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The growth of social science concepts in the junior-senior high school Mill, Mary Margaret 1948

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££3  The Growth of Social Science Concepts i n the Junior-Senior High School hy Mary Margaret M i l l  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of  EDUCATION  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia August, 1948  3>7  ABSTRACT The Growth of Social Science Concepts i n the Junior-Senior High School The purpose of t h i s study was to discover the amount of growth i n understanding  of certain s o c i a l science  concepts  that appears throughout the junior-senior high school; to compare the degrees of understanding  achieved hy low and high  I.Q. groups; and to determine the causes of the various errors made'by the students. Two interpretive t e s t s , based on concepts  typical  of those appearing i n s o c i a l studies text books, were constructed  and administered to 371 pupils i n Social Studies I, I I I ,  and V classes of representative c i t y schools. Results of both t e s t s showed a gradual growth i n the a b i l i t y on the part of the groups tested to understand s o c i a l concepts.  On both tests there was a s i g n i f i c a n t  certain dif-  ference between the mean scores of Social Studies I, I I I , and V groups.  In any one group there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  between boys' and girls'* mean scores. Pupils of high I.Q,. * s i n the Social Studies I and V groups made higher scores than did those of less a b i l i t y . C o e f f i c i e n t s of correlation between I.Q.'s and test scores of both tests also indicated that the a b i l i t y to understand s o c i a l concepts was somewhat related to i n t e l l i g e n c e . An analysis of responses made to Test I items  certain  - 2 revealed  that errors may  be caused by verbalism, over-potency  of certain sentence elements, d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g out  of  f i g u r a t i v e language, confusion with other concepts of similar s p e l l i n g or sounds, "reading errors", and a complete f a i l u r e to grasp the meaning of the concept.  In Test I I , verbalism,  "reading errors", f a i l u r e to follow directions, f a i l u r e to weigh evidence, f a i l u r e to interpret quantitative terms, and f a i l u r e to compare trends contributed responses.  to the inadequacy of  L i t t l e difference i n causes of errors was  found  to exist between high and low I.Q,. groups at the Social Studies I and V l e v e l s .  In general, throughout the groups  studied, pupils did better on questions of a  straightforward,  fact-finding nature than they did on those requiring i n t e r pretation of data. Test results for the groups studied indicated that pupils need more opportunity to express themselves i n writing, that i s to t e l l i n t h e i r own words what a concept means to them.  Moreover, students need practice i n interpretation of  data exercises i n order that they may  learn to think  weigh evidence, and avoid drawing conclusions f i c i e n t data.  critically,  from insuf-  (i)  Acknowledgments The writer wishes to express her thanks to the p r i n c i p a l s and teachers of K i t s i l a n o Junior-Senior High School and Queen Mary Junior-Senior High School who so kindly cooperated during the testing; to the publishers, J. M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Limited f o r permission to use material from G-. W. Brown's Building the Canadian Nation and Canadian Democracy i n Action;and to Dr. F. T. Tyler f o r his help and guidance throughout the study.  (ii)  Table of Contents  v  Chapter I II III IV V VI  Background  of Problem  -  Survey of Literature  Page 1 4  General Procedure  24  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Test Results  28  Subjective Analysis of Test Results  36  Summary  49  Bibliography  52  Appendix  55  (iii)  L i s t of Tables  Table 1 2  Page Number of Students i n Social Studies I, I I I , and V  26  Means and Sigmas of I.Q.'s f o r Social Studies I, I I I , and V  27  3  Mean Scores and Sigmas f o r Test I  28  4 5  Mean Scores and Sigmas f o r Test I I Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Social Studies I, I I I , V:  28 Test I  Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Social Studies I, I I I , V:  Test I I 30  6  29  7  Percentage of Pupils Achieving No, Some, or Adequate Comprehension on History Test I Items  31  8  Test Results of Students of High and Low I.Q. Levels i n the Social Studies I and V Groups  33  9  Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Low and High I.Q. Groups: Test I  34  Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Low and High I.Q. Groups: Test I I  34  10  - 1 -  The Growth of S o c i a l Science Concepts i n the Junior-Senior High School Chapter I Introduction The making of concepts through language i s an active and complicated process.  Language i s , indeed, the  tool of thinking, and through language meanings are developed.  But, as Horn points out verbal statements,  or printed, do not give the student ideas ready made.  oral Indeed,  they merely stimulate him to construct ideas f o r himself. "When the statements deal with constructs which the student has already made, the process follows the general pattern of reproductive imagination. But i n school most of the language that the student reads or hears deals with new meanings, new concepts, and new problems. In such instances constructive imagination i s brought into play. The attainment of a new idea, i s , from the student's point of view, a creative act requiring vigorous and e f f i c i e n t mental e f f o r t . But while, s t r i c t l y speaking, there i s no such thing as passive learning, a student's a c t i v i t y may be so feeble, his interest so weak or v a c i l l a t i n g , or his thought so u n c r i t i c a l that the constructs he makes, i f he makes any at a l l , are..too vague and i l l organized to be serviceable." Concepts, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of an abstract nature such as democracy, l i b e r a l i s m , nationalism, and so on, can be developed  by the student only through a gradual b u i l d i n g  up of experiences either f i r s t hand or v i c a r i o u s .  When the  student meets such concepts i n his reading, he must use h i s 1.  Ernest Horn, "Language and Meaning," i n National Society  for the Study of Education, F o r t y - f i r s t Yearbook. University of Chicago Press, 1942, pp. 382-383.  a c q u i r e d background concepts.  He must be a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e c o n c e p t s  o f h i s own e v e r y d a y to t r a n s l a t e using wise  speech.  i n terms  "We need t o h e l p e v e r y  pupil  t h e E n g l i s h words o f w h a t e v e r a u t h o r i t y he i s  i n t o h i s own  (Johnny  Jones')  i s t o promote t h e t w i n e v i l s  Furthermore,  language.  To do o t h e r -  of parroting  as Horn s t r e s s e s , both p e r s i s t e n t  time a r e r e q u i r e d t o be  of experience i n order to i n t e r p r e t the  i f concepts, e i t h e r  and p l a g i a r i s m .  1  e f f o r t and  simple or d i f f i c u l t are  developed. ""When t h e c o n c e p t t o be f o r m e d i s e x c e s s i v e l y d i f f i c u l t , when t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l media a r e i n a d e q u a t e , when t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e , i n t e r e s t , a b i l i t y and t r a i n i n g a r e l i m i t e d , o r when t h e t i m e f o r l e a r n i n g i s s h o r t , t h e c o n s t r u c t s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t makes w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Concepts a r e not so o f t e n u n - u n d e r s t o o d , t o b o r r o w a word" f r o m S h o t w e l l , a s m i s u n d e r s t o o d , o r v a g u e l y comprehended. Some m e a n i n g i s obt a i n e d , some c o n s t r u c t s a r e made, b u t t h e r e s u l t i s vague, p a r t i a l , d i s t o r t e d , o r wholly erroneous." 2 The  purpose  c o v e r how w e l l p u p i l s school grades  of t h i s  throughout  understand  i n o t h e r words, t o f i n d concepts i n t o t h e i r experience. is  study i s , i n g e n e r a l , t o d i s the junior-senior  certain social o u t how p u p i l s  own e v e r y d a y  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  high  science concepts, or, "translate"  language, t h e purpose  these  i n terms o f t h e i r of this  own  study  threefold: 1.  To d e t e r m i n e ,  i f t h e r e i s any g r o w t h i n t h e u n d e r -  standing of c e r t a i n  social  s c i e n c e concepts  through  1. R. B. E g e r t o n , " C l a r i f y i n g and E n r i c h i n g Mean V o c a b u l a r i e s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s ; i n H. R. A n d e r s o n , e d . , T e a c h i n g C r i t i c a l Thinking i n the Social Studies, National Council f o r the Social S t u d i e s , T h i r t e e n t h Y e a r b o o k , 1942, p . 108. 2. E . Horn, Methods o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s , New Y o r k , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1937, p p . 141-148.  - 3 the junior-senior high school grades. 2.  To determine i f the understanding of certain s o c i a l science concepts i s related to i n t e l ligence.  3.  To analyze students' responses to certain s o c i a l science concepts and to discover the causes of the errors made. By investigating the meanings students  with s o c i a l science concepts, t y p i c a l of those  associate appearing  in current s o c i a l studies materials, i t i s hoped to discover how v i v i d and r e a l such concepts actually are to pupils, and to ascertain, i f possible, just what d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n herent i n s o c i a l studies materials may  block, comprehension  and lead to vague, s u p e r f i c i a l or completely  erroneous ideas.  Chapter I I Survey of the Literature One of the e a r l i e s t investigations dealing with the understanding of concepts i s Thorndike's work on mistakes i n paragraph r e a d i n g .  1  i n t h i s study, Thorndike aimed "to show  that reading i s a very elaborate procedure, involving a weighing of each of many elements i n a sentence, t h e i r organization i n the proper relations to one another, the selection of certain of t h e i r connotations and rejection of others, and 2 the cooperation of many forces to determine f i n a l response." Two hundred pupils i n grade s i x attempted to answer simple questions about simple paragraphs.  From the r e s u l t s  Thorndike observed that reading may be wrong or inadequate "(1) because of wrong connections with words singly, (2) because of over-potency or under-potency of elements, or (3) because of f a i l u r e to treat the ideas produced by the reading as provisional, and so to inspect and welcome or reject them as they appear."  3  Thorndike p a r t i c u l a r l y noted the importance of corr e c t l y weighing each element i n the sentence.  Indeed, he  found that a very large percentage of the mistakes made was due to over-potency or under-potency of certain elements. 1. E. L. Thorndike, "Reading as Reasoning: A Study of Mistakes i n Paragraph Reading," Journal of Educational Psychology. 1917, v o l . 8, pp. 323-33. 2.  Ibid., p. 323.  3.  I b i d . , p. 326.  - 5To i l l u s t r a t e h i s point, Thorndike discussed h i s f i r s t question on the paragraph-reading test — the  paragraph?"  "What i s the general topic of.  A t y p i c a l answer, such as "made of complete  sentences," showed how the over-potency of the word paragraph affected the response made. ^ In ing  conclusion, Thorndike pointed out that the read-  of a text or reference book should not be thought of as  a mechanical or passive task.  Rather, such reading demands  an active selection t y p i c a l of thought.  " I t i s not a small 2  or unworthy task, to learn 'what the book says.'"  Thorndike  f e l t that the results of h i s study indicated the need of s i l e n t reading exercises to replace much o r a l reading. Friedman made a study of the variety, extent, and importance of time concepts i n the l i f e of the average person, both adult and c h i l d . The subjects of t h i s study were 1364 pupils i n Minneapolis Public Schools from kindergarten to grade twelve i n c l u s i v e , together with 194 adults. the  Groups were equated on  basis of sex and I.Q,. Occupations of adults and parents  of pupils f e l l within the middle groups of the Minnesota Occupational Scale. 1.  Thorndike, Journal of Educational Psychology, v o l . 8 (1917), pp. 325 - 327.  2.  Ibid, p. 332.  3. K. C. Friedman, "The Growth of Time Concepts,"Social Education, 1944, v o l . 8, pp. 29-31.  Friedman found progress with each succeeding grade i n the understanding of time concepts.  Children had a s l i g h t  understanding of time when they f i r s t entered school.  Full  understanding of the conventional time system did not occur u n t i l grade s i x (age 11). Children were also tested on the meaning of i n d e f i nite time phrases.  Here the pupils were asked to r e l a t e some-  thing that happened "a long time ago" and something that happened'k short while ago," and then to t e l l just when they occurred.  Here i t was found that pupils understood ideas  nearer to them i n time and place better than they grasped those more remote.  But, f o r both recent and early periods,  highly inaccurate and greatly varying concepts were displayed. Greatest gains i n the understanding of time words and dates occurred i n grades f i v e and s i x . By grade J ten (age 16) comprehension of these concepts approached maturity. Here scores were equivalent to adult averages. In the f i e l d of time relationships Friedman found comprehension was generally poor.  Here pupils were asked to  number groups of events i n chronological order.  Test items  were based on holidays, f a m i l i a r h i s t o r i c a l events, and dates. Satisfactory understanding was not achieved u n t i l the gradetwelve l e v e l .  Furthermore, the a b i l i t y of adults to see time  relationships either among groups of unrelated events or i n a succession of related events appeared l i m i t e d .  Results  further showed no s i g n i f i c a n t sex difference, and a low corr e l a t i o n between I.Q.'s and test scores.  -  7 -  Friedman suggested that t h i s area of time concepts offers great p o s s i b i l i t i e s for development, and indeed, an a c q u i s i t i o n of adequate time concepts should  that  contribute  to the enrichment i n the outcomes of the s o o i a l studies. Iowa Studies Several studies at the University of Iowa have dealt with the problem of children's h i s t o r i c a l concepts.  One  of the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s f i e l d was^that of Joseph C. Dewey.  1  In his study, Dewey sought to determine what children understand from t h e i r reading, why they comprehend as they do, and f i n a l l y to ascertain what may be done to help children interpret the printed page c o r r e c t l y . For his t e s t s , Dewey adapted reading material from four representative American history texts for the eighth grade.  He selected paragraphs with meanings which required  careful, i n f e r e n t i a l thought.  The words i n each s e l e c t i o n  were checked against the Thorndike Word L i s t . Dewey constructed four types of tests -- paper-andp e n c i l t e s t s , a map test, picture-choice t e s t s , and an i n t e r view t e s t .  The paper-and-pencil  tests consisted of a true-  false-no-data test, a free-expression inference t e s t , a 1. J . C. Dewey, A Case Study of Reading Comprehension D i f f i c u l t i e s i n American History, University of Iowa Studies in Education, v o l . 2, No. 1, 1931, cited i n A l i l i n a s , L. J . , "A Review of the Research of the H i s t o r i c a l Concepts of American Children," Educational Administration and Supervision, Baltimore, Wariok and York, 1945, v o l . 31, pp. 331-344. As the o r i g i n a l was not available, the account of Dewey's study i s based on the review by A l i l i n a s .  - 8 -  multiple-choice t e s t , and a t r u e - f a l s e inference test i n which pupils indicated the s p e c i f i c sentences on which they had based t h e i r responses, were true or f a l s e .  as well as whether the inferences  In the o r a l interview test which Dewey  endeavored to make as concrete as possible, pupils had reading selections before them.  Each c h i l d was given a thirty-minute  interview which was recorded verbatim by the Iowa Oral Language Recording Machine.  As a safeguard against one c h i l d  informing  another about the interviews, no child knew during h i s i n t e r view whether or not he had answered the questions  correctly.  Furthermore, the number and v a r i e t y of the questions were so great, that Dewey f e l t i t u n l i k e l y that a p u p i l could remember the questions long enough to inform others. A preliminary test was given to children i n the University Elementary School to determine the most plausible alternate incorrect items f o r the multiple-choice t e s t . F i n a l tests were administered  to children i n two schools.  Sixty-eight children from one school, which was i n a town of two thousand, had I.Q.'s ranging from 80 to 125.  Their  reading scores on the Iowa S i l e n t Reading Test ranged from 28.50 to 142.00.  Eighty-eight p u p i l s from the other school,  i n a community of sixty thousand, had I.Q.'s ranging from 73 to 126 and reading scores ranging from 24.50 to 116.50. Test results f o r both groups were almost equivalent. From h i s test r e s u l t s , Dewey concluded  that the  more i n t e l l i g e n t children were more l o g i c a l i n t h e i r while those of less a b i l i t y , tended to give  responses,  disconnected  - 9-  i l l o g i c a l responses.  Dewey warned, however, that one should  not have too much f a i t h i n the r e l i a b i l i t y based on a few objective items.  of verbal tests  Dewey used the picture tests  to check, against the meanings of words which pupils used.  In  some cases, pupils who responded correctly i n the word t e s t s f a i l e d to respond correctly on the picture t e s t s . Test results also showed that pupils did much l e s s effective reading for i n f e r e n t i a l thinking than they did f o r fact f i n d i n g .  Their lack of experiential background was  apparent when they were asked to give reasons for t h e i r responses.  Irrelevant, verbal answers were p a r t i c u l a r l y  noticeable on matters of money and government powers.  Dewey  doubted that the children had had adequate opportunity i n school to do i n f e r e n t i a l thinking.  He f e l t that each p u p i l  regarded any reading s e l e c t i o n In terms of his own background and mind set, and that test results indicated the need f o r a better provision f o r i n d i v i d u a l differences i n teaching. On the whole, Dewey found that pupils made a larger percentage of correct responses i n the o r a l interviews they did i n the written t e s t s . children were more consistent  than  Again he found that the brighter i n t h e i r responses.  Dewey f e l t that the value of the o r a l  interview  technique l a y i n the fact that the investigator had a chance to make clear what he was t e s t i n g .  The p u p i l could  make p l a i n what he was t r y i n g to say.  also  Moreover, the i n t e r -  view technique aided i n obtaining an accurate evaluation of  - 10 the children's reading comprehension, helped to e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of the written t e s t s , and provided a means of discovering additional information about reading d i f f i c u l t i e s . " Three studies dealing with the understanding of quantitative terms appearing  i n s o c i a l studies material were  carried out at Iowa University. Short limited h i s study to those concepts which grow out of numbers and quantitative terms appearing textbooks at the grade seven l e v e l .  i n history  In his analysis of the  text i n question, Short itemized and c l a s s i f i e d the entire book.  Items were chosen on the basis of frequency In the  text, t h e i r appearance i n "standard  vocabularies, t h e i r  d i f f i c u l t y , and t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l significance according to 2 a certain type of philosophy i n h i s t o r i c a l authorship." Complete statements with as much content as necessary to insure a f u l l meaning of t h e i r nature were selected rather than single words. form a completion,  These statements were used to  multiple-choice, and essay type t e s t .  Short stated that "the d i f f i c u l t y most strongly met was that of a s u f f i c i e n t refinement of questions to gain delicate shades of meaning.  A s l i g h t change i n content a l t e r s the  1. See L. J. A l i l i n a s , "A Review of the Research of the H i s t o r i c a l Concepts of American Children," Educational Administration and Supervision, Baltimore, Warick and York, 1945, v o l . 31, pp. 337 - 349. 2. H. C. Short, Concepts of Certain Quantitative Terms used i n Seventh Grade Social Science Materials, Master's t h e s i s , State University of Iowa, 1933, pp. 1 - 4.  -  11  -  entire meaning of the word, and as soon as t h i s occurs the same concept i s no longer measured."  1  >The subjects were twenty-seven pupils of a gradeseven class i n a Chicago metropolitan-area  school.  Each  pupil had an opportunity to discuss his written responses to the test items with the examiner. by the pupil without  Additional ideas developed  the aid of "leading questions" were also  credited to his work. In his interpretation of the test results, Short pointed out that t h i s investigation had two main l i m i t a t i o n s , namely; the small number of cases studied, and the d i f f i c u l t y in interpreting r e s u l t s .  He concluded  that:  "To say that a child whose response to such items was not the 'accepted response' was i n error, i s not altogether true. Such answers were not ' s t i l l more boners.' The only time that a child could make an error i n t h i s investigation was i n f a i l i n g to f a i t h f u l l y record his best answers to a question. His inconsistencies i n replying to the same type of question i n d i f f e r e n t settings would rather i n dicate accuracy of recording than e r r o r . " 2 Furthermore, although correlations of .76,  .70,  .59, and  .58  existed between the accepted responses and the Stanford Achievement Scores, the Gregory American History Test, the Compass Arithmetic Survey Test, and the I l l i n o i s Intelligence Scale, respectively, Short concluded that " i t probably cannot be inferred that achievement as measured by the Stanford test i s the best measure of the nature of the concepts,  or  that history information was more essential to the development of an 'accepted  response' than was arithmetical information."  1.  H. C. Short, p. 9  2.  Ibid, p. 70  3.  Ibid,pp. 73 - 74.  - 12 -  The whole background of experience of each pupil must be taken into account before one concludes that a child i s either right or wrong i n his interpretation of concepts. "Experience, possibly, may play a greater part i n establishing adequate concepts, than such factors as i n t e l l i g e n c e per se, or a b i l i t y to obtain high scores on standardized academic t e s t s . " In conclusion, Short found a wide variety of quantit a t i v e concepts derived from statements i n t h e i r history text by the group of children tested.  In regard to the children's  concepts, the d e f i n i t e - i n d e f i n i t e , and i n d e f i n i t e items provided a r i c h e r f i e l d f o r determination of concepts held, than did the d e f i n i t e terms, which may skills.  involve only memoriter  F i n a l l y , Short suggested the need f o r a refinement  of terminology and a campaign against the loose use of quantitative terms i n children's reading materials. A second study dealing with the comprehension of quantitative terms was carried out by Ryan.  Ryan sought to  determine the extent to which fifth-grade children possess reasonably accurate concepts of quantitative terms used i n t h e i r geography textbooks, and secondly, to determine the frequency with which d e f i n i t e and Indefinite quantitative terms appear i n a certain geography text written for f i f t h 's  grade pupils. 1.  H. C. Short, p. 75  2.  Ibid, pp. 75 - 76.  3. G. M. Ryan, A Study of the Comprehension of Quantitative Terms i n Geography at the F i f t h Grade Level. Master's thesis, State University of Iowa, 1935, pp. 1-2.  - 13 Ryan selected one hundred quantitative terms p r i m a r i l y on the basis of t h e i r frequency of occurrence i n the text. ... The  accuracy of the terms was  checked against  p l i e d by such authorities as the U.S. culture and Commerce.  s t a t i s t i c s sup-  Departments of A g r i -  Certain items were omitted because  of lack of accurate information.  Ryan pointed  out that " t h i s  l i t t l e research while covering a small area makes one  cognizant  of the fact that i t i s easy to speak and write i n terms of g e n e r a l i t i e s and that we a l l t a l k much about things of which we a c t u a l l y know l i t t l e .  Hence i t i s that textbook writers  choose the paths of least resistance and  cover up unknown or  changing facts with i n d e f i n i t e statements." ^ Ryan's t e s t s were composed of sentences containing Items printed almost verbatim from the text. was  followed  by multiple-choice  Each sentence  item-or items.  Ryan f e l t  that i f a c h i l d had a correct concept of the term i n question, his  choice of response would indicate i t . A  test and an o r a l test was  free-expression  also arranged, the purpose of the  l a t t e r being to ascertain the inner thinking of each c h i l d . "Leading questions" i n the o r a l tests were at a l l times avoided. Tests were administered to twenty fifth-grade pupils of Franklin School, Dubuque, Iowa.  In the  free-expression  test and interview test items were marked right i f the child's response indicated that he had a f a i r l y correct concept. 1.  G. M. Ryan, p.  14  - 14 Results of the three types of tests indicated a poor understanding of the quantitative terms used i n the investigation.  Only 48.3$ of correct responses on  the  multiple-choice  test were selected by the p u p i l s .  On  interview and free-expression  the  t e s t s 48$ and 27.4$ of the  questions were answered oorrectly.  A low agreement between  i n t e l l i g e n c e of the pupils and t h e i r scores on these tests was  also evident;  Ryan f e l t that i t was  quite possible that  extensive use of objective tests contributed  to the p u p i l s '  lack of a b i l i t y i n expressing themselves i n writing. In b r i e f , Ryan found that the textbook analysis indicated that quantitative terms, p a r t i c u l a r l y of an i n d e f i n i t e nature, were used i n profusion i n the text.  Both  d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e terms were d i f f i c u l t for children to interpret.  Children with higher i n t e l l i g e n c e were more con-  sistent i n giving the correct response to the same term on the d i f f e r e n t t e s t s . free-expression  Each child made his lowest score on the  test.  Consistency of responses corresponded  with both the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients  and reading percentiles.  Results implied that textbook writers should use more concrete materials i n presenting  f a c t s , and that classroom teachers  should endeavor to put meaning into geography terms. addition, free-expression  In  tests should be used to supplement  those of an objective type. ^ One  of the most recent and most interesting studies  at Iowa University dealing with the problem of the effect of d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e quantitative terms on the understand 1.  G. M. Ryan, pp. 39 - 40.  - 15 ding of s o c i a l studies material has been the work of Gahel.  1  In order to test the comprehension of quantitative concepts of children, Gahel devised s i x one-page selections of t y p i c a l s o c i a l studies materials.  The selections contained  forty quantitative terms dealing with time, area, distance, and size.  Two forms of each s e l e c t i o n were prepared, with  d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e terms.  Gabel then constructed two  forms of a multiple-response test i n order to test the comprehension and retention of the quantitative terms used i n the selections.  Both forms of the test were alike In that  the same questions were used i n each form.  Again the chief  difference was that the facts i n one test were stated def i n i t e l y , while i n the other they were presented i n d e f i n i t e l y . Tests were administered to 1627 pupils i n grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 i n nine school systems i n I l l i n o i s .  The  presentation of material and the t e s t i n g order were a l t e r nated, so that a l l pupils had a chance to respond to both the d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e quantitative terms. Gabel concluded that regardless of the type of quantitative concept, and regardless of the grade l e v e l , the d e f i n i t e method of presentation of quantitative terms i n s o c i a l studies material i s more e f f e c t i v e than the i n d e f i n i t e method of presentation.  Coefficients of correlation between  test scores and I.Q.'s were a l l p o s i t i v e , ranging from .29 1. 0. J . Gabel, "The Effect of Definite Versus I n d e f i n i t e Quantitative Terms Upon the Comprehension and Retention of S o c i a l Studies M a t e r i a l , " Journal of Experimental Education. 1940-1942, v o l . 9-10, pp. 177-186. 2.  Ibid, pp. 177-178.  to .54 when t o t a l scores were used.  These c o e f f i c i e n t s were  consistent regardless of the type of quantitative concept or the type of test material involved.  From t h i s fact, Gabel  concluded that there i s a strong p r o b a b i l i t y that the more i n t e l l i g e n t pupils are more l i k e l y to comprehend and r e t a i n quantitative concepts i n s o c i a l studies material than the less i n t e l l i g e n t ones.  He further recommended that a larger  number of d e f i n i t e quantitative terms be included i n the material that children read, and suggested that text book writers should be more discriminating i n t h e i r selection of terms to express concepts of quantity.  1  Columbia Studies Columbia University studies related to the problem of children's s o c i a l concepts may  be represented  by the work  of Meltzer, Matthews, and Ayer. Meltzer sought to discover how  some cue concepts -  basic concepts of contemporary l i f e - are developed i n the 2 minds of children.  He selected thirty-one s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l  and economic concepts from a larger l i s t determined by a study of 112 issues of c r i t i c a l magazines spread over a period of five years, together with four books. A straightforward information test for the concepts was  constructed.  The personal-interview  technique w a s chosen  a s the method of testing, because Meltzer f e l t that such a method was  l e s s restrained and yielded more meaningful and  revealing responses. Each c h i l d w a s tested i n d i v i d u a l l y . 1. 0. J. Gabel, pp. 185-186. 2. H. Meltzer, Children's S o c i a l Concepts - A Study of Their Nature and Development, New York, Teachers College, Columbia University Contributions to ^Education,. No.. 192....1925..  - ,17 The child talked; the examiner did a l l the writing. l i m i t was set.  No time  Each child was given every opportunity to say  a l l he or she knew ahout the concept. further questioning hy the  examiner.  Generalities lead to  1  The subjects were 333 pupils from grade five through high school i n New York and New  Jersey Schools.  No great d i f -  ferences were found between the children's reaction to general concepts such as p o l i t i c s , government, industry, as contrasted to p a r t i c u l a r concepts such as Trade Union, and Wage Earner. A steady development i n the children's concepts appeared grade to grade.  from  Mean scores ranged from 27.40 i n grade f i v e  to 158.91 i n grade twelve.  The children's grasp of the concepts  was found to correlate p o s i t i v e l y with f i v e factors; namely, .80 with educational age, .69 with grade, .58 with mental age, .55 with chronological age, and .36 with occupational status. The- curriculum was found to have a direct and measurable influence on the children's grasp of the concepts.  Children  who had used the Social Science Pamphlets - a unified course i n s o c i a l science f o r the seventh, eighth, and ninth grade were superior, with respect to the grasp of the concepts, to those who had the conventional courses i n history, geography, and c i v i c s . The number of words used and the number of correct ideas expressed increased from grade to grade.  The number of  words used correlated .69 with the number of correct ideas expressed, but only .31 with the grasp of the concepts. Meltzer concluded that: 1.  H. Meltzer, pp. 14-18.  - 18 "The high correlation between the number of words used and the number of ideas expressed and the low correlation between the number of words used and grasp of the concepts are interpreted as showing that the number of ideas, taken by i t s e l f , i s not a satisfactory measure of the grasp of the concepts. . . Talkativeness on a given universe of discourse as measured by the numbers of words used by the c h i l dren to express t h e i r knowledge of the concepts correlated .36 - .049 with t h e i r Intelligence Quotients." 1 Matthews' purpose was to determine the extent to which p  pupils comprehend various types of s o c i a l studies materials. Concepts were chosen from materials used i n a p a r t i cular course of study at the junior high school l e v e l .  "It  was thought that the v a r i a t i o n i n d i f f i c u l t y which would be found i n junior high school materials would insure the sel e c t i o n of some samples comprehended to some extent as  low  as the fourth grade and some so d i f f i c u l t as to tax the a b i l i t y of the senior high school p u p i l s . " From nine types of curriculum materials - episodes, descriptions, newspaper a r t i c l e s , bar graphs, l i n e graphs, c i r c u l a r graphs, time l i n e s , pictograms,  and maps -  seventy-  two samples were selected and incorporated i n a multiple choice and completion t e s t .  Only questions which could be  answered from the s p e c i f i c material presented were asked. 1.  H. Meltzer, p. 88  2. C. 0. Matthews, The Grade Placement of Curriculum Materials i n the S o c i a l Studies, New York, Teachers College, Columbia University Contributions to Education, No. 241, 1926. 3.  Ibid, p.  4-5.  - 19 The subjects were 9711 pupils from throughout the United States.  There were approximately 400 pupils i n each  of grades 4, 7, 9, and 12, with 150 i n each of grades 5, 6, 8, 10, and 11. the  The i n t e l l i g e n c e records tended to show that  sampling of children was quite representative of the  public school population of the United States.  A compari-  son of age-grade norms of these children with norms f o r the country as a whole pointed to the same conclusion. Results showed that a b i l i t y to comprehend the reading and graphic selections used increased gradually throughout the grades.  Of the reading materials used, the episodes were com-  prehended somewhat better than the other types i n a l l grades except grades s i x and nine. the  In regards to the graphic materials,  c i r c u l a r graphs were easiest, the l i n e graphs most d i f -  f i c u l t , and the bar graphs about midway between the two. Grade l e v e l s have been indicated f o r each selection of materials as an aid to the placement of materials i n the curriculum from which they were selected.  1  A comprehensive study on d i f f i c u l t i e s i n elementary school history was undertaken by Ayer.  Her purpose was to  determine the extent to which children comprehend history concepts; to determine the precise nature of i n t e r f e r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ; to compare the a b i l i t y required to understand passages with the reading comprehension of children as measured by standardized reading tests; to determine how children react to h i s t o r y subject matter which they do not f u l l y 1.  C. 0. Matthews, pp. 41-42.  eom-  - 20 prehend; and to determine whether f a i l u r e to comprehend passages from history i s due to wrong grade placement.  1  The study was conducted at the grades f i v e and seven level.  Subject matter f o r tests consisted of paragraphs or  other units of thought that contained expressions or words that might be d i f f i c u l t f o r children, and that, i n general, represented a l l periods of history commonly found i n textbooks i n use. As passages were analyzed, the most common d i f f i c u l t i e s observed were d i f f i c u l t words and expressions ess e n t i a l to history comprehension  (technical words), words  and expressions not essential to history comprehension  (lite-  rary embellishments), long, involved sentences, and abstract thought. A preliminary test was given to 95 children equally divided among grades f i v e to eight i n c l u s i v e , i n order to determine the nature of children's reactions to d i f f i c u l t terms and expressions. Paragraphs were selected from grade f i v e h i s t o r i e s representing the types of d i f f i c u l t i e s described.  Children were asked to t e l l i n t h e i r own words  what items i n these paragraphs meant to them. From t h i s preliminary t e s t , i t was found that some paragraphs were so d i f f i c u l t that they discouraged and even antagonized the children.  For t h i s reason, the most d i f f i -  cult items were eliminated from the f i n a l test and were r e placed by comparatively easy paragraphs. 1. A. M. Ayer, Some D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Elementary School History, New York, Teachers College, Columbia University Contributions to Education, No. 212, New York, 1926, pp. 1-5.  - 21 The f i n a l test consisted, of twenty paragraphs from grade f i v e history texts.  Three true and three f a l s e state-  ments were formulated f o r each paragraph.  False statements  were taken largely from pupils' own reactions to the p r e l i m i nary t e s t . In order to determine the extent to which f a i l u r e to comprehend passages was due to s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t items in the passages, a comparison was desired between comprehension of history paragraphs i n o r i g i n a l and i n s i m p l i f i e d form.  Equivalent groups were determined roughly by giving  every second c h i l d one form of the test, and a different form of the same subject matter to the other children.  In order  to equate the children more accurately, Ayer used a " c a l i bration t e s t " which consisted of a paragraph followed by ten graded true and false statements.  Paragraphs were then ro-  tated through two forms of the f i n a l t e s t .  Every child had  half of h i s paragraphs i n o r i g i n a l form and the alternating paragraphs i n simplified form. reverse.  His matched "twin" had the  1  The groups tested consisted of 1053 children from New York C i t y , from a r e s i d e n t i a l New Jersey area, from Frederick, Maryland (where close supervision of reading has been stressed), and from v i l l a g e and r u r a l schools i n New Jersey and Montana.  Ayer states that the groups tested  appeared representative of the country as a whole.  The mean  I.Q,. for grade seven as measured by the Otis Intelligence 1.  A. M. Ayer, pp. 16-17.  - 22 Test was 120.9, while that of grade f i v e , as measured hy the National Intelligence Test was 110.9.  Such mean I.Q.'s appear  to indicate, however, that the groups were of superior rather than of average a b i l i t y . Ayer further tested the children i n reading comprehension i n order to ascertain the correspondence between the reading grade on the Thorndike-McCall Reading Scale and the percentage of answers correct on the history t e s t .  The  results indicate that to answer correctly the same numbers of I-  questions on simplified paragraphs requires reading a b i l i t y about two grades lower than that required to answer the same questions on the o r i g i n a l paragraphs. F i n a l l y , a free-expression test was used to determine what children do when confronted by subject matter i n history which they do not understand.  The free-expression  test contained the same type of d i f f i c u l t i e s as did the controlled t e s t .  The group tested consisted of 77 grade-five pupils  and 64 grade-seven pupils.  Ayer c l a s s i f i e d responses into cor-  rect, incorrect, omitted and not paraphrased (copied exact words of the paragraph). An analysis of the responses revealed that the subjects which caused p a r t i c u l a r confusion and misinterpretation were the growing s p i r i t of democracy, theories of governmental representation, and government terminology. Ayer concluded that results of tests showed an astonishing i n a b i l i t y on the part of both grade f i v e and seven pupils to comprehend f i f t h grade history paragraphs.  With a  - 23 possible soore of s i x for each paragraph, the f i f t h grade had on the o r i g i n a l paragraphs a mean score of 2.53, on the simplified paragraphs a mean score of 3.63, and a mean d i f ference of 1.10.  Grade seven r e s u l t s showed a mean score of  3.55 on the o r i g i n a l paragraphs, a mean score of 4.66 on the simplified ones, and a mean difference of 1.11.  On every  paragraph but one, i n both grades, the average score showed better results when paragraphs were s i m p l i f i e d .  Difficulties  appeared, i n general, to be caused by f i g u r a t i v e language, abstract words, and by concepts and words not essential to history. In general, these studies a l l indicate the i n a b i l i t y of many children to comprehend adequately s o c i a l concepts, time concepts, and quantitative terms.  The research at Iowa Uni-  v e r s i t y on quantitative terms points to the need for a more concrete treatment of such concepts appearing i n s o c i a l studies material.  Dewey, i n h i s research on children's h i s t o r i c a l  concepts indicates the i n a b i l i t y of pupils to read e f f e c t i v e l y for i n f e r e n t i a l thinking, and that more opportunity i n school to do i n f e r e n t i a l thinking should be provided. Matthews' and Meltzer's studies show that there i s a gradual improvement i n the a b i l i t y to interpret s o c i a l concepts throughout the grades. F i n a l l y , the work of both Thorndike and Ayer indicates the varying causes of d i f f i c u l t i e s which i n themselves may block comprehension.  - 24 Chapter General The determine social  major purpose  i t was  n e c e s s a r y t o 1)  The Typical those appearing secondary Building  the  social  i n the  Canadian  c o n c e p t s were  I took  form  select  The  certain  studies text  under-  social  concepts  chosen.  Canadian  charts,  books o f t h e  f r o m George W.  and  Brown's  Democracy i n Action." "  graphs  1  were  f o r t y - m i n u t e t e s t s based  chosen  on  these  The  Tests  the  form o f a f r e e - e x p r e s s i o n t e s t .  c o n t a i n i n g the  i n which they appeared  Slight  o f the  appears  amount o f g r o w t h i n  science concepts, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  N a t i o n and  cases, sentences  seven  high  Materials  social  Two  junior-senior  certain  prepared.  Test  Nation.  the  on t h e c o n c e p t s  words, p h r a s e s ,  interpretation.  exact  study, i s , i n general to  s c h o o l l e v e l , were s e l e c t e d  Significant  the  of t h i s  t h e amount o f growth i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  2) d e v i s e t e s t s b a s e d  most  Procedure  In o r d e r to d i s c o v e r t h e  standing,  for  III  s c i e n c e concepts throughout  school.  and  -  c o n c e p t s were u s e d i n B u i l d i n g the  In  in Canadian  changes were made, however, i n i t e m s two 2  and  test. original  in Building  sentence  the Canadian  on w h i c h i t e m two  was  N a t i o n as f o l l o w s :  based "The  F r e n c h i d e a l o f government was a d e s p o t i c one, and a l m o s t 1. P e r m i s s i o n t o use m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e s e books f o r t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s was g r a n t e d by t h e p u b l i s h e r s , J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) L i m i t e d , V a n c o u v e r . 2.  C o p i e s o f T e s t I and  Test  I I appear  i n the  Appendix.  - 25 1c a r e f u l l y regulated."  every d e t a i l o f the l i f e of the colony was  In the t e s t , the words "ideal of" were deleted, as i t was that such an expression gave an unnecessary to the sentence. seven.  felt  added d i f f i c u l t y  Similarly, a s l i g h t deletion was made i n item  The opening sentence of the paragraph o r i g i n a l l y read  "From -the beginning of Cook's voyage i n 1766 to the end of Vancouver's exploration only eighteen years had elapsed, but 2 they were years f i l l e d with s i g n i f i c a n t developments." This sentence was  changed t o read:  "The years between Cook's  voyage i n 1766 and the end of Vancouver's exploration i n 1784 were important ones."  This avoided the d i f f i c u l t y inherent  i n the words, " s i g n i f i c a n t developments."  In neither case  was the general meaning of the sentence affected by such deletions. Test II consisted of two main types of questions. The f i r s t part of the test consisted of two paragraphs from Building the Canadian Nation.  Pupils were required to read  the paragraphs and to answer the questions, basing t h e i r answers on the content of the paragraph. of a straightforward f a c t - f i n d i n g nature.  The questions were The second half of  Test II consisted of objective-type questions that required the interpretation of data contained i n a table and a graph. Both the table and the graph were taken from Brown's Canadian Democracy i n Action.  Directions f o r these questions were simi-  1. G. Wj Brown, Building the Canadian Nation. J.M. Sons (Canada) Limited, Vancouver, p. 52 2.  Ibid., p.  162  Dent and  - 26 l a r to those found i n the examples used i n the Thirteenth Yearbook of the National Council f o r the Social Studies, Teaching C r i t i c a l Thinking i n the S o c i a l Studies.  1  Questions  on the table and graph required more than the a b i l i t y to find facts.  Rather, such questions necessitated the careful weighing  of evidence before conclusions could be drawn. An experimental try-out on a grade-seven and a gradenine class was given i n order to obtain a general idea as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the test material.  Results indicated no  need f o r any major change i n test items.  The f i n a l tests used  i n the actual experiment were i d e n t i c a l with those used i n the try-out t e s t . The  Subjects  The subjects were students i n representative c i t y high schools.  Tests were administered to a t o t a l of 371  students i n Social Studies I, I I I , and V.  These groups were  chosen i n order to have a wider range of a b i l i t y than would occur among S o c i a l Studies I, I I , and III classes.  Table I  shows the number of boys and g i r l s i n each of the three groups. Table I Number of Students i n Social Studies I, I I I , and Y  Boys  Girls  Total  Social Studies I  58  54  112  Social Studies I I I  67  67  134  S o c i a l Studies V  73  52  125  1. H. R. Anderson, ed., "Teaching C r i t i c a l Thinking i n the S o c i a l Studies," National Council f o r the Social Studies, Thirteenth Yearbook, Washington, D.C., 1942, p. 144.  Table 2 shows the means and standard deviations of the I.Q.'s for each group. Table 2 Means and Sigmas of I.Q.'s f o r Social Studies I, I I I , and V  Social Studies I  Social Studies I I I Social Studies V  Mean  Mean  Sigma  Boys  120.19  13.01  Girls  120.43  11.4 12.61  Boys and G i r l s 120.40  - 111.37  Sigma  Mean  Sigma  9.98  111.47  9.98  112.26  8 .78  110.84  10.19  111.81  9.26  111.22  10.02  From Table 2 i t can be seen that, on the basis of I.Q.'s, the S o c i a l Studies I group i s superior. However, although superior, t h i s group had consistently lower test results on both Test I and Test I I .  Thus i t was concluded  that an average Social Studies I group would have even less success on both the. t e s t s . of groups was attempted.  For t h i s reason, no further equating  - 28 Chapter IV S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Test Results The Findings Means and standard deviations of Test I and Test I I scores are shown i n Tables 3 and 4. Table 3 Mean Scores and Sigmas f o r Test I: Maximum 32  Social Studies I  Social Studies I I I  Social. Studies V Mean  Sigma  5.67  15.51  4.52  9.46 -  3.98  15.54  4.85  9.71  4.98  15.52  4.67  Mean  Sigma  Mean  Sigma  Boys  7.05  4.58  9.96  Girls  6.89  4.28  Boys and G i r l s  7.25  4.43  Table 4 Mean Scoresi and Sigmas f o r Test I I : Maximum 25  Social Studies I  Social Studies I I I  Mean  Sigma  4.08  17.96  3.67  15.43  3.27  17.28  3.81  14.50  3.73  17.67  3.71  Mean  Sigma  Mean  Boys  12.09  3.53  14.24  Girls  12.19  3.59  Boys and G i r l s  12.13  3.56  Sigma  Social Studies V  - 29 Results of both Test I and Test I I show a gradual growth i n the a b i l i t y on the part of the group tested to understand  certain s o c i a l concepts.  In any one group there  i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores. The significance of the difference between the Test I mean scores i n Social Studies I, I I I , and Y groups i s shown i n Table 5. Table 5 Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Social Studies I, I I I , Y:  Social Studies  Difference between Means  III - I  2.46  V  - I  8.27  V  - III  5.81  Standard Error of the Difference  '  Test I  t-ratio  t at the ifo l e v e l of significance  .61  4.03  2.59  .59  14.02  2.59  .60  9.70  2.59  It may be seen that on Test I there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean scores of Social Studies I and I I I , I and V, and I I I and V groups. " The significance of the difference mean scores f o r Test I I i s shown i n Table 6.  between the  - 30 Table 6 Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Social Studies I, I I I , V:  - Social Studies  Difference between Means  Standard Error of the Difference  Test I I  t-ratio  t at the 1% l e v e l of significance  III - I  2.37  .47  5.04  2.59  V  - I  5.44  .48  11.13  2.59  V  - III  3.17  .47  6.50  2.59  Again, i t may be observed that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean scores of a l l groups. In marking Test I, the free-expression test, an effort was made to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between degrees of comprehension achieved by the pupils.  Each response was rated as  follows: I)  No comprehension shown,  II) Some comprehension shown, III) Adequate comprehension shown. A response showing no comprehension was given a score of zero, one showing some comprehension, one, and f i n a l l y , a response showing adequate comprehension, two.  A response was considered  adequate when the p u p i l showed a reasonable grasp of the concept.  Table 7 indicates the percentage of pupils achieving  the varying degrees of comprehension on each item of Test I.  - 31 Table 7 Percentage of Pupils Achieving No, Some, or Adequate Comprehension on Test I Items  Concept  Social Studies I Social Studies I I I Social Studies V No Some Adequate . No Some Adequate, , No Some Adequate  sea-dogs  5  3  92  5  1  94  3  2  95  monopolize trade  71  3  26  52  1  47 .  9  2  89  despotic  97  0  3  96  1  3  74  6  20  census  55  4  41  60  4  36  17  2  81  elected assembly  77  19  4  56  35  9  27  33  40  no taxation without representation 48  30  22  58  20  22  29  7  67  became a magnet  63  5  32  50  6  44  30  5  65  ^nerica's P a c i f i c Coast had been brought into the stream of world affairs  65  18  23  47 ' 16  37  60  9  31  self s u f f i c i e n t  50  5  45  18  12  70  10  2  88  Responsible Government 98  2  0  86  14  0  69  31  0  minority rule  93  4  3  69  13  18  29  46  25  statesmanship  98  0  2  92  2  6  75  4  21  negotiated a reciprocity treaty  98  2  0  94  1  5  92  2  6  legislature  74  14  12  87  10  3  69  11  20  constitution  93  3.5  3.5  81  14  5  40  33  27  federal  98  2  0  87  11  2  92  2  6  - 32 It may be observed that sea-dogs i s the only concept which students of a l l groups r e a d i l y understood.  On the  other hand, no student i n any group displayed adequate comprehension of the term Responsible Government, while only a few pupils i n S o c i a l Studies I I I and V possessed  an understanding  of federal and negotiated a r e c i p r o c i t y treaty. pupils showed a more steady improvement i n t h e i r  Lastly, understanding  of the concepts monopolize trade, census, became a magnet, and s e l f s u f f i c i e n t . In general, a surprisingly large percentage of pupils showed no grasp whatsoever of the concepts they were asked to explain.  Although some of the errors made can be  c l a s s i f i e d into certain well defined categories, many others can be thought of only as " f o o l i s h answers."  On the other  hand, there i s a gradual improvement from the grade-seven l e v e l of the Social Studies I group to the grade-eleven and twelve l e v e l of Social Studies V. An e f f o r t was made to determine the relationship of i n t e l l i g e n c e to the a b i l i t y to interpret the s o c i a l science data contained i n both the free-expression and the objective t e s t .  As the c o e f f i c i e n t of correlation was only  .40 between the scores of Tests I and I I at the S o c i a l Studies V l e v e l , and .52 at the Social Studies I l e v e l , the two tests were treated separately.  In the Social Studies  V group, Pearsonian r's of .33 and .20 were found between I.Q.'s and test, scores of the free-expression t e s t , Test I  - 33 and the objective  test, Test I I , respectively.  At the Social  Studies I l e v e l , there were correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s of .41 between I.Q.'s and test scores of both Tests I and I I . Thus, although the relationship i s small, there i s some indication that the understanding of certain s o c i a l concepts i s related to test i n t e l l i g e n c e . A comparison of the degrees of understanding achieved was then made between high and low I.Q,. levels i n both Socials Studies I and V groups.  From the Socials Studies I group, test  scores of 22 students with I.Q.'s ranging from 90 to 109, and those of 21 students with I.Q.'s ranging from 130 to 149 were compared.  Similarly from the Socials V group, 26 students  with I.Q.'s ranging from 80 to 104 and 26 students with I.Q.'s from 120 to 139 were selected  for study.  Table 8 shows the  mean scores and standard deviations of the low and high I.Q. groups on both tests. Table 8 Test Results of Students of High and Low I.Q. Levels i n the Social Studies I and Y Groups  Social Studies V  Social Studies I Low I.Q. Group  High I.Q. Group .  Mean  Mean  Sigma  Test I  5.91  3.6  10.71  Test I I  9.95  3.6  13.90  High I.Q. Group  Low I.Q. Group *  Mean  ! Sigma j Mean  5.4  12.40  |  3.9  16.23  Sigma  4.3 3.6  1  ;  Sigma  18.19  4.1  19.30  3.7  - 34 Table 9 shows the significance of the differences between the mean scores i n low and high I.Q,. groups f o r Test I. Table 9 Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Low and High I.Q. Groups:  Test I t at the 1% l e v e l of significance  Social Studies  I.Q,.  Difference between Means  Standard Error of the Difference  I  High-Low  4.80  1.43  3.4  2.70  7  High-Low  5.79  1.18  4.9  2.68  t-ratio  It may be seen that on Test I there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean scores of the low and high I.Q. groups i n both Social Studies I and V. The significance of the differences between the mean scores f o r Test I I appear i n Table 10. Table 10 Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores i n Low and High I.Q. Groups: Standard Error of the Difference  t-ratio  Test I I  Social Studies  • I.Q.  Difference between Means  t at the 1% l e v e l of significance  I  High-Low  3.95  1.16  3.4  2.70  V  High-Low  3.07  1.03  2.9  2.68  Similarly, on Test I I , the difference between the mean scores of high and low I.Q. groups i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  - 35 -  Results here indicate that the pupils of high I.Q.'s selected  from the Social Studies I and V groups do make higher  scores on the two tests, and thus may be said t o have achieved a greater degree of understanding of certain s o c i a l science concepts than do the students of less a b i l i t y .  - 36 Chapter V Subjective Analysis of Test Results An analysis of the children's reactions to the items appearing on the free-expression t e s t , Test I, reveals, besides a large group of miscellaneous answers, certain welldefined types of responses.  Although, throughout the entire  groups, i t i s evident that children do attempt to use cues i n t h e i r e f f o r t to interpret the concepts, they may, on the other hand, make no attempt to paraphrase and resort to copying out the exact words of the sentence.  Such verbalism  appeared frequently i n item four of the t e s t .  Here, the  pupils were asked to explain the concept, elected  assembly.  In general, pupils made no attempt to express t h i s concept in t h e i r own words.  Thus, many answers consist merely of the  words an assembly elected by the people.  I t i s interesting  to note that one grade nine p u p i l copied out the exact words of each of the f i f t e e n sentences. made at interpretation.  No attempt whatsoever was  Furthermore, i n connection with  item four, pupils f a i l to be s p e c i f i c enough.  A l l three  groups tend to describe t h i s concept i n exceedingly general or widesweeping terms, such as government, parliament, a provisional government, a sort of government.  In the Social  Studies V group, some students suggest that elected  assembly  means that people were elected by the prime minister.  On  the other hand, pupils made some attempt at explanation, by suggesting the word voted i n place of elected.  - 37 When responding to the concept No taxation without representation, pupils again tended to repeat the exact words used i n the concept as i s i l l u s t r a t e d hy such a response as won't pay taxes without representation.  However, most errors  made centred around a lack of knowledge of what the term representation implies.  In the S o c i a l Studies I and I I I  groups such answers as no taxes without a reason, no taxes without a meaning f o r i t , no taxation without permission or a license were common.  The idea that a person could not he  taxed unless he i s a property owner also appears as an answer at the Social Studies I I I l e v e l .  One grade nine student  appeared to connect the phrase "rights of Englishmen" with the idea of "right to he English."  His response —  They  would not pay unless they were given the rights to he English -suggests perhaps an undue stress on that p a r t i c u l a r element of the sentence, "rights of Englishmen."  The over-potency  of t h i s phrase seems to have coloured the response made. S o c i a l Studies V students also f a i l to convey the meaning of representation i n t h e i r responses.  No taxes without the  tax being put before the government and s i m i l a r answers appear, while one amusing answer from a grade eleven student was give us rights i f we're to pay f o r the upkeep of EnglandI Over-potency of certain words or elements i n the sentence also contribut.ed to the errors made.  Here, pupils  f a i l e d to weigh the various elements i n the sentence, and as a result, based t h e i r answers on incorrect cues.  For example,  - 38 -  n  item two of the test reads as follows:  The French government  was a despotic one, and almost every d e t a i l of the l i f e of the colony was carefully regulated."  In a l l groups there ap-  pear to be attempts to define the word despotic, using the words c a r e f u l l y regulated as the cue.  Such responses as  careful and s t r i c t , careful and e f f i c i e n t , c a r e f u l l y governed, the government controlled almost everything, and i t ruled nearly everything suggest how a p a r t i c u l a r sentence element has assumed an over-potent p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the sentence as a whole.  The phrase c a r e f u l l y regulated  also seems to suggest to the pupils the idea of good government.  In contrast, however, answers such as poor, and not  very good occur.  In Grade eleven, students suggest the idea  of rule by one person, the ideas of godly, and divine r i g h t , or attempt to define despotic by saying ruled by one known as a despot or r u l e r .  man  Yet none of these answers  adequately conveys the concept of an absolute authority. Further instances of the over-potency of a word are . found when analyzing errors made i n item eight. reads:  The sentence  "Living i n an age of rapid transportation, i t i s hard  f o r us to understand how nearly s e l f s u f f i c i e n t the l o c a l community had to be a century ago."  In t h i s instance, the  word transportation seems to receive undue emphasis. Students attempt to explain the concept i n terms of buses and streetcars.  In general, however, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r concept was  well explained.  - 39 Failure to understand phrases expressed i n f i g u rative language also contributes to errors made.  Examples  of t h i s type of error may be found upon analyzing responses made to items s i x and seven.  In item s i x students were asked  to t e l l the meaning of the phrase "The sea otter became a magnet . . . ."  Typical responses made by Social Studies I 1/  and I I I groups were:  became a menace, became plentiful.became s  became permanent, and became popular or famous.  In a l l grades  the idea of the sea otter being an emblem, f l a g , sign, symbol or mascot representing the country appeared.  In addition,  the sentence element, on North America's P a c i f i c Coast appears to influence responses.  Pupils stress that the sea  otter l i v e d on the P a c i f i c Coast, but make no attempt to explain the concept became a magnet. The f i g u r a t i v e language i n item seven, namely: . . . . America's P a c i f i c Coast had been brought into the stream of world a f f a i r s makes an added d i f f i c u l t y f o r some students. One grade seven student attempted to answer as follows:  They  had been entered .just as you enter a dog i n a dog show.  They  had been allowed to have an important place i n world a f f a i r s . In the S o c i a l Studies V group inadequate answers appear to be due to a lack of explanation of what the term world a f f a i r s conveys, rather than to confusion over the figurative language.  Answers i n a l l groups tend to be exceedingly vague  and say no more than became important, everyone was  interes-  ted i n i t , or America's P a c i f i c Coast was important to a l l .  - 40 Confusion with other concepts of similar s p e l l i n g or sound creates d i f f i c u l t y for some students.  In Social  Studies I I I and V groups, some confusion with the concept censor appears.  The responses, a census i s when someone  reads over something before i t i s given to the public to read and he takes out things that are not allowed to be there and a board which w i l l l e t a newspaper write certain things and to what theatre a show w i l l play at h w t h i s confusion S  of thought.  0  Most responses i n connection v/ith the i n t e r -  pretation of census defy c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Such miscellaneous  responses as law. Government; taxes, rule, church, f l a g , boat, map, colony, and paper money seem to suggest random guessing. Another example of confusion with a concept of similar s p e l l i n g i s found i n item ten. asked to explain Minority Rule.  Here students were  A few grade-seven  pupils  convey the idea of "the state of being a minor" i n such responses as the rule of people under twenty-one and when you are a minor you can't vote or anything because you are under twenty-one.  The tendency of students, on the whole,  i n connection with t h i s item i s to f a i l to express in a precise fashion.  themselves  In the three groups, most attempts at  d e f i n i t i o n get no farther than a smaller group r u l i n g or a few people r u l i n g ,  students i n a l l groups also suggest that  minority rule means rule by a small upper class, the n o b i l i t y . This idea i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n the S o c i a l Studies V group.  - 41 Another group of responses might be best labelled as "reading errors."  Such errors may be caused by poor  reading comprehension or perhaps may be merely due to carelessness.  Such appears to be the case when students define  statesman instead of statesmanship, and l e g i s l a t i o n instead of l e g i s l a t u r e . Many of the responses made on Test I do not f a l l into any p a r t i c u l a r category.  They appear to be of a miscel-  laneous nature a r i s i n g out of f a i l u r e to grasp the concept adequately.  For example, no adequate comprehension of the  term Responsible Government appears i n any of the groups. Some attempt i s made to explain the concept by the phrase responsible to the people.  Other than that, the answers show  complete lack of comprehension.  Such answers as a government  responsible f o r themselves, a government that could be trusted , and they have to be responsible f o r a l o t of things are t y p i c a l of a l l groups.  There seems to be no evidence of  any understanding of what i s implied by a system of Responsible Government. In the phrase, negotiated a r e c i p r o c i t y treaty,  >  the d i f f i c u l t y appears to center around the word, r e c i p r o c i t y . Students do not get much farther i n t h e i r attempts to define than made or brought about a trade or friendship treaty. Others t r y to express themselves by using the idea of the products mentioned  ( f i s h and a g r i c u l t u r a l products) as i n  A treaty which stated rights for the U. S. fishermen and  - 42 farmers.  Some suggestion of trade regulations appears i n the  Social Studies V group as such an answer as no arms could be carried by either country i n trading. In  regards to the concept Constitution, most answers  f a i l to be s p e c i f i c enough and show only a 'hazy' understanding of what the term implies.  Government, rules, laws, and  a number of rules f o r the people i l l u s t r a t e t h i s tendency towards vague g e n e r a l i t i e s .  Neither i s any clear understan-  ding of federal system of government i n evidence.  Students  mention either the central government or the 'provincial governments.  They f a i l to see the relationship between the  two In the federal system of government. ?  Inadequate compre-  hension of the concept monopolize trade, appears i n a l l grades with get trade, develop trade, carry on trade, and have trade-, being the rather mild substitutes suggested f o r monopolize. F i n a l l y , a very few students f a i l e d to interpret sea dogs. There were some instances of no response together with such answers as navy and mean men. An analysis of the responses made on the History I t e s t , thus reveals that errors made appear to be caused by verbalism, over-potency of certain elements, d i f f i c u l t i e s . a r i s i n g out of figurative language, confusion with other concepts of similar spelling or sound "reading errors," and f i n a l l y a complete f a i l u r e to grasp the meaning of the concept.  - 43 A study of the responses made to Test I I items also reveals certain error patterns.  In the f i r s t  section  of the test, which consisted of paragraphs and f a c t - f i n d i n g questions based on the paragraphs, f a i l u r e to follow directions, "reading errors," and verbalism contributed to the inadequacy of many of the responses. In a l l grades,- errors are caused by f a i l u r e to follow directions.  Directions o f t h e test read as follows:  "Underneath the paragraph are some questions. Read the paragraph c a r e f u l l y . Then answer the questions, basing your answers on what the paragraph t e l l s you." Item one of the f i r s t paragraph asks the students to name one of the famous explorers who reached the North P a c i f i c Coast. are  Although the explorers mentioned  i n the paragraph  Cook and Vancouver, such answers as Balboa and Mackenzie  appear.  Similarly, when asked to give the reason why the  Montreal f u r traders looked for new lands i n the west, S o c i a l Studies V students, i n p a r t i c u l a r , based t h e i r answers not  on what was stated i n the selection, but on other as-  sociations, both-related and unrelated. Such an answer as the  f u r trade was being exploited i n the east i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s  point. Responses to the questions dealing with the second paragraph provide further instances of t h i s f a i l u r e to follow directions.  Although no mention i s made of trans-  portation costs i n the paragraph, students seem to be pre-  - 44 occupied with the idea of cheaper and shorter trade routes. The f i r s t four questions, ( 1 ) Why did the P r a i r i e farmers desire a short route to the sea?  ( 2 ) What was the main  r e s u l t of the building of the Hudson Bay Company Railway? (3) Of what value i s the Panama Canal to Canada? and (4) Why  did the Welland Canal help Canadian transportation?  evoke such responses as to lower freight cost, i t was  cheaper,  cheaper shipping to England, and i t was cheaper to ship wheat from the lake head to Montreal by boat than by r a i l . Failure to read the question c a r e f u l l y and to understand v/hat the question asks causes further erroneous responses.  Item four of the f i r s t paragraph asks pupils to  name the countries that became interested i n the North West P a c i f i c Coast.  Pupils from a l l groups l i s t n a t i o n a l i t i e s  instead of countries i n t h e i r answers.  Another "reading  error" occurs i n connection with item f i v e which asks f o r one result of the Loyalist migration.  Here students give,  instead, the results of the American Revolution.  Students  also h i t on the l a s t sentence of the paragraph and copy i t out  verbatim as their answer to the question.  So prevalent  i s t h i s response that i t appears that pupils may have decided that the f i n a l sentence of the selection must be the answer required f o r the f i n a l question!  L a s t l y , pupils misinterpret  the  question, "What part of Canada exports goods by way of  the  Panama Canal?" and as a result state goods exported such t  as c a t t l e , f i s h , f r u i t , and lumber, regardless of the fact  - 45 -  that such litems are not discussed i n the paragraph. Verbalism was noticeably apparent i n responses to the question "What effect did the Panama Canal have on the port of Vancouver?"  A stimulus was given appears as a  favourite answer to t h i s item.  Other responses such as a  great effect , improved i t , tremendous e f f e c t , and helped i t grow are extremely general i n nature. Other errors of a miscellaneous nature appear.  To  the question, "What part of Canada exports goods by way of the Panama Canal?" such responses as opened up a section of Northern Ontario, and the Welland Canal b u i l t suggests a confusion of the various ideas expressed i n the paragraph. One Social Studies I I I answer to the item "Of what value i s the Panama Canal to Canada?" shows f a i l u r e to grasp the phrase Canadian t r a f f i c .  The response reads For t r a f f i c , the ex-  porting and importing of Canada. In the second section of Test I I , interpretation of a table and a graph was required.  Here, errors made are  caused by f a i l u r e to weigh evidence, f a i l u r e to interpret quantitative terms, and f a i l u r e to compare trends.  By f a r  the greatest number of errors f a l l into the f i r s t category, that of drawing inferences from i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence. Students state as true, items three, four, f i v e , and eight, based on the table of Canadian municipalities, and items four and f i v e of.the graph Canada's Cost of L i v i n g i n Two Wars. An' examination of the table and the graph  1.  See Appendix  1  w i l l indicate  - 46 that there i s no evidence whatsoever f o r the conclusions reached.  For example, students assume that because the index  of Canada's cost of l i v i n g i n World War I i s higher than that of World War I I , that more goods were manufactured  i n Canada  during World War I than during World War I I . Failure to interpret quantitative terms appears to be the cause of errors made on items two, s i x and seven of the table, where the concepts of one t h i r d and twice as many cause the d i f f i c u l t y .  In item one, lack of comprehension of  the concept r a t i o leads to errors.  F i n a l l y , f a i l u r e to com-  pare trends results i n f a u l t y responses to item s i x of the graph.  Pupils f a i l to see the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the 1939-1941  and the 1914-1916 index l i n e s f o r Canada. An analysis of the responses made to both Test I and I I items, thus reveals that certain d i f f i c u l t i e s block the understanding of the concepts contained i n the two t e s t s . Figurative language, the over-potency of certain sentence elements, and technical terms contribute to the d i f f i c u l t y of the s o c i a l studies materials used, with the result that responses made show no clear grasp of the concepts, and i n deed, may consist of a r e p e t i t i o n of the exact words used in the selection.  Further errors are caused by the f a i l u r e  of students to follow directions, to weigh evidence, to compare trends, and to interpret quantitative terms.  Lastly,  pupils give inadequate explanations of the concepts because they make "reading errors" or confuse a p a r t i c u l a r concept  - 47 with another of s i m i l a r s p e l l i n g or sound. An analysis of the causes of errors i n both high and low I.Q. groups at the S o c i a l Studies I and V l e v e l s was made i n order to ascertain i f i n t e l l i g e n c e was a major factor i n determining the types of errors made. percentage  1  Table 7 shows the  of Test I errors due to verbalism, over-potency  of sentence elements, and f i g u r a t i v e language, while Table 8 notes the percentage of Test I I errors due to f a i l u r e to follow directions, f a i l u r e to read and interpret the question correctly, and f a i l u r e to weigh evidence.  In regard to causes  of errors, l i t t l e difference appears to e z i s t between the low and high I.Q. groups studied at both the S o c i a l Studies I and V l e v e l .  Greatest differences between high and low  I.Q. students appear i n the Social Studies V group.  Results  also indicate that the largest percentage of errors i n a l l groups appears i n the interpretation of data section of History Test I I as i s shown by the large percentage of errors due to f a i l u r e to weigh evidence.  1.  In calculating t h i s percentage, the number of errors of a p a r t i c u l a r type was divided by the t o t a l number of erroneous responses.  - 48 Table 7 Causes of History Test I Errors i n Low and High I.Q. Groups Social Studies I History Test I  Low I.Q. Group  High I.Q. Group  Social Studies V Low I.Q. Group  High I.Q. Group  Percentage of Errors due to Verbalism  6.3$  7.1$  4.8$  Percentage of Errors due to Over-Potency of Sentence Elements  3.1$  4.4$  6.  1.  9.4$  4.4$  8.9$  4.:  Percentage of Errors due to Figurative Language  Table 8 Causes of History Test I I Errors i n Low and High I.Q. Groups  S o c i a l Studies I History Test I I Low I.Q. Group Percentage of Errors due to Failure to Follow Directions Percentage of Errors due to Failure to Read Question Carefully Percentage of Errors due to Failure to Weigh Evidence  High I.Q. Group  Social Studies Y Low I.Q. Group  High I.Q. Group  3..  2.4%  7.;  4.2$  2.8$  3.8$  3 e'  3.5$  32.4$  34.4$  38.7$  23.1$  - 49 -  Chapter VI Summary The development of concepts through language i s an active and complicated process.  Such concepts or meanings  can be b u i l t up only through the a c q u i s i t i o n of a wide background of experience.  The purpose of t h i s study was to  discover the amount of growth i n understanding of certain s o c i a l science concepts throughout the junior-senior high school; to compare the degrees of understanding achieved by low and high I.Q,. groups; and to determine the causes of the various errors made by the students. Concepts, t y p i c a l of those appearing i n s o c i a l studies text books, were selected from Brown's Building the Canadian Nation and Canadian Democracy i n Action.  Two  inter-  pretive tests, based on these concepts, were constructed and administered to pupils i n Social Studies I, I I I , and V classes of representative c i t y schools.  Results of the tests lead  to the following conclusions: 1.  There i s a gradual growth i n understanding certain  s o c i a l science concepts throughout the junior-senior high school. 2.  Results of the free-expression test indicated the  i n a b i l i t y of the pupils i n a l l groups tested to interpret and to explain i n t h e i r own words certain s o c i a l science  - 50 concepts. 3.  Pupils of high I.Q.'s i n the Social Studies I and V  groups made higher scores than did those of less a b i l i t y . Coefficients of correlation between I.Q.'s and test scores of both tests also indicated that the a b i l i t y to understand certain social concepts i s somewhat related to i n t e l l i g e n c e . 4.  An analysis of responses made to Test I items revealed  that errors may be caused by verbalism, over-potency of cert a i n sentence elements, d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g out of f i g u r a t i v e language, confusion with other concepts -of similar s p e l l i n g or sound,"reading errors," and a complete f a i l u r e to grasp the meaning of the concept.  In Test I I , verbalism, "reading  errors," f a i l u r e to follow directions, f a i l u r e to weigh evidence, f a i l u r e to interpret quantitative terms, and f a i l u r e to compare trends contributed to the inadequacy of responses.  L i t t l e difference i n causes of errors made was  found to exist between high and low I. Q. groups at the Social Studies I and V l e v e l s .  In general, throughout the  groups studied, pupils did better on questions of a factfinding nature than they did on those requiring interpretation of data. Test r e s u l t s for the groups studied indicated that pupils need more opportunity to express themselves i n writing, that i s , to t e l l i n t h e i r own words what a concept means to them.  Moreover, students need more practice i n interpretation  of data exercises i n order that they may learn to think  - 51 c r i t i c a l l y , weigh evidence, and avoid drawing conclusions from i n s u f f i c i e n t data.  Indeed, i t might prove both worth-  while and interesting to investigate more f u l l y pupils' a b i l i t y to think c r i t i c a l l y , to Interpret current magazine and newspaper a r t i c l e s , to recognize propaganda, and so on. Further investigations, wider i n scope than t h i s study, might reveal differences among students of various socio-economic levels i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to understand s o c i a l science concepts. Some i n d i c a t i o n might then be had of how students' experient i a l backgrounds l i m i t or develop t h e i r understanding of concepts.  Lastly, an analysis of students' errors, designed to  reveal what types of reading materials are most r e a d i l y understood, and what types of materials require a more comprehensive  treatment, might prove a useful guide i n selecting  text books and other s o c i a l studies materials.  - 52 Bibliography A l i l i n a s , L. J., "A Review of the Research of the H i s t o r i c a l Concepts of American Children," Educational Administration and Supervision, Baltimore, Warick and York, 1945, v o l . 31, pp. 331-344. Alvord, W., "Toward Understanding," The Social Studies. Philadelphia, McKinley, 1939-1940, v o l . 30-31, pp. 68-70. Artley, A. S., "A Study of Certain Relationships E x i s t i n g between General Reading Comprehension and Reading Comprehension i n a S p e c i f i c Subject Matter Area," Journal of Educational Research, Madison 4, Wisconsin, A. S. Barr, 1943-44, v o l . 37,.pp. 464-473. Anderson, H. R., ed., "Teaching C r i t i c a l Thinking i n the Social Studies," National Council f o r the Social Studies, Thirteenth Yearbook, Washington, D. C , 1942. Ayer, A. M., Some D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Elementary School History, New York, Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 212, 1926. C u r t i , M. W., "Child Development," Encyclopedia of Educat i o n a l Research, New York, Macmillan, 1941, pp. 160-162. Dewey, J., How We Think, New York, D. C. Heath,  1910.  Friedman, K. C , "The Growth of Time Concepts," S o c i a l Educat i o n , National Council f o r the S o c i a l Studies, 1944, v o l . 8, pp. 29-31. Gabel, 0. J., "The E f f e c t of Definite Versus Indefinite Quantitative Terms upon the Comprehension and Retention of Social Studies M a t e r i a l , " Journal of Experimental Education, University of Wisconsin, 1940-1942, v o l . 9-10, pp. 177-186. Gray, W. S., ed., Reading i n General Education, Washington, D. C , American Council on Education, 1940. Gray, W. S., ed., Improving Reading i n Content F i e l d s , University of Chicago Press, 1947. Henry, N. B., ed., "The Measurement of Understanding i n the Social Studies, National Society f o r the Study of Education, F o r t y - f i f t h Yearbook, University of Chicago Press, 1946.  - 53 Horn, E., Methods of Instruction i n the Social Studies, York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937.  New  Horn, E., "Language and Meaning," i n National Society for the Study of Education, F o r t y - f i r s t Yearbook, University of Chicago Press, 1942, pp. 378-407. Horn, E., and Snedaker, M., "Reading i n the Various F i e l d s of the Curriculum," i n National Society f o r the Study of Education, T h i r t y - s i x t h Yearbook, Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , Public School Publishing Co., 1937, pp. 133-182. Kamm, S. R., "Understanding That Book," The Social Studies, Philadelphia, McKinley, 1943-1944, v o l . 34-35, pp. 127-128. Matthews, C. 0., The Grade Placement of Curriculum Materials i n the Social~Studies, New York, Teachers College, Columbia University Contributions to Education, No. 241, 1926. Meltzer, H., Children's S o c i a l Concepts - A Study of Their Nature and Development, New York, Teachers College, Columbia University Contributions to Education, No. 192, 1925. Mead, V. 0., "What A b i l i t i e s are Stressed i n Workbooks i n History," The School Review, University of Chicago Press, 1939, v o l . 47, pp. 285-288. Murra, W. F., Wesley, E. B., and Zirk, N. E., "Social Studies," Encyclopedia of Educational Research, New York, Macmillan, 1941, pp. 1130-1154. Pressey, L. C , and Pressey, S. L., "The Determination of a Minimal Vocabulary i n American History," Educational Method, New York, National Education Association, pp. 205-211. Pressey, L. W. and Pressey, S. L., "A C r i t i c a l Study of the Concept of Silent Reading A b i l i t y , " Journal of Educational Psychology, Baltimore, Warick and York, 1921, pp. 25-31. Piaget, J., The Language and Thought of the C h i l d , London, Harcourt, Brace, and Company, 1926. Roberts, H. D., "Reading for Social Meaning," English Journal, (College ed.,) The University of Chicago Press, 1936, v o l . 25, pp. 200-205. Ryan, G. M., A Study of Comprehension of Quantitative Terms i n Geography at the F i f t h Grade Level, Master's thesis, State University of Iowa, 1935.  -  54  -  Shores, J. H., " S k i l l s Related to the A b i l i t y to Read History and Science," Journal of Educational Research, University of Wisconsin, 1942, v o l . 36, pp. 584-593. Short, H. C , Concepts of Certain Quantitative Terms Used i n Seventh Grade Social Science Materials, Master's t h e s i s , State University of Iowa, 1933. Thorndike, E. L., "Reading as Reasoning: A Study of Mistakes i n Paragraph Reading," Journal of Educational Psychology, Baltimore, Warick and York, 1917, v o l . 8, pp. 323-333. Witty, P. A., "Reading f o r Meaning," English Journal, (College ed.), The University of Chicago Press, 1938, v o l . 27, pp. 221-229. Wesley, E. B., -Teaching the S o c i a l Studies, New York, D. C. Heath and Company, 1937, pp. 403-417.  -  55  -  Appendix Test I Directions: Read the following sentences c a r e f u l l y . . Then t e l l i n your own words what the underlined words, phrases or sentences mean. 1.  S i r Francis Drake was one of those Elizabethan sea-dogs who was not content to see Spain monopolize trade with the West Indies and Central America.  2.  The French government was a despotic one, and almost every d e t a i l of the l i f e of the colony was c a r e f u l l y regulated.  3.  In 1666 Canada's f i r s t own supervision.  4.  Each English colony had an elected assembly and some control of i t s own a f f a i r s .  5.  The famous Stamp Act of 1765 brought a storm of argument and r i o t i n g i n the Thirteen Colonies. The colonists protested against the '•rights of Englishmen" being taken from them, and raised the cry so f a m i l i a r i n English history, "No taxation without representation."  6.  The sea-otter became a magnet on North America's P a c i f i c Coast, just as the beaver had been on the A t l a n t i c .  7.  The years between Cook's voyage i n 1766 and the end of Vancouver's exploration i n 1784 were important ones. The coast of B r i t i s h Columbia had been revealed to the world, and a vigorous trade begun. Spain's monopoly was ended; and i n i t s place, four nations now had t h e i r claims--Spain in the south, Russia i n the north, and between them B r i t a i n and the United States. America's P a c i f i c Coast had been brought into the stream of world a f f a i r s .  8.  Living i n an age of rapid transportation, i t i s hard f o r us to understand how nearly s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t the l o c a l community had to be a century or more ago.  9.  The introduction of Responsible Government was the great advance made i n B r i t i s h North America by 1850.  census was prepared under Talon's  10.  Minority rule was bound to be challenged.  11.  Confederation was a triumph of statesmanship, f o r only a minority i n any province was r e a l l y ready f o r i t .  - 56 12.  Lord Elgin negotiated a r e c i p r o c i t y treaty which g r e a t l y encouraged trade with the United States i n f i s h and a g r i c u l t u r a l products.  13.  When the two provinces were united i n 1841 they had been given equal representation i n the l e g i s l a t u r e although Canada East then had the larger population.  14.  With good reason the Quebec Conference has been called the most important p o l i t i c a l gathering i n the history of Canada, f o r i t worked out the plan of union which i s now the basis of Canada's Constitution.  15.  The most important feature of the B r i t i s h North America Act, was i t s description of the new federal system of government. Test II  A.  Directions: Underneath the paragraphs are some questions. Read the paragraph c a r e f u l l y . Then answer the questions, basing your answers on what the paragraph t e l l s you.  The American Revolution created also a new B r i t i s h North America. Thousands of L o y a l i s t s , determined to remain under the B r i t i s h f l a g , sought homes i n Nova Scotia and Canada, a l t e r i n g the character of t h e i r populations and bringing about the organization of two new provinces. The Revolution changed, moreover, the d i r e c t i o n of Canada's fur trade. Gradually i t dwindled south of the boundary, and Montreal traders sought more and more the r i c h e r fur lands of the f a r North West. Organizing themselves Into a company and pushing dauntlessly through forests and mountains, the Nor'Westers blazed t h e i r t r a i l s toward the P a c i f i c . Others, too, were reaching the West Coast, however—Russians s k i r t i n g Alaska, New Englanders rounding the Horn, and from England two of B r i t a i n ' s most famous navigators, Captain Cook and Vancouver. The North P a c i f i c coast was placed on the map, and with i t can be seen the f i r s t faint outline of a B r i t i s h North America stretching from sea to sea. 1.  Who was one of the famous explorers who P a c i f i c Coast?  reached the North  2.  Why did the L o y a l i s t s decide to move to Nova Scotia and Canada?  3.  Why did the Montreal f u r traders look f o r new fur lands i n the west?  - 57 4.  What countries became interested i n the North West P a c i f i c Coast?  5.  What was one of the results of the L o y a l i s t migration?  B.  Directions: Underneath the paragraph are some questions. Read the paragraph c a r e f u l l y . Then answer the questions, basing your answers on what the paragraph t e l l s you.  Three works which influenced Canadian transportation should be mentioned. In answer to the demand of the P r a i r i e farmers f o r a short route to the sea, the Hudson Bay Railway was b u i l t by the Dominion government from The Pas to C h u r c h i l l . While i t never f u l f i l l e d i t s purpose as a grain exporting route, i t did open up a section of Northern Manitoba. At the same time the new Welland Canal was b u i l t . Capable of holding the largest lake freighters, and with only seven locks to overcome a drop of 326 feet, i t was one of the great engineering feats of the world. The t h i r d work, the Panama Canal, i s not Canadian, but i t began to affect Canadian t r a f f i c i n an important way after World War I. In 19£0 a t r i a l shipment of p r a i r i e wheat was sent from the P a c i f i c coast through the Panama Canal to England. Within a few years a considerable part of Western Canada's exports and imports went by t h i s route, and a tremendous stimulus was given to the ports of "Vancouver, New Westminster, and Prince Rupert. 1.  Why did the P r a i r i e farmers desire a short route to the sea?  2.  What was the main result of the building of the Hudson Bay Company Railway?  3.  Of what value i s the Panama Canal to Canada?  4.  Why did the Welland Canal help Canadian transportation?  5.  What part of Canada exports goods by way of the Panama Canal?  6.  What effect did the Panama Canal have on the port of Vancouver?  C.  Directions:  - 58 -  Study the following table c a r e f u l l y . the l e f t of each sentence:  In the brackets at  Mark (1) I f these data alone are s u f f i c i e n t to make the statement true. Mark (2) I f these data alone are not s u f f i c i e n t to indicate whether there i s any degree of truth or f a l s i t y i n the statement. Mark (3) I f these data, alone are s u f f i c i e n t to make the statement f a l s e . The Canada Year Book c l a s s i f i e s the Canadian municipalities for 1942 as follows: Cities Prince Edward Island Nova. Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta B r i t i s h Columbia  (  ) 1.  Towns  1 2 3 26 27 4 8 7 33  7 43 20 112 148 31 82 52  111  495  —  Villages  Rural  Total  2 312 156 23 389 145 22  24 15 1056 571 116 302 133 28  8 69 40 1506 902 174 781 337 83  1049  2245  3900  — — —  The r a t i o of towns to c i t i e s i s larger i n Nova Scotia than i n New Brunswick.  2.  Approximately one t h i r d of a l l municipalities i n B r i t i s h Columbia are l i s t e d as r u r a l .  3.  Quebec has the largest farming population of any of the provinces.  4. More people l i v e i n C i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, than l i v e i n c i t i e s i n Alberta. 5.  The large number of c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia indicates that industry i s more important than agriculture i n t h i s province.  6.  Altogether there are approximately twice as many c i t i e s , towns, v i l l a g e s , and r u r a l municipalities i n Alberta than i n Manitoba.  7.  One t h i r d of a l l Canadian municipalities are found in Ontario.  8.  The majority of the Canadian population l i v e s i n r u r a l and v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  - 59 D. Directions: Study the following graph c a r e f u l l y . In the brackets at the l e f t of each sentence: Mark (1) I f these data alone are s u f f i c i e n t to make the statement true. Mark (2) I f these data alone are not s u f f i c i e n t to indicate whether there i s any degree of t r u t h or f a l s i t y i n the statement. Mark (3) I f these data alone are s u f f i c i e n t to make the statement f a l s e . CANADA'S COST OF LIVING IN TWO WARS TNP£)(  ftUGu§7  19 / / ^  /OO  AUGUST/?  \ifiO  /  ISO  /  /5<?  W/  m>  t  s  /  1  1  _ 1  130  130  /  1 »  no  r  9  J/*^ -,^*=f WAR//  no  WAR-'I  no  W/=>« It  FTrv  100 1 1  I  »<1 (o  /<?/& 11 11 v  .:«mi i>.!! 11 M  1 I 1 I 11  1 1 |  1 1 1 t i i U.1 M 1 11 1 || „  This chart shows the influence of the Canadian price controls which were put into effect near the end of 1941. (  ) 1.  During World War I I , i n the years 1942 and 1943, the index of the cost of l i v i n g was higher i n the United States than i n Canada.  (  ) 2.  In Canada, price controls began to exert an influence at the end of 1941.  1  - 60 -  ( ) 3.  During World War II, the index of the cost of l i v i n g was always higher i n the United States than i n Canada.  ( ) 4.  During World War I I , food prices i n Canada were higher than i n the United States.  ( ) 5. More goods were manufactured In Canada during World War I than during World War I I . ( ) 6.  In Canada, between 1939 and 1941, the index of the cost of l i v i n g rose i n much the same way as i t did i n Canada between 1914 and 1916.  

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