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Embury House : a receiving home for children : an evaluation of its population, program, and desirable… Wilson, Harold Thomas 1950

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EMBURY HOUSE:  A RECEIVING HOME  FOR CHILDREN  An e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n , program, and d e s i r a b l e development. (Reglna, Saskatchewan, 1949-1950.)  by  HAROLD THOMAS WILSON  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l ment o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the Department.of S o c i a l Work  1950 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT  T h i s study i s concerned  w i t h a t w o f o l d problem:  the  p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n s of Embury House, a r e c e i v i n g home f o r i  c h i l d r e n i n Saskatchewan, and to  i t s desirable role i n r e l a t i o n  the t o t a l c h i l d w e l f a r e program of s e r v i c e s i n Saskatchewan.  At present Embury House l a c k s any  s u i t a b l e program to serve  the needs of those c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l Consequently,  care.  i t i s not an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a d e f i n i t e  pur-  pose, but a p l a c e where dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n Saskatchewan are kept when there are no o t h e r s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to meet t h e i r needs. The e v a l u a t i o n o f present o p e r a t i o n s i n Embury House i s based on the r e c o r d s of f i f t y 1949-1950.  These f i f t y  c h i l d r e n placed there during  c h i l d r e n , the average monthly popu-  l a t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t i o n , r e v e a l a t y p i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of  the problems and needs of c h i l d r e n kept  i n Embury House.  A n a l y s i s showed the c h i l d r e n f e l l i n t o three groups, each needing a d i f f e r e n t  type of s e r v i c e :  i n t h e i r own  (b) placement i n f o s t e r homes, and  home,  (c)* placement i n an i n s t i t u t i o n .  (a) casework s e r v i c e s  I t a l s o showed t h a t only  e i g h t e e n per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House c o u l d p r o f i t by the s e r v i c e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r g e n e r a l c a r e , which type seemed most n e a r l y to d e s c r i b e Embury House. In a d d i t i o n , the a n a l y s i s showed that e i g h t e e n per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e d the s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s of a  study and treatment  i n s t i t u t i o n , f i f t y p e r cent r e q u i r e d  f o s t e r home care, and f o u r t e e n p e r cent r e q u i r e d case work s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r own home.  The program o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d  by Embury House d u r i n g 1949-1950, was e v a l u a t e d i n terms of the standards f o r c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the S t a t e o f Washington.  The program was a l s o a s s e s s e d  by a p p l y i n g f o u r c r i t e r i a t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program: (a) the s o c i a l s e r v i c e program, (b) the p h y s i c a l care o f the c h i l d r e n ,  (c) the e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g , and  (d) the q u a l i t y o f the s t a f f .  T h i s showed that the p h y s i c a l  needs of the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l  training  are w e l l served a t Embury House, but there a r e s e r i o u s l a c k s i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e program and i n the s t a f f . Recent trends i n p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e s e r v i c e s which can or should be o f f e r e d by an i n s t i t u t i o n are reviewed.  A d e f i n i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a l s o made o f  c h i l d r e n who should n o t r e c e i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e , and o f c h i l d r e n who can be served i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  setting.  Against t h i s background, t h e r e i s evidence  that Embury  House c o u l d serve more e f f e c t i v e purposes i n the c h i l d w e l f a r e program than i t does a t p r e s e n t . f o r t h e treatment  There a r e no f a c i l i t i e s  o f e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n i n Sas-  katchewan, b u t these c h i l d r e n tend t o be p l a c e d i n Embury House.  I t i s suggested  t h a t Embury House c o u l d f u l f i l a  necessary r o l e as a study and treatment disturbed children.  centre f o r s e r i o u s l y  There a r e undoubtedly more c h i l d r e n i n  Saskatchewan who c o u l d b e n e f i t from such a s e r v i c e ; and I t  would be b e t t e r to work out a f o s t e r placement and case work program f o r those c h i l d r e n not s u i t e d f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l Revision  of the s o c i a l  and a d d i t i o n s  care.  s e r v i c e program, and c e r t a i n changes  i n the s t a f f , as recommended, would modernize  Embury House as a v a l u a b l e  study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n .  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  T h i s p r o j e c t was made p o s s i b l e through the i n t e r e s t of Miss Marie P a r r and Miss Edna Osborne, D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f the C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Saskatchewan Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e , They were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the f u t u r e r o l e o f Embury House, and encouraged  the w r i t e r to undertake i t s  e v a l u a t i o n i n the s e t t i n g o f the t o t a l c h i l d w e l f a r e program i n Saskatchewan.  T h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n was invaluable©  I wish t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the s t a f f o f Embury House who so generously and k i n d l y a s s i s t e d i n gathering  informative m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s study.  My thanks i s expressed t o Dr. Leonard C. Marsh f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n the composition o f t h i s study.  H i s words o f  a d v i c e and encouragement throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s were most h e l p f u l . . I wish to express my g r a t i t u d e t o Miss Helen Wolfe f o r her invaluable i n t e r e s t , her stimulating suggestions, and h e r c r i t i c i s m s .  Her encouragement was a constant i n -  s p i r a t i o n t o the w r i t e r .  TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter I  Page The Changing Philosophy Care f o r C h i l d r e n  of Institutional  H i s t o r i c a l background. I n s t i t u t i o n s as almshouses or poor houses. I n s t i t u t i o n s as orphan asylums. I n s t i t u t i o n s as schools. I n s t i t u t i o n s as homes. I n s t i t u t i o n s as s o c i a l agencies II  The Current Philosophy for Children  of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care  I n s t i t u t i o n a l care as p a r t o f f o s t e r care program. Types o f c h i l d c a r i n g i n s t i t u tions. C h i l d r e n best s u i t e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l care. C h i l d r e n needing s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r own home or a f o s t e r home. Some g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f modern i n s t i t u t i o n s . S e t t i n g of the study * III  1  26  The C h i l d r e n Under Care B a s i s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n . Children r e q u i r i n g case work s e r v i c e s a t home. C h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g f o s t e r home care* Children requiring i n s t i t u t i o n a l care Emotionally disturbed c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g study and treatment s e r v i c e s ............... e  IV  The Program and F a c i l i t i e s B a s i s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n . Social service program. P h y s i c a l needs o f the c h i l d * E d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g . S t a f f  V  57  The Future  80  F u n c t i o n o f Embury House  Need o f a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n . Future i n t a k e p o l i c y o f Embury House* Program and s t a f f . Embury House as a study and treatment centre  115  TABLES Table  1  Age Grouping of C h i l d r e n I n Embury House During 1949-1950 ..... 59  Table 2 A Summary o f the Types of S e r v i c e s • R e q u i r e d by the P o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House During 1949^1950 BIBLIOGRAPHY  79  EMBURY HOUSE:  A RECEIVING HOME  FOR CHILDREN  CHAPTER I THE  CHANGING PHILOSOPHY OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE FOR CHILDREN  The h i s t o r y oi' I n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada c o n t a i n s many b l a c k passages. ments over the y e a r s , and constant  In s p i t e oi' develop-  improvements s i n c e the end  of  the l a s t century, there continues t o l i n g e r i n the minds  of  those acquainted w i t h the e a r l i e r methods of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  c a r e , a c e r t a i n amount o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the morbid mass care o f the almshouse days.  Even a f t e r s e g r e g a t i o n o f c h i l d -  r e n from the aged took p l a c e , s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d , and programs inaugurated f o r dependent and n e g l e c t e d  children,,  and f o r d e l i n q u e n t s and the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , i n s t i t u t i o n s s t i l l maintained  t h e i r odious r e p u t a t i o n .  Not even t h e p r o -  g r e s s evidenced by the movement from orphanage to s c h o o l s and homes helped t o d i s p e l the r e p r o a c h f u l a t t i t u d e toward t r a d i t i o n a l programs. of  these  The l a t e s t and most p r o g r e s s i v e steps  c o n v e r t i n g congregate  type homes i n t o cottage type homes,  and o f c o n v e r t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r g e n e r a l care ahd t r a i n i n g i n t o s k i l l e d study and treatment homes, a r e s t i l l meeting w i t h r e s i s t a n c e i n many areas of the c h i l d w e l f a r e f i e l d . are s t i l l all  some s o c i a l workers whose honest  There  c o n v i c t i o n i s that  c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s should c l o s e and that the c h i l d r e n  - 2  should be  p l a c e d In f o s t e r homes, In homes of r e l a t i v e s ,  i n t h e i r own provincial  -  homes, w i t h adequate a s s i s t a n c e from f e d e r a l  programs of s o c i a l  There are h e a v i l y to the  services.  p r e c a r i o u s s t a t u s o f the When f o s t e r  institution in  Prom the  l a t e twenties f o s t e r  end  of the  the  answer to  l a s t century up  f a m i l y care t h r e a t e n e d to  e v e n t u a l l y a l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements.  The  the  institution.  s m a l l p a r t i n the  i n s t i t u t i o n had  acknowledgment that f o s t e r and  adequate they might be,  the  c o r r e c t type of  evolution  c o u l d not  care and  was  drawbacks became apparent. r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r  an  c h i l d was  i n s t i t u t i o n as  not  to make.  The  the  happy.  supply f o r  some c h i l d r e n  reluctantly  ideal solution.  F i r s t , i t was  home However,  noted t h a t some  s u i t a b i l i t y f o r the  foster  home,  Home a f t e r home was  F i n a l l y , placement was  a last resort.  made.  tried,  made i n  Some of these c h i l d r e n  not  a d j u s t i n the  i n s t i t u t i o n either,  and  by a study of  t h e i r behaviour they were more e a s i l y  t r e a t e d i n the  of  delayed  d e p r i v e d of h i s own  f a i l e d to a d j u s t i n these f a m i l i e s . the  indivi-  insecure p o s i t i o n  t r a i n i n g , was  a s u b s t i t u t e f a m i l y seemed l i k e the  but  the  of  f a m i l y homes, however p l e n t i f u l  To p r o v i d e f o r every c h i l d who  children,  the  S o c i a l workers were slow i n conceding  c o n t r i b u t i o n which the  two  to  every  eliminate  p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e w i t h i t s emphasis on d u a l c h i l d , p l a y e d no  the  f a m i l y programs expanded,  t h i s r i v a l method of care appeared to be need.  and  of course many f a c t o r s which have c o n t r i b u t e d  f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e .  child's  or  group program of the  but  more of them  institution.  The  did  did,  second  drawback which s h a t t e r e d somewhat the i d e a l o f f o s t e r f a m i l y homes as the t o t a l answer t o placement of c h i l d r e n , was the f a c t that s o c i a l agencies  experienced c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y  i n f i n d i n g s u f f i c i e n t homes which met the necessary r e q u i r e ments to care f o r a l l t h e i r c h i l d r e n . u a l l y , but b e g r u d g i n g l y ,  I t was admitted  grad-  t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n s t i l l f i l l e d a ,  neede T h i s acute problem o f meeting the needs of dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n faced the e a r l i e s t continent.  c o l o n i s t s on t h i s  They had to make some k i n d o f p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n f o r  these c h i l d r e n .  In a d d i t i o n t o the n e i g h b o u r l y h e l p t h e  c o l o n i s t s extended, they t r i e d t o apply the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f the E n g l i s h Poor Laws, w i t h which they were most f a m i l i a r , t o new world c o n d i t i o n s .  They accepted  the p r e -  v a i l i n g view t h a t p o v e r t y was something t o be d e t e r r e d and d e s i r e d t o deal w i t h i t by the establishment o f almshouses* Many c h i l d r e n were a p p r e n t i c e d so that they c o u l d earn the care they r e c e i v e d .  There was some home r e l i e f to, f a m i l i e s i n  settlements too s m a l l f o r an almshouse, and dependent f a m i l i e s 1 were f r e q u e n t l y a u c t i o n e d o f f t o the lowest bidder© The h i s t o r y o f what has been done f o r dependent  children  under governmental a u s p i c e s , may be t r a c e d back I n t h i s country to the undertakings  o f e a r l y l o c a l governments, when  these c h i l d r e n , i f they were not s o l d o r i n d e n t u r e d , the f a t e o f impoverished  shared  a d u l t s , the m e n t a l l y deranged, and  1 Grace Abbott, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1938, v o l . 2, p . 4«  - 4 <•»  the  delinquent::  they were herded together f o r such s h e l t e r  and f o o d as the almshouses  of the day a f f o r d e d .  In the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , and e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to Canada, the f u l l c y c l e o f governmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the c h i l d i s c l e a r l y  outlined  and i l l u s t r a t e d by the documents gathered by Grace Abbott i n 2 her  c l a s s i c on the s u b j e c t *  "New  England p i o n e e r s a c c e p t i n g ,  no doubt, the p r e v a i l i n g view that p o v e r t y was u s u a l l y the f a u l t of the poor ... d e s i r e d to prevent i n t h e i r new  settle-  ments what they thought of as the pauperism of the O l d World", T h e i r laws were designed to forward t h i s purpose.  Early  leg-  i s l a t i o n , r e p o r t s , and other documents quoted by Miss Abbott, i l l u s t r a t e the s e l l i n g o f c h i l d r e n a t a u c t i o n , t h e i r i n d e n t u r e and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , t h e i r care i n almshouses, and the g r a d u a l emergence of d i f f e r e n t  types of f o s t e r care.  l i n e s l a t e r t r e n d s i n the development s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r dependents  Miss Abbott out-  of m u n i c i p a l , county and  i n the form o f s c h o o l s and  homes; the s u b s i d y o f p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s from governmental funds for  the e r e c t i o n of orphan asylums; governmental r e g u l a t i o n o f  p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and the p r e s e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care under the C h i l d Welfare programs of governmental S o c i a l Welfare departments. The Roman C a t h o l i c Church p r o v i d e d the f i r s t t i o n a l care f o r dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n  Institui n Canada©  With the i n c r e a s i n g c o l o n i z a t i o n of Lower Canada i n the seventeenth century, almshouses were e s t a b l i s h e d and operated 2 Ibid., v o l . 2, p. 3.  by v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s  orders.  In the e a r l y  eighteenth  b o t h Roman C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s blished all  orphan asylums  children  i n Lower Canada.  classified  t h e i r problems or t h e i r  needs.  teenth century.  The s e r v i c e s o f t h i s  century.  tutions  i n the latter  o f Canada  he.If o f t h e n i n e »  p r i v a t e agency began i n  a t the beginning  o f t h e twen-  The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y e s t a b l i s h e d  insti-  f o r dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n Saskatchewan  shortly after of  These asylums housed  The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y  i n Ontario  tieth  esta»  as "homeless w a i f s , " r e g a r d l e s s o f  began o p e r a t i o n s  the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s  orders  century  Canada.  t h a t p r o v i n c e was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e D o m i n i o n  These i n s t i t u t i o n s  o f f e r e d nothing but general  care.  .They l a c k e d a n y p r o g r a m o f s e r v i c e s ,  fying  t h e p h y s i c a l needs o f t h e c h i l d r e n .  B r a n c h o f the Department took over  of S o c i a l Welfare  the operation of i n s t i t u t i o n s  other than The C h i l d  satis**  Welfare  o f Saskatchewan,  i n t h e p r o v i n c e when  they began expanding t h e i r program o f s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n i n 1946. of  These i n s t i t u t i o n s  s e r v i c e s t o meet In the U n i t e d  have s i n c e b e e n d e v e l o p i n g a p r o g r a m  the needs o f the c h i l d r e n p l a c e d States the early  investments  there*  In i n s t i t u -  tional  c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n b y p r i v a t e e f f o r t s were made b y  Roman  C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s a l i k e  the n i n e t e e n t h century,  b u t i t was n o t u n t i l  C i v i l War t h a t g r e a t a c t i v i t y was n o t e d such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . in  New O r l e a n s ,  i n the f i r s t  half of  the American  i n the b u i l d i n g o f  I t was t h e nuns o f t h e U r s u l i n e C o n v e n t  L o u i s i a n a , who were t h e f i r s t  to undertake the  •* Q »  care of c h i l d r e n separate from needy a d u l t s . a c r e i n 1729 brought newly orphaned by the s i s t e r s , thus emphasizing  An I n d i a n mass-  c h i l d r e n t o be cared f o r  the f a c t that the emergency  needs of c h i l d r e n i n time of war and d i s a s t e r have always s t i m u l a t e d the founding of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e i r c a r e .  The  f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s , on the whole, began somewhat l a t e r than the churches and l a y groups neglected children. t e r n a l order was  to undertake  The f i r s t  the care of dependent and  i n s t i t u t i o n founded by a f r a -  e s t a b l i s h e d by the Masons i n C a l i f o r n i a i n  1850, but i t had been preceded by s e v e r a l church o r g a n i z a t i o n s 3 i n that s t a t e .  The f r a t e r n a l orders flowed w i t h the t i d e  of orphanage b u i l d i n g t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d most p a r t s of the country i n the 1880's and 1890's, without embodying any  dis-  t i n c t i v e p o i n t s i n t h e i r programs. From e a r l i e s t times, the humanitarian impulses  expressed  i n the e f f o r t s o f r e l i g i o u s and f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was to be seen a l s o i n the attempts  of government to care f o r  dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n .  A c a s u a l observer might  presume that more tender motives have o f t e n  characterized  p r i v a t e r a t h e r than p u b l i c w e l f a r e e f f o r t s ; t h a t government, h a v i n g due r e g a r d f o r the taxpayer, had been content o n l y t o prevent s u f f e r i n g t h a t might be uncomfortably obvious o r t h a t might  through vagabondage or epidemic, prove dangerous to the  community. New  However, the t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r i o r i t y of p r i v a t e  3 Howard W. Hopkirk, I n s t i t u t i o n s S e r v i n g C h i l d r e n , York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1944, p. 3»  over governmental i n s t i t u t i o n a l care has not always p r e v a i l e d . Today, e s p e c i a l l y , a governmental agency may he  surprisingly  r e s p o n s i v e t o c h i l d r e n s needs, w h i l e church and f r a t e r n a l i n 1  s t i t u t i o n s or others conducted  under p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c  a u s p i c e s , may be found t h a t a r e content t o supply a severe and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y k i n d of f o s t e r  care.  S o c i a l work has long been t r o u b l e d about i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of c h i l d r e n . The f o r e runners o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers a c claimed separate i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r orphans, homeless and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n as Improvement over c a r i n g f o r them i n almshouses, w i t h aged, s i c k and degenerate a d u l t s . E a r l y s o c i a l workers agreed, but as more understanding was developed o f the needs o f c h i l d r e n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n grew i n r e g a r d to the i n s t i t u t i o n s which were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r them. General a p p r o v a l o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l care was r e p l a c e d i n the a t t i t u d e s of most s o c i a l workers by r e j e c t i o n w i t h a f e e l i n g of g u i l t about i t , because i n s t i t u t i o n s continued t o be used even when they were h e l d i n d i s a p p r o v a l . Now t h a t s o c i a l work i s g a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y and a s u b s t a n t i a l number of I n s t i t u t i o n s a r e p r o v i d i n g s u p e r i o r s e r v i c e , we are b e g i n n i n g to understand the s p e c i a l nature and c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l care and the p a r t t o be p l a y e d i n i t by case work, other p a r t s o f s o c i a l work, and r e l a t e d f i e l d s such as h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n . 4 The  development of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r dependent and ne-  g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n shows that t h i s form o f c h i l d care, l i k e a l l o t h e r c h i l d w e l f a r e or s o c i a l w e l f a r e e f f o r t s , i s i n s e p a r a b l y interwoven w i t h s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , and the p r e v a i l i n g understanding  of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r needs.  It  i s necessary t o c o n s i d e r the v a r i o u s stages i n the growth of 4 Mary L o i s P y l e s , I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r C h i l d Care and Treatment, New York, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, 1947, p. 7.  — 8 —  children's institutions relation  i n order to understand them and t h e i r  to the c h i l d care f i e l d of today.  show only the e v o l u t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s of dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . t i n g u i s h f i v e stages i n tutions:  T h i s study w i l l  designed f o r the c a r e  I t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s -  the development of c h i l d r e n ' s  (1) almshouses or "poor houses",  (2) orphan  instiasylums,  (3) s t a t e and county s c h o o l s , (4) congregate and cottage homes, (5) s o c i a l a g e n c i e s .  A h e r i t a g e from a l l these stages i s  i n t e r m i n g l e d i n the Canadian  institutions  of today, but as  they become a p a r t of modern s o c i a l work, they emerge as definite  s o c i a l agencies p r o v i d i n g s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l  v i c e s i n an agency atmosphere.  ser-  Through a l l these stages r u n  the c u r r e n t s o c i a l f o r c e s and concepts about c h i l d h o o d .  I n s t i t u t i o n s as Almshouses or Poor Houses. "Poor Law" - type Acts - i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , as i n England - p r o v i d e d p u b l i c funds f o r the maintenance and o p e r a t i o n o f asylums f o r the i n d i g e n t , most f r e q u e n t l y known as almshouses.  As the almshouses were the cheapest  possible  p u b l i c care f o r those people dependent upon the s t a t e f o r s u r v i v a l , they were used not only as an asylum f o r the i n d i g e n t , but a l s o f o r the s i c k , t h e m e n t a l l y i l l , c r i m i n a l s and other m i s f i t s .  the degenerates, the  These people were housed i n the  same b u i l d i n g , many times i n the same room, and so i t r e q u i r e s little  imagination to v i s u a l i z e  rounding these almshouses.  the depths o f d e g r a d a t i o n s u r -  The inmates were supposed t o earn  t h e i r care by hand i n d u s t r i e s , but few l i v e d l o n g enough t o  l e a r n or produce any c r a f t s m a n s h i p . In the e a s t e r n S t a t e s and i n the Maritimes  i n Canada,  almshouses were b u i l t , and the same mixed groups o f dependent people found themselves  consigned to l i v e i n them.  The c h i l -  dren were u s u a l l y cared f o r by o l d e r inmates and taught, i f a t a l l , by ignorant employees. lected  T h e i r p h y s i c a l needs were neg-  and t h e i r m o r t a l i t y was very h i g h .  Those c h i l d r e n who  d i d s u r v i v e knew only the l i f e and r o u t i n e o f a pauper tution.  There were only two ways i n which the c h i l d r e n c o u l d  leave the almshouses b e f o r e r e a c h i n g t h e i r m a j o r i t y : or  insti-  indenture.  The a d o p t i o n methods were simple.  adoption,  A l l the c h i l -  dren were l i n e d up, the a d o p t i n g parents looked over the c a n d i dates, made t h e i r c h o i c e , signed an agreement, and t h e c h i l d was t h e i r s .  Whether the reason f o r adopting an almshouse c h i l d  was l o v e o r the need o f a s e r v a n t , may w e l l be q u e s t i o n e d . The purpose o f indenture was t o make some person or f a m i l y d e f i n i t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the support and care o f the dependent c h i l d .  A second purpose was t o secure i n d u s t r i a l o r a g r i -  cultural training  f o r these c h i l d r e n ,  so that at the end o f  t h e i r indenture they would be employed, thus r e l i e v i n g the community of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r their welfare.  and theory, indenture of a c h i l d pledged  In form  the work o f the c h i l d  as pay f o r h i s keep, f o r a minimum degree o f e d u c a t i o n , and certain  f u r t h e r payments i n k i n d or money when the indenture  was over.  The treatment  the indentured c h i l d r e c e i v e d depended  upon h i s a c t i o n s , the tender mercies o f h i s employer, the i n f l u e n c e o f the o p i n i o n o f the neighbours, and the degree o f  - 10 -  I n t e r e s t the p u b l i c poor o f f i c i a l s  took i n him.  I t i s morally  c e r t a i n t h a t the experiences o f indentured c h i l d r e n v a r i e d all  the way from t h a t of b e i n g v i r t u a l s l a v e s to t h a t of b e i n g  r e a l f o s t e r sons or daughters.  Indenture  o f f e r e d the b e s t  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r permanently e a s i n g demands on the t r e a s u r y o f the c h i l d ' s home county f o r the maintenance of the c h i l d . denture  o f f e r e d to the homeless, d e s t i t u t e and n e g l e c t e d  Inchil-  dren, an open door to a t l e a s t the p o s s i b i l i t y of a d a i l y minimum of food, s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g , and a c e r t a i n degree o f security.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the t r a g e d i e s o f Indenturing  from almshouses and orphan asylums a r e obvious. r e c e i v e d no i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . as so much c h a t t e l .  children  The c h i l d  He o r she was  regarded  The homes were not s t u d i e d b e f o r e p l a c e -  ment and there was no s u p e r v i s i o n a f t e r placement.  To i n s i s t  that any c h i l d s h a l l remain i n a f a m i l y only because he i s an economic a s s e t i s i n t o l e r a b l e . The e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century p h i l o s o p h y o f almshouses i s best expressed 1824,  i n the arguments i n the Yates Report of  f o r t h e establishment  o f an almshouse i n every  of a s t a t e , f o r the use of b o t h a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n .  county This  r e p o r t was formulated by J . V. N. Yates, S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e 5 f o r New York i n 1823 - 1824.  Mr. Yates advocated  almshouse  care o f dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n "as a means to t h e i r 5 Annual Report of the State Board o f C h a r i t i e s o f New York, 1900, which r e p r i n t e d t h i s Report from the New York S t a t e Assembly J o u r n a l o f February 9,1824j c i t e d i n Henry Thurston, The Dependent C h i l d , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930, pp. 19-26.  - 11 -  e d u c a t i o n and moral t r a i n i n g " , which was necessary  prepara-  t i o n b e f o r e b e i n g indentured a t s u i t a b l e ages t o some u s e f u l business or t r a d e . ing,  As these poor c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d no s c h o o l -  no moral t r a i n i n g , and no d i s c i p l i n e from t h e i r p a r e n t s ,  they should r e c e i v e these b e n e f i t s i n the almshouse b e f o r e b e i n g indentured.  I n the almshouse, c h i l d r e n c o u l d be edu-  cated and " s e t on the r o a d t o a l i f e t h a t would f r e e them from permanent ignorance, pauperism and v i c e " . his  contemporaries  saw t h a t i t was the duty  Mr. Yates and  of the p u b l i c t o  g i v e some form of care t o c h i l d r e n who were e i t h e r homeless or i n d e s t i t u t i o n and n e g l e c t e d a t home.  They d e v i s e d a  means of t a k i n g a p a r t o f the burden of such care from p r i vate c h a r i t y and o f p l a c i n g i t upon the p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y I n the form o f t a x e s .  What they d i d not a p p r e c i a t e was the i n -  human coarsening and debasing atmosphere o f t h e mixed almshouse, whether as a permanent o r even a temporary home f o r children. Bad as the almshouses were, t h i s type of care was u s u a l l y b e t t e r than the a u c t i o n i n g of f a m i l i e s f o r care. Moreover, i t probably was not p o s s i b l e a t t h a t time t o develop a w e l l - a d m i n i s t e r e d system of home r e l i e f care f o r c h i l d r e n . at  Although  or s p e c i a l  they r e p r e s e n t e d a step  forward  the time they were e s t a b l i s h e d , almshouses long o u t l i v e d  their usefulness.  High d e a t h - r a t e s , outbreaks  of contagious  d i s e a s e , incompetent s t a f f s , and the g e n e r a l l y n e g l e c t e d and unhappy c o n d i t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d by I n d i v i d u a l s and s p e c i a l committees i n one area a f t e r another,  eventually l e d  - 12 -  to  the demand that t h i s method of c a r i n g f o r dependent  dren he abandoned. is  One  chil-  such r e p o r t , made i n M i c h i g a n i n 1870,  i n d i c a t i v e o f c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y i n almshouse-care i n  America: Nearly one thousand c h i l d r e n i n the poorhouses of Michigan. What i s to be done w i t h them? Think of t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . The r a v i n g o f the maniac, the f r i g h t f u l c o n t o r t i o n s o f the e p i l e p t i c , the f r i v e l i n g and s e n s e l e s s s p u t t e r i n g of the i d i o t , the g a r r u l o u s temper o f the d e c r e p i t , n e g l e c t e d old age, the peevishness o f the i n f i r m , the accumulated f i l t h o f a l l t h e s e : then add the moral degeneracy o f such as, from i d l e n e s s or d i s s i p a t i o n , seek a refuge from honest t o i l i n the t i t h e d i n d u s t r y of the county, and you have a f a i n t o u t l i n e of the s u r roundings of these l i t t l e boys and g i r l s . T h i s i s home to them. Here t h e i r f i r s t and most enduring impressions o f l i f e a r e formed. 6 T h i s t y p i c a l r e p o r t of c o n d i t i o n s i n almshouses, the to  o u t l o o k o f c o n s i g n i n g dependent  indicates  and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n  such a degenerating atmosphere. * Reforms came s l o w l y  s p i t e the infamous evidence of almshouse  conditions.  de-  Public  funds had been i n v e s t e d In l a n d and b u i l d i n g s ; l a r g e numbers c o u l d be cared f o r i n t h i s manner, and i t was to  fatally  p l a c e c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s i n an almshouse.  easy  Furthermore,  because of the l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n In almshouses,  the  problem of what to do w i t h them i f t h i s form of care were abandoned was not e a s i l y s o l v e d .  I t was  not u n t i l the l a s t  6 "Report of the S p e c i a l Commissioners to Examine the P e n a l , Reformatory, and C h a r i t a b l e I n s t i t u t i o n s o f the S t a t e of Michigan," J o i n t Documents o f the S t a t e of M i c h i g a n f o r the Year 1870, V o l . 11, No. 8, c i t e d i n Grace Abbott, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1938,^vol. 2, p. 52.  — 13 -  q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h century that t h i s type o f care was abolished.  I n s t i t u t i o n s as Orphan Asylums, The removal o f dependent c h i l d r e n from the almshouses, 7 t o s o - c a l l e d orphan asylums, i n groups by themselves, was a d e f i n i t e advance i n c h i l d care.  This segregation of c h i l d r e n  from the mixed almshouse, whether i n t o orphan asylums o r i n t o s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the deaf, b l i n d , or feeble-minded, was p l a i n l y a step forward toward a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the needs and c a p a c i t i e s o f these dependent and s p e c i a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n as i n d i v i d u a l s .  They were at l e a s t becoming  recog-  n i z e d as a c l a s s of j u v e n i l e dependents, w i t h needs somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the needs o f a d u l t  dependents.  The term "asylum", as f i r s t used i n i t s primary meaning of "sanctuary or p l a c e o f refuge and p r o t e c t i o n " , was  an  e x p r e s s i v e word, w e l l s u i t e d to the purposes o f the type o f i n s t i t u t i o n which i t then d e s c r i b e d .  The concept of an  asylum, however u n a c c e p t a b l e the name, r e p r e s e n t e d the community's concern f o r dependent c h i l d r e n i n need of c a r e .  The  f i r s t annual r e p o r t s of orphan asylums founded s e v e n t y - f i y e or more years ago, g i v e i n s p i r i n g glimpses o f the l o v e f o r c h i l d r e n and the m i s s i o n a r y z e a l shown by many of those who 7 "The word 'orphan' i s a misnomer because i n most i n s t i t u t i o n s a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n , o f t e n n i n e t y per cent, have one or b o t h parents l i v i n g " . Henry W. Thurston, The Dependent C h i l d , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930, p. 39.  -  14  took the l e a d i n founding these i n s t i t u t i o n s . u a t i o n may  The whole s i t -  not have been s t u d i e d w i t h s c i e n t i f i c  intelligence  approaching the b e s t standards of the day, but t h e r e can be doubt t h a t the b a s i s of many of these p i o n e e r e f f o r t s was heartfelt for  interest  i n dependent c h i l d r e n .  s t a r t i n g orphan asylums,  s c i o u s , were:  no  a  Among the reasons  of which the founders were con-  (1) r e f u s a l t o place, dependent c h i l d r e n i n  whom they were p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d , i n the l o c a l almshouse; (2) a d e s i r e to save c h i l d r e n from n e g l e c t , outrage and  desti-  t u t i o n i n the s t r e e t s and i n s q u a l i d homes; (3) a d e s i r e t o g i v e c h i l d r e n care under r e l i g i o u s a u s p i c e s of t h e i r p a r e n t s and thus to keep them from l o s i n g t h e i r a n c e s t r a l  faith;  (4) the need t o p r o v i d e care f o r negro c h i l d r e n .  The  and maintenance of orphan asylums by p r i v a t e funds  building  contributed  by v a r i o u s groups of c h a r i t a b l y disposed persons, went on i n America  d u r i n g the whole time that the almshouse i t s e l f  developing.  was  Many such i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n charge of persons  of a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s denomination and o t h e r s were r e a l l y c h a r i t a b l e agencies of the church i t s e l f .  The C a t h o l i c  has had orphanages of i t s own u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y f o r over  Church 300  y e a r s i n Quebec. It  is difficult  to v i s u a l i z e the a c t u a l l i f e of  dren i n orphan asylums,  and t o Imagine how  life,  and sweet, seemed to the c h i l d r e n themselves.  chil-  both b i t t e r  The methods of  Intake by surrender, and of outgo by i n d e n t u r e , which were the r u l e i n those days, are best summed up i n the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s s e l e c t e d from the C o n s t i t u t i o n and By-Laws of the  15  New  -  York Orphan Asylum S o c i e t y . No c h i l d r e n s h a l l he r e c e i v e d u n t i l examined by a r e s p e c t a b l e p h y s i c i a n and pronounced f r e e from i n f e c t i o n or i n curable diseases. R e l a t i o n s or f r i e n d s of orphans s h a l l on p l a c i n g them i n the asylum, renounce a l l c l a i m to them i n f u t u r e y e a r s . The orphans s h a l l be educated, f e d , and c l o t h e d a t the expense of the S o c i e t y , and a t the Asylum. ,They must have r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , moral example, and h a b i t s of i n d u s t r y i n c u l c a t e d i n t h e i r minds. As soon as the age and acquirements of orphans s h a l l , i n the o p i n i o n o f the Board of D i r e c t o r s , render them capable of earning t h e i r l i v i n g , they must be bound out to some r e p u t a b l e persons or f a m i l i e s f o r such o b j e c t and In such manner as the Board s h a l l approve. 8  Perhaps there have been exceptions,  but a l l the evidence i s  that i n orphan asylums the i n d i v i d u a l counted f o r nothing© The w e l f a r e , not  temperment, or d i s p o s i t i o n of any  taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  conventional periences  and  of one  of a l l the other The  L i f e was  stereotyped.  The  one  uniform,  a c t i v i t i e s of every hour was  s c h o o l i n g was  not n e g l e c t e d .  instruction.  While one  was  logical,  d u t i e s , t a s k s , and  day became the d u t i e s , t a s k s , and three hundred and  child  ex-  experiences  s i x t y - f o u r days of the  planned.  The  R e c i t a t i o n was  year.  children's  the method o f  c l a s s r e c i t e d , the next c l a s s s t u d i e d .  R e l i g i o u s education, which p l a y e d a major r o l e i n many of i n s t i t u t i o n s , meant simply  the memorizing o f words w i t h o u t  t h e i r meaning, without adapting  any  of the m a t e r i a l to  the  8 O r i g i n and H i s t o r y of the Orphan Asylum S o c i e t y i n the C i t y of New York. New York. 1896. v o l . 1. pp. 18-80. c i t e d i n I b i d , pp. 45-46.  the  16  needs of the c h i l d .  C h i l d r e n were cut o f f from f a m i l y t i e s ,  and emotional needs were unknown. p r o v i s i o n of long-time  A l l emphasis was  upon mass  care i n a safe haven o f refuge from the  world.  I n s t i t u t i o n s as  Schools.  Some concept o f the i n s t i t u t i o n as a s c h o o l has been present from the beginning pendent c h i l d r e n . the i n s t i t u t i o n s times a secondary definite  probably  of t h i s type of care f o r de-  U n t i l r e c e n t l y i t has been customary i n of America to operate an elementary  and  some-  s c h o o l , but at the present time t h e r e i s a  tendency f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v i n g dependent and  ne-  g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n to send t h e i r wards o f f the premises to p u b l i c or p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s .  Before 1900,  elementary  education i n  i n s t i t u t i o n s g e n e r a l l y l e d up to a p p r e n t i c e s h i p or to work on the farm or i n domestic  service.  T h i s was  r e p l a c e d by a  growing tendency on the p a r t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s c h o o l s to keep many of t h e i r  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y more promising  care u n t i l they had been graduated  c h i l d r e n under  from h i g h s c h o o l , and  oc-  c a s i o n a l l y i n the case of students a b l e to p r o f i t by c o l l e g e training,  even to twenty or twenty-one years of age.  The  idea  of the i n s t i t u t i o n as a s c h o o l exerted much i n f l u e n c e i n r e garding the c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l ,  and  so helped to p l a c e the  i n s t i t u t i o n ahead of the orphan asylum from which g i r l s boys u s u a l l y l e f t a t about twelve or f o u r t e e n years of Too  o f t e n these schools had  and age.  t h e i r p o l i c i e s r o o t e d i n the o l d e r  i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r , i n which " s c h o o l i n g " , meant a minimum of  17  -  elementary classroom i n s t r u c t i o n and a maximum of drudgery, frequently  embellished w i t h the  l a b e l s of domestic, i n d u s t r i a l  or a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . The  State  of Michigan was  s i o n to d r a f t an Act dependent and  the f i r s t g e o g r a p h i c a l  divi-  to e s t a b l i s h a s t a t e p u b l i c s c h o o l  neglected children.  Michigan l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1871,  A law was  for  passed by  the  creating a state public  school  f o r dependent c h i l d r e n , to which a l l d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n i n the  s t a t e who  were p u b l i c charges were to be moved, and  which they were to be p l a c e d possible.  out  i n f a m i l i e s as soon as  There had been some county p u b l i c  l i s h e d p r e v i o u s to the Michigan d e c i s i o n but o f f e r e d only temporary care and c o u l d be  indentured.  The 1874,  from the Michigan Act  Indicate  dependent and  schools e s t a b these u s u a l l y  e d u c a t i o n u n t i l the  child  Michigan s t a t e p u b l i c s c h o o l  at Coldwater, i n May,  The  from  following provisions  the  type of care and  neglected children received  opened quoted  training  in institutional  schools. There s h a l l be r e c e i v e d as p u p i l s i n such School those c h i l d r e n t h a t are over f o u r and under s i x t e e n y e a r s of age, t h a t are i n s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n of body and mind to r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , who are n e g l e c t e d and dependent,, e s p e c i a l l y those who are now maintained i n the county poor-houses, those who have been abandoned by t h e i r p a r e n t s , or are orphans, or whose p a r e n t s have been c o n v i c t e d of crime. The c h i l d r e n i n such School s h a l l be maint a i n e d and educated i n the branches u s u a l l y taught i n common' s c h o o l s , and s h a l l have proper p h y s i c a l and moral t r a i n i n g . I t s h a l l be the duty of such board of c o n t r o l to use a l l d i l i g e n c e to p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e p l a c e s i n good f a m i l i e s f o r a l l such p u p i l s as have r e c e i v e d  - 18 -  an elementary e d u c a t i o n ; and any other p u p i l s may be p l a c e d i n good f a m i l i e s on c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n s h a l l be p r o v i d e d f o r i n the p u b l i c schools o f the town or c i t y where they may r e s i d e . That s a i d board o f c o n t r o l a r e hereby made the l e g a l guardians o f a l l t h e c h i l d r e n who may become inmates of s a i d School, w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o b i n d out any c h i l d r e n t o a p u r s u i t o r trade d u r i n g m i n o r i t y , under a c o n t r a c t i n s u r i n g the c h i l d r e n k i n d and proper treatment and a f a i r elementary; education. 9 Other i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n emp h a s i z e d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , but f o r some time they continued to g i v e care so i s o l a t e d from the r e s t o f the w o r l d that c h i l d r e n were unable  to a d j u s t s u c c e s s f u l l y o u t s i d e  the o v e r l y p r o t e c t i n g and damaging w a l l s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l schools.  I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the developing f i e l d o f  s o c i a l work should be d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s k i n d o f s c h o o l care f o r c h i l d r e n .  B e t t e r ways were found of p r o v i d i n g edu-  c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r c h i l d r e n In t h e i r own homes and comm u n i t i e s , and concern grew about the emotional and s o c i a l needs o f c h i l d r e n .  I n s t i t u t i o n s as Homes Increased understanding  o f the importance o f f a m i l y l i f e  brought about new ways o f p r o v i d i n g f o r c h i l d r e n who c o u l d not be cared f o r by t h e i r own f a m i l i e s .  Poster family care,  a f t e r p a s s i n g through a stage o f mass and inadequate  care i n  9 "An Act t o E s t a b l i s h a State P u b l i c School f o r Dependent,and Neglected C h i l d r e n " , Laws o f Michigan, 1871, 1, No. 172, 280, c i t e d i n I b i d , pp. 56-7.  - 19 -  the wholesale f r e e f o s t e r home era under the l e a d e r s h i p o f Charles L o r i n g Brace,  developed  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and s u p e r v i s e d  means o f p r o v i d i n g s u b s t i t u t e p r i v a t e f a m i l y l i f e t o meet the needs o f many c h i l d r e n .  During the p e r i o d i n which f o s t e r  homes were coming i n t o prominence and being used  quite success-  f u l l y , the i n s t i t u t i o n s became competitive and t r i e d to ape f o s t e r homes.  The b i g congregate  i n s t i t u t i o n s were r e p l a c e d  by cottages w i t h a cottage "parent" over each group of c h i l d r e n . Attempts were made t o s e l e c t c h i l d r e n f o r each cottage on the b a s i s of the composition of an a c t u a l f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g b o t h sexes and v a r i o u s ages.  The cottage " p a r e n t s " t r i e d to handle  c h i l d r e n as they would be handled  i n a f o s t e r home.  Other  i n s t i t u t i o n s made good use of the g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what c h i l d r e n need, and the case work p r i n c i p l e s and methods which have a p l a c e i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l care as w e l l as other forms of c h i l d c a r e .  Many times, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the name o f  "home" was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r "asylum" w i t h no accompanying emotional home f e a t u r e s and w i t h the same g e n e r a l program o f mass c a r e . The modern s u b s t i t u t i o n o f cottages f o r l a r g e congregate d o r m i t o r i e s may be c o n s i d e r e d as a p r a c t i c a l move toward making i n s t i t u t i o n s as homelike to normal c h i l d h o o d . be more homelike  as p o s s i b l e and more c o n g e n i a l  These e f f o r t s o f some i n s t i t u t i o n s t o  a l l brought  children i n institutions. 10 I b i d , pp. 92-140  g r e a t e r comfort and happiness t o  Cottages were used i n s t e a d o f l a r g e  - 20  d o r m i t o r i e s ; s m a l l e r d i n i n g rooms and t a b l e s , i n s t e a d o f congregate and s i l e n t e a t i n g ; s m a l l e r groups, i n s t e a d of always l a r g e groups, meant a l i t t l e p r i v a c y and some p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l care and a f f e c t i o n i n s t e a d o f mass, r o u t i n e p r o grams o f s u r v i v a l .  With the development o f t h i s home atmos-  phere, new awareness o f the meaning of p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s to  c h i l d r e n began t o i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e and p r a c t i c e of  the i n s t i t u t i o n i n r e g a r d t o parents, r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s of  the c h i l d r e n , and the r o l e o f s t a f f .  were allowed t o v i s i t  The former group  the c h i l d r e n and have the c h i l d r e n  visit  them; the s t a f f were accepted as being a p a r t o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program and developed children's welfare.  a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the  Even w h i l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l homes v a i n l y  s t r u g g l e d to compete w i t h f o s t e r f a m i l y care they l e a r n e d more about c h i l d r e n ' s needs.  T h i s was the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d  i n which i n s t i t u t i o n s were attempting  to emancipate themselves  from the mass, i m p e r s o n a l i z e d programs of asylum c a r e , and develop  the understanding  a home-like  setting.  I n s t i t u t i o n s as S o c i a l The  o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s needs i n  Agencies.  i n s t i t u t i o n s which t r y to do good jobs as schools  or as homes o f f e r some values f o r c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n , but t h e r e i s too o f t e n something incomplete  about t h e i r s e r v i c e .  True,  an i n s t i t u t i o n i s a p l a c e where c h i l d r e n l i v e f o r a time, but it  i s a "Home" w i t h a c a p i t a l H", not a normal home. K  Children  go t o s c h o o l w h i l e they l i v e a t the i n s t i t u t i o n and much o f  - 21 -  the program may have a broad  e d u c a t i o n a l purpose, but t h e r e  are other a s p e c t s t o a c h i l d l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n .  In-  s t i t u t i o n s come i n t o the l i v e s of c h i l d r e n because o f s o c i a l problems and needs.  The modern i n s t i t u t i o n cannot escape the  task o f h e l p i n g i t s c h i l d r e n w i t h the f a m i l y problems or t h e i r own s p e c i a l needs.  S o c i a l work i s r e q u i r e d a l o n g w i t h the  best i n e d u c a t i o n , medical c a r e , e t c . , i n order to h e l p c h i l d r e n grow s u c c e s s f u l l y .  Because i t i s c a l l e d i n t o  these being  by s o c i a l problems and has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e l p i n g i t s c l i e n t s r e a c h s a t i s f y i n g p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment, the i n s t i t u t i o n i s a s o c i a l agency and needs to make use o f s o c i a l work knowledge and s k i l l i n c a r r y i n g on i t s work.  J u s t as  p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , f a m i l y w e l f a r e and f o s t e r f a m i l y care o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e each t o be seen i n modern times as a k i n d of s o c i a l agency w i t h I t s s p e c i a l nature and f u n c t i o n , so, c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s be s o c i a l agencies w i t h many d i s tinctive features. Community agencies which, throughout  the n i n e t e e n  twenties and t h i r t i e s , had been working somewhat a l o o f from the I n s t i t u t i o n , f i n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t modern i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs serve a need i n a c c e p t i n g c h i l d r e n who c o u l d not get a l o n g i n f o s t e r homes; a l s o that they have a d i s t i n c t  contri-  b u t i o n t o make, which i s inherent i n t h e i r group s e t t i n g and specialized professional services.  A constructive feature  which r e s u l t e d from the emphasis on f o s t e r f a m i l y home p l a c e ment o f a decade and so age, was the decrease t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s .  i n the p o p u l a -  These s m a l l e r numbers allowed more  time  - 22  and cult  -  g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r the cases.  The  study and  treatment of  f a v o u r a b l e r e s u l t s of study and  i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r emotionally disturbed I l l i n o i s Children's  Home and  i n a more o b j e c t i v e  appreciation  from group care, and  l i z e d and  intensive  Aid Society,  f r e e to f u n c t i o n and  i n Chicago, r e s u l t e d  i n the  This has  left  the  training.  still  Un-  functioning  i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r general  c h i l d r e n has  i n s t i t u t i o n ' s program.  Itself,  of the r e c e i v i n g home and  i n s t i t u t i o n may  transferred  the  become p a r t  Recent t r e n d s  that the f u n c t i o n s be  study  During the past decade, as the i n s t i t u t i o n  treatment of d i s t u r b e d  the work of the  Institutions  children.  become r e c o g n i z e d as a s o c i a l agency w i t h i n  study and  bene-  specia-  i n t h e i r most important r o l e , t h a t of  of r e c e i v i n g homes and  In-  could not  i n need of  the m a j o r i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s are  capacity  care and has  were not  treatment c e n t r e s f o r extremely d i s t u r b e d  fortunately  the  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .  those who  therapy.  treatment  c h i l d r e n , such as  s t i t u t i o n s began weeding out those c h i l d r e n who fit  diffi-  of  indicate  the g e n e r a l care  to f o s t e r homes, l e a v i n g  the  i n s t i t u t i o n s f r e e to concentrate t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d therapy appropriate The few  on  children.  i s o l a t i o n i s m so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n s t i t u t i o n s a  decades ago  i s now  today to f i n d an  rapidly dissolving.  I t i s unusual  i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t does not have some working  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other community s o c i a l a g e n c i e s .  Specia-  l i z e d s e r v i c e s made a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s by o u t s i d e agencies have i n l a r g e measure been r e s p o n s i b l e t h i s development.  for  Arrangements w i t h c e n t r a l case work agencies  -  23  to have s e l e c t i o n of cases or i n t a k e done by an o u t s i d e agency were the f i r s t wedges i n the h i t h e r t o c l o s e d door o f autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n . and  The  growth of c h i l d guidance  clinics  p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s i n the community o f f e r e d another  s e r v i c e which the case workers made known to the staff. hut  the  The  p h y s i c i a n was  o f t e n i n and  i n the p a s t h i s v i s i t s were b r i e f ,  institutional  out o f the and  institution  apt to be  confined  s t r i c t l y to the treatment of p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s without d i s c u s s i o n or c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s and  emotional l i f e .  of i l l n e s s and  brought the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  teacher.  of  awareness of the i n -  emotional l i f e .  wider p r o v i s i o n f o r school o u t s i d e  specialist  situation  Recent developments In the f i e l d  psychomatic medicine have brought a new terrelation  family  any  The  trend  the i n s t i t u t i o n  toward  grounds,  s t a f f i n contact w i t h another  from an important community agency, namely, the Similarly,  religious  s e r v i c e s were attended i n  churches of the surrounding community, a l l o w i n g the  individual  c h i l d to f o l l o w h i s own  the  religion.  opening of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s e r v i c e s and agencies, l i z i n g and  had  d i s b u r s i n g s e r v i c e s from w i t h i n the  s t i t u t i o n a l program.  of community  the immediate e f f e c t  decentra-  institution, specialists  p a r t of the i n -  T h i s program which has,  the understanding and  of  the f u n c t i o n of  p o i n t i n g to t h e i r p l a c e as an i n t e g r a l  l y i n g key,  f i n d that  doors to the use  and u l t i m a t e l y that of c l a r i f y i n g and  Thus we  as i t s under-  sympathetic treatment of  every c h i l d as a t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y i n a t o t a l s i t u a t i o n , phasizes  the s t r u c t u r e o f the modern i n s t i t u t i o n as a  em-  social  - 24 -  agency. I t would be  comforting to t h i n k that dependent  no l o n g e r s u f f e r from n e g l e c t , ignorance i t i e s f o r care i n any  institution.  children  or inadequate  facil-  I t i s i d e a l i s t i c to b e l i e v e  t h a t once somebody, somewhere, has pronounced a formula has  set up  In some one  p u t t i n g t h i s formula  and  i n s t i t u t i o n an adequate program f o r  i n t o e f f e c t « p r e s t o , a l l the c h i l d r e n o f  every i n s t i t u t i o n everywhere, o f f e r i n g  the same s e r v i c e s as  t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , w i l l straightway get the b e n e f i t of such a program.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n s t i t u t i o n s do h o t  as t h a t .  Some persons  change as q u i c k l y  i n charge of i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs, do  not even know t h e r e has been a change anywhere. have heard  of the, but s t i l l  Others  t h i n k the o l d ways b e t t e r .  may Still  others know, but l a c k the s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s to e n t e r f u l l y upon the b e t t e r care of these c h i l d r e n .  Questions  are i n -  v a r i a b l y r a i s e d about the c o s t of care i n i n s t i t u t i o n s which develop well-rounded children.  The  programs to meet a l l the needs of t h e i r  community understands  care i s expensive, but f o r b e t t e r care and  that b e t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l  they w i l l be w i l l i n g to pay  therapy i s shown t o them.  i f the need  I t may  t h a t i n the f u t u r e sqme c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s may spend as much f o r the care and treatment  w e l l be  need t o  of c h i l d r e n who  s p e c i a l problems as h o s p i t a l s spend f o r the i l l .  have  As a r e s u l t  of these impediments, i n s t i t u t i o n a l care today v a r i e s from orphan asylums to s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , a c c o r d i n g to the programs offered.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , many c h i l d w e l f a r e workers are p r e -  d i c t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y important  role for children's i n s t i -  - 25 -  t u t i o n s which p r o v i d e I n d i v i d u a l treatment i n a group s e t t i n g .  CHAPTER I I THE CURRENT PHILOSOPHY OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE FOR CHILDREN  A d e f i n i t e change i n a t t i t u d e has taken p l a c e among i n s t i t u t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l and s o c i a l workers d u r i n g the l a s t decade i n r e g a r d t o the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r c h i l d r e n .  Where f o r m e r l y l a r g e numbers were  p h a s i z e d and e f f o r t e x e r t e d to keep every bed f i l l e d  emlest  f i n a n c i a l l o s s might e v e n t u a l l y l e a d to e x t i n c t i o n , today t h e r e i s a new s e c u r i t y abroad i n t h i s f i e l d .  Reduction of  numbers i s f r e e l y d i s c u s s e d and there i s l i t t l e concern about t h i s t r e n d because i n s t i t u t i o n a l workers do not a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h the i d e a t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n as a method of care i s on the wane.  There i s a new f e e l i n g t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n based  on recent standards  o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s a c c e p t a b l e and  i t s m e r i t s unquestionable. new of  I n s t i t u t i o n workers r e f l e c t  this  s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r f r e e d i s c u s s i o n s about the weaknesses t h e i r own programs.  improvement  Everywhere p l a n s a r e under way f o r  i n p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o -  grams and a c t i v i t i e s t o meet the needs of the c h i l d r e n served, and t r a i n i n g o f personnel ficult  c h i l d r e n now  to cope w i t h the more d i f -  admitted*  Today i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a s o c i a l worker to say, "The pas't decade has marked an era o f r e v o l u t i o n i n the i n s t i t u -  - 27  tional field.  Many new  developments have taken p l a c e ,  notable  among which i s the g e n e r a l acceptance of the c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n as an i n d i s p u t a b l e method of care f o r c e r t a i n 1 children. As s o c i a l workers gained more experience w i t h H  both i n s t i t u t i o n a l and f o s t e r f a m i l y care, i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t there a r e two supplementary and  gradually  complementary  k i n d s o f care f o r c h i l d r e n away from t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . f a c t can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by c o n s i d e r i n g some of the d e f i n i t i o n s of f o s t e r f a m i l y care and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  This  accepted care.  Poster care, i t has been s a i d , i s any f u l l - t i m e care of a c h i l d by persons not b i o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d to him, whether i t i s w i t h a group o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , or i n a f o s t e r f a m i l y home; whether i t i s of l o n g or s h o r t durat i o n ; whether i t i s p a i d f o r i n p a r t or ent i r e l y by the c h i l d ' s own p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s or guardian, or by p u b l i c or p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; and whether o r not i t i s accompanied by l e g a l t e r m i n a t i o n of the r i g h t s of n a t u r a l parents and t r a n s f e r of guardianship to a parent s u b s t i t u t e . 2 P o s t e r f a m i l y care and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o s t e r care each p r o v i d e c e r t a i n values which the other  cannot o f f e r .  The i n h e r e n t l y  d i f f e r e n t elements i n the l a t t e r a r e acknowledged  i n the  d e f i n i t i o n s t a t i n g that A c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n i s a group of u n r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n l i v i n g together i n the care o f a group o f u n r e l a t e d a d u l t s , 3 1 C e c e l i a McGovern, S e r v i c e s to C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington, R a n s d e l l , 1948, p, 1, 2 Mary L o i s P y l e s , I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r C h i l d Care and T r e a t ment, New York, C h i l d Welfare League of America, 1947, p. 10. 3 Loc. c i t .  - 28 -  Thoughtful workers I n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f i e l d and i n the c h i l d - p l a c i n g agencies today u s u a l l y agree  that n e i t h e r f o s t e r  home placement nor i n s t i t u t i o n a l care meets the needs o f a l l c h i l d r e n or the needs o f the same c h i l d a t a l l stages o f h i s development.  Therefore, the new r o l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n em-  p h a s i z e s the d i a g n o s i s and treatment them f o r r e t u r n to the community. be a p e r i o d o f understanding  of c h i l d r e n to prepare  I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n should  care, r e - t r a i n i n g and treatment.  The i n s t i t u t i o n should not be the home of any c h i l d f o r an indefinite period.  The r e t u r n t o t h e i r homes may not be  p o s s i b l e when some c h i l d r e n are ready to leave the i n s t i t u t i o n , hence f o s t e r f a m i l y care i s p r o v i d e d as an I n t e r i m phase of treatment. i t may become obvious for his return.  While  the c h i l d i s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  t h a t h i s own home will  never be s u i t a b l e  Such a c h i l d should not remain  indefinitely  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , but should move on as soon as another s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n can be s u b s t i t u t e d . The  i n s t i t u t i o n i s a unique form o f s o c i a l agency be-  cause i t s c l i e n t s l i v e t o g e t h e r i n the same p l a c e i n which s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a r e c a r r i e d on.  Each c h i l d l i v e s i n the  cottage or dormitory w i t h a group of others w i t h whom (unless there be s i b l i n g s w i t h him) he has no t i e s o f k i n s h i p or p r e v i o u s acquaintance.  The agency p r o v i d e s a l l the a s p e c t s of  d a i l y l i v i n g , growing and l e a r n i n g , from i t s own employees. U n l i k e l i v i n g a t home or w i t h a f o s t e r f a m i l y t h e r e a r e no two parents who a r e i n charge o f a c h i l d . a d u l t s share i n the care of these c h i l d r e n .  Instead, d i f f e r e n t I t i s the group  .- 29  l i v i n g and group care s i t u a t i o n which d e f i n e s both the tatIons and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n .  T h i s group  p h a s i s should be a g u i d i n g f a c t o r i n determining who  come to i n s t i t u t i o n s , and 4  limi-  the  em-  children  i t enters i n t o a l l e f f o r t s t o  help them. There i s no g e n e r a l agreement among spokesmen f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s as to the primary purpose of t h e i r care of c h i l d r e n by t h i s group of u n r e l a t e d a d u l t s . set  Many i n s t i t u t i o n s  up c h i e f l y as a p l a c e to l i v e , and some of these  p r o v i d e l i t t l e more than s h e l t e r and s c h o o l and e d u c a t i o n .  custody.  are t h i n k i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y i n terms of treatment  o f f e r e d by d i f f e r e n t  still  Some emphasize  Progressive i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the problems of c h i l d r e n .  are  executives —  help with  The v a r i o u s approaches and programs  i n s t i t u t i o n s can be u t i l i z e d to meet the  needs of d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n .  Probably a l l up-to-date  institu-  t i o n s , however, f e e l the need of p r o v i d i n g care which promotes c o n s t r u c t i v e growth and grow and  development of c h i l d r e n .  develop wherever they a r e .  but they may  r e g r e s s and w i t h e r ; and  C h i l d r e n do  They do not stand  still  c e r t a i n things are  es-  s e n t i a l f o r the proper n u r t u r e and d i r e c t i o n o f the human 4 C h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s are b e g i n n i n g to g i v e more r e c o g n i t i o n to the group work a s p e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y group therapy, i n the o v e r a l l development of c h i l d r e n . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the f u t u r e of p r o f e s s i o n a l group work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n see: Leonard W. Mayo, "What May I n s t i t u t i o n s and Group Work C o n t r i b u t e to Each Other," i n Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1935, pp. 331-339, Susanne Schulze, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent C h i l d , " i n Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947, pp, 387-398©  - 30  machine.  -  T h e r e f o r e , i n s t i t u t i o n s which are t h o u g h t f u l and  s e r i o u s about t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must accept the  challenge  of a p p l y i n g the b e s t that i s known about c h i l d r e n ,  their  problems, how  they can be helped, the h e l p which i n s t i t u t i o n s  can o f f e r , and what i s necessary f o r such h e l p *  The Types of C h i l d - C a r i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s , I n the attempt to c l a s s i f y i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n or the c h i l d r e n they serve, d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e .  At the present  time, f o r i n s t a n c e , there i s some tendency to a v o i d terms as d e l i n q u e n t , feeble-minded, f i c a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n .  such  dependent, i n the  classi-  As p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers under-  stand more about the dynamics o f c h i l d r e n ' s problems, the more r e l u c t e n t they are to p l a c e the c h i l d r e n i n d e f i n i t i v e g o r i e s by t h e i r handicaps.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e must be  cateclassi-  f i c a t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n served by i n s t i t u t i o n s to f i t the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d c o n s t r u c t i v e l y t o the and program p r o v i d e d by the  treatment  institution.  The p r o g r e s s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n o f today  i s much s m a l l e r  c h i l d r e n ' s I n s t i t u t i o n s have been i n the p a s t .  than  I t has a much  b e t t e r t r a i n e d s t a f f , p r o v i d i n g In most i n s t a n c e s f o r p s y c h i a tric  c o n s u l t a t i o n , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s , a t r a i n e d group  worker and  s k i l l e d case work s e r v i c e s .  from the changing  As might be  expected  p h i l o s o p h y of s e r v i c e to c h i l d r e n , which  s t r e s s e s the r e c o g n i t i o n of the need o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s now  child,  serve a h i g h l y s e l e c t e d group of c h i l d r e n  - 31 5 and tend to s p e c i a l i z e i n t h e i r  services*  In d i s c u s s i n g types of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s , which are designed f o r s p e c i a l groups handicapped,  such as the p h y s i c a l l y  c o n v a l e s c e n t , and m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t  w i l l be d i s r e g a r d e d .  those  children  There are f o u r main types of i n s t i t u -  t i o n s f o r dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n , each of which has v a r i a t i o n s which r e l a t e t o the c h a r a c t e r of the s p e c i f i c lems d e a l t w i t h and the types of treatment p r o v i d e d .  prob-  According  to the k i n d of s e r v i c e which these i n s t i t u t i o n s render, f o u r types are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e * 1.  I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r g e n e r a l care or t r a i n i n g *  These i n c l u d e i n s t i t u t i o n s making no l i m i t a t i o n s i n r e g a r d to the type o f c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d other than those based such broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as age, affiliation.  on  sex, r a c e , or r e l i g i o u s  They would a l s o i n c l u d e day n u r s e r i e s and i n -  s t i t u t i o n s f o r normal a d o l e s c e n t s In need of group experience* It can r e a d i l y be seen that the o l d e r i n s t i t u t i o n s were of t h i s type f o r the most p a r t and t h a t the other t h r e e types l i s t e d below have been o f f - s h o o t s from t h i s p a r e n t a l stem, as have been the s p e c i a l types of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n such as those f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped.  In other words,  the development of c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s has f o l l o w e d the t r e n d t o s p e c i a l i z a t i o n which i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t w e n t i e t h century* 5 Henry W. Thurston, The Dependent C h i l d , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930, Chapter V I I . In t h i s chapter Mr. Thurston reviews the a i d of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n det e r m i n i n g what the c h i l d r e a l l y needs from i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e *  - 32  2  9  R e c e i v i n g homes.  r e f e r r e d to as " s h e l t e r s " .  These a r e f r e q u e n t l y  They p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s  n o s i s or emergency and short-time c a r e .  f o r diag-  They i n c l u d e  s h e l t e r s used by agencies pending placement  temporary  i n a f a m i l y home,  and a l s o the d e t e n t i o n homes of c o u r t s or p r o t e c t i v e a g e n c i e s . In many l o c a l i t i e s t h i s f u n c t i o n has l a r g e l y been t a k e n over 6 by s u b s i d i z e d f o s t e r homes* 3,  Study homes or treatment  centres.  The b e s t  known i n s t i t u t i o n of t h i s k i n d i s the Ryther C h i l d Centre i n S e a t t l e , Washington.  Less w e l l known are those  institutions  h a n d l i n g somewhat l e s s d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s c e n t s who are- emancip a t i n g themselves home c a r e .  from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and cannot accept  foster  The f u n c t i o n of these study and treatment c e n t r e s  i s s t a t e d most c o n c i s e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n of c h i l d r e n w i t h s e r i o u s problems and treatment f o r such c h i l d r e n w h i l e they a r e l i v i n g w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , r e p r e s e n t s a somewhat r e c e n t development. The name study home, which has become p o p u l a r , i s a term t h a t has f o l l o w e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e i n t o the f i e l d o f c h i l d w e l f a r e , but there i s a sense i n which i t i s a misnomer. As the name I m p l i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s so c a l l e d attempt an i n t e n s i v e study and t r e a t ment of each i n d i v i d u a l — a s e r v i c e u s u a l l y not expected of the asylum, s c h o o l or home. Once a d i a g n o s i s has been made, however, i t i s treatment which i s more important than study, a f a c t t h a t should be r e c o g n i z e d by c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s as w e l l as by I n s t i t u t i o n s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h d i s t u r b e d 6 Howard W. Hopkirk, I n s t i t u t i o n s S e r v i n g C h i l d r e n , New York, R u s s e l l Sage. Foundation, 1944, pp. 32-337 Mr. Hopkirk s t a t e s that the s e r v i c e s rendered by these r e c e i v i n g homes can more b e n e f i c i a l l y be s u p p l i e d i n f a m i l y homes by s u b s i d i z e d foster parents.  33 -  children. I t would be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o name these i n s t i t u t i o n s treatment c e n t r e s , because those e s t a b l i s h m e n t s worthy of the name have gone f a r beyond the d i a g n o s t i c f u n c t i o n of merely s t u d y i n g the c h i l d r e n e n t r u s t e d to them, 7 4,  I n s t i t u t i o n s combining  r e c e i v i n g homes and c l i n i c s f o r study and  the f e a t u r e s of special  As the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s type of i n s t i t u t i o n  treatment. implies,  t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s to p r o v i d e not o n l y care f o r c h i l d r e n  who  are dependent or n e g l e c t e d , but a l s o some d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n f o r s p e c i a l o b s e r v a t i o n and  treatment.  These i n s t i t u t i o n s  must supply or have access to the necessary c l i n i c a l t i e s and t r a i n e d s t a f f to diagnose  facili-  s e r i o u s emotional problems  and c a r r y out the r e q u i r e d therapy.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n Best S u i t e d f o r I n s t i t u t i o n a l As was  Care,  noted i n the b r i e f h i s t o r y of the development of  c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s , the i n s t i t u t i o n has become more s e l e c t i v e i n i t s aim of s e r v i n g the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , and  the  use o f the i n s t i t u t i o n i n a t o t a l community c h i l d w e l f a r e program has become more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  The group nature  of  I n s t i t u t i o n a l care w i t h i t s l e s s p e r s o n a l t i e s , and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h many persons, should be a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n i t s use f o r a c h i l d .  C h i l d r e n cannot be r e a l l y helped by  insti-  t u t i o n s u n l e s s they can make use of the group s i t u a t i o n , or a t l e a s t are not i n j u r e d by i t . 7 Ibid., p,  28  C a r e f u l -case study of the  child  - 34  and  -  h i s f a m i l y i s needed i n order  to understand what care  may  be h e l p f u l . Who  are these c h i l d r e n f o r whom group care has more t o  o f f e r than f o s t e r home care - which i s , a f t e r a l l , s u b s t i t u t e f o r p a r e n t a l care? received considerable one  This i s a subject  the c l o s e s t  that  has  a t t e n t i o n i n the l a s t few y e a r s ,  and  i n which perhaps a l l the answers are not y e t a v a i l a b l e .  Current  l i t e r a t u r e on the  main the w r i t e r s a r e  s u b j e c t would i n d i c a t e that i n the  i n agreement, a l t h o u g h some see more  p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the group experience than do  others.  There i s g e n e r a l agreement, that i f the c h i l d can accept f o s t e r home care and f i t i n t o a f o s t e r home, t h i s p l a n i s p r e f e r a b l e . There are some c h i l d r e n , however, who need, not a f o s t e r home experience, but a group e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s these c h i l d r e n t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s f i t t e d to s e r v e . Children are p l a c e d In i n s t i t u t i o n s because i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l set-up o f f e r s them the o p p o r t u n i t y of working out t h e i r problems In t h e i r own way i n the absence of the f o r c e s which have h e l p e d t o create them, 8 As another w r i t e r has  put i t ,  A l l t h i s i s p r e d i c a t e d upon the assumpt i o n from the i n s t i t u t i o n p o i n t of view t h a t c h i l d r e n should not be r e t a i n e d f o r a long p e r i o d of years but p l a c e d i n a r e a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n as soon as t h e i r development warrants; and t h a t those who are sent t o i n s t i t u t i o n s need the advantage of group work i n a c o n t r o l l e d environment more than an i m i t a t i o n of f a m i l y l i f e . Prom the g e n e r a l s o c i a l work p o i n t of view the assumpt i o n i s that a l l c h i l d r e n need some group experience, not always a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r own 8 Martha S e l l n g , "Temporary Use of an I n s t i t u t i o n i n P o s t e r Care", American,Journal of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , J u l y , 1942, X I I , 467-473.  - 35 ~  community, and that the modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s the s o c i a l Instrument best equipped t o o f f e r e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s through guided group life© 9 I n s t i t u t i o n s t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r from f o s t e r homes i n t h a t they o f f e r group l i v i n g r a t h e r than f a m i l y l i f e , and as a consequence o n l y those c h i l d r e n who need i t should be p l a c e d i n a n institution© It i s d i f f i c u l t  t o c a t e g o r i z e these c h i l d r e n who need  group experience i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , and perhaps no attempt a t r i g i d c a t e g o r i e s should be made.  I n the l a s t a n a l y s i s ,  each  c h i l d must be c o n s i d e r e d as an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r i n g from every other i n d i v i d u a l both i n h i s needs and i n what he w i l l from a g i v e n environment.  derive  The proper s e l e c t i o n of i n s t i t u -  t i o n a l care depends upon the t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y o f the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , but experience has g i v e n us some g e n e r a l guides as to when i n s t i t u t i o n a l care may and may n o t be s u i t a b l e .  I t w i l l be necessary t o set up some g e n e r a l  c a t e g o r i e s as a f i r s t  step toward e v a l u a t i n g the placement  of the c h i l d r e n i n Embury House.  The f o l l o w i n g groups then,  w i l l i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n from the age o f s i x or seven t o the age of twenty, s i n c e i t i s the assumption of our s o c i e t y t h a t a t the age of twenty-one  the c h i l d becomes a man or woman.  The order o f the l i s t i n g  of the c a t e g o r i e s does not imply  that one i s of g r e a t e r importance than the o t h e r s nor a r e the 9 Leonard Mayo, "What May I n s t i t u t i o n s and Group Work C o n t r i b u t e to Each Other", Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conf e r e n c e o f S o c i a l Work",.New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935, p. 333©  - 36 -  groups mutually e x c l u s i v e * In t h i s study the c h i l d r e n w i l l be  c l a s s i f i e d on  b a s i s o f the k i n d of problems they have and  the  the s p e c i f i c  of treatment they need, r a t h e r than a c c o r d i n g  to  kind  specific  a c t s or s i t u a t i o n s which brought them to the c h i l d r e n ' s t u t i o n such as "neglected,  dependent or d e l i n q u e n t " .  insti-  It i s  e s s e n t i a l to examine the v a r i o u s types or problem groups t o whom some form of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care may Eleven  such groups  be  appropriate.  (with some o v e r l a p p i n g ) , may  be  distin-  guished. 1.  C h i l d r e n In f a m i l y groups. Obviously  care i s needed i n p l a n n i n g  more  f o r a group of c h i l d r e n than f o r  one  c h i l d , as a home should be found to meet the needs o f a l l .  The  f o s t e r home i s u s u a l l y not  u a t i o n as i s the  institution.  so w e l l geared to such a The  i n s t i t u t i o n eliminates  p o s s i b i l i t y that these f a m i l y groups might have to be up among s e v e r a l f o s t e r homes, as i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o s t e r home or even two a large family.  The  p a r t i c u l a r l y during  to f i n d  r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n should be kept the i n i t i a l p e r i o d of placement  the placement i s a temporary one  together before Often  e i t h e r because  to meet some emergency i n  the home or because of a s t r o n g attachment between the L a t e r i t may  be necessary to work out plans  a r a t i n g the c h i l d r e n or i t may c h i l d r e n to t h e i r home.  one  n e a r l y f o s t e r homes which can absorb  i s d e s i r a b l e to keep the f a m i l y together  lings.  the  split  the i n d i v i d u a l needs of the c h i l d r e n are determined. it  sit-  be p o s s i b l e to r e t u r n  I t has been found t h a t the  sib-  f o r septhe Infants  - 37 -  of f a m i l y groups should not be p l a c e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , even though t h i s means s e p a r a t i o n from the o l d e r c h i l d r e n , because t h e i r o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s a r e themselves  too t r o u b l e d  to o f f e r these babies any r e a l measure o f s e c u r i t y a t such a time.  There a r e i n s t a n c e s a l s o when c h i l d r e n may need t o be  separated because o f h o s t i l i t y between them that prevents acceptance  of one another's presence,  or s h a r i n g the a f f e c t i o n  of the same a d u l t s . 2. parents.  C h i l d r e n whose parents cannot a c c e p t  These p a r e n t s f e e l threatened by the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t h e i r c h i l d and the f o s t e r p a r e n t s . let  foster  They r e f u s e to  t h e i r c h i l d r e n have from any other f a m i l y the t h i n g s which  they cannot p r o v i d e themselves.  The n a t u r a l parents may need  a p e r i o d o f time f r e e from such t h r e a t to decide whether t o take t h e i r c h i l d r e n home or a l l o w them t o l i v e w i t h f a m i l y group.  another  The i n s t i t u t i o n i n the meantime, may be a b l e  to serve the c h i l d r e n o f such " b l o c k i n g " p a r e n t s , w h i l e s p e c i a l case work e f f o r t s or court a c t i o n may make p o s s i b l e other care when i t Is e s p e c i a l l y needed by the c h i l d r e n , 3  0  C h i l d r e n who need an I n t e r i m placement  between f o s t e r homes.  Often c h i l d r e n who have f a i l e d  ina  number of f o s t e r home placements have experienced g r e a t i n s e c u r i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r own f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s b e f o r e placement, and have never been a b l e to f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n s I n f o s t e r homes.  The f a i l u r e o f a f o s t e r home means a r e j e c t i o n  to the c h i l d .  B e f o r e another placement can be arranged he  o f t e n needs a time i n the group s e t t i n g to enable him to-"  - 38  r e l a t e to another s e t of f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  These c h i l d r e n  u s u a l l y have l o s t confidence and t r u s t i n a d u l t s and as a consequence a r e u s u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e and n e g a t i v i s t i c .  When the  i n s t i t u t i o n g i v e s them an o p p o r t u n i t y to express t h e i r  hostil-  i t y , e i t h e r v e r b a l l y o r through p l a y , o r both; when they a r e kept and l o v e d i n s p i t e of t h e i r behaviour; when they b e g i n to f i n d some s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n t h e i r day-by-day l i f e ,  accept  a d u l t s as f r i e n d s , experience success, b u i l d up. some values of t h e i r own, go a l o n g on an even k e e l f o r a w h i l e —  then the  chances f o r success i n the next f o s t e r home placement a r e better. 4. parents.  C h i l d r e n o f r e c e n t l y d i v o r c e d or separated  These c h i l d r e n are t o r n by the t e n s i o n s o f d i v i d e d  l o y a l t i e s and the b i t t e r n e s s o f most d i v o r c e s .  They a r e a l s o  harrowed by the f e e l i n g of having been r e j e c t e d by a parent or even b o t h p a r e n t s .  Many times the p a r e n t s t r y t o make t h e  c h i l d r e n p a r t i s a n s on t h e i r s i d e . l o y a l t i e s places a t e r r i f i c  This q u e s t i o n of d i v i d e d  emotional s t r a i n on the c h i l d r e n .  The worst blow to the c h i l d r e n and the one w i t h the most l a s t i n g a f t e r e f f e c t s , i s the f e e l i n g o f r e j e c t i o n .  The c h i l -  dren o f d i v o r c e d or separated p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the younger ones, cannot understand  the a d u l t f r i c t i o n and motives  l e d t h e i r parents to separate.  which  To them the d i v o r c e meant t h a t  t h e i r f a t h e r or mother d i d not care enough f o r them t o l i v e w i t h them.  They f e e l b e t r a y e d and t h e i r d i s t r u s t o f a d u l t s  as a whole stands i n the way o f t h e i r acceptance tute parental care.  of s u b s t i -  The bewilderment and emotional  upset  - 39 -  such c h i l d r e n s u f f e r a t the time t h e i r parents break up, prevents t h e i r r e c e p t i o n of f o s t e r parent's l o v e and t h e i r own e f f o r t s t o respond. environment  The i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r s a non-demanding  where these c h i l d r e n may e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n t h e i r own time, and where t h e i r p a r e n t a l l o y a l t i e s a r e understood and a c c e p t e d . In an e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e on the use o f f o s t e r homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a c h i l d p l a c i n g agency, Eva Burmeister  says:  During the course o f d i v o r c e a c t i o n s c h i l d r e n a r e s u b j e c t e d t o s i t u a t i o n s conf u s i n g and u p s e t t i n g t o them. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n those cases which come to the a t t e n t i o n o f f a m i l y c o u r t s , i n which custody i s being c o n t e s t e d . The c h i l d l o s e s t h e home which, however uns a t i s f a c t o r y i t appears t o o t h e r s , may mean s e c u r i t y to him. H i s p a r e n t s , absorbed i n matters f a r beyond h i s a b i l i t y to comprehend, have l e t him down. E v e r y t h i n g having value t o him has crashed, A c h i l d having had such a n experience would become more confused by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f o s t e r p a r e n t s . Here would be a f o s t e r f a t h e r and f o s t e r mother on whom he might project h i s feelings of rejection, g u i l t , disappointment, shame o r resentment, which he i s e x p e r i e n c i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s own p a r e n t s . Or he may s t i l l be c l i n g i n g t o one o r both o f h i s p a r e n t s , u n w i l l i n g t o g i v e them up. He i s unable t o g i v e the warm response which f o s t e r parents might expect. F o r t h i s c h i l d the i n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e s a s i t u a t i o n away from a l l r e l a t i v e s . 10 5.  C h i l d r e n l e f t w i t h o n l y one p a r e n t .  group o f c h i l d r e n , who through d i v o r c e or death a r e l e f t  This with  10 " i n s t i t u t i o n and F o s t e r Home Care a s Used by a n Agency OfferIng,Both S e r v i c e s , " C h i l d Welfare League o f America B u l l e t i n , 1942, p . 1 9 „ 0  40 »-  only one parent, a r e perhaps  to he c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the immediately p r e c e d i n g group.  Their s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r s  however, i n that each o f these c h i l d r e n has one parent i n whom he has a r e a l emotional s e c u r i t y even though the p a r e n t , for  the time b e i n g a t l e a s t , i s unable to make a home f o r  him.  The i n s t i t u t i o n may be u s e f u l as a s o r t o f b o a r d i n g  s c h o o l arrangement to a working mother who i s d i v o r c e d o r widowed, and has assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e n t i r e support o f one or more c h i l d r e n .  The parent, whether i t be  the mother or f a t h e r , may be unable  to share the c h i l d w i t h  f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and t h e c h i l d may f i n d i t hard to enter i n t o the emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  The i n s t i t u -  t i o n w i l l a l l o w the parent and the c h i l d r e n t o form a l i t t l e f a m i l y u n i t , complete 6,  and s a t i s f a c t o r y to themselves,  C h i l d r e n who need p h y s i c a l a i d and s o c i a l  t r a i n i n g p r i o r t o f o s t e r home placement.  These c h i l d r e n when  removed from t h e i r own homes, u s u a l l y because o f n e g l e c t , a r e found to r e q u i r e e i t h e r e x t e n s i v e m e d i c a l care or t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e manners, and p o s s i b l y b o t h because of severe d e p r i v a t i o n .  I n s t i t u t i o n a l care p r o v i d e s f o r a p e r i o d  p r e v i o u s to f o s t e r home placement  where the s o c i a l l y r e t a r d e d  c h i l d may have the "rough edges smoothed o f f " , and the p h y s i c a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d may r e c e i v e the b e n e f i t o f e x t e n s i v e medical f a c i l i t i e s .  Some c h i l d r e n who have been d e p r i v e d o f  care and t r a i n i n g can be helped through the c o n s i s t e n t  daily  l i v i n g r o u t i n e w h i c h . i s f o l l o w e d by the group i n the i n s t i t u tion.  T h i s group r o u t i n e should not be overdone to the p o i n t  - 41 -  of s t i f l i n g  i n i t i a t i v e and the development o f self-management,  hut w i t h i n reason i t can make good s o c i a l h a b i t s acceptable instead o f a personal also o f f e r greater  tolerance  issue.  generally  I n s t i t u t i o n s can  o f troublesome behaviour and  d i f f i c u l t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s than most f o s t e r homes. Due t o p h y s i c a l and emotional n e g l e c t , t h e i r appearance, l a c k o f t r a i n i n g and h a b i t s , t h e i r responses, may be such as to make them unacceptable to f o s t e r p a r e n t s at the time o f placement. I n the I n s t i t u t i o n , w i t h i t s many f a c i l i t i e s r i g h t a t hand, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o do a r a t h e r i n t e n s i v e job i n m e d i c a l and d e n t a l care, n u t r i t i o n , h a b i t t r a i n i n g , care o f c l o t h i n g , t a b l e manners, and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l o f these s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e the chances f o r a s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placement, 11 7. parents. and  C h i l d r e n who a r e r e j e c t e d by t h e i r own  Some c h i l d r e n have been so hurt by r e j e c t i n g parents  d i s r u p t i n g f a m i l y experiences that they cannot be r e c e p -  t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e to f o s t e r parents and f a m i l y l i v i n g . a defense a g a i n s t  f u r t h e r h u r t , the r e j e c t e d c h i l d  a strong r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t him,  develops  those who have any a u t h o r i t y  and he becomes more or l e s s "unapproachable."  over  Of these  c h i l d r e n Howard W. Hopkirk says: The c h i l d r e j e c t e d by h i s own p a r e n t , or whose parent has been c o l d as to leave him e m o t i o n a l l y hungry, has been "short changed." To be thus d e p r i v e d i s - a s hard as i t i s ..unnatural. R e j e c t i o n i s the word used by p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i a l workers i n p o i n t i n g to the unhappy s t a t e of the c h i l d whose presence i s resented by one o r b o t h p a r e n t s . There a r e many such c h i l d r e n among those served i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r 11 Ibid., p. 20.  As  - 42 -  dependents and d e l i n q u e n t s , and t h i s i s . t r u e a l s o o f many who a t t e n d h o a r d i n g s c h o o l s and summer camps* The g e n e r a l recommendation has been made t h a t c h i l d r e n o f any age who have been thus e m o t i o n a l l y s t a r v e d should u s u a l l y be p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes, because f o r such c h i l d r e n i t i s o r d i n a r i l y not enough t o p r o v i d e the l i m i t e d r a t i o n of a f f e c t i o n which can be expected i n even a good i n s t i tution. There are n e v e r t h e l e s s o c c a s i o n s when a f i r s t - r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n may p r o v i d e a f f e c t i o n a t e s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t a l care which w i l l improve a c h i l d ' s emotional b a l a n c e , 12 There a r e s i t u a t i o n s i n which the c h i l d who has never experienced love i s unable  t o accept  i t . On the other hand  such a c h i l d may be so demanding o f e x p r e s s i o n o f l o v e and a f f e c t i o n from the f o s t e r mother, t h a t she w i l l n o t be a b l e v  to bear w i t h him.  For such c h i l d r e n a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a c e -  ment i s l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g . care and treatment  A f t e r a p e r i o d o f understanding  i n a more n e u t r a l environment i n the i n s t i -  t u t i o n some may be ready  f o r f o s t e r f a m i l y care, some may be  a b l e to r e t u r n t o t h e i r own homes s u c c e s s f u l l y ,  especially  when h e l p has been g i v e n i n working out problems t h e r e , and some may r e q u i r e longer i n s t i t u t i o n a l care u n t i l they  reach  g r e a t e r m a t u r i t y and adjustment, 8,  Adolescents.  Perhaps the s t r o n g e s t  case  i n favour of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s i t s value to the a d o l e s c e n t . T h i s i s the p e r i o d when c h i l d r e n normally break loose from p a r e n t a l t i e s and get t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n s not so much from any c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s as they do from' the s p i r i t o f camaraderie  and l o y a l t y which develops  12 Howard W. Hopkirk,  among f e l l o w group  op_. c i t , p, 49,  - 43  members.  C h i l d r e n from t e n t o s i x t e e n have a n a t u r a l d e s i r e  and  i n c l i n a t i o n t o j o i n groups.  When placement i s necessary  and  c h i l d r e n of t h i s age group a r e e m o t i o n a l l y ready f o r  s e p a r a t i o n from p a r e n t s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement may have positive values.  Because adolescence  independent o f c l o s e p a r e n t a l t i e s ,  i s a p e r i o d o f becoming  i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s  very h e l p f u l t o c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age who must l i v e away from home.  Many a d o l e s c e n t s a r e removed from t h e i r own homes be-  cause o f c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r own p a r e n t s , consequently i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o accept f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  That  insti-  t u t i o n s have something d e f i n i t e and worthwhile to o f f e r a d o l e s cents i s perhaps b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t the c h i l d r e n themselves i f g i v e n a c h o i c e w i l l  select i n s t i t u t i o n a l  care*  "Many o f the boys and g i r l s o f h i g h s c h o o l age who a r e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and f o r whom i t becomes evident that permanent placement plans w i l l have to be arranged, a r e c o n s u l t e d about t h e i r choice i n r e g a r d to f o s t e r home placement and i n v a r i a b l y they f i r m l y r e f u s e t o accept  t h i s l a t t e r type of placement." 13  9. S o c i a l l y or m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . Another group of c h i l d r e n f o r whom the i n s t i t u t i o n performs a very s p e c i a l r o l e a r e those d u l l , u n a t t r a c t i v e youngsters who a r e d i f f i c u l t  to p l a c e i n f o s t e r homes and y e t a r e b a d l y  i n need o f the c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f f e r e d by such care. all  I l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n a r e numerous i n t h i s group and  those who were a v a i l a b l e f o r a d o p t i o n i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d 13 C e c e l i a McGovern, op. c i t . p . 25.  - 44 -  but not e l i g i b l e because  of low m e n t a l i t y , p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y  and g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l u n a t t r a c t l v e n e s s . have developed no i n n e r r e s o u r c e s and l i t t l e  Some who  sense of s e l f -  d i r e c t i o n respond p o s i t i v e l y t o a planned program, t o strong d i r e c t i o n , and to the g i v e and take w i t h other c h i l d r e n .  There  can be r i c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r group a s s o c i a t i o n on the l e v e l a c h i l d i s ready to use i n the i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i t s s p e c i a l programs and v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and these can a l s o appeal t o h i s i n t e r e s t s and h e l p him develop s k i l l s and s o c i a l  relation-  ships. 10.  C h i l d r e n who a r e s t a r v e d f o r a f f e c t i o n .  Sometimes the i n s t i t u t i o n i s asked to care f o r a very dep r i v e d c h i l d who seems most i n need of f o s t e r care i n a home but who cannot  take i t .  C h i l d r e n who have not had secure  y e a r s d u r i n g babyhood or e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , or those who may have had a s a t i s f a c t o r y home s i t u a t i o n broken o f f suddenly i n a t r a u m a t i c experience to themselves, a r e sometimes una b l e to make a good adjustment  i n a f o s t e r home.  They may  want more constant and u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n from a f o s t e r mother than she i s able to g i v e .  Never having  had s u f f i c i e n t a f f e c t i o n i n t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d they have never l e a r n e d to l o v e and be l o v e d .  Some o f these  children  can o n l y take, not g i v e , and a f o s t e r mother n a t u r a l l y response.  expects  These c h i l d r e n when p l a c e d i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n may  l e a r n t o l i v e away from t h e i r own f a m i l i e s u n t i l such time a s they may be ready to take on new r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n other f a m i l y groups, I f by that time t h e i r own parents s t i l l cannot  take  45  -  them home* 11. Before any  C h i l d r e n who  need study and  observation.  good permanent p l a n can be made f o r a c h i l d much  knowledge of h i s needs and p e r s o n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d .  The i n -  s t i t u t i o n w i t h i t s v a r i e t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s to s t a f f ,  visiting  r e l a t i v e s and other c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t s e t t i n g f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s r e a c t i o n , readjustment, progress.  The house mother, the house s t a f f and  f e s s i o n a l s t a f f a l l gather t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s , and  the  and  pro-  i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d from  this  i n f o r m a t i o n i s e x p l o r e d at  p e r i o d i c e v a l u a t i o n s by the e n t i r e s t a f f , w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v e treatment  r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r d i a g n o s i s .  In the s m a l l I n -  s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g a l l the c h i l d ' s experiences themselves i n t o a p a t t e r n which g i v e s a f a i r l y p i c t u r e of the c h i l d and h i s needs. can be met  crystallize complete  For c h i l d r e n whose needs  i n such a s e t t i n g , the i n s t i t u t i o n has an oppor-  t u n i t y f o r b e i n g the best p o s s i b l e treatment As Howard W.  situation.  Hopkirk w r i t e s :  C h i l d r e n beset w i t h c o n f l i c t s , those whose aggressions need to be rubbed o f f on t h e i r peers, whose misbehaviours a r e h a b i t u a l , are a l l s e r i o u s l y wearing on a mother or f o s t e r mother. Where the s t r a i n on them becomes unbearable a strong i n s t i t u t i o n may f i l l the need. In order t o t e l l whether i n s t i t u t i o n a l care w i l l h e l p dr h i n d e r c h i l d r e n i n growing f r e e from such a t t r i b u t e s i t i s not enough to i d e n t i f y t h e i r c o n f l i c t s , a g g r e s s i o n s , or misbeh a v i o u r s ; the causes of these must be r e c o g n i z e d b e f o r e c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g can be undertaken, 14 1  4  °P*  c i t . p. 51-52,  -  46 -  C h i l d r e n Needing S e r v i c e s In T h e i r Own Home o r a F o s t e r Home, Experiences such as the evacuation of c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the bombing o f Great B r i t a i n d i s c l o s e d t h a t , w h i l e f o s t e r care i s necessary under c e r t a i n circumstances, the very s e p a r a t i o n of parents and c h i l d r e n c r e a t e s s e r i o u s problems.  Although  they may f e e l r e l i e v e d , parents a l s o experience a sense of inadequacy  when someone must take over a l l o r p a r t o f t h e i r  parental responsibility.  C h i l d r e n s u f f e r profound  d i s t u r b a n c e s when t h e i r parents a r e unable f o r them.  emotional  to p r o v i d e a home  When separated from t h e i r p a r e n t s c h i l d r e n  not o n l y l o s t b u t p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f a c t  feel their  parents a r e g i v i n g them up, as though they were u n l o v e d and unwanted because o f t h e i r shortcomings. difficult  T h i s f e e l i n g makes i t  f o r them t o b e l i e v e t h a t anyone e l s e can l o v e them.  Such s o c i a l and emotional d i s t u r b a n c e s cannot gether compensated.  Consequently,  ever he a l t o -  f o s t e r care can never be  a completely s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e f o r a c h i l d ' s own home. The g r e a t e s t value o f f o s t e r c a r e i s i t s p a r t i n h e l p i n g p a r e n t s t o do something about the s o c i a l and emotional  prob-  lems that made the s e p a r a t i o n necessary i n order to r e e s t a b l i s h a home f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n e v e n t u a l l y , and I n cases where the parent cannot  g i v e h i s c h i l d a home, i n h e l p i n g to f r e e the  c h i l d f o r permanent placement.  Even the most adequate f o s t e r  care i s recommended o n l y a f t e r c e r t a i n t y t h a t there i s no a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t the c h i l d needs that type o f c a r e , and t h a t , except f o r cases o f n e g l e c t o r abuse, the parent wants f o s t e r care f o r h i s c h i l d .  Even i n the exceptions every e f f o r t i s  - 47 -  made t o h e l p the parent t o c a r r y h i s share of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y * E s s e n t i a l l y , i n a d d i t i o n to p h y s i c a l c a r e , s h e l t e r , and opportunity  f o r a c t i v i t i e s appropriate  f o r t h e i r s o c i a l and  emotional development, a l l c h i l d r e n need a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o v i n g a d u l t s to whom they f e e l they b e l o n g . these needs can be provided the s u p e r v i s e d the best  Since  some o f  o n l y through home and f a m i l y  life,  f o s t e r f a m i l y home has long been acknowledged  s u b s t i t u t e f o r c h i l d r e n a b l e to e s t a b l i s h meaningful  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with f o s t e r parents.  Moreover, i n d i v i d u a l care  and a t t e n t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n f a m i l y homes a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r normal development of i n f a n t s and c h i l d r e n under s i x years o f age.  F o s t e r care i s used f o r c h i l d r e n whose parents a r e i l l ,  where there  i s m a r i t a l discord, disturbed  l a t i o n s h i p s , or a s i t u a t i o n which leaves  child-parent r e the parent  temporarily  unable to c a r r y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e a r i n g h i s c h i l d * There i s a growing r e c o g n i t i o n that any c h i l d whose parents are unable t o p r o v i d e regardless  an adequate home may need f o s t e r care  of s o c i a l or economic s t a t u s o f the f a m i l y *  Keeping i n mind the b a s i s o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the various  types or groups of c h i l d r e n needing s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r  own home or a f o s t e r home, as the k i n d of problems they have and  the s p e c i f i c k i n d of, treatment they r e q u i r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e  to form by c o n t r a s t , some w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d guides about the c h i l d r e n who cannot p r o f i t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .  S i x such  groups may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a 1,  Infantso  Where placement i s n e c e s s a r y , the  needs of babies and p r e - s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n can best be met i n  - 48 -  f o s t e r homes.  I n f a n t s need l o v e and a t t e n t i o n from c o n t i n u -  ous "parent persons", and a r e not ready f o r any  continuous 15  and e x t e n s i v e group a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other c h i l d r e n . t h e i r p h y s i c a l growth, and more important, i n t h e i r care and development, they need the a f f e c t i o n a t e  In emotional  response,  the t e a c h i n g and t r a i n i n g and the constancy of some s i n g l e mother person.  Not o n l y does group care d e p r i v e b a b i e s and  s m a l l c h i l d r e n of many emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n s , hut there i s danger of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e t a r d a t i o n as w e l l , ^»  Orphans»  a f a m i l y of t h e i r own.  The  These c h i l d r e n need to belong to c h i l d w i t h no f a m i l y t i e s needs  a f o s t e r home, e i t h e r an adoptive home or a boarding home i n which he may  s t a y f o r the e n t i r e p e r i o d of h i s c h i l d h o o d and  e a r l y adolescence. of  I f an i n s t i t u t i o n cares f o r them because  t h e i r other s p e c i a l needs, t h i s care should be  and d i r e c t e d toward 3.  temporary,  obtaining a substitute family, Adolescents,  C h i l d r e n of adolescence  age  do b e t t e r i n f o s t e r homes where they can enjoy a g r e a t e r i n dependence than i s p o s s i b l e i n most i n s t i t u t i o n s and where they can spend the important a normal f a m i l y l i f e .  teenage y e a r s i n the s e t t i n g of  The d i s t u r b e d a d o l e s c e n t who  is re-  b e l l i n g a g a i n s t h i s p a r e n t s i s the e x c e p t i o n , 4, c h i l d r e n may  P h y s i c a l l y weak c h i l d r e n .  be crushed by the impact  These  of a group.  frail Purther-  15 L a u r e t t a Bender, " I n f a n t s Reared i n I n s t i t u t i o n s « Permanently Handicapped,".Child Welfare League of America B u l l e t i n , September, 1945. Miss Bender p r e s e n t s a c o n v i n c i n g argument why i n f a n t s below the age of s i x s h o u l d never he p l a c e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , other than f o r b r i e f temporary c a r e .  - 49 -  more, there should not he a wide divergence i n t h e mental a b i l i t y o f the group or the range o l ages.  C h i l d r e n whose  ages o r mental a b i l i t i e s do not f i t i n t o the average of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l group, w i l l not b e n e f i t  deviant  from the group  experience. 5.  C h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l needs.  These c h i l d r e n  who have s p e c i a l needs which r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d care i n the normal f a m i l y s e t t i n g s h o u l d never be p l a c e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n .  These c h i l d r e n would i n c l u d e the h y p e r a c t i v e  who a r e o v e r s t i m u l a t e d by a group s i t u a t i o n , the extremely shy and withdrawn, those w i t h e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t h e a l t h problems, those who a r e v e r y s e n s i t i v e , and those from s i b l i n g r i v a l r y .  suffering  A l s o i n c l u d e d would be the d i s t u r b e d  c h i l d r e n who cannot accept any s o r t o f d i s c i p l i n e or r o u t i n e so common to i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Some Guiding P r i n c i p l e s of Modern I n s t i t u t i o n s . I n s t i t u t i o n s a r e o f t e n c a l l e d upon, and a l l o w  themselves,  t o r e c e i v e c h i l d r e n o n l y because other care i s n o t made a v a i l a b l e f o r them.  Even i n s t i t u t i o n s which a r e surrounded by a  v a r i e t y o f other agencies may be f i l l e d w i t h c h i l d r e n f o r whom o t h e r care i s more s u i t a b l e w h i l e t h e r e i s not room t o admit some who need i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .  When an i n s t i t u t i o n  tries  to serve c h i l d r e n because other needed s e r v i c e s cannot be obt a i n e d , i t has a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o work f o r the development of other needed c a r e , and not t o take c h i l d r e n who would be more damaged by i n s t i t u t i o n a l care than by the l a c k o f any  -  special service.  50 »  I t i s an o b l i g a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s to know  both the values and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i r care and the needs of c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d to them so w e l l that proper  s e l e c t i o n of  c h i l d r e n can be made and t h e i r care c a r r i e d on as c o n s t r u c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e f o r each i n d i v i d u a l  child.  P r o g r e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s accept the s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t i o n and no longer t r y to make i t simulate a f a m i l y group. They know that the best a d m i n i s t e r e d and s t a f f e d i n s t i t u t i o n s cannot take the p l a c e of a f a m i l y group, r e g a r d l e s s o f how devoted the s t a f f , how s m a l l t h e u n i t , and how d i v e r s i f i e d i n age the c h i l d r e n under care a r e . The f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s a r e guides t o the administrators of i n s t i t u t i o n s : (l) I n s t i t u t i o n a l care, w h i l e e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l f o r c e r t a i n children, i s undesirable f o r others* (2) C h i l d r e n who l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s have the same needs that a l l c h i l d r e n have, plus' the need f o r h e l p w i t h the problems which make t h i s type of care necessary f o r them. (3) I n s t i t u t i o n a l care a l o n e Is n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r any c h i l d throughout the e n t i r e p e r i o d of h i s c h i l d h o o d , and placement i n an i n s t i t u t i o n should not be c o n t i n u e d beyond two o r t h r e e years a t the most. 16 C h i l d r e n who may be served by i n s t i t u t i o n s when they must have care away from t h e i r own homes a r e o f t e n d i s c u s s e d i n g e n e r a l terms, such as b r o t h e r and s i s t e r groups t o o l a r g e f o r a f o s t e r f a m i l y home, those needing  convalescent  care,  c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g needs, a d o l e s c e n t s e t c .  Whether  or n o t any of these c h i l d r e n can be helped by an i n s t i t u t i o n depends upon the fundamentally  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d needs o f the  p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n , program and q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . 16 Margaret B. Hodges, ed., S o c i a l Work Year Book, New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1949, p . 213. ' :  -  51 -  No longer Is i t b e l i e v e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l care s h o u l d he a l a s t r e s o r t f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . that s k i l l e d and  Rather,  i t i s believed  s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e to h e l p p r e s e r v e  improve t h e i r own homes.  When c h i l d r e n must be removed  from t h e i r homes, good i n s t i t u t i o n a l care w i t h l e s s demanding p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and more c o n d i t i o n e d and d i r e c t e d environment may be the f i r s t  choice f o r some of the c h i l d r e n  f i t t e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o f o s t e r f a m i l y care i n the p a s t .  It  i s e s s e n t i a l to s e l e c t care from good i n s t i t u t i o n s and good f o s t e r f a m i l y homes on the b a s i s of the needs o f the c h i l d r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i z e d ideas about the s u p e r i o r i t y o f e i t h e r type o f c a r e . Except  f o r the r e l a t i v e l y few who a r e so permanently  i n c a p a c i t a t e d p h y s i c a l l y , m e n t a l l y o r e m o t i o n a l l y , t h a t they can never be c a r e d f o r i n the normal community, i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g i s no end i n i t s e l f f o r the care of c h i l d r e n .  The  g o a l o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s h e l p i n g every c h i l d p o s s i b l e t o be a b l e t o make a s a t i s f y i n g adjustment i n f a m i l y and community l i f e .  A p e r i o d o f s p e c i a l care and treatment i n  the I n s t i t u t i o n may be a means toward the achievement o f t h i s by some c h i l d r e n .  Even f o r these c h i l d r e n the i n s t i t u t i o n  needs the a i d o f r e s o u r c e s supplementary t o the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s care w h i l e the c h i l d i s t h e r e , and to p r o v i d e any s e r v i c e s which may be needed a f t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .  R e a l i z a t i o n of  t h i s causes the i n s t i t u t i o n to seek c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s o c i a l agencies and community f a c i l i t i e s . s c h o o l s , churches,  libraries,.community  The use o f  c e n t r e s , e t c , , i n the  52;  community w i l l h e l p c h i l d r e n who in  l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s t o keep  touch w i t h the normal stream of s o c i e t y , and a l s o help  the i n s t i t u t i o n and the community resources work t o g e t h e r to o b t a i n r e a l acceptance others.  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h i l d r e n on a par w i t h  I f i t i s wise f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n to have i t s own  s c h o o l , church s e r v i c e s , and r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e , f i n d other ways of drawing o u t s i d e l i f e each c h i l d when he i s ready f o r i t .  i t needs t o  i n t o the experience of  Through a  flexible,  i m a g i n a t i v e program, i n s t i t u t i o n s can f i n d ways o f g i v i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n some normal experience w i t h shopping, and spending  of money, and v i s i t s w i t h parents and  a d u l t s and f r i e n d s who  are important  to them.  earning  other  The  institution  however, cannot p r o v i d e experience i n normal f a m i l y l i v i n g , so i t must work toward the r e t u r n of i t s c h i l d r e n to t h e i r own  home or t o f o s t e r f a m i l y homes as soon as p o s s i b l e . C h i l d r e n are emerging as human beings i n t h e i r  r i g h t , and we know much more about t h e i r nature and needs. to  own their  The modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s throwing o f f the i d e a t h a t  g i v e care to c h i l d r e n i s c h a r i t y , i n s t e a d , i t i s t h e i r  r i g h t to receive b e n e f i c i a l care.  Real concern w i t h the  r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n means a c h i l d - c o n s c i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n which t r i e s t o apply the b e s t knowledge of happy c h i l d growth and development, and to seek more s i m i l a r knowledge.  I t makes  the q u e s t i o n "what i s b e s t f o r the c h i l d ? " the t e s t of i t s whole o r g a n i z a t i o n , program and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . of and  More a n a l y s i s  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s and problems of case work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f  institutional  -  care may  53  -  f u r t h e r the proper use  of i n s t i t u t i o n s as a  resource  for children. I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t the c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a n a l y z e i t s f i n a n c i a l and cost of care per as food,  s e r v i c e records c h i l d and  annually  to e s t a b l i s h the  the cost of elements of c a r e ,  c l o t h i n g , medical care, s e r v i c e administration  such etc*  This enables the governing body or p u b l i c agency to a l l o t enough funds to operate the i n s t i t u t i o n to the best advantage by an accurate  estimate of how  individual child.  much i t c o s t s to care f o r each  F i n a n c i a l s t u d i e s have proved f a l s e  o l d concept of economy that i n s t i t u t i o n a l care than f o s t e r home c a r e .  The  is less costly  s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n of today  the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f p r o v i d i n g s k i l l e d and  the  and  diagnosis  treatment f o r c h i l d r e n i n need of such c a r e , make the  modern i n s t i t u t i o n an expensive s e r v i c e .  As a consequence,'  the f e e l i n g among i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i a l workers i s that should not be  spared i n e s t a b l i s h i n g d i a g n o s t i c and  finance  thera-  p e u t i c programs, because these s e r v i c e s cost f a r l e s s per c h i l d over a p e r i o d o f time, i f they are s u c c e s s f u l i n r e e s t a b l i s h i n g the  c h i l d i n f a m i l y and  the c h i l d continues  community l i f e ,  than i f  to r e q u i r e care under a non-treatment  s h e l t e r - t y p e of i n s t i t u t i o n f o r an i n d e f i n i t e number of  S e t t i n g of the  years  B  Study*  In Chapter I the  e v o l u t i o n of the modern  progressive  i n s t i t u t i o n s e r v i n g as a s o c i a l agency from the almshouses of a century  ago was  outlined.  The  c h i l d r e n who  would b e n e f i t  - 54 -  most from i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e , p l u s some g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i c a b l e to a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Chapter  II»  The next two chapters of t h i s study w i l l evaluate the p l a c e ment of c h i l d r e n i n Embury House and the program s e r v i n g these c h i l d r e n , d u r i n g the y e a r 1949-1950.  The  criterion  f o r t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s the "Standards f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s C a r i n g 17 _ for Children".  These standards have been accepted and  h i g h l y commended by the U n i t e d States C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, 'Washington,  D.C.  From the a n a l y s e s o f Chapter I I I and Chapter  IV, r e c -  ommendations w i l l be suggested f o r the improvement of s e r v i c e s to those c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n Embury House. The w r i t e r f i r s t became f a m i l i a r w i t h Embury House, Regina, Saskatchewan, i n January, 1949.  For the next f o u r months he  worked as a v o l u n t e e r u n t r a i n e d group worker w i t h the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the evenings.  With the a p p r o v a l of the D i r e c t o r , and  A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f the C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Depart-, ment of S o c i a l Welfare of the P r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan, case r e c o r d s of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n were s t u d i e d and such m a t e r i a l compiled. the w r i t e r was  From J u l y 15 to September 15,  1949,  employed as a t r a i n e d case worker w i t h the  c h i l d r e n i n Embury House.  He l i v e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , which  presented u n l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s to observe the c h i l d r e n and the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s program. obtained a t t h i s  A l l necessary case m a t e r i a l  was  time.  17 Washington, Department of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s C a r i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , 10 February,  Standards 1950.  - 55  The  s o c i a l r e s e a r c h methods used i n t h i s study were  mainly the case method and the comparative method.  These  methods were supplemented by such b a s i c elements o f r e s e a r c h as d e s c r i p t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and many s o c i a l work As  concepts.  the average monthly p o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House d u r i n g the  year 1949-1950,was f i f t y c h i l d r e n , f i f t y cases,  representing  a t y p i c a l c r o s s s e c t i o n o f the year's p o p u l a t i o n , were s e l e c t e d for  intensive individualized analysis.  The concepts o f i n s t i -  t u t i o n a l care and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b e s t  suited for  insti-  t u t i o n a l care and f o s t e r home care were based on a u t h o r i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l p u b l i s h e d w i t h i n the l a s t two y e a r s .  The c r i t e r i o n  by which the placement of c h i l d r e n i n Embury House, and the program of s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d to the c h i l d r e n during the year 1949-1950 were compared and measured, was the Standards f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s C a r i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , compiled  by the S t a t e o f  Washington, Department o f S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , and p u b l i s h e d 10 February, 1950, The  scope o f t h i s study was t o e v a l u a t e  the n e c e s s i t y  of Embury Hovise i n the t o t a l c h i l d w e l f a r e program i n the Province  o f Saskatchewan, the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d to the c h i l d r e n  p l a c e d i n Embury House, the 1949-1950 p o p u l a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n Embury House i n terms o f t h e i r n e c e s s i t y f o r such  insti-  t u t i o n a l c a r e , and the c h i l d - c a r i n g q u a l i t i e s o f t h e employed s t a f f ; and from t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a , to suggest recommendations f o r t h e f u t u r e f u n c t i o n of Embury House and f o r the development of a program b e s t s u i t e d to the needs of the c h i l d r e n to be served,  jThls  study  - 56 -  was l i m i t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  Many o f the cases were from  r u r a l s o c i a l w e l f a r e d i s t r i c t s and any o f these cases that had been a c t i v e f o r over f i v e years had very l i t t l e m a t e r i a l r e corded.  T h i s l a c k of case m a t e r i a l d i d n o t a p p l y to j u s t the  r u r a l s o c i a l w e l f a r e d i s t r i c t s , but a l s o to cases o f some l e n g t h i n the c i t y of Regina.  A s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n on the  q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of case m a t e r i a l -for a n a l y s i s , was t h a t t h e r e had never been a s o c i a l worker, t r a i n e d o r u n t r a i n e d , employed a t Embury House, and consequently very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c o r d e d r e g a r d i n g a c h i l d a f t e r he was p l a c e d in  this institution.  Another l i m i t a t i o n was the i n h e r e n t  i n t a n g i b l e elements of the i n s t i t u t i o n r e q u i r i n g measurement, such as the q u a l i t y o f the s t a f f , and the c o n s t r u c t i v e p a r t s of  the program.  I t i s as d i f f i c u l t  to s t a t e i n c o n c r e t e  words the e v a l u a t i o n o f s t a f f p e r s o n n e l , who i n v a r i a b l y have p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e v a l u e s , as i t i s t o e v a l u a t e a c e r t a i n program by determining the emotional development o f the children  0  CHAPTER I I I THE CHILDREN UNDER CARE  The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o analyze and e v a l u a t e the p o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House d u r i n g 1949-1950, i n terms o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care as presented i n Chapter  II,  i n a very b r i e f manner, I t w i l l be shown why  In a d d i t i o n , certain  children  p l a c e d In Embury House during t h i s p e r i o d should have been served a t home, and why others should have been p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes.  The e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n under care  w i l l be done by a n a l y z i n g f i f t y cases which r e p r e s e n t the 1 t y p i c a l c r o s s s e c t i o n of the y e a r l y p o p u l a t i o n . Members of 1 For the purpose of t h i s study, a case i s d e f i n e d as the s e r i e s of case work s e r v i c e s g i v e n to a c h i l d , who because of dependency or n e g l e c t , has been p l a c e d i n the care o f the C h i l d Welfare Branch o f the Department of S o c i a l Welfare i n the Province of Saskatchewan, e i t h e r as a temporary ward f o r one year, a permanent ward u n t i l the age of twenty-one, or a non-ward r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c care f o r an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d because of temporary f i n a n c i a l i n c a p a c i t y of the breadwinner i n the c h i l d ' s home. In t h i s study, dependency w i l l r e f e r to any c h i l d under the age of twenty-one, who f o r any reason i s d e s t i t u t e , or homeless, or abandoned, and i s dependent upon the p u b l i c f o r maintenance. In t h i s study, n e g l e c t w i l l r e f e r to any c h i l d under the age of twenty-one, who has not proper p a r e n t a l care o f g u a r d i a n s h i p , or who i s l i v i n g w i t h any v i c i o u s or disrepu» t a b l e person, or whose home by reason of n e g l e c t , c r u e l t y o r d e p r a v i t y on the p a r t of h i s p a r e n t s , guardian, or o t h e r person i n whose care he may be, i s an u n f i t p l a c e f o r such a child©  - 58 -  the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y group are i n c l u d e d i n the same case even though they may not a l l he c l i e n t s o f the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare, The p o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House during the year 19491950 was not s t a t i c . children present: group.  There were two d i s t i n c t groups of  the t r a n s i e n t group and the permanent  The t r a n s i e n t c h i l d r e n used Embury House as a r e c e i v i n g  home and as an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r g e n e r a l care and t r a i n i n g . T h e i r l e n g t h of s t a y v a r i e d from one day t o t h r e e months©  The  permanent group o f c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e d mainly o f those who r e q u i r e d some study and treatment b e f o r e they were capable of r e t u r n i n g home or b e i n g p l a c e d i n f o s t e r homes.  They r e -  mained i n the i n s t i t u t i o n from three months to a year, some even l o n g e r .  The number o f c h i l d r e n i n b o t h o f these groups  was c o n s t a n t l y changing.  The groups were heterogeneous  with  regards t o sex, r a c i a l o r i g i n , r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y and c u l t u r a l backgrounds.  The ages o f these c h i l d r e n v a r i e d  from two y e a r s t o s i x t e e n .  (See Table  1.)  As the average monthly p o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House throughout  1949 was f i f t y  c h i l d r e n , t h i s number of cases was  s e l e c t e d to produce a t r u e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f the t y p i c a l y e a r l y composition of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n . fifty  c h i l d r e n comprised a l l  those l i v i n g  These  i n Embury House  d u r i n g the two months o f J u l y and August, when the w r i t e r was employed as the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s o c i a l worker, and they r e p r e s e n t all  the v a r i o u s types o f c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n Embury House who  r e q u i r e d case work s e r v i c e s i n some form.  Each c h i l d w i l l be  Table 1 Age grouping 1949-1950.  o f c h i l d r e n i n Embury House d u r i n g  Age  Number  2 3 4 5  1 5 3 2 3  6  2-6 7 8 9 10 11 12 7-12  14  Per Cent 2 10 6 4 6 28  1 5 6 3 5 5  2 10 12 6 10 10  25  50  3 4 3 1  6 8 6 2  13 - 16  11  22  TOTAL  50  13 14 15 16  100  dis-cussed i n d i v i d u a l l y a c c o r d i n g to the s e r v i c e s h i s needs r e q u i r e d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f f a m i l i e s who w i l l be t r e a t e d as one i n d i v i d u a l u n l e s s the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l members of the f a m i l y v a r i e d . be  I n one i n s t a n c e a group of c h i l d r e n w i l l  d i s c u s s e d a3 an i n d i v i d u a l case because o f the d e f i n i t i v e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d , as presented  i n Chapter  II* The placement o f t e n of the c h i l d r e n i n Embury House may  -  60 -  be omitted from the body of t h i s study a f t e r a b r i e f tion.  explana-  I t i s obvious t h a t no e x p o s i t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n con-  demning the i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of t h i s group o f t e n p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , ranging i n ages from two t o s i x y e a r s . 3  S i x of these  c h i l d r e n were M e t i s ,  two were r e c e i v i n g temporary  t h e i r mother was i l l ,  one was c h r o n i c a l l y e n u r e t l c , and one  was p h y s i c a l l y handicapped.  care w h i l e  T h i s l a t t e r boy had a severe  h a i r l i p , which prevented him from speaking a r t i c u l a t e l y and gave him a f r e a k i s h appearance.  The Metis c h i l d r e n were un-  a c c e p t a b l e i n f o s t e r homes i n the community because of t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n , the c h r o n i c e n u r e t l c because o f h i s h a b i t s , and the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped apparent r e t a r d a t i o n .  boy because o f h i s appearance and  These reasons f o r placement  i n Embury  House a r e not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h good c h i l d w e l f a r e p r a c t i c e s . The purpose  o f t h i s study i s not t o suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s t o  i n s t i t u t i o n a l care.  On the other hand, the i n s t i t u t i o n should  not be used as a "dumping ground" o r a " c a t c h - a l l " . ful  A care-  study o f f o s t e r homes and of f o s t e r care r a t e s , might i n -  d i c a t e why there i s a shortage o f f o s t e r homes i n the community, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r d i f f i c u l t  children.  Pre-school  c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e the l o v e and a f f e c t i o n a l response o f "parent persons", e s p e c i a l l y a s i n g l e mother person.  Institutional  group care deprives these i n f a n t s of the i n d i v i d u a l and p e r 3 The Metis a r e the o f f s p r i n g o f the marriage o f Indians w i t h white persons. The amount o f t h e i r Indian b l o o d v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y because o f i n t e r - m a r r i a g e w i t h white persons. These s i x Metis expressed marked I n d i a n f e a t u r e s and were dark i n s k i n .  61  -  s o n a l love necessary f o r t h e i r emotional development. f o r e ways should he found to p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n needing f a m i l y l i f e .  There-  good f o s t e r homes f o r  An i n s t i t u t i o n can never he  an  adequate s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h i s . The  e v a l u a t i o n of the placement of the remaining f o r t y  c h i l d r e n i n Embury House w i l l be considered headings:  (1) the number of c h i l d r e n who  under the  following  should have r e -  c e i v e d case work s e r v i c e s a t home, (2) the number of c h i l d r e n who  r e q u i r e d placement o u t s i d e  c h i l d r e n who  t h e i r own  home, (3) of those  r e q u i r e d placement, what number needed f o s t e r  home care and what number needed i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e ,  and  (4) of those c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, what, number r e q u i r e d study and  treatment s e r v i c e s and what number  required general  training.  care and  A b r i e f a n a l y s i s of  the  i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d or f a m i l y w i l l determine which of these f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of care the f o r t y c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d .  The  C h i l d r e n Who The  placed  Required Case Work S e r v i c e s . a t Home,  three Smith boys, aged f i v e , n i n e , and  t e n , were  i n Embury House f o r a p e r i o d of a t l e a s t one  T h e i r f a t h e r had  deserted  James, the youngest boy,  t h e i r mother and t h r e e  fi-  n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o n l y from the f a m i l y allowances, and  the  jobs t h a t she was  born.  s i s t e r s when  The mother r e c e i v e d  odd  was  year.  a b l e to do i n t h e i r home town.  Smith boys were accused of s t e a l i n g by neighbours, and community f e l t was  the mother was  n e g l e c t i n g her  children.  a strong bond of a f f e c t i o n between these hoys and  The  three  the There their  -  mother.  62  -  As no f o s t e r c o u l d be found which would care f o r a l l  t h r e e boys, they were p l a c e d i n Embury House. was  This family  p l a c e d i n a dependency s i t u a t i o n w i t h the d e s e r t i o n of  the breadwinner.  The mother d i d not r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t  fi-  n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to m a i n t a i n the f a m i l y , f o r c i n g her t o work and  so leave the c h i l d r e n w i t h no s u p e r v i s i o n , and thus  little  time f o r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s .  s t o l e food.  leaving  The boys were hungry and  I f casework s e r v i c e s had been o f f e r e d the mother  i n the home and  s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e granted t o  care f o r the c h i l d r e n , there would have been no need of breaki n g up t h i s home where there were s t r o n g t i e s of h e a l t h y attachment. The three Jones g i r l s , aged e i g h t , eleven, and f o u r t e e n , were p l a c e d i n Embury House when the mother became i l l . parents had separated some years b e f o r e .  The  The  father c o n t r i -  buted n o t h i n g t o the maintenance of the c h i l d r e n or the home. The  s i s t e r s d e s i r e d t o remain t o g e t h e r and as no f o s t e r home  c o u l d be found to care f o r a l l three they were p l a c e d i n the institution.  None of these g i r l s  expressed any problems or  a n x i e t i e s , other than the w i s h to go home. case, a combination  As i n the Smith  of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and  case work  s e r v i c e s i n the home along w i t h s u p e r v i s e d homemaker s e r v i c e j would have enabled t h i s f a m i l y to remain t o g e t h e r . R i c h a r d Hodges, aged twelve, was  p l a c e d i n Embury House  because he p e r s i s t e d i n running home from the f o s t e r homes i n which he had been p l a c e d .  He had been removed from h i s  own home because of n e g l e c t , as the parents were i n v o l v e d i n  - 63  marital conflict. Richard  There was a very s t r o n g bond between  and h i s mother.  I t was f e l t  that h i s going home was  d i s t u r b i n g because o f the m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t , a l t h o u g h both parents welcomed him home.  Richard  had taken p a r t i n s e v e r a l  a c t s o f t h e f t and h i s caseworker f e l t t h a t t u t i o n a l i z e d , w i t h no o p p o r t u n i t i e s behaviour would be m o d i f i e d .  i f he were  insti-  t o v i s i t h i s home, h i s  Instead, R i c h a r d  used every  method p o s s i b l e t o sneak home, and as a r e s u l t f o r c e d r e s t r i c t i o n s and punishments on h i m s e l f .  further  The boy's compulsive  d e s i r e to go home i n d i c a t e d the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f g i v i n g casework treatment i n the home, as the boy had to work through h i s f e e l i n g s about h i s own f a m i l y b e f o r e he could accept placement outside  the home.  Richard  t h e r e f o r e , would have  benefited  more from casework s e r v i c e s i n h i s home, w h i l e such s e r v i c e s to the parents would have h e l p e d them to r e s o l v e marital conflicts  The  some o f t h e i r  so they could become more s u i t a b l e p a r e n t s *  C h i l d r e n Who Required Placement Outside T h e i r Home. The number of c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d placement  t h e i r own home t o t a l l e d f o r t y - t h r e e . o f these c h i l d r e n e l i m i n a t e d  The home environment  any p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e n d e r i n g  casework s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r home and thus m a i n t a i n i n g f a m i l y s t a b i l i t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . children's welfare,  outside  their  In the i n t e r e s t s of these  I t was necessary to serve t h e i r needs by  e i t h e r f o s t e r home care or i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .  The two suc-  ceeding s e c t i o n s w i l l i n d i c a t e what types of care and s e r v i c e s these f o r t y - t h r e e c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d *  -  The  C h i l d r e n Who The  64  -  Required F o s t e r Home Care.  ten p r e - s c h o o l i n f a n t s who  obviously required foster  f a m i l y care, were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . found  t h a t f i f t e e n of the remaining  It i s  thirty-three children placed  In Embury House should have r e c e i v e d f o s t e r home c a r e .  Of  these f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n , the o n l y reason n i n e were p l a c e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n was  the f a c t t h a t they were M e t i s .  impossible t o f i n d f o s t e r parents accept  i n t h i s community who  them because of t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n .  c h i l d r e n v a r i e d i n age  I t was would  These f i f t e e n  from s i x years to f i f t e e n y e a r s .  gained n o t h i n g from the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s e r v i c e s .  They a l l  r e q u i r e d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f a m i l y care f r e e from the group p e r i e n c e s and  the r o u t i n e of the i n s t i t u t i o n .  lem posed by the n i n e Metis c h i l d r e n was dependent upon.public be  d i s c u s s e d very  maintenance.  The  ex-  only prob-  the f a c t they were  Therefore, each case w i l l  <  briefly.  W i l l i a m Bass, aged s i x , was h i s mother d i e d .  They  p l a c e d i n Embury House when  His f a t h e r disappeared  shortly  after.  W i l l i a m d i d not appear to have any d i s t u r b a n c e r e g a r d i n g h i s parents.  He found  institution.  i t difficult  to accept  the r o u t i n e of  the  He r e j e c t e d h i s s i s t e r L o r e t t a , aged n i n e , a l s o  i n Embury House, whose p r o t e c t i v e n e s s caused him much annoyance. Susan Adams, aged n i n e , had been an orphan s i n c e she was  six.  She  had l i v e d two years  i n a Roman C a t h o l i c convent  and had been p l a c e d In Embury House p r e p a r a t o r y t o l i v i n g a f o s t e r home.  During her years  stay In the  institution,  Susan r e p e a t e d l y asked to be moved t o a f o s t e r home.  She  In  «* 65 —  e x p r e s s e d no e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , o t h e r whom she c o u l d  than wanting  c a l l h e r own,  Mary C l a r k , a g e d e i g h t , was p l a c e d when h e r m o t h e r d i e d .  After a short  person,  period  i n t h e non-demanding a t m o s p h e r e o f Embury  Mary was r e a d y t o a c c e p t Rodney a n d H a r o l d had  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n  H e r f a t h e r was a n u n s t a b l e  l e a v i n g Mary a d e p e n d e n t c h i l d . experience  parents  been deserted  foster  o f group House,  parents,  G a i n s , aged e i g h t a n d s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  by t h e i r  father a year before  placement.  T h e i r m o t h e r was c o m m i t t e d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l m e n t a l h o s p i t a l a year  later.  B o t h t h e s e b o y s were q u i e t a n d s h y , w i t h d r a w i n g  from the routine The eleven, placed had  and a c t i v i t i e s  Brown f a m i l y ,  Betty,  o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  c o n s i s t i n g o f E l i n o r , twelve,  e i g h t , Margaret,  With the e x c e p t i o n different  f o r several years previous o f G e o r g e , who w i l l  heading, these  Timothy,  seven, and George, s i x , were  i n Embury House when t h e i r m o t h e r d i e d .  been separated  group.  Their  parents  t o placement.  be d i s c u s s e d  c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s e d no deep  under a problems.  T h e r e d i d n o t a p p e a r t o he a n y a f f e c t i o n a l b o n d b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d r e n , w h i c h w o u l d n o t make i t d e s i r a b l e relationships and  through i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement.  M a r g a r e t were e n u r e t i c s ,  loving  i n d i v i d u a l care.  tution's  to preserve Elinor,  I n d i c a t i n g how much t h e y  Timothy c o u l d n o t a c c e p t  family Betty,  required  the i n s t i -  routine.  These n i n e c h i l d r e n a l l r e q u i r e d  f o s t e r home c a r e , n o t  o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y were i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e  children  needing i n d i v i d u a l i z e d care under  hut also  substitute parents,  •»  6 6  —  they were not p r o f i t i n g from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l experience© Because of the f a c t they were Metis no f o s t e r homes were found f o r them, and they remained i n Emhury House, p a r t i a l l y a r r e s t e d i n t h e i r development, F r e d r i c k Hope, aged fourteen and Samuel Hope, aged f i f teen, were placed i n Embury House when t h e i r home l i f e became depraved because of t h e i r mother's p r o s t i t u t i o n .  Their f a t h e r  was an u n s u i t a b l e parent-person who expressed no i n t e r e s t s i n h i s sons w e l f a r e .  Both boys e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s e a s i l y  w i t h a d u l t s , and they expressed no h o s t i l i t y toward t h e i r parents.  F r e d r i c k was an undistrubed adolescent who  disliked  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l r o u t i n e , and b i t t e r l y resented the f a c t he was supposed to "set a s h i n i n g example f o r the younger c h i l d r e n " because of h i s l a r g e r s i z e . who  Samuel was a chronic e n u r e t l c  consequently required the i n d i v i d u a l love and a f f e c t i o n  of f o s t e r parents.  Because of both parent's neglect, these  two boys were deprived of the s e c u r i t y and love of a home, Paul and Vaughan Hart, aged nine and eight r e s p e c t i v e l y , were placed i n Embury House as deprived c h i l d r e n .  The mother  was diagnosed by the Mental Health C l i n i c , Regina, Saskatchewan, as a "psychopath", and cohabited f r e e l y w i t h any man.  The  f a t h e r was weak and incapable of c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n .  \ The  f a m i l y caseworker f e l t that casework treatment w i t h the parents would soon s t a b i l i z e the home, so the boys were placed i n the institution.  They continued t o be l e f t there despite the  l e n g t h and the poor prognosis of treatment w i t h the mother© Both these c h i l d r e n were p h y s i c a l l y weak and Vaughan was  - fc>7 -'  c r i p p l e d i n one l e g from the h i p down.  The group a c t i v i t i e s  and the p l a y of the other c h i l d r e n were too rough f o r them and they s u f f e r e d p h y s i c a l punishment as w e l l as l o s s o f s e l f confidence by t r y i n g to keep up w i t h the other  children.  Harry Sack, aged ten, was p l a c e d i n Embury House a f t e r an u n s u c c e s s f u l f o s t e r home placement. His f i r s t was  Harry was an orphan.  three years had been spent i n an i n s t i t u t i o n .  then p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home f o r f i v e y e a r s .  He  Harry was  r a t e d a h i g h grade moron i n I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t .  His per-  s o n a l h a b i t s were so f i l t h y and d i s g u s t i n g t h a t f o s t e r p a r e n t s would not accept him. A f t e r a year's i n s t i t u t i o n a l was  p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home.  c a r e , Harry  The f o s t e r parents c o u l d n o t  accept h i s r e t a r d e d e f f o r t s and h i s h a b i t s , and he was r e turned to Embury House.  With h i s e a r l y years o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l  care, Harry was a very d e p r i v e d boy.  Two f o s t e r home  o n l y added t o h i s i n f e r i o r i t y and w i t h d r a w a l .  failures  He was r e j e c t e d  by the c h i l d r e n o f Embury House and by members of the s t a f f . Harry r e q u i r e d s k i l l e d treatment and understanding, not a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r i n the average chiatric  f o s t e r home o r i n s t i t u t i o n .  Psy- ,  study was i n d i c a t e d , w i t h c a r e f u l f o s t e r home p l a n n i n g  based upon the d i a g n o s t i c f i n d i n g s . Jane Grat, aged e l e v e n , was p l a c e d i n Embury House when her mother d i e d .  I t was not f e l t the f a t h e r was s u f f i c i e n t l y (  capable of c a r i n g f o r h e r . Jane was a dwarf.  Because o f g l a n d u l a r d i s o r d e r ,  She was e x c e p t i o n a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t .  The  r o u t i n e ' o f the i n s t i t u t i o n and the group a c t i v i t i e s were too d i f f i c u l t f o r her p h y s i c a l l y .  She was pampered by members  -  68 -  of the s t a f f and t h i s was n a t u r a l l y resented by many o f t h e children.  This g i r l ' s a b i l i t y would have had the o p p o r t u n i t y  to develop more e x t e n s i v e l y i n a f o s t e r home which would have been a b l e to accept her d e s p i t e her p h y s i c a l deformity*  The C h i l d r e n Who Required  Institutional  Care*  On the b a s i s of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f n e g l e c t e d and dependent c h i l d r e n b e s t s u i t e d f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care as s t a t e d i n Chapter  I I , there were e i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n a t Embury  House who r e q u i r e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e . c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d two d i s t i n c t  T h i s group of e i g h t e e n  types of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  g e n e r a l care and t r a i n i n g , and study and treatment  service,  care.  A  b r i e f a n a l y s i s of each c h i l d w i l l r e v e a l the i n d i v i d u a l ' s n e c e s s i t y f o r one or the other o f these forms o f s e r v i c e s There were nine c h i l d r e n who c o u l d b e n e f i t most i n t h e i r emotional development and t h e i r needs through the s e r v i c e s o f a g e n e r a l care and t r a i n i n g Robert  institution.  and L i l l i a n Robinson, aged t h i r t e e n and twelve,  were p l a c e d i n Embury House because o f an u n s u i t a b l e home environment.  T h e i r parents had separated the year b e f o r e ,  the mother o b t a i n i n g custody disappeared  immediately,  of the c h i l d r e n .  Their father  and the mother became a p r o s t i t u t e .  There was a s t r o n g t i e between both c h i l d r e n and between the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r mother.  Mrs. Robinson was unable  f o s t e r home care f o r the c h i l d r e n .  to accept  Because of the s e c u r i t y  these c h i l d r e n had w i t h t h e i r mother, they would have found i t too d i f f i c u l t t o enter i n t o the emotional  involvements  of a  -  f o s t e r home.  6 9  -  The mother v i s i t e d them p e r i o d i c a l l y i n the i n -  s t i t u t i o n , and they were able t o form a l i t t l e  family u n i t  w h i l e casework s e r v i c e s were being g i v e n t o the mother t o r e e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own home, Donald Ross, aged f i f t e e n , and Paul Ross, aged twelve, were p l a c e d  i n Embury House when t h e i r mother was h o s p i t a l i z e d  w i t h a lengthy  illness.  T h e i r f a t h e r was c r i p p l e d and a  permanent r e s i d e n t of the P r o v i n c i a l Home f o r the I n f i r m , The  f a m i l y t i e s were s t r o n g and the boys v i s i t e d t h e i r parents  regularly.  Neither  the parents nor c h i l d r e n would have been  a b l e to accept s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t a l c a r e . boys were b u i l d i n g strengths  These  adolescent  i n the group s e t t i n g o f the  institution, W i l l i a m Latens, aged f i f t e e n , was a d i s t u r b e d p l a c e d i n Embury House,  H i s f a t h e r had deserted  s e v e r a l years p r e v i o u s l y . men f o r v a r y i n g lengths prostitution,  adolescent  the f a m i l y  The mother had l i v e d w i t h  various  of time s i n c e then, and had p r a c t i c e d  W i l l i a m had been p l a c e d i n s e v e r a l f o s t e r  homes, u n s u c c e s s f u l l y .  He a d j u s t e d w e l l t o group l i v i n g and  institutional routine.  Other than the o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t home  he had no d e s i r e t o r e t u r n to h i s mother.  This  stabilizing  p e r i o d i n the n e u t r a l environment o f the i n s t i t u t i o n was necessary before W i l l i a m  c o u l d accept f o s t e r  D a r y l Howe, aged f o u r t e e n , was p l a c e d when he had f a i l e d i n twelve s u c c e s s i v e  parents, i n Embury House  f o s t e r homes.  As  w e l l as these f o s t e r home r e j e c t i o n s , D a r y l f e l t r e j e c t e d by his  own f a m i l y .  H i s f a t h e r had deserted when he was a baby  - 70 -  and h i s mother had d i e d when he was sisters  twelve.  His b r o t h e r s and  showed no a f f e c t i o n or i n t e r e s t f o r him.  He was  un-  a b l e to accept the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d care of f o s t e r parents because of these r e j e c t i o n s . ment between f o s t e r homes.  D a r y l needed an i n t e r i m p l a c e The i n s t i t u t i o n d i d not demand  l o v e of him or shower him w i t h l o v e .  T h i s s u p p o r t i v e care  enabled D a r y l t o overcome h i s f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n and accept f o s t e r parents, Joseph B a r t o n , aged t e n , was  p l a c e d i n Embury House when  h i s parents were d i v o r c e d .  Both p a r e n t s t r i e d to o b t a i n  custody of the boy.  t o r n between mother and f a t h e r  He was  with divided l o y a l t i e s .  T h i s c h i l d , having such an  experience,  would have been more confused by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f o s t e r parents w i t h whom h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p would have been u n c e r t a i n . The  i n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d him w i t h a home f r e e from o b l i g a t i o n s  and p a r e n t a l demands, Lynda Gross, aged f o u r t e e n , was  p l a c e d i n Embury House  s h o r t l y a f t e r her parents separated.  Each parent  to e x e r t i n f l u e n c e over the g i r l , who  was  loyalties to  t o both.  attempted  t o r n between her  The mother became a p r o s t i t u t e and  encourage Lynda t o j o i n h e r .  The f a t h e r was  a b l e to h o l d  the f a m i l y of f o u r c h i l d r e n together u n t i l he was an a c c i d e n t and h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r many months.  tried  injured i n  Because of her  i n a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and becaus'e of the d i s t u r b a n c e s i n c i d e n t a l to adolescence, Lynda was w e l l p l a c e d i n Embury House, Jens Jensen, aged s i x t e e n , was  p l a c e d i n Embury House  - 71 -  a f t e r s e v e r a l f o s t e r home f a i l u r e s . pendence and gang acquaintances. f o s t e r parents' r e s t r i c t i o n s .  He desired, more Inde-  He was unable t o accept the  In the i n s t i t u t i o n Jens  a b l e to enjoy f r i e n d s i n the group a c t i v i t i e s , without f e e l i n g s of f a m i l y dependency. Jens was  was having  A f t e r a p e r i o d of group care  able to a d j u s t t o f o s t e r parents who  supported h i s  increasing maturity. The remaining nine c h i l d r e n i n Embury House a l s o r e q u i r e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, but w i t h the emphasis on a type of s e r v i c e .  These c h i l d r e n had deep-seated  different  problems r e -  q u i r i n g an i n t e n s i v e casework program combined w i t h group therapy t o help t h e i r emotional development and  adjustment.  Each of these nine c h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d by the p s y c h i a t r i s t a t the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H e a l t h C l i n i c , Regina, and i n each case h i s d i a g n o s i s emphasized the s e r i o u s n e s s of the emotional d i s t u r b a n c e and the need f o r i n t e n s i v e u s u a l l y under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance.  treatment,  The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s  of the i n d i v i d u a l cases w i l l r e v e a l the n e c e s s i t y f o r such d i a g n o s i s and  treatment.  George Brown, aged s i x , was  p l a c e d i n Embury House a l o n g  w i t h h i s b r o t h e r and t h r e e s i s t e r s when h i s mother d i e d . George's f a t h e r separated from the f a m i l y when George three.  There was  little  was  l o v e between the s i b l i n g s , and George  even seemed r e j e c t e d by h i s b r o t h e r and  sisters.  He was  a  submissive c h i l d , r e f u s i n g to defend h i s p r o p e r t y w i t h c h i l d r e n younger and s m a l l e r than h i m s e l f .  He seemed a f r a i d ^ o f a d u l t s  and w h i l e i n t h e i r presence h i s mental r e a c t i o n s were v e r y  72  slow.  He was  when l y i n g  a c h r o n i c e n u r e t l c who  i n a wet  bed.  George was  was  t e r r i f i e d of dogs and  would s t i f f e n i n t o a r i g i d p o s i t i o n and w i t h i n f i f t y yards  of him.  completely a p a t h e t i c  scream i f one  came  When a l o n e i n the sand p i l e ,  he  would swing h i s f i s t s and w r e s t l e on the ground as i f he were b e a t i n g an opponent, a group.  George very seldom spoke and never i n  He expressed no v i s i b l e forms of emotion w h i l e i n  a group or w i t h another person.  T h i s boy had such g r e a t  h o s t i l i t y demanding e x p r e s s i o n and the need f o r without  acceptance  h i s g i v i n g a n y t h i n g i n r e t u r n , that only i n an  t u t i o n c o u l d he r e c e i v e encouragement and Clarence Hogan, aged eleven, was  i n t e n s i v e treatment,  p l a c e d i n Embury House  a f t e r he had r u n away from home s e v e r a l t i m e s .  In c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h a neighbouring boy he had robbed s e v e r a l t i l l s stores.  The d i s t r i c t . s o c i a l worker, c o u l d f i n d no  home f o r C l a r e n c e , which was was  a very r e j e c t e d c h i l d .  an unwanted c h i l d .  in local  foster  best f o r h i s development as There was  marital conflict  f a m i l y and much of t h i s stemmed from the f a c t was  insti-  T h i s boy was  he  i n the  t h a t Clarence  d i s t r u s t f u l and  un-  c e r t a i n of a d u l t s , but he h i d h i s m i s g i v i n g s under a c l o a k of d o c i l i t y .  He needed casework therapy i n working  h i s b i t t e r n e s s toward h i s p a r e n t s , and r e l a t i n g  through  satisfactorily  to a d u l t s , P h i l l i p Peppard had been p l a c e d i n Embury, House twice b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the age o f f i v e . of age, year.  The f i r s t was  a t two  the second a t f o u r , both placements l a s t i n g P h i l l i p ' s mother was  years  f o r one  k i l l e d i n a car a c c i d e n t s h o r t l y  - 73 -  after his birth*  The f a t h e r who was i n j u r e d i n the c r a s h ,  deserted the c h i l d .  P h i l l i p l i v e d i n s e v e r a l f o s t e r homes  between placements i n Embury House. hinged baby." at  The f o s t e r home f a i l u r e s  around the b e l i e f P h i l l i p was a "nuisance  and a c r y -  P h i l l i p was the b u t t of the groups' jokes and t a u n t s  Embury House.  He withdrew from a l l a c t i v i t i e s and would  not  leave the c o n f i n e s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n u n l e s s f o r c e d t o do  so.  I f any of the s t a f f gave him some a t t e n t i o n he would not  leave t h e i r s i d e , and would f o l l o w them about d u r i n g d u t i e s l i k e a p e t animal. the matron and the w r i t e r .  their  He was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t a c h e d to Whenever P h i l l i p was g i v e n a  chance he would shower k i s s e s on them as i f obsessed, and c l i n g to them i n a d e a t h - l i k e g r i p . i n a world o f h i s own phantasy.  P h i l l i p l i v e d and moved  Many of h i s phantasies  around h i s parents and h i s e a r l y y e a r s .  dwelt  I t Is obvious how  much t h i s boy r e q u i r e d study and treatment  under p s y c h i a t r i c  c o n s u l t a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a c a r e f u l f o s t e r home placement, Henry P a s t o r , aged n i n e , was p l a c e d i n Embury House a f t e r he had f a i l e d i n a s e r i e s o f f o s t e r homes. an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d . institution. The  His f i r s t  Henry was  two years were spent  i n an  Then f o l l o w e d the sequence o f f o s t e r homes.  f a i l u r e I n each added to Henry's b a s i c r e j e c t i o n .  In  the f i r s t , f o s t e r homes Henry's f a i l u r e t o a d j u s t was due to his  i n a b i l i t y to respond and r e l a t e to the f o s t e r  parents.  They a l l f e l t he was an impossible " p r o b l e m - c h i l d . " l a t e r f o s t e r home placements Henry developed  In h i s  unacceptable  e x c r e t o r y h a b i t s , which r e s u l t e d In h i s placement i n Embury  .« 74  House.  -  The deep r e j e c t i o n s u f f e r e d by t h i s boy, p l u s h i s  d i s s o c i a l means of e x p r e s s i n g h i s h o s t i l i t y toward a d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y women, r e q u i r e d study and treatment under p s y c h i a tric  consultation* Gary S t r a t t o n , aged twelve, was  p l a c e d i n Embury House  a f t e r three short f o s t e r home placements ended i n f a i l u r e * Gary's mother had d i e d when he was t e n . again shortly a f t e r .  His father married  Gary's d i s s o c i a l behaviour began w i t h  the advent of h i s step-mother i n t h e i r home.  This  step-mother  "completely r e j e c t e d Gary and i n f l u e n c e d the f a t h e r a g a i n s t the boy.  The f a t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p had never been  nor s t a b l e .  strong  Gary began r u n n i n g away from home, sometimes  s t a y i n g away f o r s e v e r a l days. s e v e r a l department  stores.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r him.  He was  caught p i l f e r i n g i n  H i s parents r e f u s e d t o accept any  Gary was  then p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r  home where h i s behaviour problems continued, as t h e y d i d through two more f o s t e r homes. House.  He was  then p l a c e d i n Embury  Gary was not capable o f a c c e p t i n g a mother-person so  s h o r t l y a f t e r the death o f h i s mother, and the severe r e j e c t i o n he s u f f e r e d from h i s f a t h e r and step-mother n e c e s s i t a t e d the a c c e p t i n g a t t i t u d e of the i n s t i t u t i o n combined w i t h the nondemanding nature of group c a r e .  He needed  s k i l l e d case work  s e r v i c e s i n h e l p i n g him work through h i s f e e l i n g s about h i s r e j e c t i o n s , and i n l e a r n i n g a g a i n to g i v e l o v e as w e l l as t o demand i t * Robert D a n i e l s , aged t h i r t e e n , was p l a c e d i n Embury House when h i s grandparents became too o l d to care f o r him.  Robert  -  75  was  an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , whose mother gave him to h e r parents  and  then disappeared.  parents.  The boy was o v e r p r o t e c t e d by h i s grand-  When placement was asked f o r , the d i s t r i c t  worker found Robert s t i l l  social  s l e e p i n g w i t h h i s grandmother, and  s c a r c e l y a b l e to f e e d h i m s e l f . f e e l i n g s over h i s incestuous  Robert had r e p r e s s e d h i s g u i l t  d e s i r e s toward the grandmother,  and had r e g r e s s e d i n t o a p r e - p s y c h o t i c stage. how much t h i s boy r e q u i r e d treatment  -It i s c l e a r  under p s y c h i a t r i c  con-  sultation. F r e d r i c k H o l t , aged eleven, was p l a c e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a f t e r a k n i f e a t t a c k on h i s mother. was  Fredrick's father  a Bermudean, who had l e f t h i s w i f e .shortly a f t e r F r e d r i c k ' s  birth.  The f a t h e r remained i n Bermuda w h i l e h i s w i f e and  son r e t u r n e d to her home i n Regina.  F r e d r i c k c o u l d not r e -  member h i s f a t h e r , and had had no f a t h e r - p e r s o n t o i d e n t i f y w i t h through h i s Oedipal s i t u a t i o n .  F r e d r i c k had caused much  t r o u b l e i n h i s home neighbourhood, and he was c o n s i d e r e d a behaviour  problem i n s c h o o l .  Mrs. H o l t asked f o r placement  a f t e r F r e d r i c k had a t t a c k e d her w i t h a butcher k n i f e i n a wild scuffle.  F r e d r i c k was extremely  p u n i t i v e towards the .  younger c h i l d r e n i n Embury House, and i f g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y alone he would bash a s m a l l e r boy's head a g a i n s t the w a l l or floor.  S e v e r a l times  he a t t a c k e d s m a l l e r g i r l s w i t h a t a b l e  knife.  Mrs. Holt c o u l d not overcome her g u i l t f e e l i n g s about  having f a i l e d i n r a i s i n g F r e d r i c k , which was l i n k e d w i t h the f a i l u r e o f her marriage.  She continued  to take F r e d r i c k home,  but h i s a g g r e s s i o n towards h i s mother would n e c e s s i t a t e h i s  - 76 -  return.  T h i s mother could not have accepted  f o s t e r home  placement f o r h e r son because i t would have been too t h r e a t e n i n g to her own dependency needs on the boy. c o u l d not have accepted  f o s t e r home care as he was unable to  respond to a d u l t a f f e c t i o n . tendencies  Fredrick, also,  As there were  pre-psychotic  expressed i n F r e d r i c k ' s r e a c t i o n s , he r e q u i r e d .  study and treatment under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance© M u r i e l Rodgers, aged t h i r t e e n , was p l a c e d i n Embury House because o f n e g l e c t and c r u e l t y . r e j e c t e d from b i r t h by h e r f a t h e r .  T h i s g i r l had been  The f a m i l y was o f German  n a t i o n a l i t y and the f a t h e r r u l e d the f a m i l y w i t h a t y r a n n i c a l hand.  M u r i e l ' s mother s c a r c e l y entered  into her l i f e .  an e a r l y age M u r i e l was obese; t h i s Increased  From  w i t h age as h e r  compulsive e a t i n g was used t o s a t i s f y her emotional needs© Mr. Rodgers f o r c e d M u r i e l t o do the farm chores around home, and would keep h e r from s c h o o l u n t i l the t r u a n t f o r c e d him to r e l e a s e her. beatings was  from her f a t h e r .  starved for a f f e c t i o n .  officer  M u r i e l s u f f e r e d many p h y s i c a l T h i s d e p r i v e d and r e j e c t e d c h i l d She was unable t o accept  home because she demanded the whole and u n d i v i d e d  a foster  attention  of the f o s t e r home, and was not able t o respond t o the f o s t e r mother i n r e t u r n .  M u r i e l r e q u i r e d a p e r i o d o f group care t o  absorb new r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and a l s o carework s e r v i c e s t o help her work through h e r rejection© L o r e t t a Bass, aged n i n e , was p l a c e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a f t e r s e v e r a l quick f o s t e r home placements©  L o r e t t a ' s mother  d i e d when she was three years o l d , and her f a t h e r d e s e r t e d h e r  - 77 -  and  her i n f a n t b r o t h e r , W i l l i a m ,  placed  L o r e t t a was  i n three f o s t e r homes where she l i v e d f o r n e a r l y two  years. she  shortly after.  She was then p l a c e d i n a Roman C a t h o l i c convent where  l i v e d f o r three y e a r s .  Loretta»s stay i n her next f o u r  f o s t e r home placements was j u s t a matter o f weeks i n each. T h i s g i r l had an i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t She was attempting a chronic enuretlc.  her t h i r d year i n grade one. L o r e t t a was Her appearance and a c t i o n s presented a  p i c t u r e of.complete apathy. all  i n the moron r a t i n g .  L o r e t t a was r e j e c t e d by n e a r l y  the c h i l d r e n i n Embury House as w e l l as by her b r o t h e r  W i l l i a m , aged s i x .  She l i v e d i n a world o f phantasy, b u i l t  around her dreams o f a home to which she would soon be r e * t u r n i n g , and dreams of h e r s e l f as the queen of Embury House. One  questions  whether t h i s c h i l d was r e a l l y r e t a r d e d  or whether she was completely reality.  mentally  withdrawing from the w o r l d o f  I t i s obvious how d e s p e r a t e l y  this  pre-psychotic  c h i l d r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i v e casework study and treatment under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance. On the b a s i s o f the type of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d to s a t i s f y the c h i l d r e n ' s needs, i t i s v a l i d to assume from t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e y e a r l y p o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House during 1949-1950, t h a t t h e major purpose of t h i s t u t i o n during t h i s p e r i o d was as a "stop-gap". it for  insti-  By "stop-gap",  i s meant that Embury House was used as a "dumping ground" those c h i l d r e n whose needs could n o t be f u l f i l l e d  satis-  f a c t o r i l y by the C h i l d Welfare program o f Saskatchewan, or who r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i v e casework s e r v i c e s which the s o c i a l  - 78 —  workers d i d not have the time to render. a convenient  In a d d i t i o n , i t was  " c a t c h - a l l " f o r those c h i l d r e n who because o f  the nature o f t h e i r emotional  d i s t u r b a n c e s and consequent  r e a c t i o n s could be p l a c e d i n Embury House and f o r g o t t e n . , T h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s v i v i d l y p o r t r a y e d i n Table 2, where i t i s shown t h a t out o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e monthly p o p u l a t i o n o f f i f t y c h i l d r e n only e i g h t e e n of these were s u i t a b l e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care.  Furthermore, o f these e i g h t e e n , the needs o f  o n l y nine c h i l d r e n c o u l d be p a r t i a l l y served by t h e program the . i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r e d d u r i n g t h i s time.  In Chapter IV  the e v a l u a t i o n of. the program o f Embury House d u r i n g 19491950 w i l l r e v e a l the I n s t i t u t i o n ' s i n a b i l i t y t o serve the n i n e s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g study and Moreover, a c c o r d i n g to a l l modern i n s t i t u t i o n a l  treatment* standards,  Embury House c o u l d only p a r t i a l l y serve the needs o f the nine c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g g e n e r a l care because o f the f a c t there was no t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker employed i n the i n s t i t u tion.  T h e r e f o r e , o n l y nine c h i l d r e n out of a t o t a l  fifty,  or e i g h t e e n per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , c o u l d be partially  served by Embury House©  Table Z A summary of the types of services required "by -the population of Embury House during 1949-1950. Number Per of Cases ,Cent  Group  Services Required  I  These children would have profited more in their emotional development through case work services at home "because there were no cases of '; neglect, only dependency. This dependency could have "been overcome through adequate financial aid', thereby leaving the child in the role.most conducive to his over-all "benefit, a part of his own family unit..  7  14  These children could not receive services in their own homes because of the lack of a home through the death or desertion of one or both parents, the neglect of the parents, or the illness of a single parent. They were capable of relating to adults and accepting substitute parents. Foster family care is the closest substitute for the satisfactions the child derives from being loved and wanted as a part of a family,' therefore, this right to maximum development, in accordance with their needs, in a foster home should not be denied by institutional placement, where the services were not applicable to the' needs of these children.  25  50  9  18  9  18  50  100  II  III  These children were suitable for the forms of care and services offered "by two distinct types of institutions. Because of the conflicting elements of attempting to combine two programs to • ; serve two different types of needs, these children should have had the availability of the two inst- \ itutions below. (a) Those children who could not accept substitute parents and who required a nondemanding group experience, required general care and training. (b) Those children who were seriously disturbed in their emotional development, required intensive individual case work services and treatment under the guidance of a psychiatrist. TOTAL  i  CHAPTER IV THE PROGRAM AND FACILITIES  In d i s c u s s i n g the program o f f e r e d to the dependent and n e g l e c t e d  c h i l d r e n coming to Embury House during  1949,  t h i s study w i l l i n c l u d e a l l the s e r v i c e s rendered to these children.  It w i l l also include  the s t a f f employed a t Embury  House, because any s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d q u a l i t y of the f u n c t i o n i n g  staff.  a r e o n l y as good as the  The c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u -  a t i n g the s t a f f and s e r v i c e s w i l l be the State  of Washington's 1  Standards f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s C a r i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , r e f e r r e d to as the Washington Standards. standards have drawn t o g e t h e r recent  hereafter  These s u c c i n t  t h i n k i n g i n the f i e l d  o f standards f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r c h i l d r e n on the p a r t of persons working d i r e c t l y i n that f i e l d .  Where the e v a l -  u a t i o n a p p l i e s to an i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y the w r i t e r w i l l use h i s own measurement based on p e r s o n a l  observation.  These  c r i t e r i a apply to every type o f i n s t i t u t i o n c a r i n g f o r c h i l dren.  In t h i s study they w i l l be considered  the b a s i c founda-  t i o n upon which s u i t a b l e s e r v i c e s can be b u i l t tions caring f o r children. evaluated 10,  for institu-  The Embury House program w i l l be  under the broad areas o f :  (1) s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o -  1 Washington, Department of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , February 1950,  - 81  ~  gram, (2) p h y s i c a l needs of the c h i l d , t r a i n i n g , and  (4)  (3) e d u c a t i o n  and  staff.  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Program, This aspect  of the program around which the whole pur-  pose of Embury House should r e v o l v e , namely, p r o v i d i n g the s e r v i c e s to meet the needs of the c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , was tion.  s e r i o u s l y l a c k i n g i n q u a l i t y and) i n o r g a n i z a -  Instead of a s o c i a l s e r v i c e program e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n  the i n s t i t u t i o n and  c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h the o v e r a l l c h i l d c a r i n g  program of Embury House, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r case work s e r v i c e s was  c a r r i e d out haphazardly by s o c i a l workers from the c e n t r a l  agency of the C h i l d Welfare Branch i n Regina, and by  those  rural district  insti-  tution.  Due  s o c i a l workers who  to the pressure  had c l i e n t s i n the  of case loads these  workers i n t e r v i e w e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r cases  social  In Embury House  o n l y upon the i n s i s t e n c e of the matron that the c h i l d s u f f e r i n g from the l a c k of case work s e r v i c e s . matron nor any  dren.  As was  Neither  of the s t a f f employed i n Embury House  a u t h o r i z e d to g i v e case work i n any  form to any  was  was  of the  i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2, only e i g h t e e n per  the  chilcent  of the p o p u l a t i o n should have been placed i n Embury House a c c o r d i n g to the s e r v i c e s they needed. harmful i n t a k e p o l i c y was v i c e program.  This i n e f f i c i e n t  and  t y p i c a l of the e n t i r e s o c i a l s e r -  The v a l i d i t y of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n w i l l be borne  out i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f the f o u r aspects case work s e r v i c e s , namely,  of  institutional  (1) i n t a k e , (2) case work s e r v i c e s  - 82 <-  to  the c h i l d r e n w h i l e under c a r e , (3) d i s c h a r g e , and  (4) r e c o r d s . Intake. House w i t h l i t t l e perience.  C h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n Embury-  or no p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r  coming ex-  They were taken from t h e i r homes or f o s t e r f a m i l y  homes by the d i s t r i c t  s o c i a l worker and w i t h t h e i r  were d e p o s i t e d i n the care o f the matron. admission c a r d or entrance procedure. seldom had time t o n o t i f y  possessions  There was no f o r m a l  The s o c i a l worker  the matron that she would be p l a c i n g  a c h i l d i n Embury House, and many times o n l y the c h i l d ' s name and r e l i g i o n would be g i v e n to the matron or house s t a f f person on duty.  As the o n l y Information o b t a i n a b l e r e g a r d i n g  the c h i l d , h i s background, h i s problems, h i s needs, had t o be secured from h i s s o c i a l worker, the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s knowledge of the c h i l d depended e n t i r e l y on the s o c i a l worker's limited to  time, or h e r d e s i r e t o d i s c l o s e the above i n f o r m a t i o n  the matron.  stitution's  Information r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d f o r the i n - .  purpose was made s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t t o secure  by the r e g u l a t i o n that a l l the c h i l d r e n ' s case r e c o r d s were kept i n a c e n t r a l  f i l i n g department at C h i l d Welfare head-  q u a r t e r s , and none of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  s t a f f could o b t a i n  i n f o r m a t i o n from these case r e c o r d s . In c o n t r a s t , compare t h i s i n t a k e recommendation from the Washington Standards. ceptance  "When a d e c i s i o n i n r e g a r d t o a c -  o f the c h i l d i s reached,  the s t a f f must be g i v e n  s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f the c h i l d and h i s needs io  know how  ^  8 3  ^  to r e c e i v e him, i n what group to p l a c e him, and how t o meet 2  s i t u a t i o n s t h a t come up". The  i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l worker had. complete a u t h o r i t y as  to whom she wanted to p l a c e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . and  The matron  the house s t a f f had no v o i c e i n r e g a r d t o what c h i l d r e n  should be accepted  f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, o t h e r than t o stop  i n t a k e when the i n s t i t u t i o n was p h y s i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f abs o r b i n g another c h i l d because of l a c k o f space. it  Therefore,  i s seen that the i n t a k e p o l i c y o f Embury House was n o t made  by the i n s t i t u t i o n and based on the type o f s e r v i c e s the i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d o f f e r to meet the c h i l d ' s needs, but was determined by the s o c i a l workers who used the i n s t i t u t i o n as a resource  r e g a r d l e s s o f the time they had to o f f e r  supple-  mental s e r v i c e s , such as home s u p e r v i s i o n or f o s t e r home placement.  Lack of any r e a l i n t e r e s t  i n the placement was  i n d i c a t e d by the l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n to the matron and house s t a f f a t the time of placement, and l i m i t e d to  support  the c h i l d during the placement• 2,  under c a r e .  Case work s e r v i c e s to the c h i l d r e n w h i l e  Embury House d i d not have the s e r v i c e s o f a  caseworker employed w i t h i n the I n s t i t u t i o n . district  Instead, the  s o c i a l worker who p l a c e d the c h i l d t h e r e ,  to be that c h i l d ' s case worker.  continued  No member of t h e i n s t i t u -  t i o n ' s s t a f f nor other caseworker was a u t h o r i z e d t o o f f e r 2 I b i d . , p . 21  - 84 -  s e r v i c e s to t h i s c h i l d .  Consequently, the case; work s e r v i c e s  r e c e i v e d by the c h i l d depended e n t i r e l y upon the time h i s district  s o c i a l worker could a l l o t  to h i s needs.  As a r e s u l t  oi' the overwhelming case loads c a r r i e d by many of these s o c i a l workers,  i t was always a matter of weeks and sometimes  even a month b e f o r e a c h i l d c o u l d t a l k w i t h h i s case worker. It  i s obvious how u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and inadequate t h i s type Of  case work s e r v i c e was f o r the c h i l d . The Washington Standards  state:  "Throughout  the whole  p e r i o d of the c h i l d ' s s t a y i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , the case worker s h a l l work c l o s e l y w i t h him, h e l p i n g him t o understand and accept h i s own f e e l i n g s and to l e a r n new and more 3  satisfying  ways o f g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e " . In  Chapter I I I I t was shown that many o f the c h i l d r e n  were p l a c e d i n Embury House not only because ness of t h e i r problems but a l s o because quate s e r v i c e s t o meet t h e i r needs.  o f the s e r i o u s -  o f the l a c k o f ade-  As the r e s u l t of these  inadequacies and l a c k o f case work s e r v i c e s , the c h i l d r e n i n the i n s t i t u t i o n formed a k i n d o f " f o r g o t t e n group". district  s o c i a l workers many times expressed t h e i r  The concern  to  the w r i t e r over having p l a c e d t h e i r c l i e n t s i n the care  of  the matron and then p r a c t i c a l l y n e g l e c t i n g them.  The  matron and the house s t a f f c a r r i e d on as w e l l as they c o u l d under the circumstances but many times they had to handle s i t u a t i o n s and behaviour t h a t they d i d not understand. 3 I b i d . , p, 22  —  8 5  —  The matron i n v a r i a b l y assumed much of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  the p l a n n i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n w h i l e under her c a r e .  This  was most u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r b o t h p a r t i e s , as the matron d i d not have enough i n f o r m a t i o n from the s o c i a l worker r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d ' s fessional  needs, and the c h i l d was not r e c e i v i n g the pro-  case work s e r v i c e s he r e q u i r e d .  D e s p i t e the cap-  a b i l i t i e s of the matron i t was too o f t e n assumed by the s o c i a l workers that as soon as they p l a c e d t h e i r matron's care a l l would be w e l l .  c l i e n t i n the  The matron a l s o a c t e d as  the l i a i s o n person between the c h i l d and the community s e r v i c e s he used. states:  I n comparison, the Washington Standards  "The s o c i a l worker, because o f her o v e r - a l l r e -  sponsibility  f o r the p l a n n i n g f o r the c h i l d , needs to use  other community s e r v i c e s .  F o r t h i s reason  she s h o u l d be  the l i a i s o n person between the i n s t i t u t i o n and the commun4 ity". In o n l y one case o f the f i f t y a n a l y z e d was a conference  In t h i s  study,  h e l d r e g a r d i n g a c h i l d I n Embury House,  betv/een the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  s t a f f and the case worker.  This  l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s and the suggestions of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  house s t a f f and the case worker's know-  ledge of the s i t u a t i o n ,  prevented  what s e r v i c e s the i n d i v i d u a l of  institutional  care.  the house s t a f f from knowing  c h i l d r e q u i r e d during h i s p e r i o d  This a l s o caused the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  s t a f f , as w e l l as the c h i l d r e n , to f e e l remote from the case 4 Loc. c i t .  - 86 -  workers and t h e i r  services.  The c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l workers  d i d h o l d o c c a s i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l conferences w i t h the matron, and as a r e s u l t  of these conferences the i n s t i t u t i o n d i d have  some leads to f o l l o w i n p r o v i d i n g f o r the c h i l d .  But these  conferences w i t h the matron d i d not i n c l u d e o t h e r members o f the house s t a f f ,  thus e l i m i n a t i n g much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n  to b o t h the case worker and the house s t a f f .  The case work  s e r v i c e s w i t h the c h i l d r e n w h i l e under care a t Embury House were t o t a l l y  inadequate.  There was g r e a t need o f a case worker w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n who would u t i l i z e the house s t a f f ' s knowledge o f the c h i l d r e n and draw them i n t o the f o r m u l a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e programs of s e r v i c e f o r the c h i l d r e n , as i n d i c a t e d by the Washington Standards.  "Since the c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s  a f f e c t e d by h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s to a l l the members o f the s t a f f , the s o c i a l worker needs to understand  these r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  to work through the v a r i o u s s t a f f members.  T h i s can be done  through i n d i v i d u a l conferences w i t h s t a f f members and through group meetings where the problems o f the s p e c i f i c  c h i l d or  5 material relating 3,  to c h i l d  care a r e d i s c u s s e d " .  Discharge.  The c h i l d was taken from Embury  House by h i s s o c i a l worker when the matron i n s i s t e d not p r o f i t i n g  from i n s t i t u t i o n a l  he was  c a r e , when he c o u l d be r e -  turned t o h i s own home, or when a s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home had' been found.  There were no standards by which the c h i l d was  judged ready to leave the group experience and accept a home 5 Loc. c i t .  -  environment.  8 7  ~  The c h i l d ' s discharge was d i s c u s s e d when e i t h e r  the matron suggested he s h o u l d leave or when the c h i l d asked to he removed; otherwise  he remained i n Embury House u n t i l  the s o c i a l worker decided he r e q u i r e d another type o f c a r e . There were no p e r i o d i c e v a l u a t i o n s of the c h i l d ' s E v a l u a t i o n s were l i m i t e d . t o those had  c h i l d r e n the s o c i a l workers  time to d i s c u s s w i t h the matron on t h e i r  visits.  situation.  infrequent  The a f t e r c a r e and s u p e r v i s i o n o f the c h i l d when he  l e f t Embury House was a f u n c t i o n of h i s d i s t r i c t  social  worker. In c o n t r a s t the Washington Standards s t a t e :  "When t h e  c h i l d has p r o f i t e d s u f f i c i e n t l y from i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement to r e t u r n home o r t o use another type o f care, he i s ready f o r discharge.  I n order to determine i f a c h i l d i s ready  f o r discharge a p e r i o d i c r e e v a l u a t i o n of h i s s i t u a t i o n must be made and recorded  i n the r e c o r d .  Such e v a l u a t i o n s  should  b be made a t l e a s t every 4,  s i x months."  Records.  The only r e c o r d o f the c h i l d kept  by Embury House was the admission  i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by the  s o c i a l worker, and the e n t r y of the c h i l d ' s presence i n the daily register.  No case r e c o r d was kept of the c h i l d by the  institution's staff.  A l l r e c o r d i n g o f the c h i l d ' s  was done by h i s s o c i a l worker.  The s o c i a l worker's  situation information  r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d , other, than that a c q u i r e d d u r i n g h e r v i s i t s , was o b t a i n e d from the matron. 6 Loc. c i t .  The means of r e c o r d i n g was i n -  - 88 efficient.  The  i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n c e n t r e d around those i n -  c i d e n t s which remained c l e a r i n the matron's mind s e v e r a l weeks or more a f t e r they o c c u r r e d .  I t i s i n e v i t a b l e that w i t h  the pressures of work, the matron c o u l d not remember every s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n of f i f t y c h i l d r e n over a space of weeks. The c h i l d ' s r e c o r d w h i l e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n was very s p a r s e .  I t s contents tended  consequently  to focus on a t t e n t i o n -  g e t t i n g m a t e r i a l , and much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n which would have been h e l p f u l i n f o r m u l a t i n g f u t u r e plans to s u i t c h i l d ' s needs was  the  neglected.  P h y s i c a l Needs of the  Child,  This p a r t of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s program w i l l be  evaluated  i n terms of the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c p h y s i c a l needs of the (1) d i e t , care. to  (2) c l o t h i n g ,  (3) p e r s o n a l hygiene,  The program o f an i n s t i t u t i o n must be  and  (4) medical  directly  the p h y s i c a l needs of the c h i l d r e n under care.  requirement  i n any  children:  related  A basic  i n s t i t u t i o n c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n must be  the adequate p r o v i s i o n of the necessary every c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l wants.  facilities  A c h i l d l i v i n g i n an  to  satisfy  institu-  t i o n has the same p h y s i c a l needs as a c h i l d i n h i s own  home.  In a d d i t i o n the c h i l d l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n has  other  needs to compensate him f o r h i s l a c k o f a home and  the q u a l -  i t i e s of a home environment, i f he i s to develop i n accordance  with his 1,  Die t .  emotionally  age, The  food a t Embury House i s purchased  and prepared by a s k i l l e d cook.  The  q u a l i t y , the p r e p a r a t i o n ,  89  and the s e r v i n g of the f o o d a t Embury House i s e x c e l l e n t . ' The P r o v i n c i a l N u t r i t i o n i s t , who d i e t i c i a n , prepares  i s a s k i l l e d and  experienced  the menu f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s meals  every week, and she p e r i o d i c a l l y checks the c a l o r i e of the food.  content  The k i t c h e n c o n t a i n s modern e l e c t r i c a l  equipment  t o prepare the f o o d , and two l a r g e r e f r i g e r a t o r s keep a l l p e r i s h a b l e food and the m i l k a t low  temperatures.  In Embury House not only i s the q u a l i t y o f the f o o d h i g h , but there i s u n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y . t a b l e hungry.  No c h i l d l e a v e s the  The atmosphere i n which the c h i l d r e n eat t h e i r  m e a l s . i s both commendable and condemnableo i s g a y l y p a i n t e d and w e l l l i g h t e d .  The d i n i n g room  The s t a f f s i t at the same  t a b l e s as the c h i l d r e n and eat the same f o o d . repeated b e f o r e each meal.  The grace i s  On the o t h e r hand, the c h i l d r e n  must l i n e up i n two rows, the boys i n one l i n e and the g i r l s i n the o t h e r , o u t s i d e the d i n i n g room door at the sound of a dinner b e l l .  When everyone i s i n l i n e the c h i l d r e n march  to t h e i r s e a t s .  T a l k i n g i s kept a t a minimum, ahd an atmos-  phere of f e a r f u l , h u r r i e d e a t i n g pervades the d i n i n g room on many o c c a s i o n s .  This t y p i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e g i m e n t a t i o n and  r o u t i n e should be abandoned. camaraderie  conducive  To have the c h e e r f u l n e s s and  to wholesome e a t i n g and e a t i n g h a b i t s ,  there should be a minimum o f r o u t i n e and more f l e x i b i l i t y i n rules at this  time.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n compares most f a v o r a b l y w i t h the Washington Standards  which s t a t e :  "A balanced d i e t , a d j u s t e d to age and  p h y s i c a l development of the c h i l d ,  s h a l l be p r o v i d e d .  The  -  90  -  f o o d s h a l l he wholesome i n q u a l i t y , ample i n q u a n t i t y , and of s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y to ensure h e a l t h . kept c l e a n and at a temperature  low enough to prevent  t i o n ... Menus should be checked no member of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  A l l food s h a l l  deteriora-  r e g u l a r l y by a d i e t i c i a n .  If  s t a f f i s q u a l i f i e d to o f f e r  t h i s s e r v i c e , c o n s u l t a t i o n should be o b t a i n e d elsewhere Meals should be  he  ..•  served as a t t r a c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e and meal-  time s h a l l be a happy o c c a s i o n w i t h time a l l o w e d f o r a normal 7 amount of c o n v e r s a t i o n and u n h u r r i e d e a t i n g . " 2.  Clothing.  The c h i l d r e n at Embury House,  l i k e a l l c h i l d wards of the C h i l d Welfare Branch of wan,  r e c e i v e c l o t h i n g allowance  allowance  every y e a r .  This clothing  i s adequate to supply a l l the c l o t h e s they need  throughout  the y e a r .  They are p e r m i t t e d to choose c l o t h e s of  t h e i r l i k i n g , and are thus g i v e n a f e e l i n g of The  Saskatche-  individuality.  c h i l d ' s s o c i a l worker i s s u e s a r e q u i s i t i o n , s t a t i n g the  type of c l o t h e s the c h i l d has asked f o r , and p r i c e of each i t e m .  The  the approximate  c h i l d then does h i s own  a t a s t o r e where he f i n d s c l o t h e s of h i s own l i m i t a t i o n i s the amount of money he  shopping  choice.  His o n l y  can spend on each article©  Each c h i l d has h i s c l o t h i n g i n i t i a l e d and he keeps i t i n h i s locker. shop.  Shoes are kept i n good r e p a i r a t a c i t y shoe r e p a i r The  q u a l i t y of the c l o t h e s of the c h i l d r e n a t Embury  House i s s u p e r i o r to t h a t o f the c h i l d r e n i n the communities* 7 I b i d . , p.  25,  surrounding  -  91  -  The c l o t h i n g p r o v i s i o n s of the c h i l d r e n i n Embury House compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h the Washington Standards. of dress f o r the c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s h a l l be to that of the average community.  "The  standard  comparable  c h i l d w i t h whom he a s s o c i a t e s i n the  Each c h i l d s h a l l be helped to m a i n t a i n h i s i n -  d i v i d u a l i t y i n the group by having h i s own  c l o t h i n g that i s  marked w i t h h i s name and t h a t d i f f e r s i n p a t t e r n and d e s i g n from the garments worn by the other c h i l d r e n .  Where p o s s i b l e 8  the c h i l d s h a l l have a p a r t i n the s e l e c t i o n of h i s c l o t h i n g . " 3.  P e r s o n a l hygiene.  washrooms and t o i l e t ulation.  facilities  The c h i l d r e n had  There were i n s u f f i c i e n t  i n Embury House f o r the pop-  to wait much too l o n g f o r t h e i r  t u r n to wash and perform t h e i r t o i l e t , evenings.  i n the mornings and  They were too rushed by the house s t a f f , who  under-  standably were t r y i n g to h e l p a l l the c h i l d r e n be c l e a n f o r b r e a k f a s t and bed a t a c e r t a i n hour.  The whole washing  process i s a time of g r e a t f u n f o r c h i l d r e n and they should not be denied t h i s p r i v i l e g e .  The s t a f f d i d the b e s t they  c o u l d w i t h the l i m i t e d t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , and o r g a n i z e d a "washing r o u t i n e , " which enabled each c h i l d to have a  certain  l e n g t h of time i n the washroom.  Each c h i l d had h i s own  t o o t h brush, comb, e t c . , and was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the care of  these a r t i c l e s .  towel,  Every c h i l d bathed a t l e a s t twice a week©  The house s t a f f taught the c h i l d r e n good h e a l t h h a b i t s and cleanliness.  The  c h i l d r e n had t h e i r h a i r cut by a barber  u n l e s s they were "broke," 8 Loc. c i t .  i n which case the c a r e t a k e r served  -  92  m  the purpose and d i d an admirable j o b . The c h i l d r e n i n Embury House r e c e i v e d an adequate of s l e e p .  amount  They went to bed a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r age group.  Those under e i g h t y e a r s went at seven o ' c l o c k , those from e i g h t to ten a t s e v e n - t h i r t y o ' c l o c k , those from ten t o twelve at e i g h t o ' c l o c k , and those over twelve at n i n e o ' c l o c k . The r i s i n g hour f o r a l l c h i l d r e n was seven o ' c l o c k A.M.  A  commendable f e a t u r e a t Embury House was the f a c t t h a t the house s t a f f a l l o w e d the c h i l d r e n a s h o r t time f o r p l a y i n g , t a l k i n g , and " f o o l i n g around," b e f o r e t u r n i n g out the l i g h t s . The  c h i l d r e n as a whole took p r i d e i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l  and r e c e i v e d f a v o r a b l e comment from the community.  appearance  The . s a t i s -  f a c t o r y p e r s o n a l hygiene h a b i t s p r a c t i c e d a t Embury House was accountable ' l a r g e l y f o r a minimum number of epidemics i n the institution, . 4.  Medical care.  There was a p e d i a t r i c i a n  employed by the C h i l d Welfare Branch o f Saskatchewan, who a c t e d as a c o n s u l t a n t t o the i n s t i t u t i o n .  There was a l s o a  p h y s i c i a n and a r e g i s t e r e d nurse who v i s i t e d Embury House once a week, and t r e a t e d the s i c k c h i l d r e n and examined those c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d by the matron.  T h i s p h y s i c i a n and nurse  c o u l d be c a l l e d t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a t any time i n an emergency. The  c h i l d r e n of.Embury House r e c e i v e d the same m e d i c a l care  and treatment i n the Regina General H o s p i t a l as any c h i l d . Every c h i l d on b e i n g p l a c e d i n Embury House was g i v e n a thorough p h y s i c a l examination.  I f immunization or v a c c i n a -  t i o n s were r e q u i r e d , they were begun a t t h i s time.  A  complete  -  93  m e d i c a l h i s t o r y of the c h i l d was kept by the p h y s i c i a n . child requiring  Any  the s e r v i c e s of a d e n t i s t o r a m e d i c a l  s p e c i a l i s t r e c e i v e d such  service,  A l a r g e f i r s t - a i d k i t was kept i n Embury House, a l o n g w i t h a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f patent medicines.  These medicines  were a d m i n i s t e r e d o n l y under the matron's d i r e c t i o n s .  An i s o -  l a t i o n ward, c o n s i s t i n g of two rooms and a bathroom, was a n e x c e l l e n t f e a t u r e o f Embury House.  The prompt use o f t h i s  a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e saved the i n s t i t u t i o n from many o f the epidemics common t o c h i l d h o o d .  I f the matron was g i v e n  s u f f i c i e n t n o t i c e by a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l worker, that c h i l d would r e c e i v e a complete p h y s i c a l examination p r i o r t o d i s c h a r g e , otherwise he l e f t  the i n s t i t u t i o n without an examination.  When the need was i n d i c a t e d by the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l worker, he c o u l d r e c e i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l study and p s y c h i a t r i c  treatment  a t the Regina Mental H e a l t h C l i n i c under the guidance of q u a l i f i e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s and a p s y c h i a t r i s t .  This c l i n i c was  convenient to Embury House, being only f i v e b l o c k s d i s t a n c e . The standards Of m e d i c a l care a t Embury House f u l f i l l every requirement state:  "There  s t a t e d i n the Washington Standards, which  s h a l l be a q u a l i f i e d p h y s i c i a n t o serve as  m e d i c a l d i r e c t o r or c o n s u l t a n t to the i n s t i t u t i o n .  Each  c h i l d s h a l l have a thorough p h y s i c a l examination by a q u a l i f i e d p h y s i c i a n j u s t p r i o r to admission ... P s y c h o l o g i c a l study and p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n and treatment s h a l l be p r o v i d e d a l o n g w i t h other s p e c i a l i z e d medical s e r v i c e s when t h e i r need i s i n d i c a t e d ... The r e s u l t s o f every medical and d e n t a l ex-  A  .94  -  amination, i n c l u d i n g the p h y s i c i a n ' s and t i o n s , s h a l l be recorded should be g i v e n  ... A complete p h y s i c a l examination  immediately p r i o r t o discharge  care as needed s h a l l be p r o v i d e d should  d e n t i s t ' s recommenda-  i n c l u d e separate and  ...  Special  for sick children.  This  comfortable bedroom space f o r s i c k  c h i l d r e n not needing h o s p i t a l care  ... Arrangements s h a l l  be  made w i t h a h o s p i t a l i n the community f o r h o s p i t a l care when ••.  9  it  ;i  i s recommended by a p h y s i c i a n . "  E d u c a t i o n and  Social Training.  In t h i s study i t i s unnecessary to i n d i c a t e why c h i l d should  r e q u i r e a b a s i c minimum education  to enable him But  sufficient  to f u n c t i o n adequately i n our present  i t i s necessary t o d e c l a r e t h a t  be a p a r t of h i s own  every  society.  every c h i l d , whether  he  f a m i l y u n i t or a p a r e n t l e s s , homeless  ward of the C h i l d Welfare Branch of Saskatchewan l i v i n g i n Embury House, has he  the r i g h t t o o b t a i n as much e d u c a t i o n  as  d e s i r e s and as much as he can s u i t a b l y absorb. Every c h i l d r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n amount of s o c i a l t r a i n i n g .  This t r a i n i n g i s u s u a l l y administered background and  opportunities  When a c h i l d i s p l a c e d sufficient  i n Embury House he  cultural  too must r e c e i v e  socially  Many times the c h i l d p l a c e d  has,a background of n e g l e c t  to the  of the p a r e n t s or g u a r d i a n s .  s o c i a l t r a i n i n g to make him  in this society.  according  and  acceptable  i n Embury House,  i s s o c i a l l y retarded.  It  i s obvious that such a c h i l d r e q u i r e s extra s u p e r v i s i o n i n 9 I b i d . , pp.  26-27.  -  his social training.  95  -  T h i s t r a i n i n g should he  administered  i n accordance w i t h good c h i l d c a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , and i s t e r e d over a p e r i o d o f time and can absorb without The  admin-  i n a form that the  causing him any  emotional  child  disturbance.  s o c i a l t r a i n i n g of dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n  i n Embury House i s under the s u p e r v i s i o n . o f the matron. program of education and emotional  s o c i a l t r a i n i n g , so v i t a l to the  development of the c h i l d r e n , w i l l be evaluated under  the f o l l o w i n g headings: (3)  The  religion,  (1)  (5)  (4) d i s c i p l i n e , and 1*  School,  The  work  experience,  recreation,  c h i l d r e n i n Embury House  receive a l l t h e i r formal education i n neighbouring  (2)  school,  outside the  community s c h o o l s .  institution  The Roman C a t h o l i c  dren a t t e n d a p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l , two b l o c k s away. t a n t c h i l d r e n a t t e n d one  of two  The  p u b l i c s c h o o l s , two  b l o c k s d i s t a n t from the i n s t i t u t i o n .  chilProtes-  and  four  Those c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g  h i g h school have the s e r v i c e s of a t e c h n i c a l and  academic  h i g h s c h o o l w i t h i n f i f t e e n minutes walk from Embury House, The  c h i l d r e n use  e x a c t l y the same books and equipment as  other c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l . c l a s s and  taught  As f a r as can be  They a r e accepted  the  as a p a r t of the  the same c u r r i c u l u m as the other c h i l d r e n . judged the c h i l d r e n are r e c e i v i n g a s u i t a b l e  e d u c a t i o n from the Saskatchewan e d u c a t i o n a l system, whose c u r r i c u l u m a l s o a p p l i e s to the Roman C a t h o l i c p a r o c h i a l schools. There i s a study and r e a d i n g room i n Embury,House, where the c h i l d r e n do t h e i r home?/ork.  T h i s room has  several tables  96..-  and  comfortable  decorated.  chairs.  I t i s w e l l l i g h t e d and. a t t r a c t i v e l y  There i s a l i b r a r y  of the books are too o l d and children.  c o v e r i n g one w a l l , but many  l a c k i n g i n i n t e r e s t f o r the  The matron or house s t a f f member on duty  a b l e to help the  is avail-  c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r more d i f f i c u l t homework  problems. T h i s method of r e c e i v i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the community, as an I n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the community, compares  satisfactorily  w i t h the Washington Standards,  "In formal edu-  which s t a t e :  c a t i o n , as i n other a r e a s , i t i s important  that the c h i l d  r e l a t e d as much as p o s s i b l e to the r e s t of the  be  community.  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s recommended that the c h i l d a t t e n d the 10  neigh-  borhood s c h o o l . " 2.  Work e x p e r i e n c e .  House above the age the matron.  The  Every  c h i l d In Embury  of nine has a d a i l y t a s k a s s i g n e d him  by  c h i l d ' s t a s k i s changed every week so t h a t  i t does not become too r o u t i n e or monotonous. a s s i g n e d a t a s k beyond h i s p h y s i c a l means.  The  No  child i s  girls  assist  w i t h such tasks as washing d i s h e s , c l e a n i n g d o r m i t o r i e s , p r e p a r i n g the vegetables and wax  f o r cooking,  etc.  The boys wash  f l o o r s , c l e a n washrooms, and h e l p the c a r e t a k e r i n  h i s many d u t i e s o u t s i d e .  These d a i l y tasks take the  from f i f t e e n minutes to an hour to. f i n i s h .  The  child  o l d e r boys,  e s p e c i a l l y those no l o n g e r a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l , help the taker f o r longer p e r i o d s .  They a s s i s t him w i t h the  the f e n c e s , f i x i n g the plumbing, e t c . 10 I b i d . , p.  23«  Any  c h i l d who  care-  gardening, i s con-  -  97  v e n i e n t w i l l be c a l l e d upon to r u n s m a l l errands f o r the matron. The  c h i l d r e n understand  t h a t the work they do i s t h e i r  p a r t i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r home.  With the e x c e p t i o n of the  e x t r a work a s s i g n e d as a punishment, they c a r r y out t h e i r jobs w i t h good g r a c e .  I f there a r e any l e g i t i m a t e reasons .  f o r b e i n g excused from a t a s k a c h i l d may be r e l i e v e d .  Also,  no c h i l d i s kept at work i f t h e r e i s any form Of r e c r e a t i o n he wishes to a t t e n d a t t h a t time.  The c a r e t a k e r a l l o w s t h e  o l d e r boys to a s s i s t him i n jobs which help repare them f o r a v o c a t i o n , and which g i v e them experience w i l l encounter  i n later l i f e ,  i n situations they  such as r e p a i r i n g the c e n t r a l  h e a t i n g system, and the plumbing, p a i n t i n g , gardening, e t c . With the e x c e p t i o n o f a s s i g n i n g work as punishment on too many o c c a s i o n s , thus causing a c h i l d to d i s l i k e work and express an o v e r - a l l negative r e a c t i o n to h i s home  through  a s s o c i a t i n g the idea o f punishment w i t h home, the s t a f f a s s i g n s u i t a b l e work experiences to the c h i l d r e n o f Embury House, The Washington Standards  state:  "Some d u t i e s which  the c h i l d performs around the i n s t i t u t i o n such as h e l p i n g w i t h the d i s h e s , making beds, emptying waste b a s k e t s , and so f o r t h , s h a l l be considered as the c h i l d ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the making of the home ... C h i l d r e n must not be e x p l o i t e d o r a s s i g n e d tasks beyond t h e i r years or s t r e n g t h .  Work never should be  used a s / o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h punishment ... Tasks s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d , where p o s s i b l e , f o r t h e i r value as an e d u c a t i o n a l  - 98 11 experience to the c h i l d . " A l l c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l age i n Embury House spend monthly allowance  where and how they wish.  to go downtown alone on shopping  their  They a r e p e r m i t t e d  expeditions.  The c h i l d r e n ' s  money i s l o c k e d i n a s t r o n g box i n the matron's o f f i c e f o r safe-keeping, and doled out to the c h i l d as he asks A simple account drawals.  for i t .  i s kept of each c h i l d ' s d e p o s i t s and w i t h -  Thus, a c h i l d knows to h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n when  he has spent h i s money and how.  I t i s a r u l e o f the i n s t i t u -  t i o n that no one, s t a f f member or other c h i l d , may l o a n money to a c h i l d who i s "broke."  The matron o f f e r s  when asked how to budget and spend the money. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and experience  i n spending  suggestions, This i n d i v i d u a l  t h e i r own money  g r e a t l y a s s i s t s the c h i l d r e n i n Embury House i n t h e i r unders t a n d i n g of the value o f money, o f methods o f budgeting, and of the value o f s a v i n g . allowances  This p o l i c y o f h a n d l i n g c h i l d r e n ' s  compares very w e l l w i t h the Washington  Standards.  "In order t h a t c h i l d r e n be p r o v i d e d w i t h the normal e x p e r i ences o f h a n d l i n g money, a l l c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age s h a l l be g i v e n an allowance u n t i l they a r e o l d enough to e a r n spending money themselves ... C h i l d r e n should have o p p o r t u n i t i e s to v i s i t  s t o r e s , make choices i n purchases,  and handle  12 money." 3..  Religion.  11 Ibid.', pp. 23-24, 12 Loc. c i t .  The c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l age I n  -  99 -  Embury House a r e r e q u i r e d to a t t e n d church every Sunday morning.  The p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a t t e n d Sunday s c h o o l i n -  termittently.  Each c h i l d attends the church o f h i s  A Roman C a t h o l i c  own f a i t h .  Church, and P r o t e s t a n t churches o f v a r i o u s  denominations a r e w i t h i n f i f t e e n minutes walk from the i n s t i tution.  O c c a s i o n a l l y a s t a f f member accompanies a group o f  children  to church or takes the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  school.  A l l r e l i g i o n s are treated  tution's  staff.  House.  No r e l i g i o u s  The c h i l d r e n  to Sunday  i m p a r t i a l l y by t h e i n s t i -  services  a r e conducted i n Embury  are a l l o w e d t o a t t e n d c h o i r p r a c t i c e and  mid-week and s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s  when they w i s h to do s o . A  grace, a c c e p t a b l e to a l l r e l i g i o n s , i s spoken b e f o r e every meal. Compulsory church attendance i s not d e s i r a b l e . i n church attendance should come p r i m a r i l y not  from an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f .  Interest  from the c h i l d and  Except f o r the compulsory  church attendance, however, r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n of the c h i l dren i n Embury House meets s a t i s f a c t o r y  standards.  Washington Standards v e r i f y t h i s by s t a t i n g :  The  " C h i l d r e n have  a need and a r i g h t to r e c e i v e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , and opportunity.shall  be p r o v i d e d f o r such.  However, no c h i l d  s h a l l be r e q u i r e d to a t t e n d r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s  or t o r e c e i v e  r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n a f a i t h d i f f e r e n t from that 13 by h i s parent or g u a r d i a n . " 4. 13  Discipline.  I b i d . , p. 24.  Discipline  i na child  indicated  caring  - 100 -  i n s t i t u t i o n i s r e l a t e d to every aspect training.  of education  and s o c i a l  The o c c a s i o n and method o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of d i s c i -  p l i n e depends f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s upon the a b i l i t y o f the house s t a f f t o understand why the c h i l d i s a c t i n g so, and t o apply r e m e d i a l measures the c h i l d can use i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e manner. There a r e s i x methods of d i s c i p l i n e i n Embury House. (1) Use o f the d e t e n t i o n room, (2) b e i n g of p r i v i l e g e s , (4) l o s s of d e s s e r t , c a l punishment.  sent to bed, (3) l o s s  (5) e x t r a work, (6) p h y s i -  I n e v a l u a t i n g these v a r i o u s  disciplinary  methods, contemporary educators and s o c i a l workers, i n handling  children l i v i n g  i n groups, b e l i e v e t h a t o n l y  of p r i v i l e g e s and dessert have c o n s t r u c t i v e values d i s c i p l i n e of c h i l d r e n .  d e t e n t i o n room where a c h i l d i s locked  deserted,  loss  i n the  Prom a mental hygiene p o i n t o f view  p h y s i c a l punishment may be considered  sending the c h i l d  skilled  harmful.  Use o f a  i n a room alone, o r  to bed, make the c h i l d f e e l r e j e c t e d and  and cause him to withdraw w i t h i n h i m s e l f ; many  times even i n t o a r e g r e s s i v e  s t a t e o f emotions, where he may  r e s o r t t o a u t o e r o t i c s a t i s f a c t i o n s as a means of  comforting  himself.  Such s a t i s f a c t i o n s may give him n o t only p h y s i c a l  pleasure  but a l s o s a t i s f a c t i o n over t a k i n g out h i s h o s t i l i t y  against  the people p u n i s h i n g  acceptable  to them.  him by p r a c t i c i n g a c t i o n s un-  T h i s may l e a d the c h i l d i n t o d e l i b e r a t e l y  committing a c t i o n s that w i l l cause him to be sent  o f f by  himself. j The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of extra work as a punishment, has  only d e s t r u c t i v e q u a l i t i e s .  The c h i l d ' s f u t u r e l i f e  I s going  -  101-  to be based around some form of work. he  If, in his  childhood,  develops a n e g a t i v i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards work because i t  i s a p u n i s h i n g , c r u e l t h i n g to him,  what chance has  he  of  a d a p t i n g to work and becoming a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l in his later l i f e ? The  l o s s of p r i v i l e g e s and  most c o n s t r u c t i v e c h i l d r e n are they are  The  use  means of a p p l y i n g  l o s s of d e s s e r t , discipline.  Here  i s not u s e d .  repentence.  Where p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n  Resort to t h i s type o f punishment  means the p a r e n t - s u b s t i t u t e  has  of h i s  1  is avail-  punishment  invariably  exhausted h i s s t o r e  f a l l s back upon h i s g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h  authority  of  ideas  as an a d u l t , and  the  position.  As a whole, the  and  mentally,  o f p h y s i c a l punishment i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l problem i n  a b l e and behaviour i s b e t t e r understood, p h y s i c a l  of the  the  the  s u f f e r p h y s i c a l l y nor  immediate f e e l i n g o f disappointment and  caring for children.  and  are  d e p r i v e d of t h i n g s they want very much, but i f  d e p r i v e d they w i l l not  beyond the  the  children's  s t a f f a t Embury House are  actions  and  understanding  the needs expressed  therein,  they show c o n s i d e r a b l e judgement i n s o l v i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y  problems.  They are  of d i s c i p l i n e .  q u i t e eager t o l e a r n and  They are p a t i e n t w i t h h a b i t u a l  the e x c e p t i o n of s e v e r a l to change.  Usually  from d i s c i p l i n e .  no  The  c h i l d r e n who  appeared to be  d i s c i p l i n a r y methods and  methods  offenders,  c h i l d i n Embury House s u f f e r s  Embury House compare f a v o r a b l y which s t a t e :  t e s t new  with  immune physically  attitudes  at  w i t h the Washington Standards,  "Good d i s c i p l i n e s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d .  The  - 102  a t t i t u d e o f the s t a f f toward misconduct s h a l l be d i a g n o s t i c and  remedial, rather  which considers  than p u n i t i v e .  A w e l l planned program  the needs and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  c h i l d , and a competent s t a f f w i t h a r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c h i l d r e n and groups reduces the d i s c i p l i n a r y problems 14  that  may a r i s e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . " 5.  Recreation.  T h i s i s an important a s p e c t  of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d . to develop i n t o a w e l l h i s place duals, it  I f the c h i l d i s  i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y , Who can take  i n s o c i e t y and know how t o r e l a t e to o t h e r  indivi-  and t o get the most enjoyment out of h i s l e i s u r e time,  i s o f the utmost importance that during  h i s stay  i n s t i t u t i o n he make a b e g i n n i n g In t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  i n the Some  c h i l d r e n can be approached through group a c t i v i t i e s who a r e not a b l e t o t o l e r a t e c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . use  o f l e i s u r e time, o u t l e t s f o r c r e a t i v e  competition, and many other c o n s t r u c t i v e out  Wholesome  impulses, h e a l t h y f a c t o r s can come  o f a w e l l planned and d i r e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l program. The  c h i l d r e n of Embury House -not only make use o f a l l  community r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , but they have a b e t t e r equipped playground than many r e c r e a t i o n parks i n Regina, Every c h i l d has some t o y or a r t i c l e t o p l a y w i t h that own.  is his  The r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment i s purchased by the i n s t i t u -  t i o n , but the c h i l d r e n are encouraged to f e e l t h a t i t belongs to them. 14  There i s equipment and f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c a l l y I b i d . , p. 25  -  103  -  every popular sport except t e n n i s .  A large playing  which takes up more than h a l f the b l o c k  on which Embury House  i s b u i l t , a l l o w s p l e n t y o f space f o r e^very s p o r t . i s quite f l a t , lending  field,  T h i s area  i t s e l f t o use as a p l a y f i e l d .  younger c h i l d r e n and p r e - s c h o o l  The  c h i l d r e n have a smaller  play-  ground j u s t f o r t h e i r own use but they can a l s o use the l a r g e r playing f i e l d .  There i s a playhouse, a s a n d p i l e , and a c r a d l e -  swing i n t h i s playground.  There a r e f o u r swings between these  two playgrounds f o r the use o f a l l the c h i l d r e n .  The lawn  In f r o n t of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s used f o r r e s t i n g , sunbathing, reading,  and p i c n i c k i n g .  There i s a l s o a swing on the l a r g e  f r o n t porch f o r the use o f the p r e - s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n on r a i n y  days. Across the r o a d from Embury House i s a l a r g e  playing  f i e l d , maintained and equipped by the Regina Parks Board. There i s a l a r g e outdoor swimming p o o l a t one end. dren from Embury House use t h i s p l a y i n g pool endlessly.  chil-  f i e l d and swimming  They are accepted on the p l a y i n g f i e l d by  the two s u p e r v i s o r s  as p a r t of the group.  this recreational f i e l d segregation  The  The f r e e use of  i s i n d i c a t i v e of the complete l a c k of  of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s c h i l d r e n .  The c h i l d r e n make  use  o f other r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n the community.  are  encouraged t o i n v i t e t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t o the Embury House  grounds t o p l a y .  They  Many times there a r e more community c h i l d r e n  p l a y i n g on the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s f i e l d and u s i n g  the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  equipment than there a r e Embury House c h i l d r e n .  A high t i n  s l i d e , which i s i c e d i n the w i n t e r , p r o v i d e s hours of e n t e r -  - 104 -  tainment  to the community c h i l d r e n as w e l l as to those a t  Embury House  0  In the summer as many of the c h i l d r e n as p o s s i b l e go t o "camp."  The boys go t o church camps and t o camps maintained  by the Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , Y.M.C.A.),  (hereafter  The g i r l s go t o church camps and t o  called  temporary  f o s t e r homes a t the v a r i o u s beaches i n southern Saskatchewan* During the w i n t e r v o l u n t e e r groups a s s i s t e d by the s t a f f o r g a n i z e and conduct r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n Embury House. do woodwork, i n c l u d i n g f r e t w o r k , model a i r p l a n e s , a s k i l l e d woodworker's guidance  e t c . , under  i n t h e i r hobby room.  g i r l s enjoy working w i t h many a r t s and work, beads, r a f f i a ,  The boys  c r a f t s , such as f e l t -  s h e l l c r a f t , etc., i n their  under the d i r e c t i o n of the G i r l Guides.  The  playroom,  For a time a. p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r from the Y.M.C.A. conducted c a l i s t h e n t l c s and gymnastics girls.  classes  i n the gymnasium f o r both boys and  An u n t r a i n e d but e x p e r i e n c e d group work v o l u n t e e r  worked and p l a y e d w i t h the c h i l d r e n during the l a t t e r of the y e a r , j u s t as the w r i t e r d i d d u r i n g the f i r s t  half half.  Many of the boys belong to the Y.M.C.A., and some to the Boy Scouts.  The g i r l s may  j o i n the G i r l Guides  i f they so  desire.  The c h i l d r e n are f r e e to j o i n any o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n a l group they want as l o n g as i t i s s u i t a b l y s u p e r v i s e d .  Some of the  c h i l d r e n make use of the f a c i l i t i e s o f the Regina Youth Centre, which i s a s u p e r v i s e d , teen-age a r t s and  c r a f t s and teen-age  c e n t r e , o f f e r i n g a l l forms of  entertainment.  U s u a l l y once a  week and always once i n two weeks the c h i l d r e n go to a movie.  - 105  -  There a r e innumerable p a r t i e s and. p i c n i c s f o r the c h i l d r e n , both Indoors and  out, sponsored b o t h by the i n s t i t u t i o n  v o l u n t e e r groups.  The  o l d e r c h i l d r e n may  which n e c e s s i t a t e t h e i r remaining  and  attend functions  up t i l l a f t e r t h e i r bedtime,  such as horse shows, s p o r t i n g events,  drama p r e s e n t a t i o n s , e t c . ,  i f they a r e accompanied by a house s t a f f p e r s o n . The Embury House s t a f f w i s e l y p l a c e a great on r e c r e a t i o n .  They are most understanding  emphasis  o f the n o i s e  c o n f u s i o n c h i l d r e n c r e a t e when they are p l a y i n g .  Many times  the r a d i o w i l l be p l a y i n g f o r dancers In the l i b r a r y , sounds of hammering and  and  while  i n d u s t r y are coming from the boys'  hobby room, the g i r l s a r e p l a y i n g "house" or " s c h o o l " i n t h e i r playroom, and  the younger c h i l d r e n are p l a y i n g " t a g " u p s t a i r s  i n the d o r m i t o r i e s .  These homelike q u a l i t i e s  i n d i c a t e the  freedom w i t h which c h i l d r e n p l a y a t Embury House, and i n d i c a t e acceptance on the p a r t of the house s t a f f . two  limiting  House.  There a r e  only  f a c t o r s i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l program at Embury  There i s no permanent group worker or  experienced  s t a f f member to s u p e r v i s e the r e c r e a t i o n i n order t o u t i l i z e more f u l l y i t s t h e r a p e u t i c a s p e c t s , and  the gymnasium i s too  s m a l l f o r any but the s i m p l e s t indoor games.  Both of  f a c t o r s a r e beyond the c o n t r o l of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l Recreation  i n Embury House compares very  w i t h the Washington Standards. equipment f o r indoor and s u p e r v i s e d and f r e e p l a y . age  levels.  "The  staff.  satisfactorily  i n s t i t u t i o n must  outdoor p l a y , and  these  provide  opportunities f o r  Equipment s h a l l s u i t the  various  There s h a l l be p l a y equipment the c h i l d can  use  - 106 - . a l o n e , games he ties.  can  p l a y w i t h another c h i l d , and  There s h a l l a l s o be  o p p o r t u n i t i e s to use  group a c t i v i the  community  f a c i l i t i e s wherever p o s s i b l e , i n c l u d i n g such group a c t i v i t i e s as  Boy  Scouts, G i r l Scouts, Campfire G i r l s , and  so  forth}.w."  Staff. The  "engine" of the  more than the  p l a n t , the  determines the b u t i o n that can  quality  i n s t i t u t i o n Is equipment, and  of the  be made by  needs, depends on the  caliber  institution of  The  the  from the  Institutional  skills.  out  by  staff  activities, The  to the  best p o l i c i e s  carried  a v a r i e t y of  The  contrichild's  s t a f f members and  t i o n f a i l u n l e s s they are e x e c u t i v e down.  the  service offered.  the  whole approach to c h i l d r e n .  its staff.  of an  a capable  their institu-  staffs  s t a f f members r e q u i r e  In a d d i t i o n to p o s s e s s i n g warmth of  p e r s o n a l i t y , good c h a r a c t e r , and  reasonably adequate educa-  t i o n a l background, they should enjoy l i v i n g w i t h  children,  and  develop.  gain satisfaction  from h e l p i n g them grow and  When the  child realizes  t h a t the  in spite  of a n y t h i n g he  may  times and the  i n s t i t u t i o n has  which the The by  i n many ways the  the 15  do  —  s t a f f r e a l l y care f o r h l i and  i t i s obvious that many  children test  gone a long way  the  staff  then  i n p r o v i d i n g that  help  c h i l d needs© s i z e of the  ages of Loc.  the  cit.  institution's  c h i l d r e n , the  s t a f f should be  nature of  determined  t h e i r problems,  and  - 107  -  the d u t i e s to be a s s i g n e d to each s t a f f member.  An  essential  item i n the smooth f u n c t i o n i n g o f an i n s t i t u t i o n i s the team work t h a t e x i s t s .  T h i s team work i s a s s u r e d when each member  of the s t a f f comes to be accepted by the other members as having a p a r t i c u l a r  job t o do, and each i n d i v i d u a l  respects  the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the other members of the s t a f f . the s t a f f a t Embury House works w e l l t o g e t h e r . elements o f p e t t y f r i c t i o n and be expected one man.  There are some  c o m p e t i t i o n , but t h i s i s t o  i n an i n s t i t u t i o n employing twelve women and  only  With the e x c e p t i o n o f the matron, no s t a f f member  a t Embury House i s overworked. ed a f t e r  As a whole  Personnel p o l i c i e s  those a p p l y i n g to a l l c i v i l  are p a t t e r n -  s e r v a n t s of the  Pro-  v i n c i a l Government o f Saskatchewan, and as f a r as can judged they are q u i t e adequate.  to keep up morale.  4  Each s t a f f member works an  eight-hour day, and a f i v e and o n e - h a l f day week. "break" and other s p e c i a l  be  A morning  f a v o u r s granted by the matron h e l p  Only f o u r o f the s t a f f l i v e i n Embury  House. The  individual  members of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  be e v a l u a t e d under the f o l l o w i n g headings: (2) the house s t a f f , clerical staff,  l i z e d s t a f f members.  (1) the  (3) the maintenance s t a f f ,  (5) the case work s t a f f , and The  staff  executive,  (4) the  (6) the s p e c i a -  l a s t three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  of p e r -  sonnel are not a p a r t of the i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f , but  the  s e r v i c e s they render form a p a r t of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s 1.  The  executive.  at Embury House.  The  entire  The matron i s the  responsibility  will  program.  executive  f o r adequate  - 108  -  f u n c t i o n i n g of the i n s t i t u t i o n l i e s i n her hands.  This r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c l u d e s not o n l y the i n s t i t u t i o n proper but c h i l d r e n and  staff i n i t .  The matron, i n t u r n , i s d i r e c t l y  r e s p o n s i b l e to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l manager, who A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of the C h i l d Welfare wan.  the  i s a l s o the  Branch of  Saskatche-  The matron asks any a s s i s t a n c e she r e q u i r e s from t h i s  source.  There are f a r too many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks a s s i g n e d  to the matron.  The pressure from these t a s k s does not a l l o w  her s u f f i c i e n t time w i t h the c h i l d r e n , and  the program of  s e r v i c e s they r e q u i r e s The matron of Embury House i s an e l d e r l y woman. a widow who  has r e a r e d her own f a m i l y .  rural district  She i s  As a p i o n e e r i n a  i n southern Saskatchewan she a c q u i r e d a  wealth  of p r a c t i c a l knowledge c o v e r i n g many a s p e c t s of l i f e , which would be hard to d u p l i c a t e . is limited, this  Although her academic e d u c a t i o n  i s compensated by her g r e a t s t o r e of p r a c t i -  c a l knowledge a c q u i r e d through years of b i t t e r farm the r e a r i n g of her own of a l l kinds of people. person who  f a m i l y alone, and through her knowledge In an i n s t i t u t i o n ,  c h i l d r e n need a  has a depth of" warmth and understanding  The matron at Embury House i s j u s t such a g i v i n g , person, w i t h an abundance of l o v e and dren.  experiences,  f o r them. motherly,  i n t e r e s t f o r the  chil-  T h i s " g i v i n g " to the c h i l d r e n should be the major  f u n c t i o n assigned the matron, because of her e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t i e s as a "mother-person," and her l i m i t e d e x e c u t i v e The matron, because of her inadequate s h o u l d not be expected  ability  preparation,  to a d m i n i s t e r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e .  e  - 109 -  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s should he performed ly  trained superintendent.  by a p r o f e s s i o n a l -  As a s u p e r v i s o r y house p a r e n t ,  w i t h o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l the c h i l d r e n , and a s a "mother-person" t o whom the c h i l d r e n can come f o r l o v e and a f f e c t i o n , the matron a t Embury House i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l qualified.  This r o l e should be separated from that o f t h e  e x e c u t i v e head o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . superintendent  The need f o r a q u a l i f i e d  of Embury House i s i n d i c a t e d i n the Washington  Standards which s t a t e :  "The executive s h a l l be a p e r s o n  t r a i n e d and s u c c e s s f u l l y experienced w i t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e field  o f s o c i a l work..  e  He s h a l l possess a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l  and have a concept o f the broad f i e l d o f s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n , and o f the r o l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n meeting the needs o f c h i l d r e n i n the community.  I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e execu-  t i v e be one t r a i n e d i n t h e - f i e l d o f s o c i a l work, w i t h s p e c i a l i s e d t r a i n i n g and experience i n s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n . should have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l and understanding  He  o f the  needs o f c h i l d r e n , and be competent to p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p 16 w i t h i n the community i n the p l a n n i n g and c a r e o f c h i l d r e n . " 2.  The house s t a f f .  These s t a f f members a r e  known a t Embury House as c h i l d c a r e a t t e n d e n t s , but they p e r form the same f u n c t i o n as house p a r e n t s .  There a r e seven  c h i l d care a t t e n d e n t s , of whom s i x are always on duty.  such  This  maintains a b a s i c r a t i o of - one a t t e n d e n t to e i g h t o r n i n e children.  I t i s obvious t h a t the o l d e r c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e much  16 I b i d . , p. 13*  110  -  l e s s s u p e r v i s i o n than the younger ones.  There i s always an  attendent w i t h the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  These c h i l d  care  a t t e n d e n t s s u p e r v i s e the group of c h i l d r e n f o r whom they a r e responsible.  They a r e r e s p o n s i b l e t o the matron f o r the  c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s a n d c a r e , and l o o k t o her f o r s u p e r v i s i o n . They a c t as the c h i l d ' s "parent-person," of  during t h e i r p e r i o d  duty. The  c h i l d care a t t e n d e n t s a t Embury House appear  of c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . o f the c h i l d r e n ' s  They have s u f f i c i e n t  capable  understanding  p h y s i c a l needs t o work i n a g e n e r a l care  and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .  On the other hand, a l t h o u g h they  are w i l l i n g t o l e a r n and t o u t i l i z e modern concepts of c h i l d c a r e , they do not have s u f f i c i e n t e d u c a t i o n a l background t o f u n c t i o n i n a study and treatment  type o f i n s t i t u t i o n .  The  ages of t h e house s t a f f vary from twenty t o f o r t y y e a r s , which g i v e s the c h i l d r e n v a r i e d concepts are l i k e .  of what "mother-persons"  The a t t e n d e n t s work w i t h the age-group o f c h i l d r e n  to which they can.best a d j u s t .  Their s a l a r i e s are higher  than o f f e r e d , i n many p o s i t i o n s f o r women o f equal e d u c a t i o n , which promotes tenure.  P e r s o n a l motives  f o r working i n a  c h i l d r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n vary c o n s i d e r a b l y , b u t on the whole the s t a f f seem fond o f c h i l d r e n and r e c e i v e much p l e a s u r e from c a r i n g f o r them.. The house s t a f f a t Embury House compare s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h requirements "Persons  as s t a t e d i n the Washington Standards©  employed as house parents must have an understanding  of c h i l d r e n , a p e r s o n a l i t y s u i t a b l e t o work w i t h c h i l d r e n , as  Ill  w e l l as a c a p a c i t y t o perform the type of work r e q u i r e d i n a n i  institution.  They should be persons who  have b o t h the ma-  t u r i t y and the f l e x i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d f o r the age group under t h e i r care. They must be i n good h e a l t h , have a r e a s o n a b l y adequate e d u c a t i o n and sound p e r s o n a l motives f o r seeking  17  the j o b . " 3.  The maintenance s t a f f .  There a r e two  laundry workers, one cook, one domestic, and one i n the maintenance s t a f f of Embury House.  One laundry worker  a c t s as the c o o k s a s s i s t a n t when r e q u i r e d . 1  caretaker,  The domestic  worker performs d u t i e s i n the I n s t i t u t i o n wherever r e q u i r e d . The c a r e t a k e r a l s o a c t s as gardener and f i r e m a n .  He i s the  only man employed on the s t a f f o f the i n s t i t u t i o n .  As he  works w h i l e the c h i l d r e n a r e i n s c h o o l , and i s not around i n the evenings and on Sundays, the c h i l d r e n have no person" w i t h whom to form r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  "father-  Even though the  maintenance s t a f f do not work d i r e c t l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n they have frequent contact w i t h them. "They a l l  show c o n s i d e r a b l e  understanding o f the c h i l d r e n and seem q u i t e eager to take p a r t i n any program of s e r v i c e s to the c h i l d r e n .  With the  e x c e p t i o n o f the domestic, the maintenance s t a f f a r e a l l workers s k i l l e d i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n .  T h e i r d u t i e s are few,  enough so that they .can and do perform them s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . 4.  The c l e r i c a l s t a f f .  s t a f f member a t Embury House. 17 I b i d . , p . 14.  There i s no  clerical  A l l c l e r i c a l work Is done by  112  the matron.  -  T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s very u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  There i s  u s u a l l y enough c l e r i c a l work f o r a f u l l - t i m e stenographer always enough f o r a p a r t - t i m e s t a f f member.  A clerical  c o u l d a s s i s t the matron g r e a t l y i n m a i n t a i n i n g records, ing  helping with administrative  the u s u a l  and  person  financial  d e t a i l s , ahd  o f f i c e r o u t i n e s , thereby a l l o w i n g  i n perform-  the matron  more time w i t h the children,, 5,  The  s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f members.  There a r e  no p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f members r e s i d e n t a t Embury House, c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l Regina Mental H e a l t h C l i n i c ,  study are p r o v i d e d  The  c h i l d r e n are  House. required  The  They  Child  nurse v i s i t Embury House once a week, The  p h y s i c i a n , nurse  and  the only p r o f e s s i o n a l persons v i s i t i n g Embury  For a l l other p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s the c h i l d r e n a r e to go o u t s i d e  satisfactory.  The  the  institution.  services.  This system seems  c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e adequate p r o f e s s i o n a l  a t t e n t i o n , w i t h the exception nursing  the  taught i n the community s c h o o l s .  and a t other times when r e q u e s t e d . case workers are  the  to s u p e r v i s e  r e c e i v e d e n t a l s e r v i c e s from a downtown d e n t i s t . Welfare p h y s i c i a n and  by  A d i e t i c i a n v i s i t s once a week  to prepare the menu f o r the coming week, and cook.  Psy-  of case work s e r v i c e s ,  There i s need of a f u l l - t i m e , or a t  very l e a s t a p a r t - t i m e nurse, i n Embury House. p a i n s of these f i f t y  c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e more  s e r v i c e s of the matron and 6,  and  The  The  the  aches  and  than:the.unskilled  the house s t a f f ,  case work s t a f f .  There were no  workers employed w i t h i n Embury House. The method of v  case  rendering  - 113 -  case work s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d r e n i n the i n s t i t u t i o n has been 18 f u l l y discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. I n summary, the s o c i a l worker who p l a c e s the c h i l d i n Embury House remains his  caseworker u n l e s s the case i s t r a n s f e r r e d to another  social  worker.  The amount of case work r e c e i v e d by the c h i l d depends  entirely  on the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the caseworker and her i n t e r e s t  i n the c h i l d .  As was i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e  c h i l d sometimes does not see h i s caseworker longer.  That t h i s  s e r v i c e i s f a r from adequate  compared w i t h the Washington Standards. v i d e caseworkers the  children.  f o r weeks and e v e n  sufficient  In computing  i s seen when  "The agency must p r o ~  i n number t o meet the needs o f case l o a d s , allowance must be made  f o r time spent i n i n t e r v i e w i n g a p p l i c a n t s , d i f f e r e n c e i n time r e q u i r e d per case i n s h o r t time and i n l o n g time c a r e , time 19 spent i n r e f e r r a l and f o l l o w - u p . " The whole program o f s e r v i c e s to the c h i l d r e n a t Embury House c o l l a p s e s because o f t h i s worker.  l a c k o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l case  I t i s not necessary t o p o i n t out the reasons why a  c h i l d p l a c e d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n r e q u i r e s a caseworker; it  suffice  i s to say t h a t the c h i l d p l a c e d i n Embury House o b v i o u s l y  does r e q u i r e case work s e r v i c e s , but these a r e v e r y and p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t .  limited  Again, i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o  p o i n t out how t h i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and inadequate case work  i program adds l i t t l e ,  i f a n y t h i n g , t o the emotional  development  and adjustment of the c h i l d r e n . The matron, the house s t a f f , 18 See: S o c i a l S e r v i c e Program, pp. 1-7. 19 Washington,  op. c i t . , p. 13.  -  and  114  the w r i t e r , have been asked  Innumerable times by  c h i l d " i f he c o u l d p l e a s e see h i s caseworker."  each  When c o n t a c t e d  the caseworker has been so overwhelmed "with more urgent that i t has been a "week or so," b e f o r e she c o u l d v i s i t child.  cases," the  Sometimes the caseworker would be v i s i t i n g i n her  r u r a l d i s t r i c t and would not r e t u r n to Regina f o r some time. These i l l u s t r a t i o n s are s u f f i c i e n t to i n d i c a t e the l a c k of needed case work s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d r e n i n Embury House, This e v a l u a t i o n does not cover every aspect of the p r o gram at Embury House d u r i n g 1949-1950.  However, i t does  b r i n g out c e r t a i n f a c t s r e g a r d i n g the b a s i c program. noted t h a t t h i s b a s i c program of s e r v i c e s to the has both s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses.  It i s  children  The most c o n s t r u c t i v e  v a l u e s i n the program a r e i n the e d u c a t i o n and  social  training  of the c h i l d r e n , and the p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l needs. On the other hand, there a r e d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s staff.  The  lack of a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained  i n the  superintendent  i n Embury House i s evidenced through a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a i l i n g s In the program.  The  g r e a t e s t weakness o f . t h e program i s i n  the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of case work s e r v i c e s f o r the c h i l d r e n . dren are l a r g e l y n e g l e c t e d .  The  emotional needs of the  Consequently,  chil-  I t i s questionable  j u s t what value there i s i n p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n Embury House a t the present  time.  CHAPTER V THE FUTURE FUNCTION OF EMBURY HOUSE  The r o l e Embury House w i l l p l a y i n the care of dependent o r n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n Saskatchewan w i l l depend on the c o n t r i b u t i o n I t can make to the t o t a l c h i l d w e l f a r e program.  The e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n can be i n d i -  cated only i n terms o f the c o n s t r u c t i v e work achieved w i t h the c h i l d r e n who a r e p l a c e d t h e r e .  The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f  Embury House hinges on i t s being a b l e t o o f f e r  satisfactory  s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n whose needs a r e not p r o v i d e d f o r more adequately by some other p a r t o f the c h i l d w e l f a r e program of Saskatchewan. There i s one area i n the Saskatchewan program i n which s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n i s s e r i o u s l y l a c k i n g , and Embury House seems a l o g i c a l centre i n which t o develop  such  services.  To meet the needs o f c h i l d r e n as badly d i s t u r b e d as some who are p l a c e d i n Embury House, r e q u i r e s the establishment o f a study and treatment ill  children.  c e n t r e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r e m o t i o n a l l y  Such an i n s t i t u t i o n would serve the same pur-  poses as the Ryther  C h i l d Centre i n S e a t t l e , Washington, and  the I l l i n o i s C h i l d r e n ' s Home and A i d S o c i e t y , i n Chicago, Illinois. The recommendations  f o r the a d a p t a t i o n o f Embury House  to new f u n c t i o n s w i l l be more e a s i l y a p p r e c i a t e d i f they a r e  - 116 -  presented  i n four parts:  (1) the need f o r Embury House as  a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n f o r s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , " ( 2 ) the f u t u r e i n t a k e p o l i c y o f Embury House, (3) the program and s t a f f necessary t o enable Embury House t o meet the b a s i c standards which a p p l y t o a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s for  c h i l d r e n , and (4) t h e program and s t a f f necessary t o equip  Embury House as a study and treatment  The  caring  Need o f a Study and Treatment At present  centre.  Institution  there a r e t h r e e major groups o f c h i l d r e n , as  determined by the type o f s e r v i c e s they r e q u i r e , b e i n g i n Embury House.  placed  The f i r s t group, making up f o u r t e e n p e r cent  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , r e q u i r e case work s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e i r own home t o ensure them maximum o p p o r t u n i t y t i o n a l development.  f o r emo-  The m a j o r i t y group comprising  f i f t y per  cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a r e c h i l d r e n who would p r o f i t more from f o s t e r f a m i l y care.  T h i s group i s t y p i c a l of most  institutions caring f o r children.  The reason f o r t h i s  faulty  placement u s u a l l y hinges on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f o s t e r f a m i l y homes who a r e w i l l i n g or capable to accept undesirable  social habits.  c h i l d r e n w i t h minor  The emotional development o f these  c h i l d r e n i s being r e t a r d e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g .  They  must be p l a c e d I n f o s t e r f a m i l y homes which have been c a r e fully The  s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s needs.  t h i r d group o f c h i l d r e n , somewhat over o n e - t h i r d o f the  t o t a l population,  can use a group l i v i n g experience  con-  s t r u c t i v e l y i f the program and s t a f f i s more geared t o s e r v i n g  - 117  -  t h e i r needs* Examination a l s o makes i t c l e a r that the group o f c h i l r * dren who  presumably can p r o f i t by group l i v i n g r e q u i r e the  s e r v i c e s of two e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t types o f Institutions© These c h i l d r e n , because o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t needs, f a l l  natur-  a l l y i n t o two separate groups i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r placement i n Embury House.  Each o f these groups comprise e i g h t e e n per  cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Embury House.  One group r e -  q u i r e s only the group experience and case work s e r v i c e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r general care.  The second group r e q u i r e s  s e r v i c e s found o n l y i n a study and treatment c e n t r e .  skilled  These  two groups of c h i l d r e n need such d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s that they should not remain i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n because of the d i f f e r e n t emphasis i n program p l a n n i n g and the d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of s e r vices.  The c h i l d r e n who  a r e s u i t e d f o r g e n e r a l care a r e  not a b l e to r e l a t e to f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and consequently need a group experience which w i l l not make many demands on them© They are only s l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d i n t h e i r emotional d e v e l o p ment.  In c o n t r a s t , the c h i l d r e n who  require intensive  py a r e s e r i o u s l y confused i n t h e i r emotional growth.  theraThey  need h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and s k i l l e d case work s e r v i c e s under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance.  I t i s obvious how  impossible i t  would be to formulate a program s u i t a b l e to meet the needs of b o t h these groups o f c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the same setting© There i s great danger that the needs o f one or the o t h e r of these groups w i l l be n e g l e c t e d i f they continue to l i v e  *  together.  118 ,~  Moreover, the c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t i n g among the  dren because of v a r i o u s expressions of behaviour, apparent  and  chilthe  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s by the s t a f f , o n l y adds  to t h e i r o v e r - a l l emotional  disturbance.  Therefore,  the  C h i l d Welfare Branch of Saskatchewan must decide which o f these two groups can be cared f o r elsewhere,  and which group  must r e l y on Embury House f o r s e r v i c e s . The  c h i l d r e n i n need o f g e n e r a l care and t r a i n i n g c o u l d  be p l a c e d i n another purpose.  i n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d f o r j u s t such a  A l s o , they c o u l d be p l a c e d i n f o s t e r f a m i l y homes  s p e c i a l l y s u b s i d i z e d to care f o r l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n , i f the f o s t e r parent's  demands were l i m i t e d and t h e i r  i n t e r p r e t e d by the c h i l d r e n ' s caseworker.  role  On the o t h e r hand,  the more s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n cannot r e l a t e t o any f o s t e r f a m i l y home because of t h e i r emotional r e t a r d a t i o n . They must l i v e i n a p l a c e i n which there are no s o c i a l demands p l a c e d on them, and i n which t h e i r behaviour symptoms of t h e i r emotional needs. wan  i s accepted  The P r o v i n c e o f  does not have as yet such a study and  treatment  as  Saskatchecentre.  Y e t , the number of d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n Embury House, namely eighteen per cent of i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , i s only a s m a l l percentage  of such c h i l d r e n i n the p r o v i n c e who  be r e f e r r e d f o r t h i s s e r v i c e i f i t were a v a i l a b l e .  might  The most  urgent need Embury House i s being c a l l e d upon to meet a t t h i s time, t h e r e f o r e , i s to p r o v i d e a centre where o b s e r v a t i o n , d i a g n o s i s , and t h e r a p e u t i c s e r v i c e s , w i l l h e l p c h i l d r e n g a i n confidence i n themselves,  assist  t h e i r emotional  development,  -  119  -  and "bring about a v a l u a b l e s o c i a l  adjustment.  The Future Intake P o l i c y o f Embury House. The f a c t that o n l y t h i r t y - s i x per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of any type i s one i n d i c a t i o n of the complete l a c k o f intake p o l i c y and s e l e c t i v e admission a t Embury House.  The p e r t i n e n t i n t a k e q u e s t i o n s  would be, " i s placement i n the i n s t i t u t i o n made i n accordance w i t h accepted p r i n c i p l e s of c u r r e n t s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e s as they apply t o the i n d i v i d u a l " c h i l d i n q u e s t i o n ? "  In Embury  House a t present the answer can o n l y be i n the n e g a t i v e . Whether or not c h i l d r e n a r e p l a c e d i n Embury House appears t o depend e n t i r e l y on the d i s t r i c t child.  s o c i a l worker of the i n d i v i d u a l  The determining f a c t o r s i n the placement a r e t h e  s o c i a l worker's d i a g n o s t i c a b i l i t y  i n determining the c h i l d ' s  needs, the time she has a v a i l a b l e t o secure the most s e r v i c e s f o r the c h i l d , and the e x i s t e n c e of such  suitable  services.  Because of the l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e s , and o f the h i g h district  case l o a d s , the s o c i a l workers do not have time t o  work w i t h any c h i l d who p r e s e n t s other than r o u t i n e problems and needs.  Consequently,  House f o r g e n e r a l c a r e .  the d e v i a n t i s "dumped" i n Embury The p o p u l a t i o n stxidy d e c i s i v e l y  proves  t h a t the admission of c h i l d r e n to Embury House should r e s t w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n and not w i t h the c h i l d ' s d i s t r i c t  social  worker. The i n t a k e procedure must be based  a t Embury House to be e f f e c t i v e  on d e f i n i t e s t a t e d p o l i c i e s as to the type o f  120  -  c h i l d r e n whose needs are going to he served t h e r e . words, Embury House must be s t a f f e d and  equipped  needs o f the p a r t i c u l a r group of c h i l d r e n who  In o t h e r  t o serve the  a r e g o i n g to be  p l a c e d t h e r e , such as e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . r e q u i r i n g any  Children  other type of s e r v i c e than Embury House i s  capable o f r e n d e r i n g must not be p l a c e d t h e r e , as o b v i o u s l y t h e i r needs w i l l not be The  met.  s e l e c t i o n and admission  o f c h i l d r e n must be  by s k i l l e d caseworkers employed a t Embury House. workers must be  conducted  These case  s k i l l e d i n d i a g n o s i n g the c h i l d ' s needs, so  t h a t the c h i l d who  cannot p r o f i t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care w i l l  be r e f e r r e d elsewhere.  Frequently i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to  a case at once, so p o s s i b l y a c h i l d c o u l d be admitted to the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r d i a g n o s i s .  No  diagnose first  commitment need be made  to the r e f e r r i n g agency or parents u n t i l study o f the c h i l d i s completed.  In i t s new  :  r o l e the i n t a k e caseworker would  l i m i t Embury House admissions  to those c h i l d r e n only who  study b e f o r e t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e treatment  is certain.  need  Intake  must not be c o n s i d e r e d a u s e l e s s or i s o l a t e d p a r t o f the p l a c e ment procedure, because i t i s t h i s p o i n t a t which the caseworker a r r i v e s a t a d i a g n o s i s o f the c h i l d ' s problem and an e v a l u a t i o n of the s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e In the l i g h t o f the needs of the  The Program and  child.  Staff  Embury House has a devoted  s t a f f , but i t i s not meeting  the b a s i c standards which s h o u l d a p p l y to a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s program  - 121  and s p e c i a l s t a f f t r a i n i n g .  -  The e v a l u a t i o n of the program and  s t a f f i n Chapter IV i n d i c a t e d these b a s i c standards and the inadequacies of Embury House.  I t i s only necessary here to  recommend the changes needed a t Embury House to r a i s e  their  standards o f care to an a c c e p t a b l e minimum. The s o c i a l s e r v i c e program o f f e r e d at Embury House i s very narrow.  There i s no i n s t i t u t i o n a l caseworker.  The case  work s e r v i c e s the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e are from the s o c i a l worker who p l a c e s them i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  As s t a t e d i n Chapter IV,  many times a c h i l d w i l l w a i t weeks or even a month, and l o n g e r , b e f o r e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d by h i s case worker.  Consequently,  i n the main h i s emotional needs went unanswered.  The s t r e n g t h  of a s o c i a l s e r v i c e program i n an i n s t i t u t i o n r e s t s upon the f a c t t h a t case work s e r v i c e i s a v a i l a b l e a t the moment of crisis  i n s t e a d of days or weeks a f t e r the event.  Therapy i s  e s s e n t i a l at t h a t moment, and i s most b e n e f i c i a l i f expressed through the medium o f a sound r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s b u i l t through the c l o s e n e s s and a v a i l a b i l i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l caseworker. The f o u r v i t a l s e r v i c e s o f the caseworker w i t h i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n are s e r i o u s l y n e g l e c t e d i n Embury House because of the haphazard manner i n which case work s e r v i c e s are g i v e n by the o u t s i d e agency.  These f o u r s e r v i c e s , namely, the i n t a k e  p r o c e s s , case work s e r v i c e s to the c h i l d r e n w h i l e under care, p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d i s c h a r g e , and maintenance of case r e c o r d s , were, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f case work s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d r e n w h i l e under c a r e , n o n - e x i s t e n t i n Embury House.  Therefore,  -  i n order to f u l f i l l  122:  i t s f u n c t i o n as a s u i t a b l e  institution  c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , Embury House needs the f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e s of a q u a l i f i e d  caseworker  0  There are t h r e e persons whose s e r v i c e s would be  necessary  to complete a minimum adequate program f o r the c h i l d r e n i n Embury House.  As was  s t a t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraphs,  i s no caseworker employed w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . there i s no c l e r i c a l  staff.  there  In a d d i t i o n  There should be a t l e a s t  one  J  person experienced i n g e n e r a l c l e r i c a l f u n c t i o n s to the m a i l , r e c o r d i n g s and f i n a n c i a l statements, the superintendent as In Chapter  handle  and to a s s i s t  directed.  IV i t was  shown how  the matron does not have  the time to perform the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s of Embury House as w e l l as g i v e her a f f e c t i o n and a t t e n t i o n t o the needs of the c h i l d r e n .  Furthermore,  the matron l a c k s t r a i n i n g and  p e r i e n c e i n an executive p o s i t i o n .  ex-  Embury House should have  a q u a l i f i e d male a d m i n i s t r a t o r as head of the i n s t i t u t i o n . a d d i t i o n , t h i s man children.  would f u n c t i o n i n a " f a t h e r - r o l e " t o the  Such a person would need not o n l y t r a i n i n g  and  experience to equip him f o r h i s d u t i e s , but he would a l s o need to be tempermentally  adapted  to work w i t h  P r e f e r a b l y he should have completed  two  children.  years of  graduate  work i n a r e c o g n i z e d s c h o o l of s o c i a l work w i t h p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g i n s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n . -  A superintendent  possess e x e c u t i v e a b i l i t y combined w i t h energy and fulness.  should resource-  He would s e l e c t and adopt those measures which  would he o f most value to the c h i l d r e n cared f o r by Embury  In  123 -  House.  A superintendent would b r i n g t o Embury House the  q u a l i t i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , experience, and l e a d e r s h i p i n the whole f i e l d o f c h i l d w e l f a r e .  The advent of a t r a i n e d  s o c i a l worker as superintendent o f Embury House would be i n v a l u a b l e i n promoting harmony between the i n s t i t u t i o n and the t o t a l c h i l d w e l f a r e  program, i n formulating  progressive  methods o f c h i l d care and development, and i n i n t e r p r e t i n g Embury House to the community.  Embury House as a Study and Treatment C e n t r e . Just as the h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d m e d i c a l c l i n i c  has much  more t o o f f e r a p a t i e n t i n the way o f d i a g n o s t i c and t h e r a p e u t i c f a c i l i t i e s than the g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r , so does the study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n provide  a combination o f p r o -  f e s s i o n a l s k i l l e d s e r v i c e s f o r the s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d In such an i n s t i t u t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r greater concentration  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s  child. a  i n the observa-  t i o n and treatment o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d than i t i s ever p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n i n the community r e g a r d l e s s of r e s o u r c e s .  of t h e adequacy  The success of the study and treatment  depends on two inherent  elements:  centre  the program r e v o l v i n g  about the needs o f t h e . i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , and the s k i l l e d s t a f f to c a r r y out t h i s program, i  The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f the study and treatment  centre  program i s p r o v i d i n g the maximum s e r v i c e to meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d .  Every p o l i c y , every d e c i s i o n , and  every procedure, must r e c o g n i z e  that each c h i l d i s a separate  - 124  and  -  d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y , and r e q u i r e s s e r v i c e s d i r e c t e d  towards h i s p a r t i c u l a r needs r a t h e r than those of a l l the c h i l d r e n as a group.  This h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e must  be-  come so much a p a r t o f the i n s t i t u t i o n that a l l t h i n k i n g i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y based on i t . The  study and  treatment program at Embury House  be based on psychotherapy. the  Psychotherapy may  be d e f i n e d  changing o f p a t h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n s  constructive patterns  should as  i n t o more  of t h i n k i n g and behaviour through p e r -  sonal contact w i t h other p e o p l e . c h i l d ' s experiences i n the  In t h i s sense, a l l the  i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be p a r t of h i s  psychotherapy, i n that they w i l l be  so arranged as t o produce  the maximum amount of c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n on h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . At the i n i t i a l of the  d i a g n o s t i c s t a f f conference, f o r example, p a r t  treatment p l a n w i l l c o n s i s t of a " p s y c h i a t r i c p r e s c r i p -  t i o n , " d e s c r i b i n g the general a t t i t u d e s on the p a r t o f  the  s t a f f which are  child  may  indicated for a particular child.  b e n e f i t most from f i r m and  c h i l d may  r e s t r i c t i v e handling;  need a warm, maternal a t t i t u d e on  s t a f f ; w h i l e f o r a t h i r d c h i l d who  may  be  overtures  This i n i t i a l all  the  a t a l l , i n order  another  the p a r t of  the  f r i g h t e n e d by  any  s o r t of a f f e c t i o n , the s t a f f at the s t a r t may from any  One  have to r e f r a i n  t o overcome h i s  reserve.  " p r e s c r i p t i o n " w i l l serve as a guide by which  s t a f f members of the  behaviour toward the c h i l d .  i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l regulate  their  N a t u r a l l y , s i n c e the c h i l d ' s  emotional s t a t e v a r i e s , the " p s y c h i a t r i c p r e s c r i p t i o n " w i l l be  varied accordingly.  I t should be planned, furthermore, t o  - 125  conduct s t a f f meetings a t which the treatment of a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d w i l l he d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l .  Attendance a t these  staff  meetings should i n c l u d e everyone i n the i n s t i t u t i o n who has c l o s e p e r s o n a l contact w i t h the c h i l d .  T h i s means t h a t such  persons as the c a r e t a k e r and the maintenance s t a f f should be included.  To have no f i x e d l i n e of demarcation as t o who may  or may not a t t e n d some s t a f f meetings would h e l p to promote a good d e a l of l o y a l t y , i n t e r e s t , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l unders t a n d i n g on the p a r t o f the maintenance s t a f f .  This generalized  approach by means of r e g u l a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d a t t i t u d e s might w e l l be designated as " c o l l a b o r a t i v e therapy." In a d d i t i o n t o c o l l a b o r a t i v e therapy it  as d e f i n e d above,  should be planned t h a t each c h i l d r e c e i v e i n d i v i d u a l psy-  chotherapy i n the form o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a. member of the s k i l l e d s t a f f .  The t h e r a p i s t s would c o n s i s t of t h e  s t a f f p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and s o c i a l workers. chotherapeutic  Psy-  i n t e r v i e w s conducted by the s o c i a l workers  and p s y c h o l o g i s t s would be s u p e r v i s e d by some p s y c h i a t r i s t on the a t t e n d i n g s t a f f .  Progress  conferences  on the treatment  of each c h i l d would be h e l d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s and would be attended therapy  by a l l the persons i n t i m a t e l y concerned w i t h the of t h a t  The  child.  s t a f f of Embury House should not t h i n k o f t h e r a p e u t i c  treatment e n t i r e l y i n terms o f the u t i l i z a t i o n of o u t s i d e p s y c h i a t r i c or c l i n i c a l s e r v i c e s . w i t h the c h i l d r e n other  Psychotherapy can be a c h i e v e d  than i n the p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s o f f i c e .  The  i n t e g r a t i o n of p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n i n such  - 126  a way  -  that I t becomes a f u n c t i o n i n g p a r t of the program i s  an insurmountable a s s e t .  The  treatment i n s t i t u t i o n i s not diagnosis  and  s e r v i c e needed i n a study  j u s t r e f e r r a l f o r comprehensive  treatment of c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n showing major  d e v i a t i o n s from normal behaviour, but  i t is  therapeutic  case work i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f t i o n i n g so that a l l the  c h i l d r e n are  their daily l i f e pattern. workers should  The  func-  d e a l t w i t h i n terms of  p s y c h i a t r i c a l l y t r a i n e d case  c a r r y s m a l l case l o a d s , g i v i n g them much time  f o r i n t e n s i v e work w i t h each c h i l d . do  and  The  caseworkers  the treatment job w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the  p s y c h i a t r i s t s , unless  should  consultant  the s i t u a t i o n i s s e r i o u s enough to  n e c e s s i t a t e a c t u a l long-term treatment by  the p s y c h i a t r i s t s .  I t would seem f a r l e s s c o s t l y , l e s s d i s t u r b i n g to the c h i l d r e n , and more l i k e l y to produce r e s u l t s , i f the p s y c h i a t r i s t s u t i l i z e d t h e i r time i n a n a l y s i s of the the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of p a t t e r n s The  c h i l d r e n ' s needs  of response f o r the  and  caseworkers.  case work process i s not something superimposed  upon the c h i l d i n the study and a v a i l a b l e to him  treatment c e n t r e .  It i s service  i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n a l b u i l d i n g or u n i t  t h a t he l i v e s , and whenever he needs i t . The wisdom o f making therapeutic  s k i l l s d i r e c t l y a v a i l a b l e t o the  g r a n t i n g anything  like a flexible  c h i l d i s that,  o r g a n i z a t i o n , the  t i o n o f f e r s almost u n p a r a l l e l e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r psychotherapy.  The  few  r u l e s and  and  inflexibility  study and  treatment centre  r e g u l a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e .  instituobservation  should have as  A multitude  of r u l e s  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g them w i l l only cause f u r t h e r  1 2 7  -  r e g r e s s i o n i n the dependency. follow  T h e r e must be  in their  more o r  less  individual The  and  a  qualified.  plus  psychiatrists,  the  individual  the  g r o u p w o r k e r on  these  and  his  children should  needs o f  s h o u l d be  non-professional  and  treatment those  to  be  the  on  children .  speak of  s t a f f have t h e  the  of a  services  knowledge Embury  psychiatrist  of  p o p u l a t i o n of  indivi-  one  the  or  more  institution.  There  responsible consultation training  s t a f f , and  consultation  clinical  should also  be  a  would act  as  chief  The  who  for  the  for  program,  caseworkers,  both  presiding  the  over the  advisors  study  in  i n R o r s c h a c h and  similar  A  and  full-time  testing,  t e s t s w h e n e v e r n e c e s s a r y , and  would  policy  s t a f f conferences, caseworkers.  for  professional  part-time p s y c h i a t r i s t s  them, s e r v e a s  to  treatment  w i t h the  program f o r  i n t r a i n i n g and  trained  for  staff.  conferences.  making, p a r t i c i p a t e  psychologist,  such  disturbed  services  part-time  cases a s s i g n e d  offer advisory  to perform  good t o  institutional psychiatrist,  the.in-service  administer  the  to  s u f f i c i e n t c a s e w o r k e r s to a l l o w much t i m e  and  treat  add  t o meet t h e s e n e e d s .  full-time  the  continuous advisory  guiding  the  work w i t h e a c h c h i l d .  psychiatrist, for  time,  depending  T h e r e s h o u l d be  I t does no  needs u n l e s s  p s y c h o l o g i s t , and  The  meet s i t u a t i o n s  treatment w i t h emotionally  child's  training,  trained  guides f o r  i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f necessary  House w o u l d r e q u i r e and  certain  c h i l d and  child.  highly  dualizing  disturbed  s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , but  f l e x i b l e to  d i a g n o s i s and must be  seriously  -  assist  would in  - 128 «  the treatment o f assigned cases.  The p s y c h o l o g i s t working  i n the study and treatment home has a d i s t i n c t advantage  over  the p s y c h o l o g i s t whose patients are brought i n t o the c l i n i c for testing.  I n the study home, where the c h i l d r e n are a v a i l -  able a t a l l times, there i s a freedom from time l i m i t a t i o n and from l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by a schedule of appointments. I f a c h i l d i s t i r e d , f r i g h t e n e d , not f e e l i n g w e l l , or upset i n any way, h i s examination can be postponed or i n t e r r u p t e d and be continued l a t e r .  I f t e s t f i n d i n g s are c o n t r a d i c t o r y  or u n c e r t a i n there i s time and opportunity to t e s t the c h i l d further.  I n the study centre the p s y c h o l o g i s t can u t i l i z e  whatever s p e c i a l t e s t s seem i n d i c a t e d by h i s close contact w i t h the c h i l d r e n throughout the day, and they can be a p p l i e d at the c h i l d ' s convenience. A minimum requirement f o r the caseworkers, would be the completion of two years of graduate study a t an a c c r e d i t e d school of s o c i a l work w i t h p s y c h i a t r i c t r a i n i n g or i n t e r e s t s . Success would depend g r e a t l y on t h e i r a b i l i t y to work t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n .  P s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n would  be a v a i l a b l e t o the caseworkers whenever they requested i t . They would render a l l the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l caseworkers. When c h i l d r e n have had the kind of adverse l i f e - e x p e r ience that create marked emotional disturbance, the need f o r a c a r e f u l l y planned and s k i l l f u l l y d i r e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n program can be a n t i c i p a t e d .  This group program should he c a r r i e d out  by a s k i l l e d s o c i a l group worker.  I t must be an i n t e g r a l part  - 129  of  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  c a r e f u l l y planned and used  therapy.  differentially  individual  accept  limited  worker a s s i s t s the c h i l d  group  program should  child.  As  the c h i l d  group  participation.  activity  and  i n e x p e r i e n c i n g group  step further  the b a s i c  toward  lifelike  social  situations  Furthermore,  the group  adequate  groups  which the c h i l d w i l l  to  h i s home community.  fessional  treatment  the i n s t i t u t i o n  staff,  the of  c h i l d and  in  within be  put  situation  i n t e g r a t i o n and  good and  Throughout  faith  the  therapy  the time a c h i l d continuous  pro-  is  interchange  staff with i t s purposive connection to  the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f w i t h i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  helped to understand  which the  Group  furnish  life  c a n keep t h e s t u d y a n d  the day-by-day adjustment  must be  to the r e a l  t h e r e needs t o be a  between the treatment  worker can  the maintenance s t a f f ,  running t o g e t h e r smoothly. in  and  e v e n t u a l l y f u n c t i o n when he r e t u r n s  Obviously o n l y the c l o s e s t between the house s t a f f ,  group  h i s r e t u r n home.  into practice.  in  can  participation,  case work t r e a t m e n t may  comparable  under  The  w h i c h much o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d  social  staff,  develops  t h e s t a t e where he  i s one  be  i n terms of the p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c  t h e r a p y he r e a c h e s  him  work f u r n i s h e s  The  i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the treatment  n e e d s o f the i n d i v i d u a l his  -  child  lives  o f the c h i l d . they  The  house  create the r e a l i t y  staff medium  a n d t h a t w i t h o u t m a k i n g demands u p o n  him  t h e y must c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t h i m w i t h t h o s e  and  responsibilities  he w i l l  r e t u r n s t o community l i f e .  inevitably The  decisions  e n c o u n t e r when  non-professional staff  he needs  150  t o be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the study and treatment team i n Embury House, through case conferences, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t a f f meetings, i n d i v i d u a l c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the treatment and  i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs.  staff,  I f the emotionally  disturbed  c h i l d r e n a t Embury House are t o r e c e i v e maximum study and treatment there must be the c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s w i t h the whole i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f f u n c t i o n i n g as a t earn.  The  f u t u r e f u n c t i o n o f Embury House as a study and t r e a t -  ment c e n t r e would be a c h a l l e n g i n g ahd indeed an e x c i t i n g experiment. and  As a r e s u l t o f the operations  treatment i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  of t h r e e  study  the Ryther C h i l d Centre i n S e a t t l e ,  Washington, the I l l i n o i s C h i l d r e n ' s Home and A i d S o c i e t y i n Chicago, I l l i n o i s , and the New England Home f o r L i t t l e Wanderers i n Boston, Massachusetts, i t i s p o s s i b l e to s t a t e a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y that such centres bilities  t o emotionally  can o f f e r unique treatment p o s s i -  d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , through the c o -  o r d i n a t i o n o f p s y c h i a t r i c , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , case work, and group work therapy, combined w i t h the understanding a s s i s t a n c e o f the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  cooperative  institution staff.  Embury  House c o u l d be a l i v i n g l a b o r a t o r y f o r g a i n i n g new knowledge about t h e treatment of e m o t i o n a l l y ship i s desperately and  operation  disturbed c h i l d r e n .  Leader-  r e q u i r e d i n Canada i n the establishment  o f study and treatment c e n t r e s .  vices are p r o g r e s s i v e l y being  Casework s e r -  expanded i n Saskatchewan; b u t  t h i s l a c k o f a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n i s o f key im-*  ~ 131  portance.  -  Embury House would appear to be the l o g i c a l place  i n which to answer on modern l i n e s a b a s i c need of dependent or neglected  children*  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  S p e c i f i c R e f e r e n c e s. 1.  Books Hopkirk, Howard W., I n s t i t u t i o n s S e r v i n g C h i l d r e n , New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1944. McGovern, C e c e l i a , S e r v i c e s to C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington, R a n s d e l l , 1948. Thurston, Henry W., The Dependent C h i l d , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930. V o o r h i e s , S i s t e r Mary L o u i s e , C h i l d r e n s I n s t i t u t i o n s , Saint Louis, Saint Louis U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947. 1  2.  Pamphlets and A r t i c l e s B e r n s t e i n , Maurice, "The Focus o f Case Work i n a C h i l d r e n ' s I n s t i t u t i o n , " B u l l e t i n , C h i l d Care and P r o t e c t i o n Supplement, 21:12-18, A p r i l , 1942. C l a r k e , E. M., "The C h i l d r e n ' s I n s t i t u t i o n i n the C h i l d Welfare Program,"„Public Welfare, 2:195-199, August, 1944. C l o t h i e r , F l o r e n c e , " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Needs i n the F i e l d o f C h i l d W e l f a r e , " The Nervous C h i l d , 7:155-177, A p r i l , 1948.. . Gula M a r t i n , "Study and Treatment Homes f o r T r o u b l e d . C h i l d r e n , " i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947, pp. 333-343. Hirshback, E r n e s t , "A Changing D i r e c t i o n f o r C h i l d r e n ' s I n s t i t u t i o n s , ? * C h i l d Welfare, 28:12-15, March, 1949. Johnson, L i l l i a n L., "Case Work w i t h C h i l d r e n i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , " i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f . S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1940, pp. 335-344.  Johnson, L i l l i a n L.,"What We L e a r n Prom the C h i l d ' s Own Psychology t o Guide Treatment i n a Small I n s t i t u t i o n , " i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938, pp. 313-325. Messenger, Kenneth L., "The I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f the C h i l d i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , " B u l l e t i n , 20:1-6, September, 1941. Plans f o r an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Treatment o f E m o t i o n a l l y D i s t u r b e d C h i l d r e n . Chicago, The I l l i n o i s C h i l d r e n ' s Home and A i d Society,.1946. P y l e s , Mary L o i s , I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r C h i l d Care and Treatment, New York, C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America, 1947. Schulze, Susanne, "How Does Group L i v i n g i n the I n s t i t u t i o n Prepare the C h i l d f o r L i f e O u t s i d e , " paper prepared f o r the Ohio V a l l e y R e g i o n a l Conference o f the C h i l d Welfare League o f America, C l e v e l a n d , Ohio, March, 1942, mimeographed m a t e r i a l p u b l i s h e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, Washington, D.C. Washington, Standards f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s C a r i n g f o r C h i l d r e n , Olympla, State Department o f S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , 1950.  General R e f e r e n c e s . 1.  Books Abbott, Grace, The C h i l d and the S t a t e , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1938, v o l . 2, pp. 3-157. Beach, E l s i e , L., A Study o f the P o p u l a t i o n o f Spokane C h i l d r e n ' s Home to Determine Whether Intake P o l i c i e s and S e r v i c e s Rendered a r e i n Accord w i t h Recent P h i l o s o p h y In Regard t o the Role o f t h e - I n s t i t u t i o n i n a Community Case Work Program, a t h e s i s submitted I n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work a t Washington S t a t e C o l l e g e , Pullman, Washington, 1949. Burmeister, Eva, F o r t y - f i v e i n the Family, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949.  Lundberg, Emma 0., Unto the Least of These, New D. Appleton-Century Co., 1947.  York,  Pamphlets and A r t i c l e s Bender, L a u r e t t a , " I n f a n t s Reared i n I n s t i t u t i o n s Permanently Handicapped," B u l l e t i n , 24:1-4, September, 1945.  -  Burmeister, Eva, " I n s t i t u t i o n and P o s t e r Home Care as Used by an.Agency Offering..Both S e r v i c e s , " B u l l e t i n , C h i l d Care and P r o t e c t i o n Supplement, 21:18-23, A p r i l , 1942. C h i l d Welfare League of America, Standards o f F o s t e r Care f o r C h i l d r e n I n I n s t i t u t i o n s , New York, . R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1937. Fenske, V i r g i n i a , " S u p e r v i s i o n and L i c e n s i n g of I n s t i t u t i o n s and Homes f o r C h i l d r e n , " i n P r o ceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference o f SocTaT Work, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947, pp. 324-332. F o s t e r , S y b i l , " C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f I n s t i t u t i o n Care o f C h i l d r e n With Other S e r v i c e s i n the Community," i n Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of . S o c i a l Work, Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1936, pp. 548-562. Gordon, H e n r i e t t a L., " F o s t e r Care f o r C h i l d r e n , " i n Hodges, Margaret B., ed., S o c i a l Work Yearbook 1949, New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1949, pp. 211-218. Handbook f o r the Use o f Boards of D i r e c t o r s , S u p e r i n • tendents, and S t a f f o f I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r Dependent C h i l d r e n , Washington, U n i t e d S t a t e s C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, P u b l i c a t i o n #170, 1937. Holmes, E. M., "Intake S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n ' s I n s t i t u t i o n s , " The F a m i l y , 22:185-192, October, 1941. Howard, Frank M., " I n s t i t u t i o n s or P o s t e r Home?" Mental Hygiene, 30:92-105, January, 1946. Mayo, Leonard W., "Recording the Progress of a C h i l d i n an I n s t i t u t i o n / ' paper p r e s e n t e d a t the New York State Conference on S o c i a l Work, R o c h e s t e r , New York, 1936, mimeographed m a t e r i a l p u b l i s h e d by the U n i t e d States C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, Washington, D.C.  Mayo, Leonard W., "What May I n s t i t u t i o n s and Group Work C o n t r i b u t e t o Each Other," i n Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1935, pp. 331-339. P e l l e r , L. E., " I n s t i t u t i o n s Must Be Good," Survey Midmonthly, 79:294-297, November, 1943. Schulze, Susanne, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent Child, i n Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947, pp. 387-398. 1 1  S e l i n g , Marth, "Temporary Use o f an I n s t i t u t i o n i n P o s t e r Care," American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . 12:467-473, J u l y , 1942..  

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