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Embury House : a receiving home for children : an evaluation of its population, program, and desirable… Wilson, Harold Thomas 1950

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EMBURY HOUSE: A RECEIVING HOME FOR CHILDREN An evaluation of i t s population, program, and desirable development. (Reglna, Saskatchewan, 1949-1950.) by HAROLD THOMAS WILSON Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l -ment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the Department.of Social Work 1950 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT This study i s concerned with a twofold problem: the present operations of Embury House, a receiving home for i children i n Saskatchewan, and i t s desirable r o l e i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l c h i l d welfare program of services i n Saskatchewan. At present Embury House lacks any suitable program to serve the needs of those children requiring i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Consequently, i t i s not an i n s t i t u t i o n with a d e f i n i t e pur-pose, but a place where dependent and neglected children i n Saskatchewan are kept when there are no other services a v a i l -able to meet t h e i r needs. The evaluation of present operations i n Embury House i s based on the records of f i f t y children placed there during 1949-1950. These f i f t y children, the average monthly popu-l a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n , reveal a t y p i c a l cross-section of the problems and needs of children kept i n Embury House. Analysis showed the children f e l l into three groups, each needing a d i f f e r e n t type of service: (a) casework services i n t h e i r own home, (b) placement i n fo s t e r homes, and (c)* placement i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . It also showed that only eighteen per cent of the t o t a l population of Embury House could p r o f i t by the services of an i n s t i t u t i o n for general care, which type seemed most nearly to describe Embury House. In addition, the analysis showed that eighteen per cent of the t o t a l population required the spec i a l i z e d services of a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n , f i f t y per cent required foster home care, and fourteen per cent required case work services i n the i r own home. The program of services offered by Embury House during 1949-1950, was evaluated i n terms of the standards for children's i n s t i t u t i o n s recently constructed f o r the State of Washington. The program was also assessed by applying four c r i t e r i a to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program: (a) the s o c i a l service program, (b) the physical care of the children, (c) the education and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g , and (d) the quality of the s t a f f . This showed that the physical needs of the children and t h e i r education and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g are well served at Embury House, but there are serious lacks i n the s o c i a l service program and i n the s t a f f . Recent trends i n professional thinking regarding the services which can or should be offered by an i n s t i t u t i o n are reviewed. A d e f i n i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s also made of children who should not receive i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, and of children who can be served i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Against t h i s background, there i s evidence that Embury House could serve more e f f e c t i v e purposes i n the c h i l d wel-fare program than i t does at present. There are no f a c i l i t i e s f o r the treatment of emotionally disturbed childr e n i n Sas-katchewan, but these children tend to be placed i n Embury House. It i s suggested that Embury House could f u l f i l a necessary r o l e as a study and treatment centre f o r seriously disturbed children. There are undoubtedly more children i n Saskatchewan who could benefit from such a service; and It would be better to work out a foster placement and case work program f o r those children not suited f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Revision of the s o c i a l service program, and certain changes and additions i n the s t a f f , as recommended, would modernize Embury House as a valuable study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n . ACKNOWLEDGMENT This project was made possible through the intere s t of Miss Marie Parr and Miss Edna Osborne, Director and Assistant Director, respectively, of the Child Welfare Branch of the Saskatchewan Department of Social Welfare, They were p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n the future r o l e of Embury House, and encouraged the w r i t e r to undertake i t s evaluation i n the setting of the t o t a l c h i l d welfare program i n Saskatchewan. Their cooperation was invaluable© I wish to express my appreciation to the s t a f f of Embury House who so generously and kindly a s s i s t e d i n gathering informative material f o r t h i s study. My thanks i s expressed to Dr. Leonard C. Marsh f o r assistance i n the composition of t h i s study. His words of advice and encouragement throughout the writing of t h i s thesis were most helpful.. I wish to express my gratitude to Miss Helen Wolfe for her invaluable i n t e r e s t , her stimulating suggestions, and her c r i t i c i s m s . Her encouragement was a constant i n -s p i r a t i o n to the w r i t e r . TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter Page I The Changing Philosophy of I n s t i t u t i o n a l  Care for Children H i s t o r i c a l background. Ins t i t u t i o n s as almshouses or poor houses. Ins t i t u t i o n s as orphan asylums. Institutions as schools. I n s t i t u t i o n s as homes. I n s t i t u -tions as s o c i a l agencies 1 II The Current Philosophy of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care  for Children I n s t i t u t i o n a l care as part of foster care program. Types of c h i l d caring i n s t i t u -t i ons. Children best suited f o r i n s t r u c -t i o n a l care. Children needing services i n t h e i r own home or a foster home. Some guiding p r i n c i p l e s of modern i n s t i t u t i o n s . Setting of the study * 26 III The Children Under Care Basis for the evaluation. Children r e -quiring case work services at home. Children requiring foster home care* Children r e q u i r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e e Emotionally disturbed children requiring study and treatment services ............... 57 IV The Program and F a c i l i t i e s Basis f o r the evaluation. S o c i a l service program. Physical needs of the c h i l d * Education and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g . S t a f f 80 V The Future Function of Embury House Need of a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n . Future intake p o l i c y of Embury House* Program and s t a f f . Embury House as a study and treatment centre 115 TABLES Table 1 Age Grouping of Children In Embury House During 1949-1950 ..... 59 Table 2 A Summary of the Types of Services • Required by the Population of Embury House During 1949^1950 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY EMBURY HOUSE: A RECEIVING HOME FOR CHILDREN CHAPTER I THE CHANGING PHILOSOPHY OF INSTITUTIONAL  CARE FOR CHILDREN The history oi' I n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n the United States and Canada contains many black passages. In spite oi' develop-ments over the years, and constant improvements since the end of the l a s t century, there continues to l i n g e r i n the minds of those acquainted with the e a r l i e r methods of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, a certa i n amount of association with the morbid mass care of the almshouse days. Even a f t e r segregation of c h i l d -ren from the aged took place, s p e c i a l buildings constructed, and programs inaugurated f o r dependent and neglected children,, and f o r delinquents and the mentally retarded, i n s t i t u t i o n s s t i l l maintained t h e i r odious reputation. Not even the pro-gress evidenced by the movement from orphanage to schools and homes helped to dispe l the reproachful attitude toward these t r a d i t i o n a l programs. The l a t e s t and most progressive steps of converting congregate type homes into cottage type homes, and of converting i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r general care ahd t r a i n i n g into s k i l l e d study and treatment homes, are s t i l l meeting with resistance i n many areas of the c h i l d welfare f i e l d . There are s t i l l some s o c i a l workers whose honest conviction i s that a l l children's i n s t i t u t i o n s should close and that the children - 2 -should be placed In foster homes, In homes of r e l a t i v e s , or i n t h e i r own homes, with adequate assistance from federal and p r o v i n c i a l programs of s o c i a l services. There are of course many factors which have contributed heavily to the precarious status of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare. When foster family programs expanded, th i s r i v a l method of care appeared to be the answer to every child's need. Prom the end of the l a s t century up to the l a t e twenties foster family care threatened to eliminate eventually a l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l placements. The evolution of professional s o c i a l service with i t s emphasis on the i n d i v i -dual c h i l d , played no small part i n the insecure p o s i t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n . S o c i a l workers were slow i n conceding the contribution which the i n s t i t u t i o n had to make. The delayed acknowledgment that fo s t e r family homes, however p l e n t i f u l and adequate they might be, could not supply f o r some children the correct type of care and t r a i n i n g , was r e l u c t a n t l y made. To provide for every c h i l d who was deprived of h i s own home a substitute family seemed l i k e the i d e a l solution. However, two drawbacks became apparent. F i r s t , i t was noted that some children, regardless of t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y for the foster home, f a i l e d to adjust i n these f a m i l i e s . Home a f t e r home was t r i e d , but the c h i l d was not happy. F i n a l l y , placement was made i n an i n s t i t u t i o n as a l a s t r e s o r t . Some of these children did not adjust i n the i n s t i t u t i o n either, but more of them did, and by a study of t h e i r behaviour they were more e a s i l y treated i n the group program of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The second drawback which shattered somewhat the i d e a l of foster family homes as the t o t a l answer to placement of children, was the fact that s o c i a l agencies experienced considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g s u f f i c i e n t homes which met the necessary require-ments to care f o r a l l t h e i r children. It was admitted grad-u a l l y , but begrudgingly, that the i n s t i t u t i o n s t i l l f i l l e d a , neede This acute problem of meeting the needs of dependent and neglected children faced the e a r l i e s t colonists on t h i s continent. They had to make some kind of public provision f o r these children. In addition to the neighbourly help the colonists extended, they t r i e d to apply the p r i n c i p l e s and practices of the English Poor Laws, with which they were most f a m i l i a r , to new world conditions. They accepted the pre-v a i l i n g view that poverty was something to be deterred and desired to deal with i t by the establishment of almshouses* Many children were apprenticed so that they could earn the care they received. There was some home r e l i e f to, families i n settlements too small f o r an almshouse, and dependent f a m i l i e s 1 were frequently auctioned o f f to the lowest bidder© The history of what has been done for dependent children under governmental auspices, may be traced back In t h i s country to the undertakings of early l o c a l governments, when these children, i f they were not sold or indentured, shared the fate of impoverished adults, the mentally deranged, and 1 Grace Abbott, The Child and the State, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1938, v o l . 2, p. 4« - 4 <•» the delinquent:: they were herded together f o r such shelter and food as the almshouses of the day afforded. In the United States, and equally applicable to Canada, the f u l l cycle of governmental relationships to the c h i l d i s c l e a r l y outlined and i l l u s t r a t e d by the documents gathered by Grace Abbott i n 2 her c l a s s i c on the subject* "New England pioneers accepting, no doubt, the p r e v a i l i n g view that poverty was usually the f a u l t of the poor ... desired to prevent i n t h e i r new s e t t l e -ments what they thought of as the pauperism of the Old World", Their laws were designed to forward th i s purpose. Ea r l y l e g -i s l a t i o n , reports, and other documents quoted by Miss Abbott, i l l u s t r a t e the s e l l i n g of children at auction, t h e i r indenture and apprenticeship, t h e i r care i n almshouses, and the gradual emergence of d i f f e r e n t types of f o s t e r care. Miss Abbott out-l i n e s l a t e r trends i n the development of municipal, county and state i n s t i t u t i o n s for dependents i n the form of schools and homes; the subsidy of private agencies from governmental funds fo r the erection of orphan asylums; governmental regulation of private i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and the present provisions f o r i n s t i t u -t i o n a l care under the Ch i l d Welfare programs of governmental Social Welfare departments. The Roman Catholic Church provided the f i r s t I n s t i t u -t i o n a l care f o r dependent and neglected children i n Canada© With the increasing colonization of Lower Canada i n the seventeenth century, almshouses were established and operated 2 Ibid., v o l . 2, p. 3. by v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s . In the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h century both Roman C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s orders esta» b l i s h e d orphan asylums i n Lower Canada. These asylums housed a l l c h i l d r e n c l a s s i f i e d as "homeless w a i f s , " r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r problems or t h e i r needs. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y began o p e r a t i o n s i n On t a r i o i n the l a t t e r he.If of the nine» t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s e r v i c e s of t h i s p r i v a t e agency began i n the western p r o v i n c e s of Canada a t the be g i n n i n g o f the twen-t i e t h c e ntury. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i -t u t i o n s f o r dependent and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n Saskatchewan s h o r t l y a f t e r t h a t p r o v i n c e was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the Dominion of Canada. These i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r e d n o t h i n g but g e n e r a l care. .They l a c k e d any program of s e r v i c e s , other than satis** f y i n g the p h y s i c a l needs of the c h i l d r e n . The C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare o f Saskatchewan, took over the o p e r a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e when they began expanding t h e i r program of s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n i n 1946. These i n s t i t u t i o n s have s i n c e been d e v e l o p i n g a program of s e r v i c e s to meet the needs of the c h i l d r e n p l a c e d there* In the U n i t e d S t a t e s the e a r l y investments In i n s t i t u -t i o n a l care f o r c h i l d r e n by p r i v a t e e f f o r t s were made by Roman C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s a l i k e i n the f i r s t h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century, but i t was not u n t i l the American C i v i l War that g r e a t a c t i v i t y was noted i n the b u i l d i n g o f such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . I t was the nuns of the U r s u l i n e Convent i n New Orleans, L o u i s i a n a , who were the f i r s t to undertake the •* Q » care of children separate from needy adults. An Indian mass-acre i n 1729 brought newly orphaned childr e n to be cared f o r by the s i s t e r s , thus emphasizing the fa c t that the emergency needs of children i n time of war and disaster have always stimulated the founding of i n s t i t u t i o n s for t h e i r care. The f r a t e r n a l orders, on the whole, began somewhat l a t e r than the churches and lay groups to undertake the care of dependent and neglected children. The f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n founded by a f r a -t e r n a l order was established by the Masons i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1850, but i t had been preceded by several church organizations 3 i n that state. The f r a t e r n a l orders flowed with the tid e of orphanage building that characterized most parts of the country i n the 1880's and 1890's, without embodying any d i s -t i n c t i v e points i n t h e i r programs. From e a r l i e s t times, the humanitarian impulses expressed i n the e f f o r t s of r e l i g i o u s and f r a t e r n a l organizations was to be seen also i n the attempts of government to care f o r dependent and neglected children. A casual observer might presume that more tender motives have often characterized private rather than public welfare e f f o r t s ; that government, having due regard for the taxpayer, had been content only to prevent suffering that might be uncomfortably obvious or that might through vagabondage or epidemic, prove dangerous to the community. However, the t r a d i t i o n a l s uperiority of private 3 Howard W. Hopkirk, I n s t i t u t i o n s Serving Children, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1944, p. 3» over governmental i n s t i t u t i o n a l care has not always prevailed. Today, e s p e c i a l l y , a governmental agency may he surpr i s i n g l y responsive to c h i l d r e n 1 s needs, while church and f r a t e r n a l i n -s t i t u t i o n s or others conducted under private philanthropic auspices, may be found that are content to supply a severe and unsatisfactory kind of foster care. So c i a l work has long been troubled about i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of children. The fore-runners of professional s o c i a l workers ac-claimed separate i n s t i t u t i o n s for orphans, homeless and neglected children as Improvement over caring for them i n almshouses, with aged, sick and degenerate adults. Early s o c i a l workers agreed, but as more understanding was developed of the needs of children d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n grew i n regard to the i n s t i t u t i o n s which were established for them. General approval of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care was replaced i n the attitudes of most s o c i a l workers by r e j e c t i o n with a f e e l i n g of g u i l t about i t , because i n s t i t u t i o n s continued to be used even when they were held i n disapproval. Now that s o c i a l work i s gaining professional maturity and a substantial number of I n s t i t u t i o n s are providing superior service, we are beginning to understand the special nature and c o n t r i -bution of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care and the part to be played i n i t by case work, other parts of s o c i a l work, and r e l a t e d f i e l d s such as health and education. 4 The development of i n s t i t u t i o n s for dependent and ne-glected children shows that this form of c h i l d care, l i k e a l l other c h i l d welfare or s o c i a l welfare e f f o r t s , i s inseparably interwoven with s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l forces, and the p r e v a i l i n g understanding of children and t h e i r needs. It i s necessary to consider the various stages i n the growth of 4 Mary Lois Pyles, In s t i t u t i o n s f o r Child Care and  Treatment, New York, Child Welfare League of America, 1947, p. 7. — 8 — children's i n s t i t u t i o n s i n order to understand them and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the c h i l d care f i e l d of today. This study w i l l show only the evolution of i n s t i t u t i o n s designed f o r the care of dependent and neglected children. It i s possible to d i s -tinguish f i v e stages i n the development of children's i n s t i -tutions: (1) almshouses or "poor houses", (2) orphan asylums, (3) state and county schools, (4) congregate and cottage homes, (5) s o c i a l agencies. A heritage from a l l these stages i s intermingled i n the Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s of today, but as they become a part of modern s o c i a l work, they emerge as d e f i n i t e s o c i a l agencies providing s k i l l e d professional ser-vices i n an agency atmosphere. Through a l l these stages run the current s o c i a l forces and concepts about childhood. Inst i t u t i o n s as Almshouses or Poor Houses. "Poor Law" - type Acts - i n Canada and the United States, as i n England - provided public funds f o r the maintenance and operation of asylums for the indigent, most frequently known as almshouses. As the almshouses were the cheapest possible public care f o r those people dependent upon the state f o r sur-v i v a l , they were used not only as an asylum f o r the indigent, but also f o r the sick, the mentally i l l , the degenerates, the criminals and other m i s f i t s . These people were housed i n the same buil d i n g , many times i n the same room, and so i t requires l i t t l e imagination to v i s u a l i z e the depths of degradation sur-rounding these almshouses. The inmates were supposed to earn t h e i r care by hand industries, but few l i v e d long enough to learn or produce any craftsmanship. In the eastern States and i n the Maritimes i n Canada, almshouses were b u i l t , and the same mixed groups of dependent people found themselves consigned to l i v e i n them. The c h i l -dren were usually cared for by older inmates and taught, i f at a l l , by ignorant employees. Their physical needs were neg-lected and their mortality was very high. Those children who did survive knew only the l i f e and routine of a pauper i n s t i -t u t i o n . There were only two ways i n which the children could leave the almshouses before reaching t h e i r majority: adoption, or indenture. The adoption methods were simple. A l l the c h i l -dren were l i n e d up, the adopting parents looked over the candi-dates, made t h e i r choice, signed an agreement, and the c h i l d was t h e i r s . Whether the reason for adopting an almshouse c h i l d was love or the need of a servant, may well be questioned. The purpose of indenture was to make some person or family d e f i n i t e l y responsible for the support and care of the depend-ent c h i l d . A second purpose was to secure i n d u s t r i a l or a g r i -c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g f o r these children, so that at the end of t h e i r indenture they would be employed, thus r e l i e v i n g the community of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r welfare. In form and theory, indenture of a c h i l d pledged the work of the c h i l d as pay for his keep, for a minimum degree of education, and certain further payments i n kind or money when the indenture was over. The treatment the indentured c h i l d received depended upon his actions, the tender mercies of his employer, the i n -fluence of the opinion of the neighbours, and the degree of - 10 -Interest the public poor o f f i c i a l s took i n him. It i s morally c e r t a i n that the experiences of indentured children varied a l l the way from that of being v i r t u a l slaves to that of being r e a l f o s t e r sons or daughters. Indenture offered the best opportunity f o r permanently easing demands on the treasury of the c h i l d ' s home county f o r the maintenance of the c h i l d . In-denture offered to the homeless, destitute and neglected c h i l -dren, an open door to at lea s t the p o s s i b i l i t y of a d a i l y min-imum of food, shelter and clothing, and a ce r t a i n degree of security. Nevertheless, the tragedies of Indenturing children from almshouses and orphan asylums are obvious. The c h i l d received no i n d i v i d u a l consideration. He or she was regarded as so much cha t t e l . The homes were not studied before place-ment and there was no supervision a f t e r placement. To i n s i s t that any c h i l d s h a l l remain i n a family only because he i s an economic asset i s i n t o l e r a b l e . The early nineteenth century philosophy of almshouses i s best expressed i n the arguments i n the Yates Report of 1824, f o r the establishment of an almshouse i n every county of a state, f o r the use of both adults and children. This report was formulated by J . V. N. Yates, Secretary of State 5 for New York i n 1823 - 1824. Mr. Yates advocated almshouse care of dependent and neglected childr e n "as a means to t h e i r 5 Annual Report of the State Board of Charities of New York, 1900, which reprinted t h i s Report from the New York  State Assembly Journal of February 9,1824j c i t e d i n Henry Thurston, The Dependent Child, New York, Columbia University Press, 1930, pp. 19-26. - 11 -education and moral t r a i n i n g " , which was necessary prepara-t i o n before being indentured at suitable ages to some usefu l business or trade. As these poor children received no school-ing, no moral t r a i n i n g , and no d i s c i p l i n e from t h e i r parents, they should receive these benefits i n the almshouse before being indentured. In the almshouse, children could be edu-cated and "set on the road to a l i f e that would free them from permanent ignorance, pauperism and v i c e " . Mr. Yates and his contemporaries saw that i t was the duty of the public to give some form of care to children who were either homeless or i n d e s t i t u t i o n and neglected at home. They devised a means of taking a part of the burden of such care from p r i -vate charity and of placing i t upon the public generally In the form of taxes. What they did not appreciate was the i n -human coarsening and debasing atmosphere of the mixed alms-house, whether as a permanent or even a temporary home f o r chil d r e n . Bad as the almshouses were, t h i s type of care was usually better than the auctioning of families f o r care. Moreover, i t probably was not possible at that time to de-velop a well-administered system of home r e l i e f or spe c i a l care f o r children. Although they represented a step forward at the time they were established, almshouses long outlived t h e i r usefulness. High death-rates, outbreaks of contagious disease, incompetent s t a f f s , and the generally neglected and unhappy condition of the children reported by Individuals and spec i a l committees i n one area a f t e r another, eventually l e d - 12 -to the demand that this method of caring for dependent c h i l -dren he abandoned. One such report, made i n Michigan i n 1870, i s i n d i c a t i v e of conditions generally i n almshouse-care i n America: Nearly one thousand children i n the poor-houses of Michigan. What i s to be done with them? Think of t h e i r surroundings. The raving of the maniac, the f r i g h t f u l contor-tions of the e p i l e p t i c , the f r i v e l i n g and senseless sputtering of the i d i o t , the garrulous temper of the decrepit, neglected old age, the peevishness of the infirm, the accumulated f i l t h of a l l these: then add the moral degeneracy of such as, from idleness or d i s s i p a t i o n , seek a refuge from honest t o i l i n the t i t h e d industry of the county, and you have a f a i n t outline of the sur-roundings of these l i t t l e boys and g i r l s . This i s home to them. Here the i r f i r s t and most enduring impressions of l i f e are formed. 6 This t y p i c a l report of conditions i n almshouses, indicates the outlook of consigning dependent and neglected childre n to such a degenerating atmosphere. * Reforms came slowly de-spite the infamous evidence of almshouse conditions. Public funds had been invested In land and buildings; large numbers could be cared for i n th i s manner, and i t was f a t a l l y easy to place children and families i n an almshouse. Furthermore, because of the large numbers of children In almshouses, the problem of what to do with them i f t h i s form of care were abandoned was not e a s i l y solved. It was not u n t i l the l a s t 6 "Report of the Special Commissioners to Examine the Penal, Reformatory, and Charitable In s t i t u t i o n s of the State of Michigan," Joint Documents of the State of Michigan f o r the Year 1870, Vol. 11, No. 8, c i t e d i n Grace Abbott, The Ch i l d and the State, Chicago, Univ e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1938,^vol. 2, p. 52. — 13 -quarter of the nineteenth century that t h i s type of care was abolished. I n s t i t u t i o n s as Orphan Asylums, The removal of dependent children from the almshouses, 7 to so-called orphan asylums, i n groups by themselves, was a d e f i n i t e advance i n c h i l d care. This segregation of children from the mixed almshouse, whether into orphan asylums or into special i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the deaf, b l i n d , or feeble-minded, was p l a i n l y a step forward toward a recognition of the needs and capacities of these dependent and s p e c i a l l y handicapped children as i n d i v i d u a l s . They were at least becoming recog-nized as a class of juvenile dependents, with needs somewhat dif f e r e n t from the needs of adult dependents. The term "asylum", as f i r s t used i n i t s primary meaning of "sanctuary or place of refuge and protection", was an expressive word, well suited to the purposes of the type of i n s t i t u t i o n which i t then described. The concept of an asylum, however unacceptable the name, represented the com-munity's concern f o r dependent children i n need of care. The f i r s t annual reports of orphan asylums founded seventy-fiye or more years ago, give i n s p i r i n g glimpses of the love for children and the missionary zeal shown by many of those who 7 "The word 'orphan' i s a misnomer because i n most i n s t i t u t i o n s a large majority of children, often ninety per cent, have one or both parents l i v i n g " . Henry W. Thurston, The Dependent Child, New York, Columbia University Press, 1930, p. 39. - 14 took the lead i n founding these i n s t i t u t i o n s . The whole s i t -uation may not have been studied with s c i e n t i f i c i n t e l l i g e n c e approaching the best standards of the day, but there can be no doubt that the basis of many of these pioneer e f f o r t s was a h e a r t f e l t interest i n dependent children. Among the reasons for s t a r t i n g orphan asylums, of which the founders were con-scious, were: (1) r e f u s a l to place, dependent childre n i n whom they were personally interested, i n the l o c a l almshouse; (2) a desire to save children from neglect, outrage and d e s t i -t u tion i n the streets and i n squalid homes; (3) a desire to give children care under r e l i g i o u s auspices of t h e i r parents and thus to keep them from l o s i n g their ancestral f a i t h ; (4) the need to provide care f o r negro children. The b u i l d i n g and maintenance of orphan asylums by private funds contributed by various groups of charitably disposed persons, went on i n America during the whole time that the almshouse i t s e l f was developing. Many such i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n charge of persons of a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s denomination and others were r e a l l y charitable agencies of the church i t s e l f . The Catholic Church has had orphanages of i t s own uninterruptedly f o r over 300 years i n Quebec. It i s d i f f i c u l t to v i s u a l i z e the actual l i f e of c h i l -dren i n orphan asylums, and to Imagine how l i f e , both b i t t e r and sweet, seemed to the children themselves. The methods of Intake by surrender, and of outgo by indenture, which were the rule i n those days, are best summed up i n the following provisions selected from the Constitution and By-Laws of the 15 -New York Orphan Asylum Society. No children s h a l l he received u n t i l examined by a respectable physician and pronounced free from i n f e c t i o n or i n -curable diseases. Relations or friends of orphans s h a l l on placing them i n the asylum, renounce a l l claim to them i n future years. The orphans s h a l l be educated, fed, and clothed at the expense of the Society, and at the Asylum. ,They must have r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , moral example, and habits of industry inculcated i n t h e i r minds. As soon as the age and acquirements of orphans s h a l l , i n the opinion of the Board of Directors, render them capable of earning t h e i r l i v i n g , they must be bound out to some reputable persons or families for such object and In such manner as the Board s h a l l approve. 8 Perhaps there have been exceptions, but a l l the evidence i s that i n orphan asylums the i n d i v i d u a l counted for nothing© The welfare, temperment, or d i s p o s i t i o n of any one c h i l d was not taken into consideration. L i f e was uniform, l o g i c a l , conventional and stereotyped. The duties, tasks, and ex-periences of one day became the duties, tasks, and experiences of a l l the other three hundred and sixty-four days of the year. The a c t i v i t i e s of every hour was planned. The children's schooling was not neglected. Recitation was the method of i n s t r u c t i o n . While one class r e c i t e d , the next class studied. Religious education, which played a major role i n many of the i n s t i t u t i o n s , meant simply the memorizing of words without t h e i r meaning, without adapting any of the material to the 8 Origin and History of the Orphan Asylum Society i n  the City of New York. New York. 1896. v o l . 1. pp. 18-80. c i t e d i n Ibid, pp. 45-46. 16 needs of the c h i l d . Children were cut o f f from family t i e s , and emotional needs were unknown. A l l emphasis was upon mass provision of long-time care i n a safe haven of refuge from the world. I n s t i t u t i o n s as Schools. Some concept of the i n s t i t u t i o n as a school has probably been present from the beginning of t h i s type of care f o r de-pendent children. U n t i l recently i t has been customary i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s of America to operate an elementary and some-times a secondary school, but at the present time there i s a d e f i n i t e tendency for i n s t i t u t i o n s serving dependent and ne-glected children to send th e i r wards of f the premises to public or parochial schools. Before 1900, elementary education i n i n s t i t u t i o n s generally led up to apprenticeship or to work on the farm or i n domestic service. This was replaced by a growing tendency on the part of i n s t i t u t i o n a l schools to keep many of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l l y more promising children under care u n t i l they had been graduated from high school, and oc-casionally i n the case of students able to p r o f i t by college t r a i n i n g , even to twenty or twenty-one years of age. The idea of the i n s t i t u t i o n as a school exerted much influence i n r e -garding the c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l , and so helped to place the i n s t i t u t i o n ahead of the orphan asylum from which g i r l s and boys usually l e f t at about twelve or fourteen years of age. Too often these schools had th e i r p o l i c i e s rooted i n the older i n s t i t u t i o n a l patter, i n which "schooling", meant a minimum of 17 -elementary classroom i n s t r u c t i o n and a maximum of drudgery, frequently embellished with the labels of domestic, i n d u s t r i a l or a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g . The State of Michigan was the f i r s t geographical d i v i -sion to draft an Act to e s t a b l i s h a state public school for dependent and neglected children. A law was passed by the Michigan l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1871, creating a state public school for dependent children, to which a l l destitute children i n the state who were public charges were to be moved, and from which they were to be placed out i n families as soon as possible. There had been some county public schools estab-l i s h e d previous to the Michigan decision but these usually offered only temporary care and education u n t i l the c h i l d could be indentured. The Michigan state public school opened at Coldwater, i n May, 1874, The following provisions quoted from the Michigan Act Indicate the type of care and t r a i n i n g dependent and neglected children received i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l schools. There s h a l l be received as pupils i n such School those children that are over four and under sixteen years of age, that are i n suitable condition of body and mind to receive i n s t r u c t i o n , who are neglected and dependent,, especially those who are now maintained i n the county poor-houses, those who have been abandoned by t h e i r parents, or are orphans, or whose parents have been convicted of crime. The children i n such School s h a l l be main-tained and educated i n the branches usually taught i n common' schools, and s h a l l have proper physical and moral t r a i n i n g . It s h a l l be the duty of such board of control to use a l l diligence to provide suitable places i n good families for a l l such pupils as have received - 18 -an elementary education; and any other pupils may be placed i n good families on condition that t h e i r education s h a l l be provided f o r i n the public schools of the town or c i t y where they may reside. That said board of control are hereby made the l e g a l guardians of a l l the children who may become inmates of said School, with authority to bind out any children to a pursuit or trade during minority, under a contract insuring the children kind and proper treatment and a f a i r elementary; education. 9 Other i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r dependent and neglected children em-phasized s p e c i a l education and t r a i n i n g , but f o r some time they continued to give care so i s o l a t e d from the rest of the world that children were unable to adjust successfully outside the overly protecting and damaging walls of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l schools. It was inevitable that the developing f i e l d of s o c i a l work should be d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h i s kind of school care f o r children. Better ways were found of providing edu-cation and tr a i n i n g f o r children In their own homes and com-munities, and concern grew about the emotional and s o c i a l needs of chi l d r e n . I n s t i t u t i o n s as Homes Increased understanding of the importance of family l i f e brought about new ways of providing for children who could not be cared f o r by t h e i r own fa m i l i e s . Poster family care, a f t e r passing through a stage of mass and inadequate care i n 9 "An Act to E s t a b l i s h a State Public School f o r De-pendent,and Neglected Children", Laws of Michigan, 1871, 1, No. 172, 280, ci t e d i n Ibid, pp. 56-7. - 19 -the wholesale free foster home era under the leadership of Charles Loring Brace, developed ind i v i d u a l i z e d and supervised means of providing substitute private family l i f e to meet the needs of many children. During the period i n which foster homes were coming into prominence and being used quite success-f u l l y , the i n s t i t u t i o n s became competitive and t r i e d to ape fost e r homes. The big congregate i n s t i t u t i o n s were replaced by cottages with a cottage "parent" over each group of children. Attempts were made to select children f o r each cottage on the basis of the composition of an actual family, including both sexes and various ages. The cottage "parents" t r i e d to handle children as they would be handled i n a fos t e r home. Other i n s t i t u t i o n s made good use of the greater understanding of what children need, and the case work p r i n c i p l e s and methods which have a place i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l care as well as other forms of c h i l d care. Many times, unfortunately, the name of "home" was substituted for "asylum" with no accompanying emotional home features and with the same general program of mass care. The modern substitution of cottages f o r large congre-gate dormitories may be considered as a p r a c t i c a l move toward making i n s t i t u t i o n s as homelike as possible and more congenial to normal childhood. These ef f o r t s of some i n s t i t u t i o n s to be more homelike a l l brought greater comfort and happiness to children i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Cottages were used instead of large 10 Ibid, pp. 92-140 - 20 dormitories; smaller dining rooms and tables, instead of con-gregate and s i l e n t eating; smaller groups, instead of always large groups, meant a l i t t l e privacy and some p o s s i b i l i t y of ind i v i d u a l care and a f f e c t i o n instead of mass, routine pro-grams of s u r v i v a l . With the development of t h i s home atmos-phere, new awareness of the meaning of personal relationships to children began to influence the attitude and practice of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n regard to parents, r e l a t i v e s and friends of the children, and the ro l e of s t a f f . The former group were allowed to v i s i t the children and have the children v i s i t them; the s t a f f were accepted as being a part of the i n s t i -t u t i o n a l program and developed a personal i n t e r e s t i n the children's welfare. Even while i n s t i t u t i o n a l homes va i n l y struggled to compete with f o s t e r family care they learned more about children's needs. This was the t r a n s i t i o n a l period i n which i n s t i t u t i o n s were attempting to emancipate themselves from the mass, impersonalized programs of asylum care, and develop the understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l child's needs i n a home-like s e t t i n g . I n s t i t u t i o n s as S o c i a l Agencies. The i n s t i t u t i o n s which try to do good jobs as schools or as homes of f e r some values for c e r t a i n children, but there i s too often something incomplete about t h e i r service. True, an i n s t i t u t i o n i s a place where children l i v e f o r a time, but i t i s a "Home" with a c a p i t a l KH", not a normal home. Children go to school while they l i v e at the i n s t i t u t i o n and much of - 21 -the program may have a broad educational purpose, but there are other aspects to a c h i l d l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . In-s t i t u t i o n s come into the l i v e s of children because of s o c i a l problems and needs. The modern i n s t i t u t i o n cannot escape the task of helping i t s children with the family problems or t h e i r own spe c i a l needs. Social work is required along with the best i n education, medical care, etc., i n order to help these children grow successfully. Because i t i s c a l l e d into being by s o c i a l problems and has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of helping i t s c l i e n t s reach s a t i s f y i n g personal and s o c i a l adjustment, the i n s t i t u t i o n i s a s o c i a l agency and needs to make use of s o c i a l work knowledge and s k i l l i n carrying on i t s work. Just as public assistance, family welfare and foster family care organizations are each to be seen i n modern times as a kind of s o c i a l agency with Its sp e c i a l nature and function, so, children's i n s t i t u t i o n s be s o c i a l agencies with many d i s -t i n c t i v e features. Community agencies which, throughout the nineteen twenties and t h i r t i e s , had been working somewhat aloof from the I n s t i t u t i o n , f i n a l l y recognized that modern i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs serve a need i n accepting children who could not get along i n f o s t e r homes; also that they have a d i s t i n c t c o n t r i -bution to make, which i s inherent i n t h e i r group setting and specialized professional services. A constructive feature which resulted from the emphasis on foster family home place-ment of a decade and so age, was the decrease i n the popula-t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s . These smaller numbers allowed more time - 22 -and greater f a c i l i t i e s f o r the study and treatment of d i f f i -cult cases. The favourable r e s u l t s of study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r emotionally disturbed children, such as the I l l i n o i s Children's Home and Aid Society, i n Chicago, resulted i n a more objective appreciation of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. In-s t i t u t i o n s began weeding out those children who could not bene-f i t from group care, and those who were not i n need of specia-l i z e d and intensive therapy. This has l e f t the I n s t i t u t i o n s free to function i n t h e i r most important r o l e , that of study and treatment centres for extremely disturbed children. Un-fortunately the majority of i n s t i t u t i o n s are s t i l l functioning i n the capacity of receiving homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r general care and t r a i n i n g . During the past decade, as the i n s t i t u t i o n has become recognized as a s o c i a l agency within I t s e l f , the study and treatment of disturbed children has become part of the work of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s program. Recent trends indicate that the functions of the receiving home and the general care i n s t i t u t i o n may be transferred to f o s t e r homes, leaving the i n s t i t u t i o n s free to concentrate t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d therapy on appropriate children. The isolationism so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n s t i t u t i o n s a few decades ago i s now r a p i d l y d i s s o l v i n g . It i s unusual today to f i n d an i n s t i t u t i o n that does not have some working relationships with other community s o c i a l agencies. Specia-l i z e d services made available to children i n i n s t i t u t i o n s by outside agencies have i n large measure been responsible f o r t h i s development. Arrangements with central case work agencies - 23 to have se l e c t i o n of cases or intake done by an outside agency were the f i r s t wedges i n the hitherto closed door of the autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n . The growth of c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s and p s y c h i a t r i c services i n the community offered another service which the case workers made known to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f . The physician was often i n and out of the i n s t i t u t i o n hut i n the past h i s v i s i t s were b r i e f , and apt to be confined s t r i c t l y to the treatment of physical disorders without any discussion or consideration of the c h i l d ' s family s i t u a t i o n and emotional l i f e . Recent developments In the f i e l d of psychomatic medicine have brought a new awareness of the i n -t e r r e l a t i o n of i l l n e s s and emotional l i f e . The trend toward wider prov i s i o n for school outside the i n s t i t u t i o n grounds, brought the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f i n contact with another s p e c i a l i s t from an important community agency, namely, the teacher. S i m i l a r l y , r e l i g i o u s services were attended i n churches of the surrounding community, allowing the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d to follow his own r e l i g i o n . Thus we f i n d that the opening of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s doors to the use of community services and agencies, had the immediate eff e c t of decentra-l i z i n g and disbursing services from within the i n s t i t u t i o n , and ultimately that of c l a r i f y i n g the function of s p e c i a l i s t s and pointing to t h e i r place as an i n t e g r a l part of the i n -s t i t u t i o n a l program. This program which has, as i t s under-l y i n g key, the understanding and sympathetic treatment of every c h i l d as a t o t a l personality i n a t o t a l s i t u a t i o n , em-phasizes the structure of the modern i n s t i t u t i o n as a s o c i a l - 24 -agency. It would be comforting to think that dependent children no longer suffer from neglect, ignorance or inadequate f a c i l -i t i e s f o r care i n any i n s t i t u t i o n . It i s i d e a l i s t i c to believe that once somebody, somewhere, has pronounced a formula and has set up In some one i n s t i t u t i o n an adequate program f o r putting t h i s formula into e f f e c t « presto, a l l the childr e n of every i n s t i t u t i o n everywhere, off e r i n g the same services as t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , w i l l straightway get the benefit of such a program. Unfortunately i n s t i t u t i o n s do hot change as quickly as that. Some persons i n charge of i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs, do not even know there has been a change anywhere. Others may have heard of the, but s t i l l think the old ways better. S t i l l others know, but lack the s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s to enter f u l l y upon the better care of these children. Questions are i n -variably raised about the cost of care i n i n s t i t u t i o n s which develop well-rounded programs to meet a l l the needs of t h e i r children. The community understands that better i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s expensive, but they w i l l be w i l l i n g to pay i f the need for better care and therapy i s shown to them. It may well be that i n the future sqme children's i n s t i t u t i o n s may need to spend as much for the care and treatment of children who have special problems as hospitals spend for the i l l . As a r e s u l t of these impediments, i n s t i t u t i o n a l care today varies from orphan asylums to s o c i a l agencies, according to the programs offered. Nevertheless, many c h i l d welfare workers are pre-d i c t i n g an increasingly important role for children's i n s t i -- 25 -tutions which provide Individual treatment i n a group s e t t i n g . CHAPTER II THE CURRENT PHILOSOPHY OF INSTITUTIONAL  CARE FOR CHILDREN A d e f i n i t e change i n attitude has taken place among i n s t i t u t i o n a l personnel and s o c i a l workers during the l a s t decade i n regard to the basic philosophy of I n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r children. Where formerly large numbers were em-phasized and e f f o r t exerted to keep every bed f i l l e d l e s t f i n a n c i a l loss might eventually lead to extinction, today there i s a new security abroad i n th i s f i e l d . Reduction of numbers i s f r e e l y discussed and there i s l i t t l e concern about th i s trend because i n s t i t u t i o n a l workers do not associate i t with the idea that the i n s t i t u t i o n as a method of care i s on the wane. There i s a new f e e l i n g that the i n s t i t u t i o n based on recent standards of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s acceptable and i t s merits unquestionable. I n s t i t u t i o n workers r e f l e c t t h i s new security i n t h e i r free discussions about the weaknesses of t h e i r own programs. Everywhere plans are under way f o r improvement i n physical f a c i l i t i e s , reorganization of pro-grams and a c t i v i t i e s to meet the needs of the children served, and t r a i n i n g of personnel to cope with the more d i f -f i c u l t c hildren now admitted* Today i t i s possible f o r a s o c i a l worker to say, "The pas't decade has marked an era of revolution i n the i n s t i t u -- 27 t i o n a l f i e l d . Many new developments have taken place, notable among which i s the general acceptance of the ch i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n as an indisputable method of care for c e r t a i n 1 c h i l d r e n . H As s o c i a l workers gained more experience with both i n s t i t u t i o n a l and foster family care, i t was gradually r e a l i z e d that there are two supplementary and complementary kinds of care for children away from t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . This fact can be substantiated by considering some of the accepted d e f i n i t i o n s of foster family care and i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Poster care, i t has been said, i s any f u l l - t i m e care of a c h i l d by persons not b i o l o g i c a l l y r elated to him, whether i t i s with a group of other c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , or i n a foster family home; whether i t is of long or short dura-t i o n ; whether i t i s paid f o r i n part or en-t i r e l y by the child's own parents, r e l a t i v e s or guardian, or by public or private c o n t r i -butions; and whether or not i t i s accompanied by l e g a l termination of the r i g h t s of natural parents and transfer of guardianship to a parent substitute. 2 Poster family care and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f oster care each provide c e r t a i n values which the other cannot o f f e r . The inherently d i f f e r e n t elements i n the l a t t e r are acknowledged i n the d e f i n i t i o n stating that A children's i n s t i t u t i o n i s a group of unrelated children l i v i n g together i n the care of a group of unrelated adults, 3 1 Cecelia McGovern, Services to Children i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , Washington, Ransdell, 1948, p, 1, 2 Mary Lois Pyles, I n s t i t u t i o n s for Ch i l d Care and Treat- ment, New York, Child Welfare League of America, 1947, p. 10. 3 Loc. c i t . - 28 -Thoughtful workers In the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f i e l d and i n the child-placing agencies today usually agree that neither fo s t e r home placement nor i n s t i t u t i o n a l care meets the needs of a l l children or the needs of the same c h i l d at a l l stages of h i s development. Therefore, the new ro l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n em-phasizes the diagnosis and treatment of children to prepare them for return to the community. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n should be a period of understanding care, r e - t r a i n i n g and treatment. The i n s t i t u t i o n should not be the home of any c h i l d f or an i n d e f i n i t e period. The return to t h e i r homes may not be possible when some children are ready to leave the i n s t i t u -t i o n , hence foster family care i s provided as an Interim phase of treatment. While the c h i l d i s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , i t may become obvious that h i s own home will never be suitable f o r his return. Such a c h i l d should not remain i n d e f i n i t e l y i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , but should move on as soon as another s a t i s f a c t o r y plan can be substituted. The i n s t i t u t i o n i s a unique form of s o c i a l agency be-cause i t s c l i e n t s l i v e together i n the same place i n which s o c i a l services are carried on. Each c h i l d l i v e s i n the cottage or dormitory with a group of others with whom (unless there be s i b l i n g s with him) he has no t i e s of kinship or pre-vious acquaintance. The agency provides a l l the aspects of dail y l i v i n g , growing and learning, from i t s own employees. Unlike l i v i n g at home or with a foster family there are no two parents who are i n charge of a c h i l d . Instead, d i f f e r e n t adults share i n the care of these children. It i s the group .- 29 l i v i n g and group care s i t u a t i o n which defines both the l i m i -tatIons and opportunities of the i n s t i t u t i o n . This group em-phasis should be a guiding factor i n determining the c h i l d r e n who come to i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i t enters into a l l e f f o r t s to 4 help them. There i s no general agreement among spokesmen f o r i n s t i -tutions as to the primary purpose of their care of c h i l d r e n by t h i s group of unrelated adults. Many i n s t i t u t i o n s are set up c h i e f l y as a place to l i v e , and some of these s t i l l provide l i t t l e more than shelter and custody. Some emphasize school and education. Progressive i n s t i t u t i o n a l executives are thinking increasingly i n terms of treatment — help with the problems of children. The various approaches and programs offered by d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s can be u t i l i z e d to meet the needs of d i f f e r e n t children. Probably a l l up-to-date i n s t i t u -t ions, however, f e e l the need of providing care which promotes constructive growth and development of children. Children do grow and develop wherever they are. They do not stand s t i l l but they may regress and wither; and certain things are es-s e n t i a l f o r the proper nurture and d i r e c t i o n of the human 4 Children's i n s t i t u t i o n s are beginning to give more recognition to the group work aspects, es p e c i a l l y group therapy, in the o v e r a l l development of children. For further information regarding the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the future of professional group work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s caring for children see: Leonard W. Mayo, "What May Institutions and Group Work Contribute to Each Other," i n Proceedings of the  National Conference of Social Work, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1935, pp. 331-339, Susanne Schulze, "Group L i v i n g and the Dependent Ch i l d , " i n Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l  Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, pp, 387-398© - 30 -machine. Therefore, i n s t i t u t i o n s which are thoughtful and serious about t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must accept the challenge of applying the best that i s known about children, t h e i r problems, how they can be helped, the help which i n s t i t u t i o n s can o f f e r , and what i s necessary for such help* The Types of Child-Caring I n s t i t u t i o n s , In the attempt to c l a s s i f y i n s t i t u t i o n s for c h i l d r e n or the children they serve, d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e . At the present time, f o r instance, there i s some tendency to avoid such terms as delinquent, feeble-minded, dependent, i n the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s of children. As professional s o c i a l workers under-stand more about the dynamics of children's problems, the more reluctent they are to place the children i n d e f i n i t i v e cate-gories by t h e i r handicaps. Nevertheless, there must be c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s of the children served by i n s t i t u t i o n s to f i t the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d constructively to the treatment and program provided by the i n s t i t u t i o n . The progressive i n s t i t u t i o n of today i s much smaller than children's Institutions have been i n the past. It has a much better trained s t a f f , providing In most instances f o r psychia-t r i c consultation, psychological services, a trained group worker and s k i l l e d case work services. As might be expected from the changing philosophy of service to children, which stresses the recognition of the need of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , i n s t i t u t i o n s now serve a highly selected group of children - 31 -5 and tend to s p e c i a l i z e i n t h e i r services* In discussing types of children's i n s t i t u t i o n s , those which are designed for special groups such as the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped, convalescent, and mentally de f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n w i l l be disregarded. There are four main types of i n s t i t u -tions f o r dependent and neglected children, each of which has variations which re l a t e to the character of the s p e c i f i c prob-lems dealt with and the types of treatment provided. According to the kind of service which these i n s t i t u t i o n s render, four types are distinguishable* 1. I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r general care or t r a i n i n g * These include i n s t i t u t i o n s making no l i m i t a t i o n s i n regard to the type of children received other than those based on such broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as age, sex, race, or r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . They would also include day nurseries and i n -s t i t u t i o n s for normal adolescents In need of group experience* It can r e a d i l y be seen that the older i n s t i t u t i o n s were of t h i s type for the most part and that the other three types l i s t e d below have been off-shoots from t h i s parental stem, as have been the special types of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r childr e n such as those f o r the mentally handicapped. In other words, the development of children's i n s t i t u t i o n s has followed the trend to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n which i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the twentieth century* 5 Henry W. Thurston, The Dependent Child, New York, Columbia University Press, 1930, Chapter VII. In t h i s chapter Mr. Thurston reviews the a i d of the s o c i a l sciences i n de-termining what the c h i l d r e a l l y needs from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care* - 32 2 9 Receiving homes. These are frequently r e f e r r e d to as "shelters". They provide f a c i l i t i e s f or diag-nosis or emergency and short-time care. They include temporary shelters used by agencies pending placement i n a family home, and also the detention homes of courts or protective agencies. In many l o c a l i t i e s this function has la r g e l y been taken over 6 by subsidized foster homes* 3, Study homes or treatment centres. The best known i n s t i t u t i o n of t h i s kind i s the Ryther Child Centre i n Seattle, Washington. Less well known are those i n s t i t u t i o n s handling somewhat less disturbed adolescents who are- emanci-pating themselves from t h e i r families and cannot accept fo s t e r home care. The function of these study and treatment centres i s stated most concisely i n the following c i t a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n s for the observation of children with serious problems and treatment fo r such children while they are l i v i n g with-i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , represents a somewhat recent development. The name study home, which has become popular, i s a term that has followed the introduction of ps y c h i a t r i c service into the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare, but there i s a sense i n which i t i s a mis-nomer. As the name Implies, i n s t i t u t i o n s so c a l l e d attempt an intensive study and tr e a t -ment of each i n d i v i d u a l — a service usually not expected of the asylum, school or home. Once a diagnosis has been made, however, i t i s treatment which i s more important than study, a fact that should be recognized by c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s as well as by I n s t i -tutions concerned primarily with disturbed 6 Howard W. Hopkirk, I n s t i t u t i o n s Serving Children, New York, Russell Sage. Foundation, 1944, pp. 32-337 Mr. Hopkirk states that the services rendered by these receiving homes can more b e n e f i c i a l l y be supplied i n family homes by subsidized f o s t e r parents. 33 -children. It would be more appropriate to name these i n s t i t u t i o n s treatment centres, because those establishments worthy of the name have gone far beyond the diagnostic function of merely studying the children entrusted to them, 7 4, Ins t i t u t i o n s combining the features of  receiving homes and c l i n i c s f o r study and sp e c i a l treatment. As the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s type of i n s t i t u t i o n implies, t h e i r function i s to provide not only care for children who are dependent or neglected, but also some disturbed children f o r s p e c i a l observation and treatment. These i n s t i t u t i o n s must supply or have access to the necessary c l i n i c a l f a c i l i -t i e s and trained s t a f f to diagnose serious emotional problems and carry out the required therapy. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Children Best Suited for I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care, As was noted i n the b r i e f history of the development of children's i n s t i t u t i o n s , the i n s t i t u t i o n has become more sele c t i v e i n i t s aim of serving the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , and the use of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n a t o t a l community c h i l d welfare program has become more c l e a r l y defined. The group nature of I n s t i t u t i o n a l care with i t s less personal t i e s , and associa-t i o n with many persons, should be a decisive factor i n i t s use for a c h i l d . Children cannot be r e a l l y helped by i n s t i -tutions unless they can make use of the group s i t u a t i o n , or at le a s t are not injured by i t . Careful -case study of the c h i l d 7 Ibid., p, 28 - 34 -and his family i s needed i n order to understand what care may be h e l p f u l . Who are these children f o r whom group care has more to o f f e r than foster home care - which i s , a f t e r a l l , the closest substitute for parental care? This i s a subject that has received considerable attention i n the l a s t few years, and one i n which perhaps a l l the answers are not yet a v a i l a b l e . Current l i t e r a t u r e on the subject would indicate that i n the main the writers are i n agreement, although some see more p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the group experience than do others. There i s general agreement, that i f the c h i l d can accept f o s t e r home care and f i t into a f o s t e r home, t h i s plan i s preferable. There are some children, however, who need, not a foster home experience, but a group experience. It i s these children that the i n s t i t u t i o n i s f i t t e d to serve. Children are placed In i n s t i t u t i o n s because i t i s believed that the i n s t i t u t i o n a l set-up of f e r s them the opportunity of working out t h e i r problems In t h e i r own way i n the ab-sence of the forces which have helped to create them, 8 As another writer has put i t , A l l t h i s i s predicated upon the assump-t i o n from the i n s t i t u t i o n point of view that children should not be retained f o r a long period of years but placed i n a r e a l family s i t u a t i o n as soon as t h e i r development warrants; and that those who are sent to i n s t i t u t i o n s need the advantage of group work i n a controlled environment more than an imitation of family l i f e . Prom the general s o c i a l work point of view the assump-t i o n i s that a l l children need some group experience, not always avai l a b l e i n t h e i r own 8 Martha Sellng, "Temporary Use of an I n s t i t u t i o n i n Poster Care", American,Journal of Orthopsychiatry, July, 1942, XII, 467-473. - 35 ~ community, and that the modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s the s o c i a l Instrument best equipped to of f e r education opportunities through guided group life© 9 Insti t u t i o n s therefore d i f f e r from foster homes i n that they offer group l i v i n g rather than family l i f e , and as a conse-quence only those children who need i t should be placed i n an institution© It i s d i f f i c u l t to categorize these childre n who need group experience i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , and perhaps no attempt at r i g i d categories should be made. In the l a s t a n a l y s i s , each c h i l d must be considered as an in d i v i d u a l d i f f e r i n g from every other i n d i v i d u a l both i n h i s needs and i n what he w i l l derive from a given environment. The proper selection of i n s t i t u -t i o n a l care depends upon the t o t a l personality of the c h i l d and his family s i t u a t i o n , but experience has given us some general guides as to when i n s t i t u t i o n a l care may and may not be s u i t a b l e . It w i l l be necessary to set up some general categories as a f i r s t step toward evaluating the placement of the children i n Embury House. The following groups then, w i l l include c h i l d r e n from the age of six or seven to the age of twenty, since i t i s the assumption of our society that at the age of twenty-one the c h i l d becomes a man or woman. The order of the l i s t i n g of the categories does not imply that one i s of greater importance than the others nor are the 9 Leonard Mayo, "What May Ins t i t u t i o n s and Group Work Contribute to Each Other", Proceedings of the National Con- ference of Soc i a l Work",.New York, Columbia University Press, 1935, p. 333© - 36 -groups mutually exclusive* In this study the ch i l d r e n w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d on the basis of the kind of problems they have and the s p e c i f i c kind of treatment they need, rather than according to s p e c i f i c acts or situations which brought them to the children's i n s t i -t ution such as "neglected, dependent or delinquent". It i s e s s e n t i a l to examine the various types or problem groups to whom some form of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care may be appropriate. Eleven such groups (with some overlapping), may be d i s t i n -guished. 1. Children In family groups. Obviously more care i s needed i n planning for a group of children than f o r one c h i l d , as a home should be found to meet the needs of a l l . The foster home i s usually not so w e l l geared to such a s i t -uation as i s the i n s t i t u t i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n eliminates the p o s s i b i l i t y that these family groups might have to be s p l i t up among several foster homes, as i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d one foster home or even two nearly foster homes which can absorb a large family. The related children should be kept together p a r t i c u l a r l y during the i n i t i a l period of placement before the i n d i v i d u a l needs of the children are determined. Often i t i s desirable to keep the family together either because the placement i s a temporary one to meet some emergency i n the home or because of a strong attachment between the s i b -l i n g s . Later i t may be necessary to work out plans for sep-arating the children or i t may be possible to return the child r e n to t h e i r home. It has been found that the Infants - 37 -of family groups should not be placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , even though this means separation from the older children, because t h e i r older brothers and s i s t e r s are themselves too troubled to off e r these babies any r e a l measure of security at such a time. There are instances also when children may need to be separated because of h o s t i l i t y between them that prevents acceptance of one another's presence, or sharing the a f f e c t i o n of the same adults. 2. Children whose parents cannot accept f o s t e r  parents. These parents f e e l threatened by the relat i o n s h i p between t h e i r c h i l d and the foster parents. They refuse to l e t their children have from any other family the things which they cannot provide themselves. The natural parents may need a period of time free from such threat to decide whether to take t h e i r c h i l d r e n home or allow them to l i v e with another family group. The i n s t i t u t i o n i n the meantime, may be able to serve the children of such "blocking" parents, while s p e c i a l case work effor t s or court action may make possible other care when i t Is especially needed by the children, 3 0 Children who need an Interim placement  between f o s t e r homes. Often children who have f a i l e d i n a number of foster home placements have experienced great i n -security i n relat i o n s h i p to their own family situations before placement, and have never been able to f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n s In fost e r homes. The f a i l u r e of a fo s t e r home means a r e j e c t i o n to the c h i l d . Before another placement can be arranged he often needs a time i n the group set t i n g to enable him to-" - 38 re l a t e to another set of fost e r parents. These children usually have l o s t confidence and trust i n adults and as a consequence are usually aggressive and n e g a t i v i s t i c . When the i n s t i t u t i o n gives them an opportunity to express t h e i r h o s t i l -i t y , either verbally or through play, or both; when they are kept and loved i n spite of the i r behaviour; when they begin to f i n d some s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n t h e i r day-by-day l i f e , accept adults as friends, experience success, b u i l d up. some values of t h e i r own, go along on an even keel f o r a while — then the chances f o r success i n the next foster home placement are bet t e r . 4. Children of recently divorced or separated  parents. These children are torn by the tensions of divided l o y a l t i e s and the bitterness of most divorces. They are also harrowed by the fe e l i n g of having been rejected by a parent or even both parents. Many times the parents t r y to make the children partisans on their side. This question of divided l o y a l t i e s places a t e r r i f i c emotional s t r a i n on the children. The worst blow to the children and the one with the most l a s t i n g a f t e r e f f e c t s , i s the f e e l i n g of r e j e c t i o n . The c h i l -dren of divorced or separated parents, e s p e c i a l l y the younger ones, cannot understand the adult f r i c t i o n and motives which led their parents to separate. To them the divorce meant that t h e i r father or mother did not care enough for them to l i v e with them. They f e e l betrayed and t h e i r d i s t r u s t of adults as a whole stands i n the way of th e i r acceptance of sub s t i -tute parental care. The bewilderment and emotional upset - 39 -such children suffer at the time th e i r parents break up, prevents t h e i r reception of foster parent's love and t h e i r own ef f o r t s to respond. The i n s t i t u t i o n o f fers a non-demanding environment where these children may e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e i r own time, and where t h e i r parental l o y a l t i e s are understood and accepted. In an excellent a r t i c l e on the use of foster homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a c h i l d placing agency, Eva Burmeister says: During the course of divorce actions childre n are subjected to situations con-fusing and upsetting to them. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n those cases which come to the attention of family courts, i n which custody i s being contested. The c h i l d loses the home which, however un-sati s f a c t o r y i t appears to others, may mean security to him. His parents, ab-sorbed i n matters far beyond his a b i l i t y to comprehend, have l e t him down. Every-thing having value to him has crashed, A c h i l d having had such an experience would become more confused by the introduction of f o s t e r parents. Here would be a fost e r father and fo s t e r mother on whom he might project his feelings of r e j e c t i o n , g u i l t , disappointment, shame or resentment, which he i s experiencing i n r e l a t i o n to his own parents. Or he may s t i l l be cli n g i n g to one or both of his parents, unwilling to give them up. He i s unable to give the warm response which f o s t e r parents might expect. For t h i s c h i l d the i n s t i t u t i o n provides a s i t u a t i o n away from a l l r e l a -t i v e s . 10 5. Children l e f t with only one parent. This group of children, who through divorce or death are l e f t with 10 " i n s t i t u t i o n and Foster Home Care as Used by an Agency OfferIng,Both Services," C h i l d Welfare League of America  B u l l e t i n , 1942, p. 19 0 „ 40 »-only one parent, are perhaps to he closely associated with the immediately preceding group. Their s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r s however, i n that each of these children has one parent i n whom he has a r e a l emotional security even though the parent, for the time being at l e a s t , i s unable to make a home f o r him. The i n s t i t u t i o n may be useful as a sort of boarding school arrangement to a working mother who i s divorced or widowed, and has assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the entire support of one or more children. The parent, whether i t be the mother or father, may be unable to share the c h i l d with fos t e r parents, and the c h i l d may f i n d i t hard to enter into the emotional relationships with foster parents. The i n s t i t u -t i o n w i l l allow the parent and the children to form a l i t t l e family u n i t , complete and sa t i s f a c t o r y to themselves, 6, Children who need physical aid and s o c i a l  t r a i n i n g p r i o r to foster home placement. These children when removed from t h e i r own homes, usually because of neglect, are found to require either extensive medical care or t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l l y acceptable manners, and possibly both because of severe deprivation. I n s t i t u t i o n a l care provides for a period previous to fost e r home placement where the s o c i a l l y retarded c h i l d may have the "rough edges smoothed o f f " , and the physi-c a l l y retarded c h i l d may receive the benefit of extensive medical f a c i l i t i e s . Some children who have been deprived of care and t r a i n i n g can be helped through the consistent d a i l y l i v i n g routine which.is followed by the group i n the i n s t i t u -t i o n . This group routine should not be overdone to the point - 41 -of s t i f l i n g i n i t i a t i v e and the development of self-management, hut within reason i t can make good s o c i a l habits generally acceptable instead of a personal issue. I n s t i t u t i o n s can also o f f e r greater tolerance of troublesome behaviour and d i f f i c u l t personality t r a i t s than most foster homes. Due to physical and emotional neglect, t h e i r appearance, lack of t r a i n i n g and habits, their responses, may be such as to make them unacceptable to fos t e r parents at the time of placement. In the I n s t i t u t i o n , with i t s many f a c i l i t i e s r i g h t at hand, i t i s possible to do a rather intensive job i n medical and dental care, n u t r i t i o n , habit t r a i n i n g , care of clothing, table manners, and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l of these services increase the chances for a success-f u l foster home placement, 11 7. Children who are rejected by t h e i r own  parents. Some children have been so hurt by r e j e c t i n g parents and disrupting family experiences that they cannot be recep-t i v e and responsive to foster parents and family l i v i n g . As a defense against further hurt, the rejected c h i l d develops a strong resistance against those who have any authority over him, and he becomes more or less "unapproachable." Of these children Howard W. Hopkirk says: The c h i l d rejected by his own parent, or whose parent has been cold as to leave him emotionally hungry, has been "short changed." To be thus deprived is-as hard as i t i s ..unnatural. Rejection i s the word used by psychologists and s o c i a l workers i n pointing to the unhappy state of the c h i l d whose presence i s resented by one or both parents. There are many such children among those served i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r 11 Ibid., p. 20. - 42 -dependents and delinquents, and t h i s i s . true also of many who attend hoarding schools and summer camps* The general recommendation has been made that children of any age who have been thus emotionally starved should usually be placed i n fo s t e r homes, because f o r such children i t i s o r d i n a r i l y not enough to provide the l i m i t e d r a t i o n of a f f e c t i o n which can be expected i n even a good i n s t i -t u t i o n . There are nevertheless occasions when a f i r s t - r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n may provide affectionate substitute parental care which w i l l improve a child' s emotional balance, 12 There are situations i n which the c h i l d who has never experienced love i s unable to accept i t . On the other hand such a c h i l d may be so demanding of expression of love and a f f e c t i o n from the foster mother, that she w i l l not be able v to bear with him. For such children an i n s t i t u t i o n a l place-ment i s less threatening. After a period of understanding care and treatment i n a more neutral environment i n the i n s t i -t u t i o n some may be ready for foster family care, some may be able to return to t h e i r own homes successfully, e s p e c i a l l y when help has been given i n working out problems there, and some may require longer i n s t i t u t i o n a l care u n t i l they reach greater maturity and adjustment, 8, Adolescents. Perhaps the strongest case i n favour of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s i t s value to the adolescent. This i s the period when children normally break loose from parental ti e s and get the i r s a t i s f a c t i o n s not so much from any close relationships with adults as they do from' the s p i r i t of camaraderie and loyalty which develops among fellow group 12 Howard W. Hopkirk, op_. c i t , p, 49, - 43 members. Children from ten to sixteen have a natural desire and i n c l i n a t i o n to j o i n groups. When placement i s necessary and children of thi s age group are emotionally ready for separation from parents, i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement may have pos i t i v e values. Because adolescence i s a period of becoming independent of close parental t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s very h e l p f u l to children of t h i s age who must l i v e away from home. Many adolescents are removed from t h e i r own homes be-cause of c o n f l i c t s with t h e i r own parents, consequently i t i s impossible f o r them to accept fo s t e r parents. That i n s t i -tutions have something d e f i n i t e and worthwhile to of f e r adoles-cents i s perhaps best i l l u s t r a t e d by the fact that the children themselves i f given a choice w i l l select i n s t i t u t i o n a l care* "Many of the boys and g i r l s of high school age who are i n in s t i t u t i o n s and for whom i t becomes evident that permanent placement plans w i l l have to be arranged, are consulted about the i r choice i n regard to foster home placement and inv a r i a b l y they fir m l y refuse to accept this l a t t e r type of placement." 13 9. S o c i a l l y or mentally retarded c h i l d r e n . Another group of children f o r whom the i n s t i t u t i o n performs a very special r o l e are those d u l l , unattractive youngsters who are d i f f i c u l t to place i n fost e r homes and yet are badly i n need of the close personal relationships offered by such care. Il l e g i t i m a t e children are numerous i n thi s group and a l l those who were available for adoption i n early childhood 13 Cecelia McGovern, op. c i t . p. 25. - 44 -but not e l i g i b l e because of low mentality, physical deformity and general physical and s o c i a l unattractlveness. Some who have developed no inner resources and l i t t l e sense of s e l f -d i r e c t i o n respond p o s i t i v e l y to a planned program, to strong d i r e c t i o n , and to the give and take with other c h i l d r e n . There can be r i c h opportunities f o r group association on the l e v e l a c h i l d i s ready to use i n the i n s t i t u t i o n with i t s special programs and various a c t i v i t i e s and these can also appeal to hi s interests and help him develop s k i l l s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -ships. 10. Children who are starved for a f f e c t i o n . Sometimes the i n s t i t u t i o n i s asked to care for a very de-prived c h i l d who seems most i n need of f o s t e r care i n a home but who cannot take i t . Children who have not had secure years during babyhood or early childhood, or those who may have had a sa t i s f a c t o r y home s i t u a t i o n broken o f f suddenly i n a traumatic experience to themselves, are sometimes un-able to make a good adjustment i n a foster home. They may want more constant and undivided attention and a f f e c t i o n from a fo s t e r mother than she i s able to give. Never having had s u f f i c i e n t a f f e c t i o n i n th e i r early childhood they have never learned to love and be loved. Some of these children can only take, not give, and a foster mother na t u r a l l y expects response. These children when placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n may learn to l i v e away from t h e i r own families u n t i l such time as they may be ready to take on new relationships i n other family groups, I f by that time their own parents s t i l l cannot take 45 -them home* 11. Children who need study and observation. Before any good permanent plan can be made for a c h i l d much knowledge of his needs and personality i s required. The i n -s t i t u t i o n with i t s variety of relationships to s t a f f , v i s i t i n g r e l a t i v e s and other children provides an excellent setting f o r the evaluation of the chil d ' s reaction, readjustment, and progress. The house mother, the house s t a f f and the pro-f e s s i o n a l s t a f f a l l gather information about the c h i l d from th e i r observations, and this information i s explored at periodic evaluations by the entire s t a f f , with constructive treatment r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r diagnosis. In the small In-s t i t u t i o n a l setting a l l the child's experiences c r y s t a l l i z e themselves into a pattern which gives a f a i r l y complete picture of the c h i l d and his needs. For children whose needs can be met i n such a setting, the i n s t i t u t i o n has an oppor-tunity f o r being the best possible treatment s i t u a t i o n . As Howard W. Hopkirk writes: Children beset with c o n f l i c t s , those whose aggressions need to be rubbed o f f on t h e i r peers, whose misbehaviours are habitual, are a l l seriously wearing on a mother or foster mother. Where the s t r a i n on them becomes unbearable a strong i n s t i -t u t i o n may f i l l the need. In order to t e l l whether i n s t i t u t i o n a l care w i l l help dr hinder children i n growing free from such attr i b u t e s i t i s not enough to i d e n t i f y t h e i r c o n f l i c t s , aggressions, or misbe-haviours; the causes of these must be recognized before c a r e f u l planning can be undertaken, 14 1 4 °P* c i t . p. 51-52, - 46 -Children Needing Services In Their Own Home or a Foster Home, Experiences such as the evacuation of children during the bombing of Great B r i t a i n disclosed that, while fo s t e r care i s necessary under c e r t a i n circumstances, the very separation of parents and children creates serious problems. Although they may f e e l r e l i e v e d , parents also experience a sense of inadequacy when someone must take over a l l or part of t h e i r parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Children suffer profound emotional disturbances when t h e i r parents are unable to provide a home f o r them. When separated from th e i r parents children f e e l not only l o s t but personally responsible f o r the fact t h e i r parents are giving them up, as though they were unloved and unwanted because of th e i r shortcomings. This f e e l i n g makes i t d i f f i c u l t for them to believe that anyone else can love them. Such s o c i a l and emotional disturbances cannot ever he a l t o -gether compensated. Consequently, f o s t e r care can never be a completely s a t i s f a c t o r y substitute for a ch i l d ' s own home. The greatest value of foster care i s i t s part i n helping parents to do something about the s o c i a l and emotional prob-lems that made the separation necessary i n order to r e e s t a b l i s h a home for t h e i r children eventually, and In cases where the parent cannot give his c h i l d a home, i n helping to free the c h i l d f o r permanent placement. Even the most adequate f o s t e r care i s recommended only a f t e r certainty that there i s no alt e r n a t i v e , that the c h i l d needs that type of care, and that, except for cases of neglect or abuse, the parent wants f o s t e r care for his c h i l d . Even i n the exceptions every e f f o r t i s - 47 -made to help the parent to carry his share of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y * E s s e n t i a l l y , i n addition to physical care, shelter, and opportunity for a c t i v i t i e s appropriate for t h e i r s o c i a l and emotional development, a l l children need a relat i o n s h i p with loving adults to whom they f e e l they belong. Since some of these needs can be provided only through home and family l i f e , the supervised f o s t e r family home has long been acknowledged the best substitute f o r children able to es t a b l i s h meaningful relationships with foster parents. Moreover, i n d i v i d u a l care and attention available i n family homes are indispensable f o r normal development of infants and children under six years of age. Foster care i s used f o r children whose parents are i l l , where there i s mari t a l discord, disturbed child-parent r e -lat i o n s h i p s , or a s i t u a t i o n which leaves the parent temporarily unable to carry the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for rearing his c h i l d * There i s a growing recognition that any c h i l d whose parents are unable to provide an adequate home may need f o s t e r care regardless of s o c i a l or economic status of the family* Keeping i n mind the basis of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the various types or groups of children needing services i n t h e i r own home or a foster home, as the kind of problems they have and the s p e c i f i c kind of, treatment they require, i t i s possible to form by contrast, some well-established guides about the children who cannot p r o f i t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Six such groups may be distinguisheda 1, Infantso Where placement i s necessary, the needs of babies and pre-school children can best be met i n - 48 -fos t e r homes. Infants need love and attention from continu-ous "parent persons", and are not ready f o r any continuous 15 and extensive group association with other c h i l d r e n . In t h e i r physical growth, and more important, i n t h e i r emotional care and development, they need the affectionate response, the teaching and t r a i n i n g and the constancy of some single mother person. Not only does group care deprive babies and small children of many emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n s , hut there i s danger of psychological retardation as w e l l , ^» Orphans» These children need to belong to a family of t h e i r own. The c h i l d with no family t i e s needs a f o s t e r home, either an adoptive home or a boarding home i n which he may stay for the entire period of his childhood and early adolescence. If an i n s t i t u t i o n cares for them because of t h e i r other special needs, t h i s care should be temporary, and directed toward obtaining a substitute family, 3. Adolescents, Children of adolescence age do better i n f o s t e r homes where they can enjoy a greater i n -dependence than i s possible i n most i n s t i t u t i o n s and where they can spend the important teenage years i n the setting of a normal family l i f e . The disturbed adolescent who i s r e -b e l l i n g against his parents i s the exception, 4, Phy s i c a l l y weak children. These f r a i l c h ildren may be crushed by the impact of a group. Purther-15 Lauretta Bender, "Infants Reared i n I n s t i t u t i o n s « Permanently Handicapped,".Child Welfare League of America  B u l l e t i n , September, 1945. Miss Bender presents a convincing argument why infants below the age of six should never he placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , other than f o r b r i e f temporary care. - 49 -more, there should not he a wide divergence i n the mental a b i l i t y of the group or the range o l ages. Children whose ages or mental a b i l i t i e s do not f i t into the average deviant of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l group, w i l l not benefit from the group experience. 5. Children with special needs. These children who have spe c i a l needs which require extensive i n d i v i d u a l i z e d care i n the normal family se t t i n g should never be placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . These children would include the hyperactive who are overstimulated by a group s i t u a t i o n , the extremely shy and withdrawn, those with e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t health problems, those who are very s e n s i t i v e , and those su f f e r i n g from s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . Also included would be the disturbed children who cannot accept any sort of d i s c i p l i n e or routine so common to i n s t i t u t i o n s . Some Guiding P r i n c i p l e s of Modern I n s t i t u t i o n s . I n s t i t u t i o n s are often c a l l e d upon, and allow themselves, to receive children only because other care i s not made a v a i l -able for them. Even i n s t i t u t i o n s which are surrounded by a variety of other agencies may be f i l l e d with children for whom other care i s more suitable while there i s not room to admit some who need i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. When an i n s t i t u t i o n t r i e s to serve children because other needed services cannot be ob-tained, i t has a sp e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to work for the develop-ment of other needed care, and not to take children who would be more damaged by i n s t i t u t i o n a l care than by the lack of any - 50 » s p e c i a l service. It i s an obl i g a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s to know both the values and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i r care and the needs of children r e f e r r e d to them so well that proper s e l e c t i o n of children can be made and t h e i r care carried on as constructively as possible for each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . Progressive administrators accept the specialized function of the i n s t i t u t i o n and no longer t r y to make i t simulate a family group. They know that the best administered and staffed i n s t i t u t i o n s cannot take the place of a family group, regardless of how devoted the s t a f f , how small the uni t , and how d i -v e r s i f i e d i n age the children under care are. The following p r i n c i p l e s are guides to the administrators of i n s t i t u t i o n s : (l) I n s t i t u -t i o n a l care, while es p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l for cer-t a i n children, i s undesirable f o r others* (2) Children who l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s have the same needs that a l l children have, plus' the need f o r help with the problems which make t h i s type of care necessary for them. (3) I n s t i t u t i o n a l care alone Is not s u f f i c i e n t f o r any c h i l d throughout the entire period of h i s childhood, and placement i n an i n s t i -t u t i o n should not be continued beyond two or three years at the most. 16 Children who may be served by i n s t i t u t i o n s when they must have care away from t h e i r own homes are often discussed i n general terms, such as brother and s i s t e r groups too large f o r a fos t e r family home, those needing convalescent care, children with special t r a i n i n g needs, adolescents etc. Whether or not any of these children can be helped by an i n s t i t u t i o n depends upon the fundamentally i n d i v i d u a l i z e d needs of the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , and the organization, program and quality of service of the i n s t i t u t i o n . 16 Margaret B. Hodges, ed., Soc i a l Work Year Book, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1949, p. 213. : ' - 51 -No longer Is i t believed that i n s t i t u t i o n a l care should he a l a s t resort f o r a l l children. Rather, i t i s believed that s k i l l e d services should be available to help preserve and improve th e i r own homes. When children must be removed from th e i r homes, good i n s t i t u t i o n a l care with less demanding personal relationships and more conditioned and directed en-vironment may be the f i r s t choice f o r some of the children f i t t e d unsuccessfully into foster family care i n the past. It i s e s s e n t i a l to select care from good i n s t i t u t i o n s and good fost e r family homes on the basis of the needs of the c h i l d rather than generalized ideas about the superiority of eithe r type of care. Except f o r the r e l a t i v e l y few who are so permanently incapacitated p h y s i c a l l y , mentally or emotionally, that they can never be cared f o r i n the normal community, i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g i s no end i n i t s e l f f or the care of children. The goal of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s helping every c h i l d possible to be able to make a s a t i s f y i n g adjustment i n family and community l i f e . A period of s p e c i a l care and treatment i n the I n s t i t u t i o n may be a means toward the achievement of t h i s by some children. Even f o r these children the i n s t i t u t i o n needs the a i d of resources supplementary to the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s care while the c h i l d i s there, and to provide any services which may be needed a f t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. R e a l i z a t i o n of th i s causes the i n s t i t u t i o n to seek close association with other s o c i a l agencies and community f a c i l i t i e s . The use of schools, churches, libraries,.community centres, etc,, i n the 52; community w i l l help children who l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s to keep i n touch with the normal stream of society, and also help the i n s t i t u t i o n and the community resources work together to obtain r e a l acceptance of i n s t i t u t i o n a l children on a par with others. If i t i s wise for the i n s t i t u t i o n to have i t s own school, church services, and recreational l i f e , i t needs to f i n d other ways of drawing outside l i f e into the experience of each c h i l d when he i s ready for i t . Through a f l e x i b l e , imaginative program, i n s t i t u t i o n s can f i n d ways of giv i n g t h e i r children some normal experience with shopping, earning and spending of money, and v i s i t s with parents and other adults and friends who are important to them. The i n s t i t u t i o n however, cannot provide experience i n normal family l i v i n g , so i t must work toward the return of i t s children to t h e i r own home or to foster family homes as soon as possib l e . Children are emerging as human beings i n t h e i r own r i g h t , and we know much more about t h e i r nature and t h e i r needs. The modern i n s t i t u t i o n i s throwing o f f the idea that to give care to children i s charity, instead, i t i s t h e i r r i g h t to receive b e n e f i c i a l care. Real concern with the righ t s of children means a child-conscious i n s t i t u t i o n which t r i e s to apply the best knowledge of happy c h i l d growth and development, and to seek more similar knowledge. It makes the question "what i s best f o r the c h i l d ? " the test of i t s whole organization, program and administration. More analysis of the contributions and problems of case work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and i t s relationship to other es s e n t i a l parts of i n s t i t u t i o n a l - 53 -care may further the proper use of i n s t i t u t i o n s as a resource f o r children. It i s desirable that the child-caring i n s t i t u t i o n analyze i t s f i n a n c i a l and service records annually to e s t a b l i s h the cost of care per c h i l d and the cost of elements of care, such as food, clothing, medical care, service administration etc* This enables the governing body or public agency to a l l o t enough funds to operate the i n s t i t u t i o n to the best advantage by an accurate estimate of how much i t costs to care f o r each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . F i n a n c i a l studies have proved f a l s e the old concept of economy that i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s less costly than foster home care. The smaller i n s t i t u t i o n of today and the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s t a f f providing s k i l l e d diagnosis and treatment f o r children i n need of such care, make the modern i n s t i t u t i o n an expensive service. As a consequence,' the f e e l i n g among i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i a l workers i s that finance should not be spared i n establishing diagnostic and thera-peutic programs, because these services cost f a r less per c h i l d over a period of time, i f they are successful i n r e -establishing the c h i l d i n family and community l i f e , than i f the c h i l d continues to require care under a non-treatment shelter-type of i n s t i t u t i o n for an i n d e f i n i t e number of years B Setting of the Study* In Chapter I the evolution of the modern progressive i n s t i t u t i o n serving as a s o c i a l agency from the almshouses of a century ago was outlined. The children who would benefit - 54 -most from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, plus some guiding p r i n c i p l e s applicable to a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , were established i n Chapter II» The next two chapters of t h i s study w i l l evaluate the place-ment of children i n Embury House and the program serving these children, during the year 1949-1950. The c r i t e r i o n f o r t h i s evaluation i s the "Standards f o r I n s t i t u t i o n s Caring 17 _ for Children". These standards have been accepted and highly commended by the United States Children's Bureau, 'Washington, D.C. From the analyses of Chapter I I I and Chapter IV, rec-ommendations w i l l be suggested f o r the improvement of services to those children requiring i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i n Embury House. The writer f i r s t became f a m i l i a r with Embury House, Regina, Saskatchewan, i n January, 1949. For the next four months he worked as a volunteer untrained group worker with the c h i l d r e n during the evenings. With the approval of the Director, and Assistant Director of the C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Depart-, ment of Social Welfare of the Province of Saskatchewan, case records of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c h i l d r e n were studied and such material compiled. From July 15 to September 15, 1949, the writer was employed as a trained case worker with the children i n Embury House. He l i v e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , which presented unlimited opportunities to observe the children and the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s program. A l l necessary case material was obtained at this time. 17 Washington, Department of Social Security, Standards  for I n s t i t u t i o n s Caring f o r Children, 10 February, 1950. - 55 The s o c i a l research methods used i n t h i s study were mainly the case method and the comparative method. These methods were supplemented by such basic elements of research as description, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and many s o c i a l work concepts. As the average monthly population of Embury House during the year 1949-1950,was f i f t y children, f i f t y cases, representing a t y p i c a l cross section of the year's population, were selected f o r intensive i n d i v i d u a l i z e d analysis. The concepts of i n s t i -t u t i o n a l care and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s best suited f o r i n s t i -t u t i o n a l care and foster home care were based on autho r i t a t i v e material published within the l a s t two years. The c r i t e r i o n by which the placement of children i n Embury House, and the program of services offered to the children during the year 1949-1950 were compared and measured, was the Standards for Inst i t u t i o n s Caring for Children, compiled by the State of Washington, Department of Soc i a l Security, and published 10 February, 1950, The scope of t h i s study was to evaluate the necessity of Embury Hovise i n the t o t a l c h i l d welfare program i n the Province of Saskatchewan, the services offered to the children placed i n Embury House, the 1949-1950 population of children i n Embury House i n terms of the i r necessity f o r such i n s t i -t u t i o n a l care, and the chil d - c a r i n g q u a l i t i e s of the employed s t a f f ; and from this evaluation, with reference to c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a , to suggest recommendations f o r the future function of Embury House and for the development of a program best suited to the needs of the children to be served, jThls study - 56 -was l i m i t e d by several f a c t o r s . Many of the cases were from r u r a l s o c i a l welfare d i s t r i c t s and any of these cases that had been active for over f i v e years had very l i t t l e material r e -corded. This lack of case material did not apply to just the r u r a l s o c i a l welfare d i s t r i c t s , but also to cases of some length i n the c i t y of Regina. A serious l i m i t a t i o n on the quantity and quality of case material -for analysis, was that there had never been a s o c i a l worker, trained or untrained, employed at Embury House, and consequently very l i t t l e i n -formation was recorded regarding a c h i l d a f t e r he was placed i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . Another l i m i t a t i o n was the inherent intangible elements of the i n s t i t u t i o n requiring measurement, such as the quality of the s t a f f , and the constructive parts of the program. It i s as d i f f i c u l t to state i n concrete words the evaluation of s t a f f personnel, who invariably have pos i t i v e and negative values, as i t is to evaluate a ce r t a i n program by determining the emotional development of the c h i l d r e n 0 CHAPTER I I I THE CHILDREN UNDER CARE The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to analyze and evaluate the population of Embury House during 1949-1950, i n terms of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of children considered suitable f o r i n -s t i t u t i o n a l care as presented i n Chapter I I , In addition, i n a very b r i e f manner, It w i l l be shown why certain c h i l d r e n placed In Embury House during this period should have been served at home, and why others should have been placed i n fost e r homes. The evaluation of the childre n under care w i l l be done by analyzing f i f t y cases which represent the 1 t y p i c a l cross section of the yearly population. Members of 1 For the purpose of t h i s study, a case i s defined as the series of case work services given to a c h i l d , who because of dependency or neglect, has been placed i n the care of the Child Welfare Branch of the Department of Social Welfare i n the Province of Saskatchewan, either as a temporary ward f o r one year, a permanent ward u n t i l the age of twenty-one, or a non-ward receiving public care f o r an i n d e f i n i t e period be-cause of temporary f i n a n c i a l incapacity of the breadwinner i n the chil d ' s home. In this study, dependency w i l l refer to any c h i l d under the age of twenty-one, who for any reason i s destitute, or homeless, or abandoned, and i s dependent upon the public f o r maintenance. In this study, neglect w i l l r e f e r to any c h i l d under the age of twenty-one, who has not proper parental care of guardianship, or who i s l i v i n g with any vicious or disrepu» table person, or whose home by reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity on the part of his parents, guardian, or other person i n whose care he may be, i s an u n f i t place for such a child© - 58 -the child's family group are included i n the same case even though they may not a l l he c l i e n t s of the Department of Soc i a l Welfare, The population of Embury House during the year 1949-1950 was not s t a t i c . There were two d i s t i n c t groups of children present: the transient group and the permanent group. The transient children used Embury House as a receiving home and as an i n s t i t u t i o n for general care and t r a i n i n g . Their length of stay varied from one day to three months© The permanent group of children consisted mainly of those who r e -quired some study and treatment before they were capable of returning home or being placed i n fos t e r homes. They re-mained i n the i n s t i t u t i o n from three months to a year, some even longer. The number of children i n both of these groups was constantly changing. The groups were heterogeneous with regards to sex, r a c i a l o r i g i n , r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y and c u l t u r a l backgrounds. The ages of these children varied from two years to sixteen. (See Table 1.) As the average monthly population of Embury House throughout 1949 was f i f t y children, t h i s number of cases was selected to produce a true cross section of the t y p i c a l yearly composition of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s population. These f i f t y children comprised a l l those l i v i n g i n Embury House during the two months of July and August, when the writer was employed as the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s o c i a l worker, and they represent a l l the various types of children placed i n Embury House who required case work services i n some form. Each c h i l d w i l l be Table 1 Age grouping of children i n Embury House during 1949-1950. Age Number Per Cent 2 1 2 3 5 10 4 3 6 5 2 4 6 3 6 2 - 6 14 28 7 1 2 8 5 10 9 6 12 10 3 6 11 5 10 12 5 10 7 - 1 2 25 50 13 3 6 14 4 8 15 3 6 16 1 2 13 - 16 11 22 TOTAL 50 100 dis-cussed i n d i v i d u a l l y according to the services h i s needs required, with the exception of families who w i l l be treated as one in d i v i d u a l unless the needs of in d i v i d u a l members of the family varied. In one instance a group of children w i l l be discussed a3 an in d i v i d u a l case because of the d e f i n i t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of services required, as presented i n Chapter I I * The placement of ten of the children i n Embury House may - 60 -be omitted from the body of t h i s study a f t e r a b r i e f explana-t i o n . It i s obvious that no exposition i s required i n con-demning the i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of this group of ten pre-school children, ranging i n ages from two to six years. Six of these 3 children were Metis, two were receiving temporary care while t h e i r mother was i l l , one was chron i c a l l y enuretlc, and one was phy s i c a l l y handicapped. This l a t t e r boy had a severe hair l i p , which prevented him from speaking a r t i c u l a t e l y and gave him a fre a k i s h appearance. The Metis children were un-acceptable i n foster homes i n the community because of th e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n , the chronic enuretlc because of his habits, and the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped boy because of his appearance and apparent retardation. These reasons f o r placement i n Embury House are not consistent with good c h i l d welfare p r a c t i c e s . The purpose of thi s study i s not to suggest alte r n a t i v e s to i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. On the other hand, the i n s t i t u t i o n should not be used as a "dumping ground" or a " c a t c h - a l l " . A care-f u l study of f o s t e r homes and of fo s t e r care rates, might i n -dicate why there i s a shortage of foster homes i n the com-munity, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r d i f f i c u l t children. Pre-school children require the love and a f f e c t i o n a l response of "parent persons", e s p e c i a l l y a single mother person. I n s t i t u t i o n a l group care deprives these infants of the in d i v i d u a l and per-3 The Metis are the offspring of the marriage of Indians with white persons. The amount of the i r Indian blood varies considerably because of inter-marriage with white persons. These six Metis expressed marked Indian features and were dark i n skin. 61 -sonal love necessary f o r t h e i r emotional development. There-fore ways should he found to provide good foster homes f o r children needing family l i f e . An i n s t i t u t i o n can never he an adequate substitute for t h i s . The evaluation of the placement of the remaining f o r t y children i n Embury House w i l l be considered under the following headings: (1) the number of children who should have r e -ceived case work services at home, (2) the number of child r e n who required placement outside t h e i r own home, (3) of those children who required placement, what number needed fo s t e r home care and what number needed i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, and (4) of those children requiring i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, what, number required study and treatment services and what number required general care and t r a i n i n g . A b r i e f analysis of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d or family w i l l determine which of these four categories of care the f o r t y children required. The Children Who Required Case Work Services.at Home, The three Smith boys, aged f i v e , nine, and ten, were placed in Embury House f o r a period of at l e a s t one year. Their father had deserted t h e i r mother and three s i s t e r s when James, the youngest boy, was born. The mother received f i -nancial assistance only from the family allowances, and the odd jobs that she was able to do i n t h e i r home town. The three Smith boys were accused of stealing by neighbours, and the community f e l t the mother was neglecting her children. There was a strong bond of a f f e c t i o n between these hoys and t h e i r - 62 -mother. As no foster could be found which would care for a l l three boys, they were placed i n Embury House. This family was placed i n a dependency s i t u a t i o n with the desertion of the breadwinner. The mother did not receive s u f f i c i e n t f i -nancial assistance to maintain the family, forcing her to work and so leave the children with no supervision, and thus leaving l i t t l e time for family r e l a t i o n s . The boys were hungry and stole food. I f casework services had been offered the mother i n the home and s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l assistance granted to care f o r the children, there would have been no need of break-ing up t h i s home where there were strong t i e s of healthy attachment. The three Jones g i r l s , aged eight, eleven, and fourteen, were placed i n Embury House when the mother became i l l . The parents had separated some years before. The father c o n t r i -buted nothing to the maintenance of the children or the home. The s i s t e r s desired to remain together and as no f o s t e r home could be found to care f o r a l l three they were placed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . None of these g i r l s expressed any problems or anxieties, other than the wish to go home. As i n the Smith case, a combination of f i n a n c i a l assistance and case work services i n the home along with supervised homemaker servicej would have enabled t h i s family to remain together. Richard Hodges, aged twelve, was placed i n Embury House because he persisted i n running home from the foster homes i n which he had been placed. He had been removed from h i s own home because of neglect, as the parents were involved i n - 63 marital c o n f l i c t . There was a very strong bond between Richard and his mother. It was f e l t that h is going home was disturbing because of the marital c o n f l i c t , although both parents welcomed him home. Richard had taken part i n several acts of theft and his caseworker f e l t that i f he were i n s t i -t u t i o n a l i z e d , with no opportunities to v i s i t his home, h i s behaviour would be modified. Instead, Richard used every method possible to sneak home, and as a resu l t forced further r e s t r i c t i o n s and punishments on himself. The boy's compulsive desire to go home indicated the a d v i s a b i l i t y of giving case-work treatment i n the home, as the boy had to work through his feelings about his own family before he could accept placement outside the home. Richard therefore, would have benefited more from casework services i n his home, while such services to the parents would have helped them to resolve some of t h e i r marital c o n f l i c t s so they could become more suitable parents* The Children Who Required Placement Outside Their Home. The number of children who required placement outside t h e i r own home t o t a l l e d forty-three. The home environment of these children eliminated any p o s s i b i l i t y of rendering casework services i n t h e i r home and thus maintaining t h e i r family s t a b i l i t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the interests of these children's welfare, It was necessary to serve t h e i r needs by either foster home care or i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. The two suc-ceeding sections w i l l indicate what types of care and services these forty-three children required* - 64 -The Children Who Required Foster Home Care. The ten pre-school infants who obviously required foster family care, were discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. It i s found that f i f t e e n of the remaining th i r t y - t h r e e children placed In Embury House should have received f o s t e r home care. Of these f i f t e e n children, the only reason nine were placed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n was the fact that they were Metis. I t was impossible to f i n d f o s t e r parents i n t h i s community who would accept them because of t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n . These f i f t e e n children varied i n age from s i x years to f i f t e e n years. They gained nothing from the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s services. They a l l required i n d i v i d u a l i z e d family care free from the group ex-periences and the routine of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The only prob-lem posed by the nine Metis children was the fact they were dependent upon.public maintenance. Therefore, each case w i l l < be discussed very b r i e f l y . William Bass, aged s i x , was placed i n Embury House when his mother died. His father disappeared shortly a f t e r . William did not appear to have any disturbance regarding his parents. He found i t d i f f i c u l t to accept the routine of the i n s t i t u t i o n . He rejected his s i s t e r Loretta, aged nine, also i n Embury House, whose protectiveness caused him much annoyance. Susan Adams, aged nine, had been an orphan since she was s i x . She had l i v e d two years i n a Roman Catholic convent and had been placed In Embury House preparatory to l i v i n g In a foster home. During her years stay In the i n s t i t u t i o n , Susan repeatedly asked to be moved to a f o s t e r home. She «* 65 — expressed no emotional problems, other than wanting parents whom she cou l d c a l l her own, Mary C l a r k , aged e i g h t , was p l a c e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n when her mother d i e d . Her f a t h e r was an u n s t a b l e person, l e a v i n g Mary a dependent c h i l d . A f t e r a s h o r t p e r i o d of group experience i n the non-demanding atmosphere of Embury House, Mary was ready to accept f o s t e r p a r e n t s , Rodney and Har o l d Gains, aged e i g h t and s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y , had been deserted by t h e i r f a t h e r a y e a r before placement. T h e i r mother was committed to the p r o v i n c i a l mental h o s p i t a l a year l a t e r . Both these boys were q u i e t and shy, withdrawing from the r o u t i n e and a c t i v i t i e s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l group. The Brown f a m i l y , c o n s i s t i n g o f E l i n o r , twelve, Timothy, el e v e n , B e t t y , e i g h t , Margaret, seven, and George, s i x , were p l a c e d i n Embury House when t h e i r mother d i e d . T h e i r parents had been separated f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s p r e v i o u s t o placement. With the e x c e p t i o n of George, who w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under a d i f f e r e n t heading, these c h i l d r e n expressed no deep problems. There d i d not appear to he any a f f e c t i o n a l bond between the c h i l d r e n , which would not make i t d e s i r a b l e to pr e s e r v e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s through i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement. E l i n o r , B e t t y , and Margaret were e n u r e t i c s , I n d i c a t i n g how much they r e q u i r e d l o v i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a r e . Timothy c o u l d not accept the i n s t i -t u t i o n ' s r o u t i n e . These nine c h i l d r e n a l l r e q u i r e d f o s t e r home care, not only because they were i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f those c h i l d r e n needing i n d i v i d u a l i z e d care under s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s , hut a l s o •» 6 6 — they were not p r o f i t i n g from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l experience© Because of the fact they were Metis no foster homes were found f o r them, and they remained i n Emhury House, p a r t i a l l y arrested i n t h e i r development, Fredrick Hope, aged fourteen and Samuel Hope, aged f i f -teen, were placed i n Embury House when th e i r home l i f e became depraved because of t h e i r mother's p r o s t i t u t i o n . Their father was an unsuitable parent-person who expressed no interests i n hi s sons welfare. Both boys established relationships e a s i l y with adults, and they expressed no h o s t i l i t y toward t h e i r parents. Fredrick was an undistrubed adolescent who d i s l i k e d the i n s t i t u t i o n a l routine, and b i t t e r l y resented the fact he was supposed to "set a shining example for the younger children" because of his larger s i z e . Samuel was a chronic enuretlc who consequently required the i n d i v i d u a l love and a f f e c t i o n of foster parents. Because of both parent's neglect, these two boys were deprived of the security and love of a home, Paul and Vaughan Hart, aged nine and eight respectively, were placed i n Embury House as deprived children. The mother was diagnosed by the Mental Health C l i n i c , Regina, Saskatchewan, as a "psychopath", and cohabited f r e e l y with any man. The \ father was weak and incapable of caring f o r the children. The family caseworker f e l t that casework treatment with the parents would soon s t a b i l i z e the home, so the boys were placed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . They continued to be l e f t there despite the length and the poor prognosis of treatment with the mother© Both these children were ph y s i c a l l y weak and Vaughan was - fc>7 -' crippled i n one leg from the hip down. The group a c t i v i t i e s and the play of the other children were too rough for them and they suffered physical punishment as well as loss of s e l f -confidence by tryin g to keep up with the other c h i l d r e n . Harry Sack, aged ten, was placed i n Embury House a f t e r an unsuccessful foster home placement. Harry was an orphan. His f i r s t three years had been spent i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . He was then placed i n a foster home for f i v e years. Harry was rated a high grade moron i n Intelligence quotient. His per-sonal habits were so f i l t h y and disgusting that foster parents would not accept him. After a year's i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, Harry was placed i n a foster home. The foster parents could not accept his retarded e f f o r t s and his habits, and he was re-turned to Embury House. With his early years of I n s t i t u t i o n a l care, Harry was a very deprived boy. Two foster home f a i l u r e s only added to his i n f e r i o r i t y and withdrawal. He was rejected by the children of Embury House and by members of the s t a f f . Harry required s k i l l e d treatment and understanding, not a v a i l -able either i n the average foster home or i n s t i t u t i o n . Psy- , c h i a t r i c study was indicated, with careful foster home planning based upon the diagnostic findings. Jane Grat, aged eleven, was placed i n Embury House when her mother died. It was (not f e l t the father was s u f f i c i e n t l y capable of caring for her. Because of glandular disorder, Jane was a dwarf. She was exceptionally i n t e l l i g e n t . The routine'of the i n s t i t u t i o n and the group a c t i v i t i e s were too d i f f i c u l t for her phys i c a l l y . She was pampered by members - 68 -of the s t a f f and thi s was naturally resented by many of the children. This g i r l ' s a b i l i t y would have had the opportunity to develop more extensively i n a foster home which would have been able to accept her despite her physical deformity* The Children Who Required I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care* On the basis of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of neglected and dependent children best suited for i n s t i t u t i o n a l care as stated i n Chapter I I , there were eighteen children at Embury House who required i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. This group of eighteen children required two d i s t i n c t types of i n s t i t u t i o n a l service, general care and tra i n i n g , and study and treatment care. A b r i e f analysis of each c h i l d w i l l reveal the individual's necessity for one or the other of these forms of services There were nine children who could benefit most i n th e i r emotional development and t h e i r needs through the services of a general care and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . Robert and L i l l i a n Robinson, aged t h i r t e e n and twelve, were placed i n Embury House because of an unsuitable home environment. Their parents had separated the year before, the mother obtaining custody of the children. Their father disappeared immediately, and the mother became a p r o s t i t u t e . There was a strong t i e between both children and between the children and t h e i r mother. Mrs. Robinson was unable to accept foster home care for the children. Because of the security these children had with t h e i r mother, they would have found i t too d i f f i c u l t to enter into the emotional involvements of a - 6 9 -foster home. The mother v i s i t e d them p e r i o d i c a l l y i n the i n -s t i t u t i o n , and they were able to form a l i t t l e family unit while casework services were being given to the mother to re e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own home, Donald Ross, aged f i f t e e n , and Paul Ross, aged twelve, were placed i n Embury House when their mother was ho s p i t a l i z e d with a lengthy i l l n e s s . Their father was crippled and a permanent resident of the P r o v i n c i a l Home f o r the Infirm, The family t i e s were strong and the boys v i s i t e d t h e i r parents re g u l a r l y . Neither the parents nor children would have been able to accept substitute parental care. These adolescent boys were building strengths i n the group setting of the i n s t i t u t i o n , William Latens, aged f i f t e e n , was a disturbed adolescent placed i n Embury House, His father had deserted the family several years previously. The mother had l i v e d with various men for varying lengths of time since then, and had practiced p r o s t i t u t i o n , William had been placed i n several f o s t e r homes, unsuccessfully. He adjusted well to group l i v i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l routine. Other than the occasional v i s i t home he had no desire to return to his mother. This s t a b i l i z i n g period i n the neutral environment of the i n s t i t u t i o n was necessary before William could accept foster parents, Daryl Howe, aged fourteen, was placed i n Embury House when he had f a i l e d i n twelve successive foster homes. As well as these foster home rejections, Daryl f e l t rejected by his own family. His father had deserted when he was a baby - 70 -and his mother had died when he was twelve. His brothers and s i s t e r s showed no a f f e c t i o n or inte r e s t f o r him. He was un-able to accept the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d care of foster parents because of these rejections. Daryl needed an interim place-ment between foster homes. The i n s t i t u t i o n d i d not demand love of him or shower him with love. This supportive care enabled Daryl to overcome h i s feelings of r e j e c t i o n and accept foster parents, Joseph Barton, aged ten, was placed i n Embury House when his parents were divorced. Both parents t r i e d to obtain custody of the boy. He was torn between mother and father with divided l o y a l t i e s . This c h i l d , having such an experience, would have been more confused by the introduction of f o s t e r parents with whom his rela t i o n s h i p would have been uncertain. The i n s t i t u t i o n provided him with a home free from obligations and parental demands, Lynda Gross, aged fourteen, was placed i n Embury House shortly a f t e r her parents separated. Each parent attempted to exert influence over the g i r l , who was torn between her l o y a l t i e s to both. The mother became a p r o s t i t u t e and t r i e d to encourage Lynda to j o i n her. The father was able to hold the family of four children together u n t i l he was injured i n an accident and hos p i t a l i z e d for many months. Because of her i n a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to foster parents, and becaus'e of the disturbances incidental to adolescence, Lynda was w e l l placed i n Embury House, Jens Jensen, aged sixteen, was placed i n Embury House - 71 -a f t e r several foster home f a i l u r e s . He desired, more Inde-pendence and gang acquaintances. He was unable to accept the fos t e r parents' r e s t r i c t i o n s . In the i n s t i t u t i o n Jens was able to enjoy friends i n the group a c t i v i t i e s , without having feelings of family dependency. After a period of group care Jens was able to adjust to f o s t e r parents who supported his increasing maturity. The remaining nine children i n Embury House also re-quired i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, but with the emphasis on a d i f f e r e n t type of service. These childre n had deep-seated problems r e -quiring an intensive casework program combined with group therapy to help t h e i r emotional development and adjustment. Each of these nine children were interviewed by the psychia-t r i s t at the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Health C l i n i c , Regina, and i n each case h i s diagnosis emphasized the seriousness of the emotional disturbance and the need f o r intensive treatment, usually under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance. The following analysis of the i n d i v i d u a l cases w i l l reveal the necessity for such diagnosis and treatment. George Brown, aged six, was placed i n Embury House along with his brother and three s i s t e r s when his mother died. George's father separated from the family when George was three. There was l i t t l e love between the s i b l i n g s , and George even seemed rejected by his brother and s i s t e r s . He was a submissive c h i l d , refusing to defend his property with childr e n younger and smaller than himself. He seemed af r a i d ^ o f adults and while i n t h e i r presence his mental reactions were very 72 slow. He was a chronic enuretlc who was completely apathetic when l y i n g i n a wet bed. George was t e r r i f i e d of dogs and would s t i f f e n into a r i g i d p o s i t i o n and scream i f one came within f i f t y yards of him. When alone i n the sand p i l e , he would swing his f i s t s and wrestle on the ground as i f he were beating an opponent, George very seldom spoke and never i n a group. He expressed no v i s i b l e forms of emotion while i n a group or with another person. This boy had such great h o s t i l i t y demanding expression and the need for acceptance without his giving anything i n return, that only i n an i n s t i -t u t i o n could he receive encouragement and intensive treatment, Clarence Hogan, aged eleven, was placed i n Embury House a f t e r he had run away from home several times. In conjunction with a neighbouring boy he had robbed several t i l l s i n l o c a l stores. The d i s t r i c t .social worker, could f i n d no f o s t e r home for Clarence, which was best for his development as he was a very rejected c h i l d . There was marital c o n f l i c t i n the family and much of t h i s stemmed from the fact that Clarence was an unwanted c h i l d . This boy was d i s t r u s t f u l and un-c e r t a i n of adults, but he h i d his misgivings under a cloak of d o c i l i t y . He needed casework therapy i n working through his bitterness toward his parents, and r e l a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y to adults, P h i l l i p Peppard had been placed i n Embury, House twice before reaching the age of f i v e . The f i r s t was at two years of age, the second at four, both placements l a s t i n g f o r one year. P h i l l i p ' s mother was k i l l e d i n a car accident shortly - 73 -af t e r his b i r t h * The father who was injured i n the crash, deserted the c h i l d . P h i l l i p l i v e d i n several foster homes between placements i n Embury House. The foster home f a i l u r e s hinged around the b e l i e f P h i l l i p was a "nuisance and a cry-baby." P h i l l i p was the butt of the groups' jokes and taunts at Embury House. He withdrew from a l l a c t i v i t i e s and would not leave the confines of the i n s t i t u t i o n unless forced to do so. If any of the s t a f f gave him some attention he would not leave t h e i r side, and would follow them about during t h e i r duties l i k e a pet animal. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y attached to the matron and the writer. Whenever P h i l l i p was given a chance he would shower kisses on them as i f obsessed, and c l i n g to them i n a death-like g r i p . P h i l l i p l i v e d and moved i n a world of his own phantasy. Many of his phantasies dwelt around his parents and his early years. It Is obvious how much this boy required study and treatment under p s y c h i a t r i c consultation, followed by a careful foster home placement, Henry Pastor, aged nine, was placed i n Embury House a f t e r he had f a i l e d i n a series of foster homes. Henry was an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d . His f i r s t two years were spent i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . Then followed the sequence of foster homes. The f a i l u r e In each added to Henry's basic r e j e c t i o n . In the f i r s t , foster homes Henry's f a i l u r e to adjust was due to his i n a b i l i t y to respond and re l a t e to the foster parents. They a l l f e l t he was an impossible "problem-child." In his l a t e r foster home placements Henry developed unacceptable excretory habits, which resulted In his placement i n Embury .« 74 -House. The deep r e j e c t i o n suffered by th i s boy, plus h i s d i s s o c i a l means of expressing his h o s t i l i t y toward adults, es p e c i a l l y women, required study and treatment under psychia-t r i c consultation* Gary Stratton, aged twelve, was placed i n Embury House a f t e r three short foster home placements ended i n f a i l u r e * Gary's mother had died when he was ten. His father married again shortly a f t e r . Gary's d i s s o c i a l behaviour began with the advent of his step-mother i n their home. This step-mother "completely rejected Gary and influenced the father against the boy. The father-son relationship had never been strong nor stable. Gary began running away from home, sometimes staying away for several days. He was caught p i l f e r i n g i n several department stores. His parents refused to accept any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for him. Gary was then placed i n a f o s t e r home where his behaviour problems continued, as they did through two more foster homes. He was then placed i n Embury House. Gary was not capable of accepting a mother-person so shortly a f t e r the death of his mother, and the severe r e j e c t i o n he suffered from his father and step-mother necessitated the accepting attitude of the i n s t i t u t i o n combined with the non-demanding nature of group care. He needed s k i l l e d case work services i n helping him work through his feelings about his reje c t i o n s , and i n learning again to give love as well as to demand i t * Robert Daniels, aged thirteen, was placed i n Embury House when h i s grandparents became too old to care f o r him. Robert - 75 was an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , whose mother gave him to her parents and then disappeared. The boy was overprotected by his grand-parents. When placement was asked for, the d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker found Robert s t i l l sleeping with his grandmother, and scarcely able to feed himself. Robert had repressed his g u i l t feelings over his incestuous desires toward the grandmother, and had regressed into a pre-psychotic stage. -It i s clear how much t h i s boy required treatment under p s y c h i a t r i c con-s u l t a t i o n . Fredrick Holt, aged eleven, was placed i n the i n s t i t u -t i o n after a knife attack on his mother. Fredrick's father was a Bermudean, who had l e f t his wife .shortly a f t e r Fredrick's b i r t h . The father remained i n Bermuda while his wife and son returned to her home i n Regina. Fredrick could not re-member his father, and had had no father-person to i d e n t i f y with through his Oedipal s i t u a t i o n . Fredrick had caused much trouble i n his home neighbourhood, and he was considered a behaviour problem i n school. Mrs. Holt asked for placement a f t e r Fredrick had attacked her with a butcher knife i n a wild s c u f f l e . Fredrick was extremely punitive towards the . younger children i n Embury House, and i f given the opportunity alone he would bash a smaller boy's head against the wall or f l o o r . Several times he attacked smaller g i r l s with a table knife. Mrs. Holt could not overcome her g u i l t feelings about having f a i l e d i n r a i s i n g Fredrick, which was linked with the f a i l u r e of her marriage. She continued to take Fredrick home, but his aggression towards his mother would necessitate his - 76 -return. This mother could not have accepted foster home placement for her son because i t would have been too threaten-ing to her own dependency needs on the boy. Fredrick, also, could not have accepted foster home care as he was unable to respond to adult a f f e c t i o n . As there were pre-psychotic tendencies expressed i n Fredrick's reactions, he required . study and treatment under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance© Muriel Rodgers, aged thirteen, was placed i n Embury House because of neglect and cruelty. This g i r l had been rejected from b i r t h by her father. The family was of German na t i o n a l i t y and the father ruled the family with a tyrannical hand. Muriel's mother scarcely entered into her l i f e . From an early age Muriel was obese; this Increased with age as her compulsive eating was used to s a t i s f y her emotional needs© Mr. Rodgers forced Muriel to do the farm chores around home, and would keep her from school u n t i l the truant o f f i c e r forced him to release her. Muriel suffered many physical beatings from her father. This deprived and rejected c h i l d was starved for a f f e c t i o n . She was unable to accept a f o s t e r home because she demanded the whole and undivided attention of the fos t e r home, and was not able to respond to the fo s t e r mother i n return. Muriel required a period of group care to absorb new relationships, and also carework services to help her work through her rejection© Loretta Bass, aged nine, was placed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a f t e r several quick foster home placements© Loretta's mother died when she was three years old, and her father deserted her - 77 -and her infant brother, William, shortly a f t e r . Loretta was placed i n three foster homes where she l i v e d for nearly two years. She was then placed i n a Roman Catholic convent where she l i v e d for three years. Loretta»s stay i n her next four fo s t e r home placements was just a matter of weeks i n each. This g i r l had an in t e l l i g e n c e quotient i n the moron r a t i n g . She was attempting her t h i r d year i n grade one. Loretta was a chronic enuretlc. Her appearance and actions presented a picture of.complete apathy. Loretta was rejected by nearly a l l the children i n Embury House as well as by her brother William, aged s i x . She l i v e d i n a world of phantasy, b u i l t around her dreams of a home to which she would soon be r e * turning, and dreams of herself as the queen of Embury House. One questions whether t h i s c h i l d was r e a l l y retarded mentally or whether she was completely withdrawing from the world of r e a l i t y . It i s obvious how desperately t h i s pre-psychotic c h i l d required intensive casework study and treatment under psychiatric guidance. On the basis of the type of services required to s a t i s f y the children's needs, i t is v a l i d to assume from the evaluation of the representative yearly population of Embury House during 1949-1950, that the major purpose of thi s i n s t i -t ution during t h i s period was as a "stop-gap". By "stop-gap", i t i s meant that Embury House was used as a "dumping ground" for those children whose needs could not be f u l f i l l e d s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y by the Child Welfare program of Saskatchewan, or who required intensive casework services which the s o c i a l - 78 — workers did not have the time to render. In addition, i t was a convenient " c a t c h - a l l " for those children who because of the nature of t h e i r emotional disturbances and consequent reactions could be placed i n Embury House and forgotten., This evaluation i s v i v i d l y portrayed i n Table 2, where i t i s shown that out of the representative monthly population of f i f t y c h ildren only eighteen of these were suitable for i n s t i t u -t i o n a l care. Furthermore, of these eighteen, the needs of only nine children could be p a r t i a l l y served by the program the . i n s t i t u t i o n offered during t h i s time. In Chapter IV the evaluation of. the program of Embury House during 1949-1950 w i l l reveal the Ins t i t u t i o n ' s i n a b i l i t y to serve the nine seriously disturbed children requiring study and treatment* Moreover, according to a l l modern i n s t i t u t i o n a l standards, Embury House could only p a r t i a l l y serve the needs of the nine children requiring general care because of the fact there was no trained s o c i a l worker employed in the i n s t i t u -t i o n . Therefore, only nine children out of a t o t a l f i f t y , or eighteen per cent of the t o t a l population, could be p a r t i a l l y served by Embury House© Table Z A summary of the types of services required "by -the population of Embury House during 1949-1950. Group Services Required Number of Cases Per ,Cent I These children would have profited more in their emotional development through case work services at home "because there were no cases of '; neglect, only dependency. This dependency could have "been overcome through adequate financial aid', thereby leaving the child in the role.most conducive to his over-all "benefit, a part of his own family unit.. 7 14 II These children could not receive services in their own homes because of the lack of a home through the death or desertion of one or both parents, the neglect of the parents, or the illness of a single parent. They were capable of relating to adults and accepting substitute parents. Foster family care is the closest sub-stitute for the satisfactions the child derives from being loved and wanted as a part of a family,' therefore, this right to maximum development, in accordance with their needs, in a foster home should not be denied by institutional placement, where the services were not applicable to the' needs of these children. 25 50 III These children were suitable for the forms of care and services offered "by two distinct types of institutions. Because of the conflicting elements of attempting to combine two programs to •; serve two different types of needs, these children should have had the availability of the two inst- \ itutions below. (a) Those children who could not accept substitute parents and who required a non-demanding group experience, required general care and training. 9 18 (b) Those children who were seriously i disturbed in their emotional development, required intensive individual case work services and treatment under the guidance of a psychiatrist. 9 18 TOTAL 50 100 CHAPTER IV THE PROGRAM AND FACILITIES In discussing the program offered to the dependent and neglected children coming to Embury House during 1949, t h i s study w i l l include a l l the services rendered to these children. It w i l l also include the s t a f f employed at Embury House, because any services provided are only as good as the qual i t y of the functioning s t a f f . The c r i t e r i a f o r evalu-ating the s t a f f and services w i l l be the State of Washington's 1 Standards for Ins t i t u t i o n s Caring f o r Children, hereafter refe r r e d to as the Washington Standards. These succint standards have drawn together recent thinking i n the f i e l d of standards f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care for childre n on the part of persons working d i r e c t l y i n that f i e l d . Where the eval-uation applies to an intangible quality the writer w i l l use his own measurement based on personal observation. These c r i t e r i a apply to every type of i n s t i t u t i o n caring f o r c h i l -dren. In t h i s study they w i l l be considered the basic founda-t i o n upon which suitable services can be b u i l t for i n s t i t u -tions caring for children. The Embury House program w i l l be evaluated under the broad areas of: (1) s o c i a l service pro-1 Washington, Department of Social Security, February 10, 1950, - 81 ~ gram, (2) physical needs of the c h i l d , (3) education and t r a i n i n g , and (4) s t a f f . Social Service Program, This aspect of the program around which the whole pur-pose of Embury House should revolve, namely, providing the services to meet the needs of the children placed i n the i n -s t i t u t i o n , was seriously lacking i n quality and) i n organiza-t i o n . Instead of a s o c i a l service program established within the i n s t i t u t i o n and coordinated with the o v e r a l l c h i l d caring program of Embury House, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for case work services was carried out haphazardly by s o c i a l workers from the central agency of the Child Welfare Branch i n Regina, and by those r u r a l d i s t r i c t s o c i a l workers who had c l i e n t s i n the i n s t i -t ution. Due to the pressure of case loads these s o c i a l workers interviewed t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r cases In Embury House only upon the insistence of the matron that the c h i l d was suffering from the lack of case work services. Neither the matron nor any of the s t a f f employed i n Embury House was authorized to give case work i n any form to any of the c h i l -dren. As was indicated i n Table 2, only eighteen per cent of the population should have been placed i n Embury House according to the services they needed. This i n e f f i c i e n t and harmful intake p o l i c y was t y p i c a l of the entire s o c i a l ser-vice program. The v a l i d i t y of t h i s conclusion w i l l be borne out i n the evaluation of the four aspects of i n s t i t u t i o n a l case work services, namely, (1) intake, (2) case work services - 82 <-to the children while under care, (3) discharge, and (4) records. Intake. Children were placed i n Embury-House with l i t t l e or no preparation for t h e i r coming ex-perience. They were taken from th e i r homes or f o s t e r family homes by the d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker and with th e i r possessions were deposited i n the care of the matron. There was no formal admission card or entrance procedure. The s o c i a l worker seldom had time to n o t i f y the matron that she would be placing a c h i l d i n Embury House, and many times only the child' s name and r e l i g i o n would be given to the matron or house s t a f f person on duty. As the only Information obtainable regarding the c h i l d , h i s background, his problems, h i s needs, had to be secured from his s o c i a l worker, the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s know-ledge of the c h i l d depended e n t i r e l y on the s o c i a l worker's l i m i t e d time, or her desire to disclose the above information to the matron. Information regarding the c h i l d for the i n - . s t i t u t i o n ' s purpose was made s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t to secure by the regulation that a l l the children's case records were kept i n a central f i l i n g department at Child Welfare head-quarters, and none of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f could obtain information from these case records. In contrast, compare this intake recommendation from the Washington Standards. "When a decision i n regard to ac-ceptance of the c h i l d i s reached, the s t a f f must be given s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the c h i l d and his needs io know how ^ 8 3 ^ to receive him, i n what group to place him, and how to meet 2 situations that come up". The i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l worker had. complete authority as to whom she wanted to place i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . The matron and the house s t a f f had no voice i n regard to what children should be accepted for i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, other than to stop intake when the i n s t i t u t i o n was ph y s i c a l l y incapable of ab-sorbing another c h i l d because of lack of space. Therefore, i t i s seen that the intake p o l i c y of Embury House was not made by the i n s t i t u t i o n and based on the type of services the i n -s t i t u t i o n could offer to meet the chi l d ' s needs, but was determined by the s o c i a l workers who used the i n s t i t u t i o n as a resource regardless of the time they had to of f e r supple-mental services, such as home supervision or fo s t e r home placement. Lack of any r e a l interest i n the placement was indicated by the limited information given to the matron and house s t a f f at the time of placement, and l i m i t e d support to the c h i l d during the placement• 2, Case work services to the children while  under care. Embury House did not have the services of a caseworker employed within the I n s t i t u t i o n . Instead, the d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker who placed the c h i l d there, continued to be that child's case worker. No member of the i n s t i t u -tion's s t a f f nor other caseworker was authorized to o f f e r 2 Ibid., p. 21 - 84 -services to t h i s c h i l d . Consequently, the case; work services received by the c h i l d depended e n t i r e l y upon the time his d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker could a l l o t to his needs. As a r e s u l t oi' the overwhelming case loads carried by many of these s o c i a l workers, i t was always a matter of weeks and sometimes even a month before a c h i l d could t a l k with his case worker. It i s obvious how unsatisfactory and inadequate this type Of case work service was for the c h i l d . The Washington Standards state: "Throughout the whole period of the child's stay i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , the case worker s h a l l work closely with him, helping him to understand and accept his own feelings and to learn new and more s a t i s f y i n g 3 ways of getting along with people". In Chapter III It was shown that many of the children were placed i n Embury House not only because of the serious-ness of the i r problems but also because of the lack of ade-quate services to meet t h e i r needs. As the r e s u l t of these inadequacies and lack of case work services, the children i n the i n s t i t u t i o n formed a kind of "forgotten group". The d i s t r i c t s o c i a l workers many times expressed th e i r concern to the writer over having placed th e i r c l i e n t s i n the care of the matron and then p r a c t i c a l l y neglecting them. The matron and the house s t a f f carried on as well as they could under the circumstances but many times they had to handle situations and behaviour that they did not understand. 3 Ibid., p, 22 — 8 5 — The matron invari a b l y assumed much of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the planning for the children while under her care. This was most unsatisfactory for both p a r t i e s , as the matron did not have enough information from the s o c i a l worker regarding the child's needs, and the c h i l d was not rec e i v i n g the pro-f e s s i o n a l case work services he required. Despite the cap-a b i l i t i e s of the matron i t was too often assumed by the s o c i a l workers that as soon as they placed their c l i e n t i n the matron's care a l l would be w e l l . The matron also acted as the l i a i s o n person between the c h i l d and the community ser-vices he used. In comparison, the Washington Standards states: "The s o c i a l worker, because of her o v e r - a l l r e-s p o n s i b i l i t y for the planning for the c h i l d , needs to use other community services. For t h i s reason she should be the l i a i s o n person between the i n s t i t u t i o n and the commun-4 i t y " . In only one case of the f i f t y analyzed In t h i s study, was a conference held regarding a c h i l d In Embury House, betv/een the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f and the case worker. This lack of integration of the observations and the suggestions of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s house s t a f f and the case worker's know-ledge of the situ a t i o n , prevented the house s t a f f from knowing what services the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d required during his period of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. This also caused the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f , as well as the children, to f e e l remote from the case 4 Loc. c i t . - 86 -workers and th e i r services. The children's s o c i a l workers did hold occasional i n d i v i d u a l conferences with the matron, and as a result of these conferences the i n s t i t u t i o n did have some leads to follow i n providing for the c h i l d . But these conferences with the matron did not include other members of the house s t a f f , thus eliminating much valuable information to both the case worker and the house s t a f f . The case work services with the children while under care at Embury House were t o t a l l y inadequate. There was great need of a case worker within the i n -s t i t u t i o n who would u t i l i z e the house s t a f f ' s knowledge of the children and draw them into the formulation of suitable programs of service for the children, as indicated by the Washington Standards. "Since the c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s affected by his relationships to a l l the members of the s t a f f , the s o c i a l worker needs to understand these relationships and to work through the various s t a f f members. This can be done through i n d i v i d u a l conferences with s t a f f members and through group meetings where the problems of the s p e c i f i c c h i l d or 5 material r e l a t i n g to c h i l d care are discussed". 3, Discharge. The c h i l d was taken from Embury House by his s o c i a l worker when the matron i n s i s t e d he was not p r o f i t i n g from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, when he could be re-turned to his own home, or when a suitable foster home had' been found. There were no standards by which the c h i l d was judged ready to leave the group experience and accept a home 5 Loc. c i t . - 8 7 ~ environment. The child's discharge was discussed when either the matron suggested he should leave or when the c h i l d asked to he removed; otherwise he remained i n Embury House u n t i l the s o c i a l worker decided he required another type of care. There were no periodic evaluations of the child' s s i t u a t i o n . Evaluations were limited.to those children the s o c i a l workers had time to discuss with the matron on t h e i r infrequent v i s i t s . The aftercare and supervision of the c h i l d when he l e f t Embury House was a function of his d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker. In contrast the Washington Standards state: "When the c h i l d has pr o f i t e d s u f f i c i e n t l y from i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement to return home or to use another type of care, he i s ready f o r discharge. In order to determine i f a c h i l d i s ready for discharge a periodic reevaluation of his s i t u a t i o n must be made and recorded i n the record. Such evaluations should b be made at least every s i x months." 4, Records. The only record of the c h i l d kept by Embury House was the admission information given by the s o c i a l worker, and the entry of the child's presence i n the dail y r e g i s t e r . No case record was kept of the c h i l d by the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f . A l l recording of the child's s i t u a t i o n was done by his s o c i a l worker. The s o c i a l worker's information regarding the c h i l d , other, than that acquired during her v i s i t s , was obtained from the matron. The means of recording was i n -6 Loc. c i t . - 88 -e f f i c i e n t . The information given centred around those i n -cidents which remained clear i n the matron's mind several weeks or more a f t e r they occurred. It i s inevitable that with the pressures of work, the matron could not remember every s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n of f i f t y children over a space of weeks. The chil d ' s record while i n the i n s t i t u t i o n was consequently very sparse. Its contents tended to focus on attention-getting material, and much valuable information which would have been h e l p f u l i n formulating future plans to suit the child's needs was neglected. Physical Needs of the C h i l d , This part of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s program w i l l be evaluated i n terms of the following basic physical needs of the children: (1) diet, (2) clothing, (3) personal hygiene, and (4) medical care. The program of an i n s t i t u t i o n must be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the physical needs of the children under care. A basic requirement i n any i n s t i t u t i o n caring for children must be the adequate provision of the necessary f a c i l i t i e s to s a t i s f y every chil d ' s physical wants. A c h i l d l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u -t i o n has the same physical needs as a c h i l d i n his own home. In addition the c h i l d l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n has other needs to compensate him for his lack of a home and the qual-i t i e s of a home environment, i f he i s to develop emotionally i n accordance with his age, 1, Die t. The food at Embury House i s purchased and prepared by a s k i l l e d cook. The quality, the preparation, 89 and the serving of the food at Embury House i s excellent.' The P r o v i n c i a l N u t r i t i o n i s t , who i s a s k i l l e d and experienced d i e t i c i a n , prepares the menu f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s meals every week, and she p e r i o d i c a l l y checks the c a l o r i e content of the food. The kitchen contains modern e l e c t r i c a l equipment to prepare the food, and two large r e f r i g e r a t o r s keep a l l perishable food and the milk at low temperatures. In Embury House not only i s the quality of the food high, but there i s unlimited quantity. No c h i l d leaves the table hungry. The atmosphere i n which the children eat their meals.is both commendable and condemnableo The dining room i s gayly painted and well l i g h t e d . The s t a f f s i t at the same tables as the children and eat the same food. The grace i s repeated before each meal. On the other hand, the ch i l d r e n must l i n e up i n two rows, the boys i n one l i n e and the g i r l s i n the other, outside the dining room door at the sound of a dinner b e l l . When everyone i s i n l i n e the children march to their seats. Talking i s kept at a minimum, ahd an atmos-phere of f e a r f u l , hurried eating pervades the dining room on many occasions. This t y p i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l regimentation and routine should be abandoned. To have the cheerfulness and camaraderie conducive to wholesome eating and eating habits, there should be a minimum of routine and more f l e x i b i l i t y i n rules at t h i s time. This s i t u a t i o n compares most favorably with the Washington Standards which state: "A balanced diet, adjusted to age and physical development of the c h i l d , s h a l l be provided. The - 90 -food s h a l l he wholesome i n quali t y , ample i n quantity, and of s u f f i c i e n t variety to ensure health. A l l food s h a l l he kept clean and at a temperature low enough to prevent deteriora-t i o n ... Menus should be checked regularly by a d i e t i c i a n . If no member of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f is q u a l i f i e d to off e r t h i s service, consultation should be obtained elsewhere ..• Meals should be served as a t t r a c t i v e l y as possible and meal-time s h a l l be a happy occasion with time allowed for a normal 7 amount of conversation and unhurried eating." 2. Clothing. The childr e n at Embury House, l i k e a l l c h i l d wards of the Child Welfare Branch of Saskatche-wan, receive clothing allowance every year. This clothing allowance i s adequate to supply a l l the clothes they need throughout the year. They are permitted to choose clothes of t h e i r l i k i n g , and are thus given a f e e l i n g of i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The child's s o c i a l worker issues a r e q u i s i t i o n , s t a t i n g the type of clothes the c h i l d has asked f o r , and the approximate price of each item. The c h i l d then does his own shopping at a store where he finds clothes of his own choice. His only l i m i t a t i o n i s the amount of money he can spend on each article© Each c h i l d has his clothing i n i t i a l e d and he keeps i t i n his locker. Shoes are kept i n good repair at a c i t y shoe repair shop. The quality of the clothes of the children at Embury House i s superior to that of the children i n the surrounding communities* 7 Ibid., p. 25, - 91 -The clothing provisions of the children i n Embury House compare favorably with the Washington Standards. "The standard of dress for the c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s h a l l be comparable to that of the average c h i l d with whom he associates i n the community. Each c h i l d s h a l l be helped to maintain his i n -d i v i d u a l i t y i n the group by having his own clothing that i s marked with his name and that d i f f e r s i n pattern and design from the garments worn by the other children. Where possible 8 the c h i l d s h a l l have a part i n the se l e c t i o n of h i s cl o t h i n g . " 3. Personal hygiene. There were i n s u f f i c i e n t washrooms and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s i n Embury House for the pop-u l a t i o n . The children had to wait much too long f o r t h e i r turn to wash and perform th e i r t o i l e t , i n the mornings and evenings. They were too rushed by the house s t a f f , who under-standably were t r y i n g to help a l l the children be clean f o r breakfast and bed at a c e r t a i n hour. The whole washing process i s a time of great fun for children and they should not be denied t h i s p r i v i l e g e . The s t a f f did the best they could with the l i m i t e d t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , and organized a "washing routine," which enabled each c h i l d to have a c e r t a i n length of time i n the washroom. Each c h i l d had his own towel, tooth brush, comb, etc., and was responsible f o r the care of these a r t i c l e s . Every c h i l d bathed at least twice a week© The house s t a f f taught the children good health habits and cleanliness. The children had th e i r h a i r cut by a barber unless they were "broke," i n which case the caretaker served 8 Loc. c i t . - 92 m the purpose and did an admirable job. The children i n Embury House received an adequate amount of sleep. They went to bed according to t h e i r age group. Those under eight years went at seven o'clock, those from eight to ten at seven-thirty o'clock, those from ten to twelve at eight o'clock, and those over twelve at nine o'clock. The r i s i n g hour for a l l children was seven o'clock A.M. A commendable feature at Embury House was the f a c t that the house s t a f f allowed the children a short time for playing, t a l k i n g , and "fo o l i n g around," before turning out the l i g h t s . The children as a whole took pride i n t h e i r personal appearance and received favorable comment from the community. The .satis-factory personal hygiene habits practiced at Embury House was accountable 'largely f o r a minimum number of epidemics i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , . 4. Medical care. There was a p e d i a t r i c i a n employed by the Child Welfare Branch of Saskatchewan, who acted as a consultant to the i n s t i t u t i o n . There was also a physician and a registered nurse who v i s i t e d Embury House once a week, and treated the sick children and examined those children indicated by the matron. This physician and nurse could be c a l l e d to the i n s t i t u t i o n at any time i n an emergency. The children of.Embury House received the same medical care and treatment i n the Regina General Hospital as any c h i l d . Every c h i l d on being placed i n Embury House was given a thorough physical examination. I f immunization or vaccina-tions were required, they were begun at th i s time. A complete - 93 medical history of the c h i l d was kept by the physician. Any c h i l d requiring the services of a dentist or a medical s p e c i a l i s t received such service, A large f i r s t - a i d k i t was kept i n Embury House, along with a great variety of patent medicines. These medicines were administered only under the matron's d i r e c t i o n s . An i s o -l a t i o n ward, consisting of two rooms and a bathroom, was an excellent feature of Embury House. The prompt use of t h i s a v a i l a b l e resource saved the i n s t i t u t i o n from many of the epidemics common to childhood. I f the matron was given s u f f i c i e n t notice by a chi l d ' s s o c i a l worker, that c h i l d would receive a complete physical examination p r i o r to discharge, otherwise he l e f t the i n s t i t u t i o n without an examination. When the need was indicated by the child's s o c i a l worker, he could receive psychological study and psyc h i a t r i c treatment at the Regina Mental Health C l i n i c under the guidance of q u a l i f i e d psychologists and a p s y c h i a t r i s t . This c l i n i c was convenient to Embury House, being only f i v e blocks distance. The standards Of medical care at Embury House f u l f i l l every requirement stated i n the Washington Standards, which state: "There s h a l l be a q u a l i f i e d physician to serve as medical director or consultant to the i n s t i t u t i o n . Each c h i l d s h a l l have a thorough physical examination by a q u a l i -f i e d physician just p r i o r to admission ... Psychological study and ps y c h i a t r i c consultation and treatment s h a l l be provided along with other s p e c i a l i z e d medical services when th e i r need i s indicated ... The r e s u l t s of every medical and dental ex-A . 9 4 -amination, including the physician's and dentist's recommenda-tions, s h a l l be recorded ... A complete physical examination should be given immediately p r i o r to discharge ... Special care as needed s h a l l be provided f o r sick children. This should include separate and comfortable bedroom space f o r sick children not needing hospital care ... Arrangements s h a l l be made with a hospital i n the community for h o s p i t a l care when 9 ••. ;i i t i s recommended by a physician." Education and S o c i a l Training. In this study i t i s unnecessary to indicate why every c h i l d should require a basic minimum education s u f f i c i e n t to enable him to function adequately i n our present society. But i t i s necessary to declare that every c h i l d , whether he be a part of his own family unit or a parentless, homeless ward of the Child Welfare Branch of Saskatchewan l i v i n g i n Embury House, has the r i g h t to obtain as much education as he desires and as much as he can suitably absorb. Every c h i l d requires a c e r t a i n amount of s o c i a l t r a i n i n g . This t r a i n i n g i s usually administered according to the c u l t u r a l background and opportunities of the parents or guardians. When a c h i l d i s placed i n Embury House he too must receive s u f f i c i e n t s o c i a l t r a i n i n g to make him s o c i a l l y acceptable i n this society. Many times the c h i l d placed i n Embury House, has,a background of neglect and i s s o c i a l l y retarded. It i s obvious that such a c h i l d requires extra supervision i n 9 Ibid., pp. 26-27. - 95 -h i s s o c i a l t r a i n i n g . This t r a i n i n g should he administered i n accordance with good c h i l d caring practices, and admin-ist e r e d over a period of time and i n a form that the c h i l d can absorb without causing him any emotional disturbance. The s o c i a l t r a i n i n g of dependent and neglected children i n Embury House i s under the supervision.of the matron. The program of education and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g , so v i t a l to the emotional development of the children, w i l l be evaluated under the following headings: (1) school, (2) work experience, (3) r e l i g i o n , (4) d i s c i p l i n e , and (5) recreation, 1* School, The children i n Embury House receive a l l t h e i r formal education outside the i n s t i t u t i o n i n neighbouring community schools. The Roman Catholic c h i l -dren attend a parochial school, two blocks away. The Protes-tant children attend one of two public schools, two and four blocks distant from the i n s t i t u t i o n . Those children attending high school have the services of a technical and academic high school within f i f t e e n minutes walk from Embury House, The children use exactly the same books and equipment as the other c h i l d r e n i n school. They are accepted as a part of the class and taught the same curriculum as the other children. As f a r as can be judged the children are receiving a suitable education from the Saskatchewan educational system, whose curriculum also applies to the Roman Catholic parochial schools. There i s a study and reading room i n Embury,House, where the children do t h e i r home?/ork. This room has several tables 96..-and comfortable chairs. It i s well lighted and. a t t r a c t i v e l y decorated. There i s a l i b r a r y covering one w a l l , but many of the books are too old and lacking i n inte r e s t for the children. The matron or house s t a f f member on duty is a v a i l -able to help the children with their more d i f f i c u l t homework problems. This method of receiving education i n the community, as an Individual within the community, compares s a t i s f a c t o r i l y with the Washington Standards, which state: "In formal edu-cation, as i n other areas, i t is important that the c h i l d be related as much as possible to the r e s t of the community. Therefore, i t i s recommended that the c h i l d attend the neigh-10 borhood school." 2. Work experience. Every c h i l d In Embury House above the age of nine has a d a i l y task assigned him by the matron. The child's task i s changed every week so that i t does not become too routine or monotonous. No c h i l d i s assigned a task beyond h i s physical means. The g i r l s a s s i s t with such tasks as washing dishes, cleaning dormitories, preparing the vegetables for cooking, etc. The boys wash and wax f l o o r s , clean washrooms, and help the caretaker i n his many duties outside. These d a i l y tasks take the c h i l d from f i f t e e n minutes to an hour to. f i n i s h . The older boys, especially those no longer attending school, help the care-taker f o r longer periods. They a s s i s t him with the gardening, the fences, f i x i n g the plumbing, etc. Any c h i l d who i s con-10 Ibid., p. 23« - 97 venient w i l l be c a l l e d upon to run small errands for the matron. The children understand that the work they do i s t h e i r part i n maintaining t h e i r home. With the exception of the extra work assigned as a punishment, they carry out t h e i r jobs with good grace. If there are any legitimate reasons . for being excused from a task a c h i l d may be r e l i e v e d . Also, no c h i l d i s kept at work i f there is any form Of recreation he wishes to attend at that time. The caretaker allows the older boys to a s s i s t him i n jobs which help repare them for a vocation, and which give them experience i n situations they w i l l encounter i n l a t e r l i f e , such as repairing the central heating system, and the plumbing, painting, gardening, etc. With the exception of assigning work as punishment on too -many occasions, thus causing a c h i l d to d i s l i k e work and express an o v e r - a l l negative reaction to his home through associating the idea of punishment with home, the s t a f f assign suitable work experiences to the children of Embury House, The Washington Standards state: "Some duties which the c h i l d performs around the i n s t i t u t i o n such as helping with the dishes, making beds, emptying waste baskets, and so f o r t h , s h a l l be considered as the child's contribution to the making of the home ... Children must not be exploited or assigned tasks beyond t h e i r years or strength. Work never should be used as/or associated with punishment ... Tasks should be assigned, where possible, f o r their value as an educational - 98 -11 experience to the c h i l d . " A l l children of school age i n Embury House spend t h e i r monthly allowance where and how they wish. They are permitted to go downtown alone on shopping expeditions. The children's money i s locked i n a strong box i n the matron's o f f i c e f or safe-keeping, and doled out to the c h i l d as he asks for i t . A simple account i s kept of each c h i l d ' s deposits and with-drawals. Thus, a c h i l d knows to h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n when he has spent h i s money and how. It i s a rule of the i n s t i t u -t i o n that no one, s t a f f member or other c h i l d , may loan money to a c h i l d who is "broke." The matron o f f e r s suggestions, when asked how to budget and spend the money. This i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and experience i n spending t h e i r own money greatly a s s i s t s the children i n Embury House i n their under-standing of the value of money, of methods of budgeting, and of the value of saving. This p o l i c y of handling children's allowances compares very well with the Washington Standards. "In order that children be provided with the normal experi-ences of handling money, a l l children of school age s h a l l be given an allowance u n t i l they are old enough to earn spending money themselves ... Children should have opportuni-t i e s to v i s i t stores, make choices i n purchases, and handle 12 money." 3.. Religion. The children of school age In 11 Ibid.', pp. 23-24, 12 Loc. c i t . - 99 -Embury House are required to attend church every Sunday morning. The pre-school children attend Sunday school i n -termittently. Each c h i l d attends the church of his own f a i t h . A Roman Catholic Church, and Protestant churches of various denominations are within f i f t e e n minutes walk from the i n s t i -tution. Occasionally a s t a f f member accompanies a group of children to church or takes the pre-school children to Sunday school. A l l r e l i g i o n s are treated impartially by the i n s t i -tution's s t a f f . No r e l i g i o u s services are conducted i n Embury House. The children are allowed to attend choir practice and mid-week and special services when they wish to do so. A grace, acceptable to a l l r e l i g i o n s , i s spoken before every meal. Compulsory church attendance i s not desirable. Interest i n church attendance should come primarily from the c h i l d and not from an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f . Except for the compulsory church attendance, however, r e l i g i o u s education of the c h i l -dren i n Embury House meets s a t i s f a c t o r y standards. The Washington Standards v e r i f y t h i s by stating: "Children have a need and a right to receive r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , and opportunity.shall be provided for such. However, no c h i l d s h a l l be required to attend r e l i g i o u s services or to receive r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n a f a i t h d i f f e r e n t from that indicated 13 by his parent or guardian." 4. D i s c i p l i n e . D i s c i p l i n e i n a c h i l d caring 13 Ibid., p. 24. - 100 -i n s t i t u t i o n i s rel a t e d to every aspect of education and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g . The occasion and method of administration of d i s c i -p l i ne depends fo r effectiveness upon the a b i l i t y of the house s t a f f to understand why the c h i l d i s acting so, and to apply remedial measures the c h i l d can use i n a constructive manner. There are six methods of d i s c i p l i n e i n Embury House. (1) Use of the detention room, (2) being sent to bed, (3) loss of p r i v i l e g e s , (4) loss of dessert, (5) extra work, (6) physi-c a l punishment. In evaluating these various d i s c i p l i n a r y methods, contemporary educators and s o c i a l workers, s k i l l e d i n handling children l i v i n g i n groups, believe that only loss of p r i v i l e g e s and dessert have constructive values i n the d i s c i p l i n e of children. Prom a mental hygiene point of view physical punishment may be considered harmful. Use of a detention room where a c h i l d i s locked i n a room alone, or sending the c h i l d to bed, make the c h i l d f e e l rejected and deserted, and cause him to withdraw within himself; many times even into a regressive state of emotions, where he may resort to autoerotic s a t i s f a c t i o n s as a means of comforting himself. Such s a t i s f a c t i o n s may give him not only physical pleasure but also s a t i s f a c t i o n over taking out h i s h o s t i l i t y against the people punishing him by p r a c t i c i n g actions un-acceptable to them. This may lead the c h i l d into d e l i b e r a t e l y committing actions that w i l l cause him to be sent o f f by himself. j The administration of extra work as a punishment, has only destructive q u a l i t i e s . The child's future l i f e Is going - 101-to be based around some form of work. I f , i n his childhood, he develops a n e g a t i v i s t i c attitude towards work because i t i s a punishing, cruel thing to him, what chance has he of adapting to work and becoming a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l i n his l a t e r l i f e ? The loss of p r i v i l e g e s and the loss of dessert, are the most constructive means of applying d i s c i p l i n e . Here the children are deprived of things they want very much, but i f they are deprived they w i l l not suffer p h y s i c a l l y nor mentally, beyond the immediate f e e l i n g of disappointment and repentence. The use of physical punishment i s a controversial problem i n caring for children. Where psychiatric consultation i s a v a i l -able and behaviour i s better understood, physical punishment i s not used. Resort to this type of punishment1 invariably means the parent-substitute has exhausted his store of ideas and f a l l s back upon his greater strength as an adult, and the authority of his p o s i t i o n . As a whole, the s t a f f at Embury House are understanding of the children's actions and the needs expressed therein, and they show considerable judgement i n solving d i s c i p l i n a r y problems. They are quite eager to learn and test new methods of d i s c i p l i n e . They are patient with habitual offenders, with the exception of several children who appeared to be immune to change. Usually no c h i l d i n Embury House suffers p h y s i c a l l y from d i s c i p l i n e . The d i s c i p l i n a r y methods and attitudes at Embury House compare favorably with the Washington Standards, which state: "Good d i s c i p l i n e s h a l l be maintained. The - 102 attitude of the s t a f f toward misconduct s h a l l be diagnostic and remedial, rather than punitive. A well planned program which considers the needs and interests of the in d i v i d u a l c h i l d , and a competent s t a f f with a r e a l understanding of children and groups reduces the d i s c i p l i n a r y problems that 14 may ar i s e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . " 5. Recreation. This i s an important aspect of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s services to the c h i l d . I f the c h i l d i s to develop into a well integrated personality, Who can take his place i n society and know how to r e l a t e to other i n d i v i -duals, and to get the most enjoyment out of his l e i s u r e time, i t i s of the utmost importance that during his stay i n the i n s t i t u t i o n he make a beginning In th i s d i r e c t i o n . Some children can be approached through group a c t i v i t i e s who are not able to tolerate close personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Wholesome use of le i s u r e time, outlets for creative impulses, healthy competition, and many other constructive factors can come out of a we l l planned and directed r e c r e a t i o n a l program. The children of Embury House -not only make use of a l l community recreational services, but they have a better equipped playground than many recreation parks i n Regina, Every c h i l d has some toy or a r t i c l e to play with that i s h i s own. The recre a t i o n a l equipment i s purchased by the i n s t i t u -t i o n , but the children are encouraged to f e e l that i t belongs to them. There i s equipment and f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c a l l y 14 Ibid., p. 25 - 103 -every popular sport except tennis. A large playing f i e l d , which takes up more than half the block on which Embury House i s b u i l t , allows plenty of space for e^very sport. This area i s quite f l a t , lending i t s e l f to use as a p l a y f i e l d . The younger children and pre-school children have a smaller play-ground just f o r t h e i r own use but they can also use the larger playing f i e l d . There i s a playhouse, a sandpile, and a cradle-swing i n this playground. There are four swings between these two playgrounds for the use of a l l the children. The lawn In front of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s used f o r re s t i n g , sunbathing, reading, and pic n i c k i n g . There is also a swing on the large front porch f o r the use of the pre-school children on rainy days. Across the road from Embury House i s a large playing f i e l d , maintained and equipped by the Regina Parks Board. There i s a large outdoor swimming pool at one end. The c h i l -dren from Embury House use t h i s playing f i e l d and swimming pool endlessly. They are accepted on the playing f i e l d by the two supervisors as part of the group. The free use of th i s recreational f i e l d i s in d i c a t i v e of the complete lack of segregation of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s children. The children make use of other recreational resources i n the community. They are encouraged to i n v i t e t h e i r friends into the Embury House grounds to play. Many times there are more community ch i l d r e n playing on the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s f i e l d and using the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s equipment than there are Embury House children. A high t i n s l i d e , which i s iced i n the winter, provides hours of enter-- 104 -tainment to the community children as well as to those at Embury House 0 In the summer as many of the children as possible go to "camp." The boys go to church camps and to camps maintained by the Young Men's Ch r i s t i a n Association, (hereafter c a l l e d Y.M.C.A.), The g i r l s go to church camps and to temporary foster homes at the various beaches i n southern Saskatchewan* During the winter volunteer groups assisted by the s t a f f organize and conduct recreation within Embury House. The boys do woodwork, including fretwork, model airplanes, etc., under a s k i l l e d woodworker's guidance i n t h e i r hobby room. The g i r l s enjoy working with many arts and c r a f t s , such as f e l t -work, beads, r a f f i a , s h e l l c r a f t , etc., i n t h e i r playroom, under the d i r e c t i o n of the G i r l Guides. For a time a. ph y s i c a l education instructor from the Y.M.C.A. conducted c a l i s t h e n t l c s and gymnastics classes i n the gymnasium fo r both boys and g i r l s . An untrained but experienced group work volunteer worked and played with the childr e n during the l a t t e r h a l f of the year, just as the writer d i d during the f i r s t h a l f . Many of the boys belong to the Y.M.C.A., and some to the Boy Scouts. The g i r l s may j o i n the G i r l Guides i f they so d e s i r e . The children are free to j o i n any organized recr e a t i o n a l group they want as long as i t i s suitably supervised. Some of the children make use of the f a c i l i t i e s of the Regina Youth Centre, which i s a supervised, teen-age centre, o f f e r i n g a l l forms of arts and crafts and teen-age entertainment. Usually once a week and always once i n two weeks the children go to a movie. - 105 -There are innumerable par t i e s and. p i c n i c s f o r the children, both Indoors and out, sponsored both by the i n s t i t u t i o n and volunteer groups. The older children may attend functions which necessitate t h e i r remaining up t i l l a f t e r t h e i r bedtime, such as horse shows, sporting events, drama presentations, etc., i f they are accompanied by a house s t a f f person. The Embury House s t a f f wisely place a great emphasis on recreation. They are most understanding of the noise and confusion children create when they are playing. Many times the radio w i l l be playing for dancers In the l i b r a r y , while sounds of hammering and industry are coming from the boys' hobby room, the g i r l s are playing "house" or "school" i n t h e i r playroom, and the younger children are playing "tag" upstairs i n the dormitories. These homelike q u a l i t i e s indicate the freedom with which children play at Embury House, and indicate acceptance on the part of the house s t a f f . There are only two l i m i t i n g factors i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l program at Embury House. There i s no permanent group worker or experienced s t a f f member to supervise the recreation i n order to u t i l i z e more f u l l y i t s therapeutic aspects, and the gymnasium i s too small for any but the simplest indoor games. Both of these factors are beyond the control of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f . Recreation i n Embury House compares very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y with the Washington Standards. "The i n s t i t u t i o n must provide equipment for indoor and outdoor play, and opportunities f o r supervised and free play. Equipment s h a l l s u i t the various age l e v e l s . There s h a l l be play equipment the c h i l d can use - 106 - . alone, games he can play with another c h i l d , and group a c t i v i -t i e s . There s h a l l also be opportunities to use the community f a c i l i t i e s wherever possible, including such group a c t i v i t i e s as Boy Scouts, G i r l Scouts, Campfire G i r l s , and so forth}.w." S t a f f . The "engine" of the i n s t i t u t i o n Is i t s s t a f f . The s t a f f more than the plant, the equipment, and the a c t i v i t i e s , determines the quality of the service offered. The c o n t r i -bution that can be made by the i n s t i t u t i o n to the c h i l d ' s needs, depends on the c a l i b e r of the s t a f f members and t h e i r whole approach to children. The best p o l i c i e s of an i n s t i t u -t i o n f a i l unless they are carried out by a capable s t a f f s from the executive down. I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f members require a variety of s k i l l s . In addition to possessing warmth of personality, good character, and reasonably adequate educa-t i o n a l background, they should enjoy l i v i n g with children, and gain s a t i s f a c t i o n from helping them grow and develop. When the c h i l d r e a l i z e s that the s t a f f r e a l l y care f o r h l i i n spite of anything he may do — and i t i s obvious that many times and i n many ways the children test the s t a f f then the i n s t i t u t i o n has gone a long way i n providing that help which the c h i l d needs© The size of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f should be determined by the ages of the children, the nature of t h e i r problems, and 15 Loc. c i t . - 107 -the duties to be assigned to each s t a f f member. An es s e n t i a l item i n the smooth functioning of an i n s t i t u t i o n i s the team work that e x i s t s . This team work i s assured when each member of the s t a f f comes to be accepted by the other members as having a p a r t i c u l a r job to do, and each i n d i v i d u a l respects the contribution of the other members of the s t a f f . As a whole the s t a f f at Embury House works well together. There are some elements of petty f r i c t i o n and competition, but t h i s i s to be expected i n an i n s t i t u t i o n employing twelve women and only one man. With the exception of the matron, no s t a f f member at Embury House i s overworked. Personnel p o l i c i e s are pattern-ed a f t e r those applying to a l l c i v i l servants of the Pro-v i n c i a l Government of Saskatchewan, and as f a r as can be4 judged they are quite adequate. Each s t a f f member works an eight-hour day, and a f i v e and one-half day week. A morning "break" and other sp e c i a l favours granted by the matron help to keep up morale. Only four of the s t a f f l i v e i n Embury House. The i n d i v i d u a l members of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s t a f f w i l l be evaluated under the following headings: (1) the executive, (2) the house s t a f f , (3) the maintenance s t a f f , (4) the c l e r i c a l s t a f f , (5) the case work s t a f f , and (6) the specia-l i z e d s t a f f members. The l a s t three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of per-sonnel are not a part of the i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f , but the services they render form a part of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s program. 1. The executive. The matron i s the executive at Embury House. The entire r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r adequate - 108 -functioning of the i n s t i t u t i o n l i e s i n her hands. This r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y includes not only the i n s t i t u t i o n proper but the children and s t a f f i n i t . The matron, i n turn, i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l manager, who i s also the Assistant Director of the C h i l d Welfare Branch of Saskatche-wan. The matron asks any assistance she requires from th i s source. There are f a r too many administrative tasks assigned to the matron. The pressure from these tasks does not allow her s u f f i c i e n t time with the children, and the program of services they requires The matron of Embury House i s an elderly woman. She i s a widow who has reared her own family. As a pioneer i n a r u r a l d i s t r i c t i n southern Saskatchewan she acquired a wealth of p r a c t i c a l knowledge covering many aspects of l i f e , which would be hard to duplicate. Although her academic education i s l i m i t e d , this i s compensated by her great store of p r a c t i -c a l knowledge acquired through years of b i t t e r farm experiences, the rearing of her own family alone, and through her knowledge of a l l kinds of people. In an i n s t i t u t i o n , children need a person who has a depth of" warmth and understanding f o r them. The matron at Embury House i s just such a giving, motherly, person, with an abundance of love and interest for the c h i l -dren. This "giving" to the children should be the major function assigned the matron, because of her excellent q u a l i -t i e s as a "mother-person," and her l i m i t e d executive a b i l i t y e The matron, because of her inadequate preparation, should not be expected to administer a professional service. - 109 -The administrative duties should he performed by a prof e s s i o n a l -l y trained superintendent. As a supervisory house parent, with o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a l l the children, and as a "mother-person" to whom the children can come for love and af f e c t i o n , the matron at Embury House i s exceptionally well q u a l i f i e d . This role should be separated from that of the executive head of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The need f o r a q u a l i f i e d superintendent of Embury House i s indicated i n the Washington Standards which state: "The executive s h a l l be a person trained and successfully experienced with children i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work..e He s h a l l possess administrative s k i l l and have a concept of the broad f i e l d of services to children, and of the r o l e of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n meeting the needs of children i n the community. It i s desirable that the execu-t i v e be one trained i n t h e - f i e l d of s o c i a l work, with specia-l i s e d t r a i n i n g and experience i n services to children. He should have administrative s k i l l and understanding of the needs of children, and be competent to provide leadership 16 within the community i n the planning and care of chil d r e n . " 2. The house s t a f f . These s t a f f members are known at Embury House as c h i l d care attendents, but they per-form the same function as house parents. There are seven such c h i l d care attendents, of whom six are always on duty. This maintains a basic r a t i o of - one attendent to eight or nine children. It i s obvious that the older children require much 16 Ibid., p. 13* 110 -less supervision than the younger ones. There i s always an attendent with the pre-school children. These c h i l d care attendents supervise the group of children f o r whom they are responsible. They are responsible to the matron f o r the children's actions and care, and look to her for supervision. They act as the child' s "parent-person," during t h e i r period of duty. The c h i l d care attendents at Embury House appear capable of caring for children. They have s u f f i c i e n t understanding of the children's physical needs to work i n a general care and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . On the other hand, although they are w i l l i n g to learn and to u t i l i z e modern concepts of c h i l d care, they do not have s u f f i c i e n t educational background to function i n a study and treatment type of i n s t i t u t i o n . The ages of the house s t a f f vary from twenty to forty years, which gives the children varied concepts of what "mother-persons" are l i k e . The attendents work with the age-group of children to which they can.best adjust. Their sala r i e s are higher than offered,in many positions for women of equal education, which promotes tenure. Personal motives f o r working i n a children's i n s t i t u t i o n vary considerably, but on the whole the s t a f f seem fond of children and receive much pleasure from caring for them.. The house s t a f f at Embury House compare s a t i s f a c t o r i l y with requirements as stated i n the Washington Standards© "Persons employed as house parents must have an understanding of children, a personality suitable to work with children, as I l l w e l l as a capacity to perform the type of work required i n an i i n s t i t u t i o n . They should be persons who have both the ma-t u r i t y and the f l e x i b i l i t y required for the age group under t h e i r care. They must be i n good health, have a reasonably adequate education and sound personal motives for seeking 17 the job." 3. The maintenance s t a f f . There are two laundry workers, one cook, one domestic, and one caretaker, i n the maintenance s t a f f of Embury House. One laundry worker acts as the cook 1s assistant when required. The domestic worker performs duties i n the I n s t i t u t i o n wherever required. The caretaker also acts as gardener and fireman. He i s the only man employed on the s t a f f of the i n s t i t u t i o n . As he works while the children are i n school, and i s not around i n the evenings and on Sundays, the children have no "father-person" with whom to form r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Even though the maintenance s t a f f do not work d i r e c t l y with the children they have frequent contact with them. "They a l l show considerable understanding of the children and seem quite eager to take part i n any program of services to the ch i l d r e n . With the exception of the domestic, the maintenance s t a f f are a l l workers s k i l l e d i n t h e i r vocation. Their duties are few, enough so that they .can and do perform them s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . 4. The c l e r i c a l s t a f f . There i s no c l e r i c a l s t a f f member at Embury House. A l l c l e r i c a l work Is done by 17 Ibid., p. 14. 112 -the matron. This s i t u a t i o n i s very unsatisfactory, There i s usually enough c l e r i c a l work for a f u l l - t i m e stenographer and always enough f o r a part-time s t a f f member. A c l e r i c a l person could a s s i s t the matron greatly i n maintaining f i n a n c i a l records, helping with administrative d e t a i l s , ahd i n perform-ing the usual o f f i c e routines, thereby allowing the matron more time with the children,, 5, The s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f members. There are no professional s t a f f members resident at Embury House, Psy-c h i a t r i c services and psychological study are provided by the Regina Mental Health C l i n i c , A d i e t i c i a n v i s i t s once a week to prepare the menu for the coming week, and to supervise the cook. The children are taught i n the community schools. They receive dental services from a downtown den t i s t . The Child Welfare physician and nurse v i s i t Embury House once a week, and at other times when requested. The physician, nurse and case workers are the only professional persons v i s i t i n g Embury House. For a l l other professional services the children are required to go outside the i n s t i t u t i o n . This system seems sa t i s f a c t o r y . The children receive adequate professional attention, with the exception of case work services, and nursing services. There i s need of a f u l l - t i m e , or at the very least a part-time nurse, i n Embury House. The aches and pains of these f i f t y children require more than:the.unskilled services of the matron and the house s t a f f , 6, The case work s t a f f . There were no case workers employed within Embury House. vThe method of rendering - 113 -case work services to the children i n the i n s t i t u t i o n has been 18 f u l l y discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. In summary, the s o c i a l worker who places the c h i l d i n Embury House remains his caseworker unless the case i s transferred to another s o c i a l worker. The amount of case work received by the c h i l d depends e n t i r e l y on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the caseworker and her in t e r e s t i n the c h i l d . As was indicated e a r l i e r i n this chapter, the c h i l d sometimes does not see his caseworker for weeks and even longer. That t h i s service i s f a r from adequate i s seen when compared with the Washington Standards. "The agency must pro~ vide caseworkers s u f f i c i e n t i n number to meet the needs of the children. In computing case loads, allowance must be made for time spent i n interviewing applicants, difference i n time required per case i n short time and i n long time care, time 19 spent i n r e f e r r a l and follow-up." The whole program of services to the children at Embury House collapses because of this lack of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l case worker. It i s not necessary to point out the reasons why a c h i l d placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n requires a caseworker; s u f f i c e i t i s to say that the c h i l d placed i n Embury House obviously does require case work services, but these are very l i m i t e d and p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent. Again, i t i s not necessary to point out how t h i s unsatisfactory and inadequate case work i program adds l i t t l e , i f anything, to the emotional development and adjustment of the children. The matron, the house s t a f f , 18 See: Soc i a l Service Program, pp. 1-7. 19 Washington, op. c i t . , p. 13. - 114 and the writer, have been asked Innumerable times by each c h i l d " i f he could please see his caseworker." When contacted the caseworker has been so overwhelmed "with more urgent cases," that i t has been a "week or so," before she could v i s i t the c h i l d . Sometimes the caseworker would be v i s i t i n g i n her r u r a l d i s t r i c t and would not return to Regina for some time. These i l l u s t r a t i o n s are s u f f i c i e n t to indicate the lack of needed case work services to the children i n Embury House, This evaluation does not cover every aspect of the pro-gram at Embury House during 1949-1950. However, i t does bring out c e r t a i n f a c t s regarding the basic program. It i s noted that t h i s basic program of services to the c h i l d r e n has both strengths and weaknesses. The most constructive values i n the program are i n the education and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g of the children, and the provision f o r t h e i r physical needs. On the other hand, there are d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s i n the s t a f f . The lack of a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained superintendent i n Embury House is evidenced through administrative f a i l i n g s In the program. The greatest weakness of.the program i s i n the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the quantity and qu a l i t y of case work services for the children. The emotional needs of the c h i l -dren are l a r g e l y neglected. Consequently, It i s questionable just what value there i s i n placing childr e n i n Embury House at the present time. CHAPTER V THE FUTURE FUNCTION OF EMBURY HOUSE The role Embury House w i l l play i n the care of depen-dent or neglected children i n Saskatchewan w i l l depend on the contribution It can make to the t o t a l c h i l d welfare program. The existence of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n can be i n d i -cated only i n terms of the constructive work achieved with the children who are placed there. The continuation of Embury House hinges on i t s being able to offe r s a t i s f a c t o r y services to childre n whose needs are not provided for more adequately by some other part of the c h i l d welfare program of Saskatchewan. There i s one area i n the Saskatchewan program i n which services to children i s seriously lacking, and Embury House seems a l o g i c a l centre i n which to develop such services. To meet the needs of childre n as badly disturbed as some who are placed i n Embury House, requires the establishment of a study and treatment centre s p e c i a l l y designed f o r emotionally i l l children. Such an i n s t i t u t i o n would serve the same pur-poses as the Ryther Child Centre i n Seattle, Washington, and the I l l i n o i s Children's Home and Aid Society, i n Chicago, I l l i n o i s . The recommendations for the adaptation of Embury House to new functions w i l l be more e a s i l y appreciated i f they are - 116 -presented i n four parts: (1) the need for Embury House as a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n for seriously disturbed children,"(2) the future intake p o l i c y of Embury House, (3) the program and s t a f f necessary to enable Embury House to meet the basic standards which apply to a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s caring for children, and (4) the program and s t a f f necessary to equip Embury House as a study and treatment centre. The Need of a Study and Treatment I n s t i t u t i o n At present there are three major groups of children, as determined by the type of services they require, being placed i n Embury House. The f i r s t group, making up fourteen per cent of the t o t a l population, require case work services within t h e i r own home to ensure them maximum opportunity f o r emo-t i o n a l development. The majority group comprising f i f t y per cent of the t o t a l population are children who would p r o f i t more from foster family care. This group i s t y p i c a l of most i n s t i t u t i o n s caring f o r children. The reason for t h i s f a u l t y placement usually hinges on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of fo s t e r family homes who are w i l l i n g or capable to accept c h i l d r e n with minor undesirable s o c i a l habits. The emotional development of these children i s being retarded by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . They must be placed In foster family homes which have been care-f u l l y selected on the basis of the individual child's needs. The t h i r d group of children, somewhat over one-third of the t o t a l population, can use a group l i v i n g experience con-s t r u c t i v e l y i f the program and s t a f f i s more geared to serving - 117 -t h e i r needs* Examination also makes i t clear that the group of chilr* dren who presumably can p r o f i t by group l i v i n g require the services of two e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t types of Institutions© These children, because of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t needs, f a l l natur-a l l y into two separate groups i n r e l a t i o n to th e i r placement i n Embury House. Each of these groups comprise eighteen per cent of the t o t a l population of Embury House. One group r e -quires only the group experience and case work services of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r general care. The second group requires s k i l l e d services found only i n a study and treatment centre. These two groups of childre n need such d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t i t u t i o n a l services that they should not remain i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n because of the d i f f e r e n t emphasis i n program planning and the difference i n quality and quantity of ser-vices. The children who are suited for general care are not able to r e l a t e to foster parents, and consequently need a group experience which w i l l not make many demands on them© They are only s l i g h t l y disturbed i n t h e i r emotional develop-ment. In contrast, the children who require intensive thera-py are seriously confused i n t h e i r emotional growth. They need highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and s k i l l e d case work services under p s y c h i a t r i c guidance. It is obvious how impossible i t would be to formulate a program suitable to meet the needs of both these groups of children within the same setting© There i s great danger that the needs of one or the other of these groups w i l l be neglected i f they continue to l i v e * 118 ,~ together. Moreover, the confusion res u l t i n g among the c h i l -dren because of various expressions of behaviour, and the apparent discrimination of services by the s t a f f , only adds to t h e i r o v e r - a l l emotional disturbance. Therefore, the Child Welfare Branch of Saskatchewan must decide which of these two groups can be cared for elsewhere, and which group must r e l y on Embury House for services. The children i n need of general care and t r a i n i n g could be placed i n another i n s t i t u t i o n established for just such a purpose. Also, they could be placed i n f o s t e r family homes s p e c i a l l y subsidized to care for large numbers of children, i f the foster parent's demands were l i m i t e d and t h e i r r o l e interpreted by the children's caseworker. On the other hand, the more seriously disturbed children cannot r e l a t e to any fos t e r family home because of t h e i r emotional retardation. They must l i v e i n a place i n which there are no s o c i a l demands placed on them, and i n which t h e i r behaviour i s accepted as symptoms of th e i r emotional needs. The Province of Saskatche-wan does not have as yet such a study and treatment centre. Yet, the number of disturbed children placed i n Embury House, namely eighteen per cent of i t s t o t a l population, i s only a small percentage of such children i n the province who might be referred for t h i s service i f i t were a v a i l a b l e . The most urgent need Embury House i s being c a l l e d upon to meet at t h i s time, therefore, is to provide a centre where observation, diagnosis, and therapeutic services, w i l l help children gain confidence i n themselves, a s s i s t their emotional development, - 119 -and "bring about a valuable s o c i a l adjustment. The Future Intake P o l i c y of Embury House. The f a c t that only t h i r t y - s i x per cent of the t o t a l population required i n s t i t u t i o n a l care of any type i s one i n d i c a t i o n of the complete lack of intake p o l i c y and selective admission at Embury House. The pertinent intake questions would be, " i s placement i n the i n s t i t u t i o n made i n accordance with accepted p r i n c i p l e s of current s o c i a l work practices as they apply to the i n d i v i d u a l " c h i l d i n question?" In Embury House at present the answer can only be i n the negative. Whether or not children are placed i n Embury House appears to depend e n t i r e l y on the d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . The determining factors i n the placement are the s o c i a l worker's diagnostic a b i l i t y i n determining the ch i l d ' s needs, the time she has available to secure the most suitable services for the c h i l d , and the existence of such services. Because of the lack of a l t e r n a t i v e services, and of the high d i s t r i c t case loads, the s o c i a l workers do not have time to work with any c h i l d who presents other than routine problems and needs. Consequently, the deviant i s "dumped" i n Embury House for general care. The population stxidy d e c i s i v e l y proves that the admission of children to Embury House should rest with the i n s t i t u t i o n and not with the child's d i s t r i c t s o c i a l worker. The intake procedure at Embury House to be e f f e c t i v e must be based on d e f i n i t e stated p o l i c i e s as to the type of 120 -children whose needs are going to he served there. In other words, Embury House must be s t a f f e d and equipped to serve the needs of the p a r t i c u l a r group of children who are going to be placed there, such as emotionally disturbed children. Children requiring any other type of service than Embury House i s capable of rendering must not be placed there, as obviously t h e i r needs w i l l not be met. The s e l e c t i o n and admission of children must be conducted by s k i l l e d caseworkers employed at Embury House. These case workers must be s k i l l e d i n diagnosing the c h i l d ' s needs, so that the c h i l d who cannot p r o f i t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l care w i l l be referred elsewhere. Frequently i t i s d i f f i c u l t to diagnose a case at once, so possibly a chi ld could be admitted f i r s t to the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r diagnosis. No commitment need be made to the r e f e r r i n g agency or parents u n t i l study of the c h i l d : i s completed. In i t s new role the intake caseworker would l i m i t Embury House admissions to those children only who need study before t h e i r appropriate treatment i s c e r t a i n . Intake must not be considered a useless or i s o l a t e d part of the place-ment procedure, because i t i s t h i s point at which the caseworker ar r i v e s at a diagnosis of the chil d ' s problem and an evaluation of the service available In the l i g h t of the needs of the c h i l d . The Program and Staff Embury House has a devoted s t a f f , but i t is not meeting the basic standards which should apply to a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s caring for children, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o c i a l services program - 121 -and spe c i a l s t a f f t r a i n i n g . The evaluation of the program and s t a f f i n Chapter IV indicated these basic standards and the inadequacies of Embury House. It is only necessary here to recommend the changes needed at Embury House to r a i s e t h e i r standards of care to an acceptable minimum. The s o c i a l service program offered at Embury House i s very narrow. There i s no i n s t i t u t i o n a l caseworker. The case work services the children receive are from the s o c i a l worker who places them i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . As stated i n Chapter IV, many times a c h i l d w i l l wait weeks or even a month, and longer, before being interviewed by h i s case worker. Consequently, in the main his emotional needs went unanswered. The strength of a s o c i a l service program i n an i n s t i t u t i o n rests upon the fact that case work service i s available at the moment of c r i s i s instead of days or weeks a f t e r the event. Therapy i s es s e n t i a l at that moment, and i s most b e n e f i c i a l i f expressed through the medium of a sound relationship which i s b u i l t through the closeness and a v a i l a b i l i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l caseworker. The four v i t a l services of the caseworker within an i n s t i t u t i o n are seriously neglected i n Embury House because of the haphazard manner i n which case work services are given by the outside agency. These four services, namely, the intake process, case work services to the children while under care, preparation f o r discharge, and maintenance of case records, were, with the exception of case work services to the childre n while under care, non-existent i n Embury House. Therefore, - 122: i n order to f u l f i l l i t s function as a suitable i n s t i t u t i o n caring for children, Embury House needs the f u l l - t i m e services of a q u a l i f i e d caseworker 0 There are three persons whose services would be necessary to complete a minimum adequate program for the childr e n i n Embury House. As was stated i n the preceding paragraphs, there i s no caseworker employed within the i n s t i t u t i o n . In a d d i t i o n there i s no c l e r i c a l s t a f f . There should be at least one J person experienced i n general c l e r i c a l functions to handle the mail, recordings and f i n a n c i a l statements, and to a s s i s t the superintendent as directed. In Chapter IV i t was shown how the matron does not have the time to perform the administrative duties of Embury House as w e l l as give her a f f e c t i o n and attention to the needs of the children. Furthermore, the matron lacks t r a i n i n g and ex-perience i n an executive position. Embury House should have a q u a l i f i e d male administrator as head of the i n s t i t u t i o n . In addition, t h i s man would function i n a "fa t h e r - r o l e " to the children. Such a person would need not only t r a i n i n g and experience to equip him f o r his duties, but he would also need to be tempermentally adapted to work with c h i l d r e n . Preferably he should have completed two years of graduate work i n a recognized school of s o c i a l work with p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g i n services to children.- A superintendent should possess executive a b i l i t y combined with energy and resource-fulness. He would select and adopt those measures which would he of most value to the children cared for by Embury 123 -House. A superintendent would bring to Embury House the q u a l i t i e s of professional t r a i n i n g , experience, and leadership i n the whole f i e l d of c h i l d welfare. The advent of a trained s o c i a l worker as superintendent of Embury House would be invaluable i n promoting harmony between the i n s t i t u t i o n and the t o t a l c h i l d welfare program, i n formulating progressive methods of c h i l d care and development, and i n interpreting Embury House to the community. Embury House as a Study and Treatment Centre. Just as the highly specialized medical c l i n i c has much more to o f f e r a patient i n the way of diagnostic and thera-peutic f a c i l i t i e s than the general p r a c t i t i o n e r , so does the study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n provide a combination of pro-fe s s i o n a l s k i l l e d services for the seriously disturbed c h i l d . In such an i n s t i t u t i o n i t i s possible to bring together a greater concentration of professional s k i l l s i n the observa-t i o n and treatment of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d than i t i s ever possible to obtain i n the community regardless of the adequacy of resources. The success of the study and treatment centre depends on two inherent elements: the program revolving about the needs of the.individual c h i l d , and the s k i l l e d s t a f f to carry out t h i s program, i The basic p r i n c i p l e of the study and treatment centre program i s providing the maximum service to meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . Every p o l i c y , every decision, and every procedure, must recognize that each c h i l d i s a separate - 124 -and d i s t i n c t personality, and requires services directed towards his p a r t i c u l a r needs rather than those of a l l the children as a group. This highly i n d i v i d u a l service must be-come so much a part of the i n s t i t u t i o n that a l l thinking i s automatically based on i t . The study and treatment program at Embury House should be based on psychotherapy. Psychotherapy may be defined as the changing of pathological reaction patterns into more constructive patterns of thinking and behaviour through per-sonal contact with other people. In this sense, a l l the child's experiences i n the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be part of his psychotherapy, i n that they w i l l be so arranged as to produce the maximum amount of constructive action on his personality. At the i n i t i a l diagnostic s t a f f conference, f o r example, part of the treatment plan w i l l consist of a "psychiatric p r e s c r i p -t i o n , " describing the general attitudes on the part of the s t a f f which are indicated for a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d . One c h i l d may benefit most from firm and r e s t r i c t i v e handling; another c h i l d may need a warm, maternal a t t i t u d e on the part of the s t a f f ; while for a t h i r d c h i l d who may be frightened by any sort of a f f e c t i o n , the s t a f f at the st a r t may have to r e f r a i n from any overtures at a l l , i n order to overcome his reserve. This i n i t i a l " prescription" w i l l serve as a guide by which a l l the s t a f f members of the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l regulate t h e i r behaviour toward the c h i l d . Naturally, since the child's emotional state varies, the "psychiatric p r e s c r i p t i o n " w i l l be varied accordingly. It should be planned, furthermore, to - 125 conduct s t a f f meetings at which the treatment of a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d w i l l he discussed i n d e t a i l . Attendance at these s t a f f meetings should include everyone i n the i n s t i t u t i o n who has close personal contact with the c h i l d . This means that such persons as the caretaker and the maintenance s t a f f should be included. To have no f i x e d l i n e of demarcation as to who may or may not attend some s t a f f meetings would help to promote a good deal of l o y a l t y , i n t e r e s t , and psychological under-standing on the part of the maintenance s t a f f . This generalized approach by means of regulated and controlled attitudes might well be designated as "collaborative therapy." In addition to collaborative therapy as defined above, i t should be planned that each c h i l d receive i n d i v i d u a l psy-chotherapy i n the form of personal interviews with a. member of the s k i l l e d s t a f f . The therapists would consist of the s t a f f p s y c h i a t r i s t s , psychologists, and s o c i a l workers. Psy-chotherapeutic interviews conducted by the s o c i a l workers and psychologists would be supervised by some p s y c h i a t r i s t on the attending s t a f f . Progress conferences on the treatment of each c h i l d would be held at regular i n t e r v a l s and would be attended by a l l the persons intimately concerned with the therapy of that c h i l d . The s t a f f of Embury House should not think of therapeutic treatment e n t i r e l y i n terms of the u t i l i z a t i o n of outside p s y c h i a t r i c or c l i n i c a l services. Psychotherapy can be achieved with the children other than i n the p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s o f f i c e . The integration of ps y c h i a t r i c service i n an i n s t i t u t i o n i n such - 126 -a way that It becomes a functioning part of the program i s an insurmountable asset. The service needed i n a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n i s not just r e f e r r a l f o r comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of c e r t a i n children showing major deviations from normal behaviour, but i t is therapeutic case work integrated with the i n s t i t u t i o n a l pattern of func-tioning so that a l l the children are dealt with i n terms of t h e i r d a i l y l i f e pattern. The p s y c h i a t r i c a l l y trained case workers should carry small case loads, giving them much time for intensive work with each c h i l d . The caseworkers should do the treatment job with the assistance of the consultant p s y c h i a t r i s t s , unless the s i t u a t i o n i s serious enough to necessitate actual long-term treatment by the p s y c h i a t r i s t s . It would seem f a r less c o s t l y , less disturbing to the children, and more l i k e l y to produce r e s u l t s , i f the p s y c h i a t r i s t s u t i l i z e d t h e i r time i n analysis of the children's needs and the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of patterns of response f o r the caseworkers. The case work process i s not something superimposed upon the c h i l d i n the study and treatment centre. It i s service a v a i l a b l e to him i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n a l b u i l d i n g or u n i t that he l i v e s , and whenever he needs i t . The wisdom of making therapeutic s k i l l s d i r e c t l y available to the c h i l d i s that, granting anything l i k e a f l e x i b l e organization, the i n s t i t u -t i o n o f f e r s almost unparalleled opportunities f o r observation psychotherapy. The study and treatment centre should have as few rules and regulations as possible. A multitude of rules and i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n interpreting them w i l l only cause further - 1 2 7 -r e g r e s s i o n i n the s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d and add to h i s dependency. There must be c e r t a i n guides f o r the c h i l d r e n t o f o l l o w i n t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , but these should be more or l e s s f l e x i b l e t o meet s i t u a t i o n s and needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f necessary to perform such d i a g n o s i s and treatment w i t h e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . must be h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d . I t does no good to speak of i n d i v i -d u a l i z i n g a c h i l d ' s needs u n l e s s the s t a f f have the knowledge and t r a i n i n g , p l u s the time, to meet these needs. Embury House would r e q u i r e the f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e s o f a p s y c h i a t r i s t and p s y c h o l o g i s t , and the p a r t - t i m e s e r v i c e s o f one or more p s y c h i a t r i s t s , depending on the p o p u l a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n . There should be s u f f i c i e n t caseworkers to a l l o w much time f o r i n d i v i d u a l work w i t h each c h i l d . There should a l s o be a t r a i n e d group worker on s t a f f . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l p s y c h i a t r i s t , who would a c t as c h i e f p s y c h i a t r i s t , should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the treatment program, f o r continuous a d v i s o r y c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the caseworkers, f o r g u i d i n g t h e . i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program f o r b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , and f o r p r e s i d i n g over the study and treatment co n f e r e n c e s . The p a r t - t i m e p s y c h i a t r i s t s would t r e a t those cases a s s i g n e d them, serve as a d v i s o r s i n p o l i c y making, p a r t i c i p a t e i n t r a i n i n g and s t a f f conferences, and o f f e r a d v i s o r y c o n s u l t a t i o n to the caseworkers. A f u l l - t i m e p s y c h o l o g i s t , t r a i n e d i n Rorschach and s i m i l a r t e s t i n g , would a d m i n i s t e r c l i n i c a l t e s t s whenever necessary, and a s s i s t i n - 128 « the treatment of assigned cases. The psychologist working i n the study and treatment home has a d i s t i n c t advantage over the psychologist whose patients are brought into the c l i n i c f o r t e s t i n g . In the study home, where the children are a v a i l -able at a l l times, there i s a freedom from time l i m i t a t i o n and from l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by a schedule of appointments. I f a c h i l d i s t i r e d , frightened, not fe e l i n g w e l l , or upset i n any way, his examination can be postponed or interrupted and be continued l a t e r . I f test findings are contradictory or uncertain there i s time and opportunity to test the c h i l d further. In the study centre the psychologist can u t i l i z e whatever special tests seem indicated by his close contact with the children throughout the day, and they can be applied at the child's convenience. A minimum requirement for the caseworkers, would be the completion of two years of graduate study at an accredited school of s o c i a l work with psychiatric t r a i n i n g or i n t e r e s t s . Success would depend greatly on th e i r a b i l i t y to work thera-p e u t i c a l l y with the children. Psychiatric consultation would be available to the caseworkers whenever they requested i t . They would render a l l the services offered by i n s t i t u t i o n a l caseworkers. When children have had the kind of adverse l i f e - e x p e r -ience that create marked emotional disturbance, the need for a c a r e f u l l y planned and s k i l l f u l l y directed recreation program can be anticipated. This group program should he carried out by a s k i l l e d s o c i a l group worker. I t must be an i n t e g r a l part - 129 -of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l therapy. The group program should be c a r e f u l l y planned i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the treatment s t a f f , and used d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n terms of the p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c needs of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . As the c h i l d develops under h i s i n d i v i d u a l therapy he reaches the s t a t e where he can accept l i m i t e d group a c t i v i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The group worker a s s i s t s him i n e x p e r i e n c i n g group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and the c h i l d i s one step f u r t h e r toward h i s r e t u r n home. Group work f u r n i s h e s the b a s i c l i f e l i k e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n which much of the p r e s c r i b e d case work treatment may be put i n t o p r a c t i c e . Furthermore, the group worker can f u r n i s h adequate s o c i a l groups comparable to the r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n i n which the c h i l d w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f u n c t i o n when he r e t u r n s to h i s home community. Obviously o n l y the c l o s e s t i n t e g r a t i o n and good f a i t h between the house s t a f f , the maintenance s t a f f , and the p r o -f e s s i o n a l treatment s t a f f , can keep the study and therapy running t o g e t h e r smoothly. Throughout the time a c h i l d i s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n t h e r e needs to be a continuous interchange between the treatment s t a f f w i t h i t s p u r p o s i v e c o n n e c t i o n t o the c h i l d and the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f w i t h i t s understanding of the day-by-day adjustment of the c h i l d . The house s t a f f must be helped to understand they create the r e a l i t y medium i n which the c h i l d l i v e s and t h a t without making demands upon him they must c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t him w i t h those d e c i s i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he w i l l i n e v i t a b l y encounter when he r e t u r n s t o community l i f e . The n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f needs 150 to be integrated into the study and treatment team i n Embury House, through case conferences, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t a f f meetings, i n d i v i d u a l consultation with the treatment s t a f f , and in-service t r a i n i n g programs. If the emotionally disturbed children at Embury House are to receive maximum study and treatment there must be the closest possible integration of services with the whole i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f functioning as a t earn. The future function of Embury House as a study and tr e a t -ment centre would be a challenging ahd indeed an exciting experiment. As a r e s u l t of the operations of three study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Ryther Child Centre i n Seattle, Washington, the I l l i n o i s Children's Home and Aid Society i n Chicago, I l l i n o i s , and the New England Home for L i t t l e Wander-ers i n Boston, Massachusetts, i t i s possible to state authori-t a t i v e l y that such centres can of f e r unique treatment possi-b i l i t i e s to emotionally disturbed children, through the co-ordination of p s y c h i a t r i c , psychological, case work, and group work therapy, combined with the understanding cooperative assistance of the non-professional i n s t i t u t i o n s t a f f . Embury House could be a l i v i n g laboratory f o r gaining new knowledge about the treatment of emotionally disturbed c h i l d r e n . Leader-ship i s desperately required i n Canada i n the establishment and operation of study and treatment centres. Casework ser-vices are progressively being expanded i n Saskatchewan; but thi s lack of a study and treatment i n s t i t u t i o n i s of key im-* ~ 131 -portance. Embury House would appear to be the l o g i c a l place i n which to answer on modern l i n e s a basic need of dependent or neglected children* BIBLIOGRAPHY B I B L I O G R A P H Y Sp e c i f i c References. 1. Books Hopkirk, Howard W., Institutions Serving Children, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1944. McGovern, Cecelia, Services to Children i n I n s t i - tutions, Washington, Ransdell, 1948. Thurston, Henry W., The Dependent Child, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1930. Voorhies, S i s t e r Mary Louise, Children 1s I n s t i t u - t i o n s, Saint Louis, Saint Louis University Press, 1947. 2. Pamphlets and A r t i c l e s Bernstein, Maurice, "The Focus of Case Work i n a Children's I n s t i t u t i o n , " B u l l e t i n , C h i l d Care and Protection Supplement, 21:12-18, A p r i l , 1942. Clarke, E. M., "The Children's I n s t i t u t i o n i n the Child Welfare Program,"„Public Welfare, 2:195-199, August, 1944. Clothier, Florence, " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Needs i n the F i e l d of Child Welfare," The Nervous C h i l d , 7:155-177, A p r i l , 1948.. . Gula Martin, "Study and Treatment Homes f o r Troubled.Children," i n Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1947, pp. 333-343. Hirshback, Ernest, "A Changing D i r e c t i o n f o r Children's Institutions,?* Child Welfare, 28:12-15, March, 1949. Johnson, L i l l i a n L., "Case Work with Children i n In s t i t u t i o n s , " i n Proceedings of the National  Conference of . S o c i a l Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1940, pp. 335-344. Johnson, L i l l i a n L.,"What We Learn Prom the Child's Own Psychology to Guide Treatment i n a Small I n s t i t u t i o n , " i n Proceedings of the National  Conference of Social Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1938, pp. 313-325. Messenger, Kenneth L., "The Indi v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the Child i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , " B u l l e t i n , 20:1-6, September, 1941. Plans f o r an I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children. Chicago, The I l l i n o i s Children's Home and Aid Society,.1946. Pyles, Mary Lo i s , I n s t i t u t i o n s for Child Care and Treatment, New York, Child Welfare League of America, 1947. Schulze, Susanne, "How Does Group L i v i n g i n the I n s t i t u t i o n Prepare the Child f o r L i f e Outside," paper prepared f o r the Ohio Valley Regional  Conference of the Ch i l d Welfare League of  America, Cleveland, Ohio, March, 1942, mimeo-graphed material published by the United States Children's Bureau, Washington, D.C. Washington, Standards f o r Institutions Caring f o r Children, Olympla, State Department of So c i a l Security, 1950. General References. 1. Books Abbott, Grace, The Chi l d and the State, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1938, v o l . 2, pp. 3-157. Beach, E l s i e , L., A Study of the Population of Spokane Children's Home to Determine Whether  Intake P o l i c i e s and Services Rendered are i n  Accord with Recent Philosophy In Regard to the  Role of the - I n s t i t u t i o n i n a Community Case Work  Program, a thesis submitted In p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of Soci a l Work at Washington State College, Pullman, Washington, 1949. Burmeister, Eva, Fo r t y - f i v e i n the Family, New York, Columbia University Press, 1949. Lundberg, Emma 0., Unto the Least of These, New York, D. Appleton-Century Co., 1947. Pamphlets and A r t i c l e s Bender, Lauretta, "Infants Reared i n I n s t i t u t i o n s -Permanently Handicapped," B u l l e t i n , 24:1-4, September, 1945. Burmeister, Eva, " I n s t i t u t i o n and Poster Home Care as Used by an.Agency Offering..Both Services," B u l l e t i n , Child Care and Protection Supplement, 21:18-23, A p r i l , 1942. 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