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An evaluation of the Detroit adjustment inventory McAulay, John David Ewen 1947

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An Evaluation of The Detroit Adjustment Inventory John David E. McAulay A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts In the Department of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1947. ACKN 0 WLEDGEMENTS To a s c e r t a i n the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of Harry J . Baker's D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory " T e l l i n g What I Do" has been the main problem of t h i s t h e s i s . Dr. F.T. T y l e r , df the Department of .education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Golumbia gave constant and f r i e n d l y encouragement, advice and a s s i s t a n c e . Mr. Douglas Kenny, who was doing a s i m i l a r study on the C a l -i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , was most co-operative. Mr. A. Wales, c h i e f guidance o f f i c e r at K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School was o b l i g i n g and h e l p f u l . To these three men I wish to extend my sincere a p p r e c i a t i o n and thanks. I wish a l s o to recognize the ready and f r i e n d l y , co-operation given by those teachers concerned at K i t s i l a n o J u n ior-Senior High School, i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the invent o r y to t h e i r students, i n f i l l i n g out the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g c h a r t , and i n a l l o w i n g me to have in t e r v i e w s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u -dents. Plan of Thesis Acknowledgements. Chapter I. Statement of the Problems. Chapter I I . The Measurement of P e r s o n a l i t y . A. D e f i n i t i o n s of P e r s o n a l i t y B. B r i e f H i s t o r y of P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t i n g 0. R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of some P e r s o n a l i t y Tests. Chapter I I I . The D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory A, Nature of Inventory B. 'The Teacher's Handbook, contents and e v a l u a t i o n Chapter IV. 'The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the D e t r o i t  Adjustment Inventory. A. isiase of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B. D i f f i c u l t i e s found by students Chapter v. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and R e l i a b i l i t y A. General I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Scores B. R e l i a b i l i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment Inventory Chapter VI. V a l i d i t y A. V a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjustment inventory based on the c r i t e r i a of a Rating Jicale constructed from the inventory B. Item v a l i d i t y of the D e t r o i t Adjust-ment Inventory Chapter VII. A. Use of the Remedial Suggestions i n in t e r v i e w s w i t h ten low score boys Chapter VIII.Conclusion A. General Comment B. Weakness of the Inventory C. Strength of the Inventory B i b l i o g r a p h y Appendix In Evaluation of The Detroit Adjustment Inventory by' John David E. McAulay Abstract of A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts In the Department of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1947. - I - • An Analysis of the Detroit Adjustment Inventory The purpose of t h i s thesis was to determine the r e l i a b i l -i t y and the v a l i d i t y of the Detroit Adjustment Inventory, " T e l l -ing What I Do* by Harry J. Baker, as a device f o r a s s i s t i n g teachers and s o c i a l workers i n t h e i r guidance programme. The inventory consists of 120 items divided into twenty-four topies. .For each of the one hundred items there are f i v e choices of answers, f o r which numerical values from one to f i v e are assigned. The pu p i l selects the response which most nearly describes h i s si t u a t i o n and draws a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r of that choice. The topics include Health, Sleeping-Eating, S e l f Care, Habits, Worries, Fears, Anger, P i t y , ciood Mixer, Inferior-Superior, Optimism-Pessimism, W i l l Power, Home Status, Home Atmosphere, Home Attitudes, Growing Up, Schools, Sports-manship, Morals, Delinquency, fri e n d s , Acting Tour Part, Hobbies and vocations. A Record Blank i s supplied f o r determining the score from the inventory. The maximum score i s 600, The Inventory was given to 111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n Grade 3EI at ICitsilano Junior-Senior High School, Vancouver, during November, 1946. Sixty-three of the boys were retested i n early January, 1947. The ten boys who made the lowest scores i n the November tes t i n g were given guidance during February and March and were given the Inventory again i n A p r i l , 1947. As a basis for the thesis certain d e f i n i t i o n s of person-a l i t y were discussed, and a b r i e f history of personality t e s t -ing was given. The conclusion was reached that the popular demand f o r some form of personality measurement has flooded the -2-market with tests which have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y evaluated.. The Teachers r Handbook for the Inventory was c r i t i c a l l y analyzed. As a manual suitable for guidance and s t a t i s t i c a l Interpretation i t was found wanting norms, v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l -i t y , and i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between topics, were not given. The Handbook gives only an t h e o r e t i c a l discussion of the inven-tory. The inventory i s e a s i l y administered and scored. Some language and interpretation d i f f i c u l t i e s were reported by the students, but gene rally,/.-they seemed to enjoy doing the i n -ventory. Means and percentile norms were secured for each topic and f o r t o t a l scores, ihe mean score for boys was 456.85 and 454.51 for g i r l s , on the November testing. 'Ihe difference between the means i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5/o l e v e l . It was decided, however to treat the two sexes separately. On the January testing the mean score for the 63 boys was 458.41. The difference between the means of the f i r s t and second t e s t -ings was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The extent to which the topics were measuring separate features of personality was determined by computing i n t e r c o r -r e l a t i o n s between selected topics. The majority of the cor-r e l a t i o n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t at the lf> l e v e l . Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were determined f o r both topics and t o t a l scores. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the inven-tory based on t o t a l scores was found to be .74. jTor the topics, the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t varied from .13 to .97. 3-The relationships between test scores and teacher's judg-ments on four topics and t o t a l adjustment were determined by the n u l l hypothesis, phi c o e f f i c i e n t s and Pearson's r. Few si g n i f i c a n t relationships were found. Item v a l i d i t y was determined by means of chi-square tech-niques. Fifty-two of the one hundred and twenty items were found to discriminate s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the 27 boys who made the highest scores and the 27 who made the lowest scores on the November testing. Interviews were held with the ten boys who made the low-e s t t o t a l scores on the November and January testings. In these interviews the remedial suggestions which Baker has pre-pared for each of his twenty-four topics were used. A personal v a l i d a t i o n of those topics on which the students had made- low scores was made. In the majority of cases low topic scores were validated by t h i s interview. The ten boys were given the inventory again i n early A p r i l and i t was found six had scores above the 30th percentile which had been set as the lower l i m i t f o r adjustment. The interviews with these ten boys were recorded. The Detroit Adjustment Inventory i s not very s a t i s f a c t o r y as a means of diagnosing and treating personality problems of high school students. It has some value as a basis for be-ginning a discussion on the general problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the student. The inventory has low i n t e r n a l and external v a l i d i t y . The r e l i a b i l i t y i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r group guidance only. CHAPTER I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS. -1-CHAPTER I. In h i s a r t i c l e on personality and character t e s t s , TraxlerV reported that up to 1944 the Detroit Adjustment Inventory had not been extensively evaluated. A. c a r e f u l search of the l i t e r a t u r e has f a i l e d to reveal any recent studies of the inventory. The Teachers 1 Handbook prepared f o r use with the t e s t , does not give any information about v a l i d i t y , item v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s be-tween topics, or norms. In another publication T r a x l e r 2 , pointed out that while there i s considerable a c t i v i t y i n the f i e l d of test construction, there i s l i t t l e research directed towards appraising the values of new evaluative devices. He claims that the r e a l research on a test and i t s interpre-tation must follow the p u b l i c a t i o n of the t e s t . The question of the value of the Detroit Inventory may be l e g i t i m a t e l y raised"/: and the present study reports the r e s u l t s of a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the inventory. The re-port includes the r e s u l t s of interviews with several boya who had low scores on the t e s t . Information on r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l be reported i n the form of t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s , f o r both topics and t o t a l scores. The extent to which the topics are measuring separate features of personality was determined by computing i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between selected 1. Traxler, A.E. Current Construction and Evaluation of Per-sonality and Character Tests,. Review of Educational Re- search, 1944. 2. Traxler, A.E. Individual Evaluation, New Directions for  Measurement and Guidance (A Symposium) Y o l . I l l , August, 1944,. p. 33. -2-topics. 'Hie rel a t i o n s h i p between test scores and teacher rs judgments are reported. Item, v a l i d i t e r s were determined by means of chi-square techniques. Percentile norms w i l l be presented for each topic and for t o t a l scores. Interviews were given to the ten boys who made the low-est scores on both the November and January t e s t i n g . In these interviews the remedial suggestions which Baker has pre-pared for each of h i s twenty-four topics were used. A per-sonal v a l i d a t i o n of those topics on which the students had made low scores was attempted. The ten boys were given the inventory again i n e a r l y A p r i l , to learn i f the use of the remedial suggestions had raised t h e i r scores. The following c r i t e r i a , as advocated by Adams, were ap-p l i e d i n evaluating t h i s Inventory. 1. Does the test include items which the i n d i v i d u a l would be i n c l i n e d to answer u n t r u t h f u l l y , or i f he answered tr u t h -f u l l y , would be obviously detrimental to him? 2. Is the range of scores on this t e s t s u f f i c i e n t l y great that a clear-cut discrimination between, high and low scorea i s obtained? Needless to say the scores should be d i s t r i b u t e d along a normal curve. 3. Is the test e a s i l y administered - preferably with a min-imum of supervision? 4. Is the scoring simply and e a s i l y done? .5. Does the test meet the general needs of school guidance? 3. Adams, C.R. "A New Measure of Personality*, Journal of  Applied Psychology. 1941, Yol.25, p.141-151. CHAPTER II THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY. -3-^.Chapter I I . D e f i n i t i o n of Personality The word personality, was derived from the La t i n ex-pression "persona" and had reference to speaking through a. fa l s e face or mask. I t was used i n connection with t h e a t r i -c a l performers who revealed themselves only through speech and actions.^" iTrom t h i s root the word has taken on many con-notations and meanings. In fact going through the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject, one finds as many d e f i n i t i o n s of personality o as there are au t h o r i t i e s . Uien psychology was a branch of philosophy and before so-called "psychic" concepts were ac-corded objective study and treatment, personality was natural-l y regarded as something s p i r i t u a l and metaphysical. With, the development of psychology as a science i n i t s own ri g h t under Wundt, personality became synonymous with the "stream of ideas, fe e l i n g s and emotions"'which are said to flow through consciousness. 2. The current views of personality are twoi F i r s t the popular and unacademic one, perpetuated by the authors of "success" books or copy-writers f o r cosmetics, that the s c i n t i l l a t i n g and impressive personality i s secured by using those soaps most frequently advertised and wearing those 1. Thorpe, L.P. Psychological Foundations of Personality. New York, McGraw, H i l l Book Co., 1938, Page 5. 2. Garrett, and Schneck - Psychological Tests, Methods and  Results.. Harper and Brothers, 1933, Page 18.. 0 -4-clothes most recently fashioned. This view i s dismissed as u n s c i e n t i f i c . Secondly there i s the psychological and per-haps more objective view of personality which i s measurable and understandable and therefore a proper subject for s c i e n t i -f i c study. It i s this view which concerns the a u t h o r i t i e s . G r i f f i n , Laycock and Line have described personality ftas the sum t o t a l of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , habits, attitudes and persistent tendencies.*® This means that almost everything the c h i l d does or i s able to do i s a function of h i s personality and i s r e f l e c t e d i n his everyday behavior. Huram defines personality as rtthe en t i r e f a b r i c of an i n d i v i -duals attributes.** 4 He goes on to say that although i t i s pos-s i b l e to analyze personality i n various ways, the. minimum con-sideration would be to say that i t includes d i s p o s i t i o n or temperament, i n t e l l i g e n c e , s k i l l , aptitude, i n t e r e s t s and physical make up. A l l of these continually i n t e r a c t with each other and with the environment. If this i n t e r a c t i o n i s accom-panied by much s t r a i n and c o n f l i c t , the i n d i v i d u a l i s said to be maladjusted or not integrated; but i f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s harmonious and t r a n q u i l , the i n d i v i d u a l i s said to be well adjusted or integrated. Baker says that "personality repre-sents: the a b i l i t y or lack of a b i l i t y to meet with and react to 3. G r i f f i n , Laycock, and Line - Mental Hygiene. New York, American Book Company, 1938, Page 47. 4. Humm, D.G. Personality and Adjustment, Journal of  Psychology. Yol.13, 1942, P.109. -5-other i n d i v i d u a l s . " 5 However, Thorpe has stated that person-a l i t y i s synonymous with the idea of the organism!c function-ing of the t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l , including a l l h i s various verb-a l l y separated aspects such as i n t e l l e c t , character, drive, emotionalized a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , s o c i a b i l i t y and personal appearance as well as his general s o c i a l effectiveness. Thus i t can be seen that d e f i n i t e knowledge concerning the ultimate basis and structure of personality has not yet been adequately established. True, many suggestions: have been offered concerning; the nature of personality but our knowledge i s s t i l l c o n f l i c t i n g and "impressionistic•* In f a c t , psycho-l o g i s t s r e a d i l y admit that t h e i r science has by no means chartered i n a thoroughly objective way the.real nature of personality* • However certain conclusions may be drawn from the above d e f i n i t i o n s of personality. I t i s suggested that the correct approach to a d e f i n i t i o n of personality l i e s i n the analysis, of those responses which determine " i n d i v i d u a l i t y " - that quality of being unique and d i f f e r e n t i n the eyes of others. S t r i c t l y speaking, personality i s a quality or at t r i b u t e of behavior. There i s no "personality" hidden inside the body whicS.determines i t s reactions. Personality i s a descriptive term for forms or kinds of response, and i s based upon a 5. Baker, H.J. Integration of Character and Personality Nat. JSdi Assn. Proc., 1940, p*634. 6.. Thorpe - opvC.it;. page 534. * -6-system of habits, l a r g e l y made up of non-adaptive ways of adjusting to c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . Personality must be con-sidered i n r e l a t i o n to a certain standard of culture or c i v i l -i z a t i o n , Because personality i s such an extremely complex phenomenon composed of reactions to c o n f l i c t situations which vary widely from person to person^and involving habits which are integrated i n d i f f e r i n g ways, some psychologists have stated that personality cannot be analyzed. Their view i s that we must study "the personality as a whole" rather than try to break i t up into i t s component parts. While there are cer t a i n arguments i n favor of t h i s point of view, the majority of evidence and l o g i c seems to favor the analytic approach to 7 personality. It i s on this l a t t e r theory that Baker has b u i l t his Adjustment Inventory. Thus the study of personality leaves the following im-pressions; f i r s t , how l i t t l e i s known about human personality; second, how v a s t l y important is the knowledge we do have; t h i r d , how complex are the factors that condition personality; fourth, how wide i s the range of v a r i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s ; and f i f t h , how Ei.dfe i s the opportunity f o r study i n this f i e l d . H i s t o r i c a l Since Freud dramatized the point that psychology might be the study of how the i n d i v i d u a l adjusts himself to society, rather than the study of how he acquires knowledge, psycho-l o g i s t s have progressed -rapidly i n the d e f i n i t i o n and measure-7. Stagner Boss. Current trends i n research upon character and. personality. Character and Personality, Vol.VII,1938, P.163. ment of personality, Galton was the f i r s t to propose that s c i e n t i f i c methods and experimentation be applied to the study of personal forms of behaviour. He advocated r a t i n g complex human q u a l i t i e s and establishing norms for the development of character at i t s successive stages. Since his time t h i s measurement of personality has taken three distindt forms; of observing the person's actual conduct; of securing others' opinions about him; and of d i r e c t l y questioning the individual, concerning his behavior. A l l three methods must use some sort of a "personality standard." Thus the psychologist postulates a common variable which, though rough and approxi-mate, permits quantitative s c a l i n g . He divides the person-a l i t y into sections or t r a i t s and secures estimates of general personality trends through much samplying of a great number of these t r a i t s ^ o r "specifics".assuming that the. sum-total pictures the personality of the one tested. The assumption i s made that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y does not fluctuate from time to time, under s i m i l a r conditions Norms for personality measurement are thus secured with the provisions that there i s a uniformity i n various s o c i a l groups that these norms should not change and that, although secured i n a classroom atmosphere they w i l l correlate with l i f e s i t -uations. A selected part of personality, c a l l e d a personality t r a i t , may be measured, but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate the personality into t r a i t s , and measure them as i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . During the past twenty-seven years, many standardized -8-tests have been made i n an e f f o r t to measure personality. These, t e s t s , usually of the pencil-and-paper questionnaire type* purport to measure one or more "specifics'* of the personality'. They assume many t i t l e s , the more modern seem-ing to be inventory. Personality Tests. The Kent-Rosanoff Association Test of 1910 purports to discover emotional complexes through a l i s t of one hundred stimulus words to which the subject responds by speaking the f i r s t word he thinks of a f t e r each word i s pronounced. The re p l i e s of a 1000 normal persons have been standardized and the subject's responses are compared to these i n an e f f o r t to discover complexes. But the more common practice i n personality testing was to submit a series of questions asking, the subject to evaluate h i s own ;. symptoms and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . On this p r i n c i p l e , R.S. Woodsworth. i n 1917 devised the f i r s t important person-a l i t y test f o r use i n the United States Army. Its purpose was to discover emotional and neurotic tendencies and mala-djustments of World War I r e c r u i t s . Mathews, using a group of drafted men as h i s subjects found a s p l i t - h a l f c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y of .90 for t h i s t e s t . A f t e r r e v i s i n g t h i s Psychoneurotic Inventory i n 1923, Mathews found a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y of .667 by the s p l i t - h a l f method, using 280 boys as h i s subjects, tfause revised the tes t i n 1927, secur-ing a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y of .845 on a retest of 58 Howard studenta.®* Woodworth's test was used as a model for 8. Symonds, P.M. Diagnosing Personality and Conduct, London, The Century Co. 1938, P. 154.. 0 -9-the Inventories of Laird i n 1935, Ghassell i n 1928, Thurstone i n 192 9, and Bernreuter In 1932. A l l use questions to which the subject responds by a yes, no or a question mark. Presseys JC-0 Series of 1920 intends to measure l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . The i n d i v i d u a l taking the test crosses out those words, from a l i s t of 600, which are most unpleasant to him and e n c i r c l e s those which are most pleasant. Two scores are secured, one of general a f f e c t i v i t y , and the other of personal ' idiosyncracy. Durea compared responses of delinquent with those of non-delinquent boys and found the delinquents were more worried over "death" and " s i n " , more attracted by "movie star", "joy r i d i n g , " "tap dancing" and "candy" and more apt to admire wealthy, handsome and well-dressed people. 9 The Downey Individual W i l l Temperament Test of 1922 and the Downey Group Test of W i l l Temperament supposedly measure - temperament through handwriting measured-by responsiveness to changing conditions of motivation. The scores represent speed of a c t i v i t y , aggressiveness, wilfulness and tenacity. The 10 r e l i a b i l i t i e s reported by Jones f o r the l a s t two tests were very low. In 1928 A l l p o r t and Vernon developed a scale f o r measur-ing ascendance and...submission. This test indicates the extent to which one dominates others or is dominated by them through 9. Viatson, G. Personality and Character Measurement, He view of  Educational Research. Vol.VIII, No.3, 1938, r.273 ^ 10. Jones, V. character .Education, He view of Educational. He- search, Vol. VIII, Wo. 3, Feb. 1938, P.13. ' - l u -re sponses to .-.thirty-three problem s i t u a t i o n s . A l l p o r t him-self reports a r e l i a b i l i t y of .78 by the te s t - r e t e s t method and a v a l i d i t y of .586 based on r a t i n g s . 1 1 The Bernreuter Personality Inventory, s t i l l widely pop-u l a r i s a questionnaire designed to measure s i x personality t r a i t s : neurotic tendencies, self s u f f i c i e n c y , i n t r o v e r s i o n -extroversion, dominance-submission, confidence and s o c i a b i l i t y . So popular was t h i s test at i t s inception that in. the year 1935 Fenton and Wallace reported, i n a survey of twenty-eight c h i l d guidance c l i n i c centers i n the United States, that the bulk of c l i n i c a l instruments i n the f i e l d of per-sonality and character represented editions or s p e c i a l scor-i p ing methods i n i t i a t e d from.this t e s t . In the years since 1 the f i r s t p ublication of t h i s Inventory, numerous studies have been made of i t . Among; the findings i s the f a c t that the neurotic tendency and introversion and extroversion scores correlate so highly as to be p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . The r e l i a b i l i t y for each part of the Inventory, as reported ., by Flanagan, has been found, to be around .85: Concerning the Inventory's v a l i d i t y the evidence i s somewhat c o n f l i c t i n g but tends towards discouragement according to Stagner.13 11. A l l p o r t , G.W. A Test of Ascendance-Submission, Journal  of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol. XXIII, No. .2, 1928, P. 133. 12. Olson, W.C. General Survey of the F i e l d of Character and Personality Measurement; Review of Educational Research, Vol.V, No. 3, June 1935, P. 24X. 13. Remmers and Gage. Educational Measurement and Evaluation. New York, Harper & Brothers, 194.3, f . 357.. ' -11- . The Bating Scale The second technique of measuring personality i s by the r a t i n g scale, i n which one i n d i v i d u a l makes a quantitative estimate of the q u a l i t i e s of another. There are two main types of ra t i n g scales. The rank-order scale compares two or more individuals i n r e l a t i o n one to the other - one i s judged better or worse than the other; there i s no established norm from which to begin. On the other hand the scoring scale uses d e f i n i t e i n t e r v a l s of judgment. This was the type used i n the Personality Rating; Scale (discussed at length i n Chapter ¥1) based on the Detroit Inventory. The best known r a t i n g scale f o r teachers r use i s the Behaviour 14 Rating Schedules by haggerty, Olsen and Wiekmani.. F i r s t published i n 19£8, this r a t i n g scale purports to diagnose problem tendencies i n children. The t o t a l score on thi s test was found to have a r e l i a b i l i t y of .86 based on. s p l i t -halves, and a te s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n of .76. A sim i l a r rating scale for chi l d r e n i s by Cornell, Coxe and Orleans. More Recent Tests of Personality During the past f i f t e e n years, a multitude of person-a l i t y tests has flooded the market. Many, under the c r i t i c a l analysis of the a u t h o r i t i e s , have proved worthless. But some seem to have considerable value. Enjoying popularity with Bernfeuter's Personality Inventory has been B e l l ' s Adjustment 14. Olsen, W.C. Problem Tendencies i n Children., Minneapolis, University Press, 1930, P.60. -IE-Inventory, published i n 1934, which measures an i n d i v i d u a l s adjustment to home, health, s o c i a l , occupational and emotion-a l s i t u a t i o n s . Based on E58 college freshmen and juniors, the r e l i a b i l i t y , of the t o t a l adjustment score i s reported to-be .93 while the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the four subscores range from .80 to .891 Validation of the inventory was found to be sat i s f a c t o r y f o r i n d i v i d u a l items i n terms of t h e i r power to discriminate between in d i v i d u a l s i n the upper and lower f i f -teen percent of t o t a l scores. Validation of the separate sub-scores was also found s a t i s f a c t o r y i n terms of power to d i s -criminate between groups of ind i v i d u a l s selected by counsel-ors as well adjusted and poorly adjusted. Link., i n 1936, published h i s Personality Quotient Test which y i e l d s an o v e r - a l l score f o r personality and separate, scores f o r s o c i a l i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f determination, economic self-determination and adjustment to the opposite sex* The odd-even r e l i a b i l i t i e s (1936 edition) corrected by the 15 Spearman-Brown formula are from .73 to .88. cishorpe, Clarke and TIegs i n 1938, published the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Person-a l i t y which was planned to measure personal adjustment and s o c i a l adjustment of pupils i n Grades IV - IX. The s p l i t -h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y stepped up by the Spearman-Brown formula i s .93. On the basis of a new method of studying personality, fa c t o r analysis, Guilford, i n the same year, developed an : i 15. Traxler, A.E. Current Construction and Evaluation of Per-sonality and Character Tests. Chapter V, Review of .e.duc- ational Research. Vol. XI, No. 1, 1941, P. 57. -13-inventory f o r f i v e factors which he c a l l e d S, s o c i a l i n t r o -version; T', thinking introversion; D,. depression; C, cy c l o i d "'tendencies; and R, rhathymia or happy-go-lucky. Two sets of r e l i a b i l i t y correlations which had been corrected by the Spear-man-Brown formula were r e l a t i v e l y high. The lowest c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was .84 and the highest was .94. Washburne, also i n 1938, published h i s S o c i a l Adjustment Inventory f o r diag-nosis i n clinics^and counseling i n secondary schools and c o l -leges. In 1941 Adams and bepley published the "Personal Audit" which measures nine aspects of personality; s o c i a b i l i t y or . extroversion, s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , i r r i t a b i l i t y , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n or a l i b i tendency, anxiety or fear-tendency, sexual emotional c o n f l i c t , personal tolerance, f l e x i b i l i t y of attitudes and thought i n t e n s i t y or worry over unsolved problems. The Spear-man-Brown r e l i a b i l i t i e s of a l l parts are reported as .90 or above, and the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s of the parts are reported to 16 be low by the authors, who thus claim that the test measures nine r e l a t i v e l y independent personality f a c t o r s . Barley and McNamara published i n 1941, The Minnesota Personality Scale which has separate forms for men and women and i s designed to measure morale, s o c i a l adjustment, family r e l a t i o n s , emotional-i t y and economic conservatism. L i t t l e work has been done on the v a l i d i t y of this test, but the in t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between 16, Adams, CR. A New Measure of Personality, Journal of  Applied,Psychology. Vol.£5, A p r i l , 1941. P. 141-51. -14-the t r a i t s were found to he very small - the highest being .24. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of a l i parts by the s p l i t - h a l f method 17 i s reported as .87 or above. The C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality was made available i n four series i n 1943 by Tiegs, Clarke and Thorpe. There i s af Primary Series for Grades VI14K, a Secondary aeries for Grades IX-XIT and an Adult Series for Grade VII to the adult level?- 8 This test represents an attempt to provide a group test to aid the teacher i n dealing with the universal problem of personality adjustment and s o c i a l effectiveness. Each battery has two main parts designed to measure self - a d j u s t -ment and s o c i a l adjustment. Ihe authors found a c o r r e l a t i o n between these two sections of .54, which they claim, i s suf-f i c i e n t l y low to emphasize the d e s i r a b i l i t y of studying the student from the standpoint of both s e l f adjustment and s o c i a l • adjustment. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the component tests vary from .60 to .87 and thus are s u f f i c i e n t l y high to i d e n t i f y the areas i n which personality d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t as a point of departure, i n investigating the s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s themselves. The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s of each of the two main parts and of the t o t a l adjustment score were found to be i n the neigh-borhood of .9 The following• chart compares some of the better known 17. Buhler, charlotte. "Guidance uontributes Play Therapy", ' Child Study. Vol.18. Summer 1941, P.115-16 18^ Tiegs, js.ur., Clark,, W .W. & Thorpe,. L.P. The ualiffornia Test of Personality, Journal of Educational Research, Vol.35, October 1941, P. 102-108. — -15-personality tests and inventories as to r e l i a b i l i t y - a n d known 19 ' ' v a l i d i t y . 19. Adapted from Symonds, P.M. "Diagnosing Personality and  Conduct, New York, The century Co., 1931, P.154. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of c e r t a i n P e r s o n a l i t y Tests Test Report-ed by Group Tested Wo. of items Method of Re-l i a b i l -i t y C o e f f i c -ient of R e l i a b i l -i t y V a l i d i t y V Woodworth Psychoneur-o t i c Inven-tory Mathews drafted men 116 Split, halves .90 . 515* 1663 Woodworth-Ma thews Question-naire Mathews 280 boys 12,13, 14 yrs. old 75 S p l i t halves . 667 Woodworth Cady Quest-ionnaire Cady Boys 13 & 14 yrs. 60 Correla-t i o n with duplicate form .55. Woodworth House Quesl ionnaire House 58 Har-vard Stu-dents 99 Retest .79 Colgate Personal. Inventory Conklin 164 Col-lege Students 53 S p l i t halves co rec ted by Spearman-Brown ,72 • -Mart son Introver-sion-Ex-troversion Gonklin 352 Col-lege Students 40 S p l i t halves co rected by Spearman-Brown .92 Harper Test of So c i a l Attitudes Harper Under-graduates in c i t y t r a i n i n g school 71 S p l i t halves .817 PresseyXO Test EvlcGeoch Sc Whitely S p l i t h a l f method .8 .46 (cor-r e l a t i o n be-tween Pressey X0 test and Intelligence and school marks). -17-Report- Group No, Method Co e f f i c -Test ed by Tested of of Re- ient of V a l i d i t y items l i a b i l - R e l i a b i l -i t y i t y Thurstone M.V.Crook 5£ Col- test & .56 .76(criter-Personal- lege retest ion-other i t y Sched- g i r l s students r a t -ule ings) Brown. F. Brown 77 c l i n i c - 176. test &. .81-Personal- a l l y diag- retest. .92 -i t y Inven- nosed neurotic tory boys & £00 normal boys. 8-15' years. Humm-Wad- Humm,. D.G, 181 Students 7 •» __ f.85*.005 f o r swo rth Humm, K.A. com- whole group Temperamen' i ponents and .94 Scale .003 for i n -div i d u a l c a s e s ( c r i t e r -ion-pairs of technicana did ratings) B e l l Adjus- i - Keys,Y. lOOOHigh 110 .34( c r i t e r i a -ment Inven- and school teachers tory G u i l f o r d , freshmen ratings. M..S. and sopho-more stu-dents -18-1. The f i r s t eight mentioned tests and t h e i r evaluations mere taken from Symonds, P.M. Diagnosing Personality and  Conduct. New York, The Century Co. 1931„ P. 154. 2. CroOke, M.V. A Eetest with the Thurstone Personality Schedule. Journal.Genetic Psychology. 1943, To.28,P.111-120. 3-. Brown, F. An experimental study of the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the Brown Personality Inventory f o r children. Journal of Psychology. 1944, Vol,17, P.75-89. 4* Humm, D.S, and Humm, K.A. V a l i d i t y of theHumm-Wadsworth Temperament-Scale, Journal of Psychology. 1944. Vol.18, Page 55-64. 5* V. Keys, and M.S. G u i l f o r d . The V a l i d i t y of certai n adjustment inventories i n predicting problem behavior. Jour- nal of Educational Psychology. 1937. Vo.28, pp.641-655. i CHAPTER I I I . The Detroit Adjustment Inventory a. Mature of Inventory b. The Manual of d i r e c t i o n s , contents and evaluation. 19-Chapter I I I . The author of the Detroit Adjustment Inventory has, f o r many years been.Director of the Psychological C l i n i c for the Detroit Public Schools, and thus has had a r i c h opportunity for scholarly research and active experience with maladjusted stu-dents. Before publishing t h i s inventory, Baker used i t f o r three years i n the Detroit Psychological C l i n i c , t esting some 3000 cases p r i o r to c l i n i c a l treatment. Nowhere i n h i s writings does he give any s t a t i s t i c a l evaluation of the inventory. In the Teacher's Handbook he gives two d i s t r i b u t i o n s of scores, "**one for sixty-one behaviour and one for twenty-seven non-be-. haviour eases, 1 He claims that the Detroit Adjustment Inventory saves, considerable time i n acquiring personal information about &•pupil. Nature of the Inventory The Detroit Adjustment Inventory asks f i v e questions i n each of 24 areas of adjustment. The student responds to each question by selecting from f i v e choices the one which most c l e a r l y indicates his attitude or s i t u a t i o n . A score i s ob-tained by assigning numerical values from 5 for what i s con-sidered to be the i d e a l response to 1 for the very unsatis-factory response. The responses are arranged i n a chance order so that s p a t i a l location gives no clue as to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a response. This overcomes the danger of a student develop-1. Baker, H.J. Handbook for Detroit Adjustment Inventory, Bloomington. Public School Publishing Co., 1942, P.5.. -20-ing a "motor set* i n responding to the questions. The follow-ing examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the nature of the inventory. (a) my pimples (acne), bother me a l o t . (b) I hate having to sleep two i n a bed. (c) I sometimes get re a l angry about i t . I t should be noted that the items pose s p e c i f i c problems,, and that the wording i s i n simple, popular s t y l e , often even ungrammatical. "Frequent use i s made of pronouns i n the f i r s t person singular. The Inventory deals with the following areas of adjustment i n the order indicated: health, physical status and d a i l y l i v -ing; worries, fears, anger and p i t y ; introversion-extrover-sion, i n f e r i o r i t y - s u p e r i o r i t y , optimism-pessimism and w i l l -power; home status,, atmosphere, attitudes and reactions while growing up and breaking away from home t i e s ; the school, sportsmanship, morals and delinquency; friends, masculinity-feminity, hobbies and vocational -outlook. Baker believes that the f i r s t three topics constitute a natural and easy introduction to s e l f - a n a l y s i s . The Teacher's Handbook The "Teacher's Handbook f o r the Detroit Adjustment In-ventory," which i s provided with the Inventpry, does not meet the standards set by Jackson and Ferguson. 2 Baker does meet the requirements under 'general i n s t r u c t i o n s . * He gives the 2. Jackson, K.W.B., Ferguson, G.A. "Studies on the R e l i a b i l -i t y of Tests? B u l l e t i n No. 12 of the Department of Educa-t i o n Research, Toronto, University off Toronto Press, 1941 21-purpose of the test - "to interpret the problems of junior and senior high school p u p i l s * * The test i s self-administering and may be used i n two ways; f i r s t , as a means of diagnosing and treating the problems of a small percentage of students >who are markedly maladjusted i n c i t i z e n s h i p , personality and other im-portant factors not measured by i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Secondly, the test may be used as a teaching aid i n courses e n t i t l e d p r a c t i c a l psychology, better c i t i z e n s h i p , understanding one fs s e l f and h i s neighbors, and similar t i t l e s dealing with commun-i t y and s e l f understanding. The author advises teachers, s o c i a l workers, psychologists, and others who use his inventory to exercise much tact and diplomacy, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n dealing with cases of extreme maladjustment. He also advises that under no circumstances should this material be used as open or v e i l e d threats to p u p i l s for administrative or d i s c i p l i n a r y purposes. Baker admits that the Detroit Adjustment Inventory i s not a substitute f o r careful intensive case work by q u a l i f i e d psychologists, p s y c h i a t r i s t s or s o c i a l workers. The test i s intended to serve as an important a i d i n discovering leads into the problems which pupils encounter, and i t o f f e r s an economy of time i n l o c a l i z i n g the problems which characterize certain p u p i ls. The manual gives a detailed description of the nature of the Inventory, how i t i s to be administered and how"it i s to be scored. Under the section S t a t i s t i c a l Interpretation of Results, -22-the following d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores i s given by l * s , 2*s, etc., f o r sixty-one behaviour and twenty-seven non-behaviour cases; Bakers Manual  Behaviour Cases Average Weighted Responses No. Weight Scores l * s 9 X 1 9 2»s 12 X 2 24 3 rs 29 X 3. m 4's 29 X 4 116 5 rs .. 41 X 5 205. Totals 120 441 Non-Behaviour Gases Responses Average Weight Weighted . No. Scores l r s 3 . X 1 3 2's 7 X 2 14 3*s 24 X 3 72 4»s 27 X 4 108. 5»s 59 X 5 29.5 Totals 120 492 For comparison with the above dat0~the following d i s -t r i b u t i o n of scores by l r s , 2*s e t c . f o r the 27 highest and the 27 lowest scores of the boys on the November t e s t i n g at K i t s i l a n o Junior-Senior High School was made. , -23-K i t s i l a n o Testing Low 27 Scores Average Weighted Responses No, Weight Scores l ' s 9 1 9 2»s 14 2 28 3's 31 3 93 4's 35 4 140 5's 31 5 155" Totalis 120 425 Responses High 27 Average, No. Scores Weight Weighted Scores l ' s 2 1 2 2's 7 2 14 3's 24 3 72 4's 36 4 144 5's 51 5- 255 Totals 120 487 Baker rs t o t a l scores were computed for a group of sixty-one maladjusted hoys, who were enrolled i n classes f o r such maladjustments and f o r a group of twenty-seven boys and g i r l s who were rated as above average or very i d e a l by t h e i r teacher. The actual difference between the average scores of the groups was 6.1 times the standard error of the difference. Comparing the r e s u l t s of the K i t s i l a n o testing with those of the manual, the same average number of l ' s f o r the 27 low scores was secured as f o r the maladjusted cases; In -24- ~ each case the t o t a l weighted score i s below that reported by-Baker. The difference between the t o t a l weighted scores of the 27 low and the 27 high case i s 62. Baker's difference between the t o t a l weighted score of behavious cases and non-behaviour cases was only 51. Thus Baker's two groups seem to be much more homogeneous than were the high and low groups at K i t s i l a n o . The section on s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s concluded by discussing the problem of how mentally retarded p u p i l s might be expected to answer the inventory. Pupils with a low I.Qj. tend to have d i f f i c u l t y i n reading the items, part-i c u l a r l y those cases below a mental age° of ten years and an I.Q,, of 75, although i t i s not true of a l l of them. Other types of mentally retarded pupils with low scores, such as 20 or more l ' s , are found to have read'and understood the test but have general fe e l i n g s i n inadequacy and i n f e r i o r i t y . The manual does not give the r e l i a b i l i t y of the whole inven-tory, nor of i t s topics. The v a l i d i t y of the inventory, item v a l i d i t i e s , i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the subtests and norms, are not given. No s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the inventory i s given i n the.manual. Baker does deal with the qual i t a t i v e interpretations of r e s u l t s , which again i s rather incomplete and n o n s t a t i s t i c a l . He gives three reasons why students are l i k e l y to answer h i s •inventory honestly, F i r s t the instructions are worded i n such a manner that the p u p i l i s not certain just how much the i n t e r -viewer already knows about him. Secondly, he claims there i s -25-a large amount of inherent honesty i n the great majority of . people and i t tends to be practised when people seem to be geniunely interested i n helping to bring about a better under-standing. Thirdly, the items are worded i n such d e f i n i t e and personal ways that the pupils find i t d i f f i c u l t to avoid g i v i n g the appropriate answer f o r them. To substantiate t h i s l a s t point, sixteen problem boys were given the inventory and were asked to take i t again about two weeks l a t e r when they were, asked to mark the i d e a l answer-rather than the one that was true of them. Only four of the sixteen boys were able to keep the i d e a l i n mind, and these four raised t h e i r t o t a l scores one hundred points or more. The other twelve began with the i d e a l score but a f t e r a few items the' suggestive nature of the material was such that they lapsed back into the ratings which applied to them, thus obtaining almost i d e n t i c a l scores. Baker states that these f a c t s were, confirmed by t h e i r tea-cher through individual, questioning. The Manual i s concluded by a - s e c t i o n on the "Use of Re-medial Suggestions with Individual Pupils."' Baker has prepared remedial suggestions (see Appendix) for each one of the twenty-four topics, with separate ones for boys and g i r l s on the twenty-second topic of masculinity-femininity, and "acting your part."' He gives a few suggestions for their use. These remedial suggestions were used i n our interviews with the ten boys who made low scores. After two of these boys hado looked over the remedial suggestions for those topics in-which they had made p a r t i c u l a r l y low scores we asked for -26 comments. "Kinda useless" said one, "Reads l i k e a Sunday School teacher's pep t a l k , " commented the other. However, we did f i n d these suggestions valuable as a s t a r t i n g point . Using them as the basis, questions were composed which were used during the interview. As an example, on the topic "Fears" the following questions were formulated. 1. Are you a f r a i d of persons or of things? Do your thoughts f r i g h t e n you? 2. As a c h i l d , were you a f r a i d of the dark? 3. Have you fear of your parents? of strange persons? of your teachers? of fellow-students? • 4. Are you a f r a i d to speak i n class? 5. Do you ever f e e l s i l l y or f o o l i s h over your fears? 6. Do your fears come upon you suddenly or are they con-t i n u a l l y with you? 7. Are you a f r a i d of the future? 8. Do your fears become larger, the more you think about, them? 9. Do you ever attempt to reason with yourself or t a l k with yourself about your fears? 10. Have you ever attempted to conquer your fears? More w i l l be said concerning these Remedial Suggestions i n the section dealing with guidance and case h i s t o r i e s . Baker sug-gested that the Detroit Adjustment Inventory with the remedial suggestions could be used i n cert a i n high school groups i n courses dealing with c i t i z e n s h i p , personal adjustment, the psychology of everyday l i v i n g , or similar t i t l e s . The success of any such course depends very lar g e l y upon the type of tea-cher and the understanding which ex i s t s between t h i s teacher and the pupils. -27-« The general conclusion must be that f o r an inte r p r e t a t i o n of the inventory the'handbook i s , i n the main, of l i t t l e value. CHAPTER 17 The Administration: of the Detroit  Ad ,jus tment Invent ory •28-Chapter IV The Detroit Adjustment Inventory " T e l l i n g What I Don-, was administered to 111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n Grade XI at K i t -silano Junior-Senior High School, Vancouver, B. 0. during November, 1946. Sixty-three of the boys were, retested during January, 1947. The mean age of the g i r l s was 16 years 5 mon-ths and of the boys 16 yearso«5months. The ten boys who made the lowest average marks on the two testings were interviewed and given guidance during February and March, 1947, Baker's, remedial suggestions being the basis for t h i s work. The ten boys were given the Inventory again on the f i r s t of A p r i l , 1947. Table I gives certain s t a t i s t i c s on the subjects tested. Table I. K i t s i l a n o Senior-Junior High School Testing. Mean Inven-torv Score Date Sex No. of cases Mean O.A. Mean I.O.. Nov.4.6: g i r l s 91 16 y.5 m. 111.5 Nov.46 boys 111 16 y.6.5m. 109.3-Jan. 47 boys 63 16 y.8 m. 108. Aprll47 boys. 10 16 y.7 nu 103. 454.51 456.85 458.41 429.7 The guidance teachers who administered the inventory reported that the students, e s p e c i a l l y the girls^eemed to enjoy responding to the problems. Our own observations while administering the test to two di f f e r e n t classes, coiifTfmed th i s report. There was no scowling or heaving of sighs while the inventory was being done. The tests were administered i n the guidance room, which contains long tables and the or^ -29-dinary lecture-room chairs. The students were placed four to fi v e feet apart, s i x to a table, three to a side so that there would be no interference one with the other. The test i s so self-explanatory that f u l l y three quarters of the class had begun work before the directions had been f u l l y discussed. No student had d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding what was to be done. Students were asked to check t h e i r papers to see that they answered each question. S t i l l i t was found that some had missed several questions, columns or even pages. One student who had done t h i s , explained he had rushed through the inven-. tory, because there seemed so much to do i n one period. Baker claims, i n hi s handbook, t h i r t y or f o r t y minutes i s s u f f i c i e n t to complete the t e s t . About thirty:.percent of. the class f i n -ished within the time l i m i t , the remainder, e s p e c i a l l y the g i r l s , requiring about f i f t y - f i v e minutes. Many students pointed out d i f f i c u l t i e s i n answering some of the questions, the p r i n c i p a l complaint being: "The statement that suits me i s n ' t here." This was e s p e c i a l l y true of item 64 (about father or step-father working). Six students added as another choice, "I haven't a father or step-father," while f i v e students f a i l e d to answer the question, presumably because they had no father. Four students objected to item 62 (about owning our home) claiming, "our home has been paid f o r ever, since I can remember. Which one w i l l I put the c i r c l e around?" They d i s l i k e d choice B, " I t is paid f o r or nearly a l l , " the "nearly a l l " making the choice' undesirable for them. They were instructed however, to encircle. B. Two students asked of item -30-66 (about holiday parties and birthday parties) "Does th i s question r e f e r to myself or my parents?" The pronoun "we" at the beginning of each choice confused them. In item 70 (at home we are — ) two students claimed they were confused as to how many times "often and usually" meant. They were t o l d to think of these terms as meaning "average"'. One student asked of item 97 (about teasing l i t t l e children) what difference there was between A (I. t r y hard not to tease them) and D (I guess I l i k e to tease them). He was t o l d that there was more desire to tease i n A than i n D. The same student enquired of item 103 (about the number of friends I have) what was the difference between A (I have only one or two) and B (I don't seem to have hardly any). He was told A meant a more d e f i n i t e and established friendship than B. Four students said of topic 115 (about going to dances). "My parents won't allow me to dance at a l l . Which one s h a l l I answer?" They were told to en c i r c l e A. .These c r i t i c i s m s came from the two classes which we observed. The number, possibly, would have been greatly increased i f the other f i v e classes also had had th e i r questions and comments noted. Students made three^;criticisms: of the topics. F i r s t , some choices are too much alike - the degree of difference between them i s neither s u f f i c i e n t , nor clear. Secondly, the answer which the student f e e l s i s appropriate for him i s not included. Thirdly, the adverbs, often, probably, seldom, sometimes, and quite are not s u f f i c i e n t l y exact nor e x p l i c i t for Grade XI students. The scoring of the inventory i s quite simple and s t r a i g h t --31-forward. A Record Blank - Scoring Key i s provided for each inventory. One reads the l e t t e r s which the pupils encircled and then e n c i r c l e s t h i s l e t t e r beside the appropriate phrase on the Record Blank. For example, i f f o r the f i r s t item an "E n has been e n c i r c l e d , the l e t t e r -"E" found i n the column marked "3" would be underlined. On item number 105, the scorer must mark according to the age of p u p i l given at the top of the front page of his inventory; i f 14 years of age or younger, the items in that l i n e had to be considered, and i f 15 years of age or older, then the l i n e f o r that age must be used. For items 106 to 110, i n c l u s i v e , there are separate scoring keys f o r boys and g i r l s . Again item 115 i s scored according to age. I f a p u p i l had written i n on any topic a sixth item and l a b e l l e d i t "F", i t was scored to f i t most nearly one of the f i v e printed choices. For example, those students who added to topic 64 "I have no father nor step-father," were given "1" as a r a t i n g . After the score made on the Record Blank had been com-pleted, the number of responses i n the columns numbered 1, 2,3,4^5, were counted. These were added and the sum recorded at the end of each column on Page 4 of the Record Blank. These sums were the pupils "simple scores. 1* The scores i n these f i v e columns must t o t a l 120, since there are 120 items i n the Inventory. The sum of each column was now m u l t i p l i e d by i t s weighted score to determine the ""weighted score 1 1 f o r each column.. These weighted scores were recorded i n the box i n the upper right-hand corner of the f i r s t page of the Record •32-Blank. These weighted scores were added to obtain the t o t a l weighted score, and recorded i n the space provided. The min-imum weighted score i s 120. The maximum weighted.score i s 600. It would be much more convenient to have the items on the Record Blank, arranged on the four pages, so that the scorer can turn a page of the Record Blank at the same time that he must turn a page of the Inventory. In topics XXI (Friends) and XXIII (Hobbies) where the score depends upon age, i t might be well to have items 105 and 115 marked more d i s t i n c t l y . In Topic XXII (Acting your p a r t ) , where there are separate sections for boys and g i r l s , the words "Boy" and " G i r l " , in the margin, should be more d e f i n i t e l y marked. Item 107, i n the g i r l s sectJLon of "Acting your Part" on the Record Blank and Scoring Key has a p r i n t e r s error - "C" ° i n column 4 should be "\E"> i Chapter T. 1. General Interpretation of the Scores. 2. He l i a b i l i t y of the Detroit Adjustment Inventory. Sex Differences The Detroit Adjustment Inventory was administered to 111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n Grade X I at K i t s i l a n o Junior-Senior High School, Vancouver, B. C. i n November 1946. Before going on to an analysis of the inventory, i t was necessary to deter-mine i f the differences between the boys and g i r l s were small enough to j u s t i f y t r e a t i n g them as members of the same popula-t i o n . Certain s t a t i s t i c s for the two sexes are shown i n Table I I . Table I I . Sex Differences on the Detroit Adjustment Inventory feex N. Range vfedian Mean S.E.Mean S.D. ' S.E.s.d. Male 111. 515-368 459 456,9 2.46 25.8 1.76 Female 91 532-380 457 454.5; 2.87 27.2 a. From the table i t may be seen that the boys scored s l i g h t l y higher than the g i r l s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s difference was determined by means of the t r a t i o , the r a t i o of the difference between mean scores to the standard error of the differences. Using the formula (frT = <rft g i v i s - 1.7.x. - A.-^7 (TeJ.-H erente = VZ'K^+JLftJ*- = £'7* In t h i s case there are (111 plus 91 mjjnus.!:, 2} or 200 degrees of freedom so that the difference i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5^> l e v e l . STe may therefore treat the two sexes as -34-members of the same population i f so desired. However, i t was decided to treat the sexes separately. The inventory was re-administered to 63 boys i n January, 1947, Table I I I compares certain s t a t i s t i c s f o r the two ad-ministrations. Table I I I * Comparison of Boys* Test-Hetest Data Date K Range Median Mean SE. Mean S.D. SE. sd JNOV. 63. 515-368 459.37 459 • 3.59 88.75 2.6 Jan* 63 520-347 460. 458.4 3.80 30,4 2.7 There i s very l i t t l e difference between the two mean scores. The significance of the difference was determined by means of t r a t i o . Since there i s a co r r e l a t i o n between the November and January scores, the standard error of the d i f -ference between the means was determined by the formula. In this ease there are {63 plus 63 minus 2) or 124 degrees of freedom so that the difference i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5c/b l e v e l . fiercentile Scores In his handbook, Baker gives no norms for int e r p r e t i n g raw scores on his inventory except the d i s t r i b u t i o n of weighted responses for sixty-one behaviour and twenty-seven non-be-haviour cases. For purposes of in t e r p r e t a t i o n certain percen-t i l e values of rfitfp scores are indicated i n Ta^le IV. These -35 are based on the data obtained from the f i r s t administration of the test. Table IV Percentile Scores by Sex Percentile RdwScpre Boys. G i r l s 99 514 504. 90 487 487 80 478- 479. 70 469 • 472 60 462. 465. 50 457 458 40 445 45S 30 439 445 20 433 435. 10 416 426 1. 375 385 Baker reported that the mean score of h i s behaviour-problem boys was 440, corresponding approximately to the 30th percentile of the present sample of boys. Table V presents certain s t a t i s t i c s for each topic based on the administration of the Inventory to the 111 boys i n Nov-ember and the 63 boys i n January. TABLE V S t a t i s t i c s for Boys by Topics November Testing January Testing Topie | • 1 M: PE M SD PEo ' M SD 1. Health 20.00 178*3 '•.'OH 20.51 .18 2.1 * 2. Sleeping Eating J i 20.50 .17 2.60 .13 20.21 .18 2.22. 3. 1 Self Care 17.63 .16 2.40 .11 17.96 .23 2.74 4. , Habits 20.00 .17 2.70 , i a 20.44 .21 2.52. 5. Worries 18 ..88 .18 2.30 .11 19.19 .7 2.14 6. Fears 18.71 .16 2.5£ .12 17.87 .21 2, 52-7. Anger 18.40 .17 2.70 .13 18.53 .25 2.92 8. P i t y 19.70 .14 2.18 ,09 17.89 .28 3.30 9. Good Mixer 19.70 .23 3.58 .16 20.06 .27 3.16 •10. Inferior-Super io: '16.80 .14 2.20 ,1 16.88 .18 2.18 ll.Optimism-Fess imi si 118*45 .15 2.42. .11 18.78 .21 2.46 12. W i l l Power 17.50 .18 2.82 .14 16.85 .23 2.7 13. Home Status 21.00 .16 2.42 .11 21.13 .19 2.28 14. Home Atmosphere 20.30 .17 2.74 .13 19.93 .21. 2.5 15. Home Attitudes 19.50 .20 3.12. .15 18.56 .16 1.94 16. Growing Up • 18.47 .16 2.44. .11 18.38 .25 3.02 17. Schools 16.70 .16 2.44 .11 16.89 .2 2.36 , 18. Sportsmanship 20.25 .15 2.42 .11 19.68 .2 2.4 19. Morals 19.65 .13 2.00 .09 20.15 .15 1.84 20. Delinquency 21.20 .05 1.83 .08 : 21.6 .2 2.44 21. Friends 21.50 .18 2.32 .11 19.33 .22 2.6 22. Acting four Part 19.15 .14 2.24 .1. 18.79 .21 2.52 23. Hobbies 16.73 .20 2.98 .14 16.69 .25 2.98 24. Vocations 20.90 .20 2.92 .14 19.96 .28 3.36 - 3 7 -From the table i t may be seen that the lowest mean scores are found i n the topics "schools" and "hobbies". These mean scores are approximately two thirds of the maximum pos-s i b l e score of 25, suggesting that there i s probably i n s u f f i c -ient discriminative power within the various topics. The v a r i a b i l i t i e s within the various topics are very comparable except i n two or three instances, namely topics 1,9,15 and 20. Table Y l presents similar data for the g i r l s . -38-" TABLE VI  S t a t i s t i c s for G i r l s by Topics Topic M " SD PE 1. Health 18.9 .16 2*38 .12 2, Sleeping Eating 21 .17 2.4 .13 3. Self Care 18.5 .2 2.8 .14 4. nabits 17.75 .21 3.02 .IS 5. Worries 17.63 .16 2.28 •11 6. Fears 15.5 .18 2.64 .13. 7. Anger 17.7 .16. 2.3 .12 8, Pi t y 19.5 .17 2.38 .12 9. Good Mixer 20.33 .19 2.70 .14 10. Inf e r i or-Sup e r i or 16.3 .19 2. 66 .13 11. up t imi sm-Pe s simi sm 18.27 .2. 2.8 .14 12 1 .\Till Power 17.62 .2 2.76 .14 13. Home Status 21.23 .18 2.58 .13 14. Home Atmosphere 21.02 .21. 2. 92 .15 15. Home Attitudes 18.61 .23 3.24 .16 16. Growing Up 18.06 .22 3.06 .15 17. Schools 17.3 .2 2.76 .14 18. Sportsmanship , 20.97 117 2.5 .13 19. Morals 20.58 .16 2.32 .12 20. Delinquency 21.4 .06 1.98 .1 21. Friends 21.47 .17 2.38 .13 22. Acting your Part 15. .22 3.01 .15 23. Hobbies 15.56 .22 2.98 .15 24. Vocations 20.9 .2 2.84 .14 Page'38 A 1 db le„ V / / T Jh ~t e r c o ^ t - e l d t IOY\ C K A y i -T o p i c s 1- X X J V N o v . T e . ^ . ^ > c r 7 i ? i r 5 i i \ • ©£~ P E r .// P E r 7- , P E r • O S ' S .XI P E r P E r • P £ r a . /S~ P B r . 4 4 P E r 11 . 13 P E r - « 7 * P E r -P E r \ P E r •oS"4 . t>4 \ • / ? P E r -x\ P E r N W 7 P E r « « 7 * P E r V P E r •o4S9 * - . ./•< P E r \ P E r -X? P E r P E r ' a 4 . e>S i P E r P E r • a r ? \ P E r P E r •<>7*-; • °£>~ . J U 4 pE-r • c f P E r • * 7 * P E r P £ r • i f f ? P E r P E r • a PEr .a ^ •«? P E r ' «7*r P £ r •«6-P E r "=>7* • - . a 4 P E r . .-©7* P E r p e r •cf>-J P £ r • 4 ( 1 / ^ • P E r P £ r • o r f \ •X6~ P C r • o f * , -P E r P E r . < s 4 ^ •>f P E r \ -H-i P E r . a 4 a<5 4 P E r , 0 6f>~ \ P E r . o 4 P 5 r • « 7 + -' // P F r \ P E r P E r P E r ' J P E r -P E r « 7 * -•// • ? E r <* • P E r P E r X - A . T P E r - 0 8 P E r P E r . d i - «7f P E r •<?-*-7 -• ' 3 P E r • P E r • / •P>K» • is-P E r , 0 7 * • P E r •or £ • P E r \ P E r -• - 7 * . T * • < J 4 P E r --fx. P E w -<s 4 1 • J - Z . P F r - . 4 « ^ I, H e a l t h JL, S l e e p i n g E«A"t|>\rf 3 S e . K C^ye. H- H a b i t s .5" W o w ie5> Coy v- I ^"t- 1 0 Y\ S B o y 6 J A V\^er g Pifcy M Opt»vnis>r> fessiv¥\iiyx\ I7 S c h o c l S - ^ 3 H o b b i e s V/i'U P a w e r , Spcsyt.&>»\<l.Yvskip V o C d t l ' a n S n o t S i o vi 1 4" 1 ciiv\~t <it. 1 % leve. |, o -39-The lowest mean score i s found for top i c 22, "Acting your Part"', averaging 60 per cent of the possible score. There seems to be s l i g h t l y greater v a r i a b i l i t y i n mean scores f o r g i r l s than for boys. Greatest v a r i a b i l i t y i s found i n topics 4,15,16 and 22. Correlations between Topics It was decided to compute the correlations between certain topics which by reason of th e i r t i t l e s or s i m i l a r i t y of content might be expected to show some rel a t i o n s h i p . I t would be de-sirable to compute a l l the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s but f o r various reasons this was not feasible for the present study. . The cor-r e l a t i o n s that were computed are shown i n Table VII. Very few of the correlations are s i g n i f i c a n t at the Ifi l e v e l which requires r to be.25 for boys and .27 f o r the g i r l s . It i s of inte r e s t to note that the largest c o r r e l a t i o n for each sex i s between "morals" and "delinquency". This should not be unexpected. Authorities sociology state that morals and delinquency are cl o s e l y related. As f a r as the available data are concerned i t seems that to a marked degree the var-ious topics are, i n the main, unique measures of adjustment. Internal Consistency The boys 1 scores on the f i r s t twelve topics were cor-related with those on the l a s t twelve, giving correlations of .68 and .71 for the November and January data respectively. 1. Landis, Carney. Modern Society and. Mental Disease., New York, i'arrar and Rinehart, 1938, P.103. -40-It would seem that there i s considerable i n t e r n a l consistency in the Inventory despite the low i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s found be-tween the topics. Indeed, these i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s are con-siderably increased i f they are corrected f o r attenuations. R e l i a b i l i t y ' . The r e l i a b i l i t i e s for t o t a l and topic scores were obtained by computing the correlations between the scores of the 63 boys who answered the Inventory on two d i f f e r e n t occasions. The test - retest c o r r e l a t i o n for the t o t a l scores was .74. For 61 degrees of freedom, a c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the lv/6 l e v e l i f i t i s at least .325. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t for the t o t a l scores i s , then, s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero, but i t f a l l s f a r short of the r e l i a b i l i t y required for i n d i v i d u a l diagnosis, namely,94 suggested by K e l l y . 2 - A t best, the t o t a l score i s suitable for group guidance. Table VIII presents the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c -ient for each to p i c . Any c o e f f i c i e n t larger than .325 i s to be considered s i g n i f i c a n t at the one percent l e v e l * 2. K e l l y , T.L. Interpretation of Educational Measurements, Yonkers, World Book Co., 1927, r. 210-211. -41-TABLE VIII • for Tfcpl.cs. Topic • C fox 1. Health .13 2. Sleeping Eating .44 3. s e l f Care .78 4. Habits .63 5. Worries .63 6. Fears .58 7. Anger .40 8. Pit y .81 9. Good Mixer .77 10. Inferior-Superior .69 11. Optimism-Pessimism' .45 12. W i l l Power .42 13. Home a tat us .87 14. Home Atmosphere .54 15. Home Attitudes .97 16. Growing Up .53 17. Schools .62 18. Sportsmanship .50 19. Morals .52 20* Delinquency .56 21. Friends .56 22. Acting your Part .66 23. Hobbies .55 24. Vocations .68 -42-The great range i n r e l i a b i l i t y - c o e f f i c i e n t s ^ varying from .13 to .97, i s of some i n t e r e s t . The low r e l i a b i l i t y of health i s probably to be expected. The very high r e l i a b i l i t y , of topic 15, Home Attitudes, suggests that here i s one area of adjustment i n which students are somewhat stable. This i s , again, to be expected, since the majority of them have had some sixteen or seventeen years i n the home, during which time they developed a consistent attitude toward t h e i r home, assuming i t was r e l a t i v e l y stable during those years. It must be concluded that, the scores on the topics are much too unreliable to constitute the ^ a s i s of a remedial pro-gram. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the Detroit Adjustment Inventory i s not suitable for i n d i v i d u a l diagnosis. It can be used f o r group guidance only. Frequency of Well Adjusted and Maladjusted  Topic Scores Table IX gives the frequency of well adjusted and maladjus-ted topic scores, Bor both sexes, November Testing. The range of a well adjusted score was a^cbfctrarTly'' taken to be 22-25, and of a poorly adjusted score 0-13. -43-TABLE IX Frequency of Topic Scores of students C l a s s i f i e d as  Well-Adjusted and as Maladjusted" Topi® . fell Adjusted Scores I .22-35. 1 frequency II :..Maladjus 0-freqi ted Scores L3 nency Boys G i r l s I Boys G i r l s 1.. Health 27 12 0 0 2. Sleeping oc Eating 38 46 2 0 3. S e l f Care 7 1.9 6 3 4. Habits 37 9 1 2 7 5. Worries 14. a 1 7 6.. Fears 7 1 3 19 7. Anger 14 13 4 10 8. P i t y 23- 29 5 2. 9. Good Mixer 37 37 5. 1 10. I n f e r i or-Superior 1 5. 10 6 -11. Opt imi sm-Pe ssimism. a 10 5 3 12* W i l l Power i 6. 11 8 ' 13. Home Status 52 48 O 2. 14. Home Atmosphere. 43. 47 4 5 15. Home Attitudes 18 1.8 6 6 16. Growing up 14 8 2 3 17. Schools a 5 9 4 18. Sportsmanship 35 28 . 1. 2 19. Morals 17 34 O 0 . 20. Delinquency 54 60 0 0 21. Friends 61 52. • 0 0 22. Acting Tour Part 16 • : L . • 1. 21 23. Hobbies. 4 • • .23 23 24,. Vocations '42 ." 47 4 0 From the table i t appears that both sexes are well ad-justed i n Home Status, Home Atmosphere, vocations, Good Mixer, Sportsmanship and Friends. The large number of students hav-ing scores from 22-25 on the l a s t four topics suggests that the students are s o c i a l l y well adjusted. Both sexes are poor-l y adjusted i n Hobbies;; t h i s might indicate that Hobby Clubs should be given more emphasis. There are more g i r l s than boys with scores of 0-13 i n the topics Fears and Acting your Fart. 0 However,, the topic Acting lour r a r t , f o r the g i r l s , i s poorly constructed. If a g i r l marks item No. 107 "About reading the sporting page"" with A, "I always read i t , " she i s given a credit of 1,. On the other hand i n items 109 and 110, a credit of 5 i s given to the g i r l who reads the fashion page every day and who reads only love s t o r i e s . CHAPTER VI V a l i d i t y of the Detroit Adjustment Inventory based on the c r i t e r i a of a Rating Scale con-structed from the Inventory. Item v a l i d i t y of the Detroit Adjustment In-ventory. -45-Y a l i d i t y A Test i s usually considered to be v a l i d i f i t measures what i t purports to measure, and t h i s i s often determined by c o r r e l a t i n g test scores with some outside c r i t e r i o n . In the present study an attempt to determine v a l i d i t y was made by c o r r e l a t i n g scores on the Adjustment Inventory with teacher rs ratings. It was, of course, impossible to ask teachers to rate 200 students on each of the 24 topics evaluated by t h i s inventory. It was decided to ask teachers to rate cer t a i n students on " s e l f Qare", "good mixer," " w i l l power", and "schools" as well as for t o t a l adjustment. For t h i s purpose a fi v e - p o i n t r a t i n g scale was prepared together with d i r e c t i o n s to a s s i s t the teacher to make the ratings. Each topic was f i r s t defined. A suitable,, descriptive phrase was used at the proper place on the graph, as a guide for r a t i n g purposes. The descriptive phrases were patterned a f t e r the s t a t e -ments-found i n the topics of the Inventory. Ratings were obtained f o r 10 g i r l s , and f o r 52 and 25 boys for the November and January testings respectively. Is there any rel a t i o n s h i p between teacher*"s ratings and Inventory scores? An answer to t h i s question was f i r s t sought by means of the n u l l hypothesis. The data were, tabulated i n a 2x2-fold d i s t r i b u t i o n . The hypothesis was made that there was no rel a t i o n s h i p between scores and ratings, not assuming that the sums of the rows and columns were constant. In other words, i t was assumed that the frequency i n each e l l was one quarter of the t o t a l number of cases. The p r o b a b i l i t y of this d i s t r i b u t i o n a r i s i n g by chance was then determined. The values of X 2 and P are shown i n table X. Table X P r o b a b i l i t y of a Relationship between In- ventory scores and Teachers' r a t i n g s on  Selected Topics  Topic Boys G i r l s Nov. X.2 p . x a Jan. JT X2 P Total Adjustment 8.112. .05 1,375 .27 . 10.000 ,01 Sel f Care! .012 .93 .812 .47 .484 .50 Good Mixer .080 .75 .290 .65 1.521 .2.5-W i l l Power 3.920-' ,06 .470 .52 1.521 ,.25 School 1 . 5 9 7 ; .2.5 6.243 .02 1.521 ,25 Study of the table reveals that i n only one case i s the chance less than 2 i n 100 that the relationship i s di f f e r e n t from what might be expected by chance, i . e . , i n 14 of 15 i n -stances, the proportion of easejs i n the d e l l s i s not s i g n i f i c -a ntly d i f f e r e n t from what might be found by chance. Hence; we cannot reject the hypothesis that there i s no relat i o n s h i p between ratings and scores. Despite the f a c t that the hypothesis of a lack of r e l a t i o n -ship between scores and ratings could not be rejected, i t was decided to compute Pearsons r e s between these variables f o r each topic for which ratings were av a i l a b l e . The results are. shown i n Table XI. - 4 7 -Tabie XI Correlation between Eating Scores andInventory Scores Boys G i r l s Nov. Jan. •' Nov. Topic N R. N . R N. R Total Mjustmehl 32 .10 £5, .48 10 .11 Self Care 30 .33 25 .10 10 .25 Good Mixer 52, .01 £5. .27 10 .31 W i l l Power \ 30 -.19 25 10 ; .02 Schools s a .29 £5 .33 10 ' -.23 r required f o r significance at • 32 .45 . 25 .51 10 .77 V/o leve 1 From, t h i s table i t becomes quite apparent that i t i s un-l i k e l y that the c o r r e l a t i o n , between teachers' ratings and i n -ventory scores i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y different from zero. In other words there i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d that teachers and inventory w i l l agree on the adjustment off students i n the topics chosen for study. It may be, however, that teachers and inventory would agree on the students c l a s s i f i e d only as adjusted and maladjust-ed, T O determine this the phi c o e f f i c i e n t was computed for each of the topics using a score of 13 on the inventory and of . 2£ on the r a t i n g scale as the d i v i s i o n a l points i n preparing the dichotomy between adjustment and maladjustment. The res-u l t s are shown i n Table XII -48-Table XII -Phi Coe f f i c i e n t s for Rating Scores & Inventory Scores Boys Boys G i r l s Topic NOV. ~r Jan. ~T~ NOV. i General Adjustment .22 .49 .39 Se l f Care. ;52 .25 1.00 Good Mixer -.05 -.11 .39 W i l l Power .oa .18 .2a Schools .35; .14 .39 Value of required for significance at 1% l e v e l .43 .52 .82 A comparison of the r e s u l t s of Table XI and Table XII i n -dicate that teachers do not agree any more clos e l y with the Inventory when the students are simply grouped into adjusted and maladjusted than when a more refined scoring technique i s used. The perfect r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the case of " s e l f care" for g i r l s was probably due to the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the d i s t r i b u -tions, a l l but one g i r l scoring above 13 on the Inventory. Baker apparently recommends i n his handbook that behaviour problems be selected on the basis of t o t a l scores. The next prpblem, then, was to determine the v a l i d i t y of each item, uging t o t a l scores as t h e - c r i t e r i o n for selecting well-adjust-ed and poorly adjusted subjects. On the basis of the November test i n g the 27 boys with the highest scores and the 27 with the lowest scores were selected. The number of students i n each r group responding i n spec i f i e d ways was determined. Here X2 was used to ascertain whether the two groups d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r responses to each item. Five alternative answers f o r each item are allowed. To secure X 2 , .'•'l^ot n o t e , i of any given column the formula 1 (aK.1 - a l K ) r "^s&s used a+a-L . / ' • " where a and a^ are any p a i r of obtained cQlumn-^entries^-^rdr - -N and are the corresponding t o t a l s . ^ The sum of the contributions of the f i v e columns by is N-*-gives X 2 f o r the item. The following,example shows how X 2 was secured f o r Item I. A l t e r n a t i ves. 1 2 3 4 Total Upper 27 cases 3 21 3 27 Lower 27 cases 3 a 21 2.7 Alternative Z * l / d (3 x 27 - 3 x 2 7 ) 2 m 0 Alternative 3 • 1^3 (0 x £ 7 - 3 x 2 7 J 2 • 2187 Alternative 4 « l/4a(21x 27 - 21x 27} a s 0 Alternative 5 " 1/3 (3 x 27 - O x 27 } 2 « 2187 Total 4374 X 2 = 4374 s & 7aa •* . Table XIII gives the values of X 2 and of P>; X 2 must be above 9 and F must be below .01 for significance at the 5% l e v e l . The average inventory scores for each item f o r each group are given. 1. Garrett, ri..E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, New York, Longmann's, Green and uo., 1944. if. 386. 2. Ibid P.379. -50-'i'able XIII P r o b a b i l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t difference between  c r i t e r i o n groups for each item. Inventory Score Item High 27 Average Low 27 Average X* P Comment 1 3.89 3,67 6. .23. 2 4.78 4,33 4.83 .30 3 4.33 4.33 . 1.23 .83 4 '3.85 3.44 2.95 .60 5 3,82. 3.5 4.15 • 40 6 4.66. 3.74 5.98 .20 7 4.4 3.63 5.96 .27 8 4.44 3,6 9.97 .04 S i g n i f i c a n t 9 4.48 3,63 11.2.9* .03 S i g n i f i c a n t 10 4.19 3.56 7,02 .13 11 3.78 2.93 13.31 .01 S i g n i f i c a n t 12 3.22 2.74 4.11 .30 13 3.15 2.88: 7.19 .10 14 4. 3.55 3.68 .50 15 4.5 3.33 17.29 .005 Si g n i f i c a n t 16 4. 3.55 6.33 *.15 » 17 4.52 2.52 ' 7.33 .12. 18 3.74 3.74 0. 1.00 19 3.41 2.88 6.38 .11 20 4.81 4.81 2.22 .70 21 4.3. 3,92. 5.16 .20 22 4.26 4.15 1.55 .80 Inventory Score 1 Item. . - High . 27 Average Low 27 Average X 2 P Comment 23 j 24 3.48 2.63 11.65 .02. S i g n i f i c a n t r 3.44 1 3.41 i 20 '.21 .001 I S i g n i f i c a n t 25 4,44 3.74 8.29 .07 S i g n i f i c a n t 26 4.48 4.44 1.04 .90 27 3.48 3.85 4.21 .40 28 . 4. 2.92. 19.33 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 29 3,66 3.51 4.55. .40 30 2.92 1.74 20.91 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 31 3.85 3.26 15.66 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 32 4.3 3.7 7.43 .10 Si g n i f i c a n t 33 3.59 2,81 4.31 ,4 34 4.26 3.63 8.102 .07 S i g n i f i c a n t 35 3.7 3.85 1.18 ,85 36 4.92 4.15 26.33 .001. S i g n i f i c a n t 37 4.22 3.74 5.05 .25 38 4.52: 3.63 12.21 .015 . S i g n i f i c a n t 39 3.63 3.15 14.14 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 40 3.88 3.15 10,1 .04 S i g n i f i c a n t 41 4. 3.37 8.86 .07 S i g n i f i c a n t 42 4.63 3.77 10.59 . .03 S i g n i f i c a n t 43. 4.66 3.5 10.9 .03 Si g n i f i c a n t 44. 4.6 3.22 18.02 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 45 4. 3.03 12.2 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 46 4.18 3.52 1.4.12. .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 47 3.3 3.2. 4.73 .30 S i g n i f i c a n t ? - S a -i n vent or y Score Item . High 27 Average Low 27 (Average X 2 P Comment 48 . 3.07 2.85 7.1.4 .10 S i g n i f i c a n t 49 3.77 3.04 13.09 .01 S i g n i f i c a n t 50 3,59 3. 7.18 .10 51 3.63 2.96 7,84 .10 52 | . 3.81 3.5a 3.19 .50 53 3.44 2.6 10.36 .03 S i g n i f i c a n t 54 4.3 3.6 1 12.96 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 55 4.52 4. - 8.04i i .05 S i g n i f i c a n t 56 3.52 3.15 4.8 ! .30 57 3.48 2.92 8.75 j-.07 S i g n i f i c a n t 58 4.08 3.6 1 5.17; .20 59 4. 2.8 10.64* .03 S i g n i f i c a n t 60 3.8 3.4 4.66J .3 61 4.8 4.7 .92] .93 62 4.66 4.44 2.415 .60 63 4.17 3.63 7.28! .10 64 4.74 3.17 . 5.39 .25 65 4.03 4.17 2.22 .70 66. 3.74 2.59 16.31 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 67 4.55 4.07 3.58 .50 68 4.41 3.55 9.5 ,05 S i g n i f i c a n t 69 4.77 4,59 2.16 .70 70 4.37 3.55 9.89 .05 S i g n i f i c a n t 71. 3.11 2.48 9.09 .05 S i g n i f i c a n t 72 3.11. 2.81 5.05 .25 -53-Inventory Score Item High 27 Average LOW 27 Average X 2 ? pomment 73 4.22 3.18 9.6 .04 S i g n i f i c a n t 74 4.81 4.22 4.78 .30 75 4.48 3.74 7.78 .10 76 3.66 3.96 2.77 .60 77 3.26 3.22 7.07 .10 -78 3.66 . 3.22 4.86 .30 79 3.81 3.11 5.38 • 25 80 4.11 3,41 6.96 .17 81 3.44 3. 13.03 .01 S i g n i f i c a n t 82 3.55 3.27 8.07 " .07 83 2.04 1.88 2.46 .60 84 4.11 3.63 4.87 .30 85 4.44 4. 4.68 .30 .86 4,77 4.4 4.85 .30 87 4,37 4.15 3.61. .40 88 4.52 4.4 5.19 .25 89 3.7 3. 13.93 .01 S i g n i f i c a n t 90 4.2 3.55 10.01 .04 S i g n i f i c a n t 91 4.1. 3.37 1.31 .81. 92 3,. 7 4 3.55 1.5 .85 93 4.7 4.6 3.33 .5 94 4.77 4.3 14.24 ,001 S i g n i f i c a n t 95 3.7 3.26 9.59 .05 S i g n i f i c a n t 96 4. 3.3 9.69 .05 S i g n i f i c a n t 97 4. 3. 9.99 .03 S i g n i f i c a n t Inventory Score litem Mign 27 Average Low 27 Average X 2 P • Comment 98 4.52 4.33 8.67 .08 S i g n i f i c a n t 99 4.77 4.52 2.54 .60 100 5. 4.9 1.02 .90 101 4.48 4.11 3.76 .40. 102 4.11 3.78 8.51 .08 S i g n i f i c a n t 103 4.78 3.78 10.22 .03 S i g n i f i c a n t 104 4.88 3.37 11,72 ,02 S i g n i f i c a n t 105 4.37 4.37 10.26 .04 S i g n i f i c a n t 106 3.41 3.18 6.9 .15 107 3.88 3.48 16 .59 .001 S i g n i f i c a n t 108 4.66 4.66 4.62 .45 109 ' 3.71 3.88 3.46 .40 110 3.59 • 3.81 .. 1.33 .85 111 3. 2.55 2.33 .75 112 2.52 2.41 .88 .93 113 3.88 3.18 5.89 .20 114 4.11 3.52 4.8 *30 115 4.3 3. 13.08 .01 S i g n i f i c a n t 116 3.77 2.92 9.56 ,04 . S i g n i f i c a n t 117 4. 26 4.37 2. 52. .60 118 4.41 4.07 11.11 .015 S i g n i f i c a n t 119 4.63 3.81 6.71 .15 120 4.48 - 3.703 9.59 .04 S i g n i f i c a n t Table XIV gives the number of s i g n i f i c a n t items f o r each topi c . Table XIV Number of Si g n i f i c a n t items f o r eaoh topic Topic Ivumber of Si g n i f i c a n t Items Health 0 Sleeping Eating a S e l f Care 2 Habits 0 Worries 3 Fears a Anger 3 P i t y • 4 Good Mixer 5 Infe r i or-Sup er i or 4 Optimism-Pessimism 3 W i l l Power a Mome Status 0 Home Atmosphere 3 Home Attitudes a Growing Op 0 Schools l Sportsmanship a Morals. . a Delinquency 3 ' Friends 4 Acting Tour Part: 1 Table X r_V(continued) Topic Number of S i g -n i f i c a n t Items Hobbies , 1 Vocations 3 Total 52 A l l f i v e items of the topic "Good Mixer" were v a l i d . a t . the 59b l e v e l or better. Fifty-^wo items out of a t o t a l of 1.20 distinguish between the adjusted and maladjusted, i . e . 43$> of the items are v a l i d at the' 5% l e v e l or better. Hart-3 mann. suggests that a good inventory must have at lea s t 60% of i t s items v a l i d . 3. Hartmann, vf.S. The D i f f e r e n t i a l V a l i d i t y of items i n a Liberalism - Conservatism Test, Journal of S o c i a l Psychol-ogy, Vol.9, 1938, F.71* CHAPTER VII Use of the Remedial suggestions i n interviews with ten low score boys. - 5 7 -OHAPTER VTI The work done on thi s section of guidance and i n t e r -views was found most i n t e r e s t i n g and valuable. Each Tuesday afternoon, during February and March, was spent a t K i t s i l a n o High School doing t h i s personnel work, Mr. Wales kindly-" donated his o f f i c e f o r the interviews. Preparations were made for the interview. The low scored topics were noted and Baker's Remedial Suggestions f o r those p a r t i c u l a r topics were studied. A. l i s t of questions (discussed i n Chapter3 ) based on these suggestions was prepared. An attempt was made to secure each student Ts I.Q., the r e s u l t s of any aptitude or other personality test he might have taken; his scholastic record, a picture of his home environment and a general comment on the student as given by his room teacher and the guidance s t a f f . When the student was called to the o f f i c e we spoke to him by name and introduced ourselves. A general remark on the weather or on some current school a c t i v i t y was made i n an attempt to set the student at ease. The interview was begun by presenting a copy of the Inventory and asking the student i f he remembered doing i t . We explained how the i n -ventory was scored. We did not, during any of the interview, t e l l the student whether hi s t o t a l inventory score was high or low. We discussed', f i r s t , those three or four topics on which the student had made h i s highest topic scores. Then the interview was turned to those topics on which the student -58-has made low. scores. Those questions which had been prepared f o r that topic were asked. But no interview took a regular course - the student, i n many cases took charge and l e d the way. Often we found the prepared questions unsatisfactory and had to use our own i n i t i a t i v e . In those cases where we f e l t there was maladjustment, we attempted to explain why the student should change his s o c i a l habits or outlook or a t t i -tude, We attempted, also, to state a c£fcrinite point of view and to enlighten the student. We too often f e l l miserably short of set standards, because of the lack of required ex-perience and knowledge. .Notes were made on the student im-mediately the interview was over. -59-The Case of D. S. D.S, entered the o f f i c e with a pleasant smile. He shook hands and sat down on the edge of the chair, playing nervously with his books. He was asked to place them on the empty chair beside him. The scoring of the inventory was explained to him.. He was t o l d that everything said during the interview was to be treated as private and co n f i d e n t i a l i n the sense that i t would not a f f e c t his school or personal record. U.S. had made the boys* lowest score on both the November and January t e s t i n g - 368 on the f i r s t t e s t i n g and 347 on the second. He made a score of 13 or less on f i v e topics. A score of 11 on the topic of Jfea'rs, a score of 13 on Anger, a score of 11 on w i l l Power, a score of 10 on Growing Up and a score of 9 on Home Attitudes. These scores were from the November Testing, but they were correspondingly low on the January Testing. A s l i g h t boy, his skin somewhat blemished with acne, D.S. is not p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e i n appearance* His glasses were loose and slipped down his nose; h i s h a i r , cut rather short, lacked attention; h i s n a i l s showed signs of b i t i n g ; his trousers badly needed pressing and his s h i r t was open at the throat. Of Jewish parentage, D.S. has resided i n Vancouver since the summer of 1946. U n t i l then he l i v e d i n Winnipeg. He has a comparatively high I.Q/. His teachers report'that he causes no trouble i n the classroom and does f a i r l y good work. He i s 17 years 2 months i n age. Pear i s a dominant factor i n the personality maladjustment of D.S. He i s a f r a i d -60-of the future, of things, of events, of people. He i s a f r a i d he w i l l not be allowed to enter a Oanadian un i v e r s i t y because he i s Jewish. He l i e s awake fo r hours a f t e r he has gone to bed, going over everything that has happened during the day, evaluating a l l that he has said and done, suggesting c r i t i c i s m s and improvements. He has a fear of the dark. Often he f e e l s an arm reaching out for him when he must go into the darkened vegetable room of the basement. At night, a f t e r h i s bed. lamp has been switched off he can hear heavy footsteps approaching his bed,, iie i s af r a i d of people. He sometimes wishes he could disappear when the teacher or a fellow student speaks to him. He goes to school by a d i f f e r e n t route each morning not only because he d i s l i k e s routine, but also because he might meet or pass the same persons on several occasions. He i s a f r a i d they might speak to him. At the very.thought of having to answer a question i n class he breaks out into a sweat. On the topic "Anger", D.S. had l i t t l e to say, other than "he gets mad i n s i d e , " ?ftien asked what about he explained he never became angry at people only with God and Fate who allow so much su f f e r i n g and misery i n the world. In p a r t i c u l a r , D.S. becomes angry when he thinks about the persecuted Jews. D.S. explained that he had often held a lighted match between h i s fingers and attempted to concentrate on the flame u n t i l i t began to burn his fingers, but always his mind would wander. He thus proved to himself that he has no w i l l power. On the topic " W i l l Power", D.S, made a score of 11, In the -61-home h i s s i s t e r , some six years older than himself, and h i s father D O S S him and, as he says " t r y to wake him up." His mother takes h i s part. In everything he does he f e e l s i n -competent. He l i k e s to write hut resents c r i t i c i s m of h i s work, and no matter how often he has corrected and gone over h i s essay or peem he never f e e l s i t i s good enough. He knows he could accomplish things i f he were pushed. He can never begin anything on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e . He would l i k e to go into school dramatics, i f some one would make him. He finds i t impossible to concentrate on h i s lessons - wants to eat apples, go to the bathroom, tinker with the radio - anything but study. At other times he can pour over a text book f o r hours at a time (often f i v e hours at a stretch) and never read a word or turn a page. He can, at such times, project himself to K i t s i l a n o Beach or climb Grouse Mountain or be a Mountie i n the Yukon. He began to c o l l e c t stamps as a hobby but gave i t up. He i s now interested i n photography but f e e l s i t won't l a s t . Two summers ago he had a dish washing job i n a cafe, but he f e l t one of the waitresses was being blamed by the boss (who seemed to favor him) fo r his mistakes and errors, so he quit. . In one sense, he f e e l s that h i s teachers leave him alone too much; that he i s as stupid and needs as much attention as the lower half of the cla s s . He doesn't believe he i s as bright as the teachers think he i s . On the topic , "Growing up," D.S. explained that he had no idea whatsoever of what he was going to do with h i s l i f e . He had thought he would l i k e to enter Medicine but f e l t the Med--62-i c a l F a culties of Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s discriminated against Jews, Too, he might choose Journalism as a career, hut again f e e l s he i s n ' t good enough as he i s not a top student i n h i s English and Composition classes. He "hates'* chemistry. His mother often speaks to him i n "baby-talk." His father arid s i s t e r , too, treat him as a baby. D.S. would l i k e . t o t r a v e l and go to sea as he i s fascinated by ships and the ocean, but h i s parents won't hear of h i s leaving home. The home attitude of D.S., i s not good. He and his s i s t e r often quarrel. His father and s i s t e r b e l i t t l e everything he does or suggests. His mother protects him from these two but at the same time dominates him and often "squashes h i s plans." Yet D.S. has no desire to leave home. "On the whole my father and mother are.kind and considerate." D.S. i s e s s e n t i a l l y a f a t a l i s t . He believes he i s the way he i s because God, intended him to be so and i f God wanted him to be any d i f f e r e n t He would change him. He believes God allowed six m i l l i o n Jews to be murdered i n Europe during the past decade f o r a purpose - namely so Palestine w i l l be more quickly l i b e r a t e d . He would l i k e to have a friend of strong character and personality, who would push and lead him and make him accomplish something. He wouldn't want t h i s f r i e n d to become so close that confidences must be exchanged. At the moment D.S. has no f r i e n d , and only two acquaintances. D.S. has had long talks with the school's guidance teacher and h i s doctor but as soon as he leaves t h e i r presence a l l his old fears and worries return. At the moment he i s reading Dale Carnegie's book "How to Win Friends and In-fluence People", but f e e l s that i f you have will, power there i s no use reading i t , and i f you haven't there i s no use reading i t anywayJ. This interview began at one t h i r t y and lasted u n t i l ten minutes a f t e r three. Baker's sheets of remedial suggestions were gone over and discussed with D.S. Conclusions 1. This interview c e r t a i n l y validated the low topic scores of D.S.'s inventory. 2. I t was suggested to the guidance teacher that D.S. be referred to -the Metropolitan C l i n i c / -64-The Case of T.W. T.W. i s a t a l l boy, dark haired, dark eyed and clear, ol i v e eomplexioned. He shook hands and sat down as i f he had been through t h i s whole interviewing business before and was s l i g h t l y bored. T.W. i s 16 years, 7 months of age. His I.G> i s s l i g h t l y above the average of h i s grade. He made a mark of 383 on the November Inventory t e s t i n g and a mark of 396 on the January t e s t i n g . On several to p i c s , "Good Mixer, I n f e r i o r -Superior, W i l l Power, and Home Attit u d e s , " he made a score of 13. On the topic "Growing Up" he made a score of 9, on "Hobbies" a score of 12, on "Optimism-Pessimism"', a score of 12 and on "Vocations"' a score of 9. l e s h a l l here discuss h i s three lowest topic scores; Growing Up, Hobbies and Vocations. In the matter of Growing Up, T.W. believed he wasn't being allowed to grow up. He i s an only c h i l d . The Mother dominates the home and i s evidently the absolute authority. She allows her son no freedom. He must.-report home immediate-l y a f t e r school; he does chores u n t i l supper and then spends the evening i n study under his mother's supervision. T.W. would l i k e to attend school dances and pa r t i e s but his mother won't give her permission, Friday nights T.W. works i n a bowling a l l e y and turns his earnings over to his mother. His mother nags him continually, everything he suggests or says at home i s c r i t i c i z e d . We would think that under such con-ditions T.W. should have made lower scores than he did on the topics, "Home Status", "Home Atmosphere" and "Home Attit u d e s . " As regards to the topic Hobbies, T.W. admitted he has no time for such, as he i s always busy at home. He did play foot-b a l l f o r a time but dropped out of the game shortly a f t e r he injured his. knee. He began to c o l l e c t stamps but h i s mother was continually i n s t r u c t i n g him as to how the stamps should be arranged, what stamps he should exchange so he l o s t i n -terest. On the topic of vocations, T.W. said he i s interested i n Mechanical Engineering, but he thinks he w i l l be unable to attend University. There has been much sickness i n the family; h i s father i s attempting to buy t h e i r home, thus family f i n -ances are not good. T.W. l i k e s a r t i n school but f e e l s there is no future i n i t and that the other fellows i n the class do better work than he does. This summer he would l i k e to work in a lumber camp, managed by h i s uncle, but h i s mother won't hear of him leaving home. He once suggested getting a job on one of the C.P.R, boats f o r the summer, but h i s mother, hear-ing of i t , took one of her s p e l l s so he never made the sug-gestion again. His mother had to work very hard when she was young, consequently she doesn't want her son to go out into the world too soon. T.W. has never been away from home and f e e l s he would l i k e to have that experience. He hopes to secure an a l l day job i n Safeways for the summer once school closes. However, he would l i k e to have an " a f t e r four" job. 411 his friends have jobs and he f e e l s i n f e r i o r to them. His ' friends never seem to pay any attention to him. Too, i f he had an a f t e r school job he would be able to get away from home more and escape some of the bickering and arguments there* -66-T.W. kept repeating "my mother i s not easy on me. She makes me do things correctly.'* The father was i n the a i r force „ during the war but T.W. has no i n t e r e s t i n aero-mechanics. Conclusion As we have noted above, i'.W.'s whole maladjustment prob-lem seems to be i n the home, and yet on these topics he made average scores. We doubt whether he should have made such a low score on Growing up i n that he has a strong desire to be on his own, and to secure his independence. Too, on the topic Vocations, T.W. knows what he would l i k e to do.if finances permitted. Vde would say that the topics Good Mixer, I n f e r i o r -Superior and W i l l Power on which T.W. made a score of 13, had been rated cor r e c t l y . The maladjustment i n the home seems to be the main cause f o r T.W.'s low inventory score. • The Case of B.E. We encountered much d i f f i c u l t y i n securing an interview with B.E. as on three successive "Guidance days" he was .ab-sent from school. B.E. i s 16 years, 6 months of age and has an I.Q. of 115 (Otis Gamma). Broad shouldered, muscular, he looked the t y p i c a l athlete. A pleasant, bright, f r i e n d l y manner rather surprised us. His f i r s t score, from the Nov-ember te s t i n g was only 394, but on the second testing i t was 419. His low topics were - Inferior-Superior12; Home At-mosphere 12, Home Attitudes 10, and Hobbies 11. Both B.E.*s father and mother were dead. He l i v e s with his grandmother, who, he admits s p o i l s him and allows him to do exactly as he pleases. An Aunt i s h i s guardian and she has the f i n a l say on any of his a c t i v i t i e s . As an example, B.E. had made f u l l arrangements to work i n a lumber camp l a s t summer, but his aunt hearing of i t , said "thumbs down" and he remained i n the c i t y . She won't give her permission f o r him to work on a boat this summer. Other than this complaint B.E. seemed to be quite s a t i s f i e d with his home and i t s arrange ments. He has his own room, a comfortable bed, i s fed well, i s given s u f f i c i e n t spending money and complete freedom. B.E. belongs to three school clubs, the Fro-Rec. Club, and the H i - Y i , He c o l l e c t s swing records and i s interested i n photography. He knows quite a gang of kids, has three g i r l friends and attends many dances and parties.- He plays on the School's grass hockey and f o o t b a l l teams. We asked B.E. i f he remembered being i l l or worried or -aB-excited at the f i r s t t e s t i n g . He said he didn't think so. We see no maladjustment, unless our support was poor, i n B.E.'s low scored topics. The home may not be normal, but B.E. seemed p e r f e c t l y s a t i s f i e d with the arrangement. 9 The Case of I.D. We found i t d i f f i c u l t to secure good support with I.D. He answered questions and gave information i n rather a cy n i c a l tone. He seemed to weight everything he said c a r e f u l l y as i f a f r a i d he would say too much. We f e l t that the boy had some maladjustment but was determined he wouldn't reveal i t , At times he was i n c l i n e d to be surly and acted l i k e a spoiled ' c h i l d . Short but broad, I.D. has rather blunt features with a mop of unruly h a i r . He i s 16 years, 5 months of age. He made a score of 398 on the November testing with a score of 13 on the topic "Sleeping and Eating," a score of 13 on the topic "(Pity,"' a score of 13. on the topic "Inferior-Superior", a score of 13 on the topic "Optimism-Pessimism," a score of 12 on the topic "Home Atmosphere" and a score of 11 on the topic "Vocations." We s h a l l here discuss the l a s t two men-tioned topics only. On the topic "Home Atmosphere"" we f a i l e d to f i n d any. maladjustment, I,D. has two older s i s t e r s with whom he gets <, along f a i r l y w e l l . His parents usually l e t him do what he wants to do. Except they i n s i s t he. be home by midnight when he is at a party or dance, but since most p a r t i e s are only n i c e l y started at that time, says I.D., he doesn rt go at a l l , I.D. has a job a f t e r school and on Saturdays and he i s allow-ed to spend his money as he pleases. If he needs anything which he himself can't afford h i s parents usually secure i t f o r him. He has his own room i n the basement and a comfort--7Q-able bed on which to sleep. He admits he i s fussy about his food. His mother has the reputation of being a good cook. On the topic Vocations we found that I.D. has d e f i n i t e l y no objective nor plans for the future, but we could not. learn why. His Dad owns a transfer business and J.D. drives one of the trucks during the summer. The father wants I.D. to go into partnership with him a f t e r he has completed Grade XII, but I.D. has f l a t l y said "No." He d i s l i k e s the work as i t i s too heavy and rough, I.D. has no desire to go to Un i v e r s i t y . He has not heard of or seen any vocation that appeals to him. At one time he was very fond of S o c i a l Studies but now he just "hates i t " ' because he has a d i f f e r e n t teacher. He enjoys Commercial Art but only secures C*s i n i t so he fe e l s he has no a b i l i t y i n that f i e l d . At the moment he is taking boxing lessons so that he w i l l know how to defend himself, although he never has the desire to hurt h i s opponent. He dislikes, people "who make cracks at him. w Things often get him down. At t h i s p o i n t the f i n a l b e l l rang and we had to close the interview. Conclusion. We believe I.D.'s score on Home Atmosphere i s possibly too low, but on the topic Vocations we found h i s score quite ffalid. On the whole, however, we found the interview rather unsatisfactory. 71-The Case of IVL.G-. M.G. slouched i n t o a chair and ran h i s fingers through his h a i r . Although clean, i&.G. was by no means neatly or c a r e f u l l y dressed. His o v e r a l l trousers were without crease and the bottoms had been r o l l e d up h a l f way to his knees. His s h i r t was open at the throat and chest; one sleeve was r o l l e d higher than the other; h i s h a i r had not been combed a l l day. M.G, i s 17 years, 7 months i n age. He has rather a low I.Q. and h i s teachers report that he i s neither over-industrious nor over-co-operative. He made a score of 408 on the November t e s t i n g and of 424 on the January t e s t i n g . On the topic "Self Care", M.G. made a score of 11, on the topic "Good Mixer" a score of 11, on the topic " I n f e r i o r -Superior" a score of 13 and on the topic " W i l l Power" he made a score of 13. These were h i s low topic scores. M.G. 's personal appearance was s u f f i c i e n t to validate h i s low score on the topic "Self Care." He admitted that he i s not at a l l interested i n clothes nor g i r l s , and d i s -l i k e s wearing a tie.. He claimed he always had a row with h i s mother whenever she i n s i s t e d he dress up f o r company. Some-times she had to remind him. to take a bath. He belongs to the Pro-Bee. Club. He enjoys this club because he cam always be "rough and ready" while there. M.G. d i s l i k e s parties and very seldom goes to a movie. He stays away from down town as much as possible as he f e e l s i l l at ease i n a crowd. He hasn't any close friends and often passes a whole day i n school without speaking to anyone. -7S-M.G. has two brothers and he l i k e s to work with them on a boat i n the basement of t h e i r home. Ihe brothers have made one boat already. He quarrels with h i s older brother who attempts to boss him. M.G. i s intensely interested i n Motor Mechanics but i s not allowed to work on the motor of the. boat. His brothers t e l l him what he can and cannot do i n i t s construction. M.G. doesn't belong to any school club. He joined the Pro-Eec. to build up his muscles not for the s o c i a l act-i v i t i e s . - Semi-classical music and photography are his only i i n t e r e s t s outside of motor mechanics. M.G. claims he has no d i f f i c u l t y studying the subjects he l i k e s , but on subjects he d i s l i k e s he finds i t d i f f i c u l t to concentrate. M.G. plans on securing a High School leaving diploma. Conclusion The Inventory c e r t a i n l y validated the topics "Self Care" and "Good Mixer" i n regards to M.G. The boy i s probably lacking i n w i l l power and has a f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y be-cause of the dominance of his older brothers, but we didn't think him excessively maladjusted i n these two l a s t named t r a i t s . • -73-The Case of N.G, The Guidance teachers were surprised to l e a r n that N..G. had made one of the ten lowest scores on the Inventory t e s t -ing. He i s a teacher's son. He has had some sort of poison i n his blood and f o r some time has not been well, but h i s teachers d i d not think of him as having any maladjustment i n personality. "He causes no trouble i n his classes, i s co-operative, studious and normal i n every way,"* we were t o l d , iiis t o t a l score was 424 on the November tes t i n g and 441 on the January t e s t i n g . He made low scores on two topics -"Anger" a score of 13 and " P i t y " a score ,of IE. N.G. a t a l l , slim,, blonde boy, was easy to talk to; most natural and d i r e c t i n h i s response. He is 16 years, 9 months of age and has an. of 121 (Otis Gamma};. N.G. admitted surprise at being c a l l e d into the o f f i c e . He claims he never loses his temper - his mother has often said she wishes the younger brother were as good natured as i s M.S. With t h i s younger brother, N.G. says he gets along f a i r l y well. He doesn't lose h i s temper when playing games, trys to abide by the rules and i f kicked i n the shins by an opponent, passes i t by as an accident. We concluded that M.G,'s seore on the topic "Anger" was too low. On the topic " P i t y " , N.u. said he does f e e l sorry f o r old people and c r i p p l e s . "They seem so lonely and uncared f o r , " he remarked. Sometimes he helps an old lady off the streetcar or to carry her parcels across the street, but too -7:4-often N.G. f e e l s he does not put his sympathy into action,. When older he would l i k e to j o i n some organization .where he could a i d the blind and incapable. Conclusion. We concluded that N.G. was possibly over conscientious in answering of the Inventory and that on the whole, his t o t a l score was too low. -75-The Case of D.H. D.H. made a t o t a l score of 421 on the Inventory, His low topics were "Sleeping" and "Eating" with a score of 13, "Self Care" with a score of 12 and "Schools" with a score of 12. D.H. i s 16 years, 2 months of age. He seemed confident of himself i n the interview. His appearance was neat and clean. D.H, f e e l s he doesn't get enough sleep, i n that he goes to bed too l a t e at night and then arises early to deliver newspapers before school. He sleeps on a cot to which "he has become used." His room faces the front of the house and there i s evidently heavy t r a f f i c along the road which passes by his home. This information seems to validate his low score on the topic "Sleeping". D.H. claims he has no trouble with h i s food - "usually eats l i k e a horse. 1" On the topic "Schools" the teachers we interviewed affirmed his low score. D.H.. admitted he didn't do enough homework or studying - only about an hour a night. He f e e l s that his course i s too heavy t h i s year, that he has taken too many subjects. He i s having d i f f i c u l t y with French, Math-ematics and Chemistry. He wishes he had l e f t one or two of these for next year. When asked i f he paid attention i n class,, he answered "sometimes - a f t e r I *ve given myself a talking to." The low score on this topic was thus validated to our s a t i s f a c t i o n . However we believe D.H.'s score on "Self Care" i s too low. He worked i n a lumber camp l a s t summer and with the money earned lie bought some "classy clothes." He l i k e s to dress up and "enjoys a good shower a f t e r a heavy workout."' He said he wants to keep himself f i t because on leaving high school he intends to j o i n the American Army. We con-sidered D.H's appearance average, -77-The Case of B.K. B.K. i s a t a l l , dark, well b u i l t youth with an open countenance and a pleasing manner. He i s 17 years, 2 months of age and made a t o t a l score on the Inventory of 423. His low topics were "Self Care", a score of 13, "Fears" a score of 11 and "Home. Attitudes"' a score of 12. The general comment from his teachers was, "an average student." Discussing the topic "Self Care" with B.K., he agreed that h i s score, i n this particular, case, was v a l i d . He doesn't care p a r t i c u l a r l y about his clothes or h i s appearance. B.K. belongs to the sea cadets, plays rugby f o o t b a l l , does some boxing at the Y.M.C.A. and for the Navy. He enjoys those a c t i v i t i e s which are rough and ready and doesn't mind being knocked about. He wears a t i e as seldom as possible, and admitted, rather r e l e e t a n t l y , that at times his mother has refused to serve him h i s meal u n t i l h i s hands were more "thoroughly washed. The topic "Fears" was B.K. »s lowest score. He t o l d us. that at the time he took the Inventory he was worried about hi s teeth. He has had a l o t of trouble with them, and f o r over a year has v i s i t e d the dentist every day. So often were h i s gums frozen that they f i n a l l y ' became immune to the freezing. Every time B.E. thinks of a d r i l l or a dentist he shivers. B.K. doesn't appear to be the type that might be obsessed by physical fears i n that he boxes and enjoys hard ph y s i c a l games. He couldn't r e c a l l ever having; f e a r of persons or things. He doesn't believe he i s e a s i l y upset or -78-of a. nervous temperament. He blaned h i s low score for t h i s topic on the d e n t i s t ! In the home, B.K. told us there has been some trouble. The father has been i l l for some years and i s d i f f i c u l t to s a t i s f y and please. As a r e s u l t of the father's sickness there have been f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , although at the moment two older brothers are managing the father's business and doing quite well, B.K. i s the youngest i n the family. An older brother and s i s t e r attempt to boss him. He and his mother are"good p a l s " - but B.K. doesn't think he gets along so well with his father. B.K. has never had the desire to leave' home. B.K. was surprised he didn't make a lower score on the topic "Anger" (on which he made a score of 16), as he has a reputation f o r violent temper which he loses e a s i l y . Some fellows don't l i k e to box: with him for that reason. However, he doesn't hold a grudge. Conclusion. We would say that on the topics "Self Care"* and"Home Attitude", B.K. made a v a l i d score, but we think h i s score on "Fears" too low. - 7 9 -The Case of J . I . J.W. i s 16 years, 10 months of age. He made a t o t a l score -of 422 on the November testing and 425 on the January te s t i n g . His low topics were "Good Mixer", with a sotsre of 13, and "Hobbies"5 with a score of 11. He has an average I.Q. and we heard no complaints concerning his school work, from his teachers. In regards to the topic "Good Mixer"', J.W. f e e l s he i s not wanted i n this school. His home i s a small town i n the i n t e r i o r of the province and, there being no high school he was sent to Vancouver to complete his education. He knows everybody i n his home town and attends p a r t i e s and s o c i a l gatherings when there, but here i n Vancouver, he has found i t d i f f i c u l t to make friends and become one of a crowd hi s own age. Some times he f e e l s as i f he were getting into the school s p i r i t but then a t other times he seems to be a com-plete outsider. He enjoys sports but doesn't play as many games here as he did at home because he f e e l s the other boys don't want him. He thinks the school too big - too many teachers - too many pupils. J.W. boards with friends close to the school. These friends are very kind to him, are not s t r i c t with him and allow him considerable freedom. He hasn't developed a hobby because he doesn't f e e l free enough to "mess about"' i n his boarding house. He claims h i s only hobby i s going to the movies. J.W. enquired i f we could suggest any hobby which might develop his hands as he would l i k e to become a surgeon. -aa-we suggested working with clay, and modelling, or taking up the v i o l i n or the piano, or any hobby which demands patient, accurate, fine finger work. Conclusion. We concluded that J'.W.1 s low score was the result of iack of adjustment to the l i f e of a boarding house and a big school. -81-The Case of S.M. S.M. i s 16 years, 4 months of age and has an I.Q. of 110 (Otis Gamma). He has an average I.Q. and his scholastic achievement i s i n the tenth p e r c e n t i l e . His t o t a l score on the November testing was 427 and on the January t e s t i n g 431. His low topic was "Hobbies" with a score of 12. S.M. i s a new student to the school, h i s family having recently moved from Prince Rupert. He has an older brother (on whom the family seem to l a v i s h a l l t h e i r attention) attending university. I t was to allow t h i s older brother to attend University that the family moved to Vancouver. S.M. d i s l i k e s this c i t y and hi s older brother, both for the same reason - "they're too b i g , " said S.M. "My brother i s much more clever than I am." S.M. doesn't know what he wants to do - he f e e l s he i s n ' t s u f f i c i e n t l y clever to go to University and he hasn*t heard or seen of any job that part-i c u l a r l y interested him. He has no hobby and knows of none that might appeal to him. several were suggested during the interview but S.M. did not profess interest i n any of them. Conclusion. S.M.'s maladjustment seems to center about his older brother. His scores on the "Home" topic were comparatively high - a score of 19 on "Home status", a score of 16 on "Home Attitudes" and a score of 16 on "Growing Up," so that his maladjustment i s not indicated here. His low score on Hobbies, however, seems v a l i d . -82-General conclusion on Interview On the whole we found that low topic scores were v a l i d -ated .by a personal interview, with the student concerned, and that, i n general a t o t a l low score on the Inventory was caused by some serious maladjustment usually found i n the home. We would thus agree with Baker's statement i n h i s Manual that the Detroit Adjustment Inventory can be used as a basis or source of information for interviews with psychiat-r i s t s , psychologists and guidance teachers. Too, seven out of the ten students who were interviewed were newcomers to the school, usually from small towns i n the i n t e r i o r or along the coast. Thus we would suggest that those students who had been i n attendance at the school f o r a number of years had either: 1. Learned to adjust themselves to the taking of such inventories through the grades, or, 2. they had been expertly guided and advised by the school's Guidance S t a f f , or 3. they had become s u f f i c i e n t l y adjusted to the l i f e of a large school and a b i g c i t y so that no maladjustment, a f f e c t i n g t h e i r t o t a l score was disclosed by the Inventory. Perhaps i t might follow that more personnel, work be done with newer students. -83-Table XV gives the scores of the November, January and A p r i l testings of the ten boys who were interviewed during February and March. The l a s t three columns show the number of topics which were discussed with each case i n the. interview j and the average mark of these topics on the November and the A p r i l t e stings. Table XV Scores of Interviewed iaalad.justed Cases Inventory Score Topics Discussed Case Nov. Jan. A p r i l No. Average Mark, ... • Test ina Testing Testing November A p r i l D.S. 36.8 • 347 351 5 10 9 -T.I.' 383 396. 410 3 10. 15 B.ifi. 394 419 431 2 11 16 I.D. 398 410 3 12 17 M.G. 408 424 418 2 12 15 N.G. 424 441 447 2 12 18 D.H. 421 430 3 12 15 B.K. 423 459 2. 12 16 J.W, 422. 425 492: 2 12 19 G.M. 427 431. 449 1 1& 14. A.M. 40-6. 8 411.9 429.7 11*5 15.4 It can be seen from Table XV that the mean score i n -creased with each testing. Only D.S. made a lower.score i n A p r i l than he did i n November. Two of h i s topics, which were discussed i n the interview, had lower scores, namely, "Fears", -84-changed from 11 to 8, and "Home Attitudes" from 9 to 7. In six cases the A p r i l scores were s u f f i c i e n t l y high that they ^'ranked well above 425, which had been chosen as the lower l i m i t for adjustment. One may conclude that the remedial suggestions were of value to those students who had low adjustment scores, or that the students had become conditioned to the Inventory and en-c i r c l e d those responses which seemed to represent s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment. CHAPTER VIII.  Conclusion.. - 8 5 -The purpose of th i s thesis was to determine the r e l i a b -i l i t y and the v a l i d i t y of the Detroit Adjustment Inventory, " T e l l i n g What I Do" by xiarry J. Baker, as a device f o r as s i s t i n g teachers and s o c i a l workers i n t h e i r guidance pro-gramme . The inventory consists of 120 items divided into twenty-four topics. For each of the one hundred items there are f i v e choices of answera, f o r which numerical values from one to f i v e are assigned. The p u p i l selects the response which most nearly describes his s i t u a t i o n and draws a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r of that choice. The topics include Health, Sleeping-Eating, Self Care, Habits, Worries, Fears, Anger, Pi t y , Good Mixer, Inferior-Superior, Optimism-Pessimism, W i l l Power, Home Status, Home Atmosphere, Home Attitudes, Growing Up, Schools, Sportsmanship, Morals, Delinquency, Friends, Acting Your Part, Hobbies and Vocations. A Record Blank i s supplied for determining the score from the inventory. ' The maximum score i s 600. The Inventory was given to 111 boys and 91 g i r l s i n Grade XI at K i t s i l a n o Junior-Senior High School, Vancouver, during November, 1946. Sixty-three of the boys were re-tested i n ear l y January, 1947. The ten boys who made the lowest scores i n the November te s t i n g were given guidance during February and March and were given the Inventory again i n A p r i l , 1947, -86-As a basis for the thesis c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n s of person-a l i t y were discussed,, and a b r i e f history of personality t e s t -ing was given. The conclusion was reached that the popular demand for some form of personality measurement has flooded the market with tests which have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y evaluated. The Teachers' Handbook for the Inventory was c r i t i c a l l y analyzed. As a manual suitable for guidance and s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t was found wanting norms, v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l -i t y , and i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between topics, were not given. The Handbook gives only an t h e o r e t i c a l discussion of the inven-tory. The inventory i s e a s i l y administered and scored. Some language and interpretation d i f f i c u l t i e s were reported by the students,, but generally, they seemed to enjoy doing the i n -ventory. Means and percentile norms were secured for each topic and for t o t a l scores. The mean score f o r boys was 456.85 and 454.51 for g i r l s , on the November t e s t i n g . The difference between the means i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5$ l e v e l . It was decided, however to treat the two sexes separately. On the January testing the mean score for the 63 boys was 458.41.. The difference between the means of the f i r s t and second t e s t -ings was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The extent to which the topics were measuring separate features of personality was determined by computing i n t e r c o r -r e l a t i o n s between selected topics. The majority of the cor-relations were not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% l e v e l . -87-Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were determined f o r both topics and t o t a l scores. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the inven-tory based on t o t a l scores was found to be ;74. For the topics, the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t varied from .13 to .97. The relationships between test scores and teacher's judg-ments on four topics and t o t a l adjustment were determined by the n u l l hypothesis, phi c o e f f i c i e n t s and Pearson's r . Few si g n i f i c a n t r elationships were found. Item v a l i d i t y was determined by means of chi-square'tech-niques. Fifty-two of the one hundred and twenty items were found to discriminate s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the 27 boys who made the highest scores and the 27 who made the lowest scores on the November te s t i n g . Interviews were held with the ten boys who made the low-est t o t a l scores: on the November and January testings. In these interviews the remedial suggestions which Baker has pre-pared f o r each of h i s twenty-four topics were used. A personal v a l i d a t i o n of those topics on which the students had made low. scores, was made. In the majority of cases low topic scores were validated by thi s interview. The ten boys were given the inventory again i n early A p r i l and i t was found s i x had scores above the 30th percentile whidh had been set as the lower l i m i t f o r adjustment. The interviews with these ten boys were recorded. The Detroit Adjustment Inventory i s not very s a t i s f a c t o r y as a means of diagnosing and treating personality problems of high school students. I t has some value as a basis f o r be--88-ginning a discussion on the general problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the student, Ihe inventory has low i n t e r n a l and external v a l i d i t y . The r e l i a b i l i t y i s s u f f i c i e n t for group guidance only. B I B L I 0 G R A P H Y B I B L I 0 GR A P H Y Books A l l p o r t , Gordon W. Personality, a Psychological Interpre- t a t i o n . New York, Henry, Holt and Co. 1937 A v e r i l l , L.A. The Hygiene of Instruction. - A Study of the  Mental Health of ,the School Child. New York, M i f f l i n Go. 1928. Baker, H.J". Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c Differences i n Bright and D o l l  P u p i l s . Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Co. 1926. Baker, H.J. Introduction to Exceptional Children. New York, The Macmillan Co. 1944. Buros, Oscar. Educational Psychological and Personality Tests  of 1935. 1954 and 1935V New Brunswick. N.Y. School o r Ed-ucation, Rutgers University, 1936, Buros, Oscar K. Educational Psychological and Personality  Acts of 1956, New Brunswick, N.Y. School of Education, Rutgers University. 1937. Buros, Oscar K. The 1938 Mental Measurements Yearbook, New Brunswick, N.Y. Rutgers University Press. 1938. Burnham, W.H. The Wholesome Personality. New York, B.Apple-ton & Co. 1932. Dunlop, J.W. & Kurtz, A.K. Handbook of S t a t i s t i c a l Nomographs  Tables and Formulas. New York* World Book Company. 19327 Freeman, Frank, N. Mental Tests. Chapter .Till Tests of  Personality T r a i t s . Boston Houghton M i f f l i n Co. 1926. Garrett, Henry E. & Schneck, M.R. Psychological Tests.Methods  and Results. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1933. G r i f f i n , J.D. Mental Hygiene - A Manual f o r Teachers. New York, American Book Co, 1940, Lee, J,M. & Lee, D.M. A Guide to Measurement i n Secondary  Schools. New York, D. Appleton - Century Company, 1936, Murray, H, & e t a l . Explorations i n Personality. New York, Oxford University Press, 1938. Rueh, G.M. & Stoddard, G.D. Tests & Measurements i n High  School Instruction. Chieago, World Book Co, 1927. Stagner, R. Psychology of Personality, New iork. McGraw-H i l l Book Co, 1937, Symonds, P.M. Diagnosing Personality and Conduct, London, The Century Co, 1938. Symonds, Pereival M. Diagnosing Personality and Conduct. New York, The Century Go. 1931. Thorpe, L.P. Psychological Foundations of Personality. New York, McGraw-Hill. 1938. Traxler, J L . E . Techniques of Guidance. New York, Harper. 1945. William & Hahn. Introduction to High School Counselling. London, Mc.Graw-Hill Book Co. 1940. Williamson & Darby, Student Personnel Work, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co* 1937, Williamson, E.G. How to Counsel Students. New York, McGraw-H i l l Book Co. Inc. 1939. Periodicals Abernethy, E.M. "Further Data on Personality and Family Positions," Journal of Psychology. Vol.10,1940, pp.303-307 Adams, C.R. *A New Measure of Personality." 1 Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.25, 1941, pp.l41-15L. Allen, Eleanor, A. "Temperamental Tests," British Journal  Medical Psychology. Vol.7, 1927, pp,394-^446. Allport, G.W. "Concepts of Trait and Personality." Psycho- logical Bulletin. Vol.24, 1927, pp.284-293. Allport, G.W. "The Neurotic Personality and Traits of Self Expression." Journal of Social Psychology. Vol.1, 1930, Bain, R. "Stability in Questionnaire Response.* American  Journal of -Soc1ology. Vol.37,1931, pp.445-453.-Baker, Harry J. Chairman. "Tests of Personality and Character Review of Educational Research. Vol.11, Number 3, 1932, pp.183-270, Baker, H.J. "Integration of Characters and Personality," National Educational Association. 1940, pp,631-8. Bernreuter, Robert G. "The Theory and Construction of the Personality Inventory."- Journal of S o c i a l Psychology, Yol.4, 1933 pp.387-405. Burks, Barbara S. "Personality theories r e l a t i o n to measure-ment." Journal of S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.7,1936,pp.140-150. Br i t t o n , D.A, "Classroom guidance of pupils e x h i b i t i n g behavior problems." Elementary School Journal. Vol.92, Jan.1945, pp.245-286. Brown, P. "An experimental study of the v a l i d i t y to r e l i -a b i l i t y of the Brown Personality Inventory f o r Children.* Journal of Psychology. Vol.17, 1944, pp.75-89. Clark, W.A. & Smith, S.F. "Further evidence on the v a l i d i t y of personality inventories." Journal of educational Psy- chology. Vol.33, 1942, pp.81-91. Cattell,. R.B. "The description of personality. 1. Foundation of t r a i t measurement. Psychological Review. Vol.50, 1943, p.p.559-94. Darley, J.G. & Anderson, G.V. "Application of personality and character measurement." Review of Educational Research. Vol. 14, 1944, pp. 67-80. , Dysinger, D.W. "A c r i t i c i s m of the Humn-Wadsworth tempera-ment scale." Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.34, 1939, pp.73-83, !  Flanagan, John C, "Technical Aspects of m u l t i - t r a i t t e s t s . " Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol.XXVI, 1935, pp.641-51. Frank, Benjamin, " S t a b i l i t y of questionnaire response." Journal of Abnormal and So c i a l Psychology. Vol.XXX, 1935, pp;320-324. Garrett, BYE. and Schneek, N.R. "A study of the discrim-inative value of the woodworth Personal Data Sheet." Journal  of General Psychology. Vol.1, 1928,. pp.459-471. Harris, D.B. & Dabelstein, D.H. "A study of the Moller and Bmyhttnan. Personality inventory." Journal of .Educational Psychology. Vol.XSIX, 1938, pp.279-86. : Harvey, 0.L, "Concerning the Thurstone Personality Schedule;" Journal of S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.Ill,1932,pp.240-51. Humm, D,G. "Dysinger's c r i t i q u e of the Humns-Wadsworth temperament s c a l e . " - Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psy- chology. Vol.34,1939,pp.402-403. Horseh, A.C. & Davis, R.A. "Topical summaries of current l i t e r a t u r e mental hygiene and personality t e s t s * " American  Journal of Sociology. Vol. XL, 1935, pp.646-658., Humm, D.G. & Humm, K.A. " V a l i d i t y of the Humm-iadsworth Temperament ScaleT^with a consideration of the e f f e c t s of subjects' response; bias." Journal, of Psychology, Vol.18, 1944, pp.55,-64. Humm, D,G. "Personality and adjustment." Journal of Psy- chology. Vol,13, 1943, pp.109-134. K e l l y , JS.L. & Miles, Catherine 0. & Terman Ltd. " A b i l i t y to influence one's score i n a t y p i c a l p e n c i l and^paper test of personality." Character and Personality. Vol.1., 1935-36, pp. 206-215. . Kuznetzs, George M. "An analysis of Bernreuters Personality Inventory." Psychological B u l l e t i n . Vol.XXXI, 1934,, pp.585. Keys, V. & Guilford, Margaret, S. "The v a l i d i t y of c e r t a i n adjustment inventories i n p r e d i c t i n g problem behavior." Journal of"educational Psychology, Vol.28, 1937, pp.641-655. Kirkpatrick, C "A c r i t i c a l note on the s t a t i s t i c a l study of personality reactions." Journal of Abnormal and s o c i a l  Psychology. Vol.28, 1933, pp.168^171. Layman, Emma, M. "An item analysis of the adjustment questionnaire." Journal of Psychology, Vol.10, 1940,pp.87-106. Landls, 'G., £ubin, J, and Katz, S.E. "Empirical evaluation of three personality adjustment inventories." Journal of  Educational Psychology. Vol.26, 1935, pp.321-^330. L a s l e t t , H.H. and Bennett, Elisabeth. "A comparison of scores on two measures of personality,"- Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol,28, 1934, pp.459-461, Mailer, J.B. "Character and personality t e s t s . " Psycholog- i c a l B u l l i t e n . • V o l . XXXI, 1934, pp,501-24. Manson, G.iS.A. "Bibliography of the analysis and. measurement of human personality up to 1926." National aesearch Council. 1926, No. 72. McClotchy, v.K. "A t h e o r e t i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l study of the personality t r a i t , o r i g i n a l l y as herein defined." Journal  of Abnormal and s o c i a l Psychology, Vol.23, pp.379-3H2TT92B. McQuitty, L.L.- "Condition a f f e c t i n g the v a l i d i t y of person-a l i t y inventories." I l l S o c i a l Psychology, Vol.15,1942, pp.33-52. May, M.A. , "Problems i n measuring character and personality." Journal of S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.3, 1932, pp.131-145. May, M., Hartshorne, H. and Welty, Ruth E. "Personality and character t e s t s . " Psychological B u l l e t i n . Vol.24,1927, pp.418-435. Moore, H. and Steele, Isabel. "Personality t e s t s . " Journal  of Abnormal and .Social Psychology. V01.29, 1934,pp.45-52. Muller, J.B. "Character and personality t e s t s . " Psycho- l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . Vol. XXXII, 1935, pp.500-23. -Olson, W.C.. "Measures of character and personality through conversation and information." Review of Educational Research. Vol.5, 1935, pp,273-290. Panpurt, M.J. "A study of the Woodworth Psychoneurotic i n -ventory with a suggested r e v i s i o n . " Journal of Abnormal and  S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.25, 193Q, pp.335-352. Pintner, Rudolph and Forlano, George. "Validation of Person-a l i t y tests by outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of pupils."' Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol.XXX., 1939, pp.25-32. . Remmers, E.W,, Whistler, L. and Duvala, T.H. "Neurotic i n -dication at the adolescent l e v e l . " Journal of S o c i a l Psy- chology. Vol.9, 1938, pp.17-24. Snyder, W.V. "A survey of recent studies i n the measurement of personality, attitudes and in t e r e s t s of adolescents." Journal of General Psychology. Vol.25, 1941, pp.403-420.. Spencer, D. "The frankness of subjects on personality measures." Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol.2.9, 1938, pp. 26-35. Stagner, Ross. " V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y ^ of the Bernreuter Personality Inventory," Journal of Abnormal and S o o i a l  Psychology. Vol. XXVIII, 1934, pp.413-18. Stagner, Ross. "Current trends i n research upon character and personality". Character and Personality. Vol.VII, 1938, pp.161-165. ' Symonds, P.M. "deeded research i n diagnosing personality and conduct." Journal of Educational Research, Vol.24,1931, pp.175-187. Traxler, Arthur E. Chairman,Psychological tests and t h e i r uses." Review of Educational Research. Yol.XI, Number 1, 1941, pp.1-132. Wrightstone, J. Wayne. " V a l i d i t y of the Woodsworth-Matheur Personal Data Sheet for diagnosing personality disorders." Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. XXV, 1934, pp;39-44. Young, K. "The measurement of personal and s o c i a l t r a i t s . " Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. Vol.22, 1928, pp.431-442. APPENDIX. (Published, 1942, by the Public School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois. Printed in U. S. A. Copyright, 1940, by Harry J . Baker. The right to modify or print this work for use in the Detroit Public Schools has been assigned to the Board of Education, City of Detroit.) Det . A d . Inv . TELLING WHAT I D By Harry J. Baker Alpha Form for Junior and Senior High Schools Name Boy F i r s t L a s t ..Girl • Grade.. Age School. Y e a r s M o n t h s City State- Date.. The following exercises have five different answers. Next to the answers are the letters A, B, C, D, and E. You are to put a circle around the letter next to the answer which most nearly fits you. Some of these things we may know about you already, but we want you to tell us yourself. It is the purpose to help you with any problems you may have. There is no time limit, but please keep working and do not waste time. Hand in your booklet as soon as you are finished. Please be sure to answer all the exercises. 1. About my health A. I am not sick very often. B. Being sick does not worry me. C. I am never sick. D. I don't believe I will ever be well. E. My health is only fair. 2. About being thin or fat A. I am neither thin nor fat. B. I don't mind being a little fat. C. They tease me for being very thin. D. I don't mind being a little thin. E. They tease me for being very fat. 3. About being tall or short A. They tease me for being very short. B. They tease me for being very tall. C. I don't mind being a little short. D. I like being a little tall: E. I am neither tall nor short.-4. About my skin A. My pimples (acne) bother me a lot. B. It is nice and clear. C. My skin is too oily and shiny. D. My few pimples do not bother me. E. My skin is too dry and scaly. 5. About my heart A. I believe it is about average. B. I must avoid hard play. C. I never think about it. D. The doctor says it is all right. E. I can't play at all. 6. About my bed A. It is only a couch or cot. B. It is a little better than average. C. It is just average. D. I have a very good bed. E. It is very hard, so I don't sleep well. 7. About how I sleep A. I always get plenty of sleep. B. Noise often keeps me awake late. C. I usually get about enough sleep. D. I am often short of sleep. E. I have many dreams and nightmares. 8. About sleeping alone A. I hate having to sleep two in a bed. B. I have a bed and room to myself. C. We sleep crowded; three or more in a bed. D. Two of us sleep together fairly well. E. We have separate beds in the same room. (Go to the next column.) (Turn to the next page.) 9. About eating together A. Eating together goes fairly well. B. We don't like eating together very well. C. It is pleasant most of the time. D. We always have a good time eating together. E. Eating is a time to scold and quarrel. 10. About liking foods A. I like most kinds of foods. B. I eat mostly cake and candy. C. I enjoy all kinds of foods. D. I have to be careful about what I eat. E. I always get angry if food is not just right. 11. About my face and hands A. I am sometimes praised for having them clean. B. It is quite hard to be always cleaning them. C. They are usually quite dirty. D. I am rather proud to have them usually clean. E. They are just about average. 12. About my hair. A. I think others admire it. B. I am rather proud of it. C. I keep it as good as others do. D. I worry because it never looks nice. E. They often make fun of it. 13. About my clothes A. They never seem to look well. B. I dress as well as my playmates. C. I set a good example about my clothes. D. I am often praised about my clothes. E. They don't fit very well. 14. About my teeth A. I worry because they look bad. B. They are just about average. C. I take pride in giving them good care. D. They bother a little once in a while. E. They ache and need fixing. 15. About keeping clean A. I do as well as most people. B. I keep a very good standard. C. I do fairly well some of the time. D. I am pretty careless about it. E. Others tease me for being too clean. 16. About my fingernails A. They just grow and break off. B. I worry because I bite them off. C. I just can't help biting them. D. I usually keep them in fair shape. E. I always take good care of them. (Go to the next column.) 17. About blushing A. I boast that I never blush. B. I seldom blush. C. I often blush a little. D. Others sometimes tease me about it. E. I worry because I am always blushing. 18. About getting dizzy A. I worry because I am often dizzy. B. I seldom get dizzy. C. I never get dizzy. D. It does not bother to be dizzy once in a while. E. I grew out of being dizzy. 19. About sitting still A. I am always able to sit still. B. I can't sit still very often. C. I can sit as still as most others do. D. I usually can sit still. E. I never seem able to sit still. 20. About fainting A. I have never fainted. B. I faint once in a while. C. I faint quite often. D. I am no worse than most people. E. I sometimes feel like fainting. 21. When my parents are sick A. I try to hide my worry. B. I worry much of the time. C. I help and usually don't worry. D. I worry myself sick too: E. I am sure they will get well. 22. About the world coming to an end A. I never think about it. B. I worry once in a great while. C. It bothers me sometimes. D. I don't worry; can't do anything about it. E. I worry about it much of the time. 23. About daydreaming A. I worry because I daydream most of the time. B. I never daydream at all. C. My daydreaming does not mean much to me. D. I have a few spells of daydreaming. E. I seldom do it at all. 24. When I must make up my mind' A. I worry because I can't do it quick enough. B. I worry because I can't seem to do it. C. I always do it right away. D. I am as quick as others about it. E. I can do it after a while. (Go to the next page.) Page 2 25. When they laugh at me A. It worries me very much. B. I worry a little more than I should. C. I can laugh too, with them. D. I am like others are about it. E. I usually don't worry about it. 26. About thunderstorms A. I enjoy them. B. I sometimes get scared. C. I try not to be afraid. D. I don't pay much attention. E. I am always very scared. 27. About being alone in the dark A. I try not to be scared. B. I try not to think about it. C. It never scares me at all. D. I am sometimes scared a little.. E. I am probably scared quite badly. 28. When I am up in a high place <. A. I am all right if I try hard. B. I get scared and want to jump. C. I am probably more scared than I would admit. D. I know I am a little scared. E. It does not bother me at all. 29. When I meet a stranger alone A. I am often quite scared. B. I never let it bother me. C. Most of them are probably all right. D. It is hard not to be a little scared. E. Probably a little scared; won't admit it. 30. When I must recite A. I have a little stage fright. B. I usually don't mind it. C. I get along about as well as the others. D. I usually get scared. E. I always enjoy it. 31. About temper tantrums A. I have tantrums once in a while. B. I often get angry but no tantrums. C. I have tantrums quite often. D. I never have tantrums or get angry. E. I get a little angry sometimes. 32. When I break some of my things A. I know it is my own fault. B. I get very angry at myself. C. I am more careful next time. D. I believe it is just my poor luck. E. It is hard not to get angry. (Go to the next column.) 33. If someone hurts me A. I hurt them right back. B. I ask them nicely not to do it again. C. I think they did not mean to do it. D. I try to avoid them next time. E. I just don't seem to notice it. 34. When someone breaks my things A. I try not to be upset. B. I ask them to be more careful. C. I think it was just an accident. D. I break something for them. E. I try to stay away from them. 35. When others are getting hurt A. I don't like to have it happen. B. I sometimes try to stop it. C. It is hard not to get angry. D. It is probably none of my business. E. I get angry and fight for them. 36. About blind people A. I am glad if others help them. B. I just go on because they can't see me. C. I pretend I did not see them. D. I think they will be all right by themselves. E. I am glad to help them myself. 37. When I get hurt A. I am seldom sorry for myself. B. I just reason it out. C. I am glad when others pity me. D. I feel very sorry for myself. E. I am sometimes a little sorry for myself. 38. When I see crippled people A. I just don't seem to notice them. B. I hope others will help them. C. I always try to help them. D. I sometimes want to help them. E. I try to avoid them. 39. When I see helpless old people A. I sometimes pity them a little. B. I probably pay no attention to them. C. I hope they are cared for. D. I always want to help them. E. I often pity them. 40. When I see poor people A. I hope things will get better. B. I help them all I can. C. I am not sorry; it's their fault. D. I don't think much about it. E. I hope others will help them. (Turn to the next page.) Page 3 41. About being in a crowd A. I always enjoy it. B. Like it some, once in a while. C. Usually don't like it. D. I find excuse to get away. E. Neither like nor dislike it. 42. About talking to friends A. I sometimes like to talk a little. B. I always like to do my share of talking. C. I don't care whether I talk or not. D. I never talk much. E. I hope they do the talking. 43. About going to parties A. I like them very much. B. I never go to any. C. I don't care much for them. D. I don't mind once in a while. E. I go only when urged. 44. About helping people get acquainted A. I always try to avoid it. • B. I do very little about it. C. I always help them get acquainted. D. I like to do it sometimes. E. I believe they have met before. 45. About being shy when in a crowd A. I am never shy in a crowd. B. I don't think much about it. C. I am always very shy. D. I am usually quite shy. E . I am probably a little shy. 46. About the way I dress A. I usually am fairly happy about it. B. I don't think much about it. C. Sometimes I am a little ashamed. D. I feel ashamed most of the time. E. I am always proud of my clothes. 47. About being homely or good-looking A. I am usually happy about my looks. B. I am quite happy about my good looks. C. I believe I am average in looks. D. It worries me because I am homely. E . Little homely but try not to worry. 48. About my school marks A. It's not my fault that they are poor. B. I am quite ashamed of my poor marks. C. I am very proud of my school marks. D. They are just average. E. I am usually happy about my school marks. (Go to the next column.) 49. About getting on school teams A. I am proud to be on them. B. I enjoy being on them. C. I am not among the few who get on. D. It worries me very much that I don't make them. E. I worry a little not to make them. 50. About being popular A. I worry because I am not popular. B. I am happy and proud to be popular. C. I am just about like most others. D. It is nice to be a little popular. E. I am not popular, but it does not worry me. •51. About ever becoming a leader A. 1 am going to do what I can. B. My chances are rather poor. C. I have high hopes for it. D. I know I never will. E. I probably have a chance. 52. About ever getting rich ( A. 1 am quite hopeful that I will be rich. B. I expect to be neither rich nor poor. C. I hope I will not be very poor. D. I would like to be a little rich sometime. E. I will probably be quite poor. 53. About being happy or sad A. I am a little sad sometimes. B. I am quite unhappy most of the time. C. I am about average. • D. I am always very happy. E. I am quite happy sometimes. 54. About getting ^ job A. I worry that I will never get one. B. I am very sure I will get one. C. It's no use worrying if I don't. D. I think my chances are pretty good. E. I think my chances are only fair. 55. About the future of the world A. It will probably stay about as it is. B. I hope it will not get too bad. C. I hope it will get some better. D. I am sure it will get much better. E. I think it is very dark. 56. About studying at home A. It is always easy to let it slide. B. I have to try hard to do it. C. I do it just fair. D. It is easy to do; I like it. E. I find excuses not to do it. (Go to the next page.) Page 4 57. About eating too much A. I never eat too much. B. I always eat too much. C. I try hard not to eat too much. D. I eat as everybody else does. E. I find many excuses to eat all I want. 58. About controlling my fears A. I try, but without much success. B. I have few or none; easy to control. C. I just can't control them. D. I don't have very many fears. E. I can usually do it fairly well. 59. About doing right A. I go along as most people do. • B. I often find excuses for not doing right. C. I must try to make myself do right. D. It is always easy to do right. E. I often don't do right. 60. About making up my mind A. It is easy to do some of the time. B. I want to do it myself but seldom do. C. It is always easy to do. D. It is neither easy nor hard. E. I just let others do it for me. 61. About speaking English at home A. My parents speak English fairly well. B. My parents don't speak much English. C. No one speaks much English in our home. . D. We all speak English all the time. E . We speak English only part of the time at home. 62. About owning our home A. Our home is partly paid for. B. It is paid for, or nearly all. C. We pay rent but seldom move. D. We all have to live with other relatives. E. We rent and move often. 63. About the health of my parents (or step-parents) A. Both are sick most of the time. B. One is sometimes sick. C. They are well most of the time. D. Both are always very well. E. Father often sick; can't work much. 64. About father (or stepfather) working A. He would like to work but is not able. B. He works most of the time. C. He always has a steady job. D. He works about half the time. E. He has been out of work a long time. (Go to the next column.) 65. About the houses on our street A. I think they are fairly good. B. I like them very much. C. Most of them are rather poor. D. I think the houses are all very poor. E. Houses are not as nice as where we used to live. 66. About holiday parties and birthday parties A. We have very few parties. B. We never have any parties. C. Our parties always get too wild. D. We often have nice parties. E. We have many very nice parties. 67. About books and magazines at home A. They are too high-brow for me. B. They are good; I enjoy them. C. I don't care much about any of them. D. The ones we have are not very good. E. We don't have hardly any at all. 68. About my parents spending time with me, A. They never do anything with me. B. We go out together once in a while. C. We go out together quite often. D. It's a very long time since they did. E. They don't do much with me but let me go. 69. About my parents' friends A. They are all very nice. B. My parents, have almost no friends. C. I neither like nor dislike them. D. I think they are just about average. E. I usually don't like them. 70. At home we are A. Always cheerful and happy. B. Often sad and rather unhappy. C. Always gloomy and unhappy. D. Usually cheerful and happy. E. Neither sad nor happy. 71. About getting along with my brothers and sisters A. I have no brothers or sisters. B. We argue sometimes. C. It goes fairly well most of the time. D. We argue and fight all the time. E. We always get along very well. 72. About my parents- punishing me A. They are fair but firm. B. I get treated like everyone else. C. It varies from easy to strict. D. They are always too strict. E. They are always too easy on me. (Tu/rn to the next page.) Page 5 73. About having me help at home A. My parents are too easy about it. B. They are fair, but expect me to do it. C. It goes along about average. D. They vary from easy to strict. E. Both are a little too strict. 74. About being the favorite child A. The others think I am the favorite. B. One of the others is the favorite. C. We are all treated alike. D. I have no brothers or sisters. E. There is only a little jealousy. 75. About my parents watching me A. They are always watching me. B. They don't pay as much attention as they should. C. They know they can trust me. D. I am as well off as others. E. They check up once in a while. 76. About being allowed to do things A. I probably have too much liberty. B. Most of my friends have more liberty. C. I have about as much liberty as my friends. D. I have a reasonable amount of liberty. E. I am not allowed to do anything at all. 77. About feeling awkward A. I am a little awkward sometimes. B. I am getting over being all arms and legs. C. I -have never been awkward. D. I am about like my friends in awkwardness. E. Lately I seem to be all arms and legs. 78. About my thinking I am grown up A. I am getting quite a good start. B. I just don't seem to be grown up at all. C. I am not grown up except about a few things. D. I am sort of in-between. E. I am quite well grown up now. 79. About arguing with my parents A. We argue about everything all the time. B. We seldom have arguments. C. We never have any arguments. r D. We argue about quite a few things. E. It is just fair. 80. About deciding for myself when younger A. No one did much about it. B. I was allowed to decide some things. C. Once in a while I decided something. D. They always decided everything for me. E. They usually let me decide many things. (Go to the next column.) 81. About marking up school desks and walls A. I have done it a few times. B. I did it once or twice. C. I mark them quite a lot. D. I have never done it. E. I sometimes want to, but don't do it. 82. About liking my school duties A. I like them all very much. B. I don't like any of them. C. I try to make myself like them. D. I like some arid dislike others. E. I dislike most of them. 83. About talking and whispering in class A. I do it quite a lot. B. I don't do it but often want to. C. I never talk except to recite. D. I do it in one or two classes. E. I sometimes do, to answer others. , 84. About liking my teachers A. It's about even on likes and dislikes. B. I like most of them. C. I like all of them. D. I don't like any of them very much. E. I dislike most of them. 85. About being truant from school; that is, being absent without permission A. I have never wanted to be truant. B. I have been truant several times alone. C. I go when others ask me to. D. I sometimes feel like it, but never do. E. I go and get others to go. 86. When we lose a game A. We must expect to lose sometimes. B. I sometimes get real angry about it. C. It's hard not to get angry. D. I think it's just our bad luck. E. We try harder next time. 87. About taking my turn at play A. I don't mind being among the last. B. I am glad to take my turn any place. C. I am willing to do what the others do. D. I see to it that I am among the first. E. It bothers me some to be among the last. 88. About playing according to (by) the rules A. I just play them to suit myself. B. I do as well as the others do about them. C. I am glad to play by the rules. D. I think most of them are all right. _ E. I get away with as much as I can. (Go to the next page.) Page 6 89. About starting games A. I can do it but don't like to. B. I never start them. C. I sometimes do it when I am asked. D. I start them most of the time. E. I sometimes do it myself. 90. About sharing my things with others A. I guess it works both ways. B. I always share gladly. C. I usually don't like to share with others. D. I refuse even when asked. E. I share with others quite often. 91. About giving to charity A. I always give all I can. B. I often give a little. C. I give only when I am made to. D. I never give; don't have enough myself. E. I give once in a while. 92. About taking more than my share A. I try not to take more than my share. B. I never take more than my share. C. I do like most people do. D. I do it whenever I can. E. I don't; I might get caught. 93. When I borrow something A. I pay it back right away. B. I hope they will forget about it. C. It soon slips my mind.. D. I pay it back after a while. E. I pay back if asked to. 94. If there is a question of right or wrong A. If wrong is easier, I do it. B. I don't try very hard to do right. C. I always try to do right. D. I intend to do right, but sometimes don't. E. I do what the others do. 95. About telling the truth A. I always tell the truth. B. I intend to tell the truth. C. I have a poor reputation. D. . I am sometimes careless about it. E. I do fairly well. 96. About traffic tickets A. No tickets, but some warnings. B. I don't drive a car. C. I have had one or two tickets. D. I have had quite a few. E. I drive but never had a ticket. (Go to the next column.) 97. About teasing little children A. I try hard not to tease them. B. I never hurt or tease them. C. I don't, if they keep out of my way. D. I guess I like to tease them. E. I tease them but don't mean to. 98. About running away from home A. I ran away once. B. I ran away several times. C. I never wanted to. D. I went once, but came right back. E. I thought about it, but never did. 99. About taking other people's things A. I never take anything. B. I sometimes take them. C. They suspect me sometimes. D. It is easy just to help myself. E. I always expect to give it back. 100. About probation or detention home A. Have had both quite a few times. B. Never had either. C. On probation once; never in detention home. D. Was taken once to be questioned. E. Have had both once or twice. 101. About my parents and my friends A. They get along fairly well. B. Most of my friends don't like my parents. C. My parents trust me out with.my friends. D. They always try to choose my friends. E. They let me choose some of my friends. 102. About my friends and pals A. They are all very good. B. They are just about average. C. I hope they are not bad. D. I believe that most of them are good. E. I am afraid most of them are rather bad. 103. About the number of friends I have A. I have only one or two. B. I don't seem to have hardly any. C. I have a few only. D. I have many friends. E. I am fairly well fixed for friends. 104. About making new friends A. It is very hard for me to do. B. I like to make new friends. C. I can do it but don't like to. D. A little hard, but I like to do it. E. It is neither easy nor hard. (Turn to the next page.) Page 7 105. About having dates A. Neither my parents nor I do much about it. B. I have dates, quite often. C. I believe my parents would not let me. D. I am too young for dates. E. My parents leave it up to me. 106. About boxing A. I would dislike it very much. B. I might do it but would not like it. C. I don't care much about it. D. I like to box very much. E. I am quite interested in it. 107. About reading the sporting page A. I always read it. B. I never look at it. C. I read it nearly every day. D. I don't pay much attention to it; E. I read it once in a while. 108. About liking to go hunting A. I might do it but would not like to. B. I would like it very much. C. I would not like it at all. D. I never thought much about it. E. I would probably like it a little. 109. About reading the fashion page A. Usually I would not read it. B. I read it almost every day. C. I would not unless something very unusual. D. I would not even look at it. E. I always read it. 110. About what I like to read A. .1 like mystery and adventure best. B. Mostly about family and home. C. I like Wild West stories best. D. I like all kinds of stories. E. I like love stories best. 111. About my hobbies A. I have several; mostly alone with them. B. I spend a little time on hobbies. C. I don't have any at all. D. We share many hobbies together at home. E. I have as many as my friends do. • 112. About the movies A. I learn a few useful things from them. B. I get ideas from them for my hobbies. C. Sometimes I learn a little from them. D. I go just for something to do. E. I go just for a good time. (Go to the next column.) 113. About reading books and magazines A. I don't read hardly any at all. B. I read the movie magazines. C. I read mostly Collier's, Saturday Evening Post, or Reader's Digest. D. I read only good fiction or novels. E. I read mostly Wild West or love stories. 114. About listening to the radio A. I listen to all the exciting adventures. B. We listen to lots of the best music. C. I pick out a few good programs. D. I listen a little to different things. E. I don't pay much attention to it. 115. About going to dances A. I think I will like it later on. B. I am too young except for school dances. C. My parents don't pay much attention. D. I often go to public dances. ' E. I will never want to dance. 116. About deciding what work (job) I will do A. I keep changing my mind. B. I still don't have any idea. C. I do some thinking about it. D. I feel fairly sure about it. E. I have already made up my mind. 117. About helping me decide my vocation A. I sometimes listen to a little advice. B. I am going to decide for. myself. C. No one is doing much about it. D. My friends think they know what is best for me. E. My parents are deciding for me. 118. About seeing people work at jobs I like A. I have never seen anything that appeals. B. They were.poor workers; I could do better. C. I have seen both good and poor workers. D. I have seen only good workers. E. I don't know whether they are good or poor. 119. In helping to decide my vocation (job) A. I have read and talked about it. B. No one gives me much help with it. ' C. I have read a little about it. D. I have talked to some workers about it. E. I have never found out anything about it. 120. About my chances of success A. I am sure I will succeed. B. I don't have much idea about it. C. I am just trusting to luck. D. I think I have a good chance. E. My chances are probably fair. (Go back over each "page to make sure you have indicated your response to each exercise. Then hand in your booklet.) Page 8 (Published by the Public School Publishing Co., Bloomington, 111. Printed in U. S. A.) R E C O R D B L A N K A N D S C O R I N G K E Y D E T R O I T A D J U S T M E N T I N V E N T O R Y (Alpha Form of "Telling What I Do") Name _ Sex Grade-First Last Age School.. Years Months ..Date.. WEIGHTED SCORES Responses I's 2's 3's 4's 5's _ Total Topic 1 2 3 4 5 I. H E A L T H 1. Health D never well B sick, not worried E fair A not often C never sick 2. Size E fat and teased C thin and teased B little fat D little thin A neither 3. Height B tall and teased A short and teased C little short D little tall E neither 4. Skin A bothered by acne C oily and shiny E too dry and scaly D acne not bad B clear 5. Heart E no play B no hard play A average C never think about D doctor's O.K. II. S L E E P I N G - EATING 6. Bed A couch or cot E very hard C average B above average D very good 7. Sleeping B awake, noise E many dreams D often short C usually fair A always plenty 8. Alone C three or more- A hate two D two, fair E separate, same B separate, own rm 9. Mealtime E scold, quarrel B don't like A fairly well C usually pleasant D always good 10. Foods E angry B cake, candy D careful A like most C all kinds III. S E L F - C A R E 11. Face and hands C usually dirty B always hard to do E average A sometimes praised D rather proud 12. Hair D worry, poor E make fun of C good as others A others admire B rather proud 13. Clothes A never look well E don't fit B good as others C good example D often praised 14. Teeth E ache A looks worry D little bother B average C pride in them 15. Body D careless C fair sometimes E teased too clean A well as others B good standard IV. HABITS 16. Nails B worry, bite C can't help A just break D fair shape E always good 17. Blushing E worry, always D sometimes teased C often blush A boast never blush B seldom 18. Dizzy A worry, often dizzy D not bothered E grew out of it B seldom C never 19. Sitting still E never able B usually not C average D usually can A always 20. Fainting C quite often B once in a while E at times feel like D average A never V. WORRIES 21. Parents ill D worry self sick B worry much A hide worry C usually don't E get well 22. End of world E worry much C sometimes B once in a while D can't do anything A never think 23. Daydreaming A most of the time D few spells C means little E seldom B never 24. Make up mind B worry can't do A not quickly D quick as others E after a while C right away 25. Laugh at me A worries very much B worry some D average E usually not worry C laugh too VI. F E A R S 26. Thunderstorms E always scared B sometimes scared C try not be scared A enjoy them D little attention 27. Alone in dark E badly scared A try not D scared little B don't think about C never scared 28. High place B want to jump C more than admit D little scared A all right if try E not bothered 29. Stranger alone A often quite scared D little scared E won't admit B not bothered C probably all right 30. Recite D usually scared A little stage fright C like others B usually don't mind E always enjoy Topic 1 2 VII. ANGER 31. Tantrums C often A once in a while 32. I break my things B angry at self E hard not to 33. Someone hurts me A hurt back D avoid 34. They break my D break theirs E stay away things 35. Others are hurt E fight for them C try not to be angry VIII. PITY 36. Blind B can't see me C pretend don't see 37. Get hurt D sorry for self E little sorry 38. Cripples A don't notice E avoid 39. Old people B no attention A little pity 40. Poor people C their fault D don't think much IX. GOOD MIXER 41. In a crowd D get away C usually dislike 42. Talking to friends D never much E hope they talk 43. Parties B never go E when urged 44. People acquainted A try to avoid B do little 45. Shy in a crowd C always shy D usually shy X. INFERIOR - SUPERIOR 46. Dress D usually ashamed C little ashamed 47. Looks D worry, homely E try not to worry 48. School marks B quite ashamed A not my fault 49. School teams D worried not make E little worry 50. Being popular A worry E do not worry-XI. OPTIMISM - PESSIMISM 51. Being leader D know never will B chances poor 52. Being rich E quite poor C not very poor 53. Happy or sad B usually unhappy A little sad 54. Getting a job A worry never get C no. use worry 55. World's future E very dark B not'get too bad XII. WILL POWER 56. Home study A easy to let slide E find excuses 57. Eating too much B always do E many excuses 58. .Controlling fears C can't do A try, no success 59. Doing right E often don't B find excuses 60. Making up mind E others do B seldom do XIII. HOME STATUS 61. English C no English B parents, not much 62. Owning home D with relatives E rent, move often 63. Parents'health A both usually ill E father often 64. Father working E idle long time A like to, not able 65. Houses on street D very poor C rather poor XIV. HOME A T M O S P H E R E 66. Parties B never any C too wild 67. Books, Magazines E hardly any D not very good 68. Time with parents A never do anything D long time since 69. Parents'friends E don't like B almost none 70. At home C always unhappy B often sad 3 4 5 B angry only E little sometimes D never D poor luck C more careful A own fault E not notice B ask them not to C did not mean to A try not upset B ask more careful C an accident B try to stop D not my business A don't like D all right alone A others help E glad to help C glad others pity A seldom sorry B reason it out B others help D sometimes help C try to help C hope cared for E often pity D want to help-A hope better E others help B help all I can E neutral B like sometimes A always enjoy C don't care A sometimes B always like C don't care much D sometimes A like much E met before D like sometimes C always help E probably a little B don't think much ' A never shy B don't think much A fairly happy E always proud C average A usually happy B quite happy D average E usually happy C very proud of C not among few B enjoy them A proud to be on C average D little popular B happy to be E chances fair A do what I can C high hopes B neither D little rich A quite hopeful C average E sometimes happy D always happy E fair chances D .pretty good B sure to get A stay same C hope some better D much better C just fair B try hard D easy to do D like others C try hard A never do D not many E fairly well B easy to control A like others do C must try D easy to do D neutral A sometimes easy C always easy E English part time A mostly English D all English C rent, seldom move A partly paid B all or mostly B one sometimes C mostly well D always well D half time B most of time C always steady E not nice as before A fairly good B like very much A very few D often nice E many nice C don't care A too highbrow B good,enjoy E just let me go B once in a while C quite often C neutral D just average A all very nice E neither D usually happy A always happy Topic 1 2 XV. HOME ATTITUDES 71. Siblings D always argue B argue sometimes 72. Punishing E too easy C varies 73. My helping A too easy D varies 74. Favorite child B another is A others think I am 75. Parents watching A always watching B not much as should XVI. GROWING UP 76. Liberty E not at all B friends have more 77. Feeling awkward E all arms, legs A little awkward 78. -Being grown up B don't seem at all C few things only 79. Arguing at home A all the time D quite few things 80. Deciding when D did it all for me A no one did much younger XVII. SCHOOLS 81. Desks, walls C mark quite a lot A few times 82. Studies B like none E dislike most 83. Talk, whisper A quite a lot D one or two classes 84. Liking teachers D none very much E dislike most 85. Truant E go, get others C go when asked XVIII. SPORTSMANSHIP 86. Lose a game B real angry C hard not to 87. Taking turn D among first E last bothers ni? 88. Rules A suit myself E get away with 89. Starting B never start A can, don't like 90. Sharing C don't like to D refuse when asked XIX. MORALS 91. Charity D not enough self C when made to 92. Taking more D whenever I can E might get caught 93. Borrowing B hope they forget E pay if asked 94. Right or wrong A wrong, if easier B don't try hard 95. Truth C poor reputation D at times careless XX. DELINQUENCY 96. Tickets D quite a few C one or two 97. Little children D like to tease E don't mean to 98. Truant home B several times A once 99. Taking things D easy to do E expect to repay 100. Probation, A both few times E both once or twice detention home XXI. FRIENDS 101. Parents D parents choose B friends don't like 102. Type E mostly bad C hope not bad 103. Number B hardly any A one or two 104. New friends A very hard C can, but don't like 105. Dates 14 or younger: E left up to me B quite often 15 or older: D too young C not let me now 3 4 5 A have none C fairly well E always well B like others I) too strict A fair but firm C average E too strict B fair but expected D have none E little jealousy C all alike D well off as others E once in a while C can trust me C like my friends A too much D reasonable D like my friends B getting over it C never been D in-between A quite a start E quite grown up E just fair B seldom C never C once in a while B some things E many things B once or twice E want to but don't D never did D some each way C try to like A like all very much E answer others B don't but want to C never except reciti A about even B like most C like all B go alone D wanted but didn't A never wanted D just bad luck A must lose some E try harder C do like others A don't mind last B any place B well as others D mostly all right C glad to follow C when asked E do sometimes D most of the time A both ways E quite often B always gladly f" • E once in a while B often a little A all I can C like others do A try not too much B never do C slips my mind D after a while A right away E likeothers do D intend to C try to E fairly well B intend to A always do B don't drive , V A just warnings E none at all C don't if out way A try hard B never do D once, right back E just thought about C never wanted to C at times suspected B sometimes do A never do C probation once D questioned once B never either E I choose some A fairly well C they trust me B average D mostly good A all very good C few only E fairly good D many friends E neutral D hard but like B like to do it A nothing done C not let me now D too young A nothing done B quite often E left up to me Topic 1 2 3 4 5 XXII. ACTING YOUR PART 106. Boxing A dislikes very much B do not like C don't care much E quite interested D like very much 107. Sport page B never do E once in a while D little attention C nearly every day A always read Boy. 108. Hunting C not like at all A do not like D never thought E like a little B like very much 109. Fashion page E always read it B read every day A usually not C no, unless unusual D would not look at 110. Reading E love stories best B family and home D all kinds A mystery, adventure C Wild West 106. Boxing D like very much E quite interested C don't care much B do not like A dislike very much 107. Sport page A always read C nearly every day D little attention C once in a while B never do Girl. 108. Hunting . B like very much E like a little D never thought A do not like C not like at all 109. Fashion page D would not look at C no, unless unusual A usually not B read every day E always read it 110. Reading C Wild West A mystery, adventure D all kinds B family and home E love stories best XXIII. HOBBIES 111. Number C none B little time E same as friends A several, alone D share many 112. Movies D something to do E just good time C learn a little A few useful B ideas for hobbies ' 113. Books, Magazines A hardly at all E Wild West or love B movie magazines C Collier's, etc. D fiction and novels 114. Radio E not much atten. A exciting advent. D different things B best music C few good prog. 115. Dances 15 or younger: D often public C parents no att. E never want to A like later B too young 16 or older: B too young A like later E never want to C parents no att. D often public XXIV. VOCATIONS 116. Not decided B not yet C some thinking A keep changing D fairly sure E already decided 117. Deciding E parents deciding D friends deciding C not doing much A sometimes listen B decide myself 118. Seeing workers A nothing appeals D only good workers E may be good or poor B were poor C good and poor 119. Read about E know nothing about B I get no help C read a little D talked to workers A read and talked 120. Chances C trusting to luck B not much idea E chances fair D good chance A sure to succeed Simple Score X 1 X 2 X 3 X 5 Weighted Score Remarks: Interviews and Treatment:. P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r t based on H. J . B a k e r ' s T e s t , " T e l l i n g V h a t I do" L i r e c t i o n s f o r u s i n g t h i s g a t i n g C h a r t . Through t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n of Mr. lr. a l e s and t h e Guidance t e a c h e r s of t h i s s c h o o l , i t has been p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e n t t h i s r a t i n g s c a l e i n an e f f o r t t o s t u d y t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s of c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s . L a t e a l l t h e l i s t e d p u p i l s on one t r a i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e f o r e p a s s i n g on t o the n e x t t r a i t . T h i s g i v e s a b e t t e r r a t i n g f o r each p u p i l . B e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r a t e a s t u d e n t on any p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have c l e a r l y i n mind t h e e x a c t d u a l i t i e s which you ar e a t t e m p t i n g t o judge. P l e a s e r e a d the d e f i n i t i o n s of the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s c a r e f u l l y and r a t e the s t u d e n t s i n terms of t h e d e f i n i t i o n s . F o r each t r a i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c named below, compare each p u p i l w i t h t h e average of the same age. then p l a c e a check on the l i n e a t t h e p o i n t which b e s t d e s c r i b e s h i s . r a t i n g between i t s e x t r e m i t i e s . You may p l a c e your check a t any p o i n t on t h e l i n e . I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o l o c a t e i t a t any of the d i v i s i o n p o i n t s or e x a c t l y above any d e s c r i p t i v e p h r a s e . In r a t i n g f o r any p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t p l e a s e d i s r e g a r d e v e r y o t h e r t r a i t e x c e p t t h a t one. Do n o t r a t e a p u p i l h i g h on a l l t r a i t s s i m p l y because he i s e x c e p t i o n a l i n some. Chi l d r e n * , a re o f t e n v e r y h i g h i n some t r a i t s and low i n o t h e r s . P l e a s e l e t t h e s e r a t i n g s r e p r e s e n t your own judgment, t h a t i s ; l e t your judgment be i n d e p e n d e n t of o t h e r t e a c h e r ' s o p i n i o n s or r a t i n g s . Do n o t s t u d y t o o l o n g over any one c h i l d . G i v e f o r each t h e b e s t j u d g -ment you can and go on t o the n e x t . The r a t i n g s w i l l be h e l d s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Page 2. R a t i n g C h a r t b a s e d on D e t r o i t A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y . T r a i t I S e l f Care-C o n s i d e r S e l f Care t o r e f e r t o b o d i l y c l e a n l i n e s s ; c a r e of hands and t e e t h , n e a t n e s s and t i d i n e s s i n c l o t h i n g : g e n e r a l appearance. Name I n v a r i a b l y U s u a l l y unkept and s l o v e n l y d i r t y and unkept but sometimes s p r u c e up. Makes a U s u a l l y f a i r w e l l i m p r e s s i o n groomed i s w i t h I s v e r y a t t r a c t i v e l y d r e s s e d , e x p e r t l y a c c e p t a b l e o c c a s s i o n a l groomed. • . l a p s e s . Page 3. Trait IV FILL POWER Consider Wil l Power to be the students' diligence. . perse-verence. "stick to itiveness" and punposefulness in doing a piece of work. Name Is an aimless t r i f l e r , Aims just to get by Has vaguely formed ob jectives must be reminded of duties , Requires l i t t l e supervision can be depended upon to do best F u l f i l s promises assumes responsibil-i t i e s , needs no supervision Page 4 T r a i t I I I GOOD MIXEF C o n s i d e r a "Good M i x e r " t o be a s t u d e n t who i s a b l e t o meet, be s o c i a b l e w i t h and a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o o t h e r p e r s o n s . Name P r e f e r s A c t i v e l y S o c i a l seeks ' . A c t i v i t i e s s o c i a l t o a l l e l s e p l e a s u r e s . Pursues u s u a l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and customs F o l l o w e L i v e s few a l m o s t s o c i a l e n t i r e l y a c t i v i t i e s t o h i m s e l f , Page f) T r a i t V I I S c h o o l C o n s i d e r t h i s t r a i t t o be a t t i t u d e t o w a r d the s c h o o l : i t s work, t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l p r o p e r t y and s c h o o l s p i r i t and s c h o o l . c o - o p e r a t i o n . Has no I s Has t h e I s i n t e r e s t i n d i f f e r e n t average s e l e c t i v e l y e q u a l l y w hatsoever t o s c h o o l . a t t i t u d e , i n t e r e s t e d ; i n t e r e s t -i n s c h o o l must be has average a good ed i n work or pushed i n t t i n t e r e s t i n a t t i t u d e . s c h o o l s c h o o l l i f e . a c t i v i t i e s s c h o o l c o n t r i b u t e s work and and work. a c t i v i t i e s . t o s c h o o l s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s a c t i v i t -i e s . en joys s c h o o l . »*4 Jl /< ? t 7 6, a/ 3 0) o Tot.<*V ^ t e r t -- Ill c a s e s C - i v l S f C « t & . Nov. "TeSfcm " boys.«~a**"'.8 a t e - 7* 7* t » R*- 7 ° ?s-*°° os- Jo /£• i.t> j.s- 3s- *s- i^k-sj «o «s- 7" 7S~ fro frs-J^f ?5-^>» o os- /o / i - < 0 i s 3 o I Now. E c K 4 v i « r G r a p h i l B G-tvls. &1 Nov Testing ^ I© v 5 O u I Nov. Te st« m £ J d n T e s t i n g Prof i le f0"- b o y v / i t h h i g h e s t . TotbiJ Sco«"e Z" 1 r " ~ T ~ r — 6 7 g ? /o u i± 13 i*, /s- IL ,7 it I? i o XI JU. j.1 I op i c 5 > o 3 Nov. Testim^ — J«an Testing. P V o f l i t for fc» i y w itK I a w e s t Tot 4 I 5 c G I e. REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS FOR USE WITH DR. H.J.BAKER'S DETROIT ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY -1-I . ABOUT YOUR HEALTH Good health i s p r i c e l e s s . Mo one r e a l l y f u l l y appreciates i t u n t i l i t i s l o s t . I f your health i s poor, be sure to read what i s said on t h i s sheet. If your health i s poor, you lose much time from school and may even have to repeat some grades or subjects. Later on, you may lose time on your job, which w i l l cost you .money, and you may not be able to keep your job. When you are i n good health, you w i l l f e e l l i k e being pleasant and people w i l l l i k e youi Therefore, i t i s best to go to your family doctor now and have him help you to. f e e l better. Young, people of your age often have pimples (acne) on t h e i r faces, and t h i s condition makes i t hard f o r them to meet t h e i r friends or associates. The- causes are not very well known but they seem to have some r e l a t i o n to the foods you eat. A skin s p e c i a l i s t may give you a l l e r g y tests to f i n d but what foods or what kind of clothing not to wear. In tr e a t i n g the pimples, towels soaked with hot water and l e f t on the face for a short * time bring the pimples to a head. If you are very t a l l or very short f o r your age, or i f you are very thin or very f a t , there are two important things you should do. The f i r s t thing i s to get the advice, of your famiiy doctor about the correct d i e t for your weight. Try very hard to do what he advises. Remember that i t takes a l o t of w i l l power to eat only what he t e l l s you, e s p e c i a l l y i f he t e l l s you not to eat candy and ice cream. The second thing to do i s to l e a r n how to take i t i f others t r y to tease you about your s i z e . Don't l e t i t bother you, or i f i t does, don't l e t them know how you f e e l . Laugh with them and be good natured,. They w i l l quit teasing you a f t e r a while. I f you have any heart trouble, be sure to see your doctor and do what he says. I f you don't have any such trouble, don't keep on using i t as an excuse for getting out of exercise and the work you should do; Don't l e t poor health, si z e , or heart trouble get you down. Be c h e e r f u l ! Build up your health and keep i t on a high l e v e l . NOTE: Keep t h i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -2-I I , ABOUT SLEEPING AND BATING Do you enjoy your meals? Is the mealtime pleasant? Do you sleep well? Are you short of sleep? itour eating and sleeping have important e f f e c t s upon your health and happiness. Here are a few suggestions about sleeping and eating. Eating together at home should be one of the most pleasant and happy times of every day* I f you don't have a regular time to eat, t r y to get i t started. At mealtime you should a l l s i t down together and forget your troubles. A good home l i f e should center around the dining table. I f you can a l l forget your troubles at mealtime, i t w i l l help make every one happier. You should t r y not to be fussy about your foods. Tour mother or older s i s t e r s t r y very hard to get the r i g h t kinds of foods. You should learn to l i k e almost a l l foods beeause sometimes you may have to eat i n restaurants, Hhen you go v i s i t i n g , you should be able to eat what they give you. I f r there are one or two kinds of foods that the doctor has warned you. not to eat, do as he says. Try to be t a c t f u l about not eating these foods. Don't make a scene, but just leave them on your plate and say nothing. 0 I f you can't go to sleep at night because there i s too much ta l k i n g or noise, t r y to have your parents f i n d a better place f o r your bed. However, you should t r a i n yourself to sleep i n spite of some noise. Many people learn to sleep where there i s noise, such as near busy streets or r a i l r o a d s . Your bed should be comfortable. It should not be too hard nor have bumps i n i t . Don't use. too many covers so that you are too warm. You should have some f r e s h . a i r , although you should not sleep i n too cold a room. Do not worry. Try to be comfortable when you sleep and you w i l l sleep better* You w i l l also sleep better i f you have a bed to yourself. Sleeping with one or two others crowds a l l of you and you can't sleep well, A boy might sleep with his brother, or a g i r l with her s i s t e r . It i s better not to sleep with a grown-up person. Try, to have a bed or a comfortable cot by your-s e l f . I f you sleep well and eat wel l , you w i l l do better work i n school and be more cheerful a l l the time. Try to do the best you can about sleeping and easing. You w i l l be w e l l repaid* NOTE: Keep t h i s sheet; study It often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -3 I I I . ABOUT SELF-CARS Here /are some ideas about bow to care f o r yourself. These pointers are about, your teeth, h a i r , clothes, and about keep-ing clean. Don't neglect your teeth. Clean them at l e a s t twice d a i l y . I f your teeth ache or need f i l l i n g , go to a dentist at once. You have only one set of permanent teeth which you. get soon a f t e r you are old enough to s t a r t school. I f you lose them, f a l s e teeth never do as w e l l . I f your teeth get decayed, they not only become sore and p a i n f u l but they also send .poison through your whole body. I f you have a toothache, you cannot do well i n school. If your teeth are crooked or look bad, see your dentist about i t , Dentists sometimes put on braces to straighten teeth. They a l s o know how to make teeth look clean. Don't go around with your hand over your mouth or t r y to talk. with.your mouth almost closed. Keep your teeth i n good shape, Well-kept, nice hair adds to the beauty of g i r l s and the handsomeness of boys. Your hair does not just take care of i t s e l f ; i t has to be cared f o r by you. Keep i t properly cut, well-dressed, and i n good condition. I f your h a i r i s i n poor condition, i t u s u a l l y indicates neglect on your part. Others may think that carelessness about your h a i r may mean care-lessness about your other habits. I f your h a i r i s hard to care f o r , a l l the extra time you use to make i t look better w i l l pay well . Cultivate the beauty of your h a i r . Keep your hair combed; i t i s a good habit to develop. You are also judged by the clothes you wear and how you wear them. The way clothes look depends mainly upon how you care for them. Keep them cleaned and pressed. If necessary, learn how to do t h i s yourself. You can probably f i n d plenty of time f o r t h i s , i f you r e a l l y want to look niee* I f you work at something which gets your clothes d i r t y , keep certain clothes f o r t h i s purpose. Change them when your work i s done. Don't be a f r a i d of work, that gets you d i r t y . F i t c h i n and do i t and be proud, of i t . Then clean up. Keeping your hands and body cJean and taking baths often should be among the easiest things to do. I f you think you are not good-looking, keep clean and i n the best possible con-d i t i o n . Water i s p r a c t i c a l l y free and soap i s cheap. The few minutes you spend each day on your face and hands, should y i e l d you a large return i n keeping up your pride i n your looks and appearance. NOTE: Keep th i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better; IV. ABOUT YOUR HABITS Do you b i t e your f i n g e r n a i l s ? Can you s i t s t i l l ? Do you blush ea s i l y ? Here are a few suggestions on what to do. Are you worried about something? I f so, don't just keep on fidg e t i n g and worrying, but t r y to straighten things, out. Try to keep i n good health. I f you are sick, go to your doctor and do what he advises. " If you bi t e or chew your f i n g e r n a i l s , now i s the time to stop i t . Take a good look at your f i n g e r n a i l s . Are they too short? Are they buried deep i n the flesh? Do they hurt when they are so short? You may have to t r y r e a l hard to l e t your f i n g e r n a i l s grow out and look nice. You w i l l then be proud of them. Use a f i n g e r n a i l f i l e to shape your n a i l s and to keep them clean. Don't pick at your face. Don't s i t and play with a p e n c i l , a r u l e r , a s t r i n g , or anything you happen to have i n your hand. Other people don't l i k e to see you do such things. They may think you are nervous. You are probably not nervous but just have some careless habits. Brace up; t r y hard; give a good impression! When you are s i t t i n g down, ei t h e r at home or at school, do you s i t s t i l l or do you wiggle around a l l the time:? Do you always swing your f e e t , or keep s h i f t i n g back and f o r t h from one side to the other? It bothers and disturbs others when you don't s i t reasonably s t i l l . They won't l i k e you f o r i t . If you need exercise, get i t at some other time and place. Then t r y to s i t s t i l l . I f you blush e a s i l y , you probably take things too seriously. Teasing bothers you and then you blush. When you blush your fr i e n d s keep on teasing you and enjoy seeing you being un-comfortable. Laugh with them; pass i t o f f as a joke. Don't l e t things bother you and you w i l l get over much of your blushing. I f you f a i n t e a s i l y or get dizzy, ask yourself why. Is your health poor? I f so, go to your doctor. I f he says.there i s nothing the matter, just make a good resolve to control yourself better. Face disagreeable duties; don't run away by f a i n t i n g . You can never avoid a l l unpleasant things, so learn to face them. You can get over most of these things i f you keep oh t r y i n g . Don't be discouraged i f r e s u l t s are slow and i f you have some lapses. Keep i n good health; get plenty of sleep; eat a good di e t . NOTE: Keep t h i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. V. WORRIES Some people spend much of t h e i r l i v e s worrying. Are you one who worries a l l the time? Most of the things we worry about never happen, so don Tt spend your l i f e worrying. If you worry a l l the time, your health may be poor. Things look very bad when you don't have strength and courage. Don't just worry; go to your doctor to f i n d out what i s wrong. He w i l l help you. ?dhen you f e e l better, your worries w i l l leave you. If you t r y , you can always f i n d plenty of things about which to worry. You may worry about your school, about gett-ing run over by a car, about the world coming to an end, about your health, or about getting a job. Most of the worries never come true; so don't worry. On the other hand, i t i s probably bad i f you are never con-cerned about anything. In that case, you may be too easy-going. You may not take things seriously enough; Your friends w i l l not l i k e you very w e l l , because they w i l l think that you make a joke out of everything. A reasonable amount of con-cern i s a good thing, for i n t h i s way we lear n to be c a r e f u l and cautious. If you have one or two worries that keep bothering you, t r y to study them to f i n d out how to get r i d of them. Most worries can be beaten i n t h i s way. Many worries can be stopped by pay-ing no attention to them. You can r e a l l y spend your.time and your thoughts on much better things. Do something worth while; exercise and play more. If you learn to master your worries, you w i l l gain more strength of character i n other ways, Iteople wi l l , l i k e you better. You w i l l not take: yourself too seriously. You w i l l probably l i v e longer, since you w i l l not waste a l l your strength and-energy. There are very few things you should ever worry about, and • tr y to get those worries cured up as quickly as possible. Save your strength for other things much more worth while. NOTE: Keep t h i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -6-'VI. ABOUT FEARS Do you have many fears? Are these fears very bad? Of what things are you afraid? You can get over most of your fears, i f you r e a l l y t r y . Here are a few suggestions. There i s a difference i n being a f r a i d and merely jumping when there i s a loud noise or a f l a s h of l i g h t . A good ex-ample i s fear of thunderstorms. Many people jump when the li g h t n i n g i s very sharp or the thunder i s very loud. They are probably not a f r a i d but are just s t a r t l e d or surprised. Try to think whether i t i s r e a l l y fear; or i s i t just the f l a s h or the noise which makes you jump? You are probably not r e a l l y a f r a i d but surprised. Being a f r a i d when alone i n the dark i s quite common among young children. A few older children keep on being a f r a i d . If you,are a f r a i d i n the dark, t r y very hard to get over i t . Ask yourself i f i t i s only a fear that grew up with you, and i s i t not time now to get r i d of i t ? I f i t i s a new f e a r , think what probably caused i t . Did someone ac t u a l l y chase you in the dark? Sid you. think a b i g dog was chasing you? Be sure that you did not just imagine i t . You w i l l probably have to be out alone i n the dark quite often i n the next few. years. Most people are not afr a i d i n the dark since there is l i t t l e cause to be a f r a i d . So t r y to get over being a f r a i d i n the dark. If you have a fear of a l l strange persons, you should over-come i t ; When you were a small c h i l d you probably did not know many people and you may have been a f r a i d of every stranger. If you l i v e d on a farm or out i n the country, you probably did not meet many strangers. Most ch i l d r e n who l i v e i n the c i t y get used to strangers and are not a f r a i d of them. It i s not necessary to be a f r a i d of most people, so t r y not to be a f r a i d . Many of them are fathers of children that you may. know, i n school. Many l i v e near you and are r e a l l y your neighbors. Certainly, you should be cautious, but also learn to judge people and you w i l l seldom need to be a f r a i d of any ' of them. Some pupi l s believe they are a f r a i d and can't r e c i t e . The best cure f o r this i s to get your lessons well..so that you have nothing to fear i n school. Most of the fears we have should not be. We are quite safe from dangers, wild animals, strangers, hunger, storms, and floods.. Try to forget your feans, and lead a happier, more usefu l l i f e . There are many other worth-while things to do. NOTE: Keep th i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -7-vTI. AN GSR AND TEMPER Anger does not pay, so let's find out how to control i t . Most people learn ta control their temper. They probably have as many good reasons ten get angry as you do, but they have found out that i t does not pay. People who lose their temper are not popular, and they seldom get their way by getting angry. Control your temper. How do you learn to do i t ? You must learn to use your w i l l power. Other people may t e l l you that you should not get angry, but i t is you yourself who must actually learn to control your temper. No one can do i t for you; In school you are taught lessons that anger does not payj you learn about i t from your parents, and your friends t e l l you, but you must make up your own mind to use your w i l l power and not get angry. When you break your things, you sometimes get. angry. In-stead of getting angry try to find out why they broke. Were you just careless? Were you not paying much attention? Did you use too much strength? Did you ever try to learn how to handle things, without breaking them? Why do people break your things? Do they really mean to, or do they do i t just by accident? Were they not paying attention? Did they not know how something should be done? If they really did i t on purpose, try to find out why. What had you done to them? Could you learn to get along better with them? Losing your temper does not pay. Any feeling of. revenge or satisfaction is offset by losing a good, friend and by getting a bad reputation. If you think you are going to get angry, try to start doing something else. Get away from that particular person or thing for a l i t t l e while, i f you can, Try to laugh i t off; don't take yourself too seriously. Your friends w i l l admire you for i t . It w i l l be easier to control yourself the next time. You can't make everyone do things just to suit you. Getting angry makes things worse instead of better. If you see other people lose their temper, don't lose yours too. Try to set them a good example; i t w i l l help them to do better themselves. Learning to control yourself and your temper i s one of the most important lessons you learn i n your whole l i f e . No one can do i t for you; you must learn i t for yourself. It may take a l i t t l e time and great patience, but don rt get. dia-> couraged. Others have done i t ; so can you. NOTE: Keep this sheet; study i t often; Try to do what i t te l l s you. Things should get better. - a -• V I I I . ABOUT PITY AND SYMPATHY. Are you very s o r r y f o r b l i n d people? Do you cry e a s i l y when you see someone get hurt? Or do you pay no a t t e n t i o n to such things? Do you t h i n k you have too; l i t t l e p i t y f o r other people? I t i s w e l l to give these questions a l i t t l e thought. There are two extremes of p i t y . One i s too l i t t l e ^ p i t y ; the other i s too much p i t y . Try to a v o i d being too'extreme i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n . I f you seem to have too l i t t l e p i t y , , t h i n k what i t means. People won't l i k e you very w e l l be-cause you don't have any p i t y o r sympathy f o r them. They may a l s o b e l i e v e that you are c r u e l . On the other hand, too much p i t y and sympathy should be avoided. I f you have too much, p i t y , you use up a l l your strength and energy on i t . You don't get very much of any-t h i n g done, and you a l s o worry more than you should* Try t o keep a reasonable balance between too much and too l i t t l e p i t y . You should show enough p i t y to give some help to b l i n d or c r i p p l e d people* when they are i n danger. I f you have a very great d e s i r e t o help them a l l the time, you might f i n d some k i n d of work f o r y o u r s e l f which would be mainly h e l p i n g them. Such work might be teaching c l a s s e s f o r them, or working i n o f f i c e s which are set up to help them and t o a s s i s t them i n f i n d i n g work. I t might a l s o help you to c o n t r o l your p i t y i f you knew that there are thousands of b l i n d , deaf, and c r i p p l e d people i n t h i s country alone. No matter how much you t r i e d , i t would be impossible f o r you alone to do much f o r a l l of them. You can f i n d books and magazines which t e l l you about the hundreds of people working f o r them and thousands of' d o l l a r s t h a t are al r e a d y being spent to help them. However, i t i s s t i l l a good t h i n g to.< keep on doing something f o r the ones whom you know. One of the things to avoid i s . f o r you to have too much p i t y f o r y o u r s e l f . I f you do, brace up and face your problems. Stop p i t y i n g y o u r s e l f and do your job. Face l i f e w ith a smile• Keep your eyes and ears open to see what other people do about p i t y and sympathy. Then t r y t o do what seems best. E i t h e r too much or too l i t t l e p i t y i s bad. Try to be moderate. You can l e a r n to c o n t r o l y o u r s e l f . NOTE: Keep t h i s sheet; study i t o f t e n . Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get b e t t e r * IX. ABOUT BEING A GOOD MIXER. Do you f i n d i t easy to.meet people? Do you l i k e to be i n a crowd or do you want to be alone? Today i t i s qu i t e im-portant t h a t you know how to get along w i t h people. L e t ' s see what should be done about i t . No matter where you ar e , e i t h e r i n school or at home, you always, have people around and you must get alon g with them. L a t e r when you go to work, you w i l l always have to be with many people and work w i t h them. We l i v e i n a world where there are l o t s of people everywhere, and we cannot, j u s t l i v e and work, by ourselves alone. fou should p r a c t i c e making y o u r s e l f agreeable and pleasant to other people. I f you smil e , t a l k w i t h them, and r e a l l y l i k e them, they w i l l f e e l t h a t you are a good f r i e n d . I t would not be good f o r you i f people thought you had no use f o r them. They would t h i n k you are stuck up and would not bother about you. Everyone needs f r i e n d s ; l o t s of good f r i e n d s are ve r y valuable t o you. There are many ways you can make f r i e n d s . Here are a few. Help someone i n t r o u b l e . Be pleasant to oth e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to those who don't have many f r i e n d s . Talk, about pleasant r a t h e r than unpleasant t h i n g s . Look f o r good p o i n t s about people. Don't be a g o s s i p , e s p e c i a l l y about the weaknesses and f a u l t s of other people. I f you sometimes f e e l a l i t t l e shy i n a crowd or i n a strange p l a c e , t r y t o shake i t o f f . The chances are that most of the others f e e l as s h y a s you do. Get hold of your-s e l f ; act n a t u r a l and sm i l e . In th a t way you w i l l be happier y o u r s e l f and i t w i l l h e l p the others get over t h e i r shyness, too. When people get together be sure to see that they are i n t r o -duced to each other. I t i s b e t t e r to introduce them than to take a chance they have met before. People always f e e l awkward and i l l - a t - e a s e when they have not been introduced. Learn the cor r e c t way of i n t r o d u c i n g people... I t i s a very i n t e r e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g t h i n g to be a good mixer. Don't be too forward, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h c e r t a i n people who w i l l not l i k e you f o r i t . On the other hand, don't be too quiet and shy. Try to keep, i n a good middle course, . Study each f r i e n d or acquaintance so you may enjoy happy companionship. Be a good mixer; c u l t i v a t e good f r i e n d s , i t w i l l pay you. -10-X. ABOUT FEELING INFERIOR Do you feel that other people are better than you.? Or do you. feel that you are better than they are? Where do you think you really stand among a l l others? Here are a few pointers about what to do. If you feel inferior you are probably unhappy about i t . You try to avoid being seen; you don't want to look people in the eye; you think they are making fun of you. You don't do your school work well and things don't go just right. If you feel superior to others, they w i l l probably not like you for being that way. They w i l l think that you are stuck up and that you don't have any use for them. When you need friends they magn go back on you. X'ou can keep your own self-respect without being stuck up. Even i f you feel inferior you may take on an air of super-i o r i t y to defend yourself against others. They w i l l then think you feel superior, which is not your real feeling at a l l . That makes i t harder than ever. If you have poor clothes, you don't need to f e e l inferior. Many others have poor clothes, too. You can keep them cleaned and pressedi Be pleasant and prove your real worth and people w i l l forget about your clothes. On the other hand, don't get too proud i f your clothes are better than most of the others; they w i l l not like you for i t . If you think you are not as good-looking as most of the others, do not feel inferior about i t . Try to develop a smile; don't seem to notice what they say or think about you. If you have good habits and try to have a good character, your looks won't make so much difference. If you are very good-looking don't l e t yourself feel superior on account of i t . It is really character which counts the most. If your school marks are poor, i t does no good to feel i n -ferior about them, although i t is hot pleasant to have them. Try to find out just why you got them. Then do a l l that you can to improve them. Don't just feel, inferior. If your marks are very good, don't brag about them; your friends won't like you for i t . Don't feel inferior i f you don't make the school team, but keep on trying. There are only a few on the best team and they are very good. If you do make the team, play for the team and don't try to show how good you are by yourself. If you are not popular with your friends and classmates, find.out why i t i s . Study your own weaknesses and then do everything you can to overcome them, ifou should gradually get to be more popular. -11-X ABOUT FEELING INFERIORCcontinued) Keep a b,alance between f e e l i n g i n f e r i o r or superior. You w i l l be happier and people w i l l l i k e you better. NOTE; Keep t h i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -1&-XI. ABOUT. KEEPING CHEERFUL Are you cheerful most of the time or are you often sad? Is i t hard to be cheerful and easy to be sad? People don't have much use .for someone who i s always sad, so l e t ' s see what should be done about i t . Did you ever look around among your friends and classmates to see which ones are happy and which are sad? You usually l i k e the happy ones best. Try to f i n d out what to do i f you are sad and gloomy. Here are a few suggestions. You had better ask yourself, f i r s t of a l l , are you sick? • Do you f e e l well? Do you get enough sleep? Is your home sad and gloomy? Are your parents unhappy about the way things are going? Try to do what you can to cheer them up. Are you sad because you do not get elected president of your club or class? You have to be a r e a l leader before you get elected to a job of leadership. Don't spend your time f e e l i n g bad, but get busy and show that you can do things. Then you are more l i k e l y to get elected, A r e a l leader a c t u a l l y serves others rather than bossing other people around. You may be f e e l i n g gloomy because you believe you w i l l never get a job. If you do good school work and prepare and t r a i n yourself for a worth-while occupation or profession, you should get a good job. I t i s not much use to worry about never getting r i c h . Only a few people are r i c h , and many of them have worked up from nothing. Those who are r i c h usually practiced saving t h e i r money right from the st a r t and learned to invest i t wisely. When you get some money to invest, don't just take anyone's word about what to do, but try to get some r e l i a b l e advice and then follow i t . I f you are sad or gloomy about the future of the world and the people i n i t , ' you may as well quit worrying and cheer up. You cannot do much about i t , f o r i t i s too large a job f o r you alone. Try to help wherever you see a place. Do what you can, but don't t r y to carry a l l the burdens of the world. I t i s too much. Try to smile. Try to keep cheerful. Hemember that people have l i t t l e use f o r a person who i s gloomy or sad. Don 't be one of them. NOTE: Keep th i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should go better. -13-XII... WILL. POWER Have you ever thought about your w i l l power? Can you make up your mind about something and then s t i c k to i t ? Or do you give up too eas i l y ? What do other people think, about your w i l l power? Let's see what may be said about i t . The f i r s t thing to do i s to decide i n which group you f a l l . Are you among those who show l i t t l e w i l l power or those who show too much, or are you just somewhere i n between? I t i s a good idea f o r you to figure out where you stand and what you should do about i t . I f you f a l l i n the group which shows very l i t t l e w i l l power,, you. are probably unhappy. lour schoolmates and friends are always bossing you around. They have things a l l t h e i r own way and t e l l , you just what to do. You probably don't l i k e t h i s very well. You should learn to stand on your own f e e t . In learning to do this you must avoid getting angry at other people and be able to smile and s t i l l be firm. I f others know that you respect and believe i n yourself, they w i l l soon learn to respect you. At the other extreme, you should avoid being set too strong-l y i n your w i l l power. If you seem to be too determined, others w i l l not l i k e you. Although you may get your own way, i t i s probably not worth the p r i c e . I f th i s seems to be your trouble, l i s t e n to the other fellow's ideas; they may be good, too. This w i l l add to your popularity. You are not r e a l l y weak i n w i l l power i f you change your mind sometimes or l i s t e n to others. I t often happens that something comes up which makes i t wise for you to change your plans. It shows better w i l l power to change your mind and to adopt a better method f o r the new conditions thaii to s t i c k b l i n d l y to what is now out of date. ion may be required to use your w i l l power when you study at home i f there i s no very good place to study or i f there i s much noise. It also takes strong w i l l power to study some school subject which you don rt l i k e very well, but which you have to take. It takes w i l l power to do right when your friends are doing wrong. Even though they may laugh at you, s t i c k to your good i d e a l s . I f you can be f r i e n d l y yet firm, your friends w i l l admire you for a good amount of w i l l power. Don't be too headstrong, and don't be too weak-willed. NOTE: Keep this sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Thing's should get better. A l I I . MAKING YOUR HOMB PLEASANT If you think your home is nice, you should do a l l you can to keep i t that way. I f you are not pleased with it,,, t r y to do something to make i t better. You can always use your spare time well i f you help keep the home pleasant and i n good order. This i s good practice so that when you have a home f o r yourse'lf you w i l l take good care of i t . If your parents are busy with other things and are too t i r e d or sick to do much about the house, you can help cheer them up by doing things to help out. Inside the house you can help keep things straightened up and put away i n t h e i r places. A famous saying i s , "Have a place for everything and keep everything i n i t s place." I f you put your own things away, i t w i l l be a good example for the others to follow. I f your home is pleasant and orderly i t w i l l be a happier place f o r everybody. You can keep things i n order i n your yard; help pick up papers; sweep the steps and sidewalk; keep the leaves raked up i n the f a l l ; and clean off the snow i n the wintertime. If you don't have much of a lawn and children play on i t , t r y to have.a l i t t l e grass fenced i n and a small flower bed near the house. You can get flowers which bloom at d i f f e r e n t times so there are blossoms a l l summer. Elower seeds are cheap. Your parents or your brothers and s i s t e r s should get interested, too, and i t i s fun to work at these things to-gether. If you don't succeed at f i r s t , t r y again and you w i l l f i n a l l y get r e s u l t s . Often i f one house on a street i s given a coat of paint i t looks so much better that the pthers w i l l want to paint th e i r s too. I f the houses do not please you, and i f , a f t e r a while, there i s very l i t t l e change f o r the better, t a l k to your parents about f i x i n g up the outside of your home as well as they can affo r d . A l l of you can work together to make the inside of your home i n v i t i n g and a t t r a c t i v e too. • I f your parents came from some other country and don't know English (the American language), be as h e l p f u l as you can.. Since you speak English i n school and with your frie n d s , you probably get more practice than your parents.' While they are learning the English language, be patient and a s s i s t them as much as you can. On the other hand, i t w i l l probably please your parents i f you take an interest i n t h e i r language and learn i t too, both for speaking and reading. Knowing two languages i s better than one, for you w i l l be able to learn much of value from another language besides the language i t s e l f . There are many, many ways you can use to make your home XIII. Making Your Home Pleasant (continued) pleasant. Try them; don*t. give up. You w i l l get. results a f t e r a while. 'Learning to be pleasant and cheerful i s a very important lesson you may learn best right i n your home. NOTE: Keep t h i s sheet; study.it often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -16-XIV HOME ATMOSPHERE Is your home usually happy, or i s i t sad and gloomy? I f your home i s not very happy, do you do anything to make i t better? Did you ever r e a l l y t r y to help or do you think that you could do nothing about i t ? Let's see what you should tr y to do. E i r s t of a l l , don rt get discouraged i f you don't, succeed when you t r y to cheer things up. You may even be.scolded f o r being too happy when everyone else i s sad. A f t e r a while, you should begin to see good r e s u l t s . You must stay good-natured, and when you smile, do i t i n such a sincere way that the others know you r e a l l y mean i t . A person should try to smile even when things do not go r i g h t . You should believe that the way you look at l i f e r e a l l y has some e f f e c t upon your parents. You may wonder why your parents are not' always cheerful, but there are probably good reasons. One of your parents may have been sick l a t e l y . Sickness or operations probably p i l e d up many b i l l s that cannot be paid right away. Work may not have been very steady and money i s scarce. It i s not always best to ask too many questions about these matters, but i f you are interested you probably already know about a l o t of the troubles. Here i s just one of the things you can do. Try to arrange to celebrate the birthday of everyone i n the family. Be sure to include the birthdays of your father and mother. A b i r t h -day cake, even a small and inexpensive one which you may have to bake or f r o s t at home, with a few candles on i t , w i l l do wonders. It w i l l help the members i n your family i f they know you believe i n them. Every holiday o f f e r s a good chance f o r a happy get-together, so make the most of each of them. If there is very l i t t l e to read at home, do something about i t . I f there i s a l i b r a r y near you, get a card and borrow books — some f o r your parents and some f o r yourself. The l i b r a r i a n i s there to help you; f e e l free to ask for advice. If there i s no l i b r a r y , ask your teachers at school. Try to get a magazine or two. Your mother w i l l l i k e a magazine which t e l l s about the home or housekeeping, or about clothes. Father may have some int e r e s t i n f i s h i n g , hunting, t r a v e l , or mechanics, and he w i l l enjoy magazines on these subjects. It w i l l please' your parents i f you want them to go places with you. Once i n a while take.one or both of them to the movies. Make i t t h e i r night. Such occasions w i l l bring you closer together and w i l l aelp you to understand one another much better* If you don't l i k e some of your parents* friends, t r y to -17-XIV. Home Atmosphere (Continued) develop a l i k i n g for them by looking for t h e i r good q u a l i t i e s . Be agreeable and courteous to them at a l l times. Your home l i f e w i l l be more pleasant and happy when you follow these suggestions. Much depends on you. NOTE: Keep th i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you; Things should get better. X V . HOME ATTITUBES. I f you have any b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s , do you g e t a l o n g w e l l w i t h them? A r e y o u happy w i t h them, o r a r e you a l w a y s f i g h t i n g and q u a r r e l i n g ? T r y to f a c e these p r o b l e m s s q u a r e l y . I f t h e r e i s t r o u b l e , who s t a r t s i t ? I f i t i s y o u , t r y t o a s k y o u r s e l f why? D i d y o u get back a t them f o r something? Or h a d y o u done something t o them w h i c h made them g e t back, a t you? But why keep on? Why n o t c a l l i t a l l o f f and s t a r t over w i t h a c l e a n s l a t e ? I f you a r e o l d e r t h a n the o t h e r s , i t i s up t o you to keep t h i n g s g o i n g s m o o t h l y . I f you a r e y o u n g e r , t r y t o do the b e s t you c a n and i t may h e l p them to do b e t t e r * I f you t h i n k a b r o t h e r or s i s t e r i s the f a v o r i t e , t r y t o s t u d y out why t h i s seems to be s o . What does he or she have t h a t y o u d o n ' t ? Why d o n ' t y o u b e g i n d o i n g something v e r y w e l l and t h e n you. may a l s o g e t some more p r a i s e and a t t e n t i o n . F i n d -i n g f a u l t , or t a k i n g your s p i t e out on o t h e r s , makes t h i n g s worse i n s t e a d of b e t t e r . I f y o u r b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s t h i n k you a r e the f a v o r i t e , d o n ' t b r a g about i t t o them. T r y to h e l p them f i n d ways i n w h i c h they can do w e l l , t o o . There s h o u l d be enough l o v e and d e v o t i o n t o go around the whole f a m i l y . I f you can a l l be a t peace w i t h each o t h e r , i t w i l l make the home l i f e h a p p i e r f o r a l l o f y o u and f o r y o u r p a r e n t s , t o o . Then e v e r y o n e w i l l f e e l , t h a t l i f e i s r e a l l y w o r t h w h i l e . I t i s a l s o good p r a c t i c e i n l e a r n i n g how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h your f r i e n d s and f e l l o w w o r k e r s a f t e r you get a j o b . I t w i l l h e l p you t o be more t o l e r a n t of o t h e r p e o p l e , and you can l e a r n to be p l e a s a n t to e v e r y o n e . I f y o u g e t a l o n g w e l l w i t h your p a r e n t s , t h e y d o n ' t w o r r y much about you m i n d i n g t h e m . I t i s n i c e f o r a l l o f you i f t h e y t r u s t y o u and a r e n o t a l w a y s w a t c h i n g y o u . I f t h i n g s a r e n o t g o i n g n i c e l y i n t h i s way, t r y t o do b e t t e r and. a f t e r a w h i l e they w i l l b e g i n to t r u s t y o u . I f you show t h a t you a r e r e a l l y g r o w i n g u p , i t w i l l b r i n g them j o y and h a p p i n e s s , t o o . I n the y e a r s when you were y o u n g e r , your f a t h e r and mother a c t e d w i s e l y i f t h e y t r a i n e d y o u to do some work about the house o r y a r d . T h i s i s t r a i n i n g f o r good h a b i t s o f work and l i v i n g . Some o f the t h i n g s they a s k e d you to d o , you p r o b a b l y d i d n o t l i k e v e r y w e l l , but i f you were a b l e to s m i l e and t r y t o l i k e them, y o u showed t h a t y o u were made of good s t u f f . I t i s how a good p r a c t i c e to keep on d o i n g a l l t h e s e t h i n g s and t o do them w i t h o u t y o u r p a r e n t s h a v i n g t o a s k a l l the t ime i f y o u got them done. You w i l l have many t h i n g s l i k e t h i s t o do f o r y o u r s e l f l a t e r on and t h i s i s good p r a c t i c e . So s m i l e and do them w i l l i n g l y and q u i c k l y , but w e l l * Then g e t them o f f your mind and have t ime f o r p l a y and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . By f o l l o w i n g t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s , y o u w i l l improve a t t i t u d e s a t home. AVI. ABOUT GROWING UP Do you think, df yourself as growing up, or are you s t i l l a child? What do your parents think about i t ? I f you have older brothers or s i s t e r s , what do they think about i t ? What do your friends think? The teen age i s the time for growing up. In the early teens (about thirteen) you are just getting started, but by the end of the teens you should be pretty well grown up. I t i s time to give this problem some serious thought. Growing up consists of being allowed to make some decisions for yourself, being allowed more freedom, and being trusted i n your judgments by your parents. A l l of these are very im-portant i n growing up. You should have gotten some practice i n making decisions about l i t t l e things before you were thirteen years of age* These might include helping pick out your new clothes, getting around on time for meals, doing the jobs and chores that were expected of you. A l l t h i s was good practice to help you now i n growing, up. If you think that your parents don't give you much l i b e r t y , ask yourself why. Is i t p a r t l y because you do not always do the wise thing? I f you begin doing that which shows good judgment and which pleases your parents, they w i l l soon begin giving you more l i b e r t y . fou are coming to an age when, you want to have a righ$ to your own ideas. Jtfany times these ideals seem to be quite opposite to those of your parents and so i t i s easy to get into arguments with them. If t h i s happens, t r y to avoid problems which make trouble and be sure you and your parents are not t a l k i n g about d i f f e r e n t things. You are probably growing f a s t and your arms and legs seem to grow faster than your body. A f t e r a while these awkward feelings wi l l , disappear. You w i l l f e e l better and have more confidence. You may also f e e l a l i t t l e self-conscious because other grown-ups seem much more mature. You w i l l get over t h i s i n a short time. Even when f u l l y grown up people never r e a l l y get one hund-red percent on th e i r own. We have to obey laws; we follow the good example of others; and we often ask f o r advice. Act your part; face the problem of growing up. NOTE: Keep this sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -20-XVII. ABOUT DOING WELL IN SCHOOL. If you are having much trouble about getting along i n school, be sure to read these suggestions and then follow them. No matter how bad things seem to be, you can do a l o t to make them better. You should know that most pupils, who have l o t s of trouble i n school have about the. same kind of troubles when they are through with school. Those who get along best i n school get along best on jobs. Therefore, you should t r y very hard to be successful i n school. Business men who may h i r e you l a t e r on want to know i f you had good school marks. The f i r s t point to master i s to l i k e a l l your school sub-j e c t s and to do the best you can i n a l l of them. Some school subjects seem to appeal to you more than others and i n those you should do very good work. If you have trouble learning some subject, resolve to work hard. Do l o t s of home study; get your teachers to explain parts you cannot understand; and,, i f necessary, have your parents or older brothers or s i s t e r s help you. I f possible, get some other books about the same subjects from the l i b r a r y and study them, too. You should try very hard to l i k e a l l of your teachers. I f you don't get along with some of them, ask yourself squarely i f you have done good work f o r them. I f you haven't, i s that r e a l l y a good reason f o r you to d i s l i k e them? A l l your teach-ers have spent years of time and money to. become good teachers,, and i t i s to your advantage to make f u l l use of t h e i r ex-perience and knowledge. The best students generally l i k e a l l their teachers and these are the very same teachers you may not l i k e . I t may be your f a u l t that you don't l i k e them, .If things don't go well, you are l i k e l y to talk or whisper in c l a s s . If you do well i n your school work, i t i s i n t e r -esting a l l the time and you won't want to whisper or make a scene. The same i s true about marking up the desks and walls. You should care for them as much as you do f o r things at home, and you don't usually mark up your home. It i s a bad habit to be tardy f o r school. Get up a l i t t l e e a r l i e r ; hurry a l i t t l e more; don't stop to play. If you r e a l l y l i k e school you w i l l want to get there on time. Being truant, that i s , being absent without excuse, i s a very serious wrong and i s disobeying the law. Never be truant,, or i f you have been, never be g u i l t y of t h i s offense again. No matter how bad things are, try to do better. Try hard for a long time. Things w i l l get better a f t e r a while. The happiness, s a t i s f a c t i o n , and success you gain w i l l well repay you f o r your e f f o r t s . -21-XYIII. ABOUT BEING A GOOD SPORT Are you a good sport? Oan you lose a game and come up smiling? Do you help your school to have a good reputation for clean sportsmanship? Good sportsmanship i s a fine part of your character. It i s good t r a i n i n g for you to play the game according to the rules. You should be ready to start games when there i s nothing else going on. I f you always wait f o r someone else to s t a r t them, you are not r e a l l y doing your share. Be w i l l -ing to do your part i n keeping games going. When you play games you should be w i l l i n g to wait your turn, ion are not f a i r i f you want to bat f i r s t and i n s i s t just because you are the biggest one playing. Ihe others have a good idea about where you should bat and what po s i t i o n you should play. Try to be agreeable and do what i s best f o r the team. When you play on a team, don't try to be the whole team. Give the other fellows a chance to make good too. They w i l l a l l l i k e you better f o r i t . They w i l l try harder i f you set them a good example of team work. Be a good sport, and be a part of the team. Play the games according to the rules.. Every rule was made for some good reason; don't t r y to change i t just to s u i t yourself. Play according to the s p i r i t of the rules as w e l l as by the l e t t e r , then you w i l l play, w e l l . Never cheat, f o r sooner or l a t e r you w i l l be caught, and cheating i s not right anyway. Go farther than t h i s and t r y never to think of cheat-ing. In that way you are always trying to do right and you can then play hard and not be worrying about doing r i g h t . Although you may see others cheating, don't cheat too; set them a good example. Play hard, but don't complain i f your team loses a game. You should be w i l l i n g to cheer f o r a good play whether i t i s made on your team or on the other. Learn to respect the other fellow's a b i l i t y ; that i s good sportsmanship. Whatever you learn, about sports should help you afte r you are through school. You may keep on playing with teams of' adults, but i f you are only a fan,, be a good one. You should keep on with sports so as to keep i n good health arid i n fine, physical condition. Then your work, w i l l also be better-Be a good example to younger children about your sports. Try to help them, they w i l l respect you f o r i t . Do a l l ct these things and you w i l l r e a l l y be a good sport.. NOTE: Keep this sheet,, study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things' should get better. XXX. BUILDING A GOOD CBAFACTER Building a good character i s one of the most important parts of your education. Do your friends think you have a good character? What do your parents and your teachers think? Good character i s very valuable. It grows slowly but ste a d i l y . You need to make a habit of always doing r i g h t . It i s l i k e keeping your garden clear of weeds. No matter how good your garden may be, unless you keep at i t the weeds quickly grow again. Don't get discouraged, but keep s t e a d i l y trying to do the right thing. It i s necessary to keep a high standard a l l of the time* Whenever you do anything wrong, people may remember that much longer than the good things you do. If you do poorly at. times, others w i l l lose their trust i n you since they think you may do wrong again. Be trustworthy at. a l l times. There are many ways i n which you can prove your character. I f you borrow something, be sure to return i t and vsay '*Thank you!"1 I f the a r t i c l e i s not returned, your friends may have to buy another to replace i t , and t h e i r regard for you w i l l be lessened. Always be prompt i n acknowledging or returning a favor.. When treats are being passed,, take no more than your share. Any gain you make for yourself i s more than o f f s e t by the bad opinion others get of you. If you are asked to give money or time for some worthy cause, do i t che e r f u l l y . Everyone i s expected t o give what-ever he can to church, Bed Cross, Community Fund, etc. There are always some people who need help because they are sick, or have been i n an accident, or are out of work. You are a good neighbor when you help them. You should always t e l l the truth. It helps you to b u i l d a good character. I f you are known to be honest, people w i l l f e e l they can r e l y on you. If you always t e l l the truth, you. never have anything to hide. You also never have to worry whether you are t e l l i n g everyone the same story. You can give your time and f u l l attention to other matters r e a l l y worth while. Be t r u t h f u l at a L l times. Always do the right thing and avoid what i s wrong. Be honest with yourself and don't excuse yourself when you, know you are doing something wrong. No matter i f you see others doing wrong, keep on doing right yourself. Your example w i l l help the others to do better. Be honest! Whatnyou have just read are merely examples. There are -23-XIX. Building a Good Character (Continued) many other ways i n which you can improve yourself. Try hard f o r a long time and you w i l l develop a good character. You w i l l he happier, and others w i l l l i k e you better, NOTE: Keep this sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you, Things should get better. •24-XX. ABOUT YOUR REPUTATION. Do you have a good reputation? Or have you done something that has had a had influence on others? No matter how bad things are, i t is never too late to begin doing better. First of a l l , whatever you do, you may feel there i s a reason for i t . If you tease l i t t l e children, i t probably i s because you were teased when you were l i t t l e . You may be jealous of your younger brothers and sisters and take your spite out on them or on other l i t t l e children. Teasing i s not badness but a natural need you may feel to make up for a wrong done to you. If you can excuse or over-look the things which were done to you, then you won*t want to. punish others. Sometimes you get into trouble for not knowing the rules very well or not paying close enough attention to-them. Traffic tickets are a good example. If you drive, there are many t r a f f i c rules for you to learn and to follow. If you get a ticket for driving a l i t t l e too fast, you probably did not mean to violate the law, but you simply failed to notice that you were exceeding the speed limi t . However, ignorance of the rules or not paying close enough attention do not excuse you. If you ever ran away from home, _do you know why you. really did i t ? Or i f you had only thought about running away, why did you want to do i t ? Was i t just love of- adventure? Did l i f e seem too tough for you so you wanted to run away from i t ? Did you lack what i t takes to stick to your work and your duties? If things seem too tough, don rt run away but face them. Find out what the trouble really i s and then get i t straightened out. If you have ever been in a detention home or in the juvenile court, ask yourself what really happened to put you there. Did you go out with the wrong kind of friends? Did you really not know what was right? Did you know better <but took a chance? Was i t worth the price you paid? It i s bad for your reputation and brings disgrace on yourself and your parents. Even though you may have had such experiences, now i s the time to do better. Ypu are s t i l l young and i f you really try, others w i l l forgive and forget. If your reputation i s suffering because of your poor judg-ment, lack of knowledge, or just carelessness, you should re-solve to improve yourself so you can be successful. NOTE: Keep this sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better* - S 5 -XXI. ABOUT YOUR SCHOOLMATES AND FRIENDS What kind of friends do you have? Are they good or bad? Are you a leader among them or just a follower? It i s very/ important what kind of friends you have, and also that you are a good friend to others. You may not have realized i t before, but your friends have a b i g e f f e c t upon you. Therefore you should be very careful to choose good companions and then l i v e up to what they ex-pect of you. You are very often judged by the company you keep. One of the best ways to be trusted by your parents i s to have good friends. They w i l l be more l i k e l y to l e t you go out with good friends than with poor ones. You should l e a r n how to get new friends, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the ones you now have are not very good. Being pleasant i s one of the best ways to do i t . It i s also very h e l p f u l to be interested i n what your friends are doing. You should learn how to keep the conversation going. I f you don rt have anything to say, you are not very good company. I f you t a l k too much and don't give the other fellow a chance, that i s also a poor way to keep your fr i e n d s . Whenever you are i n a crowd, do your part to make things agreeable, I f you learn how to praise others.for t h e i r good q u a l i t i e s you w i l l soon be popular, but you must be sincere and r e a l l y mean what you say. Practice in. these things w i l l also help you to get along with grown-ups now and i n l a t e r l i f e . • A f t e r you are quite sure of yourself, you can help some others who think of you as being a good f r i e n d . If you s t i o k to your ideals they w i l l admire you and try to l i v e up t o what you are doing. In that way you can pass on to others some of the advantages which your good friends gave to you. That i s a good test of friendship. You are probably old enough or nearly old enough to have dates. These should grow na t u r a l l y out of the school pa r t i e s and class dances. There i s usually more fun when several couples go out together. I f your parents believe that you show good judgment and pick out good f r i e n d s , they w i l l be w i l l i n g to l e t you have dates when you are old enough. I f you stay out too l a t e , are too noisy, and go with friends your parents do not like,, they w i l l not want you to have dates. If they want you to bring your friends home and are w i l l i n g to help show them a good time,, that i s a very f i n e thing. Get good fri e n d s . Be a good f r i e n d yourself. You w i l l be repaid. 2a-XXII-A. ACT YOUR PART (BOYS) In getting along with, others, are you too much of a "show-off?' 1' Are you too rash, bold, and daring? Or are you too shy,.timid, and quiet? It may be that you are not as strong and well as most boys, and so you don't want to play much with them. If t h i s is. so, try to improve your health and get stronger. Then you w i l l f e e l l i k e playing. I f you can't get stronger, t r y to be pleasant, and look f o r a c t i v i t i e s you can do well with other boys. You may be a member of the debating team, the school paper s t a f f , or the dramatic club. In case you are too bold and reckless or run and play too b l i n d l y , you often get hurt and may get l a i d up with a broken leg or arm. Your friends may even be a f r a i d you w i l l hurt them by running into them or by carelessly h i t t i n g them with a swinging ba;b when playing baseball. You are not l i k e l y to be popular. If you. have a l o t of energy and are daring, j o i n some school team and use i t to good advantage f o r the school. The rest of the time try t o be more moderate i n your actions as your friends w i l l t i r e of- your noise and the rash things you. do. You don't hage to be rough a l l of the time to prove that you are a r e a l fellow. If the others think you are too quiete, you should try to overcome your quietness. Why are you not more active? There may be several reasons. Yon may be too much a f r a i d &($ get your clothes d i r t y and therefore you refuse to play with other boys:. If they think you are too c a r e f u l about your clothes, they are l i k e l y to push you i n t o mudholes and i n many ways t r y to get your clothes d i r t y . Be sure you act the part of a r e a l boy. You w i l l be more popular with the g i r l s too. Most g i r l s would rather have a boy with some pep and ambition. Be sure you are not s i t t i n g down on the job of growing up to be a good, strong man., stiiidy. what the other fellow does and copy the good q u a l i t i e s of those who are r e a l l y the best all-round boys. NOTE: Keep this sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. -2.7-XXII-B. ACT YOUR PART (GIRLS) Do you ever stop to think what other g i r l s think of you? Are.you popular? Do they l i k e you very much? Do they be- • l i e v e you are too quiet or are too noisy and boisterous? It may be that you are not as strong and well as most g i r l s , and so you don't f e e l l i k e playing-with them* I f t h i s i s so, tr y to improve, your health and get stronger? Then things, w i l l go better* u In being a g i r l among g i r l s , t r y to avoid either of two extremes: don't be too rough or don't be too meek and a f r a i d to stand on your own f e e t . Most g i r l s do not l i k e to have such gLrls.as f r i e n d s . If you have l o t s of vim and energy, t r y to work i t off by being on the g i r l s ' school teams. Play hard on the teams, and then don't be too.active or boisterous the r e s t of the time* » It i s not very good taste to play i n a rough way with boys or even with g i r l s . You may have played rough when you were a l i t t l e g i r l , but now that you are older those ways are not so l a d y l i k e . Some boys may encourage you to be rough or boisterous, but down i n their hearts they don't l i k e to see too much of i t i n g i r l s . Be sure that you don't play rough just to a t t r a c t other g i r l s . In that way you may avoid the attention of boys. Be a g i r l among girls, and then both boys and g i r l s w i l l l i k e you. Don't go to the other extreme and have no physical a c t i v i -t i e s . .You should not expect always to s i t around i n your best clothes with nothing to do and be waited on by everyone e l s e . If you are l i k e l y to scream at some sudden noise, or get. scared too e a s i l y , t r y to overcome t h i s , because others may make fun of you. You make yourself miserable, too. Try to develop your natural g i r l i s h charm. Be yourself and also t r y to become l i k e the best g i r l s whom you admire. Don't overdo powder, l i p s t i c k , and n a i l p o l i s h , for i f you do, they may make you look cheap. If you have plenty of natural charm, you don't need so much of these other things. I f you use them too much, your friends may believe that you are t r y -ing to cover up your own weaknesses. Avoid extremes! Act your p a r t ! Be a g i r l among g i r l s ! NOTE: Keep th i s sheet; study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. Things should get better. XXIII. HOBBIES AND•SPARE TIMS What do you do with your spare time? Do you have any hobbies? Do you make good use of your l e i s u r e time or do you just do nothing at a l l ? You should have some hobbies. There i s more need f o r hobbies now than when your parents were young. In those e a r l i e r days, men had l i t t l e shops at home, or farms, and a l l the boys and g i r l s always had plenty to do, with l i t t l e time for themselves. Today most of us have le s s to do and need hobbies to make good use of our spare time. Hobbies often help us with our shhool work* Eor example,, i f a boy i s taking courses i n shop at school, a work bench at home w i l l be very h e l p f u l . At times a good movie dealing with an important h i s t o r i c a l event w i l l help^ you to understand the history lesson. Magazines and newspapers have many a r t i c l e s and news items which throw new l i g h t upon subjects being studied i n school* Over a period of years, hobbies of many kinds o f f e r you a chance to explore i n several f i e l d s . A hobby may lead you into a new f i e l d of a c t i c i t y which may prove so i n t e r e s t i n g i t becomes your l i f e work. Doing a hobby very well i s f i n e t r a i n i n g . You may give a l l the time you need to make i t quite perfect. I f i t does not work well, you can honestly blame yourself because i t i s your own project. If you have no hobbies at a l l , you may get lazy and do poor work at school. You may not even want to help with any work, at home, or anything else. On the other hand, you should not get so. much interested i n your hobbies that you don't do your school work, or help at home. Keep a good balance between too many and too few hobbies. If you don't have any hobbies, try to get started with a few. A boy can buy several cheap carpenter's too l s or other tools for mechanical purposes. Stamp c o l l e c t i n g , contests for model bird houses, and building model boats and airplanes are only a few suggestions. Magazines, such as "Popular Mechanics,"5 create i n t e r e s t i n a wide f i e l d of hobbies. There are many other kinds of hobbies such as l i t e r a r y and dramatic a c t i v i t i e s , music, needlework, and crocheting, sports and a t h l e t i c s , suited to the season both i n and out of school, i n -crease the number of a c t i v i t i e s . Teachers, l i b r a r i a n s , scout leaders, and others are able to o f f e r leads to hobbies. If you have some hobbies, keep on with them.. Try to do them well. Do the best you can with whatever material and with the place you have f o r your hobbies. Get your parents interested. Then you w i l l get along better with them, and yon w i l l understand each other much better. XXIV. ABOUT YOUR VOCATION Have you ever thought very much about what kind of work you hope to do? Or are you just d r i f t i n g along? Has anyone ever talked to you about your vocation? .It i s time f o r you to think about i t . Here are a few suggestions. Other people may give you advice about your vocation but you should make' the f i n a l choice yourself. I f i t i s your own choice, you are more l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with i t . No other p.rson should t e l l you just what to choose. Although you may not know what you want just now, don't l e t others hurry you into a choice .or make i t for you. -Your parents or school counselor may be able to advise you about what general class of jobe they believe would be well suited to you, but the choice of the p a r t i c u l a r one should be made by you. In t r y i n g to make a choice, don't be guided too much by the people who are now working at that job. •There are good and poor workers i n every kind of occupation, so t r y to judge the job i t s e l f instead of the persons doing the work and how they are doing i t . A few years before you f i n i s h high school, you should begin thinking about kinds of' jobs or l i f e work which would s u i t you. There are several things which you might do. You. could prob-ably go to where jobs are being done and watch the work going on. You can talk, to people who work: i n the kinds of jobs you would l i k e * You can read books about jobs and about choosing your vocation. Ask your school counselor or the l i b r a r i a n f o r the names of such books. The more information you can get about jobs, the more i t should help you to make up your mind. Don't l e t i t bother you, i f i t takes quite a long time to de-cide or i f you change your mind a few times* If you r e a l l y try to get some idea what you hope to do, i t w i l l help you to do better work, i n school. If you have no goal to reach, you don't seem to get anywhere. Your c l a s s -mates who are doing the best school work probably have t h e i r kinds of jobs picked out. Remember the people who h i r e you on jobs l a t e r on usually want to' know i f you went through high school and what kind of marks you got. Don't l e t people discourage you too much about jobs which they say are already crowded. Almost every kind of job has more people than can be used except when times are very good.' If you t r a i n yourself very well you have a good chance to get the kind of job you want sometime, even i f not r i g h t at the f i r s t . You should be w i l l i n g to begin at the bottom and work up i n the job you expect to take. You w i l l f i n d - l o t s of competi-t i o n ; others are anxious to get ahead too. Only a few can get XXIV. About Your Vocation (Continued) the most important jobs. Don't be a f r a i d of hard work. There is honor i n doing any kind of job well, no matter what i t i s , NOTE: Keep this sheetj study i t often. Try to do what i t t e l l s you. 

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