l . XXVIII, 1934, pp.413-18. Stagner, Ross. "Current trends i n r e s e a r c h upon c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y " . C h a r a c t e r and P e r s o n a l i t y . V o l . V I I , 1938, pp.161-165. ' Symonds, P.M. and conduct." pp.175-187.  "deeded r e s e a r c h i n d i a g n o s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Vol.24,1931,  T r a x l e r , A r t h u r E. Chairman,Psychological t e s t s and t h e i r uses." Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. Y o l . X I , Number 1, 1941, pp.1-132.  Wrightstone, J . Wayne. " V a l i d i t y of the Woodsworth-Matheur P e r s o n a l Data Sheet f o r d i a g n o s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s . " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. V o l . XXV, 1934, pp;39-44. Young, K. "The measurement of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a i t s . " J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.22, 1928, pp.431-442.  APPENDIX.  (Published, 1942, by the Public School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois. Printed in U . S. A. Copyright, 1940, by Harry J . Baker. The right to modify or print this work for use in the Detroit Public Schools has been assigned to the Board of Education, City of Detroit.) Det. A d . Inv.  T E L L I N G WHAT I D By Harry J. Baker Alpha Form for Junior and Senior High Schools  Name  Boy First  ..Girl  •  Grade..  Last  Age  School. Years  Months  City  State-  Date..  The following exercises have five different answers. Next to the answers are the letters A, B, C, D, and E . You are to put a circle around the letter next to the answer which most nearly fits you. Some of these things we may know about you already, but we want you to tell us yourself. It is the purpose to help you with any problems you may have. There is no time limit, but please keep working and do not waste time. Hand in your booklet as soon as you arefinished.Please be sure to answer all the exercises.  A. B. C. D. E.  1. About my health I am not sick very often. Being sick does not worry me. I am never sick. I don't believe I will ever be well. My health is only fair.  A. B. C. D. E.  5. About my heart I believe it is about average. I must avoid hard play. I never think about it. The doctor says it is all right. I can't play at all.  A. B. C. D. E.  2. About being thin or fat I am neither thin nor fat. I don't mind being a little fat. They tease me for being very thin. I don't mind being a little thin. They tease me for being very fat.  A. B. C. D. E.  6. About my bed It is only a couch or cot. It is a little better than average. It is just average. I have a very good bed. It is very hard, so I don't sleep well.  A. B. C. D. E.  3. About being tall or short They tease me for being very short. They tease me for being very tall. I don't mind being a little short. I like being a little tall: I am neither tall nor short.-  A. B. C. D. E.  7. About how I sleep I always get plenty of sleep. Noise often keeps me awake late. I usually get about enough sleep. I am often short of sleep. I have many dreams and nightmares.  A. B. C. D. E.  4. About my skin My pimples (acne) bother me a lot. It is nice and clear. My skin is too oily and shiny. My few pimples do not bother me. My skin is too dry and scaly.  A. B. C. D. E.  8. About sleeping alone I hate having to sleep two in a bed. I have a bed and room to myself. We sleep crowded; three or more in a bed. Two of us sleep together fairly well. We have separate beds in the same room.  (Go to the next column.)  (Turn to the next page.)  A. B. C. D. E.  9. About eating together Eating together goes fairly well. We don't like eating together very well. It is pleasant most of the time. We always have a good time eating together. Eating is a time to scold and quarrel.  A. B. C. D. E.  17. About blushing I boast that I never blush. I seldom blush. I often blush a little. Others sometimes tease me about it. I worry because I am always blushing.  A. B. C. D. E.  10. About liking foods I like most kinds of foods. I eat mostly cake and candy. I enjoy all kinds of foods. I have to be careful about what I eat. I always get angry if food is not just right.  A. B. C. D. E.  18. About getting dizzy I worry because I am often dizzy. I seldom get dizzy. I never get dizzy. It does not bother to be dizzy once in a while. I grew out of being dizzy.  A. B. C. D. E.  11. About my face and hands I am sometimes praised for having them clean. It is quite hard to be always cleaning them. They are usually quite dirty. I am rather proud to have them usually clean. They are just about average.  A. B. C. D. E.  19. About sitting still I am always able to sit still. I can't sit still very often. I can sit as still as most others do. I usually can sit still. I never seem able to sit still.  A. B. C. D. E.  12. About my hair. I think others admire it. I am rather proud of it. I keep it as good as others do. I worry because it never looks nice. They often make fun of it.  A. B. C. D. E.  20. About fainting I have never fainted. I faint once in a while. I faint quite often. I am no worse than most people. I sometimes feel like fainting.  A. B. C. D. E.  13. About my clothes They never seem to look well. I dress as well as my playmates. I set a good example about my clothes. I am often praised about my clothes. They don't fit very well.  A. B. C. D. E.  21. When my parents are sick I try to hide my worry. I worry much of the time. I help and usually don't worry. I worry myself sick too: I am sure they will get well.  A. B. C. D. E.  14. About my teeth I worry because they look bad. They are just about average. I take pride in giving them good care. They bother a little once in a while. They ache and need fixing.  A. B. C. D. E.  22. About the world coming to an end I never think about it. I worry once in a great while. It bothers me sometimes. I don't worry; can't do anything about it. I worry about it much of the time.  A. B. C. D. E.  15. About keeping clean I do as well as most people. I keep a very good standard. I do fairly well some of the time. I am pretty careless about it. Others tease me for being too clean.  A. B. C. D. E.  23. About daydreaming I worry because I daydream most of the time. I never daydream at all. My daydreaming does not mean much to me. I have a few spells of daydreaming. I seldom do it at all.  A. B. C. D. E.  16. About my fingernails They just grow and break off. I worry because I bite them off. I just can't help biting them. I usually keep them in fair shape. I always take good care of them.  A. B. C. D. E.  24. When I must make up my mind' I worry because I can't do it quick enough. I worry because I can't seem to do it. I always do it right away. I am as quick as others about it. I can do it after a while.  (Go to the next column.)  Page 2  (Go to the next page.)  A. B. C. D. E.  25. When they laugh at me It worries me very much. I worry a little more than I should. I can laugh too, with them. I am like others are about it. I usually don't worry about it.  A. B. C. D. E.  33. If someone hurts me I hurt them right back. I ask them nicely not to do it again. I think they did not mean to do it. I try to avoid them next time. I just don't seem to notice it.  A. B. C. D. E.  26. About thunderstorms I enjoy them. I sometimes get scared. I try not to be afraid. I don't pay much attention. I am always very scared.  A. B. C. D. E.  34. When someone breaks my things I try not to be upset. I ask them to be more careful. I think it was just an accident. I break something for them. I try to stay away from them.  A. B. C. D. E.  27. About being alone in the dark I try not to be scared. I try not to think about it. It never scares me at all. I am sometimes scared a little.. I am probably scared quite badly.  A. B. C. D. E.  35. When others are getting hurt I don't like to have it happen. I sometimes try to stop it. It is hard not to get angry. It is probably none of my business. I get angry and fight for them.  A. B. C. D. E.  28. When I am up in a high place <. I am all right if I try hard. I get scared and want to jump. I am probably more scared than I would admit. I know I am a little scared. It does not bother me at all.  A. B. C. D. E.  36. About blind people I am glad if others help them. I just go on because they can't see me. I pretend I did not see them. I think they will be all right by themselves. I am glad to help them myself.  A. B. C. D. E.  29. When I meet a stranger alone I am often quite scared. I never let it bother me. Most of them are probably all right. It is hard not to be a little scared. Probably a little scared; won't admit it.  A. B. C. D. E.  37. When I get hurt I am seldom sorry for myself. I just reason it out. I am glad when others pity me. I feel very sorry for myself. I am sometimes a little sorry for myself.  A. B. C. D. E.  30. When I must recite I have a little stage fright. I usually don't mind it. I get along about as well as the others. I usually get scared. I always enjoy it.  A. B. C. D. E.  38. When I see crippled people I just don't seem to notice them. I hope others will help them. I always try to help them. I sometimes want to help them. I try to avoid them.  A. B. C. D. E.  31. About temper tantrums I have tantrums once in a while. I often get angry but no tantrums. I have tantrums quite often. I never have tantrums or get angry. I get a little angry sometimes.  A. B. C. D. E.  39. When I see helpless old people I sometimes pity them a little. I probably pay no attention to them. I hope they are cared for. I always want to help them. I often pity them.  A. B. C. D. E.  32. When I break some of my things I know it is my own fault. I get very angry at myself. I am more careful next time. I believe it is just my poor luck. It is hard not to get angry.  A. B. C. D. E.  40. When I see poor people I hope things will get better. I help them all I can. I am not sorry; it's their fault. I don't think much about it. I hope others will help them.  (Go to the next column.)  (Turn to the next page.)  Page 3  A. B. C. D. E.  41. About being in a crowd I always enjoy it. Like it some, once in a while. Usually don't like it. I find excuse to get away. Neither like nor dislike it.  A. B. C. D. E.  A. B. C. D. E.  49. About getting on school teams I am proud to be on them. I enjoy being on them. I am not among the few who get on. It worries me very much that I don't make them. I worry a little not to make them.  42. About talking to friends I sometimes like to talk a little. I always like to do my share of talking. I don't care whether I talk or not. I never talk much. I hope they do the talking.  A. B. C. D. E.  50. About being popular I worry because I am not popular. I am happy and proud to be popular. I am just about like most others. It is nice to be a little popular. I am not popular, but it does not worry me.  A. B. C. D. E.  43. About going to parties I like them very much. I never go to any. I don't care much for them. I don't mind once in a while. I go only when urged.  A. B. C. D. E.  •51. About ever becoming a leader 1 am going to do what I can. My chances are rather poor. I have high hopes for it. I know I never will. I probably have a chance.  A. B. C. D. E.  44. About helping people get acquainted I always try to avoid it. • I do very little about it. I always help them get acquainted. I like to do it sometimes. I believe they have met before.  A. B. C. D. E.  52. About ever getting rich 1 am quite hopeful that I will be rich. I expect to be neither rich nor poor. I hope I will not be very poor. I would like to be a little rich sometime. I will probably be quite poor.  A. B. C. D. E.  45. About being shy when in a crowd I am never shy in a crowd. I don't think much about it. I am always very shy. I am usually quite shy. I am probably a little shy.  A. B. C. D. E.  53. About being happy or sad I am a little sad sometimes. I am quite unhappy most of the time. I am about average. • I am always very happy. I am quite happy sometimes.  A. B. C. D. E.  46. About the way I dress I usually am fairly happy about it. I don't think much about it. Sometimes I am a little ashamed. I feel ashamed most of the time. I am always proud of my clothes.  A. B. C. D. E.  54. About getting ^ job I worry that I will never get one. I am very sure I will get one. It's no use worrying if I don't. I think my chances are pretty good. I think my chances are only fair.  A. B. C. D. E.  47. About being homely or good-looking I am usually happy about my looks. I am quite happy about my good looks. I believe I am average in looks. It worries me because I am homely. Little homely but try not to worry.  A. B. C. D. E.  55. About the future of the world It will probably stay about as it is. I hope it will not get too bad. I hope it will get some better. I am sure it will get much better. I think it is very dark.  A. B. C. D. E.  48. About my school marks It's not my fault that they are poor. I am quite ashamed of my poor marks. I am very proud of my school marks. They are just average. I am usually happy about my school marks.  A. B. C. D. E.  56. About studying at home It is always easy to let it slide. I have to try hard to do it. I do it just fair. It is easy to do; I like it. I find excuses not to do it.  (Go to the next column.)  Page 4  (  (Go to the next page.)  A. B. C. D. E.  57. About eating too much I never eat too much. I always eat too much. I try hard not to eat too much. I eat as everybody else does. I find many excuses to eat all I want.  A. B. C. D. E.  65. About the houses on our street I think they are fairly good. I like them very much. Most of them are rather poor. I think the houses are all very poor. Houses are not as nice as where we used to live.  A. B. C. D. E.  58. About controlling my fears I try, but without much success. I have few or none; easy to control. I just can't control them. I don't have very many fears. I can usually do it fairly well.  A. B. C. D. E.  66. About holiday parties and birthday parties We have very few parties. We never have any parties. Our parties always get too wild. We often have nice parties. We have many very nice parties.  A. B. C. D. E.  59. About doing right I go along as most people do. • I often find excuses for not doing right. I must try to make myself do right. It is always easy to do right. I often don't do right.  A. B. C. D. E.  67. About books and magazines at home They are too high-brow for me. They are good; I enjoy them. I don't care much about any of them. The ones we have are not very good. We don't have hardly any at all.  A. B. C. D. E.  60. About making up my mind It is easy to do some of the time. I want to do it myself but seldom do. It is always easy to do. It is neither easy nor hard. I just let others do it for me.  A. B. C. D. E.  68. About my parents spending time with me, They never do anything with me. We go out together once in a while. We go out together quite often. It's a very long time since they did. They don't do much with me but let me go.  61. About speaking English at home My parents speak English fairly well. My parents don't speak much English. No one speaks much English in our home. We all speak English all the time. We speak English only part of the time at home.  A. B. C. D. E.  69. About my parents' friends They are all very nice. My parents, have almost no friends. I neither like nor dislike them. I think they are just about average. I usually don't like them.  A. B. C. D. E.  62. About owning our home Our home is partly paid for. It is paid for, or nearly all. We pay rent but seldom move. We all have to live with other relatives. We rent and move often.  A. B. C. D. E.  70. At home we are Always cheerful and happy. Often sad and rather unhappy. Always gloomy and unhappy. Usually cheerful and happy. Neither sad nor happy.  A. B. C. D. E.  63. About the health of my parents (or stepparents) Both are sick most of the time. One is sometimes sick. They are well most of the time. Both are always very well. Father often sick; can't work much.  A. B. C. D. E.  71. About getting along with my brothers and sisters I have no brothers or sisters. We argue sometimes. It goes fairly well most of the time. We argue and fight all the time. We always get along very well.  A. B. C. D. E.  64. He He He He He  A. B. C. D. E.  72. About my parents- punishing me They are fair but firm. I get treated like everyone else. It varies from easy to strict. They are always too strict. They are always too easy on me.  A. B. C. . D. E.  About father (or stepfather) working would like to work but is not able. works most of the time. always has a steady job. works about half the time. has been out of work a long time. (Go to the next column.)  (Tu/rn to the next page.)  Page 5  A. B. C. D. E.  73. About having me help at home My parents are too easy about it. They are fair, but expect me to do it. It goes along about average. They vary from easy to strict. Both are a little too strict.  A. B. C. D. E.  81. About marking up school desks and walls I have done it a few times. I did it once or twice. I mark them quite a lot. I have never done it. I sometimes want to, but don't do it.  A. B. C. D. E.  74. About being the favorite child The others think I am the favorite. One of the others is the favorite. We are all treated alike. I have no brothers or sisters. There is only a little jealousy.  A. B. C. D. E.  82. About liking my school duties I like them all very much. I don't like any of them. I try to make myself like them. I like some arid dislike others. I dislike most of them.  A. B. C. D. E.  83. About talking and whispering in class I do it quite a lot. I don't do it but often want to. I never talk except to recite. I do it in one or two classes. I sometimes do, to answer others.  75. About my parents watching me A. They are always watching me. B. They don't pay as much attention as they should. C. They know they can trust me. D. I am as well off as others. E. They check up once in a while.  , 84. About liking my teachers A. It's about even on likes and dislikes. B. I like most of them. C. I like all of them. D. I don't like any of them very much. E. I dislike most of them.  A. B. C. D. E.  76. About being allowed to do things I probably have too much liberty. Most of my friends have more liberty. I have about as much liberty as my friends. I have a reasonable amount of liberty. I am not allowed to do anything at all.  A. B. C. D. E.  77. About feeling awkward I am a little awkward sometimes. I am getting over being all arms and legs. I -have never been awkward. I am about like my friends in awkwardness. Lately I seem to be all arms and legs.  A. B. C. D. E.  85. About being truant from school; that is, being absent without permission I have never wanted to be truant. I have been truant several times alone. I go when others ask me to. I sometimes feel like it, but never do. I go and get others to go.  A. B. C. D. E.  78. About my thinking I am grown up I am getting quite a good start. I just don't seem to be grown up at all. I am not grown up except about a few things. I am sort of in-between. I am quite well grown up now.  A. B. C. D. E.  86. When we lose a game We must expect to lose sometimes. I sometimes get real angry about it. It's hard not to get angry. I think it's just our bad luck. We try harder next time.  A. B. C. D. E.  79. About arguing with my parents We argue about everything all the time. We seldom have arguments. We never have any arguments. We argue about quite a few things. It is just fair.  A. B. C. D. E.  87. About taking my turn at play I don't mind being among the last. I am glad to take my turn any place. I am willing to do what the others do. I see to it that I am among the first. It bothers me some to be among the last.  A. B. C. D. E.  80. About deciding for myself when younger No one did much about it. I was allowed to decide some things. Once in a while I decided something. They always decided everything for me. They usually let me decide many things.  A. B. C. D. E.  88. About playing according to (by) the rules I just play them to suit myself. I do as well as the others do about them. I am glad to play by the rules. I think most of them are all right. _ I get away with as much as I can.  r  (Go to the next column.)  Page 6  (Go to the next page.)  A. B. C. D. E.  89. About starting games I can do it but don't like to. I never start them. I sometimes do it when I am asked. I start them most of the time. I sometimes do it myself.  A. B. C. D. E.  97. About teasing little children I try hard not to tease them. I never hurt or tease them. I don't, if they keep out of my way. I guess I like to tease them. I tease them but don't mean to.  A. B. C. D. E.  90. About sharing my things with others I guess it works both ways. I always share gladly. I usually don't like to share with others. I refuse even when asked. I share with others quite often.  A. B. C. D. E.  98. About running away from home I ran away once. I ran away several times. I never wanted to. I went once, but came right back. I thought about it, but never did.  A. B. C. D. E.  91. About giving to charity I always give all I can. I often give a little. I give only when I am made to. I never give; don't have enough myself. I give once in a while.  A. B. C. D. E.  99. About taking other people's things I never take anything. I sometimes take them. They suspect me sometimes. It is easy just to help myself. I always expect to give it back.  A. B. C. D. E.  92. About taking more than my share I try not to take more than my share. I never take more than my share. I do like most people do. I do it whenever I can. I don't; I might get caught.  A. B. C. D. E.  100. About probation or detention home Have had both quite a few times. Never had either. On probation once; never in detention home. Was taken once to be questioned. Have had both once or twice.  A. B. C. D. E.  93. When I borrow something I pay it back right away. I hope they will forget about it. It soon slips my mind.. I pay it back after a while. I pay back if asked to.  A. B. C. D. E.  101. About my parents and my friends They get along fairly well. Most of my friends don't like my parents. My parents trust me out with.my friends. They always try to choose my friends. They let me choose some of my friends.  A. B. C. D. E.  94. If there is a question of right or wrong If wrong is easier, I do it. I don't try very hard to do right. I always try to do right. I intend to do right, but sometimes don't. I do what the others do.  A. B. C. D. E.  102. About my friends and pals They are all very good. They are just about average. I hope they are not bad. I believe that most of them are good. I am afraid most of them are rather bad.  A. B. C. D. . E.  95. About telling the truth I always tell the truth. I intend to tell the truth. I have a poor reputation. I am sometimes careless about it. I do fairly well.  A. B. C. D. E.  103. About the number of friends I have I have only one or two. I don't seem to have hardly any. I have a few only. I have many friends. I am fairly well fixed for friends.  A. B. C. D. E.  96. About traffic tickets No tickets, but some warnings. I don't drive a car. I have had one or two tickets. I have had quite a few. I drive but never had a ticket.  A. B. C. D. E.  104. About making new friends It is very hard for me to do. I like to make new friends. I can do it but don't like to. A little hard, but I like to do it. It is neither easy nor hard.  (Go to the next column.)  (Turn to the next page.)  Page 7  113. About reading books and magazines A. I don't read hardly any at all. B. I read the movie magazines. C. I read mostly Collier's, Saturday Evening Post, or Reader's Digest. D. I read only good fiction or novels. E. I read mostly Wild West or love stories.  A. B. C. D. E.  105. About having dates Neither my parents nor I do much about it. I have dates, quite often. I believe my parents would not let me. I am too young for dates. My parents leave it up to me.  A. B. C. D. E.  106. About boxing I would dislike it very much. I might do it but would not like it. I don't care much about it. I like to box very much. I am quite interested in it.  A. B. C. D. E.  107. About reading the sporting page I always read it. I never look at it. I read it nearly every day. I don't pay much attention to it; I read it once in a while.  A. B. C. D. E.  108. About liking to go hunting I might do it but would not like to. I would like it very much. I would not like it at all. I never thought much about it. I would probably like it a little.  A. B. C. D. E.  116. About deciding what work (job) I will do I keep changing my mind. I still don't have any idea. I do some thinking about it. I feel fairly sure about it. I have already made up my mind.  A. B. C. D. E.  109. About reading the fashion page Usually I would not read it. I read it almost every day. I would not unless something very unusual. I would not even look at it. I always read it.  A. B. C. D. E.  117. About helping me decide my vocation I sometimes listen to a little advice. I am going to decide for. myself. No one is doing much about it. My friends think they know what is best for me. My parents are deciding for me.  A. B. C. D. E.  110. About what I like to read .1 like mystery and adventure best. Mostly about family and home. I like Wild West stories best. I like all kinds of stories. I like love stories best.  A. B. C. D. E.  118. About seeing people work at jobs I like I have never seen anything that appeals. They were.poor workers; I could do better. I have seen both good and poor workers. I have seen only good workers. I don't know whether they are good or poor.  A. B. C. D. E.  111. About my hobbies I have several; mostly alone with them. I spend a little time on hobbies. I don't have any at all. We share many hobbies together at home. I have as many as my friends do. •  A. B. C. D. E.  119. In helping to decide my vocation (job) I have read and talked about it. No one gives me much help with it. ' I have read a little about it. I have talked to some workers about it. I have never found out anything about it.  A. B. C. D. E.  112. About the movies I learn a few useful things from them. I get ideas from them for my hobbies. Sometimes I learn a little from them. I go just for something to do. I go just for a good time.  A. B. C. D. E.  120. About my chances of success I am sure I will succeed. I don't have much idea about it. I am just trusting to luck. I think I have a good chance. My chances are probably fair.  (Go to the next column.)  Page 8  A. B. C. D. E. A. B. C. D. ' E.  114. About listening to the radio I listen to all the exciting adventures. We listen to lots of the best music. I pick out a few good programs. I listen a little to different things. I don't pay much attention to it. 115. About going to dances I think I will like it later on. I am too young except for school dances. My parents don't pay much attention. I often go to public dances. I will never want to dance.  (Go back over each "page to make sure you have indicated your response to each exercise. Then hand in your booklet  (Published by the Public School Publishing Co., Bloomington, 111. Printed in U . S. A.)  RECORD BLANK  A N DSCORING K E Y  DETROIT ADJUSTMENT  W E I G H T E D SCORES  INVENTORY  Responses  (Alpha Form of "Telling What I Do")  I's 2's  Name  _  Sex  First  Age  4's 5's  School.. Years  3's  Grade-  Last  ..Date..  Months  Topic  1  Total  3  2  _  4  5  I. H E A L T H 1. Health 2. Size  3. Height 4. Skin 5. Heart  II. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  D E B A E  never well fat and teased tall and teased bothered by acne no play  B C A C B  sick, not worried thin and teased short and teased oily and shiny no hard play  E B C E A  fair little fat little short too dry and scaly average  A D D D C  couch or cot awake, noise three or morescold, quarrel angry  E E A B B  very hard many dreams hate two don't like cake, candy  C D D A D  average often short two, fair fairly well careful  B above average  C E C A  usually dirty worry, poor never look well ache careless  B E E A C  always hard to do make fun of don't fit looks worry fair sometimes  E C B D E  average good as others good as others little bother teased too clean  A sometimes praised A others admire C good example B average A well as others  D often praised C pride in them B good standard  worry, always worry, often dizzy never able quite often  C D D B B  can't help sometimes teased not bothered usually not once in a while  A C E C E  just break often blush grew out of it average at times feel like  D fair shape A boast never blush B seldom D usually can D average  E always good B seldom C never A always A never  D worry self sick E worry much A most of the time B worry can't do A worries very much  B C D A B  worry much sometimes few spells not quickly worry some  A B C D D  hide worry once in a while means little quick as others average  C D E E E  usually don't can't do anything seldom after a while usually not worry  E get well A never think B never C right away C laugh too  E E B A D  B A C D A  sometimes scared try not more than admit little scared little stage fright  C D D E C  try not be scared scared little little scared won't admit like others  A B A B B  enjoy them don't think about all right if try not bothered usually don't mind  D C E C E  not often little thin little tall acne not bad never think about  C never sick A neither E neither B clear D doctor's O.K.  SLEEPING- EATING  Bed Sleeping Alone Mealtime Foods  A B C E E  usually fair separate, same usually pleasant like most  D very good A always plenty B separate, own rm D always good C all kinds  III. S E L F - C A R E 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  Face and hands Hair Clothes Teeth Body  IV. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  C D A E D  D rather proud B rather proud  HABITS  Nails Blushing Dizzy Sitting still Fainting  B worry, bite  E A E C  V. WORRIES 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.  Parents ill End of world Daydreaming Make up mind Laugh at me  VI. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.  FEARS  Thunderstorms Alone in dark High place Stranger alone Recite  always scared badly scared want to jump often quite scared usually scared  little attention never scared not bothered probably all right always enjoy  1  Topic VII.  Tantrums I break my things Someone hurts me They break my things 35. Others are hurt  VIII.  41. 42. 43. 44. 45.  5  C often B angry at self A hurt back D break theirs  A E D E  E fight for them  B can't see me  once in a while hard not to avoid stay away  B angry only  little sometimes more careful ask them not to ask more careful  D A C C  never own fault did not mean to an accident  D poor luck E not notice A try not upset  E C B B  C try not to be angry  B try to stop  D not my business  A don't like  C E E A D  D all right alone C glad others pity B others help C hope cared for A hope better  A A D E E  others help seldom sorry sometimes help often pity others help  E B C D B  glad to help reason it out try to help want to helphelp all I can  C usually dislike E hope they talk E when urged B do little D usually shy  E C C E E  B A D D B  like sometimes sometimes sometimes like sometimes don't think much  A B A C 'A  always enjoy always like like much always help never shy  C E A E E  B don't think much  A A E B D  fairly happy usually happy usually happy enjoy them little popular  E B C A B  always proud quite happy very proud of proud to be on happy to be  PITY  Blind Get hurt Cripples Old people Poor people  IX.  4  3  ANGER  31. 32. 33. 34.  36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  2  D sorry for self A don't notice B no attention C their fault  pretend don't see little sorry avoid little pity don't think much  GOOD MIXER  In a crowd Talking to friends Parties People acquainted Shy in a crowd  D get away D never much B never go A try to avoid C always shy  neutral don't care don't care much met before probably a little  X. INFERIOR - SUPERIOR 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.  Dress Looks School marks School teams Being popular  D D B D A  usually ashamed worry, homely quite ashamed worried not make worry  little ashamed try not to worry not my fault little worry do not worry-  C D C C  average average not among few average  XI. OPTIMISM - PESSIMISM 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.  Being leader Being rich Happy or sad Getting a job World's future  XII. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.  D know never will E quite poor B usually unhappy A worry never get E very dark  B chances poor C not very poor A little sad C no. use worry B not'get too bad  E chances fair B neither C average E fair chances A stay same  A D E D C  do what I can little rich sometimes happy .pretty good hope some better  C A D B D  high hopes quite hopeful always happy sure to get much better  E find excuses E many excuses A try, no success B find excuses B seldom do  C D D A D  B C E C A  try hard try hard fairly well must try sometimes easy  D A B D C  easy to do never do easy to control easy to do always easy  B parents, not much  E English part time C rent, seldom move B one sometimes D half time E not nice as before  A A C B A  mostly English partly paid mostly well most of time fairly good  D B D C B  all English all or mostly always well always steady like very much  A C E C E  D A B D D  often nice too highbrow once in a while just average usually happy  E B C A A  many nice good,enjoy quite often all very nice always happy  W I L L POWER  Home study Eating too much .Controlling fears Doing right Making up mind  A B C E E  easy to let slide always do can't do often don't others do  just fair like others not many like others do neutral  XIII. H O M E STATUS 61. 62. 63. 64. 65.  English Owning home Parents'health Father working Houses on street  C D A E D  no English with relatives both usually ill idle long time very poor  E E A C  rent, move often father often like to, not able rather poor  XIV. H O M E A T M O S P H E R E 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.  Parties Books, Magazines Time with parents Parents'friends At home  B never any  E A E C  hardly any never do anything don't like always unhappy  C too wild D not very good D long time since B almost none B often sad  very few don't care just let me go neutral neither  1  Topic  2  3  4  5  XV. HOME ATTITUDES 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.  Siblings Punishing My helping Favorite child Parents watching  D E A B A  always argue too easy too easy another is always watching  B argue sometimes  C varies D varies A others think I am B not much as should  A B C D D  have none like others average have none well off as others  C I) E E E  fairly well too strict too strict little jealousy once in a while  E always well A fair but firm B fair but expected C all alike C can trust me  XVI. GROWING U P 76. Liberty 77. Feeling awkward 78. -Being grown up 79. Arguing at home 80. Deciding when younger  XVII. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.  E E B A D  not at all all arms, legs don't seem at all all the time did it all for me  A C D A  little awkward few things only quite few things no one did much  C D D E C  like my friends like my friends in-between just fair once in a while  A too much B getting over it A quite a start B seldom B some things  D C E C E  reasonable never been quite grown up never many things  C mark quite a lot B like none A quite a lot D none very much E go, get others  A E D E C  few times dislike most one or two classes dislike most go when asked  B D E A B  once or twice some each way answer others about even go alone  E want to but don't C try to like B don't but want to B like most D wanted but didn't  D A C C A  never did like all very much never except reciti like all never wanted  D among first A suit myself B never start C don't like to  C E E A D  hard not to last bothers ni? get away with can, don't like refuse when asked  D C B C A  just bad luck do like others well as others when asked both ways  A A D E E  D not enough self D whenever I can B hope they forget A wrong, if easier C poor reputation  C E E B D  when made to might get caught pay if asked don't try hard at times careless  E C C E E  once in a while like others do slips my mind likeothers do fairly well  D quite a few D like to tease B several times D easy to do A both few times  C E A E E  one or two don't mean to once expect to repay both once or twice  B C D C C  don't drive don't if out way once, right back at times suspected probation once  D parents choose E mostly bad B hardly any A very hard  B friends don't like  E B C E  I choose some average few only neutral  E left up to me D too young  B quite often  B friends have more  SCHOOLS  Desks, walls Studies Talk, whisper Liking teachers Truant  XVIII. SPORTSMANSHIP 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.  Lose a game Taking turn Rules Starting Sharing  XIX.  B real angry  must lose some don't mind last mostly all right do sometimes quite often  E try harder B any place  C glad to follow D most of the time B always gladly  MORALS f" •  91. 92. 93. 94. 95.  Charity Taking more Borrowing Right or wrong Truth  XX. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100.  101. 102. 103. 104.  A all I can B never do A right away C try to A always do  A just warnings A try hard E just thought about B sometimes do D questioned once  E none at all B never do C never wanted to A never do B never either  A D E D  fairly well mostly good fairly good hard but like  C they trust me A all very good D many friends B like to do it  C not let me now  D too young E left up to me  DELINQUENCY  Tickets Little children Truant home Taking things Probation, detention home  XXI.  B often a little A try not too much D after a while D intend to B intend to  , V  FRIENDS  Parents Type Number New friends  105. Dates 14 or younger: 15 or older:  C hope not bad A one or two C can, but don't like  C not let me now  A nothing done A nothing done  B quite often  Topic  1  2  3  4  5  XXII. ACTING YOUR P A R T 106. 107. Boy. 108. 109. 110.  Boxing Sport page Hunting Fashion page Reading  106. 107. Girl. 108. 109. 110.  Boxing D Sport page A Hunting . B Fashion page D Reading C  A B C E E  dislikes very much never do not like at all always read it love stories best  B E A B B  do not like once in a while do not like read every day family and home  don't care much little attention never thought usually not all kinds  E C E C A  quite interested D nearly every day A like a little B no, unless unusual D mystery, adventure C  like very much always read like very much would not look at Wild West  like very much always read like very much would not look at Wild West  E C E C A  quite interested C don't care much nearly every day D little attention like a little D never thought no, unless unusual A usually not mystery, adventure D all kinds  B C A B B  do not like once in a while do not like read every day family and home  A B C E E  dislike very much never do not like at all always read it love stories best  none something to do hardly at all not much atten.  B E E A  little time just good time Wild West or love exciting advent.  A A C B  several, alone few useful Collier's, etc. best music  D B D C  share many ideas for hobbies ' fiction and novels few good prog.  C D D A D  XXIII. HOBBIES 111. 112. 113. 114. 115.  Number Movies Books, Magazines Radio Dances 15 or younger: 16 or older:  C D A E  D often public B too young  E C B D  same as friends learn a little movie magazines different things  C parents no att. A like later  E never want to E never want to  A like later C parents no att.  B too young D often public  C D D B B  A C E C E  D A B D D  E B C A A  XXIV. VOCATIONS 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.  Not decided Deciding Seeing workers Read about Chances  B E A E C  not yet parents deciding nothing appeals know nothing about trusting to luck  some thinking friends deciding only good workers I get no help not much idea  keep changing not doing much may be good or poor read a little chances fair  fairly sure sometimes listen were poor talked to workers good chance  already decided decide myself good and poor read and talked sure to succeed  Simple Score X 1 Weighted Score  Remarks:  Interviews and Treatment:.  X2  X3  X5  P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r t b a s e d on H. J . B a k e r ' s  Test,  " T e l l i n g V h a t I do"  Lirections  f o r using this gating Chart.  T h r o u g h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f M r . l . a l e s and t h e G u i d a n c e t e a c h e r s of t h i s s c h o o l , i t h a s b e e n p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e n t t h i s r a t i n g s c a l e i n an e f f o r t t o s t u d y t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s of c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s . r  Late a l l the l i s t e d p a s s i n g on t o t h e n e x t  p u p i l s on one t r a i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e f o r e trait. T h i s g i v e s a b e t t e r r a t i n g f o r each p u p i l .  B e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r a t e a s t u d e n t on a n y p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have c l e a r l y i n mind t h e e x a c t d u a l i t i e s w h i c h y o u are a t t e m p t i n g t o judge. P l e a s e r e a d t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s c a r e f u l l y and r a t e t h e s t u d e n t s i n t e r m s of t h e d e f i n i t i o n s .  F o r each t r a i t w i t h the average p o i n t which best p l a c e your check i t a t any of t h e  o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c named b e l o w , c o m p a r e e a c h p u p i l o f t h e same a g e . t h e n p l a c e a c h e c k on t h e l i n e a t t h e d e s c r i b e s h i s . r a t i n g b e t w e e n i t s e x t r e m i t i e s . Y o u may a t a n y p o i n t on t h e l i n e . I t i s not necessary to locate d i v i s i o n p o i n t s o r e x a c t l y above any d e s c r i p t i v e p h r a s e .  In r a t i n g f o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t p l e a s e d i s r e g a r d e v e r y o t h e r t r a i t e x c e p t t h a t o n e . Do n o t r a t e a p u p i l h i g h on a l l t r a i t s s i m p l y b e c a u s e he i s e x c e p t i o n a l i n some. C h i l d r e n * , a r e o f t e n v e r y h i g h i n some t r a i t s and low i n o t h e r s .  Please l e t these r a t i n g s represent y o u r j u d g m e n t be i n d e p e n d e n t o f o t h e r  y o u r own j u d g m e n t , t h a t i s ; l e t teacher's opinions or r a t i n g s .  Do n o t s t u d y t o o l o n g o v e r a n y one c h i l d . ment y o u c a n and go on t o t h e n e x t .  The  ratings will  be h e l d s t r i c t l y  Give  confidential.  f o r each t h e b e s t  judg-  Page  2. R a t i n g C h a r t b a s e d on D e t r o i t  Trait  I  Self  Adjustment  Inventory.  Care-  C o n s i d e r S e l f C a r e t o r e f e r t o b o d i l y c l e a n l i n e s s ; c a r e of h a n d s and n e a t n e s s and t i d i n e s s i n c l o t h i n g : g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e .  teeth,  Name Invariably u n k e p t and dirty  Usually slovenly and u n k e p t but sometimes s p r u c e up.  Makes a fair impression is acceptable • .  Usually well groomed with occassional lapses.  Is very attractively dressed, expertly groomed.  Page 3. T r a i t IV  FILL POWER  Consider W i l l Power to be the students' diligence. . perse-verence. "stick to itiveness" and punposefulness in doing a piece of work.  Name Is an aimless trifler,  Aims just to get by  Has vaguely formed ob jectives must be reminded of duties ,  Requires little supervision can be depended upon to do best  Fulfils promises assumes responsibili t i e s , needs no supervision  Page 4 Trait I I I  with  GOOD  MIXEF  C o n s i d e r a "Good M i x e r " t o be a s t u d e n t and a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o o t h e r persons.  who  i s able  t o meet, be s o c i a b l e  Name Prefers Social .Activities to a l l e l s e  Actively seeks ' social pleasures.  Pursues usual social activities and c u s t o m s  Followe few social activities  Lives almost entirely to himself,  Page f) Trait VII  School  C o n s i d e r t h i s t r a i t t o be a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e s c h o o l : i t s w o r k , s c h o o l p r o p e r t y a n d s c h o o l s p i r i t and s c h o o l . c o - o p e r a t i o n .  Has no interest whatsoever in school work o r school l i f e .  Is i n d i f f erent to school. m u s t be pushed i n t t activities and w o r k .  Has t h e average attitude, has average interest i n school act i v i t i e s .  Is selectively interested; a good attitude. contributes to school activities  teachers,  equally interested i n school work a n d school activities . en j o y s school.  Tot.<*V ^ t e r t »*4  C-ivlS  Jl  Nov.  Ill c a s e s f  C«t&.  "TeSfcm "  /< ? t  7 6,  a/  3  0)  boys.«~ **"'.8 a  oa t e - 7* 7* t » R*-  7 °  ?s-*°° os- Jo /£•  i.t>  j.s-  3s-  *s- i^k-sj «o «s-  7"  7S~  fro frs-J^f ?5-^>» o os- /o / i -  I  Now.  <  0  EcK4vi«r  i  s  3  o  Graph il B  G-tvls. &1 Nov Testing  ^  Nov. T e st« m £ Jdn  Testing  I©  v5  Profile  f" 0  boy v / i t h  -  h i g h e s t . TotbiJ Sco«"e  O  u I  Z" I  1  r  op i  "~T~r 6 —  c5  7  g  ?  i± 13 i*, /s- IL ,7  /o u  Nov. Testim^  it I? i o XI JU. j.1  —  J«an T e s t i n g .  >  o 3 P Voflit  forfc»i y  w itK  I w e s t Tot 4 I 5 c a  G I  e.  REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS FOR USE WITH DR. H.J.BAKER'S DETROIT ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY  -1-  I.  ABOUT YOUR HEALTH  Good h e a l t h i s p r i c e l e s s . Mo one r e a l l y f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e s it until i t i s lost. I f your h e a l t h i s poor, be sure t o read what i s s a i d on t h i s sheet. I f your h e a l t h i s poor, you l o s e much time from s c h o o l and may even have t o repeat some grades or s u b j e c t s . L a t e r on, you may l o s e time on your job, which w i l l c o s t you .money, and you may not be a b l e t o keep your job. When you a r e i n good h e a l t h , you w i l l f e e l l i k e b e i n g p l e a s a n t and people w i l l l i k e youi T h e r e f o r e , i t i s best to go t o your f a m i l y d o c t o r now and have him h e l p you to. f e e l b e t t e r . Young, people o f your age o f t e n have pimples (acne) on t h e i r f a c e s , and t h i s c o n d i t i o n makes i t hard f o r them t o meet t h e i r f r i e n d s o r a s s o c i a t e s . The- causes a r e not v e r y w e l l known but they seem t o have some r e l a t i o n to the foods you e a t . A s k i n s p e c i a l i s t may g i v e you a l l e r g y t e s t s t o f i n d but what foods o r what k i n d o f c l o t h i n g not t o wear. In t r e a t i n g the pimples, towels soaked with hot water and l e f t on the f a c e f o r a s h o r t * time b r i n g the pimples t o a head. I f you are very t a l l or v e r y s h o r t f o r your age, or i f you are v e r y t h i n o r v e r y f a t , there are two important t h i n g s you should do. The f i r s t t h i n g i s to get the advice, o f your f a m i i y d o c t o r about t h e c o r r e c t d i e t f o r your weight. T r y very hard t o do what he a d v i s e s . Remember t h a t i t takes a l o t of w i l l power t o e a t o n l y what he t e l l s you, e s p e c i a l l y i f he t e l l s you not t o eat candy and i c e cream. The t r y to if i t and be  second t h i n g t o do i s t o l e a r n how t o take i t i f o t h e r s tease you about your s i z e . Don't l e t i t bother you, o r does, don't l e t them know how you f e e l . Laugh w i t h them good natured,. They w i l l q u i t t e a s i n g you a f t e r a w h i l e .  I f you have any h e a r t t r o u b l e , be sure t o see your doctor and do what he says. I f you don't have any such t r o u b l e , don't keep on u s i n g i t as an excuse f o r g e t t i n g out of e x e r c i s e and the work you should do; Don't l e t poor h e a l t h , s i z e , or h e a r t t r o u b l e get you down. Be c h e e r f u l ! B u i l d up your h e a l t h and keep i t on a h i g h l e v e l . NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . T r y t o do what i t t e l l s you. Things should g e t b e t t e r .  -2II,  ABOUT SLEEPING AND BATING  Do you enjoy your meals? I s t h e mealtime p l e a s a n t ? Do you sleep w e l l ? Are you s h o r t of s l e e p ? itour e a t i n g and s l e e p i n g have important e f f e c t s upon your h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s . Here are a few s u g g e s t i o n s about s l e e p i n g and e a t i n g . E a t i n g t o g e t h e r a t home should be one of the most p l e a s a n t and happy times o f e v e r y day* I f you don't have a r e g u l a r time t o e a t , t r y to g e t i t s t a r t e d . A t mealtime you should a l l s i t down together and f o r g e t your t r o u b l e s . A good home l i f e should c e n t e r around the d i n i n g t a b l e . I f you can a l l f o r g e t your t r o u b l e s a t mealtime, i t w i l l h e l p make every one happier. You should t r y not t o be f u s s y about your f o o d s . Tour mother o r o l d e r s i s t e r s t r y v e r y hard t o g e t the r i g h t k i n d s of f o o d s . You should l e a r n t o l i k e almost a l l foods beeause sometimes you may have t o e a t i n r e s t a u r a n t s , Hhen you go v i s i t i n g , you should be able to e a t what they g i v e you. I f there a r e one o r two k i n d s of foods t h a t the d o c t o r has warned you. not t o e a t , do as he says. T r y t o be t a c t f u l about n o t e a t i n g these f o o d s . Don't make a scene, but j u s t l e a v e them on your p l a t e and say n o t h i n g . r  0  I f you can't go t o s l e e p a t n i g h t because t h e r e i s t o o much t a l k i n g or n o i s e , t r y to have your p a r e n t s f i n d a b e t t e r p l a c e f o r your bed. However, you should t r a i n y o u r s e l f to s l e e p i n s p i t e o f some n o i s e . Many people l e a r n t o s l e e p where there i s n o i s e , such as near busy s t r e e t s or r a i l r o a d s . Your bed should be c o m f o r t a b l e . I t should n o t be too hard nor have bumps i n i t . Don't use. too many covers so that you are too warm. You should have some f r e s h . a i r , although you should not s l e e p i n too c o l d a room. Do not worry. T r y to be comfortable when you s l e e p and you w i l l s l e e p b e t t e r * You w i l l a l s o sleep b e t t e r i f you have a bed t o y o u r s e l f . S l e e p i n g with one or two o t h e r s crowds a l l of you and you can't s l e e p w e l l , A boy might s l e e p w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , or a g i r l with her s i s t e r . I t i s b e t t e r not to s l e e p with a grownup person. Try, to have a bed or a comfortable c o t by yourself. I f you s l e e p w e l l and e a t w e l l , you w i l l do b e t t e r work i n s c h o o l and be more c h e e r f u l a l l the time. T r y t o do the b e s t you can about s l e e p i n g and e a s i n g . You w i l l be w e l l r e p a i d * NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study I t o f t e n . T r y to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r .  -3  III.  ABOUT SELF-CARS  Here /are some i d e a s about bow t o care f o r y o u r s e l f . p o i n t e r s are about, your t e e t h , h a i r , c l o t h e s , and about ing clean.  These keep-  Don't n e g l e c t your t e e t h . Clean them a t l e a s t twice daily. I f your t e e t h ache o r need f i l l i n g , go t o a d e n t i s t at once. You have o n l y one s e t o f permanent t e e t h which you. get soon a f t e r you are o l d enough to s t a r t s c h o o l . I f you l o s e them, f a l s e t e e t h never do as w e l l . I f your t e e t h get decayed, t h e y n o t o n l y become sore and p a i n f u l but they a l s o send .poison through your whole body. I f you have a toothache, you cannot do w e l l i n s c h o o l . I f your t e e t h are crooked or l o o k bad, see your d e n t i s t about i t , D e n t i s t s sometimes put on braces to s t r a i g h t e n teeth. They a l s o know how t o make t e e t h l o o k c l e a n . Don't go around w i t h your hand over your mouth o r t r y t o talk. with.your mouth almost c l o s e d . Keep your t e e t h i n good shape, Well-kept, n i c e h a i r adds to the beauty of g i r l s and the handsomeness of boys. Your h a i r does not j u s t take care o f i t s e l f ; i t has t o be cared f o r by you. Keep i t p r o p e r l y c u t , w e l l - d r e s s e d , and i n good c o n d i t i o n . I f your h a i r i s i n poor c o n d i t i o n , i t u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e s n e g l e c t on your p a r t . Others may t h i n k that c a r e l e s s n e s s about your h a i r may mean c a r e l e s s n e s s about your other h a b i t s . I f your h a i r i s h a r d to care f o r , a l l the e x t r a time you use t o make i t l o o k b e t t e r w i l l pay w e l l . C u l t i v a t e the beauty o f your h a i r . Keep your h a i r combed; i t i s a good h a b i t t o develop. You are a l s o judged by the c l o t h e s you wear and how you wear them. The way c l o t h e s l o o k depends m a i n l y upon how you care f o r them. Keep them cleaned and p r e s s e d . I f n e c e s s a r y , l e a r n how t o do t h i s y o u r s e l f . You can p r o b a b l y f i n d p l e n t y of time f o r t h i s , i f you r e a l l y want t o l o o k n i e e * I f you work a t something which g e t s your c l o t h e s d i r t y , keep c e r t a i n c l o t h e s f o r t h i s purpose. Change them when your work i s done. Don't be a f r a i d o f work, t h a t g e t s you d i r t y . F i t c h i n and do i t and be proud, of i t . Then c l e a n up. Keeping your hands and body cJean and t a k i n g baths o f t e n should be among the e a s i e s t t h i n g s t o do. I f you t h i n k you are not good-looking, keep clean and i n the best p o s s i b l e condition. Water i s p r a c t i c a l l y f r e e and soap i s cheap. The few minutes you spend each day on your f a c e and hands, should y i e l d you a l a r g e r e t u r n i n keeping up your p r i d e i n your l o o k s and appearance. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things s h o u l d get b e t t e r ;  IV.  ABOUT YOUR HABITS  Do you b i t e your f i n g e r n a i l s ? Can you s i t s t i l l ? Do you b l u s h e a s i l y ? Here are a few suggestions on what t o do. Are you w o r r i e d about something? I f so, don't j u s t keep on f i d g e t i n g and worrying, but t r y t o s t r a i g h t e n things, o u t . Try t o keep i n good h e a l t h . I f you are s i c k , go t o your d o c t o r and do what he a d v i s e s . " I f you b i t e or chew your f i n g e r n a i l s , now i s the time t o stop i t . Take a good l o o k a t your f i n g e r n a i l s . Are they too s h o r t ? Are they b u r i e d deep i n t h e f l e s h ? Do they h u r t when they a r e so s h o r t ? You may have to t r y r e a l hard t o l e t your f i n g e r n a i l s grow out and l o o k n i c e . You w i l l then be proud of them. Use a f i n g e r n a i l f i l e t o shape your n a i l s and t o keep them c l e a n . Don't p i c k a t your f a c e . Don't s i t and p l a y w i t h a p e n c i l , a r u l e r , a s t r i n g , o r a n y t h i n g you happen t o have i n your hand. Other people don't l i k e t o see you do such t h i n g s . They may t h i n k you are nervous. You are p r o b a b l y n o t nervous but j u s t have some c a r e l e s s h a b i t s . Brace up; t r y hard; g i v e a good i m p r e s s i o n ! When you a r e s i t t i n g down, e i t h e r a t home o r a t s c h o o l , do you s i t s t i l l o r do you wiggle around a l l the time:? Do you always swing your f e e t , or keep s h i f t i n g back and f o r t h from one s i d e t o t h e other? I t b o t h e r s and d i s t u r b s o t h e r s when you don't s i t r e a s o n a b l y s t i l l . They won't l i k e you f o r i t . I f you need e x e r c i s e , get i t a t some o t h e r time and p l a c e . Then t r y t o s i t s t i l l . I f you b l u s h e a s i l y , you p r o b a b l y take t h i n g s too s e r i o u s l y . T e a s i n g bothers you and then you b l u s h . When you b l u s h your f r i e n d s keep on t e a s i n g you and enjoy s e e i n g you b e i n g uncomfortable. Laugh w i t h them; pass i t o f f as a j o k e . Don't l e t t h i n g s b o t h e r you and you w i l l get over much o f your blushing. I f you f a i n t e a s i l y or get d i z z y , a s k y o u r s e l f why. I s your h e a l t h poor? I f so, go t o your d o c t o r . I f he says.there i s n o t h i n g the matter, j u s t make a good r e s o l v e t o c o n t r o l yourself better. Face d i s a g r e e a b l e d u t i e s ; don't run away by f a i n t i n g . You can never a v o i d a l l unpleasant t h i n g s , so l e a r n to face them. You can get over most of these t h i n g s i f you keep oh t r y i n g . Don't be discouraged i f r e s u l t s are slow and i f you have some l a p s e s . Keep i n good h e a l t h ; get p l e n t y of s l e e p ; eat a good diet. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . T r y t o do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r .  V. WORRIES Some people spend much o f t h e i r l i v e s w o r r y i n g . Are you one who w o r r i e s a l l the time? Most of the t h i n g s we worry about never happen, so d o n t spend your l i f e w o r r y i n g . T  I f you worry a l l the time, your h e a l t h may be poor. Things l o o k v e r y bad when you don't have s t r e n g t h and courage. Don't j u s t worry; go t o your d o c t o r t o f i n d out what i s wrong. He w i l l help you. ?dhen you f e e l b e t t e r , your w o r r i e s w i l l leave you. I f you t r y , you can always f i n d p l e n t y o f t h i n g s about which t o worry. You may worry about your s c h o o l , about g e t t i n g r u n over by a c a r , about the world coming t o an end, about your h e a l t h , o r about g e t t i n g a job. Most of the w o r r i e s never come t r u e ; so don't worry. On the o t h e r hand, i t i s p r o b a b l y bad i f you are never concerned about a n y t h i n g . In t h a t case, you may be too easygoing. You may not take t h i n g s s e r i o u s l y enough; Your f r i e n d s w i l l not l i k e you v e r y w e l l , because they w i l l t h i n k t h a t you make a joke out of e v e r y t h i n g . A reasonable amount o f concern i s a good t h i n g , f o r i n t h i s way we l e a r n to be c a r e f u l and c a u t i o u s . I f you have one o r two w o r r i e s that keep b o t h e r i n g you, t r y to study them t o f i n d out how t o g e t r i d of them. Most w o r r i e s can be beaten i n t h i s way. Many w o r r i e s can be stopped by paying no a t t e n t i o n t o them. You can r e a l l y spend your.time and your thoughts on much b e t t e r t h i n g s . Do something worth w h i l e ; e x e r c i s e and p l a y more. I f you l e a r n t o master your w o r r i e s , you w i l l g a i n more s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r i n o t h e r ways, Iteople w i l l , l i k e you b e t t e r . You w i l l not take: y o u r s e l f t o o s e r i o u s l y . You w i l l p r o b a b l y l i v e l o n g e r , s i n c e you w i l l not waste a l l your s t r e n g t h and-energy. There are v e r y few t h i n g s you should ever worry about, and • t r y to get those w o r r i e s cured up as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Save your s t r e n g t h f o r o t h e r t h i n g s much more worth w h i l e . NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . T r y to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should g e t b e t t e r .  -6'VI. ABOUT FEARS Do you have many f e a r s ? Are these f e a r s v e r y bad? Of what t h i n g s a r e you a f r a i d ? You can get over most o f your fears, i f you r e a l l y t r y . Here are a few s u g g e s t i o n s . There i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n b e i n g a f r a i d and merely jumping when there i s a l o u d n o i s e o r a f l a s h of l i g h t . A good example i s f e a r of thunderstorms. Many people jump when the l i g h t n i n g i s v e r y sharp o r the thunder i s v e r y l o u d . They are p r o b a b l y n o t a f r a i d but a r e j u s t s t a r t l e d or s u r p r i s e d . Try t o t h i n k whether i t i s r e a l l y f e a r ; o r i s i t j u s t the f l a s h o r t h e n o i s e which makes you jump? You are p r o b a b l y not r e a l l y a f r a i d but s u r p r i s e d . Being a f r a i d when alone i n the dark i s q u i t e common among young c h i l d r e n . A few o l d e r c h i l d r e n keep on being a f r a i d . I f you,are a f r a i d i n the dark, t r y very h a r d t o get over i t . Ask y o u r s e l f i f i t i s o n l y a f e a r that grew up with you, and i s i t n o t time now t o get r i d of i t ? I f i t i s a new f e a r , t h i n k what p r o b a b l y caused i t . D i d someone a c t u a l l y chase you i n the dark? S i d you. t h i n k a b i g dog was c h a s i n g you? Be sure t h a t you d i d not j u s t imagine i t . You w i l l p r o b a b l y have to be out alone i n the dark q u i t e o f t e n i n the next few. y e a r s . Most people are n o t a f r a i d i n the dark s i n c e there i s l i t t l e cause t o be a f r a i d . So t r y t o get over b e i n g a f r a i d i n the dark. If you have a f e a r o f a l l strange persons, you should overcome i t ; When you were a s m a l l c h i l d you p r o b a b l y d i d n o t know many people and you may have been a f r a i d of e v e r y s t r a n g e r . I f you l i v e d on a farm o r out i n the country, you p r o b a b l y d i d not meet many s t r a n g e r s . Most c h i l d r e n who l i v e i n the c i t y get used to s t r a n g e r s and are not a f r a i d o f them. I t i s n o t necessary to be a f r a i d of most people, so t r y not t o be a f r a i d . Many of them are f a t h e r s of c h i l d r e n that you may. know, i n s c h o o l . Many l i v e near you and are r e a l l y your neighbors. C e r t a i n l y , you should be c a u t i o u s , but a l s o l e a r n to judge people and you w i l l seldom need t o be a f r a i d of any ' of them. Some p u p i l s b e l i e v e they a r e a f r a i d and can't r e c i t e . The best cure f o r t h i s i s t o get your l e s s o n s well..so that y o u have n o t h i n g t o f e a r i n s c h o o l . Most of the f e a r s we have should not be. We a r e q u i t e safe from dangers, w i l d animals, s t r a n g e r s , hunger, storms, and floods.. Try to f o r g e t your f e a n s , and l e a d a h a p p i e r , more u s e f u l l i f e . There a r e many o t h e r worth-while t h i n g s to do. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . T r y t o do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r .  -7-  vTI.  AN GSR AND TEMPER  Anger does not pay, so l e t ' s find out how to control i t . Most people learn t a control t h e i r temper. They probably have as many good reasons ten get angry as you do, but they have found out that i t does not pay. People who lose their temper are not popular, and they seldom get t h e i r way by getting angry. Control your temper. How do you learn to do i t ? You must learn to use your w i l l power. Other people may t e l l you that you should not get angry, but i t i s you yourself who must a c t u a l l y learn to control your temper. No one can do i t f o r you; In school you are taught lessons that anger does not payj you learn about i t from your parents, and your friends t e l l you, but you must make up your own mind to use your w i l l power and not get angry. When you break your things, you sometimes get. angry. Instead of getting angry t r y to f i n d out why they broke. Were you just careless? Were you not paying much attention? Did you use too much strength? Did you ever t r y to learn how to handle things, without breaking them? Why do people break your things? Do they r e a l l y mean to, or do they do i t just by accident? Were they not paying attention? Did they not know how something should be done? If they r e a l l y did i t on purpose, t r y to find out why. What had you done to them? Could you learn to get along better with them? Losing your temper does not pay. Any f e e l i n g of. revenge or s a t i s f a c t i o n i s o f f s e t by l o s i n g a good, friend and by getting a bad reputation. I f you think you are going to get angry, t r y to s t a r t doing something else. Get away from that p a r t i c u l a r person or thing for a l i t t l e while, i f you can, Try to laugh i t o f f ; don't take yourself too seriously. Your friends w i l l admire you f o r i t . I t w i l l be e a s i e r to control yourself the next time. You can't make everyone do things just to suit you. Getting angry makes things worse instead of better. I f you see other people lose their temper, don't lose yours too. Try to set them a good example; i t w i l l help them to do better themselves. Learning to control yourself and your temper i s one of the most important lessons you learn i n your whole l i f e . No one can do i t f o r you; you must l e a r n i t f o r yourself. I t may take a l i t t l e time and great patience, but don t get. dia-> couraged. Others have done i t ; so can you. r  NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t often; Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better.  -a•  VIII.  ABOUT PITY AND SYMPATHY.  Are you v e r y s o r r y f o r b l i n d p e o p l e ? Do you c r y e a s i l y when you see someone g e t h u r t ? Or do you pay no a t t e n t i o n to such t h i n g s ? Do you t h i n k you have too; l i t t l e p i t y f o r other people? I t i s w e l l t o g i v e these q u e s t i o n s a l i t t l e thought. There a r e two extremes of p i t y . One i s t o o l i t t l e ^ p i t y ; the o t h e r i s too much p i t y . T r y t o a v o i d b e i n g too'extreme in either direction. I f y o u seem t o have t o o l i t t l e p i t y , , t h i n k what i t means. People won't l i k e you v e r y w e l l because you don't have any p i t y o r sympathy f o r them. They may a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t you a r e c r u e l . On t h e o t h e r hand, too much p i t y and sympathy should be avoided. I f you have too much, p i t y , you u s e up a l l your s t r e n g t h and energy on i t . You don't g e t v e r y much o f anyt h i n g done, and you a l s o w o r r y more t h a n you s h o u l d * Try t o keep a r e a s o n a b l e b a l a n c e between too much and t o o l i t t l e p i t y . You should show enough p i t y t o g i v e some h e l p t o b l i n d o r c r i p p l e d people* when they a r e i n danger. I f you have a v e r y g r e a t d e s i r e t o h e l p them a l l t h e t i m e , y o u m i g h t f i n d some k i n d of work f o r y o u r s e l f which would be m a i n l y h e l p i n g them. Such work m i g h t be t e a c h i n g c l a s s e s f o r them, o r w o r k i n g i n o f f i c e s w h i c h a r e s e t up t o h e l p them and t o a s s i s t them i n f i n d i n g work. I t m i g h t a l s o h e l p y o u t o c o n t r o l your p i t y i f you knew t h a t t h e r e a r e thousands of b l i n d , d e a f , and c r i p p l e d p e o p l e i n t h i s c o u n t r y a l o n e . No m a t t e r how much y o u t r i e d , i t would be i m p o s s i b l e f o r you a l o n e t o do much f o r a l l o f them. You can f i n d books and magazines which t e l l you about t h e hundreds of p e o p l e w o r k i n g f o r them and thousands of' d o l l a r s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g spent t o h e l p them. However, i t i s s t i l l a good t h i n g to.< keep on d o i n g something f o r the ones whom y o u know. One of t h e t h i n g s t o a v o i d i s . f o r y o u to have t o o much p i t y f o r y o u r s e l f . I f you do, brace up and f a c e your p r o b l e m s . S t o p p i t y i n g y o u r s e l f and do your j o b . Face l i f e w i t h a smile• Keep your eyes and ears open t o see what o t h e r people do about p i t y and sympathy. Then t r y t o do what seems b e s t . E i t h e r too much or t o o l i t t l e p i t y i s bad. T r y t o be moderate. You can l e a r n t o c o n t r o l y o u r s e l f . NOTE:  Keep t h i s s h e e t ; study i t o f t e n . T r y to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should g e t b e t t e r *  IX.  ABOUT BEING A GOOD MIXER.  Do you f i n d i t easy to.meet p e o p l e ? Do y o u l i k e t o be i n a crowd o r do you want t o be a l o n e ? Today i t i s q u i t e i m p o r t a n t t h a t you know how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e . Let's see what should be done about i t . No m a t t e r where you a r e , e i t h e r i n s c h o o l o r a t home, y o u always, have people around and you must g e t a l o n g w i t h them. L a t e r when you go t o work, you w i l l a l w a y s have t o be w i t h many p e o p l e and work w i t h them. We l i v e i n a w o r l d where t h e r e a r e l o t s o f people everywhere, and we cannot, j u s t l i v e and work, by o u r s e l v e s a l o n e . fou should p r a c t i c e making y o u r s e l f a g r e e a b l e and p l e a s a n t to o t h e r p e o p l e . I f you s m i l e , t a l k w i t h them, and r e a l l y l i k e them, they w i l l f e e l t h a t you a r e a good f r i e n d . I t would n o t be good f o r you i f people thought you had no use f o r them. They would t h i n k you a r e s t u c k up and would n o t b o t h e r about you. Everyone needs f r i e n d s ; l o t s o f good f r i e n d s are v e r y valuable t o you. There a r e many ways you can make f r i e n d s . Here a r e a few. Help someone i n t r o u b l e . Be p l e a s a n t t o o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o those who don't have many f r i e n d s . Talk, about p l e a s a n t r a t h e r t h a n u n p l e a s a n t t h i n g s . Look f o r good p o i n t s about people. Don't be a g o s s i p , e s p e c i a l l y about t h e weaknesses and f a u l t s of o t h e r p e o p l e . I f you sometimes f e e l a l i t t l e shy i n a crowd o r i n a s t r a n g e p l a c e , t r y t o shake i t o f f . The chances a r e t h a t most of t h e o t h e r s f e e l a s s h y a s you do. Get h o l d of y o u r s e l f ; a c t n a t u r a l and s m i l e . I n t h a t way you w i l l be h a p p i e r y o u r s e l f and i t w i l l h e l p t h e o t h e r s g e t over t h e i r shyness, too. When p e o p l e g e t t o g e t h e r be sure t o see t h a t t h e y are i n t r o duced t o each o t h e r . I t i s b e t t e r t o i n t r o d u c e them than t o take a chance they have met b e f o r e . P e o p l e a l w a y s f e e l awkward and i l l - a t - e a s e when they have n o t been i n t r o d u c e d . L e a r n t h e c o r r e c t way o f i n t r o d u c i n g people... I t i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g t h i n g t o be a good m i x e r . Don't be t o o f o r w a r d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h c e r t a i n people who w i l l not l i k e you f o r i t . On t h e o t h e r hand, don't be t o o q u i e t and shy. T r y t o keep, i n a good middle c o u r s e , . Study each f r i e n d o r a c q u a i n t a n c e so you may e n j o y happy companionship. Be a good m i x e r ; c u l t i v a t e good f r i e n d s ,  i t w i l l pay y o u .  -10-  X. ABOUT FEELING INFERIOR Do you f e e l that other people are better than you.? Or do you. f e e l that you are better than they are? Where do you think you r e a l l y stand among a l l others? Here are a few pointers about what to do. I f you f e e l i n f e r i o r you are probably unhappy about i t . You t r y to avoid being seen; you don't want to look people i n the eye; you think they are making fun of you. You don't do your school work w e l l and things don't go just r i g h t . If you f e e l superior to others, they w i l l probably not l i k e you f o r being that way. They w i l l think that you are stuck up and that you don't have any use f o r them. When you need friends they magn go back on you. X'ou can keep your own self-respect without being stuck up. Even i f you f e e l i n f e r i o r you may take on an a i r of superi o r i t y to defend yourself against others. They w i l l then think you f e e l superior, which i s not your r e a l f e e l i n g at a l l . That makes i t harder than ever. I f you have poor clothes, you don't need to f e e l i n f e r i o r . Many others have poor clothes, too. You can keep them cleaned and pressedi Be pleasant and prove your r e a l worth and people w i l l forget about your clothes. On the other hand, don't get too proud i f your clothes are better than most of the others; they w i l l not l i k e you f o r i t . If you think you are not as good-looking as most of the others, do not f e e l i n f e r i o r about i t . Try to develop a smile; don't seem to notice what they say or think about you. If you have good habits and t r y to have a good character, your looks won't make so much difference. I f you are very good-looking don't l e t yourself f e e l superior on account of i t . I t i s r e a l l y character which counts the most. I f your school marks are poor, i t does no good to f e e l i n f e r i o r about them, although i t i s hot pleasant to have them. Try to f i n d out just why you got them. Then do a l l that you can to improve them. Don't just feel, i n f e r i o r . I f your marks are very good, don't brag about them; your friends won't l i k e you f o r i t . Don't f e e l i n f e r i o r i f you don't make the school team, but keep on trying. There are only a few on the best team and they are very good. I f you do make the team, play f o r the team and don't t r y to show how good you are by yourself. I f you are not popular with your friends and classmates, find.out why i t i s . Study your own weaknesses and then do everything you can to overcome them, ifou should gradually get to be more popular.  -11-  X  ABOUT FEELING INFERIORCcontinued)  Keep a b,alance between f e e l i n g i n f e r i o r or s u p e r i o r . w i l l be h a p p i e r and people w i l l l i k e you b e t t e r . NOTE;  You  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r .  -1&-  XI.  ABOUT. KEEPING CHEERFUL  Are you c h e e r f u l most of the time o r a r e you o f t e n sad? I s i t hard t o be c h e e r f u l and easy to be sad? People don't have much use .for someone who i s always sad, so l e t ' s see what should be done about i t . Did you ever l o o k around among your f r i e n d s and classmates to see which ones a r e happy and which are sad? You u s u a l l y l i k e the happy ones b e s t . T r y to f i n d out what to do i f you are sad and gloomy. Here are a few s u g g e s t i o n s . You had b e t t e r ask y o u r s e l f , f i r s t of a l l , a r e you s i c k ? • Do you f e e l w e l l ? Do you get enough s l e e p ? I s your home sad and gloomy? Are your p a r e n t s unhappy about the way t h i n g s a r e going? T r y t o do what you can to cheer them up. Are you sad because you do not get e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t of your club or c l a s s ? You have t o be a r e a l l e a d e r b e f o r e you get e l e c t e d to a job of l e a d e r s h i p . Don't spend your time f e e l i n g bad, but get busy and show t h a t you can do t h i n g s . Then you a r e more l i k e l y to get e l e c t e d , A r e a l l e a d e r a c t u a l l y serves o t h e r s r a t h e r than b o s s i n g o t h e r people around. You may be f e e l i n g gloomy because you b e l i e v e you w i l l never g e t a j o b . I f you do good s c h o o l work and prepare and t r a i n y o u r s e l f f o r a worth-while o c c u p a t i o n or p r o f e s s i o n , you should get a good j o b . I t i s n o t much use to worry about never g e t t i n g r i c h . Only a few people a r e r i c h , and many of them have worked up from n o t h i n g . Those who are r i c h u s u a l l y p r a c t i c e d saving t h e i r money r i g h t from the s t a r t and l e a r n e d to i n v e s t i t w i s e l y . When you get some money to i n v e s t , don't j u s t take anyone's word about what to do, but t r y to get some r e l i a b l e a d v i c e and then f o l l o w i t . I f you a r e sad or gloomy about the f u t u r e o f the world and the people i n i t , ' you may as w e l l q u i t w o r r y i n g and cheer up. You cannot do much about i t , f o r i t i s too l a r g e a job f o r you a l o n e . T r y t o h e l p wherever you see a p l a c e . Do what you can, but don't t r y to c a r r y a l l the burdens of the world. I t i s t o o much. Try to s m i l e . T r y to keep c h e e r f u l . Hemember t h a t people have l i t t l e use f o r a person who i s gloomy o r sad. Don ' t be one of them. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . T r y to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should go b e t t e r .  -13-  XII...  WILL. POWER  Have you ever thought about your w i l l power? Can you make up your mind about something and then s t i c k to i t ? Or do you g i v e up too e a s i l y ? What do o t h e r people think, about your w i l l power? L e t ' s see what may be s a i d about i t . The f i r s t t h i n g to do i s t o decide i n which group you f a l l . Are you among those who show l i t t l e w i l l power or those who show too much, or are you j u s t somewhere i n between? I t i s a good i d e a f o r you t o f i g u r e out where you stand and what you should do about i t . I f you f a l l i n the group which shows v e r y l i t t l e w i l l power,, you. are p r o b a b l y unhappy. l o u r schoolmates and f r i e n d s are always b o s s i n g you around. They have t h i n g s a l l t h e i r own way and t e l l , you j u s t what to do. You p r o b a b l y don't l i k e t h i s v e r y w e l l . You should l e a r n to stand on your own f e e t . In l e a r n i n g to do t h i s you must a v o i d g e t t i n g angry a t o t h e r people and be a b l e to smile and s t i l l be f i r m . I f o t h e r s know that you r e s p e c t and b e l i e v e i n y o u r s e l f , they w i l l soon l e a r n to r e s p e c t you. At the o t h e r extreme, you should a v o i d b e i n g s e t too s t r o n g l y i n your w i l l power. I f you seem to be too determined, o t h e r s w i l l not l i k e you. A l t h o u g h you may get your own way, i t i s p r o b a b l y not worth the p r i c e . I f t h i s seems to be your t r o u b l e , l i s t e n to the o t h e r f e l l o w ' s i d e a s ; they may be good, too. T h i s w i l l add to your p o p u l a r i t y . You are not r e a l l y weak i n w i l l power i f you change your mind sometimes or l i s t e n to o t h e r s . I t o f t e n happens t h a t something comes up which makes i t wise f o r you to change your p l a n s . I t shows b e t t e r w i l l power t o change your mind and t o adopt a b e t t e r method f o r the new c o n d i t i o n s thaii to s t i c k b l i n d l y to what i s now out of d a t e . ion may be r e q u i r e d t o use your w i l l power when you study at home i f there i s no very good p l a c e to study or i f there i s much n o i s e . I t a l s o takes s t r o n g w i l l power to study some s c h o o l s u b j e c t which you d o n t l i k e v e r y w e l l , but which you have to take. r  I t takes w i l l power to do r i g h t when your f r i e n d s are d o i n g wrong. Even though they may l a u g h at you, s t i c k to your good ideals. I f you can be f r i e n d l y yet f i r m , your f r i e n d s w i l l admire you f o r a good amount of w i l l power. Don't be too headstrong, and don't be too weak-willed. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . T r y to do what i t t e l l s you. Thing's should get b e t t e r .  AlII.  MAKING YOUR HOMB PLEASANT  I f you t h i n k your home i s n i c e , you should do a l l you can to keep i t t h a t way. I f you are not p l e a s e d w i t h it,,, t r y t o do something t o make i t b e t t e r . You can always use your spare time w e l l i f you h e l p keep the home p l e a s a n t and i n good o r d e r . This i s good p r a c t i c e so that when you have a home f o r yourse'lf you w i l l take good care of i t . I f your p a r e n t s are busy w i t h o t h e r t h i n g s and a r e too t i r e d o r s i c k to do much about the house, you can h e l p cheer them up by doing t h i n g s to help o u t . Inside the house you can h e l p keep t h i n g s s t r a i g h t e n e d up and put away i n t h e i r p l a c e s . A famous s a y i n g i s , "Have a p l a c e f o r e v e r y t h i n g and keep e v e r y t h i n g i n i t s p l a c e . " I f you put your own t h i n g s away, i t w i l l be a good example f o r the o t h e r s t o f o l l o w . I f your home i s p l e a s a n t and o r d e r l y i t w i l l be a happier p l a c e f o r everybody. You can keep t h i n g s i n order i n your yard; h e l p p i c k up papers; sweep the steps and sidewalk; keep the l e a v e s raked up i n the f a l l ; and c l e a n o f f the snow i n the w i n t e r t i m e . I f you don't have much of a lawn and c h i l d r e n p l a y on i t , t r y t o have.a l i t t l e grass fenced i n and a s m a l l f l o w e r bed near the house. You can g e t f l o w e r s which bloom a t d i f f e r e n t times so there a r e blossoms a l l summer. Elower seeds a r e cheap. Your p a r e n t s or your b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s should get i n t e r e s t e d , t o o , and i t i s f u n to work a t these t h i n g s t o gether. I f you don't succeed a t f i r s t , t r y a g a i n and you w i l l f i n a l l y get r e s u l t s . Often i f one house on a s t r e e t i s g i v e n a coat o f p a i n t i t l o o k s so much b e t t e r t h a t the pthers w i l l want t o p a i n t t h e i r s too. I f the houses do not please you, and i f , a f t e r a w h i l e , there i s v e r y l i t t l e change f o r the b e t t e r , t a l k t o your p a r e n t s about f i x i n g up the o u t s i d e o f your home as w e l l as they can a f f o r d . A l l of you can work t o g e t h e r to make the i n s i d e of your home i n v i t i n g and a t t r a c t i v e t o o . • I f your parents came from some other country and don't know E n g l i s h (the American language), be as h e l p f u l as you can.. Since you speak E n g l i s h i n s c h o o l and w i t h your f r i e n d s , you probably get more p r a c t i c e than your parents.' While they are l e a r n i n g the E n g l i s h language, be p a t i e n t and a s s i s t them as much as you can. On t h e o t h e r hand, i t w i l l probably p l e a s e your p a r e n t s i f you take an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r language and l e a r n i t t o o , both f o r speaking and r e a d i n g . Knowing two languages i s b e t t e r than one, f o r you w i l l be able t o l e a r n much of value f r o m another language besides t h e language i t s e l f . There a r e many, many ways you can use t o make your home  XIII. Making Your Home P l e a s a n t  (continued)  pleasant. Try them; don*t. give up. You w i l l get. r e s u l t s a f t e r a w h i l e . 'Learning t o be p l e a s a n t and c h e e r f u l i s a very important l e s s o n you may l e a r n best r i g h t i n your home. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; s t u d y . i t o f t e n . T r y t o do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r .  -16-  XIV  HOME ATMOSPHERE  Is your home u s u a l l y happy, or i s i t sad and gloomy? I f your home i s n o t v e r y happy, do you do a n y t h i n g to make i t b e t t e r ? D i d you ever r e a l l y t r y to help or do you t h i n k t h a t you c o u l d do n o t h i n g about i t ? L e t ' s see what you s h o u l d t r y t o do. E i r s t of a l l , d o n t get d i s c o u r a g e d i f you don't, succeed when you t r y to cheer t h i n g s up. You may even be.scolded f o r being too happy when everyone e l s e i s sad. A f t e r a w h i l e , you should begin t o see good r e s u l t s . You must s t a y good-natured, and when you s m i l e , do i t i n such a s i n c e r e way t h a t the o t h e r s know you r e a l l y mean i t . A person should t r y to smile even when t h i n g s do not go r i g h t . r  You should b e l i e v e that the way you l o o k a t l i f e r e a l l y has some e f f e c t upon your p a r e n t s . You may wonder why your p a r e n t s are not' always c h e e r f u l , but there a r e probably good reasons. One of your p a r e n t s may have been s i c k l a t e l y . Sickness or o p e r a t i o n s probably p i l e d up many b i l l s t h a t cannot be p a i d r i g h t away. Work may not have been very steady and money i s s c a r c e . I t i s n o t always b e s t to ask t o o many q u e s t i o n s about these matters, but i f you are i n t e r e s t e d you p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y know about a l o t of the t r o u b l e s . Here i s j u s t one of the t h i n g s you can do. T r y to arrange to c e l e b r a t e the b i r t h d a y o f everyone i n the f a m i l y . Be sure to i n c l u d e the b i r t h d a y s of your f a t h e r and mother. A b i r t h day cake, even a s m a l l and inexpensive one which you may have to bake o r f r o s t a t home, with a few candles on i t , w i l l do wonders. I t w i l l h e l p the members i n your f a m i l y i f they know you b e l i e v e i n them. Every h o l i d a y o f f e r s a good chance f o r a happy g e t - t o g e t h e r , so make the most o f each o f them. I f there i s very l i t t l e t o read a t home, do something about it. I f there i s a l i b r a r y near you, g e t a card and borrow books — some f o r your p a r e n t s and some f o r y o u r s e l f . The l i b r a r i a n i s there t o h e l p you; f e e l f r e e to a s k f o r a d v i c e . I f there i s no l i b r a r y , ask your teachers a t s c h o o l . Try to g e t a magazine or two. Your mother w i l l l i k e a magazine which t e l l s about the home or housekeeping, or about clothes. F a t h e r may have some i n t e r e s t i n f i s h i n g , hunting, t r a v e l , or mechanics, and he w i l l enjoy magazines on these subjects. I t w i l l please' your p a r e n t s i f you want them to go p l a c e s w i t h you. Once i n a while take.one or both of them to the movies. Make i t t h e i r n i g h t . Such o c c a s i o n s w i l l b r i n g you c l o s e r t o g e t h e r and w i l l a e l p you to understand one another much b e t t e r * If  you don't l i k e  some o f your parents* f r i e n d s , t r y t o  -17-  XIV.  Home Atmosphere (Continued)  develop a l i k i n g f o r them by l o o k i n g f o r t h e i r good q u a l i t i e s . Be agreeable and courteous t o them a t a l l times. Your home l i f e w i l l be more pleasant and happy when you f o l l o w these suggestions. Much depends on you. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . Try t o do what i t t e l l s you; Things should get b e t t e r .  XV.  HOME A T T I T U B E S .  I f you have any b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s , do you g e t a l o n g w e l l w i t h them? A r e y o u h a p p y w i t h them, o r a r e y o u a l w a y s f i g h t i n g and q u a r r e l i n g ? T r y to f a c e these p r o b l e m s s q u a r e l y . I f t h e r e i s t r o u b l e , who s t a r t s i t ? I f i t i s you, t r y to a s k y o u r s e l f why? D i d y o u g e t b a c k a t them f o r s o m e t h i n g ? Or h a d y o u done s o m e t h i n g t o them w h i c h made them g e t back, a t y o u ? B u t why keep on? Why n o t c a l l i t a l l o f f a n d s t a r t o v e r w i t h a clean slate? I f y o u a r e o l d e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s , i t i s up t o you t o keep t h i n g s g o i n g s m o o t h l y . I f you a r e y o u n g e r , t r y t o do the b e s t you c a n a n d i t may h e l p them t o do b e t t e r * I f you t h i n k a b r o t h e r or s i s t e r i s the f a v o r i t e , t r y t o s t u d y out why t h i s seems t o be s o . What does he o r she have that you d o n ' t ? Why d o n ' t y o u b e g i n d o i n g s o m e t h i n g v e r y w e l l a n d t h e n you. may a l s o g e t some more p r a i s e and a t t e n t i o n . Findi n g f a u l t , or t a k i n g y o u r s p i t e o u t on o t h e r s , makes t h i n g s worse i n s t e a d o f b e t t e r . I f y o u r b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s t h i n k y o u a r e the f a v o r i t e , d o n ' t b r a g about i t t o t h e m . T r y t o h e l p them f i n d ways i n w h i c h t h e y can do w e l l , t o o . T h e r e s h o u l d be enough l o v e and d e v o t i o n t o go a r o u n d the w h o l e f a m i l y . I f y o u can a l l be a t p e a c e w i t h e a c h o t h e r , i t w i l l make t h e home l i f e h a p p i e r f o r a l l o f y o u and f o r y o u r p a r e n t s , too. Then e v e r y o n e w i l l f e e l , t h a t l i f e i s r e a l l y w o r t h w h i l e . I t i s a l s o good p r a c t i c e i n l e a r n i n g how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h y o u r f r i e n d s and f e l l o w w o r k e r s a f t e r y o u g e t a j o b . It w i l l h e l p y o u t o be more t o l e r a n t of o t h e r p e o p l e , and you can l e a r n t o be p l e a s a n t t o e v e r y o n e . I f you get a l o n g w e l l w i t h your p a r e n t s , they d o n ' t worry much a b o u t y o u m i n d i n g t h e m . I t i s n i c e f o r a l l o f you i f t h e y t r u s t y o u and a r e n o t a l w a y s w a t c h i n g y o u . If things are n o t g o i n g n i c e l y i n t h i s way, t r y t o do b e t t e r and. a f t e r a w h i l e t h e y w i l l b e g i n to t r u s t y o u . I f y o u show t h a t y o u a r e r e a l l y g r o w i n g u p , i t w i l l b r i n g them j o y and h a p p i n e s s , t o o . I n the y e a r s when y o u were y o u n g e r , y o u r f a t h e r and m o t h e r a c t e d w i s e l y i f t h e y t r a i n e d y o u t o do some w o r k a b o u t t h e house o r y a r d . T h i s i s t r a i n i n g f o r good h a b i t s o f work and living. Some o f t h e t h i n g s t h e y a s k e d you t o d o , y o u p r o b a b l y d i d n o t l i k e v e r y w e l l , but i f y o u were a b l e t o s m i l e and t r y t o l i k e t h e m , y o u showed t h a t y o u were made o f good s t u f f . It i s how a good p r a c t i c e t o keep on d o i n g a l l t h e s e t h i n g s and t o do them w i t h o u t y o u r p a r e n t s h a v i n g t o a s k a l l the t i m e i f y o u g o t them d o n e . Y o u w i l l have many t h i n g s l i k e t h i s t o do f o r y o u r s e l f l a t e r on and t h i s i s good p r a c t i c e . So s m i l e and do them w i l l i n g l y and q u i c k l y , but w e l l * Then g e t them o f f y o u r m i n d and have t i m e f o r p l a y a n d o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . By f o l l o w i n g t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s , you w i l l improve a t t i t u d e s a t home.  AVI.  ABOUT GROWING UP  Do you think, df y o u r s e l f as growing up, or are you s t i l l a c h i l d ? What do your p a r e n t s t h i n k about i t ? I f you have o l d e r b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s , what do they t h i n k about i t ? What do your f r i e n d s t h i n k ? The teen age i s the time f o r growing up. In the e a r l y teens (about t h i r t e e n ) you are j u s t g e t t i n g s t a r t e d , but by the end of the teens you should be p r e t t y w e l l grown up. It i s time to give t h i s problem some s e r i o u s thought. Growing up c o n s i s t s of b e i n g allowed to make some d e c i s i o n s f o r y o u r s e l f , b e i n g allowed more freedom, and being t r u s t e d i n your judgments by your p a r e n t s . A l l of these are very imp o r t a n t i n growing up. You should have g o t t e n some p r a c t i c e i n making d e c i s i o n s about l i t t l e t h i n g s b e f o r e you were t h i r t e e n years o f age* These might i n c l u d e h e l p i n g p i c k out your new c l o t h e s , g e t t i n g around on time f o r meals, doing the jobs and chores t h a t were expected of you. A l l t h i s was good p r a c t i c e to h e l p you now i n growing, up. I f you t h i n k that your p a r e n t s don't g i v e you much l i b e r t y , ask y o u r s e l f why. I s i t p a r t l y because you do not always do the wise t h i n g ? I f you begin doing t h a t which shows good judgment and which p l e a s e s your p a r e n t s , they w i l l soon begin g i v i n g you more l i b e r t y . fou are coming to an age when, you want to have a r i g h $ to your own i d e a s . Jtfany times these ideals seem to be q u i t e opposite to those o f your p a r e n t s and so i t i s easy to get i n t o arguments with them. I f t h i s happens, t r y to a v o i d problems which make t r o u b l e and be sure you and your p a r e n t s are not t a l k i n g about d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . You are p r o b a b l y growing f a s t and your arms and l e g s seem to grow f a s t e r than your body. A f t e r a while these awkward f e e l i n g s w i l l , disappear. You w i l l f e e l b e t t e r and have more c o n f i d e n c e . You may a l s o f e e l a l i t t l e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s because o t h e r grown-ups seem much more mature. You w i l l get over t h i s i n a short time. Even when f u l l y grown up people never r e a l l y get one hundred p e r c e n t on t h e i r own. We have to obey laws; we f o l l o w the good example of o t h e r s ; and we o f t e n ask f o r a d v i c e . Act your p a r t ; f a c e the problem of growing up. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r .  -20-  XVII.  ABOUT DOING WELL IN SCHOOL.  I f you are having much t r o u b l e about g e t t i n g a l o n g i n s c h o o l , be sure to read these suggestions and then f o l l o w them. No matter how bad t h i n g s seem to be, you can do a l o t to make them b e t t e r . You should know that most pupils, who have l o t s of t r o u b l e i n s c h o o l have about the. same k i n d of t r o u b l e s when they are through w i t h s c h o o l . Those who g e t along best i n s c h o o l get along b e s t on jobs. Therefore, you s h o u l d t r y v e r y hard to be s u c c e s s f u l i n s c h o o l . Business men who may h i r e you l a t e r on want to know i f you had good s c h o o l marks. The f i r s t p o i n t to master i s t o l i k e a l l your s c h o o l subj e c t s and to do the best you can i n a l l of them. Some s c h o o l s u b j e c t s seem t o appeal to you more than o t h e r s and i n those you should do very good work. I f you have t r o u b l e l e a r n i n g some s u b j e c t , r e s o l v e to work hard. Do l o t s of home study; get your teachers to e x p l a i n p a r t s you cannot understand; and,, i f necessary, have your p a r e n t s or o l d e r b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s help you. I f p o s s i b l e , g e t some o t h e r books about the same s u b j e c t s from the l i b r a r y and study them, too. You should t r y very hard to l i k e a l l o f your t e a c h e r s . I f you don't get along with some of them, ask y o u r s e l f s q u a r e l y i f you have done good work f o r them. I f you haven't, i s that r e a l l y a good reason f o r you t o d i s l i k e them? A l l your t e a c h e r s have spent years of time and money to. become good teachers,, and i t i s to your advantage t o make f u l l use of t h e i r experience and knowledge. The best students g e n e r a l l y l i k e a l l t h e i r teachers and these are the very same t e a c h e r s you may not l i k e . I t may be your f a u l t t h a t you don't l i k e them, .If t h i n g s don't go w e l l , you are l i k e l y to t a l k or whisper in class. I f you do w e l l i n your s c h o o l work, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g a l l the time and you won't want to whisper or make a scene. The same i s t r u e about marking up the desks and w a l l s . You should care f o r them as much as you do f o r t h i n g s a t home, and you don't u s u a l l y mark up your home. I t i s a bad h a b i t to be t a r d y f o r s c h o o l . Get up a l i t t l e e a r l i e r ; h u r r y a l i t t l e more; don't stop to p l a y . I f you r e a l l y l i k e s c h o o l you w i l l want t o get t h e r e on time. Being t r u a n t , t h a t i s , being absent without excuse, i s a very s e r i o u s wrong and i s d i s o b e y i n g the law. Never be truant,, o r i f you have been, never be g u i l t y of t h i s o f f e n s e a g a i n . No matter how bad t h i n g s a r e , t r y to do b e t t e r . Try hard f o r a long time. Things w i l l get b e t t e r a f t e r a w h i l e . The happiness, s a t i s f a c t i o n , and success you g a i n w i l l w e l l repay you f o r your e f f o r t s .  -21-  XYIII.  ABOUT BEING A GOOD SPORT  Are you a good s p o r t ? Oan you l o s e a game and come up s m i l i n g ? Do you help your s c h o o l to have a good r e p u t a t i o n f o r clean sportsmanship? Good sportsmanship i s a f i n e p a r t of your c h a r a c t e r . I t i s good t r a i n i n g f o r you to p l a y the game a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s . You should be ready to s t a r t games when there i s nothing e l s e going on. I f you always wait f o r someone e l s e to s t a r t them, you are not r e a l l y d o i n g your share. Be w i l l ing t o do your p a r t i n keeping games g o i n g . When you p l a y games you should be w i l l i n g to wait your turn, ion are not f a i r i f you want to bat f i r s t and i n s i s t j u s t because you are the b i g g e s t one p l a y i n g . Ihe others have a good i d e a about where you should bat and what p o s i t i o n you should p l a y . T r y to be agreeable and do what i s best f o r the team. When you p l a y on a team, don't t r y t o be the whole team. Give the other f e l l o w s a chance to make good t o o . They w i l l a l l l i k e you b e t t e r f o r i t . They w i l l t r y harder i f you set them a good example o f team work. Be a good sport, and be a p a r t of the team. P l a y the games a c c o r d i n g to the rules.. Every r u l e was made f o r some good reason; don't t r y to change i t j u s t t o s u i t y o u r s e l f . P l a y a c c o r d i n g t o the s p i r i t o f the r u l e s as w e l l as by the l e t t e r , t h e n you w i l l play, w e l l . Never cheat, f o r sooner or l a t e r you w i l l be caught, and c h e a t i n g i s n o t r i g h t anyway. Go f a r t h e r than t h i s and t r y never t o t h i n k o f cheating. In t h a t way you a r e always t r y i n g to do r i g h t and you can t h e n p l a y hard and n o t be worrying about doing r i g h t . Although you may see others c h e a t i n g , don't cheat t o o ; s e t them a good example. Play hard, but don't complain i f your team l o s e s a game. You should be w i l l i n g to cheer f o r a good p l a y whether i t i s made on your team or on the other. L e a r n to r e s p e c t the other f e l l o w ' s a b i l i t y ; t h a t i s good sportsmanship. Whatever you learn, about s p o r t s should h e l p you a f t e r you are through s c h o o l . You may keep on p l a y i n g w i t h teams of' a d u l t s , but i f you are o n l y a fan,, be a good one. You should keep on with sports so as to keep i n good h e a l t h arid i n fine, p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . Then your work, w i l l a l s o be b e t t e r Be a good example to younger c h i l d r e n about your s p o r t s . Try to h e l p them, they w i l l r e s p e c t you f o r i t . Do a l l c t these t h i n g s and you w i l l r e a l l y be a good s p o r t . . NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet,, study i t o f t e n . Try t o do what i t t e l l s you. Things' should g e t b e t t e r .  XXX.  BUILDING A GOOD CBAFACTER  B u i l d i n g a good c h a r a c t e r i s one of the most important p a r t s of your e d u c a t i o n . Do your f r i e n d s t h i n k you have a good c h a r a c t e r ? What do y o u r parents and your t e a c h e r s think? Good c h a r a c t e r i s very v a l u a b l e . I t grows s l o w l y but steadily. You need to make a h a b i t of always doing r i g h t . I t i s l i k e keeping your garden c l e a r of weeds. No matter how good your garden may be, u n l e s s you keep a t i t the weeds q u i c k l y grow a g a i n . Don't get discouraged, but keep s t e a d i l y t r y i n g to do the r i g h t t h i n g . I t i s necessary to keep a h i g h standard a l l of the time* Whenever you do anything wrong, people may remember t h a t much longer than the good t h i n g s you do. I f you do p o o r l y at. times, others w i l l l o s e t h e i r t r u s t i n you since t h e y t h i n k you may do wrong a g a i n . Be t r u s t w o r t h y at. a l l t i m e s . There are many ways i n which you can prove your c h a r a c t e r . I f you borrow something, be sure to r e t u r n i t and say '*Thank you!" I f the a r t i c l e i s not r e t u r n e d , your f r i e n d s may have to buy another to r e p l a c e i t , and t h e i r r e g a r d f o r you w i l l be l e s s e n e d . v  1  Always be prompt i n acknowledging or r e t u r n i n g a favor.. When t r e a t s are b e i n g passed,, take no more than your share. Any g a i n you make f o r y o u r s e l f i s more than o f f s e t by the bad o p i n i o n o t h e r s get of you. I f you are asked to g i v e money or time f o r some worthy cause, do i t c h e e r f u l l y . Everyone i s expected t o give whatever he can to church, Bed Cross, Community Fund, e t c . There are always some people who need h e l p because they are s i c k , or have been i n an a c c i d e n t , or are out of work. You are a good neighbor when you h e l p them. You should always t e l l the t r u t h . I t h e l p s you to b u i l d a good c h a r a c t e r . I f you are known to be honest, people w i l l f e e l they can r e l y on you. I f you always t e l l the t r u t h , you. never have anything to h i d e . You a l s o never have to worry whether you are t e l l i n g everyone the same s t o r y . You can g i v e your time and f u l l a t t e n t i o n to o t h e r matters r e a l l y worth w h i l e . Be t r u t h f u l at a L l t i m e s . Always do the r i g h t t h i n g and a v o i d what i s wrong. Be honest w i t h y o u r s e l f and don't excuse y o u r s e l f when you, know you are doing something wrong. No matter i f you see o t h e r s doing wrong, keep on doing r i g h t y o u r s e l f . Your example w i l l h e l p the others to do b e t t e r . Be h o n e s t ! Whatnyou have j u s t read are merely examples.  There a r e  -23-  XIX.  B u i l d i n g a Good C h a r a c t e r  (Continued)  many o t h e r ways i n which you can improve y o u r s e l f . Try hard f o r a l o n g time and you w i l l develop a good c h a r a c t e r . You w i l l he h a p p i e r , and o t h e r s w i l l l i k e you b e t t e r , NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . Try to do what i t t e l l s you, Things should get b e t t e r .  •24-  XX.  ABOUT YOUR REPUTATION.  Do you have a good reputation? Or have you done something that has had a had influence on others? No matter how bad things are, i t i s never too late to begin doing better. F i r s t of a l l , whatever you do, you may f e e l there i s a reason for i t . I f you tease l i t t l e children, i t probably i s because you were teased when you were l i t t l e . You may be jealous of your younger brothers and s i s t e r s and take your spite out on them or on other l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . Teasing i s not badness but a natural need you may f e e l to make up for a wrong done to you. I f you can excuse or overlook the things which were done to you, then you won*t want to. punish others. Sometimes you get into trouble for not knowing the r u l e s very well or not paying close enough attention to-them. T r a f f i c t i c k e t s are a good example. I f you drive, there are many t r a f f i c r u l e s for you to learn and to follow. I f you get a ticket f o r d r i v i n g a l i t t l e too f a s t , you probably did not mean to v i o l a t e the law, but you simply f a i l e d to notice that you were exceeding the speed l i m i t . However, ignorance of the r u l e s or not paying close enough attention do not excuse you. If you ever ran away from home, _do you know why you. r e a l l y did i t ? Or i f you had only thought about running away, why did you want to do i t ? Was i t just love of- adventure? Did l i f e seem too tough f o r you so you wanted to run away from i t ? Did you lack what i t takes to s t i c k to your work and your duties? I f things seem too tough, don t run away but face them. Find out what the trouble r e a l l y i s and then get i t straightened out. r  If you have ever been i n a detention home or i n the juvenile court, ask yourself what r e a l l y happened to put you there. Did you go out with the wrong kind of friends? Did you r e a l l y not know what was r i g h t ? Did you know better <but took a chance? Was i t worth the price you paid? It i s bad f o r your reputation and brings disgrace on yourself and your parents. Even though you may have had such experiences, now i s the time to do better. Ypu are s t i l l young and i f you r e a l l y t r y , others w i l l forgive and forget. If your reputation i s suffering because of your poor judgment, lack of knowledge, or just carelessness, you should r e solve to improve yourself so you can be successful. NOTE:  Keep this sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better*  -S5-  XXI.  ABOUT YOUR SCHOOLMATES AND  FRIENDS  What k i n d of f r i e n d s do you have? Are they good or bad? Are you a l e a d e r among them or j u s t a f o l l o w e r ? I t i s very/ important what k i n d of f r i e n d s you have, and a l s o that you are a good f r i e n d to o t h e r s . You may not have r e a l i z e d i t b e f o r e , but your f r i e n d s have a b i g e f f e c t upon you. Therefore you should be very c a r e f u l to choose good companions and then l i v e up to what they expect of you. You are v e r y o f t e n judged by the company you keep. One of the b e s t ways t o be t r u s t e d by your p a r e n t s i s t o have good f r i e n d s . They w i l l be more l i k e l y to l e t you go out with good f r i e n d s than with poor ones. You should l e a r n how to get new f r i e n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the ones you now have are not very good. Being p l e a s a n t i s one of the b e s t ways to do i t . I t i s a l s o very h e l p f u l to be i n t e r e s t e d i n what your f r i e n d s are doing. You s h o u l d l e a r n how to keep the c o n v e r s a t i o n g o i n g . I f you d o n t have anything to say, you are not very good company. I f you t a l k too much and don't g i v e the other f e l l o w a chance, t h a t i s a l s o a poor way to keep your f r i e n d s . r  Whenever you a r e i n a crowd, do your p a r t to make t h i n g s agreeable, I f you l e a r n how to p r a i s e o t h e r s . f o r t h e i r good q u a l i t i e s you w i l l soon be p o p u l a r , but you must be s i n c e r e and r e a l l y mean what you say. P r a c t i c e in. these t h i n g s w i l l a l s o h e l p you to get a l o n g with grown-ups now and i n l a t e r life. • A f t e r you are q u i t e sure o f y o u r s e l f , you can help some others who t h i n k of you as being a good f r i e n d . I f you s t i o k to your i d e a l s they w i l l admire you and t r y to l i v e up t o what you are doing. In t h a t way you can pass on to o t h e r s some of the advantages which your good f r i e n d s gave to you. That i s a good t e s t of f r i e n d s h i p . You are p r o b a b l y o l d enough or n e a r l y o l d enough to have dates. These should grow n a t u r a l l y out of the s c h o o l p a r t i e s and c l a s s dances. There i s u s u a l l y more f u n when s e v e r a l couples go out t o g e t h e r . I f your p a r e n t s b e l i e v e that you show good judgment and p i c k out good f r i e n d s , they w i l l be w i l l i n g to l e t you have dates when you are o l d enough. I f you s t a y out too l a t e , are too n o i s y , and go with f r i e n d s your p a r e n t s do not like,, they w i l l not want you to have dates. I f they want you to b r i n g your f r i e n d s home and are w i l l i n g to help show them a good time,, t h a t i s a very f i n e thing. Get good f r i e n d s . repaid.  Be a good f r i e n d y o u r s e l f .  You w i l l be  2a-  XXII-A.  ACT  YOUR PART (BOYS)  In g e t t i n g along with, o t h e r s , are you too much of a "showoff?' ' Are you too r a s h , b o l d , and daring? Or are you too s h y , . t i m i d , and q u i e t ? 1  I t may be that you are not as strong and w e l l as most boys, and so you don't want to p l a y much with them. I f t h i s is. so, t r y to improve your h e a l t h and get s t r o n g e r . Then you w i l l f e e l l i k e p l a y i n g . I f you can't get s t r o n g e r , t r y to be p l e a s a n t , and look f o r a c t i v i t i e s you can do w e l l with other boys. You may be a member o f the d e b a t i n g team, the s c h o o l paper s t a f f , or the dramatic c l u b . In case you a r e too b o l d and r e c k l e s s or run and p l a y too b l i n d l y , you o f t e n get h u r t and may get l a i d up w i t h a broken l e g or arm. Your f r i e n d s may even be a f r a i d you w i l l h u r t them by running i n t o them or by c a r e l e s s l y h i t t i n g them w i t h a swinging ba;b when p l a y i n g b a s e b a l l . You are not l i k e l y t o be p o p u l a r . I f you. have a l o t of energy and are d a r i n g , j o i n some s c h o o l team and use i t to good advantage f o r the s c h o o l . The r e s t of the time t r y t o be more moderate i n your a c t i o n s as your f r i e n d s w i l l t i r e of- your n o i s e and the r a s h t h i n g s you. do. You don't hage to be rough a l l of the time to prove that you are a r e a l f e l l o w . I f the others t h i n k you are too quiete, you s h o u l d t r y t o overcome your q u i e t n e s s . Why are you not more a c t i v e ? There may be s e v e r a l reasons. Yon may be t o o much a f r a i d &($ get your c l o t h e s d i r t y and t h e r e f o r e you r e f u s e t o p l a y with other boys:. I f they t h i n k you are too c a r e f u l about your c l o t h e s , they a r e l i k e l y to push you i n t o mudholes and i n many ways t r y to get your c l o t h e s d i r t y . Be sure you a c t the p a r t of a r e a l boy. You w i l l be more popular with the g i r l s too. Most g i r l s would r a t h e r have a boy with some pep and ambition. Be sure you a r e not s i t t i n g down on the job of growing up to be a good, s t r o n g man., stiiidy. what the other f e l l o w does and copy the good q u a l i t i e s o f those who are r e a l l y the best a l l - r o u n d boys. NOTE:  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . T r y t o do what i t t e l l s you. Things s h o u l d get b e t t e r .  -2.7-  XXII-B.  ACT YOUR PART (GIRLS)  Do you ever stop to t h i n k what other g i r l s t h i n k o f you? Are.you popular? Do they l i k e you v e r y much? Do they be- • l i e v e you are too q u i e t or a r e too n o i s y and b o i s t e r o u s ? I t may be that you are not as s t r o n g and w e l l as most g i r l s , and so you don't f e e l l i k e p l a y i n g - w i t h them* I f t h i s i s so, t r y t o improve, your h e a l t h and g e t stronger? Then things, w i l l go b e t t e r * u  In b e i n g a g i r l among g i r l s , t r y to a v o i d e i t h e r o f two extremes: don't be too rough or don't be too meek and a f r a i d to s t a n d on your own f e e t . Most g i r l s do n o t l i k e to have such g L r l s . a s f r i e n d s . I f you have l o t s o f vim and energy, t r y to work i t o f f by b e i n g on the g i r l s ' s c h o o l teams. P l a y hard on the teams, and then don't be t o o . a c t i v e or b o i s t e r o u s the r e s t of the time* »  I t i s not very good t a s t e t o p l a y i n a rough way with boys or even w i t h g i r l s . You may have p l a y e d rough when you were a l i t t l e g i r l , but now t h a t you a r e o l d e r those ways a r e not so l a d y l i k e . Some boys may encourage you t o be rough o r b o i s t e r o u s , but down i n t h e i r h e a r t s they don't l i k e t o see too much o f i t i n g i r l s . Be sure that you don't p l a y rough j u s t t o a t t r a c t o t h e r girls. In t h a t way you may avoid the a t t e n t i o n o f boys. Be a g i r l among g i r l s , and then both boys and g i r l s w i l l l i k e you. Don't go t o the o t h e r extreme and have no p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . .You should not expect always t o s i t around i n your best c l o t h e s with nothing to do and be waited on by everyone e l s e . I f you are l i k e l y to scream at some sudden n o i s e , or g e t . scared t o o e a s i l y , t r y t o overcome t h i s , because o t h e r s may make f u n of you. You make y o u r s e l f m i s e r a b l e , t o o . T r y to develop your n a t u r a l g i r l i s h charm. Be y o u r s e l f and a l s o t r y to become l i k e the best g i r l s whom you admire. Don't overdo powder, l i p s t i c k , and n a i l p o l i s h , f o r i f you do, they may make you l o o k cheap. I f you have p l e n t y o f n a t u r a l charm, you don't need so much o f these other t h i n g s . I f you use them too much, your f r i e n d s may b e l i e v e that you a r e t r y ing t o cover up your own weaknesses. A v o i d extremes! NOTE:  A c t your p a r t !  Be a g i r l among g i r l s !  Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . Try t o do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r .  XXIII. HOBBIES AND•SPARE TIMS What do you do with your spare time? Do you have any hobbies? Do you make good use of your l e i s u r e time or do you j u s t do nothing a t a l l ? You should have some hobbies. There i s more need f o r hobbies now than when your p a r e n t s were young. In those e a r l i e r days, men had l i t t l e shops a t home, or farms, and a l l the boys and g i r l s always had p l e n t y to do, with l i t t l e time f o r themselves. Today most of us have l e s s t o do and need hobbies t o make good use of our spare time. Hobbies o f t e n h e l p us with our shhool work* E o r example,, i f a boy i s taking courses i n shop at s c h o o l , a work bench a t home w i l l be v e r y h e l p f u l . At times a good movie d e a l i n g w i t h an important h i s t o r i c a l event w i l l help^ you to understand the h i s t o r y l e s s o n . Magazines and newspapers have many a r t i c l e s and news items which throw new l i g h t upon s u b j e c t s being s t u d i e d i n school* Over a p e r i o d of y e a r s , hobbies of many k i n d s o f f e r you a chance to e x p l o r e i n s e v e r a l f i e l d s . A hobby may l e a d you i n t o a new f i e l d of a c t i c i t y which may prove so i n t e r e s t i n g i t becomes your l i f e work. Doing a hobby very w e l l i s f i n e training. You may g i v e a l l the time you need t o make i t quite p e r f e c t . I f i t does not work w e l l , you can h o n e s t l y blame y o u r s e l f because i t i s your own p r o j e c t . I f you have no hobbies a t a l l , you may get l a z y and do poor work a t s c h o o l . You may not even want to h e l p w i t h any work, at home, or anything e l s e . On the other hand, you s h o u l d not get so. much i n t e r e s t e d i n your hobbies that you don't do your s c h o o l work, or h e l p at home. Keep a good balance between too many and too few hobbies. I f you don't have any hobbies, t r y t o g e t s t a r t e d w i t h a few. A boy can buy s e v e r a l cheap c a r p e n t e r ' s t o o l s or other t o o l s f o r mechanical purposes. Stamp c o l l e c t i n g , c o n t e s t s for model b i r d houses, and b u i l d i n g model boats and a i r p l a n e s are o n l y a few suggestions. Magazines, such as "Popular Mechanics," c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n a wide f i e l d o f h o b b i e s . There are many other k i n d s of hobbies such as l i t e r a r y and dramatic a c t i v i t i e s , music, needlework, and c r o c h e t i n g , s p o r t s and a t h l e t i c s , s u i t e d t o the season both i n and out o f s c h o o l , i n crease the number of a c t i v i t i e s . Teachers, l i b r a r i a n s , scout l e a d e r s , and o t h e r s a r e able to o f f e r l e a d s t o hobbies. 5  I f you have some hobbies, keep on w i t h them.. T r y t o do them w e l l . Do the best you can with whatever m a t e r i a l and with the p l a c e you have f o r your hobbies. Get your p a r e n t s interested. Then you w i l l get along b e t t e r w i t h them, and yon w i l l understand each other much b e t t e r .  XXIV.  ABOUT YOUR VOCATION  Have you ever thought very much about what k i n d o f work you hope t o do? Or are you j u s t d r i f t i n g along? Has anyone ever t a l k e d t o y o u about y o u r v o c a t i o n ? .It i s time f o r you to t h i n k about i t . Here are a few s u g g e s t i o n s . Other people may give you a d v i c e about your v o c a t i o n but you should make' the f i n a l choice y o u r s e l f . I f i t i s your own c h o i c e , you are more l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t . No o t h e r p.rson should t e l l you j u s t what to choose. Although you may not know what you want j u s t now, don't l e t o t h e r s hurry you i n t o a choice .or make i t f o r you. -Your p a r e n t s or s c h o o l counselor may be able to a d v i s e you about what g e n e r a l c l a s s of jobe they b e l i e v e would be w e l l s u i t e d t o you, but the choice of the p a r t i c u l a r one should be made by you. In t r y i n g to make a c h o i c e , don't be guided too much by the people who are now working a t that job. •There are good and poor workers i n every k i n d of o c c u p a t i o n , so t r y to judge the job i t s e l f i n s t e a d of the persons doing the work and how they are doing i t . A few years b e f o r e you f i n i s h high s c h o o l , you s h o u l d b e g i n t h i n k i n g about k i n d s of' jobs or l i f e work which would s u i t you. There are s e v e r a l t h i n g s which you might do. You. c o u l d proba b l y go to where jobs are b e i n g done and watch the work going on. You can talk, to people who work: i n the k i n d s of jobs you would l i k e * You can read books about jobs and about choosing your v o c a t i o n . Ask your s c h o o l counselor or the l i b r a r i a n f o r the names of such books. The more i n f o r m a t i o n you can g e t about j o b s , the more i t should h e l p you to make up your mind. Don't l e t i t bother you, i f i t takes q u i t e a long time to decide or i f you change your mind a few times* I f you r e a l l y t r y to g e t some i d e a what you hope t o do, i t w i l l h e l p you to do b e t t e r work, i n s c h o o l . I f you have no g o a l to r e a c h , you don't seem to get anywhere. Your c l a s s mates who are doing the b e s t s c h o o l work p r o b a b l y have t h e i r k i n d s of jobs p i c k e d out. Remember the people who h i r e you on jobs l a t e r on u s u a l l y want to' know i f you went through h i g h s c h o o l and what kind of marks you got. Don't l e t people discourage you too much about jobs which they say are a l r e a d y crowded. Almost every k i n d o f job has more people than can be used except when times are v e r y good.' I f you t r a i n y o u r s e l f very w e l l you have a good chance to get the kind of job you want sometime, even i f not r i g h t at the first. You should be w i l l i n g t o begin a t the bottom and work up i n the job you expect to take. You w i l l f i n d - l o t s of competit i o n ; others are anxious to g e t ahead t o o . Only a few can g e t  XXIV.  About Your V o c a t i o n  (Continued)  the most important j o b s . Don't be a f r a i d of h a r d work. There i s honor i n doing any k i n d o f job w e l l , no matter what i t i s , NOTE:  Keep t h i s s h e e t j study i t o f t e n . t e l l s you.  Try t o do what i t  

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