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A survey of pre-school centres in Vancouver Macfarlane, Mary Frank 1949

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A SURVEY OF PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES IN VANCOUVER by MARY FRANK MACFARLANE Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the Department of Social. Work 19k9 The University of British Columbia ABSTRACT This is a broad study of the licensed pre-school centres and the Public School pre-school centres in Vancouver. It traces the evolution of the pre-school education movement in the city and then gives a factual description of the situation as i t stands to-day. The centres surveyed are described in terms of their sponsors, their location in the city, requirements for admission, type of tuition, buildings and equipment; and program and personnel. To assist in the analysis the centres are classified according to sponsorship: Private, Community and Co-operative, Church, Neighbourhood House, and Public School. The characteristics of the schools have been examined for each class as a group. Analysis of the information obtained shows many advances which have been made by the efforts of those citizens interested in pre-school education for the young child in Vancouver. But i t also points up needs yet to be met. The latter include clearer definition of function, adequate coverage, better parent education, proper facilities for training personnel, the need for a central institute for child study and improvements in program and administrationo ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many persons contributed information and valuable advice to this thesis. I am sincerely grateful for their help and encouragement. I would like especially to thank: Mrs. C.E. Borden, Longview Play School, Miss Zella Collins, Depart-ment of Social Work, Dr. Leonard Marsh, Department of Social Work, Mrs. S.E. Marshall, Peter Pan Kindergarten and Mrs. Edna L. Page, Provincial Deputy Inspector of Welfare Institutions. TABLE OF CONTENTS page, Chapter 1* Pre-School Education Standardst Their Evolution 1* in Vancouver Organization of the Vancouver Teachers' Association. Impetus of the war. Amendment of t he Welfare Institutions licensing Act. Establishment of pre-school centres in the Public Schools. Agitation for the establishment of a model Nursery School at the University of Brit ish Columbia. Chapter 2. Classification of Pre-School Centres 17. Purpose of the study. Classification of Pre-School Centres by sponsorship: Private, Community and Co-operative, Church, Neighbourhood House and Public School. Average centres and t ypes comprising the average. Chapter 3. Geographical Location, Enrolment, Requirements 30. for Admission and Tuition. Geographical distribution of pre-school centres. Number of children and attendance. Statistical records used. Ages of children attending. Requirements for admission. Tuition fees charged. Chapter U. Buildings and Accommodation hh» Munici pal By-Laws relating to pre-school centres. Construction of buildings. Other purposes of buildings. Outdoor and indoor accommodation. Chapter 5. Play Equipment 60. Indoor equipment recommended; comparison with equipment in actual use. Outdoor equipment recommended; comparison with equipment in actual use. Chapter 6. Program for Pre-School Children Length and number of sessions. The importance of suitable program for pre-school children. Program in actual use. Medical facilities, records and reports. page. 67. Chapter 7. Personnel and Training Suggested standards for personnel. Number of staff, training, qualifications, staff load and teacher's job. 79. Chapter 8. Assessment of Progress and Needs Advances already made. Needs: to define function, better coverage, improvements in standards, increased public education on child care, establishment of an Institute of Child Study at the University of British Columbia, improvement of the medical facilities, program, accommodation, equipment and development records. 88. Appendices: A. B. C. Licensed and Public School Pre-School Centres in Vancouver. Geographical Distribution of Pre-School Centres. Bibliography. 92. 98. 99. TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT Table 1. Table 2. Table 3 . Table h. Table 5 . Table 6. (a) Tables Average number of children by type of pre-school centre. 3 2 . Average att endance and capacity per pre-school centre. 3 ^ . Age distribution of children. 3 6 # Requirements for admission. 3 0 . Tuition. Construction of buildings. 5^". V T a b l e 7 . A d d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e s o f b u i l d i n g s . page U 7 . T a b l e 8. Outdoor p l a y s p a c e . h9. T a b l e 9 . Number o f rooms and number o f c h i l d r e n p e r r o o m . 5 1 . T a b l e 1 0 . A v e r a g e number o f c h i l d r e n p e r t o i l e t s e a t and w a s h b o w l . 5 7 . T a b l e 1 1 . I n d o o r e q u i p m e n t . 6 U . T a b l e 1 2 . Out d o o r e q u i p m e n t . 6 5 . T a b l e 1 3 . L e n g t h a n d number o f s e s s i o n s . 7 1 . T a b l e lh. Program i n d i c a t i o n s . 7 2 . T a b l e 1 5 . M e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . 7 U . T a b l e 1 6 . R e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s . 7 7 . T a b l e 1 7 . A v e r a g e number o f t e a c h e r s p e r p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e ^ . 80 . T a b l e 1 8 . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h i n g s t a f f . 8 3 . T a b l e 1 9 . St a f f l o a d . 8 U . S c h e d u l e A . P l a y Equipment S t a n d a r d s . 6 3 . (b) C h a r t s F i g u r e 1 . S p o n s o r s o f p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s . 2 0 . F i g u r e 2 . G e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s . 3 1 . F i g u r e 3 . Ages o f c h i l d r e n b y t y p e o f p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e . 3 7 . A SURVEY OF PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES IN VANCOUVER 1. CHAPTER I. PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION STANDARDS: THEIR EVOLUTION IN VANCOUVER 1 The movement to set and control the standards of pre-school education i n Vancouver has only recently attained a measure of success. The process has been a tortuous and lengthy one, and even today there i s much that must be done before the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver can be com-pl e t e l y s a t i s f i e d with Pre-school Education standards. But the c i t y has come a long way. The f i r s t planned attempt to control the standards of pre-school centres i n Vancouver was the organization of the Vancouver Teachers' Association i n 1932. At t h i s time most exi s t i n g kinder-gartens were i n connection with the churches, many catering mainly to the Oriental population f o r missionary purposes. There was also a handful of privately run kindergartens. Conditions were chaotic. There were no standards to be met, housing was deplorable, equipment inadequate and the great majority of the teachers untrained. Standards were a matter l e f t e n t i r e l y to the teacher's conscience. Eventually, the Association asked f o r some form of l i c e n s i n g and t h i s was established by c i t y by-law. Unfortunately, however, i t was l e f t to the teacher to apply fo r t h i s license and those who did not want to meet the standards did not bother to obtain licenses. For the next ten years the si t u a t i o n remained f a i r l y s t a t i c . Then, however, the accelerating effects of war conditions brought con-siderable change and i n the events that were to follow the Association 2. played an important part, being a c t i v e l y represented on a l l relevant committees* The f i r s t recorded action taken after the beginning of the war came towards the end of 1941 when the Children's Aid Society re-quested that the Children's Division of the Council of Social Agencies c a l l a meeting i n order to help i n the establishment of a program to meet the new needs i n the f i e l d of day care f o r children. The Child-ren's Division reviewed the situation i n Eastern Canada where an agree-ment between the Ontario Government and the Dominion Government had been established to set up p u b l i c l y subsidized day nurseries f o r the children of mothers working i n war industries. Later on, i n 1942, a sub-committee of the Children's Council was formed f o r the purpose of giving further study to the wartime day nursery si t u a t i o n i n Vancouver. This committee brought out f i v e points. A wartime day nursery program must take i n t o account those working women with children who took the jobs l e f t vacant when the employees went in t o war in d u s t r i e s . There was d e f i n i t e need for an intensive survey before anything vras done. Foster day care should be used whenever possible. New services should not be erected unless unavoidable. Good p u b l i c i t y was necessary i f any program were undertaken. Both at t h i s time and during the next year there was a great deal of pressure from the Housewives League and l a t e r from the Con-sumers' Council f o r a day nursery program such as was i n operation i n Toronto. The Dominion Government plan stipulated that seventy f i v e 3. per cent of the women using the subsidized scheme must be i n war industry. In Vancouver there seemed to be evidence that many of the working mothers had not gone d i r e c t l y i n t o war industries but had replaced single women or men who had. I t became apparent that some sort of a survey was necessary i n order to f i n d out i f the Dominion scheme could be used, or i f i t would be j u s t i f i a b l e to ask for an amendment of the provisions of the Dominion-Provincial d r a f t agreement. To a s s i s t working mothers i n the interim period during t h i s survey, and to compile evidence of the need and indicate the organiz-ation necessary, the Council Executive endorsed a proposal of the Child-ren's Division to the P r o v i n c i a l government that the Council should establish a "Counselling Service" f o r a three or four month period. This service was to work with the agencies, schools, departments and industries to develop a f e a s i b l e scheme and to assure proper govern-ment support. In the intervening t r a n s i t i o n period i t would a s s i s t mothers i n d i v i d u a l l y by steering them to the proper source for i n f o r -mation and help. I t was also believed that t h i s service would .obtain valuable data f o r a future guide. In the van of an o f f i c i a l committee, a representative committee was to be set up to d i r e c t these interim operations, and the personnel to be so selected that some members at l e a s t could continue on the o f f i c i a l committee. The suggested f i n -ancing was that of a small grant from the Province or loan of a q u a l i f i e d s t a f f member from the P r o v i n c i a l Welfare Services for a period of a few months. The P r o v i n c i a l Government met t h i s l a t t e r request and a t 4-social worker, a member of the staff of the Social Welfare Service, was loaned for a three month period, which was later extended another two months. This consultant was charged with gathering information along the following lines: (1) The type of care being given the children of women at that time engaged in industry. (2) The adequacy or otherwise of existing resources for the care of the children concerned. (3) The extent to which resources for the needs of industry could be met without resorting to the em-ployment of mothers with young children. (4.) How the existing condition could best be met, having due regard to the needs of industry in war time and the protection of children and family l i f e . The plan of inaugurating a Counselling Service for Mothers was never followed through, but a Committee was set up. The worker from the Social Welfare Services became the secretary of what was f i r s t known as the Counselling Service for Mothers Committee. The Committee was set up to act in an advisory capacity in connection with the sur-vey being made by the Council of Social Agencies. The Secretary con-ducted the survey, compiled relevant information and also did valuable work in bringing together many groups with differing opinions whose points of view had been giined in a limited experience without oppor-tunities to see a l l sides of the question. In June 194-3 this Committee presented a report to the Exec-utive Committee of the Council of Social Agencies. The report outlined how during the summer and f a l l of 1942 the Children's Aid Society and the Family Welfare Bureau had received many requests for help in making 5. plans for care of children of working mothers or mothers planning to take employment. The report again considered the question of how many mothers were working in actual war industries, and whether or not Vancouver had reached the point where war time day nurseries, as established by arrangement between the Dominion and Provincial Governments i n Ontario and Quebec, were a necessity. The report also referred to the Day Nursery Committee, formed by the Vancouver Housewives' League, which later submitted a series of suggestions to the Children's Division of the Council of Social Agencies. The Committee recorded i t s willingness to cooperate with the social agencies and the government in a f u l l survey of the need and opportunity for setting up Day Nurseries i n this c i t y . I t urged that an educational campaign be undertaken for the i n -forming of parents generally, of the work and scope of day nurseries, nursery schools, and pre-school centres} and suggested that a demon-stration nursery class be started i n one of the available community halls to form a centre for this educational work. From time to time facts and figures regarding the number of married women in war industry were obtained from the Vancouver Employ-ment Service offices. Employed women with children were found to be not more than one tenth of the total women employed. The Selective Service always reported that there were more women than jobs insofar as the war industries were concerned. Yet, although the war indust-ries were well staffed, there was a great need for waitresses, tele-phone operators and workers in dry-cleaning plants. I t was also found that out of 364 working mothers who had children attending Lord Roberts, 6. Dawson or Strathcona Schools, less than eight per cent were employed in war industries. It began to be f a i r l y evident that the needs of the actual war industries were being met without resorting to any extent to the employing of women with children of school age. Up to this time no information of any account had been ob-tained regarding mothers of pre-school children. However, about one quarter of the 364. working mothers previously mentioned had pre-school as well as school children. The children of these working mothers received a variety of types of care. A good many were receiving foster home and foster day care. Others were enrolled in private kindergartens. It was found that an increasing number of private foster homes came into existence, probably because of the agencies' d i f f i c u l t y in finding homes and because mothers who were formerly dependent upon the society f i n -ancially were now working and could pay for their children and therefore found homes for the children themselves. At this time the Children's Aid Society had knowledge of forty children of thirty mothers in such homes. It was believed that while the Children's Aid Society knew of forty children so placed, undoubtedly there were a large number of whom they had no knowledge. Eventually, the Vancouver Day Nursery Assoc-iation and the Children's Aid received so many requests from working mothers that foster homes became d i f f i c u l t to secure. In addition, information was obtained regarding care given to 295 children of 101 working mothers. It was shown that i n many cases this care was quite inadequate. Some of the school age children went 7. home after school to wait for the mother} some went to the home of a friend or neighbour; some had jobs, and many "just played about unt i l mother returned". The pre-school children stayed with the landlady, or with friends or neighbours u n t i l they were picked up by older bro-thers and sisters after school. Some even were l e f t i n the school yard to play while the older brothers or sisters attended school. At the time the Counselling Service for Mothers Committee was formed, the Children's Aid Society and the Family Welfare Bureau were anxious that an experiment should be made i n the matter of using such a counselling service. It was believed that many mothers were wander-ing from agency to agency, looking for help and perhaps taking jobs, when, i f given the opportunity to talk i t over, they might decide to stay at home with their children. It was also evident that such a service would save much agency time. A small group from the main committee, with the addition of a representative from the City Social Service Department, met to discuss this further. I t was agreed that the agencies would refer mothers to the Secretary of the Committee at certain times. Subsequently, about seventy five mothers were referred and their individual problems were discussed. A small group of the main Committee met with several other interested parties to discuss day care, with particular emphasis on nursery schools. There were many people anxious to see nursery schools established and they looked upon this as an opportune moment to re-affirm the need. It was realized that the trend was for working women to go into industry i n general, and not solely into war industry, but 8, that none the less i f a child i s l e f t alone, the particular work on which his mother i s engaged does not affect his need for attention. The group, therefore, urged that for their educational and habit-forming values, nursery schools be established i n the crowded areas where mothers were working. Another sub-group from the Committee, with additional re-presentatives from the Parent Teachers' Association and the Group Work Committee of the Council, met to discuss the need for a recrea-tional program for after school hours. The Y.M.C.A. representative stated that while fewer people from the outlying d i s t r i c t s were using the f a c i l i t i e s , more and more boys of the West End were using the Y.M.C.A. Consequently, there was room for a good West End program, and i t was believed that more use could be made of school property. From the type of information obtained, the feeling grew that housing conditions and'lack of recreational f a c i l i t i e s played a large part i n the creating of child welfare problems. Many children played about the streets not because the mother worked, but because they had neither yard nor house room i n which to play. The need for some special type of city-wide recreation during July and August was placed before the Group Work Committee of the Council of Social Agencies. The Indian Day Camp Committee of the year before also had been called together and a chairman elected. This project, sponsored by the Parent Teachers' Association, had on i t s committee representatives of the Parent Teachers1 Association, the Playgrounds, the School Board, the Junior League, the Daily 9. Vacation Bible Schools, the public health nurses, the Children's Aid Society and the group work agencies of the city. A sub-committee of the Day Camp or Stay-at-Home Camp, called the Play School Committee, concentrated on arrangements for three play schools intended for the children of working mothers, and for mothers who did not have proper play accommodation for their children. The ages were set at three, four, five and six years. The kindergarten teachers of the city agreed to secure staff from among their members and the money with which to pay this staff was promised by the Junior League and the Lions Gate Riding Club. The play schools were opened for six weeks during July and August and were held at Gordon House, Alexandra House, and i n the Strathcona school area. The three Play Schools functioned during the summer and i n the f a l l a l l three carried on. The Strathcona Day Nursery, a continuation of the summer play school, began operation i n September and served the poor housing area around Powell and Jackson streets. The Vancouver Welfare Federation assumed responsibility for salaries of staff and the Day Nursery Committee of the Housewives League bought the necessary equipment. Volunteers were sent from the Women's Volunteer Service. It was recommended that the Vancouver Welfare Federation be asked to continue i t s support for the f i r s t six months of 1944, because, from contacts with the nursery and surrounding d i s t r i c t s , i t was not con-sidered justifiable either to drop the project without a further period of experiment, or to ask the Provincial Government to assume respon-s i b i l i t y from the standpoint of mothers employed i n actual war indus-10. t r i e s . Alexandra House continued with a half day program and Gordon House decided on a f u l l day program. I t i s interesting to note that, when Gordon House had to shut down for six weeks in order to redecorate, the Housewives League raised a considerable protest. By 1944, the survey had established the fact that war time day nurseries under the Dominion-Provincial plan did not seem to be essential i n Vancouver, and emphasis shifted from Day Nurseries to Nursery Schools. The need for coordination of the community interest in pre-school education, the Vancouver Kindergarten association and the administration of the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act, became evident. As a result, the Committee re-organized and became the Pre-school Education Committee of the Council of Social Agencies. The new Committee planned to enlarge i t s scope to cover community needs along pre-school education lines. Sub-committees of standards, administration, publicity and community needs were formed. The real accomplishments, however, centred i n the sub-committee on standards. A summary of the achievements of the Committee as a whole i s given i n a report made to the Children's Division of the Council of Social Agencies i n March 1944? "1. As a result of membership i n this committee, and the knowledge that i t had the backing »of the committee as a whole, the Vancouver Kindergarten Association arranged and i s carrying on a short course i n connection with nursery school educations. 2. Through membership i n this committee, the office of the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act and the Kindergarten Association have worked very closely together i n the matter of licensing kindergartens and play schools, and have been able to accomplish a good deal more than might have been done. 11. 3. It i s f e l t that the work of this committee, particularly that of the group studying standards, has been the means of preventing the establishment of small (unsuitable) private kindergartens to a great extent." An amendment to the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act, affecting the day :care of children, constituted a great advance i n the control and raising of standards of pre-school centres. The Welfare Institutions Licensing Act authorizes some government control, through a system of licensing of institutions or private boarding homes that care for, with or without charge, under-privileged person or per-sons including children i n need of special protection. Previous to 194-3 only one clause of the Act included circumstances surrounding children: necessitating a license for "a boarding home, orphanage or other institution where two or more children under the age of fifteen years, separated from their parents, are cared for with or without charge." In 1943, a clause was added to include: "a creche, day nursery, play school, kindergarten, or other similar institutions wherein children under the age of fifteen years are cared for during a portion of the day." This amendment was added i n order to prevent the establishment of unsuitable places offering day care to young children of working mothers. It has also had a highly advantageous effect on the standards of those centres already i n operation. By 194-3, considerable pressure was exerted to have kinder-gartens established i n the Schools. Both the Council of Social Agencies and the Infant School Committee of the Vancouver School Board requested the Minister of Education to make an effort to have the School Act 12. amended, to allow for the establishment and maintenance of Infant Schools within the public school system, for children from three to five years of age in certain areas. The Minister of Education, in reply, pointed out that a Board of School Trustees may establish and maintain kindergarten classes for children between four and six years of age whenever a Board considers i t desirable to do so. (Public Schools Act, Section 4-7. subsection (l ) , clause (b).) However, a difficulty arose from the fact th at the Board must pay the whole of the teachers salary from the taxes of the district, as the Act only provides for Provincial grant for public school teachers. A public school is defined as being from grades one to eight. The actual amendment which corrected this situation did not come into being until 1944-* but there was the understanding that i t would be going through when the f i r s t kindergarten in Dawson School was opened, in September of 194-3. This same year a kindergarten was opened in Henry Hudson School, the School Board having decided to put the Kindergartens in districts where needs were greatest, where the area was not serviced, or where families were too poor to send their children to private pre-school centres. In 1944-. two more were opened, one in Begbie Annex and one in Norquay School. The following year General Wolfe School and .Cecil Rhodes School each had a kindergarten. It became evident that the war babies would soon be reaching school age (parents may send a child to school at six years of age and i t is compulsory to send i t at seven) and that there would be a resulting lack of space in the schools. It, 13. therefore, would be impractical to establish any more public school kindergartens u n t i l more accommodation was available. In 1945 the f i r s t cooperative Play Group had i t s beginning and before long others had started. Eventually a Cooperative Play School Association was formed. On February 23rd, 1946, the Bri t i s h Columbia Parent-Teachers Federation organized a committee to study the question of Pre-School Education i n the Province of British Columbia. The committee was asked to report i t s recommendations to the Parent-Teachers Federation at i t s April convention. Many of the recommendations made at this time have since been carried out. (See Chapter 7.) These recommen-dations are important enough to warrant reproduction: 1. An Institute for Child Study should be established at the Univ-ersity of British Columbia as soon as possible. 2. There should be a course of training, corresponding to that for the training of elementary teachers, especially designed for teachers of pre-school children. 3. Pre-school education should be extended i n the schools of British Columbia as rapidly as possible. The possibility of making use of provincial grants for this purpose should be given consideration. 4. A co-ordinated program for parents and teachers i n Pre-School Education should be developed by the Night Schools, Extension Depart-ment of the University of British Columbia, and possibly the Summer School of the University of British Columbia. Courses should be planned i n progressive sequence. 5. A n A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o o p e r a t i v e N e i g h b o u r h o o d P l a y G r o u p s s h o u l d be f o r m e d . 6, The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e P l a y G r o u p s s h o u l d p r o c e e d o n l y a s f a s t as c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g f a c i l i t i e s and s u p e r v i s i o n can be m e t . A g i t a t i o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a model N u r s e r y S c h o o l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y h a d p r e d a t e d t h i s c o m m i t t e e . By M a r c h 1 9 4 - 7 . t h e p r e s s u r e h a d i n c r e a s e d t o t h e p o i n t where a p e t i t i o n was s e n t t o t h e B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y , b y t h e N u r s e r y S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a . I t was e n d o r s e d b y t h i r t y f o u r V i c t o r i a o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a l s o b y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r K i n d e r g a r t e n T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c -i a t i o n , t h e J u n i o r L e a g u e o f V a n c o u v e r , G o r d o n H o u s e , t h e C.C.F. P r o v -i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e Commit tee and t h e T y p o g r a p h i c a l U n i o n . I n A p r i l , t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Committee o f t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l e n d o r s e d t h e p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h changed s l i g h t l y . T h e p e t i t i o n r e a d : "We t h e u n d e r s i g n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s u r g e n t l y p e t i t i o n t h e B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o e s t a b l i s h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n t h e i m -m e d i a t e f u t u r e , a model N u r s e r y S c h o o l , t o b e u s e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as a n I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d S t u d y , and T r a i n i n g C e n t r e f o r N u r s e r y S c h o o l t e a c h e r s . Such a N u r s e r y S c h o o l w o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y demon-s t r a t e i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a , t h e b e n e f i t s t o t e d e r i v e d b y c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s f r o m t h i s a c c e p t e d t y p e o f modern p r e - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e , a t t h e same t i m e , i t wou ld p r o v e o f g r e a t v a l u e t o a l l d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e growth and d e v e l o p -ment o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n . " The p e t i t i o n was a c c o m p a n i e d b y a b r i e f , s e t t i n g o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g b a s i c r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t d a y need f o r N u r s e r y S c h o o l s . 15 "1. Greater r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance of the e a r l i e s t years i n c h i l d development. 2. Concentration of children i n urban d i s t r i c t s . 3. Unsatisfactory housing conditions. 4. Mother, whose circumstances make work necessary. 5. Small size of f a m i l i e s . 6. Children with problem behavior." Benefits which would r e s u l t from the establishment of a Model School at the University were also emphasized: "1. To the children: improved physical, mental and emotional growth. 2. To the parents: opportunities f o r observation and directed study of c h i l d care and development. 3. To the University: opportunities for observation and research, by students i n the Departments of Psychology, Education, Home Economics, Social Work, Medicine and Public Health Nursing." The Board of Governors gave t h i s p e t i t i o n t h e i r sympathetic consideration and as soon as funds and accommodation are available, w i l l look into the matter further, with the view to establishing such a course, i f i t seems feasib l e and desirable at the time. In the same year, the Pre-School Education Committee re-quested that the Department of Education provide some form of c e r t i -f i c a t i o n for private kindergarten teachers. I t was recommended that t h i s should cover: (a) those who wish to secure further t r a i n i n g , (b) those who have had a few courses i n kindergarten or nursery school education but have no c e r t i f i c a t e and are operating a private kinder-garten or nursery school and wish to take further t r a i n i n g , (c) those who have had no t r a i n i n g i n pre-school education but are operating a private pre-school centre. In January 1948, the Department of Education r e p l i e d that arrangements had been made by t h e i r department and the Department of 16 . W e l f a r e , w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l i c e n s i n g o f p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t some s u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s s h a d b e e n made t w a r d s s e t t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s o f p r e - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r . C o n t r i b u t o r y t o t h i s advancement were : t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e P r e - S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n Committee o f t h e C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s , t h e amendment o f t h e W e l f a r e I n s t i t u t i o n s and L i c e n s i n g A c t and t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d d n t o t h e f i e l d o f p r e - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s and s u r v e y o f p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s i n V a n c o u v e r , a s t h e y a r e a t p r e s e n t , w i l l be d e a l t w i t h , i n d e t a i l , i n t h e c h a p t e r s w h i c h f o l l o w . 17. CHAPTER I I . C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES. The a i m o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o h e l p a t t a i n a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e V a n c o u v e r s i t u a t i o n a s i t c o n c e r n s o r g a n i z e d c a r e f o r t h e y o u n g c h i l d i n p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s . Where h a v e t h e y been s e t up i n t h e c i t y ? What s t a n d a r d s a r e t h e y r e q u i r e d t o meet? Under what s p o n s o r s h i p have t h e y b e e n d e v e l o p e d ? How many c h i l d r e n d o t h e y r e a c h ? What t y p e o f b u i l d i n g , equipment and s t a f f have t h e y ? What i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r program? How do t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c e n t r e s compare? T h i s a f a c t -f i n d i n g s u r v e y w h i c h d oe s n o t t e l l i t s s t o r y i n t e r m s o f t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y b u t i n d e s c r i p t i o n s and a n a l y s e s o f t h e p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s a s t h e y e x i s t i n t h e c i t y a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . I t i s h o p e d t h a t o u t o f t h i s s t u d y , may come some u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d b y c e n t r e s o p e r a t i n g f o r t h e c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f t h e y o u n g c h i l d . A t t h e same t i m e i t i s h o p e d t h a t some knowledge may be g a i n e d o f t h e d e f e c t s and e x c e l l e n c i e s o f t h e p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s . The d a t a u s e d h a s been o b t a i n e d i n t h e ma in f r o m t h e p r o g r e s s r e c o r d s k e p t b y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e W e l f a r e I n s t i t u t i o n s L i c e n s i n g A c t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was supp lemented b y v i s i t s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f t h e c e n t r e s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h many o f t h e p e r s o n s d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c e n t r e s i n V a n c o u v e r . 18 The pre-school centres i n Vancouver, which this study pro-poses to examine, include only those licensed under the Welfare In-stitutions Licensing Act, and those conducted under the auspices of the Vancouver School Board. For practical purposes, i t seemed desirable to classify the centres concerned independently of their o f f i c i a l names and on the basis of characteristics that would reliably differentiate them into groups. The centres do not f i t r i g i d l y into the c l a s s i f i -cations of Kindergarten, Nursery School, Day Nursery or Play Groups. Many of them are mixtures of two or more of these types. Accordingly, for convenience of organization, the pre-school centres i n Vancouver were classified by reference to their sponsors: A. Private, B. Community and Co-operative, C. Church, D. Neighbourhood House, E. Public School. These types are more or less self-explanatory. The c l a s s i f i -cation "Private" covers those centres privately owned and operated, whether they be i n connection with a private school or operated as a separate unit. There are forty of these licensed under the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act, over three times as many as the next largest group, and representing altogether over half the total number of centres, which i s seventy seven. The Church centres are sponsored by several Churches, occasionally in the name of a closely a f f i l i a t e d group, such as the 1? Missionary Society of the Church. There are five pre-school centres under the sponsorship of Neighbourhood Houses, being administered under the Licensing Act. The Community and Co-operative centres are a comparatively new development, having been developed only i n the last four years, mainly since the war. In these the parents share the responsibility of looking after the children who are gathered together. Nevertheless, a full-time supervisor i s considered necessary for those operating under a license in Vancouver. The six centres situated i n the Public Schools d i f f e r i n several respects from the other seventy one. They are governed by the School Board and as a result do not come under the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act. They each have two separate classes, a morning class and an afternoon class, with the same teacher and equipment but different -children. This accounts for the fact that their capacity i s half of the attendance. The total of a l l the centres i s made up as follows: forty centres under private sponsorship, thirteen under church sponsorship, thirteen centres on a community or co-operative basis, five centres sponsored by Neighbourhood Houses and six under the sponsorship of the School Board. This data i s presented i n graphic form i n Figure 1. Average Pre-School Centres In order to understand the diversity of the centres i n Vancouver, a hypothetical average centre of each type was comprised, including a description of various aspects of individual centres which 20 make up this average. Since this study deals with those centres only which are licensed, i t may, therefore, be taken for granted that each one com-plies with the Municipal By-Laws relating to Health, Building, Zoning, Ele c t r i c a l Wiring and Fire-Protection. A. The Private Pre-School Centre. A typical private centre i s located i n a good residential d i s t r i c t where houses are large, built on f a i r l y large lots and i n a good state of repair. The average private centre i s not too repre-21. sentative however, for the range i n quality i s great. To i l l u s t r a t e , a private centre can be found i n the best residential d i s t r i c t i n the city, or i n an area where the residents have only a meagre income. The private centres are sponsored by one or more individuals and are f i -nanced by private funds and tuition. The average tuition i s seven dollars a month and the transportation may or may not be provided. The figures which comprise the average tuition fee range from a charge of three dollars a month, which does not include tran-sportation, to one of over twenty dollars a month including transpor-tation. The capacity of this average centre i s twenty six children, yet this division includes some centres which provide accommodation for only ten children and one which the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act administrators l i s t as having accommodation for sixty children. The average number of children enrolled i n a private centre i s f i f t y one and they may be anywhere from two years of age up to seven years of age, the average age being five years. The typical private centre i s i n session in the morning only, with about twenty one children in attendance. Some individual centres however, have only three children usually i n attendance, while attendance at another runs as high as ninety. The private centres average fifteen children to a room, some having only three where others may have forty or more. A l l centres, although there i s considerable variety, are considered to be f a i r l y satisfactorily heated, l i t and ventilated. Whereas the average private pre-school centre has adequate outdoor and indoor play space and equipment, there are many that do 22. not nearly attain this high standard. One has absolutely no outdoor space and equipment, along with completely inadequate and unsuitable indoor space and equipment. Several are almost ideal from the point of view of accommodation and equipment and one goes so far as to provide a pony and a cart for the pleasure of the children. Most of these centres are housed in buildings of frame construction, which are also used as private residences. Some are located i n small, crowded homes, old, rather dilapidated houses, stores and other unsuitable places, while others are housed i n places especially constructed for the pur-pose of serving young children. The average centre provides one t o i l e t seat and one washbowl for every eighteen children. The range here includes centres which accommodate thirty to forty ohildren and provide for their use only the bathroom used by the resident family, to those centres which have lavatories especially outfitted with small t o i l e t s and small washbasins to be used exclusively by the children. Low hooks for outdoor clothing but no lockers, i s the practice i n most of the private centres, although in some centres the children lay their clothing on chairs and i n others individual lockers are provided. The average staff consists of two teachers who have had no special training, each caring for sixteen children. The staff load, however, ranges from three to forty. Some of the teachers are very highly trained specialists, whereas others are completely unsuited for their task, both from the point of view of training and of personality. Although the average centre does not have any specific admission requirements there are those i n the division that have, 23. i n c l u d i n g ones h a v i n g d e f i n i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s s u c h a s r e l i g i o n and t h o s e h a v i n g more s u b t l e r e q u i r e m e n t s such a s f a m i l y income and s t a t u s . T h e r e i s n o t a p t t o be a d a i l y m e d i c a l i n s p e c t i o n i n t h e a v e r a g e c e n t r e , n o r a r e t h e c h i l d r e n l i k e l y t o h a v e a c o m p l e t e p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , v a c -c i n a t i o n or i m m u n i z a t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l r o u t i n e , n o r a v i s i t b y t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e . H e r e a g a i n t h e s i t u a t i o n v a r i e s f r o m one extreme t o t h e o t h e r . I n a l l c e n t r e s t h e c h i l d r e n a r e g i v e n , o r i n some c e n t r e s t h e y b r i n g , some f o r m o f n o u r i s h m e n t f o r a m i d - m o r n i n g s n a c k . The t y p i c a l p r o g r a m o f a p r i v a t e c e n t r e i n c l u d e s f r e e p l a y , o u t d o o r p l a y , r o u t i n e , r e s t , o r g a n i z e d p l a y , handwork and m u s i c . The v a r i a t i o n s t h a t f o r m t h i s a v e r a g e p r o g r a m e x t e n d , f r o m an a l m o s t i d e a l p r o g r a m , t o t h o s e programs w h i c h a r e i n e x c u s a b l y weak i n c e r t a i n p o r -t i o n s and even t o p r o g r a m s w h i c h a r e e x t r e m e l y p o o r and most u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d . B» The Community and C o - o p e r a t i v e P r e - S c h o o l C e n t r e . The a v e r a g e c e n t r e o f t h i s t y p e i s l o c a t e d i n a f a i r r e s i -d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , where t h e h o u s e s a r e i n a good s t a t e o f r e p a i r and t h e a r e a i s n o t c o n g e s t e d . I t i s o p e r a t e d c o - o p e r a t i v e l y , f i n a n c i a l l y and o t h e r w i s e . The t u i t i o n i s f i v e d o l l a r s a month, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s n o t p r o v i d e d and t h e s c h o o l i s i n s e s s i o n i n t h e m o r n i n g s o n l y . The a c t u a l v a r i a t i o n , i n i n d i v i d u a l c e n t r e s , f r o m t h i s a v e r a g e c e n t r e , on t h e s e p o i n t s i s v e r y s l i g h t . The c a p a c i t y o f t h e a v e r a g e Community and C o - o p e r a t i v e c e n t r e i s twenty s even c h i l d r e n w i t h an e n r o l m e n t o f t h i r t y s i x . The ages o f t h e c h i l d r e n r a n g e f r o m two y e a r s o f age t o s c h o o l age w i t h an a v e r a g e age o f f i v e y e a r s . H e r e , t h e v a r i a t i o n s 24. of the individual centres are more noticeable: the capacity of the centres ranges from fourteen children to forty children and the enrol-ment ranges from fourteen children to eighty four children. The average attendance i s usually around fifteen children. The centre has an average of twenty children to a room. Here again, the centres making up this average vary considerably, some having an over abundance of room, while others are regrettably over-crowded. The average shows adequate outdoor and indoor play sp ace and equipment. The centres themselves, range from one which has excellent accommodation and equipment to others which have next to nothing. The building which houses this average centre i s used as a community centre, although several of the centres are situated i n private homes and one centre occupies a building which serves the pre-school centre exclusively. The average building i s of frame construction and i t i s satisfactorily heated, l i t and ventilated. The average daily program contains a mid-morning snack, free play, organized play, outdoor play, routine, rest, handwork and music. The programs of the centres comprising the average vary a great deal, the range extending from one program which can be considered excellent for pre-school children, to one which i n actuality i s nothing more or less than supervised play. The average centre has a mother volunteer, as well as a paid supervisor, to care for the children. In most cases neither of these adults have received any special training to qualify them for this work. For the remaining items discussed the individual centres do not 25. vary extensively from the average. The average centre requires no specified admission requirements, a daily medical inspection i s not given, nor does the school routine include a complete physical exam-ination, vaccination or immunization, although the public health nurse pays regular v i s i t s . Attendance and s t a t i s t i c a l records are kept but no other records. As the mothers must take turns supervising however, they are able to keep well-informed as to their child's progress and development. C. The Church Pre-School Centre. The typical or average Church pre-school centre i s situated in a poor residential d i s t r i c t , where the population i s chiefly Orientals, foreigners and poor 'whites'. Living conditions are con-gested, houses are i n poor condition and on the whole, the d i s t r i c t i s very undesirable for children. The centre i s sponsored by the missionary society of the church and i s usually very low i n funds. The tuition i s nothing or next to nothing, and often just whatever the parents wish to contribute, the centre serving more as a Social Service function. The centre i s also a part of the Missionary function of the church and the majority of the children attending are of Chinese nationality. The capacity of the centre i s thirty seven children and the enrolment i s sixty four children, with ages ranging from two to seven years, the average age being five years. The centre i s i n operation only i n the morning and the attendance averages around twenty children. There i s an average of nineteen children to a room in this centre and 26 i t has completely inadequate f a c i l i t i e s for outdoor play, although the indoor play space and equipment i s adequate. The building, which i s of frame construction, i s used for church purposes and i s adequately-heated, l i t and ventilated. There i s one t o i l e t seat for every eighteen children and a washbasin for every twenty one. There are small tables and chairs for the children and satisfactorily placed hooks for their outdoor clothing. This average church centre has two teachers, with no specific training, who each care for sixteen children. The chances of a daily medical inspection, a complete physical examination at least once a year and vaccinations and immunizations, are just under f i f t y per cent and the public health nurse v i s i t s regularly. The daily program often includes religious training, and i t i s lacking in outside a c t i v i t i e s . It includes free play, organized play, routine, music, morning snack and handwork. Records of the attendance and records of the s t a t i s t i c a l type, as required by the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act Administrators, are maintained, but no further documentation of the children i s followed. ' The variations from the average church centre are not as great as in the two types of centres previously discussed but never-theless, there are certain deviations which are worthy of mention. Although the average church centre has completely inadequate f a c i l i t i e s and equipment for outdoor play and only just adequate equipment for indoors, there i s one church centre i n particular that i s among the best equipped centres of the city. It i s also i n the church centres, that some of the best medical supervision of pre-school children i s to 27. be f o u n d . D . The N e i g h b o u r h o o d House P r e - S c h o o l C e n t r e . The t y p i c a l N e i g h b o u r h o o d House p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e i s s i t u a t e d i n a c o n g e s t e d , d e t e r i o r a t e d a r e a , w h i c h a f f o r d s v e r y few p l a c e s f o r c h i l d r e n t o p l a y . T h i s p i c t u r e w e l l d e s c r i b e s a l l t h e l o c a l s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one , t h i s c e n t r e b e i n g s i t u a t e d i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n c o n g e s t e d a r e a , where t h e r e a r e numerous p l a c e s f o r c h i l d r e n t o p l a y . T h i s a v e r a g e c e n t r e i s f i n a n c e d m a i n l y b y g r a n t s f r o m S o c i a l A g e n c i e s and t h e t u i t i o n i s t h r e e d o l l a r s a month o r u n d e r . The c a p a c i t y i s f o r t y c h i l d r e n and t h e e n r o l m e n t i s s e v e n t y f o u r , w i t h a g e s r a n g i n g f r o m two t o s even y e a r s , t h e a v e r a g e age b e i n g f i v e y e a r s . The a t t e n d a n c e i s a r o u n d t h i r t y s even c h i l d r e n and t h e r e i s a n a v e r a g e o f e i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n t o a r o o m . B o t h t h e o u t d o o r and i n d o o r space and e q u i p m e n t a r e a d e q u a t e . The b u i l d i n g i s o f f r a m e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s u s e d a s a N e i g h b o u r h o o d H o u s e , and h a s a d e q u a t e h e a t i n g , l i g h t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n . T h e r e a r e s m a l l t a b l e s and c h a i r s and l o w h o o k s f o r o u t -d o o r c l o t h i n g . T h e r e a r e t w e n t y c h i l d r e n u s i n g each t o i l e t s e a t and e i g h t e e n u s i n g e a c h wash b a s i n . The a v e r a g e s t a f f c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e t e a c h e r s , one o f whom h a s h a d some s p e c i a l i z e d . t r a i n i n g f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d . E a c h o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s s u p e r v i s e s f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n . T h e r e a r e no s p e c i f i e d a d m i t t a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s a v e r a g e c e n t r e h a s a d a i l y m e d i c a l i n s p e c t i o n and t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e c a l l s r e g u l a r l y . T h e c h i l d r e n may be v a c c i n a t e d , immunized and h a v e a c o m p l e t e p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . The d a i l y p r o g r a m i s t h e u s u a l one o f f r e e p l a y , r o u t i n e , and o r g a n i z e d p l a y , i n c l u d i n g m i d - m o r n i n g 28 l u n c h , r e s t , m u s i c and h a n d w o r k . The c h i l d r e n a t t e n d o n l y i n t h e m o r n i n g . R e c o r d s a r e k e p t on p r o g r e s s and d e v e l o p m e n t , a s w e l l a s t h e u s u a l a t t e n d a n c e and s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d , and t h e p a r e n t s a r e r e g u l a r l y g i v e n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d . E . The P u b l i c S c h o o l P r e - S c h o o l C e n t r e s . The i n d i v i d u a l p u b l i c s c h o o l c e n t r e s c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e a v e r a g e t o be o u t l i n e d . The a v e r a g e c e n t r e i s l o c a t e d i n a n a r e a o f g r e a t n e e d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , an a r e a w h i c h c o n t a i n s many p r e - s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n n o t b e i n g accommodated i n o t h e r c e n t r e s . T h e r e i s no t u i t i o n , t h e c e n t r e b e i n g u n d e r t h e S c h o o l B o a r d ' s a u s p i c e s . The c a p a c i t y i s t w e n t y f i v e c h i l d r e n f o r t h e m o r n i n g s e s s i o n and t w e n t y f i v e f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n and t h e e n r o l m e n t i s f i f t y one c h i l d r e n w i t h a n a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e o f f o r t y f i v e . The ages r a n g e f r o m f o u r t o s i x y e a r s , t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n b e i n g f i v e y e a r s o f a g e . T h e r e a r e two rooms t h a t t h i s g r o u p c a n use b u t , a s t h e r e i s o n l y one t e a c h e r , a l l t w e n t y f i v e u s e t h e same room a t o n c e . The t e a c h e r h o l d s a f i r s t c l a s s t e a c h e r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and h a s h a d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r t e a c h i n g p r e - p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e o u t d o o r p l a y s p a c e , t h e o u t d o o r . p l a y equipment must be o f t h e t y p e t h a t can be b r o u g h t i n d o o r s a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . The i n d o o r space i s a d e q u a t e and t h e equ ipment i s v e r y g o o d . T h e r e a r e s m a l l t a b l e s and c h a i r s , l o w hooks f o r o u t d o o r c l o t h i n g and o n l y t e n c h i l d r e n t o e a c h t o i l e t and wash b a s i n . The c e n t r e i s h o u s e d i n a b r i c k b u i l d i n g w h i c h i s a l s o a p u b l i c s c h o o l . The m e d i c a l p r o g r a m i s v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y , i n c l u d i n g 29. d a i l y i n s p e c t i o n s , v a c c i n a t i o n s , i m m u n i z a t i o n s , c o m p l e t e p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s and r e g u l a r e x a m i n a t i o n s b y t h e s c h o o l n u r s e . R e g u l a r r e p o r t s a r e s e n t t o t h e p a r e n t s on t h e a t t e n d a n c e , p r o g r e s s and d e -v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The p r o g r a m i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e p r i v a t e l y s p o n s o r e d c e n t r e b u t i n c l u d e s a b i t more o r g a n i z e d p l a y . T h e s e g e n e r a l a v e r a g e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f i v e t y p e s o f c e n t r e s were drawn f r o m t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m s u r v e y i n g t h e s e v e n t y s e v e n c e n t r e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The t a b u l a t i o n o f t h i s d a t a and t h e a n a l y s i s o f i t , i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x c h a p t e r s . 30. CHAPTER I I I . GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION, AGE: DISTRIBUTION - ENROLMENT - ATTENDANCE AND RECORDS, REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION AND TUITION. I t i s possible to obtain considerable pertinent information by just the knowledge of the location of a pre-school centre. The d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s of Vancouver do not present equal opportunity of a desirable environment f o r pre-school children. The v a r i a t i o n i n areas extends from excellent r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s to the worst kind of slums. A map of the s o c i a l areas of Vancouver i s shown i n Figure I I and the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the seventy seven pre-school centres used i n t h i s study i s given. The private centres are rather evenly dis t r i b u t e d throughout the better r e s i d e n t i a l areas and that there are none i n the congested, poor housing d i s t r i c t s that comprise Social Areas 2, 3, 4, 5. 10 and 15. whereas eight of the Church centres are i n Social Area 3, an extremely poor section of the c i t y f o r children. The other f i v e schools are situated i n r e l a t i v e l y poor unsuitable portions of t h e i r respective Social Areas. The Community centres and Co-operatives, as are the Privates, are to be found distributed i n the l e s s congested areas. The Neigh-bourhood Houses are placed i n the crowded areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y those containing l i t t l e play space for children. The Public School pre-school centres, as previously mentioned, - M A P O F S O C I A L A R E A S -NORTH Vflr/couv / tR • • • • • o o o T * 32. were planned to accommodate areas where the needs were greatest and the d i s t r i c t was not serviced or families were too poor to send t h e i r children to Private pre-school centres. Number of Children and Attendance The number of children enrolled f o r the year 1948 and the average number per centre i s presented i n Table 1. These figures are based on 1948 s t a t i s t i c s and at that time one co-operative and one private centre, used i n the compilation of a l l other data, were not i n existence. TABLE 1. AVERAGE NUMBER OF CHILDREN BY TYPE OF PRE-SCHOOL CENTRE. Type Number Number of Children Enrolled i n 1948 Average Number Per Centre A. Private 39 1979 50.7 B. Community and Co-operative 12 435 35.4 C. Church 13 824 63.4 D. Neighbourhood House 5 365 74.0 E. Public School 6 303 50.5 A l l 75 3909 52.1 33. The enrolment i s highest i n the two groups which, i n the main, serve congested, deteriorated areas. It does not follow that they have a high attendance. Indeed, the church centres have a comparatively low percentage of their enrolment i n attendance (35.4 per cent). These high enrolment figures would seem to have a correlation with the tran-sient nature of the areas which the Church and Neighbourhood House groups accommodate. There also might be certain characteristics pre-valent among people occupying these d i s t r i c t s which would show up i n figures relating to regular attendance. A high illness rate might also be a factor. The percentage of enrolment i n attendance i n the private centres i s 40.5 per cent. In the Community and Co-operative and Neigh-bourhood House attendance i s 43.9 and 49.6 per cent respectively. The average attendance at a centre i s given i n Table 2. These figures were obtained by dividing the number of days attendance by the approximate number of school days (190 days) multiplied by the number of centres. The capacity of a centre, that i s the number of children i t should accommodate, i s established by the Welfare Institutions Licensing Act Office. 34. TABLE 2. AVERAGE ATTENDANCE AND CAPACITY PER PRE-SCHOOL CENTRE. 1 Type Number Number of Days Attendance Average Attendance Capacity Average Capacity A. Private 40 156,283(&) 28.9 1020 25.5 B. Community and Co-operative 13 40,8l8(b) 25.8 349 27.0 C. Church 13 56,843 23.0 485 37.3 D. Neighbourhood House 5 30,859 32.5 200 40.0 E. Public School 6 51,262 44.8 300 50.0 A l l 77 336,065(c) 23.6 2354 30.6 ( a ) I n c l u d e s only 39 c e n t r e s . ( b ) I n c l u d e s only 12 centres.-(c) Includes only 75 centres. The average attendance i s well under the average capacity with the exception of the Private centres. The tendency to overcrowd, which prevails i n t h i s group, might be related to the fact that i t also i s the only group operating f o r a p r o f i t . As has been mentioned, the Church and the Neighbourhood House centres have comparatively low attendance rates. The Public School centres have over ninety per cent of the enrolment i n attendance. The parents seem to t r e a t attendance at these pre-school centres with the same seriousness as school attendance. Long waiting l i s t s and good medical f a c i l i t i e s would also be factors. 35. Taking the Pre-School centres as a whole, the percentage of enrolment i n attendance i s 51.9, or about half, However, the average attendance i s 77.1 per cent, or over three quarters of the capacity. These figures show that the turnover i n centres caring for l i t t l e c h i l -dren i s great. This can be attributed to some extent to the transient nature of di s t r i c t s served, and to the high illness rate of children between two years and school age. Notwithstanding, there i s a definite laxness i n regular attendance at pre-school centres that i s probably due to the attitude of parents towards, and the lack of importance they attribute to pre-school education. Attendance records are kept by a l l licensed pre-school centres, and a summary i s handed i n to the Welfare Institutions Licen-sing Act office annually. Certain s t a t i s t i c a l information must also be kept, namely: child's name, date of birth, address, telephone, Father's name, occupation, Mother's name, occupation, Guardian's name, occupation, and in the event of emergency someone who may be called i f no one can be reached at the address given above. Ages of Children The distribution of children by chronological age i n the various types of centres i s shown i n Table 3. In order to f a c i l i t a t e comparison, the same data are presented graphically i n Figure III. 36 TABLE 5. AGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN. Type 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 6 Years Over 6 Years Total Number of Children Registered f o r 1948 A. Private .6 10.3 34.1 47.5 6.1 1.4 1979 B. Community and Co-operative 2.9 14.8 27.1 53.2 2.0 - 438 C. Church 4.4 14.7 28.8 40.8 8.6 2.7 824 D. Neighbourhood House 11.5 18.1 27.2 38.8 4.1 .3 365 E. Public School - - 8.6 91.1 .3 - 303 A l l 2.6 11.6 29.6 49.5 5.5 1.2 3909 4 I N r e A * } (the data f o r the Public School pre-school centres i s not shown, i t w i l l be discussed i n the text) v FIGURE I I I . AGES OF CHILDREN BY TYPE OF PRE-SCHOOL CENTRE. 38. The f i g u r e s g i v i n g t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n , c l e a r l y show t h a t t h e f i v e y e a r o l d s a r e b y f a r t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p i n e v e r y t y p e o f c e n t r e . T h e y c o m p r i s e h a l f t h e t o t a l e n r o l m e n t f o r a l l p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s . The v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n , two and t h r e e y e a r s o f a g e , f o r m a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e e n r o l m e n t o f t h e P r i v a t e c e n t r e s . T h i s i s l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n t h a t i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s age l e v e l . The number o f s t a f f needed t o c a r e f o r two and t h r e e y e a r o l d s c a n n o t u s u a l l y be c a r r i e d f i n a n c i a l l y b y a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n . The t u i t i o n f e e s would become p r o h i b i t i v e . A N e i g h b o u r h o o d House w h i c h i s s u b s i d i z e d and a C o - o p e r a t i v e c e n t r e t h a t i s s t a f f e d p r e d o m i n a t e l y w i t h m o t h e r s a r e b e t t e r s u i t e d , f r o m a n e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f v i e w , t o c a r r y t h i s age g r o u p . The P u b l i c S c h o o l c e n t r e s c a r r y t h e s t r a i g h t k i n d e r g a r t e n age g r o u p , c h i l d r e n e n r o l l i n g must be f i v e y e a r s o l d or become f i v e y e a r s o l d b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e November o f t h a t y e a r a The e x p a n s i o n i n t h i s S c h o o l B o a r d o p e r a t e d group w i l l no d o u b t be t o c o v e r more d i s t r i c t s b e f o r e i t w i l l be e x t e n d e d t o t h e y o u n g e r age l e v e l s . The y o u n g e r age l e v e l i s c a r r i e d more b y t h e C h u r c h c e n t r e s t h a n b y t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s . However , t o some e x t e n t , t h e C h u r c h ' s p u r p o s e i n t h e p r e - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n f i e l d d i f f e r s t o t h a t o f t h e N e i g h -b o u r h o o d House and Community and C o - o p e r a t i v e c e n t r e s . Some o f t h e C h u r c h c e n t r e s l o o k upon t h e i r a i m more f r o m a p h i l a n t h r o p i c and m i s -s i o n a r y p o i n t o f v i e w r a t h e r t h a n f r o m an e d u c a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w . T h i s a c c o u n t s t o some e x t e n t f o r t h e e n r o l l i n g o f t h e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n 39. without the provision of the extra s t a f f . Taking into consideration the d i s t r i c t s which the Church centres serve, there can be l i t t l e c r i t i c i s m of them for taking these two and three year old youngsters off of the streets. Requirements for Admission The nature and extent of the requirements for admission varies widely. Ordinarily, problems of educational attainment do not arise as the children are so young. But, physical standards are important, since the bringing together of young children increases the danger of infec-t i o n and makes preventive measures even more necessary than in' the home. The centres established to meet s o c i a l and economic needs present other basis f o r selection. The data on the frequencies of medical, s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and r a c i a l requirements are presented i n Table 4. TABLE 4. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION  Type Number Special Requirements No Requirements of Race, Religion, etc. Medical History Medical Exam-ina t i o n s o c i a l History A. Private 40 2 38 12 12 24 B. Community and Co-operative 13 13 1 3 1 C. Church 13 7 6 1 1 6 D. Neighbourhood House 5 5 1 2 3 E. Public School 6 6 6 6 6 A l l 77 9 68 21 24 40 40. A p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d o f a l l c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g two o f t h e P r i v a t e c e n t r e s . However , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e emphas i s i n t h e C h u r c h s p o n s o r e d c e n t r e s i s n o t r e l i g i o n , a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , b u t r a c e , o n l y i n one c e n t r e i s t h e r e l i g i o n s p e c i f i e d whereas f i v e c e n t r e s h a v e r a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . . I t i s a moot p o i n t whether t h i s emphas i s on t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f r a c e , ( O r i e n t a l ) i s a sound p r a c t i c e o r n o t . T h e r e a r e many who would a r g u e t h a t i t i s t h i s t y p e o f d i s c r i m -i n a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e more s h o c k i n g f o r m s t h a t h e l p h o l d up t h e w a l l s o f r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e . One o f t h e C h u r c h c e n t r e s e n r o l l s o n l y t h e c h i l d r e n o f w o r k i n g m o t h e r s . More s i g n i f i c a n t a r e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o h e a l t h . P e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e h e a l t h measure w h i c h c a n be r e q u i r e d i s a c o m p l e t e m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , s i n c e , i n i t s t r a i n , f o l l o w many o t h e r p h y s i c a l measures f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d . A c o m p l e t e p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n would be recommended upon a d m i s s i o n . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t l e s s t h a n a t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l number o f c e n t r e s have t h i s a s a r e q u i r e -ment f o r a d m i s s i o n . T u i t i o n The number o f c e n t r e s r e p o r t i n g " a l l c h i l d r e n f r e e " "No r e g u l a r f e e " and " f i x e d c h a r g e s " i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5. G r a d u a t e d c h a r g e s a r e p l a n n e d t o f i t t h e i n c o m e s o f t h e c l i e n t s and a r e most common w i t h c e n t r e s h a v i n g a r e l i e f f u n c t i o n . T h e r e would seem t o be two d e f i n i t e a t t i t u d e s t a k e n b y a number o f t h e C h u r c h c e n t r e s . One p o i n t o f v i e w i s t h a t no c h a r g e s h o u l d be made t o t h o s e who a r e r e a l l y n e e d y . T h e o t h e r c o n s i d e r s t h a t a s m a l l c h a r g e , even f o r t h e n e e d i e s t , i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e s e l f respect of the c l i e n t s . TABLE 5. TUITION Type A. Private 40 B. Community Co and Co-operative 13 C. Church 13 D. Neighbourhood House 5 I Pule Sc t i >lic ihool A l l 77 Session day f u l l day x 2 day f u l l day I 2 day f u l l day X 2 day f u l l day X 2 day f u l l day JL 2 day f u l l day a l l children free 2 6 8 no regular fee 5 1 1 6 1 0 - $1 1 2 3 -$2-3 $3 - 5 7 3 7 2 3 16 -$5 - 7.50 17 1 1 1 20 -$7.50 - 12 2 3 1 1 2 -$14 - 20 2 2 2 5 $20 - 25 1 - 1 No information obtained 6 1 1 8 -42. Here again the Public School centres are i n a class by them-selves. Excluding them, the lowest charge and smallest variation from centre to centre i s to be found in the Church group; Higher charges and more variation occur in the Neighbourhood Houses and Community and Co-operatives. The majority of the Co-operatives f a l l i n the three dollar to five dollar bracket. The Private ones just start at this fee and over four f i f t h s of them charge more. Of those thirty four Private centres that operate a morning program only, one half of them charge between five dollars and seven dollars and f i f t y cents. Transportation cost was estimated at two dollars and f i f t y cents a month. Where transportation was included i n the monthly fee this sum was subtracted to give the tuition fee. The only group of centres providing transportation are the Private ones and sixteen of them pro-vide this service. In three of the Private centres the children are called for and taken home by the teacher or met on a certain corner each morning. This i s a practice which i s more common with the Church centres, they being located i n an area of considerable t r a f f i c . There are five of them that collect and return their pupils i n this manner. The pre-school centres, as has been shown, extend over a very large area, however, i t cannot be said that the coverage has anywhere near reached a desirable standard. Large numbers of children are s t i l l uncared for. This i s even more obvious when the range of age of pre-school children i n centres i s taken into consideration; the accommodation for the child under four years of age i s a l l but n i l . In general, the attendance i s far too irregular, giving the situation an even more in-different appearance. Standardization of admission requirements i s also matter which needs to be considered i n the future. 44. CHAPTER IV. BUILDINGS AND, ACCOMMODATION The nature of the physical plant and equipment of pre-school centres i s very important from the standpoint of the care and education of young children. In choosing a building i t i s necessary to consider both the welfare of the children as well as the ease of supervision. A centre should take on the characteristics of both a school and a home and provide a cheerful homelike atmosphere. Provision f o r outdoor and indoor a c t i v i t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l , and where centres are located i n a c i t y with a climate such as Vancouver has, there should be large indoor space available f o r active play. In the opening chapters of the study mention was made of the fac t that i n Vancouver, buildings used to house pre-school centres must comply with certain standards set up by City By-Laws. When an ap p l i -cation f o r a license i s received by the Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Licensing Act o f f i c e , a l e t t e r i s written to the City Clerk, who forwards a re-quest for inspection to the Zoning, Building, E l e c t r i c a l and Health Departments and to the F i r e Warden. I f the application i s i n a d i s t r i c t where such a use i s permitted and the conditions of the building are satisfactory, the Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Licensing Act o f f i c e i s so advised. Pre-school centres are regarded as educational and are not permitted i n the One or Two-Family Dwelling D i s t r i c t s , except by per-mission of the Zoning By-Law Board of Appeal. 45 I f any building contains more than twenty f i v e children, i t comes under j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Building By-Law which permits only framed buildings of one storey for such a use, over one storey they must be of masonry construction. The construction of buildings used to house pre-school centres i n the c i t y i s given i n Table 6. TABLE 6. CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS. Type Number Frame Stucco Stone Cement Brick A. Private AO 32 7 1 B. Community and Co-operative 13 12 . 1 -C. Church 13 _ 8 • 4 1 D. Neighbourhood House 5 3 2 -E. Public School 6 ' 1 1 4 A l l 77 56 15 6 Approximately three quarters of the buildings used are of frame construction and from observation i t has been noted that many of these are over one storey. Apparently, the manner i n which the premises are l a i d out, has much bearing on approval being given by the authorities. The Chief F i r e Warden has stated that at a l l times the follow-ing conditions must be complied with. 46. 1. A l l pupils should be on the ground f l o o r . At no time should classes be on upper f l o o r s , or i n the basement. I f the ground f l o o r i s r e s t r i c t e d , and i t becomes necessary to move some of the older children to an upper f l o o r , then a four foot continuous stairway must be provided, from a f i r e e x i t doorway, on the second f l o o r , and the continuous stairway must run clear to the ground. 2. Depending on the f l o o r area to be used, at l e a s t two clear e x i t s should be provided on the ground f l o o r . Much depends on the number of children i n the centre. For example, a small centre catering to f i f t e e n to twenty children, having clear e x i t way to the front door, and reserve kitchen door or side door would be deemed to have ample e x i t . I f i n a larger type of home, with classes running up to fo r t y children or more, then an a u x i l i a r y doorway, usually a door of the French door pattern, i s required opening from one of the rooms which i s used f o r the project. 3. In some cases a f i r e extinguisher i s recommended. 4. Persons operating pre-school centres should see that f i r e d r i l l i s held at regular periods. 5. Housekeeping conditions must be studied, basement, cup-boards, etc., kept free of any materials l i k e l y to as s i s t i n the spread of f i r e . 47. In order to operate as a pre-school centre i t i s necessary that the building have approved e l e c t r i c a l wiring, also that i t be approved by the Sanitary Division of the Vancouver Health Department. Most of the centres converted used buildings which have other functions than that of housing young children. Table 7 shows the number of centres of each type l i s t i n g the additional purposes. TABLE 7. ADDITIONAL PURPOSES OF BUILDINGS. Type Private Residence Community Centre School Church Mission Convent A. Private (40) 24 3 8 2 B. Community and Co-operative (13) 4 7 1 -C. Church (13) - - - 12 D. Neighbourhood House (5) - 5 - -E. Public School (6) - - 6 -A l l (77)(g) 28 - 15 15 14 (a) There are three centres which are housed i n buildings used ex-cl u s i v e l y as pre-school centres, two of these are private centres and one i s a co-operative centre. (b) One private centre and one church centre are housed i n multiple dwellings. The other purposes for which the building i s used are of some importance i n considering the protection of the c h i l d from dangers 48. such as c o n t a g i o n and f i r e . Over one t h i r d o f t h e c e n t r e s a r e h o u s e d i n p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s . O u t d o o r P l a y Space The i m p o r t a n c e o f adequate p l a y space f o r t h e c a r r y i n g out o f an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m i s emphas i zed b y modern t h e o r y . A n o u t d o o r p l a y g r o u n d i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t . The amount o f space n e c e s s a r y i s c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n a t t e n d a n c e , f r o m s i x t y t o one h u n d r e d s q u a r e f e e t p e r c h i l d u s u a l l y b e i n g recommended. I f t h e o u t d o o r p l a y a r e a i s s m a l l t h e c h i l d r e n may be d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r g r o u p s by age o r a c t i v i t y and t h e p r o g r a m a r r a n g e d so t h a t t h e g r o u p s a r e u s i n g t h e p l a y g r o u n d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . I t i s a l w a y s a d -v i s a b l e t o o r g a n i z e t h e a r e a so t h a t i t i s u s e d t o b e s t a d v a n t a g e . The equ ipment s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d so t h a t i t e m s may be u s e d t o t h e i r f u l l e s t e x t e n t w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e u s e o f any o t h e r s and i n such a way t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e s p o n t a n e o u s l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r t h e a v a i l a b l e s p a c e . A s q u a r e shaped a r e a i s c o n s i d e r e d most s a t i s f a c t o r y f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f e a s e o f s u p e r v i s i o n . S h r u b b e r y and equ ipment t h a t o b s t r u c t t h e v i e w o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s s h o u l d b e l o c a t e d a g a i n s t t h e f e n c e o r t h e b u i l d i n g . A f e n c e c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y t o t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e p e a c e o f mind o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r . The i d e a l p l a y g r o u n d w o u l d b e a g r a s s y s l o p e on a s u n n y , s h e l t e r e d s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g , w i t h t r e e s f o r shade and a d v e n t u r e , a p o o l o r b r o o k f o r wad ing and s a i l i n g b o a t s , a g a r d e n , a s h a l l o w p i t o f sand o r e a r t h f o r d i g g i n g and a paved a r e a f o r l o c o m o t i v e t o y s . I f p o s s i b l e t h e o u t d o o r a r e a s h o u l d open d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e 49. washroom or p l a y r o o m o f t h e s c h o o l , a l l o w i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o wander i n and o u t . An o u t s i d e s h e l t e r f o r o u t d o o r p l a y on r a i n y d a y s i s a v a l -u a b l e a s s e t f o r any p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e i n V a n c o u v e r . S t o r a g e s p a c e f o r o u t s i d e t o y s i s a w o r t h w h i l e a d d i t i o n . T h i s c a n be t h e p l a y h o u s e , t h e s h e l t e r , a l a r g e p a c k i n g b o x , a s p a c i o u s c u p b o a r d , s h e l v e s or r a c k s . Such s t o r a g e space h e l p s t h e c h i l d t o be n e a t and makes i t e a s i e r t o f i n d t h e t o y s t h e n e x t t i m e t h e y a r e t o be u s e d . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e o u t d o o r p l a y space a s e i t h e r "none", " i n a d e q u a t e " o r "adequate" i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 8. A l t h o u g h t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "adequate" c o n t a i n s a few, v e r y e x c e l l e n t p l a y g r o u n d s i t s h o u l d be t a k e n t o mean c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t h a n i d e a l . T A B L E 8. OUTDOOR PLAY S P A C E . Type Number No P l a y Space I n a d e q u a t e A d e q u a t e A . P r i v a t e 40 4 6 30 B . Community and C o - o p e r a t i v e 13 2 - 11 C . C h u r c h 13 5 2 6 D . N e i g h b o u r h o o d House 5 - 2 3 E . P u b l i c S c h o o l 6 - - 6 A l l 77 11 10 56 50. The most notable factor brought to attention i s the lack of outdoor play space of the Church centres. The congestion of the areas in which they are located i s no doubt one of the reasons for this con-dition. Unfortunately, this same congestion i s one of the very reasons why adequate outdoor play space would be such a valuable addition to these centres. Indoor Accommodation The amount of space needed for the indoor program varies. Centres i n a rainy climate such as Vancouver's have need of a large indoor space for active play. The age of the children needs to be considered: the younger the children i n a centre, the larger the amount of space necessary. If eating and sleeping are on the program more space w i l l be needed than i f they are not. The average number of rooms and the average number of children for the various types of centres i s given i n Table 9. 51. TABLE 9. NUMBER OF ROOMS AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN PER ROOM. Type Number Average Number of Rooms Average Capacity Average Number Children per Room A. Private 40 1.8 22.5 14.5 B. Community and Co-operative 13 1.4 26.9 19.4 C. Church 13 1.9 37.3 19.4 D. Neighbourhood House 5 2.2 40.0 18.2 E. Public School 6 1.8 25.0 13.6 A l l 77 1.6 28.6 17.4 Every centre has one or more rooms that are used as a play-room. Some centres use part of the basement f o r active play on rainy days. Others have a room especially f o r the musical part of the pro-gram. Some rooms are used f o r locker rooms, dining rooms and sleeping rooms. The playroom i s the centre of the school and i t serves many purposes; i t generates purposeful a c t i v i t i e s and an educative way of l i f e ; i t i s ae s t h e t i c a l l y stimulating and provides space and i n s p i r a t i o n for many kinds of play. The minimum f l o o r space should be 15 to 18 square feet per c h i l d and up to 35 square feet per c h i l d has been recommended. The 52. minimum air space per child would be 150 cubic feet and here again much more, up to 300 cubic feet i s recommended as ideal. Basement rooms in use should have ceilings at least eight feet high. The room should be bright and well lighted. I t i s considered necessary that the window area be at least 20 to 25 per cent of the floor area. Arrangements should be made to enable the children to see out of the windows. The a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t used in a l l centres recorded i s that of electricity, a l l are considered to have adequate lighting. The room should be a standard temperature, the floors warm and free from drafts. The Vancouver centres are a l l considered to have f a i r l y good ventilation and adequately heated rooms. The great maj-ority have central heating units. The four or five centres that have heating units in the room (a method of heating not to be recommended) have them well screened for protection. Linoleum covered or hardwood floors are considered best, both from the safety point of view with no danger of splinters, and from the point of view of sanitation and ease in washing and cleaning. The usual rectangular room with high walls and wide clear floor i s not the sort of place that children seek for play. When l e f t to choose for themselves they prefer passages, cloakrooms, under tables and i n corners made by partitioning off a section of the room with furniture or anything else available. A raised dias or platform on a side or i n the corner of a room makes a good division. A room can be more pleasing to the child by provision of small collapsible clothes-horse screens, covered appropriately, or the piano and cupboards so 53. a r r a n g e d a s t o p r o v i d e p l a y i n g s p a c e s b e h i n d t h e m . S p e c i a l p l a c e s may be s e t a s i d e f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s a h o u s e - k e e p i n g c o r n e r , a book c o r n e r , and a p l a c e f o r q u i e t h a n d w o r k . Good a r r a n g e m e n t s a l s o c a t e r t o t h e a e s t h e t i c s e n s e . C a r e f u l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out i n o r d e r t h a t more s t r e n u o u s and d i s t u r b i n g p l a y i s somewhat a p a r t f r o m t h e q u i e t e r a c t i v i t i e s . S e p a r a t i o n o f t h e equipment makes a t t e n t i o n and c o n c e n -t r a t i o n e a s i e r f o r t h e c h i l d , by l e s s e n i n g t h e d i s t r a c t i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n and t h e o t h e r t o y s . I t a l s o d i m i n i s h e s t h e g e n e r a l c o n f u s i o n and e m o t i o n a l u p s e t s b y d i v i d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o g r o u p s e a c h w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . R e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s n e a r one a n o t h e r s u g g e s t new p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f p l a y , and t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d more a d v i s a b l e t h a n a d u l t s t i m u l a t i o n . I f t h e room i s s m a l l i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o d i v i d e t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o two o r more g r o u p s and s t a c k t h e p r o g r a m . The room and f u r n i s h i n g s s h o u l d be a s a t t r a c t i v e • a s p o s s i b l e and w e l l k e p t . Such f e a t u r e s a s c o l o u r scheme and p i c t u r e s a r e a s much a p a r t o f a c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e a s h i s t o y s and a s s i s t i n e s t a b -l i s h i n g an a e s t h e t i c s e n s e . The f u r n i s h i n g s s h o u l d be a d a p t e d t o t h e c h i l d ' s s i z e and a b i l i t y and p l a n n e d f o r t h e minimum a d u l t h e l p i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c h i l d may be i n d e p e n d e n t i n h i s p l a y e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e r e s h o u l d be n o t h i n g i n t h e room t h a t i s n o t u s e f u l o r c a n n o t be made a p a r t o f t h e c h i l d ' s p l a y . E v e r y p i e c e s h o u l d be d u r a b l e so t h a t t h e c h i l d may h a n d l e i t w i t h o u t b e i n g c h e c k e d . S m a l l t a b l e s and c h a i r s , o f t h e p r o p e r h e i g h t f o r good p o s -54. ture, are a necessity i n a pre-school centre. The height of the chair should he such that the c h i l d can place h i s feet comfortably on the f l o o r and the height of the table should be ten inches above the chair seat. The chairs should be sturdy to stand on and of a weight a c h i l d can carry. The seat should be nine to twelve inches from the f l o o r . There should be at l e a s t as many chairs as there are children and one table f o r every four children. The tables are usually t h i r t y inches square and can be pushed together to form longer tables. Round tables, t h i r t y s i x inches i n diameter, are sometimes used and have the advan-tages of seating a varying number and of having no corners to bump in t o . A l l centres i n Vancouver have tables and chairs of a height suitable f o r children except one church centre and one private one. High, locked or otherwise inaccessible cupboards should be used to store extra supplies and materials to be used only under supervision. Low cupboards and open shelves are essential f o r mat-e r i a l s the children are free to use. The open shelves are better since toys do not get forgotten. The majority of the Licensed centres and a l l the Public School ones have an adequate supply of cupboards and shelving space. There are a few exceptions. One co-operative and one private centre have need for more storage space. Two private centres have no cupboard or shelving space. Two private ones have need f o r a more t i d y arrangement. Space should be provided for the removal or donning of out-door clothing and f o r a place i n which to keep i t . The i d e a l place i s near the entrance of the building so that the playroom may be kept neat 55. and free from confusion. I t i s convenient i f i t i s near the washroom as one teacher can then supervise both a c t i v i t i e s . Considerable f l o o r space i s needed so the children can put on t h e i r own clothes. The best system i s to have i n d i v i d u a l lockers. These should be placed against the wal l . The most suitable size i s 12" X 12" X 36" with hooks for the coats and a shelf at the top for hats, etc. These lockers should be open and each c h i l d have his own which should have some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n recognizable by the c h i l d and the adult. Sometimes i t i s considered advisable t o have metal waste paper baskets i n the bottom of each locker for the reception of garments that do not hang e a s i l y or for children too small to use a hook. Lockers help avoid much con-fusion, and they may be simply made of very inexpensive materials such as apple boxes or orange crates. In centres where there are not too many children hooks at a height which children can rea d i l y reach are found to be f a i r l y adequate. This i s the method used by most centres i n Vancouver. Only nine centres have lockers: three 8o-operatives, two Neighbourhood Houses and four Frivate ones. One church centre and two private ones have poor, un-suitable arrangements. Washroom f a c i l i t i e s should be separate from the playroom but eas i l y accessible to i t . Flush t o i l e t s should be used, and are used i n a l l the centres covered i n t h i s survey. From the i d e a l point of view a centre having a h a l f day program should have one t o i l e t and one washbasin for every twelve children. A centre carrying on a f u l l day program would require one of 56. each for every eight to ten children. The ideal i s low child size t o i l e t s and basins. However, one t o i l e t seat and one washbasin for as many as fifteen children i s considered f a i r l y satisfactory and ordinary to i l e t s may be adapted by use of platforms and special t o i l e t seats i f necessary. There should be no separation of the sexes as there i s i n a number of the Church centres. Ordinary enamel hand basins may be used i f a sink i s at hand for water and wastes. A shower or a small tub i s a great help in cases of necessity, as i s a dryer for clothes in case of t o i l e t accidents, etc. If cloth towels are used they should be easily identified and kept on low hooks which are separated so that the towels do not touch. Paper towels are a satisfactory alternative and a great majority of the Vancouver centres use these. The number of t o i l e t seats and washbowls in relation to number of children and type of centre i s shown in Table 10. 57 TABLE 10. AVERAGE NUMBER OF CHILDREN PER TOILET SEAT AND WASHBOWL. Type Average Capacity Children per T o i l e t Seat Children per Washbowl A. Private 25.5 17.6 17.9 B. Community and Co-operative 27.0 17.5 21.8 C. Church 37.3 18.0 21.1 D. Neighbourhood House 40.0 20.0 18.2 E. Public School 25.0 10.0 10.0 " A l l 28.6 16.9 18.1 The Public School centres are the only ones which come near to the idea l standard. As has been pointed out e a r l i e r i n t h i s study, t h e i r figures i n t h i s case do not give a clear picture of the situation as these t o i l e t s are often as not shared by the Grade School and the Pre-School Centre. I t may be said that, i n general, the centres i n Vancouver do not come up to standard i n the provision of sanitary f a c i l i t i e s , The centres operating under the Licensing Act a l l have a mid-morning snack as part of t h e i r program. I t i s , therefore, necessary to have a proper sanitary place i n which to store milk, f r u i t , and f r u i t juices, and a cupboard for cookies and glasses or cups. A sink 58 and h o t w a t e r w i l l a l s o be n e e d e d . F a c i l i t i e s f o r a s h o r t m o r n i n g r e s t a r e d e s i r a b l e . A l l t h e fientres p r o v i d e a r e s t p e r i o d . I n some t h e c h i l d r e n j u s t s i t on t h e i r c h a i r s and r e s t t h e i r h e a d s on t h e t a b l e . The P u b l i c S c h o o l c e n t r e s p r o v i d e l o n g r u g s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o l i e down on and t h e s e a r e a l s o u s e d d u r i n g t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g and m u s i c a l p a r t s o f t h e p r o g r a m . I n many c e n t r e s t h e c h i l d b r i n g s a s m a l l b l a n k e t f r o m home w h i c h i s l e f t a t t h e c e n t r e and i s u s e d t o l i e on d u r i n g t h e r e s t p e r i o d . T h e r e a r e even a few c e n t r e s t h a t p r o v i d e c o t s f o r t h i s m o r n i n g r e s t . T h o s e c e n t r e s h a v i n g a f u l l day p r o g r a m and t h e r e f o r e a n a f t e r n o o n s l e e p p e r i o d a r e o f c o u r s e r e q u i r e d t o h a v e f a r more f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g a s e p a r a t e room f o r r e s t . L e s s t h a n one e i g h t h o f t h e c e n t r e s have a f u l l d a y p r o g r a m . F o r t h i s r e a s o n s l e e p i n g rooms and e q u i p m e n t and d i n i n g rooms and equ ipment h a v e n o t been d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . C o n t r o l b y C i t y B y - L a w s and c o n t i n u o u s e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e advancement o f t h e s t a n d a r d s o f p r e - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r , h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t many improvements i n t h e b u i l d i n g s and equipment o f t h e V a n c o u v e r p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s . However , t h e a l l - o v e r p i c t u r e shows t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s t a n d a r d i s a c t u a l l y ex -c e e d i n g b y - l a w . I n many c a s e s , t h e c e n t r e ' s p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e b u i l d i n g u s e d i s q u i t e s u b o r d i n a t e t o some o t h e r s , r a r e i n d e e d , i s t h e c e n t r e , h o u s e d i n a p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e , t h a t h a s s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s e s -p e c i a l l y f o r t h e use o f t h e c h i l d r e n . The g r e a t l a c k o f o u t d o o r accomm-59 odation, particularly i n the Church centres, i s also a matter which needs early consideration. 6 0 . CHAPTER V . PLAY EQUIPMENT. The modern a p p r o a c h t o the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f p r e -s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p l a y i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . P l a y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be n o t an a i m l e s s e x p e n d i t u r e o f e n e r g y , b u t an a c t i v i t y , t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s , can be d i r e c t e d i n t o v a l -u a b l e and w o r t h w h i l e c h a n n e l s . T o d e p r i v e a c h i l d o f m a t e r i a l w i t h w h i c h t o p l a y i s a s much d e p r i v a t i o n t o t h e growth o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c h a r a c t e r as l a c k o f f o o d and f r e e a c t i v i t y a r e t o t h e g r o w i n g b o d y . I t c a u s e s p s y c h i c m a l n u t r i t i o n and r e n d e r s t h e c h i l d i l l - e q u i p p e d f o r t h e a d v e n t u r e o f l i f e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f p l a y mat-e r i a l s p r o v i d e d i n p r e - s c h o o l c e n t r e s a f f o r d a r e a l t e s t o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m and t h e i r p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d . A t t h e same t i m e i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t e v e n t h e b e s t equ ipment i n t h e w o r l d i s n o t o f much v a l u e u n l e s s i t i s u s e d ; f u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e g u i d a n c e o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r p l a y , no m a t t e r how i n d i r e c t , r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e . The equipment a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c e n t r e s s t u d i e d must t h e r e f o r e be c o n -s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e p e r s o n n e l and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l programs o f t h e c e n t r e s . The ma in p u r p o s e o f a good t o y i s t o h e l p t h e c h i l d ' s p h y -s i c a l and m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i s n o t b y any means r e s t r i c t e d t o p r o g r e s s i n p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s b u t i n -61. eludes learning the ways of independence, self reliance and i n i t i a t i v e . A good toy should help develop the five senses, encourage thought, effort and constructiveness, and feed the imagination. Since prevention of accidents must always be considered, the materials must be safe to use, of strong construction with no sharp or rough edges or splinters. If the children at the centre are very young, more kinds of play things w i l l be needed than i f the centre caters to the four and five year old group only. This i s mainly because of the younger child's shorter interest-span, but also because children gain a certain mat-urity i n perception by a superficial acquaintance with a variety of shapes, weights, textures, colours and behaviours. The universally essential materials are those that serve constructive interests. Sand i s a very important medium i n a centre which enrolls two and three year olds. The sand toys should be rust resistant, free from sharp edges, and unbreakable. Animals, scoops, kitchen utensils, cans, cars, wooden trucks, boats and trains are a l l valuable for sand play. Blocks are perhaps the most effective and basic tools. A good set of blocks i s one based on a unit block of brick size with a l l others multiples of the unit. In addition there should be triangles, p i l l a r s , arches, curves and cylinders of the unit length which serve to enrich the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of building patterns. For outdoor-activity, large hollow blocks of two sizes lend themselves to structures within which groups can play. Blocks are the raw material which the child uses to enact his experiences and to these he adds other objects. Trains, 6 2 . b o a t s , c a r s , e t c . , w i l l s t i m u l a t e t h e i m p u l s e t o use b l o c k s . T h e s e t o y s n e e d n o t be e l a b o r a t e a s i t i s m o s t l y m o t i o n s and a c t i o n t h a t i s d e s i r e d . The s i z e o f t h e s e a d d i t i o n s h o w e v e r , i s i m p o r t a n t and s h o u l d be r e l a t e d r o u g h l y t o t h a t o f t h e b l o c k s . D o l l s and d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s a r e f r u i t f u l s o u r c e s o f i n t e r e s t and v a l u e i n b l o c k p l a y . A d o l l ' s c o r n e r f o r h o u s e k e e p i n g p l a y i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p l a y r o o m . The d o l l s and d o l l s ' c l o t h i n g s h o u l d be c h o s e n so a s t o be s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d . The d o l l s h o u l d be d u r a b l e and t h e c l o t h e s easy t o p u t on and remove . A d o l l s ' b e d , s h e e t s , b l a n k e t s , a h i g h c h a i r and a c a r r i a g e a i d g r e a t l y i n e n h a n c i n g t h i s t y p e o f p l a y . A l s o v a l u a b l e a r e such i t e m s a s a t a b l e a n d c h a i r s , broom and d u s t p a n , d i s h e s , i r o n i n g b o a r d and p o t s and p a n s . T o y s and m a t e r i a l s f o r t a b l e p l a y a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . They e n c o u r a g e i n i t i a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e and c r e a t i v e f a c u l t i e s a n d a i d i n t e a c h i n g a c h i l d t o c a r r y t h r o u g h a j o b t o t h e f i n i s h . P i c t u r e a n d s t o r y b o o k s , gramaphone r e c o r d s a n d . m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . F o r t h e more a c t i v e p l a y o r o u t s i d e p l a y , much emphas i s i s p l a c e d on p h y s i c a l needs a n d i t must be k e p t i n mind t h a t t h e equipment s h o u l d s a t i s f y o t h e r needs a s w e l l . The j u n g l e gym, f o r example , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f e x e r c i s e f o r t h e l a r g e m u s c l e s a l s o c o n t r i -b u t e s t o t h e s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s , and t o t h e o v e r c o m i n g o f c e r t a i n f e a r s . Some o t h e r v a l u a b l e p i e c e s o f o u t d o o r equ ipment a r e s l i d e s , c l i m b i n g and c h i n n i n g l a d d e r s , w a l k i n g b o a r d s , swings and w h e e l t o y s . The W e l f a r e I n s t i t u t i o n s L i c e n s i n g A c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r s s u g g e s t t h e p l a y equipment l i s t e d i n S c h e d u l e A as t h e minimum e q u i p m e n t f o r a u n i t o f t w e n t y f i v e c h i l d r e n . SCHEDULE A. 63. DESIRABLE PLAY EQUIPMENT, (minimum for 25 children) Indoor Equipment Outdoor Equipment Dramatic and Imaginative Play 1 set f l o o r blocks 1 sandbox and sand toys 6 sets table blocks 1 dozen cookie t i n s 2 Tee Gee blocks 1 dozen scoops 3 builder blocks 1 swing 4 sets toy animals (wood) 1 s l i d e and storehouse 1 interlocking tfcain climbing boxes 2 sets barges jungle gym 1 large wooden truck 4 saw horses 4 boats 4 walking boards 3 trucks (wood) 3 large wagons 12 miniature cars 1 small wagon 1 t i n of clothes pegs t r i c y c l e 1 set f i t t e d t i n s scooter 5 d o l l s 5 kiddy cars 2 ironing boards 3 wheel barrows 2 irons 1-g- sets outdoor blocks 2 sets d o l l dishes 3 toy trucks 2 sets d o l l furniture, d o l l bedding, clothing 8 brooms 1 d o l l carriage b a l l s , large and small Creative and Constructive Play 8 paint brushes 24 past brushes 24 scissors • 10 l b s . p l a s t i c i n e 4 boxes crayons 2 l b s . Canco cold water paste 1000 waxed straws 200 sheets economy f o l d i n g paper 2000 sheets newsprint 4 l b s . powder paint 2 parquetry ( c i r c l e s blocks) 2 parquetry (square blocks) 2 sets large stringing beads 4 colour cones 3 enlarged pegboards 3 ten-inch pegboards 12 puzzles 3 tinker toys Picture and story books Piano and musical instruments for rhythm band 64 The indoor and outdoor equipment of the centres reviewed i n t h i s study have been graded as f a r as possible i n t o three groups. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "well equipped" should be taken to mean that the centres have the equipment l i s t e d i n Schedule A or more, i n r a t i o to t h e i r capacity: "moderate" means approximately seventy f i v e per cent or morej "inadequate" means less than three quarters of the minimum. TABLE 11. INDOOR EQUIPMENT Type Well Equipped Moderate Inadequate Piano Gramaphone Total A. Private 4 29 7 36 17 40 B. Community and Co-operative 2 9 2 9 4 13 C. Church 1 9 3 12 4 13 D. Neighbourhood House 3 2 - 5 5 5 E. Public School 6 - - 6 6 6 A l l 16 49 12 68 36 77 65'. TABLE 12. OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT Type Well Equipped Moderate Inadequate No Outdoor Equipment Total A. Private 9 13 5 13 40 B.1 Community and Co-operative 2 8 1 2 13 C. Church 1 2 3 7 13 D. Nei ghb ourh ood House - 5 - - 5 E. Public School - - 6 - 6 A l l 12 28 15 22 77 Nearly a l l the centres have pianos. The lowest percentage i s to be found i n the community and co-operative centres. Gramaphones are not so prevelant except i n the neighbourhood houses and the public school centres. The s i x public school centres have a system of record exchange which operates. among themselves. The indoor equipment of categories A. B. and C. i s mainly adequate, the Neighbourhood Houses have a higher percentage of well equipped centres and the Public Schools are a l l considered to be well equipped. The outdoor equipment shows considerably more v a r i a t i o n . Here, the lack of outdoor play areas and resultant lack of equipment of the church centres again shows up. Also evident i s the outdoor equip-ment problem of the public schools which was previously mentioned. 66. Almost thirty per cent of the centres have no outdoor equipment whatso-ever. If these are added to the ones that are considered inadequately equipped about f i f t y per cent of the centres are accounted for. Play equipment, or lack of i t , i s one very clear indication of the level of the understanding those i n charge of pre-school centres have of the importance of such equipment for the all-around development of the pre-school child. The general lack of well equipped schools i s in truth evidence of a more general lack i n standards as a whole, and foreshadows a rather low average for the qualifications of the per-sonnel caring for the children i n the centres. 67. CHAPTER VI. PROGRAM FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN The educational program of pre-school centres may be considered of paramount importance i n t h i a study, i n that buildings, equipment and personnel are valuable only through use. The children should be allowed to play f r e e l y , the program should not be designed to prepare them f o r school by playful lessons i n order to i n i t i a t e them into school d i s -c i p l i n e and routine. When given the opportunity to play i n t h e i r own way, children prepare themselves f o r school and for l i f e f a r more successfully than anyone else can prepare them. The teacher should arrange the program so that she i s free to be with the children, watching, helping, guiding them and make such necessary changes as may become necessary. Her contribution to the program should never degenerate in t o the task of getting things done. The program should be arranged to give the children experiences from age to age which w i l l have con-t i n u i t y and relationship, so that the children's world w i l l gradually and l o g i c a l l y widen, thus i t i s hoped that they w i l l acquire the habit of looking at the phenomena about them as related, contributing fac-tors i n other features of t h e i r l i v e s . The d a i l y program should be a simple one, based upon sound c h i l d development p r i n c i p l e s . Opportunities f o r learning self-help, group co-operation, and time for free play and creative a c t i v i t i e s should take up the major part of the morning. The program should a l -ternate between periods of active play and quiet play. A mid-morning 68. rest period and light nourishment are also essential to avoid fatigue. Daily health inspection is essential to maintain group health. Although there must be substantial planning i t is important that the program be. flexible and be adaptable to the needs of the children. There should be patience to permit the child to find his way with confidence in his ability to structure his own behaviour and to attain the organization necessary for adjustment. It is not what the child learns in formal terms which is important but what he gains from experiences in the way of self-control, emotional balance, initiative, interest and enthusiasm. The program should stress desirable attitudes towards physiological processes, work and play, obstacles and difficul-ties and other people. There are certain essential unvarying features around which each day centres: morning inspection, free play, toilet routine, rest, mid-morning nourishment and organized play. In general, the apportion-ment of time should be one and a half to two hours for free play, twenty minutes for toilet routines, fifteen to twenty minutes rest, fifteen minutes for mid-morning nourishment and twenty minutes for organized play. The free play portion of the program is of utmost importance, not only because of the proportion of the day which i t occupies but because of the opportunities i t offers for helping the child to gain wide experience, physical s k i l l , social efficiency and emotional control. The child's activity should be self-directed and this activity should be an end in itself without apparent outward compulsion. The child should 69. be f r e e t o change h i s a c t i v i t y whenever boredom commences o r a s t r o n g e r m o t i v e m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f . O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t f o r t h e c h i l d t o u s e h i s a b i l i t i e s t o t h e f u l l e s t e x t e n t . M u s i c i s t o be f o u n d b o t h i n t h e f r e e p l a y p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m and i n t h e o r g a n i z e d p a r t and p r o v i d e s a c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h i c h c h i l d r e n may f i n d s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . A s s u c h m u s i c may be made a s a t i s -f y i n g p a r t o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . Books a r e a l s o f o u n d i n b o t h t h e f r e e p l a y and o r g a n i z e d p l a y p a r t s o f t h e p r o g r a m and a r e a s o u r c e o f en joyment f o r t h e c h i l d r e n , h e l p i n g them t o o b s e r v e a n d l e a r n more a b o u t t h e w o r l d . Books a l s o s t i m u l a t e and e n c o u r a g e t h e c h i l d ' s n a t i v e t a l e n t f o r t e l l i n g s t o r i e s and d r a m a t i z i n g i n c i d e n t s . C r e a t i v e handwork i s a l s o t o be f o u n d . T h i s t a k e s many f o r m s s u c h a s b r u s h p a i n t i n g , f i n g e r p a i n t i n g , c l a y m o d e l l i n g , c r a y o n i n g , w e a v i n g and w o r k i n g w i t h , c o l o u r e d p a p e r , p a s t e , p a p e r , s c i s s o r s , woo l and n e e d l e s . Language d e v e l o p m e n t i s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e example i n t h e t e a c h e r ' s s p e e c h , t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g a n e n -v i r o n m e n t t h a t e n c o u r a g e s s p e e c h , t h r o u g h s u b t l e c o r r e c t i o n o f e r r o r s and a g r a d u a l r a i s i n g o f s t a n d a r d s . A p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m i s d e v o t e d t o r o u t i n e . H e r e t h e c h i l d h a s l i t t l e c h o i c e o f a c t i v i t y and i s o f t e n g u i d e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e d u r e s b y t h e t e a c h e r . A good p r o g r a m a l l o w s t h e c h i l d t i m e t o h e l p h i m s e l f and a i d s h i m t o a d j u s t i n t e l l i g e n t l y t o t h e demands o f e v e r y d a y h a p p e n i n g s and t o be a b l e t o e x e r c i s e f o r e s i g h t and i n i t i a t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h them. I n t h e c a s e o f t h e h a b i t s o f c l e a n l i n e s s , 70. t o i l e t i n g , dressing and undressing, acquired s k i l l and an attitude of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y frees the c h i l d to enjoy more interesting a c t i v i t i e s . The mid-morning nourishment, which i s given i n a l l centres studied, not only supplements the d i e t but fosters routine and habit formation and con-tributes to the child's s o c i a l development. The r e s t period which i s also to be found i n a l l centres i s of v i t a l importance. I t helps es-t a b l i s h the habit of r e l a x i n g completely and insures for the c h i l d a maximum of output of energy during periods of a c t i v i t y . This period should be conducted i n a calm, unhurried, business-like way, and i s then accepted as a pleasant part of the program and a welcome period of quiet and comparative i s o l a t i o n . Organized play, where the teacher controls and d i r e c t s a f f a i r s , should have only a small place i n a pre-school centre. Neither the child's habits of play nor h i s so c i a l accomplishments are developed s u f f i c i e n t l y for sustained a c t i v i t y of such a nature which requires the children to f i x t h e i r attention, to obey directions, s i t s t i l l and wait f o r t h e i r companions. While t h i s i s good play up to a point, i t causes s t r a i n i f the periods are lengthy ones. Organized play, however, con-tributes certain valuable elements not found elsewhere i n the program. I t gives variety for the free play period, r e s t from more strenuous a c t i v i t i e s , teaches the c h i l d to enjoy play of a more controlled nature and teaches the f i r s t rudiments of adjustment to the more formal s o c i a l requirements. Organized play also can be u t i l i z e d for giving d e f i n i t e instructions and to stimulate learning by group example. Organized play most often centres around stories and musical a c t i v i t i e s . 71. The program f o r a centre having a f u l l day session i s of course d i f f e r e n t from that of a centre caring for children f o r a hal f day only. The difference i n general i s the addition of the mid-day meal and the afternoon sleep for those centres carrying on f o r the longer time. The length of the sessions f o r the various types of pre-school centres studied i s shown i n Table 13. TABLE 13. LENGTH AND NUMBER OF SESSIONS Type Number Half Day Morning Session and Afternoon Session D i f f . Enrolment i n Each F u l l Day A. Private 40 <a> 2.6 3 11 B. Community and Co-operative 13 13 - -C. Church 13 12 - 1 D. Nei ghb ourh ood House 5 2: 3 E. Public School 6 - 6 -A l l 77 53 9 15 (a) 7 centres have a hal f day session f o r the majority of the c h i l d -ren but keep some children for the f u l l day. 3 centres have one f u l l day a week f o r a l l children. Over eighty per cent of the centres operate a h a l f day pro-gram (Table 13). The f i f t e e n centres carrying the f u l l day session a l l 72 have provision i n th e i r programs for afternoon sleeps* The mid-day meal i s provided by the Church centre having the f u l l day program, two of the Neighbourhood centres and f i v e of the Private ones. Thus i n seven of these centres the children either go home for t h i s meal or bring i t to the school. The data obtainable on the d a i l y programs of the centres i s unfortunately very l i m i t e d and analysis of them presents great d i f f i -c u l t y . The general form of the programs of the Vancouver centres i s given i n Table I4. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "Usual Program" means only that the program contains free play, routine, rest and organized play. Thus only a f r a c t i o n a l picture of the si t u a t i o n i s obtainable. TABLE 14. PROGRAM INDICATIONS. Type Number Usual Program Religious Training Supervised Free Play Only Emphasis on Music A. Private 40 ' 29(a) 2 - 9 B. Community and Co-operative 13 11 - 2 -C. Church 13 5(b) 6 - 2 D. Neighbourhood House 5 5 - - -E. Public School 6 6 - - -A l l 77 56 8 2 11 (a) one program contains too much formal teachingj one other has an extremely poor program, (b) the program i n one centre contains no free play. 73'.. Those centres emphasizing religious training and music are inclined to devote far more than twenty minutes daily to organized activities. The general impression obtained was that this is also the case in a number of centres classified as having the "Usual Program". The extent and quality of the medical supervision and fac-i l i t i e s of pre-school centres is of v i t a l importance. The need of care-ful supervision'is even greater than for the public school child because of the high susceptibility of very young children to disease and the comparable lack of immunity. The most effective precautionary measure for the prevention of illness in the centre is the institution of a daily inspection given before the child mingles with the others. This includes inspection of the noses, throats and visible skin of the children; any unusual conditions are noted including child's general condition, pallor, voice and degree of energy. If suspicious symptoms are noticed the child should be isolated or sent home. The number of centres having daily medical inspections is shown in Table 15. This table also shows the number of centres giving a complete physical exam-ination at least once a year, vaccination and immunization as a part of their program and those which are visited by a public health nurse. 74. TABLE 15. MEDICAL FACILITIES. Type Number Daily Medical Inspection Complete Physical Examination At Least Once A Year Vaccinations and Immunizations Public Health Nurse V i s i t s A. Private 40 14 1 1 12 B. Community and Co-operative 13 - . - - 8 C. Church 13 4 6 4 11 D. Neighbourhood House 5 5 2 . 2 5 E. Public School 6 6 6 6 6 A l l 77 29 15 13 42 The medical standard of the Vancouver centres does not appear to be very high. Considerable interpretation to groups A B and C of the importance of d a i l y inspections would seem to be needed. The co-oper-ative nature of group B does not eliminate the need for t h i s morning examination. Authorities on the subject of co-operative pre-school centres h e a r t i l y endorse the procedure. The lack of complete physical examinations at l e a s t once a year as a part of the centre's program i s not of the same importance since there i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y that many of the children attending Private and Co-operative centres are examined by thei r own family-75. doctors. The Church and Neighbourhood House groups are both f a i r l y regularly v i s i t e d by the Public Health Nurses. Vaccinations and immunizations are available t o a l l young children through the Vancouver Well Baby C l i n i c s . The data obtainable showed only which centres gave t h i s service as part of t h e i r program and did not give any information as to s t a t i s t i c s on the numbers attend-ing pre-school centres who had obtained vaccinations and immunizations elsewhere. This subject w i l l be carried further i n the section dealing with records. V i s i t s by a Public Health Nurse i s a service a v a i l a b l e to a l l centres, but regular v i s i t s are made to Private centres often only on request. I t i s possible to conduct a good centre with no records what-soever, but i t i s possible to conduct a better one i f certain records are kept. The Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Licensing Administrators require that attendance records be kept by a l l licensed centres. The Public School centres also keep attendance records. There i s a form put out by the Kindergarten Teachers' Assoc-i a t i o n which i s called a Pre-School Registration Form and i t i s hoped that a l l Licensed centres w i l l accustom themselves to using i t . ^he f i r s t part of the form has to do with c o l l e c t i n g information such as name, b i r t h date, address, telephone, Father's name and occupation, Mother's name and occupation, Guardian's name and occupation and the name, address and telephone of someone who may be called i f no one can be reached at the address given above. 76. Measles German Measles Mumps Chicken Pox whooping Cough Frequent Colds Tuberculosis Asthma Other Diseases Serious Injury The second part of the form i s an attempt to gain information of great value from the point of view of the chil d ' s physical health. I t asks for the approximate date i f the c h i l d has had any of the f o l l -owing diseases: Scarlet Fever Small Pox Diphtheria Heart Trouble Convulsions I t also records the approximate date i f the c h i l d has been immunized or vaccinated f o r small pox, dip t h e r i a , whooping cough or scarlet fever. There i s a type of record kept by some pre-school centres which i s c l a s s i f i e d as a Progress and Developmental record. There i s great variety i n t h i s type of record, varying from a simple form where the teacher states the child's progress i n music, handwork, games and conduct, to a very long detailed record form. Some of the l a t e r type require the parent to keep very detailed records of the child's de-velopment i n the home, including a short sketch of the child's back-ground, his daityroutine, play and creative materials available to the c h i l d , play a c t i v i t i e s , special i n t e r e s t s , methods of control employed i n the home and other pertinent information r e l a t i v e to the c h i l d i n hi s home. This form i s kept i n conjunction with a detailed school record form which tabulates child's behaviour i n routine situations i n the centre, self-behaviour i n play situations, " s o c i a l " behaviour i n 77. group situations, motivation to attend centre and notes concerning s p e c i f i c techniques f o r t h i s c h i l d i n the centre. There i s also a type of observational summary which categor-izes the child's development under such headings as motor control, i n t e l l e c t u a l development, s o c i a l adjustment and emotional adjustment. Here again, unfortunately, the data obtainable f o r T able 15 gave only a li m i t e d amount of information regarding the types of records kept. The amount of d e t a i l requested i s not known. TABLE 16. RECORDS AND REPORTS Type Number Progress Development Records Regular Reports Sent To Parents Parents Regularly Informed by Interview, Telephone, Mother's Club A. Private 40 23 7 11 B. Community and Co-operative 13 2 - 13 C. Church 13 1 - 2 D. Neighbourhood House 5 3 - 4 E. Public School 6 6 6 -A l l 77 35 13 30 F u l l reports of the child's progress and development sent to the parent, or interviews with the parent provide an opening for parent 78. education and i f handled properly can do a great deal for better under-standing between parent and child. The Church group does least of this; i t i s unfortunate indeed as the need for parent education i s great i n the areas served by this group. The percentage of Private groups re- . porting to the parents or keeping records i s low. Although the parents could take the lead in asking for regular information as to their children's progress i t i s unlikely the move w i l l come from this direct-ion. It i s more l i k e l y to follow better teaching standards. Because of the comparative lack of data the quality of the educational programs of the Vancouver pre-school centres i s hard to determine. However, the information obtained does show considerable need for raising the standard of the medical f a c i l i t i e s and a lack of understanding of the importance of a good program of preventative medicine. Similarly, this general lack of knowledge of the importance of the pre-school period i n the child's development explains, to a great extent, the low number of centres providing progress and develop-ment records. 79. CHAPTER VII. PERSONNEL AND TRAINING Nothing influences the effectiveness of a pre-school centre more than the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and working conditions of the s t a f f . For generations many have held the f a l l a c i o u s theory that the care of young children i s routine work that can be done competently by anyone. Only i n comparatively recent years has t h i s been contradicted by the facts assembled by students of psychology, medicine and education. A well trained, well adjusted, enthusiastic teacher can make up for deficiencies i n housing and equipment. A poor teacher, even though she has excellent equipment and very suitable accommodation, may f a i l . Where the teach-er 1s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are high, the other physical necessities of a centre come almost as a matter of course, with the passage of time. On the other hand, personnel with unsatisfactory t r a i n i n g and lack of understanding may allow good equipment to deteriorate or to remain inaccessible to the children. Numbers The s t a f f necessary for the e f f i c i e n t operation of a pre-school centre w i l l depend upon a variety of factorss the general aim of the school; the number and age of the children admitted; the plan of the building; the program of the day; the makeup of the group of c h i l d -ren. There should be a teacher i n every room i n which there are c h i l d -ren; and, with the exception of the very small school which ca r r i e s only a half-day program, at least two teachers are needed. 80. TABLE 17. AVERAGE NUMBER OF TEACHERS PER PRE-SCHOOL CENTRE Type Number Supervisor Teacher Ass't. Teacher Mother Volunteer A. Private AO 1.8 B. Community and Co-operative 13 1.2 ' 1.2 C. Church 13 2.2 0.2 D. Neighbourhood House 5 2.0 0.6 E. Public School 6 1.0 -A l l 77 1.8 0.5 The over a l l average i s 2.1 adults per centre. The average number of teachers i n Private centres i s very nearly two. Thus i t i s only i n the Public schools that the number of teachers per centre f a l l s f a r below the average. As has been said many times before, the Public school centres are i n a class by themselves and cater t o an older age group only. Teacher Training Regardless of the indiv i d u a l characteristics of the school, i t should have superior teachers. The teacher i s a v i t a l and int e g r a l part of the groupj yet she arranges the si t u a t i o n so that she does not appear to be the centre of the a c t i v i t i e s but i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the background. I t i s essential that she have insight i n t o her own person-81. and that she r e a l i z e s the importance of her relationship with the children and the significance of the atmosphere she creates within the centre. The teacher herself must be a well adjusted person emotionally. She must have had a r i c h and varied background, with developing experience, aside from academic t r a i n i n g required by her position. She must be able to see her job i n i t s r e l a t i o n to various situations and times. Fam-i l i a r i t y with source material i s v i t a l , i n order that she may have re-sources to enable her to sustain an experimental attitude toward her work and may thus change the opinions she holds, i f further experiences and learning indicate that modification i s advisable. She must regard teaching as a continuous learning process. The id e a l scholastic t r a i n i n g i s that offered by a University of recognized standard. This would comprise a highly specialized course i n pre-school education, which would have as prerequisite a Bachelor's degree and give, upon completion, a Master's degree. As has been d i s -cussed, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia does not, as yet, offer any such course. In the interim, the Sub-Committee on Standards and Admin-i s t r a t i o n of the Pre-School Education Committee of the Council of Social Agencies, has set f o r t h the following requirements, upon com-ple t i o n of which the teacher w i l l receive a c e r t i f i c a t e from the Department of Education. 1. A graduate of a recognized Kindergarten - Training School. 2. A graduate of a recognized Normal School who has com-pleted four courses of the Kindergarten Training Courses as outlined below. (The courses are offered by the 82. Vancouver Night School and the Summer School of Education.) 3. A student with Junior Matric c e r t i f i c a t e who has completed 12 courses of the Kindergarten Training Courses as out-l i n e d below. Kindergarten Teachers' Training Courses. 1. P r i n c i p l e s and Methods of the Kindergarten 2. Kindergarten Demonstration Class 3. and 4» Individual Development and Guidance 5. Kindergarten Music and Rhythm 6. Play and Play Material 7. Language, Arts and Literature i n the Kindergarten 8. Fine Arts f o r Kindergarten - Primary Teachers 9. Social Studies and Science i n the Kindergarten 10. Parent-Teachers Relationships 11. Program Planning, Records and Administration 12. P r i n c i p l e and Practices i n the Primary Grades. I t was recommended that teachers i n private kindergartens be given three years i n which to complete the course of t r a i n i n g . Later, the time was lengthened to f i v e years. The Extension Department of the University holds an In s t i t u t e that applies and summarizes certain of t h i s material. The department also has available pamphlets and study material on pre-school centres which can r e a d i l y be obtained by those interested. Accordingly, there?-fore, a number of the recommendations of the Committee which was set up i n 194-6 by the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers Federation to study the 83. question of Pre-School Education i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia have been carried out. For the purpose of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Table 18 "Qualified" means one who has attained, or i s i n the process of att a i n i n g , the above mentioned requirements. TABLE 18. QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHING STAFF Type Centres Having At Least One Qualified Staff Member Number of Teaching Staff Number Qualified A. Private (4O) 23 72 26 B. Community and Co-operative (13) 10 31 11 C. Church (13) 8 31 8 D. Neighbourhood House (5) 5 13 5 E. Public School (6) 6 6 6 A l l (77) 52 153 56 Only approximately one t h i r d of those responsible f o r the care of children i n pre-school centres have received t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r work. However, the most important consideration i s that there be at l e a s t one trained person i n each centre and the figures c l e a r l y show that t h i s i s not the case i n one t h i r d of the centres. The 84. greatest offenders are found i n the ranks of those d i r e c t i n g the p r o f i t operating private centres. Staff Load Not only i s the question of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the s t a f f of great importance but so also i s that of the load carried. More i n d i v i -dual attention i s required to care f o r younger children than i s the (case with older children. I f the time load and c h i l d load i s too great, other assets of the centre may be l a r g e l y wasted. For i d e a l practice, authorities recommend a teacher and an assistant for every eight c h i l d -ren under three years of age and for every ten t o f i f t e e n children over that age. The si t u a t i o n i n Vancouver i s shown i n Table 19. TABLE 19. STAFF LOAD. Type Number Capacity Average Number Of Children per Staff Member A. Private 40 1020 14.2 B. Community and Co-operative 13 349 11.2 C. Church 13 485 15.5 D. Neighbourhood House 5 200 15.4 E. Public School 6(a) 150 25.0 A l l 77 2204 16.3 (a) These six teachers each teach a double shift, caring for twenty five children i n the morning and twenty five i n the afternoon. 85. The comparative smallness of the average s t a f f load of the Co-operative centres i s d i r e c t l y related to the system of s t a f f i n g these centres with mother volunteers, thus cutting down the cost of salaried personnel and thereby enabling these centres to operate at a higher l e v e l than would otherwise be possible. There i s some l i k e l i -hood that the rather heavy load carried by the teachers of the Public School centres r e s u l t s i n domination by a f i x e d schedule. Teacher 1s Job The teacher guides the learning process. This process which i s self-education, i s inherent i n the c h i l d and would go on i f the teacher were not there but should go on more e f f e c t i v e l y because she i s there. She develops an educational program, which encourages s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s and interests and u t i l i z e s them f o r i n d i v i d u a l development and for group purposes. She i s able to recognize the age l e v e l i n the child's interests and makes sure that t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s are being used as f u l l y and as purposefully as possible. She can super-impose upon the basic program a s h i f t i n g and adaptable program which u t i l i z e s and encourages these d i f f e r e n t interests and a b i l i t i e s . Her control over the group i s a function of her understanding and s k i l l by which she cultivates desirable a c t i v i t i e s . She guides the child's development by means of the play equipment she provides and the attitude she takes towards the child's s p e c i f i c behaviour. Thus the teaching of pre-school children involves more than just suitable academic t r a i n i n g , the emphasis being also upon the manner i n which the teacher has met her own personality problems. She 8 6 . creates within the centre, an atmosphere of security and co-operation, which affects the child's learning i n a l l i t s phases. Because of her understanding and s k i l l , the c h i l d i s made more independent and s e l f r e l i a n t . The child's experience i n the centre i s considered only a part of h i s whole environment and a close contact i s kept with h i s parents and with the f i e l d of child care i n general. The teacher con-siders her own learning a continuing process that i s to be kept a l i v e : by the interchange of experiences among teachers; by the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n professional organizations; by programs of in-service t r a i n i n g and supervision. Although two t h i r d s of the adults caring for children i n the Vancouver centres are s t i l l lacking t r a i n i n g , opportunity to receive q u a l i f i c a t i o n has become f a r easier i n the l a s t three years. Many recommendations made by the Committee, organized by the B r i t i s h Col-umbia Parent Teachers Federation, to study the question of Pre-School Education i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia have since come in t o being. The recommendation that "a co-ordinated program f o r parents and teachers i n Pre-School Education should be developed by the Night Schools, Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and possibly the Summer School of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia" has been well carried out. In the next few years many more may take the courses which have been made available, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t has been recommended that the teachers i n private kindergartens be given f i v e years i n which to complete the course of t r a i n i n g now offered. As soon as the University of B r i t i s h Columbia offers courses towards degrees 87. i n the f i e l d of teaching pre-school children and a model nursery school i s established, there w i l l , no doubt, be tremendous advances i n the standards required of the personnel caring for children in the Vancouver pre-school centres. 88. CHAPTER VIII ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS AND NEEDS The history of pre-school centres i n Vancouver has been one of persistent s t r i v i n g to improve the standards of education i n the centres and to raise the standards required of the teachers and super-v i s o r s . Such worthy objects are not attained e a s i l y or quickly, par-t i c u l a r l y i n a f i e l d where preconceived ideas and prejudices are so fi r m l y entrenched. The way has not been easy and yet the advancements have been many: the control exerted by the municipal by-laws, the influence of the Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Licensing Act, the requirements to be met by teachers, the courses available f o r those interested, the l i t e r a t u r e obtainable from the Extension Department of the University, to name a few. There remain, however, great needs to be met. An actual defining of the function of many centres i s necessary. The Church group for example, operating i n t h i s f i e l d of early childhood education and t r a i n i n g , must decide what r e l a t i v e importance can be placed on the welfare and missionary aims. The coverage of the pre-school centres i n Vancouver i s quite inadequate. I t i s estimated that only one twentieth of the children between the ages of two and s i x years are enrolled i n pre-school centres. Although the need for universal education at t h i s pre-school l e v e l i s not seen by everybody, long waiting l i s t s give ample evidence that the coverage i s very far behind even the, present demand. When the general 89. public, and parents i n p a r t i c u l a r , become more informed on the importance of early c h i l d education, the increased demand for these opportunities w i l l even more over-balance the accommodation available. Many look upon the School Board as the obvious ones to widen the f i e l d . Failure to do t h i s , as has been mentioned, comes down eventually, to a f i n a n c i a l matter. The funds are government supplied, and thus again, there i s the need for •Social Action'. Si m i l a r l y , demands for improvements i n standards w i l l follow naturally upon greater knowledge on the part of the general population. No forward looking program f o r the education and t r a i n i n g of the pre-school c h i l d should overlook the importance of parent education. One very strong point i n favour of a good co-operative centre i s the f a c t that the education of the parents on matters pertaining to c h i l d care i s one of the most important considerations i n the program of the centre. Of comparative importance i s the l e v e l of t r a i n i n g of the teaching s t a f f . Highly q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s w i l l r a i s e the standards of every aspect of the f i e l d . I t would be d i f f i c u l t to over-emphasize the need for the establishment of an I n s t i t u t e of Child Study at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s obvious that the success of any program for the education and tr a i n i n g of young children i s dependent upon the train i n g and personality of the teacher. I t can bear rep e t i -t i o n , at t h i s point, that one t h i r d of the centres i n Vancouver are operating without any trained person on the s t a f f , and two t h i r d s of those persons caring f o r children i n the Vancouver centres are untrained for the work. Trained or otherwise, many teachers care f o r too large 9 0 . groups to give individual attention, so necessary to the pre-school child. Many other needs are evident and worthy of consideration, even although they are subordinate to the two main needs and would be a natural aftergrowth from them; increased public education and a university training centre. There i s considerable need for improvement of the medical f a c i l i t i e s of the centres. Standardized admission, requirements, such as complete medical and social histories and a com-pulsory medical examination upon entrance, would do much to improve the future health and welfare of the citizenry. Proper health supervision i s necessary since the bringing together of children during the period in which there i s greatest susceptibility to infection increases the danger of contagion and puts a heavy responsibility on those in charge of pre-school centres. The emotional well being of the child needs great consideration; there i s a definite need for personnel trained to recognize emotional problems and able to put amelioration plans into operation or make proper referrals to other resources. The need for improvement i n program, accommodation and equip-ment are also pointed up. The Church groups in particular show weak-nesses along this line, especially noticable being their lack of out-door play accommodation. Increased knowledge and a re-defining of purpose would, no doubt, tend to improve the situation somewhat. A better understanding of the needs of the pre-school child would help those i n charge to see the importance of a suitable program, satis-factory accommodation and good equipment as aids i n the development of 9 1 . well adjusted children. The improvement of the system of records which are kept of i n d i v i d u a l children i s recommended as a s p e c i f i c step i n the develop-ment of an adequate educational program. In general, the better the record system of the centre, the more e f f e c t i v e l y can improvement i n practice be undertaken. I t became conclusive that maintaining and operating pre-school centres on a high standard, regardless of whether they are spon-sored by private i n d i v i d u a l s , co-operative venture, church groups, s o c i a l agencies or by the government, cannot be financed by t u i t i o n fees alone, that subsidizing of some sort i s e s s e n t i a l . S i m i l a r l y , any-t r a i n i n g scheme, for. those caring f o r pre-school children i n centres, carried on at a university l e v e l must of necessity be subsidized. Thus, once again, the conclusion i s reached that great em-phasis needs to be placed on the education of the genera} population of Vancouver, the parents i n p a r t i c u l a r , on the subject of c h i l d care; i n a Democratic state, f o r every c h i l d to be insured the opportunity for a f u l l development of mind and body i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the people themselves. APPENDIX A LICENSED AND PUBLIC SCHOOL PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES IN VANCOUVER PRIVATE PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES Vancouver A l l a d i n Kindergarten West 16th Avenue Alpen, Mrs. Barbara 28th Avenue and Main Street Althone Kindergarten West 37th Avenue Blue Bird Kindergarten West 7th Avenue Blue Boy Kindergarten Oak Street Bunny Hutch School f o r L i t t l e Folk West 31st Avenue Cambria House Kindergarten West 2nd Avenue Cheshire Cat Kindergarten West 12th Avenue Children's Sanctuary West 45th Avenue Christopher Robin Kindergarten 2nd Avenue and Larch Street Cypress House School West 16th Avenue Fairview Kindergarten West 13th Avenue Garden School Balaclava Street Golly, Mrs. Mary Brooks Street Happy Times Kindergarten Queens Avenue Highbury Kindergarten West 13th Avenue H i l l c r e s t Kindergarten West 31st Avenue Jack and J i l l Kindergarten West 4Ist Avenue Maple Grove Kindergarten Yew Street Merritots Kindergarten Langara Street Peter and Wendy Kindergarten West 59th Avenue Peter Pan Kindergarten Oak Street Peretz Kindergarten West Broadway Queen's H a l l Kindergarten Granville Street Red Robin Play School Denman Street Spafford, Mrs. Doris Ross Street Stratford House Kindergarten Maple Street Talmud Torah West 27th Avenue Tiny Tots Kindergarten (Miss Hindle) West 14th Avenue Tiny Tots Kindergarten (Mrs. Michel) Quesnelle Drive Trimble H i l l Kindergarten West 13th Avenue Burnaby Goosey Gander Kindergarten Hazel Street Inverness Kindergarten Inverness Street North Vancouver Bo-Peep Kindergarten Lonsdale Avenue Gray, Mrs. Kathleen Chesterfield Avenue Mother Goose Kindergarten West 6th Street Musical Kindergarten East 5th Avenue West Vancouver Chester House School Nelson Avenue West Bay Musical Kindergarten Mathers Avenue West Mount H a l l Kindergarten Palmerston Avenue COMMUNITY AND CO-OPERATIVE PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES Vancouver Acadia Camp Play School Acadia Camp, University H i l l Carleton Play Group Scout H a l l , Wessex Street Dunbar Play School Association West 33rd Avenue Fraser Street Co-operative Play Group 42nd Avenue and Windsor Street Haddon Co-operative Play Group Arbutus and Whyte Avenues Longview Play School West 4th Avenue Quilchena View Play Group West 34th Avenue Southern Slope Play School 58th Avenue and Ross Street Southlands Play School West 39th Avenue West Park Kindergarten 6th Avenue and Imperial Street North Vancouver Capilano Co-operative Kindergarten Capilano Community H a l l Heywood.^Co-operative Kindergarten K e i t h Road West Lynn Valley Community Centre Play School In s t i t u t e Road, Lynn Valley CHURCH PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES Vancouver Chinese Catholic Mission East Georgia Street Chinese Presbyterian Kindergarten Keefer Street Chinese United Church Kindergarten Dunlevy Avenue 96. F i r s t Lutheran Church Kindergarten East 19th Avenue F i r s t United Church Kindergarten Powell Street Franciscan S i s t e r s of the Atonement East Cordova Street Good Shepherd Missision Chinese Anglican Mission Kindergarten Keefer Street Hastings United Church Kindergarten Clinton and Hastings Street Jackson Avenue Mission Kindergarten Jackson Avenue Presbyterian Children's Centre Burnaby Street St. Giles Mission Kindergarten 6th Avenue and Columbia Street St. James Church Play School Gore Avenue North Vancouver Holy Child Kindergarten, Convent of the Child Jesus Forbes Avenue NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES Vancouver Alexander Kindergarten and Play School West 7th Avenue Gordon Neighbourhood House Nursery School J e r v i s Street Strathcona Day Nursery and Play School Cordova and Princess Streets Y.W.C.A. Kindergarten Commercial Drive North Vancouver North Shore Neighbourhood House Play School East 1st Street PUBLIC SCHOOL PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES Vancouver Begbie Annex 7th Avenue and Cassiar Street C e c i l Rhodes 14th Avenue and Alder Street Dawson Annex Barclay and Burrard Streets ^enry Hudson Cornwall and Cypress Streets General Wolfe 27th Avenue and Ontario Street Norquay Euclid and Slocan Streets 98 APPENDIX B GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PRE-SCHOOL CENTRES WITHIN THE SOCIAL AREAS OF VANCOUVER A B c D E Social Private Community Church Neighbourhood Public A l l Areas Pre-School and Pre-School House School 77 Centres Co-operative Centres Pre-School Pre-School AO Pre-School 13 Centres Centres Centres 5 6 13 1 o 1 - 1 1 1 A 3 — _ 8 2 _ 10 A - - 1 - - 1 5 - - - - 1 1 6 2 2 - •- - A 7 2 - - - - 2 8 5 1 - 1 1 8 9 2 - 1 - 1 A 10 - - - - - -11 5 2 - - - 7 12 4 1 - - - 5 13 3 - - - - 3 H 1 - - - 1 2 15 - - 1 - - 1 16 1 1 - - 1 3 17 2 - - - - 2 18 1 - - - - 1 19 2 2 - - - A 20 r. 1 - - 1 Burnaby 2 - - - - 2 North Van. A 3 1 1 - 9 West Van. 3 — — — — 3 APPENDIX C BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES B r i t i s h Columbia, An Act Respecting Private Welfare In s t i t u t i o n s , Chapter 78, 1937. Amendements; Chapter 71, 194-3. Chapter 79, 194-5. King's P r i n t e r V i c t o r i a , 194-6. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Pro v i n c i a l Secretary, Annual Report f o r the Year ended December 31st. 1948  S t a t i s t i c s and Administration of the "Welfare In- st i t u t i o n s Licensing Act." King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1949. Community Chest and Council F i l e s Pre-School Education Committee, General Business  and Correspondence Pre-School Education Committee, Minutes Pre-School Education Committee, Reports Pre-School Education Committee, War Time Day Nurseries SECONDARY SOURCES Books Blatz, William E., Millichamp, Dorothy and Fletcher, Margaret, Nursery Education Theory and Practice. William Morrow and Co., New York, 1935 Cusden, Phoebe E., The English Nursery School, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd., London, 1938. De Lissa , L i l l i a n , L i f e i n the Nursery School, Long-mans, Green and Co., London, New York and Toronto, 1939. English, 0. Spurgeon and Pearson, Gerald H.J., Common Neuroses of Children and Adults, W.W. Norton and Company Inc., New York, 1937. English, 0. Spurgeon and Pearson, Gerald H.J., Emotional Problems of Living, Avoiding the Neurotic Pattern, W.W. Norton and Company Inc., New York, 1945. Forest, Use, Pre-school Education, A H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l Study, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1927. Foster, Josephine C. and Mattson, Marion L., Nursery School Education, D. Appleton-Century Company Incorporated - New York and London, 1939. Freud, Anna and Burlingham, Dorothy T., War and Children. Ernest Willard, New York, 1943 Froebel, F r i e d r i c h , Pedagogics of the Kindergarten, D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1907. Gessell, Arnold and I l g , Frances L., Infant and  Child i n the Culture of Today. The Guidance and Development i n Home and Nursery School, Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York and London, 1943. Haxton, Jennie N. and Wilcox, Edith, Step by Step i n the Nursery School, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., New York, 1936 Issacs, Susan, The Nursery Years, The Mind of the Child from B i r t h to Six Years, George Routledge and Sons, Ltd., London, 1929. Johnson, Harriet M., School Begins at Two, A Book for Teachers and Parents, New Republic, Inc., New York, 1936. Spock, Benjamin, The Common Sense Book of Baby and  Child Care, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York, 194-6 Tudor-Hart, Beatrix, Play and Toys i n Nursery Years, Hazell, Watson and Viney Ltd., London, 1938. White House Conference, Child Health and Protection, called, by President Hoover, Report of the Committee on the Infant and Preschool Child, John E. Anderson Chairman, The Century Co., New York and London, 1931 Wolf, Anna W.M., The Parent's Manual, A Guide to Emotional Development of Young Children, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1947. A r t i c l e s Anderson, John E., "The Theory of Early Childhood Education", The Forty-Sixth Yearbook of the National  Society for the Study of Education, Part I I Early Childhood Education, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1947. Goodykoontz, Bess, "Recent History and Present Status of Education for Young Children", The  Forty-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society f o r the Study of Education. Part I I Early Childhood Education, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1947. Pamphlets University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Introduction" Co-operative Play Groups for Children  Under Six* University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "What We Need f o r a Play Group" Co-operative Play  Groups f o r Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "What We Can Expect of Our Children" No. 1, Co-operative  Play Groups f o r Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "What We Can Expect of Our Children" No. 2, Co-operative  Play Groups f o r Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Meeting Children's Needs i n the Play Group", Co-operative Play Groups f o r Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Play Equipment" Co-operative Play Groups f o r Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Art" Co-operative Play Groups f o r Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Music" Co-operative Play Groups f o r Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Language and Literature" Co-operative Play Groups  for Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Procedure i n the Routine" Co-operative Play Groups  for Children Under Six. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "Organization of Mothers on the Job" Co-operative  Play Groups f o r Children Under S i x . University of B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Department, "The F i r s t Day and Plans f o r the Future" Co-operative  Play Groups for Children Under Six. 

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