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Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers in British Columbia Cope, Mary Catherine Lillian 1940

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CQLGIIL MOODY AMD MS ROYAL SKSJJTSBRS II BRITISH COLOMBIA fey L i l l i a s Cof© A thesis «tattltieit in partial fulfilment of the requlxem«3it# for the degree of • Master of Arts i s the Xtepar toast of History. fhe University of British Columbia Ap r i l , 1940 M a thesis aims to estimate the work of Colonel Richard Clement Moody, R. 1*, and the detachment of Royal .Engineers under his command from the time of their appointment far service i a British Ooluiaibla, consequent to the Gold Rush of 1858, until their withdrawal in November, 1864. On account of the glamour that is associated with pioneer l i f e , i t i s not usually realized that Colonel Moody aad Ms men faced problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s of an acute nature, and that they achieved a great deal for the colony in spite of the fact that they wers hampered in no small, degree by the lack of understanding by the governor, James Douglas. Most of the material used in this theeis i a froa primary sources,, f i l e d in the Provincial Archives, Victoria. Some of the quotations, cited, I believe, for the f i r s t time, are given in toto. This ae-oounta for their length. I wish to thank Dr.. Kaye Lamb, Mrs. Oree, ICiss Madge Wolfenden and Mr. Willard Ireland for the helpful assistance rendered. Of the few historians who have written on th® colonial period of British Columbian history, Judge F. f . Howay has made the greatest contribution.. The wealth of material that he has gleaned from the original sources, the accuracy with which he has recorded i t , and the spirit that permeates the whole endeavour, can only be fully appreciated by 111©-®© who have laboured i a th© same f i e l d . The eontribu* tions of Dr. W, B» Sage and Dr. R. L. Reid are also of iae.st.iiaable valme* I wish to thank Dr. Sage for his kindly counsel and encouragement in writing this thesis. Also.,. I am indebted to Dr. Sylvia fftrupp* Dr. 1, L. Raid, Miss Nora Mains and Mr. W. 1.. lead for their -valuable suggest! ©its.. Vancouver, B. C. Apr i l , 1940. IN. a* TABLE ,0? QQKTBSTSp Coat ©f Aaraa«*«.»»*.«•»•**.»»*••»*•*#*•*Frontispieee S h a n t y J&ftc I e o l o n e l Moody and the Royal Bngi»@®rs* »* •« . 1 11 To the S#rtiw@#t 3?aeifie* »•*#»•»*#•*** *»»*•* 14 I I I Moody*© CQamaissio!a,»-.*»«»**»«*#*»*#*«»**»»» 32 If* fh# Sew Land* # * »« * * * * •*.* * * * * *»»**» * *.* « •> * * •« * 41 ¥ M i l i t a r y Duiia#» * • .#.*«*.•*••»»**»«•»•»..»•.• 55 -ITS • • Uh@l©@ &t 0«|plit«l-*«•* + *••**••**•*••*• •»•*»•»***•' 74 V I I Contribution of the Royal ."Engineers i n B u i l d i n g up Hew '.Ve a trains ter................ 90 V I I I hew Westminster * P o l i t i c a l Development.... 104 IX Mew Westminster - Social Development. I l l X Roads and Surveys.*»»*.*•***.•»••»•*•»#•*•••• 124 • Xlat "* . jLand P o l ls y * * * • * * • * * * # # • • • # • * » » • * » * * « • • • • * * 1 4 5 ^ X I I Forthes? Duties of Royal Sn«ineer® #». •****«• 165 X I I I K®#iy and Doug-lss*****•#-******»•***• »**»*•* ITS XIV f h a Royal Engineers Dish anded. ...... ...•.*».. 206 ••Bibliography..»**. « 222 &wip&^4.imp. gage I ' Composition of tee, Fore©, sad, Ra*es of Pay** 234 II P e s t a l R atea* • * #*. * *•* .»«.,». ..*<.»....«•«.»•• • . 25S •III 236 I? Abstraet. of fifttfterolog&aal observations* ###, 257 T Revenues aad Sxpasidltwte*, et©.« 240 ¥1 ImpIoyaafSt, dor lag the, W inter, , . f .» ... 2§4 VII R at i ous# * * * * * *»• • • * • » • •...... . . 2$« T i l l Crmm Grants Xe«ued to- Royal I n g l n e a r a . * . ** 2§8 IX Lamd Owed hy Moody i n 1813.*#*#.** 262 Matt® Course taken by the Thames City to British Columbia....................... after 26 Proposed Canal from Semiamoo Bay to Fraser River... ...... after 66" Roads in Brit i s h Columbia***«.*•>*««»»»•* .after 139 Chapter 1 Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers* In 1857 American adventurers, f i r s t to have news of the gold discoveries in Caledonia made their way from the Columbia to the watershed of the Thompson River and in spite of Indian opposition, prospected the streams and reported that the whole country was a bed of gold. James Douglas» Governor of Vancouver Island, r e a l -izing that there would be a large number of people attracted by the reports of gold took the liberty of issuing, without authority - his commission as Governor of Vancouver Island and Lieutenant Governor of Q,ueen Charlotte Islands did not include the mainland - a proclamation, on December 28, I857, whieh declared the rights of the Crown in respeet to gold deposits within, the Eraser River and Thompson River d i s t r i c t s , known as the Gouteau Region, and stated that a l l persons who shall take from any lands in said districts any gold, metal or ore oontaining gold, or who shall dig for and disturb the s o i l in search (1) Gold Piscovery Rape ra, P. 9. Cf. Howay and Scholefleld, British Columbia, Vancouver, 1914, I I , P. 46. Cf. Sage, . W. If., Sir James Douglas and British Columbia, PP. 2Q6-2Q7 (hereafter referred to as Sage, James Douglas). Gold was f i r s t reported to the Colonial Office by Douglas on April 16, 1856. (Speeches of Edward Lord Lytton, Edinburgh and London, 1874, Vol. II, P. 79). (Hereafter cited as Lytton's Speeches) 2. for gold, metal or ore without having duly author-ized in that behalf Her Majesty's Colonial Govern-ment, w i l l he prosecuted, both criminally and c i v i l l y , as the law allows. (2) The same licence was demanded of British as well as American or 'subjects of any other government'. Ho distinction was (3) made as regards nationality or colour. In Augustv 18^8, Governor Douglas requested from Sir Edward Bulwer lytton, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, military protection for the young colony of British Columbia which was being precipitated into l i f e by a reckless horde of seekers, attracted by the lure of gold, from a l l corners of the earth. The f i r s t group of miners arrived In Victoria on April 25, I 8 5 8 . They numbered 49^. Of these Governor Douglas said, "They are represented as being with some ex-ceptions a specimen of the worst of the population of San ( 4 ) Francisco - the very dregs, in fact, of society". A l l trades, nationalities, and conditions were represented. By every known route and every mode of conveyance (2) Scholefield and Gosnell, Sixty Years of Progress -British Columbia, Vancouver, 1?13, Part I, P. I 3 9 . ^Part I Scholefield, Part II Gosnell) (3) Howay ana Scholefield, op. e i t . , II, P. 15. Cf. Lytton's Speeches, Vol. II; P. 80. (4) Howay, F. W., The Work of the Royal Engineers in British Columbia, Victoria, 1?1G, P. 1. this influx of men poured into the new country. Some came by sea, some followed the coast by land, while others attempted to reach the fields through the d i f f i c u l t mountain passes of the interior. By the middle of July the number exceeded - (5) JQ.QOO. Reverend R. C. Lundin Brown in his essay on British Columbia says, "Never in the migration of men had there been (b) seen such a rush, so sudden and so vast". The mainland of British Columbia was at this time an unorganized territory known vaguely as the Indian Terri-tory or as New Caledonia. Roughly i t included the land lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, and between the 4?th degree of latitude and the sources of the Fraser Elver. It also included the Queen Charlotte Islands. Its length was about 420 miles and i t had an average width of (?) from 2QQ to J00 miles. The computed area was 'somewhat' over (8) 2UQ„QUQ square miles. This vast country was held by the Hudson's Bay (j?) Howay, The Work of the Royal Engineers, P. 1 . (b) Brown, R. C. Lundin, British Columbia - An Essay. Hew Westminster, 1863, P.~JT (?) Ballantyne, Robert M., Handbook to the Hew Gold Fields, Edinburgh, 1858, P. 12. — " (8) Lyt ton's Speeches, Vol. II, P. 78. CT. Ihe Times, London, July 9 , I858. Cf. Hansard Ts Parliamentary Debates, 3rd Series, 1849-1864. London, July 12 , 1858 (Government of Hew Caledonia B i l l ) . (Hereafter referred to as Hansard). 4 Company, which had exclusive trade with the Indians under the licence of 18^8. Judge Howay gives a good description of the country at this time. About a score of forts, or trading posts, of the Company, separated in most instances by hundreds of miles, were the only evidences of ci v i l i z a t i o n ; hunting, trapping and trading, the only occupations; beaver-skins, the only money; the natural waterways, the Indians and brigade t r a i l s , the only means of communication; semblance of the club and the fang was the arbiter in a l l disputes. (9) By virtue of the Act of 1821 the courts of Upper Canada had jurisdiction over a l l cases, c i v i l and criminal, (10) arising in this region. James Douglas, the governor of Vancouver Island, was also the;chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company west of the Rockies, and as such viewed with alarm any great i n -flux of immigration. By nature he was an autocrat and ruled with a firm hand. However, he knew from a similar experience In the Queen Charlotte Islands that the Home Government would not attempt to exclude foreigners from the gold region. Thus (11) on May 8, 1858, he suggested to Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, & Y that a middle course by pursued - the miners were to be (9) Howay, The Work of the Royal Engineers, P. 1 (10) Howay and Scholefield, op. e i t . , I I, P. 25. (11) i b i d . , P. 26. allowed to enter the territory but were not to interfere with the interests of the Hudson's Bay Company. Acting upon his own authority, on the same date, he issued a proclamation forbidding a l l persons, except those connected with the Hudson's Bay Company, to trade with the Indians in the British possessions on the northwest coast and declared that 14 days after date a l l boats that did not have a licence from the Hudson's Bay Company and a 'sufferance' from Victoria would (12) be seized. It is evident that at this time Douglas was primarily interested in the welfare of the Hudson's Bay Company and the rules and regulations he issued to protect i t made him unpopular. As a consequence the rules were evaded wherever and whenever possible. However, on July 1, l8j>8, Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton made i t clear that no restrictions were to be placed on miners entering the gold fields or on free trade. He stated: while Her Majesty's Government are determined on pressing the rights, both of government and of commerce, which belong to this country, and while they have i t in contemplation to furnish you with such a force as they may be able to detach for (12) Proclamation of May 8, I858, enclosed in Douglas to Stanley, May 1?, 1858 in Imperial Blue Book, Papers Relating to Affairs of British Columbia, Part I, P. 12, (Hereafter cited as B. C. Papers). Cf, Sage, James Douglas, P. 213T Cf. Howay and scholefield, op. c i t . , II, P. 2J>. 6. your assistance and support in the preservation of law and order, i t is no part of their policy to exclude Americans and other foreigners from the gold fields* On the contrary, you are dis-tinctly 'instructed to oppose no obstacle whatever to their resort thither for the purpose of digging in those f i e l d s , so long as they submit themselves, in common with the subjects of Her Majesty, to the recognition of Her authority, and conform to such rules of police as you may have thought proper to establish. (13) Again, on July 16, Lytton pointed out clearly that the Hudson's Bay Company under i t s existing licence was entitled only to the exclusive trade with the Indians and possessed (14) no other rights or privileges. Through the very f u l l reports sent to the Colonial Office by Douglas, Lytton seemed able to grasp existing con-ditions with an amazing comprehension and realized to the fullest extent that the new found Eldorado should be at once freed from the Hudson's Bay Company, and immediately organ-ized, and that restraints of law and order should be placed upon these seekers of gold. His mind was imaginative and his vision clear. On July 8, 1838, he introduced in the House of (15) Commons a b i l l to provide for the government of Hew Caledonia. (13) Gold Discovery Papers, P. 17. (14) B. C. Papers, I, P. 42. (Lytton to Douglas, July 16, Cf. Howay and Scholefield, op. c l t . , II, P. 30. Cf. Sage, James Douglas, P. 214. (15) Lytton's Speeches, II, PP. 76-87. While the b i l l was passing through Parliament Queen Victoria, herself, named the new colony British (16) o o (17) Columbia* On August 2, I8j?8, the act came into force. This act defined the boundaries of British Columbia, empowered the Governor to make laws for the government of the colony, with . a provision for the establishment of a Local Legislature, and repealed the jurisdiction of courts of Upper Canada.over (18) actions and prosecutions arising in the new colony. In the meantime, Douglas, being the nearest repre-sentative of the Crown,, was by a confidential letter sent by Sir E. B, Lytton, dated July 16,1838, 'authorized under the (1?) necessity of the case' to perform the duties of Governor of the unorganized territory until the organic act should be passed. (20) On September 2, l8j>8, the licence of exclusive Indian trade, granted to the Hudson's Bay Company, was revoked so far as British Columbia was concerned and the Company's (16) B. C. Papers, Pt. I, P. 43. (Lytton to Douglas, July 31, 183H). — ~ (17) Howay and Schoiefield, op. c l t . , II, P. 4?. Cf. Coats and Gosnell, Sir James Douglas, Toronto, 1909, P. 229. (18) Howay and Schoiefield, op. c i t . , II, PP. 49-30. (19) B. C. Papers, Pt. I, P. 42. (Lytton to Douglas, July 16, (20j Coats and Gosnell, op. c i t . , P. 229. 8 rights on Vancouver Island were repurchased by the government. Soon after this, in compliance with Lytton's request, Douglas severed a l l connection with the Hudson's Bay Company and with (21) the Puget Sound Agricultural Company. In an extended series of despatches sent to Douglas, during July and August, I838, Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton set forth the principles by which the new colony was to be guided. The entire function of government and legislation was to be plaeed in the hands of Douglas but i t was recommended that a council to which foreigners as well as British subjects might be eli g i b l e , should be formed. Representative institutions were to be adopted as soon as possible. This gave extra-ordinary powers to a governor who by nature and training was autocratic. The council formed was purely advisory; demo-cratic organization was never considered. The new colony was to be self-supporting and great stress was laid upon the necessity of economy. Lytton did not approve of a tax on mining but suggested a tax be placed on the export of gold as well as moderate duties on articles usually taxed, sueh as beer and wine. The sale of public lands was to be the main source of revenue. This revenue was (21) Douglas to Lytton, October 4, 1858. (Provincial Archives) Cf. Sage, Walter I., The C r i t i c a l Period in British Columbia History, The Paeific Historical Review, Glen-dale, California, 1932, I, P. 423. Cf. B. C. Papers, I, July and August 1838. Passim. Cf. Juytton's "Speeches, II, P. 83. 9* to be expended on the preservation of order, construction of roads, surveying of townsites and agricultural lands and the (22) payment of necessary officers to the colony. Of these i n -structions Douglas carried out those which he himself thought advisable. With the wild rush to the new gold fields Douglas felt the inadequacy of military support in the colony. Thus, on August 16, 1858, he wrote to the Colonial Office as follows: The affairs of Government might be carried on smoothly with even a single company of infantry; but at present I-must, under Providence, depend in a great measure on personal influence and manage-ment; a position inconsistent with the dignity of the Queen's Government. I therefore trust that you w i l l take our case into consideration, and direct such reinforcements to be sent to this country as Her Majesty's Govern-ment may deem necessary. (23) At this time there were at Esquimau several British war vessels. The 'Satellite', with Captain Prevost, was of f i c i a l l y on the boundary commission, and the 'Plumper', with Captain Eichards, was making surveys of the coast and defin-ing the islands in the Gulf of Georgia. Admiral Baynes had also arrived in the ^Ganges' which was accompanied by the (22) B. C; Papers, Pt. I, PP. 4b-7b. Passim. (Lytton to DouglasJ. (23) i b i d . , Pt. I, PP. 27, 28. (Douglas to Stanley, August I S T T M ) . 10 •Tribune'. The 'Beaver' and the 'Otter' belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company were also available. Although these vessels were sufficient for coast defence Douglas f e l t that (24) an extra force was needed for service in the interior. Letters sent to Rear-Admiral Baynes, Lord Stanley, and Sir E, B. Lytton in May and June, l8j>8, show that Douglas was convinced that 'not only Fraser's River and i t s tributary streams, but also the whole country situated to the eastward of the Gulf of Georgia, as far north as Johnstone's Straits, is one continued bed of gold' but also that he expected 'an influx of 2Q,QQQ to 30,000 people in the course of a few (25) months'. The anticipation of this worried him and he f l e t in need of military assistance. However, before Douglas's plea for further protection had reached England, S i r . E. B. Lytton was aware of the need and had in his speech on the British Columbia Act, July 8, 1858, said: I have shown, I trust, the necessity of an immediate measure to secure this promising and noble territory from becoming the scene of tur-bulent disorder, and place over the fierce passions-which spring from the hunger of gold the restraints of established law, (26) ^2 4^ B* C > Papers, pt . I, PP. 27-28. (Douglas to Stanley, AUgUSt I?, I 8 5 8 ) . (25) i b i d . , PP. 14-27. (2b) Lytton's Speeches, II, P. 85. 11. On July 30, lytton notified Douglas that he proposed sending to British Columbia by the earliest opportunity, an officer of the Royal Engineers with two or three subalterns (.27) and a company of 1^ 0 miners and sappers. In a letter dated the following day, he explained what he considered would be the duties of these Royal Engineers. It w i l l devolve upon them to survey those parts of the country which may be considered most suitable for settlement, to marx out allotments of land for public purposes, to suggest a site for the seat of government, to point out where roads should be made, and to render you such assistance ' as may be in their power, on the dis-tinct understanding, however, that this force i s to be maintained at the Imperial cost for only a limited period, and that, i f required afterwards, the Colony w i l l have to defray the expense there-of. I have to add, that I am of opinion that i t will be reasonable and proper that the expense of the survey of a l l allotments of land to private individuals should be Included in the price which the purchaser wi l l have to pay for his property. I shall endeavour to secure, i f possible, the services of an officer in command of the Engineers who w i l l be capable of reporting on the value of the mineral resources. This force is sent for scientific and practical purposes, and not solely for military objects. As l i t t l e dis-play as possible should, therefore, be made of i t . Its mere appearance, i f prominently obtruded, might serve to i r r i t a t e , rather than appease, the mixed population which should be collected in British Columbia. It should be remembered that your real strength l i e s in the conviction of the emigrants and their interests are identical with (27) B. C. Papers, Pt. I, P. 44. (Lytton to Douglas, July 30, 1B5B).— 12. those of the Government, which should, be carried on in harmony with and by means of the people of the country. (28) Again on October 16, l8>8» i n a very lengthy eon-fidential letter written to Douglas, Lytton explains why he selected the Royal Engineers for work to be done In British Columbia. He says: With regard to your demand for a military force, i t i s gratifying to me to learn, from your statement that "the affairs of Government might be carried on smoothly with even a single company of Infantry11, that I had anticipated and indeed exceeded your requirements, by directions given at the earliest moment for sending to the Colony a party of l^O Royal Engineers. !Ehe superior discipline ,and i n t e l l i -gence of this force, which afford ground for expecting that they w i l l be far less likely than ordinary soldiers of the line to yield to the temptation to desertion offered by the gold f i e l d s , and their capacity at onee to provide for themselves in a eountry without habitation, appear to me to render them especially suited for this dutyj whilst by their services as pioneers in the work of c i v i l i z a t i o n , in opening up the resources of the eountry, by the construc-tion of roads and bridges, i n laying the foun-dations of a future city or seaport, and in carry-ing out the numerous engineering works which in the earlier stages of colonization are so essential to the progress and welfare of the community, they w i l l probably not only be preserved from the id l e -ness which may corrupt the.discipline of ordinary soldiers, but establish themselves in the popular good-will of the emigrants by the c i v i l benefits i t w i l l be in the regular nature of their occupa-(28) B. C. Papers, Pt. I, P. 45. (Lytton to Douglas, July 31, 18"5? >• 13 tion to confer. (2?) To Lord Lytton British Columbia owes an enormous debt of gratitude. The man who had the imagination to write tThe Last Lays of Pompeii* had also sufficient vision to see a new world in the west. For the formation of the colony, each detail was carefully considered, and each man selected with the greatest care. He was proud of his newly-formed coiony and looked upon i t as his own special care. Address-ing the electors of Hertford, whom he represented in the House of Commons, in September, 1861, he said: quietly, inoffensively, with no alarm to Europe, no threat to the civilized laws of nations, England has thus annexed from the wilderness, annexed to her Crown, a country larger than England i t s e l f , and which, before a quarter of a century is over, will add millions to our national industry in support of the profits of agriculture, the wages of labour, and the inter-change of commerce. I am not out of place in thus alluding to that act in my own special ad-ministration of which I am most proud . . . and i f in future generations my name should be re-membered in connections with the commencement of a colony destined, I believe to be the wealthiest of a l l that now speak our language, i t will be as the representative of this county of Hertford . . . ( 3 0 ) (29; B. .0. Papers, Pt. I, P. (Lytton to Douglas, October lb, 1838). (30) Howay and Schoiefield, op. c i t . , I I , P. 32. Cf, British Columbian, December 1?, l 8 b l . 14. Chapter 2 Colonel Richard Clement Moody was appointed to the QomawaA of the detaehment of Royal Engineers to he sent out to the new colony of Eritiah Columbia. He also held the position of Chief Ooraetissioner of Landa and Works* In select* ing Colonel Moody to command the specially selected group of men, Sir E. B. Lytton fel t that he had chosen a man whoa® character and former colonial experience not only fi t t e d him for the responsible position, hut also made him a/ desirable choice for dealing with th© settlers and the gold-seekers in the newly-formed colony on the far Pacific coast. Richard Clement Moody was the second sea of Colonel Thomas Mooay,. R. Si. He was bora at Barbados, West Indies, in February 13, 1813. After being educated at private schools and by a tutor at home, he entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich to receive instruction i n the ordnance survey.. He remained there from February, 1827, to December, 1829. After being listed on Sovember 5, 1830, a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineer8, he served at various stations at home and abroad. He was posted in the ordnance survey in Ireland in the spring of 1S32, but on his recovery from illness in 1833 was stationed at Woolwich. In October of th® same year he l e f t for St. Vincent, Eritiah West Indies, where he remain-15. ed for four years* On June 25, 1835 he was promoted t o the rank of f i r s t lieutenant. In -September, 1837*. he was invalid-ed home after an attack of yellow fever and during his sick leave accompanies Sir Charles Felix Smith on a tour of the united Statea* On his return he was stationed at Davenport. On July 3, 1838, he was appointed professor o f fortifications at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. He was then twenty-five of age. His earliest administrative experience was as f i r s t governor ©f the felkland Islands in 1841. fhere had been a© much trouble in that forbidding colony that It was •almost in a state of anarchy and the young governor was given exception-al) s i powers Khich he used with great wisdom and moderation** During his term of office in th© Falkland Islands Moody Intro-duced the cultivation of tussae-grass into Great Britain* He .gave an account of this in the * Journal of the fioyal Agri-cultural Society* and. received the society*® gold medal for this service. On March 6, 1844, Moody was promoted to the rank of second captain and on August 19, 1847, to that of f i r s t captain. He returned to Bngi&nd from the Falkland Islands in (i) MMlmMx^^^pn^ M^mmMt Moody, a . c , vol '1XXVXXX, P. 332. 1#. February, 1849. For nearly a year lie was employed on special duty for the Colonial O f f i c e * He then spent a year at Chat-ham, after which he was appointed commanding royal engineer at Uewcaetle-on-Tyne. While Moody was in the north, a great reservoir at.Holmfirth, Yorkshire, h u r s t , destroying both l i f e and property. Moody was employed to report on the accident and to inspect other large reseSroirs in the d i s t r i c t . In 1.854 he was sent to Malta where he was promo tad to .the rank of lieutenant-colonel in January, 1855. However, in May, yellow fever was again the cause of his return to England. . Be spent his leave t h i s time,, travelling i n Germany* On November 8, 1855, he was appointed commanding r o y a l engineer in north Britain. Moody was a. skilled draughtsman .and very interested in architecture, while i n sootland he drew plans f o r th© restoration of Edinburgh Castle. These plans so delighted Lord Panraure, then Secretary of State for War, that Moody was commanded to submit then to Queen. Victoria and the Prince Consort, at Windsor. On April 28, 1858, Moody was promoted to the rank of brevet-colonel -and i n the autumn was appointed Chief Commissioner of Lands and works in the new colony British Columbia and given the command of the Columbia detachment of Boyal Engineers which was being sent. out. He was. also given 17. (2) (3) a dormant commission of lieutenant-governor* The officers of the Royal Engineers for .British Columbia were equally well-chosen .and qualified for their duties in the new colony. Captain J . L;* Grant,, the senior officer, was chosen for his genius in construction, Captain R. M. Parsons, for his expert knowledge of survey, while Captain H. ft* Laard,, the third officer,- was especially adapt-(4) ed for the str i c t l y military part of the work. There were also two subalterns, Lieutenant k. R, Lerapriere and K. R, Palmer, and one staff-assistant-surgeon, Br* -J. V. Sedd&ll* The non*eomralB8ianed officers and men were equally well-chosen from a large number of volunteers* The Victoria Gazette -stated; The detachment i s composed of picked volunteers, embraces almost every trade and profession - surveyors,, "draughtsmen, artists, architects, photographers, carpenter®, masons, (2) BjuJU-^HMaaU * t . . I # P., 67* Moody was to hold the •dormant* commission of Lieutenant Governor as *the position and experience* point to him. However he was to adminster the Government of the colony in the ©vent of the * death, incapacity, removal or ab-sence from the said colony1 of Governor Douglas. (3) Information for this biographical sketch was found in a* JElaJdjaMOL-Of, WiMM^MMZLmM* London, x x x v i l l , 332, 333* b... ^ elfenden,. Madge, M^MMXMmmLMm§¥A 3 W » Journal of the Department of Public Works, Victoria, 1938, 3, 4. (4) B» C Papers, Pt* II, PP. 63-64. (Bneloeu*e in Ho* SO. Lytton to Douglas, February 9, 1859), 18. blacksmiths, painters, miners, e t c . - such aa only th© Royal .Engineers can produce. (5) The London *Times* speaking of the detachment selected for the nev? colony stated: fheneyer Her Majesty*s Government want a body of s k i l f u l , intelligent, and industrious mechanics to perform any task requiring pecu-l i a r Judgment,, energy, and accuracy j such as th© arrangement of a great exhibition, the execution of art accurate survey, or even the construction of houses, roads and bridges, in a new colony, they have only to turn to the corps of Royal Sngineers,. and they find a l l the material they want* (6) The Royal Engineers came out to.British Columbia i n three sections: f i r s t , Captain Parsons aad twenty men, chief-l y surveyors.* second,. Captain Grant and twelve men., mainly carpenters* third, Captain Laard, with the main body of the detachment. Colonel Moody and the f i r s t two division came by (7) way of the Panama. Th® third section, under Captain Luard, came i n the famous * Thames City* around Cape Horn* lacto. party had an interesting voyage. The f i r s t detachment under Captain Parsons sailed from Somtiitampten on September 2, 18S8, i n the *La P l a t t a * . (5) Gazette. Seveaher 20, 1858. (6) The timea-. London* September 2, 1858. ( 7 ) Howay and scholefield, op. cit*.," II, 5*?. (S) B. G. Pa*>ara» Pt. I, PR* 69, 70. (Lytton to Douglas, October'16, 1858). 19. Lytton.,. h i m s e l f , went on board and addressed the men, impress-i n g on them the in t e r e s t , he f e l t i n t h e i r w e l f a r e , and p o i n t -i n g out how. very mueja the success of the colony depended on each one of theai and the other members of the detachment. Colonel Moody, i n a long l e t t e r sent to Captain Parsons,, i n s t r u c t e d him c a r e f u l l y -and f u l l y as to h i s duties. He.gave in s t r u c t ! u n a concerning the passage out to the new colony, the necessity of 'utmost* economy and the f i r s t duties, on a r r i v a l * lie a l s o s t a t e d : You w i l l f i n d the Governor has been very .fully i n s t r u c t e d i n the matter, and for h i s well-known character f o r energy and judgment 1 have no apprehension i n my own mind that i f you f r a n k l y place y o u r s e l f i n unreserved communication w i t h him you w i l l f i n d d i f f i c u l t i e s quickly mastered* The main d u t i e s you are to keep i n view are these* I t o •House'* and feed, your party* • II t o prepare f o r those that are to follow* T«tee» the f i r s t duty (I) s h a l l have been e f f e c t e d , and the second ( I I I be i n progress you will a f t e r Captain Grant*® a r r i v a l take h i s orders f o r a s e l e c t i o n from your III party* and you w i l l w i t h them proceed up the "Eraser l i v e r * to the f i r s t r a p i d s or F a l i e ( i f time w i l l .admit) and' return,, making a most care-ful reconnoissance of both banks, but more e s p e c i a l l y the Berth Bank* You w i l l c e r t a i n l y proceed as f a r as Port Yale* . . . . I think i t would be w e l l f o r you to draw the a t t e n t i o n of the Governor to the circumstance that m i l i t a r y considerations of the very gravest importance (seeing the nearness of the Frontier) j. enter i n t o the question of determining the s i t e of the chief-town and. also of the one to be l a i d out at the entrance of the Elver*. I f i t i s ab-s o l u t e l y necessary to commence'some occupation . at the l a t t e r place i t .should be confined to the north s i d e and I hope the Governor- would be able to make i t a temporary tenure. At a l l events the 20. ©pots marked on the accompanying chart should he reserved. (9) Captain Parsons was given charge of several des-patches for Governor Douglas. Among them were Douglas* own commission and instruction, an or d e r-in-e ounc i1 empowering vhiro to sake p r o v i s i o n f o r the administration of j u s t i c e and" th© establishment of a l l necessary laws, and the (iueen's revocation of the Crown grant to the Hudson's Bay Company as far as Br i t i s h Columbia was concerned. Parson©"was a l s o given a letter of introduction from the Colonial o f f i c e to Douglas* It saidi 1 need scarecely observe to you that the object for which tUiv. officer and h i s party have been detached to British Columbia is for the exclusive service of that colony. You w i l l , therefore, afford him e^ery assistance xv your power for en a l l ins him to commence irsmed lately such, operations i n i t as shall appear to him to be necessary, in anticipation of his command ing officer, Colonel :"oody, H, r"., who - f i l l follow jiiic with as much rapidity as practicable. And I trust that, i f Captain Parsons should require the temporary occupation for h i s party <-f the trading-posts up the country, vrhich belongs to the Hudson's Bay Company, you will take pleasures for affording him such accommodation.. (10) It will be noticed i n t h i s l e t t e r that Captain Parsons and (9) If.oody-Parson3. Jept ember 1, 1858. (1. C. Archives -iioody '-orrespondence). The maps arc not available. (10) Begg, Alexander, History of Eritish,..Qoiumb.li,a,. Toronto, 18"94r P. 230. 21 Ms p a r t y -sere to be given every assistance possible i n carrying out t h e i r work, They a r r i v e d at V i c t o r i a on October (11) 29,. 1868. Captain Grant w i t h the second detachment s a i l e d fro® Southhampton on board the fArato* m a i l steams to at. -Thomas, then on a branch steamer to -Trios,, i n C e n t r a l America, and across the Pananwu they l e f t 3ngl«y»d on September 1?, 1858, aad a r r i v e i at vVictoria on loveiaber S. of the same year. Be s i d e s Captain Grant and the 12 Hoy sal ltn.g.in«0.rs there wore about 18 passengers aboard th® 'Arate*.. Among them- was Captain Shartres Lr®w, a distinguished p o l i c e o f f i c i a l whom L y t t o n was sending out to B r i t i s h Columbia .as Inspector o f the Police,. L y t t o n described him as; the most experienced aim trustworthy port cm I could s e l e c t amongst the I r i s h Constabulary (a body of men p e c u l i a r i l y distinguished f o r e f f i c i e n c y ) , to serve as Inspector of the P o l i c e , and to carry out your I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the formation cf a c i v i l force of that character. (13) Moody*s i n s t r u c t i o n s to Grant were s i m i l a r to, but sh o r t e r , t&rui" tho»« sent t o Parsons. A f t e r i n s t r u c t i n g him (11) 3fc|_. g«. Pagers, P t . I I , P. 25. (Bouglas to Ly t t o n , Hovember 8, 2.858,)* (12) i b i d . . P t. I I , P. 26. (Bouglas to Lytton,, November 9, (13) B.« C. Papers. Pt, I,, P. 70. ( L y t t o n to Douglas, October 16,' 1858), 22, that expense© must he l i m i t e d to what was Indispensable, he informed him that on h i s a r r i v a l i n V i c t o r i a he was to take over the command f r o a Captain Parsons,, c o l l e c t b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s for barracks at some s u i t a b l e place on the P r a s e r , and procure an 'old rooay ©raft* that oould be towed from place to place, fitted up as a store and even usod as a temporary barrack. In connection wi th this he wrote: The advantage of such an arrangement being provided at once w i l l be incalculable and i t will be of service to the Colonial Governor (for River Police, and Stores etc; etc; etc;) for some yearn to cone. This will be self-evident to his Excellency'3 well-known .Sagacity. (14) Moody also stressed the importance of a large m i l i t a r y reserve at the 'extremity 'of the l o r t h Shore at the entrance of the f r a s e r E l v e r * , aad one also on the l o r t h Shore 'looking down both entrances of the f r a s e r * . these places were described fully on eharts given to Captain Parsons. Both of these site® were to be supplied w i t h a small barrack*, store and magazine.,. Quite independent of the c h i e f town, *wherever i t may be** In c l o s i n g Moody asked Grant, i f time permitted, to examine the ground around th© j u n c t i o n of the Praser and P i t t BIvors and to examine a l s o the (14) goody-P,sysofts,t September 1, 1858. {Moody ' Correspondence, B* £*'Archives). 23. ' best route *fr©a that p o i n t to th© deep i n l e t northwards'* (This i s l i k e l y Burrard I s l e t . The chart mentioned by Koo&y i s not a v a i l a b l e * } In reading the i n s t r u c t i o n ® to both Parsons and Grant msay i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s are r e v e a l e d . Hie first... i s (15) Moody*.® own dc-sire to economiase* This in soentioned beeeaee Douglas c o n t i n u a l l y complained of the iconey spent by the Royal .Engineers* These complaints were a source of consider-able worry to Colonel Moody, f u r t h e r i t i s shown that Colonel Moody waa f a m i l i a r w i t h the geography of the country to which he was going* However, he ov e r e s t i m a t e d the m i l i t a r y reserve necessary to pr o t e c t the colony but t h i s p o s s i b l y was the r e s u l t of despatches sent from Douglas and d i r e c t i o n s f r o a S i r 1* r. L y t t o n . Jloody a l s o i n d i c a t e d h i s respect f o r Douglas and took f o r granted that he would be f r e e to c a r r y on h i s , work i n the new colony aa he thought best* These points are i n t e r e s t i n g i n that they demonstrate such a con-t r a s t between that which Moody expected and that which he (15) In instructing his officers Moody repeatedly told them to 'embrace the following conditions'' (l) Kapidity of execution (2) -Kconomy (Royal Engineers, Letter Look, 3. PP. 166-167, February 3, 1860). (16) Cms should remember the "scare'*-in. Vancouver Is l a n d i n 1654'at the outbreak of the Crimean War. 24 received at til® hands of Governor Bouglas* Colonel Moody, accompanied hy h i s wife and four children, also travelled by the Panama rente. They l e f t Ingland on October 30, 1858, on the 'Asia* and sailed up -the west ©east on the *Sonora*\, a r r i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a en Beoeaher (18) 25, 1858. Jtecoiapanying Colonel Moody .were w. D r l s o o l l Cosset., treasurer of B r i t i s h Columbia, and. B. Crielsaer, l a t e r e h a p l s i n (19) ft at Yale.. Th® main body of the Royal JSeglaeers s a i l e d from 'draveaend* on Oetebe* 30., 1858., and f r o a th© •Downs* a week l a t e r , m the c l i p p e r s h i p , * Thames C i t y * , coia-nanded by Captain Clover* This l a s t detachment consisted of th© two subalterns, M e n tenant H* S* Palmer and Lieutenant A* E. L e n p r i e r e , the s t a f f - a s s i s t a n t surgeon, V. seddall* 118 no»-*co3Jffiiisai.oned officers and mmn0 31 woman aad 54 c h i l d r e n -the whole under the oossaand of Cap t a i n it. B* Luard. They t r a v e l l e d by way of Cape Mom and arrived at Bsquitaalt en A p r i l 12., 1859 - the trip having taken almost &ix months* This journey was one of the longest ever- taken, by Royal Engineers* „.•».„ .<H.T.'.I. m « m »u».;i.r.i.«ii »m,:wytjm*mw (17) B* C*. Panare. f t * I , P.' 70 (Lytton to Douglas, October ( i s ) sag®, £§mM«Mm2m* *• S32' (19) Baneroft,. K. B.t MISMM^MUMLSMX^M* 1792-1887, San i r s n e i s e o , XXXII, 1. 407* 25. (20) As the voyage of the * Thames City* i s so well known on the coast of Bri t i s h Columbia and i t s memory so dear to many in the province, i t cannot he passed over without a word of comment. Mr. Oeorg® ©reem, in an able and picturesque fashion described this vessel and i t s trip out to B r i t i s h Columbia,, in an article in 'fhe ?ancouver Province* commemora-ting the eightieth year since her arrival* The weather stained sails now being furled, had wafted the vessel over 17,000 miles, across the trackless wastes of two oceans, averaging 4f miles an hour. She was of 557 tons burden, clipper-built, with sharp lines and carrying a considerable spread of canvas. A square-rigged threes-master with sky s a i l yards, she was classed • among th® best sailing vessels afloat* Her ©wner was Henry Soundthwaithe of Sunderland. (21) The ship made just two stops* The f i r s t was at Port Stanley, Falkland Islands, where Colonel Moody had been Governor. Here fresh meat and provisions were taken on; an abundance of wild geese and ducks formed a welcome change in diet from the usual hardtack, salt pork, salt beef, few vegetables and *preserved' milk. Two weeks of 'lovely gossip' and *oosy* cupe of tea shared with the residents of the town made a delightful break in the voyage. Indeed such an enjoyable time was spent that (20) ImJgrant Soldiers* (teitti...«B& -Cam Town ,(^ffl».£3A. .Victoria, 1907. (Wolf®nden*s address included). Ho pages cited. (21). Taaeouver Province. April 17, 1938. 26. many of the passengers had to be hoisted aboard •with ropes and pulleys when the time f o r departure a r r i v e d . A f t e r a stormy passage, *with heavy gales and mountainous waves', r a i n , s l e e t and snow, Cape Horn was rounded, fhe second stop f o r four days at Valparaiso, could not be compared wi t h that at Port S t a n l e y , fhe 'Chilians*, a® u s u a l , were occupied w i t h a r e v o l u t i o n and f o r t h i s reason, and'- others, nearly a l l the shore leaves were denied. c h i l d r e n were bora on the voyage. One was the daughter of Sergeant Jonathan Morey, who was ©ailed Marina Clover Korey * l n honor' of the domain of leptune, which covers . three-four the of the globs*ft surface, over,which f o r three months they had. been travelliag..,, and were y e t to traverse for a longer p e r i o d ; and i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the k i n d l y s o l i c i t u d e and f a t h e r l y care bestowed by the ship's commander, Can t a i n Clover who, boing c h i l d l e s s embraced a l l the company i n M i beneficent ever-* sight-.* The el d e r s i s t e r of t h i s c h i l d , 'at time aged two, and also a passenger on the 'Thames C i t y * , i s I r s . James Wardl®, now l i v i n g at,2406 l o s t S i x t h Avenue, Taneowver. Another c h i l d bom. was a son to Sapper L i n n , after'whoa Lynn Creek i s named. J&m Murray, the present game warden and constable at (22) Ym^mi^: Article.'by George Green, April 18, According to the Emigrant Soldiers*-. Gazette f i v e (22) 2f* Part l#eiiy# wm& bom off t h * oeetat' of M«xie#* Vm. «as the eon of Sapper tstosragr* A *ea wea a l s o bora to s a p s * * TeAafa* in t&e s&ftet of the umamA* w h i l e the *2&Mae» C i t y V w*» rousidtsg Cape Horn another child was horn but both It 2nd it® mother were bwIM at ®ea» li"", Joim .»e&l«s, now l i v i n g i>. uneouver, was four y e a r s old . U-eou i*€ w"© th'. ff*. >'/uo tv ^ t r y a ii« hoe v i v i d recoiloctl r i He ivhola voyage mC c c a l l c especially the prank® th-<t t>>< - oyal . Vv.i^eert, pLtiysd vt c e l . ,.-ther t»«,vs«ji croa&i?'^; the ^quatcop. j - i t e an trjjai.ijifd ut-cicti' r-prt-j^; into being on th® •\Uty*. A voluntary l^eatrlc^l Vi oupo, l e ./,ed l y ;.ichard olfenden, late /.ieu tenant Colonel olitvulcn, inc'a i r i o t e r at ^i'-stf.rla, ;.revtd«ii tx'^lc outer tauR<ioi:.t» - ircusc liaia" served as ras «'j;c<?21ts£-i t-rchci* ti'c. Xullu, cc-jm'rt*, cad v a r i -ous other fwi.a o f ixit.^mamt wei-<- ei-ruiccd, for y;J4.ch John Henry ..calos ( f a t h e r of "dm. s c a l e s r.ei.tx nee al.-o-e, : :ted so i.-aotur A f r;r-rc uviicuu 5 , • ' • 1 1 (mins t*' tr o ': InSnefci: nr. CI fojj-iu^it of ' a p l a i n j.arsh, li* ?»»# a paper, &n»*m *fbt J&tigrimt Soldiers* Gaaette anil Cap© limn Qhrmi^lm* wm pvMiahedU Thie p&par # laMXlitg 28.. away many hours of loneliness and montony, was e d i t e d by Second Corporal Charles S i n n e t t , a s s i s t e d by l i e u t e n a n t fi. 8. Palmer and "published at the Miter's O f f i c e , Starboard Front Cabin, Thames C i t y . * . Published in manuscript form i t was read aloud to the assembled company every Saturday night - the day of p u b l i c a t i o n - by the commanding © f f l e e r , Captain II. K. Luard. In a l l there' were 17 i s s u e s , each showing the resourcefulness and v e r s a t i l i t y of the members of the corps. I t contained correspondence on almost every conceivable s u b j e c t , science -• i n c l u d i n g the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y of the voyage * a record of each day's run, naval and m i l i t a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e , b i r t h s , deaths, poetry, songs, charades, j oKes, conundrums and even a d v e r t i s e -raents. A complete a r t i c l e was p r i n t e d s t a t i n g the duties and work expected of the Royal Sngineers on t h e i r a r r i v a l i n {24} B r i t i s h Columbia* The o r i g i n a l manuscript, w r i t t e n in Sinnett*s hand* w r i t i n g i s f i l e d in the -archives ¥lctorla* Soon a f t e r th*< a r r i v a l of the Corps at lew Uestainstea, the paper was pub-lished by John Bobson, editor of the *Columbian*• This e d i t i o n being u n a t t a i n a b l e , the P r o v i n c i a l government r e p r i n t -(24)' The *Eaigrant S o l d i e r s * Gazette* hae been r e f e r r e d to at such length because i t , i n i t s e l f , i s an i n t e r e s t i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g paper and also"because I t i s an important historical document r e l a t i n g to the detachment of Royal Engineers sent out to B r i t i s h Columbia. 29 ed the paper in 1907, hound i t most attractively and presented a copy to each person who had crossed th® ocean in the 'Thames (26) City'* A large portion of the stores and provision for the detachment was sent out in the "barque, 'Briseia', which sailed from the Downs on October 27, 1858. Four married men of the corps, and their wives, under Corporal William Hall, had (26) planned to s a i l on the 'Briseis* but were transferred to the 'Euphrates* owing to insufficient accommodation after the 'Briseis* had been leaded. Those who were transferred sailed on the''Euphrates* included Sergeant Hylatt, th© storekeeper and his wife, an I Mrs. James Keary with her infant son, W. H. Keary, who later became mayor of Sew Westminster* This (27) proved a fortunate move as the 'Briseis* was burned at sea. (25) S&HLMIMM..MU&m®*. mmm^mA c :1,9m,,<?ttr«4ttt» (no pages cited). This highiy-priaed edition contained a complete copy of the gasetts; a map of the course; pictures of Moody, Grant, Luard, Parsons and Sedd&ll; a view of the Eoyal Engineere' camp at Sew Westminster, and St. Mary's Church, Sapper ton; a fac-siiaile of the 20 dollar gold piece coined at the B* C. Mint, Sew Westminster; an addenda by Lieutenant Colonel B. ' folfenden, and a complete l i s t of Boyal Ingineere sent out to Brit i s h Columbia. (26) E. C. Papers* Pt. I, P. 70. (Lytton to Douglas, October 16, 1858). Cf. Howay, m, Work of the goyjfl. Xfeffin«*r,a,, P. 3. (27) Lands and Works Department, Yictoria, Letter Jjotik I. 1859, April 13, 49. do, (28) end coeto valued, at £114.12.8 were lost* K*» p&aaeiigef* and had g m t dlffiou&lgr in r#acihlag safety* Bw sttppxiee sent on the 'i&iphratea* a&llad -from London oa Junuary 2, 1859, and ( 2 0 ) arrivaA In Victoria mi Jun« 27, 1259. It i s important to realize the putty scut oat to Trltislt ColifiAis vrao net nevoid ..w i f UA<; fo..-ty aniee ir.to vlii^h the , <»ycvL '"iitin-jere r i t: tJL.s divia*d. It vrjM sv epccisslly uuleeted (Sroup, ehcaer l y 1'. I. Tytttsa, frord a Isr,*?** n.E^m* of » oi ..rit^uru, f w ^"J t^.ueific sorvio© tliat m&h ,'iic;lit r^dor to v. ic c-vl»-ny 'Jv1 2i V J uic?:ly sprung teto being* In tx letter n ,-nt ;•:} • ctoi ><.•!• If., i C.-T, <y i t i:;forc-ed DoUf|pLr,s uf* the :uiMtcry assiatensa ks e,cr,dij;£ jtira and Vi« no© t? ; 'I v>c t-< I'-J . uL "?JC I .'.L\t ^ tro.^o.I ii&B the opiitios iXi~»t the , 1:11 .;• . "i *t iz \ u v-.oo.l "13 Cvll^otlan of revonu.es. He J':,1DC» olute": . r i l i t ^ y lorn a I'^LIM I; a e€sisM«3*sd p r i ~ (38) It a. '*y. CD.O. ready - a o i o ^ i a l ,.-f*ic;.'0 «Tuly 10, 1059. ^ f . !^( Suaon, ^j^^^mLM^h^miM^m&J& Mi l sit .CfajLiBfajj.. I Unpublished theuiii in L'xiivorsity o f tiah Colta#i» l i b r a r y * H e r e a f t e r cited fi?Wfftiaoi*, •.hooi:j»;. 31% niarily as intended for the purpose of resisting foreign aggression* Its employment in the internal control of the community must be regard-ed as strict"y subsidiary to the ordinary means of enforcing obedience to the orders of the c i v i l power, and should he resorted to only when those means have, through unexpected circumstances, been found insufficient. (30) In the same letter Lytton emphasized the importance of a well organized and effective police force* I have sent you, (he said) under Colonel laoody, a few p r a c t i s e d and s k i l f u l mm for cavaliry mtd a r t i l l e r y d r i l l , who are intended to form % nucleus and framework in the Colony Itself for such additional military force a s may be required* (31) (30) B*. C,^|gosys t Pt. 1, P. 70. (Lytton to Douglas, October 32. Chapter 3 Before Colonel Moody sailed for British Columbia, he was given explicit instructions regarding his work hoth as commanding officer of the Royal Sagineers and as Chief Commissioner of Lands and forks* In order that there he no misunderstanding as to the nature' of his offloe and i t s re-lation to that of the governor, hie instructions were very definite* It i s to he distinctly understood* I that the 8-ovsrnor i s the supreme authority i n the Colony, that, you w i l l concert with, him, and take his orders as to-the spots in the Colony to which your attention as to surveys, etc., should he immediately and principally directed* That-you wi l l advise mi. render him a l l the assistsnos in ' your power,, In the d i f f i c u l t situation in which i t i s probable that he w i l l ho placed for some tlmo. I I The Governor will be instructed to regard your duties as special, and that they are not on any account to tie interfered with, except under c i r -cumstances of gravest necessity, so that all possible conflict of duties may be avoided. On this point Sir Edward feels persuaded that your character and Colonial experience are sufficient guarantees against any discordance with the Governor . . * I I I The Governor will be authorized to draw upon the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury for the pay-ment of the expenses attending the surveying party under your orders, i f he should have no funds immediately at hand in the Colony for the purpose. You will, therefore, address your re-quisitions for money to him, i f it should be necessary. At the same tine i t is well to under-stand that Her Majesty's Government count on the immediate raising of large Revenues from the land 33* sales and other resources of the Colony. It i s well to understand that her .Majesty's Government count on the immediate raising of large revenues from the land sales and other resources of the Colony, s u f f i -cient to defray from the outset the expenses of the survey and of a l l others except the salary of the Governor. And you w i l l afford the Governor, through without shackling his discretion, the benefit of your talents and experience in any suggestions for ensuring at the earliest period this paramount ob-ject. • . V It is agreed that you shall remain in the Colony one year front the date of your arrival, and that you will not quit i t unless you are satisfied that the officer you leave in charge is fully competent to the work before him, and that the public service i s not pre-judiced by your return to England. Should you desire to stay longer for the execution of works in which you are actively engaged, and to which you consider your presence essential, you wil l communicate that wish to her Majesty1s Government. You will make i t your care to furnish this Department from time to time with f u l l reports of the various resources and capabilities of the Colony, according to the i n -formation which the exercise of your functions will necessarily give you, and with a view to the development of the social and industrial prosperity and welfare of the Colony - i t s mines, i t s fisheries, the quality of i t s coal, the nature of the s o i l , the maritime approaches to the Colony, i f held distinct from the island* These reports w i l l he sent to this department through the governor. (1) A copy of these instructions wis sent to Douglas. In a letter from Lytton dated October 2 9 , 1858, Moody received further orders* With regard to the military (l) B. C. Pane-re.. Pt* 1, P.* 58* (This despatch to Colonel Moody1 signed by Jl* Merivale, August 23, 1858). Enclosure 5 in Despatch Mo* 16. (Ho. 16- - lytton to Douglas, September 1858). 34* employment of th® loyal Engineers -great discretion was to be used and again the opinion was expressed that military duty was to be «srfe*n4#d to foreign aggression only, lio soldiers (wrote Lytton) are likely to be so popular as Royal Engineers; partly, let me hope, from their oww military discipline and good conduct; partly from the very respectable class they represent; partly from the civil nature of . their duties in clearing the ready way for civilization. Thus* i f not ostentatiously setting . forth its purely military character, the fores at your command will nevertheless, whenever the occasion may need its demonstration, do its duty as soldiers no less than as surveyors. . . (2) Referring to the respective duties of Governor .Douglas and Colonel Moody, Lytton stated: VThilst I feel assured that the Governor will receive with all attention the counsel or sugges-tions which your Military and scientific experience so well f i t you to offer, I would be distinctly understood when I say that he i s , not merely in a eivll point ©f view, the f i r s t magistrate in the State, but that I feel i t to be essential for the public interests that all powers and responsibilities should centre-in him exclusively, nothing could be more prejudicial to the prosperity of the Colony than a conflict between the principal officers of Govern-ment. (3) In regard to c i v i l duties -. • . commence operations necessary for the land sales, by which the expenses of the survey are to 1858). (Snclo P t . I, P. 73*, (Lytton to Moody, October 29, 35. be defrayed. You w i l l c o n s u l t with, the- Governor as t o turn choice of s i t e s f o r a maritime tore., probably a t tli© mouth of i*»*«rfs Hivsr and f o r any mors inland.. Capital* t o which the elreum* utanooa- of the t e r r i t o r y w i l l suggest the moot appropriate s i t e . You will not f a l l t o regard w i t h a m i l i t a r y eye the beat position f o r such t e w s and c i t i e s , , as w e l l as f o r the engineer-ing • o f roads and passes,, of the l a y i n g the foundations of any p u b l i c works. (4) . - A f t e r suggesting that the upset p r i c e for I o t a i n -elude the p r i c e of surrey, J e t t o n again i n s t r u c t e d Moody t o note the harbours, to report on gold and other minerals', to-ast* f i s h i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the resources i n timber and to t e s t the s o i l , .and stats to what extent i t was favourable to a g r i c u l t u r e . As f o r c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s L y t t o n stated; . . . I a n t i c i p a t e no small advantage towards stamping our n a t i v e ldiosyncraciea on a Colony which may comprise so many foreigners, and promoting a high social standard of civilisation from the fact that yourself -md your brother o f f i c e r s are amongst its practical founders, and cannot f a i l by the native of the c i v i l services you render to be brought into frequent and friendly communication with all classes nf settlers. (5) Lytton was a l s o anxious ts have repre s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s in the Colony ©f B r i t i s h Columbia as soon as p o s s i b l e . (4) ?.. C. Papers. Pt. I, P. 74 (Lytton to Moody, October 29, 1858). (Bndlosure in Despatch Ho. 33). I hmw already explained t o you person a l l y ( M I liar® informed the Governor), that i t is c\y desire to soe established i n British Jolurabia m e a r l y as th® state o f s o c i e t y will permit freo Kspreaentetiva Institutions. (6) lytton also instructed I oody to .naJro reports; « * . aa the result of your own ia»blased - opinions, m to the nature, habita. and conditions of the ianiflrant p o p u l a t i o n , tho degree to ifeioh e&uoatltio axlata. the pro** babilities of eettled residents, and cultivatoro ef the aoil, aa d i s t i n c t from caaual adventurora. on the inhabitants of a eeaport town; with such remark, eonfidentially g i v e n , as nay tfuido tho Judgment of Her Majesty's Oovernrrmnt in th© frane-eor!r of n constitution which srtll eeouro tranquill-ity and order aa the only genuine safeguards of popular freedom. Theae reports w i t h any other you ansy rerait, will be jient, of course, through the governor. (7) Ia t h i s lette*, m w e l l as the oa« 4»t«A Aogttst i t lo important to note that the tremendous aaount of work thrt L y t t o n expeotod : oody to aceosjplish in tho nr* land* Douglas a l s o received instructi <no froa lytton nlvit hi a powers aa governor would be: You will be enpovrered both to r w e r a to legislate o f your inn authority; hut you v i l l distinctly underot-ind th;t this l a a te< :,->cn*-jry measure only. It ia tho anxioju vioh cf her .Majesty's Government thit popular i n s t i t u t i o n s , W % 9« i-ayere. I t . I, *>» 76 (lytton to . oody, Ootober 20, ho. 33)• (?) aid... i>. 76, 37 without which they are convinced peace and order cannot long prevail, should "be established with as l i t t l e delay as practicable; and until an Assembly can be organized (which may be whenever a permanent population, however amall, is established on the s o i l ) , I think, as I have a l -ready stated in a former despatch, that your best course will probably be to form, some kind of temporary council, c a l l i n g in this manner to your aid such persons as the miners themselves may place confidence In. (8) .'Douglas seem a to have been pleased with the appoint-ment ©f the Royal Bngineers as I s evident i n a l e t t e r sent to Sir J£* B. Lytton on November 4, 1858, wherein he states: Colonel Moody's appointment to the office of Chief Commissioner of Lands and orku will r e l i e v e me of much responsibility, and I look forward with satisfaction to the period of h i s a r r i v a l and the commencement of those useful labours which w i l l tond so much to the advantage and development of the new Colony. {9) The composition of the force and the rates of pay and allow-ances as Planned for the officers and the men are given i n (10) th© appendices.* The total force' of Royal Engineers, i n c l u d i n g both officers and men, was intended to have been 156. However, a surgeon and h o s p i t a l o r d e r l y , a sergeant and corporal each (8) B®g.g, MBX,SMA, KP. 227-228. i 9 ) fHfclp8^ Pt* P* 21 to Lytton, IJovembsr <10) Amasyflfo.T, A, B, 38* from th* loyal A r t i l l e r y and the. fifteenth Hussars, and three extra sappers- absorbed by the detachment,, increased the number to 1(1.6-* Msaiy other appointments were made at this time -some by Sir 1* B, lytton, others by Governor Douglas* In regard to officers, Douglas was to make his selections, as far a® possible in England, i t being regarded as of great insp>rtanoe to the general social welfare and dignity of the colony tlx at gen tlemen should be encouraged to come from this kingdom, not as mere adventurers seeking employment but in the hope of obtaining professional occupations for which they are calculated; such for instance as stipendiary magistrates, or gold coum lasloners. (13) 1© fswoaritisa was. to be given to employees of the Hudson* s Bay Company* Matthew Bail-lie Begbie was appointed judge of British (13) Columbia.; W* Wymond Ilamley, collector of customs, and Chartres (14) Brew, chief of the constabulary. The office of colonial, secretary was held by * . A* G. Young, and that of treasurer by f* D. Gossett* Txavaillet and Hicks were appointed assist-ant commissi oners of Grown Lands at Thompson B.iver and Yale, (11) -mmmk^SiMmMl^Mmm*^ wendix, (no page cited). (12) Coeti and Gosaell, m*~M&*«* p» 24©*. (13) -Howay and Schoiefield, op* eit.»- II, P. 51. (14) i b i d * . P.* -54* ' 39. r e a p e e t i v e l y ; *• H. .Bevis became revenue o f f i c e r at Langley. Joseph Bespard I*eB$>erten, surveyor-general of Vancouver I s l a n d , as.ted i n that capacity f o r a time i n the new colony. By June 30, 18&9, Douglas had recommended many o f f i c e r s w i t h whom Moody was In constant c o n t a c t , nearly every name has passed i n t o the h i s t o r y of the province* w.'B. Spalding was appointed to the p o s i t i o n of s t i p e n d i a r y magis-trate aad j u s t i c e of peace of %«eenhorough; Peter 0*Reiily, 'fheaas Wcwjfn aad H. .1* B a l l h e l d the' same o f f tees at Langley,-liill'oeet and L y t t o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y * Charles 8* l i e o l l became high s h e r i f f a t Po r t Dougla»i P. H* Sanders, assistant gold eoHBalesioner at Fort Yale{ Charles Good, c h i e f c l e r k i n the c o l o n i a l secretary**! o f f i c e ; John Gooper, c h i e f cleric o f the treasury; V* H* fis6re*> c h i e f c l e r k i n the Custom House* A* I . Bushby f r e g i s t r a r of the Supreme Court; and Charles Wylde, revenue o f f i c e r at X.asgley. In Mew Westminster, besides the t r e a s u r e r , w. a. ( 1 5 ) Geseet, there r e s i d e d F* G. Olaudet, aeaayar and C. A, Bacon, Salter. Souglas, holding the double o f f i c e of governor of (15) Held, R. L*, ,m .^...Maay. Office and the .Proposed Mint at Hew Westminster, Victoria, 1926. \Archives of British Columbia, Memoir V I I - has the best information on Gosset)• The other people referred to can be found in: 1) Howay and Scholefield, on* c i t l T f passim. 2) Sage, Sir Japiee Doup;la^, passim. 40. both colonies,, resided at Victoria* These were tae officers among whoa Colonel Moody worked. 41.* Chapter 4 At the time of the arrival of Colonel Moody and the Eoyal Engineers in British Columbia, the colony was s t i l l one vast wilderness* Law and order had to be enforced; revenue, raised and collected! 'the country explored and developed, and roads, trails and bridges constructed. The entire sea-board of the colony was forest, separated from the interior by vast mountain ranges* The Erase* River, the great artery of the country, was difficult to .navigate. The winding channel and shifting-banks and shoals at i t s mouth made it difficult for larger vessels to enter. However, once inside the bar the river was navigable for all boats as far as Langley which was 32 miles from its mouth, and as far as :?ort Hope (40 .miles above that) (1) for flat-bottomed boats. Same boats even reached Fort Yale (2) IS miles above Fort Hope. Hp to the time of the gold rush the Hud*on*s Bay (1) MacDonald, D. G. F., I r i t i ^ L ^ u j I a , and Vancouver a. Island, London, 1862, P. 6. HacDonald had just previous-ly been on the Government Survey Staff of British Columbia and of the International Boundary Line of North America* He helped to lay out the City of lew West-minster and spoke highly of Colonel I.oody. (2) Howay and Schoiefield, on. c i t * . P. 32* 42 Company wag th® only recognized authority in th® whole area* IT (3) lhay had established some 13 posts at strategic points for th© purpose of earrying. on trade with the Indian®. The first one, situated at Fort Langley, was one of the most important, being a supply centre', trading posts war® also established at fort Hope, and at fort Tale.* At each post the company had occupied land not ohly for the forts thesaaelves, but also for the pro* duetion of crops and for the pasturage of a large number of horses* However* ishen the licence of the Hudson*® Bay Company to carry on exclusive trade with the Indians was revoked, the whole question of the posseaaloh of tho lands had to be report* ed on by Colonel Moody* practically negligible* With the exeeption of a few mm en-gaged in the naval supply trad© and the growing of agriculture me 600 were engaged directly or indirectly with the far In. 1861 Governor Douglas estimated "an Indian (6) population exceeding 30,000.* In reference to these Indians, (3) Howay and Scholefield* op....olt*. P. 17* (4) Laing, Hu^gonH, h^ y Company L a n d s ^ t h ^ J ^ l ^ . Britl3h Columbia, 1850-1861. TBri 11 ah Columbia His quarterly, April, 1939, PP. 75-95}. (5) Sage, James Douglas* P. 138. Before the gold rush the white population was (5) trade* 43* A, 0* Andersen say®: (They) at*© ingenious and thrifty arid hairing said this is about a l l I can say i a 'their favour, fhay are,, however, net indisposed towards whites, and considerately' treated, w i l l doubtless, remain jstlses at this tlrae* The mere d i r e c t route was by the Fraser River| th® other route followed the Columbia R i v e r and the B a i l e e , and from thence 'by means of pack animals over l n d i a « t r a i l s and former t r a i l s of the Hudson*© Bay Company* had rushed, to .the new gold f i e l d s * However by the end of the mm:nm season s c a r c e l y more than 4,000 remained* In October another influx occurr©'. but i t was comparatively small* t h i r t e e n bar a, at which some 2,000 to 3,000 men were digging lay between Fort Hope and Fort t a l e . Another 700 or 800 were digging at Yale. Above t h i s only the most ree&leaa. hat! (7) Anderson, A* C , .ffiatory of the Jorthmtl.,Mmh MS., Berkeley, California, .1878, P» 20* Anderson had been a thief trader of Hudson*s "Day Company* (8) BaUantyite, Bobert M,t m^MM^M^^^MM^lAMSlM* London, 1858, P, 77. Cf, Coats and Gosnell, ot>t c i t * . P. 241. (9) Coats and Gosnell. oo. cit,*.. P. 242* (10) MacDonald, D. 3* op* .CJt.«-« ?« 1 0» McDonald states the estimated *hite mining population of British. Columbia as follows: 1358 - 17,000, 1859 - 8,000, 1860 - 7,000, 1861 - 5,000 and 1/6 British subjects. Also many Chinese were reported but did not stay long on account of the climate. so, (?.) There were two d i s t i n c t l i n e s of approach to the 44* forced, their w^y. On th© whole a c t s of lawlessness were i n -(11) f r o o u e n t . Before th© a r r i v a l o f C o l o n e l Moody, Governor Boogie*, had sade three v i s i t s to the aainland* The f i r s t has taken h i s t o F o r t s Langley,. Hope, and Y a l e , where he had found many problems to s e t t l e . The second one., i n the S-s-ptsmbear f o l l o w i n g h i s appointment as governor, took him f i r s t to f o r t Hope and then to Y a l e . At both p l a c e s problems d@al.iag w i t h the minora and the Indians were settled-.; a l a r g e number of town i o t a were leased, and j u s t i c e s of peace appointed., fhe t h i r d trip.,, i n th® f o l l o w i n g month, was the ©ooasien o f the formal l a u n c h i n g of the colony o f B r i t i s h S e l a a f t i a . .for. the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f Governor Bougies i n t o the o f f i c e of Governor o f the new colony a l a r g e party prooeeded from V i c t o r i a to f o r t Langley. Covernor Bougie* was aeooapaitied by Rear-Admiral Baynes, Bavid Cameron. - C h i e f Jus-tie* o f v « c o u v e r . Island, C h i e f J u s t i c e Begbie, of the new colony, and s e v e r a l o t h e r s . At o l d Fort Lsngltsy (Derby) the •Otter* disembarkod a party of 18- sappers, under the command of Captain Parsons. These, embarked on .the revenue c u t t e r (11) The...Times. London,- February 5, 1S#3» P. 10. 45. *Reeevery*, J o i n i n g the command of C a p t a i n ©rant who had p r e -v i o u s l y reaehed t h i s p o i n t with h i s p a r t y of 13 sappers. Ihe next day, Ifovember 19, 1059,: they were at f o r t Bangley where they formed a .guard o f honour, commanded by Captain Grant, to reeelva h i e *Ixeelle&oy and parity as they disembarked from th® *Beave3?T.. At the h i s t o r i c ceremony s e v e r a l proclamations and appointaenta were r e a d , th® most important he i n g that which named the new c o l o n y , E r i t i a h Columbia, and that which appointed Douglas to the o f f i c e o-f Governor of B r i t i s h (12) $olu2fifeia* C a p t a i n Grant, Captain Parsons, and the small group o f l o y a l Baginaera under their command ware t h e r e f o r e present at the ceremonies attending the o f f i c i a l b i r t h o f the eolony o f B r i t i s h Columbia.* .After the formal ^launching* of the colony they r e -mained at Derby (housed on the Hudson*® Bay Company b r i g a n t i n e *Bseovery*) i n . .order t h a t thty s i g h t proceed w i t h the e r e c t i o n of the necessary b u i l d i n g s f o r the aoeommodation of the s a i n body of Royal I n g i n e e r s , then on i t s way on the * mamas C i t y * . One of the moat important points that Governor im B t ,Sif,.?apara, Pt, 11, PP.- 34-33. {Douglas to l y t t o n , Sovember 2.7, 1858). A l s o enclosures 1, 2, 3. C f . Howay and Soholefield, ao...Pit... II, PP.- S3, 59*60. Old f o r t Langley (Derby) was the o r i g i n a l site of F o r t Langiey* 46* Bottglas had t o deoldo at t h i s time was the l o c a t i o n of a sea* (13) p o r t town o r c a p i t a l f o r B r i t i s h Columbia* At f i r s t Hope was considered a- suitable place but later Douglas selseted the s i t © of Usrby ( o l d F o r t Langi**?, a former' establishment of the Hudson's Bay Company) about two and one half miles below the present town of Fort Langlay* In September, 1858,. the spot had been surveyed i n t o lota by some *enterprising* p e r -sons frees Ti©toria sad would have been sold had not a proclamation, faxhiddlng the ©ale of crown land, been issued*. P o s s i b l y the f a c t that p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s tod considered the s i t e s u i t a b l e f o r h a b i t a t i o n influenced Douglas in Ma choice* He said, "* * * I was guided i n choosing Old Langley as th© s i t s of a comasroial town © M o f l y by the p a r t i a l i t y d i s p l a y e d for that spot by the mercantile community of th© country., (14) whose i n s t i n c t s i n .such matters are g e n e r a l l y unerring*w However another source states, and probably comas nearer the truth: It i s possible that tha close proxl/iity of a large block of lands held in reserve "by the Hudson's Bay Company may have had something to do with the original choice. (15) (13) Howay and Schoiefield, op* c i t * . II, P. 60. (14) B......C*...Papers,. Pt. I l l , P. 11. (Douglas to Lytton, May i f , iasSjT^ Of. B. C. Papers. Pt. II, P. 37. (Douglas to Lytton, November 29, 1858). ( l § ) Coats and Cosnell, so*, c i t * . P. 247. 47. Douglas himself said that th© site possessed great natural advantages for trade, having a good anchorage, *a cheerful aspect, a surface well adapted for buildings and drainage^' .although i t had 'the disadvantage of being in part (16) low, and occasionally.flooded by the r i v e r . 8 He was ably supported in his chaise by J . Uespard Pemberton, Surveyor (17) general of Yaneowei*'Island. Jhe whole s i t e covered 900 acres of land. Lots were sold by suction ia fteteria on th® 25th, 26th and 27th-Hovember under the d i r e c t i o n of B». Paaberton, P. M. Bachus (IS) a c t i n g as a u c t i o n e e r . *Ahout'f 342 l o t s were disposed of ( I t ) aggragatiTas/14,.5821. fis Sd ($66,172.SO). Only ten percent had (20) to be paid at the time of the sale* i n r e p l y to Douglas* report on the choice o f Derby and the s a l e of Langley lots Lytton state.£» '• (16) B. 0. Papers. Pt. II, P. 37* (Douglas to L y t t o n , November 29, 1858). (1?) Peroberton, J . Bespard, JMmmM~M£M-M&MlU£& Mffofflfofat London, I860, P. 51. U S ) UMmkkMmm* Member 30, 1C58. ' (19) B. 0. Papersf P t . II. PP. 37-38.. (Douglas to Lytton, lovember 29, 1858}.. (Also enclosure by Pembarton, P. 38) Of. Howay and Scholefield, oo. . cit..,P II, P. 60. Ho o f f i c i a l letter of Douglas or Pemberton states exact number although Howay and scholefield gives 343. (20) Dagget - 1. Bowers - to Treasurer of British Columbia, April 18, 1859 (Moody Correspondence, P 1150) Bowers states: Kuraber of lots sold in Langley 205, Paid in -to value $4155.95. 48. It has "been suggested to me, that supposing the advantages to he in other respects equal, i t Slight have "been preferable to place the town on th® banks of the river which is furthest from the American frontier . . . On such matters you now have the advantage of consulting Colonel Moody, an ©nginseting officer ©f great s k i l l and ex* psrience. (21) Prior to the arrival of Colonel Moody several town.— sites had been l a i d out. At Port Douglas about ?0 lots were (22) occupied. At Lytton 50 houses and a population of SCO had (23) sprung up. Pemberton had els© been sent to lay out toimsltes (24) at fort Hope and Port Yale. By this time Douglas had launched a plan, to "begin the opening up of the country by means of roads. At Victoria, 500 miners were waiting for transportation to the gold f i e l d s , the governor suggested that these should construct a pack t r a i l by way of the chain of lakes from. Harrison lake to the (21) E. C. Papers. Pt. II, P. 80. (Lytton to Douglas, February 11, 1859). (22) ibid., r . 46. (Douglas to Lytton, December 24, 1858). (23) Ibiftt* p* 20. (Douglas to Lytton, Morer.f -r 9, 1858). The mining population in Praser*s River may be estimated as follows: From Cornish Bar to Port Yale......... 4,000 Port Yale.... 1,300 Port Hope.... 500 Prom Port Yale to Lytton 300 Lytton... 900 From Lytton to the fountain. •.... 3,000 Port Douglas and Harrison*a River , pftQ-Total 10,600 ib i d . . P. 2f. (»*> i b j d f , P. 38. 49. Praser at Lillooet. Unfortunately the quality of the work did not meet with Douglas' expectations. The expense also was greater than he anticipated. Harrison's liver-road (he wrote) Is. after an endless deal of trouble and anxiety from the want of honest and able men to carry out the plans ©f government, f a i r l y open to t r a f f i c . (25) This was Douglas* f i r s t experience with untrained road builders in the new colony. Captain Parson's party was the f i r s t to arrive in Victoria but was not the f i r s t to enter British Columbia. On lovember 14, 1858, loss than a week after their arrival in Victoria, Captain Grant and his detachment were ordered to proceed immediately on the 'Beaver* to old Port Langley (Derby). Reporting thia Douglas said: I have advised Captain Grant, . . . to pro-ceed without delay to Fort Langley, Praser's River, and to put up buildings there for the accommodation of his party and of the other troops expected from England, as by taking those steps I was of opinion he would be carrying out to the letter the wishes of Her Majesty's Govern-ment, the instructions of Colonel Moody, his commanding officer, and my own views with respect to the requirements of British Columbia. Captain Grant coinciding with me in those (25) Douglas to Lytton, December 24, 186,4. (Provincial Archives). 50. views, i t was arranged that the whole detachment of Hoyal Engineer r« should be transported, with a l l their stores, provisions for four months, and building material for the construction of several wooden houses of respectable size, to Fort Langley, an arrangement which was successfully and at once carried into effect. (26) Oaptain Parsons and party accompanied Governor Douglas and the other' officials- of the new colony who sailed from Victoria (27) for Port Langley two days later in H. M. S. * Satellite*. Colonel Moody, accompanied by his wife and four children, arrived in Victoria amid the Christmas f e s t i v i t i e s . Douglas a ays i: Col. Moody and party arrived here on the 25th, not in time, I regret to say, to take part in our Christmas f e s t i v i t i e s , which would have been a l l the gayer for his presence. Our quarters are rather crowded at the moment, in consequence of so many o f f i c i a l arrivals, ^nd the want of o f f i c i a l residences but we have contrived through the kindness of friends to procure temporary house accommodation for the whole party.(28) Colonel Moody was almost immediately sworn in as Lieuteaant-Savernor and Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public Works for British Columbia and also commander of Her Majesty1s (29) land forces in British Columbia and *Vancouver*s Island*. (26) B. C. Papers. Ft. II, P. 35-36. (Douglas to Lytton, Sovember 27, 1858). (27) Howay, EMLSS&Ut* ., fo» RmM^Jm£i$mKM, P- 2. (28) Howay, The,, Bayly History of the^aaer River Mine8> P. 3, (Douglas to Blackwood). § 1 . After Moody's inauguration, some citizens of Victoria were under the impression that Governor Douglas merely held an honorary position relative to British Columbia. In a letter to *fhe B r i t i s h Colonist* Colonsl Moody states his real position; I serve under His Excellency, Governor Douglas., reeeive his instructions, and carry out his orders ' in a l l matters relating to British Columbia, (30) Governor Douglas himself, in his early-correspond dene* to Colonel Moody, addressed him as Lieutenant-Governor. This was not Sir S. B. Lytton*s wish,; . I take this opportunity to notice an i n -accuracy into which you have f a l l e n in this despatch In designating Colonel loody the Lieutenant-Governor. You will observe that i t i s of importance to bear in mind as his func-tions In this capacity will commence only in th® event of the death or absence of the governor. (31) After Governor Douglas received this information the polite tone in Which he had previously written to Colonel Moody was (32) substituted by one, very curt, and at times ruds.-(30) The B r i t i s h Colonist, January 8, 1859, P. 2. (31) Lytton to Douglas. March 21, 1859. (Douglas Correspon-dence, P 485, Provincial Archives), (32) When one reads the Douglas-Moody correspondence this change of tone i s quit© evident and i s a marked con-trast to the polite and courteous letters, sent by Moody to his subordinates* fhe f i r s t 'impatient* letter was written May i e , 1859. (Douglas to Moody, Provincial Archives). 52 On h i s a r r i v a l i a V i c t o r i a , Colonel Moody endeavor-ed to proeure the use of a building opposite the F o r t , h i t h e r -to occupied by Br* Helaekea as .an offioe. . l o t being able t o rent t h i s he d i d get a small detached house on f a t e s Street nearly opposite i s l l s . * l a r g o and Company's off i c e , , f o r 30 (33) d o l l a r s per .month* He a l s o bought- a house f o r h i m s e l f and family* A n o t i c e of the s a l e of t h i s residence appeared i n the Weekly V i c t o r i a Gazette,, on A p r i l 2St 1859., soon a f t e r the a r r i v a l of the *fhastes City'** A f t e r a voyage of 186 days the 'fhames C i t y * a r r i v e d at Saquimali on A p r i l 12, 1859* The main body of the fioyal Engineers (60 passengers aad 50 tone f r e i g h t ) was immediately embarked on the * S l l a a Anderson* aad sent forward to the main-l a n d . Tim *Beaver* {wi th 25 passengers and 20 tons of f r e i g h t ) .and H. «* S* * Satellite* transported the remainder* In answer to a l e t t e r s t a t i n g the reason for not sending the troops on the *fhaaee C i t y * to Queeaeboreugh and Langley as -*being u n w i l l i n g to talre the r i s k of sending so larg e a v e s s e l up the r i v e r * , Colonel Moody r e p l i e d : (33) L a t t e r Book 1. ^  Lands and Works Department, A p r i l 8 and 53. Government officers were prepared-to take the vessel ixp- the river, and her captain had agreed to do so, the only d i f f i c u l t y being, that the price he asked for this service was considered by the government officers a l i t t l e too high. (34) A notice- of the departure of Colonel Moody, on May 16, 3,659» for B-rltish Solnaibia, appeared in the 'British Colonist*. He travelled on the 'heaver' after a salute of 13 guns* The paper stated! His presence in British Columbia, will, no doubt, be advantageous to that region;, and we shall probably hear some good accounts in the way of road»aak.ing. Of one thing we are certain, the Colonel will make his o f f i c i a l s work. Door-postism and kid-gloverism will not be tolerated* (35) It was not long before this same paper changed i t s tone in regard to Moody's work and capabilities. The greatest meed of the colony at this time was communication Into the interior* Almost as soon as he arrived, Lieutenant Palmer was sent to survey the Harrison-Lillooet route, -while Lieutenant Lempriere and a small party of .Engineers explored a new route between Fort Hope and Boston (36) Bar. In the f a l l , Lieutenant Palmer explored the country (34) Weekly Victoria Gazette. April 16, 1859, P* 1. (35) fhe ^ tish.geloalflt> May 20, 1859. (36) i|Jtfjk^  work of the ftoyaj Bnglneerj,, P. 6. 54. •between Hope and the Columbia ftiver. During 1859, the Royal Engineers surveyed, besides their new capital, the towns of Yale, Hope and Douglas. They also established an observatory at their camp .*settling Its exact position as 49 deg., 12 sin. , 47 sec. Morth Latitude, and 122 deg. 53 s i n . 10 sec. West Longitude.* The transit used by them has been preserved (37) hy the Provincial Government. (3?) Howay, ^Ji0iLSil^. R o y ^ Bafiiftajgg, P. 6 55, Chapter 8 Although Colette! Moody and the Royal Boglaeers were chosen for t h e i r work i n B r i t i s h Columbia because of t h e i r m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g , , they were c a l l e d upon to perform few m i l i t a r y d u t i e s * On January 8, 1859, Governor Douglas..,. w r i t i n g t o S i r Idward l y t t o n , r e p o r t e d t r o u b l e among the miners at Yale* The miners were gain i n g a "bad r e p u t a t i o n . Sr. J u s t i c e lhannell. of Fort Y a l e a l s o had reported s e r i o u s o p p o s i t i o n i n the discharge o f 'his o f f i c i a l d u t i e s 'from a (1) party of gamblers and refugees from .justice* at H i l l ' s B a r . C o l o n e l loody had J u s t l e f t Victoria on hi® f i r s t (2) trip to the mainland * i n t e n d i n g to v i s i t Laagley and choose the site for the c a p i t a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia - when news carae to Victoria, from Y a l e , that a very s e r i o u s outbreak had occurred* The i s l a n d was g r e a t l y excited*. It was rumoured in Laagley that both J u s t i c e 'ihaasell and M s constable had been shot by Bed IcGowan, a not o r i o u s character who had f l e d from the V i g i l a n c e Committee of San F r a n c i s c o i n 1856, and W |*. g»^ya*arar Pt. II, P. 55. (Douglas to Lytton, January of. Mayne, B . c>, MUML^m^M-.m^ Jm&smm ItteaA* London, 1862., P. 59. : (2) January 6, 1859. (The British Colonist, January 8, 1859). 56... aad that the d i s t r i c t around H i l l * ® Bar was i n open i n s u r r e e -(3) tioa. Moody, not awaiting orders f r o a Governor Douglas, determined to .proceed at once to the f i e l d of a c t i o n and l e f t Langley at I I J*#it* on the ' X n t e r p r l s e ' . He was accompanied -(4) by Captain Grant aad 25 Royal Ingineers*. lust below Har r i s o n River »eody*s party aet B a i l o u t s •express** Moody was here informed *that a l l was q u i e t at Fort Yale - t h a t there had been a squabble fctwa ( s i c ) the Justices,, and that a p u b l i c meeting had bean, c a l l e d at weh ( s i c ) a M u l t i f a r i o u s conglomeration of heterogeneous (S) nonsense1* had been passed in the shape of r e s o l u t i o n s . * A l -though pleased w i t h t h i s good news, Colonel aoody decided t© proceed to Port Tale i n order that he might make f u r t h e r i n q u i r i e s i n t o the disturbance .aad gain a personal knowledge of the-., country* (3) Begbie t o Douglas, January 14, 1859. (Howay, The E a r l y MM^a^M^^ip^KAklM^M^M, V i c t o r i a , 1926, K 25) Cf* Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d . pp. c i t * . PP. 61-65. U) B,,,,,^  Pfrper,?., P t . II, PP. 55-56* (Douglas to L y t t o n , January 8, 1859)* c f . sage, jum&JDm&a*, P- SSS. Cf*. Mayae, jau~M&**- ?.'«>. (5) Begbie to Douglas, January 14, 1859. {Howay, The, Barly -Mmm,„,M^m^Mm^M^uMMk,. p. 2 5 ) . 57. fh» •admirable promptitude* with which Colonel Moody •*t«d pltsgM Gmmmw dougLs** Rejevvev* a n t i c i p a t i n g real trouble on t&e Bras©*, the governor seiivired the -aid of Captain Irevost of .th# Boundary Oomaiftaioxi, A u , with IOCS marines and toltte^Jeaferta fir«m iU K* S. *3ateU4ft**# Marked ea K* x. s* . •Plunper trader the eormand of -.ieutenant uooch, f o r Langley* At Langley the marines sore to i •C transferred to the * inter-prise* and th&ttee on to 'lops* On their arrival at : ort LanrJLey the *ftnterpriae* had not returned so Lieutenant )'ayno was sent forward by eanoe with despatches from Captain Kiohards informing I oody of the reln.forccnenta at Lancley and with orders to bring back instructions* ayae found Colonel m / oody and Judge Lagbie, -slum .oody hid asked to accompany Lira, at Hope propping to set out far Yale* fort ilopo on January 14, 1859, Colonel ."oody w o t © to govettiear .Doaglsa s& follow©: The whole affair ie : nK;u--.bl 1~ between two men unfit for the offices they hoid, and i f i t was not for the serious danger such scenes render ialnent would be supremely ridiculous. It appears (o) ft. c* papa-re* i t . IX, PP* S§*5€* fn^wglaa to Lyft©% January £, i:59). (?) Beghle to •curias, . •onuary 14, 1&50. (Howay, Vfre ;ffiT3Ly so far that Capt. Channel! from i l l directed ze?i and extreme want of judgment may at any moment set the whole district in a blaze although inex-cusable fault exists on the other side. Vf'e" have intelligence of the present good tempers of the miners on the Bars and both Judge Begbie and I believe i t to be the best policy to leave the Sscort (as we have thought i t wise to ca l l the Detachment) here until our return from fort Yale* I am very glad Mr* Brew and the gentlemen you name are coming up* We shall be able doubt-less to leave affairs on a satisfactory footing* I am also glad that the marines of the 'Plumper* have halted waiting my orders at Langley. »e hope to return there on Monday or Tuesday next. . . This adventure has given me a great deal of valuable information on majiy important points and will 1 trust be turned to do good an account as to counterbalance the vexation expense and delay caused by the conduct of these two men Capt. whannell and Mr* Perrier. I need scarcely t e l l you Mr. Begbie's counsel has been most valuable to me. (8) ; ayne reports th:t Iioody was 'rather surprised* with the promptitude with which the Governor had acted in sending reinforcements and was. a ' l i t t l e embarrassed*. He f e l t that the reports had been g r e a t l y exaggerated and that the mining (9) population at Yale had been grossly misrepresented. fhe next morning Colonel Moody, Judge Begbie and (8) Moody to Douglas, Fort Hope, January 14, 1859, F 1150* (Moody Correspondence. Letter marked 'private')* (9) Mayae, aa.. .*it«." PP. 66-67 58-* Meuienant Mayne proceeding to Yale, reached their destination at three* fhe town was perfectly quiet and Colonel loody was received with the most 'vociferous cheering and every sign of respect and- loyalty** fhe next day, Being Sunday,, Colonel ioody performed in- the court house the first public divine {10} service ever held at Yale* Thirty or forty miners attended. After the service an inquiry was made into the disturbance •which had brought them there* ' trouble at Yale had been brewing for some time and was the: result of Jealousy between the resident magistrates, at HIIl'*s Bar .and Yale* the outrage which precipitated the first, military service in the colony took place on Qhristaas Bay, 105S* Burns and farrell, two American ainers from Hill's Bar, had visited Yale and Maltreated s negro-, • named Blxon. Captain Ihannell, listening to- Dixon's complaint, issued warrants for the arrest of Bums and Parr ©11 who had by this tiae fled to H i l l * s Bar* Whannell, at the same time, detained Dixon to prosecute the complaint. The magistrate at H i l l ' s Bar, Oeerg* Perrier, refused to recognise ihanneil's warrantj moreover upon farrell's complaint he issued a warrant for the (10) Howay and Schoiefield, O P . pit... II, 1* 63. Cf. Sage, James Douglas., P. 253. Cf. Begbie to Douglas, February 3, 1859. (Howay, The l a r l v History of the :Fr.a8.sr_aiaM£^ Jaft** P. 36). Cf. Mayne, op,,. c i . U , P. 68). 60, a r r e s t of Dixon and aent h i e constable, Henry Hlekson, to Tale t e execute i t . WJbamiell would not give the prosecutor up but demanded that. Burns and F a r r e l l should be brought before him* l i e k s o a eeadueted himself so i n s o l e n t l y that Captain f h a n n e l l sent him to j a i l f o r contempt of court* P e r r l e r , indignant,, enraged* and e v i d e n t l y ignorant of b i s power and a u t h o r i t y and the respect due t o another magistrate of the peace, issued a warrant f o r the- a r r e s t of Captain Whannell and a l s o a warrant for f o r c i b l y talcing Dixon out of the . j a i l at Y a l e and bringing him to Hi l l * s Bar,* Per the purpose o f executing these warr-ants Mr. Farrier swore i n Kdward MeOowan, and K e l l y - who acted as s o r t of l i e u t e n a n t to him - and s e v e r a l others as s p e c i a l constablea* Edward EeGowan and h i s 'posse* o f 20 went to Yale and seised* Whannell and the j a i l e r , who refused to r e -lease Dixon* fhey were then taken before"'Perrier at H i l l ' s Bar., fhe j a i l e r was discharged as having acted under -orders (11) but Captain was f i n e d 25 dollar© for contempt of c o u r t . Such (11) Begbie to Douglas, February 3, 1859. {Howay, The 3 a r l y l a t e ? , ML fcM&^MMJmMLMmM,* PP» 32-41)T i^any' versions,, s l i g u t l y v a r y i n g , are given* the-usual sources are iiayne, R.C., .BriMah floluBfeia.._aad yanqouyer Islands and the V i c t o r i a ' C o l o n i s t1. However . l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Judge Begbie, Captain Brew, and Colonel lioody to Governor Douglas serve as o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s . Those ©f Begbie and Brew and one of Colonel Moody's dated J a n . 1*7, 1859 appear i n Howay* fM..i3a*ly History o f the Fraser ilver r..:|li|effi. Others w r i t t e n by Moody, appear i n Moody Correspondence 1? 1150, Provincial Archives. The account t o l d here i s Judge Begbie'3 v e r s i o n . 61. were the events prior to the arrival of Colonel Moody aad (12) Judge Beghie - on the Saturday, January 15, 1859. Moody and Beghie arrived at Yale with the i n t e n t i o n of. suamoniag iteSowas. and K e l l y to answer for the outrage upon Captain ilhaanall m& the breafctrtg open of the J a i l . However,.. P e r r i e r was f i r s t interviewed and tho next day the Governor's (13) despatch announcing h i s suspension was communicated to him. What transpired appears in the following letter: On com t u n i c a t i n g , uowever, to '.r. George Perrier your Excellency's order for h i a suspen-sion from the rjie, of J u s t i c e of the Peace, considerable Excitement ( s i c ) arose i n the town and Sdward ; cGowan v i o l e n t l y assaulted a Dr. F i f e r in the street & (sic) the information I r e c e i v e d of the s t a t e of a f f a i r e altogether con-vinced :ue that i t was ' opeleaa to expect the Law would be respected - I therefore sent L i e u t . Kayne, It. H. express to Port Hope to send up the Detach-ment of Hoyal Engineers under 'Japtain Grant and to proceed on in the steamer "Enterprise" to Langley to bring up the Detachments of Koyal l a r i n e e w i t h the F i e l d - p i e c e party of Seamen* In accordance with mj£ d e t a i l e d orders to Captn. Grant, the Detachment a r r i v e d t h i s morning a f t e r a t r y i n g night advance by batteau & march-ing - Mr, Drew accompanied the Party and a l s o 12 (12) Both P e r r i e r and >vhannell wrote to Governor Douglas v i n -d i c a t i n g themselves. These l e t t e r s are to be found i n Howay, PP. 54-55 and PP. "56-57 resp< The .tar' • . (13) This was i n pursuance of the Governor'a d e c i s i o n as stated to S i r Sdward Lytton on January 8, 1859. (Howay, The Sarly History, of the Fraser River i^apa. P. 36.} 62. special constables headed by Messrs Cgllvy and MasDsnald, of whose zeal and ability (especially l l r , Ggilvy's) I cannot apeak too highly. There was some l i t t l e ejcelteiaemt on the arr i v a l , bat the feeling generally in this town was of the beat description, and summonses have been duly served' at. Hill*s-har on- McGowan & Kelly who are to appear here the day after tomorrow. 1 m& very ooeli afraid, however, they will be able to shelter themselves behind Mr. Perri@r*s authority, he having sworn them in as Special constables on the occasion. (14) Bsgbis wrote: '*fhroughoiit (enquiries) the Lieut, (15) Governor bore a patient and laborious part .. . , * finally i t was agreed by Colonel lloody.,. Judge Begbie, and Sir. Brew that the defendants 'should be dismissed. However Perrietr and Sap* (16) tain Whannell both lost their commissions. from Lsngley, on January 21, 1859, Moody wrote s 1. have the honor to report to yotir Sxcellency that at Port If ale and the neighbourhood the authority of the Law has been completely maintained and quiet-* ness now prevails ammg a l l classes. 1 have however considered i t prudent to leave, the Detachment of Eoyal Marines under Lt. Towes at Yale for a week longer instructing him to place him-self continually in communication with Mr. Brew. J.P. (14) Moody to Douglas, Fort Yale, January 17, 1859, P 1150. (Moody Correspondence - Provincial Archives). Of. m s letter appears in Howay, The Sarlv History of >he Praf sr Ml&. MlmM* 55*56. (15) Begbie to Bouglas, February 3, 1859. (Howay, fhe Ear^v History of m.TfcmW,MTM.MMfi* 37). (16) Howay, flfo lorj;,,oX Jfog, Mjm^JmM$m* 63* Hi* Beyal laval Detachment aad loyal Sagineers I have brought basic with me, the former reporting themselves to Capt* Richards, R*S., H.M»S. *Pluiaper* and the latter resuming their very pressing duties and (sic) Langley* (l"7) It i s easy to imagine how easily real trouble might have arisen* It was because' of the had reputation that the miners of H i l l * s Ear unfortunately Had in victoria that Colonel Moody had acted with such promptitude in taking his 135 armed men up'the river in ®ld*wiater to quell the supposed insurree* tion. fhe rapidity with which both Moody and Douglas acted, and the fact that the Royal .Engineers and Royal Marines were oalled upon for military service' in the colony had a direct bearing on i t s early history. It showed the miner a that law and order must be maintained and that the off i c i a l s of the colony intended to see that i t was* "British Columbia was not to be a second California in the sense that the miners could eonduet themselves as they pleased aad defy constituted ( l ® l authority** In the British Colonist, february 5, 185©, Amor De Cosmos wrotei 111) Moody to Douglas, Langley, January 22, 1859, F 1150* (Moody Correspondesce - Provincial Archives}* (IS) Sage, £mMM«MmMm>  y*  2SS* §4,. The Whannell-Perrier war is over. Hie glory being won, - the b i l l s have now to be paid, to the tune of 10,000 d o l l a r s . British Columbia must f e e l pleased with Her f i r s t war - so cheap - . i l l for nothing. I t i s hoped i t wil l prove a fjrave lesson to avoid the appointment of incompetent persons. The picked o f f i c i a l a l l along have re-flected great credit on the country . . . (19) then Colonel Eoody returned to Fort Hope the blue-jackets were paraded, and. their one field-piece fired the f i r s t (80) salute ever heard in Port Hope in honour of the Colonel.. Prom Port Hope7Moody sent Douglas a l i s t of 12 civilians who had *behav@d quite l i k e old soldiers* at Hill's Bar. "I have intelligence enabling me to assure your 3%». cellsncy that the ready service and resolute bearing of these •mm from Cornish Bar and Port Hope has had an excellent effect through the district** Moody wished them to be brought to l a ) the notice of the Secretary of State. Besides being of military service to the colony, Colonel Koedy was fortunate i n being able to examine part of the Praser Biver at t h i s tlwe* In writing to Bouglae Begbie aaid: "The bed of the river and every possible shoal has been exposed to the observation of Ool^* Moody and Captn# (19) British .C^-onift* February 5, 1859. Gf. Moody to .Douglas, February 17, 1859. (Royal Engi-neer *s Letter Book 2, PP. 4, 5). (20) Mayne, .on,,,,, C,^ ,,, PP. 71*72, (21) Moody was very generous with hie praise and often brought names of worthy men before the governor* #5-Grant in i t s very lowest s t a t e , under the advantage also of the reraarJcs of Cant33* Wright, of the '3nterpri3e', who lias (22) personally made our voyage agreeable. The San Juan dispute was the only other occasion upon which Colonel Moody .and the Boyal Engineers were c a l l e d . to perform military duty, the question was one concerning th® ownership of the San Juan I s l a n d s and had been the sub* Jeot of controversy between -Sreat Britain and the United States since 1854* In June, 1859, an incident occurred on the- Island of San Juan, t r i v i a l in. i t s e l f , b a t -exaggerated to such an extent, that i t almost resulted in an. international issue. An American s e t t l e r named Lyman A. C u t l e r was 'greatly annoyed by a pig belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company demolishing his potato patch* So angry d i d Cutler become that he shot the (22) Begbie to Douglas, January 14, 1859. (Howay, The Early i l § t o l ~ i * O l l g ~ i ^ P. 27). in relating the story of iied ilcCowan' 8 Tor I have used Colonel Moody and Judge Begbie*s reports to Douglas (Howay, The History of the praser Biver fines) as I find other accounts slightly vary. However other interesting accounts appear i n : •Sage, James Joualaa. PP. 252-255. Howay and Licholefield, op. c i t . . II, Pp. 61-65. Mayne, oc> a i t . . PP. 58-71. Bancroft, H, H,, Popular Tribunalsr San Francisco, II, Chapter 14. Victoria Gazette. January 8, II, 22, 1859, February 1, 1859, Howay, The_,Work of the Hoysl„,^ap;^neers, P. 4. Begg, Alexander, C. C. (Crofter Commissioner) .mMM^LM^Mm^k^MmM* 2 9 4 - 3 0 0 . 66*, offender* G r i f f i n , agent of the Hudson's Bay Company, c l a i m -ed 100 d o l l a r s damages from Cutler* What followed is uncer-(23) tain. Many accounts are g i v e n . however* i t i s c e r t a i n that Brigadier-General William S. I^trney, commandant of the Military Department of Oregon, ordered Captain George P i c k e t t to occupy San Juan. Island w i t h Company "D" of the 9 t h I n f a n t r y . He acted on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , f o r the purpose, he said,, of pro t e c t i n g American settlers from "Indian attacks and "to resist a l l (24) attempts at interference by British authorities." On J u l y 27, 1859, one month after the i n c i d e n t of (25) the pig, Captain P i c k e t t and 60 men occupied Saw Juan* As soon as 'the news of American troops being landed on the Island reached V i c t o r i a * Governor Douglas protested* He ordered. E* M* S. 'tribune*.. Captain. G. f . Hornby, to s a i l at oaoe f o r San Juan and. ©ailed upon Colonel Moody f o r m i l i t a r y assistance* In a l e t t e r t o Governor Douglas-,, dated July 31, l S 5 i # . Colonel (23) Sage, Jjsnee ^ qttjfrafl. Pi'. 264-280 509-324. Cf, Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , o j . , e\U* X I» L B Cf. Keenleyside, Hugh LI., 2M2&L~2£!&-lh* United ^tates, Hew York, 1929, PP. 230-238. (24) Keenleyside, oe* e i t * . P» 234* ( 2 5 ) sage, jtomUtiw&asu-  y*  266 * , .. 67 Heody s t a t e d i In eossp3.l82.ea with your i n s t r u c t i o n s Captain Eagln & a l l the Royal Marines (44 i n number i n * elu d i n g offioere & aen) at lew Westminster have t h i s morning embarked on board H, M. S. Plumper • f o r Special. S ervice on the I s l a n d of Saa Juan* * * * as the no*, (sis) of liar knee ies so few, and as i t i s not improbable P i e l d Intrenehaienis may have to be formed, 1 have taken myself to add to the above f o r e s L i e u t * hemprlere S..S* & 14 n«n*eom* officers & aen of the Royal l a g i n o e r s , (.26) Moody went on to s t a t e t h a t , the remainder of the Royal Marines and Eoyal Ingineers were engaged on the Harrison-Lillooet f r a i l and t h a t he reoesaesded the whole force be withdrawn from that l o c a l i t y to be held i n readiness at lew Westminster. To Lieutenant Leiapriere Moody wrote: Your party w i l l take w i t h thera i n ad d i t i o n to the ordinary equipment: Revolvers, ammunition for d i t t o , entrenching t o o l s , carpenter's tools, oamp equipment, and such other stores and i n such q u a n t i t i e s as may be ordered. (27) fhs following day Colonel ,,-.oody, Lieutenant Leiapriero, Captain Magin and t h e i r small, eorp embarked on H* M. 8* *Plumper* f o r (2S) service ©a the I s l a n d of San. Juan, fhey were to form part of (26) Moody to houglas, July 31, 1859* l'M£MLJm&mM2M M M J l ^ i i ft)* (27) Howay* S^Ji^MM^M^MJM^MW^MEM^SM*  5* (28) Luard to ©rant, August 2, 165$. (tjoyal,,,,, fiWMwCji fetter, M^r.^ p % 7 5 ^ ifmpv±m^xetuTnm€ to England on May 31, 1860. (Moody-Douglas, P 598, l«ay JO, 1860). c f . ^ p y a i ®mmmi]UMm-MJ!kA> 1 9 0 . A p y i i 1 2 » mm* '.' 68. the fere* ©11 H. l«. s. *lribune** Colonel foody evidently looked upon the 3an Juan occupation as a serious a f f a i r * On August 4, I860, he wrote to both Captain Grant, JUS..*, and to the Captain of the a teas** er * Colonel Moody"* asking them to see that a l l the Marines stationed in neighbourhood of Port Douglas be brought down (29) and embarked on the 'Otter* for service* Oa August 17,. 1859, he wrote t o the Inspector General of Jortifioatiasa* fhe aspect of ••f fairs appears to be altogether of the gravest character, anri when the enormous die-proportion of r r i t i a h subjects among the n a t i o n a l i t i e s comprising our population is considered there ean be no exaggeration in s t a t i n g i t c a l l s for the instant presence of a strong Land Force, and a thorough pre-paration in a l l respects, for any contingencies th?.t may arise. (30) Koody then epeka of the necessity of 'Barracks, magazines, and Batteries on San Juan Island* and of an increase in strength, both c i v i l and military, to the Royal Engineer De-partment* He wrote the fallowing communication to Governor Douglas m. August H i (29) Voody to *Captain of Steamer Colonel ...oody', August 4, 1859. (Reval Engineer* a Letter Book ,2. P. 78). (30) Moody to Inopector General of Fortifications, August 17, 1859. (Roval ^gineer'a Letter Book.,..3., P. 101)* 69. At present our information lo very vague and yet i s sufficiently consistent and uniform from the various sources of information, to prove that the Posts and Military Roads of Communication con-strue ted, .and those in progress, by th© United States Military (not c i v i l ) authorities are arranged on a Plan well adapted for aggressive movements at a convenient season* The numbers also seem to show protection against Indiana ia not the sole w o on for the nature of the arrangement® on tho Line of "frontier and for the late Seizure of ,im Juan. This seizure is a military advance movement of a significant character and the establishment of a Post there wi l l be to secure » strategical Point of the greatest -advantage to a foreign Power and destructive to a strong defensive arrangement on our part. (31) An article, appearing In tho 'Pioneer and Democrat*, published at Olympia on August 12, 1859, st-vtee: WH.. B» II. Ship 'Tribune* l i e s with spring cables and her guns double-shotted, broadside to the camp of Captain Pickett; her dooka are covered with red-coats, having on board 450 marines and some 180 sappera .and niner.5* The number of Koyal Engineers (32) • was merely exaggerated from 15 to 100. Feeling became, tense en both aides. *<-"#,.»l- '• Although Governor Douglas*a instructions were to land British forces equal in number to those of the American (31) Moody to Douglas, August 11, 1859, ¥ 1151• (Moody Correspondence - Provincial Archives), (32) Howav^ The Work..ol_3JM Royal MflttflgJEU P* 5* 70 troops, Rear*Adtaival Bayasa and other Br i t i s h officer5 - es-pecially Capt. hereby » f e l t that war was unnecessary and a l l collision should he avoided. lie considered i t a better policy merely to display his strength and suggested a joint occupa-tion* It i s due to their wise actions that war was averted. • In September hle»ie»ant~General Vinfield Scott, GoMmaader^in--Ohief of th© United States Array, was sent to assume control of the American forces on the Pacific coast* Maen he arrived in October, 1859,, a l l the British vessels except H* M. 3* •Satellite1" had been withdrawn from the San Juan Islands* lieutenant Leaser i ere and his party of Royal .3ngl* users had by this time returned to Hew Westminster after an absence of less than three months, fhey had served on m i l i -tary duty bat had seen no more actual warfare than those who had served with Moody in *5ed MeGsvran*©, War** The San Juan dispute reveals the relationship which existed between Governor Douglas and Colonel Moody and be-tween the governor and Captain Hornby at that time. Woody*s correspondence shows Douglas as uncompromising and tactless in a situation that was definitely c r i t i c a l . Witing to Sir J . L* Burgoyne he said; It is fortunate for Great Britain'that Hornby of the *Tribune» is at San Juan* Hie sound good sense way avert e v i l . Be wil l avert war to the. last without in any way periling the proper dignity of England. The Governor wrote his a very clever letter indirectly ordering him to land the troops 71. "but throwing the responsibility on h±i.u horhly has f a r to© *? other-*?itB to bo caught th vt way - o f oouTse he did not l:zid t I T . . AgsJLfi* J t^y roj "*iced at x orniy'nrut'ci.oc. 'xho Governor's letter involved an impracticability -to l a n d , hut not en any account to o.-ae into collision* raid that he c o n f i d e d in his Judgment md disci etion as to ho-/ to r.ct. i h e r o can tic no doubt f r o © Kearney*a inotructiona and h i s present lett e r , i'/rxt a oollisicn v^x desire:!. The exabrogli© would then hive bo en inextricable. (5r>) ctwo l e t t e r s frois Captain i^-J^ to his w i f e threw mm l i g h t upon the subject. The f i r at one f i t t e r : iiove-<.*er i , 1B80 »ays: 1 he**r froia the 'driral, but- in oonfideuce, that 0onersi cott (roliorod General 1 oarneiy} hoe as':ed us to occupy >>m .Tucun J o i n t l y with one hun-dred new each; and he and the 'ov*>vn;>v have auggsuted in stead a c i v i l occupation. -;hich doou not rac«t Oeneral Scott's o r d e r s ; th;?t "onerrxl -jcot l i s very anatinus tn miko a Q U O d e f i n i t e arrangement bofovc the m a l l go .is so th-.t ha nay send I t to aahingten i n t i i ^ u foe ; ublicatiou in tho President*a "esoage to ?ongresr, «&ile- our author! tie a wish to hold off to :sc-. ,>h.*.t instruc-tions the s o i l nay b r i n g fron horue, nnd further beeauae they t h i n k that ':ener:a uoott ought at once t© begin to renove '.is troops -m& guno from the Island. Si© Adzair^kl then <?ont M I to say that he considered wo - are indebted "to *y good Judg-ment'* in not following tha ftcv<mior,;« imLriMtiw..3 a for sot b e i n g involved in a ^ar, sad tta*t he ted written to tits.* e f f e c t tc the Admiralty. ( ) I ml Moody to Hxxziygnei* --u;^at 0 ^ I t , 1859. quoted fron (34) iioroby to ids * i f e from *hUM*MJ^M^JM^S^ M l n h u r g h , 1396, i - . SB. Uage* ^UfAftih ••'» 2i 9 a* The ucwond lot-ov .t th'Ji '. h<:.-.v* thai tho ~c>- urnov o l , r o : a i n lnr>lantl f o r \oopiiv" vho oc.ce .'ith ilui i v^iLv;.(35) T1int li,' r-uti'-.iv r.ocd '.I . nc ' r.c i ; c t lio wot?"! d heu- of not;.in • but shootsro t T v j - i l l t J'ir:>t, and th^t s i t or -'11. m^cr; v*-..r* ~- s.erv^ by ~y n ^ t complying wit}) h i o -,7io3ie,j, ^ r, T f e l t ho v?as in t h . -Tore rr . . tho ?l\-:>s, : ,*<>t ?'<t sOmnf* f o r x-vuir; t'i-it Juan not oro our t o l r j * 1 . tlrai tho jcet* Io--"ii;i -JS" Mr;.! .*<•* f.bnt'J 1 ?K; p.'u-iMy •erotic in lindin.'-; troops t h Q : . o w . 1 0 • tlx.>y found 11. ,t l -v « I ht, ;l<m r.*" j - i r * oc • - t i r - r tj > i i - r . ' -n Juan was tvrrc-id uj»on by uO'roi*nov " a i : i " C i ^vri' * & :kr-tt, Oie B r i t i s h troip? nnUp" -.ptr-in v.. l-* ;>*-r-o not r\r.-l<vi n t i l Larch 20, 1SCC. It sa«as th t -clonal ..v*.? lr>4 l i t l i i n tlvj 3rr\rH<:.n:onf -•• n c - - ' . i ' * fj"r!* ' " v i - i n ."-o^-), to 3>ougXas « Pa&nlt 1360, 1,0 ^ I / « infonaatioQ soa« «3?nl;i - a a l i i taffy .*3t rca the ' -vi I 1" ,1?* -hi.: : A but • avoona w->a not , ;,"mt-id m Inl^rviT.?-. "y t'il'j t i n s ><>ti?lan miJ oody ( » t L.vtto&»3 itrtutOt?^ II, P7V 386-38?. In * ap*.«**h on B r i t i s h «ol-asbl% intended to oe delivered i n the Kouse of Lords on July 8, 1870, (hut not Jfillvared) Lytton «aid i i i referese* te the ua» Juan d i s p u t e . "* • • Hothiti^ but the rrralenee «&t£ •»*e»d«x?ti«n of tho then U;v^rr.;»r, la*. Ihw;l4s, r^o wanted ?»n araed oonflist, -shiah /tiifcht havo led te tr,:ry '.'orioU'* v';-ju3. t " . * poiip^t^.. i ^ . n e \ P* 74. (3?) Iloody to -Jnorjla?, Karch 39, i 8 6 0 , y 1153. (^oedy Correapr-udeuee * f r o v i j i c i a l Archives)* Dou^as ©aid he understood Usat feoody had Jiariodiaticn o#ly over,the eoloay- of - B r i t i s h Colieubla. 73 were not working wall together and Keody was not again -called oa to perform aay service in the dan Juan Islands-, ? 4 . 2h Sifter % 12w Royal a^ineers wm% under th© iaipresaioB that Colonel Heady hat tit© p r i v i l e g e of cheesing the s i t © far th© capital of British Colt*ski,a# Before h® l e f t Jingl-and, ho had ©arefully s t u d i e d saps o f the country aad had instructed Captain Parawaa, to note i n particular the northern "bant of the Wtmm S i v e r * tin* feels 'that eves before Moody had arrived i n the new solely that he had s e t t l e d on the approximate s i t e f o r its capital. *Qn sanitary, on c oraner oial, on n i l i t .ry, and on p o l i t i c a l around*. * he immediately and unheal tat .'.n 'ly condemned Derby « the spot chosen by Governor houslaa* ; As &wm *a Colonel. Iieedy Had - »ettl«d the trouble at H l i lfl§ Biu%. the VPtompar* preeeeded t o examine the northern &ttoB*« i n s t r u c t i o n s * " •By, , ^ k « t ^ i a ^ i » f t ! fiaMfrfcft* s t a t e s , ©a above dates *fh# woleeof a eiie on w5.ofi to e s t a b l i s h ' this c a p i t a l r e s t s el tli C o l . .Moody, h..J, and there is l i t t l e doubt that he has ere t h i s decided on the spot, one probably on the baak® of the ,iver *Praeer*.' Iytton*o i n s t r u c t i o n s to noody vrere, *You w i l l c o n s u l t with the Governor -xa to the choice of oitea f o r M nari* time town, probably at the raoutb of ;raoer 's ;iver. * MMIES, 35)• Keway ossys *. . . (-Is i n s t r u c t i o n s w r ® to at & aite f o r the seat of ttovernnent. * m m m fljasr-jS* Pi-'* 1.9*20* newsy. l l i ^ ^ ^ £ ^ m « i ^ ^ J S S t o ^ » 75. bank of Fraser River for the purpose of choosing a spot on which to establish the capital torn, fhe site on which New •Westminster no» stands was heavily timbered and d i f f i c u l t to penetrate* fhe location finally decided upon by Colonel Moody was a l i t t l e below the thickest bush - the apot on ( 4 ) which the Provincial penitentiary now stands. In a letter •written from E*. H. S. 'Plumper*, *off Vancouver*a Island*, dated January S8, 1859, Colonel Moody made a report to Gover* nor Bouglas submitting for his approval the site of lew Westminster for the capital. S i r , After a very careful study of the question, I have now the honour to submit to your eon* sideraticn that the site which appears to be best adapted for the capital of British Columbia is about 10 miles below the new town of Langley, and on. the north bank of the Fraser.(aic) I am under the impression i t i s the same or nearly the same site to which you did me the honour to direct my attention as the proper (4) Howay, J l M L ^ S I ^ ^ ^ 4« Cf. ThjuBigiffant SaJdjere* Ga^te,, January 29, 1859. 76. position for the pert of entry*. (5) It i s the f i r s t h i g h ground on the north side after entering the river, and i s about 20 miles above the Sand Heads* There is abundance of room and convenience for every description of requisite in a seaport and the capital of a great country. There are great f a c i l i t i e s for communication by water, as well as by future great trunk railways into the interior* There is good land for garden ground, i f one may judge by the forest and rich meadow lands surrounding i t . It is raised above the periodical floods, and yet the low lands (which will be most coveted as commercial sites, docks, quay8 &e) are close adjoining and easily made available* • from the advantageous circuastaacee of the l o c a l i t y , i t is easily rendered unapproachable to an enemy* As a military position i t is r a r e to f i n d one so singularly strong by nature,, in connexion with i t s adaptation as the eapital of a country* Immediately i n front i s the broad navigable river; on the opposite bank is a l i n e of r i s i n g (5) B. 0. Paoersr Pt. II , 1. 19. (Douglas to lytton, November 3, 1859).In this l e t t e r Douglas did inform Lytton that a seaport town should be established at the entrance to the Praser River, he went so far as to point out prac-tically the identical spot chosen later by Moody as a suitable site for a cap l t d * Cf. B* C. Papers. Pt. II, ?. 41. (Douglas to Lytton, January 29, 1859}. Douglas declared Victoria the port of entry for British Columbia until some arrangements could be made to collect the duties at borne point on the Praeer River. This was a great disappointment to those who had purchased lots at Langley. They expected i t to be made the one port of entry on the Fraser. (British Colonist. February 3, 1859). 77. ground covering the whole front* This rising ground f a l l s towards the frontier, and a l l along that "base i s swampy land, easily inundated* Upon this rising ground could be placed a great intrenchment camp, with a series of open earthern works entirely protecting the city at a distance, ensuing perfect safety from any injury whatever to a city itself. On the right flank of the position the city would be protected by two deep channels, in addi-tion to the river itself, and also by widely-extended marshes, which, when dyked (as they will be by the farmers), could be easily inundated. The left flank is protected, at a distance of four miles, by the Fraser, and also by the deep broad river Pitt; but in addition to these two serious obstarfcles to an enemy is a command-ing h i l l , having the Pitt Iliver close in front; on this h i l l could be placed a strong work or works, entirely covering the left flank. At the rear of the position, and distant five miles, is Burrard's Inlet, any access to which would be rendered most hazardous, by plac-ing a work on the island which extends across i t . There is also on that side a range of high ground, from east to west, on which could be placed earthern works and intrenched camp, preventing any advance.. The short military defences of the least costly description, and defended by m i l i t i a forces, could be quickly formed (and from time to time increased to any extent), when a necessity arose for them, anfl which would render the site almost unassailable. Considering how near the smbouchsre of the great valley of the Fraser is to the frontier, from ten to fifteen miles, these considerations are of incalenable weight. It is also to be considered that precisely as the occupation of this part of the Fraser is occupied in force by us (as i t would necessarily be, i f a capital in a strong position be placed 78. there), so could we the better hold possession, of the whole country, and compel an enemy's front to r e t i r e . This practically, in time of war, would be to cause the frontier to recede further south, and enable us 'with comparative ease to take the offensive. I would further submit that, in any war with our neighbours, our best, I may say our only chance of success in this country (owing to the geographical diatribution of it a component parts, and the physical formation of the whole,) would be an immediate offensive advance. 1 am so strongly impressed with these views as to ven-ture (but, believe me, with utmost deference) to pre** on your consideration that, should i t be deter-mined not to occupy this site in the manner suggested, concentrating there, as early a3 possible, a condensation of p o l i t i c a l , military and commercial interests, growing and increasing in force in a l l ti".e to corae, i t would seriously p e r i l , i f not lose, to Great Britain the posse-ssion of the mainland. These views, I apprehend, coincide generally with your own, but i t is possible tlwy may?Have struck you so forcibly ae they may now thai I have sketched out the military value of the site. In reference to the adaptation of the actual spot i t s e l f for a city of magnitude, I might add to what I have already stated in general terms, that there is deep water close along an extended line of shore: sea-going vessels of any burden can moor close to the bank, plenty of water for supply of household purposes, and good drainage. I would wish that the upper level had not been so high, as hereafter i t may cause some expense in improving the gradients of a few of the streets. The main streets for business., however, and a l l that may be occupied for some time to come, wi l l be satisfactory. I might also add that any leading railway communications from the interior would paes down on the north side of the river. P o l i t i c a l l y and commercially this would be necessary* 79. This report would not be complete unless I added that the site of Langley i s open to the gravest objections as to the s i t e of a capital., '7 ©r even a town of importance... It is sufficient to say i t i s on the frontier side of the river, and no amount of expenditure and s k i l l could effectually rectify the stray military objection to i t s position. (6) It i s easily seen that Colonel Moody was influenced by the m i l i t a r y advantages of the site... This m i l i t a r y bias was a natural outcome of his- t r a i n i n g and of h i s instructions from Sir !* B* Lytton who realized the danger of American expansionist tendencies* fhy Douglas accepted and acted upon th® report i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. Probably th© decision. and ability displayed by -ioody i n his condemnatory report made Douglas* capitulation easier*. Possibly he realized that ••Derby* did not f u l f i l the m i l i t a r y conditions considered, necessary by the Secretary of State* L ytton had written on October 16, 18503 " from England we send s k i l l and d i s c i p l i n e ; , the raw material (that i s the mere men) a Colony intended for- free institution®, and on the borders of so powerful a. neighbour as the United States of America,, should learn betimes of i t s e l f to supply* (7) (6) Moody to Douglas, January 28, 1859, f 1151. (Moody Correspondence - Provincial Archives)* Does not say to Douglas but i t could be to no one else* Q f* B-*.C, .Paperat Pt. II, P. 60* (Moody to Douglas, January 28, 18.59)* (Snclosur© •* Douglas to Lytton,. February 4, 1859, P. ©0). (?) B* 0* .gayers. Pt* I, PP. 70-71. (Lytton to Douglas, October 16, 1859). ' Cf. Begg, p p . P i t . . . P. 236* so* A few d'tfa later he wrote; l e u w i l l a et f a i l t e regard w i t h a nilitxry •ye the heat position f o r such towns aad cities, ae w e l l m f o r the engineering of oado and passes, or the laying of foundations of any p u b l i c l a . s e i e e t i a g Derby, S e u g l w had d e l i b e r a t e l y ignored the i n s t r u c t i o n s quoted above, an! when the COT oite wis suggested by < oody, Douglas d red not defend h i s ohoice. Seedy d i d r e a l i s e , , lumrrtTj, tit At 2eu$la* *oold find i t d i f f i -c u l t to atoandea the Lahgley s i to where town l o t s had been cleared.: surveyed and s o l d , and where barraeks and other buildings had been r a i s e d almost to a point of core >lction. On January 29, 1059, ha wrote privately to Douglas: In enclosing ny import tc> you about occupying the s i t e oa the north Zmk of too ."rnaer below Langley I cannot refrain from addius a fuw private lines to assure yr>u that though I ussy appear to submit »y observations i n a o one what urgent manner (8) .#.*. S«_ Papers., i't* I, i ' . 74* (xytton to .'Douglas, f*steber 29, 1858 - rlncloauro) • Lytton aloo feared American aggreeaioti i a the Bm Juan d i s p u t e , 3upra, I5* )* (9) B. C«..?apgra- irt* II, P. 80* ( L y t t o n t o Douglas, February 11, 1859). It »ay be inferred fror: the despatch w r i t t e n on February 11, t h a t n e i t h e r L y t t o n ncr any of the in-terested Imperial authorities had be ri s a t i s f i e d w i t h t!io oheise of J)erby and wore definitely ••••t the opinion that the s i t e of the capital should be oa the north bank of the r i v e r . (4ttt>ra. P. 48)* Douglas hnd not received t h i s despatch when th© s i t e of Ke>* -eotiaineter w^e aub» rait ted. However i t would not please hir?. or m&k J the relationship between • the governor aad lieutenant-governor any happier by r e a l i z i n g that )ov/nino s t r e e t favoured iloody'e selection. 81* i t i s in a s p i r i t of entire deference to ray chief. I have the sati©faction of knowing yon are disposed to agree with me in the main i n t h i s matter. I believe I mentioned to you i t is part of my duty to oommunicate to my military Superiors in England toy view on a l l rail i t Try Questions affecting the Colony as part of the whole Empire. The substance of what I have stated in the report w i l l be amplified in euch Military Communi-cation. I. hope you w i l l confer also w i t h Mr. I'egbi© on t h i s question; we t a i l e d i t over together. (10) P u b l i c ©pinion d e f i n i t e l y favoured !©odyf© selection and at the sajae time condemned that of Douglas. An editorial i n the ^British C o l o n i s t * stated i t s opinion as follows: On apparently <;ood authority i t i s said that Lieut. Gov* Moody » v/hosa everybody agrees should be a good judge of location - is favorable to change, while His Excellency Gov. Douglas i s not disposed to do so. Pitt Ktver i s s:,id to be the best situated i n a military and commercial point of view, but by removing Langley that H. E. Go's (sic) ten mile land claim would not beeone so valuable, and consequently ilxecutive reluctance may be accounted for. That Pitt r i v e r has advantages over Langley, is well established. In a Military point of view i t i s better situated for defence, by placing the river between i t and the American l i n e , and by commanding the mouth of the r i v e r . And i f a military or public road, leading to the interior, was made, the Pitt river side would certainly be best. Commercially i t would prove better than (10) ttoody to Bouglae, January 29, 1889, -f 1150* (Moody Correspondence (Private) .» Provincial Archives)., 82. Langley, for Teasels entering the river sail to Pitt river, when they would require a steam-tug to take them to Langley. (11) Governor Douglas forwarded Colonel Moody*® letter to Sir 22. B. Lytton with t h i s comment: The views which the Lieutenant-Governor has so ably developed generally coincide with my own impression on the subject, and 1 am satisfied of the soundness of xxtn conclusions. (12) On February 14, 1859,, Governor Douglas having approved of the new location f o r the c a p i t a l issued a pro-clamation notifying the pub l i c of h i s i n t e n t i o n of l a y i n g out, without delay, the capital on the spot selected and of offer-ing the l o t s f o r sale at p u b l i c auction. One-fourth of the l o t a were to be reserved f o r sale i n the United Kingdom and i n (13) the British Colonies. Lots sold at Derby could be exchanged for those i n the capital. The new town was to be declared a (11) British Colonist. February 3, 1859, P. 2. (Those who favored the choice of hoody included Judge Begbie, Lieutenant llayne and Capt. Richards. Pemberton condemn-ed i t , considering the Langley s i t e superior. He had been practically responsible for the choice of Derby. (12) II* C.» Paners. Pt, II, Pp. 59-60-* (Douglas to L y t t o n , February '4, 1859).. A despatch from S i r 1, B. Lytton , May 24, 1859, approved of the spot chosen by Moody* (3. C. Papers, II f PP.. 92*93, Lytton to Douglas, Say 24, (13) Lytton objected to this on the grounds that such a plan would lead to speculation. (B*^C*. .Patters., f t . II, P. 86, Lytton to Douglas, l a y ?, 18S9T*V^ 83* (14) port of e&tary as soon as arrangements could "be made* Per years Douglas Mad been the only recognised a u t h o r i t y i n the country .and although Moody's d u t i e s were to be regarded as "''special*' he, as governor, was s t i l l ''supreme* and had the p r i v i l e g e - of making the f i n a l ©holes f o r the e a p i t a l * However, he must have .reali s e d that Colonel Moody had p u b l i c opinion en h i e side and that S i r 2* B* Lyt t o n would without doubt favour- the- new s i t e cm account of i t s m i l i t a r y .advantages* Without h e s i t a t i o n therefore he accept* ed the #udgme»t of the new o f f i c i a l although i t i s g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t he d i d so with, reluctance*- t h i s was probably the beginning of a long s u b t l e q u a r r e l between the Governor o f B r i t i s h - Columbia and the Commander of the Soyal Engineers. It developed into bitter jealousy between the towns of (15) Victoria and Few Westminster. As soon as the capital of i'ritiah Columbia had been (14) B. C. Papers. Pt. II, P. 65, (.Enclosure in letter Douglas to Lytton, February 19, 1859). Cf. Howay and Schoiefield, op. c„it.lf P. 66. (15) As far as I can find out Douglas never condemned the site privately or o f f i c i a l l y * Until May 16, 1859, Douglas's letters to Uoody were very friendly - after that they were hardly c i v i l . 1oody'3 on the other hand were always polite and in accord with his office as a subordinate. In reading these letters one feels that Moody was not given his just scope. ©4* eho-som Ht# Royal B®0M®mm ware ranevwl ffroa-BMftgr to the mm l»oati©» *lt*r* tttejr a t ©as® proooodect to- amice prsparmtio® fm the arrival of the • Thames *lty»« The task Mast ';?svo Lo«n tremendous* Lieutenant ayne says; the worl£ of clearing the land hma been the g r e a t drawback to the ;progre*»o of Hevr • oetdnater. Br* Campbell and I went to examine a part a l i t t l e T'orth of where the town at and o nnd oo tiaek trip thg brush that i t toolc ua two hours to force our Wi^ in - rather lesa than a r*ile -vnd one half* /hero we psnotrated i t f i t couponed of vary thick willows and alder intertwined so- sloeoly that every step of the w^ y had to Le broken through, \7hilo the ground was encumbered with fallen timber of a larger growth, (16) And a l i t t l e furtlior on he say&j The site hit upon by Colonel ^ oody uau a l i t t l e bs3lo¥ this vary t/iick bualx* v/!iero the ground waa uomo^ hat clearer* egar&ed both in , a military and eoojeralal light, i t v? i£$ infinite-ly preferable to the spot x^Moh had been previously fixed upon for thia purpose, higher up and on the ox>posite side of the river* (17) The- Engineers cleared f i r s t the site for thair camp which they called * tapper ton' and then, with the help more than anything elsa. (1?) JbjJ*» P. 73. 85. (18) of c i v i l i a n surveyors, mads a survey of the city* L i t t l e had "been done by the time the ^ Thames City* had arrived at Ssquimalt. A'dispute arose, in Victoria, as to the naming of the capital, Moody proposing Queenborough. Mr. W. A* G. Young:, Colonial Sooretary, considered i t as too nearly a . paraphrase of Victoria * •the; only permissible %ueen City*. The name was proclaimed *%ueemsbor-ou|§h* * *whieh was quite (so) another thing* » according to Douglas* The difficulty was finally referred for settlement to ^ *e#n Victor is* mm named (21) i t *Hew Westminster** This' name was proclaimed by Douglas -(18) B. P., Papery, Pt. II, P. 71. (Douglas to Lytton, iiarch 25, 1850)'*Reporting to the Home authorities on April 25, 1889, Governor Douglas says: Colonel hoody is now employed in laying out the site of nueensborougli, but the weather is ex-ceedingly unfavorable for such operations, and I fear that consequently there will be no Isnd sale for sojiie time to come; and, unfortunately, the eomiencement of the survey of the new town has entirely put a stop to any furtner aale of land at Langley. A lar^e building has been erected there for the accommodation of the -ioyal iSngineers, now daily expected in the 1 Thames City1. (19) Geographic Gazetter rf British Cplumbi^ 1930, Preface V . Lytton referred to the mainland as Lew Caledonia. (20) Gosnell, Year Book. 1897, P. 46. (21) B*, C* Papers.. Pt* II, P. 61. (Douglas to Lytton, February 5, 1859). Cf» i b i d . . P* 86. (Lytton to Douglas, May 5, 1859). 86. (22) en July 20, 3.899*. Colonel Moody was much opposed to settling land between the S*aaer l i v e r aad the f r o n t i e r u n t i l there was eo&e prospect o f an extensive B r i t i s h settlement. However he did suggest to Governor Douglas that t h i s land he settled by (23) B r i t i s h s u b jects on * feudal terms f o r 21 years** fhe B r i t i s h . s u b j e c t s were t o c o n s i s t of naval and m i l i t a r y »ea,, c i v i l i a n s who had served under the Crown and servants of the Hudson's Bay Company who -could be c a l l e d upon f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . He s t i l l considered hangioy i n f e r i o r i n every respect to %ueensborough both as a s i t e f o r a ocssuaereial city and f o r intended ecasmttnications to tit© i n t e r i o r by railway a i d other { 24) modes* The l o s s of Po i n t Roberts and.the proximity of Uraytea Harbour (Jteeriean) to the Canadian waters i n Seaiaaoe <22) | * ^ * ^ a n e | | ^ Pt* III, P* 39. (Proclamation of B. C*}, (SS) Moody to Douglas-. May 14, 1859, {M&Mjm&JmM®,.Lett,®! Book I. P. 01 » Provincial Archives). This i s interesting, feudal tenure had been abolished In England and Wales in 1#60 and i n Lower Canada In 1854* (24) Moody to Douglas, May 14, 1859. (hands and, .uorko Letter Book I. P . 91 - Provincial Ar chives)• Ko ody la very definite in this letter and aska that his opinion be forwarded to England. Two days . e a r l i e r Douglas had written to Lytton pointing out the advantages of old i?ort Langley, (Derby) ao a eoboercial town. He s t i l l hoped to see a commercial city on the ox te of Derby. 87, (25) Bay were also of great military concern to Colonel Moody, He was of the opinion that the affair was of such national importance that everything that might tend Ho neutralize future mischief* should he considered seriously and should he brought to the notice of Her Majesty's Government* Con-sidering i t of utmost necessity that B r i t i s h aubjecta should have "a clear undisputed, right of water-ways for- yes sale- of any class and burden to the Priti.ih. Columbian shore" adjoin-ing Serai3iaoo T. vj ho asked the following questions: Have we this right clear and beyond a l l dispute? Have we the right to deepen the rrater serosa the Parallel? Have we the right to form any Iciad of Harbour on our shore, flushing the channel of entrance, ,tp,-,lt aer a aa. the b ounderv (ale) in any manner and to any extent we please? (26) Moody was of the opinion that the small shallow cove in the north east corner of Sealamo© Bay should be con-(25) On which * Crescent Beach* and • ;/hite Roclc* are now located. Orescent Beach was formerly known as "Blacklegs Lvpit" from -alter Blackie, a merchant of New Westminster who owned i t for many years. (B. L. Jieid). (26) Moody to Douglas, February 10, 1850, y 1150. (Moody 0orre3pondence * Provincial Archives). I have not seen this referred to elsewhere. It is very interesting. Moody's fear of American invasion .is iiLportcat. If Britain and the United states had gone to war over the * Trent* Affair, British Columbia would have been in danger. 88. Tested at once i n t o a harbour with a good channel of access; The raode i s siuple enough, nsrnely to cut a canal deep enough for gun-boats and vessels of moderate burden, from the river Fraser at a point two or three miles below the site I have recommended, and which accords generally I be-lieve, with your own views, as adapted for the site of the Capital of B. Columbia : and to form a pier out from the main shore (into Semiaraoo Bay) on the west side of the Canal : to strength-en the extremity of the Spit which at present forme the cove so that i t may not be washed r.way by subsequent operations : dredge out the cove to any extent of area that may be deemed requisite, i t i s a l l soft - form dykes along the shore line of the marshes with the material dredged out. One dyke would coramunicate as a Military road to any "works" on the British portion uf I t . Roberts. (2?) Sreat care was t o be taken i n .giving the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n to the current ©f the •Secur*•in order thai th© entrance of Drayton -Harbour would not be s i l t e d up* There was grave danger of Sesiaaoo Bay* especially the B r i t i s h p o r t i o n of i t , being s i l t e d up a l s o and the B r i t i s h l o s i n g i t s s h o r e l i n e on the bay - * & B U & 3 * J * » ^ ^ (2?) l&oody to Douglas, February 10, 1859, F 1150. (Moody Correspondence - Provincial Archives). Geniiahmoo (generally accepted spelling). (28) frbtfr-*' At this, time the route out to the Gulf of Georgi would have been through American waters. A f t e r p o i n t i n g out the- m i l i t a r y advantage of such 89*. a harbour in time of war. Moody stressed the importance of such a harbour in time of peace* It would be a 1 Harbour of Before* for vassals unable to enter the fraser Siver (indeed a seeond aeoese.-open at a l l seasons of the year) and would be a convenient rout® for Americans entering British Columbia* In conclusion he said., "I would mention that the above advantages afford additional, reason for the adoption of the site alluded to as adapted .for a capital and i t would he accepted as a boon to tMeir cosKaereial i n t e r e s t s by our friends over the frontier without g i v i n g them the Monopoly of the sole Port on that side » I mean for access to the new (29) site*** Moody considered the question sufficiently important to involve the Imperial question of general defences and.' as such thought national a i d might be expected. (29) Moody to Douglas, February 10,. 18S9, F 1150*. (Moody Correspondence - Provincial Archives)* fhe.formation of the Lower f r a s e r Valley shows that th© f r a s e r flowed southward i n t o B e l l i n g b a s Bay aad Boundary Bay *in the years long gene by*. (E, L. Reid -> i n t e r v i e w ) . 90* Chapter ? C o n t r i b u t i o n of the Eoyal Bngiseers ,, zKMUUm.m.Mm f^Wmlf^, -,. '••Siym -the s i t e f o r the c a p i t a l of British• Columbia had been proclaimed the Royal.Engineers started preparations for th© b u i l d i n g o f the c i t y * On the arrival of the ?Thanes C i t y * at BstjuiJialt oa A p r i l IS, 1659,. Lieutenant Palmar and 20 Royal Engineers proceeded almost iKsaediately on the •Satelitte1 for the new capital* fhe stain body of Hoyal ( a ) Engineers was embarked in s e c t i o n s cm the *miaa Anderson 1 (3} and sent up the Praser to Derby where Captain ©rant had made a start i n e r e c t i n g buildings* Unfortunately f o r the f i r s t ' ippeup, a buoy moored at the mouth of the .eraser had shifted •and caused the v e s s e l to he stranded* for/ eose • ti»e» Most of ( 4 ) the isea were l e f t at iineensboroughj the remainder w i t h t h e i r families-proceeded to Berby where there was at l e a s t open U) kmMvMklLJmM-lMMZj^ (April 13, 1S59, Bloody to Grant). G$> tesaj^Jjife^ ie-19* (2) ibid... P. 53. ("oody to Grant, April 14, 1859). • (3) ibid.. P. 50. (:-?oody to Kr. serins, .\pril 14, 1859). <4) Howay, The Xaeeotion of Civilisation in the eraser River V.aJ^ey. The Fraser Valley Centennial Edition of the British Columbian, New Westminster, 1 12. (The city was not named Hew Westminster until July 20, 1859, nfien • Douglas declared the i r oc 1 araation). 91. ground and some accommodation had been- provided for their comfort* Here they remained until their quarters at lew Westminster were ready. Qm April 25, 1850, Douglas reported to Lyttonf The Royal Engineers and Royal Marines have been a l l safely landed at y,ue ensborough, where they are now stationed, end Colonel Moody is also at that place making arrangements for their com-fortable accommodation and directing the surveys of public land and other affairs connected with his department. (5) were doing survey work, every member of the corps was kept -busy at ^ uesnsborongh c l e a r i n g the s i t e and b u i l d i n g t h e i r new home and e a p i t a l * They were r e i n f o r c e d by the Jioyal Marines and a l l a v a i l a b l e c i v i l i a n assistance* D. 0-* F, HoDonald and Cookrane with survey parties,, had been employed at ftueensb ©rough some time before the arrival of the * Thames 0-ity*| Mr* Jtoberly was soon attached to the Lands Department to work under Grant? Messrs* Wolfe & Company were employed as (8) 3|*. C. Paoer.a. Pt. II, P. 9. (Douglas to L y t t o n , April 25, 1859). («) MzM^M&m^±^.,JM&m. &ftftfc~S> I8* (Moody to Parsons, April 13, 1859). McDonald and Cooler an & remained as ci v i l i a n surveyors. tea&&jm&.J2&SL fr*|,t,er,Jflflglt I* p* 115, June 14, 1359. Kith the exception of the few Loyal .Engineers who (?) ImM^MJiMM^MMm^MSM^J^ ^ ^ h 22* 1839. 92, (8) contractors for the pier at the Customs House, and Mgar Dewdney was appointed to the post of * Sworn City Surveyor for Heir Westminster and i t s Suburbs and Sworn Crown Surveyor for i t s District** . 'those who could.not find accommodation on the Hudson's Bay Company's old brigantine 'Recovery', which was anchored opposite the site of Sapperton (locally lonown as (10) *The Camp*) were forced to take, refuge i n tents * only a small portion of the site for the camp having been cleared. At the time of the arrival of the main body of Eoyal Engineers the 'town* consisted of a saloon conducted by J* T. Scott, a butcher's shop in charge of Robert Dickinson, a grocery owned (11) by w» J*. Armstrong and a bakery conducted by P h i l i p H i c k s . • For the aake of clarity the specific duties of the officers of the corps may be repeated. Colonel Moody, who held a "dormant commission" of Lieutenants-Governor, was also (8) hm&V M^J^Un^^m. Evtifc. ,3U 80» April 14, 1859. (9) Moody to Douglas, Hay 19t I860. ? 598. (Moody Corres-pondence « Provincial Archives). (10) Howay, ^MsMMMlm^M* (11) ^ a . j j t . l s M i g ^ ' ,ftft?ftjt&a, Addenda (no page given). These men were not connected with the Eoyal Engineers. 93. the commanding officer and Chief Commissioner of Lands and forks, and had the direction of a l l public works- throughout (12) the country. Captain Grant was the executive officer of public works; Captain Palmer and Captain Parsons superintended the surveying and exploring* Captain Parsons having the responsibility of laying out lots in Sew Westminster. Captain (13) Luard was executive officer of the Lands and Works Department; and Lieutenant Lempriere held the office of Chief Architect, Corporal Sinnett*s and Corporal Launder*s beauti-fully executed plans for surveying and laying out of Mew Westminster are preserved in the Provincial Archives* They illustrate the neatness and accuracy for which these draughts-men were famous* (12) As early as March 1859, Moody declared that the Royal Engineers were incapable of accomplishing the whole of the works contemplated and assigned to them on their departure, from England* In fact he said that they could do l i t t l e more than attend totbe survey of townsites and make rural surveys the construction of roads and bridges and opening the great communications of the country must be otherwise provided for, unless the dovelopment of the colony be retarded to an extent that prove disastrous to i t s prosperity. PRO CO 60*15 (Despatch So. 117) Douglas, Moody and E. 3. Douglas-Ly11on, March 19. 1859. (enclosure). (Perguson, fhesjs)» U 3 ) Boyaj Iff /letter hook 3, P. 14, May 8, 1859. 94. The s a w r of 1859 was spent In olearing the site of their camp (the present penitentiary grounds), building the barracks, the married aen*s quarters, offices, store-(14) houses, and other necessary buildings. Included in this group were a small church - convertible into a school - .a court-house, a J a i l , a easterns' 'house, offices of hands and Works, a treasurer's office and finally the Government House - the residence for the 'Lieutenant Governor. Even the flower feeds (15) and kitchen gardens were planted that f i r s t euiaraer. Mrs. Herring, 'describing the ©amp says, ' The married people's quarters stood in groups of three; each contained two rooms, and in one of these was the luxury of a brick open hearth, with an unlimited supply of wood for the fetching. A house had been built for the Colonel and his numerous family, one or two smaller ones for the married officers, a school was also used for church, likewise a chaplain * s residence. (16) Captain larrett-I^ennard described the site as he saw i t in I860, About a mile higher up the river are the quarters o f the Boy.al Engineers, situated on a (14) Royal 3nginaer,'s Letter ffook, 2. P. 5. (Moody to Douglas February 17, 1859). The l i s t of requisitions included flower seeds of the "choicest quality*. 1l5> l ^ ^ - ' ^ l l g ^ ^ better ..BeoK a. P. 3* (Moody to grant, (16) Herring, (ire.) Prances, Jin the f a ^ e a f l L h o n d o n , 1914, P. 62. steep incline, presenting a most picturesque •coup d'oeil' from which, ever side i t is approached, both on account of the graoeful, high-pitched roofs of the buildings themselves, as well as the romantic character of the site they occupy. The ohoice of this situation cer-tainly reflects great credit, at least, on the taste of Colonel Moody, as the river here form-ing the angle, a most extensive prospect may, in fine weather, be enjoyed - not only of its richly-wooded banks, but of the blue ranges of lofty mountains that shut in the distant hsrlson* (.17) hientsaast Mayne also considered th© camp worthy of note? In the camp, the Engineers who for some time lived under canvas, are a l l housed; and coraraand-lag a very comfortable house, the residence of the commander-in-chief, Colonel hoody. The view of the Fraser from the camp is very pleasing. On the l e f t , over Pitt Lake, rise the beautiful peaks known as the Golden i3ars; to the right of these, the valleys of the Fraser can be traced almost as far as Port Hope; while the foreground, looking over the buildings of the rising town, level land stretching away into American territory beyond the boundary-line as far almost as Admiral-ty Inlet and Puget Sound. (18) Surveying, clearing, and laying out the city of Sew Westsimstsr proper was a tremendous task* Mayas says •had i t not .been for Colonel Moody*© determination- to make a (If) Barrett-Lsnnard, Capt. C* .2*., jftqtsJL* in British hondon, 1862, P* 31. (IS) Mayne, op*...olt..T P.. 89. Captain Richards also gives a very pleasing description of the •camp* i n the •British PMmUmS March 6, 18*2. 9 6 . beginning, and for the labours of the Engineers in clearing the site for their camp, .Mew Westminster would have wade . l i t t l e , i f any* perceptlble^-progreas . . . of t h e severity of that labour, no one unacquainted with, the d i f f i c u l t y of clear-ing bush as i t exists i n B r i t i s h Columbia c-sn form any (19) accurate aaz&eptieii** however, so dexterous was their work, that lots were cleared and re^dy for sale in June, 1859. The f i r s t s a l a of b u i l d i n g l o t a of ^ueeneb or ougn took plaae on the l e t and and of June, 1859, at Victoria, at (20) the o f f i c e s of Seatlin franklin, the auctioneer* 314 lots were offered for sale and 310 were sold, 110 l o t s were re-f a ) served for future sale in the United Kingdom and B r i t i s h Colonies* The following blocks were put up and sold - blocks 1, 4, ?, 12, IS, 15, IS, 1?, 18, 21, 24, 25, 29, 30* The (22) upset price was a #100.00. The actual amount of sales was (19) Mayne, on. c i t . . P. 88. (20) Ljg|daiiand, Wft^f I* 32, 73. CPublie Notice of Sale)• Semiin Franklin was one of the f i r s t Jews to settle in Victoria. (21) Sir Edward Lytton objected to this. Guora. P. 97, $89,170*00 on which a deposit of 25 percent was made on the purchase, the remaining,; balance to he paid in three install**-meats •»- en the-, 1st day of July,,, August and September, 1B59, respectively* The largest sura realized for a single lot was $1,925.00 for lot 11, block 5, bought by Alexander D* (23) McDonald* The statement sent to the Home Office was as followsi ;5ale of Queensborough town hots* Actual amount of sale $89.170.00 Amount of instalments received in cash 11,363,75 Ditto receivable in cash 50.863*25 *62,227.00 Amount received in Langley t i t l e s 11,192.00 Ditto receivable ditto 15.751.QQ #89,170.00 (aigaaft) Sobt. Burnaby. June 4, 1859* pro the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Brit i s h Columbia. (24) Before the sale oewaeneed, inquiry was made regarding the clearing and grading of the streets of the new town* After owner (23) B. C. ^ Papers.. Pt. I l l , P. 16. (Douglas to Lytton, June Cf. Maodonald, Br i t W,, ,S oXW^lik^^Jm&MM,mJ>M2^^ 1862, P. 15* Passim* Alexander McDonald was th® o of McDonald's Bank in Victoria, the f i r s t bank of issue and deposit west of the Great Lakes. (R. L. Reid). (24) phid*. P. 16, (Douglas to Lytton, June 6, 1859 - en-closure). Cf. fomm.M^feffftft,M$%m«M®kJ,* 103* (Burnaby to Douglas, June 2, 1859). »».» consulting Governor Douglas, Jranielin replied that the pur-(25) ©has© $*$•» of 'the lets would he ut i l i z e d for that purpose, this promise, hot f u l f i l l e d , increased the amount and number of sales. Douglas was pleased with the sale of the l o t s , f r i t i a g to Lytton he said; *the re-cult has proved ^ost satis* factory as a financial operation, and indicates a general (26) confidence in. the future of the colony4* To Moody he wrote *fhe result i s extraordinary, considering the depressed state of trade. Whatever our friends may say to the contrary there 'if firm confidence in British -^.•luubia*. However he was not so pleased when Sfcsn&lin sent in a h i l l of £500 for selling (2©) the said lots* al 2di-River/, valley. P. 4* The Eraser Thlley "entenni tion of the British Columbian, 1912, Cf. Macdonald, BrJM^h Columbia and,,,^ anpotrger UXfM* 1802, P. 15. Cf- B r J U s f r qoXumbjaj}, July 13, i e f a . (26) B*. C.. Papers. Pt. I l l , P. 16. (Moody to Lytton, June 6, • 1059). i*%im..Mmm mm ^ 101*10. (Douglas to Moody,. June 1, 1859). (28) Douglas to Moody, P 405* (Douglas Correspondence, October 26,, 1666J* 99.,, The proposed reservation of lots for sal© in the British. Isles and elsewhere did not meet with the approval of Sir B* Lytton who considered such a reservation 'decidedly objectionable*: : It can be of no use except to stimulate the acquisition of property by non-residents. This is one of the worst evils to which a new community la l i a b l e . The lota are bought by speculators who hold them on a chance of a rise in value, with the effect in the meanwhile of obstructing the pro-gress of the town, interrupting i t s communica-tions, aad creating a nui iance to the holders of adjoin;^lots * . . (29) In accordance with these instructions Douglas order ed a second sale of lots to be held in 'Westminster early in I860. Pranklin was again chosen as auctioneer* This ehoiee did not meet with the approval of the people of Hew Westminster-*. Although few in number they were indignant that the promise, of u t i l i s i n g the proceeds of the f i r s t sale in clearing the streets' had not been carried, out and were deter-mined that sran&lia should not again act as auctioneer. Indeed they were determined' that no one from the city of Victoria should have that honour* Thus, on May 2, 1860, Bdgar Bawdney, later ,I4eutenant-&overnor* held the, sale. U 9 ) B.v.C._Pap®rj3> Pt* I I , -•. 86. (Lytton to Douglas,' May 100. (30) S©B© 33 lots were sold for the sum of £5,350 sterling. fhe growth of law Westminster was retarded on account of the di f f i c u l t y in clearing "but gradually the town assumed shape. ' Moody*A vision was coming true. Soon a church appeared, a treasury and court house arose, Columbia Street began to take shape and Sew Westminster was soon a *eiiy of. homes** Pemberton, possibly a l i t t l e Jealous of l i s growth, wrote sarcastically: Mo exertions were spared to found the new capital with eclat and stamp it with success. Engineers, military and c i v i l , were for months employed projecting its squares and terraces. At the auction sales i t was announced that in certain quarters, i t s "Sestend", no shop fronts should be admitted. Majesty itself was approach* ed to find a name for i t and it was called in the colonies *The Phantom City'. (31) Moody was reprimanded by Douglas when he referred to Hew Westminster being the * Capital of a great and flourish* lag colony *. . , . and by classing Hew Westminster in the same category with the great cities ^t home - I would suggest to you that the Colony i t s e l f must f i r s t become great and flourishing before we can under-(30) Maedonald, op* c i t * . P. 15 and passim* (31) Pemberton, J. Despard, Facts and Figures Relating tp Vancouver lajaud. and hrft tiah .Columbia*. London, 1860, P. 52. Pemberton was Surveyor-General of Vancouver Island* 103..* take works #u a scale of magnificence i a aacard-anee therewith and that a Town Just l a i d out and not yet dissociated from a primeval forest •cannot he dealt with as a great city that has existed for Centuries. (32) In spite of such discouraging criticism Sew West-minster continued to grow. Reverend Lumdtn Browni; i n M e prize essay on British Coiuiabia* i a 1863, gives the population including Royal Engineers, as 1000. Besides stores and residences Uew 'yeatminster .contained three churches (Church of •JSnglsnd, Roman Catholic and Wesley an)* a C o l o n i a l Hospital, a school,, and Government buildings and government offices. He speaks of the Royal l^agineers as *a moot efficient body of men who have materially aided i n the development of the (33) Colony** An editorial in the ' ' B r i t i s h Colombian*, January 30, 1861,. comperes the growth of Kew Westminster with that of the other towns i n the colony and w i t h Victoria. It also shows.hew.highly Colonel Moody was esteemed by h i s f e l l o w citiaens. (32) Douglas to Moody., 3? 485.., December 6, 1859. (Douglas Correspondence - Provincial Archives)*. (33) Lundin Brown.., P. C , British Columbia.- Ap.JgftaaaE* Sew Westminster.,. 1863, P* 6. 102* Notwithstanding a l l her natural d i f f i c u l t i e s and the virulent and potent attacks by her enemies hew .^estuiinster has continued from the f i r s t to make steady, healthy and - in proportion to the population of the Colony and the business transacted therein - rapid progress. Three years ago her site was covered with a dense and mighty forest - indeed at that time the site .vas not chosen, nor probably dreamed of, save by one man, as the spot for a great city - the future capital of a great Colony. At that period Victoria had about 3,000 inhabitants and upwards to 500 houses; she has a vast amount of capital invested and nearly as many business firms as she possess to-day, with the lucrative trade of this colony entirely in her f i s t , and none to dispute her rule of i t * Langley was l a i d out end sold and a thriving town commenced. Hope, Yale and Douglas were nearly as large as they are now; and Lytton and Lillooet were under way. This site was almost unanimously condemned at the time the selection was made, and the Chief Commissioner was bitterly lampooned by interested and hireling scribblers, and lustily abused by those who had a property interest in the discarded site of Langley. what are the facts now? Where is Langley, the site which Colonel Loody rendered himself so un-popular with a certain class for abandoning in favour of this place? If i t possessed so many natural advantages over Hew Westminster, how is i t that the latter has completely annihilated it? And not only so, but she has far outstripped every other town in the Colony. And where is the Chief Commissioner, v/hose selection of the site made him so many enemies and carried him sc. r<ueh abuse? The reaction has some; men have had time f o r re-flection, and have become thoroughly convinced of the wisdom of the choice. The great service render-ed by our Chief Commissioner is now appreciated, and he is reaping the just reward of his labors in see-ing, not only his policy understood and vindicated 1.03* hy the people, hut t h i s e i t y r a p i d l y and eurely *&Ttttt6iBg« (34.) (34.) m i i A ColUffihjffi,. 30. m 'this i s i n the t r u e John i-tebaoa s t y l e . 104. Chapter 8 &reat firmness and d i s c r e t i o n ware required of Colette! Moody* Me o f f i c e r s , and men In performing t h e i r arduous, and m u l t i f a r i o u s d u t i e s i n b u i l d i n g up the new c a p i t a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Their busy r e s p o n s i b l e l i f e i n v o l v e d not only unusual p h y s i c a l and mental t o i l but also long* sufferance and misunderstanding,* • Almost from the f i r s t Moody was hindered i n f u l f i l l i n g h i s wor^ fc .by severe c r i t i c i s m from Douglas* The ' B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t * - always a n t a g o n i s t i c to the Governor - at f i r s t , h e a r t i l y supported Moody but soon he, l i l ® a l l other government o f f i c i a l s , came under the attaeJc of Amor Be Cosmos* On the other hand the ' B r i t i s h Columbian*, e d i t e d by John Robsoa*. was a most ardent supporter of Moody* Finally., such b i t t e r sad subtle jealousy developed between V i c t o r i a and Mew Westminster that i t i s d i f f i c u l t at times to determine whether the q u a r r e l was .••••between the two c i t i e s , the two o f f i c i a l s or the two e d i t o r s . However the i n f l u e n c e of Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers cannot be over-estimated i n the new c a p i t a l . The c o l o n e l h i m s e l f , always j o l l y and popular with h i s f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . , declared that h i s s o l e duty was that of promoting (1) the best i n t e r e s t s of the country. Almost every phase of (1) grJ^i^,Co,l loni3 it, September 5, 1859, P. 3. 105. public and social lute-rest in lew Westminster was instituted or revolved around the ^ .gallant* c o l o n e l , M s popular officers and worthy corpa. (2) According to recommendations from Lytton, Douglas was to appoint an executive council in British Columbia and representative Institutions were to be adopted as soon as possible* In comparing the management of affairs in British Columbia and in Canada Mao-Donald states; There i s in Canada a legislative Assembly, tike- members of which are elected by the people and responsible to the electors., as i n Great Britain..; but i n B r i t i s h Columbia there i s no legislative Assembly and i t was only a f t e r much pressure from without that Governor Douglas was compelled to nominate an executive Council* (3) this i s true as the Brit i s h Columbia •Despatches* to Sir K.» B* Lytton indicate* J-Iaslly an Executive. Cornell, consisting of Governor Douglas,. Colonel Loody, -aid. Jucge ( 4 ) Eegbi© was appointed on March 1, 1859. Although Douglas re-ports conferring with these two members of the executive c o u n c i l on several occasions before this date,, there i s no record of h i s having done so after the establishment of Hew (2) Stt.nra. P* 8. Sf* tefctonV $PM$m* Vol» *h  p»  S3» (3) MaeDonald, op* . c i % T P.; 260* t4) $%m%Mmt* Douglas to-Lytton,, March 1, 1859. XkMs., February 5, 1850. HVS. Westminster. Douglas* rule on the mainland was supreme. In May, I860, the people of Hew Westminster asked to incorporate'their town and appoint municipal of fleers to manage i t s revenues* The governor considered their proposi-tion extremely moderate, embracing as i t did only two chief points - the right to tax themselves and to apply the taxis to grading the streets and to the general improvement of the torn. Sri ting to the Duke of Beweaatla, Douglas said: lour Grace w i l l observe that the powers of the Council are ao H a l t e d by the supervision of the Commissioner of Lands and aor&a on tho one hand* and the rate payers on the other, as almost to remove the danger of abuse, and I am of opinion that the City w i l l be greatly benefitted by i t s exertions* and by the expenditures on substantial aad aueh-needed improvements. (6) (e) B* C. Papers. P t . IV. P. ?. (Douglas to -the Duke of if aw oastle, Say 23, I860). Cf* Dfi1snatehea,,,fr,pm governor ..Douglas to the Colonial Offjce. P.' 119. (Douglas to H e w c ^ t l a ; ^ ^ In June, 1859, the Derby administration was replaced by that of Lord Palmers ton* Sir 3. B. Lytton was replaced at the Colonial Office by the Duke of Newcastle, under whom Herman 'iter i vale held the o f f i c e of Undersecretary of State. B r i t i s h Columbia, l o s t a good f r i e n d in 6ir S. B. Lytton. Neither were the Duke of Newcastle sor the 'Administration* as syrapathic with problems i n the new colonies as t h e i r predecessors. T^e *3ri t i ah Columbian' states; "There is l i t t l e doubt that the colonies in v,;3noral, and Eritiah Columbia in particular, sustained a grievous loss- in the retirement of 3ir B. Lytton from the Colonial Office, /aid that Ids successor has been our misfortune, i s equally evident. An old f o s s i l , of the Tory school, and identified with the blighting curse « The Hudson (sic) Bay Company - to boot, the Duke of K ewe as tie is probably the worst in an that could be select-ed to f i l l that important position. " (British Columbian,. December 19, 1661}. 107. Thus by *'The Hew Westminster Municipal Council Act*. 1860| (proclaimed July 16, I860) the request was granted and the Royal City has therefore the honor of being the f i r s t municipality in the province of British Columbia, Victoria not being incorporated until the summer of 1861. fhe Municipal Council, consisting of seven members elected from four wards *w«» to hold office for one year with-out rsnumeration*** fh@ president, as the mayor was called, was one of the councillors e l e c t e d by themselves, fhe members (9) cf the f i r s t city council elected in i860 were: L. Kelure - President (Editor of the *New West-minster Times*.) B , Br ©wa-if. J , Armstrong H* Holbrook J . A. H* Honor A. H. Hansen f*. !-« Cormack The Municipal Council possessed very limited powers but undoubtedly was better than nothing* In the f i r s t two years i t taxed the citizens of Sew Sestminster *to the extent (8) ibid*. P* 7. (Douglas to Duke of Hewoastle, May 23, I860) ' fwo interesting points here in light of modern views on both questions* • (8) 108. (10) ef some-thing over 10,000 dollars* and with that amount, plus an #8000*0© grant from the colonial government, accomplished wonders. 'However the people were far from satisfied with i t s scope. They looked upon i t as wan institution so miserably limited in i t s powers for :g©od or evil as to be l i t t l e short (11) of m insult to a free and intelligent community** Although there i s no r e c o r d to lead one to suppose that Colonel Seedy or any member of the Royal .Ingineer Corps took part in the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f Hew Westminster, Douglas considered i t necessary to advise him to decline any c i v i c honor in lew Westminster as i t would injure his authority "as (12) umpire* in public works. Possibly Moody had been considered (13) eligible for the office of Councillor. At any rate, during his sojourn in the Royal City his name does not appear in p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s . It i s true, however, that Moody was a close friend of John Kobson who., as editor of the 'British Columbian*, opponent, o f the auteer&ti© rule of - Governor Doug-las, and constant supporter of constitutional government, no mum^M^1^ s^ 12» 1862, (11) " i b i d . J u l y 2, .1862. Cf* ^ ^MMSlmaMmM^ of the City of Hew West-minster Ordinance, «r«iy 16, 186-0. (12) Private; letter ?oo^, 1869-1864. (Douglas to Moody, August 3, ISiO «v Provincial -Archives). (13) I cannot find any record of this. 109 wielded a great Influence in the c a p i t a l , fhe policy of Governor Douglas towards the work of Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers is so frequently attacked Toy John Hebson in editorials in the 'British Columbian* that one r e a l i z e s that Colonel Moody., although in the background, was an important pol i t i c a l force* tJntil 186-3 there was no law-making body in the new (14) colony, a l l laws being promulgated by .Governor Douglas* from the f i r s t , however, lew Westminster had resented this auto-cratic rule and had by means of repeated petitions and memorials demanded a resident governor 'whose interests i n -stead of being connected with any r i v a l , w i l l be thoroughly identified with the interests of the colony' and a Representa-tive Government •-. 'similar to those existent in Australia and (15) the Eastern Br i t i s h Worth America colonies'. Finally in 1863 an .Imperial order-in-oeuneil was passed constituting a Legis-lative Council for British Columbia and the f i r s t meeting was held in the old barracks of the Eoyal Soglneers at Sapperton, (16) on January 21, 18€4.* Colonel Moody was endeavouring to build U4) Lytton's Bm$Smm»» IX> 83-(15) British, .goliaa^iJfe-. February 38, 18-61. These 'Memorials' appear frequently in the British.Columbian during the years 1861-1863* (16) Howay,. ZbsJbmiteSBUtL^ .MXSX. Vallev* Centennial Jdition of the British Columbian, P. 3* " lies* up Ms * dream eity*. against tMs unsettled p o l i t i e s ! bask* ground. Chapter # OelAMl MCOdy aad the Roya& . 3 n g i » « r s are e l c s e l y linked up w i t h the social developnent of the c i t y of Bew .eot-minoter. fhe Colonel had becoe® popular with the people i n Viftterl* and h i e appointaent in t h e new colony was looked upon w i t h fatten* as i s e v i d e n t i n the r e p o r t o f t h * l a u n c h i n g mf the ateisgbemt *C#1«©1. Moody*, 'live C o l o n e l wus very well r e c e i v e d * * * The gallant Colonel appeared to hare a good idea of the people anong ahosa ha i s east* and his s i n -c e r i t y and straightfcrwcu'dnoBo ctsahiried with an u n e s t e » t . a t i « i s .manner w i l l do such tovards smoothing over d i f f i c u l t i e s and developing thf r e s c w c e a o f a young country* ( 1 ) The f i r s t public function r e p o r t e d t o have, talcen p l a c e i n '^ uecnaboreugh was the occasion of tho *ke©n*o b i r t h -day, May 24, 1859. The day u-io spent i n a review of the troops of the Jtoyal Engineers aad -oyal r h i n o s * followed by a progress© o f s p o r t s and asmsejasata* * L i e u t e n » t *§ o v e r » o r Moody and 1 8 % * were g r e a t l y 'flfoaared* by the people, i n con-t r a s t to t h i s Cevernce Douglas *wlth©ut h i s lady1* attendee* the m r a c e s on Bea*em M i l l * : 'almost uanotleed* * the •XOWBM? M#a*s C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n * , was one of to Msm&s^mM* P*s* .'(2) Ibid*,* Hay -30, 18S9# P* 3* 112* the earliest o r g a n i z a t i o n s formed i a Hew Westminster, C o l o n e l Moody was e l e c t e d i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t * On. b e i n g thanked for the able manner in. which he had conducted the meeting he s a i d •that he case here f r o a England-with the s o l e object of pro-moting'the b e s t i n t e r e s t .of the c o u n try, and i n aiding In the promotion of the o b j e c t s ef t h i s ' a s s o c i a t i o n he was but per*-forming his.duty** The problem of educating the c h i l d r e n of the Royal Sngimeers-was i n the hands of the c h a p l a i n of the corps but d i f f i c u l t i e s which arose were r e f e r r e d , to C o l o n e l Moody*. The -greatest problem was r a i s i n g money t o pwy the salary of the seheolmla tress * only those engineers who had c h i l d r e n a t t e n d -i n g school were c o n t r i b u t i n g to th© fund aad that i n propor-tion to the number ©f c h i l d r e n attending school* i n g 13 f a m i l i e s in r e g u l a r attendance f o r four hours a day and b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d i n reading* writing, arithmetic and in the rudiments of the Christian f a i t h * The s c h o o l m i s t r e s s , a daughter of one o f the Engineers, was receiving, by the month-l y school payments-, a l i t t l e over £70 per annum.*- K r . Sheep-(3) MUmUmmm* September 8, 1859. (4) Sheepshanks to moody, June 2?., l.S§Q, f 1152- (Moody Correspondence - P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s ) , pr-ee education had not at t h i s time been i n s t i t u t e d i n ..Great B r i t a i n . 113. shsnlrs oonsldered that th© Eoyal Engineers concerned wore pay* lug as much as they could afford, but, at the same time ha realised that the salary was quite insufficient for the schoolmistress and was equal only to about one-half of that received elsewhere in British Columbia or on Vancouver island*-Mr. Sheenahanks believed that £70 and a house should be the (S) lows a t remuneration that could be fixed upon* However no tiling (6) was done to remedy this* On March 19, 1861, Colonel Moody reported a total absence of education for children of the Eoyal lagineers the former teacher having been dismissed for misconduct. There were at that time 70 children in the colony, 31 ©f whoa were of the age t© attend school. Moody suggested that the far Department be•. approached for a grant,, which, under certain oirenssiaaoes, was contributed towards the education of soldiers* children* Douglas sanctioned this 'purely military* expenditure only after Boody assured hin i t was the practice (7) of the War Department. In January^ 1863* Archdeacon bright mm given per-(5) Sheepshanks to Moody, toe 37, 1860, F llSg* (Moody Correspondence Provincial Archives). (6) Eoedy to Colonial Secretary, Victoria, If arch IS, 1861, F 1155. (Moody Correspondence)* C7) (Moody Correspondence •« Victoria Archives)* 114. mission to. appoint Xr«* Moresby., a duly q u a l i f i e d teacher from Victoria* Her s a l a r y me to consist of fees p a i d by the parents of children, a t t e n d i n g school plus a grant of £50, for one y e a r , provided by ©overner Bougies* iTewever the S e c r e t a r y of State f o r "far was to be approached for the s a l a r y . In writing to the latter Archdeacon Wright stated: Tho Officers and men of the ' i l i t a r y Settle-ment hare not only "been professionally useful to B. Columbia but they have given to New v/estminoter a Br i t i s h character which w i l l long have an i n -fluence for good upon the Colony and. i t would be hard indeed i f the children of the Betaeliment, many of whom w i l l settle in the colony should from neglect in early l i f e not be able to carry on the same healthy influence. (9} Mr. Wright suggested that £ 8 0 , quartern and r a t i o n s should be allowed to a duly qualified teacher. On rtay 28, 186*!, Foody reported C7 children in the lioyal Engineers* Camp. Of these 13 boya and 14 g i r l s were of the age of f i v e y e ars or over* The total school enrolment was 42. The men, quite a l i v e to the value of ;;ood education for their children contributed ae (10) much as p o s s i b l e , Fees amounted to something over 4179 while the grant from, the War O f f i c e amounted to £ 1 8 per annum* Thus (*) MM£$^MMMMm&§@M* $ 1156.,,- January 8, 1862,. {9) Wright to Secretary of State for '.''ar, January 17, 1862, F 1156* (Moody Qarr®8$Qn&ene@ - Provincial Archives). (10) a.ojral....aaaine.@rtsr fra^ta* Boofe 3f P* 303. Moody to Wright, May SS, 1862. U S * the teacher's salary amounted to a l i t t l e less than £98 per annum. 2>'rs« Moresby was not satisfied w i t h t h i s amount for the Archdeacon writes: the present teacher i s eminently qualified f o r her post and i t would be a thousand pities to lose her. but I fe a r i t will be hopeless to re-tain her long on a salary so disproportionate to the renumeration she may obtain el-,•jv/here i n the colony. (11) I f , and how, the educational problem neve s e t t l e d in the •Camp* there i s no record, nor i s there ?,ny educational r e p o r t for 'the year 18A3* the f i r s t p u b l i c school i n lew Westminster was de-(12) signed and b u i l t by the E o y a l Engineers i n 1##2* In August of the same y e a r , the f i r s t teacher., Miss lagle. commenced her d u t i e s . In March, 1863,, an experienced t e a c h e r , James fic-Ilvoen, was appointed.,, the enrolment at that time b e i n g 16.. The salary c o n s i s t e d ©f *S100 t u i t i o n f e e s plus S1QQ from colonial funds. This i s q u i t e a c o n t r a s t to the s a l a r y re-t1 1) m&USXUttm$?,*E, M%,\tX«P&?tJ&* 303 (Moody to Wright, May 20, 1862). h'o reference is wade of the £50 grant from Governor Douglas. He probably discontinued i t when a grant was eent from 'Var Office. Considering the cost of living in the colony £98.0.0 was a l o r wage. (12) Wolfenden, Tte *WAM&m*** ,9»A WMmKJtm, t&Mm®h Columbia.* (J9ou.gr airt Soldiers* Gazette ^addenda). cf. noway, m^m^m,M^MUM\,Rpimd*.. (13) Howay, The Inception of, Civilisation in foe,, ffraser Hjver Valley. The fraeer JUver Centennial Edition of the British Columbian, 1912. 116:* eeived at -the saoe tise by Ira.. Moresby at *The Gaap*. from the beginning the principal religious bodies were well represented i n the capital* fhe f i r s t clergyman to arrive was' Reverend ..Sdw&rd White* a fiethediat minister,, who reached lew Westminster on April 1, 1850* The f i r s t resident Ipiscopal clergyman was the Sever end John Sheepshanks who ca»e in-August 18S9* 'Until the e r e c t i o n of Holy T r i n i t y Church, services were held in the treasury "building* Rely T r i n i t y Church* i t s e l f , was designed by the Hoy el Jji(,;ineers, i t s cor* near stone being l a i d by Bishop / i i l l s on May 22, I860, and the edifice consecrated: en Advent Sunday, 166C* St. Mary's Church (14) at Sapper ton we® also designed by the Royal Engineera* Bev* earend Robert J'suieaon* pioneer Presbyterian m i n i s t e r , arrived in March, 1363* The Soya! Columbian Hospital was e s t a b l i s h e d in 1862, after a long campaign ably supported by Colonel Moody, Dr. Seddal, and the S o y a l ISngineers^ The chief difficulty was • i n obtaining a government grant from Governor Douglas. That It was a r e a l s t r u g g l e i s evident by e d i t o r i a l s and letters (14) Howay, The^njLg^^ Valley. The Fraser River Centennial Edition, P. 5, Cf. Wolfenden, TM^MM^mM^m„WA.WMto,M9KXM Mm^L^lwU'' "(Holy Trinity 0 ' u r c h ^ s destroyed by f i r e in 1865, rebuilt and destroyed by fire again in 1898 and rebuilt). 117. ' ( i s ) in the 'British Coluaibiaa' starting i n August, 1861. The f i r s t money raised toward the *Koyal Columbian Hospital Fund* was the proceeds of a concert given by the Royal Engineers Club in Beoosber, 1861* The proceeds amounted to #3§4«,oG* (17) Public subscriptions finally amounted to «5,285. The govern-. ment f i n a l l y gave an appropriation of £ 8 0 0 towards the erection (IS) and outfit of the hospital. A land grant of lots 8, 9, 3-§, 3? and 38 in suburbia bloelc 6,, and lots 17 and 18 in block 31 an were also obtained from Governor Douglas* Plans were pre-pared by the Boyal Bngineers and the contract was g i v e n to f * (20) ¥. Graham* f o r i3,398* fhe hospital was opened on October ?» (15) Brjr$.jrah. P-fi^uy^-isffif February 6, 1&62*. An editorial com-plains that Douglas had taken 59 d';ya to reply to their petition and then offered no -help. (16) ibid*,. December 12, 1861, J/. 2* (17) ibjd,,*.t -inarch 6, 1862* (gives l i u t of aubaeribere, headed by Douglas and Moody who gave ->1O0*OO each. The Eoyal .Engineers gave very liberally.} (18) M i M * > * February 13, 1862* ( I S ) Howay, M^M^Umi 9,1 .CjviltotiVh M, Fr,ftB,e,r,fiAT»y. Valley* fhe Fraeer River Centennial Edition of the Brit i s h Columbian, P. 5* (20) i b i d * . 1* b. 13.8,, (21) 1862. the f i r s t hoard of manelement, elected In February, (22) 1862# consisted of: Colonel Moody,. F,»l* - President John Rob son - Vice-President A, f * Bushby - Secretary John Cooper - Treasurer ISbenezer Brown') . w. 0*. Psacecle 1 - Committee Ernest Pleht '. Moody, however, reslgpaed from the ho«?tt®l Beard the follew-(23) lag month* The Eoyal Engineers built at their own cost a read* lng-reoa and library. Before leaving England they had raised a fund for the purchase of books to bring out to the new colony. Sir !» B»* lytton*. becoming interested in i t , per-. conally selected the volumes* As a reeu.lt a small but complete library was formed* After the disbanding of the Royal Engineers in 1663,,. the library was transferred to the Mechanics* Institute in Hew Westminster and beoaiae the nucleus (24) of the f i r s t public library in the colony. (21) Howay, SM^J^nUmkP,t 9lJUlmUmJ^M^MMM2LM2M.^ Valley. The Fraser River Centennial Edition of the British Columbian., P. 5. (22) UWM^amMM* February 13, 1 8 6 2 , (23) ibid.. liar eh 6, 1862. (lo reason io given for the re-signation but lioody knew that Douglas disapproved of his accepting any public office). Captain Cooper was elect-ed President in Moody's place* (24) Howay, Th,e -'or^  of the Boyal ,?nffinegKa* P. 3. (A des-cription of this library seme years later appears in liorley Roberts *e * Western Avernua *). (Howay) Keatoers of the corps also fcrued a club • called the *Royal Shgineers Dramatic Association*' ~ which entertained both Royal Engineers and trie citizens of Hew Westminster at marieua 'benefit * concerts and pi ay a throughsui the winter months. These entertainments were held in the 'Royal Theatre* which they built for that purpose. That thee© entertainaents lent a . •military* touch to the •social l i f e of lew Westminister 1B evident by preminence given 1.- them in tho social colaians of the 'Priliah Cvluubiau1, In ret;or tin& a theatrical enter* tainiaent given by the Royal i&igiaeers club in the Koyal Theatre cn January 16, 1061, the paper stateo; The citizens Generally are ander obligations to the Royal Engineers for their winter evening entertainments ar,c. vn c-:n aocuru tho cwiitlouan composing the R. 1. Club that their efforts are appreciated. (25) Recovtiftg the last entertaining for the season of 1 6 6 1 : The Roynl r^nginecrt; clul. ^ave a theatrical entertainment in the above huilding (Theatre Royal) to a large audience, composed of the u i l i -tary and their families and a large sprinkling cf ci v i l i a n s . In the gallery v:e noticed the pre-sence of his Excellency and suite, Col. Moody, and the other officers of t h e R.h. detachment. Their departure will certainly cause a vacuum in our widest that will not be f i l l e d up for some time to come. (26) (25) B:r%.% 1 ah Solmrfb Jan.. January 16, 1862,, P. 3* US) ibid... Bar eh 7, 1861, P. 2. 120, Aimounce&enis and r e p o r t s o f military b a i l s also f r e q u e n t l y appeared i n the paper. Sot only at the social functions but a l s o i n other phases of l i f e - d i d th© Eoyal Engineers prove themselves -corthy citizens of Hew Veetsinstcr* On February 28# 1861,. a *I.:ee"f to clear th© cricket ground was r e p o r t e d jaaeng the news items. /i'o cee one hundred Royal . ^ i n e i ^ s including t h e i r o f f i c e r s , with n e a r l y a.s nany oivilians 'as busy as b e e s 5 , cciuo c u t t i n g down treec, some grub-bing out sttcapa, and ethers p i l i n g wood upon several enormous fires, Itincled fvi the purpose of consuming the timber. It was pleasing indeed to witness the happy reunion c." hits i . l l i t i . i ^ .wd the citizens; but eopeclally to see the officers for the t.h i<i l<yiug aoi&e a l l distinction, rnc! henrtily uniting with the men in the arduous but praise* • worthy eciployiaont of clewing the c r i c k e t cvov.nc'.. Shortly after two o'clock, Hi a l&ccellency accom-panied by C o l o n e l T'cody cai/se upon the ground, an-", while'the former was making himself agreeable to the people, the latter was nakinc IiLvcwlf useful by taking hold, like a &ood fellow, and working amongst these sen* (27) The. f i r s t Industrial .-Sxhibition in -British Coluasfcfa v/aa h e l d on llovejuiber Xo.» 1861, '.Hie-., prizoo u r s ;.;iven f o r agrioultuvO. and horlcultural products. Corporal v/lllian Iiall, a»I5», e x h i b i t e d specimens of n a t i v e birds and Br* S e d d a i l a fine c o l l e c t i o n of teineral o-eclaens .and Indian (28) •caries* (m) MUmJ^SmiMU February 28, 1061. Valle^" The British Columbian Centennial Edition, P. 5. 121, British Columbia was **1BO represented i n the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l industrial J&hihltion of 1862, in London. Thanka to Colonel &cody, president of the * Induntrial Cosvriitteo*, who showed a keen intereot in the movement, the various resources (29) of the new colony vera each it i ted. The * Royal Engineers* B e n e f i t Building S o c i e t y * was formed in 1862. The patron of this s o c i e t y **as His E x c e l l e n c y , Governor Bouglas; C o l o n e l Moody and the Officers of the Royal Engineers were Vice*Petr©ris# Attorney-General Crease, Standing Council j and the BanV of Pritish ColiiiuMa was their hank. The society was l i m i t e d te 24 members each paying £2 We monthly* This' amounted to MO a -month for the 24 iscabers and /:6d apiece for each weather during the two years thf.t the acioeiation or* pected to be i n existence* "Cash jjionth MO was drawn by lot and expended In erecting buildings* purchasing or improving real estate upon which a mortgage was tafcen. The purpose of the acscciation ?;aa *to promote provident habits* among the engineer© and a s s i s t them to provide comfortable hoses when their duties terminated i n the f a l l of 1864, I t was an ex* cellent society. Many lots wore purchased, houses b u i l t and the teen of Sapperton* now an important suburb of Sew West* mmmJjmMmm* S^amhe* SI, 1361, P. 2. 6f* lb/id*.. June 1« :, 1862. .&<«.*. (30) m i n s t e r , founded* She iioyal iSngineers designed the f i r s t postal stamp ( 3 1 ) -used i a the colony* Although Colonel JAoody d i d not have charge of the postal s e r v i c e M s assistance was frequently solicited. On fe&ru&ry 20, 1859, Chart*e* Brew, Citisf Inspector of P o l i c e f o r British Columbia, wrote to Moody froia Port Yale explaining that p o s t a l f a c i l i t i e s provided by the governor d i d not extend sufficiently f a r a f i e l d to be uf use to iue uinere* he said; There are aaa.y complaints her© of the i r -regularity ana uncertainty of the mails. Merchants would ratner send t h e i r l e t taxa by . • e l l or * J (2Sellou*s) iixoreaB at the. cost of half a dollar than pat i t in the poet at 0 cents and ^eiuain in uncertainty when i t would reach i t s destination. . . (32) In A p r i l , 1859, Captain i t . Gpaulding was appoint-ed magistrate for Kew Westminster d i s t r i c t and entrusted with the supervision of the p o s t a l arrangements* He was i n s t r u c t e d to apply to 0-olonel leody for assistance i a l o o k i n g a f t e r the (33) -mail* Captain Sosset. H*S.-* was l a t e r responsible f o r the (30) MlUMSsmmXm* October 4, 1862* Cf. -olfanden, M^rnkk^M^^Mj^dk^* ^duenda. , (31) Woifenden, ^gij^*tid&i££ALjJAiPfotb Addenda. (32) Quoted i n h e a v i l i e , All red Stanley. Ph&, p9lWU& X\o$%9k PglUflft OQlWtiifr 1849-18VI, 1528, P. 48. (33) Deaville,. oa... aLt^,* **• 54-55* management of postal affair a but in t h i s as i/o!2 as in other Colonial affairs ha soon found h;vrnself at variance w i t h the governor* Mm- tm year a the ' i - y i t i e h Colualian* fought f o r a pos t a l system -to'£ the colony* However when the postal rates were finally aanounaed by *„hc 1 absentee autocrat of British (35) (36) Columbia % the oxhorbitant ratoa proved prohibitive. An e d i t o r i a l i n the 'British Oolunili&n* s a i d : . . . we way bo pardoned i J vfe allude to the fact that the present rate for newspapers to the up-rivers towns,, i s a r a t s equaling tho o r i g i n a l subscription price of the paper! And we may 'be pajfdoaed xl v»c sfcavd tJvat under *:;< g.v e it under heaven would such an -absurd r a t e foe intro-duced QA.GauU peraapo Lhat :r£ A' evi? o i l X'eitii-.h Columbia. (37) {U) D e a v i l i a * j j a a ^ W ^ » « n/to "T» % {i»{>neTe could one penny}* 124. Chapter 10 PmM mi, ftwMEEfc. the onrush of gold-seekers In 1858 necessitated the establishment of communications with the interior. Douglas* one c i v i l i a n effort on the Harrison-Lillooet Soad had proved (1) a failure because of the lack of competent surveyors. 'This lack was f i l l e d by the arrival of the Boyal Engineers on whom, according to Sir B. B. lytton, the responsibility for a l l road (8) surveys in British Columbia was to rest. Moody, realising the tremendous task before his, pointed out that the Boyal Ingi-neers were incapable of accomplishing a l l the works contempla-ted and assigned to them on their departure froa Bngland. He f e l t that they could do l i t t l e more than attend to the survey of townsites and to the rural surveys - the opening up of the great eosfflunieations of the country would have to be otherwise provided for unless the development of the colony be dis-(3) astrously retarded. Thus throughout the 'Engineer * period, road-building by c i v i l i a n contractors supplemented that of the UJ Sunga~ P. 4©. (2) Bougies better fiC,# | ¥ , P . 8, October 1 6 , 1 8 5 8 ) . (3) Douglas to Lytton, March 18, 1859, PRO. CO. 60.4. (Desp. 4803 Mo. 117) Douglas Moody and K.3. (enclosure). (Ferguson, Thesis, P. 57). 125. U) (5) tevps* Sash names as G. B. Wight, .Toseph f , Truteh, Sdgar Bewdaey, Thomas Speaee*, falter Msberly,, Charles Qppeiiheiaer, T. B. Lewis and William Hoed cannot be omitted when consider-ing the early history of cojsmnnl cat ions in British Columbia. Three main rentes were planned into the interior,. The Karrieon-Lillooet, upon which a great deal of work was ex-pended during the f i r s t two years, was the one favored by Douglas but harshly criticised by opponents of th® ©overnsent. The Ys>ie*3grttsxi * the famous Cariboo Highway - was considered U) the best route by Moody, while the Hope-Similkameen was early (?) envisioned as- a. * transcontinental * route by the governor... Although Colonel Koody l e f t no final, graphic account of opera-tions carried on in road-building, details can be found in the Boyal Engineers Letter Books in the Provincial Archives at (a) fietoria* It i s d i f f i c u l t to apportion the credit for a great (4) This was contrary to Lytton*s orders to Douglas (B. C. BOSSM* Pt. I, P. 71, Lytton to Douglas, October 16, 18§ST« Lytton cautioned houglas against accepting the services of other surveyors whose employment would add to the heavy expenses of the colony. (5) g^ 0^ yvg;Oirriflsppni4en,c,:e,. V 485a, June 1, 1859. (Douglas to Moody). G. B. fright was considered the best. W .ftr jlish, ?<tlwto\m, Member 19, 184>1. (?) Moody examined route and considered i t gave promise for a railway line. (Moody Correspondence, August, I860).. (8) Brief sujamarlea of the work can be found in: Cf. Howay, Tbs,,, Work, o f , J ^ ^ p y A 3forttt»8Sft» F P * 1-H-Cf. Howay and Schoiefield, on. c i t . . PP. 55-127 passim. Howay says that * a l l the main roads were laid out by them1 deal of the read-building of the period to any one ia particu-lar as the civilian-contractors frequently worked under the supervision of the 'Engineers*. Moody appears to have used his specialists as a rule in those places where civilians were either unequipped or incompetent. In'1859, while some of the men were busy in building their -camp at Sew Westminster, others wer© equally active in exploring, surveying or working on t r a i l s . Douglas was anxious for a good road into the interior via the Harrison and Lillooet, lakes,. During , lay and June, Lieu tenant Palmer sur-veyed the road (a t r a i l .already existed) between Douglas and Lilleeet, and later in the svwier Captain Grant, with nesatl^ -a hundred Royal Engineers,. Royal Marines,., and civilians, was employed i n improving cooMuaicatione between the various lakes (9) on the route. At the same time Lieutenant Lempriere with a small party explored from Hope up the Cequihalla and thence along the l e f t bank of the Anderson River to Boston Bar, and along (10) the l e f t bank of the fraser Biver to lytton* After their re-(9) Howay and Scholefield, on. c i t . . P. 93. Cf. Grant to Moody, Kovember 19, 1859. (Moody Correspon-dence F 1152). Cf. Royaj ISn^ineers Letter Book 3. PP. 26, 29-30, 3 7 , 46, PP. 58-59, 105. (10) ^ g ^ ^ ^ ^ y ^ . . f t ? - * * 3, P. 167. (Moody to Lempriere 127 port had been received another party of the Engineers aade » and Coaplsted by August a t r a i l along t h i s r o u t e . In the same year, 18S9, a t r a i l was b u i l t from Mew (11) Westminster io'Burrard Inlet.* S h i s was the beginning -of the l o r t h . Boad which connects- Sew Westminster and Port Moody t o - • day. In Sepissber and October, 1859, Lieutenant Palmer c a r e f u l l y explored the country between Hope and the Columbia Silver* tee has only to read the long r e p o r t which discusses the area covered from the topographical, g e o l o g i c a l and i r i i l i - * t a r y point of view, to r e a l i z e how expert, systematic, and (12) c a r e f u l these engineer's were* In Karch, 1360*. Captain ©rant, w i t h a detachment of eighty mm of the corps,, s t a r t e d to work again on th© southern ( 1 3 ) s e c t i o n ©f the K s r r i s o a - L i l l o o e t route* t h e i r plan -was to Cf. Douglas to Moody, F 485, December 23, 1859. (Moody Correspondence)• Cf. Howay, Early Shipping in Purrard Inlet, 1863-1878, §§ Br.itlah Cojuipbia, wuarter.ly,, January, 1937, P. 1. • MUMkSslmUm^ tobruary 13, 1861. (12) This report i s found in Provincial Archives -very de-tailed and long. Also in R. C. Patera. Pt. I I x , PP. 79-89. (13) B...C. Papers, Pt A p r i l 23, 1860). Pt. IV, P. 4. (Douglas to Newcastle, ia»* (14) deepen the tiamei through th@ shoal of tho Harrison River* Briven from their work in June by the rising of the river,' Captain $ra*&&*» party with .civilian assistance resumed work on the tweaty-eight-aile wagen*read (12 feet wide) between (15) Beuglas and the L i t t l e Lillooet Lake, fhe road was practical* l y completed to the 28-Mile House at L i t t l e Llileeet Lake by -the end of October* This road (says Captain Barrett-Lennard) as far as i t was then finished, lay through a wild rocky d i s t r i c t ; on the left hand of i t flowed the Harrison, sometimes broad and shallow, brawling over atones, sometimes deep and narrow, and rush-ing through a 'gorge*. (16) In his report to the Soke of Seweastle, Douglas appears to be well-pleased with the work. . . . a work of magnitude and of the utmost public u t i l i t y , which, I think it only right to inform your Grace, has been laid out and executed by Captain Grant and a detachment of Hoyal Engi-neers under his command with a degree of care and professional ability reflecting the highest credit on that active and indefatigable officer. (17) (14) B. ,p. Papers. Pt. I V , P. 4. (Douglas to Newcastle, April 23, 1860). This is the section of the river which pre-vents its navigation even now, as i t is only during a freshet that there is sufficient water to float an or-dinary river steamer. M A ^ ^ - f e f e t t J , ^ , , ^ *?• 222-223, 226. Cf. B. ^ C. Papers, Pt. I f , P. 5. (Douglas to Sswcastla,. April 23, 1860 (16) Heway, J I i & J o j ^ ^ *>• 7* (17) C. Pagers. Pt. If, P* 23. (Douglas to Howcaatle,, October 1860). 129* Buying the summer, I860, Sergeant &cColl, with another detachment of the corps,, located the t r a i l from Hope towards the Siailkween as far" as the suaiait or the punch-howl, carrying i t over an elevation of 4000 feet without a da) single gradient exceeding 1 foot in 12. In the same suramer, Edgar Dewdney (with whoa Walter Meberly was associated) built the f i r s t t r a i l from Hope to the SimilkaKwen (the Dewdney {19} •frail): along this route. A t r a i l from Tale to Sputum following the course of the Eraser, along the aountaln side, at a moderate elevation attov® the river... was built by Powers and McSoberts iit the . SMwaer of I860-, this trail..,, quite, distinct from the older t r a i l used by the Jfadson*s Bay Company, was later developed into a wagon-road by the Beyal Engineers.-. Reporting the work-to the Duke of Sewcastle, Douglas said. The arduous part of this undertaking - ex-cavating the mountain near Yale - was executed entirely by a detachment of the Royal Engineers under Serge an t-Major George Cann, and i t has teen completed in a manner highly creditable to them-selves and to the officers who directed the (18) B. C. .Psaaere. Pt. IV, P. 30. (Douglas to Newcastle, October 25, I860). c f . Howay, jfoajjflo.rfr.pf the ^ ^LJmismm*  7* (19) gffiEsX,teiMMJ.jfarftteff,,flftftfe,,St* P. 2-4-0. Cf. Moody to Douglas, July 6, I860-, (iloody Corraspon-denee). Cf. Douglas to Soedy, $ 485b, July 10, 1860. operations* (20) thens-vsr Douglas wished information concerning the new colon* he could f i n d competent »en among the *Bngineer»* to'undertake an investigation for Mm. From the middle of June until th© end of the -summer of I860, Captain Parsons and • a party of the corps explored the country adjacent to the Susas and Chilliwaek B i v e r s at the Governor^ request* They were ascertaining the advisability of building a wagon-road fro?a the tide-water to t a l e (a p r o j e c t in which Sovernor Doug* l a s was e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d ) .and -also the f e a s i b i l i t y of utilising, the r i c h faming land© of the locality* While t o u r -ing the country i n the f a l l of I860, Douglas.,, considering the t r a i l from Pesberton to hillo-o-ei uasatisfactory,. sent two p a r t i e s under Sappers Breekenridge and Daffy to examine the locality for a better rout®* Apparently no better route could (21) be found as no change i s recorded* In IMX the Eoyal Sagineers continued improving the Douglas-Lilleest load* Qm th® twenty-eight mile s t r e t c h separating Douglas from L i t t l e Lillooet Lake was a very steep (20) E... C. P&nera.. Pt* I V , P* 30. (Douglas to Keweastie, October 25, I860). Cf. Howay, ,^,,1,0^, of ,the Ppy^l .mfAM^M* ?• (21) l i , C. Papers. Pt. IV, P. 26. (Douglas to Uewcaotle, October 9, 1860). G f - SLsatait ,-,MamJdEgJl2^ 331. 131. and dangerous h i l l ©ailed • G i b r a l t a r * . A detachment ©.f the corps and a number of c i v i l i a n s under Sergeant Bridgeman spent the summer making a out*-off and reducing the grades at this (22) spot* f o r h i s 'excellent work here Sergeant Briageman was (S3) known as the 'Conquers? of G i b r a l t a r * . At the ease time Captain Grant, with 80 sappers and 90 - c i v i l i a n s , , was busy, soameaeiag a road to the Simllkaaaeea 'in'order to improve coiBmuaications with the diggings at Rook Creek*. This new road did not f o l l o w the t r a i l "built the pre-vious year although, i t d i d touch i t here and there* JBy October the work was completed to Skagit Hats., 25 miles froa; Hope. From there on the e x i s t i n g t r a i l was merely to be widened, lor t h i s three p a r t i e s were chosen; the f i r s t under Sergeant L. F* Boneon* the second under Corporal W i l l i a m Hall and the t h i r d under Sergeant John itolurphy. However, with, the opening up of W i l l i a m , to*tl«r aad other rich creeks on the Cariboo., the- Hope-Similkameen Bead was abandoned. By t h i s time Governor Douglas was convinced a wagon-road from Tele to t y t t o n was a n e c e s s i t y . A detachment of (22) Rffy*A ,fr»flj,aaara LettftrJ&flgJL^ ?* 270. (23) Howay, Th« ?ork of theJLoval ^ KJugexa* 8 (24) Howay and Scholefield, ,o,Pi ?Ut« "o l* 1 1» p* 1>2. Royal Engineers was sent to survey for a wagon-road (18 feet wide) from Yale to Boston Bar and from Lytton to Cook's Ferry (25) (Spenee»s Bridge), fhe early reports showed that a wagon-road, i f b u i l t , would have to cross the Fraser River. To determine the best point Sergeant McColl with another party of Hoyal (26j Ei^ineers examined^the^locality. The spot selected was the one upon which Joseph"4s&dge built the Alexander Suspension Bridge (2?) • - -in 1863. In 1861 also, the t r a i l from lew Westminster to (28) Burrard Inlet was converted into a good military wagon-road. The year 1862, was devoted to building a wagon-road from Yale to Clinton (The famous Cariboo Hoad) where i t would connect with the existing Lillooet load. This was the most d i f f i c u l t task undertaken by these early road builders. In May, Captain Grant, with a detachment of 53 Royal Engineers, (29) began the road at Yale. By lovember six miles had been com-pleted. The road, cut and built oat of solid rock, was a further tribute to the excellent work performed by the loyal Engineers In general and by Captain Grant in particular. The (25) The reconnaissance sketch of this survey i s preserved i n the Provincial Archives. (26) The British Columbian, July 25, August 1, 1861. (27) -This is known as lorth Road today. : (28) B. C. Proclamations, 186?, So. 10. Of. British Columbian. February 6, 1862. (2y) British Colombian, May 12, 1862. 1»« few sections that remain verify the statement in the 'British Columbian* which says: Seme cf their' work wil l stand long as the everlasting recks, an enduring monumeni of en-gineering s k i l l and patient t o i l * (30) A large portion of the Cariboo Wagon Boad was.built by c i v i l - , tans* The stretch from the six-silo post to Chapman's Bar (suspension bridge) was b u i l t by Thomas Spence i n 1862; from Chap©anfe Bar to Boston Bar by J . w. Trutsh in 1863; from Bos-ten Bar to lytton by Spenee aad hangvoidt i n 1862* Moberly and Oppenheiner had the c o n t r a c t from l y t t o n to fc>pence*s Bridge in 1362*1363« m^mkS^tmJrMl, July 18, 1863. (31) Scholefield and Gosnel, Pt. I, (; scholefield), Years of Progress British Columbia,. Vancouver and Vic-toria. 1913, P. 77. It seems that Douglas did not even consult Moody regarding the building of the Cariboo Road. By the time i t was started Douglas had practical-ly taken the road-building projects into his own hands. (This will be discussed la t e r ) . The previous year he had ignored Koody when making plans for building the Rope-Similkameen Road. ;h^y Douglas acted an ie d i f f i -cult to say. Three suggestions may be offered « (i) he always preferred to do thingn hir.self (?) he did not like Moody and (3) he knew that Moody favoured this route from the f i r s t and would not give Mm the satis-faction of being consulted. The Boyal Engineers, how-ever, did survey aJJ, the road; Moody himself inspected a great deal of i t ; and the Engineers built 13 miles of the wagon road plus the t r a i l fron quesnelmouth to Bark-ervi l l e - a distance of 63 miles. It would have been impossible for the Boyal Engineera to do more in the time they had at their disposal as they were busy build-ing or inproving other roads at the time. It must be remembered also that they were a small group. At one time the contractors advertised for 1000 raen to work on one section of the road alone. (Howay and Scholefield, .op,. , ftit,. f P. 101. •134. In July,, 1862, Lieutenant Palmer explored a route from Bentinck Arm to fort Alexandria and thence to Williaras Creek. Like- his former report on. the dist r i c t lying between Hope and the Columbia Hirer in 1859, this i s an exhaustive (32) study. -Commenting on Palmer*s work Moway says: I t , l i k e a l l the reports of these trained men, seems to be the f i n a l word on the subject. His minute examination covering *;> period of three months made i t clear that the road then being constructed to Cariboo through the canyons; of the Fraser was the more suitable route. This l i n e showed f o r a spce* of f i f t e e n miles a continuous average grade of 182 feet per rails, a great part of which was on loose rock and p-ceclpitoua moun-t a i n slopes. (33) The l a s t year of the Royal Kngineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia was e q u a l l y busy* Some repair work was done on the Harrisen-Lillooet remte but the Cariboo wagon-road, being more direct.., always accessible by water, and unbroken by portages was .already the more popular thoroughfare. L i t t l e attention was paid hereafter to the H a r r i s o a - L i l l e o e i road. In 184.3, Lieutenant Palaer with a "body of sappers bu i l t the f i r s t stretch of nine miles of the Cariboo Wagon . Head, east along the course of the Thompson R i v e r from Cook (32) HftQta, 0orres.ppa^encs - original report. (Provincial Archives)* C f» B^.£...Paper*,* Passim, -f* 11^A'^U. ; ^ l j ^ . . ^ l > March, A p r i l , 1063*. Gf» &mM, '^K\m^£MMU^M&,,J,* Passim* (33) Howay, < T f c u J k r j E ^ P. 8. iu) ferxy (Sp®Hes*"o .bridge) • "hi-3 rD*ad connects*: vi*J- r-, portion being b u i l t by Willis© Mood o f t5aafcG CJareefe. In the stsec yettt^ Joseph Trutoh built tho /-les-andra -Suspension ;:rid£e over the : Toe or ; i v e r . T,l» sorlr had t o bo accepted, by t?ic Cover,i^eut bvfor* tolls* could be collected* ''"lie duty of exa.ln/.^; > Adf.o v .3 pieced in the hmfls of .^.iootfn-^j't ' "Oner TEL-V tvjnml i t c-riirf - e i o r y i n -cptenber, 186:5* lhi-9 y c i r , l£6-% Orcnt \rc in the n o r t h , the satiat-ing route i n t o ^ i l l i i a i s Creelr by woy of th© j*wrlc@ of Beimel, Sncwahoe fountain, and t\e }».<•;•jxlvr.tcr;' of 'intl-'ir ~re«i"v v i s built at a l !irh elcv-.ti nn and d i f f i c u l t for winter tr - v e i l i n g . Governor 3v\ip;lrz vriohod an --Itornati"? route to be t;;/!ef via ueenolrvmth and Cottonwood. • j.ver. v nm'diii'jly, u voute • ",e s e l e c t e d enr! a t r a i l built under t.'.r rw»peri*'it endonce of Cantain Grant. The wholo dJytoneo of 0'; ' iloj: fr<"-n '.ue;mclr:cuth to Eas-terville had been eor.r,ir*ted *;y op terror **,r.<* 'Hrajit itiiasslf rede the entire d i s t o c e in me day. I'al^cr declared i t to be •the one fjood t r a i l in Cariboo*. In th? y?.-sr r r jr\t located a l i n e i n the v i c i n i t y of -llliao.c ' afce aad rieep Creek CM) lk-^uix^i«^iafe# ;o. s. (!*efore to Palmer's 'dress to the oyol ; eo/*raphical society i n i wrch, 1C04). 136. for ©ustavus Bllna Wright who was b u i l d i n g a wagon-road from Clinton to Alexandria, • I n 1S63 also, l*ane©*S©rperal George burner surveyed not ©sly 1st® 1B4, 105, 186 and 18?, upon which a part of the C i t y of Vaneeuver now stands*, but also made, a complete survey . of the shore-line from Hastings Towasite around Brockton Point 'to l a g l l s h Eagr and- false Creels;* •As far, -as these roads were concerned Colonel Moody gave- very d e f i n i t e und earefully-worked out i n s t r u c t i o n s to his officers* l o t -only was he Intere s t e d in the se c t i o n s of the roads being b u i l t by the Hoyal Engineers- themselves but also f e l t responsible for those l e t out to the c i v i l i a n sax-(36) veyors. Thus by the end of 1863 the Jtoyal Engineers had, be-sides building up Pew Westminster, explored a great deal of the colony of British Colombia; surveyed the whole peninsula between Burrwrd I n l e t and the- f r a s e r River*, surveyed and laid out towns and surveyed the. adjacent-country lands; l a i d -out a l l the main roads -and b u i l t large portion?! of the Douglas* (36) Mosdv1 a. I-Jamo Book. 1 gives many examples - lots - espec-lally letters dated July 10, 1362, and July 15, 1862* The length of the roads were as follows: Harrlson-Lillooet - 100 miles approximately hope-Similkameen - 25 * " Cariboo Road - 400 " * V IS 1?* Llllooet, J3op©«Sl!all3£am@©%. Cariboo and lorth Roads* Practi-cally a l l the maps of the colony were made from their surveys, sketched i » their drafting office, lithographed and published at 'their samp* . One letter from .the Duke of Newcastle, who succeeded Sir JSdward Bulwsr iytten, i s sufficient to reveal the attitude and Igneranee ef the British Government in regard t© the tr e -mendous problems of road building in the new colony of British Columbia* Replying to a despatch .from Governor Douglas written on August 2% 1SH9, Sewcastle states: . . . There is much in that report which affords satisfactory evidence of the value of this Colony as a British possession; but i t ia impossible to peruse your Despatch without being struck with the l i t t l e progress which has been made in the communications with the interior* 5rom the large expenditure incurred on account of the Harrison-Liloett road, and the i seal which was so early manifest-3d in the Colony ' for i t s formation, Her Majesty fs Government wore led to suppose that a route would bo opened for the miners, which would considerably abridge the distance in reaching the scone of their labours, and fa c i l i t a t e the transport of the raeans of sub-aistance. I now learn that this work is bein^ faintly prosecuted by the Hoyal Sngineers, under the command of Captain Grant; that funds to the extent of £30,000 are needed for i t s completion, besides, as you infom me, *tho helping hand of Government on a l l sides". You throw out a sugges-tion that this .pecuniary assistance could be raised easily by w^ y of •» loan, either in England or in Vancouver's Island, -,.>i-ovided its payment were guaranteed by Parliament. I think i t right to lose no time in dlanbusitis you of the i*rpreseton you allow yourself to entertain that the Imperial Parliament could be recommended to take the course you wish. Both Parliament and the English public 138* c l a i m from British Columbia an energetic develop-ment of the great natural resources with which i t is endowed* The admonitions which have been so ably and so fr e q u e n t l y p r o f f e r e d by my predecessor, that B r i t i s h Columbia should look to her exertions for success, must not pass unheeded, but a p r a c t i c a l e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of that advice must be e x h i b i t e d . Her Majesty's Government have a p p l i e d to P a r l i a -ment already f o r advances i n a i d of the Colony to an extent which shows that no reasonable demands have been refused when proved to e x i s t ; but t h i s a ssistance must not be drawn i n t o a precedent to be followed on a l l occasions, nor l e a d you, or the in h a b i t a n t s of the Colony, to expect that the Country s h a l l supply you with the means of develop-i n g those resources, which i t i s your duty to make the most of yourselves. I am e x p l i c i t w i t h you on t h i s p o i n t , and wish you to understand that Her Majesty's Government, sharing completely the s e n t i -ments of tile l a t e Government i n respect to B r i t i s h Columbia, cannot venture to ask Parliament f o r any such guarantee as you d e s i r e . (37) One problem in this road building period was that of assuring sufficient money to pay for both men and implements. In May, 1S60,.Grant wrote to Moody saying he could not go on with the larrison-Mliooet re&d...,unless funds were sent to de-fray the past and aeet the current expenses., le said5 # , * to enable the man to obtain the necessaries and expecting, the payments to the forth-coming, I have advanced to them the whole of .nay private means and not a penny remains to me, either on private or public account. I aa indeed most em-barrassed and feel unable to carry out your (37) B. C. Pagers. Pt. I l l , P. ICS. (Newcastle to Douglas, 139* orders unless provided w i t h funds* ( S i ) R e f e r r i n g to the above i n a l e t t e r to Bouglas* Moody . stated% I have "before endeavoured to impress upon you how much the d i s c i p l i n e of the Corps depends on the r e g u l a r (and p r e c i s e , as to times) pay-ment of i t : t h i s w i l l I f e e l sure outweigh the importance of a c c i d e n t a l or unavoidable informa-l i t i e s on mere points of d e t a i l , e a s i l y a f t e r -wards adjusted* I t w i l l a l s o he impracticable f o r me to carry out your i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the execution of s e r v i c e s pressing i n t h e i r nature unless sorae l a t i t u d e be allowed me in any t r a n s -actions with the Treasurer, by whioh I may r e a d i l y obtain the means of such services* (39) Although i t was Moody*s duty to Improve communica-t i o n s i n the new colony, by the middle of J u l y , 1860, Douglas (40) had p r e t t y "well taken road*building i n t o h i s own hands-. This was r e a l i z e d by the people o f Mew Westminster as i s evident by th® e d i t o r i a l s i n the * l r l t i s h -Columbian* during the l a t t e r months of 1661* these a r t i c l e © h arshly c r i t i c i s e Douglas* road b u i l d i n g p s l i o y and the treatment meted eat to Moody by the Governor* On© e d i t o r i a l s a i d . I t i s but r i g h t therefore that i t should be known that- our despotic Rials* has taken the P u b l i c Works Department, e s p e c i a l l y the road mak-i n g p o r t i o n of i t , under h i s p e c u l i a r and im-mediate d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l . No s i t e has been (38) (39) (40) Grant to goody* May 12, I860. (Moody Correspondence)* Moody to Bouglas, May 15, ISiO*. (Moody Correspondence)* 3|g0dy OOTQfpop&eB^., J 4-fiSb. (Moody Correspondence), 140-.* fixe®*,. no tender asked for or contract, without his order, knowledge and consent . * . Thus he has virtually- ignored the existence -of the Chief Cosffiissionsr of Works-. To. illustrate th® above statement the Bone^Similkaaeen Bead is given .as an example: We have been informed, anc. we believe correct-ly that when the site for the road was to be fixed, the Governor v i s i f c t e d Hope, c a l l e d a c o u n c i l con-sisting of the Chief-Justice, a few Indians, and one or two Hudson Bay servants; and although the Chief Commissioner of Lands and v/orks was i n Hope at, the time, he was, not JnvJL&ed_to, bo, nre.asn.t. Peeling, however, that the council related to a matter i n h i s department, he attended unasked, and at the close protested the d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t , and pointed to the route which has lately been ex-plored and found so pre-eminently s u p e r i o r , as the one which should be f i x e d upon. But the opinion of a few Indians and i n t e r e s t e d Hudson Bay Company servants was of course taken in preference to that of Colonel Moody. The r e s u l t of a l l this was that the iiimilka-meen road was pushed through at a l a r g e expense, and s h o r t l y afterwards was set aside f o r the one upon which Capt. Grant ha® been employed this season, and the prospect now is that bpfch of these roads w i l l be superseded by one d i r e c t to Kamioops, as suggested by the Chief Coiamissioner at f i r s t * Thus a very l a r g e amount of p u b l i c money and more than two years have been fooled away without giving Hope one available road. (41) toother editorial, suggested that the Royal Engineers were not always used to advantage: These Engineer© w i t h a l l their scientific s k i l l and ample experience were employed as cosaaon (.41) SSMm^m^m October 31, 1861 141* navvies i n making roads which were blun d e r i n g l y located by inexperienced and i r r e s p o n s i b l e men, e n t i r e l y ignorant of the topography of the country. I t i s a notorious f a c t that when a road i s to be l o c a t e d or a d i s t r i c t explored, a magistrate, a constable, a Hudson Bay Company's servant, or peradventure an Indian, i s sent out to explore and report upon the same, and a f t e r the route i s decided upon, the Chief Commissioner with h i s s t a f f of uoyal Engineers i s i n s t r u c t e d to make the road. Thus the Engineers are brought i n t o r e q u i s i t i o n simply to carry out the d e t a i l s , w h i l e the more important part of work, and that of a l l others which demand Engineering s k i l l -the e x p l o r a t i o n of the country and locating of our main roads, i s l e f t to Tom, hiok or harry, i r r e s -ponsible and unknown. But who i s responsible f o r a l l t h i s . Is i t the C h i e f Commissioner? Or are we forced to the conclusion that the Governor, in t h i s as i n many other matters, is determined to make the Chief Commissioner and his s t a f f of Engineers, in f a c t , mere empty ciphers? On t h i s p o i n t t r u t h compels us to admit that we b e l i e v e there are abundant circumstances which point out the l a t t e r as the -Although the above exerpts p o s s i b l y exaggerate conditions i n the new oolony there i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence to prove that Colonel_fieody was g r e a t l y hindered i n h i s work by Douglas, f i a e has a l s o proved that three s a i n routes of eosmunications i n t o the i n t e r i o r at d e s i r e d by Douglas were i m p r a c t i c a b l e . Had Governor BougXaa aad Colonel Moody been able to work t o -gether f o r the good of the country as a n t i c i p a t e d by S i r B, B* (43) L y t t o n , a t l e a s t isueh time and money would have been saved. (43) 'There i s no evidence i n the correspondence of the time that Colonel Moody d i d not ce-operate w i t h Governor Bougies*. In f a c t one wonders how he c a r r i e d out the Governor*s i n s t r u c t i o n s as well as he d i d . (42) 14S* Althettgn. there is. much to eende&n in Douglas* road-building policy there i s also a great deal to plaee to his credit aad justify his being called the *.Road King*. It i s no doubt due to his zeal end energy that consaunications with the interior developed as speedily as they did, A great deal of -the inefficiency of the contracting system may be excused be-cause communications were slow*, implements scarce and inade-quate, and supervision over so vast an area spasmodic, fhe controversial disputes between B-ouglas, Moody, and the c i v i l -ian contractors, the * graft* and mistakes connected, with road-building w i l l not be discussed here* The greatest problem facing Douglas was how to finance this, gigantic scheme, froa the f i r s t , Britain iiael (44) decreed that British. Columbia should pay i t s own way* This included the colonial pay of the Boyal 3ngin@ers* the regi-mental pay was sent from England* Titer® i s evidence that Douglas did apply for two loans from the -'other Country but (45) neither was forthcoming* It is interesting to note that the (44) B. C*. Papers* Pt* H I , P. 105. (Douglas to Newcastle, October 28,. 1859). J1?id«. (immediately before Part I) Itemized expenses for colony of British Columbia in 1858 and estimates for 1859. Mere Douglas states - *. . . I ara i n hopes of being able after the f i r s t year .to pay a l l our own ex-penses'*. Thence the attitude of the Colonial Office. Cf, Appendix Bouglas to Downing Street* October 143* Secretary of State i s quoted as saying: Never has a young Colony cost so l i t t l e as Br i t i s h Columbia, (46) At the outset the Qmetnox i n s i s t e d on a p o l i c y of 'pay as you go' for the young colony. Thus, while Victoria remained the port of entry and a free p a r t , a succession of customs duties, head taxes, licenses., mule taxes, and road and bridge t o l l s » both private and governmental - increased from year to year in British- Colusa i a to pay f o r the new roads, fhe f i r s t ' Toll Ordinance1' was issued i n October, 1-860, and from then on the t o l l system existed until tho finances of the country could U?) permit i t s withdrawal*. • In 10S1 Beuglas e s t a b l i s h e d the 'Cold Ssoort* whose business i t was to convey gold duet - collected by the minero • to Victoria.. As -the Government refused to assume any l i a b i l i t y for the l o s s of the gold, the 'escort* was doomed to failure. The original escort made only three t r i p s , while the 'reformed* escort (1866) made four t r i p s . Th* escort I t -self consisted of 12 weli*meunted uniformed sea, w i t h a guard cf four picked men and one aon-eojamissioned officer from the (46) British, Colu^jjun, September 1C, 1863, (47) I n t e r e s t i n g accounts and amount of these t o l l <j re I 1 ! !? ,in S c h o l e f i e l d , The Yale Cariboo V?a«on lioad. 'J.'he British Columbia Magazine, February, 1911. Jutcher, W., The Great North lioadf Vancouver, 1938. Of- MMMMILIUA (48) Eoyal lagtoooro* (48) Bm&l .MM&MtBxn.La&tmx Book. 3. July 11, Of. etcher, W., The Groat Horth Road. Cf. Howay and dchoiefield, oo. c i t . . II Cf. Begg, O P . c i t . . P. 277. 14ft* Chapter 11 In his o f f i c i a l capacity as Commissioner of Lands and -forks Colonel Hoody was responsible f o r the l o c a t i n g , s u r -v e y i n g , 'laying out and s e l l i n g of town iota and f o r the survey and -sale ©f 'country l a n d . He was also responsible f o r d e f i n * tag the boundaries of Hudson's Bay Company*© lands and Indian reserves and for l a y i n g apart c e r t a i n grants f o r church purposes, fhe surveying' and l a y i n g out of Hew Westminster has been discussed i n a previous chapter* Three other towns were important * those l o c a t e d on the s i t e s of .^ort jiope, Fort Yale (1) (2) and Port Douglas* In general the land was surveyed, town laid out and l o t s o f f e r e d f o r s a l e by means of a p u b l i c a u c t i o n , fhe upset p r i c e of these l o t s was ICQ d o l l a r s - 10$ to be de-posited at the time of the ©ale and the remainder w i t h i n one month* In both Hope and Tale c e r t a i n lots were set aside f o r . the appropriation of the Wesley an Missions, and churches and ill Many other towns!tes were s e l e c t e d . (See Moody's Memo Book I ) . Kost of these towns did not develop as they are not located on any maps. (2) Douglas, Private Official L e t t e r hook. ED 101.10. (Doug-las to Moody, September 20, 1859). Cf. Hoyaj Engineers L e t t e r hook 5. 1. 168. (Moody to Lempriere, February 6, I860). Lempriere was ordered to lay out additional l o t s f o r sale at I;'ort Mope. 146* U) schools were built* On Becesber 24, 1858, Douglas reported a town site laid out at Port Douglas and about 70 lots occupied. .In 1-86-Q- the Eoyal Jagineears surveyed the sites of Lillooet and Lyitan,, and in 1863 Mtburbas lots • adjacent to the city of lew Westminster were laid oat*- frequent mention i s made of the laying out of other email towns and the building of churches, schools,,, and government buildings,- by the Royal Engineers* It was- Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton*© intention that a l l the surveying of British Columbia should be done by Colonel Moody and his men, and that revenues.derived from these sales in be applied to survey ant other Colonial expenses. Governor Douglas issued his f i r s t Proclamation ©on* seaming the sale -of these- lands on Pebruary 14,, 1S1«, hand® offered for sale were listed under the following classes -* (3) Lands and Works Department* letter Book.,. I* PP.* 66-^1. (4) B.». g*. ..Papers... Pt* 11, P, 46* (Douglas to Lytton,. December (5) Lands and works Department, L e t t e r Looks (Provincial Archives) gives the correspondence relating to the sur-veying and l a y i n g out of these small towns* (6) BT C. gapera. Pt. I, P. 71. (Lytton to Douglas, October 16, 1868). This was found impossible. Moberly, Dewdney, J . w* Trutch, John 1'rutch and J. J . Cookrane were sworn in as surveyors on February 23 * 1861, (Lands and *. orks, Letter Book II. P- 137). However.the Hoyal Engineers did do practically a l l the public or o f f i c i a l surveys* (7) P. C. Papers. Pt. II, P. 75. (lytton to Douglas, .December 3$,"' ^ - ^ j -143* (l) town lands (2) genera! country lands ( 3 ) lands for s p e c i a l settlement. A l l mineral lands were reserved and no land was offered f o r sa l e without having been surveyed. Town lots were to'he ©old at auction - upset p r i c e to be fixed, l a t e r ; country lots were to be sold at p u b l i c auction at an upset p r i c e of (8) 10 s. per acre* This land p o l i c y proved a r e a l bar ier to the s e t t l e r as lands could not be bought at any price u n t i l f i r s t surveyed and. put up f o r motion* fhe p r i c e a l s o was pr o -hibitive t o the average pioneer. 'It wag only after several, p e t i t i o n s had feeen seat to the governor that he preelaiaed a second land scheme on .January 4., " 1300. Set tiers,, by this pro-clamation., could acquire unoccupied, unreserved, and unsurvey-ed Crown lands (not exceeding 160 acres) for•m r e g i s t r a t i o n fee of 8 d . then the land was surveyed the claimant could pur-chase the land at a p r i c e to be f i x e d by the government but m not exceeding 10s* per acre* Commenting on t h i s MacOonald says* This Proclamation w h i l s t purporting to hasten the settlement and improvement of the country en-couraged speculators to huy u p large, tr-.-.cls of tne best land to the exclusion of uen vrf-o would be of (8) Bg.rCf r.gaper.^ P t . I I , 1>* 64. (Douglas to Lytton, 7eh?u$>xy W^'WmyT^^tM Vancouver I s l a n d , i n 1S49-185C, l o t s sold at <fil per acr e . (9) . B r i t i s h Columbia l i s t of Proclamations 185&-1B64. (January 4,, 1B6©)* C f . MaCdonald, em. o i t . . . PP. 30&-3Q9* 148* real benefit to the country. The •Correspondent1 from V i c t o r i a - , commenting i n the London,. - •times*, on the land p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia s a i d that 10 shillings was r e a l l y too much to ask f o r the land* ,* * Most who want to s e t t l e are poor men whose means- w i l l be exhausted i a the expense of t r a n s -port,- the cost - of implements of husbandry., of '• - farm-stock-, and of b u i l d i n g s and who after these charges, or even seme of them, are defrayed, cannot a f f o r d to pay 10s» an acre f o r t h e i r land* .And these are the very classes Most needed i n a new country whose c a p i t a l i s t h e i r l a b o u r . (10} A l e t t e r by ^ J u s t i c e * appearing i n the ^British C o l u m b i a n M a y 3-0., 1861,- stated: I t would appear thece i a something m a t e r i a l l y wrong i n our land system, more e s p e c i a l l y as r e -gards the a p p l i c a t i o n of Scrip* As the case c i t e d is of importance to a l l i n t e r e s t e d in the welfare of the colony, i t would bo .veil to k.:ow whether the blame r e s t s with those who framed the conditions embodied i n the Land h i l l and S c r i p , or with Col. Moody, whose duty i t i s to carry them out. It may appear to many that the Chief Commissioner of Lands and .-orks i s alone to blame i n the .uatter; but per-haps the public i s not aware that the Chief Commissioner had nothing whatever to do wi th the framing of the Land h i l l , Ucrip or Certificate of Title — consequently . . » he cannot oe held r e s -ponsible for the rotten foundation upon which they (10) The TimeB. London, March 15, I860. (From Ziotoria to^espondent) * Donald Eraser was the hritxsxi corres-pondent to the .London • Times' at that time. are ba*#&* f l l ) e d i t o r i a l l a the same paper dated August 2, 1861, His ISxcellency was pleased, when last here, to intiiaate six a intention of codifying our pre-sent land system, which consists or a mxraber of proclamations, conflicting, ambiguous, and unin-t e l l i g i b l e to the ordinary s«_ttxev, and but too well calculated to lead to :aisundero<,-.-iding and end in l i t i g a t i o n . (12) our land policy whicii has certainly undergone a decided improvement within the last year, and i s , in the abstract, far from a bad one, i s s t i l l by no means aa liberal as that of some of the other colonies. The "free grant* system in operation elsewhere, should, with as l i t t l e delay as possible, be introduced here. . * * The idea of raising a revenue from the sale of Grown Lands i s a r e l i c of the dark ages. (13) A third Proclamation was issued in 1061 but this showed l i t t l e improvement ever the previous one©. tae Bute of Heweastla realizing that the distribu-tion- o f land i n a new colony was a problem, sent Gap t a i n Clarke5» scheme f o r the d i s p o s a l of land to Bougies - with the eaidj Again:-,. (U) (12) (13) power than a merchant's clerk. -jbfrd*,.. August 215, 1851. i b i d . , January 2, 1362. ( E d i t o r i a l ) 1$Q. suggestion that i t might be of use in B r i t i s h Columbia, Cap-tain C l a r k e , fUS*. had been surveyor-general i n A u s t r a l i a and (14) knew. © o l e n i a i problems* l a 1860, at the request of Douglas. Moody worked out a land scheme f o r British-Columbia. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n he pointed out that to secure s e t t l o r s f o r the actual occupation and c u l t i v a t i o n of r u r a l lands there must be several a t t r s e * t i o n s • (!) power of s e l e c t i o n (2) easy end prompt acquirement (3) smallest possible coat to s e t t l e r (4) powers of l o c a l t a x a t i o n f o r formation of communication .and (.5) ,an. assurance,, publically announced i n the *Aot* i t s e l f that whatsoever money be derived by Government f o r s a l e of' lands (deducting cost of survey) s h a l l be s t r i c t l y applied to' the importation of labour''. A f t e r p o i n t i n g out the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and r i s k of b r i n g i n g i n s e t t l e r s . Moody set f o r t h three very d e t a i l e d * modes*, by which imsurveyed and unreserved r u r a l lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia might be obtained under c e r t a i n conditions of U s ) fre*-«aption* I h i s r e p o r t was sent to Douglas on I'ovaaber 7, 1840, with the request that a copy he seat to the -Secretary of U*) B,« C. Papers, pt. i n , PP. 106-105. ( d i k e ' s land scheme printed) * .Enclosure i n despatch from 2-1 eweaetle to Douglas, -January 7,. i860-. (15) M2M*MmMm£Mjm&Mju ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s ) . This very d e t a i l e d report c o n s i s t s of 34 c l o s e l y written pages. X 51 » (is) State-. Beuglas made l i t t l e use, i f any, of either Clarke'*© or loedy's r e p o r t . The r e s u l t of Douglas* land scheme was few s e t t l e r s and wide s p e c u l a t i o n . A *»isc-©llaneous collection' in the P r o v i n c i a l Archives contains a boo*let # written in the hand-w r i t i n g of Captain H. E* Luard to the Colonial s e c r e t a r y , Victoria, 1. C*, which contains a l i s t of pur eh -sera of land in (17) B, C. Such names as 3 ohxi hob son, Robert burnaby, Oo>in b. Helmcken, John Grant, *illiaa» B. Gocsot, A. C» Youn^ ., John Murray .and-Kichard i.oody appear frequently* Bougies* name does not appear but there i s a l a r g e grant to the Hudson's Bay Company i n .September, 1862* The f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n of t h i s *laad grabbing' activity appeared i n the 'British C o l o n i s t5 oa October 4, 1860* Ihe notice stated that Colonel iiocdy had studk a paper on a tree dated "Ked ^ ax t i l *ork, -jept. 19 th'', to inform public that he had pre-empted 200 acres of land west and north of s a i d 'Fork'. (16) Moody frequently requested that h i s copies of reports be sent to the Secretary of -,tste. The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e on the other hand complained about not having reports from Moody. I do not understand t h i s for the only means of comraunieation was through the Governor* (l?) As the nu&3<»er of acres and p r i c e per a c r e are acldoia f i l l e d i n ana the l o c a t i o n not given i t i s impossible to estimate amount of land owned by e-;,ch purchaser. (This paper records tho l i s t of purchasers of land in British Columbia w i t h the number of the t i t l e deed, the number and cost o f each acre, the surveyor, date of surveys, and whether s o l d by p r i v a t e or p u b l i c auction.) 152. from then on frequent references were made to i t . A letter signed *X. Y. z,* appeared in the 'British Columbian' on February 13, 1861, asking i f the rumor were true that the Chief Commissioner of Lands and works, the Chief Justice, and several other Government O f f i c i a l s , had formed themselves into a *Joint Stock Company* with a large capital, for the purpose-of buying up the public lands. The following week a letter signed *A farmer*, and t i t l e d * fhe Humor1 continued the dis-(16) eussion. . . . How many, and who compose this Company, I w i l l not pretend to say; hut the Chief Commissioner is certainly the chief agent, and from the favour-able position in which his office places him, he i s a host in himself. Through the reports of his .Engineers and other persons, he is likely to find out where the host lands are situated, and frcm the amplitude of his purse, and his perfect knowledge of the ambiguity and weaknesses of our land system, no one is so competent as himself to secure the good land when he finds i t s locations; and from facts A-oich have oome to ray knowledge recently; i t would really seem that he intends to use a l l the advantages which his office and situation afford him for his own special emolument, and not for the general good. By pre-empting in the most wholesale manner, by applying scrip, and in other, hut wore object-ionable ways, he has now, or pretends he has some kind of claim to several thousand acres of the best rural land in the vicinity of New Westminster, and I am informed, and know that he claims extensive (18) British Columbian.. February 21, 1861. (Correspondence). Cf. Appendix IX. for l i s t of land owned by Moody xn 1073. 153* t r a c t s of land in othor p a r t s of the Colony, and s t i l l he Bd&xna to 'be as rapacious f o r roro as though he had not a s i n g l e acre. It has been sxtg,rented to ne by a .friend of the Colonel's, that he, the C o l . , i s a c t i n g i n the matter, w i t h the pureot of motives - that he tried hard to get our land system so worked as to keep out s p e c u l a t i o n and secure the ?;ood 1-and f o r the a c t u a l s e t t l o r , that having f a i l e d to do so, he i s now c!©t#rsi»e& to get tmeh of the Crown lan-.'.s a® yossit l e under h i s I n d i v i d u a l oon-t r o l i n order t o keep i t fr< u the rr v.y:> of s e l f i s h 1 snd-sJtarksj and that a® seem as the a c t u a l s e t t l e r a r r i v e s he w i l l r e l e „&e h i s grasp and al l o w those who w i l l s e t t l e and improve, to pur-chase tern M a at a very small advaooe on the original c o s t , thus rendering himself exceeding popular, and prove a 1 aotiivr b e n e f i t to the Colony. *& Parmer• continues ©y saying he hopes this l a t t e r defense i a true but i s doubtful, and continues w i t h these words j Why ia the C o l . t r y i n g by e a j o l a r y and threats to buy .out the. a c t u a l s e t t l e r as t r o l l as the ab-sentee. I f lit i s allowed to do t h i a , h i s name w i l l bee esse a by-word and a reproach; h i s presence « o n g « t us., i f he p e r s i s t s i n such a ruinous o-ourso, w i l l prove a permanent curse to the colony. Var better had he remained i n Vancouver or sons place f u r t h e r away*-Another . i s t i « * t i © a of t h i e *lsnfi grabblag* appears in a n o t i c e a d v e r t i s i n g th© lend *4jassort to a road to he b u i l t israediately iter ©ugh. the P i t t K i v e r Meadows* I t says: kg t h i s road w i l l i n t e r s e c t a large t r a c t of seas 2©,®0C acres of e & c o l l e n i a g r i c u l t u r a l land, we would advise far: .ere t>- talro a Ifok at I t be-f o r e i t f a l l s i n t o the rapacious ra-.,w of our "land-sharks*. (19) (li) Maroli % 1CMRU 184*. On March 14, 1861, the 'Colonist* again joined the •British Columbian* on attacking this 'hand Grabbing* policy. It stated that Colonel Moody had pre-empted over 15,000 acres of land in various portions of the colony although he was only (20) entitled to 1000 acres at one dollar per acre, finally an editorial appeared in the British Columbian on August 29, 1861, stating that Colonel Moody would s e l l any or a l l of his rural (21) land to any active settler. This was followed by an editorial, on® paragraph of which said; . . . we are now happy to state, JOJ. authority, that the Chief Commissi oner of hands and Works, who was generally believed to be somewhat taint-ed with this fever. will s e l l to any actual fe tiler; a l l , or any parcel* of rural land talc en y him, at what i t actually cost, thus giving such settler the benefit of all. the advantages-supposed to be possessed by the Chief Commission-er by virtue of*his o f f i c i a l position etc. (22) It looks, by this editorial, as i f Colonel Moody was at last realising that the people of British.. Colasbia.;were not blind to the fact that he was acquiring larger tracts of land than were his due. After the above editorial appeared a l l corres-pondence on 'land grabbing* ceased. It i s really amazing that th© discussion ran aa long as i t did as John Bobaen, the (20) 'Colonist, March 14., 1861. <31) JSrttJsh .C^ju^tsa, August 29, 1861. (2 2 ) i b t d * ^ mmst 29, 1861* (Editorial) 155 e d i t o r of the * : B r i t i s h Columbian*., was' a close f r i e n d of Colonel Xeody and used h i s paper c o n t i n u a l l y In h i s defence. S t a t i s t i c show that lobs-en was no l i t t l e •shark1 himself. hind i n t h e i r c o l o n i a l pay * the expenditures of th© colony were f a r greater than th® revenues* fhe Royal 'Engineers pro-posed (and gained the consent of the governor) that they be allowed to purchase land with the c e r t l f i e a t e they were r e -(24) o e i v i a g of *pay duo*. However, -this apparently was not s a t i s -f a c t o r y * liaay oomplainta were forthcoming and ranch discontent was f e l t about the l a r g e reserves being made which could n e i t h e r be pre*-e»fted or purchased. On A p r i l 16, i860, Douglas wrote to loedy informing him. that the government could no lo n g -er sanction the -system o f paying f o r p u b l i c work® wi t h land instead of money, as i t depreciated the value of land* ^ I n one case, ha stated,, land was estimated at 90 cents per acre. (m By the f a l l ©f 1859 the Boyal Ingiaeers were far- be-Moody,. h i m s e l f , pu*o&as*d a suburban allotment which (33) that he was not alonp in his crime. (24) Douglas to Moody. P 485. (Douglas Correspondence, October 5, 1859) . (25) ibfd...... I 48Sb* 4 p r i l 10. I860. 156 ( 26) he later developed into his model farm, Bayfield* In a private letter to Douglas* asking permission to purchase this land. Moody said: I should feel therefore greatly obliged by your iibccellenoy's sanction for to obtain at once at the upset price a suburban allotment. The spot I have selected i s away from the site of commercial value on the Hiver shore & yet conveniently near to lay duties in the town and close to the Barracks where I shall have to reside* It is about a mile and a half from the town wi th the public park between* The land ia not at present of good quality but i t would be an amusement to make i t so <& the site is elevated with an agreeable aspect. The quantity of land i s about 5 or 6 acres. (27) (26) This farm situated on the worth Road between Sew West-minster and Burr ard Inlet i s frequently referred to be-cause i t was a model farm. The Colonist (March 23, 1861) said the farm contained 200 or 300 acres. Loody referred to *liayfield' in his letter to II. 1. P* Grease, September 9, 1870. (Crease Correspondence, Provincial Archives). (27) Lands and Works, Letter; Xfook I, P. 34. (koody to Douglas, April 8, 1859). This letter signed *H. C. i i . * is a mark-ed contrast to the more formal o f f i c i a l correspondence. It seems that up to this date, at least, JAoody considered Douglas a personal friend as well as a superior officer. Hiss Wolfenden says that ^oody also purchased land and built a summer home at Port koody (named after Colonel Moody) but I can find no reference to this. Cf. Append, 1%. IX.. The photostat in this appendix is a re-cord of land owned by iioody in 1873. It ia contained in a letter written by woody to h. Is. Crease, Attorney-General of British Columbia on Doeember 22, 1873. K. L. Held, K.C., Vancouver, b. C , says the Hew west-minster City Council, in 1900, sued Moody's son-in-law, John Ross Foord, of Lent, England for non-payment of taxes. This property was holding up the sals of- land -especially around iiurnaby Lake. The Council finally sold the land at auction. Juiue of i t brought 425 for 160 acres. Mr. lie id says Aio ody also owned land on Lulu Island* fhe surveying and l a y i n g out of the land between the Fraser River and the frontier and around lew Westminster was an important part of the work of the Royal Singineers* On May 8, 18$@t Douglas wrote t o Lytton a d v i s i n g hiai that 'the exten* sive p l a i n s on. the P i t t , States* said Chilwhayoolc rivers were to • he h u r r i e d l y surveyed end t h r o w i n t o 80 acre seetions f o r is w e d i s t e occupation f o r . t h e purpose of r a i s i n g food ana re* (28) t a i n i n g a permanent population l a the country »• , On May 12, 18§9, Moody ordered Parsons to have the open lands on the Pitt (29) Hirer surveyed for rural allotments of 40 acres each. However in writing to Douglas on May 14^ 1859, Moody assured him that he was ?ery much opposed to settling land between the Fraser and the 'Frontier* until there was some prospect of an extern* sive British settlement* He did suggest, on the other hand, that this land be settled by B r i t i s h subj cits on 'feudal terms' for 21 years - to be occupied by naval and m i l i t a r y and by civilians who had served the Crown and servants of the Hudson's Bay Company who would serve as a military guard i f the occasion (50) arose. Realizing that Douglas s t i l l hoped to make a commercial (29) Lands and Sorka, Letter Book I. P. 87. (Moody to Parsons, :-ay 12, 1859). ^ n c Cf. Royal rlngineers Lett,er^ook^, P. 26. (30) Lands and Works, Letter Book I, P. 89-90. (Moody to (28) se refer to th Douglas, i * ay 14, 1859). 158. town of L-aagley, Moody added? Tour Sxeelieney to already aware of ay opinion that Langley i s inferior i n every respect to Queens-borough as the Sit© for a' Commercial city and for intended communications to the interior by railways '•. and other modes-. (31) At- the time- of the arrival of the- Royal Baginssrs Burrard Inlet was 'a veritable lumberman**? paradise*, fhe land on both sides of the inlet * extending from the First Marrows to fort Moody - was covered with a forest of the finest f i r and (3.2) ©edar' in the colony. The f i r s t access to hurrard Inlet was a t r a i l about 6-miles long built by the B<yal .'Engineers in 1859. Two parties worked on the t r a i l * one at £70 per mile, the (33) other at «C60. It was built for merely military purposes to (31) Lands and Works, Letter Book I. PP. 89-90. (lloody to Douglas, May 14, 1859). iioody asks his opinion to be sent to the Colonial Office. This in really the second time that idoody, viewing the proposition from a military point of view, overrules Douglas. Of course i t was Douglas* privilege to assert his authority i f he cared to, but I think he realized that lytton supported Moody in military affairs. (32) First steps to u t i l i z e this timber were taken in winter of 1862 by f , v/. Graham and Company* contractors and builders of Sew Westminster, who pre-empted 480 acres of timber at *Moodyville* - now a part of Korth Vancouver. The f i r s t cargo was shipped to Mew Westminster in August 1863. Howay, ;Jarly Shipping in Hurrard Inlet, The, Br,,! | j sh. ffoliambj a .Hjs- frorl cal %uar t .er jar. January, 1937. (33) Rpya-j. ^ fflgjneer^ fetter Book 3. ./h. 108-110, (iioody to Grant, September 30, 1859 - fhe *North Road' of today). Cf. .SmfflTJ^  P. 127. 159, provide "lit® Boyal Engineers with an ou t l e t on the north side of t h e i r 0amp and to a f f o r d a second means of approach to the ^c a p i t a l * Speaking of t h i s type of t r a i l * and of t h i s one i n p a r t i c u l a r - Admiral Bayries, of II. M, 3. 'Plumper'* s a i d , *These t r a i l s are rough t a l k i n g w i t h stumps and i n e q u a l i t i e s l i a b l e to t r i p one up every minute ao that i t i s necessary to look at (34) your steps.* The • ^ B r i t i s h Columbian* reported that ' t h i s road passes through a b e a u t i f u l a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t and leads to (35) the farms of Mr. Holme and Colonel Moody., iu'L*. * This was l a t e r developed i n t o a m i l i t a r y road. The second t r a i l l e d t o B n g l i s h Bay. It was 13 miles i n l e n g t h , extending from Douglas Street (Eighth S t r e e t ) , Sew Westminster* f o r a mile and a h a l f * then to the l e f t to the head of Fa1.se Creek, and thence along the southern shore of (36) E n g l i s h Pay to the v i c i n i t y of the naval reserve. This t r a i l was a ne c e s s i t y turn a military paint of view as i t afforded a means of a contact w i t h the men-of-war that found the e x t r a t r i p to Port Moody t e d i o u s . Moody was requested by Douglas to (.34,) He-way*. jr. w,0 aarly Chipping on Durrard Inlet* 1863-1870. f f f i ' ^ f fffik.CftJDWUft, A^fi-Sal„ K^artey.ly, P. 102, Janu-W British Coluafclan^ February 13, 1861. U§) Howay, P. jyqfty 3a$tlaaan,t ,W »W*m The Dj-ftjsh Columbia Historical quarterly, April, 1937. (This is Jericho Ueach <^f tod^y.) ISO* obtain penal sal on from the Secretary of State to b u i l d t h i s road. Apparently the request was granted as the t r a i l had reached False Creek by October 'I860, wlien the construction of it'stopped. However i t was resumed i n .February 1061 -md e©»i-(37) pleted i n the antuan of the SF»»6 year. fhe t h i r d t r a i l was a r e s u l t of the Pre-ewptioa Pro* elevation o f -January 4, 1860. When p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the land along the t r a i l t o Burrard I n l e t (Korth ho ad) had been spoken f o r , a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d to the fine fartaing land in the locality of Burnaby Lake. As soon as t h i s land was - ••pre-empt-ed*, & road was needed t o connect i t w i t h JSew Westminster* Moody,, was e s p e c i a l l y interested i n softs mean© of eoiamuni cation with t h i s area as he himself had secured large t r a c t s of land* fhe con s t r u c t i o n af a t r a i l was l e t to • Sparrow and KcDonald*. L i k e the t r a i l to English Bay i t was an extension of Douglas Head, hy Deeeraher, 1861, t h i s t r a i l , the present •Douglas-Road** had reached Burnaby Lake, fhe contract had called f o r a. four and one-half mile t r a i l at £79 per tails. However -only three and one-half miles were completed at the cost of £373 (38) 12«. 4d . Thus by the end of Deces&er 1861, there were three (37) Howay, P. 'Sarly yettleaaent on Burrard Inlet, fhe ' | ! 4 l k i M M B ! ^ 102, April, 1937, Douglas evidently thou.-ht Iloody intended this dis-t r i c t for settlement. It would be interesting to know how much 3ouglas knew at this time of foody* 3 land-grab-bing activity. (38) ihjd*. PP. 102-103. 161. lines of eesisunieation In the peninsula » the 'Horth Eoad* t o Burrard Inlet, the military t r a i l to 'Jericho' and the 'Douglas Road* to Burnsby Lake. In reference to the Burnatoy Lake d i s t r i c t , loody arete t o Douglas on September 18, 1862, stating that owners of country land around Bur&aby Lake had. applied asking permission to lower the 'Outlet' and to be allowed to purchase and obtain from the government-,, at the upset jar ice of 4 s. 2d. per acre,, the land they could-reclaim (now under water}., contiguous to the land they owned* Apparently this was done as Douglas con-- im) sidered i t advantageous f o r the country. The reservation of land for m i l i t a r y and naval pur-poses was considered of prime importance by 'Colonel. Moody* B s r l y i a January* 186-0, the whole of the apposite s i d e of the f r a s e r R i v e r , extending froa two m i l e s ab^ve the Junction of the Pitt and tracer Mivera to s i x mile© below Mow Sestatlnster, and a l l across to the ' f r o n t i e r ' , was reserved f o r ' m i l i t a r y (40) considerations** The land reserved on Durrard I n l e t included: (l) naval reserves of 110 acres and 788 acres at ''Jericho'' and Point Grey (upon a part of which the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h (39) Moody to Douglas, f Sept saber 18, 1862. ( P r o v i n c i a l Archives)* .. January 20, I860. (4.0) .faA^'il.Am, 1 hettff*.• » » e f t ^ . P* lb-V Ccltnafeia new stand*} (2) a military r e s e r v e of 354 acres on th© gsipnth aide o f H**t Harrew* (3ts«ley Park) (3) & s i l i t u r y re* serve o f skout 950 aoree on the north shore {immediately @ppe#it® Stanley Park) (4) a naval ri<«<>r-'e of 155 acr^e near •the place known es CrrmvilTe* (5) a naval rc'-erve f 110 acres near Pert l'.'oody and (6) tvo nil * t*\ry T O- '«-v«n. tr'0 acres and 127 -a<rre% respectively, tho w t t i '-na m nth cttfee o f the entrance to Port ""ooiy* '""bo *tf>ove j-.T-ary ."u ;1 van hy Judge Hov?sgr i^ bo adds, * i t rauet to adult tad that ev icy .-oint of v m t -, L^;e 3m* *' t c " ' « ^ to 7f?**?oot t*>o vit-ry • st't?*• A govern-sacnt r e s e r v e for t? tovm (later 1e<. -n't :• -r;ti-Vo-vnnite) was (42) ere: ted in V f>0 1H61. On ,Tcjva-ixy 10, 1800, t?'o -•lro-anption d o i a s of* ISC nores earth - ?3 chains frot)t.r..*0 in the Hurfeonr by 60 chains deep - w a **JTMIO * y Uobcrt rnvti~*v Tad i r . K P«, Crease. Tbson claims, a-*1 v^rc .-r. t.hn a^at ni^s* of th® (45) naval roaorve at tho •Coal* a i t i . In ^dhruecy .M r-«,rch, 1863, C4i] :?ow, v . ^ a x ^ m ^ m i ^ J i m a a ^ j i ^ ^ >v* i f ? i * Pmolic n o t i c e s ©f these reservations appear i n ^cody's ??«ae Book !• (1) ocpteEfloer 24, 1C6S, eserved for tive present * r*i fbe south s i d e 5f ';UST>TA*<3 Tnlet- f f m second n-arrows -three niles westward md 1 aile backward » f r o a water* (2) 'deeper ?.% IOC?, hrnd r^-jcrrod - • portion of l a n d eoBiaeneing at the iw&ih .-f the Jlerth &rm o f f r a s e r hiver and acteadltts arowid .*.'.«?int cwey as far a® the Uawal Becerve in Jivaiah l a y , Purvard, T.urrard I n l e t , to a diet-nee irtl ;nd o*" >yf' i l * frV" the c'etc l i n e , has been reserved f o r tho -recent 163. a party of Boyal Ingineere, under Lance-Corp or a! George Turner, R.B,,. made a complete surrey of the shore-line from 'Hastings Townsite* reserve to false Creek. Starting a t the townsite reserve he surveyed the south shore o f Burrard Inlet., laying out, in succession,, lota 184, 185, 182 and 181,. a towneite re-serve (which i n c l u d e d the o r i g i n a l n a v a l reserve i n that l o c a l i t y ) , and l o t 185, which brought him to the m i l i t a r y r e * serve at First Barrows (now Stanley Park). Lot 185 became the property of Hailstone, Morton and Brlghousc, the f i r s t inhabi-t a n t s of Vancouver j Lot 184 was granted in January, 1864, to John Graham, a c l e r k In th© Government Treasury office j Lot-183 was granted to Thomas Ranalds on who later conveyed i t to H. P. P. Crease? Lot 182 was granted to H. P. P. Crease, and (44) Lot 181 was granted to Robert Burnafoy in- October, 1863. Apparently Moody's 'land-grabbing* a c t i v i t i e s d i d not extend past Bumaby Lake, However, i t is interesting to note that to C o l o n e l Moody i s due the credit of setting; apart as a mill* (45) tary r e s e r v e tho land now known as 'Stanley Park*. In April,, 1863, w h i l e the Koyal Engineers were sur-veying the suburban lots adjoining the C i t y o f New'Westminster, (44) howay, ->\ j&2^9l&SMaS. W T^TWft *fftttl» ** i 0 4 ' (45) Horry, n^M^^^M.^SX^MJ^3^>  v-  9« 164* the Aiunieipal Council honoured Colonel Moody with the following resolution* Moved by Mr, A. II. Uanson, seconded by hr, John Cooper and resolved: That, i s consequence of the judicious selection of the townaite of Mew Westminster for the capital of British Columbia by Colonel Moody, h. S*t this Council considers i t desirable that a space of not less than twenty aorea should he reserved in the auburbu ;iot being surveyed to be called '2'oody iiquare* in coaaaesi-cr:^  tion of the founder of the city; jur.1 th.-it the Clerk be instructed to forward .a copy of this re-solution to the Chief Coauiasioner of UMUXO and Works with a request that the same may be acted upon. (46) (40) Howay, m ^ ^ M l ^ M ^ ^ ^ M M * »-a f i t t i n g tribute to Colonel woody. 165. Chapter 12 This chapter i s miscellaneous in character. It dis-cusses the relationship between Captain w. Driseoll, Cosset, Colonial Treasurer, and the Royal Engineers; Moody's opinion of further immigration into the Colony; his attitude towards the Hudson's Bay Company, and several miscellaneous activities not previously mentioned. fhe work of Captain W. Driseoll, Cosset, R. d,, - not directly connected with Colonel Moody's detachment, but working at the same period in Hew Westminster, and often in conjunction with Colonel Moody - is important. Captain Cosset, appointed by Sir ®. 33. Lytton, had come out to British Columbia with Colonel Moody in 1§5® to act a© Colonial Treasurer for the mainland. He ia described ae an impulsive, independent, young man, proud of his own abi l i t y , and zealous of his own interest. Like Colonel Moody, he was often at loggerheads with Governor Douglas But did not have Keody's power of self-restraint. That Colonel Moody and Captain Gosset were intimate friends probably aeie their relationship with the Governor more tens®. • .Captain Cosset waa intensely interested in the' new Colony and devoted his s k i l l and energy to i t s advancement. On April 25, 1850 he wrote; Commissioned by the Secretary of State for Her Majesty* s -colonies, to under take the task of organising a mint {of which an Assay Office forms a part) .should the- necessity -arise for such, an-establtehmemt in the colony* . . that th® time has now arrifed for introducing a portion of such an establishment there I hare likewise premised, and now recommend immediate action, (l) fhe o f f i c i a l s in the colony of British Columbia con-sidered the SoTernmsnt Assay Office an important institution and worthy of a f i t t i n g building, thus Colons! Moody prepared vhat he considered suitable plans and estimates were given at £3,403* However* Douglas refused to consider this proposition., (2) estimating that #400 was sufficient* fhe -Government Assay Office as desired by Douglas « was opened in Sew Westminster on August 1, I860* Although this department did not pay for (3) i t s own maintenance* i t was successful in handling the gold so far as- the miners were concerned, and the public waa fully aware of i t s direct value to the colony, fhe- *British Columbian'* stated*. Miners and others bear open testimony to the integrity of the processes employed; and they -de-clare that by bringing their dust to the Govern-ment Assay Qffl#e here they realised two,, three, and as much as four percent more than i f they had taken, i t to private Assay offices elsewhere. It U ) B. Cr Papers. Pt. I l l , P. 13, April 25, 1859. {inoloaure}. Cf. Bri t i s h Columbian. May 17, 1862. Cf. Keid, H* L., A w a y office and Proposed lint.. P. 31* (2) Reid, R. L., Assay Office and Proposed Mint at Mew tfest*., minster. Victoria, 1926, P. 22. (3) ibjLdfr. P. 26* i s not too much to assert further that the accur-acy and fid e l i t y of the Government Assay Office have been advantageous to those who did nott avail themselves of i t s service; the result of assays having had the effect of making private parties more careful in their dealings . . . Suppose . . . that the Government Assay Office has acted as a check upon private meltero and assayere elsewhere to the tune of one percent upon our Colony's yield, taken at six million dollars last year, this im-portant and interested classes in the Colony, the miners and merchants. (4) The output of gold was so satisfactory in 1861 that, in November, Captain Cosset was called upon ty Ch vernor Douglas to obtain some seoond^hand machinery f o r a mint which was ob-tainable in 3an frameiso© for a few thousand d o l l a r s . Although Gosaet would his?® p r e f e r r e d to wait longer i n order to procure perfect and more economical machinery from England, his opinion was overruled and the machinery from 6 an Francisco was landed in Sew Westminster in March, 1862. Moody at once placed non-commissioned officers and men of the hoyal engineers at Goes-(6) et's disposal to aid in the erection of machinery. However, almost immediately orders, were received from *C*ar* Douglas •to grease i t and lay i t by*', ihen Gosset r e a l i s e d that the U) U) Brjtjsh,. Cojumb,!^, May 17, 1862. (Editorial). ibld.|.. April S, 1862. ibifa- April 10, 1862* 168* funds necessary to complete the arrangements were refused hy Douglas * rather than see a l l progress' stopped - he west on with the principal engineering operations at his own expense. The *British Columbian* was eager to have the mint started and supported Gosset in hie determination. On hay 31, 1862 an editorial statedJ . Gapt. Gosset, the Deputy Master of Mint, has certainly displayed the uoat praiseworthy ^eal in the erection of the plant so far; and i t is grati-fying to learn that the nint will he re-xJy for work in a few days. But the question, i s , will i t be put in operation when i t is ready? ','e regret to know that His Sxcellency the Gtrv®moT has ser-iously hampered Capt. Gosset in the way of funds; and even now the small amount necessary to con-struct the requisite biiildingo ia not for the arcing. The work has a l l been done by two or three Royal Engineers kindly furnished by Colonel I'oody, and under numerous disadvantages, and in epit© of diverse obstacles - one would be tempted to say dosJ»ffledjy, thrown in the way - the iridoianitable energy and firm determination of the Deputy Master have triumphed,, or w i l l at least in a few days. (8) In. spite of definite orders from Douglas that no • coins were to be struck, Gosset did strike off some specimen copies, some of which were sent to Douglas, some exhibited to vis i t o r s , and others displayed at the Imperial Xxhibltion in London* A few residents of Sew Westminster were successful in obtaining specimens of coins made from gold supplied by them-selves* In a l l , Gosset coined 18 ten-dollar pieces and 20 iB) F f t * l « * i Columbian May SI, 1863« (Editorial). l i t * (9) twenty-dollar pieces valued at £?6* At the famous lurdook sale in London, i n 1903, en© of the $20 pieces sold for £116, and {10} in 1*11 at 3«tfeefey*« Oo#eet*s own- $20 piece sold for £210« As early as January* 1862, Cosset was asking for a year's leave of absence on account of i l l health* Whether he was physically t i l .or nervously upset by the 'brusque reprimands and constant f r i c t i o n between Douglas and Matsslf i s d i f f i c u l t to say* In writing to the- colonial secretary he said *I have *'no thought* beyond the- one, of every hour 1 delay here, te (11} get way fjpcsa an anxious post l*ve stayed at too long**1 Doug-las' confidential report on Gosset was as follows: My experience of Captain Go esse t has not been happy• rhxcept as a mere Treasury Clerk, h© ha© been of no use to me. As a finanoial officer ho was valueless* I have invariably found him de-fective in judgement. His t*anzper is capricious, aad I cannot recall a single instance of any use-f u l suggestion made by him* I could never rely on his cordial co-operation in combined measures, and I am rcorcover persuaded that he encouraged dis-affection and wilfully misrepresented .ray government, through the public Press, "both in this Country and abroad. In short, i believe him to he politically fMt^W,, an£ unpfineipM* (9) Keid, R. L., on. o i t . . P. 68. Jtinii grant Soldiers* Gazette, Addenda - saya only five twenty-dollar and ten ten-dollar pieces were coined. (10) ibid.. P, 85* Jurther information regarding these coins in to he found in Tteid, on. c i t . . PP. 85-88. U i > ibiaW p * y®* im. Age ahout 40. Health and constitution feeble. (12) The people of Sew Westminster, among whom he. dwelt, appreciated h i e worth and s e r v i c e s to th© colony* When he fi n a l l y l e f t f o r Jfctgland an- e d i t o r i a l on h i s departure paid high t r i b u t e to M s work. . . . he has been emphatically one of ue - a true B r i t i s h Columbian in every sense. On a l l occasions and under a l l circumstaneee, identifying himself with-.the place and i t s wants and i n t e r e s t s , he stands, in o f f i c i a l c ircles, i n connection w i t h the r i s e and progress of this C i t y , second only to Colonel Moody, who must over stand peerless •* em-phatically the fa t h e r and founder of Hew v.'eatminater » as well aa the uncompromising friend of the Colony and the people* (13) Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to justify Goesat*e actions as a subordinate to Douglas-, I t l a a l s o d i f f i c u l t to defend Bougies* a t t i t u d e toward Gosset. $osset was seat out to B r i t i s h . Columbia by S i r Sdward Bulwer hytton f o r a definite purpose. Bue to the Jealousy between the two c i t i e s and the t r a i n i n g and the n a t u r a l antipathy o f the two man* ©caeet could »ake no headway. Because of M s subordinate p o s i t i o n and nigh-strung- temperament he broke down.* The treatment mated out by ©overa-or .Douglas to Oolonal Moody was p r a c t i c a l l y the same aa that given to Captain Gosset. ' However Moody reacted in a d i f f -erent way, as w i l l be seen i n a l a t e r chapter. (12). C o n f i d e n t i a l Eoport on Vtfe-lio Servants ( P r o v i n c i a l Jir c h i v e s } . Mo date given • probably 106... of., acid, B . u*s»bj&&M*  m* (is) $9iwnm*  30«  X66Z* xm*. Although Colonel Moody could always find work for aay one aeimally in need of I t , fee carefully abstained from en-couraging immigration into the new land. In writing to George P. Birkinahaw, Virginia, W. 8* he stated: The adviae given you "by the Vicar of New-castle was evidently forwarded on a more hopeful aspedt of affairs than exists here j £ the oye^njfr moment, and from experience I make i t a rule to refrain from taking on myself the responsibility of recommending any one so serious a step as Emigration* , The successful persons at the commencement of a Colony are the "bona fide" laboring men -the Hedgers & Ditchers of Old England & (sic) the Woodsmen of Canada* With Gentlemen, the uphill Work & the anxie-ties prove to be in 99 cases out of a 100 i n f i n i t e -ly beyond their anticipation. (14) In writing to G. ?/. Yeats, who claimed that hopes had been held out to him of receiving public employment i f he could find his 77ay out to the colony, Robert Bumaby said: I am to state that you are under a misappre-hension, Col. Moody having carefully abstained from holding out hopes of such a character to any person whatsoever. (15) The relationship between Colonel iuoody arid the .Hudson's Bay Company was important* k>>ody seldom came into contact with the Company but when he did he found the men ami-cable, hospitable and willing to render every assistance* (14) R o y n l Engineers La*tgr_J&cfcJi. ** 143. (Moody to Birkin shaw, December 20, 1859j. (15) Lends, and Works, T ^ f r , E 9 ^ - L (Bwrnaby to feats, July 9, 1859).* i?a* Douglas fostered, .this fr-leadahip and desired Moody to comment on i t as Is evident in a letter written "by Moody to Douglas*. on February 17, 1659, It stated: I have already made i t known, again and again, to your lixcellency the prompt attention arid valu-able assistance the iioyal Engineers Department has received from the Hudson's Bay Conpany from f i r s t to last since their arrival* (16) f* 1* Laing, i n his e-dsay 1Hudson' a Lay Company Land a on the mainland of Britiah Columbia1, pointed out that Sir 3* 3* Lytton sailed upon Colonel Moody, Commissioner of;Lands and Works, to define the- limits of the •Cai^any*** claims in British Columbia*, Ihen Douglas enclosed the report <m May 31, 1®§9, he pointed out that Moody was in favour of recognizing the general principles of the 'Company's* -claims, with a suggestion that the lands claimed at h-aagiey and Fort Hope should be curtailed in extent and an equivalent given, at other places an Sraaer Biver* When the whole question was referred finally to the aovermaent Emigration Board, the total mis&^®x of acres applied for by the Hudson's Bay Company was reduced from 93*325 acres, to 2 * 2 4 7 acres* It almost seems that Moody was overly careful sot to oppose Douglas in his pet interest., (16) Royal amtinesgg..Lettflg-JELfiflfcUa* P. • 33* (Moody to Douglas, Sobruary 17, 1859). 173* (17) the I&daen's Bay Company*. The Royal ilnginsers have many other works to their oredit In British Columbia! they established the Lands and Works Department and the Government Printing Office in the city (18) of Few Westminster; on January 1, 1863, they printed the f i r s t .British Columbia "Qft8*tte% they also designed the f i r s t eoat-ef«aaSB* for British Columbia, and they surveyed and laid out the site for $1* eity of lew festainster, and also for the tows of Hope* Yale,, Douglas,* Lillooet* Clinton and others, i l l the -maps of the colony were made from their .surveys, pre-pared in their drafting office* lithographed and published at (19) their camp; several astronomical stations were established, and careful and detailed 'meteorological observations* were kept by them and are preserved in the Provincial Archives. The exact oosition of their camp 49 deg. 12 sain. 47 sec. Horth (20) Latitude, and 122 deg. 52 min. 19 sec. Wert Longitude was (17) Laing* Hudson*® Bay Company Lauds on the kainland of British Colombia 1858-1861, The, frUiaft y 9 l W i U ^^mm.mtm^M* April 1939, m 75-90* This i s a very inter eating article. i!oodyfa report i s not available. (18) ]mU3?&^£lmkM&. Aaron 1, 1860. -? There wera three printers in the corps. (19) Valfenden, M£m&kx Cf* Howay, 2b8L£sat&J& %M3M^MEMmSM' The -ioyal Engineers jfrese also printed books - Jee bibliography (Br D A W , Palmer). lm) -'oody to Douglas, 1157, January 20, 1863* (Moody Corres-pondence). Cf. Appendix IV* 174* located by them* Hie greatest worfc performed by them • tho building of reads and bridges,, their e x p l o r a t i o n s , surveys and lan d policies-, have already been discussed* I t was pred i c t e d i n the *:%&i.graat S o l d i e r s * Gazette*, February 26# ' 1889* that a tr anscontinental r a i l w a y would be constructed f r o a H a l i f a x t o the mouth of the Eraser Hiver, Soloael Ifoody was of the opinion that t h i s r a ilway would naturally reach P o r t Iloody, circle around the "back of iiew (21) Westminster and f i n a l l y reach E n g l i s h Bay* fhe f i r s t account of the * I n t e r - C o l o n i a l Railway* appeared i n the *£rltiah 0eItalian* oiz August 13, 186.2* (si) m&m$*$P xfi imt A d d a n d 175, Chapter 13 A aieott8fli.cn of th© werlc of tho Royal JSagineer© i n B r i t i s h 6©lm»hin would not ho complete without 'reference fee-i n g made to the relationship which e x i s t e d between'Governor Bouglas and Colonel Moody - a relationship which coloured and i n f l u e n c e d tactically the whole work of the Royal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Soluabisa* fhe l i f e and former waste of Colonel Heady has been given* Suffice is to that he was chosen f o r h i s admirable character and .the splendid work done by him i n h i s previous posts* Barnes Douglas had been i n the employ of the great fur-trading companies i n Berth America. f r « a h i s "boyhood.. He was born i a Lanarkshire., Scotland, i n 1305 * the; son of a well-to~^o Scottish family Tsith interests i n the su^ar trade i n F r i t i s h Cuiruia. \t the a-;o of sixteen ho entered the s e r -v i c e of tho North *est Company "where he roiaained u n t i l i t s amalgamation w i t h the Hudson*a J:ay Company i n IB31. Prom then on Doublets, because of M s outstanding ability and otrongth of charaeter, s t e a d i l y rose through the ranks, u n t i l i n 1835, he received the eaaotasion of c h i e f t r a d e r , in 1640 that of c h i e f factor,, i a 1.S49 *raa appointed agent on Vancouver Island f o r Hudson*a Ray and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies, and i n 176. (1) September, 1651*. bsesate governor ef Vancouver Island. With the founding of the colony of British Columbia, in 1858, he severed a l l connection with the Hudson*s Bay aad Paget Sound Companies and became governor of both Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Coluabia*. Douglas was well acquainted with the test, ftrom the year- 1S3S, he had led aa adventurous l i f e , f i r s t in lew Caledonia, then at fort Vancouver where he had been a trusted assistant of Dr. John Mchoughlia,. whom he succeeded, and f i n a l l y i n the Colony of Vancouver Island. R. L. Held says of himi Douglas was a man born to command. T a l l , over 6 feet in h e i g h t , and powerfully b u i l t , he had always been a dominating f i g u r e whatever h i s surrounding. Used, from an e a r l y age, to ex-e r c i s e absolute power over his savage and half-savage u n d e r l i n g s ; accustomed to owe h i s personal s e c u r i t y and success i n the matters confided to him by the Company asrsd h i s j s t r e n g t h and dominance, f a r from any p o s s i b i l i t y of outside support; h i s t r a i n i n g , coupled w i t h h i s personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and n a t u r a l a b i l i t y , f i t t e d him to be a r u l e r of men. He took a u t h o r i t y as h i s l a w f u l r i g h t and exercised i t u n f l i n c h i n g l y ; i n general, w i s e l y , but always f i n o l y - i t maybe s«»etu&es h a r s h l y . In l a t e r years, as Governor of Vancouver's I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, he was an autocrat. P u n c t i l i o u s to a f a u l t and impatient of any opinions but h i s own, he was a strong man, to whom u n l i m i t e d power was given i n a time of storm and s t r e s s , when the q u a l i t i e s of an autocrat were necessary to keep i n check a turbulent mob of ad-venturers from a l l quarters of the world, thrown on a new land, empty of a l l but the aborigines. (1) Sage, W. H., Passim. tfndsr the peculiar conditions he was the right, man in the right place. ( 2 ) Thai lames Douglas- was the *rtghi mm i a the right place* can-not he disputed* The Colonial Office was fortunate in having such a capable person to meet the exigency of the time* When Douglas was appointed governor of the new colony of British CeluB&i&v he was given not only the usual powers o f a governor but also f u l l legislative .authority to pass ouch statutes- as he should think neoeS'sary, subject only to the power o-f dis-allowance by -the Home government* Douglas* sues ess*, therefore, depended upon his business s k i l l and his capacity for leader-ship... Moody., on th© other hand, could not be regarded as an autocrat* That he- demanded and received respect and absolute obedience i s evident'in the orders given to his corps* Always dignified, affable* and. j o l l y , he won the esteem and affection n o t only of his own men but also of most people with whom he came into contact* Moody and Douglas were brought together by the founding, of British Columbia - two men with widely diverging backgrounds, but both strong., alert, well-trained, and efficient in his own line of work, and both accustomed to and expected to exercise authority. However, one cannot help but ( 2 ) Held, it.. L., *ee«r Office and thS-frewed Min-ft, p- » 1 7 8 * feel that Sir 2* B. Lytton, inadvertently, made aa error i s -ate o f f i c i a l relationship i n t o which lie placed thaaa two (3) leaders. As has been explained previously Douglas was to be the »eupreae* authority in the colony, while Moody's duties were-to be regarded as special,, and were not *on any account t e be interferted with except under circumstances of gravest necessity** Of these two. orders Douglas assented and acted upon the f i r s t aad practically ignored the second* fhe Colonial Offleet knowing and having confidence in the character and -Oelenial experience of moody,, but ignorant of the dicta-torial and .autocratic-nature cf Douglas, did not for see a possible conflict of duties or personalities in these two men* As far as. administrative work was concerned, Colonel Moody submitted unquestionably to the *.supreme* authority, but when •military* problems were in the fere, he asserted the authority which he considered was rightly his*: On his arrival from Isgland,. Moody was received by Douglas and from the private correspondence which passed be-tween them., one would Judge they were on friendly terms*. It. (3) Moody himself f e l t this later as is evident in letter from Moody to H. P. P. Crease, September 9, 1870. (Crease Correspondence, Provincial Archives). Douglas had put in no apprenticeship in the Colonial Office and was not well known there. Moody, on the other hand, though not direct-ly connected with the Colonial Office, had won respect as a Royal Engineer and was hatter known in London. t*) | . C*^Pa|er®, Pt. I, P. 55. (Merlvale to Moody, August If 9. (5) was. not an t i l .¥ay 1$#. I85f,, that the tone of Douglas* l e t t e r s show, an abrupt change,. % t h i s t i a e Colonel Moody had express* ed his opinion in no uncertain terms both as to the choice of the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia and as to th© settlement of the land l y i n g between the leaser, H i r e r and the f r o n t i e r , Xt i s . generally believed that Douglas, being p r a c t i c a l l y forced to y i e l d , resented the f a c t that anyone i n the colony had the power t o ©vermis h i s . However t h i s is not revealed i n the correspondence of the time, but knowing- Douglas* character,, one' r e a l i s e s that he would feel, not only b # ~ l i t t l « d but upset* fhere sesas only one explanation f o r h i s ' apparent * f r i e n d l y relationship w i t h Seody * he feared h i s *dormant* cajBrnisoion* However, when S i r 1* B. Lytton pointed out to Douglas that Moody was to act as Lieutenant Governor only under certain .circumstances.,, Douglas"* suppressed emotions came to the fore and the subsequent l e t t e r s mirrored, his real f e e l i n g s . Pre* then on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Moody and Douglas* being antagonistic, a f f e c t e d the plans and work of both. (5) Douglas to Hoody, May 16, 1859. (Douglas Correspondence -P r o v i n c i a l Archives). (6) Helen Ferguson writing of this refers to i t as *a s u r -render which was none too graceful in private'. (thesis. P. 37). I really cannot find any grounds for this state-ment. There is no record of the two jen qu-rreling in private over administrative affairs, «.oody does not strike me as being the type of men given to argument - he would state his case hut not argue about i t . Douglas was a f r a i d of J'oody-s 'dormant * commission at that time. 3.8©. froo the f i r s t one r e a l i s e s that Moody had a do* fin i t e military *bias' and looked upon military activity in B r i t i s h Columbia as his special f i e l d . Two exssples hare Just been r e f e r r e d - t o . Two l e t t e r s may be quoted to i l l u s t r a t e how pugnacious he was when he considered Douglas had- ignored his. a u t h o r i t y * One r e f e r s to the selection of a town s i t e on the •8i®il&aaesn E l v e r * Qn August 15,, I860,, Moody. received a l e t t e r ' from Douglas informing hiio that he had i n s t r u c t e d the Magistrate of the D i s t r i c t , Peter O'Reilly, to s e l e c t a s i t e on the SimiUfeaffisen* I n replying to the l e t t e r Moody s a i d : I hasten to urge your iSxeellency to author-ise the Department alone qualified and properly chargeable with such duties - namely the Depart-ment of Lands and Works - on a l l occasions to execute such services. I n this particular case such a "uty raore p a r t i c u l a r l y devolves on myself i n p u v i o n . The site of a l l towns as w e l l as a l l wood t r a i l s or coiaaunications of whatsoever nature along our Continental Frontier possesses a .military im-portance of the highest character and in this instance the importance is great. I t is the f i r s t town across the main hange of hountains, easier of approach from the United States frontier than from hence and directly on what would be the main line of Operations . . . I feel I could riot discharge from mys«lf to anyone else whomsoever t h i s important service and I must respectfully ruquest your Excellency by 181 return "bent te authorize ay proceeding thither. (?) Mthouga Moody considered the eheice --.f town sites, t r a i l s and 18) eeasssaioations the most, important function of his department * i t w i l l he noticed he refrained, as was bis custom, from act-ing without the governor*s consent* The second letter was written by Moody on March 31, £863* immediately after lie had 'bees Instructed by letter to w send a certain officer to Tictoria to have a personal inter-view with Scverner Douglas concerning services about to be executed, in the Cariboo District* Moody eaidi I purpose conferring with you myself, and conveying your desires to the officer who may be charged with the details. I shall also learn your wishes respecting the distribution of the Hoyal .Engineers during the season; this altogether affects the distri-bution of officers, It in a military question that may not have occurred to you* Captain Grant will be directed to accompany (7) Moody to Douglas, August 24, 1860. (Provincial Archives). (Moody asked to have a copy of this letter sent to Secre-tary of State). This town likely refers to Princeton at the end of the Hope-Similkameen Head. In writing to the Home Government Douglas expressed what he f e l t about Moody*s choice of sites when he said, "People are not generally disposed to perch their houses on bleak mountains and inaccessible cliffs simply because they happen to be good nilitary positions". (B. C. Des-patches,. Douglas to Colonial Office, January 28, 1861, ProvTncia3 Archives). (5) ib^d«. (ft) laws not given in letter - probably i t refers to Captain Srant, 18S, a»t. and to be l a . attendance f o r such i n s t r u c t i o n as may then be determined upon. (10) As a r u l e Moody's l e t t e r s to Douglas were business - l i k e and to th© p o i n t , being the l e t t e r s of a subordinate w r i t t e n to h i s superior o f f i c e r * I t was only when Moody f e l t that he was not being consulted an matters o f v i t a l i n t e r e s t to h i s de-partment t h a t he st a t e d hi® p o s i t i o n i n no un c e r t a i n terms* Other i n s t r u c t i o n s from Douglas ** such as the b u i l d i n g of roads (except m i l i t a r y ) . * wore c a r r i e d out-by Moody even when (11) he disagreed w i t h tfeesu Douglases l e t t e r s to Moody, on the. other hand, a l -though bugin#ss*lik«:,, showed a dis r e s p e c t f o r the a b i l i t y of the CJoloaei and a f a r from co-operative a t t i t u d e . P r a c t i c a l -l y every l e t t e r complained f i r s t about the expenditures i n * eurred by the Hoyal Ingineere and secondly about Moody being so slow and i n d e f i n i t e i n making r e t u r n s . The f i n a n c i a l problem will be discussed l a t e r . There i s no doubt that Moody's official correspondence was at times late. Frequently he was absent when mails a r r i v e d and very often he, himself, had to await returns from h i s . men before r e p l y i n g to the Governor* As f o r the poor returns made e a r l y i n 1858, Moody (10) Moody to Douglas, .? 1157, ?<arch 31, 1863. ( P r o v i n c i a l Archives).* (11) ' One e x m p l e of t h i s i s i n the b u i l d i n g of the l a r r i s o n -Lillooet' Road* I t has been shown above that Koody d i d not approve of i t but do^aidered a route v i a the f r a s e r a®, preferable* 0uora*. P. 130* 183* blamed the *fer»s*». saying he d i d not understand what was xe-Cl2) quired.. However complaints of t h i s k i n d were eojsraon at that time ami Douglas received h i s share* The lew Westminster H o s p i t a l Board complained about Douglas not r e p l y i n g to t h e i r (13) eorreeponden.ee f o r 59 days* Douglas himself could not have been pleased when Moody i n h i s t u r n complained of not r e c e l v * (14) -Ing explie.it instructions fro® him. However,, one r e a l l y gets the impression of Douglases antagonism -toward Moody on the margins of Colonel Moody's letters where Douglas* t e r s e , sar-(1») castic remarks are not infrequent. fhe correspondence between Colonel Moody and h i s o f f i c e r s showed a Marked c o n t r a s t te t h a t c f • Governor Douglas to Selene! Moody, tm w r i t i n g h i s . i n s t r u c t i o n s i > h i s men Colonel Seedy* although b u s i n e s s l i k e and 4efinlte % showed an appre c i a t i o n c f t h e i r problems, fh® l e t t e r s from the o f f i c e r s to Colonel ileody r e v e a l not only t h e i r ©any problems but how (13) The o f f i c i a l correspondence during this period seems quite adequate, fhe Royal Engineers Letter Books, The Lands and Works Letter Books and Moody*s Letters to Douglas contain a tremendous amount of correspondence. (13) British Columbian. February 6, 1 8 6 2 . (Editorial on Hospital). (14) Moody to Douglas, Hay 16, 1859, December 2, 1659, (Provincial Archives). (15) Douglas to Moody. (Provincial Archives). .164* (16) •they individually redacted to Governor Douglas. Captain Grant, like f* B* Goaset* found the strain ainoat unbearable* On Harsh &, 1861, he asleed *to be relieved from a l l matters relating to the Colonial Pay of the Detachment under your (Moody's) command*. To this Moody replied: To an officer of so long standing as- your-self, I look with confidence for support and re-l i e f , in those duties, although they may not be attended as in jay own case with much from what both you and I would very naturally wish to be relieved » Suah, however, io the Public oervioe... (it) Twice after this. Captain Grant*, expressed Ma desire to re-d s ) sign. fhe f inane ial problem was the greatest source of worry to all interested in th© new colonyfhe Colonial Of flee, feeling that this gold colony should- pay its own way,, (16) W. 3. Cosset who was treated in a similar manner broke down under the *bullying' he received -from Douglas. $M?rjft. P. 170. Colonel Iloody apparently assumed an air of paosive resistance and tried not to let Douglas worry l i i a . U?) UStta?. Jft^ftf ,gE 9...^.ttQ?.$ffflX3» 254, Karch 5, 1861. This is the only letter I came across that showed how Moody r e a l l y ft It. UB) ftoc-dv * 1155 ( April 3, 1861). P 1156 (December 8, 1862). 18,5. ( 1 ? ) and assured by Douglas that i t would, was reluctant to lend money, Douglas, accustomed to making 'profits' in the Hudson's Bay Company, adopted the policy of 'pay as you go'. Colonel Moody, on the other hand, steeped in the traditions of the British army and of the Colonial Office, hod probably never been forced to economize as rigidly as in British Columbia. Douglas was continually impressing upon Moody the (20) necessity of economy and Moody in his turn cautioned his men. The work of making surveys and of constructing roads was (21) hindered by lack of funds. Moody, himself, was allowed no general fund on which to draw and frequently spent his own B. C. Papers, Pt. I I , P. 1. (Douglas to Lytton, October •T'-iMJ.— Q f m S. 0. Papers, Pt. I I , P. 20. (Douglas to Lytton, Iow5ie^l7l55B") • At f i r s t lytton suggested that Eoyal Engineers would be maintained 'at the Imperial cost for only a Halted per-iod, and that the Colony would afterwards have to defray th© expense thereof. However, on January lj>, 1859 Douglas received a communication to the fact that 'Her Majesty'e Govern»ent now expect that British Columbia shall be self-supporting and that the f i r s t charge upon th© land sales must be that of defraying a l l the expenses which the engineer party shall occasion'* fhe British treasury was to be re-imbursed for a l l expenditure i n -curred. (This policy had to be changed later). numerous letters to this effect are found in the Moody Correspondsnee. Frequently there i s a reference to th® sale of picks, shovels and horses used at various places and to save the expense of transportation. Moody, in one letter, even ask» -permission to buy hay for his horses. (Douglas to Moody, F 485, November 15, I85?, Douglas Correspondence). B. G. Despatches, Douglas to Colonial Office, May 21, I8o '^» 186. (22; money to keep th© work going... Captain Grant Aid this also. Douglas,, at times, did allow Moody an 'advance warrant' to pay for materials needed for the building up of the country, but this was always overdrawn and a continual source of controversy between the Governor and the Commissioner. At no time in Moody's so^oarn in British Coluabia was he given a grant on which to earry on his part of the work. fhe fact that Douglas and Moody did not work well together was evident in the financial returns aade by theft. 'Reporting on the same expenditure, the two men would frequently describe the transaction i n different terns, i n one year an its® of expenditure would be entered against military and the (24) following year against colonial. Besides showing a lack of co-operation between the Governor and the. Commissioner of Lands and forks, these financial statements reveal.the haphazard way in which the Colonial Office dealt with Colonial affairs at that time. It i s impossible to give a complete financial state-ments of expenditures of either th© Royal Engineers or of the (22) Grant to Moody, May 12, i860. (Moody Correspondence -Provincial Archives;. (23) Douglas to Moody, I«' 483, November 8, 1859. (Douglas Correspondence - Provincial Are-hives;. (24) Moody to Colonial Secretary, F I I 5 6 , November 14, 1862 (Moody Correspondence) 187. colony &t'that tiae as statistics are act available. However, (2j>) illustrations appear in the appendix. That the Royal Engineers were a tremendous expense and a drain on the new colony i s evident by merely studying the Regimental and Colonial pay (£b) allowed, fhe fact that they spent the winter r.onths in camp at Sapperton was a .great expense and was criticized by many although Colonel Moody gave a detailed account of the work (27) done by the sen during those months. Arthur Harvey in his 'Statistical Account of British Columbia* states the revenue (excluding loans) and the expenditure (excluding-redemption of debt) for British Columbia as follows: Revenue Expenditure 1860 - 1266,635" I235.885 1861 - 291.?8o 34?,750 1862 - 442,^ 85 6^ 7,030 1863 - 554»3?tJ 737,990 (28) Another source which reveals a certain amount of information is the -'Parliamentary Debates* whieh gives the following (25) Appendix V , A, B, C, 2. (26) i b i d . , I , A. A notice appeared in the 'British Colonist' September 20, 1866, to the effect that 'the British Columbian Government has had placed to i t s credit in London $50,000, the amount paid by i t for the support, of the Sappers and Gainers quartered in the colony from 185^ -1862. (27) i b i d . , V I . (28) Harvey, Arthur, A Statistical Account of British Columbia Ottawa, 1867, P. 16'. (intended as a companion for Year * look I867). 188. amounts set aside for British Columbia: July 2 8 , I859 - £42,998 (£37,000 of this for cost of transportation of R.E. to B . C.) Aug. l b , i860 - 15,000 July 17, 1861 - 8,600 June 12, 1862 - 9,000 June 25, 1863 - 17,121 (29) GoEaaentlug on these amounts Fortescue said on July 28, 1859, that th® chief expense arose fro® sending out a party of sappers and miners 'which was the act of the late Government, and an unfortunate accident - the burning of the ship convey-(30) ing stores - had increased the amount*. Possibly the newspapers of the day revealed more clearly than anything else Douglas* attitude towards Colonel Moody (and also to Sew Westminster) and the reaction of the people to i t . It i s only f a i r to state, however, that the 'British Columbian* edited by John Robson - a close friend of Moody and hostile to Douglas - definitely supported Moody in practically a l l his aetions, while Amor de Cossios, editor of the 'Colonist*, although a 'lover of the world* loved neither (29) Hansard, Parliamentary Debates, 3rd Series. 1. Y. 155, JP. 522 J . V. 164, P. 1028 2. ¥.160, P. I363 4. ¥. 167, P. 4?6 5. Y. 171, PP. I482-I483. Hereafter referred to as 'Hansard*. (30) i b i d . , July 28, I 8 5 9 . (Y. 155, P. 522). 18? Moody nor Douglas. Probably the most important fact about these newspaper items i s that they frequently found their way to England where they may have influenced the opinion of the Coxonial Office* On February 2>t 1863, an article in the 'British Columbian* under the heading, 'She Royal Engineers in British Columbia* stated how the Royal Engineers had suffered under the rule of Douglas* Four years have expired since their arrival in the Colony and the questions forced upon us are, Have the instructions of Sir S. B. Lytton been faithfully carried out by the Queen's Repre-sentatives? Have the navigable rivers and lakes been traced and the rapids and portages defined? Have the features of the country been delineated and the best routes discovered in mountain and h i l l ranges? We can emphatically answer no . . . So more inviting f i e l d could have been offered to a body of picked men than British Columbia; and no where could they have achieved greater honor and celebrity, had encouragement been given them to carry out the measures which they were sent here to execute. Every man in the detachment feels himself as having been wronged and degraded and their 'esprit de corps' Insulted. Why has there besn pursued a consistent diversion from their proper duties? Why have the abilities of those tried men been virtually ignored, and were, i f possible, the lustre of their corps tarnished by Governor Douglas's treatment in his disquali-fied power to estimate them, while costing the Imperial Government a large sum to maintain them? We are surprised that this state should have continuedj that this injustice should have been committed with impunity, and without detection by the present Colonial minister; an injustice that the colonist's themselves deeply f e e l , end for (31) B. C. Papers, Passim. _ ^ Douglas* correspondence to the Colonial Office shows that he frequently enclosed newspaper - generally the victoria Gazette - in his o f f i c i a l returns. 190* their mutual interests, hail with enthusiasm the coming of the day that will alike terminate the humiliation of the Royal Engineers and the gall-ing "bondage of the colonists. V?e feel confident that the uneevenanted position of this gallant detachment must pain the Commander'-in-Chief, the Duke of Cambridge, as well as the Colonel command-ing* And i t strikes us that this whole subject, both in its military and colonial aspect, will form a sufficiently interesting and important one to attract the attention of economists in the House of Commons, and to demand an explanation why this detachment has been hindered from the performance of its legitimate and invaluable duties - what there is to show for the expenditure of half-a-raillion of dollars in th© Colony of British Columbia for its four years* service. . . . Victoria, Vancouver Island, has, from a soabiJiatloa of pecuniary interests,, been the fav-ored political and commercial locality of Governor Douglas. Prom this radiates the 'ukases* of des-potic power. It is there that we are told terminate the navigable waters of these remarkable inland seas. It is there where the united in-fluence and monopoly and power have worked in harmony to centralize temporarily the political and coBBuercial interests of the British possessions on the Pacific coast, to the injury of the Im-perial and British Columbian weal. It is there where efforts and energies of no small magnitude are exerted in order that the favored spot may continue to enjoy exclusive privileges; and i t is there that the government of British Columbia is Conducted by a gentleman pre-eminently disquali-fied, by a life's association with a company of adventurers in the wilds of tforth America to ex-ercise* despotic rule over thousands of British subjects possessing no voice or power to offer re-sistance to any measures however oppressive. It naturally follows that the invaluable services of the Hoyal Engineers have, like the energies of the colonists themselves, been sacrificed to further and consummate the end in view, viz., that the one Colony may flourish at the cost and injury of the 191* ether. (33) Th® Yietaria p a p * ? * dselared that Moody was net sufficiently aggressive and too weak for the position he held. One artiels aeeusad him of heing too slow in road-building, and of allowing the sappers to he 'idle for months* while thou-(33) sands of dollars were heing frittered away* fhe sane article-stated *the read system, or rather the no-road system has assumed the -form of a dsspotiss% The newspapers also ex-pressed their views on the possibility of Moody*a becoming a future governor of the mainland* On September 29, 1862, an editorial on 'A Delegate to England* oomaeated on the sugges-tion that downing Street be petitioned through the Honorable Malcolm $ameran to appoint Colonel Moody as governor of British Columbia in place of Governor Douglas,, The editorial stated that neither eolony wanted either Ko-edy or Douglas, After deelarlng that Colonel Moody was *played out1, It spoke of hia as one* who was never known to have decision enough to know his own mind five minutes at a time - who, beyond pipe-clay and feathering his nest, has done for the country what? Nil. If he were a (32) ftritiflh Columbian. February 25, 1863. Similar articles appear January 16, 1861; March 7, 1861: February 6, 1863; April 30, 1862. (33) Yletarla Gazette. December 16, 1859. (Kditorial on Mining and Roads in British Columbia). f i t ma» for Governor, he would long ago have thrown up his Lands and Works commission, rather than serve under Gov. Douglas. But "like master, like servant *« (34) Another editorial, April 13, 1863, after claiming that Gover-nor Douglas was more suitable for the position of governor than Moody, stated; A l l the merit, doubtless, that the Columbian can see in Col. Moody i s , that he would be purely sectional, and direct his efforts to widen the breach between these colonies, rather than unite them under one government.. (35) An article written on March 2, 1863, declared that the Royal Sngineers had been employed in building up the city of Sew Westminster instead of the colony of British Columbia, and considered that the establishment of a military-civil force, with a military commander and officer, to perform c i v i l duties was * a blunder both from the po l i t i c a l and economical point of view'. The Royal Engineers were referred to as men: bound down by the articles of war,, to the strict rules of military obedience, their mouths gagged., their influence curtailed, human machines, f i t forces to resist force, but unable to utter a word or influence opinion or balance parties, at variance alike with ci v i l and military science, a clog to the l&ecutive and a drag on the progress of the Colony* (36) (34) British Colonist. September 29, 1862, P. 3, (Sditerial * *A Delegate to England) • (35) ibid,... April 13, 1863, P. 2. (56) ibid.. March 2, 1863. (Editorial). I Q'Z Douglas and toody were also discussed in contempor-ary books. 3* G. f* KaeBon&ld, in 'British Columbia and Vancouver Island', 1062, said of Governor Douglass K. W^ Llet i t is conceded that the present Governor possesses considerable energy, with some ability and power of organization, i t wil l .not be denied that he owes his present position infinitely more to the patronage of a powerful company than to any peculiar qualifications for the office . . . He is sadly deficient in knowledge of the privileges and dutiea. of diplomatic -agents, in the conduct and management of negotiations, in the courtesies of diplomacy and in the delicacies, as particularity evidenced in the San Juan difficulty, of inter-national law, (37). fhe attitude- of Sew Westminster. towards Governor Douglas - the background against which Moody worked - was summed up in the •'British Golumbian*, July 9, 1862.5 During three years we, of British Columbia, have borne more po l i t i c a l wrong and governmental oppression than can be recorded of any British people during the present century. Deprived systematically and continuously of the common, and, what we were accustomed to consider, inalienable •rights of British subjects, law and order have pre-vailed to an unparalleled extent, considering the character of the population. Accustomed, as most of us were, to the exercise of self-government, i t i s somewhat remarkable that the history of British Columbia during these four years of despotic rule should not be marked by a single attempt to obtain relief by unconstitutional moans. Although taxed to the astounding extent of about sixty dollars a head per annua,, we have not only been denied any voice whatever in the expenditure of our revenue, or the management of our affairs, but have on var-ious occasions been subjected to the most cavalier and tyrannical treatment at the hands of the man (37) KaoDonald, D. G» P., P. 277. who holds Her Majesty's commission. Repeated appeals not only to the Governor, but to Her Majesty's Government, have been made by means of petitions and memorials, urging a mitigation at least of the iron and irrepressible rule under which we suffer. (38) It i s surprising how seldom Governor Douglas men-tioned Colonel Moody, in either his military or administrative capacity, in the early despatches to the Colonial Office a l -though he frequently enclosed o f f i c i a l correspondence which Colonel Moody had asked to have forwarded to the secretary of State. However, as time elapsed complaints became frequent. On -July 2, 1839, Douglas reported to the Duke of Newcastle* The Colony i s most anxious to acquit every obligation conferred upon her, 4 she i s quite capable of meeting a l l c i v i l expenditure in a f i t t i n g &. proper manner but the cost of the main-tenance of the force with the military heavy charge for Colonial pay, is at present more than her finances can bear . . . I cannot refrain from remarking, however, that the expense of sending the K.K,'s to B.C. is a charge that can scarcely with perfect justness be assigned to the Colony, seeing that after a l l the object in view i s one purely of an Imperial character. (39) (38) 3$MMlSMm;Mm*, ^ ly % 1 8 62, (Article on 'Our Poli t i cal Hor i s on') • cf, sag®, imm^msim* iJ« 295* Dr. Uage quotes the causes of dissatisfaction as summed up by Douglas under six headings. It would be interest-ing to know just how much the result of thiu dissatis-faction .vas vented upon Colonel Eoody. He was really the only one in Sew Westminster that Douglas could easily attack* (39) Despatch^ July 2, 1859. (Douglas to Newcastle). 195. On April 17, 1863, Douglas again complained about the expenses The expense of the Boyal Engineers is over-whelming, i f relieved of that costly ornament we should he better able to cope with other d i f f i -culties. I have no complaint to make of the Corps, but their pay and allowances and charges of various kinds are far higher than they ought to be, and added to these the families of the whole detachment, both officers and men, ar© con-tinually on the increase* and a l l are supported at the public expense, /..'he disbursement for the Corps, on Colonial account for 1862 exceeds £16,900 against works executed by them, valued at &3,5QQ* The E. JSagineer3 are to hritiah "Jolumbia what the old man of the -dea was to Sinbad, with this aggravation, that II, Government helped to fasten the burden on the Colony and 1 have no power to relieve i t . :right not his Grace be i n -duced to move the 'far Department by discharging men with large families who wish to settle in the Colony; this I am given to understand would please the men and at the same tioo relieve the public of a heavy charge. Colonel Moody does not object to that measure, though he may with, the i l i l i t s r y furore that marks the soldier really desire to add to rather than de-tract from the small fore© under his command. Revenue ahieh i s v i t a l in our circumstances, ean never be materially increased until the Colony is opened by roads and dotted with the habitation* of a civ i l i s e d and Industriou3 people, and every cur-tailment of unnecessary expense helps to forward that object. (40) The problem of rations supplied to the .loyal Bngi-(41) neers was also a source of worry to Governor Douglas. In (40) Gfty»mor's P?1,Yf*" o f f i c i i ^ t e r ( I , o u s l a B t 0 iSlliot). April 17, 1863. Cf. 3age, James..amiglaft* ^ • 2S9-300. (41) Armendix VII. When the matter was referred to Dr. 3edd« K a l l g.D. he stated, »The amount a n d composition of the R e s e n t scale of nations is certainly not greater than is requisite'. (Seddall t o Moody, November 24, 1859. Moody Correspondence - Provincial Arcmves). 196. 1862 th© amount spent on rations exceeded the £6,020 of l86i by £1,785. Douglas charged this increase to the fact that the women and children attached to the corps had increased from 65 to 150, the number of children having more than trebled during (42) the f i r e year period. When these facts were sent to the Home Government, E l l i o t said: fhe faet that the whole of the numerous wives and families of these Engineers were draw-ing, rations at immense cost to the p u b l i c whilst the Governor could not obtain so much as even a l i s t of the recipients . . . w i l l not have es-caped the attention of Newcastle. (43) Douglas* 'Confidential Report on Officers* - now in the Provincial Archives - stated in no uncertain terras the (44) Governor's opinion of Colonel Moody: E. C. Moody, Lieut. Col. R.K. Chief Com. of Lands & lories. Was appointed Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for*British Columbia in August I858. Arrived in the Colony in December IR58. fhe attainments, high moral worth and gentle-manly qualities of Colonel Moody are familiarly (42) Douglas proposed discharging a l l those with large fami-l i e s , fhe problem of rationing servants was also a source of worry to Douglas. (Ferguson, fhesis, P. 53). (43) S l l i o t to Forteseue, July 4, 1862. (PRO CO 60.17) quoted from Ferguson, fheais, P. 53« Cf. Moody to Colonial Secretary, F 1157, April 23, 1363. (Moody Correspondence - Provincial Archives;. Moody states the number of women and children (including Officer•s families; drawing rations as follows: I858-9 - 42 women - 50 children,, 1863 - 40 " - 87 " (44) Confidential Report on Public Servants. (Provincial Ar-chives) . Bo date given - Ferguson, fhesis gives I 8 6 3 , P.. 48. Cf. Sage, James Douglas, P. JOT. 1?7 known to his friends. I am her© in duty bound however to remark that as a public administrator in this Colony, his management has not been satisfactory to me. 1 have i n fact found i t necessary to exercise the utmost vigilance over his publlo acts; and after having narrowly es-caped being involved i n a ruinous contract for the survey of public lands, which he had entered Into with Mr. Joseph frutch, and from the utter complications of the land system, by a deviation from the s p i r i t , i f not from the letter of the Pre-emption Act, I found i t requisite to issue-the most precise Instructions for his guidance In matters of finance as v e i l as. of general ad-ministration, though previously induced by bis position to allow a wide discretion. I enclose a copy of a note from Col. Moody, advocating a plan of public r e l i e f , at a period of apprehended distress, when a heavy pressure from without was brought to bear upon the Government, as a speci-men of his administrative talents. Ky reply which is also transmitted is somewhat curt, but i t was written under a feeling of irrepressible indignation at the countenance lent by an officer of high position to a reeklese scheme, which would have been ruinous to the Colony and of no practical advantage to those whom i t was proposed to serve a£ a moment'-s reflection ?ould have sufficed to shew (s i c ) , that admitting the ab-sence of command, were utterly inadequate to the conveyance of food, to the remote Districts x-here only i t could be wanted, and that the population would either be relieved or have l e f t the country before the Government supplies could reach them. Age about 5 0 . Health and constitution good. Supporting Douglas in his opinion of Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers was Amor De Coswoe who in an editorial (45) on March 2, 1863, stated: '."e believe that, the establishment of a m i l i -tary-civil force, with a military commander and officers to perform c i v i l duties . . . was a (43) British Colonist, March 2, 1863, P. 2 198 blunder whether i t be regarded i n a p o l i t i c a l or economical point of view . . . As a u x i l i a r i e s to a s s i s t the c i v i l magistrate In preserving order i n case of necessity they strengthened the executive; but f o r a l l the p r a c t i c a l and every-day d e t a i l s of c i v i l a f f a i r s , they have weakened, lessened the power and influ e n c e of'the executive, and retarded the p o l i t i c a l progress of B r i t i s h Columbia. The p o l i c y of S i r Edward Sulwer L y t t o n , i n sending out the Engineers to engage i n c i v i l d uties was- a blunder - an egregious, blunder that no p r a c t i c a l c o l o n i a l statesman would ever have committed • . . the Utopian p o l i c y of S i r Sulwer Lytton sends a batch of m i l i t a r y c o l o n i s t s to B r i t i s h Columbia, bound down by the a r t i c l e s of war to the s t r i c t r u l e s .of m i l i t a r y obedience, t h e i r mouths gagged, t h e i r influence c u r t a i l e d , human machines, f i t f o r c e s to r e s i s t f o r c e , but unable to u t t e r a word or influence o p i n i o n , or balance p a r t i e s , at variance a l i k e with c i v i l and. m i l i t a r y s c ience, a cl o g to the Executive and a drag on the progress of the Colony. I t i s l i t t l e wonder that while Governor Douglas and V i c t o r i a was thus b e l i t t l i n g and complaining about the work of Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers i n Hew Westminster, the Home Government was changing i t s opinion of both Douglas and Moody, fhe o f f i c i a l despatches, c o l o n i a l newspapers, and 'Memorials** which were frequently reaching t h e i r hands gave every i n d i c a t i o n of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and f r i c t i o n . By A p r i l , 1859, Lytton was worrying about Douglas* a u t o c r a t i c tendencies as i s evident i n h i s words " I f not cheeked, he w i l l get him-(46) s e l f and us i n t o great scrapes'*. By 1865, the Home O f f i c i a l s f e l t that Douglas * frequently took important steps on h i s own (46) Douglas to L y t t o n , February 7, 1859- ( ™ CO 60.3). Comment by Lytton, A p r i l 1, I859 . (Ferguson, Thesis, £ 82). 199. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and when repaired t o e x p l a i n , was g u i l t y of " s h u f f l i n g "1. A few months l a t e r the Duke of Newcastle spoke (48) of *Hr. Douglas* successor*. I t seeas that by t h i s time, a l -though Douglas was promised a s i x year term i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l (49) l e t t e r f r o re S i r E. B. L y t t o n , he was not b e i n g considered f o r a f u r t h e r p e r i o d . A memorandum from the Home O f f i c e s t a t e s : I wrote p r i v a t e l y to Mr. Douglas . . . that I should, when my plans were complete r e l i e v e him of both Governments. I raade t h i s as l i t t l e un-pleasant to him as 1 c o u l d , and told, h i a that when I wrote to him o f f i c i a l l y I would take every care to prevent h i p enemies having a triumph over him. (50) Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers, i n t h e i r t u r n , were a l s o being discussed at the Coi.onial O f f i c e as i s •evident by r e p o r t s i n Hansard*E ^Parliamentary Debates*. On August 16, i860, i n a di s c u s s i o n that followed the v o t i n g of £15,GuO f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, ForteECU© s a i d ; a considerable expense was unavoidable i n the establishment of a colony of t h i s kino". A large S U E had been spent i n sending out a corps of (4?) note, E l l i o t to Kev.csstie, re despatches, Douglas to Sewcastle, January 10, 1863. (PRO CO 60.1£ #2135). Ferguson, t h e s i s , P. 82. (48) l e w c a s t l e , A p r i l 22, 1863. (PRO CO-60.17). Ferguson, • Thesis, P. 5^ . (49) B, 0»^Papers. P t . I , P. 4 J . (Lytton to Douglas, J u l y (50) lewcastle*s Minutes, March 2? , l8b>. (PRO CO bo.17)• Ferguson, fhe si's, P. 90). A few months l a t e r Douglas received h i s "knighthood. Ee was r e l i e v e d of h i s o f f i c e on A p r i l 13, 18o4, four months before the e x p i r a t i o n of h i s six-year ter-.i. 200, Bngineers, but they had not answered expectations, (51) Again on July 1?, 1861, after £8,600 had been voted for British Columbia, Adderly took objection to the vote. In particular he objected to the charges for the Royal Engineers, They had been sent out to survey the 1 and and land surveys should be paid for by the colony. If they were Intended for de-fence the number was ridiculous. He hoped that in a few months they should hear of British Columbia meeting i t s own c i v i l expenditure. He also thought that some explanation should be given of the item of £2000 for contingencies. He did not know why this country ought to be called upon to contribute to the c i v i l expenditure of British Columbia. (52) In the discussion that fellowed-Porteeeue said that the greater part of the vote was for the additional pay- of the Royal Engi-neers ©wing to the high priee of provisions in the colony and remarkeds . . . i f the cost- of the Royal Engineers were l e f t out of the question,. British Columbia did at the present moment bear i t s own expenditure. (53) Oh June 12, 1862, in a discussion that followed a vote of £9000 for British Columbia, Mr. Baxter asked i f the colony had ever paid a 'farthing* of the proposed contribution. Mr. (51) Hansard, V. 106, P. 1363, August 16, I860. Fortesoue was the mouthpiece of the colonial office in House of Commons and opposed Lytton's policy. (52) ibid.. V. 164, P. 1028, July 17, 1861. (53) .*Hffl 201*. Fortescue's reply was that the colony had paid a considerable sum for the expenses of the Royal Engineers, in fact, 'it had defrayed a larger proportion than most young colonies were (54) asked to contribute! or even most old ones1• Finally, in July, 1863, the summary of the Duke of Newcastle's report in the 'Parliamentary Debates* was reported as follows: The right Honorable Gentleman who had pre-ceded him (Sir E. Bulwer Lytton) was perfectly justified in establishing that system as an ex-periment; but in a l l respects i t had not worked well, and i t was not desirable i t should be con-tinued. Some blame had been thrown on the Governor, Mr. Douglas, but he (the Duke of Mew-castle) did not think i t was at all deserved. (55) In writing to Elliot in January, 1863, Irving said: the opinion has been long entertained at this office that the corps of Royal Engineers in British Columbia is too costly and does not yield commensurate advantages. (56) Moody * s term of c i v i l service was to be completed in October, 1863. The question arose whether he would be asked to continue in his present service, The Duke of Hewcastle decided in the negative oven though there might be "some risk in having a©'military force at a l l aftere the 3an Juan affair (54) Hansard,, V . 167, P, 496. Cf * ^ ^ M t f1^ . August 6, 1862. (58) JfrS4*f It2, P. 50, July 25,- 1863.. (56) Irving t» Klliot, January *7, 1863. (PEG CO 60. I f ) , Ferguson, Thesis. P. 47. 302* was a© recent" feut he f a i t that it wag *an experiment well worth trying as aa eaee«rag«a©nt to Volunteers** Carnarvon* imessy about weakening the iefenees of 'the colony* had miggest« ad that the 4&s3MoaAtd flngi»eers* eemld be loemted along *tb# frontier or is the »@i#ibewi?h»d of futura naral aid B&litaay CM) posta 8* The faet that the sappers had a si;**year tefs to sosplet© in contrast to the officer®.1* five' was' another problem* Irving attested that to grant land at the and ©f five years instead of *Jat %@wld he a hoon Cto the sea) whilst to the oolony i t would give the ?idvantafje of being relieved so nuch tho sooner of the heavy cost of their poy Jorteecue surest* cd that oon?e 25 Hoyal '.n^irieers "be retained for the lends offiee* leweastle agreed to this munber with the E d i t i o n of three officers, in spite of the fact that Lu^ard was not in favour of tho plan, o.^yin^ that the * l i n e a r 3 * appeared "by a l l accounts that sre receive to have been sow.ewh.at over-indulged* retaining; a part of thmrn might ©sly prolong heart* (5?) liewaaUe's note, XaKfe 27, 1C«3* (Biu CO 60*17). ferguson, Jfaffs^a. J?. 50* Titer© wrui a military station > at :$eoy imalt* • (SS) Carnarvon te Keveaatla, J.«pt*o&«r 1 # 1&58* (jrtto Co 60,17) Ferguson, T^sp^k* i * SO. (59) Irving to a l l o t , June 20, C»« CO 60*17) Jfergueon, 20} (60) burnings and d i f f i c u l t i e s " . As far as Colonel Moody was concerned Blackwood f e l t that *the Office hasn't sufficiently considered the case of (61) Moody", las he to retain his c i v i l appointment of Commission-er of lands and Works? -Ihea this was considered impracticable Blackwood said: Take care to aake the announcement of the termination of Moody's employment as l i t t l e un-palatable to the Colony as we can . . . Be-careful not to employ any terms which wi l l give Colonel Moody the opportunity of offer-ing to stay in British Columbia in the capacity of Chief Commissioner. He is not unlikely to offer to leave the Army i f he could be continued I n his present office, an arrangement which I Judge the Duke would not listen to. (62) E l l i o t was of the same opinion. He has not seemed very eontent with his sphere in British Columbia; and to leave hie there with nothing but a subordinate C i v i l Office would be to expose the governor of the colony, either present or future, to the in-convenience of a r i v a l without even the benefit of a very efficient assistant. (63) (60) E l l i o t , July 4, I863. ( m o c 0 60.17). Ferguson, fhe s i s , PP. 50-51. These suggestions were not carried o\xTl """ (61) Blackwood, April 14, 1863. (PRO CO 60.17). Ferguson, Thesis, P. 51.. (62) Blackwood, May 29, 1863. (PHO CO 60.17). Ferguson, fhe s i s , PP. 51-52. fhe Duke of iewcastle had- already said: "I have no doubt he i s looking to the Governor-ship (for which he i s not f i t ; and would be ^ discontented subordinate to Mr. Douglas' successor**. (Iewcastle, April 22, 1865. (PRO CO 60.17). Ferguson, Thesis, P. 52. (63) E l l i o t , April 21, 1863. (PRO CO 60.17). Ferguson, Thesis, P. 52. 204. Such were the opinions gradually formed and expressed by the o f f i c i a l s of the Home Government, fhe animosity and friction which existed between Governor Douglas and Colonel Moody, and between the Island and Mainland Colonies,augmented the tense-ness of the situation and were only too clearly revealed in the despatches and newspapers sent to the Colonial Office. On July 1>, 1865, ivttgaia McTavish, the chief Repre-sentative of the Hudson's Bay Company at Victoria, wrote to A. G. Dallas, the Governor of the Company; Order© have come out for the loyal Engineers to go to England immediately after the Mew Year, so that Colonel Moody and hi® staff of Surveyors w i l l do no work, their time being nearly up - this i s worrying bat cannot be helped. fhe Governor (Douglas) has so much to do, making reads and so forth i n British Columbia, that there is no drawing his attention to our matters, aad, when we do c a l l on him to act, bis invariable answer i s , that he can not get Moody to do anything, and I dare say there i s some truth in i t , as i t is shrewdly surmised that His Excellency has had more to do with the recall of the Engineers home than any one else, and they a l l feel that they are leaving under a cloud. (b4) That Douglas more than anything or anyone else was (64) Quoted in Watkin, Sir E. W., Canada and the States, London, 1887, P. 253. Gf. Howay and Scholefield, op. c i t . , P. 10<?. Cf. Sage, James Douglas, P. JQQ. It looks as i f , by this time, "oody i s ignoring Douglas' letters. Practically a l l of Moody's correspondence is now directed to the Secretary of State, instead of to Douglas as formerly. Of course/ i t s t i l l goes through Douglas's office. Dallas was the son-in-law of Governor Douglas. 205 responsible for the recall of the Eoyal Engineers and for his own downfall is evident. However the fin a l decision to terminate Lytton *s experiment in empire building was made by the Newcastle administration who, weary of the expense and continual friction in the colonies, considered i t unnecessary to consult colonial opinion. 206. Chapter 14 fhe Royal Engineera Disbanded. lar l y in June, IB63, there were rumours that the hoyal Engineers would be recalled. On July 8 the order was read on parade, fime was ripe for this recall as i s evident by a letter sent by .Douglas to the Colonial Office, on Hay 23, I863* We are only finishing the indispensible works, which will bring population, wealth and prosperity to the Colony. Ho more works of any importance are being undertaken, we are only completing those commenced last year and are now nearly a l l paid for. (1) After receiving the order to disband Moody spent the remainder of the time finishing up the odd jobs and i n Baking separate arrangements for those who were leaving and those who were remaining in the colony. For the latter, Colonel Moody and his officers did a l l in their power to secure positions or (2) work for them either with the government or elsewhere. In a confidential letter written on October 26, I863, Colonel Moody asked Douglas to reconsider his order (1) Douglas - Private O f f i c i a l Letter Book, ID 101*10. (1859-64). Bouglas to klaekwoodV May To%3-(2) Royal Engineers Letter Book 4 , Passim* Cf. geao ik>ek 1, Passim. " these'books contain many letters from both officers and men concerning work after their discharge. concerning Colonial pay and told Mm what the Royal Engineers thought of their discharge* I am discharging from 15 to 20 raen a day from the Royal engineers :-xxd I once more urge your Sxeellency to reconsider your order res-pecting the colonial pay while these men are s t i l l accessible* It would be wrong of me to conceal ttoia you that the universal feeling of the men is that they have ceen dealt r/ith in a manner to which soldiers are utterly unaccustomed. Soldiers are taught to believe that the promise of their superiors never f a i l a and would never be ignored by higher authority., and most assuredly as I have already informed your iSx-cellency, this Detachment at the close of five years* faithful Service, i s not being dealt with in the s p i r i t of the promises made to them before leaving England. (3) fhe Imperial. Government • had arranged that the men and non* v ©asaaissloned officers should receive grants of agricultural land not exceeding 30 acres each,, after six years of continuous 14} service in the ©olony. however, after five years* service, the 'Engineers* who remained i a the colony received a free (5) grant of 150 acres of land each. A few of the r.-.en were kept? (3) Moody to Douglas., ¥ 1158, October 26, 1S63. '(Confidential) I could not find what Douglas had planned to do about colonial pay... Se had no intention however of keeping the Royal Engineers on the colonial payroll. (4) Begg.,. QB. eit 5 ;,' P. 233. Hiss Wolfenden says the land given was often too poor to be of use. ken who had served for 14 years, and over, con-sidered themselves entitled to a gratuity, of about 4:33. Moody named 12 men entitled to this gratuity, I could find no other reference concerning i t . (koody to Dougla3, P 1158, November 3, 1863, Moody Correspondence). 208. on i n government positions such as armourers, as Customs* Officers, and as Lithographic Printers; others found work as gardeners, masons., carpenters-, hotelkeepers, tailors., tanners, grocers, architects,- surveyors and such l i k e , through th© solicitation of Colonel "Moody the married men were permitted to continue to occupy the houses In which they were living* providing the buildings, were not required for public .service. Benglao also allowed certain buildings of aE«o*»#at (which had been built at the private cost of the Soya! j^iginsers) to be leased to thea for seven years at th© nominal rent of one shilling per annum, fhe valuable library which was the pro-perty of the *hetaohment* was *by general consent* handed over for the use of the men who had taken their discharge and settled i n the colony. It was necessary at this time to appoint a new * Commissioner of Land© and works*. On September 28, 1863, (6) Howay, Tho ^ W f f l * 11. There are only seven survivors, of the * Thames City' today. Arthur Herring* John .Scales/ Hugh kurray, Jar a. kViliiam lurnball, Jttrs. Jane Wardlet John £el£urphy and John Murray. (Daily Province. April 17* 1938). (?) -Moody, Memo Book Ir September 3, 1S€#? M ^ » * » had already built .1 i.o.ues in the vicinity of 'The Camp*. (8) u'oody to Colonial nicer etery, >' 1 1 5 0 . (Lioody Correspondence October 10, 1863). Royal Engineers really wished to pur-Chase this property but considered i t would not be grant-ed so -asked for lease. (9) Moody to Colonial .iiecretary, 2? 1158, (fioody • Correspondence October 24, 1863). 209 Moody asked Douglas to name a successor, ' even as temporary measure'1!, w i t h whom a commencement could he made In handing over the a f f a i r s of government. Moody, h i m s e l f , suggested Jos. i , f r u t o h , and mentioned a.r. P r i o r s , a c t i n g Survey*G«aaral» and a non*oeimaiasioned • o f f i c e r . Corporal Howse, as possibilities. He also suggested that Sergeant Hylatt act as cleric and receive (10) such store a as were not s o l d . Colonel Moody was e v i d e n t l y led to b e l i e v e that Chartres Brew, who had succeeded Soaset as superintendent of the Assay O f f i c e , was to be appointed as he (11) referred to him as *my successor5 on October 23, 1863. However Douglas* ehoiee was aa Sap t a i n Luard whose -appointment he r e -eommended to London* Moody was not informed of t h i s u n t i l a few days before h i s departure whea Douglas proposed that Cap-(12) . t a i n Luard's departure be delayed* Moody,, resenting the f a c t that .he, aa L«,axd*s commanding o f f i c e r , had not been consulted before Douglas had made the recommendation to the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , s a i d that" the p o s i t i o n in which he had been placed was *very embarrassing and most repugnant to my-position and a l l ( 1 0 ) Moody to Douglas, 1? 115?, September 28, 1863. (Moody Correspondence * P r o v i n c i a l . Archives)* (11) Moody, Memo Book.I, October 28, 1865, ( P r o v i n c i a l Ar-chives ). : (12) Moody .Correspondence. y 1158 (loose page with l e t t e r from Seedy to Douglas, November 3, 1863). 210. .(13) my desires . . . . 1 wish you had' consulted me". As t h i s was writtea on the day previous to h i s departure, Moody had to make a quick d e c i s i o n which he expressed i n these words: I do not see how 1 can take on myself to leave an- o f f i c e r 'behind for a r e d e l i v e r y and to assume eharg© of my responsibility as Commander-in-Chief i s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g duties and recognizing the r e l a t i v e claims a i d f i t n e s s of officers.* (14) While at sea Eoody prepared copies of the correspondence r e l a t -i n g to Luardfs appointment and s-ent them to the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e with an explanation of. h i s own p o s i t i o n * On r e c e i v i n g these documents I r v i n g remarked, "Ihe situation i s somewhat emharr*. seeing; the Buke'e despatches appointing Luard i s signed and would have been sent * »• » No use sending, because Luard has (15) a r r i v e d i n 2nglandB* As a result,, Joseph w« 'Irutoh .received h i s f i r s t o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n i n th© colony - Chief Commissioner of Lands and works and Purveyor-Ge*jsral o f B r i t i s h Columbia. On J u l y . l , 1871* he received the appointment of f i r s t Lieutea* ant-Governor of the province. As Colonel Moody was desirous of i n c u r r i n g as l i t t l e expense as p o s s i b l e on the r e t u r n t r i p to England, such a r t i c l e s as blankets* rugs and * damaged s t o r e s1 were sold by (13) Moody to Douglas, November 13, 1863. (PRO CO 60.17). Perguoon, Ihjgais. FP-. 87-88.* -(14) Ferguson, thesis.:. P. 88. (15) liote, I r v i n g to Rogers.., December 31, 1863, on Moody to C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , December le, IS«3. (PHo Co 60.1?). Ferguson, JQlflfiU* p* 8 8» *2XX * public auction i n lew Westminster on October 22, 1863. This (16) sale brought £75 Its.. Other a r t i c l e s were t r a n s f e r r e d to the (17) m i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l , fhe * b e l l / which belonged to the Boyal Snglaeers, was s o l d on t h e i r departure to the f i r e department (18) for £47.12.2. fhe * arias* and * ammunition* ( a very b i g item) (19) were l e f t a t the governor's request In the -colony,. The horses were t r a n s f e r r e d to the 'Gold Ksecrt** On October 7,, 1663 Lieutenant Palmer was married to a daughter of Archdeaaen Wright, the c h a p l a i n of the Detach-meat* at Holy- T r i n i t y Church, Hew Westminster, and the f o l l o w -ing day Captain Luard was married to a liiss I»eggett at C h r i s t (16) Hoody to C o l o n i a l Secretary, .? 1158, jtoody,, Gi October 27, 1863. (17) Moody to Douglas., if 1.157,. Moody. C or respondenef. September 36, 1863. (18) 'M^J^MMM^i^U^Jim^* V. ("ocdy to G. Richards, Chief Engineer' <* Pi re Department). This i s the amount the Soyal T3nglneers paid for i t . (10) Moody to Douglas, 3? 1158, (Hoody Correspondence, Octcber 5, 1863). Approximate numbers: ftif1e3-bancaster 101, Short i n f i e l d 6, Cavalry Carbines 4, Swords 16, uevolvex*s 185, iJJiort dwords 192, .Beits, Pouches also Kifle and Re-volver Anrcunition 138 eases. A letter w i t ten February 26, 1868, by the Under-Secretary of State to «/ar Office requested that a ol.cin of £675.2.4 against th** government of Ti.C. for revolvers and ammunition lef t by Colonel lioody R.iS,, on loan, for the use cf the colony might be tii th drawn on account of the embarrassed state of i t s finances. The olaim rillovod to remain i n abeyance until the necessary funds would be available. (War office - Under-fiecretary of Stntc, A-nril 30, 1868). (PBO CO 60.34). 212. the Colonial 'Hotel* lew Westminster* The President o f the (21) C o r n e l l * Kobert M o k l n s o n * occupied the c h a i r . .In responding to the t o a s t o f ••Colossi Heody s»d tffioers of the Boyal Jlngin#er@ r* Co l o n e l Moody said:; :ie hare siiaply striven our hefct to do our duty. T h i s is what a s o l d i e r has always before h i a . It i s his highest aiabition to u<> his duty well « * . I t was an experiment, gentlemen, a n o v e l t y mingling thus m i l i t a r y and c i v i l d u t i e s . How far i t has met wnat was sought f o r by the Govern-ment I s not f o r me to say. I, ever, as was natural, and aa .vas my duty, kept the military part foremost In my mind and i t ia with feelings of extreme s a t i s f a c t i o n 1 can r e f l e c t on that part of our service in Bri t i s h Columbia. You have been witneaaea throughout of our d i s c i p l i n e , and at the same time how we - soldiers - have borne ourselves in our s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s -viti you. • ••ome anxiety was fe l t on the probable r e s u l t of this part of the experiment. 1 had no f e a r . I Cooper (Harbour .Master), Messrs. Claudet said 13aeon (Assay Department) and John Cooper (Chiel Clerk of the Treasury), cogent a on the *ru.denesaT axi i 'pity' of i t , and suggests that they wished to *gratify the vindictive feelings of a Governor*. It also states - *It i s per* haps one of the moot extraordinary and ungraceful acts which these o f f i c i a l s as a class, could have been guilty of*. (21.) 313 had f u l l Confidence from the beginning i n the class of men 1 had the honour to command. I knew what they were; I knew how w e l l they would act, and i n this I have not been mistaken. With respect to the p e c u l i a r t r i a l s , , d i f f i -culties and embarrassments through which we have s t r i v e n , 1 think I may say more partioularily those d i f f i c u l t i e s that have borne HO h e a v i l y on myself, I refrain from p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g . I t would be unbecoming i n me to do so, and i s not * * necessary „ . . » , For myself, ray functions as Chief Commission* er of Lands I'/crkn - ' " i l l cease when I embark for England, hut from that moment I can be, and I s h a l l be, more t r u l y a B r i t i s h Columbian than ever. (22) Colonel hoody was slao the 'recipient of a compliment* ary address from the Municipal Council of Hew tfestroinster and from the 3t. Andrew's Society on the day preceding h i s de-(23) par t u r e . The steamer 'Interprise*.. Bailed freia Hew Westminster at noon, n;a Hoveriber 11, 1863, w i t h Colonel Moody, SSrs. Moody (24) and seven c h i l d r e n , Captain Grant, J&rs. Crant and three c h i l -dren/ Captain Larsons and Captain Luard w i t h h i s bride. An hour later 11. i'i. s , 'Cameleon*, followed w i t h Lieutenant Palmer (22) M J M M L ^ 2 m M ^ h Noyc^er 7, 106*. {miterial). (23) msj&L&^^ p 1 0 Cf. Howay, T^f. Work of .JJ^U^LalumSOXOSXA*  r"  10• Three c h i l d r e n were born in i>rxi»en wiww*. n m^m^mm^m^M^LA. ^ (see also PP. 9, 12). 214* (25) and b r i d e , Br, Seddall and 15 sappers w i t h wives and c h i l d r e n . The disbanding of the Royal engineers was ©ossaented on, e d i t o r i a l l y , in 'the Colonial papers* Tlie ' B r i t i s h Coluffihiaa* a f t e r p o i n t i n g out the f u t i l i t y of expecting 8the military and c i v i l i a n to fraternise* in a colony especially •when tii® faruer* i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r military d u t i e s , are •assigned c i v i l duties also* s t a t e d : In a young Colony l i k e 1 'ritiah Columbia, wh.r: the engineer, the mechanic and the laborer ara re^uontly unable to oOt-iia Gvyloyia^nt, the sight of s o l d i e r s doing the p u b l i c -song, which would otherwise afford a.apl ^ yiosnt to many vao^ui actual need, i s a very t r y i n g one and well c a l -culated to beget a f e e l i n g of jealousy between these two d i s t i n c t elements* the f a c t , too, that t i i i s corps tsas designed to mis-.icv the purposes of a p o l i c e f o r c e , to keep us i n order, w \% calculat-ed of i t s e l f to raioa a. barrier betuaeii t h a i and the people. Taking a l l these d i f f i c u l t i e s and disadvant-ages into consideration i t i s marvellous hov? the experiment has- turned out * . . i n their inter-course w i t h the people, whether i n the discharge •of t h e i r c i v i l or military duties, they have succeeded i n completely keeping down anything like a f o u l i n g of j e a l a u o ^ , and have almost nade the c o l o n i s t s f e e l that they were one of them-selves-.. . . . It i s due to Colonel iiloody to say he has performed his duty under such circumstances, as (25) £^q£^JmM^JUMM~&: M 1 2 ) . A complete l i s t of those wa i s given i n t h i s letter hook states: Votal o f f i c e r s 6 ,r do wives 4 '* do c h i l d r e n ,16. (ot,-e also PP. 9, .o returned to iingland iAasiiiu-y at the side 10 ( 4 under 3) Jo. do do Of. - oody to wougias, I- llbi>, ^-veruev Jorreopondenee - Provincial Archives). ci. - en 15 wives 5 ch i l d r e n 7 (4 under 'i) i . lG6d. (Moody 215. for/ men would .have done. I t i a no secret to wanj that he has often patiently and uncomplainingly borne the blane due to his superior without seek-ing, by word or act, to he relieved of i t . . . The heps wry? -snter tained "by nany in t h i n Colony that, in s e l e c t i n g a new Governor, the choice might f a l l upon the Colonel. (Su) (27) Tho *j)aily Evening :*:rprcon*, Victoria, mad" i t s con-tribution. 'in Iii'i c i v i l , uj'j.l , , H i vary ad» lini st r a -t i o n j.l-sX iCiJui' h'Ai 1 '.'t i '< i H, 1 ; .iul "? i n vhich r i l l bo r<w?ribo?e4 f-:-* icnrj y r i r - V- ior»«*f 'crith pride and s a t i s f a c t i o n by 'tits people of the Colony. Of ai& -i-jiwitiixG attainments, tiio iaroi a i t e a and public works, whion he l a i d and executed w i l l be aamoriala of hi;a /rhlch. con 6c~;.' bo Ob l i t e r a t e d • . There is a atrong hope entertained 3saou£ a l l classes of the Colony t h : fc h;l oriel '. oody n -y rolu-.u i'b at no distant data to f i l l a highex and nore i n -fluential joaiti-on than he has occu : led h i t h e r t o * In sending hi,-: beck as Governor, tho Home Govern-ment -could be COTsulti ;^  the -"iahG"; of the entire ooamunity among, whom he has- had the good fortune to become tc, deservedly p o r u l a r . in the departure of Capts* Grant, Para one and huard,. L i e u t . Palmer aad JDr» -oddoil, the OVicuy s i l l 'iy;o t j xegret a very greit load. Captain Crash's indomitable per-eevarance i n o^orcc i-i{; cwry di :'d^  CD'J ty . » . ;„a well as his his.b attii/uaent© -md soldier-liko C 3 » . « t i VC Cl3 ."iiiOI iio 1; i d ov t * * » entitle- hi'}, to a niche i n the gallery of d i s t i n -guished benefactors of the country, . -. »  fie are happy to f i n d that comparatively very few of the so/* are l e ^ v i n ^ th*? coautry . . . (23) (26) rj,tlp:i Zcl-^t i f Jorerbrr 11* lfctf ». ( " d l t o r i c l ) . (27) a^a,3,,y, /tntoi,tr. 1,feiuiw* ' ^ v c j ' i ^ > cg^. A p r i l , ices. (Y/slleee and A l l a n , P r o p r i e t o r s ) . (28) ib^df,. Boveaber i d , 1363. (Editorial)* 216* fhe ' B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t * also wrote a long hut rather guarded e d i t o r i a l an the departure of the Boyal JSngineers to i&ngl and-praising Captain Grant aore than 0clonal Loody: uur o i l y i a not slo\ to j.jjpreci&te the service of those •who i>. the diochDr^e of their p u b l i c duties h;.'.Vfc proved i'ai tjii'ul to their trusts and honorable in the fulfilment and d i e * charge of them*-(Although Victoria f e e l s i t has hardly a r i g h t to express) an opinion upon their e f f i -ciency and g a l l a n t r y , we cannot d i m / the occasion of tneir departure froia theae chorea to pass wituout offering a t r i b u t e <.<f priJ.se to men and of f icer «, not for t i i e i r gallant conduct and noble bearing as Boldiero, nor for their intre-pidity arid s k i l l as tmgineeru - i'ov that to membera of such a highly distinguished corps as the iioyal i&iginaers would indeed be preemu.^ l i v e - but for the conduct and bearing i n t h e i r c i v i l capacities, which have been eueh a uignai service and benefit to the sister colony. . . . /he gallant oolouoi nua billed an arduous post as Chief Coram!saloner of juanda and -sorka, and 1%B,& won the ,\;ooa opxnj. oa of those with vhiaa i n t h i e h i s o i v i l capacity he has been brought i n contact bat he whose loan aixl bo w y s t hjeniy f e l t by Caribooitea and t r a v e l l e r s i a that g a l l a n t ofx icer - Cap Lain ,Wun.t9 \, ) On h i s return to England Colonel <doody- was- gazetted regimental colonel and the following spring was appointed te Ch.ath.aa District which was considered one of the heat appoint* ( 2 9 ) mm^LJMMmJk, Severe* 16, 1865? (^itooeial). There i s a l s o an oology for not enter taming tne officer© on t h e i r departure, s t a t i n g f e e b l y that a b a l l had been planned but arrangements had not been completed. 217* meats i a ^iglaad. In 186a lie received the. honorary rank of aaj or*general wtee». he r e t i r e d on f a l l pay to l i v e a t Lyme Eegis* Captain Orant also received an appointment to Chatham. Dr. Beddall and Captain Luard took m extended leave of ab-sence Kid Lieutenant i'&imer was engaged in a Irigoaemetricsl (30) Survey* In England, Colonel Moody- leapt up his i n t e r e s t i n British Columbia, h l e t t e r irom »»A i r i t i s h Ctiujabian* i a London" dated uotower 12, l66o stated; * * . 1 allude to Governor deymour and ueneral - teoody. hot>> these gentlemen have worlced energet-ically and continuously for the 'benefit oi' 'dis colony, as a whole, and have by their exertion, not only brou&at the Colony snd i t s vast re* source® into the favorable notice of the Govern-ment, hat r*lr*o rnde thea kxioaa i s naoy e l i c i t s , which a i l l ultimately greatly &i& in the progress ox the uoloay; no a&o. have been *»dare really eo true to a l l your interesta* (31) Letters written to i l , 1. P. Crease show how Colonel ).-oody followed the progress of British Columbia and how an* xious he was to return, on .dec^scher, 3, 186? he wrote: . . . 1 B«e the future quite in the eame lipht t h a t X alv/ayu '-id «nd an cuite aft confident as ever, 'the r.reumt distress does net, dip ny l i g h t as to -the future. he assured i t would he a hapoy %.nXrm for B, v. and J.. i f thay could only end the a© accursed jealousies', and otop the mouths of the re si eneriies - :-;ooC ueu, Most .Excellent and up-rSl^ht men, i h*we no doubt, am*, men wfeo euejht {30} **1flftftto Co^^iat. April 4, 1864. (31) ' jfricU* Hovemher 30, 1866. Seymour was then in England. 21fc>» to kiwn their -y;rn interests beet but v/ho by con-stant groaning and utterly desponding accounts, injure their ov.m interests -:nd the interests of every one around them. You can have no idea what d i f f i c u l t i e s 1 have here i n keeping 'up u decently fair opinion of the resources and of the future prosperity of the colony. . . . I often wish I was i n the colony ju3t to go about cheering up every one i n v i c t o r i n as well aa haw heetainster . . . I wish -.Seymour trould ask f o r we to come out a i d j u s t give advice about natters ho. &c. » * . I want to be able sray* *1 .hold no land that i s unoccupied*" {32} Another letter i r r i t t e n to Tve*ec on heptewbea? 9, 1870# reveal® h i s continued i n t e r e s t i n the colony and M s de-sire to return. {33) we have e lev on c h i l d r e n . . . '•*« certainly ought to settle in the colony of British Columbia and i t i a not icpossibla that ooiae f u t u r e day we .:.a,y do so. Tut i t .oil 1 b , i v p'^udunt u;h;il .nil"-incoraa be increased ;»,3 no wie Icnovra b e t t e r than ray s e l l to .hope to salre iconcy in a colony or to add to one1 a incone out there vould he a sort of moony true" i-jr-Zmea;- . » . You "cw.* . w tiles the Colonies and we a l l have -an especial affection - 1 0> i,« h U^ld IhC "lild fol •' U'. :i' • OUbtiCI'J I. personally sza not very popular, but as I know i t tc> be on 'aisigthci ^j-toiiild,;, X t, u u l d f J 8 l that i n due time any unwind sort of unpopularity ivuuld soo.a d i e a?.a^ » I h:**"<2 not cas single da-te ind th ought towards any single- one individual i s the whole colony . . r. gpeaking c f h i s two sons * Charlie, a;;© 15* "falter,. {32} ' oor,^ to " - .-.v., . « A i . i ' . a ih"',', (C'.v. c orr ecpond once >Tfvi • c i i i rcu^o^} Robert trrxi-by, former secretary to iv-oody, ;>oteu &o his agent. (33) t-ouoy Ltd1 1*;- c t . i l ui. en, II t-irvi'/ed i - i : .oody to Crease, ^eptecber fJ, X' vc. (urease Correspon-dence - Xi'ovincial .-x-Ciaveaj. 219* age l%h he says? Both are destined for B. 0., Charlie very early I hope.(34) They are eager to go . . . I am serious when I say I hope to go with, them to settle them in those regions of British Columbia even i f 1 don't stay there more than a year or so sty self* . . * I am assuming that local jealousies are at an end and that you are really a united colony, . . . I had many t r i a l s , f :r more bitter than you knew, when I was in British Columbia. You knew some of them and I know you fe l t for me. I was in a "false position" from f i r s t to last aid a false position not of ay own seeking but at the earnest solicitation of the Secretary of State* I could never hope to make straight that false position, a i l I could do -as to endure. You and a few others, Trutch for instance, knew me and knew what I had to bear and made every allowance4 « * . What j oily times we would have i f I were living in .British C lumbla as a country gentleman at *layfieldf on the Brunette - perfectly inde-pendent of a l l Colonial squabbles or- Government Office matters . . . I can't conceive any l i f e happier •. * . I have a perfectly passionate long-ing for that land at Bayfield and a l l along the course of the Erunette. (35) The third letter written on Beoeaber 22.,, 1873, give® a Hat of the land owned by Moody in .British Columbia* Moody was worried over the taxes• and feared he -would lose the t i t l e s Ho was isaxieus to s e l l a l l but the *Blo©k extending from oapoerton along the Sorth Road and th© River Brunette, and m im) Lake Burnaby, 1 (34) Ueither of these boys case to .British Columbia* (35) Moody to Crease, September 9, 18?©* (Crease Correspon-dence - Provincial Archives). (36) ibid.. December 22, 1873. Cf. See Appendix. II. 22S* Major-General Bichard Clement Moody died suddenly on 137} March 31, 1887 at Lyme Begis* An obituary i n the London *Times% in summoning up his work, said; Under Colonel Moody's supervision the foun-dations of x«ew Jestmineter, the eapital of British Colusibia, were l a i d , and lor t koody, the weatern-most point reached hy the great Canadian Pacific hallway was named after him . . . Ids name will ever he associated with the rortunea of our rising dependency in the Western Pacific* (38) Several memorials eoasKaaerate the work of the Colonel iloody and the Boy al Sngineers i n British Co-lush i a . Stanley Parle* Moody Square, sapper ton and Port Moody have been referred to previously* In 19:37 a Cairn with Tablet was erected at Sapperton to ©osasei&ersts; the landing of the heyal l&agineers in Cat.) 1859. I t i s natural, for men to form opinions* 3oa@times there ia agreement concerning the plaee of t h i s one or that one i n the great pmer&sta that we c a l l history*. I t would not be poaaible to obtain anything like unanimity of opinion as to the meritorious achievements of Colonel Moody and the Boyal Engineers. Possibly, i f their work had been more spectacular.,. (37) Wolf en-den, m*«»Mte*>*  f'  4* (38) .The. Tlasii.. London, A p r i l 1887, P* 10. 139) fleoBra-ph.ie.al a^UM^L^sm^m^^ Lands. V i c t o r i a , 1930. even though t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s on the c i v i l side had been l e s s , they would he hol d i n greater esteem. We can cay how* ever that they gave the young colony that important f a c t o r of order, without which, no development would have been possible. They ease, they saw and - d i d their duty w e l l . wtJbio,ue (|no Fas et G l o r i a Bueunt*. (40) The Regimental liotto of the Royal I n g l n e e r s . JSjBLICGr EAPHT Sianuecrlpt Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Victoria? IS British Columbia Royal Elngineers hotter Books*. % Crease Correspondence*, H Departmental Correspondence: Foody, Palmer, Parson®, Moberly, Royal ''i\>lasers Officers, Gosset, iJrew and Trutch with the Department of hand© and Worka. H Despatches to and from the Downing street from 185i to 1871,' 3 Toltmee - 1859-1863. 1 Disposal of Land to the Royal Sr%,ineers. Land Department, victoria. 1 Douglas, Private Letter Hooks, 1857, 1863. m Douglas, tiir James, Private O f f i c i a l Letter tfook 1859-1864. « Douglas to Moody, Solders 485 , 48£>A, 485B, 485C. IP 59-186 3 . • S B.C. Lands and .Vorke Department - Letter Books i»^ »3 • % Moody Correspondence, Moody to Do 1% l a a 1B59-1B63. ~% Hoody, Meat© look,. . P r i n t e d «, O f f i c i a l P r o v i n c i a l Archives of British Columbia, Victor! Act to'Provide f o r the overament of .Brit i s h Columbia,, August 2, 1858. V i c t o r i a . Correspondence R e l a t i v e to the Discovery of G o l d on Fraser* s R i v e r , London, 1858. % most u s e f u l in t h i s essay. 223 • ^RBfARY CcmTmmmm-) Printed - O f f i c i a l (Cont'd) Correspondence Relative to tiie Discovery of Gold at Queen Charlotte's Island, London 1858, (Imperial Blue Book). H/Hansard* s Parliamentary Debates, 3rd aeries, 18 49-186 4. vol. 15b, 160, 167, 171, 1?2. Gives rSnfeliah point of view. % Imperial Blue Boolt relating, to British Columbia, (Papers relative to the Affairs of British Col-umbia. ) Part I * Published in 1859 (March) Part 2 - Published in 1859 (August) Part 3 • Published in i860 Part 4 - Published in 1862 (March) Published in London oy G eo rte Edward Syre and •Vi 11 iam ~potti swoo de, H Lytton, B,, Speeches ^ of/Bd#ard Lord Lytton, William JJlacfewood and" hons, rtJdihburfch and London, 1874. IS Proclamations and Ordinance of British Columbia, 1R'8-1864. Published in / i c t o r i a , 1864. ffeiao i r Mo Iff. Ho gee of Assembly Correspondence Book, 'A^ha't 12, I8b6 to .July 6 , 1059. Printed by authority of Legislative Assembly, victoria, 1918. "SS Hewoir Mo* VI. liar ly Mi story of the Eraser River Mines, by 'Xu&e J?. '-V. Howay (Victoria, 1926) contains contemporary documents). Excellent material « t.ives Be^oie1 a account of Hod McGowan' s .?ar. % Memoir Ho. VII.Reid, R. L. The Assay Office and ^^TS^^^O^TWint at JKew Westminster, Printed bynautho r i ty^&?T5^ , victor! a, 1926. ( contains 00 n temporary jo ounents). •Sxoallent - very detailed - quotes original documents* 111. Printed - Unofficial Alston, 13, G. A Handbook to British Columbia and Vancouver Islanct, EolHonTTB^ Ou "~* -—~ Summary of iiistory fro-" 1858 to 1868. Merely a handbook. PRBfARY AHD COMTTiSPORAHy, Printed ~ Unofficial Anderson,, A. C. Handbook and Map "The Sold Res ion Q f ffraSer* s and Thorny eg n* s I f a M e ^ AnaereojTliras^^ trader of il.B.G,—Kerely a handboo3&--Hap &©odU Anderson, A* C» The ."Dominion at the West. V 1 oto r i a G ov ernmenT^r'iiiter7~*IB7'2^ Government >>rise essay, 1872. #ore descriptive than his t o r i c a l . Anderson, A. D, History of the i^orth.West Coast. Victoria, 1878. Typewritten copy, Provincial * Archive©) More fceofcraphioal than historical. Ballantyne, R. ¥.,. Handbook to the Hew Gold gielde, Map, etc., Scif hburbh, London, l''6B M e r e l y a handbook. % BarretULennard, Captain,C. 3. Travels in x>rat~ iah Columbia, Hurst ant 31 acketb", Loh'lcn, lob2. Narrative 'of a yacht voy.^e—moot !.escri,>tive. Describes the site of i«ew Westminster. ;Je&bie, Matthew 3 . Journey_into the Interior of British.Golumoia. JP,V>$~. "' % Brown, Rev. R. G. Lundin, 3ssay on British Columbia, Royal Sru-ineers "?ress, Islew Westminster, w — : # „ A p r i z e essay on period. 1'oSty st a t i s t i c a l . By a Returned Di&ter, Cariboo, the hewly Discovered Gold Fields o f ;irftT3:x"*oolumbia. Bsrfea &ti8HKbl$&9~^^^ ^doook^ Gornwalll3, K, The tfew Igldorada or British C o l ^ b i a . ihcmaTiHTahlil^ 3Hb8. Preface feood - too early for this essay. VL 'jgrnife-rant Soldier 3* G azette and i O^pe Town Chronicle, ^dited "by "3econd Corp'oral c".' Sinnett, "RTfT7~^^8. Addenda by R. Wolfenden, Victoria, 1907. Wolfenden's addenda has been frequently used as source material. Harnett, L., Two Lectures.of British Columbia, Biggins and XonfcTT*^clorTa^™1H5S. Very detailed and scientific account of -mineral formation, etc. PRIMARY AHO COUTWPORARY, Printed - Unofficial (cont'd) Hazlitt, Wm. C., The Great Gold Fields of Cariboo, RoutledLe, V-'arne and' Routled£,e,"" London, 1862. quite detailed, Excellent map of told fields. Harvey, A., Statistical iccount of i i r i t i s h C o l » b i a , G .It...' l'X^s&araiea,nn:Ealwa",_'l867. '' Intended as a companion for Year Boole, 1867. S t a t i s t i c a l . Too late for this period. 1 Macdon j l d , U.G.F., 3ritlsh Columbia and Vancouver1 s Island, Lonion, Longmans Green, l86'3." ' ~* "Hfcxafc&erates and Dir.sed i n favour of Foody. i& Kacfie, Futhew, yaneouver Island and British. Colombia, Lon^man,' u reeh, etc., London, IT-6 5 . Wo'stly s t a t i s t i c a l . \ few good fables, not one word of Royal t (Jr%infers or -'oody in /hole 674 peges. Mayne, Lieut. R. C., Report on Journey i n J3r 1tish Columbia in | ^xS^TiTxTc^&^oor derTnfe o'n*fee ^iorn-fmn. ' "tfraffir' and liarr'lson 'Rivers, 1859, 1861/18621 ?. Clowes & S o n s , London, • 1862. Maps good. Payne, Command?r, R.C., lour Years in •British Columbia And Vancouver I s l a n d ^ John Kurray, X b h d o n , 'TB.62. """" ' ' " An account of physical features -uid resources o f British Columbia. Mayne always hero of h i s own travels. Soberly, .Valter C'3., The t^clcs a n d t'iaes of British Columbia, B1 ;c1d.ock and C o . , London'7 ih8b '/as Assistant ourveyor C eneral of iJ.C. Reminiscences, hot much h e l p . Says he picked site o f hew Westminster. Pailiser, C--..pt. J . , Exploration of .Jritish itortn America, Journal of G eofcraphic '3oc ity, Lon.ion7" ,Longman and G reen, i 8 6 0 . M Palmer, Lieut. H., Report on V i l l i am 3 Lake and Cariboo, Sew Westminster, printed by Roy a 1 Engineers, 186 3« Veiy detailed -ic count of physical features, etc. 22i>.# PRIMARY MM QOmmmmm^ Printed » Unofficial (Cont'd) Pemberton, J . D., Facts and J'ifeures Relating to Vancouver Island and'.Sribish Columbia etc., Longman ' and 'C'reen, Lo ndon^ I860. Knew Vancouver Isl.;nd but not iiri t i s h Columbia. Good physical map—no roads marked.. Waddington, Alfred, On the Geography and ITount-gin Paases of British dbiumhia etc., Journal' of RoyaT Geofcraohic Society, London, iturray, 186B. Wadding ton, Alfred, The Fraser 1'ines Vindicated or The History of" "Four Months. lie karro, Viaioria.'1B58. Short hoolu-not much in i t for this essay. First book oublished in Victoria. IV. Me:w$papers Uew Westminster;: H .British Columbian, John Robson, Publisher and Proprietor, Sew Westminster. 3est source for growth of sew Westminster. Biased in favour of Foody and against Doufclas. 1& British Columbian, The ifraser Valloy. Centennial Edition. 1912. Let.islative Library, hew West-minster. Article by J«d£,e Howay traces the development of the 7raaer Valley and hew V/eatm in titer. Very t-ood. The tfew Westminster Times, September r/» 1859 to February 27, 1861* Printed for proprietors oy L. T'cLure, Victoria. Print very email and rviuy numbers rrissint. Kot very helpful. Weekly paper. Victoria: H The .British Colonist, December 1858 to . Sditer Amor de Cosmos. Antatonistic to Douglas. Prejudiced against x<ew Westminster. Ignores affairs in Jr i t i s h Columoia as much as possible. Often sarcastic and exafcti e ra t i nfe. Victoria .Daily Press, l o . 1, Vol, March 9, 1861, to October 16, 1862. Printed and published far the proprietors by Leonard McLure, 227. PRIMARY AID 001fS!K)RA.RT, Mewspapers (Cont'd) Victoria's Victoria Svenirc Express, January 1862, to .fee ruary, 18$5. Quite fcood, •Veekly Victoria Curette, June 25, 1859, to Nov-ember 26, 1859. H. 'Villi at cn aul C. Bartlett, Uditora. Later called earner victoria Gaaette. % The Victoria Gazette, 1st edition. December 5, 1359 to September 29, i860. Printed by Leonard McLure, Victoria. Edited Monday, Wednesday fxnd Friday. C^uite sympathetic to j«ew Westminster, jiest .>a >er at that time. This is the p.'iper Doubles fre-quently enclosed in iii"? tesnatches to Downing, at. Government Gasette, January 1, 1863 to ^ Vancouver: Vancouver D a i l y Province n . A r t i c l e s that appear on anniversary QX arrival of Royal % % i « e e r s und on deaths of descendant®. London* m. Tiises, 1858*1864 SBCGBBAH*. 1. Books Anstey, A., The Rornance of tsritish Columbia. Toronto, 0 at,e a-..^  Co.,Ltd. 1927. H e l p f u l for b-te kg round. Bancroft, II. K., * Popular Tribunals1 vol. II, The history Co. Publishers, San Fransisco, 1887. Very detailed but not always reliable. % B a n c r o f t , II. II.., History' of_Bri tish Colgrabia, 1792-1887, The. H i l l o r y ^ Good m a t e r i a l but not always r e l i a b l e . % Begg, Alexander, o*G. I|istory_of^British Columbia From i t a Earliest oi scov e'ry " to ' "ftleH^re se nt "TliaeT"* Hrig£s, Toronto, 1$94* — - ——- —— A lot of feood m a t e r i a l expressed in. an i n t e r s stint, way but no references and not always r e l i a b l e . 228* SICOJOAHY, Books {Gont»d) Canada Year Boole, 1939 IS Goats, H, H. aad Gosnell, R.. !,, Sir James Do tig l a s , Moranfc ft Co., Toronto, l^oBT^SaSers of Canada Series) fbere i s a lot o f very fcood material. Quotations n o t always correct. "Desville, A. 3., The Colonial Postage Systems and Postage 8 % asnplToT V aiico uv s i I aland and" • J r l i l s h1 « -I v e s , ' l « o l r r S i T ¥ 1 1 1 , Charles j*unfield» Victoria, 1928, Tory good mat®rial. Hagland, Robert, The Colonization of Western Canada, P. S. Kin& aai aon l i d . , London, 1936. Good material for bac^round. yutcher, W. K., The Great Itorth Road to the Cariboo, 7ri^ley Printing & Publishing Co., Vancouver, 19 38. Good chapter on Cariboo Road, Good map. Ga.0^raphleal G a&sttar .of J*f itish, C o l w b l a , Bepar^ieni of'Lanls, 'C. F.^Sasflerd, V i c t o r i a , 1930. (G. G. Ait ken „ Chief geographer). Contains a t r e a t deal of material on early history* settlement, itopography, p l a c e naises, m e m o r i a l tablets,' ete. Gosnell, R. 1., TherYear 3ook of B r i t i s h Col-umbia, 189?» and*~Fanu0T~of'Provincial information. TToioria, 18 97* Statlatieal information. Good information o n place names, etc. Herring, Frances 15., In the ,,Pathleaar ffost, " \ T. F i s h e r , London, 19TE! " "~ *~ Narrative in foi-m imt interestiiw.. 1 Howay, F. W. and Scholefield, 0. British Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present, 1?oi. II, f.;*!iCouver, h. J . Clarke Co., i9i?r The best authority on the history ;rf British Columbia. Discusses more t'-'orou&hly than any other author the buildint, of roads in J3, C. 229'* 81O0ffD.ARY.,. Books, (Coat* d) howay., P. ,-/, , British Columbia The Uakirit of a Province, Toronto, the Ryeraon Press, 1 9 2 8 . ~~ Very general - tool for h round. Howay, F. -.V., The ^ arly H i s t o r y of the Eraser River Mine©, Tl^zll^m5~r^ * — Original 'correspondence quo t e l . IS Howay, F... iff,., The #ork o f the Royal UJr*.;ineers in B r i t i s h CdumMa. lgSH-iWo}, victor!., 1?L0. An ah? re as delivered before the .,rt Historical and 3ci@nt.ific .Association of Vancouver on 9th February, 1 9 0 9 . The best secondary source there i s . lot of the material in i t wiUJbt he trea t e d as primary. Judge howay says he obtained a t r e a t deal of his material from Colonel R. #0 I f en-ten, former Royal ^n&iflee - and Kir%» a Printer. Innis, Mary ^ a a y l e , An Jjconoraic h i s t o r y of Canada, R/erson Press, Toronto, I93L. C~o6'i" on railroad - tood bac% round. Jenness, B., The Indi ans o f 0 ana da, national Museum of Canada, 19J3^« JJulletin , Anthro-pological Series, ho. 15. Good material. 1£ IGsenleyside, K. L., Canada and the United State Alfred A. Knopf, iiew York, If5^7 Concise account o f Han Juan A f f a i r . Korice, Rev. A. G ., IIistory 10f the Borthern Interior of British OoTamt^ merT i»ew Caledonia, "fe. Brit t s, Toronto, 190b. Reminiscences of a clerLyw ;n, uood picture of Cariboo Road. Kl Sage, f » . B., S i r Jawes Bouglas and British Columbia, Toronto, University "of Toronto Press Good book f o r reference. Marly history of Douglas tool. % Schoiefield, 3. 0. 8. ani G 0cnell, R, B r i t i s h Columbia S i ^ t y tY^arg .of Progress, Van-couver and Viato^rTaTBT^T?*'"' So~'e tood material. Shippee, L. 3.., Cana&ian-ATaeriean. R e l a t i o n s , Toronto, The Ryerson Pren m^tf^T Good chnpter on San Juan dispute... 230* SSCOSBAfOr, BooJcs. <Co»t*d) ".'/aliwm, Wymond, W.D. , Stories of ?arly British Columbia. Published by Bews-/.dvertiaers Vancouver, 1914-. Interesting. Good article on ..>etbie. Jatlrins, Sir H. VI., Canada an I the lit ate a. Recollection 18L1- 1CM, London, W?. 11. P e r i o d i c a l s . Creit/nton, B. G. , "The VieLoriano and the Empire", The Canadian Historio al Revlew, vol.XDC June, 19T0, P. f^fL lt'37 hhivsrsi ty of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1>38. Good b ioground. "X Howay, F. 7., B*'5arly oetfcler-ent on J5urrard I n l e t , * The British Columbia H i s t o r i c a l snart. erly.' April, 1937. (Vol. 1,~lT^TrT5TrcT47 Excellent m a t e r i a l - - n o t founi elsewhere. -Howay, F„ W., •The Overland Journey of the Argonauts of 1862", Transactions^ of i the ;Royal S o c i e t y o f Canada, 3ri'"Series", vol. I3 , Deo. 11 Interesting,—f,ivaa l o c a l colour. Howay, P. W., "The Raioon d* etre of .Porte n o © and. Yale", Transactions of the poyal 'ooiety of Canada, 3rd Heries, Vol. 16, 1922. % Howay, 7 . '7,, " *!arly Shipping in Burrard Inlet, 1863-1870", The British Colunoia,,historical fuarterly, J uiuary, "1^7. " ' ery t o o l . 1 Lain&, F. 7., ""udson* s -Jay Comn.ny on the Mainland of British Columbia, lCi.tf-1861, B r i t -i s h Columb i a it 1 st & rjo -t 1 Quarterly, a p r i l , 1^9* "Excellent material." Lamb, E», "Betters to fartha", The British Col umbia Quarterly, Vol. 1, ?. 33,*Ti^Iary7~^937* Very interesting— Livss Inran aide of Bout,las. Reid, R. L., " A l f r e d ".'adding ton". Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 3rd Aerie's, Vol. XXVI, H e o . 2, 1936. 231. StCQHDARY, PerfeaieaJLs (Cont'd) Reid, R. L., "Economic Jet innings in .British Columbia," Transactions of the Roy.-.l Society of Canada, 3rd Series, Vo. XXX, 1936, Sec. 11; a age, W. M., "From Colony to Province", .British Columbia Historical. Quarterly, V o l . I l l , Jan-uary, 1'939 Good bac^Lround. Sate, M., "The /annexationist lovenent i n British Columbia," T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Royal Society of Canada, 3rd Series, vol. XXI, Ottawa, Tt#27* Sate, 17. S., "The C r i t i c a l P e r i o d o f B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r y 1866-1871", P a c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l Review, Vol.1, 1932, Arthur H. Clark Company, Cailfornia Sage, B., "The Gold Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia* Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . 11, December, 1921 P. M 6 - ^ . Good m a t e r i a l , e s p e c i a l l y on Douglas and Amor Be Cosmos. X Schoiefield, 3. 0, 8., ,JThe T i l e - C a r i b o o :.^on. Road", The B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, V o l . 7, Jsaaua.ryr7™*IWJr Very good m a t e r i a l on redds. So ward, F. H., "Pre si lent Polls and the Canadian Frontier", Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n .oinual Report, 1930, 2r\ 71-'^ ?5 Shows *h;..-.t a d e f i n i t e st v.nd Polk took. **** A*fc*<q» Green, George, Royal Ingineera were Adventurer's Best Friend,. Vancouver B a l l y Province, A p r i l 17. 1938. - An a r t i c l e eommeroratinfc the e i g h t i e t h y e a r since the a r r i v a l of the Thames C i t y . I V . Encyclopedias and .Jictio.n..ries % i)jcticn.-rv nf n a t i o n a l Jiof-ranhy, London, Sr-.ith ^Ider L Co., 1094, Vol. XXXVIII, P. 332-333 Coo:! bio,.,ra">hical a>c?tcJi. 252* 8SC0SBARX,. gneyolopediasand Pictionarlea (Coated) Snoyolopedia Britannioa Bneyolopadia of Canada, U n i v e r s i t y A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, Toronto.*. 1936 S a r r , T. TLV The H i s t o r y of Canada Throufeh Biagraphy, .sent & Sons,. 193?.*. 228-235' v. Theses % Ferguson, H., The Development of CoTmunieations i n C o l o n i a l British Columbia, TA» A., British Columbia, 1 W ~ ~ ™ * Vary helpful. H a l l , ''if. I . , the .Royal 3nfeineer» i n Jrltiah Coltgtbia, 18 bET1^6^7lOT7^riTi^h^ . 1925 Mercer, I?. B,, Political C. rouoe in J r i t i s h C o l t g s b i a j , ^ ^ Clflumb i a , Ap r 11, 1 ? 37 Good for b-joground. Ross, M. , Amor 1e Co smog, A B r i t i sh Columbian Re Tomer, April, ~ 19 3! hood for cao>t,round. VI, Mage Anderson, A. G. , Hip i n " T h h h o l l Region of "Frazer's and Thompson's R i v e r s , " San I'r: nsioco, 1858, v -ip t.ood very t,ood m-<p, o i l fields marked in «.oli. Anderson, A. C., Showing lifferent routes of communication witIh*H££e~t^^ ' s ftlver from oTTt-inal notes (1P,59?J in Provincial \rchives, Iso in tmperla 1 Blue Boole » ''ad of Part I., very feood G ood. • 3m Juration Map of B r i t i s h Columbia i n B r i t i s h Colombia Information for Tm iu at ion, (Handbook). Issued hy the t cnt-G -mir ;1 for the vTovinoe, London, fn^land, 1C75 233. STSCOHDAHY, Maps <Cont*d) Map of the World, Emigrant Bo Idlers* Gazette taA Cape Town Chron-icle Showing the Track of the Ship, Thames City from England to Vancouver Island, with a de-tachment of the Royal Hh%i»eers, 1858-1859 Hazlett, m. C . , In the j^reat Gold Fields of Cariboo. Ro ntledgeT^irne^^ London, •mi— C oo d maps, Pemberton, 3"* Despond,. In Facia a n d it,urea Relating to Vancouver riT>nd~c~md JririsiiT CojL. umbia,' Ldnt-;wan, etc., ion ion, IF60 Royal Engineers, sic* ten' man a 1 iluatrating sur-vey reports ofj^entrno^ Arm*^ouTi., ^ CartBoo " arid 234. APFSHDIX I. The composition of the force and the rates of pay and allowances as planned for the officers and the men was as follows: OFFICERS Regimental Pay per Colonial Annum Allowance 1 Chief Commissioner of hands and Works-.-Colonel Woody R . l . £ 330 1 Captain....»•••....»«..«««>•• 202 1 2d Captain................... 202 1 3d 2d Captain..... ............. 202 2 Subalterns, (each) 125 £ • 1,200 350 350 350 250 so®*, aomissiomn OFFICERS AKD S A P F S R S Regimental Working Pay per Pay per Diem Diem 1 Color Sergeant and Acting Se rb e ant-Ma j or.............. 1 Sergeant and Acting quarter-master Sergeant............. * 7 Sergeants, (each)........... 8 1st Corporals............... 8 2d Co rporals 2 Buglers 123 Sappers s. d. 3-10i 3- H 2- 10ia 2- 2i 1- 10i 8 . S , Total £ 1,530 552 375 3s to 5s 3s to 5e Is to 4s Is to 4s Total s.. a. ;a. 3s to 5 s 6 I0fc-to8 10-g-6 4ft 08 5 10ito7 3 2ito6 2- lOftob 1. 2.|- is to 4s 2 2ito5 lot 2i lOf (10) B.C. Papers P t . I , P. 55 (August 23, 1858 - In Letter to Colonel Moody signed by H. Merivale). Rates of Postage ' between the under mentioned place*,, in a l l eases to he prepaid* — ~ — r T — ¥ - ...... r — r • » " ' r — T " » ~T" f » t » u 9) 43 1 t (S » » t t t i l r +» © o ! t m I e l f lie t f «9 CO t t CD t © i © t O f t t H hO Pi H -p f-f H <8 » +> » © s t f O » t +> t t ro i £3 i i 1 t r O (=» I 1 f W r t f *H r * t 3? I » t H •A t t t •H t t l a? f i i <; r • * i - - ~ | ~ t » f t t totters*Paper s * 1 1 I 1 t t T • * T — T — r ~ - '*" "• t T „„ .I. f t » » Mew '5©3tmtnster 1 j t 5d*2 id' 5d'2 |d* 6d*2 Id* Is' is* 5d' Is' 5d* 3s* i 4s* i t t 8 't t * * I » t 1 t I * t i Dow :;las t 5d* t t i 5d> * 5d» i Is « : \ 3.8 1 i Is* 1 3s * t 4s* t * I t 1 t t » l t i t t » l t » t Hop© I » 1*1 • f ! i 5d* T Is * i l's» t Is* » 3s* t 4s1 t t t » t t » * 1 1 t » l t r Tale i .5d» t Sd»'' t 5d* » t t Is' i Is' t le« f 3s' 4s? » t r i t t t t » f t 1 i t l r f i Lytton 1 ls» f Is* I Is' » Is* t * » is* % Is* 1 3s* 1 4s* . •' f » f t I t t 1 1 » t » t t i l i l l o o e t r Is' t Is* t Is* t Is' 1 Is' * t t Is* r 3s» i 4s' t t t t t 1 t 2 s* t t t t t » t I i Williams Lake i Is*' t 2s! ' t 2s' t 2s* t 2s* t 2s' r 1 t Is* 1 2s' i * t t t j r t t t i I » t t t '.mesne lie t Is* t 3s' i 3s' t 3S* 1 3s' i 3s* t Is' t r 1 i s ' i • ! * ..» t I t ' t * t t » t 1 Antler 1 Is* i 4s' f 4s* t 4s* r 4s» i 4s» t 2s* Is' t ! t * i t * t t i i i i t t i t 1 G n > 1 Post Office,Br it isr Columbia, Wi-w-ar Spalding I.P., 1 tJuly, 1867. In British Columbia July 23, 1862, 236, APPENDIX III. ROAD TOLLS Dai® • Yale t Hop® * Douglas I860 ' 216. 3.0 373. 4, 6 1861 * January » 26.19.0 199. 9. 4-?seruary t 284. 9«0 * ' 2.13.0 * IB4.12.U March * 584.16.0 « 1.16.0 • 313.12. 7 April « 296.18.0 » 0.18.0 * 301. 9. 8 Say • 179. 2.0 » 2. 3.8 * 326.15. 9 Swm * 272.15.0 * 15.14.3 * 364. 5, 4 * £1861. 2.0 * 33.10.8 « 2063.10. 1 July * 200.18.0 » 68.12.6 * 406.15 . 5 » 2062. O.O * 92. 3.2 « 2470. 5. 0 TOTAL - £4624 8 s 8a quoted in British OoltOTDian, August 26, 1861. 237. 238. 239. A P P m D I X I T . Abstract of Meteorological Observations, New Westminster, B. C. Photostat - in original copy only 2 4 0 . &PPSLTOIX VA. ,TABL3 OF HEVSNTJES & UXFSSDITuTOSS FOR THE YEARS 1859-60-61, GIVM BY GOVERNMSMT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. Heads of Receipts Customs Duties Harbour Dues Head Money Seizures & Fines Tonnage Dues Inland Navigation Licences Customs Pees Land Sales Land Revenue Free Miners' Certificate Mining Receipts General Spirit Licences ) Trading Licences) united Road Tolls Rents (inclusive of land) Postal Fines, Forfeitures & Fees Fees of Office Miscellaneous Rents (exclusive of land) Deposits, Mule Tax Interest Refund "Sale of Government Prop'ty Bullion Exchange Reimbursements in aid of expenses incurred by Gov. Sxcise Duties Road Debentures Issued Imperial Government Sk>an Treasurer, balance due him 1859 « 1 '1859 & part ' ' of 1858 ' ' ' 1860 1861 i s d •» «£ s d ' £ s a i 17849 7 7 « 29702 8 7 « 3286 4 18 l i i 572 3.1 « 611 3 5 ' 317 6 z t 224 12 0 ' 1054 0 0 ' 446 12 0 i 459 10 2 ' 115 18 11 « 67 6 0 1 3669 5 3 ' 3701 8 4 » 98 10 0 ' 52 8 0 i 11 12 00 » 18 i 0 t 18 9 23 5 8 ' 11075 12 1 • 5703 15 0 t 60 11 3 « 785 19 508 0 0 ' 1436 0 0 • 1925 0 0 i 1372 12 7 » 807 5 4 ' 765 6 5 t 1628 12 10 ' 1837 2 9 t 4374 3 1 ' 551 0 0 ' 843 0 0 t 589 7 6 ' 6296 10 8 t 588 16 0 ' 278 3 6 ' s 157 1 7 ' 121 7 ,)5 ' 131 1 1 i 367 10 9 ' 562 9 4 • 538 13 5 t 226 1? 6 ' 617 6 10 » 1356 18 4 » 274 14 5 ' 402 18 6 i 262 4 0 ' 369 9 0 ' 749 17 0 i 108 ,15 6 ' 40 1 9 ' 10 12 0 « 30 0 0 ' » 11 12 10 ' i 8 6 « 17 15 4 i 173 16 11 i 87 1 4 t t 8 0 0 34 0 0 t 5200 0 0 1 2250 0 0 t i 8 47125 39391 0 4 ' 4 3 ; 58526 24518 11 5 55 6 60645 18513 1951 2J21 17 0 4 J-3 5 1 3 £ » 86516' 4 7 83044 16 11 ' 83431 15 4 2 4 1 * APPENDIX VA. (Cont'd.) HPIUBITURSS FOR THIS Y3ARS 1859, i860, 1861, (iWW BT GOV1KHSPS8T OF BRITISH COOTBlA 1 1B59 $ c. part 1 t * * i Heads of Sxpenditure » of 1858 * i860 s 1 1861 * s d 2— « d * s d (Salaries, fixed t 4514 18 7 5190 17 11 7141 16 1 do Provisional & Temporary » 10476 4 0 t 9179 19 2 * 12353 7 3 {Office Contingencies » 1250 7 11 t 1043 19 9 2081 2 1 (Allowances *• 136 4 0 t 1018 9 4 530 7 10 [Revenue Service, Exclusive t j of Establishments * » 179 1 7 * 221 11 8 Police and Gaols, do 24 7 0 792 3725 14 0 t 9 8 •forks and Buildings 7344 7 11 * 19 0 * 3079 18 5 ;Roads, Streets and Bridges * 1006 4 1 t 21076 16 10 29010 10 10 Harrison River Road 292 1 0 t * Surveys and Explorations 3726 3 l t 1635 1263 15 8 1881 12 3 Transport t 2419 10 2 * 9 4 * 4512 8 4 ifiecellaneous t 665© 14 10 * 317 0 10 t 469 8 10 Stores * 651 16 5 * f fines, Forfeitures & Fees » 56 19 4 * 1 Rents * 30 4 0 33 0 0 t 174 O 0 Adminetration of Justice 108 11 6 194 1 3 ! 7 0 0 Charitable Allowances * 200 0 0 ! 449 3 10 Refunds 1 135 0 0 t 884 2 3 Conveyance of Mails t 41 3 0 * General, Exclusive of Sstablishments * » * 359 4 7 * 291 9 4 light Houses • 1 600 0 0 Bullion "Exchange t f 49 19 9 Re demotion of Roads i 780 0 0 3620 0 0 » * t T 39449 11 9 * 47171 2 3 * 69982 10 2 • i l i t a r y Expenditure * 37374 5 8 V 24688 7 3 * 20093 18 9 • » » £ • 76823 17 5 » 71859 9 6 » 90076 8 11 » 1 « Brown, Rev, R.C, Tundin, Sssay on British Columbia, Appendix I, Page XX7II 24a, Appendix VB BRITISH COLUMBIA Expenditures on Roads, S t r e e t s and. Bridges and Works and Bu i l d i n g s from the -CO iiNChXI'.fiT v_r| / Roada,^ Streets .endBr^ldges Civil Harris n Lillooet T r a i l Es."p-::;-i Lillooet Road (War; on) 1st Portage Boston Bar T r a i l Hope an"- Chilwayacte H'ti :< p , a otb:r Trails o\xt c-: lew Westminster Doi; -Ins - Streets m Town of Y 1 o D° Total 18S8 - 18E'f K a r r i s - n Lillooet Road (•Aogen) 1st Portage DO R-3p-; i r e Y a r s p S'-pussen? Mule Road JB o DO a n -. 3b> ltai llcmeen R oad Chapr;-.. .-s Bar to Boston Bar Hope to Boston Bar Th -ijwson River T r a i l repairs to Br Id'^s on 4uaqu*alla River Fope to Whatcom'. Te.n.rlej to Sanaa s » 6 « 2 » 883 ' 0 ' 5 « r 7 t a » 100 t 7 « 8 » 267 i 7 f 6 ' 3 «14 » © ' 553 * 3 t 9 ' » 1 I I I860 6,655 • 1 • 3 * 54 ' 0 ' 0 • 4,427 •10 • 1 * 4,307 « 0 • I * 4,324 ' § ' 0 ' 567 ' 6 ' 0 ' 120 » 5 ' 0 • 40 ' 5 * 0 1 i 106 '18 ' 0 • ' 240 »13 ' c • 6,911 12 343. C i v i l (Cen'd.) Shilmilkomeen road Survey of Repairs to T r a i l around Jackass Mountain Hew featininstar N2 triages i!227.6.0 D° Clsarini. • and making streets-692.0.8 D. T r a i l to Burrarcs I n l e t C i v i l [Hi tary T r a i l to Burxards I n l e t from R.ifi. Camp 1859 £70-0.0 DO D° i860 22.7-8 •Total"Beads, Streets and Bridgga. % % t 199 35 919 15 15 12 12 0 * 0 » 8 » 8 « »» 21,076 92 1 38,060 tforke and B u i l d i n g s C i v i l At lew Westminster Clearing Town s i t e £1778.16. 1 B u i l d i n g Survey o f f i c e 493.18. 8 D° Magistrate offlee I86.I7. 0 D° Treasury D° Custom House D° Revenue S t a t i o n D° l i e r b04. 8.. 0 540. 4 . 0 43.IO.IO 501 At Langley Surveying i n 1858 B u i l d i n g s i n lo^8 Barracics i n 1858 350 m 725 Church, Parsonage l859aol3 . 6.10 .17- 5 . 2. 3' . 7.10 0 * 4,34b 17 14 11 7 * 244. C i v i l (continued) At Hop© i n 1858 If overnment House Yale 1859 B® Douglas. t B® l y t t o n House for Col. Moody at Victoria early 59 Treasury Building at Victoria : Buoying Fraser River T o t a l C i v i l Ixpenditure I85S»59* Military The Camp-Hew Westminster Barracks- Langley Total Military At Hew Westminster Assay O f f i c e and O f f i c e r * a Quarters B u i l d i n g Court. House and P r i s o n A l t e r a t i o n s to Treasury B u i l d i n g Revenue S t a t i o n Buoying Fraser R i v e r Ha r r i s o n R i v e r Navigation Improvement E r e c t i o n of T o l l House at Yale r 223* 13 * 8 » * t 3^8* 9 * 6 * 255* 12 « 1 • 1 • 2 * 1 * • t » t « 196* 19 t. x » * * * 90* 19 * 1 * * 1 200* 18 •11 * • • < * * t t • * * » t t 8*?S8* 6 • 7 * t 320« 0 * 5 « t * t » * * t r t * t 1 * l ,0?2t 8 • 2 ' 817' 4 t 0 • 278' 4 t a . 194* 18 « 1 1 r t t * t • 8,921 9,078 2,362 236 698 70 14 4 19 0 11 2 2 0 245, C i v i l (continued) D° lock Up at Lytton Sundry Small repairs Gov't House Douglas Total C i v i l for I860 £3725.19.0 Military Barracks at Ssquimalt .Hospital Carried Quarters and New Westminster Total Military for I860 • £1493.2 Add Roads, Streets -fee. Total ^Tipenditure 31st Deo.- i860 •* f * • 124 • 4 * 0 i t * t t t * * * '*• 135 • 15. 110 t » t • 98 * 0 * l l r * t » * r t 1 s t t t » * T * 1 t *• t •% f * * t r *. • i 1 * 100 * 16 t 1 * •« * * f 1 f t » t 1 1 1 * t * 1,392 * 6 * 4 * 1,493. y 2.1..5 » » » t t i """ 5» * 1- » » t . t » t * -' * t-» " « * s 23,218. * 15 * 6 * t * f t • ' * * * 38.080 • 17 f 0 f * t » t * * •• »£61*299 » 12 * 6 lew Westminster C i v i l cleaning Streets #2698* 8*9 Buildings 4932.16*5 Trails 417. 0*6 D° Military £8084.5.8 The Gamp Korth Road «E10 X5 Q * 12.11 92. 7. 8 10243.0.7 Total lew Westminster £18291.6.3 Moody Correspondence F .734 (Provincial Archives) 246, APP*5Bi>lX VC. m s x p ^ B i T t m i To the Colonial Secretary from Colonel Moody, 14th November, 1862* In reply to your letter of the 5th Instant, ho. 152, informing roe that the Home Government had declined to meet the expenditures for the military Barracks and Quarters in this Colony and requesting me to furnish information,* I have the honor to state, there were no .Barracks existent in the colony, nor any .Buildings that could he applied to such purpose, and immediate provision for.the accommodation of th® Troops was an indisponsible necessity _ the steps I took, in reference thereto, were always in eon* ferehee and communication with His Ixoeltency.-I presume that, as the Imperial l overnment lee line to cover the exr>e ltiture, the whole of tJie 3uiiuings, and ground they ot:ind on, revert to the Colony, and at ti-e clone of the service of tne Royal UngSneers in th---? Colony, nay oe sol'. towards westing the oxpon-li ture under oo'.^i ier.-ttio-u-The above explanation applies to the items marked A. Items Marked B, This Trail alluded to was Inadvertently named M i l i -tary - the term came to be applied as figurative of the extended importance of the T r a i l , - i t oownunicated from the Camp to laval support in Burrard Inlet - It should, however, have been classed among the other t r a i l s in the neighbourhood available for general advantage in the Colony. Item Marked C. The expenditure under the Head of Survey, nope to Fort Colville, must be Lieut. Palmer's journey and reconnaiss-ance during the period of the Ban Juan affair. Item Harked D-. Of the temporary Buildings at loquimalt I am unaole to offer any i n formation - The expense was not incurred under this "Department - #ay i t not have been- incurred i n some way for the Uorth American Boundary Commission under Lieut. Colonel Hawkins, R, 247. (continued) RS-. OTBy0ITUR3 (On the l a s t sheet is a copy of Expenditure) £ 8 d A. greeting m i l i t a r y Barracks at flew Westminster, 1859 8758. 6.7 A. B°—. D°-.»~— at Langley 320. 0.5 B. M i l i t a r y T r a i l to Bnxrards Inlet 70. 0.0. C. Survey Ft. Hope to F t . Colville, I860 40.19.6 D. Temporary B u i l d i n g s at *1®%uimalt 100.16.1 A. Greeting H o s p i t a l and O f f i c e r ' s quarters at" lew Westminster' 1392. 6.4 B. Balance on T r a i l to Burrards I n l e t _._.22.__7.8 £10704 .16.7 Moody to C o l o n i a l O f f i c e - F 1156, i-iovember 14, 1862. (Moody Correspondence - P r o v i n c i a l Archives.) 246. .APPMD2X YD. APmXMWmTS TO CIVIL 07rXC3B Created toy Her Majesty's Government. ~- r Office « — r Hame of Person * Appointed * - .. .. . r Date of * Appointment * Salary Governor of .8. C. and » .-Vancouver* s Is. » Barnes Douglas ' 2nd Sept. « 1858 » 1,800 Judge » Matthew W. * Begbie • 2nd " « 8oo Colonial Secretary ' W. A. G . Young ' 6 Jan. 1859 1 500 Treasurer * W. Drisooll 1 Gosset, Captain* 1.1. * 17 Oct. 1858 » 5oo Attorney General * George H. Carey' March 1859 * 400 Inspector' of Police * Chart res Bre-w * 2 Sept. '58 * 5oo Collector of customs * Wymond Hamley * 16 Sept. '58 » 400 Harbour Master * James Cooper * 2nd Sept.*58 * £» 400 5,300 Clergymen at time: ' t Bishop - Rev. George H i l l s - ho v. 1858 Clergymen - Rev. J . Gamnaye * Sept. *58 Rev. Crickraer - Oct.. '58. Expenses connected with Survey to be defrayed from the Bale of Lands in the Color^y, or in default thereof, the other branches of the Colonial Revenue. Salary of Commissioner of Lands and Works, Colonel Foody, R.3. (appointed 23rd- August) £ 1,200 Colonial Allowances to officers of Royal Engineers 2 Captains £350 each 2 Subalterns 250 " 1,550 249. Continued. forking pay o f Men of R. S. 9 Sergeants 3s to 5s each per diem 16 Corporals) 125 Sappers ) la to 4s " «' " Stores supplied to Engineers e t c . £18,726 . 7.1 Payments made out of the C o l o n i a l Revenue, and sanctioned by Her Majesty* s Govt, A d d i t i o n a l pay to the crews of Her Majesty* s Ships " S a t e l l i t e " and "Plumper" t i l l 30 ' ,2 s d September 1858 when i t was discontinued 3»372 6 3 Construction of roads 10,000 - -I n c i d e n t a l Sxpenses incurred by Her Mai * a Gov^, Passage of O f f i c e r s & t h e i r f a m i l i e s to B.C. 700 I n c i d e n t a l expenses of Co. M. In ^ng, 58 5 4 L e t t e r s Patent, er e c t i n g B.C. into a Colony W 17 4 M i l 1 taryiin gxpenseg Regimental Pay to R. 1. £ Col.-Moody Commanding 330 1 Captain 202 1 Second capt. 202 1 D i t t o d i t t o 202 1 Subaltern 125 1 D i t t o ' 1 2 5 1 Surgeon (with C o l o n i a l pay) . 600 £1,786 -Regimental Pay of R. 8. (Cont'd) 1 Colour* sergeant.& Acting Sergeaat-laj or 3 s 10-g-d per diem. 1 Sergeant & Acting Quartermaster- • Serge at 3s 4|-d " n Sergeants (each) 2s lQ£d * B ,. F i r s t Corporals * 2s 2/fd * • 8 Second Corporals w I s iOf-d " * 2 Buglers ) 123 Sappers ) Is 2|d * 250. Continued. Transport of the Engineers & Stores to h.C. £ 2 Captains & 32 Tnen sent via Panama 3»39° Transport of the Rest of Detachment k Stores by Cape Horn (estimated cost) 5,9*6 £ 9,336 s S.B, Douglas estimated revenue of 1859 would be £100,000 Import Duty on good .£80,000 '^xnort Duty on gold 20,000 (Referring to gale of land Douglas says.') "so I am in hopes of being able after t'n.e 1st year to pay a l l our own expenses' Hef. B.C. Papers - Just before Part 1, PP. 1-3-— — Hay IB, 1859 A Return Vo ia,; t-p« lt#«im«®ttcl ->•"•>< \ r* the Detachment of Roykl Engineers In British Coluaabi*, with coat of. Rations, fee*, &e» 1 1 'No, ' Da i"'y 'Regimental" '7 Pay D6frayed oy 1 w<ir Department Crl-n^1 f Co ai"ifJ ing ' 1 C« ot o"ns L i - n i t - nts * i S t a ' ' -.:-s s t . * fn,- on • i Ff r o»'nt M jor ' i „ UPrL r- M a s t e r he " ;ea nt » i .Servants R , E . i 7 ^° R . A . » 1 Dc ^ or I s R . E . » 3 do. * 5 R .0. • 1 2nd ~)o, I . E . ' 1 ^ 0 . R . E . » 8 •99 • 1 ' nte)m 1© ' 1 R* ~ i c~>s )f le « 2 < r Chi ' 3 ? '75 i t i Daily Colonic. 1 Pay Rate « A'.ucunt" Daily Rations .Including Fuel *17/1 » l l A »6/10 '11/6 *3/l0| f 3 / 4 | '2/101 »2/l0 '2/2-g '2/eI •2/2/ •i/io-r ' l / 2 f | H * - • 17 * 1 t ' 1 '13 ' 0 ' » » « 6 I io i t i i i » H '11 » 6 *13/8§ ' *»* 3 ' 10|' t M t i t « < " ' 3 ' 4i» ' 1 ' 0 ' l | ' ' " ' 2 • 10 ' » H i g i g|t ' n '11 » O f • " * 2 ' 22' ' " ' 1 ' 10f' < " '15 ' 2 ' ' 5 '19 » 7§» ' " ' 1 ' 2i» H ( , 't , fl | M j j t! , B f tl j t " i " i " » ~n—1——f 1" 1 T " '12 '16 ' 4-|' i t i » 6 A s/* 5/-5 A 5/7 4/* 4/* &A 4 A 4/* 4A H w w M t - . f 1 I 2 '17 » 8 « '13 * 8 t r «13 » 8 » • 6 f 0 f r If » 6 t 0 " 1 '15 i 0 ft * 5 f 0 8 '15 * f 1 ' 0 i 0 1 n ' 4 t u ( tl ' § t 0 1 1 '12 • 0 f 19 '16 ! J ' 4 t 0 ? » '? « f it 1 fl ; II t n t ft ! " » « t (1 f « t It "1 f 1 ' and Light '' Price' Aftount P or - :?e at 1/9 p~r horse p ,;lem 'So' "'hr' Amount 'IS f r r t t i ' l / l l • " « » l / l l » " * '1/11 ' " » t n i » » i '1/11 t '1/11 » t » "1/11 * ' l / l l ' » t i t' * i 11 « 2'"' 9 • 3 twi it ' l / l l ' J « 11 • 1»"» f i i 1 ' 11 » 1'"' * 1 « 11 ' t i t '13 » § 1 ' l / l l ' " ' 5 ' '1/11 ' 9 ' 1 « 11 ' i t • t t t » t i t t i » t ' 1 ' • 1 ' 7 i 11 ' 11 • 4 ' 9 ' yi/ii * w » i « i i » ' i / i i « n * i / i i 1 ' l / l l ' " «15 ' 11/11 ' 9 » 9 ' '30 I '12 ' l i t ' l / l l ' * i / e | » " t ' i / e f ' g '17 ' - / l l • 3 ' 8 r — — f — - T — -1 ' 11 ' 3 ' 1 ' 9 ' £ '19 ' 7 t t t i f ! t ! 6 3 nr—r—i— 7 | ' £'"'12 * 3 i i i i A Return showing the Regimental and Colonial Pay of the Detachment of Royal Engineers in British Columbia, with cost of Rations, &c, &c. APPSHDIX VS. (Cont'd.) »KftlRS OF MPLOIMUT HOW TKTPLQY7D MARES e 0 c 42 • c b! © o d Detached D° In Block with Lieut. V.S.A. Surgeon and Sess Bstablishment Night gu/.rd at Head Quarters, Corporal and 3 Sappers A Plying Gentry hy day on Sundays. Regimental Orderly * Corporal Hospital Orderly, » 9 Sappers, Servants including Mess est-ablishnent. 1 Quarter Ulster Sergeant inch ,rge o f Stores & acting »• iiarrack sergeant • Colonel Hoody also holds a Warrant from the Crorn the office of Chief Commissioner of lands" "and 1 Sergeant in charge* of Commissariat ' • 2 Corporals) In the * 2 2nd a© J Head * 5 Sappers I Quarter* 1 Bugler ) Office » and Lands & Works f Offie® employed as * Clerks, Bookkeepers,* Draughtsmen, Printers and Lithographers. * t 1 Corp. R.A-. on duty* as Orderly to tov- » erno r. » * 1 Sergeant Major) ' ' 7 Sergeants > * * 6 Corporals « 7 2nd D° * 81 Sappers ) * * Available for Public* ' Works & Survey * * t l o r K T and also from the Crown the dormant Commission of Lieut-G over nor (w ithout pay). Such commis-sion to be in force when the Governor is absent from the Colony of 13. Columoia but he a b s t a i n s from assuming office on such occasions until instruetions are issued to him by the Governor » .tie believes such view to be i n accordance with trie spirit of the i n s t r u c -tions he received tor the Secretary of Btate These Corporals on advanced pay are doing very r e s p o n s i b l e duty. Pay sanctioned by the G ovemor. ApPBffi>tX-V»* (Cont'd). MATURE OF MPLOYMMT .HOW H f F L O r S B RMARKS » t * throughout the Col- ' * ©ny and the wick i n * * the h o s p i t a l frost * ' time to time would • * have to he deducted * • also the o r d e r l y * *' Corporal * t- * * The Sight Guard i s « - * employed in P u b l i c * f 'forks during the day* % 1 Moody Correspondence F1156 This document was attached to a l e t t e r w r i t t e n to Beuglas on June 16, 1862* M'PMBXX VI. (Cont'd) 7 . Fakine ft arid stiffs* .020 8* fafcigtisa • 4 r«ieo«lXafi<->oa3 'iuti*so« *027 'riv .to -u»rvi m tro »v>t •*>! ,n •»I to i ov«r. ine.it. i n v**i* 'if "Jo i t to • > ** • » JI"-, . vw,u ,OAV To ?oloiil ^  "o-?r >t<r/ i a ,u i /-*? v ">i -V " r, T" i TW»DDY*3ST OTJRB.4 V7I«T3R. Mood/ states that afer the working season in the upper country many men are on leave without pay. The usual onea are - Off i c e s , Stores, Surveys, Printing and Lithographing; Some are on M i l i t a r y d e t a i l s , sick in Hospital, some 'on command* tailoring, shoemaking, etc. The remainder from 14th November, 1862 to 31st T,rarch, I863 ~ in approximate a ro port ions snown decimally; 1, Felling, cutting and delivering Firewood, exclusively. .154 2, 'fork at Morth Road and form other roads i n J'orest - (some no re for firewood f o r the next summer and winter and digging t i t ones for water for a l l camp services.) .558 3. P a r t i a l l y clearing and getting sundry logs from 'Brunette* a stream near Gamp. ,020 "Constructing Printing JSstabli slim en t* with cnange of arrangements of of f i c e s and miscellaneous repairs to buildings, premises, enclosures, drains, spouts, roofs, o f f i c e f i x t u r e , p r inting, frames. .120 Repairing tools, boats., stores, barrack furniture, tents and other miscellaneous a r t i c l e s , in use through the year. .058 23 April, 186 J 1 ; l'lii 1. • HI*1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 n 1 Assistance in construction of ehuratu servioe rendered in consideration of non-payment, for pew-rents, for Troops - Repairs aril additions to Registry and Assay O f f i c e s , Mint, Machinery '^tc. »043 APPWDIX VII - RATIONS CCLOl-BL ¥OOOY»S SCALE, A r t i c l e s Man D a i l y sfeekly Meat (fresh) D° ( salt) Vegetable Bread ' Biscuit or : flour Currant8 T e a i Coffee I o r ; Chocolate Sufe, ar Peas j; Beans j j Mustard ' Pepper H 1 Vinegar I Tobacco i Coale I or 3 Wood § Soap i Cables Oil ' Bait Hatches • Ration when f r e s h not procurable or p o r t i o n s equal to 1-|- lbs) in a l l o r cranberries t r * l-A-lbs' t » * « •lijrlb a * t t •1 l b s ' » 1 »lilbs* t i * l-l-lbs* * t ' 1-f-lbs' or p o r t i o n equal to i- 02 i n ooth o c c a s i o n a l l y i n l i e u of vegetabi on demand •t ;C* * efe « • t « t t » » » « t i » * ioz ioz 2oz t « t t » » t » ioz » i » » i o z ' t r 1 -fOZ I * j^ qmen t »Child • l y r . o» 1 * whole 4 "4 » » I I I •Ration' Ration] t~ i i i 9 J 8 t * t I » r * t t i i ! ? » X t 1 1 t * I ! , 0 « •fez 3 f whole who l e whole whole Whole whole i"pt * whole 1 t I « t no t t « « whole t * or value* o f f i c e r o i l ' l i l b s • t ! 1 box of f i r e • » ' .7 Hole* i t ' whole ' » i :ation -4. s no (continued) 257. Articles Wan Daily Forage » WeeMj_ Oats Bay Straw-Iran Candles • » t t 'on req ui ^ i1lon t « • Ration' » t 'per ' •horse * •10 lbs' • 12 .lbs* • 8 lbs' ' 'in lieu o ' 'one feed • 'of corn i i Ration 141bs »Cniidre Woiaen_' lyr ovg Ration' Ration O f f i c e r Sess Observatory \ Ho spital Guard Extra to entertain f rienj^atlon* candles i • 3 3 l b s only Moody to Douglas, F1152, November 24, 1859 (Provincial Archives) 258. APPTOIX VIII C^KiDTE/g off snows o BASTS isauTp TO ROYAL <ih in rms '10 3^RV^D IB TK^OO^ FOO OY lame /, W i l l i a m FcColl William i i a w H n s James ?llar 1 liases. Duffy ileuses Tribute Will iron Christie 3:Ttooert rmstront. , Brea'-:enri'L,e bert lolston '©natn-m Crown amnel hawson bert f oslcirlc 'eter Lee oh ofcn G Lur*s McMillan l l l i u T " Mans trie • eeoh Faynard <'.ex. 3. Robertson >rt Robertson riairt.* Rodders .s .don son »«ry 3ruce titer Alexander iderick Allen ic ^'aynard lliam Harvey Jenry Soar f#ort,e C- re«n reha Baker |eom,e Hand & Alexander F l u x Archer s C a r l y l e ts Armstrong, i i e l Alman District Sew, f e a t . hew Westminster Hew Westminster* lew Westminster few Westminster* dew Westminster* Hew Westminster Mew Westminster lew Westminster' 3t@w Westminster Hew Westminster Coast Mew Westminster flew West. Hew West. mv West. Hew West. Sec. 38 61 21R.7 58 44 42 252 4? 64 1 98 40 20-21 27 R6 S19R -S24R u roup I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I R6f5BH 6fB5l 4sOMS Rem « r Dead Re t urne d to 'i'ng 1 and A p p l i c a t i o n memo." see L. 8/71 Dead Returned to snt/iand Dead Dead L e f t tne Colony Crown G rant 1074 Dead Left the Colony Dead Crown Grant 1075 Crown 0 rant 1049 C^own G rant 1034 Left tne colony Dead L e f t the colony Left t ha colony Deserted ©rown Grant 10b2 Crown G rant 1054 Crown Grant 128 ? Returned to England L e f t ths colony Crown G rant 1130 Crown G rant 1185 Crown G rant 1285 •Left the colony Crown G rant 1032 L e f t the colony Returned to "in^land Crown G r;n 1154 Returned to ^ l a n d Deserted 259. (Cont'd} Names D i s t r i c t Henry Benney Richard Babbage John Barnes Philio Craft James Gonroy John Cox Edward Cr f t Allan'Cummin8 Janes Cooper ., .. s Dickson Jldward Dodd iCharles Digby JThewas Dorothy ||Charles Delaney IICharles Durham If Joseph Davis IJHenry Brans f i e l d fin* Edwards (1st) 'Jae. E l l i o t r'eorge '3aton Franklin JJohn Foster iJeeeph Frost Their-as G i l c h r i s t iJ antes G l l l i s at thew Hall (Will law H ay no s X. y. Hughes ^, Rabert Hume , Hayward [Andrew Haig [Alfred Hawkins 'eseoh Jaf fray ilin J a ckm an "hemae Jones affiles Keury •avid Kennedy ehn Linn Jas«es B. haulers Thomas Lomax i ,*3a»uel Layman ! %ahn FcGowan ehn Murray John Meade 1 Sec. 1 Croup * Rein arks lew t e s t . Mew West. Hew West. Hew West. Mew West, t *H@w Westminster * Sew West. » Mew West. Westminster 260 1 •£)»16 254 ~~224~ ~ "43 * , » t t I * » t » » * * t I » t * t t lew l e s t , Sew West* lew West. Mew West. Hew West, lew West. Bow West. Hew West. lew West. Sew West. Bow West. Hew West, flew t e s t . 256 • %-233 •263-219 "ibh « » • * 1 t • t * t t t • r • • t t • t » 27H.7 "267" 204 203 201 RS1B4 I """T ~ * i i ~ """1"" i i 2 I I 1 I I I ~ ~ I ~ 1 -» i » * t t » • 1 t » * * 1 t t r * » t t Crown ^  rant 1031 Dead Returned to .^nglaftd Returned lo England C roira G rant l l l f • Returned to JSngland Crown Grant 1035 Returned to England Returned to England Crown C rant 1116 Returned to 'England Dead Deserted Crown G rant 1448 L e f t the colony De -.d Grown G rant 1007 Crown G rant 13^ 6 Returned to .England L e f t trie colony Derserted See L 272/II • (?) Crown G rant 1078 Crown G rant 12/7 Returned to England L e f t trie colony Crown G i-.uit 10b0 Re turned t-- "'ngiand Crown Grant 12/7 Dead Crown G rant 1442 L e f t the colony Crown G rant 1133 Crown Grant 1029' De 'd : Dead L e f t the colony Crown G rant 1080 * L e f t t»:a colony 240. (Cont'd) 1< Bawes , — R * t • t M s t r i o t Sec. * Group ffhn Musselwh.it® .Sfcarles A. Fould Xthn MoHorran ftuHaas M i l l s frge .Oowden 11am .flyers rge :)ohos rles ^ ade Edwards 2nd Bon T ohn son Frederick ''hurtate James Kennedy 3 eorte Oann Cftarid Osment ,J«ta ¥ (Murphy Jonathan Vo rey Riohard Ttridgman William Rogereon ehn s ^ i t i i (ibth Tinssars) as Lindsay R, A. arles Lin 1.say R.A arles Sinnett a Wormian sell Hew West. » hew West. • Hew West. A./ R. Howse JRieh.ird "olfenden vohn <Voo i c o c k •/Henry ;;/h i t^o re (16th Hussar) Uohn ihite ohn Mo^enney s Difcby enrry Yates bert Liddle ohn iJobls bert howe11 rge hewton filliam Oldham rhetnas Price Sdward Pearson Thomas Perkins Sew West* sew seat. Hew West, lew West. 52 34. R. 265 I I 6WB5H 65 65 276 276 * See letter 6 * Saw West. * lew feet. Sew West. » hew West* Sew West. 106 37 39 262 61 56 I I I I 1 1 1 I I 11 I I I I Remark Deserted Left the colony L e f t the colony do. Deserted L e f t the colony C. G, 1276 Returned to stagland L e f t the colony L e f t the colony do. do. C G . 1272 L e f t the colony Returned to England do. 0. G. 1597 a. G . 1597 Returned to tsngland 0. G. 1838 Left the Returned colony to 'sngland L e f t the colony C. G. IO96 Deserted Dead Dead L e f t the colony Grown G rant 1092 A p p l i c a t i o n made 12374- 276 answered 74 7/3/74 L e f t Colony Grown Grant 1077 L e f t the colony Returned to England i 261. (Cont'd) Barnes District Sec. ' Group 1 t » Remarks Cbart.es Pride fl^liaw Patterson fie orb e Purser William Robinson Baniel Richards Idward H. Roe George Rowbottorn John fSeales James Chan non John Shannon jAlexander Smith .'Rich-jrd sturtridge Robert Stevens I,John Smith IHenry Smith . George Bainsbury James ':'urnball George Turner Sdward To *userid Jtemes 'Hiintleton James ,!alsh Samuel tfakely Christopher West James .Vood Jams a 'Valsh William vilkinson George .'/illiams Daniel Harris Robert Butler Daniel .lease R. M. Rylatt James Ta l l Hftn. Bowden R. A. In. Hall Tae. Saunders Gillian Deas •! ohn Jane Hiomaa Reid ' t ' See L (Innards)' (?) Hew West. * ' _ , ' lew st. t » t t t i i » t » ' vey 24 June 75 i , t t » t » t Authority to ' loc a t e 13 Int ?' Porpoise Bay - ' Instruction surl Hew West. 0soy00s lew West. Hew West. Dr. Kent t h i s iaims* • Sew West, lew West. Hew West. Hew West. flew West, lew West, hew West. hew West. Hew West. Hew West. Hew West. Transferred to t t • See 4 5 ' t 7 • 92 ' 2 » "To" « ~ " i i ~ ~ ~ • 1 » 69 63 » » 115 • 93 ' 45 • I I 1 II I I «s t t t t t » 48 • II » ' ' Bo ' I I ' see ' L 166/71' 59 54 202 2 253" "EE" 41 I I I I ... I l l I "11 11 .S.O.R17.W.B.S.NV _ t „ « . * 118 ' 2 ' H. Rowling » Insane App. made C, G. 1228 Returned to England heft the colony De ad Crown Grant 1079 Dead • to wife See L 117/69 a :.o. made Lef t the colony Dead Crown Grant 1129 L e f t the colony C. G. 1849 A p p l i c a t i o n aee 35 8/72 27/9/72 Crown G rant 1206 Crown 6 rant 1057 Dead See 1 7/71 Apu. made Left tne colony Crown t rant 1053 Dead Crown G rant 1186 App . made Returned to land Crown Grant 1073 L e f t the colony Left the colony Returned to ting land Grown G rant 107'^  Returned to England Grown G rant 103O C 40/70 ADJ. made C. G. 1076 C. G. 1033 Dead Le f t the colony Crown G rant 1404 C. G . 1153 2 6 2 - 267 APPSNDLXV IX. Letter from Colonel ft. C. Moody to J±. P. P. Crease, December 2, 1873. This letter contains a l i s t o f land owned by Colonel Moody in British Columbia in 1873* Photostat - in original copy only. 

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